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SP’s 2015Military 2016

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editor-in-chief

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jayant baranwal


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Our Leadership on the milestone of completion of Our 50 Years in 2014

T

Prime Minister’s Office India

he Hon’ble Prime Minister is happy to learn that SP Guide Publications is celebrating Golden Jubilee of its publication.

In a country like India with limited support from the industry and market, initiating 50 years ago publishing magazines relating to Army, Navy and Aviation sectors without any interruption is a commendable job on the part of SP Guide Publications. By this, SP Guide Publications has established the fact that continuing quality work in any field would result in success. On this occasion, the Prime Minister conveys best wishes to publishers, associates and the readers.

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  5


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editor-in-chief

jayant baranwal


Copyright © 2015

SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be used for any other activity. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means – digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise – without the prior written approval of the Editor-in-Chief. For copyright permissions, please contact: The Editor-in-Chief SP’s Military Yearbook A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003, India.

E-mail: editor@spsmilitaryyearbook.com The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965

Published by Jayant Baranwal SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS New Delhi, India

Designed by

Corporate Office: SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD A-133, Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003, India. Tel: +91 (11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093

SP Guide Publications Team

E-mail:

ISSN 0076-8782 ISBN 978-93-5174-302-6 Registered with RNI No. (P.) : F.2 (S/11) Press / 93

Order:

info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com

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Printed in India at

Websites:

Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


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Our Leadership on the milestone of completion of Our 50 Years in 2014

Minister of Defence India

T

hank you for your letter dated 06th Oct, 2014 sending therewith a copy of recent issue of one of your magazines. I am happy to know that SP Guide Publications will be completing 50 years this year. SP Publications over the years has created a niche for itself on matters relating to aviation, defence and security among the stakeholders. I take this opportunity to convey my best wishes to the Chairman and Editorial Board of the magazine for their sincere endeavours and wish them all success. I wish you all success. (Arun Jaitley)

(Arun Jaitley is currently the Minister of Finance, Minister of Corporate Affairs and the Minister of Information and Broadcasting of India. He was the Minister of Defence from May 16, 2014 to November 9, 2014.)

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  11


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Our Leadership on the milestone of completion of Our 50 Years in 2014

Minister of Defence India

I

am glad to know that SP Guide Publications, New Delhi with its six publications mainly catering to different facets of defence and aerospace, is completing 50 years of service as Publication House. I take this opportunity in extending my hearty greetings to the Editor and staff of SP Publications and wish them all success. “JAI HIND”

(Manohar Parrikar)

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  13


Our Leadership on the milestone of completion of Our 50 Years in 2014

Minister of state for home affairs, India

T

thank you for your letter dated 20.11.2014. I convey my good wishes on the completion of 50 years of SP Guide Publications which is indeed interesting and informative. With regards,

(Haribhai P. Chaudhary)

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  15


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Readers’ Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India

It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India

It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970)...I have gone through... and found its general get up good and contents useful. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff, Indian Army

Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy

It was my honour and pleasure to receive from you a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. I would like to express my thanks for this kind sending, and my congratulations for the work achieved. This very comprehensive publication offers a remarkable view on the strategic challenges and perspectives that await India and its close environment. I was sensitive, in particular, to the maritime aspects of these future challenges. Some of them sound quite familiar. As you know, the French Navy is also engaged in a modernisation and transformation process which takes into account the way the world around us evolves. In this respect, I will definitely bring the awareness of my staff on the delivery of this product. Admiral Bernard Rogel Chief of French Navy (as on September 3, 2014)

Thank you for forwarding me copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. It was indeed enriching to read the thought-provoking book. Over the years, SP’s Military Yearbook has matured into a reputed publication providing a valuable forum for sharing professional views and experiences of the Armed Forces. The current edition has been very thoughtfully put together and is very informative. I congratulate you for bringing out this fine publication. I wish you and your staff the very best in your future endeavours.

As always, the book is a good read for enlightening the readers on various aspects of the armed forces with informative contents and appropriate graphics. I am sure that the book will not only be popular amongst the armed forces but also equally attract the aviation enthusiasts across the spectrum. Please convey my sincere appreciation to SP’s Team for an excellent compilation. Air Marshal R.K. Sharma Vice Chief of the Air Staff Air Headquarters Indian Air Force (as on June 10, 2014)

I thank you for the copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. My compliments to you and your editorial team for the extremely informative and erudite edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. I wish SP Guide Publications the very best in all its future endeavours too. Lt General C.A. Krishnan Deputy Chief of the Army Staff (P&S) & Colonel 4 Grokha Rifles Integrated Headquarters of MoD (Army) Indian Army (as on July 31, 2015)

Thank you very much for sending a copy of the SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. I found it extremely informative and well compiled.

Vice Admiral Sunil Lanba Vice Chief of the Naval Staff Integrated Headquarters of MoD (Navy) Indian Navy

Lt General Jai Prakash Nehra Deputy Chief of the Army Staff (IS&T) Integrated Headquarters of MoD (Army) Indian Army

(as on June 10, 2014)

(as on June 18, 2014)

Thank you very much for sending me complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015.

Thank you very much for a copy of the SP’s Military Yearbook.

24  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


Readers’ Comments.... The quality and content of the publication are of highest standards and it deserves a place within the reference material held in my office. My congratulations on bringing out the fine publication and also on completion of 50 years of SP Guide Publications. Vice Admiral R.K. Pattanaik Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Integrated Headquarters of MoD (Navy) Indian Navy (as on June 11, 2014)

Thank you for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015, which has over the years matured immensely and is one the most well respected handbooks on the Indian Military. My congratulations to you and the editorial staff for producing a ‘High Class’ Military Handbook. Lt General A.S. Chabbewal Master General of Ordnance Integrated Headquarters of MoD (Army) Indian Army (as on June 17, 2014)

I extend my sincere thanks to you for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. The contents/articles are very well compiled. It is informative and makes interesting reading. Please convey my appreciation to the editorial staff for their excellent work. It would not have been possible without your guidance. Lt General V.K. Narula Director General of Artillery & Colonel Comdt Regt of Artillery Integrated Headquarters of MoD (Army) Indian Army

I am in receipt of a complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. The book is found to be very informative and beneficial in knowing the latest in the field of advancement in Defence Technology. Please accept my sincere appreciation for compiling and publishing an exceptional reference book on defence. Air Vice Marshal R.K.S. Shera Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Eng A) Air Headquarters Indian Air Force (as on June 4, 2014)

I thank you for providing me a complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. Please accept my sincere compliments for the glorious 50 years of SP’s and good wishes for continued enlightening in future. Air Vice Marshal R.M. Tiwari Assistant Chief of Air Staff (IT) Air Headquarters Indian Air Force (as on June 5, 2014)

Congratulations to SP Guide Publications on completion of 50 glorious years. Many thanks for sending me the SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015, which as you have mentioned is a “reader’s delight”. Thanks for some interesting reading. Air Vice Marshal M. Fernandez Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Training) Air Headquarters Indian Air Force

(as on June 15, 2014)

(as on June 6, 2014)

Thank you very much for your letter dated June 4, 2014, forwarding a complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. At the outset, please accept my heartiest congratulation for completing 50 years of glorious publishing efforts. The Yearbook reflects the same and is a befitting tribute on this occasion, both in quality and content. The compilation is very informative and makes excellent reading. Indeed a treasure house of information. Please convey my sincere compliments to your Editorial Team and all those who were involved with the compilation of this Yearbook. I wish SP Guide Publications the very best and all the success in its future endeavours.

Thank you for the SP’s Military Yearbook of 2014. I must compliment you for the exhaustive data compiled and excellent selection of thoughtprovoking articles in it. Veritably a ‘Collector’s Item’ for the uniformed fraternity.

Air Vice Marshal Shreesh Mohan Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Intelligence) Air Headquarters Indian Air Force (as on June 5, 2014)

26  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

Major General R. Narayanan Additional Director General of Military Operations (B) Integrated Headquarters of MoD (Army) Indian Army (as on June 9, 2014)

The SP’s Military Yearbook is very informative and well compiled and an useful material for future reference. Dr R.K. Tyagi Chairman Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (as on June 16, 2014)

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


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Authors' profiles Commodore Anil Jai Singh (Retd)

Centre for Strategic Studies and Simulation, USI of India and Senior Fellow at the IDSA, New Delhi. n

Commodore Anil Jai Singh is the Vice President and head of the Delhi branch of the Indian Maritime Foundation. A submariner for three decades, he commanded four submarines and a Fleet ship. Ashore, the officer served across a wide range of appointments. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies and takes keen interest in matters maritime. He writes and speaks on the subject in India and abroad. n Article on page 97

Vice Admiral Anup Singh (Retd)

Article on page 05

Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) Air Marshal B.K. Pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career, he held a number of important command and staff appointments, the last being that of AOCin-C Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an Editor with the SP Guide Publications and is a resident of Bengaluru n Article on page 109, 223, 235, 285, 309

Vice Admiral Anup Singh was commissioned into the Indian Navy on July 1, 1973. He is a specialist in navigation & direction. After serving for 38 years he retired on October 31, 2011. He has held many important operational and staff assignments. His last seagoing appointment was that of Flag Officer Commanding Western Fleet, the sword arm of Indian Navy. His last assignment was that of Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Naval Command. Currently, he is occupied with the seminar circuit and holds the honorary assignments in a large number of think tanks. n Article on page 105

Ajai Malhotra Ajai Malhotra has a MA degree in economics from Delhi School of Economics. He joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1977. Besides assignments at the Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi, he has served in several Indian missions abroad. His last assignment was Ambassador to the Russian Federation (2011-13). He retired from service on November 30, 2013. He is currently a Distinguished Fellow at The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi. n Article on page 27

Brigadier Arun Sahgal (Retd) Brigadier Arun Sahgal, PhD, is Director of “Forum for Strategic Initiative” a think tank focusing on policy initiatives in national security, diplomacy and Track II Dialogues. His earlier assignments include founder Director of the Office of Net Assessment, Indian Integrated Defence Staff (IDS), created to undertake long-term strategic assessments, and Head of the

28  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

Chintamani Mahapatra Chintamani Mahapatra is currently Tagore Chair Professor at the Yunnan University, China. He holds the regular post of a professor at the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Professor Mahapatra is a visiting fellow with a number of universities and think tanks. He is a Visiting Faculty at the National Defence College, New Delhi; Army War College, Mhow; College of Naval Warfare, Mumbai; College of Air Warfare; Indian Society of International Law and Diplomacy, Foreign Service Institute of the Ministry of External Affairs; Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration (civil services training centre) Mussoorie; and several academic staff colleges around India. n Article on page 31

Lt General Davinder Kumar (Retd) Lt General Davinder Kumar, is the former Signal Officer-in-Chief of the Indian Army and the CEO & Managing Director of Tata Advanced Systems Ltd. He has been on the Board of Directors of both public and private sector companies. He is an internationally acclaimed expert in communication network, electronic warfare, cryptology, network-centric information and cyber warfare. He has worked with Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Oil India, and the Planning Commission. He was a member of the Hardware and Human Resource Groups of the IT Task Force and the Advisory Committee of National Disaster Management Authority appointed by the Prime Minister. He has over 400 papers to his credit and has been invited to speak at various international fora. n Article on page 73, 81

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


[  authors' profiles  ] Lt General Gautam Banerjee (Retd)

Dr Monika Chansoria

Lt General Gautam Banerjee has participated in all operations undertaken by the Indian Army since 1971. He has served many important command, staff and instructional appointments. Before superannuating after 40 years of distinguished service, he was the Commandant of the Officers’ Training Academy, Chennai. He has been a prolific writer on military strategy, leadership and futuristic warfare and his writings are acknowledged as thought provoking. n

Dr Monika Chansoria is currently a Senior Fellow in France and is a Visiting Professor and Associate Director of Studies (Directeur d’études associé) at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris. In addition, she is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi. n Article on page 11

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)

Article on page 53

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd) Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the LoC with Pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United Nations Mission UNTAG in Namibia. He has authored several books and was till recently the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi. n Article on page 47, 101

Joseph Noronha Group Captain Joseph Noronha is an experienced fighter pilot and a Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI A2). Commissioned in the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force in December 1974, he later commanded a MiG-21M squadron and served as Directing Staff at the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, Nilgiris. He also served twice on the staff of the Flying Instructors' School, Tambaram, Chennai. Post retirement, he continues to keep in close touch with aviation issues and is a prolific writer for a variety of aviation periodicals and journals. n Article on page 89

Laxman Kumar Behera

Major General Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems), he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known. n Article on page 119, 123

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) He is a former Director General, Army Air Defence, member of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme and Member Secretary of the first National Radar Council. He has served with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and was also a consultant with the Bharat Electronics Ltd. He was also involved in writing the history of the Regiment of Artillery and history of the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical Group Editor with SP Guide Publications. n Article on page 61, 85, 351

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Lt General P.C. Katoch superannuated as Director General Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer, he commanded the Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attaché in Japan with accreditation to Republic of Korea. n Article on page 39, 69, 355

He is a masters in applied and analytical economics, and PhD from the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is a Research Fellow with the Indian Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA). As a member of IDSA’s Defence Economics and Industry Centre, Dr Behera undertakes policy-relevant research pertaining to various economic aspects of Indian defence. He was closely associated with two high-level committees set up by the Indian Ministry of Defence on Defence Acquisition Reforms and Defence Expenditure Review. He was also the consultant to the Task Force on Self-Reliance and Defence Modernisation constituted by the National Security Council Secretariat, Government of India. n Article on page 115

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Vice Admiral Pradeep Chauhan (Retd) Vice Admiral Pradeep Chauhan is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy, Defence Services Staff College (DSSC), Naval War College and the National Defence College. He retired on November 30, 2013, after a distinguished career spanning over fourdecades. He has held four seagoing commands of IN ships Amar, Khanjar, Brahmaputra and Viraat. He has held important command and staff assignments in the Indian Navy. His last assignment was the Command of the Indian Naval Academy, Ezhimala, Kerala. He is an author, a leadership-mentor, a powerful motivator and a formidable orator. n Article on page 43

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[  authors' profiles  ] Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd) Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle has three decades of experience in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in India and abroad. He had hands-on experience in military modernisation and training during his service period heading a number of tactical and technical innovation projects at the operational level. Post retirement since 2006, he has combined his military expertise with extensive study of future trends and coordinated a number of projects for the Directorate of Net Assessment, Integrated Defence Staff, Centre for the Joint Warfare Studies and Centre for Land Warfare Studies. He is at present Director of Security-Risks, a South Asian security risk and knowledge management consultancy. n Article on page 127, 501

Ranjit Gupta

Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (Navy). As DGNAI, he was directly responsible for timely availability of reliable and safe naval armament to the operational fleet of the Indian Navy. n Article on page 93

Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay (Retd) Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay retired after serving in the Indian Navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacity-building in logistics, defence expenditure, administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been Naval Attaché in the Embassy of India in Moscow. He is currently Senior Editorial Advisor of SP's Naval Forces and Technical Editor of SP's Military Yearbook. n Article on page 193, 205

Ranjit Gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He has been India’s Ambassador to Yemen (North), Venezuela, Oman, Thailand and Spain and finally head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the National Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint Research Project with the Gulf Research Centre, Dubai, and on India GCC Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs. n Article on page 19

Major General R.P. Bhadran (Retd)

Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Lt General V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9, 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. Prior to superannuating, he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 120 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the Editor of SP's Land Forces and Editor of SP's Military Yearbook. n Article on page 23, 169, 187, 319, 333

Major General R.P. Bhadran was commissioned to 7th Light Cavalry in 1979. He is a post-graduate in engineering with specialisation in combat vehicles. During his military career spanning 36 years, he has had varied experience in command and staff assignments. In his last assignment before retirement from service, he was the Additional Director General Information Systems. During the three-year stint as the ADGIS, he oversaw the development of operational information systems of the Army including the prestigious CIDSS, BSS, ACCCS, BMS and ADC&RS projects. Post retirement, he has been pursuing his passion for military technology, especially in the fields of combat vehicles design and information technology. n Article on page 65

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha (Retd) Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha is a post-graduate from Jodhpur University who joined Indian Navy in the year 1975 and was awarded the Sword of Honour in 1976, for being the best Naval Officer during initial training. He specialised in Quality Assurance of Naval Armament and adorned various key appointments in the Navy, DRDO establishments, ordnance factories and finally rose to become the Director General of Naval Armament Inspection (DGNAI) at the

30  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

Lt General V.K. Saxena (Retd) Lt General V.K. Saxena is an alumnus of Defence Services Staff College, College of Defence Management and the coveted National Defence College. He is a silver-gunner and the first ever winner of the Director General of Artillery Trophy for standing first on the Long Gunnery Staff Course. He has had a wide exposure to varied command and staff assignments. He was the Director General of the Army Air Defence at the Army Headquarters, prior to superannuation. n Article on page 77

General V.P. Malik (Retd) General V.P. Malik was Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army from October 1, 1997 to September 30, 2000, and the Chairman, COSC from January 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000. He planned, coordinated and oversaw execution of the Operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan’s attempted intrusion in the Kargil sector in 1999. After retirement, he was a member of the National Security Advisory Board for two years. He writes frequently for newspapers and magazines. n Article on page 15, 57

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


[  authors' profiles  ] Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd)

Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd)

Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier General Staff, Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses and is currently a senior fellow with the Vivekananda International Foundation. n

Commissioned in 1961, he is an International Fellow at the Army War College, US. He has been GOC-in-C of Army Training Command and Western Command at Chandimandir. Despite losing one leg in 1965 war, he retired as the VCOAS in 2001. He was Founder Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) and is a prolific writer. n

Article on page 35, 161

Article on page 01

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Contents CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


CONTENTS

Colour pages

Readers’ Comments

24, 26

Authors' Profiles

28

Editorial 45

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

49-90

K R A SH

Maps: Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters, DRDO and DPSU Headquarters

K C A BL

Made for India, Made in India.

INDIAN DEFENCE

BLACK SHARK

91, 92

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

5, 11, 13, 15

TECHNOLOGY

Our Leadership on the milestone of completion of Our 50 Years in 2014

BUSINESS

BLACK SHARK

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CBLACK o SHARK nt e n t s

WASS HP ADVERT SP'S MYB 1516.indd 1

28/04/15 1:59 PM

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  33

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do

her

REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The stealth torpedo The stealth torpedo Indian Navy & Wass together Indian Navy Wasstoward together from the&past the future. from the past toward the future.


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

1 CPerspectives1 oncepts & 1. The Changing Global Balance of Power

Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd)

2. Strategic Stability Among Nuclear Neighbours

1

5

Brigadier Arun Sahgal (Retd)

3. India-China Relations: Present Trends and Future Course 11

Dr Monika Chansoria

4. Strategy to Counter China-Pakistan Nexus

15

General V.P. Malik (Retd)

5. Outlook for West Asia in 2015

19

Ranjit Gupta

6. The Islamic State – Self-styled Caliphate

23

Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)

7. India-Russia Relations: An Assessment

27

Ajai Malhotra, IFS

8. Momentum in India-US Strategic Partnership 31

Chintamani Mahapatra

9. North East Region and India’s Look East Policy

10. Af-Pak Region Post-2014 Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

34  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

35

Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd)

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

39


CONTENTS

43

Vice Admiral Pradeep Chauhan (Retd)

12. Defence Planning in India

47

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)

13. India’s National Security: Fundamental Challenges

53

Lt General Gautam Banerjee (Retd)

14. National Security Decision Making in India

65

Major General R.P. Bhadran (Retd)

57

61

3. Cyber Security – A National Strategic Imperative

69

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

73

Lt General Davinder Kumar (Retd)

Sin título-1 1

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

1. War Without the Fog: Optimising Battlefield Transparency

2. A Digital Army – Current Deficits

General V.P. Malik (Retd)

15. Smart Power

2 TECHNOLOGY65

TECHNOLOGY

11. ’Blue Waters’ and the Indian Navy

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

B lack & White pages

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Cont e nt s


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

4. The Unmanned Revolution: Both Ends Burning Lt General V.K. Saxena (Retd) 5. Communications in 21st Century Battlefield

77

81

Lt General Davinder Kumar (Retd)

6. Non-Lethal Weapons

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

7. Arming the Multi-role Fighter Aircraft

93

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha (Retd)

9. Submarine Sensors and Communication Systems

89

Joseph Noronha

8. Naval Sensors – A Perspective

85

97

Commodore Anil Jai Singh (Retd)

3 BUSINESS101 1. Army Modernisation: Resumed after a Decade of Stagnation 101

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)

2. Maritime Imponderables and Force Architecture

105

Vice Admiral Anup Singh (Retd)

36  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

3.

Modernisation of the Indian Air Force

Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

109


CONTENTS

Laxman Kumar Behera

5. The Draft Offset Policy Lacks Clarity of Vision

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)

6. Review of Current Procurement Procedure

119

123

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)

7. Strategic and Business Environment 127 Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd)

Global Contracts

137

161

1. Integrated Defence Staff

161

Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd)

2. The Indian Army

169

3. The Indian Navy

193

4. The Indian Air Force

223

5. Indian Coast Guard

253

6.

263

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

7. Indian Defence Industry

285

8. Defence Research & Development

309

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

4 INDIAN DEFENCE

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REGIONAL BALANCE

115

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4. India’s Defence Budget 2015-16

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

B lack & White pages

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s


Cont e n t s B lack & White pages

Homeland security 1. India’s Homeland Security

360

333

5 ASIAN WHO’S WHO

351

Afghanistan361

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

4. The Maoist Insurgency – No End in Sight

Who’s Who in the Indian Home Ministry

361

Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)

3. India’s Coastal Security

319

Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)

2. India’s Internal Security Environment

Algeria361 355

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

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Australia361 Bahrain361

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CONTENTS

Kazakhstan 364

Bhutan 362

Kuwait 364

Brunei 362

Kyrgyzstan 364

Cambodia 362

Laos

People’s Republic of China

362

Lebanon 364

Egypt

362

Libya

364 364

Indonesia 363

Malaysia 364

Iran

363

Myanmar (Formerly Burma) 364

Iraq

363

Nepal

Israel

363

North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) 365

Japan

363

Sultanate of Oman

365

Pakistan 365

BUSINESS

Jordan 363

365

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Systems

Munitions

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Bangladesh 361

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s


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The Philippines

365

Qatar

366

Saudi Arabia

366

Singapore 366 South Korea (Republic of Korea) 366 Sri Lanka

366

Syria

366

Taiwan 367 Tajikistan 367 Thailand 367 Turkey 367 Turkmenistan 367 United Arab Emirates

367

Uzbekistan 368 Vietnam 368 Republic of Yemen

368

6 REGIONAL BALANCE

369

1.

GDP & Military Expenditure

2. Central & South Asia

369 373

Kazakhstan 377 Kyrgyzstan 379 Tajikistan 381 Turkmenistan 383 Uzbekistan 385 Afghanistan 387 Bangladesh 389 Bhutan 391 India 40  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

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CONTENTS

Laos

434

Pakistan 400

Malaysia 436

Sri Lanka

Myanmar (Formerly Burma) 439

404

3. East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

407

Australia 411 Brunei 414 Cambodia 415 China

417

The Philippines

441

Singapore 443 Taiwan 446 Thailand 449 Vietnam 452

Indonesia 422

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West Asia and North Africa

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North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) 428

Egypt

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Libya

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Bahrain 466

Turkey 491

Iran

468

United Arab Emirates

495

Iraq

471

Republic of Yemen

498

Israel

473

Jordan 476 Kuwait 478 Lebanon 480

5. Asia-Pacific Environment Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd)

501

Sultanate of Oman

482

6. Equipment & Hardware Specifications – An Overview

Qatar

484

Saudi Arabia

486

Army Equipment

507

Syria

489

Naval Equipment Air Equipment

532 553

507

Abbreviations & index

563

Diagrams/Graphs Various Categories of Powers in the World Today

3

Impact of TNW on Escalation

6

Graphic Portrayal of Crisis Scenario

8

India and its Neighbours

16

Typical Distribution of Sensor Systems in the Tactical Battle Area

67

Block Diagram of a Data Fusion Engine

68

Widening Gap between MoD’s Resource Projection and Allocation

116

Organisation of the Indian Coast Guard Headquarters 255 Indian Coast Guard Locations

256, 257

Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation

258

Department of Defence

266

Organisation of the Department of Defence Production (DDP)

287

Organisation structure of OFB

288

External functional linkages (OFB comes under Department of Defence Production)

288

Share of Defence Services in Defence Budget 2015-16

117

Performance Summary of DPSUs (2012-13 and 2013-14) 292

Organisation of the Integrated Defence Staff

162

DRDO: Ministry of Defence

310

Organisational Structure of DRDO

311

The outline structure of the Indian National Defence University

164

Organisation of the Ministry of Home Affairs

320

Diagrammatic layout of the Army’s chain of command

171

Organisational Command and Control of the Central Armed Police Forces

331

Organisation of the Indian Army Headquarters

174

Organisation of the Indian Navy Headquarters

194

Security Situation in North-eastern Region during the period 2007 to 2014

341

Organisation of the Indian Air Force Headquarters

226

Extremists Surrendered during 2007-14

345

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Editorial SP Guide Publications SP Guide Publications was founded in 1964 by its Founder, Editor and Publisher Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal who was a visionary. A year later, in 1965, SP’s Military Yearbook, the flagship product of the company, was launched. This innovative effort by the founder was singularly appreciated by the then Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri, and replicated enthusiastically by the military fraternity. SP Guide Publications has since grown from strength to strength and has completed 50 years in 2014. SP’s Military Yearbook now offers its readers a wide range of information and knowledge regarding the military and the defence industry in India, and strategic analysis of defence and security-related issues in the Asia-Pacific region. It is a comprehensive reference manual, an annual barometer of matters concerning conceptual issues in the strategic and operational realm, military-related issues and homeland security. Over the last 51 years, SP Guide Publications has been at the forefront of publishing defence and security-related journals and is the only publisher offering dedicated journals to the three defence forces in India, namely SP’s Land Forces, SP’s Naval Forces and SP’s

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SP’s Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal with Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  45


Aviation to the Indian Army, the Navy and the Air Force respectively. We have since 2008 also commenced the publication of SP’s AirBuz, a journal for commercial aviation. We added, four years ago, the SP’s M.A.I. (Military, Aerospace and Internal Security) to the total list of our publications. It is a fortnightly magazine, which covers the latest happenings in the global military-industrial regime. In yet another first in the realm of defence and aerospace publishing in India, SP Guide Publications has introduced a magazine namely BizAvIndia, quarterly magazine in partnership with Business Aircraft Operators’ Association (BAOA), with the objective of keeping the business aviation industry in India duly informed and connected.

The Global Security Scene

The cover of Military Yearbook 1965

Unforeseen and drastic changes have emerged globally in 2014-15. Global financial slowdown and Eurozone crises are transforming global power equations. The Europe of 2015 has barely any growth, double-digit unemployment, is on the cusp of deflation, and, above all, is saddled with a currency that doesn’t work. The euro in Europe exemplifies the dangers of allowing politics to dominate and trump economics. According to many analysts coupling all countries of Europe together in a monetary union when they have completely different economies was an act of supreme folly. The current Greek crisis will have spillover effects. It will lead to a fresh recession and deepen deflation in Europe. Weak growth and falling prices are a dangerous combination for highly indebted countries, because they raise the real value of debts while cutting national output. America’s policymakers are shifting their focus eastwards towards Asia and the global balance of power is assessed to be shifting to Asia. The 21st century has been heralded as an Asian century. Regardless of the outcome of the Eurozone crisis, the coming decades will be marked by the continuation of a phenomenon sometimes described as ‘the rise of the rest’; the ongoing diffusion of wealth and power from west to east and from north to south. Since the 1990s, this ‘rise of the rest’ has been replicated in the rapid growth of China, India, Brazil and other South Asian countries. This has led to an impressive rise of these countries in economic and military terms. Asia is no longer in the lower rung of the global economy. The expansion of G-20 forum and demands for reforms in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank reflect this trend. In addition to the ongoing power shift, energy is increasingly interlinked with geopolitics as demand and competition for global resources becomes increasingly sharp. The ongoing shift is likely to create both opportunities and challenges in the future and in this era of strategic uncertainty, the security choices of all countries will be guided by the above trends and their own strategic priorities. The present transition has been driven by dramatic changes in economic, political and strategic factors and the advent of new technologies. The world has witnessed many changes during the past few decades, but the recent trends have a long-lasting impact on the global security architecture. 2014 and 2015 are particularly challenging years and have demonstrated how complex and interconnected many of these challenges and crises are. It seems that no single country is able to tackle today’s complex problems on its own. Analysts point out that even some regions together cannot tackle today’s problems on their own. It needs strong and effective partnerships with other regional and international organisations. In the case of Asia-Pacific region, organisations such as the ASEAN, APEC and ADB and the United Nations are examples of this phenomenon. The global security concerns range from the rise of China and associated geopolitical developments in East Asia, uprisings in West Asia, civil wars in Iraq, Syria and Libya thereby further aggravating the dramatic refugee crisis which is creating a vacuum which the so-called Islamic State is currently beginning to fill; the Islamic State is shocking the world by its sheer brutality and swift military advancement; the global financial downturn and the Eurozone crisis; the rise of Taliban once again and various international terror groups in the Pakistan and Afghanistan region after the US and NATO withdrawal from Afghanistan in 2014; the US-Iran nuclear deal; Iran-Israeli standoff; the intractable Palestine issue; numerous crises in Africa such as in Mali, the Central African Republic or the outbreak of Ebola fever; civil war in Yemen, and finally the quest for energy, and space and cyber security.

Asia-Pacific Scenario The Asia-Pacific region comprises large swaths of land mass from Russia in the North West to New

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Zealand and Pacific Islands in the South East. Two gigantic oceans—the Indian Ocean and the Pacific—straddle this region. It is the focus of SP’s Military Yearbook and is defined by enormous political and economic activity in the region which has a bearing on its security. The Asia-Pacific region has benefited from globalisation with the expansion of manufacturing and information technology (IT). Benefiting from the seamless supply chain, countries in the AsiaPacific have emerged as growth engines of the global economy. Manufacturing giants such as China have been followed by smaller state entities like Bangladesh and Vietnam benefiting from niche capacity in areas as ready-made garments. Similarly IT ‘superpower’ India has competition in ITenabling services (ITES) from the Philippines. Thus, even as there has been slow economic growth in the United States and Western Europe, Asia-Pacific region has surged ahead with an average growth in 2014 of well over six per cent. There are, however, many challenges as well. Countries in the region are heavily dependent on natural resources mainly energy—oil and gas from West Asia. There is a great divergence with the mix of large trillion dollar economies—China, Japan and India—and smaller ones as Afghanistan and Bhutan. The region also has the presence of five of the world’s seven nuclear weapons states—the United States (non-resident), Russia, China, India, Pakistan and North Korea. Resurgence of Japanese nationalism, with encouragement by the United States, rise of new powers such as India and China and the emergence of several second order competitors to include Indonesia and South Korea has led to fears of a new ‘Cold War’ in the region. Wracked by underdevelopment and endemic poverty, state failure in areas like the tribal belt of Afghanistan and Pakistan has provided an ideal environment for growth of many mutinous groups ranging from Al Qaeda to the Taliban. The evidence of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) attempting to make inroads in the region is menacing. A number of youth, particularly from South East Asia—Indonesia and Malaysia—have reportedly joined the ISIS. Reports of factions of the Taliban in the Af-Pak belt having declared allegiance to the group is also alarming. Thus, the Asia-Pacific is a typical admixture of hope and despair. Some of the key trends in the Asia-Pacific region include contested nature of multipolarity due to resurgence of nationalism, complex relationship emerging between the key powers in the region (United States, China, India and Japan), transition of ASEAN to the ASEAN Economic Community, tensions on the Korean Peninsula, continued militancy in the tribal areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the nuclear deal between the P5+1 (United States, Russia, China, France, UK and Germany) and Iran and these need to be considered. Two major structural security challenges faced in the Asia-Pacific are nuclear and cyber security issues which also need attention and analysis. These issues have been covered in this year’s Military Yearbook. US interest in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming deeper. This can be seen by the fact that it is reposturing its naval forces in the Asia-Pacific region. By 2020, the US Navy will reposture its forces from today’s roughly 50:50 split between the Pacific and the Atlantic to about a 60:40 split between those oceans, the US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told Asian officials at a conference in Singapore in June 2012. This will include six aircraft carriers in this region, a majority of their cruisers, destroyers, combat ships and submarines. It is being done in a steady, deliberate and sustainable way—the rebalancing of United States military will bring enhanced capabilities to this vital region. The ‘strategic pivot’ or rebalancing is premised on the recognition that the lion’s share of the political and economic history of the 21st century will be written in the Asia-Pacific region. To benefit from this shift in global geopolitical dynamism and sustainably grow its economy, the United States is building extensive diplomatic, economic, people to people and security ties with the region. Despite considerable efforts to detail and implement the policy transparently, there remain misunderstandings, real or feigned, about the key tenets of the pivot, as well as questions about US commitment to the policy given potentially destabilising developments in other regions of the world.

editor-in-chief

jayant baranwal

20/04/2015 18:38

The cover of the current edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016

Contents Many new topics have been introduced in the current yearbook. These include, National Security Decision Making Process, Smart Power, Af-Pak region post-2014, India’s relations with China, US and Russia, Nuclear (Strategic) Stability in Asia, and the Islamic State among other important subjects. Similarly the chapter on Technology covers new ground such as Digital Army, Battlefield Communications, Cyber Security, the UAV Revolution, Battlefield Transparency, among others.

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  47


Indian Defence chapter updates the organisational and equipment status of the three Services (Army, Navy and Air Force), the Indian Coast Guard and the Indian defence industry. The sections on ‘Who’s Who’ in the Ministry of Defence, in the three Services, the DRDO and defence industry have also been revised and re-vitalised with more relevant information. The chapter on Homeland Security gives detailed coverage to the operational and administrative framework for India’s internal security environment and the events in 2013-14. A detailed coverage has also been given to the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) in India. The Business chapter this year focuses on the problems facing the modernisation of the three Services and the status of the Strategic and Business Environment in the country after the election of the new government in mid-2014. Regional Balance has some pertinent details on the economy and security of 45 countries of Asia-Pacific region including their

military strengths. This chapter culminates in an informative and detailed write-up on Asia-Pacific Security Environment. We hope you will enjoy reading SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016 and referring to the wide range of information contained therein. Clarifications: • Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. Despite this, it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. • Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government, including the Ministry of Defence. • Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable.

Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the Editorial Board worked in unison to make the SP's Military Yearbook 2015-2016 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP's team of experts: Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) Rear Admiral S.K. Ramsay (Retd)

48  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

REGIONAL BALANCE

special colour feature WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


Copyright © 2015

SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be used for any other activity. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means – digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise – without the prior written approval of the Editor-in-Chief. The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

Concept

W E A P O N S, E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I C LE S

Co n t e n t s

Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief & Publisher SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi, India

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Credits

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Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents.

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FFV Ordnance................................................................................................................ 57 Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers................................................................. 59 Israel Aerospace Industries....................................................................................... 60 Israel Weapon Industries............................................................................................ 62 Keysight Technologies................................................................................................. 63 MBDA............................................................................................................................. 64

Corporate Office A-133, Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Phones : +91 11 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax: +91 11 24647093

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

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REGIONAL BALANCE

A

s one of the three Divisions of the Airbus Group Airbus Defence and Space is Europe’s Number 1 defence and space company. It is the world’s second largest space company and one of the top 10 defence companies globally with revenues of around €13 billion per year. Airbus Defence and Space is composed of four business lines: Military Aircraft; Space Systems; Communications, Intelligence & Security (CIS); and Electronics. It brings together a wide portfolio to continue to meet the complex needs of its customers across the world, contribute to Europe’s defence and security, and secure Europe’s sovereign and independent access to space. The Chief Executive Officer of Airbus Defence and Space is Bernhard Gerwert. The new Division started operating as of 1 January 2014. • Military Aircraft, headed by Fernando Alonso, designs, develops, delivers and supports military aircraft and is the leading fixed-wing military aircraft centre in Europe and one of the market leaders for combat, transport and tanker aircraft world-wide. Key products include the Eurofighter, A400M, A330 MRTT and C295/CN235 as well as the development of unmanned aerial systems. • Space Systems, headed by François Auque, covers the full range of civil and defence space systems with its unique expertise. Its satellite system solutions for telecommunications, earth observation, navigation and science include spacecraft, ground segments and payloads. As the European prime contractor for launchers, orbital systems and space exploration, its key systems

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Airbus Defence and Space


ALPHA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES

A

lpha Design Technologies Pvt. Ltd (Alpha) is a company organized and existing under the laws of India having its registered office in Bangalore at the above address. The Company has been incorporated under the Companies Act 1956 on 02-07-2003 (Certificate of Incorporation No. U74140KA2003PTC032191). Alpha has also obtained Industrial Licences (No. DIL-1 (2007) dated 05 March 2007 and No. DIL 97 (2008) dated 20 November 2008) from GOI (approved by MoD) for development/manufacture/supply of almost all types of defence electronics, avionics, simulation, UAVs, AFV equipment & systems. Over the years, ADTL has developed its expertise in Research & Development, manufacturing, quality assurance, evaluation and system integration for various defence products such as Fighter aircraft/helicopters/UAVs, Avionics equipment including Missile Launch Detection System (MILDS), IFF, Optronics, LRF Based Products, Laser Target Detectors, Thermal Imagers & Fire Control Systems, Navigation, Tactical Communication, Software Defined Radios, Image Conversion, Data & Image Fusion, Radar, RF Seekers, C3I Systems, EW, Simulators, Microwave Components & RF Units for Indian and International markets. The Company has set up state of the art R&D, manufacturing/production centers at Bangalore and Hyderabad to meet the requirements of Land, Ship and Air borne Defence Systems in the Country for Army, Navy, Air Force & Para Military Forces on the basis of direct Contracts from MoD. In addition, Alpha

80Mn$ Export Order for versions of TIFCS being exchanged between Elbit & Alpha Design in front of Hon’ble Raksha Mantri on 19 Feb 2015 during Aero India Exhibition

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has established strong relationship with key Indian defence organizations like Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Ordnance Factories and with International Customers for Defence Offsets. The Company has developed a strong management and execution team comprising of several advisors, who are ex-employees of BEL, HAL, DRDO middle level/Senior Defence Officers, etc., apart from technical experts from IISc, IITs and corporate executives from private industry. During FY 2014-15 the Company bagged several orders from Ministry of Defence and International customers and its order book position as on March 31, 2015 is US$ 312.42 million (`1,405.93 crore). The Company achieved a turnover of US$ 38.82 Mn (`231.81 crore) in FY 14-15 as against US$ 25.22 Mn (`150.11 crore) in FY 13-14, an increase of over 54% over the previous year. The company expects to execute contracts worth US$ 85.55 million (`342.21 crore) in FY 15-16. ALPHA is one of the fastest growing Defence Electronics & Avionics design and manufacturing Organisation in the Private Sector. ALPHA offers its services in any/all of the above or any new tasks assigned to it to the full satisfaction of the customer.  •

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Vast Range of Special Mission Capabilities Leveraging one of the most exhaustive and reliable

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high performance product lines, Bombardier uses its proven expertise to develop the ideal platform to meet the specific needs of more than a dozen specialized mission applications, including: • • • • • • •

C4ISR Maritime Patrol and Surveillance Search and Rescue Medical Evacuation Command and Control Government VIP Transportation Transport re-configurable Layouts, Troop and/or Cargo Transport

Bombardier has developed a vast catalogue of mission enabler modifications that, combined with its reliable and proven portfolio, can address every need and mission without concerns for dispatch reliability or maintenance support.

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Challenger jet’s configuration allows for multiple missions at once. This aircraft can accommodate four to five mission systems simultaneously.

REGIONAL BALANCE

B

ombardier, headquartered in Montréal, Canada is the world’s leading manufacturer of both planes and trains. Bombardier offers the widest aircraft portfolio in the industry, comprising of highly successful commercial aircraft platforms such as the CRJ Series, Q Series and entering service soon - the C Series family of aircraft, as well as the most complete business jet offering which includes the Learjet, Challenger and Global aircraft. As the world’s third largest aircraft manufacturer, Bombardier provides military, government and security agencies around the world with commercial and business aircraft designed especially for missionized purposes; offering customers 6 platform families and 14 derivatives to meet their mission requirements.

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Over 300 Bombardier Specialized Aircraft Fly Missions Worldwide

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Bombardier


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

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INDIAN DEFENCE

to the existing aircraft carrier of Indian Navy. The yard has also successfully undertaken afloat repairs to jack up rigs of ONGC/foreign clients. The yard intends to tap the huge potential for ship repair in the country and is investing about `900 crore to set up a modern ship repair facility on a 30 year leased land (about 38 acres of land) from Cochin Port Trust (CoPT). Order booking position: Presently the company has 13 ships on order comprising of seven fast patrol vessels for the Indian Coast Guard and the indigenous aircraft carrier for the Indian Navy. Human resources: CSL has highly skilled manpower strength of the company is 1,786 consisting of officers (275), supervisors (199) and workers (1,312). CSL has strength of 138 women employees on its rolls. CSL pursues significant human resource initiatives for skill development, motivation, leadership and personality development. Future outlook: CSL’s vision is to emerge as a leading shipbuilding and repair yard in the South East region. The yard's business development plan include setting up of ship repair facility in CoPT, setting up of dry dock for building and repairs of large aircraft carriers and underwater repairs to rigs and semi submersibles. CSL is looking at the business prospects of building of LNG carriers, dredgers and repairs of offshore rigs as a potential areas of future growth.  •

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Indian Navy's first indigenous aircraft carrier Vikrant at Cochin Shipyard

REGIONAL BALANCE

F

or the leading shipbuilder and ship repairers of the country, Cochin Shipyard (CSL), their business strength is in quality of work. This is borne out by the fact that the company has exported around 40 ships in the last decade to the West Europe and US. In ship repair, the company’s quality of work has been commended by its customers in India and abroad. Its other business area of marine engineering has been consistently rated “outstanding” by CARE. The yard was the first shipyard in India to have implemented the integrated management system comprising of Quality Management System (ISO 9001:2008), Environment Management System (ISO 14001:2004) and Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSAS 18001:2007). In shipbuilding, CSL has built the biggest ships in India, a 93,500 DWT Double Hull Tanker for the Shipping Corporation of India. The yard is also privileged to build the country’s first indigenous aircraft carrier for the Indian Navy. With this India joins a select club of five nations to build an aircraft carrier of this size. CSL is into many maritime segments, commercial and defence shipbuilding, commercial and defence ship repair, the yard truly reflects the capability of India as a maritime nation. A category I Miniratna company, the yard has been graded excellent under the MOU signed with Government of India for the last several years. In ship repair CSL has undertaken repairs to over 1,800 ships of all types over the last 32 years. CSL is the only yard which has been undertaking underwater repairs

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Builders of the Biggest and Best Ships in India

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Cochin Shipyard Limited


DENEL

Building on Leadership in Landward Defence, Ammunition and Uav Systems

D

enel is building on its traditional strengths in the landward defence, ammunition and unmanned aerial vehicle environment to grow its business and explore opportunities in export markets. The South African defence and technology powerhouse this month reported a fourth successive year of growth with an order book of more than R35billion rand (ZAR). Revenue has grown by 28% in the past financial year and exports now accounts for 52% of the state-owned company’s revenue.

The T5-52 system utilises the proven G5 top-carriage developed by Denel Land Systems in the 52 calibre configuration.

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Riaz Saloojee, the Group Chief Executive of Denel says the company’s primary strength lies in its ability to provide defence technology solutions across the spectrum of client needs and to support products with maintenance and logistical support. Denel’s export programme is endorsed by its shareholder, the South African government, and underpinned by the country’s strong diplomatic relations, especially within the BRICS-alliance with India, Brazil, Russia and China.

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

FFV Ordnance

FFV Ordnance now has more than 30 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. The AT4CS HEAT system has a warhead with increased behind-armour effect, which is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles.

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Carl-Gustaf ammunition can be divided into the following four areas: • Anti-armour • Anti-structure • Soft Targets • Support

Brand new ammunition The HEAT 655 CS, launched in December 2013, is the first Carl-Gustaf ammunition that is fully optimized for firing from confined spaces, i.e. from inside a building. This is an important requirement in modern, urban conflicts. The HEAT 655 CS adds to the large existing inventory of ammunition that is already available for every kind of operation, making the Carl-Gustaf the true multi-mission land combat system. Other new capabilities include the ASM (AntiStructure Munition) 509 and the MT (Multi-Target) 756.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

The four areas of ammunition

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

AT4CS AST, where AST stands for AntiStructure Tandem, is a weapon, which like the rest of the AT4CS series, has a liquid counter mass and can be fired from rooms smaller than 25 m3

REGIONAL BALANCE

Combat in built-up areas

BUSINESS

F

FV Ordnance, part of the global defence and security company Saab, has been for decades one of the world’s leading suppliers of man-portable support weapons. The shoulder-fired weapon system Carl-Gustaf is the flagship of FFV Ordnance´s product family. The system has a long and successful history, and is today in use in more than 40 countries worldwide. This includes India, where it is in use with the Indian Army. The system offers the soldier various types of ammunition, ranging from armour penetration and anti-personnel to ammunition for built-up areas, as well as special features like smoke and illumination. Through its wide variety of ammunition available, Carl-Gustaf is a weapon system capable of handling multiple tactical situations, bridging the gap between full scale operations and low intensity conflicts, and providing the modern warfighter with unprecedented flexibility and capability on the battlefield. The well-proven Carl-Gustaf M3 meets all the basic requirements of being a multi-role, robust, light weapon that is easy to use – in both day and night operations.


CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Recent Achievements CGS Barracuda, a multi-role Offshore Patrol Vessel built

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Ships under construction GRSE is presently executing four projects for the Indian Navy, consisting of 19 ships. The Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvette Project (P-28) consists of four ships. The second ship, Kadmatt is undergoing sea trials and would be delivered during 2015. GRSE is also building eight Landing Crafts and four Water Jet Fast Attack Crafts for Indian Navy. The shipyard has been recently awarded the contract for building three stealth Frigates for Indian Navy, under Project-17A.  •

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INDIAN DEFENCE

by GRSE was commissioned at Port Louis, Mauritius on March 12, 2015, in the august presence of Hon’ble PM of India and Hon’ble PM of Mauritius. This is a landmark achievement because, CGS Barracuda is the first ever export warship built by India. The ship has been designed in-house by GRSE to perform multiple roles as specified by National Coast Guard of Mauritius. The other major recent achievement of GRSE has been the commissioning of INS Kamorta, the first ever Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvette built in the country for the Indian Navy under Project P-28. INS Kamorta was commissioned at Visakhapatnam on August 23, 2014. The ship has been built with very high indigenous content and hence a major step towards achieving self reliance in state of the art warship design and construction.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Integrated Shipbuilding Facility created under Modernisation Project of GRSE, Kolkata

REGIONAL BALANCE

G

RSE commenced its journey in 1884, as a small ship repair workshop located on the banks of river Hooghly. The company was taken over by the Government of India in 1960 and placed under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence. GRSE delivered the first ever indigenous warship built in India, INS Ajay, a Seaward Defence Boat in 1961. GRSE has since then delivered over 90 ships to Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard and Mauritius Coast Guard, which is the highest number of warships built by any shipyard in the country. Modernisation. GRSE is following a well laid blue print for growth, expansion and diversification to meet the future defence needs. Towards this end, the shipyard has recently completed a modernisation project to build quality ships in reduced time frame with Modular Construction Technology. The state-of-the-art shipbuilding facilities comprising a 10,000 tonne Dry Dock, a 4,500 tonne Inclined Berth and a large Module Hall with sliding roof for consolidation of Mega-Hull Blocks has been created. All these three major facilities are co-located and covered by a giant Goliath Crane of 250 tonne capacity, to provide modern infrastructure for Integrated Modular Construction. Thus GRSE has created excellent state-ofthe-art infrastructure and capabilities for in-house design and construction of a wide range of sophisticated warships from Fast Attack Crafts to Frigates to fully meet the needs for the Indian Navy and Indian Coast Guard.

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd


Israel Aerospace Industries

Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) is a globally recognized leader in the defense and commercial markets

Joseph Weiss President & CEO Rafi Maor Chairman of the Board

Established 1953

Line Of Business Defense and Commercial Products & Services: Development, Manufacture, Overhaul, Upgrading, Repair and Maintenance of Aircraft and AerospaceEquipment, Electronic Systems, Avionics Suites, Advanced Radars, Tactical Weaponry & Law Enforcement Systems, Training and Simulation Systems, Network and Situation Awareness Systems

IAI is a world leader in totally integrated UAS solutions, with more than 1,350,000 operational hours of intelligence and targeting missions

Financial Figures • • •

I AI's 2014 sales totaled $3.8 billion, 80% of these sales are for export. IAI's backlog as of December 2014 reached $9 billion. IAI's 2014 net profit $27 million.

Core Areas of Activity

Space: From its own launchers and satellites to ground services, IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and manufactures satellites for vari-

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ous purposes such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq, Eros, Opsat), Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the Amos series (GEO). Theater Defense: IAI develops and manufactures advanced air defense systems, including the “Barak 8” system. IAI’s Arrow Weapon System against Tactical Ballistic Missiles (ATBMs) is known as the world’s leading ATBM system. This multi-layer system, representing outstanding visionary and technological achievements such as the Green Pine missile detection and fire and control radar, as well as other interoperable solutions, is the cornerstone of Israel’s defense system. MRO & Civil Aircraft Conversion: IAI is an expert one-stop-shop for commercial aircraft conversion, maintenance, repair and overhaul with engineering, equipment and facilities to deliver rapid turnaround at competitive prices. Commercial Aircraft: IAI’s design, engineering and manufacturing capabilities are demonstrated in a cost-effective, intercontinental range, super-midsize

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Israel Weapon Industries Over 80 Years of Experience and Excellence

I

srael Weapon Industries (IWI), located in the center of Israel, has been a world leader in the production, marketing, design and development of unrivalled weapons for over 80 years. IWI’s products are deployed by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and worldwide. All IWI’s weapons have been battle proven around the world under adverse and extreme environmental conditions. IWI is a member of the SK Group, consisting of companies in the Defense scope manufacturing a wide array of unique and matchless products worldwide. The company’s weapon systems include the innovative TAVOR family of Assault Rifles, the ultimate three caliber X95 (Assault Rifle & SMG), the reliable NEGEV family of Light Machine Guns, the well-known GALIL ACE Assault Rifle family, the renowned GALIL SNIPER S.A. Rifle, the brand new DAN Bolt Action Sniper Rifle, the legendary UZI SMG in its latest evolution – UZI PRO and the acclaimed JERICHO pistols. All these small arms have been considered weapons of choice by Governmental, Military and Police Entities, as well as Law Enforcement Agencies around the world, along with commercial markets. The company’s firearms are developed in close collaboration with the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). IWI and the IDF have established joint Research & Development teams to develop these weapons, whose ultimate configurations are the product of ongoing interaction, field tests and modifications resulting from combat requirements and experience. All IWI weapon systems are in compliance with the

All IWI weapon systems are in compliance with the most stringent military standards and ISO 9000 standards, applied by the IDF.

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most stringent military standards (MIL-STD) and ISO 9000 standards, applied by the IDF. The expansion is a natural extension of the company’s global strategy. IWI also focuses on upgrading existing military platforms adapting technologies and know-how to the customers’ requirements thus providing cost effective solutions while improving their capabilities. As a member of the SK Group, customers can benefit from the strong synergy among the companies; with the ability to provide a thorough operational solution to each customer’s comprehensive demands and needs.  •

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS This is our legacy. Keysight is a company built on a history of firsts, dating back to the days when Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard worked in the garage on 367 Addison Avenue in Palo Alto, California. Our firsts began with U.S. patent number 2,268,872 for a “variable-frequency oscillation generator.” Appropriately, the centerpiece of Bill’s design was a light bulb, which is often used to symbolize a new idea. Our future depends on your success, and our vision is simple: by helping engineers find the right idea at the right time, we enable them to bring next-generation technologies to their customers—faster.

Offering expertise you can leverage This is happening in aerospace and defense applications where increasingly realistic signal simulations are accel-

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Enabling your next breakthrough To help Keysight customers continue to open new doors, we’re concentrating our effort and experience on what comes next in test and measurement. Our unique combination of hardware, software and people will help enable your next “A-ha!” moment, whether you’re working on mobile devices, cloud computing, semiconductors, renewable energy, or the latest glimmer in your imagination. Keysight is here to help you see what others can’t—and then make it reality.  •

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INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Enabling the right idea at the right time

Sudhir Tangri General Manager Keysight Technologies, India

erating the development of advanced systems that protect those who go in harm’s way. It’s happening in research labs where our tools help turn scientific discovery into the discovery of new sciences.It’s taking place with DDR memory, where our line of end-to-end solutions ranges from simulation software to protocol-analysis hardware. And in wireless communications we’re providing leading-edge measurement tools and sophisticated, future-friendly software that support the development and deployment of LTE-Advanced. Within those systems, there are more standards than a single engineer can keep up with. That’s why so many of our engineers are involved in standards bodies around the world. We’re helping shape those standards while creating the tools needed to meet the toughest performance goals.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Y

ou’ve known us as Hewlett-Packard, Agilent Technologies and, now, Keysight Technologies. For more than 75 years we have been helping you unlock measurement insights. There have always been two sides to the story. One is the work we do, creating innovative instrumentation and software. The other is the work you do: design, develop, debug, troubleshoot, manufacture, test, install and maintain components, devices and systems. Those seemingly separate activities are connected by something profound: the “A-ha!” that comes with a moment of insight. When those happen for us, the results are innovations that enable breakthroughs for you.

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Seeing What Others Can’t: The Key to Unlocking New Insights

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Keysight Technologies


MBDA

M

BDA is unique in the guided missile sector in its ability to meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains: air, land and sea. This offers benefits to customers keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. MBDA weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Brimstone and the long range SCALP / Storm Shadow are capable of ensuring air dominance long into the future. The IAF’s Mirage 2000 fleet is being upgraded and will feature MBDA’s MICA missile with its IR and RF seeker variants to deal with short to beyond visual range air combat. India’s Jaguar bombers also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA’s ASRAAM missiles. The threat of air attack is increasing. Low cost cruise missiles, manned and un-manned aircraft and the appearance of new ranges of ballistic missiles, are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company leads with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral, MICA and Aster missiles. MBDA’s Aster recently achieved Europe’s first successful ballistic missile target intercept, further proof of the Company’s unmatched skills. Mistral, with its unmatched success rate of over 96%, during all firings, has been selected by forces around the world and has been offered to the Indian armed forces to meet their VSHORAD requirement. Coastal and blue water operations require an effec-

MMP System

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tive anti-ship capability. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy’s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly, other versions of the world-famous Exocet family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA’s strategy. In fact, MBDA’s links with Indian industry go back some 40 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under license for the Indian Army. Discussions are also under way for the potential codevelopment of a 5th generation anti-tank missile based on the MMP that has recently been ordered by France. Working with HAL, integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter is well advanced and MBDA is also proposing its PARS 3 LR system for the same helicopter’s land attack mission. As well as working with the DRDO, MBDA is actively constructing ties at all levels within the country.  •

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

MDL

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Changing The Way India Builds Ships

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INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Rear Admiral R.K. Shrawat (Retd) Chairman and Managing Director, Mazagon Dock Limited; (Top) The first of the Scorpene submarine ‘Kalvari’ was undocked on April 6, 2015.

(four) and GRSE (three), with MDL playing the role of the lead yard. With an ambitious expansion plans, the company has undertaken a massive MDL modernisation programme (MMP). This includes a 300 ton Goliath crane, a new wet basin, a module workshop with a retractable roof and cradle assembly shop. The phase-I of the project is expected to be ready by the year end. This project will change the way India builds ships, becoming as sophisticated and international as any other highly developed ship building country. MDL is presently engaged in the simultaneous construction of six submarines of the Scorpene Class. When commissioned, these potent submarines will considerably enhance the underwater punch of the Indian Navy, establishing it’s supremacy in surrounding waters. The first of the Scorpene submarine ‘Kalvari’ was undocked on April 6, 2015 in the presence of the Defence Minister, Manohar Parikkar and the Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Devendra Fadnavis. The delivery of Scorpene submarines is slated for September 2016.  •

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

BUSINESS

I

n 1774, a small dry dock was built in Bombay to service ships of the British East India Company. Over two centuries, the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) has grown from a single unit repair establishment into a multifunctional, state-of-the-art shipyard, building various types of warships for the Indian Navy. It has a chequered history having passed through various ownerships like the P&O lines and the British India Steam Navigation Company, till it was taken over by the Government of India and established as a Public Sector Undertaking under the Ministry of Defence in 1960. Today, MDL is India’s premier and lead warship building yard. From an initial order for building six Leander Class Frigates to the current order for constructing sophisticated stealth frigates, destroyers and submarines, the yard has come a long way. MDL is currently constructing three warships of the Kolkata Class (P15A) which are follow-on destroyers of the celebrated Delhi Class. The first ship ‘Kolkata’ was commissioned by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in August 2014. The other two ships ‘Kochi’ and ‘Chennai’ are at an advanced stage of construction and are expected to be delivered to the Navy within this financial year. MDL is also constructing four more destroyers code named P-15B. The first ship of this project named ‘Visakhapatnam’ was launched on 20 June 2015. MDL has recently been awarded a contract for building multi-mission frigates that are design derivatives of the acclaimed Shivalik Class frigates. Seven ships will be built between MDL


NAVANTIA

N

avantia, the Spanish shipbuilder, 100 per cent owned by the Spanish Government, is a world reference in the design, construction and integration of state-of-the-art war ships, as well as ship repairs and modernizations. It is also engaged in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems, Fire Control Systems, Command and Control systems, Propulsion Plants and through life support for all its products. Even though its main line of activity is in the naval field, Navantia designs and manufactures systems for the Army and the Air Force. Navantia has enough experience in building the most technologically advanced ships like frigates, amphibious ships, patrol vessels, and submarines. In the last years, it has supplied ships for 5 different navies: Norway, Australia, Spain, India and Venezuela. It has also been contracted in Turkey for the design and technical assistance of the LPD program. This experience, together with a continuous commitment to innovation, the use of the latest technologies and with a highly qualified work force, makes Navantia one of the most competitive companies in the world. Navantia is a reference in surface warships, having been able to integrate the AEGIS LM system in a much smaller platform. It has designed and built the F-100 Alvaro de Bazán class frigates (5 units) for the Spanish Navy and the F-310 Fridtjof Nansen class (5 units) in service at the Royal Norwegian Navy. The Australian Warfare

Cristóbal Colón

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Destroyer, currently under construction, is another Navantia design also based in Navantia F-100 frigate. The F-310 class frigates are considered one of the most successful programmes the company has executed, with total customer satisfaction. One of the clues is the product itself, the F-310 frigates, ships of excellent quality and capability for operating with other NATO vessels. As well, Navantia has won a contract for the life cycle support of these frigates, an area where the company is developing a high qualified specialization, in order to offer integral service to the client. The Australian Warfare Destroyer, currently under construction by ASC in Adelaide, is another Navantia design also based in Navantia F-100 frigate. The first unit was launched last year. As well the Australian Government has announced that Navantia will be an active part in the new frigates program.

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NEXTER SYSTEMS

Setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems

D

uring Defexpo 2014, Nexter Systems has unveiled for the first time a new Indian version of its CAESAR® 155 mounted gun system. Nexter has teamed up with Larsen & Toubro and Ashok Leyland Defence to propose this system to soldiers of the Indian Army for the MGS (Mounted Gun System) program. Based on the 6x6 Super Stallion chassis from Ashok Leyland, with its higher payload which improves the

CAESAR® was deployed in Afghanistan, Lebanon and Mali with the French Army

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modularity of the Indian CAESAR® to fulfill specific requirements of the Indian Army. During July 2011, the two companies signed an other Consortium Agreement and announced the formation of Nexter Systems led consortium for 155 mm Towed Gun System (TGS) program for Indian Army. Under the proposal, Nexter will field TRAJAN®, 155 mm/52-calibre weapon system, which used the same 155mm/52cal artillery than the CAESAR®.

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RAFAEL

The Perfect Partner for India’s Defense Needs

Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd, designs, develops, manufactures and supplies a wide range of hightech defense systems for air, land, sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer’s specific needs, Rafael provides state-of-the-art, yet cost-effective systems and weapons in the fields of Missiles, air defense, naval systems, target acquisition, EW, C4ISR, communication networks, data links, electro-optic payloads, add-on armor, combat vehicle upgrading, mine field breaching, border and coastal protection systems, breaching munitions and much more.

Iron Dome – Defense against short range artillery rockets

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Rafael – The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel’s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently, 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael’s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship with the IDF, developing products according to the soldiers’ specific requirements in the field. Rafael has also formed partnerships with civilian counterparts to develop commercial applications based on its proprietary technology. Rafael has created partnerships with companies in

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Rosoboronexport A new quality of partnership

R

ussian-Indian military-technical cooperation has been successful for more than half a century and can rightly be described as strategic. It is precisely with Russia that India is currently implementing major defense programs, which provide for the widest possible technology cooperation. Russia’s state special exporter Rosoboronexport is committed to

Ka-226T light utility helicopter will be licensly produced for the national Army to meet ‘Make in India’ policy

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actively developing bilateral cooperation that will fully comply with the Buy Indian, Make Indian procurement policy. Moreover, in the short term, the parties may enter into agreements that will be really a new stage of relations between the two countries in the defense field. In particular, a major project for establishing joint production of the Ka-226T light multipurpose helicop-

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RUBIN

Naval Design Partnering

F

or more than 100 years submarines have been one of the best means of deterrence combining stealth, reconnaissance capabilities and preventive strike. It is much more difficult to detect a submarine than land and airborne weapons. If you confront, in comparison with other types of weapons, the cumulative efficiency of a submarine with her cost as well as results that can be achieved using various types of weapons, it will turn out that a submarine (considering all the aspects) is a rather cheap type of weapon. In total, more than eight hundred non-nuclear sub-

The Russian Northern Fleet operates the head submarine of Project 677, SaintPetersburg

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marines have been built to the designs developed by Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering Rubin that traces its history back to 1901. Rubin also offers to a Customer training systems, training centres and other useful options. The company provides refit and modification of delivered ships. For several decades, relationships of friendship and strategic partnership have been successfully developing between Russia and India, especially in the military sphere based on our mutual respect and mutually beneficial cooperation. Nearly half a century lasts coopera-

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Russian Helicopters Highly Experienced in Helicopter Design and Production

R

ussian Helicopters is a leading figure in the global helicopter-building industry. It is one of the few companies that boasts the ability to design, produce, test, and service modern commercial and military helicopters. The company includes design bureaux, helicopter plants, production enterprises, component mainte-

Mi-171

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nance and repair facilities, aircraft repair plants, and also aftersales service companies that provide ongoing post-sales support for helicopters within Russia and internationally. The designers and engineers who work with Russian Helicopters have unparalleled experience and knowledge. They come from the Mikhail Mil and

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SAAB

A Partner in Building an Indigenous Defence Industry in India

S

aab is a global defence and security company, founded in Sweden in 1937. Saab brings to India a wide portfolio of cutting-edge technologies and systems, across the Air, Land, Naval and Civil domains. We have been a trusted supplier to the Indian armed forces since the 1970s, when India acquired the Carl Gustaf Anti-Tank defence system. The group can offer specialised solutions for each market segment as well as broad, comprehensive solutions. The product portfolio is continuously refined and adapted to customer needs. In 2014, Saab invested one fourth of sales in research and development. Today, we work with Indian companies and partners in R&D, aerospace technologies, and defence systems across all domains, to develop cutting-edge products and solutions that will serve India and the rest of the world for generations to come. We are doing this in partnership with the Indian ambition to Make In India – the ambition to develop an indigenous defence industry of global dimensions.

Saab’s Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS) has been selected by HAL as the electronic warfare selfprotection system for the Indian Army’s and Air force’s Advanced Light Helicopter (Dhruv)

SAAB’s PORTFOLIO Naval Domain Saab’s maritime portfolio covers the air, surface, subsurface and maritime surveillance domains, providing Naval and Coast Guard forces complete command over the sea. The Group’s naval offering was expanded in 2014 through the acquisition of Saab Kockums, adding to the Saab portfolio leading-edge, world-class naval platform

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technology. Saab Kockums designs, builds and maintains naval surface vessels and submarines that incorporate the most advanced stealth and shock resistance technology. Saab can support India’s operational needs with solutions for: • Surface and sub-surface marine platform design & construction • Surface, anti-submarine and air warfare (Surveillance & Reconnaissance, Decision Support, Precision Engagement, Force Protection) • Mine Warfare (Mine Reconnaissance, Mine Hunting, Mine Countermeasures) • Maritime Surveillance (Maritime Patrol/support aircraft suitably equipped for surveillance and SAR) and Coastal & Harbour Security Saab has supplied the National Automatic Identification System (NAIS) Network in India, which has given India an AIS maritime picture over the entire Indian coastline. NAIS is one of the largest national AISbased coastal surveillance systems ever to be deployed. Saab’s 9LV family offers complete C4I for all types

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Safran

Boosting up the Presence in Indian Aerospace Sector

S

afran is the leading supplier of aircraft engines, landing gear and carbon brakes for airlines operating in India and neighbouring countries, and plays a full-fledged role in the development of air transport in the country. Safran activities have quickly evolved to include strong local partnerships with Indian aviation industry based on joint developments, production and support licenses for airplane, helicopter and rocket engines landing gear, navigation systems, as well as the associated support services. Today, Safran has five facilities dedicated to products and services for fixed and rotary-wing aircraft: • Safran Engineering Services India (SESI) in Bengaluru provides end-to-end engineering services to global and local customers. It embodies Safran’s proven expertise in aerostructures, electrical and mechanical systems, electronics and software. • Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt. Ltd. (SHAe) is an equal joint venture between Snecma and Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL), created in 2005. It manufactures high-tech components for CFM56 aircraft engines in Bengaluru. • CFM Training Center close to Hyderabad airport provides maintenance training for ground crews from airlines operating CFM56 engines. It can provide training for up to 500 maintenance technicians and engineers a year. It also offers training to engineers from helicopter operators using Arriel engines manufactured by Turbomeca. • Turbomeca India Engines Pvt. Ltd, Safran’s helicopter

Indian Multi-role Helicopter Dhruv Powered by two Turbomeca TM 333 engines

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engine support center in Bengaluru, provides support services for its own engines to its Indian customers. Its main partners are HAL and Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd. Turbomeca is the first helicopter engine supplier to HAL. • Snecma (Safran) and Max Aerospace signed an agreement last year, to create a joint venture called Max Aero Engines Private Limited (MAEPL), which offers aircraft engine maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services for M53 engines in India. Safran provides multiple solutions for the Indian Aerospace sector: • Over 700 CFM56/Leap engines sold to almost all major Indian airlines. • 65% of Indian airplanes & helicopters are powered and/or equipped by Safran. • India is Sagem’s biggest market for Inertial Navigation System.

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Safran has been a supplier to the Indian armed forces

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Sagem Safran Group

S

agem, a high-tech company of Safran, holds world or European leadership positions in optronics, avionics, electronics and safety-critical software for both civil and military markets. Sagem is the No. 1 company in Europe and No. 3 worldwide for inertial navigation systems (INS) used in air, land and naval applications. It is also the world leader in helicopter flight controls and the European leader in optronics and tactical UAV systems. Operating across the globe through the Safran group, Sagem and its subsidiaries employ 7,600 people in Europe, Pacific Asia, North America and south America. Safran has over 54,000 employees and operations in more than 50 countries. Sagem is organized in three divisions. Avionics Division. Sagem is one of only two companies in the world to apply all key inertial navigation technologies – mechanical, vibrating, resonant, optical-fiber, laser gyros, MEMS – for all environments. SIGMA family of laser gyro navigation systems is used on Rafale, Su-30 MK1, MiG-29, A400M, NH90, EC725, combat ships (Fremm & Horizon frigates, Barracuda and Scorpene submarines), and artillery systems (Caesar, Mars, Archer, air-defense radars and systems, etc). Sagem SIGMA 30 navigation and pointing systems are integrated on VL MICA surface-to-air weapon systems of MBDA for international markets. Avionics division develops and produces AASM Hammer, an air-toground all weather precision stand-off missile. Hammer has just been adopted for the Rafale program of Egypt. Optronics & Defense Division. This division offers a comprehensive range of optronic systems for air, naval

JIM LR & Milan

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and ground forces. Sagem is prime contractor for the French FELIN infantry program, and a key partner of infantry programs: 8000 JIM LR infrared multifunction binoculars are in order or in service in more than 20 armies (including Denmark, France, UK, USA,…). Naval optronic products, from surveillance to fire control, includes: Vampir NG, Paseo, EOMS NG, and Vigy Observer. Leader in optronics mast for submarines, Sagem supplies the masts of the Indian Scorpene program, France’s nuclear strategic subs and futur Barracuda, several in the world (Brasil, Chili, South Korea). On the UAV market, Sagem proposes Patroller™, a long-endurance innovating system. In October 2014, Patroller demonstrated over Toulouse airport its capability to fly inside civil airspaces. Safran Electronics Division. The Safran Electronics division comprises 1,500 specialists in electronics and safety critical software, used in air, land and sea platforms. Working for Safran, this division develops and produces computers, printed circuit boards and associated software. They are used for a number of Safran products, including landing and braking systems, engine control systems, avionics, navigation and optronics systems, etc. In addition, Sagem provides maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services for these products.  •

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CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Grand Caravan EX. The versatility of the Caravan makes it an ideal platform for special mission applications.

objectives. It also reduces training time, insurance costs and empty weight, allowing higher payload—the important pounds that can generate revenue. Similar thinking went into the powerplant design, location and number of doors to the cockpit and cabin, and the basic aircraft structure. Today, four Caravan models are available: the Caravan, the Grand Caravan EX, the Caravan Amphibian and the Grand Caravan EX Amphibian

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REGIONAL BALANCE

T

extron Aviation’s Cessna Caravan series is a clear success. Cessna first developed the turboprop in the early-1980s as a point design utility hauler. Today it serves a wide array of missions, including executive transport, airline, cargo, freight and other special mission applications. The Caravan is simple, robust and easy to maintain. The aircraft’s fixed landing gear is an excellent example of how engineers designed the aircraft to meet these

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Multi-Missions

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Textron Aviation


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Thales

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INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Please highlight your six decade old presence in India? Thales has been present in India for over 60 years and contributing to the development of the country in the fields of defence, aerospace and ground transportation (railways and metros). It employs over 300 people across its offices in New Delhi, Bengaluru, Hyderabad and other cities. As a trusted partner of the Indian armed forces (land, navy and air force), Thales has been selected to provide its flagship equipment and systems for various types of platforms in India – optronics, air defence radars, low level transportable radars, avionics & INGPS for military aircraft, electronic warfare systems, anti-submarine warfare sonar systems & mine-hunting solutions, long-range surveillance radar, among others. It has also been associated with Dassault Aviation for the upgrade of the Indian Air Force’s Mirage 2000 fleet. The first two Indian Air Force Mirage 2000 I/TI were delivered to the Indian authorities in March 2015 in France. Over the years, Thales has been actively partnering with Indian industry, sharing technology and expertise. It has created Joint Ventures (JVs) with Samtel, BEL and L&T Technology Services. Originally focused on the defence sector in India, Thales extended its footprint to other key sectors such

BUSINESS

Interview with Antoine Caput, VP & Country Director – India, Thales


UAC

United Aircraft Corporation Widens Its Horizons

T

he United Aircraft Corporation (PJSC “UAC”) was established in 2006 to consolidate Russia’s main assets in aircraft design and production. Currently Russian Federation is the Corporations’ main shareholder with more that 85% of shares. UAC is formed by the following design bureaus and manufacturing plants: Sukhoi Company, Irkut Corporation, UAC – Transport Aircraft, Ilyushin, Nizhny Novgorod Aircraft building Plant Sokol, Tupolev, Ilyushin Finance Company, Aviastar-SP, Voronezh Aircraft Company, Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG, Myasishchev Design Bureau, Beriev Design Bureau, Aerocomposite, Gromov Flight Test Institute. The Corporation’s mission is to develop, manufacture and service military, transport and civil aircraft with a priority to Russian state customers, to reach and

The Su-30MKI multifunctional fighters form the backbone of the Indian Air Force

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to sustain long-term competitiveness on the global market. Key aim of the Corporation is to become the world’s third largest aviation center with a stable position and share in the global market.

Deliveries and income UAC is constantly growing, increasing its volumes year on year for more than 5 years. The Corporation has delivered 126 aircraft in 2013, last year the figure increased to 159. UAC’s income also increased by 34% to almost US$6 billion. The Corporation’s EBITDA was over 8%, which is on par with leading companies in the segment. According to UAC’s long term development strategy the Corporation’s revenues should quadruple by 2025 with profit margin not less than 10%. During the next decade UAC plans for faster growth in the civil seg-

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WASS

Long-established Partners in Protection and Development

W

ASS, Italy’s leading company, well established globally in the field of advanced underwater weapon and sensor design and development with its presence in 27 countries, including India began its journey way back in 1976 with the sale of A244s Light Weight Torpedoes (LWTs). In 2010, it opened a fully-owned subsidiary and gradually established successful relationships with Indian companies both in Public and Private Sectors, such as the Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL), HEB, Tata Advanced System, Larsen & Toubro, etc. WASS has committed itself to offer India the latest and state-of-the-art products, supporting IN, indigenous industries, DRDO and its Laboratories in their hunt for an indigenous Torpedo. These torpedoes have been the backbone of the Indian Navy underwater operations for over 30 years. WASS is willing and keen to collaborate with DRDO/NSTL for development of future LWT in India, by transferring key technologies.

Black Shark torpedo

Black Shark Torpedo WASS’s renowned Black Shark torpedo has been selected for the Scorpene submarines after a rigorous selection process and the contract is expected to be concluded shortly. It is the most advanced and combat proven torpedo available in the market today. With execution of this contract, which involves ToT to Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) and offset, India would receive a large number of technologies and BDL would become established manufacturer

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the best and most advanced Heavy Weight Torpedo (HWT) in the world.

Torpedo Decoy System Way back in 1990s, WASS supplied first C303 Torpedo Decoy System (TDS) to IN. In 2005, another contract on WASS for supply of nine additional C303 systems was placed with ToT for indigenisation by BDL. Since then, BDL has started receiving direct orders from IN and WASS has become its sub-supplier. BDL now has full competence for manufacturing TDS for submarines and ships.

HWT for Ships The HWT for ships is based on the similar technologies to those used for submarines. WASS is very keen to supply these for IN ships and is willing to increase the indigenous content to more than 50 per cent, with transfer of some key technologies.  •

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Telangana

Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters 1 New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army) 2 New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy) 3 New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (IAF) 4 Pune (HQ Southern Command), Army 5 Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command), Army 6 Chandimandir (HQ Western Command), Army 7 Lucknow (HQ Central Command), Army 8 Udhampur (HQ Northern Command), Army 9 Shimla (HQ Training Command), Army 10 Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command), Army 11 Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command), Navy 12 Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command), Navy

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13 Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command), Navy 14 New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command), IAF 15 Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command), IAF 16 Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command), IAF 17 Bengaluru (HQ Training Command), IAF 18 Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command), IAF 19 Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command), IAF 20 Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command), IAF 21 New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) 22 Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) 23 New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff)

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Iran Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir

Afghanistan

Punjab

Himachal Pradesh Shimla Uttarakhand Dehradun

Chandigarh Haryana

Pakistan

China

Bhutan

1 Delhi

Nepal

Uttar Pradesh

Rajasthan

Jharkhand

Gandhinagar Madhya Pradesh

17

Chhattisgarh

Bhopal

Raipur

5 Maharashtra Telangana Mumbai 16 18 Pune 9 10

ARABIAN SEA

Goa Panaji

Ranchi

Shillong West Bengal

6 22

Bhubaneswar 20 Odisha

Manipur Imphal Aizawal Mizoram

Myanmar

Bangladesh

Thailand

19 8 Vi s akhapatnam

7

BAY OF BENGAL 4 11 2 12 13 3 15 14 Bengaluru Chennai

& Ni co ba r

Tamil Nadu

21

Port Blair

Is la nd s

Kochi

An da m an

Kerala

Kavaratti

Agartala Tripura

Kolkata

Karnataka

Lakshadweep

Nagaland Kohima

Dispur

Patna Bihar

Allahabad

Gujarat

Itanagar

Sikkim

Lucknow

Jaipur

Arunachal Pradesh

Thiruvananthapuram

Sri Lanka I

N

D

I

A

N

O

C

E

A

N

DRDO and DPSU Headquarters 1 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), New Delhi 2 Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Bengaluru 3 Bharat Electronics Ltd, Bengaluru 4 Bharat Earth Movers Ltd, Bengaluru 5 Mazagon Dock Ltd, Mumbai 6 Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd, Kolkata 7 Goa Shipyard Ltd, Goa 8 Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Visakhapatnam 9 Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Hyderabad 10 Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd, Hyderabad 11 Aeronautical Development Agency, Bengaluru

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12 Indian Space Research Organisation, Bengaluru 13 Aeronautical Development Establishment, Bengaluru 14 Centre for Airborne Systems, Bengaluru 15 Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment, Chennai 16 Defence Electronics Research Lab., Hyderabad 17 Defence Research and Development Est., Gwalior 18 Defence Research and Development Lab., Hyderabad 19 Naval Science & Technological Laboratory, Visakhapatnam 20 Integrated Test Range, Balasore, Odisha 21 Cochin Shipyard Ltd, Kochi, Kerala 22 Ordnance Factories Board, Kolkata

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section one

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Concepts & Perspectives Contents 1

53 57 61

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

11 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47

INDIAN DEFENCE

5

REGIONAL BALANCE

One  The Changing Global Balance of Power Two Strategic Stability Among Nuclear Neighbours Three India-China Relations: Present Trends and Future Course Four Strategy to Counter China-Pakistan Nexus Five Outlook for West Asia in 2015 Six The Islamic State – Self-styled Caliphate Seven India-Russia Relations: An Assessment Eight Momentum in India-US Strategic Partnership Nine North East Region and India’s Look East Policy Ten Af-Pak Region Post-2014 Eleven ‘Blue Waters’ and the Indian Navy Twelve Defence Planning in India Thirteen India’s National Security: Fundamental Challenges Fourteen National Security Decision Making in India Fifteen Smart Power


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

T

he term ‘Balance of regions. We are thus in an era where   Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd)   Power’ dates back to the regional ‘balance of power’ has become European state system, important once again. commencing from the Napoleonic wars. It continued Balance of Power Defined till about the end of World War I. It was used to denote the power relationships between the European states of that period. Countries that had independent policies or were National Power much stronger than the rest did not become partners with other Before we analyse the phrase ‘balance of power’, there is need to states or group of states, but were ‘holders of balance’. Great understand what ‘national power’ in international relations means. Britain, which was essentially the most powerful state in that era, ‘National power’ is defined as the sum of all resources available to a on account of its vast colonial empire, was the ‘balancer’ in Europe nation in the pursuit of national objectives. Assessing national power is neither a new concept nor a parof those times. It would throw its weight on one side or at another time on another side, guided largely by one consideration—the ticularly unique one. It has been prevalent since ancient times. maintenance of the balance itself. Naval supremacy and its virtual Earlier, national power was considered synonymous with military immunity from foreign invasion enabled Great Britain to perform power, which included both strength and capability of military forces. Later, other aspects were add ed to it. this function and ensure stability. In ancient times in both old civilisations — China and India, It is thus clear that the primary reason for the concept of ‘balance of power’ was to ensure peace and stability in Europe and not states formulated strategies after considering the ‘power’ of the give a reason to a more powerful state to use or attempt to use force warring states. Sun Zi, the well-known philosopher of China, for usurping more power and create instability. Similar dispensa- warned that the outcome of war—to a large extent—depended on tions prevailed in other regions of the world, but to a lesser extent the correct assessment of power through calculations and inteland hence the breakout of conflicts and war reduced considerably. ligence estimates of enemy’s strengths and weaknesses. Similarly, Prior to the 20th century, the political world consisted of a the Indian strategist, Kautilya emphasised the need for studying all number of separate and independent balance-of-power systems, aspects of the rival state. such as the European, the American, the Chinese, and even Indian before it was colonised. Drastic change came in early 20th century, Elements of National Power mainly on account of change of alignments necessitated by World There are two types of elements that make national power — tanWar I. This began with the alliances of World War I on both sides gibles and intangibles. Tangible or relatively stable factors include geography (physical features, size and vastness); natural resources and continued thereafter in different formulations. Thereafter, the world moved from balance between states to (raw materials, self-sufficiency in food); industrial capacity; techbalance between two superpowers and later to a single super- nology; population; quality and size of military power; and leaderpower formulation. It is now trying to revert to a stage that is better ship. In terms of tangibles, many countries, including India are well described as a multipolar world, where power gets diffused among endowed. The moot question is: are they being used correctly?

INDIAN DEFENCE

Prior to the 20th century, the political world consisted of a number of separate and independent balance-of-power systems, such as the European, the American, the Chinese, and even Indian before it was colonised. Drastic change came in early 20th century, mainly on account of change of alignments necessitated by World War I.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Reshaping the Strategic Landscape

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.g20australia.org

THE CHANGING GLOBAL BALANCE OF POWER

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1


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Command and control of nuclear arsenals is dictated by three major imperatives — doctrines, strategy and structures. Countries adopt various models, based on their doctrines, goals and understanding of potential adversaries’ capabilities. As mentioned both India and Pakistan have a differing perceptions of development and use of nuclear weapons; consequently a fundamentally different command and control structure dictated by their political, ideological mindset and doctrinal perceptions. In trying to develop regional strategic stability among nuclear neighbours with legacy of mistrust, unresolved boundary dispute it is imperative that a degree of assurance is provided to each other on the robustness of respective command and control to prevent misunderstanding that could lead to unintended escalation. It is in the above backdrop it becomes important to first analyse the doctrinal thinking, strategies and structures adopted by two sides which in turn are driving the command and control imperatives of nuclear forces. The next step is to analyse the critical aspects that emerge that will help in focusing on possible areas where the confidence-building measures (CBMs) developed. The foregoing analysis looks at two different scenarios, i.e., ‘Peacetime’ perspectives and more importantly ‘management in crisis scenario’.

Peacetime Perspective of Nuclear Command and Control Most critical issue to examine is the structure of the National Command Authority (NCA) and who wields control and influence? Second, is the balance between civil and military control an important issue in the South Asian context? Given the current realities in Pakistan it needs to be acknowledged that although the Prime Minister heads the country’s NCA, comprising Employment and Development Committees, notionally under civilian control; in reality the authority for development

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BUSINESS

Imperatives of Command and Control

INDIAN DEFENCE

Sahgal (retd)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

A

spate of recent   brigadier Arun articles highlighting nuclear fears in South Asia are appearing in important and influential journals and newspapers point to incipient arms race in South Asia. However, their focus is on Pakistan’s nuclear programme and its quest for nuclear asymmetry with India in developing full spectrum capability, straddling strategic, operational and tactical domains, aimed at balancing India’s conventional threats through nuclear deterrence. The regional strategic stability is further impaired by Pakistan’s critical assertions that its nuclear weapon programme is wholly and solely India-centric and even more importantly the intrinsic part of its overall military strategy is designed to reinforce the deterrence value of its conventional forces. The fundamental deduction that emerges is that Pakistan conceives its nuclear capability as an extension of its conventional capability designed fundamentally for war-fighting against recalcitrant India. Indian perspective on the other hand looks at nuclear weapons as instruments of national and collective security therefore part of overall war avoidance strategy. Conceivably nuclear weapons are seen as political tools to reinforce strategic deterrence to cater for threats of use or nuclear attack on India or Indian forces anywhere. Essentially therefore the basis of Indian nuclear capability development hinges on ‘credible minimum deterrence’ and forms the basis for design and development of its nuclear forces and more importantly for its ‘no first use’ (NFU) doctrine. Above brief rationale of fundamentally differing perspective of developing nuclear capability brings up the issue of nuclear command and control both during peacetime and crisis. The paper highlights that intrinsic doctrine of warfighting and nature of political-military control in Pakistan is highly destabilising and prone to unintended escalation that could result in nuclear conflagration.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

The regional strategic stability is further impaired by Pakistan’s critical assertions that its nuclear weapon programme is wholly and solely India-centric and even more importantly the intrinsic part of its overall military strategy is designed to reinforce the deterrence value of its conventional forces

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Achieving Nuclear Deterrence

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Strategic Stability Among Nuclear Neighbours

TECHNOLOGY

2


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INDIAN DEFENCE

implausible in light of new analytical insights about the causes of war. French theorist Montesquieu and German theorist Immanuel Kant along with practitioners like Woodrow Wilson asserted that economic relations between states pacify political interaction that could potentially lead to conflict. The evidence appears to substantiate these claims of linking interstate trade with reductions in militarised disputes or wars. However, this interdependence does not necessarily permeate into the various levels and degree of conflict, as has been argued, “… theoretically, liberalism does not specify what types of conflict are most likely to decrease in the presence of high levels of interdependence.” Going by the school of interdependent liberalism, economic symbiosis woven together with the web of multilateral international institutions and frameworks ideally should propel states towards adopting a more cooperative framework. However, concurrently, pressingly bitter geostrategic realities that these nations are faced with, prove that the realignments in any part of the India-China security equation shall have far-reaching impact all across Asia. It is only too well known that India and China share a long-drawn boundary and territorial dispute, where even a little provocation flares up tensions on the Indo-China border. All these existing realities can be referred in context to Chinese President and General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Xi Jinping, when he addressed the 18th Party Congress in 2012 and advocated ‘rejuvenating China’, which was interpreted as an oblique reference to ‘reclaiming lost historical territories.’ What stems out of this peculiarly prevalent predicament is the query, whether trade and investment shall become the eventual drivers that would fashion the future course of ties bilaterally, more so at the cost of certain prevailing and pressing strategic realities

BUSINESS

Chansoria  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

A

sia and its primary players   Dr Monika are often confronted with a peculiarly prevalent predicament. And that is, whether trade and investment shall become the eventual driver fashioning the future course of strategic ties, more so at the cost of certain prevailing and pressing strategic realities that appear conflicting at times? That China has come up to serve as a key engine of economic growth in Asia and beyond is a reality that cannot be negated or ignored. China’s much-debated ‘rise’ has generated curiosity and concern, primarily because the direction of that rise continues to remain ambiguous. The tempestuous geopolitical relationship that has existed between China and India for decades has been leavened by increasing trade. Bitter strategic realities and contest in the midst of vital economic imperatives only reinforces that in contrast to conventional interpretations, opportunity costs associated with economic benefits generally cannot deter disputes. The complexities of the China-India relationship are far too intricate to be spelt out in a simplistic fashion. Capital interdependence contributes to peace independent of the effects of trade, democracy, interest and other variables. More specifically, strategic variables such as capabilities and resolve, can directly impact upon efficient ex ante bargains once they have been normatively identified. The liberal conviction that trade fosters global peace has more than often been substantiated by means of various streams of research. Notwithstanding that, the existing understanding of linkages between conflict and international economics continues to remain limited in at least two ways. First, cross-border economic relationships are far broader than just trade with global capital markets dwarfing exchange of goods and services. Second, the manner in which economics is said to inhibit conflict behaviour is

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Going by the school of interdependent liberalism, economic symbiosis woven together with the web of multilateral international institutions and frameworks ideally should propel states towards adopting a more cooperative framework. However, concurrently, pressingly bitter geostrategic realities that these nations are faced with, prove that the realignments in any part of the India-China security equation shall have far-reaching impact all across Asia.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

A Complex Relationship

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

India-China Relations: Present Trends and Future Course

TECHNOLOGY

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CONTENTS

When China joined the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group in 2004, it ‘grandfathered’ its right to supply Chashma 1 and 2 reactors. It remains firm in its resolve to support Pakistan’s civilian nuclear programme. Chinese state-run companies are currently in talks to build three 1,000 megawatt plants in Pakistan—two at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant and the third at the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex.

China has played a major role in developing Pakistan’s nuclear infrastructure. In the 1990s, China designed and supplied heavy water to Khushab reactor, which plays a key role in Pakistan’s production of plutonium. China National Nuclear Corporation supplied 5,000 custom-made ring magnets, which facilitate highspeed rotation of the centrifuges and Pakistan’s uranium enrichment capabilities. When China joined the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group in 2004, it ‘grandfathered’ its right to supply Chashma 1 and 2 reactors. It remains firm in its resolve to support Pakistan’s civilian nuclear programme. Chinese state-run companies are currently in talks to build three 1,000 megawatt plants in Pakistan: two at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant and the third at the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex. On the missiles front, it is well known that the Chinese sale of 34 complete M-11 ballistic missiles to Pakistan in the 1990s was in contravention of the Missile Technology Control Regime guide-

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Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good-Neighbourly Relations China and Pakistan maintain ‘all-weather’ relationship. Of all the treaties and agreements signed between them, the ChinaPakistan Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good-neighbourly Relations, ratified by both the sides in 2005-06, is the most significant. It binds the two nations to desist from ‘joining any alliance or bloc which infringes upon the sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of the other side’. It forbids both countries to conclude a similar treaty with a third country. Then Chinese President Hu Jintao had described it as ‘an important legal foundation for the Strategic Partnership’. While Pakistan considered significance of the Treaty in terms of protecting its security and a hedge against India, the Chinese downplayed the security aspect but laid stress to the importance of the document in preventing Pakistan going back into the US camp. Currently, China has built its largest overseas embassy in Islamabad. China and Pakistan have now signed several agreements to develop the multibillion ‘Economic Corridor’ which passes through PoK. It includes communications along the Karakoram Highway, railway and oil pipeline from China to Gwadar Port (of Pakistan), which has been constructed by China and is being managed by their company. This corridor, after US and NATO troops leave Afghanistan, and when fully developed, is expected to become a strategic game changer. It will provide entry to China to the Arabian

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lines. China has also built Pakistan’s missile plant at Tarwanah, near Rawalpindi. In last 20 years, China and Pakistan have been involved in several joint ventures to enhance military and weaponry systems. These include the JF-17, K-8 advanced training aircraft, AWACS, Al Khalid tank, Babur cruise missile, and so on.

INDIAN DEFENCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

Cooperation in Nuclear, Missiles and Arms Industry

Malik (Retd)  

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he China-Pakistan strate  General V.P. gic nexus started soon after India-China war of 1962. In 1963, China and Pakistan signed a Boundary Agreement to formally delimit and demarcate the boundary between China’s Xinjiang and the contiguous northern areas of the Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK). With this delimitation, Pakistan ceded the Shaksgam Valley to China. Both countries extended their common boundary up to Karakoram Pass. China was careful. Article 6 of the Agreement stated that after settlement of Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan, the ‘sovereign authority’ will re-open negotiations with the Chinese Government. A formal Boundary Treaty then signed will replace this Agreement.

TECHNOLOGY

China’s Growing Influence

REGIONAL BALANCE

Wikipedia

Strategy to Counter China-Pakistan Nexus

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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CONTENTS

The brutal suppression of unprecedented popular revolts which characterised the so-called ‘Arab Spring’ by autocratic rulers brought brazen sectarianism being indulged in both by governments and ostensible ‘rebels’ into the open; this has transformed an already unstable region into blood-soaked killing fields.

Broad Prognosis Increasing violence, death and destruction are likely to continue for at least the next few years as the war against the Islamic extremists is ramped up and as jousting between Saudi Arabia and Iran intensifies. However, it is also very likely that 2015, will, in due time, come to be considered as another watershed year when the potentially dramatic redrawing of the geostrategic and geopolitical

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map of West Asia began with the landmark nuclear deal between Iran and the P 5 + 1 on April 2, laying the foundations for the reintegration of Iran into the regional politico-strategic mainstream. With so much at stake both for the US and Iran the final agreement due by the end of June is very likely to happen also. The US involvement in the region will continue but increasingly through robust diplomacy, not egregious military involvements and interventions as in the past. The region’s Sunni Arab countries are very unhappy and feel abandoned by their main ally and protector, the United States. However, without the proactive support of the United States they cannot realistically confront Iran. In theory, therefore, for the first time in decades there could be a possibility that cooperation rather than confrontation could gradually become the main guiding principle of conduct of inter-state relations in West Asia. But before this can start happening, the Sunni states will lash out as they have done in Yemen and hopefully learn from the inevitable bitter outcome.

BUSINESS

Gupta  

Role of Main Players The dynamics of the triangular relationship between Iran, Saudi Arabia and the United States will determine how the situation in the region evolves. Iran Iran is the most populous, the strongest and the most influential country by far in West Asia today. The estimated Shiite population percentages of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are: Bahrain around 65 per cent; Kuwait about 30 per cent; Saudi Arabia about 18 per cent; Qatar and UAE about 10 per cent; and, Oman about 8 per cent. About 65 per cent of Iraqis and 35 per cent of Yemenis are Shia. If Iran is included, the cumulative Shia element of the overall population of the nine countries of the Gulf region would be around 63 per cent. The Shia component of the

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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est Asia has been a partic  Ranjit ularly volatile region since World War II witnessing numerous wars and much conflict, both within countries and between countries. The year 1979 was a watershed year for West Asia because of the emergence of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The reactions of the United States, the main determinant and guarantor of West Asian security since World War II, and of the Sunni Muslim states, to these two seminal events have shaped West Asian geopolitics since then. Major hallmarks have been: first, the conscious and deliberate creation of the modern jehad by the US, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan to fight the Soviets, which in turn has fuelled region wide spread of constantly increasing Islam related extremism and militancy; secondly, progressively increasing US/Saudi hostility to Iran and Iranian counter reactions by carving out pockets of enormous influence throughout West Asia; and, thirdly, the unilateral US invasion of Iraq in 2003 and its subsequent military occupation with highly destabilising consequences particularly in Iraq but also throughout the region. The brutal suppression of unprecedented popular revolts which characterised the so-called ‘Arab Spring’ by autocratic rulers brought brazen sectarianism being indulged in both by governments and ostensible ‘rebels’ into the open; this has transformed an already unstable region into blood-soaked killing fields.

TECHNOLOGY

West Asia Imbroglio

REGIONAL BALANCE

Wikipedia

Outlook for West Asia in 2015

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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CONTENTS

The aim of ISIS is to create an Islamic state across Sunni areas of Iraq and in Syria. Its long-term objective is the establishment of a worldwide caliphate, reflected in frequent media reports by means of images of the world united under a ISIS banner.

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Territory ISIS has rapidly expanded its control over Iraq and Syria by seizing towns and cities near major supply routes, critical infrastructure and border crossings. Over the summer of 2014, the group has penetrated deeper into Syria, regaining some territory it had lost to other rebel groups and capturing several government military bases. It is still trying to consolidate its control along the border between Iraq and Syria. They have experienced some setbacks in Iraq, where American air strikes helped Iraqi and Kurdish forces reclaim the Mosul Dam and the Turkmen city of Amerli. On June 11, 2014, during the northern Iraq offensive, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant took control of the city of Tikrit which is located 140 km north-west of Baghdad and 220 km southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River. It is the administrative centre of the Saladin Governorate. Several attempts by the Iraqi Government forces to recapture Tikrit failed. On March 2, the final push to retake Tikrit started. By April 1 the remnants of IS fighters had been driven out of Tikrit. by Iraqi Government forces bolstered by Shia militias. The Iraqi forces have now set their sight on Mosul which was also captured in June 2014 by the IS jihadi groups.

Money Supply to the Islamic State Millions of dollars in oil revenue have made ISIS one of the wealthiest terror groups in history. Experts estimate the value of the output from the dozen or so oilfields and refineries under its control in Iraq and Syria at $1 million to $2 million (`6.5 to `13 crore) a day. The Islamic State is reportedly selling oil stored or produced in areas under its control at a steep discount to market prices. Truckloads are being smuggled through the border with Turkey.

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of images of the world united under a ISIS banner.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Kapoor (Retd)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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he Islamic State started   Lt General V.K. as an Al Qaeda splinter group. It was previously called the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) or the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). It has declared itself as a caliphate and claims religious authority over all Muslims across the world. It is an unrecognised state and in its self-proclaimed status it aspires to bring most of the Muslim-inhabited regions of the world under its political control beginning with territory in the Levant region which includes Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Cyprus and part of southern Turkey. It has been designated as a foreign terrorist organisation by the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia. The United Nations and Amnesty International have accused the group of grave human rights abuses. As a result of alleged economic and political discrimination against Iraqi Sunnis, ISIS has significantly gained support, in Iraq, under the leadership of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, now reportedly killed in a US air attack in Iraq. After entering the Syrian Civil War, it has established a large presence in Syria. The Central Investigation Agency (CIA) has estimated in September 2014 that in both countries it has between 20,000 and 31,500 fighters. ISIS had close links to Al Qaeda until February 2014 when, after an eight-month power struggle, Al Qaeda cut all ties with the group, reportedly for its brutality. The IS currently controls hundreds of square kilometres of territory and it ignores international borders. It has a presence from Syria’s Mediterranean coast to south of Baghdad. It rules by Sharia law. Its fighters are mostly Saddam Hussein’s military (former Iraqi soldiers) which was disbanded and were unable to serve under the new Iraq Government. The aim of ISIS is to create an Islamic state across Sunni areas of Iraq and in Syria. Its long-term objective is the establishment of a worldwide caliphate, reflected in frequent media reports by means

TECHNOLOGY

No Limits to Brutality

REGIONAL BALANCE

Wikipedia

The Islamic State – Self-styled Caliphate

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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hile the Russian econyear as a whole. Russian gold and foreign cur  Ajai Malhotra, IFS   omy was headed for a rency reserves dipped from nearly $510 billion marginal contraction in (`33,15,000 crore) at the start of 2014 to about 2015, the situation has been exacerbated by $313 billion (`20,34,500 crore) at present. the sharp decline in world crude oil prices These developments have negatively influenced the climate for since mid-2014 and the sanctions imposed new investments into Russia. Reduced confidence in the Russian by the West on Russia for its role in the Ukraine crisis. economy has led foreign companies and investors to cut back their business operations in Russia and exit the Russian market. Moody’s The Russian Economy and the Oil Price Decline downgrade of Russia’s sovereign credit rating to ‘speculative’ has From a peak of $115 (`7,475) per barrel in 2014 the price of Brent further cautioned large foreign investors to avoid Russia. It has Crude fell below $50 (`3,250) per barrel in mid-January 2015, reduced Russia’s access to international capital markets and raised before recouping a bit to $60 (`3,900) per barrel. It has again the borrowing cost for Russian companies. shown weakness since then, falling to its present $55 (`3,575) While Russia’s Central Bank raised its main interest rate in midper barrel and may well dip lower once again. This price decline December 2014 from 10.5 per cent to 17 per cent, it lowered it to 15 has had a debilitating effect on the Russian economy as oil and per cent on January 30, 2015, and to 14 per cent on March 13, 2015. gas account for nearly two-thirds of Russia’s export revenues and This lowering reflects a deliberate shift away from curbing inflation finance half its federal budget. Like other countries dependent and backing the rouble, towards restoring economic activity and for funds on oil and gas exports, Russia has been confronted with growth in Russia. major revenue shortfalls. In end-January 2015, Russia’s Economy Ministry predicted a -3 The oil price decline has contributed to a considerable weak- per cent dip in Russia’s GDP during 2015, assuming an oil price of ening of the rouble vis-à-vis the US dollar since the second half $50 (`3,250) per barrel for the year. More recently, Russia’s Central of 2014, though the rouble has risen marginally recently and is Bank has predicted GDP shrinkage of up to -4 per cent in 2015 and currently exchanging at roubles 62 to $1. Meanwhile, inflation in a smaller GDP contraction in 2016. Russia has risen from 9.1 per cent in 2013, to 11.4 per cent in 2014, Western Sanctions on Russia over Ukraine to 15 per cent in January 2015, and to 16.7 per cent in February 2015, eroding the purchasing power of Russians. The Russian stock Unilateral sanctions imposed by Western countries on Russia on market too has experienced a major drop in market capitalisation March 6, 2014, have worsened the Russian economic scenario and brought US-Russia ties to their lowest level since the Cold during 2014. Meanwhile, capital flight out of Russia reached a record $151.5 War ended. While these sanctions were an outcome of Russia’s stance billion (`9,84,750 crore) in 2014. Russian Finance Minister Anton Siluanov stated on March 2, 2015, that Russia faced a net capi- on Ukraine, US-Russia differences can be traced to Putin’s electal outflow of $30 billion (`1,95,000 crore) in the first quarter tion as President of Russia in 2012 and even further back to the of 2015 and $90-$100 billion (`5,85,000-`6,50,000 crore) for the break-up of the Soviet Union. Putin’s return ended the ‘reset’ in

BUSINESS

Reduced confidence in the Russian economy has led foreign companies and investors to cut back their business operations in Russia and exit the Russian market. Moody’s downgrade of Russia’s sovereign credit rating to ‘speculative’ has further cautioned large foreign investors to avoid Russia.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Economic Sanctions and Counter-Sanctions

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

PIB

India-Russia Relations: an Assessment

REGIONAL BALANCE

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CONTENTS

When Barack Obama entered the White House there were initial doubts in India about the future of its relationship with the new Democratic Administration. But a momentous trip to India by the Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, followed by a historic visit to India by President Obama in 2010 not only set at rest the prevailing doubts but also promised to take the strategic partnership to new heights.

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proposing India’s entry into the exclusive clubs of non-proliferation regimes and showing interests in implementing the 123 Agreement, President Obama raised new hopes in India for a fruitful and cooperative relationship between the two countries during his administration. However, the US economic downturn, lack of timely and desirable economic reforms in India and logjam in implementation of the 123 Agreement largely due to the passage of the Civil Nuclear Liability Act by the Indian Parliament and the US decision to expedite its timeline of troop withdrawal from Afghanistan held up the momentum of growing strategic partnership between India and the US. The relationship reached a plateau in the perceptions of both the Indian and American strategic analysts. And then out of the blue a cold war mentality invaded the American and Indian minds and an unprecedented diplomatic stand-off ensued over the arrest and ‘barbaric’ treatment of Indian Deputy Consul General in New York by the US Marshals in September 2013. As the United States swore upon its domestic law that apparently seeks to protect the domestic workers in various embassies and consulates, India was up in arms against American violation of immunity to consular officers under the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. Significantly, the Devyani Khobragade episode blew out of proportion only days after Indian Foreign Secretary Sujata Singh completed her successful visit to Washington to participate in the annual strategic dialogue; only weeks after the Indian Army Chief returned from a successful visit to the US to promote defence ties and close on the heels of intensive exchange of views on urban law enforcement issues between the American Metropolitan Police Chiefs and Indian Police Chiefs in a conference held in New Delhi.

INDIAN DEFENCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

Ties at All Time Low Signing of a civil nuclear cooperation agreement, expanded security ties between Indian and American military establishments, large quantity of arms trade and enhanced convergence of security interests had marked Indo-US relationship during George Bush-led Republican Administration in the US and the NDA and UPA governments led respectively by Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in India. When Barack Obama entered the White House as the next President there were initial doubts in India about the future of its relationship with the new Democratic Administration. But a momentous trip to India by the Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, followed by a historic visit to India by President Obama in 2010 not only set at rest the prevailing doubts but also promised to take the strategic partnership to new heights. Endorsing India’s bid for permanent membership in the UN Security Council,

Mahapatra  

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he Indo-US strategic part  Chintamani nership carefully nurtured since the early months of the 21st century lost all its momentum in September 2013 in the wake of the Devyani Khobragade episode. It was not until after the national elections in May 2014 and an unprecedented defeat of the Congress-led UPA Government and victory of the BJP-led NDA that India’s most important bilateral relationship took a cooperative direction. In fact, this relationship at first appeared to have reached a plateau and then nosedived in the wake of arrest and strip search of an Indian diplomat by the New York police. But the relationship not only witnessed a quick repair of the severely damaged diplomatic ties but created a set of new histories under the dynamic leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

TECHNOLOGY

Dynamic Leadership

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Momentum in India-US Strategic Partnership

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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hile India’s way to South East Asia and as a lynchpin   brigadier Vinod Anand (retd)   ‘Look East’ of its LEP no one can contest with the fact policy (LEP) that NER, in effect, becomes the gateway came into being in 1992 after unveiling to South East Asia. Relative isolation of NER due to weak connectivity new economic reforms of 1991 the aspect and development deficit has not only affected the integration of the of developing North East Region (NER) in region with rest of India but it has also negatively impacted India’s some concerted fashion was only realised in 2001. It is then that Look East policy that Prime Minister Narendra Modi after taking over the government set up the Department of Development of North in May 2014 has vowed to convert to ‘Act East Policy’. Eastern Region in September 2001 and upgraded it to a Ministry Therefore, it is necessary that firstly, the connectivity and in May 2004. The main objective of the government was to pro- development issues pertaining to NER are dealt with on fast track mote integrated economic development of the region which was basis. Secondly, own multimodal networks and communication deficient in many respects especially in infrastructure networks. links need to be extended to the borders at a number of points and Further, it was only in October 2007 that development of North- obstacles and impediments for trade and commerce need to be eastern states as being crucial to success of India’s Look East policy overcome. Thirdly, innovative inputs would be required to hone was articulated by the then Foreign Minister (and now President) up our foreign, defence and internal security and trade policies Pranab Mukherjee. In 2008 a ‘North Eastern Region Vision 2020’, a that would impart momentum to our ‘Act East Policy’. Evidently, all road map for the development of the region was formulated by the these three prongs would have to be progressed simultaneously. government which viewed the LEP as its integral part. Looking Back According to this vision document the overall goal was “to return the North Eastern Region to the position of national economic emi- At the time of partition, NER was comparatively prosperous comnence it held till a few decades ago; to so fashion the development pared with the rest of the country. Thereafter the pace of progress process that growth springs from and spreads out to the grassroots; has not kept up due to restricted access to the region and lack and to ensure that the region plays the arrow-head role it must play of attention by the Central Government. Partly, the reason for in the vanguard of the country’s Look East policy”. The major aspects the same can be ascribed to the fact that most of the North East of LEP and North East were connectivity and physical infrastructure states do not represent adequate political power at the Centre. to facilitate trade, commerce and investment protocols, and pro- Nevertheless, even after realisation by the Central Governments motion of people-to-people relations through culture, education, about the geopolitical significance of the region and its immense natural resources the path towards modernisation and developacademic and medical research linkages, etc. India’s North East Region consisting of eight states (Assam, ment has been rather slow. Many ethnic conflicts and insurgenArunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, cies and lack of governance besides lack of inclusive growth have Tripura and Sikkim) has 96 per cent of its borders as international impacted the development and integration of the region. One of the major objectives of the connectivity plans was to boundaries. Its geostrategic location as land bridge to Myanmar and beyond is well recognised. While India considers Myanmar as a gate- first link the state capitals of NER by road and air. Not only is the

BUSINESS

“India will not develop till the North East develops. We are committed to realising the potential of the North East and accelerating its progress”. —Prime Minister Narendra Modi

INDIAN DEFENCE

Momentum in the East

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PIB

North East Region and India’s Look East Policy

REGIONAL BALANCE

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CONTENTS

Afghanistan today stands at the crossroads, with poor economy, instability due to increasing terrorism and violence, political stability yet to be achieved in required measure, incomplete reconciliation, facing mammoth task of reconstruction and an imploding Pakistan as a neighbour whose military refuses to give up its policy of state-sponsored terrorism.

Political Scene In Afghanistan, President Ashraf Ghani took charge in September 2014 with Abdullah Abdullah becoming Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the government. The CEO is to function as a Prime Minister, pending a subsequent national deliberation over changing the constitution to create a formal prime ministerial post. The resolution of the election dispute paved the way for signing of formal agreements to permit the United States and NATO deployments in post-2014 international missions to train Afghan forces (Op ‘Resolute Support’ mission) and conduct counterterrorism

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operations (Op ‘Freedom Sentinel’ mission). At the moment it appears that the power-sharing arrangement has brought about some measure of paralysis in Central Government. Abdullah’s role in governance has been limited and government authority remains constrained in the power-sharing arrangement. This is also because of influence by the long-standing informal power structure consisting of regional and ethnic leaders. Faction leaders continue to maintain groups of armed fighters. Gains made in recent years are at risk as international forces depart, especially should there be a reconciliation agreement between the government and insurgent leaders. Historical factors continue to impact the conflict dynamics in Afghanistan. With parliamentary elections due in March 2015, this could yet be another watershed in continuing instability and conflict, the key question being whether the political transition will be successful in the shadow of skepticism leading to stable security situation. As for Pakistan, the Pakistan Army has governed the state directly for more than half of its history and governed indirectly from behind the scenes for the balance period, especially controlling key areas of governance such as India/US/Afghanistan specific foreign policy, nuclear policy, security/defence as well as nuclear safety issues. Due to its long stints in power, it has systematically subverted the civil institutions. The Pakistan military has penetrated every department in Pakistan, be it power, administration or finance. Ayesha Siddiqa wrote in her book Military Inc: Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy that by year 2007 the Pakistani military’s private business-corporate complex was already $20.7 billion (`1,34,550 crore) strong. This would have multiplied manifold and there is little chance that the military will let go of such power and money. Therefore, it will continue to seek sub-conventional conflict with India and Afghanistan least

BUSINESS

Katoch (Retd)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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he geostrategic loca  Lt General P.C. tion of the Af-Pak region straddling the crossroads of South Asia, the Middle East, Central Asia and China has been the focus of world attention for the shape it would take post-US-NATO withdrawal from Afghanistan in 2014. Its strategic importance has enhanced with increasing China’s strategic footprints in the region and her moves to lean on and influence the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. Being a landlocked country, Afghanistan’s future is inexorably linked to its neighbours, particularly Pakistan that has always wanted Afghanistan to remain a satellite state of Pakistan in order to use Afghan territories for her strategic depth. Afghanistan today stands at the crossroads with poor economy, instability due to increasing terrorism and violence, political stability yet to be achieved in required measure, incomplete reconciliation, facing mammoth task of reconstruction and to top this all imploding Pakistan as a neighbour whose military refuses to give up its policy of state-sponsored terrorism. With increased violence and poor economy, the Af-Pak region portends a danger of becoming pawn in the Great Game of global players.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Torn By Violence

TECHNOLOGY

Af-Pak Region Post-2014

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Department of State

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

‘Brown Water Navies’ Insofar as navies are concerned, ‘Brown Water Navies’ are those that are competent and capable of being deployed in ‘brown

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s u r p r i s i n g ly waters’, but cannot really oper  Vice Admiral Pradeep Chauhan (Retd)   persistent ate at any significant distances question that from the coast for any significant has, over the six-and-a-half-plus decades since the periods of time. The term ‘Brown Water’ is also occasionally used country’s independence, dogged the Indian media as a prefix to describe a specific segment of a nation’s military and many an Indian armchair-strategist alike is forces that is deployed either exclusively or principally within whether the Republic of India possesses a true ‘Blue Water Navy’ or riverine environments or for close-coast operations. In such a whether this is merely one more elusive chimera. The younger lay case, the platforms are often collectively known as ‘Brown Water reader could certainly be excused for wondering what this appar- Combatants’, even though they may well be only one of many coment ‘colour consciousness’ is doing lurking about like some vesti- ponents of a ‘Blue Water Navy’ — and not a ‘Brown Water’ one. gial organ amongst the political correctness of the body politic of Some ‘Brown Water Navies’ operate solely in landlocked seas, while contemporary India! Nevertheless, thanks to the reach and power others are deployed in riverine waters that may or may not provide of the print and electronic media, the term seems stuck in our stra- access to an open sea or ocean. Illustrative examples of the former tegic consciousness. would include the Kazakhstan Navy, the Azerbaijan Navy and the For the most part, three colours have been used to colloquially Turkmenistan Navy — all of which operate solely in the Caspian describe and differentiate between maritime spaces (collectively Sea. The latter case is exemplified by the Paraguayan Navy, which called ‘waters’) as a function of their distance from one’s own land is a riverine force operating in the Paraguay River and Paraná River, territory. These are ‘Brown Waters’, ‘Green Waters’ and ‘Blue and, the Lao People’s Navy, which operates on the Mekong River. A Waters’ and these are often used (albeit equally colloquially) to ‘mixed example’ is offered by the Bolivian Navy, which operates in categorise the world’s navies. Lake Titicaca, as also in the larger rivers of Bolivia. However, the term per se offers no indicator of the offensive or ‘Brown Waters’ and ‘Brown Water Navies’ defensive firepower of the navy (or segment of the navy) concerned. A very large number of ‘Brown Water’ military maritime forces — ‘Brown Waters’ whether entire ‘navies’ or segments of these — have substantial It is generally conceded that the term ‘Brown Waters’ was first pop- (i.e., ample) and substantive (i.e., meaningful) offensive and defenularised (if not coined) in the United States and generally described sive firepower (along with associated surveillance chains) in mulwaters of navigable bays, rivers and estuaries — all of which were tiple dimensions — surface, subsurface, air and cyberspace — and characterised by a source (whether coastal or riverine) of soil run- some even extend these capabilities to space-based surveillance! off from the land into the sea.

INDIAN DEFENCE

In spatial terms, ‘Blue Waters’ are generally considered to lie at distances in excess of the outer limits of the extended exclusive economic zone, i.e., at distances exceeding 350 nm from the promulgated baselines of a coastal state.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Spatial and Temporal Characteristics

‘Green Waters’ and ‘Green Water Navies’

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

‘Blue Waters’ and the Indian Navy

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

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outh Asia is the secformalise defence planning began in   brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (retd)   ond most unstable 1964. Various organisational changregion in the world and es were tried out: is closely following West Asia in the race to reach the n  Defence requirements were assessed on a five-year basis and number one spot. Among the world’s major democ- the First Defence Plan (1964-69) was drawn up. racies India faces the most complex threats and n A Planning Cell was established in 1965 in the Ministry of Defence (MoD). challenges spanning the full spectrum of conflict from nuclear to sub-conventional. The key geostrategic challenges in South n The Second Defence Plan (1969-74) was instituted on a ‘roll-on’ basis. After a year was completed, an additional year was tagged Asia emanate from the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan and on at the other end so that the armed forces would always have a the Af-Pak border; unresolved territorial disputes between India revised and updated five-year plan. This method was found to and China, and India and Pakistan; and, the almost unbridled be impractical. march of radical extremism that is sweeping across the strategic landscape. The rising tide of left-wing extremism (LWE) and the n In 1974, an Apex Group under the Union Minister for Planning suggested that a steady long-term defence effort would be more growing spectre of urban terrorism have also contributed towards cost-effective and economical than fluctuating allocations on vitiating India’s security environment. Yet, despite the prolonged account of periodic economic and security crises. exposure that the security establishment has had in dealing with multifarious challenges, India’s national security continues to be Structures for Defence Planning poorly managed. Defence planning in India has been marked by knee-jerk Most of the defence planning machinery and planning methodolreactions to emerging situations and haphazard single-Service ogy were developed in the decade 1964-74: growth. The absence of a clearly enunciated national security strat- n In order to integrate defence planning within the overall economic planning effort, defence and economic development egy, poor civil-military relations, the failure to commit funds for plans were made coterminus. modernisation on a long-term basis and suboptimal inter-service prioritisation, have handicapped defence planning. With projected n The Committee for Defence Planning (CDP) was established under the Cabinet Secretary. expenditure of $100 billion (`6,50,000 crore) on military modernisation over the next 10 years, it is now being realised that force n The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) was constituted in the Cabinet Secretariat to provide external and internal threat structures must be configured on a tri-Service, long-term basis to assessments. meet future threats and challenges. n Planning Units were also established in the Department of Early Efforts towards Defence Reforms Defence Production and Defence Research and Development The Sino-Indian conflict in 1962 had aroused a new defence Organisation (DRDO). consciousness in the country after years of neglect and efforts to n A Planning and Coordination Cell was created in the MoD to

INDIAN DEFENCE

Defence planning in India has been marked by knee-jerk reactions to emerging situations and haphazard singleService growth. The absence of a clearly enunciated national security strategy, poor civil-military relations, the failure to commit funds for modernisation on a long-term basis and suboptimal inter-service prioritisation, have handicapped defence planning.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Haphazard Defence Planning

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Army

Defence Planning in india

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY

I

t is usual to start conminerals are quite favourable but   Lt General Gautam Banerjee (Retd)   fabulations on national for the limited sources of petrosecurity with the matter chemical energy which being the of defence from external threats. In a way that is justified primary source of heat energy that drives the world, more than because external impositions emanate from quarters negate that advantage. But then, in the paradigm of human endeavoutside a nation’s control, and therefore are more exact- ours, handicaps have been frequently turned into strengths, and so ing to deal with. But then, societal discourses of the modern era could be in the case of India if the challenges are addressed with have triggered a ‘diffusion of power’ — a phenomenon which due sagacity. Indeed, the Indian state remains engaged in doing so manifests at two distinct levels. At one level, even the modest as evidenced by the initiatives undertaken in the matters of human powers have found means to wage various alternate forms of development, environment protection and population control. warfare against those global contenders who they might view as Similarly, exploration for energy security proceeds through global their adversaries. Then at the societal level, empowered crop of trade and developmental partnerships in the fields of nuclear, ideologically aligned citizenry are increasingly compelling the tra- petrochemical, natural gas and non-conventional sources. Even ditional state-institutions in their decision-making at the national if many of these initiatives are frequently restrained by the prolevel. It may therefore be interesting to start this discussion with cess of democratic adjustments, these hurdles are to be viewed the internal dimensions of India’s national security challenges as welcome ‘baffles’ of course corrections that would eventually before delving into its external version. reconcile the foresighted schemes with their pace and fallouts on Socio-political pundits have listed the constituents of national the societal sensitivities. security as: One, ‘economic security’; two, ‘social security’; and Mainly therefore the success achievable in the matter of ecothree, ‘military security’. Truly, these are considered to be the three nomic security would depend upon our ability to stand up to the arches of the same rainbow, each intertwined seamlessly with the challenges and threats as discussed below. other two to manifest in the shape of national security. But since n Demographic Management. The necessity of keeping an expanding population of young Indians meaningfully engaged diffusion of power has led to empowerment of the individual whose is a challenge of humungous proportions for the nation. As priority demand is for better economic conditions, we may discuss rising necessities of life have to be fought for, management of the challenges confronting ‘economic security’ first. economic migration from poorer regions — as well as from the Economic Security neighbourhood — to the opportune centres is one aspect of Economic standing of any state is shaped by the natural resources that challenge. Even if beneficial in many ways, these demoat its disposal — land, water, minerals and geographical situation, graphic changes would bring in its wake such societal distresses to wit. Thus having to support 19 per cent of the global population as triggered by rising competition for opportunities and faciliwithin 16 per cent of its habitable landmass and just four per cent ties and exacerbated further by cultural differences. No doubt, of potable water, India is destined to start her quest for economic the challenges of regulating the population explosion as well as security with fundamental handicaps. The resources in terms of its disposition would need deft politics of national solidarity,

BUSINESS

Socio-political pundits have listed the constituents of national security as: One, ‘economic security’; two, ‘social security’; and three, ‘military security’. Truly, these are considered to be the three arches of the same rainbow, each intertwined seamlessly with the other two to manifest in the shape of national security.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Achieveing National Security

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

PIB

INDIA’S NATIONAL SECURITY: FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGES

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Council of the Nuclear Command Authority and monitors preparedness of the country’s Strategic Forces to respond in accordance with the nuclear doctrine. In 2001, a Group of Ministers (GoM) Committee, set up after Kargil war to review the entire national security system, had observed lack of synchronisation among the departments in the Ministry of Defence (MoD): problems of inter-se relativities, multiple, duplicated and complex procedures governing the exercise of administrative and financial powers and a poor concept of ‘advice’ to the Defence Minister. The GoM also observed that the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) had serious weaknesses in its ability to provide a singlepoint military advice to the government or to resolve inter-Service doctrinal, planning, policy and operational issues. The GoM had recommended the appointment of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). This was not followed up. An Integrated Defence Staff was created in the MoD but by keeping it headless, it has not been able to deliver the desired integrated and joint paradigm. In the absence of a CDS, the existing military structures continue to be based essentially on the concept of single service management. Each service headquarters does its independent planning and management of matters relating to its own service. Their coordination in matters like military operations, intelligence, and logistics and so on has improved a little but integrated decision making required for optimum level of defence and strategic planning is still missing. In June 2011, another task force under Naresh Chandra was appointed to review India’s national security. Its report submitted in August 2012 remains ‘under examination’ of the government till date. As per media reports, the task force has pointed out absence of clarity on overall national strategic objectives, national security doctrine, and several systemic deficiencies in defence

BUSINESS

Malik (retd)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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ndia’s national security spec  General V.P. trum is much more complex today. Conventional threats as well as non-conventional or non-military threats arising out of economic backwardness, poor governance, international or intra-national terrorism, drug traffic, ­gunrunning, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, caste or communal disturbances, economic subversion or failures, largescale migrations, even environmental pollution; all these issues impinge upon the security of the nation. Defence, however, remains a dominant feature of the national security: defence of territorial integrity from external aggression, proxy wars, insurgencies or any other type of internal security threats. The highest decision making body for national security decisions in our country is the Cabinet Committee on Security Affairs (CCS). Headed by the Prime Minister, its members are ministers of Defence, External Affairs, Home and Finance. It is a follow-up and development from the Defence Committee of the Cabinet established in 1947, renamed as the Emergency Committee of the Cabinet in 1962 and later as Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs (CCPA). The Defence Committee of the Cabinet meetings were attended by the chiefs of the armed forces. But as the CCPA dealt with several other matters beside defence, the service chiefs were asked to attend only when required. We also have the National Security Council (NSC) which has an additional member with the CCS, i.e. Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission (now Neeti Aayog). The three-tiered organisation of the NSC comprises the Strategic Policy Group, the National Security Advisory Board and a Secretariat. The National Security Advisor (NSA) is the principal co-coordinator for formulation and implementation of long-term national security policies under the overall guidance of the Prime Minister. In fact, he is the long-term strategic security planner. He also heads the Executive

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

“India’s civil-military structure has become one where politicians enjoy power without any responsibility, bureaucrats wield power without any accountability, and the military assumes responsibility without any direction.” —K. Subrahmanyam

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Evolving National Security Policies

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

National Security Decision Making in India

TECHNOLOGY

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efined in politiexchanged for any goods and services   Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)   cal and social scirequired by person who is exercisence terms, power is ing this form of power. During the the ability to influence or control the behaviour industrial revolution, violence gave way to wealth, as the merchant of nations and people, and is commonly under- classes became more powerful. This can also be called soft power. stood as military power. However, power can also be associated with authority, threat of force or coercion. Traditionally Knowledge power has been measured by parameters like size of the country, its This is aptly explained by ‘Knowledge is power’ which can be used natural resources, economic power, military might, population and to acquire the other two powers of ‘violence and wealth’. Toffler calls social stability. Eminent economist and former US Ambassador to it the ‘Third Wave’ which is modern times. This also can be called India, J.K. Galbraith, said that the types of power include ‘Condign’ soft power. (punishment or retribution), ‘Compensatory,’ ‘Conditioned’ (i.e., the Evolution of Power Matrix — US Example result of persuasion by individuals), ‘Property’ (material resources) and ‘Organisational’ (boss of the the organisation). Power has other Treaty of Versailles ended the state of war between Germany interpretations like the power a jihadi wields who is willing to die along and the Allied Powers during World War I and also gave birth to with his hostages. As the jihadi is prepared to die thus has nothing to the League of Nations through the efforts of President Woodrow loose, makes him almost invincible. The power hijackers exercise over Wilson. It was the first intergovernmental organisation whose main airplane passengers can be coercion through threat of violence. Power role was to maintain world peace by preventing wars through colcan also be explained as one’s ability to affect the behaviour of others to lective security, disarmament and settling international disputes achieve own goals. There are three basic ways to do this: coercion, pay- through negotiation and arbitration. However, it failed to prevent ment and attraction. Alvin Toffler in his book Powershift: Knowledge, World War II and was replaced by the United Nations after the end Wealth and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century, describes forms of of the World War II. Thus Woodrow Wilson’s attempt to build a stable international order failed. More than two decades later his power as “violence, wealth and knowledge”. Brief elaboration is: internationalist vision was carried forward by Franklin Roosevelt who used it to fuse US and its Allies to destroy fascism. He also Violence This is the basic form, best explained by ‘might is right’ and carried ordered the atomic bombing of Japan. Harry Truman mixed pragout by military, police and now also by non-state forces. Violence matism with Wilson’s idealism for a liberal international agenda form of power was wielded by kings and rulers of earlier times and that included the creation of a global free trade system and the by some dictators (North Korea) in modern times. This can also be reconstruction of Europe and Japan. Such a policy displayed the synergised use of US power in terms of military, economic, polititermed as hard power. cal and moral. John F. Kennedy also used this policy to counter the Soviet threat by championing the cause of self-determination, Wealth Money is a more flexible form of power than violence which can be democracy and human rights. In his inaugural address, he stated

INDIAN DEFENCE

During his 2011 speech on the Middle East and North Africa, President Barack Obama called for a Smart Power strategy, incorporating development, in addition to defence and diplomacy, as the third pillar of his foreign policy doctrine.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Exercising Smart Power

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Smart Power

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section two

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Technology

73 77 81 85 89 93 97

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65 69

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One  War Without the Fog: Optimising Battlefield Transparency Two A Digital Army – Current Deficits Three Cyber Security – A National Strategic Imperative Four The Unmanned Revolution: Both Ends Burning Five Communications in 21st Century Battlefield Six Non-Lethal Weapons Seven Arming the Multi-role Fighter Aircraft Eight Naval Sensors – A Perspective Nine Submarine Sensors and Communication Systems

INDIAN DEFENCE

Contents


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etting to know the tion; the case of the Italian Dominic   Major General R.P. Bhadran (Retd)   adversary’s mind Mancini who came to England in has not only been 1483, and of some other diplomats an ever persistent quest of battlefield command- caught trying to send illegal letters during Henry VIII’s reign are ers but it has also been the central theme of all illustrative to this end. Markets were principal centres for exchange tactical planning. Therefore, understandably, the of information as well as goods and it was often a demand of inability to acquire a clear picture of the battlefield situation has marauders — by the Huns of the Romans, frequently by the Vikings always been tormenting commanders. Such desperation has found — that they should be allowed to set up markets on the borders of expression in the works of military thinkers over time, the classical settled lands. Commerce was commonly the prelude to predation. example being the statement in Prussian military analyst Carl von At the tactical level, before taking the field, a commander Clausewitz’s book On War, wherein he observed that “War is the would send out scourers or ‘scouts,’ as they are known, to watch realm of uncertainty; three quarters of the factors on which action in and report enemy movements. Right from the days of the Gallic war is based are wrapped in a fog of greater or lesser uncertainty… wars (first century BC), established terms existed for the different the state of ignorance in which commanders frequently find them- categories of reconnaissance troops: procursatores, who performed selves as regards the real strength and position, not only of their foes, close reconnaissance immediately ahead of the army; exploratores, but also of their friends.” In fact one of the primary traits of a military longer-range scouts; and speculatores, who spied deeper within genius is thought to be the ability to see through this fog and take enemy territory. The Roman army also made use of local informeffective measures to defeat the enemy’s designs. ers (indices), prisoners of war, deserters and kidnapped civilians. Reconnaissance was by hearing and sight, communication by word Medieval Period of mouth or written dispatch, speed of transmission at fastest by Commanders over a period of time devised ingenuous means that of a fleet-footed horse. What was true of Rome remained true and methods to get to know about the enemy and his strength, of the world for another 2,000 years. disposition and plans, if not exactly his mind. Alexander the Great, Modern Era presiding at the Macedonian court as a boy while his father Philip was absent on campaign, quizzed visitors from the lands he would Intelligence continued to remain, at a premium, though usually it later conquer about the size of the population, of their territory, the did not translate directly into victory or defeat. In the campaigning productiveness of the soil, the course of the routes and rivers that grounds of Europe, during the great wars of the French Revolution crossed it, the location of its towns, harbours and strong places, and Napoleonic empire (1792-1815), intelligence rarely brought the identity of the important men, etc. The young Alexander was victory solely by its own account. That was true even during the assembling what today would be called economic, regional or stra- British Peninsular War against the French in Spain and Portugal, tegic intelligence and the knowledge he accumulated served him 1808-14. The reason was, intelligence, however good, moved too well when he began his invasion of the Persian empire. Diplomats slowly to bring a real-time advantage. ‘Real-time’ intelligence — and envoys at foreign courts were also a main source of informa- where the enemy was yesterday, in which direction his columns

BUSINESS

Given today’s information processing capabilities, intelligence inputs can be collated, synthesised and interpreted faster and more objectively through automation. With this probably battlefield transparency would move a notch higher as a battle-winning factor.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Information age technology and ooda loop

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns

War without the Fog: Optimising Battlefield Transparency

REGIONAL BALANCE

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CONTENTS

Digital India Digital India is to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. It is an umbrella programme covering many departments, weaving together a large number of ideas and thoughts into a single, comprehensive vision so that each of them is seen as part of a larger goal. The programme pulls together many existing schemes that will be restructured, re-focused and implemented in a synchronised manner, many elements only undergoing process improvements with minimal cost.

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Katoch (Retd)  

Three Key Areas Vision of Digital India is centred on three key areas: one, digital infrastructure as a utility to every citizen; two, governance and services on demand, and; three, digital empowerment of citizens. The common branding of programmes as Digital India highlights their transformative impact. Nine Pillars The nine pillars of Digital India are as follows: broadband highways; universal access to phones; public Internet access programme; e-governance — reforming government through technology; eKranti — electronic delivery of services; information for all; electronics manufacturing – target net zero imports; IT for jobs, and early harvest programmes. Impact of Digital India The impact of Digital India by 2019 is ambitious and aimed at: broadband in 2.5 lakh villages; universal phone connectivity; net zero imports by 2020; 4,00,000 public Internet access points; Wi-Fi in 2.5 lakh schools, all universities; public Wi-Fi hotspots for citizens; digital inclusion — 1.7 crore trained for IT, telecom and electronics jobs; job creation: direct 1.7 crore and indirect at least 8.5 crore; e-governance and e-services across government; India to be leader in IT use in services (health, education, banking), and; digitally empowered citizens — public cloud, Internet access.

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rime Minister   Lt General P.C. Narendra Modi while, addressing the Combined Commanders Conference on October 17, 2014, stated “Beyond the immediate, we are facing a future where security challenges will be less predictable; situations will evolve and change swiftly; and, technological changes will make responses more difficult to keep pace with. The threats may be known, but the enemy may be invisible. Dominance of cyberspace will become increasingly important. Control of space may become as critical as that of land, air and sea. Full-scale wars may become rare, but force will remain an instrument of deterrence and influencing behaviour; and the durations of conflict will be shorter.” Equally importantly, he added, “We should remember that what matters is the capability of the force. When we speak of ‘Digital India,’ we would also like to see a ‘Digital Armed Force’ thus asking the defence forces to give serious thought to upgrade technological skills for effective power projection at all levels.” By mentioning the invisible enemy, the Prime Minister was obviously referring to the growing threat of terrorism and insurgency that India is facing.

INDIAN DEFENCE

We should remember that what matters is the capability of the force. When we speak of Digital India, we would also like to see a ‘Digital Armed Force’ thus asking the defence forces to give serious thought to upgrade technological skills for effective power projection at all levels. — Prime Minister Narendra Modi

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Digitisation in military terms has multiple nuances as it amounts to capacity for network-centric warfare

REGIONAL BALANCE

BEL

A Digital Army – Current Deficits

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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yber has penetrated ‘Cyber’. There are no internationally   Lt General Davinder Kumar (Retd)   deeply in our sociaccepted definitions of Air Power or ety and pervades all Sea Power till date but that has not aspects of our professional and private lives. But there restricted their development and deployment as instruments of is a total lack of awareness regarding its vulnerabil- national power. ity and security. In truth, it triggers minimal interest Cyberspace (or perhaps worse) in the majority and only partially understood by most. More worryingly, by dint of age, technological bias and As per Daniel T. Kuehl, author of From Cyberspace to Cyberpower, experience, political and military hierarchies are normally uncom- cyberspace can be defined as a “global domain, within the inforfortable with and/or suspicious of cyberspace. They recognise its mation environment, whose distinctive and unique character is importance, know they need to do something about it, but are framed by the use of electronics and electromagnetic spectrum to create, store, modify, exchange and exploit information via interunsure of what is to be done. It is paradoxical that as nations and societies transit from the dependent and interconnected networks using information comindustrial to information age, through deployment and exploita- munication technologies.” tion of information and communication technology (ICT), their vulnerability to cyber threats increases having a direct impact on Comments the national and economic security. These vulnerabilities could n Cyberspace is an operational space where humans and their organisations use the necessary technologies to create effects, result from weaknesses in technology, because of improper implewhether solely in cyberspace or in and across the other operamentation, oversight of technological products, software coding or tional domains and elements of power. It is an operational through malware planted deliberately. Consequently, cyberspace is medium through which ‘strategic Influence’ is conducted. inherently not secure. Each level of cyber — physical infrastructure, operational software, information and people — is susceptible to n The fundamental condition of cyberspace is the blending of electronics and electromagnetic energy. The electronic techsecurity breakdown, whether through attack, infiltration or accinologies that we create and employ in cyberspace are its coundent. These threats originate from the ‘cyberspace’ and their maniterparts to vehicles, ships, aircrafts, missiles and satellites that festation involves application of ‘cyber or kinetic power’. we have created to exploit other domains. Definitions n Cyberspace is used to create, store, modify, exchange and There are no formal and internationally accepted definitions of exploit information via electronic means. terms like cyberspace, cyberpower, cyberwarfare, cyber security n Networking of interdependent and interconnected networks using ICT are at the core of cyberspace capacity building that and so on. However, definitions used by the United States are being make it critical to national security and 21st century warfare used by most to comprehend these terms and their application. capabilities. This should not inhibit the capacity building and application of

BUSINESS

Each level of cyber – physical infrastructure, operational software, information and people — is susceptible to security breakdown, whether through attack, infiltration or accident

INDIAN DEFENCE

India needs to quickly build its capacity across full spectrum of cyber security

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NATO

Cyber Security – A National Strategic Imperative

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INDIAN DEFENCE

ancient civilisations. Who will do the job? Of course, a drone, duly equipped with a laser instrument (LIDAR or Light Detection and Ranging System). The machine will peep through the thick canopy of forest (nearly opaque to visual light) to locate earthworks (earthern circles, squares and lines referred to as geoglyphs) leading to some evidence of the existence of ancient civilisations. Switch gear from the serious stuff, and here you have the ‘Cupidrone’ celebrating the spirit of the Valentine. ‘Cupidrone’ is an idea of a flower retailer in Verona, Italy, wherein, small drones close on to the unsuspecting lovebirds and unleash flowers on them. Remember not do confuse the love-struck Cupidrone with another similarly worded Cupid Drone that delivers a slightly less romantic 80,000 volts of electricity through its stun gun; a deadly device being tested by the police in Austin. There may be disagreement on what to call the ‘unmanned’ machine. Drones/killer drones/unarmed aerial vehicles (UAVs)/ unarmed aircraft systems (UAS)/spy planes/remotely piloted vehicles/aircrafts RPVs/RPAS/... the fact remains that the population and utility of such vehicles is on an exponential rise (some 30,000 odd are expected over US skies by 2020). In their most basic role of keeping an eye, conventional Reaper type of drones are providing the mythical ‘Gorgon Stare’ (named after ‘terrifying the females’ in Greek mythology) over large swaths of area on a 24 x 7 basis. To take out the ‘sting’ in the traditional mindset of drones being perceived as ‘killer machines’, the manufactures are painting these machines with bright colours to make them seem friendlier.

BUSINESS

Saxena (RETD)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

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he prosecutors of the   Lt General V.K. air threat are celebrating the ‘unmanned revolution’ by fully exploiting the many a combat virtues of their ‘dull, dirty and dangerous machines’, i.e., unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs), in synergy with manned platforms to unleash air power with unprecedented range, reach, accuracy, lethality and endurance. Meanwhile the defenders are embracing many a cutting-edge technologies to detect, track and destroy the unmanned platforms through multiple kill options keeping the cents vs dollars ratio in their favour. While the above cause-effect duel is revolutionalising the air war in the combat domain, quite an another ‘unmanned revolution’ is unfolding much more rapidly in the civilian domain. So much so, that while the UAV utility options in the battlefield are essentially binary, i.e., in attack or defence, the ones in the civilian domain are virtually limitless. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of UAE and ruler of Dubai, during the World Cup of Drones (‘Drones for Good’) Competition held in Dubai in February 2015, said that the choices for use of drones in civilian world are only limited by imagination. In fact, the speed and momentum with which the use of unmanned platforms (UAVs/ drones/UAS) is growing in the civilian world, actually dwarfs their utility range in war both in multiplicity and variety. ‘Think of anything and there is drone for it’ is the future truism the world is rapidly graduating to. Since the civilian utility range set of drones is nearly bottomless, this article takes a bird’s-eye view of some of the interesting uses of unmanned platforms and technologies involved. Open sources reported last month that some British scientists are endeavouring to scan the nearly inaccessible and impregnable Amazon forests in Brazil looking for evidence of occupation by

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

UAVs started as a concept for military use and due to their versatility have spilled into roles for homeland security, border/coastal management, civilian and commercial exploitation

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

‘Think of anything and there is a drone for it’ is the future truism the world is rapidly graduating to

Drones in the Agricultural Domain

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Your imagination can run as wild as it can, there will be a machine for you at the limits of your fancy. Starting with conventional jobs like surveying large fields of crops both for a routine look-see, as

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Elbit Systems

The Unmanned Revolution: Both Ends Burning

TECHNOLOGY

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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i s t o r i c a l ly, entire nation, its exclusive econom  Lt General Davinder Kumar (Retd)   ‘ Technology’ ic zone and maritime interests, air, has either been space and cyberspace. It encomshaping the battlefield or assisting in its transpasses and involves all organs of governance and demands formation. Effective communications on the application of comprehensive national power. battlefield have always been an integral part n The warfare is characterised by long range, very lethal and precision strikes, carried out remotely and in the full glare of conflict and fighting a decisive battle. Today, due to ubiquitous of media. spread of information and communication technology (ICT) and media in almost all facets of life, there are widespread transforma- n With battlefield transparency greater than 90 per cent, emphasis would be on mobility, deception, camouflage and tions taking place in the social, economic, cultural and security concealment. linkages leading to globalisation, resultant economic interdependence and a new security paradigm. These transformations are n It will encompass full spectrum of warfare in all dimensions (land, air, sea, space and info sphere) and at all levels (tactical, ushering an information age, redefining the concept of sovereignty, operational and strategic). governance, national and human security leading to an entirely new way of conducting business in the globalised world and n It will be waged throughout the continuum of peace-crisisconflict-return to peace. Some intelligence and disruptive elewarfare in digital battlefield encompassing both the physical and ments would get involved much earlier than the actual conflict virtual digital domains. and stay much longer after cessation of hostilities. Technology and information are the new currency in this information age. Consequently, nations across the world are n It demands organisation transformation, a unified command, especially skilled workforce and very aware leadership. busy developing viable capabilities to gain and retain technology sovereignty through capacity building in the fields of battlefield n Increased velocity of warfare that would require very quick decision making and distinctive capabilities in the managetransparency, precision long-range weapons, unmanned platment, analysis and dissemination of information through verforms, navigation, information warfare, command and control satile communication networks. systems robotics, communication networks and so on. Emphasis is on complete synergy through an enabling policy framework, n It will operate at the physical and cognitive levels concurrently where the minds and hearts of the population will be targeted organisation transformation; situational awareness, integration, specifically as part of perception management. interoperability, development of requisite skill sets and leadership n It is likely to be offence dominant with enhanced exploitation of through concerted training. asymmetry and is redefining national sovereignty. This environment has impacted the warfare of 21st century in n It would require a powerful Command, Control, the following manner: n The battlefield has enlarged disproportionately to cover the Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and

BUSINESS

In this enlarged battlefield of 21st century, communications will have to be fully integrated, engineered, operated and maintained to meet the operational requirements across full spectrum of warfare and at all levels and at all times

INDIAN DEFENCE

Technology and Information are the new currency in this Information Age

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

US Army

Communications in 21st Century Battlefield

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Definition

NLWs are difficult to define as they may not cause casualties but will cause some degree of pain and injury. The injury at times can be of a permanent nature and there have been cases where the victims have become blind or the use of a limb has been impaired. Thus NLWs can be also termed as less lethal than a lethal or conventional weapon. The fact remains that the NLWs are designed to minimise the accidental, incidental or cumulative risk on a victim but the risk cannot be totally ruled out. Police forces around the world are required to use less lethal weapons domestically for control of riot,

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Technologies Involved Various technologies based on the release of chemicals, light rays, generation of electromagnetic signals, sound waves, non-lethal ammunition (like rubber bullets, wax bullets, plastic bullets, beanbag rounds, kinetic and tear-gas projectiles), water cannons, Malodorants (a chemical compound whose extreme stench causes people to leave the area) and psychoactive drugs (like BZ, LSD, Kolokol-1, EA-3167, etc. which cause disorientation). Directed energy weapons are weapons that emit energy in one

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here are situations prisoners, accused, criminals, crowd   Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)   where it is necessary and refugees. Self-defence could be to use minimum force another eventuality where the use of with no casualties. Such situations are many and lethal weapons is not warranted. It is even more difficult to define varied. They can depend upon the geopolitical and quantify the psychological effects of NLW. Can torture which environment, varying from country to country. The does not kill or harm the victim physically be called NLW? The use of force by military or police forces will also depend upon the United States used many forms of torture in Abu Ghraib prison international law or the law of the land. Some examples are border in Iraq and Guantánamo Bay which included sexual degradation; management, urban warfare, peacekeeping operations, control of forced drugging; religious persecution; water dunking; deprivation a mob or non-state forces, guarding of embassies by military, riots, of sleep, food and toilet facilities. The victims did not die but some own and other country’s civil population and so on. Such situa- of them developed permanent psychological fissures. Can such tions have been faced by a large number of countries including methods be termed NLW? It is universally difficult to clarify as it will the United States. In the early 1990s, United States got involved all depend on the perception of the originator. in non-state warfare and peacekeeping operations in places like Desired Capabilities of NLWs Haiti, Kosovo, Somalia, Iraq and Afghanistan where during urban warfare, civilians and armed combatants got mixed up, as such The United States has prepared an initial capability document there were humanitarian and political compulsions to avoid which becomes a guideline for the development of NLWs. There civilian casualties or it at least keep them to the minimum. To are separate capabilities enumerated for counter personnel and achieve this aim, United States embarked upon a Joint Non-Lethal counter material. Counter-personnel tasks capabilities could be to Weapons Programme (JNLWsP). The aim of non-lethal weapons deny access into/out of an area to individuals, disable individuals, (NLWs) is to minimise fatalities, protect the innocent and limit move individuals through an area safely and suppress individuals. collateral damage. NLWs would thus provide many options before Counter-material capabilities could be stop/disable vehicles, stop/ disable vessels, stop/disable fixed-wing aircraft on the ground, using lethal weapons in a hostile situation. divert aircraft in the air and deny access to facility.

BUSINESS

The aim of non-lethal weapons (NLWs) is to minimise fatalities, protect the innocent and limit collateral damage. NLWs would thus provide many options before using lethal weapons in a hostile situation.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Different weapon option

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Non-lethal Weapons

REGIONAL BALANCE

USTRANSCOM

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CONTENTS

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he major air forces of the world, served to spur the emergence of aircraft as key   Joseph Noronha   including the Indian Air Force war-fighting devices. Aeroplanes were initially (IAF), are equipped with aircraft used as mere unarmed visual reconnaissance of various types, roles and capabilities — combat platforms but swiftly graduated to offensive machines that could planes, transport aircraft and helicopters. Multi- be employed in a variety of specialised roles including air comrole fighter aircraft are among their most prized bat, ground strikes and maritime raids. Early military aircraft had possessions. The worth of any combat aircraft, besides its pure machine guns to shoot down their adversaries. For surface attack, performance, lies in its ability to consistently execute accurate grenades or small bombs could be dropped by hand. By the end of and lethal attacks. At the same time it must ward off surface and the War, aircraft were used to drop heavy bombs. During the uneasy airborne adversaries that might attempt to degrade or abort its peace that prevailed between the two World Wars, the advanced mission. A variety of specialised munitions are necessary to give it nations made feverish efforts to enhance the range and potency this capability. of their aerial weaponry. By the time World War II commenced in Air superiority aircraft, for instance, require advanced guided 1939, combat aircraft were fitted with a variety of specialised muniweapons, including long-range missiles for beyond visual range tions including guns and cannons with high rate of fire, unguided (BVR) engagements and short-range highly agile missiles to tackle rockets, bombs of various sizes and capabilities, and mines and enemy aircraft in close combat. For eyeball-to-eyeball confronta- torpedoes for maritime missions. Towards the closing stages of tions they need internal cannon that can fire high-velocity projec- the War a few guided weapons began to be employed. The peak of tiles at the adversary. aerial destructive power was reached when two atomic bombs were For strike aircraft, modern navigation and targeting pods enable dropped by the American bombers on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in accurate navigation and target acquisition followed by pinpoint August 1945. attacks. A well-stocked arsenal of missiles, rockets, bombs and guns The onset of the Cold War thereafter saw a series of localised and facilitates effective weapon-to-target matching. Precision-guided regional conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, the Middle East, the Persian munitions (PGMs) with various types of guidance systems are nec- Gulf and elsewhere in which air power was employed to a growing essary to achieve the desired destructive effect, depending on the extent. Guided weapons in the air-to-air, air-to-surface and surfacenature and value of the target. Maritime strike aircraft may need to-air roles proliferated. At one point the rising effectiveness of airfurther specialist weapons like anti-shipping missiles, torpedoes or to-air missiles (AAMs) even prompted manufacturers to stop fitting depth charges. guns on aircraft. However, subsequent experience in live close combat brought out that integral guns were essential for fighter aircraft. Evolution of Air Armament Aircraft on missions against surface targets soon discovered that The military potential of the air was recognised from the earliest they could not escape detection, thanks to improvements in radar days of aviation, and the outbreak of World War I in 1914 only technology. They also found that the combat zone was bristling with

INDIAN DEFENCE

As for strike aircraft, modern navigation and targeting pods enable accurate navigation and target acquisition followed by pinpoint attacks. A well-stocked arsenal of missiles, rockets, bombs and guns facilitates effective weapon-to-target matching.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Every major air force today has multi-role fighter aircraft armed with specialised munitions

REGIONAL BALANCE

Lockheed Martin

Arming the Multi-role Fighter Aircraft

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

Basic Sensors Meteorological Sensors A warship requires accurate measurement of wind speed and direction, temperature, pressure, humidity and other local environmental parameters. This is required for various tasks including flight operations, gunnery, rocket and missile firings, etc. AGIMET is one of the manufacturers for such systems. Speed Log For measurement of a ship’s transversal and longitudinal speed, single and dual axis speed logs as well as dual axis doppler logs are available. The speed logs provide ship’s speed, drift speed and angle at all times and in any depth. Raytheon Anshutz manufacture some of the popular ship’s logs. Conductivity, Temperature and Density (CTD) These are used extensively for the measurement of temperature and salinity, as also for deriving parameters of density and speed

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Kulshrestha (Retd)  

of sound. Teledyne RDI Citadel CTDs fall under this category.

The Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) It is used by warship to obtain an ocean temperature versus depth profile. It is useful for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) by warships and for anti-ship warfare by submarines. Lockheed Martin Sippican has manufactured over 5 million XBTs since the 1960s. Echo Sounder Data consisting of the immediate depth and a record of soundings are required for navigation. Kongsberg’s EN 250 is one such navigation echo sounder. Communication Systems Navies use visual, sound and electrical means for communications. Telecommunication includes in its ambit transmission, emission, signals, images, sounds and intelligence information by visual, oral, wire, radio or other electronic systems. Satellite Signal Receivers for Communication and Navigation As far as communication systems are concerned, use of satellites has become fairly extensive with deep inroads made by mobile telephony and Internet. Methods of navigation have changed throughout history. Satellite navigation using radio signals from satellites for determining position have enhanced the mariner’s ability to complete his voyage safely and expeditiously. Modern integrated systems take inputs from various ship sensors, electronically and automatically chart the position, and provide control signals required to maintain a vessel on a preset course.

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ensors ensure the   Rear Admiral Dr S. survivability of a warship at sea during peacetime as well as hostilities. Warships at sea are buzzing with inputs from a multitude of sensors. A warship’s basic sensors are those whose outputs are required for practically all operations at sea. These include meteorological sensors, conductivity, temperature and density sensors, communication sensors, ships speed sensors or logs, depth sensors or echo sounders and satellite signal receivers. Apart from these, a ship utilises radar and sonar for its peacetime and combat operations.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Sonar systems have benefited enormously with the advances in digital electronics and signal processing. Many algorithms applicable to radar systems have been adapted in sonar. Use of synthetic aperture methods in sonar has increased the quality of image and robustness of the system.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

the field of sensors for utilisation on a warship are ever expanding

REGIONAL BALANCE

Atlas Elektronik

Naval Sensors – A Perspective

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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effect any meaningful communication. Both World Wars brought to the fore technologies, which not only altered the operating profile of the platforms, but in a larger context influenced the final outcome as well. Inventions such as radar and ASDIC (anti-submarine detection investigation committee) which was the forerunner of the modern sonar (sound navigation ranging) on board surface platforms made submarines increasingly vulnerable and it was the cracking of the famous German Enigma code that finally led to blunting their edge in World War II. A lot has changed since then. The exploitation of nuclear power for military applications has altered the very paradigm of warfare and this is even more true of the maritime and in particular the undersea domain. Nuclear-powered submarines with nuclear missile arsenals capable of annihilating the world several times over came to symbolise the Cold War and their cat-and-mouse games in the depths of the world’s deepest oceans ensured that the Cold War remained ‘cold’. Since nuclear submarines could remain dived for as long as human endurance on board permitted without any requirement for refuelling, it became imperative to ensure that they be provided the means to communicate, navigate and fulfill their missions without having to surface and thus reduce their invulnerability. The last six decades have also seen tremendous advancements in the area of submarine sensors and communications with submarines becoming increasingly silent. Even conventional submarines have become not only less vulnerable to detection with technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) but also increasingly lethal with a combination of torpedoes and missiles (anti-ship as well as land attack).

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Jai Singh (Retd)  

TECHNOLOGY

S

ubmarines, by the   Commodore Anil nature of their role, operate underwater, sometimes at depths hundreds of metres below the surface. Amongst the many challenges of operating in that environment, one of the most important and perhaps most crucial to their effective deployment is to communicate either with the shore authorities, the force commander or other ships in the vicinity. Also, since a submarine is visually blind underwater, it needs to have the capability to not only navigate safely but also accomplish it missions, whether offensive or defensive. Submarines constitute the offensive cutting-edge of a nation’s maritime security construct and therefore have to be able to hit the enemy hard, hit it first and hit it where it hurts the most. Hence it is vital that the submarine is able to penetrate the enemy’s defences and deliver a vital blow, irrespective of whether the mission is offensive or defensive in the overall operational plan. Amongst the commonly used means of communication, be it light, sound or any other medium, it is only sound that can be propagated underwater. Hence the submarine is vitally dependent on optimally using sound to enhance its own capabilities while ensuring that the same medium does not assist the enemy in detecting and prosecuting it. Submarine warfare in a very rudimentary form was first used during the American war of independence in the late 18th century. However it was only in the 20th century that submarine development and its exploitation as an effective front line offensive platform truly effected a ‘Revolution in Military Affairs’ which has shaped the outcome of all major conflicts throughout the 20th century and continues to do so even today. Even though submarines played a critical role in both World Wars, the technological limitations of that period placed considerable constraints on their capabilities and made them vulnerable to detection because of their need to surface frequently to charge their batteries and to

BUSINESS

Inventions such as radar and ASDIC (anti-submarine detection investigation committee) which was the forerunner of the modern sonar (sound navigation ranging) on board surface platforms made submarines increasingly vulnerable

INDIAN DEFENCE

Sonars are the eyes and ears of a Dived submarine

Submarine Sensors Modern submarines, like any other warships, are equipped with the complete range of sensors for above water and underwater operations. Although these include both active and passive sensors, it is the latter which are more frequently used because even a single

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REGIONAL BALANCE

US Navy

Submarine Sensors and Communication Systems

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

9


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section three

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Business

105 109 115 119 123 127 137

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101

REGIONAL BALANCE

One  Army Modernisation: Resumed after a Decade of Stagnation Two Maritime Imponderables and Force Architecture Three Modernisation of the Indian Air Force Four India’s Defence Budget 2015-16 Five The Draft Offset Policy Lacks Clarity of Vision Six Review of Current Procurement Procedure Seven Strategic and Business Environment Global Contracts

INDIAN DEFENCE

Contents


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY

S

ince it was voted Adding to the Combat Power of   Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)   the Mechanised Forces to power in May While Pakistan has acquired 320 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s National Democratic Alliance (NDA) T-80 UD tanks and is on course to add Al Khalid tanks that it has Government has accorded approval to defence pro- co-developed with China to its armour fleet, vintage T-55 tanks curement projects worth `1,40,000 crore ($21.54 bil- continue in the Indian Army’s inventory despite their obsolescence. lion). After a decade of stagnation under the two UPA regimes, mili- Even though the indigenously developed Arjun MBT has not fully tary modernisation appears to be gaining momentum once again met the army’s expectations due to recurring technological probunder the new government. General Dalbir Singh Suhag, the Chief lems and cost overruns, the tank has entered serial production of Army Staff (COAS), has said, “Force modernisation incorporating to equip two regiments. Consequently, 310 T-90S MBTs had to be contemporary technologies is a key priority…. Making up of critical imported from Russia. In December 2007, a contract was signed for an additional 347 T-90 tanks to be assembled in India. Meanwhile, deficiencies of weapons and equipment is on fast track.” Earlier, it had been reported in June 2013 that “the army is final- a programme has been launched to modernise the T-72 M1 Ajeya ly cranking up its modernisation drive, with around 680 procure- MBTs that have been the mainstay of the army’s Strike Corps and ment projects worth over `2,00,000 crore ($30.77 billion) for the their armoured divisions since the 1980s. The programme seeks Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) period, to plug operational gaps to upgrade the night fighting capabilities and fire control system as well as ensure ‘capability development’ along both the western of the tank, among other modifications. Approximately 1,700 T-72 and eastern fronts.” General Bikram Singh, General Dalbir Singh’s M1s have been manufactured under licence at the Heavy Vehicle predecessor, had identified 31 of these 680 pending modernisation Factory (HVF) in Avadi, Tamil Nadu. The BMP-1 and the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicles, which projects as priority No. 1. These included assault rifles, howitzers, bullet-proof jackets, tank and artillery ammunition and missiles. A have been the mainstay of the mechanised infantry battalions for project with an outlay of approximately `10,000 crore for the induc- long, are now ageing and replacements need to be found soon. The replacement vehicles must be capable of being deployed for tion of 1,78,000 new-generation assault rifles was initiated. According to Rajat Pandit, defence editor of The Times of India, internal security duties and counter-insurgency operations in addi“17 new contracts worth `2,820 crore were signed for the Army in tion to their primary role in conventional conflict. A project to build 2011-12, the figure jumped to 29 contracts worth `7,222 crore in 2,600 Future Infantry Combat Vehicles (FICV) costing approximate2012-13. The tally stands at 17 contracts worth `11,777 crore in the ly `60,000 crore has been approved by the government. The 22- to ongoing fiscal…another 23 contracts, worth around `12,000 crore, 24-tonne FICV will be indigenously designed and manufactured. are in the pipeline… The important ones include the over `2,000- Among others, Larsen & Toubro, the Mahindras and the Tatas have crore deal for 15,000 3UBK Invar missiles for T-90S tanks and the shown interest. `1,200 crore one for two additional ’troops’ of the Israeli Heron Modernising Artillery and Air Defence Firepower spy drones….The really critical projects are still stuck in the longwinded procurement process.” These include those for the infantry: Despite the lessons learnt during the Kargil conflict of 1999, bullet-proof jackets, ballistic helmets, new-generation assault rifles where artillery firepower had undeniably paved the way for vicwith interchangeable barrels, close-quarter battle carbines and tory, modernisation of the artillery continues to lag behind. The last major acquisition of towed gun-howitzers was that of about light machine guns have all been hanging fire for several years.

BUSINESS

After a decade of stagnation under the two UPA regimes, military modernisation yet to pick up momentum

INDIAN DEFENCE

Critical Projects are still Stuck

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns

Army Modernisation: Resumed after a Decade of Stagnation

REGIONAL BALANCE

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

First, one needs to imbibe India’s maritime environment and her geostrategic location in the ocean, before deciding the most suitable strategy. The Indian Ocean is the smallest but most important of the three primary oceans used for conveyance of global trade. When compared to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, it is unique in its configuration in that it does not have free access on its sides. All access/exit points in this water body are navigational constrictions, called chokepoints. These include the Cape of Good Hope passage (not a true choke point, but a vital and sensitive transit point), Mozambique Channel, the Suez Canal, the Strait of Bab-elMandab (Gulf of Aden) and the Straits of Hormuz, Malacca, Sunda and Lombok. The other point of note in the Indian Ocean is that despite being the smallest, it assumes greater geo-economic importance than the other two. This is because in addition to the cargo destined for this ocean itself, trade from the Pacific to the Atlantic

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Non-Traditional Challenges

Another factor that impacts security in this ocean is piracy and armed robbery. For decades, the Malacca Strait used to be the hub of pirates who had made life miserable for shipping passing through that chokepoint. Then, in 2002, piracy saw a new area of concentration — the Gulf of Aden. It does not require much analysis on the navigational chart to realise the main reasons for piracy taking root in these areas. Both these are navigational constrictions! That is how choke points become passages of vulnerability because of narrowing of the navigational path, and proximity of shore from where surreptitious activity can easily be launched and supported. A new paradigm that emerged after the Achille Lauro incident of 1985 (in the Mediterranean) was maritime terrorism. But that incident in which a few Palestinian terrorists had hijacked an Italian cruise liner with tourists was seen more an exception rather than the norm. However, the two episodes of maritime terrorism in the Indian Ocean — the suicide attack on the USS Cole in Aden harbour

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India’s Geostrategic Location

TECHNOLOGY

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nation’s maritime or vice versa has no alternative but to   Vice Admiral Anup Singh (Retd)   strategy is generpass through the Indian Ocean. Also, ally thought to revolve oil and gas coming out of the Persian around the architecture, role and ‘tasking’ of its Gulf — meant for any destination in the world — has to pass navy. This is a misplaced notion. Navies are but through this ocean. Statistics of shipping traffic passing through one element of a maritime nation’s composite sea the Indian Ocean are awe-inspiring. More than 1,00,000 ships pass power, and therefore a navy constitutes only one cog in the wheel through the North Indian Ocean annually. Two-thirds of the world’s that represents maritime strategy of the nation. In war, of course, it is hydrocarbon exports, 50 per cent of bulk cargo, and half the world’s the actions of a navy that dwarf all the other elements as it is in such containers transit through this ocean. With most of this traffic going situations that a navy becomes most conspicuous in projecting the through the Gulf of Aden/Suez Canal in the West, and the Malacca intended posture of its nation through action. This component of a Strait in the East, it has no choice but to sail close to the Indian nation’s maritime strategy is termed as its maritime military strat- coast at some point in its journey. That makes India vulnerable on egy, and this article discusses the need for tweaking India’s maritime the one hand, and responsible on the other, in terms of maritime military strategy to suit the prevailing security environment in our security. Such a situation implies that India has to remain alert to maritime domain. In essence, it looks at all the incumbent challeng- the security of shipping off its peninsular and island coastlines. es and assesses the need to re-organise the navy’s force architecture.

BUSINESS

If the force vs force equation is to be maintained in a manner that conventional deterrence is effective, and more importantly, to ensure that in an unforeseen conflict, India is not found wanting, then we need a much larger strength of destroyers and frigates than at present

INDIAN DEFENCE

Incumbent Challenges

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

defense.gov

MARITIME IMPONDERABLES AND FORCE ARCHITECTURE

REGIONAL BALANCE

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

I

n the wake of a rapidly fits the bill perfectly. The 21st cen  Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd)   growing economy, India has tury belongs to aerospace power and undoubtedly emerged as a given India’s aspirations, the need for regional power and hopefully with the new enlightened a strong and comprehensive aerospace capability is inescapable.” political leadership supported by committed military and Stated in simple terms, the nation’s air force must possess the bureaucratic establishments, the nation will succeed in capability to project power effectively in the region for which it fulfilling its aspirations to emerge as a leader with credibility in the must have combat aircraft with adequate reach, lethal firepower comity of nations and in due course aspire to be a superpower. through modern stand-off/precision-guided munitions and stealth The growing status of the nation however is accompanied by characteristics. It must have strategic airlift aircraft with the capaenhanced responsibilities. As a regional power, the nation must pos- bility to move and deploy large forces by air over long distances, sess the capability of speedy and decisive military intervention to tactical transport aircraft to operate over shorter distances and safeguard her national security interests in areas that transcend our support surface forces in battle as well as a fleet of helicopters to geographical boundaries extending from the Persian Gulf to the Strait provide mobility and lethal firepower in the tactical battle area. of Malacca. As a superpower in the future, India may be called upon to Two things follow from this, one being that the nation must possess meet with commitments in distant lands outside the region wherein multi-layered air defence system to protect its offensive operations the Indian armed forces may be required to provide speedy response capability and the other that development of aerospace power must to man-made or natural calamities and provide humanitarian assis- not only cater to perceived threats but more importantly must be tance, employ military forces to restore order or to ensure peace and capability-based to respond to a wide variety of threats, existing, stability or to project national power if the situation so demands. likely to arise in the future or unforeseen. While economic strength is the main pillar of national power, Transformation of the IAF the military capability of a nation must grow in tandem to secure its economic status and provide the environment for its further The IAF is currently embarked on comprehensive capital-intensive growth. This philosophy was echoed in October 2007 by Air Chief modernisation drive that is focused on all-round development of Marshal Fali H. Major, the then Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air capability as opposed to re-equipping the force based merely on Force, on the occasion of its platinum jubilee celebrations when he perceived threats. In the words of Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne, said: “The emerging geopolitical and security scenario requires our former Chief of the Air Staff, “The IAF is currently engaged in an nation to possess comprehensive military capability, characterised unprecedented phase of modernisation and capability enhanceby flexibility and speed of response, mobility and transportability ment which can be witnessed across the capability spectrum.” The of all forms of national power, long reach, precision targeting, mini- effort by the IAF at modernisation has essentially been at transformum collateral damage and reduced visibility. Aerospace power mation from a subcontinental tactical air force to an intercontinen-

INDIAN DEFENCE

The effort by the IAF at modernisation has essentially been at transformation from a subcontinental tactical air force to an intercontinental strategic aerospace power to cope with the vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities and to fulfil national aspirations as well as to be prepared to take on the challenges of the evolving geopolitical and security scenarios

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Modernisation Process Must be visible across the capability spectrum

REGIONAL BALANCE

Embraer

Modernisation of the Indian Air Force

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


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he first full budget of the year. The improvement in GDP figures also   Laxman Kumar Behera   Modi Government presented coincides with sharp decline in international to the Parliament on February commodity prices (particularly of crude oil) 28, 2015, set aside `2,46,727 crore ($39 billion) for with helpful impact on inflation and fiscal deficit, the latter being defence, which amounts to a 7.7 per cent increase over projected to decline to 3.9 per cent of GDP in 2015-16 from 4.1 per the previous allocation. The defence allocation is, how- cent a year earlier. On India’s external fronts, there has also been sevever, exclusive of another `62,852.6 crore ($9.67 billion) provided to eral impressive improvements as witnessed in the surge in the counthe Ministry of Defence (MoD) under the heads of Defence Pensions try’s foreign exchange reserves, stability in rupee-dollar exchange (`54,500 crore) and Civil Expenditure of the Ministry of Defence rate, and a sharp narrowing of Current Account Deficit (CAD) which (MoD) (`8,852.6 crore), both of which do not form part of India’s offi- had deteriorated to a ‘worryingly high’ level not so long ago, causing cial defence budget. The new defence allocation comes in the wake panic among investors and outflow of foreign exchange. of Modi Government’s all-out push for ‘Make in India’ initiative, the The improvement in the aforementioned indicators notwith‘heart’ of which as noted by the Prime Minister himself at the Aero standing, the revenue collection of the government still remains subIndia 2015, is the defence industry. The budget also comes in the wake dued, reflecting the painful recovery process that the Indian econoof government’s acceptance and implementation of report of the 14th my is still going through. As per the estimates, Central Government’s Finance Commission which has made a number of recommenda- gross tax revenue collection is projected to grow by only six per cent to tions having a bearing on Central Government’s budget, a significant `14,49,490 crore ($223 billion) in 2015-16. More importantly, unlike portion of which is spent on defence. The commentary examines in 2014-15, a greater part of Centre’s gross tax revenue in 2015-16 defence budget 2015-16 keeping in view of these two developments would be devolved to states as part of government’s implementation in particular. The commentary however begins with a macro survey of of 14th Finance Commission report which had recommended states’ Indian economy and the Central Government’s fiscal situation, both share in divisible pool of Union taxes to increase by 10 percentage of which has a direct bearing on defence. points to 42 per cent. Consequently, the Central Government is left with proportionately lesser resources. In fact, Central Government’s State of the Economy total net tax revenue (after deducting states’ share) has gone down The defence budget 2015-16 comes in the backdrop of some visible by six per cent to `9,19,842 crore ($141.5 billion), leaving a further improvements in key indicators of Indian economy. As the Economy cascading effect on the total Central Government’s expenditure Survey 2014-15 brings out, the real gross domestic product (GDP), as (CGE) which is reduced by nearly one per cent to `17,77,477 crore expressed through the recently revised methodology for estimating ($273.5 billion) in 2015-16. The eight per cent growth in the defence national income by the Central Statistics Office (CSO), is expected to budget has to be seen in the light of this development, although there grow by 8.1-8.5 per cent in 2015-16, from 7.4 per cent in the preceding would be plenty of disappointment for the armed forces which would

INDIAN DEFENCE

“We need a vast pool of highly skilled and qualified human resources for the defence industry. Our aerospace industry alone would need about 2,00,000 people in another 10 years. We will set up special universities and skill development centres to cater to our defence industry, just as we have done in atomic energy and space… We must ensure that our tax system does not discriminate against domestic manufacture in comparison to imports.” —Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Aero India, February 18, 2015

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

‘Make in India’ Push is Particularly Focused on Defence Industry

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Army

India’s Defence Budget 2015-16

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY

C

omparatively, India for feedback. If the said draft is   Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)   is a new player in the any indication, the policy is likely convoluted world of to undergo a major change in all offsets. It was in 2005 that the Ministry of Defence key aspects, not necessarily productive. These have been discussed (MoD) issued its defence offset policy. It was more of in this article. a counter-trade arrangement, designed primarily to Objective of Defence Offsets promote exports from the public sector. The scope of the policy was enlarged in 2006 to include ‘any private defence industry manufac- Before the issuance of DOG in 2012, India’s defence offset policy turing these products or components under an industrial licence had no spelt out objective. According to DOG, the key objective is to granted for such manufacture’. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in leverage capital acquisitions to develop Indian defence industry by Indian defence industry and defence research and development fostering development of internationally competitive enterprises; augment capacity for research, design and development related was also allowed. Subsequently, the mandatory requirement of an industrial to defence products and services; and encourage development of licence for the private sector companies was removed in 2008. synergistic sectors like civil aerospace and internal security. However, the objective of the draft policy is considerably differThereafter, the policy was revised in January 2011 as a part of the revised defence procurement procedure. The current policy, called ent. It aims at the acquisition of capabilities to enable the domestic Defence Offset Guidelines (DOG), came into effect on August 1, 2012. defence industry to achieve the ultimate goal of self-reliance in As can be seen, the policy has been subjected to frequent defence equipment manufacturing and technology. To achieve reviews and revisions. Yet, it remains confused, ambiguous, com- that, it seeks to identify critical defence technologies; create manuplex and puerile. MoD’s approach to the updating of the policy has facturing capabilities for identified parts/components; set up mainlacked vision. It has been ‘one step forward with two steps back’ tenance infrastructure; and create infrastructure for skill developsyndrome — a case of ‘retrograde reforms’ — whereas reforms ment in identified areas related to defence sector manufacturing, imply initiation of changes for improvement, the term retrograde design and maintenance. As can be seen, whereas self-reliance is the stated overall aim of indicates backward movement (from better to worse). Despite the fact that India has gathered nearly nine years expe- the draft policy, stress is being laid on the identification of critical rience and signed 24 offset contracts worth $4.8 billion (`31,200 technologies, manufacturing infrastructure and skill development. crore), it is still a mystery if any offset contract has been successfully Scope and Quantum of Offsets implemented with anticipated benefits. MoD continues to keep all Currently, offset provisions are applicable to all capital acquisioffset activities concealed from public scrutiny. With the arrival of the new government, the defence offset tions cases categorised as ‘Buy (Global)’ and ‘Buy and Make (with policy has been getting a relook to align it with the mission ‘Make in Transfer of Technology or ToT)’ where the estimated cost of the India’. The Department of Defence Production (DDP) has circulated acquisition proposal is `300 crore ($46 million) or more. Offsets a draft of the proposed policy on April 30, 2015, to the environment are also applicable to Indian firms or their joint ventures under

BUSINESS

The current policy, called Defence Offset Guidelines (DOG), came into effect on August 1, 2012. As can be seen, the policy has been subjected to frequent reviews and revisions. Yet, it remains confused, ambiguous, complex and puerile. MoD’s approach to the updating of the policy has lacked vision.

INDIAN DEFENCE

REtrograde Reforms

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

US Army

The Draft Offset Policy Lacks Clarity of Vision

REGIONAL BALANCE

5


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY

T

he primary objection had climbed to close to 75 per   Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)   tive of all defence cent in 2014. procurement sysSince the inception of the tems is to provide required defence systems to the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) in 2002, India has been revisarmed forces in the specified time frame with least ing it biennially. A number of policy provisions have been reviewed expenditure of the national resources. There are to rationalise the system and streamline its functioning. However, the three distinct but overlapping stages through which an acquisition much touted reforms have been limited to the review of DPP only. process passes. One, conversion of identified capability gaps into No holistic study of all facets of the defence procurement regime has performance profile of required equipment; two, exploring the ever been undertaken. Similarly, no serious thought has been given most suitable and cost-effective option that can deliver the equip- to providing an impetus to indigenous production. ment in the stipulated time frame; and three, acquisition, induction All expert committees constituted to suggest reforms have also and support of the inducted equipment. limited themselves to minor procedural changes. They have lacked A corollary to the acquisition tasks is the need to build a courage to suggest radical overhaul of the system, fearing its rejecmodern defence industrial base to reduce dependence on foreign tion by the decision makers. In any case, most committee reports equipment and to promote defence exports. No country can be gather dust in the shelves of official apathy. In the absence of a confident of long-term national security unless it is supported by a strong will to transform, India continues to flounder in the labywell-developed, dynamic and responsive defence industry. rinths of bureaucratic indecision — the armed forces are not getting India’s defence acquisition regime has been a total failure on both the required equipment in time and the indigenous defence base is the counts. It has neither equipped the armed forces with the required also not getting built up. systems nor given a boost to the indigenous defence industry. Reportedly, Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar has sought All militaries seek to maintain a well-balanced equipment pro- an out of the box solution from the expert committee constituted file at all times — a mix of 30 per cent modern, 40 per cent matured to revise DPP. The new version is expected by July-August 2015. and 30 per cent obsolescent equipment. Disconcertingly, in our Whereas it is difficult to predict the changes that may be incorpocase, as much as 85 per cent of the equipment is outdated and rated in DPP 2015, a certain degree of crystal-gazing can be done needs to be replaced or upgraded. with reasonable accuracy. India’s defence industry is in a pitiable state. It is a matter of As regards the structures, it will be prudent not to expect any national shame that even after 65 years of independence, India dynamic changes. The bureaucracy prefers status quo and senses continues to remain wholly dependent on import of defence sys- danger in changes. It is wary of losing its stranglehold on the systems. It was in 1995 that the former President of India A.P.J. Abdul tem. Sadly, the current leadership, despite all the assertions of Kalam declared that the ratio of defence imports would be reduced overhauling the system, has shown no will and determination to from 70 to 30 per cent by 2005. It was a laudable aim but was not implement radical reforms. accompanied by necessary structural and policy changes. Thus it However, DPP is likely to see a change in the basic thrust. Presently, was doomed to fail. What to talk of reducing imports, their propor- the objective of DPP is “to ensure expeditious procurement of the

BUSINESS

A corollary to the acquisition tasks is the need to build a modern defence industrial base to reduce dependence on foreign equipment and to promote defence exports. No country can be confident of long-term national security unless it is supported by a well-developed, dynamic and responsive defence industry.

INDIAN DEFENCE

need for impetus to Indigenous Production

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Russian Helicopters

Review of current Procurement Procedure

REGIONAL BALANCE

6


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

I

ndia is located in a trouFor this purpose modernisation of    brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (retd)   bled neighbourhood with the armed forces is a sine qua non. political, economic, develIn addition capacity building of the opment and security challenges posing varied security police and paramilitary forces to meet the internal security chalconcerns. These range from expanding belligerence by lenges assumes importance. China to rising radicalism and extremism and cross borAs a Union of States, defence and security is the responsibilder terrorism from Pakistan. The latter has assumed the nature of ity of the Central Government in Delhi. The present government a proxy war for the past two-and-a-half decades. India is flanked of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) led by the Bharatiya by two nuclear-armed adversaries, China and Pakistan. China’s Janata Party (BJP) under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra growing assertiveness and strategic partnership with Pakistan Modi assumed office in May 2014. The BJP has absolute majority in complicates the external security environment. Thus preparing for the lower house the Lok Sabha, the first time a political party has a two-front war is a derived imperative for India’s security planners. achieved the same in the past three decades, when coalition parIn the domain of internal security, terrorism and left-wing extrem- ties headed governments. Thus from a weak coalition era, a strong ism (LWE) pose a grave challenge. There are other non-traditional unitary party government is expected to give a firm direction to security threats such as preparedness for disasters and pandemics management of India’s defence and national security. Key factors as the H1N1. Resource, energy and food security are other dimen- and trends in India’s strategic environment against this backdrop sions which need to be prioritised for development as well as man- are thus discussed as per succeeding paragraphs. agement of dissent within. Thus development of the country in all Strengthening Multilateral Engagement realms remains the main objective of the government. For this peaceful periphery and harmony is essential. This While there has been a change in the ruling party with the BJP replacis achieved through a variety of stratagems to include coopera- ing the Indian National Congress in the Central Government, there is tive dialogue mechanisms, intensive diplomatic engagement with a general continuity in India’s strategic policy including foreign and nations in the periphery and beyond for resource acquisition, defence. Strengthening multilateral engagement is one of the key trade and economic development. At the same time, given legacy facets of this policy. Large number of high level visits in the past nine of disputes including that of the boundary with China and proxy months after the Modi Government has come to power in New Delhi war with Pakistan conventional as well as nuclear deterrence is an indicates substantial accretions in this sphere. Leaders of three of the essential feature of India’s security strategy. While there are a series five P 5 — permanent members of the UN Security Council — have of confidence-building measures (CBMs) in place in a realist world visited India during this period. Chinese President Xi Jinping was dictated by use of power to preserve national interests, anticipation first of the top leaders to be in India in September 2014. Despite the and preclusion of war remains a pre-requisite to ensure unhin- stand-off on the line of actual control, India and China reaffirmed dered growth of economy and development. Preparation of the full commitment to security and stability in the region. China is planning spectrum of conflict from low intensity to conventional or nuclear to invest $20 billion (`1,30,000 crore) in India in the first tranche. war and cyber and information attacks thus assumes importance. This visit was followed by extension of the strategic partnership with

INDIAN DEFENCE

While there are a series of confidence-building measures in place in a realist world dictated by use of power to preserve national interests, anticipation and preclusion of war remains a pre-requisite to ensure unhindered growth of economy and development.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Modernisation of Armed Forces is a ‘Sine Qua Non’

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

strategic and business environment

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

7


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SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  137

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Embraer Defense & Security

Brazilian Air Force

REGIONAL BALANCE

Sikorsky Aircraft Corp

US Army

Lockheed Martin

Turkey

Lockheed Martin

Blackwood company (General Dynamics)

UK MoD

Romanian Air Force

Exelis

US Navy

Lockheed Martin

Helibras

Brazilian Armed Force

US and Indonesian armies

Supplier

Recipient

INDIAN DEFENCE

$3.25 billion

$143.4 million

€186.2 million

$80.6 million

$16 billion

£364 million

$91 million

€1.9 billion

Contract Value

28

13

12

8+9

upto 100

BUSINESS

KC-390 military transport aircraft

Black Hawk helicopters

F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft

M-TADS/PNVS systems for Apache

F-35 fighter jets

Support for hightech radio system

ALQ-214 electronic self-protection subsystem

50

Quantity

TECHNOLOGY

May 21, 2014

May 21, 2014

May 15, 2014

May 8, 2014

May 7, 2014

May 1, 2014

April 30, 2014

April 25, 2014

Date of Contract

(From April 2014-June 2015)

EC725 helicopters

Product/ Project

Global Contracts

2016

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

The KC-390 will represent a significant advancement in terms of technology and innovation for the Brazilian aeronautics industry.

The helicopters are being integrated into the US Army’s future combat systems with the UH-60M choppers being fitted with automated aircraft health monitoring.

Responsible for design, integration and provision of support for the installation of updated F-16 software.

The company will supply a total of eight targeting and pilotage systems and spares to the US Army and nine systems to the Indonesian Army. The systems are expected to be installed onboard the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter

Turkey has committed to buying two F-35 fighter jets as part of a delayed larger order that could see the country acquire up to 100 planes.

To provide design, engineering and logistic support for the Bowman radio system used by personnel across the Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force .

The ALQ-214 is a jamming subsystem used to protect carrier-based F/A-18s and their aircrews from advanced radio frequency threats, such as hostile radar and air defence systems.

The EC725 is a long-range tactical transport helicopter designed for tactical troop transport, combat S&R, and other support.

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

September 20, 2015

2017

July 2016

2016

Five years

November 2016

2016

Date of Delivery

CONTENTS

Business


138  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI)

B&T Switzerland

Indian Army

South Korean Army

Iraq

US Government

Raytheon

BAE

UK MoD

US Army

Northrop Grumman Corporation

US Navy

Alpha Designs

Sikorsky Aircraft

Canadian Government

Indian Army

Northrop Grumman Aerospace

US Air Force

State-run Bharat Electronics Ltd

Textron Defense Systems

Republic of Korea

Indian Army

Supplier

Recipient

www.spguidepublications.com

$31 million

$52 million

$23.43 million

$29.41 million

$5.75 million

$700 million

£72 million

$3.6 billion

$5.7 billion

$9.9 billion

$190 million

Contract Value

MEDEVEAC helicopter

Excalibur Ib projectile

Laser target designators

Hand-held thermal imagers

Submachine guns

AGM-114K/N/R Hellfire missiles

Electronicallyscanned array (AESA) radar

25 new E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft

CH-148 Cyclone maritime helicopters

Modernisation of B-2 Spirit stealth bomber aircraft

GPS-guided antiarmour weapons

Product/ Project

630

1,568

5,000

25

28

361

Quantity

August 6, 2014

August 5, 2014

August 2014

August 2014

August 2014

July 29, 2014

July 16, 2014

July 3, 2014

June 20, 2014

June 4, 2014

June 3, 2014

Date of Contract

2016

Three-year contract

mid-2015

2018

May 2024

December 31, 2016

Date of Delivery

South Korean Government to manufacture a new medical evacuation helicopter for the national army.

Excalibur makes it possible to engage targets precisely at long ranges while avoiding collateral damage.

Special Forces in the Army.

This will go to the specialised counterinsurgency force in Jammu & Kashmir called Rashtriya Rifles.

Submachine guns for the ‘Ghatak’ platoon of infantry battalions.

Iraq will use the Hellfire missiles to help improve the Iraq security forces’ capability to support current ongoing ground operations.

The three-year contract requires BAE to undertake Typhoon flight test and ground test of a prototype E-Scan radar.

The E-2D Advanced Hawkeye is the Navy's primary airborne early warning and battle management command and control platform.

The deliveries of CH-148 will be timed to coincide with the decommissioning of CH-124 Sea King helicopter.

The B-2 Spirit is a low-observable, strategic, long-range, heavy bomber designed to penetrate complex air-defence shields, attack heavily defended targets, and deploy conventional and nuclear weapons.

Textron's aircraft-dropped weapons could be used to combat fortifications, armoured vehicles and maritime threats.

Remarks

Business Global Contracts

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Saab

US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM)

INDIAN DEFENCE

$187 million

$234.7 million

$122.22 million

$47.6 million

$24,06,53,315

$296 million

£348 million

$96.2 million

$124.6 million

Contract Value

24

5

3

12

3

Quantity

BUSINESS

Carl-Gustaf recoilless anti-tank weapon

AH-6I aircraft

F-35 Lightning II support equipment

Modifications on E-2C aircraft

Block 30M RQ-4B Global Hawk air vehicles

P-8A aircraft

Patrol vessels

Advanced AntiRadiation Guided Missiles (AARGM) & Captive Air Training Missiles

Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)

Product/ Project

TECHNOLOGY

August 29, 2014

August 29, 2014

August 27, 2014

August 21, 2014

August 15, 2014

August 14, 2014

August 12, 2014

August 11, 2014

August 7, 2014

Date of Contract

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Carl-Gustaf is an 48mm reusable, shoulder-fired, multi-role recoilless rifle, designed to help troops effetively engage enemy rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) and machine gun attacks from ranges of 900m and beyond.

The contract is basically entitled Boeing to secure long lead items necessary for the production as well as delivery of 24 AH-6I aircraft, along with initial spares package and ground support equipment.

The procurement of support equipment for the F-35 aircraft such as sensor covers, tool sets, vacuum clamp sets, and heat gun assemblies.

This delivery order includes hardware and software modifications required for compatibility with the French E-2C aircraft.

Block 30M RQ-4B Global Hawk air vehicles, each containing an Enhanced Integrated Sensor Suite and an Airborne Signals Intelligence Payload (ASIP), plus two additional ASIP sensors as retrofit kits.

This contract for the procurement of long-lead items for the manufacture and delivery of 12 Lot II Full Rate Production P-8A aircraft for the US Navy (8) and the Government of Australia (4).

BAE Systems to build three large patrol vessels for the Royal Navy.

AARGM is a supersonic, air-launched tactical missile system, upgrading legacy AGM-88 HARM systems for destruction of Enemy AD missions.

THAAD launchers, peculiar support equipment, THAAD fire control and communication spares, and launcher spares.

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Next five years

December 31, 2016

November 2016

December 2018

June 30, 2017

April 2018

2018

August 7, 2017

Date of Delivery

CONTENTS

Business

REGIONAL BALANCE

Boeing Company, Mesa, Arizona

US Army

Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., San Diego, California

US Government

Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co.

Boeing Co., Seattle, Washington

Government of Australia & US Navy

US Government

BAE

UK Government

Northrop Grumman Systems Corp.

ATK, Arlington, Virginia

Italian Air Force & US Navy

Government of France

Lockheed Martin Corporation Missiles and Fire Control

Supplier

US Government

Recipient

Global Contracts


140  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

Northrop Grumman Corp

BAE Systems

Saab

US Department of Defense

US and Australian navies

Brazilian Ministry of Defense

Boeing Co

Lockheed Martin Corp

US Department of Defense

US Department of Defense

Raytheon Company

US Navy and UK Royal Navy

Rockwell Collins

Northrop Grumman Corporation

US Air Force

US Department of Defense

Supplier

Recipient

www.spguidepublications.com

$30,75,12,722

$10,10,69,955

$5.4 billion

$50 million

$20,72,91,682

$24,66,13,000

$251 million

$354 million

Contract Value

Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) tail-kits

AN/ARC-210 electronic protection radio equipment

Gripen NextGeneration (NG) fighter aircraft

Nulka active missile decoy systems

Ground/Air TaskOriented Radar

Low Rate Initial Production Lot VII F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter aircraft

Tomahawk Block IV tactical cruise missiles

RQ-4 Global Hawk

Product/ Project

1160 radios plus others

36

4

3

Quantity

October 30, 2014

October 28, 2014

October 28, 2014

October 23, 2014

October 23, 2014

September 30, 2014

September 26, 2014

September 15, 2014

Date of Contract

October 2016

September 2015

2019 to 2024

October 2017

July 2019

2015

Late 2016 and in 2017

Date of Delivery

JDAM-equipped bombs are guided by an integrated inertial guidance system coupled to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, giving them a published range of up to 15 nautical miles (28 km).

The contract for the procurement of AN/ ARC-210 electronic protection radio equipment in support of domestic and foreign military sales (FMS) aircraft.

The contract covers development and production of 36 Gripen NG fighters, including 28 single-seat and eight twoseat jets, as well as related systems and equipment.

Integrating a hovering rocket, autonomous system and electronic technologies, the Nulka rocket propelled active-decoy system offers effective all-weather defence capability for warships to direct anti-ship missiles away from their intended target.

G/ATOR is being developed and fielded in three blocks and will be employed by the Marine Air Ground Task Force across the range of military operations.

This contract is to develop, test, and certify two Drag Chute Systems for the Low Rate Initial Production Lot VII F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter aircraft.

The Tomahawk Block IV missile includes a two-way satellite data link that enables a strike controller to flex the missile in-flight to preprogrammed alternate targets or redirect to an alternate or more time critical target.

Global Hawk operates multiple sensors simultaneously to gather intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) data.

Remarks

Business Global Contracts

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Harris Corporation

Lend Lease

General Dynamics Land SystemsCanada (GDLS-C)

Boeing Co

Boeing Defence Australia

Harris

Canadian Department of National Defence

Australian Army

Canadian Army

US Department of Defense

Australian Defence Force

Canadian Armed Forces

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REGIONAL BALANCE

INDIAN DEFENCE

$159.4 million

$524.7 million

$19,47,75,798

$254 million

$54.8 million

21

66

37

65

Quantity

BUSINESS

Falcon III tactical radios

To train helicopter pilots

EA-18G airborne electronic attack kits

Surveillance suite for light-armoured vehicle III (LAV III) fleet

CH-47 F facilities construction

Harris Falcon III tactical radios

Eight MH-60 Sea Hawk helicopters and 29 MH-60R helicopters

41 UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters and 24 HH-60M medical evacuation helicopters

UH72A Lakota helicopters with ARC 231 radios

Product/ Project

TECHNOLOGY

November 20, 2014

November 19, 2014

November 19, 2014

November 18, 2014

November 18, 2014

November 17, 2014

November 17, 2014

November 17, 2014

November 6, 2014

Date of Contract

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

The radio systems will provide Canadian forces with greater situational awareness and enable end-to-end solutions.

This contract will introduce a modern helicopter training system that will support the next-generation of army and navy aircrew.

The contract will be procurement of 21 Lot 38 full rate production EA-18G airborne electronic attack kits.

The system will be equipped with a 10m retractable mast and operator control station, as well as a surveillance suite, which includes radar, thermal / day and image intensification sights, laser range finder and a GPS mounted on a stabilised platform.

This project will contribute to the modernisation of the Australian Defence Force’s primary medium-lift helicopter capability.

The radio systems will provide Canadian forces with greater situational awareness and enable end-to-end solutions.

Under there contracts Sikorsky is to 37 MH-60 Sea Hawk variants to the US Navy.

Under there contracts Sikorsky is to deliver 65 H-60 Black Hawk helicopters to the US Army.

The UH-72 Lakota is a twin-engine helicopter with a four-bladed main rotor, and is a militarised version of the EC145 rotorcraft.

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Next four years

Next 25 years

December 2016

December 2016

2017

2015

December 31, 2015

June 30, 2015

June 30, 2016

Date of Delivery

CONTENTS

Business

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

$53,53,36,328

Sikorsky Aircraft Corp

US Navy

$180 million

$77,19,57,753

Sikorsky Aircraft Corp

US Army

$7,13,58,549

Airbus Defence and Space

US Department of Defense

Contract Value

Supplier

Recipient

Global Contracts


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section four

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Indian Defence 161 169 193 223 253 263 285 309

  Homeland Security One Two Three Four

India’s Homeland Security India's Internal Security Environment India’s Coastal Security The Maoist Insurgency – No End in Sight Who’s Who in the Indian Home Ministry

319 333 351 355 360

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Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who’s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence Research & Development

REGIONAL BALANCE

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

INDIAN DEFENCE

Contents


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

S

Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the trengthening our mili  BRIGADIER VINOD ANAND (RETD)   setting up of Headquarters Integrated tary capabilities and interDefence Staff (HQ IDS). nal security efforts are intricately linked with our broader political and economic objectives. If India has to survive as a modern and Key GoM Recommendations progressive nation that wishes to achieve its long- After considering the report of the task force on the management of cherished goal of strategic autonomy, defence and security reforms defence, the GoM made the following key recommendations: have to be ushered in at a faster pace than hitherto before. n Integration of the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 of Defence (MoD). under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC), when it became n Creation of the posts of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and Vice clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three services Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS). and that the time had come for ‘jointmanship’. Working under the n Setting up of IDS to support the CDS. COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence n Establishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). Planning Staff (DGDPS), the DPS had under it directorates cover- n Organising an Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC). ing policy and plans, international and regional security affairs, n Creation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated n Establishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the n Setting up of an Indian National Defence University (INDU). Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries n A number of other long-term recommendations on aspects as Joint Staff. concerning air space and maritime management, budgetThe IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging ary reforms including performance budgeting, private sector of the Military Wing, which was established at the time of indeparticipation in defence production, improvement in service pendence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a conditions, media handling and cost-effectiveness. number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After All the recommendations, except the one on the appointment the Kargil War in 1999, the report of the Kargil Review Committee of the CDS, were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security (KRC), headed by K. Subrahmanyam, was examined by a Group of (CCS) on May 11, 2001. The decision about appointing a CDS was Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties. forces to review the national security system: n Management of Defence Structure of Integrated Defence Staff n Internal Security n Border Management The CDS The responsibilities of the CDS, who would be the permanent n Intelligence Systems and Apparatus The task force on the management of defence, headed by Arun Chairman of the COSC, were as follows: Singh, recommended among other things, the appointment of a n Provide single-point military advice to the Indian Government.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the Military Wing of the Cabinet Secretariat with the DPS.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Working Towards Integration and Jointness

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

Integrated Defence Staff

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1


CONTENTS

In a milieu of degenerating institutions the Indian Army remains the last bastion that inspires confidence. As a result Indian Army’s role has gone far beyond national defence to also substantially address nation building.

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1,60,000 square km and the exclusive economic zone to more than two million square km. India is, thus, a maritime as well as a continental entity.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

The Regional Security Environment A secure, stable, peaceful and prosperous neighbourhood is central to India’s economic prosperity and security. India continues to pursue active and collaborative engagements with her neighbours with a view to promoting mutual understanding and regional peace and stability. India has maintained that a strong and prosperous Pakistan is in the best interest of India and has supported dialogue and engagement with Pakistan. However, security concerns vis-à-vis Pakistan remain a cause of concern due to the continuing activities of terrorist organisations functioning on its territory and territories under its control. The existence of terrorist camps across the India-Pak border and the line of control (LoC) and recurrent infiltrations and terrorist attacks across the LoC continue to demonstrate Pakistan’s attitude and approach to terrorist organisations, even though such organisations pose a danger to Pakistan’s own social and political fabric. These attacks and Pakistan’s insistence in talking to Hurriyat leaders had vitiated the peace talks that were expected after the election of the new government in India. The Narendra Modi Government had cancelled Foreign Secretarylevel talks in August 2014 after the Pakistan High Commissioner Abdul Basit had met Kashmiri separatist leaders ahead of meeting, ignoring calls by the Indian Government not to go ahead with it. However, after the BJP entered into an alliance with the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), after the state elections in Jammu and Kashmir, it was agreed that every stakeholder “irrespective of their ideological views and predilections” will be taken on board. The alliance for agenda of the PDP-BJP said: “Coalition government will facilitate and help initiate a sustained and meaningful dialogue with all internal stakeholders, which will include all political groups irrespective of their ideological views and predilections.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

T

he Indian Army has to constantly prepare itself for multifaceted diverse challenges. The Indian Army is the largest standing volunteer army in the world. Its apolitical stance is at variance with armies of most of its neighbours in the subcontinent that has witnessed these armies often imposing their will on their people by eliminating legitimate democratic dispensations. India’s land mass covers an area of 3.3 million square kilometres and is strategically located in continental Asia and in the Indian Ocean. Land borders extending more than 15,500 kilometres and a coastline totalling over 7,500 km make India a continental or maritime neighbour of 11 countries of Asia. India’s maritime boundaries overlook three major shipping lanes. It is a home to over a billion people with varying ethnic, linguistic, religious and cultural background. The topography of India is diverse, ranging from the snowclad Himalayas with peaks over 28,000 feet in the north to deserts, and vast fertile plains in the west; high ranges and dense tropical forests in the east and maritime borders in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. To the south, there are ranges close to the sea, inland plateaus interspersed with river valleys, coastal plains, and far-flung island territories such as the Lakshadweep to the west and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the east. India is not only centrally located in South Asia, but also abuts West Asia and South East Asia. India’s location at the base of continental Asia and at the top of Indian Ocean provides it vantage point with respect to both Central Asia and the Indian Ocean region. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located 1,300 km away from the nearest point on our East Coast assume strategic predominance with respect to the entrance to the Strait of Malacca through which more than 60,000 shipping vessels transit every year. In the Arabian Sea, the Lakshadweep and Minicoy islands situated on the sea lines of communication running eastwards from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are 450 km away from the nearest point on the West Coast. The island territories along with a long coastline extend India’s territorial waters to more than

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

National Defence and Nation Building

TECHNOLOGY

The Indian Army

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


CONTENTS SP’s: There is a perceptible shift in the security dynamics in the global and subcontinental context. How do you assess the changes? How is the Indian Army prepared to cater for the operational and logistic imperatives? COAS: The Indian Army is mandated to safeguard national interests from external aggression and internal subversion. Our borders have become increasingly active over the years. These vast borders passing through some of the most rugged terrains in the world, with large areas being disputed, pose complex external security challenges. Regional instability as being witnessed in the Af-Pak region has direct bearing on our security situation. On our Northern front the capability gap remains a cause for concern. Our internal security challenges are also intricately linked to our external threats. In addition, terrorism and the involvement of non-state actors with state sponsorship has brought about a fundamental shift in the conduct of war-fighting. They remain one of the biggest threats to an emerging India.

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SP’s: China’s economic rise and its steadfast military modernisation has some cogent lessons for India. What are the areas of thrust for infrastructure developments in the East to prepare ourselves for the future? How far have we progressed in this sphere? COAS: The Indian Army is prepared to take on any challenges to national security. Towards this end, infrastructure development along the line of actual control (LAC) is being progressed in a comprehensive and holistic manner. Based on development and logistic requirement, roads and railway lines are being developed along the borders to improve connectivity to few areas by way of a systematically evolved plan. The infrastructure being created in addition to the development of road and strategic railway networks also includes permanent defences, habitat, development of logistic infrastructure, military aviation bases and other infrastructure in permanent

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

The IA is fully aware of the emerging security scenario. Our capability enhancement efforts are focused towards preparing the IA to effectively meet the contemporary and future challenges. With changed dynamics and enhanced focus along Northern borders, limited development logistics resources are optimised by dual tasking and regular practice during various exercises, thereby addressing both contingencies concurrently. Furthermore, ‘Mobilisation Plan Units’ are planned to be raised in the event of general mobilisation to facilitate induction and subsequently support formations during their conduct of ops. Approximately `9,243.64 crore was sanctioned for infrastructure development in Eastern theatre in the year 2010. Similar case for ‘Infrastructure development along Northern Borders’ is under consideration with the government. In order to overcome the operational logistic challenges of storage of ammunition in border areas, a proposal for construction of ‘UG/Tunnelled Storage of Ammunition’ is under progress. Moreover, to enhance FOL storage in high-altitude area regions devoid of natural cover, projects for creating underground tankages at nominated locations is being progressed which would enhance logistic sustenance manifold.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES  Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): It has been more than six months that you took command of the Indian Army (IA). Our Army has been performing exceedingly well in all fields — be it managing the counter-insurgency environment in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and North East, providing succour to citizens in times of natural calamities or excelling in sports and games for the country. While it reflects the organisational strength and focused training of the Army, it also showcases the vision and higher directions being disseminated down to lower levels. May we know, Sir, what is your vision for the Army? Chief of the Army Staff (COAS): Yes, it has been almost six months now since I took over. Firstly, I must tell you that I am committed to ensure that Indian Army is synonymous with professionalism. We lay tremendous focus on individual and organisational commitment, which definitely is the bedrock of our organisation. My vision is to ensure capability enhancement and operational effectiveness of the Army to meet all contemporary and emerging challenges.

INDIAN DEFENCE

General Dalbir Singh, Chief of the Army Staff, gave a holistic view of issues related to Indian Army during an interview conducted by SP Guide Publications team. Excerpts as follows.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Indian Army is synonymous with professionalism

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Army

Interview Chief of the Army Staff


Equipment Catalogue Indian Army

Road range Armament and Ammunition

: 3 : 46.5 tonne : 3.37 m : 2.23 m : V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multifuel diesel engine, developing 840 hp : 550 km

: Main: 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional ammunition. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 43.5 tonne Height (turret roof ) : 2,190mm

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T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 43,000 kg Height : 2.26 m Armament : Main: 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2,800 rounds) Main gun ammunition : 43 rounds x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH Engine : V-2-55/V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp Speed : 50 kmph (max) Range : 500 km Armour : 140mm Arjun Characteristics Crew : 4 Cbt weight : 58.5 tonne Overall length : 10.638 m (with gun forward) Overall height : 3.03 m (with AD gun mount) Overall width : 3.864 m Ground pressure : 0.85 kg/cm² Armament : Main: 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA: 1 x

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CONTENTS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Note: Other improvements include explosive reactive armour, integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS.

INDIAN DEFENCE

T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Width, over tracks Height, over turret Roof Engine

: Up rated V46-6 engine; a 12 cylinder 4 stroke, V 60 turbocharged, watercooled, multi-fuel, direct injection engine developing 1,000 hp at 2,000 rpm. Power to weight ratio : 22.98 hp/t Max speed (on road) : 60 kmph Max speed (Cross country) : 35 to 45 kmph Gradient Ability : 60° Vertical obstacle : 850mm Trench crossing : 2.6 to 2.8 m Shallow fording : 1.2 m Armament: Main : 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG AD: 1 x 12.7mm MG Elevation/depression : 16° to -6˚ Traverse : 360° Max range : 3 km Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min Ammunition loading : Auto Ammunition stowage : 44 projectiles/charges

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

MBTs

Engine

REGIONAL BALANCE

INSAS 5.56mm Assault Rifle Characteristics Calibre (mm) : 5.56 Muzzle velocity (m/s) : 900 Length of rifle (mm) without bayonet : 960 With bayonet : 1110 Weight of rifle without magazine & bayonet : 4.15 Effective range (m) : 400 Range for grenade (m) Multi-mode : 200 M 36 : 150 Magazine capacity (rounds) : 20 Cyclic rate (rounds/min) : 600 to 650 Trigger pull : 2.10 to 4.00 Recoil energy (joules) : 4.43 Rifling : 6 grooves R.H 1 in 200mm. Sight : Fore sight : Post Type Rear sight : Aperture type Type of fire : Single, 3 Round Burst

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

indian defence


indian defence 12.7mm MG Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm MG Main gun ammunition : 39 rounds (HESH/ FSAPDS) Main gun rate of fire : 6-8 rounds/minute Fire control : Director type & Electro-hydraulic system & gun control Night vision : Thermal imaging Ballistic computer : Digital Engine : MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled diesel developing 1,400 hp at 2,500 rpm Transmission : 4 Fwd+ 2 rev, Torque converter, Mech. Lockup clutch & hydrodynamic retarder Steering : Double radii, Mechanical steering with neutral turn Suspension : Hydro-gas Fuel : Renk transmission DHPP (A) Track : Diehl L-German Max speed : Road: 70 kmph Cross country: 40 kmph Shallow fording : 1.4 m Vertical obstacle : 0.914 m Trench crossing : 2.43 m Gradient : 35° Arjun Mk II These tanks will have substantially upgraded capabilities of firepower, mobility and protection. The Mk II variant is supposed to have nearly 89 improved features over the previous version, including more than 15 major technology upgrades. The development of Arjun Mark II has commenced and limited technical trials incorporating the improvements have been carried out. The project has been delayed and production is likely to take another few years. Firing anti-tank missile from the tank has not proved successful and is a major reason for delay. Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs) / Recce Vehs

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BMP-1/2 Characteristics Crew : Weight : Length : Width : Height : Armament :

BMP1 3+8 BMP2 3+7 BMP1 12,500 kg BMP2 14,300 kg BMP1 6.74 m BMP2 6.735 m BMP1 2.94 m, BMP2 3.15 m BMP1 2.18 m, BMP2 2.45 m Main gun BMP1: 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP2: 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds) Coaxial (Both): 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1,000 rounds) ATGW : BMP1: AT-3 BMP2: AT-5 Engine : V-16 in line water-cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp Speed : BMP1: Land : 65 kmph Water : 7 kmph BMP2: Land : 65 kmph

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Equipment Catalogue: Indian Army

Water : 7 kmph Range : 550-600 km (both) Armour : 20mm BRDM-2 Characteristics Crew Weight Armament

: 4 : 7,000 kg : 6 x AT-3 [ATGM]1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG coaxial (2,000 rounds) Engine : GAZ-41 V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3,400 rpm Speed : Land : 100 kmph Water : 10 kmph Range : 750 km Armour : 14mm Artillery 130mm M-46 Med Gun Characteristics Crew : 8 Calibre : 130mm Weight (travelling position) : 8,450 kg Elevation/depression : +45° to 2.5° Traverse : 50° (total) Projectile weight : 33.4 kg MV : 930 m/sec Range : 27 km (full charge) 19.1 km (reduced charge) Rate of fire : 5-6 rounds/min 155mm FH-77B How Contractor: Bofors AB, Sweden Characteristics Crew : 6 Calibre : 155mm Weight : 11,500 kg Elevation/depression : +50° to -3° Traverse : 60° (total) MV : 935 m/sec Range : 24 km (HE 77B) 30 km (HE ER) Rate of fire : 6 rounds/min 155mm, M777, Ultra-lightweight Field Howitzer Characteristics Crew : 7 (can be reduced to 5) Calibre : 39 Weight : 3,175 kg MV : 827 m/sec (charges-super) Range : 24.7 km 30 km (rocket assisted) Rate of fire : up to 5 rpm (intense) 2 rpm (sustained)

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130mm M-46 SP Gun (Catapult) The Catapult is the 130mm M-46 towed gun mounted

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS In its EEZ, the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country’s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes, over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value, moves through the medium of the sea, to and from 13 major ports, and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has islands on both seaboards. To the east, more than 1,040 kilometres from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, stretching 720 kilometres from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 kilometres from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north, Myanmar (Coco Islands) lies only 35 kilometres away. To the west, about 240 kilometres from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. Other maritime interests include offshore oil and gas production sites on both the West and the East Coasts, fishing and its regulation, the ocean mining site of 75,000 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean Basin, and interests in Antarctica. India’s merchant marine is close to 10.5 million tonnes gross register tonnage (GRT), comprising over 1,150 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India’s current oil consumption which was 3.1 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2010 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl/d by 2025. Domestic production was 0.75 million barrels per day and is projected to increase marginally. This will mean a substantial increase in oil imports, touching 80 per cent of total consumption. Most of this will come by the sea route. Any stoppages or even interruptions will inevitably have a crippling effect on the economy.

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

H

istorically, the roles of navies worldwide can be said to comprise the military, constabulary, diplomatic and benign. The military role encompasses deterrence against war or intervention; obtaining a decisive military victory in case war does take place; security of India’s territorial integrity, citizens and offshore assets from seaborne threat (these could be from non-state actors also); influencing affairs on land; safeguarding India’s mercantile marine and maritime trade; and safeguarding India’s national interests and maritime security. The constabulary role, shared in part with the Coast Guard, includes all aspects of coastal defence, exclusive economic zone (EEZ) security and maintaining good order at sea. The diplomatic role encompasses strengthening political relations and goodwill; strengthening defence relations with friendly states; portraying a credible defence posture and capability; strengthening maritime security in the Indian Ocean region; and promoting regional and global stability. The benign role encompasses promoting civil safety and security, and projecting national soft power. The Indian Navy’s responsibilities encompass all the roles described above. The Indian Navy is responsible for safeguarding of a wide spectrum of the country’s maritime interests, comprising a coastline of 7,516.6 kilometres and an EEZ of over 2.3 million square kilometres, which is expected to increase to over 3.2 million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf for which India’s claim is pending resolution at the UN Commission on the Law of the Seas.

INDIAN DEFENCE

As India advances technologically, the Indian Navy is conscious of the need for greater focus on modernisation of electronic and cyberwarfare capabilities, satellite communication systems and establishing the architecture for network-centric operations, including an effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capability for ensuring effective maritime domain awareness in its primary area for interest.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

In recent years, the Indian Navy has undergone extensive modernisation and expansion with an intention to increase its capabilities as a recognised blue water Navy

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

The Indian Navy

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES SP’s: As the ‘Net Security Provider’ of the nation what significant role can the Indian Navy play in the dynamics of the maritime domain of the region? CNS: Considering the unique nature of the maritime environment, wherein there are vast common spaces of the oceans that link even distant lands as maritime neighbours, the various challenges and

security threats at sea can also flow rapidly from one maritime area to another. Accordingly, there is substantial scope for improving the maritime security environment for common benefit, through cooperation among maritime forces. Strengthening of peace, security and stability in the ‘global commons’ and in our maritime neighbourhood is in our national interest. Towards this, as a part of naval diplomacy, the Indian Navy has been strengthening its relations with friendly maritime forces, including measures for enhancing mutual understanding, cooperation, and interoperability. The Indian Navy has remained engaged with friendly island nations and littoral states in the Indian Ocean region (IOR), in a number of ways, primarily through deployments for exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surveillance, anti-piracy patrols, coordinated International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) patrols, hydrographic surveys, capacity building initiatives, naval training engagements, technical assistance, bilateral exercises and port calls of ships, including transfer of naval hardware in a few cases. Of these, training initiatives have been the cornerstone of our interaction with friendly navies. Further, the Indian Navy has institutionalised joint exercises with leading navies including US, UK, Russia, France and Japan, and would be commencing a series with Australia from this year. We also regularly exercise with regional navies such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand, Oman, Myanmar and Indonesia, and conduct a biennial trilateral exercise with Brazil and South Africa. The biennial MILAN series of interactions has also progressively expanded from five navies in 1995 to 17 navies in 2014, and have proved to be valuable in fostering professional interactions and mutual understanding. Regional cooperative mechanisms have been strengthened by the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS), initiated by the Indian Navy in 2008. It has 35 members, and has gathered

BUSINESS

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): The Indian Ocean has emerged as prime focus of attention owing to its growing geopolitical and geostrategic significance. What does the changing strategic environment in the region behove for India? Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS): India enjoys a unique geostrategic position in the Indian Ocean, with a pre-eminent peninsular thrust that shapes maritime routes across the region. We have a natural reach in all directions, which is extended significantly by our island territories in the Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Island groups. India is, accordingly, affected by the maritime flow of commerce and the presence of other maritime forces in the region. Our dependence on the seas for national growth and prosperity has also been increasing, as have our maritime interests and the areas of those maritime interests. We have been part of the growing economic and strategic relations between countries in the Indian and Pacific Oceans over the past two decades, with our ‘Look East’ and now ‘Act East’ policy. We have close links and shared interests with the coastal states in the Pacific Ocean spanning historic and cultural aspects, trade, economic investments, energy security, security of international shipping lanes extending across the two oceans, and the need for a positive, stable and secure maritime environment that is conducive to overall growth and prosperity. I am of the considered view that the 21st century will be the ‘Century of the Seas’ for India.

INDIAN DEFENCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

Admiral Rabinder Kumar Dhowan, Chief of the Naval Staff, gave a holistic view of issues related to Indian Navy during an interview conducted by SP Guide Publications team. Excerpts as follows.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

with respect to the strategic platforms, we already have plans in place for developing requisite infrastructure, as per our operational requirements

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

Interview Chief of the Naval Staff


Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy

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CONTENTS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM/8773) Indian Designation : Sindhughosh Class Total No. in Service : 10 Names : Sindhughosh, Sindhudhwaj, Sindhuraj, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindhukesari, Sindhukirti, Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak, Sindhushastra Displacement (tonnes) : 2,300 surfaced; 3,100 dived Dimensions, (metres) : 73.0 x 10.0 x 6.6 Propulsion : 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels; 2 generators; 1 motor 1 shaft; 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors; 1 economic speed motor Speed (knots) : 17 Range (miles) : 6,000 at 7 kt snorting; 400 at 3 kt dived Complement : 68 (7 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 Kt; TEST 71 ME anti-submarine; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg. Total of 18 weapons. Wire-guided torpedo on two tubes. Other Weapons : Mines 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes, some submarines carry shoulder held SA-N-10 Igla SAM launcher placed in fin for use on surface. Countermeasures : ESM; squid head radar warning, Porpoise (Indigenous) Weapon Control : Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS Radars : Navigation; Snoop Tray; MRP-25; I-Band Sonars : MGK–400 and MGK 400 E, hull mounted, active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. MG-519; hull mounted active search; high frequency. Being replaced by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL, Bengaluru, fitted as five EKM and, in a progressive manner on submarines. Programmes : The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Shishumar Class Type/HDW Type 209/1500 Indian Designation : Shishumar Class Total No. in Service : 4 Names : Shishumar, Shankush, Shalki, Shankul Specifications: Displacement (tonnes) : Full Load 1,700 Dived 1,850 Dimensions length overall (metres) : 65 Beam : 8 Propulsion : Diesel Electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L diesels; 4 Siemens alternators; 1 Siemens motor; 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 22 Range (miles) : 8,000 Snorting at 8 knots 13,000 Surfaced at 10 knots Complement : 36 (8 officers) Torpedoes : 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes. S/m carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire-guided active/passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots; 12 km at 35 knots; warhead 250 kg. Mines : External strap-on type for 24 Mines Countermeasures : Decoys; C303 acoustic decoys; ESM Argo Phenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry, radar warning, ESM-DR 3000 Weapon Control : Singer Librascope MKI, CCS 90-1/ISUS Radars : Surface Search, Thomson-CSF Calypso; I-Band, KH 1007/2007 Sonars : Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active/passive search and attack; Thomson Sintra DUUV-5; passive ranging and intercept, CSU 90-14 Programme : HDW concluded an agreement with Indian Navy on December 11, 1981. The first two submarines were built in West Germany and commissioned in 1986. The next two were built at the MDL, Mumbai, with supply of material package from HDW and commissioned in 1992 and 1994 respectively. The submarines form the 10th Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. Midlife refit-cum-modernisation of the class has been undertaken

in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Submarines

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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Operational

has since been supplied to Algeria, Poland, Romania, Iran and China. : First four form the Eleventh Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remaining six comprise the Twelfth Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. The submarines have progressively undergone midlife modernisation refits commencing 1997, which includes installation of the Klub cruise missile and the associated Lama fire control system, new sonars, electronic warfare systems, machinery control systems and an automated information and control system for the weapon package. Sindhuvir was the first to go through this refit at Severodvinsk from 1997-99, followed by Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari at Admiralty Shipyard, St Petersburg, from 1999-2001. Sindhuratna, Sindhughosh, Sindhuvijay and Sindhurakshak have been refitted at Severodvinsk from 2001-03, 200205, 2005-07 and 2010-12 respectively. Sindhukirti has recently completed extensive refit to the same standard at HSL, Visakhapatnam. The last two submarines are expected to be refitted at Visakhapatnam. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missiles, the surface version of this Indo-Russian 290-km-range supersonic missile.

Scorpene Class (Project 75) Displacement (tonnes) : 1,668 dived Dimensions (feet/metres) : 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels; 1 Jeumont (metres) Schneider motor; 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 20 dived, 12 surfaced Range (miles) : 550 at 5 kt dived, 6,500 at 8 kt surfaced Diving Depth : More than 300 m (984 ft) Complement : 31 (6 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes Countermeasures : ESM Weapons Control : UDS International SUBTICS Radars : Navigation; Sagem; I-Band Sonars : Hull mounted passive and attack–medium frequency Programme : Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN, France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by 2016 and thereafter one boat every year, to complete delivery by 2021. Design con-

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Equipment Catalogue: Indian Navy

sideration provides special attention to stealth features with the hull forms, the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 anti-ship missile, the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare; intelligence gathering and special operations. Arihant Class (SSBN) Dimensions : Length – 112 m (367 ft), Beam – 15 m (49 ft), Draft – 10 m (33 ft) Displacement (tonnes) : 6,000 Propulsion : PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe); one turbine (1,11,000 hp/83 MW); one shaft; one 7-bladed, high-skew propeller (estimated) Range : Unlimited except by food supplies Speed : 12-15 knots surface, 24 knots dived Test Depth : 300 m (980 ft) (estimated) Complement : 95 Sensors and Processing Systems : BEL USHUS Integrated Sonar; Indigenous Sonar and tactical weapons control system with active, passive, ranging, surveillance and intercept sonars and underwater communication system. Armament : 6 x 533mm torpedoes, 12 x K-15 Sagarika SLBM (Range 750 km, 8 MIRV each) or 4 x K-4 Shaurya SLBM (range up to 3,500 km) Launched : July 26, 2009 Status : Undergoing sea trials Programme : Arihant’s reactor turned critical in midAugust 2013 and the extensive sea trials phase is currently on. Arihant is expected to be commissioned by end 2015. The second submarine of the class, reportedly named INS Aridhaman has been launched. Two more submarines of this class are expected to follow. Chakra (SSN) Indian Designation : Chakra Class Name : Chakra Displacement (tonnes) : 8,140 surfaced Dimensions (metres) : 113.3 x 13.6 x 9.7 Main machinery : 1 OK 650B/OK 650M nuclear PWR; 190 MW; one OK-7 steam turbine; 43,000 hp(m); 2 OK 300 retractable electric propulsors for low speed and quiet manoeuvring; 750 hp(m) (552 kW); 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 28-35 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 90 (23 officers) Missiles : SLCM/SSM: Klub S 3S 54E (anti-ship)/3S

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

Early History The IAF was formally established on October 8, 1932, the date on which the first batch of officers was commissioned. On April 1, 1933, ‘A’ Flight of No. 1 Squadron was raised at Drigh Road, Karachi, now in Pakistan, with six officers, 19 airmen and four Westland Wapiti IIA aircraft. The fledgling IAF saw action for the first time in 1937 during operations in the North West Frontier Province. By June 1938, the Squadron was built up to full strength with three flights of three aircraft each, 16 officers and 662 airmen. During World War II, in response to the Japanese pre-emptive strikes on Pearl Harbour and Malaya, No. 1 Squadron with 12 Westland Lysander aircraft was moved to Burma in February 1, 1942. However, when Rangoon fell to the Japanese in April 1942, the Squadron was relocated at Risalpur and converted to Hawker Hurricane IIB fighters. The IAF expanded rapidly growing to nine squadrons by the end of 1944. Redeployed in Burma, the IAF played a major role in the Arakan offensive which began in December 1944. In March 1945, recognition of their outstanding performance came by way of the prefix ‘Royal’. The IAF was then known as the Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF). In 1946, the RIAF squadrons began to convert to the Hawker Tempest II, which has been called ‘the IAF’s first true fighter bomber’.

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The first RIAF transport unit, No. 12 Squadron, was also formed with Douglas C-47 Dakotas. When India attained independence on August 15, 1947, some RIAF units were transferred to Pakistan. The RIAF, therefore, shrank to Nos. 3, 4, 7, 8 and 10 Squadrons equipped with Tempests, No. 2 Squadron with Spitfires and No. 12 Squadron with Dakotas. Post-independence, on October 27, 1947, the IAF undertook an emergency task with Dakotas to airlift Indian forces into Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to thwart attempts by Pakistani-sponsored invaders to wrest control of the valley from India. Tempests and Spitfires joined the action, successfully halting their advance. The operations in J&K ended on December 31, 1948, under a United Nationssponsored ceasefire. On January 26, 1950, India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the ‘Royal’ prefix. The 1950s also witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process began in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire, the first combat jet of the IAF. This was followed by the induction of the Ouragan (Toofani), Mystere, Canberra, Hunter and Gnat entered service, all in the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) resulted in the IAF acquiring three MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963, which paved the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards, the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation, which also influenced the evolution of the aerospace industry in India. The Indo-Pak conflict of 1965 witnessed the IAF aggressively using the redoubtable Gnat, demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict, scoring a number of kills in the air. In the decade of the 1980s, the IAF played a key role during the operations in Sri Lanka involving the Indian Peace Keeping Force and the military intervention in the Maldives, effectively demonstrating its strategic reach by way of airlift capability for out-of-area operations.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

T

he Indian Air Force (IAF), the fourth largest in the world today, is the primary instrument available to the nation for the projection of air power. While in peacetime, the IAF is responsible for security and integrity of the national air space, it plays a central and critical role in war providing swift and decisive response. The potential of air power to influence the outcome of a military conflict has been amply demonstrated in the post-World War II era in several international conflicts including the wars in the Middle East and Afghanistan. In the Indian context as well, in recent time, the IAF played a critical role in the conflict with Pakistan in Kargil in 1999.

BUSINESS

Over the years the Indian Air Force has grown from a tactical to a strategic force, capable of protecting national security interests that extend from the Gulf to the Strait of Malacca

INDIAN DEFENCE

Aiming for a strategic Reach

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Indian Air Force

REGIONAL BALANCE

Dassault Aviation

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s: As the head of the fourth largest air force in the world, what is your vision for the organisation as also your major area of focus in its march towards a glorious future? CAS: IAF vision envisages a multi-spectrum strategic force capable of addressing the challenges of the future by inducting stateof-the-art equipment and upgradation of its existing infrastructure, systems and platforms. The IAF is committed in undertaking any challenge that poses threat to our National Security and provide multiple options to the National leadership in any contingency, both in war and in peace. The IAF will continue to be exclusive by its profession but totally inclusive in the service to the people of India. SP’s: India is now an acknowledged nuclear power and the IAF will have a major role to play should the nuclear threshold be ever crossed. To what extent is the IAF prepared to shoulder this responsibility? CAS: The IAF would always shoulder responsibilities entrusted to it to safeguard our national interests. We are fully prepared. SP’s: What are the components of the modernisation plan that the IAF has embarked on and what has been the overall progress so far? CAS: Modernisation of the IAF has been progressed as per the capability building road map laid out in the Long-Term Perspective Plan (LTPP). The IAF has embarked on a path to modernisation which is aimed at a capability-based build-up. The IAF plans to induct the light combat aircraft (LCA) Tejas Mk I, medium multi-

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES SP’s: In your view, is the IAF adequately prepared to effectively cope with the challenges that it may be called upon to confront? CAS: Yes, we are adequately prepared to take on all challenges. Our efforts towards modernisation of equipment and effective training would not only prepare us to deal with challenges across the wide spectrum of armed conflict, but also fortify us in responding effectively in aid of civil power while conducting disaster relief and

counter-insurgency operations and when dealing with other subconventional threats.

BUSINESS

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): What in your perception are the major security challenges that the nation is facing today and is likely to face in the future, both in the near and long term? Chief of the Air Staff (CAS): The major security challenges to our nation will continue to stem from the ever-changing nature of war and the fast emerging geopolitical uncertainties in our neighbourhood. In an increasingly globalised world, these would encompass the war on radical groups, control of resources and religious extremism borne out of economic, demographic and societal tensions that are transnational in nature. Specifically for us, the vacuum emerging post-US withdrawal from Afghanistan as well as the increasing forays in the contested areas along the LAC – all constitute real and live concerns. Events like the 26/11 have highlighted the spectre of terrorist attacks in our urban areas, where restrained application of air power to minimise collateral damage needs to be factored in. Similarly in other hostage/hijack scenarios, our resources may need to be deployed at short notice. Therefore, on our part, we are equipping and training ourselves to tackle the myriad situations across the spectrum of conflict. More importantly, we would need to maintain an agile and adaptive mindset in handling such contingencies. The increasing use of space and cyber space has added a new dimension to the spectrum of conflict, which would constitute the long term threats to National Security.

INDIAN DEFENCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha, Chief of the Air Staff and also the Chairman, Chiefs of the Staff Committee (COSC), gave a holistic view of issues related to Indian Air Force during an interview conducted by SP Guide Publications team. Excerpts as follows.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The IAF is presently at a critical stage of its capability building with many schemes at different stages of procurement

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Interview Chief of the Air Staff


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: 390 km : 6,500 m/min : + 7/–1.5

Note 1: While the ‘FL’ version of MiG-21 was finally retired from service in December 2013, a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following: •  Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which, in combination with the active homing RVV-AE, beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a ‘fire-and-forget’ capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer, the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft’s overall air-to-surface capability. •  The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales; monolith ring laser gyro-based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. •  The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian-made liquid crystal multi-function display and a head-up display. •  Additional avionics include a HAL-made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and Tarang, RWR equipment. •  An Israeli video recording system has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the ‘Bison’ by the Indian Air Force. Note 2: About 70 M/MF versions of the aircraft to be phased out in 2014-15. But the 120+ upgraded MiG-21Bis/Bison aircraft are to remain in service till 2025. Mikoyan MiG-27M NATO reporting name Country of origin Type Number in Service

: Flogger-J : USSR : Single-seat variable geometry strike fighter. : 90. Planned to be retired from service by 2017

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: Mach 2.23 : Mach 1.1

TECHNOLOGY

: 8,750 kg : 10,500 kg

BUSINESS

Mikoyan MiG-21MF/Bis/Bison/M/MF NATO reporting names : Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) Country of origin : USSR. Manufactured under licence In India by the HAL Type : Single-seat multi-role fighter Number in Service : All variants 200. Construction Wings : Delta plan form with a 2° anhedral and 57° sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage : Circular section all metal semi tail unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics, and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type, mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant : One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9,400 lb dry and 14,000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2,750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis & Bison are powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15,000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit : K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment : ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass, IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament : One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23/2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally & up to 2,500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2*1,000 lb, RVV-AE, R-73/R-60 AAMs, S-24 and UB80/UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wingspan : 7.15 m Length : 16.10 m, including pilot boom Height : 4.5 m Wing area : 23.45 m²

Weights Take-off (combat) Max take-off Performance Max speed Above 10,000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb G Limits

INDIAN DEFENCE

Air Defence and Strike Fighters

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Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Construction Wings

: Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16°, 45° and 72°. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers/lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage : Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions. Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Cockpit : KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet-proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23mm calibre shells. Power Plant : One Tumansky R-29 17,500 lb/st dry 25, 35 lb/st reheat t­ urbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6,700 litres. Avionics and Systems : KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone, VHF/UHF, IFF equipment. Doppler nav/attack system and radar altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Duck nose houses Laser ranging/targeting equipment. Doppler nav/attack system with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav/attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception/broadband ECM equipment and Flare/chaff dispensers. Armament : One GSh-23/6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5,000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal, Beluga, FAB 500/750, FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L/T ASMs are also available. Dimensions Wingspan : 16°: 14.30 m; 72°: 8.21 m Length overall : 18.15 m Height overall : 5.55 m Wing area : 27.45 m2 Weights Empty : 8,200 kg Clean : 15,780 kg Max take-off : 20,250 kg Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 1.9 At sea level : Mach 1.3

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Equipment Catalogue: Indian Air Force

Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Turn rate G Limits

: 600 km : Max 20 deg/sec; sustained 14 deg/sec : Normal +7.5/-1.5; Ultimate +10/-3

Note: About 50 MiG-27 aircraft have been given midlife upgrade at the HAL Nasik Division. Mikoyan MiG-29A/B NATO reporting name Country of origin Type Number in Service Construction Wings

Fuselage

Tail Unit

Power Plant

Cockpit

Avionics

: Fulcrum : USSR : Single-seat air superiority fighter : 54 : Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42°, with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. : Semi-monocoque all-metal structure, sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. : Twin vertical fins swept back at 40°, and canted outward at 7°, with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tailplanes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tailplanes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15 per cent of construction is believed to be of carbon-boron composite materials. : Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11,250 lb dry and 18,500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising/lowering of nose-wheel on take-off/ landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4,000 litres with a provision for a single 750-litre drop tank to be carried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. : K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a twopiece blister design. : NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO ‘Slot Back’) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100-km detection and 70-km track range with full look up/down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up/down shoot down IRST on nose on star-board side. Navattack computers, HUD, helmet-mounted sights operable up to 40° off the axis. Advanced 360° passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF/UHF communication systems. AoA indicator, radar altimeter, 3-axis auto stabilisation system, auto pilot, deception jammer in wing root.

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The Indian Coast Guard plans cater to a twofold increase in force levels by the year 2027. The various types of units envisaged for induction include offshore patrol vessels, pollution control vessels, fast patrol vessels, interceptor boats and shallow water craft. In addition, aircraft such as multi-mission maritime aircraft, coastal surveillance aircraft and twin-engine heavy and light helicopters, are also envisaged in these plans.

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BUSINESS

lution response in the maritime zones of India. The Director General of the Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) preparedness meeting. n Coordinating authority for maritime search and rescue in the Indian Search and Rescue Region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board. n The Director General Indian Coast Guard is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) and regular meetings are conducted at the national level to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage, terrorist attacks, hijacking of platforms, drill ships, jack up rig, blowouts, fire hazards, etc. n The authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. n Nominated as the Lead Intelligence Agency (LIA) for the country’s coastal/seaborders for the purpose of generating, coordinating and sharing intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) measuring 2.01 million square kilometres. It is entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of a peninsular nation that harbours 12 major ports and 187 minor ports. Some of the significant achievements of the Indian Coast Guard in pursuit of its vast charter of duties can be seen at Appendix A.

INDIAN DEFENCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

Duties and Functions The Coast Guard Act of 1978 specifies the duties and functions of the service, mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks: n Safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals, installations and devices. n Protection and assistance to fishermen at sea in distress. n Preservation and protection of marine environment. n Prevention and control of marine pollution. n Assistance to Customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. n Enforcement of maritime laws in force. n Safety of life and property at sea. n Measures for collection of scientific data as may be prescribed. n Other duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India. The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard:

n Coordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pol-

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

T

he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18, 1978, predominantly to undertake the peacetime tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India, with a view to protect maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence, primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has a military function during a war scenario when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates seconded from the Indian Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs.

TECHNOLOGY

Ensuring the Security of Maritime Zones

Organisation

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The Coast Guard Headquarters is located at New Delhi. The field functions are executed by a Coast Guard Commander, Western Seaboard situated in Mumbai and by the five Regional Headquarters

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ICG

Indian Coast Guard

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


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Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard Surface Platforms Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Samar Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 1,604, Deep 1,800 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 102 x 11.5 x 3.4 m Armament : 76/62 SRGM with Electro Optical Fire Control System (EOFCS) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight Deck : Can operate ALH & Chetak Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 4,707 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16 PA6V280) Speed (knots) : 22 Range (n miles) : 6,000 at 15 Kn Complement (crew) : 128 (including 15 officers)

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Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Sankalp Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 1,830, Deep 2,325 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 105 x 12.9 x 3.6 m Armament : 2 x 30mm CRN 91 with Stabilised Optronic Pedestal (SOP) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight Deck : Can operate ALH & Chetak Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 7,700 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 20 PA6BSTC) Speed (knots) : 23.5 Range (n miles) : 6,500 at 12 Kn Complement (crew) : 128 (including 15 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vikram Class Total No. in Service : 5 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 992, Deep 1,180 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 74 x 11.4 x 3.2 m Armament : 30mm 2A42 and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Can operate Chetak Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 4,707 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16PA6V280) Speed (knots) : 22

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Range (n miles) : 8,500 at 12 Kn Complement (crew) : 108 (including 10 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vishwast Class Total No. in Service : 3 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 1,500, Deep 1,840 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 94 x 12.2 x 3.6 m Armament : 30mm CRN91 with SOP & 2x12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Can operate ALH Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 9,000 kW each (MTU 20 V 8000 M90) Speed (knots) : 26 Range (n miles) : 4,500 at 14 Kn Complement (crew) : 108 (including 10 officers) Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) Samudra Prahari Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 3,196, Deep 3,946 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 94 x 15.5 x 4.5 m Armament : 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Can operate ALH Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 3,000 kW each (Bergen B32, 40 L6P) & 883 kW Ulstein Aquamaster bow thruster Speed (knots) : 26 (Ship is capable of cruising at 0.2 Kn speed during oil skimming mode with bow thruster) Range (n miles) : 6,000 at 14 Kn Complement (crew) : 102 (including 12 officers) Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Priyadarshini Class Total No. in Service : 6 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 165, Deep 215 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 47 x 7.5 x 2m Armament : 40/60 or 30mm 2A42 and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 1,480 kW each (MTU 12V 538 TB 82)

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CONTENTS

Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (as on September 1, 2015)

President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces............................................................................ Pranab Mukherjee Vice President.................................................................................................................................................. M. Hamid Ansari Union Government Prime Minister................................................................................................................................................. Narendra Damodardas Modi Minister of Defence......................................................................................................................................... Manohar Parrikar Minister of State for Defence.......................................................................................................................... Rao Inderjit Singh

TECHNOLOGY

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6

Department of Defence Production Secretary (Defence Production).................................................................................................................... Ashok Kumar Gupta Additional Secretary (Defence Production).................................................................................................. Surina Rajan Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems).............................................................................................................. Vacant Joint Secretary (Aerospace)............................................................................................................................ K.K. Pant Joint Secretary (Naval Systems)..................................................................................................................... Bharat Khera Joint Secretary (Personnel and Coordination)............................................................................................. Kusum Singh Joint Secretary (Defence Industrial Promotion)........................................................................................... Sanjay Garg Advisor (Cost).................................................................................................................................................. Vacant

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Defence Secretary........................................................................................................................................... G. Mohan Kumar Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare)............................................................................................................... Prabha Dayal Meena Joint Secretary (Navy & Ordnance)................................................................................................................ Rabindra Panwar Joint Secretary (Establishment & Public Grievance).................................................................................... Ashok Dongre Joint Secretary (General/Air)......................................................................................................................... Jiwesh Nandan Joint Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare)...................................................................................................... K. Damayanthi Joint Secretary (Planning and International Cooperation)......................................................................... Suresh Kumar Director General (Acquisition)...................................................................................................................... Asha Ram Sihag Financial Advisor (Acquisition) & Addtional Secretary............................................................................... Anuradha Mitra Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems).............................................................................. Subir Mallick Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems)................................................................... A.K.K. Meena Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air)................................................................................................ Rajeev Verma Technical Manager (Land Systems)............................................................................................................... Major General S.S. Hasabnis Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems) .................................................................................................. Rear Admiral I.P.S. Bali Technical Manager (Air)................................................................................................................................. AVM G. Raveendranath Finance Manager (Land System & Joint Secretary)...................................................................................... R.K. Sinha Finance Manager (Maritime & Systems) ..................................................................................................... Dhananjay Kumar Finance Manager (Air).................................................................................................................................... A.R. Sule

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

Ministry of Defence Department


indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

Pranab Mukherjee

President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces A man of unparalleled experience in governance with the rare distinction of having served at different times as Foreign, Defence, Commerce and Finance Minister, Pranab Mukherjee assumed office as the 13th President of India on July 25, 2012. After his post-graduation in history and political science, and a degree in law from the University of Calcutta, he embarked on his professional life as a college teacher and journalist. In 1969, he plunged into full-time public life following his election to the Upper House of the Parliament (Rajya Sabha). Mukherjee was elected to the Rajya Sabha five times and twice to the Lower House of the Parliament (Lok Sabha). He was a member of the Congress Working Committee, the highest policy-making body of the party, for 23 years. During the period 2004-12, Mukherjee was instru-

mental in spearheading critical decisions of the government on a range of issues such as administrative reforms, right to information, right to employment, food security, energy security, information technology and telecommunication, setting up of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), Metro Rail Corporation, etc, through chairmanship of over 95 Groups of Ministers (GoMs) constituted for the purpose. In the 1970s and 1980s, he was instrumental in setting up the Regional Rural Banks (1975) and the EXIM Bank of India as well as National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (1981-82). An eloquent orator and scholar, Mukherjee’s intellectual and political prowess as well as remarkable knowledge of international relations, financial affairs and parliamentary process are widely admired.

Narendra Modi

Prime Minister of India On October 2, 2014, Mahatma Gandhi’s Birth Anniversary, the Prime Minister launched ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ a mass movement for cleanliness across the nation. His foreign policy initiatives have realised the true potential and role of world’s largest democracy, India, on the world stage. Born on September 17, 1950, in a small town in Gujarat, he grew up in a poor but loving family ‘without a spare rupee’. The initial hardships of life not only taught the value of hard work but also exposed him to the avoidable sufferings of the common people. This inspired him from a very young age to immerse himself in service of people and the nation. In the year 2001, he became the Chief Minister of his home state Gujarat and went on to serve a record four terms as Chief Minister. He transformed Gujarat into a growth engine that makes a strong contribution to India’s development. Narendra Modi is a ‘People’s Leader’, dedicated solving their problems and improving their well-being.

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On May 26, 2014, Narendra Modi took oath as the Prime Minister of India, becoming the first ever Prime Minister to be born after India attained Independence. Dynamic, dedicated and determined, Narendra Modi reflects the aspiration and hope of over a billion Indians. Ever since he assumed office in May 2014, Prime Minister Modi has embarked on a journey of all-round and inclusive development where every Indian can realise her/his hopes and aspirations. He remains deeply inspired by the principle of ‘Antyodaya’, of serving the last person in the queue. He has launched the Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana marking a paradigm shift in ensuring that every citizen is included in the financial system of the nation. His clarion call for ‘Make in India’ complimented by a focus on making business easy has stimulated unprecedented vigour and enterprise among investors and entrepreneurs. Labour reforms and dignity of labour under the ‘Shrameva Jayate’ initiative has empowered several workers of small and medium industries, also providing a boost to our skilled youth.

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CONTENTS

indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

Manohar Parrikar

Rao Inderjit Singh

Minister of State for Defence served on various parliamentary committees. He was made Union Minister of State, External Affairs, in the period 2004-06 and Union Minister of State, Defence Production during the period 2006-09. He was re-elected to 16th Lok Sabha (4th term) in May 2014. Prime Minister Narendra Modi inducted him in his cabinet as the Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Planning; Statistics and Programme Implementation (Independent Charge); and Minister of State for Defence. He is widely travelled and takes keen interest in sports like golf, swimming, tennis and shooting. He is an expert shooter and has many medals to his credit as part of the Indian shooting team from 1990 to 2003.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES INDIAN DEFENCE

Rao Inderjit Singh, born on February 11, 1951, represents Gurgaon in Haryana and is a member of Bharatiya Janata Party. He is a prominent leader of the Yadav community. He is the son of Rao Birendra Singh, the scion of the Rewari dynasty who served as a second Chief Minister of Haryana. Rao studied at the Lawrence School, Sanawar, and the University of Delhi, where he took an LLB degree. He was an MLA in the Haryana Assembly for four terms, beginning in 1977. From 1982 to 1987 he was a Minister of State responsible for Food and Civil Supplies in Haryana Government. From 1991 to 1996 he served as Cabinet Minister for the Environment and Forest, Medical and Technical Education. He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1998, serving three terms from 1998-99, 2000-04 and 2004-09 and

TECHNOLOGY

He was instrumental in initiating various social upliftment schemes in Goa like Dayanand Samajik Suraksha Yojana, which provides financial assistance to senior citizens, the Cyberage Scheme which provides computers to students, Chief Minister Rojgar Yojana, etc. On taking over as the 36th Defence Minister of the country, Parrikar said, his predecessor Arun Jaitley has initiated work on many issues relating to defence despite several constraints and that he is confident of taking these steps forward with speed. Referring to the ‘Make in India’ drive of the government, Parrikar has said, the measure will not only lead to self-reliance in defence manufacturing but also generate employment and would ultimately contribute to economic development.

BUSINESS

Manohar Parrikar took over as the Defence Minister on November 10, 2014. Parrikar was born in Mapusa, Goa, on December 13, 1955. He studied at Loyola High School, Margao, and completed his secondary education in Marathi. He graduated from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay, in 1978 in metallurgical engineering. He was awarded by the institute with Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2001. Before being inducted into the Union Council of Ministers on November 9, 2014, he was the Chief Minister of Goa, first from 2000 to 2005 and later from March 2012 to November 2014. Parrikar is the first IIT graduate to become a Chief Minister of any Indian state. Known to be a man of action and principles, Parrikar is known as ‘Mr Clean’ in Goa.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Defence Minister

G. Mohan Kumar

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including steel, water resources, rural development, fisheries, export development and VAT administration. He was the Secretary, Defence Production, since September 1, 2014, before taking over as the Defence Secretary.

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REGIONAL BALANCE

G. Mohan Kumar took over as the new Defence Secretary, succeeding R.K. Mathur. Belonging to the 1979 batch of IAS, Odisha cadre, Mohan Kumar is a post-graduate in chemistry and an MBA from UK. He has worked in various ministries and departments

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Defence Secretary


indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Public Sector Undertakings T. Suvarna Raju

Chairman & Managing Director, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited T. Suvarna Raju is an engineering graduate with an MBA (Marketing), M.Phil in Defence Strategies Studies and post-graduate diploma in intellectual property rights laws from the National Law School of India University. He is also an alumnus of National Defence College. Raju joined the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) on June 26, 1980, as management trainee and has worked in different capacities at HAL Aircraft Division, Overhaul Division before taking over as Director Design & Development on February 1, 2012. He is a firm believer that ‘best of technology can never be bought, it can only be developed’. With this vision to transform the company into a technology powerhouse, he has been instrumental in taking various path-breaking measures to make R&D set up of HAL more competitive. He has the experience in various facets of aerospace business and is currently steering a lot of futur-

istic projects such as UAVs, FGFA, MTA, civil aircraft development programme, MMRCA, etc. He has had an illustrious career at HAL and has contributed towards success of Jaguar production and overhaul facilities establishment at HAL. He was instrumental in transfer of technology of Hawk Mk 132 aircraft. He has been a member of various studies constituted by Indian defence services, be it for life extension of existing fleets or investigations into accidents and has received commendations for his professional involvement and contributions. He is considered an authority on performance based logistics (PBL) and has pioneered the concept in the country. He is a highly professional and competent executive. The Aeronautical Society of India has conferred him with Dr. Biren Roy Trust Award for the year 2002 for his unstinted efforts in planning and establishment of new technologies at HAL.

S.K. Sharma

Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Electronics Limited S.K. Sharma took charge as Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of Navratna defence PSU Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) on January 1, 2014. He was Director (Bengaluru Complex), BEL, before his elevation. He joined BEL in 1978 after graduating from the University College of Engineering, Bengaluru. He completed his master's in business administration while in service. He has wide experience in multiple disciplines covering electronic warfare, avionics, net-

work-centric systems, radars and components, having served in various capacities at BEL's Bengaluru, Ghaziabad and Hyderabad Units. He was General Manager (Network Centric Systems) and head of BEL's Ghaziabad unit before he took charge as Director of Bengaluru complex in September 2011. S.K. Sharma is a BEL nominee Director on the Boards of BEL’s Joint Venture Companies, GE BEL Pvt Ltd and BEL Multitone Pvt Ltd.

P. Dwarakanath

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Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Earth Movers Limited P. Dwarakanath has assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) from October 10, 2012. He joined the Board of BEML on March 1, 2008, as Director (Metro and Rail Business). He is a graduate in

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mechanical engineering from the National Institute of Technology, Warangal. He joined BEML in 1978 as a management trainee and served in all business verticals of the ­company namely, rail and metro, defence and mining, and construction.

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CONTENTS

indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian public sector undertakings

Rear Admiral R.K. Shrawat (Retd)

After serving in the Indian Navy for 34 years, Rear Admiral A.K. Verma (Retd) took over as Chairman and Managing Director of the Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited, Kolkata, on November 1, 2011. He did his mechanical engineering from the National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, in 1977. After joining Indian Navy, he did his marine engineering specialisation course from Naval College of Engineering at Lonavla, Pune, and aeronau-

tical engineering course from Air Force Technical College, Bengaluru. He has held many appointments both onboard as well as ashore including Naval Headquarters, Command Headquarters at Mumbai and Kochi, Western Fleet and many operational ships and air stations. He has the unique distinction of being the only officer in the Navy to have commanded both the aircraft and the ship repair yards at Kochi. He is recipient of VSM.

Rear Admiral Shekhar Mital (Retd)

Chairman and Managing Director, Goa Shipyard Limited Rear Admiral Shekhar Mital (Retd) assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director of Goa Shipyard Ltd (GSL) on February 1, 2014. He is B.Tech, M.Tech from IIT, Kharagpur, and M.Phil in defence studies from Naval Defence College, New Delhi. The various senior positions he has held in his long and distinguished career with the Indian Navy, have provided, Rear Admiral Mital with a deep and well-rounded under-

standing of the very many facets of shipbuilding. He has worked for over 12 years at IHQ, MoD, and is well versed with MoD, shipbuilding, design and repairs procedures. Under his dynamic and professional leadership, GSL is poised for major leap ahead in design and construction of complex platforms, including weapon intensive ships. Rear Admiral Shekhar Mital is recipient of the NM for distinguished service.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Chairman and Managing Director, Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited

TECHNOLOGY

Rear Admiral A.K. Verma (Retd)

BUSINESS

for Arihant, the indigenous, strategic submarine. He served as Chief Staff Officer (Technical) at the Western Naval Command, Mumbai, and later as Admiral Superintendent, Naval Dockyard, Mumbai. Before taking premature retirement from the Indian Navy, he also served as Director General, Weapons and Electronics Systems Engineering Establishment, New Delhi. A recipient of AVSM, he was awarded the Lieutenant V.K. Jain Gold Medal for Applied Research work in 1991.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Rear Admiral R.K. Shrawat (Retd) took over as the CMD of the Mazagon Dock Limited on February 29, 2012. An electronics and communications engineer from IIT Roorkee, he also holds a post-graduate degree in radar and communication engineering from IIT, Delhi. He has undergone the Naval Higher Command course at the College of Naval Warfare, Mumbai, and is also an alumnus of the National Defence College, New Delhi. He has served as Project Director at ATV Headquarters, responsible

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Chairman and Managing Director, Mazagon Dock Limited

Rear Admiral N.K. Mishra (Retd) took over as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Hindustan Shipyard Limited on August 1, 2011. He is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla. He completed his engineering degree from INS Shivaji, Lonavla, and thereafter he specialised in electrical and a weapons engineering from INS Valsura, Jamnagar. He is M.Tech. in computer science from IIT, Mumbai. He has overseen

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refits of INS Viraat on two occasions, first in 1993 and then as a full-fledged Director, Viraat Project Team during 1997-2002. He was awarded the Nao Sena Medal for successful completion of the modernisation refit of Viraat ahead of schedule. During 2002-05, he was the Defence Attaché at Embassy of India in Rome. On promotion to Flag rank he was the Additional Director General Quality Assurance (Naval) in the DGQA, New Delhi.

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Chairman and Managing Director, Hindustan Shipyard Limited

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Rear Admiral N.K. Mishra (Retd)


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS

Participation by the Private Sector With the strategic objective of achieving self-reliance in defence production, the DDP&S has been making continuous effort to indigenise defence manufacturing wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. In May 2001, the defence industry sector which was hitherto reserved for the PSUs was opened for 100 per cent participation by the Indian private sector with foreign direct investment (FDI) limit at 26 per cent, both subject to licensing. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) has issued detailed guidelines for the licensing of the production of arms and ammunition. In July 2013, the government decided to increase FDI in the defence industry from 26 to 49 per cent. However, FDI beyond 26 per cent and up to 49 per cent will be restricted to high-end technologies and will be considered on a case-to-case basis, after clearance from the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS). A Standing Committee has been constituted in the DDP&S to process applications for industrial licence for the manufacture of armament received from the DIPP and to communicate the recommendations of the Ministry of Defence to the concerned department. It also considers all matters relating to the production of defence equipment by licensed companies, viz applications for self-certification, permission for the export of products manufactured under licence as well as cases for cancellation of licences due to violations of licensing conditions or security provisions. The

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TECHNOLOGY

The ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been on a constant drive to modernise, upgrade their capabilities and expand their range of products. They have developed a number of products indigenously and have developed capabilities in various fields through transfer of technology. Production and turnover of ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been increasing steadily to meet the increasing requirements of the armed forces. The website of the Department http://www.ddpmod.gov.in has been functional since January 1, 2013.

BUSINESS

A

s a matter of policy, ordnance factories (OF) and defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have, over the years, developed a wide vendor base which, apart from the large-scale industries, includes many small-scale enterprises. Established in November 1962, the Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S) was mandated to develop a comprehensive industrial infrastructure to achieve self-reliance in defence production. Over the years, the department has established wide ranging facilities for the production of a variety of defence equipment by ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings. Products include arms and ammunition, tanks, armoured vehicles, heavy vehicles, earth-moving equipment, combat aircraft, helicopters, warships, submarines, missiles, electronic equipment, special alloys and special purpose steel. The Department of Defence Production and Supplies has the following organisations under it: n Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) n Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) n Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) n Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) n Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) n Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) n Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) n Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSE) n Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) n Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) n Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) n Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) n Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) n Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) n Directorate of Planning and Coordination (Dte of P&C) n National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH)

INDIAN DEFENCE

With the strategic objective of achieving self-reliance in defence production, the DDP&S has been making continuous effort to indigenise defence manufacturing wherever technologically feasible and economically viable

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Department of Defence Production

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

INDIAN DEFENCE INDUSTRY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

7


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS be transferred for development of state-of-the-art weapon systems indigenously. It also advises the government to make technical assessment of international security threats and the military capabilities of both current and potential adversaries.

Organisational Structure With its headquarters at New Delhi, DRDO was headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Raksha Mantri who was also the Secretary to the Government of India and the Director General of DRDO. In September 2013, DRDO commenced implementation of the recommendation of the Rama Rao Committee that included decentralisation of the DRDO into seven technology clusters each headed by an empowered Director General (DG). At present, the DG, DRDO is assisted by seven DG (Clusters) and five Chief Controllers R&D (CCR&D). The seven DGs (Clusters) are DG Armament and Combat Engineering Systems (ACE), Pune; DG Aeronautical Systems (Aero), Bengaluru; DG Missiles and Strategic Systems (MSS), Hyderabad; DG Naval Systems & Materials (NS&M), Visakhapatnam; DG Electronics and Communication Systems (ECS), Bengaluru; DG Microelectronics, Devices & Computational Systems (MED&CoS), Delhi; and, DG Life Sciences (LS), Delhi. However during May 2015, DRDO was reorganised & the office of scientific advisor to the RM was seperated from the Secretary DRDO cum DG DRDO. In addition, DDR&D has one autonomous body viz. Aeronautical Development Agency, one joint venture viz. BrahMos Aerospace, four human resource institutions i.e. Centre for Personnel Talent Management (CEPTAM), Institute of Technology Management (ITM), Military Institute of Training (MILIT) and Recruitment and Assessment Centre (RAC), one deemed university viz. Defence Institute of Advance Technology (DIAT) and three certification agencies i.e. Centre for Military Airworthiness and Certification for airworthiness of products, Centre for Fire Explosive and Environment Safety for fire and explo-

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

T

he Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was formed on January 1, 1958, by merging the Defence Science Organisation, the units of the Technical Development Establishments of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production. DRDO was then a fledgling research establishment with just 10 laboratories. In 1980, the DRDO became a department under the Central Government and today it is one of its largest science and technology departments of the Indian Government with a network of 52 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. With a vision to empower India with cutting-edge technologies and to equip the services with internationally competitive systems, DRDO has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics, armaments, combat vehicles, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, life sciences, advanced materials, composites and naval systems. DRDO has expertise in system design, system integration, testing and evaluation and project management built over the last five decades, which has enabled it to develop indigenous capabilities in weapons and delivery systems. Today, DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design, development, integration and production. DRDO has achieved technological self-reliance in critical areas including ammunition, armoured systems, missiles, radar, avionics and electronic warfare system, sensors, nuclear biological chemical (NBC) defence, low-intensity conflict technologies and advanced computing. DRDO plays a significant role in providing scientific and technological advice to MoD in support of defence policy; as evaluator of defence equipment for the military operational requirements and generating new technological knowledge to

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) plays a significant role in providing scientific and technological advice to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in support of defence policy; as evaluator of defence equipment for the military operational requirements and generating new technological knowledge to be transferred for development of state-of-the-art weapon systems indigenously.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Achieving technological self-reliance

REGIONAL BALANCE

DRDO

DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

8


Director: S.C. Sati Post Box No. 51, Station Road Agra Cantt, Agra-282 001 Tel: 0562-2260023, 2258200 Fax: 0562-2251677

CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC) Chief Executive: P. Jayapal Ministry of Defence Defence Research and Development Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post Bengaluru-560037 Tel: 080-25230680, 28517272 Fax: 080-25230856, 25234781

AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE) Director: P. Srikumar New Thippasandra Post, Bengaluru-560 075 Tel: 080-25283404, 25057001, 25057007 Fax: 080-25283188 E-mail : director@ade.drdo.in

COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE) Director: Dr P. Sivakumar Avadi Chennai-600054 Tel: 044-26383722, 26364001 Fax: 044-26383661 E-mail: combatvehicles@cvrde.drdo.in

ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE)

DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL) Director: Upendra Kumar Singh Post Box No. 9326 C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru-560093 Tel: 080-25280692, 25058425 Fax: 080-25282011 E-mail: dirdebel@debel.drdo.in

CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR) Director: Sanjay Burman DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru-560093 Tel: 080-25342646 Fax: 080-25244298 E-mail: director@cair.drdo.in

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL) Director: Dr R.S. Pundir Post Box No. 54 Raipur Road Dehradun-248001 Uttarakhand Tel: 0135-2787224 Fax: 0135-2787290, 2787265 E-mail: director@deal.drdo.in

CENTRE FOR FIRE, EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES)

Director: Dr K.M. Rajan Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post, Pashan Pune-411021 Tel: 020-25865282, 25865116 Fax: 020-25893102 E-mail: director@arde.drdo.in

Director: Dr Chitra Rajagopal Ministry of Defence Brig. S.K. Mazumdar Marg Timarpur Delhi-110054 Tel: 011-23813239, 23907102 Fax: 011-2381 9547 E-mail: director@cfees.drdo.in

DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE)

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (DLRL)

Director: J. Manjula Post Box No 7537 New Thippasandra Post, Bengaluru-560075 Tel: 080-25347704, 25349571 Fax: 080-25347717 E-mail: director@dare.drdo.in

Director: Dr C.G. Balaji Chandrayangutta Lines Hyderabad-500005 Tel: 040- 24440061 24530264 Fax: 040- 2787161, 2787128 E-mail: director@dlrl.drdo.in

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE)

TECHNOLOGY

Director: M.S. Easwaran (Officiating Director since June 1, 2015) Ministry of Defence DRDO Belur, Yemlur Post Bengaluru–560037 Tel: 080-25225121, 26572638 Fax: 080-25222326 E-mail: director@cabs.drdo.in

BUSINESS

CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS)

Director: C.V.S. Sastry DRDO, Kanchanbagh PO Hyderabad-500058 Tel: 040-24347630 Fax: 040-24347679 E-mail: director@anurag.drdo.in

INDIAN DEFENCE

ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG)

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Indian Defence R&D Establishments

REGIONAL BALANCE

indian defence


indian defence DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY (DFRL) Director: Dr Harsh Vardhan Batra Siddarth Nagar Mysore-570011 Tel: 0821-2473783 Fax: 0821-2473468 E-mail: director@dfrl.drdo.in

DEFENCE METALLURGICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (DMRL) Director: K. Jayaraman Kanchanbagh PO Hyderabad-500058 Tel: 040-2434 0681, 24340233, 24340155, 24345116 Fax: 040-24340683, 24341439 E-mail: director@dmrl.drdo.in

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY (DIAT) Vice Chancellor: Dr Surendra Pal Simhagad Road, Girinagar Pune-411025 Tel: 020- 24389428, 24389426 Fax: 020-24389411, 24389509 E-mail: director@diat.drdo.in

DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (DRDE) Director: Dr Lokendra Singh Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 Tel: 0751-2341550, 2341856 Fax: 0751-2341148 E-mail: director.drde@gmail.com

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF BIOENERGY RESEARCH (DIBER) Director: Dr Mohammed Nasim Goraparao PO Arjunpur Haldwani-263139, Uttarakhand Tel: 05946-232532 Fax: 05946-232719 E-mail: director@darl.drdo.in

DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY (DRDL) Director: K Jayaraman Chandrayangutta Lines Hyderabad-500005 Tel: 040-24583000, 24340511, 24340546, 24583010 Fax: 040-24340109 E-mail: director@drdl.drdo.in

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ALTITUDE RESEARCH (DIHAR) Director: Dr Bhuvnesh Kumar PIN–901205, C/O 56 APO Tel: 01982-252096 Fax: 01982-252096 E-mailid: dihardrdo@gmail.com

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DEFENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY (DRL) Director: Dr Vijay Veer Post Box No. 2 Tezpur-784 00, Assam Tel: 03712-258508, 258836 Fax: 03712-258534 E-mail: director_drl@yahoo.com

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGY & ALLIED SCIENCES (DIPAS) Director: Dr Shashi Bala Singh Lucknow Road Timarpur, Delhi-110054

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Indian Defence R&D Establishments

Tel: 011-23946257, 25079601 Fax: 011-23932869, 23914790, 23983149 E-mail: director@dipas.drdo.in

DEFENCE SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION & DOCUMENTATION CENTRE (DESIDOC) Director: Gopal Bhushan Metcalfe House Delhi-110054 Tel: 011-23902403 Fax: 011-23819151 E-mail: director@desidoc.drdo.in

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (DIPR) Director: Dr K. Ramachandran DRDO, Ministry of Defence Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi-110054 Tel: 011-23923560 Fax: 011-23916980 E-mail: director@dipr.drdo.in

DEFENCE TERRAIN RESEARCH LABORATORY (DTRL) Director: Dr M.R. Bhutiyani Metcalfe House Delhi–110054 Tel: 011-23811599 Fax: 011-23812494 E-mail: director@dtrl.drdo.in

DEFENCE LABORATORY JODHPUR (DLJ) Director: Dr S.R. Vadera Ratanada Palace Jodhpur-342011 Tel: 0291-2510275, 2511057 Fax: 0291-2511191, 2510260 E-mail: director@dl.drdo.in

ELECTRONICS AND RADAR DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENTS (LRDE) Director: S.S. Nagaraj C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru-560093 Tel: 080-25243873, 25243816 Fax: 080-25242916 E-mail: director@lrde.drdo.in

DEFENCE MATERIAL & STORE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (DMSRDE) Director: Dr Namburi Eswara Prasad DMSRDE Post Office G.T. Road Kanpur-208013 Tel: 0512-2450695, 2453597 (Extn: 103) Fax: 0512-2450404, 2404774 E-mail: director@dmsrde.drdo.in

GAS TURBINE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (GTRE) Director: M.Z. Siddiqui Post Box No. 9302 C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru-560093 Tel: 080-2524 0698 Fax: 080-25241507 E-mail: director@gtre.drdo.in

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CONTENTS

Internal security has been defined as the act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self-governing territories generally by upholding the national law and defending against internal security threats. Responsibility for internal security may range from police to paramilitary forces, and in exceptional circumstances the military itself.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

killed, the second was an accidental blast in a bomb-making unit at Burdwan in West Bengal on 02.10.2014, wherein two persons were killed, and the third was on 27.12.2014 in Bengaluru in which one person was killed. Terrorists are faceless, and are now using sophisticated weapons and technologies which are supposed to be the domain of security forces. The metamorphosis of a petty criminals into a terrorist using sophisticated technology and weapons is an indicator of the type of challenges that the security forces are likely to face. These new dimensions of the threats India faces require a very flexible and versatile security management. Our state responses must gear up to match the speed with which things are changing. The state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) comprises three geographically distinct regions, viz. the plains of Jammu, the valley of Kashmir and the plateau of Ladakh. J&K has been affected by terrorist and secessionist violence, sponsored and supported from across the border for more than two decades. The level of terrorist violence and encounters in the hinterland of J&K are inextricably linked to the infiltration attempts from across the border. However, the security situation in J&K has witnessed significant improvement in recent years. Although in 2014 there is a slight increase in the number of terrorist incidents and the casualties of Special Forces (SFs) in comparison with 2013, our SFs were able to neutralise 110 militants in 2014 as against 67 in 2013. Many terrorist movements in India are home-grown. Their motivations range from Marxism to ethnicity. The Ministry of Home Affairs has banned 35 organisations around the country under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. India’s neighbourhood comprises some of the most violence-prone areas of the world, especially the Afghanistan-Pakistan region which has seen the growth of a number of terrorist organisations and hence over

BUSINESS

Kapoor (RETD)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

I

n the Indian context in the   LT GENERAL V.K. era immediately after independence, threats to India were mainly external—from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day, the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However, as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew, the Indian Government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. Today’s definition of security acknowledges political, economic, environmental, social and human thread, among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today, it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, namely the ‘human being’ or ‘civil security’ as the Americans term it, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human security’ with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore, the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well-being of its people. The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in its Annual Report 2014-15 has said that the internal security situation in the country during the period under review has shown improvement. While India’s internal security concerns may seem similar to those of other nations, India’s geography (7,500 km of coast and 15,200 km of land border) and a large population, social and political exigencies, and outdated technological tools pose peculiar challenges. During the year 2014, the internal security situation of the country, with special reference to terrorism, militancy and insurgency, showed significant improvement. During the period 01.01.2014 to 31.12.2014, only three minor terrorist incidents occurred in the hinterland of the country—the first was a bomb blast in a stationary train at Chennai Central Railway Station on 01.05.2014, wherein one person was

TECHNOLOGY

The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces

REGIONAL BALANCE

CISF

India’s Homeland Security

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1


CONTENTS

A large number of India’s internal security problems are connected to the Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan activities in India and jihadi groups based in Pakistan occupied Kashmir. Pakistan’s intelligence agencies and their military are funding, training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now stand fully exposed.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), the burgeoning Naxalite violence and ethnic, sectarian and communal violence has kept Indian security agencies on their toes as far as internal security is concerned. This combined with poor governance in most states, put together, have become a serious threat, which can destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government after the November 26, 2008, terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks, public anger became palpable and the government was forced to act speedily. India’s Home Minister and the then Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political casualties. A spate of reforms, which were already in the pipeline were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile, the perception was growing stronger that India’s external and internal security was getting inextricably linked, especially on its western borders. A large number of India’s internal security problems are connected to the Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan (ISI) activities in India and jihadi groups based in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK). Pakistan’s intelligence agencies and their military are funding, training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now stand fully exposed. However, despite a restrained but tough stance taken initially, the national leadership seems undecided on dealing with Pakistan both at the official and at the Track-II levels due to the recent aggressiveness on the line of control (LoC) and on the international border by Pakistan military and border guards (Rangers) respectively.

BUSINESS

KAPOOR (RETD)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

T

he primary function of a   LT GENERAL V.K. state is defined by maintenance of a secure environment for the citizens, as well as the governing establishment, to exercise their rights and responsibilities. A nation’s internal situation therefore is a function of efficacy of its governing system and its societal consciousness. India’s internal security remains an area of major concern more than six decades after independence. The determinants in this context therefore may be specified by two major factors, namely the entire gamut of governance in cultivating social justice, economic well-being and firm administration; and secondly, the positivity of response it evokes from those governed. The recent elections have been fought on the agenda of good governance and the internal security of a nation gauges its quality of governance. Let us examine the aspect of internal security in respect of the Indian nation. The Prime Minister (PM) while addressing the Chief Ministers at the Conference on Internal Security in Delhi on June 5, 2013, elaborated on the challenges the country is facing in the form of Naxalism (left-wing extremism), militancy and terrorism in the North East and in the hinterland, infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir, communal and sectarian violence, crimes against women and children, border management and coastal security. On April 16, 2012, the PM while inaugurating the Annual Conference of Chief Ministers on Internal Security in New Delhi, had said that left-wing extremism (LWE), religious fundamentalism and ethnic violence were major challenges facing the country. The PM’s statement in two consecutive years show the fast growing internal security challenges in India. In the past six decades or so, the ongoing insurgency in the North East, the extinguished terrorism in Punjab, the dissidence

TECHNOLOGY

Internal Security depends upon efficacy of governing system and societal consciousness

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

India’s Internal Security Environment

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

Coastal Management Border Management (BM) Division of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) deals with matters relating to the management of international borders, including coastal borders. Coastal security involves the Indian Navy (IN), Indian Coast Guard (ICG),

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11

Lakshadweep

12

Puducherry

13

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

I

ndia has a coastline of marine police and other agencies like   Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)   7,516.6 km, touching nine customs. Due to India’s geographistates and four union tercal location, long coastline, extensive ritories (UTs). India’s total number of islands is 1,197 maritime interests, dependence on the seas for trade and the which accounts to a stretch of 2,094 km additional coast- evolving asymmetric threats in the form of maritime terrorism, line. Gujarat has the longest coastline of 1,214.7 km and piracy and drug trafficking, coastal security issues have become Daman & Diu has the shortest coastline of 42.5 km. There is more of primary concern to India. Maritime security involves firstly than 2.5 million square km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The safeguarding of India’s territories and its adjacent waters against EEZ is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on seaborne threats. The second is the requirement to ensure that the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) over which a state has special rights the traditional freedoms at sea are preserved to ensure lawful and regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including unhindered movement. energy production from water and wind. The mining areas allotted The length of coastline, including the islands, in these states under UNCLOS is about 2,000 km from the southern most tip of and UTs is given below: India. Nearly 90 per cent by volume and more than 70 per cent by value of India’s trade moves through the maritime domain includSL No. State/UT Length (in km) ing its 12 major ports and 197 minor ports. The traffic handled 1 Gujarat 1214.70 by the ports during 2014 was 5,55,503 tonnes (5,45,790 tonnes in 2 Maharashtra 652.60 2013). With the present thrust on ‘Make in India’ policy by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the sea traffic is bound to grow in 3 Goa 101.00 the coming years and so will be the importance of coastal security. 4 Karnataka 208.00 There are strategic assets like oil refineries and nuclear plants close to the shoreline thus making them vulnerable to terrorists. All 5 Kerala 569.70 types of illegal activities are attempted through India’s coastline 6 Tamil Nadu 906.90 which includes smuggling, poaching for seafood, infiltration, illegal 7 Andhra Pradesh 973.70 migration, refugee influx and anti-national activities. There is also a continuous movement of all types of vessels for trade, fishing, 8 Odisha 476.70 military, policing, sports and so on. Thus management and security 9 West Bengal 157.50 of India’s maritime zone including the coastline is by itself a formidable and complex task. 10 Daman & Diu 42.50

INDIAN DEFENCE

All types of illegal activities are attempted through India’s coastline which includes smuggling, poaching for seafood, infiltration, illegal migration, refugee influx and anti-national activities

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Coastal Security Initiative

132.00 47.60

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ICG

India’s Coastal Security


CONTENTS

“Centre wants to firm up urgent initiatives to uproot left-wing extremism from the Bastar region.” —Rajnath Singh, Union Home Minister, terming Naxal violence as ‘the biggest national problem’ while addressing Chief Ministers of Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Telangana and Odisha at New Delhi

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in far south Kerala, it was not the first time. We may ignore this by saying it was just another incident linked with money making but should we ignore their creeping influence in a state where the Popular Front of India (PFI) is headquartered and the consequences of such handshake, even as we ignored the nexus between the Maoists and the PLA of Manipur as another stray occurrence?

BUSINESS

Katoch (Retd)  

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Maoists’ Ideology The Maoist document titled ‘Strategy and Tactics for the Indian Revolution’ scripted as late as 2004, states, “The central task of the Indian revolution is the seizure of political power. To accomplish this, the Indian people will have to be organised in the People’s Army and will have to wipe out the armed forces of the counter revolutionary Indian state and establish in its place their own state.” It further goes on to say, “As a considerable part of the enemy’s armed forces will inevitably be engaged against the growing tide of struggle by various nationalities, it will be difficult for the Indian ruling classes to mobilise all their armed forces against our revolutionary war.” Another document titled ‘Urban Perspective: Our Work in Urban Areas’ (UPUA) says, “At present the revolutionary movement is advancing in a vast belt of people’s war encompassing the extensive areas of Dandakaranya, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar-Odisha border, north Telangana and Koel-Kaimur. We will be able to build these areas into contiguous areas of armed struggle with each area influencing the other.” Linked with recent events, they indicate that the critical phase of attacking the political fabric of Indian democracy has already begun. The issue needs to be viewed even more seriously considering that the brain of the Maoists ideology is in Beijing, they are receiving focused support from both China and Pakistan, and their over-ground elements are cloaked as intel-

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

T

he change of govern  Lt General P.C. ment at the Centre has witnessed new vigour in fighting the Maoist insurgency though it will be a long haul considering Maoists are active in at least nine out of the 29 states of India, and are trying to spread their influence into many more states. Both China and Pakistan would leave no stone unturned to exploit this readymade asymmetric opportunity. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)-Maoist-Indian Mujahideen (IM) nexus needs focused attention. A systematic persistent approach is needed to ensure that we should not be forced to fight a two-and-a-half-front war, or worse still permit the internal half-front upgraded to a third ‘full-front’. Resolving the Maoist insurgency should be our top priority. The deadly Maoist attack in Sukma in April 2015 created much turbulence in the political hierarchy at the Centre especially since the Prime Minister was out of the country. The media focused on delayed retrieval of dead bodies of the security personnel killed, because of bad weather hampering movement of helicopters, plus shabby arrangements for treatment of wounded who escaped on foot. This time the Special Task Force (STF) was struck but then the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) have faced the brunt umpteen times in the past. The next day, Maoists burned some 17 vehicles of road construction, and in the third consecutive incident five policemen were killed and seven injured in a landmine blast. Sporadic violence has continued ever since. Some 16 government vehicles were set ablaze in May 2015. There are some wise men who say Maoists are desperate to uplift their sagging morale, their sporadic actions are restricted to the rural belt and that the issue will get resolved in next two-three years. Interestingly, the latter was stated by P. Chidambaram, then Home Minister in 2010, and more significantly told to the Chief Ministers of the affected states. Yet, when the Maoists struck this January

TECHNOLOGY

Requires a systematic Persistent Approach

REGIONAL BALANCE

wordpress.com

The Maoist Insurgency – No End in Sight

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section five

365 365 365 365 365 366 366 366 366 366 366 367 367 367 367 367 367 368 368 368

INDIAN DEFENCE

Nepal North Korea Sultanate of Oman Pakistan The Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Republic of Yemen

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Afghanistan 361 Algeria 361 Australia 361 Bahrain 361 Bangladesh 361 Bhutan 362 Brunei 362 Cambodia 362 People’s Republic of China 362 Egypt 362 Indonesia 363 Iran 363 Iraq 363 Israel 363 Japan 363 Jordan 363 Kazakhstan 364 Kuwait 364 Kyrgyzstan 364 Laos 364 Lebanon 364 Libya 364 Malaysia 364 Myanmar 364

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Asian Who's Who


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

q Afghanistan

Commander of the Naval Forces Major General Malek Necib

Head of State and Government (President) Dr Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai

Commander of the Gendarmerie Major General Ahmed Boustila

Interior Minister Noorolhaq Olomi

q Australia

Crown Prince and Defense Force Commander-in-Chief Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since February 6, 1952)

Minister of Interior Lt General Sheikh Rashed bin Abdulla Al Khalifa

Governor General Peter John Cosgrove

Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa Al Khalifa

Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces Lt General Sher Mohammad Karimi Commander of the Air Force Major General Abdul Wahab Wardak Ministry of Defence Opposite Presidential Palace Kabul, Afghanistan Tel: +93 20 2300331, 2100452, 2100458

q Algeria Head of State (President) Abdelaziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal Chief of General Staff and Vice Minister of National Defence General Ahmed Salah Gaida Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer

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Prime Minister Tony Abbott Defence Minister Kevin Andrews Chief of the Defence Force Air Chief Marshal Mark Binskin Chief of Army Lt General Angus J. Campbell Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Tim Barrett Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Geoff Brown Chief of Joint Operations Vice Admiral David Johnston

Prime Minister Shaikh Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa

Deputy Prime Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Khalid Al Khalifa

BUSINESS

Foreign Minister Salahuddin Rabbani

INDIAN DEFENCE

Head of State King Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa

National People’s Army HQ Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja Algiers, Algeria

Defence Minister Bismillah Khan Mohammadi

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

q Bahrain

Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Mohammed bin Mobarak Al Khalifa Minister of State for Defence Affairs Lt General Yusuf bin Ahmed Al Jalahma Ministry of Defence PO Box 245, West Rifa’a, Bahrain Tel: +973 17653333 Fax: +973 17663923

q Bangladesh GET YOUR COPY TO READ Head of State (President) INAbdul COMPLETE Hamid SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  361

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Second Vice President Sarwar Danish

Ministry of Defence B.P 184 Alger Gare Alger Algeria Tel: +213 21 711515

REGIONAL BALANCE

First Vice President Abdul Rashid Dostum

Department of Defence Campbell Park Offices PO Box 7911 Canberra BC ACT 2610 Australia Tel: +61 2 61449190

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (as on July 31, 2015)

TECHNOLOGY

Who’s Who in Asian Defence Forces


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section six

Contents 369 373 407 455 501 507

REGIONAL BALANCE

One GDP & Military Expenditure Two Central & South Asia Three East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia Four West Asia and North Africa Five Asia-Pacific Environment Six  Equipment & Hardware Specifications – An Overview

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Regional Balance


CONTENTS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1 GDP & Military Expenditure 2015

2016

2017

2014

1

Afghanistan

58.81

60.58

63.25

67.36

72.87

1,936.72

2

Algeria

522.31

551.81

571.21

602.20

639.27

14,258.62

3

Australia

1051.16

1095.38

1136.57

1190.06

1252.31

46,433.30

4

Bahrain

58.28

61.94

64.16

66.68

69.70

51,713.70

5

Bangladesh

495.79

533.74

572.44

620.28

677.36

3,373.45

6

Bhutan

5.43

5.86

6.35

6.98

7.73

7,640.58

7

Cambodia

46.04

49.96

54.04

58.79

64.35

3,262.56

8

China

16173.27

17617.32

18975.87

20473.50

22148.59

12,879.85

9

Egypt

909.82

943.05

989.89

1047.53

1116.94

10,877.19

10

India

6783.66

7375.90

7996.62

8722.55

9574.55

5,855.31

11

Indonesia

2511.44

2676.08

2840.24

3041.34

3283.97

10,640.90

12

Iran

1277.17

1334.32

1353.65

1391.64

1442.25

17,113.56

13

Iraq

527.82

522.67

534.25

583.58

648.32

14,570.81

14

Israel

257.51

268.46

280.39

293.92

309.08

32,691.02

15

Japan

4685.29

4750.77

4843.07

4973.18

5096.91

37,389.79

16

Jordan

76.11

79.62

83.34

88.39

94.27

11,927.25

17

Kazakhstan

395.46

418.47

430.74

450.97

482.35

24,019.95

18

Korea (South)

1697.00

1778.82

1853.52

1946.37

2059.31

35,277.35

19

Kuwait

276.31

283.98

291.45

301.29

317.07

71,020.25

20

Kyrgyzstan

18.23

19.16

19.65

20.62

22.13

3,361.18

21

Laos

31.57

34.40

37.24

40.77

44.80

4,986.71

22

Lebanon

78.39

81.12

83.89

87.27

91.74

17,985.86

23

Libya

126.60

97.58

102.98

122.99

24

Malaysia

693.59

746.08

788.84

839.89

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TECHNOLOGY

2014

BUSINESS

2013

INDIAN DEFENCE

Country

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

Sr No.

Estimated Per Capita GDP based on PPP. Figures in USD

REGIONAL BALANCE

Estimated Gross Domestic Product (GDP) based on Purchasing-Power-Parity (PPP). All figures in USD in billions


Central Asia Central Asia is a region that comprises five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the ‘Centre of the World’. Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location, it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century, it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

British empires. Later, it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States brought further global attention to this region, reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this, the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the United States, Russia and China. The Fergana Valley is the best suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. Soviet leader Josef Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided, however, Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself; Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west; and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the valley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within Kyrgyzstan’s portion of the valley, affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access fairly deep into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia’s core, and hence Central Asia itself. Central Asia is referred to as the ‘backyard of Russia and China.’ It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the United States on the one side, and Moscow and Beijing on the other side. Post-9/11, Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global scale. The United States became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility, enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players, namely the United States, Russia and China, the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their ‘grand strategies.’ the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including ‘strategic partnership.’ ‘non-alignment’ and a ‘multi-vectored approach.’ The key to what became known as Kazakhstan’s ‘multi-vectored approach’ is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today, this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia’s Eurasec, Gazprom, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), but it nonetheless remains in place.

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entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world’s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia, and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world’s largest landmass (39,95,800 sq km) and has vast natural resources, including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically, it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people, goods and ideas between Europe, West Asia, South Asia and East Asia. On the other hand, South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India’s economic growth and dynamism had made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. However, India’s economy did not live up to its promise of high growth. After considerable slow down in 2012, the year 2013 saw a feeble recovery. Asia’s third largest economy grew at 4.7 per cent in 2013 and 5.5 per cent in 2014. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) released an update to its World Economic Outlook report predicting that India’s economy will overtake China in terms of its annual growth rate by 2016. The IMF released estimates predict that India’s economy will grow at 6.3 and 6.5 per cent respectively over the next two years. This puts India’s projected growth in 2016 ahead of the organisation’s estimates for China (which stand at 6.8 and 6.3 per cent for 2015 and 2016, respectively), leaving India as the fastest growing major emerging economy in the world. The IMF’s reasoning is based primarily on high expectations for Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, after winning May 2014 general election. The Prime Minister’s first one year in office have resulted in modest attempts at economic reform, but have fallen short of the expectations of many observers. However Prime Minister Modi is taking steps to make manufacturing a greater proportion of India’s GDP (primarily via his ‘Make in India’ initiative).

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The major attraction for key players, as also countries like India, Japan and the European Union, is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia, which already enjoys military presence in the region, has, in conjunction with China, sought to counterbalance Washington’s influence in the region through SCO. Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region. It is also reported that the Islamic State (IS) is attracting Central Asians to Syria and fostering new links among radicals within the region. Unless the five Central Asian governments develop a credible, coordinated counter-action plan, including improved security measures but also social, political and economic reforms, growing radicalism will eventually pose a serious threat to their stability.

of US-NATO presence. The confidence building measures (CBMs) agreed to at the Kabul Ministerial Meeting of June 2012 have not moved much. Similarly, the Tokyo Accountability Conference on Afghanistan has not amounted much beyond financial aids and grants. A recent development has been the London Conference on Afghanistan co-hosted by UK and Afghanistan on December 4, 2014, wherein 59 countries have pledged support to Afghanistan. China recently pledged $327 million to Afghanistan by 2017, while simultaneously announcing $45.6 billion investment in Pakistan, basically to develop her economic and transportation corridors going through Gilgit-Baltistan all the way south to the Persian Gulf and firming her launch pad for operations to the west.

Pakistan-Afghanistan Region

South Asia

The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. Today, international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally, Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now, Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India establishing their cells within home-grown groups, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26, 2008, which emanated from Pakistan created an impasse in their relationship. However, much water has flowed since then and despite a new civilian government under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif the performance of the government has been poor and military control has not diminished. The nation has not progressed. August 2014 saw a massive movement by Imran Khan and his Tehreek-e-Insaf Party along with Islamic cleric Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri’s Pakistan Awami Tehreek Party to force the resignation of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and bring fresh elections and mobilise the nation in his favour. However, the political parties, the business community, traders, civil society, the media, lawyers and the courts all voiced strong support for the government, the constitution and the status quo. The reality was that nobody wanted to see another crisis, more turmoil, another change of government, which could bring the army directly into play. The people in Pakistan want two things from the government namely better governance and an improved economy. In its neighbourhood, in India, Prime Minister Modi’s nationalist party, the Bharatiya Janata Party, has taken over the reins of the government and has promised to deliver good governance. After an initial bonhomie with Pakistan, the ceasefire violations on the line of control (LoC) and international border and infiltration of terrorists from PoK into Jammu & Kashmir have soured the relations between the two once again. Attempts are underway for talks to start again. The four major uncertainties in post-2014 Afghanistan (security, reconciliation, trade and regional cooperation) all have external routes. While the United States will in all probability continue to manipulate and manage the situation from the background in line with its own national interests, continued instability in Afghanistan will have adverse consequences for all its neighbours including Pakistan, Iran and Central Asian Republics, India and China. Pakistan will need to restrain its proxies. The regional countries need to collectively contribute to the stability of Afghanistan and help in the country’s reconstruction. The possibility of the present Unity Government in Afghanistan successfully completing the transition beyond the parliamentary elections scheduled in 2015 is under debate. Precious little has happened to elevate the economy of Afghanistan over the past 13 years

The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Left-wing extremism (LWE) has affected a large number of states. In terms of geographical spread, the worst affected states are Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar. The LWE problem also exists in certain pockets in the states of Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The front organisations of LWE are active in many states of India. The CPI (Maoist) continues to remain the most dominant and violent LWE group, accounting for more than 80 per cent of the violence and the killings. Nepal went to polls on November 18, 2013, to elect the Constituent Assembly of the country hit by political stalemate, Maoist threats and violence. According to the information received Nepal’s oldest political party won the most seats in the first set of results from the election ahead of two prominent communist parties. The results showed that the Nepali Congress Party had won. After years of deadlock, Nepal’s Parliament elected Sushil Koirala, a long time democracy activist. Koirala, 75, is the president of the Nepali Congress Party, which emerged in November election with the most seats in the country’s Constituent Assembly. Koirala won more than two-thirds of the legislators’ votes, with 405 voting for him and 148 opposed. Koirala is now facing the worst disaster in the recent history of Nepal in the form of a massive earthquake on April 25, 2015. This will indeed test the leadership qualities of Prime Minister Koirala. Sri Lanka went to the polls in January 2015 in a historic election. President Mahinda Rajapaksa had called snap polls two full years ahead of schedule. The move was calculated to renew his mandate before a worsening economy began to eat into his electoral majority. But two days after announcing the election, Rajapaksa, and nearly everyone else, got a shock. His Health Minister Maithripala Sirisena defected and announced his own candidacy, backed by the opposition. For the first time since the island became independent in 1948, an incumbent President was voted out of office. Sri Lankans struggled to assimilate the news that President Mahinda Rajapaksa had conceded the race. Sri Lanka is a well-known case for those studying civil war, terrorism or diaspora politics. But its politics offers many more topics of interest to political scientists. Long-standing debates on the politics of language, education and federalism should draw the attention of scholars of ethnic politics. For human rights scholars, the stand-off with the international community over post-conflict justice (conflict with LTTE), press freedom and protection of minorities illustrates how the effectiveness of rights pressure depends on

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being processed through the courts on various charges. Most leaders of its main electoral ally, the Jamaat-e-Islami, are facing life imprisonment or the prospect of death by hanging, for crimes in Bangladesh’s war of secession from Pakistan in 1971 (yet even the Jamaat found the grace to welcome Indian Prime Minister Modi’s visit). Out of power since 2006, now out of ideas and running out of manpower, the BNP has never looked weaker. With the signing of the land border agreement between India and Bangladesh, a new era of cooperation and good relations has started. The Indian Parliament ratified the agreement in May 2015 in which India has agreed to tidy up almost 200 enclaves that lay along their previously indeterminate boundary. In all about 50,000 people were living in these impoverished patches; India and Bangladesh have at last brought them into the benefits of statehood. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows:

Central & South Asia n Kazakhstan n Kyrgyzstan n Tajikistan n Turkmenistan n Uzbekistan n Afghanistan n Bangladesh n Bhutan n India n Nepal n Pakistan n Sri Lanka

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domestic political context. For those who study grand strategy, it is a key battlefield in the struggle for regional dominance between China and India. And the election on January 8, 2015, earns it a place in the study of democratic transition. Bangladesh suffers a dysfunctional two-party system in which the two leaders, the ‘Battling Begums,’ wage mutual vendettas at the country’s expense. For nearly a quarter-century they have rotated in office. The Awami League, in power since early 2009, has used its majority to entrench its power and make it impossible for the Bangladesh National Party (BNP) ever to replace it. It has done so by abolishing the system under which neutral caretaker governments used to oversee elections, hounding BNP leaders and barring the BNP’s largest coalition partner, Jamaat-e-Islami, for its avowedly Islamic platform. Now the government claims to be combating acts of vandalism and terrorism by the BNP. The opposition accuses the government of trying to create a one-party state. Both sides have a point. The personal animus between the Begums has fostered a winner-takes-all politics in which the futility of habitually rigged elections forces the opposition on to the streets. Khaleda Zia’s party in the early part of 2015 wanted to bring the country to such a pass that the army would feel obliged to intervene. The army was loath to do so because it is mindful of its reputation and of lucrative UN peacekeeping duties that might be jeopardised if the West took exception to its actions. The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), which is led by Sheikh Hasina’s bitterest rival, Khaleda Zia, is effectively spent as a political force. Early this year it conducted a deadly campaign to force fresh elections, but failed; since then it has been rudderless. Sheikh Hasina’s heavy fist has played a role too. Most of the BNP’s leaders are in exile or in jail, and those who are not, like Mrs Zia, are

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Religions

Languages

Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

: 27,24,900 sq km : Astana : 0 km (landlocked) : 1,79,48,816 (July 2014 est.) : Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1 per cent, Russian 23.7 per cent, Uzbek 2.8 per cent, Ukrainian 2.1 per cent, German 1.1 per cent, Tatar 1.3 per cent, Uighur 1.4 per cent, others 4.5 per cent (2009 census) : Muslim 70.2 per cent, Christian 26.2 per cent (Russian Orthodox 23.9 per cent, other Christian 2.3 per cent), Buddhist 0.1 per cent, others 0.2 per cent, atheist 2.8 per cent, unspecified 0.5 per cent (2009 census) : Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4 per cent, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the ‘language of inter-ethnic communication’) 95 per cent (2001 est.) : 99.7 per cent : Republic, authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch : 18 years of age; universal : 14 provinces and 3 cities

Overview of the Economy Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit rating. Extractive industries have been and will continue to be the engine

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Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions

Defence Total Armed Forces : Active: 39,000 (Army: 20,000; Air: 12,000; Navy: 3,000; MoD: 4,000) Terms of Service : 12 months Paramilitary Forces : 31,500 Presidential Guard: 2,000 Internal Security Troops: 20,000 est. State, Border Protection Force: 9,000 est. Government Guard: 500

Security Environment Kazakhstan faces no significant external threats. Unique in the postSoviet Central Asian region for its significant and sustained economic growth which has translated into consistent standard of living increases for the population, Kazakhstan has also had a measured foreign policy since independence. Although Russia and China, its two economically and militarily sizeable neighbours, are perceived as threatening by some Kazakhs, it is not in a military sense. Rather, Kazakhs worry about Russian and Chinese investors exerting influence as a result of economic power, and they express concern about political bullying. They have managed these problems predominantly

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of Kazakhstan’s growth, although the country is aggressively pursuing diversification strategies. Landlocked, with restricted access to the high seas, Kazakhstan relies on its neighbours to export its products, especially oil and grain. Although its Caspian Sea ports, pipelines, and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation and roadways continue to need attention. Telecoms are improving, but require considerable investment, as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic because of regional dependencies, but the country is moving forward with plans to improve reliability of electricity and gas supply to its population. At the end of 2007, global financial markets froze up and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation, and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan’s economy, it has rebounded well, helped by prudent government measures. Rising commodity prices have helped the recovery. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators, the government realises that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries, the so-called ‘Dutch disease.’ In response, Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification programme, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010 Kazakhstan joined the Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships. The Asian Development Bank’s assessment is that economic growth in Kazakhstan slowed to 3.9 per cent in the first half of 2014, the slowest rate since 2009, from 5.1 per cent in the same period of 2013. The 19 per cent devaluation of the Kazakh tenge in February 2014 depressed services, while industrial output fell by 0.4 per cent reflecting a decline in oil production and slowdowns in metallurgy (particularly copper), chemicals and other manufacturing. However, agriculture expanded by 3.3 per cent, and construction by 4.2 per cent, benefiting from ongoing state support. Higher fixed capital investment, improved consumer sentiment, and massive government stimulus packages are expected to accelerate growth in the second half of 2014 and into 2015. Nevertheless, the growth forecast is downgraded for both years.

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On July 1, 2014, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced a decision to reinterpret the Japanese constitution, allowing Tokyo to militarily support partners that are under attack. In 1981, Prime Minister Zenko Suzuki became the first Japanese leader to use the word ‘alliance’ to describe Japan’s relationship with the United States. The seemingly innocuous word sounded alarmingly militaristic to many Japanese, who since their country’s defeat in World War II have been skittish of rearmament and involvement in overseas military operations. The most recent change in Japanese defence policy is thus both remarkable and routine. It is remarkable to see Japan embracing what had been politically unthinkable. Yet the decision is routine in that it marks one of many such milestones in the country’s evolving security posture. Japan’s adoption of new roles and capabilities has been neither automatic nor straightforward. Deep-seated anti-militarism prompted outrage against Suzuki in 1981 and motivated protesters in Tokyo to condemn Abe’s recent announcement. But as the Japanese perceive growing menace from Chinese capabilities and behaviour, this recent milestone in Japan’s security evolution will not be the last. For many Japanese, frustrated by long years of economic stagnation and a succession of weak prime ministers, Abe brings hope. He has a plan to revive the economy with aggressive stimulus measures, dubbed ‘Abenomics’. He is also admired for standing firm in the face of what is seen by many as bullying by China and the two Koreas.

The present Chinese leadership too has not been remiss in promoting anti-Japanese feelings in China; purely for channelling domestic discontent into anti-Japanese sentiment. The bitter relationship between the two countries that began with the Sino-Japanese War more than 120 years ago in 1894 and culminated with massive Japanese atrocities committed during its occupation of China during World War II were never allowed to rise above the surface during the Mao Zedong-Zhou Enlai period. For external ‘enemies’ Mao had the US and later the Soviet Union. When Deng Xiaoping first started his reform movement in 1978, there was stiff opposition from old Chinese Communist Party (CCP) hardliners and scepticism within the general Chinese public about the efficacy of these reforms. The Chinese people wondered whether yet another calamity like the ‘Cultural Revolution’ was about to be inflicted on them. It was Deng who devised the strategy of targeting Japanese ‘atrocities’ during World War II as a means to divert public attention from the economic reforms that he was about to launch. Since then whenever the Chinese Communist Party leaders have felt the need to find a scapegoat in the form of an external enemy, Japan has invariably been targeted. The self-imposed restraint, which was prevalent during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, was a function both of China’s focus on building its economy (contingent on stable relations with its neighbours) and perceived military weakness. Since then, China has established itself as the world’s second-largest economy and now deploys, thanks to more than a decade of double-digit defence budget growth, a first-rate modern military. Those impressive achievements have, however, fuelled Chinese nationalism, which has increasingly approached the dangerous zone of hubris. For many, China is now a rightful regional hegemony demanding respect, which if denied can — and should — be met with threats, if not the application of force. While it might be tempting to attribute China’s recent assertiveness in the South and East China Seas to the emergence of Xi Jinping, Xi alone cannot make all the decisions; nationalism is a component that cannot be dissociated from this new phase in Chinese expressions of its power. As then-Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi is said to have told his counterparts at a tense regional forum in Hanoi in 2010, “There is one basic difference among us. China is a big state and you are smaller countries.” This newfound assertiveness within its backyard thus makes it more feasible that, in times of serious trouble at home, the Chinese

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ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist. Major issues which continue to impact the security environment in East Asia are: Japan and China’s nationalism,, Korean Peninsula, Taiwan, US interests and ASEAN activities.

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regional balance leadership could seek to deflect potentially destabilising anger by exploiting some external distraction.

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Korean Peninsula The imminence of conflict on the Korean Paninsula is nothing new, only the intensity varies. Often it seems that a conflict is imminent, but much of it is bluster; for none of the principals are interested in a renewed conflict. The starting point of the recent crisis was the third nuclear test conducted by North Korea in February 2013 and the military exercises conducted jointly by the United States and South Korea. These military exercises are conducted regularly by the latter two countries on an annual basis. However, what distinguished them this time was the unusual belligerence, with the US bringing B-52 bombers and B-2 stealth aircraft to South Korea. The US made no effort to hide the fact that these aircraft were nuclear capable. The shrill response of North Korea to ‘Operation Foal Eagle’ was expected, since North Korea believes that a major US objective is a ‘regime change’ in North Korea. China supported the UN Security Council Resolution 2094 passed by the UNSC on March 7, 2013, which was resented by North Korea. They were particularly resentful against the Chinese, for UNSC 2094 because it contained financial sanctions. Many analysts interpreted Chinese leader Xi Jinping’s remarks that “no country should be able to throw the region or even the entire world into chaos for selfish gains,” as being directed against the North Korean leadership. However, that would be reading too much into a firm relationship forged over decades. There are others who believe that North Korea would do nothing without Beijing’s explicit clearance. North Korea has for all practical purposes become an autocratic state with an established dynasty. Kim Jong-un is the third in a line of succession going back to his grandfather, the legendary Kim Il-sung. The new leader has still to establish his leadership qualities and is in the process of consolidating his power. Under Kim Jong-un, North Korea has continued its policy of promoting the military at home while sending mixed signals to the rest of the world about its nuclear programme. The launch of a satellite in 2012, using rocket technology banned under UN ballistic missile sanctions on North Korea, boosted Kim’s standing in the ruling elite while angering his neighbours, including sole ally China. North Korea’s defiant third nuclear test in February 2013 earned it another escalation of UN Security Council sanctions, approved by China. North Korea in turn stepped up its bellicose rhetoric and announced it would restart all facilities at its main Yongbyon nuclear complex, including a reactor mothballed in 2007. This behaviour continued after the execution of Chang Songthaek, as North Korea test-fired two medium-range Nodong ballistic missiles in March 2014. This was in violation of UN resolutions and just hours after the United States, South Korea and Japan met for talks. It also marked the fourth anniversary of the sinking of the South Korean warship Cheonan. The challenges the country faces under Kim Jong-un are the same as those it had to cope with during his father’s reign — a moribund economy, international isolation and widespread poverty.

Taiwan Ever since Taiwan and China sent diplomatic representatives to the mainland city of Nanjing in February 2014 for their first formal talks since the two sides split amid civil war more than six decades ago, newspapers on both sides of the Taiwan Strait have been plastered with headlines declaring a ‘new chapter’ in relations and a ‘step towards reunification.’ China still claims self-governing, democratic

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Taiwan — an island about 160 kilometres off its coast — as its territory, and has threatened to take it back by force if it takes too many steps towards formalising its de facto independence. The mainland keeps about 1,200 missiles pointed at Taiwan, and in 1995 and 1996 fired missiles and conducted provocative military exercises off the Taiwanese coast. February 2014 meeting between Wang Yu-chi, head of Taiwan’s Mainland Affairs Council, and counterpart Zhang Zhijun, director of the mainland’s Taiwan Affairs Office, was the first such encounter between the two sides since the 1949 civil war — in which Mao Zedong’s Communists defeated the Nationalists, who fled to Taiwan. China’s state-run Xinhua News Agency called the meeting ‘unimaginable’ and ‘the result of deepening mutual political trust,’ ambitious assessments that can perhaps be chalked up to the groundbreaking symbolism of the moment for the two sides. But there was also much enthusiasm from the United States, Taiwan’s principle benefactor and China’s ever-looming rival as both stake out a growing presence in East Asia. In no uncertain terms, the US celebrated this week’s historic shift in the cross-strait ‘status quo,’ even though the tense stand-off has long played into American strategic interests. The prospect of restored cross-strait political ties seemed to have pleased all three parties, a rare event in a region where US-China competition is heating up, and where Taiwan has walked a tightrope between the world’s two superpowers. But analysts warned that the applause echoing around Washington, Beijing and Taipei could belie divergent interpretations of what the shifting status quo means. Over six decades of fierce China-Taiwan hostility, the US has backed Taiwan and supplied the government in Taipei with substantial defence aid (in 2011, it was the largest purchaser of defence articles from the US). Taiwan has also become a top ten trading partner of the US in the course of becoming a key US ally in the region. Taiwan also figures in Washington’s nascent ‘pivot towards Asia,’ a vaguely-defined policy of greater involvement in the region, so named by President Barack Obama during a 2011 address to Australia’s Parliament. In February 2014, the White House had announced that Obama would embark on a whirlwind tour of South Korea, Malaysia, Japan and the Philippines in late April “as part of his ongoing commitment to increase US diplomatic, economic, and security engagement with countries in the Asia-Pacific region.” Many see the US pivot as a move to contain China, economically and even militarily. Maintaining influence in Taiwan is widely seen as a way to work towards physically surrounding China’s coastline with US allies that also include South Korea and Japan.

Tripartite Cooperation Japan, China and Republic of Korea (South Korea) have been regularly holding talks as a part of Tripartite Cooperation among the People’s Republic of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea. After more than 10 years of development of the cooperation, the three countries have established a full-fledged mechanism for cooperation, and formed an all-dimensional, multi-tiered and wide-ranging cooperation framework with the Trilateral Summit Meeting at its core, and supported by 18 ministerial meetings in areas like foreign policy, economy and trade, science and technology and culture and over 50 working-level mechanisms. These trilateral meetings have also served as confidence-building measures as all three countries exchange views on each other’s security and defence policies and regional issues. Senior diplomats from South Korea, China and Japan held the first trilateral talks in 18 months on November 7, 2013, to mend frosty ties caused by Japan’s territorial disputes with neighbouring

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TECHNOLOGY

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regional balance countries and its anachronistic historical perception. South Korean Deputy Foreign Minister Lee Kyung-soo, together with his Chinese counterpart Liu Zhenmin and Japanese counterpart Shinsuke Sugiyama met in Seoul to discuss trilateral cooperation through the diplomatic channel that has been halted since May 2012. In the context of counter-terrorism, they expressed their intent to cooperate for the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations, which is specified in the ‘Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020’ adopted at the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Summit in May 2010.

US Interest The US interest in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming deeper. This can be seen by the fact that it is reposturing its naval forces in the Asia-Pacific region. By 2020, the Navy will reposture its forces from today’s roughly 50:50 split between the Pacific and the Atlantic to about a 60:40 split between those oceans, the US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told Asian officials at a conference in Singapore in June 2012. This will include six aircraft carriers in this region, a majority of their cruisers, destroyers, combat ships and submarines. It is being done in a steady, deliberate and sustainable way— the United States military is rebalancing and brings enhanced capabilities to this vital region. The ‘strategic pivot’ or rebalancing launched four years ago, is premised on the recognition that the lion’s share of the political and economic history of the 21st century will be written in the Asia-Pacific region. To benefit from this shift in global geopolitical dynamism and sustainably grow its economy, the United States is building extensive diplomatic, economic, development, people to people and security ties with the region. Despite considerable efforts to detail and implement the policy transparently, there remain misunderstandings abroad real or feigned about the key tenets of the pivot, as well as questions about US commitment to the policy given potentially destabilising developments in other regions of the world. Chinese President Xi Jinping has a new vision for Asia, with his country at the centre of affairs. It embodies what he calls the ‘AsiaPacific dream’ and two new ‘Silk Roads,’ and it is backed by tens of billions of dollars in infrastructure investment, a proposed freetrade zone and vigorous diplomatic engagement. It is shaping up to be a powerful riposte to President Obama’s strategic rebalance towards Asia, often referred to as the ‘pivot.’ Xi is using the AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit as the coming-out party for his Asian vision, just as China used the 2008 Olympics as its broader global coming-out party.

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ASEAN-India Relations The 12th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)-India Summit was held in Nay Pyi Taw, Burma, on November 12, 2014. The summit was concluded on the sidelines of 25th ASEAN Summit. The summit was attended by the President of Myanmar, Thein Sein, the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi and by all Heads of State/ Government of ASEAN Member States. During the summit, ASEAN countries and India reiterated their commitment to achieve the trade target of $100 billion by 2015. The total trade between ASEAN and India reached $67.9 billion in 2013. The leaders appreciated the signing of two milestone agreements; the Agreement on Trade in Services and the Agreement on Investment of the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive

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Economic Cooperation between ASEAN and India. Along with the other commitments, the ASEAN leaders conjointly underscored the importance of India’s cooperation in implementing the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) and the ASEAN coordinating Centre for Humanitarian help on disaster management (AHA Centre). The next ASEAN-India Summit will be held in Cambodia in 2015. India became a sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN in 1992, that was upgraded to full dialogue partnership in 1996. Since 2002, India has had annual summits with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership The China-led RCEP trade negotiations will conclude by the end of next year, Economic Ministers from the 16 countries said. Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) will comprise the 10-nation ASEAN club plus six others: China, India, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand. The combined economic output of the bloc reached $21.3 trillion in 2013, which accounts for nearly 30 per cent of the world output. The ministers reaffirmed they are committed to ending the RCEP negotiations in line with the vision endorsed by their state leaders for a modern, comprehensive, highquality and mutually beneficial economic partnership agreement that would support the achievement of the ASEAN community and deeper regional economic integration. The ministers made the pledge following the end of the Second RECP Ministerial Meeting in Nay Pyi Taw held as part of a series of related meetings of the 46th ASEAN Economic Ministers Meeting. The RCEP aims to tie together ASEAN’s bilateral free trade agreements with each trading partner. With almost half of the world’s population, RCEP economies represent a massive market. Upon successful conclusion, the RCEP would “spur economic dynamism through better market access, enhance deeper economic integration, create shared opportunities and help improve the standard of living for billions of people of this region” said the statement in the meeting held in August 2014. RCEP adds to a burgeoning slew of regional and sectoral trade negotiations that sprung up after a decade of talks failed to conclude a global trade deal, the so-called Doha Round. Discussions on the trade deal came as Beijing tried to counter US’ progress in forming a Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) that excludes China. China and India are not a part of US-led TPP trade pact. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows: n Australia n Brunei n Cambodia n People’s Republic of China n Indonesia n Japan n North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) n South Korea (Republic of Korea) n Laos n Malaysia n Myanmar (Formerly Burma) n The Philippines n Singapore n Taiwan n Thailand n Vietnam

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Defence Total Armed Forces : Active – 56,200 (Army: 28,600; Navy: 1,35,550; Air: 14,050) Reserve : 28,550 (Army: 16,200; Navy: 8,200; Air: 4,150) Foreign Forces : US Pacific Command: 180; New Zealand Army: 9; Singapore Air Force: 230

Security Environment In recent decades, Australia has become an internationally competitive, advanced market economy due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s and its location in one of the fastest growing regions of the world economy. Long-term concerns include ageing of the population, pressure on infrastructure, and environmental issues such as floods, droughts and bushfires. Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth, making it particularly vulnerable to the challenges of climate change. Australia is home to 10 per cent of the world’s biodiversity, and a great number of its flora and fauna exist nowhere else in the world. In January 2013, Australia assumed a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term. The government had brought forward a new White Paper in 2013, from its original schedule of 2014 to address a number of significant international and domestic developments influencing Australia’s national security and defence posture internationally and domestically that have emerged since the 2009 Defence White

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Area : 77,41,220 sq km Capital : Canberra Coastline : 25,760 km Maritime Claims : Territorial sea : 12 nm Contiguous zone : 24 nm Exclusive economic zone : 200 nm Continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Population : 2,25,07,617 (July 2014 est.) Ethnic Divisions : White 92 per cent, Asian 7 per cent, aboriginal and others 1 per cent Religions : Protestant 28.8 per cent (Anglican 17.1 per cent, Uniting Church 5.0 per cent, Presbyterian and Reformed 2.8 per cent, Baptist, 1.6 per cent, Lutheran 1.2 per cent, Pentecostal 1.1 per cent), Catholic 25.3 per cent, Eastern Orthodox 2.6 per cent, other Christian 4.5 per cent, Buddhist 2.5 per cent, Muslim 2.2 per cent, Hindu 1.3 per cent, others 8.5 per cent, unspecified 2.2 per cent, none 22.3 per cent Note: Percentages add up to more than 100 per cent due to rounding (2006 Census) Languages : English 76.8 per cent, Mandarin 1.6 per cent, Italian 1.4 per cent, Arabic 1.3 per cent, Greek 1.2 per cent, Cantonese 1.2 per cent, Vietnamese 1.1 per cent, others 10.4 per cent, unspecified 5 per cent (2011 est.) Literacy : 99 per cent Government : Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Suffrage : 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Administrative Divisions : Six states and two territories

The Australian economy has experienced continuous growth and features low unemployment, contained inflation, very low public debt, and a strong and stable financial system. By 2012, Australia had experienced more than 20 years of continued economic growth, averaging 3.5 per cent a year. Demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China has grown rapidly, creating a channel for resources investments and growth in commodity exports. The high Australian dollar has hurt the manufacturing sector, while the services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy, accounting for about 70 per cent of GDP and 75 per cent of jobs. Australia was comparatively unaffected by the global financial crisis as the banking system has remained strong and inflation is under control. Australia has benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade in recent years, stemming from rising global commodity prices. Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy and food. Australia’s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. The process of opening up has increased productivity, stimulated growth, and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Australia plays an active role in the World Trade Organisation, APEC, the G20, and other trade forums. Australia has bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand and the US, has a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand, is negotiating agreements with China, India, Indonesia, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, as well as with its Pacific neighbours and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, and is also working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement with Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the US and Vietnam.

INDIAN DEFENCE

 General Information

Overview of the Economy

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

AUSTRALIA

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia: AUSTRALIA


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CONTENTS

Egypt Everywhere the hopes of the Arab Spring have been bitterly disappointed. Egypt, the most populous Arab country, is now ruled by Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi, another repressive soldier-turned-President. Tahrir Square is a fading memory. The Gulf monarchs — maverick pro-Islamist Qatar apart — are using their oil wealth to bankroll counter-revolution at home and abroad.

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A once prosperous, secular, well administered Iraq is today in absolute shambles. The current situation in Iraq is essentially the consequence of the US policies towards Iraq since 1990-91 but particularly of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 and its subsequent military occupation, marked by thoroughly inept governance, till 2011 when US troops finally withdrew leaving behind a broken country wracked by sectarian strife and internal insurgencies. The immediate trigger is the unfortunate reality that during the eight years of the US installed Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s increasingly blatantly partisan rule, the Sunnis were steadily and continuously sidelined and have been completely alienated; the relationship between the Shia and Sunni communities has never been as poisonous as it is today. A Sunni backlash was inevitable. This is what is being witnessed in Iraq manifested in particular by the lightening takeover of the Sunni dominated provinces of Iraq and the establishment of the Islamic Caliphate on June 30, 2014, by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, the ISIS, an extremist militant group even more radical and brutal than Al Qaeda. Considerable portions of Western Syria and most of the area of Iraq’s Sunni provinces are part of the territorial domain of the newly established Islamist Caliphate — an area larger than Jordan. ISIS is cruel and sectarian, its extremism fuelled by anti-Sunni discrimination. It is provoking a counter-reaction by Shia militias linked to Iran. But Sunni tribes and Kurds have also been fighting back. The fall of Mosul and the quick gains by the ISIS have given the already autonomous Kurds, now exporting oil independently, a far stronger position. The division of Iraq into Kurdish, Sunni and Shia areas is a likely outcome. But formal partition will likely mean death on an epic scale.

BUSINESS

Iraq

INDIAN DEFENCE

shifts within individual countries as well as at the regional level. The Islamist parties are on the rise across the region whereas the economic concerns have also risen to the forefront.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

T

he term ‘West Asia’ is coterminous with the Middle East which describes geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism, international organisations such as the United Nations have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel, a Jewish country, all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically, most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq, which is largely dominated by Shias, and Iran, which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world’s most widespread religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits, which were discovered in the early 20th century, have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest, as it has the largest oil reserves. Iran, Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically, most of the states are monarchies, sheikhdoms or single-party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The current tensions in West Asia and the war clouds over the skies of Iraq due to rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militants have their roots in the economics of oil resources of the Persian Gulf and the politics of American interests to remain predominant in the region. However, there has been an unprecedented popular upsurge against the establishments in many countries in the Arab world during the last few years, leading to regime changes in certain cases. These developments have been characterised by outside observers as the ‘Arab Spring.’ The essence of the sociopolitical tumult sweeping the region has been such that the people at large have overcome their fear of the existing regimes and called for drastic and fundamental political transformations, including regime changes. This has led to dramatic changes in domestic political environments in most of the countries of the region. Though, the West Asian region is exposed to a completely new set of challenges, threats and an uncertain future but it is clear that the new political dispensation will not be forced to follow for long the ‘Accepted Order’ laid down by the West. However, the newly formed regimes, most of them Islamists, would be quite difficult to deal with. The emerging political order in West Asia is also marked by considerable

REGIONAL BALANCE

West Asia and North Africa

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


regional balance Recently in Feburary 2015, President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi sought to reassure Egyptians that he is in control and steering the country on the right path in the face of Islamist militancy in neighbouring Libya and the Sinai and economic challenges. Sisi’s speech was broadcast on prime time television and was interspersed with clips of him greeting leaders of wealthy Gulf Arab states, Western powers and Egyptian army officers. His comments came after Islamic State militants beheaded up to 21 Egyptian Christians in neighbouring Libya — bloodshed that provoked Egyptian airstrikes — and one of the worst attacks on security forces in the Sinai in months. The strike hit 13 targets that had been studied accurately said Sisi, adding that the Egyptian army was not an aggressor and the attack was necessary. Sisi said Jordan and the United Arab Emirates, part of the US-led coalition fighting Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, had offered military support to Cairo following the killing of Egyptians in Libya. The former army chief dedicated a major portion of his speech to financial patrons United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, who backed his toppling of Islamist President Mohamed Mursi in 2013 after mass protests against him. Sisi said ties with those countries were still strong despite attempts by unnamed parties to divide the allies, a reference to a leaked audio recording that purported to show him and senior aides being derisive of rich Gulf donors. Aside from militants over the border in Libya, Sisi faces an insurgency in the Sinai Peninsula, where Islamic State’s Egypt wing claimed responsibility for a series of attacks that killed over 30 members of the security forces in January 2015.

Israel-Palestine Conflict The Israel-Palestine conflict extends well beyond the Middle East. Unresolved for more than 60 years, it has become a colossal obstruction to international politics and cooperation. The intractable conflict between the nuclear-armed Jewish state and the still stateless Palestinians is experiencing another vicious bout of carnage in Gaza. More than 1,800 Palestinians dead, the majority civilians, is one consequence of years of missed opportunities and the failure of US efforts to revive a long-moribund peace process. The old idea of a two-state solution has few believers these days. But military might is no answer either.

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Syria Bashar al-Assad, who hails from the country’s Alawite minority, was elected for a third presidential term in June 2014. He has good reason to see things going his way in the fourth year of the civil war. Government forces, backed by Hezbollah and Iraqi Shia militiamen, have the upper hand, controlling Damascus and a corridor to the coast and the country’s largest city, Aleppo. But with an estimated 1,50,000 dead and millions of Syrian refugees abroad or displaced at home, the economy is in ruins. ISIS’s embryonic Islamic caliphate, straddling the border with Iraq, is likely to continue to be a magnet for Sunni extremists. Fear of ISIS has weakened western support for Assad’s enemies and boosted his image as a bulwark against extremism. The last UN envoy warned that Syria was becoming ‘another Somalia’.

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Iran Iran is more powerful in Iraq than the US these days. General Qassem Suleimani of the Qods force of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards rushed to Baghdad to organise its defences against ISIS. Iranians talk a lot about defending the historic Iraqi Shia shrines of Karbala and Najaf – and loathe the Sunni extremists they blame the Saudis for backing. Hopes for internal change in the Islamic Republic have risen under President Hassan Rouhani but domestic politics are complex, with the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, calling the shots on national security issues, including the contentious nuclear programme. Tehran attaches huge strategic value to its relationship with its well-armed Lebanese ally Hezbollah, deployed in support of Assad as well as in the front line against Israel. Iran has now signed a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) which is a nuclear agreement signed in Vienna on July 14, 2015, with the the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union. This is a comprehensive agreement on the nuclear programme of Iran. Under the agreement, Iran will eliminate its stockpile of mediumenriched uranium, cut its stockpile of low-enriched uranium by 98 per cent, and reduce by about two-thirds the number of its centrifuges for at least 15 years. For the next 15 years, Iran also agreed not to enrich uranium over 3.67 per cent or build any new uraniumenriching or heavy-water facilities. Uranium-enrichment activities will be limited to a single facility using first-generation centrifuges for 10 years. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks. To monitor and verify Iran’s compliance with the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities. The agreement provides that in return for verifiably abiding by its commitments, Iran will receive relief from US, European Union, and United Nations Security Council nuclear-related sanctions. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows: n Algeria n Egypt n Libya n Bahrain n Iran n Iraq n Israel n Jordan n Kuwait n Lebanon n Sultanate of Oman n Qatar n Saudi Arabia n Syria n Turkey n United Arab Emirates n Republic of Yemen

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CONTENTS

regional balance

West Asia and North Africa

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

West Asia & North Africa

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Turkey


regional balance ALGERIA  General Information

West Asia and North Africa: ALGERIA

tapping. In addition, Algeria’s external debt is extremely low at about 2 per cent of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop nonhydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. The government’s efforts have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians. The Algerian economy’s real growth was an estimated 3 per cent in 2013, driven mainly by domestic demand, including public investment. This growth performance was achieved with inflation slowing to 3.3 per cent thanks to the Algerian Government’s efforts to control market liquidity, contain the expansion of demand for goods and services and increase supply.

Defence

Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Exclusive fishing zone Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

: 23,81,741 sq km : Algiers : 998 km : 12 nm : 32-52 nm : 3,88,13,722 (July 2014 est.) : Arab-Berbers 99 per cent, European less than 1 per cent : Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent, Christian and Jewish 1 per cent : Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects : 72.6 per cent : Republic : 18 years of age; universal : 48 provinces

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Overview of the Economy Algeria’s economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country’s socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatisation of stateowned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues, 30 per cent of GDP, and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Strong revenues from hydrocarbon exports have brought Algeria relative macroeconomic stability, with foreign currency reserves approaching $200 billion and a large budget stabilisation fund available for

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Total Armed Forces : Active: 1,30,000 (Army: 1,10,500; Navy: 6000; Air Force: 14,000) Reserve: 1,50,000 Terms of Service : Conscription 18 months Paramilitary Forces : est 1,87,200 Gendarmerie: 20,000 National Security Forces: 16,000 Republican Guard: 1,200 Legitimate Defence Groups: est 1,50,000

Security Environment The presidential election of April 17, 2014, was a major political event that the Algerian people successfully met, during a regional situation marked by many security challenges. The poll, which culminated in the re-election of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika for a fourth term with 81.53 per cent of the votes, passed off in a calm and serene atmosphere, as noted by the observers. The United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU), the European Union (EU), the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) hailed the ‘peaceful’ polls and encouraged the Algerian Government and the political parties to work together to maintain stability and strengthen the democratic process in Algeria. In this regard, the UN reiterated its commitment to supporting Algeria’s efforts for democratic reforms, as well for sustainable social and economic development. Just after his re-election, President Bouteflika received congratulatory letters from the heads of state and government of friendly countries, in which they hailed the ‘perfect organisation’ of the election across the national territory and also expressed their ’satisfaction’ at the calm atmosphere that marked the event. This election gave a new impetus to the process of the political reforms launched by President Bouteflika, especially for the consolidation of democracy, the rule of state and the socio-economic development of the country. The programme of the fourth term comprises huge projects, including the revision of the Constitution, for which consultations were held last June with different political players, national personalities, associations and representatives of the civil society with a view to reaching a consensual revision of the Constitution. The President’s programme also aims at boosting wealth-generating sectors, in order to reduce the country’s dependence on hydrocarbon. To that end, a great importance has been attached to the strategic sectors of

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Force by Role Mil Regions

: 6

Manoeuvre Armoured Armd Divs Indep Armd Bde Mechanised Mech Divs Indep Mot Bde Light Indep Mot Bde Air Manoeuvre AB Div

: 1 (4 papa regt; 1 SF regt)

Combat Support Arty Bns AD Bns Indep Engr Bns

: 2 : 7 : 4

Equipment by Type MBTs Recce AIFVs APCs Towed Arty

SP Arty MRLs Mors

: 2 (3 tk regts, 1 mech regt, 1 arty gp each) : 1

A/B Grail

NAVY Strength Equipment by Type Submarines Frigates Corvettes Patrol and Coastal Combatants    PB    PBFG    Amph    Sp & Misc

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

: est. 6,000

: 2 (3 mech regts, 1 tk regt each, 1 arty gp) : 3

: 325 T-72, 300 T-62, 270 T-54/-55, 300 T-90S : 44 AML-60, 26 BRDM-2, 64 BRDM-2M each with 9M133 Kornet (AT-14 Spriggan) : 685 BMP-1, 304 BMP-2M, 100 BMP-3 : 250 BTR-60, 150 BTR-80, 150 OT-64, 100 Fahd, 55 M-3 Panhard, 2 Marauder PPV : 122mm 345 160 D-30, 25 D-74, 100 M-1931/37, 60 M-30 (M-1938);130mm 10 M-46; 152mm 20 ML-20 (M-1937); 155mm 18 Type-88 (PLL-01) : 122mm 140 2S1 Carnation; 152mm 30 2S3 : 122mm 48 BM-21; 140mm 48 BM-14/16; 240mm 30 BM-24; 300mm 18 9A52 Smerch : 82mm 150 M-37; 120mm 120 M-1943; 160mm 60 M-1943

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

SP SAM

: 2 Kilo class with 533mm TT, 2 Improved Kilo : 3 Mourad Rais FSU Koni : 3 Rais Hamidou (FSU Nanuchka II) FSGM; 3 Djebel Chenona FSG : 9 Kebir class : 9 OSA II : 1 Polnochny LSM, 2 Kalaat beni Hammad LSTs : 1 Poluchat YPT, 1 Daxin AX, 1 EL Idrissi AGS, 2 Ras Tara YGS, 1 El Chadid, 1 Kader, 4 Mazafran YTB

Naval Aviation Equipment by Type SAR : 10:6 AW101 SAR; 4 Super Lynx MK130 SAR Coast Guard (est 500) Patrol and Coastal Combatants : 6 Baglietto 20 PBF, 6 Baglietto Mangusta, 12 Jabel Antar, 21 Deneb, 4 El Mounkid, 6 Kebir PB with 176mm gun Logistics and Support : 1 El Mourafek ARL, 7 El Mouderrib AXL (2 in reserve)

TECHNOLOGY

: 1,10,000

AD Guns Towed

BUSINESS

Strength

RCL ATk Guns

: Milan, 9K133 Kornet-E (AT-14 Spriggan); 9K115-2 MetisM1(AT-13 Saxhorn-2); AT-3 9K11 Sagger, AT-4 9K111 Spigot, AT-5 9K113 Spandrel : 82mm 120 B-10; 107mm 60 B-11 : 57mm 160 ZIS-2 M-1943; 85mm 80 D-44: 100mm 10 T-12, 50 Su-100 SP (in store) : est 605:14.5mm 100:60 ZPU-2; 40 ZPU-4; 23mm 100 ZU-23; 37mm est 150 M-1939; 57mm 75 S-60; 85mm 20 M-1939 KS-12; 100mm 150 KS-19; 130mm 10 KS-30 : est 225 ZSU-23-4 SP : SP est 48 (SA-8 Gecko), est 20 (SA-9 Gaskin), Pantsir-S1 (SA-22 Greyhound); MANPAD est. 200 SA-7

INDIAN DEFENCE

ARMY

ATGW

AIR FORCE Strength Cbt Ac Force by Role Ftr FGA Elint Maritime Patrol ISR

: 14,000 : 121 : 1 sqn with MiG-25 Foxbat; 4 sqns with MiG-29C/UB Fulcrum : 3 sqn with Su-30MKA, 2 sqns each with Su-24M/Mk French D : 1 sqn with Beech 1900D (electronic surv) : 2 sqns with Beech 200T/ Beech 300 King Air : 1 sqn with Su-24MR Fencer E*, MiG25RBSh Foxbat

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industry and agriculture as part of the 2014-19 development plan. With a view to achieving its development policy, Algeria has opted for the diversification of its foreign partners. Several cooperation agreements were signed with different countries, including France, Qatar and Turkey. The government aims, within the framework of the programme of the President of the Republic, to achieve sustainable socioeconomic development across the different regions of the country, particularly in the South and High Plateaux. Algeria is a crucial state in a volatile region but faces growing internal and external challenges. While financially stable and benefiting from a robust security apparatus, rising unemployment and housing shortages have led to protests against the ‘pouvoir,’ an opaque politico-military elite network that dominates decisionmaking. Meanwhile, the growing capacity of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), comprised of former militants from the 1990s’ Algerian civil war, poses a threat to stability in Algeria and neighbouring states. The government must fulfill recent political reforms to stave off further internal turmoil and overcome its resistance to working collaboratively with regional and international partners if it is to tackle its terrorist threats.

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

West Asia and North Africa: ALGERIA


CONTENTS

With Europe in recession, growing signs of factional wars and terrorism in the Middle East and North Africa, problems of underdevelopment in Africa and geographic isolation of Latin America, Asia-Pacific has come to assume the economic and geopolitical centre of gravity in the 21st century

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Contested Multipolarity The flux in Asia-Pacific is evident in the form of contested multipolarity with recessed and potent powers attempting to expand their sphere of influence simultaneously in many directions and dimensions. The United States Asia-Pacific Rebalancing strategy has timed with the rise of China leading to intensification of competition in the region. This is manifesting in various domains from trade

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Resurgence of Japanese nationalism, with encouragement by the United States, rise of new powers such as India and China and the emergence of several second order competitors to include Indonesia and South Korea has led to fears of a new, ‘Cold War,’ in the region. Wracked by underdevelopment and endemic poverty, state failure in areas like the tribal belt of Afghanistan and Pakistan has provided an ideal environment for growth of many mutinous groups ranging from Al Qaeda to the Taliban. Portends of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) attempting to make inroads in the region were evident. A number of youth, particularly from South East Asia — Indonesia and Malaysia — have reportedly joined the ISIS. Reports of factions of the Taliban in the Af-Pak belt having declared allegiance to the group is also alarming. Thus, the AsiaPacific is a typical admixture of hope and despair. Some of the key trends in the Asia-Pacific region to include contested nature of multipolarity due to resurgence of nationalism, complex relationship emerging between the key powers in the region (United States, China, India and Japan), transition of ASEAN to the ASEAN Economic Community, tensions on the Korean Peninsula, continued militancy in the tribal areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the potential of a nuclear deal between the P 5 + 1 (United States, Russia, China, France, UK and Germany) and Iran need consideration. Two major structural security challenges faced in the Asia-Pacific of nuclear and cyber security also need attention.

BUSINESS

Bhonsle (RETD)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the yearbook

T

he Asia-Pacific   BRIGADIER Rahul region comprises large swathes of land mass from Russia in the North West to New Zealand and Pacific Islands in the South East. Two gigantic Oceans, the Indian and the Pacific, straddle these territories. The region, home to the largest concentration of the human population in the world, also has the highest potential for economic growth and trade in the decades ahead. With Europe in recession, growing signs of factional wars and terrorism in Middle East and North Africa (MENA), problems of underdevelopment in Africa and geographic isolation of Latin America, Asia-Pacific has come to assume the economic and geopolitical centre of gravity in the 21st century. In fact the oft clichéd phrase, ‘21st Century as an Asian Century,’ may be more relevant to the ‘Asia-Pacific’. The Asia-Pacific region has benefited from globalisation with the expansion of manufacturing and information technology (IT). Benefiting from the seamless supply chain, countries in the AsiaPacific have emerged as growth engines of the global economy. Manufacturing giants such as China have been followed by smaller state entities like Bangladesh and Vietnam benefiting from niche capacity in areas as readymade garments. Similarly IT ‘superpower’ India has competition in IT enabling services (ITES) from the Philippines. Thus, even as there has been slow economic growth in the United States and Western Europe, Asia-Pacific region has surged ahead with an average growth in 2014 of well over six per cent. There are, however, many challenges as well. Countries in the region are heavily dependent on natural resources mainly energy — oil and gas from West Asia. There is a great divergence with the mix of large trillion sized economies – China, Japan and India and smaller ones as Afghanistan and Bhutan. The region also has the presence of five of the world’s seven nuclear weapons states — the United States (non-resident), Russia, China, India, Pakistan and North Korea.

TECHNOLOGY

21st Century — An Asia-Pacific Century

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

ASIA-PACIFIC ENVIRONMENT

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


CONTENTS

ARMY EQUIPMENT

: Type-98/Type-99, Type-99G, Type-90II, NORINCO Type-85-III Light tanks (Lt Tks) : Type-62, Type-63, Type-63A Armoured Personnel Carriers/Infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs), (ICVs) : Type-90, ZBD-04 IFV/ZBD (Type-97), NORINCO VP1, Type-89 (YW 534), Type-85 (531H), Type WZ 501, Type-77, Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers : Type-83 152mm, PLZ45 155mm How, Enhanced PLZ45 systems NORINCO, Type-85 122mm How, 155mm (SP) System -SH1 Towed Anti-tank (A Tk) Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun, Type-66

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: Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System, WS-1B Multiple-Launch Rocket System

SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs : Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, PL-9C, Almaz S-300 – ‘Offensive’ Air Defence, China’s SD-10A Air Defence System Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System Towed AA Guns : Chinese Type-56 14.5mm Gun, Norinco 37mm Type-74 Czech/Slovak Republics APCs/ICVs : BRDM-2, OT-64 C (SKOT-2A), BMP-1 & OT90 APC France MBTs Lt Tks APCs/ICVs

: Leclerc, AMX-30 : AMX -13 : Giat AMX-10P, Nexter Systems AMX10P Marines, AMX VCI (ICV), Improved VAB 4 x 4 version (Wheeled), Panhard

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INDIAN DEFENCE

China Main battle tanks (MBTs)

152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Army equipment is listed below in the following order:

TECHNOLOGY

different variants with new fitments based on new technologies to cater for new operational parameters. Thus the equipment may seem old but in fact may have undergone numerous upgrades to modernise it for current and future conflicts. n Some such variants of equipment have been included based upon information in the public domain and collated from various sources including other publications. For greater details, please refer to other relevant media. n Specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors, weapon control systems and other such subsystems have been omitted as they may vary from craft to craft even within the same class or category. n The equipment held (types and numbers) in various countries of Asia along with other details is given in our chapter on Regional Balance.

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

his chapter contains specifications of some important military hardware being employed in the Asian region. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented for each wing of the armed forces, namely Army, Navy and Air Force separately. Salient details are as under: n The chapter begins with a summary of equipment of each manufacturing country followed by more detailed characteristics of each type of equipment of that country. n While the equipment mentioned is in use in the Asian region, each type of hardware is listed under its country of origin (manufacturer) like Russia, UK and the US. n The development of weapon systems being a long-term process, a composite unit like a tank, ship or an aircraft passes through various phases/stages of development and appears in

BUSINESS

Equipment & Hardware Specifications – An Overview

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


regional balance

equipment & hardware specifications: Army

ARMY EQUIPMENT contd. PVP, Panhard M3 : GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun, GIAT 155mm, GCT SP Gun SP AA Guns and SAMs : Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System, Crotale Low Alt SAM System, Shahine Low Alt SAM System, AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System SP Guns and Hows

Germany MBTs APCs/ICVs

India MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows MRLs Israel MBTs Reconnaissance Vehicles SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2A7, Leopard 2A6, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT : Neuer Schutzenpanzer PUMA AIFV, Condor, Fuchs, Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV

SP Guns and Hows MRLs Pakistan MBTs

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APC Russia MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows

Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: D-30 122mm Fd Gun, M-46 130mm Fd Gun, 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs : Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System, BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs : ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System, ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, 2S6M Tunguska System, SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System, SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System, SA-8B SAM System, SA-9 Gaskin SAM, SA-13 Gopher SAM System Towed AA Guns : ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun, S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun, 100mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19

: T-90, Arjun : IFG Mk.2 105mm : Pinaka MR System

Singapore SP Guns and Hows

: SSPH-1 Primus

South Africa APCs/ICVs

: Casspir Mk. III, Ratel 90

: Merkava Mk3, Merkava 4, Sabra MBT : RAM family of light AFVs : Soltam L-33 155mm

South Korea MBTs : K1, Hyundai Rotem K2 MBT Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : 155mm KH179 How

: Soltam M-71 155mm Gun/How

Italy SP Guns and Howitzer : Oto Palmaria 155mm, Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs

122mm (MSTA-S) 152mm SelfPropelled Artillery System 2S19

: Type-74, Type-90, Mitsubishi TK–X MBT : Type-87 : Type-73, Type-89, Mitsubishi Type SU 60 : Type-75 155mm, Type-99 155mm : Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System

Spain APCs/ICVs

Sweden Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Bofors FH-77 B 155mm Towed AA Guns : Bofors L-40/-70, 40mm Auto AA Gun Switzerland APCs/ICVs Towed AA Guns

United Kingdom MBTs : Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid), Type Al Zarrar : Type Saad, Type Talha, Type M113A2 : Black Eagle Development Tank, T-95, T-54, T-55, T-55 (Upgraded), T-62, T-64B, T-72, T-80U, T-90S : PT-76B : BRDM-2, PRP-4 : BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-1 ACV, BTR-50, BTR-80A, MT-LB, BTR-152VI : M 1973 (2S3) 152mm, M 1974 (2S1)

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: BMR-600

Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: Mowag Piranha : Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns, Oerlikon Contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns : Chieftain Mk 5, Centurion Mk 13, Challenger 2, Khalid, Vickers MBT Mk 3 : Alvis Scorpion : Alvis Saladin, Daimler Ferret Mk 2/3 : Stormer, GKN Def Desert Warrior, FV432 : AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun : 105mm Lt Gun (L 118), 155mm Lightweight How (M 777)

United States of America MBTs : M-1 Abrams, M-48 series, M 60 A3 Lt Tks : M-41, Sting Ray APCs/ICVs : M-113 A3

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2. Type-98 Specifications Crew : 3 Weight : 50,000 kg Power-to-weight ratio : 24 hp/tonne Length gun forward : 10.92 m Width : 3.372 m Height : 2.805 m Engine : Model WD396 V-8 turbo-charged diesel developing 1,200 hp Max road speed : 65 kmph Max range : 500-650 km Armament

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: Tracked, armoured : 3 : 11 m : 3.4 m : 2.2 m : 54 t : 58 t : 80 kmph : 400 km, or 600 km with external fuel tanks

Armament    Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm    AA : 1 x 12.7mm It is in service with People’s Liberation Army (PLA). 3. Type-90-II Specifications Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 443. Type 99 G A more potent variant of the Chinese Type-99 main battle tank began circulating shortly after Xinhua News Agency released photos of what looked like a new and improved version of that armoured vehicle in early 2008. The visual differences indicate that the Type-99G has a new Active Protection System (APS) and an independent thermal imaging system for the tank commander. The tank also seems to sport a new electro-optical countermeasures package and a new laser designator warning system. Collectively, these improvements in the sensors and electronics mean the Type-99G is better able to find targets, more aware of when it is being targeted by an enemy, and better able to use small missiles to deflect or destroy incoming attacks. The Type-99G main battle tank is also rumoured to have a new diesel engine, developing 2,100 hp. This represents an increase of 600 hp over the engine used in previous versions of the tank. 4. NORINCO Type-85-III MBT Specifications Dimensions and Weights Crew : 3 Length Overall : 10.369 m Main armament rear : 9.508 m Width : 3.42 m Height : 2.3 m Ground clearance adjustable : 0.48 m to 0.52 m

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

CHINA Main Battle Tanks (MBT) 1. Main Battle Tank 3000 Type: Main battle tank Production History, Designer and Manufacturer : Norinco Produced 2014- present Specifications Weight : 52 tonnes Length : 10.10 m Width : 3.40 m Height : 2.30 m Crew : 3 (commander, driver, gunner) Armour : Classified Main armament : 125mm (4.9 in) smooth bore Secondary armament : 1 x RWS 12.7mm (0.50 in) AA MG : 1 × 7.62mm (0.300 in) coaxial MG Engine : Turbocharged diesel engine : 1,300 hp (969 kW) Power/weight : 25 hp/tonne Suspension : torsion bar Operational range : 500 km (310 mi) Speed : 68 kmph (42 mph) Pakistan plans to license and manufacture MBT 3000 as Al-Hyder tank.

3. Type 99 /99A2 Specifications Type Crew Length Width Height Type-99G Type-99A2 Maximum Speed (Road) Cruising Range

TECHNOLOGY

Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : M-198 155mm How SP AA Guns and SAMs : M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System, M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System, M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM System, Patriot Msl (many versions) single stage low to high altitude SAM system, Hawk Single Stage, low to medium altitude SAM System Towed AA Guns : M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun

BUSINESS

: 15 mm/ 52-calibre International Howitzer, M-107 175mm SP Gun, M- 109 Series of 155mm SP How, M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch)

: 1 x 125mm SBG    Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm MG    AA : 1 x 12.7mm MG Amn : 42 x 125mm, 2,000 x 7.62mm, 300 x 12.7mm

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP Guns and Hows

  Main

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

ARMY EQUIPMENT contd.

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: ARmy


regional balance NAVAL EQUIPMENT

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Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below: CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines : Aircraft Carriers : Patrol Submarines : Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes :

Jin Class XIA Class Han Class Shang Class Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) Song Class Yuan Class Kilo Class Luzhou Class Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luda Class Luhai Class Luhu Class Jiangkai Class Jiangkai II Class Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu 1/II/V Class Jiangdao Class

INDIA Submarines : Aircraft Carriers : Destroyers : Frigates :

Shishumar Class Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class Hermes Class Kiev Class (Ex Admiral Gorshkov) Delhi Class Kashin Class Godavari Class Brahmaputra Class Talwar Class Shivalik Class

ISRAEL Submarines : Corvettes : Patrol Forces :

Dolphin Class Eilat (SAAR 5) Class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Reshef Class Super Dvora Class

NORTH KOREA Submarines : Romeo Class Sang-O Class Yono Class Frigates : Najin Class For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Soho Class RUSSIA Patrol Submarines : Kilo Class Lada Class

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equipment & hardware specifications: navy

Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes :

Kashin Class Udayloy I & II Class Krivak Class Admiral Gorshkov Class Admiral Grigorovich Class Gepard Class Buyan Class Steregushchy Class Nanuchka Class Tarantul Class

SOUTH KOREA Submarines : Chang Bogo Class Son Wonil Class Dolgorae Class Amphibious Assault : Dokdo Class LPH Go Jun Bong Class LST Destroyers : KDX1, 2 & 3 Class Frigates : Incheon Class Ulsan Class Corvettes : P O Hang Class For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. THAILAND Aircraft Carriers : Amphibious Forces : Frigates : Corvettes :

Chakri Naruebet Class Endurance Class Nomed PS 700 Class Naresuan Class Gwanggaeto Class Oliver Hazard Perry Class Knox Class Jianghu II Class Tapi Class Khamronsin Class Ratnakosin Class

UNITED KINGDOM For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Frigates : Leander Class Salisbury Class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu Class Missile Craft : Dhofar (Province) Class Corvettes : Qahir Class UNITED STATES OF AMERICA For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Guided Missile Destroyers : Gearing Class Frigates : Adelaide Class Amphibious Forces : Austin Class WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Submarines : Agosta Class (France, Spain) Daphne Class (France)

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XIA Class (Type 092) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes : 6,500 surfaced, 7,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 393.6 × 33 × 26.2 (120 × 10 × 8) Main machinery : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 58 MW; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 22 dived Complement : 100 Missiles : SLBM: 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3); inertial guidance to 2,150 km (1,160 nm); warhead single nuclear 250 kT. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nmnm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Countermeasures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-Band. Sonars : SQZ-3; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. Structure : Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). The Xia is a derivative of the Han Class SSNs,

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Shang Class (Type 093) Displacement, tonnes : 6,500 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 372 x 37.2 x 33.6 (110 x 11 x 10) Main machinery : 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor, 1 shaft Speed, knots : 30 dived Complement : 100 Weapons : 6 x 533mm or 650mm torpedo tubes for a range of wire, acoustic and wake homing torpedoes and the submarine launched version of YJ-83 cruise missile. Programme & Structure: The Type 093G is reported to be an upgraded version of Type 093, China’s second-generation nuclear-powered attack submarine, which entered active service several years ago. With a teardrop hull, the submarine is longer than its predecessor and has a vertical launching system. Patrol Submarines 13 Song Class (Type 039/039G) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 1,700 surfaced; 2,250 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 246 × 24.6 × 17.5 (74.9 × 8.4 × 5.3) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16V 396 SE; 6,092 hp (m) (4.48 MW) diesels; 4 alternators; 1 motor; 1 shaft. An AIP system has been reported Speed, knots : 15 surfaced; 22 dived Complement : 60 (10 officers) Missiles : SSM: C-801A; radar active homing to 80 km (44 nm) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. Combination

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines 5 + 1 Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes : 8,000 surfaced, 11,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 449.5 × 38.7 × 7.5 (137.0 × 11.8 × 2.3) Main machinery : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 20 Complement : 140 Missiles : SLBM; 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5); 2-stage solid-fuel rocket; Inertial guidance with stellar update to over 8,600 km, 12,000 km or 14,000 km depending on the variant; single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm tubes) Countermeasures : Decoys: ESM. Radars : Surface search/navigation: Type-359; I-Band Sonars : Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Structure : Likely to be based on the Type-093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design.

TECHNOLOGY

Combattante Class (France) Ratcharit Class (Italy) Principe De Asturias Class (Spain)

Nuclear Propelled Attack Submarines (SSGN) Han Class (Type 091) Displacement, tonnes : 5,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 385 x 33 x 24 (98 x 10 x 7.4) Main machinery : 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor, 1 shaft Speed, knots : 25 dived, 12 surfaced Complement : 75 Weapons : 6 x 533mm torpedo tubes for CET 65E and Type 53-51 torpedoes, up to 20 torpedoes or 36 mines Tube launched C-801 anti-ship missiles. Programme & Structure: The first nuclear powered submarines deployed by the PLA (Navy). Five boats of the class were built and commissioned between 1974 and 1990. The first two are reported to have been decommissioned. They are known for a noisy reactor and poor radiation shielding and are inhibited in their ability to launch missiles while submerged. The submarines are equipped with SQZ-262 sonar made in China. All boats deployed with the North Sea Fleet and based at Qingdao.

BUSINESS

HDW Class (Germany) Al Riyadh Class (France) Madina Class (France) La Fayette Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain)

INDIAN DEFENCE

Frigates : Fast Attack Missile Craft : Aircraft Carriers :

with an extended hull to accommodate 12 ballistic missile tubes.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NAVAL EQUIPMENT contd.

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: navy


regional balance NAVAL EQUIPMENT contd.

Mines Countermeasures Radars Sonars

: : : :

Operational

:

of Yu-4 (SAET-50); passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted. In lieu of torpedoes ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning Surface search: I-Band Bow-mounted; Chinese derivative of French Thomson CSF TSM 2233; passive/active search and attack; medium frequency. Flank array; Chinese derivative of Thomson CSF 2255; passive search; low frequency Basing: North (315, 316, 327, 328); East (314, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325); South (320, 326, 329)

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7+1 Yuan Class (Type 041) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 4,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 236.2 x 27.5 (72.0 x 8.4) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 diesels; 1 motor; Chinese developed AIP system; 1 shaft. Missiles : SSM: C-80X; inertial cruise; active radar homing to 80-120 km (44-66 nm) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50); active/ passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wakehoming torpedoes may also be fitted. Sonars : Bow-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium; medium frequency. Flank array; passive search; low frequency. Complement : 58 Comment: Teardrop hull and use of anechoic rubber tiles suggest strong influence of Kilo class in design. Yuan class is equipped with indigenously developed shock absorber system to reduce noise by over 35 dB. It is intended to replace the obsolescent Romeo and Ming class submarines. The second 039A (322?) version reported to have more modern fin and has the stepped conning tower removed making it similar to French Agosta-90B in external appearance. It might have been fitted with an AIP system believed to have been tested onboard a Ming class SS. Kilo Class (Project 877EKM/636) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 2,325 surfaced; 3,076 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 238.2; 242.1 (Project 636) × 32.5 × 21.7 (72.6; 73.8 × 9.9 × 6.6) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 2 diesels; 3,650 hp(m) (2.68 MW); 2 generators; 1 motor; 5,900 hp(m) (4.34 MW); 1 shaft; 2 auxiliary

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equipment & hardware specifications: navy

motors; 204 hp(m) 150 kW); 1 economic speed motor; 130 hp(m) (95 kW). Speed, knots : 17 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 52 (13 officers) Missiles : SLCM: Novator Alfa Klub SS-N-27 (3M54E1); active radar homing to 180 km (97.2 nm) at 0.7 Mach (cruise) and 2.5 Mach (attack); warhead 450 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. 18 torpedoes. Combination of TEST 71/96; wire-guided; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg and 53-65; passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 nm) at 45 kt; warhead 300 kg. Mines : 24 in lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures : ESM: Squid Head or Brick Pulp; radar warning Weapons control : MVU-119 EM Murena TFCS. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-Band. Sonars : Shark Teeth; hull-mounted; passive/ active search and attack; medium frequency Mouse Roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Modernisation : The first four submarines were refitted in the Shipyards at Russia. Upgrade package is likely to have included installation of the Klub (3M54) (SS-N-27), anti-ship missile system. China has ordered eight Type 636s armed with the new Club-S series (3M54E, range 300 km at Mach 0.8) SLCMs from Russia in May 2002, a move considered as China’s response to Taiwan’s order of eight diesel submarines from US. This acquisition reflects PLAN’s urgency to build a credible submarine force against potential threats from US and Japanese naval forces. Operational: The first eight (364-371) based at Xiangshan in the East Sea Fleet and the remainder (372-375) based in the South Sea Fleet. Aircraft Carriers 0+1 Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) (Project 1143.5/6) Name : Liaoning, named for the Liaoning province Displacement, tonnes : 53,000-55,200 standard; 58,600-67,500 max. Dimensions, feet (metres) : 999 oa; 918.6 wl x 229.7 oa; 121.4 wl x 34.4 (304.5; 280 x 70; 37 x 10.5) Flight deck, feet (metres) : 999 x 229.7 (304.5 x 70) Main machinery : 8 boilers; 4 turbines; 2,00,000 hp(m) (147 MW); 4 shafts Speed, knots : 30 Range, nm : 3,850 at 29 kt; 8,500 at 18 kt Complement : 1,960 (200 officers plus 626 aircrew plus 40 flag staff ) Weapons 3xType 1130 CIWS, 11 barrels, firing 9,000 to 11,000 rounds per minute,

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Sovremenny Class (Project 956E/956EM) (DDGHM) Names : Hangzhou, Taizhou, Fuzhou, Ningbo Displacement, tonnes : 7,940 full load Dimensions, feet (metres) : 511.8 × 56.8 × 21.3 (156 × 17.3 × 6.5) Main machinery : 4 KVN boilers; 2 GTZA-674 steam turbines; 99,500 hp(m) (73.13 MW) sustained; 2 shafts; bow thruster Speed, knots : 32 Range, nm : 2,400 at 32 kt; 4,000 at 14 kt Complement : 296 (25 officers) plus 60 spare Missiles : SSM: 8 Raduga SS-N-22 Sunburn (Moskit 3M-80E) (2 quad) launchers; active/passive radar homing to 160 km (240 in 138, 139) (87 (130) nm) at 3.0 (4.5 for attack) Mach; warhead 300 kg; sea-skimmer. SAM: 2 SA-N-7 Gadfly (Uragan) 9M38M1 Smerch; command/semiactive radar and IR homing to 25 km (13.5 nm) at 3 Mach; warhead 70 kg; altitude 15-14,020 m (50-46,000 ft); 44 missiles. Multiple channels of fire; 2 CADS-N-1 (Kashtan) (138, 139); each has 30mm gatling combined with 8 SA-N-11 (Grisson) and Hot Flash/Hot Spot radar/optronic director. Laser beam guidance for missiles to 8 km (4.4 nm); warhead 9 kg; 9,000 rds/min to 1.5 km for guns. Guns : 4 (2 (138, 139)) 130mm/56 (2 (1) twin) AK 130; 70 rds/min to 22 km (12 nm); weight of shell 33.4 kg; 4 x 30mm/65 AK 630 (136,137); 6 barrels per mounting; 3,000 rds/min combined to 2 km. Torpedoes : 4-21 in (533mm) (2 twin) tubes A/S mortars : 2 RBU 1000 6-barrelled; range 1,000 m; warhead 55 kg; 120 rockets carried, torpedo countermeasure.

BUSINESS

Destroyers 2 Luzhou Class (Type 051C) (DDGHM) Names : Shenyang, Shijiazhuang Displacement, tonnes : 7,100 full load Dimensions, feet (metres) : 508.5 x 55.8 x 19.7 (155 x17 x 6) Propulsion : 2 Indigenous steam turbines Speed, knots : 30 Complement : To be announced Missiles : SSM: 8 C-803 (YJ-83) 2 quad; active radar homing to 300 km (65 nm) at 0.9 Mach rising to 2.0 Mach in terminal phase; warhead 165 kg semi-armour piercing; sea skimmer. SAM : 6 (2 forward, 4 aft) SA-N-20 Gargoyle (Rif-M) circular vertical launchers; 8 rounds per launcher; command guidance; semi-active radar homing to 150 km (81 nm); warhead 143 kg; altitude 27,432 m (90,000 ft). 48 missiles. Guns : 1-3.9 in (100mm)/56; 25 rds/min to 22 km (12 nm); weight of shell 15.6 kg; 2 x Type 730A 30mm CIWS 7 barrels per mounting; 4,200 rds/min combined to 1.5 km. ASW : 2 x triple 324mm torpedo launchers for Yu-7 torpedoes, Chinese derivative of US Mk 46 torpedo, Range 7.3 km, active/passive acoustic homing, 47 knots speed, 45 kg warhead.

: 2 x 18 Type 726-4 multipurpose rocket launchers, tube launchers; 2 x 15 Type 946 rocket launchers Combat data systems : To be announced. SATCOM Weapons control : Band Stand; I-Band (data link for C-802) Radars : Air search: Top plate (Fregat MAE-3); 3D; E-Band Air/surface search : Type 364 Seagull C; G-Band Fire control : Tomb Stone (Volna); I/J-Band (for RifM), Bandstand (Mineral ME); I-Band (for C-802), Type 344 (MR 34); I-Band (for 100mm), Type 347G (2) (LR 66); I-Band (for Type 730). Navigation : To be announced Sonars : Bow mounted, to be announced Helicopters : Platform only for Ka-28 Helix or equivalent

INDIAN DEFENCE

range 2.5-3.5 km 3 x HQ 10 (18 cell SAM system) 2 x ASW Rocket Launchers Aircraft : Mix of Shenyang J-15 fighters (Chinese derivative of Su-33, 2.4 Mach), Changzhe Z-8 helicopters (French Super Frelon SA 321 made in China for ASW and SAR role) and Ka-31 AEW helicopters. Programme: Liaoning is the PLA (Navy)’s first and only aircraft carrier. She was bought at an auction in 1998 from Ukraine, towed to China and moved into a dry dock in Dalian in 2005. She was fitted with Chinese weapons and sensors, including an advanced AESA radar, SAM system and CIWS. She began sea trials in August 2011 and was commissioned on September 25, 2012. The platform is being used as a training ship, for flight testing and will provide a blueprint for future Chinese aircraft carriers. As per reports, Liaoning is not expected to undertake any missions in far seas for another two to three years. Chinese officials have confirmed that the country is currently building a second aircraft carrier. Officials have said that China needs more practice, more mature technology, and more fighter jets before undertaking a far-seas missions, as also train more carrier pilots as it continues building up its capabilities. Beijing has plans to build at least three carriers so that they could alternate between being at port, at sea and deployed for training exercises. Operational : Liaoning is expected to be operational by 2017

Countermeasures

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NAVAL EQUIPMENT contd.

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: navy


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Helicopters France Germany India Italy Russia

: Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma/AS 532 Cougar : Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550/AS 555 Fennec : Eurocopter SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/366 Dauphin II, : AS 565 Panther : Eurocopter SA 316/319 Alouette III : Eurocopter SA 330 Puma : Eurocopter SA 341/342 Gazelle : Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 : Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv : ALH–WSI (Armed Version) – Orders placed : Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) – Orders placed : Light Utility Helicopter – Under Development by HAL : AW101 VIP Communication : AW139 VIP Communication/SAR : Kamov Ka-52 Attack Helicopter : Kamov Ka-60/62 : Kamov Ka-226 Sergei Light Utility Helicopter : Kazan Ansat : Mil Mi-6

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: Xian H-6A/H/M Strategic Bomber : Shenyang 8B, J8F & J8H Third-Gen Interceptor : Xian JH-7 & 7A – Fighter Bomber : Chengdu J-7, J-7E &J-7G – Under replacement : Chengdu J-10A, J-10B & J-10S – FourthGen Multi-role Fighter : Nanchang Q-5 Fantan-Q-5C, Q-5D & Q-5E – Strike Aircraft : FC-1 Xiaolong/JF-17 Thunder-Multirole Combat Aircraft : Chengdu J-20 – Fifth-Gen Stealth Aircraft Under Development : Shenyang J-11A, 11B & 11BH (Copy of Su-27) : Shenyang J-16 –Multi-role Fighter : Shenyang J-31 Fourth-Gen Stealth Aircraft Europe : Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 1, 2 & 3A France : Dassault Mirage 2000H, Dassault Mirage F1, Dassault Mirage IV, Dassault Rafale India : LCA Tejas Mk I Israel : IAI Kfir – Multi-role Combat Aircraft IAI Nesher (Israeli version of Dassault Mirage 5) Russia : Mikoyan MiG-25R : Mikoyan MiG-29 : Mikoyan MiG-31/MiG-31BM : Mikoyan MiG-35 : Sukhoi Su-24 M/M2/MR : Sukhoi Su-25SM : Sukhoi Su-27 : Sukhoi Su-30M/M2 : Sukhoi Su-33 : Sukhoi Su-34P : Sukhoi Su-35 : Sukhoi Su-47 - Under Development : Sukhoi T-50 PAK FA – Under Development Sweden : Saab JAS-39 Gripen United Kingdom : Panavia Tornado BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series United States of America : Boeing F-15C/D Eagle : Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle : Boeing F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet : Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet : Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Fighting Falcon : Northrop F-5F/N Tiger II : F-22A Raptor : F-35A/F-35B Lightening II Joint Strike Fighter

TECHNOLOGY

Combat Aircraft China

BUSINESS

AERIAL PLATFORMS

Transport Aircraft Germany : Transall C-160 : Dornier Do 228 Russia : Ilyushin IL-76 : Ilyushin IL-96 : Tupolev Tu-134 : Tupolev Tu-214 Spain : Airbus Military CASA C-212 : Airbus Military CASA CN-235M : Airbus Military CASA C-295 Ukraine : Antonov An-12 : Antonov An-22 : Antonov An-26 : Antonov An-32 : Antonov An-124 : Antonov An-72 : Antonov An-74 United States of America : C-5 Galaxy : C-17 Globemaster III : Lockheed Martin C-130J-30 Super Hercules Brazil : Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante : Embraer Legacy 600 VIP Transport : Embraer 190 VIP Transport : Embraer 120 Brasila : Embraer 145 Utility : Embraer 121 Xingu : Embraer R 99 AEW/Elint Embraer KC-390 – Maiden Flight on February 3, 2015

INDIAN DEFENCE

AIR equipment is listed below in the following order:

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

AIR EQUIPMENT

REGIONAL BALANCE

regional balance

equipment & hardware specifications: air force


regional balance AIR EQUIPMENT contd. United States of America Training Brazil India United Kingdom China/Pakistan

: : : : : :

Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 V5 Mil Mi-24 Attack Helicopter Mil Mi-25/-35 Attack Helicopter Mil Mi-26 Mil Mi-28

: : : : :

Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra Boeing AH-64 Apache Boeing CH-47 Chinook Sikorsky UH-60/HH-60/S-70

: Embraer EMB-312 Tucano : HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk I/IA and Mk II : BAE Systems Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer : K-8 Karakoram Basic Jet Trainer : L-15 Advanced Jet Trainer

Airborne Early Warning & Control Brazil : Embraer-145/R99 AEW Sweden : Saab 2000 AEW&C United States of America : Boeing E-3 Sentry, Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye : Boeing E-767 AWACS Russia/Israel : IL-76 with Phalcon System Combat Aircraft

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China Hong–6 Western designation : B-6 User : China Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Jian–7 Western designation : F-7 Type : Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft Design based on : MiG-21 F (of Soviet origin) Other versions : (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I; exported to Albania, Egypt, Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I; also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles, exported to Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe); F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M)

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equipment & hardware specifications: air force

(ix) F-7 P Airbolt: (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles; F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA; Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third-generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7/FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users : China (J-7 II/ IIA/ H/ IIM/ III/ IIIA/ E), Bangladesh (F-7M), Egypt (F-7A/B), Iran (F-7M), Myanmar (F-7M), North Korea (F-7), Pakistan (F-7P/PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS). Jian–8 NATO reporting name : Finback Western designation : F-8 User : China Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Jianjiao–7 Western designation : FT-7 Users : Bangladesh (FT-7B), China (JJ-7), Iran (FT-7), Myanmar (FT-7), Pakistan (FT7P/ PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Qiang–5 NATO reporting name : Fantan Western designation : A-5 Users : Bangladesh (A-5C), China (Q-5), Myanmar (A-5-C/-M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. FC–1 Export version : Super-7 Users : China, Pakistan Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500. Jianji–10 Western designation : F-10 Type : Multi-role fighter Design : Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore-planes; single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins; single ventral engine air intake. Accommodation : Pilot only, on zero/ zero ejection seat. Range : 1,000 nm Armament : 11 external stores points, including one on centre line, tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing,

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France Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Users : Egypt, India, Qatar (Mirage 2000-5), Taiwan (Mirage 2000-5) and UAE (Mirage 2000-9). Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition.

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India Light Combat Aircraft Tejas Mk I User : India Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition. Israel IAI Kfir Type Users

: Multi-role fighter : Israel, Sri Lanka, Ecuador and Columbia. Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 501. Russia Mikoyan MiG-21 NATO reporting name : Fishbed/Mongol Users : At least 38 air forces of the world with different versions including Afghanistan, Algeria, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Libya, Syria, Vietnam, Yemen. Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition. Mikoyan MiG-23 NATO reporting name : Flogger Users : Algeria, Kazakhstan, Libya, North Korea, Syria and Turkmenistan. Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2011-12 Edition, page 220. Mikoyan MiG-25 NATO reporting name : Foxbat Users : Algeria, Kazakhstan, Libya, Syria and Turkmenistan. Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 501.

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

Mikoyan MiG-27 M NATO reporting name : Flogger J

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dassault Aviation Rafale User : France Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition.

TECHNOLOGY

Europe Eurofighter Typhoon Crew : 1 or 2 Length : 15.96 m (52 ft 5 in) Wingspan : 10.95 m (35 ft 11 in) Height : 5.28 m (17 ft 4 in) Wing area : 50 m (540 ft) Empty weight : 11,000 kg (24,250 lb) Loaded weight : 15,550 kg (34,280 lb) Max take-off weight : 23,000 kg (51,809 lb) Power plant : 2 Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofans Dry thrust : 60 kN (13,500 lbf ) each Thrust with afterburner : 90 kN (20,250 lbf ) each Maximum speed At altitude : Mach 2 At sea level : Mach 1.2 (1,470 kmph, 915 mph) Supercruise : Mach 1.2 (1,470 kmph, 915 mph) Range : 1,390 km (864 mi) Ferry range : 3,790 km (2,300 mi) Service ceiling : 19,812 m (65,000 ft) Rate of climb : 315 m/s (62,007 ft/min) Wing loading : 311 kg/m (63.7 lb/ft) Thrust/weight : 1.18 Armament Gun : 1 x 27mm Mauser BK-27 cannon Air-to-air missiles : AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-132 ASRAAM, AIM-120 AMRAAM, IRIS-T and in the future MBDA Meteor Air-to-ground missiles : AGM-84 Harpoon, AGM-88 HARM, ALARMs, Storm Shadow (a.k.a “Scalp EG”), Brimstone, Taurus, Penguin and in the future AGM Armiger Bombs : Paveway 2, Paveway 3, Enhanced Paveway, JDAM, HOPE/HOSBO Laser designator, e.g. LITENING pod Users : UK, Germany, Spain, Italy, Saudi Arabia and Austria.

Dassault Aviation Mirage 5 Users : Egypt, Libya and Pakistan. Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 501.

BUSINESS

J–11 (Su-27SK) For details see Su-27 under Russia User : China

INDIAN DEFENCE

Combat Radius User

the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs; C-801 or C-802 ASMs; and laser-guided or free-fall bombs. : 250-300 nm : China

Dassault Aviation Mirage III User : Pakistan Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500. Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C Users : Jordan, Kuwait and Libya. Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

AIR EQUIPMENT contd.

regional balance

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: air force


abbreviations

Abbreviations A A&E Ammunition and Explosives A&N Andaman and Nicobar A/S Anti-Submarine A/S Mortars Anti-Submarine Mortars AA-AB anti-aerial air burst AAAU active array antenna unit AAC Army Aviation Corps AAD Army Air Defence AAM air-to-air missile Ac/ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat, Command and Control System/ artillery command/ control and communications system ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMU alternating current electrical multiple unit ACHR Asian Centre for Human Rights ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS (PP&FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile/ Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACNS (P&P) Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Policy & Plans) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel ACOP (CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP (HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) Acqn Acquisition ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency ADC&RS air defence control and reporting system ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADG Army Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation ADG DV Additional Director General Discipline and Vigilance ADG EM Additional Director General Equipment Management ADG Mov Additional Director General Movement ADG Procurement Additional Director General Procurement ADG PS Additional Director General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Director General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Director General Information System ADGIW Additional Director General Information Warfare ADGMI Additional Director General Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General Military Operations ADGMS (Navy) Additional Director General Medical Services (Navy) ADGOL Additional Director General Operation Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence ADIZ Air Defence Identification Zone ADMM ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AESA active electronically scanned array AEW airborne early warning AEW&C airborne early warning and control AFP Armed Forces of the Philippines Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AG Adjutant General AGM air-to-ground missile AGPL actual ground position line AH attack helicopters AHEAD advanced hit efficiency and destruction AIEPG ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group AIS automatic identification system AJT advanced jet trainer AL Awami League ALH advanced light helicopter

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AMDR ANA ANC ANSF ANURAG ANVC AOC AON AOP APA APC APDS APEC APFSDS APS APT AQAP AR AR&DB ARDC ARDE

Air and Missile Defence Radar Afghan National Army Andaman and Nicobar Command Afghan National Security Forces Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group Achik National Volunteer Council Army Ordnance Corps acceptance of necessity Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel advanced projects agency armed personnel carrier armour piercing discarding sabot Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation armour piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot Active Promotion System advanced persistent threat Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Assam Rifles Aeronautical Research and Development Board Aircraft R&D Centre Armament Research & Development Establishment ARF ASEAN Regional Forum ARMREB Armament Research Board ARMSCOR Armaments Corporation of South Africa ARTC&S Assam Rifles Training Centre and School ARTRAC Army Training Command ASAT anti-satellite weapons ASCON Army Static Communication Network ASDF Air Self-Defence Force ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASG Abu Sayyaf Group ASTE Aircraft and System Testing Establishment ASTROIDS Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System ASW anti-submarine warfare ATAS active-cum-passive towed array sonar ATDS advanced torpedo defence system ATGM anti-tank guided missile ATM air traffic management AVSM Ati Vishisht Seva Medal AWACS airborne warning and control system

B BADZ BARC BDL BDR BE BEL BEML BFSR BHEL BIMSTEC

Base Air Defence Zone Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bharat Dynamics Limited Bangladesh Rifles Budget Estimate Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Earth Movers Limited battlefield surveillance radar Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation BM Border Management BMC2 Battle Management Command and Control BMD ballistic missile defence BMI brain-machine-interfaces BMS ballistic missile systems BMS battlefield management system Bn (bn) Battalion BNP Bangladesh Nationalist Party BOMCA Border Management Programme in Central Asia BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa BRO Border Roads Organisation BSF Border Security Force BSS battlefield surveillance system BTAD Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District BVR beyond visual range

C C4 C4I C4I2 C4I2SR

command, control, communications and computers command, control, communications, computers, information command, control, communications, computing, intelligence and information command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence,

surveillance and reconnaissance command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance CABS Centre for Airborne Systems CAD computer-aided design/ current account deficit CAG Comptroller and Auditor General of India CAIR Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics CAM Computer-aided manufacturing CAPF Central Armed Police Force CAR Central Acquisition Radar CAR Central Asian Republics CARAT Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training CAREC Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation CASA Central Asia South Asia CASSA Council of Agencies Serving South Asians CAW College of Air Warfare CBI Central Bureau of Investigation CBM confidence building measures CBRN chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear CBTA Cross-Border Transport Agreement CC control centre CCA Central Coordinating Authority CCP Chinese Communist Party CCS Cabinet Committee on Security CDS Chief of Defence Staff CECA Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement CELLDAR cell phone radar CEMILAC Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification CEO Chief Executive Officer CEP circular error probability CEPA Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement CEPTAM Centre for Personal Talent Management CERT Computer Emergency Response Team CES Common Economic Space CFC Combined Force Commander CFD computational fluid dynamics CFEES Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety CFL ceasefire line CFT Combating Financing Terrorism CGE Central Government Expenditure CHARI Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative CHASNUPP Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CIA Central Intelligence Agency CIAT Counter-Insurgency and Anti-Terrorist CIDSS command information decision support system CIG Counter-Insurgency Grid CIM Computer Integrated Manufacturing CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CISC Chief of Integrated Staff to the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee CISF Central Industrial Security Force CMC Computer Maintenance Corporation/ Central Military Commission CMD credible minimum deterrence CMDS countermeasure dispensing systems CNC computer numerically controlled boring machines CoBRA Commando Battalion for Resolute Action COM Chief of Material COP Chief of Personnel CORF Collective Operational Reaction Force CORPAT Coordinated Patrol COSC Chiefs of Staff Committee COTS commercial off-the-shelf CPC Central Pay Commission CPI (M) Communist Party of India (Maoist) CPMF Central Paramilitary Forces CPMIEC China National Precision Machinery Corporation CPS Controller of Personnel Services C-RAM counter rocket, artillery and mortar CRBC China Road and Bridge Corporation CrPC Criminal Procedure Code CRPF Central Reserve Police Force CSA (ILMS) Chief Systems Administrator (ILMS) CSIS Centre for Strategic and International Studies CSN coastal surveillance network CSS coastal security scheme/coastal surveillance system CSTO Collective Security Treaty Organisation CT computed tomography CU Customs Union CUNPK Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping CVLO counter very-low observable CVM Chakri Naruebet Class CVRDE Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment C4ISR

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abbreviations D DAB DAC DACIDS DARE DARPA DART DBSN DCIDSPP&FD DCMG DCN DCNS DDG CS DDG DSC DDG MF DDG Pnr DDP&S DEAL DEBEL DERL DESIDOC DFRL DG AAD DG Arty DG CW DG DCW DG EME

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DG FP DG Inf DG Mech Forces DG MP DG MS (Army) DG Pers DG Pers & Org DG PP DG RR DG WKS (Army) DGAQA

digital audio broadcasting Defence Acquisition Council Deputy Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Defence Avionics Research Establishment Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Driven Ammunition Reduced Time of Flight distributed battlefield sensor network Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, Policy Planning and Force Development Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Director General Canteen Services Deputy Director General Defence Security Corps Deputy Director General Military Farms Deputy Director General Pioneers Department of Defence Production and Supplies Defence Electronics Application Laboratory Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory Defence Electronics Research Laboratory Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre Defence Food Research Laboratory Director General Army Air Defence Director General Artillery Director General Ceremonials and Welfare Director General Discipline Ceremonials & Welfare Director General Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Director General Financial Planning Director General Infantry Director General Mechanised Forces Director General Manpower Planning Director General Medical Services (Army) Director General Personnel Director General Organisation and Personnel Director General Perspective Planning Director General Rashtriya Rifles

Director General Works (Army) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance DGICG Director General of the Indian Coast Guard DGMO Director General Military Operations DGNAI Director General Naval Armament Inspection DGND-SDG Director General Naval Design (Submarine Design Group) DGND-SSG Director General Naval Design (Surface Ship Group) DGNO Director General Naval Operations DGOF Director General Ordnance Factories DGONA Director General Naval Armament DGP Director General of Police DGQA Directorate General of Quality Assurance DGSPV & AOB Director General Special Purpose Vehicle & AOB DGST Director General Supply and Transport DGWE Director General Weapons and Equipment DHD Dima Halam Daogah DIA Defence Intelligence Agency DIAT Defence Institute of Advanced Technology DIBER Defence Institute of Bioenergy Research DIHAR Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIPAS Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences DIPP Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion DIPR Defence Institute of Psychological Research DISB Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business DLJ Defence Laboratory Jodhpur DMA Direct Marketing Association DMRC Delhi Metro Rail Corporation DMRL Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory DMSRDE Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment DMZ demilitarised zone DOC Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea DODP Department of Defence Production DOFA Defence Offset Facilitation Agency DOMW Defence Offset Management Wing DOS Directorate of Standardisation

DOT DPB DPM DPP DPSUs DPT DQMG DRDB DRDE DRDL DRDO DRL DSDI DSSC DT Dte of P&C DTN DTRL DTTI DU DURGA DVB-T DVD

Department of Telecommunication Defence Procurement Board Defence procurement manual Defence Procurement Procedure defence public sector undertakings Druk Phuensum Tshogpa Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research and Development Board Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation Defence Research Laboratory Defence Spatial Data Infrastructure Defence Services Staff College disruptive technology Directorate of Planning & Coordination disruption-tolerant networking Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Defence Technology and Trade Initiative Delhi University directionally unrestricted ray-gun array digital video broadcasting-terrestrial digital versatile/video disc

E EADS

European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EAEF Euro-Asia Economic Forum ECCC Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia ECFA Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement ECIL Electronics Corporation of India Ltd ECM Electronic Countermeasures EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone E-in-C Engineer-in-Chief ELINT electronic intelligence ELM Expeditionary Laboratory Mobile EME Electrical and Mechanical Engineers EMP electromagnetic pulse ENPO Eastern Naga People’s Organisation EO electro-optical EOFCS electro-optical fire control system EOIs expressions of interest ERV exchange rate variation ESM Electronic Support Measures EU European Union EVMs electronic voting machines EW airborne electronic warfare EW electronic warfare

F FAA FADEC FAE FATA FATF FBI FC FCORD FDI FGFA FICCI FICN FICs FICV FII F-INSAS FIS FLN FM FMS FOC FODAG FOGA FOK FOMAG FONA FOSM FPDA FPVs FRA FRAP FTA

Federal Aviation Administration Full-Authority Digital Engine Control Fuel-air explosive Federally Administered Tribal Areas Financial Action Task Force Federal Bureau of Investigation fire control FICN Coordination Group foreign direct investment fifth-generation fighter aircraft Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Fake Indian Currency Notes fast interception crafts Future Infantry Combat Vehicles foreign investment institution Future Infantry Soldier as a System Flying Instructor’s School National Liberation Front frequency modulation foreign military sales Final Operational Capability Flag Officer Offshore Defence Advisory Group Flag Officer Goa Area Flag Officer Karnataka Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra and Gujarat Flag Officer Naval Aviation Flag Officer Submarine Five Power Defence Agreement Fast Petrol Vessels Flight Refuelling Aircraft fragmenting payload Free Trade Agreement

564  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

G GATT GCC GDP GE GHG GIS GJM GMDSS GNC GoM GPR-AB GPS GRSEL GSL GSLV GSPC GSQR GTA GTRE

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product General Electric greenhouse gas global information system Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Global Maritime Distress and Safety System General National Congress Group of Ministers general purpose round air burst global positioning system Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat General Staff Qualitative Requirements Gorkha Territorial Administration Gas Turbine Research Establishment

H HADR HAL HAUV HCHE HDW HEMRL HEU HF HMG HOTAS HSL HUD HuJI HUMINT HVF

humanitarian assistance and disaster relief Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hybrid Autonomous Undersea Vehicle higher capability high explosives Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft High Energy Materials Research Laboratory highly enriched uranium high frequency Heavy machine gun Hands On Throttle-and-Stick Hindustan Shipyard Limited Head-up display Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami human intelligence Heavy Vehicles Factory

I IAF IAI IAP IAS IB ICAO ICBM ICG ICJ ICSS ICV IDAS IDEX IDP IDS IDSA IED IEW IFA (N) IFC IFF IFV IGNOU IGNS IGPS IISS IITF IJT IKR IM IMF IMG IMO IMRH IMU INAS INDSAR INDU INMAS INSAT IOCL IONS IOR IOT

Indian Air Force Israel Aerospace Industries Integrated Action Plan Indian Administrative Service Intelligence Bureau/ Interceptor Boat International Civil Aviation Organisation intercontinental ballistic missile Indian Coast Guard International Court of Justice Integrated coastal surveillance system Infantry Combat Vehicle Integrated Defensive Aids Suite International Defence Exhibition and Conference Internally Displaced Person Integrated Defence Staff Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses improvised explosive device information electronic warfare Integrated Financial Advisor (Navy) inter-factional clashe identification friend and foe Infantry Fighting Vehicle Indira Gandhi National Open University Inspector General Nuclear Safety Intelligent Global Positioning System International Institute for Strategic Studies India International Trade Fair intermediate jet trainer Iraqi Kurdistan Region Indian Mujahideen International Monetary Fund Inter-Ministerial Group International Maritime Organisation Indian multi-role helicopter Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Indian Navy Air Squadron Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Indian national satellite Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Indian Ocean Naval Symposium international offshore rule Internet of Things

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abbreviations IPA IPC IPKF IPSP IPV IPv4 IPv6 IR IR&FC IRAL IRB IRDE IRENA IRNSS IRS IRST ISO IS ISAF ISI ISIL ISIS ISR ISRO ISRR ISSA ISSA ISTAR IT ITBP ITM ITR ITSPP IW IWI

Indian Production Agency Indian Penal Code Indian Peace Keeping Force Internal Peace and Security Plan inshore patrol vessels Internet protocol version 4 Internet protocol version 6 India Reserve/infrared/international relations Information Resource & Facilitation Centre Indo-Russian Aviation Limited India Reserved Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment International Renewable Energy Agency Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System Indian remote satellite infrared search and track International Organization for Standardization information superiority International Security Assistance Force Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Institute for Systems Studies & Analyses International Social Security Association intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance information technology Indo-Tibetan Border Police Institute of Technology Management Integrated Test Range Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Plan information warfare Israel Weapon Industries

J J&K Jammu and Kashmir JAG Judge Advocate General JeM Jaish-e-Mohammad JNU Jawaharlal Nehru University JOC Joint Operation Centre JOCOM Joint Operation Committee JODI Joint Organisations Data Initiative JSF joint strike fighter JSIC Joint Services Intelligence Committee JTC Joint Training Committee JTFI Joint Task Force on Intelligence

K KAI KALI KANUPP KKH KLA KMW KNO KPLT KRC KRG

Korea Aerospace Industries kinetic attack loitering interceptor Karachi Nuclear Power Plant Karakoram Highway Kamtapur Liberation Army Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, Germany Kuki National Organisation Kuki Peoples’ Liberation Tigers Kargil Review Committee Kurdistan Regional Government

L L&T Larsen and Toubro LAC line of actual control LASTEC Laser Science & Technology Centre LCA light combat aircraft LCH light combat helicopter LCM Local Communist Movement LCU landing craft utility LDP Liberal Democratic Party LeJ Lashkar-e-Jhangvi LEO/MEO low/medium earth orbit LeT Lashkar-e-Taiba/Toiba LEVCON leading edge vortex control surface LIA Lead Intelligence Agency LIDAR light detection and ranging LNG liquefied natural gas LoC line of control LRDE Electronics and Radar Development Establishment

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LRSAM LSRB LTIPP LTPP LTPPFC LTTE LUH LWE

long-range surface-to-air missile Life Sciences Research Board Long-term Integrated Perspective Plan Long-term Perspective Plan Long-term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam light utility helicopter left-wing extremism

M MAC MADDLS MANTIS

Multi Agency Centre Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System Modular Automatic and Network Capable Targeting and Interceptor System MARCOS Marine Commandos MaRV manoeuvrable re-entry vehicle MASINT measurement and signature intelligence MAV micro UAV MAV micro-air vehicle MBB Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm MBRL multi-barrel rocket launcher MBT main battle tank MCPP maritime capability perspective plan MD AWES Managing Director Army Welfare Education Society MD AWHO Managing Director Army Welfare Housing Organisation MDA maritime domain awareness MDL Mazagon Dock Limited MEDS micro-biotic electronics and disabling system MEMS micro-electro-mechanical system MFN most favoured nation MFSTAR Multifunctional Surveillance Threat Assessment Radar MGO Master General Ordnance MHA Ministry of Home Affairs MIB Ministry of Information & Broadcasting MIDHANI Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front MIMO multiple-input multiple-output MIRV multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle MIS management information system MMRCA medium multi-role combat aircraft MND Ministry of National Defense MNLF Moro National Liberation Front MoD Ministry of Defence MR maritime reconnaissance MRBM medium-range ballistic missile MRCC Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre MRD Motorised Rifle Division MRL multiple rocket launcher MRO maintenance, repair and overhaul MRSAM medium-range surface-to-air missile MRSC Marine Rescue Sub-Centre MRTT multi-role tanker transport MS Military Secretary M-SAR Maritime Search and Rescue MSME Medium, Small and Micro Enterprise MSQA missile system quality assurance MTA multi-role transport aircraft MTAL Multirole Transport Aircraft Ltd MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime MTRDC Microwave Tube R&D Centre

N NAFTA NAIS NASA NASSCOM NATGRID NATO NBC NBDC NC3IN NCA NCCC NCSL NCTC NCTF

North American Free Trade Agreement National Automatic Identification System National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Association of Software and Services Companies National Intelligence Grid North Atlantic Treaty Organisation nuclear biological chemical defence National Bomb Data Centre National Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence National Command Authority National Cyber Coordination Centre National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy National Counter Terrorism Centre Naresh Chandra Task Force

NCW NDA NDC NDFB NDMA NDN NDRF NFU NHRC NIA NIC NIRDESH NLD NMF NMRH NMRL NMSAR NMSARCA NMSRB NOS-DCP NPOL NPR NPT NRB NSA NSC NSCN NSCN/IM NSCN/K NSCS NSEC NSG NSR NSS NSTL NTG NTRO NWWA

network-centric warfare National Defence Academy National Defence College National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Disaster Management Authority Northern Distribution Network National Disaster Response Force no first use National Human Rights Commission National Investigative Agency National Informatics Centre/ National Intelligence Council National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding National League for Democracy National Maritime Foundation naval multi-role helicopter Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Maritime Search and Rescue National Maritime Search and Rescue Coordination Authority National Maritime Search and Rescue Board National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory National Population Register Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Naval Research Board National Security Advisor/ National Security Agency National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat Naval Standing Establishment Committee National Security Guard/ Nuclear Suppliers’ Group New Silk Road National Security Strategy Naval Science & Technological Laboratory Naval Technology Group National Technical Research Organisation Navy Wives Welfare Association

O OECD OEM OFB OFC OIS ONGC OPCW OPEC OPV OROP OSCC OSINT OST OTH

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development original equipment manufacturer Ordnance Factory Board optical fibre cable operational information system Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapon Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Offshore Petrol Vessels One Rank One Pension Offshore Security Coordination Committee open source intelligence Outer Space Treaty over the horizon radar

P PAT PCL PCVs PDAA PDACP PDALS PDAPP PDAPSA PDASE PDCP PDCPS PDCV PDEE PDESA PDFC PDFM PDG PDIT

Perform, Achieve and Trade passive coherent location Pollution Control Vessels Principal Director Aircraft Acquisition Principal Director Aircraft Carrier Project Principal Director Air Logistics Support Principal Director Aircraft Projects & Plan Principal Director of Adventure, Physical Fitness in Sports Activities Principal Director Aircraft Systems Engineering Principal Director Civilian Personnel Principal Director Civilian Personnel Services Principal Director Clothing & Victualling Principal Director Electrical Engineering Principal Director Ex-Servicemen Affairs Principal Director Foreign Cooperation Principal Director Fleet Maintenance Parliament Duty Group Principal Director Information Technology

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abbreviations PDLS PDM (P&M) PDMPR PDMS (M&S) PDNA PDNAS PDNCO PDNE PDNI PDNO PDNOM PDNP PDNPF PDNS PDNT PDOA PDODY PDOH PDOI PDOP PDP PDP&A PDPRO PDPS PDSMAQ PDSMO PDSMS PDSOD PDSR PDSSD PDW PDWE PELE PFI PGMs PIPVTR PLA PM PML PML(N) PMOC PNT PoK POL PPBP PPOC PPP PPP PSOC PSR PVSM PXE

Principal Director Logistics Support Principal Director Medical Services (Personnel & Material) Principal Director Manpower Planning & Recruitment Principal Director Medical Services (Hospital & Services) Principal Director Naval Architecture Principal Director Naval Air Staff Principal Director Net-centric Operations Principal Director Naval Education Principal Director Naval Intelligence Principal Director Naval Operations Principal Director Naval Oceanology & Meteorology Principal Director Naval Plans Principal Director Non-Public Funds Principal Director Naval Signals Principal Director Naval Training Principal Director Administration Principal Director Dockyards Principal Director of Hydrography Principal Director Indigenisation Principal Director Personnel People’s Democratic Party Principal Director Pay & Allowances Principal Director Procurement Principal Director Personnel Services Principal Director Submarine Acquisition Principal Director Submarine Operations Principal Director Submarine Safety Principal Director Special Operations & Diving Principal Director Staff Requirements Principal Director Ship Systems & Development Principal Director Works Principal Director Weapons Equipment Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect Popular Front of India precision-guided munitions Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research People’s Liberation Army Provost Marshal Pakistan Muslim League Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee position navigation and timing Pakistan occupied Kashmir petrol, oil and lubricants policy, exercise of planning, budgetary allocations and process of acquisition Principal Personal Officers Committee public-private partnership purchasing power parity Principal Supply Officers Committee preliminary staff requirements Param Vishisht Seva Medal Proof and Experimental Establishment

Q QMG

Quarter Master General

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R R&D R&DE RADAR RAF RAM/RAP RAW RBA RBG RCEP RCI RCMA RCS ReCAAP REF RFI RFP

research and development Research & Development Establishment radio detection and ranging Rapid Action Force radar absorbent materials/paint Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Army Royal Bhutan Guards Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Research Centre Imarat Regional Centre of Military Airworthiness radar cross section Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery Rapid Equipping Force request for information request for proposal

RIAF RMA ROC ROS ROV RPA RRP-I RSTA RUAV

Royal Indian Air Force revolution in military affairs regional operating centres remote operating stations remotely operated vehicle remotely piloted aircraft Road Requirement Plan – I reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition Rotary-winged UAVs

S SA to CNS SAARC SAD SAG SAGW SAM SaR SAR SASE SATA SBE SCAF SCAPCC SCAPCHC SCO SCS SCTC SDI SDR SDR SEAL SFC SID SIDBI SIGINT SIPRI SIRBs SITAR SLBM SLOC SMAC SMAC SNERDI SNR SoD SPB SPG SQR SRBM SRE SR-SAM SSB SSG SSPL SSQAG STEA STOBAR STOVL STP SUAS SWAC SWATH

Scientific Advisor to Chief of Naval Staff South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation space asset domination Scientific Analysis Group surface-to-air guided weapons surface-to-air missile search and rescue surveillance and reconnaissance /synthetic aperture radar Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment surveillance and target acquisition strategic and business environment Supreme Council of Armed Forces Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee Shanghai Cooperation Organisation South China Sea State Counter-Terrorism Centres Strategic Defense Initiative software defined radio Strategic Defence Review Sea, Air and Land teams Strategic Forces Command Signal Intelligence Directorate Small Industries Development Bank of India signal intelligence Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Specialised India Reserved Battalions Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research submarine launched ballistic missile sea line of communication Subsidiary MAC State Multi Agency Centre Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute signal to noise ratio Suspension of Operation Sagar Prahari Bal Strategic Policy Group services qualitative requirements short-range ballistic missiles security related expenditure short-range surface-to-air missile Sashastra Seema Bal Special Security Group Solid State Physics Laboratory Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment short take-off but arrested recovery short take-off and vertical landing Specialist Technical Panels small unmanned aircraft systems South-Western Air Command small water plane area twin hulls

T TACAN TacC3I

tactical air navigation tactical command, control, communications and information TACDE Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment TAPI Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India TBM theatre-range ballistic missile TBRL Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory TCS tactical communication system TCS Tata Consultancy Services

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TECHINT technical intelligence TERI Tata Energy Research Institute TEUS twenty-foot equivalent units TFT thin-film transistor TIKA Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency TKK Tamu-Kalewa-Kaleymyo TNA Tamil National Alliance TNSM Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi TNW tactical nuclear weapons ToT transfer of technology TPCR/ TPCRM Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap TPP Trans-Pacific Partnership TSD Technical Support Division TTP Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan

U UAC-TA

United Aircraft Corporation-Transport Aircraft UAE United Arab Emirates UAS unmanned aerial systems UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UCAV unmanned combat air vehicle UDF United People’s Front UHF Ultra high frequency UHQ Unified HQ ULFA United Liberation Front of Asom UN United Nations UNCIVPOL United Nations Civilian Police UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council UNPKO UNHRC Peacekeeping Operations UNSC United Nations Security Council UPA United Progressive Alliance UPUA Urban Perspective: Our Work in Urban Areas USA United States of America USAF United States Air Force USG Under-Secretary-General. USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics UWSA United Wa State Army UYSM Uttam Yudh Seva Medal

V

VBIG VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOS VCR VHF VLO VRDE

Valley Based Insurgent Group Vice Chief of Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of Naval Staff Vice Chief of Army Staff video cassette recorder Very high frequency very low observable Vehicles Research and Development Establishment V-SAT Very Small Aperture Terminal VSHORAD very short-range air defence systems VSM Vishisht Seva Medal VTOL vertical take-off and landing

W WAC Western Air Command WCS Weapon Control System WLR weapon locating radar WMD weapons of mass destruction WPN Weapons WSOI Weapon Systems, ORSA and Infrastructure WTO World Trade Organisation

Y YSM

Yudh Seva medal

Z ZUF

Zaliangrong United Front

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index

Index A A330 114, 225, 230, 232, 252, 413, 488, 497 A-50 E 241 AA-10 Alamo 249 AA-11 Archer 249 Aadesh Class 261 AAS-44 FLIR system 96 Abad, Julia 366 al-Abadi, Haider 25, 363, 472 Abbot, Tony 38, 361 Abdulaziz, Meteb bin Abdullah bin 366 Abdulaziz, Mohammed bin Salman bin 366 Abdullah Abdullah 39, 505 Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia 487 Abe, Shinzo 12, 363, 394, 407, 425, 426, 502, 504, 505 ABG Shipyard 301 Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) 442 Abusahmain, Nouri 364 Accelerated Technology Assessment & Commercialisation programme 314 Ace I 180 Acoustic Hailing Devices 86 Acoustic Rapid COTS Insertion (ARCI) 96 action-reaction cycle 7, 9 Active Denial System (ADS) 87 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) 92, 95, 294, 535 Active Phased Array Multifunction Radar 94 Active Towed Array Sonar (ATAS) 96 actual ground position line (AGPL) 173 AD gun system 103, 189–90 Adani 133 Adelaide Class 532 Adivasi Cobra Military of Assam (ACMA) 342, 344 Adivasi People’s Army (APA) 342, 344 Admiral Gorshkov Class 532, 545 Admiral Grigorovich Class 532, 545 Adulyadej, Bhumipol 450 Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missiles (AARGM) 139 Advanced Composite Communication System (ACCS) 83 Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) 113, 228, 229, 230, 293, 307. See also Hawk advanced light helicopter (ALH) 103, 113, 181, 247, 293, 294, 307. See also Dhruv Advanced Light Weight Torpedo (ALWT) 314 Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) 92 advanced medium-range air-to-air missiles (AMRAAM) 91 advanced multifunction radio frequency 96 Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (ANURAG) 315 Advanced Projects Agency 51 advanced short-range air-to-air missiles (ASRAAM) 91 Advani, L.K. 49, 352 Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) 315 aerial photography 78, 80 aerial platforms 185, 312, 353, 553 Aero India 2015 (International Aerospace and Defence Exhibition) 132 Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) 229, 293, 313 Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) 114, 279, 313, 315 Aeronautical Research and Development Board (AR&DB) 314 aeronautical systems 142, 146, 155, 159, 312-13 Aerospace and Cyber Command 51 AFCEL 83

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Afghanistan 3, 16, 18, 85, 128, 501 —Afghan National Army (ANA) 41-42 —Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) 41, 388, 505 —Afghan Security Institutions (ASI) 505 —Chinese strategic presence 39 —conflict 47 —Constitution 41 —economy 39, 40, 374, 387-88 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —India, role in reconstruction 39, 42, 64, 129, 131, 170, 374, 388 —security environment 388 —Soviet invasion 19 —Tajikistan, trade 388 —Taliban 41, 42, 400-1, 495 —unemployment 40 —United States and NATO presence 374; troops withdrawal 15, 20, 34, 39, 382 —United States war against terrorism 3, 374, 506 Afghanistan-Pakistan region post-2014 39-42, 47, 132, 183, 319, 374, 380, 505–6 African Development Bank (AfDB) 461 African Union (AU) 273, 458 AGM-114K/N/R Hellfire missile 138 AGM-158 91 Agni series 72, 394 —Agni-I 311, 395 —Agni-II 191, 312, 395 —Agni-III 51, 191, 312, 395 —Agni- IV 51, 312 —Agni-V 132, 312 Agola, Sonam Gechen 322 Agosta submarines 6, 532, 534 AGS-30 192 AgustaWestland 135, 181, 560 AH-47 Chinook 561 AH-61 139 AH-64 Apache 561 AH-64E 113 Al-Ahmad, Vice Admiral Muhamad 367 Ahmadzai, Dr Ashraf Ghani 39, 128, 361, 384, 388, 505 Ahmed, Lt General Anwar Hamad Ameen 363 Ahuja, Lt General A.K. 162, 264 AIM-120C AAM 91 AIM-132 91 AIM-9 Sidewinder 91 Air Cushion Vehicle (Hovercraft) 262 air defence 17, 51, 52, 66, 80, 91, 103, 108, 109, 171, 178, 179, 224-25, 230, 232, 313 Air Defence Control and Reporting System (ADC&R) 71, 182 Air Defence Direction Centres (ADDCs) 114, 251, 252 Air Defence Ground Environment System (ADGES) 250-51 Air Force equipment 553-62 Air Force Net (AFNET) 225 Air Force Network (AFNET) 83, 114 Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) 203 Air Interdiction Missions 91 air launched cruise missile (ALCM) 91 Air Power 73 Air Superiority Missions 91 airborne early warning aircraft (AEW) 108, 199, 252, 421, 427, 428, 448, 463, 475, 488, 535, 554 Airborne Early Warning & Control Search & Rescue (AEW&SR) 396 Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) 114, 198, 225, 252, 270, 311, 313, 421, 445, 446, 451, 463, 494, 497, 554 Airborne Surveillance Platform (ASP) 270 Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) 15, 92, 94, 114, 131, 224, 225, 229, 230, 241, 251, 252, 275, 311, 427, 428, 554 Airburst Non-lethal Munition (Low Velocity) 87

Airbus Military 113, 114, 232, 295 Aircraft and System testing establishment (ASTE) 228 aircraft carriers 200, 203, 207–8, 532, 534, 548 airport and metro security 340 airport surveillance radars 298 airspace, sanctity and control 79–80 air-to-air missiles (AAMs) 89, 91–92, 248–49 air-to-ground missiles (ATGM) 92, 181 Air-to-Surface Weapons 249–50 Ajeya (T-72M-1) 101, 178–79, 187, 286 AK-47 180 Akash surface-to-surface missile 103, 179, 288, 298, 305, 395, 397 Akatsiya 523 Akihito, Emperor 363 Al Jazeera 25, 484 Al Khalid 15, 101, 402, 520, 527 Al Qaeda 21, 23, 25, 26, 33, 41, 42, 132, 380, 382, 386, 455, 459, 482, 485, 487, 489, 498, 501, 506 Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) 459 Al Zarrar 520 AL-551 294 Alawi, Major General Staff Pilot Ibrahim Nasser M Al 368 Alawi, Yusuf bin 483 Alenia Aermacchi 113 Alexander the Great 65 Algeria 361, 456 —Air Force 459–60 —Army 359 —economy 458 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —Navy 459 —security environment 458–59 ALH Weapons Systems Integrated (ALH WSI) 181 Ali, Vice Admiral Ali Hussain 363 Alibaba Group Holdings Ltd 78 Aljobour, Major General Mansor 364 All Adivasi National Liberation Army (AANLA) 342, 344 Almaz 513 Alouette III 246 ALQ-210 Electronic Support Measures (ESM) system 96 ALQ-214 electronic self-protection system 137 alternating current electrical multiple units (ACEMUs) 300 Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class 532 Alvis Saladin Armoured Car 528 Alvis Scorpion 528 Alymkozhoev, Asanbek 364 AM-39 Exocet anti-ship missile 91 AM-50 104 Aman, Air Chief Marshal Sohail 366 amateur radio 84 Amazon 77, 78, 79 Amin, Agha H. 41 al-Amiri, Brigadier General Saleh Mohammed Saleh 368 Ammunition & Explosive Group of Factories 135 Amnesty International 23 amphibious forces 200, 214, 532 Amphibious ships 532, 547, 550 AMX 56 Leclerc 514 AMX VCI 515 AMX-13 507, 514, 525 AMX-30 507, 514, 516 An, Men Sam 362 An, Sok 362 AN/ALQ-142 96 AN/ALQ-78 96 AN/ALR-66 96 AN/ALR-76 96 AN/APS-115 (P-3C) 96 AN/APS-124 (SH-60B) 96 AN/APS-137 (S-3B, also P-3Cs) 96

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index AN/APY-10, 95ISR 95 AN/APY-2 Pulse Doppler radar 94 AN/ASQ-208 96 AN/ASQ-81 96 AN/SPY-1 95 AN/SPY-5 95 AN/SQQ-90 95 AN/SQR-20 95 AN/SQS-60 61, 95 AN/TPS-80 95 AN/USC 38 antenna system 10 An-12 558 An-24 558 An-26 558 An-32 112, 225, 239-40, 559 ANAC (International FAR Certification Agency) 313 Anand, Vikas 322 Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) 49, 161, 162, 163, 167, 184, 234 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 169, 193, 197, 201, 221, 354, 440-41 Andrews, Kevin 361 Annan, Kofi 177 Annual Acquisition Plan (AAP) 49 Ansar Bait al-Maqdis 25 Ansari, Hamid 21 Al-Ansari, Major General Jassim Mohammad 364 anti-radar missiles (ARM) 91, 250 anti-shipping strike 198 anti-spin parachute system (ASPS) 294 anti-submarine detection investigating committee (ASDIC) 97-98 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 93, 95, 96, 98, 99, 198-99 —corvettes (project 28) 212-13 —sensors on naval aircraft 96 anti-tank guided missile systems (ATGMs) 30, 104, 131, 181, 192, 305, 432, 445, 475 Antonov, Ukraine 113, 239-40, 558 Antony, A.K. 112, 135, 179, 182, 352 AN-TPQ 102 Antyodaya 268 Apache 113 Aparna (BEL) 95 Appavuraj, R 317 APS-147 96 AQS-22 Airborne LF Sonar 96 Aquino III, Benigno Simeon 366, 505 Aquino, Maria Carazon 441 AR-2 180 Arab League 25, 458, 483, 489 Arab Spring 19, 20, 25, 455, 486, 489 Arabian Sea 15, 42, 169 Arjun 101, 178, 179, 187-88, 517 Arjun Mk I 178 Arjun Mk II 178, 188, 288, 313 armament control system (ACS) 91 Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE) 315 Armament Research Board (ARMREB) 314 Armata (T14) 521 arming the multi-role fighter aircraft 89-92 Armstrong, Charles 433 Army Aviation Corps (AAC) 180-81 Army Intranet 71 Army Radio Engineering Network (AREN) 182 Army Static Communications Network (ASCON) 83, 103 Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System (ASTROIDS) 71, 103 ARSR-4 95 artillery and air defence firepower, modernisation 101-3 Artillery Combat Command and Control System (ACCCS) 71, 103, 182 artillery 188-89 —modernisation 50, 179 Arudhara 313 Arun Prakash, Admiral (Retd) 49 Arunachal Pradesh 14, 16, 35, 173, 224, 320

—Chinese claim over 13, 14, 37, 131, 392 — security situation 341, 342 ARX-160 180 AS-7 Kerry 250 AS-10 Karen 250 AS-350 559-60 AS-550 C3 Fennec 181 AS-9100 306 ASEAN 4, 37, 394, 422-23, 436, 442, 444, 450, 502–3 —Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) 410 —Economic Community 501, 502, 505 —India, military cooperation/ relations 410, 418 —India Commemorative Summit (2012) 504 —India Cyber Security Conference 506 —Maritime Forum 502 —Regional Forum (ARF) 36, 38, 64, 444, 502, 505 ASEAN+1 36 ASEAN+3 64 Ashok Kumar 323 Ashram Schools 341 Ashtari, Brigadier General Hossein 363 Ashwini, low-level transportable radar 313 Asian Centre for Human Rights (ACHR) 356 Asian Development Bank (ADB) 377, 379, 386, 388, 391, 398, 404, 415, 439 —Transport Network Development Investment Programme 388 Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 389, 400 Asian financial crisis (1997–98) 431, 434 Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) 502 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 410, 411, 502 Asia-Pacific environment 4, 501-6 Asif, Khawaja Muhammad 366 Al-Assad, Bashar 21, 22, 367, 456, 486 Assam 13, 35, 36, 37, 54, 224, 320 —security situation 341, 342-43, 344. See also North-east Assam Accord 343 Assam Rifles (AR) 274, 275, 325, 330, 331, 334, 357-59 assault rifles 101, 180 ASSOCHAM 133 Astra missile 92, 312 Astute class 98 asymmetric warfare 74, 86, 180, 469 Atambayev, Almazbek 364, 379, 380 Athithan, Dr G. 318 ATK, Arlington, Virginia 139 Atlas Elektronik 96 Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) 6 Al-Attar, Najah 367 Al-Attiyah, Major General Hamad bin Ali 366 Austin Class 532 Australia 23, 37, 130, 166, 407, 410, 411–13, 418, 444, 502 —Army 141 —Defence Forces 141, 412 —economy 411 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —India Framework for Security Cooperation 504 —security environment 411–12 Australia Group 32 automated communication and information systems 182 Automatic Identification System (AIS) 353 automation of weapon delivery and guidance 90 Autonomous District Councils 342 Autonomous Unmanned Research Aircraft (AURA) 114 auxiliaries 66, 200, 219, 221 Avadi Heavy Vehicle Factory 178 Ayoub, General Ali Abdullah 367 Azerbaijan Navy 43

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Azmi, Najib

480

B B-2 408 B-52 408 B-757 295 Babur cruise missiles 6, 15 Babur 6, 15, 402 Backward Regions Grant Fund 341 BAE Systems 124, 134, 139, 140, 145, 148, 150, 154, 157, 159, 179, 218, 244, 293, 521, 530, 553, 554, 557, 559, 562 BAeHAL Software Limited 296 al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr 23 Bahah, Khaled 368 Bahrain 21, 25, 456, 483, 490 —economy 466 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —security environment 466-67 —United States, free trade agreement 466 Bajpai, Kanti 58 Bajpai, S.C. 288 Bakiev, Kurmanbek 379 Bakshi, Brigadier S.S. 162 Bakshi, Lt General Praveen 265, 276 Bakshi, Lt General Rajan 265, 277 Baku-Tbilsi-Ceyhan pipeline 492 Balaji, Dr C.G. 315 balance of power 1-4, 13, 107, 108, 399, 423, 444, 502 Bali, Rear Admiral I.P.S. 263, 267 Balkan Pact (1954) 492 Balkan Wars 2 ballistic missile defence 7 Bangladesh 54, 224, 394, 444, 501 —Air Force 390-91 —Army 390 —economy 389 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —India, relations 129 —and India’s North East Region 36, 37, 38, 334 —Nationalist Party (BNP) 129, 376, 390 —Navy 390 —security environment 389–90 Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN) 130 Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM), regional economic corridor 13, 18, 37 Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) 442 Banh, General Tea 362 Barak missiles 46 Baretta 180 Barrett, Vice Admiral Tim 361 Basnayake, B.M.U.D. 367 Batra, Dr Harsh Vardhan 316 battlefield —communications 82-83 —digitisation 70 —transparency 65-68, 81 Battlefield Management System (BMS) 71, 83, 103, 118, 179, 182, 337, 518 Battlefield Surveillance Radars (BFSRs) 103 Battlefield Surveillance System (BSS) 71, 103, 182 battlespace management 70 Beatles 64 Beidou (Compass) GPS system 7 Beirut, political crisis 481 Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union 377-78 Bell 407 561 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra 561 Bengal Initiative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) 36, 37 Berdiev, Kabul Raimovich 368 Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly 368, 383 beyond visual range (BVR) 89, 235 beyond visual range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) 91, 312 Bezos, Jelt 78 Bhabha Atomic Research Centre 284

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index Bhagat, Brigadier (later Lt General) Monu 177 Bhalla, Lt General Anil 162, 264 Bhalla, Lt General Rajeev 174, 175, 264 Bhandari, Rakhee Gupta 320, 324 Bhanur (Medak) 305 Bharali, Lt General P.K. 265 Bharara, Preet 32 Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) 283, 284, 285, 291, 305 Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) 251, 282, 285, 287, 291, 299-301 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 95, 96, 102, 114, 270, 282, 285, 286, 287, 297-99, 313, 353 —Central Research Laboratories 297 Bharat Forge 102, 133, 181 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 127, 128, 136, 166, 169, 269, 360 Bhaskar, V. Udaya 284 Bhatia, Lt General Rajiv 264 Bhatkal, Yasin 26 Bhonsle, Air Marshal A.S. 162, 264 Bhuiyan, General Iqbal Karim 362 Bhutan 36, 128, 334, 394 —China relations 392 —economy 391 —foreign policy 392 —India relations 392 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —security environment 392 Bhutiyani, Dr M.R. 316 Bhuvnesh Kumar, Dr 316 Bihar 286, 326 —left-wing extremism (LWE) 178, 335, 340, 355, 356, 358, 394 —reserve battalions 336 Binay, Jejomar C. 366 Binskin, Air Chief Marshal Mark 361 Birsa Commando Force (BCF) 342, 344 Bisht, Vice Admiral H.C.S. 264, 281 Bismillah Khan Mohammadi 361 Black Hawk 137, 146, 154, 160, 412, 420, 427, 428, 433, 438, 443, 448, 463, 475, 478, 487, 493, 496, 561, 562 Blackwood company 137 BLG-66 Beluga 250 Blue Economy 202 Blue Water 108 —and ‘Blue Water Navies’ 44-46 —and Indian Army 43-46 BM-21 RL 189, 524 BMD-1 523 BMP-1 101, 514, 522 BMP-2 101, 179, 522 BMP-3 522 BMR-600 526 BN-2 (Britten Norman Islander) 219 Bo-105 560 Bodo Accord 343 Bodoland Territorial Areas District (BTAD) 392 Boeing 737-100/200 (VIP) 559 Boeing 737-300 559 Boeing BBJ 559 Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) 243 Boeing Co., Seattle, Washington 90, 113, 134, 139, 140, 295 Boeing Company, Mesa, Arizona 139 Boeing Defence Australia 141, 241 Boeing E-767 94 Bofors 30, 102, 125, 126, 179, 188 Bofors FH-77 B 526 Bofors L-40/-70 526 Bolivian Navy 43 Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) 13, 18 border management 18, 49, 85, 104, 161, 321, 324, 331, 333, 340, 351 Border Security Force (BSF) 49, 325, 327-28, 334, 338, 349, 357 Bose, Netaji Subhash Chandra 359 Bosnia 79 Boustila, Major General Ahmed 361 Bouteflika, Abdelaziz 361, 458 Boyd, John and OODA loop 66-68 Brahm Dutt 266 BrahMos 30, 46, 91, 92, 102, 111, 191, 309, 312, 453, 453

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BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited 191, 309 Brazil 3, 28, 128, 201 —Air Force 137 —Air Force equipment 553, 559, 561, 562 —Ministry of Defense 142 —Navy 142 BRDM-2 188, 514 BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) 4, 28, 128 British Peninsular War against French 65 British Royal Navy 45 Brown Moses 24 Brown Waters’ and ‘Brown Water Navies’ 43, 45 Brown, Air Marshal Geoff 361 Brown, Joshua 25 Browne, N.A.K. 109 Brunei 410, 411, 503 —Army 414-15 —economy 414 —security environment 414 BT-16 306 BTR-152VI 523 BTR-50 523 BTR-80A 523 Bulathsinghala, Air Marshal G.P. 367 al-Bulushi, Major General Matar bin Salim bin Rashid 365 al-Bunyan, General Abdulrahman bin Saleh 366 Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs 51 Burman, Sanjay 315 Al Busaidi, Sayyid Badr bin Saud bin Harib 365 Bush, George 20, 25, 31, 32, 63 business rules and transactions 58 Buyan Class 532, 546

C C-130 Hercules 559 C-130B Hercules 389, 403, 424, 443, 494 C-130E Hercules 403, 470, 472, 473, 475, 477 C-130H Hercules 413, 424, 427, 428, 433, 438, 443, 446, 448, 451, 460, 463, 465, 475, 483, 497, 499 C-130J Super Hercules 112, 113, 143, 146, 160, 225, 229, 230, 232, 242, 389, 396, 397, 413, 473, 475, 484, 485, 553, 559 C-130J-30 112, 229 C-130K Hercules 405, 406 C-131 Class 261 C-141 Class 261 C-154 Class 261 C-17 Globemaster III 30, 112, 113, 133, 225, 229, 230, 241-42, 396, 397, 413, 497, 553 C-17 Globemaster III 225, 229 C-3I 71 C-212 558 C295 124 C-401Class 261-62 C-47 Dakota 223 Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs (CCPA) 57 Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) 48-51, 57, 58, 59, 60, 124, 136, 161, 176, 199, 211, 234, 285, 311, 339, 342, 352 Caltrops 87 Cambodia 36, 410, 449, 452 —Chinese economic assistance 416 —economy 415 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —and Thailand, relations, 416; security environment 416 Cambodia, Myamnmar, Laos and Vietnam (CMLV) 504 Campbell, Lt General Angus J. 361 Canada 23, 444 —Armed Forces 141 —Army 141 capability gap 123, 183, 202 capacity development 83 Carbon-Constrained Economy 64 Carl Gustaf 139, 192 Carrier Battle Groups (CBGs) 46 Carrier Task Forces (CTFs) 203 CASA C-295 113

Caspian Sea 43, 377 Cassidian 111 Casspir Mk.III (Mine Protected APC) 525 Catapang (Jr.), Lt General Gregorio Pio Punzalan 366 Cavusoglu, Mevlut 492 Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) 321, 325, 328-29, 341-44, 349 —Maoist insurgency and 355, 356, 357-58 —modernisation 337-38 —strengthening 334-37 Central Asia 2, 18, 33, 39, 41, 128, 169, 373-76, 377-78, 380, 382-84, 388, 416, 418, 492, 502. See also individual countries Central Asia Gas Pipeline 384 Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) 388 Central Asian Republics (CAR) 374 Central Asian-Caspian Basin zone 378 Central Bank of Russia 29 Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) 325, 329, 334, 338, 340, 349 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 23 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi 303 Central Paramilitary Force (CPMF) 325, 334 Central Pay Commission, Sixth 116 Central Police Forces 88 —budget allocation for 350 —and paramilitary forces (CPMFs) 51 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 325-27, 334, 338, 349, 357, 358 —Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA) 325, 327, 334, 338 —Rapid Action Force (RAF) 325, 326-27 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 49 Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS) 114, 225, 270, 313, 315 Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) 71, 315 Centre of Automated Military Survey 71 Centre for Fire Explosives and Environment Safety (CFEES) 135, 309, 315 Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) 309, 315 Centre for United Nations Peacekeeping (CUNPK) 177 centre-state relations 321, 324 Centurion Mk 13 527 CH-148 138 CH-47F 113 Chahine, General Ghassan 364 Chakravarty, Lt General Aniruddha 264 Chakri Naruebet Class 532, 549-50 Challenger 2 527 Chandipur Test Range, Balasore, Odisha 312 Chandra Prakashh, Lt General 177 Chandramouli, C. 324 Chang Bogo Class 532, 546-47 Chang Song-thaek 408 Chang Wanquan, General 362 Chashma Nuclear Power Complex 15 Chatterjee, Air Marshal Pradeep K. 162, 264, 272 Chaudhary, Haribhal Parthibhal 320, 322, 360 Chaudhary, Krishna 328 Chaudhury, Shirin Sharmin 129 Chavan, Lt General A.L. 264 Cheema, Vice Admiral S.P.S. 265, 278 Cheetah 103, 113, 180-81, 200, 215, 225, 229, 246, 293, 294, 295, 395, 397, 399, 420 Chen Chimai 447 Chengadu Military Area Command 504 Chetak 103, 113, 180-81, 198, 207, 210, 212, 213, 216, 220, 221, 225, 229, 246, 254, 260, 262, 277, 293, 294, 395, 396, 397, 560 Chhattisgarh —caste conflicts 358 —left-wing extremism (LWE) 178, 328, 335, 340, 347-48, 356, 374 —reserve battalions 336 Chhin, Bin 362 Chidambaram, P. 339, 355 Chidambaram, V. 323

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index Chief of Army Staff (COAS) 59, 101, 103, 173, 178, 183-85 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) 6, 48-52, 57, 58, 60, 70, 161, 163, 166-68, 234 Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) 48-50, 57, 58, 60, 161, 163, 166-68, 233 Chieftain Mk 5 527 China 28, 54, 134, 407, 410, 430, 456, 501 —Afghanistan-Pakistan region, interests 41-42 —Air Force 421-22 —Air Force equipment 553, 554, 555, 562 —aggression, radicalism and extremism 127, 128, 134 —area denial strategy 503 —Army 419-20 —Army equipment 507, 509-14 —Asia-Pacific, rise in 501-6 —Cambodia, relations 416 —and Central Asia 373, 374, 383, 384, 399, 405 —Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 11, 407 —Cultural Revolution 407 —cyberwarfare doctrine 76 —defence budget 3, 104, 502 —economy, economic rise 3, 16, 183, 373, 417 —Egypt, relations 461 —embraces soft and hard power strategy 64 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —intrusion in Indian Ocean waters 106-7 —ISR capabilities 7 —Japan, relations/territorial/ maritime disputes over Senkaku Island 4, 394, 418, 426, 503, 505, 513 —Kuomintang (KMT) 447 —National Nuclear Corporation 15 —Naval equipment 532, 533-40 —Navy 394, 420-21 —Olympics 2008, 410 —and Pakistan, relations, 401, 419; military and nuclear collusion/anti-India nexus, 7, 42, 110, 127, 359, 502, 506; Indian strategy to counter, 15-18; Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good-neighbourly Relations, 15 —People’s Liberation Army (PLA) 13, 15, 16, 51, 104, 131, 173, 342, 394, 447, 503, 510, 514 —Russia, relations 29, 418 —security environment 418-19 —and Singapore 418 —South China Sea, assertiveness in 453 —Sri Lanka relations 405 —claims self-governing, democratic Taiwan 408, 418 —claims over Tibet 13, 14, 16, 17, 104, 394, 399, 419 —Vietnam 418 China-India relations 11–14, 127, 129, 418–19 —occupies Aksai Chin 16 —claim over Arunachal Pradesh 13, 14, 37, 131, 392 —Border Defence Cooperation Agreement 2013, 394 —Boundary Agreement 15 —highs and lows 130-31 —military intrusion in Gilgit Baltistan 16, 18, 374 —and North East Region 36, 37, 38, 131, 334 —Peace and Tranquility Treaty 173, 184 —realism through the geostrategic prism 13–14 —territorial disputes 4, 11, 13, 37, 47, 131, 173, 394, 503, 504 —war (1962) 15, 47, 250, 286, 328, 330, 407 China-Afghanistan-Pakistan Trilateral Alliance (Pamir Group) 41 China Mobile 16 China National Precision Machinery Corporation (CPMIEC) 512 Chinook 113 Chiu Kuo-cheng, General 367 Choe Ryong-hae, Vice Marshal 365 Choi Cha Kyu, General 367 Choi Yun-hee, Admiral 367

Chopra, Lt General B.K. 264 Choudhury, Amitabha Roy 288 Chouhan, Satpal 320, 324 Christianity 455 Christopher, S. 264, 270, 31 Chumar, Chinese intrusion 16, 131, 186, 394, 453 Chunmugong Yi Sun Shin 548 Civil Nuclear Liability Act 31 civil-military divide 50–51 civil-military structure 57 CJ-10K 7 climate change 18, 63, 64, 386, 400, 411 Clinton, Hillary 63, 439, 503 Close Air Support Missions 91 CN-235M 558 Coalition Task Forces (CTFs) 44 coastal management 77, 80, 351 coastal security 45, 106, 108, 253, 256, 321, 333, 334, 351-54 Coastal surveillance network (CSN) 352-53 coastal surveillance system 298 CoBRA School of Jungle Warfare and Tactics (CSJWT) 338 Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) 199, 202, 284, 287 cognitive radio (CR) 181 Cold War 2, 4, 27, 28, 31, 59, 63, 89, 97, 199, 426, 492, 501 Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) 386 College of Air Warfare (CAW) 228 College of Defence Management 72 Colt 180 combat aircraft 89, 223, 232, 285, 312, 554-56 —in Indian Air Force 110-11 combat fleet, modernisation 224 Combat Information Centre (CIC) 98 Combat Management System (CMS) 98, 199 Combat Net Radios 83 Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) 288, 313, 315, 318 Combating Financing Terrorism (CFT) Cell 334 command and control (C2) 17, 18, 60, 70-71, 81, 82, 83, 166, 167, 176, 184, 225, 325, 359, 514 —of central police forces 331-32 —nuclear 5-10 —robotics 81 —upgrading 103-4 Command Information Decision Support System (CIDSS) 71, 182 command, control and communications (C3) centres 91 command, Control and Decision Support Systems (CCDSS) 182 command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) systems 18, 298 Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4I2SR) 50-51, 70-71, 72, 104 Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information and Intelligence (C4I2) 70-71 Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) system 81-82 commercial off the shelf components (COTS) 95, 103 Committee for Defence Planning (CDP) 47 Committee on Defence Expenditure 49 Common Principles Charter for Advanced Energy, Security, and Sustainability 64 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 379 Communication Intelligence (COMINT) 66 communication systems 93 communications in 21st century battlefield 81-84 composite leading indicators (CLIs) 393 Comprehensive National Power (CNP) 3

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comprehensive operational doctrine for asymmetric war 18 computed tomography (CT) scan systems 298 Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) 76 Condor 517 Conductivity, Temperature and Density (CTD) 93 Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) 133 Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) 502 confidence-building measures (CBMs) 5, 9-10, 13, 127 Congress of Vienna (1814) 2 containment policies 4 conventional deterrence, force architecture 107-8 conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) 91 Cooper, Barry 42 corvettes 199, 200, 211, 212, 301, 302, 532, 540, 541, 551 Cosgrove, Peter John 361 Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) 165 Counter Infiltration Grid 185 counter insurgency (CI) 330 Counter Insurgency Force (CIF-D) 274 counter-bombardment capability 102 Counter-Insurgency and AntiTerrorist Schools (CIAT) 336, 338, 341 Counter-Insurgency Grid (CIG) 357, 359 Counter-Material NLWs 87 countermeasure dispensing systems (CMDS) 295, 305 counter-terrorism 410 crew fatigue 108 Crimea 28 Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) 18, 98, 346 cross-border terrorism 59, 127, 321, 340 crowd sourcing 84 Cs-in-C 51 cultural values 2 current account deficit (CAD) 115 Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Uzbekistan 379 Customs 256 Cyber attacks 7, 8, 9 cyber attacks, prevention, response and reconstitution 75 Cyber Command 51, 167 cyber security; and information assurance, 72; a national strategic imperative, 73-76; status in India, 76 cyber weapons 75, 76 Cyberage Scheme 269 cybercrimes 74, 75, 76 cyberespionage 74, 75, 76 Cyberpower 73, 74 cyberspace 43, 69, 73–76, 81, 167, 426, 506; security status in India, 76 cyberterrorism 74, 75, 76 cyberthreat 74-75 cyberwarfare 17, 60, 73, 76, 167, 193, 197 Cyprus 23 cyrospheric research 78 CZ 805 BREN 180 Czech/Slovak Republics 133 —army equipment 507, 514

D D-20 523 D-30 523 Daimler Ferret Mk2/3 528 al-Dairi, Mohammed 464 Daksha 313 Damayanthi, K. 263 Daphne Class 532 DARIN III 110, 229, 233 Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council Act (1988) 339-40 Dassault Aviation, France 90-91, 117, 132, 133, 153, 158, 229, 237, 463, 555. See also Rafale

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index Datar, A.M. 264, 31 day/night imaging and engagement capabilities 91 Dayanand Samajik Suraksha Yojana 269 D-Company 33 DDG 1000-calss 95 de Silva, Lt General A.W. J.C. 367 Debroy, Bibek 346 Deepak Anurag 267 defence —acquisitions 48 —business environment 132 —budget (2015–16) 3, 115-18, 133-34, 199 —communications 83 —cooperation 131-32 —equipment production, licensing 135 —exports, strategy for 135 —Indian industry 285-308 —modernisation 133 —networks 82 —planning in India 47-52 —reforms 47, 49, 50, 60, 166 —research and development (R&D) 48-49, 309-14 —satellite communications 83, 84 Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) 49, 102-4, 113, 114, 120-21, 163, 165, 178, 179, 185, 232, 242, 243, 307 Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) 111, 315 Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) 315 Defence Committee of the Cabinet 57 Defence Communication Network (DCN) 83 Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) 163 Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) 315 Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL) 315 Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) 285, 308 Defence Exports Steering Committee (DESC) 135 Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) 316 Defence Imagery Processing and Analysis Centre 71 Defence Information Assurance and Research Agency (DIARA) 76 Defence Institute of Advance Technology (DIAT) 309, 316 Defence Institute of Bioenergy Research (DIBER) 316 Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) 316 Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) 316 Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) 316 Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA), Tri-Service 49, 71, 161 Defence Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ) 316 Defence Machinery Development Establishment (DMDE) 306 Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) 316 Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad 305-6, 316 Defence Offset Guidelines, lacks clarity of vision 119-22 Defence Planning Guidelines 49 Defence Planning Staff (DPS) 161 Defence Plans 47, 50, 51, 51 Defence Procurement Board (DPB) 49, 121, 161, 163, 165 Defence Procurement Policy 71 Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP 2002) 49, 123 —2015, review 123-26 —blacklisting policy 125-26, 135 —engagement of middlemen 125 defence procurement procedure (DPP) 134-35, 136 Defence Production Policy 2011 134, 135 defence public sector

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undertakings (DPSU) 134-35, 202, 285 Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) 316 Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) 316 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 6, 47, 48, 49, 71, 76, 80, 91, 102, 103, 110, 114, 120-21, 132-33, 135, 165, 173, 179, 180, 270 , 286, 309-11 —budget (2015-16) 116-17 Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) 316 Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) 316 Defence Services Staff College 72 Defence Technology Board 49 Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) 316 Dehghan, Hossein 363 Delgado, Lt General Jeffrey F. 366 Delhi University (DU) 356 demographic management 53-54 Dempsey, General Martin 24 Denel NTW-20 192 Denel, South Africa 102, 126 Deng Xiaoping 3, 407 Deo, Air Marshal S.B. 265, 279 Department of Atomic Energy (DoAE) 49 Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S) 119, 132, 165, 285-308 —allied organisations 306-8 Department of Industrial Policy and Promotions (DIPP) 285, 286 Department of Telecommunication (DoT) 254 Depsang, Chinese incursion 13 destroyers 44, 46, 105-8, 196, 199, 200, 208-9, 301, 410, 432, 532, 535, 538, 544-45, 548 deterrence failure 7, 9 al-Dhahiri, Major General Mohammed Saeed bin Maran 368 Dhananjay Kumar 263, 267 Dhanoa, Air Marshal, B.S. 226, 265, 273 Dhanush 213, 288, 311 Dharam Vira 346 Dhawan, Anil 323 Dhawan, Sunil Kumar 322 Dhir, Air Marshal R.K. 265, 279 Dhofar (Province) Class 532 Dhowan, Admiral R.K. 194, 201-4, 264, 271 Dhruv, 103, 113, 207, 211, 216, 220, 225, 247, 293, 294, 312, 395, 396, 397, 399, 553, 560 Dhruv Mk III 294 Dhruv WSI 113 digital army, current deficits 69-72 Digital India 69, 74 digital radio trunking system 298 digital technology 95 digitised army versus digitised military 70 Dilip Kumar 320, 323 Dima Halam Daogah (DHD/N) and DHD (Joel Garlosa) 342, 343, 344 Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) 161 Director General of Hydrocarbons 255 Director General of the Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) 253, 256 Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) 286 Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business (DISB) 314 Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) 285, 286, 307 Directorate General of Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) 48 Directorate General of Information Systems (DGIS) 70, 71, 182 Directorate General of Military Operations 71 Directorate General of Military Training (DGMT) 177 Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) 285, 286, 306-7, 308 Directorate of Planning and Coordination (Dte of P&C) 285, 307 Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) 285, 307

disaster management 349 Disaster Management Act (2005) 349 disaster preparedness 127 disaster relief through drone 80 Distributed Sound and Light Array 87 diving tenders 222 Djoomart, Otorbaev 364 Do 228, 225, 294, 295, 557 Do Ba Ty, Senior Lt General 368 doctrine, strategy and structure, co-relation, Indian perspective 7 Dokdo Class LPH 547 Dolgorae Class 532, 547 Dolphin Class 532, 540-41 Dongre, Ashok 263, 267 Dornier 228, 198, 218, 240, 294, 558 Dostum, Abdul Rashid 361 Doval, Ajit 130, 131, 170 Draupadi 80 Dredging Corporation of India Limited 301 drone-based delivery 78 drones in agricultural domain 77-78 drug trafficking 75, 351, 380, 382, 498 Dubai 77, 78, 79 Dubey, Raghvendra Narayan 266 Duggal, V.K. 49 Dung, Nguyen Tan 368, 453 Durrani, Major General Mahmud Ali 131 Dvora MK II 214 Dwarakanath, P. 282 Dwivedi, G.K. 320, 323 Dynalog (1) Ltd 313

E E-2 189 E-2C 139 E-2C Hawkeye 562 E-3 Sentry 554, 562 East Asia Summit (EAS), Myanmar 33, 36, 37, 38, 64 East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia 407-454 East China Sea 407, 513 East Timor 444 East Turkestan Islamic Movement 380 Eastern Bloc 492 Eastern Naga People’s Organisation (ENPO) 343 Eastern Sabah Security Zone (ESSZ) 437 Easwaran, M.S. 315 EC725 137 Echo Sounder 93 economic —backwardness 57 —changes, impact 3-4 —competition 54 —cooperation 62 —disparities 358 —growth 506 —integration 63-64 —power 62 —security 53-54, 73, 75, 338 Economic Corridor 15 economy, Indian 115, 127, 373, 393 Edall Systems, Bengaluru 80 EdgeTech 96 e-governance 286 e-learning 72 Egypt 3, 20, 25, 455-56 —economy 460 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —Libya, conflict 456, 465 —security environment 461 —United States, relations 461 EH-AW101 560 Eilat (SAAR 5) Class 532, 541 Eizenkot, Lt General Gadi 363 EL/M-2075 252 EL/M-2083 252 Elbit, Israel 102, 134 Electromagnetic (EM) sensors 96 Electronic and Radar Development Establishments (LRDE) 316 electronic attack (EA) 91

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index electronic countermeasures (ECM) 91 Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) 66, 71 Electronic Support Measures (ESM) system 96, 98, 99-100 electronic systems 313 electronic technologies 73 Electronic Warfare System (EWS) 8, 71, 83, 103, 198, 199, 294 electronically scanned array (AESA) radar 138, 313 Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) 270, 294 electro-optical fire control systems 298 ELF 100 Elint Lorros mast 298 Elizabeth II, Queen 361 EMB 135 242-43 EMB-312 561 Embraer Defence & Security 137 Embraer Legacy, Brazil 113, 242-43, 562 Emergency Committee of the Cabinet 57 emotional filter 67, 68 EN 250 93 Endurance Class 532, 550 energy security 53, 54, 64 Enhanced PLZ45 507, 511-12 Enhanced Underwear Loudhailer 86 Ensour, Abdullah 364 Enterprise Air Surveillance Radar (EASR) 94 environmental —clearances 79 —factors 3 —pollution 57 —protection 53 —reusing 78 —scan 74 Eric Chu 447 Escalation-of-Force Mission Module 87 Eshel, Major General Amir 363 Esrar, Air Marshal Abu 362 Eswara Prasad, Dr Namburi 316 ethnic violence 333. See also Sunni and Shias, hostilities Eurasia-Afghanistan-PakistanIndia-South East Asia 42 Eurocentrism 455 Eurocopter 295, 553, 559-60 Eurofighter Typhoon 90-91, 555 European Airbus Helicopters 181 European Multifunction Phased Array Radar (Empar) 95 European Union (EU) 28, 29, 30, 374, 388, 416, 444, 456, 458, 492, 502 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) 94, 95 excalibur assault rifle 180 exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 193, 201, 253, 390 Exelis 137 EXIM Bank of India 135, 268 Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) 93 Experimental Light Water Reactor (ELWR) 429 Ex-Servicemen’s Welfare Department 51-52 extremely violent organisations (EVO) 8

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F F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet 557 F/A-18E 90 F-15A/B/C/D Eagle 557 F-16 137 F-16A/B/C/D Fighting Falcon 557 F-16IN 90 F-22 Raptor 557 F-35 Lightning II 91, 139, 444 F-35A/F-35B 91, 557-58 F-35C Catapult Assisted Take-Off Barrier Arrested Recovery (CATOBAR) 91 F404 11, 293 F414 293 F-5E Tiger 558 F-86 Sabre 223 FAB laser bomb units 250 FAC (Water Jet), Car Nicobar Class 200, 213-14, 396 Facebook 76 Falkland War (1982) 66

Fan Changlong, General 362 Fang Fenghui, General 362 fast control vessels (FCVs) 254, 260-61 fast interceptor craft (FICs) 199 FC-1 554 Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) 133, 314 Ferghana Valley 373, 382, Af-Pak, 386 Fernandes, George 49 FH-77B 102, 179, 188 Field Artillery Rationalisation Plan (FARP) 179 fifth-generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) 92, 111, 128, 131, 295 Fiji 504 Finance Commission —Thirteenth 348 —Fourteenth 115 —impact on defence 118 Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 339 Finmeccanica 126, 135 fire control system (FCS) 178 Firouzabadi, Major General Hassan 363 Five Power Defence Agreement (FPDA) 444 Fleet Logistic Support Vesseles 108 Flyability 79 Flying Instructors School (FIS) 228 FN-303 Less Lethal Launching System 86 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 63 foreign direct investment (FDI) 51, 119, 121, 124, 132–33, 136, 285, 286 —in defence 134, 202 foreign institutional investments (FIIs) 133 Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) 135, 136, 295, 286 foreign policy 2, 29, 33, 37, 130, 202 Foreigners (Protected Area) Order (1958) 341, 342 Foreigners (Restricted Areas) Order (1963) 341 Foreigners Act (1946) 341 forest fire mapping and surveillance 78 Forum for Russia, India China (RIC) 502 Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) 96 France 2, 21, 133, 166, 201, 456, 459, 489 —Air Force equipment 553, 555 —Army equipment 507-8, 514-16 —India, defence relations 132 Francis, Pope 442 free market access for least developed countries 64 Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) 502 free trade system 61 Freij, General Fahd Jassem al- 367 French Revolution 65 frigates 6, 44, 95, 105-8, 143, 145, 196, 198-99, 200, 209, 253, 274, 277, 278, 281, 301–2, 390, 461, 532, 438, 540, 544, 549 Fuchs 517 Future Combat System 288 Future Infantry Command and Control System (FICCS) 182 Future Infantry Soldier as a System (F-INSAS) 103, 182 Futuristic Infantry Combat Vehicle (FICV) 101, 288 Futuristic main battle tank (FMBT) 313 FV432, 528AS90 (Braveheart) 529

G G 20 G-20 formation G-20 summit, Australia G-7 Gaddafi, Muammar Gaida, General Ahmed Salah Galbraith, J.K. Galil Ace carbine Gallelio Avionica Gallic wars Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Ganapathy, M.A. Gandhi, M.K.

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411 4 33, 38 4 464, 465 361 61 180 295 65 95 320, 324 268

Ganju, Ashwagosh 318 Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSE), Kolkata 199, 202, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216, 222, 273, 285, 287, 291, 302 Garg, Praveen 323 Garg, Sanjay 263, 267, 287 Garpun-Bal fire control radar 95 Garuda Robotics 80 Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) 29 GAU-22/A 91 Gazmin, Voltaire 366 GAZPROM 29 GBU-10 Paveway II 91 GBU-12/24 laser-guided bombs 91 GBU-16 Paveway II 91 GBU-24 Paveway III 91 GBU-24 Paveway IV 91 GBU-31 91 GBU-48 Enhanced Paveway II 91 GBU-48 Enhanced Paveway IV 91 GBU-49 GPS-guided bombs 91 Gearing Class 532 General Electronics (GE) 111, 293, 298 General Robotics, Automation, Sensing and Perception (GRASP) 79 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 70, 71 geospatial intelligence 71 geostrategic location of India 105 Geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) 923 Gepard Class 532, 544-45 Germany 133, 166, 456, 501 —Air Force equipment 553, 558, 560 —and Allied Powers, war 61 —Army equipment 508, 516-17 Geroushi, Air Marshal Saqr Al- 365 Geun-hye, Park 432, 505 Ghamdi, Major General Abdullah bin Ibrahim Al 366 Al-Ghanim, Major General Ghanim bin Shaheen 366 Ghauri-II 402 Ghei, Lt. General N.S. 264 GIAT AMX-10P 508, 514 GIAT GCT SP gun 516 GIAT Mk F3 SP gun 516 Gilgit-Balistan (GB) 41 Gill, Air Marshal K.S. 265, 279 global financial crisis (2008-09) 473 Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) 254 global positioning system (GPS) 79, 103, 182, 294, 512 Go Jun Bong Class LST 532, 547-48 Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 202, 283, 285, 291, 303 Godbole, Madhav 49 Golan, Major General Yair 363 Golden Crescent countries 196 Golden Triangle region 196, 434 Gopal Bhushan 316 Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) 339 Gorkha Territorial Administration (GTA) 339-40 Gowda, H.D. Deve 37 Goyal, L.C. 320, 322, 360 Great Depression 2 Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) 37 Green Laser Interdiction System 86 Green Waters’ and ‘Green Water Navies’ 43-45 Group of Ministers (GoM) 49, 57, 161, 165, 166, 268, 340. See also Kargil Review Committee (KRC) G-SAT 82 Guangchi Gao 367 guided missile frigates 46 Guided Missile 532 Gujarat earthquake (2001) 349 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 19-22, 411, 479, 483 Gulf of Aden 46, 105-7, 130, 204 Gulf War 2, 66 Gunatilleke, Air Chief Marshal K.A. 367 Gundogdyev, Begench 368 Gupta, Ashok Kumar 263, 267, 270, 287 Gupta, Prabhat 317 Gupta, Rajiv 288 Gupta, Ravindra 50 Gupta, Shekhar 58 Gurumoorthy, S. 322 Guruprasad, Dr S. 317

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index Gvozdika 523 Gwadar 394 Gwanggaeto Class 532, 548, 551 Gyani, Major General P.S. 177

H H-181 Class 262 H-187 Class 262 Habib, Vice Admiral Muhammad Farid 362 Al-Haddabi, Brigadier Nassir bin Said 366 Hadi, Abdrabuh Mansour 368 Haftar, Lt General Khalifa 365 Haiku 107 Haiti 85 Halbit Avionics Pvt Ltd 296 Haldar, P.C. 342, 344 HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd 296 Halqi, Wael Nader al- 367 Hamed, Air Marshal Younes 363 Hamid, Abdul 362 Hammad, Salameh 364 Han Class (Type 091) 533 Han Min-koo 367 Hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHTIs) 103 Haqqani Network 33, 388, 401 Haqqani, Jallaluddin 41 Hari Kumar, Rear Admiral 265 Hariz, Lt General P.M. 265, 277 Harpoon Block II AGM-84L 250 Harris 141, 154 Hasabnis, Major General S.S. 263, 267 HATSOFF Helicopter Training Pvt Ltd 296 Hawk 132 113, 228, 229, 230, 244, 282, 293, 307, 396, 397, 554 Hawk 200 series 557 Hawk MK 102 497 Hawk MK 108 438 Hawk MK 109 424 Hawk MK 127 413 Hawk MK 129 467 Hawk MK 200 553, 557 Hawk MK 208 438 Hawk MK 209 424 Hawk MK 53 424 Hawk MK 63A 497 Hawk MK 64 479, 480 Hawk MK 67 433 Hawk Single Stage 531 Hawker Hurricane IIB fighter 223 Hawker Tempest II 223 Hayat, Lt General Zubair Mahmood 366 Hazari, Lt General (Retd) K.K. 49 HDW 126, 190, 205 Hegazy, Lt General Mahmoud 362 Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin 41 Helibras 137 Helina 312 Henry VIII 65 Heron 101, 114, 131, 198, 220, 396, 413, 475, 494 Heron I/II 248 Herzegovina 79 Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class 532, 541-42 Hezbollah 20, 22, 25, 41, 456, 481, 486, 489 High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) 317 High Speed Strike Weapon (HSSW) 91 higher frequency spectrum (HF, VHF, UHF and EHF) 99 Highly Agile and Manoeuvrable Munition Extended Range (Hammer) 90-91 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) 90-92, 114, 282, 285, 287, 291, 292-97, 313 —design and development programmes 293 —exports 295 Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) 202, 206, 213, 215, 222, 283, 285, 291, 304 HINI 127 Hiroshima, Japan 89 Hizbullah 474 HJT-16 Kiran Mk I 397, 554 HJT-16 Kiran Mk II 218, 396, 397, 554

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HJT-16 Kiran 114, 229, 294, 396, 561 HJT-16 561 HJT-36 IJT 294 homeland security, in India 319-21 Honeywell F-125 111 Hong-6 554 Hoo Cher Mou, Major General 367 Hooda, Lt General D.S. 265, 275 Horizon Core Technology Group 165 Hovercraft 262 HPT-32 113 HQ-16 513 HS-748 113, 225, 559 Hu Jintao 14, 15 Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced Next Generation (HUMSA-NG) 96 human development 53, 506 human intelligence (HUMINT) 66, 68 human resource and skill development 84 human rights 61, 423 human security 75, 76, 81, 84, 319 human trafficking 331, 450, 465, 477 humanitarian assistance 62, 109 humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) 46, 63, 64, 203, 204 Humming-bird nanoquadrotor 79 Huntington, Samuel 14 Hussain, Mammoon 366 Hussain, Rana Tanveer 366 Hussain, Saddam 20, 21, 23, 479, 495 Hussein, Abdullah II ibn Al- 364, 476 Hussein, Y.B. Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin Tun 365 Hwang Kyo-ahn 367 Hwang Pyong So, Vice Marshal 365 Hyundai Rotem K2 526

I IAC 1. See INS Vikrant IAC-2 108, 203 IAI Kfir 555 Ibrahim, Syed Asif 26 Ibrohim, Azim 368 Igla 179 IL-18 558 IL-38 198 IL-38SD 217 IL-76 112 IL-76 112, 114, 225, 229, 240–41, 352, 396, 397, 421, 460, 470, 477, 491, 499, 553, 554, 558, 562 IL-76 225 IL-76 229 IL-76 558, 562 IL-78 114, 225, 241, 272, 397, 460 Ilyushin, Russia 113, 225, 240-41, 557 Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) 71 Improved Flash Bang Grenade 87 improvised explosive devices (IED) 104 Inchon class 532, 549 India 393-97, 502 —Asia-Pacific, rise in 503-4 —attack on Parliament, December 2001, 26 —China, relations. See China —doctrine of massive retaliatory response 8 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —ISR capabilities 6, 7, 9, 10 —Japan, relations. See Japan —Maldives, relations 129 —National Command Authority (NCA) 7, 9, 272 —Pakistan, relations. See Pakistan —Reserve Battalions 336 —Russia, relations. See Russia —strategic interest in Af-Pak region. See Afghanistan-Pakistan —United States, relations. See United States India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) 128 Indian Air Force (IAF) 48, 58, 70, 89, 90-91, 103, 203, 223-34, 255, 292, 294, 295, 312, 313, 396, 444 —budget (2015–16) 116-17 —budget for last five years 229-30 —combat aircraft in 110 —equipment 553, 560, 561

—equipment catalogue 325-52 —Garudas 167, 225 —modernisation 109-14 Indian armed forces 58 —restructuring and modernisation 56, 127-36 Indian Army 48, 58, 70, 71, 138, 169-86, 292, 305, 306, 313, 395 —blue waters 43-46 —budget (2015-16) 116-17, 183 —digitisation 70 —equipment 508, 517 —equipment catalogue 187-92 —modernisation 101-4,185 —women officers 182 Indian Coast Guard (ICG) 46, 203, 253-59, 302, 303, 351, 352, 353 —equipment catalogue 360-62 —locations 256, 257 —maritime rescue coordination centres and maritime rescue sub-centres 258-59 —organisation 253-54, 255 —pollution response 254-55 —SAR organisation 258 Indian Military Message Transfer Format 71 Indian Mujahidin (IM) 26, 355 Indian National Satellite (INSAT) 293 Indian Naval Overseas Deployments 46 Indian Naval Academy 199 Indian Naval Work-up Team (INWT) 198 Indian Navy 48, 58, 64, 106, 130, 193-204, 253, 255, 256, 292, 293, 294, 301, 302, 303, 306, 351, 352, 353, 396 —budget (2015-16) 116-17, 199 —equipment 532, 540-43 —equipment catalogue 205-22 —frequency based classification for 94-95 —Marine Commandos (MARCOS) 167 —modernisation and expansion 193-99, 202 Indian Ocean 16, 17, 18, 41, 52, 64, 105-7, 128-30, 169, 193, 201, 394, 404, 412, 418, 422, 503, 504 Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) 201 Indian Ocean Rim 16, 412 Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) 130 Indian Offset Partner (IOP) 135 Indian Ordnance Factories Organisation —organisational structure 286 —product range 286 Indian Peacekeeping Force (IPKF) 223, 326 Indian Penal Code (IPC) 346 Indian remote satellite (IRS) 293 Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 254, 292 India-US Malabar exercise 504 Indonesia 3, 23, 46, 410, 422-25 —Air Force 424-25 —Army 423-24 —economy 422 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —India, defence relations 504 —Navy 424 —security environment 422-23 Indo-Pacific region 202 Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL) 296 Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) 325, 328, 334, 349, 357 Indo-US Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) 131 Indo-US Vision Statement 33 Indra-I/II 251-52 Indus Teqsite, Chennai 298 Industries (Development & Regulation) Act 1951, 135 Infantry combat vehicle 179 infantry combat vehicles (ICVs) 104, 179, 288, 510, 514-15, 517, 520, 522, 525, 526, 528, 530 infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) 179, 188, 510-11, 517, 518 information and communication technology ushers in battlefield transparency 66-68 information age technology and

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index OODA loop 65-68 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 70, 73, 74, 76, 81, 82, 84, 506 Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) 353 information sharing 255 Information Systems 182 Information Technology (IT) 29, 64, 67, 69, 225, 297, 326, 338, 393, 439, 443, 447, 501 Information Technology Act (2000) 74 Information Technology and IT-Enabled Services (ITES) 29, 501 Information Warfare (IW) 70, 81 Infotech-HAL Ltd 296 Infrared Detection System (IRDS) 96 infrastructure development 17, 18, 28, 33, 183, 198, 338, 401 INS Abhay 200, 212, 396 INS Aditya 200, 221, 396 INS Agray 200, 212, 273 INS Ajay 200, 212 INS Akshay 200, 212, 274 INS Alleppey 199, 215 INS Amba 198 INS Ambika 396 INS Aridhaman 199, 206 INS Arihant 199, 200, 206 INS Astravahini 199, 222 INS Baaz 199 INS Bangaram 200, 214 INS Baratang 200, 214 INS Batti Malv 200, 214 INS Bitra 200, 214 INS Brahmaputra 46, 196, 200, 210, 396 INS Chakra 46, 198, 200, 206-7, 396 INS Chilka 198 INS Deepak 200, 221, 396 INS Delhi 46, 96, 143, 199, 208, 209, 271, 301, 532 INS Dronacharya 281 INS Ganga 200, 209 INS Gharial 200, 214, 215, 273 INS Godavari 46, 209-10, 396 INS Gomati 200, 209 INS Himgiri 278 INS Jalashwa class 200, 214, 396 INS Jyoti class 200, 221 INS Kadamba 199 INS Kadmatt 200, 212 INS Kakinada 278 INS Kalveri 198 INS Kamorta 196, 199, 200, 212-13 INS Kavaratti 200, 212 INS Khanjar 200, 212, 278 INS Khukri 200, 212, 271, 396 INS Kiev class 207, 532 INS Kiltan/INS Kirch/INS Kirpan 200, 212 INS Kolkata 46, 196, 199, 209, 301 INS Kora 200, 212, 281, 396 INS Kulish/INS Karmukh 200, 212 INS Kumbhir Class 200, 215, 396 INS Kuthar 200, 212 INS Magar 396 INS Mandovi 278 INS Mumbai 204, 274, 278 INS Nashak/ INS Nipat/ INS Nirbhik 200, 211 INS Nirdeshak 199, 216 INS Nireekshak 200, 221 INS Nirghat/ INS Nishank 200, 211 INS Nishank 278 INS Nistar 198 INS Pondicherry Class 215 INS Prabal 200, 211, 396 INS Pralaya 200, 211 INS Rajput 46, 208, 272, 396 INS Rana 200, 208 INS Ranjit 96, 200, 208, 271, 273 INS Ranvijay 46, 208, 278 INS Ranvir 208, 274 INS Sagardhwani class (AGOR) 200, 216, 396 INS Sahyadri 199, 200, 211, 301 INS Sandhyak class 200, 216, 396 INS Saryu 200, 213, 396 INS Satpura 199, 200, 211 INS Satpura 199, 200, 211 INS Savitri 200, 213

INS Sayu 303 INS Scorpene 199, 206, 301 INS Shakti 200, 205, 221 INS Shankul 200, 205 INS Shankush 200, 205 INS Sharda 200, 213 INS Shardul class 200, 214-15 INS Shishumar 200, 205, 396 INS Shivalik 46, 196, 199, 200, 211, 396 INS Sindhudhvaj 200, 205 INS Sindhughosh 200, 205, 206, 396 INS Sindhukesari/INS Sindhukirti 200, 205, 206 INS Sindhuraj/INS Sindhurakshak 200, 205, 206 INS Sindhuratna 200, 205, 206 INS Sindhushastra 200, 205 INS Sindhuvijay 200, 205, 206 INS Sindhuvir 200, 205-6 INS Subhadra 200, 213 INS Subhadra 200, 213, 311 INS Sudarshini 200, 216 INS Sujata 200, 213 INS Sukanya 200, 213, 396 INS Sumedha 199, 200, 213 INS Sumitra 199, 200, 213 INS Sunayna 200, 213, 303 INS Suvarna 200, 213 INS Tabar 200, 210, 281 INS Talwar 46, 96, 143, 196, 200, 210–11, 277, 396 INS Tarangini 200, 216 INS Tarkash200 204, 210, 211 INS Teg, 46, 200, 210 INS Tir class (AXH) 200, 216 INS Trinkat 200, 214, 396 INS Trishul 200, 210, 278 INS Udaygiri 274 INS Varuna 200, 216 INS Veer 200, 211, 396 INS Vibhuti/INS Vidyut 200, 211 INS Vikramaditya 46, 197, 199, 200, 203, 207, 217 INS Vikrant 108 INS Vikrant 46, 203, 207-8, 220 INS Vinash 200, 211 INS Vipul 200, 211 INS Viraat 197, 200, 203, 207, 278, 283, 396 INSAS 180, 187 INSAT 82 Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) 317 Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis (ISSA) 71, 317 Institute of Technology Management (ITM) 309, 317 Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) 317 insurgency. See terrorism, militancy and insurgency Integrated Action Plan (IAP) for Selected Tribal and Backward Areas 336 Integrated Air Command and Control System (IACCS) 83, 251 integrated coastal surveillance system (ICSS) 314 Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) 49, 51, 57, 70, 82, 161-68 —2014–15, review 165-66 integrated defensive aide suite (IDAS) 110 integrated fire control system (IFCS) 178 Integrated Material Management on-Line System (IMMOLS) 225 Integrated Network Management System (NMS) 83-84 Integrated Perspective Planning and Force Development, absence of 166-67 Integrated Submarine Sonar (USHUS) 96 integrated surveillance capabilities 72 Integrated Test Range (ITR) 317 integration and interoperability 70, 71, 80, 81, 82, 84 Intelligence Bureau (IB) 26, 59, 339, 356 intelligence gathering in Tibet and China 18 intelligence sharing 339 intelligence systems and apparatus 161 intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) 91, 96, 98, 167, 197 Intelligence, surveillance, target

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acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) 313 Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) 40, 41, 333, 355, 374 —SIMI-Maoist nexus 185, 356 interceptor boats 261 interceptor missile 312 intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) 429 Interim National Command Post 70 intermediate jet trainer (IJT) 114, 229, 230, 233, 293, 294 internal security, in India 35, 49, 51-54, 101, 104, 132, 161, 333-50 —and civil aerospace 119, 120 —management 321 —security related expenditure (SRE) scheme 335 —strengthening the apparatus 334 —threats and challenges 57, 127, 132, 183-85, 319-21 International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd 296 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 429, 456, 468 international —borders 17, 23, 38, 324, 327, 331, 333, 334, 340, 342, 351, 374 —coalition formed against ISIS 25 —cooperation 256-57 —economics 11 —relations (IR) 1, 2, 13, 28, 59, 63, 197, 268, 484 —trade 3 International Court of Justice 416 International Day of Yoga 64 International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) 201 International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 256 —SAR Convention 1979, 254 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 40, 128, 373, 381, 385, 415, 482, 492 —Standby Arrangement 400, 476 International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 131, 170, 505 International Social Security Association (ISSA) 165 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 74 Internet 26, 69, 74-76, 78, 93, 325 Invar missiles 190 Iran 18, 455, 456, 486 —and Afghanistan-Pakistan region 42 —Air Force 470 —Army 469-70 —economic sanctions against 20 —economy 468 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —Iranian Revolutionary Guards 456 —Navy 370 —nuclear deal, a game changer 505 —nuclear-related US sanctions 34, 456, 505 —and the P 5+1, nuclear deal 19, 20, 468, 469, 501, 505 —reintegration into regional politico-strategic mainstream 19 —Saudi Arabia and the United States, triangular relationship 19-21 —security environment 468-69 —Shias 19, 42, 455 Iraq 3, 20-21, 23, 42, 85, 456 —civil war/sectarian strife 455, 487, 502 —economy 471 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —Iran, relations/conflict 471-72 —Kurdistan Regional Government 471 —security environment 471-72 —US invasion 19, 455, 472 —US policies 455 —Western and Iranian support to Kurdish 471–72 Iriberry, Major General Hernando 366 Isak Swu 343 Islam 455 —related extremism and militancy 19, 22, 382 Islamic Jehad Union (IJU) 386

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index Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) 380, 382, 386 Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps 469 Islamic State (IS) 374, 378, 426, 464, 467, 469, 485, 487, 489 Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) 20, 21, 22, 23-26, 33, 41-42, 185, 412, 455, 456, 471-72, 476, 479, 480-81, 492 —Indian connection 26 —US war against. See United States —use of social media for recruitment 25-26 Isorena, Admiral Rodolfo Diwata 366 Israel 4, 22, 23, 133, 473-75 —Air Force 475 —Air Force equipment 553, 555 —Arab conflict 486 —Army 474 —Army equipment 508, 517-19 —attack on Iran 22 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —economy 473 —India, defence relations 13 —Ministry of Defense 143 —Naval equipment 532, 540-43 —Navy 475 —Palestine, conflict 456, 474 —security environment 474 Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) 114, 126, 134, 295, 312 Issam Hallaq, General 367 Italy, Italian —Air Force 139 —Air Force equipment 553 —Army equipment 508, 519 —city-states 2 Iwata, General Kiyofumi 363

J J’baily, Rear Admiral Nazih 364 J-11 (Su-27SK) 555 Jaafar, Admiral Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Abdul Aziz Bin Haji 365 Jabbori, Marhabo 368 Jabhat al-Nusra 21 Jafari, Major General Mohammad Ali 363 Jaglot-Skardu road in PoK 16 Jaguar 30, 110-11, 198, 224, 225, 229, 232, 233, 237-38, 250, 280, 282, 295, 305, 396, 397, 483, 528 Jaideep Govind 320, 323 Jaishankar, S. 131, 170 Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) 8, 33, 335 Jaitley, Arun 166, 269 Jaitley, Major General (now Lt General Retd.), V. 177 Jal Usha 304 Al-Jalahma, Lt General Yusuf bin Ahmed 362 Jamaat Ansarullah 382 Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) 13, 173, 401. See also Pakistan —counter-insurgency 183 —infiltration, terrorism and secessionist violence 176, 319, 321, 334, 335, 374 —People’s Democratic Party (PDP) 169 —security situation 132, 185, 340 —terrorist threats 172, 333 Jang Jong-nam, General 365 Japan 13, 18, 37, 201, 257, 374, 408, 410, 425-28, 444, 502 —Army equipment 508, 519-20 —China, relations/territorial disputes. See China —defence policy 407 —economy 3, 425-26 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —India relations 393, 401, 426 —national resurgence, nationalism 407, 501, 504–5 —private and public investment in India 12, 426 —security environment 426 —South Korea, relations 505 —US, military alliance 14, 426 Japan, China and Republic of Korea (South Korea) Tripartite Cooperation 408 Japan-China-ROK Trilateral

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Counter-Terrorism Consultations 410 JAS 35 Gripen 90 Jasideep Govind 323 Jassim, Major General Abdullaziz K. Al 364 Java 46 Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) 356 Jayapal, P. 315 Jayaraman, K. 316 Jeong Ho-seop, Admiral 367 JF-17 15 Jha, Nitesh Kumar 322 Jha, Paramananda 365 Jharkhand —caste conflicts 358 —left-wing extremism (LWE) 178, 335, 340, 341, 355, 356, 374, 390 —reserve battalions 336, 349 Jhodge, Lt General Ravi 264 Jian-8 554 Jiangdao Class 540 Jianghu 1/II/V Class 532, 540 Jianghu II Class 532 Jianghu III Class 551 Jiangkai I Class 532, 538 Jiangkai II Class 532, 538-39 Jiangwei Class 532, 539 Jiangwei II Class 532, 539-40 Jianji-10 554 Jianjiao-7 554 Jim Yong Kim 393 Jin Class (Type 094) 532, 533 Jiwesh Nandan 263, 267 Johnston, Vice Admiral David 361 Joint Air-To-Surface Stand-Off Missile (JASSM) 91 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) 91 Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) 47 Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Programme (JNLWsP) 85 Joint Task Force on Intelligence (JTFI) 339 Joint Technology Development Centre 64 Jordan 21, 22, 23, 25 —Army 477 —economy 476 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —Navy 477-78 —security environment 476-77 —Syrian refugees 476, 490 Judaism 455 Jund al-Khiliafa 378

K K 1A 1 525 K-13 AA-2 248 K-2 Black Panther 525 K-8 Karakoram 15, 562 KA-226T 124, 181 KA-28 198, 219 KA-31 198, 199, 219 Kahwagi, General Jean 364 Kakodkar, Anil 49 Kaladan multi-modal transport project 504 Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul 123 Kalla, Muhammad Jusuf 363 Kamath, Dr Sudhir 317 Kamov 124, 181, 198, 219 Kamra, V.P. 288 Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), factions—KCP (Lamphel), KCP (City Meitei) and KCP (Taibanganba) 343 Kanitkar, Lt General R.V. 174, 175, 264 Kant, Immanuel 11 Kant, Ravi 266 Kao Yu-jen 447 Kar, Sanhita 288 Karachi Nuclear Power Plant 15 Karakalpakstan 386 Karakoram highway 15 —modernisation plans 394 Karbi Longri NC Hills Liberation Front (KLNLF) 342 Karbi People’s Liberation Tigers (KPLT) 342 Kargil conflict/war, 1999 49, 59, 179 —security reforms after 352

Kargil Review Committee (KRC) 49, 161, 166, 176, 234 Karimi, Lt General Sher Mohammad 361 Karimov, Islam 368, 386 Karve, Vice Admiral A.R. 194, 195, 265 al-Kasasbeh, Muath 472 Kashin Class 532, 544 Kashmir. See Jammu and Kashmir Kataria, Prem Kumar 267 Katoch, Lt General G.S. 264 Kaushik, Atul 323 Kautilya 1 Kaveri 293 Kayani, General Ashfaq Parvez 401 Kazakhstan 177, 364, 376 —Air Force 378-79 —Army 378 —defence 377 —economy 377 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —multi-vectored approach 373 —Navy 43, 378 —security environment 377-78 Kazan Helicopters 113 KC-130B 445, 446 KC-130H Hercules 438, 445, 446, 475, 488 KC-390 137 Ke Kim Yan 362 Kennedy, John F. 61 Kenya 78 Kerry, John 21, 22, 25, 33 KH179 526 Khadem, Rauf 41 Al-Khalifa 466 Al-Khalifa, King Hamad Bin Isa 361 Al-Khalifa, Lt General Sheikh Rashed bin Abdulla 361 Al-Khalifa, Salman bin Hamad bin Isa 361 Al-Khalifa, Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa 362 Al-Khalifa, Shaikh Khalifa bin Salman 361 Al-Khalifa, Shaikh Mohammed bin Mobarak 362 Al-Khalifa, Sheikh Abdullah bin Khalid 362 Kham, Dr Sai Mauk 365 Khamenei, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali 363, 456 Khamronsin Class 532, 552 Khan, Imran 374, 401 Khaplang, S.S. 343 Khattak, Lt General Obaidullah Khan 366 Khattak, Lt General (Retd) Muhammad Alam 366 Al-Khayarin, Brigadier General Mubarak Mohammed Al Kumait 366 Kheng, Sar 362 Khera, Bharat 263, 267, 287 Khin Aung Myint, Major General 365 Khobragade, Devyani 31, 32, 128 Khoder, Lt General Mohammed Khaled Al- 364 Kidwai, Lt General 6 Kilo Class 532, 534, 543 Kim II-sung 408, 428 Kim Jong-un 365, 408, 432, 505 Kim Yo-Hwan, General 367 Ki-moon, Ban 177 Kiran. See HJT-16 Kiran Kleinschmidt, Kilian 477 Kler, Air Marshal J.S. 226, 227, 265 KN-02 429 KN-08 429 knowledge economy 69 Knowledge Network 82 knowledge power 61, 62 Knox Class 532, 551 Ko Ko, Lt General 365 Kohli, Lt General Nitin 264 Koirala, Girija Prasad 398 Koirala, Sushil 365, 374, 398 Konchady, M. Pran 320, 323 Kongsberg 93 Konkurs 191 Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) 138 Korean Defense Acquisition and Procurement Agency 143 Korean Peninsula 407, 408, 418, 501, 503 instability 505. See also North

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index Korea; South Korea Kornet E 191-92, 459, 477, 490, 493 Kosovo 85 Krauss-Maffei Wegmann 508, 516 Krishna, Lt General K.C. 264 Krishna, S.M. 37 Krishnamurthy, R. 266 Krishnan, Lt General C.A. 174, 175, 264, 274 Krishnaswamy, Air Chief Marshal (Retd) S. 49 Krivak Class 532, 544-45 Kudankulam Nuclear Power Stations 29 Kuki National Organisation (KNO) 343 Kulkarni, Lt General Sanjay 264 Kumar Alok 323 Kumar, Lt General P.R. 264 Kurds, Kurdish 21, 22, 23, 455, 471-72 Kutty, Sanjeevanee 320, 323 Kuwait 19, 21, 25, 455, 47880, 483 —Air Force 479-80 —Army 479 —economy 478 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —Iraq, tension 478-79 —security environment 478-79 —United States, relations 479 Kyrgyzstan 177, 314, 364, 373, 376 —Air Force 380-81 —Army 380 —defence 380 —economy 379-80 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —security environment 380-81 —terrorism 380

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L L Band surveillance radar 95 L-33 508, 518 L-40/70 189-90 L-7T, 301 L-70 103, 179 L-118 529 labour reforms 268 Lada Class 532, 543-44 Ladakh 49, 103, 224, 319, 328 —Chinese intrusion 13, 16, 17, 173, 394, 503 Lahore declaration 9 Lai Chung Han, Rear Admiral 367 Lakshdweep 169, 193, 196, 201, 203, 224, 352–53, 354 Lamba, Vice Admiral Sunil 265, 278 land attack cruise missiles 7 land custom station (LCS), Zokhawthar 38 land systems 313-14 landing craft utility (LCU) 199, 215 Laoli, Major General Asang 364 Laos 36, 410, 449, 452 —economy 434 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —security environment 434-35 —United States, trade relations 434 —Vietnam, relations 434, 435 Larijani, Ali Ardeshir- 363 Larsen & Toubro (L&T) 101, 102, 118, 133 Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC) 317 laser-guided bombs 249 Lashkar-e-Jhangvi 41 Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) 8, 33, 41, 394 leading edge vortex control surface (LEVCON) 293 Leander Class 532 Lebanon 20, 21, 23, 25, 42, 456, 490 —economy 480 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —security environment 480-81 —and Syria 480-81, 486 Lee Hsien Loong 366, 444 Lee hsi-ming, Admiral 367 Lee Kyung-soo 410 left-wing extremism (LWE) 47, 127, 132, 320-21,

333, 334, 335-37, 340, 374 —government strategy to combat 340-41 —India reserve battalions for affected states 341 Lekiu Class 532 Leopard 2 MBT 508, 517 Leopard 2A6EX 508, 517 Leopard 2A7 508, 516 Li Keqiang 13, 131, 362 Li Yuanchao 362 liberalisation 393 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 374, 404 LibNet 82 Libya 3, 456 —economy 464 —Egypt, relations 456, 465 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —security environment 464-65 —UN sanctions lifted 464 licensing conditions 135, 136, 285 Lidder, Lt General J.S. 177 Life Sciences Research Board (LSRB) 314 LIG Nex1 179 Light combat aircraft (LCA) 46, 199, 239, 293, 311 light combat helicopter (LCH) 293, 294 Light Detection and Ranging System (LIDAR) 77 light tanks 510, 514 light utility helicopter (LUH) 113, 181, 229, 294 Light Vehicle Obscurant Smoke System and Vehicle launched Non-lethal Grenades 86 line of actual control (LAC) 13, 16, 18, 72, 130, 170, 173, 183, 186, 231, 394, 503 Line of Control (LoC) 18, 59, 72, 103, 169, 185, 224, 271, 325, 333, 374 LinkedIn 76 Liu Zhenmin 410 Lockheed Martin 79, 90, 91, 93, 112, 113, 134, 137, 139, 140, 143, 145-48, 150, 152, 154, 15657, 160, 225, 229, 230, 242, 553, 557, 559 Logistics and Maintenance Command, Tri-Service 51 long-range maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare (LRMR&ASW) 199 long-range surface-to-air missile (LRSAM) 305, 311, 312 Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) 48-49, 165; 2007-22, 50-51, 288, 314 Long-term Mine Reconnaissance System 96 Long-Term Perspective Plan (LTPP) 110, 165, 203, 231 Louis XIV 2 low probability of intercept radars (LPI) 95 low-cost UAV swarming technology (LOCUST) programme 79 Luda Class 532, 537 Luhai Class 532, 537 Luhu Class 532, 538 Luthra, Vice Admiral Girish 162, 264 Luyang Class 532 Luyang I Class 536 Luyang II Class 532, 536-37 Luzhou Class 535 Ly, Yim Chhai 362

M M 167 Vulcan 531 M 1A2 Abrams 529 M 41 529 M1 24 M-11 15 M-107 M-109 530 M-113 A3 530 M-113 24 M-160 189 M-163 Vulcan 530 M-1943 189 M-198 M-2 Vehicle Lightweight Arresting Device 87 M-4 180 M-42 Twin 530 M-46 SP Gun (Catapult) 188-89, 523

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M-48 A1 Chaparral 531 M-48 Series 529 M-60 24 M-60A3 529 M-71 518-19 M777 124, 179, 188, 529 M-84 Flash Bang Grenade 86 Ma Xiaotian, General 362 Ma Ying-jeou 367, 447 Madan Mohan 267 magnetic anomaly detectors (MAD) 96 Mahat, Dr Ram Sharan 365 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme 341, 360 Mahesh Yogi, Maharishi 64 Mahindras 101, 133 Mahlab, Ibrahim 362 Mahmood, General Rashad 366 Mahmoud, Ahmad bin Abdullah Bin Zaid al- 366 main battle tanks (MBTs) 101, 178, 179, 18788, 288, 313, 509-10, 514, 516, 517 Maithripala Sirisena 130, 367, 374 Majeed, General Ali Ghaidan 363 Major, Air Chief Marshal Fali H. 109 Make in India, call for 30, 103, 104, 115-18, 119, 12, 124, 126, 132-34, 180, 202-3, 232, 268, 269, 286, 314, 351, 373 Al-Maktoum, Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid 77, 368 Makwana, Hitesh Kumar 320, 323 Malacca Strait 105, 109, 169, 199, 223, 224, 444 Malaysia 3, 408, 410, 444, 503 —Air Force 438 —Army 437-38 —Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) 436 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372; —Navy 438 —security environment 437 Maldives 46, 129, 257, 453 Malik, G.S. 264, 311 al-Maliki, Nouri 25, 455 Malleswar, C.D. 317 Mallick, Subir 263, 267 Malyutka 191 Management Information Systems (MIS) 70, 71 Mancini, Dominic 65 Mandal, Manas K. 264, 311 Manipur 35, 320, 343, 344 —Meitei insurgent groups 343 —security situation 341, 343 Manipur Army (MA) 343 Manjula, J. 315 Manpower Planning Board 310 Mao Chi-kuo 367 Mao Zedong 3, 407, 408 Mao’s People’s War 356 Maoist insurgency 355-59 mapping 71, 78, 80, 96 Marine Police 256, 351 maritime —boundaries, disputed 193, 352 —Capability Perspective Plan (MCPP) 202 —Domain Awareness (MDA) 193, 353 —environment 196, 202 —forces 43, 107, 201, 202 —imponderables and force architecture 105-8 —military strategy 107 —reconnaissance (MR) 198-99, 203 —Rescue Coordination Centres (MRCCs) 254, 256 —search and rescue (MSR) 253-54 —security 44, 97, 105-6, 130, 193, 199, 201, 253, 257, 351–52, 423, 426, 444, 452, 504 —Silk Road (MSR) 64, 202, 502-3 —states 106 —strategy 105, 202, 423 —strikes 91, 198 —surveillance 78, 353 —terrorism 351 —trade 256 —traditions of India 195-96

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index Mars Orbiter Mission 293 Martime borders 169 Marxism 319 Masimov, Karim 364 Masum, Fuad 363 Matharu, Lt General J.S. 265 Mathur, R.K. 269 Matra durandal bomb 250 Mauritius 128, 129, 202, 294, 295, 302 Maykeev, Lt General Murat 364 Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) 198, 199, 283, 285, 287, 291, 301-2 Al-Mazrouei, Major General Saif Mohammed bin Ablan 368 MBDA ASMP 91 MBDA Brimstone anti-armour missile 91 MBDA Meteor 91 MBDA Mica interception, combat and self-defence missile 90, 110 MBDA Storm Shadow cruise missile 91 MBDA Storm Shadow stand-off cruise missile 91 MDN304HCU 306 medium multi-role (MMR) radar 294 medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) 51, 90, 91, 92, 111, 229-30, 232, 282, 293 medium-altitude, long-endurance (MALE) 313 medium-range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) 103, 311, 312 Meena, A.K.K. 263, 267 Meena, Prabha Dayal 263 Meena, R.C. 267 Meena, Veena Kumari 320, 324 Meghalaya 35, 224, 320, 341, 344. See also North East Mehta, Brigadier (later Lt General) R.K. 177 Mekong River 43 Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative (MGCI) 36 Merchant Shipping Act 1958 255 Merkava 4, 517-18 Metro Rail Corporation 268 MF-Star 3D 95 Mi-8 113, 225, 244-45 Mi-17 113, 225, 229, 230, 245, 305 Mi-17IV 225 Mi-17V5 113, 225 Mi-25/35 245 Mi-26 113, 225, 246 Mi-35 113, 225 Microwave Tube R&D Centre (MTRDC) 317 Middle East 3, 63, 61, 455, 484, 492 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) 501 MiG-19 391 MiG-21 110, 223, 224, 235, 248, 273, 275, 280, 380, 381, 396, 397, 430, 431, 454, 463, 465, 491, 499, 554, 555 MiG-23 249, 378, 379, 405, 406, 430, 431, 465, 491, 555 MiG-25 459, 460, 491, 553, 555 MiG-27 110, 224, 225, 235, 236, 250, 272, 378, 379, 396, 397, 405, 406, 555 MiG-29 46, 110, 198, 199, 203, 207, 208, 217, 224, 229, 232, 236, 249, 271, 298, 378, 379, 385, 387, 391, 396, 397, 420, 431, 438, 440, 459, 460, 470, 491, 499, 553, 556 MiG-31 378, 379, 553, 556 MiG-35 90, 553 Mikoyan, Russia 90, 235, 236, 553, 555-56 Mil MI-17 560 Mil MI-24 560 Mil MI-25/35 560 Mil MI-26 561 Mil MI-6 560 Mil MI-8 560 Milan 130, 191, 201, 305, 395, 424, 445, 459, 462, 465, 477, 481, 483, 485, 490, 493, 496, 528 military —capabilities 2-3, 14, 16, 55-56, 58, 74, 109, 161, 167, 309, 426 —employment 60

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—Intelligence 71, 184 —leadership 8, 56, 58, 59, 60, 131, 167 —Operations 71 —power 62, 426, 503 —security 53, 55-56, 173 Military Confrontation Contingency 18 Military Institute of Training (MILIT) 309 Millan, Vice Admiral Jesus C. 366 MIM-23A and 23B 531 Min Aung Hlaing, General 365 mine warfare 96, 215 mineral exploration 78 Minicoy Islands 169, 196, 203, 352 Ministry of Civil Aviation 340 Ministry of Defence (MoD) 57, 58, 60, 70, 102, 112-13, 115-18, 119, 124-26, 134-36, 161, 165, 167, 173, 178, 180-81, 234, 253, 285, 286, 288, 303 Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) 353 Ministry of External Affiars (MEA) 135 Ministry of Finance 134 Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) 319-32, 334, 340, 341, 343, 344, 345, 347, 349, 351, 357-60; coastal security schemes, 352 Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) 168 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting 297 Mirage 2000 30, 91, 110, 224, 229, 232, 237, 248, 275, 312, 448, 462, 485, 497, 553 Mirage 2000H 237, 555 Mirage 5 555 Mirage III 555 Mirziyyev, Shavkat Miromonovich 368 Mirzo, Sherali 368 Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) 284, 285, 287, 291, 305-6 Mishra, Aditya 288 Mishra, Brajesh 49 Mishra, Prakash 327 Mishra, Rear Admiral N.K. (Retd) 283 Missile Craft 532 missile integration infrastructure 312 missile system quality assurance (MSQA) 307 missile systems, missiles 190-91, 311-12 Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) 15, 32 Mission Payload Module NLW System 87 Mital, Rear Admiral Shekhar (Retd) 283 Mitra, Anuradha 263, 267 Mitra, R.K. 320, 324 Mitsubishi 519, 520 Mittal, Mukesh 320, 324 Mizo National Front (MNF) 37 Mizoram 35, 224, 320, 341, 390 MK5 214 Modi, Narendra 12-14, 31-34 , 64, 90, 101, 111, 127-34, 136, 165, 169-70, 229, 263, 360, 37374, 376, 392, 399, 401, 405, 410, 418-19, 426, 504 —call for digitisation 69, 70 —‘Make in India’ policy 30, 103, 104, 115-18, 119, 122, 124, 126, 132-34, 180, 202-3, 232, 268, 269, 286, 314, 351, 373 —initiative for North East Region 35, 37, 38 —smart cities, concept 33 Modular Crowd Control Munition 87 Moeldoko, General 363 Mohan Kumar, G. 263, 266, 269, 270 Al-Mohannadi, Major General Mohammed Nasser 366 Mongolia 44 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) 95 Montesquieu 11 Moqbil, Samir 364 Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) 442 Morocco 21 Mors 189 Morsi, Mohammed 461 Mosul Dam 23 Mountain Strike Corps 176, 178, 184 Mousavi, Brigadier General Abdolrahim 363 MOWAG Piranha III 526 MR-310U Angara air surveillance radar 95

MR-352 search radar 95 MR-760 Fregat M2EM 3D radar 95 MR-775 Fregat MAE air surveillance radar 95 MR-90 Orekh fire control radar 95 MRAP 24 MSTA-S 523 MT-LB 523 Mubarak, Muhammad Hosni 20, 461, 486 Muivah, Th. 343 Multi Agency Centre (MAC) 334, 339 multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) system 102 multi-calibre assault rifle (MCAR) 180 multifunctional surveillance threat assessment radar (MFSTAR) 312 multilateralism 63 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) 312 multiple rocket launchers 512 multipolarity 3, 502-3 multi-role fighter aircraft 89 multi-role helicopters (MRH) 108 Multi-role Missions 91 multi-role tanker transport (MRTT) aircraft 114, 225, 230, 232, 413, 488, 497 multi-role transport aircraft (MTA) 112-13, 128, 295 Multi-Role Transport Aircraft Ltd 296 Multi Sensor/Source Data Fusion (MSDF) 67 Mumbai terrorist attack (26/11) 8, 231, 256, 334, 374 Munter, Cameron 401 Muralidharan, P.M. 322 Mursi, Mohamed 456, 461 Murthy, K.P.S. 317 Murugesan, Vice Admiral P. 194, 265, 273 Al-Musharrakh, Rear Admiral Ibrahim Salem Mohammed 368 Muslim Brotherhood 25, 461, 486 Myanmar (formerly Burma) 18, 54, 128, 224, 394, 404, 410, 449 —economy 439 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —India, defence relations 504 —and India’s North East Region 35, 36, 37, 38 —National League for Democracy (NLD) 439 —security environment 439-40

N Nabhani, Lt General Ahmed bin Harith al 365 Al-Nadoori, Abdulrazek 365 Nadyrov, Lt General Ramil 368 Nag anti-tank missile carrier (NAMICA) 179 Nag Chudhari Committee 352 Nagaland 35, 54, 320, 390 —security situation 341, 343, 344 Nagaraj, S.S. 316 Al-Nahyan, Khalifa bin Zayed 368 Al-Nahyan, Lt. General Shaikh Saif bin Zayed 368 Najin Class 532 Nakatani, General 363 Nambiar, Lt General Satish 177 Namer 518 Namhong, Hor 362 Nanuchka Class 532, 546 Napoleon 2 Napoleonic empire (1792–1815) 65 Naresh Chandra Committee on defence reforms 50, 52 Naresh Chandra Task Force (NCTF) 49-51, 166, 234 Naresh Chandra 57 Naresuan Class 532, 550 Nasin, Dr Mohammed 316 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development 268 National Bomb Data Centre 329 National Broad Band Network 74, 82 National C3I Network 83 national command control and

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index intelligence network 298 National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network (NC3IN) 353 National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) 339, 359 National Critical Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIPC) 76 National Cyber Security Policy 76 National Defence Academy (NDA) 228 National Defence University 161, 163-64, 166, 167-68 National Democratic Alliance (NDA) 31, 101, 103, 127, 132, 286, 354 National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) 331, 342, 344 —anti-talk faction (NDFB-AT) 342 —Progressive & Ranjan Daimary 342, 343, 344 —Songbijit group 320, 343, 392 National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) 349 National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) 349-50 National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) 347 National Information Infrastructure 74 National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) 285, 287, 308 National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) 338-39, 359 National Investigation Agency (NIA) 334, 339 National Maritime Domain Awareness (NMDA) 353 National Maritime Search and Rescue Board 253, 254 National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) 253, 254, 255 National Police Commission 346 National Rural Health Mission 341 National Security Advisor (NSA) 6, 57, 59 National Security Commission (NSC) 52, 347 National Security Concept (NSC) 380 National Security Council (NSC) 48, 57, 60 National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) 49, 59, 163, 166, 167 National Security Guard (NSG) 325, 328-29, 334-35, 357 national security in India 161 —decision making 57-60 —digitisation and 71 —fundamental challenges 53-56 —management system 49, 51-52 —objectives 170 National Security Strategy (NSS) 50-51 National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) 342, 343 —Isak Muivah (NSCN/IM) 342, 343 —Khole (NSCN/KK) 342, 343 —Khaplang (NSCN/K) 342, 343 National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) 49, 76 National War Memorial 50, 52 nationalism, resurgence 502 Naval Aircraft Yard (NAY) 198 naval diplomacy 201-2 Naval Enterprise Wide Network (NEWN) 83 naval equipment 532-52 Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) 317 naval multi-role helicopter (NMRH) 203 Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) 317 Naval Research Board (NRB) 314 Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) 317 naval sensors 93-96 naval systems 314 Navigation Satellite System 7 navigation, combat and communication systems 96 Navy 106-7 Naxalism 321, 333, 394 Nay Pyi Taw, (place name) Burma 410 Nayak, Keshav Dattatreya 264, 311 Nazarbayev, Nursultan Abishevich 364 NC2 system 8 Necib, Major General Malek 361

Neelakantan, Air Marshal S. 226, 227, 265 Negi, D.C.S. 162 Negi, Dr S.S. 317 Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS) 337 Nehru, Jawaharlal 166, 270, 284, 304, 359 Nepal 54, 128, 398-99 —economy 398 —security environment 398-99 —Chinese influence 399 —earthquake 64, 374, 399 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 Netanyahu, Benjamin 22, 87, 363 Netra UAV 80 network-centric operations 193, 197 network-centric warfare (NCW) 51, 69-72 networking 103 Networks for Spectrum (NFS) 83 Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission 176 new generation sonars 298 new puma infantry fighting vehicle 517 New Zealand 37, 444, 501 Nexter 30 M 791 91 Nexter Systems 102, 514 Ng Chee Meng, Lt General 367 Ng Eng Hen 367 Nguyen Tan Dung 368 Nguyen Thi Doan 368 Nguyen Van Hien, Admiral 368 NICNET 82 NICO BTV-1 Flash Bang Grenade 87 night vision devices 67, 96, 185, 298, 337 9M31M 190 9M37M 190 Nixon, Richard 21 Nodong ballistic missiles 408 no first use (NFU) doctrine 5, 6, 7, 9, 18 Nomed PS 700 Class 532, 550 Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 2 Non-lethal capabilities for Stopping Small Vessels 88 Non-lethal Capability Sets 87 Non-lethal Extended Range Marking Munition 87 Non-lethal Indirect Fire Munition 87 Non-Lethal Weapons (NLWs) 85-88 —desired capabilities 85-88 —Indian perspective 88 Noor, General Datuk Raja Mohamed Affandi Raja Mohamed 365 Noor, Lt General Datuk Che Akmar bin Mohd 365 Noorolhaq Olomi 361 NORINCO VP 1 507, 511 NORINCO YW 1 531 APC 507, 511 NORINCO 507, 509-10, 511, 512, 513, 514 North Africa 61, 63 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) 2-3, 15, 25, 28, 39, 41, 42, 45, 96, 185, 217, 219, 235, 236, 239, 240, 244, 245, 246, 249, 374, 378, 382, 386, 388, 437, 464, 465, 466, 492, 505-6, 512, 554, 555, 556, 558, 559, 560, 561 North East region —internal security 176, 320, 334, 341-46 —and Look East and Act, East Policy 35-38, 128, 201, 504 —security situation 341-46 —state police force, modernisation of 345 —reimbursement of security related expenditure 344-45 —Reserve Battalions for; schemes for surrender-cumrehabilitation of militants 344 North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) 4, 61, 365, 408, 410, 428-31 —Air Force 430-31 —Army 428-29 —autocratic state 408; China, relations 428 —economy 428 —Naval equipment 532, 543 —Navy 430 —pursuance for nuclear weapons 408, 505 —security environment 429 —South Korea, relations 428-29

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—Special Economic Zones 428, 429 Northrop Grumman Corporation 94, 134, 138-40, 14347, 149-51, 158–59, 218, 242, 562 North-South Corridor 42 Nossel, Suzanne 63 NPO Mashinostroeyenia, Russia 191 NPO Saturn, Russia 294 nuclear arms race 2 nuclear biological chemical (NBC) 179, 309 nuclear command and control —in crisis scenario 7-8 —peacetime perspective 5 Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) 6, 57 Nuclear propelled attack submarines 533 Nuclear Suppliers’ Group (NSG) 15, 32, 128, 325 nuclear threats 170 nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) 181 Nurmantyo, General Gatot 363 Nw-generation anti-raditaion missile (NGARM) 312 Nyan Tun, Admiral 365 Nye, Joseph 62, 63

O Obaidani, Air Vice Marshal Mattar bin Ali al 365 Obama, Barack 4, 20-21, 24-25, 26, 28, 31-34, 128, 408, 410, 418, 419, 439, 452, 476, 487, 496, 503, 504 —foreign policy doctrine 61, 63 Obeidi, Dr Khalid al- 363 observation-orientation-decision– action (OODA) loop 66-68 Ochoa, Paquito (Jr.) 366 Ocular Interruption 87 Odisha super cyclone (1999) 349 Oerlikon-Contraves 527 Offset Outcome Review Committee (OORC) 121 offshore patrol vessel (OPV) 108, 139, 145, 199, 202, 213-15, 253, 254, 260, 301-3, 405 Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) 253, 255 Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) 29, 37, 197, 255 Oil India Limited 255 oil price, decline 27 Ojha, Kameshwar 324 Oliver Hazard Perry Class 532, 551 Oloeresin Capsicum Dispensers 87 Oman, Sultanate of 19, 130, 201, 365, 479 —economy 482 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —security environment 482-83 —and United States, relations 482 Omuraliev, Taalaibek 364 Open Source Intelligence 76 Operation Decisive Storm 21 Operation Enduring Freedom 170 Operation Foal Eagle’ 408 Operation Freedom Sentinel 39 Operation Prakram 277 Operation Protective Edge 474 Operation Rahat 195, 203-4 Operation Resolute Support 42 Operation Safed Sagar 273 Operation Sentinel 506 Operation Swan 352 Operational Information Systems (OIS) 70, 71 optical fibre cable (OFC) 83, 103 ORBAT 68 Ordanance Factory, Medak 179 ordnance factories 117, 133, 134, 285, 286, 287-90, 307, 308 —diversification into civil trade and exports 287 —financial highlights 290 —modernisation 135, 287 —research and development 287 Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) 102, 104, 134, 135, 179, 180, 285, 286, 287 Ordnance Factory, Dum Dum 288 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 393, 473 Organisation of Islamic

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index Cooperation (OIC) Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) organisation transformation organisational factors Ormanbetov, Major General Nurlan OT-64 C (SKOT-2A) Oto Melara Over the horizon (OTH) radar

458, 483 483, 486 81, 82 74 364 514 210, 211, 213, 508, 519 94

P P O Hang Class 532 P-12/15 251 P-15A/P-17 301 P-18/P-19 251 P-3C Orion/P-3C 96 P-800 Oniks 191 P-8A Poseidon 133, 157 P-8I Poseidon 95, 98, 199, 203, 218 P-8I 198 Pacific Oceans 407 Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) 346 Pakistan 3, 21, 37, 50, 54, 257, 400-3, 444 —Air Force equipment 554, 562 —Army 39, 59 —Army equipment 508, 520-21 —Awami Tehreek Party 374 —balance of payments crisis 400 —border disputes with Pakistan and China 47, 394 —China, relations. See China —economy 40, 400 —foreign policy 39 —GDP 40, 41 —military action against Shias in Baluchistan 42 —and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —military hierarchy 6 —National Command Authority (NCA) 5, 6, 7, 8 —nuclear doctrine 5, 6, 394 —security environment 400-02 —state-sponsored terrorism 39, 41, 169 —Strategic Plans Division (SPD) 6 —tactical weapons at sea 6-7 —Taliban 41, 42, 394, 401 —terrorism as a state policy against India 8, 185 Pakistan, India, relations/tensions 8, 15, 16, 39, 401, 506 —break off and re-engagement 131, 169 —proxy war against India 8, 17, 57, 127, 185, 321, 330, 333, 357, 394 —territorial dispute 401 —wars/aggressions, 1947, 1965, 1971, 1999 223, 394 Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) 15, 333, 374, 393, 401 —Chinese strategic presence 15, 16, 18 Pakistan Ordnance Factory (POF) 356 Pal, Dr. Surendra 316 Palestinian Territories of West Asia 20 Pandit, Rajat 101 Panetta, Leon 410 Panhard CRAB 508, 515 Panhard M3 VDA Twin 516 Panhard M3 508, 515 Panhard PVP 508, 515 Pant, K.K. 263, 267, 287 Panwar, Rabindra 263, 267 Paracel Island 503 Paraguay Navy 43 Park Geun-hye 367 Parrikar, Manohar 102, 104, 123, 125, 131-32, 134-36, 166, 229, 263, 266, 269, 353 PARS-3 181 Parthasarathy, G. 49 passive night vision devices 298 Pathak, D.K. 327 Pathak, Keshav K. 320, 323 Patriot Msl (PAC-1) Single Stage 531 patrol forces 541 Patrol Submarines 532, 533, 543-44 Pattanaik, Vice Admiral R.K. 194, 265, 274 Paua New Guinea 444 Pauk Li Class (Project 1241) 212 Pawar, Rear Admiral M.S. 265

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PC-7 Mk II 229 PC-7 MkII 113-14 PC-7 MkII 30, 113, 229, 243-44, 396, 397, 415, 438, 440, 470, 497 PC-7 30 PDL-NG 91 Peace of Westphalia (1648) 2 perception management 76 performance based logistics (PBL) 282 performance matrix system (PMS) 125 periscope reconnaissance 98 Perry Lim, Major General 367 Persian Gulf 18, 39, 41, 42, 89, 105, 109, 169, 374, 455, 461, 468, 485, 486 Perspective multi-role fighter (PMF) 92 PGZ-07 (SP anti-aircraft gun) 514 PGZ-95 (SP AD system) 513-14 Phalcon Systems 241, 251, 554, 562 Phased array radars 298 Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research (PIPVTR) 442 Philippines 177, 366, 408, 410, 441-43, 501 —economy 441 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —security environment 442 —territorial disputes in South China Sea 418, 442, 503 Phukan, Justice P.C. 342 Phung Quang Thanh, General 368 Phuong Minh Hoa, Lt General 368 Pilatus 30, 113-14, 229, 230, 243 Pillai, G.K. 344 Pinaka MR system 517 Pinaka RL 189 Pipavav Defence and Offshore Engineering Limited 301 Pipavav Shipyard Limited 213 Piracy and armed robbery at sea 255-56 piracy at sea 44, 105-8, 130, 196, 201, 204 PL-12 513 PL-9C 513 Planning and Coordination Cell 47 Planning Commission 57, 336, 337, 339, 346 PLZ45 507, 511 Police Act, 1861 345 Police Act Drafting Committee 346 Police Modernisation Scheme for the UTs 349 police reforms 347 political culture 54 political-diplomatic factors 59 politico-military interface 60 pollution control vessels (PCVs) 254, 260 Polnocny C (Project 773 I) & D Class (Project 773 IM) 215 Popular Front of India (PFI) 356 Portable Vehicle Arresting Barrier 88 Post-Ministerial Conferences (PMCs) 36 Pourdastan, Brigadier General Ahmad Reza 363 power matrix, US example 61-62 power politics 17, 21 Prabhakar, Ashwani Kumar 288 Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana 268 Prasad, Ashok 320, 322 Prasad, Bina 320, 323 Prasad, Braj Kishore 320, 323 Prasad, M.V.K.V. 317 Prasad, Rajendra 304 Prasad, Sharda 267 precision long range weapons 81 Precision-guided munition (PGMs) 89-91 Pre-Emplaced Electric Vehicle Stopper 88 Prem Chand Lt General Dewan 177 Prime Minister’s Gram Sadak Yojana 341 Prithvi-II 31 Prithvi 72, 191, 213, 305, 311 private sector, participation in defence industry 136, 285-86 private ship building industry 202 privatisation of state-owned enterprises 393 Priyadarshini Class 260 Project Defence Communications Network 70 Proof And Experimental

Establishment (PXE) 317 Protected Area Permit/Protected Area Region 342 Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (Amendment) Act, 2006 347 PRP-4 522 psychoactive drugs 85 PT-1 295 PT-76B 522 Public diplomacy 63 Pundir, Dr R.S. 315 Punhani, Rajit 320, 324 Putin, Vladimir 27-28, 30, 33, 128, 382, 386, 461

Q Qadri, Muhammad Tahir-ul 374 Qadri, Tahirul 401 Qahir Class 532 Qatar 19, 21, 25, 456, 459, 483, 486 —economy 484 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —security environment 484-85 Qiang-5 554 Quadrotors 79 Quality Management System for Aerospace and Defence 306 Queen of the Seas 108

R R-23-R AA-7 Apex 249 R-550 Magic I 248 R-60 AA-8 Aphid 248-49 R-73 92 R-77 92 Rabie, Rear Admiral Ossama Mounir 362 radar systems, radar technology 93-95 —future trends/ Indian Navy 95 radar, electronic warfare and communications, integration 96 Radhwaj 302 radio and data-link communication systems 96 Radio Frequency Vehicle Stopper 88 Rafael, Israel 92 Rafale F3-R standard 91 Rafale 90-92, 111, 132, 133, 145, 153, 158, 229, 553, 555 Raghavan, Lt General (Retd) V.R. 49 Raghuvanshi, Devika 267 Raha, Air Chief Marshal Arup 162, 226, 231-34, 264, 271 Rahmon, Emomali 368 Rahmonali, General Lieutenant Radjabali 368 Rai, Air Marshal Ramesh 265, 280 Rai, Lt General M.M.S. 174, 264, 273 Rai, Lt General R.P. 264 Rainsay, Sam 416 Al-Raisi, Rear Admiral Abdullah bin Khamis bin Abdullah 365 Rajagopal, Dr Chitra 315 Rajan, Dr K.M. 315 Rajapakse, Mahinda 130, 404-5 Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhyutikaran Yojana 341 Rajnish Kumar 267 Rajshree Class 261 Rajveer 302 Ramachandran, Dr K. 316 Ramanararayanan, C.P. 264, 311 Ramgoolam, Navinchandra 129 Rana, General Gaurav Shamsher J.B. 365 Rana, Lt General R.K. 330 Rani Abbakka Class 261 Rao, M. Narayana 284 Rao, V. Bhujanga 264, 311 Rascal 518 172, Rashtriya Rifles (RR)  271, 273, 349, 358-59 Rasulzoda, Qohir 368

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index Ratel-90 525 Rath, S.K. 288 Ratnakosin Class 532, 552 Raveendranath, AVM G. 263, 267 Ravi, R.N. 343 RAWL MK II & III (BEL) 95 RAWS 3 Upgrade (BEL) 95 Raytheon Company 93, 95, 102, 134, 138, 140, 144, 146, 148, 152–55, 157, 159, 214, 218 Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems 142 Raytheon Missile Systems Co 102, 142, 145, 146, 148, 153, 156, 158 Raytheon Technical Services 147 Razak, Datuk Seri Najib Tun 365, 436, 437 reconnaissance and observation 181 reconnaissance vehicles 179, 508, 518 reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) 103 Recruitment and Assessment Centre (RAC) 309 Reddy, Air Marshal P.P. 162, 264, 272 Reddy, Dr G.S. 317 Reddy, G. Satheesh 264, 266, 270, 311, 317 Reddy, M. Gopal 320, 324 Reddy, Ranga 329 Regional Centre for Military Airworthiness (RCMA) 317 Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) 410 regional conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, the Middle East, the Persian Gulf 89 Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery (ReCAAP) 255 Regional Rural Banks 268 regional security environment 169-70 regionalism 21 regional-rural connectivity 133 religious fundamentalism 57, 333 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) 313 Renault Trucks Defence 515 Republic of Korea 37, 138 Rescue (INDSAR) computerised ship reporting system 254 Research & Development Establishment (R&DE) 317 Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) 49, 59, 339 research and development (R&D) 287–88 Research Centre Imarat (RCI) 270, 317 Reserve Bank of India (RBI) 29 Reserve Battalions in states 344, 349 Reshef Class 532, 542 Revathi 298 Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) 66, 67 RF power amplifiers 95 Rheinmetall land system Marder 1A3 ICV 517 Ri Yong Ggil, General 365 Ribeiro Committee 346 RIC (Russia, India and China) 4 Rice, Condoleezza 63 Richard, Sangeeta 32 Rijiju, Kiran 320, 322, 343, 360 Rikhye, Major General Inderjit 177 risk management 74 Rivlin, Reuven 363 Rocket arty 189 Rockwell Collins 140 Rohini 251, 298 Rolls-Royce, 111 126, 295 Rolta India Limited 118 Romanian Air Force 137 Romeo Class 532, 543 Roosevelt, Franklin 61 Rosoboronexport, Russia 102 ROSSNEFT 29 Rotary wing fleet 113 Rothberg, Vice Admiral Ram 363 Rouhani, Dr Hassan 363, 456, 468 Royal Bhutanese Army 392 RUAG Aerospace, Germany 294 Rumaithi, Lt General Hamad Mohammed Thani Al 368 Running Gear Entanglement System 88 Russia 18, 133, 201, 444, 456, 461, 501 —and Afghanistan-Pakistan region 42 —Air Force 295

—Air Force equipment

—Army equipment —and Central Asia —China, relations —cyberwarfare doctrine —defence budget —economic downturn —India relations —Naval equipment —US relations —Sanctions against —western sanctions over Ukraine —counter sanctions on West Rustom II Ryacudu, General Ryamizard

553, 555–56, 558, 560, 562 508, 521–25 373, 374; 29 76 3 27, 28, 29 27–30, 131 532–33, 543-49 27, 28 34 27-28 28 313 363

S S-300 513 S-3B Viking 96 S-400 513 SA 315B Lama 246 SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin 560 SA 365/AS 366 Dauphin II 560 AS 565 Panther 560 SA-13 Gopher (Strella 10) 190, 524 SA-16 Gimlet (Igla-1 9K310) 190–91, 249 SA-316/319 Alouttee III 560 SA-330 Puma 560 SA-341/342 Gazelle 560 SA-3B Pechora 249 SA-6 Gainful 524 SA-8 Gecko 524 SA-8B Osa-AK 249, 524 SA-9 Gaskin 524 Saab integrated defensive aide suite (IDAS) 294 Saab 139-40, 142, 152, 179, 294, 550, 562 Saad 520 Saad, General Dato’ Sri Haji Roslan Bin 365 al-Sabah, Lt General Sheikh Khaled al-jarrah 364 al-Sabah, Sheikh Jaber Mubarak al-Hamad 364 al-Sabah, Sheikh Sabah al-Ahmad al-Jaber 364 Sabra 508, 518 Sadat, Anwar 461 Saeed, Hafiz 394 Sahni, Lt General Arun Kumar 265, 276 Said, Davlatali 368 al-Said, Qaboos bin Said 365 al-Said, Sayyid Fahd bin Mahmoud 365 al-Said, Thuwayni bin Shihab 365 sail training ship (AXS) 216 Sailesh 320, 324 sailing vessel 216-17 Saini, Charan Ram 267, 287 Saito, General Harukazu 363 Saladin Governorate 23 Salahuddin Rabbani 361 Salam, Tammam 364 Saleh, Ali Abdallah 498 Salehi, Major General Ataollah 363 Salisbury Class 532 Salman, King of Yemen 21 Salman, Major General Walid 364 SAM-6 (Kvadrat) 103, 190 SAM-8 OSA-AK 103, 190 Samar Class 260 Samarai 79 Samnang, Lt General Soeung 362 Samtel-HAL Display System Limited 296 Samudra Prahari Class 260 Sang-O Class 532, 543 Sanjay Kumar 323 Sanjeev Ranjan 267 Sankalp Class 260 Sanket ‘S’ 298 Santhali Tiger Force (STF) 342, 344 Saran, General Chea 362 Sarath 179 Sarin, Lt General Amit 264 Sariyev, Temir 364 Sarojini Naidu Class 261

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Sarva Siksha Abhiyan 341 Sarvatra 103 Sarwar Danish 361 Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) 325, 330-32, 334, 338, 349, 392 Sastry, C.V.S. 315 satellite communication and broadcast network 82 satellite communications systems 193, 197 Satellite Signal Receivers for Communication and Navigation 93 Sati, S.C. 315 Satish Chandra 49 Satish Kumar 264, 311 Sato, Akira 363 Saud, Mohammad bin Naif bin Abdulaziz Al 366 Saud, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al 366, 487 Saudi Arabia 20, 23-25, 455, 456, 483 —Air Defence Forces 488 —Army 487-88 —defence budget 3 —economy 486 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —and Iran 19 —Navy 489 —security environment 486-87 Saxena, G.C. 49 Sayasone, Choummaly 364 Sayyaf, Abu 442 Sayyari, Rear Admiral Habibollah 363 S-Band active array radar 313 Scalp long-range stand-off missile 91 Scarborough Shoal 503 Scientific Analysis Group (SAG) 318 Scindia Steam Navigation Company 304 SD-10A air defence system 513 Sea Eagle 198, 397 Sea Harrier 217 Sea King G2B 198 Sea King Mk 42B/42C 219 Sea King UH 3H 219-20 sea lines of communication (SLOCs) 107-8, 422, 502 Sea Power 73 Seahawk 96, 413, 427, 446, 448, 451, 467, 493, 549, 550 search and rescue (SAR) 254, 257 —capabilities 198 —drones 78-79 Searcher 114, 131, 198, 433 Searcher II 220, 247, 248, 406, 450 Searcher Mk II 395, 396, 397, 445, 446, 475 seaward defence forces 200 secrecy devices and key management 84 sectarianism 19, 21, 480 Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR) 130, 502 security environment —in Central and South Asia 394-95 —in East Asia 407 Sejong the Great 548-49 self-propelled (SP) guns and howitzers 508-9, 511, 513-14, 516, 518, 519, 520, 523, 525, 529, 530 Sellal, Abdelmalek 361 Sen, Hun 362, 416 Senaratnehe, Rajitha 405 sensor systems 66, 67 Sepecat 237-38 Service Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) 49 Service Life Extension Programmes (SLEP) 202 Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) 165 services qualitative requirements (SQR) 125 Severodvinsk 206 Seychelles 128, 130, 294 SG 551 180 SH-1 512 SH-60 Seahawk 96 SH-60B Seahawk 96 Shah, Abdul Halim Mu’adzam 365 Shaheen-1 402, 506 Shahine 488, 508, 516 Shah-Safi, Brigadier General Hassan 363

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index Shaksgam Valley 16 Shakti 294 Al-Shalawi, General Eid bin Awad 366 al-Shami, Abu Amr 26 Shang Class (Type 093) 533 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) 64, 128, 373-74, 502 Shanghai YTO Express Logistics Co 78 Shankar, Bhagwan 320, 323 Shankar, Lt General P.R. 264 Shankul 272 Shankush 272 Sharif, General Raheel 366 Sharif, Muhammad Nawaz 129, 366, 374, 506 Sharma, B.D. 332 Sharma, Dr R.K. 317 Sharma, Kusum 323 Sharma, Lt General Amit 162, 264, 272 Sharma, Lt General Rakesh 174, 175, 264 Sharma, S.K. 282 Shekhar, V. Shashank 324 Shenoy, S. Kedarnath 317 Shias —Houthis 20, 21, 499 —of Iran 42, 455 —of Iraq 20, 21, 23, 25, 455-56 —of Lebanon 474, 481, 489 —militias 21, 23, 41, 455, 456, 472 —of Pakistan 41, 42. See also Sunnis Shipborne fixed wing aircraft 217 Shiv Kumar 322 shore-based fixed wing aircraft 217 short-range surface-to-air missiles (SR-SAM) 103 Shrawat, Rear Admiral R.K. 283 Shrivastava, Hari Babu 317 Siachen talks between India and Pakistan, New Delhi 16 Sidhu, Kusumjit 323 Sig Sauer 180 Signaal D Band radar 95 signal and data processing 96 signal generation and display hardware 96 Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) 66 Sihag, Asha Ram 263, 266 Sihamoni, Norodom 362 Sihanouk, Norodom 416 Sikand, Lt General Jatinder 174, 176, 264 Sikkim 35, 173, 320, 321, 392. See also North East —Chinese occupation of Doklam 392 —security situation 341 Sikorsky Aircraft Corp 96, 137, 138, 181, 219-20 Siliguri Corridor 392 Silk road 418 Silk Roads’ 410 Siluanov, Anton 27 Singapore 36, 130, 177, 201, 301, 314, 366–67, 410, 411, 418, 502, 504, 506, 508, 525, 550 —Air Force 445-46 —Army 444-45 —Army equipment 508, 525 —economy 443-44 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 — India, defence relations 504 —Malaysia and Indonesia, cooperation 444 —security environment 444 Singh, Air Marshal Jagjeet 265, 280 Singh, Air Marshal Sukhchain 226, 227, 265 Singh, Anant Kumar 320, 323 Singh, Arun 49 Singh, Binod Kumar 322 Singh, Dr Lokendra 316 Singh, Dr Manjit 318 Singh, Dr Manmohan 318, 389 Singh, Dr Shashi Bala 316 Singh, Dr Shashi Bhushan 317 Singh, General Bikram 101, 103, 130, 177 Singh, General Dalbir 101, 174, 180, 18386, 264, 271 Singh, General V.K. 178 Singh, Jaipal 322 Singh, Jaswant 49

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Singh, Krishnendra Pratap 322 Singh, Kusum 263, 267, 287 Singh, Lt General Ashok 265, 276 Singh, Lt General Gurmit 174, 264, 274 Singh, Lt General K.J. 265, 275 Singh, Lt General Kanwal 265 Singh, Lt General Sandeep 264 Singh, Major General (now Lt General Retd.), Rajender 177 Singh, N.K. 346 Singh, Prakash 346, 347 Singh, R.K. 342 Singh, Rajnath 320, 322, 355, 360 Singh, Rakesh 324 Singh, Rao Birendra 269 Singh, Rao Inderjit 263, 266, 269 Singh, Rear Admiral A.B. 265 Singh, Rear Admiral Ravneet 265 Singh, Shambhu 320, 324 Singh, Sujata 31 Singh, Surender 329 Singh, Upendra Kumar 315 Singh, V.K. 37, 357 Singha, Lt General I.S. 264 Sinha, Air Marshal B.B.P. 226, 227, 265 Sinha, Air Marshal S.B.P. 226, 265, 275 Sinha, R.K. 263, 267 Sinha, Yashwant 49 Sipah-e-Sahaba 41 Sirisena, Maithripala 367, 404-5 Sisi, Abdel Fattah el- 362, 455-56, 461 Sitara 294 Sitharaman, Nirmala 38 situational awareness 81 Sivakumar, Dr P. 315 Sixth Pay Commission 50-51 skill development 84, 115, 118, 119, 121, 12, 126, 337 Skynet delivery drones 79 SM-2 94 smart power strategy 61-64 SMART-L radar 94 Smerch 9K58 multiple launch rocket system 102, 189 Smiths Aerospace/Snecma 295 Snecma-HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd 271-72 Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) 318 Sobhi, Col. General Sedki 362 Sochua, Mu 416 social change 358 social development 3 Social Drone 80 social engineering 76 social media —and cyber crimes 76 —use for recruitment 25-26 social security 53, 54-55, 56 societal reconstruction 54 Soe Win, Vice Senior General 365 soft power perspective of India 64 software defined radio (SDR) 181 Soho Class 532, 543 Sokha, Khem 416 Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL) 317 Soltam 508, 518-19 Somalia 46, 85, 196 Soman, Air Marshal S.S. 265, 278 Son Wonil Class 532, 547 sonar (sound navigation ranging) systems 93, 95-96, 97-100, 199, 297, 314 Song class (Type 039/039G) (SSG) 106, 532, 533 Soni, Vice Admiral Satish 265, 277 Sony Entertainment company 75 Sophea, General Meas 362 Sorabjee, Justice Soli 346 Soufan Group 26 South Africa 3, 130 —army equipment 508, 525-26 South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) 131 South Asia 5, 47, 130, 169, 502 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 37, 128-29, 131, 170, 391, 401, 502 South China Sea 18, 33, 202, 394, 407,

436, 441, 442, 447, 452-53, 503-4 South East Asia 35-38, 42, 128, 130, 169, 292, 394, 423, 440, 444, 449, 453, 501-5 South Korea (Republic of Korea) 410, 444, 502 —Air Force 433 —Army 138, 432-33 —Asian Games (2014) 505 —economy 431 —GDP and military expenditure 369, 371, 372 —India, defence relations 504 —Naval equipment 532, 546-49 —Navy 433 —security environment 432 —sinking of warship Cheonan 408, 428 —Terminal High Altitude Area Defence (THAAD) system 432 —United States, free trade agreement 430 Soviet Union 3, 63, 112, 198 —invasion of Afghanistan 19 —disintegration 2, 27, 373, 380, 434 Sovremenny Class 532, 535-36 SP AA 524 SP-1 111, 313 space-based surveillance 43 Spain —Air Force equipment 558 —Army equipment 508, 526 Special Air Service (SAS) 66 Special Forces 66, 180 —use against Chinese military adventurism 18 Special Forces Command 51 special operation capability 112 Special Operations Command (SOC) 51, 167, 234 Special Security Group (SSG) 340 Special Task Force (STF) 355 Specialised India Reserve Battalions (SIRBns) 336 Spike 30, 87, 104, 131, 181, 192, 432, 445, 475 Spike ER 181 Spike Strips 88 Splav 524 Sprarly Island 503 SPS-48 94 SPS-49 94 SPWH 2052 (Atmos 2000) 518 Sri Lanka 128, 201, 404-6, 444, 453 —China, relations 405 —civil war 374, 405 —economy 404 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —relations 130 —security environment 404-5 Srivastava, Anoop Kumar 320, 322 Srivastava, Vandana 267 ST-68U/UM 251 Stalin, Joseph 373 Standing Committee on Defence (SCD) 60, 103, 166-67, 285-86 state police force structure in India —imperfections of, and steps taken 345-46 —legal framework 346 —operational status 346 —reforms 347 —supreme court’s intervention 346-47 State Wide Area Networks (SWAN) 82 States Multi Agency Centres (SMAC) 334 Steregushchy Class 532, 546 Stingball Grenade 87 Stingray 529 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 72 Stormer APC [Tracked] 528 strategic airlift 104, 109, 112, 241 strategic and business environment 127-36 Strategic Forces Command (SFC) 6, 49, 163, 234, 395 strategic missile submarines 532, 533 strategic stability 5-10, 429 Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group (SSQAG) 307

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index String of Pearls 202 Stuxnet attack on Iranian nuclear facility 75, 76 Su-24 556 Su-25 556 Su-27 556 Su-30K 556 Su-30MKI 30, 91, 92, 111, 198, 224, 229, 230, 238-39, 272, 275, 293, 307, 312, 396, 397, 556 Subaihi, Major General Mahmoud al- 368 Subansiri Lower project 37 Subhedar, Vice Admiral A.V. 194, 195, 265 submarine cable network 82 submarine communication 99 submarine construction capability and plan 198, 202 submarine sensors —advances in 96 —and communication systems 97-100 submarine warfare 97 submarines 200, 205-7, 301, 532, 540, 543, 546 Subrahmanyam, K. 49 Subramaniam, Commodore K. (Retd) 284 Subramanian, Lt General A.V. 265 Sudan 21, 54 Sudershan Kumar 264, 311 Suga, Yoshihide 363 Sugiyama, Shinsuke 410 Suhag, General Dalbir Singh 101, 174, 180, 183, 264, 271 Sukhoi 91, 92, 111, 293, 295, 553, 556 Sule, A.R. 263, 267 Suleiman, Michel 481 Suleimani, General Qassem 456 Al-Sultan, Vice Admiral Abdullah bin Sultan 366 Sun Zi 1 Sunnis 19-20, 476, 486 —in Iraq and Syria 21, 23-26, 455, 456 —militants 41, 455 —and Shias, hostilities 4, 25, 455, 466, 472, 476, 498-99 —tribals 21, 455, 456, 472 —in Yemen 498-99 Supandi, Admiral Ade 363 Super 530 D 248 Super Dvora Class 532, 541 Supervision 2000 270 Suppression of Energy Air Defences (SEAD) 91 Supriatna, Air Chief Marshal Agus 363 Suresh Kumar 263, 267 Suresh Kumar, Brigadier U. 162 surface surveillance 96 surface-to-air guided weapons (SAGW) 232 surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) 90, 190, 249 Surina Rajan 263, 267, 287 Surveillance and Target Acquisition units 68 surveillance 71-72 survey and research ships 216 survey ships (AGSH) 216 Surya Kiran Aerobatic Team (SKAT) 228 Suu Kyi, Aung San 439 Suvarna Raju, T. 282 Suzuki, Zenko 407 Swachh Bharat Mission 268 Swaraj, Sushma 38, 418-19 swarming micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 79 Swathi, weapon-locating Radar (WLR) 313 Sweden 133 —Air Force equipment 553, 557, 562 —Army equipment 508, 526 Switzerland —Army equipment 508, 526-27 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) 95, 96 Syria 3, 20-21, 22, 42, 374, 456, 489-91 —Air Defence 492 —Army 490 —Civil War 23, 24, 471, 486, 487, 489, 490, 502 —economy 489 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372

—and Lebanon 480-81, 486 —National Army 21 —National Coalition 21, 489 —Navy 491-92 —security environment 489-90 system-of-systems approach for digitisation 70

T T-50 PAK FA 111, 295 T-54 521 T-55 101, 187, 521 T-62 521 T-72 288, 521 T-72M-1. See Ajeya T-80 U 521-22 T-80 UD 101 T-90 101, 178, 179, 517 T-90S 30, 187, 522 T-95 521 tactical airlift fleet 112 Tactical Battle Area (TBA) 6, 8, 10, 181, 184, 330 Tactical Communications System (TCS) 71, 72, 83, 103, 182, 184 Tactical Nuclear Weapons (TNW) 6-10 tactical weapons at sea 6-7 Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment (TACDE) 228, 279, 280 Tafer, Major General Ahcene 361 Taiwan 367, 407, 410, 446-48 —Air Force 448 —Army 447-48 —China, Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) 446 —Chinese claims over 408, 418, 447 —economy 446-47 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 372 —Navy 448 —security environment 447 —Us cooperation 447 Tajikistan 41, 368, 373, 376 —Air Force 382 —Army 382 —civil war 382 —defence 382 —economy 381-82 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —security environment 382 —terrorism 380 Takei, Admiral Tomohisa 363 Talha 520-21 Taliban 33, 42, 49, 131, 304, 380, 383-84, 386, 387-88, 394, 484, 501, 506 Tamilmani, K. 264, 311 Tanashat, Brigadier General Qasem Fadeel Nahar 364 Taneja, Shashi Bhushan 317 Tangushka System (2S6M) 179, 190 Tangushka 179 Tapi Class 532, 551-52 Tarantul Class (project 1241) 211-12 Tarantul Class 532 Target Motion Analysis (TMA) 99 TASER [conducted electrical weapon (CEW)] 87 Tasmagambetov, Imangali Nurgaliyevich 364 Tata Advanced Stystems Ltd (TASL) 113 Tata Power SED 102, 118 Tata-HAL Technologies Ltd 296 Tatas 101, 133 Tatra trucks 30 Tayal, R.C. 329 Tech Mahendra 71 technological —capability 202 —changes 69, 71, 184 —obsolescence 83 technology —development for battlefield communications 82-83 —and information 81-84 —and innovation 64 —transfer 102, 104, 110-12, 119, 120, 122, 124, 179, 196, 282, 285, 288, 293, 306, 307 Technology Demonstrator (TD-2) 294

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Technology Development Fund 132 Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap (TPCR) 136, 288 Tehreek-e-Insaf Party 374 Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) 41, 401 Tejas 92, 239, 293-94, 305, 312-13 —Naval variant 133, 293, 313 Tejas Mk I 111, 293, 31, 312 Tejas Mk II 111, 114, 189, 293, 294, 298, 311, 313 Tejas NP-1 293 Tejas NP-2 293 Teo Chee Hean 367 Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) 318 Terminal High Altitude Area Defense 139 territorial integrity 15-16, 45-46, 57, 170, 176, 193, 452 Terrorism Financing and Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN) 334 terrorism, militancy and insurgency 2, 47, 55, 57, 69, 170, 183, 319, 321, 333, 334, 380, 383, 394, 55, 57, 69, 394 Tethered Aerostar Radar System 252 Textron Defense Systems 138 Thailand 3, 36, 37, 410 —Air Force 451 —Army 450 —China, relations 450 —economy 449 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —Naval equipment 532, 549-52 —security environment 449-50 —US cooperation 449-50 Thakot-Sazin road, PoK 16 Thales International 298 Thales Netherlands 91, 96 Thales Underwater Systems 95 Thammavong, Thongsing 364 Al-Thani, Abdullah 364 Thani, Sheikh Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al 366 Thani, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al 366 THD-1955 251 Theatre Level Operational Readiness Exercise (TROPEX) 203, 204 Thein Sein 365, 410, 439 Thet Naing Win, Lt General 365 Theta Controls 313 Thimayya, General K.S. 176, 177 Thinni, Abdullah al- 464 Thodge, Lt General Ravi 174, 176 3G Cellular Network 83 Thura Thet Swe, Admiral 365 Thura U. Shwe 38 Tibet 18, 224, 510 —Chinese claims over/Chinese forces in 13, 14, 16, 17, 104, 394, 399, 419 Tin Bigha corridor 389 Tiwari, Amarendra 322 Tiwari, Major General L.M. 177 TK-X 519 Tomahawk 100, 140, 141, 145 Tony Tan Keng Yam 366, 504 torpedo recovery vessel 222 Track Two diplomacy 62, 333 traffic monitoring 78 training infrastructure 338 Transcendental Meditation 64 Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) 502 transport aircraft 30, 89, 102, 124, 225, 230, 232, 239-41, 553, 558-59 transport ships 221-22 Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South East Asia (TAC) 36 Tripathi, Dr R.P. 317 Tripathi, Prabhat Kumar 322 Tripura 35, 37, 320, 341. See also China; North-East Trishul surface-to-air missile 103, 179 TRS-4D 95 TRS-D 94 Truman, Harry S. 61, 62 Truong Tan Sang 368 Tsunami (2004) 46, 63, 64, 195 Tu-134 558 Tu-142 M 198

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index Tu-142 MKE 217-18 Tu-154 558 Tugs 222 Tupolev 217-18 Turbomecca 294 Turkey 3, 21, 23, 25, 28, 137, 456, 459, 486, 490 —Air Force 493-94 —Army 492-93 —economy 491-92 —security environment 492 Turkmenistan 368, 373, 376 —economy 383 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —Navy 43, 493 —security environment 383-85 Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India (TAPI) gas pipeline 384 Turkmenistan-Kazakhstan-China pipeline 384 Twitter 76 2S25 Sprut-SD 522 2S6M Tunguska System 524 2SM Tunguska System 524 Type 1500 272 Type-23 95 Type-56 507, 513 Type-59-1 507, 512 Type-62/Type-63/Type-63A 507, 510 Type-66 507, 512 Type-73 520 Type-74 507, 513, 519 Type-75 520 Type-77 APC 507, 511 Type-80 507, 513 Type-83 507, 511 Type-85 507, 511, 512 Type-85-III 507, 509-10 Type-87 519-20 Type-89 507, 511, 520 Type-90 G 507, 509 Type-90 507, 510, 512, 519 Type-90 II 507, 509 Type-98 507, 509 Type-99/99A2 507, 509, 520 Type SU 60 520 Type WZ 501 IFC 507, 511 Typhoon 90-91 Tzur, Major General Guy 363

U U Wunna Maung Lwin 365 U. Thein Sein 38 UBGL 103, 337 Udayloy I & II Class 532, 544 UH-60/SH-60/S-70 Blackhawk 561 Ukraine 27-28, 386, 502 —Air Force equipment 558 Ulsan Class 532, 549 underwater sensing and mapping 96, 98 unguided air-to-ground weapons 250 Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) 268 United Aircraft Corporation Transport Aircraft (UAC-TA) 112, 295 United Arab Emirates (UAE) 19, 21, 22, 25, 77, 79, 456, 455, 483, 490, 495-97 —economy 495 —free trade agreement with United States 495 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —security environment 495-96 United Kingdom (UK) 2, 23, 25, 130, 133, 166, 201, 444, 456, 489-90, 501 —Air Force equipment 553, 554, 557, 559, 562 —Army equipment 508, 527-29 —cyberwarfare doctrine 76 —defence budget 3 —Ministry of Defence 137, 142-45 —Naval equipment 532 —Royal Navy 140 United Liberation Front of Assom (ULFA) 342, 343, 344, 390 United Liberation Front of Assom — (anti-talk faction) (ULFA-AT) 342

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United Nations (UN) 3, 23, 25, 32, 33, 51, 63, 416, 455, 456, 458, 482, 504, 505 —ballistic missile sanctions on North Korea 408 —Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 63 —Commission on Law of the Seas (UNCLOS) 193, 504 —Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) 490 —Development Programme 434 —Educational, Sccientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) 63 —General Assembly (UNGA) 64, 131 —High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 476 —Iran-Iraq Military Observers Group (UNIMOG) 274 —Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC) 75 —peacekeeping forces/ operations 64, 390, 474 —Indian Army’s participation and employment 176-77, 184 —Security Council (UNSC) 18, 26, 28, 32, 34, 127, 128, 176, 408, 411, 437, 456, 464, 468, 472, 474, 504 , 505 United People’s Democratic Solidarity (UPDS) 342, 343, 344 United People’s Front (UPF) 343 United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 31, 32, 321 —Common Minimum Plan 52 United Revolutionary Front (URF) 343 United States of America (USA) 23, 43, 73, 112, 130, 132, 134, 166, 201, 407, 444, 456, 487, 489 —and Afghanistan-Pakistan region 42 —Air Force 79, 133, 138, 140, 142-43, 146-47, 149-50, 241, 432, 496, 557 —Air Force equipment 553, 554, 557, 559, 561, 562 —Army 72, 103, 137-39, 141, 145–51, 153-56, 160, 432, 515 —Army equipment 508-9, 529-31 —Army Tactical Missile System 72 —and ASEAN activities 407 —Asia pivot doctrine 4, 408, 410, 418, 502-3 —Asia-Pacific region, rebalancing flips 410, 501, 502-3 —Bilateral Security Agreement 388 —Central Asia, strategic interest in 384, 385 —Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) 63, 76 —China, relations 63, 408 —Commission on Smart Power 63 —Cyber Command 167 —cyberwarfare doctrine 76 —defence budget 3 —Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 51, 79, 81 —Department of Defense 79, 140-45, 153, 15557, 159 —Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Modernization and Reform Act 80 —foreign policy 61, 63, 423 —Global Entry Program 33 —Global Maritime Partnership Initiative 44 —hegemony and assertiveness 407 —housing mortgage crisis 416 —India, cooperation 14, 29, 31-34, 63, 128, 401; Joint Strategic Vision for Asia-Pacific, 504; Trade Facilitation Agreement, 33 —Information and Educational Exchange Act (1948) 62 —and non-state warfare and peacekeeping operations 85 —Iraq war 19, 25, 59 —Japan, atomic bombing of, 61; bilateral security treaty, 503; military alliance, 14 —Joint Chiefs of Staff 24 —Naval equipment 532 —Naval Postgraduate School 8 —Navy 44, 79, 94-96, 100, 137-41, 144-60, 167, 214, 220, 432 —Office of Naval Research (ONR) 79 —Russia/Soviet Union, relations 19, 27, 28, 34 —Special Forces 133

—terrorist attack on twin towers (9/11) 373, 374, 400, 496 —war against ISIS/war on terror 3, 24-25, 41, 401, 467, 495, 496 —presence in West Asia 455, 487 Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (1967) 319, 338, 339, 342, 344 —Amendment Bill (2012) 338 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 70, 77-80, 83, 114, 198, 220, 247-48, 307, 313 unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) 77, 102, 114 unmanned platforms (UAVs/drones/UAS) 77, 81 unmanned revolution 77-80 —scene in India 80 unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) 96 Urban, Commander Bill 25 USS Pasadena 100 utility helicopters 181 Utrecht, Treaty of (1713) 2 Uttam, electronically-scanned array (AESA) Radar 313 Uzbekistan 114, 368, 373, 376, 384 —economy 385-86 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —security environment 386-87 —and Tajikistan 381 —terrorism 380, 382

V VAB-APCs 515 Vadera, Dr S.R. 316 Vaibhav 303 Vajpayee, Atal Behari 31, 37, 360 Varshney, N.K. 288 Varunastra, Ship-launched heavy weight torpedo 314 Varyag (Admiral Kuznetstov Class) 534-35 Vashisht, Air Commodore D.K. 162 VBCI wheeled, infantry combat vehicle 515 Vehicle Lightweight Arresting Device 87, 88 Vehicle mounted Non-lethal/ Tube-launched Munition System 87 Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) 318 Verghese, B.G. 49 Verma, Brigadier L. 162 Verma, K.C. 49 Verma, Rajeev 263, 267 Verma, Rear Admiral A.K. (Retd) 283 Versailles Treaty 61 Very Small Aperture Terminal (V-SAT) 103 Vickers MBT Mk3 528 Vietnam 18, 36, 38, 54, 410, 418, 434, 435, 501, 502 —Air Force 454 —Army 453 —Cambodia, relations 416 —Chinese claim over islands 452, 503 —Defence 452 —economy 452 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —India, relations 453 —Navy 453-54 —security environment 452-53 Vijay Veer, Dr. 316 Vikram Class 260 Vinh, Vice Admiral Tea 362 VIP security 340 Virginia class SSN 96 Vishwanathan, Raj Ganesh 267 Vishwast Class 260 Vohra, N.N. 49 Vorachith, Bounnhang 364 Vumlunmang, V. 320, 324

W Wadi Wurayah National Park, UAE 79 Wahhabism 486

SP’s Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue  |  583


index World Trade Organisation (WTO) 32, 33, 63, 379, 411, 434, 452, 482, 486 World War I 1, 61, 89, 94, 97, 98, 502 World War II 2, 3, 19, 24, 61, 66, 89, 94, 97, 98, 223, 407, 425, 426, 432, 492, 502, 503, 504 WS-1B 507, 512 Wu Den-yih 367 Wu Shengli, Admiral 362 Wuhan 107

X X26 87 Xayalath, Sengnouan 364 Xi Jinping 11-12, 13, 33, 127, 130-31, 173, 362, 401, 407-8, 410, 417-19, 453, 503 Xia Class (Type 092) 533 Xu Qiliang, General 362

Y Yaalon, Moshe 131, 363 Yadav, Anupam 322 Yadav, Ram Baran 365 Yadvendra, D.K. 162 Yajurvedi, V.P. 288 Yakovlev Yak-40 558 Yameen, Abdullah 129, 502 Yang Jiechi 130, 170, 407 Yassin, Muhyiddin bin Mohamed 365 Yemen, republic of 64, 456 —Air Force 499-500 —Army 499

—civil war 487 —economy 498 —GDP and military expenditure 370, 371, 372 —Indian peace mission 177, 195, 203-4 —Navy 499 —sectarianism 19, 21 —security environment 498-99 —and United States 20 Yen teh-fa, General 367 Yoga 64 Yono Class 532, 543 Yuan Class 534

Z Zaatari, Syrian refugees camp in Jordan 476-77 al-Zaben, General Mashal Mohammad 364 Zakaullah, Admiral Muhammad 366 al-Zawahiri, Ayman 132 Zayed, Sheikh 495 ZBD-04 507, 510 ZBD-08 507, 510 ZDB-2 512 Zebari, General Babakir 363 Zhang Zhijun 408 Zhanzakov, Rear Admiral Zhandarbek 364 Zhasuzakov, Colonel General Saken 364 Zhou Enlai 407 Zia, Begum Khaleda 376, 390 Zia-ul-Haq 40 Zin, General Zulkifeli Mohammed 365 ZSU-23-4 Schilka 103, 179, 189, 513, 524 ZSU-57-2 524 ZU-23-2 179, 189, 525

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Wai Lwin, Lt General 365 Wajed, Sheikh Hasina 129, 362, 376, 389-90 Walia, Air Marshal Jasbir 265, 280 Wall Streat Journal 33 Wang Yi 13 Wang Yu-chi 408 Wangchuk, King Jigme Khesar Namgyel 392 war preparedness 18 War Wastage Reserves 178 Wardak, Major General Abdul Wahab 361 Warrior ICV [Tracked] 528 Warsaw Pact 2, 492 Washington Post 33 Washington, Major General A Faridz 363 Wasmi, Major General Ibrahim Al- 364 Wassenaar Arrangement 32 weapon control system 312, 507, 552 weapon delivery 90, 91, 113 weapon development programme 7 weapons of mass destruction (WMD) 429 West Asia 16, 47, 169, 373, 384, 502 —in 2015, outlook for 19-22 —geopolitics 19, 20, 128, 130 —and North Africa 455-500 Wickremesinghe, Ranil 367 Widodo, Joko 363 Wi-Fi 69, 83 Wijegunaratne, Vice Admiral Ravindra C. 367 Wilson, Woodrow 11, 61 WiMax link 83 World Bank 393, 434, 482 World Cup of Dromnes 77, 78 World Health Organisation (WHO) 63

584  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2015-2016  | 43rd Issue

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


SP’s 2015Military 2016

Yearbook

2015 Military SP’s

Yearbook s

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1

9

6

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2016 4 3 rd

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4 3rd is s u e

editor-in-chief

Price: `15,995.00

jayant baranwal

SP's Military Yearbook 2015-2016  

SP's Military Yearbook 2015-2016 - Glimpse

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