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SP’s 2014Military 2015

Yearbook

2014 Military SP’s

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Finmeccanica and India: in the spirit of partnership.

42nd i s s ue

editor-in-chief

jayant baranwal

Price: (Surface Mail): Stg. £ 436.00; US$ 776.00 SP military yearbook 110x181_11.indd 1 SP's MYB Cover 2014-2015_Final_Foreign.indd 1

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editor-in-chief

jayant baranwal


Copyright © 2014

SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be used for any other activity. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means – digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise – without the prior written approval of the Editor-in-Chief. For copyright permissions, please contact: The Editor-in-Chief SP’s Military Yearbook A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003, India.

E-mail: editor@spsmilitaryyearbook.com The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965

Published by Jayant Baranwal

Corporate Office:

SP Guide Publications Team

SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD A-133, Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003, India. Tel: +91 (11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093

ISSN 0076-8782 ISBN 978-93-5174-302-6 Registered with RNI No. (P.) : F.2 (S/11) Press / 93

info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, order@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@vsnl.com

SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS New Delhi, India

Designed by

E-mails:

Printed in India at

Websites:

Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


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Message from R.M. on 50 Years of SP’s

Minister of Defence INdia

am happy to learn that SP Guide Publications is completing 50 years of existence. Since its inception in 1964, SP Guide Publications has played an unmatched and a vital role by serving our Armed Forces and their concerns. The publications’ efforts have been appreciated by all its readers. I hope that SP Guide Publications will continue to serve our Armed Forces and the nation in the years to come. I wish the SP Guide Publications the very best in its endeavours. Jai Hind.

A.K. Antony

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  9


celebrating 100 years

On June 18th, 1914, Lawrence Sperry and his mechanic stood on the wings of a Curtiss C-2 biplane demonstrating the world’s first autopilot. Today’s Honeywell Aerospace can trace its heritage back to that historic day in Paris. For a century, Honeywell and its legacy companies have been at the forefront of flight, bringing a countless number of inventions to the aerospace industry. Thousands of Honeywell products and services are found on virtually every commercial, defense and space aircraft in the world. We look forward to providing innovative aviation solutions over the next 100 years, and continuing to integrate technology that makes the possibilities of flight even safer, more efficient, comfortable, higher performing and productive.

To learn more about Honeywell’s 100 year celebration visit aerospace.honeywell.com © 2014 Honeywell International Inc. All rights reserved.


Messages on 50 Years of SP’s

AIR CHIEF MARSHAL ARUP RAHA

ADMIRAL DK JOSHI PVSM, AVSM, YSM, NM, VSM, ADC

PVSM AVSM VM ADC

Chief of the Naval Staff

Chief of the Air Staff

am pleased to learn that the SP Guide Publications will complete fifty years in 2014. In these five decades the SP Guide Publications have emerged as an useful repository of information, views and perspectives on matters related to the Armed Forces of India, including contemporary issues of technology, procurement, defence industry, etc. The SP Guide Publications thus provides relevant and substantive inputs to all those interested in security matters. I wish the publications continued success in their efforts. Shano Varuna.

Dear Mr Jayant Baranwal, t is indeed heartening to note that SP Guide Publications is completing 50 years of an inspiring journey. SP Guide Publications has played an instrumental role in promoting public awareness about the Indian Armed Forces through a vast array of well researched and insightful publications. SP’s Aviation and the SP's Military Yearbook in particular are known for their credible and authentic reportage and this has helped SP Guide Publications to carve a special niche for itself amongst the other publication houses. My best wishes to the SP’s team as well as all your readers on this landmark occasion.

(DK Joshi) Admiral

Yours sincerely

(Arup Raha) Air Chief Marshal

Admiral D.K. Joshi retired on February 26, 2014

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  11


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Messages on 50 Years of SP’s

LT GENERAL DALBIR SINGH

Air Marshal R K SHARMA

UYSM, AVSM, VSM, ADC

PVSM, AVSM, VM, ADC

Vice Chief of the Army Staff

Dear Mr Jayant,

Vice Chief of the Air Staff

Dear Shri Baranwal,

hank you for sending me a copy of SP’s Golden Jubilee Publication. SP Guide Publications, ever since inception has been providing quality articles on Armed Forces and the Defence Industry to the readers. My compliments to you, the Editorial Team and all those who contributed to make this publication a success. Wishing you the very best and success in all your future endeavours. With warm regards Yours Sincerely

t is a pleasure to know that the prestigious SP Guide Publications is completing 50 years of exploring the Global aviation arena. Your publications have been of immense value in knowledge of aerospace and defence sectors. This speaks highly of the hard work and dedication put in by your team members. My heartiest congratulations for providing high quality reading material. I wish SP Guide Publications all success. Sincerely

(Dalbir Singh) Lt General

(R K Sharma) Air Marshal

AIR MARSHAL S SUKUMAR AVSM, VM

Deputy Chief of Air Staff

t the outset, I want to congratulate you and your team for successfully completing 50 glorious years in the field of Military Publications. Military and Aerospace technology is a highly specialised field where information more often than not is always classified. However, your publications with their zeal and professionalism, have time and again provided in-depth analysis on critical issues and resulted in being a major contributor in enhancing the overall awareness of operators and the public at large. The high standard of your articles read avidly by all stakeholders, has resulted in the SP’s group publications becoming the lead interface between the industry and the Armed Forces and contributing to their synergistic growth. It is commendable that SP’s group publications have also contributed immensely as the official media partners of important events like Aero India, Defexpo India, etc. I congratulate SP Guide Publications for their yeoman service of more than 50 years and wish them greater glory in the years to come. Jai Hind!

Air Marshal held this position till February 28, 2014 and currently is AOP.

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

(S Sukumar) Air Marshal

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  13


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Message for SP’s Military Yearbook

Minister of Defence INdia

am happy to learn that SP Guide Publications is coming out with SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. The security situation in our immediate and extended neighbourhood requires vigilance and alertness on the part of our Armed Forces. While our Armed Forces are fully prepared to meet any kind of challenge, it is our endeavour to provide them with the best equipment and material, so that they continue to be one of the best Armed Forces in the world. I hope that SP’s Military Yearbook will continue to provide inputs that help in keeping the morale of our Armed Forces high. I wish the SP Guide Publications all success and hope that SP’s Military Yearbook will be read and liked widely. Jai Hind.

A.K. Antony

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  15


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20  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

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Readers’ Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India

It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970)...I have gone through... and found its general get up good and contents useful. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff, Indian Army Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy

Thank you for your letter dated January 30, 2013 forwarding therewith a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. The President of India extends his greetings and felicitations for your efforts and wishes you continued success in your future endeavours. Shamima Siddiqui Deputy Press Secretary to The President of India President’s Secretariat, Rashtrapati Bhavan

the Yearbook and am sure it will be one better than the previous one. The efforts put in by you and your team in compiling the Yearbook is noteworthy and highly appreciated. Keep up the good work. Air Marshal R.K. Sharma Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief HQ Eastern Air Command Indian Air Force (as on February 12, 2013)

(as on March 13, 2013)

I am desired by Honourable Finance Minister Shri P. Chidambaram to acknowledge receipt of your letter dated 30.1.2013 enclosing a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. M.A. Siddique Private Secretary to Finance Minister (as on February 4, 2013)

As always, you have come out with the most erudite compilation of perspectives, statistics, data and information in SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. The publication will certainly provide invaluable inputs for all of us in the business of national security. Please accept my congratulations, and also convey my appreciation to your editorial team for this well researched publication. Vice Admiral Anil Chopra Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief HQ Eastern Naval Command Indian Navy (as on February 15, 2013)

Thank you very much for sending me a complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. I can see some very interesting articles inside 22  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

I appreciate the thoughtful gesture of yours. The publication is indeed informative and very high in quality. Convey my compliments to the editorial team for living up to the high standards which is always looked forward to, from SP Guide Publications Group. Lt General Narendra Singh Deputy Chief of the Army Staff (P&S) Indian Army (as on February 1, 2013)

Thank you for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. I have gone through it and found it to be very informative giving a good insight into the latest developments in the Armed Forces and the Defence Industry. My compliments to you, the Editorial Team and all those who have been involved in the compilation of the Yearbook. Lt General Dalbir Singh General Officer Commanding-in-Chief and Colonel 5th Gorkha Rifles (FF) HQ Eastern Command Indian Army (as on March 11, 2013)

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


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Readers’ Comments.... Thank you for sending me a copy of the SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. The book has been very well presented and provides very interesting reading material. My congratulations to you for this excellent new edition. Please convey my compliments also to the Editorial team for their commendable effort. Lt General Sanjiv Chachra General Officer Commanding-in-Chief and Colonel of the Rajput Regiment HQ Western Command Indian Army (as on February 14, 2013)

Thank you so very much for sending me complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. I shall be reverting back after perusing the contents. Lt General Anil Chait General Officer Commanding-in-Chief HQ Central Command Indian Army (as on February 17, 2013)

I can see that the book has comprehensive details as also interesting thoughts to offer. Lt General Philip Campose Director General of Perspective Planning Indian Army (as on February 4, 2013)

On behalf of the General Officer Commanding-inChief, South Western Command, I wish to thank you for sending us a compendium titled SP’s Military Yearbook 2013, which provides valuable inputs to our Indian Armed Forces and Defence Industry to further analyse salient issues for evaluated outcome in context of mil imperatives. The contents are well compiled, informative and make excellent reading. Our compliments to you and your editorial team for a comprehensive conspectus on all pervasive mil matters circumscribing the national and global domain. Major General S.K. Gadeock Major General General Staff HQ South Western Command Indian Army (as on March 15, 2013)

Thank you very much for your thoughtful gesture of sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013, which is so well compiled. The informative Military Yearbook is being placed in the AAD Dte Library and would surely benefit all pers in the envt. Lt General Kuldip Singh Director General Army Air Defence & Senior Colonel Commandant Indian Army

Thank you very much for sending me copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. The contents and data of the book are indeed very informative and professionally excellent. Major General Gurmit Singh Additional Director General of Military Operations (A) Indian Army

(as on February 18, 2013)

(as on January 31, 2013)

Thank you very much for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. My compliments to editorial team for an excellent job done. Lt General N.B. Singh Director General & Senior Colonel Commandant Directorate General of Electronics and Mechanical Engineers Indian Army

Thank you very much for sending me the SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. The book makes very interesting reading and is well illustrated. I would be grateful if you could convey my appreciation to your editorial team for putting together a fine edition. Rear Admiral Monty Khanna Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Foreign Cooperation & Intelligence) Integrated Headquarters Ministry of Defence (Navy) Indian Navy

(as on February 15, 2013)

Thank you very much for sending a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013.

24  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

(as on February 14, 2013)

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


Unique. Ahead Ahead of of the the Art. Art. Unique. Unique. Ahead of the Art.


Iran

ARMY Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir Udhampur

Afghanistan

Delhi

JOINT COMMAND

Uttarakhand Dehradun

Chandigarh Haryana

Delhi

Bhutan

Nepal

Uttar Pradesh

Rajasthan

Jharkhand

Gandhinagar Madhya Pradesh

Chhattisgarh

Bhopal

Raipur

Shillong Agartala West Bengal

Tripura

Manipur Imphal Aizawal Mizoram

Kolkata

Myanmar

Bhubaneshwar

Nagpur

Maharashtra Mumbai

Ranchi

Nagaland Kohima

Dispur

Patna Bihar

Allahabad

Arunachal Pradesh

Itanagar

Sikkim

Lucknow

Jaipur

Gujarat

AIR FORCE

Himachal Pradesh Shimla

Punjab

Pakistan

NAVY

China

Pune

Vishakhapatnam

Bangladesh

Thailand

Hyderabad

ARABIAN SEA

Goa Panaji

Andhra Pradesh

Bengaluru Kavarati

Tamil Nadu

Port Blair

Is la nd s

Lakshadweep

& Ni co ba r

Kerala

Chennai

An da m an

BAY OF BENGAL

Karnataka

Kochi

Thiruvananthapuram

Sri Lanka I

N

D

I

A

N

O

C

E

A

N

Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters 1 New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army) 2 New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy) 3 New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (IAF) 4 Pune (HQ Southern Command), Army 5 Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command), Army 6 Chandimandir (HQ Western Command), Army 7 Lucknow (HQ Central Command), Army 8 Udhampur (HQ Northern Command), Army 9 Shimla (HQ Training Command), Army 10 Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command), Army 11 Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command), Navy 12 Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command), Navy

26  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

13 Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command), Navy 14 New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command), IAF 15 Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command), IAF 16 Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command), IAF 17 Bengaluru (HQ Training Command), IAF 18 Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command), IAF 19 Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command), IAF 20 Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command), IAF 21 New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) 22 Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) 23 New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff)

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Iran Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir

Afghanistan

China

Himachal Pradesh Shimla

Punjab

Uttarakhand Dehradun

Chandigarh Haryana

Pakistan

Bhutan

1 Delhi

Nepal

Uttar Pradesh Lucknow

Jharkhand

Gandhinagar Madhya Pradesh

17

Ranchi Raipur

Maharashtra

5 Mumbai

West Bengal

Agartala Tripura

Mizoram

Kolkata

6 22

Bhubaneswar Odisha

Aizawal

Myanmar

20

Bangladesh

Thailand

19 8

16 18 9 10

Pune

Manipur Imphal

Shillong

Chhattisgarh

Bhopal

Nagaland Kohima

Dispur Patna Bihar

Allahabad

Gujarat

Itanagar

Sikkim

Rajasthan Jaipur

Arunachal Pradesh

Vishakhapatnam

Hyderabad

ARABIAN SEA

Goa Panaji

7

BAY OF BENGAL

Andhra Pradesh

An da m an

Karnataka 4 11 2 12 13 3 15 Chennai Bengaluru 14

& Ni co ba r

Kerala

Kavaratti

Tamil Nadu Kochi

Is la nd s

Lakshadweep

Port Blair

21

Thiruvananthapuram

Sri Lanka

I

N

D

I

A

N

O

C

E

A

N

DRDO and DPSU Headquarters 1 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), New Delhi 2 Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Bengaluru 3 Bharat Electronics Ltd, Bengaluru 4 Bharat Earth Movers Ltd, Bengaluru 5 Mazagon Dock Ltd, Mumbai 6 Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd, Kolkata 7 Goa Shipyard Ltd, Goa 8 Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Visakhapatnam 9 Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Hyderabad 10 Mishra Dhatu Ltd, Hyderabad 11 Aeronautical Development Agency, Bengaluru

28  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

12 Indian Space Research Organisation, Bengaluru 13 Aeronautical Development Establishment, Bengaluru 14 Centre for Airborne Systems, Bengaluru 15 Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment, Chennai 16 Defence Electronics Research Lab., Hyderabad 17 Defence Research and Development Est., Gwalior 18 Defence Research and Development Lab., Hyderabad 19 Naval Science & Technological Laboratory, Visakhapatnam 20 Integrated Test Range, Balasore, Odisha 21 Cochin Shipyard Ltd, Kochi, Kerala 22 Ordnance Factories Board, Kolkata

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


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SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  29


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SAFRAN

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32  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e n t s Colour pages

MESSAGES ON 50 YEARS OF SP's 9 11

Minister of Defence, India Admiral D.K. Joshi, Chief of the Naval Staff, Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha, Chief of the Air Staff Lt General Dalbir Singh, Vice Chief of the Army Staff, Air Marshal R.K. Sharma, Vice Chief of the Air Staff, Air Marshal S. Sukumar, Deputy Chief of the Air Staff

Message from Minister of Defence, India for SP's Military Yearbook Readers’ Comments Maps: Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters, DRDO and DPSU Headquarters Editorial

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

13 15 22, 24 26, 28 45

49-96 97

Sin título-1 1

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Authors' Profile

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

• • •

TECHNOLOGY


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

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1 CPerspectives1 oncepts & 1. India’s Strategic Partnership with the United States

2. India’s Regional Security Environment 5

Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

3. Indo-Pak Relations

 ajor General (Retd) M Dhruv C. Katoch

5. Post-2014 Afghanistan

29

Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

9. Contentious South China Sea

25

Ambassador P. Stobdan

8. Military Developments in South East Asia

21

Ambassador (Retd) Ranjit Gupta

7. Strategic Linkages in Central Asia

17

Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

6. Developments in West Asia

33

Dr Monika Chansoria

10. India’s Internal Security Dimensions 37

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9

General (Retd) V.P. Malik

4. Pakistan-China Strategic Nexus 13

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CONTENTS

B lack & White pages

11. India’s Land Borders Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi

12. Special Forces in India’s Defence Strategy

T:110 mm

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

41

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e nt s 45

L t General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

13. India’s Nuclear Deterrence 49

15. Evolution of Pilotless Aircraft

57

 ir Marshal (Retd) A Anil Chopra

61

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

2 TECHNOLOGY65

COMBATING MISSILE THREATS

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16. Militarisation of Space

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BUSINESS

14. India’s Energy Security

TECHNOLOGY

 rigadier (Retd) B Arun Sahgal

INDIAN DEFENCE

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2. Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance 71

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REGIONAL BALANCE

70 successful intercepts in combat and flight testing. By synchronizing

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

1. India’s Future Weapon Capability 65


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

4. Defence Against Stealth Technology

79

Lt General V.K. Saxena

5. Air Defence Gun Ammunition

83

Lt General V.K. Saxena

6. Shipbuilding and Modularisation

85

Rear Admiral (Retd) Dr. S. Kulshrestha

7. Disruptive Military Technologies

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

8.

Military Helicopters for India

Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar

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89 93

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CONTENTS

1. Indian Army Modernisation Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

2. Indian Navy Modernisation Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip Deshpande

3. Indian Air Force Modernisation

107

Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey

4. India’s Defence Budgets 2013-14 and 2014-15 Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

BUSINESS

111

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

103

REGIONAL BALANCE

97

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3 BUSINESS97

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

B lack & White pages

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s


Cont e n t s B lack & White pages

5. Strategic and Business Environment

Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle

6.

Dark Side of Offsets

Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

117 119

7. Defence Procurement Procedure of 2013

123

Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

8. Facilitation of Defence Offsets

127

Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

9. Rapid Procurement and Indigenisation

131

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Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

Global Contracts

135

4 INDIAN DEFENCE

145

1. Integrated Defence Staff

145

Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

2. The Indian Army

153

3. The Indian Navy

179

4. The Indian Air Force

209

5. Indian Coast Guard

237

6.

Who’s Who in Indian Defence 247

7. Indian Defence Industry

267

8. Defence Research & Development 291

Homeland security

1. India’s Homeland Security

299

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

2. India’s Internal Security Environment 311

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

3. India’s Coastal Security

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

4. The Maoist Menace in India 40  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

325

Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

329


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Iran 335 Iraq 335 Israel 335 Japan 335 Jordan 336 Kazakhstan 336 Kuwait 336 Kyrgyzstan 336 Laos 336

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Afghanistan 333 Algeria 333 Australia 333 Bahrain 334 Bangladesh 334 Cambodia 334 People’s Republic of China 334 Egypt 334 Indonesia 335

333

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

5 ASIAN WHO’S WHO

B lack & White pages

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

Lebanon 336 Libya 336 Malaysia 337 Myanmar 337 Nepal 337 North Korea 337 Oman 337 Pakistan 338 Philippines 338 Qatar 338 Saudi Arabia 338

Singapore 339 South Korea 339 Sri Lanka 339 Syria 339 Taiwan 339 Tajikistan 340 Turkmenistan 340 United Arab Emirates 340 Uzbekistan 340 Vietnam 340 Yemen 340

6 REGIONAL BALANCE 1.

341

GDP & Military Expenditure

2. Central & South Asia

341 345

Kazakhstan 348 Kyrgyzstan 350 Tajikistan 352 Turkmenistan 354 Uzbekistan 356 Afghanistan 358 Bangladesh 359 Bhutan 361 India 363 Nepal 367 Pakistan 369 Sri Lanka 372 42  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

3. East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

375

Australia 379 Cambodia 381 China 383 Indonesia 387 Japan 389 North Korea (Dprk) 392 South Korea (Rok) 395 Laos 397 Malaysia 399 Myanmar (Formerly Burma) 401 Philippines 403 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


CONTENTS

West Asia and North Africa 415 Algeria 418 Egypt 420 Libya 423 Bahrain 425 Iran 427

5. Asia-Pacific Environment

457

Army Equipment Naval Equipment Air Equipment

457 481 502

Diagrams/Graphs Increasing Growth of India’s Oil Consumption

54

Increasing Growth of India’s Gas Consumption

54

Increasing Growth of India’s Coal Consumption

55

 enewable Capacity Addition has Increased Significantly over the 10th and R 11th Five Year Plans

56

Defence Budget (Comparison)

112

Distribution of Capital Budget

113

Distribution of Revenue Budget

114

Share of Defence Services in Defence Budget

115

Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff

146

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INDIAN DEFENCE

6. Equipment & Hardware Specifications

BUSINESS

Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

451

REGIONAL BALANCE

4.

Iraq 430 Israel 432 Jordan 434 Kuwait 436 Lebanon 438 Sultanate of Oman 439 Qatar 441 Saudi Arabia 443 Syria 445 United Arab Emirates 447 Republic of Yemen 449

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Singapore 405 Taiwan 407 Thailand 410 Vietnam 412

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

B lack & White pages

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e n t s


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

The outline structure of the Indian National Defence University

148

Diagrammatic Layout of the Army’s Chain of Command

155

Organisation of the Indian Army Headquarters

157

Organisation of the Indian Navy Headquarters

180

Organisation of the Indian Air Force Headquarters

212

Organisation of the Indian Coast Guard Headquarters

239

Indian Coast Guard Locations

240

Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation

242

 ummary of the output of the defence industry, including ordnance S factories and DPSUs, during the previous three years

268

Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production (DDP)

269

Organisation structure of OFB

270

 xternal functional linkages (OFB comes under Department E Of Defence Production)

270

Performance Summary of DPSUs (up to 2012-13)

273

Values of stores assured by DGQA (` in crore)

289

DRDO: Ministry of Defence

292

Organisational Structure of DRDO

293

Organisation of Ministry of Home Affairs

300

Organisational Command & Control of Central Police Forces

310

Abbreviations & index

512

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Editorial Growing From Strength To Strength The first seeds were sown in 1964 by Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal when he founded Guide Publications and launched the Military Yearbook in 1965, a truly pioneering publication in the realm of defence information and analysis. From then to now, SP Guide Publications has grown into Asia’s largest publisher of Aerospace, Defence and Security information, nurtured by its current Editor-in-Chief and Publisher. SP’s Military Yearbook now is a comprehensive reference manual, an annual barometer on conceptual issues in the strategic and operational realm, military related issues and homeland security.

Vision of a Nationalist It was the vision and the desire of a nationalist, journalist and author – Shri S.P. Baranwal – to render service in his own way to the armed forces that saw the birth of the Military Yearbook. This innovative effort by Shri Baranwal was appreciated by the then Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri as well as by the military fraternity. He left behind a rich legacy imbued with his integrity, principles and unflinching adherence to truth. The baton passed on to Jayant Baranwal, under whom “Guide Publications” was rechristened as “SP Guide Publications” by prefixing “SP” as a tribute to the Founder. It has been a glorious journey spanning 50 years (Golden Jubilee), marked by several milestones.

Launch of Niche Magazines SP Guide Publications, at regular intervals, has added niche magazines to its portfolio and also facilitated in networking the industry and the end-user through different channels, thus becoming a comprehensive domain-specific media house. The global reach of all its publications are a testimony to its growing presence and its publications are internationally audited. The magazines are driven by high quality content, thanks to its panel of editorial staff, some of whom have held high posts in the military and in the industry. • SP’s Aviation – Launched in 1998, SP’s Aviation focuses on both military and civil aviation. • SP’s Land Forces – Launched in 2004, SP’s Land Forces is a bimonthly magazine exclusively dedicated to Land Forces.

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal presenting a copy of the SP’s Military Yearbook 2013 to Defence Minister A.K. Antony • S  P’s Naval Forces – Launched in 2006, SP’s Naval Forces is the only magazine dedicated to the Navies from the region. • SP’s AirBuz – Launched in 2008, SP’s AirBuz is a forwardlooking and resource-rich magazine on civil aviation sector. • SP’s M.A.I. – Launched in 2011, SP’s M.A.I. (military, aerospace and internal security) is a fortnightly which provides quick updates and analysis on securing a nation. • SP’s ShowNews – Published at key aviation and military events in India and elsewhere, SP’s ShowNews gives a ringside view to the professional on the move.

Partnering the Industry As a responsible publication group, we have been partnering with the industry and the military in organising events; conferences and other related activities. SP Guide Publications has created a record of sorts by becoming the ‘Key Official Media Partner’ for successive Aero India and Defexpo exhibitions organised since 2010.

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[  Editorial  ] The Global Context Global Events The year 2013 was never short of a major world news event. The range extended from North Korea’s nuclear ambitions to the bombing of the Boston Marathon, to the death of Nelson Mandela which came in early December, at the end of a year that had seen two major terror attacks in Africa and one in the US; the death of a sitting world leader in Venezuela and the departure of another in Egypt; and two disputes over British territory. North Korea had conducted a third controversial nuclear test, clearly snubbing international efforts to prevent the detonation, and the Syrian regime continued to wage war against the rebels and is widely thought to be responsible for an August chemical attack that killed 1,400 people. An illegal garment factory collapsed in Dhaka in April, killing more than 1,100 poorly paid workers, and as many as 6,000 people died in November when Typhoon Haiyan devastated parts of the Philippines. It was a controversial year for the Barack Obama Administration in the US, with partisan bickering over a bill to fund the US Government leading to its shut down, and an unknown US defence worker Edward Snowden leaking a huge trove of secret National Security Agency (NSA) documents.

The cover of Military Yearbook 1965

Global Security The post-cold war era brought democracy and the free market to a number of European and Central Asian countries. A side effect of these changes in some of these countries was a flare up of ethnic and territorial conflicts, weakening of state power and control, as well as failure to prevent the escalation of organised crime. The western political, economic and cultural benefits began to take root in the new global environment, leading to backlash from the political powers who found it difficult to accept these changes. In a number of countries, the mood of the socially dissatisfied strata of the population moved towards social, national or religious radicalism. Accordingly, issues which had been suppressed in the bipolar world arrangement came to the forefront in international relations. The possibility of conventional war and the emergence of classical military conflicts among states is low in Europe, however the same cannot be said for the Asia-Pacific region where territorial border conflicts can still break out. The new threats to national and individual security are rooted in the inadequate socio-economic development of large regions, intensified by endemic corruption, the spread of radical ideologies, and, in many countries, by a weak state power which permits groups of extremists to spread terrorism on a global scale. The rapidly spreading globalisation has made countries increasingly interdependent due to various economic, social and ecological processes and, consequently, mutual dependence in the field of security has substantially increased. A significant potential threat is posed by issues related to the administration and use of energy resources. The world population and production volumes are growing rapidly, thereby increasing energy consumption. An intense competition for the use of the dwindling resources of natural fuel is evident among countries and regions, while, on the other hand, the use of these resources continues to have an increasingly negative impact on ecology. Due to the process of globalisation and the development of information technologies, the community and the state are being increasingly affected by newly emerging threat generally referred to as “cyber threat”. Contemporary modern democracies no longer relate their security to individual capabilities only: they pay major attention to collective approach in dealing with security issues. Bilateral and multilateral security cooperation and the development of international security organisations are on the rise. The awareness that threats to security can come from geographically remote regions has increased readiness to engage in regulating crises and conflicts far beyond the borders of the home country. Confronting the new threats requires a complex approach: military force alone can resolve but a minor part of the problem. In order to safeguard national and international security, it is important that the countries sharing common values and having a similar view of the global situation take concerted actions that include political, economic and diplomatic as well as military means and follow a comprehensive approach. Central Asia Central Asia is also referred to as the “backyard of Russia and China”. It has emerged as the focal point

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[  Editorial  ] of rivalry between the United States on one side, and Moscow and Beijing on the other. Post-9/11, Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility, enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players, namely the US, Russia and China, the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through its own “grand strategy”, the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including “strategic partnership”, “non-alignment” and a “multi-vectored approach”. The key to what became known as Kazakhstan’s “multi-vectored” approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today, this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia’s Eurasec, Gazprom, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), but it nonetheless remains in place.

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Finmeccanica and India: in the spirit of partnership.

editor-in-chief

jayant baranwal

Price: Inland Rs 8,275.00; Foreign (Surface Mail): Stg. £ 436.00; US$ 776.00

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Pakistan-Afghanistan Region The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. Today, international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally, Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now, Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India establishing their cells within home grown groups, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. Terrorist attacks on November 26, 2008, in Mumbai, which emanated from Pakistan created an impasse in their relationship. However, much water has flowed under the bridge since then and a new civilian government under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is now in power. There are good reasons to believe that Pakistan would be more stable, peaceful and more prosperous. With parliamentary elections in India in AprilMay 2014 and the likelihood of a new political dispensation in India, the region could look forward to a more stable relationship between the two countries.

Yearbook

South Asia The South Asian scene has been marred by constant hostility between nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Left-wing extremism (LWE), or commonly referred to as Naxalite violence, has affected a large number of states of the Indian Union. In terms of geographical spread, the worst affected states are Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar. The LWE problem also exists in certain pockets in Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The front organisations of LWE are active in many states of India. The CPI (Maoist) continues to remain the most dominant and violent LWE group, accounting for more than 80 per cent of the violence and the killings.

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The cover of the current edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015

East Asia, Pacific Rim and Australia East Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia: China-Japan relations, Korean Peninsula, Taiwan, and international terrorism. These issues have been analysed in the SP’s Military Yearbook this year. West Asia The dramatic unfolding of the situation in West Asia over the past two years or so poses a challenge for all countries in terms of a political response. It calls for a quick rethinking of their foreign policy not just from a long-term perspective but also to address the challenges in the short term. The challenges did not appear on the scene without warnings. The world has been dealing with

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[  Editorial  ] nuclear issues for about a decade. Apart from this, the post-9/11 scenario brought forth other issues that added to the dilemma and changed the situation in West Asia—the rise of Shia influence, the Iranian nuclear issue, tensions between Iran and Arab neighbours, tensions between Iran and Israel, the Palestine issue and the Arab Spring. More detailed analyses of West Asia is included in the Yearbook. Asia-Pacific Environment The strategic environment in the Asia-Pacific has seen continuous change and volatility over the past decade or so, after US intervention in Afghanistan in 2001 following 9/11 attacks. The past year was no different. The strategic flux in the region is due to a number of factors. Firstly, a challenge to the global balance with the rise of China and India threatening the traditional international order dominated by the US, West and Russia. Secondly, a resurgent Japan, increasing economic clout of South Korea and Indonesia waiting in the wings to seek its rightful place in the regional and ipso facto global order has resulted in reverberations of change in the region. Thirdly, the United States Asia-Pacific rebalancing has been a cause for turbulence in regional and global geopolitics. Fourthly, the trajectory of change is further affected by conflicts such as the raging civil war in Syria which has drawn high level of attention particularly of major powers, the United States and Russia. Fifthly, China’s aggressive posturing to secure what is defined by it unilaterally as, “core interests,” caused concerns in its immediate neighbourhood. This was followed by attempts at concord between regional states such as ASEAN and India or Japan and India to maintain a balance through mutual coagulation of interests to keep China’s ambitions and aggressive intent under check. A paper on the Asia-Pacific environment has been included for better understanding of the readers.

The Content This Year SP’s Military Yearbook this year carries an exceptional range of interesting articles of highly topical subjects by well known authors including former service chiefs. These articles are included in the chapters on Concepts and Perspectives, Business, and Technology. The chapter on Concepts and Perspectives contains well analysed articles of military and strategic value on subjects which range from the global to the regional perspectives. They cover the entire area of strategic interest to India’s defence planners and industry honchos. In the Business section, articles on the dark side of defence offsets, new guidelines on defence procurements, strategic and business environment in India, defence research and development and defence industry, and modernisation of each service have been given. In the chapter on Technology, interesting articles have been included, ranging from India’s blueprint for future weapons capability, defence against stealth technology in air defence to military helicopters, disruptive technologies and cyber security issues among other topics. All other chapters have been updated by excerpts knowledgeable in defence and military related matters. Clarifications: • Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. Despite this, it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. • Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government, including the Ministry of Defence. • Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable.

Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP's Military Yearbook 2014-2015 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP's team of experts: Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay

48  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

REGIONAL BALANCE

special colour feature WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


THINK NAVAL OPERATIONS Armed with cutting-edge defense helicopter technology. Day & night capable for anti-submarine, anti-surface SAR and support-ship borne operations in the harshest naval environments. Ready to support, protect, detect, mark or destroy from shore or ship. EC725 – Deploy the best


CONTENTS Copyright © 2014

The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

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C on t en t s

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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Dassault Aviation............................................................................................. 57

TECHNOLOGY

Bombardier...................................................................................................... 55

Diehl Defence.................................................................................................. 59 FFV Ordnance.................................................................................................. 62 ImageSat........................................................................................................... 64 Israel Aerospace Industries............................................................................ 66 KBP................................................................................................................... 68

BUSINESS

Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents.

Bharat Dynamics............................................................................................. 53

Lockheed Martin............................................................................................. 71 Mazagon Dock................................................................................................. 72 MBDA............................................................................................................... 73 Navantia........................................................................................................... 74 Nexter Systems................................................................................................ 76

INDIAN DEFENCE

Credits

Airbus Helicopters........................................................................................... 50

Northrop Grumman........................................................................................ 78 Rafael................................................................................................................ 80 Raytheon.......................................................................................................... 82 Rosoboronexport............................................................................................. 83 Saab.................................................................................................................. 85

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief & Publisher SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi, India

Safran................................................................................................................ 87

Telephonics...................................................................................................... 91 Thales............................................................................................................... 94 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Selex ES............................................................................................................ 89


Airbus Helicopters

2

014 marks a new era in the history of Eurocopter, as it becomes rebranded as Airbus Helicopters. The company joins Airbus and Airbus Defence & Space within the new Airbus Group – the global leader in aerospace, defense and related services. “This rebranding works hand in hand with our ongoing transformation, which is now bolstered by the Airbus brand’s strong foundation in innovation, quality and industrial excellence,” said Guillaume Faury, President of Airbus Helicopters. “Both of these together will serve our ambition of setting the industry standard in terms of safety, mission capability and performance for our operators around the world.” Airbus Helicopters will benefit from and enrich the Airbus brand as it develops, manufactures, markets and supports a diversified and highly capable rotorcraft product line. Today, Airbus Helicopters offers the widest range of helicopters to meet the differing needs of customers around the world, and also boasts the widest network of subsidiaries and partnerships to provide proximity support and services. This will be particularly beneficial as Airbus Helicopters looks to build on its 50-year relationship with India. In particular, there have been requirements from the Indian Army, Air Force, Navy, as well as the Indian Coast Guard that calls for a range of highly competent fleet with proven capability, which Airbus Helicopters is certainly well-placed to provide.

EC725 is already a combat proven multi-role helicopter and has seen combat service worldwide in Lebanon, Afghanistan and more recently in Africa. The EC725 has been operated from ships and ashore.

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EC725 – a combat-proven multi-role helicopter designed for the most demanding missions The EC725 has been proposed by Airbus Helicopters as the most adaptable and cost-effective solution to respond to the Indian Navy’s requirement for 123 Naval Multi Role Helicopters (NMRH). This programme is under the ‘Buy & Make’ category requiring an important transfer of technology package leading to the indigenous manufacturing of the NMRH by the Indian defence industry. The proposed multi-role configuration provides maximum flexibility and utility for operations in the following mission scenarios: ASW, ASuW, Special Operations, Commando Operations, Amphibious Assault, Troop Carrier, ELINT, SAR, External Cargo Carrying, Casualty Evacuation, Communication duties and CSAR. The EC725 is the most recent addition to the COUGAR family, which itself has grown from the vast

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Bharat Dynamics

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BDL has acquired lands in Amravati and Ibrahimpatnam for setting up units. Could you tell us something more about these units? CMD: Amravati Unit in Maharashtra would be the fourth manufacturing unit of the company spread over an area of about 530 acres. BDL plans to produce Very Short Range Air Defence Missile (VSHORAD) at this new unit. The foundation stone for the unit was laid by Her Excellency Smt Pratibha Devisingh Patil, the then Hon’ble President of India during December 2011. The fifth unit is being set up at Ibrahimpatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The Company plans to set up a Surface to Air Missile Defence Project here. The unit is spread over an area of about 630 acres. The foundation stone was laid by the then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Kiran Kumar Reddy.

GET YOUR COPY TO READ What is your vision for the future growth of BDL? CMD: I am foreseeing BDL to become IN COMPLETE a billion dollar company in the next 3 to 4 years. •

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

S.N. Mantha (CMD): BDL, being a production agency, has a long association with the DRDO spreading over few decades for the development of advanced weapon systems like Akash Surface to Air Missiles, Nag ATGM, etc. The Indian Armed Forces have now placed production orders upon successful development. During its association, BDL has been acquainted with all the critical technologies and hence it has no issues in handling these requirements. BDL follows the system of Strategic Business Unit concept and has a thrust for indigenization as a self reliance tool. BDL has drawn the expansion plans in such a way that the divisions handle the bulk of procurement, production planning and take division level decisions towards delivery of product. Corporate Office helps them in achieving the goals and thus the work is equitably divided between Corporate and Divisions. Hence, this is not a tall order in achieving organizational goals.

CMD: The financial year 2013-14 was a milestone in the history of BDL as the Company achieved an all time high turnover of `1,830 crore (provisional). BDL achieved 70 per cent growth in sales over previous year and there was all round growth in all products being supplied to the user. BDL has also paid its highest ever interim dividend of `58.00 crore for the financial year to the Government of India.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

BDL primarily started with the manufacture of anti-tank missiles like French SS11B1, followed by French Milan - 2 and Russian Konkurs. This was followed by missiles which are part of IGMDP like Prithvi and Akash. BDL also plans to take on under water weapons and other high-end weapons systems. Don’t you think that this is a tall order for one organization to handle ?

How has been your company’s performance during the last financial year ?

REGIONAL BALANCE

Interview of S.N. Mantha, Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Dymanics Limited


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Bombardier Specialized & Amphibious Aircraft Group

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Bombardier

Bombardier has a long history of fielding new, “disruptive technology solutions” and products by focusing

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Repurposing civilian designed platforms From one of the widest, most reliable high performance product lines in aviation today, Bombardier’s Specialized & Amphibious Aircraft (SAA) Group retains the necessary expertise to recommend and further facilitate the incremental development of the ideal platform to tailor the specific needs of more than a dozen specialized mission applications. Today, over

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on the continuing advancement of core technologies and by embarking on major demonstration projects. Examples of most recent and ongoing major demonstration projects include the proprietary development and fielding of automatic fibre placement for composite fuselages; the “more electric aircraft” project; and, environmental research and proof of concept – an increasingly important field. Bombardier is actively engaged in environmental research in its pursuit to significantly reduce carbon and noise footprints.

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Bombardier 415 MP* can operate not only in the traditional sea-going search and rescue (SAR) role, but also in providing capability to civil authorities in disaster relief scenarios

REGIONAL BALANCE

How did we get there?

BUSINESS

B

ombardier with transportation and aerospace divisions is the world’s only manufacturer of planes and trains. Bombardier Aerospace remains one of the most formidable manufacturers of aircraft and related services across each of the business, commercial and specialized aircraft markets. Its rich heritage of entrepreneurship and innovation stems from the consolidation of over a century of aviation success stories from Short Brothers®, Learjet®, de Havilland® and Canadair™. Bombardier Aerospace has introduced 28 new aircraft models to meet constantly escalating market demands since 1989. Among its varied product offering is the Bombardier 415* aircraft, the world’s most advanced purposedesigned amphibious firefighting aircraft, and its ability to facilitate the missionized adaptation of any of the aircraft in its fleet for specialized aircraft applications. Bombardier’s diversified selection of airframes are well suited to civilian aviation applications, Government procurement objectives from the specialized aircraft market due to their well-established performance metrics, cost effectiveness and reliability. Aircraft dispatch rates exceeding 99 per cent across its globally deployed fleet, regardless of aircraft vintage, are common. This is an enviable record, routinely deemed out of reach by most of the world’s militaries.


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dassault Aviation

BUSINESS

Rafale: Easy To Service

Recent events in Afghanistan, Mali and Libya have demonstrated that the Rafale omnirole fighter was ideally suited for long-term deployments far from its traditional support infrastructures. In accordance with stringent French Air Force and French Navy requirements, the Rafale was conceived with ease of maintenance in mind and every effort was made to facilitate repairs and servicing.

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ing from crowded carrier decks where maintenance is less easy than on large air bases. As a result, corrosion protection and resistance to shocks are excellent, and electromagnetic compatibility has been extensively tested for demanding carrier operations. Even the Air Force variants benefit from the rugged airframe as there is a high degree of commonality between the Rafale C/B and the Rafale M. The Snecma M88 engine comprises 21 modules, interchangeable without a need for balancing and re-calibration. Module exchange allows rapid engine repair and minimises spares holdings. Some of these modules can even be changed without removing the engine from the Rafale airframe, and a M88 can be replaced in under an hour. After maintenance, there is no need to check the turbofan in a test bench before it is installed back on the aircraft.

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Rafale's modular avionics concept means that printed circuits boards can then easily be changed instead of replacing complex, expensive LRUs

REGIONAL BALANCE

Dassault Aviation engineers came up with innovative solutions to ensure that the Rafale would prove extremely reliable and that it could be maintained in a quick and efficient manner. To name just a few, the airframe is extremely strong, with numerous access panels for easy replacement of components. The entire aircraft is monitored in real-time by a Health and Usage Monitoring System integrated into the mission computer. The userfriendly integrated testability system enables far more accurate diagnostics of any potential problem which might arise, and considerably shortens troubleshooting and repair times while simultaneously reducing the amount of ground facilities needed. The modular avionics concept means that printed circuits boards can then easily be changed instead of replacing complex, expensive LRUs. This modularity allows a considerable reduction in spare parts inventory, and the concept extends to the engines, the mission computer and the radar processor. The new fighter is capable of operat-

INDIAN DEFENCE

Ease of use


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

DIEHL DEFENCE

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IRIS-T SLM – Modern Air Defence Missile System Based on the new IRIS-T SL (surface-launched) missile, Diehl Defence offers armed forces an entire air defence missile system as a modern and costeffective solution. The highly mobile and all-terrain capable, medium-range IRIS-T SLM (Surface

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REGIONAL BALANCE

T

oday population centers, facilities and objects such as camps of international forces in war and crisis areas are exposed to air threats, particularly medium-range missiles, unmanned air vehicles, rockets and grenades. Ground-based air defence units contribute to safeguarding airspace as well as protecting the population and soldiers in action.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Ground-Based Air Defence


FFV Ordnance

F

FV Ordnance, part of the global defence and security company Saab, is for decades one of the world's leading suppliers of man-portable support weapons. To reach and maintain this commanding position requires continuous and result-oriented engineering and product development. Being at the cutting edge of technology, both technically and in time that can be translated into appropriate products when the situation changes and military tactical requirements arise, provides the perfect approach. FFV Ordnance has for many years been at the forefront of development of technology in the fields of internal and external ballistics, ignition systems, and terminal warhead effects. This is and has been FFV Ordnance’s model for success.

New times, new requirements Changing times result in new requirements. In the field of weapons and ammunition, and especially for manportable weapon systems, users demand improved and different effects, increased product safety, as well as weapons that are lighter and easier to carry. FFV Ordnance is continuously working on fulfilling these new requirements. The war on terrorism has partly moved into builtup areas, which require weapon systems that are light and easy to carry and have a good effect on various types of targets not just on armoured vehicles. But combat is also conducted outside built-up areas and in terrain inaccessible to vehicles, so the requirement for

The well-proven, market-leading CarlGustaf M3 meets all the requirements of being a multi-role, robust, light weapon that is easy to use – in both in day and night operations.

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weapons with long combat ranges and various types of warheads remains or is even increased.

Combat in built-up areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 30 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. LAW AT4CS HEAT is a further development of the LAW AT4 HEAT, or the M136 as it is known in the United States. LAW AT4CS HEAT has a warhead with increased behind armour effect that is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles. The enemy not only operates from armoured vehicles, but also takes cover in and operates from buildings. Therefore a light, man-portable weapon with good effect behind walls is needed, in order to combat enemy forces in buildings or simply to create a new entrance into a house. As a response to the increased need for urban

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ImageSat

Unique satellite-based imagery services

T

he availability of intelligence information, previously being the privilege of the few, offers government and military users major advantages. High resolution space imagery provided on-line by commercial services is providing military users and government agencies an access to high quality imagery products offering unprecedented intelligence and situational understanding. The market is dominated by commercially operated, government supported U.S. based providers supplying a significant part of the imagery consumed by the U.S. military, in parallel to serving foreign government and commercial clients. Given the limited ‘ownership’ of such services by international customers, timely delivery of imagery is prone to delays, particularly in times of emergency, when they are committed to their national services, while demand for imagery exceeds availability. The Israeli operated ImageSat International is offering a different approach, providing government users a reliable, and dependable yet affordable satellite based high-resolution imagery. ImageSat is offering its services competitively, efficiently and unrestricted. Based on the technology developed for Israel’s Ofeq series of military reconnaissance satellites built by Israel Aerospace Industries, ImageSat International has deployed two EROS series satellites, carrying the high resolution space camera payload, developed by Elbit/ElOp. The first began operation in the year 2000 with the second launched in April 2006. Slightly heavier and similar in appearance to EROS A, the EROS B

Eros-B: Bushehr active nuclear power plant, Iran

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satellite offer superior capabilities, including a larger camera of CCD/TDI type (Charge Coupled Device/ Time Delay Integration), with standard panchromatic resolution of 0.70 m at an altitude of about 500 km, a larger on-board recorder, much improved pointing accuracy and a faster data communication link. The two EROS satellites are operating simultaneously, practically doubling revisit frequency, enabling customers to better monitor designated areas.

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Israel Aerospace Industries

Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) is a globally recognized leader in the defense and commercial markets.

Joseph Weiss President & CEO Rafi Maor Chairman of the Board

Established 1953

Line Of Business Defense and Commercial Products & Services: Development, Manufacture, Overhaul, Upgrading, Repair and Maintenance of Aircraft and AerospaceEquipment, Electronic Systems, Avionics Suites, Advanced Radars, Tactical Weaponry & Law Enforcement Systems, Training and Simulation Systems, Network and Situation Awareness Systems

IAI is a world leader in totally integrated UAS solutions, with more than 1,000,000 operational hours of intelligence and targeting missions

Financial Figures • • •

IAI's 2013 sales totaled $3.6 billion, 80% of these sales are for export. IAI's backlog as of December 2013 reached $10 billion. IAI's 2013 net profit $75 million.

Core Areas of Activity

Space: From its own launchers and satellites to ground services, IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and manufactures satellites for vari-

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ous purposes such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq, Eros, Opsat), Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the Amos series (GEO). Theater Defense: IAI develops and manufactures advanced air defense systems, including the “Barak 8” system. IAI’s Arrow Weapon System against Tactical Ballistic Missiles (ATBMs) is known as the world’s leading ATBM system. This multi-layer system, representing outstanding visionary and technological achievements such as the Green Pine missile detection and fire and control radar, as well as other interoperable solutions, is the cornerstone of Israel’s defense system. MRO & Civil Aircraft Conversion: IAI is an expert one-stop-shop for commercial aircraft conversion, maintenance, repair and overhaul with engineering, equipment and facilities to deliver rapid turnaround at competitive prices. Commercial Aircraft: IAI’s design, engineering and

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KBP / High Precision Weapons / Rostec Combat Module for Armored Vehicles Upgrade

T

he light-weight category combat vehicles (IFV, airborne assault vehicles, APC) are able to determine the combat potential of a country’s armed forces due to their application versatility. Infantry fighting vehicles (BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3) and airborne assault vehicles (BMD-3, BMD-4) are the most common hardware of land forces and airborne troops. Currently a huge fleet of such combat vehicles is in service both with the Russian army, as well as abroad. These vehicles have been produced for several decades and presently their weapon systems do not meet modern requirements. However, their life cycle is quite long and reaches 30-40 years. Many countries keep on upgrading the main fleet of their combat vehicles. In Russia, a BMP-2 mechanical module was selected as a basis for designing a uniform combat module weighing below 3 tons and intended for modernization of a range of combat vehicles. Russian infantry fighting vehicle BMP-2, being the main combat vehicle of multiple countries’ land forces, was adopted for service in 1980 and used to exceed most of its foreign counterparts in terms of combat capabilities. Nowadays BMP-2 still basically meets the modern requirements.But the analysis of current state and development tendencies of weapons and fire control systems shows that BMP-2 weapon system is falling behind the modern level in a number of parameters. The firepower of a combat vehicle is determined by its weapon system, thus, the increase of combat

BMD-3 airborne combat vehicle

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efficiency may be achieved by weapon system modernization. BMP-2 has a high weapon system upgradepotential. The challenge of increasing the firepower of existing BMPs providing their superiority over other modern vehicles has been successfully met by KBP Instrument Design Bureau. The upgrade was implemented on a serially produced BMP-2 turret with 2A42 automatic cannon. The weight of add-on equipment installed does not exceed 500 kg, including around 260 kg of extra ammunition: 30 mm grenades and ATGM. The results of upgradeof BMP-2 with new B05Ya01 combat module are as followed:

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Lockheed Martin’s Missiles and Fire Control Business Area Specializes in Precision Systems with Proven Performance

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Lockheed Martin

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applications, but non-defense applications as well. One example of a sensor capability in both defense and non-defense markets is Gyrocam. Gyrocam sensor systems deliver an elevated, unobstructed, 360-degree surveillance advantage to military, law enforcement and commercial customers. Coupled with secure data link capabilities, these systems share mission critical information to enhance situational awareness. In Air and Missile Defense, Lockheed Martin’s PAC-3 Missile and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) weapon systems provides customers with layered protection against both in-atmosphere and exo-atmospheric threats. The “hit-to-kill” PAC-3 Missile is the world’s most advanced, capable and powerful terminal air defense missile. The THAAD system is designed to defend ground-based troops, allied forces, population centers, and critical infrastructure against short and medium-range ballistic missiles. PAC-3 is proven in combat and the effectiveness of THAAD has been verified through extensive testing. About 40 percent of LMMFC’s business is international and the company engages in many industrial partnerships around the world.  •

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Javelin, which is produced under a partnership between Lockheed Martin and Raytheon, is known as the world’s most versatile and lethal one-manportable, anti-tank, guided missile and surveillance weapon system

REGIONAL BALANCE

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BUSINESS

L

ockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC) is one of five business areas of Lockheed Martin Corporation and comprises about one fifth of its sales and revenue. LMMFC is known around the world as a supplier of innovative, highly effective air and missile defense systems, targeting systems and sensors, ground vehicles and other high technology products. The Modernized Target Acquisition Designation Sight/Pilot Night Vision Sensor (M-TADS/PNVS) system for Apache helicopters is one example of the company’s leadership in the sensor market. The M-TADS/PNVS system provides Apache attack helicopter pilots with long-range, precision engagement and pilotage capabilities for mission success and flight safety in day, night and adverse weather missions. First fielded in 2005, M-TADS/PNVS revolutionized the U.S. Army’s capabilities by providing Apache pilots greater clarity and definition to identify targets and provide situational awareness to ground troops outside the detection range of enemy forces. The system is in service in 13 countries and has achieved more than 1 million flight hours. In the area of tactical missiles, Javelin, which is produced under a partnership between Lockheed Martin and Raytheon, is known as the world’s most versatile and lethal one-man-portable, anti-tank, guided missile and surveillance weapon system. Javelin has been adopted by armed forces around the world and has been approved for sales to a number of countries including India. Several LMMFC products have not only military


Mazagon Dock Limited India’s Leading Shipyard

I

t was in 1774, a small dry dock, Mazagon Dock Limited, was built to service ships of the British East India Company. From small beginnings, the repair yard has come a long way, becoming India’s leading defence shipyard. Sailing further, it has embarked upon a massive modernisation programme for its future projects. MDL is currently constructing three warships of the Kolkata Class (P15A). The three destroyers – Kolkata, Kochi and Chennai – are at an advanced stage of construction and would be delivered to the Indian Navy within the next two years. MDL has an order of four more destroyers code named P-15B.

Stealth frigate INS Shivalik

shore supply vessels (OSV) to the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC). MDL was the 'first' shipyard to have built ships for exports to Singapore, Iran, United Kingdom, Mozambique and France. Presently, it is executing a project of building two multipurpose support vessels to Mexico.

Modernisation programmes

Strong foundations

The modernisation includes a 300 ton Goliath crane, a wet basin, a module workshop and cradle assembly shop. The phase-I of the project is expected to be ready by end 2014 and change the way India builds ships. MDL in collaboration with DCNS of France is engaged in construction of six submarines of the Scorpene Class which will enhance the underwater punch of the Indian Navy. With this, the shipyard will join an elite club of nations, possessing this unique capability.

MDL has strong foundations, starting with the first modern warship the Leander Class frigate INS Nilgiris in 1972. Its design was obtained from the British Admiralty and the frigate built in collaboration with Vickers Ltd. and Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd. of UK. Subsequently, MDL delivered five frigates in this class to the Navy. The Navy later evolved a design for a new generation frigate, christened Godavari class, the ships being INS Godavari, INS Ganga and INS Gomati. MDL has constructed two corvettes – the INS Khukri and INS Kuthar. It also built four missile boats INS Vibhuti, INS Vipul, INS Nashak and INS Prabal, besides two SSK Class submarines INS Shalki and INS Shankul under a transfer of technology from HDW of Germany, thus becoming the first Indian shipyard to build submarines.  •

Coast Guard requirements MDL has also constructed offshore patrol vessels for the Indian Coast Guard (ICG), besides INS Vikram, INS Vijaya, INS Veera, INS Varuna, INS Vajra, INS Vivek and INS Vigraha. It has also delivered seven off-

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

© I. Chapuis

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

MBDA

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tive anti-ship capability. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy’s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly, other versions of the world-famous Exocet family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA’s strategy. In fact, MBDA’s links with Indian industry go back some 40 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under license for the Indian Army. Discussions are also under way for the potential codevelopment of a 5th generation anti-tank missile based on the MMP that has recently been ordered by France. Working with HAL, integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter is well advanced and MBDA is also proposing its PARS 3 LR system for the same helicopter’s land attack mission. As well as working with the DRDO, MBDA is actively constructing ties at all levels within the country.  •

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

MMP System

REGIONAL BALANCE

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BUSINESS

M

BDA is unique in the guided missile sector in its ability to meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains: air, land and sea. This offers benefits to customers keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. MBDA weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Dual Mode Brimstone and the long range SCALP / Storm Shadow are capable of ensuring air dominance long into the future. The IAF’s Mirage 2000 fleet is being upgraded and will feature MBDA’s MICA missile with its IR and RF seeker variants to deal with short to beyond visual range air combat. India’s Jaguar bombers also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA’s ASRAAM missiles. The threat of air attack is increasing. Low cost cruise missiles, manned and un-manned aircraft and the appearance of new ranges of ballistic missiles, are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company leads with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral, MICA and Aster missiles. MBDA’s Aster recently achieved Europe’s first successful ballistic missile target intercept, further proof of the Company’s unmatched skills. Mistral, with its unmatched success rate of over 96%, during all firings, has been selected by forces around the world and has been offered to the Indian armed forces to meet their VSHORAD requirement. Coastal and blue water operations require an effec-


Navantia

N

avantia, the Spanish shipbuilder, 100% owned by the Spanish Government, is a world reference in the design, construction and integration of stateof-the-art war ships, as well as ship repairs & modernizations. It is also engaged in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems, Fire Control Systems, Command and Control systems, Propulsion Plants and through life support for all its products. Even though its main line of activity is in the naval field, Navantia designs and manufactures systems for the Army and the Air Force. Navantia has enough experience in building the most technologically advanced ships like frigates, amphibious ships, patrol vessels, and submarines. In the last years, it has supplied ships for 5 different navies: Norway, Australia, Spain, India and Venezuela. It has also been selected in Turkey as the designer for the LPD program. This experience, together with a continuous commitment to innovation, the use of the latest technologies and with a highly qualified work force, makes Navantia one of the most competitive companies in the world. Navantia is a reference in surface warships, having been able to integrate the AEGIS LM system in a much smaller platform. It has designed and built the F-100 Alvaro de Bazán class frigates (5 units) for the Spanish Navy and the F-310 Fridtjof Nansen class (5 units) in service at the Royal Norwegian Navy. The Australian Warfare Destroyer, currently under construction, is

Cantabria in Melbourne.

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another Navantia design also based in Navantia F-100 frigate. At present the challenge is the F-110, the future Spanish Frigate that will have to perform new capacities and missions in a changing and challenging international scenario. The new frigate is being designed incorporating the latest innovations and developments for further crew reductions. The F-310 class frigates are considered one of the most successful programmes the company has executed, with total customer satisfaction. One of the clues is the product itself, the F-310 frigates, ships of excellent quality and capability for operating with other NATO vessels. In words of General Karlsen, Director of the Norwegian Defense Logistics Organization (NDLO), referred to F-314 Thor Heyerdahl, last of the series “this ship is the most advanced of the series, and Navantia has completely fulfilled the requirements of the Norwegian Navy”. As well, Navantia has won a contract for the life cycle support of these frigates, an

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NEXTER SYSTEMS

Setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems

D

uring Defexpo 2014, Nexter Systems has unveiled for the first time a new Indian version of its CAESAR® 155 mounted gun system. Nexter has teamed up with Larsen & Toubro and Ashok Leyland Defence to propose this system to soldiers of the Indian Army for the MGS (Mounted Gun System) program. Based on the 6x6 Super Stallion chassis from Ashok Leyland, with its higher payload which improves the

CAESAR® was deployed in Afghanistan, Lebanon and Mali with the French Army

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modularity of the Indian CAESAR® to fulfill specific requirements of the Indian Army. During July 2011, the two companies signed an other Consortium Agreement and announced the formation of Nexter Systems led consortium for 155 mm Towed Gun System (TGS) program for Indian Army. Under the proposal, Nexter will field TRAJAN®, 155 mm/52-calibre weapon system, which used the same 155mm/52cal artillery than the CAESAR®.

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northrop grumman Northrop Grumman’s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye

B

uilt on a legacy of providing uncompromising airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) capability, Northrop Grumman’s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye was designed to provide the enhanced capabilities required to meet emerging threats and improved mission effectiveness from both shore bases as well as from the decks of today’s modern aircraft carriers. The E-2D’s upgraded systems and capabilities provide long-range detection and tracking of very small and maneuverable targets and provide a seamless stream of information between the key assets of the fleet. Features include completely redesigned aircraft systems, the state-of-the-art AN/APY-9 radar and a new glass cockpit. All E-2D’s are newly manufactured aircraft based on a proven airframe design, which is capable of both long-range shore operations, and carrier-based operations. Evolving the mission sensors with new technologies and capabilities affordably brought a new, state-of-the-art system without having the challenge of designing a new platform. The APY-9 radar, exclusive to the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, provides a transformational leap in radar technology, allowing the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye to “see” greater numbers of smaller targets at a greater range than currently fielded radar systems. The APY-9 was specifically designed for Cruise Missile Defense and to protect the U.S. Navy’s most important asset – the Carrier Battle Group. This state-of-the-art radar provides the most technologically advanced airborne

Northrop Grumman’s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye –Wellpositioned to support India’s present and evolving defence requirements with world-class AEW&C capabilities

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early warning and command and control capability in the world, with the ability to collect data and supply information to naval and joint forces well ahead of engagement. With its distinctive rotodome design, the E-2 Hawkeye provides critically important, continuous 360-degree, air and surface surveillance allowing the operator to focus on select areas of interest, vastly improving situational awareness. The new rotodome allows for three modes of operation including an electronically scanned mode. As new threats have emerged over the past fifty years, the E-2 has undergone several configuration upgrades to provide the enhanced situational awareness and improved mission effectiveness all nations require for today’s missions as well as those of tomorrow. The E-2D is a uniquely integrated system for the defense of any nation and highly interoperable with coalition partners. With its network-centric capability, the E-2D will help nations with maritime, surveil-

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RAFAEL

The Perfect Partner for India’s Defense Needs

Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd, designs, develops, manufactures and supplies a wide range of hightech defense systems for air, land, sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer’s specific needs, Rafael provides state-of-the-art, yet cost-effective systems and weapons in the fields of Missiles, air defense, naval systems, target acquisition, EW, C4ISR, communication networks, data links, electro-optic payloads, add-on armor, combat vehicle upgrading, mine field breaching, border and coastal protection systems, breaching munitions and much more.

Iron Dome – Defense against short range artillery rockets

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Rafael – The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel’s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently, 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael’s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship with the IDF, developing products according to the soldiers’ specific requirements in the field. Rafael has also formed partnerships with civilian counterparts to develop commercial applications based on its proprietary technology. Rafael has created partnerships with companies in

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Raytheon

Raytheon brings a full suite of Civil and Military offerings to India

R

aytheon Company, the technology and innovation leader specializing in defense, security and civil markets across the world offers a full range of solutions tailored to customers’ needs. With a history of innovation spanning 92 years, Raytheon provides state-of-the-art electronics, mission systems integration and other capabilities in the areas of sensing; effects; and command, control, communications and intelligence systems; as well as a broad range of mission support services for diverse and evolving global battlefields. Raytheon’s 60 year old partnership with India is now poised to see holistic on-going initiatives for India’s Military Defence, Homeland Security, and Civil and Air Traffic Control Management programs. The Indian Navy’s broad-area, maritime and littoral operations capabilities stand to be enhanced with MK54 Lightweight Torpedo – Raytheon’s next generation anti-submarine warfare weapon, and the APY 10 (I) radar. Integrated in Boeing’s P8I aircraft, three of which have already been delivered to the Indian armed forces, the MK 54 along with APY 10 (I) will deliver the whole detect-to-engage capability to attack underwater targets regardless of water depth. To support India’s focus on developing indigenous capabilities, Raytheon is exploring co-production and co-development opportunities in a number of areas and has established strong ties with a number of organizations such as TATA Power SED, Grintex, Larsen & Tourbo and Precision Electronics among others.

Javelin is the world’s most versatile and lethal one-manportable, anti-tank, guided munition and surveillance weapon system

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The Javelin weapon system is being offered to the Government of India by the United States Government as a comprehensive co-production, co-development program that would include unprecedented technology transfer and manufacturing technologies of the existing Javelin Missile and Command Launch Unit (CLU), as well as joint development of next generation Javelin missile and targeting system technologies. Raytheon has also partnered with ISRO and AAI to develop the GPS-aided Geo Augmented Navigation system (GAGAN) – one of the most advanced air navigation systems in the world – that will help increase efficiency and capacity in India's air space, catapulting India into an elite league. Committed to provide the best, Raytheon is actively engaged in looking at potential proven Air Defence solutions for the Indian Air Force’s LLQRM program and for the Indian Army’s SRSAM and QRSAM programs. With customer success as our mission, Raytheon remains committed to working with India to help build a safer, stronger nation.  •

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CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Commissioning of aircraft carrier INS Vikramditya became a milestone in the bilateral relationship.

vehicles, Tunguska SPAAG, among the many. Needless to say that Russia has supplied the lion share of the Indian Navy combatants. Since the first “naval” contract in 1965 Russian shipyards have built over 70 warships for India. Eventually, India became the first nation to receive the tailor-made ships. Commissioning of the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya (Project 11430) became a milestone in the bilateral relationship. The aircraft carrier recently

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REGIONAL BALANCE

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or decades, Russia has been India’s key partner playing a crucial role in the formation and strengthening of its national armed forces. A majority of Indian aircraft, helicopters, tanks, artillery systems are of Russian origin and/ or design. One can name the Sukhoi Su-30MKI multipurpose combat aircraft, Mi-17 multipurpose helicopters, Mi-26 heavy lifters, Mi-35 gunships, T-72/ T-90 family main battle tanks, Smerch 300-mm MLRS, BMP-1/2 infantry fighting

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Russia and India strategic partnership

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Rosoboronexport


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

A Strong Offering for India’s Military Requirements

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

SAAB

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INDIAN DEFENCE

a co-operation agreement was concluded between Sweden and Switzerland. The Brazilian government has also selected Gripen. Our civil security offering is focused on monitoring and situational control as well as ensuring efficient flows, with an emphasis on airports and air travel, ports and shipping, and emergency response planning. Saab is also a supplier to leading international aircraft manufactures, including Boeing and Airbus. We supply mainly lightweight high-strength aerostructures, avionics and operating systems, structural and system integration, and support solutions. Our current offering to our Indian customers includes C4I, Electronic Warfare (Self Protection Systems), COMINT, Signature Management, Missile & Weapon Systems, Aeronautical Platforms, Radars, Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles, Maritime & Civil Security, and Training & Simulation Systems. Some of these are highlighted on the next page:

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Our portfolio covers the air, land, naval surface, underwater, coastal and civil security domains. The products include Fighter Aircrafts, Avionics and Vetronic solutions, Ground Based Air Defence Systems, Radars, Air, Naval and Land C4I, solutions for Troop Protection, Tactical Weapons, Missile Systems, Self-Protection and EW systems, ESM, COMINT and Laser Warning Systems, Naval Fire Control systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Rotary Wing UAVs that can also be deployed from naval platforms, AUVs, ROVs for underwater and deep sea operations, Signature Management, Training and Logistics solutions and support weapons. Saab’s Gripen is a competitive single-engine fighter system currently in service in five countries. Sweden has now ordered the next generation Gripen, and

Indian Air Force Hindustan Advanced Light Helicopter Dhruv with Saab IDAS

REGIONAL BALANCE

Saab Air Land Naval and Civil Security Portfolio

BUSINESS

S

aab is a global defence and security company, founded in Sweden in 1937. Saab has been a trusted supplier to the Indian armed forces since the 1970s when India acquired the Carl Gustaf Anti Tank defence system from Saab. Saab India Technologies Private Limited, a fully owned subsidiary of Saab AB, Sweden was established in 2011. Saab’s thinking edge approach to continuously update and bridge technological challenges has driven and developed Saab into a broad-based Swedish innovation powerhouse that is one of the world´s most cost-effective high-tech defence and security company.


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

A leading international high-technology group

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Safran

Safran has been associated with India over 60 years and is committed to be an integral part of India’s growth and development in the aerospace, defence and security industry. With 2600 employees, it has the highest number of employees for the company in Asia. Over decades of association with India, Safran has become a trusted partner addressing India’s vital Aerospace, Defence and Security concerns. Working with cutting edge technology, and through industrial co-operation, Safran collaborates with Indian companies to achieve the long-term goal of creating an indigenous, self-sustaining aerospace, defence and security industry. About 70 per cent of the aircraft in the Indian commercial aviation sector use or incorporate technology made by Safran. The company has a 100 per cent market share for Messier-Bugatti-Dowty (Safran)

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Safran in India

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) for CFM56-5, CFM56-7, CF6 engines

REGIONAL BALANCE

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BUSINESS

S

afran is a leading international high-technology group with three core businesses: Aerospace (propulsion and equipment), Defence and Security. Operating worldwide, the Group has 66,200 employees and generated sales of 14.7 billion euros in 2013. The Group invests in Research & Development to meet the requirements of changing markets, including expenditures of 1.8 billion euros in 2013. Working alone or in partnership, Safran holds world or European leadership positions in its core markets. The Group comprises the following companies: Aircelle, Herakles, Hispano-Suiza, Labinal, MessierBugatti-Dowty, Morpho, Sagem, Snecma, Techspace Aero, Turbomeca. Aerospace: Safran develops, produces and markets engines and propulsion systems for civil and military airplanes and helicopters, ballistic missiles, launch vehicles and satellites. It also provides a wide range of systems and equipment for civil and military airplanes and helicopters. Defence: Operating in the optronic, inertial guidance, electronics and safety-critical software markets, Safran offers today’s armed forces a complete range of optronic, navigation and optical systems and equipment for use in the air, on land and at sea. Security: As a pioneer in identification and detection systems, and a major player in smart cards and e-documents, Safran offers state-of-the-art solutions to meet the evolving security requirements of individuals, businesses and governments.


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

SELEX ES

Selex ES Organisation and Capabilities Selex ES, as a customer focussed organisation, is structured into three major Divisions to enable its business-

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• Air & Space Systems Division (ASSD) The Airborne and Space Systems Division of Selex ES brings together the full wealth of our airborne capability, including unmanned air systems, integrated mission systems, radar, electronic warfare systems, avionics, aerial targets and simulation systems, and space sensors, payloads and instruments. Our sensors and mission systems help armed forces to detect, protect and survive. We are the only European company with the capability to deliver a full end-to-end UAS solution – embracing platform, sensors, mission system and ground control - for tactical ISTAR applications. And we have developed a unique and scalable architecture that is agnostic to air vehicles and sensors alike. Similarly,

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es to focus on the specific needs in the respective User communities. A representative sample of the products and capabilities of each Division follows:

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Drakomicro uas from Selex Galileo

REGIONAL BALANCE

“We aspire to be the most trusted supplier of technological excellence in electronic systems and solutions for a safer, smarter, more secure society” — Fabrizio Giulianini, Chief Executive Officer

BUSINESS

S

elex ES is a trans-national sensors, informationmanagement and systems-integration business delivering the high technology needs of defence, space, security, infrastructure, commerce and public service. With a worldwide workforce of over 17,000 and revenues in excess of €3.5 billion, we are entrusted by our customers and partners to deliver electronic systems and solutions for a safer, smarter and more secure society. In leveraging our collective strengths and capitalising on the synergies across major business areas, we have created an agile, information-centred electronic systems enterprise that exploits world-class systems, ICT and smart services to deliver robust, high-integrity mission-critical solutions across sectors and domains. What’s more, our integrated and customer-focused organisation establishes a foundation for growth, and allows us to respond optimally to the needs of a dynamic and increasingly transversal market at a global level.


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Cutting-Edge Radar, Surveillance and Communication Solutions

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Telephonics Corporation

Designed by experienced radar specialists with a deep understanding of harsh and ever-changing seafaring environments, Telephonics’ maritime radar systems

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have been field proven globally, and are able to detect, track and classify numerous threats. The company’s maritime surveillance systems are a critical component of Naval and Coast Guard operations due to the radar system’s long-range, high-resolution imaging capabilities. The most unique feature is the radar family’s ability to consolidate a myriad of data together into a single, high-fidelity situational awareness and tracking tool. Highly flexible radar surveillance systems, such as the APS-143 and RDR-1700B, operate in the X-band frequency and offer Synthetic Aperture Radar/Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR/ISAR) imaging, weather detection and Automatic Identification System (AIS) overlay capabilities, which assists with identifying and locating vessels at sea. Additional features include Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) mode and SHARC™ (Scalable Hierarchy Advanced Radar Control)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Telephonics’ RDR-1700B Radar System

REGIONAL BALANCE

Radar and Identification Friend or Foe Solutions

BUSINESS

S

ince its founding in 1933, Telephonics Corporation has evolved from an audio headset manufacturer into a global technology innovator specializing in cutting-edge radar, surveillance and communications solutions. As a trusted provider to the defense, aerospace and commercial markets, Telephonics products have been successfully deployed in a robust range of applications found in the air, on the sea, or on the ground. Organized into three business segments, Telephonics’ Communications and Integrated Systems, Radar Systems and Systems Engineering Group (SEG) provide a broad range of service capabilities for fixed or rotary-wing aircraft as well as ground and sea applications. Communications and Integrated Systems specializes in aircraft communications, wireless and audio products, air traffic management systems, homeland security and custom application specific integrated circuits. Telephonics’ Radar Systems is known worldwide for its diverse maritime surveillance radar and Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator technology. Telephonics’ Systems Engineering Group focuses on air and missile defense threat analysis, combat systems engineering/analysis, and radar systems engineering and software development.


Thales

Global Technology Leader in the Aerospace, Transportation and Defence & Security Markets

W

henever critical decisions need to be made, Thales has a role to play. In all its markets — aerospace, space, ground transportation, defence and security — Thales solutions help customers to make the right decisions at the right time and act accordingly. World-class technology, the combined expertise of 65,000 employees, operations in 56 countries, and a commitment to long-term service quality and continuous improvement have made Thales a key player in keeping the public safe and secure, guarding vital infrastructure and protecting the national security interests of countries around the globe.

Combat equipment: Lightweight multiple launcher STARSTREAK

Defence Thales is a long-standing partner of defence forces worldwide, working with them to provide the best possible protection in the field and helping them operate more effectively and more efficiently. Thales supports the armed forces in accomplishing their missions in the traditional defence environments — air, land, sea and space — and the emerging environments of urban operations and cyber warfare. Delivering optimum performance From system design to through-life support and personnel training, Thales provides a range of services to ensure that the solutions it provides deliver optimum performance over the long term.

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Security With the emergence of new types of threats, such as terrorism, organised crime, trafficking and cyber-attacks, defence organisations alone cannot contain the risks. This convergence between defence and security is driving demand for new solutions and technologies that enable organisations to share existing information and communication systems while protecting their networks and infrastructures from attack. Integrated and resilient solutions Building on its experience in the defence sector, Thales develops integrated, resilient solutions to help governments, local authorities and civil operators to protect citizens, sensitive data and infrastructure, with a particular focus on urban security, airport security, border surveillance, infrastructure security and cyber security.

Thales in India GET YOUR COPY TO READ Thales has been operating in India since 1953. Today, the company over 300 employees in its offices IN employs COMPLETE

in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Cochin, Vishakhapatnam

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Authors' profile Air Marshal (Retd) Anil Chopra Air Marshal Anil Chopra is a highly decorated National Defence Academy Air Force officer who joined the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force (IAF) in 1973. He is a qualified Flying Instructor and Test Pilot who was among the first pilots to train on Mirage 2000 in France. He commanded a Mirage Squadron, two operational airbases and the IAF’s flight test centre Aircraft Systems and Testing Establishment (ASTE). He was the Team Leader of MiG-21 upgrade programme in Russia for over four years. He has held prestigious staff and command assignments. His last assignment was the human resource head of IAF as Air Officer Personnel at Air HQ. He is currently on a four-year assignment as a member of the Armed Forces Tribunal. n Article on page 57, 75

Brigadier (Retd) Arun Sahgal Brigadier Arun Sahgal, PhD (Retd) is Director “Forum for Strategic Initiative” a policy related think tank focusing on policy initiatives in national security, diplomacy and Track II Dialogues. His earlier assignments include founder Director of the Office of Net Assessment, Indian Integrated Defence Staff (IDS), created to undertake long-term strategic assessments, and Head of the Center for Strategic Studies and Simulation, USI of India and Senior Fellow, at the IDSA, New Delhi. n Article on page 49

Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Air Marshal B.K. Pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career, he held a number of important command and staff appointments, the last being that of AOCin-C Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an Editor with the SP Guide Publications and is a resident of Bengaluru n Article on page 107, 209, 267, 291

Dr Bhupendra Kumar Singh He was a full time Consultant (Energy Security) at the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, where he helped the government adopt an Integrated Energy Policy, contributed in the formulation of India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change, formulated India’s external policy on energy and climate

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change. He is a Deputy Director (Energy) at the Confederation of Indian Industry, New Delhi. He is a member of the International Association of Energy Economics, USA. n Article on page 53

Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar An alumnus of Rashtriya Indian Military College and National Defence Academy, Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar was commissioned into artillery in June 1968. During a career spanning four decades, the officer has held a number of prestigious command and staff appointments. He has the distinction of commanding the largest artillery brigade in J&K in a counterinsurgency environment. He was Major General Artillery, Western Command during Operation Parakram. He also headed the Army Aviation Corps and was instrumental in the operationalisation of the advanced light helicopter during his tenure. A die-hard aviator and a flying instructor, he has over 4,000 hours of flying to his credit and has flown five different types of aircraft. He is a recipient of PVSM and AVSM. n Article on page 93

Chintamani Mahapatra Chintamani Mahapatra is currently Tagore Chair Professor at the Yunnan University, China. He holds the regular post of a professor at the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Professor Mahapatra is a visiting fellow with a number of universities and think tanks. He is a Visiting Faculty at the National Defence College, New Delhi; Army War College, Mhow; College of Naval Warfare, Mumbai; College of Air Warfare; Indian Society of International Law and Diplomacy, Foreign Service Institute of Ministry of External Affairs; Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration (civil services training centre) Mussoorie; and several academic staff colleges around India. n Article on page 01

Major General (Retd) Dhruv C. Katoch An alumnus of Sherwood College, Nainital, the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla and the National Defence College, New Delhi, Major General Dhruv C. Katoch was commissioned in the Dogra Regiment on March 31, 1972. Besides the National Defence College, the General is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington,

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[  authors' profile  ] and the Higher Command Course, Mhow. He has vast experience in subconventional conflict, having taken part in the Indian Peacekeeping (IPKF) operations in Sri Lanka as also operations against terrorists and insurgents in Jammu and Kashmir and various states of Northeast India. He has commanded a Sector in Mizoram and a Division in Arunachal Pradesh. Currently, he is the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi, which is the Indian Army’s premier think tank on land warfare. n Article on page 13

Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip Deshpande Having obtained bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering from University College of Engineering, Bengaluru in 1970, Vice Admiral Dilip Deshpande was commissioned in the Indian Navy in the Engineering Branch in 1969. He has served in various operational, command staff and industrial appointments and at Naval Headquarters in both Marine Engineering and Naval Aviation. On promotion to Flag rank, he served as Chief Staff Officer (Technical) in both the Western and Eastern Commands and headed the Naval Dockyard at Visakhapatnam. As Controller of Warship Production and Acquisition, he was responsible for design, construction and acquisition of various warships and submarines from shipyards in India, Russia and Italy. He retired in 2009 as Chief of Materiel. He is in receipt of PVSM, AVSM and VSM. n Article on page 103

Lt General (Retd) Gautam Banerjee Lt General (Retd) Gautam Banerjee has participated in all operations undertaken by the Indian Army since 1971. Besides serving in many crucial command, staff and instructional appointments, he was the Chief Engineer of the Western Command, General Officer Commanding of the Madhya Bharat Area, and the Chief of Staff, Central Army Command. Before superannuating after 40 years of distinguished service, he was the Commandant of the Officers’ Training Academy, Chennai. He has been a prolific student of military strategy, leadership and futuristic warfare and his writings are acknowledged as thought provoking. n Article on page 37

Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

Dr Monika Chansoria Dr Monika Chansoria is currently a Senior Fellow in France and is a Visiting Professor and Associate Director of Studies (Directeur d’études associé) at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris. In addition, she is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi. n Article on page 33

Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman Major General Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems), he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known. n Article on page 119, 123

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand He is a former Director General, Army Air Defence, member of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, Member Secretary of the first National Radar Council. He has served with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and was also a consultant with the Bharat Electronics Ltd. He was also involved in writing the history of the Regiment of Artillery, history of the Corps of Army Air Defence, publishing the first coffee-table book for the Regiment of Artillery and the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical Group Editor with SP Guide Publications. n Article on page 65, 89, 325

General (Retd) N.C. Vij General N.C. Vij was the 21st Army Chief of the Indian Army from December 2002 to January 2005. His tenure as the Army Chief was widely acclaimed for a bold and imaginative strategy of erecting a 670-km-long fence all along the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. On superannuation from the Indian Army, he was appointed as founder Vice Chairman of the National Disaster Management Authority on September 28, 2005, with the status of a Union Cabinet Minister for tenure of five years. He is presently a Distinguished Fellow in the Vivekananda International Foundation, a renowned think tank in Delhi. n Article on page 131

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the L0C with Pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United Nations Mission UNTAG in Namibia. He has authored several books and was till recently the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi. n Article on page 05, 97

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Ambassador P. Stobdan Ambassador (Professor) P. Stobdan is a distinguished academician, diplomat, author and foreign policy/ national security analyst. He is a student of Asian affairs and closely follows developments in China, Central Asia and High Asia. He has written extensively on a wide range of security-related subjects in

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[  authors' profile  ] a number of professional journals on strategic affairs. Ambassador Stobdan is a leading columnist for the Indian Express and other national newspapers. He served in Central Asia twice. His last diplomatic assignment was in Bishkek where he served as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of India to Kyrgyzstan. His latest book Central Asia: Democracy, Instability and Strategic Game in Kyrgyzstan was released recently. n Article on page 25

Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Lt General P.C. Katoch superannuated as Director General Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer, he commanded Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attaché in Japan with accreditation to Republic of Korea. n Article on page 17, 45, 71, 127, 329

Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle

ments, ordnance factories and finally rose to become the Director General of Naval Armament Inspection (DGNAI) at the Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (Navy). As DGNAI, he was directly responsible for timely availability of reliable and safe naval armament to the operational fleet of the Indian Navy. n Article on page 85

Rear Admiral (Retd) Sushil Ramsay Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay retired after serving in the Indian Navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacity-building in logistics, defence expenditure, administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been Naval Attaché in the Embassy of India in Moscow. He is currently Senior Editorial Advisor of SP's Naval Forces and Technical Editor of SP's Military Yearbook. n

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle has three decades of experience in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in India and abroad. He had hands-on experience in military modernisation and training during his service period heading a number of tactical and technical innovation projects at the operational level. Post retirement since 2006, he has combined his military expertise with extensive study of future trends and coordinated a number of projects for Directorate of Net Assessment, Integrated Defence Staff, Centre for the Joint Warfare Studies and Centre for Land Warfare Studies. He is at present Director of Security-Risks, a South Asian security risk and knowledge management consultancy. n

Lt General V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9, 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. Prior to superannuating, he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 120 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the Editor of SP's Land Forces and Technical Editor of SP's Military Yearbook. n Article on page 61, 111, 153, 299, 311

Lt General V.K. Saxena

Article on page 117, 451

Ambassador (Retd) Ranjit Gupta Ambassador (Retd) Ranjit Gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He has been India’s Ambassador to Yemen (North), Venezuela, Oman, Thailand and Spain and finally head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the National Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint Research Project with the Gulf Research Centre, Dubai, and on India GCC Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs. n

Lt General V.K. Saxena is an alumnus of Defence Services Staff College, College of Defence Management and the coveted National Defence College. He is a silver-gunner and the first ever winner of the Director General of Artillery Trophy for standing first on the Long Gunnery Staff Course. He has had a wide exposure to varied command and staff assignments. He is currently the Commandant of the prestigious Army Air Defence College at Gopalpur, Odisha. n Article on page 79, 83

General (Retd) V.P. Malik

Article on page 21

Rear Admiral (Retd) Dr S. Kulshrestha Rear Admiral (Retd) Dr S. Kulshrestha is a postgraduate from Jodhpur University who joined Indian Navy in the year 1975 and was awarded the Sword of Honour in 1976, for being the best Naval Officer during initial training. He specialised in Quality Assurance of Naval Armament and adorned various key appointments in the Navy, DRDO establish-

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General V.P. Malik was Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army from October 1, 1997 to September 30, 2000 and the Chairman, COSC from January 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000. He planned, coordinated and oversaw execution of the Operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan’s attempted intrusion in the Kargil sector in 1999. After retirement, he was a member of the National Security Advisory Board for two years. He writes frequently for newspapers and magazines. n Article on page 09

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[  authors' profile  ] Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi

Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier General Staff, Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses and is currently a senior fellow with the Vivekananda International Foundation. n

Commissioned in 1961, he is an International Fellow at the Army War College, US. He has been GOC-in-C of Army Training Command and Western Command. Despite losing one leg in 1965 war, he retired as the VCOAS in 2001. He was Founder Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) and is a prolific writer. n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section one

1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61

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One  India’s Strategic Partnership with the United States Two India’s Regional Security Environment Three Indo-Pak Relations Four Pakistan-China Strategic Nexus Five Post-2014 Afghanistan Six Developments in West Asia Seven Strategic Linkages in Central Asia Eight Military Developments in South East Asia Nine Contentious South China Sea Ten India’s Internal Security Dimensions Eleven India’s Land Borders Twelve Special Forces in India’s Defence Strategy Thirteen India’s Nuclear Deterrence Fourteen India’s Energy Security Fifteen Evolution of Pilotless Aircraft Sixteen Militarisation of Space

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Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Concepts & Perspectives


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INDIAN DEFENCE

Administration’s announcement in 2011 to withdraw US troops from Afghanistan had caused worries in New Delhi. While the inability of the US firms to get the contract to sell medium multi-role combat aircraft to India had disappointed Washington, New Delhi was under pressure to reduce its energy imports from Iran due to severe US sanctions. Same can be said about India as well. Indian Government’s inability to institute further economic reforms, lack of consensus over big economic items, such as opening the retail market to foreign companies, and domestic political polarisation on several issues in the midst of downturn in economic performance hardly provided the base for further boost of ties with the United States. Although bilateral trade and investment continued to rise in absolute numbers and Indian investment in the United States too witnessed a rising trend, slow US economic recovery and slower Indian economic reforms kept economic ties between the two countries lacklustre. The visa policy of the Obama Administration that adversely affected the Indian information technology (IT) companies and professionals, Obama’s oft repeated remarks blaming India and China for rising food and commodity prices in the international market, and his warning to the American people that they would have to perform better than Asians, including Indians, in educational institutions coloured Indo-US strategic partnership in less than positive lights.

BUSINESS

Mahapatra  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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ndo-US strategic partnership   Chintamani in last one year did not move forward nor did it move backward or stood standstill. External challenges and domestic preoccupations, notwithstanding, efforts were made by New Delhi and Washington, D.C., to address difficulties and hurdles to prevent the short-term issues from derailing the long-term partnership. When Barack Obama assumed the office of President in 2009, there were doubts over the continuity of robust strategic partnership with India pursued by his predecessor George W. Bush. But doubts were dispelled and the partnership was taken to a new level by President Obama during his first term in office. Despite the economic recession, Indo-US trade registered a positive growth. So was the case with American investment in India. What was novel was good growth in Indian investment in the United States. President Obama described Indo-US relationship as an “indispensable partnership” of the 21st century and promised to support India’s membership in the UN Security Council, Nuclear Suppliers’ Group, Australia Group, Wassenar Arrangement and the Missile Technology Control Regime. His predecessor’s National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice announced American support to India’s rise a global player and Obama’s Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta declared that India would be a “linchpin” in the Administration’s new strategy on the Indo-Pacific region. However, by the time Barack Obama began his second term, analysts had begun to describe Indo-US relations as the one that has reached a plateau and stuck out there. There was no forward movement, as President Obama was overly preoccupied with domestic political fights and with firefighting abroad, particularly in the Middle East. The implementation of the civil nuclear cooperation agreement continued to be delayed. The Obama

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A wide convergence of strategic interests between the two countries has cemented the strategic partnership making it almost irreversible. Short-run obstacles in the relationship hit the headlines and create an image of standstill in the relationship. But in matters of trade, investment, technology transfer, arms sale/purchase and broader understanding on critical security issues, Indo-US relationship has shown signs of maturity.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Measured Improvements & Bright Prospects

Restoring the Momentum Months after Obama began his second term in office, a spate of visits were planned to revive the momentum in the bilateral relations and ward off any impression of “strategic partnership” being put in the cold-storage. US Secretary of State John Kerry’s visit to India was followed by Vice President Joe Biden’s and then Prime Minister

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India’s Strategic Partnership with the United States

TECHNOLOGY

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CONTENTS

The conflict situations prevailing around India’s borders have led to regional instability and an uncertain security environment in the South Asian region that is neither conducive to unhindered economic development nor contributes to human security

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march of Islamist fundamentalism, the diabolical nexus between narcotics trafficking and terrorism, the proliferation of small arms, the instability inherent in the rule of despotic regimes and a host of other vitiating factors. Afghanistan’s endless conflict – now heading towards what may turn out to be fullfledged civil war; its tense relations with Iran and the Central Asian Republics; Pakistan’s struggle against the remnants of Al-Qaeda and the Taliban, the emerging fissiparous tendencies in Balochistan and Pakhtoonkhwa, the rise of jihadi fundamentalism and creeping Talibanisation and its gradual slide towards becoming an economically ‘failed state’; Sri Lanka’s inability to find a lasting solution to the Tamilian challenge; Bangladesh’s emergence as the new hub of Islamist fundamentalist terrorism and its struggle for economic upliftment to subsistence levels; the Maoist insurgency in Nepal and its negative impact on Nepal’s fledgling democracy; the simmering discontent in Tibet and Xingjian and a low-key revolt against China’s repressive regime; and, the Myanmar people’s nascent movement for democracy; are all symptomatic of an unstable and uncertain security environment in the South Asian region.

Afghanistan The continuing conflict in Afghanistan poses perhaps the most serious threat to peace and stability in the South Asian region. In 2011, President Barack Obama had approved plans to draw down 10,000 US troops from Afghanistan during that year and another 23,000 in 2012. The withdrawal of the remaining combat troops is to be completed by 2014. A small number of troops is likely to be left behind at Kabul, Bagram and Kandahar to provide training and logistics support and to continue the drone war against hardcore terrorists inimical to US interests. The present security situation in Afghanistan can be described as a stalemate at both the strategic and tactical levels. The fledg-

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BUSINESS

Gurmeet Kanwal  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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perceptible trend   Brigadier (Retd) in the geopolitical environment in South Asia is that India and most of its neighbours are increasingly taking their bearings from strategic developments along a wider canvas rather than focusing only on the local arena. The strategic isolation traditionally enjoyed by South Asia is steadily disappearing. This has wider ramifications for India’s security calculus in that India needs to prepare for a larger number of challenges and concerns from diverse sources in keeping with its larger security interests. With its growing economy, flourishing trade and large diaspora, India’s strategic concerns extend along the arc from the Horn of Africa, through the Persian Gulf, the northern Indian Ocean and the Strait of Malacca up to the littoral of the South China Sea and from West Asia, through the Central Asian Republics (CARs), Iran and Afghanistan to southern China. Instability in any of the ArabIslamic countries, the CARs or the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries has a major impact on India’s internal security and economy. As South Asia is the second most unstable region in the world after West Asia, India’s external security environment continues to remain in a state of flux. Recently, instability on the line of actual control (LAC) with China and on the line of control (LoC) with Pakistan has served to remind the world that long unresolved territorial disputes continue to destabilise the South Asian region. While the probability of a local border war in the Indian context is extremely low in the short-term, its possibility cannot be completely ruled out as it can be triggered by a major incident on the LAC or LoC. India’s overall strategic environment is marked by the collusive nuclear weapons-cum-missile-cum-military hardware development programme of China, North Korea and Pakistan, the strident

TECHNOLOGY

Emerging Challenges

REGIONAL BALANCE

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India’s Regional Security Environment

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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n June 2013, when Nawaz Sharif 2013. The pithy statement made after the   General (Retd) V.P. Malik   returned to power in Pakistan meeting was: “We agreed to sustain the after a gap of 14 years and promceasefire”. Shorn of the usual rhetoric, their ised resumption of the Lahore summit spirit and its dec- joint statement mentioned agreement on ‘staging two flag meetings laration, he raised hopes of an improved, political and at the LoC’. economically cooperative era in Indo-Pakistan relations. But can we expect any thing more at this (military) level when In international relations and strategic issues, however, it is not the the jehadis have a free run in Pakistan and the Pakistan Army itself political rhetoric but the situation on the ground that matters. Five violates ceasefire to support their infiltration and violent activities? months later, the situation on the ground made his summit meeting Will Pakistan Army remove jehadi infiltration launch pads along with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh a spectacular non-starter. the LoC and share information on attempts to cross the LoC? This The promise of a new beginning and cooperation in Indo-Pakistan initiative can produce results only when Pakistan acknowledges the relations showed up as a mirage. That mirage continues as I write existence and activities of ‘non-state actors’, its responsibility for this paper. controlling them, and also stops Border Action Teams’ activities on the LoC. That is highly improbable because cross-border infiltraThe New York Summit tions and ceasefire violations are a manifestation of, and emanate For India, cross-border terrorism and ceasefire violations on the from the politico-military nexus in Pakistan. line of control (LoC) have become the most important IndoIn his UN General Assembly speech, Nawaz Sharif also emphaPakistan issue currently. Year 2013 saw the worst bout of ceasefire sised Kashmir and his desire to focus on this issue. Elsewhere, he violations and skirmishes in last 10 years; 200 in the year with over described Kashmir as the jugular vein of Pakistan. The statement on 100 incidents taking place ever since Nawaz Sharif took over as Kashmir was more expansive than that made by Pakistani leaders in the Prime Minister in June 2013. People in India not only blame recent years. That exposed the argument that he needed to pander Pakistan for the surge in these activities but also their own govern- to domestic lobbies in Pakistan. On terrorism, he equated India and ment for the tame diplomatic and military responses. Pakistan in terms of answerability for such actions. Nawaz Sharif returned from the summit with his niyat underNew York Meeting mined and status diminished. He managed to strengthen arguWhen the two Prime Ministers met on the sidelines of the UN ments of those who were against the Indo-Pakistan dialogue. He General Assembly in New York on September 29, 2013, within gave them a chance to harp on his ‘deceitful’ behaviour in the past, three days of the Samba terror incident and an ongoing major including that in the Kargil episode. Pakistani infiltration attempt in Keran, they agreed to let the In December 2013, Nawaz Sharif, as quoted by the Pakistani Directors General of Military Operations (DGMOs) of India and media and later denied by Nawaz Sharif’s office, told the Azad Pakistan find a mechanism for reducing tensions on the LoC and Jammu & Kashmir Council that “Kashmir is a flashpoint and can to ensure sanctity of the ceasefire agreement. It took three months trigger a fourth war between the two nuclear powers at anytime.” to organise such a meeting at the Wagah border on December 24, The statement provoked a sharp reaction from Indian Prime

INDIAN DEFENCE

So far, there is little to indicate that under Nawaz Sharif, Pakistan’s reliance on cross-border terrorism as a tool of state policy is likely to change. Unless India perceives a visible change in this regard, a healthy scepticism over prospects for improved India-Pakistan relations would be in order.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The New Political Era

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Indo-Pak Relations

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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o d e r n diplomatic parlance, reinforced   Major General (Retd) Dhruv C. Katoch   bil ateral the special nature of the relations rel ations between Pakistan and China. between China and Pakistan officially began The primary objective of Pakistan’s foreign policy has been in 1951. This took on a strategic content in to preserve Pakistan’s territorial integrity and security, which the 1960s but the relationship has seen many have been in jeopardy since the state’s inception. In recent years, fluctuations since then. Over the last decade, however, Pakistan’s Pakistan’s foreign policy has steadily transformed from one that strategic partnership with China has become increasingly impor- was limited in regional scope, largely towards the Middle East tant to its future security, stability and prosperity. This is borne out and South Asia, to a policy that is moving towards developing and by the statement of the then Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari strengthening relations with China, Iran, Central Asia and Russia. in early 2009 that “the Pakistan-China relationship is much more The changing priorities behind Pakistan’s strategic interests have than a strategic confluence of interests between the two countries”. emphasised the need to secure new sources of energy, new markets Again, in February 2010, Pakistan’s Foreign Minister, Makhdoom for its products, services and labour; a favourable balance of power Shah Mahmood Qureshi, said before an audience at the Shanghai in the region; a way to contain and limit India’s expanding regional Institute of International Studies that “Pakistan-China relationship influence; and the necessity to retain an amicable relationship with has three constituents: strategic partnership; economic coop- the US-China is central to Pakistan’s foreign policy objectives. eration and people-to-people contacts. In this calculus, the security In Pakistan’s security calculus, India remains the principal and dimension has been the strongest; but now the two sides are mak- perhaps only external threat. China views India’s rise as a potential ing conscious efforts to underpin this relationship with strength- threat to its own domination of the region and so has focused its ened economic cooperation and deepened cultural interaction at efforts in keeping Indian influence confined to South Asia. This the level of the people.” convergence of interests finds expression in the strategic nature of More recently, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif’s five-day official the Pakistan-China relationship. The turn of the century has seen a visit to China from July 3-8, 2013, his first trip abroad after taking noticeable strengthening of this relationship with Chinese investoffice as Prime Minister, which followed less than two months after ment and support in the nuclear, military and economic domain. that of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang to Pakistan on his first overseas It could be argued that China is using Pakistan to conduct a proxy visit, testifies to the continuing vitality of the close ties between the war against India. two countries. During both these visits, proposals for the expanNuclear Cooperation sion of bilateral economic cooperation dominated the agenda, but underlying the proposals was a common understanding of the Pakistan has a small nuclear power programme, with 725 MWe strategic nature of these ties and a congruity of interests in pursu- capacity. At present, Pakistan has four nuclear generation plants, ing certain common strategic goals. The reference by the Chinese Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP-I) (137 MW), Chashma President Xi Jinping during the above visit of Nawaz Sharif to China Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP-I) (325 MW), CHASNUPP-II (300 of the two countries as “brothers”, a term rarely used in Chinese MW) and Khushab Nuclear Facility (50 MW). Its nuclear weapons

INDIAN DEFENCE

Pakistan’s military build-up is primarily India-centric and is shaped by its relationship with the United States and unstinted support from China. Pakistan’s growing defence cooperation with China and support from the United States has been a major factor contributing to the modernisation of Pakistan’s military.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

India’s Concerns & Need for Regular Monitoring

REGIONAL BALANCE

Wikipedia

Pakistan-China Strategic Nexus

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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he world’s attention Afghanistan. For the same reason that   Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch   is focused on Syria the Afghan Peace Process Roadmap to today but so has it been 2015 was deliberately leaked whose third on Afghanistan, more since 2009 when the United step of offering Taliban non-elected positions at various levels in States announced withdrawal in 2014. Post-2014, government including Governors virtually gives the Taliban comAfghanistan has been a subject of intense specula- plete control of Pashtun dominated areas along the Afghanistantion with three major uncertainties besides a host of others; the Pakistan border after the 2014 elections, leaving Pakistan with United States, Pakistan and Taliban. While the North Atlantic Treaty an extended Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). Robert Organisation (NATO) deployment in Afghanistan officially ends H. Kaplan in his book The Revenge of Geography writes, “An in 2014, it is not clear what quantum of forces the United States Afghanistan that falls to Taliban sway threatens to create a sucplans to leave behind and with what tasking. The cliché ‘endgame cession of radicalised Islamic societies from the Indian-Pakistani Afghanistan’ is actually a misnomer. The ‘game’ is not going to end. border to Central Asia. This would effect in a greater Pakistan, givIt is never ending and Afghanistan is not going to cease either. The ing Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) the ability to create a vital questions such as: what will be the level of stability or insta- clandestine empire composed of the likes of Jalaluddin Haqqani, bility in Afghanistan post-2014, what fits into the plans of the US Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and the Lashkar-e-Toiba.” ‘exceptionalism’ and in what manner does Pakistan want to conChris Sands wrote in Kabul’s Global Post on February 20, tinue her spoilsport gaming for this, has ramifications for the entire 2013, “Even before the last troops pull out, parts of Afghanistan region. Of course global and regional powers will continue to roll have already descended into ethnic violence and civil conflict… the dice in their own national interests. ethnic violence and civil conflict has already become a reality There is plenty of speculation about what will be the residual in the southern province of Uruzgan…destroying houses, raping strength of the US forces in Afghanistan; 6,000 to 10,000 to the zero women and murdering dozens of civilians…insurgents, militias option, latter in line with the ‘no boots on ground’ policy, as the US and warlords-turned-politicians are all trying to fill the gap left claims in Syria. But the US boots on ground are very much present in behind, creating a situation that could easily come to resemble the Syria by proxy; Al-Qaeda, Pakistan Taliban, etc denied by the United decade before the US invaded…Northern Alliance is remobilising States Secretary of State John Kerry and labelled as lies by Russian in case internationally supported talks with the Taliban see them President Vladimir Putin. The US has realised that Al-Qaeda- return to power. With a very small signal a civil war could start. All Haqqanis-Taliban are as elusive as the US policies and that neither the people are armed.” the Soviets nor the United States could win sub-conventional wars The United States move to talk to the Taliban is acknowledged in Vietnam and Afghanistan. The US was defeated twice in Vietnam by analysts as America’s defeat in Afghanistan and desperation and Afghanistan. What appears certain is the US subcontracting of the loser. Though Taliban’s office, the Islamic Emirates of of Afghanistan to Pakistan, an eventuality which is being increas- Afghanistan in Doha, has been shut down and being shifted ingly talked about by Afghans and not very different from former elsewhere under a different name, the Taliban stance is unlikely American diplomat Robert Blackwill’s recommendation to divide to change. The recent attack on the US Consulate in Herat and

INDIAN DEFENCE

The hurried manner, in which the United States helped build the Afghan security forces, handed over responsibility to them without letting them stabilise and withdrawing coinciding with or immediately after 2014 elections, are clear indications that they don’t care what happens to the region thereafter

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Speculations over the US Military Presence

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Post-2014 Afghanistan

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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he turmoil that These last two factors have seri  Ambassador (Retd) Ranjit Gupta   started in the Arab ous security consequences for all Arab world at the end of countries, indeed for all countries that 2010 was hastily and rather inappropriately dubbed have significant Muslim populations and important stakes in their the ‘Arab Spring’. Long ruling dictators were over- relationships with the Arab world. They have eclipsed political Islam thrown in four countries – Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and which should be considered natural in Islamic countries and it is Yemen. Protests were crushed in Bahrain though under the surface only through it that radical Islam can be kept at bay and sectarian tension continues to simmer; Syria is in the throes of a devastating divisiveness within Islam overcome. Both radical Islam and sectaricivil war; it will take a very long time for normalcy to return to Libya anism within Islam and between Islam and other religions must be and Yemen; clashes between Islamic extremists and the govern- contested very strongly through concerted international efforts. ment have become a weekly phenomenon in Egypt; only Tunisia The, non-state actors — various Islamist militant groups and seems to be on the road to success. Qatar was the solitary Arab in particular Al-Qaeda-affiliated groups, who are not controlled country where no protests took place. The Arab world was probably by any particular state — have acquired enormous destabilising better off before the so-called ‘Arab Spring’. potential, much more than regimes and states being antithetical towards each other. Their agenda is the imposition of Sharia as the Consequences of the Arab Spring guiding principle of rule in all Arab countries. This will greatly comHopes for the advent of democracy or even for meaningful politi- plicate possibilities of solutions to problems in and between Arab cal reform have been dashed and perhaps ruled out for another countries which even otherwise were difficult to arrive at. Al-Qaeda decade. The single major consequence has been the enormously has established significant presence in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, enhanced salience of the religion factor in the political dynamics Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Syria and Yemen. of the Arab world, both within individual countries and between For the immediate short term the evolving geopolitics of countries. This factor has manifested itself in four dimensions: West Asia will be greatly influenced by the acrimonious stand-off n First, the rise of political Islam; though neither in the vanguard between Saudi Arabia and Iran personifying a vigorous Sunni nor even active participants, the ‘Arab Spring’ enabled the emer- response to what is perceived as a pernicious Shia threat. It was gence of the long banned, exiled and persecuted Islamic parties first manifested in Bahrain, is now playing out in Syria and Lebanon to come out into the open. Their underground organisational could become the next battlefield. networks were activated and they were thus much better placed Egypt to take advantage of newly emerging political opportunities. n Secondly, the recrudescence of sectarian Islam in a viciously After Hosni Mubarak’s removal the Army ruled directly for one year violent form. through the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). People n Thirdly, the resurgence of radical Islam. were back in Tahrir Square demonstrating against them and finally n Fourthly, the rapid proliferation of heavily armed Al-Qaeda forced the army to organise elections. The winner, not surprisingly, linked extremist Islamist militant groups across the Arab world. was the Muslim Brotherhood.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Until normal relations between the United States and Iran are restored, there cannot be any sustained harmony in the Gulf region and West Asia. However, prospects for this today are brighter than they have ever been in the past 30 years. This is probably the most promising development in the West Asian region in the past three years.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Political Dynamics of the Arab World

REGIONAL BALANCE

Wikipedia

Developments in West Asia

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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entral Asian states have drome had compelled Nazarbayev to drop   Ambassador P. Stobdan   been undergoing an arduous the referendum extending his rule until and complex nation-building 2020. Instead he preferred to hold an early process, which is far from complete. The shortcom- presidential election. However, post-December 2011 Zhanaozen ings include their inability to move out of the past events, Nazarbayev removed his influential son-in-law, Timur Soviet era political and economic structures. The lead- Kulibayev from power; and scheduled parliamentary elections in ers of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan had January 2012. This was critical to strengthen at least the Parliament strongly resisted political change and have successfully adopted body. Uzbekistan is unlikely to see any change until Islam Karimov internal political mechanisms with varying style to stay in power. leaves office. But, the post-Karimov Uzbekistan is likely to be Among them the former President of Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev was marked by significant instability because of the presence of a strong the only leader who initially embraced political and economic political Islam. Turkmenistan’s Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov reforms, but later on he too began to develop authoritarian ten- has though shown some liberal attitude and called exiled opposidencies and stopped sharing power with his opponents. During tion leaders to participate in the 2012 elections. But, in essence he the last two decades Kyrgyzstan went through a very difficult too is likely to follow the course of his late predecessor. Tajikistan political transition. The major test has been the transition from a continues to remain locked in a difficult combination of poverty, Soviet Republic to a parliamentary democracy, though since 2005 authoritarianism, and Islamic extremism that keeps the country it had witnessed two major uprisings, something not known in the prone to instability. Kyrgyzstan has switched to a parliamentary former Soviet republics. democracy and the institution of democracy and the rule of law On the other extreme was the Turkmen President Saparmurat remain underdeveloped. A shaky experiment in coalition governAtayevich Niyazov who served as President for life until his death ment is in place; there are also many unresolved issues including in 2006 was the most repressive dictators. President Karimov of the ethnic rifts in the south. However, for the time being none of Uzbekistan too retained his power for over two decades now. He the ruling Presidents are likely to face any real opposition, though does not want to demolish the old house until he is able to build the basic politico-economic characteristics of these countries are a new one. Similarly, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev also no different from those in West Asia. Moreover, unlike in the West managed to survive by shrewdly manipulating the internal politics Asian case, both Russia and China will firmly insulate the Central and devising internal means to gain political legitimacy. Asian regimes from failing; viz Uzbekistan after 2005 Andijan crisis; Kazakhstan after 2011 Zhanaozen events. Even the Kyrgyz crises Political Trends were contained affectively and not allowed to cross a threshold. With the exception of Kyrgyzstan, the politics in other states remain Radical Islam unpredictable. None of the ageing Presidents of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan appears to have clear succession plans Behind the secular settings a major shift to a far more religious patdespite some surreptitious intrigues among members of the ruling tern of society is underway in the region. Islamic forces are getting elite. To some extent, the Kyrgyz uprising and the Arab Spring syn- stronger in Tajikistan and southern Kyrgyzstan (Osh & Batken). To

INDIAN DEFENCE

With the exception of Kyrgyzstan, the politics in other states remain unpredictable. None of the ageing Presidents of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan appear to have clear succession plans despite some surreptitious intrigues among members of the ruling elite.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Political Trends and Regional Conflicts

REGIONAL BALANCE

USAF

Strategic Linkages in Central Asia

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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ilitary developeration with outside powers like the   Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand   ments in South United States and others. And fourthly, East Asia or for that the South East Asian countries through matter anywhere else cannot be seen in isola- multi-lateral structures like the Association of South East Asian tion from the political, strategic and economic Nations (ASEAN) are also attempting to engage China to address contexts. Events that are taking place in South their security concerns. East Asia are also a subset of what is happening in Asia in particular China’s Assertion in South East Asia and at the global level in general. While there has been an ongoing shift of economic power to Asia it is also quite apparent that most of While the recent events in South China Sea (SCS) indicate that the conflict spots of the world are in Asia. Rapid rise of China and its China has become more assertive about its claims with Vietnam fast-tracked militarisation has created its own geostrategic dynam- and the Philippines yet these are not the only countries affected by ics not only in Asia and South East Asia but also has caused rever- China’s irredentist tendencies. Beijing has through its cartographic berations at the global level. According to a report by the London- propaganda shown Natuna island of Indonesia that contains gas based International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) released in fields as part of China through an official map. Even some of the March 2013 Asia overtook European members of the North Atlantic Malaysian gas fields off the shore of Sarawak are claimed by the Treaty Organisation (NATO) in terms of nominal military spending Chinese. Spratly chain of islands besides being claimed by Vietnam for the first time last. The South East Asian nations have not only to and China are also claimed by other SCS littoral nations. The dispute between China and the Philippines about respond to festering internal security challenges as the process of nation building is as yet not complete in most of the countries they Scarborough Shoal has not abated since early April 2012 when a Philippine Navy surveillance plane spotted eight Chinese fishing also have to deal with external threat perceptions. Looking at the politico-strategic milieu in the South East Asian vessels docked at Scarborough Shoal. The Philippine Navy desregion four broad trends that have impact on military develop- patched a ship to arrest the Chinese fishermen but were prevented ments can be discerned. First trend is that after having integrated by two Chinese Marine Surveillance ships. There were protests by the South East economies and strengthening People’s Liberation both countries and finally by July 2012 China erected a barrier to the Army, China has now become more assertive in its sovereignty entrance of the Shoal. Chinese surveillance ships have prevented claims that adversely impact a number of South East Asian nations. Filipinos from fishing in the area. The dispute has soured the relaSecond trend is that the United States fearing loss of its power and tionship between the two countries. China has also raised the status of Sansha County in Hainan influence in the Asia-Pacific and South East Asia has been attempting to stage a comeback through its ‘pivot’ to Asia or rebalance to province to that of ‘Prefecture’. In earlier years when China National Asia strategy which has political, military and economic compo- People’s Congress had passed a law to make Sansha as a county nents. Thirdly, South East Asian countries especially those who to administer its claims in the South China Sea it had led to antiare at the receiving end of China’s assertive policies are attempting China protests in Vietnam. In addition, a military garrison has also to balance China through political, security and defence coop- been established in Sansha city in July 2012 with the charter of

INDIAN DEFENCE

Future course of military events would largely depend upon how the US-China, US-ASEAN and China-ASEAN relationships evolve. While India has also been strengthening its politico-military relationships with the ASEAN, it is unlikely that it will proactively get itself involved in a possible military conflict in the South China Sea.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Politico-Strategic Milieu

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Navy

MILITARY DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTH EAST ASIA

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONTENTS

The consequential strategic upheaval taking place in Asia in tandem with the growing power of the People’s Republic of China needs to be viewed especially in the backdrop of recent Chinese politico-strategic assertiveness witnessed on multiple fronts including the South China Sea

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as the seabed and subsoil thereof”. Attached to the letter was a map showing the extent of China’s claim in the South China Sea, marked by a nine-dash line stretching as far south as James Shoal, just 80 km from Bintulu, in the Malaysian state of Sarawak, and about 1,800 km from the Chinese mainland. A Xinhua news agency report in April 2012 described the shoal as “the southernmost point of China’s territory”. China’s use of its nine-dash claim to support its sovereignty claims in the South China Sea, and its references to “historic rights” in waters inside this imprecisely defined line, have provoked controversy and given South East Asian claimants the opportunity to argue that China is not acting in conformity with the UNCLOS and international law. The fact that China’s gradual rise to power has ushered in benefits even for the ASEAN member-states cannot be denied. However, an equally reinforcing reality of Beijing making strident efforts to augment that political, economic and military influence in the region, more so to resolve the outstanding maritime territorial disputes in its favour can also not be annulled altogether. China reaffirms that it would commit itself to becoming a force for peace and stability in South East Asia—maintaining and enhancing relations with ASEAN so as to achieve its regional objectives appears to be assuming prime importance in the Chinese policymaking process. There is a growing sense of apprehension and unease especially among nations within Asia that with its rapidly expanding military reach and prowess, coupled with higher stages of economic growth, the military spending power of the People’s Republic of China is only bound to increase—thus furthering its intent to chip away at claims of other nations through mechanisms of coercive diplomacy. Therefore, even if the ASEAN nations advocate active engagement with China, the possibility of ongoing economic engagement and collaboration in the regional security architecture will not

BUSINESS

Chansoria  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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he South China Sea has long   Dr Monika been a source of tension and potential conflict in the AsiaPacific region. The disputes on who has the better claim to territorial sovereignty over the disputed islands can only be resolved if the claimants can agree to settle them through direct negotiations or if all the claimants agree to some form of binding third party dispute settlement. Neither of these prospects is likely. This is why many observers believe that the only viable option is to set aside the sovereignty disputes and pursue joint development and other cooperative arrangements. Discussions on setting aside the disputes and joint development are hindered by the fact that there is significant ambiguity on the maritime claims of the claimants. This is so despite the fact that all of the claimants (with the exception of Taiwan) are parties to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the international legal framework that governs claims to ocean space. Two groups of islands are under contention which China claims possession of in entirety—the Paracel Islands contested by China, Taiwan and Vietnam; and the Spratly Islands under dispute between China and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) members—Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam. China asserts its sovereignty over sections of the 1.2 million square miles of the South China Sea. Known for containing valuable and unexploited reserves of oil and natural gas, the South China Sea is home to fishing grounds as well. As these nations vie for their share in the South China Sea, it stands to pose as a symbol of realist power play as far as achieving goals in national interest for all contending nations are concerned. In 2009, China sent a letter to the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon saying that it had “indisputable sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea and the adjacent waters, and enjoys sovereign rights and jurisdiction over the relevant waters as well

TECHNOLOGY

Challenges Galore as China Rises

REGIONAL BALANCE

Wikipedia

Contentious South China Sea

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONTENTS

With nearly one-fifth of its population finding themselves in the category of ‘poor’ and the entire citizenry vociferous in its sense of democratic entitlements, economic development must be fundamental to India’s internal stability

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Divisiveness Innate? India has a long tradition of being politically divided by schisms of caste, religion, region, language and even individual ego. Thus, whenever the central powers – be it the Maurya, Gupta, their seven great successor dynasties, the Mughal or the Maratha empires — have dithered, divisive elements have risen to trigger disintegration of the realm. Incessant inter-state feuds induced by plain stupidity would invariably follow. Soon, some external powers would be invited to meddle in the banal hope that the marauder, having

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had his fill, would leave the land for the host to satiate his ambitions. Arguably therefore we seem to nurture an instinct for divisiveness even if it is to invite misery upon ourselves. It is equally true that in spite of many fault lines and missed opportunities, the post-independent nation has found accomplishments which are remarkable by any standard. Thus even against a fourfold increase in population, destitution has declined and most citizens enjoy secure life. Most importantly, India has been able to rebuild her indigenous institutions, even if imperfect yet, which the British had destroyed root and branch. These achievements have contributed in fostering a secure society. However, there are also signs ominous, albeit faint yet, which if not addressed in all sagacity, may some day cause the nation to scatter under its self-inflicted pulls. No doubt, that would be the greatest misfortune to befall us Indians, besides being a global anti-climax. Let us examine as to what could be those pulls that threaten our nationhood.

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he primary function of a state is defined by maintenance of a secure environment for the citizens as well as the governing establishment to exercise their rights and responsibilities. A nation’s internal situation therefore is a function of efficacy of its governing system and its societal consciousness. The determinants in this context therefore may be specified by firstly, the entire gamut of governance in cultivating social justice, economic well-being and firm administration; and secondly, the positivity of response it evokes from those governed. Hailed as a society that strides towards a sublimate dispensation, a realm of effective internal security is imperative for India to seek her destiny deserved. It may therefore be a good venture to watch for the maladies that might derail the nation’s journey to stardom. But before that a bit of soul-search may be in order.

Gautam Banerjee  

Threat 1: Suasion of Secessionist Call Right at the beginning of India’s independent journey came the secessionist movement under the ‘Naga’ banner. It was a movement seeded by religious-ethnic mischief, sustained by propagation of lies and instigated by inimical neighbours. The resultant insurgency has continued for most part of our post-independent existence, finally coming to ‘rule’ the ‘State of Nagalim’ under a pseudo ‘government’ that operates openly in contravention to the constitution. Later, similar insurgencies broke out in most of India’s North-eastern states. In the 1960s, the states of Mizoram and Manipur became victims of the same formula; the insurgency in Manipur continues still. In hindsight, emergence of such widespread secessionism

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“Four dangers to a State are: that   Lt General (Retd) which is of external origin and internal abetment; that which is of internal origin and external abetment; that which is of external origin and external abetment; and that which is of internal origin and internal abetment.” —Chanakya

TECHNOLOGY

Managing Secessionist Insurgency

REGIONAL BALANCE

4.bp.blogspot.com

India’s Internal Security Dimensions

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

10


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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ny consideration of n Discord amongst ethnic, religious   Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi   the land borders of a and linguistic groups, resulting in interlarge country like India nal turbulence. needs to start by a look at the region, particularly n Uncontrolled population explosion leading to poverty, illiteracy, disease, environmental degradation and unplanned the peculiarities of geography. The regional secuurbanisation. This is compounded by demographic shifts, both rity environment must also be considered. within nations and across borders. India is a vast country that has land borders with six countries, but the small border with Afghanistan is only notional at present, n Nuclearisation of the region and nuclear proliferation. as Pakistan is in illegal possession of the area, known earlier as n Arms and drug trafficking, and a growing nexus between crime and politics. the Northern Areas and now named as Gilgit-Baltistan. It is also The other factors influencing the security environment in South important to look briefly at the historical context so that the perAsia are paucity of energy sources, especially oil; inadequate harspective is clear. During the colonial era, the British Indian Empire in South Asia nessing of the abundant water resources; the impact of the growing stretched from portions of Afghanistan in the West to Burma (now potential of China; the war on terrorism; the spread of fundamenMyanmar) in the East, although Afghanistan, Burma and Sri Lanka talism; and the social upheaval in practically all countries, due to (then Ceylon) were strictly not part of the Indian empire. When the rising expectations of their people. The security-related issues of the South Asian region have the British colonial era ended, India had been partitioned and Myanmar and Sri Lanka had become independent nations. South both external and internal dimensions. Major internal conflicts Asia then consisted of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka continue in all states of the region, like the simmering disconand Maldives. Bangladesh was later added when it emerged as a tent among the Tamil population of Sri Lanka even though the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) has been eliminated in new nation in 1972. military operations; the political instability in Nepal on account of Security Environment of South Asia the lack of assimilation of the Maoists in the political process and The South Asian region is historically a conflict-prone region, on the continuing threat of violence by the Islamic fundamentalism account of the following: in Bangladesh, at present muted after the change of government; n Legacy of colonialism, the bloody partition of India in 1947 and the fissiparous rebellions in at least two states of Pakistan, viz. the breakup of Pakistan in 1971. Balochistan and Sindh, in addition to the massive flare-up of tern Tendency to dishonour treaties demarcating boundaries settled rorism throughout the country and the continuing policy of stateduring the British Empire and the use of military force to realign sponsored terrorism and fundamentalism, which the Pakistani borders. Army is loath to give up; and finally, the plethora of insurgencies in n The intolerant attitude of the superpowers during the Cold India. We also need to add a footnote, which is the likely spillover War towards those states that sought to pursue independent effect of the pull-out of western forces from Afghanistan in 2014 on policies. many countries of South Asia.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Concerns of neighbours need to be settled by negotiations, economic cooperation as well as resolving issues on the basis of give and take. At the same time it is incumbent on the government to maintain a modernised military so that if an adversary resorts to the use of force, the country is able to meet it with confidence.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

THREATS AND IMPLICATIONS

REGIONAL BALANCE

bsf.nic.in

INDIA’S LAND BORDERS

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

11


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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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ncreased terror attacks in with India and Afghanistan will raise   Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch   Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), demands for it to get back to barracks, cross-border raids, ceasefire losing all the power and money that it breaches and Pakistani obduracy indicate a violent wields today. Ironically, Pakistani military has continuous backing future. The Afghanistan-Pakistan region will likely wit- of the US despite about 4,900 US-led coalition personnel killed in ness increased instabiliy post-2014 Afghanistan, the Afghanistan, majority through proxies emanating from Pakistan. It repercussions of which will affect India adversely. As chances should be quite clear in India that we have to fight our own wars. of conventional conflict recede, most militaries are using their It is not without reason that Ashley Tellis of Carnegie Foundation Special Forces in a proactive manner in furtherence of their says, “India being continuously subjected to terror actually suits national objectives. Ironically, 66 years after independence, India many... India is a sponge that absorbs global terror.” Richard Olson, has neither defined its national security strategy nor has outlined the US Ambassador to Pakistan, has stated that Pakistan has given its national security objectives. Resultantly, the tasking of our up its quest for ‘strategic depth’ in Afghanistan. But then where is intelligence agencies remains unfocused and our Special Forces the requirement to yearn what one is getting automatically on a potential remains underutilised. platter—more and more areas of Afghanistan, particularly south and east Afghanistan are likely to be under Taliban control postMagnifying Threat 2014. Robert H. Kaplan wrote in his book The Revenge of Geography, Chronicled in Pakistan is the fact that China advised Pakistan in “An Afghanistan that falls to Taliban sway threatens to create a sucearly 1960s to create a militia to fight a prolonged war in India‘s cession of radicalised Islamic societies from the Indian-Pakistani backyard – these are the jihadis we see today. By 1992-93, armed border to Central Asia. This would, effect in a greater Pakistan, givmodules of Pakistani jihadis were identified pan-India in about 10 ing Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) the ability to create a states including Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, clandestine empire composed of the likes of Jallaluddin Haqqani, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala and Gulbuddin Hekmetyar and the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT)—able to they had already established firm links with and were undertak- confront India in the manner that Hezbollah and Hamas confront ing joint training in terrorist camps inside Bangladesh, ironically Israel.” If this is not strategic depth, what is? in connivance with Bangladesh security forces. Pakistani terrorChina spawned Nepal’s Maoists movement simultaneous to ism and efforts to destabilise India require no elaboration. With establishing and supporting similar organisations in Burma (now the private business-corporate-industrial complex of Pakistani Myanmar), Cambodia, Japan and Peru, has developed links with military pegged at $20.7 billion in 2007, the military’s stranglehold Al-Qaeda and Taliban a decade back to negate support to Uighur over Pakistan is unlikely to abate in a rush, current democratic separatists in Xinjiang, provides tacit support to Pakistan’s antieuphoria notwithstanding. Pakistan’s Army Chief Ashfaq Kayani India jihad and has been arming and supporting insurgencies has already cautioned Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to go ‘slow’ within India. China has been providing training, military advisors on the friendship bit with India. Pakistani military fears that peace and arms including shoulder fired air defence missiles (QW-1

BUSINESS

We must create macro conditions for proactive employment of Special Forces through measures like a national vision. An integrated Special Forces set up with institutionalised support elements must come up on priority with handling and employment of Special Forces entrusted to hardcore professionals. India must integrate its Special Forces fully into its defence strategy.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Unfocused and Underutilised

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PIB

Special Forces in India’s Defence Strategy

REGIONAL BALANCE

12


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ecent media reports allowing China to coerce India through   Brigadier (Retd) Arun Sahgal   highlighted the meetborder intrusions and aggressive posing of the political turing, leveraging its asymmetric conexecutive of India’s nuclear command authority as ventional capabilities. part of a nuclear exercise undertaken by the India’s It is in this backdrop the paper takes a closer look at the shifts Strategic Forces Command. The reports highlighted in doctrinal thinking of China and Pakistan and examines India’s the political executive undertaking a comprehensive review of nuclear response. India’s nuclear posture including the status of nuclear weapons and Pakistani Capability Development and Doctrinal Thinking delivery systems. The fact that such information was passed on to the media in a sense highlights the concerns of political leadership Pakistan’s doctrinal thinking and capability development are over developments in nuclear domain in neighbourhood countries. attuned to undermining India’s favourable conventional asymNuclear signalling clearly point to Pakistan assiduously work- metry through feverish nuclear weapons development and posturing to increase its fissile material stockpile while simultaneously ing of shallow thresholds. This they claim is a response to India’s indicating lowering of thresholds by introduction of nuclear tipped attempts at exploiting conventional superiority through pre-empshort-range tactical missiles euphemistically called tactical nuclear tive massive and punitive retaliation by creating space for “Limited weapons (TNW). It has also stepped up production of nuclear War under Nuclear Overhang”. Such thoughts also posited in the weapons and missile vectors. As per informed reports, it is known backdrop of massive retaliation should Pakistan attempt nuclear to possess 100-110 nuclear weapons and approximately 200 bal- brinkmanship and coercion. India’s proactive doctrine and military modernisation is seen by listic missiles of all types. China too is signalling modernisation of its nuclear arsenal by Pakistan as attempts at leveraging growing conventional asymmetry, shifting from liquid to solid fuel missiles and developing multiple thereby reinforcing stability/instability paradox. For Pakistan, India’s warhead capabilities as indicated by the recent test of DF-41 mis- conventional doctrine provides the following strategic challenges: sile. Doctrinally it has complicated the issue by not specifically n India can launch pre-emptive offensive at short notice with credible element of surprise. The growing Indian intelligence, mentioning its adherence to no first use (NFU) in the latest white surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and non-contact capapaper, unleashing a debate on its no first use stance. bilities provide such operational advantage. These shifts in capability and doctrinal thinking have a great impact on regional stability and efficacy of deterrence equations. In n IAF with its growing superiority both in numbers and quality can create a favourable air situation through effective counterChina-India-Pakistan triad, India’s nuclear concerns emanate from air campaign including strategic and operational interdiction. China-Pakistan nuclear dyad pitched against India. From Indian perspective, impact of this nexus is huge; it front ends Pakistan n Technological developments such as ballistic missile defence (BMD) over a period of time are seen as negating Pakistan’s with its doctrine of nuclear war-fighting as a surrogate to contain ballistic and cruise missile capability and first strike option. India and ensure regional strategic balance, while simultaneously

INDIAN DEFENCE

Insofar as the India-China nuclear matrix is concerned, it is not merely a function of the nuclear capabilities of both sides but contextualised within the overall threat matrix from China, including its collusion with Pakistan. Fundamental to the evolving strategic relationship is the perception of nuclear deterrence, in the overall construct of strategic challenge from China.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

In the Backdrop of Current Realities in the Neighbourhood

REGIONAL BALANCE

DRDO

India’s Nuclear Deterrence

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

13


CONTENTS

Improving energy efficiency and conservation is one of the most cost-effective ways of enhancing energy security and addressing climate change. India has formulated Energy Conservation Act of 2001 which envisages energy efficiency standard for nine energy intensive industries.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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natural gas production is estimated to be around 104 MMSCMD, down from 114.90 MMSCMD in the previous fiscal. In the current year, LNG imports will jump to 73 MMSCMD and are projected to further rise to 105 MMSCMD in 2013-14, equaling the domestic gas production of that year. In 2014-15, imports at 115 MMSCMD will surpass domestic production of 113 MMSCMD. India’s total coal reserves are around 60,600 million tonnes In 2011, total coal production was 222.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) or 5.8 per cent of the world’s total, while consumption was 296.6 Mtoe or 7.9 per cent of the world’s total. Thus India is the world’s third largest coal consumer. As far as the power sector is concerned, India’s total installed power generation capacity is about 207 gigawatt (GW). Coal dominates the energy mix with 56.92 per cent of the capacity added so far, followed by hydro with 18.98 per cent and renewable energy sources with 12.07 per cent. It is estimated that almost 40 per cent of the total population in the country does not have access to electricity. India’s power supply demand has grown at the average rate of 8-10 per cent over the last 10 years and currently the country is facing a very significant peak hour power deficit as high as 10-12 GW or 10 per cent. Thermal power plants (coal and gas) alone accounts for 66.63 per cent of the existing installed capacity and it has contributed to about two-third of the incremental capacity addition during 2006-11. In the Eleventh Five Year Plan, bulk of the new capacity has come from coal-fired power plants and this trend is likely to continue in the Twelfth FiveYear Plan for which 50 GW of capacity addition is projected to be coal based. The Centre has targeted capacity addition of 1,00,000 MW each in the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) and Thirteenth Five Year Plan (2017-22). However, the acute coal shortage being faced in the country has cast a shadow on these plans.

INDIAN DEFENCE

India’s Energy Scenario India has only 0.7 per cent of the world’s total oil reserves with a reserve/production (R/P) ratio of 30 years. While it produces 38.9 million tonnes, it consumes 155.5 million tonnes or 3.9 per cent of the total global consumption, making India the world’s fourth largest oil consumer. Currently, the country is importing 75 per cent of its total oil consumption, which is further expected to increase to 90 per cent by 2025. Gas reserves stand at 1.5 trillion cubic metres (0.8 per cent of the world’s proven reserves) with an R/P ratio of 28.5 years. While India’s production of gas is 50.9 billion cubic metres (bcm), its consumption is 61.9 bcm. India’s gas demand is set to touch 280 million metric standard cubic metres per day (MMSCMD) by 2011-12. At consumption levels of 280 MMSCMD, gas would account for 14 per cent of India’s energy mix by the end of year 2012 from the current level of 11 per cent. Liquefied natural gas imports at 39.32 million standard cubic metres per day constituted 25.5 per cent of the total consumption of the fuel in the country in 2011-12. This share, according to the Petroleum Ministry’s latest estimates, will rise to 41 per cent in the current fiscal and to 50 per cent in the next. In 2012-13, domestic

Kumar Singh  

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ndia is diverse in its energy   Dr Bhupendra endowments and requirements. As its development process increases, its need for a clean and stable supply of energy at sustainable prices will rise accordingly. Declining oil reserves, uncertainties in future oil supply, fluctuations in oil prices in the global market and growing concern for climate change, however, complicate its prospects for development. Therefore, India’s energy security emanates from the growing imbalance between the demand for energy and its supply from indigenous sources resulting in increased import dependence.

TECHNOLOGY

Changing Paradigm

REGIONAL BALANCE

Wikipedia

India’s Energy Security

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

14


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he well acceptand attended employability dynamics   Air Marshal (Retd) Anil Chopra   ed predecessors of and also the overall cost considerably. unmanned aircraft Also it allowed phenomenal increase were the World War II German V-bombs. Pilotless in endurance. Both the surveillance and targeting capability was aircraft of various forms were also tested during now available at very low cost. Collateral damage on the ground the war, but the state of technology at the time did after an attack vis-à-vis manned aircraft still remains high. The not support a meaningful operational mission for them. Initial term UAV soon evolved to names such as ‘Drone’, remotely piloted drones were more for training ground based or airborne gunners vehicle (RPV), remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) or even UAS. The and had no operational role. As autopilot and navigation technol- Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and International Civil ogy advanced and flawless communication links were in place, Aviation Organisation (ICAO) prefer retention of the word ‘aircraft’ the use of unmanned aircraft became more prevalent. Shooting so that same regulations could be applicable. More and more down of the United States’ U-2 spy plane by Russians and the operators are now switching to the term RPA. much publicised arrest of the pilot, Gary Powers, caused acute UAV Recent Evolution embarrassment to the American public and unfolded the full scale development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) programme. UAVs UAV consists of the air vehicle (controlled autonomously or by a saw fledgling action in Vietnam. Israel pioneered the use of UAVs remote controller), sensors/payloads, command and control data for real-time surveillance, electronic warfare and decoys during links, the operator station, as well as the ground support equipment Bekka valley operation in 1982. Americans made extensive use required for launch/recovery, operations and maintenance. Till of UAVs in Bosnia. The US industry worked closely with Israeli now, deployed mostly for military and special operations, they are Aerospace Industries Mallat Division to develop the ‘Pioneer’ UAV gradually having more civil applications such as policing and firefor the US Navy for use in the 1991 Gulf War. UAVs shot into fame fighting. Armed UAVs or unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) during Iraq war over a decade ago and their successful operational such as the General Atomics Predator with AGM-114 Hellfire airemployment in Afghanistan gave them a permanent place in the to-ground missiles have pushed the envelope to a new level. The sky. The use of unmanned aircraft for intelligence, surveillance Predator is remotely piloted via satellites by pilots located as far and reconnaissance (ISR) has resulted in the addition of sophis- as 12,000 km away. On the other hand, the Global Hawk operates ticated payloads to the unmanned aerial vehicles. Combined with virtually autonomously giving live feedback and only needs a comcommand and control capability and a means for transmitting mand to ‘take-off and land’. ‘Man in the loop’ (piloted) and ‘man data/video, the vehicle became a potent platform. Varying in size on the loop’ (supervised) systems are the two options. Advances from a few ounce micro-UAV to that of an airliner, unmanned in technology are enabling more capabilities and small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are fulfilling a variety of missions beyond ISR. aircraft systems (SUAS) are being deployed on the battlefield. UAV Removing the pilot out of a combat air vehicle reduced weight of roles have expanded to areas including electronic warfare, strike human support and interface systems, the human risk element missions, suppression and/or destruction of enemy air defence,

INDIAN DEFENCE

UAVs are today used by more than 50 countries, with many making their own. The United States is the leader with over 7,500 operational UAVs which is more than the combined strength of the rest of the world. The proliferation and success of UAVs have caused some to question the future relevance of manned aircraft systems. This has been more so due to defence budget cuts and competing demands for scarce resources.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Aerospace Strategies in UAV Era

REGIONAL BALANCE

USAF

Evolution of Pilotless Aircraft

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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“Space would dominate and shape milithe location of the target.   Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor   tary strategy of the 21st century. Today’s In the late 1970s and through the military planners see space as a high 1980s, the Soviet Union and the United ground; vital part of the military equation.” States theorised, designed and in some cases even tested an aston—Frank Barnaby in his book Future War ishing variety of bizarre and exotic weaponry designed for warfare in outer space. Space-based missiles were not a target due to the ilitary space technology has now devel- Outer Space Treaty (OST), which banned the use, testing or storage oped from its early stages to exploit the new of nuclear weapons outside the earth’s atmosphere. The systems medium of space to the point where space- proposed ranged from measures as simple as ground and spacebased military systems are gradually replac- based anti-missiles to rail guns, space-based lasers, orbital mines ing their ground-based counterparts in many and other such futuristic weaponry. Deployment of these systems areas. These space-based systems can accom- was seriously considered in the mid-1980s under the banner of the plish their missions more efficiently and more economically. Thus Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) which was also popularly known while the concept of space as another dimension in which war will as Star Wars. If the Cold War had continued, then many of these be fought is relatively new, it is now recognised as a medium, which systems could have been deployed must be controlled and manipulated to achieve success in any Militarisation of Space future war. Strategic analysts are convinced that the outcome of the future wars will be determined by the efficiency and smartness with Space today is heavily militarised but not weaponised. Space which “space resources” are protected and utilised. Thus the time weaponisation is generally understood as the placement in orbit has now come to decide on a fresh blueprint for fighting future wars of space-based devices with destructive capacity. Militarisation of space in simple terms means use of space in support of ground, and to include the realm of space in this new blueprint. sea and air operations of the armed forces and refers to developing Historical Perspective assets to be based in space with supporting ground infrastructure Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space, i.e. outside for military uses such as early warning, communications, command the atmosphere. Space warfare should therefore include ground- and control, position navigation and timing (PNT) and monitoring. to-space warfare, such as attacking satellites from the earth, as well It helps improve military command, control and communications, as space-to-space warfare like satellites attacking satellites. Some strategic and battlefield surveillance and weapons targeting. The argue that it does not include the use of satellites for espionage, space is considered a sanctuary only insofar that no weapons are surveillance or military communications. However, these activities deployed there. The United States now feels that the time has come constitute military utilisation of space and may well become a part to act under the provisions of Article 51 of the UN Charter, which of space warfare. Ideally the term space warfare should include any implies, “A state could also use military force to defend itself against conflict that uses the space as a theatre of operations, regardless of hostile actions.” This, when coupled with Article III of the OST

INDIAN DEFENCE

Militarisation of space in simple terms means use of space in support of ground, sea and air operations of the armed forces and refers to developing assets to be based in space with supporting ground infrastructure for military uses such as early warning, communications, command and control, position navigation and timing and monitoring

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Implications for India

REGIONAL BALANCE

DIA

Militarisation of Space

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

16


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section two

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

India’s Future Weapon Capability Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Cyber Security Defence Against Stealth Technology Air Defence Gun Ammunition Shipbuilding and Modularisation Disruptive Military Technologies Military Helicopters for India

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Contents

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INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Technology


Airborne Maritime, Littoral and Land Surveillance Integrated IFF, GMTI and SHARC™ imaging displays help operators find the smallest of targets in the worst maritime conditions.

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he armed forces longrequires large investments in money,   Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand   term integrated pertop quality human capital and time. spective plan (LTIPP) The roadmap first gives out the gencovers a period of 15 years and is the master policy eral technologies followed by specific requirements of land, sea and document, out of which flows five-year plans which aerospace warfare requirements visualised for the next 15 years. translate the LTIPP into an action plan and run The ‘capability requirements’ flow out of the technology requireconcurrently with the national five-year plan. The five-year plan ments and follow a similar format. is then converted into Annual Acquisition Plan as the fund allotKey Technology Requirements ment depends on the annual budget. The Defence Research and Development Organisation’s (DRDO) regular grouse is that the A total of 23 technologies have been identified which will be the qualitative requirements project a fusion of all present and future foundation of future armed forces’ system developments. All these technologies, without giving them a lead time to acquire those, technologies are actually technical disciplines/fields for which thus causing unduly long gestation periods of development. The technologies have to be developed. These are common techarmed forces’ counter is that due to long gestation period, they nologies required for the Army, Navy and Air Force, which in turn have to include future weapon developments in their projections should drive research and development in these fields. Work is on otherwise the weapons when developed will be obsolete. India for their development worldwide and India will take some time to is at least a couple of decades behind in weapon technology to catch up. The technologies include battlefield transparency, comthe United States, Europe and Russia. Both views are partly right. mand and control architecture, communication systems, smart With the ‘public-private’ concept catching up in the defence weap- radios, information dominance, electronic warfare, nanotechnolons development and manufacturing arena, private industries ogy/micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), artificial intelalso want to be privy to the future technologies and armament ligence and robotics, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear capability plans. An attempt was made by the armed forces dur- (CBRN) defence, unmanned systems, miniaturisation, advanced ing 2002-03 to make projections for future weapon requirements weapon systems, electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) weapons, weapon and connected technologies but the report did not see the light of guidance, space-based radars, stealth, digital systems, adaptive the day. The reason could be that it was made unilaterally by the antenna signatures, surface-to-air guided weapons (SAGW), senarmed forces without consulting the DRDO. The latest Technology sors and sensor fusion. Some highlights are: Perspective and Capability Roadmap (TPCR) has been issued by n Smart devices supporting long-term evaluation (4G) and mobile satellite terminals with systems and applications supthe Integrated Defence Staff in April 2013, which attempts to bridge porting indigenous global positioning system (GPS), would give this information gap and covers a 15-year period. It must be clearly a battle-winning advantage. understood that development of future technologies for defence

INDIAN DEFENCE

A total of 23 technologies have been identified which will be the foundation of future armed forces’ system developments. The technologies include battlefield transparency, command and control architecture, communication systems, smart radios, information dominance, electronic warfare, nanotechnology/MEMS, artificial intelligence and robotics, CBRN defence, unmanned systems, miniaturisation, advanced weapon systems, EMP weapons, weapon guidance, space-based radars, stealth, digital systems, adaptive antenna SAGW, sensors and sensor fusion.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Roadmap & Capability Requirements

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

India’s Future Weapon Capability

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1


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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

I

ntelligence, surveillance Reliance on TECHINT alone is whol  Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch   and reconnaissance (ISR) is ly inadequate. The Americans realised the coordinated and integrated this when the Central Intelligenc Agency acquisition, processing and provision of timely, accurate, (CIA) was taken completely by surprise with Pokhran II nuclear relevant, coherent and assured information and intel- explosions. That is the reason their Special Forces and proxies ligence to support commander’s conduct of activities. have been operating inside in Iran for the past eight years. We are Land, sea, air and space platforms have critical ISR roles in sup- unwisely spending crores of rupees on TECHINT while spending porting operations in general. ISR encompasses multiple activities relatively nothing on HUMINT. This is the root cause of our inabilrelated to the planning and operation of systems that collect pro- ity to strategise and cope with irregular and asymmetric threats; cess and disseminate data in support of current and future military both national and transnational. This has not only affected covert operations. By massing ISR assets, allowing a period of immersion, intelligence gathering but also counter-intelligence. We do not developing layering and cross cueing of sensors, an improved clar- even exploit open source intelligence. Within the country, while ity and depth of knowledge can be established. the media encourages the citizen journalist concept, the establishment has no such concept—the feasibility of ‘billion eyes’ on the Intelligence ground concept have hardly been explored. Hence, inadequate The sources of intelligence are multifaceted that encompass human intelligence even in the case of the Maoist insurgency has created intelligence (HUMINT), technical intelligence (TECHINT), signal the biggest fault line in India. Not having a national security strategy intelligence (SIGINT), open source intelligence (OSINT), etc—all and national security objective have contributed in lack of an intelcumulating into all source intelligence. The advantages of HUMINT ligence acquisition plan. To top this we are also hampered with very at the strategic, operational and tactical levels are not very well under- poor mapping even of our own territory. stood in India. It is well known that when I.K. Gujral was the Prime Intelligence is the final product of information and informaMinister, the government had banned deployment of HUMINT sourc- tion is an operational asset, the strategic value of which has been es trans-border. Ironically, successive governments did not reverse increasing by the day. At the national level, the Multi Agency Centre this decision and so HUMINT has been moribund in India ever since (MAC), National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) and the National giving automatic advantage to our adversaries. Even the Defence Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) are efforts to synergise intelIntelligence Agency (DIA), which has a mandate to operate trans- ligence even though NCTC has not earned consensus because of border human sources, is denied permission to do so and directed to genuine fears of the states that the Centre is misusing its powers. rely solely on TECHINT. Army’s fledgling Technical Support Division It is an established fact that the side which has information advan(TSD) unit that has been in the news recently and reportedly was tage has more chances of coming out the winner. In military terms, focused on HUMINT too has been shut down a year-and-a-half back. acquisition of intelligence or information will depend on a plethora

BUSINESS

While the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force are enhancing respective ISR capabilities in terms of military’s network-centric warfare (NCW) capabilities, we have not progressed much beyond taking sporadic baby steps. Tri-Service synergy is lacking in a big way. The Navy and Air Force have progressed with regard to intra-service NCW capabilities but the Army will take another decade-and-a-half to two decades to build required capacity.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Essential Force Multiplier

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns

Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance

REGIONAL BALANCE

2


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spionage is an activipreparing for ‘silent wars’ are Russia,   Air Marshal (Retd) Anil Chopra   ty which nations have Israel and North Korea. Iran claims to practised during war have the world’s second largest cyber and peace since ancient times. It is well docu- Army. Israel faces over 1,00,000 cyber attacks a day. mented in the Indian epic Mahabharata, and the One of the subjects discussed between the US President Barack Art of War, an ancient Chinese military treatise Obama and the Chinese President Xi Jinping during the latter’s visit written by famous Chinese General and strategist Sun Tzu in 500 to the United States in June 2013 was cyber security. China’s cyber BC, which is still relevant. During the last century, espionage has targets against the United States included aerospace programmes, become more glamorous with agents like ‘Mata Hari’ and ‘007 space shuttle design, command, control, communications, comJames Bond’ hitting the celluloid. Unlike manuscripts of the past, puters, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) data, all information nowadays resides on computers, and Internet has nuclear weapon and cruise missile designs. Americans finally effectively connected them all. Stealing important information coined a new cyber threat related term advanced persistent threat from computers has become a full-time espionage activity. Also (APT). The word ‘advanced’ means top of the line capability, ‘peryou could deny the information to your enemy by destroying or cor- sistent’ means it is not a one-time activity, and ‘threat’ means they rupting the information on enemy’s computer, a term now called have a clear purpose to steal or destroy. A report released by a US ‘hacking’. The United States has been snooping on the whole world, cyber security company Mandiant in mid-February 2013, focused including their best friends in Europe. The Edward Joseph Snowden on the activities of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Unit 61398 affair and WikiLeaks have embarrassed many countries. After the which has been very active in cyber espionage and cyber attacks. Chinese cyber attack on Google’s computer systems in December The unit is located in Pudong area of Shanghai. Pudong also hap2009, China has been classified as a major cyber threat which is also pens to be the location of the main undersea cable between China of concern to India. and the United States. From the level of threat, this Chinese unit has been designated as APT1. APT1 has reportedly stolen hunWorld under Cyber Attack dreds of terabytes of data from at least 141 organisations though an Cyber warfare includes a host of activities that can be summed extensive network of computers spread across the world. China of up as hacking computer networks for espionage and sabotage. course most vehemently rejects the report. When they went public, Defence from a cyber attack today is no less important than from Mandiant felt there was more to gain by exposing APT1 than by a hard-kill weapon. The European Union has set up European keeping it in wraps. Network and Information Security Agency; the UK has a cyber The Cyber Threat security operations centre; and China has a 50,000 special force engaged in cyber warfare operating from a Shanghai facility and has “Cyber warfare is the biggest threat to national security which will clear mandate to win future cyber wars. All are specially trained and render even the intercontinental ballistic missiles insignificant most are proficient in English language. Other countries actively as a security threat,” said former Indian President and eminent

INDIAN DEFENCE

Cyber warfare includes a host of activities that can be summed up as hacking computer networks for espionage and sabotage. Defence from a cyber-attack today is no less important than from a hard-kill weapon. Militaries across the world are exploring ways to achieve superiority in cyberspace by investing time, resources and money like never before.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Threats & Offensive/Defensive actions

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Army

Cyber Security

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


CONTENTS

Governments around the world are pouring investment into stealth aircraft but it remains to be seen if these costly paragons of modern military hardware will end up undone by the evolution of comparatively modest radar systems

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to reduce reflectivity. Since Cellon degraded rapidly in direct sunlight, the next experimentation was to bond the wooden skin of the aircraft with carbon impregnated plywood resins with an aim to absorb radar waves. Thereafter came the era of coating aircraft skins with a vast variety of radar absorbing materials (RAM). The initial ones were so heavy due to iron content that they made the aircraft unwieldy or even too heavy to fly. The march of technology over time provided di-electric composites and metal fibre containing ferrite isotopes for RAM. Other innovative paints consisted of depositing pyramid like colonies which do not absorb but deflect the radar energy in the maze of RAM, reducing the resultant radar cross section (RCS) manifold. As time passed, ablative paints appeared on aircraft surfaces with an ability to conduct incident radiations over aircraft skins thus cooling down any electro-magnetic hot spots. This was followed up by ‘Chameleon’ or smart-skin technologies enabling an aircraft to change its appearance to mimic its background. Close to recent times, the plasma driven stealth solutions have appeared, wherein incident radar signatures are received and absorbed/scattered by plasma capable of absorbing/ scattering a wide range of radar frequencies, angles, polarisations and power densities. Other areas of innovative stealthy solutions being researched for the sixth-generation aircraft is propulsion subsystem shaping wherein fluidic nozzles for thrust vectoring in aircraft engines produce much lower RCS due to de-cluttered designs with minimal moving parts. Another contemporary stealthy solution (on board F-22) is ‘planform alignment’. It uses small number of surface orientation in the shape of aircraft structures in order to achieve ‘same angle alignment’ all along the outer surface of aircraft. This allows the aircraft to return radar signatures in a very specific direction away from the radar emitter rather than returning a diffused signal which can be detected by anti-stealth multi-static type of radars.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Challenge — A Brief Profile

A story of continuous growth: German Horton HO 229 marked the arrival of the first attempt at designing a stealth aircraft in the closing years of World War II. Since then stealth technology has become an integral aspect of development of all weapon platforms. Lockheed Martin’s F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightening II of the US, Chengdu J-20 Mighty Dragon and Shenyang J-31 Falcon Eagle of China and Sukhoi T-50 of Russia currently hold the front end of the manned stealth threat. Besides this, it is interesting to see the vast proliferation of stealth technologies in the fast evolving world of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their combatised version, the unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs). Boeing with its X-45 Bird of Prey demonstrator, Sharp Sword and Wind Blade from Shenyang Aircraft Corporation China, Dassault’s nEUROn and EADS Barracuda technology demonstrator, Lockheed Martin’s RQ-3 Dark Star and RQ 171 Sentinel and Mikoyan’s MiG Skat, are very visible names in the evolving world of stealthy UAVs and UCAVs. Impressive march of stealth technologies over time: There were days in the 1940s, when stealth made its humble beginning by covering all wooden structures of the aircraft with Cellon material

V.K. Saxena  

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W

hile the leading   Lt General nations of the world are pouring in millions of dollars to do better in achieving that perfect invisible platform, the humble air defence warrior is dabbling with ‘enabling radar technologies’ (some recalled from yesteryears) to find the ‘proverbial needle’ in the ‘opaque haystack’. Experts opine that at the moment, both ends burn strongly; i.e. the surge to harness cutting-edge technologies in stealth among leading nations is as strong and active as the drive to try innovative ideas to detect low-observables.

TECHNOLOGY

Cutting-edge Technologies & Ideas to Detect Low-observables

REGIONAL BALANCE

defense.gov

Defence against Stealth Technology

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

Air Defence Guns The result of a quick survey of air defence weapon systems held by other countries around the world, whether they are towed or selfpropelled, brings out the following: No country has ever discarded its air defence guns: The towed and self-propelled guns of the 1950s and 1960s are still around, albeit with many a qualitative upgradations and product improvements. Gun upgrades: The upgrades over a period of time have traditionally included the replacement of legacy sights with electro-optical fire control system (EOFCS), complete with its gyro-stabilised day camera, high definition night camera (with forward looking infrared optics), eye-safe laser-range finder and a digital fire control computer, almost making the gun a stand-alone firing unit. Besides this, the erstwhile technical or hydro-mechanical drives have given way to fully-electrical drives with the power supply source on

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board, for emergency lay, as well as charging the DC batteries. In addition, some other auto parallax control equipment and devices for auto application as well as auto-updation of rate and quantum of aim have also found their way on board air defence guns over time. In one odd design, there has also been an attempt to mount a tracking radar on-board the gun mount. The other major qualitative improvement has been a gun-missile very short-range air defence systems (VSHORAD) mix on same/different platforms. In this option, several permutations are being tried out, viz, keeping the gun and missile independently operable or slave to the same cueing source, i.e. radar solutions or radar cum-EO solutions, etc. The buzzwords being the ease and quickness of initial lay and the accuracy of follow-on track, leading to high kill effectiveness. Calibre: While the calibres have gradually come down from 100mm85mm-76mm-57mm-40mm-35mm-30mm-23mm-20mm, there is no standard fit. While Sweden, Italy and Singapore boast of their 40mm guns; Rheinmettal is up and ahead with its 35mm. While Germany, Greece and Italy perfect their 30mm; Russia, Poland, Finland and Belgium are going strong with 23mm. This in no way belittles the French, the US, Israel and Korea, spitting fire with 20mm. The whole game of calibres is a function of rates of fire vs lethality and accuracy of firing of the round. As a bottom line, all calibres are alive today that goes from 20mm to 76mm and more. Improved gun capability: Riding on the wings of contemporary technology, the air defence guns are aiming for higher ranges, higher velocities, higher rates of fire and higher accuracies. This is being achieved by going multi-barrel with gas operation and positive link systems. Smart re-engineering is providing faster ramming and ejection leading to higher rates of fire. This has been achieved through shortening of the ramming route made possible through new designs and smarter operation of moving parts. In addition, hydro-pneumatic brushless motions are ensuring controlled run out and smart minimum movement of auto feed devices.

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V.K. Saxena  

BUSINESS

W

hat Matters? The   Lt General cliché—it’s the man behind the gun which matters—could be further qualified by adding that it is the quality and lethality of the ammunition which will decide how much the man behind the gun would actually matter in firing his gun to its optimum capability. The Last Line of Defence: The school of thought that “the days of the air defence guns are numbered in favour of a missile-centric defence”, has taken a beating many times over but has survived. Wondered why? Because the air defence guns are here to stay as the last line of terminal deterrence to an attacker that manages to penetrate through all the rings of air defence deployed around a vulnerable point or area. This resplendent, unjammable and surefooted boom of fire in the terminal end game of do-or-die is worth its own weight in gold in unnerving the attacker and building a degree of caution on him.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The air defence guns are here to stay as the last line of terminal deterrence to an attacker that manages to penetrate through all the rings of air defence deployed around a vulnerable point or area

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Future Trends and Upgradations

REGIONAL BALANCE

Thales

Air Defence Gun Ammunition

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


CONTENTS

There may be a need to look into newer design methods like systems engineering design approach, designing for survivability and axiomatic design principles, etc rather than adhering to the telescopic iterative methodology in use in India. The Indian defence shipyards need to switch over to modular construction at all levels to ensure timely and cost-effective deliveries.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

tions. This led to many countries encouraging naval architecture studies for naval designers while the merchant marine lacked the same initiative. The naval design bureaus had capacities to carry out complex and voluminous calculations. During the following decades, this knowledge was efficiently applied to construction of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers, ultra-large container ships and other specialised ships. Further developments in computer-aided design (CAD) tools; structural analyses methods and probabilistic analysis have ensured a large degree of commonality in designs of naval and merchant ships. Despite the convergence in structural designs, navies continued to refine the design of warships based on specific role and the experience gained during wars and extended operations in the cold war/post-cold war era. However, scale modelling trials using many of the commercial software techniques replaced the full-scale sea trials; this led to development of special steels and specifications for reduction in battle damage of warships. Difference in operations and maintenance of merchant and naval ships also led to differences in constructional design specifications. In many countries today the navies provide the performance criteria and the design and construction is carried out by commercial shipyards. The adaptation of commercial design and construction standards to incorporate traditional naval specifications is resulting in mutually beneficial and acceptable regimes.

BUSINESS

Dr S. Kulshrestha  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

N

aval ship   Rear Admiral (Retd) design is unique in itself because of its complexity, long service life of the ships and the very few numbers that may be required. The warship is a homogeneous weapon system comprising of numerous complex subsystems integrated accurately within it, and it is required to carry out various missions across the oceans of the world in a hostile environment, for prolonged durations, in a service life spanning decades. During its life, it has to be capable of matching upgrades in technology by the adversaries as well as in the industry and have the capability to carry out essential repairs unassisted at sea. The crew has to be trained to perfection and the machines maintained to designed specifications for the ship to operate in the face of the enemy. The complete life cycle of a warship comprises of conceptual design phase, followed by system design, production phase, tests and evaluation, delivery, operational life (more than 35-40 years), periodic maintenance, modernisation and final decommissioning. The history of merchant and warship structural design is replete with instances of commonality and variance. In middle ages, merchant ships used to carry light guns and engage in warfare, whereas in the 16th century specially reinforced warships used to carry heavy guns, even though both the merchant ships and warships were built in the same shipyards. Technology was largely a common factor and the shipyards had no difficulty in switching from manufacturing of one to the other. During the late 18th century, warship technologies were used to construct armed merchant ships and in the early 19th century, some of the innovations by the British East India Company were adapted in warship construction by the admiralty. In the late 19th century, Royal Navy heralded the age of structural design using engineering fundamentals and calcula-

TECHNOLOGY

Building complex subsystems for varied missions

Imperative Design Features Required for a Warship The most important design feature that distinguishes a man of war from a merchant man is its ability to withstand weapon attacks and remain effective. Special design features, depending upon the role of the warship, achieve reduction of vulnerability and enhance its survivability. This is achieved by introduction of protective/hard-

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PIB Mumbai

Shipbuilding and Modularisation

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


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he term disruptive warfighter. Asymmetrical advantage   Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand   technology (DT) was is especially effective when opposing coined around 1995 forces are of unequal power like the by Clayton M. Christensen who was a Professor US-Vietnam or Russia-Afghanistan conflict. The use of improvised in Harvard Business School. Disruptive technol- explosive devices is one such example which gives an asymmetrical ogy is synonymous with ‘disruptive innovation’. advantage to its user, makes the opponent go on the defensive and Innovation can be of various types like sustaining, evolutionary, make it deploy huge resources to counter them. There is also great disruptive and so on. Disruptive innovation is out of the box think- potential in disruptive technologies to be applied in transforming ing which may overtake an existing market. The typewriter being tactics innovatively to take the teeth out from opponent who has replaced by a personal computer, a landline being replaced by a a modern military machine. Thus to remain ahead of the changmobile phone or a video cassette recorder (VCR) by a digital versa- ing technology scenario, defence forces must constantly develop tile/video disc (DVD) player are some of the common examples of disruptive technology to their advantage and to the opponents disruptive technology. The concept of disruptive technology has a disadvantage. history of identifying radical changes in the study of innovation by Evolution of warfare through the ages has been based on evoeconomists to develop new methods of management of policies in lution of new weapons, sensors and delivery systems which have an organisation. deeply affected tactics. Replacement of horses by tanks and use of air power are two prominent examples of the recent military histoEffect on Military of Disruptive Technologies ry. Night vision systems have radically changed the concept of warDisruptive technology could be defined as an innovative idea which fare by removing the tactical advantage of darkness. Information can modernise or degrade current security related systems, struc- technology/data processing when coupled with communications tures, processes and personnel. It is not necessary that in all cases has evolved into command, control, communications, computers, disruptive technology replaces the current technology immediately intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. but classically enters the field in a very small way, then overtakes C4ISR has literally revolutionised the dissemination of information the current technology and may finally replace it like valves in and decision-making process of commanders in the battlefield. electronics have been replaced by solid state devices. Satellites and Emerging and Future Military Disruptive Technologies unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have almost replaced manned aerial reconnaissance and UAVs may replace fighter aircraft in the The Weapon System Technology Information Analysis Center of near future. Thus it is necessary to identify what all future technolo- the US Department of Defense has been carrying out extensive gies, when applied to military, have the potential to be disruptive research and studies on disruptive technology which can provide and then develop them to be used to own advantage or develop the asymmetrical edge to the US military in future wars. Some of the methods to counter them when required. Applied effectively, disruptive technology have already emerged and matured to a great disruptive technologies give an asymmetrical advantage to the degree of development/evolution. They are as under:

INDIAN DEFENCE

Disruptive technology is an innovative idea which can modernise or degrade current security related systems, structures, processes and personnel. It is not necessary that in all cases disruptive technology replaces the current technology immediately but classically enters the field in a very small way, then overtakes the current technology and may finally replace it like valves in electronics have been replaced by solid state devices.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Emerging & Future Machinery

REGIONAL BALANCE

defense.gov

Disruptive Military Technologies

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

7


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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

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he Vietnam War, also ones. However, they are mostly old and   Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar   referred to as the helicopvintage and few in numbers, far from the ters war, formed the test quantity required. The light observation bed for validating the concepts of air mobility and helicopters (Chetak and Cheetah) held with the Army, Navy and Air assault. The helicopter was universally employed for Force have outlived their utility and need immediate replacement. various missions, including attack, air assault, aerial Though joint trials for their replacement (Army and Air Force) were resupply, reconnaissance and command and control, the most completed more than a year back, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) common being transportation of troops/stores as utility or cargo is dithering on the final decision due to the ongoing investigahelicopters. Actual integration of assault and armed helicopters tion into the alleged kickbacks/bribes related to the acquisition of evolved during the Vietnam War, leading to the concept of organic AgustaWestland VVIP helicopters, though one fails to see the contactical mobility. nection. In the light utility category, the Hindustan Aeronautics Today’s military helicopters play an integral part in the land, sea Limited (HAL) manufactured advanced light helicopter (ALH) is and air operations of modern armies and have the potential to pro- already in service with the Army, Air Force and Coast Guard. The vide the field force commander tremendous flexibility throughout the Navy has not found those suitable for ship-borne operations. The spectrum of conflict. The ever increasing demand for use of military ALH is an all-weather, night capable twin-engine machine with helicopters in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations state-of-the-art avionics and glass cockpit. It has recently been also makes a case for their requirement with the security forces. Hence, test evaluated for high-altitude performance with the fitment of a there is a requirement of holding different class of helicopters ranging more powerful engine ‘Shakti’ (being produced jointly by HAL with from surveillance and observation to heavy-lift and specialised roles as the French Turbomeca) which will facilitate its operations in high per the operational requirement of a country’s armed forces. altitudes and especially on the Siachen Glacier. In the mediumThe operational diversities of the Indian armed forces coupled lift category, the Air Force holds the MI-8 and the MI-17 Russian with a variety of terrain (from sea level to Siachen Glacier) under- helicopters. While the MI-8 is obsolete and requires immediate line the need for state-of-the-art helicopters, capable of operating replacement, the MI-17 fleet needs some refurbishing/upgradation both by day and night in a complex battlefield environment of as well as additional inductions for which the process is already the future. As per reports, the armed forces are looking to induct under way. The Navy’s situation in this segment is no better with the as many as 900 helicopters in the coming decade, ranging from Russian Kamov-28 becoming obsolete. In the heavy-lift category, attack-/armed- and high-altitude reconnaissance to medium- and there is nothing worthwhile in the inventory, barring a few Russian heavy-lift including VVIP variants. Mi-26 helicopters whose high-altitude capability is poor—trials for induction of this class of helicopters have been held. The weakest Present Status link is in the holding of specialised helicopters, especially the attack At present the Indian military holds in its inventory approximately helicopters. The Mi-25/Mi-35 held is vintage and require replace600 helicopters of all types and class including some specialised ment on priority. Even the Sea King anti-submarine warfare heli-

INDIAN DEFENCE

The operational diversities of the Indian armed forces coupled with a variety of terrain underline the need for state-of-the-art helicopters. The armed forces are looking to induct as many as 900 helicopters in the coming decade, ranging from attack-/armed- and high-altitude reconnaissance to medium- and heavy-lift including VVIP variants.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

To operate in complex battlefield environment

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

Military Helicopters for India

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

8


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section three

Indian Army Modernisation Indian Navy Modernisation Indian Air Force Modernisation India’s Defence Budgets 2013-14 and 2014-15 Strategic and Business Environment Dark Side of Offsets Defence Procurement Procedure of 2013 Facilitation of Defence Offsets Rapid Procurement and Indigenisation Global Contracts

97 103 107 111 117 119 123 127 131 135

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Business


CONTENTS

Genuine deterrence comes only from the capability to launch and sustain major offensive operations into the adversary’s territory. Hence, government approval for the raising of a Mountain Strike Corps to carry the next war into Tibet is a step in the right direction.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

government approval for the raising of a Mountain Strike Corps to carry the next war into Tibet is a step in the right direction. This corps will comprise two infantry divisions, three independent armoured brigades, three independent artillery brigades, an air defence brigade, an engineer brigade and ancillary support units. Since manoeuvre is not possible due to the restrictions imposed by the difficult mountainous terrain, firepower capabilities need to be enhanced by an order of magnitude, especially in terms of precisionguided munitions (PGMs). This will involve substantial upgradation of ground-based (artillery guns, rockets and missiles) and aerially-delivered (fighter-bomber aircraft and attack helicopter) firepower. PGMs are also required in much larger numbers than are held at present and unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) need to be added to the army’s arsenal. Only then will it be possible to achieve future military objectives, including the destruction of the adversary’s war machinery. During the year 2013, both China and Pakistan have been relatively more assertive on the line of actual control (LAC) and the line of control (LoC), respectively. This is borne out by the DBO incident in April-May 2013 in Ladakh and several large-scale infiltration attempts by the Pakistan Army and ISI-sponsored terrorists on the LoC, including a brazen attack on an army garrison at Samba near Jammu. Clearly, there is likely to be more trouble in the years ahead. Unfortunately, not only are there many shortcomings in defence preparedness, as revealed in former Chief of the Army Staff General V.K. Singh’s letter to the Prime Minister, the army’s modernisation drive is virtually at a standstill.

BUSINESS

Gurmeet Kanwal  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

D

efence planning   Brigadier (Retd) in India has been marked by kneejerk reactions to emerging situations and haphazard single service growth. The absence of a clearly enunciated national security strategy, poor civilmilitary relations, the failure to commit funds for modernisation on a long-term basis and suboptimal inter-service prioritisation have handicapped defence planning. With projected expenditure of $100 billion on military modernisation over the next 10 years, it is now being realised that force structures must be configured on a tri-service, long-term basis to meet future threats and challenges. In early 2012, the 15-year long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) 2012-27 and the five-year Defence Plan 2012-17 were accorded “in-principle” approval by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) chaired by the Defence Minister. Consequent to this clearance, which covers the 12th, 13th and 14th Defence Plans, an unclassified version of the LTIPP will be made public by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in the form of Technology Perspective Capability Road Map (TPCRM) to enable the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) and the Indian defence industry to plan their long-term research and development. It has clearly emerged that in the long-term, as long as the territorial dispute remains unresolved, China poses the most potent military threat to India. Given the nuclear, missile and military hardware nexus between China and Pakistan, future conventional conflict in South Asia will be a two-front war. Therefore, India’s military strategy of dissuasion against China must be gradually upgraded to deterrence. Genuine deterrence comes only from the capability to launch and sustain major offensive operations into the adversary’s territory. Hence,

TECHNOLOGY

Army Modernisation Plans Must Address Critical ‘Operational Hollowness’

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Indian Army Modernisation

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

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t was over a year ago similar climes, the efforts that were   Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip Deshpande   that, with considerable required to be put in can be very encouragement and well understood and appreciated. some gentle prodding from an erstwhile colleague, I venAs far as the carrier is concerned I know for sure that we have a tured to put some of my thoughts on the subject on paper. vessel with a hull that is practically new and should last for a long What went into the piece was less of any creative thought time. The outfitting during refit also has been done with mostly new or writing and more of an outpouring of wishes accumulated over materials and equipment, a lot of care and under the watchful eyes 39 years of service in the Indian Navy. Honest self-appraisal of the of our critical overseeing team. paper did not produce any confidence about its acceptance for One does wonder, however, about the time taken to resolve the publication. So it was not a small surprise that it actually got pub- issue of the furnace lining of the onboard boilers. It delayed delivlished. However, much greater was the surprise at being asked to ery by a year. Hopefully she will not require a similar renewal for a write on the theme again for the next issue! long time to come. Also, and here one can say with a fair degree of The first thought was to simply review the old paper and see certainty, our dockyards will not take as long. what needed updating. However, that thought had to be banished The complement of fighter aircraft has already been received as one has not been in the active circuit and further away one is and the squadron has been commissioned in Goa. A shore-based beyond the retirement date further away one is from reality. Also facility consisting of ski jump and arrestor system come up in Goa nothing could have happened in just one year to merit a review of would help the pilots practise operations ashore on lines similar to one’s thoughts and ideas…or could it have? the Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System (MADDLS) of the Plenty seems to have happened in the year that has gone by Sea Hawk–Vikrant days. It is presumed that the rest of the aviation some of which one has become aware through the ubiquitous complement would also be available. The role that the AEW and media and the rest from repetitive e-mails forwarded by well mean- ASW helicopters perform is too well understood to need elaboraing erstwhile colleagues. tion. Now starts the period of training and work up in earnest of One can consider the one major acquisition and the other one this acquisition. Presumably at an appropriate stage the LCA (Navy) major loss suffered by the service for some pointers. That is because integration with INS Vikramaditya would also be undertaken. This both have a bearing on modernisation. will make them available for INS Vikramaditya and also for INS Getting INS Vikramaditya out of the literally and figuratively Vikrant when she gets ready for commissioning. ‘frozen’ Sevmash Shipyard was a major achievement. Having seen Considering the long life enjoyed by our aircraft carriers it both the capabilities and limitations in Severodvinsk in various would be difficult but interesting to try to imagine what aircraft aspects at different times and also having participated in the acquisi- Vikramaditya and Vikrant will operate when they are middle aged tion of the largest aircraft (TU-142) operated by the Indian Navy from or gracefully old.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The process of modernisation of the Navy does not end with mere acquisition of the hardware. All major acquisitions need to be supplemented by a critical look at all aspects of naval management structures and processes. The obvious one is the build-up of associated infrastructure– operational, maintenance and logistic.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

integrating platforms and systems to make the indian navy network-centric in all dimensions

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

Indian Navy Modernisation

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

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n the wake of a rapidly growgiven India’s aspirations, the need for a   Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey   ing economy, there is little strong and comprehensive aerospace doubt that India is begincapability is inescapable.” ning to emerge as a regional power and hopefully with Stated in simple terms, the nation’s air force must possess the enlightened political leadership supported by committed capability to project power effectively in the region for which it military and bureaucratic establishments, the nation will must have combat aircraft with adequate reach, lethal firepower succeed in fulfilling its aspirations to emerge as a leader with cred- through modern stand-off/precision-guided munitions and stealth ibility in the comity of nations and in due course, attain the status characteristics. It must have strategic airlift aircraft with the capaof a superpower. bility to move and deploy large forces by air over long distances, The growing status of the nation however is accompanied by tactical transport aircraft to operate over shorter distances and enhanced responsibilities. As a regional power, the nation must pos- support surface forces in battle as well as a fleet of helicopters to sess the capability of decisive military intervention to safeguard her provide mobility and lethal firepower in the tactical battle area. national security interests in areas that transcend our geographical Two things follow from this, one being that the nation must possess boundaries extending from the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Malacca. multi-layered air defence system to protect its offensive operations As a superpower in the future, India may be called upon to meet capability and the other that development of aerospace power must with commitments in distant lands outside the region wherein the not only cater to perceived threats but more importantly, must be Indian armed forces may be required to provide speedy response to capability-based to respond to a wide variety of threats, existing, man-made or natural calamities and provide humanitarian assis- likely to arise in the future or unforeseen. tance, employ military forces to restore order or to ensure peace and Transformation of the Indian Air Force stability or sometimes just to project national power. While economic strength is the main pillar of national power, the The IAF is currently embarked on comprehensive capital-intensive military capability of a nation must be enhanced in tandem to secure modernisation drive that is focused on all-round development of its economic status and provide the environment for its further capability as opposed to re-equipping the force based merely on growth. This philosophy was echoed in October 2007 by Air Chief perceived threats. In the words of Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne, Marshal Fali H. Major, the then Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air Force former Chief of the Air Staff, the “IAF is currently engaged in an (IAF), on the occasion of its platinum jubilee celebrations when he unprecedented phase of modernisation and capability enhancesaid: “The emerging geopolitical and security scenario requires our ment which can be witnessed across the capability spectrum.” The nation to possess comprehensive military capability, characterised effort by the IAF at modernisation has essentially been at transforby flexibility and speed of response, mobility and transportability mation from a subcontinental tactical air force to an intercontinenof all forms of national power, long reach, precision targeting, mini- tal strategic aerospace power to cope with the vastly enhanced roles mum collateral damage and reduced visibility. Aerospace power fits and responsibilities and to fulfil national aspirations as well as to the bill perfectly. The 21st century belongs to aerospace power and be prepared to take on the challenges of the evolving geopolitical

INDIAN DEFENCE

The IAF is currently embarked on comprehensive capital-intensive modernisation drive that is focused on all-round development of capability as opposed to re-equipping the force based merely on perceived threats.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

modernisation and capability enhancement must be visible across the capability spectrum

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Army

Indian Air Force Modernisation

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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he Budget 2013-14, prebility is also likely to weaken our nation  Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor   sented to the Parliament al resolve to safeguard our national on February 28, 2013, by interests because neither politically nor the Finance Minister P. Chidambaram had increased diplomatically will we be able to act firmly if we are militarily weak. the defence budget to `2,03,672 crore (about $34 bilIt can be broadly concluded from the figures shown in the table lion) for 2013-14, marking a hike of 5.3 per cent of here that the share of the defence budget in the GDP has decreased previous year’s budget estimate (BE) of `1,93,407.29 crores (about from 1.9 in 2012-13 to 1.79 in 2013-14. Moreover what is quite evi$32.23 billion) which did not even cater for the inflation. If the dent is the fact the revenue expenditure has been decreased and revised estimates are taken into account then the increase amount- this would have undoubtedly impacted upon the transportation ed to 14 per cent over the previous year’s revised allocation. The (fuel), courses abroad, and overall training of the three services. unspoken and hidden aspect was that the capital budget quite often It is obvious that the negligible growth of the defence budget had remained underutilised or was cut by the Finance Ministry halfway been influenced primarily because of the poor economic state of into the year. For instance, in December 2012, Finance Minister the country. Chidambaram had cut the defence capital outlay by `10,000 crore Service-wise Share in the Total Budget of 2013-14 (abut $1.66 billion). The budget in 2013-14 was accompanied by the Finance Minister’s statement promising more funds. This is the The Army with an approximate budget of `99,707.80 crore (about usual rhetoric which every finance minister makes after declaring $16.61 billion) accounted for 48.96 per cent of the latest defence the allocations for the defence budget. This budgetary allocation budget, the Air Force with `57,502.90 crore (about $9.58 billion) marked a reduction in GDP ratio from 1.90 in 2012-13 to 1.79 per accounted for 28.23 per cent, the Navy with `36,343.5 crore (about $6.06 billion) accounted for 17.84 per cent while the Defence cent in 2013-14. The fact that 2013-14 budget was uninspiring is obvious Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) with `10,610.20 because the defence services were and are still involved in a major crore (about $1.77 billion) accounted for 5.21 per cent and the modernisation process with several acquisitions in the pipeline Ordnance Factories with minus `508.70 crore (about $85 million) besides upgradation of infrastructure in the Northeast along the amounted to minus 0.24 per cent. It was obvious that the Air Force border with China. The modernistion of all three services is way had increased its share in the total defence allocation (from 24.9 behind schedule adversely affecting the operational capabilities of per cent to 28.2 per cent). The Navy’s share had decreased the most the three services. The five per cent increase in the overall defence (by 1.4 percentage points), whereas the Army’s and DRDO’s shares budget, apart from being meagre when seen in the light of the 20 had declined by 1.3 and 0.3 percentage points, respectively. During per cent fall in the value of the rupee and lacklustre performance of 2013-14 Air Force was the only service which had seen an increase the Defence Ministry in ensuring timely procurements of requisite in both the revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. For the weapons and other systems had raised the concern of all strategic Army there was fall in the capital budget of `1,294.35 crore (about and military analysts about national security. Lack of military capa- $216 million) as compared to the BE figure of previous year.

BUSINESS

Lack of military capability is also likely to weaken our national resolve to safeguard our national interests because neither politically nor diplomatically will we be able to act firmly if we are militarily weak.

INDIAN DEFENCE

budget allocations must cater for maintenance and modernisation requirements

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

PIB

India’s Defence Budgets 2013-14 and 2014-15

REGIONAL BALANCE

4


CONTENTS

Given the trend of ‘polycentrism,’ evident in global affairs with structural rather than legacy congruencies India will thus continue to play a major international and regional role in 2014 and beyond and will remain a consultative partner for the P 5 +1 and other major nation states.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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Defence Cooperation It is now a well established fact that India is the most sought after defence partner in the world. Thus in 2013, Indian armed forces conducted training exercises with all the P-5 militaries including China. The Hand -in-Hand series of exercises between the Indian Army and China’s People’s Liberation Army was resumed after a hiatus of five years. In addition, there were high level engagements with a variety of foreign partners including Japan, Spain, Australia, Thailand, Singapore and Nigeria amongst others. India Russia military techni-

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as Brazil and South Africa. Indian and Pakistan Prime Ministers met in New York on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly which led to a rapprochement of sorts on the line of control which saw a series of incidents of breach of ceasefire during the year reaching an all-time high of 200. The meeting of the Directors General of Military Operations in December indicated support to existing confidence-building neasures (CBMs) which will be hopefully carried through in the 2014 leading to greater stability in South Asia. India’s commitment to Afghanistan, a country that is undergoing seminal changes in the coming years with the pull out by the International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF) by end of 2014 indicates the emergence of a responsible international and regional actor. The positive role played by India in the political transition through elections in South Asia during 2013-14, Maldives, Nepal and Bangladesh also indicates influence that it wields in the region. Given the trend of ‘polycentrism,’ evident in global affairs with structural rather than legacy congruencies India will thus continue to play a major international and regional role in 2014 and beyond and will remain a consultative partner for the P 5 +1 and other major nation states.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Global Confidence in India Growth Story A strong underpinning of the India growth story is evident in 2013. Given international relations follow a path of a long- term appreciation of potential, India remained a favourite destination for global leaders. Thus there was summit level interaction with all the P-5 nations — the United States, Russia, China, France and Germany. With some key states as China there were two summits during a single year, one held in May during the visit of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang to New Delhi and in October with Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh in Beijing. Premier Li Keqiang’s first foreign visit was to India making a strong statement of importance to the southern neigbhour despite the fractious boundary issue. This spells for solidity of SinoIndian relations in the near future. Amongst other major economies, summit level interaction was held with Germany amongst other European Union states, Japan, Indonesia and South Korea while bilateral on the side lines of major international and regional meets were held with other BRICS states

Rahul Bhonsle  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

I

ndia’s strategic and    brigadier (retd) business environment (SBE) in 2014 portends a positive trajectory. A number of factors such as the country’s confirmed status as a major player in global polity, post-elections possibility of political stability, strengthened economy overcoming the shadow of twin debts, fiscal and current account, improved procurement procedures and huge demand from the military are likely to be major drivers for growth. The path of modernisation is well set through indigenisation, joint ventures, public-private and indigenous-foreign partnerships in the long term. This provides ample opportunity to global defence majors for investment in the Indian defence sector.

TECHNOLOGY

The way forward is more investment in India particularly in the defence industry

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

strategic and business environment

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

A

lthough most fully completed and the accrual of   Major General (RETD) Mrinal Suman   economists view envisaged benefits validated. them as marketOffsets can generally be distorting and the World Trade Organisation con- termed as formal arrangements of trade with inbuilt contracsiders them to be detrimental to free trade prac- tual obligations wherein a foreign seller undertakes specified protices, offsets are here to stay. In the case of defence grammes with a view to compensate the buyer as regards his procontracts, offsets have become an integral part of the world trade. curement expenditure and outflow of resources. In other words, the More than 130 countries are demanding offsets in one form or the seller undertakes measures to generate benefits for the economy of other, giving rise to a flourishing worldwide offset industry. the buyer country. Offsets can also be called as trade arrangements Increasing popularity of offsets can be attributed to three real/ with reciprocity clauses to provide some sort of relief to the buyer to perceived reasons. First, offsets help buyer nations to counter hos- help him pay for the purchases. The negotiated package consists of tile public opposition to weapon purchases by quoting economic the primary contract and the compensatory offset contract. benefits accruing through the mechanism of offsets. Secondly, As per the London-based Transparency International, defence offsets are seen as engines to economic and industrial development trade is “one of the most corruption-prone sectors, after the construcof the recipient nations. Finally, with shrinking defence budgets of tion and the oil and gas sectors.” It is of the view that access to offsets most countries, defence trade has become a buyers’ market, forcing arrangements distributed by officials can become more lucrative than sellers to outbid their competitors. Offsets are offered by desperate competitive activities, creating an incentive for networks of corruption vendors to make their offers more attractive. to proliferate around them. Thus, introduction of offsets has increased India introduced offsets in defence trade in 2005. The policy the risks of corrupt practices in defence business considerably. was made a part of the Defence Procurement Procedure in 2008. Whatever be the opinion of the advocates of offsets, a numFor all capital procurements with indicative cost of `300 crore ber of major infirmities afflict the concept. Most defence observ(about $50 million) or more, India demands offsets equivalent to 30 ers are convinced that injection of offsets in defence deals has per cent of the contract value. With a view to streamline the policy, a vitiated the environment. number of revisions have since been carried out. The latest version Secrecy Breeds Corruption was promulgated in August 2012. As per Report No. 17 of 2012-13 (Air Force and Navy) of the The defence offset regime the world over is characterised by secrecy Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG), India had con- and a total absence of transparency. Most unwarrantedly, offset cluded a total of 16 offset contracts worth `18,444.56 crore (about contracts are accorded the same security classification as the main $3.1 billion) and should have received offset inflows of `5,543.33 defence contracts. Under the garb of security concerns, all offsetcrore (about $923 million) at the time of compilation of the said related activities are kept away from public oversight. As is well report. As the Ministry of Defence (MoD) is very wary of sharing known, secrecy is the antithesis of transparency. Secrecy makes any data, it is not known if any offset programme has been success- offsets an ideal breeding-ground for corruption.

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Offsets can generally be termed as formal arrangements of trade with in-built contractual obligations wherein a foreign seller undertakes specified programmes with a view to compensate the buyer as regards his procurement expenditure and outflow of resources. In other words, the seller undertakes measures to generate benefits for the economy of the buyer country.

INDIAN DEFENCE

offset contracts must be in the public domain

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Dark Side of Offsets

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

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he Industrial approve the latest version of the   Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman   Policy Resolution procurement procedure, i.e. DPP of 1956 had divid2013. Stressing the need for rapid ed industry into the following three categories: indigenisation of defence products through the strengthening of n Schedule A: Basic industries which are the the defence manufacturing base and infusion of greater efficiency preserve of the state, including defence and heavy in the procurement process, the Defence Minister exhorted both engineering. the public and the private sectors to play pivotal roles in this n Schedule B: Industries in which private industry was allowed endeavour. He also promised to create genuine level playing field to operate. for Indian manufacturing industries vis-à-vis global players. n Schedule C: All other industries. All cases in which the request for proposal (RFP) is issued after After continuing with the above archaic policy for a period of June 1, 2013, will be guided by DPP 2013. Procurement cases under three-and–a-half decades, manufacture of defence components, progress in accordance with the provisions of earlier versions of assemblies and subassemblies was thrown open to the private sec- DPP will continue to be valid. DPP 2013 aims to kick-start India’s tor in 1991. Subsequently, in May 2001, the Government allowed quest for self-reliance in defence production. Salient aspects of the the private sector to enter the defence industry with maximum for- new procedure have been discussed in this article. eign equity component pegged at 26 per cent. Detailed guidelines Preference to the Indigenous Defence Industry for the issuance of licence for the production of arms and ammuniAlthough earlier versions of DPP also considered indigenous protion were issued in January 2002. Promulgation of Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) of curement/development to be the preferred option, DPP 2013 has June 2002 was the first major step towards streamlining the laid it down as a policy directive. This is by far the most significant defence acquisition regime. It flowed from the recommendations change incorporated in DPP 2013 and is expected to give a strong of the Group of Ministers constituted in the wake of the Kargil con- impetus to indigenisation efforts. Every proposal for acquisition flict to review the national security system. The stated objective of has to be examined for categorisation as per the following order DPP is to ensure expeditious procurement of the approved defence of preference: requirements through free competition in a transparent manner n Priority 1: ‘Buy (Indian)’ – procurement of complete requirement from indigenous sources. It has now been specified that in by optimally utilising the allocated budgetary resources. DPP has addition to the equipment, even the product offered at the trial been undergoing periodic reviews. Although the basic contours stage must also have minimum 30 per cent indigenous content. continue to remain the same, inclusion of minutiae has enlarged n Priority 2: ‘Buy & Make (Indian)’ – purchase of limited quanits scope considerably. tity from an Indian vendor followed by licensed production/ In April 2013, the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) met indigenous manufacture in the country with minimum 50 under the chairmanship of the Defence Minister A.K. Antony to

INDIAN DEFENCE

Although earlier versions of DPP also considered indigenous procurement/development to be the preferred option, DPP 2013 has laid it down as a policy directive. This is by far the most significant change incorporated in DPP 2013 and is expected to give a strong impetus to indigenisation efforts.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

indian Armed Forces must not be made to fight with outdated weaponary

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Army

Defence Procurement Procedure of 2013

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

7


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

T

he Defence Offsets cent of the total value of the supplies   Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch   Management Wing locally. However, no offset policy is in (DOMW) of the place for other sectors. Department of Defence Production (DoDP), the The objective in the new offset policy is to introduce crossMinistry of Defence (MoD) has issued an office sector offsetting; to streamline the process and also ensure that memorandum on February 14, 2014, notifying oper- the sectors that have not been benefiting from offset start doing ationalising of a Facilitation Cell located at the Central Marketing, so implying that if a particular ministry or agency, for instance the Scope Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi. The objective is to Commerce Ministry, does not have anything to sell to offset a part enhance transparency and facilitate free and easy access to indus- of what it is purchasing, it could ask the foreign seller to buy sometry participants to approach the DOMW for discussion on any thing from another sector of equal value. matter pertaining to the offset policy and speedy redressal of grievDefence Offset Policy ances. The Facilitation Cell shall be operational on all working days of the week and one official or a representative from the DoDP shall For any country to be strong, a vital element is a sound defencebe present at the Facilitation Cell. In addition, designated OSDs industrial base. The Defence Research and Development (officers on special duty) from DOMW having high level expertise Organisation (DRDO), Ordnance Factory Boards (OFBs) and the shall be visiting the Facilitation Cell on rotation basis on Tuesdays defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) have been trying to fulfill their mandate to master the science of designing, developand Thursdays. ing and manufacturing cutting-edge military technologies ever Indian Offset Policy since. However, what has been achieved is “pockets of excellence”, The media had reported in November 2013 that India was consider- as acknowledged by high placed DRDO officials themselves. India ing a national offset policy that would make it compulsory for for- has adopted numerous methodologies like licensed production, eign companies selling goods to the Government for sourcing part transfer of technology (ToT), joint ventures (JVs) and indigenous of their supplies from domestic producers. The Commerce Ministry research and development (R&D) to acquire and absorb critical had reportedly circulated discussion papers inviting comments. defence technologies. The proposed move is expected to boost domestic manufacturHowever, 67 years after independence India continues to import ing and also lead to technology transfer. The offset policy, being over 77 per cent of its defence needs which is a shame. To say that framed by the Commerce Ministry, will be applicable only in case we are lagging behind the envisaged goals of realising a sustainable of government procurement for non-commercial purposes esti- indigenous defence manufacturing industry would be a gross undermated at over $100 billion annually. This restriction is apparently statement. Offset practices in the global defence industry have been in accordance with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade instrumental in influencing the defence-related decision-making (now WTO) that does not allow such conditions to be imposed for of several countries with varying results and degrees of success. commercial procurement. India already has an offset policy for the Defence offsets encompass a variety of compensation arrangements defence sector where foreign suppliers have to buy at least 30 per mandated by foreign governments as a condition on the purchase

INDIAN DEFENCE

Perhaps there is need to provide higher multiplier values to extremely critical technologies required by DRDO in order to attract foreign vendors. It may be helpful if MoD assigns multiplier values on a case to case basis, based on criticality, importance, requirement and urgency.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Operationalisation of the defence offsets management wing

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

Facilitation of Defence Offsets

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

8


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

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M

ilitary preparedness Pacific region, increasingly entering the   General (Retd) N.C. Vij    of any nation can be waters of the Indian Ocean under the pretext accessed through of anti-piracy operations has only further appreciation of three related factors. These added to the gravity of the situation. The threat becomes more proare: security environment of that country nounced as the Chinese are modernising rapidly and their defence involving both external and internal dimen- budget is estimated to be between $160 billion and $210 billion, sions; budgetary allocations matching its specific needs; and finally which is four times the Indian defence budget. its defence industrial base and procurement procedures. Equipping our Defence Forces Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2013 covers only one but a crucial part of this spectrum, in which we have constantly Under the given backdrop of a security threat over ‘two fronts’, struggled with dismal results. In this paper, an attempt has been equipping of our defence forces with the latest technology weapmade to analyse DPP 2013 and examine as to whether and how the ons becomes a security imperative, which has got to be ensured under all circumstances and with no scope whatsoever of any revised DPP can help expedite procurement and indigenisation. compromises. Thinking and planning ahead with expediency have Indian Security Environment got to be the guiding principles. It is also necessary that the raising The Indian armed forces face unique security challenges which of the recently approved Mountain Strike Corps is completed in a warrant high level of operational preparedness at all times, be it in maximum of two-three years, rather than the planned seven years, peace or war. India’s regional environment is fraught with instabil- a time period which may become strategically unacceptable. All in ity. There are a number of conflicts raging on our periphery. The all, we must have net-enabled armed forces, with high degree of protracted militancy in Afghanistan, from where the International surveillance and rapid deployment capabilities, sustained mobility Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is pulling out in 2014 without and lethal firepower; capable of operating seamlessly on land, sea being able to restore stability is a great concern. The Afghanistan- and aerospace domains in an operational environment of informaPakistan border region, with a strongly entrenched Taliban, which tisation over the next two-three years. has a footprint on both sides of the Durand Line may well implode Defence Budget with a return of the Al-Qaeda and their supporters. While the situation along our Western Borders can never be taken as settled irre- Equipping the armed forces is not just about the defence procurespective of which government is in power in Pakistan, the proxy war ment procedures. There are critical issues that are outside the in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) is certainly likely to get a further fillip domain of defence procurement. The first and foremost is the defence budget. The current allotment is below two per cent of the as a result of the disturbed situation in Afghanistan. The recent Chinese intrusion in April 2013 in Depsang Valley GDP and is just not good enough to equip the armed forces anyand subsequently in Chumar in Ladakh has once again reminded where close to the desired standards, leave aside building requisite us that we can take the menace along our Northern borders lightly defence capabilities as well as setting up sound research and develonly at our own peril. Besides this, an assertive China in the Indo- opment facilities and a defence industrial base.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Through the issuance of DPP 2013, the government has taken a sure step to signal that it is serious about turning around the pathetic state of India’s defence acquisitions and also setting up of a defence industrial base through greater participation by the private enterprises

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Emphasis on procedural refinements

REGIONAL BALANCE

BAE Systems

RAPID procurement and indigenisation

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

9


www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Lockheed Martin, Grand Prairie, Texas, USA

Elbit Systems, Israel

BAE, Wayne, New Jersey, USA

Thales, Germany

Lockheed Martin Corp., Grand Prairie, Texas, USA

General Dynamics Land Systems, Canada

Oshkosh Corp., Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA

General Dynamics Land Systems, Sterling Heights, Michigan, USA

Clark McCarthy Healthcare Partners II, Dallas, Texas, USA

BAE Systems, USA

US Army

Israeli Air Force

US Army

Rheinmetall Defence

US Army

Colombian Army

US Army

US Army

US Army

Oman

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Supplier

Recipient

INDIAN DEFENCE

$23 million

$648 million

$132.7 million

$194 million

$65.3 million

$197 million

€7.5 million

$226 million

$75 million

$755 million

Contract Value

F-16

BUSINESS

Construction of a medical facility

M1A2S Abrams Tank production

Modification of Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles

Light armoured vehicle-III (LAV-III)

Modification of Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System unitary rockets

310 night vision goggles of type Lucie II D and 16 IR modules for 30 combat systems

Components, repairs, maintenance and services

Avionics systems and other services

69

24

310 /16

TECHNOLOGY

February 2013

February 2013

January 2013

January 2013

January 2013

January 2013

January 2013

January 2013

January 2013

January 2013

of Quantity Date Contract

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Contract to provide F-16 support equipment, test systems, and spares to the Government of Oman.

Construction of a medical facility to replace the existing William Beaumont Army Medical Center at Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas.

Procurement and production of 69 Saudi M1A2 (M1A2S) Abrams tanks for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Modification of an existing contract to procure Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles.

Delivery of light armoured vehicle-III (LAVIII) to Colombia’s Army.

Modification of existing contract to procure Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System unitary rockets.

Manufacture and supply 310 night vision goggles of type Lucie II D and 16 IR modules for 30 combat systems of the Infantry Soldier of the Future.

Components, repairs, maintenance and services in support of the Doppler GPS Navigation Sets.

Elbit will deliver avionics systems comprising battle management systems (BMS) and avionics for helicopters, and virtual training for the Israeli Air Force (IAF).

Hardware and services associated with the combat-proven Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missile Segment Program.

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

July 2016

July 2014

September 2014

May 2014

May 2015

December 2017

July 2015

Date of Delivery

(From January 2013-March 2014)

Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile

Product/ Project

Global Contracts

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Lockheed Martin Space Systems Co., Sunnyvale, California, USA

Smiths Detection, UK

US Air Force

UK MoD

Saab, Sweden

Rheinmetall Defence, Germany

German Army

Swedish Defence Materiel Administration

South Carolina Commission for the Blind, Columbia, South Carolina, USA

US Army

Rheinmetall Defence, Germany

QinetiQ, UK

UK MoD

German Army

AC First LLC, Fort Worth, Texas, USA

US Army

Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Rheinmetall Defence, Germany

Germany Army

US Air Force

Supplier

Recipient

www.spguidepublications.com

$94.7 million

€84 million

$159 million

€18.5 million

$284 million

€37 million

$162 million

€998 million

$356 million

€55 million

Contract Value

National army's ground-based air defence systems

Additional Gladius soldier systems

Hardware and support for the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures System

Integrated biological detection systems (IBDS) fleet

Procurement for the Space-based Infrared Systems GEO 5-6 programme

Advanced version of its Fuchs/Fox armoured vehicles

Food services

Continue providing test, evaluation and training support services

Maintenance, supply and transportation services

High-performance electro-optical (EO) sensors, gun mountadaptable aiming system (LAZ)

Product/ Project

60

7

418/275

February 2013

February 2013

February 2013

February 2013

February 2013

February 2013

February 2013

February 2013

February 2013

February 2013

of Quantity Date Contract

2014-17

2014

April 2015

Next two years

June 2016

November 2014

January 2018

March 2018

January 2014

Next four years

Date of Delivery

Contracts cover an upgrade of existing units and supply of new systems with groundbased air defence command, control and communication (C3) functions based on its Giraffe agile multi-beam (AMB) multifunctional radar system.

Rheinmetall will manufacture and supply around 60 systems to equip 60 infantry sections having a total of 600 soldiers.

Modification to procure hardware and support for the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures System.

Bio-consumables contract to deliver in-service support for the UK Ministry of Defence's (MoD) integrated biological detection systems (IBDS) fleet.

Advanced procurement for the Space-based Infrared Systems GEO 5-6 programme.

Deliver an advanced version of its Fuchs/Fox armoured vehicles to the German Army.

Food services at 11 dining facilities in Fort Jackson, South Carolina.

QinetiQ will manage 17 key MoD sites and administer test and evaluation nontasking services, training support capability, maintain associated equipment, land and buildings.

Modification of an existing contract to provide maintenance, supply and transportation services in support of the 401st Army Field Support Brigade located in Afghanistan.

The company will deliver 418 LAZ 200 and 275 LAZ 400L sensors for installation on around 700 remote control weapon stations (RCWS) on different vehicle types.

Remarks

Business Global Contracts

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Inc., Scranton, Pennsylvania and IMT Defense Corp., Westerville, Ohio, USA

Northrop Grumman Corp., Aerospace Systems, San Diego, California, USA Lockheed Martin Corp., Orlando, Florida, USA

INDIAN DEFENCE

$100 million

$146 million

$433 million

$100 million

$780 million

$105 million

$173 million

18

135

20

TECHNOLOGY

March 2013

March 2013

March 2013

March 2013

March 2013

March 2013

March 2013

March 2013

March 2013

February 2013

of Quantity Date Contract

BUSINESS

M107 projectile metal parts

Joint Land Component Constructive Training Capability

RQ-4 Global Hawk fielded weapon system

Su-30MKM

Manufacture and supply of Insensitive Munitions Explosives

Sustainment of the Litening Targeting Pod System Contractor logistics support, legacy sustainment and combined task force

Procurement of radios, support equipment, data and services Additional Mobile Strike Force vehicles

$500 million

$113 million

Cheetal helicopters

Product/ Project

$77.2 million

Contract Value

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Procurement of M107 projectile metal parts.

Services in support of the Joint Land Component Constructive Training Capability.

Sukhoi will provide technical maintenance as well as spare parts for a total of 18 Su-30MKM fighter aircraft for the RMAF. Contractor logistics support for the RQ-4 Global Hawk fielded weapon system.

Manufacture and supply of Insensitive Munitions Explosives.

Contractor logistics support, legacy sustainment and combined task force support for the Space Based Infrared Systems.

Sustainment of the Litening Targeting Pod System.

Modification of an existing contract to raise the price ceiling in support of the procurement of radios, support equipment, data and services. Procurement of Mobile Strike Force vehicles to support the Afghanistan National Security Forces.

Contract covers production and supply of 20 helicopters, as well as associated equipment to the army.

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

March 2018

March 2018

September 2014

September 2017

September 2016

December 2017

February 2014

December 2015

Four years

Date of Delivery

CONTENTS

Business

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Army

US Army

Malaysian Ministry of Defence US Air Force

US Army

US Air Force

US Air Force

US Army

Textron Marine & Land Systems, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., USA Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Sunnyvale, California, USA BAE Systems – Ordnance Systems Inc., Kingsport, Tennessee, USA Sukhoi, Russia

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), India Harris, Rochester, New York, USA

Indian Army

US Army

Supplier

Recipient

Global Contracts


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section four

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Indian Defence 145 153 179 209 237 247 267 291

  Homeland Security One Two Three Four

India’s Homeland Security India's Internal Security Environment India’s Coastal Security The Maoist Menace in India

299 311 325 329

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who’s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence Research & Development

REGIONAL BALANCE

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

INDIAN DEFENCE

Contents


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

S

Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the trengthening our mili  BRIGADIER (RETD) VINOD ANAND   setting up of Headquarters Integrated tary capabilities and Defence Staff (HQ IDS). internal security efforts are intricately linked with our broader political and economic objectives. If India has to survive as a modKey GoM Recommendations ern and progressive nation that wishes to achieve its After considering the report of the task force on the management of long-cherished goal of strategic autonomy, defence and security defence, the GoM made the following key recommendations: reforms have to be ushered in at a faster pace than hitherto before. n Integration of the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 of Defence (MoD). under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC), when it became n Creation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three servic(VCDS). es and that the time had come for ‘jointmanship’. Working under n Setting up of IDS to support the CDS. the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence n Establishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). Planning Staff (DGDPS), the DPS had under it directorates cover- n Organising an Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC). ing policy and plans, international and regional security affairs, n Creation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated n Establishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the n Setting up of an Indian National Defence University (INDU). Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries n A number of other long-term recommendations on aspects as Joint Staff. concerning air space and maritime management, budgetThe IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging ary reforms including performance budgeting, private sector of the military wing, which was established at the time of indeparticipation in defence production, improvement in service pendence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a conditions, media handling and cost-effectiveness. number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After All the recommendations, except the one on the appointment the Kargil War in 1999, the report of the Kargil Review Committee of the CDS, were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security (KRC), headed by K. Subrahmanyam, was examined by a Group of (CCS) on May 11, 2001. The decision about appointing a CDS was Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties. forces to review the national security system: n Management of Defence Structure of Integrated Defence Staff n Internal Security The CDS The responsibilities of the CDS, who would be the permanent n Border Management Chairman of the COSC, were as follows: n Intelligence Systems and Apparatus The task force on the management of defence, headed by Arun n Provide single-point military advice to the Indian Government. Singh, recommended among other things, the appointment of a n Command the forces of the ANC.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the military wing of the Cabinet Secretariat with the DPS.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Working Towards Integration and Jointness

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

integrated defence staff

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

CONTENTS more than two million square kilometres. India is, thus, a maritime as well as a continental entity.

The Regional Security Environment A secure, stable, peaceful and prosperous neighbourhood is central to India’s economic prosperity and security. India continues to pursue active and collaborative engagements with her neighbours with a view to promoting mutual understanding and regional peace and stability. India has maintained that a strong and prosperous Pakistan is in the best interest of India and has supported dialogue and engagement with Pakistan. However, security concerns vis-à-vis Pakistan remain a cause of concern due to the continuing activities of terrorist organisations functioning on its territory and territories under its control. The existence of terrorist camps across the India-Pak border and the line of control (LoC) and recurrent infiltrations across the LoC continue to demonstrate Pakistan’s attitude and approach to terrorist organisations, even though such organisations pose a danger to Pakistan’s own social and political fabric. The ambush of Indian troops by a Pakistan Border Action team which crossed the LoC at the Mendhar Sector in January 2013 and the heinous killing of two Indian soldiers during this attack, in contravention of all norms of international conduct, have been taken up strongly with the Pakistan Government. This was followed by an ambush and killing of five Indian soldiers on the LoC in August 2013 followed by the attack in Samba area by three fidayeen which killed four policemen and later four army soldiers including a Lt Colonel, second in command of 16 Cavalry, on September 26, 2013. While the Samba attack was being executed in Jammu region, an infiltration in the Keran Sector in the Kashmir Valley by 30 to 40 terrorists was being attempted simultaneously. This commenced on October 24, 2013, and the battle raged for about 11 days in which the army claimed

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

I

ndia’s land mass covers an area of 3.3 million square kilometres and is strategically located in continental Asia and in the Indian Ocean. Land borders extending more than 15,500 kilometres and a coastline totalling over 7,500 kilometres make India a continental or maritime neighbour of 11 countries of Asia. India’s maritime boundaries overlook three major shipping lanes. It is a home to over a billion people with varying ethnic, linguistic, religious and cultural background. The topography of India is diverse, ranging from the snow-clad Himalayas with peaks over 28,000 feet in the north to deserts, and vast fertile plains in the west; high ranges and dense tropical forests in the east and maritime borders in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and the India Ocean. To the South, there are ranges close to the sea, inland plateaus interspersed with river valleys, coastal plains, and far-flung island territories such as the Lakshadweep to the West and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the East. India is not only centrally located in South Asia, but also abuts West Asia and South East Asia. India’s location at the base of continental Asia and at the top of Indian Ocean provides it vantage point with respect to both Central Asia and the Indian Ocean region. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located 1,300 km away from the nearest point on our East Coast assume strategic predominance with respect to the entrance to the Strait of Malacca through which more than 60,000 shipping vessels transit every year. In the Arabian Sea, the Lakshadweep and Minicoy islands situated on the sea lines of communication running eastwards from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are 450 km away from the nearest point on the West Coast. The island territories along with a long coastline extend India’s territorial waters to more than 1,60,000 square kilometres and the exclusive economic zone to

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Indian Army is the largest standing volunteer army in the world. Its apolitical stance is at variance with armies of most of its neighbours in the subcontinent that has witnessed these armies often imposing their will on their people by eliminating legitimate democratic dispensations.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Indian Army has to constantly prepare itself for these multi-faceted diverse challenges

REGIONAL BALANCE

SPSC

The Indian Army

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s: Which are the areas where you have not been able to make any headway despite a strong desire on your part to do so and what is preventing you from doing it? COAS: There is no area where progress has not been made. We have made headway on all fronts, albeit the pace may be slightly slow in certain cases. Long-term processes need to be imparted with impetus to achieve our vision. Capability building requires time, commitment and resources. Most projects have long gestation periods and are spread over many years. The progress has to be viewed in this context. There are areas where the progress has been slower than what is expected.

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

sister services and all other agencies, who are the stakeholders in national security, something that I have upheld as a pre-requisite to achieving our common aim and purpose. I have always maintained that our veterans, veer naris (brave women) and widows who have made tremendous sacrifices are our strength and it is our duty to look after their well-being. Special cells for ex-servicemen have been set up at all headquarters. To usher all ranks into their second innings, placement nodes have also been created under the Army Welfare Placement Organisation (AWPO). In addition, special discharge drills are being conducted at Delhi for officers and at Regimental Centres for Junior Commissioned Officers and other ranks. My efforts thus have been towards moulding the Army into a cohesive, confident and effective force and bringing about a wellness that permeates across the rank and file. Let me assure the nation that with high levels of motivation and morale, the Indian Army is fully prepared to take on the present and future challenges with élan and professionalism.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP’s Military Yearbook (SP’s): You have now been the Chief of the Army Staff for more than a year. Which are the areas within the Army or in your relationship with the Ministry of Defence (MoD) where you have been able to positively influence matters and set into motion some long-term corrective measures/reforms? Chief of the Army Staff (COAS): As the Army Chief, it is my bounden responsibility to chart a course that prepares the Army to meet future threats and challenges effectively and continues to live up to the faith and trust that the nation has reposed on its soldiers and commanders. To start with, on taking over as the Chief of the Army Staff, I had laid down certain ‘thrust areas’ to realign the focus of the Indian Army. These form the foundation of a comprehensive approach to building an Army that remains a ready, potent, responsive and accountable instrument of national power—a vision that I have articulated time and again. To ensure the highest state of operational preparedness is my single most important area of focus. Another critical challenge remains that of force modernisation and capability build-up. It has been my endeavour to bring in greater transparency and accountability in our policies and procedures. Financial probity is integral to maintaining and preserving our core values, which form the basic edifice of our strength and structure. Our soldiers remain our most precious resource. A review of the human resource policy is already under way to meet individual aspirations and organisational needs. I have maintained that as an organisation we need to cut down on activities that do not have a bearing on our operational preparedness. I am also committed to creating an environment that offers challenging opportunities to our junior leadership. There is greater synergy now, both with the MoD as well as with

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES  Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

General Bikram Singh took over as the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) on May 31, 2012. In an exclusive interview with SP’s Military Yearbook, the COAS guaranteed that with high levels of motivation and morale, the Indian Army is fully prepared to take on the present and future challenges with élan and professionalism.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

‘The budgetary allocation to the Army in the recent years has been fairly consistent’

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

Interview Chief of the Army Staff


indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army INSAS 5.56mm Assault Rifle Characteristics Calibre (mm) : 5.56 Muzzle velocity (m/s) : 900 Length of rifle (mm) Without bayonet : 960 With bayonet : 1110 Weight of rifle Without magazine & Bayonet : 4.15 Effective range (m) : 400 Range for grenade (m) Multi-mode : 200 M 36 : 150 Magazine capacity (Rounds) : 20 Cyclic rate (Rounds/min) : 600 to 650 Trigger Pull : 2.10 to 4.00 Recoil Enegry (joules) : 4.43 Rifling. : 6 grooves R.H 1 in 200mm. Sight : Fore sight : Post Type Rear sight : Aperture type Type of fire : Single, 3 Round Burst MBTs

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T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Width, over tracks Height, over turret Roof Engine

: 3 : 46.5 tonne : 3.37 m

: 2.23 m : V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multifuel diesel engine, developing 840 hp Road range : 550 km Armament and Ammunition : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional ammunition. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min T-72S Characteristics Crew

: 3

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Cbt Weight : Height : Armament : Main gun ammunition Engine Speed Range Armour protection

46,500 kg 2.228 m Main: 1 x 125mm SBG AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSVT (300 rounds) Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds)

: 45 x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH (inclusive 6 ATGW) : V-12 multi-fuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2,000 rpm : 60 kmph (max) : 550 km : 280mm (max)

Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 43.5 tonne Height (turret roof ) : 2,190mm Engine : Up rated V46-6 engine; a 12 cylinder 4 stroke, V 60 turbocharged, watercooled, multi-fuel, direct injection engine developing 1,000 hp at 2,000 rpm. Power to weight ratio : 22.98 hp/t Max speed (on road) : 60 kmph Max speed (Cross country) : 35 to 45 kmph Gradient Ability : 60° Vertical obstacle : 850mm Trench crossing : 2.6 to 2.8 m Shallow fording : 1.2 m Armament : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG AD: 1 x 12.7mm MG Elevation/depression : 16° to -6˚ Traverse : 360° Max range : 3 km Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min Ammunition loading : Auto Ammunition stowage : 44 projectiles/charges Note: Other improvements include explosive reactive armour, integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS. T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Height

: 3 : 43,000 kg : 2.26 m

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3.864 m 0.85 kg/cm² Main: 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG 39 rounds (HESH/ FSAPDS) 6-8 rounds/minute Director type & Electro-hydraulic system & gun control Night vision : Thermal imaging Ballistic computer : Digital Engine : MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled Diesel developing 1,400 hp at 2,500 rpm Transmission : 4 Fwd+ 2 rev, Torque converter, Mech. Lockup clutch & hydrodynamic retarder Steering : Double radii, Mechanical steering with neutral turn Suspension : Hydro-gas Fuel : Renk transmission DHPP (A) Track : Diehl L - German Max speed : Road: 70 kmph Cross country: 40 kmph Shallow fording : 1.4 m Vertical obstacle : 0.914 m Trench crossing : 2.43 m Gradient : 35° Arjun Mk II These tanks will have substantially upgraded capabilities of firepower, mobility and protection. The development of Arjun Mark I tank with 43 improvements has commenced and limited technical trials incorporating the improvements have been carried out in Rajasthan. First batch of MBT Arjun Mark II is likely to go in for production by 2014-15 at Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF), Avadi. Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs) / Recce Vehs BMP-1/2 Characteristics Crew

: BMP1 3+8

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BRDM-2 Characteristics Crew : 4 Weight : 7,000 kg Armament : 6 x AT-3 [ATGM] 1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG coaxial (2,000 rounds) Engine : GAZ-41 V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3,400 rpm Speed : Land : 100 kmph Water : 10 kmph Range : 750 km Armour : 14mm

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

3.03 m

Artillery 130mm M-46 Med Gun Characteristics Crew : 8 Calibre : 130mm Weight (travelling position) : 8,450 kg Elevation/depression : +45° to 2.5° Traverse : 50° (total) Projectile weight : 33.4 kg MV : 930 m/sec Range : 27 km (full charge) 19.1 km (reduced charge) Rate of fire : 5-6 rounds/min 155mm FH-77B How Contractor: Bofors AB, Sweden Characteristics Crew : 6 Calibre : 155mm

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INDIAN DEFENCE

4 58.5 tonne 10.638 m

BMP2 3+7 BMP1 12,500 kg BMP2 14,300 kg BMP1 6.74 m BMP2 6.735 m BMP1 2.94 m, BMP2 3.15 m BMP1 2.18 m, BMP2 2.45 m Main gun BMP1: 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP2: 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds) Coaxial (Both): 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1,000 rounds) ATGW : BMP1: AT-3 BMP2: AT-5 Engine : V-16 in line water-cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp Speed : BMP1: Land : 65 kmph Water : 7 kmph BMP2: Land : 65 kmph Water : 7 kmph Range : 550-600 km (both) Armour : 20mm

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Arjun Characteristics Crew : Cbt weight : Overall length : (with gun forward) Overall height : (with AD gun mount) Overall width : Ground pressure : Armament : Main gun ammunition : Main gun rate of fire : Fire control :

Weight : Length : Width : Height : Armament :

REGIONAL BALANCE

Armament : Main: 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2,800 rounds) Main gun ammunition : 43 rounds x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH Engine : V-2-55/V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp Speed : 50 kmph (max) Range : 500 km Armour : 140mm

BUSINESS

indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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CONTENTS tonnes, over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value, moves through the medium of the sea, to and from 13 major ports, and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east, more than 1,040 kilometres from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, stretching 720 kilometres from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 kilometres from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north, Myanmar (Coco islands) lies only 35 kilometres away. To the west, about 240 kilometres from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. Other maritime interests include offshore oil and gas production sites on both the West and the East Coasts, fishing and its regulation, the ocean mining site of 75,000 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean Basin, and interests in Antarctica. India’s merchant marine is close to 10.5 million tonnes gross register tonnage (GRT), comprising over 1,150 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India’s current oil consumption which was 3.1 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2010 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl/d by 2025. Domestic production was 0.75 million barrels per day and is projected to increase marginally. This will mean a substantial increase in oil imports, touching 80 per cent of total consumption. Most of this will come by the sea route. Any stoppages or even interruptions will inevitably have a crippling effect on the economy. Thus, India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to its survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and in war. The Navy will hopefully, in the very near future, provide the third

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istorically, the roles of navies worldwide can be said to comprise the military, constabulary, diplomatic and benign. The military role encompasses deterrence against war or intervention; obtaining a decisive military victory in case war does take place; Security of India’s territorial integrity, citizens and offshore assets from seaborne threat (these could be from non-state actors also); influencing affairs on land; safeguarding India’s mercantile marine and maritime trade; and safeguarding India’s national interests and maritime security. The constabulary role, shared in part with the Coast Guard, includes all aspects of coastal defence, exclusive economic zone (EEZ) security and maintaining good order at sea. The diplomatic role encompasses strengthening political relations and goodwill; strengthening defence relations with friendly states; portraying a credible defence posture and capability; strengthening maritime security in the Indian Ocean region; and promoting regional and global stability. The benign role encompasses promoting civil safety and security, and projecting national soft power. The Indian Navy’s responsibilities encompass all the roles described above. The Indian Navy is responsible for safeguarding of a wide spectrum of the country’s maritime interests, comprising a coastline of 7,516.6 kilometres and an EEZ of over 2.3 million square kilometres, which is expected to increase to over 3.2 million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf for which India’s claim is pending resolution at the UN Commission on the Law of the Seas. In its EEZ, the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country’s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million

INDIAN DEFENCE

The mission of the Indian Navy is to ensure that India’s maritime security and vital national interests at sea are fully safeguarded against multifarious threats. With the transformation that has taken place in the international political arena; from the Cold War’s clear bipolarity to the uncertain and undefined international order of today, India needs to evolve coherent strategies that are relevant, and will be able to cope with the evolving challenges.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to its survival and prosperity

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

The Indian Navy

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s: The importance of cooperation and interoperability between the navies in the Indian Navy’s area of responsibility can hardly be overstated. Is there a need to relook at the Indian Navy’s mandate being restricted to bilateral engagements only? CNS: Operational engagement with regional and extra-regional navies involves structured interaction in the form of exercises and operations. Participation in exercises with foreign navies enables us to reinforce perceptions of the Indian Navy as a competent, confident and stabilising force in the region. These exercises are aimed at achieving a high level of interoperability; share transformational experiences, examine and imbibe ‘best practices’ enhance maritime domain awareness through a variety of information-sharing mechanisms and gain operational and doctrinal expertise. Although majority of the exercises, undertaken by the Indian Navy are bilateral in nature, Indian Navy has also been participating in few multilateral exercises which primarily focus on HADR (humanitarian assistance and disaster relief ) and crisis management. We recently participated in a multilateral HADR and military medicine exercise held at Brunei and in MSFTX (maritime security field training exercise) at Australia under the ADMM Plus construct. Indian Navy also participates in exercises like IBSAMAR (Trilateral exercise with South African and Brazilian Navies) and a ship will participate in RIMPAC-14 conducted by the US for the first time.

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zone (EEZ) surveillance by ships and aircraft as also in providing hydrographic assistance to other IOR littorals. Therefore, the Navy is playing a proactive and responsible role towards maintaining peace and stability in the IOR.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP’s Military Yearbook (SP’s): On taking over the helm of the Indian Navy, your mission statement was to steer Team Navy and its resources in the best interest of the country as dictated by the current national policy. While this may have a long gestation period, how has the Indian Navy progressed in pursuit of the mission statement? Admiral D.K. Joshi, Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS): The overall security situation in the Indian Ocean region (IOR) continues to be a cause of concern. Piracy and terrorism, facilitated by failing states and ungoverned spaces, is a clear threat that needs to be contained. Therefore, in the coming years, issues of regional stability will continue to be a vital imperative that would impact India’s national security matrix. Due to India’s central position in the IOR and our entrenched values of democracy, secularism and the rule of law, smaller littoral countries in the region seek India’s support to ensure their sovereignty and security. Consequently, the Indian Navy is well positioned to play a maritime leadership role in the IOR. With the above issues in mind, the Indian Navy is developing a capable and balanced force that should meet the emerging maritime challenges across the entire operational spectrum, from low intensity operations to armed conflict. Countering these challenges require navies to work in close cooperation with each other. This has often been done in cooperation with other regional as well as extra-regional navies. Indian Navy, in consonance with India’s policy of providing capacity-building and capability-enhancement for littorals of Indian Ocean region, has been very active in this regard. With reference to Maldives, Mauritius and Seychelles, the Indian Navy has been providing assistance for their exclusive economic

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES  Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Admiral Devendra Kumar Joshi who prematurely and voluntarily resigned as the Chief of the Naval Staff on February 26, 2014, in an interview with SP’s Military Yearbook on February 19, 2014, had said that the overall security situation in the Indian Ocean region continues to be a cause of concern. Piracy and terrorism, facilitated by failing states and ungoverned spaces, is a clear threat that needs to be contained.

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Key technologies which the Indian Navy would like to focus upon for indigenisation are development of weapons, sensors and propulsion systems

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Interview Chief of the Naval Staff


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Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy

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SUBMARINES Shishumar Class Type/HDW Type 209/1500 Total No. in Service : 4 Name : Shishumar, Shankush, Shalki, Shankul Specifications: Displacement (tonnes) : Standard 1450 Surfaced 1700 Dived 1850 Dimensions feet (metres) : 211.2 x 21.3 x 19.7 (64.4 x 6.5 x 6) Propulsion : Diesel Electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L diesels; 4 Siemens alternators; 1 Siemens motor; 1 shaft Speed (knots) : Surfaced 11; Dived 22 Range (miles) : 8,000 Snorting at 8 knots 13,000 Surfaced at 10 knots Complement : 36 (8 officers) Torpedoes : 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes. S/m carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire guided active/passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots; 12 km at 35 knots; warhead 250 kg. Mines : External strap-on type for 24 Mines Countermeasures : Decoys; C303 acoustic decoys; ESM Argo Phenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry, radar warning, ESM-DR 3000 Weapon Control : Singer Librascope MKI, CCS 90-1/ISUS Radars : Surface Search, Thomson-CSF Calypso; I-band, KH 1007/2007 Sonars : Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active/passive search and attack; Thomson Sintra DUUV-5; passive ranging and intercept, CSU 90-14 Programme : HDW concluded an agreement with Indian Navy on December 11, 1981. The first two submarines were built in West Germany and commissioned in 1986. The next two were built at the Mazagon Dock Limited, Mumbai, with supply of material package from HDW and commissioned in 1992 and 1994 respectively. Two more submarines were ordered. The submarines form the 10th Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. Mid-life refit-cum-modernisation of the class has been undertaken in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999.

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Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM/8773) Total No. in Service : 10 Name : Sindhughosh, Sindhudhvaj, Sindhuraj, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindhukesari, Sindhukirti, Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak, Sindhushastra Displacement (tonnes) : 2,300 surfaced; 3,100 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 238 x 32.5 x 21.7 (73.0 x 10.0 x 6.6) Propulsion : 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels; 2 generators; 1 motor 1 shaft; 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors; 1 economic speed motor Speed (knots) : 10 surfaced; 17 dived; 9 snorting Range (miles) : 6,000 at 7 kt snorting; 400 at 3 kt dived Complement : 68 (7 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 Kt; TEST 71/76 anti-submarine; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg Total of 18 weapons. Wire-guided torpedo on two tubes. Other Weapons : Mines 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes, some submarines carry shoulder held 9M36 Strela-3 (SA-N-8) SAM launcher placed in fin for use on surface. Countermeasures : ESM; squid head radar warning, Porpoise (Indigenous) Weapon Control : Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS Radars : Navigation; Snoop Tray; MRP-25; I-band Sonars : MGK–400, hull mounted, active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. MG-519; hull mounted active search; high frequency. Being replaced by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL, Bengaluru, in a progressive manner on submarines Programmes : The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine has since been supplied to Algeria, Poland, Romania, Iran and China. Operational : First four form the Eleventh Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remaining six comprise the Twelfth Submarine Squadron based

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INS Chakra (SSN) Displacement (tonnes) : 8,450 surfaced; 13,400 dived Dimensions (metres) : 113.3 x 13.6 x 9.7 Main machinery : 1 OK 650B/OK 650M nuclear PWR; 190 MW; one OK-7 steam turbine; 43,000 hp(m); 2 OK 300 retractable electric propulsors for low speed and quiet manoeuvring; 750 hp(m) (552 kW); 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 28-35 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 90 (23 officers)

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Arihant Class (SSBN) Dimensions : Length – 112 m (367 ft), Beam – 15 m (49 ft), Draft – 10 m (33 ft) Displacement : 6,000 tonnes Propulsion : PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe); one turbine (1,11,000 hp/83 MW); one shaft; one 7-bladed, high-skew propeller (estimated) Range : Unlimited except by food supplies Speed : 12-15 knots surface, 24 knots dived Test Depth : 300 m (980 ft) (estimated) Complement : 95 Sensors and Processing Systems : The Bharat Electronics Ltd USHUS Integrated Sonar; Panchendriya submarine sonar and tactical weapons control system with active, passive, ranging, surveillance and intercept sonars and underwater communication system. Armament : 6 x 533mm torpedoes, 12 x K-15 Sagarika SLBM (Range 750 km, 8 MIRV each) or 4 x K-4 Shaurya SLBM (range up to 3,500 km) Launched : July 26, 2009 Status : Undergoing sea trials Programme : Arihant’s reactor is reported to have gone critical in mid-August 2013 and a sea trial period of around 18 months is expected to follow. Arihant should commission in early 2015. The second submarine of the class, reportedly named INS Aridhaman, is scheduled for launch in 2013 or early 2014. Two more submarines of this class are expected to follow.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Scorpene Class (Project 75) Displacement (tonnes) : 1,668 dived Dimensions (feet/metres) : 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels; 1 Jeumont (metres) Schneider motor; 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 20 dived 12 surfaced Range (miles) : 550 at 4 kt dived 6,500 at 8 kt surfaced Diving Depth : More than 300 m (984 ft) Complement : 31 (6 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533 mm) tubes Countermeasures : ESM Weapons Control : UDS International SUBTICS Radars : Navigation; Sagem; I-band Sonars : Hull mounted passive and attack–medium frequency Programme : Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN, France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by 2016 and thereafter one every year, to complete delivery by 2021. Details of equipment package are speculative and based on those built for Chilean

Navy. Design consideration provides special attention to stealth features with the hull forms, the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 anti-ship missile, the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare; intelligence gathering and special operations.

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at Mumbai. The submarines have progressively undergone mid-life modernisation refits commencing 1997, which includes installation of the Klub cruise missile and the associated Lama fire control system, new sonars, electronic warfare systems, machinery control systems and an automated information and control system for the weapon package. Sindhuvir was the first to go through this refit at Severodvinsk from 1997-99, followed by Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari at Admiralty Shipyard, St Petersburg, from 1999-2001. Sindhuratna, Sindhughosh, Sindhuvijay and Sindhurakshak have been refitted at Severodvinsk from 2001-03, 200205, 2005-07 and 2010-12 respectively. Sindhurakshak is reported to have been gutted in a major fire on 14 August 2013. Sindhukirti is undergoing refit to the same standard at the Hindustan Shipyard Limited, Visakhapatnam from 2007 onwards. The last two submarines are expected to be refitted at Visakhapatnam. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missiles, the surface version of this Indo-Russian 290-km range supersonic missile is already being fitted on the Indian Navy’s surface platforms.

indian defence

REGIONAL BALANCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

Early History The IAF was formally established on October 8, 1932, the date on which the first batch of officers was commissioned. On April 1, 1933, ‘A’ Flight of No. 1 Squadron was raised at Drigh Road, Karachi, now in Pakistan, with six officers, 19 airmen and four Westland Wapiti IIA aircraft. The fledgling IAF saw action for the first time in 1937 during operations in the North West Frontier Province. By June 1938, the Squadron was built up to full strength with three flights of three aircraft each, 16 officers and 662 airmen. During World War II, in response to the Japanese pre-emptive strikes on Pearl Harbour and Malaya, No. 1 Squadron with 12 Westland Lysander aircraft was moved to Burma in February 1, 1942. However, when Rangoon fell to the Japanese in April 1942, the Squadron was relocated at Risalpur and converted to Hawker Hurricane IIB fighters. The IAF expanded rapidly growing to nine squadrons by the end of 1944. Redeployed in Burma, the IAF played a major role in the Arakan offensive which began in December 1944. In March 1945, recognition of their outstanding performance came by way of the prefix “Royal”. The IAF was then known as the Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF). In 1946, the RIAF squadrons began to convert to the Hawker Tempest II, which has been called “the IAF’s first true fighter bomb-

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er”. The first RIAF transport unit, No. 12 Squadron, was also formed with Douglas C-47 Dakotas. When India attained independence on August 15, 1947, some RIAF units were transferred to Pakistan. The RIAF, therefore, shrank to Nos. 3, 4, 7, 8 and 10 Squadrons equipped with Tempests, No. 2 Squadron with Spitfires and No. 12 Squadron with Dakotas. Post-independence, on October 27, 1947, the IAF undertook an emergency task with Dakotas to airlift Indian forces into Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to thwart attempts by Pakistani-sponsored invaders to wrest control of the valley from India. Tempests and Spitfires joined the action, successfully halting their advance. The operations in J&K ended on December 31, 1948, under a United Nationssponsored ceasefire. On January 26, 1950, India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the “Royal” prefix. The 1950s also witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process began in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire, the first combat jet of the IAF. This was followed by the induction of the Ouragan (Toofani), Mystere, Canberra, Hunter and Gnat entered service, all in the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) resulted in the IAF acquiring three MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963, which paved the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards, the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation, which also influenced the evolution of the aerospace industry in India. The Indo-Pak conflict of 1965 witnessed the IAF aggressively using the redoubtable Gnat, demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict, scoring a number of kills in the air. In the decade of the 1980s, the IAF played a key role during the operations in Sri Lanka involving the Indian Peace Keeping Force and the military intervention in the Maldives, effec-

BUSINESS

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he Indian Air Force (IAF), the fourth largest in the world today, is the primary instrument available to the nation for the projection of air power. While in peacetime, the IAF is responsible for security and integrity of the national air space, it plays a central and critical role in war providing swift and decisive response. The potential of air power to influence the outcome of a military conflict has been amply demonstrated in the post-World War II era in several international conflicts including the wars in the Middle East and Afghanistan. In the Indian context as well, in recent time, the IAF played a critical role in the conflict with Pakistan in Kargil in 1999.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Over the years the IAF has grown from a tactical to a strategic force, capable of protecting national security interests that extend from the Gulf to the Strait of Malacca.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Aiming for a strategic Reach

REGIONAL BALANCE

IAF

The Indian Air Force

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s: Considering that the spectrum of war has been enlarged and requires capability and expertise for simultaneous conflict of different types, how has this affected the inventory of the IAF, its organisation and focus on training? CAS: As you would be aware, the government has approved the long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) of the armed forces. The all-spectrum capability development process of the IAF to enhance our combat potential has been factored in the LTIPP. These acquisitions would adequately address the myriad security challenges facing the nation, both current and futuristic. Along with the acquisition of more versatile combat platforms, force multipliers and creating net-centric environment, the IAF is aware of the need to enhance the skills required of our air warriors to be able to absorb state-of-the-art technologies. Hence, even on the training front, we have revised our training syllabi to be commensurate with our future needs. These include induction of new aircraft for training, like the Pilatus PC-7 MkII and Hawk along with greater

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the success of the operations. Inclement weather, narrow valleys and unprepared helipads did not deter our air warriors. They displayed exceptional commitment to the assigned task and a record 3,702 sorties were flown in airlifting 24,260 people to safety. The event highlighted the excellent ethos and values of our air warriors. Our professionalism and dedication has earned accolades from all quarters of the country and reaffirmed the confidence of the nation in IAF’s capability. This event will always be remembered by the IAF and the nation as one of the most outstanding disaster relief operations in the history of our country.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP’s Military Yearbook (SP’s): What has been the most memorable event during your tenure as the Air Officer Commandingin-Chief of Western Air Command as also during your tenure as the Vice Chief of the Air Staff (VCAS)? Air Chief Marshal A. Raha (CAS): Every tenure in my long service career has been eventful, memorable, enriching and very satisfying. However, certain events remain deeply etched in my conscious because of their significance, challenges involved and the resultant overall impact on me and the Indian Air Force (IAF). My tenure as the VCAS has been short but represents an accelerated learning curve in working with the Army, Navy, the Ministry of Defence (MoD), defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) and other agencies. It is not possible for me to identify any particular event as outstanding while tenanting VCAS appointment. However, the most memorable event during my tenure as the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) of Western Air Command (WAC) was the execution of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations ‘Operation Rahat’ in Uttarakhand in June 2013. Uttarakhand falls within the ‘area of responsibility’ of WAC. The unprecedented disaster of enormous magnitude had called for launching of perhaps the largest ever helicopter relief operations involving 45 helicopters, pooled in from all Commands of the IAF. Under the direct guidance of the CAS from Air Headquarters (HQ), the necessary resources were organised and the operations were conducted with professionalism and grit, thus rescuing thousands of people and saving precious lives. Various innovative steps including the fuel bridging missions undertaken by C-130 special operations aircraft and Mi-26 heavy-lift helicopter contributed to

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES  Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha took over as the Chief of the Air Staff on January 1, 2014, on retirement of Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne on December 31, 2013. In an interview with SP’s Military Yearbook as Chief of the Air Staff-designate, he said the IAF’s major challenge is to remain a contemporary aerospace power which possesses credible response options.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

‘Capability development of the IAF is an ongoing process, shaped by the emerging as well as envisaged threats and the perceived role in our region’

REGIONAL BALANCE

IAF

Interview Chief of the Air Staff


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Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force

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Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21MF/Bis/Bison/M/MF NATO reporting names : Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) Country of origin : USSR –Manufactured under licence In India by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Type : Single-seat multi-role fighter Number in Service : All variants - 264. Construction Wings : Delta planform with a 2° anhedral and 57° sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage : Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics, and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type, mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant : One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9,400 lb dry and 14,000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2,750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis & Bison are powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15,000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit : K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment : ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass, IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament : One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23/2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally, & up to 2,500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2*1,000 lb, RVV-AE, R-73/R-60 AAMs, S-24 and UB80/UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wing span : 7.15 m Length : 16.10 m, including pitot boom Height : 4.5 m Wing area : 23.45 m²

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Weights Take-off (combat) Max take-off Performance Max speed Above 10,000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb G Limits

: 8,750 kg : 10,500 kg : Mach 2.23 : Mach 1.1 : 390 km : 6,500 m/min : + 7/–1.5

Note 1: While the ‘FL’ version of MiG-21 was finally retired from service in December 2013, a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following: •  Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which, in combination with the active homing RVV-AE, Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a ‘Fire-andForget’ capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer, the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft’s overall air-to-surface capability. •  The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales; Monolith Ring Laser Gyro-based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. •  The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian made Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display and a Head-up Display. •  Additional avionics include a HAL-made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and Tarang, RWR equipment. •  An Israeli Video Recording System has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the ‘Bison’ by the Indian Air Force. Note 2: About 70 M/MF versions of the aircraft to be phased out in 2014-15. But the 120+ upgraded MiG-21Bis/Bison aircraft are to remain in service till 2025. Mikoyan MiG-27M NATO reporting name Country of origin Type Number in Service

: Flogger-J : USSR : Single-seat variable geometry strike fighter. : 90 – Planned to be retired from service by 2017

Construction

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Note: About 50 MiG-27 aircraft have been given midlife upgrade at the HAL Nasik Division.

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42°, with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. Fuselage : Semi-monocoque all-metal structure, sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. Tail Unit : Twin vertical fins swept back at 40°, and canted outward at 7°, with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tailplanes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tailplanes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15 per cent of construction is believed to be of Carbon-Boron composite materials. Power Plant : Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11,250 lb dry and 18,500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising/lowering of nose-wheel on take-off/ landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4,000 litres with a provision for a single 750-litre drop tank to be carried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. Cockpit : K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a two piece blister design. Avionics: NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO ‘Slot Back’) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100-km detection and 70-km track range with full look up/down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up/down shoot down IRST on nose on starboard side. Navattack computers, HUD, helmet mounted sights operable up to 40° off the axis. Advanced 360° passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF/UHF communication systems. AoA indicator, radar altimeter, 3-axis auto stabilisation system, auto pilot, deception jammer in wing root. Armament: 1 GSh-301 30mm cannon in port wing root, with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73, R-27R, R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3,500 kg on six external hard points. Dimensions Wing span : 11.40 m Length overall : 17.34 m Height overall : 4.75 m Wing area : 35.35 m² Weights Empty : 8,340 kg Normal

TECHNOLOGY

: Fulcrum : USSR : Single-seat air superiority fighter : 62

BUSINESS

Mikoyan MiG-29A/B NATO reporting name Country of origin Type Number in Service Construction Wings

INDIAN DEFENCE

: Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16°, 45° and 72° . Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers/lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage : Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions. Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Cockpit : KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet-proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to ­withstand hits up to 23mm calibre shells. Power Plant : One Tumansky R-29 17,500 lb/st dry 25,35 lb/streheat t­ urbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6,700 litres. Avionics and Systems: KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone, VHF/UHF, IFF equipment. Doppler nav/attack system and radar ­altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Duck nose houses Laser ranging/targeting equipment. Doppler nav/attack system with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav/attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception/broad-band ECM equipment and Flare/chaff dispensers. Armament: One GSh-23/6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5,000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal, Beluga, FAB 500/750, FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L/T ASMs are also available. Dimensions Wing span : 16°: 14.30 m; 72°: 8.21 m Length overall : 18.15 m Height overall : 5.55 m Wing area : 27.45 m2 Weights Empty : 8,200 kg Clean : 15,780 kg Max take-off : 20,250 kg Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 1.9 At sea level : Mach 1.3 Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) : 600 km Turn rate : Max 20 deg/sec; sustained 14 deg/sec G Limits : Normal +7.5/-1.5; Ultimate +10/-3

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Wings

REGIONAL BALANCE

indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

Duties and Functions The Coast Guard Act, 1978, specifies the duties and functions of the service, mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks: n Safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals, installations and devices. n Protection and assistance to fishermen at sea in distress. n Preservation and protection of marine environment. n Prevention and control of marine pollution. n Assistance to Customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. n Enforcement of maritime laws in force. n Safety of life and property at sea. n Collection of scientific data. n Other duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India.

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The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard: n Coordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pollution response in the Maritime Zones of India. The Director General of the Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) preparedness meeting. n Coordinating authority for maritime Search and Rescue in the Indian Search and Rescue Region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board. n The Director General Indian Coast Guard is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) and regular meetings are conducted at the national level to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage, terrorist attacks, hijacking of platforms, drill ships, jack up rig, blow outs, fire hazards, etc. n The authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. n Nominated as the Lead Intelligence Agency (LIA) for the country’s coastal/ sea borders for the purpose of generating, coordinating and sharing intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) measuring 2.01 million square kilometres that are home to inter-alia 3,565 square kilometres of mangroves, 18,000 square kilometres of coral reefs, and a potential 4.72 million tonnes of fisheries resources. It is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of a peninsular nation that harbours 12 major ports and 187 minor ports (some of the significant achievements of the Indian Coast Guard in pursuit of its vast charter of duties can be seen at Appendix A).

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

T

he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18, 1978, to undertake the predominantly peace-time tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India, with a view to the protection of maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence, primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has military functions in a war situation when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates inducted from the Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Coast Guard plans to cater to a twofold increase in force levels by the year 2027. The various types of units envisaged for induction include offshore patrol vessels, pollution control vessels, fast patrol vessels, interceptor boats and shallow water craft. In addition, aircraft such as multi-mission maritime aircraft, coastal surveillance aircraft and twin-engine heavy and light helicopters, are also envisaged in these plans. The plan also caters for additional Coast Guard units at strategic locations.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Ensuring the Security of Maritime Zones

REGIONAL BALANCE

GSL

Indian Coast Guard

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard Surface Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) “Samar” Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 1,604, Deep 1,800 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 102 x 11.5 x 3.4 m Armament : 76/62 SRGM with electro-optical fire control System (EOFCS) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Can operate ALH & Chetak Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 4,707KW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16 PA6V280) Speed (knots) : 22 Range (n miles) : 6,000 at 15 kn Complement (crew) : 128 (including 15 officers)

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Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) “Sankalp” Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 1,830, Deep 2,325 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 105 x 12.9 x 3.6 Armament : 2 x 30mm CRN 91 with Stabilised Optronic Pedestal (SOP) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Can operate ALH & Chetak Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 7,700 KW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 20 PA6BSTC) Speed (knots) : 23.5 Range (n miles) : 6,500 at 12 kn Complement (crew) : 128 (including 15 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) “Vikram” Class Total No. in Service : 6 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 992, Deep 1,180 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 74 x 11.4 x 3.2 m Armament : 30mm 2A42 and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Can operate Chetak Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 4707 KW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16PA6V280) Speed (knots) : 22

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Range (n miles) : 8,500 at 12 kn Complement (crew) : 108 (including 10 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) “Vishwast” Class Total No. in Service : 3 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 1,500, Deep 1,840 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 94 x 12.2 x 3.6 m Armament : 30 mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Can operate ALH Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 9,000 KW each (MTU 20 V 8,000 M90) Speed (knots) : 26 Range (n miles) : 4,500 at 14 kn Complement (crew) : 108 (including 10 officers) Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) “Samudra Prahari” Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 3,196, Deep 3,946 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 94 x 15.5 x 4.5 m Armament : 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Can operate ALH Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 3,000 KW each (Bergen B32, 40 L6P) & 883 KW Ulstein Aquamaster bow thruster Speed (knots) : 26 (ship is capable of cruising at 0.2 kn speed during oil skimming mode with bow thruster) Range (n miles) : 6,000 at 14 kn Complement (crew) : 102 (including 12 officers) Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) “Priyadarshini” Class Total No. in Service : 8 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 165, Deep 215 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 47 x 7.5 x 2 m Armament : 40/60 or 30mm 2A42 and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 1480 KW each (MTU 12V

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Fast Patrol Vessels (IPVs) “Rani Abbakka” Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 269, Deep 349 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 50 x 8.36 x 2.1 m Armament : 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 KW each (MTU 16V 4,000 M 90) Speed (knots) : 34 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 16 kn Complement (crew) : 42 (including 6 officers) Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs) “Rajshree” Class Total No. in Service : 6 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 244, Deep 303 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 48.9 x 7.5 x 2.1 m

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Interceptor Boats (IBs) “C-154” Class Total No. in Service : 1 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 54, Deep 73 Dimensions (LOA x B x T) : 27.5 x 6.2 x 1.2 m Armament : 12.7mm HMG Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 1,630 KW each (MTU 16V 2,000 M92) Speed (knots) : 35 Range (n miles) : 500 at 20 kn Complement (crew) : 13 (including 2 officers) Interceptor Boats (IBs) “C-401” Class Total No. in Service : 5 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Interceptor Boats (IBs) “C-141” Class Total No. in Service : 13 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 62, Deep 81 Dimensions (LOA x B x T) : 26 x 6.6 x 1.7 m Armament : 12.7mm HMG Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 2,042 KW each, (MTU 12V 4,000 M90) Speed (knots) : 45 Range (n miles) : 500 at 25 kn Complement (crew) : 13 (including 2 officers)

BUSINESS

Interceptor Boats (IBs) “C-131” Class Total No. in Service : 10 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 32, Deep 44 Dimensions (LOA x B x T) : 20 x 5 x 1.4 m Armament : 12.7mm HMG Main machinery : 3 Diesels, 2 x 823 KW (MWM 234 TBD V12) & 1 x 410 KW (MWM 234 TBD V08) Speed (knots) : 32 Range (n miles) : 489 at 12-14 kn Complement (crew) : 11 (including 2 officers)

INDIAN DEFENCE

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs) “Tarabai” Class Total No. in Service : 5 Specifications Make : Singapore/Indian Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 141, Deep 200 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 45 x 7 x 1.89 m Armament : 40/60 & 7.62mm LMG Main machinery : 2 Diesels, 1480 KW each (MTU 12V 538 TB 82) Speed (knots) : 26 Range (n miles) : 2,400 nm at 14 kn Complement (crew) : 42 (including 6 officers)

: 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 KW each (MTU 16V 4,000 M90) Speed (knots) : 34 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 16 kn Complement (crew) : 42 (including 6 officers)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) “Sarojini Naidu” Class Total No. in Service : 7 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 235, Deep 259 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) : 48 x 7.5 x 2 m Armament : 30mm 2A42 or 30mm CRN91 with SOP and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 KW each (MTU 16V 4,000 M90) Speed (knots) : 35 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 12 kn Complement (crew) : 42 (including 6 officers)

Armament

REGIONAL BALANCE

538 TB 82) Speed (knots) : 23 Range (n miles) : 2,400 at 14 kn Complement (crew) : 42 (including 6 officers)

CONTENTS

indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard


CONTENTS

Ministry of Defence Department of Defence Defence Secretary........................................................................................................................................... Radha Krishna Mathur Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare)............................................................................................................... Sangita Gairola Joint Secretary (Navy/Ordnance)................................................................................................................... Ram Subhag Singh Joint Secretary (Establishment & Public Grievance & CVO)....................................................................... Navin Kumar Choudhary Joint Secretary (General/Air)......................................................................................................................... Ravi Kant Joint Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare)...................................................................................................... A.S. Lakshmi Joint Secretary (Planning and International Cooperation)......................................................................... Smita Nagraj

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Acquisition Wing Director General (Acquisition)...................................................................................................................... A.R. Sihag Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & AS............................................................................................................ Shobhana Joshi Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems).............................................................................. Vacant Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems)................................................................... Ravindra Pawar Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air)................................................................................................ Rajeev Verma Technical Manager (Land Systems)............................................................................................................... Major General Sanjeev Shukla Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems).................................................................................................... Rear Admiral I.P.S. Bali Technical Manager (Air).....................................................................................................................................Air Vice Marshal G. Raveendranath Finance Manager (Land Systems) & Joint Secreatry.................................................................................... R.K. Sinha Finance Manager (Maritime & Systems) & Joint Secretary......................................................................... Arti Bhatnagar Finance Manager (Air).................................................................................................................................... A.R. Sule Department of Defence Production Secretary (Defence Production).................................................................................................................... Gokul Chandra Pati Additional Secretary (Defence Production).................................................................................................. Ashok Kumar Gupta Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems).............................................................................................................. P.K. Mishra Joint Secretary (Aerospace)............................................................................................................................ Kamlesh Kumar Pant Joint Secretary (Naval Systems)..................................................................................................................... Ashok Kumar Meena

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TECHNOLOGY

Prime Minister................................................................................................................................................. Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence......................................................................................................................................... A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence.......................................................................................................................... Jitendra Singh

BUSINESS

Union Government

INDIAN DEFENCE

President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces............................................................................ Pranab Mukherjee Vice President.................................................................................................................................................. M. Hamid Ansari

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (As on April 30, 2014)

REGIONAL BALANCE

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

Pranab Mukherjee

President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces A man of unparalleled experience in governance with the rare distinction of having served at different times as Foreign, Defence, Commerce and Finance Minister; Pranab Mukherjee assumed office as the 13th President of India on July 25, 2012. After his post-graduation in History and Political Science, and a degree in Law from the University of Kolkata, he embarked on his professional life as a college teacher and journalist. In 1969, he plunged into full-time public life following his election to the Upper House of the Parliament (Rajya Sabha). Mukherjee was elected to the Rajya Sabha five times and twice to the Lower House of the Parliament (Lok Sabha). He was a member of the Congress Working Committee, the highest policy-making body of the party, for 23 years. During the period 2004-12, Mukherjee was instru-

mental in spearheading critical decisions of the government on a range of issues such as Administrative Reforms, Right to Information, Right to Employment, Food Security, Energy Security, Information Technology and Telecommunication, setting up of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), Metro Rail, etc through Chairmanship of over 95 Groups of Ministers constituted for the purpose. In the 1970s and 1980s, he was instrumental in setting up the Regional Rural Banks (1975) and the EXIM Bank of India as well as National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (1981-82). A powerful orator and scholar, Mukherjee’s intellectual and political prowess as well as remarkable knowledge of international relations, financial affairs and parliamentary process, are widely admired.

Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India

Dr Manmohan Singh, the 15th Prime Minister of India, is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26, 1932, in a village in Punjab province of undivided India, Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK, where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh’s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971, Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are Secretary in the Ministry of Finance, Deputy

Chairman of the Planning Commission, Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career, the most prominent are India’s second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan (1987); the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress Association (1995); the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994); the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993); the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956); and the Wright’s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John’s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004.

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Defence Minister A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24, 2006, marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28, 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala, to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai, he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17, 1985, to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed

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the students’ unions. Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning, he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony, who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice, is an astute politician with a spotless image.

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CONTENTS

indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

Jitendra Pratap Singh

Tourism and Culture. He is the grandson of Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar KCSI (1911-2009), the last ruling Maharaja of Alwar. He is fond of sports and his special interests include, flying aeroplanes and photography and trekking in the Himalayas. He is a national medalist in trap shooting. He is a widely travelled politician. He was inducted as a Minister of State for Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports in the latest Cabinet reshuffle in October 2012.

Radha Krishna Mathur, Secretary, Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence, has been appointed as Defence Secretary on May 25, 2013. Mathur, an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of the 1977 batch from Manipur-Tripura cadre, succeeds Shashi Kant Sharma. A B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering from IIT, Kanpur, and M.Tech in Industrial Engineering from IIT, Delhi, he has also done his Masters in Business Administration from ICPE, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Mathur

has served in various ministries in the Government of India in different capacities, including the Ministry of Industry, External Affairs, Information and Broadcasting and Textiles. From 2000 to August 2008, he served the Government of Tripura as Principle Secretary and finally as Chief Secretary. From September 2008 to October 2011, he was the Additional Secretary and Special Secretary in the Ministry of Defence.

Gokul Chandra Pati

Secretary, Defence Production Gokul Chandra Pati is an Orissa Cadre IAS officer of 1978 batch. He succeeds R.K. Mathur as the Secretary, Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence. He was earlier the Secretary, Department of Animal Husbandry. His educational qualification includes B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Physics. He has had a considerable level of experience in

Orissa State as a joint secretary in the department of industries and as a joint and additional secretary in the Ministry of Agriculture at the Centre. He has attended a large number of Courses/Cadres including an advanced course on World Trade Organisation at the Administrative Staff College, Hyderabad. He has done MBA in 1995 in Autralia.

BUSINESS

Defence Secretary

INDIAN DEFENCE

Radha Krishna Mathur

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Born in the royal family of Alwar in Rajasthan, Jitendra Pratap Singh Prabhakar Bahadur is a Member of Parliament from Alwar. He has a Bachelor of Commerce degree from Delhi University. Singh is a member of the All India Congress Committee, has been a Member of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly for two terms and was elected to the 15th Lok Sabha on May 18, 2009. He has been a Member of Public Accounts Committee and Committee for Transport,

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Minister of State for Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports

Avinash Chander

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the critical technologies like Composite Rocket Motors, Re-entry Carbon Composite Heat Shield, Advanced High Accuracy Navigation Systems, Flex Nozzle Control System, High-end Real-time Computing Techniques, Advanced Navigation Systems, Onboard Computers, and Servo Valves and Seekers. He also laid the technology roadmap for Missile Complex Laboratories. He has been honoured with with Padma Shri and numerous other awards. He is a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineers, Systems Society of India, Andhra Pradesh Academy of Sciences, and VicePresident of Astronautical Society of India.

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Avinash Chander joined DRDO in 1972 after completing graduation in Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi. He obtained MS in Spatial Information Technology from Jawharlal Nehru Technological University (JNTU), Hyderabad. Shri Avinash Chander is the chief architect of Agni series of ballistic missile systems due torelentless efforts. He pioneered research in inertial navigation and guidance systems and has enabled utilisation of solid propulsion, the main thrust and the backbone of long-range missile system. Under his leadership, DRDO carried out extensive research and indigenously developed

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Secretary Department of Defence R&D, DG R&D and SA to RM


indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence Public Sector Undertakings R.K. Tyagi

Chairman, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited R.K. Tyagi took over as Chairman of the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in March 2012. Previously, he was Chairman and Managing Director of Pawan Hans Helicopter Ltd. He is an Engineering Graduate in Electronics and Telecommunications (1975) from IIT Roorkee and is also a Masters in Business Administration. Subsequently, he also attended an Advanced Leadership

course on Public Sector Management for 15 months at the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad in the years 2004-05. He joined Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) as a Graduate Trainee in the year 1976 and through various assignments rose to the position of General Manager in the year 2003 and continued serving ONGC up to May 2007.

S.K. Sharma

Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Electronics Limited S.K. Sharma took charge as Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of Navratna defence PSU Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) on January 1, 2014. He was Director (Bangalore Complex), BEL, before his elevation. He joined BEL in 1978 after graduating from the University College of Engineering, Bengaluru. He completed his Masters in Business Administration while in service. He has wide experience in multiple disciplines covering Electronic Warfare, Avionics,

Network Centric Systems, Radars and Components, having served in various capacities at BEL's Bengaluru, Ghaziabad and Hyderabad Units. He was General Manager (Network Centric Systems) and head of BEL's Ghaziabad Unit before he took charge as Director (Bengaluru Complex) in September 2011. S.K. Sharma is a BEL nominee Director on the Boards of BEL’s Joint Venture Companies, GE BEL Pvt Ltd and BEL Multitone Pvt Ltd.

P. Dwarakanath

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Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Earth Movers Limited P. Dwarakanath has assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) from October 10, 2012. He joined the Board of BEML Limited on March 1, 2008, as Director (Metro and Rail Business). He is a gradu-

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ate in Mechanical Engineering from the National Institute of Technology, Warangal. He joined BEML in 1978 as a Management Trainee and served in all business verticals of the ­company namely, Rail and Metro, Defence and Mining, and Construction.

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CONTENTS

indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence public sector undertakings

Rear Admiral (Retd) R.K. Shrawat

After serving in the Indian Navy for 34 years, Rear Admiral (Retd) A.K. Verma, took over as Chairman and Managing Director of the Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited, Kolkata, on November 1, 2011. He did his Mechanical Engineering from the National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, in 1977. After joining Indian Navy, he did his Marine Engineering Specialisation course from Naval College of Engineering at Lonavla, Pune, and Aeronautical

Engineering course from Air Force Technical College, Bengaluru. He has held many appointments both onboard as well as ashore including Naval Headquarters, Command Headquarters at Mumbai and Kochi, Western Fleet and many operational ships and air stations. He has the unique distinction of being the only officer in the Navy to have commanded both the Aircraft and the Ship Repair Yards at Kochi. He is recipient of VSM.

Rear Admiral (Retd) Shekhar Mital

Chairman and Managing Director, Goa Shipyard Limited Rear Admiral (Retd) Shekhar Mital assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director of Goa Shipyard Ltd (GSL) on February 1, 2014. He is B.Tech, M.Tech from IIT, Kharagpur, and M.Phil in Defence Studies from Naval Defence College, New Delhi. The various senior positions he has held in his long and distinguished career with the Indian Navy, have provided, Rear Admiral Mital with a deep and well rounded under-

standing of the very many facets of shipbuilding. He has worked for over 12 years at IHQ, MoD, and is well versed with MoD, shipbuilding, design and repairs procedures. Under his dynamic and professional leadership, GSL is poised for major leap ahead in design and construction of complex platforms, including weapon intensive ships. Rear Admiral Shekhar Mital is recipient of the NM, for distinguished service.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Chairman and Managing Director, Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited

TECHNOLOGY

Rear Admiral (Retd) A.K. Verma

BUSINESS

for Arihant, the indigenous, strategic submarine. He served as Chief Staff Officer (Technical) at the Western Naval Command, Mumbai, and later as Admiral Superintendent, Naval Dockyard, Mumbai. Before taking premature retirement from the Indian Navy, he also served as Director General, Weapons and Electronics Systems Engineering Establishment, New Delhi. A recipient of AVSM, he was awarded the Lieutenant V.K. Jain Gold Medal for Applied Research work in 1991.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Rear Admiral (Retd) R.K. Shrawat took over as the CMD of the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) on February 29, 2012. An Electronics and Communications Engineer from IIT Roorkee, he also holds a post-graduate degree in Radar and Communication Engineering from IIT, Delhi. He has undergone the Naval Higher Command course at the College of Naval Warfare, Mumbai, and is also an alumnus of the National Defence College, New Delhi. He has served as Project Director at ATV Headquarters, responsible

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Chairman and Managing Director, Mazagon Dock Limited

Rear Admiral (Retd) N.K. Mishra took over as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Hindustan Shipyard Limited on August 1, 2011. He is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla. He completed his Engineering Degree from INS Shivaji, Lonavla, and thereafter he specialised in Electrical and Weapons Engineering from INS Valsura, Jamnagar. He is an M.Tech. in Computer Science from IIT, Mumbai. He has overseen

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refits of INS Viraat on two occasions, first in 1993 and then as a full-fledged Director, Viraat Project Team during 1997-2002. He was awarded the Nao Sena Medal for successful completion of the modernisation refit of Viraat ahead of schedule. During 2002-05, he was the Defence Attaché at Embassy of India, Rome. On promotion to Flag rank he was the Additional Director General Quality Assurance (Naval) in the DGQA, New Delhi.

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Chairman and Managing Director, Hindustan Shipyard Limited

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Rear Admiral (Retd) N.K. Mishra


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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CONTENTS range of products. They have developed a number of products indigenously and have developed capabilities in various fields through transfer of technology. Production and turnover of ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been increasing steadily to meet the increasing requirements of the armed forces. The turnover for the last three years are as under:

Year

Sales OFs

Sales DPSUs

Total

2009-10

8,715.26

25,899.64

34,614.90

2010-11

11,215.01

25,975.06

37,190.07

2011-12

12,390.72

28,667.28

41,058.00

29,455.88

29,455.88

2012-13

NA

Note: All figures are in ` crore

As a matter policy, ordnance factories and DPSUs have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have over the years, developed a wide vendor base which apart from the large-scale industries includes many small-scale enterprises. The website of the Department http://www.ddpmod.gov.in has been functional since January 1, 2013.

Participation by the Private Sector With the strategic objective of achieving self-reliance in defence production, the DDP&S has been endeavouring to indigenise defence equipment wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. In May 2001, the defence industry sector which was hitherto reserved for the PSUs was opened for 100 per cent participation by the Indian private sector with foreign direct investment (FDI) limit at 26 per cent, both subject to licensing. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) has issued detailed guidelines for the licensing of the production of arms and ammunition. In July 2013, the government decided to increase FDI in the defence

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stablished in November 1962, the Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S) was mandated to develop a comprehensive industrial infrastructure to achieve self-reliance in defence production. Over the years, the department has established wide ranging facilities for the production of a variety of defence equipment by ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs). Products include arms and ammunition, tanks, armoured vehicles, heavy vehicles, earth-moving equipment, combat aircraft, helicopters, warships, submarines, missiles, electronic equipment, special alloys and special purpose steel. The Department of Defence Production and Supplies has the following organisations under it: n Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) n Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) n Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) n Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) n Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) n Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) n Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSEL) n Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) n Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) n Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) n Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) n Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) n Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) n Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) n Directorate of Planning and Coordination (Dte of P&C) n National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) The ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been on a constant drive to modernise, upgrade their capabilities and expand their

INDIAN DEFENCE

As a matter of policy, ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have, over the years, developed a wide vendor base which, apart from the large-scale industries, includes many small-scale enterprises

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Department of Defence Production and Supplies

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

INDIAN DEFENCE INDUSTRY

REGIONAL BALANCE

Anoop Kamath / SP Guide Pubns

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

7


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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CONTENTS knowledge to be transferred for development of state-of-the-art weapon systems indigenously. It also advises the government to make technical assessment of international security threats and the military capabilities of both current and potential adversaries.

Organisational Structure With its headquarters at New Delhi, DRDO is headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Raksha Mantri who is also the Secretary to the Government of India and the Director General DRDO. He is assisted by the Chief Controllers R&D. The DRDO headquarters has two types of directorates, namely corporate and technical. While the former is responsible for matters related to human resource (HR), finance and administration, the latter is responsible for all technical and scientific issues. DRDO has two organisations under it namely the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to undertake design and development of advanced technology aircraft and the Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research (SITAR) for designing digital components for various projects. DRDO has around 30,000 knowledge workers on its rolls, which includes 7,000 scientists, 12,000 technical personnel and 11,000 administrative support staff.

Programmes and Projects DRDO has a mission to design, develop and produce state-of-theart complex and strategic defence systems and technologies; to provide technological solutions to the armed forces to optimise combat readiness; to build a strong indigenous technology base and to foster quality workforce. A number of projects are being executed through a network of laboratories, Field Stations, Regional Centres of Military Airworthiness (RCsMA) located across the country. DRDO has empowered the country with cutting-edge technologies and provided the services with contemporary systems to enhance their combat effectiveness. The value of products from DRDO inducted into the armed forces stands at `1,30,000 crore

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ormed on January 1, 1958, by merging the units of Defence Science Organisation and the Technical Development Establishments of the armed forces, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India was a fledgling research establishment with just 10 laboratories. In 1980, the DRDO became a department under the Central Government. Today, it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian Government with a network of 52 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. With a vision to empower India with cutting-edge technologies and to equip the services with internationally competitive systems, DRDO has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics, armaments, combat vehicles, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, life sciences, advanced materials, composites and naval systems. DRDO has expertise in system design, system integration, testing and evaluation and project management built over the last five decades, which has enabled it to develop indigenous capabilities in weapons and delivery systems. Today, DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design, development, integration and production. DRDO has achieved technological self-reliance in critical areas including ammunition, armoured systems, missiles, radar, avionics and electronic warfare system, sensors, nuclear biological chemical (NBC) defence, low-intensity conflict technologies and advanced computing. DRDO plays a significant role in providing scientific and technological advice to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in support of defence policy; as evaluator of defence equipment for the military operational requirements and generating new technological

INDIAN DEFENCE

Today, DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design, development, integration and production

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Achieving technological self-reliance

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE) Director: Dr P. Sivakumar Avadi, Chennai–600054 Tel: 044- 26383722, 26364001, 26364003 Fax: 044-26383661

ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE) Director: Anil M. Datar Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post, Pashan Pune–411021 Tel: 020- 25865282, 25865116 Fax: 020-25893102

DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE) Director: P.M. Soundar Rajan Post Box No. 9366 C.V. Raman Nagar, Phase II New Thippasandra Post Bengaluru–560093 Tel: 080-25347704, 25349571 Fax: 080- 25347717

CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS) Director: Dr S. Christopher Ministry of Defence DRDO Belur, Yemlur Post Bengaluru–560037 Tel: 080-25225121, 26572638 Fax: 080-25222326

DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL) Director: Dr V.C. Padaki Post Box No. 9326 C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru–560093 Tel: 080-25058325, 25280692, 23446987 Fax: 080-25282011

CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR) Director: Sanjay Burman DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru -560093 Tel: 080-25342646, 25244298 (Extn: 2270/2271) Fax: 080-25244298

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL) Director: R.C. Agarwal Post Box No. 54 Raipur Road Dehradun–248001 Uttarakhand Tel: 0135-2787224 Fax: 0135-2787290, 2787265

CENTRE FOR FIRE, EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES) Director: Dr Sudershan Kumar Ministry of Defence Brig. S.K. Majumdar Marg, Timarpur Delhi–110054 Tel: 011-23813239, 23907102, 23919555 Fax: 011-2381 9547

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (DERL) Director: S.P. Dash Chandrayangutta Lines Hyderabad–500005 Tel: 040- 24440061 24530264 Fax: 040- 2787161, 2787128

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AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE) Director: P. Srikumar Suranjan Das Road, C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru–560093 Tel: 080-25283404, 25057001, 25057034 Fax: 080-25283188

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC) Chief Executive: Dr K. Tamilmani Ministry of Defence Defence Research and Development Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post Bengaluru–560037 Tel: 080-25230680, 28517272 Fax: 080-25230856, 25234781

TECHNOLOGY

AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE) Director: Dr S.C. Sati Post Box No. 51 Station Road, Agra Cantt Agra–282 001 Tel: 0562-2260023, 2258200 Fax: 0562-2251677

BUSINESS

CENTRE FOR PERSONAL TALENT MANAGEMENT (CEPTAM) Director: Sudheer Gupta Defence Research and Development Organisation Ministry of Defence Metcalfe House Complex Delhi–110054 Tel: 011-23810276, 23819217 Fax: 011-23810287, 23882306, 23817489

INDIAN DEFENCE

ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG) Director: C.V.S. Sastry DRDO, Kanchanbagh PO Hyderabad–500058 Tel: 040-24347630 Fax: 040-24347679

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Indian Defence R&D Establishments

REGIONAL BALANCE

indian defence


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

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n the era immediately after improved security situation in the state.   LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. Kapoor   independence, threats to However, this should not lead us to be India were mainly external— complacent because an Indian Army from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of spokesman in August 2013 has said that in the preceding period various committees instituted by the government of the of about two months, the Army has killed 28 militants on the line day, the internal security threats were never so acute as of control (LoC) and in the hinterland in Kashmir. Thus it needs to to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal be understood that Pakistan controls the levers of acceleration or security apparatus. However, as the challenges and threats to the deceleration of terrorist infiltration into India and hence the need internal security of India grew, the Indian Government felt com- for being constantly alert. pelled to focus on this dimension of national security. It is now Challenges to Internal Security widely acknowledged that there is more to security than purely military factors. Today’s definition of security acknowledges political, Consequent to the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26, 2008, economic, environmental, social and human thread, among other the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government went into high strands that impact the concept of security. Today, it is the concern drive to implement the internal security reforms. The Union Home for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, Minister, P. Chidambaram, at the Chief Ministers Conference on namely the ‘human being’ or ‘civil security’ as the Americans term Internal Security held in New Delhi on August 17, 2009, said, “Let me it, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human recall the three challenges to internal security—terrorism; insurgensecurity’ with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore, the cy in the North-eastern states; and left-wing extremism or Naxalism. definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform Each one of them shares many characteristics with the other two. At the same time, each one of them is significantly different from the function of protecting the well-being of its people. The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in its Annual Report the other two. We have one instrument to confront and defeat the 2012-13 has said that the internal security situation in the country three challenges and that is the police. In the final analysis, it is the during 2012 has shown signs of considerable improvement over policemen and the policewomen who can help us win these battles. the previous years and have justified their assessment by citing To that policemen and policewomen, this conference must send out figures from 2010 onwards. The Prime Minister in his speech a clear message that the government at every level is duty-bound to the Chief Ministers on June 5, 2013, made similar observa- to provide them every kind of support—monetary, material and tions saying that the year 2012 saw a significant improvement moral.” The government’s resolve to reform the internal security in the security situation in Jammu and Kashmir. He said that apparatus of the country was apparent in the Minister’s statement. The Prime Minister while addressing the Chief Ministers at the our strategy to prevent cross-border infiltration by militants and our intelligence based counter-terrorism operations in Jammu Conference on Internal Security in Delhi, on June 5, 2013, elaborated and Kashmir have resulted in a decline in the level of terrorist on the challenges facing the country in the form of Naxalism (leftviolence by about one-third in 2012 as compared to 2011 and the wing extremism), militancy and terrorism in the Northeast and in record inflow of tourists and pilgrims during 2012 also points to an the hinterland, infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir, communal and

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Ministry of Home Affairs in its Annual Report 2012-13 has said that the internal security situation in the country during 2012 has shown signs of considerable improvement over the previous years and has justified their assessment by citing figures from 2010 onwards

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

India’s Homeland Security

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

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ndia’s internal security public anger became palpable and the   LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR   remains an area of major government was forced to act speedily. concern even 67 years after India’s Home Minister and the then independence. The Prime Minister (PM) while address- Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political ing the Chief Ministers at the Conference on Internal casualties. A spate of reforms, which were already in the pipeline Security in Delhi on June 5, 2013, elaborated on the were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile, the perchallenges the country is facing in the form of Naxalism (left-wing ception was growing stronger that India’s external and internal extremism), militancy and terrorism in the Northeast and in the security was getting inextricably linked, especially on its western hinterland, infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir, communal and borders. A large number of India’s internal security problems are sectarian violence, crimes against women and children, border connected to jehadi groups based in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir management and coastal security. Last year, the PM while inau- (PoK). Pakistan’s intelligence agencies and the military are fundgurating the Annual Conference of Chief Ministers on Internal ing, training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now Security in New Delhi on April 16, 2012, had said that left-wing stand fully exposed. However, despite a restrained but tough extremism (LWE), religious fundamentalism and ethnic violence stance taken initially, the national leadership has now decided to were major challenges facing the country. He then urged states get back to the negotiation table with Pakistan both at the official to fight them together with the Central Government. The PM’s and at the Track 2 level. statement in two consecutive years shows the fast growing internal The Preceding Year security challenges in India. In the past six decades or so, the ongoing insurgency in the The internal security situation in J&K and other parts of India in Northeast, the extinguished terrorism in Punjab, the dissidence 2012 showed distinct signs of improvement over the previous years. and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), and the burgeoning The level of infiltration from across the borders and the resultant Naxalite violence has kept Indian security agencies on their toes as terrorist activities in the valley of Kashmir showed a significant far as internal security is concerned. Insurgency and Naxalite vio- decline. The incidents of terrorist violence declined from 1990 in lence in some parts of India and jehadi terrorism unleashed by our 2005 to 220 in the year 2012. The number of security forces killed in unscrupulous western neighbour, combined with poor governance 2005 was 189 and in 2012, the number came down to 15. The numin most states, all put together, have become a serious threat, which ber of civilians killed has also declined from 557 in 2005, down to 31 in 2011 and 15 in 2012. The number of terrorists killed declined can destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish United from 917 in 2005 to 100 in 2011 and 72 in 2012; showing the effects Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government after the November 26, of better domination of the line of control and the resultantly lower 2008, terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks, infiltration. For details see Table 1.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the extinguished terrorism in Punjab, the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir, and the burgeoning Naxalite violence has kept Indian security agencies on their toes as far as internal security is concerned. Insurgency and Naxalite violence in some parts of India and jehadi terrorism unleashed by our unscrupulous western neighbour, combined with poor governance in most states, all put together, have become a serious threat, which can destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Challenges Faced & Measures Taken

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

India’s Internal Security Environment

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


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ndia has a coastline of ism. Smuggling of gold, arms and   Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand   7,516.6 kilometres, touchexplosives has been quite common in ing nine states and four this area. Explosives were smuggled union territories (UT). It also has 1,197 islands which through Raigad on the Maharashtra coast, to carry out serial blasts accounts to a stretch of 2,094 kilometres additional in Mumbai during 1993. There is continuous movement of all types coastline. Gujarat has the longest coastline of 1,214.7 of vessels for trade, fishing, military, policing, sports and so on. It km and Goa has the smallest with 101 km. There is more than 2.5 is estimated that there are about 1,50,000 small fishing boats with million square km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The mining no modern navigation means or communications moving freely areas allotted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of around without any control. There are also some disputed areas in the Sea (UNCLOS) are about 2,000 kilometres from the southern- the EEZ. Thus management and security of India’s maritime zone most tip of India. including the coastline is by itself a formidable and a complex task, gaps in which were amply displayed during the terrorist attack on Mercantile Trade Mumbai on November 26, 2008. This attack actually placed India’s Ports play a vital role in the overall economic development of the coastal security into focus and triggered the government agencies country. India has 13 major and 176 minor ports. As GDP grows, to put in place appropriate organisations and infrastructure for so will be the sea traffic. About 90 per cent by volume and 70 per coastal security. cent by value of the country’s international trade is carried on Recap through maritime transport. Import of oil and gas is of paramount importance for the economic growth of India, thus petroleum, oil Operation Swan and lubricants dominates the sea traffic with about 30 per cent On March 12, 1993, terrorists carried out a series of explosions of the overall share. As per statistics given by the Global Shipping in Mumbai which ravaged the city, caused 250 fatalities and 700 Council, India is eleventh in containerised cargo export trade with were injured. The explosives were smuggled through Raigad and 1.9 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUS) million and for import, Shekhadi. The Government of India launched ‘Operation Swan’ during August 1993 to prevent clandestine landings along the India is sixteenth with 2 TEUS million. coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat by strengthening joint patrolCoastal Threat ling. A six-year scheme was also formed with effect from 2005-06 The states of Maharashtra and Gujarat are strategically located for creating additional infrastructure for Indian Coast Guard (ICG) and prosperous which makes their coastline vulnerable to smug- with an outlay of `342.56 crore (about $57 million) for non-recurgling, poaching of seafood, anti-national activities and terror- ring expenditure, funded by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).

INDIAN DEFENCE

There is a multi-tier arrangement for protection and maritime security of the country involving the Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard (ICG) and marine police of the coastal states and union territories. Close coastal patrolling is done by the state marine police whose jurisdiction extends up to 12 nm, ICG functions between 12 nm and 200 nm, which is the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and the Indian Navy extends beyond 200 nm. At times this division can get blurred depending upon the operational requirement. Aerial surveillance is carried out by the Indian Navy and the ICG.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

management and security of maritime zone A complex task

REGIONAL BALANCE

ICG

India’s Coastal Security

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

CONTENTS

H

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“When the security forces do not exercise Maoists start targeting the leadership at   Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch   the necessary care and caution to avoid the Centre and the state capitals. collateral deaths of innocent civilians, Ground Reality counter-insurgency operations themselves, instead of putting down When the Congress motorcade of some 20 vehicles slid into the the insurgency, become a root cause of more insurgency”. Maoists trap in the Jagdalpur forest on May 25, 2013, it shattered the —B. Raman, former Additional Secretary, illusion of the insurgents being under pressure and on the run because Cabinet Secretariat of some recent targeting of Maoist leaders by security forces. As always, tactical pauses by insurgents get misconstrued and in such periods eavy security forces deployment dur- insurgents recoup, build capacity and have all the time to strike again ing the first phase of Chhattisgarh elections at the time and place of their choosing. The site chosen by the Maoists on November 11 saw through the voting suc- for this ambush was along a curving stretch of road with dominating cessfully, despite several disruptions created heights providing long distance observation and concealed firing posiby the Maoists at Dantewada, Kanker, Sukam tions: the vehicles were moving bumper to bumper and the Maoists and Durgapur, which resulted in killing of one blew up the second lead vehicle using an IED, bringing the motorcade Central Reserved Police Force (CRPF) constable, injuring another to an abrupt halt. What followed was intense automatic fire that evenwhile recovering a bomb, use of improvised explosive devices tually gunned down 17 Congressmen and 10 policemen. Another 36 (IEDs) and looting of electronic voting machines (EVMs). However, were injured. The ambush was sprung by some 200 Maoists, reportbecause of the forthcoming general elections, the political hierar- edly of age group 18-25, many of them women. Senior Congressman chy is apparently playing down incidents that would be otherwise V.C. Shukla was injured in the attack and later died at a private hosconsidered very serious, be that the cross border raids, beheadings, pital in Gurgaon. The Maoists were methodical, composed and cold ceasefire violations and terrorist attacks by Pakistan or intrusions blooded, which is not surprising with their core group having been by China deep inside our territory. When serious external issues are trained by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the manner dealt with in a lackadaisical fashion, little resolute response can be in which they have booby-trapped those killed in the past including at expected to the Maoist insurgency. The only small ray of hope has Latehar. The statement by one of the injured who was given a lifesavbeen the recent admission by the Home Minister that the Maoists do ing injection and was bandaged by a woman Maoist after he faked have the potential to strike effectively in at least four states—a depar- being a doctor himself and cried for help, shows that Maoists are well ture from his predecessor who had stated in 2010, “The government organised to look after their own casualties. The hard fact is that you is confident that the problem of left-wing extremism (LWE) will be cannot leave everything to chance in insurgency-affected areas despite overcome in next three years.” Ironically, India stirs only when cri- tactical pauses in hostilities. We don’t seem to have learnt anything sis occurs. Post kidnapping and/or killing ground level politicians from heavy casualties suffered in the past by even foot columns of the and bureaucrats, Maoists have struck a convoy of Congressmen Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) moving bunched up along roads but perhaps India will consider it as an ‘extreme crisis’ only after and tracks in areas of Dantewada, Garhchiroli, Bhadrakali and Latehar.

INDIAN DEFENCE

As the Maoist juggernaut gathers steam, there is still time for the Indian state to get its act together. We need to ensure that we should not be forced to fight a two-and-a-half-front war, or worse still permit the internal halffront upgraded to a third ‘full-front’. Resolving the Maoist insurgency should be our top priority.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Bridging the Persistent Fault Line

REGIONAL BALANCE

The Maoist Menace in India

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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5

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section five

Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

337 337 337 337 337 338 338 338 338 339 339 339 339 339 340 340 340 340 340 340

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Afghanistan 333 Algeria 333 Australia 333 Bahrain 334 Bangladesh 334 Cambodia 334 People’s Republic of China 334 Egypt 334 Indonesia 335 Iran 335 Iraq 335 Israel 335 Japan 335 Jordan 336 Kazakhstan 336 Kuwait 336 Kyrgyzstan 336 Laos 336 Lebanon 336 Libya 336

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Asian Who's Who


CONTENTS Defence Minister Bismillah Khan Mohammadi Foreign Minister Ahmad Zarar Moqbel Osmani Interior Minister Mohammad Omar Daudzai Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces Lt General Sher Mohammad Karimi Commander of the Air Force Major General Abdul Wahab Wardak

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Ministry of Defence Kabul, Afghanistan Tel: 0093 (O) 202300331 Tel: 0093 (O) 700275707

q Algeria Head of State President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal Chief of General Staff and Vice-Minister of National Defence General Ahmed Salah Gaida Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy Major General Malek Necib Commander of the Gendarmerie Major General Ahmed Boustila

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q Australia Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since January 6, 1952). Governor General Quentin Alice Louise Bryce Prime Minister Tony Abbott Defence Minister David Albert Lloyd Johnston Chief of the Defence Forces General David Hurley Chief of Army Lt General David Morrison Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Ray Griggs Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Geoff Brown Chief Joint Operations Lt General Ash Power Department of Defence Russel Offices Suite MF149, Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600 Tel: 02 6277 7800, 6162659111 Fax: 02 6273 4118 Defence National Tel: 1300 3333623

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Second Vice President Abdul Karim Khalili

TECHNOLOGY

First Vice President Vacant

BUSINESS

Head of State and Government President Hamid Karzai

Ministry of Defence Avenue des Tagarins Algiers, Algeria Tel: +2132611515 National People’s Army HQ C/o Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja Algiers, Algeria Tel: +2132634176, 631765, 611515

INDIAN DEFENCE

 Afghanistan

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (As on March 25, 2014)

REGIONAL BALANCE

Who’s Who in Asian Defence Forces


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section six

One Two Three Four Five Six

GDP & Military Expenditure Central & South Asia East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia West Asia and North Africa Asia-Pacific Environment Equipment & Hardware Specifications

341 345 375 415 451 457

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Regional Balance


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CONTENTS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1 GDP & Military Expenditure GDP Current Prices Per Capita ($)

GDP Based on (PPP) Per Capita ($)

1

Afghanistan

20.647

35.301

626.082

1,070.48

2

Algeria

215.723

284.684

5,668.36

7,480.38

3

Australia

1,487.97

998.265

64,156.92

43,042.24

4

Bahrain

28.362

34.963

24,153.17

29,775.32

5

Bangladesh

140.175

324.628

899.298

2,082.66

6

Bhutan

2.133

5.235

2,863.20

7,027.86

7

Cambodia

15.642

39.639

1,015.28

2,572.90

8

China

8,939.33

13,374.02

6,569.35

9,828.32

9

Egypt

262.03

551.441

3,113.84

6,553.07

10

India

1,758.22

4,961.71

1,414.11

3,990.64

11

Indonesia

867.468

1,284.79

3,498.51

5,181.56

12

Iran

388.512

987.115

5,039.30

12,803.63

13

Iraq

221.774

248.03

6,377.17

7,132.19

14

Israel

272.737

274.504

34,651.38

34,875.89

15

Japan

5,007.20

4,728.87

39,321.19

37,135.42

16

Jordan

34.076

40.02

5,207.31

6,115.67

17

Kazakhstan

224.858

243.556

13,048.37

14,133.44

18

Korea

1,197.51

1,665.60

23,837.71

33,155.59

19

Kuwait

186.058

154.23

47,829.01

39,647.16

20

Kyrgyzstan

7.234

14.297

1,281.83

2,533.34

21

Laos

10.099

20.778

1,490.31

3,066.27

22

Lebanon

43.493

64.309

23

Libya

70.924

73.601

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TECHNOLOGY

GDP Based on (PPP) ($ Billion)

BUSINESS

GDP Current Prices ($ Billion)

INDIAN DEFENCE

Country

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Sr No.

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

GDP Total/Per Capita Based on Current Prices/Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) (estimates for 2013)


Central Asia Central Asia is a region that comprises five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the ‘Centre of the World’. Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location, it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century, it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later, it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence

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CONTENTS SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  345

TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

of the Central Asian states. The 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States brought further global attention to this region, reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this, the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the United States, Russia and China. The Fergana Valley is the best-suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. Soviet leader Josef Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided, however, Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself; Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west; and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the valley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within Kyrgyzstan’s portion of the valley, affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access fairly deep into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia’s core, and hence Central Asia itself. Central Asia is referred to as the “backyard of Russia and China”. It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the United States on the one side, and Moscow and Beijing on the other side. Post-9/11, Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global scale. The United States became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility, enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players, namely the United States, Russia and China, the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their “grand strategies”, the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including “strategic partnership”, “non-alignment” and a “multi-vectored approach”. The key to what became known as Kazakhstan’s “multivectored approach” is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today, this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia’s Eurasec, Gazprom, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), but it nonetheless remains in place. The major attraction for key players, as also countries like India, Japan and the European Union, is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia, which already enjoys military presence in

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

C

entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world’s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia, and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world’s largest landmass (39,95,800 sq km) and has vast natural resources, including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically, it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, West Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. On the other hand, South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India’s economic growth and dynamism had made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. Despite the global economic meltdown, India’s GDP was expected to grow at the rate of eight per cent during 2010 and more thereafter. However, India’s economy has not lived up to its promise of high growth. After considerable slow down in 2012, the year 2013 saw a feeble recovery in the first quarter but weak private consumption, capital investment and slowing public spending offered little hope for a fast rebound in coming quarters. Asia’s third largest economy grew at 4.7 per cent in 2013. India’s coalition government has been weakened by a series of scandals linked to allocation of resources, including coal and telecom. Opposition parties’ attacks on the government have paralysed the Indian Parliament, delaying legislation aimed at attracting funds to lift capital investment growth from an eight-year low. High interest rates despite the Reserve Bank of India’s intervention and the drift in the government’s decision-making process have led to a sharp fall in investment and consumer demand, and have choked growth. The rupee has slumped to below 60 vis-à-vis the dollar, making costly oil imports even more expensive and imposing a bigger burden on Indians travelling or studying abroad.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Central & South Asia

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


regional balance the region, has, in conjunction with China, sought to counterbalance Washington’s influence in the region through SCO. Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region.

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Pakistan-Afghanistan Region The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. Today, international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally, Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now, Pakistan InterServices Intelligence (ISI)-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India establishing their cells within home-grown groups, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26, 2008, which emanated from Pakistan created an impasse in their relationship. However much water has flowed since then and a new civilian government under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is now in power. There are good reasons to believe that the place may get stabler, calmer and more prosperous. Sharif’s victory was not the only election result worth celebrating. As Pakistan’s urban middle class grows, so voters are swayed less by tribal loyalty and more by government’s policies and performance. For the first time in Pakistan’s history, one fairly elected civilian government has served a full term and, in the course of a fair election been replaced by another. Pakistani democracy has never looked stronger. But it is how things go with India that will do most to shape Pakistan’s future. That toxic relationship is behind most of Pakistan’s problems: the army’s dominance, the soldiers’ habit of ousting civilian governments, the imbalance between military and civilian spending, and the terrorist groups spawned to attack India that have come back to bite Pakistan. When Nawaz Sharif is deciding how to allocate his political capital, plenty should go towards normalising relations with India. If he succeeds in doing that, much goodwill flow from it. The four major uncertainties in post-2014 Afghanistan (security, reconciliation, trade and regional cooperation) all have external routes. While the United States will in all probability continue to manipulate and manage the situation from the background in line with its own national interests, continued instability in Afghanistan will have adverse consequences including for Pakistan, Iran and Central Asian Republics. Pakistan needs to restrain its proxies. China is already in dialogue with India, Russia, Pakistan and other countries in respect of Afghanistan. The Kabul Ministerial Meeting of June 2012 (attended by the United States, China, Russia, India, Iran, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Denmark, EU, France, Japan, Norway, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Russia, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Canada, Denmark, Turkmenistan, Germany and Australia) had chalked out a road map of confidencebuilding measures that would help reconciliation and reconstruction of Afghanistan, which in turn would result in regional stability. Genuine efforts by these countries can help achieve this aim. By drastically cutting down a number of residual troops, analysts feel the United States may weaken Afghanistan and some chaos will be inevitable. The regional countries need to collectively contribute to the stability of Afghanistan and help in the country’s reconstruction.

South Asia The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Leftwing extremism (LWE) has affected a large number of states. In terms

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of geographical spread, the worst affected States are Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar. The LWE problem also exists in certain pockets in the States of Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The front organisations of LWE are active in many states of India. The CPI (Maoist) continues to remain the most dominant and violent LWE group, accounting for more than 80 per cent of the violence and the killings. Nepal went to polls on November 18, 2013, to elect the Constituent Assembly of the country hit by political stalemate, Maoist threats and violence. According to the information received Nepal’s oldest political party won the most seats in the first set of results from the election ahead of two prominent communist parties. The results showed that the Nepali Congress Party had won. After years of deadlock, Nepal’s Parliament elected Sushil Koirala, a longtime democracy activist. Mr. Koirala, 75, is the president of the Nepali Congress Party, which emerged in November election with the most seats in the country’s Constituent Assembly. Koirala won more than two-thirds of the legislators’ votes, with 405 voting for him and 148 opposed. In Sri Lanka, since the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), the government has enacted an ambitious programme of economic development projects, many of which are financed by loans from the Government of China. In addition to efforts to reconstruct its economy, the government has resettled more than 95 per cent of those civilians who were displaced during the final phase of the conflict and released the vast majority of former LTTE combatants captured by the government security forces. At the same time, there has been little progress on more contentious and politically difficult issues such as reaching a political settlement with Tamil elected representatives and holding accountable those alleged to have been involved in human rights violations at the end of the war. The British Prime Minister visiting North Sri lanka on November 15, 2013, while speaking to journalists said: “The fact is about this country that there is a chance of success because the war is over, the terrorism has finished, the fighting is done. Now what’s needed is generosity and magnanimity from the Sri Lankan Government to bring the country together.” In Bangladesh by every account, the January 5 election, Bangladesh’s 10th so far, was a low point for democracy. The boycott of the 18-member opposition alliance meant half the seats Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s Awami League (AL) won were uncontested and about half the remainder were against unknown candidates with a turnout of just 22 to 30 per cent of voting population. The western world have not supported the election and EU has called for reelection. India has defended Bangladesh from international onslaught, however favouring Bangladesh must be regardless of which party rules the country. In the long run this would lead to more stability in the region.

Central & South Asia n Kazakhstan n Kyrgyzstan n Tajikistan n Turkmenistan n Uzbekistan n Afghanistan n Bangladesh n Bhutan n India n Nepal n Pakistan n Sri Lanka

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regional balance

CONTENTS

Central & south asia

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Central & South Asia


regional balance KAZAKHSTAN  General Information

Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions

Religions

Languages

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Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

: 27,24,900 sq km : Astana : 0 km (landlocked) : 1,79,48,816 (July 2014 est.) : Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1 per cent, Russian 23.7 per cent, Uzbek 2.8 per cent, Ukrainian 2.1 per cent German 1.1 per cent, Tatar 1.3 per cent, Uighur 1.4 per cent, others 4.5 per cent (2009 census) : Muslim 70.2 per cent, Christian 26.2 per cent (Russian Orthodox 23.9 per cent, other Christian 2.3 per cent), Buddhist 0.1 per cent, other 0.2 per cent, atheist 2.8 per cent, unspecified 0.5 per cent (2009 census) : Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4 per cent, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the “language of inter-ethnic communication”) 95 per cent (2001 est.) : 99.7 per cent : Republic, authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch : 18 years of age; universal : 14 provinces and 3 cities

Overview of the Economy Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit

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rating. Extractive industries have been and will continue to be the engine of Kazakhstan’s growth, although the country is aggressively pursuing diversification strategies. Landlocked, with restricted access to the high seas, Kazakhstan relies on its neighbours to export its products, especially oil and grain. Although its Caspian Sea ports, pipelines, and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation and roadways continue to need attention. Telecoms are improving, but require considerable investment, as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic because of regional dependencies, but the country is moving forward with plans to improve reliability of electricity and gas supply to its population. At the end of 2007, global financial markets froze up and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation, and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan’s economy, it has rebounded well, helped by prudent government measures. Rising commodity prices have helped the recovery. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators, the government realises that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries, the so-called “Dutch disease.” In response, Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification programme, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010 Kazakhstan joined the Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships.

Defence Total Armed Forces : Active: 39,000 (Army: 20,000; Air: 12,000; Navy: 3,000; MoD: 4,000) Terms of Services : 12 months Paramilitary Forces : Presidential Guard: 2,000 Internal Security Troops: 20,000 est. State, Border Protection Force: 9,000 est. Government Guard: 500

Security Environment Kazakhstan faces no significant external threats. Unique in the post-Soviet Central Asian region for its significant and sustained economic growth which has translated into consistent standard of living increases for the population, Kazakhstan has also had a measured foreign policy since independence. Although Russia and China, its two economically and militarily sizeable neighbours, are perceived as threatening by some Kazakhs, it is not in a military sense. Rather, Kazakhs worry about Russian and Chinese investors exerting influence as a result of economic power, and they express concern about political bullying. They have managed these problems predominantly by maintaining good relations with these countries, as well as building ties with the United States. Kazakhstan has sought not so much to balance any one partner against others as it has to ensure that a network of good relationships prevents conflict. In its own region, Kazakhstan has aspired to Central Asian leadership with variable success. Kazakhstan is a strategic fulcrum in the vast Central AsianCaspian Basin zone, a region rich in energy resources and a potential gateway for commerce and communications between Europe and Asia. It is also an area that faces a vast number of security challenges. Ensuring a stable and secure Central Asia is important for the world and for Kazakhstan which has a vital stake in the security of this region.

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CONTENTS The present Chinese leadership too has not been remiss in promoting anti-Japanese feelings in China; purely for channelling domestic discontent into anti-Japanese sentiment. The bitter relationship between the two countries that began with the Sino-Japanese War more than 120 years ago in 1894 and culminated with massive Japanese atrocities committed during its occupation of China during World War II were never allowed to rise above the surface during the Mao Zedong-Zhou Enlai period. For external ‘enemies’ Mao had the US and later the Soviet Union. When Deng Xiaoping first started his reform movement in 1978, there was stiff opposition from old Chinese Communist Party (CCP) hardliners and scepticism within the general Chinese public about the efficacy of these reforms. The Chinese people wondered whether yet another calamity like the ‘Cultural Revolution’ was about to be inflicted on them. It was Deng who devised the strategy of targeting Japanese ‘atrocities’ during World War II as a means to divert public attention from the economic reforms that he was about to launch. Since then whenever Chinese Communist Party leaders have felt the need to find a scapegoat in the form of an external enemy, Japan has invariably been targeted. As China’s GDP growth falters and China attempts to restructure its economy, it is bound to lead to acute internal dissension and greater inequality. Ever afraid of renewed domestic upheaval, the new Chinese leadership might just be tempted to continue play the nationalist ‘card’ and perhaps even more vigorously than their predecessors. And the popular choice will inevitably be Japan again, for no other country arouses such emotions throughout China as does anti-Japanese feeling. It is for these reasons that the flare up over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands dispute continues to fester and it will inevitably lead to the rise of unfettered nationalism. The Chinese Government announced establishing an East China Sea Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) on November 23, 2013. The Ministry of National Defence of the People’s Republic

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The victory of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) in the recent upper house elections in Japan has demonstrated emphatically that nationalism is indeed one of the main driving factors in Japanese politics and that Prime Minister Abe had co-opted it as a part of his election strategy. Of all the foreign policy issues in Japan, none is more emotive and appealing than adopting a tough anti-Chinese posture. Before the elections, Shinzo Abe made significant gestures that only added to the strength of nationalist feeling amongst the Japanese electorate. On July 17, 2013, Abe visited the island of Ishigaki in the Okinawa chain of islands and inspected a Coast Guard vessel there and later in a speech to the Japan’s Air Self-Defense Force (ASDF) units stations at Miyako Island, spoke of his determination to ‘protect Japanese territories’ . No one missed the significance of Prime Minister Abe’s visit to these islands, so close to the disputed islands (Senkaku/Diaoyu) with China. On April 21, 2013, Prime Minister Abe defended the right of Japanese Ministers to visit the Yasukuni Shrine and he himself went there in October 2013 during its annual autumn festival lay a wreath with his full designation of Prime Minister written on it. Significantly, this nationalist feeling is largely anti-Chinese in its orientation and centres on the territorial dispute between the two countries over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands. Although Sino-Japanese bilateral trade is robust, touching nearly $350 billion, yet there is an element of touchiness in Japan in that China has surpassed Japan to become the second largest economy in the world leaving Japan behind in third place. Nationalists in Japan find this fact galling. Also on the

Chinese Nationalism

INDIAN DEFENCE

Japanese Nationalism

cards is the attempt to amend Article 96 of the US imposed Japanese Constitution that will allow a simple majority of both Houses of Parliament and a referendum to overturn Article 9; that prohibits Japan from using force as an instrument of state policy. All these policy changes are seen by China as a ploy by Prime Minister Abe to promote anti-China feelings. As a Chinese official commentary termed it, the two countries are now in a state of ‘cold confrontation.’

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

E

ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia: China-Japan relations, Korean Peninsula, Taiwan, and international terrorism.

REGIONAL BALANCE

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


regional balance of China issued a statement that the East China Sea ADIZ is established in accordance with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on National Defence (March 14, 1997), the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Civil Aviation (October 30, 1995) and the Basic Rules on Flight of the People’s Republic of China (July 27, 2001). China’s declaration of this ADIZ has surely upped the ante in this bitterly contested and explosive zone covering the Senkaku Islands under Japan’s administrative control, in addition to the greater part of the East China Sea, including sections of Taiwan and South Korea — thereby infuriating the region.

Korean Peninsula The imminence of conflict on the Korean Paninsula is nothing new, only the intensity varies. Often it seems that a conflict is imminent, but much of it is bluster; for none of the principals are interested in a renewed conflict. The starting point of the recent crisis was the third nuclear test conducted by North Korea in February 2013 and the military exercises conducted jointly by the United States and South Korea. These military exercises are conducted regularly by the latter two countries on an annual basis. However, what distinguished them this time was the unusual belligerence, with the US bringing B-52 bombers and B-2 stealth aircraft to South Korea. The US made no effort to hide the fact that these aircraft were nuclear capable. The shrill response of North Korea to ‘Operation Foal Eagle’ was expected, since the North believes that a major US objective is a ‘regime change’ in North Korea. China supported the UNSC Resolution 2094 passed by the Security Council on March 7, 2013, which was resented by North Korea. They were particularly resentful against the Chinese, for UNSC 2094 because it contained financial sanctions. Many analysts interpreted Chinese leader Xi Jinping’s remarks that “no country should be able to throw the region or even the entire world into chaos for selfish gains,” as being directed against the North Korean leadership. However, that would be reading too much into a firm relationship forged over decades. There are others who believe that North Korea would do nothing without Beijing’s explicit clearance. North Korea has for all practical purposes become an autocratic state with an established dynasty. Kim Jong-un is the third in a line of succession going back to his grandfather, the legendary Kim Il-sung. The new leader has still to establish his leadership qualities and is in the process of consolidating his power. The appointment of Pak Pong-ju as the new Prime Minister of North Korea has been welcomed for he is known as an economic reformer and as a pragmatist. By taking a belligerent stand against alleged US and South Korean provocations, Kim hopes to establish his credentials as a ‘tough’ leader who can stand up to US. In South Korea too, a dynastic succession of sorts has taken place with the new President, Park being the daughter of the dictator who ruled South Korea in the 1980s.

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Taiwan Taiwan’s President, Ma Ying-jeou, has presided over a big improvement in relations with China, through increased trade and tourism. But that has not brought much sympathy in Taiwan for any kind of Chinese security umbrella, let alone unification. And in another dispute—over the five, Japanese-controlled islands in the East China Sea known as the Senkaku Islands in Japanese and the Diaoyu in Chinese—Taiwan has incurred China’s wrath. In China’s view, the uninhabited islands are a historical part of what was the Taiwan prefecture of Fujian province (and, from 1887-95, the province of Taiwan). Taiwan and the islands it controlled were snatched from the declining Qing empire in 1895 as war booty by an ascen-

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dant Japan. China argues the islands should have been returned to it on Japan’s defeat in 1945. Japan, however, regards the Senkakus as part of the Okinawa (formerly the Ryukyu) chain, and says they were unclaimed by any power until it “discovered” them in 1884. (China’s People’s Daily has raised doubts as to whether even this interpretation of history would give Japan sovereignty, questioning its claim to all the Ryukyus, the modern-day Okinawa prefecture.) But recently, to China’s fury, Taiwan cut a deal with Japan, allowing both countries’ fleets to fish in the waters round the islands. It was a reminder that, for all its ardent nationalism, Taiwan has close ties with Japan—which occupied it for 50 years—and also that it pursues its own interests, not those of the Chinese “Motherland”.

Tripartite Cooperation Japan, China and Republic of Korea (South Korea) have been regularly holding talks as a part of Tripartite Cooperation among the People’s Republic of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea. After more than 10 years of development of the cooperation, the three countries have established a full-fledged mechanism for cooperation, and formed an all-dimensional, multi-tiered and wide-ranging cooperation framework with the Trilateral Summit Meeting at its core, and supported by 18 ministerial meetings in areas like foreign policy, economy and trade, science and technology and culture and over 50 working-level mechanisms. These trilateral meetings have also served as confidence building measures as all three countries exchange views on each other’s security and defence policies and regional issues. Senior diplomats from South Korea, China and Japan held the first trilateral talks in 18 months on November 7, 2013, to mend frosty ties caused by Japan’s territorial disputes with neighbouring countries and its anachronistic historical perception. South Korean Deputy Foreign Minister Lee Kyung-soo, together with his Chinese counterpart Liu Zhenmin and Japanese counterpart Shinsuke Sugiyama met in Seoul to discuss trilateral cooperation through the diplomatic channel that has been halted since May 2012. In the context of counter-terrorism, they expressed their intent to cooperate for the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations, which is specified in the “Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020” adopted at the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Summit in May 2010.

US Interest The US interest in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming deeper. This can be seen by the fact that it is reposturing its naval forces in the Asia-Pacific region. By 2020, the Navy will reposture its forces from today’s roughly 50:50 split between the Pacific and the Atlantic to about a 60:40 split between those oceans, the US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told Asian officials at a conference in Singapore in June 2012. This will include six aircraft carriers in this region, a majority of their cruisers, destroyers, combat ships and submarines. It is being done in a steady, deliberate and sustainable way— the United States military is rebalancing and brings enhanced capabilities to this vital region. To combat terrorism threat, the US has pressed countries in the region to arrest suspected terrorist individuals and organisations, funded and trained Indonesia’s elite counter-terrorist unit, and deployed troops to the southern Philippines to advise the Philippine military in their fight against the violent Abu Sayyaf Group. It has also launched a Regional Maritime Security Initiative to enhance security in the Strait of Malacca, increased intelligence sharing operations, restarted military-military relations with

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regional balance Indonesia, and provided or requested substantial aid for Indonesia and the Philippines from the US Congress. Also, since 2001, Thailand and the United States have substantially increased their anti-terrorism cooperation. The responses of countries in the region to both the threat and to the US reaction generally have varied with the intensity of their concerns about the threat to their own stability and domestic politics. In general, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines were quick to crack down on militant groups and share intelligence with the United States and Australia, whereas Indonesia began to do so only after attacks and arrests revealed the severity of the threat to its citizens. Since that time, Indonesian authorities have been aggressive in their pursuit of terrorists and extremist groups. Many governments view increased American pressure and military presence in their region with ambivalence because of the political sensitivity of the issue with both mainstream Islamic and secular nationalist groups. The Muslim insurgency in southern Thailand has escalated in recent years as has terrorist activity in southern areas of the Philippines.

ASEAN-India Relations

people initiatives, B2B activities and cultural programmes both in India and the ASEAN countries.

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership India overcame resistance from China to become a part of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement, an ASEAN + 6 grouping which is set to emerge as one of the most significant free trading blocs in the world, government sources confirmed. Despite Beijing’s reservations, India participated in the first round of negotiations held recently for RCEP because of support from several ASEAN nations led by Malaysia which insisted on India’s involvement. The RCEP comprises China, India, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea apart from the 10-member ASEAN. The second round of negotiations for RCEP will be held in Australia in September. The agreement is likely to come into effect in 2015. After it was first proposed in the 2011 ASEAN summit, RCEP has been looked upon by Malaysia and other nations in the region as one of the most ambitious regional economic integration initiatives meant to integrate ASEAN economy with the global economy. ASEAN countries, many of which have had territorial spats with Beijing in the South China Sea, look upon India as an important partner, not least Malaysia which is fast emerging as a crucial economic partner for India. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows: n Australia n Cambodia n China n Indonesia n Japan n North Korea n South Korea n Laos n Malaysia n Myanmar n The Philippines n Singapore n Taiwan n Thailand n Vietnam

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To mark the 20th anniversary of the ASEAN-India dialogue partnership and the 10th anniversary of ASEAN-India Summit-level partnership, India hosted the ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit in New Delhi on December 20-21, 2012. The theme of the summit was ‘ASEAN-India Partnership for Peace and Shared Prosperity’. The Summit has resulted in the adoption of the Vision Statement which will chart the future direction of ASEAN-India relations. The ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group (AIEPG) submitted their recommendations to the leaders on future relations between ASEAN and India at the 10th ASEAN-India Summit in Phnom Penh. Enhancing relations with ASEAN has been central to India’s “Look East Policy” and there has been steady progress in the relationship with ASEAN countries since the policy was initiated in 1991. India became a sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN in 1992, and a full dialogue partner in 1996. Since 2002, they have had annual Summits with ASEAN. After the Commemorative Summit in December 2012 in Delhi, India has become a strategic partner of ASEAN. The ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit was the culmination of several events organised in celebration of the partnership. These included a number of ministerial level meetings, people-to-

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Total Armed Forces : Active – 57,050 (Army: 28,850; Navy: 14,000; Air: 14,200) Reserve : 22,650 (Army: 16,650; Navy: 2,000; Air: 4,000) Foreign Forces : US Pacific Command: 180; New Zealand Army: 9; Singapore Air Force: 230

Security Environment In recent decades, Australia has become an internationally competitive, advanced market economy due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s and its location in one of the fastest growing regions of the world economy. Long-term concerns include ageing of the population, pressure on infrastructure, and environmental issues such as floods, droughts, and bushfires. Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth, making it particularly vulnerable to the challenges of climate change. Australia is home to 10 per cent of the world’s biodiversity, and a great number of its flora and fauna exist nowhere else in the world. In January 2013, Australia assumed a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term. Australia remains part of the Commonwealth, and the Queen is the head of state, represented by a Governor General. The future of the monarchy is a recurring issue in politics. In a 1999 referendum, about 55 per cent of Australians voted against becoming a republic. The six states of the federation retain extensive powers, particularly over education, police, the judiciary and transport.

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Area : 77,41,220 sq km Capital : Canberra Coastline : 25,760 km Maritime Claims : Territorial sea : 12 nm Contiguous zone : 24 nm Exclusive economic zone : 200 nm Continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Population : 2,25,07,617 (July 2014 est.) Ethnic Divisions : White 92 per cent, Asian 7 per cent, aboriginal and others 1 per cent Religions : Protestant 28.8 per cent (Anglican 17.1 per cent, Uniting Church 5.0 per cent, Presbyterian and Reformed 2.8 per cent, Baptist, 1.6 per cent, Lutheran 1.2 per cent, Pentecostal 1.1 per cent), Catholic 25.3 per cent, Eastern Orthodox 2.6 per cent, other Christian 4.5 per cent, Buddhist 2.5 per cent, Muslim 2.2 per cent, Hindu 1.3 per cent, other 8.5 per cent, unspecified 2.2 per cent, none 22.3 per cent Note: Percentages add up to more than 100 per cent due to rounding (2006 Census) Languages : English 76.8 per cent, Mandarin 1.6 per cent, Italian 1.4 per cent, Arabic 1.3 per cent, Greek 1.2 per cent, Cantonese 1.2 per cent, Vietnamese 1.1 per cent, other 10.4 per cent, unspecified 5 per cent (2011 est.) Literacy : 99 per cent Government : Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Suffrage : 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Administrative Divisions : Six states and two territories

The Australian economy has experienced continuous growth and features low unemployment, contained inflation, very low public debt, and a strong and stable financial system. By 2012, Australia had experienced more than 20 years of continued economic growth, averaging 3.5 per cent a year. Demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China has grown rapidly, creating a channel for resources investments and growth in commodity exports. The high Australian dollar has hurt the manufacturing sector, while the services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy, accounting for about 70 per cent of GDP and 75 per cent of jobs. Australia was comparatively unaffected by the global financial crisis as the banking system has remained strong and inflation is under control. Australia has benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade in recent years, stemming from rising global commodity prices. Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy, and food. Australia’s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. The process of opening up has increased productivity, stimulated growth, and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Australia plays an active role in the World Trade Organisation, APEC, the G-20, and other trade forums. Australia has bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, and the US, has a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand, is negotiating agreements with China, India, Indonesia, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, as well as with its Pacific neighbours and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, and is also working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement with Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the US, and Vietnam.

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 General Information

Overview of the Economy

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East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia: AUSTRALIA


Iraq As violence and political turmoil tear through a war-wrecked Iraq, in August 2013 military experts warned US Congress that Al-Qaedaaffiliated terrorist cells are regrouping and working together not only in Iraq but in the entire region to undo a decade of US-led progress. On August 22, 2013, Iraq’s parliament speaker painted a grim picture of a crumbling country that is taking another beating by terrorists. Al-Nujaifi believes recent spikes in sectarian violence

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Egypt On November 22, 2012, Islamist President Mohammed Morsi issued a constitutional declaration purporting to protect the Constituent Assembly of Egypt from judicial interference. The declaration stated that it only applies until a new constitution is ratified. The declaration also required new trials for people acquitted of Mubarak-era killings of protesters, and extended the mandate of the constituent assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration authorised Morsi to take all measures necessary to these ends. In effect, the declaration made all constitutional declarations, laws and decrees made since Morsi assumed power immune to appeal by any individual, political or governmental body. Demonstrations both in support of and opposing Morsi broke out around Egypt after the declaration was made. President Mohammed Morsi was ousted by the Army on July 3, 2013. While the West is ambivalent about the crisis in Egypt—critical of the Egyptian generals, but reluctant to cut ties with them—some of its key allies in the Middle East suffer no such inhibitions. Sensing a policy vacuum left by the West, they are rushing to fill it. Saudi Arabia in particular is positioning itself as the main supporter of the military-

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coupled with political instability are fuelling concerns that the country could be pushed into another civil war. The latest series of orchestrated attacks in Iraq took place after militants set up their own checkpoints across the country and executed drivers at will. While the killings occurred, a bomb went off inside a crowded café north of Baghdad near the town of Muqdadiyah, killing 16 and injuring 20 others. The attacks in August 2013 followed a big prison breakout at the notorious Abu Ghraib prison – now under Iraqi Government control. At least 250 prisoners who were linked to terror groups were released and are now back on the streets. Though the country’s economy has actually been gradually improving over the last few years, the attacks in recent months have been frequent and severe, threatening stability. Nearly 2,000 people died in April and May of 2013 alone. The strikes in 2013 underscored the tenuous security picture in the country 10 years after thousands of American troops were dispatched to Iraq in 2003. As pro-democracy uprisings have spread across West Asia, the rulers of the monarchies are feeling threatened. Saudi Arabia—the region’s great bulwark of religious and political conservatism—is feeling increasingly isolated and concerned that the United States may no longer be a reliable backer, as officials and diplomats state.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

he term West Asia is co-terminous with the Middle East which describes geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism, international organisations such as the United Nations, have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel, a Jewish country, all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically, most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq, which is largely dominated by Shias, and Iran, which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world’s most widespread religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits, which were discovered in the early 20th century, have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest, as it has the largest oil reserves. Iran, Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically, most of the states are monarchies, sheikhdoms or single-party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The dramatic unfolding of the situation in West Asia over the past two years or so poses a challenge for all countries in terms of a political response. It calls for a quick rethinking of their foreign policy not just from a long-term perspective but also to address the challenges in the short term. The challenges did not appear on the scene without warnings. The world has been dealing with nuclear issues for about a decade. Apart from this, the post-9/11 scenario brought forth other issues that added to the dilemma and changed the situation in West Asia—the rise of Shia influence, the Iranian nuclear issue, tensions between Iranians and their Arab neighbours, tensions between Iranians and Israelis, the Palestine issue and the Arab Spring.

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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regional balance backed regime in Cairo. In a calculated snub to Washington, the Saudi princes have declared that if the Americans cut aid, they will increase it. This comes hard on the heels of the $12 billion (£7.5 billion) they pledged — with two of their Gulf allies, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates — in the immediate aftermath of the coup which overthrew President Mohammed Morsi in July 2013. Where the West sees a dilemma, the Saudis see an opportunity—a chance to weaken and even destroy their regional enemy, the Muslim Brotherhood. A unique phenomenon is unfolding in Egypt. It has a population that is 90 per cent Muslim but the country is witnessing a noholds-barred contest between Muslims and Islamists unfolding in public – unprecedented for a Muslim country.

Israel-Palestine Conflict The Israel-Palestine conflict extends well beyond the Middle East. Unresolved for more than 60 years, it has become a colossal obstruction to international politics and cooperation. However August 2013 saw Israelis and Palestinians holding a third round of negotiations and Israel’s chief representative at the talks predicted the US-brokered peace process would lead to dramatic Israeli decisions. The negotiations were renewed in July 2013 in Washington after a three-year stand-off over Israeli settlement expansion in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, areas captured in the 1967 Middle East war that Palestinians wants for a state along with the Gaza Strip. A second round of talks was held at an undisclosed location in Jerusalem on August 14, 2013, despite Palestinian consternation over Israel’s approval in the run-up to the meeting of plans for 3,100 new homes for settlers. An Israeli statement issued after the third round of negotiations on August 20 said that “both sides parted agreeing the meeting has been serious, and that they will continue the talks at a near date.” Israel has rejected criticism of its settlement policy, saying the new homes would be erected in enclaves it intends to keep in any future peace deal. Most countries view all settlements Israel has built on occupied land as illegal. No details were given after the August sessions that were widely believed to have focused on setting an agenda for discussing core issues such as borders, security and the future of settlements, and Jerusalem and Palestinian refugees.

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Syria The Syrian civil war is an ongoing armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Ba’ath Government and those seeking to oust it. The conflict began on March 15, 2011, with popular demonstrations that grew nationwide by April 2011. These demonstrations were part of the wider Middle Eastern protest movement known as the Arab Spring. Protesters demanded the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad, whose family has held the presidency in Syria since 1971, as well as the end of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party rule since 1964. In April 2011, the Syrian Army was deployed to quell the uprising, and soldiers fired on demonstrators across the country. After months of military sieges, the protests evolved into an armed rebellion. In August 2013 scores of men, women and children were killed outside Damascus in an attack marked by the telltale signs of chemical weapons: row after row of corpses without visible injury; hospitals flooded with victims, gasping for breath, trembling and staring ahead languidly; images of a gray cloud bursting over a neighbourhood. Images of death and chaos poured out of Syria after what may be the single deadliest attack in more than two years of civil war. There were hospital scenes of corpses and the stricken sprawled on gurneys and tile floors as medics struggled to resuscitate them. This latest attack, by far the largest chemical strike yet

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alleged, could tip that balance — as many foes of Assad hope it will. But like so much in Syria, where the government bars most reporters from working and the opposition heavily filters the information it lets out, the truth remains elusive. At Geneva I, held on June 20, 2012, the action group for Syria, which included Russia and the United States, agreed on the principles and guidelines for a Syrian-led transition. According to the group communique, the first key step in the transition involved the establishment of “a transitional governing body” with full executive powers, formed on the basis of “mutual consent” involving “members of the present government and the opposition”. At Geneva II, the international community is laying to rest the idea of a final solution in Syria that can be reached through a unilateral military victory. Building on their collaboration in getting the Syrian regime to dismantle its chemical weapons’ arsenal, followed by their success in convening the Geneva II conference, Russia and the US now co-own the Syrian conflict. The chemical weapons agreement and Geneva II are partly the result of increased diplomatic traffic between Moscow and Washington. This budding working relationship will be severely tested.

Iran Iran’s nuclear programme is one of the most polarising issues in one of the world’s most volatile regions. While American and European officials believe that Tehran is planning to build nuclear weapons, Iran’s leadership says that its goal in developing a nuclear programme is to generate electricity without dipping into the oil supply it prefers to sell abroad, and to provide fuel for medical reactors. Iran and the West have been at odds over its nuclear programme for years. But the dispute has picked up steam since November 2011, with new findings by international inspectors, tougher sanctions by the United States and Europe, threats by Iran to shut the Strait of Hormuz to oil shipments and Israel signalling increasing readiness to attack Iran’s nuclear facilities. In August 2013 Iran sent strong signals that its new foreign minister, an American-educated diplomat with a deep understanding of the United States, would assume the additional role of leading the Iranian delegation in talks with the major powers over Iran’s disputed nuclear programme. Such a change under the new President, Hassan Rouhani a moderate cleric, who won the presidency in June over his more conservative rivals, is a significant departure for Iran in the nuclear talks. Rouhani 0has pledged to reduce tensions with the West over the nuclear issue, which has left Iran increasingly isolated and economically troubled by punitive sanctions. On November 24, 2013, the interim nuclear accord between Iran and the international community was announced after tense negotiations in Geneva. This accord is historic for two reasons. Taken to its logical conclusion in the coming deal promises to end Iran’s prolonged nuclear confrontation with the world, strengthen the global non-proliferation regime and reduce the dangers of war in the Middle East. Second, emerging from secret talks between Washington and Tehran over the last many months, the deal lays the foundation for a long overdue rapprochement between America and Iran. Iran is now open to unprecedented international inspections to verify its commitments under the accord. The international community, in turn, has given modest relief from the massive sanctions regime that has been constructed in recent years against Iran. The other major problems of this region are the fundamentalist Islamic militancy, and sectarian violence and terrorism; all these pose threats to peace in West Asia. The US is involved in a significant way in clearing up or resolving all of them.

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regional balance ALGERIA  General Information

West Asia and North Africa: ALGERIA

reserves approaching $200 billion and a large budget stabilisation fund available for tapping. In addition, Algeria’s external debt is extremely low at about 2 per cent of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. The government’s efforts have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.

Defence Total Armed Forces : Terms of Service : Paramilitary Forces :

Active – 1,30,000 Reserve – 1,50,000 Conscription 18 months Gendarmerie- 20,000 National Security Forces – 16,000 Republican Guard – 1,200 Legitimate Defence Groups –1,50,000 est.

Security Environment

Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Exclusive fishing zone Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

: 23,81,741 sq km : Algiers : 998 km : 12 nm : 32-52 nm : 3,88,13,722 (July 2014 est.) : Arab-Berbers 99 per cent, European less than 1 per cent : Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent, Christian and Jewish 1 per cent : Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects : 72.6 per cent : Republic : 18 years of age; universal : 48 provinces

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Overview of the Economy Algeria’s economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country’s socialist post independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatisation of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues, 30 per cent of GDP, and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Strong revenues from hydrocarbon exports have brought Algeria relative macroeconomic stability, with foreign currency

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In the 1990s, Algerian politics was dominated by the struggle involving the military and Islamist militants. In 1992, a general election won by an Islamist party was annulled, heralding a bloody civil war in which more than 1,50,000 people were slaughtered. An amnesty in 1999 led many rebels to lay down their arms. Abdelaziz Bouteflika, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent. He was re-elected to a second term in 2004 and overwhelmingly won a third term in 2009, after the government amended the constitution in 2008 to remove presidential term limits. Long-standing problems continue to face Bouteflika, including large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the continuing activities of extremist militants. The Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) in 2006 merged with Al-Qaeda to form Al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb, which has launched an ongoing series of kidnappings and bombings targeting the Algerian Government and Western interests. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women’s quotas for elected assemblies. Parliamentary elections in May 2012 and municipal and provincial elections in November 2012 saw continued dominance by the National Liberation Front (FLN), with Islamist opposition parties performing poorly. Political protest activity in the country remained low in 2012, but small, sometimes violent socio-economic demonstrations by disparate groups continued to be a common occurrence. Parliament in 2013 is expected to revise the constitution. Terrorism continues to pose a threat to the safety and security of US citizens travelling to Algeria. Terrorist activities, including bombings, false roadblocks, kidnappings, and ambushes occur often, particularly in the Kabylie region east of Algiers and in the southern part of the country. Although its yearly military expenditures are well above the world average, Algeria maintains a relatively small active military. More than half of its troop strength consists of conscripts who

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The strategic environment in the Asia-Pacific has seen continuous change and volatility over the past decade or so, after the United States intervention in Afghanistan in 2001 which followed the 9/11 terror attacks. 2013 was no different.

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December 2013, Indian economy had recovered lost ground so to say with control over the twin deficits, fiscal and current account, raising the confidence of investors. How these states are able to sustain momentum of growth will dictate the future strategic balance in the region. Demonstration of economic resilience will ensure long-term confidence region thereby feeding in greater investments for the future. China has consolidated its position as one of the primary poles in the Asia-Pacific. This was reinforced with the shutdown of the United States Government in October 2013 that prevented President Barack Obama from participating in the East Asia summit. Thus China seemed to assume the leadership at least notionally on the high table. China’s relative economic stability that is being maintained at over 7 per cent growth in the GDP is attracting the region’s economies and with continued deflation in the United States and Europe is seen as having greater stability. Moreover Chinese investments in sovereign bonds in the United States are likely to be reviewed breaking the long-standing link between the world’s largest and second largest economies. How this will impact the overall regional and global power dynamics is not clear so far. Suffice to say the US-China relations, be it economic or military, will deserve greater scrutiny in the year ahead. Increasing use of the phrase Indo-Pacific places India into a higher order amongst states in the region. This despite India’s rising political and military power followed by its economic status as the third largest economy suffered a setback during the year. This was largely due to slow economic growth given global cues and internal supply side challenges. Strategically India has taken a number of initiatives to expand its influence in Central Asia, Afghanistan and Iran which should pay rich dividends in the future. The most important shift has been a closer embrace of South East Asia with the Look East Policy of the country rationalised in 1997 having

BUSINESS

Rahul Bhonsle  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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he situation of stra  BRIGADIER (RETD) tegic flux in the region is due to a number of factors. Firstly, a challenge to the global balance with the rise of China and India threatening the traditional international order dominated by the US, West and Russia. Secondly, a resurgent Japan, increasing economic clout of South Korea and Indonesia waiting in the wings to seek its rightful role in the regional and ipso facto global order has resulted in reverberations of change in the region. Thirdly, the United States Asia-Pacific rebalancing has been a cause for turbulence in regional and global geopolitics. Fourthly, the trajectory of change is further distressed by conflicts as the raging civil war in Syria drawing high level of attention particularly of major powers as the United States and Russia. Fifthly, China’s aggressive posturing to secure what is defined by it unilaterally as “core interests,” caused concerns in its immediate neighborhood. This was followed by attempts at concord between regional states such as the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and India or Japan and India to maintain a balance through mutual coagulation of interests to keep China’s ambitions and aggressive intent under check. The most significant defining factor in the transformation however has been the state of global and regional economies. The economic and fiscal challenges in 2013 denoted that the rise of Asia could not follow an autonomous trajectory and highlighted continued global interdependence be it currencies, trade or energy flows. Quantitative easing by the US Federal Reserve during the year saw flight of capital from the emerging economies, strengthening of the US dollar and corresponding fall in value of other currencies. This placed considerable pressure on economies of the Asia-Pacific particularly India, Indonesia and other South East Asian states thereby affecting their growth. This caused a major setback for the rise of the so-called “middle powers,” particularly India. However, by

TECHNOLOGY

Strategic Dynamics – Incessant Transformation

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: Type-98/Type-99, Type-99G, Type-90-II, NORINCO Type-85-III Light tanks (Lt Tks) : Type-62, Type-63, Type-63A Armoured personnel carriers/infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs), (ICVs) : Type-90, ZBD-04 IFV/ZBD (Type-97), NORINCO VP1, Type-89 (YW 534), Type-85 (531H), Type WZ 501, Type-77, Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers : Type-83 152mm, PLZ45 155mm How, Enhanced PLZ45 systems NORINCO Type-85 122mm How, 155mm (SP) System -SH1 Towed anti-tank (A Tk) guns, guns and howitzer : Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun, Type-66

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CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY

: Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System, WS-1B Multiple-Launch Rocket System

SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs : Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, PL-9C, Almaz S-300 – “Offensive” Air Defence, China’s SD-10A Air Defence System Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System Towed AA Guns : Chinese Type-56 14.5mm Gun, Norinco 37mm Type-74 Czech/Slovak Republics APCs/ICVs : BRDM-2, OT-64 C (SKOT-2A), BMP-1 & OT90 APC France MBTs Lt Tks APCs/ICVs

: Leclerc, AMX-30 : AMX -13 : Giat AMX-10P, Nexter Systems AMX10P Marines, AMX VCI (ICV), Improved VAB 4 x 4 version (Wheeled), Panhard

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INDIAN DEFENCE

China Main battle tanks (MBTs)

152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

ARMY EQUIPMENT Army equipment is listed below in the following order:

different variants with new fitments based on new technologies to cater for new operational parameters. Thus the equipment may seem old but in fact may have undergone numerous upgrades to modernise it for current and future conflicts. n Some such variants of equipment have been included based upon information in the public domain and collated from various sources including other publications. For greater details, please refer to other relevant media. n Specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors, weapon control systems and other such subsystems have been omitted as they may vary from craft to craft even within the same class or category. n The equipment held (types and numbers) in various countries of Asia along with other details is given in our Chapter on Regional Balance.

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

his chapter contains specifications of some important military hardware being employed in the Asian region. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented for each wing of the armed forces, namely army, navy, and air force separately. Salient details are as under: n The chapter begins with a summary of equipment of each manufacturing country followed by more detailed characteristics of each type of equipment of that country. n While the equipment mentioned is in use in the Asian region, each type of hardware is listed under its country of origin (manufacturer) like Russia, UK and the US. n The development of weapon systems being a long-term process, a composite unit like a tank, ship or an aircraft passes through various phases/stages of development and appears in

BUSINESS

Equipment & Hardware Specifications – An Overview

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


regional balance ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) PVP, Panhard M3 : GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun, GIAT 155mm, GCT SP Gun SP AA Guns and SAMs : Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System, Crotale Low Alt SAM System, Shahine Low Alt SAM System, AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System

APCs/ICVs

India MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows MRLs Israel MBTs Reconnaissance Vehicles SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2A7, Leopard 2A6, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT : Neuer Schutzenpanzer PUMA AIFV, Condor, Fuchs, Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV : T-90, Arjun

Singapore SP Guns and Hows

: SSPH-1 Primus

: IFG Mk.2 105mm : Pinaka MR System

South Africa APCs/ICVs

: Casspir Mk. III, Ratel 90

: Merkava Mk3, Merkava 4, Sabra MBT : RAM family of light AFVs : Soltam L-33 155mm : Soltam M-71 155mm Gun/How

Italy SP Guns and Howitzer : Oto Palmaria 155mm, Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs Pakistan MBTs

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APC Russia MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows

Propelled Artillery System 2S19 Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: D-30 122mm Fd Gun, M-46 130mm Fd Gun, 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs : Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System, BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs : ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System, ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, 2S6M Tunguska System, SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System, SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System, SA-8B SAM System, SA-9 Gaskin SAM, SA-13 Gopher SAM System Towed AA Guns : ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun, S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun, 100 mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19

SP Guns and Hows

Germany MBTs

equipment & hardware specifications: Army

: : : : :

Type-74, Type-90, Mitsubishi TK–X MBT Type-87 Type-73, Type-89, Mitsubishi Type SU 60 Type-75 155mm, Type-99 155mm Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System

: Type MBT 2000(Al Khalid), Type Al Zarrar : Type Saad, Type Talha, Type M113A2 : Black Eagle Development Tank, T-95, T-54, T-55, T-55 (Upgraded), T-62, T-64B, T-72, T-80U, T-90S : PT-76B : BRDM-2, PRP-4 : BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-1 ACV, BTR-50, BTR-80A, MT-LB, BTR-152VI : M 1973 (2S3) 152mm, M 1974 (2S1) 122mm, (MSTA-S) 152mm Self-

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South Korea MBTs : K1, Hyundai Rotem K2 MBT Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : 155mm KH179 How Spain APCs/ICVs

: BMR-600

Sweden Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Bofors FH-77 B 155mm Towed AA Guns : Bofors L-40/-70, 40mm Auto AA Gun Switzerland APCs/ICVs Towed AA Guns

United Kingdom MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: Mowag Piranha : Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns, Oerlikon Contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns : Chieftain Mk 5, Centurion Mk 13, Challenger 2, Khalid, Vickers MBT Mk 3 : Alvis Scorpion : Alvis Saladin, Daimler Ferret Mk 2/3 : Stormer, GKN Def Desert Warrior, FV432 : AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun : 105mm Lt Gun (L 118), 155mm Lightweight How (M 777)

United States of America MBTs : M-1 Abrams, M-48 series, M 60 A3 Lt Tks : M-41, Sting Ray APCs/ICVs : M-113 A3 SP Guns and Hows : 15 mm/ 52-calibre International Howitzer, M-107 175mm SP Gun,

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2. Type 99 /99A2 Specifications Type : Tracked, armoured Crew : 3 (commander, gunner, driver) Length : 11 m Width : 3.4 m Height : 2.2 m Type-99G : 54 t Type-99A2 : 58 t Maximum Speed (Road) : 80 kmph Cruising Range : 400 km, or 600 km with external fuel tanks Armament    Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm    AA : 1 x 12.7mm It is in service with People’s Liberation Army (PLA). 3. Type-90-II Specifications Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 443. Type 99 G A more potent variant of the Chinese Type-99 main battle tank

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4. NORINCO Type-85-III MBT Specifications Dimensions and Weights Crew : 3 Length Overall : 10.369 m Main armament rear : 9.508 m Width : 3.42 m Height : 2.3 m Ground clearance adjustable : 0.48 m to 0.52 m Weight : 42,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio : 23.52 hp/tonne Speed Max speed : 65 kmph Range Main fuel supply : 600 km (est.) Engine Configuration : V-type Fuel : diesel Output : 1,000 hp Smoke generator in exhaust : yes FIREPOWER Armament : 1 x turret mounted 125mm smoothbore gun 1 x coaxial mounted 7.62mm (0.30) machine gun 1 x roof mounted 12.7mm (0.50) machine gun 12 x turret mounted smoke grenade launcher (2 x 6) Ammunition : 42 rounds

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

CHINA Main Battle Tanks (MBT) 1. Type-98 Specifications Crew : 3 Weight : 50,000 kg Power-to-weight ratio : 24 hp/tonne Length gun forward : 10.92 m Width : 3.372 m Height : 2.805 m Engine : Model WD396 V-8 turbo-charged diesel developing 1,200 hp Max road speed : 65 kmph Max range : 500-650 km Armament    Main : 1 x 125mm SBG    Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm MG    AA : 1 x 12.7mm MG Amn : 42 x 125mm, 2,000 x 7.62mm, 300 x 12.7mm

BUSINESS

Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : M-198 155mm How SP AA Guns and SAMs : M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System, M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System, M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM System, Patriot Msl (many verions) single stage low to high altitude SAM system, Hawk Single Stage, low to medium altitude SAM System Towed AA Guns : M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun

INDIAN DEFENCE

M- 109 Series of 155mm SP How, M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch)

began circulating shortly after Xinhua News Agency released photos of what looked like a new and improved version of that armoured vehicle in early 2008. The visual differences indicate that the Type-99G has a new Active Protection System (APS) and an independent thermal imaging system for the tank commander. The tank also seems to sport a new electro-optical countermeasures package and a new laser designator warning system. Collectively, these improvements in the sensors and electronics mean the Type99G is better able to find targets, more aware of when it is being targeted by an enemy, and better able to use small missiles to deflect or destroy incoming attacks. The Type-99G main battle tank is also rumoured to have a new diesel engine, developing 2,100 hp. This represents an increase of 600 hp over the engine used in previous versions of the tank. Some sources also indicate that the Type-99G uses improved materials technology in the armour and possibly the engine, resulting in a tank lighter tank with just as much armoured protection. The Type-99A2, the previous version of the tank, was thought to weigh 58 tonnes, while the 99G is thought to weigh 54 tonnes. The road speed, off-road speed and range for the new Type-99G all remain unknown, but if the information about the engine and the construction bear out, the tank’s power-to-weight ratio rises from 27.8 hp per tonne to 38.8 hp per tonne. By contrast, the American M-1A1 tank weighs 60 tonnes, has a 1,500 hp gas turbine engine, and has a power-to-weight ratio of 24.5 hp per tonne.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: ARmy


regional balance ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Gun stabiliser : yes Range-finding device : Laser LIGHT TANKS 1. Type-62 Specifications Note : For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 443. It is in service with Bangladesh, Cambodia, China and Vietnam. 2. Type-63 Specifications Note : For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, Page 443. It is in service with China, Myanmar and Vietnam. 3. Type-63A Specifications Weight : 19-20 tonnes Length : 7.3 m Width : 3.2 m Height : 2.6 m Crew : 4 Armament    Main : 105mm rifled gun   AA : 12.7mm Coaxial : 7.62mm Engine diesel : 580 hp Power/weight : 26.4 hp/tonne Operational range Land : 400 km, Sea +120 km [1] Speed Land : 75 kmph, Swim 28 kmph [2] It is in service with PLA

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APCs/ICVs 1. Standard Type-90 Specifications Note : For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 443. It is in service with PLA. 2. ZBD-04 IFV/ ZBD (Type 97) In mid-2003 China developed a new Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) which has significant improvements in the key areas of armour, mobility and firepower over existing vehicles employed by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). This new Chinese IFV is designated the ZBD-04 and was first fielded in small numbers by the People’s Liberation Army in 2006. It is the most powerful vehicle of its type deployed by the PLA and as of mid-2010, has not been offered on the export market by China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO). 3. NORINCO VP1 Armoured Personnel Carrier Specifications Crew : 2+13 Length : 6.634 m

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equipment & hardware specifications: Army

Width Height Weight Configuration running gear Power-to-weight ratio Max speed Main fuel supply Amphibious Engine Fuel Cooling Output Gearbox model Steering

: 3.178 m : 2.556 m (with AA MG) : 14,500 kg : tracked : 22 hp/tonne : 65 kmph : 500 km : yes

: diesel : air cooled : 320 hp : power shifting : two-stage planetary drive, final drive Clutch type : hydraulic Suspension : torsion bar Firepower Armament : 1 x cupola mounted 12.7mm (0.50) Type-54 machine gun 2 x smoke grenade launcher Survivability : NBC capability, and Night Vision It is in service with PLA 4. Type- 89 (YW 534) Specifications Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2011-12 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 443. It is in service with PLA. 5. Type-85 (YW 531 H) Specifications Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2011-12 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 443. It is in service with PLA, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand. 6. Type WZ 501 IFC Specifications Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2011-12 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 443. It is in service with PLA. 7. Type 77 APC Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 444. It is in service with PLA and Albania. 8. NORINCO YW 531 APC Specifications Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2011-12 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 444. It is in service with PLA, Albania, Bangladesh, North Korea, Tanzania, Vietnam, Zimbabwe SP Guns and Hows 1. Type-83 152mm Specifications Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 444. It is in service with PLA.

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Dolphin Class Eilat (SAAR 5) Class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Reshef Class Super Dvora Class

NORTH KOREA Submarines : Romeo Class Sang-O Class Yono Class Frigates : Najin Class For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Soho Class RUSSIA Patrol Submarines : Kilo Class Lada Class

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UNITED KINGDOM For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Frigates : Leander Class Salisbury Class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu Class Missile Craft : Dhofar (Province) Class Corvettes : Qahir Class UNITED STATES OF AMERICA For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section Guided Missile Destroyers : Gearing Class Frigates : Adelaide Class Amphibious Forces : Austin Class WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Submarines : Agosta Class (France, Spain) Daphne Class (France)

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

ISRAEL Submarines : Corvettes : Patrol Forces :

Chakri Naruebet Class Endurance Class Nomed PS 700 Class Naresuan Class Gwanggaeto Class Oliver Hazard Perry Class Knox Class Jianghu II Class Tapi Class Khamronsin Class Ratnakosin Class

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Shishumar Class Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class Hermes Class Kiev Class (Ex Admiral Gorshkov) Delhi Class Kashin Class Godavari Class Brahmaputra Class Talwar Class Shivalik Class

THAILAND Air Craft Carriers : Amphibious Forces : Frigates : Corvettes :

TECHNOLOGY

INDIA Submarines : Air Craft Carrier : Destroyers : Frigates :

SOUTH KOREA Submarines : Chang Bogo Class Son Wonil Class Dolgorae Class Amphibious Assault : Dokdo Class LPH Go Jun Bong Class LST Destroyers : KDX1, 2 & 3 Class Frigates : Incheon Class Ulsan Class Corvettes : P O Hang Class For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section.

BUSINESS

Jin Class XIA Class Han Class Shang Class Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) Song Class Yuan Class Kilo Class Luzhou Class Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luda Class Luhai Class Luhu Class Jiangkai Class Jiangkai II Class Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu 1/II/V Class Jiangdao Class

Kashin Class Udayloy I & II Class Krivak Class Admiral Gorshkov Class Admiral Grigorovich Class Gepard Class Buyan Class Steregushchy Class Nanuchka Class Tarantul Class

INDIAN DEFENCE

CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines : Aircraft Carriers : Patrol Submarines : Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes :

Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes :

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NAVAL EQUIPMENT Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below.

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: navy


regional balance NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Frigates : Fast Attack Missile Craft : Aircraft Carriers :

HDW Class (Germany) Al Riyadh Class (France) Madina Class (France) La Fayette Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Combattante Class (France) Ratcharit Class (Italy) Principe De Asturias Class (Spain)

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CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines 5 + 1 Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes : 8,000 surfaced, 11,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 449.5 × 38.7 × 7.5 (137.0 × 11.8 × 2.3) Main machinery : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 20 Complement : 140 Missiles : SLBM; 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5); 2-stage solid-fuel rocket; Inertial guidance with stellar update to over 8,600 km, 12,000 km or 14,000 km depending on the variant; single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Countermeasures : Decoys: ESM. Radars : Surface search/navigation: Type-359; I-band Sonars : Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Structure : Likely to be based on the Type-093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. XIA Class (Type 092) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes : 6,500 surfaced, 7,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 393.6 × 33 × 26.2 (120 × 10 × 8) Main machinery : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 58 MW; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 22 dived Complement : 100 Missiles : SLBM: 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3); inertial guidance to 2,150 km (1,160 n miles); warhead single nuclear 250 kT. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Countermeasures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. Sonars : SQZ-3; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. Structure : Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). The Xia is a derivative of the Han Class SSNs, with

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equipment & hardware specifications: navy

an extended hull to accommodate 12 ballistic missile tubes. Nuclear Propelled Attack Submarines (SSGN) Han Class (Type 091) Displacement, tonnes : 5,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 385 x 33 x 24 (98 x 10 x 7.4) Main machinery : 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor, 1 shaft Speed, knots : 25 dived, 12 surfaced Complement : 75 Weapons : 6 x 533mm torpedo tubes for CET 65E and Type 53-51 torpedoes, up to 20 torpedoes or 36 mines Tube launched C-801 anti-ship missiles Programme & Structure: The first nuclear powered submarines deployed by the PLA (Navy). Five boats of the class were built and commissioned between 1974 and 1990. The first two are reported to have been decommissioned. They are known for a noisy reactor and poor radiation shielding and are inhibited in their ability to launch missiles while submerged. Reported to be equipped with SQZ-262 sonar made in China. All boats deployed with the North Sea Fleet and based at Qingdao. Shang Class (Type 093) Displacement, tonnes : 6,500 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 372 x 37.2 x 33.6 (110 x 11 x 10) Main machinery : 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor, 1 shaft Speed, knots : 30 dived Complement : 100 Weapons : 6 x 533mm or 650mm torpedo tubes for a range of wire, acoustic and wake homing torpedoes and the submarine launched version of YJ-83 cruise missile. Programme & Structure: The second generation of nuclear powered submarines deployed by the PLA (Navy). Design developed with assistance from Russia’s Rubin design bureau. At least four are reported in service, with reports indicating up to four more may be built. All boats deployed with the North Sea Fleet and based at Qingdao. Patrol Submarines 13 Song Class (Type 039/039G) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 1,700 surfaced; 2,250 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 246 × 24.6 × 17.5 (74.9 × 8.4 × 5.3) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16V 396 SE; 6,092 hp (m) (4.48 MW) diesels; 4 alternators; 1 motor; 1 shaft. An AIP system has been reported Speed, knots : 15 surfaced; 22 dived Complement : 60 (10 officers) Missiles : SSM: C-801A; radar active homing to 80 km (44 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50); passive homing to 15

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7+1 Yuan Class (Type 041) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 4,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 236.2 x 27.5 (72.0 x 8.4) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 diesels; 1 motor; Chinese developed AIP system; 1 shaft Missiles : SSM: C-80X; inertial cruise; active radar homing to 80-120 km (44-66 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50); active/ passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted. Sonars : Bow-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium; medium frequency. Flank array; passive search; low frequency. Comment: Teardrop hull and use of anechoic rubber tiles suggest strong influence of Kilo class in design. Equipped with indigenously developed shock absorber system to reduce noise by over 35 dB. Intended to replace the obsolescent Romeo and Ming class submarines. Kilo Class (Project 877EKM/636) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 2,325 surfaced; 3,076 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 238.2; 242.1 (Project 636) × 32.5 × 21.7 (72.6; 73.8 × 9.9 × 6.6) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 2 diesels; 3,650 hp(m) (2.68 MW); 2 generators; 1 motor; 5,900 hp(m) (4.34 MW); 1 shaft; 2 auxiliary motors; 204 hp(m) 150 kW); 1 economic speed motor; 130 hp(m) (95 kW) Speed, knots : 17 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 52 (13 officers) Missiles : SLCM: Novator Alfa Klub SS-N-27 (3M-

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Aircraft Carriers 0+1 Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) (Project 1143.5/6) Name : Liaoning, named for the Liaoning province Displacement, tonnes : 53,000-55,200 standard; 58,600-67,500 max. Dimensions, feet (metres) : 999 oa; 918.6 wl x 229.7 oa; 121.4 wl x 34.4 (304.5; 280 x 70; 37 x 10.5) Flight deck, feet (metres) : 999 x 229.7 (304.5 x 70) Main machinery : 8 boilers; 4 turbines; 2,00,000 hp(m) (147 MW); 4 shafts Speed, knots : 30 Range, n miles : 3,850 at 29 kt; 8,500 at 18 kt Complement : 1,960 (200 officers plus 626 aircrew plus 40 flag staff ) Weapons 3xType 1130 CIWS, 11 barrels, firing 9,000 to 11,000 rounds per minute, range 2.5-3.5 km 3 x HQ 10 (18 cell SAM system) 2 x ASW Rocket Launchers Aircraft : Mix of Shenyang J-15 fighters (Chinese derivative of Su-33, 2.4 Mach), Changzhe Z-8 helicopters (French Super Frelon SA 321 made in China for ASW and SAR role) and Ka-31 AEW helicopters. Programme: Liaoning is the PLA (Navy)’s first and only aircraft carrier. Originally laid down as ‘Riga’ at Nikolayev South Shipyard in 1985, the ship was renamed ‘Varyag” in 1990. However, construction ceased in 1992 with the structure

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SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  483

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

:

TECHNOLOGY

Operational

BUSINESS

: : : :

INDIAN DEFENCE

Mines Countermeasures Radars Sonars

km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted In lieu of torpedoes ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning Surface search: I-band Bow-mounted; Chinese derivative of French Thomson CSF TSM 2233; passive/active search and attack; medium frequency. Flank array; Chinese derivative of Thomson CSF 2255; passive search; low frequency Basing: North (315, 316, 327, 328); East (314, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325); South (320, 326, 329)

54E1); active radar homing to 180 km (97.2 n miles) at 0.7 Mach (cruise) and 2.5 Mach (attack); warhead 450 kg Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. 18 torpedoes. Combination of TEST 71/96; wire-guided; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg and 53-65; passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 kt; warhead 300 kg Mines : 24 in lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures : ESM: Squid Head or Brick Pulp; radar warning Weapons control : MVU-119 EM Murena TFCS. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. Sonars : Shark Teeth; hull-mounted; passive/ active search and attack; medium frequency Mouse Roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Modernisation : The first four submarines were refitted in the Shipyards at Russia. Upgrade package is likely to have included installation of the Klub (3M54) (SS-N27), anti-ship missile system. Operational: The first eight (364-371) based at Xiangshan in the East Sea Fleet and the remainder (372-375) based in the South Sea Fleet.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: navy


regional balance AIR EQUIPMENT AIR equipment is listed below in the following order: AERIAL PLATFORMS

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Combat Aircraft China

: : : : : : : : :

Xian H-6K Bomber Shenyang J-8A, 8B & J8II Xian JH-7 & 7A Chengdu J-7 & J-7D/E Chengdu J-10 Nanchang Q-5 Fantan FC-1 Xiaolong/JF-17 Thunder Chengdu J-10 Chengdu J-20 – Stealth Aircraft Under Development : Shenyang J-11A, 11B & 11BH (Copy of Su-27) : Shenyang J-16 : Shenyang J-31 Fifth-Generation Stealth Aircraft Europe : Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 1, 2 & 3A France : Dassault Mirage 2000H, Dassault Mirage F1, Dassault Mirage IV, Dassault Rafale India : LCA Tejas Mk I Israel : IAI Kfir IAI Nesher (Israeli version of Dassault Mirage 5) Russia : Mikoyan MiG-25R : Mikoyan MiG-27M : Mikoyan MiG-29 : Mikoyan MiG-31/MiG-31BM : Mikoyan MiG-35 : Sukhoi Su-24 M/M2/MR : Sukhoi Su-25SM : Sukhoi Su-27 : Sukhoi Su-30M/M2 : Sukhoi Su-34P : Sukhoi Su-35 Sweden : Saab JAS-39 Gripen United Kingdom : Panavia Tornado BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series United States of America : Boeing F-15C/D Eagle : Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle : Boeing F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet : Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet : Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Fighting Falcon : Northrop F-5E Tiger : Northrop F-5F/N Tiger II : F-22A Raptor : F-35A/F-35B Joint Strike Fighter Lightening II Transport Aircraft Germany : Dornier Do-228 Russia : Ilyushin IL-76 : Ilyushin IL-86

502  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

equipment & hardware specifications: air force

Spain Ukraine United States of America

: : : : : : : : : : : : :

Tupolev Tu-134 Yakovlev Yak-40 EADS CASA C-212 EADS CASA CN-235M EADS CASA C-295 Antonov An-12 Antonov An-22 Antonov An-24 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-32 Antonov An-124 Antonov An-72 Antonov An-74

: C-5 Galaxy : C-17 Globemaster III : Lockheed Martin C-130J-30 Super Hercules Brazil : Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante : Embraer Legacy 600 VIP Transport : Embraer 190 VIP Transport : Embraer 120 Brasila : Embraer 145 Utility : Embraer 121 Xingu : Embraer R 99 AEW/Elint Embraer KC-390 (28 on order, induction in 2015) Helicopters France Germany India Italy Russia United States of America

: Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma/AS 532 Cougar : Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550/AS 555 Fennec : Eurocopter SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/366 Dauphin II, : AS 565 Panther : Eurocopter SA 316/319 Alouette III : Eurocopter SA 330 Puma : Eurocopter SA 341/342 Gazelle : Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 : Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv : ALH–WSI (Armed Version) – Orders placed : Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) – Orders placed : AW101 VIP Communication : AW139 VIP Communication/SAR : Kamov Ka-52 Attack Helicopter : Kamov Ka-226 Training : Kazan Ansat : Mil Mi-6 : Mil Mi-8 : Mil Mi-17 : Mil Mi-24 Attack Helicopter : Mil Mi-25/-35 Attack Helicopter : Mil Mi-26 : Bell 407 : Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra

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Airborne Early Warning & Control Brazil : Embraer-145/R99 AEW Sweden : Saab 2000 AEW&C United States of America : Boeing E-3 Sentry, Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye : Boeing E-767 AWACS Russia/Israel : IL-76 with Phalcon System Combat Aircraft China Hong–6 Western designation : B-6 Users : China Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Jian–7 Western designation : F-7 Type : Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft Design based on : MiG-21 F (of Soviet origin) Other versions : (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I; exported to Albania, Egypt, Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I; also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles, exported to Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe); F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt: (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles; F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA; Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force)

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Jianjiao–7 Western designation : FT-7 Users : Bangladesh (FT-7B), China (JJ-7), Iran (FT-7), Myanmar (FT-7), Pakistan (FT7P/ PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Qiang–5 NATO reporting name : Fantan Western designation : A-5 Users : Bangladesh (A-5C), China (Q-5), Myanmar (A-5-C/-M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. FC–1 Export version : Super-7 Users : China, Pakistan Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500. Jianji–10 Western designation : F-10 Type : Multi-role fighter Design : Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore-planes; single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins; single ventral engine air intake. Accommodation : Pilot only, on zero/ zero ejection seat. Range : 1,000 nm Armament : 11 external stores points, including one on centerline, tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing, the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs; C-801 or C-802 ASMs; and laser guided or free fall bombs. Combat Radius : 250-300 nm Users : China

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

J–11 (Su-27SK) For details see Su-27 under Russia

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  503

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Embraer EMB-312 Tucano HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk I/IA and Mk-II BAE Systems Hawk Advanced Jet Tainer K-8 Karakoram Basic Jet Trainer L-15 Advanced Jet Trainer

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: : : : :

Jian–8 NATO reporting name : Finback Western designation : F-8 Users : China Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499.

TECHNOLOGY

Training Brazil India United Kingdom China/Pakistan

Boeing AH-64 Apache Boeing CH-47 Chinook Sikorsky UH-60/SH-60/S-70 Blackhawk, S-92

BUSINESS

: : : :

INDIAN DEFENCE

(xv) J 7/FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users : China (J-7 II/ IIA/ H/ IIM/ III/ IIIA/ E), Bangladesh (F-7M), Egypt (F-7A/B), Iran (F-7M), Myanmar (F-7M), North Korea (F-7), Pakistan (F-7P/PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

AIR EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: air force


Abbreviations

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A A&E Ammunition and Explosives A&N Andaman and Nicobar A/S Anti-Submarine A/S Mortars Anti-Submarine Mortars AA-AB anti-aerial air burst AAAU active array antenna unit AAC Army Aviation Corps AAD Army Air Defence AAM air-to-air missile Ac/ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat, Command and Control System/artillery command/ control and communications system ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMU alternating current electrical multiple unit ACHR Asian Centre for Human Rights ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS (PP&FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile/ Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACNS (P&P) Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Policy & Plans) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel ACOP (CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP (HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) Acqn Acquisition ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency ADC&RS air defence control and reporting system ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADG Army Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation ADG DV Additional Director General Discipline and Vigilance ADG EM Additional Director General Equipment Management ADG Mov Additional Director General Movement ADG Procurement Additional Director General Procurement ADG PS Additional Director General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Director General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Director General Information System ADGIW Additional Director General Information Warfare ADGMI Additional Director General Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General Military Operations ADGMS (Navy) Additional Director General Medical Services (Navy) ADGOL Additional Director General Operation Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence ADIZ Air Defence Identification Zone

ADMM ADRDE

ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AESA active electronically scanned array AEW airborne early warning AEW&C airborne early warning and control AFP Armed Forces of the Philippines Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AG Adjutant General AGM air-to-ground missile AGPL actual ground position line AH attack helicopters AHEAD advanced hit efficiency and destruction AIEPG ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group AIS automatic identification system AJT advanced jet trainer AL Awami League ALH advanced light helicopter ANA Afghan National Army ANC Andaman and Nicobar Command ANSF Afghan National Security Forces ANURAG Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group ANVC Achik National Volunteer Council AOC Army Ordnance Corps AON acceptance of necessity AOP Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel APA advanced projects agency APC armed personnel carrier APDS armour piercing discarding sabot APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation APFSDS armour piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot APS Active Promotion System APT advanced persistent threat AQAP Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula AR Assam Rifles AR&DB Aeronautical Research and Development Board ARDC Aircraft R&D Centre ARDE Armament Research & Development Establishment ARF ASEAN Regional Forum ARMREB Armament Research Board ARMSCOR Armaments Corporation of South Africa ARTC&S Assam Rifles Training Centre and School ARTRAC Army Training Command ASAT anti-satellite weapons ASCON Army Static Communication Network ASDF Air Self-Defense Force ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASG Abu Sayyaf Group ASTE Aircraft and System Testing Establishment ASTROIDS Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System ASW anti-submarine warfare ATAS active-cum-passive towed array sonar ATDS advanced torpedo defence system ATGM anti-tank guided missile ATM air traffic management AWACS airborne warning and control system

B BADZ BARC BDL BDR BE BEL BEML BFSR

Base Air Defence Zone Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bharat Dynamics Limited Bangladesh Rifles Budget Estimate Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Earth Movers Limited battlefield surveillance radar

512  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

BHEL BIMSTEC

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation BM Border Management BMC2 Battle Management Command and Control BMD ballistic missile defence BMI brain-machine-interfaces BMS ballistic missile systems BMS battlefield management system Bn (bn) Battalion BNP Bangladesh Nationalist Party BOMCA Border Management Programme in Central Asia BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa BRO Border Roads Organisation BSF Border Security Force BSS battlefield surveillance system BTAD Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District BVR beyond visual range

C C4

command, control, communications and computers C4I command, control, communications, computers, information C4I2 command, control, communications, computing, intelligence and information C4I2SR command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance C4ISR command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance CABS Centre For Airborne Systems CAD computer-aided design/ current account deficit CAG Comptroller and Auditor General of India CAIR Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics CAPF Central Armed Police Force CAR Central Acquisition Radar CAR Central Asian Republics CARAT Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training CAREC Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation CASA Central Asia South Asia CASSA Council of Agencies Serving South Asians CAW College of Air Warfare CBI Central Bureau of Investigation CBM confidence building measures CBRN chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear CBTA Cross-Border Transport Agreement CC control centre CCA Central Coordinating Authority CCP Chinese Communist Party CCS Cabinet Committee on Security CDS Chief of Defence Staff CECA Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement CELLDAR cell phone radar CEMILAC Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification CEO Chief Executive Officer CEP circular error probability CEPA Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement CEPTAM Centre for Personal Talent Management CERT Computer Emergency Response Team CES Common Economic Space CFC Combined Force Commander CFD computational fluid dynamics CFEES Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety

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abbreviations CFL ceasefire line CFT Combating Financing Terrorism CGE Central Government Expenditure CHARI Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative CHASNUPP Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CIA Central Intelligence Agency CIAT Counter-Insurgency and Anti-Terrorist CIDSS command information decision support system CIG Counter-Insurgency Grid CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CISC Chief of Integrated Staff to the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee CISF Central Industrial Security Force CMC Computer Maintenance Corporation/ Central Military Commission CMD credible minimum deterrence CMDS countermeasure dispensing systems CNC computer numerically controlled boring machines CoBRA Commando Battalion for Resolute Action COM Chief of Material COP Chief of Personnel CORF Collective Operational Reaction Force COSC Chiefs of Staff Committee COTS commercial off-the shelf CPI (M) Communist Party of India (Maoist) CPMF Central Paramilitary Forces CPMIEC China National Precision Machinery Corporation CPS Controller of Personnel Services C-RAM counter rocket, artillery and mortar CRBC China Road and Bridge Corporation CrPC Criminal Procedure Code CRPF Central Reserve Police Force CSA (ILMS) Chief Systems Administrator (ILMS) CSIS Centre for Strategic and International Studies CSN coastal surveillance network CSS coastal security scheme CSS coastal surveillance system CSTO Collective Security Treaty Organisation CT computed tomography CU Customs Union CUNPK Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping CVLO counter very-low observable CVM Chakri Naruebet Class CVRDE Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment

D DAB DAC DARE DARPA DART DBSN DCIDSPP&FD

digital audio broadcasting Defence Acquisition Council Defence Avionics Research Establishment Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Driven Ammunition Reduced Time of Flight distributed battlefield sensor network

Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, Policy Planning and Force Development Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Director General Canteen Services Deputy Director General Defence Security Corps DDG MF Deputy Director General Military Farms DDG Pnr Deputy Director General Pioneers DDP&S Department of Defence Production and Supplies DEAL Defence Electronics Application Laboratory DEBEL Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory DERL Defence Electronics Research Laboratory DESIDOC Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre DFRL Defence Food Research Laboratory DG AAD Director General Army Air Defence DG Arty Director General Artillery DG CW Director General Ceremonials and Welfare DG DCW Director General Discipline Ceremonials and DCMG DCN DCNS DDG CS DDG DSC

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DG EME DG FP DG Inf DG Mech Forces DG MP DG MS (Army) DG Pers DG Pers & Org DG PP DG RR DG WKS (Army) DGAQA

Welfare Director General Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Director General Financial Planning Director General Infantry Director General Mechanised Forces Director General Manpower Planning

DVB-T DVD

digital video broadcastingterrestrial digital versatile/video disc

E EADS

Director General Medical Services (Army) Director General Personnel Director General Organisation and Personnel Director General Perspective Planning Director General Rashtriya Rifles

Director General Works (Army) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance DGICG Director General of the Indian Coast Guard DGMO Director General Military Operations DGNAI Director General Naval Armament Inspection DGND-SDG Director General Naval Design (Submarine Design Group) DGND-SSG Director General Naval Design (Surface Ship Group) DGNO Director General Naval Oprations DGOF Director General Ordnance Factories DGONA Director General Naval Armament DGP Director General of Police DGQA Directorate General of Quality Assurance DGSPV & AOB Director General Special Purpose Vehicle & AOB DGST Director General Supply and Transport DGWE Director General Weapons and Equipment DHD Dima Halam Daogah DIA Defence Intelligence Agency DIAT Defence Institute of Advanced Technology DIBER Defence Institute of Bioenergy Research DIHAR Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIPAS Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences DIPP Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion DIPR Defence Institute of Psychological Research DISB Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business DLJ Defence Laboratory Jodhpur DMA Direct Marketing Association DMRC Delhi Metro Rail Corporation DMRL Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory DMSRDE Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment DMZ demilitarised zone DOC Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea DODP Department of Defence Production DOFA Defence Offset Facilitation Agency DOMW Defence Offset Management Wing DOS Directorate of Standardisation DOT Department of Telecommunication DPB Defence Procurement Board DPP Defence Procurement Procedure DPSUs defence public sector undertakings DPT Druk Phuensum Tshogpa DQMG Deputy Quarter Master General DRDB Defence Research and Development Board DRDE Defence Research & Development Establishment DRDL Defence Research & Development Laboratory DRDO Defence Research and Development Organisation DRL Defence Research Laboratory DSDI Defence Spatial Data Infrastructure DT disruptive technology Dte of P&C Directorate of Planning & Coordination DTN disruption-tolerant networking DTRL Defence Terrain Research Laboratory DTTI Defence Technology and Trade Initiative DU Delhi University DURGA directionally unrestricted ray-gun array

European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EAEF Euro-Asia Economic Forum ECCC Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia ECFA Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement ECIL Electronics Corporation of India Ltd EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone E-in-C Engineer-in-Chief ELINT electronic intelligence ELM Expeditionary Laboratory Mobile EME Electrical and Mechanical Engineers EMP electromagnetic pulse ENPO Eastern Naga People’s Organisation EO electro-optical EOFCS electro-optical fire control system EOIs expressions of interest ERV exchange rate variation EU European Union EVMs electronic voting machines EW airborne electronic warfare EW electronic warfare

F FAA FATA FATF FBI FC FCORD FDI FGFA FICCI FICN FICs FICV FII F-INSAS FIS FLN FM FMS FODAG FOGA FOK FOMAG FONA FOSM FPDA FPVs FRA FRAP FTA

Federal Aviation Administration Federally Administered Tribal Areas Financial Action Task Force Federal Bureau of Investigation fire control FICN Coordination Group foreign direct investment fifth generation fighter aircraft Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Fake Indian Currency Notes fast interception crafts Future Infantry Combat Vehicles foreign investment institution Future Infantry Soldier as a System Flying Instructor’s School National Liberation Front frequency modulation foreign military sales Flag Officer Offshore Defence Advisory Group Flag Officer Goa Area Flag Officer Karnataka Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra and Gujarat Flag Officer Naval Aviation Flag Officer Submarine Five Power Defence Agreement Fast Petrol Vessels Flight Refuelling Aircraft fragmenting payload Free Trade Agreement

G GATT GCC GDP GE GHG GIS GJM GMDSS GNC GOM GPR-AB GPS

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product General Electric greenhouse gas global information system Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Global Maritime Distress and Safety System General National Congress Group of Ministers general purpose round air burst global positioning system

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  513


abbreviations GRSEL GSL GSLV GSPC GTA GTRE

Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat Gorkha Territorial Administration Gas Turbine Research Establishment

H HADR HAL HAUV HCHE HEMRL HEU HF HHTI HSL HUD HuJI HUMINT HVF

humanitarian assistance and disaster relief Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hybrid Autonomous Undersea Vehicle higher capability high explosives High Energy Materials Research Laboratory highly enriched uranium high frequency thermal imaging devices Hindustan Shipyard Limited Head-up display Harkat-ul-Jihad al -Islami human intelligence Heavy Vehicles Factory

I IAF IAI IAP IB ICAO ICBM ICG ICJ ICSS ICV IDAS IDEX

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IDP IDS IDSA IED IEW IFA (N) IFC IFF IFV IGNS IGPS IISS IITF IJT IKR IM IMF IMG IMO IMRH IMU INDSAR INDU INMAS INSAT IOCL IONS IOR IOT IPA IPC IPKF IPSP IPV IPv4 IPv6 IR IR&FC IRAL

Indian Air Force Israel Aerospace Industries Integrated Action Plan Intelligence Bureau/ Interceptor Boat International Civil Aviation Organisation intercontinental ballistic missile Indian Coast Guard International Court of Justice Integrated coastal surveillance system Infantry Combat Vehicle Integrated Defensive Aids Suite International Defence Exhibition and Conference Internally Displaced Person Integrated Defence Staff Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses improvised explosive device information electronic warfare Integrated Financial Advisor (Navy) inter-factional clashe identification friend and foe Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inspector General Nuclear Safety Intelligent Global Positioning System International Institute for Strategic Studies India International Trade Fair intermediate jet trainer Iraqi Kurdistan Region Indian Mujahideen International Monetary Fund Inter-Ministerial Group International Maritime Organisation Indian multi-role helicopter Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Indian national satellite Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Indian Ocean Naval Symposium international offshore rule Internet of Things Indian Production Agency Indian Penal Code Indian Peace Keeping Force Internal Peace and Security Plan inshore patrol vessels Internet protocol version 4 Internet protocol version 6 India Reserve/ infrared/ international relations Information Resource & Facilitation Centre Indo-Russian Aviation Limited

IRB IRDE IRENA IRNSS IRS IRST IS ISAF ISI ISIL ISIS ISR ISRO ISRR ISSA ISSA ISTAR IT ITBP ITM ITR ITSPP IW IWI

India Reserved Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment International Renewable Energy Agency Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System Indian remote satellite infrared search and track information superiority International Security Assistance Force Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis International Social Security Association intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance information technology Indo-Tibetan Border Police Institute of Technology Management Integrated Test Range Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Plan information warfare Israel Weapon Industries

J J&K Jammu and Kashmir JAG Judge Advocate General JeM Jaish-e-Mohammad JNU Jawaharlal Nehru University JOC Joint Operation Centre JOCOM Joint Operation Committee JODI Joint Organisations Data Initiative JSF joint strike fighter JSIC Joint Services Intelligence Committee JTC Joint Training Committee JTFI Joint Task Force on Intelligence

K KAI KALI KANUPP KKH KLA KMW KNO KPLT KRG

Korea Aerospace Industries kinetic attack loitering interceptor Karachi Nuclear Power Plant Karakoram Highway Kamtapur Liberation Army Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, Germany Kuki National Organisation Kuki Peoples’ Liberation Tigers Kurdistan Regional Government

L L&T Larsen and Toubro LAC line of actual control LASTEC Laser Science & Technology Centre LCA light combat aircraft LCH light combat helicopter LCM Local Communist Movement LCU landing craft utility LDP Liberal Democratic Party LeJ Lashkar-e-Jhangvi LEO/MEO low/medium earth orbit LeT Lashkar-e-Taiba/Toiba LEVCON leading edge vortex control surface LIA Lead Intelligence Agency LIDAR light detection and ranging LNG liquefied natural gas LoC line of control LRDE Electronics and Radar Development Establishments LRSAM long-range surface-to-air missile LSRB Life Sciences Research Board LTIPP Long-term Integrated Perspective Plan LTPP Long-term Perspective Plan LTPPFC Long-term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee

514  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

LTTE LUH LWE

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam light utility helicopter left-wing extremism

M MAC MADDLS MANTIS

Multi Agency Centre Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System Modular Automatic and Network Capable Targeting and Interceptor System MARCOS Marine Commandos MaRV manoeuvrable re-entry vehicle MASINT measurement and signature intelligence MAV micro UAV MAV micro-air vehicle MBRL multi-barrel rocket launcher MBT main battle tank MCPP maritime capability perspective plan MD AWES Managing Director Army Welfare Education Society MD AWHO Managing Director Army Welfare Housing Organisation MDA maritime domain awareness MDL Mazagon Dock Limited MEDS micro-biotic electronics and disabling system MEMS micro-electro-mechanical system MFN most favoured nation MFSTAR Multifunctional Surveillance Threat Assessment Radar MGO Master General Ordnance MHA Ministry of Home Affairs MIB Ministry of Information & Broadcasting MIDHANI Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front MIMO multiple-input multiple-output MIRV multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle MIS management information system MMRCA medium multi-role combat aircraft MND Ministry of National Defense MNLF Moro National Liberation Front MoD Ministry of Defence MR maritime reconnaissance MRBM medium-range ballistic missile MRCC Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre MRD Motorised Rifle Division MRL multiple rocket launcher MRO maintenance, repair and overhaul MRSAM medium-range surface-to-air missile MRSC Marine Rescue Sub-Centre MRTT multi-role tanker transport MS Military Secretary M-SAR Maritime Search and Rescue MSME Medium, Small and Micro Enterprise MSQA missile system quality assurance MTA multi-role transport aircraft MTAL Multirole Transport Aircraft Ltd MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime MTRDC Microwave Tube R&D Centre

N NAFTA NAIS NASA

North American Free Trade Agreement National Automatic Identification System National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASSCOM National Association of Software and Services Companies NATGRID National Intelligence Grid NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NBC nuclear biological chemical defence NBDC National Bomb Data Centre NC3IN National Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence NCA National Command Authority NCCC National Cyber Coordination Centre NCSL National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy NCTC National Counter Terrorism Centre NCTF Naresh Chandra Task Force NCW network-centric warfare

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abbreviations NDA NDFB NDMA NDN NDRF NFU NHRC NIA NIC

National Defence Academy National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Disaster Management Authority Northern Distribution Network National Disaster Response Force no first use National Human Rights Commission National Investigative Agency National Informatics Centre/ National Intelligence Council NIRDESH National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding NLD National League for Democracy NMF National Maritime Foundation NMRH naval multi-role helicopter NMRL Naval Materials Research Laboratory NMSAR National Maritime Search and Rescue NMSARCA National Maritime Search and Rescue Coordination Authority NMSRB National Maritime Search and Rescue Board NOS-DCP National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan NPOL Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory NPR National Population Register NPT Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty NRB Naval Research Board NSA National Security Advisor/ National Security Agency NSC National Security Council NSCN National Socialist Council of Nagaland NSCN/IM National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) NSCN/K National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) NSCS National Security Council Secretariat NSEC Naval Standing Establishment Committee NSG National Security Guard/ Nuclear Suppliers’ Group NSR New Silk Road NSTL Naval Science & Technological Laboratory NTG Naval Technology Group NTRO National Technical Research Organisation NWWA Navy Wives Welfare Association

PDESA PDFC PDFM PDG PDIT PDLS PDM (P&M)

O

PDW PDWE PELE PFI PGMs PIPVTR

OECD

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development original equipment manufacturer Ordnance Factory Board optical fibre cable operational information system Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapon Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Offshore Petrol Vessels One Rank One Pension Offshore Security Coordination Committee open source intelligence Outer Space Treaty over the horizon radar

OEM OFB OFC OIS ONGC OPCW OPEC OPV OROP OSCC OSINT OST OTH

P PAT PCL PCVs PDAA PDACP PDALS PDAPP PDAPSA PDASE PDCP PDCPS PDCV PDEE

Perform, Achieve and Trade passive coherent location Pollution Control Vessels Principal Director Aircraft Acquisition Principal Director Aircraft Carrier Project Principal Director Air Logistics Support Principal Director Aircraft Projects & Plan Principal Director of Adventure, Physical Fitness in Sports Activities Principal Director Aircraft Systems Engineering Principal Director Civilian Personnel Principal Director Civilian Personnel Services Principal Director Clothing & Victualling Principal Director Electrical Engineering

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PDMPR PDMS (M&S) PDNA PDNAS PDNCO PDNE PDNI PDNO PDNOM PDNP PDNPF PDNS PDNT PDOA PDODY PDOH PDOI PDOP PDP PDP&A PDPRO PDPS PDSMAQ PDSMO PDSMS PDSOD PDSR PDSSD

PLA PM PML PML(N) PMOC PNT PoK POL PPBP PPOC PPP PPP PSOC PSR PXE

Principal Director Ex-Servicemen Affairs Principal Director Foreign Cooperation Principal Director Fleet Maintenance Parliament Duty Group Principal Director Information Technology Principal Director Logistics Support Principal Director Medical Services (Personnel & Material) Principal Director Manpower Planning & Recruitment Principal Director Medical Services (Hospital & Services) Principal Director Naval Architecture Principal Director Naval Air Staff Principal Director Net-centric Operations Principal Director Naval Education Principal Director Naval Intelligence Principal Director Naval Operations Principal Director Naval Oceanology & Meteorology Principal Director Naval Plans Principal Director Non-Public Funds Principal Director Naval Signals Principal Director Naval Training Principal Director Administration Principal Director Dockyards Principal Director of Hydrography Principal Director Indigenisation Principal Director Personnel People’s Democratic Party Principal Director Pay & Allowances Principal Director Procurement Principal Director Personnel Services Principal Director Submarine Acquisition Principal Director Submarine Operations Principal Director Submarine Safety Principal Director Special Operations & Diving Principal Director Staff Requirements Principal Director Ship Systems & Development Principal Director Works Principal Director Weapons Equipment Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect Popular Front of India precision-guided munitions Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research People’s Liberation Army Provost Marshal Pakistan Muslim League Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee position navigation and timing Pakistan occupied Kashmir petrol, oil and lubricants policy, exercise of planning, budgetary allocations and process of acquisition Principal Personal Officers Committee public-private partnership purchasing power parity Principal Supply Officers Committee preliminary staff requirements Proof and Experimental Establishment

Q QMG

Quarter Master General

R R&D R&DE RADAR RAF RAM/RAP RAW RBA

research and development Research & Development Establishment radio detection and ranging Rapid Action Force radar absorbent materials/paint Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Army

RBG RCEP RCI RCMA RCS ReCAAP REF RFIs RFP RIAF RMA ROC ROS ROV RPA RRP-I RSTA RUAV

Royal Bhutan Guards Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Research Centre Imarat Regional Centre of Military Airworthiness radar cross section Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery Rapid Equipping Force request for information request for proposal Royal Indian Air Force revolution in military affairs regional operating centres remote operating stations remotely operated vehicle remotely piloted aircraft Road Requirement Plan – I reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition Rotary-winged UAVs

S SA to CNS Scientific Advisor to Chief of Naval Staff SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAD space asset domination SAG Scientific Analysis Group SAGW surface-to-air guided weapons SAM surface-to-air missile SaR search and rescue SAR surveillance and reconnaissance /synthetic aperture radar SASE Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment SATA surveillance and target acquisition SBE strategic and business environment SCAF Supreme Council of Armed Forces SCAPCC Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee SCAPCHC Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCS South China Sea SCTC State Counter-Terrorism Centres SDI Strategic Defense Initiative SDR software defined radio SDR Strategic Defence Review SFC Strategic Forces Command SID Signal Intelligence Directorate SIDBI Small Industries Development Bank of India SIGINT signal intelligence SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute SIRBs Specialised India Reserved Battalions SITAR Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research SLBM submarine launched ballistic missile SLOC sea line of communication SMAC Subsidiary MAC SMAC State Multi Agency Centre SNERDI Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute SNR signal to noise ratio SoD Suspension of Operation SPB Sagar Prahari Bal SPG Strategic Policy Group SQR services qualitative requirements SRBM short-range ballistic missiles SRE security related expenditure SR-SAM short-range surface-to-air missile SSB Sashastra Seema Bal SSG Special Security Group SSPL Solid State Physics Laboratory SSQAG Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group STEA Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment STOBAR short take-off but arrested recovery STOVL short take-off and vertical landing STP Specialist Technical Panels

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue  |  515


abbreviations SUAS SWATH

small unmanned aircraft systems small water plane area twin hulls

TSD TTP

T

U

TACAN TacC3I

UAC-TA

United Aircraft Corporation-Transport Aircraft UAE United Arab Emirates UAS unmanned aerial systems UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UCAV unmanned combat air vehicle UDF United People’s Front UHQ Unified HQ ULFA United Liberation Front of Asom UN United Nations UNCIVPOL United Nations Civilian Police UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council UNKPO UNHRC Peacekeeping Operations UNSC United Nations Security Council UPA United Progressive Alliance UPUA Urban Perspective: Our Work in Urban Areas USA United States of America USAF United States Air Force USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics UWSA United Wa State Army

V VBIG VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOS VCR VLO VRDE

Valley Based Insurgent Group Vice Chief of Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of Naval Staff Vice Chief of Army Staff video cassette recorder very low observable Vehicles Research and Development Establishment V-SAT Very Small Aperture Terminal VSHORAD very short-range air defence systems VTOL vertical take-off and landing

W WAC Western Air Command WCS Weapon Control System WLR weapon locating radar WMD weapons of mass destruction WPN Weapons WSOI Weapon Systems, ORSA and Infrastructure WTO World Trade Organisation

Z ZUF

Zaliangrong United Front

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tactical air navigation tactical command, control, communications and information TACDE Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment TAPI Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India TBM theatre-range ballistic missile TBRL Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory TCS tactical communication system TCS Tata Consultancy Services TECHINT technical intelligence TERI Tata Energy Research Institute TEUS twenty-foot equivalent units TFT thin-film transistor TIKA Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency TKK Tamu-Kalewa-Kaleymyo TNA Tamil National Alliance TNSM Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi TNW tactical nuclear weapons ToT transfer of technology TPCR/ TPCRM Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap TPP Trans-Pacific Partnership

Technical Support Division Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (Tehrik)

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Index A

A-330 110 Abbott, Tony 333, 454 Abbottabad 48, 369, 455 Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia 338, 434 ABG Shipyard 201, 284, 327 Abhay 186, 197, 294, 365 ABI research 90 Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) 404 AC First LLC, USA 136 Achik National Volunteer Council (ANVC) 318 Act of Parliament (1993) 322 active array antenna unit (AAAU) 73, 110 active electronically scanned array (AESA) systems 73, 211, 226, 275, 293, 484 Active Promotion System (APS) 459 Active-cum-passive towed array sonar (ATAS) 294 actual ground position line (AGPL) 43 adaptive antenna SAGW 65 Admiral Gorshkov Class 494 Admiral Grigorovich Class 494 advanced hit efficiency and destruction (AHEAD) 84 advanced jet trainer (AJT) 109 advanced light helicopter (ALH) 93, 94, 95, 96, 109, 167, 184, 193, 194, 196, 197, 198, 205, 211, 231, 238, 244, 246, 274, 275, 276, 277, 365, 502 Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (ANURAG) 295 advanced persistent threat (APT) 75 advanced projects agency (APA) 149 advanced torpedo defence system (ATDS) 294 Advani, L.K. 326 Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) 295 Aero India show 94 Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) 275, 291, 293 Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) 110, 293, 295 Aeronautical Research and Development Board (AR&DB) 294 Aerospace Testing Alliance, USA 140 AeroVironment 60 Afghanistan 358–59, 451, 455 —Afghan Mujahideen 19 —Afghan National Army (ANA) 6, 456 —Afghan National Police (ANP) 6, 358 —Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) 6, 18–19, 154, 358 —Air Force 359 —Army 359 —civil war 17–18 —Constitution 18 —defence 358 —economy 358 —and India’s regional security environment 5–6, 41, 452 —and Indo-US strategic partnership 1–4 —Northern Alliance 17, 20 —Pakistan, relations 19 —reconstruction and Central Asia 26–27 —security dynamics 356, 358–59 —Soviet occupation 7 —Taliban forces 2, 17–20, 46, 131

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—US military presence, and withdrawal 1, 2, 5, 10, 17–20, 27, 346, 358 —post-2014 17–20, 41, 45, 346, 370 Afghanistan-Pakistan region 4, 45, 131, 170, 346, 355, 370, 455–56 Agrawal, J.P. 303 Agarwal, R.C. 295 Aggarwal, Shankar 250 AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles 57 Agni series 118, 165, 253, 364 —Agni-I 292, 364 —Agni-II 176, 292, 364 —Agni-III 292, 364 —Agni-IV 292 —Agni-V 51, 292 AGS-30 177 AgustaWestland 121–22 AgustaWestland AW119 ‘Koala’ 94–95 AgustaWestland VVIP helicopters 93, 94 AH-64 Apache 510 AH-64D 109 Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud 427 air burst munitions concept 84 air defence control and reporting system (ADC&RS) 74 Air Defence Direction Centre 110 air defence gun ammunition 83–84 Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) 30 air defence networks and weapon system 78 Air Equipment —Brazil 502, 503, 508, 510, 511 —China 502, 503–4, 511 —France 502, 504, 508 —Germany 502, 507 —India 502, 504, 511 —Israel 502, 503, 504, 511 —Italy 502 —Pakistan 503, 511 —Russia 502, 503, 504–5, 507, 511 —Spain 502, 507 —Sweden 502, 503, 505–6, 511 —Ukraine 502, 507 —United Kingdom 502, 503, 506, 508 —United States of America 502, 503, 506–7, 508, 510, 511 Air Force Network 110 air traffic management (ATM) 326 airborne anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 94, 95, 103, 184, 195, 197, 198, 199, 202, 203, 263, 386, 391, 397, 411, 422, 429, 433, 446, 483, 484, 485, 486, 493, 494, 495, 498 airborne early warning (AEW) system 103, 236, 511 airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system 73, 110, 211, 293, 511 airborne electronic warfare (EW) 69 airborne electronics attack technologies 67 airborne warning and control system (AWACS) 58, 69, 81, 110 Airbus Industries 277 Aircraft R&D Centre (ARDC) 276 aircraft safety systems 67 aircraft survivability 67 air-launched torpedoes 70 air-launched underwater weapons 69–70

airport and metro security 316 air-to-air missiles 46, 59, 60, 66, 94, 109, 167, 202, 203, 232, 375, 331, 462, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507 air-to-ground missiles 94, 99, 109, 234, 504, 506 Akarsiya (M 1973) 472 Akash SAMs 73 Akash 272 Akayev, Askar 25 Al Qaeda 3, 5, 7, 12, 17, 18, 21, 23, 45, 46, 59, 76, 131, 369, 370, 415, 418, 431, 443–44, 449–50, 456 Alexander, General Keith 77 Algeria 418–19 —Air Force 19 —Army 419 —defence 418 —economy 418 —general information 418 —Islamic Maghreb 418 —National Liberation Front (FLN) 418 —Navy 419 —security environment 418 —Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) 418 Almaz Antey 81 Alok, Kumar 300, 303 alternating current electrical multiple units (ACEMUs) 282 Alvis Saladin Armoured Car 476–77 Alvis Scorpion 476 Ammunition and Explosives (A&E) 269, 270 amphibious aircraft 103 Amphibious forces/ships 496, 499 —Guldar 186, 200 —Kumbhir 186, 200 —Mahish 186, 200 AMX-13 463 AMX-30 463 AN/ZPY-1 STARLite 90 An-12 507 An-24 507 An-26 507 An-32 109, 508 ANAC 293 Anand, Lt General Sanjeev 248 Anantha Narayanan, S., 297 Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands 6, 153, 179, 183, 207, 210, 238, 327, 328, 402 Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) 145, 147, 183, 210 Andhra Pradesh 45, 162, 238, 286, 287, 312, 313, 316, 318, 320, 323, 330, 331, 346 Andijan crisis 25 Annan, Kofi 76, 161 Ansari, Hamid 247 Ansar-ul-Islam 11 anti-aerial air burst (AA-AB) 84 anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) 63 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 69 anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) 94 Antonov 109, 507–8 Antony, A.K. 78, 98, 109, 115, 118, 123, 150, 151, 168, 247, 252, 326, 454 Apache Block-III 95 Apache Longbow-AH-64D 95 Appavuraj, R. 297 Aquino, Benigno III 338, 403 Arab Spring 21, 25, 416, 446 Arabian Sea 16, 42

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index Arakan-Yunnan pipeline 16 Aren Plan 100–01 Arjun Mark II 113, 118, 173 Arjun MBT (main battle tank) 99, 173 Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE) 295 Armament Research Board (ARMREB) 294 Armaments Corporation of South Africa (ARMSCOR) 132 armed personnel carriers (APCs) 456, 460, 471 armed recovery vehicles 456 armour piercing discarding sabot (APDS) 84 armour piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot (APFSDS) 84 Army Aviation Association of America 59 Army Aviation Corps 94, 99 Army Equipment —China 457, 459–62 —Czech / Slovak Republic 457, 462–63 —France 457–58, 463–65 —Germany 458, 465– 66 —India 458, 466 —Israel 458, 466–67 —Italy 458, 467–68 —Japan 458, 468–69 —Pakistan 458, 469–70 —Russia 458, 470–74 —Singapore 458, 474 —South Africa 458, 474 —South Korea 458, 474–75 —Spain 458, 475 —Sweden 458, 475 —Switzerland 458, 475–76 —United Kingdom 458, 476–78 —United States of America 458–59, 478–80 Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) 156 Army Static Communication Network (ASCON) 100, 101 Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System (ASTROIDS) 74, 100 Army Training Command 98, 154, 161 Army War College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 373 Army’s Hunter 72 Arroyo, Gloria 403 Artillery Combat Command and Control System (ACCCS) 100, 165, 167 artillery command, control and communications system (ACCCS) 74 Arudhara 294 Arudra 73 Arun Singh Committee Report 149 Arunachal Pradesh, Chinese intrusion 44, 46–47, 320, 322, 362 ARX-160 165 AS 332 Super Puma/AS 532 Cougar 508 AS550 Fennec 94, 95 AS90 (Braveheart) 477 ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) 5, 6, 27, 33–36, 151, 364, 378, 379, 380, 384, 388, 398, 404, 405, 413, 451–54, 456 —and China, relations 29–32, 33–36 —and India, politico-military relations 29, 32, 378 ASEAN + 6 378 ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) Plus Eight mechanism 32 ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) Plus Expert Working Group 151 ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group (AIEPG) 378 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) 35 Ashok Kumar 239

Ashok Kumar, Rear Admiral G., 249 Ashram Schools 317 Ashwini 294 Asia —financial crisis 8 —GDP and military expenditure 341–44 —pivot’ strategy, India’s role 2, 29 Asia-Pacific environment 451–56 —regional economic flux and trade partnership 452 —US rebalancing 31, 451, 455–56 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 27, 379, 380 Asian Centre for Human Rights (ACHR) 330 Asian defence forces 333–40 —Afghanistan 333 —Algeria 333 —Australia 333 —Bahrain 334 —Bangladesh 334 —Cambodia 334 —People’s Republic of China 334 —Egypt 334 —Indonesia 335 —Iran 335 —Iraq 335 —Israel 335 —Japan 335 —Jordan 336 —Kazakhstan 336 —Kuwait 336 —Kyrgyzstan 336 —Laos 336 —Lebanon 336 —Libya 336–37 —Malaysia 337 —Myanmar 337 —Nepal 337 —North Korea 337 —Oman 337–38 —Pakistan 338 —Philippines 338 —Qatar 338 —Saudi Arabia 338–39 —Singapore 339 —South Korea 339 —Sri Lanka 339 —Syria 339 —Taiwan 339–40 —Tajikistan 340 —Turkmenistan 340 —United Arab Emirates 340 —Uzbekistan 340 —Vietnam 340 —Yemen 340 al-Assad, Bashar 23, 24, 339, 416, 431, 434, 446, 455 Assam, 38, 45, 55, 318, 320, 323, 330–31 Assam Rifles (AR) 166, 304, 309, 312, 313, 314, 331, 363 Assam Rifles Training Centre and School (ARTC&S) 309 Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning and Force Structures) (ACIDS-PP&FS) 149 Astra missile 118, 293 Atambayev, Almazbek 336, 351 Aung San Suu Kyi 401, 402 AURA UCAV 110 Australia 32, 117, 346, 358, 375, 379–81, 405 —Air Force 381 —Army 380 —and ASEAN 378 —defence 379 —economy 379, 380 —general information 379 —and India, relations 452 —and military developments in South East Asia 31 —Navy 380–81

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—security environment 379–80 Australia Group 1, 390 automatic identification system (AIS) 326–27, 328 Autonomous Research Pilot Initiative project 90 autonomous robotic devices 90 Avinash Chander 60, 249–50, 253, 293 AW119Ke 95 Azad Jammu & Kashmir Council 9 Azerbaijan 346, 355, 358

B B-2 Spirit 454 B-52 Stratofortress 454 Backward Regions Grant Fund 317 BAE Systems 77, 84, 101, 135, 137, 139, 141, 143, 145, 275, 470, 478, 503, 506, 508, 511 BAeHAL Software Limited 277 Bagde, Surendra Kumar 302 Bahrain 421, 425–26 —Air Force 426 —Army 426 —defence 425 —economy 425 —Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with United States 425 —NATO 425–26 —Navy 426 —security environment 425 Bajpai, K. Shankar 47 Bakhshi, Lieutenant General Rajan 249, 259 Bakiev 350 Bali, Rear Admiral I.P.S. 247, 251 ballistic missile defence (BMD) 49 ballistic missile systems (BMS) 52 Bangladesh 41, 117, 359–60 —Air Force 360 —Army 360 —Awami League (AL) 6, 346, 359, 360, 456 —Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) 6 —Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) 6 —defence 359 —economy 359, 360 —and India 6, 43, 359–60, 452 —Islamic fundamentalism 5, 19, 41 —military modernisation 360, 456 —Navy 360 —security environment 359–60 Bansal, M.C. 270 Barack I 118 Baretta 165 Bargotra, R. 239 Barisan Revolusi Nasional Melayu Pattani 410 Baruah, Paresh 318 Batra, Harsh Vardhan 296 battlefield management system (BMS) 70, 74, 101 battlefield surveillance system (BSS) 74, 100, 101 Bautista, Emmanuel 31 Bawadar, Mullah Abdul Ghani 19, 456 Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) 402 Bay of Bengal 42, 153, 160, 360, 402, 456 Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corp. USA 141 Behara, Laxman 115 Beidou, China 63 Belarus 294, 357 Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Custom Union 346, 347 Bell 407 510 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra 510 Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. 277 Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly 25, 340, 354 beyond visual range (BVR) missiles 80 Bhagwan Shankar 300, 303

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index Bhalla, Lt General Anil 248 Bhandari, Amit 239 Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) 140, 267, 272, 287 Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) 264, 267, 272, 282–83 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 74, 101, 110, 165, 264, 267, 268, 272, 280–82 Bharat Forge 101 Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) 280 Bharati class interceptor boats 327 Bharati Shipyard 327 Bharatriya, S.K. 239 Bhatnagar, Arti 247, 251 Bhattacharya, Bikash 297 Bhutan 41, 361–62 —and China 361, 362 —defence 361 —Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (DPT) 362 —economy 361 —general information 361 —and India, land borders 43, 362 —India, relations 361, 362 —People’s Democratic Party (PDP) 362 —security environment 361–62 Bhutiyani, Mahendra Ramprakash 296 Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali 14 Biden, Joseph (Joe) 1, 3 Bihar-Odisha border 330 biodegradable ammunition 68 biofuels and bio-based chemical technology 91 Biogerontechnology 91 biometric and identification systems 91 biotechnology 68, 91, 399 Black Eagle development tank 470 Black Kite 73 Blackwill, Robert 17 Blohm Shipyard, Germany 87 BM-21 MR System 473 BM-21 RL 174 BMD-1 ACV 471 BMP-1 99, 173, 463, 471 BMP-2 99, 173, 268, 294, 471 BMP-2/2K 113 BMR-600 475 boats, registration and installation of transponders 328 Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District (BTAD) 318 Boeing 737-300 508 Boeing 106, 108, 113, 138, 141, 143, 145, 503, 506, 508 Bofors 84, 98, 99, 475 border conflicts 5, 170 border management 98 Border Management Programme in Central Asia (BOMCA) 351 Border Police Force 312 Border Roads Organisation (BRO) 307 Border Security Force (BSF) 6, 42, 95, 274, 304, 306, 312, 314, 324, 363 Bouteflika, Abdelaziz 418 Brahimi, Lakhdar 23 BrahMos 99, 108, 118, 133, 165, 191, 193, 194, 195, 196, 203, 216, 293, 365 brain drain 427 brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) 91 Brazil 54, 109, 117, 161, 282, 368, 452 BRDM-2 173, 462, 471 BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) 117, 452 Browne, Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. 78, 107 Brunei 31, 32, 33, 35, 54, 187, 454, 456 BTR-152VI 472 BTR-50 472 BTR-80A 472

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Burma. See Myanmar Burman, Sanjay Burmese Communist Party Bush, George W., Buyan Class

295 46 1, 408, 452 494–95

C C/X Band 81 C-130 Hercules 508 C-130J-30 109 C-131 Class 245 C-14-1 Class 245 C-154 Class 245 C-17 Globemaster III 108–9 C-212 507 C-27J Spartan 109 C-295 109 C-3I 100 C-401 Class 245–46 Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) 100, 134,145, 149, 151, 152, 160, 185, 188, 196, 219, 314, 315, 323, 325, 326, 327 CAE, Canada 138 Cambodia 381–82, 410, 413 —Air Force 382 —Army 382 —defence 382 —economy 381–82 —Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) 382 —general information 381 —Navy 382 —security environment 382 Cameron, David 76 Campose, Lieutenant General Philip 249, 257 Canada 32, 346, 358 Capex 133 Carl Gustaf 177 Carnegie Foundation 45 Carter, Ashton B. 4, 164 Cassidian 108 Cassidy, Thomas 59 Casspir Mk. 474 ceasefire line (CFL) 43 cell phone radar (CELLDAR) 82 Central Acquisition Radar (CAR) 73 Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) 171, 304–10, 313–14, 323, 329, 330, 331 Central Asia Gas Pipeline 355 Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) 27 Central Asia South Asia (CASA-1000) hydro-electric power line 27 Central Asia 345–46, 451 —and India 28 —and Iran 28 —strategic linkages 25–28 Central Asian Republics (CARs) 5, 346, 358 Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) 77, 94, 102 Central Coordinating Authority (CCA) 241 Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) 308–9, 312, 316, 324, 328 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 3, 59, 71, 450 Central Military Commission (CMC) 453 Central Paramilitary Forces (CPMF) 304, 331 Central Police Forces 321 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 304–6, 314, 324, 329 Centre For Airborne Systems (CABS) 110, 211, 293, 295 Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) 295 Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety (CFEES) 295 Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) 295 Centre for Personal Talent

Management (CEPTAM) 295 Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) 14 Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping (CUNPK) 161 CH-47F Chinook 95, 109, 113, 510 Chabbewal, Lt General A.S. 157, 159, 248 Chachra, Lieutenant General Sanjiv 249, 257 Chadha, Lieutenant General R.C. 248 Chahal, Iqbal Singh 300, 302, 303 Chait, Lieutenant General Anil 248, 255 Chakravarty, Lt General Aniruddha 248 Chakri Naruebet Class (CVM) 498–99 Challanger 2 476 Chanakya 48 Chandipur Test Range 292 Chandramouli, C. 300 Chang Bogo (Type209/1200) Class (SSK) 495–96 Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP-I, II, III & IV) 13–14 Chatterjee, Upamanyu 247, 250 Chatterjee, Vice Admiral Pradeep K. 249, 257 Chaudhary, Arun 310 Chauhan, A.K.S. 239 Chauhan, Air Marshal J. 249, 261 Chawla, Rear Admiral A.K. 249 Cheema, Vice Admiral S.P.S. 248, 256 Cheetah 93–95, 109, 113, 166–67, 186, 200, 211, 215, 231, 274, 276–77, 365, 368, 386 Cheetal Rotor System 231 Cheetal 137, 166, 274 chemical and biological sensors 90–91 chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) defence 65, 69 Cheney, Dick 3 Chengapa, Comdt A. 239 Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation (CAC), China 15 Chengdu J-20 Mighty Dragon 79 Chengdu Military Region 52 Chetak 93–95, 106, 109, 113, 166–67, 184, 192, 195, 197–98, 201, 205–06, 211, 215, 231, 238, 244, 246, 274, 276–77, 365, 509 Chiarelli, General Peter 59 Chidambaram, P., 78, 111, 299, 315 Chidambaram, V., 303 Chief Ministers’ Conference on Internal Security and Law and Order 7 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) 145, 147, 150–51, 352 Chief of Integrated Staff to the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (CISC) 147, 149 Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) 145, 147, 149, 150, 151 China 6, 111, 117, 383–87 —Afghanistan reconstruction and 27 —aggression to accommodation 453 —Air Force 386–87 —anti-stealth, a generation ahead 81 —Armed Forces 453 —Army 385–86 —ASEAN, Free Trade Agreement 34 —ASEAN, relations 29, 32, 378, 452 —assertion in South East Asia 3, 29–31, 32, 34 —and Central Asia, relations 25, 27, 28, 345, 346 —Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 375, 453 —Cultural Revolution 375 —defence 384 —defence budget 98 —defence modernisation 81, 131 —economy 383–84, 451 —general information 383 —India relations/intrusions/ threat 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 30, 32, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45–48, 98, 117, 131, 151, 329–31, 362, 364, 451

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index —India war (1962) 43, 268, 307, 309, 312 —Japan, relations 375–76, 384, 452 —Kazakhastan 346–47 —Marine Surveillance 30 —military assistance to Taliban 45–46 —military capability 5, 32 —military modernisation 31, 44, 49, 50, 62, 453 —Myanmar relations 6 —nationalism 375–76 —Navy 19, 30, 34, 46, 364, 386, 413, 453, 482, 483 —North Korea, relations 393 —nuclear matrix 49–52 —nuclearisation 44, 50–51 —and Pakistan, strategic nexus 13–16, 19, 20, 49, 99 —People’s Liberation Army (PLA) 7, 16, 29–30, 34, 44, 46, 75, 117, 160, 170, 320, 330, 362, 384, 408, 453, 460 —perception of Gang of Four 454 —and Philippines, dispute 29, 35–36 —precision missile strike capability 52 —radar system 81 —rising power 451–52 —and Russia, relations 384 —Second Artillery Corps 52 —security environment 384–85 —and South Korea, relations 454 —space programme and implications for India 62–63 —Sri Lanka, relations 7, 373 —territorial claims in South China Sea 388, 413, 453, 454 —Tibet 384 —Turkmenistan, relations 355 —United States, relations 4, 32, 384, 451 —Vietnam relations 30 —war-fighting doctrines 63 China-India-Pakistan triad 49 China National Nuclear Corporation 14 China National Precision Machinery Corporation (CPMIEC) 461–62 China-Pakistan Joint Maritime Research Centre 15 China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) 16 Chittagong, Bangladesh 16 Chopra, Lt General Sanjeev 248 Chopra, Vice Admiral Anil 249, 260 Chouhan, Satpal 300, 304 Christensen, Clayton M. 89 Christopher, S. 295 Chunmugong Yi Sun Shin (KDX-2) Class (DDGHM) 497 circular error probability (CEP) 64 Civic Action Programme 313 Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act (2010) 55 civil trade and exports, diversification 270–71 Clark McCarthy Healthcare Partners II, USA 135 clean coal technology 91 climate change 359, 369, 413 —and energy security of India 53–56 Clinton, Bill 4 Clinton, Hillary Rodham 35, 356, 370, 444 CN-235M 507 coastal security 312, 325–28 —initiatives post-26/11 326 coastal security scheme (CSS) 326–27 coastal surveillance network (CSN) 327 coastal surveillance system (CSS) 327 Cochin Shipyard Limited 327 Cold War 41, 61, 384 Collective Operational Reaction Force (CORF) 357 Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) 27, 357 Colt and Sig Sauer 165–66 combat identification 69 Combat Vehicles Research and

Development Establishment (CVRDE) 294, 295 Combating Financing Terrorism (CFT) 312 command and control systems 65, 78 command information decision support system (CIDSS) 74 command, control, communications and computers (C4) 69 command, control, communications, computers, information (C4I) 280 command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4I2SR) systems 51, 63, 73–74 command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems 51, 63, 69, 75, 89 command, control, communications, computing, intelligence and information (C4I2) systems 51 Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA) 305, 312 commercial off-the shelf (COTS) 100 commercial shipyards 85, 87 Common Economic Space (CES) 27–28 Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) 322 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 27, 350 communication intelligence 68 communication systems 65, 68, 100, 203, 221, 292 Communist Party of India (Maoist) [CPI(M)] 330 Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) 28 Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) 373 computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 67 computed tomography (CT) scan systems 280 Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) 77 Computer Maintenance Corporation (CMC), 101 computer numerically controlled boring machines (CNC machines) 282 computer-aided design (CAD) 85, 92, 280 confidence building measures (CBMs) 43, 46, 117, 154, 170, 376 Cooper, Barry 18 Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 35 Cordesman, Anthony 14 corruption 39, 115, 118, 119, 331, 350, 352, 354, 358, 359 Corvettes 490, 494, 500 —Abhay 186, 197 —Khukri 186, 197 —Kora 186, 197–98 —Kamorta 186, 198 —Kiltan 186, 198 —Kadmat 186, 198 —Kiltan 186, 198 —Kavaratti 186, 198 —Veer 186, 196–97 cost penalty and suspect benefits 121 Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) 149 Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School, Mizoram 373 counter rocket, artillery and mortar (C-RAM) 84 counter very-low observable (CVLO) 81 Counter-Insurgency and Anti-Terrorist (CIAT) 313 Counter-Insurgency Battle Schools 309

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Counter-Insurgency Grid (CIG) 331 counter-insurgency operations 6, 7, 38, 47, 93, 98, 99, 154, 162, 166–68, 304, 306, 309, 312, 318, 321, 329, 331 countermeasure dispensing systems (CMDS) 276, 287 counter-stealth through Schlieren photography 81 credible minimum deterrence (CMD) 51 Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) 1898, 322 Crisis Management Centre 147 cross budgeting team 149 Cross-Border Transport Agreement (CBTA) 26, 27 Crotale Low Alt SAM System 464 current account deficit (CAD) 118 customs and coastal surveillance 60 Customs Union (CU) 27, 28 Cyber Command 76, 77, 78, 150–51 cyber security 74, 75–78 —options for India 81–82 Cyber Security Task Force 76 Czech Republic 166, 294

D D-20 472–73 D-30 How 174, 472 Daimler Ferret 477 Daksha 294 damage characteristics of above water weapons 90 damage characteristics of underwater weapons 90 Dandakaranya, Jharkhand 330 Dangi, M.S. 239 Dantewada 329 DARIN III 108 Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council Act (1988) 316 Das, Trithankar 302 Dash, S.P. 295 Dassault Aviation 504 Dastane, Lt General R.P. 248 Datar, Anil M. 295 Debroy, Bibek 322 Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) 34 Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) 97, 99, 101, 123, 124, 125, 129, 147, 149, 163, 164, 165, 290 Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) 108, 295 Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) 295 defence budgets (2013–14) and (2014–15) 111–16 defence capability 63, 64, 69, 211, 254 Defence Communications Network (DCN) 73, 218 Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) 147 Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) 295 Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DERL) 295 Defence Exhibition Organisation 267, 290 Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) 296 Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) 296 Defence Institute of Bioenergy Research (DIBER) 296 Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) 296 Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) 296 Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) 296 Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) 71, 73, 145, 147 Defence Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ) 296 Defence Material & Store Research

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index & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) 296 Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) 296 Defence Offset Facilitation Agency (DOFA) 290 Defence Offset Management Wing (DOMW) 127 Defence offsets, facilitation 127–30 Defence Procurement Board (DPB) 125, 145, 147, 149 Defence Procurement Manual 272 Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 70, 123–26, 128–29, 132, 151, 162, 171 — 2013 118, 123–26, 128, 131–34 defence procurement reforms 118 Defence Production Policy (2011) 125 defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) 97, 127, 129, 132, 133, 134, 166, 171, 188, 211, 217, 219, 264–66, 267, 272, 290 Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) 296 Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) 296 Defence Research and Development Board (DRDB) 149 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 60, 65, 69, 70, 73–74, 77, 94, 97, 99–100, 108, 110, 111, 115, 116, 118, 124, 126, 127, 129–30, 132, 133, 134, 149, 156, 165, 171, 188, 193, 203, 211, 235, 250, 253, 268, 269, 274, 280, 287, 289, 290, 291–94 defence research and development 291–98 Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) 296 Defence Science Organisation 291 Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) 296 Defence Spatial Data Infrastructure (DSDI) 73 defence strategy, India 45–48 Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) 118 Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) 296 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), US 91, 133 Defense Security Cooperation Agency 60 Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) 308 Delhi University (DU) 330 demilitarised zone (DMZ) 396 Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) 318, 361 Dempsey, Marine 31 Denmark 346, 358, 465 Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries 328 Department of Defence Production (DoDP) 125, 127, 129, 132, 274, 286, 290 Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S) 149, 267–90 Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) 267, 268 Department of Internal Security 301 Department of Jammu and Kashmir 301 Department of Border Management 301 Department of Official Language 301 Department of Shipping 328 Department of States 301 Department of Telecommunication (DoT) 238, 280 Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, Policy Planning and Force Development (DCIDS-PP&FD) 149 Desai, Nitin 76 designated consumers 56

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Destroyers 496 Devanand, G. 239 devices supporting long-term evaluation (4G) 65 Dharam Vira 322 Dhawan, Sunil Kumar 302 Dhowan, Admiral R.K. 248, 254 Dhruv WSI 109 Dhruv 109, 192, 196, 201, 205, 211, 231, 274, 275–76, 365, 368, 502, 509 Diehl BGT Defence 84 digital audio broadcasting (DAB) 80–81 digital radio trunking system 280 digital systems 65 digital versatile/video disc (DVD) 89 digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) bands 80–81 Dikshit, K. 239 Dillow, Clay 60 Dima Halam Daogah (DHD), (Joel) group 318 Direct Marketing Association (DMA) UK 132 directionally unrestricted ray-gun array (DURGA) 64 Director General of Lighthouses 327 Director General of the Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) 237 Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) 269, 272 Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business (DISB) 294 Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) 267, 268, 289 Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships 328 Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) 134, 267, 268, 288 Directorate of Planning & Coordination (Dte of P&C) 267, 290 Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) 267, 289 Disaster Management Act (2005) 324 disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) 92 disruptive military technologies 89–92 disruptive technology (DT) 89 distributed battlefield sensor network (DBSN) 90 Dokodo Class LPH 496 Dolograe Class 496 Dolphin (Type 800) Class (SSK) 489–90 Dornier aircraft 238, 246 Dornier Do-228 184, 274, 275, 507 Driven Ammunition Reduced Time of Flight (DART) 84 Dubey, Raghvendra Narayan 250 Dutton, Peter 36 Dwarakanath, P. 264 Dwivedi, Comdt. R.P. 239 Dyer, Vice Admiral Joseph W. 58

—National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy (NCSL) 421 —Navy 421 —People Power 22, 421 —security environment 420 —Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) 21, 22 EH-AW 101 509 Eilat (Saar 5) Class (FSGHM) 490 Elbit Systems, Israel 101, 135 Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (EME) 156 electromagnetic pulse (EMP) 51, 65 Electronic and Radar Development Establishment 73 Electronic Corporation of India Ltd (ECIL) 101 electronic intelligence (ELINT) 51, 64, 73, 74 electronic voting machines (EVMs) 329 electronic warfare (EW) 64, 65, 69, 74, 211 Electronics and Radar Development Establishments (LRDE) 275, 296 electro-optical (EO) 66 electro-optical fire control system (EOFCS) 83 ElintLorros mast 280 EMB-312 Tucano 510 Embraer EMB-145 aircraft 73 Embraer, Brazil 110, 503, 510, 511 EMP weapons 65 employment options and communication of intent 52 Endurance Class Landing Platform Dock 499 energy efficiency and conservation 53–54, 56 energy security, India 7, 53–56 energy storage technology 91 environmental security, India 8 Estrada, Joseph 403 Euro-Asia Economic Forum (EAEF) 456 Eurocopter, Germany 94, 95, 96, 139, 167, 277, 502, 508–9 Eurofighter Typhoon 504 European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) 77, 80 European Network and Information Security Agency 75 European Union (EU) 27, 75, 117, 358, 405 —and Central Asia 345 —and Iran 427 Evidence Act (1871) 322 e-weapons 51 Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 8, 35, 36, 153, 179, 187, 237, 325–28, 360, 382 Expeditionary Laboratory Mobile (ELM) 92 expressions of interest (EOIs) 101

F

E EADS Barracuda technology demonstrator 79 EADS CASA 507 early warning 15, 50, 51, 61, 62, 73, 95, 110, 184, 211, 235, 236, 293 East China Sea Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) 375–76 East China Sea 31, 34, 43 Eastern Naga People’s Organisation (ENPO) 319 Edgar, Timothy H. 76 e-governance 268, 305 Egypt 21–23, 415, 420–22 —Air Force 421 —Al Noor Party 22 —Army 421 —Constitution 22, 421 —defence 420 —economy 420

F-117 80 F-15A/B/C/D 506 F-16A/B/C/D Fighting Falcon 506 F-22 Raptor 79, 80, 81, 506 F-35 joint strike fighter (JSF) programme 59, 80, 81 F-35 Lightening II 79 F-35A/F35B 506 F-414A 275 F-5E Tiger 507 Faber, Marc 48 FAC (Waterjet) —Car Nicobar 186, 199 —Cheriyam 186, 199 —Chetlat 186, 199 —Cora Divh 186, 199 —Cankarso 186, 199 —Kalpeni 186, 199 —Kabra 186, 199 —Kondul 186, 199

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index —Koswar 186, 199 —Karuva 186, 199 Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN) 312 Farrukhyor, Shahobiddin 352 fast interception crafts (FICs) 326–27 fast patrol boats 327 Fast Petrol Vessels (FPVs) 238, 244–45 FC-1 503 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) 57 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 60 Federal Prisons Industries, USA 141 Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) 17, 19, 369 Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) 294 Ferghana Valley 345 FH-77B 99, 173–74, 475 FICN Coordination Group (FCORD) 315 fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) 108, 274, 276 55Z46M Nebo M 3D radar system 81 Finance Commission, Thirteenth 323 Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 315 F-INSAS 73 fire control (FC) system 80 first use doctrine 50, 51, 53 fishermen, issuance of ID Cards 328 Five Power Defence Agreement (FPDA) 405 fixed-and rotary-wing aircraft 67 flight control systems 67 flight refuelling aircraft 110 FLIR Systems Inc., USA 139 force application perspective 63 force multipliers 110 foreign direct investment (FDI) 11, 118, 126, 128, 129, 134, 267, 268, 398, 401, 408, 423, 430 foreign military sales (FMS) 99, 151 Foreigners (Protected Area) Order, 1958 318 Foreigners (Restricted Areas) Order, 1963, 318 Forest Rights Act, 2006 317 fragmenting payload (FRAP) 84 France 15, 23, 32, 59, 81, 108, 113, 117, 166, 188, 191, 287, 292, 294, 346, 358, 406, 446, 448, 455, 456, 457, 463, 502, 504, 508 Free Syrian Army 446 frequency modulation (FM) 80–81 frigates 487–89, 492, 493, 498 —Beas 186, 196 —Betwa 186, 196 —Brahmaputra 182, 186, 195 —Ganga 186, 194 —Godavari 186, 194 —Gomati 186, 194 —Sahyadri 186, 196 —Satpura 186, 196 —Shivalik 186, 196 —Tabar 186, 195 —Talwar 182, 195–96, 365, 481, 494 —Tarkash 184, 186, 195, 196 —Teg 186, 195 —Trishul 186, 195 Future Infantry Combat System 115 Future Infantry Combat Vehicles (FICV) 99, 164, 294 Future Infantry Soldier as a System (F-INSAS) 73, 100 FV 432, 477

G Gaddafi, Muamar Gaddafi, Saif al-Islam GAI-B01, 475–76Mk5 Gairola, Sangita Galil Ace carbine Gallelio Avionica Ganapathy, M.A. Ganju, Ashwagosha

423 423–24 476 247, 250 165 277 300, 303 298

Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSEL) 88, 105, 106, 185, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 267, 272, 284–85, 326, 327 Garg, Mukul 239 Garg, Praveen 303 Garud, Air Marshal A.P. 249, 262 Garuda Shield 32 Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) 296 GDF-002 and -005 475 GE F414 108 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). See World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Atomics Aeronautical Systems 59 General Atomics Aeronautical, USA 142, 143, 145 General Atomics Predator 57 General Dynamics, USA 77, 101 General Dynamics Land Systems, Canada 135, 142, 145 General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Co., USA 144 General Electric (GE), USA 143, 145, 275, 280 general purpose round air burst (GPR-AB) 84 Geneva II Conference on Syria 23, 24 Geneva II Conference 416 geo-information technologies 63 geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) 274 Germany 15, 83, 87, 101, 117, 161, 184, 190, 275, 346, 358, 427, 455, 458, 465, 502, 507, 509 GFAST 149 GIAT MkF3 464 Gill, Air Marshal P.S. 249, 262 Global Hawk 57, 58, 59, 60, 72, 90 global information system (GIS) 74 Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) 241 global positioning system (GPS) 63, 65, 72, 100, 135, 140, 142, 166, 172, 204, 220, 223, 224, 227–28, 232, 275, 327, 461, 485, 489 Global Triangle 46 global war on terrorism 3, 59, 98, 346, 448 globalisation 128, 308, 368 Go Jun Bong Class LST 496 Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 105, 265, 267, 272, 285–86 Goel, Rashmi 300, 304 Gokhale, Amol A. 296 Golden Crescent (Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan) 8, 182 Golden Hawk 73 Golden Triangle (Laos, Myanmar and Thailand) 8, 182, 398 Goodrich Corp., USA 143, 145 Google computer systems 75, 77 Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) 316 Gorkha Territorial Administration (GTA) 316 Goswami, Anil 300, 302, 332 Goyal, S.K. 239 Greece 83 greenhouse gas (GHG) emission 56, 91 ground-based sensors 63 ground-to-space warfare 61 Group of Ministers (GoM) 123, 145, 150, 159, 316, 326 Gujral, I.K. 71 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 23–24, 379, 449 Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. USA, 144 Gupta, A.K. 297 Gupta, Ashok Kumar 247, 250, 269 Gupta, Prabhat 297 Gupta, Sudheer 295 Gurung, Lt General Shakti 157, 248 Guruprasad, S. 297 Gwanggaeto The Great (KDX-I) Class DDG 496–97 Gyanendra, King of Nepal 6

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H H-181 Class 246 H-187 Class 246 al-Hadi, Abd Rabbuh Mansur 449 Hagel, Chuck 31 Halbit Avionics Pvt Ltd 277 Hamad bin Khalifa 442 Hamas 23, 45, 432 Hambantota port, Sri Lanka 7, 16 Han Class (Type 091) 482 hand-held battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs) 100 hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHTIs) 72, 100 Haqqani network 11, 17–19, 45 Haqqani, Jallaluddin 17, 45 Harf, Marie 3 Harkat-ul-Jihad al -Islami (HuJI) 7 Harop 114 Harpy Kamikaze 114 Harris Corporation, USA, 137, 142 Harrison, Selig 16 Hasina Wajed, Sheikh 6, 334, 346, 359–60, 456 Hastak, R.S. 297 HATSOFF Helicopter Training Pvt Ltd 277 Hawk 132, 274 Hawk 200 Series 506 HCL Infosys Ltd 73–74, 101 Head-up display (HUD) 275 Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF) 99 Hebbar, A.A. 239 Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin 17 Helina 94, 109 Hensel Phelps Construction, USA 143 Heron 110 Hetz (Saar 4.5) Class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) (PGGM) 490–91 Hezbollah 23, 45, 455 High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) 297 high frequency (HF) 66, 81 higher capability high explosives (HCHE) 84 highly enriched uranium (HEU) 50 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) 93–96, 108–10, 137, 166–67, 205, 211, 214–15, 219, 220, 221, 222, 224, 225, 231, 246, 264, 267, 272, 274–79, 293, 509, 511 —Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd 277 —ventures for Indian military 95–96 Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) 105, 267, 272, 286 Hizbollah 431, 432 HJT-16 Kiran 110, 503, 511 HJT-36 275 homeland security, in India 299–332 Honeywell International Inc., USA 140, 277 Hong-6 502 Hoodbhoy, Pervez 19 Horizon Core Technology Group 149 Horn of Africa 5, 448 Horton HO 229 83 HOTAS 112 Hovercraft 238, 246 HPT-32 110, 275 HS-748 109 HS-74B 508 HTJ-36 Sitara 274 HTT-40 110 Huawei 16 Hughes, Michael 18 human behavior modelling 91 human intelligence (HUMINT) 75–76 human resource management 104, 105 humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) 32, 151 Hun Sen 334, 282 Hungary 294 Huntington Ingalls Inc., USA 139 Hybrid Autonomous Undersea

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index Vehicle (HAUV) 90 Hydrocarbons 241 Hyundai Rotem, 474KH179 How 475

I ICGS Rajdhwaj 285 ICGS Rajratan 285 identification friend and foe (IFF) 90 Idus Teqsite 280 IFG Mk 2 174, 466 IL-18 507 IL-76 225, 502, 507, 511 IL-86 502 Ilyushin 109, 225, 502, 507 improvised explosive devices (IEDs) 60, 100, 162, 329, 330, 331 India 363–66 —Afghanistan, 41, 42, 452 —Air Force 365 —ASEAN, relations 453–54 —Australia, 452; US 452 —Bangladesh 452 —Central Asia, role in 28 —and China, relations/conflict 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 30, 32, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45–48, 50, 98, 117, 131, 151, 268, 314, 329–31, 362, 364, 451 —war (1962) 43, 268, 307, 309, 312 —Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act (2010) 55 —defence 363 —developmental dilemma 39 —divisiveness 37 —economy 37, 118, 345, 363, 451 —future weapon capability 65–68 —general information 363 —internal security dimensions 37–40 —Japan, relations 390, 452 —Japan, United States and Australia quadrilateral 454 —land alienation 39 —Myanmar and Thailand, trilateral highway project 454 —and Pakistan, relations 2, 9–12, 42–44, 99, 326 —wars (1947) 44; 1965, 43, 44; (1971) 15, 43 —Kargil (1999) 44, 99, 326 —security environment 363–64 —societal criminalisation 39 —societal turbulence 39 —Strategic Force Command 364 —East Asia surge 453–54 —future weapon capability 65–68 —land borders 41–43 —Look East Policy 32, 451, 453 —nuclearisation 44 —space vision, 2025 63–64 India International Trade Fair (IITF) 290 India-Myanmar-China tri-junction area 43 India Reserve (IR) battalions 313, 317–18 India Reserved Battalions (IRBs) 320, 322, 323 Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue (INDSAR) 238 Indian Air Force (IAF) 49, 60, 65, 71, 73, 95, 99–100, 118, 129, 132, 134, 167, 184, 209–16, 217–19, 238, 241, 254, 256, 260, 262, 274–76, 287–89, 293–94, 406, 433, 511 —budget (2013–14) 111, 113 —budget (2014–15) 115 —equipment catalogue 220–36 —Garudas 151 —modernisation 107–10 Indian Army 6, 43, 44, 65, 71–73, 94 —budget (2013–14) 111, 112–13 —budget (2014–15) 115 —equipment catalogue 220–36 —fledgling Technical Support Division (TSD) 71 —modernisation 97–102 —Special Forces 151

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—participation in United Nations peace keeping operations 160 Indian Coast Guard (ICG) 237–44, 285, 325–28 —equipment catalogue 244–46 Indian Coast Guard Act (1978) 237 Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) 76 Indian Cyber Command 78 Indian Defence Shipyards, modularisation 87–88 Indian diaspora security 8 Indian Liability Act 2 India Meteorological Department 280 Indian misconception 47–48 Indian Mujahideen (IM) 331 Indian multi-role helicopter (IMRH) 274 Indian National Defence University (INDU) 148, 151 Indian national satellite (INSAT) 274 Indian Navy 59, 60, 65, 68, 71, 73, 74, 77, 87, 93–95, 96, 118–19, 121, 132, 134, 150, 151, 156, 158, 179–86, 187–89, 218, 237, 241, 274, 275, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 290, 292, 325–28 —budget (2013–14) 111, 113–15 —budget (2014–15) 115 —equipment catalogue 190–207 —Marine Commandos (MARCOS) 151 —modernisation 103–6 Indian Ocean 5, 7, 16, 19, 31, 34, 46, 60, 64, 69, 70, 131, 153, 179, 187–89, 363, 380, 388, 456 Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) 456 Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL) 168 Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka 47 Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860 322 Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) 63, 327 Indian remote satellite (IRS) 274 Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRR) 237, 238 Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 64, 238, 274, 327 Indonesia 35, 117, 378, 387–89, 451 —Air Force, 389 —Army 388 —defence 387 —economy 387 —general information 387 —military modernisation 31 —Navy 388 —security environment 387–88 —United States, defence assistance 31–32 Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL) 277 Indo-Sri Lanka Accord (1987) 7, 373 Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) 43, 152, 160, 304, 306–7, 310, 312, 314, 324, 363 Indus Waters Treaty 8 InDyne Inc, USA 140 Infantry Combat Vehicle (ICV) 113, 460 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) 460 information dominance 62, 65 information electronic warfare (IEW) systems 67, 69 information operations 67 information superiority (IS) 69 information technology (IT) 69, 91, 105, 106, 280 information warfare (IW) 8, 147 Infosys 101 Infotech-HAL Ltd 277 infrared (IR) 66, 72, 73, 82, 83, 86, 87, 90, 100, 211, 275 infrared search and track (IRST) system 82 INS Amba 184 INS Aridhaman 185 INS Arihant 185, 186, 188, 191 INS Astravahini 207

INS Baaz 185 INS Chakra 184, 191–92, 365 INS Delhi 104, 186, 193 INS Dweeprakshak 327 INS Kadamba 185 INS Kalveri 184 INS Kamorta 184 INS Mysore 104, 186, 193 INS Rajput 186, 193, 365 INS Rana 104, 193 INS Ranvijay 186, 193 INS Ranvir 186, 193 INS Saryu 184 INS Shalki 186, 190 INS Shankul 186, 190 INS Shankush 186, 190 INS Shishumar 186, 190 INS Sindhdhvaj 186, 190 INS Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class 186 190–91 INS Sindhukesari 186, 190 INS Sindhukirti 186, 190, 191 INS Sindhuraj 186, 190 INS Sindhurakshak 104, 186, 190, 191 INS Sindhuratna 186, 190 INS Sindhushastra 186, 190 INS Sindhuvijay 186, 190, 191 INS Sindhuvir 186, 190, 191 INS Sunayna 184 INS Vikramaditya 103–4, 114, 183, 184, 185, 189, 192, 202 INS Vikrant 103, 104, 188, 193–94, 205 INS Vikrant-Sea Hawks combination 104 INS Viraat 104, 183, 192, 255, 260, 265 inshore patrol vessels (IPVs) 285, 327 Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) 76 Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) 297 Institute of Systems Studies & Analyses (ISSA) 74, 297 Institute of Technology Management (ITM) 297 Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) 297 Integrated Action Plan (IAP) 313, 317 Integrated coastal surveillance system (ICSS) 294 Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) 65, 73, 290 Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS) 108, 275–76 Integrated Functional Commands 73 integrated perspective planning in services 148 Integrated Test Range (ITR) 297 Integrated Theatre Commands 73 Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Plan (ITSPP) 148 Intelligence Bureau (IB) 147, 241, 316 intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) 49, 50, 57, 60, 62–63, 71–74 intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) 69 Intelligent Global Positioning System (IGPS) 87 Interceptor Boats (IBs) 238, 245, 327 Interceptor Missile Technology 293 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) 51, 52 inter-factional clashes (IFCs) 318 intermediate jet trainer (IJT) 274 Inter-Ministerial Group (IMG) 315 internal security environment, India 311–24 Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) 372 International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd 277

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index International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) 57 international cooperation 241, 290 International Court of Justice (ICJ) 35 International Defence Exhibition and Conference (IDEX) 2013 84 International Energy Forum 54 International FAR Certification Agency 293 International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) 29 International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 241 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 11, 352, 356, 369, 372, 382, 434, 452 international offshore rule (IOR) 63 international relations (IR) 9, 117, 183, 354, 442 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 54 International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 6, 117, 131, 358, 370, 455–56 International Social Security Association (ISSA) 149 Internet of Things (IOT) 91, 95, 96 Internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) 69 Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) 69 Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Pakistan 45, 330, 346, 369 Invar ATGM 287 IPV Rajkamal 285 IPV Rajkiran 285 Iran 6, 28, 346, 355, 358, 416, 427–29, 451 —Air Force 429 —Army 428 —defence 427 —economy 24, 427 —and European Union 427 —Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps 428 —military doctrine 428 —Navy 428–29 —nuclear programme and foreign policy 24, 440 —security environment 427 —and Syria, relations 23 —and United States, relations 21, 23–24, 416, 427, 455 Iraq 430–31, 446 —Air Force 431 —Army 431 —Constitution 430 —defence 430 —economy 430 —Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR) 430 —Kurdistan Region Investment Law 430 —Kurdistan Board of Investment 430 —Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) 430 —and Kuwait, tensions 436 —Navy 431 —security environment 430–31 —and United States, relations 415, 430 Islamic Caliphate 18, 420 Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan 17–18 Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) 350, 356 Islamic radicalism/fundamentalism in Central Asia 5, 21, 25, 415–16 Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS) 23 Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) 101, 110, 193, 277, 292 Israel Weapon Industries (IWI) 165 Israel 83, 294, 406, 432–33 —Air Force 433 —Army 433 —defence 432 —economy 432 —Navy 433

—Palestine conflict —security environment Italy Izhmash, Russia

416 432–33 83, 101, 165, 456, 467, 502 139

J J-11 (Su-27SK) 503 Jabhat al Nusrah 23 Jacobs Technology Inc., USA 138 Jaguar 108, 184, 210, 211, 215, 222, 223, 234, 277, 287, 366, 441, 476 Jain, Rear Admiral A.K. 249 Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) 7 Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) —Pakistani infiltration and terrorism (proxy war) 7, 20, 43, 131, 299, 311, 331, 370 —United States’ mediation 4 —Trans-Karakoram Tract 370 Japan 32, 117, 241, 389–92, 405, 451 —Air Self-Defense Force (ASDF) 375, 392 —Army 391 —and ASEAN 378 —and Central Asia 345, 346 —and China, relations/dispute 375–76, 384, 452 —China and Republic of Korea, Tripartite Cooperation 376 —Constitution 375 —China and Republic of Korea, Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations 376 —economy 389–90 —general information 389 —India, relations 390, 452 —Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 375 —nationalism 375 —Navy 390 —security environment 390–91 —United States, relations 390 JAS 39 505 Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission 55 Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) 330 Jian-7 503 Jian-8 503 Jianghu III Class 500 Jianghu V (Type 053H1G) Class (FFG) 489 Jiangkai I (Type 054) Class (FFGHM) 487 Jiangkai II (Type 054A) Class (FFGHM) 487–88 Jiangwei I (Type 053 H2G) Class (FFGHM) 488 Jiangwei II (Type 053 H3) Class (FFGHM) 488 Jianji-10 503 Jianjiao-7 503 Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, King of Bhutan 361, 362 Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) 482 Jinagdao Class (Type 056) 488 Jindal, Suresh Kumar 296 JL-2 52 Johnson, Lyndon B. 3 joint area missile defence 69 Joint Operation Centres (JOCs) 326 Joint Operation Committee (JOCOM) 147 Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI) 54 Joint Services Intelligence Committee (JSIC) 147 Joint Task Force on Intelligence (JTFI) 315 Joint Training Committee (JTC) 147 Jolly, Air Marshal R.K. 249, 261 Jordan 421, 434–35, 446 —Air Force 435

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—Army 435 —defence 434 —economy 434 —Navy 435 —security environment 434–35 Joshi, Air Marshal D.P. 248 Joshi, Shobhana 247, 250

K K 1A1 474 K2 MBT 474L-40/-70, 475 K-8 Karakoram 511 Ka Band 69 Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul 76 Kalsi, Nirmaljeet Singh 300, 303 Kamov (airborne early warning) 95 Kamov Ka 226T 94 Kamov-28 93 Kamov-31 95 Kamtapur Liberation Army (KLA) 361 Kanakaraj, Air Marshal P. 249, 262 Kant, Ravi 247, 269 Kaplan, Robert H. 17, 19, 45 Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP-I) 13 Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works 15 Karakoram Highway (KKH) 16, 364, 370 Karimi, Sher Mohammad 19 Karimov, Islam 25, 27, 340, 356, 357 Karzai, Hamid 6, 333, 358, 456 Kashmir. See Jammu and Kashmir Kataria P.K., 250 Kaushik, Amit Kumar 302 Kaushik, Atul 303 Kaushik, M.P. 296 Kayani, Ashfaq Pervez 10, 18–19, 45 Kazakhstan 25, 26, 345, 346, 348–49, 355, 357, 358 —Air Force 349 —Army 349 —Chinese intervention 27 —defence 348 —economy 348 —general information 348 —Navy 349 —security environment 348–49 Kazan Helicopters 109 Kelkar Committee 133 Keran, Pakistani infiltration attempt 9–10 Kerry, John 1–3, 17, 23, 370, 455–56 Khajuria, Air Marshal D.S. 249 Khamenei, Ayatollah Ali 427 Khunjerab Pass 16 Khushab Nuclear Facility 13 Kilcullen, David 59 Kim II-sung 337, 376, 393 Kim Jong-un 337, 376, 454 Ki-moon, Ban 33, 36, 161 kinetic attack loitering interceptor (KALI) 64 Kiran 110 KJ 200 & 2000 81, 387 K-MAX 96 Knox Class 500 Koel-Kaimur 330 Kohli, Lt General Nitin 248 Koirala, Girija Prasad 367 Koirala, Sushil 337, 346, 367 Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) 138, 142 Korean Peninsula 83, 376, 452 —challenges on 454–55 —war 395–96 Kornet E 176 Korwa project 272 Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW), Germany 138, 465, 466 Krivak (Project 1135/1135M/1135MP) Class (FFM) 493

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index KS-19 474 Kuki National Organisation (KNO) 318 Kuki Peoples’ Liberation Tigers (KPLT) 318 Kulibayev, Timur 25 Kulkarni, Lt General S.H. 248 Kumar, Lt General P.R. 248 Kumar, Sneh Lata 300, 302 Kursk 104 Kuwait 416, 436–37 —Air Force 437 —Army 437 —defence 436 —economy 436 —Navy 437 —security environment 436–37 —security ties with US 436, 437 Kyrgyzstan 25, 26, 294, 345, 350–51, 358 —Air Force 351 —Army 351 —defence 350 —economy 350 —general information 350 —and Iran 28 —security environment 350–5 —and United States, relations 27 —and Uzbekistan, relations 26, 345

L L 118 477 L Band 81 L-3 Communications’ Military Aviation Services, Canada 140, 143, 145 L-40/70 175 L-70 99, 113 L-7T 284 Lada Class (Project 677) (SSK) 492 Ladakh, Chinese intrusion 43, 44, 60, 99, 131, 154, 160, 210 Laden, Osama bin 3, 48, 369, 370, 444, 455 Lahore Agreement 12 Lakshadweep Islands 327 Lakshmi, A.S. 247, 250 Lalit Kumar, Dr 297 Lanba, Vice Admiral Sunil 248 land borders, India 41–44 land forces employment 43–44 land warfare 68–69 land, sea and air warfare-based technologies 66–67 landing craft utility (LCUs) 185, 186, 200 Laos 397–98, 410, 413 —Air Force 398 —Army 398 —defence 398 —economy 397–98 —general information 397 —security environment 398 Larsen and Toubro (L&T) 74, 99, 101, 327 Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC) 297 laser technologies 66, 68, 90, 103 laser-based wake detection capability 68 Lashkar Aman 11 Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ) 7 Lashkar-e-Taiba/Toiba (LeT) 7, 10, 11, 12, 17, 45, 330 Lavrov, Sergey 23 Lead Intelligence Agency (LIA) 237 leading edge vortex control surface (LEVCON) 275 Lebanon 438–39, 446 —Air Force 439 —Army 439 —defence 438 —economy 438 —Navy 439 —security environment 438

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—Syrian conflict 438–39 Lee Myung-bak 395 left-wing extremism (LWE) 305, 311–12, 313, 314, 317, 323, 329, 346 Leopard 2A6EX 466 Leopard 2A7 465 Leopard 2MBT 466 Li Keqiang 13, 15, 117, 334, 453 Li Yuanchao 334, 393 Liaoning formation 31 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 7, 41, 46, 235, 329–30, 346, 372–73 Libya 21, 23, 423–24 —Air Force 424 —Army 424 —economy 423 —General National Congress (GNC) 423 —Great Manmade River Project 423 —Navy 424 —security environment 423 —United Nations, sanctions 421 Life Sciences Research Board (LSRB) 294 light combat aircraft (LCA) 73, 103, 108, 185, 214, 216, 224, 256, 274, 275, 278, 287, 293 light combat helicopter (LCH) 95, 100, 109, 274, 276, 502 light detection and ranging (LIDARs) 81 light utility helicopter (LUH) 94, 109, 274, 276 line of actual control (LAC) 5, 42, 44, 97, 152, 154, 170, 314, 384, 453 line of control (LoC) 5, 9, 42, 97, 117, 152–53, 254, 256–58, 299, 304, 306, 311, 316, 364 liquefied natural gas (LNG) 53, 85, 449 littoral warfare 87 Local Communist Movement (LCM) 404 Lockheed Martin, US, 77, 79, 80, 96, 101, 109, 506, 508 long-range surface-to-air missile (LRSAM) 287, 292 Long-term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) 65, 97, 149, 150, 151, 294 Long-term Perspective Plan (LTPP) 108, 149 Long-term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) 149 low/medium earth orbit (LEO/MEO) satellite system 69 LUDA (Type 051D/05DT/051G/ 051G II) Class (DDG) 486 Luhai Class (Type 051C) 486 Luhu Class (Type 052) 486–87 Luyang I (Type 052B) Class (DDGHM) 485 Luyang II (Type 052C) Class (DDGHM) 485 Luzhou Class (Type 051C) (DDGHM) 484

M M-107 479 M-109 479 M-110 479 M-113 A3 478 M-160 174 M-163 Vulcan 479 M-167 Vulcan 480 M-1943 174 M-198 479 M-1A2 Abrams 478 M-4 165 M-40 A2 177 M-41 478 M-46 173, 174, 472 M-48 A1 479 M-48 Series 478 M-60A3 478 M-777 99, 174

Ma Ying-jeou 339, 376, 408 machinery control systems 68 MAC-SMAC connectivity scheme 316 Madhok, Lieutenant General Sanjeev 249, 259 Magar Class 200 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme 317 Mahindras 99 main battle tanks (MBTs) 99, 164, 172, 200, 268, 457, 458, 459, 470, 474, 478 Maini, Anil Kumar 297 maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) 274 Major, Air Chief Marshal Fali H. 107 Malakondaiah, G. 248, 293 Malaysia 32, 35, 378, 379, 399–400, 405, 425, 453 —Air Force 400 —Army 400 —defence 399 —economy 399 —general information 399 —Navy 400 —security environment 399–400 —United Malay National Organisation (UMNO) 400 Maldives 41, 117, 241 —China-Pakistan collusion 46 Malhotra, Lt General Anoop 248, 293 Malik, G.S. 297 al-Maliki, Nouri 431 Malleswar, C.D. 297 management information system (MIS) 74 Mandal, Manas K. 248, 293 Manipur insurgency 37, 318, 320, 322 manned aircraft systems 58 manned system for land, sea and air 90 manoeuvrable re-entry vehicles (MaRVs) 51 Mantha, S.N. 266 Maoist insurgency in India, 40 329–31 Marcos, Ferdinand 403 Marder 1A3 ICV 466 Mareech 294 Marine Rescue Sub-Centres (MRSCs) 238, 241, 243 maritime 68, 69–70, 211 —borders/boundaries 30, 35–36, 153, 183 —commons, —cooperation 15 —rights 35, 63 —security 8, 15, 32, 102, 179– 82, 185–88, 237–43, 325–28 —trade 179, 241 maritime capability perspective plan (MCPP) 188–89 maritime domain awareness (MDA) 64, 187, 327 maritime reconnaissance (MR) 184–85 Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres (MRCCs) 238, 241 Maritime Search and Rescue (M-SAR) 237, 238 Maritime Zones of India 237 al-Masri, Taher 435 Matheswaran, Air Marshal M. 248 Mathur, R.K. 250, 253 Mathur, Radha Krishna 247, 253 Mattis, James 353 Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) 88, 105, 106, 185, 188, 191, 196, 265, 267, 272, 284 MBDA, France 94, 108, 109, 165, 176, 232, 234, 287, 504, 507 McMahon Line 43 measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) 81

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index medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) 108, 113, 129, 151, 215, 216, 219, 274 medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM) 51, 52 medium-range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) 99, 287 Meena, Ashok Kumar 247, 251, 269 Meena, Veena Kr. 300, 303 Meena, Yogita 302 Meggitt Training Systems, UK 138, 142 Meghalaya 210, 318, 320, 322 MEKO system (MehrzweckKombination) 87 Mekong-Ganga project 402 MEMS-based sensors 66 Menon, M.S. 8 Menon, Shivshankar 78, 149 mercantile trade 325 Merkava Mk3 466 Merkel, Angela 76 meteorology 69, 183, 211 MI-17 93, 95 Mi-17V5 95, 109 MI-26 95 Mi-28 (Havoc) 95 MI-8 93, 95, 109 micro UAVs (MAVs) 57, 60, 72, 110 micro-air vehicle (MAV) 294 micro-biotic electronics and disabling systems (MEDS) 90 micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) 65, 90 micro-system technology 66 Microwave Tube R&D Centre (MTRDC) 297 MIDARS 90 MiG Skat 79 MiG-21 108, 504 MiG-23 504 MiG-25 504 MiG-27 108 MiG-27M 504 MiG-29 82, 106, 108, 184–85, 192–93, 202, 210, 215, 221, 233, 280, 504–5 MiG-31 505 MiG-35 82, 502 Mikoyan 79, 220, 221, 502, 504, 505 Mil Mi-24 509 Mil Mi-25/-35 509–10 Mil Mi-26 510 Mil Mi-6 509 Mil Mi-8 509 Milan –portable ATGW 176 militarisation of space, implications for India 61–64 military developments in South East Asia 29–32 military helicopters for India 93–96 military operations in built-up areas (MOBUA) 69 military space technology 61 Miller, James N. 30 MIM-23A and 23B 480 Mindadnao isaland 404 mine warfare forces 186, 200–1 —Alleppey 186, 200 —Cuddalore 186, 200 —Kakinada 186, 200 —Karwar 186, 200 —Konkan 186, 200 —Kozhikode 186, 200 Minicoy Islands 153, 182, 238, 327 Ministry of Defence (MoD) 8, 69, 70, 73, 93, 94, 95, 97, 99, 106, 109, 113, 115, 118, 119, 121, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 133, 134, 145, 149, 150, 151, 156, 159, 165, 166, 169, 170, 171, 183, 188, 217, 219, 237, 268–69, 272, 274, 276, 282, 284–87, 289, 291, 309, 316, 323, 326 Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) 171, 299–301, 304, 309, 312, 313, 315–18, 320, 322, 323, 325–28

Ministry of Information & Broadcasting (MIB) 280 Ministry of Petroleum 326 Ministry of Road Transport and Highways 313, 317 Mirage 2000-5 Mk 2 108 Mirage 2000H 504 Mirage 5 504 Mirage F-1C 504 Mirage III 504 Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System (MADDLS) 103 Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) 267, 272, 287–88 Mishra, Diwakar Nath 250 Mishra, P.K. 247, 251, 269 Mishra, Rear Admiral (Retd), N.K. 265 Mishra, Sanjay Kumar 300 missile system quality assurance (MSQA) 289 missile systems 292–93 Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) 1, 390 Mital, Rear Admiral (Retd), Shekhar 265 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 468, 469 Mizoram insurgency 37, 320, 322 Mk I-40 275 Mk III 276 Mk-13 476 Mk-2/3 477 Mk-3 476 Mk-42B 114, 204–5 mobile satellite terminals 65 modernisation of defence forces 32, 49, 63, 111–16, 117, 118, 126, 129, 132, 134, 151–52, 364 —of Air Force 107–10, 114, 209–11, 214, 216, 219 —of Army 97–102, 112, 114, 116, 162–64, 166, 169–71, 269 —of Central Armed Police Forces 313, 320 —of Defence Public Sector Undertakings 133, 280, 284, 285, 286, 288, 300 —of electronic and cyber warfare 182 —for homeland security 307, 309, 313, 316, 320 —of Navy 103–6, 114–15, 183, 185, 189, 190–93, 195, 200 —of ordnance factories 272 —of shipbuilding and shipyards 85 —of state police force 320 Modified Gwangaeto Class 499–500 Modular Automatic and Network Capable Targeting and Interceptor System (MANTIS) 84 Moorthy, Lt. General Gautam 249 Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) 404 Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) 404 Morsi, Mohamed 22, 415–16, 420 most favoured nation (MFN) 11 Motorised Rifle Division (MRD) 353 Mountain Strike Corps 100, 113, 116, 118 MQ-8B Fire Scouts 58 MSTA-S 472 MT-LB Multi-Purpose Tracked Vehicle 472 Mubarak, Mohamed Hosni 21, 420 Mueller, Robert 60 Mukherjee, Pranab 118, 247, 252 Multi Agency Centre (MAC) 71, 312, 315 multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) 99, 165 Multifunctional Surveillance Threat Assessment Radar (MFSTAR) 293 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) 191, 292, 482 multiple rocket launchers (MRL) 461, 473 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar 81

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multi-purpose national identity cards 328 multi-role tanker transport (MRTT) 110, 113 multi-role transport aircraft (MTA) 109, 274, 276 Multi-role Transport Aircraft Ltd (MTAL) 276, 277 Muralidharan, R. 298 Muralidharen, P.M. 302 Murugesan, Vice Admiral P. 249 Muslim Brotherhood 21–22, 420–21, 432 Muslim Rohingya 6, 402 Muttahida Jihad Council 11 Myanmar (formerly Burma) 32, 401–2, 410 —Air Force 402 —Army 402 —China, relations 401, 402 —defence 402 —economy 401 —general information 401 —India, relations 6, 43, 401–2 —Kachin rebels 6, 46, 330 —National League for Democracy (NLD) 401 —security environment 401–2

N Nagaland, Naga insurgency 37, 318–19, 320, 322 Nagraj, Smita 247 Nair, Vice Admiral K.R. 249 Nalanda project 272 Namangani, Juma 356 Nanda, Bhupal 300, 303 Nandal, Lt. General A.S. 249 Nansha (Spratly) Island, conflicting claims 35 Nanuchka Class (Project 1234.1/1234.7) (FSG) 495 Narayana Rao, M. 266 narcotic trafficking and terrorism 5 Naresh Chandra Task Force (NCTF) 149–50, 151, 152 Naresuan Class (Type 25T) (FFGHM) 499 Narula, Lt General V.K. 248 Nasim, Mohammed 296 Nassar missile system 52 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 420 Natarajan, K. 239 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 92 National Aerospace Laboratories 293 National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) 78 National Automatic Identification System (NAIS) 328 National Bomb Data Centre (NBDC) 308 National Command Authority (NCA) 51, 52 National Command Post 147 National Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence (NC3IN) 326–27 National Committee for Maritime and Coastal Security 328 National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) 71, 315 National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) 77–78 National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) 318 National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) 324 National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) 306, 312, 324 National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) 322 National Informatics Centre (NIC) 328 National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) 267 National Intelligence Council (NIC) 91 National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) 71, 314, 315, 331

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index National Investigative Agency (NIA) 312, 315 National Maritime Search and Rescue (NMSAR) 241 National Maritime Search and Rescue Board (NMSRB) 237, 238 National Maritime Search and Rescue Coordination Authority (NMSARCA) 241 National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOS-DCP) 237, 241 National Police Commission 322 National Policy on Biofuels 55 National Population Register (NPR) 328 National Rural Health Mission 317 National Security Advisor (NSA) 78 National Security Advisory Board 12, 47, 76 National Security Commission 322 National Security Council (NSC) 44 National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) 147, 150 National Security Guard (NSG) 255, 304, 307–08, 310, 312, 313, 314, 331, 363 National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) 318, 330 —Isak-Muivah group (NSCN/IM) 319 —Khaplang group (NSCN/K) 319 National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) 78 Nautiyal, K.R. 239 Naval Equipment —China 481, 482–89 —India 481, 489 —Israel 481, 489–91 —North Korea 481, 491–92 —Russia 481, 492–95 —South Africa 481 —South Korea 495–98 —Thai Land 481, 498–501 —United Kingdom 481 —United States of America 481 Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) 297 naval multi-role helicopters (NMRH) 95, 274 Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) 297 Naval Research Board (NRB) 294 Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) 297 naval ship design 89 navigation systems and warhead guidance 66, 67, 69 naxalism 299, 311, 364 Nayak, Keshav Dattatreya 248, 293 Nazarbayev, Nursultan 25 Nebo M 81 Nehra, Lt General J.P. 157, 248 Nepal 41, 117, 346 —Air Force 368 —Army 368 —buffer zone between India and China 368 —defence 367 —general information 367 —India’s regional security environment 6, 43 —Maoist insurgency 5, 6, 45 —security environment 367–68 Netanyahu, Benjamin 432 Netra 73 network-centric operations 69, 90 network-centric warfare (NCW) 71, 73–74 networked decision support systems 72 nEUROn 59, 79, 91 New Silk Road (NSR) 26 New York Summit (2013) 9 New Zealand 32, 378, 378, 405, 407 —and ASEAN 378 Nexter System, France 84, 101 Nexter Systems AMX-10P 464 Nexter THL-20 109

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NH-90 95, 114 Nigeria 54, 117 night vision devices 72, 89, 90 9M31M 175, 176 19 MHz 81 Nirbhay 108 Niteworks, UK 139 Nixon, Richard M. 3 Niyazov, Saparmurat Atayevich 25 no first use (NFU) 49–50, 51 —and second strike capability 52 Nomed PS 700 Class 499 non-government organisations (NGOs) 322 non-lethal or less-than-lethal weapons 90 non-state actors 21 NORINCO 459, 460, 461 North Africa 415–50 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 27 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) 3, 6, 17, 19, 27, 29, 46, 47, 60, 77, 170, 192, 352, 358, 369, 370, 425, 426, 511 North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council, Assam 318 North Korea (DPRK) 5, 376, 392–94, 452 —Air Force 394 —Army 393–94 —China, relations 393 —defence 393 —economy 392 —general information 392 —Navy 394 —security environment 393–94 Northeast India, insurgency 299, 311–12, 318–20, 331 Northern Distribution Network (NDN) 27 Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., USA 77, 90, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 507, 511 Norway 121, 346, 358 NP-1 275, 293 NP-2 275, 293 nuclear biological chemical defence (NBC) 291 nuclear command structure, India 51 nuclear deterrence, of India 49–52 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 14, 44 nuclear proliferation in South Asia 41 Nuclear Suppliers’ Group (NSG) 1, 14, 390 al-Nujaifi 415

O Obama, Barack 1–6, 18, 23, 24, 31, 58, 60, 75–77, 353, 358, 408, 430, 440, 451–52, 455 oceans, overexploitation 8 Octocopter (radio controlled quad copter) 60 offshore development areas 326 Offshore Petrol Vessels (OPVs) 238, 244 Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) 237, 241 offshore security 241 Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) 168, 183, 241, 264 Oil India Limited 241 Oliver Hazard Perry Class 500 Olson, Richard 45 Om Prakash, Lt General 248 omni-directional range/instrument landing system (VOR/ILS) 67 on-board processing techniques 69 Onodera, Itsonuri 390 open source intelligence (OSINT) 71 Operation Enduring Freedom 356, 384 Operation Flame 77 Operation Iraqi Freedom 384

operational information systems (OIS) 73 optical fibre cable (OFC) 101 Ordnance Factories Organisation 268, 269 ordnance factories; modernisation 272 Ordnance Factory Boards (OFBs) 99, 127, 267, 268, 269, 272 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 432 Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 443 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) 23 OSA Missile 175 Oshkosh Corp., USA 135 Oto Melara Palmaria 467 Outer Space Treaty (OST) 61 over the horizon (OTH) radars 64, 81

P P-8 I Poseidon 106, 114 PAC-1 480 Pacific Rim 375 Padaki ,V.C. 295 Padhi, M.K. 239 Padmanabhaiah Committee 2000, 322 Pakistan 41, 241, 346, 369–71, 405 —Afghanistan reconstruction and 27 —Air Force (PAF) 15, 371 —Army 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 19, 43, 97, 98, 370–71, 470 —Balochistan 5, 11, 16, 20, 41 (Baluchistan) —capability development and doctrinal thinking 49–50 —China, strategic nexus 13–16, 20, 46, 370 —civil-military relations 10 —Cyber Army 77 —defence 369 —democracy 19 —domestic challenges 10 —economy 11, 19, 369 —foreign policy and terrorism 11, 13, 19, 20 —general information 369 —Gwadar Port and GilgitBaltistan 7, 11, 15–16, 19, 41 —and India, tension 5, 7, 20, 43, 131, 151, 299, 311, 331, 364, 370 —internal security 11 —jihadis 45 —support to Maoists 330 —military modernisation 13–16, 44 —National Highway Authority 16 —Navy 15, 371 —nuclear power programme 13–14, 44 —politico-military nexus 9 —security environment 369–70 —Taliban 3, 10, 11, 17, 19 —terrorism against India 3, 45, 46, 47, 48, 329 —United States, relations 3, 13, 369–70 —and United States’ military presence in Afghanistan 17–20 Pakistan Muslim League (PML) 20 Pakistan Muslim League (PML-Nawaz) 7, 11 Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) 12, 311, 331, 346, 364, 370 Palestinian question 416, 432–33, 435, 442 Panda, Suresh Chandra 300, 302 Panetta, Leon 1, 31, 58, 76, 350, 376, 384 Pangtey, Comdt L.S. 239 Panhard M3 464, 465 Panhard PVP 464 Pant, Kamlesh Kumar 247, 251 Paramesh, S. 239

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index Parliament Duty Group (PDG) 312 Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence 99, 152 Parlikar, Atul 239 Parthasarthy, G. 19 passive anti-stealth measures 82 passive coherent location (PCL) mode 80–81 Pathak, K.K. 300, 303 Pathak, M.V. 239 Pathania, V.S. 239 Pati, Gokul Chand 247, 250, 253, 269 Patney, Air Marshal Vinod 59 Patrol forces 490 Patrol Submarines 482 patrol submarines 492 Pattanaik, Vice Admiral R.K. 248 Pawar, Ravindra 247, 250 PC-7 MkII 110 Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) 84 People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of Manipur 46, 330 Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme 56 Persian Gulf 5, 107, 153, 427, 440, 444, 448 personnel identification systems 91 Philippine 31, 378, 403–4 —Air Force 404 —Army 404 —Bayanihan of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) 404 —China, dispute 29, 31, 35–36 —defence 403 —general information 403 —Internal Peace and Security Plan (IPSP) 404 —Navy 29, 404 —security environment 403–4 Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research (PIPVTR) 404 Phillips, Andrew 77 Pillai, A. Sivanthanu 248, 293 pilotless aircraft, evolution 57–60 Pinaka 99, 174, 272, 466 Pipavav Defence and Offshore Engineering Limited 284 piracy and armed robbery at sea 8, 241 Piranha III 475 PL-9C Low Alt SAM system 462 Planning Commission 315, 317, 321 PLZ 45 system 461 PNS Aslat 15 Police Act (1861) 322 Police Act Drafting Committee (2005) 322 Police Modernisation Scheme 320, 322, 323 policy, exercise of planning, budgetary allocations and process of acquisition (PPBP) 148–49 Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) 238, 244 pollution response 241 Popular Front of India (PFI) 330 Port Engineer 105 port security 328 position navigation and timing (PNT) and monitoring 61 pragmatic development plans and operational strategies 323–24 Prahar, Rear Admiral B.S. 52, 249 Prahlada, Dr 296 Prasad, Bina 303 Prasad, M.V.K.V. 297 precision air-ground weapons 66 precision-guided missiles 15, 70 precision-guided munitions (PGMs) 69, 70, 97, 99, 110 Predator UAV 72 preliminary staff requirements (PSR) 87 Pressler Amendment 15 Prime Minister’s Gram Sadak Yojana 317 Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) 147

Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC) 147 Principal Supply Officers Committee (PSOC) 147 PRISM (surveillance programme) 77 Prithvi 165, 176, 198, 287, 292, 365 private sector and defence procurement and production 125, 267–68 Priyadarshini Class 244 Project Appraisal Committee 124 Proof And Experimental Establishment (PXE) 297 proto laser weapon technology 64 PRP-4 471 PS 700 Class 499 PSDA 63 PT-76B 471 public opinion sensitive body bags 60 public-private partnership (PPP) 65, 106, 132, 133, Puma AE system 60 Punj Lloyd 101 purchasing power parity (PPP) 383, 390 Pushpak 73 Putin, Vladimir 17, 353, 357

Q Qaboos, Sultan 440 Qatar 23, 441–42 —Air Force 442 —Army 442 —defence 442 —economy 441 —Navy 442 —security environment 442 QinetiQ, UK 136 Qureshi, Makhdoom Shah Mahmood 13

R RAC MIG 108 radar absorbent materials/paint (RAM/RAP) 69, 79 radar cross section (RCS) 68–69, 79, 81 radio detection and ranging (RADAR) 81 Rafael, Israel 101, 108, 113 Raha, Air Chief Marshal Arup 248, 254 Rahmon, Emomali 340, 353 Rai, Gulshan 76 Rai, Lieutenant General M.M.S. 249, 258 Rai, Lt General R.P. 248 Rajapaksa, Mahinda Percy 339, 372, 373 Rajaram, Air Marshal H.B. 249 Rajasekhar, Comdt. D. 239 Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhyutikaran Yojana 317 Rajshree Class 245 Raju, A.R. 302 Rajveer, ICG Ship 327 Raksha Udyog Ratna 133 Ramachandran, K. 296 Ramachandran, Mullappally 300, 302, 332 Ramanarayanan, C.P. 296 Rani Abbaka Class 245 Ranjan, Sanjiv 250 Rao, V. Bhujanga 248, 293 Rapid Action Force (RAF) 304, 305 Rapid Equipping Force (REF) 92 Rashtriya Rifles (CounterInsurgency Force) 156, 323, 331 Ratel 90 474 Ratmakosin Class 501 Raveendran, N.G. 239 Raveendranath, Air Vice Marshal G. 247, 251 Raven system 60, 90 Ravi Kant 247, 250, 269 Ravindra Gupta Committee 133 Raytheon, US 73, 77, 101, 144

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Razak, Najib 399, 410 RD-33 Series III 108 Reconnaissance 63, 68, 69, 90 reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) 100 Reconnaissance Vehicles 467, 468, 476 Reddy, Air Marshal P.P. 249 Reddy, G. Satheesh 298 Reddy, M. Gopal 300, 303 Reddy, Vijay Latha 78 regional aspiration scenario 63 Regional Centre of Military Airworthiness (RCMA) 291, 297 Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) 378, 452 regional conflicts in Central Asia 25–28 Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP) 241 regional operating centres (ROC) 327 regional security —challenges, India 7–8 —environment, India 5–8 —Central Asia 28 religious and political conservatism 415 religious fundamentalism and religious extremism 311 remote operating stations (ROS) 327 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) 294 remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) 57 request for information (RFIs) 73, 100 research & development activities 270 Research & Development Establishment (R&DE) 297 Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) 147 research and development (R&D) 65, 70, 97, 127, 131, 133, 147, 149, 170, 270, 274, 280, 294 Research Centre Imarat (RCI) 298 Reshef (Saar 4) Class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) (PTG) 491 Revathi 73 revolution in military affairs (RMA) 59, 98 Rheinmetall Defence, Germany 84, 136, 138, 141, 466 Rhode & Schwartz, Germany 101 Ribeiro Committee (1998-99) 322 Rice, Condoleezza 1 river water sharing, India, Nepal and Bangladesh 8 Road Development Plan 317 Road Requirement Plan – I (RRP-I) 313 robotics and autonomy 65, 68, 90 Roghun hydroelectric dam, Vaksh River 26 Rohini 73 Roke Manor Research Group (UK) 82 Rolls-Royce, UK 143, 145, 275, 277 Rolta India 101 Romeo (Project 033) Class (SS) 491–92 Rosoboronexport, Russia 99, 132, 144, 276 Rotary-winged UAVs (RUAV) 58 Rouhani, Hassan 24, 416, 427 Roy, Air Marshal P.K. 248, 255 Roy, K. 239 Royal Bhutan Army (RBA) 361 Royal Bhutan Guards (RBG) 361 Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF) 209 Royal Nepal Army 6 RQ 171 Sentinel 79 RQ-3 Dark Star 79 RQ-4 Global Hawks 60 Ruag Aerospace, Germany 275 Rudra 94, 96, 275 Russia 6, 117, 294, 405, 446, 452 —Air Force 276 —Central Asia 27, 345 —China, relations 384 —India, military cooperation 117 —and Syria 416 —and Turkmenistan 354–55 —and Uzbekistan, relations 357

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index Rustamji, K.F. Rustom 1

306 110

S S-60 474 S-70-B 114 SA -13 GOPHER 175 SA 316/319 Aloutte III 509 SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/366 Dauphin II 509 SA-13 Gopher SAM System 473 SA-16 Gimlet (Ingla-1 9K310) 176 SA-330 Puma 509 SA-341/342 Gazelle 509 SA-6 (Quadrat) 175 SA-6 Gainful Low to Medium –alt SAM 473 SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System 473 SA-8B (OSA AK) 175 SA-8B SAM System 473 SA-9 Gaskin SAM System 473 Saab, Sweden 136, 141, 144, 145, 503, 511 Sabra MBT 467 El-Sadat, Anwar 420 Saddam Hussain 448 Sadhwani, D.D. 303 al-Sadr, Muqtada 431 Saeed/Sayeed, Hafeez 10–11 Sagar Prahari Bal (SPB) 326–27 Sagrika K-15 missile system 52 Sahni, Lieutenant General Arun Kumar 249, 258 Sailesh 300, 303 Saleh, Ali Abdullah 449 SAM 67 SAM-6 (Kvadrat) 99 SAM-8 OSA-AK 99 Samar Class 244 Samtel-HAL Display System Limited 277 Samudra Prahari Class 244 Sands, Chris 17 Sang-O Class (SSC) 492 Sankalp Class 244 Sanket ‘S’ 280 Saran, Shyam 12 Sareen, Air Chief Marshal, S.K. 78 Sarma, G.V.V. 300 Sarojini Naidu Class 245 Sarva Siksha Abhiyan 317 Sarvatra 100 Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) 309–10, 314, 324, 361 Sastry, C.V.S. 295 satellite redundancy 64 satellite-based communication network 69 Sati, S.C. 295 Saudi Arabia 23, 415, 421, 443–45 —Air Force 444–45 —Army 444 —defence 443 —economy 443 —national guard 444 —Navy 444 —security environment 443–444 —and United States 444 Saxena, A.K. 296 Saxena, Lt General V.K. 248 Saxena, P.K. 298 Scarborough Shoal, ChinaPhilippine dispute 29, 35 Scheme of Construction of Fortified Police Stations 317 Schlieren photography 81 Scientific Analysis Group (SAG) 298 Scindia Steam Navigation Company 286 SD-10A Air Defence System 462 Sea Harriers 104 Sea Hawk 114 Sea Hawk–Vikrant 103 Sea King (ASW) 95

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sea lines of communication (SLOC) 388 search and rescue (SaR) 68, 238 secessionism, India 37–38, 39, 40 sectarian tension 11, 12, 19, 21, 416, 431 Sectra, Sweden 144 security environment in South Asia 41–42 security related expenditure (SRE) scheme 312, 317, 320 SEDS, Kochi 327 Sejong the Great (KDX-III) Class DDG 497 Sekaran, V.G. 248, 293 Selex, Italy 101, 144 Sen Gupta Committee 133 Senate Judiciary Committee 60 Senkaku/Diayu Island, China-Japan dispute over 375, 376, 384 sensor technology 65, 66, 90 service robotic technology 91 Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) 149 Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) 149 services qualitative requirements (SQRs) 133 Severodvinsk 103, 191 Shahine Low Alt SAM System 465 Shakti 93 Shang Class (Type 093) 482 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) 27, 28, 345, 346, 456 Shanghai Institute of International Studies 13 Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI) 14 Shanghai-II 15 Sharif, General Raheel 10, 338 Sharif, Mohammad Nawaz 3–4, 7, 9–13, 19, 45, 154, 338, 346, 364, 370, 456. Sharif, Shahbaz 7, 10 Sharma, Air Marshal R.K. 249, 256 Sharma, Bhisham 239 Sharma, D.R. 239 Sharma, H.K. 239 Sharma, Rajiv 300, 302 Sharma, S.K. 264 Sharma, Sharad 239 Sharp Sword 79 Sheikh Zayed 448 Shenyang Aircraft Corporation China 79 Shenyang J-31 Falcon Eagle 79, 80 Shinawatra, yingluck 410 Shinde, Sushil Kumar 300, 302, 332 Shinzo Abe 335, 375, 390, 452 shipbuilding and modularisation 85–88 short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) 104 short take-off but arrested recovery (STOBAR) 104 short-range (SR-SAM) 99 short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) 51, 385 Shrawat, Rear Admiral (Retd), R.K. 265 Shukla, Major General Sanjeev 247, 251 Shukla, V.C. 329 Siachin Glacier 42, 43 Sibal, Kanwal 48 SIBAT, Isarel 132 Sibnath, Som 296 signal intelligence (SIGINT) 71 Signal Intelligence Directorate (SID) 147 signal to noise ratio (SNR) 81 Sihag, A.R. 247, 250 Sikand, Lt General Jatinder 248 Sikkim 160, 320 Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., USA 142 Sikorsky 114, 510 Sikorsky S-97 Raider 96

Sikorsky S-70B 95 Sikorsky X2 96 Siliguri Corridor 362 Silk Road 354 Silk Route 27 silo-based systems 50 Singapore 16, 31, 32, 25, 83, 117, 161, 284, 294, 376, 378, 379, 408 —Air Force 407 —Army 406 —Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 405 —defence 405 —economy 405 —general information 405 —India, relations 406 —Navy 406–7 —security environment 405–6 Singer, Peter 59–60 Singh, Aditya, Lt. General (Retd) 76 Singh, Air Marshal Daljit 249, 261 Singh, Asit 302 Singh, B.P. 239 Singh, Comdt G. 239 Singh, General (Retd.) V.K. 16, 97, 98, 162 Singh, General Bikram 10, 99, 100, 118, 146, 157, 161, 169–71, 248, 254 Singh, Jaswant 150 Singh, Jitendra Pratap 247, 253 Singh, Kusum 248, 269 Singh, Lieutenant General Ashok 249, 258 Singh, Lieutenant General Dalbir 157, 248, 256 Singh, Lieutenant General N.B. 249 Singh, Lieutenant General Narendra 248, 256 Singh, Lieutenant General R.N. 248 Singh, Manjit 298 Singh, Manmohan 2, 4, 9–10, 117, 154, 247, 252, 314, 359, 390, 402, 454 Singh, N.K. 322 Singh, Prakash 322 Singh, R.P.N. 300, 302, 332 Singh, Rajendra 239 Singh, Rakesh 300 Singh, Ram Subhag 247, 250 Singh, Ratanjit Pratap Narain 300, 302, 332 Singh, Shambhu 300, 303 Singh, Shashi Bala 296 Singh, Shashi Bhushan 297 Singhal, A.K. 248, 251, 269 Sinha, R.K. 247, 251 Sinha, Surg Capt. S.K. 239 Sinha, Vice Admiral Shekhar, 249, 259 Sisi, Abdel Fattah 22 Sistla, Ravind 296 Sivakumar, P. 295 SM-3 63 Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) 125, 133 small radar systems 90 small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS) 57 small water plane area twin hulls (SWATHs) 87 smart radios 65 SMART-L 81 smart-skin technology 79 Smerch MR System 473 Smirch 9K58 Multiple Launch Rocket System 174 Smith, Stephen 454 Smiths Aerospace 277 Smiths Detection, UK 136 Snecma-HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd 277 Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) 298 Snowden, Edward Joseph 75, 77 Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research (SITAR) 291 Society for Prevention of Cruelty

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index to Animals 60 software defined radio (SDR) 167 SOHO Class (FFGH) 492 Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL) 298 Solomon Island 380 Soltam L-33 467 Soltam M-71 467 Somalia 21, 456 Soman, Air Marshal S.S. 249, 260 Son Wonil Class 496 Song Class (Type 039/039G) (SSG) 482–83 Soni, Vice Admiral Satish 249, 260 Sorabjee, Soli 322 Soundar Rajan, P.M. 295 South Africa 117, 121 South Asia 41, 345, 346 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 6 South Carolina Commission for the Blind, USA 136 South China Sea (SCS) 5, 43, 378, 388, 390, 399, 403, 404, 413, 452–54 —Chinese assertion 29–32, 33–36 South East Asia, 451 —Chinese assertion 33–36 —cooperative security 456 —military developments 29–32 South Korea (Republic of Korea) 117, 376, 395–97, 405, 451 —Air Force 397 —Army 396 —and ASEAN 378 —China, relations 396, 454 —Combined Force Commander (CFC) 396 —defence 393 —economy 395 —general information 395 —Ministry of National Defense (MND) 454–55 —Navy 396–97 —and North Korea, relations 395–96, 454 —security environment 395–96 —and United States, relations 454 South Korean Modular Construction 87 Soviet Union, disintegration 345, 350, 353 Sovremenny Class (Project 956E/ 956EM) (DDGHM) 484–85 SP Guns and Howitzers 458, 467–68, 472, 477 SP Guns and Hows 458, 460, 464, 469, 474, 478 space asset domination (SAD) 63–64 space-based missiles 61 space-based radars 65 Space Command 151 space control 62 space force application 62 space resources 61 space-to-space warfare 61 special forces in India’s defence strategy 45–48, 150 Special Infrastructure Scheme 317 special operation equipment 70 Special Operations Forces 91 Special Security Group (SSG) 308, 315–16, 482 Specialised India Reserved Battalions (SIRBs) 313, 318, 323 Specialist Technical Panels (STP) 290 Spets Techno Exports, Ukraine 109 Spike-ER 94 Splav 473 SRI International, USA 138 Sri Lanka 5, 41, 372–74 —Air Force 374 —Army 373 —and China 373 —defence 372 —economy 372 —general information 372 —and India, relations 372–73 —Navy 374

—and Pakistan 374 —security environment 372–73 —Tamil issue 372–73 —Tamil National Alliance (TNA) 376 Srikumar, P. 295 Srivastava, Arun 239 Srivastava, Comdt A. 239 Srivastava, R.B. 296 Srivastava, Ravindra Kumar 300, 303 Stalin, Joseph 345 State Counter-Terrorism Centres (SCTC) 331 State Multi Agency Centre (SMAC) 312 State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) 23 State Police Force 320 state police structure, legal framework 321 State Security Commission 322 stealth technology 65, 69 Steregushchy Class 495 Stingray 478 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 15, 50, 128 Stormer APC (Tracked) 477 Strait of Malacca 5, 15, 107, 153, 209–19, 376 strategic and battlefield surveillance 61 strategic and business environment 117–18 Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) 147 Strategic Defence Review (SDR) 147 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 61 Strategic Forces Command (SFC) 49, 52, 73, 145, 147 Strategic Policy Group (SPG) 149 Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group (SSQAG) 289 Strategies of Tactics for the Indian Revolution 330 Stuxnet 77 Su-24 505 Su-25 505 Su-27 520 Su-30K 505 Su-30MKI 108, 274–75, 293, 505 Subic Bay 35 submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) 52 Submarines 488, 491 submarines, including nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) 34 Subramanian, Lt. General A.V. 249 Subsidiary MACs (SMAC) 315 Sudershan Kumar 295 Sukam 329 Sukhoi T-50 79 Sukhoi, Russia 137, 274, 276, 505 Sukumar, Air Marshal S. 249 Sule, A.R. 247, 251 Sultanate of Oman 439–41 —Air Force 441 —Army 440–41 —defence 440 —economy 439–40 —Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with United States 440 —Navy 441 —security environment 440 Sun Tzu 75 Sundaram, S.S. 248, 293 Sundaresh, S. 248, 293 Sunit Kumar, Lt. General 249 Super Dvora Mk I and Mk II classes (Fast Attack Craft-Gun) (PTFM) 491 Suresh Kumar, S. 300, 303 surface surveillance 69 surface-to-air guided weapons (SAGW) 65 surface-to-air missile (SAM) 69, 84, 99, 216, 233, 287, 470 surface-to-sub surface strike capabilities 68

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surveillance 68, 69, 73, 90 surveillance and reconnaissance (SR) 58, 72 surveillance and target acquisition (SATA) regiment 72, 165 Suspension of Operation (SoO) 318, 320 Swami, Ramesh H. 302 Swan Operation 325 Swathi 294 Sweden 83, 99, 161, 164, 406, 458, 475, 502, 503 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) 66 Syria 416, 432, 445–47 —Air Force 447 —Army 416, 446 —Ba’ath government 416 —civil war 4, 21, 23, 416, 431, 446 —defence 445 —economy 445 —Free Syrian Army 23 —Navy 446 —security environment 446 —Syrian National Coalition 23, 446 —and United States, relations 416, 452, 455 systems and applications supporting indigenous global positioning system (GPS) 65

T T-50 PAK FA 108 T-55 99 T-72 MI Ajeya 99, 164, 172 T-80 UD 99 T-90 Bhishma 290 tactical air navigation (TACAN) 67 tactical command, control, communications and information (TacC3I) system 73–74 tactical communication system (TCS) 74, 100, 101, 115 tactical nuclear weapons (TNW) 49–50, 52 Taiwan 35, 375, 376, 407–9, 452, 453 —Air Force 409 —Army 408–9 —and China, relations 376, 384, 408 —Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) 407–8 —defence 408 —economy 407–8 —general information 407 —Navy 409 —security environment 408–9 —United States, relations 408 Tajikistan 25, 27, 345, 352–53, 357 —Air Force 353 —Army 353 —civil war 352, 353 —defence 352 —economy 352 —general information 352 —and India, relations 28 —and Iran, relations 28 —and Russia, relations 352, 353 —security environment 352–53 —and Uzbekistan, relations 26, 355 Taliban 2, 3, 5, 6, 17–20, 46, 131 TAMARA/VERA system 82 Tamil National Alliance (TNA) 7, 373 Tamilmani, K. 248, 293, 295 Tamu-Kalewa-Kaleymyo (TKK) 454 Tapi Class, 500–1Khamronsin Class (FDS) 501 TAR 52 Tarabai Class 245 Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) 101 Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) 8 Tata Power SED 74, 101 Tata Sons 95 Tata-HAL Technologies Ltd 277

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index Tatas 99 TD-2 276 Tech Mahindra 101 Technical Development Establishments 291 technical intelligence (TECHINT) 71 technology denial regimes 70 Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap (TPCR/TPCRM) 65, 70, 97, 150 —2010 150 —2013 133, 150, 152 technology upgradation 151 technology, perspective planning and defence acquisitions 150–51 Tehran 28, 416, 427, 428, 431 Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-eMohammadi (TNSM) 7 Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) 7, 11, 370 Tehrik-i-Insaaf 20 Tejas 118, 185, 216, 224, 256, 274, 275, 287, 293 Tejas MK I 118, 224, 275, 502, 504 Tejas MK II 73, 108, 214, 275 Telangana 330 Tellis, Ashley 45 Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) 298 Terrorism —in Afghanistan 4, 346, 455 —in Algeria 418 —in Bangladesh 5 —in Cambodia 382 —in global war against 3, 41, 448 —in India, Pakistan sponsored 5, 8, 9, 12, 19–20, 45, 48, 67, 154, 182, 187, 299–301, 307, 311–12, 315–16, 325 —International 375–76 —in Kuwait 436 —in Pakistan 4, 7, 12, 346, 359, 455 —in Saudi Arabia 444 —in Singapore 405, 406 —in South Asia 6, 349, 353, 356, 456 —in South East Asia 32 —in Sri Lanka 373 —in Syria 416 —in United Arab Emirates 448 —in Vietnam 413 Textron Marine & Land Systems, USA 137 Thailand 35, 117, 378, 379, 410–12 —Air Force 412 —Army 411 —defence 410 —economy 410 —general information 410 —National Revolution Front 410, 411 —Navy 411 —security environment 410–11 Thales Aeroportes Systems 77, 84, 215 Thales, Germany 135 Thales International, France 139, 280 Thales, Netherland 81, 101 Thapliyal, Vice Admiral Anurag G. 239, 248, 263 theatre-range ballistic missiles (TBMs) 51 Thein Sein 6, 337, 402 thin-film transistor (TFTs) 67 3D tactical control radar 73 3G spectrum 100 ThyssenKrupp 77 Tibet 5, 43, 52, 97, 152, 160, 164 Tier I 133 Tipnis, Air Chief Marshal, A.Y. 59 TK-X MBT 468 TM 333-2B2 275 Toepler, August 81 transfer of technology (ToT) 15, 99, 106, 108, 109, 124, 127, 129, 164, 166, 191, 201, 267, 275, 288, 290

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Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) 452 Transparency International 119 Tripathi, R.P. 297 Tripura 38, 318, 320, 330 Tri-Service Disaster Management Response Committee 147 Tri-Service synergy 71 Tri-Services Cyber Command 78 tropo-scatter technology 110 Tu-134 507 Tu-142 103 Tu-154 507 Tunisia 21, 283, 425, 449 Tupolev 507 Turbomeca Shakti 93, 275, 276 Turkey 23, 346, 354, 358, 446, 456, 467 Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA) 354 Turkmenistan 25, 26, 345, 346, 354–55, 358 —Air Force 355 —Army 355 —and China, relations 355 —defence 354 —economy 354 —general information 354 —Navy 355 —and Russia, relations 354–55 —security environment 354–55 Turkmenistan-AfghanistanPakistan-India (TAPI) gas pipeline 27, 355 Turkmenistan-Kazakhastan-China gas pipeline 354 12X AgustaWestland AW101 Merlin 95 26/11 terrorists’ attack on Mumbai 7, 10, 19, 78, 241, 299, 308, 311, 312, 315, 325, 326, 346, 370 2S6M Tunguska System 175, 473 Tyagi, Air Marshal N.V. 59 Tyagi, R.K. 264 Type-40 192 Type-904 192 Type Al Zarrar 469 Type DR 76 196 Type DR 77 196 Type M113A2 470 Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid) 99, 469, 476 Type Saad 469–70 Type SU 60 469 Type Talha 470 Type WZ 501 IFC 460 Type-02 386 Type-03 385, 391 Type-031 394 Type-04 385, 386, 392 Type-041 483 Type-05 385, 386 Type-051/ 051C/ 051D/ 386 Type-054/ 054A 386 Type-07 385, 386 Type-162 195 Type-209 184 Type-209/1500 190 Type-40-D 200 Type-51 409, 414 Type-52 371 Type-53 360, 385, 402 Type-531 (Type-63) 394 Type-53-65 190, 193, 360, 385, 402 Type-54/54-1 360, 370, 385, 413, 428, 460 Type-55 371, 385, 386 Type-56 (D-44) 371, 373 Type-56 (KS-12) 386 Type-56 (M-160) 385 Type-56 (ZPU-4) 368 Type-56 414, 457, 462 Type-59 360, 370, 371, 373 Type-60 385, 413 Type-62 360, 382, 385, 413, 457, 460

Type-63/63A/63C 370, 373, 382, 385, 386, 394, 402, 413, 424, 428, 446, 457, 460 Type-64 408 Type-65/74 57mm 360, 371, 385, 386, 414 Type-653 431, 437 Type-66 373, 385, 457, 461 Type-69/69G 360, 370, 402, 411 Type-70 385, 391 Type-71 385 Type-72 371, 402 Type-73 385, 391, 458, 468 Type-74 386, 391, 402, 411, 457, 458, 462, 468 Type-75 385, 391, 458, 469 Type-77 457 Type-78 385, 391 Type-79 385, 391 Type-80 (ZU-23-2) 386 Type-80 392, 402, 457, 462 Type-81 371, 391, 392 Type-82 391 Type-83 371, 385, 422, 431, 457, 460 Type-84 360 Type-85 370, 373, 386, 402, 411, 457, 459, 460 Type-86 385, 386 Type-87 391, 458, 468 Type-88/88A, 386, 391 Type-89 373, 385, 386, 391, 457, 458, 460, 468 Type-90/90-II 386, 391, 392, 448, 457, 458 , 459, 460, 461, 468 Type-92 373 Type-95 386 Type-96 385, 391 Type-98/98A 385, 386, 457, 459 Type-99/99A-1/99A-2 385, 391, 392, 457, 458, 459, 460 Type-PB 90 402 Type-W87 385

U U-2 72 UAC-TA 274 Udayloy I and II Class 493 UH-60/SH-60/S-70 Blackhawk 510 Uighurs 45, 384 Ukraine 109, 484, 502, 507 Ukrainian Kolchuga system 82 Ulsan Class (FFG) 498 Under-barrel Grenade Launcher 100 underwater surveillance 68, 103 Unified HQ (UHQ) 331 United Aircraft CorporationTransport Aircraft (UAC-TA) 276 United Arab Emirates (UAE) 415–16, 421, 442, 447–48 —Air Force 448 —Army 448 —defence 447 —economy 447 —Navy 448 —security environment 448 —and United States 447 United Kingdom 405, 446 United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) 46, 318, 330, 360, 361, 364 United Nations (UN) 6, 46–47, 160, 171, 209, 305, 415, 455 —Charter 61–62 —Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) 307 —Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 32, 33, 35–36, 325 —Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) 401

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index —General Assembly (UNGA) 7, 9, 117 —Human Rights Council (UNHRC) 373 —Law of the Sea Treaty 35 —Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKO) 160, 161, 211, 254, 257, 307, 360, 390 —Security Council (UNSC) 1, 23, 160, 376 —United People’s Front (UPF) 318 United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 299, 311, 323, 373 United States of America (USA) 50, 117, 294, 375, 406 —Air Force (USAF) 59 —ASEAN, relations 29, 32 —rebalancing to Asia-Pacific 31, 376, 378, 451 —and Bahrain, Free Trade Agreement 425 —and Central Asia 27, 345 —and China, relations 4, 32, 384, 451 —Cyber Command 77 —Defence Strategic Guidance 31 —Department of Defense (DoD) 59 —domestic political fights 1 —economic recovery 1 —Goldwater Nichols Act 150 —and India, relations 1–4, 452 —and Iran, relations 21, 23–24, 416, 427, 455 —and Iraq, relations 415, 430 —Iraq, invasion (2003) 444 —and Japan, relations 35 —and Kuwait, security ties 436, 437 —and Kyrgyzstan, relations 350–51 —leader is cyberspace 77 —military dominance 390 —National Security Agency (NSA) 72 —Navy SEALs 3, 455 —Navy 3, 35, 57, 60, 90, 104, 105, 376, 455 —nuclear industry 2 —and Oman, Free Trade Agreement 425 —Pacific Command 34 —and Pakistan relations 3, 369–70 —and Philippine, relations 31 —and Saudi Arabia, relations 19, 444 —Senate Foreign Relations Committee 3 —and Syria, relations 17, 416, 455 —and Tajikistan, relations 353 —terrorist attack on twin towers (9/11/2001) 76, 316, 345, 346, 369, 390, 415, 443, 444, 448, 451 —and Turkmenistan, relations 355 —and United Arab Emirates (UAE), relations 447 —and Uzbekistan, relations 356 —United Technologies Corporation 142 —unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) 57, 58 —withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan 1, 2, 5, 10, 17–20, 27 United Wa State Army (UWSA) 46, 331 Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (1967) 315, 317 Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill (2012) 315 unmanned aerial systems (UAS) 57, 58, 60 unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) 57–60, 67–70, 72, 73, 79, 89–90 unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) 57, 59, 67–68, 79, 97, 99, 110 unmanned surface vessels 70 unmanned systems 65, 87 unmanned underwater vehicles 68 , 103

Urban Perspective: Our Work in Urban Areas (UPUA) 330 urbanisation in South Asia 41 USA-193 63 USS Thresher 104 Uzbekistan 25, 26, 345, 355, 356–57 —Afghan reconstruction and 27 —economy 356 —and India, relations 28 —and Kazakhstan, relations 26 —and Kyrgyzstan relations 26 —and Russia, relations 357 —security environment 356 —and Tajikistan conflict 26 —and Turkmenistan, relations 355 —and United States, relations 356

V V-22 Osprey 96 Vadera, S.R. 296 Vaibhav, ICG Ship 327 Vajpayee, Vivek 239 Valley Based Insurgent Groups (VBIGs) 318 Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) (Project 1143.5/6) 483 VBCI (8x8) Wheeled, Infantry Combat Vehicle 464 Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) 298 Verma, Rajeev 247 Verma, Rear Admiral (Retd), A.K. 265 vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) 67, 69 very low observable (VLO) 80 very short-range air defence systems (VSHORAD) 83 Very Small Aperture Terminal (V-SAT) 101 VHF Band 81 Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) 145, 147 video cassette recorder (VCR) 89 video surveillance system 68 Vietnam 35, 412–14 —Air Force 414 —and China, relations 29, 31, 413 —defence 413 —economy 412, 413 —general information 412 —Marine Police (VMP) 413 —Navy 413, 414 —security environment 413 —and United States defence cooperation 31 —and United States, war 17, 93 Vijay Veer, Dr 296 Vikram Class 244 Vishwast Class 244 Voss Shipyard, South Korea 87 Vumlunmang, V. 300, 303

W Walchand Hirachand Wang Guazhong Wang Xiaomo Warrior ICV (Tracked) warships 267, 284, 293, 456, 485, 487, 492

532  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2014-2015  | 42nd Issue

286 30 81 477 34, 73, 85, 87, 105,

Wasp system 60 Wassenar Arrangement 1 water security, India 7–8 Weapon Control System (WCS) 293, 457, 501 weapon locating radar (WLR) 165, 294 Weapon System Technology Information Analysis Center 89, 92 Weapon Systems, ORSA and Infrastructure (WSOI) 149 weapons of mass destruction (WMD) 154, 393, 423, 426 West Asia 345, 415–50 —developments 21–24 —and India 24 —Syrian escalation 455 Wheeled (SP) system Shi 461 Wigneswaran, C.V. 373 Wind Blade 79 Wipro 101 World Bank 8, 352, 382, 398, 434, 452 World Trade Organisation (WTO) 119, 127, 350, 379, 398, 412, 443 World War I 76 World War II 23, 35, 57, 76, 79, 389

X X2 and X3 96 X-45 Bird of Prey 79 X-47B 90 Xi Jinping 13, 35, 75, 334, 376, 383, 396, 452, 453 XIA Class (Type 092) (SSBN) 482

Y Yadav, Lieutenant General Rameshwar 248 Yahoo 77 Yak-40 507 Yemen, Republic of 21, 54, 161, 442, 449–50 —Air Force 450 —Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) 449–50 —Army 450 —defence 449 —economy 449 —general information 449 —Navy 450 —security environment 449–50 Yono Class Midget Submarines 491 Yuan Class (Type 041) (SSG) 484 Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang 335, 388 Yuldashev, Tahir 356

Z Z-9EC 15 Zaliangrong United Front (ZUF) 318 Zardari, Asif Ali 13 Zhanaozen events 25 Zhuk-M 108 Zia, Begum Khaleda 6 Zidan, Ali 423 Zong 16 ZSU-23-4 Schilka (SP) AD gun system 99, 113, 175, 473 ZSU-57-2 Twin 473 ZTE 16 ZU-23-2 113, 174–75, 474

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Founded by Shri S P Baranwal in 1964, Guide Publications began its humble journey. Today SP Guide Publications (SP’s) is the Asia’s Largest Publishing House for Aerospace & Defence Sectors. We at SP’s look forward to coming years and decades with even stronger conviction.


SP's Military Yearbook 2014-2015  

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