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SP’s

2016 –

Military 2017

Yearbook

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Copyright © 2017

SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be used for any other activity. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means – digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise – without the prior written approval of the Editor-in-Chief. For copyright permissions, please contact: The Editor-in-Chief SP’s Military Yearbook A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003, India.

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Readers’ Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India

It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India

It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970)...I have gone through... and found its general get up good and contents useful. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff, Indian Army

Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy

SP Guide Publications has played an instrumental role in promoting public awareness about the Indian armed forces through a vast array of well researched and insightful publications. SP’s Aviation and the SP’s Military Yearbook in particular are known for their credible and authentic reportage and this has helped SP Guide Publications to carve a special niche for itself amongst the other publication houses. Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha Former Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air Force March 24, 2014

Many thanks for the 43rd issue of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016 sent to me. The book is well researched and is surely great reading. Please accept my heartiest congratulations on the excellent effort.

of information. My gratitude to you for forwarding a complimentary copy to me.

Lt General Rajan Bakhshi General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Central Command Indian Army

October 24, 2015

October 23, 2015

Thank you very much for sending the SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. It is indeed a well compiled work and my best compliments to you and the editorial team for the outstanding work. Lt General D.S. Hooda General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Northern Command & Colonel 4 Gorkha Rifles Indian Army

Lt General Praveen Bakshi General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Eastern Command, Indian Army

Thank you very much for sending me a copy of book SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. The book has covered a vast collection of thought provoking articles and viewpoints on geo political equations, various strategic issues, dynamics of security – external and internal and technological evolutions. My compliments to you and your editorial team for their diligent work. Lt General P.M. Hariz General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Army Training Command, Indian Army October 24, 2015

October 27, 2015

SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-16 is well laid out in a most lucid and vivid format and indeed a storehouse 20168  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

Thank you very much for the copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016 covering a wide spectrum of issues of national and strategic importance which www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


Readers’ Comments.... indeed made very interesting read. I am particularly pleased to go through a series of informative contents and reference data, which I am sanguine would further add to the reader’s taste. My compliments to you, and your entire team for the extremely high quality material to the public forum. Lt General C.A. Krishnan Deputy Chief of the Army Staff (P&S), Indian Army October 15, 2015

Thank you very much for a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. The quality and content of the publication is of the highest standards. Vice Admiral Karambir Singh Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff Indian Navy

Lt General R.P. Rai Directorate General of Supplies & Transport Senior Colonel Commandant, Indian Army October 13, 2015

I extend my sincere thanks to you for sending me copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. The publication is very comprehensive and informative. The views expressed on various aspects of armed forces, geopolitical issues and strategic perspectives are very insightful. Please convey my compliments to your editorial team. Major General A.K. Das Additional Director General Public Information Indian Army October 20, 2015

November 12, 2015

The contents of the latest edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016 are indeed very informative and thought provoking. The book covers a wide array of professional subjects ranging right from global perspective, military technology, modernisation and homeland security. The edition has been compiled diligently with very relevant articles encompassing the entire military spectrum. Please convey my compliments to your team of SP Guide Publications for producing a brilliant work which is a readers’ delight. Lt General Rajiv Batia Director General Army Air Defence & Colonel Commandant, Indian Army October 26, 2015

Many thanks for sending me the SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016, which as you have mentioned is a ‘reader’s delight’. Air Vice Marshal Amit Tiwari Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Training), Indian Air Force October 7, 2015

I extend my sincere thanks to you for forwarding a complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 20152016 for our reference. The Yearbook displays an excellent blend of professionalism and viewpoints. As always, the contents of the book are thought provoking and indeed a treasure home of information. Please convey my sincere and heartfelt compliments to your editorial team for excellent and exhaustive information for the uniformed fraternity.

Thank you for sending me a copy of the SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. It makes educative reading. Your publication has set of benchmark and is looked at as an authoritative compilation of correct defence data and incisive articles.

Air Vice Marshal Praveen Kumar Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Weapons) Indian Air Force

Lt General G.J. Katoch Director General of Perspective Planning Indian Army

Thank you for the copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. It is indeed a comprehensive reference book for all matters military. The new features, topics and easy-to-read layout have added to the utility of the Yearbook. Please accept my compliments for what promises to be a great reference book.

October 13, 2015

Thank you very much for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. I have gone through the magazine and find to be extremely informative and really well compiled. Please do convey my compliments to the editorial team for such fine work. 201610  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

October 15, 2015

Air Vice Marshal V.R. Chaudhari Assistant Chief of the Air Staff Operations (Air Defence), Indian Air Force October 9, 2015

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Readers’ Comments.... SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016 is a treasure house of information and veritably a ‘collector’s item’ for the uniformed fraternity. My compliments to you and the editorial team for an excellent compilation. Major General Ranbir Singh Additional Director General of Military Operations (A), Indian Army October 14, 2015

Thank you for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. I must compliment you for the exhaustive data compiled and excellent selection of thought provoking articles in it. Veritably a ‘collector’s item’ for the uniformed fraternity. Major General R. Narayanan Additional Director General of Military Operations (B), Indian Army October 13, 2015

Thank you very much for sending me the complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016. It was a delight to see a comprehensive compilation of articles and information on national security aspects. I am sure that it would attract the

201612  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

military enthusiasts not only from the armed forces but across the spectrum. Please convey my sincere appreciation to the SP’s Team for an excellent compilation. Air Cmde Ashok Shiragannavar Principal Director Operations (Information & Electronic Warfare), Indian Air Force October 15, 2015

It is my pleasure to receive the book, SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016, published by you. The book is very impressive and knowledgeable which have valuable additions on various aspects such as geopolitical equations, various strategic issues, dynamics of security-external and internal, and technological evolutions by eminent thinkers and subject matter experts from various important organisations. Ranbir Singh Joint Secretary & Addl Financial Advisor Ministry of Defence, India October 7, 2015

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Authors' profiles Abhijit Singh

Lt General Davinder Kumar (Retd)

Abhijit Singh is Senior Fellow and Head of Maritime Policy Initiative at the Observer Research Foundation (ORF) in New Delhi. A former Indian naval officer, he has edited two books on maritime security — Indian Ocean Challenges: A Quest for Cooperative Solutions (2013) and Geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific (2014), and written extensively on India’s growing maritime reach, security of sea lines of communication, Indian Ocean governance issues and maritime infrastructure in the Asian littorals. n

Lt General Davinder Kumar is the former Signal Officer-in-Chief of the Indian Army and the CEO & Managing Director of Tata Advanced Systems Limited. He has been on the Board of Directors of both public and private sector companies. He is an internationally acclaimed expert in communication network, electronic warfare, cryptology, network-centric information and cyber warfare. He has over 400 papers to his credit and has been invited to speak at various international fora. n

Article on page 25

Admiral Arun Prakash (Retd) Admiral Arun Prakash retired as Naval Chief and Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee in 2006. He commanded the Indian Navy’s Eastern Fleet, the National Defence Academy, the Andaman & Nicobar Joint Command and the Western Naval Command. He is currently a member of India’s National Security Advisory Board and Chairman of the National Maritime Foundation.  n Article on page 31

Article on page 51

Major General Dhruv C. Katoch (Retd) An alumnus of Sherwood College, Nainital, the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla, and the National Defence College, New Delhi, Major General Dhruv C. Katoch was commissioned in the Dogra Regiment on March 31, 1972. Besides the National Defence College, the General is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, and the Higher Command Course, Mhow. He was the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi, which is the Indian Army’s premier think tank on land warfare. n Article on page 21

Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd)

Dr Harinder Sekhon

Air Marshal B.K. Pandey retired from the Indian Air Force (IAF) after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career, he held a number of important command and staff appointments, the last being that of AOC-in-C Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an Editor with SP Guide Publications and is a resident of Bengaluru n Article on page 113,223, 233, 283, 309

Lt General B.S. Pawar (Retd)

Dr (Mrs) Harinder Sekhon is well known strategic analyst whose work has focused on research, consultancy and policy advocacy on various aspects of US-India strategic relations, India’s defence and aerospace industry, India’s security challenges and risk analysis. With over 30 years experience in academia, government and public policy think tanks, Harinder’s research and outreach is both incisive and effective. She is currently a Senior Fellow with the Vivekanand International Foundation. n Article on page 5

Lt General B.S. Pawar was Major General of Artillery, Western Command, during Operation Parakram. He also headed the Army Aviation Corps and was instrumental in the operationalisation of the advanced light helicopter during his tenure. He has over 4,000 hours of flying to his credit and has flown five different types of aircraft. He is recipient of PVSM and AVSM. n Article on page 43

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd) Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an Infantry Brigade on the LoC with Pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United Nations Mission UNTAG in Namibia. He has authored several books and was till recently the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi. n Article on page 55, 105

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authors' profiles  l

Group Captain Joseph Noronha (Retd)

Dr Monika Chansoria

Group Captain Joseph Noronha is an experienced fighter pilot and a Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI A2). Commissioned in the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force in December 1974, he later commanded a MiG21M squadron and served as Directing Staff at the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, Nilgiris. He also served twice on the staff of the Flying Instructors' School, Tambaram, Chennai. Post retirement, he continues to keep in close touch with aviation issues and is a prolific writer for a variety of aviation periodicals and journals. n Article on page 97

Vice Admiral K.R. Nair (Retd) Vice Admiral K.R. Nair is an alumnus of the Naval College of Engineering, INS Shivaji and did electrical specialisation from INS Valsura, Jamnagar. He has been the Fleet Electrical Officer of the Western Fleet and the Flotilla Electrical Officer of the Local Flotilla in Mumbai. He was Assistant Naval Advisor (Weapons) at the High Commission of India, London. On promotion to the rank of Vice Admiral, he was the Controller Warship Production and Acquisition and headed the Technical Branch of the Indian Navy as the Chief of Materiel, prior to his retirement. n Article on page 93

Commodore Lalit Kapur (Retd) Commodore Lalit Kapur is a specialist in navigation and aircraft direction. He was Defence Advisor, Embassy of India, Muscat, with concurrent accreditation to the UAE, Qatar and Bahrain. Other experience includes being part of the founding team of India’s Defence Intelligence Agency, heading its Protocol and Foreign Liaison Division; heading the Systems and Sea Vector Branches in the Strategic Forces Command; and heading the Operations Division at Headquarters Offshore Defence Advisory Group, Mumbai. Commodore Lalit Kapur has a number of articles published to his credit on international relations, military history and maritime issues. n Article on page 109

Dr Monika Chansoria is currently a Senior Fellow in France and is a Visiting Professor and Associate Director of Studies (Directeur d’études associé) at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris. In addition, she is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi. n Article on page 13

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd) Major General Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems), he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known. n Article on page 123, 127, 131

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) He is a former Director General, Army Air Defence, member of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme and Member Secretary of the first National Radar Council. He has served with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and was also a consultant with the Bharat Electronics Limited. He was also involved in writing the history of the Regiment of Artillery and history of the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical Group Editor with SP Guide Publications. n Article on page 77, 341

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Lt General P.C. Katoch superannuated as Director General Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer, he commanded the Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attaché in Japan with accreditation to Republic of Korea. n Article on page 35, 39, 73, 345

Dr Laxman Kumar Behera

Vice Admiral Pradeep Chauhan (Retd)

He is a master's in applied and analytical economics, and Ph.D from the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is a Research Fellow with the Indian Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA). As a member of IDSA’s Defence Economics and Industry Centre, Dr Behera undertakes policy relevant research pertaining to various economic aspects of Indian defence. He was closely associated with two high-level committees set up by the Indian Ministry of Defence on Defence Acquisition Reforms and Defence Expenditure Review.  n

Vice Admiral Pradeep Chauhan is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy, Defence Services Staff College, Naval War College and the National Defence College. He retired on November 30, 2013, after a distinguished career spanning over four decades. He has held four seagoing commands of IN ships Amar, Khanjar, Brahmaputra and Viraat. He has held important command and staff assignments in the Indian Navy. His last assignment was the Command of the Indian Naval Academy, Ezhimala, Kerala. He is an author, a leadershipmentor, a powerful motivator and a formidable orator. n

Article on page 119

Article on page 59

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Major General P.K. Chakravorty (Retd)

Ranjit Gupta

An alumnus of National Defence Academy, who was Major General Artillery of an operational Command, Commandant of Selection Centre South in Bengaluru and Additional Director General Artillery at Army Headquarters. The officer retired on December 31, 2010. He has also served as the Defence Attaché to Vietnam and is a prolific writer on strategic subjects. The officer is a M.Phil from Madras University and is a defence analyst. n

Ranjit Gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He had been India’s Ambassador to Yemen (North), Venezuela, Oman, Thailand and Spain and finally head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the National Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint Research Project with the Gulf Research Centre, Dubai, and on India GCC Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs. n

Article on page 69

Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik (Retd) Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik is a former Chief of the Air Staff. He retired on July 31, 2011. During his illustrious career in the IAF, Naik held many prestigious command and staff appointments such as AOC-in-C, Central Air Command, Allahabad, and Vice Chief of Air Staff at Air Headquarters, New Delhi.  n Article on page 65

Lt General Rajesh Pant (Retd) Lt General Rajesh Pant is an internationally renowned Techno-Scholar-Warrior-Mentor. The officer served the Indian Army Signals for more than 41 years with an unblemished service profile. He also participated in many military operations. He is a triple post-graduate, with M.Tech from IIT Kharagpur, M.Phil from Madras University and Master of Management Studies from Osmania University. In June 2014, the officer has also obtained his Ph.D in the important field of Information Security. He is presently the Chairman of Precision Electronics Limited, a Governing Council member of IETE and an International Consultant on Information Security. n Article on page 81

Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd) Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle has three decades of experience in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in India and abroad. He had hands-on experience in military modernisation and training during his service period heading a number of tactical and technical innovation projects at the operational level. Post retirement since 2006, he has combined his military expertise with extensive study of future trends and coordinated a number of projects for the Directorate of Net Assessment, Integrated Defence Staff, Centre for the Joint Warfare Studies and Centre for Land Warfare Studies. He is at present Director of Security Risks, a South Asian security risk and knowledge management consultancy. n Article on page 135, 509

Article on page 17

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha (Retd) Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha is a post-graduate from Jodhpur University who joined Indian Navy in the year 1975 and was awarded the Sword of Honour in 1976, for being the best Naval Officer during initial training. He specialised in Quality Assurance of Naval Armament and adorned various key appointments in the Navy, DRDO establishments, ordnance factories and finally rose to become the Director General of Naval Armament Inspection (DGNAI) at the Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (Navy). As DGNAI, he was directly responsible for timely availability of reliable and safe naval armament to the operational fleet of the Indian Navy. n Article on page 85, 101

Ambassador P. Stobdan Ambassador P. Stobdan is a distinguished academician, diplomat, author and foreign policy expert. He has been India’s Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan until recently. He has earlier served in the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS). He also served as Director of the Centre for Strategic Studies in Jammu & Kashmir. He is the Founding President of the Ladakh International Centre, Leh. He is currently with the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi. He is a Distinguished Fellow at the United Services Institution (USI). n Article on page 9

Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay (Retd) Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay retired after serving in the Indian Navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacity-building in logistics, defence expenditure, administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been Naval Attaché in the Embassy of India in Moscow. He is currently Senior Editorial Advisor of SP's Naval Forces and Technical Editor of SP's Military Yearbook. n Article on page 193, 205

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Major General Umong Sethi (Retd)

Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd)

Umong Sethi is an army veteran who has had considerable experience of command in operationally active areas and exposure at the strategic level of planning operations, procurement, equipment management processes and managing disasters. He is a prolific writer and a military analyst. He contributes to the discourse on National Security, Smart & Safe Cities, Smart Borders and Skill Development. n Article on page 331

Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Lt General V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9, 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. Prior to superannuating, he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 120 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the Editor of SP's Land Forces and Editor of SP's Military Yearbook. n

Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier General Staff, Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses and is currently a Senior Fellow with the Vivekananda International Foundation. n Article on page 161

Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd) Commissioned in 1961, he is an International Fellow at the Army War College, US. He was GOC-in-C of Army Training Command and Western Command at Chandimandir. Despite losing one leg in 1965 war, he retired as the VCOAS in 2001. He was Founder Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS). n Article on page 1

Dr Vijay Sakhuja

Article on page 169, 186, 317

Lt General Dr V.K. Saxena (Retd) Lt General V.K. Saxena is an alumnus of Defence Services Staff College, College of Defence Management and the coveted National Defence College. He is a silver-gunner and the first ever winner of the Director General of Artillery Trophy for standing first on the Long Gunnery Staff Course. He has had a wide exposure to varied command and staff assignments. He was the Director General of the Army Air Defence at the Army Headquarters, prior to superannuation. n

Dr Vijay Sakhuja is Director, National Maritime Foundation, New Delhi, and Visiting Senior Research Fellow at ISEAS in Singapore. He is author of Asian Maritime Power in the 21st Century: Strategic Transactions — China, India, Southeast Asia; Confidence Building from the Sea: An Indian Initiative; and co-author of Climate Change and the Bay of Bengal: Evolving Geographies of Fear and Hope. He has edited and co-edited more than 30 volumes on various geopolitical and geostrategic issues and maritime history. n Article on page 47

Article on page 89

General V.P. Malik (Retd) General V.P. Malik was Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army from October 1, 1997, to September 30, 2000, and the Chairman, COSC from January 1, 1999, to September 30, 2000. He planned, coordinated and oversaw execution of the Operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan’s attempted intrusion in the Kargil sector in 1999. After retirement, he was a member of the National Security Advisory Board for two years. He writes frequently for newspapers and magazines. n Article on page 29

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Telangana

Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (IAF) Pune (HQ Southern Command), Army Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command), Army Chandimandir (HQ Western Command), Army Lucknow (HQ Central Command), Army Udhampur (HQ Northern Command), Army Shimla (HQ Training Command), Army Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command), Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command), Navy Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command), Navy

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13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command), Navy New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command), IAF Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command), IAF Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command), IAF Bengaluru (HQ Training Command), IAF Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command), IAF Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command), IAF Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command), IAF New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff)

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6 22 20

5 16 18 9 10

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DRDO and DPSU Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), New Delhi Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Bengaluru Bharat Electronics Ltd, Bengaluru Bharat Earth Movers Ltd, Bengaluru Mazagon Dock Ltd, Mumbai Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd, Kolkata Goa Shipyard Ltd, Goa Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Visakhapatnam Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Hyderabad Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd, Hyderabad Aeronautical Development Agency, Bengaluru

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Indian Space Research Organisation, Bengaluru Aeronautical Development Establishment, Bengaluru Centre for Airborne Systems, Bengaluru Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment, Chennai Defence Electronics Research Lab., Hyderabad Defence Research and Development Est., Gwalior Defence Research and Development Lab., Hyderabad Naval Science & Technological Laboratory, Visakhapatnam Integrated Test Range, Balasore, Odisha Cochin Shipyard Ltd, Kochi, Kerala Ordnance Factories Board, Kolkata

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Contents CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e n t s Colour pages

Maps: Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters, DRDO and DPSU Headquarters

22, 24

Editorial 35

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles 

41-63

Advertiser Index

64

INDIAN DEFENCE

Partnering India to Make in India

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

14, 16, 18, 20

TECHNOLOGY

Authors' Profiles

8, 10, 12

BUSINESS

Readers’ Comments

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

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2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 25

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Contents Black & White pages

1 Concepts & Perspectives

1

DEFENCE FORCES

1. Concerns and Challenges Impacting on Global Peace and Security

1

Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL), India's leading Defence electronics

2. The Modi-Obama Vision and Indo-US Relations

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Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd)

3. Modi and Indo-Russian Relations

5

Dr Harinder Sekhon

9

Ambassador P. Stobdan

4. China’s Military Command and Control: A Root and Branch Overhaul

13

Dr Monika Chansoria

5. The Current Situation in West Asia and its Implications

17

Ranjit Gupta

6. Pakistan: A Fragile Polity and a Dysfunctional State

21

Major General Dhruv C. Katoch (Retd)

7. The UN Tribunal’s South China Sea Verdict — Implications for Regional Security

25

Abhijit Singh

8. Reducing Flab in India’s Defence Organisation 29

General V.P. Malik (Retd)

9. Maritime Capacity Building and India’s Imperatives

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201626  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

31

Admiral Arun Prakash (Retd)

10. Special Forces

35

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

11. Asymmetric and Unconventional Warfare on the Subcontinent Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

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39


CONTENTS

B lack & White pages

17. The Iaf — A Strategic Air Force?

13. Blue Economy and China: Economic Wealth and Strategic Advantages

18. Trends in Land-Based Firepower in the Future

47

Dr Vijay Sakhuja

14. Cyber Warfare in Future Conflicts

2 TECHNOLOGY73

59

1. Future Soldier and Developments in the Indian Army

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)

16. Foundational Pillars of India’s Strategy to Protect Offshore Assets Vice Admiral Pradeep Chauhan (Retd)

73

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

Sin título-1 1

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

69

Major General P.K. Chakravorty (Retd)

55

Lt General Davinder Kumar (Retd)

15. Defence Reforms

51

65

Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik (Retd) CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

43

Lt General B.S. Pawar (Retd)

TECHNOLOGY

12. Army Aviation Turns 30 — A Reality Check

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e nt s


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

2. Revolution in Military Affairs — Past, Present and Future

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

3. Cyber Warfare Technologies

81

Lt General Rajesh Pant (Retd)

4. Green Energy Initiatives by Defence Forces

77

85

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha (Retd)

5. Future Radar Technologies

89

Lt General Dr V.K. Saxena (Retd)

6. Crystal Gazing — Weapons and Sensors for Indian Naval Platforms

Vice Admiral K.R. Nair (Retd)

7. Can Military Machines be Moral? The Tangled Ethics of Robotic Warfare

97

Group Captain Joseph Noronha (Retd)

8. The Challenge of Military Artificial Intelligence

93

101

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha (Retd)

3 BUSINESS105 1. Army Modernisation: Moving Forward at a Slow Pace

105

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)

2. India’s Oceanic Aspirations

109

Commodore Lalit Kapur (Retd)

3. Modernisation of the Indian Air Force

Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd)

4. India’s Defence Budget 2016-17 201628  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

113

Dr Laxman Kumar Behera www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

119


Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)

6.

‘Make’ Procedure in DPP 2016

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)

7. New Defence Procurement Procedure — Synergy with ‘Make in India’

127

Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd)

Global Contracts

161

1. Integrated Defence Staff

161

131

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)

8. India’s Strategic and Business Environment

4 INDIAN DEFENCE

135 145

Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd)

2. The Indian Army

169

3. The Indian Navy

193

4. The Indian Air Force

223

5. Indian Coast Guard

251

6.

261

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

7. Indian Defence Industry

283

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

123

BUSINESS

5. Defence Offsets in DPP 2016

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

B lack & White pages

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s

CREATING NEW REFERENCES IN DEFENCE I WWW.NEXTER-GROUP.COM

NexterCaesarMali_180x112_VA.indd 1

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25/11/16 12:30

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO REGIONAL BALANCE

The Caesar® artillery system in Mali

Photo credits: ©ECPAD/France/A.Roine

INDIAN DEFENCE

The artillery system of the 21st century


Cont e n t s B lack & White pages

8. Defence Research and Development

309

Homeland security 1. The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces

317

Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)

2. Indias’ Internal Security Challenges

331

Major General Umong Sethi (Retd)

3. India’s Coastal Security

341

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

4. The Maoist Insurgency

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

Who’s Who Indian Home Ministry

345 348

5 ASIAN WHO’S WHO

349

Afghanistan 349 Algeria 349 Australia 349 Bahrain 349 Bangladesh 350 Bhutan 350 Brunei 350 Cambodia 350 People’s Republic of China

350

Egypt

350

Indonesia 351

201630  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

Iran

351

Iraq

351

Israel

351 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


CONTENTS

351

Republic of Korea)

353

Jordan 351

Sultanate of Oman

353

Kazakhstan 352

Pakistan 353

Kuwait 352

The Philippines

353

Kyrgyzstan 352

Qatar

354

Laos

Saudi Arabia

354

352

Lebanon 352

Singapore 354

Libya

South Korea (Republic of Korea)

354

Malaysia 352

Sri Lanka

354

Myanmar 352

Syria

354

Nepal

Taiwan 355

353

Tajikistan 355

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

North Korea (Democratic People’s

352

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Japan

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

B lack & White pages

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

Thailand 355

Indonesia: MoD Organisational Structure

363

Turkey 355

Japan: MoD Organisational Structure

364

Turkmenistan 355

Malaysia: MoD Contact Details

365

Malaysia: MoD Organisational Structure

367

Myanmar: MoD Organisational Structure

368

The Philippines: MoD Contact Details

369

United Arab Emirates

355

Uzbekistan 356 Vietnam 356 Republic of Yemen

356

The Philippines: MoD Organisational Structure 370

MoD organisations & contacts of Asian countries

Singapore: MoD Contact Details

371

Singapore: MoD Organisational Structure

372

Australia: MoD Contact Details 357 Australia: MoD Organisational Structure 358

South Korea (Republic): MoD Organisation Structure

373

Bangladesh: MoD Contact Details 359

Sri Lanka: MoD Contact Details

374

Brunei: MoD Contact Details

361

Sri Lanka: MoD Organisational Structure

374

Brunei: MoD Organisational Structure

362

Thailand: MoD Organisational Structure

375

Indonesia: MoD Organisational Structure

363

Vietnam: Defence Organisational Structure 376

6 REGIONAL BALANCE

377

1.

GDP & Military Expenditure

377

India

402

2.

Central & South Asia

381

Nepal

407

Kazakhstan 386

Pakistan 409

Kyrgyzstan 388

Sri Lanka 412

Tajikistan 390

3. East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

Turkmenistan 392

Australia 419

Uzbekistan 394

Brunei 422

Afghanistan 396

Cambodia 423

Bangladesh 397

China

Bhutan 400

Indonesia 430

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415

425

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CONTENTS

433

4.

West Asia and North Africa

463

North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) 436

Algeria 467

South Korea (Republic of Korea) 439

Egypt

469

Laos

Libya

472

442

Malaysia 444 Myanmar 447 The Philippines

449

Singapore 451 Taiwan 454

Bahrain 474 Iran

476

Iraq

479

Israel

481

Jordan 484 Kuwait 487

Thailand 457

Lebanon 489

Vietnam 460

Sultanate of Oman

BUSINESS

491

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Japan

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

B lack & White pages

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s

AP4C-V

AP4C-F

11-Qutab road, ram nagar new Delhi 110055 Phone: 011 23513136 Fax: +91 2352 7286 email: vivek@proengin.in MAB

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

AP4C

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Proengin india

REGIONAL BALANCE

1, rue de i’ildustrie 78210 Saint-cyr i’ecole FrAnCe Tel: (33) 1 30 58 47 34 Fax: (33) 1 30 58 93 51 e-mail: contact@proengin.com

INDIAN DEFENCE

Proengin


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

495

6. Equipment & Hardware Specifications — An Overview

517

498

Army Equipment

517

Turkey 500

Naval Equipment

545

United Arab Emirates

504

Air Equipment

566

Republic of Yemen

507

Qatar

493

Saudi Arabia Syria

5. Asia-Pacific Environment 509

Abbreviations 577

Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd)

Diagrams/Graphs

DRDO: Ministry of Defence

310

China’s ‘Nine-dash Line’ Maritime Claim Line

27

Organisational Structure of DRDO

311

Unclos Maritime and Airspace Zones

61

Organisation of the Ministry of Home Affairs

319

Distribution of MoD’s Total Allocation minus Defence Pension

120

Organisational Command and Control of the Central Armed Police Forces

330

Share of Pay and Allowances (P&A) of the Armed Forces in Defence Expenditure

Overall Risk Percentage

332

122

Overall Risk Ranking — Year-wise Trends

332

Organisation of the Integrated Defence Staff

163

Human Trafficking in India over the past 10 years

336

The Outline Structure of the Indian National Defence University

165

Trafficking in India, 2014

336

NCRB - IT Crimes (2012-14)

339

Types of sites on the dark web, Jan-Mar 2015

339

Australia: MoD Organisational Structure

358

Brunei: MoD Organisational Structure

362

Indonesia: MoD Organisational Structure

363

Japan: MoD Organisational Structure

364

Malaysia: MoD Organisational Structure

367

Myanmar: MoD Organisational structure

368

The Philippines: MoD Organisational Structure

370

Singapore: MoD Organisational Structure

372

Diagrammatic Layout of the Army’s Chain of Command

171

Organisation of the Indian Army Headquarters

174

Organisation of the Indian Navy Headquarters

196

Organisation of the Indian Air Force Headquarters

226

Organisation of the Indian Coast Guard Headquarters 253 Indian Coast Guard Locations

253, 254

Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation

255

Department of Defence

264

Organisation of the Department of Defence Production (DDP)

284

South Korea (Republic): MoD Organisation Structure 373

Organisation Structure of OFB

285

Sri Lanka: MoD Organisational Structure

374

Thailand: MoD Organisational Structure

375

Vietnam: Defence Organisational Structure

376

External Functional Linkages (OFB comes under Department of Defence Production)

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285

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


l 

editorial  l

Ministry of Defence organisation charts and contacts of 13 major arms buyers in Asia

JAPAN SOUTH KOREA

MYANMAR

VIETNAM INDIA BANGLADESH

MALAYSIA SRI LANKA

THE PHILIPPINES

THAILAND

BRUNEI

SINGAPORE INDONESIA

AUSTRALIA

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2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 35


l  Editorial  l

Editorial SP Guide Publications SP Guide Publications was founded in 1964 by its Founder, Editor and Publisher Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal who was a visionary. A year later, in 1965, SP’s Military Yearbook, the flagship product of the company, was launched. This innovative effort by the founder was singularly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, and replicated enthusiastically by the military fraternity. SP Guide Publications has since grown from strength to strength and has completed 50 years in 2014. SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017 now offers its readers a wide range of information and knowledge regarding the military and the defence industry in India, and strategic analysis of the geopolitical situation, including defence and security-related issues in the Asia-Pacific region. It is thus a comprehensive reference manual, an annual barometer of matters concerning conceptual, technological and international security issues at the strategic and operational levels; military and defence industry-related issues; organisational issues and contact details of major countries in the Asia-Pacific region; and homeland security issues. Over the last 52 years, SP Guide Publications has been at the forefront of publishing defence and security-related journals and is the only publisher offering dedicated journals to the three defence forces in India, namely SP’s Land Forces, SP’s Naval Forces and SP’s Aviation to the Indian Army, the Navy and the Air Force respectively. We have since 2008 also commenced the publication of SP’s AirBuz, a journal for commercial aviation. We added, five years ago, the SP’s M.A.I. (Military, Aerospace and Internal Security) to the total list of our publications. It is a fortnightly magazine, which covers the latest happenings in the global military-industrial regime. In yet another first in the realm of defence and aerospace publishing in India, SP Guide Publications has introduced BizAvIndia, a quarterly magazine in partnership with Business Aircraft Operators Association (BAOA) with the objective of keeping business aviation industry in India duly informed and connected.

International Security Scenario

The cover of Military Yearbook 1965

Since the end of the Cold War, the global security environment has seen major changes. On the one hand, the world has witnessed a spurt of globalisation and deepening economic interdependence, which has enhanced the growth of countries like India, China, Brazil and South Africa. On the other hand, large parts of the world continue to be affected by conflict and violence. The tendency towards multipolarity has developed further both globally and regionally in the political, economic and other fields as various regions are experiencing new splits and realignments. The relations among the major powers are undergoing significant and profound readjustments and various kinds of partnerships are gradually developing with each country focusing on its long-term national interests. The aim of all alignments by developing countries

201636  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

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l  editorial  l

Military 2016 – Yearbook s

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PURSUING EXCELLENCE OVER FIVE DECADES SINCE 1964

e

1

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6

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2017 44TH

I S S UE

Guardian

[ 4 4 TH IS S UE

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

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NEW ADDITION

MoD Organisational Structures and Contacts of major Asian countries

SP’s

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Yearbook

seems to be to ensure economic development, acquire military security and strength, while retaining their independence and freedom. The global and regional ‘balances of power’ are also impacted by national interests of individual nations, which take precedence even when the issues are collectively highly adverse. A case in point is the ‘war on terrorism’, which seems to have lost its impetus because it affects different countries and even regions differently, resulting in inaction by some nations and only marginal involvement by others. It is unfortunately not realised that collective action today will save lives, money and resources in future. It is because of this self-centred approach of nations that globalisation is under severe strain; the energy scenario is rapidly changing; climate and global warming that transcend borders is threatening to get out of control; and of course the state of world economy. It is in the interest of all nations that collectively they should so manage international and regional concerns and challenges that peace and prosperity prevail amongst all the peoples and countries of the world. The concept of nationality and nationalism is being questioned by emergence of entities as Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL), also known ISIS and “Daesh”. Youth from across the globe are joining this venal conglomerate physically or ideologically to conduct some of the most inhuman acts of terror against the innocent. Ideologues aligned to the ISIS are able to use new media — Facebook, Twitter and mobile applications as Instagram to indoctrinate youth and instigate them to violence against their own societies. There is not only uncertainty in the international security environment but also in the paradigm in which these developments can fit in. This flux is on account of challenges both direct as well as indirect and these arise from various factors which include economic, social, cultural, cyber, energy, trade and commerce, technology and financial aspects. Emergence of powerful non-state actors such as the Al Qaeda and ISIS are an outcome of diffusion of power and disaggregation of the global and regional order leading to anarchy where governments are weak and unstable. Absence of unified global leadership to bring diverse and disparate forces — state and non-state actors — together into the mainstream is also evident with the United States increasingly shying away from larger commitments. This trend of the US may get even more exacerbated in the Donald Trump era. There is a degree of consensus for America retracting into a shell of isolation of sorts while desiring that national governments and regional alliances take on a larger role in managing their security affairs. This has created its own dynamics in the Asia-Pacific where the rise of China is challenging stability in an otherwise secure region. The continuing economic crisis in the West has been a major cause of worry for the global economy and has had consequent effects on the economies of other regions. China weathered the global economic crisis better than most other countries. In November 2008, the State Council unveiled a CNY 4.0 trillion ($585 billion) stimulus package in an attempt to shield the country from the worst effects of the financial crisis. The massive stimulus programme fuelled economic growth mostly through massive investment projects, which triggered concerns that the country could have been building up asset bubbles, overinvestment PROTECTING INDIA’S HERITAGE. and excess capacity in some industries. The global downturn and the subsequent slowdown in demand did, however, severely affect the external sector and the current account surplus has continuously diminished since the financial crisis. All eyes are on the Central Economic Work Conference (CEWC), which will set the tone of the economy and policy for next year. The CEWC will also establish the economic targets for 2017, though they will not be disclosed until the National People’s Congress in March 2017. The growth target is expected to be maintained at the current range of between 6.5 per cent and 7.0 per cent, while monetary and fiscal policies will likely remain accommodative. In the political arena, China’s authorities stated that they are “seriously concerned” after President-elect Donald Trump questioned the “OneChina” policy, which has been the cornerstone of China-US relations since the 1970s. India’s growth story has been affected due to demonetisation as brought out by the World Bank in its latest report put out on January 11, 2017. The World Bank has cut India’s GDP growth for 2016-17 fiscal to 7 per cent from its previous estimate of 7.6 per cent citing the impact of demonetisation, but forecast that the country would regain momentum in the following years with a growth of 7.6 per cent and 7.8 per cent due to reform initiatives.

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EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Leading the Situational Awareness Revolution

JAYANT BARANWAL

31/12/16

11/07/16 18:08

The cover of the current edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017

2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 37


l  Editorial  l Regional Security Scenes West Asia Portends of instability are marked across the globe with West Asia — the main source of oil and gas to fuel economies of the Asia-Pacific mired in a number of parallel civil wars in Syria, Iraq and Yemen. The vertical cleavage between Iran and Saudi Arabia has rekindled traditional source of rivalry while the coup in Turkey in July 2016 marked the internal challenges that are faced by regimes in this region. Territorial expansion of non-state actors such as the ISIS has been contained for now, but the potential to carry out terrorist attacks globally has emerged as a key threat in Europe, South East Asia and South Asia which were relatively unscathed by global terrorism so far. The impact of volatility is evident with a flow of refugees from Syria, North Africa and Afghanistan causing concerns in Europe — the main recipient of thousands of migrants from conflict zones. The periphery of West Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan continue to be hobbled by active militancy with mass casualties becoming a major concern. This has led the United States to extend stay in Afghanistan keeping 8,400 troops through the year 2016. Thus from Europe to West and South West Asia disruptive fragmentation — political, economic and security — is evident. Central Asia The war in Afghanistan has been both a boon and curse for neighbouring Central Asia. The conflict placed this sparsely populated region, long disconnected from the globalisation taking place around its borders, on the front lines of the international community’s 15-year effort to stabilise Afghanistan. Central Asia became a staging point for coalition military forces, a transit corridor, a donor as well as a recipient of aid and at times a pawn in a larger strategic competition playing out between the United States and Russia. The region also found itself on the receiving end of Afghanistan’s noxious exports: extremism, drugs and crime. With the war in Afghanistan — or at least the international community’s direct participation in it — having wound down, Central Asia’s leaders worry more and more about the prospect of instability both at home and next door in Afghanistan. Though the five Central Asian states are politically diverse, the region’s authoritarian regimes are responding to the threat by becoming more insular, feeding a vicious circle. South Asia The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. International terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally, Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now, Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India establishing their cells within home-grown groups, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. The series of terrorist attacks in 2015-16 emanating from Pakistan territory followed by surgical strikes by the Special Forces of the Indian Army targeting seven terror launch pads in PoK across the

201638  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

line of control (LoC) on the night of September 28/29, 2016, have led to a breakdown in India-Pakistan relations, which remained largely unresolved as of December 31, 2016. The hostility between these two nuclear armed nations is cause for anxiety in the region and among the international community. The present Constitution of Nepal promulgated on September 20, 2015, with almost 90 per cent approval is the first Constitution in the history of Nepal. However, it failed to satisfy the Madhesi groups and led to a huge polarisation, the Nepal Government decided to amend it to make it more inclusive. The amendment process, however, did not include the main demand of the Madhesis for the creation of two separate Madhesi provinces on the plains of Nepal. The change of government in Sri Lanka in early 2015 was also accompanied by a realignment of Sri Lanka’s foreign relations; continuing economic links with China, Russia and Iran are now complemented by greater reliance on India and the West. Under the new President, there seems to be a greater openness to dialogue but the extent to which this will play out is not yet clear. The recent terror attack in Bangladesh on July 1, 2016, at the Holey Artisan Bakery by home-grown terrorists suggests that Bangladesh’s militant networks are internationalising, a key concern as the United States seeks to contain the growth of the Islamic State. Bangladesh’s 160 million people are almost all Sunni Muslims, including a demographic bulge under the age of 25. This makes it valuable as a recruiting ground for the Islamic State, now under pressure in its core territory of Iraq and Syria. Bangladesh is now taking a serious stock of the overall threat. East Asia and Pacific Rim East Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist who under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is evolving a new security posture. Major issues which are impacting the security environment in East Asia are: Japan’s defence policy and China’s military strategy, Korean Peninsula, Taiwan, US reposturing its naval forces and ASEAN activities. These issues have been covered in the chapter on “Regional Balance”. Asia-Pacific Region The strategic rivalry between the United States and China in the AsiaPacific is also causing concern with some even naming this as emergence of a “New Cold War”. As both countries continue to strengthen their position vis-à-vis the other it is feared that the vitality of the region may get mired into a conflict that may not see a shot being fired but consume huge amount of political, diplomatic and economic capital. This has caused concerns in China because the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) as a counter to the TPP has failed to gather momentum. China has also initiated One Belt, One Road

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


l  editorial  l This edition of SP’s Military Yearbook is unique in its content. We have introduced mission critical information for the military fraternity, like: – A whole new chapter added with full Ministry of Defence organisation charts and contacts of 13 prominent countries in Asia that are also major arms buyers which would interest the business community. – An Exclusive and Exhaustive Interview with Secretary, Defence Production, India giving away interesting inputs for all those interested in working with the Indian armed forces. – Interviews of the current and newly appointed Chiefs of the Indian Army, the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. – Perspectives from three former Service Chiefs – General V.P. Malik, Admiral Arun Prakash and Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik.

(OBOR) Initiative which has a continental and a maritime dimension in the form of the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (MSR). This in turn has created concerns in India which sees in the MSR as a “String of Pearls,” implying Chinese ring of ports in the Indian Ocean region (IOR) mainly for trade but with potential to convert as military logistics-cum-naval bases in the future. These developments have for the first time led many to question the vision and prospects of the ‘Asian Century’. This aspect has been discussed separately in the essay on Asia-Pacific, Environment which has been included in the chapter on "Regional Balance".

The Content this Year SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017 carries an exceptional range and significantly greater number of interesting articles on highly topical subjects by well-known authors. These articles are included in the chapters on “Concepts and Perspectives”, “Business”, and “Technology”. The chapter on “Concepts and Perspectives” includes well analysed articles of military and strategic value on subjects which range from the global to the regional perspectives, articles pertaining to land, air and maritime domains and those which cover a wide area of strategic interest to India’s defence planners and industry honchos. In the “Business” section, the new guidelines on Defence Procurement Procedure 2016, Defence Offsets promulgated in 2016 and

the 'Make' Procedure 2016 to address the issues of self-reliance have been detailed extensively, apart from the articles on modernisation of army, navy and the air force. The essay on “Strategic and Business Environment” skillfully analyses the subject by a highly experienced military and business analyst. In the chapter on “Technology”, future technologies covering cyber warfare, future soldiers, artificial intelligence, military radars, future of revolution in military affairs have been included among others. We wish our readers a Joyous and a Prosperous New Year 2017. Clarifications: • Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017. Despite this, it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. • Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the  contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government, including the Ministry of Defence. • Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable.

Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the Editorial Board worked in unison to make the SP's Military Yearbook 2016-2017 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP's team of experts: Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) Rear Admiral S.K. Ramsay (Retd)

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Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief

2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 39


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201640  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

REGIONAL BALANCE

special colour feature WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


CONTENTS Copyright © 2017

SP Guide Publications

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be used for any other activity. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means – digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise – without the prior written approval of the Editor-in-Chief. The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

Printed in India at Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD

C on t en t s Alpha Design Technologies........................................................................................ 42 Ashok Leyland............................................................................................................... 43

Corporate Office A-133, Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Phones : +  91 11 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax: +91 11 24647093

Bharat Electronics........................................................................................................ 44

E-mail: info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com

MBDA............................................................................................................................. 51

Order: order@spsmilitaryyearbook.com Websites: www.spguidepublications.com www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

BUSINESS

Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents.

W EA P O N S , E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I C LE S

FFV Ordnance................................................................................................................ 45 Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers................................................................. 47

INDIAN DEFENCE

Credits

IAI.................................................................................................................................... 49

Navantia......................................................................................................................... 52 Nexter............................................................................................................................. 54 Proengin......................................................................................................................... 55

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief & Publisher SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi, India

TECHNOLOGY

Concept

Rosoboronexport.......................................................................................................... 57

Yulista.............................................................................................................................. 61 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 41

REGIONAL BALANCE

UAC................................................................................................................................. 59


ALPHA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES

A

lpha Design Technologies Pvt. Ltd (ALPHA) is making significant strides in R&D and manufacturing of Defence Electronics and Avionics equipment and Systems. The Company specializes in Research & Development, manufacturing, quality assurance, evaluation and system integration for various defence products such as Fighter aircraft / helicopters / UAVs, Avionics equipment including Missile Launch Detection System (MILDS), IFF, Optronics, LRF Based Products, Laser Target Detectors, Thermal Imagers & Fire Control Systems, Navigation, Tactical Communication, Software Defined Radios, Image Conversion, Data & Image Fusion, Radar, RF Seekers, C3I Systems, EW, Simulators, Microwave Components & RF Units for Indian and International markets. Out of 527 R&D engineers of ALPHA, more than 50 R&D engineers are working on development of SDR Waveforms at its R&D Centre at Bangalore. SDR Waveform for Naval and Ground versions have been developed including for WESEE and for other Organisations. ADTL will be playing a major role in development, manufacture and supply of SDRs for Army (including AFV version), Navy and IAF. These will be show-cased during Aero India 2017 from February 14-18, 2017, at Bangalore. ADTL is also developing High Capacity Radio Relay for Army. Other R&D initiatives include indigenously development of RF Seekers for Missiles, IFF (Interrogator/Transponder/CIT) for Army, Navy and IAF and newer versions of TI Sights. The Company is establishing state-of-the-art facilities for Assembly, Integration & Testing of RF Seekers

201642  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

Col. H.S. Shankar, VSM (Retd), CMD, Alpha Design Technologies, Bangalore, being presented with ‘Life Time Achievement Award-2016' by Chairman, ISRO, A.S. Kiran Kumar during Silver Jubilee Celebrations of Society of Indian Aerospace Technologies and Industries (SIATI) at Bangalore on December 2, 2016.

for MRSAM Missiles at its Hyderabad Centre. ADTL has also bagged orders for developing S&L Band TransReceive Units from DRDO (CABS) for their AESA Radar, manufacture & supply of Thermal Imager based Fire Control System for Tanks, Rear Fuselage and 8 Nos Under Wing Pylons for LCA and 16 sets of Front Fuselage for Dornier, DO-228 for which new Orders have been received and which are of great significance. The Company has taken new initiatives in establishing production facilities for CNR-900M AFV Radios from M/s. Elbit Systems, Israel, at its Bangalore Factory. ADTL will be manufacturing 3000 Nos Radios for Exports to Elbit Systems during 2017-2018 period. One of the major initiative taken by ADTL is its foray into Space sector. It has bagged the prestigious Contract from ISRO for Assembly, Integration & Testing (AIT) of two numbers of IRNSS Satellites in 18 months’ time (in co-operation with ISRO). This is the first time a Private Sector Industry has entered into this segment in a major way. The Company expects to obtain additional orders for Satellite AIT in the years to come.  •

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

ASHOK LEYLAND

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For more information, visit our website: www.ashokleyland.com

Ashok Leyland’s office:

Chennai No.1, Sardar Patel Road, Guindy, Chennai – 600 032 Contact Person: Amandeep Singh Email : Amandeep.singh@ashokleyland.com Tel: +91 44 22206000 Fax: +91 44 22206001 Gurgaon 5th floor, Plot No. 76, Institutional Area, Sector 32, Gurgaon – 122001, Haryana Contact Person: Atul Andley Email : atul.andley@ashokleyland.com Tel: +91 124 4264969 Fax: +91 124 4264970

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

drive Stallion vehicles powered by 230 hp BS III driveline in 4x4 & 6x6 configurations, Fully Built Vehicles and 165 kW MPV Kits. Ashok Leyland vehicles entered United Nations Peace Keeping Force fleets at Mali and South Sudan. Ashok Leyland has contracts with UN OPS, Tanzania, Kenya and Nigeria. Ashok Leyland HMV vehicles have also been integrated by Global players for BAMSE Short Range Surface to Air Missile (SRSAM) and for the Mounted Gun System for Indian Army considering their capabilities in all weather & terrain conditions. Going forward, the Company has on the anvil a family of modern, reliable, war-worthy vehicles, with high commonality of parts.  •

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

L-R: Super Stallion, Ambulance, MBPV and MPV

REGIONAL BALANCE

A

shok Leyland, the flagship company of the Hinduja Group and Technology leaders in the Indian commercial vehicle industry is a pioneer in the design, development and manufacture of special vehicles for the armed forces for over four decades. The development of the futuristic ‘Stallion 4x4’ has greatly contributed to the modernization of the logistics of the Indian army. Following this, Ashok Leyland’s Stallion 4x4 has grown to a 75,000 strong fleet and this has become the veritable backbone of logistics operations making Ashok Leyland the largest supplier of logistics vehicles to the Indian army. In 2010, the Indian defence market for high mobility vehicles was opened to private sector and Ashok Leyland took this opportunity in developing Super Stallion 6x6, 8x8, 10x10 and 12x12 configurations. These vehicles have been successfully inducted into the army after extensive evaluation. These vehicles are now widely considered for Radars, BCP, Missile launcher/carrier. Ashok Leyland through its associate company Ashok Leyland Defence Systems Ltd has made foray into the armoured vehicles business segment with introduction of its state of the art Medium Bullet Proof Vehicles (MBPV 4x4), Mine Protected Vehicle (MPV 4x4) and Personnel Protected Vehicle (PPC 4x4). Ashok Leyland is in the forefront in perceiving challenging and demanding Army’s needs and rendering viable solutions. In the last five years, Ashok Leyland has added HMV 8x8, Field Artillery Tractor (FAT) 6x6 (As Common Gun Tower) on Super Stallion platform, Air conditioned Ambulance 4x4 & Ambulance 4x2 on Stallion platform. This is in addition to existing products like Recovery Vehicle, Insulated Water Bowser, Refrigerated Lorry, ATF Refueller & Truck Driving Simulator, etc. The Defence Exports portfolio grew with left hand

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

The driving force for the Armed Forces


Bharat Electronics Empowering India’s armed forces

E

stablished in Bangalore in 1954, Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) has come a long way. From a humble beginning, BEL is now a Navratna public sector undertaking and India’s foremost defence electronics company. BEL is a multi-product, multi-technology, multi-unit conglomerate boasting of over 350 products in the areas of Radars, Missile Systems, Military Communications, Naval Systems, Electronic Warfare & Avionics, C4I Systems, Electro Optics, Tank Electronics & Gun/ Weapon System Upgrades, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Electronic Components and civilian products such as solar traffic signals and Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs). It also provides turnkey systems solutions. Defence contributes nearly 85 per cent of its revenue. BEL spends 8 per cent of its turnover on Research & Development, maintaining leadership position in defence electronics. BEL’s manufacturing network is spread over nine units in the country.

Highlights of 2015-16 BEL registered a growth of 12 per cent in 2015-16 with a sales turnover of Rs. 7,522 crore in 2015-16 as compared to Rs. 6,695 crore in 2014-15. The profit after tax was Rs.1,358 crore (2015-16) as against Rs 1,167 crore (2014-15). Exports registered a growth of 47 per cent as the turnover increased from US $58 Million in 2014-15 to US$85 million in 2015-16. BEL has an order book value of Rs.32,022 crore as on April 1, 2016. The induction of the Akash missile system into the armed forces was a milestone of 2016.

201644  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

Upgraded SCHILKA Weapon System

Major Orders Executed Some of the significant orders executed during 2015-16 include supply of Akash Weapon System, 3-D Tactical Control Radar, Schilka Upgrade, Passive Night Vision Devices, Low Level Light Weight Radar, Fire Control System, Integrated Sonar Suite, Ship Data Network, and New Generation Sonars for the armed forces and L Band Surveillance Radar to Myanmar.

Make In India Initiatives BEL is focusing more on core areas and R&D, even as all non-core areas are being outsourced to Indian industries including MSMEs. A long-term Outsourcing & Indigenisation Policy has been released. Annually, around 800 new indigenous vendors are added.

Outlook For The Future BEL has laid the foundation stone for a new Defence Systems Integration Complex at Anantapur district to expand the Missile Systems business and another stateof-the-art Advanced Night Vision Products Factory at Nimmaluru village in Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh. Radars, Missile Systems, Communication & Network Centric Systems, Tank Electronics, Gun Upgrades, Electro-Optic Systems and Electronic Warfare & Avionics Systems will continue to drive BEL’s growth. It is pursuing business opportunities in solar energy, homeland security, smart cards and telecom. Strategies and action plans are in place to face competition, maintain technological edge and retain leadership position in strategic electronics.  •

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

FFV Ordnance

FFV Ordnance now has more than 30 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. The AT4CS HEAT system has a warhead with increased behind-armour effect, which is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles.

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Carl-Gustaf ammunition can be divided into the following four areas: • Anti-armour • Anti-structure • Soft Targets • Support

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Four Areas of Ammunition

Brand New Ammunition The HEAT 655 CS, launched in December 2013, is the first Carl-Gustaf ammunition that is fully optimized for firing from confined spaces, i.e. from inside a building. This is an important requirement in modern, urban conflicts. The HEAT 655 CS adds to the large existing inventory of ammunition that is already available for every kind of operation, making the Carl-Gustaf the true multi-mission land combat system. Other new capabilities include the ASM (AntiStructure Munition) 509 and the MT (Multi-Target) 756.

GET YOUR COPY TO READ Further Developments for Future Needs IN COMPLETE FFV Ordnance is continuously working to make

2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 45

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Carl-Gustaf M4 manportable shoulderlaunched multi-role weapon system

REGIONAL BALANCE

Combat in Built-up Areas

BUSINESS

F

FV Ordnance, part of the global defence and security company Saab, has been for decades one of the world’s leading suppliers of man-portable support weapons. The shoulder-fired weapon system Carl-Gustaf is the flagship of FFV Ordnance´s product family. The system has a long and successful history, and is today in use in more than 40 countries worldwide. This includes India, where it is in use with the Indian Army. The system offers the soldier various types of ammunition, ranging from armour penetration and anti-personnel to ammunition for built-up areas, as well as special features like smoke and illumination. Through its wide variety of ammunition available, Carl-Gustaf is a weapon system capable of handling multiple tactical situations, bridging the gap between full scale operations and low intensity conflicts, and providing the modern warfighter with unprecedented flexibility and capability on the battlefield. The well-proven Carl-Gustaf M3 meets all the basic requirements of being a multi-role, robust, light weapon that is easy to use – in both day and night operations.


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

GARDEN REACH SHIPBUILDERS & ENGINEERS

G

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The company delivered the first indigenous warship, INS Ajay, to the Indian Navy in 1961. Since then, it has delivered 98 warships to the Indian Navy, the Indian Coast Guard and the Mauritius Coast Guard. Today it is pursuing a dynamic growth strategy to meet the defence needs of the country. It has a modern shipyard capable of building quality ships in a reduced time frame with modular construction technology. The state-of-the-art integrated Shipbuilding Facility includes Dry Dock, of 10,000 T capacity (Length 180 m), Inclined Berth, 4,500 T (Length 180 m), Goliath Crane (250 T capacity), Module Hall for construction of ship blocks up to 250 Tonne, and a Paint Shop.  • In recognition of GRSE’s performance, the company has been awarded the Defence Minister’s “Best Performing Defence Shipyard” Trophy for last four consecutive years.•

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Integrated Shipbuilding Facility

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

GRSE has developed capabilities to design and build most modern warships, having built Frigates, ASW Corvettes, Missile Corvettes, Fleet Tankers, Large Landing Ship Tanks, Landing Craft Utility, Survey Vessels, Offshore Patrol Vessels, Fast Attack Crafts, In-shore Patrol Vessels and Hovercrafts, besides Commercial Vessels, including Bulk Carriers, Research Vessels, Fire Floats, Dredgers, Ro-Ro Vessels, Tugs, Fishing Trawlers and Passenger Ferries. GRSE is the only defence shipyard in the country with its own engineering division with three units - PreFabricated Steel Bridges Unit, Deck Machinery Unit & Engine Unit. It has built approximately 5,000 bridges for the Indian Army and the State Governments. A GRSE-manufactured modular steel bridge has been installed at 5,600 m and is in the Guinness Book of World Records. The Deck Machinery Unit manufactures everything from Boat Davits to Anchor Capstan and Mooring Capstan. It also makes the Rail-Less Helicopter Traversing System for installation on warships. Its engine unit at Ranchi assembles, tests and overhauls diesel engines.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PRODUCT RANGE

BUSINESS

arden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd (GRSE) is a Mini-Ratna Central Public Sector Enterprise under the Ministry of Defence in India. Started in 1884 as River Steam Workshop and incorporated in 1934 as Garden Reach Workshop, a small company in the ship-repair business, it was acquired by the Government of India in 1960.


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS 1953

Line of Business Defense and Commercial Products & Services: Development, Manufacture, Overhaul, Upgrading, Repair and Maintenance of Aircraft and Aerospace Equipment, Electronic Systems, Avionics Suites, Advanced Radars, Tactical Weaponry & Law Enforcement Systems, Cyber Interception and Collection, Unmanned Air and Ground Vehicles, Training and Simulation Systems, Communication and Observation Satellites, Network and Situation Awareness Systems

Financial Figures •

I AI's 2015 total sales $3.7 billion, 80% of these sales are for export.

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• •

IAI's backlog as of December 2015 reached $8.5 billion. IAI's 2015 net profit $9 million.

Core Areas of Activity

Space: Positioned as Israel’s leading integrator for space technology, IAI has a proud legacy of dozens of satellites deployed in space. IAI develops and produces a wide range of cutting-edge satellites and satellite equipment, including observation and communication satellites, scientific/research satellite systems, ground control stations, mission centers, and launchers. With the latest members of OPTSAT-3000 – an electrical optical imaging satellite product line, TECSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) – an observation satellite line and the AMOS communications satellite product line, IAI provides top performance and cost effective solutions for national security and commercial applications. Theater Defense: IAI develops and manufactures advanced air defense systems, including the “Barak

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2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 49

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Established

IAI develops ISR solutions in space, air, land and sea delivering real-time electronic information

REGIONAL BALANCE

Joseph Weiss President & CEO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) is a world leader in the delivery of state-of-the-art ground, air, sea, space, and cyber technologies and systems for defense, commercial, and homeland security applications.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

IAI


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

MBDA

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2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 51

INDIAN DEFENCE

forces to meet their VSHORAD requirement. Coastal and blue water operations require an effective anti-ship capability. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy’s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly, other versions of the world-famous Exocet family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA’s strategy. In fact, MBDA’s links with Indian industry go back some 40 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under license for the Indian Army. Discussions are also under way for the potential co-development of a 5th generation anti-tank missile based on the MMP that has recently been ordered by France. Working with HAL, integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter is well advanced. As well as working with the DRDO, MBDA is actively constructing ties at all levels within the country.  •

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

MICA multi-mission air-to-air missile system on Rafale fighter

REGIONAL BALANCE

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BUSINESS

M

BDA is unique in the guided missile sector in its ability to meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains: air, land and sea. This offers benefits to customers keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. MBDA weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Brimstone and the long range SCALP / Storm Shadow are capable of ensuring air dominance long into the future. The IAF’s Mirage 2000 fleet is being upgraded and will feature MBDA’s MICA missile with its IR and RF seeker variants to deal with short to beyond visual range air combat. India’s Jaguar bombers also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA’s ASRAAM missiles. With 36 Rafale now contracted, MBDA will be playing a major role in maximizing the combat capability of this new generation aircraft. The threat of air attack is increasing. Low cost cruise missiles, manned and un-manned aircraft and the appearance of new ranges of ballistic missiles, are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company leads with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral, MICA and Aster missiles. MBDA’s Aster recently achieved Europe’s first successful ballistic missile target intercept, further proof of the Company’s unmatched skills. Mistral, with its unmatched success rate of over 96%, during all firings, has been selected by forces around the world and has been offered to the Indian armed


Navantia

N

avantia, the Spanish shipbuilder, 100% owned by the Spanish Government, is a world reference in the design, construction and integration of stateof-the-art war ships, as well as civil ships, offshore structures, ship repairs & modernizations. It is also engaged in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems, Fire Control Systems, Command and Control systems, Propulsion Plants and through life support for all its products. Even though its main line of activity is in the naval field, Navantia designs and manufactures systems for the Army. Navantia has enough experience in building the most technologically advanced ships like frigates, amphibious ships, patrol vessels, and submarines. In the last years, it has supplied ships for different navies: Norway, Australia, Spain, Chile, Malaysia, India and Venezuela. It has also been contracted in Turkey for the

201652  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

Cristóbal Colón

design and technical assistance of the LPD program, based on the Spanish Navy LHD “Juan Carlos I” and is has been shortlisted in Canada for the frigates program. This experience, together with a continuous commitment to innovation, the use of the latest technologies and with a highly qualified work force, makes Navantia one of the most competitive companies in the world Navantia is a reference in surface warships, having been able to integrate the AEGIS LM system in a much smaller platform. It has designed and built the F-100 Alvaro de Bazán class frigates (5 units) for the Spanish Navy and the F-310 Fridtjof Nansen class (5 units) in service at the Royal Norwegian Navy. The Australian Warfare Destroyer, currently under construction, is another Navantia design also based in Navantia F-100 frigate. The F-310 class frigates are considered one of the

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Nexter Creating new references in defense

N

exter, a KNDS company (Nexter+KMW Defense Systems) is one of the world’s leading land defense systems group with a large range of products and services. Nexter expertise includes armored vehicles (VBCI, TITUS®), artillery systems (105LG1, TRAJAN®, CAESAR® family) but also land, naval and aeronautic weapon systems. Since delivering its first artillery gun in 1764, Nexter has acquired extensive know-how in artillery. Systems developed by the company have always set the standard, and this remains the case with CAESAR®. Those two centuries of experience have established Nexter as a leader in artillery systems, enabling the company to offer a full range of products, from guns and ammunition to ballistic computers. Nexter’s range of solutions also covers integrated training, maintenance support services, and the complete operational/ logistics environment of an artillery battalion. The range of Nexter artillery guns, which are in service in several armies and combat proven, includes: –  CAESAR® truck-mounted artillery system equipped with a 155mm/52 calibre gun. Enjoying extraordinary mobility, superior firepower, and “shoot and scoot” capability, CAESAR® is currently in production and in service in 4 armies. The CAESAR® is now available on a 6x6 or 8x8 chassis. – The TRAJAN® towed artillery system incorporates CAESAR®’s combat-proven 155mm/52 caliber gun with a towed gun chassis, providing all the flexibility of towed systems.

201654  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

CAESAR®: Artillery system of the 21st century

In India, Nexter has teamed up with Larsen & Toubro and Ashok Leyland Defence to propose an Indian version of the CAESAR® to soldiers of the Indian Army for the MGS (Mounted Gun System) program. Based on the 6x6 Super Stallion chassis from Ashok Leyland, with higher payload which improves the modularity of the Indian CAESAR® to fulfill specific requirements of the Indian Army. The two companies have signed another Consortium Agreement to create a Nexter Systems partnership for 155 mm Towed Gun System (TGS) program for Indian Army. The two partners plan to organize extensive technology transfer in India early in the programmes. This cooperation capitalizes on the reknown know-how of Larsen &Toubro in the field of engineering, manufacturing and system integration, but also on the high expertise in artillery, exceptional operational capabilities and cost-effectiveness of the artillery systems (TRAJAN® and CAESAR®) from Nexter.  •

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

PROENGIN Biological and Chemical detection for the field (and real life)

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

UNIQUE TECHNOLOGY

P

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impure agents or chemical compounds manufactured by terrorists that would not fit into traditional libraries of IMS detectors. Moreover AP4C is capable of detecting New Agents that will be developed in the future, as well as agents that are still not precisely known, Novichok agents (or Non Traditional Agents). The response time of the detector is among the shortest in the market, but what makes the AP4C unique is the recovery time after a positive detection. The AP4C therefore offers the highest level of performance on the field. AP4C has also been derived on other detectors, dedicated to the following uses: • use on reconnaissance vehicles and battle tanks • use aboard naval ships • use for critical / strategic buildings and areas protection

AP4C-V FOR USE ON RECONNAISSANCE GET YOUR TO READ VEHICLES AND COPY BATTLE TANKS Based on the same detection technology and the same IN COMPLETE internal design, the unique air sampling unit has been 2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 55

INDIAN DEFENCE

AP4C handheld CWA Detector

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

New developments such as the AP4C (handheld CWA detector) have extended the capacity of the FPD technology to include chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial materials in a simultaneous mode. There is no limitation in the number of agents detected by the AP4C. All Nerve agents, All Blister agents and All Blood agents can be detected by AP4C within the NATO recommended response time and sensitivity. The AP4C has extended the range of chemicals that can be detected by PROENGIN chemical detectors. All dangerous compounds containing Sulfur, Phosphorous, Arsenic and/or HNO chemical bond can be detected simultaneously. Much like the AP2C, the AP4C also has the capacity to work in severe environmental conditions (explosive areas) and the measurements are unaffected by high humidity levels or by the presence of other organic chemical compounds such as paint. The AP4C technology allows the simultaneous detection of an unlimited number of agents and the identification of the chemical elements that constitute these chemicals. It is therefore possible to detect

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HANDHELD CWA DETECTOR AP4C

BUSINESS

ROENGIN has developed Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents field detectors using Flame spectrophotometry technology. The well-known and widely used AP2C has proven the capacity of this technology to be the most reliable in the field with the lowest false alarm rate and the simplest ease of use.


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“I

think the main result of the past 16 years is that, despite the difficult economic conditions and fierce, often unfair, competition in the global arms market, we have managed not only to multiple our sales, but also significantly enlarge our footprint in the traditional and new arms markets. Through integrated marketing strategies, we have ensured that Rosoboronexport’s order book today exceeds US$ 45 billion,” said Rosoboronexport CEO Anatoly Isaykin. The special exporter makes painstaking efforts on a daily basis to increase Russian arms exports resulting in more than a thousand contract documents signed with foreign customers every year. Over the period of its operation in the international market, Rosoboronexport has delivered hundreds of thousands of units of military equipment and weapons worth more than US$ 120 billion to 115 countries. Rosoboronexport pays great attention to both major billion dollar contracts and small deals. The company seeks to operate flexibly and efficiently by using modern and advanced marketing and customer settlement methods. The special exporter cooperates with more than 700 Russian defense-industrial enterprises and organizations, which enables it to offer partner countries the comprehensive and cost-effective

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES BUSINESS

Anatoly Isaykin, Rosoboronexport CEO

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

On November 4, JSC Rosoboronexport (part of the Rostec State Corporation) marks its 16th anniversary. The sole Russian state intermediary agency, which is responsible for import/export of the full range of defense and dual-use end products, technologies and services was set up by the RF President’s Decree in 2000. This is a 100% state-owned company.

TECHNOLOGY

Rosoboronexport: 16 years of excellence


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Deliveries and Income UAC is constantly growing, increasing its volumes year on year for more than 6 years. The Corporation has delivered 156 aircraft in 2015 while UAC’s income slightly increased to more than US$6 billion. According to UAC’s long term development strategy the Corporation’s revenues should quadruple by 2025 with profit margin not less than 10%. During the next decade UAC plans for faster growth in the civil segment

Main figures

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Russian T-50, the base for FGFA development

102,000 people : Total UAC workforce RUR 352 billion : 2015 revenue

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he United Aircraft Corporation (PJSC “UAC”) was established in 2006 to consolidate Russia’s main assets in aircraft design and production. The Russian Federation is its main shareholder with more than 85% of shares. UAC is formed by the following design bureaus and manufacturing plants: Sukhoi Company, Irkut Corporation, UAC – Transport Aircraft, Ilyushin, Tupolev, Ilyushin Finance Company, Aviastar-SP, Voronezh Aircraft Company, Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG, Myasishchev Design Bureau, Beriev Design Bureau, Aerocomposite and Gromov Flight Research Institute. The Corporation’s mission is to develop, manufacture and service military, transport and civil aircraft with a priority to Russian state customers, to reach and to sustain long-term competitiveness on the global market. Key aim of the Corporation is to become the world’s third largest aviation center with a stable position and share in the global market.

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

UAC to support ‘Make in India’


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Yulista’s ASPI kit on the Apache helicopter increases aircraft and crew safety and survivability

modifications to every type of military and civil aviation asset. Our maintenance teams deploy globally to modify, repair and install Modification Work Orders on military and civil aircraft, often in combat zones. Yulista’s competencies encompass all aspects of the product realization process from requirements definition to integration onto rotary and fixed wing aviation assets as well as ground, missile, maritime, and unmanned systems. These efforts entail improving com-

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ulista understands that military and civil aviation are essential elements of both the present and future battlefield. In supporting this mission, our aviation roots run deep providing a reputation of responsiveness and customer focus. We provide rapid response solutions to our military and civil customers globally. Over the past 12 years, Yulista has experienced continuous growth of experience with all aircraft platforms and the nature and complexities of

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YULISTA – INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS WITH OEM CAPABILITIES


Advertiser Index Company

Website

Page No.

Alpha Design Technologies

www.adtl.co.in

23

Ashok Leyland

www.ashokleyland.com

21

BAE SYSTEMS SWS DEFENCE

www.baesystems.com

25

Bharat Electronics

www.bel-india.com

26

Dassault Aviation

www.rafale.co.in

FFV Ordnance

www.saab.com/cgm4

9

Fincantieri

www.fincantieri.com

17

Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers

www.grse.nic.in

19 Front Cover

Back Cover

General Atomics Aeronautical Systems

www.ga-asi.com

Goa Shipyard

www.goashipyard.co.in

28

Israel Aerospace Industries

www.iai.co.il

13

KÄrcher

www.kaercher.com/in

40

L-3 Wescam

www.wescam.com

Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders

www.mazagondock.gov.in

30

MBDA

www.mbda-systems.com

7

Navantia

www.navantia.es

27

Nexter

www.nexter-group.com

29

Pilatus

www.pilatus-aircraft.com

2

Proengin

www.proengin.com

33

Rosoboronexport

www.roe.ru

Safran

www.safran-group.com

Safran Electronics & Defense (Sagem)

www.safran-electronics-defense.com

11

ShinMaywa

www.shinmaywa.co.jp

15

Thales

www.thalesgroup.com

4

ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems

www.thyssenkrupp-marinesystems.com

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United Aircraft Corporation

www.uacrussia.ru

Bookmark

Viking

www.vikingair.com

31

Yulista

www.yulista.com

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1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 31 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 65 69

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One  Concerns and challenges impacting on global peace and security Two The Modi-Obama Vision and Indo-US Relations Three Modi and Indo-Russian Relations Four China’s Military Command and Control: A Root and Branch Overhaul Five The Current Situation in West Asia and its Implications Six Pakistan: A Fragile Polity and a Dysfunctional State Seven The UN Tribunal’s South China Sea Verdict — Implications for Regional Security Eight Reducing Flab in India’s Defence Organisation Nine Maritime Capacity Building and India’s Imperatives Ten Special Forces Eleven Asymmetric and Unconventional Warfare on the Subcontinent Twelve Army Aviation Turns 30 – A Reality Check Thirteen Blue Economy and China: Economic Wealth and Strategic Advantages Fourteen Cyber Warfare in Future Conflicts Fifteen Defence Reforms Sixteen Foundational Pillars of India’s Strategy to Protect Offshore Assets Seventeen The IAF – A Strategic Air Force? Eighteen Trends in Land-based Firepower in the Future

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Concepts & Perspectives

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section one


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Diminishing Power of United States After the end of the Cold War, the United States emerged as the only global superpower. However, in most regions today, it is actually in second or third place. Brazil dominates South America. Russia seeks to restore its control over its ‘near abroad’. China pursues regional “hegemony,” and India has economic and demographic capabilities that are the envy of any power. In the next tier, South Africa, Turkey, Iran, and some other countries manoeuvre and compete for regional advantage and

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Fraying Globalisation

It was after the end of the Cold War that globalisation became a buzzword in international dialogue and soon gained considerable traction and speed. Nations began understanding the benefits of globalisation and slowly commenced being part of the process. Globalisation has changed the thinking that ‘a rising power threatens the world order’. Today’s rising power (China) is in reality the poster child for globalisation: It is fully invested in the global system; is economically intertwined with the world to a great extent; and hence unlikely to radically shake up the existing order.

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he international security On the other hand, a declining power is   Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd)   situation is always in a flux; more likely to dilute globalisation, as it on account of not only direct may feel that it has nothing to lose even security issues, but also because of other aspects that if the world order changes! include economic, social, cultural, cyber, energy, trade Economics is obviously the catalyst for this. China is constantly and commerce, and financial aspects. Some challenges buying into the globalised system. At another plane, China, the largare recent, but others are long-term strategic issues. est customer of West Asian oil, has not even demanded a military The global and regional ‘balances of power’ are also impacted seat at the Middle East table? China has a huge reserve of funds and by national interests of individual nations, which take precedence knows that whoever is in power needs to sell to them! even when the issues are collectively highly adverse. A case in Globalisation was spectacularly successful in enabling millions point is the ‘war on terrorism’, which seems to have lost its impetus of people to move out of poverty. However, according to the US, it because it affects different countries and even regions differently, had three major adverse fallouts, which were terrorism; politically resulting in inaction by some nations and only marginal involve- coerced immigration; and global warming! Though the last one is ment by others. It is unfortunately not realised that collective action difficult to understand, the US is convinced that there is a direct today will save lives, money and resources in future. linkage between the three. The argument is that climate change is Good examples are globalisation that is under severe strain; the root cause of government instability, which leads to widespread the rapidly changing energy scenario; the changes in climate and migration, damaged infrastructure and spread of disease; and global warming that transcend borders; and of course the state of extremist ideologies prosper in such an environment and that in world economy. turn, results in fostering terrorism. While one may not agree with It should be the endeavour of all nations of the world to so man- this somewhat convoluted argument, all three issues are of great age international and regional concerns and challenges that peace concern globally, regionally and nationally! and prosperity prevails amongst all the peoples and countries of Another important aspect that most will agree with is that glothe world. balisation has diluted borders between countries and changed the concept of sovereignty.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The global and regional ‘balances of power’ are also impacted by national interests of individual nations, which take precedence even when the issues are collectively highly adverse. A case in point is the ‘war on terrorism’, which seems to have lost its impetus because it affects different countries and even regions differently, resulting in inaction by some nations and only marginal involvement by others.

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PIB

CONCERNS AND CHALLENGES IMPACTING ON GLOBAL PEACE AND SECURITY

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ndo-us relations have seen remarkUnited States. Prime Minister Modi packed   Dr Harinder Sekhon   able progress over the past two years with in a wide range of activities into a fast-paced the two leaders, Indian Prime Minister schedule both in New York and Washington Narendra Modi and US President Barack Obama, having had DC displaying great energy, oratorical skill and a remarkable flair eight official bilateral meetings — an unprecedented record by for diplomacy that helped establish a strong connect with all the any estimate. The importance of both countries to each other, major stakeholders — the Indian-American community, busiand more especially as partners for peace and stability in Asia and ness leaders and the US Congress. Whether it was his event at the the Indo-Pacific, safeguarding global commons through deepening Madison Square Garden or his stroll around the Martin Luther cooperation on counter-terrorism, radicalism and cyber security is King Memorial in Washington DC with President Barack Obama, not lost on either India or the United States. This is amply reflected all had a positive impact and there is optimism that under Modi’s in the US-India Joint Strategic Vision for Asia-Pacific and the Indian decisive and pragmatic leadership, backed by a strong political Ocean regions. Besides this, bilateral issues like defence, trade and mandate, India-US relations will move to a higher trajectory when commerce are important areas of cooperation and have made a new US administration assumes office in January 2017. The joint remarkable progress during the past two years. vision statement lays out a clear road map for bringing matters to Beginning with the newly elected Modi’s first “extraordinarily fruition over the long term and in the past two years various bilatsuccessful” visit to the United States in September 2014 that re- eral meetings have been held between stakeholders to “revitalise” energised the strategic partnership between the two countries the existing partnership and find new areas for collaboration and and set the stage for a ‘re-set’ of Indo-US relations, there has been mutual benefit. no looking back. During that Summit meeting, the two leaders Defence and DTTI ‘endorsed’ the first ‘Vision Statement for the Strategic Partnership’ as a “guide to strengthen and deepen cooperation in every sector Defence relations have made impressive gains with the US emergfor the benefit of global stability and people’s livelihoods over the ing as India’s largest weapons supplier, overtaking Russia, Israel and next ten years. They also reiterated their commitment to move France. This has so far been mainly through the US foreign military forward together through a new mantra: ‘Chalein Saath Saath: sales route but both countries are committed to move from a traditional buyer-seller relationship to “co-production, co-development Forward Together We Go.’ India does figure high in US strategic calculus and accord- and freer exchange of technology” through the Defence Trade and ing to Nicholas Burns, “In strategic terms, there are few countries Technology Initiative (DTTI) first proposed in 2012 by Secretary more important to Washington than India, the dominant power in of Defense Leon Panetta, who at that time directed his Deputy the Indian Ocean region and, with Japan, the most important US Secretary of Defense, the current Defence Secretary, Dr. Ashton partner in Asia seeking to limit Chinese assertiveness in the region.” Carter, to undertake an initiative to provide increased US senior Economically too, Indian and US interests are finding increasing con- level oversight and engagement with India. The aim was clear. vergence between the US search for investment opportunities and To look for ways that would eventually include collaboration in India’s need for foreign investments to meet its developmental goals. “defence technology transfer, trade, research, co-development and This mutual dependence turned Modi’s 2014 visit into one co-production for defence articles and services, including the most of the most remarkable visits by an Indian Prime Minister to the advanced and sophisticated technology.”

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India does figure high in US strategic calculus and according to Nicholas Burns, “In strategic terms, there are few countries more important to Washington than India, the dominant power in the Indian Ocean region and, with Japan, the most important US partner in Asia seeking to limit Chinese assertiveness in the region”.

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PIB

The Modi-Obama Vision and Indo-US Relations

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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ndia under Prime Minister summit level meetings with the United   Ambassador P. Stobdan   Narendra Modi has found new States, France, Germany, Israel, United ways to reboot India’s long-standKingdom and most recently Japan, at ing friendship with Russia to make it more relevant to chang- each of which defence and security aspects received robust attening times. Bilateral relations with Russia have traditionally tion. This, along with Modi’s drumming up of foreign investments remained the most critical component of India’s strategic calcu- for his ‘Make in India’ initiative, would have made the Russians lus since the Soviet era. The equation remains relevant even today worried about actually losing an established market. due to India’s heavy dependence on weapons supplies from Russia, While Russia, though suffering Western economic sanctions even though the spirit of old bonds has undergone a rapid change and lower oil prices, is showing remarkable resilience, bombing in more ways than one. ISIS in Syria and standing firm in disputes with Turkey, standing up A year ago, Indo-Russian relations were bit frosty, the Russians to the West and rebounding on the world stage. complaining that the United States had become India’s main arms Modi has so far eschewed from siding with the West over any supplier, ending the arms blockade to Pakistan in return, while the crisis involving, be it Ukraine or Syria. This ambiguous stand underIndians were frustrated by Russia’s failure to meet delivery sched- lines Russia’s significance in India’s geostrategic calculus, a position ules, raising costs and failure to transfer technology and spares. that no other power can replace and a circumstance that is not Under Manmohan Singh, nuclear and defence deals with likely to be altered any time soon. Russia were only on paper, but President Vladimir Putin and Modi India has escaped the ramifications of its policy, however have tried get things back on track by not only agreeing to straighten Russia’s pivot to Asia has so far only boosted China. Similarly, in the loose ends of existing projects but also bring new big items on the face of Western sanctions, Putin could turn to the old-trusted the table. friend India as a fast-growing outlet for exports, benefiting from Modi’s ‘Make in India’ drive to regain market share, even as the Rebuilding Confidence United States pushes several big-ticket items for co-production and During the 16th Annual India-Russia Summit held in Moscow on co-development in India. December 23-24, 2015, Modi and Putin displayed full confidence Last year, Modi hinted that Russia had been unable to respond to take the partnership to a higher level and concluded 16 pacts, to the ‘Make in India’ call. Now Moscow is diversifying its economy which included those on building additional nuclear reactors and and seeking high-value-added products markets, with more posmanufacturing military hardware in India with the involvement of sibilities in food production, agriculture, metals, chemical and Indian firms. In fact, Modi has put his flagship ‘Make in India’ ini- textile products. tiative at the centre-stage of India-Russia strategic relationship. In Overhauling Military-Technical Cooperation many ways, the deals signed could well bring back Russia as India’s Military-technical cooperation remains the lynchpin of the partnertop military hardware supplier. Significantly, Prime Minister Modi rejected any slide in India- ship, but this relationship had lately become only transactional. As Russia relationship and told President Vladimir Putin that India other vendors join the Indian arms market, global competitiveness increasingly had threatened even the ‘buyer-seller’ relationship. sees the country as a “reliable friend”. Moreover, for Modi the negotiations with the West to advance Significantly, Modi visited Moscow after concluding a string of

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Under the previous government, nuclear and defence deals with Russia were only on paper, but Putin and Modi have tried to get things back on track by not only agreeing to straighten the loose ends of existing projects but also bring new big items on the table.

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Modi and Indo-Russian Relations

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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Wikipedia

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

China’s Military Command and Control: A Root and Branch Overhaul

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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to prepare and fight the 21st century battles. Formerly controlled by the Army-dominated General Staff Department, the PLA’s Army, Air Force, Navy and Strategic Rocket Force now report directly to the CMC — signalling centralised decision-making under CMC Chairman Xi Jinping. China has an extensive network of hardened, underground shelters and command and control (C2) facilities for both its military and civilian leadership. China undertook significant efforts to modernise and improve its command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) infrastructure ever since C4I modernisation and automation became a top Chinese priority since the nation unleashed major military reforms in 1979. Resultantly, a command automation data network that was capable of rapidly passing operational orders down the chain of command and moving information to national and theatre level decision makers was put in place. That said, the command automation data network cannot be termed as fully capable of controlling or directing military forces in a sophisticated, complex, joint operating environment, as per western standards that meet the demands of the modern battlefield — something that has become a priority area to be addressed for the PLA. According to many sources, including reports on China’s military developments by the US’ Pentagon, the command automation data network is capable of supporting PLA peacetime operations within China’s borders along with supporting limited pre-planned conventional attack options along China’s immediate periphery. The PLA is making progress in modernising its C4I systems, completing an automated command and control system, developing a new type of general field communications system, and disseminating new general signal regulations, with an emphasis on modernisation of the command automation systems, which previously were reportedly used for divisional and regimental training. A group army conducting battlefield exercises in the current context can use an advanced-level automation system that integrates field command, operational simulation, and computer plotting. As per the new system, the group army is capable to transmit documents

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Chansoria  

REGIONAL BALANCE

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he refurbishment of China’s mil  Dr Monika itary strategy to meet the missions and strategic tasks of the Chinese armed forces extends to its existing command and control system, which remains firmly under the authority residing with the Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC). During his visit to Chinese military’s new Joint Battle Command Centre in April 2016 in the Beijing facility of real-time operational data, Xi Jinping was repeatedly referred to as the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) “commander-in-chief of joint operations” — a title last used between 1949-54 by Zhu De, the radical general under Chairman Mao Zedong, who served largely in honorary roles including being Vice Chairman of the National Defence Council and the Central People’s Government Council (1949-54). Interestingly, even Mao was not addressed as “commander-in-chief”. A retired PLA Major General, Xu Guangyu, states that the title of commander-in-chief has a different function from his post as CMC Chairman in that “…the CMC is responsible for the PLA’s management and defence building, while the joint battle command centre focuses on combat and relevant strategies.” The inauguration of this joint command centre showcased the sophisticated technology, with commanders from the newly regrouped Eastern Theatre Command, Southern Theatre Command, Western Theatre Command, Northern Theatre Command and Central Theatre Command in February 2016 giving reports about their combat forces to Xi Jinping via video links. Xi urged that the joint battle command centres, both at the CMC and theatre command levels must focus on their core function of operation command to build an integrated and effective command system, stressing that “…the current situation requires battle command to be highly strategic, coordinated, timely, professional and accurate.” The PLA has been focusing on strengthening the study of command theories, training of command skills and situationhandling drills to enhance actual command capabilities. Besides, also being highlighted is the dominance of the ground forces in the PLA coming to an end, with the elevation of the profile and role of the PLA Navy, Air Force and Strategic Rocket Force, as they gear up

TECHNOLOGY

The PLA has been focusing on strengthening the study of command theories, training of command skills and situation-handling drills to enhance actual command capabilities.


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in 1979 and thereafter, under current President Bashar Al Assad, his son and successor, strengthened it further and also continued the strategic alliance forged with Russia during the Soviet era. Assad’s biggest crime is that Syria became the main conduit of the ingress and spread of Iranian presence and influence in Lebanon through their joint creation of Hezbollah; and, great support to and influence over Hamas. Therefore, Assad had to be removed and replaced by Sunni Islamist rule since 75 per cent of Syria’s population is Sunni. Under the Assad’s regime Syria has been ruled as a secular state. By the end of 2014 Assad’s hold was restricted to the western third of Syria, mainly in and around Damascus, Hama, Homs, Latakia and the coastal region. It is possible to conjecture that the war in Syria could have led to Assad being overthrown had the United States intervened directly. President Barack Obama had declared in 2012 that if the redline of using chemical weapons was crossed the US would intervene militarily; this happened on August 21, 2013, but after some very robust rhetoric Obama referred the question of intervention to the Congress which declined to endorse the idea with national opinion polls also being overwhelmingly against the US entering another war in a Muslim/Arab country; with the UK Parliament also declining there was no Western military response. A Russian diplomatic initiative thereafter resulted in the peaceful dismantling of Syria’s chemical weapons programme — a clear indicator that supposedly difficult and intractable problems can be resolved peacefully as even more spectacularly demonstrated by the subsequent nuclear deal between the P5+1 and Iran. Inevitably, Iran got militarily involved to protect the Assad regime initially with supply of weapons, military advisors, oil and funds; once it was clear that there would be no US intervention Iranian involvement increased exponentially with Hezbollah fighters from Lebanon and Shia militias from Iraq openly participating in increasingly large numbers; Iran’s supporting role has been vital. Finally in end September 2015 Russia got heavily militarily involved in Syria, the first ever direct Russian combat involvement in West

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The War in Syria The war against the Assad regime had nothing to do with democracy which all Arab rulers deny their subjects or even political reform and everything to do with regional power politics and balance of power. An internal North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) draft report entitled ‘Regional and Global Implications of the Syrian Civil War: What Role for NATO? (August 2014) had characterised the war thus: “The struggle for the future of the Middle East is being played out in Syria. The Syrian conflict has transformed over the last four years from a local to a regional to a global conflict.” It was only briefly a civil war because as the report says: “It is believed that there are as many as 1,200 armed opposition groups in Syria, with well over 1,00,000 fighters….The considerable influx of foreign fighters has significantly altered the character of the rebel forces....” The report acknowledges that these fighters are being armed, funded and trained by foreign countries in particular Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Turkey as well as by the United States and its Western allies. The only truly substantive reason for this blatant intervention was that Syria under President Hafez Al Assad had forged a steadily strengthening alliance with Iran after the Islamic Revolution

Gupta  

BUSINESS

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ince the wave of revolutionary fervour   Ranjit and popular demonstrations against autocratic regimes swept through the Arab world from the winter of 2010-11 the situation in West Asia has steadily deteriorated and the region is today undergoing its worst ever period in its long conflict-infused, blood-soaked history. Foreign interventions have been a principal contributory factor; growing sectarian feuding is ripping apart the already highly delicate social fabrics. The Saudi-Iran stand-off has never been as bitter and hostile as today. The wars in Syria and Yemen are essentially proxy wars between Saudi Arabia and Iran for regional supremacy. The consequent rise of extremist, radical, militant Islam typified by the spectacular emergence of the Islamic State in June 2014 is spreading mayhem even outside West Asia.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The wars in Syria and Yemen are essentially proxy wars between Saudi Arabia and Iran for regional supremacy. The consequent rise of extremist, radical, militant Islam typified by the spectacular emergence of the Islamic State in June 2014 is spreading mayhem even outside West Asia.

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UN Photo

The Current Situation in West Asia and its Implications

REGIONAL BALANCE

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n analysis of politiingly riven by terror strikes, which   major general Dhruv C. Katoch (retd)   cal developments included attacks on high profile in Pakistan since military targets such as the August the beginning of this year point to increasing schisms 2008 attack on main arms factory in Wah, near Islamabad, and the between Pakistan’s ruling party and its military. The attack on PNS Mehran in 2011. Also, in May 2011, Osama bin Laden dominance of the military in the affairs of Pakistan has was killed in Abbottabad by a team of US Navy Seals, which led to a been the new normal for decades, despite brief attempts by the tremendous loss of face for the Pakistan military establishment. It elected governments, as and when elections were held, to assert was under such an environment that Pakistan’s civil society and its their authority. The 2007 ‘Adiya Bachao Tehreek’ (Save the Judiciary political establishment made a push for greater space in running Movement), which started as a pushback against President Pervez the affairs of state. The Army however struck back at the governMusharraf, when he suspended the Chief Justice of Pakistan, was ment, through the ‘Memo-gate Affair’. Barely a week after the killing an inflection point in Pakistan’s history. The movement metamor- of Osama bin Laden, Pakistan’s Ambassador to the US, Hussain phosed into the Lawyers Movement, with protests erupting all over Haqqani, was accused of sending a message to the US establishment, the country. This was a particularly bad time for the military as it at the behest of President Zardari, informing them that the Pakistan also had to deal with a fundamentalist backlash, post the storming military intended to stage a coup, to wash off the embarrassment of the Lal Masjid in July 2007. President Musharraf was forced to caused by the successful US raid in Abbottabad to eliminate bin reinstate the Chief Justice, but the Lawyers Movement continued Laden. The memo also spoke of a unique window of opportunity unabated, forcing Musharraf to call for general elections. With the for the civilian government in Pakistan to gain the upper hand due Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) winning the 2008 elections under the to the military’s complicity in the bin Laden affair. While Haqqani leadership of Benazir Bhutto’s husband Asif Ali Zardari, civilian rule denied the memo and promptly resigned, President Zardari was in a was once again restored in Pakistan. Or was it? tight spot, with charges of treason hanging in the air. His government Zardari was cautious in dealing with the military, being fully cog- thereafter remained a lame duck affair till the completion of its term nisant of where the real centre of power lay. In Pakistan’s chequered in May 2013. Did the Pakistani ‘deep state’ have a hand in the whole history, during the brief interregnums from military rule, while murky affair? One wonders! elected governments were allowed to function and had adequate The elections held thereafter marked another turning point in leeway to run the affairs of the state, on key foreign policy and Pakistan’s political history. Nawaz Sharif’s Pakistan Muslim League internal security issues, the military has never brooked interference. (PML)(N) won the elections, which marked the first civilian transfer Pakistan’s policy towards India is dictated by the military, the budget of power following the successful completion of a five-year term by the military seeks for itself is non-negotiable and it exercises total a democratically elected government. Many commentators thought control over Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal. In this backdrop, President that this represented a shift in Pakistan’s politics, and henceforth the Zardari maintained a fine balance, keeping the military in good elected governments would become increasingly assertive and the humour. However, post the Lawyers Movement, there was for the sphere of influence of the military would consequently reduce. Such first time, popular discontent against the army, which was seen as views were however fanciful and not based on hard ground realities. ineffective in handling internal security issues. Pakistan was increas- The military was prepared to cede some ground to the civil govern-

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In Pakistan’s chequered history, during the brief interregnums from military rule, while elected governments were allowed to function and had adequate leeway to run the affairs of the state, on key foreign policy and internal security issues, the military has never brooked interference. Pakistan’s policy towards India is dictated by the military, the budget the military seeks for itself is non-negotiable and it exercises total control over Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

PAKISTAN: A FRAGILE POLITY AND A DYSFUNCTIONAL STATE

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Court that it was well within its right to adjudicate on the matter. The reason, however, why most people expected Philippines to emerge on the winning side was China’s refusal to participate in the legal proceedings. Beijing’s first reaction had been to not take cognisance of the matter at all — as if not acknowledging the case would effectively delegitimise it. Given the high level of international interest in the affair, however, China was forced to come out with a position paper in December 2014 clarifying its official stance on the issue. Unfortunately for Beijing, its contention that Manila had violated the UNCLOS by filing a petition on a matter of territoriality was found to be devoid of merit. In its arguments, Beijing made a number of errors of judgement that hurt its cause. Firstly, China’s stand that it was beyond the Tribunal’s mandate to interpret the application of the convention failed to make an impact. Unimpressed by Beijing’s arguments at a hearing in July 2015, the judges pointed out that Philippines claim related not to territorial sovereignty but physical geography of the South China Sea. Since Manila was only seeking a clarification on the legal status of disputed features in the SCS as islands, rocks or low tide elevations, the issue at stake was not their ownership, but the interpretation and application of UNCLOS’s Article 121(3) in determining the entitlement of territorial waters or EEZ, which seemed well within the court’s remit. Beijing also tried to link the case with its invocation of Article 298 in 2006, when Beijing voluntarily opted out of compulsory arbitration under the UNCLOS. This betrayed desperation on the part of Chinese lawyers to defend a seemingly indefensible position. The “opt-out” clause as detailed in Article 298 applies only to certain categories of disputes — those involving a disagreement over maritime boundaries (as described in Articles 15, 74 and 83) and on matters of military activity in EEZs. The Philippines submission concerned neither subset. Yet, few anticipated a ruling as definitive and one-sided as it ultimately came to be. The Tribunal ruled in favour of the

TECHNOLOGY

Singh  

BUSINESS

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n July 12, 2016, a tribunal at the United   Abhijit Nations Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) passed a verdict that could have a critical impact on the emerging maritime order in Asia. Adjudicating on a case brought by the Philippines, the judges ruled that China’s historic claims within the ‘Nine-dash Line’ in the South China Sea (SCS) were invalid and that its maritime agencies had violated Philippines’ lawful rights to exploit resources in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Taken aback by the severity of the judgement, China’s political establishment lashed out at the Tribunal, rejecting its findings as “null and void, with no binding force”. The Chinese Foreign Ministry promptly issued a statement that Beijing neither accepted nor recognised the ruling of a Tribunal which was set-up at the behest of the Philippines. Chinese leaders should have known better. In the run-up to the verdict, it was evident that the Tribunal was going to rule in Manila’s favour. Having challenged China’s maritime claims to most of the contested waterways in 2013, Philippines had fought a smart courtroom battle. Manila realised early on that it needed to be careful in invoking the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that allows for compulsory arbitration, but forbids the settling of territorial disputes. The Philippines legal team therefore dressed up its complaint in a way that it did not seem like a territorial dispute at all. As it questioned the legal validity of China’s ‘Nine-dash Line’ in the South China Sea, Manila framed its petition to seek a clarification from the court if a state’s rights and obligations in the waters, seabed, and maritime features of the SCS could be demarcated by something as arbitrary as a hand-drawn line on a chart. Simply put, Manila asserted that China’s maritime map of the SCS was of dubious provenance, and claims arising from it were an outright violation of the law. But Philippines was careful not to raise any territorial issues in its submissions. In many meetings before the actual hearings began, the Philippines legal team convinced the

INDIAN DEFENCE

As it questioned the legal validity of China’s ’Nine-dash Line’ in the South China Sea (SCS), Manila framed its petition to seek a clarification from the court if a state’s rights and obligations in the waters, seabed, and maritime features of the SCS could be demarcated by something as arbitrary as a hand-drawn line on a chart.

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The UN Tribunal’s South China Sea Verdict — Implications for Regional Security

REGIONAL BALANCE

UN Photo

7


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CONTENTS on the defence authorities to ensure that the allocated defence budget is utilised prudently and every military as well as non-military effort is made to affect savings. As the stated terms of reference to the Shekatkar Committee did not clarify this aspect, I made this point (regarding inclusion of nonmilitary organisations in the ‘flab reduction’ exercise) in a private conversation to Lt General Shekatkar before he started doing this work. He informed me that he had already discussed this aspect with the Defence Minister and that he will be doing this exercise not only within the armed forces but for all organisations in the Ministry of Defence.

TECHNOLOGY

Malik (Retd)  

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Budgetary Constraints There is no doubt that budgetary constraints are the primary reason for ordering this Committee. As a percentage of the GDP, the defence budget has been decreasing over the last decade. This year, there was an increase of 1.16 per cent on the basis of budget estimate of FY 2015-16. But when calculated against the revised estimates (`18,295 crore was surrendered by the Ministry of Defence), it works to an increase of 9 per cent. This allocation does not cover inflation rate, fall in the value of the rupee against dollar, and sharply increasing cost of weapons and equipment all over the world. Due to One Rank, One Pension scheme, the pension bill hereafter will increase substantially. With the implementation of the Seventh Pay Commission recommendations, salaries, allowances and establishment charges of all civil and military personnel paid from the defence budget will also shoot up. Recently, Defence Secretary G. Mohan Kumar admitted to the Standing Committee of the Parliament on Defence that “India’s military spending for FY 2016-17 is not as per the requirements of the services.” Unless the government hikes the defence budget, which seems very unlikely these days, the Ministry of Defence will face a serious resource crunch to make up its huge deficiencies of weapons, equipment and ammunition. Any force modernisation will thus remain only a dream.

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few months ago, India’s Defence   General V.P. Minister Manohar Parrikar set up a 12-member committee headed by Lt General D.B. Shekatkar (Retd) “to suggest structural changes in the Army, IAF and the Navy on cutting down of flab and reducing revenue [maintenance] expenditure.” Its recommendations are to entail “doing away with posts that may have become redundant due to technology, and to ensure that addition of new equipment [modernisation] does not mean a corresponding rise in the personnel strength of the forces.” Manohar Parrikar has two important reasons in ordering this study. One, the ever increasing revenue expenditure on manpower which leaves less than 20 per cent of the defence budget for the modernisation of weapons and equipment required by the armed forces. Two, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, in his address at the Combined Commanders’ Conference in December 2015 had conveyed, “At a time when major powers are reducing their forces and rely more on technology, we are still constantly seeking to expand the size of our forces. Modernisation and expansion of forces at the same time is a difficult and unnecessary goal.” In one of the best (and rare) articulation of global, regional and national strategic environment and politico-military advice, the Prime Minister exhorted the Defence Minister and military commanders to promote ‘jointness across every level’, ‘shorten the toothto-tail ratio’, and ‘re-examine assumptions that keep massive funds locked up in defence organisations and inventories’. He observed correctly that downsizing of the Ministry of Defence including every organisation under it, will save considerable resources. The Prime Minister was justified in raising the ‘flab’ issue in the presence of the Defence Minister and military commanders. But this audience was only a part of the full audience which has to be involved to obtain fully productive results in this exercise. All organisations which are paid from the defence budget should be included in the ‘flab reduction’ exercise because it is incumbent

BUSINESS

In one of the best (and rare) articulation of global, regional and national strategic environment and politicomilitary advice, the Prime Minister exhorted the Defence Minister and military commanders to promote ‘jointness across every level’, ‘shorten the tooth-to-tail ratio’, and ‘re-examine assumptions that keep massive funds locked up in defence organisations and inventories’.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Reducing Flab in India’s Defence Organisation

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

8


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

India’s Maritime Past Today, when an Indian looks seawards, he sees his country as a huge peninsula jutting a thousand kilometres into an ocean named after it. With a long coastline containing 200 major and minor ports, ten million gross registered tonnage (GRT) of merchant shipping, a huge exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and a seafaring community whose number exceeds the total population of many European nations, he sees maritime growth as imperative for securing his country’s vital interests. Also, a historical fact that rankles in his mind is that invaders who came across the Himalayan passes stayed on to be assimilated into our culture and society; but those who arrived on our shores by sea came to conquer, plunder and exploit. A maritime tradition can only survive on a sound shipbuilding industry, and here we need to remind ourselves that we are the proud inheritors of the world’s oldest dry-dock built during the

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Constituents of the Maritime Domain Very few historians or strategists, including Admiral Mahan, have attempted a precise definition of sea power; preferring to provide historical examples and commentaries, instead. Surprisingly, it is Soviet Admiral Sergei Gorshkov who provides a good, umbrella definition when he says that “Sea power emerges as one of the most important factors for accelerating the nation’s technical and industrial development and consolidating the economy.” He spells out

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TECHNOLOGY

Harappan period circa 2400 BC in Lothal, Gujarat. While the ancient indigenous dhow-building tradition of our west coast ensured that Indian hulls were ubiquitous in eastern waters, seven generations of the Wadia family of mastershipbuilders constructed superb merchant ships for the East India Company and warships for the Royal Navy, with stout Malabar teak. In independent India, the seeds of a self-reliant blue water navy were laid almost half a century ago, when the government was persuaded by the navy to pursue indigenous warship production. In the face of great skepticism, both at home and abroad, Mazagon Dock delivered the first Leander class frigate, INS Nilgiri, in 1972. Our ingenious naval architects took over from there, and went on to stretch, broaden, re-design and re-arm this hull-form, and to give us 11 more ships, ending with the unique Brahmaputra class. We have come a long way since then and today when an Indian warship sails into a foreign port, it is seen with admiration, not unmixed with surprise that Indian industry is capable of such sophistication. Here we were fortunate in having a far-sighted naval leadership, because no nation has ever become a maritime power by importing naval hardware from abroad. Competent warship-building shipyards are the sine qua non for achieving ascendancy at sea. Encouraging the shipbuilding industry is a matter of vital national interest because it can not only deliver warships, submarines and merchantmen, but also have a hugely beneficial impact on the country’s manufacturing sector and industrial outlook.

BUSINESS

prakash (retd)  

INDIAN DEFENCE

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n the 1890s it took the persua  admiral arun sion of Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan’s powerful writings to convince his countrymen that the United States was actually a sea power. A hundred years later, a similar transformation has been brought about in India by the equally powerful phenomenon of globalisation; because international trade, at the heart of globalisation, is carried overwhelmingly by sea, and so is energy, the lifeblood of industry. This realisation has brought India’s maritime domain into sharp focus. The financial commitments made by the Government of India to the navy’s acquisition programmes are a clear acknowledgment of the importance accorded to maritime power. A nuclear attack submarine was inducted a few months ago, while a ballisticmissile boat awaits commissioning, with more to follow. An aircraft carrier is under construction in Kochi and Indian shipyards are said to be executing orders for 50 odd warships and submarines. Possibly, there are few countries in the world, today, with such an ambitious warship-building programme.

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An aircraft carrier is under construction in Kochi and Indian shipyards are said to be executing orders for 50 odd warships and submarines. Possibly, there are few countries in the world today with such an ambitious warshipbuilding programme.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

MARITIME CAPACITY BUILDING AND INDIA’S IMPERATIVES

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

9


Wikipedia

CONTENTS

Special Forces

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

10

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War in 21st Century Hybrid warfare, which blends ‘conventional warfare’, ‘irregular warfare’, ‘cyber warfare’ and ‘electronic warfare’, is the order of the day and will continue to be the form in the foreseeable future. While hybrid war will see multi-domain conflict in the aerospace, land, sea, electromagnetic and cyber domains, asymmetric wars will be routine affairs and states will continue to employ high-tech irregular forces. China’s ‘unrestricted warfare’ is advanced example of hybrid war employing: one, military means encompassing the atomic, conventional, biochemical, ecological, space, electronic, guerrilla and terrorism; two, trans-military means encompassing the diplomatic, networks, intelligence, psychological, smuggling, drugs and virtual, and; three, non-military means encompassing financial, trade, resources, economic aid, regulatory, sanctions, media and ideological.

BUSINESS

India-China-Pakistan Strategic Asymmetry The four broad divisions in the spectrum of conflict comprise the nuclear, conventional, subconventional and cyberspace. China has advanced capabilities in all four divisions. As for cyberspace, India and Pakistan are still taking initial steps. But what should be of serious concern to us is that while both China and Pakistan are employing proactive subconventional capabilities, we are drastically lagging behind in this sphere.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Seychelles and other countries in garb of workers and technicians of the projects, we can safely assume that a sizeable numbers may be Chinese Special Forces. Pakistan has employed the Special Services Group (SSG) actively in Afghanistan, J&K, Nepal and Bangladesh, and is forging links with extremist/terrorist organisations in India.

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Katoch (Retd)  

China-Pakistan Subconventional Nexus

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We have been talking of China-Pakistan dual threat since the last decade. But the China-Pakistan subconventional nexus dates back to the 1960s when Chou En-lai suggested to Ayub Khan that

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REGIONAL BALANCE

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he surgical strike by the   Lt General P.C. Indian Special Forces in the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) on September 28, 2016, once again brought the subject of Special Forces into focus. Media’s love for Special Forces shoots up after every major terror attack or incidents like the US raid to kill Osama bin Laden or say our last raid along the Myanmar border. So this time also the very same sets of questions were brought up by many channels, including whether our boys can execute the Abbottabad-type of raid? These issues are brought up because people do not understand the requirement, acquisition and buildup of intelligence and the time it takes, mechanics of a raid, and suppression of the opponents air defences, etc. The more enterprising channels wanted to know details of all types of weaponry and equipment our Special Forces hold. Some having heard Special Forces had been employed, talked of paradropping, combat free-fall and even helicopters landing across the line of control (LoC) albeit these surgical strikes were just about three kilometres across the LoC and being on foot could have been executed by regular infantry as well. Pakistan denied any strikes had taken place and Indian opposition parties too cried hoarse for photographic proof to be produced but the Superintendent of Police of Mirpur in Pakistan when contacted by a media house on telephone posing as his IG revealed that multiple surgical strikes by India indeed had taken place and in his location alone five Pakistani army men and number of terrorists had been killed, and while he did not know how many terrorists were killed and injured, some 12 bodies were taken away in vehicles. Special Forces are being used strategically world over to further national interests of their countries. Their employment is actually extension of foreign policy of the concerned country. Leading nations employing Special Forces proactively trans-frontiers are perhaps the United States, Russia, UK and Israel. US Special Forces (USSF) are operating in over 100 countries. This is in addition to almost all diplomatic missions in foreign countries having USSF presence. Since China has already positioned PLA troops in her development projects globally including Pakistan, PoK,

TECHNOLOGY

Special Forces are being used strategically world over to further national interests of their countries. Their employment is actually extension of foreign policy of the concerned country.


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Katoch (Retd)  

gave a call recently to take Pakistan to the UN for terrorist acts.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Asymmetric and Unconventional War Asymmetric war relates to the ‘asymmetry’ between two opposing forces. Since broad divisions of the conflict spectrum are the ‘nuclear’, ‘conventional’, subconventional’ and ‘cyberspace’, this asymmetry can be in terms of technology (weapon systems, information dominance, cyber prowess, mastery of space and electromagnetic domain, etc) and concurrently, transcending into strategies and tactics of unconventional warfare that manifests in guerrilla warfare, insurgency, terrorism, proxy warfare, etc. Unconventional warfare is actually a subset of asymmetric war. What we are witnessing today is use of irregular forces whose strategic importance is overshadowing conventional and even nuclear forces. The last war between two conventional forces was fought in 2008, between Russia and Georgia, after which we have seen even US and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) battling irregular forces. During the Cold War, the two superpowers (US and USSR) indulged in serious arms race fearing asymmetry in weapon systems but eventually balanced out with weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) that spelt mutually assured destruction. Because of the India-Pakistan conventional asymmetry being in India’s favour, right from her CENTO (Central Treaty Organisation) membership days, Pakistan was advised by the US not to wage war against India but more significant was Chinese advice to Pakistan in the early 1960s described in the book From a Head, through a Head, to a Head — The Secret Channel between US and China through Pakistan authored by F.S. Aijazuddin that said, “Chou En-lai suggested to Ayub Khan that Pakistan should prepare for prolonged conflict with India instead of short-term wars. He advised Pakistan to raise a militia force to act behind enemy (India) lines”. That was the very basis for Pakistan to raise jihadi forces against India and subject India to continuous terror. A deliberate terror network was built pan India, apparent from the book Open Secrets — India’s

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

A

symmetric and unconven  Lt General P.C. tional wars have been raging in the subcontinent over the past three decades with China and Pakistan aligned against India to destabilise us and stem our economic growth. Pakistan being the nerve centre of global and subcontinental terrorism is encouraged by China while US makes perfunctory noises. The Pakistani military-Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) holds their country to ransom with foreign and defence policies scripted and executed by their army chief. All this, while Pakistan’s industry of exporting terror runs unabated, institutionalised by her military. A sample of all this was on display in the subcontinent during June-July 2016. While Pakistan sponsored terrorist attacks continued in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and a Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) convoy was targeted at Pampore, China’s cyber group attacked Indian Government and commercial organisations, defence establishments being the main targets, through China’s Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) group Suckfly. In another incident some 250 People’s Liberation Army (PLA) soldiers entered Yangste, East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh, on June 9 and engaged in a mild scuffle with Indian troops. In July, seven Bangladeshi terrorists attacked the Holey Artisan Bakery-cum-café close to the diplomatic enclave of Dhaka taking hostages and killing two police officers. Bangladesh’s army commandos stormed the scene next morning killing six terrorists, capturing one terrorist alive and rescuing 13 hostages. Overall, 28 people were killed — six terrorists, four Bangladeshis and 18 foreigners including one Indian. Some 50 others were also reported injured — mostly police personnel. The terrorists who had been missing from Bangladesh for the past few months are suspected to have been trained in Pakistan. Their radicalisation is also attributed to the speeches of Muslim cleric from India, namely Zakir Naik whose NGO in Mumbai has now been banned in India. Bangladesh asked India to probe Zakir Naik and threatened to take Pakistan to the UN once ISI links were fully established. Significantly, Afghanistan too

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Asymmetric war relates to the ‘asymmetry’ between two opposing forces while unconventional warfare is a subset of asymmetric war. What we are witnessing today is use of irregular forces whose strategic importance is overshadowing conventional and even nuclear forces.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Army

Asymmetric and Unconventional Warfare on the Subcontinent

TECHNOLOGY

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Cheetah/Chetak Replacement Programme The Cheetah/Chetak replacement programme continues to flounder despite the government-to-government agreement between India and Russia for the supply of 200 Kamov 226T light helicopters under the ‘Make in India’ policy. Presently there is no clarity on as to how this project will move forward and both sides seem to be struggling to meet the challenging requirement of building 50 per cent of the helicopters in India. While the HAL has been designated as the nodal agency for this critical programme along

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

with Russian Helicopters (part of stateowned technology cooperation Rostec), there are a number of complex issues involved which need to be addressed in order to move ahead. The recent statement of the Russian Helicopters about their working with HAL to iron out the various contentious issues and that the signing of the contract is likely by year end is a positive development, but its manifestation into realty seems a distant dream at present. The complexities involved in this project are far too many and one will have to wait and watch as to how these will be addressed and resolved eventually. Given the track record of other such crucial government-to-government deals like the Indian Army’s M777 howitzer programme and the Indian Air Force’s medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) Rafale project, which took a period of a few years to be concluded, the prospect of concluding a contract for the Ka-226T project by end of the year does not inspire much confidence. The Ka-226T helicopter however is a suitable platform for replacement of the Cheetah/Chetak fleet and has been put through the complete trial process in India along with Airbus Helicopter’s Fennec AS550 C3 in 2013-14. Both helicopters had met all the desired operational parameters. The main issue in the Ka-226T deal is the overall composition of the helicopter in terms of various components and systems. Russian Helicopters, which has developed the Kamov 226T, has sourced its twin engines (Arrius 2G1 which constitutes almost onethird of the chopper’s cost) from the French company, Turbomeca (Safran Helicopter Engines). Other key systems and avionics have been sourced from some other companies in the global market. As per reports the Russian Government has accepted responsibility only for indigenising Russian components – a step which would result in a shortfall of the indigenisation levels required as per the ‘Make in India’ policy. This also means that HAL as the nodal agency on behalf of the Indian Government will have to negotiate separately with third country vendors for indigenising their components and systems especially the engines. There has however

Pawar (Retd)  

INDIAN DEFENCE

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n November 1, 2016, the   Lt General B.S. Army Aviation Corps will complete 30 years of its existence since its formation on November 1, 1986. However, at the end of these 30 years it continues to fly the outdated and vintage fleet of Cheetah/Chetak helicopters, is faced with a muddled and confused government policy on ownership of attack helicopters, and has seen no progress on the acquisition plans for the tactical battle support helicopters (10/12-tonne class) to enhance tactical lift capability and for special operations. On the plus side it has inducted the largest number of the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)-built advanced light helicopters (ALH/ Dhruv) — approximately 70 Dhruvs are operational with the Army Aviation and two units of the armed version of the Dhruv called the ‘Rudra’ are presently under various stages of raising. However, the critical issue of the Cheetah/Chetak helicopters replacement is still a far cry, notwithstanding the hype of the government-to-government deal with Russia with regards to the Ka-226T helicopter, which at best would be available in a time frame of three to four years, provided everything proceeds as planned. The non-availability of this crucial platform in adequate numbers in the next three to four years is going to seriously impact on the army’s high altitude operations and has very serious consequences for national security — this affect is already being felt as the Cheetah helicopters are the lifeline of troops deployed on the Siachen Glacier.

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The Cheetah/Chetak replacement programme continues to flounder despite the government-to-government agreement between India and Russia for the supply of 200 Kamov Ka-226T light helicopters under the ‘Make in India’ policy.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Rostec.ru

ARMY AVIATION TURNS 30 — A REALITY CHECK

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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FOCAC

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Blue Economy and China: Economic Wealth and Strategic Advantages

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

13

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

Blue Economy Narrative

Gunter Pauli, an entrepreneur and an innovator, authored a book The Blue Economy: 10 Years, 100 Innovations, 100 Million Jobs aimed at stimulating entrepreneurship based on sustainability and health of the environment. He argued that humans should judiciously use the resources keeping in mind the social and environmental consequences and any waste should be converted into a resource. Further, the focus should shift from identifying the problems to finding solutions. In 2012, during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) in Rio de Janeiro, (also called as ‘Rio +20’), the concept of Green Economy for ‘sustainable development and poverty eradication’ was promoted, but the island states questioned the relevance and applicability of Green Economy to them and argued that “the world’s Oceans and Seas require more in-depth attention and coordinated action.” Soon thereafter, a number of UN initiatives led by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) expert group meeting on Oceans, Seas and Sustainable Development, the Global Ocean Commission, the Global Partnership for Oceans and the UN five-year Action Agenda 2012-16 provided the necessary impetus to the concept of Blue Economy. The UN also expanded the mandate of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and began to address sea spaces beyond national jurisdiction and called for an “inter-governmental conference aimed at drafting a legally binding treaty to conserve marine life and govern the mostly lawless high seas beyond national jurisdiction.” Blue Economy is currently resonating among a number of countries across the world and finding reference in the action plans for the sustainable development of resources, climate change and environment discourses, and national plans for enhancing wellbeing, and poverty alleviation among the people through job creation have been endorsed. Several countries have announced initiatives and action plans to promote Blue Economy. For instance, the European Union ‘Blue Growth’ strategy aims for sustainable development of marine and maritime sectors to contribute to the Europe 2020 strat-

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Sakhuja  

REGIONAL BALANCE

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ceans have shaped international   Dr Vijay relations and figured prominently in statecraft through a variety of geopolitical, geostrategic, geo-economic engagements with other nations. Also, since ancient times, maritime commerce has had a fair share of competition and rivalries driven by a number of factors such as control over commodities and protection of trading routes which resulted in struggle for economic and strategic maritime supremacy. This led to trade-related wars, and build up of navies was a significant manifestation to protect national interests but also to counter piracy. At another level, the use of the oceans has diversified from the classic medium of transport to as an important source for resources. The economic richness of the oceans is represented by the variety of living (fish and marine vegetation provide human protein requirements) and non-living resources (hydrocarbons and renewable sources such as wind, wave, tidal, thermal and biomass) that it offers for exploitation. This has led to the development of a number of industries such as fishery, shipbuilding, shipping, ports, tourism, energy, pharmaceuticals, etc. Further, nearly 60 per cent of the global population lives within 100 kilometres of the coastline and draw their livelihoods from these industries. In the 21st century, the above maritime discourse has expanded and a number of issues including environment and ecology have found reference. In 2015, the global community announced its commitment to Sustainable Development Goals 2030 and Goal 14 relates to sustainable development of the ocean resources. Simultaneously, several states, particularly the maritime states, have endorsed the concept of Blue Economy which is currently resonating in the United Nations, multilateral institutions, and national policy articulations. In this context, this paper attempts to introduce Blue Economy. The paper highlights that China is drawing enormous advantages through development of Blue Economy and exploring strategic vistas in the Indian Ocean.

TECHNOLOGY

China is drawing enormous advantages through development of Blue Economy and exploring strategic vistas in the Indian Ocean.


Lockheed Martin

CONTENTS

CYBER WARFARE IN FUTURE CONFLICTS

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

14

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yberspace has become a (ICTs) in every facet from C4ISTAR,   LT General Davinder Kumar (Retd)   full blown war zone as govinformation management, weapon ernments across the globe systems in all domains, viz, ground, clash for “Digital Supremacy” in a new, mostly invisible the- air, sea, outerspace and cyberspace down to the individual soldier. atre of operations. Once limited to opportunistic criminals, A “Digitised Battlefield” encompasses the whole nation, has made cyber attacks are becoming a key weapon for governments national borders irrelevant and where operations are conducted at seeking to defend national sovereignty and project national power. the speed of light. From strategic cyber espionage campaigns, such as Moonlight Maze Typically, a Digitised Battlefield will be shaped in accordance and Titan Rain, to the destructive, such as military cyber strikes on with the national doctrine and would remain a ”work in progress” Georgia and Iran, human and international conflicts are entering a due to the rapid march of technology and consequent impact on new phase in their long histories. In this shadowy battlefield, victories conduct of warfare. It will consist of: are fought with bits instead of bullets, malware instead of militias, and n A well-defined command and control structure with supporting organisation for joint planning and execution. botnets instead of bombs. These covert assaults are largely unseen by the public. Unlike the wars of yesteryear, this cyberwar produces no n Technology, Systems, Human Resource and Organisation for Surveillance and Reconnaissance. dramatic images of exploding warheads, crumbled buildings, or fleeing civilians. But the list of casualties — which already includes some n Communication networks for secure, efficient and fail safe information flow. of the biggest names in technology, financial services, defence and n Data storage, processing, management and analysis capability. government — is growing larger by the day. A cyber attack is best understood not as an end in itself, but n Information Assurance, Cryptography and Language expertise. as a potentially powerful means to a wide variety of political, n System Integration and Large System Integration, and military and economic goals. “Serious cyber attacks are unlikely n A viable Defence Industrial and R&D base. Digitised Battlefield is central to the concept of Information to be motiveless,” said Martin Libicki, Senior Scientist at RAND Corporation. “Countries carry them out to achieve certain ends, Warfare (IW) which is the super set of cyber warfare. It demands which tend to reflect their broader strategic goals. The relationship full integration and synthesis of different organs of governance between the means chosen and their goals will look rational and like the armed forces, paramilitary forces, intelligence agencies, transport, health, media, disaster management, energy reasonable to them if not necessarily to us.” Just as each country has a unique political system, history and and so on. Digitisation, massive deployment of Information and culture, state-sponsored cyber attacks also have distinctive char- Communication Technologies (ICTs), organisation transformation, acteristics, which include everything from motivation to target to large-scale system integration and human skill development centred around the national doctrine are the essential prerequisites to type of attack. develop capabilities for IW in a digitised battlefield environment. Digitised Battlefield of 21st Century These capabilities include C4ISTAR systems, digital weapon platIn order to understand the application of cyber warfare in future forms and information management. conflicts, it is necessary to understand the battlefield environment Digitised battlefield depends on the degree of integration of the and extrapolate the vulnerabilities which can then be exploited technical components such as: through cyber warfare. The 21st century battlefield has large scale n Computer processing, data storage and retrieval. deployment of Information and Communication Technologies n Advance software and hardware.

TECHNOLOGY

Just as each country has a unique political system, history and culture, state-sponsored cyber attacks also have distinctive characteristics, which include everything from motivation to target to type of attack.


DRDO

CONTENTS

Defence Reforms

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

15

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ndia is confronted with muln In order to integrate defence   Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)   tifarious threats and challenges. planning within the overall ecoDespite the prolonged exposure nomic planning effort, defence and that the security establishment has had in dealing with multifari- economic development plans were made coterminus. ous challenges, defence planning has been marked by knee-jerk n The Committee for Defence Planning (CDP) was established under the Cabinet Secretary. reactions to emerging situations and haphazard single-service growth. The absence of a clearly enunciated national security strat- n The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) was constituted in the Cabinet Secretariat to provide external and internal threat egy, poor civil-military relations, the failure to commit funds for assessments. modernisation on a long-term basis and suboptimal inter-service prioritisation, have handicapped defence planning. With projected n Planning Units were also established in the Department of Defence Production and Defence Research and Development expenditure of $100 billion on military modernisation over the next Organisation (DRDO). 10 years, it is now being realised that integrated tri-Service force structures must be configured to meet future threats and challenges. n A Planning and Coordination Cell was created in the MoD to coordinate and compile various plans into a comprehensive Early Efforts towards Defence Reforms ‘Defence Plan’ for Cabinet approval. However, generalist civilFor many years after independence, the higher defence organisaian bureaucrats in the MoD lacked the necessary expertise to tion (HDO) handed down by Lord Mountbatten and Lord Ismay arbitrate between the Services and only succeeded in appendhad remained almost completely unchanged. The Sino-Indian ing together the different requirements of individual Services conflict in 1962 had aroused a new defence consciousness in the without any analysis. country after years of neglect and efforts to formalise defence plan- n In the Services HQ, Perspective Planning directorates were established in the late 1970s. ning began in 1964. Various organisational changes were tried out: n Defence requirements were assessed on a five-year basis and n In 1986, the Directorate General of Defence Planning Staff (DG the First Defence Plan (1964-69) was drawn up. DPS), comprising officers from the three Services, DRDO, MoD n A Planning Cell was established in 1965 in the Ministry of and the Ministry of External Affairs, was constituted to coordiDefence (MoD). nate and harmonise defence planning under the Chiefs of Staff n The Second Defence Plan (1969-74) was instituted on a ‘roll-on’ Committee (COSC). basis. After a year was completed, an additional year was tagged at the other end so that the armed forces would always have a Weaknesses revised and updated five-year plan. This method was found to While efforts have been made to improve defence planning and be impractical. suitable structural changes have been instituted within the MoD, n In 1974, an Apex Group under the Union Minister for Planning implementation of the process continues to be tardy. suggested that a steady long-term defence effort would be more n Guidance. The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS), chaired by the Prime Minister, meets as often as necessary to review emergcost-effective and economical than fluctuating allocations on ing situations with adverse impact on national security so as to account of periodic economic and security crises. issue suitable policy directives. However, the National Security Structures for Defence Planning Council (NSC), also chaired by the Prime Minister, whose charter Most of the defence planning machinery and planning methodolit is to evolve an integrated national security strategy and provide ogy were developed in the decade 1964-74: guidance for long-term defence planning, seldom meets.

TECHNOLOGY

Urgent restructuring is necessary for cohesive defence planning and efficient national security decision making.


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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BUSINESS

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he term ‘offshore Andhra Pradesh and comprise   Vice Admiral Pradeep Chauhan (Retd)   assets’ as used within the PY-1, PY-3, Ravva and KG D-6 the context of the explofields. Future ODAs are likely in ration and production of energy (as opposed to, say, a the Mahanadi Basin off the coast of Odisha and the Andaman & financial context), incorporates some or all of the follow- Nicobar Islands. However, India’s strategy for the protection of ing components — provided they are located-in or are in offshore assets seems to be restricted to hydrocarbon production operation seaward of the coastline: alone — rather than addressing at least those components menn Oil and gas facilities including, inter alia, various types of oil tioned in the opening paragraph. This is a conceptual infirmity that rigs, production platforms, drilling rigs, wellheads, underwater is likely to prove costly. pipelines, Single Point Moorings (SPMs), and, a large variety of India’s strategy to protect her offshore assets rests upon three ships/craft of varying cost and sophistication. main foundational pillars: n Mining/mineral-extraction facilities. n A legal framework in respect of offshore assets and, in particun Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) such as wave, tidal lar, the security of these assets. n An organisational framework that conceptualises, analyses, and current energy facilities. n Offshore wind energy conversion facilities. advises and superintends all aspects — static and dynamic — of n Facilities for the production of energy from natural/artificial offshore security. n An operational mechanism with requisite ‘capacity’ as well as offshore biofuel farms. n Facilities for deep-water captive fish-farming. ‘capability’ so as to plan and execute dissuasive, deterrent, pren Offshore aids to navigation. ventive, curative and punitive security measures. n Offshore industrial installations. n Offshore nuclear power plants. Legal Framework There are two common, unifying features of all these variants. The legal framework is underpinned by international treaty law The first is, of course, the fact that they are assets — expensive nation- that has been duly signed and ratified by India, and several pieces al resources — that are critical to the nation’s economic development of national legislation that are (or ought to be) in conformity with in general and its energy security in particular. The second is that such international treaties and conventions as have been ratified. they are located in one of three main maritime zones of a coastal state The basic international law that underpins the entire gamut of that have been defined by the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the national legislation pertaining to offshore assets is the UNCLOS. Sea (UNCLOS) — viz., its territorial sea, or, its contiguous zone, or, its India signed UNCLOS on December 10, 1982, and Parliament ratified it on June 29, 1995. exclusive economic zone (including the continental shelf). There are significant infirmities in India’s legal framework that India has two offshore hydrocarbon-producing areas, i.e. Offshore Development Areas (ODAs). The western ODA lies off militate against the execution of a coherent maritime strategy to the coasts of Gujarat and Maharashtra and comprises the Mumbai protect our offshore assets. To appreciate these, it is essential to High, Bassein, Panna, Mukta, Heera Neelam, Laxmi, Gauri and be clear about two facets of the relationship between national law Tapti oil and gas fields. The eastern ODA lies in the Cauvery and the and international treaty law (duly ratified). The first is that once a Krishna-Godavari basins, located off the coasts of Tamil Nadu and nation-state has ratified an international convention or treaty, it

INDIAN DEFENCE

India is using the broad tenets of international law to strengthen its legal framework in protecting its offshore assets. However, the paucity of police officials, lawyers and judges who are well versed in international maritime law is a major national infirmity that our contemporary strategy must actively address.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

ICG

Foundational Pillars of India’s Strategy to Protect Offshore Assets

REGIONAL BALANCE

16


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

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actics and Strategy, air through the multi-role aircraft.   Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik (Retd)   two words that have conToday a Predator unmanned combat fused me ever since I aerial vehicle (UCAV) fires a Hellfire joined the Indian Air Force (IAF). Tactics and Air Combat tactical missile to kill a terrorist after a strategic reconnaissance. Development Establishment (TACDE), a unit for training Things have become pretty mixed up. The easiest way is to remempilots in combat flying, had just been formed and every ber that Tactics deals with forces in the battlefield and strategy fighter pilot who did a barrel reversal (sic) in a 2 v 1, was talking deals with getting them there. The same applies to whether an air Tactics. Once in a while, one heard the word Strategy, spoken in force is tactical or strategic. whispers, by seniors. Everyone else just nodded knowingly. I did Process of Evolution consult one of our seniors in the squadron, as also read one of the articles he showed me and felt I was quite clear about the difference Like almost all other air forces, the IAF too began as a tactical between Tactics and Strategy. The moment I, a bit superciliously, air force with a flight of just four aircraft on April 1, 1933. Its tried to explain the same to one of my colleagues, I realised I had main role was to support the Army in battle. This continued till no clue. Some say strategy identifies clear goals that advance the independence. During this period, air forces all over the world organisation and organise resources, while tactics utilise specific were slowly realising their potential and the peculiar nature resources to achieve objectives that support the overall goals. Some of air power propounded by the trio of Douhet, Mitchell and say strategy is that above the shoulder while tactics is that below Trenchard. By World War (WW) II the world had appreciated the shoulder. Military strategy is also defined as the art and sci- two unique characteristics of air power. The first was its inherence of planning, directing and orchestrating military campaigns ent flexibility. Flexibility to switch roles as well as theatres of to achieve national security objectives. Tactics, sometimes called operations. The second was the ability to strike directly at the Battlefield Strategy, on the other hand, are the art and science of heartland or the centres of power or the centres of gravity of employing forces on the battlefield to achieve national objectives. the enemy bypassing intervening obstacles. The air forces were Tactics are concerned with doing the job ‘right’ while strategy deals slowly emerging from being a support element to an independent entity. Breaking Army shackles was not easy. Understanding the with doing the ‘right’ job. third dimension takes a lifetime of study. The Army top brass did Influence of Technology not wholly appreciate the advantages of autonomous air power. Over a period of time new technologies have made a significant To some extent, the army still believes that ‘Under Command’ impact on the methods of war-fighting. Long range sensors, operations are the best. During WW II the strategic bomber long range weapons and delivery platforms emerged on the emerged as a potent weapon. Air forces had to have the strategic scene. Satellite Communication (SATCOM), global positioning bomber to be recognised as a strategic force. After WW II during system (GPS), AWACS, air-to-air refuelling (AAR) extended the the Cold War, the term Strategic referred to things nuclear, be it zones of influence and battlefields dimensions expanded. Forces bombers or missiles. Technology continued to advance changing thousands of kilometres away were in contact with each other. definitions and at times, driving doctrines and strategy rather Commanders realised it was possible to effect a strategic out- than the other way around. Satellites, communications, precision come by use of tactical forces and vice versa, especially in the guided munitions (PGMs), beyond visual range (BVR) missiles,

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

A modern strategic air force should basically be able to meet the strategic aspirations of the country and hence should be sufficiently enabled to adopt and exploit all the various technologies of the future that the country is likely to embrace.

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

THE IAF — A STRATEGIC AIR FORCE?

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

17


Raytheon

CONTENTS

TRENDS IN LAND-BASED FIREPOWER IN THE FUTURE

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

18

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Thrust of Modernisation All armies undertake modernisation to keep their forces operationally prepared. The aim is to develop prioritised capabilities through induction of high technology weapons and acquisition of force multipliers with a focus on creation of a lethal, agile and networked force to meet the futuristic security challenges. This entails induction of critical technologies. Currently the capabilities are being enhanced to meet challenges across the spectrum to include the following: n Battlefield Transparency. n Battlefield Management Systems. n Night Fighting Capability. n Enhanced Firepower. n Precision Guided Weapons. n Integrated Manoeuvre Capability. n Combat Aviation Support. n Network Centricity.

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Constituents The constituents of LBF are platforms which can deliver firepower from land. These are small arms, guns, mortars, land-based rockets, tanks, armoured personnel carriers (APCs), attack helicopters, unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) and surface-to-surface missiles (SSM). The ammunition which is the payload is the most important constituent of firepower. The various types of ammunition which constitute the conventional series are high explosive, smoke, illuminating, armour piercing, high explosive squash head, fuel air explosive, cluster, precision, sensor fused, incendiary and propaganda. Apart from these, there is the strategic variety comprising chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) ammunition. A combination of platforms with different types of ammunition results in devastating firepower which is expected to unnerve the enemy. These constituents of firepower enable us to undertake all types of operations in a full spectrum conflict.

INDIAN DEFENCE

constituents of LBF and analyses the future trends.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Chakravorty (Retd)  

REGIONAL BALANCE

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arfare quintes  Major General P.K. sentially comprises two ingredients: Firepower and Manoeuvre. Both complement each other and synergise to defeat the enemy. Manoeuvre entails moving to positions of advantage with dexterity to outwit the enemy. The two Gulf Wars enabled skilful use of manoeuvre and firepower to defeat the enemy. However, future conventional conflicts would be influenced by the nuclear backdrop, resulting in constraints in time and space. Further, future conflicts are visualised in the mountainous regions, which lack space for manoeuvre. Accordingly firepower will play an important role in all conflicts of the current century. Modernisation of global weaponry has compelled all countries to restructure their armed forces and transform their strategic thinking. All armed forces are speedily moving towards network-centric warfare. This essentially links the sensor, command elements and shooter to engage targets in real time. Accordingly, the current focus is on precision stand-off strikes in real time. Firepower is currently undertaken from land, sea, air and submerged surfaces of the sea. Outer space is currently being used for surveillance. It is likely to become an area for deployment of weapons in the near future. Technologically, it would be practical to consider deployment of anti-satellite (ASAT) and direct energy weapons (DEWs) in this region, with developments taking place in the field. We will confine ourselves to land-based firepower (LBF). The process of employing firepower entails the need for surveillance, which would lead us to reconnaissance of selected areas, thereby leading to acquisition of targets. These targets based on their importance would be degraded or destroyed. This would be ascertained by undertaking post-strike damage assessment (PSDA). Based on the importance of the target, the same is degraded or destroyed. The process is undertaken through the application of command, control, communications, computers, information, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4I2SR). In mountainous terrain firepower becomes important due to limited space for manoeuvre. The article enumerates the

TECHNOLOGY

“Victorious warriors win first and then go to war, while defeated warriors go to war and then seek to win.” —Sun Tzu


One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

Future Soldier and Developments in the Indian Army 73 Revolution in Military Affairs — Past, Present and Future 77 Cyber Warfare Technologies 81 Green Energy Initiatives by Defence Forces 85 Future Radar Technologies 89 Crystal Gazing — Weapons and Sensors for Indian Naval Platforms 93 Can Military Machines Be Moral? The Tangled Ethics of Robotic Warfare 97 The Challenge of Military Artificial Intelligence 101

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

Technology

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

section two

REGIONAL BALANCE

2


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Indian Army

Future Soldier and Developments in the Indian Army

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

1

21st Century Soldier The modern soldier needs a combination of technologies to combat 21st-century threats. Similar to our experience of fighting insurgency

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Foreign Future Soldier Programmes The United States The Brigade Combat Team (BCT) Modernization was the US Army’s main modernisation programme implemented in 2009-10. The BCT programme was the successor to army’s Future Combat Systems (FCS) programme under which modernisation was undertaken from 2003 to early 2009. The BCT programme aimed to build

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

and terrorism for decades, the US and NATO have had their own share of similar combat including ongoing conflict in Afghanistan in recent years. Indications exist that the western intervention in Syria in near future and in a later time frame even in Iran may well be on the cards. To achieve superiority over the enemy, the soldiers need integrated set of high-technology uniforms and equipment linked to an array of real-time and archived battlefield information resources. Soldiers will require not only upgraded and more sophisticated versions of existing weapons and equipment but also new types of weapons and equipment that are likely to become possible as new types and combinations of technologies become viable for battlefield deployment. Soldier modernisation may be segmented under five heads: command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I); lethality; mobility; survivability; and sustainability. The global soldier modernisation market that came into prominence during the 1990s was estimated to value $6.4 billion and increase at compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.07 per cent during the forecast period to reach its peak of $8.7 billion by 2022. It has witnessed exponential growth with India, China and Russia also having joined the race and contributing to 12 major national markets. Raging conflict in the Middle East and future conflicts in South Asia and the Asia-Pacific region will increase demands further. Future soldier exhibitions are being held annually world over, focusing on research; new technologies and materials; concepts and opportunities for international cooperation in the implementation of the integrated system for the soldier of the future and for securing interoperability of individual components in operations.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Katoch (Retd)  

REGIONAL BALANCE

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hree years into the invasion   Lt General P.C. of Afghanistan, the US Army realised that while enormous investments were being made on big-ticket weapon systems, the foot soldier was largely neglected. These were findings of an in-house study and corrective measures were initiated on war-footing. In our case the state of equipping soldiers at the cutting-edge is best described as atrocious. The army as on date is short of over 3,50,000 bulletproof jackets and is holding a 20-year-old assault rifle (5.56 INSAS) which is nowhere amongst the state-of-the-art top 10 rifles in the world, and a replacement will likely take another decade or so. These are just two examples despite the foot soldier continuously contending with proxy wars, counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations past three decades. Ironically, defence budget 2016-17 leaves only `12,000 crore (about $1.8 billion) for modernisation from the `78,587 crore (about $12.1 billion) capital expenditure, rest being for committed liabilities. So, what comes to the foot soldier will likely be meagre, if at all. An essential basic for equipping the foot soldier is to take into account levels of sophistication terrorists and insurgents have achieved and likely to achieve in future. Today Pakistani terrorists are equipped with GPS (global positioning system) devices but in our case even Special Forces units are deficient of an item like the GPS. It is not realised that lackadaisical approach to equipping infantryman has direct bearing on overall combat efficiency, and this also results in avoidable loss of lives. Our infantry must be equipped to cope with expanding terrorism, asymmetric and fourth-generation wars simultaneous to short, intense, high-tech wars. The cliché talked about three decades back that if six tanks could be imported less, the infantry soldier can be armed to the teeth, still holds good. Ironically, products of the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) too are of poor quality and imports for infantry it seems, are the last priority.

TECHNOLOGY

Our infantry must be equipped to cope with expanding terrorism, asymmetric and fourth-generation wars simultaneous to short, intense, high-tech wars.


Wikipedia

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Revolution in Military Affairs — Past, Present and Future

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

2

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he Revolution in Military attack on the World Trade Centre in   Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)   Affairs (RMA) became the New York in 2001 and development holy grail for conducting of IEDs are some such examples. In future wars by the United States. The genesis of the RMA a way it is the reverse of Cold War in the development of technolocan be traced to Russia during the 1970s and 1980s when gies. During the Cold War, US and Russia tried to outdo each other Soviet Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov, the former Soviet Chief by developing more and more powerful weapons. But during postof Staff, wrote about a “military technical revolution” that would Operation Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, all the jihadi dramatically improve the lethality and capabilities of conventional groups attempted to develop counter RMA technologies which weapons. The United States became interested in it through Andrew were cheap and involved low technology. Marshall, the head of the Office of Net Assessment, a Department of The definition of ‘system of systems’ is one of the most popular Defense think tank. US called it RMA which could loosely be defined aspects of the RMA and by and large widely accepted in all modern as a composite doctrine which includes evolution of weapons tech- militaries, specially in the US. O’Hanlon describes it as a comprenology, information technology, military organisation, and military hensive hierarchy of command structures and technologies, across doctrine. It was more like a hypothesis (in science it is an idea or an all services and including civilian command authorities, as well as explanation that can be tested through study and experimentation) an integration of force delivery systems on all platforms and among which gave out the shape of future wars and how to fight it success- all military units. In other words, the ‘system of systems’ school of fully. RMA became the basis of military doctrines of many countries thought is the skeleton and muscles of ‘jointness,’ or the integration including India, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Sweden and a of all military forces and command, a goal to which the US military few other countries. It was an entirely different matter whether these has been working for over two decades. The organisational reforms countries had the budget or technologies to implement RMA. Some leading to this goal have been accompanied by dramatic progress in examples of technologies developed during the Operation Iraqi the technologies of situational awareness, and command and control. Freedom to match the enemy tactics were counter improvised exploRMA as Key Instruments of a Nation’s Power sive device (IED), better command and control systems and many more. However, all these technologies were already being evolved, It is generally accepted that the RMA has three key instruments of then fructified and tested in battle. RMA is thus linked with trans- national power. The first is the ‘system of systems’, which attempts formation and total systems integration of the military war machine. to synergise battle space awareness, command and control by presenting a central operational picture and forces/means for preMultiple Views of RMA — Glimpses cision attack for neutralising the target. The second is information Michael O’Hanlon’s Four Schools of Thought. Michael O’Hanlon in dominance achieved by integrating all the means available. The his book Technological Change and the Future of Warfare, gave out third is an outcome of information dominance leading to informafour schools of thought within the RMA philosophy in the United tion warfare, which is generally defined as the capability to disrupt States which are the “system of systems,” the “dominant battle space or override enemy information systems while defending one’s own. dominance,” the “global reach, global power” paradigm, and the The US military expands the information warfare in offensive and “vulnerability”. Vulnerability implies that the technologies which defensive role to include electronic warfare, cyber warfare, inforare monopolised by advance military powers will at some stage mation assurance and computer network operations. US has the spill over to their adversaries. However if the adversaries cannot technologies to implement all these aspects and US Air Force has match the technologies then they will develop counter technologies been carrying out information warfare in some form or the other, and tactics, as seen in the Middle East by the non-state actors. The much before the advent of RMA.

TECHNOLOGY

RMA is linked with transformation and total systems integration of the military war machine.


SP Guide Pubns

CONTENTS

Cyber Warfare Technologies

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

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ncreasing lapses of cyber secucase of whether you have been hacked   Lt General Rajesh Pant (Retd)   rity in both critical and non-critor not, it is whether you know it or not! ical infrastructure systems and a Cyber World is Layered growing threat of embedded malware and cyber attacks from inimical elements and nations from anywhere in the globe, has The interflow of information in a networked system is divided into bought to fore the immense importance of cyber warfare in ‘layers’. While each layer basically operates autonomously of the ensuring national security. Simultaneously, the proliferation of net- other, it is important to ensure that the data being transmitted from works to a large population as part of digital India, and other such the host to destination has not been tampered with or is not being megaglobal projects, has increased network accessibility for a large prevented from reaching its destination. The basic principles of section of hackers and thieves to abuse. Such advanced persistent confidentiality, integrity and availability must be maintained. The threats are presently being addressed by stronger security methods erstwhile seven layered open systems interconnection (OSI) model such as advanced encryption algorithms, efficient authentication has now been replaced with the four-layered Transmission Control process and ‘defence in depth’ approach. While every cyber secu- Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model. However, I will deal rity administrator endeavours to ensure building adequate security with the technologies for cyber warfare in basically four layers, viz measures at all levels of his network, it is the ‘People’ factor that Media, Network, Transport and Application layers. often gets neglected as compared to the process and technology Media Layer Technologies issues. There is therefore a requirement for all of us to understand the technologies used by hackers so that we can take suitable pre- Media here refers to the erstwhile physical layer of the OSI model, and the new Ethernet layer of the Internet model. The vulnercautions against them. A typical modus operandi of the cyber attack involves the stages abilities which can occur in this layer include loss of power, loss of of scanning, entry, lateral spread, control of victim device, exploita- environmental control, physical theft of data and hardware, physition and exfiltration. The software code devised for entry through a cal damage or destruction of data and hardware, unauthorised vulnerability is termed as an ‘exploit’, and the attack path is termed changes to the functional environment (data connections, removas ‘attack vector’. A zero day attack is one for which the preventive able media, and adding/removing resources), disconnection of physical data links, undetectable interception of data, keystroke & patch has not been implemented. other input logging. Why Cyber Network Knowledge is Important A major security concern at this layer is tapping of the physical How much time do we all spend daily with our smartphones and medium, be it wireless or optical fibre or any other network cable. laptops? And how much do we know of the technologies behind This allows an attacker to copy or even corrupt the data stream. The this cyber world? The answer to these two questions is the security physical layer could suggest some type of physical action, like causgap we all face. In fact some financial institutions have lost millions ing a denial of service by disrupting a power source, changing of of dollars due to cyber crime but have not reported it due to loss interface pins, or the cutting of cables. The security issues become of reputation. Even the SWIFT system of financial transaction has more pronounced when the network is based on a wireless media. been breached. Many people have been victims of Ransomware but A comparatively powerful transmission at same frequency can easdo not report. In fact in India with a mobile phone base of 1 billion ily affect the quality of service; if not fully deny the service to the and an Internet user base of 40 million people, only 9,500 cases of user. The chances of passive attacks on wireless media are more as cyber crime have been reported in the last one year. Now it is not a it is more susceptible to interception.

TECHNOLOGY

In cyber warfare, every day is a D-Day. In July 2016, nearly half the social media responses to a terrorist commander’s killing in India came from ‘unknown’ sources, setting off alarm bells across the establishment.


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CONTENTS on March 4, 2014, vide the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR). This included the affect of rebalance to Asia upon force structure, weapons systems, platforms and operations. The highlights were, “Positioning additional forward-deployed naval forces to achieve faster response times at a lower recurring cost; Deploying new combinations of ships, aviation assets, and crisis response forces that allow for more flexible and tailored support to the regional Combatant Command; Developing concepts, posture and presence options, and supporting infrastructure to exploit the Department’s investment in advanced capabilities; and Pursuing access agreements that provide additional strategic and operational flexibility in case of crisis”. It was evident that the shift would imply requirement of additional logistic arrangements in the fuel provisioning chain. It has been estimated that the Asia-Pacific shift would entail an 11 per cent additional operational fuel demand on the US DOD. The European Defence Agency has launched the ‘Military Green’ initiative. It has been established by six countries namely, Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Greece, Germany and Luxembourg. The project visualises access rights to rooftops and land in military premises being offered to the market for electricity production using photovoltaic technology. The electricity produced would supply the defence locations as well as feed the surplus green energy to the local grid. NATO constituted a ‘Smart Energy Team’, which examined national and NATO documents and visited defence agencies to identify energy efficient solutions for incorporation into NATO’s standards and best practices. The team concluded that “Reducing fuel consumption in the military is an operational imperative. Smart Energy solutions cannot only save money when less fuel is used, but can also save soldier’s lives, and help improve the mobil-

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Kulshrestha (Retd)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

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ilitary fuel con  Rear Admiral Dr S. sumption studies have highlighted various issues afflicting an assured supply of fuel to forces during extended operations especially in regions far away from the country of origin. Fuel is procured from agencies near to the operational areas to reduce the logistic supply chain. This is however subject to prevailing prices and fluctuations from time to time. It makes it difficult to make budgetary provisions for this essential commodity. In addition to the cost of transportation, attacks on the convoys carrying fuel are also a common feature in areas like Afghanistan and Iraq, which leads to loss of essential fuel supplies as well as combat manpower. These problems have a cascading effect on mobility of heavy military equipment as well as battle command stations, so much so that the logistic chain has to be put in place prior to the move to ensure operability of the equipment. NATO has brought out that the fact that its forces consumed up to 4 gallons (about 15 litres) for transporting each gallon (about 3.8 litres) of fuel to Afghanistan; about 3,000 US soldiers were killed/ wounded from 2003 to 2007 in attacks on fuel and water convoys in Iraq and Afghanistan; and that there is one casualty for every 24 fuel re-supply convoys to Afghanistan. In a military camp, about 60 to 70 per cent of fuel is used to produce electricity to heat/cool water or air. Further, a conventional diesel generator is able to convert only one-third of its input energy into electricity with the remaining being lost as heat. The US military had begun to reduce its dependence upon fossil fuels proactively by 2010. It commenced development, evaluation and deployment of renewable energy sources to decrease its carbon footprint. The US Secretary of Defense delivered the review of the Department of Defense (DOD) strategy and priorities to Congress

TECHNOLOGY

“Unleashing war-fighters from the tether of fuel and reducing our military installations’ dependence on a costly and potentially fragile power grid will not simply enhance the environment; it will significantly improve our mission effectiveness.” —Dorothy Robyn, former Deputy Undersecretary of Defense, in testimony before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, May 20, 2010

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Navy

Green Energy Initiatives by Defence Forces

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


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CONTENTS

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ut of the three bastions, ed back from modern- day stealthy   Lt General Dr V.K. Saxena (Retd)   namely, the sensors, the threat platforms, as a result, the curshooters and the battle rent day counter-stealth radars gradmanagement systems that together hold the body edi- uated in a phased manner to the technology of passive coherent fice of the air defence (AD) arsenal, probably, it is location (PCL) detection where the aim was to locate the threat the first quoted, which has shown the highest pace of based on its reflection of electromagnetic signals present in the technological enrichment over the years. This work briefly flags the environment such as FM (frequency modulated), digital audio state-of-the-art technologies that have emerged over the years in broadcasting (DAB) and digital video broadcasting-terrestrial the sensor domain of ground-based AD weapon systems. (DVB-T) Bands. The counter stealth muscle of such radars lay in the multi-band fusion operating in low frequencies, beatAnti-stealth Radar Technologies ing stealthy targets which are generally coated to be opaque against higher frequencies. Also, since there is likely to be a large The Ever Expanding Challenge proliferation of usage of FM, DAB and DVB-T Bands in the enviThe radars have faced a growing challenge of detecting the pro- ronment, the inputs to such radars are resplendent and multiverbial ‘needle’ in the haystack due to the challenge of detecting directional. Accordingly, there is no criticality in the need to stealth platforms that have minimalistic radar cross-section locationally adjust to the peculiar reflection of radar energy from (RCS), achieved through a host of technologies that can almost target aircraft. The radars in this category are 3D, have normally totally absorb/deflect/diffuse/waylay incident radar energy high detection rate in the range of 0.3-0.5 sec and feature robust (nano-paints and composite materials, plasma coating, stealthy track continuity during high speed manoeuvring. The beauty is outer structure shaping, hidden weapon bays with canted tra- that the radar being passive is itself stealthy and hence opaque to peze and more). anti-radiation threat. Lockheed Martin’s ‘Silent Sentry’ and EADS passive radar system are PCL radars. With the range bracket Early Shift in Technology of around 200 km and locational accuracy of 500 metres, these The nearly first signs in technological upgradation were seen when radars are effective counter-stealth sensors. the AD weapon systems defeated first-generation stealth technology (F-117, etc.) with mono-static radars by reflecting the radar Ongoing Research in Passive Multi-Static Domain energy away from the transmitter’s line of sight. This resulted in a Research is in progress where experts are trying to integrate autogradual shift to bi-static and then multi-static radars. Initially these matic target classifiers in the PCL radars which aim to process radars operated mostly in X or L Bands, achieving an optimal com- the raw data from TV and FM radio transmissions to extract an promise between ranges and resolution. As technology developed, estimate of the RCS during each integrative period. Since RCS is a single/dual band active radars emitters gave way to multi-band function of the target’s aspect with respect to both the illuminator usage, that also in passive domain. and the receiver, it varies with the frequency and polarisation of the incident wave. RCS values of many different aspect angles at The Emergence of Passive Detection each sample instant are stored in the template library to arrive at As stealth grew, less and less incident radar energy got reflect- an auto target recognition solution based on closest fit.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The nearly first signs in technological upgradation were seen when the air defence weapon systems defeated first-generation stealth technology (F-117, etc.) with mono-static radars by reflecting the radar energy away from the transmitter’s line of sight.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Future Radar Technologies

REGIONAL BALANCE

Northrop Grumman

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


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Surveillance — Modern Radar Systems With their conventional all-weather, long-range capabilities for detection and tracking, radars will remain the centrepiece of new surveillance and naval defence systems. Innovations in integrated electronics and computational power have enabled evolution of radar systems beyond the classic mono-static radars. Modern developments are focused in the fields of receiver sensitivity, real-time digital signal processing and adaptive antenna arrays with unprecedented computing power. The conventional parabolic reflector for 2D radars is paving way for high precision 3D radars, possible through phased array technology. Advent of high power solid state electronics has enabled replacement of conventional Travelling Wave Tubes, while smart and effective Digital Signal Processor (DSP) functions have enhanced their performance in environment with intense clutter, interference and jamming. Development of customised algorithms for the detections of ultra-low Radar Cross-Section (RCS) targets for systems that are using the classical mono-static configuration or multi-static configuration have ensured improvisation with little investment in transmitter upgrades. Further, revolution in data networking technologies have facilitated integration radar sensors into secure wireless networks using Tactical Data Links to enhance the operational awareness of the forces at sea. The continuum of quantum changes in radar design and architectures will simplify system design while enhancing performance capabilities and reliability. Major novel architectures and technol-

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CONTENTS Crystal gazing, by its very nature, is a risky proposition. The emergence of state-of-the-art technologies will lead to conceptualise and design new systems which would detect the enemy earlier, destroy the enemy faster, more effectively and farther away; and prevent the enemy from detecting own ships. There are many emerging technologies however a few salient ones are covered in this article.

TECHNOLOGY

K.R. Nair (Retd)  

BUSINESS

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n earlier days navies were meant   Vice Admiral only to provide adequate defence to a country’s coastline. Today, it is an accepted fact that navies operate in international waters, well beyond the territorial limits of the nations. As the saying goes, today the world is ‘united (not separated) by Oceans’. In keeping with this fact, the roles of the Indian Navy would continue to extend from peace-keeping, through the low-intensity segment to high-intensity conventional hostilities, including nuclear conflict. Navies are technology intensive services and clearly, technological superiority will be the decisive factor in future battles. The Indian Navy was fully aware of the need for self-reliance right from the beginning and thus ensured that it was always at the forefront of indigenisation. The commencement of the indigenous shipbuilding in the 1970s has been sustained and built up. Today, the Indian Navy builds all the ships within the country, including the Arihant class submarines and the aircraft carrier Vikrant. Consequently, the Indian Navy has acquired adequate expertise in the hull design and construction of various types of warships. In the fields of propulsion systems (barring marine gas turbines) and related auxiliary machineries, adequate expertise and production capabilities are available in the country, more so because of their similarities with the civilian sector. Thus the Indian Navy has also become self-reliant in power generation and distribution systems, communication systems, and support services systems, like air-conditioning and refrigeration, etc. However, in the arena of ‘weapons and sensors’, indigenous development remains relatively weak. Although the Navy possesses adequate design capabilities and production base, performance enhancements are required in the field of sonars, command and control, and IT-based systems, as their critical subsystems and components are of imported origin. The fact that defence requirements are limited and volumes are inevitable low has aggravated the problem even further.

INDIAN DEFENCE

In the arena of ‘weapons and sensors’, indigenous development remains relatively weak. Although the navy possesses adequate design capabilities and production base, performance enhancements are required in the field of sonar, command and control, and IT-based systems, as their critical subsystems and components are of imported origin.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Indian Navy

Crystal Gazing — Weapons and Sensors for Indian Naval Platforms

REGIONAL BALANCE

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USAF

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CAN MILITARY MACHINES BE MORAL? THE TANGLED ETHICS OF ROBOTIC WARFARE

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

7

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magine a self-driven car BBC, Professor Stephen Hawking,   Group Captain Joseph Noronha (Retd)   travelling at high speed when one of Britain’s greatest scientists, a distracted pedestrian wansaid that efforts to create thinkders into its path. Should the robotic car swerve, perhaps ing machines pose a threat to our very existence. He said, “The endangering its occupants and other vehicles? Now think of development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of an autonomous unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) that is the human race.” Deliberations on robotic warfare have been in about to launch a lethal weapon against a dreaded terrorist when its progress for about five years under the UN Convention on Certain camera detects the man lifting a small child into his arms. Should it Conventional Weapons in Geneva, Switzerland. These discussions continue the attack? Such questions are increasingly being asked in could potentially agree to prohibit or at least limit autonomous the nascent field of ‘machine ethics’. However, is it even possible to weapons and avert yet another global arms race. There are precteach a machine to tell right from wrong when humans themselves edents like the banning of chemical and biological weapons and, as often seem to lack the ability? recently as 1995, of blinding lasers. The highly successful campaign Artificial Intelligence (AI), as well as humanoid robotic soldiers against anti-personnel landmines also shows that it is possible for that think and behave pretty much like real people, have long been the global community to control certain types of weapons considstaples of science fiction. But automated weapons are already ered reprehensible. everywhere. Over 30 nations have advanced air defence systems Organisations like the Human Rights Watch (HRW) too demand that need only cursory supervision. Once activated, these systems a pre-emptive ban on killer robots on ethical grounds. However, can select and engage incoming rockets, missiles or manned air- the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has a more craft without human involvement. nuanced stance. It simply wants limits placed on autonomous Autonomous weapon systems are a further advancement. Their weapon systems so that they function in accordance with IHL, the number and capability is likely to grow in tandem with driverless principles of humanity and public conscience. vehicles, intelligent industrial machines and domestic robots that Leading the Race are already in use as domestic help, nurse for the elderly and nannies for children. Indeed, robotic warfare is being called the next In truth, a race to develop robotic weapons has begun and it may revolution in military technology, after gunpowder and nuclear prove impossible to stop. The world urgently needs to consider various issues that future widespread use of such autonomous weapons. Is this an accurate assessment or mere hype? weapons, if not all-out robotic warfare, entails. The US Department Growing Disquiet of Defense (DOD) is funding scores of projects to provide its forces The International Committee for Robot Arms Control (ICRAC), an with next-generation intelligent weapons, vehicles and surveillance organisation founded in 2009 by experts in robotics technology, systems that may render the human combatant practically jobless. robot ethics, international security, International Humanitarian Analysts believe that by 2030, the US military could replace a quarLaw (IHL) and human rights law, is clearly worried. It has some ter of its combat troops with robots, aiming to become “a smaller, dire predictions for the future including that nations could arm more lethal, deployable and agile force.” Even in a purely civilian robots with nuclear weapons, that despots could send scores of setting, in July 2016, police in Dallas, Texas, sent a bomb-bearing intelligent killing machines to terrorise their own restive regions or robot to kill a deadly sniper — a first in US history. It was akin to undertake ethnic cleansing and that there could be uncontrolled an artificial suicide bomber, which will surely give ideas to terror unmanned wars in space. In a December 2014 interview with the groups worldwide.

TECHNOLOGY

Stephen Hawking, one of the greatest scientists, said that efforts to create thinking machines pose a threat to our very existence. He said, “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race.”


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CONTENTS in data and knowledge, and various types of machines learning and representation schemes of knowledge. Its various applications include, speech recognition, natural language processing, expert systems, neural networks, intelligent robotics, gaming and 3D vision. There is a need to define machine learning and deep learning before moving on to the military applications of AI.

BUSINESS

Kulshrestha (Retd)  

INDIAN DEFENCE

Machine Learning It has evolved from the study of computational learning theory, pattern recognition and AI. It is a subfield of computer science. It has been defined in 1959 by Arthur Samuel as a “Field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed”. Machine learning relies upon utilising algorithm constructions to perform predictive analysis on data. Machine learning tasks fall into three basic categories namely: Supervised Learning. It is in which the computer is presented with example inputs, and their desired outputs and the goal is to learn a general rule that maps inputs to outputs. Unsupervised Learning. It is where no labels are given to the learning algorithm, leaving it on its own to find structure in its input. Reinforcement Learning. It is where a computer programme interacts with a dynamic environment in which it must perform a certain goal.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

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ntelligent machines   Rear Admiral Dr S. were the focus of research work at many institutes after World War II. In 1950, Alan Turing argued that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer then one certainly should consider it intelligent. The credit of coining the phrase ‘Artificial Intelligence’ goes to John McCarthy in 1955. A number of scientists have defined Artificial Intelligence (AI) in varying manners; however there appears to be no single definition which has been universally accepted. All the definitions of AI are connected with human intelligence in some way, some of which are: n “The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models”. n “The art of creating machines that perform functions requiring intelligence when performed by people”. n “A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behaviour in terms of computational processes”. n “The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better”. n “The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act”. n “The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour”. Strong AI has been defined as that moment when “humankind is in the presence of an intelligence greater than its own,”, and as “strong AI is reached once the computer regarded as such is conscious of its abilities”. AI imbibes knowledge from different fields like computer science, mathematics, engineering, cognitive science, philosophy and psychology. AI embodies a wide range of intelligent search methods, techniques for obtaining clarity where uncertainties exist

TECHNOLOGY

“Artificial Intelligence technology has reached a point where the deployment of such systems is — practically if not legally — feasible within years not decades, and the stakes are high: autonomous weapons have been described as the third revolution in warfare, after gunpowder and nuclear arms”. —Open letter in 2015 by scientists and technologists including Elon Musk, Stephen Hawking, and Steve Wozniak asking for a ban on lethal weapons controlled by AI

Deep Learning Le Deng and Dong Yu of Microsoft have provided the following definitions for Deep Learning: n A class of machine learning techniques that exploit many layers of non-linear information processing for supervised or unsu-

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US DoD

The Challenge of Military Artificial Intelligence

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section three

Army Modernisation: Moving Forward at a Slow Pace India’s Oceanic Aspirations Modernisation of the Indian Air Force India’s Defence Budget 2016-17 Defence Offsets in DPP 2016 ‘Make’ Procedure in DPP 2016 New Defence Procurement Procedure — Synergy with ‘Make in India’ India’s Strategic and Business Environment Global Contracts

105 109 113 119 123 127 131 135 145

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One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

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Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Business


DPR

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Army Modernisation: Moving Forward at a Slow Pace

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

1

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eneral Dalbir Singh Another 23 contracts, worth around   Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)   Suhag, the Chief of Army `12,000 crore, are in the pipeline. Staff (COAS), said in an The important ones include the over interview in January 2016 that “making up of the criti- `2,000 crore deal for 15,000 3UBK Invar missiles for T-90S tanks and cal deficiencies in weapons and equipment is on fast the `1,200 crore deal for two additional “troops” of the Israeli Heron track.” He identified towed artillery, reconnaissance and spy drones. The really critical projects are still stuck in the longsurveillance, helicopters, third-generation missiles, air defence winded procurement process.” These include those for the infantry: weapons systems, mechanised forces and assault rifles as the key bullet-proof jackets, ballistic helmets, new-generation assault rifles areas requiring immediate attention and said the government was with interchangeable barrels, close-quarter battle carbines and giving full support. light machine guns have all been hanging fire for several years. A After a decade of neglect under the two UPA regimes, mili- project with an outlay of approximately `10,000 crore for the inductary modernisation is gradually picking up pace under the NDA tion of 1,78,000 new-generation assault rifles was initiated, but has Government. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) has accord- not yet reached the stage where a contract may be signed. ed AON (acceptance of necessity) approval to modernisation Enhancing the Combat Punch projects worth over `1,50,000 crore. In keeping with Prime Minister of the Mechanised Forces Narendra Modi’s policy to ‘Make in India’, most of the newly approved weapons systems will be procured with transfer of tech- While Pakistan had acquired 320 T-80 UD tanks and is on course nology (ToT) and manufactured in India or, where feasible, com- to add Al Khalid tanks that it has co-developed with China to its pletely indigenously designed, developed and manufactured. In armour fleet, vintage T-55 tanks continue in the Indian Army’s an interview with the author in December 2015, Manohar Parrikar, inventory despite their obsolescence. Even though the indigenousthe Defence Minister, said that contracts worth `90,000 crore had ly developed Arjun Mk II main battle tank (MBT) has not fully met been signed and of these 70 per cent are ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ the army’s expectations due to recurring technological problems and cost overruns, the tank has entered service with two regiments or ‘Make in India’. One year before the NDA Government assumed office, it had of Arjun Mk I tanks. Consequently, 310 T-90S MBTs had to be been reported that “the army is finally cranking up its moderni- imported from Russia. In December 2007, a contract was signed for sation drive, with around 680 procurement projects worth over an additional 347 T-90 tanks to be assembled in India. Meanwhile, `2,00,000 crore for the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) period to a programme has been launched to modernise the T-72 M1 Ajeya plug operational gaps as well as ensure ‘capability development’ MBTs that have been the mainstay of the army’s Strike Corps and along both the western and eastern fronts.” General Bikram Singh, their armoured divisions since the 1980s. The programme seeks General Dalbir Singh’s predecessor, had identified 31 of these 680 to upgrade the night fighting capabilities and fire control system pending modernisation projects as Priority-1. These included of the tank, among other modifications. Approximately 1,700 T-72 assault rifles, howitzers, bulletproof jackets, tank and artillery M1s have been manufactured under licence at the Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF), Avadi. ammunition and missiles. The BMP-1 and the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicles, which According to a recent news report, “17 new contracts worth `2,820 crore were signed for the Army in 2011-12. The figure have been the mainstay of the mechanised infantry battalions for jumped to 29 contracts worth `7,222 crore in 2012-13. The tally long, are now ageing and replacements need to be found soon. stands at 17 contracts worth `11,777 crore in the ongoing fiscal. The replacement vehicles must be capable of being deployed for

TECHNOLOGY

After a decade of neglect under the two UPA regimes, military modernisation is gradually picking up pace under the NDA Government.


Indian Navy

CONTENTS

India’s Oceanic Aspirations

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2

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awaharlal Nehru, India’s nations, coupled with low levels of   Commodore Lalit Kapur (Retd)   first Prime Minister, said, “To development. It contains seven of the be secure on land, we must world’s top ten most fragile states, as be supreme at sea”. Notwithstanding this oft quoted statewell as many others engaged in domestic and international ment, he actually paid little attention towards development conflict. It is also a key venue for international piracy and of the Indian Navy (IN) after India gained independence. the locus of some 70 per cent of the world’s natural disasters. His government’s focus was on territorial threats emanating from National and regional mechanisms to tackle these challenges our western and northern borders. However, a flawed strategic are virtually non-existent, forcing extra-regional powers to perspective, which banked on the aid from the western countries maintain the force levels to counter the threats. if China attacked India, coupled with reliance on bluff and bluster n The littoral contains the recognised hub of international terrorism in the Af-Pak region, and is close to another hub, the of the ‘Forward Policy’ instead of muscle, led to the disaster and Levant, where the global war on terror is being fought. The national humiliation of 1962. Indian Ocean provides unrestricted access to ‘hot spots’ for the The growing importance of the Indian Ocean in its strategic extra-regional military powers to be engaged in this war, withoutlook has apparently seen India recognising the need to strengthout the need for host nation’s approval. en its Navy. Commentators often cite orders for as many as 50 warships having been placed on Indian shipyards as proof of the Indian n The regional strategic environment is thus volatile and dangerous, with unregulated strategic competition involving extraNavy’s growth. The highest authorities in the country, including regional powers jockeying for influence. These include China the Prime Minister, have publicly articulated India’s desire to be a and its influence-building projects such as the China-Pakistan “Net Security Provider in the Indian Ocean”. But is the perception Economic Corridor, the Maritime Silk Route and the ports of that the Indian Navy’s star is on the ascendancy justified? Or is Gwadar and Djibouti, as well as established powers such as the the Indian Government still relying on bluff and bluster instead of United States, France, the EU, Japan and Australia. steady development of muscle? Geography has blessed India with a commanding position Among the key reasons for the Indian Ocean’s increased imporastride the trade routes that criss-cross the Indian Ocean. Moreover, tance in world affairs are: n Its littoral contains 40 per cent of global hydrocarbon deposIndia’s economic survival hinges on unfettered use of the seas its and rich reserves of numerous other resources vital for around it as well as security of the coastal belt. The following four the global economy, including fish, labour, iron, aluminium, key factors underlie this statement: copper, rubber, uranium, gold, diamonds, etc. Industrialised n First, India’s enormous dependence on imported energy, vital for its economy. Nearly 3.5 million barrels of crude oil per nations that consume these resources are located outside the day, amounting to more than 80 per cent of the nation’s crude littoral. Consequently, the resources must be transported to requirement is imported via the seas, while another 11 per them, and this can only be done through the Indian Ocean. cent comes from offshore sources in India’s EEZ. The EEZ also The Indian Ocean is, moreover, the shortest route from manuaccounts for over 80 per cent of India’s domestic natural gas profacturing economies of Asia’s Pacific coast to export markets in duction, which fulfils about 60 per cent of the domestic requireEurope and America’s Atlantic coast. The Indian Ocean is thus ment, the rest being imported. In 2015, India imported 226 mila crucial highway for international trade. n Barring few exceptions, the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) is lion tonnes of coal, surpassing China as the world’s largest coal characterised by high levels of poverty and mistrust between importer, sourcing from Indonesia, South Africa and Australia.

TECHNOLOGY

The growing importance of the Indian Ocean in its strategic outlook has apparently seen India recognising the need to strengthen its Navy.


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I

n the wake of a rapidly growing must have combat aircraft with ade  Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd)   economy, India has undoubtedly quate reach, lethal firepower through emerged as a regional power and modern stand-off/precision-guided hopefully with the new enlightened political leadership sup- munitions (PGMs) and stealth characteristics. It must have strateported by committed military and bureaucratic establishments, gic airlift aircraft with the capability to move and deploy large forces the nation will succeed in fulfilling its aspirations to emerge as by air over long distances, tactical transport aircraft to operate over a leader with credibility in the comity of nations and in due course shorter distances and support surface forces in battle as well as a aspire to be a superpower. fleet of helicopters to provide mobility and lethal firepower in the The growing status of the nation, however, is accompanied by tactical battle area. Two things follow from this, one being that the enhanced responsibilities. As a regional power, the nation must nation must possess multi-layered air defence system to protect its possess the capability of speedy and decisive military intervention offensive operations capability and the other that development of to safeguard her national security interests in areas that transcend aerospace power must not only cater to perceived threats but more our geographical boundaries extending from the Persian Gulf to the importantly must be capability-based to respond to a wide variety Strait of Malacca. As a superpower in the future, India may be called of threats, existing, likely to arise in the future or unforeseen. upon to meet with commitments in distant lands outside the region Transformation of the IAF wherein the Indian armed forces may be required to provide speedy response to man-made or natural calamities and provide humanitar- The IAF is currently embarked on comprehensive capital-intensive ian assistance, employ military forces to restore order, to ensure peace modernisation drive that is focused on all-round development of capability as opposed to re-equipping the force based merely on and stability or to project national power if the situation so demands. While economic strength is the main pillar of national power, perceived threats. In the words of Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne, the military capability of a nation must grow in tandem to secure former Chief of the Air Staff, “The IAF is currently engaged in an its economic status and provide the environment for its further unprecedented phase of modernisation and capability enhancegrowth. This philosophy was echoed in October 2007 by Air Chief ment which can be witnessed across the capability spectrum.” The Marshal Fali H. Major, the then Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air effort by the IAF at modernisation has essentially been at transforForce (IAF), on the occasion of its platinum jubilee celebrations mation from a subcontinental tactical air force to an intercontinenwhen he said: “The emerging geopolitical and security scenario tal strategic aerospace power to cope with the vastly enhanced roles requires our nation to possess comprehensive military capability, and responsibilities and to fulfill national aspirations as well as to characterised by flexibility and speed of response, mobility and be prepared to take on the challenges of the evolving geopolitical transportability of all forms of national power, long reach, preci- and security scenarios. In the pursuit of these noble but challengsion targeting, minimum collateral damage and reduced visibility. ing objectives, the IAF has drawn up a comprehensive Long-Term Aerospace power fits the bill perfectly. The 21st century belongs to Perspective Plan (LTPP) to cover the period up to the year 2027 for aerospace power and given India’s aspirations, the need for a strong modernisation of its assets across the board. The modernisation plan of the IAF encompasses the entire range of hardware includand comprehensive aerospace capability is inescapable.” Stated in simple terms, the nation’s air force must possess the ing its combat fleet, transport aircraft, rotary-wing fleet, basic and capability to project power effectively in the region for which it advanced trainers as well as a variety of force multipliers.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

“The IAF is currently engaged in an unprecedented phase of modernisation and capability enhancement which can be witnessed across the capability spectrum.” ­—Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne (Retd)

REGIONAL BALANCE

Dassault Aviation

Modernisation of the Indian Air Force

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

Change in Format

The long-used format for defence resource allocation has undergone a change in the budget of 2016-17. As per the new format, MoD’s total allocation is distributed into four demands, in comparison to eight in earlier format (Table 1). It seems, the intent is to rationalise the budget-making process and show the allocations provided to the three armed forces separately from the allocations made to other organisations under the MoD. As a result, some of the organisations — such as the Ordnance Factories (OFs), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Director General Quality Assurance (DGQA), Rashtriya Rifles (RR), National Cadet Corps (NCC), Military Firms (MF) and Ex-Servicemen Contributory

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Defence Budget: Vital Statistics The change in budget format has brought in an element of incompatibility for the purpose of comparing the new budget with the previous budget. An attempt is made here to reconcile the new budgetary figures with the format used earlier. The reconciled figures are presented in Tables 2 and 3. As can be seen from Table 2, compared to the preceding year, in 2016-17, the defence budget has witnessed a negligible growth of less than 1 per cent. However, compared to the revised estimate (RE) of 2015-16, the growth in the new budget amounts to 11 per cent. The higher growth on the base of the RE means a downward revision of the original alloca-

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T

he Union Budget 2016-17, Health Scheme (ECHS) — which earlier   Dr Laxman Kumar Behera   presented to the Parliament shared their budget with the armed forces’ in February 2016, set aside budget, are now made part of the Demand `3,40,921.98 crore ($52.2 billion) for the Ministry of No. 20 of the new format. It is, however, to be noted that although Defence (MoD). In allocating the resources, the union the new format brings certain clarity, it, at the same time, poses a budget also made a key change in the long-established fundamental question regarding the components of India’s defence format of resource allocation among the three defence forces budget. As per the earlier format, the last six Demands (Nos. 22 to (army, navy and air force) and other establishments under the 27) constituted what is commonly referred to as India’s defence MoD. The change in format has, however, not changed the skewed budget (Demand Nos. 20 and 21 were part of the Defence [Civil nature of growth of MoD’s allocation which has been dominated Estimates] and kept outside the defence budget). With the merger by the increases in manpower cost since the implementation of of the some of the organisations with the new Demand No. 20, it the Sixth Central Pay Commission (CPC) recommendations in seems logical to include the merged demand for the purpose of 2008-09. In fact, the new budget has gone a step further in accom- estimating India’s defence budget. This, then, would leave defence modating the increases in pay and pension at the cost of capital pension as the only demand to stay outside the defence budget. expenditure, most of which is spent on modernisation. With the However, keeping the defence pension outside the defence budget implementation of One Rank, One Pension (OROP) and Seventh has not served any purpose. Rather, bringing it to the purview of Central Pay Commission recommendations from 2016-17, there defence budget would provide the true picture of defence burden will be further increase in salary and pension. This in turn raises and subject it to the same degree of scrutiny as other elements of the question of desirability of manpower-led increase in defence the defence budget. Suffice to mention that pension was part of the budget from the pure military angle and the long-term sustain- defence budget till 1985-86, when it was taken out and put under ability of modernisation expenditure. the Defence (Civil Estimates), apparently due to the pressure from the international financial institutions.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

With the implementation of One Rank, One Pension (OROP) and Seventh Central Pay Commission recommendations from 2016-17, there will be further increase in salary and pension. This in turn raises the question of desirability of manpower-led increase in defence budget from the pure military angle and the longterm sustainability of modernisation expenditure.

REGIONAL BALANCE

IAF

India’s Defence Budget 2016-17

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


USAF

CONTENTS

Defence Offsets in DPP 2016

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

A

lthough defence As hitherto fore, the policy will   Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)   offsets were introapply to all capital acquisitions duced in 2005, the categorised as ‘Buy (Global)’ or objective was limited to promoting exports from the pub- ‘Buy and Make’. However, the offset threshold has been raised to lic sector. Therefore, the initial policy was totally loaded `2,000 crore. For determining application of offset provisions, the in favour of the public sector to the extent that even the estimated cost of the acquisition proposal on the date of grant task of monitoring implementation of offsets was assigned to it. of acceptance of necessity (AoN) will be considered. Under ‘Buy However, under pressure from the private sector, the Ministry of (Global)’ procurements, the policy will apply to Indian firms or Defence (MoD) widened the scope of the policy in 2006, to include their joint ventures. “any private defence industry manufacturing these products or Avenues for Discharge of Offset Obligations components under an industrial licence granted for such manufacture.” It also allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in Indian Foreign vendors can choose their Indian partners and discharge their offset obligations through any one or a combination of defence industry and defence R&D. It was a cosmetic change as no significant manufacturing activity the six specified methods. They include (a) direct purchase of, was taking place in the private sector under licence. Industry associa- or executing export orders for, eligible products manufactured tions continued their protests. Bowing to the pressure, MoD removed by, or services provided by Indian enterprises; (b) FDI in joint the mandatory requirement of an industrial licence for private com- ventures with Indian enterprises (equity investment) for the panies in 2008. The policy has since been further refined in 2009, manufacture and/or maintenance of eligible products and the 2012 and recently in 2016. Thus, Indian policy is a product of evolu- provision of eligible services; (c) investment in ‘kind’ in terms of transfer of technology (ToT) to Indian enterprises for the manution and does not owe its origin to a well thought-through strategy. India has already signed offset contracts worth $5 billion and facture and/or maintenance of eligible products and provision offset deals worth $12 billion are in the pipeline. Thus the total off- of eligible services; (d) investment in ‘kind’ in Indian enterprises in terms of provision of equipment through the non-equity route set inflow into India may amount to $17 billion. for the manufacture and/or maintenance of eligible products Salient Aspects of the New Offset Policy and provision of eligible services; (e) provision of equipment The latest version of the offset policy appears in Defence and/or ToT to government entities engaged in the manufacture Procurement Procedure 2016. Salient aspects of the new policy and/or maintenance of eligible products and provision of eligihave been highlighted in the succeeding paragraphs. ble services, including the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO); and (f ) technology acquisition by DRDO Objective in areas of high technology. There is no change in the objective of the defence offset policy. It A minimum 70 per cent of the offset obligation must be discontinues ”to leverage the capital acquisitions to develop Indian charged by any one or a combination of (a), (b), (c) and (d) above. defence industry by fostering development of internationally com- Where the discharge of offset obligations is proposed in terms of petitive enterprises; augmenting capacity for research, design and (d), the vendor will be required to buyback a minimum 40 per cent development related to defence products and services; and encour- of the eligible product and/or service (by value) within the peraging development of synergistic sectors like civil aerospace and missible period for discharge of offset obligations. The concept of internal security.” value addition will apply only for direct purchase/export of eligible

TECHNOLOGY

India has already signed offset contracts worth $5 billion and offset deals worth $12 billion are in the pipeline. Thus the total offset inflow into India may amount to $17 billion.


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

P

rior to the issuance of cent. The balance 20 per cent was   Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)   Defence Procurement to be contributed by the developProcedure, 2006 (DPP ment agencies (DA). 2006), all proposals categorised by the Defence Acquisition As regards FICV, the proposal was approved in 2008. The estiCouncil (DAC) as ‘Make’ cases were handled by Defence mated cost was `1,00,000 crore for the total envisaged requirement R&D Board (Def R&D Bd). The Kelkar Committee exam- of 2,800 numbers. An expression of interest (EoI) was issued in ined the complete gamut of indigenous research, design and 2010 to four vendors. However, it was cancelled in 2012 because the development of defence equipment and recommended that the Ministry of Defence (MoD) could not decide on the parameters for Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) should shortlisting of DA. A fresh EoI was issued in July 2015 to ten firms. concentrate only on projects requiring sophisticated technology of Reportedly, Ordnance Factory Board has already been nominated strategic, complex and security sensitive nature. It also suggested as a DA but the other nomination is awaited. Considering it to be outsourcing of R&D work of high technology to the private sector an unfair step, the private companies are demanding an open and should be on the lines of parallel development on cost-sharing transparent competition. basis; and a minimum order quantity to sustain the financial viabilThe estimated project cost of TCS was $2 billion (`13,000 ity of development within the time schedule should be spelt out to crore). Two DA were shortlisted — BEL and a consortium of L&T, encourage private sector participation. Tata Power SED and HCL. The project has been facing a number of Consequent to the acceptance of the report of the Kelkar impediments. Most importantly, the private sector wants tax conCommittee, the government introduced the new procedure for pro- cessions at par with BEL and ownership of the intellectual property curements through indigenous development in DPP 2006. All indig- rights. It stands stalled. enous R&D projects are now required to be categorised as follows: As both the above projects have made little progress, MoD n Strategic, Complex and Security Sensitive Systems. Projects realised the need to look at the ‘Make’ procedure afresh. To start involving development of critical and security sensitive tech- with, extra responsibilities had been assigned to a number of existnologies leading to next-generation weapon systems and plat- ing agencies and they were expected to fulfil them in addition to forms should be undertaken by DRDO. their normal charter of duties. As many functionaries tended to n High Technology Complex Systems. Projects under this cattreat ‘Make’ duties as an add-on encumbrance, it lost focus. Worse, egory are identified as ‘Make’ and should be based on proven most functionaries lacked technical expertise to handle developor matured technologies where fundamental research is not mental projects. required These projects should be undertaken by Indian indusEvery ‘Make’ case had to pass through several agencies. try (both in public and private sectors) on a level playing field. Feasibility studies were prepared by the Headquarters Integrated This procedure should also be adopted for all upgrades catego- Defence Staff (HQ IDS) and approved by DAC. Acquisition Wing rised as ‘Make’. constituted Integrated Project Management Teams (IPMT) Under the ‘Make’ category of DPP 2008, two major proj- but names of suitable companies for EoI were provided by the ects, i.e. Futuristic Infantry Combat Vehicle (FICV) and Tactical Department of Defence Production (DDP) after their empanelCommunication System (TCS) were initiated for Indian entities. ment. IPMT shortlisted agencies after studying their responses but Both were to get government funding support to the extent of 80 per it was the Defence Production Board (DPrB) that selected two agen-

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Forming a part of DPP 2016, the new ‘Make’ procedure seeks to address the multiple objectives of self-reliance, wider participation of Indian industry, impetus for MSME sector, sound implementation, transparent execution and timely induction of equipment.

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

‘Make’ Procedure in DPP 2016

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


DRDO

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

New Defence Procurement Procedure — Synergy with ‘Make in India’

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

7

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

I

ndia adopted the current DPP 2016 focuses on institutional  Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)   dispensation of defence acquiising, streamlining and simplifying sition organisation, structures defence procurement procedure and procedures in 2002. The stated aim was to ensure expedi- to give a boost to ‘Make in India’ initiative, by promoting indigtious procurement of the approved requirements of the armed enous design, development and manufacturing of defence equipforces in terms of capabilities sought and time frame prescribed ment, platforms, systems and subsystems. by optimally utilising the allocated budgetary resources; dem‘Make’ procedure has also been refined to ensure increased onstrate the highest degree of probity and public accountability, participation of the Indian industry. Enhancing the role of micro, transparency in operations, free competition and impartiality; and small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in defence sector, cutting to keep the goal of achieving self-reliance in defence equipment in down permissible time frames for various procurement activities mind. The objective remains unchanged to date. and institutionalising probity norms have also been given due During the last 13 years, India has not been able to sign a importance. Some salient aspects of DPP 2016 have been highsingle major defence contract in an open competitive environment lighted hereunder. under the provisions of the much trumpeted Defence Procurement Categorisation of Acquisition Proposals Procedure (DPP). Worse, India has acquired the dubious distinction of being the largest importer of conventional weapons in the world. Capital acquisition schemes will be classified as ‘Buy’, ‘Buy and In other words, the present dispensation has been a total failure Make’ and ‘Make’. ‘Buy’ scheme refers to an outright purchase of both in managing acquisitions and in stimulating the indigenous equipment. It has three subcategories — ‘Buy (Indian-IDDM)’, ‘Buy defence industry. Despite the fact that DPP has been subjected to (Indian)’ and ‘Buy (Global)’. ‘Buy (Indian-IDDM)’ is a newly introduced category and relates six major reviews/revisions, no improvement has been discernible. An expert committee under Dhirendra Singh was constituted to the procurement of products designed, developed and manufacon May 1, 2015. The committee was tasked to evolve a policy tured in India with a minimum of 40 per cent Indigenous Content framework to facilitate ‘Make in India’ in defence manufacturing (IC) on cost basis of the total contract value. Products which may and align the policy evolved with DPP 2013; and to suggest the req- not have been designed and developed indigenously also fall in this uisite amendments in DPP 2013 to remove the bottlenecks in the category provided they have 60 per cent IC. ‘Buy (Indian)’ category refers to procurement of products from procurement process and also simplify/rationalise various aspects of the defence procurement. DPP 2016 has been formulated with an Indian vendor having a minimum of 40 per cent IC on cost basis the experience gained by the government in the defence procure- of the total contract value. ‘Buy (Global)’ category implies outright ment process and the recommendations of the Dhirendra Singh purchase of equipment from foreign or Indian vendors. In case of procurement through foreign vendors, government-to-government Committee. It came into effect from April 2016. route may be adopted for equipment meeting strategic/long-term Salient Aspects of the New Procedure requirements. DPP 2016 claims to strive to strike a balance between competing ‘Buy and Make’ scheme means initial procurement of limited requirements such as expeditious procurement, high quality stan- quantity in fully formed state, followed by indigenous production dards and appropriate costs; while maintaining highest standards through transfer of technology (ToT). Under this scheme, the proof transparency, probity and public accountability. With a view to curements are subcategorised as ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ and ‘Buy achieve self-reliance in design, development and manufacturing, and Make’.

TECHNOLOGY

During the last 13 years, India has not been able to sign a single major defence contract in an open competitive environment under the provisions of the much trumpeted Defence Procurement Procedure.


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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TECHNOLOGY

and development at home remains the principal foreign policy objectives. Regional and international partnerships are being used to advance domestic flagship programmes like ‘Make in India,’ ‘Digital India,’ ‘Skill India’ or ‘Smart Cities.’ The ‘Neighbourhood First’ policy stresses on cooperation, connectivity and greater people to people contacts. This has assumed importance in the highly uncertain political and security environment in the neighbourhood where India is expected to provide a degree of stability. To achieve the same instruments employed remain the traditional diplomatic tools — high level visits, strategic dialogues, diplomatic parleys, trade linkages, development aid and assistance and defence and security cooperation. Counter terrorism has remained the main security focus diplomatically as the threat of cross border terrorism from Pakistan was once again underlined by the attack on the airbase in Pathankot in the night of January 1/2, 2016 . At the international level India has been actively pursuing the objective of early conclusion of a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism in the United Nations. The government is determined to continue to support peace and stability in the region howsoever challenging through various political, diplomatic and security tools. Be it encouraging connectivity through agreements such as the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal (BBIN) Transport network, development and military assistance to Afghanistan, opening connectivity linkages with Myanmar and through to South East Asia or conduct of maritime security patrols and establishing a surveillance network in the Indian Ocean. Success will be determined in managing the key challenges emanating from a rising and aggressive China and the political, economic and security collusion with Pakistan. Manifestations of these trends in the strategic environment are being discussed as per succeeding paragraphs.

BUSINESS

BHONSLE (RETD)  

INDIAN DEFENCE

I

ndia’s strategic neighbour  BRIGADIER RAHUL hood has represented a state of flux for many decades. The situation in the North and North West has further deteriorated as the China and Pakistan collusion infringes on the territorial sovereignty of India with the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) blatantly passing through Gilgit Baltistan a part of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Reports of presence of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in Gilgit-Baltistan have added to complexity of the regional security dynamics. This comes even as the violence in Afghanistan has seen an unprecedented increase in the past two years after the International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF) formally handed over responsibility to the Afghan Government in December 2014. Pakistan which had launched Operation Zarb-eAzb in June 2014 and celebrated success of the same many times since continues to face major terror attacks at increasing frequency. Political situation in Nepal remains tenuous as post Constitution transition to a federal structure has remained elusive with protests leading to major blockade in the South in the beginning of 2016. Myanmar is navigating the process of changeover from a junta-controlled democracy to a full-fledged electoral one and there is some way to go. Bangladesh has suffered from rising violent extremism in the recent past with a major terrorist attack which was inspired by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Holey Artisan Bakery in the Gulshan diplomatic zone in Dhaka on July 1 resulting in 20 hostages killed which included 18 foreigners. While Sri Lanka is gradually progressing on ethnic reconciliation China continues attempts for a comeback in Colombo posing challenges of regional balancing to the Sirisena Government in the country. Maldives is going through a political turmoil which leaves Bhutan as the only island of peace and stability in India’s neighbourhood. Given these diverse political and security challenges, India has continued with the policy of ‘Neighbourhood First’ as a part of the overall, ‘India First,’ pitch in diplomacy. Protection of strategic interests and mustering resources for greater prosperity

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Ministry of Finance (MoF) Macro-Economic Framework Statement 2016-17 presented along with the budget on February 29, 2016, states the Indian economy has emerged as a bright spot in the world economy, becoming one of the fastest growing large economies in the world.

REGIONAL BALANCE

US DoD

India’s Strategic and Business Environment

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

8


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US Navy

US Navy

US Navy

Spanish Air Force

US Special Operations Command

US Army and US Marine Corps

US Navy

Afghanistan (US Army)

US Army

US Army

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Alion Science and Technology

Lockheed Martin

Navistar Defense

Boeing

Oshkosh Defense company

Raytheon

General Atomics

Lockheed Martin Corp

Harris Corporation

Bell-Boeing Joint Project Office

Elbit Systems

Supplier

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Dutch Ministry of Defense

1

Recipient

INDIAN DEFENCE

$634 million

$227 million

$36,89,32,767

$1.49 billion

$6.7 billion

$900 million

$187 million

$43,13,22,997

$228 million

$33,24,68,665

$150 million

Contract Value

Global Contracts

REGIONAL BALANCE

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10

2,293

13

17,000

4

5

135

Quantity

BUSINESS

Support New Technologies for Ground Vehicles

Guided multiple launch rocket system (GMLRS) Unitary

Medium tactical vehicles

P-8A Poseidon Aircraft

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV)

SOCOM-Wide Mission Support (SWMS)

Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) drones

F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter

Support the US Navy’s maritime mine countermeasures (MCM) efforts

MV-22 tiltrotor aircraft

Smart Vests

Product/Project

November 30, 2019

2024

Five years

2017

December 2018

June 2018

Five-year period

Date of Delivery

TECHNOLOGY

September 23, 2015

September 15, 2015

August 31, 2015

August 28, 2015

August 26, 2015

August 18, 2015

August 8, 2015

August 4, 2015

August 3, 2015

July 14, 2015

July 2, 2015

Date of Contract

(From July 2015-September 2016)

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

The company is required to assist the army in researching and developing new technologies to ensure military ground systems can perform at optimum levels and address emerging threats.

The contract includes the first order of GMLRS alternative warhead production.

Foreign military sales contract (Afghanistan) for 2,293 medium tactical vehicles.

The order includes nine aircraft for the US Navy and four Poseidon aircraft for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), a long-time partner to the US Navy on P-8A development.

Oshkosh JLTV is 30 per cent lighter than the M-ATV, while offering similar level of protection.

The multiple award is an indefinite deliveryindefinite quantity vehicle.

The contract includes four aircraft and two ground control stations — one fixed and one deployable overseas.

Lot IX F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter advance acquisition contract for the procurement of production non-recurring items.

The contract is to support the US Navy’s maritime MCM efforts.

This modification provides for the manufacture and delivery of five MV-22 tiltrotor aircraft pursuant to the variation in quantity clause in support of the Government of Japan.

Smart Vest programme includes wearable and protective systems for the soldier, command and control systems, specialised displays and C4I capabilities as well as support systems integrated in combat vehicles.

Remarks

CONTENTS


2016146  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

Saudi Arabia

United Arab Emirates

UK Ministry of Defence

16

17

18

US Navy

US Missile Defense Agency (MDA)

15

20

US Navy

14

China

US Navy

13

19

US Air Force

12

Recipient

Harris Corporation

Russia

BAE Systems

Saab

Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin

Boeing

Raytheon

Lockheed Martin

Supplier

www.spguidepublications.com

$113 million

$2 billion

£1.3 billion

$1.27 billion

$262 million

$784 million

$89,75,30,175

$159.9 million

$30,54,57,460

Contract Value

To upgrade the Navy’s primary longrange, threedimensional defence radar

Su-35 fighter jets

Astute Class submarine

Swing Role Surveillance System (SRSS)

F-15 sensor suite

Long Range Discrimination Radar (LRDR)

Lot 38 full-rate production EA-18G aircraft

Manufacture, inspect and test Phalanx Close-in Weapon Systems (CIWS).

Joint Air-toSurface Standoff Missile production

Product/Project

24

15

Quantity

December 1, 2015

November 19, 2015

November 19, 2015

November 10, 2015

November 9, 2015

October 27, 2015

October 26, 2015

October 23, 2015

October 13, 2015

Date of Contract

2020

Nine years

January 2018

August 2018

June 30, 2018

Date of Delivery

Modernises primary defence radar for navy carriers, large deck amphibious assault ships; advances capabilities against emerging threats; reduces navy’s cost of ownership.

Contract included the AL-41F-1S engine that powers the Su-35.

The full contract covers the design and remaining build, test and commissioning activities on Anson, the fifth of seven technologicallyadvanced submarines in the class.

The new SRSS for the UAE uses the Global 6000 aircraft from Bombardier as a platform. The SRSS is capable of simultaneous detection and tracking of multiple targets in the air, on land and at sea.

Contract from the US Air Force for sustainment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s F-15 sensor suite. The sensor suite includes Sniper® advanced targeting pods (ATP), LANTIRN extended range (ER) navigation pods and infrared search and track (IRST) systems.

The contract will see the team develop, build and test the LRDR, which will support a layered defence strategy to protect the US from ballistic missile attacks.

The contract is for the procurement of 15 Lot 38 full-rate production EA-18G aircraft and associated airborne electronic attack kits.

The contract includes support equipment for the Phalanx and SeaRAM Weapon Systems, Block 1B radar upgrades and kits for reliability, maintainability and availability.

Contractor will provide Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missile production, system upgrades, integration, sustainment, management and logistical support.

Remarks

Business Global Contracts

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Sikorsky Aircraft

Raytheon

Lockheed Martin

General Dynamics Land Systems Europe

PIT-RADWAR

Lockheed Martin

US Department of Defense

US Missile Defense Agency (MDA)

Australian Department of Defence

Danish military

Polish Army

US Navy

21

22

23

24

25

26

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US Air Force

Algeria

30

31

Russia

Boeing

Raytheon

Lockheed Martin

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

US Navy

29

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Missile Defense Agency

28

US Department of Defense

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27

Lockheed Martin

Supplier

Recipient

INDIAN DEFENCE

Part of a $7.5 billion AlgerianRussian arms deal

$855 million

$255 million

$528 million

$1 billion

$1,17,12,06,489

PLN 1.08 billion ($273 million)

$662 million

AU $1.2 billion

$543 million

$1 billion

Contract Value

Su-34

12

32

80

79

309

17

Quantity

BUSINESS

T-38C aircraft

Mission system equipment

THAAD system

C-130J Super Hercules

F-35A aircraft

POPRAD Surface-to-Air Missile Systems

Piranha 5, armoured personnel carriers (APCs)

AIR 5428 Pilot Training System

Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) Block IIA

Engineering, programme and systems services

Product/Project

January 3, 2026

2020

December 2019

2023

Seven years

2018

Date of Delivery

TECHNOLOGY

January 6, 2016

January 4, 2016

January 4, 2016

January 4, 2016

December 30, 2015

December 21, 2015

December 18, 2015

December 11, 2015

December 9, 2015

December 9, 2015

December 1, 2015

Date of Contract

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

The Su-34 will continue to be improved based on combat experience and its capabilities will be expanded. These modifications could include additional electronic warfare (EW), intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and other capabilities added via external pods.

Contract for T-38C avionics component integration and contractor logistics support.

Contract to procure mission system equipment for the future USS Lyndon B. Johnson (DDG 1002).

The new interceptors will support a growing number of US Army THAAD units.

Department of Defense announced the award of more than $1 billion in funding for the first 32 aircraft of the multi-year contract.

Contract for the advance procurement of long lead time materials, parts, components and effort to maintain the planned production schedule for F-35 low rate initial production lot 11 aircraft.

The deal stipulates that the company will supply the army with 77 POPRAD systems and will upgrade two others that had been delivered earlier.

The current order includes options to cover the additional 150 vehicles that could be acquired in a follow-on phase. The new Piranhas will replace the 450 M-113s currently in service.

Lockheed Martin-led Team 21 to train the nextgeneration of Australian Defence Force pilots.

The SM-3 Block IIA interceptor will dramatically expand the range and capability from the current SM-3 Block IA and IB interceptors enabling more mission flexibility on both Japanese and US Aegis ships.

The deal also includes integrated logistics support, contractor manpower reporting, packaging handling storage and transportation, as well as advance procurement funding services.

Remarks

CONTENTS

Global Contracts


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section four

Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who’s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence Research and Development

161 169 193 223 251 261 283 309

Homeland Security One The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces Two India’s Internal Security Challenges Three India’s Coastal Security Four The Maoist Insurgency Who’s Who Indian Home Ministry

317 331 341 345 348

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Indian Defence


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

trengthening our military capabilities and internal security efforts are intricately linked with our broader political and economic objectives. If India has to survive as a modern and progressive nation that wishes to achieve its long-cherished goal of strategic autonomy, defence and security reforms have to be ushered in at a faster pace than hitherto before. The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC), when it became clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three Services and that the time had come for ‘jointmanship’. Working under the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS), the DPS had under it directorates covering policy and plans, international and regional security affairs, weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the Military Wing, which was established at the time of independence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After the Kargil War in 1999, the report of the Kargil Review Committee (KRC), headed by K. Subrahmanyam, was examined by a Group of Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task forces to review the national security system: n Management of Defence. n Internal Security. n Border Management. n Intelligence Systems and Apparatus. The task force on the management of defence, headed by Arun

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Key GoM Recommendations After considering the report of the task force on the management of defence, the GoM made the following key recommendations: n Integration of the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry of Defence (MoD). n Creation of the posts of Chief of Defence Staff and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS). n Setting up of IDS to support the CDS. n Establishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). n Organising an Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC). n Creation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). n Establishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). n Setting up of an Indian National Defence University (INDU). n A number of other long-term recommendations on aspects concerning air space and maritime management, budgetary reforms including performance budgeting, private sector participation in defence production, improvement in service conditions, media handling and cost-effectiveness. All the recommendations, except the one on the appointment of the CDS, were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on May 11, 2001. The decision about appointing a CDS was kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties.

TECHNOLOGY

Singh, recommended among other things, the appointment of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the setting up of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS).

BUSINESS

S

  BRIGADIER VINOD ANAND (RETD)  

INDIAN DEFENCE

Part I: Organisational Details

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the Military Wing, which was established at the time of independence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till it came under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) with the Defence Planning Staff (DPS), the forerunner of the IDS.

Structure of Integrated Defence Staff The CDS The responsibilities of the CDS, who would be the permanent Chairman of the COSC, were as follows: n Provide single-point military advice to the Indian Government.

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SP Guide Pubns

Integrated Defence Staff

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS

The Regional Security Environment India’s security environment encompasses a complex matrix of regional and global issues and challenges. India’s strategic location and its growing global interactions require engagement on a range of issues that impact on national security with a view to securing vital national interests. The need to enhance preparedness to address consequences of instability and volatility in parts of the immediate and extended neighbourhood remains a key priority. At the same time, there are renewed and successful efforts to build stronger defence partnerships with a wide range of friendly foreign countries to enhance international peace and stability. The security situation in India’s immediate South Asian neighbourhood presents a mixed picture. While there was an improvement in the security and political situation in some countries, political developments caused a worsening of the internal security situation in others. Terrorism, insurgency and sectarian conflict increasingly threaten the stability of the region. Amidst ongoing efforts to impart fresh dynamism to strengthening relations with neighbours in a comprehensive manner, cooperative security approaches are of immediate relevance to the region. India is committed to build security cooperation with all partners in the neighbourhood on the basis of equality, mutual benefit and mutual respect. The Indian Ocean region (IOR) is central to India’s growth and security. By virtue of its geophysical configuration as well as its strategic and economic imperatives, India looks to the seas and oceans surrounding it. India’s peninsular projection into the Indian Ocean region, astride the vital sea lanes of the

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from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are 450 km away from the nearest point on the West Coast. The island territories along with a long coastline extend India’s territorial waters to more than 1,60,000 square km and the exclusive economic zone to more than two million square km. India is, thus, a maritime as well as a continental entity.

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he Indian Army remains the last bastion that inspires confidence in all Indians. As a result Indian Army’s role has gone far beyond national defence to also substantially address nation building. The Indian Army has to constantly prepare itself for multifaceted diverse challenges. The Indian Army is the largest standing volunteer army in the world. Its apolitical stance is at variance with armies of most of its neighbours in the subcontinent that has witnessed these armies often imposing their will on their people by eliminating legitimate democratic dispensations. India’s land mass covers an area of 3.3 million square kilometres and is strategically located in continental Asia and in the Indian Ocean. Land borders extending more than 15,500 kilometres and a coastline totalling over 7,500 km make India a continental or maritime neighbour of 11 countries of Asia. India’s maritime boundaries overlook three major shipping lanes. It is a home to over a billion people with varying ethnic, linguistic, religious and cultural background. The topography of India is diverse, ranging from the snow-clad Himalayas with peaks over 28,000 feet in the north to deserts, and vast fertile plains in the west; high ranges and dense tropical forests in the east and maritime borders in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. To the south, there are ranges close to the sea, inland plateaus interspersed with river valleys, coastal plains, and far-flung island territories such as the Lakshadweep to the west and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the east. India is not only centrally located in South Asia, but also abuts West Asia and South East Asia. India’s location at the base of continental Asia and at the top of Indian Ocean provides it vantage point with respect to both Central Asia and the Indian Ocean region. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located 1,300 km away from the nearest point on our East Coast assume strategic predominance with respect to the entrance to the Strait of Malacca through which more than 60,000 shipping vessels transit every year. In the Arabian Sea, the Lakshadweep and Minicoy Islands situated on the sea lines of communication running eastwards

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

India’s security environment encompasses a complex matrix of regional and global issues and challenges. India’s strategic location and its growing global interactions require engagement on a range of issues that impact on national security with a view to securing vital national interests.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Army

The Indian Army

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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SP’s: The external threats and challenges to India’s sovereignty are evolving at a rapid rate and the nature of wars has changed. As you have seen these developments taking place in your service in the Army, what do you think should be done to arrest the decline and to restore the Army’s modernisation status? In your view which are the priority areas for ­modernisation? COAS: Army is doing its best to expedite the procurement and maximise operational readiness. We have set achievable targets and we are making steady progress. In-house measures have been initiated to reduce procurement timelines. These include strengthening of the procurement organisations, ensuring concurrent procurement activities, faster decision making and establishment of a robust monitoring mechanism. With concerted focus and special impetus on indigenisation, as reflected in the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2016, the situation will improve in the coming years. Government has implemented several policy initiates such as liberalisation of FDI policy and industrial licensing policy, simplification of export procedures, creating level playing field for Indian private and public enterprises, streamlining of offset implementation process and providing preference to ‘Buy (Indian)’, ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ categories of capital acquistion over ‘Buy (Global)’ category in DPP to make the country self-reliant in defence production. The Indian Army has identified 24 priority proposals which are critically required; the procurement for the same is being pursued on fast-track basis with support from the government. Broadly, these schemes address modernisation of our mechanised fleet, night enablement, replacement of aviation assets and empowerment of the soldier by improving battlefield transparency and facilitating decision making process. I am quite satisfied with the progress. With much coordinated effort, we have been able to ink the contract for procurement of 145 ULHs (ultra light howitzers). We have also initiated a large number of cases which are at trial or GS evaluation stage. Overall, I think we are moving well. Minor glitches will always be there and those have to be overcome.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): Having taken over the reins of our illustrious Indian Army at the start of the new year 2017 and with a fairly reasonable tenure of three years, you are in a position to make substantial changes within the force and in maintaining a cordial civil-military relationship. What will be your key result areas that you may have chalked out for yourself? Chief of the Army Staff (COAS): The vision statement and thrust areas have been enunciated by my predecessor. I find these are all encompassing, well defined and we need to continue with our efforts in realising these. An abrupt change would only cause confusion amongst the rank and file of the Army. These are reiterated as under: n Vision. Ensure capability enhancement and operational effectiveness of the Army to meet all contemporary and emerging challenges. n Key Result Areas – Ensure the highest standard of operational preparedness to meet present and emerging challenges. – Ensure force modernisation incorporating relevant contemporary technologies. – Make up critical deficiency of weapons and equipment at the earliest. – Develop requisite capacities and infrastructure with special emphasis on our northern and north-eastern borders. – Enhance inter-Services jointmanship at all levels in letter and spirit. – Ensure the highest level of security consciousness amongst our rank and file. – Optimally enhance human resource development to fully exploit the inherent strength of the Indian Army. – Improve the quality of life and living conditions of all ranks with special emphasis on the soldier. – Foster an organisational climate based on mutual respect and camaraderie amongst all ranks. – Ensure requisite welfare measures for ex-servicemen and Veer Naris.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

General Bipin Rawat, took over as the new Chief of the Army Staff on January 1, 2017. He gave his candid views on a wide range of subjects and the major challenges confronting the Indian Army and how these are being tackled institutionally.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Army

Interview Chief of the Army Staff


indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army INSAS 5.56mm Assault Rifle: (The serial production was started in 1994) Characteristics Calibre (mm) : 5.56 Muzzle velocity (m/s) : 900 Length of rifle (mm) without bayonet : 960 With bayonet : 1,110 Weight of rifle without magazine & bayonet : 4.15 Effective range (m) : 400 Range for grenade (m) Multi-mode : 200 M 36 : 150 Magazine capacity (rounds) : 20 Cyclic rate (rounds/min) : 600 to 650 Trigger pull : 2.10 to 4.00 Recoil energy (joules) : 4.43 Rifling : 6 grooves R.H 1 in 200mm. Sight : Fore sight: Post Type Rear sight: Aperture type Type of fire : Single, 3 Round Burst

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Excalibur Rifle: Under testing and may be used as an interim measure The Excalibur is a fully automatic rifle which fires 5.56mm ammunition and is an upgraded version of the current INSAS (Indian National Small Arms System) which was inducted in the mid-1900s but had a troubled history all along. The Rifle Factory, Ishapore, has produced 15 prototypes with modifications based on user feedback on reliability, weight, length, compatibility with international sights, aesthetics etc. and has been evaluated by users at the Army’s Infantry School at Mhow, Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) officials said. The army has been attempting to procure a new standard issue assault rifle for a decade. Recently, the overambitious tender for rifles with interchangeable barrels was cancelled after a fouryear process as no vendor could meet the requirements. After that, the army decided to go for 7.62mm calibre and new Staff Quality Requirements are being drawn up. Army officials said that due to this decision, Excalibur is unlikely to be adopted as the standard issue in the current form but stated that its user trials and the process for a new rifle would continue simultaneously. “There are a large number of INSAS rifles which need replacement and repairs. They need to be maintained till the new process is completed. So Excalibur can be certified and used to replace the INSAS till the new rifles are procured,” a senior officer observed.

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MBTs T-90S: Third generation Russian battle tank, entered service in 1993 Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 46.5 tonne Width, over tracks : 3.37 m Height (over turret) Roof : 2.23 m Engine : V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multifuel diesel engine, developing 840 hp Road range : 550 km Armament and Ammunition : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional ammunition. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) is an improvement of second generation main battle tank T 72 which enterd service in 1971 Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 43.5 tonne Height (turret roof ) : 2.19 m Engine : Up rated V46-6 engine; a 12-cylinder 4-stroke, V 60 turbocharged, watercooled, multi-fuel, direct injection engine developing 1,000 hp at 2,000 rpm. Power to weight ratio : 22.98 hp/tonne Max speed (on road) : 60 kmph Max speed (Cross country) : 35 to 45 kmph Gradient ability : 60° Vertical obstacle : 850mm Trench crossing : 2.6 to 2.8 m Shallow fording : 1.2 m Armament: Main : 1 x 125mm SBG coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG, AD: 1 x 12.7mm MG Elevation/depression : 16° to -6˚ Traverse : 360° Max range : 3 km Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min Ammunition loading : Auto Ammunition stowage : 44 projectiles/charges Note: Other improvements include explosive reactive armour,

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Arjun Mk II: An order for 124 additional Arjun Mk II was placed on August 9, 2010 These tanks will have substantially upgraded capabilities of firepower, mobility and protection. The Mk II variant is supposed to have nearly 89 improved features over the previous version,

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: 4 : 7,000 kg : 6 x AT-3 [ATGM]1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG coaxial (2,000 rounds) Engine : GAZ-41 V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3,400 rpm Speed : Land  :  100 kmph Water : 10 kmph Range : 750 km Armour : 14mm

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS BRDM-2 Characteristics Crew Weight Armament

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

BMP-1 3+8 BMP-2 3+7 BMP-1 12,500 kg BMP-2 14,300 kg BMP-1 6.74 m BMP-2 6.735 m BMP-1 2.94 m, BMP2 3.15 m BMP-1 2.18 m, BMP2 2.45 m Main gun BMP-1: 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP-2: 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds) Coaxial (Both): 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1,000 rounds) ATGW : BMP-1: AT-3 BMP-2: AT-5 Engine : V-16 in line water-cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp Speed : BMP-1: Land : 65 kmph Water : 7 kmph BMP-2: Land : 65 kmph Water : 7 kmph Range : 550-600 km (both) Armour : 20mm

TECHNOLOGY

BMP-1/2 Characteristics Crew : Weight : Length : Width : Height : Armament :

BUSINESS

Arjun: Third generation main battle tank, designed by DRDO, entered service in 2004 Characteristics Crew : 4 Cbt weight : 58.5 tonne Overall length : 10.638 m (with gun forward) Overall height : 3.03 m (with AD gun mount) Overall width : 3.864 m Ground pressure : 0.85 kg/cm² Armament : Main: 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm MG Main gun ammunition : 39 rounds (HESH/FSAPDS) Main gun rate of fire : 6-8 rounds/minute Fire control : Director type & electro-hydraulic ­system & gun control Night vision : Thermal imaging Ballistic computer : Digital Engine : MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled diesel developing 1,400 hp at 2,500 rpm Transmission : 4 Fwd+ 2 rev, Torque converter, Mech. Lockup clutch & hydrodynamic retarder Steering : Double radii, Mechanical steering with neutral turn Suspension : Hydro-gas Fuel : Renk transmission DHPP (A) Track : Diehl L-German Max speed : Road: 70 kmph Cross country: 40 kmph Shallow fording : 1.4 m Vertical obstacle : 0.914 m Trench crossing : 2.43 m Gradient : 35°

Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs)/Recce Vehs

Artillery 130mm M-46 Med Gun Characteristics Crew : 8 Calibre : 130mm Weight (travelling position) : 8,450 kg Elevation/depression : +45° to 2.5° Traverse : 50° (total) Projectile weight : 33.4 kg MV : 930 m/sec

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T-55 (Up Gunned) (Inducted in the Army in 1970, it played a key role in 1971 war with Pakistan) Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 43,000 kg Height : 2.26 m Armament : Main: 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2,800 rounds) Main gun ammunition : 43 rounds x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH Engine : V-2-55/V-12 diesel rated at 600 bhp Speed : 50 kmph (max) Range : 500 km Armour : 140mm

including more than 15 major technology upgrades. The development of Arjun Mark II has commenced and limited technical trials incorporating the improvements have been carried out. The project has been delayed and production is likely to take another few years. Firing anti-tank missile from the tank has not proved successful and is a major reason for delay.

REGIONAL BALANCE

integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue: Indian Army


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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In its EEZ, the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country’s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes, over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value, moves through the medium of the sea, to and from 13 major ports, and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has islands on both seaboards. To the east, more than 1,040 kilometres from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, stretching 720 kilometres from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 kilometres from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north, Myanmar (Coco Islands) lies only 35 kilometres away. To the west, about 200 kilometres from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. Other maritime interests include offshore oil and gas production sites on both the West and the East Coasts, fishing and its regulation, the ocean mining site of 75,000 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean Basin, and interests in Antarctica. India’s merchant marine is close to 10.5 million tonnes gross registered tonnage (GRT), comprising over 1,150 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India’s current oil consumption which was 3.1 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2010 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl/d by 2025. Domestic production was 0.75 million barrels per day and is projected to increase marginally. This will mean a substantial increase in oil imports, touching 80 per cent of total consumption. Most of this will come by the sea route. Any stoppages or even interruptions will inevitably have a crippling effect on the economy. Thus, India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to its survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and in war. The Navy will hopefully, in the very near future, provide the third leg of the nuclear triad, which India seeks to

INDIAN DEFENCE

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s India advances technologically, the Indian Navy is conscious of the need for greater focus on modernisation of electronic and cyber warfare capabilities, satellite communication systems and establishing the architecture for network-centric operations, including an effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capability for ensuring effective maritime domain awareness in its primary area for interest. Historically, the roles of navies worldwide can be said to comprise the military, constabulary, diplomatic and benign. The military role encompasses deterrence against war or intervention; obtaining a decisive military victory in case war does take place; security of India’s territorial integrity, citizens and offshore assets from seaborne threat (these could be from non-state actors also); influencing affairs on land; safeguarding India’s mercantile marine and maritime trade; and safeguarding India’s national interests and maritime security. The constabulary role, shared in part with the Coast Guard, includes all aspects of coastal defence, exclusive economic zone (EEZ) security and maintaining good order at sea. The diplomatic role encompasses strengthening political relations and goodwill; strengthening defence relations with friendly states; portraying a credible defence posture and capability; strengthening maritime security in the Indian Ocean region; and promoting regional and global stability. The benign role encompasses promoting civil safety and security, and projecting national soft power. The Indian Navy’s responsibilities encompass all the roles described above. The Indian Navy is responsible for safeguarding of a wide spectrum of the country’s maritime interests, comprising a coastline of 7,516.6 kilometres and an EEZ of over 2 million square kilometres, which is expected to increase to over 3.2 million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf for which India’s claim is pending resolution at the UN Convention on the Law of the Seas.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

As India advances technologically, the Indian Navy is conscious of the need for greater focus on modernisation of electronic and cyber warfare capabilities, satellite communication systems and establishing the architecture for network-centric operations, including an effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capability for ensuring effective maritime domain awareness in its primary area for interest.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

The Indian Navy

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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SP’s: Being a naval thoroughbred groomed over 38 years, you have emerged as a forthright and most competent naval commander. As the Chief of the Naval Staff what would be your message to All Hands in the Navy on their conduct and the roles and responsibilities that the nation has assigned to the Indian Navy as a whole? CNS: It is indeed a singular honour to take over the helm of our very fine service. Today, Indian Navy is the prime manifestation of maritime power of our great nation. The seas and oceans around us are not only the lifelines for domestic and international trade, but also render themselves as a rich source of natural resources. Our economic growth, development and energy requirements are very largely dependent on the oceans. There is a growing realisation of the importance of the seas, and therefore, it is no surprise that there is a resurgence of maritime interests in our country. Maritime security is accordingly high on our national security agenda. The Indian Navy remains fully aware of the responsibilities that are bestowed upon it by the nation and is maintaining a steady watch. Our processes are aimed at being operationally ready at all times capable for deployment across all spectrums of tasks. We are providing contemporary training to our personnel so that they retain their operational edge. Our maintenance philosophy ensures that we have optimum availability of assets. Finally, our support mechanisms and welfare measures are implemented in a manner so that our personnel can stay fully focused on their professional roles. I have implicit faith in the abilities of our personnel, who are our greatest strength and enablers. Our personnel are well trained, highly capable, motivated and thorough professionals to shoulder the responsibility of safeguarding the nation’s maritime frontiers and our national interests in the Indian Ocean and beyond. Our

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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given particular attention towards enhancing awareness amongst the youth, with regard to the Navy as a career option, and this is bearing desired results. After all, it is the men and women behind the machine which make Indian Navy one of the finest services.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): Heartiest congratulations on taking over the helm of the Indian Navy. What is your vision on taking Indian Navy further forward on higher growth trajectory and capability augmentation to emerge as one of the biggest and reckonable naval forces in the world? Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS): India is a maritime nation and history is replete with examples that unhindered use of the seas is critical for national prosperity. Over the years, the Indian Navy’s endeavour has been towards creating and sustaining a combat ready, technology enabled and networked force, capable of safeguarding our maritime interests and projecting appropriate maritime power in our areas of interest. In line with our vision, today the Indian Navy is a Blue Water Navy, deploying a balanced force of modern assets in all the three dimensions capable of progressing operations in the Indian Ocean Region and beyond. To protect our offshore and coastal assets, the Navy has a variety of Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) and other smaller craft, such as the Fast Attack Craft (FAC), Immediate Support Vessels (ISVs) and Fast Interceptor Craft (FIC) that operate in close coordination with various Central and State agencies to strengthen this critical area. Our Navy’s asset induction projects are being progressed as per our perspective plan, and a number of ships, submarines and aircraft would be inducted over the next few years and would significantly boost our capabilities. These include the first Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (Vikrant), destroyers, frigates, landing platform dock, corvettes, offshore patrol vessels and cadet training ships, to name a few. The years ahead would also see the growth of submarine fleet with induction of the Scorpene class submarines. The Indian Navy also plans to induct aircraft including additional P-8I long-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft, Dornier medium-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft, medium-range helicopters, naval utility helicopters, and advanced light helicopters to bolster its Naval Air Arm. The Indian Navy would also continue to operate a variety of remotely piloted aircraft. In tandem with induction of our assets, we are augmenting our infrastructure for support, maintenance and training. We have

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Admiral Sunil Lanba, the Chief of the Naval Staff, holistically addressed a wide range of contemporary maritime and security related issues in an exclusive interview with SP Guide Publications team. Details of the interaction are as follows:

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

Interview chief of the Naval staff


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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM/8773) Indian Designation : Sindhughosh Class Total No. in Service : 10 Names : Sindhughosh, Sindhudhwaj, Sindhuraj, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindhukesari, Sindhukirti, Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak, Sindhushastra Displacement (tonnes) : 2,300 surfaced; 3,100 dived Dimensions, (metres) : 73.0 x 10.0 x 6.6 Propulsion : 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels; 2 generators; 1 motor 1 shaft; 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors; 1 economic speed motor Speed (knots) : 17 Range (miles) : 6,000 at 7 kt snorting; 400 at 3 kt dived Complement : 68 (7 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 kt; TEST 71 ME anti-submarine; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg. Total of 18 weapons. Wireguided torpedo on two tubes. Other Weapons : Mines 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes, some submarines carry shoulder held SA-N-10 Igla SAM launcher placed in fin for use on surface. Countermeasures : ESM; squid head radar warning, Porpoise (Indigenous) Weapon Control : Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS Radars : Navigation; Snoop Tray; MRP-25; I-Band Sonars : MGK-400 and MGK-400 E, hull mounted, active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. MG-519; hull mounted active search; high frequency. Being replaced by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL, Bengaluru, fitted as five EKM and, in a progressive manner on submarines. Programmes : The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India

INDIAN DEFENCE

Shishumar Class Type/HDW Type 209/1500 Indian Designation : Shishumar Class Total No. in Service : 4 Names : Shishumar, Shankush, Shalki, Shankul Specifications: Displacement (tonnes) : Full Load 1,700 Dived 1,850 Dimensions length overall (metres) : 65 Beam : 8 Propulsion : Diesel-electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L diesels; 4 Siemens alternators; 1 Siemens motor; 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 22 Range (miles) : 8,000 Snorting at 8 knots 13,000 Surfaced at 10 knots Complement : 36 (8 officers) Torpedoes : 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes. S/m carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire-guided active/passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots; 12 km at 35 knots; warhead 250 kg. Mines : External strap-on type for 24 mines Countermeasures : Decoys; C303 acoustic decoys; ESM Argo Phenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry, radar warning, ESM-DR 3000 Weapon Control : Singer Librascope MKI, CCS 90-1/ISUS Radars : Surface Search, Thomson-CSF Calypso; I-Band, KH 1007/2007 Sonars : Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active/passive search and attack; Thomson Sintra DUUV-5; passive ranging and intercept, CSU 90-14 Programme : HDW concluded an agreement with Indian Navy on December 11, 1981. The first two submarines were built in West Germany and commissioned in 1986. The next two were built at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL), Mumbai, with supply of material package from HDW and commissioned in 1992 and 1994 respectively. The submarines form the 10th Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. Midlife

refit-cum-modernisation of the class has been undertaken in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Submarines

REGIONAL BALANCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy


indian defence

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Operational

Equipment Catalogue: Indian Navy

was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine has since been supplied to Algeria, Poland, Romania, Iran and China. : First four form the Eleventh Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remaining six comprise the Twelfth Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. The submarines have progressively undergone midlife modernisation refits commencing 1997, which includes installation of the Klub cruise missile and the associated Lama fire control system, new sonars, electronic warfare systems, machinery control systems and an automated information and control system for the weapon package. Sindhuvir was the first to go through this refit at Severodvinsk from 1997-99, followed by Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari at Admiralty Shipyard, St Petersburg, from 19992001. Sindhuratna, Sindhughosh, Sindhuvijay and Sindhurakshak have been refitted at Severodvinsk from 2001-03, 2002-05, 2005-07 and 2010-12 respectively. Sindhukirti has recently completed extensive refit to the same standard at the Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL), Visakhapatnam. The last two submarines are expected to be refitted at Visakhapatnam. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missiles, the surface version of this Indo-Russian 290-km-range supersonic missile.

Scorpene Class (Project 75) Displacement (tonnes) : 1,668 dived Dimensions (feet/metres) : 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels; 1 Jeumont (metres) Schneider motor; 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 20 dived, 12 surfaced Range (miles) : 550 at 5 kt dived, 6,500 at 8 kt surfaced Diving Depth : More than 300 m (984 ft) Complement : 31 (6 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes Countermeasures : ESM Weapons Control : UDS International SUBTICS Radars : Navigation; Sagem; I-Band Sonars : Hull mounted passive and attack– medium frequency Programme : Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in

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late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN, France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by early 2017 and thereafter one boat every year, to complete delivery by 2021. Design consideration provides special attention to stealth features with the hull forms, the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 anti-ship missile, the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare; intelligence gathering and special operations. Arihant Class (SSBN) Dimensions : Length – 112 m (367 ft), Beam – 15 m (49 ft), Draft – 10 m (33 ft) Displacement (tonnes) : 6,000 Propulsion : PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe); one turbine (1,11,000 hp/83 MW); one shaft; one 7-bladed, high-skew propeller (estimated) Range : Unlimited except by food supplies Speed : 12-15 knots surface, 24 knots dived Test Depth : 300 m (980 ft) (estimated) Complement : 95 Sensors and Processing Systems : BEL USHUS Integrated Sonar; Indigenous Sonar and tactical weapons control system with active, passive, ranging, surveillance and intercept sonars and underwater communication system. Armament : 6 x 533mm torpedoes, 12 x K-15 Sagarika SLBM (range 750 km, 8 MIRV each) or 4 x K-4 Shaurya SLBM (range up to 3,500 km) Launched : July 26, 2009 Status : Undergoing sea trials Programme : Arihant’s reactor turned critical in mid-August 2013 and the extensive sea trials phase is currently on. Arihant is expected to be commissioned during 2017. The second submarine of the class, reportedly named INS Aridhaman has been launched. Two more submarines of this class are expected to follow. Chakra (SSN) Indian Designation : Chakra Class Name : Chakra Displacement (tonnes) : 8,140 surfaced

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Aircraft Carriers Centaur Class Indian Designation : Total No. in Service : Specifications Displacement (tonnes) : Dimensions (metres) : Armament :

Viraat 1

Standard 23,900, 28,700 (full load) 226.9 x 48.8 x 8.8 Up to 30 aircraft including Sea Harriers FRS 51, Helos Sea Kings 42B/42C/Chetak/ Ka-31/Ka-28 Missiles : SAM 16 cell Barak VLS Guns : 2 x Bofors 40mm Sensors : Air Search RAWL-2 Air/Surface Search RAWS-8 Navigation 2 x BEL Rashmi FCS EL/M 2221 STGR for Barak SAM

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Kiev Class (Project 11430) Class : Modified Kiev Class (Ex Admiral Gorshkov) Name : Vikramaditya Displacement (tonnes) : 45,400 full load Dimensions (metres) : 283.1 x 51 x 10.2 Propulsion : 8 KWG 4 boilers, 4 GTZA674 turbines, 4 shafts, 1,40,000 hp Speed (knots) : 32 Range (nautical miles) : 13,500 at 18 kt Complement : 2,000 including aircrew Missiles : Barak or modified Barak SAM System sensor package likely Guns : 8 CADS-N-1 Kashtan CIWS, firing 10,000 rounds per gun, range 500 to 4,000 metres. Countermeasures : Decoys: 2 Pk 2 chaff launcher. 2 towed torpedo decoys ESM/ECM : Intercepts and Jammers Combat data system : Lesorub 11434 Fixed-wing aircraft : up to 24 MiG-29K Helicopters : 6x Westland Sea King 42A/42B or 10 x Ka-28ASW/Ka-31 AEW or HAL Dhruv Programme : Originally built as Baku, the carrier commissioned in the Soviet Union Navy in 1987 and served till 1996. Purchased by India in January 2004 and extensively refitted at Sevmash Shipyard, involving stripping away weapons and missiles from the fore deck and converting the ship from a hybrid carrier/cruiser to a pure STOBAR carrier, with a 14.3° ski jump and three arrestor wires. The ship was commissioned in November 2013. Modernisation : New propulsion, power and air-conditioning system retrofitted. All original

TECHNOLOGY

FCS Plessey Type 904 for guns 1 x FT-13 Tacan C Pearl system Ex Israel BEL Ajanta ESM Indigenous Kavach system Engines: 2 Vickers Armstrong Turbine 2 shafts/76,000 shp Boilers : 4 Admiralty drum type Speed (knots) : 24 Range : 6,500 miles Complement (crew) : 1,350 (43 officers) Note: The ship has a 12° ski jump for the Sea Harrier and can carry 750 troops in a commando carrier role. She has four LCVPs to land them. Originally commissioned as HMS Hermes in 1959, she was acquired by India in 1986, extensively refitted at Davenport Dockyard in UK and commissioned into the Indian Navy in 1987. She has since been given numerous refits to extend her life but is cxpected to be decommissioned in 2017. Sea Harriers FRS51 have since been decommissioned.

BUSINESS

EW : Main machinery :

INDIAN DEFENCE

: 113.3 x 13.6 x 9.7 : 1 OK 650B/OK 650M nuclear PWR; 190 MW; one OK-7 steam turbine; 43,000 hp(m); 2 OK 300 retractable electric propulsors for low speed and quiet manoeuvr ing; 750 hp(m) (552 kW); 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 28-35 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 90 (23 officers) Missiles : SLCM/SSM: Klub S 3S 54E (antiship)/3S 14 E (Land attack), NATO SS-N-27, fired from 21 in (533mm) torpedo tubes. The anti-ship version is a sea-skimmer with 200 kg warhead, 200 km range, flight altitude of 15 ft and supersonic terminal speed (2.9 Mach) in the final stage. The land-attack missile is inertially guided, subsonic (0.8 Mach), has a range of 275 km and a 400 kg warhead. SAM : SA-N-10 Igla M launcher on sail. 18 missiles A/S: Type 40 torpedo. Novator SS-N-16 Stallion fired from 650mm tubes; inertial flight to 100 km (54 n miles) Torpedoes : 8 x 21 in (533mm) tubes. Total of 40 weapons. Countermeasures : ESM: Rim Hat; intercept. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Pair or Snoop Half with back-to-back aerials on same mast as ESM. Sonars : Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503); hullmounted; passive/active search and attack; low/medium frequency. Mouse roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Skat 3 towed array; passive; very low frequency.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Dimensions (metres) Main machinery

REGIONAL BALANCE

Equipment Catalogue: Indian Navy


CONTENTS

The Indian Air Force

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dassault Aviation

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Early History The IAF was formally established on October 8, 1932, the date on which the first batch of officers was commissioned. On April 1, 1933, ‘A’ Flight of No. 1 Squadron was raised at Drigh Road, Karachi, now in Pakistan, with four Westland Wapiti aircraft and was manned by six officers and 19 airmen. The fledgling IAF saw action for the first time in 1937 during operations in the North West Frontier Province. By June 1938, the Squadron was built up to full strength with three flights of three aircraft each, 16 officers and 662 airmen. During World War II, in response to the Japanese pre-emptive strike on Pearl Harbour and Malaya, No. 1 Squadron with 12 Westland Lysander aircraft was moved to Burma on February 1, 1942. When Rangoon fell to the Japanese in April 1942, the Squadron was relocated at Risalpur and converted to Hawker Hurricane fighters. The IAF expanded rapidly growing to nine squadrons by the end of 1944. Redeployed in Burma, the IAF played a major role in the Arakan offensive which began in December 1944. In March 1945, recognition of their outstanding performance the IAF was renamed as Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF). In 1946, RIAF squadrons began to convert to the Hawker Tempest II, which has been called ‘the IAF’s first true fighter bomber’. The first RIAF transport unit, No. 12 Squadron, was also formed with Douglas C-47 Dakotas. When India attained independence on August 15, 1947, some RIAF units were transferred to Pakistan. The RIAF was left with

Nos. 3, 4, 7, 8 and 10 Squadrons equipped with Tempests, No. 2 Squadron with Spitfires and No. 12 Squadron with Dakotas. Post-independence, on October 27, 1947, the RIAF undertook an emergency task with Dakotas to airlift Indian forces into Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to thwart attempts by Pakistani-sponsored invaders to wrest control of the valley from India. Tempests and Spitfires joined the action, successfully halting their advance. The operations in J&K ended on December 31, 1948, under a United Nations-sponsored ceasefire. On January 26, 1950, when India became a Republic, the prefix ‘Royal’ was dropped. The 1950s witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process began in 1948 with the induction of the Vampire, the first combat jet of the IAF. This was followed by the induction of the Ouragan (Toofani), Mystere, Canberra, Hunter and Gnat in the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the USSR resulted in the IAF acquiring three MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963, which paved the way for subsequent induction of other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards, the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation, which also influenced the evolution of the aerospace industry in India. The Indo-Pak conflict of 1965 witnessed the IAF aggressively using the redoubtable Gnat, demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict, scoring a number of kills in the air. In the decade of the 1980s, the IAF played a key role during the operations in Sri Lanka involving the Indian Peacekeeping Force and the military intervention in the Maldives, effectively demonstrating its strategic reach by way of airlift capability for out-of-area operations. The second phase of modernisation commenced in 1979 with the induction of the British Jaguar deep penetration strike aircraft and subsequently the MiG-27, Mirage 2000 and MiG-29 aircraft. Induction of the Su-30MKI long-range, multi-role aircraft since the year 2000 has been the latest addition to the IAF’s inventory. This new weapon system marked a quantum jump in the operational capability of the IAF.

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

he Indian Air Force (IAF), the fourth largest in the world today, is the primary instrument available to the nation for the projection of air power. While in peacetime, the IAF is responsible for the security and integrity of the national air space, with the capability of providing swift and decisive response, it plays a central and critical role in war. The potential of air power to influence the outcome of war has been amply demonstrated in the Middle East and Afghanistan. In the Indian context, the IAF played a critical role in the conflict with Pakistan in 1999 over Kargil.

TECHNOLOGY

Over the years the Indian Air Force has grown from a tactical to a strategic force, capable of protecting national security interests that extend from the Gulf to the Strait of Malacca.


CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s: Despite the huge investments in efforts at indigenisation of the Indian defence industry, the nation continues to be heavily dependent of foreign sources even for basic equipment. What new steps are needed to strengthen indigenous capability? CAS: The Indian Air Force is very keen on building capabilities at home and is contributing towards strengthening the indigenous defence production base. The Defence Procurement Procedure 2016 (DPP 2016) includes a number of provisions to encourage local research and development and enhance indigenous content in all our defence procurements. As part of indigenisation and the drive to obtain key technologies, efforts have been made to include private sector in the production of defence equipment. Indigenously-built advanced light helicopter, light combat helicopter, light utility helicopter and ground-based systems are planned for induction in the future.

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

SP’s: What are your views on the establishment of a Space Command? Should this organisation remain with the IAF or acquire a Tri-Service character? CAS: The Ministry of Defence (MoD) has conveyed that creation of Space Command would be considered only after 2020. As an interim measure, a Defence Space Agency (DSA) has been formed to address the issues related to the Services. The DSA would exercise control over space-related joint defence assets and units. The IAF will be the main contributor to the DSA with its inherent expertise; but to achieve an all-encompassing defence oriented capability and exploitation, a Tri-Service structure would be essential.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES SP’s: Recent wars have shown that air power is the most predominant tool in war-fighting and it is also becoming the ‘weapon of first choice’. In your view, is the IAF receiving adequate funding to meet its requirements for building the requisite capability? CAS: Air power needs to be in a position to dominate the entire spectrum of conflict in an expanded area of interest. However, these aspirations need to be prioritised given budgetary constraints that are bound to arise for the nation for the next many years. Though there has been a declining trend in percentage of GDP being allocated for the defence forces, the IAF, through its proper planning and prioritisation, has ensured that capac-

ity building is not adversely affected and our operational edge is maintained while limiting the expenditure to within the boundaries of the allocations made in the annual defence budget for the IAF. The government has assured the IAF that the necessary funds will be made available to ensure credible deterrent capabilities at all times and against all adversaries.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): What is your vision for the Indian Air Force (IAF) vis-à-vis the emerging regional power status of the nation? What steps need to be taken in broad terms to enable the IAF to match the aspirations of the nation? Chief of the Air Staff (CAS): With the growing regional power status of the nation comes increased economic and energy needs and ever expanding geopolitical space of interest. The Indian Air Force should be in a position to ensure that these interests are safeguarded. A larger expanse presents with it greater number and types of threats, for which the Indian Air Force will have to build its capabilities. The vision of the Indian Air Force includes growing to be a multispectral strategic force capable of addressing both the current and anticipated future challenges. Aerospace power is likely to be both the first responder to a crisis and the lead agency to prosecute war and hence the Indian Air Force needs to be strong and ever adaptable to a changing environment at all times. Our capability development plans are continuously revised to factor in these realities. Our current force levels are below the desired state; but we have optimised our force application plans with available resources to protect our national interest. With implementation of our acquisition plans, this capability will significantly improve.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Air Chief Marshal Birender Singh Dhanoa took over as the 25th Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) on January 1, 2017. In a brief interaction with SP Guide Publications soon after taking over as the CAS, the Air Chief Marshal shared his vision for the Indian Air Force, the daunting challenges confronting the organisation and elaborated on some of the measures in hand to deal with these.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Interview Chief of the Air Staff


Number in Service

: Flogger-J : USSR : Single-seat variable geometry strike fighter. : 90. Planned to be retired from service by 2017

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BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Mikoyan MiG-27M NATO reporting name Country of origin Type

INDIAN DEFENCE

Mikoyan MiG-21MF/Bis/Bison/ NATO reporting names : Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) Country of origin : USSR. Manufactured under licence In India by the HAL Type : Single-seat multi-role fighter Number in Service : All variants 192 Year of Induction : 1964 Construction Wings : Delta plan form with a 2° anhedral and 57° sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage : Circular section all metal semi-tail unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics, and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type, mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant : One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9,400 lb dry and 14,000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2,750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis & Bison are powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15,000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit : K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment : ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30-km lock on range. ARK radio compass, IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament : One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23/2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally & up to 2,500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2*1,000 lb, RVV-AE, R-73/R-60 AAMs, S-24 and UB80/UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wingspan : 7.15 m Length : 16.10 m, including pilot boom Height : 4.5 m

Wing area : 23.45 m² Weights Take-off (combat) : 8,750 kg Max take-off : 10,500 kg Performance Max speed Above 10,000 m : Mach 2.23 At sea level : Mach 1.1 Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) : 390 km Max rate of climb : 6,500 m/min G Limits : + 7/–1.5 Note 1: While the ‘FL’ version of MiG-21 was finally retired from service in December 2013, a fleet of 96 MiG-21Bison aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following: •  Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which, in combination with the active homing RVV-AE, beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a ‘fire-and-forget’ capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer, the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft’s overall air-to-surface capability. •  The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales monolith ring laser gyro-based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. •  The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian-made liquid crystal multi-function display and a head-up display. •  Additional avionics include a HAL-made INCOM jam ­resistant communications equipment and Tarang, RWR equipment. •  An Israeli video recording system has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. Note 2: The MiG-21 MF fleet of 80 aircraft is being phased out and the 96 MiG-21Bison aircraft are to remain in service till 2019.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Combat Aircraft

REGIONAL BALANCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian air Force


indian defence

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Year of Induction Construction Wings

: 1985

: Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16°, 45° and 72°. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers/lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage : Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions. Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Cockpit : KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Bulletproof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23mm calibre shells. Power Plant : One Tumansky R-29 17,500 lb/st dry 25, 35 lb/st reheat turbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6,700 litres. Avionics and Systems : KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone, VHF/UHF, IFF equipment. Doppler nav/attack system and radar altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Duck nose houses Laser ranging/targeting equipment. Doppler nav/attack system with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav/attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception/broadband ECM equipment and Flare/chaff dispensers. Armament : One GSh-23/6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5,000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal, Beluga, FAB 500/750, FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L/T ASMs are also available. Dimensions Wingspan : 16°: 14.30 m; 72°: 8.21 m Length overall : 18.15 m Height overall : 5.55 m Wing area : 27.45 m2 Weights Empty : 8,200 kg Clean : 15,780 kg Max take-off : 20,250 kg Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 1.9

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Equipment Catalogue: Indian Air Force

At sea level : Mach 1.3 Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) : 600 km Turn rate : Max 20°/sec; sustained 14°/sec G Limits : Normal +7.5/-1.5; Ultimate +10/-3 Note: About 50 MiG-27 aircraft have been given midlife upgrade at the HAL Nasik Division. Mikoyan MiG-29A/B NATO reporting name Country of origin Type Number in Service Year of Induction Construction Wings

Fuselage

Tail Unit

Power Plant

Cockpit

Avionics

: Fulcrum : USSR : Single-seat air superiority fighter : 54 : 1986 : Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42°, with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. : Semi-monocoque all-metal structure, sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. : Twin vertical fins swept back at 40°, and canted outward at 7°, with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tailplanes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tailplanes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15 per cent of construction is believed to be of carbon-boron composite materials. : Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11,250 lb dry and 18,500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising/lowering of nose-wheel on take-off/ landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4,000 litres with a provision for a single 750-litre drop tank to be carried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. : K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a twopiece blister design. : NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO ‘Slot Back’) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100-km detection and 70-km track range with full look up/down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up/down shoot down IRST on nose on star-board side. Navattack computers, HUD, helmetmounted sights operable up to 40° off the axis. Advanced 360° passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF/ UHF communication systems. AoA indicator, radar altimeter, 3-axis auto

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Year of Induction Construction Wings

Fuselage

: UK/France : 102 Type: Single-seat deep strike and maritime strike aircraft : 1979 : Cantilever shoulder wing monoplane, with 3° anhedral and 40° sweepback. Outer panels are fitted with slats. No ailerons, lateral control is through two section spoilers outside of flaps, used in conjunction with tailplanes differentially. : All metal structure in three sections makes up fuselage, with honeycomb panels around cockpit and engines. Fixed box type lateral air intakes. Two door type air brakes immediately aft of main wheel bays.

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Sepecat Jaguar Country of origin Number in Service

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dimensions Wingspan : 9.13 m Length : 14.36 m Height : 5.03 m Wing area : 41 m² Weights Empty : 7,500 kg Combat : 11,000 kg Max take-off : 15,000 kg Performance Max speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 2.2 At sea level : Mach 1.2 Max climb rate : 56,000 ft/min Service ceiling : 53,000 ft Combat radius (hi-lo-hi) : 750 km G Limits : +9/-3 Note: Mirage fleet of the IAF is undergoing midlife upgrade 2000-05 Mk II standard at an approximate cost of $2.1 billion (`13,650 crore). Four aircraft upgraded in France have already been delivered. The remaining aircraft will be upgraded in India at HAL with ToT from French OEMs. Upgrade of the Mirage 2000 fleet is expected to be completed by 2021 after which it is expected to remain in service till 2040.

TECHNOLOGY

Accommodation

BUSINESS

Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Country of origin : France Type : Single-seat multi-role fighter Number in Service : 49 Year of Induction : 1985 Construction Wings : Low wing delta monoplane with leading edge sweepback of 58°. Full span twin segment leading edge flaps. Two section trailing edge elevons of full length with carbon-fibre skin and light alloy honeycomb core. Air brakes above and below each wing. Fuselage : Conventional structure, waisted tail unit according to the area rule. Small fixed strakes over each air intake. Cantilever vertical fin with inset rudder only comprises the tail unit. Rudder actuated by fly-by-wire system. Sweepback on fin leading edge 45°. Power Plant : One Snecma M-53 P-2 Turbofan rated thrust at 14,462 lb dry and 21,385 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity of 3,980 litres with provision for drop tanks and inboard wing pylons. Detachable inflight refuelling probe forward of cockpit on starboard side. Avionics : Quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system. Invertors, transformers and battery units. Thomson-CSF RDM multimode radar. Sager Uliss-52 inertial platform, ESD Type 2,984 central digital computer and digibus. Comprehensive

Armament

INDIAN DEFENCE

Dimensions Wingspan : 11.40 m Length overall : 17.34 m Height overall : 4.75 m Wing area : 35.35 m² Weights Empty : 8,340 kg Normal Interceptor role : 15,750 kg Max take-off : 20,000 kg Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 2.35 At sea level : Mach 1.06 Max combat radius : 650 km G Limits : +9.0/-3 Note: Midlife upgrade of the fleet has been completed and the upgraded aircraft are likely to remain in service till 2025.

ECM active/passive suite. VHF/UHF communications suite, HUD, Navattack computer, etc. Patric/Litening pods. : Two underbelly 30mm DEFA cannons with 125 rounds each. The aircraft can carry up to 13,890 lb of ordnance on nine external hard points. Options include various AAMs including R-73, Magic II & R-530D. Alternatively ­various types of ground attack weaponry including laser-guided bombs can be carried. : F-10Q zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Armament

stabilisation system, auto pilot, deception jammer in wing root. : 1 GSh-301 30mm cannon in port wing root, with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73, R-27R, R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3,500 kg on six external hard points.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Equipment Catalogue: Indian Air Force


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

Roles and Responsibilities The role of ICG is defined in the Coast Guard Act of 1978 and is as follows: n To protect the maritime and other national interests in the maritime zones of India. n Ensuring the safety and protection of artificial islands, offshore terminals, installations and other structures and devices in any maritime zone. n Providing protection to fishermen including assistance to them at sea while in distress. n To preserve and protect the maritime environment and to prevent and control marine pollution. n Assisting the customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. n Necessary measures for the safety of life and property at sea. n Undertake collection of scientific data.

Additional Responsibilities Since its inception, the ICG has been given many additional responsibilities. Besides the duties and functions provided in the ICG Act, the ICG supports other ministries, as provided by the

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Organisation The Coast Guard Headquarters is located at New Delhi. The field functions are executed by a Coast Guard Commander, Western Seaboard situated in Mumbai and by the five Regional Headquarters located at Gandhinagar, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Port Blair. Under these Regional Headquarters, there are 14 District Headquarters, located along the coastal states and Union territories of India. There are 17 co-located stations and 25 independent Coast

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

legislation enacted by the Government of India. The support roles undertaken are as follows: n Enforcement of anti-poaching measures, monitoring and surveillance of deep sea fishing vessels. n Search and rescue for merchant ships. n Marine oil pollution response measures. n Lead intelligence agency for coastal and sea borders. n Protection of sensitive marine flora and endangered marine ­species. n Authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. In pursuance of its missions, the Director General Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) has also been designated as: n Chairman, National Maritime Search and Rescue Board (NMSARB). n Chairman, National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan Committee (NOSDCP). n Chairman, Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC). n Indian Governor to Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery (ReCAAP) against ships in Asia. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) measuring 2.01 million square kilometres. It is entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of a peninsular nation that harbours 12 major ports and 187 minor ports. Some of the significant achievements of the Indian Coast Guard in pursuit of its vast charter of duties can be seen at Appendix A.

INDIAN DEFENCE

T

he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18, 1978, predominantly to undertake the peacetime tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India, with a view to protect maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The ICG functions under the Ministry of Defence, primarily for nonmilitary maritime security functions. It has a military function during a war scenario when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates seconded from the Indian Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The various types of units envisaged for induction include Offshore Patrol Vessels, Pollution Control Vessels, Fast Patrol Vessels, Interceptor Boats and shallow water craft. In addition, aircraft such as multi-mission maritime aircraft, coastal surveillance aircraft and twin-engine heavy and light helicopters, are also envisaged in these plans.

REGIONAL BALANCE

ICG

Indian Coast Guard

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard Surface Platforms Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Samar Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 1,604, Deep 2,000 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 102 x 11.5 x 3.64 m Flight Deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 4,710 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16 PA6V280) Speed (knots) : 22 Range (n miles) : 6,000 at 15 Kn Complement (crew) : 128 (including 15 officers)

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Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Sankalp Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light , 1,740, Deep 2,230 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 105 x 12.9 x 3.64 m Flight Deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 7,710 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 20 PA6BSTC) Speed (knots) : 23.5 Range (n miles) : 6,500 at 12 Kn Complement (crew) : 128 (including 15 officers)

Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Flight deck Main Machinery

: Indian built : Light 1,500, Deep 1,840

: 94 x 12.2 x 3.6 m : Integral Helo : 2 Diesels, 9,000 kW each (MTU 20 V 8000 M90) Speed (knots) : 26 Range (n miles) : 4,500 at 14 Kn Complement (crew) : 110 (including 10 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Samarth Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built (M/s GSL) Displacement (in tonnes) : 2350 (approx) at full load displacement Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 105m x 13.60m x 3.65 m Flight Deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 9100 KW each (MTU, 20V 8000 M90) Speed (knots) : 23 Range (n miles) : 6,000 at cruising speed (12-14 knots) Complement (crew) : 112 (including 14 officers)

Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vikram Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 992, Deep 1,180 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 74 x 11.4 x 3.2 m Flight deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 4,710 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16PA6V280) Speed (knots) : 22 Range (n miles) : 8,500 at 11 Kn Complement (crew) : 108 (including 10 officers)

Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) Samudra Prahari Class Total No. in Service : 3 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 3,196, Deep 3,946 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 94 x 15.5 x 4.5 m Flight deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 3,000 kW each (Bergen B32, 40 L6P) & 883 kW Ulstein Aquamaster bow thruster Speed (knots) : 20 (Ship is capable of cruising at 0.2 knots speed during oil skimming mode with bow thruster) Range (n miles) : 6,000 at 14 knots Complement (crew) : 112 (including 12 officers)

Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vishwast Class Total No. in Service : 3

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Priyadarshini Class Total No. in Service : 4

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CONTENTS

Equipment Catalogue: Indian Coast Guard

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs) Rani Abbakka Class Total No. in Service : 3 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 269, Deep 349 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 51 x 8.36 x 2.1 m Main Machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M 90) Speed (knots) : 34 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 16 knots Complement (crew) : 35 (including 6 officers) Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs) Rajshree Class Total No. in Service : 8 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 244, Deep 303 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 48.9 x 7.5 x 2.1 m Main Machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M90) Speed (knots) : 34 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 16 knots Complement (crew) : 35 (including 6 officers) Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs) Aadesh Class Total No. in Service : 18 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 209.75, Deep 270

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Interceptor Boats (IBs) C-141 Class Total No. in Service : 13 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 62, Deep 81 Dimensions (LOAxBxT) : 26 x 6.6 x 1.7 m Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 2720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M90) Speed (knots) : 45 Range (n miles) : 500 at 25 knots Complement (crew) : 10 (including 02 officers) Interceptor Boats (IBs) C-154 Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 54, Deep 68.93 Dimensions (LOAxBxT) : 28.75 x 6.20 x 3.43 m Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 1,630 kW each (MTU 16V 2000 M 92) Speed (knots) : 35 Range (n miles) : 500 at 20 knots Complement (crew) : 10 (including 2 officers) Interceptor Boats (IBs) C-401 Class Total No. in Service : 27 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 82, Deep 103 Dimensions (LOAxBxT) : 27.8 x 6.4 x 1.27 m Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 2,525 kW each (Caterpillar 3516C)

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Sarojini Naidu Class Total No. in Service : 7 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 235, Deep 259 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 48 x 7.5 x 2 m Main Machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M90) Speed (knots) : 35 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 12 knots Complement (crew) : 35 (including 6 officers)

Interceptor Boats (IBs) C-131 Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 31.5 , Deep 40.208 Dimensions (LOAxBxT) : 21.45 x 8.2 x 1.63 m Main Machinery : 3 Diesels, 2 x 823 kW (MWM 234 TBD V12) & 1 x 410 kW (MWM 234 TBD V08) Speed (knots) : 25 Range (n miles) : 489 at 12-14 knots Complement (crew) : 8 (including 2 officers)

BUSINESS

: 46 x 7.5 x 2 m : 2 Diesels, 1,480 kW each (MTU 12V 538 TB 82) Speed (knots) : 23 Range (n miles) : 2,400 at 14 knots Complement (crew) : 34 (including 6 officers)

: 50.0 x 8.2 x 1.63 m : 3 Diesels, 2,720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M90) Speed (knots) : 33 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 12 knots Complement (crew) : 35 (including 6 officers)

INDIAN DEFENCE

: Light 165, Deep 215

Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Main Machinery

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

: Indian built

REGIONAL BALANCE

Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Main Machinery


CONTENTS

Prime Minister......................................................................................................................................... Narendra Modi Minister of Defence................................................................................................................................. Manohar Parrikar Minister of State for Defence.................................................................................................................. Subhash Ramrao Bhamre

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Ministry of Defence Department Defence Secretary................................................................................................................................... G. Mohan Kumar Director General (Acquisition) ............................................................................................................. Smita Nagraj Joint Secretary (Public Grievances & Coordination)............................................................................ M. Subbarayan Joint Secretary (Air, Ceremonial & Border Roads)............................................................................... Bharat Khera Joint Secretary (Planning and International Cooperation)................................................................. Shambhu S. Kumaran Joint Secretary (Army, Ordnance, QMG).............................................................................................. Jiwesh Nandan Joint Secretary (Navy, Medical, Training)............................................................................................. Devika Raghuvanshi Joint Secretary (Works & Lands) & CVO............................................................................................... Manish Thakur Joint Secretary (Establishment, CAO)................................................................................................... V. Anandarajan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems)...................................................................... Deepak Anurag Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems)........................................................... Jayant Sinha Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air) ........................................................................................ Rajeev Verma Technical Manager (Land Systems) ...................................................................................................... Major General S.S. Hasabnis Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems............................................................................................. Rear Admiral I.P.S. Bali Technical Manager (Air)......................................................................................................................... Air Vice Marshal G. Raveendranath Department of Defence Production Secretary (Defence Production) ............................................................................................................ Ashok Kumar Gupta Additional Secretary (Defence Production).......................................................................................... Surina Rajan Joint Secretary (Land Systems).............................................................................................................. Sanjay Prasad In-Charge Joint Secretary (Aerospace).................................................................................................. Rajib Kumar Sen Joint Secretary (Naval Systems)............................................................................................................. Vijayendra Joint Secretary (Personnel and Coordination)..................................................................................... Kusum Singh Joint Secretary (Defence Industrial Promotion)................................................................................... Sanjay Garg Advisor (Cost).......................................................................................................................................... L.M. Kaushal

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BUSINESS

Union Government

INDIAN DEFENCE

President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.................................................................... Pranab Mukherjee Vice President.......................................................................................................................................... Mohammad Hamid Ansari

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (as on January 13, 2017)

REGIONAL BALANCE

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


CONTENTS

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

Pranab Mukherjee

Prime Minister of India On October 2, 2014, Mahatma Gandhi’s Birth Anniversary, the Prime Minister launched ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ a mass movement for cleanliness across the nation. His foreign policy initiatives have realised the true potential and role of world’s largest democracy, India, on the world stage. Born on September 17, 1950, in a small town in Gujarat, he grew up in a poor but loving family ‘without a spare rupee’. The initial hardships of life not only taught the value of hard work but also exposed him to the avoidable sufferings of the common people. This inspired him from a very young age to immerse himself in the service of people and the nation. In the year 2001, he became the Chief Minister of his home state Gujarat and went on to serve a record four terms as Chief Minister. He transformed Gujarat into a growth engine that makes a strong contribution to India’s development. Narendra Modi is a ‘People’s Leader’, dedicated to solving their problems and improving their well-being.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

On May 26, 2014, Narendra Modi took oath as the Prime Minister of India, becoming the first ever Prime Minister to be born after India attained Independence. Dynamic, dedicated and determined, Narendra Modi reflects the aspiration and hope of over a billion Indians. Ever since he assumed office in May 2014, Prime Minister Modi has embarked on a journey of all-round and inclusive development where every Indian can realise her/his hopes and aspirations. He remains deeply inspired by the principle of ‘Antyodaya’, of serving the last person in the queue. He has launched the Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana marking a paradigm shift in ensuring that every citizen is included in the financial system of the nation. His clarion call for ‘Make in India’ complimented by a focus on making business easy has stimulated unprecedented vigour and enterprise among investors and entrepreneurs. Labour reforms and dignity of labour under the ‘Shrameva Jayate’ initiative has empowered several workers of small and medium industries, also providing a boost to our skilled youth.

TECHNOLOGY

Narendra Modi

BUSINESS

spearheading critical decisions of the government on a range of issues such as administrative reforms, right to information, right to employment, food security, energy security, information technology and telecommunication, setting up of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), Metro Rail Corporation, etc, through chairmanship of over 95 Groups of Ministers (GoMs) constituted for the purpose. In the 1970s and 1980s, he was instrumental in setting up the Regional Rural Banks (1975) and the EXIM Bank of India as well as National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (1981-82). An eloquent orator and scholar, Mukherjee’s intellectual and political prowess as well as remarkable knowledge of international relations, financial affairs and parliamentary process are widely admired.

INDIAN DEFENCE

A man of unparalleled experience in governance with the rare distinction of having served at different times as Foreign, Defence, Commerce and Finance Minister, Pranab Mukherjee assumed office as the 13th President of India on July 25, 2012. After his post-graduation in history and political science, and a degree in law from the University of Calcutta, he embarked on his professional life as a college teacher and journalist. In 1969, he plunged into full-time public life following his election to the Upper House of the Parliament (Rajya Sabha). Mukherjee was elected to the Rajya Sabha five times and twice to the Lower House of the Parliament (Lok Sabha). He was a member of the Congress Working Committee, the highest policy-making body of the party, for 23 years. During the period 2004-12, Mukherjee was instrumental in

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

President of India & Supreme Commander of Armed Forces


indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

General Bipin Rawat Chief of the Army Staff

General Bipin Rawat took over as the 27th Chief of the Army Staff on January 1, 2017. He was commissioned in the 5th Battalion of the 11 Gorkha Rifles in December 1978, from IMA, Dehradun, where he was awarded the ‘Sword of Honour’. The officer has vast experience in high altitude warfare and counter-insurgency operations and has considerable staff and instructional experience. His important command assignments include an Infantry battalion, along the line of actual control (LAC) in the Eastern Sector, a Rashtriya Rifles Sector, an Infantry Division in the Kashmir Valley, and a Corps in the North East. The officer also commanded a Multinational Brigade in a Chapter VII mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MOUNSCO). As an Army Cdr, he was the GOC-in-C of Southern

Command before taking over as the Vice Chief of the Army Staff in Delhi. General Rawat’s staff and instructional assignments include an instructional tenure at IMA, Dehradun; General Staff Officer at the Military Operations Directorate; Logistics Staff Officer of a Division in Central India; Deputy Military Secretary in the Military Secretary’s Branch; and Senior Instructor, Junior Command Wing. He has been Major General General Staff of the Eastern Theatre. He is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, the Higher Command and National Defence College courses and, has attended the US Army Command and General Staff College course at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He is recipient of UYSM, AVSM, YSM, SM, VSM awards.

Admiral Sunil Lanba Chief of the Naval Staff

Admiral Sunil Lanba was promoted as the 23rd Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) on May 31, 2016. He is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla; Defence Services Staff College, Wellington; College of Defence Management, Secunderabad; and Royal College of Defence Studies, London. He is a navigation and direction specialist who has served as the navigation and operations officer onboard numerous ships in both the Eastern and Western Fleet. His sea tenures include command of Indian Navy ship Kakinada, a specialised mine countermeasure vessel, Himgiri, Ranvijay, a Kashin class destroyer and Mumbai, the indigenous Delhi class destroyer. He has also been the Executive Officer of INS Viraat and

the Fleet Operations Officer of the Western Fleet. On elevation to the Flag rank, he has held several significant assignments including the Chief of Staff, Southern Naval Command and the Flag Officer Sea Training before he took over as the Flag Officer Commanding, Maharashtra and Gujarat Naval Area. On promotion to Vice Admiral, he was the Chief of Staff, Eastern Naval Command, Commandant of National Defence College and the Vice Chief of Naval Staff. Prior to taking over as CNS he was the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern and Western Naval Commands. He is recipient of PVSM and AVSM awards. On January 1, 2017, Admiral Sunil Lanba has taken over as the Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee.

Air Chief Marshal B.S. Dhanoa

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Chief of the Air Staff

Air Chief Marshal Birender Singh Dhanoa took over as the 25th Chief of the Air Staff on January 1, 2017. Commissioned into the Flying Branch of the IAF as a fighter pilot in June 1978, Air Chief Marshal Dhanoa is a Cat ‘A’ Qualified Flying Instructor and has over 3,000 hours of flying on a variety of fighter aircraft with an impeccable flight safety record. He is an alumnus of Rashtriya Indian Military College, the National Defence Academy and the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington. The Air Chief Marshal has several laurels to his credit. As Commanding Officer of a front line ground attack fighter squadron, equipped with MiG-21 aircraft, he led the IAF during the ‘limited war’ against Pakistan in 1999 to evict the enemy from the icy heights of Kargil. He

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has held a number of command and staff appointments at operational commands, Joint Training Establishments and Air Headquarters. He has been Director Targeting Cell and Director Fighter Operations, Assistant Chief of Air Staff (Intelligence) at Air Headquarters, Senior Air Staff Officer at Eastern and Western Air Commands as also the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief at South Western Air Command. For his experience and professional excellence, he was handpicked to establish an ‘IAF Training Team’ abroad. Before taking over as the Chief of the Air Staff, he was the Vice Chief of the Air Staff since June 1, 2015. In recognition of his meritorious services, he has been conferred the awards of PVSM, AVSM, YSM and VM by the President of India.

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indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian defence Public Sector Undertakings T. Suvarna Raju

Chairman and Managing Director, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited T. Suvarna Raju is an engineering graduate with an MBA (Marketing), M.Phil in Defence Strategies Studies and post-graduate diploma in intellectual property rights laws from the National Law School of India University. He is also an alumnus of National Defence College. Raju joined the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) on June 26, 1980, as management trainee and has worked in different capacities at HAL Aircraft Division, Overhaul Division before taking over as Director Design & Development on February 1, 2012. He is a firm believer that ‘Best of technology can never be bought, it can only be developed’. With this vision to transform the company into a technology powerhouse, he has been instrumental in taking various path-breaking measures to make R&D set up of HAL more competitive. He has the experience in various facets of aerospace business and is currently steering a lot of futuristic projects

such as UAVs, FGFA, MTA, civil aircraft development programme, etc. He has had an illustrious career at HAL and has contributed towards success of Jaguar production and overhaul facilities establishment at HAL. He was instrumental in transfer of technology of Hawk Mk 132 aircraft. He has been a member of various studies constituted by Indian defence services, be it for life extension of existing fleets or investigations into accidents and has received commendations for his professional involvement and contributions. He is considered an authority on performance based logistics (PBL) and has pioneered the concept in the country. He is a highly professional and competent executive. The Aeronautical Society of India has conferred him with Dr Biren Roy Trust Award for the year 2002 for his unstinted efforts in planning and establishment of new technologies at HAL.

M.V. Gowtama

Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Electronics Limited

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M.V. Gowtama has taken charge as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Electronics Limited on November 8, 2016. He completed his B.Tech in electronics and communications from Sri Venkateswara University College of Engineering in Tirupati in 1983 and joined BEL, Ghaziabad unit, in the same year as a probationary engineer. He was initially posted to the D&E-Radar Division where he contributed to the development of receiver subsystem of cyclone warning radar which won the R&D award. He was transferred to the Hyderabad unit in May 1986 where he worked in the D&E, testing, system integration, installation & com-

missioning groups of Ajanta project till 1998. He completed M.Tech in advanced electronics from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, while in service. From 1998 to 2006, he worked on the Sangraha programme of the Indian Navy and with his team developed different ESM systems for submarines, helicopters, medium and long-range aircraft. Gowtama took over as GM (Technology Planning) at BEL Corporate Office, on February 1, 2010. Later he served as GM (Milcom) at BEL in Bengaluru and was Executive Director (Missile Systems) at BEL in Bengaluru till his elevation as Chairman and Managing Director of BEL.

D.K. Hota

Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Earth Movers Limited D.K. Hota has assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director with effect from July 1, 2016. He joined the Board of BEML Limited on July 1, 2013, as Director (Human Resources). Hota has graduated in economics honours from St. Stephen’s College in Delhi and post-graduation in HR from XLRI. He has

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over three decades of professional experience in HR and business and served in various capacities in the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) including CEO of HPCL Biofuels. Prior to joining BEML, he was heading the Natural Gas Division of HPCL in Mumbai.

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS

Participation by the Private Sector With the strategic objective of achieving self-reliance in defence production, the DDP has been making continuous effort to indigenise defence manufacturing wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. In May 2001, the defence industry sector which was hitherto reserved for the PSUs was opened for 100 per cent participation by the Indian private sector with foreign direct investment (FDI) limit at 26 per cent, both subject to licensing. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) issued detailed guidelines for the licensing of the production of arms and ammunition. In July 2013, the government decided to increase FDI in the defence industry from 26 to 49 per cent. However, FDI beyond 26 per cent and up to 49 per cent was restricted to high-end technologies and was to be considered on a case-to-case basis, after clearance from the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS). The Indian defence industry, held under leash for long because of a conservative approach that had restricted investment in this segment by the private sector effectively to 26 per cent. However, participation by the private sector in the Indian defence industry is now poised for a quantum leap as the NDA Government has permitted 100 per cent FDI making it easier to obtain sanction for large and capital-intensive projects. The situation is expected to change dramatically in the coming years as the government has implemented the new Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2016 under which procedures for the procurement of military hardware has been simplified. Coupled with the ‘Make in India’ campaign, the NDA Government aims to build a credible military industrial complex that can propel India to emerge as an exporter of military hardware.

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

technology. Production and turnover of OFs and the DPSUs have been increasing steadily to meet the increasing requirements of the armed forces. The website of the department http://www. ddpmod.gov.in has been functional since January 1, 2013.

INDIAN DEFENCE

E

stablished in November 1962, the Department of Defence Production (DDP) was mandated to develop a comprehensive industrial infrastructure to achieve selfreliance in defence production. Over the years, the department has established wide ranging facilities for the production of a variety of defence equipment by Ordnance Factories (OF) and defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs). Products include arms and ammunition, tanks, armoured vehicles, heavy vehicles, earth-moving equipment, combat aircraft, helicopters, warships, submarines, missiles, electronic equipment, special alloys and special purpose steel. The DDP has the following organisations under it: n Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) n Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) n Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) n Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) n Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) n Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) n Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) n Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSE) n Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) n Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) n Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) n Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) n Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) n Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) n Directorate of Planning and Coordination (Dte of P&C) n National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) The OFs and the DPSUs have been on a constant drive to modernise, upgrade the capabilities and expand the range of products. They have developed a number of products indigenously and have acquired capabilities in various fields through transfer of

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Indian defence industry is now poised for a quantum leap as the NDA Government has permitted 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) making it easier to obtain sanction for large and capital-intensive projects. Coupled with the ‘Make in India’ campaign, the NDA Government aims to build a credible military industrial complex that can propel India to emerge as an exporter of military hardware.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

INDIAN DEFENCE INDUSTRY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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TECHNOLOGY

SP’s: The new DPP 2016 is being referred to as game changer for the sector. How do you see it altering the Indian defence growth story? Secretary: The new Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2016

SP’s: In your opinion, what are the new key points of DPP 2016 for a foreign OEM looking at Indian market? Secretary: India is in the midst of modernising its armed forces and it is estimated that $250 billion will be spent on capital procurement in the next 10 years. In the new Defence Procurement Procedure 2016, ‘Buy (Indian-IDDM)’, ‘Buy (Indian)’, ‘Buy & Make (Indian)’ are the most preferred categories which means that increasingly request for proposals (RFP) will be issued to the domestic industry. The only way for the foreign OEMs to leverage domestic demand is to tie up with domestic companies either for collaborative R&D followed by production or through transfer of technology for production through joint ventures or they can set up their own manufacturing base. In addition, a numbers of potential ‘Make’ projects have been identified by the department; which are likely to follow ‘Make’ procedure for development-cum-procurement. The foreign OEMs can collaborate with the Indian vendor, the prime contractor, for development for defence equipment. Provisions have also been introduced to allow foreign OEM to select Indian production agency of its choice for transfer of technology for maintenance infrastructure.

BUSINESS

has come into effect from April 1, 2016. It focuses on achieving the ‘Make in India’ vision by according priority to ‘Buy (Indian– IDDM)’ and ‘Buy (Indian)’ categories. It also mandates increased indigenous content. The ‘Make’ procedure has been simplified with provisions for funding of 90 per cent of development cost by the government to Indian industry and earmarking projects not exceeding development cost of `10 crore (government funded) and `3 crore (industry funded) for the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). This would create an ecosystem in defence manufacturing by harnessing the capabilities of Indian private sector specially MSMEs and inculcate the R&D culture in the sector.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): What is your vision for India’s domestic defence industry in terms of defence production? Secretary, Defence Production (Secretary): As India is transforming from a regional power to a global power, the defence sector is increasingly occupying a bigger space in the country’s long-term strategic planning. A confident and resurgent Indian defence industry is making forays into almost all the sectors of manufacturing. Lately, the huge opportunities for growth within the domestic and global defence and aerospace industries have attracted the attention of Indian industry. It is pertinent to mention here that the Defence Production Policy promulgated by the government aims at achieving substantive self-reliance in the design, development and production of equipment, weapon systems, platforms required for defence in as early a time frame as possible, creating conditions conducive for private industry to play an active role in this endeavour; enhancing potential of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in indigenisation and broadening the defence R&D base of the country. Pursuant to the above policy and ‘Make in India’ initiative, the government aims to make the country self-reliant in defence production, through various initiatives. Several policy initiatives have already been implemented by the government such as liberalisation of FDI (foreign direct investment) policy and industrial licensing policy, simplification of export procedures, creating level playing field for Indian private and public sector companies, streamlining of offset implementation process, providing preference to ‘Buy (Indian Designed, Developed and Manufactured)’ (Indian-IDDM), ‘Buy (Indian)’, ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ categories of capital acquisition over ‘Buy (Global)’ category in Defence Procurement Procedure.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

In a rare media interaction with SP Guide Publications, Ashok Kumar Gupta, Secretary, Defence Production, outlined his vision for defence manufacturing in India and addressed a wide range of subjects including ‘Make in India’, DPP 2016, defence offsets, role of DPSUs, investment in R&D, delays in procurement decisions, blacklisting and other related issues.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Interview secretary (defence production)


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CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY

cal areas including ammunition, armoured systems, missiles, radar, avionics and electronic warfare systems, sensors, nuclear biological chemical (NBC) defence, low-intensity conflict technologies and advanced computing. DRDO plays a significant role in providing scientific and technological advice to MoD in support of defence policy; as evaluator of defence equipment for the operational requirements of the military and generating new technological knowledge to be transferred for indigenous development of stateof-the-art weapon systems. It also advises the government on technical assessment of international security threats and military capabilities of both current and potential adversaries.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Organisational Structure With its headquarters at New Delhi, DRDO is headed by the Director General who is also the Secretary Department of Defence Research & Development (DDR&D), Government of India. In September 2013, DRDO commenced implementation of the recommendation of the Rama Rao Committee that included decentralisation of the DRDO into seven technology clusters each headed by an empowered Director General (DG). At present, the DG, DRDO is assisted by seven DGs (Clusters) and five Chief Controllers R&D (CCR&D). The seven DGs (Clusters) are: DG Armament and Combat Engineering Systems (ACE), Pune; DG Aeronautical Systems (Aero), Bengaluru; DG Missiles and Strategic Systems (MSS), Hyderabad; DG Naval Systems & Materials (NS&M), Visakhapatnam; DG Electronics and Communication Systems (ECS), Bengaluru; DG Microelectronics, Devices & Computational Systems (MED&CoS), Delhi; and, DG Life Sciences (LS), Delhi. However during May 2015, DRDO was reorganised and the office of scientific advisor to the Defence Minister was separated from the Secretary DRDO-cum-DG DRDO. In addition, DDR&D has one autonomous body, viz. Aeronautical Development Agency, one joint venture, viz, BrahMos Aerospace, four human resource institutions, i.e., Centre for

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

T

he Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has emerged as one of the premier scientific and technological organisations in the country and has played a significant role in the development of stateof-the-art platforms sensors and weapon systems. The organisation provides scientific and technological advice to the Ministry of Defence (MoD), functions as evaluator of defence equipment for operational requirements of the military and generates technological knowledge for the indigenous development of weapon systems. DRDO was formed on January 1, 1958, by merging the Defence Science Organisation, the units of the Technical Development Establishments of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production. DRDO was then a fledgling research establishment with just ten laboratories. In 1980, the DRDO became a department under the Central Government and today it is one of its largest science and technology departments with a network of 52 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. With a vision to empower India with cuttingedge technologies and to equip the services with internationally competitive systems, DRDO has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics, armaments, combat vehicles, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, life sciences, advanced materials, composites and naval systems. DRDO has expertise in system design, system integration, testing, evaluation and project management built over the last five decades, which has enabled it to develop indigenous capabilities in weapons and delivery systems. Today, DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design, development, integration and production. DRDO has achieved technological self-reliance in criti-

BUSINESS

DRDO is steadfast in achieving self-sufficiency in defence requirement of the Indian armed forces. It has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics, armaments, combat vehicles, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, life sciences, advanced materials, composites and naval systems.

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

8


indian defence

Indian Defence R&D Establishments AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE)

CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS)

Director: M.V.K.V. Prasad New Thippasandra Post, Bengaluru — 560 075 Tel: 080-25283404, 25057005, 25057007 Fax: 080-25283188 E-mail: director@ade.drdo.in

Director: M.S. Easwaran Ministry of Defence DRDO, Belur, Yemlur Post Bengaluru — 560037 Tel: 080-25225121, 26572638 Fax: 080-25222326 E-mail: director@cabs.drdo.in

ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG) Director: C.V.S. Sastry DRDO, Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad — 500058 Tel: 040-24347630 Fax: 040-24347679 E-mail: director@anurag.drdo.in

AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE) Director: Debasish Chakraborti Post Box No. 51, Station Road, Agra Cantt, Agra — 282 001 Tel: 0562-2260023, 2258200 Fax: 0562-2251677 E-mail: director@adrde.drdo.in

ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE) Director: Dr K.M. Rajan Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Armament Post, Pashan Pune — 411021 Tel: 020- 25893274, 25885007 Fax: 020-25893102 E-mail: director@arde.drdo.in

CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR) Director: Sanjay Burman DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru — 560093 Tel: 080-25342646, 25244298 Fax: 080-25244298 E-mail: director@cair.drdo.in

CENTRE FOR FIRE, EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES)

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Director: Dr Chitra Rajagopal Ministry of Defence Brig. S.K. Mazumdar Road, Timarpur Delhi — 110054 Tel: 011-23813239, 23907102 Fax: 011-2381 9547 E-mail: director@cfees.drdo.in

CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC) Chief Executive: P. Jayapal Ministry of Defence Defence Research and Development Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post Bengaluru — 560037 Tel: 080-25230680, 28517272 Fax: 080-25230856, 25234781 E-mail: director@cemilac.drdo.in

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Centre for Personnel Talent Management (CEPTAM) Director: Dr Vijaya Singh Metcalfe House, Delhi-110 054 Tel: 011- 23882300 Fax : 011- 23810287, 23882306 e-mail: director@ceptam.drdo.in

COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE) Director: Dr P. Sivakumar Avadi, Chennai — 600054 Tel: 044-26383722, 26364001 Fax: 044-26383661, 26385112 E-mail: director@cvrde.drdo.in, combatvehicles@cvrde.drdo.in

DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE) Director: Dr K. Maheswara Reddy Post Box No. 9366 C.V. Raman Nagar, Bengaluru — 560093 Tel: 080-25347704, 25347707 Fax: 080-25347717 E-mail: director@dare.drdo.in

DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL) Director: Dr V.C. Padaki Post Box No. 9326 C.V. Raman Nagar, Bengaluru — 560093 Tel: 080-25280692, 25058425 Fax: 080-25282011 E-mail: dirdebel@debel.drdo.in

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL) Director: Dr R.S. Pundir Post Box No. 54 Raipur Road, Dehradun — 248001 Uttarakhand Tel: 0135- 2787084, 2787086 Fax: 0135-2787265, 2787290 E-mail: director@deal.drdo.in

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (DLRL) Director: Dr C.G. Balaji Chandrayangutta Lines Hyderabad — 500005 Tel: 040-24440061, 24530264 Fax: 040-2787161, 2787128 E-mail: director@dlrl.drdo.in

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CONTENTS

Indian Defence R&D Establishments

Director: Dr K. Ramachandran DRDO, Ministry of Defence Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi — 110054 Tel: 011-23923560 Fax: 011-23916980 E-mail: director@dipr.drdo.in

Vice Chancellor: Dr Surendra Pal Simhagad Road, Girinagar, Pune — 411025 Tel: 020- 24389428, 24389426, 24389427 Fax: 020-24389411, 24389509 E-mail: director@diat.drdo.in

DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (DRDE) Director: Dr Lokendra Singh Jhansi Road, Gwalior — 474002 Tel: 0751-2341550, 2340730 Fax: 0751-2341148 E-mail: director.drde@gmail.com

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF BIOENERGY RESEARCH (DIBER)

DEFENCE TERRAIN RESEARCH LABORATORY (DTRL) Director: Dr M.R. Bhutiyani Metcalfe House, Delhi —110054 Tel: 011-23811599, 24648566 Fax: 011-23812494 E-mail: director@dtrl.drdo.in

DEFENCE LABORATORY JODHPUR (DLJ) Director: Dr S.R. Vadera Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur — 342011 Tel: 0291-2510275, 2511057 Fax: 0291-2511191, 2510260 E-mail: director@dlj.drdo.in

Director: Dr Bhuvnesh Kumar Goraparao PO Arjunpur Haldwani — 263139, Uttarakhand Tel: 05946-232532, 232040 Fax: 05946-232719 E-mail: director@diber.drdo.in

ELECTRONICS AND RADAR DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENTS (LRDE)

DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY (DRDL)

DEFENCE MATERIAL & STORE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (DMSRDE)

Director: M.S.R. Prasad Chandrayangutta Lines, Hyderabad — 500005 Tel: 040-24583000, 24340511, 24340546, 24583010 Fax: 040-24340109 E-mail: director@drdl.drdo.in

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ALTITUDE RESEARCH (DIHAR) Director: Dr Bhuvnesh Kumar PIN — 901205, C/O 56 APO Tel: 01982-252096, 252224 Fax: 01982-252096 E-mail: dihardrdo@gmail.com

DEFENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY (DRL)

Director: S.S. Nagaraj C.V. Raman Nagar, Bengaluru — 560093 Tel: 080-25243873, 25243816 Fax: 080-25242916 E-mail: director@lrde.drdo.in

Director: Dr Namburi Eswara Prasad DMSRDE Post Office, G.T. Road, Kanpur — 208013 Tel: 0512-2450695, 2453597 (Extn: 103) Fax: 0512-2450404, 2404774 E-mail: director@dmsrde.drdo.in

GAS TURBINE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (GTRE) Director: M.Z. Siddique Post Box No. 9302, C.V. Raman Nagar, Bengaluru — 560093 Tel: 080-25240698, 25241892 Fax: 080-25241507 E-mail: director@gtre.drdo.in

Director: Dr P. Srinivas Raju Post Box No. 2, Tezpur — 784 001, Assam Tel: 03712-258508, 258836 Fax: 03712-258534 E-mail: director_drl@yahoo.com

HIGH ENERGY MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORY (HEMRL)

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGY & ALLIED SCIENCES (DIPAS)

MICROWAVE TUBE R&D CENTRE (MTRDC)

Director: Dr K. Ramachandran Lucknow Road Timarpur, Delhi — 110054 Tel: 011-23946257, 25079601 Fax: 011-23932869, 23914790, 23983149 E-mail: director@dipas.drdo.in

Director: Dr Sudhir Kamath Defence Research and Development Organisation Bharat Electronics Complex, Jalahalli, Bengaluru — 560013 Tel: 080-28386801, 23450099 Fax: 080-28381750, 28386809, 28386804 E-mail: director@mtrdc.drdo.in

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Director: K.P.S. Murthy Sutarwadi, Pune — 411021 Tel: 020-25869303 Fax: 020-25869316 E-mail: director@hemrl.drdo.in

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DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY (DIAT)

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (DIPR)

Director: Dr Samir V. Kamat Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad — 500058 Tel: 040-24340681, 24340233, 24340155, 24345116 Fax: 040-24340683, 24341439 E-mail: director@dmrl.drdo.in

TECHNOLOGY

DEFENCE METALLURGICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (DMRL)

BUSINESS

Director: Gopal Bhushan Metcalfe House, New Delhi — 110054 Tel: 011-23902403, 23812252 Fax: 011-23819151 E-mail: director@desidoc.drdo.in

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

DEFENCE SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION & DOCUMENTATION CENTRE (DESIDOC)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Director: Dr Rakesh Kumar Sharma Siddarth Nagar Mysore — 570011 Tel: 0821-2473783 Fax: 0821-2473468 E-mail: director@dfrl.drdo.in

REGIONAL BALANCE

DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY (DFRL)


PIB

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

1

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The government responded with an audacious raid by the Indian paracommandos (Special Forces) who pursued and eliminated insurgents/rebels in neighbouring Myanmar. This was the first explicitly and openly declared case of ‘hot pursuit’ signalling a pre-emptive, aggressive and disproportionate response to provocation. Another indication of maturity of understanding was in early August 2015, with the government signing a draft of the ‘Naga peace accord’ with the National Socialist Council of Nagaland. Thus bringing to culmination an effort of several decades and several Prime Ministers indicating a willingness to look at such issues not just as a law and order matter. Similarly in September 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, during his US visit, directed global attention to the matter of terrorism and urged the UN to arrive at a common definition of terrorism and thus allow identification of countries and groups fomenting such events. In the same visit he also pushed for UN reforms and India having a seat on the Security Council. Both moves, signaled India’s more visible, inclusive and assertive stand on driving global attention, alignment and momentum to tackle the issue of terrorism. The above incidents were followed by the terror attack at Gurdaspur district of Punjab on July 27, 2015, by Pakistan-based terrorists, wherein seven persons were killed and 19 persons were injured but this did not elicit any greater response from the Central Government. The three terrorists, responsible for the terror attack, were killed during exchange of fire with the security forces. However, the next indication of active diplomacy was in October 2015, when we politically negotiated return of two wanted persons to India — gangster Chotta Rajan from Indonesia and Anup Chetia of the ULFA, from Bangladesh. The Gurdaspur attack was followed up by the attack on Pathankot Airbase, by Pakistan-based heavily armed terrorists on January 2, 2016. They attacked the Pathankot Air Force Station, part of the Western Air Command of the Indian Air Force. The operation resulted in the killing of five terrorists and six soldiers. The operation continued till January 4, and a fifth attacker was confirmed killed

Kapoor (RETD)  

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

I

ndia’s Homeland Security (inter  LT GENERAL V.K. nal security) and its security structure is the responsibility of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India. In the Indian context in the era immediately after independence, threats to India were mainly external — from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day, the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However, as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew, the government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. Today’s definition of security acknowledges political, economic, environmental, social and human thread, among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today, it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, namely the ‘human being’, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human security’ with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore, the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well-being of its people. India’s internal security challenges have varied roots — from across the border hostilities permeating as insurgency in Kashmir and the North East; to sections of community opting for military solutions to their issues, as seen in various secessionist and rebel movements in the North East and Eastern regions, to direct acts of terrorism driven by global outfits as was seen in the 26/11 terror strikes at Mumbai and finally the societal schisms in a multi-polar populace that at times breed breakaway thinking. In the recent past, a growing number of incidents have led to increased visibility of this matter. The government’s response in some cases was aggressive and timely. It almost seemed from these incidents as if the government was indicating changes in India’s approach to its internal security strategy. However, this hope was belied following the attack on Pathankot Air Force Base on January 2, 2016, when the government response did not have the same aggressive touch as it had in the dastardly Chandel attack on 6 Dogra convoy, in June 2015, by NSCN-K emanating from neighbouring Myanmar.

TECHNOLOGY

Internal security has been defined as the act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self-governing territories generally by upholding the national law and defending against internal security threats.


Wikipedia

CONTENTS

INDIAS’ INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

E

ndeavour to keep India is ranked next big threat. ‘Crime’ is   Major General Umong Sethi (Retd)   internally safe and secure at third position. Crime figures of aims at maintaining cohethe National Crime Records Bureau sion of the society and preserving democratic way of life by (NCRB) show a rising trend over the last few years and are indicaensuring sustained peace, public order and rule of law. It is tive of rising civic disorder. Crimes against women adversely shape a comprehensive enterprise of the state, its agencies, private the country’s image abroad. ‘Terrorism & Insurgency’ is at No. 4. individuals, society at large and the corporate sector. It even beckons Naxal terror and other insurgencies in various parts of India have a international cooperation in a few contingencies. The key intended debilitating effect on businesses. outcomes include disruption free society from all forms of catastroImprovement in India’s global ratings on corruption and ease phe, where public health, safety and economic vigour is guaranteed of doing business indices have contributed to the decline in the and continuity of normal life assured. Disruptions result in harmful ranking of the risk of ‘Corruption, Bribery & Corporate Frauds’ over losses and damage to country’s image. the last survey. Yet this along with political governance continues to The internal security challenges may be broadly categorised as rate high among risks. Theft or infringement of Intellectual Property ‘traditional’ and ‘non-traditional’. In combating traditional threats Rights (IPR), business espionage and accidents are some other risks ‘militaristic element’ plays a pivotal role in response. Battling that have been highlighted. insurgency, terrorism, Naxalism, guarding borders and critical infraOverall Risk Rating: 2016 structure come under this category. Non-traditional threats include, larger question of border management; human, arms and drug traf- The cost of attrition to human and other resources in terms of value ficking; terror financing; dealing with unrest, disaster and pandemic and time lost due to accidents is huge. To illustrate the point, road management; dealing with challenges emanating from proliferation accidents are the single largest cause of unnatural deaths in the of technology and its rapid obsolescence and the like. Countering country. Over 1,37,000 people were killed in road accidents in 2013 vast reach of social media, Internet and white collar crime in cyber- alone, that is more than the number of people killed in all our wars put together. There is one death every four minutes due to a road space are major challenges for the security establishment. accident in India. Corporate Perspective A glimpse of changing perceptions over the past few years is The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry reflected in the following chart. (FICCI)-Pinkerton annual study ‘India Risk Survey’ is an exercise Traditional Threats that showcases perceptions of business leaders, policy makers, experts and professionals spread across various sectors and differ- World witnessed terror attacks in Europe, Africa, West Asia, ent parts of India. It brings to the fore perceived risks to the business Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Thailand in the past few months. India has been a persistent target of Pakistan-sponsored establishments. India Risk Survey 2016 is insightful. ‘Strikes, Closures & Unrest terrorism for over two decades. Internally, Naxal groups have has been graded as the foremost concern affecting the Indian econ- mounted a few successful terror strikes primarily against the secuomy as the year gone by has seen major unrests in the form of the rity forces (SF). Globally, India has been always ranked among the Jat and Patel demand for reservations. Labour unrest, strikes and top ten countries that suffered terrorism since 2000. In 2015, India demonstrations protesting reforms, land acquisition and indus- ranked sixth on the Institute of Economics and Peace’s Global trial projects have seen a spike. ‘Information & Cyber Insecurity’ Terrorism Index (GTI) for 2015.

TECHNOLOGY

Keeping India safe is humungous task that ranges from traditional to non-traditional threats. The overlapping responsibilities between Centre and states add to its complexities.


PRO Defence

CONTENTS

India’s Coastal Security

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

I

ndia has a coastline of 7,516.6 km industrialisation and last to develop   Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)   bordering the mainland and the skills of fishermen and other coastal islands which include nine states, and island communities. A beginning i.e. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, has been made with the allotment of `38 crore (about $5.8 milAndhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal, and four union ter- lion) for three rail port connectivity projects. It is expected that ritories, i.e. Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep, Puducherry and, Sagarmala could push India’s merchandise exports to $110 billion Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Out of the states, Gujarat has the by 2025 and create an estimated 10 million direct and indirect new longest coastline of 1,214.7 km and Goa has the smallest coastline jobs. Sagarmala looks promising when you compare with a similar of 101 km. Out of the union territories, Andaman and Nicobar project at Shenzhen in China. Since 1978, it has helped create an Islands have the longest coastline of 1,962 km and, Daman and Diu estimated seven million jobs and the city’s GDP grew 50 times to has the shortest coastline of 42.5 km. $180 billion after the development of ports. If Indian port develMajor and Minor Ports. The nine coastal Indian states are home opment takes off similarly, local and foreign funds would flow in to all major and minor ports of India. There are 12 major Indian and coastal regions may become good bets for real estate too, as ports which are under the Government of India and can handle a they will see industry and job growth. Logistic costs savings of over large volume of cargo and container traffic. Kamarajar Port (for- `35,000 crore (about $5.38 billion) per year can also help the Centre merly called Ennore Port Limited) is the 13th port and the first port spend on development and possibly reduce taxes. Sagarmala once which is a public company. Located on the Coromandel Coast, it is developed will need additional security as any threat to it will comthe only corporatised major port which is registered as a company. promise India’s economy security. Apart from these there are about 200 minor ports. Maritime Trade Project Sagarmala. It is a series of projects to develop coastal India and also link the inland waterways to reduce cost and time As per UNCTAD’s (United Nations Conference on Trade and for transporting goods to benefit the industry and export/import Development) report ‘Review of Maritime Transport — 2015’, India trade. In India the cost of transportation is 18 per cent of GDP as owns 849 ships with a combined DWT (deadweight tonnage) of compared to China where it is less than 10 per cent. It was originally 2,18,15,155 as compared to China which has 4,966 ships with a planned by the Vajpayee Government in 2003 but did not make any combined DWT of 15,75,57,210, Denmark has 930 ships with a headway. The present NDA Government launched the project in combined DWT of 3,61,79,664 and Greece has 4,017 ships with a July 2015 and its National Perspective Plan was launched during combined DWT of 27,94,29,790. India holds 1.26 per cent of the April 2016, which when implemented will transform the Indian world’s fleet as compared to China which holds 9.08 per cent. ports and coastal regions. The project is very ambitious, has 150 During 2014, India has exported 3.07 million TEUs (Twenty Foot initiatives at a total outlay of `4,00,000 crore (about $61.5 billion). Equivalent Unit is the unit of the capacity of a container ship) and Sagarmala covers four broad segments to include modernisation imported 2.39 million TEUs. These capacities are bound to increase off port infrastructure, add six new ports and enhance capacity; because India is one of the fastest growing major economies in the improve port connectivity through rail corridors, freight-friendly world with an expected GDP growth rate of 7.5 per cent. UNCTAD expressways and inland waterways; create 14 coastal economic had declared India as the fourth most attractive FDI destination zones (CEZs) and a special economic zone at Jawaharlal Nehru Port in the world during 2015-16. Over the last decade, seaborne trade Trust in Mumbai with manufacturing clusters to enable port-led has grown at twice the global growth rate of 3.3 per cent. Maritime

TECHNOLOGY

“Our vast coastline of 7,500 km offers vast investment opportunities”. —Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Maritime India Summit, April 14, 2016


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CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

no casualties were reported, 11 lowintensity bombs were placed on the under-constructed boundary wall of the training centre but six of them exploded. Subsequently, with a woman Naxal killed in an encounter in the Gatta area of Pendhri in Gadchiroli on July 21 (first day of the Naxal martyrs week), the number of Naxalites killed in encounters this year has gone up to 11, six of them women. It may be recalled that Maoist attack in Sukma in April 2015 killing seven personnel of the Chhattisgarh Special Task Force (STF) and injuring 10. The very next day, Maoists had burned 17 vehicles of road construction, and in the third consecutive incident five policemen were killed and seven injured in a landmine blast. More recently the anti-terror squad (ATS) of Uttar Pradesh Police recovered huge quantities of ammonium nitrate, gelatin sticks and detonators from Kanpur and Jhansi on August 25, 2016, (92 sacks of ammonium nitrate and 4,000 gelatin rods from Jhansi, and 20,000 gelatin rods, six quintals of ammonium nitrate and 30,000 detonators were recovered from Kanpur). The two recoveries are linked to a previous haul in Kanpur in July 2016, when three sacks of detonators were found.

Katoch (Retd)  

Maoists The Maoist document titled ’Strategy and Tactics for the Indian Revolution’ scripted as late as 2004, states, “The central task of the Indian revolution is the seizure of political power. To accomplish this, the Indian people will have to be organised in the People’s Army and will have to wipe out the armed forces of the counter revolutionary Indian state and establish in its place their own state.” It further goes on to say, “As a considerable part of the enemy’s armed forces will inevitably be engaged against the growing tide of struggle by various nationalities, it will be difficult for the Indian ruling classes to mobilise all their armed forces against our revolutionary war.” Another document titled ‘Urban Perspective: Our Work in Urban Areas’ (UPUA) says, “At present the revolutionary movement is

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

A

sked during a media inter  Lt General P.C. view on completion of twoyear NDA rule on May 27, 2016, what was the most important issue on the Home Minister’s table, Rajnath Singh replied, “The era of violence must end. Be it Maoist, terrorism or any other violence.” A month earlier on April 16, chairing a high-level meeting of Chhattisgarh Police and paramilitary officials in presence of Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh, Rajnath Singh had said, “Naxalism is a serious challenge to the democracy. To root out the Maoist menace, the Centre is committed to extend every possible support to Naxal-hit states including Chhattisgarh.” He appreciated several schemes and development activities of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government in Chhattisgarh for improving education, health and employment, adding, that “the morale of the forces deployed in the left-wing extremism (LWE)-affected areas is high” while reviewing counter-insurgency operations and strategies and development activities in the insurgency-hit areas. The Home Minister’s statements reflect the ground reality that the Maoists insurgency is alive and kicking. The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) being the prime anti-insurgency force in the country, it is significant to note that then CRPF Director General (DG) Prakash Mishra said on February 19, 2016, that while the focus of anti-Naxal operations continues to be the worst Maoist violence-hit states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, areas around the Andhra PradeshOdisha border (AOB) and those within Odisha “need more attention.” In actual terms, this is an indictment of the Centre’s anti-Naxal policy because the DG CRPF surely was hinting at a required course correction. According to him, Naxal activity in the state was “coming back” in the Narayanpatna area of Koraput district which borders Andhra Pradesh. As for Maoists activities this year, on April 20, Maoists triggered bomb blasts at an under-construction Constable Training Centre, beside a CRPF camp, under Jadugora police station limits in Jharkhand. Though

INDIAN DEFENCE

The states need to counter the Maoist insurgency in synergised fashion simultaneously at the socio-political, moral and physical planes, population being the centre of gravity and military operations only being part of the response.

REGIONAL BALANCE

CRPF

The Maoist Insurgency

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


Homeland Security

Who’s Who Indian Home Ministry Rajnath Singh

Minister of Home Affairs Rajnath Singh entered politics in 1974 and in 1977 he was elected as an MLA in the Uttar Pradesh Assembly. He was elected MLC for Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council in 1988 and became Education Minister in 1991. During his tenure as Education Minister in UP he established some landmark decisions by introducing the AntiCopying Act and Vedic Mathematics in the syllabus. He became a member of the Rajya Sabha in 1994. On November 22, 1999, he became Union Surface Transport Minister. During this period he got the opportunity to initiate the NHDP

(National Highway Development Programme), a dream project of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. On October 28, 2000, he became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and was twice elected as MLA from Haidargarh constituency in Barabanki.On May 24, 2003, he became Union Minister of Agriculture and subsequently for Food Processing. During this period he initiated a few epochmaking projects like Kisan Call Centre and Farm Income Insurance Scheme. He became the BJP National President on December 31, 2005, a post he held till December 19, 2009. In May 2009, he was elected Member of Parliament from Ghaziabad and in 2014 from Lucknow parliamentary constituency. On May 26, 2014, Rajnath Singh took over as the Union Minister for Home Affairs.

Kiren Rijiju

Minister of State for Home Affairs Born in Nafra, Arunachal Pradesh, on November 19, 1971, Kiren Rijiju’s life is an embodiment of national integration. After doing his schooling from Arunachal, he did his BA (Hons) from the prestigious Hansraj College of Delhi University and followed it up with a law degree from the Faculty of Law, Delhi University. He is married to Joram Rina Rijiju, an Assistant Professor of History, with three children. In 2004 he was elected to the 14th Lok Sabha from West Arunachal Pradesh constituency, which is one of the largest

in the country. As MP, Rijiju quickly earned the respect of his more seasoned colleagues by his active participation in parliamentary work both inside and outside the House and he was duly adjudged as the Best Young Parliamentarian by the media. Despite growing up in one of the most remote and underdeveloped regions of the country, he has embraced the opportunities life has offered him and today is widely recognised as the voice of the North East both within the Government of India and in the public eye. Rijiju was elected to the 16th Lok Sabha on May 16, 2014. In recognition of his work, he was inducted by Prime Minister Narendra Modi into the Council of Ministers as a Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs on May 26, 2014.

Hansraj Gangaram Ahir

Minister of State for Home Affairs Hansraj Gangaram Ahir was born on November 11, 1954, at Nanded, Maharashtra. He did his schooling from Chandrapur. He is married to Smt. Lata Ahir and has three children. He has been a Member of Maharashtra Legislature Council in 1994-96 and was elected to Lok Sabha in 1996, and re-elected in 2004 and was a member of Standing Committee on Coal & Steel; Committee on Food Management in Parliament House Complex;

and Standing Committee on Agriculture. He was also a member of the Joint Parliamentary Committee on WAKF. He has been a member of Business Advisory Committee and Chairperson of Committee on Coal & Steel. In recognition of his work, he was inducted as Union Minister of State for Chemicals & Fertilisers since November 9, 2014, and he held this post till he took over as the Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs.

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Rajiv Mehrishi Home Secretary

Rajiv Mehrishi was born on August 8, 1955, in Rajasthan has taken over as Union Home Secretary w.e.f. August 31, 2015. He is a 1978-batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of Rajasthan cadre. Mehrishi is an alumnus of St. Xaviers School in Jaipur and got a master’s degree from Delhi’s St. Stephen’s College. He holds a degree in management from the United

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Kingdom. He was Finance Secretary to the Government of India from October 29, 2014 to August 31, 2015. In his earlier assignments he has worked in the Ministries of Petroleum, Corporate Affairs, Overseas Indian Affairs, and Fertilisers. He has also worked in the President Secretariat and in Cabinet Secretariat. He was Chief Secretary of Rajasthan in 2013-14.

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CONTENTS BUSINESS

Asian Who's Who Contents NEW MoD Organisations & Contacts of Asian Countries Australia 357 Bangladesh 359 Brunei 361 Indonesia 363 Japan 364 Malaysia 365 Mynamar 368 The Philippines 369 Singapore 371 South Korea 373 Sri Lanka 374 Thailand 375 Vietnam 376

INDIAN DEFENCE

352 352 353 353 353 353 353 354 354 354 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 355 355 356 356 356

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Sultanate of Oman Pakistan The Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Republic of Yemen

REGIONAL BALANCE

Afghanistan 349 Algeria 349 Australia 349 Bahrain 349 Bangladesh 350 Bhutan 350 Brunei 350 Cambodia 350 People’s Republic of China 350 Egypt 350 Indonesia 351 Iran 351 Iraq 351 Israel 351 Japan 351 Jordan 351 Kazakhstan 352 Kuwait 352 Kyrgyzstan 352 Laos 352 Lebanon 352 Libya 352

TECHNOLOGY

section five

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

q Afghanistan

Commander of the Naval Forces Major General Mohammed-Larbi Haouli

Head of State and Government (President) Dr Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai

Commander of the Air Forces Major General Lounes Abdelkader

Interior Minister Taj Muhammad Jahed Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces General Qadam Shah Shahim Commander of the Air Force Major General Abdul Wahab Wardak

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Ministry of Defence Opposite Presidential Palace Kabul Afghanistan Tel: +93 20 2300331, 2100452, 2100458

q Algeria Head of State (President) Abdelaziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal Chief of General Staff and Vice Minister of National Defence General Ahmed Salah Gaida Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer

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Head of State King Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa

National People’s Army HQ Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja Algiers, Algeria

Prime Minister Shaikh Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa

q Australia

Crown Prince and Defense Force Commander-in-Chief and First Deputy Prime Minister Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since February 6, 1952)

Minister of Interior Lt General Sheikh Rashed bin Abdulla Al Khalifa

Governor General Peter John Cosgrove

Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Mohammed bin Mubarak Al Khalifa

Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull

Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa Al Khalifa

Defence Minister Marise Payne

Deputy Prime Minister Jawad bin Salem Al Arrayed

Chief of the Defence Force Air Chief Marshal Mark Binskin

Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Khalid bin Abdulla Al Khalifa

Chief of Army Lt General Angus J. Campbell

Minister for Defence Affairs Major General Yusuf bin Ahmed bin Hussain Al Jalahma

Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Tim Barrett Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Leo Davies

BUSINESS

Foreign Minister Salahuddin Rabbani

q Bahrain

INDIAN DEFENCE

Defence Minister Lt Gen Abdullah Khan Habibi

Ministry of Defence B.P. 184 Alger Gare Alger, Algeria Tel: +213 21 711515

Ministry of Defence Post Box 245 West Rifa’a, Bahrain Tel: +973 17653333 Fax: +973 17663923

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Chief of Joint Operations Vice Admiral David Lance Johnston

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Second Vice President Sarwar Danish

Commander of the Gendarmerie Major General Menad Nouba

REGIONAL BALANCE

First Vice President Abdul Rashid Dostum

Department of Defence Campbell Park Offices Post Box 7911 Canberra BC ACT 2610 Australia Tel: +61 2 61449190

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (as on December 13, 2016)

TECHNOLOGY

Who’s who in asian defence forces


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (as on December 13, 2016) Note from the Editor-in-Chief: With effect from this issue, we have added a new chapter within “Who’s Who in Asian Defence Forces” in which we are including considerably extensive information on the Ministries of Defence in major Asian countries providing our readers with critical facts like organisational structure and contact details. We hope that this new section will especially enable the stakeholders from the industry in doing business and collabrate more expeditiously.

Location

Postal Address

Senator the Hon Minister for Marise Payne Defence

2-12 Macquarie Street Parramatta NSW 2150

The Hon Christopher Pyne MP

Minister for Defence Industry

The Hon Daniel Tehan MP

Fax

E-mail

PO Box 1420 +61-2-96878755 Parramatta NSW 2150

+61-2-96878466

senator.payne@aph. gov.au

429 Magill Road, St Morris SA 5068

+61-8-84312277

+61-8-84312288

C.Pyne.MP@aph. gov.au

Minister for Defence Personnel

190 Gray St, Hamilton Victoria 3300; 73 Kepler Street Warrnambool Victoria 3280

+61-2-62774393

+61-2-62778538

ACM Mark Binskin AC

Chief of the Defence Force

R1-5-CDF Suite Russell Drive, Russell ACT 2601

PO Box 7900, Canberra BC, ACT 2610

Vice Admiral Ray Griggs AO

Vice Chief of the Defence Force

R1-5-B025, Russell Drive, Russell ACT 2601

PO Box 7902, Canberra Bc, ACT 2610

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Telephone

+61-21300333362

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REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Designation

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Australia: MoD Contact Details Name

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Countries being covered in this new subsection are: n Australia: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Bangladesh: MoD contact details n Brunei: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Indonesia: MoD organisational structure n Japan: MoD organisation structure n Malaysia: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Myanmar: MoD organisational structure n Philippines: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Singapore: MoD contact details and organisational structure n South Korea (Republic): MoD organisational structure n Sri Lanka: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Thailand: MoD organisational structure n Vietnam: MoD organisational structure

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

MoD organisations & contacts of Asian countries


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6

377 381 415 463 509 517

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One  GDP & Military Expenditure Two Central & South Asia Three East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia Four West Asia nd North Africa Five Asia-Pacific Environment Six Equipment & Hardware Specifications – An Overview

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Regional Balance

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section six


CONTENTS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1 GDP & Military Expenditure 2018

2015

2015

1

Afghanistan

17.275

17.449

18.468

599.994

32,527

2

Algeria

165.974

173.856

179.588

4318.135

39,667

3

Australia

4

Bahrain

1200.778

1262.336

1330.245

50961.865

23,781

30.079

31.959

33.549

23509.981

1,377

5

Bangladesh

226.257

246.73

269.491

1286.868

160,996

6

Bhutan

2.475

2.759

3.146

2843.402

775

7

Brunei

9.097

10.103

11.482

28236.64

423

8

Cambodia

19.476

21.015

22.835

1168.036

15,578

9

China

11383.033

12263.429

13338.231

7989.72

1,371,220

10

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

NA

NA

NA

NA

25,155

11

Egypt

NA

NA

NA

3740.249

91,508

12

India

2288.715

2487.937

2724.756

1617.309

1,311,051

13

Indonesia

936.955

1024.001

1109.961

3362.357

257,564

14

Iran

386.12

409.297

440.047

4877.069

79,109

15

Iraq

148.411

164.418

177.245

4819.487

36,423

16

Israel

306.194

316.77

328.461

35343.336

8,380

4412.603

4513.754

4562.206

32485.545

126,958

39.795

42.299

45.091

5513.009

7,595

17

Japan

18

Jordan

19

Kazakhstan

116.151

135.133

149.976

9795.629

17,544

20

Kuwait

106.212

119.904

131.276

29363.027

3,892

21

Kyrgyzstan

6.03

6.403

7.023

1112.81

5,957

22

Laos

13.359

14.235

15.28

1778.713

6,802

23

Lebanon

52.797

54.063

56.218

11236.793

5,851

24

Libya

39.315

47.788

53.206

6058.671

6,278

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TECHNOLOGY

2017

BUSINESS

2016

INDIAN DEFENCE

Country

Population (Thousands)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Sr. No.

Estimated per capita GDP. Figures in US$

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Total estimated gross domestic product, All figures in USD billions


Central Asia Central Asia, central region of Asia, extending from the Caspian Sea in the west to the border of western China in the east; it is bounded on the north by Russia and on the south by Iran, Afghanistan, and China. The region consists of five former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. It is a region that once used to be called the ‘Centre of the World’.

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location, it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century, it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later, it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States brought further global attention to this region, reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this, the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the United States, Russia and China. Central Asia’s landscape can be divided into the vast grassy steppes of Kazakhstan in the north and the Aral Sea drainage basin in the south. About 60 per cent of the region consists of desert land, the principal deserts being the Karakum, occupying most of Turkmenistan, and the Kyzyl-Kum, covering much of western Uzbekistan. Most of the desert areas are unsuitable for agricultural use except along the margins of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems, which wind their way north-westward through Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and eastern Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan after rising in mountain ranges to the south and east. Those two major rivers drain into the Aral Sea and provide most of the region’s water resources, though northern Kazakhstan is drained by rivers flowing north into Russia. On the east and south Central Asia is bounded by the western Altai and other high mountain ranges extending into Iran, Afghanistan, and western China. Central Asia experiences very dry climatic conditions, and inadequate precipitation has led to heavy dependence on the Syr Darya and Amu Darya for irrigation. The region as a whole experiences hot summers and cool winters, with much sunshine and very little precipitation. The scarcity of water has led to a very uneven population distribution, with most people living along the fertile banks of the rivers or in fertile mountain foothills in the south-east; comparatively few live in the vast arid expanses of central and western Kazakhstan and western Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The Fergana Valley is the best suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. Soviet leader Josef Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided, however, Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself; Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west; and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the val-

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

C

entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world’s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia, and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world’s largest landmass (39,95,800 sq km) and has vast natural resources, including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically, it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people, goods and ideas between Europe, West Asia, South Asia and East Asia. On the other hand, South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India’s economic growth and dynamism had made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. India’s economy since its slowdown in 2012 has now picked up and India expects its economy to grow at 7-7.5 per cent in the fiscal year to March 2017. The Economic Survey, the basis for the Finance Minister’s Annual Budget in February 2016, has projected India to grow 8 per cent in the next couple of years. India has overtaken China as the fastest growing major economy in the world, expanding to 7.3 per cent and cementing its position as one of the sole bright spots in a flailing global economy. Economic growth is now expected to hit the high of 7.6 per cent in 2016, according to Delhi’s Central Statistics Office, higher than the 7.2 per cent reached in 2014. However the government’s demonetisation move on November 8, 2016, could dampen the GDP growth this year and next year. The exact impact has still to be worked out. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects India to grow at 6.6 per cent for the current year and 7.2 per cent next year. The Indian Government on June 20, 2016, announced, what it termed, a “radical liberalisation” of the foreign direct investment (FDI) regime by easing norms for a host of important sectors including defence, civil aviation and pharmaceuticals, opening them up for complete foreign ownership.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Central & South Asia

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


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regional balance ley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within Kyrgyzstan’s portion of the valley, affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access fairly deep into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia’s core, and hence Central Asia itself. Central Asia is referred to as the ‘backyard of Russia and China.’ It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the United States on the one side, and Moscow and Beijing on the other side. Post-9/11, Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global scale. The United States became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility, enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players, namely the United States, Russia and China, the American presence now has reduced. The war in Afghanistan has been both a boon and curse for neighbouring Central Asia. The conflict placed this sparsely populated region, long disconnected from the globalisation taking place around its borders, on the front lines of the international community’s 15-year effort to stabilise Afghanistan. Central Asia became a staging point for coalition military forces, a transit corridor, a donor as well as a recipient of aid and at times a pawn in a larger strategic competition playing out between the United States and Russia. The region also found itself on the receiving end of Afghanistan’s noxious exports: extremism, drugs and crime. With the war in Afghanistan — or at least the international community’s direct participation in it — having wound down, Central Asia’s leaders worry more and more about the prospect of instability both at home and next door in Afghanistan. While extremism has long simmered beneath the surface in parts of Central Asia, the changing political landscape in Afghanistan — and Pakistan — coupled with the rise of the so-called Islamic State in the Middle East is stoking fears of renewed unrest. Though the five Central Asian states are politically diverse, the region’s authoritarian regimes are responding to the threat by becoming more insular, feeding a vicious circle. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their ‘grand strategies.’ the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including ‘strategic partnership.’ ‘non-alignment’ and a ‘multi-vectored approach.’ The key to what became known as Kazakhstan’s ‘multivectored approach’ is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today, this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia’s Eurasec, Gazprom, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), but it nonetheless remains in place. The major attraction for key players, as also countries like India, Japan and the European Union, is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia, which already enjoys military presence in the region, has, in conjunction with China, sought to counterbalance Washington’s influence in the region through SCO. Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region. It is also reported that the Islamic State (IS) is attracting Central Asians to Syria and fostering new links among radicals within the region. Unless the five Central Asian governments develop a credible, coordinated counter-action plan, including improved security measures but also social, political and economic reforms, growing radicalism will eventually pose a serious threat to their stability.

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Central & south asia

Pakistan-Afghanistan Region The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. International terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally, Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now, Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India establishing their cells within home-grown groups, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26, 2008, which emanated from Pakistan created an impasse in their relationship. However, much water has flowed since then and despite a new civilian government under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif the performance of the government has been poor and military control has not diminished. The nation has not progressed. In its neighbourhood, in India, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s nationalist party, the Bharatiya Janata Party, has taken over the reins of the government in May 2014 and has promised to deliver good governance. After an initial bonhomie with Pakistan, the ceasefire violations on the line of control (LoC) and international border and infiltration of terrorists from PoK into Jammu & Kashmir have continued. Pakistan sponsored terror groups carried out five major attacks during the 2015-16. First attack took place in Gurdaspur district of Punjab on July 27, 2015, wherein seven persons were killed and 19 injured. Three terrorists were also killed. The second attack was on January 2, 2016, by a heavily armed group attacking Pathankot Air Force Station. Six attackers and six security forces personnel were killed during the operations. This was followed by another terrorist attack in Pampore in which a bus carrying over 40 CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) officers, killing eight officers and injuring over 20 others critically. In the ensuing gun battle, two of the militants were killed. The fourth major incident took place in the early hours of September 18, 2016, when four terrorists from Pakistan struck a brigade headquarters administrative base at Uri and killed 17 unarmed and unsuspecting soldiers in their tents in Jammu and Kashmir. The nation’s anger at this dastardly act was visible and perceptible. The riposte from Indian Army came 10 days later and on the night of September 28/29 Indian Army’s Special Forces struck at seven launch pads of the terrorists across the LoC along a frontage of about 200 km in two different Corps Zones of the army thus achieving complete surprise over the Pakistani military establishment and inflicted considerable casualties on the terrorists. This action by itself proved to be a manifestation of the new overall strategy of the Government of India to deal with the “proxy war” waged by Pakistan against India since 1989. On November 29, 2016, once again a group of three terrorists from Pakistan breached the army base in Nagrota near Jammu in police uniforms and attacked the Indian Army’s 166 Field Regiment unit. It was two young majors in their early 30s that fought them — and ultimately died in the line of duty. Majors Gosavi Kunal Mannadir and Akshay Girish Kumar led Quick Response Teams, each with about 15 men, to counter the terrorists, of whom three were killed after a five-hour gun battle. Five soldiers and two officers of the army died in this operation. Following the terror strikes, a range of themes highlighting issues of strategic handling of such situations, types of forces to be employed and their command and control, border guarding, perimeter defences, use of technology, ability of local police to follow up the specific intelligence inputs to intercept the terror-

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Central & south asia

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Central & South Asia


regional balance

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ists before the strike and the lack of community involvement were widely debated in the media and among the security experts. Summer of 2016 also saw an unprecedented unrest in Kashmir. A series of violent protests in the Kashmir Valley erupted, aided and supported by Pakistan and consequent action by police and CAPFs (Central Armed Police Forces) resulting in many deaths and injuries. Situation turned ugly following killing in an encounter of Burhan Wani, a terrorist commander of Hizbul Mujahideen on July 8, 2016. Protests started in all ten districts of the Kashmir Valley. The protests lasted more than 120 days and were halted when the demonetisation of the currency was announced on November 8, indicating once again that the unrest was being fuelled by money being pumped in from across the border in Pakistan to pay the stone-pelters involved in the unrest. The four major uncertainties in post-2014 Afghanistan (security, reconciliation, trade and regional cooperation) all have external routes. While the United States will in all probability continue to manage the situation from the background in line with its own national interests, continued instability in Afghanistan will have adverse consequences for all its neighbours including Pakistan, Iran and Central Asian Republics, India and China. Pakistan will need to restrain its proxies. The regional countries need to collectively contribute to the stability of Afghanistan and help in the country’s reconstruction. The security situation in Afghanistan continues to be dominated by a resilient insurgency; but the Afghan Government remains in control of all major population centres and key lines of communication, and the Afghan security forces continue to deny the Taliban strategic ground throughout the country. Although the Taliban maintained a higher than usual operational tempo over the winter. On May 21, 2016, the US Department of Defense (DOD) conducted an airstrike that targeted and killed Taliban leader Mullah Mohammad Mansour in a remote area of the AfghanistanPakistan border region. Mansour had been actively involved with planning attacks against facilities in Kabul and across Afghanistan, presenting a threat to US personnel, coalition partners, and Afghan civilians and security forces. On May 25, 2016, the Taliban announced that one of Mansour’s deputies, Mullah Haybatullah Akhundzada, would replace Mansour as the new leader of the Taliban. The Taliban also named Mullah Muhammad Yaqub and Sirajuddin Haqqani as Akhundzada’s deputies. The continued development of an Al Qaeda affiliate in the region, Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS), highlights the dynamic nature of the terrorist and militant landscape in the region. The United States continues to support the re-invigorated efforts of the Quadrilateral Coordination Group, which includes the Afghan, Pakistani and Chinese governments, to set conditions for an eventual Afghan-led, Afghan-owned peace process with the Taliban and other militant groups. South Asia The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Left-wing extremism (LWE) has affected a large number of states. In terms of geographical spread, the worst affected states are Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar. However, pockets also exist in Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh.

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LWE remains an area of concern for internal security of the country. While 106 districts in 10 states are affected by LWE in varying degrees, 35 districts in 7 states are the most affected districts. LWE violence reached its peak in 2010. It started declining from 2011 and this trend continues in the current year as well. In 2015, 1,088 incidents of LWE violence took place resulting in 226 deaths as compared to 1,091 incidents with 310 resultant deaths in 2014.

Nepal Nepal saw revenge politics and paranoia by the government of Prime Minister K.P. Oli who resigned from his post on July 24, 2016, just minutes before facing a no-confidence vote he was expected to lose. CPN (Maoist-Centre) Chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal has played deft kingmaker, carving out a political space for himself between the Nepali Congress Party (NC) and the Unified MarxistLeninist Party (UML), and mending bridges with New Delhi. But Dahal’s time is limited, as he must step down in nine months to make way for the NC’s Sher Bahadur Deuba. Nepal’s urgent problems a year after an earthquake killed nearly 9,000 people is rehabilitation but the government has been struggling to find firm footing since the end of a decade-long insurgency in 2006 and the tumultuous process of adopting a new Constitution last September. Some 7,70,000 Nepalese households are still waiting for help to rebuild homes destroyed in the earthquake. Little of the $4.1-billion in foreign grants and soft loans pledged last year for reconstruction have not been properly disbursed because of Nepal’s political squabbling. The Constitution adopted by Nepal in September 2015 was amended on January 24, 2016. The amendments supported by 461 of the 601 members of the Nepali Parliament covered Article 42 to ensure more inclusive social justice, Article 84, to create House of Representatives and Article 286, which will create a new process of constituency delimitation helping the Madhesi groups. All the three elements of the amendment were part of a deal between the Nepal Government and its mainstream political parties, and the rebel Madhesi political formation of the United Madhesi Democratic Front (UMDF), which has been agitating for the changes in the Constitution. The amendment process, however, did not include the main demand of the Madhesis for the creation of two separate Madhesi provinces on the plains of Nepal. Now, more than a year under a dysfunctional statute, the present political equation in the Parliament may finally favour the ruling Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) and the Nepali Congress to table an amendment proposal and bring the protesting constituencies into an agreement. The relations between Kathmandu and New Delhi soured after the supply of fuel and essential commodities to Nepal were choked off by the Madhesi parties to mount pressure on the government to address the demands raised by them. During his state visit to India early in 2016, Prime Minister K.P. Oli said the relations between the two countries have ‘normalised’. But that claim seemed hollow when Nepal abruptly cancelled President Bidya Bhandari’s India visit and recalled its ambassador to India, Deep Narayan Upadhayay. The distrust continues. The first meeting of the Eminent Persons Group (EPG) jointly formed by Nepal and India to review the bilateral relations between the two countries kicked off in Kathmandu on July 4, 2016. Inaugurating the meeting, Foreign Affairs Minister Kamal Thapa expressed his hope that the meeting will help strengthen NepalIndia relations, which political analysts believe reached a nadir

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The dismal picture of political democracy that Sri Lanka presented in 2014 has improved substantially with the defeat of the authoritarian Rajapaksha regime. The new government of Maithripala Sirisena or also referred to as “Maithri”; is a Sri Lankan politician who is the seventh and current President of Sri Lanka, since 2015. He has taken initial steps to restrict executive power and to address some of the factors that had pushed many Tamils into the arms of the separatist movement, although there is no clear policy of national reconciliation as yet. In the north and east of the country, effort is required to rebuild infrastructure and restore welfare services. The change of government in early 2015 was also accompanied by a realignment of Sri Lanka’s foreign relations; continuing economic links with China, Russia and Iran are now complemented by greater reliance on India and the West. Under the new President, there seems to be a greater openness to dialogue but the extent to which this will play out is not yet clear.

Bangladesh

CONTENTS n Kazakhstan n Kyrgyzstan n Tajikistan n Turkmenistan n Uzbekistan n Afghanistan n Bangladesh n Bhutan n India n Nepal n Pakistan n Sri Lanka

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

In January 2014, the incumbent Awami League (AL) in Bangladesh won the national election by an overwhelming majority after the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) boycotted, extending Sheikh Hasina’s term as Prime Minister. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has reduced the poverty rate from over half of the population to less than a third, achieved Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health, and made great progress in food security since independence. The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6 per cent

Central & South Asia

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Sri Lanka

over the last two decades and the country reached the World Bank lower-middle income status in 2015. The terror attack in Bangladesh on July 1, 2016, at the Holey Artisan Bakery by home-grown terrorists suggests that Bangladesh’s militant networks are internationalising, a key concern as the United States seeks to contain the growth of the Islamic State. Bangladesh’s 160 million people are almost all Sunni Muslims, including a demographic bulge under the age of 25. This makes it valuable as a recruiting ground for the Islamic State, now under pressure in its core territory of Iraq and Syria. Western intelligence officials have been watching the organisation pivot to missions elsewhere in the world, launching attacks on far-flung civilian targets that are difficult to deter with traditional military campaigns. Bangladesh now feels that they need to take a serious stock of the overall threat. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows:

TECHNOLOGY

in the wake of last year’s Indian blockade against the landlocked Himalayan country.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Central & south asia


regional balance KAZAKHSTAN  General Information

Area Capita Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions

Religions

Languages

Literacy Government

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: 27,24,900 sq km : Astana : 0 km (landlocked) : 1,75,44,000 (2015 est) : Kazakh 51 per cent; Russian 32 per cent ; Ukrainian 5 per cent; German 2 per cent ; Tatar 2 per cent ; Uzbek 13 per cent : Muslim 70.2 per cent, Christian 26.2 per cent (Russian Orthodox 23.9 per cent, other Christian 2.3 per cent), Buddhist 0.1 per cent, others 0.2 per cent, atheist 2.8 per cent, unspecified 0.5 per cent (2009 census) : Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4 per cent, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the ‘language of inter-ethnic communication’) 95 per cent (2001 est.) : 99.7 per cent : Republic, authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch : 18 years of age; universal : 14 provinces and 3 cities

Overview of the Economy Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics excluding Russia, possesses substantial fossil fuel reserves and other minerals and metals such as uranium, copper and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. The government realises that its economy suffers from an over reliance on oil and extractive industries and has embarked on an ambitious diversification programme, aimed at developing tar-

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geted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. Kazakhstan’s vast hydrocarbon and mineral reserves form the backbone of its economy. Kazakhstan is landlocked and depends on Russia to export its oil to Europe. In 2010, Kazakhstan joined Russia and Belarus to establish a Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade. The Customs Union evolved into a Single Economic Space in 2012 and the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) in January 2015. The economic downturns of its EEU partner, Russia, and the decline in global commodity prices have contributed to an economic slowdown in Kazakhstan, which is experiencing its slowest economic growth since the financial crises of 2008-09. Kazakhstan devalued its currency, tenge, by 19 per cent in February 2014, and in November 2014, the government announced a stimulus package to cope with its economic challenges. In spring 2015, Kazakhstan embarked on an ambitious reform agenda to modernise its economy and improve its institutions. In the face of further decline in the ruble, oil prices, and the regional economic slowdown, Kazakhstan announced in August 2015 that it would cancel its currency band in favour of a floating exchange rate that sparked further devaluation of the tenge. In 2015, Kazakhstan’s President signed into law a new Entrepreneurial Code and a new Labour Code, both aimed at improving the business environment. Despite some positive institutional and legislative changes, investors remain concerned about corruption, bureaucracy, and arbitrary law enforcement, especially at the regional and municipal levels. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) outlook says growth is forecast to remain subdued at 0.7 per cent in 2016 and 1.0 per cent in 2017. Higher countercyclical expenditure, the Expo 2017 in Astana, and the anticipated entry into production of the long-delayed Kashagan oilfield mitigate the prospective drop in private consumption. With commodity prices expected to show little improvement, however, growth could be lower than forecast if oil prices fall further or expansion in regional trading partners disappoints.

Defence Total Armed Forces : Active: 39,000 (Army: 20,000; Air: 12,000; Navy: 3,000; MoD: 4,000) Terms of Service : 12 months Paramilitary Forces : 31,500 Presidential Guard: 2,000 Internal Security Troops: 20,000 est State, Border Protection Force: 9,000 est Government Guard: 500

Security Environment Kazakhstan has one of the longest borders in the region, and fraying ethnic tensions and increasing instability in neighbouring countries (particularly Afghanistan) have pushed Kazakhstan to reform border security to better conform to European norms. International drug trafficking in neighbouring states presents a secondary threat to Kazakh society, as it can serve as a destabilising force and undermine the centralisation of the state if left unchecked. Stronger border controls informed by European standards can thus reinforce internal stability. Furthermore, Kazakh diplomacy has seen a shift in the past 15 years towards better relations with the EU and the West. In 2006 Kazakhstan signed an Individual Partnership Action Plan with NATO to inform defence and domestic security reforms, and in 2010, Kazakhstan became the chair of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). In 2014, Nursultan Nazarbayev completed negotiations over a new Partnership and

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CONTENTS 2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 415

TECHNOLOGY

On July 1, 2014, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced a decision to reinterpret the Japanese constitution allowing Tokyo to militarily support partners that are under attack. This change in Japanese defence policy is thus both remarkable and routine. It is remarkable to see Japan embracing what had been politically unthinkable. Yet the decision is routine in that it marks one of many such milestones in the country’s evolving security posture. Japan’s adoption of new roles and capabilities has been neither automatic nor straightforward. But as the Japanese perceive growing menace from Chinese capabilities and behaviour, this milestone in Japan’s security evolution will not be the last. The ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)-led coalition strengthened its position in parliament considerably following a House of Councillors (upper house) election in July this year. For the first time in decades, a sitting Prime Minister has met two of the three conditions for constitutional change: a two-thirds majority in both the lower and the upper houses. The final hurdle is a referendum. The Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, has made clear his long-held desire to revise the pacifist constitution, but achieving this goal is far from assured. A national debate over the issue will begin in the months ahead, but analysts feel that this may take years and radical change will be avoided. India’s ‘Act East’ policy and Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ‘Make in India’ drive coincide with the shifts in the Japanese postwar security policy and the April 2014 easing of the self-imposed arms export ban. The agreement concerning transfer of Defence Equipment and Technology Cooperation signed during the latest visit of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on December 12, 2015, unveils a new chapter in India-Japan defence cooperation by making available defence equipment and technology needed to carry out joint research, development and/or production projects. India’s defence modernisation give enormous opportunities for the Japanese defence industry, which until recently concentrated exclusively on the domestic market in order to demonstrate Japan’s commitment to peace. Now, there is tremendous scope for redefining the contours of the bilateral defence cooperation by way of transfer of, and collaboration on, projects related to defence equipment and technology.

BUSINESS

Japanese Nationalism and Defence Policy

INDIAN DEFENCE

East Asia are: Japan’s Defence Policy and China’s Military Strategy, Korean Peninsula, Taiwan, US Reposturing its Naval Forces and ASEAN activities.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

E

ast Asia and Pacific Rim (EAPR) remains one of the main growth drivers of the world economy, accounting for nearly two-fifths of global economic growth. Overall, the region has grown 6.5 per cent in 2015, moderating slightly from 6.8 per cent in 2014. Growth in the developing economies of EAPR is expected to ease, from 6.8 per cent in 2014 to 6.5 per cent in 2015 and 6.3 per cent over 2016-17. This reflects mainly a moderate slowdown in China. Aggregate growth in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) economies will be roughly stable at 4.3 per cent in 2015, rising to 4.9 per cent by 2017, with increasing support from global growth and export demand, particularly from high-income economies. Extreme poverty in the EAP region, as measured using the new 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) prices and a revised global extreme poverty line of $PPP1.90 a day has decreased sharply, from 29.1 per cent in 2002 to 7.2 per cent in 2012, with projections indicating the poverty rate fell further to 4.8 per cent in 2014. The new estimates indicate that the number of people in developing East Asia living on less than $PPP1.90 a day decreased from 551 million in 2002 to 147 million in 2012, and further to an estimated 97 million by 2014. The region has huge infrastructure needs on account of rapid urbanisation. As many as 142 million people have no access to power, and 600 million lack adequate sanitation. Rapid migration to cities is putting pressure on service delivery and leading to large urban slums, pollution and environmental degradation. In the world’s most disaster-stricken region, concentrating 70 per cent of natural disasters, urbanisation challenges can be aggravated by a changing climate. East Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist who under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is evolving a new security posture. Major issues which are impacting the security environment in

REGIONAL BALANCE

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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regional balance

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Chinese Military Strategy In May 2015, China published its latest defence white paper. Unlike its eight predecessors, this document was the first time that China publicly unveiled parts of its military strategy. Even the paper’s title was changed from ‘China’s National Defense’ to ‘China’s Military Strategy.’ Rather than the opaque and retrospective generalities found in earlier versions, the new white paper offered details about China’s strategic intentions and the future development of its military. It has been suggested that the greater transparency of the new white paper was a sign of a more confident China. That said, many of the revelations contained in the document were hardly novel. It profiled China’s decades-old “active defence” strategy, which maintains that China would always remain strategically defensive — though perhaps not so at the operational or tactical levels. It also detailed the Chinese military’s primary aim: to prepare itself to fight “local wars under conditions of informationisation” — in other words, regional conflicts in which command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) would play major roles. That too was already known. But other revelations in the white paper were more illuminating. It showed that China intends to focus its force development in four domains: cyberspace (it will boost its cyber warfare capabilities); outer space (it will take steps to defend its interests there, even though it is opposed to the militarisation of that domain); nuclear forces (it will build a reliable second-strike capability); and finally the oceans. That last domain is what currently worries China’s neighbours the most, given Chinese assertiveness in the East and South China Seas. Indeed, the white paper highlighted Beijing’s intentions to further expand the Chinese Navy and extend the range of its operations — shifting from “offshore waters defence” to “open ocean protection.” The white paper argued that China’s growing overseas interests have changed the country’s focus from being a continental land power to a maritime power. That has led China to prioritise its navy in its military modernisation plans. Interestingly the white paper declares that “the traditional mentality that land outweighs sea must be abandoned.” That means that in the future China would not only defend its coastline from attack, but also its sea lanes of communications through international shipping routes, including those from the Middle East through which over half of China’s oil flows. That, in turn, means countries like India will have to get used to seeing more of the Chinese Navy in the Indian Ocean. By the same token, Japan and the United States should expect more Chinese naval and air patrols in the Pacific Ocean and maybe one or two more Chinese aircraft carriers. The white paper also listed China’s strategic concerns. Chief among them was America’s “rebalance” towards Asia, under which the United States has increased its military presence and strengthened its alliances in the region. The white paper also noted Japan’s push to revise its military and security policies, characterising them as “sparing no effort to dodge the post-war mechanism.” China’s “offshore neighbours” warranted mention too for their “provocative actions [to] reinforce their military presence on China’s reefs and islands that they have illegally occupied,” no doubt referring to the Philippines and Vietnam in the Spratly Islands. The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) has issued a sweeping verdict in favour of the Philippines in its case against China’s territorial claims in the South China Sea. The judgement represents a serious blow to China’s efforts to win legitimacy for its claims in the region. It is expected that after an initial period of relative calm, while the decision is digested across the region and diplomatic discussions

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are opened, the long term irreconcilable differences between the various claimants are likely to bring about renewed tensions.

Noth Korea’s Nuclear Ambitions After years of trying to separate fact from propaganda about North Korea’s nuclear programme, American and South Korean intelligence officials say they have concluded that the country can now mount a small nuclear warhead on short- and medium-range missiles capable of hitting much of Japan and South Korea. The United States and its allies have sought for nearly a decade to prevent the North from gaining such capabilities, ever since it detonated its first atomic device a decade ago. Their failure is likely to raise new questions about the effectiveness of the policy towards North Korea, while ushering the long-simmering nuclear stand-off with the North into a more perilous phase under its combative young leader, Kim Jong-un. The assessment of the North’s new capabilities is not based on direct evidence from inside its nuclear programme, but draws on intelligence gleaned from high-level defectors, analysis of propaganda images and data collected from North Korean missile and nuclear tests, which have accelerated over the past six months. While some intelligence agencies suggested as early as 2013 that the North had learned enough about rocket engineering and the miniaturisation of nuclear warheads to mount one on a shorter-range missile, there is a new consensus and greater confidence in that view in both Washington and Seoul, the officials said. Given the years of research North Korea has devoted to the programme, experts do not consider the conclusion particularly surprising. But the politics of the assessment, which means the North can target American bases in South Korea and Japan, are delicate, both in the region and in the United States. Experts say North Korea is years away from deploying an intercontinental ballistic missile capable of striking the mainland United States with a nuclear payload, and even then no one sees the backward nation taking the enormous strides needed to build a much more destructive hydrogen warhead, capable of leveling cities. Still, the North’s new capabilities have prompted a rethinking of American military strategy in Asia. “We know they have nuclear weapons and the means to deliver them,” General Robert B. Neller, commandant of the Marine Corps, said recently at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York. “If that’s where they are going, that changes the calculus.”

Taiwan Since President Tsai Ing-wen’s landslide election in January 2016, China has employed a range of tactics to show Taiwan what the future might look like if it refuses to embrace the idea of “one country”. In March, China scrapped a diplomatic truce with former President Ma Ying-jeou and established relations with the tiny West African nation of Gambia, one of a handful of states that still recognised Taiwan. In April 2016, a Taiwanese delegation to Brussels was barred from joining a meeting of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) steel officials because of Chinese objections, when no such objection had arisen in 10 years, the Taipei-based United Evening News reported. Taiwan’s new President defied Beijing in her inaugural address on May 20, 2016, by resisting pressure to adopt the “one-China” principle, drawing a relatively tepid reaction from China. Pledging to seek peace with China, Tsai Ing-wen 60, Taiwan’s first female President, said the understanding reached at historic talks in 1992 where the two sides agreed to seek common ground should form one foundation of future ties. She added that Taiwan’s 1946 constitution, which still claims mainland China as part of its territory, should form another.

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CONTENTS

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

N. Korea

S. Korea

BUSINESS

China

Taiwan

Laos Vietnam

Cambodia

Philippines

INDIAN DEFENCE

Brunei Singapore

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Thailand

REGIONAL BALANCE

Myanmar


regional balance With the Democratic Progressive Party assuming control of both the executive and legislative branches for the first time, Tsai pledged to implement key structural reforms to Taiwan’s economy to help it better integrate with the rest of Asia. Dragged down by slower demand for its products from China and elsewhere in the world, Taiwan has posted three straight quarters of economic contraction. Her inauguration was attended by dignitaries from 59 nations, including Taiwan’s 22 remaining diplomatic allies, and a US delegation led by former US Trade Representative Ron Kirk. At the end of her remarks, Tsai made reference to having pride in Taiwan’s democratic achievements: “Today, tomorrow, and on every day to come, we shall all vow to be a Taiwanese who safeguards democracy, freedom, and this country.” Liu Guoshen, Director of Xiamen University’s Taiwan Research Institute, praised Tsai’s address as a mild and practical speech. “You can see Tsai was making a real effort to stabilise the cross-strait ties. She’s trying in her speech to strike a balance in addressing various audience: her own party, Beijing, and the United States,” Liu said.

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US Reposturing its Naval Forces The US interest in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming deeper. This can be seen by the fact that it is reposturing its naval forces in the Asia-Pacific region. The US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told Asian officials at a conference in Singapore in June 2012, that by 2020, the Navy will reposture its forces from today’s roughly 50:50 split between the Pacific and the Atlantic to about a 60:40 split between those oceans. This will include six aircraft carriers in this region, a majority of their cruisers, destroyers, combat ships and submarines. It is being done in a steady, deliberate and sustainable way — the United States military is rebalancing and brings enhanced capabilities to this vital region. The “strategic pivot” or rebalancing launched four years ago, is premised on the recognition that the lion’s share of the political and economic history of the 21st century will be written in the Asia-Pacific region. To benefit from this shift in global geopolitical dynamism and sustainably grow its economy, the United States is building extensive diplomatic, economic, development, people to people and security ties with the region. The new US policy is also based on the need — widely felt throughout most of the Asia-Pacific region — for strategic reassurance in the face of a rising and increasingly assertive China. The rebalance is also driven by a desire to reassure US allies, friends, and other countries in the region that the United States has not been exhausted after a decade of war, that it has not been weakened by economic and political problems at home, and that it is not going to disengage from Asia-Pacific affairs. The fundamental goals of the new US policy are to broaden areas of cooperation beneficial to the United States with regional states and institutions; strengthen relations with American allies and partners, including great powers such as China and India as well as important regional powers such as Indonesia; and develop regional norms and rules compatible with the international security, economic and political order long supported by the United States.

ASEAN Economic Community The establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 is a major milestone in the regional economic integration agenda in ASEAN, offering opportunities in the form of a huge

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market of $2.6 trillion and over 622 million people. In 2014, AEC was collectively the third largest economy in Asia and the seventh largest in the world. The AEC Blueprint 2025, adopted by the ASEAN leaders at the 27th ASEAN Summit on November 22, 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, provides broad directions through strategic measures for the AEC from 2016 to 2025. Along with the ASEAN Community Vision 2025, and the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) Blueprint 2025 and the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) Blueprint 2025, the AEC Blueprint 2025 forms part of ASEAN 2025: Forging Ahead Together. It succeeded the AEC Blueprint (2008-15), which was adopted in 2007. The AEC Blueprint 2025 is aimed towards achieving the vision of having an AEC by 2025 that is highly integrated and cohesive; competitive, innovative and dynamic; with enhanced connectivity and sectoral cooperation; and a more resilient, inclusive, and people-oriented, people-centred community, integrated with the global economy. The AEC Blueprint 2025 consists of five interrelated and mutually reinforcing characteristics, namely: (i) A Highly Integrated and Cohesive Economy; (ii) A Competitive, Innovative, and Dynamic ASEAN; (iii) Enhanced Connectivity and Sectoral Cooperation; (iv) A Resilient, Inclusive, People-Oriented, and People-Centred ASEAN; and (v) A Global ASEAN. These characteristics support the vision for the AEC as envisaged in the ASEAN Community Vision 2025. The AEC Blueprint 2025 sets out the strategic measures under each of the five characteristics of AEC 2025. To operationalise the Blueprint’s implementation, these strategic measures will be further elaborated in and implemented through the work plans of various sectoral bodies in ASEAN. The sectoral work plans will be reviewed and updated periodically to ensure their relevance and effectiveness. The AEC Blueprint 2025 will lead towards an ASEAN that is more proactive, having had in place the structure and frameworks to operate as an economic community, cultivating its collective identity and strength to engage with the world, responding to new developments, and seizing new opportunities. The new Blueprint will not only ensure that the 10 ASEAN Member States are economically integrated, but are also sustainably and gainfully integrated in the global economy, thus contributing to the goal of shared prosperity. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows: n Australia n Brunei n Cambodia n People’s Republic of China n Indonesia n Japan n North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) n South Korea (Republic of Korea) n Laos n Malaysia n Myanmar (formerly Burma) n The Philippines n Singapore n Taiwan n Thailand n Vietnam

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CONTENTS

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia: AUSTRALIA

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Defence Total Armed Forces : Active: 56,750 (Army: 29,000; Navy: 13,550; Air: 14,200) Reserve : 23,100 (Army: 14,100; Navy: 4,700; Air: 4,300) Foreign Forces : US Pacific Command: 180; New Zealand Army: 9; Singapore Air Force: 230

INDIAN DEFENCE

Area : 77,41,220 sq km Capital : Canberra Coastline : 25,760 km Maritime Claims : Territorial sea : 12 nm Contiguous zone : 24 nm Exclusive economic zone : 200 nm Continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Population : 2,37,81,000 (2015 est) Ethnic Divisions : White 92 per cent, Asian 7 per cent, aboriginal and others 1 per cent Religions : Protestant 28.8 per cent (Anglican 17.1 per cent, Uniting Church 5.0 per cent, Presbyterian and Reformed 2.8 per cent, Baptist, 1.6 per cent, Lutheran 1.2 per cent, Pentecostal 1.1 per cent), Catholic 25.3 per cent, Eastern Orthodox 2.6 per cent, other Christian 4.5 per cent, Buddhist 2.5 per cent, Muslim 2.2 per cent, Hindu 1.3 per cent, others 8.5 per cent, unspecified 2.2 per cent, none 22.3 per cent Note: Percentages add up to more than 100 per cent due to rounding (2006 Census) Languages : English 76.8 per cent, Mandarin 1.6 per cent, Italian 1.4 per cent, Arabic 1.3 per cent, Greek 1.2 per cent, Cantonese 1.2 per cent, Vietnamese 1.1 per cent, others 10.4 per cent, unspecified 5 per cent (2011 est) Literacy : 99 per cent Government : Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Suffrage : 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Administrative Divisions : Six states and two territories

Following two decades of continuous growth, low unemployment, contained inflation, very low public debt, and a strong and stable financial system, Australia enters 2016 facing a range of growth constraints, principally driven by a sharp fall in global prices of key export commodities. Demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China has stalled and sharp drops in current prices have impacted growth. The services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy, accounting for about 70 per cent of GDP and 75 per cent of jobs. Australia was comparatively unaffected by the global financial crisis as the banking system has remained strong and inflation is under control. Australia benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade in recent years, although this trend has reversed due to falling global commodity prices. Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy and food. Australia’s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. The process of opening up has increased productivity, stimulated growth, and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Australia plays an active role in the World Trade Organisation, APEC, the G-20, and other trade forums. Australia’s free trade agreement (FTA) with China entered into force in 2015, adding to existing FTAs with the Republic of Korea, Japan, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, and the US, and a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand. Australia continues to negotiate bilateral agreements with India and Indonesia, as well as larger agreements with its Pacific neighbours and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, and an Asia-wide Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership that includes the ten ASEAN countries and China, Japan, Korea, New Zealand and India. Australia is also working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement with Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the US and Vietnam.

Security Environment Australia’s strategic environment is most influenced by three factors: the status of the US-China relationship, America’s willingness to defend the rules-based global order in Asia, and the stability of the Asian region. The 2016 Defence White Paper directly and indirectly gives the answers to these challenges. The 2016 Defence White Paper released on February 25, 2016, delivers on the government’s commitment to the safety of the Australian people and to defend territory and national interests. The Defence White Paper sets out a comprehensive, responsible long-term plan for Australia’s defence. The government is investing in defence to ensure that they have the armed forces they need to protect Australia and to secure their interests in the coming

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 General Information

Overview of the Economy

REGIONAL BALANCE

AUSTRALIA


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CONTENTS

Iraq The current situation in Iraq is essentially the consequence of the US policies towards Iraq since 1990-91 but particularly of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 and its subsequent military occupation, marked by thoroughly inept governance, till 2011 when US troops finally withdrew leaving behind a broken country wracked by sectarian strife and internal insurgencies. The immediate trigger is the unfortunate reality that during the eight years of the US installed Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s increasingly blatantly partisan rule, the Sunnis were steadily and continuously sidelined and have been completely alienated; the relationship between the Shia and Sunni communities has never been as poisonous as it is today. A Sunni backlash was inevitable. This is what was witnessed in Iraq and it manifested in particular by the lightening takeover of the Sunni dominated provinces of Iraq and the establishment of the Islamic Caliphate on June 30, 2014, by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, the ISIS, an extremist militant group even more radical and brutal than Al Qaeda. After outstanding successes initially the so-called Islamic State (IS) is losing ground in Iraq. The recapture of its stronghold Ramadi

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liferation of jihadis across the region, engaged in extraordinary brutality against enemy states and “heretic” communities. The violence, the fear of jihadi contagion, and the possible breakdown of state order across West Asia have pulled in international powers into the region’s conflicts. Though the ongoing conflicts and competitions are the result of recent developments in the West Asian state systems, the battle lines have been deliberately shaped on the basis of primeval sectarian cleavages and animosities that have been resurrected and imbued with a contemporary resonance to serve modern-day political interests. The sectarian divide, or the division between the Sunni and Shia communities of Islam, is now the principal basis for mobilisation of support against the “existential” threat perceived mainly by Sunni leaders from the Shias, primarily on account of what they see as an increasing Iranian influence in West Asia and its “interference” in their domestic politics by encouraging Shia aspirations and agitations. This nascent sectarian cleavage soon became part of a larger political competition between the region’s Islamic powers, Iran and Saudi Arabia, as they sought to assert claims for leadership of the Islamic world and assiduously attempted to broaden their support bases across West Asia, North Africa and other parts of Asia.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

W

est Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits, which were discovered in the early 20th century, have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest, as it has the largest oil reserves. Iran, Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and United Arab Emirates (UAE) also have huge oil deposits. The concept of ‘West Asia’ is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. It describes the geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism, international organisations such as the United Nations have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel, a Jewish country, all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically, most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq, which is largely dominated by Shias, and Iran, which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world’s most widespread religions— Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Politically, most of the states are monarchies, sheikhdoms or single-party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The essence of the socio-political tumult sweeping the region has been such that the people at large have overcome their fear of the existing regimes and called for drastic and fundamental political transformations, including regime changes. This has led to dramatic changes in domestic political environments in most of the countries of the region. Though the West Asian region is exposed to a completely new set of challenges, threats and an uncertain future but it is clear that the new political dispensation will not be forced to follow for long the ‘Accepted Order’ laid down by the West. However, the newly formed regimes, most of them Islamists, would be quite difficult to deal with. The emerging political order in West Asia is also marked by considerable shifts within individual countries as well as at the regional level. The Islamist parties are on the rise across the region whereas the economic concerns have also risen to the forefront. Five years after the Arab Spring, West Asia is witnessing two major military conflicts in Syria and Yemen. Several states are deeply polarised and at the edge of breakdown, and there is pro-

REGIONAL BALANCE

West Asia and North Africa

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4


regional balance by US-backed Iraqi forces on December 28, 2015, was a significant setback for the militant group. Its defeat was secured through a successful military strategy that combined the Iraqi national army, tribal forces and the Popular Mobilisation Forces (an umbrella organisation composed of mostly Shi’ite militias). Despite victory for this alliance in Ramadi, there are still four serious challenges, old and new, that Iraq needs to overcome in order to stabilise the country and end the plight of millions of people. These are: n To defeat IS, similarly lengthy operations would have to be carried out in other important cities such as Mosul. Retaking Mosul is more challenging. IS has been in the city for more than 18 months. During this time, they have become well acquainted with the city, fortifying it with elaborate defences including mines and booby traps. n Sectarian tensions have created fertile soil for extremist organisations like IS to exploit, tapping feelings of exclusion and injustice to gain new recruits. This is especially acute in areas where communities share a history of competition over land or leadership. Tensions between various communities often prevent local populations from moving freely, which can deny them access to safe areas. These restrictions reinforce tensions and pull apart Iraq’s fragile social fabric. n The unity of the country is another challenge that the central government faces. Iraq’s territorial integrity is indeed threatened by both the separatist aspiration of the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan and by the destruction of law and order resulting from war. The President of Kurdistan called out recently to the international community urging it to pave the way for the creation of a Kurdish state. n There are significant economic challenges in Iraq. The costs of humanitarian work and reconstruction efforts in the face of ongoing tumult are huge, and they will present serious obstacles in the future. Furthermore, the Iraqi economy is vulnerable. Oil constitutes 90 per cent of the state’s revenues. This means that the price of oil has a serious impact on the economic situation in Iraq. In light of declining oil prices, Iraq’s resources are stretched ever thinner between acute humanitarian needs and the demands of the war on IS.

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Egypt Egypt’s political transition culminated in the election of a president and a parliament. The new assembly is largely supportive of the policies introduced by the President, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. However, economic recovery will be undermined by security challenges facing tourism and negative publicity around incidents such as the disappearance of an outbound Egypt Air flight from Paris in late May 2016. Economic growth is likely to average below recent peaks at 3.2 per cent annually in 2016-20. Five years since the uprisings in Tahrir Square, Egypt has seemingly come full circle. With the Muslim Brotherhood crushed, the non-Islamist opposition shattered, civic groups demoralised, and a new military regime that enjoys significant popular support, President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi’s rule appears secure. But how secure is Egypt? Beneath the facade of stability lies a far more challenging reality. With a population of over 90 million, the country is facing systemic political and economic problems. Frustrations are growing with the government’s lack of vision, while the Islamic State and other radical groups are actively seeking to exploit social and political tensions. Meanwhile, the US assessment of Egypt’s strategic importance is starting to change. Once a key pillar of

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America’s regional security alliances, today the country’s power and influence is greatly diminished. Given the new threats posed by sub-state groups to the security of the Egyptian public and homeland, the annual US transfers of $1.5 billion to Egypt’s military seem woefully anachronistic.

Israeli-Egyptian-Palestinian Peace Summit Palestinian leaders have presented several preconditions for participating in a trilateral Israeli-Egyptian-Palestinian peace summit in Cairo, including a freeze on Israeli settlement construction. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has reportedly told Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry on July 10, 2016, that he would be willing to meet with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in Cairo for talks hosted by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. Palestinian officials say that President Abbas of Palestine has conditioned his participation on Israel agreeing to stop settlement construction and accepting a set timeline for negotiations. Israel would also have to acquiesce to negotiations based on the pre-1967 lines and pledge ahead of time to implement any agreements reached in the talks. Egypt is seeking a formula for renewal of negotiation that would be accepted by both sides. The official said it might be too early to invite both sides to a summit, since the sides did not yet agree about the goals of the talks. President Sisi of Egypt reportedly offered to host direct talks between the sides as part of Cairo’s initiative to kickstart the moribund peace process. On January 15, 2017, 70 plus nations participated in Middle East peace conference supporting both sides in advancing the two state solution through negotiations. They welcome international efforts and adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2334 of December 23, 2016.

Syrian Civil War — The Situation Today Five years since the conflict began, more than 2,50,000 Syrians have been killed in the fighting, and almost 11 million Syrians — half the country’s pre-war population — have been displaced from their homes. The Assad Government in Syria currently controls the capital, Damascus, parts of southern Syria, portions of Aleppo and Deir Az Zor, much of the area near the Syrian-Lebanese border, and the north-western coastal region. Rebel groups, ISIL, and Kurdish forces control the rest of the country. Rebel groups continue to jockey against one another for power, and frequently fight each other. The Free Syrian Army has weakened as the war has progressed, while explicitly Islamist groups, such as the al-Nusra Front, which has pledged allegiance to Al Qaeda, and the Saudi-backed Islamic Front have gained in strength. In 2013, ISIL emerged in northern and eastern Syria after overrunning large portions of Iraq. The group quickly gained international notoriety for its brutal executions, its ultra-strict interpretation of Islamic law, and its energetic use of social media. Meanwhile, Kurdish groups in northern Syria are seeking self-rule in areas under their control. This has alarmed Turkey’s government, which fears its large native Kurdish population may grow more restive and demand greater autonomy as a result. In response to attacks within Turkey, the Turkish Government has bombed Kurdish targets in Syria. Kurdish groups have also clashed with alNusra Front and ISIL. The Syrian war is creating profound effects far beyond the country’s borders. Lebanon, Turkey and Jordan are hosting large and growing numbers of Syrian refugees, many of whom have attempted to journey onwards to Europe in search of better conditions. Fighting has occasionally spilled over from Syria into Lebanon, contributing to the country’s political polarisation. Several rounds of

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CONTENTS

West Asia and North Africa

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

West Asia & North Africa

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BUSINESS

Turkey


regional balance peace talks have failed to stop the fighting. UN-sponsored Geneva III talks in 2016 failed to produce a resolution of the conflict. Unrest continues in Syria, and according to an April 2016 UN estimate, the death toll among Syrian Government forces, opposition forces, and civilians had reached 4,00,000. As of December 2016, approximately 13.5 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance in Syria, with 6.3 million people displaced internally, and an additional 4.8 million Syrian refugees, making the Syrian situation the largest humanitarian crisis worldwide. With much of the country in ruins, millions of Syrians having fled abroad, and a population deeply traumatised by war, one thing is certain: Rebuilding Syria after the war ends will be a lengthy, extremely difficult process.

Iran

clerical body. However, it is not clear that the election results will enable Rouhani to limit the hardliner control of the judiciary or the security forces that are the main instruments to curb dissent and free expression. On numerous occasions Donald Trump, the new US President, had called the nuclear agreement a “really, really bad deal,” and has said that he many want to renegotiate its terms after he is sworn in as the 45th President of the United States on January 20. His pick for Defense Secreatry, James N. Mattis, a retired Marine Corps General, who has also been critical of Iran and the deal, contradicted Trump during his confirmation hearing in Washington. He said the incoming administration should respect the nuclear agreement. Iran’s President said going back on the deal was impossible as it was not a bilateral agreement between Iran and the United States, but a multilateral one, also signed by Britain, China, France, Germany and Russia. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows: n Algeria n Egypt n Libya n Bahrain n Iran n Iraq n Israel n Jordan n Kuwait n Lebanon n Sultanate of Oman n Qatar n Saudi Arabia n Syria n Turkey n United Arab Emirates n Republic of Yemen

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The implementation of a July 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) nuclear agreement between Iran and six negotiating powers has lessened, although not eliminated, US concerns about Iran’s nuclear programme. Since 2010, the United States orchestrated broad international economic pressure on Iran to persuade it to agree to strict limits on the programme. It is assessed that the international pressure might have contributed to the June 2013 election of the relatively moderate Hassan Rouhani as President of Iran, whose government subsequently negotiated a November 2013 interim nuclear agreement and the JCPOA. The JCPOA, which began formal implementation on January 16, 2016, exchanged broad sanctions relief for nuclear programme limits that give the international community confidence that it would take Iran at least a year to produce a nuclear weapon. President Barack Obama has asserted that the JCPOA has the potential to produce the added benefit of improving US-Iran relations. Domestically, Rouhani and the JCPOA appear to have broad support, but many Iranians say they also want greater freedoms of expression and assembly. Rouhani’s public support was demonstrated by the strong showing of moderate conservative candidates in the February 26 elections for the parliament and a key

West Asia and North Africa

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Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

: 12 nm : 32-52 nm : 3,96,67,000 (2015 est) : Arab-Berbers 99 per cent, European less than 1 per cent : Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent, Christian and Jewish 1 per cent : Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects : 72.6 per cent : Republic : 18 years of age; universal : 48 provinces

Overview of the Economy Algeria’s economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country’s socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatisation of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues, 30 per cent of GDP, and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the tenth largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Hydrocarbon

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Defence Total Armed Forces : Active: 1,30,000 (Army: 1,10,000; Navy: 6,000; Air Force: 14,000) Reserve: 1,50,000 Terms of Service : Conscription 18 months Paramilitary Forces : 1,87,200 est Gendarmerie: 20,000 National Security Forces: 16,000 Republican Guard: 1,200 Legitimate Defence Groups: 1,50,000 est

Security Environment Many used to say that unlike other countries that have an army, Algeria is an army that has a country. As 2016 begins, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika — no mere client of the army — has consolidated his authority and empowered his allies in Africa’s largest nation. However, questions about Algeria’s political and economic stability loom large in the new year. Bouteflika surpassed the expectations of observers by craftily manipulating the presidencyarmy-intelligence balance to his advantage. In September 2015, he removed intelligence service chief Mohamed Mediene and put one of Mediene’s top aides in jail in November, despite Mediene’s plaintive complaints to the national media. Bouteflika’s patronage of the Army’s Chief of Staff, Gaid Salah, is one key to the President’s ability to strengthen his power. His assertion of control over the National Liberation Front (FLN) and the National Rally for Democracy (RND) gives his partisans great scope over economic and social policy. It is expected that Abdelaziz Bouteflika and his allies are likely to remain in power throughout 2016-20, although uncertainty over Bouteflika’s health will weigh on political stability. The risk of ter-

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: 23,81,741 sq km : Algiers : 998 km

INDIAN DEFENCE

Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Exclusive fishing zone Population Ethnic Divisions

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 General Information

exports have enabled Algeria to maintain macroeconomic stability and amass large foreign currency reserves and a large budget stabilisation fund available for tapping. In addition, Algeria’s external debt is extremely low at about 2 per cent of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. The government’s efforts have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. Since late 2014, declining oil prices forced the government to spend down its reserves at a high rate in order to sustain social spending on salaries and subsidies, particularly since the government has been unable to boost exports of hydrocarbons or significantly grow its non-oil sector. In 2015, the Algerian Government imposed further restrictions on imports in an effort to reduce withdrawals from its foreign exchange reserves. The government also increased the value-added tax on electricity and fuel, but said it would address subsidies at a later date. Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians. The economy will remain dependent on energy production and oil prices; it is likely to grow by an average of just 2.3 per cent a year in 2016-20 as per predictions of the Economist. Subdued oil prices will weigh heavily on economic performance in the early part of the forecast period.

REGIONAL BALANCE

ALGERIA

TECHNOLOGY

West Asia and North Africa: Algeria


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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the Asia-Pacific mired in a number of parallel civil wars in Syria, Iraq and Yemen. The vertical cleavage between Iran and Saudi Arabia has rekindled traditional source of rivalry while the coup in Turkey in July 2016 marked the internal challenges that are faced by regimes in this region. Territorial expansion of non-state actors such as the ISIS has been contained for now, but the potential to carry out terrorist attacks globally has emerged as a key threat in Europe, South East Asia and South Asia which were relatively unscathed by global terr orism so far. The impact of volatility is evident with a flow of refugees from Syria, North Africa and Afghanistan causing concerns in Europe — the main recipient of thousands of migrants from conflict zones. The periphery of West Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan continue to be hobbled by active militancy with mass casualties becoming a major concern. This has led the United States to extend stay in Afghanistan keeping 8,400 troops through the year 2016. Thus from Europe to West and South West Asia disruptive fragmentation — political, economic and security is evident. This is seen as an outcome of diffusion of power and disaggregation of the global and regional order leading to anarchy where governments are weak and instability in other areas. Absence of unified global leadership to bring diverse and disparate forces — state and non-state actors is also evident with the United States increasingly shying away from larger commitments. This trend may get even more exacerbated post presidential elections in the United States in November this year. There is a degree of consensus for America retracting into a shell of isolation of sorts while desiring that national governments and regional alliances take on a larger role in managing their security affairs. This has created own dynamics in the Asia-Pacific where the rise of China is challenging stability in an otherwise secure South East Asia. China’s economic rise in the early 21st century proved to be a boon to the Asia-Pacific with many peripheral economies in East and South East Asia benefiting through manufacturing and mar-

BUSINESS

Bhonsle (RETD)  

INDIAN DEFENCE

T

he geostrategic envi  BRIGADIER Rahul ronment in the AsiaPacific remains dynamic. This is an age-old characteristic that flows out of the maxim, “Change is the only constant”. Moving from the Cold War to a unipolar and a multipolar world order today the geopolitical framework is categorised quite pithily as, “loose multipolarity”. Countries and even regional groupings are engaging with each other based on mutual self-interest looking beyond traditional partnerships and principles. The phenomenon of, “G-Zero World,” flagged by noted geopolitical analyst Ian Bremmer in his book published in 2012, Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World, seems increasingly evident today. The exit of United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU), popularly known as Brexit, has seen resurgence of nationalism. On the other hand, ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) members are showing greater solidarity. The concept of nationality and nationalism is being questioned by emergence of entities as Islamic State of Iraq and the al Shams or ISIS also known as ISIL and Daesh. Youth from across the globe are joining this venal conglomerate physically or ideologically to conduct some of the most inhuman acts of terror against the innocent. Ideologues aligned to the ISIS are able to use new media — Facebook, Twitter and mobile applications as Instagram to indoctrinate youth and instigate them to violence against their own societies. There is not only uncertainty in the international security environment but also in the paradigm in which these developments can fit in. Thus lack of an identifiable diachronic framework is creating a challenge. Many are even recalling the nostalgia of stability of the Cold War which was what now seems to be neatly divided in blocs. Devoid of these blocs it appears that there is no firm anchor to which countries can moor leading to constant flux. Portends of instability are marked across the globe with West Asia — the main source of oil and gas to fuel economies of

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Central to the idea of the Asian century was the rise of China and India as economic giants. This vision has been only partly realised given the slowdown if not recession in the Chinese economy. India’s inability to rise to global expectations due to structural challenges is another dampener.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

ASIA-PACIFIC ENVIRONMENT

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

China Main battle tanks (MBTs)

: Type-98/Type-99, Type-99G, Type90-II, North Industries Corporation (Norinco) Type-85-III Light tanks (Lt Tks) : Type-62, Type-63, Type-63A Armoured Personnel Carriers/Infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs), (ICVs) : Type-90, ZBD-04 IFV/ZBD (Type-97), Norinco VP1, Type-89 (YW 534), Type85 (531H), Type WZ 501, Type-77, Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers : Type-83 152mm, PLZ45 155mm How, Enhanced PLZ45 systems Norinco, Type-85 122mm How, 155mm (SP) System -SH1 Towed Anti-tank (A Tk) Guns, Guns and

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CONTENTS Howitzer Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs)

: Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System, WS-1B Multiple-Launch Rocket System

SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs : Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, PL-9C, Almaz S-300 — ‘Offensive’ Air Defence, China’s SD-10A Air Defence System Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System Towed AA Guns : Chinese Type-56 14.5mm Gun, Norinco 37mm Type-74 Czech/Slovak Republics APCs/ICVs : BRDM-2, OT-64 C (SKOT-2A), BMP-1 & OT90 APC France MBTs Lt Tks APCs/ICVs

TECHNOLOGY

: Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun, Type-66 152mm Gun How

: Leclerc, AMX-30 : AMX-13 : Giat AMX-10P, Nexter Systems AMX10P Marines, AMX VCI (ICV), Improved

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Army equipment is listed below by Country:

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

ARMY EQUIPMENT

different variants with new fitments based on new technologies to cater for new operational parameters. Thus the equipment may seem old but in fact may have undergone numerous upgrades to modernise it for current and future conflicts. n Some such variants of equipment have been included based upon information in the public domain and collated from various sources including other publications. For greater details, refer to other relevant media. n Specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors, weapon control systems and other such subsystems have been omitted as they may vary from craft to craft even within the same class or category. n The equipment held (types and numbers) in various countries of Asia along with other details is given in our chapter on Regional Balance.

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

his chapter contains specifications of some important military hardware being employed in the Asian region. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented for each wing of the armed forces, namely Army, Navy and Air Force separately. Salient details are as under: n The chapter begins with a summary of equipment of each manufacturing country followed by more detailed characteristics of each type of equipment of that country. n While the equipment mentioned is in use in the Asian region, each type of hardware is listed under its country of origin (manufacturer) like Russia, UK and the US. n The development of weapon systems being a long-term process, a composite unit like a tank, ship or an aircraft passes through various phases/stages of development and appears in

BUSINESS

Equipment & Hardware Specifications — An Overview

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


regional Balance ARMY EQUIPMENT contd.

APCs/ICVs

VAB 4 x 4 version (Wheeled), Panhard PVP, Panhard M3 SP Guns and Hows : GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun, GIAT 155mm, GCT SP Gun SP AA Guns and SAMs : Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System, Crotale Low Alt SAM System, Shahine Low Alt SAM System, AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System

SP Guns and Hows

Germany MBTs APCs/ICVs

India MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows MRLs Israel MBTs Reconnaissance Vehicles SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs Type SU 60 SP Guns and Hows MRLs Pakistan MBTs APC Russia MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs

: BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-1 ACV, BTR-50, BTR-80A, MT-LB, BTR-152VI : M 1973 (2S3) 152mm, M 1974 (2S1) 122mm (MSTA-S) 152mm SelfPropelled Artillery System 2S19

Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: T-90, Arjun

: D-30 122mm Fd Gun, M-46 130mm Fd Gun, 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs : Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System, BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs : ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System, ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, 2S6M Tunguska System, SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System, SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System, SA-8B SAM System, SA-9 Gaskin SAM, SA-13 Gopher SAM System Towed AA Guns : ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun, S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun, 100mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19

: IFG Mk.2 105mm : Pinaka MR System

Singapore SP Guns and Hows

: SSPH-1 Primus

: Merkava Mk3, Merkava 4, Sabra MBT

South Africa APCs/ICVs

: Casspir Mk. III, Ratel 90

: Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2A7, Leopard 2A6, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT : Neuer Schutzenpanzer PUMA AIFV, Condor, Fuchs, Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV

: RAM family of light AFVs : Soltam L-33 155mm : Soltam M-71 155mm Gun/How

Italy SP Guns and Howitzer : Oto Palmaria 155mm, Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How

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equipment & hardware specifications: Army

: Type-74, Type-90, Mitsubishi TK–X MBT : Type-87 : Type-73, Type-89, Mitsubishi

South Korea MBTs : K1, Hyundai Rotem K2 MBT Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : 155mm KH179 How Spain APCs/ICVs

Sweden Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Bofors FH-77 B 155mm Towed AA Guns : Bofors L-40/-70, 40mm Auto AA Gun Switzerland APCs/ICVs Towed AA Guns

: Type-75 155mm, Type-99 155mm : Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System : Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid), Type Al Zarrar : Type Saad, Type Talha, Type M113A2 : Black Eagle Development Tank, T-95, T-54, T-55, T-55 (Upgraded), T-62, T-64B, T-72, T-80U, T-90S : PT-76B : BRDM-2, PRP-4

2016518  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

: BMR-600

United Kingdom MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: Mowag Piranha : Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns, Oerlikon Contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns : Chieftain Mk 5, Centurion Mk 13, Challenger 2, Khalid, Vickers MBT Mk 3 : Alvis Scorpion : Alvis Saladin, Daimler Ferret Mk 2/3 : Stormer, GKN Def Desert Warrior, FV432 : AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun : 105mm Lt Gun (L 118), 155mm Lightweight How (M 777)

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CONTENTS

equipment & hardware specifications: ARmy

2. Type-98 Specifications Crew : 3 Weight : 50,000 kg Power-to-weight ratio : 24 hp/tonne Length gun forward : 10.92 m Width : 3.372 m Height : 2.805 m Engine : Model WD396 V-8 turbocharged

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: 80 kmph : 400 km, or 600 km with external fuel tanks

Armament    Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm    AA : 1 x 12.7mm It is in service with People’s Liberation Army (PLA). 3. Type-90-II Specifications Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 443. Type 99 G A more potent variant of the Chinese Type-99 main battle tank began circulating shortly after Xinhua News Agency released photos of what looked like a new and improved version of that armoured vehicle in early 2008. The visual differences indicate that the Type-99G has a new Active Protection System (APS) and an independent thermal imaging system for the tank commander. The tank also seems to sport a new electro-optical countermeasures package and a new laser designator warning system. Collectively, these improvements in the sensors and electronics mean the Type-99G is better able to find targets, more aware of when it is being targeted by an enemy, and better able to use small missiles to deflect or destroy incoming attacks. The Type-99G main battle tank is also rumoured to have a new diesel engine, developing 2,100 hp. This represents an increase of 600 hp over the engine used in previous versions of the tank. MBT-3000/VT-4 The MBT-3000 is a recent Chinese main battle tank, developed specially for export. It is also referred as VT-4. It is being marketed by Norinco. It is an improved version of VT-1A. The MBT3000 is similar to the Type-99G which is currently in service with the PLA, but has downgraded capabilities such as sights, propulsion and gun. A model of this MBT was publicly presented in 2012. First pictures of this new tank appeared in 2013. It seems that the MBT-3000 was proposed for Pakistan as an Al Khalid Mk.2.

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

: Tracked, armoured : 3 : 11 m : 3.4 m : 2.2 m : 54 t : 58 t

BUSINESS

1 x 125mm SBG 1 x 7.62mm MG 1 x 12.7mm MG 42 x 125mm, 2,000 x 7.62mm, 300 x 12.7mm

INDIAN DEFENCE

CHINA Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) 1. Main Battle Tank 3000 Type: Main battle tank Production History, Designer and Manufacturer : Norinco Produced 2014- present Specifications Weight : 52 tonnes Length : 10.10 m Width : 3.40 m Height : 2.30 m Crew : 3 (commander, driver, gunner) Armour : Classified Main armament : 125mm (4.9 in) smooth-bore Secondary armament : 1 x RWS 12.7mm (0.50 in) AA MG : 1 × 7.62mm (0.300 in) coaxial MG Engine : Turbocharged diesel engine : 1,300 hp (969 kW) Power/weight : 25 hp/tonne Suspension : torsion bar Operational range : 500 km (310 mi) Speed : 68 kmph (42 mph) Pakistan plans to licence and manufacture MBT 3000 as Al-Hyder tank.

3. Type 99 /99A2 Specifications Type Crew Length Width Height Type-99G Type-99A2 Maximum speed (Road) Cruising range

diesel developing 1,200 hp 65 kmph 500-650 km

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

United States of America MBTs : M-1 Abrams, M-48 series, M 60 A3 Lt Tks : M-41, Sting Ray APCs/ICVs : M-113 A3 SP Guns and Hows : 15mm/ 52-calibre International Howitzer, M-107 175mm SP Gun, M109 Series of 155mm SP How, M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch) Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : M-198 155mm How SP AA Guns and SAMs : M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System, M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System, M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM System, Patriot Msl (many versions) single stage low to high altitude SAM system, Hawk Single Stage, low to medium altitude SAM System Towed AA Guns : M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun

Max road speed : Max range : Armament    Main :    Coaxial :    AA : Amn :

REGIONAL BALANCE

ARMY EQUIPMENT contd.


INDIA Submarines : Aircraft Carriers : Destroyers : Frigates :

Arihant Class Chakra Class Shishumar Class Kilo Class Scorpene Class Centaur Class Kiev Class (Ex Admiral Gorshkov) Delhi Class Kashin Class Kolkata Class Godavari Class Brahmaputra Class Talwar Class Shivalik Class

ISRAEL Submarines : Corvettes : Patrol Forces :

Dolphin Class Gal Class T Class S Class Eilat (SAAR 5) Class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Reshef Class Super Dvora Class

NORTH KOREA Submarines : Sinpo Class Romeo Class Sang-O Class

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SOUTH KOREA Submarines : Chang Bogo Class Son Wonil Class Dolgorae Class Amphibious Assault : Dokdo Class LPH Go Jun Bong Class LST Destroyers : KDX1, 2 & 3 Class Frigates : Incheon Class Ulsan Class Corvettes : P O Hang Class For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section. THAILAND Aircraft Carriers : Amphibious Forces : Frigates : Corvettes :

Chakri Naruebet Class Endurance Class Nomed PS 700 Class Naresuan Class Gwanggaeto Class Oliver Hazard Perry Class Knox Class Jianghu II Class Tapi Class Khamronsin Class Ratnakosin Class

UNITED KINGDOM For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section. Frigates : Leander Class Salisbury Class

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Kuznetsov Class Kirov Class Kilo Class Lada Class Kashin Class Udayloy I & II Class Sovermennyy Class Krivak Class Admiral Gorshkov Class Admiral Grigorovich Class Neystrashimyy Class Gepard Class Buyan Class Steregushchy Class Nanuchka Class Tarantul Class Bora Class Parchim Class

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

RUSSIA Aircraft Carrier : Battle Cruiser : Patrol Submarines : Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes :

TECHNOLOGY

Jin Class XIA Class Han Class Shang Class Liaoning (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) Song Class Yuan Class Kilo Class Ming Class Luzhou Class Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luyang III Class Luda Class Luhai Class Luhu Class Luda Class Jiangkai Class Jiangkai II Class Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu 1/II/V Class Jiangdao Class

BUSINESS

CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines : Aircraft Carriers : Patrol Submarines : Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes :

Yono Class Yugo Class Whiskey Class Frigates : Najin Class Krivak Class For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section. Soho Class

INDIAN DEFENCE

Navy equipment is listed below by Country:

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NAVAL EQUIPMENT

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: navy


regional Balance NAVAL EQUIPMENT contd. Missile Craft : Corvettes :

Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu Class Dhofar (Province) Class Qahir Class

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section. Guided Missile Destroyers : Arleigh Burke Class Zumwalt Class Gearing Class Frigates : Adelaide Class Oliver Hazard Perry Class Amphibious Forces : Austin Class

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WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section. Submarines : Agosta Class (France, Spain) Daphne Class (France) HDW Class (Germany) Frigates : Al Riyadh Class (France) Madina Class (France) La Fayette Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Fast Attack Missile Craft : Combattante Class (France) Ratcharit Class (Italy) Aircraft Carriers : Principe De Asturias Class (Spain) CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines 5 + 1 Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes : 8,000 surfaced, 11,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 449.5 × 38.7 × 7.5 (137.0 × 11.8 × 2.3) Main machinery : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 20 Complement : 140 Missiles : SLBM; 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5); 2-stage solid-fuel rocket; Inertial guidance with stellar update to over 8,600 km, 12,000 km or 14,000 km depending on the variant; single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm tubes) Countermeasures : Decoys: ESM. Radars : Surface search/navigation: Type-359; I-Band Sonars : Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Structure : Likely to be based on the Type-093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design.

2016546  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

equipment & hardware specifications: navy

XIA Class (Type 092) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes : 6,500 surfaced, 7,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 393.6 × 33 × 26.2 (120 × 10 × 8) Main machinery : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 58 MW; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 22 dived Complement : 100 Missiles : SLBM: 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3); inertial guidance to 2,150 km (1,160 nm); warhead single nuclear 250 kT. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Countermeasures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-Band. Sonars : SQZ-3; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. Structure : Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). The Xia is a derivative of the Han Class SSNs, with an extended hull to accommodate 12 ballistic missile tubes. Nuclear Propelled Attack Submarines (SSGN) Han Class (Type 091) Displacement, tonnes : 5,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 385 x 33 x 24 (98 x 10 x 7.4) Main machinery : 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor, 1 shaft Speed, knots : 25 dived, 12 surfaced Complement : 75 Weapons : 6 x 533mm torpedo tubes for CET 65E and Type 53-51 torpedoes, up to 20 torpedoes or 36 mines Tube launched C-801 anti-ship missiles. Programme & Structure: The first nuclear powered submarines deployed by the PLA (Navy). Five boats of the class were built and commissioned between 1974 and 1990. The first two are reported to have been decommissioned. They are known for a noisy reactor and poor radiation shielding and are inhibited in their ability to launch missiles while submerged. The submarines are equipped with SQZ-262 sonar made in China. All boats deployed with the North Sea Fleet and based at Qingdao. Shang Class (Type 093) Displacement, tonnes : 6,500 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 372 x 37.2 x 33.6 (110 x 11 x 10) Main machinery : 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor, 1 shaft Speed, knots : 30 dived Complement : 100 Weapons : 6 x 533mm or 650mm torpedo tubes for a range of wire, acoustic and wake homing torpedoes and the submarine launched version of YJ-83 cruise missile. Programme & Structure: The Type 093G is reported to be an upgraded version of Type 093, China’s second-generation nuclear-powered attack submarine, which entered active ser-

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7+1 Yuan Class (Type 041) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 4,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 236.2 x 27.5 (72.0 x 8.4) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 diesels; 1 motor; Chinese developed AIP system; 1 shaft. Missiles : SSM: C-80X; inertial cruise; active radar homing to 80-120 km (44-66 nm) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50); active/ passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wakehoming torpedoes may also be fitted. Sonars : Bow-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium; medium frequency. Flank array; passive search; low frequency. Complement : 58

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY

Kilo Class (Project 877EKM/636) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 2,325 surfaced; 3,076 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 238.2; 242.1 (Project 636) × 32.5 × 21.7 (72.6; 73.8 × 9.9 × 6.6) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 2 diesels; 3,650 hp(m) (2.68 MW); 2 generators; 1 motor; 5,900 hp(m) (4.34 MW); 1 shaft; 2 auxiliary motors; 204 hp(m) 150 kW); 1 economic speed motor; 130 hp(m) (95 kW). Speed, knots : 17 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 52 (13 officers) Missiles : SLCM: Novator Alfa Klub SS-N-27 (3M54E1); active radar homing to 180 km (97.2 nm) at 0.7 Mach (cruise) and 2.5 Mach (attack); warhead 450 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. 18 torpedoes. Combination of TEST 71/96; wire-guided; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg and 53-65; passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 nm) at 45 kt; warhead 300 kg. Mines : 24 in lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures : ESM: Squid Head or Brick Pulp; radar warning Weapons control : MVU-119 EM Murena TFCS. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-Band. Sonars : Shark Teeth; hull-mounted; passive/ active search and attack; medium frequency Mouse Roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Modernisation : The first four submarines were refitted in the Shipyards at Russia. Upgrade package is likely to have included installation of the Klub (3M54) (SS-N-27), anti-ship missile system. China has ordered eight Type 636s armed with the new Club-S series (3M54E, range 300 km at Mach 0.8) SLCMs from Russia in May 2002, a move considered as China’s response to Taiwan’s order of eight diesel submarines from United States. This acquisition reflects PLAN’s urgency to build a credible submarine force against potential threats from US and Japanese naval forces. Operational: The first eight (364-371) based at Xiangshan in the East Sea Fleet and the remainder (372-375) based in the South Sea Fleet.

BUSINESS

Patrol Submarines 13 Song Class (Type 039/039G) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 1,700 surfaced; 2,250 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 246 × 24.6 × 17.5 (74.9 × 8.4 × 5.3) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16V 396 SE; 6,092 hp (m) (4.48 MW) diesels; 4 alternators; 1 motor; 1 shaft. An AIP system has been reported Speed, knots : 15 surfaced; 22 dived Complement : 60 (10 officers) Missiles : SSM: C-801A; radar active homing to 80 km (44 nm) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50); passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted. Mines : In lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning Radars : Surface search: I-Band Sonars : Bow-mounted; Chinese derivative of French Thomson CSF TSM 2233; passive/active search and attack; medium frequency. Flank array; Chinese derivative of Thomson CSF 2255; passive search; low frequency Operational : Basing: North (315, 316, 327, 328); East (314, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325); South (320, 326, 329)

INDIAN DEFENCE

vice several years ago. With a teardrop hull, the submarine is longer than its predecessor and has a vertical launching system.

Comment: Teardrop hull and use of anechoic rubber tiles suggest strong influence of Kilo class in design. Yuan class is equipped with indigenously developed shock absorber system to reduce noise by over 35 dB. It is intended to replace the obsolescent Romeo and Ming class submarines. The second 039A version reported to have more modern fin and has the stepped conning tower removed making it similar to French Agosta-90B in external appearance. It might have been fitted with an AIP system believed to have been tested onboard a Ming class SS.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NAVAL EQUIPMENT contd.

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: navy


regional Balance AIR EQUIPMENT Air equipment is listed below by platforms: AERIAL PLATFORMS

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Combat Aircraft China

: Xian H-6A/H/M Strategic Bomber, Chinese version of Tu-16 : Shenyang J8B, J8F & J8H Third-Gen Interceptor : Xian JH-7 & 7A – Multi-role Fighter Bomber : Chengdu J-7, J-7E &J-7G — Under replacement : Chengdu J-10A, J-10B & J-10S — Fourth-Gen Multi-role Fighter : Nanchang Q-5 Fantan-Q-5C, Q-5D & Q-5E — Strike Aircraft : FC-1 Xiaolong/JF-17 Thunder-Multirole Combat Aircraft : Chengdu J-20 — Fifth-Gen Stealth Aircraft under development : Shenyang J-11A, 11B & 11BH — Chinese version of Su-27 : Shenyang J-16 — Multi-role Fighter : Shenyang J-31 Fifth-Gen Stealth Aircraft — under development Europe : Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 1, 2 & 3A France : Dassault Mirage 2000H, Dassault Mirage F1, Dassault Mirage 5, Dassault Rafale India : LCA Tejas Mk I and Mk IA Israel : IAI Kfir — Multi-role Combat Aircraft IAI Nammer — Updated version of the Kfir. IAI Nesher (Israeli version of Dassault Mirage 5) Russia : Mikoyan MiG-25R : Mikoyan MiG-29M Fourth+ Gen multirole/air superiority fighter : Mikoyan MiG-29M Carrier version : Mikoyan MiG-31/MiG-31BM — FourthGen Fighter : Mikoyan MiG-35 Fourth++Gen Multirole Combat Aircraft : Sukhoi Su-24 M/M2/MR : Sukhoi Su-25SM : Sukhoi Su-27 : Sukhoi Su-30M/M2 : Sukhoi Su-33 Carrier Borne Fighter : Sukhoi Su-34 Strike Aircraft : Sukhoi Su-35BM Fourth ++ Gen Combat Aircraft Sukhoi T-50 PAK FA – under development : Sweden : Saab JAS-39 Gripen E United Kingdom : Panavia Tornado BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series United States of America : Boeing F-15C/D Eagle

2016566  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

equipment & hardware specifications: air force

: : : :

: : : :

Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle Boeing F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Fighting Falcon Northrop F-5F/N Tiger II F-22A Raptor Fifth-Gen Stealth Fighter F-35A/F-35B Lightening II Joint Strike Fighter — Fifth-Gen McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk Carrier-capable aircraft

TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT Germany : Transall C-160 — Developed jointly with France : Dornier Do 228 Russia : Ilyushin IL-76 : Ilyushin IL-96 : Tupolev Tu-134 : Tupolev Tu-214 Spain : Airbus Defence and Space C212 : Airbus Defence and Space CN235M : Airbus Defence and Space C295 : Airbus Defence and Space A400M Atlas Ukraine : Antonov An-12 : Antonov An-22 : Antonov An-26 : Antonov An-32 : Antonov An-124 : Antonov An-72 : Antonov An-74 : Antonov An-70 under development : Antonov An-178 Medium-lift Aircraft under development United States of America : Lockheed Martin C-5A Galaxy : Boeing C-17 Globemaster III : Lockheed Martin C-130J-30 Super Hercules Brazil : Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante — Utility : Embraer Legacy 600 VIP Transport : Embraer 190 VIP Transport : Embraer 120 Brasila — Utility/VIP Transport : Embraer 145 Utility/VIP Transport : Embraer 121 Xingu — Derivative of EMB 110 Bandeirante : Embraer R 99 AEW/Elint : Embraer KC-390 — Under development HELICOPTERS France

: Airbus Helicopters H-215 & H-215M : Airbus Helicopters AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550 Fennec/AS 555 Fennec 2 : Airbus Helicopters SA 365 Dauphin : Airbus Helicopters AS 565 Panther : Airbus Helicopters SA 316/319 Alouette III : Airbus Helicopters SA 332 Super Puma : Airbus Helicopters SA 341/342 Gazelle

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CONTENTS

equipment & hardware specifications: air force

AIR EQUIPMENT contd.

United States of America TRAINING Brazil India United Kingdom China/Pakistan

: : : : : :

Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra Bell AH-1Z Viper Attack Helicopter Boeing AH-64 Apache Boeing CH-47 Chinook Sikorsky UH-60/HH-60/S-70

: Embraer EMB-312 Tucano : HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk I/IA and Mk II : BAE Systems Hawk 132 Advanced Jet Trainer : K-8 Karakoram Basic Jet Trainer : Hongdu L-15 Falcon Advanced Jet Trainer

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING & CONTROL Brazil : Embraer-145/R99 AEW Sweden : Saab 2000 AEW&C United States of America : Boeing E-3 Sentry, Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye : Boeing E-767 AWACS Russia/Israel : IL-76 with Phalcon System COMBAT AIRCRAFT China Xiang H–6 Western designation : B-6 User : China

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Shenyang J-8 (Jian–8) NATO reporting name : Finback Western designation : F-8 User : China Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Jianjiao–7 Western designation : FT-7 Users : Bangladesh (FT-7B), China (JJ-7), Iran (FT-7), Myanmar (FT-7), Pakistan (FT7P/ PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Qiang–5 NATO reporting name : Fantan Western designation : A-5 Users : Bangladesh (A-5C), China (Q-5),

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Russia

TECHNOLOGY

Other versions : (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I; exported to Albania, Egypt, Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I; also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles, exported to Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe); F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt: (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles; F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA; Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third-generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7/FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users : China (J-7 II/ IIA/ H/ IIM/ III/ IIIA/ E), Bangladesh (F-7M), Egypt (F-7A/B), Iran (F-7M), Myanmar (F-7M), North Korea (F-7), Pakistan (F-7P/PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS).

BUSINESS

Italy

INDIAN DEFENCE

Jian–7 Western designation : F-7 Type : Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft Design based on : MiG-21F (of Soviet origin)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

: Airbus Helicopters Bo-105 : Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv : ALH–WSI (Armed Version) Rudra : Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) — under Development at HAL : Light Utility Helicopter – under development at HAL : AgustaWestland AW101 VIP Communication : AgustaWestland AW139 VIP Communication/SAR : Kamov Ka-50 Black Shark Attack Helicopter : Kamov Ka-52 Alligator Attack Helicopter : Kamov Ka-226 Light Utility Helicopter : Kazan Ansat Light Mult-purpose Helicopter : Mil Mi-8 Medium-lift Helicopter : Mil Mi-17V5 Medium-lift Helicopter : Mil Mi-24 Attack Helicopter : Mil Mi-25/35 Attack Helicopter : Mil Mi-26 Heavy-lift Helicopter : Mil Mi-28 Attack Helicopter : Mil Mil-38 Medium-lift Helicopter

REGIONAL BALANCE

Germany India

Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499.


regional Balance AIR EQUIPMENT contd. Myanmar (A-5-C/-M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. FC–1 Export version : Joint Fighter 17 (JF-17) Thunder Users : China, Pakistan Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500. Jianji–10 Vigorous Dragon or Chengdu J-10 Western designation : F-10 Vanguard Type : Multi-role fighter Design : Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore-planes; single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins; single ventral engine air intake. Accommodation : Pilot only, on zero/zero ejection seat. Range : 1,000 nm Armament : 11 external stores points, including one on centre line, tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing, the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs; C-801 or C-802 ASMs; and laser-guided or free-fall bombs. Combat radius : 250-300 nm User : China

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Shenyang J–11 Chinese version of Su-27 For details see Su-27 under Russia User : China Europe Eurofighter Typhoon Crew : Length : Wingspan : Height : Wing area : Empty weight : Loaded weight : Max take-off weight : Power plant : Dry thrust : Thrust with afterburner : Maximum speed At altitude : At sea level : Supercruise : Range : Ferry range : Service ceiling : Rate of climb : Wing loading :

1 or 2 15.96 m (52 ft 5 in) 10.95 m (35 ft 11 in) 5.28 m (17 ft 4 in) 50 m (540 ft) 11,000 kg (24,250 lb) 15,550 kg (34,280 lb) 23,000 kg (51,809 lb) 2 Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofans 60 kN (13,500 lbf ) each 90 kN (20,250 lbf ) each Mach 2 Mach 1.2 (1,470 kmph, 915 mph) Mach 1.2 (1,470 kmph, 915 mph) 1,390 km (864 mi) 3,790 km (2,300 mi) 19,812 m (65,000 ft) 315 m/s (62,007 ft/min) 311 kg/m (63.7 lb/ft)

2016568  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

equipment & hardware specifications: air force

Thrust/weight Armament Gun Air-to-air missiles

: 1.18 : 1 x 27mm Mauser BK-27 cannon : AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-132 ASRAAM, AIM-120 AMRAAM, IRIS-T and in the future MBDA Meteor Air-to-ground Missiles : AGM-84 Harpoon, AGM-88 HARM, ALARMs, Storm Shadow (Scalp EG), Brimstone, Taurus, Penguin and in the future AGM Armiger Bombs : Paveway 2, Paveway 3, Enhanced Paveway, JDAM, HOPE/HOSBO Laser designator, e.g. LITENING pod Users : UK, Germany, Spain, Italy, Saudi Arabia and Austria. France Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Users : Egypt, India, Qatar (Mirage 2000-5), Taiwan (Mirage 2000-5) and UAE (Mirage 2000-9). Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition. Dassault Aviation Mirage III User : Pakistan Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500. Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C Users : Jordan, Kuwait and Libya. Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500. Dassault Aviation Mirage 5 Users : Egypt, Libya and Pakistan. Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 501. Dassault Aviation Rafale User : France Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition. India Light Combat Aircraft Tejas Mk I User : India Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition. Israel IAI Kfir Type Users

: Multi-role fighter : Israel, Sri Lanka, Ecuador and Columbia. Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 501. Russia Mikoyan MiG-21 NATO reporting name : Fishbed/Mongol

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CONTENTS

equipment & hardware specifications: air force

Mikoyan MiG-29 NATO reporting name : Fulcrum A/B/C/D Users : Algeria, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Syria, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Yemen. Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition. Mikoyan MiG-31 NATO reporting name : Foxhound Users : Russia, Kazakhstan. Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 501. Sukhoi Su-24 NATO reporting name : Fencer Users : Russia, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Sudan, Libya and Syria. Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 502. Sukhoi Su-25 NATO reporting name : Frogfoot Users : Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Chad, Congo, Guinea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Gambia, Iran, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Peru, Russia, Sudan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

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:

Users

:

Sukhoi Su-30K NATO reporting name : Type : Take-off weight Normal : Maximum : Maximum g load : Maximum speed : Combat range With internal fuel : With one in-flight refuelling : Take-off run : Landing run : Wingspan : Length : Height : Combat load : Suspension points : Weapons :

Power plant : Users :

Flanker Multi-role fighter 25,000 kg 34,000 kg +9 Mach 2

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Features

TECHNOLOGY

Mikoyan MiG-27 M NATO reporting name : Flogger J Users : India, Kazakhstan and Sri Lanka. Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition.

: :

3,000 km 5,200 km 550 m 670 m 14.7 m 21.94 m 6.4 m 8,000 kg 12 Air-to-air missiles with passive and active radar, TV laser and telecode homing, air-to-surface anti-radar missiles, missiles with TV, laser and telecode guidance, TV guided bombs, unguided bombs, rockets, 30mm cannon. 2 x AL-31FP Algeria, Angola, China (Su-30MKK), Indonesia (Su-30MK), Malaysia (Su-30MKM), Russia, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam (Su-30MK).

Sukhoi Su-30MKI NATO reporting name : Flanker Type : Two-seat, multi-role, long range, fighter-bomber Take-off weight Normal : 24,900 kg

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2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 569

BUSINESS

Mikoyan MiG-25 NATO reporting name : Foxbat Users : Algeria, Kazakhstan, Libya, Syria and Turkmenistan. Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 501.

War load Weapons

Flanker Interceptor/ground attack fighter 21.9 m 14.7 m 5.9 m One internal 30mm GSh-301 cannon Ten (two wet); four fuselage; four wing; two wingtip 4,000 kg R-27R; R-27T; R-33; R-60; R-73; bombs; rockets Mid/swept wing; twin tails; ventral intakes Angola, China, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Mikoyan MiG-23 NATO reporting name : Flogger Users : Algeria, Kazakhstan, Libya, North Korea, Syria and Turkmenistan. Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2011-12 Edition, page 220.

Sukhoi Su-27 NATO reporting name : Type : Length : Wingspan : Height : Armament : Hard points :

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Users : At least 38 air forces of the world with different versions including Afghanistan, Algeria, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Libya, Syria, Vietnam, Yemen. Note: See Indian Defence, Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force, SP’s MYB 2013 Edition.

Note: For details refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 502.

REGIONAL BALANCE

AIR EQUIPMENT contd.


Abbreviations A

ADGDV

A&E Ammunition and Explosives A&N Andaman and Nicobar A/S Anti-Submarine A/S Mortars Anti-Submarine Mortars AA-AB anti aircraft - air burst/airborne AAAU active array antenna unit AAC Army Aviation Corps AAD Army Air Defence AAM air-to-air missile Ac/ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat, Command and Control System/artillery command/ control and communications system ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMU alternating current electrical multiple unit ACHR Asian Centre for Human Rights ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS (PP&FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile/ Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACNS (P&P) Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Policy & Plans) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel ACOP (CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP (HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) Acqn Acquisition ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency ADC aide-de-camp ADC&RS air defence control and reporting system ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADG Army Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation

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ADGEM ADGMov

Additional Director General Discipline and Vigilance Additional Director General Equipment Management Additional Director General Movement

ADG Procurement Additional Director General Procurement ADGPS Additional Director General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADGTA Additional Director General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Director General Information System ADGIW Additional Director General Information Warfare ADGMI Additional Director General Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General Military Operations ADGMS (Navy) Additional Director General Medical Services (Navy) ADGOL Additional Director General Operation Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence ADIZ Air Defence Identification Zone ADMM ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AESA active electronically scanned array AEW airborne early warning AEW&C airborne early warning and control AFP Armed Forces of the Philippines Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AG Adjutant General AGM air-to-ground missile AGPL actual ground position line AH attack helicopters AHEAD advanced hit efficiency and destruction AIEPG ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group AIFVs Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicles AIS automatic identification system

Air Aslt Bde AJT AL ALH AMDR Amph Craft ANA ANC ANSF ANURAG ANVC AOC AON AOP APA APCs APDS APEC APFSDS APS APT AQAP AR AR&DB ARDC ARDE ARF ARMREB ARMSCOR ARTC&S ARTRAC ARV ASAT ASCON ASDF ASEAN ASG AShM ASTE ASTROIDS ASW ATAS ATDS

Air Assault Brigade advanced jet trainer Awami League advanced light helicopter Air and Missile Defence Radar Amphibious craft Afghan National Army Andaman and Nicobar Command Afghan National Security Forces Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group Achik National Volunteer Council Army Ordnance Corps acceptance of necessity Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel advanced projects agency Armoured personnel carrier armour piercing discarding sabot Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation armour piercing fin stabilised ­discarding sabot Active Promotion System advanced persistent threat Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Assam Rifles Aeronautical Research and Development Board Aircraft R&D Centre Armament Research & Development Establishment ASEAN Regional Forum Armament Research Board Armaments Corporation of South Africa Assam Rifles Training Centre and School Army Training Command Armoured Recovery Vehicle anti-satellite weapons Army Static Communication Network Air Self-Defence Force Association of South East Asian Nations Abu Sayyaf Group Anti ship Missile Aircraft and System Testing Establishment Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System anti-submarine warfare active-cum-passive towed array sonar advanced torpedo defence system

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abbreviations ATGM ATGW ATK ATM ATRCL AVSM AWACS

anti-tank guided missile Anti Tank Guided Weapon Anti Tank air traffic management Anti Tank Recoilless Rifle Ati Vishisht Seva Medal airborne warning and control system

B BADZ BARC

Base Air Defence Zone Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bbrs Bombers BDE hq Brigade Headquarter BDL Bharat Dynamics Limited BDR Bangladesh Rifles BE Budget Estimate BEL Bharat Electronics Limited BEML Bharat Earth Movers Limited BFSR battlefield surveillance radar BHEL Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited BIMSTEC Bay of Bengal Initiative for MultiSectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation BM Border Management BMC2 Battle Management Command and Control BMD ballistic missile defence BMI brain-machine-interfaces BMSy ballistic missile systems BMS battlefield management system Bn (bn) Battalion BNP Bangladesh Nationalist Party BOMCA Border Management Programme in Central Asia BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa BRO Border Roads Organisation BSF Border Security Force BSS battlefield surveillance system BTAD Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District BVR beyond visual range

C www.spguidepublications.com

C4 C4I C4I2

C4I2SR

command, control, communications and computers command, control, communications, computers, information command, control, communications, computing, intelligence and i­ nformation command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance

C4ISR

command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance CABS Centre for Airborne Systems CAD computer-aided design/current account deficit CAG Comptroller and Auditor General of India CAIR Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics CAM Computer-aided manufacturing CAPF Central Armed Police Force CAR Central Acquisition Radar CAR Central Asian Republics CARAT Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training CAREC Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation CASA Central Asia South Asia CASSA Council of Agencies Serving South Asians CAW College of Air Warfare CBI Central Bureau of Investigation CBM confidence building measures CBRN chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear CBTA Cross-Border Transport Agreement CC control centre CCA Central Coordinating Authority CCP Chinese Communist Party CCS Cabinet Committee on Security Cdo Bn Commando Battalion CDO gp Commando Group CDS Chief of Defence Staff CECA Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement CELLDAR cell phone radar CEMILAC Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification CEO Chief Executive Officer CEP circular error probability CEPA Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement CEPTAM Centre for Personal Talent Management CERT Computer Emergency Response Team CES Common Economic Space CFC Combined Force Commander CFD computational fluid dynamics CFEES Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety CFL ceasefire line CFT Combating Financing Terrorism CGE Central Government Expenditure CHARI Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative CHASNUPP Chashma Nuclear Power Plant

2016578  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

CIA CIAT CIDSS CIG CIM CIS CISC CISF CMC

CMD CMDS CNC CoBRA COM COP CORF CORPAT COSC COTS CPC CPI (M) CPMF CPMIEC CPS C-RAM CRBC CrPC CRPF CSA (ILMS) CSIS CSN CSS CSTO CT CU CUNPK CVLO CVM CVRDE

Central Intelligence Agency Counter-Insurgency and AntiTerrorist command information decision support system Counter-Insurgency Grid Computer Integrated Manufacturing Commonwealth of Independent States Chief of Integrated Staff to the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee Central Industrial Security Force Computer Maintenance Corporation/ Central Military Commission credible minimum deterrence countermeasure dispensing systems computer numerically controlled ­boring machines Commando Battalion for Resolute Action Chief of Materiel Chief of Personnel Collective Operational Reaction Force Coordinated Patrol Chiefs of Staff Committee commercial off-the-shelf Central Pay Commission Communist Party of India (Maoist) Central Paramilitary Forces China National Precision Machinery Corporation Controller of Personnel Services counter rocket, artillery and mortar China Road and Bridge Corporation Criminal Procedure Code Central Reserve Police Force Chief Systems Administrator (ILMS) Centre for Strategic and International Studies coastal surveillance network coastal security scheme/coastal surveillance system Collective Security Treaty Organisation computed tomography Customs Union Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping counter very-low observable Chakri Naruebet Class Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment

D DAB

digital audio broadcasting

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abbreviations DAC DACIDS DARE DARPA DART DBSN DCIDSPP&FD

DCMG DCN DCNS DDG CS DDG DSC DDG MF DDG Pnr DDP&S DEAL DEBEL DERL DESIDOC DFRL DG AAD DG Arty DG CW DG DCW DG EME DG FP DG Inf DG Mech Forces DG MP DG MS (Army) DG Pers DG Org & Pers DG PP

Defence Acquisition Council Deputy Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Defence Avionics Research Establishment Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Driven Ammunition Reduced Time of Flight distributed battlefield sensor network Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, Policy Planning and Force Development Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Director General Canteen Services Deputy Director General Defence Security Corps Deputy Director General Military Farms Deputy Director General Pioneers Department of Defence Production and Supplies Defence Electronics Application Laboratory Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory Defence Electronics Research Laboratory Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre Defence Food Research Laboratory Director General Army Air Defence Director General Artillery Director General Ceremonials and Welfare Director General Discipline Ceremonials & Welfare Director General Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Director General Financial Planning Director General Infantry Director General Mechanised Forces Director General Manpower Planning Director General Medical Services (Army) Director General Personnel Director General Organisation and Personnel Director General Perspective Planning

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DG RR DG WKS (Army) DGAQA

Director General Rashtriya Rifles

Director General Works (Army) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance DGICG Director General of the Indian Coast Guard DGMO Director General Military Operations DGNAI Director General Naval Armament Inspection DGND-SDG Director General Naval Design (Submarine Design Group) DGND-SSG Director General Naval Design (Surface Ship Group) DGNO Director General Naval Operations DGOF Director General Ordnance Factories DGONA Director General Naval Armament DGP Director General of Police DGQA Directorate General of Quality Assurance DGSPV & AOB Director General Special Purpose Vehicle & AOB DGST Director General Supply and Transport DGWE Director General Weapons and Equipment DHD Dima Halam Daogah DIA Defence Intelligence Agency DIAT Defence Institute of Advanced Technology DIBER Defence Institute of Bioenergy Research DIHAR Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIPAS Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences DIPP Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion DIPR Defence Institute of Psychological Research DISB Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business DLJ Defence Laboratory Jodhpur DMA Direct Marketing Association DMRC Delhi Metro Rail Corporation DMRL Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory DMSRDE Defence Materiel & Store Research & Development Establishment DMZ demilitarised zone DOC Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea DODP Department of Defence Production DOFA Defence Offset Facilitation Agency DOMW Defence Offset Management Wing DOS Directorate of Standardisation

DOT DPB DPM DPP DPSUs DPT DQMG DRDB DRDE DRDL DRDO DRL DSDI DSSC DT Dte of P&C DTN DTRL DTTI DU DURGA DVB-T DVD

Department of Telecommunication Defence Procurement Board Defence procurement manual Defence Procurement Procedure defence public sector undertakings Druk Phuensum Tshogpa Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research and Development Board Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation Defence Research Laboratory Defence Spatial Data Infrastructure Defence Services Staff College disruptive technology Directorate of Planning & Coordination disruption-tolerant networking Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Defence Technology and Trade Initiative Delhi University directionally unrestricted ray-gun array digital video broadcasting-terrestrial digital versatile/video disc

E EADS

European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EAEF Euro-Asia Economic Forum ECCC Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia ECFA Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement ECIL Electronics Corporation of India Ltd ECM Electronic Countermeasures EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone E-in-C Engineer-in-Chief ELINT electronic intelligence ELM Expeditionary Laboratory Mobile EME Electrical and Mechanical Engineers EMP electromagnetic pulse ENPO Eastern Naga People’s Organisation EO electro-optical EOD Bn Explosive Ordnance Disposal Battalion EOFCS electro-optical fire control system EOIs expressions of interest ERV exchange rate variation ESM Electronic Support Measures EU European Union

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abbreviations EVMs EW

electronic voting machines electronic warfare

F FAA FADEC

Federal Aviation Administration Full-Authority Digital Engine Control FAE Fuel-air explosive FATA Federally Administered Tribal Areas FATF Financial Action Task Force FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FC fire control FCORD FICN Coordination Group FDI foreign direct investment Fd Arty Bns Field Artillery Batallion FGA Fighter Ground Attack FGFA fifth-generation fighter aircraft FICCI Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry FICN Fake Indian Currency Notes FICs fast interception crafts FICV Future Infantry Combat Vehicles FII foreign investment institution F-INSAS Future Infantry Soldier as a System FIS Flying Instructor’s School FLN National Liberation Front FM frequency modulation FMS foreign military sales FOC Final Operational Capability FODAG Flag Officer Offshore Defence Advisory Group FOGA Flag Officer Goa Area FOK Flag Officer Karnataka FOMAG Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra and Gujarat FONA Flag Officer Naval Aviation FOSM Flag Officer Submarine FPDA Five Power Defence Agreement FPVs Fast Petrol Vessels FRA Flight Refuelling Aircraft FRAP fragmenting payload FTA Free Trade Agreement FTR Fighter

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GCC GDP GE GHG GIS GJM GMDSS

GSL GSLV GSPC GSQR GTA GTRE

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product General Electric greenhouse gas global information system Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

General National Congress Group of Ministers general purpose round air burst global positioning system Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat General Staff Qualitative Requirements Gorkha Territorial Administration Gas Turbine Research Establishment

H HADR HAL HAUV HCHE HDW Hels HEMRL HEU HF HMG HOTAS HSL HUD HuJI HUMINT HVF

humanitarian assistance and disaster relief Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hybrid Autonomous Undersea Vehicle higher capability high explosives Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft Helicopters High Energy Materials Research Laboratory highly enriched uranium high frequency Heavy machine gun Hands On Throttle-and-Stick Hindustan Shipyard Limited Head-up display Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami human intelligence Heavy Vehicles Factory

I IAF IAI IAP IAS IB ICAO

G GATT

GNC GoM GPR-AB GPS GRSEL

ICBM ICG ICJ ICSS ICV IDAS IDEX IDP

2016580  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

Indian Air Force Israel Aerospace Industries Integrated Action Plan Indian Administrative Service Intelligence Bureau/ Interceptor Boat International Civil Aviation Organisation intercontinental ballistic missile Indian Coast Guard International Court of Justice Integrated coastal surveillance system Infantry Combat Vehicle Integrated Defensive Aids Suite International Defence Exhibition and Conference Internally Displaced Person

IDS IDSA IED IEW IFA (N) IFC IFF IFV IGNOU IGNS IGPS IISS IITF IJT IKR IM IMF IMG IMO IMRH IMU INAS INDSAR INDU INMAS INSAT IOCL IONS IOR IOT IPA IPC IPKF IPSP IPV IPv4 IR IR&FC IRAL IRB IRDE IRENA IRNSS IRS IRST ISO

Integrated Defence Staff Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses improvised explosive device information electronic warfare Integrated Financial Advisor (Navy) inter-factional clashes identification friend and foe Infantry Fighting Vehicle Indira Gandhi National Open University Inspector General Nuclear Safety Intelligent Global Positioning System International Institute for Strategic Studies India International Trade Fair intermediate jet trainer Iraqi Kurdistan Region Indian Mujahideen International Monetary Fund Inter-Ministerial Group International Maritime Organisation Indian multi-role helicopter Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Indian Navy Air Squadron Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Indian national satellite Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Indian Ocean Naval Symposium international offshore rule Internet of Things Indian Production Agency Indian Penal Code Indian Peace Keeping Force Internal Peace and Security Plan inshore patrol vessels Internet protocol version 4 India Reserve/infrared/international relations Information Resource & Facilitation Centre Indo-Russian Aviation Limited India Reserved Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment International Renewable Energy Agency Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System Indian remote satellite infrared search and track International Organization for Standardization

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abbreviations IS ISAF

information superiority International Security Assistance Force Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria intelligence, surveillance and ­reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Institute for Systems Studies & Analyses International Social Security Association intelligence, surveillance, target ­acquisition and reconnaissance information technology Indo-Tibetan Border Police Institute of Technology Management Integrated Test Range Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Plan information warfare Israel Weapon Industries

ISI ISIL ISIS ISR ISRO ISRR ISSA ISSAss ISTAR IT ITBP ITM ITR ITSPP IW IWI

J J&K Jammu and Kashmir JAG Judge Advocate General JeM Jaish-e-Mohammad JNU Jawaharlal Nehru University JOC Joint Operation Centre JOCOM Joint Operation Committee JODI Joint Organisations Data Initiative JSF joint strike fighter JSIC Joint Services Intelligence Committee JTC Joint Training Committee JTFI Joint Task Force on Intelligence

K KAI KALI KANUPP KKH KLA KMW KNO KPLT KRC KRG

Korea Aerospace Industries kinetic attack loitering interceptor Karachi Nuclear Power Plant Karakoram Highway Kamtapur Liberation Army Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, Germany Kuki National Organisation Kuki Peoples’ Liberation Tigers Kargil Review Committee Kurdistan Regional Government

L L&T LAC

Larsen and Toubro line of actual control

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LACM Land-Attack Missile LASTEC Laser Science & Technology Centre LCA light combat aircraft LCH light combat helicopter LCM Local Communist Movement LCU landing craft utility LCVP Landing Craft Vehicle, Personnel LDP Liberal Democratic Party LeJ Lashkar-e-Jhangvi LEO/MEO low/medium earth orbit LeT Lashkar-e-Taiba/Toiba LEVCON leading edge vortex control surface LIA Lead Intelligence Agency LIDAR light detection and ranging LNG liquefied natural gas LoC line of control LSD Landing Ship Dock LST/LSL /LPD Landing Ship Tank/Landing Ship Logistics/Landing Platform Dock LRDE Electronics and Radar Development Establishment LRSAM long-range surface-to-air missile LSRB Life Sciences Research Board Lt Inf Divs Light Infantry Divisions Lt Tks Light Tanks LTIPP Long-term Integrated Perspective Plan LTPP Long-term Perspective Plan LTPPFC Long-term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam LUH light utility helicopter LWE left-wing extremism

M MAC MADDLS

Multi Agency Centre Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System MANPAD Man Portable Air Defence MANTIS Modular Automatic and Network Capable Targeting and Interceptor System MARCOS Marine Commandos MaRV manoeuvrable re-entry vehicle MASINT measurement and signature ­intelligence MAV micro UAV MAV micro-air vehicle MBB Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm MBRL multi-barrel rocket launcher MBT main battle tank Mech Inf bde Mechanised Infantry Brigade MCPP maritime capability perspective plan MD AWES Managing Director Army Welfare Education Society

MD AWHO

Managing Director Army Welfare Housing Organisation MDA maritime domain awareness MDL Mazagon Dock Limited MEDS micro-biotic electronics and disabling system MEMS micro-electro-mechanical system MFN most favoured nation MFSTAR Multifunctional Surveillance Threat Assessment Radar MGO Master General Ordnance MHA Ministry of Home Affairs MIB Ministry of Information & Broadcasting MIDHANI Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front MIMO multiple-input multiple-output MIRV multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle MIS management information system MMRCA medium multi-role combat aircraft MND Ministry of National Defense MNLF Moro National Liberation Front MoD Ministry of Defence MORS Mortars MR maritime reconnaissance MRBM medium-range ballistic missile MRCC Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre MRD Motorised Rifle Division MRL multiple rocket launcher MRLs multiple rocket launchers MRO maintenance, repair and overhaul MRSAM medium-range surface-to-air missile MRSC Marine Rescue Sub-Centre MRTT multi-role tanker transport MS Military Secretary M-SAR Maritime Search and Rescue MSME Medium, Small and Micro Enterprise MSQA missile system quality assurance MTA multi-role transport aircraft MTAL Multi-role Transport Aircraft Ltd MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime MTRDC Microwave Tube R&D Centre MW Mine Warfare

N NAFTA NAIS NASA NASSCOM NATGRID

North American Free Trade Agreement National Automatic Identification System National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Association of Software and Services Companies National Intelligence Grid

2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 581


abbreviations NATO NBC NBDC NC3IN NCA NCCC NCSL NCTC NCTF NCW NDA NDC NDFB NDMA NDN NDRF NFU NHRC NIA NIC NIRDESH

NLD NM NMF NMRH NMRL NMSAR NMSARCA NMSRB NOS-DCP NPOL

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NPR NPT NRB NSA NSC NSCN NSCN/IM

NSCN/K NSCS

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation nuclear biological chemical defence National Bomb Data Centre National Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence National Command Authority National Cyber Coordination Centre National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy National Counter Terrorism Centre Naresh Chandra Task Force network-centric warfare National Defence Academy National Defence College National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Disaster Management Authority Northern Distribution Network National Disaster Response Force no first use National Human Rights Commission National Investigative Agency National Informatics Centre/ National Intelligence Council National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding National League for Democracy Nao Sena Medal National Maritime Foundation naval multi-role helicopter Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Maritime Search and Rescue National Maritime Search and Rescue Coordination Authority National Maritime Search and Rescue Board National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory National Population Register Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Naval Research Board National Security Advisor/National Security Agency National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat

NSEC NSG NSR NSS NSTL NTG NTRO NWWA

Naval Standing Establishment Committee National Security Guard/Nuclear Suppliers’ Group New Silk Road National Security Strategy Naval Science & Technological Laboratory Naval Technology Group National Technical Research Organisation Navy Wives Welfare Association

O OECD OEM OFB OFC OIS ONGC OPCW OPEC Ops Comd OPV OROP OSCC OSINT OST OTH

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development original equipment manufacturer Ordnance Factory Board optical fibre cable operational information system Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapon Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Operations Command Offshore Petrol Vessels One Rank One Pension Offshore Security Coordination Committee open source intelligence Outer Space Treaty over the horizon radar

P PAT PBR PCL PCVs PDAA PDACP PDALS PDAPP PDAPSA PDASE PDCP PDCPS PDCV

2016582  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

Perform, Achieve and Trade Patrol Boat, River passive coherent location Pollution Control Vessels Principal Director Aircraft Acquisition Principal Director Aircraft Carrier Project Principal Director Air Logistics Support Principal Director Aircraft Projects & Plan Principal Director of Adventure, Physical Fitness in Sports Activities Principal Director Aircraft Systems Engineering Principal Director Civilian Personnel Principal Director Civilian Personnel Services Principal Director Clothing & Victualling

PDEE PDESA PDFC PDFM PDG PDIT PDLS PDMS (P&M) PDMPR PDMS (M&S) PDNA PDNAS PDNCO PDNE PDNI PDNO PDNOM PDNP PDNPF PDNS PDNT PDOA PDODY PDOH PDOI PDOP PDP PDP&A PDPRO PDPS PDSMAQ PDSMO PDSMS PDSOD PDSR PDSSD PDW PDWE

Principal Director Electrical Engineering Principal Director Ex-Servicemen Affairs Principal Director Foreign Cooperation Principal Director Fleet Maintenance Parliament Duty Group Principal Director Information Technology Principal Director Logistics Support Principal Director Medical Services (Personnel & Material) Principal Director Manpower Planning & Recruitment Principal Director Medical Services (Hospital & Services) Principal Director Naval Architecture Principal Director Naval Air Staff Principal Director Net-centric Operations Principal Director Naval Education Principal Director Naval Intelligence Principal Director Naval Operations Principal Director Naval Oceanology & Meteorology Principal Director Naval Plans Principal Director Non-Public Funds Principal Director Naval Signals Principal Director Naval Training Principal Director Administration Principal Director Dockyards Principal Director of Hydrography Principal Director Indigenisation Principal Director Personnel People’s Democratic Party Principal Director Pay & Allowances Principal Director Procurement Principal Director Personnel Services Principal Director Submarine Acquisition Principal Director Submarine Operations Principal Director Submarine Safety Principal Director Special Operations & Diving Principal Director Staff Requirements Principal Director Ship Systems & Development Principal Director Works Principal Director Weapons Equipment

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abbreviations PELE PFI PGMs PIPVTR PLA PM PML PML(N) PMOC PNT PoK POL PPBP

PPOC PPP PPP PSOC PSR PTF PVSM PXE

Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect Popular Front of India precision-guided munitions Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research People’s Liberation Army Provost Marshal Pakistan Muslim League Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee position navigation and timing Pakistan-occupied Kashmir petrol, oil and lubricants policy, exercise of planning, budgetary allocations and process of acquisition Principal Personal Officers Committee public-private partnership purchasing power parity Principal Supply Officers Committee preliminary staff requirements Patrol Torpedo Fast Param Vishisht Seva Medal Proof and Experimental Establishment

RIAF RMA ROC ROS ROV RPA RRP-I RSTA

Quarter Master General

SCAPCHC

Q QMG

R R&D R&DE RADAR RAF RAM/RAP RAW RBA RBG RCEP RCI RCMA RCS RCL ReCAAP RECCE/ Recce vehs REF RFI RFP

research and development Research & Development Establishment radio detection and ranging Rapid Action Force radar absorbent materials/paint Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Army Royal Bhutan Guards Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Research Centre Imarat Regional Centre of Military Airworthiness radar cross section Recoilless Rifle Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery Reconnaissance Rapid Equipping Force request for information request for proposal

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RUAV

Royal Indian Air Force revolution in military affairs regional operating centres remote operating stations remotely operated vehicle remotely piloted aircraft Road Requirement Plan – I reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition Rotary-winged UAVs

SMAC SNERDI

S SA to CNS SAARC SAD SAG SAGW SAM SaR SAR SASE SATA SBE SCAF SCAPCC

SCO SCS SCTC Scud SSM Bde SDI SDR SDR SEAL SFC SF Engr Regt SID SIDBI SIGINT SIPRI SIRBs SITAR SLBM SLOC SM SMAC

Scientific Advisor to Chief of Naval Staff South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation space asset domination Scientific Analysis Group surface-to-air guided weapons surface-to-air missile search and rescue surveillance and reconnaissance/ synthetic aperture radar Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment surveillance and target acquisition strategic and business environment Supreme Council of Armed Forces Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee Shanghai Cooperation Organisation South China Sea State Counter-Terrorism Centres Surface to Surface Missile Strategic Defense Initiative software defined radio Strategic Defence Review Sea, Air and Land teams Strategic Forces Command Special Forces Engineer Regiment Signal Intelligence Directorate Small Industries Development Bank of India signal intelligence Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Specialised India Reserved Battalions Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research submarine launched ballistic missile sea line of communication Sena Medal Subsidiary MAC

SNR SoD SPB SPG SQR SRBM SRE SR-SAM SSB SSG SSPL SSQAG STA Bn STEA STOBAR

State Multi Agency Centre Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute signal to noise ratio Suspension of Operation Sagar Prahari Bal Strategic Policy Group services qualitative requirements short-range ballistic missiles security related expenditure short-range surface-to-air missile Sashastra Seema Bal Special Security Group Solid State Physics Laboratory Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group Supply and Transport Battalion Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment short take-off but arrested recovery short take-off and vertical landing Specialist Technical Panels

STOVL STP Strat Msl Forces Strategic Missile Forces SUAS small unmanned aircraft systems Surv Surveillance SWAC South-Western Air Command SWATH small water plane area twin hulls SYSM Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal

T TACAN TacC3I

tactical air navigation tactical command, control, communications and information TACDE Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment TAPI Turkmenistan-AfghanistanPakistan-India TBM theatre-range ballistic missile TBRL Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory TCS tactical communication system TCS Tata Consultancy Services TECHINT technical intelligence TERI Tata Energy Research Institute TEUS twenty-foot equivalent units TFT thin-film transistor TIKA Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency TKK Tamu-Kalewa-Kaleymyo Tkrs Tankers TNA Tamil National Alliance TNSM Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-eMohammadi

2016– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue  | 583


abbreviations TNW ToT Towed ARTY TPCR/ TPCRM

tactical nuclear weapons transfer of technology Towed Artillery

Technology Perspective and Capability Road Map TPP Trans-Pacific Partnership TPT Transport TSD Technical Support Division TTP Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan

U United Aircraft CorporationTransport Aircraft UAE United Arab Emirates UAS unmanned aerial systems UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UCAV unmanned combat aerial vehicle UDF United People’s Front UHF Ultra high frequency UHQ Unified HQ ULFA United Liberation Front of Asom UN United Nations UNCIVPOL United Nations Civilian Police UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council UNPKO UNHRC Peacekeeping Operations UNSC United Nations Security Council UPA United Progressive Alliance UPUA Urban Perspective: Our Work in Urban Areas USA United States of America USAF United States Air Force USG Under-Secretary-General. USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics UWSA United Wa State Army UYSM Uttam Yudh Seva Medal

V VBIG VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOS VCR VHF VLO

Valley Based Insurgent Group Vice Chief of Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of Naval Staff Vice Chief of Army Staff video cassette recorder Very high frequency very low observable

VM VRDE V-SAT VSHORAD VSM VTOL

Vayu Sena Medal Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Very Small Aperture Terminal very short-range air defence systems Vishisht Seva Medal vertical take-off and landing

W WAC Western Air Command WCS Weapon Control System WLR weapon locating radar WMD weapons of mass destruction WPN Weapons WSOI Weapon Systems, ORSA and Infrastructure WTO World Trade Organisation

Y YSM YTL

Yudh Seva Medal Yard Tug Small (small harbour tug)

Z ZUF

Zaliangrong United Front

www.spguidepublications.com

UAC-TA

UNESCAP

2016584  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2017 |  44th Issue

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


SP’s

2016 –

Military 2017

Yearbook

PROTECTING INDIA’S HERITAGE.

NEW addition

MoD Organisational Structures and Contacts of major Asian countries

SP’s

Military

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1

9

6

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2016 –

2017 44th

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[SP’s@53 pursuing excellence over five decades since 1964

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is s u e

It has been our duty to strengthen a country that has a strong history. And we have consistently done so for the past 6 decades using cutting edge technology and class of service. Needless to say our response has always been prompt. Through our dedication and support we’ve helped secure the heritage of billions in India with peaceful grounds and safer skies.

44t h

Courtesy: Department of Archaeology and Museums. Government of Maharashtra

©2017 General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

TOOFANI l MYSTERE IV l ALIZE l JAGUAR l MIRAGE 2000

editor-in-chief

Leading the Situational Awareness Revolution

jayant baranwal

SP's Military Yearbook 2016-2017  

SP's Military Yearbook 2016-2017 - Glimpse

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