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Networked communications? Enabling the rapid escalation of decision making in the heat of the battle

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TM

2013

41

issue

ST


Minister of Defence INdia

Message am pleased to learn that SP Guide Publications is bringing out the SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. The security scenario around us today requires constant vigilance and drawing up quick and strong responses. Our Armed Forces are fully capable of successfully meeting all challenges. It is our endeavour to help our Armed Forces in the endeavour to be counted among one of the best in the world. I hope that the SP’s Military Yearbook will provide valuable inputs to our Armed Forces and the defence industry. I wish the publication the very best in its endeavours. With best wishes, A.K. Antony

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  5


100% Maritime awareness. We deliver on promises.

For effective maritime surveillance you need a system you can depend on. We are committed to delivering reliability and ensuring your system is back up and operating, fast. Our ATOS surveillance mission system integrates multiple EO, AESA and acoustic sensors with a modular mission suite to give a complete overview and understanding of the picture. Already installed on nine different fixed and rotary wing platforms ATOS delivers outstanding reliability and data quality, meeting the most challenging requirements for maritime security, search and rescue, border control and anti-submarine warfare.

When true data matters most. We build your strength from within. selexgalileo.com

6  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


TM

2013

41

ST

issue

Editor-in-Chief

Jayant Baranwal


Copyright © 2012 by

SP Guide Publications Allrightsreserved.Theinformationpublishedhereinisforthe personaluseofthereaderandmaynotbeincorporatedinany commercialactivity.Makingcopiesinanyform,electronicor otherwise,oftheinformationinfulloranyportionthereoffor purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law. Foradditionalinformationrelatingtocopyright,pleasecontact: The Editor-in-Chief SP’s Military Yearbook A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi - 110 003, India. Email: editor@spsmilitaryyearbook.com The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequentialdamagesinconnectionwith,orarisingoutof, thefurnishingoruseoftheinformation,associatedinstructions/ claims of productivity gains.

Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965 Published by Jayant Baranwal SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD New Delhi, India

Designed by SP Guide Publications Team ISSN 0076-8782 Registered with RNI No. (P.) : F.2 (S/11) Press / 93 Processed and Printed in India by

Corporate Office: A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Tel: +91 (11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093

E-Mail:

Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, order@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@vsnl.com

Price: Inland Rs. 7,495;

Website:

Foreign (Surface Mail): £ 415.00; US$ 735.00

www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


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10  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


There when you need it most To excel in combat, you need the most dependable, flexible and powerful weapon systems. Saab’s cutting-edge range of ground combat weaponry gives you the strength to defeat any target.

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For more information: www.specialmission.bombardier.com Bombardier and Bombardier aircraft model names are trademarks of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. © 2011 Bombardier Inc. All rights reserved.


18  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


DETECT. DECIDE. ENGAGE.

THE INDIAN NAVAL FORCES are facing a complex, demanding and growing challenge. With 7500 km of coastline and strategic interests continuous surveillance is difficult – but necessary.

The Saab 9LV Combat Management System meets all the requirements of the Indian Navy. Outstanding performance, presenting a clear and comprehensive overview, yet with all the details at your fingertips. The Saab 9LV integrates the ship’s sensor system, weapons systems and data links.

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An open architecture makes 9LV a platform for India to stay independent. It’s custom built in partnership with Indian firms and seamlessly integrates systems and weapons from different sources. To be better prepared for the unexpected. That’s why we strive to anticipate tomorrow.


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20  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


Total solutions. It’s in our DNA.

Our world-leading solutions meet your most demanding requirements in space, in the air, on land and at sea. We aspire to redeďŹ ne adaptability, performance and reliability, for today and tomorrow, to fulfill our dream of a safer and secure world.

Israel Aerospace Industries E-mail: corpmkg@iai.co.il

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22  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


|  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  23


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26  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


|  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  27


Readers’ Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers.

Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India

good and contents useful.

Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff, Indian Army Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war.

Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy

It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970).....I have gone through.....and found its general get up

Thank you very much for sending me a copy of the SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The Yearbook is interesting and has been placed in a prominent place in my office. May I request you to please send me one more copy.

Lt General Sanjeev Madhok Additional Director General Public Information, Indian Army (as on September 27, 2011)

My sincere thanks for sending copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The book has been compiled most professionally. The content and presentation is excellent. It definitely provides valuable input to everyone who has interest in military affairs. The publication will find its due place in Army Aviation library. My greetings for an excellent yearbook.

Thank you very much for your thoughtful gesture of sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12, which is so well complied. The informative SP’s Military Yearbook is being placed in the Army Air Defence Directorate Library and would surely benefit all.

Please accept my compliments and do convey the same to the complete publishing team for their imaginative endeavour.

Major General P.K. Bharali Additional Director General Army Aviation Indian Army

Lt General A.C. Soneja Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Movement, Indian Army

(as on October 14, 2011)

Lt General Kuldip Singh Director General Army Air Defence Indian Army

(as on October 10, 2011)

(as on September 28, 2011)

Thank you very much for sending me the complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12.

Lt General Vinod Nayanar Director General & Colonel Commandant Regiment of Artillery, Indian Army (as on September 28, 2011)

Thank you for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The Yearbook has been researched well and the contents and data incorporated are most appropriate and informative. It is an updated and most concise volume of data bank, facts and figures and of immense use to MGO Branch. My compliments to you and your team for an excellent effort.

Lt General Rajinder Singh Master General of Ordnance, Indian Army (as on September 26, 2011)

SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12 has been well compiled with an in depth analysis on various issues concerning the Indian Defence establishment. The part on ‘Regional Balance’ in right perspective has brought forth the geo-political, economic and military equation of various regions and important countries in particular in a very lucid manner. The ‘Equipment and Hardware Specification’ part is surely a ready reckoner for any military man, with insight into the equipment/weapons profile of the land, air and sea components. Please accept my compliments for shaping out a well compiled SP’s Military Yearbook in the 40th issue.

Lt General V.K. Ahluwalia General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Colonel Commandant Regiment of Artillery Colonel Commandant Army Aviation Indian Army (as on October 19, 2011)

I take this opportunity to thank you on behalf of Lt General S.K. Singh, the Army Commandar for forwarding a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12, a very well compiled Flagship Publication, which actually speaks for itself and covers a vast array of subjects on the matters military. The photographs are breathtaking and very appropriately arranged. Our compliments to you and your dedicated team of editors for a job well done. The Yearbook will find a pride of place in our library.

Lt General N.S. Bawa LGGS, Indian Army

Thank you so very much for sending a copy of the SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The contents are very well compiled and informative. My compliments to your team involved in this valuable compilation.

Air Marshal J. Chandra Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Maintenance Command, Indian Air Force (as on October 05, 2011)

I acknowledge the copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12 and thank you for the same.......immense source of information with insights into contemporary forces in the region.

Air Vice Marshal P.N. Pradhan Assistant Chief of Air Staff Operations (T&H), Indian Air Force (as on October 07, 2011)

I thank you for forwarding a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12, to me. Please accept my compliments on its excellent presentation quality and the information contained therein. I am sure it will lead to a great reading experience.

Air Vice Marshal Sanjay Sharma Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Signals & IT) Indian Air Force (as on September 26, 2011)

(as on October 10, 2011)

Thank you very much for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The Yearbook as ususal is very well compiled and the contents are extremely inspiring. Our compliments to the editorial team.

Thank you very much for sending me a copy of your SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12. It is indeed impressive, informative and very well compiled.

28  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

Many thanks for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-12. It is indeed a very interesting and informative volume. On behalf of the Indian Coast Guard, I convey our appreciation to you, and your team, for this excellent publication.

Lt General Mukesh Sabharwal Adjutant General, Indian Army

Vice Admiral Anil Chopra Director General Indian Coast Guard Indian Coast Guard

(as on September 27, 2011)

(as on September 29, 2011)


Unique. Ahead of the Art.


Iran

ARMY 3

Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir Udhampur 8 Himachal Pradesh Shimla Punjab

Afghanistan

1 23

Uttarakhand Chandigarh 9 Dehradun 6 Haryana Delhi

Pakistan

Uttar Pradesh

Rajasthan

Lucknow

Jaipur 10

Delhi

21

JOINT COMMAND

Bhutan

Arunachal Pradesh

Itanagar

Sikkim

Nagaland Kohima

Dispur

16 Allahabad

AIR FORCE

14

Nepal 7

NAVY

China

2

Patna Bihar

Manipur Imphal

Shillong 15 Agartala

Jharkhand

Gandhinagar Gujarat

Madhya Pradesh

18

Ranchi Chhattisgarh

Bhopal

West Bengal 5 Kolkata

Aizawal

Tripura

Mizoram

Myanmar

Raipur Bhubaneswar Odisha

20 Nagpur

Thailand

Maharashtra Mumbai 12

Pune

11

4

Bangladesh

Vishakhapatnam Hyderabad

ARABIAN SEA

Goa Panaji

Andhra Pradesh

17

Bengaluru

Chennai

& Ni co ba r

Kerala

Kavaratti

Tamil Nadu

Kochi Thiruvananthapuram

22 Port Blair

Is la nd s

13

Lakshadweep

An da m an

BAY OF BENGAL

Karnataka

19

Sri Lanka

I

N

D

I

A

N

O

C

E

A

N

Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (IAF) Pune (HQ Southern Command), Army Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command), Army Chandimandir (HQ Western Command), Army Lucknow (HQ Central Command), Army Udhampur (HQ Northern Command), Army Shimla (HQ Training Command), Army Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command), Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command), Navy Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command), Navy

30  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command), Navy New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command), IAF Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command), IAF Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command), IAF Bengaluru (HQ Training Command), IAF Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command), IAF Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command), IAF Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command), IAF New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff)


Iran Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir

Afghanistan

China

Himachal Pradesh Shimla

Punjab

Uttarakhand Dehradun

Chandigarh Haryana

Pakistan

Bhutan

1 Delhi

Nepal

Uttar Pradesh Lucknow

Patna Bihar Jharkhand

Gandhinagar Madhya Pradesh

17

Ranchi Raipur

Maharashtra

5 Mumbai

West Bengal

Agartala Tripura

Mizoram

Kolkata

6 22

Bhubaneswar Odisha

Aizawal

Myanmar

20

Bangladesh

Thailand

19 8

16 18 9 10

Pune

Manipur Imphal

Shillong

Chhattisgarh

Bhopal

Nagaland Kohima

Dispur

Allahabad

Gujarat

Itanagar

Sikkim

Rajasthan Jaipur

Arunachal Pradesh

Vishakhapatnam

Hyderabad

ARABIAN SEA

Goa Panaji

7

BAY OF BENGAL

Andhra Pradesh

4 11 2 12 13 3 15 Chennai Bengaluru 14

An da m an

Karnataka

& Ni co ba r

Kerala

Kavaratti

Tamil Nadu Kochi

Is la nd s

Lakshadweep

Port Blair

21

Thiruvananthapuram

Sri Lanka

I

N

D

I

A

N

O

C

E

A

N

DRDO and DPSU Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), New Delhi Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Bengaluru Bharat Electronics Ltd, Bengaluru Bharat Earth Movers Ltd, Bengaluru Mazagon Dock Ltd, Mumbai Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd, Kolkata Goa Shipyard Limited, Goa Hindustan Shipyard Limited, Visakhapatnam Bharat Dynamics Limited, Hyderabad Mishra Dhatu Limited, Hyderabad Aeronautical Development Agency, Bengaluru

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Indian Space Research Organisation, Bengaluru Aeronautical Development Establishment, Bengaluru Centre for Airborne Systems, Bengaluru Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment, Chennai Defence Electronics Research Lab, Hyderabad Defence Research and Development Est. Gwalior Defence Research and Development Lab, Hyderabad Naval Science & Technological Laboratory, Visakhapatnam Integrated Test Range, Balasore, Odisha Cochin Shipyard Ltd , Kochi, Kerala Ordnance Factories Board, Kolkata

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  31


REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Contents CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


A plAne And A pArtnership powered by

capability and commitment The C-130J Super Hercules is more than the aircraft that redefines air capability. It is a symbol of commitment and partnership. Configured and equipped to meet India’s needs, the C-130J is a proven performer that has achieved every development milestone on time and on budget. The C-130J Super Hercules. A platform for long-term partnership.

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C OLO U R PA G ES Readers’ Comments

28

Maps:   Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters   DRDO and DPSU Headquarters

CONTENTS

5 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Message from Minister of Defence, India

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e n t s 30 31

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles 114

Sin título-2 1

03/10/2012 9:38:46

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  33

REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Authors' Profile

49-111

TECHNOLOGY

Editorial 45


Cont e nt s www.baesystems.com

1 CPerspectives1 oncepts &

World class capability

TAILORED AEROspAcE, DEFENcE AND sEcURITY sOLUTIONs.

1 India in the Era of Strategic Uncertainty Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan 2 Indo-US Growing Correlation Chintamani Mahapatra 3 Turmoil in West Asia Ranjit Gupta

1

7 11

4 Afghanistan’s Future Stability Dr Ashok K. Behuria

15

5 Winds of Change in Myanmar Ranjit Gupta

19

6 India-Russia Strategic Partnership Kanwal Sibal

23

7 Iran-Israel Stand-off Brigadier (Retd) Rumel Dahiya

27

REAL TECHNOLOGY.REAL ADVANTAGE.

8

China’s Future War Zone 31 Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

9 China’s Military Stratagem Dr Monika Chansoria 34  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

35


CONTENTS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

43

TECHNOLOGY

11 Future of Aerospace Power Air Chief Marshal (Retd) P.V. Naik

39

12 India’s Defence Sector Reforms 47 General (Retd) V.P. Malik

15 Developments in South East Asia Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

BUSINESS

57 INDIAN DEFENCE

14 Civil-Military Relationship M.G. Devasahayam

51

61

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

13 Strategy: National & Military Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

16 India’s Incipient Maritime Responsibilities 65 Admiral (Retd) Sureesh Mehta 17 Army Aviation Corps Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar

69

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  35

REGIONAL BALANCE

10 India’s Nuclear Deterrence Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e nt s


36  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


2 Integrated Air Defence Systems Lt General V.K. Saxena

77

3

Combat Simulation as a Force-Multiplier Major General R.P. Bhadran

81

4

Fifth Generation Multi-Role Aircraft Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha

85

01 41 37 96 70

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Recognizing threats is our instinct

Photo credits: Aspheri, D. Benson/Masterfile, Y. Debay -

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

73

BUSINESS

1 Technologies for Future Wars Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

2 TECHNOLOGY73

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s

Nexter Systems

Caesar_180x112_SP_uk.indd 1

3/08/11 17:07:07

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  37

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.nexter-group.fr


Cont e n t s 5 Nanotechnology Application in the Navy Rear Admiral (Retd) Dr S. Kulshrestha

89

3 BUSINESS109

6 Indigenous High-Tech Development Smita Purushottam

93

1 Indian Army Modernisation Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

109

7 Indigenous Missile Programme Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

97

2 Indian Navy Modernisation Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip Deshpande

113

101

3 Indian Air Force Modernisation Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia

117

105

4

Defence Offset Policy Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

121

5

Defence Procurement Procedure 127 Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

8

Unmanned Military Systems Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

9 Amphibious Aircraft Commodore (Retd) Sujeet Samaddar

Fischer UltiMate UltiMate Connections for Harsh Environment

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6 Development of Indian Defence Industry Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman 7

Defence Budget 2012-13 Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

137

8 India’s Business Environment Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle

141

Global Contracts

4 INDIAN DEFENCE www.fischerconnectors.com Headquarters Fischer Connectors SA Saint-Prex - Switzerland Phone +41 21 800 95 95 mail@fischerconnectors.ch

38  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

133

1 Integrated Defence Staff

149

157 157

Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand 2 The Indian Army

165

3 The Indian Navy

189


CONTENTS

5 Indian Coast Guard

243

6

253

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

7 Indian Defence Industry

273

8

Defence Research & Development

297

Homeland security 305

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RENK is the world’s leading manufacturer of transmissions for military tracked vehicles, having the widest range, the most modern technology. High sophisticated engineering where all driving, steering and braking functions of the vehicle are combined in a single ‘drop-in’ RENK product.

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

1 India’s Homeland Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

217

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

4 The Indian Air Force

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s

Anzeige Sps Military Yearbook.indd 1

17.09.12 08:05

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  39

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.renk.eu


Cont e nt s 2 Internal Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

315

3

327

Maoist Insurgency Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

4 India’s Coastal Surveillance Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

331

5 ASIAN WHO’S WHO Afghanistan 337 Algeria 337 Australia 337 Bahrain 337 Bangladesh 338 Cambodia 338 People’s Republic of China 338 Egypt 338 Indonesia 338 Iran 339 Iraq 339 Israel 339 Japan 339 Jordan 339 Kazakhstan 340 Kuwait 340 Kyrgyzstan 340 Laos 340 Lebanon 340 Libya 340 40  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

337 Malaysia 340 Myanmar 341 Nepal 341 North Korea 341 Oman 341 Pakistan 342 Philippines 342 Qatar 342 Saudi Arabia 342 Singapore 342 South Korea 343 Sri Lanka 343 Syria 343 Taiwan 343 Tajikistan 344 Turkmenistan 344 United Arab Emirates 344 Uzbekistan 344 Vietnam 344 Yemen 344


GDP & Military Expenditure

345

2

Central & South Asia

349

Kazakhstan 352

Bangladesh 363

Kyrgyzstan 354

Bhutan 365

Tajikistan 355

India 367

Turkmenistan 357

Nepal 370

Uzbekistan 359

Pakistan 372

Afghanistan 361

Sri Lanka

375

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Ti for Sniper Rifle

Meprolight’s NOA thermal weapon sights. No thermal night sight goes farther.

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  41

REGIONAL BALANCE

NOA Nyx Ti for Assault Rifle

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

1

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

345

TECHNOLOGY

6 REGIONAL BALANCE

BUSINESS

Cont e nt s


Cont e nt s 3 East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia Australia 381

Malaysia 401

Cambodia 383

Myanmar

China 385

4

5

377

(Formerly Burma)

403

Indonesia 389

Philippines 405

Japan 392

Singapore 407

North Korea (Dprk) 395

Taiwan 409

South Korea (Rok) 397

Thailand 411

Laos 399

Vietnam 414

West Asia and North Africa

417

Algeria 420

Kuwait 436

Egypt 422

Lebanon 438

Libya 424

Sultanate of Oman

Bahrain 426

Qatar 441

Iran 428

Saudi Arabia

Iraq 430

Syria 445

Israel 432

United Arab Emirates

447

Jordan 434

Republic of Yemen

449

439 443

Security Threats in the Asia-Pacific Region Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle

451

6 Equipment & Hardware Specifications

457

Army Equipment

457

Naval Equipment

479

Air Equipment

495

42  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


CONTENTS

Distribution of Revenue Budget

139

Share of Defence Services in Defence Budget 2012-13

140

Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff

158

The outline structure of the National Defence University

160

Diagrammatic Layout of the Army’s Chain of Command

167

Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters

169

Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters

191

Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters

220

Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters

245

Indian Coast Guard Locations

247

Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation

248

 ummary of the output of the defence industry, including S Ordnance factories and DPSUs

274

Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production (DDP)

275

Organisation structure of OFB

276

 xternal functional linkages (OFB comes under Department E Of Defence Production)

276

Performance Summary of DPSUs (up to 2010-11)

279

Values of stores assured by DGQA (in ` crore)

296

DRDO: Ministry of Defence

298

Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation

299

Organisation of Ministry of Home Affairs

306

Organisational Command & Control of Central Police Forces

314

Abbreviations & index

506   |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  43

TECHNOLOGY

139

BUSINESS

Distribution of Capital Budget

INDIAN DEFENCE

138

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Defence Budget (Comparison)

REGIONAL BALANCE

Diagrams/Graphs

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e nt s


Cont e nt s Advertiser Index AIRBUS MILITARY ANSYS ASHOK LEYLAND BAE SYSTEMS BHARAT DYNAMICS BOMBARDIER DASSAULT AVIATION DIEHL DEFENCE ELETTRONICA EMBRAER EUROCOPTER FFV ORDNANCE FINCANTIERI FINMECCANICA FISCHER CONNECTORS HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS HAWKER BEECHCRAFT HDW IAI IRKUT L-3 WESCAM LEUPOLD LOCKHEED MARTIN MAZAGON DOCK MBDA MEPROLIGHT MIG RAC NAVANTIA NEXTER SYSTEMS NORTHROP GRUMMAN OTO MELARA PILATUS PIPAVAV SHIPYARD PRATT & WHITNEY PROENGIN RAFAEL RAYTHEON RENK ROSOBORONEXPORT RUBIN SAAB SAGEM SELEX GALILEO SHINMAYWA TATA MOTORS TELEPHONICS TEXTRON SYSTEMS THALES UNITED TECHNOLOGIES

www.airbusmilitary.com 32 www.ansys.com/promise 22 www.defence.ashokleyland.com 23 www.baesystems.com 34 http://bdl.ap.nic.in 10 www.specialmission.bombardier.com 17 www.rafale.co.in Back Cover www.diehl.com Technology Section Separator www.elt-roma.com Concepts & Perspectives Section Separator www.embraerdefensesystems.com  Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles Section Separator www.eurocopter.com 15 www.saabgroup.com 11 www.fincantieri.com 36 www.finmeccanica.com Front Cover www.fischerconnectors.com 38 www.hal-india.com 20 www.hawkerbeechcraft.com Indian Defence Section Separator www.thyssenkrupp-marinesystems.com Book Mark www.iai.co.il 21 www.irkut.com 24 www.wescam.com Book Mark www.leupold.com Asian Who's Who Section Separator www.lockheedmartin.com/c130 Contents Section Separator www.mazagondock.gov.in 188 - Indian Defence Section www.mbda-systems.com 9 www.meprolight.com 41 www.migavia.ru 12 www.navantia.es 33 www.nexter-group.fr 37 www.northropgrumman.com/isr 4 www.otomelara.it 35 www.pilatus-aircraft.com 2 www.pipavavshipyard.com 18 www.pw.utc.com 216 - Indian Defence Section www.proengin.com 27 www.rafael.co.il 25 www.raytheon.com 1 www.renk.eu 39 www.rusarm.ru 16 www.ckb-rubin.ru 14 www.saabgroup.com 19 www.sagem-ds.com 13 www.selexgalileo.com 6 www.shinmaywa.co.jp 29 www.defencesolutions-tatamotors.com 26 www.telephonics.com/radar.asp Regional Balance Section Separator www.textronsystems.in Book Mark www.thalesgroup.com Facing Inside Front Cover www.utc.com Business Section Separator

44  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


TM

2013

41

ST

issue

Editorial

S

P Guide Publications was founded in 1964 by its Founder, Editor and Publisher Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal who was a visionary. A year later, in 1965, SP’s Military Yearbook, the flagship product of the company, was launched. This innovative effort by the founder was singularly appreciated by the then Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri, and replicated enthusiastically by the military fraternity. SP Guide Publications has since grown from strength to strength and will be celebrating its Golden Jubilee in 2014. SP’s Military Yearbook now offers its readers a wide range of information and knowledge regarding the military and the defence industry in India, and strategic analysis of defence and security-related issues in the Asia-Pacific region. It is a comprehensive reference manual, an annual barometer of matters concerning conceptual issues in the strategic and operational realm, military-related issues and homeland security. Over the last 48 years, SP Guide Publications has been at the forefront of publishing defence and security-related journals and is the only publisher offering dedicated journals to the three defence forces in India, namely SP’s Land Forces, SP’s Naval Forces and SP’s Aviation to the Indian Army, the Navy and the Air Force respectively. We have since the past five years also commenced the publication of SP’s AirBuz, a journal for commercial aviation. We added, two years ago, the SP’s M.A.I. (Military, Aerospace and Internal security) to the total list of our publications. It is a fortnightly magazine, which covers the latest happenings in the global military-industrial regime.

SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 being presented to Defence Minister A.K. Antony International Security Scenario Developments in the geopolitical and geoeconomic arenas are transforming the international security scenario. New economies are emerging in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Global financial slow-

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  45


The cover of Military Yearbook 1965

down and Eurozone crises is transforming global power equations. America’s policy-makers are shifting their focus eastwards towards Asia and the global balance of power is assessed to be shifting to Asia. The 21st century is being heralded as an Asian century. Regardless of the outcome of the Eurozone crisis, the coming decades will be marked by the continuation of a phenomenon sometimes described as ‘the rise of the rest’; the ongoing diffusion of wealth and power from west to east and from north to south. This first became evident in the 1970s and 1980s with the emergence of Japan and other Asian Tigers. Since the 1990s, it has been replicated in the rapid growth of China, India, Brazil and other South Asian countries. This has led to an impressive rise of these countries in economic and military terms. Asia is no longer in the lower rung of the global economy. The expansion of G-20 forum and demands for reforms in International Monetary Fund and World Bank reflect this trend. In addition to the ongoing power shift, energy is increasingly interlinked with geopolitics as demand and competition for global resources becomes increasingly sharp. The ongoing shift is likely to create both opportunities and challenges in the future and in this era of strategic uncertainty, the security choices of all countries will be guided by the above trends and their own strategic priorities. The present transition has been driven by dramatic changes in information and communication technology, economic, political and strategic factors. The world has witnessed many changes during the past few decades, but the recent trends have a long-lasting impact on the global security architecture. The global security concerns range from the rise of China and associated geopolitical developments in East Asia, uprising in West Asia, global financial downturn and the Eurozone crisis, Afghanistan and International terrorism, Iran-Israeli stand-off, the intractable Palestine issue, the quest for energy, and space and cyber security. US Strategy Recognising the importance of Asia-Pacific region in the emerging world order, the US has decided to focus on the region as part of what they call the pivot towards Asia. As part of a rebalancing with Asia, the US plans to enhance military-to-military cooperation with China at the same time boosting the capabilities of its allies in the region. The US Defence Secretary, Leon Panetta said, "America is at a turning point. After a decade of war, we are developing the new defence strategy. In particular, we will expand our military partnerships and our presence in the arc, extending from the Western Pacific and East Asia into the Indian Ocean region (IOR) and South Asia." The US wants to shift the bulk of its naval assets to Asia within the next decade. Under the plan, the US would shift cruisers, destroyers, submarines and other warships so that 60 per cent of these will be based in the Pacific by 2020. Currently, the US Navy fleet of 285 ships is evenly split between the Atlantic and the Pacific. Panetta, who disclosed the naval plans in an address to an annual international security conference in Singapore, stressed that the rising US force levels shouldn't be seen as a threat to China but as a stabilising influence in a rapidly developing region. However, the step to globally reposition the US Navy would represent a substantial peacetime military shift that is likely to be seen as a counter to China, perceived to be increasingly flexing its economic and territorial muscle in Asia. The new strategic posture has been welcomed by the countries in the region which have been at the receiving end of the muscle flexing by China that claims the entire South China Sea as its exclusive domain. Rise of China Beijing has diligently worked towards attaining ‘comprehensive national power’ and accruing traditional attributes of power, resulting in perpetuating rule of the CCP, sustaining economic growth and development, maintaining domestic political stability, defending national sovereignty and territorial integrity while securing China’s status as a great power. Resultantly, China’s own diplomacy has steadily grown more omni-directional and proactive, backed by an economy that is an engine of regional growth, and most crucially, a military that is modernising rapidly. China’s military modernisation programme that was initiated formally by its leader Deng Xiaoping in December 1978 has entered its 34th year and is expected to continue to display a continuing pattern of military modernisation. The unremitting debate surrounding the military rise of the People’s Republic of China is getting louder with each passing day. While posting higher stages of economic growth, the military spending power of China has increased exponentially. The grave implications on Beijing’s rapidly expanding prowess and influence within Asia and beyond seems to

46  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 


be worrying the world due to lack of transparency of their intentions and their growing assertiveness and belligerence. India has increased its military spending by 66 per cent since 2002, while China has increased its spending by 170 per cent in the same period. West Asia The Arab world has been engulfed in completely unanticipated and historically unprecedented turmoil since the beginning of 2011. A long awaited ‘Arab Spring’ has dawned. This turmoil has had two major consequences which will have significant continuing impact within the Arab world. First, in the longer term, the political rise of Islamist forces will inject a new and powerful factor that could transform the Arab world into a very different persona from what the world has known and dealt with for a long time. Secondly, for the immediate future, the outcome of the no holds barred stand-off between Saudi Arabia and Iran personifying a vigorous Sunni response to a supposedly rising Shia threat, will reshape the geopolitics of the West Asian region. South Asia South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. The South Asian scene is marred by constant hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, the disputed Sino-Indian border and the Taliban activity in Afghanistan-Pakistan region and even more by the internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. In neighbouring Nepal, the continued political instability has worsened the situation in this tiny country pinned between China and India. In Sri Lanka, with the defeat of LTTE and the demise of Prabhakaran, a new chapter has opened. However, the rehabilitation of the Tamil population is progressing very slowly. In Bangladesh, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has sought to enhance Bangladesh’s presence on the world stage and the relations between India and Bangladesh has vastly improved as compared to the earlier era of Begum Khalida Zia.

The cover of the current edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2013

South East Asia Recent developments in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) indicate that the response of the South East Asian countries on a number of strategic and vital issues has not been well coordinated and there are many differences among the members on the manner that the arising security challenges need to be met with. There are some countries among the ASEAN who believe that the return of the US to Asia-Pacific and South East Asia could provide an element of balance against the assertive policies of China while others have an ambivalent view. East Asia Japan’s Defence White Paper 2012 underlines the rise of China’s military and economic power and North Korea’s political transition and sees established alliance with the United States with presence of its forces as “extremely important in order to achieve regional stability”. Japanese Self Defence Forces are on the path of upgrading their defence posture to meet emerging challenges from China’s rise in a holistic manner even though overall cap on the defence budget at one per cent of the GDP is likely to remain. Political tensions between China and Taiwan have eased over a period. The victory of Ma Yingjeou in Taiwan's presidential elections in January 2012 augurs well for maintaining relations on an even keel, though he is unlikely to make additional concessions given that the margin of victory has been greatly reduced. The overall environment on the Korean Peninsula remains tense despite hopeful developments in February 2012 when North Korea and the United States completed talks on the nuclear issue in New York, which both sides called "constructive". The engagement held after 19 months of break had raised hopes of resumption of six-nation talks involving North and South Korea, the United States, China, Russia and Japan. However, the North Korean rocket (read ballistic missile) launched on December 12, 2012, have put paid to these expectations. Regional Security in Asia-Pacific Global economic progress in the 21st century has seen the Asia-Pacific region emerge as an arena for geopolitical and regional rivalries with territorial disputes— both land and maritime—impacting relations between states. South Asia continues to be characterised by constant hostility between nuclear-

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  47


armed India and Pakistan, and the Taliban insurgency in AfghanistanPakistan region. The healthy trend of multilateralism that prevailed in the region and particularly in East and South East Asia has been disturbed. The rising competition in the South China Sea has resulted in greater militarisation with China becoming increasingly aggressive. The US shift of naval assets from Atlantic to the Pacific is viewed as a response to growing concerns of major players as Japan which is underpinning stability in the region on the presence of the US military in Asia-Pacific. Consensus is necessary and evident in meeting some of the security challenges faced in global commons such as maritime piracy, terrorism, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. Cyber, space and nuclear security are other areas where there is lower congruence to a cooperative approach. These developments are likely to provide an impetus to military modernisation in the region. However, the constraining factor will be the budgetary constraints. While a state on state conflict is unlikely in Asia-Pacific in the near future, this will require underpinning security by maintaining deterrence for which adequate military capability will be essential. How countries in the region balance fiscal constraints and military capacity building, will determine stability in the future. What is the Content This Year? SP’s Military Yearbook this year carries an exceptional range of interesting articles of highly topical subjects by well-known authors including former Service Chiefs. These articles are included in the chapters on “Concepts and Perspectives”, “Business”, and “Technology”. The chapter on “Concepts and Perspectives” includes well analysed articles of military and strategic value on subjects which range from the global to the regional perspectives and which cover the entire area of strategic interest to India’s defence planners and industry honchos. In the “Business” section, the new guidelines on defence offsets and defence procurements have been given, apart from an article each on the development of defence industry in India and India’s strategic and business environment among other subjects. In the chapter on “Tech-

nology”, future trends in integrated air defence systems concept, nanotechnology in naval applications, technologies for future wars and indigenous high-tech development are some of the highlights. All other chapters have been extensively updated by the most knowledgeable persons in defence and military-related matters. Sources for Facts & Figures CIA World Fact Book, Military Balance, Jane’s Weapon Systems, Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft, Jane’s Fighting Ships, Combat Fleets of the World, US Military Strength Worldwide, Aerospace Daily, Armies, Armour, Armed Forced Journal, Handbook of Soviet Weapons, Asian Defence Journal, Aviation Week and Space Technology, Asian Survey, Defence News, Flight International, Tanks of the World, Aircraft of the World, Sea Power, International Defense Review, US News & World Report, International Herald Tribune, Proceedings, New York Times, Financial Observer, Scala, New Yorker, Omini, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Time, Newsweek, World Defence Almanac, Military Technology, CLAWS Journal, Annual Report Ministry of Home Affairs 2011-12, Annual Report Ministry of Defence 2011-12, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Military Review besides several others. Clarifications: Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2013. Despite this, it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases.  Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government, including the Ministry of Defence. Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable.

Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP's Military Yearbook 2013 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP's team of experts: Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay

48  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief


ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

REGIONAL BALANCE

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

special colour feature CONTENTS


CONTENTS Avrora....................................................................................................................................... 58

Concept

Bharat Dynamics.................................................................................................................... 60

Jayant Baranwal SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi, India

Diehl Defence.......................................................................................................................... 62

Credits

FFV Ordnance.......................................................................................................................... 68

SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD Contact Address: Corporate Office A-133,ArjunNagar,OppositeDefenceColony, New Delhi 110003, India. Phones : +91 11 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax : +91 11 24647093

Ansys Software....................................................................................................................... 54 Ashok Leyland......................................................................................................................... 56

Eurocopter............................................................................................................................... 67 Hawker Beechcraft................................................................................................................ 70 Hindustan Aeronautics.......................................................................................................... 72

TECHNOLOGY

Embraer.................................................................................................................................... 64

Irkut........................................................................................................................................... 74 Israel Aerospace Industries................................................................................................. 76 Lockheed Martin .................................................................................................................... 78 MBDA....................................................................................................................................... 80 Meprolight................................................................................................................................ 81 Navantia................................................................................................................................... 82

BUSINESS

Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

Airbus Military ........................................................................................................................ 51

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Agilent Technologies.............................................................................................................. 50

The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishingoruseoftheinformation,associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

Publishers extend special thanks to the companieswhohaveprovidedthecontents andrespectivephotographsforthisfeature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive supportandco-operationinformulatingthis featurewithmaximumpossibleup-to-date and lively contents.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

C on t en t s

Nexter Systems....................................................................................................................... 84 Northrop Grumman................................................................................................................. 86 OTO Melara.............................................................................................................................. 88 Pipavav..................................................................................................................................... 89 Pratt & Whitney....................................................................................................................... 91 Rafael........................................................................................................................................ 92

INDIAN DEFENCE

Allrightsreserved.Theinformationpublished hereinisforthepersonaluseofthereaderand may not be incorporated in any commercial activity.Makingcopiesinanyform,electronic or otherwise, of the information in full or any portionthereofforpurposesotherthanownuse is a violation of copyright law.

W E AP O N S, E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I C LE S

Rosoboronexport.................................................................................................................... 94

E-Mail : info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, order@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@del2.vsnl.net.in

Rubin......................................................................................................................................... 95

Website: www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Sagem .................................................................................................................................... 102

Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG....................................................................................... 98 Saab ....................................................................................................................................... 100 Samtel Avionics & Defence Systems................................................................................ 103

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Publications

Selex Galileo.......................................................................................................................... 104 Tata Motors............................................................................................................................ 107 Telephonics............................................................................................................................ 108 Textron Systems.................................................................................................................... 110 Thales..................................................................................................................................... 111   |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  49

REGIONAL BALANCE

Copyright © 2012 by


A

gilent Technologies, the world’s premier test and measurement company, has a long and storied presence in Aerospace/Defense around the world and in India. Within the Aerospace/Defense industry, Agilent is known as a leader in measurement science and recognized for having a broad range of COTS (CommercialOff-The-Shelf) measurement products than any of our competitors.

Providing a broad, evolving range of application solutions Radar and Electronic Warfare: As technology evolves, so do the challenges in detection, avoidance, electronic warfare (EW) and countermeasures. In all cases, the testing of today’s systems will benefit from high-performance test equipment and EDA solutions. Military Communication: From dynamic probing inside an FPGA to testing digital IF and IQ, from manufacturing test to operational troubleshooting, Agilent can help you ensure system readiness. Satellite guidance, payloads and communications: Design and validation tools from Agilent provide greater assurance that satellites and subsystems will work every time for the duration of the mission. Avionics, Guidance, and Navigation Systems: Whether you’re testing to achieve regulatory certification or meet demanding system specifications, solutions from Agilent enable extensive testing of the systems.

Agilent Technologies Surveillance and Intelligence: Whether the mission is intercept and collect, detect and eradicate, monitor and track, or trend and analyze, our diverse technology base—and deep familiarity with wireless communications—gives you a meaningful edge. ATE: From LAN and Web to LXI-based synthetic instruments, our approach to ATE is designed to maximize system longevity and productivity. Operational Tests: The versatility of our instruments accelerates troubleshooting at the O-level and provides insights that help I-level and depot-level teams quickly pinpoint failed modules and components. Design and Test Platforms that span the entire Aerospace and Defense Market Network analyzers: From 5 Hz to 1.05THz, choose from a growing selection of RF and Microwave network analyzers, ranging from handheld models to mm-wave instruments. Spectrum and signal analyzers: Agilent’s spectrum and signal analyzers include an extensive array of products, from DC to 325 GHz and beyond. Signal generators: Agilent offers the widest selection of baseband, RF, and microwave signal generator products from baseband to 67 GHz, from basic to advanced functionality. Oscilloscopes: Agilent offers a complete line of oscilloscopes optimized to your test needs, from handheld units to high-performance and mixed signal scopes.

50  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

Logic Analyzers: Agilent’s logic analyzers minimize your project risk by providing the most reliable, accurate data capture and the most complete view of digital system behavior. Modular instrumentation: Agilent provides a portfolio of modular devices to fit your diverse needs: from cost-sensitive test requirements to high-performance applications. General-purpose instruments: Our broad selection of bench-friendly and system-ready power supplies can meet your testing challenges with a wealth of available capabilities. Agilent’s digital multimeters have a proven track record for reliability. From a bench top to a test rack to a handheld, there’s an Agilent digital multimeter that’s right for the job. Agilent arbitrary waveform generators provide both wide bandwidth and outstanding signal quality to fit your electronic testing needs. The breadth of the Agilent’s Frequency Counters offering allows the best product to be selected for different applications. Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Software: Agilent EEsof EDA is the leading supplier of EDA software for communications product design. In-circuit/parametric test: Agilent offers leading board test solutions for electronics manufacturers to tackle a wide range of PCBA test access and coverage issues for today’s complex printed circuit assemblies.  n

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For more details on our products, visit http://cp.literature.agilent.com/ litweb/pdf/5990-6626EN.pdf


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

(Spain), the company’s facilities are essentially based in Spain. Its main sites are Getafe, where A330s, built in Toulouse, are converted into A330 MRTTs, and Seville, where the San Pablo factory hosts the A400M Final Assembly Line opened in 2007, as well as the complete production and final assembly of the CN235 and C295. Airbus Military was formally created in April 2009, following the integration of the former Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTAD) and of Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada (AMSL) into Airbus. This integration allows for a single and streamlined organisation. In total, Airbus Military, which has its own P&L accounting, counts more than 5,000 employees. It builds on the experience developed by the former Construcciones Aeronauticas Sociedad Anonima (CASA), which became part of EADS, as MTAD, in2 000. CASA was founded in 1923, and had specialized in the devel-

  Five A400M development aircraft are flying

opment, construction, certification and support of small military transport aircraft, while playing a leading role in the militarization of civil Airbus platforms. Airbus Military is today well established on the world market with products operated by air forces for tactical and strategic transport and aerial refuelling capabilities as

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  51

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

irbus Military produces transport, tanker and surveillance aircraft both for military missions and a wide range of “civic” missions for the good of society. It is unique in its field in developing, producing, selling and supporting a comprehensive family of airlifters ranging from three to 45 tonnes of payload. An Airbus daughter company, Airbus Military is responsible for the A400M programme, as well as the A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport (A330 MRTT) and for further military derivatives of Airbus civil aircraft, plus the CN235 and C295 medium transport/surveillance types. Airbus Military is the global leader in its market due to its ability to address the widest range of missions. The company has sold more than 1,000 aircraft to some 130 military, civilian and governmental customers. More than 800 of these aircraft have been delivered. Headquartered in Madrid

REGIONAL BALANCE

A

TECHNOLOGY

Airbus Military


ANSYS Software

A

NSYS, Inc. is one of the world’s leading engineering simulation software providers. Its technology has enabled customers to predict with accuracy that their product designs will thrive in the real world. The company’s focus is to offer a common platform of fully integrated multiphysics software tools designed to optimize product development processes for a wide range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, civil engineering, consumer products, chemical process, electronics, environmental, healthcare, marine, power, sports and others. Applied to design concept, final-stage testing, validation and trouble-shooting existing designs, software from ANSYS can significantly speed design and development times, reduce costs, and provide insight and understanding into product and process performance. ANSYS software not only delivers efficiency, it drives innovation. The technology’s ability to go beyond physical constraints and perform simulated tests that would other-

wise not be possible is critical to exploring and expanding operational boundaries in developing leadingedge products and processes. In this way, modeling and simulation can be used to drive new solutions rather than to merely verify existing ones. ANSYS calls this process SimulationDriven Product Development™. The Company and its global network of channel partners provide sales, support and training for customers. Headquartered in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., with more than 60 strategic sales locations throughout the world, ANSYS and its subsidiaries employ over 2,000 people and distribute ANSYS products through a network of channel partners in over 40 countries. Visit www.ansys.com for more information. Ansys Software Product Offering ANSYS offers a comprehensive range of engineering simulation solution sets, giving users access to virtually any field of engineering simulation that their design process requires. ANSYS believes engineering simulation should be as easy

54  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

and efficient as possible in order to ensure that users get the best value. With this in mind, the product portfolio has been developed to meet three key user requirements: n To provide the best type of software tool for the user’s needs, whatever that may be — FEA, CFD, electronics, etc. n To provide the most suitable grade and scope of tool for the user’s needs n To provide a fully integrated engineering simulation environment, giving the user the flexibility to run multiphysics analyses within one single environment and to upgrade or downgrade their software without issues of compatibility Together, these principles help ensure that ANSYS provides a fullportfolio engineering simulation capability that adds value to the engineering design process, rather than a solution that only partially solves problems. A number of factors set ANSYS engineering simulation software apart from other CAE tools:

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ASHOK LEYLAND A nation’s moving force

F

or over six decades, Ashok Leyland has been in the business of moving people and goods and is one of India’s largest commercial vehicle manufacturers. Pioneers in the design and development of Defence transport solutions, Ashok Leyland is the largest supplier of logistics vehicles to the Indian Army with close to 70,000 ‘Stallion’ vehicles in use. A relationship of substance The seeds for this relationship of substance with the Indian Army were sown in the 1970s, with the supply of 1,000 numbers of the Company’s ‘Hippo’, a vehicle specially configured for the Army. In 1994, the hugely successful ‘Stallion’ platform was inducted followed by the inking of a Transfer of Technology Agreement with Ordnance Factories Board for the co-production of the ‘Stallion’ 4x4 at Vehicle Factory, Jabalpur.

The ‘Stallion’ platform was first developed as a 4x4 vehicle for various applications such as general service roles, troop carriers, water bowsers, fuel bowsers, light recovery vehicles that have been tested and proven in the most demanding of operating conditions: in altitudes of over 5,500 metres and in the deserts of Rajasthan and in temperatures of -35 degrees Celsius to +50 degrees Celsius. The Company’s expanding

56  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  The Super Stallion 8x8 – Engineered to perform with high mobility and power in arduous desert terrains

portfolio of Defence vehicles feature the Light Recovery Vehicle for the Indian Army / DGBR, the 5 KL Water Bowser with twin stainless steel insulated walls water tanks mounted on the Stallion for carrying potable water for the jawans at extreme temperatures, the Truck Fire Fighting 4x2, gun towing vehicle Topchi 4x4, Mobile Refrigerated Containers and Fuel Dispensers. A new platform – the ‘Super Stallion’ has been introduced to

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Avrora JSC Concern Avrora Scientific and Production Association: a reliable partner of India

F

or over 40 years, the Scientific and Production Association Avrora has been the biggest in Russia developer and supplier of monitoring and control systems for technical facilities of maritime objects. During this period the enterprise became a leader in marine instrumentation of control systems for technical facilities of ships and submarines of all classes operational with both Russian and foreign navies. The development of control systems for technical facilities is a multi-sided task, which is successfully solved by the Concern АAvrora in close collaboration with the leading national ship designers (Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering, Severnoye Design Bureau, Nevskoye Design Bureau, Almaz Central Marine Design Bureau and others) and scientific organizations like the Krylov Central Research Institute, as well as the scientific-research institutes of the Russian Navy. Among the foreign partners of the Concern, India occupies a spe-

cial place, both in respect of the quantitative indices of cooperation and in respect of the quality of existing partnership relations. More than 80 control systems of technical facilities of several generations have been delivered to India over the past 30 years. The first-generation control systems developed by the “Avrora” were supplied to the Indian Navy in the early 1970s as part of the equipment for Project 641 submarines. Since then the volume of cooperation and the range products expanded year after year. Automated information and control systems, control systems of main propulsion plant, auxiliary engines, general ship systems, electric power generation and conversion facilities, propulsion facilities, maneuvering and motion stabilization facilities for submarines and surface ships are not by far a complete list of products supplied to the Indian market. The most interesting and significant projects in the 1980s-1990s,

58  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  Konstantin Shilov, Avrora Director General

involving the development and supply of control systems for technical facilities (CS TF) for the Indian Navy ships, were the works on outfitting the Project 877EKM submarines. Many years of highly efficient operation of these submarines by the Indian Navy have shown high reliability, efficiency, ease of maintenance of the control systems developed by the Concern and installed on these submarines. The next-generation of the CS TFs developed for the Indian cus-

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Bharat Dynamics   Akash SAMs SP's Military Yearbook (SP's): You have recently taken over as Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of BDL. What is your vision for the growth of the company? S.N. Mantha (CMD): The vision of BDL is “to be a leading world class enterprise in defence industry”. Therefore, my endeavour during my tenure as CMD of this company will be to adhere to and achieve this vision. The vision document covering longterm strategy to manufacture various missiles providing life time customer support is under preparation. The plan is to send BDL officers to various customer locations and get the feedback. This would enable them to attend to the needs of the customer in practical terms and will thereby become a long-term business strategy to build image of the company. SP's: What are the key areas you would like to focus on? CMD: There are many major projects in pipeline. These can be handled only by creating dedicated production units with infrastructure for each of these projects. In this direction,

Mr S.N. Mantha, C&MD, BDL

BDL has already acquired land at different places and my focus would be to raise these production units so that they are ready to take up production and delivery of systems to the users as per the desired schedule. SP's: How about the modernisation of the infrastructure? CMD: A modernisation plan is being evolved outlining the plant and machinery and infrastructure that need to be upgraded or added. This is required to meet capacity enhancement planned for the current projects and new projects which are in the pipeline. SP's: Is the process of indigenisation continuing? CMD: The process of indigenisation is ever continuing at BDL. The initial indigenisation efforts will be towards avoiding import of expensive sub-assemblies and manufac-

60  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  Milan 2T

turing them indigenously at lower cost. Subsequently, the indigenisation process continues to attain selfreliance by reducing dependency on foreign countries. In this direction, the company has already achieved indigenization to the level of 70-90 per cent in various projects. BDL has been manufacturing missiles for more than 40 years and thus has built up expertise in manufacture of precision and critical components like gyro scope, wire spool winding etc. all under one roof. SP's: You have projected a turnover of Rs 1,350 crore during 201213. Have you achieved this target? CMD: Barring very unforeseen events, I am confident of achieving the target. All my team members are putting their best efforts to meet the stated sales target. SP's: What were the challenges thrown up by the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP)? CMD: The challenges thrown up by IGMDP are much different from that

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Diehl Defence Competence in Upgrade – Running Gears – Maintenance

D

iehl Defence Land Systems GmbH is the new brand in the military land vehicle market, created from the merger of Diehl Remscheid GmbH & Co. KG, globally leading developer and manufacturer of Track Systems and Running Gears for tanks, and Industriewerke Saar GmbH, proven service provider to the German Bundeswehr and US military in Europe for military wheeled and tracked vehicles repair and maintenance. The complex requirements global military users place on their vehicle fleets require knowledge of the various systems, their modules and the accompanying logistical support. This includes developing and modernising vehicles and integrating subsystems, modules and components, maintenance and spare parts support. With our know-how of many years and the flexibility available, we develop bespoke solutions for the optimal fulfilment of customer requirements.

Diehl Defence Land Systems GmbH covers this range and traditionally stands for reliability and responsibility with its quality assurance, extensive certifications and, not least, with the family name Diehl. Mobility The company’s know-how extends to all main components on the Running Gears, such as the Tracks, Road-Wheels, Idler-Wheels, Sprockets, etc. Diehl Tracks are used in vehicles on all continents and are characterised by an excellent terrain response, with all the components in the entire system being

62  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  Diehl Tracks are used in vehicles on all continents and are characterised by an excellent terrain response, with all the components in the entire system being adjusted ideally to the respective areas of deployment

adjusted ideally to the respective areas of deployment. Diehl Defence Land Systems GmbH, with international branches and co-productions, develops and produces more than 100 different Tracks for all types of vehicles (Track OEM for tanks such as the Leopard 1 & 2, armoured personnel carriers like the Marder, PUMA, Pizarro, ASCOD, artillery systems such as the M109, PzH2000, transport tanks like the M113 family, and other tracked vehicles of all types). All tracked vehicles of the Bundeswehr, and almost all leading vehicle manufacturers around the world, are fitted with Diehl Tracks

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Embraer

E

mbraer S.A. is the world’s largest manufacturer of commercial jets up to 120 seats, and one of Brazil’s leading exporters. Founded in 1969, the Company designs, produces and sells aircraft and systems for the commercial, executive, defense and security markets. It has produced more than 5,000 aircraft, currently operating in more than 80 countries, during its 42 years of existence. Headquartered in São José dos Campos, Embraer has offices, subsidiaries and customer service bases in China, France, Portugal, Singapore, and the United States. Embraer Defense and Security In December 2010, Embraer announced the creation of Embraer Defense & Security, an important step in consolidating the Company’s central role in the process of strengthening Brazil’s defense and security industry. Embraer Defense & Security has a strong presence

in the defense and security markets where it is involved. It plays a strategic role in Brazil’s defense system and has supplied over 70% of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) fleet. With more than 40 years of experience, Embraer Defense & Security is present in 48 countries with its aircraft and solutions being operated by more than 30 Armed Forces worldwide. The Company provides integrated solutions and services for defense systems that include mili-

64  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  Embraer has already delivered the first aircraft which has recently arrived in Bangalore to start the systems installations

tary aircraft, state-of-the-art radar technologies, unmanned aerial systems as well as advanced command, control, communication and intelligence systems such as C4ISR applications. In order to reinforce its position in the defense and security market, Embraer Defense & Security has purchased a 90% stake in the radar division of OrbiSat da Amazônia S.A . and also has a strategic partnership with Atech – Negócios em Tecnologias

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Protecting the waters and coastlines of India – a look at Eurocopter’s light naval multi-role helicopter, the AS565 MB Panther

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

eurocopter

TECHNOLOGY

photo: Marine Nationale

H-65 version flown by the U.S. Coast Guard, used to perform duties that range from lifesaving missions after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 to headline-making rescues from sea level to high-altitude mountainous terrain. Other countries such as France, Spain, China, Saudi Arabia, Korea and Malaysia also deploy these helicopters in naval and coast guard services. A modernized version, the AS565 MBe, was introduced in 2011 to offer even better performance levels particularly in hot and high conditions, at a lower cost and with increased safety. Today, off-the-shelf MB versions can be retrofitted in MBe versions.  n

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  67

INDIAN DEFENCE

  The AS565 MB Panther is an ideal complementary asset for antisubmarine warfare and antisurface unit warfare

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

armed with light anti-ship missile giving it a ship strike capability. For ship borne operations, the AS565 Panther main rotor blades can be folded backwards to reduce the helicopter’s length, and vertical tail fin can be folded to reduce the helicopter’s height in order to facilitate hangar entry. The Panther is also equipped with a deck securing device (harpoon) permitting it to be secured on IN, ICG and NATO ships via a NATO standard deck grid during launching and landing maneuvers. A benchmark example of the Panther/Dauphin helicopter family’s mission capabilities is the fleet of 102

REGIONAL BALANCE

urocopter’s AS565 MB Panther provides a highly capable solution for planned helicopter acquisitions by the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, offering a force multiplier with an excellent record that benefits from a heritage of mission-proven rotorcraft in service with military forces worldwide. The all-weather, multi-role light helicopter can be operated from ship decks, offshore platforms and land bases, with demonstrated capabilities to cover the full range of Indian Navy and Coast Guard mission requirements – including maritime surveillance, search & rescue, offshore patrolling and counterterrorism, casualty evacuation and vertical replenishment. The AS565 MB Panther also is an ideal complementary asset for such anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and anti-surface unit warfare (ASuW) tasks as submarine and surface target destruction: It can launch its own torpedoes and provide over-the-horizon targeting (OTHT) to surface ships. In the coming years, it will also be

BUSINESS

E


FFV Ordnance

F

FV Ordnance, part of the global defence and security company Saab, is for decades one of the world's leading suppliers of manportable support weapons. To reach and maintain this commanding position requires continuous and result-oriented engineering and product development. Being at the cutting edge of technology, both technically and in time that can be translated into appropriate products when the situation changes and military tactical requirements arise, provides the perfect approach. FFV Ordnance has for many years been at the forefront of development of technology in the fields of internal and external ballistics, ignition systems, and terminal warhead effects. This is and has been FFV Ordnance’s model for success. New times, new requirements Changing times result in new requirements. In the field of weapons and ammunition, and espe-

cially for man-portable weapon systems, users demand improved and different effects, increased product safety, as well as weapons that are lighter and easier to carry. In recent years, requirements to minimise the environmental impact of manufacturing the weapon systems have been highlighted. FFV Ordnance is continuously working on fulfilling these new requirements. The war on terrorism has partly moved into built-up areas, which require weapon systems that are light and easy to carry and have a good effect on various types of targets not just on armoured vehicles. But combat is also conducted outside built-up areas and in terrain inaccessible to vehicles, so the requirement for weapons with long combat ranges and various types of warheads remains or is even increased. Combat in built-up areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 30 years of experience with man-por-

68  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  FFV Ordnance now has several decades of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in conventional and urban warfare

table weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. LAW AT4CS HEAT is a further development of the LAW AT4 HEAT, or the M136 as it is known in the United States. LAW AT4CS HEAT has a warhead with increased behind armour effect that is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles. The enemy not only operates from armoured vehicles, but also takes cover in and operates from buildings. Therefore a light, manportable weapon with good effect behind walls is needed, in order to combat enemy forces in buildings or simply to create a new entrance into a house. The AT4 product family AT4CS AST, where AST stands for Anti-Structure Tandem, is a new weapon in the AT4 series. The weapon, like the rest of the AT4CS series, has a liquid countermass and can be fired from rooms smaller than 25 m3. The weapon has a tandem war-

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Hawker Beechcraft

T

his article addresses two Hawker Beechcraft products of particular importance in India and the Southern Asia region: the King Air 350ER and the AT-6 King Air 350ER When Hawker Beechcraft developed the King Air 350ER, it viewed the potential market size as something slightly larger than the fleet of approximately 45 aging King Air B200Ts. It has proven to be far more successful, with over 100 King Air 350ERs built since it was FAA certified in October 2007. The most notable changes were to increase the fuel capacity from 2,040 liters to 2,990 liters, and increase the takeoff weight from 6,804 kg to 7,484 kg. Those changes yielded outstanding range and payload flexibility that is particularly attractive to military and special mission operators. The Beechcraft King Air 350ER useful load is 2,819 kg. with the standard King Air VIP interior. That

gives the aircraft range of over 4,630 km thereby providing the potential to go anywhere in the inhabited world, in a very comfortable cabin - without the need to add internal fuel tanks. However, most 350ERs are used for some “special mission” activity – and are usually produced in a “slick” interior – with flight crew chairs, completed interior sidewalls, with floor carpet and the lavatory installed at the back of the airplane, but no cabin seats or furniture,. This configuration provides maximum use of the aircraft cabin for fitting with mission equipment and opera-

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  King Air 350ER has very long range for deployment to the mission area, very long endurance for surveillance missions, has state-of-the-art glass cockpit avionics as standard equipment, enough useful load to support a wide variety of mission sensors and operators and is inexpensive to operate with very fuel efficient and low maintenance commercial turboprop engines.

tors. In this “slick” configuration the useful load is 3,239 kg. Starting with that Useful Load, we add crew, mission modifications and equipment, and up to 2,355 kg. of fuel – allowing the aircraft to stay airborne over 12 hours and land with 45 minutes of fuel. For all of these reasons, the U.S. military selected the King Air 350ER as its manned Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) platform of choice for quick reaction programs. This aircraft is in production and available now, has very long range for deployment to the

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Hindustan Aeronautics

SP's Military Yearbook (SP's): Can you briefly describe the size and the span of activities of the premier Indian aerospace major Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)? R.K. Tyagi (Chairman): HAL is a premier aeronautical/aerospace company in Asia with 19 production divisions and ten research and development (R&D) centres in India. HAL’s expertise encompasses design, production, repair, overhaul and upgrade of aircraft, helicopters, aero-engines, accessories, avionics and systems. The company’s sales turnover has crossed `14,000 crore for the year 2011-12. HAL today provides one stop solution for all the design needs of aircraft and helicopters in airframes, airframe systems, avionics, mission and combat systems using advanced design tools. All manufacturing divisions of HAL are equipped with modern infrastructure for production of aircraft and also helicopters. The company has over 32,000 employees of whom 50 per cent have over a decade of aircraft industry experience. HAL has diversified into

manufacture and repair/overhaul of industrial and marine gas turbine engines. It also manufactures structures for aerospace vehicles. SP’s: How do you see the roadmap ahead for HAL? Chairman: HAL has been registering steady growth in term of financial parameters over the last ten years. The sales have grown from `8,625 crore in 2007-08 to `14,204 crore in 2011-12. The trend is expected to continue during Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth five year plans with new programmes such as fifth-

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 R.K. Tyagi took

over as the Chairman of HAL in March 2012

generation fighter aircraft (FGFA), multi-role transport aircraft (MTA), HTT-40, light combat aircraft (LCH), light utility helicopter (LUH), Indian multi-role helicopter (IMRH), etc. The company has drawn a long-term perspective plan to realise its cision “to become a significant global player in the aerospace industry” by covering the period from 20102022 (i.e. up to Thirteenth Plan). This document outlines the roadmap for HAL’s march towards the vision, through analysis of current position, defining strategies to be adopted to overcome challenges and to sustain growth. Detailed plans for technology induction, modernisation, manpower, collaborations, etc are being prepared in line with the overall strategy brought out in the perspective plan. SP’s: Is HAL exploring business opportunities in the global market? Chairman: HAL is exploring business options including joint ventures, with different original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in niche/critical technology areas

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IRKut Progress of the Su-30MKI Program

Photo: Piotr Butowski

P

rogram of development and manufacture of the Su-30MKI multirole fighter for the Indian Air Force, in which Irkut Corporation acted as the prime contractor, occupies special position in military-technical cooperation between Russia and India. It made a path for joint efforts of two countries in the field of design, development and production of defense equipment. According to experts’ opinion, Su-30MKI combat aircraft is one of the best up-to-date multirole fighters in the world. Fighters of this type formed the basis of combat aviation on India, Malaysia and Algeria. Irkut Corporation concluded firm contracts for delivery of about 330 aircraft of Su-30 family to foreign customers and Ministry of Defense of Russia. More than 230 of them have been enlisted. In the beginning of 2012 Ministry of Defense of Russia ordered a large batch of Su-30SM fighters. New contracts are under negotiation. In Particular, Indian government

approved purchase of another large batch of Su-30MKI aircraft, program of modernization of existing fleet of combat aircraft is being discussed. It is worth mentioning that equal participation of the Indian side in implementing Su-30 program from the very beginning became a distinctive feature of the project. While mastering in licensed production, state corporation HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited) gained expertise and up-to-date technologies. Su-30MKI aircraft in service with the Indian Air Force First Su-30MKI fighters entered service of the Indian Air Force in September of 2002. Since that time the aircraft have become an object of national glory for Indian servicemen and ordinary people. Many structures in India rightfully admit this combat aircraft as

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  Su-30MKI at Aero India 2011 Airshow

their own: Indian Ministry of Defense, Indian Air Force, HAL corporation which produce them under license, DRDO experts, who participated in the development of single elements of onboard systems and in their integration, as well as employees of Bharat Electronics LTD, Midhani companies involved in license production of aircraft’s components. Flying capacities of the Su-30MKI aircraft demonstrated by the Indian pilots during air shows used to make an invariable impression not only on ordinary Indians but of professional pilots as well. The ultimate proof of the aircraft flight performance and combat capabilities came from a number of trainings of the IAF including those conducted in cooperation with units of Air Force of other countries. In particular, during Indo-US

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Israel Aerospace Industries

I

AI is a globally recognized leader in development and production of commercial and military aerospace and defense systems. IAI is the largest aerospace & Defense Company and the largest industrial exporter in Israel. IAI provides world leading unique system-of-systems solutions for a broad spectrum of needs in space, air, land, sea and homeland defense. With 60 years of experience creating and supplying advanced systems for the Israel Ministry of Defense and for many demanding customers worldwide, IAI exports about 80% of its product to over 50 countries and has over 30 subsidiaries worldwide.

Repair and Maintenance of Aircraft and Aerospace Equipment, Electronic Systems, Avionics Suites, Advanced Radars, Tactical Weaponry & Law Enforcement Systems, Training and Simulation Systems, Network and Situation Awareness Systems. Dov Baharav Chairman of the Board

Established 1953

Joseph Weiss President & CEO

Line of business Defense and Commercial Products & Services: Development, Manufacture, Overhaul, Upgrading,

Financial Figures n IAI’s 2011 sales totaled $3.44 billion, 78% of these sales are for export.

76  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  IAI is a world leader in totally integrated UAS solutions, with more than 1,000,000 operational hours of intelligence and targeting missions

n IAI’s backlog as of December 2011 reached $8.7 billion. n IAI’s 2011 net profit totaled $83 million. Core Areas of Activity Space: From its own launchers and satellites to ground services, IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and manufactures satellites for various purposes such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq, Eros, Opsat), Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the Amos series (GEO).

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Lockheed MARTIN India’s Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules Airlifter

T

he Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules is the most advanced airlifter ever built. The C-130J combines the latest in aerospace technology with a proven, rugged airframe design, resulting in an aircraft that gives an operator more capability with greater operational efficiency. This is India’s first experience with C-130s so the package provided

  C-130J Super by the U.S. government is a complete solution. The package includes the six aircraft, which have now all been delivered, three years of initial support, training of aircrew and maintenance technicians, spares, ground support and test equipment, servicing carts, forklifts, loading vehicles, cargo pallets, and a team of technical specialists who will be based in India during the three year

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hecules provides the indian air force with modern and effective airlift to support a wide range of national requirements

initial support period. Also included in the package is India-unique operational equipment designed to increase Special Operations capabilities. In addition, the C-130J Super Hercules provides the Indian Air Force with modern and effective airlift to support a wide range of national requirements. In keeping with Indian Air Force (IAF) requirements, the U.S.

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MBDA

M

BDA is unique in the guided missile sector in its ability to meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains: air, land and sea. This offers benefits to customers keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. MBDA weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Dual Mode Brimstone and the long range SCALP / Storm Shadow are capable of ensuring air dominance long into the future. The IAF’s Mirage 2000 fleet is being upgraded and will feature MBDA’s MICA missile with its IR and RF seeker variants to deal with short to beyond visual range air combat. India’s Jaguar bombers also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA’s ASRAAM missiles.

The threat of air attack is increasing. Low cost cruise missiles, manned and un-manned aircraft and the appearance of new ranges of ballistic missiles, are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company leads with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral, MICA and Aster missiles. MBDA’s Aster recently achieved Europe’s first successful ballistic missile target intercept, further proof of the Company’s unmatched skills. Mistral, with its unmatched success rate during all firings of over 96%, has been selected by forces around the world. Coastal and blue water operations require an effective anti-ship capability. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy’s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly, other versions of the world-famous Exocet

80  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  MBDA's fireand-forget mistral manpads vshorad system

family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). MBDA’s links with Indian industry go back some 40 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under licence for the Indian Army. Working with HAL, integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter is well advanced and MBDA is also proposing its PARS 3 LR system for the same helicopter’s land attack mission. As well as working with the DRDO, MBDA is actively constructing ties at all levels within the country. The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA’s strategy. As it moves beyond its tenth year of European integration, MBDA looks towards a future featuring ever deeper relations with its Indian partners.  n

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  Equipped with a wide FOV and an easily engaged 2x or 4x digital zoom, the The Ti for Assault Rifle guarantees highquality observation and precision target engagement.

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  81

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS NOA uncooled thermal sights Meprolight developed a family of uncooled thermal weapon sights: X7, Ti for Assault Rifle (Noa Nyx) and dual field magnification. The Noa thermal sight contains an advanced

electronic level indicator, a critical component in balancing the sight for effective long-range shooting. The innovative sight withstands heavy weapon recoil and enables bidirectional communications with military devices such as range finders and wireless recording systems. The Ti for Assault Rifle (Noa Nyx) is a lightweight sight with an overall weight of less than 1kg. Equipped with a wide FOV and an easily engaged 2x or 4x digital zoom, the The Ti for Assault Rifle guarantees high-quality observation and precision target engagement. The innovative dual field magnification includes wide and narrow fields of view (FOV) in the same sight. It enables the sniper maximum flexibility during missions, scanning the area with a wide FOV and engaging the target with narrow FOV.

The NOA unique sight has been mounted, and successfully operated, onto a wide range of sniper rifles including the Dragunov and MMG. The thermal sight is designed for snipers who operate under harsh environmental conditions and need to detect and accurately engage targets at long ranges reaching more than 1,000 meters in variable weather conditions and very limited light availability or total darkness. NOA’s state-of-the-art sights are equipped with a cutting-edge Fire Control System (FCS), featuring automatic ballistic compensation based on range and type of weapon and ammunition, among others. Additional features include Laser Range Finder interface for automatic target range acquisition, and the ability to upload and download data. NOA sights enable wired or wireless transmission of streaming video and real-time video recording, as well as integrated capturing and storage of still images. The NOA sights excel in low energy consumption, allowing up to 10 hours of continuous operation.  n

BUSINESS

eprolight (www.meprolight. com) designs and manufactures a wide array of electro-optical and optical sights and devices, night vision devices, uncooled thermal sights and a wide variety of night sights and other tritium- and LEDilluminated products and accessories for safety and security applications for the military, law enforcement, and civilian communities. All of our products are combat proven and in daily operational use by the Israeli defense forces. Meprolight provides comprehensive end-to-end sharpshooting and sniping solutions for snipers, infantry, and SWAT teams. The solutions include advanced weapon sights and accessories for day and night shooting, designed for quick and instinctive accurate shooting, even after physical stress and under pressure.

INDIAN DEFENCE

M

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One Stop Shop for Sophisticated Weapon Sights

REGIONAL BALANCE

Meprolight


Navantia

T

he Spanish shipbuilder Navantia, 100% owned by SEPI the Spanish Government Industrial Holding, is a world reference in the design, construction and integration of state-of-the-art war ships, including new generation submarines, as well as ship repairs & modernizations. It is also engaged in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems, Fire Control Systems, Command and Control sys-

tems, Propulsion Plants and through life support for all its products. Even though its main line of activity is in the naval field, Navantia designs and manufactures systems for the Army and the Air Force. Most of the most modern ships in service have been designed, built and integrated by Navantia, not only for the Spanish Navy, but also for the navies of Norway, Australia and Venezuela. Furthermore, commercial

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  Navantia LHD now appears as the more realistic solution for other navies as Turkey and India.

actions are being held in more than 25 countries. LHD: A SHIP FOR THE FUTURE The Spanish LHD is currently in service for the Spanish Navy, showing an excellent performance. 2 units were also contracted by the Royal Australian Navy, and the Navantia LHD now appears as the more realistic solution for other navies as Turkey and India.

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NEXTER SYSTEMS Setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems

D

uring EuroSatory 2010, Nexter Systems and Larsen & Toubro signed a Consortium Agreement in the field of artillery systems, ensuring that both companies will join forces to support the major effort of artillery mod-

ernization initiated by the Indian MoD. This agreement targets in particular the MGS (Mounted Gun System) RFP that should be issued in the second half of 2011 for which NEXTER will propose its CAESAR® System.

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  CAESAR® is currently deployed in Afghanistan and Lebanon with the French Army

During July 2011, the two companies signed an other Consortium Agreement and announced the formation of Nexter Systems led consortium for 155 mm Towed Gun System (TGS) program for Indian Army. Under the proposal, Nexter

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Northrop Grumman Northrop Grumman’s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye –Well-Positioned to Support India’s Present and Evolving Defence Requirements with WorldClass AEW&C Capabilities

B

uilt on a legacy of providing uncompromising airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) capability, Northrop Grumman’s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye was designed to provide the enhanced capabilities required to meet emerging threats and improved mission effectiveness from both shore bases as well as from the decks of today’s modern aircraft carriers. The E-2D’s upgraded systems and capabilities advance the mission and provide a seamless stream of information between the key assets of the fleet. Features include completely redesigned aircraft systems, the state-of-the-art AN/APY-9 radar and a new glass cockpit. All E-2D’s are newly manufactured aircraft based on a proven airframe on a proven platform, which is capable of both long-range shore operations, and carrier-based operations. Evolving the mission sensors with new technologies and capabilities affordably

brought a new, state-of-the-art system without having the challenge of designing a new platform. The APY-9 radar, exclusive to the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, provides a transformational leap in radar technology, allowing the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye to “see” greater numbers of smaller targets at a greater range than currently

86  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  Northrop Grumman’s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye is designed to provide the enhanced capabilities required to meet emerging threats and improved mission effectiveness from both shore bases as well as from the decks of today’s modern aircraft carriers

fielded radar systems. The APY-9 was specifically designed for Cruise Missile Defense and integration into the US Navy’s Naval Integrated Fire Control – Counter Air architecture. This state-of-the-art radar provides the most technologically advanced command and control capability in the world, with the ability to collect data and supply information to

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Oto melara

P

roviding fire support to cooperating troops fighting on shore is a crucial requirement for modern naval operations. This capability is becoming more and more demanding due to a specific requirement which is focused upon delivering accurate bombardment well inland through a naval gun, striking different kinds of targets while keeping the ship at a safe distance from the littoral threat. In particular, the Indian Ocean, with an area of 68,5 million sq km, has several important straits, gulfs, bays and sens, most of them being in the northern part. Major shipping lines criss-cross its vast expanse, with strategic water ways and choke points linking the Indian Ocean to other important water bodies on the globe. For this reason there is a strong need for maintaining stability, security and safety at sea. Oto Melara offers a very technological solution for this challeng-

ing scenario which has the advantage to combine a general purpose 127 mm (5”) naval gun, with a family of long range ammunitions, named Vulcano. Oto Melara started the production of the new 127/64 LW for the German Bundesmarine (the scope of supply is for 5 guns: one for instruction and training purpose, four for the new F-125 Frigates). Meanwhile, the 127/64 LW has been installed on board the “Carlo Bergamini” the first Italian FREMM Frigate. The gun mount was specially designed to fire the new Vulcano family of ammunition which is capable to reach a range beyond 100 km with unrivalled accuracy due to its guidance capability. The 127/64 LW can perfectly perform at top level of performance in Naval Gun Support as well as in Anti Surface Warfare (ASuW) and in

88  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  127/54LW-38 for the defence systems produced by Oto Melara are the ideal solution to maintaining stability, security and safety at sea

Anti-Air Warfare (AAW). This sort of multirole excellence is made possible by an outstanding 32 rounds per minute rate of fire achievable with both standard and Vulcano ammunition. A new multipurpose fuse rejecting sea clutters grants adequate effectiveness also in the engagement of small crafts, as required in Asymmetric Warfare. The compactness of the gun feeding system and the low weight make possible to install this gun also where the cross section of the hull is very narrow and the ship has a medium size displacement (e.g. corvettes displacing about 2000 tons). A stealth shield is fitted to reduce the radar signature to a minimum value while structural compactness minimizes installation costs.  n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Pipavav

ipavav Defence And Offshore Engineering Company is a testimony to the vision and active participation of the private sector in India’s quest to become a major player in the global maritime defence industry, with a special focus on the defence and offshore sectors. Pipavav is also touted as

the country’s first integrated defence company, as it looks to expand its horizon to encompass the various areas in the defence sector. The significance of this achievement is now beginning to be comprehended as it is now imperative that the private sector becomes actively involved in the development of

manufacturing in the Indian Defence industry, which is lagging both in technology and capacity, a point that a few entrepreneurs have been able to identify and focus on. For this, they need to first establish the requisite infrastructure and technology. A decade ahead of its time, the Shipyard is spread over 782 acres of

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  Golden Suek - First Ship of 75000 Dwt for Export

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

An Infrastructural Leviathan


CONTENTS

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  |  91

TECHNOLOGY

readiness and product support requirements. Pratt & Whitney’s Fleet Management Programs and Aftermarket Services organizations collaborate to provide a comprehensive range of products and services, including scheduled and unscheduled maintenance functions. We structure our fleet-readiness services and programs so any services required are delivered through a single point of contact that has ultimate responsibility for customer satisfaction. As nations such as India look to the future needs of their aircraft fleets, Pratt & Whitney will remain a partner in technology innovation and foresight that pushes the industry forward. Our military engines continue a legacy of providing unmatched safety, dependability, reliability and maturity to warfighters around the world. As forces continue to support peacekeeping and military missions, Pratt & Whitney will remain devoted to delivering world-class propulsion systems to help power our customers into the future.  n

BUSINESS

Globemaster III, powered exclusively by four Pratt & Whitney engines, transports armed forces personnel, equipment and humanitarian aid around the globe; (right) Pratt & Whitney’s F135 CTOL engine powered the first ever F-35A night flight earlier this year

INDIAN DEFENCE

  (left) The C-17

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Photo: Lockheed Martin

new project with India continues our 20 years of service in military and humanitarian missions worldwide with Pratt & Whitney’s F117 engines. As we continue to evolve to meet the needs of today’s warfighters, we are proud to be the only manufacturer of fifth-generation engines powering the only two fifth-generation fighters in the world – the F-22 Raptor and the F-35 Lightning II. Pratt & Whitney’s F135, the world’s most powerful fighter engine, has successfully passed numerous milestones in its more than 10 years of development and testing, including surpassing 23,000 hours of testing and the recent, successful STOVL sea trials aboard the United States Navy’s USS Wasp. The F135 powering Lockheed Martin’s F-35 Lightning II has completed more than 2,300 flight tests, 3,700 flight hours and nearly 350 vertical landings. Our military products and customers worldwide benefit from a proven and comprehensive range of services to meet all maintenance,

REGIONAL BALANCE

uring the past 87 years, military technology and capabilities have changed drastically, but one thing has stayed the same – Pratt & Whitney’s steadfast commitment to delivering an ever-expanding arsenal of propulsion systems to military customers. Since 1925, Pratt & Whitney Military Engines has provided top-of-the-line engines to 29 armed forces around the world. Pratt & Whitney’s F117 engines provide exclusive power for the C-17 Globemaster III, the world’s premier heavy airlifter. The C-17 Globemaster III enables forces around the globe to meet their coalition and humanitarian missions with dependability. Pratt & Whitney’s F117 engine continues to prove its durability, recently exceeding 9 million engine flight hours. Recently, Pratt & Whitney expanded our relationship with India when their military requested 10 new C-17 Globemasters. Our F117 engines will be delivered for this exciting new project later this year in time for the expected completion of the first new aircraft by 2013. This

Photo: U.S. Air Force

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dependable Engines: Military Needs Evolve, Pratt & Whitney Remains Steadfast

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

PRATT & WHITNEY


RAFAEL The Perfect Partner for India’s Defense Needs

  Iron Dome – Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd, designs, develops, manufactures and supplies a wide range of high-tech defense systems for air, land, sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer’s specific needs, Rafael provides stateof-the-art, yet cost-effective sys-

tems and weapons in the fields of Missiles, air defense, naval systems, target acquisition, EW, C4ISR, communication networks, data links, electro-optic payloads, add-on armor, combat vehicle upgrading, mine field breaching, border and coastal protection systems, breaching munitions and much more.

92  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

Defense against Short range artillery rockets

Rafael – The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel’s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently, 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael’s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship

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Rosoboronexport KA-226T vs Fennec: Russia Expecting Victory

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he results of the tender to supply the Indian Air Force and Army with 197 reconnaissance and surveillance helicopters are expected to be announced soon. Rosoboronexport is hoping that the Ka-226T multi-purpose helicopter will win. Its rival is Eurocopter AS550 C3 Fennec helicopter. A distinct advantage of the Russian bid is its “cumulative” effect: the superior Ka-226T chopper is offered together with an attractive offset program. First, under the offset program, Rosoboronexport proposes to establish joint production of subsystems and components for the Ka-226T, followed by the assembly of these machines in India. Second, the joint development of new Ka-226T versions is offered. And, third, this program will enable the two countries – strategic partners – to go to full-scale industrial cooperation on helicopters. Russia’s vast experience in this area and the successful implementation of joint programs in the air-

craft field (licensed production of the MiG-21, MiG-27, Su-30MKI fighters in India,) are a good base for realizing the most ambitious goals. The Ka-226T helicopter stands out among its competitors on the world arms market owing to its superior performance and is optimal for surveillance, transportation, and search-and-rescue operations in hard-to-reach areas, especially in mountainous terrain. Thanks to its coaxial rotor system, the Ka-226T has a large reserve thrust and a high climb rate, which increases its hover ceiling. The aerodynamic symmetry and lack of cross-coupling in the control chan-

94  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  Rosoboronexport is hoping that the Ka-226T multipurpose helicopter will win

nels simplify piloting the helicopter, which is very important when flying at low altitudes. Such a machine is more maneuverable over the entire range of flight speeds. The excellent flight performance and a high level of survivability of the Ka-226T are also provided by two modern Turbomeca Arrius 2G1 engines. By the way, the Ka-226T showed itself excellently during the evaluation trials conducted within the tender earlier in India. These tests clearly demonstrated that the Ka-226T had embodied the best Kamov design school achievements: easy piloting technique, low vibration, high reliability, flight safety and low maintenance.  n

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS owadays the Indian Navy is the major submarine power in the region. Its backbone is ten conventional submarines constructed by Russian shipyards to the designs developed by Russian Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering

  Diesel electric "Rubin" (CDB ME "Rubin"). They are supplemented with four Type 209 submarines (IKL-1500) constructed to a German design and diesel electric Scorpene Class submarines designed in France being constructed by Indian Shipyards. The most

submarine of pr.877ekm

recent acquisition of the Indian Navy is state-of-the-art SSN "Chakra". This diversity in the Indian submarine fleet supports the policy pursued by the country's leadership in order to diversify military equipment and technology pro-

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Conventional Submarines for Dynamically Developing Indian Navy

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Rubin


Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG Steady Progress

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ussian Aircraft Corporation MiG (RAC MiG) is a steadily operating Company which increases manufacture of up-to-date aircraft and has strong potential for progress. RAC MiG incorporates all units required for the production of aircraft. Mikoyan Design Bureau Engineering Center has proved its reputation as one of the leading companies in Russia. Production facilities of the Corporation in Moscow, Lukhovitsy and Kalyazin are being modernized and increase serial production of MiG aircraft. JSC RAC MiG comprises of the Flight Test Center named after A.V. Fedotov. JSC RAC MiG is a part of JSC United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) and increases cooperation with many enterprises of UAC. In 2011 MiG Corporation delivered 12 combat aircraft to the customers. There are plans to manufacture 24 aircraft this year. There is a growing demand for MiG aircraft. In these regards, General Director

of MiG Corporation Sergey Korotkov declares plans to manufacture 36 aircraft annually.The order book of JSC RAC MiG exceeds 6 billion U.S. dollars. It is well balanced as includes both internal and export contracts. India – a priority customer According to Sergey Korotkov, cooperation with India – for most priority foreign customer for RAC MiG – has been successfully developing in many directions. In 2011 JSC RAC MiG completed the contract dated 2004 on the delivery of 16 MiG-29K/KUB aircraft

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  Sergey Korotkov, MIG RAC Director general performed a flight onboard two-seat MiG-29KUB from aircraft carrier Vikramaditya

to the Indian Navy. Besides in the middle of last year production of another 29 MiG-29K/KUB fighters has been started according to the second contract with the Indian Ministry of Defense signed 2010. In the summer of 2012 a significant set of tests of MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB aircraft was completed onboard the aircraft carrier Vikramaditya which was radically upgraded in line with contract with Indian Navy. The tests were aimed at checking new aircraft-technical means of flight support: aircraft arresting units, optical landing system, com-

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Saab Technology with Foresight

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aab is a global defence and security company, founded in Sweden in 1937. Today it is establishing itself as a long-term defence player in the Indian market. Its contribution to Indo-Swedish partnership goes back to 1970s when India acquired the Carl Gustaf Anti Tank defence system from Saab. Carl Gustaf has proved itself to be a highly modern and capable ground support weapon offering devastating behind-

armour effects and airburst capability. It is man-portable and ruggedized and its multi-purpose capability provides freedom of action for the commander in all environments. Ever since, Saab has been a reliable partner in India’s defence. Saab is currently pursuing many individual opportunities in the requirements of the Indian defence forces. All of Saab’s Business Areas are active in India offering high-tech solutions

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  The all-new RBS 70 NG is a versatile battlefield game changer that utilises state-of-the-art components and technology to provide a highly integrated, modular air defence system

and products such as the C4I, EW (Self Protection Systems), Signature Management, Missile & Weapon Systems, Fighters, Sensors (Radars), Maritime Security and Civil Security, LPI Radars and Sea Giraffe. Some of the products on offer to India today under various programs are: n RBS70 NG: The all-new RBS 70 NG is a versatile battlefield game changer that utilises state-of-the-

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SAGEM

S

agem, a high-tech company in the Safran group, is one of the world’s leading suppliers of optronics, avionics and navigation systems, electronics and safety-critical software. Operating in both civil and military markets, Sagem has 7,500 employees and annual sales of 1.26 billion (2011). Safran is a leading international high-tech group and a Tier-1 supplier of systems and equipment for aerospace (propulsion and equipment), defense and security. Safran has over 54,000 employees and operations in more than 50 countries. Sagem is organized in three divisions. Avionics Division. Sagem is one of only two companies in the world to apply all key inertial navigation technologies – mechanical, vibrating, resonant, optical-fiber and laser gyros – for air, land and sea applications. No. 1 in Europe and No. 3 worldwide in this market. The Sigma family of laser gyro navigation systems is used by leading aircraft, (Rafale, Su-30 MKI, MiG29, A400M, NH90, EC725), ships

Photo copyright : Philippe Wodka-Gallien – Sagem (Safran group)

(Fremm, Horizon, Barracuda and Scorpene submarines), and artillery systems (Caesar, Mars, Archer etc). This division develops and produces AASM Hammer, an air-to-ground all weather precision stand-off missile. Optronics & Defense Division. This division offers a wide range of optronic systems for air, naval and ground forces. These systems handle surveillance, warning, identification and engagement. Sagem is prime contractor for the French FELIN infantry program, and a key partner of several infantry programs, (FIST in the United Kingdom, IMESS in Switzerland). For infantry C4ISR, 5000 JIM LR infrared multifunction binoculars are in order or in service in several armies. Sagem has a comprehensive range of naval optronic products, from surveillance to fire control: Vampir NG, EOMS NG, and Vigy Observer. Sagem proposes

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  Sagem aasm hammer is seen here on solenzara air base (corsica – france) in may 2011, just before to be fixed on French Air Force Rafale for precision strike missions over Libya within Unified Protector operation of NATO.

Patroller™, a medium-altitude longendurance UAV. Leader in optronics mast for submarines, Sagem supplies the masts of the Indian Scorpene program, and others in the world: Brasil & Chili SSK, and France’s Triomphant strategic subs and the futur Barracuda. Safran Electronics Division. The Safran Electronics division comprises 1,500 specialists in electronics and safety critical software, used in air, land and sea platforms. Working for Safran, this division develops and produces computers, printed circuit boards andassociated software. They are used for a number of Safran products, including landing and braking systems, engine control systems, avionics, navigation and optronics systems, etc. In addition, Sagem provides maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services for these products.  n

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  AS9100C certified quality processes

  DGAQA approved manufacturing facility

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Samtel Avionics & Defence Systems – along with its joint ventures with HAL and Thales is now on an accelerated growth path to newer domains in modern avionics systems and applications for military and commercial platforms. The Samtel-HAL JV already enjoys the unique distinction of being the first public-private partnership in defence avionics space in India to indigenously design, qualify and serial produce multifunction displays which are currently flying on Su-30 MKI. On the other hand, the Samtel-Thales JV is aimed at manufacturing indigenous Helmet-Mounted Sight and Display Systems, Infra Red Search and Track (IRST), and

modern Avionics Systems for the Indian and export defence markets. SA has also signed a long-term contract with Honeywell for avionics equipment meant for aircraft in the US. This product has received TSO or Technical Standard Order certification for commercial aircraft, which is an authorization of design and production approval. Samtel is an approved supplier of Honeywell worldwide, and their only source for production of this display. Samtel’s DGAQA approved manufacturing facility, and CEMILAC approved design house is located at Greater Noida in Delhi/NCR. With a dedicated focus on Quality, Samtel is operating with ISO 9001:2008 and SAE/AS 9100 Rev-C quality system standard at its production facilities. SA has been awarded with Frost & Sullivan Hot Investment Opportunity Award 2009, and Gold trophy of the EMPI- Indian Express Indian Innovation Awards 2010. Samtel is truly poised to become the ideal partner for all avionics system integrators around the world.  n

BUSINESS

amtel Avionics & Defence Systems (SA) is a key Indian player in high-technology products for avionics and military applications in both domestic and international markets. SA straddles the entire value chain from design, development, manufacture, testing, qualification, repair & maintenance and obsolescence management of avionics products and equipment for military as well as commercial platforms. The company operates in the domains of Displays, Built-to-Print for Avionics LRUs and Opto-electronics. Its products and services include Multi-Functional Displays (MFDs), Smart Multi-Functional Displays (SMFDs), Full Colour Displays (FCD) for commercial aircraft, Head Up Displays (HUDs), Helmet Mounted Sight Displays (HMSDs), Automated Test Equipment (ATEs), Multifunction Indicators: 3ATI & 4ATI, Infra Red Search and Track (IRST), Rugged military displays for Land, Naval and Airborne platforms, Built-to-print (BTP) manufacturing, MRO services, and Obsolescence Management.

INDIAN DEFENCE

S

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Aiming to become India’s First Complete Avionics Firm in Private Domain

REGIONAL BALANCE

Samtel Avionics & Defence Systems


SELEX Galileo

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ELEX Galileo forms part of the Finmeccanica Group of companies that specialises in the design, manufacture and life cycle support for a wide portfolio of products and technologies

  Drakomicro uas from Selex Galileo

that span aerospace, defence and security applications. “Our vision is to deliver to our Customers, total awareness and total protection, so helping them to see and keeping them safe.”

104  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

Core Capabilities SELEX Galileo is at the forefront of technologies considered by many customers as being critical to mission success and survivability. The Company applies these technolo-

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CONTENTS

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INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

ata Motors Limited is India’s largest automobile company, with revenues of USD 32 .5 Billion in 20011-12. It is also the worlds fourth largest truck and bus manufacturer. Tata Motors has been associated with the country’s defence forces since 1958 and has supplied over 1,00,000 vehicles to Indian

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

TATA MOTORS

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com www.spsaviation.net www.spslandforces.net www.spsnavalforces.net www.spsairbuz.net www.spsmai.com

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Web World of SP's

  Tata 12x12 Missile Launcher ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Since 1964

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Military and paramilitary forces so far. Tata Motors defence solutions cover the complete range of logistics, armoured and specialist vehicles. Tata Motors offer products and services that not only meet the needs of the domestic market, but are also positioned to meet most of the stringent requirements of armies across the world and exports its range of specialized defence vehicles to countries in the SAARC region, ASEAN and Africa. Tata Motors is now focusing on modernization and system upgrades of mobility platforms which includes Missiles Carriers, MPVs, MBTs and ICVs.  n


Telephonics

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elephonics is a broad based, advanced technology company specializing in cutting-edge radar technology and communication systems serving the Aerospace, Defense, and Commercial markets around the world. Whether it’s in the air, on the sea, or ground based, our advanced electronic systems are on board to ensure the safety and security of thousands of military and civilians worldwide. Radar Solutions Telephonics is among the world leaders in airborne multi-mode radar and Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems. Our radar offer long-range detection, tracking and identification of small targets in the most severe maritime environments with SAR and ISAR imaging, weather avoidance, and AIS. We deliver and support the broadest product line of high-performance, affordable radar solutions.

Our advanced products enable the mission success of rotary-wing, fixed-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, shipboard, aerostat, and ground-based systems in more than 25 countries around the world. Wired and Wireless Communication Solutions Telephonics is an industry leader in both the defense and civil markets for advanced communication systems.

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  Telephonics Mobile Surveillance Capability (MSC)

Our TruLink® voice intercom system enables safe and efficient hands-free, full-duplex operation. Telephonics’ fully digital, secure Communication Open Architecture system feature designs adaptable to special mission and IP communications. Our secure digital intercom suite is the communications backbone of some 45 platforms around the world. All of our systems are designed to meet stringent customer require-

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Textron Systems Briefs Technologies to Potential Customers, Teammates

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extron Systems Corporation, a business unit of Textron Inc., is accelerating its presence and activities in India. This includes the company’s contract to provide 512 Sensor Fuzed Weapons (SFW) to the Indian Air Force for integration onto the Jaguar aircraft, as contracted in 2010 as a foreign military sale. “Our SFW is unique in that it provides a powerful area attack capability, but does not leave behind harmful unexploded ordnance,” explains Senior Vice President, International Business and Government Kevin Cosgriff. “Paired with the Jaguar aircraft, it will create a formidable capability for the Indian Air Force.” In addition, the company is briefing multiple parts of the Indian government, including the armed forces and security agencies, on technologies aimed at current and future requirements. “We have offered our support and expertise to the Indian Navy as it explores hovercrafts,” says Cosgriff. “Our Landing Craft, Air Cushion ves-

sels are the gold standard, and have been in service successfully with the U.S. Navy for decades. They can land on about three-quarters of the world’s shorelines, accommodate extreme conditions ranging from Arctic cold to equatorial heat, and carry large loads for literally hundreds of miles at high speed. It is a proven and versatile asset.” Textron Systems also is working with the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Defence Research and Development Organisation and the National Intelligence Grid, discussing their counter-terrorism needs in areas such as geospatial visualization, data translation and management, and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) . “We offer a spectrum of multisource intelligence software and

110  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2013  |  41st Issue  | 

  Textron Systems will provide 512 sensor fuzed weapons to the indian air force

display solutions, as well as a family of battle-proven UAS command and control technologies to create a powerful security toolkit,” says Cosgriff. Textron Systems works closely with Textron India Private Limited, which was established in 2004 in a state-of-the-art facility in Bangalore’s Global Village. Its mission is to support Textron’s many well-known brands within the country through engineering expertise, sourcing and business development. The location includes electronics labs, with space for a vehicle and mechanical engineering workshop. It employs several hundred qualified engineers and professionals supporting engineering, aeronautical, industrial design, product and product management projects. “There are numerous opportunities for Textron Systems in India to provide our solutions, team with local industry, source components from local industry and more,” noted Cosgriff. “We look forward to further strengthening our relationships and increasing our activities throughout India.”  n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Technology leader in Defence & Security and Aerospace & Transport

aim is to make the Joint Venture Company a centre of excellence with the ability to offer solutions specifically aimed at meeting the needs of both Indian and overseas customers. Thales will hold 26% equity – the maximum allowed by any foreign company in the defence sector – while BEL will hold the remaining 74% equity.

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Thales activities in India Thales India’s long term objective in line with the group’s international policy and the Government

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

  Crotale Radar

REGIONAL BALANCE

A Growing Industrial Footprint Through Joint Ventures with Local Industry In 2008 Thales signed a JV agreement with Samtel to locally develop and produce Helmet Mounted Sight and Display Systems and modern avionics for the defence market. This JV, based in Noida, is the basis for all future aerospace development in India. In August 2012, Thales & BEL announced a Joint Venture to design and manufacture both defence and civilian radars. The

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

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hales is a trusted partner of defence and security forces worldwide, working with them to provide the best possible protection in the field and operate more effectively and more efficiently. Our mission is to support the armed forces in accomplishing their missions in the traditional defence environments – air, land, sea and space – and the emerging environments of urban combat and cyber warfare, and meet growing demand from governments for integration of defence and security forces. Thales has been operating in India since 1953. The Group participated in the creation of Bharat Electronics Ltd. and has been a constant partner of the Indian Armed Forces ever since. Today, Thales India run offices in Delhi, Gwalior, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Bangalore, Chennai, Kochi and Lucknow to better serve its Army, Navy Air Force and Civil customers.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Thales


Authors' profile Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha The author’s illustrious career in the IAF comprised extensive tenure in the Jaguar strike aircraft bases as Chief Operations Officer and base commander. He superannuated from the IAF in the post of AOC-in-C, Southern Air Command.  n Article on page 85

Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Air Marshal B.K. Pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career, he held a number of important command and staff appointments, the last being that of AOC-in-C Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an Editor with the SP Guide Publications and is a resident of Bengaluru  n Article on page 273, 297

Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar An alumnus of Rashtriya Indian Military College and National Defence Academy, Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar was commissioned into artillery in June 1968. During a career spanning four decades, the officer has held a number of prestigious command and staff appointments. He has the distinction of commanding the largest artillery brigade in J&K in a counter-insurgency environment. He was Major General Artillery, Western Command during Operation Parakram. He also headed the Army Aviation Corps and was instrumental in the operationalisation of the advanced light helicopter during his tenure. A die-hard aviator and a flying instructor, he has over 4,000 hours of flying to his credit and has flown five different types of aircraft. He is a recipient of PVSM and AVSM.  n Article on page 69

Chintamani Mahapatra Chintamani Mahapatra is currently Tagore Chair Professor at the Yunnan University, China. He holds the regular post of a professor at the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Professor Mahapatra is a visiting fellow with a large number of universities and Think tanks. He is a Visiting faculty at National Defence College, Army War College, Mhow; College of Naval Warfare, Mumbai; College of Air Warfare; Indian Society of International Law and Diplomacy, Foreign Service Institute of Ministry of External Affairs; Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration (Civil Services training centre) Mussoorie; and several academic staff colleges around India.  n Article on page 07

Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip Deshpande Having obtained bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering from University College of Engineering, Bengaluru in 1970, Vice Admiral Dilip Deshpande was commissioned in the Indian Navy in the Engineering Branch in 1969. He has served in various operational, command staff and industrial appointments and at Naval Headquarters in both Marine Engineering and Naval Aviation. On promotion to Flag rank, he served as

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Chief Staff Officer (Technical) in both the Western and Eastern Commands and headed the Naval Dockyard at Visakhapatnam. As Controller of Warship Production and Acquisition, he was responsible for design, construction and acquisition of various warships and submarines from shipyards in India, Russia and Italy. He retired in 2009 as Chief of Materiel. He is in receipt of PVSM, AVSM and VSM.  n Article on page 113

Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the L0C with Pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United Nations Mission UNTAG in Namibia. He has authored several books and was till recently the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi.  n Article on page 31, 39, 109

Kanwal Sibal Kanwal Sibal was appointed as India's Foreign Secretary in July 2002. He had been India’s Ambassador to Turkey (1989-92), Deputy Chief of Mission in the United States (1992-95), with the rank of Ambassador, Ambassador to Egypt (1995-98), Ambassador to France (1998-2002) and Ambassador to Russia (2004-07). He was a member of India’s National Security Advisory Board from November 2008 to November 2010. Most recently, he was President of the Association of Indian Diplomats (2011-12). He is on the Board of Directors of the New York-based East-West Institute and on the Advisory Board of the Vivekanand International Foundation. He has received the high distinction of Grand Officier of the Ordre du Merite from France.  n Article on page 23

Dr Monika Chansoria Dr Monika Chansoria is currently a Senior Fellow in France and is a Visiting Professor and Associate Director of Studies (Directeur d’études associé) at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris. In addition, she is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi.  n Article on page 35

M.G. Devasahayam Soon after Indo-China War, M.G. Devasahayam was commissioned into the Indian Army (Infantry, Madras Regiment) and participated in Indo-Pak War 1965, aid to civil power (Assam and Tamil Nadu), and counter-insurgency operations in Nagaland. In 1968, Devasahayam moved from the Army to the Indian Administrative Service in Haryana cadre and then on to corporate and voluntary sectors. Devasahayam was associated with the movement of Jayaprakash Narayan during and after Emergency (1975-77). He also has the honour of closely working with Mother Teresa in the setting up ‘Shanti-Dan’ [home for orphans, abandoned infants, dying destitutes and mentally retarded] at the heart of Chandigarh and a sanctuary for lepers in the city’s outskirts. He is recipient of General Service Medals and Samar Seva Medal (War Service Medal)  n Article on page 57


author's profile South Asian security risk and knowledge management consultancy.  n

Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

Article on page 141, 451

Major General Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems), he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known.  n Article on page 121, 127, 133

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

Ranjit Gupta Ambassador Ranjit Gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He has been India’s Ambassador to Yemen (North), Venezuela, Oman, Thailand and Spain and finally head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the National Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint Research Project with the Gulf Research Centre, Dubai, and on India GCC Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs.  n Article on page 11, 19

He is a former Director General, Army Air Defence, member of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, member secretary of the first National Radar Council. He has served with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and was also a consultant with the Bharat Electronics Ltd. He was also involved in writing the history of the Regiment of Artillery, history of the Corps of Army Air Defence, publishing the first coffee table book for the Regiment of Artillery and the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical Group Editor with SP Guide Publications.  n Article on page 97, 101, 331

Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Lt General P.C. Katoch superannuated as Director General Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer, he commanded Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attaché in Japan with accreditation to Republic of Korea. n Article on page 51, 73, 327

Air Chief Marshal (Retd) P.V. Naik Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik is a former Chief of the Air Staff. He retired on July 31, 2011. During his illustrious career in the IAF, Naik held many prestigious command and staff appointments such as AOC-in-C, Central Air Command, Allahabad and Vice Chief of Air Staff at Air Headquarters, New Delhi.  n Article on page 43

Major General R.P. Bhadran Major General R.P. Bhadran, an alumnus of the Indian Military Academy, was commissioned to the Armoured Corps in 1979. He acquired a post-graduate degree in Combat Vehicles Engineering in 1985. He is currently the Additional Director General Information Systems.  n Article on page 81

Brigadier (Retd) Rahul K. Bhonsle Brigadier (Retd) Rahul K. Bhonsle has three decades of experience in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in India and abroad. He had hands-on experience in military modernisation and training during his service period heading a number of tactical and technical innovation projects at the operational level. Post retirement since 2006, he has combined his military expertise with extensive study of future trends and coordinated a number of projects for Directorate of Net Assessment, Integrated Defence Staff, Centre for the Joint Warfare Studies and Centre for Land Warfare Studies. He is at present Director of Security-Risks, a

Brigadier (Retd) Rumel Dahiya Brigadier Rumel Dahiya retired from Net Assessment Directorate at Integrated Defence Staff of the Indian armed forces in 2009 and is currently the Deputy Director General, Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi. He previously served as a Defence Attaché to Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, with the Indian Military Training Team in Bhutan and with Military Operations Directorate of the Indian Army.  n Article on page 27

Rear Admiral (Retd) S. Kulshrestha Rear Admiral (Retd) S. Kulshrestha is a post-graduate from Jodhpur University who joined Indian Navy in the year 1975 and was awarded the Sword of Honour in 1976, for being the best Naval Officer during initial training. He specialised in Quality Assurance of Naval Armament and adorned various key appointments in the Navy, DRDO establishments, ordnance factories and finally rose to become the Director General of Naval Armament Inspection (DGNAI) at the Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (Navy). As DGNAI, he was directly responsible for timely availability of reliable and safe naval armament to the operational fleet of the Indian Navy.  n Article on page 89

Smita Purushottam Smita Purushottam is currently India's Ambassador to Venezuela. She has served as Joint Secretary at the Foreign Service Institute, Ministry of External Affairs (MEA); Joint Secretary in the Integrated Defence Staff Headquarters in the Ministry of Defence, Director/Under Secretary (East Europe/Soviet Union) and SAARC, and Under Secretary (Bhutan) in MEA. She has also served as Deputy Chief of Mission in the Indian Embassy in Berlin, Minister (Political) at the High Commission of India, London, Counsellor at the Indian Embassy in Beijing, and Counsellor/First Secretary in Indian Embassy in Brussels.  n Article on page 93

Commodore (Retd) Sujeet Samaddar Commodore Sujeet Samaddar graduated from IIT Roorkee and served the Indian Navy until his retirement as Principal Director Naval Plans in 2009. He is an alumnus of College of Air Warfare, Secunderabad; Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, National Institute of Defence Studies, Tokyo and the United Nations University, Tokyo. He has been a Fellow of the USI, New Delhi and JIIA, Tokyo. Post retirement he was Vice President, Nova Integrated Systems, a Tata Enterprise. Currently he is Director and CEO ShinMaywa Industries India Private Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of ShinMaywa Industries Ltd, Japan.  n Article on page 105

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author's profile Admiral (Retd) Sureesh Mehta

strategic and military issues. He is currently the Editor of SP's Land Forces and Technical Editor of SP's Military Yearbook.  n

Admiral Sureesh Mehta is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, where he subsequently served as Directing Staff. On promotion to the Flag rank, he was appointed Flag Officer Naval Aviation. In October 1998, he assumed command of the Western Fleet and led the ‘Sword Arm’ of the Indian Navy during Kargil crisis. After holding the position of Director General, Indian Coast Guard, he was appointed Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff. He was the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Naval Command, before taking over as the Chief of the Naval Staff and the Chairman Chiefs of the Staff Committee. He is a recipient of PVSM and AVSM. Post retirement, he served as High Commissioner of India in New Zealand.  n

Article on page 137, 165, 181, 305, 315

Lt General V.K. Saxena Lt General V.K. Saxena is an alumnus of Defence Services Staff College, College of Defence Management and the coveted National Defence College. He is a silver-gunner and the first ever winner of the Director General of Artillery Trophy for standing first on the Long Gunnery Staff Course. He has had a wide exposure to varied command and staff assignments. He is currently the Commandant of the prestigious Army Air Defence College at Gopalpur, Odisha.  n

Article on page 65

Article on page 77

Rear Admiral (Retd) Sushil Ramsay

General (Retd) V.P. Malik

Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay retired after serving in the Indian Navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacitybuilding in logistics, defence expenditure, administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been Naval Attaché in the Embassy of India in Moscow. He is currently Senior Editorial Advisor of SP's Naval Forces and Technical Editor of SP's Military Yearbook.  n

General V.P. Malik was Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army from October 1, 1997 to September 30, 2000 and the Chairman, COSC from January 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000. He planned, coordinated and oversaw execution of the Operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan’s attempted intrusion in the Kargil sector in 1999. After retirement, he was a member of the National Security Advising Board for two years. He writes frequently for newspapers and magazines.  n Article on page 47

Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia The author has the distinction of having accumulated more than 5,000 hours of flying on all types of aircraft, but mostly on single-engine fighters in the IAF. He was conferred gallantry awards (Vir Chakra) in both 1965 and 1971 wars against Pakistan flying the Mystere and Su-7, respectively. He also has the rare distinction of being the AOC-in-C of three major operational commands of the IAF. He is currently the Senior Visiting Editor of SP's Aviation and Technical Editor of SP's MIlitary Yearbook.  n Article on page 117, 217, 228

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9, 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. Prior to superannuating, he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 120 articles for magazines and journals on

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Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan The General is a graduate from the Royal Military College of Science and Army Staff College, UK. After a distinguished career in the Indian Army, General Raghavan retired in 1994 as Director General of Military Operations of the Indian Army. Currently he is the Director, Delhi Policy Group and President, Centre for Security Analysis.  n Article on page 01

Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier General Staff, Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the USI of India and is currently a senior fellow with Vivekananda International Foundation.  n Article on page 61, 157


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section one

India in the Era of Strategic Uncertainty Indo-US Growing Correlation Turmoil in West Asia Afghanistan’s Future Stability Winds of Change in Myanmar India-Russia Strategic Partnership Iran-Israel Stand-off China’s Future War Zone China’s Military Stratagem India’s Nuclear Deterrence Future of Aerospace Power India’s Defence Sector Reforms Strategy: National & Military Civil-Military Relationship Developments in South East Asia India’s Incipient Maritime Responsibilities Army Aviation Corps

1 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 57 61 65 69

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One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen

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Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Concepts & Perspectives


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan

state without this major strategic necessity remaining unfulfilled. India requires a stable political environment within and a peaceful international environment to conduct its affairs. Coalition governments being a regular feature of governance, with the rise of smaller regional parties in determining foreign and domestic policy issues, decisionmaking and reaching a consensus becomes increasingly difficult. In order to pursue its developmental and economic goals, a peaceful periphery in the Indian region is a strategic necessity. Intra-state conflicts have prevented India’s neighbour from emerging as strong economic entities. Equally, a stable international security and economic environment is a strategic necessity for India. India needs access to the world market and resources for continued economic development. Exports account for 20 per cent of India’s GDP. India with its unique geopolitical positioning in Asia has an increasingly influential role to play in the regional security.

M

ajor developments in geopolitical and geoeconomic terms are currently transforming the international security scenario into one of uncertainty and volatility. Emergence of new economies in Asia, Africa and Latin America coupled with global financial slowdown and the Euro zone crisis has transformed the global power equations. Global balance of power is assessed to be shifting to Asia. The 21st century is being heralded as the Asian century. This is attributed to the impressive rise of China, India and South East Asian countries, in economic and military terms. Asia is no longer in the lower rung of the global economy. The expansion of G-20 forum and demand for reforms in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank reflect this trend. In addition to the ongoing power shift, energy is increasingly interlinked with geopolitics as demand and competition for global resources sharpen. The ongoing shift creates opportunities and challenges in the future. In an era of strategic uncertainty, Indian security choices will be guided as much by these developments as by its fundamental strategic priorities.

Indian Security Concerns The present transition has been driven by dramatic changes in information and communication technology, economics, political and strategic factors. The world has witnessed many changes during the past few decades, but the recent trends have a long-lasting impact on the global security architecture. The rise of China and associated geopolitical developments in East Asia, uprising in West Asia, global financial downturn and Euro zone crisis, Afghanistan and international terrorism, energy and the quest for new sources and cyber security form the range of India’s security concerns.

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Indian Strategic Priorities India’s first strategic priority of sustained economic development has and will continue to remain, in order to raise 40 per cent of one billion Indian people out of poverty. India cannot claim to be a successful

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India has built a network of strategic partnerships around the world. These include economic, technological and military components. Indian defence forces have carried a series of military, air and naval exercises with a large number of countries. Indian naval visits and collaborative operations with countries extending from the Mediterranean to the Pacific have helped built mutual confidence.

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Building Economic Capability

REGIONAL BALANCE

Strategic Uncertainty

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Chintamani Mahapatra

participation in reconstruction activities in Afghanistan in the midst of Bush’s war against the Al-Qaeda and the Taliban in that country; third, Indian private companies were not only allowed to operate in Iraq during the US military intervention in that country, the Indian Government also considered for sometime an American request to contribute troops to a proposed stabilisation force in Iraq; fourth, India and the US inked a decade-long framework agreement to foster defence cooperation; and finally, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, despite substantive domestic procedural and political difficulties, managed to sign a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement. The paradigm shift in India-America relationship is underscored by the fact that none of the above five areas of mutual understanding and cooperation were feasible during the Cold War years. More significantly, Washington’s policy towards China and Pakistan no longer created fissure in bourgeoning security cooperation between India and the United States. The Bush Administration’s description of China as a ‘strategic competitor’ caused no excitement in India and the US expressed no concern about Indian efforts to strike a positive chord in its equation with China. Similarly, designation of Pakistan as a major non-North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) ally did not perturb New Delhi.

W

hat is the performance record of President Barack Obama’s policy towards India? How has he approached a country that the US President describes as an “indispensable partner” of the United States? Has it been a steady progression of relationship since he assumed office? Has it witnessed ups and downs and peaks and valleys? Has President Obama been able to further elevate US-India relations from what he inherited from his predecessor—President George W. Bush? The analysis below shows that the answers to the above questions are in the positive. Eight years of Bush presidency marked one of the most fruitful and positive relationships between India and the United States. This period featured a paradigm shift in the US perception and engagement with a country that stayed away from American Cold War strategies for over 40 years. While America’s fight against communism came on the way of a cooperative model of Indo-US relations, Washington’s determined brawl against terrorism and religious extremism brought the two countries together and heralded a strategic partnership between an erstwhile cold warrior and a non-aligned nation. The significant markers in Indo-US relations since the inception of the Bush Administration were: first, unprecedented level of military exercises across all services between the two countries; second, India’s

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Obama’s Entry: Another Paradigm Shift?

When Barack Obama won the presidential election in 2008, India had little to celebrate. Positions of Obama during the election campaigns on foreign policy issues generated little enthusiasm in India. In fact, there were apprehensions that Obama could reinvigorate security ties

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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BUSINESS

The key question is whether Indo-US strategic partnership is inching towards a new alliance between the two countries. In the Chinese and Pakistani perception, New Delhi and Washington appear to be slowly moving towards a model of relationship that may not fit into traditional definition of ‘alliance’, but certainly the one that is fast becoming more intense than ‘partnership’.

INDIAN DEFENCE

President Obama’s India Policy

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Growing Correlation

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Ranjit Gupta

has been squelched. Despite unleashing his security forces to hunt down and destroy the rebel “rats”, Muammar Gaddafi was killed after 42 years of unalloyed dictatorship over Libya. For all practical purposes, Syria is now embroiled in a deeply destructive and full-scale civil war. Reform in varying degrees has been initiated in most countries. The cash rich Gulf states have handed out huge financial sops to nip the unrest in the bud. Egypt, Libya and Tunisia have managed transitions to democratically elected governments.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

he Arab world has been engulfed in completely unanticipated and historically unprecedented turmoil since the beginning of 2011. Hundreds of thousands of docile masses rose up spontaneously. There was no known or identifiable leader, nor the banner of any specific ideology. It was a movement spearheaded by the younger generation but consciously inclusive of all the diverse elements that constitute a national society, demanding not merely reform but also regime change. In the Arab context, this was “Revolution”. Before regimes can be overthrown or dislodged, people must overcome fear of regimes, and even the most autocratic ones must be ready to die. The centuries old fear of their rulers disappeared. There is no rational explanation for all this but it happened. The long awaited ‘Arab Spring’ had dawned. Two strongly entrenched ruthless dictators, Hosni Mubarak, who ruled Egypt with an iron hand for 30 years, and Zinedin Ben Ali, who was in charge in Tunisia for 23 years, were compelled to leave office. Without taking anything away from the courageous protests of common people, the unvarnished reality is that they had to go because the armed forces chose not to violently confront their own people. The protests rapidly spread to other countries. They added new dimensions to the multiple feuds that have plagued Yemen for decades where Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) mediation paved the way for Ali Abdullah Saleh to leave after 33 years at the helm. The revolt in Bahrain

Prognosis Far more important than the outcomes in individual countries, this turmoil has had two major consequences which will have significant continuing impact within the Arab world. First, in the longer-term, the political rise of Islamist forces will inject a new and powerful factor that could transform the Arab world into a very different persona from what the world has known and dealt with for a long time. Secondly, for the immediate future, the outcome of the no holds barred stand-off between Saudi Arabia and Iran, personifying a vigorous Sunni response to a supposedly rising Shia threat, will reshape the geopolitics of the West Asian region.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

The Rise of Political Islam

The ‘Arab Spring’ enabled the emergence of the long banned, exiled and persecuted Islamic parties into the open as the main players, even though they were neither in the vanguard nor even active participants. Their well-oiled and organised networks were quickly activated to take advantage of the newly emerging political opportunities. Unlike in the

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The rise of political Islam in the context of democratic constitutional framework should not be a matter of concern to a pluralist democratic India with a huge Muslim population of its own, fully involved in the country’s political process. India need not lose sleep due to the ascendancy of political Islam.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Implications for India

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West Asia

PIB

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Dr Ashok K. Behuria

of stiff resistance from the Taliban, a large international force has so far provided security to the process of transition. However, the decision of the United States and its allies to pull out their security forces by end 2014 has led to speculations about the survivability of the fledgling process of normalisation in Afghanistan. Against this backdrop, the present article seeks answers to the following questions. What are the facts on the ground? Does the present process of withdrawal of the US forces signal a throwback to the 1990s? What are the impediments to a smooth transition? Will the international community re-abandon Afghanistan? What is the role of the regional countries? What are the best and worst case scenarios? What are the implications for an unstable Afghanistan?

F

or the last three decades, Afghanistan has witnessed tremendous socio-political upheavals. It acted as an important factor during the end of the Cold War era in international politics and the triumph of the free world over communism. In the process, Afghanistan became an international battlefield, where a medieval ideology was transplanted as a shield against communist expansion. The liberal world led by the United States succeeded in the bargain. However, the consequence of such success has been disastrous for Afghanistan and the world, especially because the world chose to abandon Afghanistan after one decade of intensive engagement. By then, Afghanistan had been afflicted with the virus of radicalism which it has refused to shed over the next two decades. Since the appearance of Taliban in the mid-1990s and its cohabitation with the Salafi/Wahabi Al-Qaeda, this radical Islamic ideology has posed a critical threat to international peace. After a decade of abandonment in the 1990s, the world was forced to get back to Afghanistan in the wake of the 9/11 attacks to fight out the very ideology of radical Islam, which was carefully nourished in the 1980s. Thus followed the move to rebuild and reconstruct Afghanistan. The last one decade of international engagement has introduced modern state and administrative structures, given a fillip to liberalism and democracy, and laid the foundations of a ‘new Afghanistan’. In the face

Afghanistan has witnessed huge amount of investment on security by international forces since 2001, when Operation Enduring Freedom was launched on October 7, 2001. This was also the beginning of the socalled ‘War on Terror’. The idea underlying this operation was to fight out international terrorism that manifested itself in the attacks on the World Trade Center twin towers in New York, the Pentagon, and supposedly an aborted attack on the White House on 9/11. Afghanistan was the immediate target of the US-led international forces because of the fact that the roots of 9/11 were traced to Al-Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, who was given shelter by Taliban Government in Afghanistan. The aim of the war on terror was to dislodge the Taliban, dismantle the Al-Qaeda network, secure the world from the threat of

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Facts on the Ground

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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As Afghanistan is getting ready for yet another withdrawal of foreign elements, the parallels between the withdrawal of the Soviet forces in 1989 and the planned withdrawal of US-led forces in 2014 will be inevitably debated in the wider strategic community. While there are striking similarities, there are also differences on the ground which could help the situation in Afghanistan turn for the better.

BUSINESS

On the Path of Democracy and Enduring Freedom?

INDIAN DEFENCE

Future Stability

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covered by the local media including front page photographs. Her party was legalised and secured a landslide victory winning 43 out of 44 seats contested in the bye-elections held on April 1, 2012. The government made no effort to tamper with the results. After initially refusing, she took the mandatory oath pledging to “safeguard” the Constitution to take her seat in Parliament. Through these actions, she has conferred legitimacy to the Constitution, which she had earlier termed “illegal”, and to the Parliament, elections which she and her party had boycotted in November 2010 and which she had described as “fraudulent”. She has been appointed the Chairperson of Parliament’s important ‘Rule of Law and Tranquillity Committee’. She has been allowed to meet all visiting foreign dignitaries. All this is a public manifestation of the regime’s recognition of the necessity of her cooperation in shaping the country’s future and its commitment to move the country towards democracy. Their statesmanlike working together is the most emblematic feature of the emerging new political scenario in Myanmar. A large number of political prisoners, amongst them the most prominent dissidents including the generation-88 student leaders, have been released and permitted free access to media and political activity. Freedom of assembly and the right to hold demonstrations (though advance permission from the police is necessary it has been liberally granted) has been allowed. Censorship and access to Internet have been very greatly relaxed. Exiles have been invited to return home and many high-profile activists living abroad have returned. Ministers of education, health, tourism, etc are civilians who are well known professionals from their fields. Partial decentralisation through the establishment of minorities focused legislative and executive structures at the local level for the first time ever, is a completely new and welcome aspect of governance in Myanmar. A landmark cease-fire agreement with the armed

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

F

or decades, Myanmar has been under the arbitrary and autocratic rule of a ruthless military dictatorship. However, since November 2011, it has been undergoing an unexpectedly radical process of political and economic transformation and has emerged as one of the very few really bright spots in a rather troubled world. A new government took over in April 2011 when U. Thein Sein, the former General and Prime Minister, was sworn in as President. State power in the new governmental structure in Myanmar is now distributed between different poles: the Presidency heading the executive, the military, the parliament and the party within the framework of a written constitution. Such an institutional architecture had not existed for the past two decades. This is an enormous substantive contrast with the past when all State power was concentrated de facto in the hands of Senior General Than Shwe.

Political Reform The stand-off between the military regime and Aung San Suu Kyi has been the defining feature of the political scene for past two decades during which she has been kept in detention for 15 years. She was released unconditionally from house arrest on November 13, 2010, less than a week after the parliamentary elections. Detailing her activities since then would fill a small book but it would suffice to say that the government has been bending over backwards to ensure her active participation in the country’s politics. From a situation of a complete ban of even the mention of her name, all her activities have been extensively

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BUSINESS

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The Indo-Myanmar relationship holds promise to be much closer than it has ever been in the past and indeed is potentially poised to become the best amongst India’s South Asian neighbours after Bhutan

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Implications for India

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Myanmar

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Russia’s recognition of India’s pre-eminence in South Asia is part of our strategic understanding. It does not arm our adversaries or help them develop strategic capabilities. It does not insert itself into conflicts in the region and press for solutions that fit into its regional interests, or concern itself with a ‘strategic balance’ in South Asia. All in all, India’s strategic partnership with Russia is vital for maintaining a balanced and independent Indian foreign policy. Kanwal Sibal

ism and terrorism. All this contributes to enduring reasons for cultivating ties of friendship and understanding.

I

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES ASIAN WHO’S WHO

India and Russia established a strategic partnerships in 2000, the first such between India and another country. Today India has such partnerships with several countries, prompting India and Russia to elevate their strategic partnership further to a “privileged” one during the twelfth summit meeting at Prime Minister/President level in December 2011. The annual summits between the two countries reflect the importance these two countries attach to their relationship and the need felt to monitor it at the highest level regularly. The thirteenth summit will be held in New Delhi this year when President Putin travels to India. Defence supplies remain the most important pillar of the IndiaRussia relationship. This relationship is based on trust, which takes time to build in this sensitive area, with political reliability being a critical element. Already 50-70 per cent of equipment with India’s armed forces is of Russian origin, underlining the strategic stakes involved. Russia’s willingness to supply India advanced weaponry and platforms that cannot be obtained from elsewhere, notably the nuclear powered submarine that has joined the Indian fleet this year, requires that we nurture this relationship with care. Russia is providing technical help in developing the indigenous Arihant. India is collaborating with Russia to develop the fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) and the multi-role transport aircraft (MTA). While the government has released $295 million for completing the preliminary design, once it is frozen, India, as has

INDIAN DEFENCE

Strategic Partnership & Defence Supplies

ndia’s relationship with Russia is characterised by remarkable stability despite enormous changes at the international level. A resilient relationship with Russia, which is time-tested and founded on trust, remains an asset of great diplomatic value even if Russian power has declined. Russia, of course, can no longer provide the same kind of political and economic support to India as it did during the Cold War years, nor does India need it as the challenges have become different for both countries. A weakened Russia has to contend with challenges from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO); it has developed by mutually supportive strategic understandings with China. India’s own relationship with the US has improved very considerably, to the point that the two countries have a strategic partnership and the US considers India a lynchpin of its “re-balancing” strategy towards Asia. However, in an uncertain and fluid international environment, the core value of the relationship remains as the two countries continue to share some key interests. Russia retains impressive strengths in several strategic areas. It is in a position to offer valuable defence equipment and sensitive military technologies; is immensely resource rich and is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. India and Russia have similar views on many geopolitical issues, and face common challenges from Islamic radical-

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Changing Relationship and Future Prospects

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Partnership

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CONTENTS

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Brigadier (Retd) Rumel Dahiya

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the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979, and the second from 1979 till date. Iran was the second Muslim country after Turkey to recognise Israel as a sovereign nation. Although no formal diplomatic relations were established, Israel maintained a permanent delegation in Tehran which served as a de facto embassy. Iran’s relations with its Arab neighbours on the other hand were shaped mainly by enduring sectarian divide and also by Iran’s perceived closeness to Israel. Iran surrounded by Sunni countries, found David Ben-Gurion’s concept of an “alliance of the periphery”, an attractive proposition. It suited both Iran and Israel to develop cooperative relationship to balance their common adversary—the Arab neighbours. Geographic separation ensured that their zones of interest i.e. Levant for Israel and Persian Gulf for Iran, did not overlap. Iran and Israel had much in common, including close relationship with the United States. By late 1950, therefore, based on common threats and common interests, the two countries became close allies albeit not formally. Before and after the Six-Day War in 1967, Iran supplied Israel with significant quantities of oil and Israel helped Iran with weapons sale. The joint missile development programme, Project Flower, symbolised close Iran-Israel ties. They also cooperated closely in propping up Kurds in northern Iraq to check their common adversary Iraq. However, Iran did not like to see Israel becoming too powerful. Accordingly, Israel’s swift and comprehensive victory in 1967 war raised concerns in Iran and the latter started nuancing its position vis-à-vis Arabs, particularly on the question of Palestine. The détente between the superpowers, British withdrawal of troops East of Suez Canal in 1971, distraction of the United States in Vietnam

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

R

elations between Iran and Israel are at a historical low. They have enjoyed cordial and cooperative relationship in the past but this relationship has now turned totally adversarial. There are a number of reasons that have caused interest-based cooperative relationship in the past to turn into overtly hostile one as at present. Iran’s alleged quest for acquiring nuclear weapons is not the real driving force behind the sharply deteriorated relations between the two countries. It is difficult to imagine Israel using its nuclear weapons in any conflict; nor Iran using them ever, if and when it acquires them. Therefore, there is a need to analyse the actual reasons for the stand-off. Basically, each country’s desire to dominate the region and their embedded sense of insecurity has created conditions which have raised the spectre of a major regional conflict. That both the states are “messianic”, explains to some extent their behaviour towards each other but even that would be an insufficient explanation since Jews were well treated in Persia since the Biblical times. Therefore, ideology may be the effect and not the cause. It would be useful to go some decades back to analyse the trajectory of relations between Iran and Israel.

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History of Iran-Israel Relations The history of Iran-Israel relations can be broadly divided into two phases—one from the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 until

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Each country’s desire to dominate the region and their embedded sense of insecurity has created conditions which have raised the spectre of a major regional conflict. It would be useful to go some decades back to analyse the trajectory of relations between Iran and Israel.

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From Interest-based Cooperation to Overtly Hostile Relationship

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Stand-off

REGIONAL BALANCE

Leader.ir, wikimedia, presidentassad.net, UN

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Iran-Israel


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

tionship with Pakistan that causes apprehension in India. Also, in recent years, China appears to have raised the ante by way of its shrill political rhetoric, frequent transgressions across the line of actual control (LAC) and unprecedented cyber attacks on Indian networks. The security relationship has the potential to act as a spoiler in the larger relationship and will ultimately determine whether the two Asian giants will clash or cooperate for mutual gains. Arguably, while the India-China relationship is relatively stable at the strategic level, China’s political, diplomatic and military aggressiveness at the tactical level is acting as a dampener.

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hina and India, both Asian giants and emerging world powers, have begun to exercise immense influence in international political and economic affairs. As China’s GDP is much larger than that of India, it enjoys a correspondingly greater international clout at present. Relations between India and China have been fairly stable at the strategic level. Political and economic relations between India and China are much better now than these have ever been since the 1962 border war between the two countries. Economic relations are much better now than these have been in the past. Mutual economic dependence is growing rapidly every year, with bilateral trade increasing at a brisk pace. Even though it is skewed in China’s favour, bilateral trade has crossed $50 billion and is expected to touch $60-70 billion soon. The two countries have been cooperating in international fora like the World Trade Organisation (WTO) talks and climate change negotiations. There has even been some cooperation on energy security. However, growth in the strategic and security relationship has not kept pace with the political and economic relationship. Despite prolonged negotiations at the political level to resolve the long-standing territorial and boundary dispute between the two countries, there has been little progress on this sensitive issue. China has a clandestine nuclear warheads-ballistic missiles-military hardware technology transfer rela-

Preparing Tibet as Future War Zone On July 10, 2012, an intelligence report, reportedly issued by the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), warned of the clear and present danger of a conflict being initiated by China along its border with India, ostensibly to divert attention from mounting domestic problems, including political dissent, economic challenges and social discord. On July 26, 2012, Ranjit Sinha, Director General of Indo-Tibetan Border Police, said that China is not a friend and is not to be trusted. The Naresh Chandra Committee on defence reforms has also sounded a warning about China’s military preparations. The RAW report points to increased activity by units of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in the areas across the line of actual control (LAC) by way of enhanced surveillance and military training exercises which could be tantamount to full dress rehearsals. Recent exercises have included one on the rapid induction of airborne divisions into Tibet in 36 to 48 hours from bases in adjacent military

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The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has been steadily engaged in developing military infrastructure in Tibet. The railway line from Gormo to Lhasa, which is to be extended further to Shigatse and on to Kathmandu, has made it possible for the PLA to quickly induct and then sustain much larger forces in Tibet than had been the case before it was commissioned.

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Infrastructure in Tibet

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Future War Zone

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Much of the PLA’s success over the next decade will be determined by how effectively it integrates emerging capabilities and platforms into the force. By most accounts, the PLA is on track to achieve its goal of building a modern, regionally-focused military by 2020.

Dr Monika Chansoria

“military strategy” or “strategic guideline”. The fundamental rule of “active defence” asserts that China will strike only after the enemy has struck. However, the line between accepting the enemy’s first strike and the use of pre-emption to defend China from an immediate attack critically continues to remain blurred.

For almost half a century now, Asia’s tectonic plates of power shift have accepted the possibility of China returning to its traditional role as the central actor in Asia. To achieve this end, Beijing has diligently worked towards attaining “comprehensive national power” (zonghe guoli) and accruing traditional attributes of power, resulting in perpetuating rule of the CCP, sustaining economic growth and development, maintaining domestic political stability, defending national sovereignty and territorial integrity and securing China’s status as a great power. Resultantly, China’s own diplomacy has steadily grown more omnidirectional and proactive, backed by an economy that is an engine of regional growth, and most crucially, a military that is modernising rapidly. The most proverbial components of the Chinese way of war and diplomacy are bing yi zha li (war is based on deception), shang-bing famou (supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy’s strategy) and chu-qi zhi-sheng (win through unexpected moves). China first spelt out key elements concerning its military power in 2004, including defence policy and thrust areas for its broader strategy and continued modernisation. China’s military strategy continues to attach importance to the building of the Army; however, it has accorded priority to the building of the Navy, Air Force and Second Artillery Force in order to achieve a

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Chinese Military Doctrinal Strategy and Thinking

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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hina’s military modernisation programme that was initiated formally by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in December 1978 has entered its 34th year, and is expected to continue to display a continuing pattern of military modernisation. The unremitting debate surrounding the military rise of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is getting more vociferous with each passing day. While posting higher stages of economic growth; the military spending power of China has increased exponentially, thereby bearing grave implications on Beijing’s rapidly expanding prowess and influence within Asia and beyond. China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) chose military planning policy as its focal objective from 1949 onwards since ‘survival’ was no longer the primary pressing concern for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Ever since coming into being more than eight decades ago, the Red Army’s experiences especially during the decades of the late 1930s and early 1940s, became the basis for Mao Zedong’s “people’s war” (renmin zhanzheng) concept, which ultimately took shape of the doctrine of the Red Army and subsequently that of the PLA. The PLA has gradually grown from being merely a petite Chinese Communist Party organ to a guerrilla force, comprising workers and peasants—to the PLA of today, which has transformed itself into a tri-Service military force. A major component of Mao Zedong’s military thought centred on “active defence” (jiji fangyu), is often referred to as China’s

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Increased Defence Spending, Expanding Regional Prowess

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Stratagem

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

Though India had the potential to develop nuclear weapons since the first ‘peaceful’ nuclear explosion at Pokhran in 1974, India steadfastly refrained from exercising its nuclear option and chose instead to work for nuclear disarmament. There is a broad national consensus on the development of a credible minimum nuclear deterrent capability and the doctrine of ‘no first use.’ Minimum deterrence may be defined as “a small force of survivable nuclear weapons [that] would deter an adversary from initiating military action that would threaten a nation’s vital interests”. India is not looking at establishing any capability beyond this level of deterrence. The concept of deterrence by punishment is central to Indian strategic thinking. By voluntarily renouncing its sovereign right of the first use of nuclear weapons to defeat nuclear threats and to prevent nuclear blackmail, India has made an immense strategic sacrifice and imposed a heavy burden upon itself. The government and key decision-makers recognise that should deterrence ever break down, India will have to pay an enormous price for a nuclear first strike by an adversary before retaliating in kind. Hundreds of thousands of Indian lives will be lost and more than one city may be turned into rubble. Hence, India’s ‘no first use’ doctrine demands a robust, infallible and potentially insuperable nuclear deterrent capability to ensure that India never has to suffer a nuclear strike. Several political thinkers and analysts have commented on the nuclear doctrine. The late K. Subrahmanyam, arguably India’s foremost defence analyst, had written in 1986: “Today, the international system is dominated by nuclear dacoits who are refusing to disarm and there

I

ndia’s deteriorating security environment in the mid-1990s and the likely entry into force of the discriminatory Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) forced the government to reconsider its nuclear option of ‘recessed deterrence’. After conducting five nuclear tests over two days at Pokhran in May 1998, India declared itself as a state with nuclear weapons. India’s nuclear doctrine is built around a ‘no first use’ policy with ‘credible minimum deterrence’. In the interest of strategic stability, India is willing to absorb a ‘first strike’ and will launch punitive nuclear strikes in retaliation to cause unacceptable damage to the adversary if it is attacked with nuclear weapons. India’s nuclear weapons are political weapons meant only to deter the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons against India. It is clearly accepted in India that nuclear weapons are not weapons of war-fighting. Hence India has firmly rejected the use of tactical or theatre nuclear weapons, despite provocation from across its western border.

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India’s Nuclear Doctrine India’s nuclear policy is underpinned by a categorical and unambiguous commitment to ‘no first use’ of nuclear weapons against nuclear armed adversaries and the non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states. This is rooted in a deeply ingrained cultural belief that the use of force to resolve inter-state disputes is a repugnant concept.

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India’s nuclear weapons policy should work in parallel along twin tracks: continue to enhance the quality of India’s nuclear deterrence while simultaneously working to achieve total nuclear disarmament in as early a time frame as possible. Total nuclear disarmament is in India’s national interest as it will eliminate the risk of nuclear war and also provide a level-playing field.

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DRDO, ISPR, PIB

Impact on Military Strategy

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Air Chief Marshal (Retd) P.V. Naik

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Threat Spectrum India’s strategic perspectives are shaped by its history, geography, geopolitical realities and the demands of realpolitik. Our native culture, our innate traditions of trust and tolerance, and our vision of world peace shape our national character, which, in turn, impacts our international relations. These vital parameters are as relevant today as they have been earlier. India shares borders with 11 neighbours. Our relations with some are uneasy and with some hostile. Any unrest within this somewhat hostile neighbourhood spills over into our borders in many forms; and with depressing regularity. Unless these geopolitical cross-currents affecting us are subdued, they would continue to thwart our desire to move forward. India is facing a full spectrum of threats, which emerge from all these issues. The spectrum itself is increasing in complexity and technological sophistication. So with the spectrum changing as well as being unpredictable, we have to look at full-spectrum dominance. This is equally applicable to all domains, land, sea, air, space, as well as information domain. Since the focus of this article is on aerospace power, suffice it to say that aerospace power also will have to look in the same direction. As a member of this region, India remains vulnerable to the disturbances spilling over from its neighbours. India itself is at crossroads. We witness this giant stirring into wakefulness—into an awareness of its power today. This rise in stature brings with it greater responsibilities and a larger role in regional as well as global affairs. This demands not only a change in policy, internal and external, but also a fundamental change in our very thinking, ethos and value system.

illy Douhet, James Molony Mitchell and Sir Hugh Trenchard were the first proponents of ‘air power’, as it was known then. They were ahead of their times and consequently, were hounded out by one and all for their heretical thoughts. Now, as we all know, air power is synonymous with aerospace power. In fact both are interchangeable.

Environment Today, the South Asian region ranks as one of the three flashpoints in the world along with the Middle East and North Korea. That the potential adversaries are nuclear powers with missile capability is a cause for even greater discomfort. It is, on the other hand, also a region with enormous possibilities, some of them unfolding right before our eyes. Within this region lies a group of nations in troubled transition to modernity, their external discourse damned by internal contradictions. In a world moving towards integration, many of these nations remain torn by ethnic and religious strife, economic disparities and political instability. Undoubtedly, it is a new world order that is emerging because of complex relationships, strategic interests and influences. Asia is the happening place for a variety of factors. For obvious reasons, it is also full of turmoil and instabilities. Internal dynamics and external influences have led to increase in the degree of instability and uncertainty. Last but not the least, it is the preferred playground for terrorism.

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We need a comprehensive national strategy on ‘aerospace power’ spelling out where we go. We need to institutionalise the process so that there are minimum changes. We need a regulatory mechanism with teeth for implementation of the strategy like the US Federal Aviation Administration. This must have representation of all stakeholders.

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What Needs to be Done in the Indian Scenario

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11 Aerospace Power Future of

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TECHNOLOGY

SP Guide Pubns, DRDO

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Planning versus Implementation

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

“India has lacked an ability to formulate future-oriented defence policies, managing only because of short-term measures, blunders by its adversaries, and force superiority in its favour” — K. Subrahmanyam

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n March 12, 2012, former Chief of Army Staff, General V.K. Singh wrote a letter to the Prime Minister informing him that Indian Army’s air defence weapon systems were obsolete, the infantry was deficient of crew served weapons and lacked night-fighting capabilities, and its tank fleet was devoid of critical ammunition. He alleged that there was ‘hollowness in the procedures and processing time for procurements as well as legal impediments by vendors’. Publication of this leaked information in the media created a furor; less due to its serious strategic implications, but more because a classified letter from the Army Chief to the Prime Minister had been leaked. For the military and strategic community, however, there was nothing new in the letter. The surprise was that none of our worthy politicians, bureaucrats or media persons owned up that this was a chronic problem which had dogged the nation for decades and yet the government had failed to rectify. The furore reminded me of my own tenure as Army Chief (1997-2000): n While addressing the Prime Minister and his Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) colleagues who had participated in the Combined

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Commanders’ Conference held on October 20, 1997, I had described the condition of the Indian Army as “the spirit is strong but the body is weak”. I stated that on account of inadequate defence allocation, huge deficiencies of arms, ammunition and equipment, with more and more weapons and equipment going offroad due to non-availability of spares, Army’s modernisation programmes was in a state of terminal illness. n In March 1999, just before the Kargil War, I informed the Defence Minister that “the Army is finding that major acquisitions get stymied for various reasons and a feeling of cynicism is creeping in. By and large, the prevailing situation is that nothing much can be done about the existing hollowness in the Army. By denying essential equipment, the armed forces would gradually lose their combat edge which would show adversely in a future conflict.” n During war, while briefing the media, a journalist asked me as to how the Army was going to fight in the face of severe shortages. My spontaneous reply was “we shall fight with whatever we have.” Someone from the Ministry of Defence (MoD) brought this remark to the Prime Minister’s attention who told me politely that I need not have used such a language. I explained, first, my reply was to a direct question posed by a journalist. Second, any attempt by me to cover up would have conveyed an impression to the Army rank and file that the Chief was indulging in doubletalk. If that happened, they would lose confidence in me. A major lesson of Kargil War was that in every situation of ‘urgent purchase’ of defence items, every vendor, no matter which country he may be from, tends to exploit the situation. Another lesson is that

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General (Retd) V.P. Malik

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There is no point in talking about a revolution in military affairs, information systems and net-centric warfare, if the Indian armed forces cannot induct relevant weapons and equipment on time. We need a greater sense of responsibility and accountability on this score.


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

advantageous circumstances,” while another simply defines it as “the art of devising or employing plans or stratagems to achieve a goal.” For strategy, the US War College utilises a simple but powerful formula to express what strategy is and what its critical component parts consist of: strategy = ends + ways + means. In this equation, ends are objectives or goals, ways are the courses of action chosen to achieve those goals, and “means” are the resources either at hand or which must be developed to enable the courses of action.

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ost-independence, India still does not have a national security strategy. Consequently, the land and continental strategy remain dependent on the whims of the politicians, starting with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru who actually wanted to retrench the Army. The after-effect continues till date with the military deliberately kept out of strategic security decision-making. As a result, not only has the growth and modernisation of our military suffered but defence sector reforms are also given short shrift. Integration of the military continues to be a casualty despite way back in 2004, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had gone on record to say: “Reforms within the armed forces also involve recognition of the fact that our Navy, Air Forces and Army can no longer function in compartments with exclusive chains of command and single service operational plans.”

Why the State Needs a Strategy In simple terms, a strategy is required to ensure the citizenry can enjoy the resources and fruits of development in a safe and secure environment. Chanakya’s prescription of Yogakshama (well-being and security) of the people must be the highest responsibility of the ruler—read today’s elected leader. Great nations must remain committed to lofty moral principles and humane values, but one must understand that the power of principle can be most effectively pursued when it is complemented by the principle of the relevant power of the times.

What Strategy Means

Relating Theory to Strategy

A strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve a vision. It derives from the Greek word “stratégia,” “office of general, command.” There are many definitions of strategy. A simple one calls it “the science and art of employing political, economic, psychological and military forces of a nation or group of nations to afford the maximum support to adopted policies in peace or war.” Another one calls it “the science and art of military command exercised to meet the enemy in combat under

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It is important to relate theory to strategy or while evolving strategy. Theory implies the experience and lessons gained in the past. Clausewitz had said, “Theory exists so that one need not start afresh each time sorting out the material and ploughing through it, but will find it ready to hand and in good order.” Theory provides cumulative wisdom harvested through cumulative strategic study of campaigns that help

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India needs a focused National Security Strategy and a National Military Strategy. We must attain information dominance and information assurance, ability to paralyse enemy C4I2 infrastructure, credible deterrence against state-sponsored terrorism, long-range expeditionary strategic forces, stand-off weapons to pre-empt enemy attack, adequate mix of DEW, PGMs, ASATs, etc.

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DPR, SP Guide Pubns

Lack of Land and Continental Strategies

REGIONAL BALANCE

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

M.G. Devasahayam

n Military profession existing as part of such government n Civilian supremacy to be exercised by the elected representatives of the people n Such supremacy to be rooted on the principles of justice, merit and fairness n Violation of this can be resisted to protect the institutional integrity of armed forces

O

n the eve of stepping out as Chief of Army Staff, General V.K. Singh responded to a question from the Times of India on civil-military relationship: “I am a firm believer in civilian supremacy over the military in a democracy. I subscribe to the views of the former Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Vishnu Bhagwat that “the modern military profession exists as part of the government insofar as the term ‘government’ includes the executive departments of the nation-state....Modern democracies therefore pay great attention to the supremacy of the political class over the military in governance, normally referred to as ‘civilian control of the military’. This is clearly how it should be, since all ultimate power and decision-making should be wielded by the elected representatives of the people.” However, civilian supremacy must always be rooted on the fundamental principles of justice, merit and fairness. Violation of this in any form must be resisted if we are to protect the institutional integrity of our armed forces.” Combined views of the former Naval and Army Chiefs sets forth certain imperatives for civil-military relationship in the country that should be non-negotiable: n Democracy as a vibrant and functioning entity with the ‘elected representatives of the people’ running the government as per established democratic norms

Army as Sentinel of Democracy To define India’s democracy we should go to its roots. The Constitution of India, which seeks to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic in order to secure to all its citizens “justice, social, economic and political; liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and opportunity” and to promote among them all “fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.” India’s professional armed force is meant to protect and safeguard this democratic republic. On this rests the integrity of the armed forces. A leading newspaper, founded by a towering patriot but now in buccaneer’s hands, insinuated that Army Chief General V.K. Singh plotted a military coup. If these worthies had some sense of history they would have known that the only coup staged in India was by a ‘Prime Minister’ using a servile President as the tool to declare emergency in June 1975. And it was the Army that put an end to this coup. During the 21 months of active emergency, people, bereft of freedom and fundamental rights, moved in hushed silence, stunned and

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In a ‘functioning’ democracy, parliamentary oversight is the best form of ‘civilian control of the military’ instead of the whims of individual ministers and bureaucrats. Such oversight could play a major role in defining a set of rules governing the relationship between civilian authorities and the military, and balancing the financial needs of defence and security with the needs of other sectors.

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PIB

Pivotal in a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic

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14 Relationship Civil-Military

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Brigadier (retd) Vinod anand

ests in this region. South East Asian countries have been engaging their neighbours and other world powers both through multilateral and bilateral arrangements. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) comprising 10 nations has been the common platform to address a multitude of issues in the region. Though at the broader level, there has been peace and stability in the region that does not mean that there has been absence of conflicts in the region. The potential for conflict has also seen an upward trajectory because of Chinese assertiveness seen in the region, especially in the case of South China Sea islands dispute. In the last decade, with the US focus on Iraq and Afghanistan, the US engagement with ASEAN saw a decline allowing China to gain ascendancy in the region. China engaged the South East Asian nations bilaterally, and through multilateral mechanisms like ASEAN free trade area, ASEAN+3 and concepts like Greater Mekong Sub Region (GMSR). China used its economic clout and rising comprehensive national power to increase strategic influence in the region. Having seen the negative impact of its withdrawal from the region, the US has of late, especially in last two years moved towards correcting the imbalance. India on its part had embarked on its ‘Look East Policy’ in 1992 when it was also in the process of liberalising its economic policies. This year, India is celebrating two decades of this policy. Over the last two decades not only has India intensified its bilateral relationship with the South East Asian nations, it has also engaged them through many multilateral platforms like ASEAN and associated structures, Ganga-Mekong Initiative, the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) and other sub-regional platforms.

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he developments in South East Asia are intricately linked with what is happening at the global stage and in the other parts of Asia. The present century is being described as an Asian century with shift of power and wealth to Asia. It is not only China that has been termed as an engine of growth but it is also India, South East Asian nations and East Asian countries that are driving the current pattern of growth. Long before India had started its trajectory of upward growth, some of the South East Asian economies had been termed as “Tiger economies” due to their faster growth rates. South East Asia assumes great geostrategic significance by virtue of its location that connects the Pacific and Indian Oceans. South East Asian countries sitting astride the choke points of Malacca, Sunda and Lombok Straits exercise immense influence on the sea lines of communications (SLOC) passing through this region. According to one estimate, 50 per cent of the global trade and one-third of the world’s oil pass through these sea lanes. Over half a billion population of South East Asian countries combined with over $1-trillion economies of these nations add to the strategic significance of this land mass. Thus politico-security and economic developments in this region are not only important for security and stability of these nations. They also have implications for its neighbours and other powers which have inter-

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There are three distinct trends dominating the developments on South East Asia’s politico-strategic firmament— the inexorable rise of China both economically and militarily creating apprehensions about its intentions; the American strategy of rebalancing which includes the so-called return of the United States to Asia-Pacific including South East Asia; and the nature of response of South East Asian countries to meet the challenges arising out of the emerging strategic and security environment.

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DoD, PIB, MEA

India’s Political, Security, Economic and Social-Cultural Relations

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Admiral (Retd) Sureesh Mehta

or incommensurate with the economy to defend. In the contemporary globalised economy and interconnected security architecture, nations are no longer insulated from developments that occur even at distant places, and hence must not only hedge against their own futures but also take into account the risks and opportunities that arise from the growth of global economies, emerging technologies with its attendant impact on resources, strategic posturing and intent of partners and predators contesting for influence and power in the geopolitical ecosystem. This, in turn, requires an alert and visionary establishment within the state that can map these changes and work towards mitigating emerging risks and seize opportunities as they arise. Post the economic reforms, the period beginning from mid-1990s, year after year, India’s GDP expanded faster than most economies on the planet. Handsome growth rates hovering around the double-digit were registered over a sustained period. Twenty years of growth trajectory catapulted the country to the fourth largest economy on purchasing power parity terms. Global developments may have caused crisis-like situations in many export-led economies, but India remained relatively unscathed from the Wall Street financial crisis of 2008-09, as also the present economic downturn and turmoil in Europe. Current growth rate of around six per cent, facilitated by an internalised economy, a growing middle-class, reserves of entrepreneurship and private enterprise—are indeed the bulwark of most developed economies, many of which are now recording negative growths. It is not difficult to envision that the next two decades are going to be very significant when seen through the prism of our current economic

I

n this year’s Independence Day eve message to the nation, President Pranab Mukherjee recalled that in the year 1700, India contributed the largest share to the world gross domestic product (GDP) of about 26 per cent, when the United Kingdom contributed less than three per cent. Much of India’s wealth came in from the mountainous silk route and the oceanic voyages to Africa and South East Asia by Indian traders. By 1947, India’s contribution slipped to less than four per cent, while the United Kingdom doubled to eight per cent, peaking to nine per cent in 1850, as the country with the world’s largest GDP. At the Lt General S.K. Sinha Memorial Lecture, veteran journalist M.J. Akbar while drawing an analogy from history, recalled that the Purana Quila was re-built by Humayun as a stout fort with tall walls to ward off the Northern Mongol and Turkish aggressors, when the times were tumultuous. Hundred and fifty years later, Shahjahan’s Red Fort, seemingly the only fort designed to keep its doors open at a time of peace and prosperity, fell within 50 years to violence, and India lost the fabulous Peacock throne to the Persians, and the wealthy Moghul Empire was vanquished by the British with the exile of Bahadur Shah to Rangoon in 1857. These pages from the history have one story in common. A nation’s security is defined by the contours of its economy and this co-relation, if distorted, becomes the path to ruin. ‘Distortion’ here would mean an imbalance between investments in security, either excess or deficient,

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n 

INDIAN DEFENCE

India’s aspirations and quest for global prominence are inextricably linked with the oceans, and will remain dependent on our ability and will to use them to maximum advantage. Our geographic location, specifically in the maritime context, puts us at the centre-stage in today’s geostrategic and geoeconomic construct, dominated by the needs of energy security and terrorism menace.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

PIB, GSL, DCNS

At the Crossroads of a Major Turnaround

REGIONAL BALANCE

16 Responsibilities

India’s Incipient Maritime

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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tion class (Cheetah and Chetak). These helicopters are obsolete and have been in service for the past 40 years now requiring immediate replacement. Keeping this fleet operational is becoming well-nigh impossible due to its vintage and spares criticality. The Cheetal helicopter (upgraded Cheetah) fielded by HAL as an interim measure is not a satisfactory solution. The Corps today has few helicopters to carry out a number of extremely specialised roles in the tactical battle area (TBA). While the induction of the light utility helicopter (ALH) is under way, the medium- and heavy-lift helicopters which form the core of the tactical lift capability continue to be with the IAF. The Army’s requirement of small fixed-wing aircraft (Dornier class), in limited numbers for roles like command and control, aerial communication hubs, logistics including casualty evacuation and communication flights, has also not fructified due to objections of the IAF. This is, despite the fact that even the Coast Guard and Border Security Force, have fixed-wing aircraft in their inventory. However, as far as attack helicopters are concerned, the government has taken the decision that they will be owned and operated by the Army in the future. A survey of military aviation organisations worldwide reveals the inadequacies of the Indian AAC. All major armies of the world including our adversaries, China and Pakistan, have a full-fledged air arm of their own, comprising all types of helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. The Pakistan Army Aviation boasts of an inventory comprising all class of helicopters, including attack- and fixed-wing aircraft. In contrast, the Indian AAC remains a stunted force. At present the Army Aviation assets are inadequate for the size of the Indian Army and the tasks it is required to perform. The expansion of the AAC is therefore imperative. The Army Aviation should possess a

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

he Indian Army Aviation Corps (AAC) completes 26 years of its existence on November 1. From operating the Auster/Krishak two-seat fixed-wing aircraft as part of the Air Force (erstwhile air observation post units) to the induction of light-observation helicopters (Chetak/Cheetah) in the early 1970s, the birth of the Corps in 1986, and induction of the Hindustan Aeronautical Ltd (HAL) manufactured twin-engine advanced light helicopter (ALH) in 2002, has been a challenging journey plagued by many infirmities related to its growth. Foremost amongst this is the steadfast opposition of the Indian Air Force (IAF) to the AAC’s expansion plans, related to its role and assets, thereby, denying the induction and ownership of assets that logically must come under the ambit of the Army. As per media reports, this issue has once again been raised by the present Army Chief with the Defence Minister, highlighting the Army’s priority and concern. Despite its stunted growth and curbed status, this fledgling arm of the Indian Army continues to receive accolades for its performance, be it the Kargil conflict, counter-insurgency operations or the unrelenting operations in the Siachen Glacier, the highest battlefield in the world. Routinely operating at 20,000 feet and above, on extreme fringes of helicopters flight envelope, the Army Aviation has virtually been the lifeline of the troops deployed on the glacier, a feat unparalleled anywhere in the world. Currently, the AAC has in its inventory the largest number of helicopters amongst the three services, a majority being the light observa-

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n Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Army Aviation needs to play a vastly enhanced role in land operations in the coming years. This is only possible if the arm grows both quantitatively and qualitatively. The gap between desire and reality is currently not very large and is likely to narrow down further, provided the acquisitions proceed as planned.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns, Army Aviation

The Arm of the Future, the Force Multiplier

REGIONAL BALANCE

17 Aviation Corps Army

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section two

Technologies for Future Wars Integrated Air Defence Systems Combat Simulation as a Force-Multiplier Fifth Generation Multi-Role Aircraft Nanotechnology Application in the Navy Indigenous High-Tech Development Indigenous Missile Programme Unmanned Military Systems Amphibious Aircraft

73 77 81 85 89 93 97 101 105

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Technology


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Relax - it’s a Diehl Track.

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75

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25

5

5

0

0

Running Gear:

Protection:

System Tracks

Mine Protection

Wheels

Roof Protection

Sprockets

Ballistic Protection

Diehl Defence Land Systems GmbH Vieringhausen 118 42857 Remscheid Phone +49 21 91 976 -0 Fax +49 21 91 976 -206 100

95

E-Mail sales@diehl-dls.com www.diehl.com

100

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Battling Nuclear, Missile, Cyber, Insurgent, Infiltrator Attacks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Future Wars

US Army, US Navy, Boeing

1

Technologies for

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CONTENTS

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Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

what our voids and weaknesses are with respect to technology and what initiatives we need to take in order to enable India gain its rightful place in the comity of nations. To that end, our commitment to technology has to be total.

Technology enables high-tech wars that are short and swift. Ranges, accuracy and lethality of weapons have enhanced considerably. Concurrently, the space and time continuum has been greatly compressed. There is exponential increase in situational awareness and battlefield transparency as forces are shifting from platform-centric to network-centric capabilities. Handling of the strategic, operational and tactical levels simultaneously is possible. Improved battlefield transparency in turn has increased the importance of dispersion of forces and need for deception. Technology has ushered the advent of offensive cyber warfare, information dominance, space wars and effect-based operations. Ironically, technology has also empowered the terrorist to cause more severe damage. The major impact of technology on warfare has been in the following areas: n Increased Range and Lethality: Just as munitions have become smarter in the military’s ability to target them with increasing accuracy, they have also become deadlier. Tonnes of explosive power can be delivered precisely hundreds of kilometres away and in some cases at any point in the globe including by nuclear tipped missiles. Munitions can also destroy underground emplacements very accurately. n Reduced Collateral Damage: Precision or smart munitions were first used most prominently during the 1991 Persian Gulf War in Iraq. The

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dvancements in technology have revolutionised warfare already. Technology in modern warfare has reduced the traditional reliance on numbers, mass and endurance, while increasing the capacity for rapid and focused application of a very large mass of combat power. In the 1991 Gulf War, the US dominance was achieved through precision weaponry, superior information, communications technology and satellites. The power of technological advances, coupled with matching strategy and concepts, organisations and training, was becoming apparent. This was a catalyst for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to get going on the path to ‘informisation’. By 2025, technology would have gone to the next step or perhaps the next to next step. With continuing volatility in India’s neighbourhood, we may be faced with heightened threats in future in the entire spectrum of conflict particularly in the asymmetric sphere, along with activated battlefield of space and cyberspace. There is a need therefore to examine how technology will impact future warfare,

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Present Impact of Technology on Warfare

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

“We are responsible for what we are, and whatever we wish ourselves to be, we have the power to make ourselves. If what we are now has been the result of our own past actions, it certainly follows that whatever we wish to be in future can be produced by our present actions; so we have to know how to act.” —Swami Vivekananda

REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

BUSINESS

We urgently need a RMA to take us into the next level of military potential to meet future challenges. A draft national cyber policy has been evolved but the crux will be its speedy implementation and layered cyber protection for security and critical infrastructure protection, leading thereon to information dominance.


CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Systems

Key Trends, Challenges and Future Developments

TECHNOLOGY

Raytheon, SP Guide Pubns, Sinodefence.com, MBDA

2

Integrated Air Defence

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CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Integrated Air Defence System In its simplest terms and on a micro plane, an IADS will essentially imply, putting together all the AD resources, viz, the sensors (radars, visual observers, other technical means), shooters (guns, SAM, air superiority fighters and interceptors) and battle management systems (battlefield management command, control, communication, computers, information, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (BMC4I2SR)) as one cohesive front to address the opponents air threat. Two Sides of IADS: According to an expert opinion, the success achieved in the US-led air campaign of 1991 (and later) owed more than anything to the technological and operational capability of the attacker to penetrate and suppress the IADS of the defender. On the flip side, a formidable IADS will render a typical air threat campaign largely impotent. Therefore, while the attackers are sharpening their tools by increasing the multiplicity of the aerial threat vehicles, spatial enlargement of air threat envelopment, and acquiring the capabilities of larger throw weight, longer reaches, precision strikes, stand-off capabilities and a degree of immunity in the hostile electronic warfare environment; the defenders are responding by taking their IADS to higher and higher

Towards further Impotence Two important developments took place over time. Firstly, as the assets to be protected grew manifold, the cover of GBADWS became further diluted and the satisfaction level further dropped. Secondly, the threat punch leaped in severity, lethality and reach. The aerial threat vehicles multiplied. Besides the duo of aircraft and helicopters, the multiple platforms now include the attack helicopters (AHs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs), cruise missiles, anti-radiation missiles (ARMs) and surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) armed with a slew of a smart and intelligent ammunition with a

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I

n the early years, execution of the air threat was based on two major aerial platforms, namely the aircraft and helicopters. Their arsenal (front guns, guided/unguided rockets, bombs, napalm, etc) also manifested in the visual domain of the defender. The conventional counter to such a threat in the context of ground-based air defence weapon system (GBADWS) mainly remained the point defence weapons in the very short range air defence (AD) range (up to 15 km). Since the assets to be protected vastly outnumbered the availability of GBADWS, the fait accompli solution was to prioritise the assets and then allot GBADWS. Also, the overall scarcity prevented deploying adequate number of GBADWS in multiple rings as would be demanded by the threat profile.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

precision strike capability in the stand-off ranges, well beyond the visual domain. Alternate kill options in directed energy domain and a strong electronic counter-measure (ECM) muscle provided the multiple threat vehicles a greater degree of effectiveness and immunity. The scarce GBADWS cover, riding thinly on some selected assets, became further impotent and ineffective against the emerging threat. The concept of Integrated Air Defence System (IADS) evolved thus out of necessity.

REGIONAL BALANCE

n Lt General V.K. Saxena

BUSINESS

While on one end, the severity and lethality in the prosecution of the air threat is growing by leaps and bounds, not to be left behind in fielding a befitting counter, the IADS is sharpening its teeth, riding on the enabling wings of technology


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Major General R.P. Bhadran

commonplace. In almost every case, simulation has been a response to a perceived problem; e.g. plane crashes due to pilot inexperience or the need for improved decision-making. In modern armies, the employment of simulators encompasses the domains of training, operational and logistic planning, and many other areas. In the past few decades, we have seen distributed simulation and the development of virtual environments emerging as an alternative to human-simulator interface.

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s technology facilitated the design and development of complex systems, it was found to be expedient to model such systems and study their behaviour under specific conditions, prior to investing in the development of the system. These models were either physical or mathematical as the study demanded and were to behave in the same manner or closely so to the original system. Such implementation of models is known as simulation. In the early era, simulations were limited to discrete study of behaviour of systems under specific situations and conditions. Continuous simulation of systems over a period of time or a range of any set of variables was made possible with the advent of modern computers. Today, computers are used to model and simulate a wide range of systems and environment to accurately assess their behaviour in real world. Use of military simulations as a tool for decision-making or for honing skills were in vogue even during the medieval period. The game of chess can be seen as a classical example. The entities depict the force components and the rules of the game are a representation of tactics employed during the time. There is ample evidence in historic records that live simulation has been employed for at least two thousand years now. Formal use of ‘war gaming’ by the military became common in the 19th century. Computer-based simulation began in the 1950s and is now

What They Denote Model: A model is a physical, mathematical or logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process. Simulation: Simulation is a method for implementing the behaviour of a model over time. Modelling and Simulation: Modelling and simulation refers to the use of models, including prototypes, simulators, etc, either statically or over time, to develop data as a basis for making decisions. Simulator: A simulator can be defined as a device, computer programme or system that performs simulation. Live Simulation: Live simulation refers to simulation, involving real people operating real systems. A military exercise with troops can be termed as a live simulation of war. Simulators could be used in an exercise to assess the effects of those activities which cannot be undertaken due to safety reasons, like fire of weapons. Examples of such simulators are the infantry weapon effect simulating system (IWESS) and the simulated fire (SIMFIRE). Virtual Simulation: Virtual simulation refers to a simulation involving

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n 

INDIAN DEFENCE

High-end simulation systems offer an effective and wholesome solution, if designed to address the entire complex domain of warfare. The growing economic might or soft power of a nation would call for a complimentary hard power to be able to sustain the former. The trend is already visible, though subtly. Economic empowerment would bring about a transformation in operational thinking.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Trends Emerging Globally

REGIONAL BALANCE

Force-Multiplier

US Army

3

Combat Simulation as a

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n 

Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha

even visual) which yields a stealth fighter the edge that neutralises many performance advantages that the adversary might enjoy. By outwitting all defences during the opening phases of the first Gulf War in 1991, F-117A Nighthawk (the first fighter with stealth as its predominant strength) brought home dramatically the exponential value addition of this attribute. Low observability in FGFAs is achieved by a combination of aerodynamic tailoring, usage of composite materials (which help both in reducing weight as well as in radar reflectivity), shaping intake ducts to prevent radar echoes from the highly reflective compressor and turbine faces and a host of other techniques which help to reduce its footprint. Visibility to radar depends on an object’s radar cross section (RCS), which is a function of target size, shape and the material from which it is fabricated. Distance at which a target of a given RCS can be seen also depends on the wavelength of the radar illuminating it. Shaping is the primary method of reducing the strength of the reflected radiation. Target’s reflecting surfaces are so designed as to reflect energy away from the source. Thus while the emitting radar receives a much attenuated reflected signal, likelihood of radiation deflected in other directions being picked up by a receiver not co-located with the emitter (as in a bi-static arrangement), remains. To reduce the scatter from hotspot regions, recourse is taken to both active as well as passive methods. Active hotspot materials detect the incident radiation and respond by emitting signals of equal amplitude but opposite phase to cancel the reflected signal, thus reducing the effective RCS of the target. Though workable against simple radars, the technique

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n the history of development of fighter aircraft, generational categorisation has been an afterthought. The terminology appeared for the first time in 1996 when F-22, the Raptor, made its appearance in the American skies. In the manner of a challenge, Russians announced that they will respond with their own fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA). Since then the term has become a common currency in military aviation community. While there are no clear lines of demarcation which either qualify or exclude aircraft from the fifth generation category, yet some characteristics or attributes which a fifth generation fighter would possess are now widely accepted. Currently, American F-22 Raptor stands in a class of its own and is generally considered the benchmark of a fifth generation fighter’s attributes. Several others, viz., the US-led joint strike fighter F-35, Russian PAK-FA, Indo-Russian FGFA, and perhaps Chinese Chengdu J-20 are in various stages of development.

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Fifth Generation Aircraft and Enabling Technologies Stealth Of all attributes, stealth or low observability is perhaps the most important defining characteristic of a FGFA. It is low visibility against the entire spectrum of sensors (including radar, infrared, acoustic and

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While fifth generation fighters are extremely capable machines, they are also expensive enough to strain even the most generous military budgets. Besides the high capital costs, studies have shown that cost of operating and supporting an aircraft could exceed the initial purchase price by as much as tenfold. Therefore technologies which help reduce ownership costs by maximising asset utilisation are much sought after.

INDIAN DEFENCE

First Look, First Shot, First Kill

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Multi-Role Aircraft

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Army, Sukhoi, USAF, snafu-solomon.blogspot.in

4

Fifth Generation

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Rear Admiral (Retd) Dr S. Kulshrestha

Nanotechnology represents one of those emerging ‘platform’ technologies that can provide much needed enhanced capabilities to the defence of a country. Nanotechnology is a field that does not stem from one established academic discipline. There are a number of ways in which nanotechnology may be defined. The most common version regards nano-science is “the ability to do things—measure, see, predict and make—on the scale of atoms and molecules and exploit the novel properties found at that scale”. Traditionally, this scale is defined as being between 0.1 and 100 nanometres (nm), one nm being one-thousandth of a micron (micrometre (mm)), which in turn is one-thousandth of a millimetre (mm). However, this definition is open to interpretation and may readily be applied to a number of different technologies that have no obvious common relationship. Another way to characterise nanotechnology is by distinguishing between the fabrications processes of top-down and bottom-up. Top-down technology refers to the ‘fabrication of nano-scale structures by machining and etching technique’. However, top-down means more than just miniaturisation. At the nanoscale level different laws of physics come into play, properties of traditional materials change, and the behaviour of surfaces start to dominate the behaviour of bulk materials. On the other hand, bottom-up technology—often referred to as molecular nanotechnology (MNT)—applies to the creation of organic and inorganic structures, atom by atom, or molecule by molecule. It is this area of nanotechnology that has created the most excitement and publicity. In a mature nanotech world, macrostructures would simply be grown from their smallest constituent components: an ‘anything

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he concept of nanotechnology took birth on December 29, 1959, when Nobel laureate Richard Feynman uttered, “I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously....The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of manoeuvring things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big.” He was delivering a lecture titled, “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, An Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics”, at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). By his talk he had excited the realm of physics and opened up endless possibilities of research and exploration. In 1974, Norio Taniguchi, introduced the term nanotechnology when he said, “Nanotechnology mainly consists of the processing of separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule.” He was speaking of the so-called ‘top down’ approach of manufacturing relating to semiconductor processes. In 1986, K. Eric Drexler is credited with giving the word nanotechnology a much wider connotation, when he defined the term from the viewpoint of a physicist, as “large-scale mechano-synthesis based on positional control of chemically reactive molecules.”

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Nanotechnology is permeating in the commercial arena at a tremendous pace; an indicator is the fivefold expansion of nano-business, from $32 billion to $150 billion, during 2006 to 2008. It is also going to transform the maritime combat space profoundly in near future. Therefore, it is imperative to take cognisance of this enabling technology and prepare for incorporating its naval weapon systems and doctrines for winning battles at sea.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Providing Enhanced Capabilities for Defence

REGIONAL BALANCE

Nano Sonic, altairnano.com, zyvexmarine

5

Nanotechnology Application in the Navy

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CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Smita Purushottam

phase (1991-93). The current economic slowdown and whittling down of the manufacturing sector in India can be attributed to the neglect of core sector reforms, something China tackled early on, with a host of repercussions for sustained growth in many sectors.” The Indian economy was forced to skip the manufacturing stage and assume a verisimilitude of the structure of matured economies, characterised by a larger share of the services sector in their GDP. The dazzling growth of the information technology sector created a hollow narrative of India’s technological prowess, masking the technology deficit in the rest of the economy. It also induced complacency regarding the urgency of second generation reforms to strengthen the beleaguered manufacturing sector. Even more tragically, no attention was paid to the need for technologically upgrading the economy. The steep fall in the Indian currency was a natural outcome of the processes described above. Sober economists predicted that unless there was a paradigm change, India will fade away John Anderson wrote in April 2012, “India’s best growth days are way behind it, and there’s a serious risk that India spends the next decade grinding back down to the old ‘Hindu rate’.” According to him, one of the reasons was the structural failure to develop “labour-intensive light manufacturing exports,” in the absence of which “India faces a continually widening deficit trend as far as the eye can see.” And with a deceleration even in existing exports, India’s savings rate could also plummet, thus endangering further growth. This was in line with Professor Justin Yifu Lin’s explanation for the success of developing economy models based on the comparative advantage following strategy of development. Lin had stated, “A

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he sharp depreciation of the Indian rupee over the summer of 2012 should have set the alarm bells ringing in the Indian policy establishment. Overnight, the Indian economy shrank by 20 per cent in dollar terms. The economy’s import dependence ensured that this would aggravate inflationary trends. The devaluation reflected the falling international competitiveness of the Indian economy and brought into question many aspects of the research and development (R&D)-deficient services sector led Indian “growth” model, based on high imports and the accumulation of unsustainable trade deficits. High growth over a decade had stemmed from the efficiency gains of reforms implemented since 1991. These had partially unleashed the natural exuberance of India’s entrepreneurial class. High savings and investment rates and the growth of India’s services and manufacturing sectors induced worldwide optimism over the prospects of the Indian economy. But the post-1991 reforms had not focused on developing indigenous manufactures, or on tackling the key and related “decelerators”—the infrastructure deficit, practically non-existent R&D, and rentier behaviours. Instead, India implemented only the “easy reforms”. And as pointed out in 2001, by “neglecting infrastructure, India did not derive full advantage from the limited liberalisation effected in this

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INDIAN DEFENCE

By erecting an integrated civil and military high-tech production structure, India can graduate to the next higher stage of economic well-being. The Indian economy must remain open, competitive and integrated on its own terms with the rest of the world. At the same time the government has to ensure that all this is achieved in an ecologically responsible fashion.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Promoting India’s Manufacturing Sector

REGIONAL BALANCE

Development

SP Guide Pubns, Nexter, BEL

6

Indigenous High-Tech

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CONTENTS

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India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Programme

TECHNOLOGY

blogspot.com, wikipedia, PIB, SP Guide Pubns

7

Indigenous Missile

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

B

y the 1980s, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) became confident that they had acquired adequate know-how in the field of missile technology to develop indigenous missile systems. Thus they conceived the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) in 1983. Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the erstwhile Project Director for the SLV-3 programme at the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), was appointed Director of Defence Electronics and Research Laboratory (DLRL) to lead the programme. Initially it was planned to develop the missiles sequentially but later on it was decided to develop them concurrently as follows: n Prithvi: Short-range surface-to-surface missile n Nag: Third generation anti-tank missile n Trishul: Short-range low-level surface-to-air missile n Akash: Medium-range surface-to-air missile n Agni: It was initially planned to develop Agni series of missiles as a technology demonstrator but later on it was converted into a full programme for developing strategic missiles including intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM).

Nag Nag is a third generation ‘fire and forget’, all-weather anti-tank missile which is a top attack missile with a range of more than four km. High explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead on Nag is capable of defeating modern tanks having explosive reactive armour or composite armour. Sighting system is imaging infrared which is allweather and the mode of launch is ‘lock on before launch’. Nag can be both mounted on a special vehicle or a helicopter. Nag missile carrier (NAMICA) has been specially developed for it. Integration with Dhruv helicopter is being carried out. There have been a large number of trials since the inception of the programme. However, the problem with the seeker still exists at higher temperatures. Seeker technology is very exclusive and available in a handful of countries like the United States, Russian Federation and France. It is also very costly, especially the active seekers. Nag is thus accurate at about 2.5 km in all conditions but in extreme hot conditions the accuracy flounders at higher ranges. Latest report on trials conducted in midAugust 2012 indicate that Nag has again failed and even NAMICA is not pulling its load.

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Prithvi The Prithvi series is a family of tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) whose development started in 1983 and the

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first test-firing was carried out in February 1988 from Sriharikota. It has been developed for the Army, Navy and the Air Force. It has a range of about 150 km to 350 km and can carry a nuclear warhead. Its guidance system is inertial with terminal guidance. Dhanush is a naval variant of the Prithvi with a range of about 350 km. It has been customised for naval role to be fired from onboard a ship. It has been successfully fired from INS Subhadra and Rajput.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

BUSINESS

With the launch of Agni-V, India has now joined the elite club of the US, UK, France, Russia and China. The country is now set to develop reusable rockets which will combine the technologies of both ballistic and cruise missiles.


Surveillance Systems in Ground Operations

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Military Systems

USAF, US Army

8

Unmanned

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Attempts had been made to develop a powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), also called drones, since 1915, but the real push came during the Vietnam War by the US Air Force (USAF) after they lost many pilots during missions. Earlier, the most famous example was of Gary Powers when his U-2 was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960. “Red Wagon” was one of the earlier programmes launched by the USAF. The first US UAV to be downed by the North Vietnamese Navy was during August 1964 in Tonkin Gulf. UAV development and employment by the US was a very ‘hush hush’ affair and only in 1973 it was disclosed by USAF that it had flown about 3,435 UAV missions during the Vietnam War. The role was of reconnaissance and gathering of intelligence with zero risk to pilots. Since then USAF has not looked back and every combat situation from Vietnam to Afghanistan has seen better and better UAVs. In the 1990s, the US gave a contract to AAI Corporation (now it is an operating unit of Textron Systems Corporation) along with Israeli company Mazlat and the US Navy bought Pioneer which was produced by them. It was used extensively during the 1991 Gulf War. The earlier UAVs were primarily meant for surveillance and gathering intelligence but later on some were given attack capability like the General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, which was armed with AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles and named unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs). UCAVs are now been extensively used by the US in Afghanistan and Pakistan

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against terrorists. Israel is another nation which has been leading in UAV development and extensive employment during the 1973 Yom Kippur War where they were used for carrying out real-time surveillance, electronic warfare and decoys. Role: The foremost military role is that of battlefield intelligence, followed by attack capability, decoys; and as aerial targets for training of gunners, missile and radar operators. They could also be used in a limited logistics role for which development is in progress. The same capabilities can be effectively used for homeland security as well for commercial role. The USAF flies 39 orbits daily over Afghanistan and Iraq, and this number is expected to increase as the role gets enlarged. An orbit is a 24-hour combat flight by a single UAV. In the US, a law has been passed to permit the use of UAVs for commercial purposes. This will result in proliferation of the UAVs flights in the domestic skies thus the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had to step in to coordinate and control all aerial movement. FAA defines UAVs as unmanned aerial system to include control systems and ground operators. Classification: Classification is carried out by capability and role and may differ from country to country. The US has the largest inventory and is also the largest employer of UAVs thus their classification is universally understood which is generally as follows: n Small/Micro UAV like BATMAV. n Low-altitude, long-endurance like Gnat 750. RQ-11B Raven B. n Medium-altitude, long-endurance (MALE) like MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper. n High-altitude, long-endurance conventional (HALE). Altitude: 60,000 feet to 65,000 feet (19,800 m), less than 300 knots (560 kmph)

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Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

BUSINESS

The earlier UAVs were primarily meant for surveillance and intelligence gathering but later on some were given attack capability like the General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, which was named UCAVs. UCAVs are now been extensively used by the US in Afghanistan and Pakistan against terrorists.


CONTENTS

www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

by any one platform. Its unique multi-modal design permits airborne, seaborne and land operations in a single platform. Amphibious aircraft can operate both on land and water while seaplanes can operate from water surfaces only. Beginning its debut on March 28, 1911, when the Hydravion took off from water at Martinque, seaplanes by the end of World War I had completed transcontinental flights and in some instances have even been refuelled by ships and submarines at sea. After World War II, seaplanes lost their charm though limited civil and commercial applications continued. Recent technological advances have now catapulted seaplanes into a veritable force-multiplier for maritime operations. Seaplanes can now provide mainland-inter island support, monitoring, servicing and protection of offshore assets, EEZ and high seas surveillance, reconnaissance and intelligence gathering, oceanic search and rescue and casualty evacuation, long-range fleet logistic and maintenance support, longrange visit, board, search and seizure operations, controlling derelicts, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations and countering small arms and drugs trafficking, human migration, poaching and toxic cargo dumping at sea, etc. Unlike conventional helicopters and aircraft, amphibian aircraft can land at the location and enforce the will or the law of the country. The unique feature of these aircraft is that it combines the capabilities of rapid surveillance and prompt response, whether for relief or arrest, in a single platform. Of particular significance is that as per the United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS), military aircraft are “entitled to seize” (Article 107) and enjoy “right of visit” (Article

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ith India aspiring for regional power status, its Navy must not only be able to address the immediate security needs of the country and defeat the enemies of the state, but must also be able to contribute in benign and constabulary operations in its area of interest and influence for the regional good. From a maritime perspective, this power status contributes to burden sharing towards protection of global public goods and the oceanic commons to achieve first, freedom of navigation and safety at sea; second, promote regional stability through an open and participative security architecture; third, proactively alleviate suffering during disasters in the littorals of friendly nations: and finally, a constabulary capacity to maintain order at sea for the common good of the region. Development of such capabilities and induction of the appropriate enabling systems signal a firm regional commitment towards maintaining regional stability and maritime security and safety but is also an affirmation of delivering on the natural responsibilities that come with great power status. While ships, submarines and aircraft are all qualified in some way or the other for fulfilling the above missions, each of these platforms is also limited by some capability gap or the other. Modern amphibian aircraft make possible a range of options not achievable

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Commodore (Retd) Sujeet Samaddar

INDIAN DEFENCE

n 

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

While ships, submarines and aircraft are all qualified in some way or the other for fulfilling the mission of maritime security, each of these platforms is limited by some capability gap or the other. Modern amphibian aircraft make possible a range of options not achievable by any one platform. Its unique multi-modal design permits airborne, seaborne and land operations in a single platform. Amphibious aircraft can operate both on land and water while seaplanes can operate from water surfaces only.

REGIONAL BALANCE

New Technology for Maritime Missions

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Aircraft

ShinMaywa, Beriev, Bombardier

9

Amphibious


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section three

Indian Army Modernisation Indian Navy Modernisation Indian Air Force Modernisation Defence Offset Policy Defence Procurement Procedure Development of Indian Defence Industry Defence Budget 2012-13 India’s Business Environment Global Contracts

109 113 117 121 127 133 137 141 149

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One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

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BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Business


Sikorsky S-70B helicopter

Security. One powerful idea. Battle-proven technology. State-of-the-art equipment. The S-70B protects above and below the water with anti-submarine / anti-surface mission solutions. Its array of field-proven capabilities and mission-adaptive systems makes the S-70B the world’s most capable maritime helicopter. Sikorsky: a business unit of United Technologies.

TEL: +91 11 40881000

Otis 

Pratt & Whitney 

Sikorsky 

UTC Aerospace Systems 

UTC Climate, Controls & Security


Rising Gap between Aspirations and Resources

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Modernisation

BAE Systems, DRDO, SP Guide Pubns

1

Indian Army

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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A

s an ancient civilisation but a young nation that is still in the process of nation building, India faces many threats and challenges to its external and internal security. The foremost among these are the long-festering dispute over Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) with Pakistan and the unresolved territorial and boundary dispute with China. Since its independence from the British on August 15, 1947, India has been forced to fight four wars with Pakistan (1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999) and one with China (1962). India’s internal security environment has been vitiated by a ‘proxy war’ through which Pakistan has fuelled an uprising in J&K since 1988-89. Various militant movements in India’s Northeastern states and the rising tide of Maoist terrorism in large parts of Central India have also contributed to internal instability. India’s regional security is marked by instability in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite these tensions, India has maintained its coherence and its GDP is now growing at an annual rate varying between six per cent and eight per cent. Growth at such a rapid rate would not have been possible but for the sustained vigilance maintained by the Indian armed forces and their many sacrifices in the service of the nation over the last six decades. With personnel strength of approximately 1.1 million soldiers, the Indian Army has made a huge contribution towards keeping the nation together, particularly in facing internal security challenges. It is a first-

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rate Army but has been saddled for long with second-rate weapons and equipment, despite heavy operational commitments on border management and in counter-insurgency operations. The Army would like to graduate to a network-centric force capable of effects-based operations—in short, a light, lethal and wired Army. The modernisation dilemma that the Indian Army faces is that the budgetary support available for modernisation is grossly inadequate. It can undertake substantive modernisation only by simultaneously effecting largescale downsizing so as to save on personnel costs—the largest chunk of the Army’s annual budget. However, it would not be prudent to downsize as the Army’s operational commitments on border management and internal security duties require large numbers of manpowerheavy infantry battalions. Hence, there is a gap between aspirations and resources. In his budget speech for 2012-13, former Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee set aside `1,93,007 crore ($40.44 billion) for defence expenditure. This is less than two per cent of the country’s projected GDP despite the recommendations of successive Standing Committees on Defence in India’s Parliament that it should be at least three per cent if the emerging threats and challenges are to successfully countered. Meanwhile, China has increased its official defence expenditure for 2012 by 11.2 per cent to $106 billion while its actual expenditure on defence is likely to be close to $150 billion to $160 billion (3.5 per cent of its GDP). In the current defence budget, an amount of `79,578 crore (15 per cent increase, 41.15 per cent of the budget) has been allotted on the capital account for the acquisition of modern weapon systems in the

REGIONAL BALANCE

n Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

BUSINESS

The country needs to spend much more on its defence if another military debacle like that of 1962 war with China is to be avoided. This is one field in which complacency costs lives and imposes unacceptable burdens during crisis situations.


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip Deshpande

a large group of international maritime strategists and who had in service developed the required scholarship to be able to put into precise words what others only felt deep down but could not articulate. However, it cannot be anybody’s suggestion that now the job is done, we can sit back and relax. For effective and continued modernisation, each new generation would need to continue to indulge in this cerebral exercise.

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any authors, almost all retired officers of the Navy, have articulated in print their vision of how the Indian Navy is being or should be modernised. Serving officers have also articulated, though not always in print and generally not on record, their views on Navy’s modernisation imperatives, plans, pitfalls, focus areas. Both end up giving their grand vision. What is most heartening is that this topic, which at one time was restricted to the policy and plans Directorates in Naval Headquarters, has begun to attract the attention of others interested in maritime affairs. Any discussion on modernisation begins by acknowledging the country’s emergence as an economic power in the world political arena and follows up by listing the three seminally important documents— The Maritime Doctrine enunciated in 2004, the Maritime Capability Perspective Plan and India’s Maritime Military Strategy both brought out in 2006. There followed documents in 2007, detailing guidelines for transformation. It can thus be observed that a serious effort has been made in the last decade-and-a-half to formulate and articulate a vision for the future of the Indian Navy and draw a roadmap for attaining it. This was a necessary first step in the quest for building a Navy that India requires. These documents were the result of a careful and coordinated thought process, pieced together by individuals and leaders who were exposed to

Indigenous Construction Programme Discussions on modernisation quite naturally centres on the creation and maintenance of force levels. Initially, in the post-independence era, the build-up of the then required force levels was done almost exclusively by procuring a mix of platforms from abroad. Fortunately, the wisdom of the pioneers of the Indian Navy that a Navy cannot be bought through import, but needs to be built, has found wide and universal acceptance. The first and the most successful application of this vision was the indigenous warship construction programme. Programme for indigenous construction of Leander class frigates at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) was planned and executed so meticulously that it was possible to sustain not only the hulls, but also the machinery and equipment through the four Leander classes, the two modified Taragiri class, and the three Godavari class frigates. In fact, the success with these platforms prompted Navy to opt and leapfrog into three more in the form of state-of-the-art Bramhaputra class. Mere construction of Leander class frigates to an imported design alone could not have brought the Navy to its present stature of preeminence in indigenisation of its force levels. Simultaneously, with ship

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The process of modernisation of the Indian Navy cannot remain confined to platforms, hardware, sensors and weapons. These assets have to be manned by a trained and committed crew, led by competent officers with outstanding leadership qualities. The Indian Navy has taken the lead in introducing a high level of technological training amongst its officer cadre at the basic training stage.

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An Integrated and Inclusive Approach

REGIONAL BALANCE

Modernisation

Indian Navy, PIB, Boeing

2

Indian Navy

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n 

AIR MARSHAL (RETD) V.K. BHATIA

it was forced to fight with its neighbouring countries, India embarked on a soul-searching mission to rationalise its defence needs. In the 1960s, post two quick conflicts with China and Pakistan, various studies were conducted to strengthen the armed forces. And as far as the IAF was concerned, a force level of up to 64 squadrons (with 45 combat squadrons) was recommended to effectively fight against its belligerent neighbours. The closest that the IAF has been able to come to this was the officially declared figure of 39½ combat squadrons achieved during the golden era of the 1970s and 1980s. The late 1970s saw the dawn of the golden decade of the IAF with the induction of the Anglo-French Sepecat Jaguar deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) into operational service. This was quickly followed by the induction of the Soviet MiG-23s both strike and air defence versions into the IAF in substantial numbers. MiG-27, a fixed-intake improvement of the MiG-23BN, did not only follow in quick succession, but this variant was also licence-produced by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). At about the same time, the IAF also received from the Soviet Union the Mach-3 strategic reconnaissance version of the formidable MiG-25 and the MiG-29 air superiority fighters. But the icing on the cake was the prize acquisition of the multi-role Mirage 2000 from France which formed two front line stateof-the-art IAF combat squadrons in the early 1980s. These also provided much greater teeth in terms of enhanced operational capability and were to show their prowess later during the 1999 Kargil War against Pakistan. These were truly happier times for the IAF, but unfortunately the golden period did not last long. The beginning of the 1990s witnessed the then unimaginable and sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union as

S

ustained and fast-paced economic growth since the dawn of the new millennium has put India in the forefront of the leading nations of the world. Emergence of India as the new economic powerhouse has also put additional responsibilities on the shoulders of its armed forces, especially the Indian Air Force (IAF), which has aspired for more than a decade now to transform itself from a mere subcontinental tactical force to an intercontinental strategic aerospace power in conformity with other leading air forces in the world. India’s economic rise on the world stage coupled with changing geopolitical-cum-security scenarios has transformed the IAF’s perceptions of its vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities. But has the IAF been able to equip itself adequately to live up to its aspirations or to match its increasing roles and responsibilities?

Background

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To redux, throughout its long and mostly turbulent history, the IAF has at times super-cruised, and at other times, literally stalled in its quest to create operational capabilities to meet the multifarious challenges. This has by and large been due to the knee-jerk policies of the Indian Government, which is known to respond only in a reactive mode as far as the country’s defence needs are concerned. In the past, after each war,

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India’s economic rise on the world stage coupled with changing geopolitical-cum-security scenarios has transformed the Indian Air Force perceptions of its vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities. But has the IAF been able to equip itself adequately to live up to its aspirations or to match its increasing roles and responsibilities?

INDIAN DEFENCE

Enhancing its War-fighting Capabilities

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Modernisation

REGIONAL BALANCE

Dassault Aviation, SP Guide Pubns, USAF, Airbus Military

3

Indian Air Force

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CONTENTS

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Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

Many knowledgeable observers compared the policy to a rudderless ship meandering aimlessly. For the first time, DOG has explicated the main objective of the defence offset policy. It is to leverage capital acquisitions to develop Indian defence industry by fostering development of internationally competitive enterprises; augmenting capacity for research, design and development related to defence products and services; and encouraging development of synergistic sectors like civil aerospace and internal security. It is a welcome step. It will help all stakeholders and participants to undertake offset programmes that focus on the development of the indigenous defence industry. In other words, India’s approach is likely to be more focused now.

T

he long-awaited changes in the defence offset policy were finally notified by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) through a press release on August 2, 2012. The new Defence Offset Guidelines (DOG) had earlier been approved by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) at its meeting held on July 23, 2012. DOG comes into effect from August 1, 2012. Major changes that alter the essential character of the defence offset policy have been incorporated. Acceptance of technology against offsets can be construed as a fundamental shift in India’s approach towards offsets. Earlier, transfer of technology (ToT) under offsets was being opposed on the specious excuse that India lacked necessary wherewithal to price technology realistically. Efforts have been made by the MoD to promulgate a well-evolved policy, covering all facets of the offset regime. The salient aspects that impact key stakeholders have been discussed in this article.

Earlier, foreign vendors had only two main avenues open to them to discharge their obligations—one, direct purchase or export of eligible products manufactured by, or services provided by Indian enterprises; and two, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Indian defence industry and defence research and development (R&D). In the new guidelines, FDI route has been split into three distinct avenues. Further, the scope of offset activities has been enlarged by adding two more options— provision of equipment and technology to government entities and acquisition of technology by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) (see Illustration 1). As mentioned above and shown in Illustration 2, the old route of foreign investment has now been split into the following avenues:

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Spelling out of Objectives Offset policy of every country is always in consonance with its national economic objectives. Inexplicably, India’s defence offset policy has been without a well-defined aim so far. No one, including the MoD, knew as to what was being sought through the leverage of offsets. Lack of specific objectives spelt-out in definite terms has been a major weakness.

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Enlarged Scope of Offset Activities

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n 

TECHNOLOGY

The most startling and inexplicable feature of the Defence Offset Guidelines is the division of responsibility between the Acquisition Wing of Department of Defence and Defence Offsets Management Wing (DOMW) of Department of Defence Production. Whereas the former has been allowed to exercise complete control till the signing of the offset contract, post-contract management will be carried out under the aegis of DOMW.

BUSINESS

Going through Paradigm Transformation

INDIAN DEFENCE

Offset Policy

PIB, SP Guide Pubns

4

Defence

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CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Procedure

US Army, USAF, BAE Systems

5

Defence Procurement

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CONTENTS

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An Update on Planning and Acquisition

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

A

defence procurement procedure is a management process by which a nation provides the defence equipment sought by its armed forces in the required time frame and with the best value for money. Core contours of every defence acquisition procedure are shaped by the nature of tasks envisaged for the armed forces, level of prevailing excellence in defence technology, state of indigenous industry, dependence on imports, need for synergy of equipment, and availability of funds. Consequently, every country evolves its own distinct system that suits its national strategic aims and is in consonance with the prevailing environment. Procurement of new weaponry and equipment in all countries is a long, complex, arduous and time-consuming process. Multiple agencies have to perform vital functions, both concurrently and sequentially. A large number of interdependent variables have to be factored in to provide required equipment to the armed forces in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. There are three elements that dictate evolution of all acquisition procedures—equipment should meet performance criteria as specified by the armed forces; it should be delivered within the required timelines; and it should cost the country the least. Development and sustenance of indigenous defence industry is a natural fallout of the process. India is no exception. The government has been making a concerted effort to streamline the entire acquisition process through periodic reviews. Although a number of

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bold policy initiatives have been taken, India has not been able to evolve a truly dynamic, vibrant and responsive defence acquisition regime (see Illustration 1 for a brief of the progress made so far). Prior to 1990, procurement of defence equipment was carried out as per the normal rules governing all government purchases. No separate procedure for the procurement of defence equipment was evolved. After the disintegration of the erstwhile Soviet Union India had to source equipment from diversified sources. Necessity was felt for detailed guidelines for objective decision-making. In 1992, the first version of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) was issued. It primarily dealt with outright purchases only. Although certain modifications were issued over a period of time, DPP suffered from major infirmities. A major revision of DPP was undertaken in 2002 after the Kargil War to inject a higher degree of professionalism and reduce delays. A new integrated set-up called the Acquisition Wing was created under a Special Secretary with members from the civil services, defence services and finance. The scope was enlarged to include ‘Buy and Make through Imported Technology’ cases. First major review of DPP was carried out in 2005 wherein procedure for warship building was added and offset policy introduced. In 2006, with a view to ensure probity, signing of the Integrity Pact for deals over `100 crore was mandated. The fast track procedure for emergent procurements was updated. The next review in 2008 focused on ensuring avoidance of single-vendor deals and improving transparency of technical evaluation. Additionally, offset banking was allowed. Efforts were made in 2009 to promote the indigenous defence industry by creating another route of defence procurements through

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Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

BUSINESS

The government has been making a concerted effort to streamline the entire acquisition process through periodic reviews. Although a number of bold policy initiatives have been taken, India has not been able to evolve a truly dynamic, vibrant and responsive defence acquisition regime.


TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Defence Industry

BEL, DRDO, SP Guide Pubns

6

Development of Indian

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CONTENTS

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Need for Reforms and Refurbishment

Defence industry comprises all industrial undertakings engaged in the production of hardware and services for use by the defence forces. The start of the Gun and Shell Factory at Cossipore in 1801 is generally considered to mark the establishment of the Indian defence industry. India had 16 ordnance factories producing low-tech items at the time of independence. Additional factories came up in due course. India has 39 ordnance factories now. In 1954, the Bharat Electronics Ltd was established as the first defence public sector undertaking (DPSU). Currently, there are nine DPSUs under MoD, including four shipyards. The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 put defence under Schedule ‘A’, thereby making it an exclusive reserve of the public sector. After a long gap of 35 years, manufacture of components, assemblies and sub-assemblies was thrown open to the private sector in 1991. It took MoD another 11 years to allow the private sector to participate in defence production. A policy directive was promulgated in January 2002 allowing 100 per cent private equity with 26 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI). Subsequently, the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion issued detailed guidelines for the issuance of licence for the production of arms and ammunition.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

W

hile addressing the members of the scientific community of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) on July 31, 2012, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh lamented the fact that the indigenous defence industrial capability had remained inadequate, resulting in continued dependence on imports. Serious concerns had been expressed earlier as well. However, no tangible steps have ever been taken to initiate corrective measures. Reforms have been limited to minor procedural changes only. In addition to national security imperatives and economic factors, defence industry is generally considered to be an instrument of national sovereignty and pride. Every nation that aspires to acquire a status of influence amongst the comity of nations has to be self-reliant in defence production. Imported defence systems are like crutches that can provide only temporary sustenance but not steadfast power. It was in early 1990s that the Ministry of Defence (MoD) announced its resolve to reduce imports from the then existing level of 70 per cent to 30 per cent within a decade. The same assertion is being repeated at regular intervals. Over 20 years have elapsed and the imports have climbed close to 75 per cent. Worse, India is forced to import all modern defence systems as the indigenous defence capability remains limited to the production of low-tech equipment and sub-assemblies.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

A Saga of Neglect

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

Reasons for the Current Dismal State

Geographically, India is located at the centre of a highly volatile region and knows that it has to be militarily strong to safeguard its national interests. It is also aware of the fact that no nation can feel secure without self-reliance in defence production. Therefore, neglect of the Indian defence industry defies logic.

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BUSINESS

Geographically, India is located at the centre of a highly volatile region and knows that it has to be militarily strong to safeguard its national interests. It is also aware of the fact that no nation can feel secure without selfreliance in defence production. Therefore, neglect of the Indian defence industry defies logic.


TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Budget 2012-13

USAF, Indian Navy, Dassault Aviation

7

Defence

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Highest Increase in Recent Years

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

B

uilding a military capability is a long-term exercise. In the Indian context, it involves formulation of the 15-year longterm integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) by Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff in consultation with the Service Headquarters (Army, Navy and Air Force). The five years capital acquisition plan and the annual acquisition plans are derived from the LTIPP and form the basis of working out the capital budget for all major procurements during a year. The capital budget requirement of each service added to the revenue budget constitutes their overall budget demand during the year for the three services. In addition, the defence budget also includes fund allocation for research and development, and many other miscellaneous departments of the Ministry of Defence (MoD).

Threats and Challenges The security threats and challenges facing India have increased enormously. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain, new threats and challenges like terrorism and insurgencies have been added to the old inventory. Thus India needs to prepare itself for the full-spectrum of warfare ranging from low-intensity conflict involving counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations to conventional conflicts under the nuclear shadow on two widely separated fronts on its western and eastern flanks. The dilemma is only regarding the extent

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of emphasis that should be laid to acquire each type of capability. Thus the requirements of the services are vast and wide-ranging. The Budget 2012-13, presented to the Parliament on March 16, 2012, has increased the defence budget to `1,93,407.29 crore ($40.44 billion). This represents a growth of 17.63 per cent over the previous year’s budget. After 2009-10, the budget was increased by 34 per cent due to the heavy increase in revenue expenditure caused by the recommendations of the Sixth Central Pay Commission. It is this year’s defence budget which seems to have witnessed the highest increase in recent years. However with the ‘slowdown’ in the economy, this increase appears illusory. The increase in the defence budget has been shown as nearly 18 per cent. However, the actual increase is only 13.5 per cent if the figures of the revised estimates (RE) are taken into consideration for the year 2011-12. The upward revision from RE stage of 2011-12 to budget estimates (BE) stage of 2012-13 of the revenue budget amounts to `9,036 crore and of the capital budget is `13,435 crore, thus bringing the total increase in defence budget from RE stage of the concluding year to the BE stage of 2012-13 to `22,471 crore. However, if the figures of BE stage of the concluding year to BE stage of 2012-13 are taken, then the increase is `28,993 crore. Therefore, the actual increase from the RE stage is only 13.5 per cent The increase in the defence budget is misleading if one does not see the finer print and understand the totality of the impact on various aspects of the budget. It can be broadly concluded (see figures in the table) that while the share of the defence budget in the GDP has marginally increased, its share in Central Government expenditure has fallen.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

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n 

BUSINESS

The defence budget has increased to `1,93,407.29 crore. This represents a growth of 17.63 per cent over the previous year’s budget. However, the actual increase is only 13.5 per cent if the figures of the revised estimates are taken into consideration for the year 2011-12.


Internal-External Threats and Responses

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Environment

PIB, Indian Navy

8

India’s Business

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

he international strategic and political environment has deteriorated with flux in West Asia after the tumultuous unfolding of Arab Spring, economic crisis in Euro zone and depressing growth of the global economy in general. India’s neighbourhood remains challenged with Afghanistan-Pakistan region in continuing grip of militancy and terrorism. The uncertainty of the pull out of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2014 from Afghanistan without assured indigenous security capacity within, is posing a serious threat of spiralling extremist violence in other parts of South Asia and particularly India due to geographic proximity. China’s increasingly aggressive posture in the South China Sea in particular and re-balancing by the United States in the Asia Pacific has resulted in a new set of dynamics unfolding in South East Asia, which was relatively stable hithertofore. Preoccupation of major states with political and economic stability in their own sphere of influence highlighted the necessity for strengthening defence and security capacity by swing states as India in all spheres. Internally, inequitable growth, unemployment, inadequate education opportunities, and denial of basic human freedoms is leading to spectre of radicalisation of youth, intolerance and extremism in India. These issues were succinctly highlighted in the address of then President Pratibha Devisingh Patil to the joint sitting of Parliament on March 12, 2012, which flagged five challenges faced by India (see Box).

The New International Order–Polycentrism Globalisation has created structural interdependencies that are shaping inter-state relations in many dimensions— economic, trade, culture, technology and military, to name a few. This has reduced the significance of multi-polarity and enhanced mutual dependencies, thereby reducing the possibility of confrontations possible between states. Thus more and more the international order is being defined as ‘polycentric,’ rather than multi-polar. In a polycentric world order, the degree of autonomy of each pole is restricted due to interconnections and each country will have to achieve its national interests within the global commons. Uni- or multi-polar decision-making mechanisms are challenged under the polycentric order for it thrives on consensus rather than domination by one or other powers. At the same time, states that are removed from polycentrism such as Iran, North Korea and to some extent Pakistan, will pose a security challenge to the regional and global order. All these states are in the Asia-Pacific region. India shares a long border with Pakistan and has a legacy of disputes and wars. India is dependent on

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INDIAN DEFENCE

To sum up, Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh addressing the Combined Commanders Conference of the Indian armed forces in New Delhi in October 2011 highlighted the multiple challenges faced by the country and called for rapid and integrated response given demands of information age and technology proliferation. The focus in India thus remains on enhancing strategic autonomy and maximising independent thought and action in a complex international and regional environment. Some of the key factors determining the strategic and business environment in the region are discussed as follows:

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle

REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

BUSINESS

While there are challenges in the overall strategic and economic environment globally, India is set to continue on a path of consistent growth both in economy and defence sectors. While the economic growth in terms of GDP may not be as high as in the past, it is likely to remain in tandem with other emerging large economies as China.


149

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The Boeing Company, Long Beach, California

Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Bethpage, New York

The Boeing Company, St. Louis, Missouri

The Boeing Company, Long Beach, California

Boeing Company, St. Louis

US Air Force

US Navy

US Navy

Indian Air Force

Republic of Korea Air Force

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

BAE Systems Land $313 million & Armaments, L.P., York, Pennsylvania

US Army

REGIONAL BALANCE

Boeing Satellite Systems, Inc., El Segundo, California

US Air Force

10

12

5

Additional 5

14

Quantity

BUSINESS

F-15K fighter jets

C-17 aircraft

EA-18G Lot 36 full rate production airborne electronic attack kits

Lot 4 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft

C-17 Air Force aircraft

Modification to acquire engineering design, logistics and test and evaluation services

Modification of the wideband global SATCOM (WGS) Block-II

CH-47F model aircraft

Product/Job/Task

INDIAN DEFENCE

$300 million

$1.8 billion

$133 million

$781 million

$693 million

$377 million

$370 million

The Boeing Company, Ridley Park, Pennsylvania

US Army

Contract Value

Country/Supplier/ Company

Country/Recipient

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Contract from the Republic of Korea’s Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA)

Ten C-17 aircraft will be procured for the IAF under FMS

Procurement of 12 EA-18G Lot 36 full rate ­production airborne electronic attack kits

Five low rate initial production Lot 4 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft

To procure five additional C-17 Air Force aircraft

Acquire engineering design, logistics and test and evaluation services in support of the Paladin integrated management system

Exercises the option to produce, process, launch and activate on-orbit satellite vehicle 9 as previously negotiated

Services in support of the bridge requirement for new CH-47F model aircraft to support ­foreign military sales

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

5 years contract

July 2014

September 2014

May 2015

March 2013

January 2015

May 2013

June 2016

Date of Delivery

TECHNOLOGY

February 2012

February 2012

February 2012

January 2012

January 2012

January 2012

January 2012

January 2012

Date of Contract

Global Contracts

CONTENTS

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Country/Supplier/ Company

The Boeing Company, Ridley Park, Pennsylvania

ITT Systems Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado

Harris Corporation, Melbourne, Fla. / Brisbane

Austal USA, Mobile, Alabama

US Defense Security Cooperation Agency

General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Corporation, San Diego, California

GE Engine Services, Inc., Arkansas City, Kansas

The Boeing Company, Missouri

Lockheed Martin, Mission System and Sensors, Liverpool, New York

The Boeing Company, Mesa, Arizona

Country/Recipient

US Army

US Army

Australian Department of Defence

US Navy

Government of Japan

US Navy

US Army

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

US Army

US Army

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Apache Block III programme

AN/TPQ-36 radars

F-15 Saudi advanced aircraft

T700 and T701D turbine engines

Mobile landing platform ship

6 KC-130R and 30 T-56-A-16 engines

Joint high speed vessels 8 and 9

Falcon tactical radio systems

Information technology support services

CH-47F new build cargo helicopters

Product/Job/Task

84

32

Quantity

March 2012

March 2012

March 2012

February 2012

February 2012

February 2012

February 2012

February 2012

February 2012

February 2012

Date of Contract

July 2014

February 2017

October 2020

January 2017

January 2015

April 2016

September 2016

December 2015

Date of Delivery

Development, integration and testing requirements on the Apache Block III programme

Enhanced AN/TPQ-36 radars, including spares, testing and training materials

Procure 84 new F-15 Saudi advanced aircraft with systems and munitions

Recapitalisation and overhaul services of the T700 and T701D turbine engines

Detail design and construction of a third Mobile Landing Platform ship

The deal is for 6KC-130R and associated engines

Construction options for joint high speed ­vessels 8 and 9

The radios for Australia’s armed forces.

Information technology support services to US Army Europe, US European Command, and US Africa Command

32 CH-47F new build cargo helicopters

Remarks

Business

$166 million

$11.4 billion

$242 million

$360 million

$170 million

$322 million

$235 million

$159 million

$676 million

Contract Value

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global contracts


Saudi Air Force

US Army

Iraq

US Air Force

US Navy

Swedish Defence Material Administration

Country/Recipient

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Indian Air Force

$51 million

$295 million

$367 million

Harris Corporation

Oshkosh Corporation, Oshkosh, Wisconsin

BAE Systems

Lockheed Martin

BAE Systems, Nashua, New Hamphsire

Laser-guided bombs for the Jaguar fighter ­aircraft fleet

70

275

70

BUSINESS

Digital electronic warfare systems (DEWS)/common missile warning systems (CMWS)

INDIAN DEFENCE

`100 crore ($20 million approx.)

$366 million

Sniper advanced targeting pod and spares; compact multiband data link; infrared search and track (IRST) systems and spares; IRST pylons and data

Digital Electronic Warfare Systems (DEWS)/Common Missile Warning Systems (CMWS)

Family of medium tactical vehicles

High-performance tactical communication solutions

Missiles and associated ­equipment

V-22 AE1107C turboshaft engines

System maintenance regarding Gripen

Quantity

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Supply of laser-guided bombs for the Jaguar fighter aircraft fleet in the Indian Air Force

70 Digital Electronic Warfare Systems/ Common Missile Warning Systems and spares; three DEWS/CMWS test stations and associated spares; and data

95 sniper advanced targeting pod and spares; 35 compact multiband data link; 70 infrared search and track (IRST) systems and spares; 75 IRST pylons; and data

Contract to deliver 70 Digital Electronic Warfare Systems

Services in support for the family of medium tactical vehicles

Falcon III RF-7800S wideband Secure Personal Radios, Falcon II RF-5800M multiband handheld radios and RF-5800H high-frequency manpack radios, along with accessories and training services

Missiles, instrumentation units, test equipment, guidance sections, hardware and contractor logistics support

V-22 AE1107C turboshaft engines for the Navy (232) and the Air Force (33)

Technical support, product maintenance, flight testing and flight simulator operation

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

November 2018

November 2017

November 2018

September 2014

January 2015

October 2017

Date of Delivery

TECHNOLOGY

April 2012

April 2012

April 2012

April 2012

April 2012

March 2012

March 2012

March 2012

March 2012

Date of Contract

CONTENTS

Business

REGIONAL BALANCE

151

US Air Force

$497 million

Raytheon Corporation, Missile Systems, Tucson, Arizona

$410 million

$150 million

Rolls-Royce Corporation, Indianapolis, Indiana

Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control, Orlando, Florida

128 million kronor ($19.29 million)

Defence and security company Saab

Product/Job/Task

global contracts

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

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US Air Force

Contract Value

Country/Supplier/ Company

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section four

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Indian Defence 157 165 189 217 243 253 273 297

  Homeland Security One Two Three Four

India’s Homeland Security Internal Security Maoist Insurgency India’s Coastal Surveillance

305 315 327 331

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who’s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence R&D

REGIONAL BALANCE

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

INDIAN DEFENCE

Contents


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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n Management of Defence n Internal Security n Border Management n Intelligence Systems and Apparatus The task force on the management of defence, headed by Arun Singh, recommended among other things, the appointment of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the setting up of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS).

T

he time has come to take stock of the defence set-up and review what has already been achieved so far, and plans be made on how to move further on the path. But empirical evidence suggests that it would not be an easy task given the number of contextual inhibiting factors. The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC), when it became clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three services and that the time had come for ‘jointmanship’. Working under the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS), the DPS had under it directorates covering policy and plans, international and regional security affairs, weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the military wing, which was established at the time of independence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After the Kargil War in 1999, the report of the Kargil Review Committee (KRC), headed by K. Subrahmanyam, was examined by a Group of Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task forces to review the national security system:

Key GoM Recommendations After considering the report of the task force on the management of defence, the GoM made the following key recommendations: n Integration of the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry of Defence (MoD). n Creation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS). n Setting up of IDS to support the CDS. n Establishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). n Organising an Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC). n Creation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). n Establishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). n Setting up of an Indian National Defence University (INDU). n A number of other long-term recommendations on aspects concerning air space and maritime management, budgetary reforms including performance budgeting, private sector participation in defence production, improvement in service conditions, media handling and cost-effectiveness.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

INDIAN DEFENCE

Strengthening our military capabilities and internal security efforts are intricately linked with our broader political and economic objectives. If India has to survive as a modern and progressive nation that wishes to achieve its long-cherished goal of strategic autonomy, defence and security reforms have to be ushered in at a faster pace than hitherto before.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Need for Coordination and Jointness

REGIONAL BALANCE

Defence Staff

PIB, IDS

1

Integrated

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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Global Security Environment The global security architecture is shifting towards multi-polarity in power

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

I

equations with a discernible shift in the global Centre of Gravity to Asia. India’s security environment is defined by global and regional security concerns together with the growing internal security problems. The conventional threats from traditional adversaries, continuing presence of terrorist and fundamentalist forces in its western and eastern neighbourhood has prompted India to maintain high level of defence vigilance and preparedness to face any challenge to its security. The developments across India’s western borders are alarming and dangerous as the drift in both Pakistan and Afghanistan shows the lack of state control and breakdown of economy, law and order, and governance. Both states are staying afloat because of the aid from the United States and the international community. Moreover, there is also the ever present possibility of hostile radical fundamentalist elements gaining access to the weapons of mass destruction in Pakistan. The proxy war conducted by Pakistan against India and terrorist activities unleashed by the various radical jehadi outfits nurtured by them in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) are continuing unabated. In the Northeast, China’s challenge to India’s security is looming large on the horizon. Its strategy of encircling India through its neighbours and confining it within the subcontinent is apparent and palpable, apart from its outlandish claims on Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh. It has vastly improved the infrastructure in the form of roads and airfields opposite the entire Indian border especially opposite Arunachal Pradesh. Internally, the country faces a series of low-intensity conflicts characterised by tribal, ethnic and left-wing movements and ideologies and these conflicts have the capacity of deflecting the Indian Government from their long-term social and economic development

ndia’s land frontiers extend to more than 15,500 kilometres with maritime boundaries overlooking three major shipping lanes. India’s location vis-à-vis both continental Asia and the Indian Ocean region has a strategic significance. It has a landmass of 3.3 million square kilometres and is home to over 1.2 billion people with varying ethnic, linguistic, religious and cultural background. The topography of India is diverse, ranging from the snow-clad Himalayas with peaks over 28,000 feet to deserts, thick jungles and vast plains. The Siachen Glacier in the North is the world’s highest battlefield, with posts located as high as 21,000 feet. India’s Western border runs through deserts, fertile plains and thickly forested mountains. The North-Eastern frontier also comprises steep, high ranges and dense tropical forests. To the South, there are ranges close to the sea, inland plateaus interspersed with river valleys, coastal plains, and far-flung island territories such as the Lakshadweep to the West and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the East. On three sides, from Gujarat to West Bengal, the country is bordered by the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located 1,300 km away from the nearest point on our East Coast assume strategic prominance with respect to the entrance to the Malacca Strait. In the Arabian Sea, the Lakshadweep and Minicoy islands situated on the sea lines of communication running eastwards from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are 450 km away from the nearest point on the West Coast. India is, thus, a maritime as well as a continental entity.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Indian Army remains the repository of the Indian citizens’ hopes and aspirations. In a milieu of degenerating institutions, it remains, as is often touted, the last bastion that inspires confidence. As a result, the Indian Army’s role has gone far beyond national defence to also substantially address nation building. It is these influences that have shaped the role and functioning of the current Indian Army.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Meeting National Security Objectives

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Army

SP Guide Pubns, Indian Army

2

The

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‘We are duty bound to ensure operational readiness to meet any contingency in the external/internal security domain’ General Bikram Singh took over as the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) on May 31, 2012. In an interview with SP’s Military Yearbook, the COAS shared his thoughts on many important issues, including his key focus areas, future threats and challenges, modernisation of the Army, proposal for a Mountain Strike Corps and jointmanship among the three services.

SP’s: What are the key areas that you will focus on during your tenure as the COAS? COAS: I intend to focus on the following key areas: n Operational readiness to enable effective fulfilment of our constitutional obligations and assigned roles. n Force modernisation as per stipulated timelines, and address the existing “hollowness”. n Strengthen our work culture that hinges on professional ethos and uphold our cherished core values of integrity, loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service and honour. n Effective human resource management to ensure highest standards of motivation and morale. n Enhance security consciousness and strengthen our secular fabric and apolitical stature. n Enhance jointness with other services and strengthen our inter-

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP’s: What is your perception of the security challenges currently the nation is facing in general and the Indian Army in particular? What are the future challenges that we may have to confront? COAS: The present geopolitical environment in Asia and particularly in South Asia is dynamic. It poses security challenges to our Army across the entire spectrum of conflict, including both conventional and unconventional domains. These range from “traditional land-centric threats” along our borders to “asymmetric threats”, including proxy war and insurgency within our country. Also, rapid and exponential growth in the information and communication technologies, and cyber space, has created fresh technological challenges. Threats emanating from cyber domain have become an everyday reality. In the present milieu—threats are hybridised. There is a need to constantly review the challenges confronting the nation and the Army. The Indian Army is mindful of the conventional threats concurrent to the ongoing proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir and the Northeast. The Army is fully prepared, trained and is modernising to counter these security threats. The current and future challenges faced by the Indian Army mandate that we prepare for conventional conflict with concurrent engagement in sub-conventional conflicts. The new dimensions of threat include information and cyber space and militarisation of outer space. The hybrid

INDIAN DEFENCE

agency relationships. n Ensure welfare of veterans, veer naris and widows.

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

SP’s Military Yearbook (SP’s): How does it feel to take over the Indian Army, the second largest Army in the world, with its formidable reputation in the battlefield? Chief of Army Staff (COAS): I am elated and humbled on being bestowed with this responsibility. The Army and I will endeavour to live up to the expectations and the confidence which has been reposed by the nation. I assure the nation of dedication and professional focus and conduct from its Army.

TECHNOLOGY

SP Guide Pubns

Chief of Army Staff

BUSINESS

Interview

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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Length Barrel length Cartridge Action Rate of fire Muzzle velocity Effective range Feed system Sights

: 6.36 lb (2.88 kg) empty 6.9 lb (3.1 kg) with 30 rounds : 33 in (840mm) (stock extended) 29.75 in (756mm) (stock retracted) : 14.5 in (370mm) : 5.56×45mm NATO : Gas-operated, rotating bolt : 700–950 round/min cyclic : 2970 ft/sec (884 m/sec) : 500 m for a point target and 600 m for an area target : 30 round box magazine or other STANAG magazines : Iron or various optics

MBTs T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Width, over tracks Height, over turret roof Engine Road range

Armament and Ammunition

: 3 : 46,500 kg : 3.37 m

: Main: 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional ammunition. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min

: 2.23 m : V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multi-fuel diesel engine, developing 840 hp : 550 km

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Characteristics Weight

The M4 carbine is a family of firearms tracing its lineage back to earlier carbine versions of the M16 rifle, all based on the original AR-15 rifle designed by Eugene Stoner and made by ArmaLite. The M4 is a shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 assault rifle, with 80 per cent parts commonality. It is a gas-operated, magazine-fed, selective fire, shoulder-fired weapon with a telescoping stock. A shortened variant of the M16A2 rifle, the M4 has a 14.5 in (370mm) barrel, allowing its user to better operate in close quarters combat. The M4 has selective fire options including semi-automatic and three-round burst (like the M16A2 and M16A4), while the M4A1 has the capability to fire fully automatic instead of three-round burst (like the M16A1 and M16A3). The carbine is also capable of mounting an M203 grenade launcher (the M203A1 with a nine-inch barrel as opposed to the standard 12-inch barrel of the M203 used on the M16 series) as well as its successor, the M320 grenade launcher. The M4 carbine is heavily used by the US military.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

M4 Carbine (Under Consideration)

TECHNOLOGY

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army

BUSINESS

INDIAN DEFENCE

CONTENTS

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Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 46,500 kg Height : 2.228 m Armament : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSVT (300 rounds)

Main gun ammunition : Engine : Speed : Range : Armour protection :

Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds) 45 x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH (inclusive 6 ATGW) V-12 multi-fuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2,000 rpm 60 kmph (max) 550 km 280mm (max)

INDIAN DEFENCE

T-72S

: 35 to 45 kmph : 60° : 850mm

Note: Other improvements include explosive reactive armour, integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS.

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Power to weight ratio Max speed (on road) Max speed (Cross country) Gradient Ability Vertical obstacle

Trench crossing : 2.6 to 2.8 m Shallow fording : 1.2 m Armament : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG AD: 1 x 12.7mm MG Elevation/depression : 16° to -6˚ Traverse : 360° Max range : 3 km Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min Ammunition loading : Auto Ammunition stowage : 44 projectiles/charges

: 3 : 43,500 kg : 2.19 m : Up rated V46-6 engine; a 12 cylinder 4 stroke, V 60 turbocharged, water-cooled, multi-fuel, direct injection engine developing 1,000 hp at 2,000 rpm. : 22.98 hp/t : 60 kmph

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Height ( turret roof) Engine


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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army

T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 43,000 kg Height : 2.26 m Armament : Main: 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds)

AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2800 rounds) Main gun ammunition : 43 rounds x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH Engine : V-2-55/V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp Speed : 50 kmph (max) Range : 500 km Armour : 140mm

Arjun (Country of origin: India) Characteristics Crew : 4 Cbt weight : 58,500 kg Overall length : 10.638 m (with gun forward) Overall height : 3.03 m (with AD gun mount) Overall width : 3.864 m Ground pressure : 0.85 kg/cm2 Armament : Main: 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG Main gun ammunition : 39 rounds (HESH/ FSAPDS) Main gun rate of fire : 6-8 rounds/minute Fire control : Director type & Electro-hydraulic system & Night vision : Thermal Imaging

Ballistic computer Engine

: Digital : MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled Diesel developing 1400 hp at 2,500 rpm Transmission : 4 Fwd+ 2 rev, Torque converter, Mech. Lockup clutch & hydro dynamic retarder Steering : Double radii, mechanical steering with neutral turn Suspension : Hydro-gas Fuel : Renk transmission DHPP (A) Track : Diehl L - German Max speed : Road: 70 kmph Cross country: 40 kmph Shallow fording : 1.4 m Vertical obstacle : 0.914 m Trench crossing : 2.43 m Gradient : 35°

Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs) / Recce Vehs BMP-1/2 Characteristics Crew : BMP13+8 BMP23+7 Weight : BMP112,500 kg BMP214,300 kg Length : BMP16.74 m BMP26.735 m Width : BMP12.94 m, BMP2 3.15 m Height : BMP12.18 m, BMP2 2.45 m Armament : Main gun BMP1: 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP2: 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds)

Coaxial (Both): 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1,000 rounds) ATGW : BMP1: AT-3 BMP2: AT-5 Engine : V-16 in line water-cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp Speed : BMP1: Land: 65 kmph Water: 7 kmph BMP2: Land: 65 kmph Water: 7 kmph Range : 550-600 km (Both) Armour : 20mm

BRDM-2

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Characteristics Crew : 4 Weight : 7,000 kg Armament : 6 x AT-3 [ATGM] 1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG Co-axial (2,000 rounds)

Engine : GAZ-41 V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3,400 rpm Speed : Land: 100 kmph Water: 10 kmph Range : 750 km Armour : 14mm

Arty 130mm M-46 Med Gun Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight (travelling position) Elevation/depression

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Traverse : Projectile weight : MV : Range : Rate of fire :

: 8 : 130mm : 8,450 kg : +45° to-2.5°

182 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

50° (total) 33.4 kg 930 m/sec 27 km (full charge) 19.1 km (reduced charge) 5-6 rounds/min


188 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

H

medium of the sea, to and from 13 major ports, and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east, more than 1,050 kilometres from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, stretching 720 kilometres from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 kilometres from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north, Myanmar (Coco islands) lies only 35 kilometres away. To the west, about 240 kilometres from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. India’s merchant marine is close to 9.5 million tonnes gross register tonnage (GRT), comprising over 1,000 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India’s current oil consumption which was 3.1 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2010 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl/d by 2025. Domestic production was 0.75 million barrels per day and is projected to increase marginally. This will mean a substantial increase in oil imports, touching 90 per cent of total consumption. Most of this will come by the sea route. Any stoppages or even interruptions will inevitably have a crippling effect on the economy. Thus, India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to its survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and in war. The Navy will hopefully, in the very near future, provide the third leg of the nuclear triad, which India seeks to develop, in order to safeguard its interests as a de facto nuclear weapon state.

istorically, the roles of navies worldwide can be said to comprise the military, policing/constabulary, diplomatic and aid to civil power. The military role encompasses deterring conflict (including nuclear conflict); winning the conflict if it does take place; projection of military power ashore; protection of seaborne trade and protection of offshore assets (including island territories) against enemy attack. The policing/constabulary role, shared in part with the Coast Guard, includes protection of offshore assets; coastal security, anti-piracy; and assisting the national law enforcement apparatus at sea. The diplomatic role stretches from coercion/suasion to showing the flag to providing disaster relief to other littoral countries. The aid to civil power role is confined to domestic territory and encompasses providing all variety of assistance required by civil power. The Indian Navy’s responsibilities encompass all the roles described above.The Indian Navy is responsible for safeguarding of a wide spectrum of the country’s maritime interests, comprising a coastline of 7,516.6 kilometres and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of over two million square kilometres, which is expected to increase to over three million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf for which India’s claim is pending resolution at the UN Commission on the Law of the Seas. In its EEZ, the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country’s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes, over 90 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value, moves through the

INDIAN DEFENCE

Self-reliance assumes great significance as the dangerous pitfalls of over-dependence on foreign sources become more and more evident. If suppliers can be so whimsical in peacetime, their unreliability in war must give sleepless nights to India’s naval planners. The maritime environment in peace as well as the battlespace in war at sea will have to be favourably influenced and moulded by creating capabilities that are considered necessary for the purpose.

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In Peace and War

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Indian Navy

Indian Navy, US Navy

3

The

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

SP’s Military Yearbook (SP’s): Our heartiest congratulations and very warm felicitations on you assuming the helm of the Indian Navy. During your innings as the Chief of the Naval Staff, what is your vision of the Indian Navy, which is already progressing steadily forward on its growth trajectory? Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS): At the very outset, I must record my gratitude for the most privileged opportunity given to me and the confidence reposed by entrusting me with the responsibility and honour of commanding one of the biggest navies in the world. The raison d’être of our existence has been encapsulated in the theme of this year i.e. “Maritime Power for National Prosperity”. Therefore, my aim is to steer our team and resources in a manner to be able to act as ‘net security provider’ wherever the country’s sovereign interests may lie in the maritime domain. To fulfil this mandate, I have identified a few focus areas which are a sine quo non: n Indian Navy today is at the cusp of transformation wherein it is poised for induction of cutting-edge technologies in all the three dimensions viz. air, surface and sub-surface. These will significantly enhance our capabilities to tackle emerging maritime challenges. My focus would be to consolidate, train and continuously reaudit our preparedness with complete professionalism to optimally exploit these capabilities as also to achieve seamless man-machine interface.

n Security encompassing information, data and physical security of our assets, infrastructure as well as coastal security. n Effective use of contemporary information technology tools and stateof-the-art intra-Navy communications to ensure that there are no delays in decision-making and staff processes, are speedy and efficient. Building a potent and credible Navy is an ongoing process, one that gets even more challenging as we strive towards maximum indigenisation. We have been able to meet many of the goals we set for ourselves, but there is more to be accomplished. I am very confident that the Navy will continue to grow and maintain its focus on operational excellence. SP’s: During your naval voyage spanning over 38 years, you have earned the reputation of a humble, forthright, well-meaning and proficient naval commander. What would be your message on how to serve the Indian Navy and through it our country? CNS: I would like to convey to one and all in the Indian Navy that “we have to constantly remind ourselves that each one of us has joined this noble profession of arms as a matter of ‘honour’ and therefore, adherence to ethical and moral values by each one of us is sacrosanct”. Moreover, our disciplined upbringing in the service, places us on a higher pedestal in society, wherein each one of us is expected to serve as an exemplar. There is only one requirement—professional excellence in all dimensions, in all our endeavours; nothing more and nothing less.

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Admiral Devendra Kumar Joshi took over as the Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy, on August 31, 2012. In an interview with SP’s Military Yearbook, the new Chief said that his focus would be to consolidate, train and continuously reaudit Indian Navy’s preparedness as also achieve seamless man-machine interface.

INDIAN DEFENCE

‘My aim is to steer our team and resources in a manner to be able to act as ‘net security provider’ wherever the country’s sovereign interests may lie in the maritime domain’

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Interview

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy Submarines Shishumar (209) Class Type 1500 Total No. in service : 4 Name : Shishumar, Shankush, Shalki, Shankul Specifications: Displacement, tonnes : Standard 1,450 Surfaced 1,700 Dived 1,850 Dimensions : 211.2 x 21.3 x 19.7 (64.4 x 6.5 x 6) feet (metres) Main machinery : Diesel Electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L Diesels; 4 Siemens alternators; 1 Siemens motor; 1 shaft Speed, knots : Surfaced 11; Dived 22 Range, miles : 8,000 snorting at 8 knots 13,000 Surfaced at 10 knots Complement : 36 (8 officers) torpedoes : 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire guided active/passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots; 12 km at

35 knots; warhead 250 kg. : External Strap-on type for 24 Mines : Decoys; C303 acoustic decoys; ESM Argo Phoenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry, radar warning, ESM-DR 3000 Weapon control : Singer Librascope MKI, CCS 90-1/ISUS Radars : Surface Search, Thomson-CSF Calypso; I-band, KH 1007/2007 Sonars : Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active/passive search and attack; Thomson Sintra DUUV-5; passive ranging and intercept, CSU 90-14 Programme: HDW concluded an agreement with the Indian Navy on December 11, 1981. Out of the four submarines, first two were built in West Germany and the balance two at Mazagon Dock, Mumbai, with ­supply of material package from HDW. (Submarines forms the tenth Submarine Squadron based in Mumbai. Mid-life-refit-cum-modernisation of the class has been undertaken in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999.) Mines Countermeasures

Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM/8773) Total No. in service

: 10

Name

: Sindhughosh, Sindhudhvaj, Sindhuraj, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindhukesari, Sindhukirti, Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak, Sindhushastra

Displacement, tonnes

: 2,300 surfaced; 3,100 dived

Dimensions,

: 238 x 32.5 x 21.7 (73.0 x 10.0 x 6.6)

Sonars

Programmes: The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. The Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine has since been supplied to Algeria, Poland, Romania, Iran and China.

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feet (metres) Main machinery

: 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels; 2 generators; 1 motor 1 shaft; 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors; 1 economic speed motor

Speed, knots

: 10 surfaced; 17 dived; 9 snorting

Range, miles

: 6,000 at 7 kt snorting; 400 at 3 kt dived

Complement

: 68 (7 officers)

Torpedoes

: 6-21 in (533mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 Kt; TEST 71/96 anti-submarine; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg. Total of 18 weapons. Wire-guided torpedo on two tubes.

Other weapons

: Mines 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes, some submarines carry shoulder-held 9M36 Strela-3 (SA-N-8) SAM launcher placed in fin for use on surface.

Countermeasures

: ESM; squid head radar warning, Porpoise (Indigenous)

Weapon control

: Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS

Radars

: Navigation; Snoop Tray; MRP-25; I-band

: MGK–400, hull mounted, active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. MG-519; hull mounted active search; high frequency. Being replaced by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL, Bengaluru, in a progressive manner on submarines

Modernisation: Medium-refit-cum-modernisation of the submarines is being undertaken in India/Russia on a progressive manner since 1997. The submarines are being provided with submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM) capability during this refit.Four have been fitted with the Klub S 3M-54E (anti-ship variant) while the remaining six have been/will be fitted with Klub S 3M-14E (land attack variant).Retrofit and trials of submarine launched version of BrahMos missile (a joint Indo-Russian venture) is expected to be undertaken on one of the submarines. An Indian designed main battery with a five-year life has replaced Russian batteries in all of the class. Battery cooling has been improved. Operational: First four form the Eleventh Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remaining six comprise the Twelfth Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai.The submarines have progressively undergone midlife modernization refits commencing 1997, which includes installation of the Klub cruise missile and the associated Lama fire control system, new sonars, electronic warfare systems, machinery control systems and an automated information and control system for the weapon package. Sindhuvir was the first to go through this refit at Severodvinsk from 1997-99, followed by

200 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue


: Hull-mounted passive and attack–medium frequency Programme: Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN, France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by 2015 and thereafter one every year, to complete delivery by 2018. Details of equipment package are speculative and based on those built for Chilean Navy. Design consideration provides special attention to stealth features with the hull forms, the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 anti-ship missile, the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare; intelligence gathering and special operations.

: Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels; 1 Jeumont (metres) Schneider motor; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 20 dived 12 surfaced Range, miles : 550 at 4 kt dived 6,500 at 8 kt surfaced Diving depth : More than 300 m (984 ft) Complement : 31 (6 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes Countermeasures : ESM Weapons control : UDS International SUBTICS Radars : Navigation; Sagem; I-band Arihant Class (SSBN or SSGN) Dimensions Displacement Propulsion

Range

: Length – 111 m (364 ft), Beam – 15 m (49 ft), Draft – 11 m (36 ft) : 5,000-6,000 tonnes (estimated) : PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe); one turbine (47,000hp/70 MW); one shaft; one 7-bladed, high-skew propeller (estimated) : Unlimited except by food supplies

Test depth : 300m (980ft) (estimated) Complement : 95 Sensors and processing : Bharat Electronics Ltd USHUS Systems armament : 6x533mm torpedoes, 12xK-15 Sagarika— SLBM, Shaurya missile (expected) Launched : July 26, 2009 Status : Undergoing sea trials.

: 8,450 surfaced; 13,400 dived : 113.3 x 13.6 x 9.7 : 1 VM-5 nuclear PWR; 190 MW; one OK-7 steam turbine; 43,000 hp(m); 2 retractable electric propulsors for low speed and quiet manoeuvring; 750 hp(m) (552 kW); 1 shaft; 2 spinners; 1,006 hp(m) (740 kW) : 28-35 dived; 10 surfaced : 90 (23 officers) : SLCM/SSM: Klub S 3M 54E (anti-ship)/3M 14 E (Land attack), NATO SS-N-27, fired from 21 in (533mm) torpedo tubes.The anti-ship version is a sea-skimmer with 200-kg warhead, 200-km range, flight altitude of 15 ft and supersonic terminal speed (2.9 Mach) in the final stage. The land-attack missile is inertially guided,

subsonic (0.8 Mach), has a range of 275 km and a 400-kg warhead. SAM : SA-N-10 Igla M launcher on sail. 18 missiles A/S : Type 40 torpedo. Novator SS-N-16 Stallion fired from 650mm tubes; inertial flight to 100 km (54 n miles); Torpedoes : 8x21 in (533mm) tubes. Total of 40 weapons. Countermeasures : ESM: Rim Hat; intercept. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Pair or Snoop Half with back-to-back aerials on same mast as ESM. Sonars: Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503); hull-mounted; passive/active search and attack; low/medium frequency. Mouse roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Skat 3 towed array; passive; very low frequency.

: Centaur class : INS Viraat : 1

Barak M Guns: 2 x 30mm Sensors : Air Search RAWL - 02 Air/Surface Search RAWS-08 Navigation 2 x BEL Rashmi FCS EL/M STGR for Barak SAM FCS Plessey Type 904 for guns EW : C Pearl system Ex Israel Main machinery : Engines: 2 Vickers Armstrong Turbine 2 shafts / 76,000 SHP

INS Chakra (SSN) Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, metres Main machinery

Speed, knots Complement Missiles

Aircraft Carriers Centaur Class Class Indian designation Total No in service Specifications Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, metres Armament

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: Standard 23,900, 28700 (full load) : 226.9 x 27.4 x 8.8 : Aircraft: Sea Harriers Helo: Sea Kings 42B/ Chetak / Ka- 31 / Ka -28 Missiles: SAM 1 x

201 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

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Sonars

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: 1,668 dived : 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8)

TECHNOLOGY

Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) Main machinery

BUSINESS

Scorpene Class (Project 75)

INDIAN DEFENCE

Shipyard Limited, Visakhapatnam, from 2007 onwards. The last two submarines are expected to be refitted at Visakhapatnam. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missiles, the surface version of this Indo-Russian 290 km range supersonic missile is already being fitted on the Indian Navy’s surface platforms.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari at Admiralty Shipyard, St Petersburg, from 1999-2001. Sindhuratna, Sindhughosh and Sindhuvijay have been refitted at Severodvinsk from 2001-03, 2002-05 and 2005-07 respectively, while Sindhurakshak is currently undergoing refit there. Sindhukirti is undergoing refit to the same standard at the Hindustan

REGIONAL BALANCE

INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy

CONTENTS

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Workhorse. High achiever. Lifeline. It’s in our power.™ When the mission matters, with lives in the balance, it’s mission-ready. Has been for over 20 years. The C-17 Globemaster III. Delivering relief supplies, evacuations, airdrops and other humanitarian roles–it’s all in a day’s work. And we’re proud that our dependable F117 engines have supplied the power for every mission. Learn more at www.pw.utc.com. Military Engines


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4 Air Force

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Looking Back On October 8, 1932, the IAF Bill was passed, allowing for creation ofNumber 1 Squadron of the IAF with only one flight, equipped with four obsolescent Westland Wapiti aircraft, at Drigh Road Karachi, on April 1, 1933. The flight was commanded by a RAF officer and had five pilots and the first batch of “Hawai Sepoys”. The fledgling IAF went into action for the first time in 1937, during air policing operations in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). During World War II, the IAF expanded rapidly

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BUSINESS

T

to about 10 squadrons. For its achievements during the war, the service was awarded the prefix “Royal” in March 1945. The division of assets and manpower of the armed forces at the time of independence in August 1947 reduced the force level to a little more than half its original size. Two months later, the RAF went into action in Kashmir, which saw the landing of Dakotas at what was termed “the roof of the world”. On January 26, 1950, India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the “Royal” prefix. The 1950s witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process was kicked off in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire—the first combat jet of the IAF. Subsequently, Ouragan, Mystere, Canberra, Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) resulted in the IAF acquiring three MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963, which then went on to pave the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards, the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation, which is still in evidence 48 years after the first induction of the MiG-21. This also had a great bearing on the evolving shape and structure of the aviation industry in India. The 1965 war saw the IAF aggressively using the famous Gnat, demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict, scoring a number of kills in the air. In the mid-1980s and towards the end of that decade, the IAF played a key role during the Sri Lanka and Maldives opera-

he Indian Air Force (IAF) would have to seek greater governmental indulgence to acquire additional aircraft. In addition, the force will have to vigorously pursue development and acquisition of fifth generation fighter aircraft. Manifestations of flight capabilities (the third dimension) in military affairs have witnessed phenomenal changes. The term “air power” is used to denote the flight potential of military services. Air power is in itself an indicator of its undeniable impact on modern warfare. The role of the Air Force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context, the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999, when intruding Pakistani soldiers, stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response, retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC). However, its current effectiveness notwithstanding the origin of the IAF was very humble.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The role of the Air Force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context, the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999, when intruding Pakistani soldiers, stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response, retreated from their positions inside the line of control.

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Impacting Modern-day Warfare

REGIONAL BALANCE

Pilatus, defense.gov, rus-helicopters.ru, SP Guide Pubns

The Indian


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

SP’s Military Yearbook (SP’s): Having completed more than a year now at the helm of one of the largest and battle-tested air forces in the world, what do you reckon are the major challenges facing the Indian Air Force? How have you planned to cope with these? Chief of the Air Staff (CAS): IAF’s vision envisages a modern force capable of addressing multi-dimensional and multi-front threats. The wars of the future would be short and intense, wherein the application of aerospace power would prove to be the decisive factor in winning. Hence, one of the major challenges for us is to ensure that the IAF continues to remain a contemporary aerospace power, capable of meeting all security challenges of the future and therefore, our capability enhancement plans cater to this requirement. Due importance is also being given to training and preparing our air warriors to absorb new technology in the shortest possible time so that we remain technologically on par with the leading air forces of the world. Additionally, emphasis is also being given to synthetic training aids, simulators and acquiring modern training aircraft. As you are aware, the Hawk aircraft has already been operationalised fully in the training role and this will be followed by the induction of Pilatus basic trainer in February 2013.

forms and systems. Induction of additional Su-30MKI, light combat aircraft (LCA), medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) and fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) are planned to enhance our overall combat potential. Upgrades of Jaguar, MiG-29 and Mirage 2000 aircraft are also being undertaken to extend their operational life. In addition, induction of C-17, C-130J, attack helicopters, medium-lift and heavy-lift helicopters will also enhance our operational capability. Our air defence network is being made more robust with induction of radars and missiles of various classes. We are also progressing well towards having full network-centric operations. To my mind, no other Air Force of our size has embarked on such a modernisation drive and that too within such a short period of time. To enable optimum exploitation of these platforms and networks, we are concurrently evolving our concept of operations (CONOPS) and relevant operational doctrines. SP’s: What are the key ingredients of the IAF’s latest revised doctrine? Does it mesh well with the Joint Sea-Air-Land Doctrine (if there is any such thing in the true sense of it in the Indian context)? Please elucidate. CAS: The basic doctrine of the IAF has been revised and declassified. In keeping with the evolutionary nature of warfare and the need to stay relevant across the spectrum of conflict, the revised doctrine addresses all the contemporary challenges and war-fighting concepts. It also includes the aspects of air, land and maritime operations.

SP’s: “The IAF in metamorphic transformation” is an oft-repeated statement which continues to emanate from different quarters, within and outside the ‘Establishment’.Do you agree? If so, could you elaborate, especially with regard to its ideology, concepts and doctrines, etc? CAS: We have embarked on a comprehensive modernisation programme which will transform the IAF into a strategic force capable of addressing diverse security challenges of the future. Our modernisation programme includes new inductions as well as upgrades of the existing weapon plat-

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SP’s: What impressions did you form after your recent visit to Russia? Would you like to share these especially with regard to the vital IndoRussian Joint FGFA and medium multi-role transport aircraft (MMTA) programmes?

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Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne took over as Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air Force (IAF), on July 31, 2011. In an interview with SP’s Military Yearbook, the Air Chief spoke about the major challenges faced by the IAF and the comprehensive modernisation programme.

INDIAN DEFENCE

‘Cyber warfare has emerged as the fifth dimension of warfare’

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21MF/Bis NATO reporting names Country of origin Type Number in service

Performa0nce Max speed Above 10,000 m At sea level

: Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) : USSR : Single-seat multi-role fighter. : 180+ all variants.

Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) : 390 km Max rate of climb : 6,500 m/min ‘g’ Limits : + 7/–1.5 Note 1: While the ‘FL’ version of the MiG-21 has been phased out, a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following: n  Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which, in combination with the active homing RVV-AE, Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a ‘Fire-and-Forget’ capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer, the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft’s overall air-to-surface capability. n The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales; Monolith Ring Laser Gyro-based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. n  The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian made Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display and a Headup Display. n  Additional avionics include a HAL-made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and Tarang, RWR equipment. n  An Israeli Video Recording System has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-toground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG21Bis aircraft has been renamed the ‘Bison’ by the Indian Air Force. Note 2: About 70 non-Bison upgrade aircraft to be phased out in 201213. But the 120+ upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft to remain in service with gradual phase out commencing in 2017.

Construction Wings

: Delta planform with a 2° anhedral and 57° sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage: Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics, and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type, mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant: One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9,400 lb dry and 14,000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2,750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis is powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15,000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit: K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment: ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass, IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament: One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23/2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally, & up to 2,500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2*1000 lb, RVV-AE, R-73/R-60 AAMs, S-24 and UB80/UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wing span Length Height Wing area

: : : :

Weights Take-off (combat) Max take-off

: 8,750 kg : 10,500 kg

: Mach 2.23 : Mach 1.1

7.15 m 16.10 m, including pitot boom 4.5 m 23.45 m²

Mikoyan MiG-27M

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NATO reporting name Indian Air Force name Country of origin Type Number in service

: : : : :

Flogger-J Bahadur USSR Single-seat variable geometry strike fighter. 100+

Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Cockpit: KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to ­withstand hits up to 23mm calibre shells. Power Plant: One Tumansky R-29 17,500 lb/st dry25,35lb/streheat ­turbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6,700 litres. Avionics and Systems: KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone, VHF/UHF, IFF equipment. Doppler nav/attack system and radar ­altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Duck nose houses Laser ranging/targeting equipment. Doppler nav/attack s­ ystem with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav/attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception/ broad-band ECM equipment and Flare/chaff dispensers.

Construction Wings: Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16 deg,45 deg and 72 deg. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers/lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage: Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force

Mikoyan MiG-29A/B NATO reporting name Indian Air Force name Country of origin Type Number in service

: : : : :

Fulcrum Baaz USSR Single-seat air superiority fighter 65 approx.

Navattack computers, HUD, helmet mounted sights operable up to 40° off the axis. Advanced 360° passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF/UHF communication systems. AoA indicator, radar altimeter, 3-axis autostabilisation system, auto pilot, deception jammer in wing root. Armament: 1 GSh-301 30mm cannon in port wing root, with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73, R-27R, R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3,500 kg on six external hard points.

Construction Wings: Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42°, with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. Fuselage: Semi-monocoque all-metal structure, sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. Tail Unit: Twin vertical fins swept back at 40°, and canted outward at 7°, with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tailplanes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tailplanes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15 per cent of construction is believed to be of CarbonBoron composite materials. Power Plant: Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11,250 lb dry and 18,500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising/lowering of nose-wheel on take-off/landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4,000 litres with a provision for a single 750-litre drop tank to be carried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. Cockpit: K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a two piece blister design. Avionics: NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO ‘Slot Back’) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100-km detection and 70-km track range with full look up/down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up/down shoot down IRST on nose on star-board side.

Dimensions Wing span Length overall Height overall Wing area

: : : :

Weights Empty

: 8,340 kg

Normal Interceptor role Max take-off

: 15,750 kg : 20,000 kg

11.40 m 17.34 m 4.75 m 35.35 m2

Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 2.35 At sea level : Mach 1.06 Max combat radius : 650 km g Limits : +9.0/ -3 Note: Midlife upgrade of 63 MiG-29s has commenced with completion of the project by 2013. The upgraded aircraft are likely to stay in service till 2025.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

: 8,200 kg

16°: 14.30 m; 72°: 8.21 m 18.15 m 5.55 m 27.45 m2

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Weights Empty

: Mach 1.9 : Mach 1.3 : 600 km : Max 20 deg/sec; sustained 14 deg/sec g Limits : Normal +7.5/-1.5; Ultimate +10/-3 Note: About 50 MiG-27aircraft have been given midlife upgrade, at the HAL, Nasik Division.

TECHNOLOGY

: : : :

Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Turn rate

BUSINESS

Dimensions: Wing span Length overall Height overall Wing area

: 15,780 kg : 20,250 kg

INDIAN DEFENCE

Clean Max take-off

Armament: One GSh-23/6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5,000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal, Beluga, FAB 500/750, FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L/T ASMs are also available.

CONTENTS

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: : : :

France Vajra Single-seat multi-role fighter. 50+

Power Plant: One Snecma M-53 P-2 Turbofan rated at 14,462 lb dry and 21,385 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity of 3,980 litres with provision for drop fuel tanks underbelly and inboard wing pylons. Detachable inflight refuelling probe forward of cockpit on starboard side. Avionics: Quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system. Invertors, transformers and battery units. Thomson-CSF RDM multi-mode radar. Sager Uliss-52 inertial platform, ESD Type 2,984 central digital computer and digibus. Comprehensive ECM active/passive suite. VHF/ UHF communications suite, HUD, nav attack computer etc. Patric/ Litening pods. Armament: Two underbelly 30mm DEFA cannons with 125 rounds each. Up to 13,890 lb of ordnance on nine external hard points. Options include various AAMs including R-73, Magic II & R-530D. Alternatively

Construction Wings: Low wing delta monoplane with leading edge sweepback of 58°. Full span twin segment leading edge flaps. Two section trailing edge elevons of full length with carbon fiber skin and light alloy honeycomb core. Air brakes above & below each wing. Fuselage: Conventional structure, waisted Tail Unit according to the area rule. Small fixed strakes over each air intake. Cantilever vertical fin with inset rudder only comprises the tail unit. Rudder actuated by flyby-wire system. Sweepback on fin leading edge 45°.

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Country of origin Indian Air Force name Type Number in service

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Duties and Functions The Coast Guard Act, 1978, specifies the duties and functions of the service, mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks: n Safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals, installations and devices. n Protection and assistance to fishermen at sea in distress. n Preservation and protection of marine environment. n Prevention and control of marine pollution. n Assistance to customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. n Enforcement of maritime laws in force. n Safety of life and property at sea.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

T

n Collection of scientific data. n Other duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India. The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard: n Coordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pollution response in the Maritime Zones of India. The Director General of Indian Cost Guard (DGICG) is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) preparedness meeting. n Coordinating authority for maritime search and rescue in the Indian search and rescue region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board. n DGICG is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) and regular meetings are conducted at the national level to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage, terrorist attacks, hijacking of platforms, drill ships, jack up rig, blow outs, fire hazards, etc. n The authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. n Nominated as the lead intelligence agency (LIA) for the country’s coastal/ sea borders—for the purpose of generating, coordinating and sharing intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an EEZ measuring 2.01 million square kilometres that are home to inter-alia 3,565 square kilometres of mangroves, 18,000 square kilometres of coral reefs, and a potential 4.72 million tonnes of fisheries resources. It is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of

he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament, on August 18, 1978, to undertake the predominantly peacetime tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India, with a view to the protection of maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence, primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has military functions in a war situation when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates inducted from the Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs.

INDIAN DEFENCE

From a meagre force level of seven ships at the time of inception, the Indian Coast Guard has made rapid progress through its development plans. The Coast Guard fleet as on April 1, 2012, comprises 15 offshore patrol vessels, one pollution control vessel, 23 fast patrol vessels, 23 interceptor boats (IBs), nine hovercraft, 31 Dornier aircraft, 20 Chetak helicopters and four advanced light helicopters.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Ensuring the Security of Maritime Zones

REGIONAL BALANCE

Coast Guard

PIB, ICG

5

Indian

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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: 6

Flight deck Main machinery

: Indian built : Light 1,840, Deep 2300 : 102 x 11.5 x 3.65 m (1-4) & 105 x 12-90 x 3.6 (5-6) Armament: 76/62 SRGM with electro-optical fire control (EOFCS) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG each (1-4) 02 x 30mm CRN 91 gun each with Stabilised Optronic pedestal (SOP) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG(5&6)

Speed, knots Range Complement (crew)

: Can operate ALH & Chetak : 2 x Diesels, 4625 kW each (16 PA6V280 SEMT PIELSTICK) (1-4) & 2 x 7710 kW each 20 PA6BSTC SEMT PIELSTICK (5&6) : 23 : 60,00 nm at 12 Kn (1-4) and 6,500 nm at 12 Kn (5&6) : 129 (including 14 officers)

Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vikram Class Total No. in service : 7 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement, tonnes : Light 1100, Deep 1220 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 74x11.4x3.2 m Armament: 40/60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun and 2 x 12.7mm HMG

Flight deck Main machinery Speed, knots Range, miles Complement (crew)

: Can operate Chetak : 2 diesels, 4625 kW each (16PA6V280 SEMT PIELSTICK) : 22 : 4,000 nm at 14 knots : 109 (including 10 officers)

Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vishwast Class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament

: 2

Flight deck

: Indian built

Main machinery

: Light 1500, Deep 1840 : 94 x 12.2 x 3.6 m : 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2x12.7mm HMG

Speed, knots Range, miles Complement (crew)

: Can operate one advanced light engine helicopter (Dhruv) : 2MTU 20 V 8000 M90 diesels, 24, 150 hp(m) (18.0 MW), 2 shafts, cp props : 26 : 4,500 nm at 14 knots : 109 (including 10 officers)

Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) Samudra Prahari Class Total No. in service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement, tonnes : Light 2300, Deep 4300 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 94 x 15.5 x 4.5 m Armament: 30mm CRN 91 gun with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck : Platform for one medium helicopter (ALH) Main machinery : 2 Bergen B32, 40 L6P Diesels, 8,050 hp

Speed, knots Range, miles Complement (crew)

(6.0 MW), 2 shafts, cp props, 1 Ulstein Aquamaster bow thrusters, 1185 hp (883 kW) : 20 (Ship is capable of cruising at 0.2 Kn speed during oil skimming mode with bow thruster : 6,000 nm at 14 knots : 100 (including 11 officers)

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Priyadarshini Class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

: 8

Armament: 40/60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun, 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery : 2 x diesels, 1,480 kW each (12V 538 TB 32 MTU) Speed, knots : 23 Range : 2,400 nm at 14 knots Complement (crew) : 42 (including 6 officers)

: Indian built : Light 164, Deep 215 : 48 x 7.5 x 2 m

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPVs) Samar/Sankalp Class

TECHNOLOGY

Surface

BUSINESS

Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard

INDIAN DEFENCE

INDIAN DEFENCE

CONTENTS

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: 7

Armament

: Indian built

Main Machinery Speed, knots Range Complement (crew)

: Light 235, Deep 260 : 50 x 7.5 x 2 m

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Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) Tarabai Class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

: 30mm 2A42 Gun or 30mm CRN91 Gun with SOP and 2 x 12.7mm HMG : 3 x diesels, 2,720 kW each (16V 4,000 M90 MTU) : 35 : 1,500 nm at 12 knots : 42 (including 6 officers)

: 6

Armament : 40/60 Gun Main Machinery: 2 x diesels, 1,480 kW each(MTU 12V538 TB 82 MTU) Speed, knots : 26 Range, miles : 2,400 nm at 14 knots Complement (crew) : 42 (including 6 officers)

: Singapore/Indian : Light 151, Deep 195 : 45 x 7 x 2 m

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REGIONAL BALANCE

Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Sarojini Naidu Class


Indian Defence Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (As on December 5, 2012)

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

6

Who’s Who in

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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Union Government Prime Minister..................................................................................................................................................... Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence.............................................................................................................................................. A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence................................................................................................................................ Jitendra Pratap Singh

TECHNOLOGY

President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces........................................................................... Pranab Mukherjee Vice President...................................................................................................................................................... M. Hamid Ansari

Defence Secretary................................................................................................................................................ Shashi Kant Sharma Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare)....................................................................................................................... Vijay Chhibber Joint Secretary (Navy/Ordnance) ......................................................................................................................... Ram Subhag Singh Joint Secretary (Establishment & Public Grievance & CVO)................................................................................... Sameer Kumar Khare Joint Secretary (General/Air)................................................................................................................................ Subhash Chandra Joint Secretary (Ex-Serviceman Welfare)............................................................................................................... A.S. Lakshmi Joint Secretary (Training)...................................................................................................................................... Vacant

BUSINESS

Ministry of Defence Department

Department of Defence Production & Supplies

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Secretary (Defence Production)............................................................................................................................ R.K. Mathur Additional Secretary (Defence Production)........................................................................................................... Ashok Kumar Gupta Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems)..................................................................................................................... Vacant Joint Secretary (Land Systems)............................................................................................................................. Ravi Kant Joint Secretary (Aerospace).................................................................................................................................. Manoj Saunik

253 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Director General (Acquisition).............................................................................................................................. Dr Satish B. Agnihotri Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & AS.................................................................................................................... Vacant Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems)......................................................................................... Upamanyu Chatterjee Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems)............................................................................... Preeti Sudan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air).......................................................................................................... Arun Kumar Bal Technical Manager (Land Systems)...................................................................................................................... Major General Sanjeev Shukla Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems)............................................................................................................. Rear Admiral Pritam Lal Technical Manager (Air)....................................................................................................................................... Air Vice Marshal R.K. Dhir Finance Manager (Land System) & Joint Secreatry................................................................................................ Vishvajit Sahay Finance Manager (Maritime & System) & Joint Secretary..................................................................................... Arti Bhatnagar Finance Manager (Air).......................................................................................................................................... R.K. Arora

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Acquisition Wing


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Indian Defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

Pranab Mukherjee

President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces A man of unparalleled experience in governance with the rare distinction of having served at different times as Foreign, Defence, Commerce and Finance Minister; Pranab Mukherjee assumed office as the 13th President of India on July 25, 2012. After his post-graduation in History and Political Science, and a degree in Law from the University of Kolkata, he embarked on his professional life as a college teacher and journalist. In 1969, he plunged into full-time public life following his election to the Upper House of the Parliament (Rajya Sabha). Mukherjee was elected to the Rajya Sabha five times and twice to the Lower House of the Parliament (Lok Sabha). He was a member of the Congress Working Committee, the highest policy-making body of the party, for 23 years.

During the period 2004-12, Mukherjee was instrumental in spearheading critical decisions of the government on a range of issues such as Administrative Reforms, Right to Information, Right to Employment, Food Security, Energy Security, Information Technology and Telecommunication, setting up of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), Metro Rail, etc through Chairmanship of over 95 Groups of Ministers constituted for the purpose. In the 1970s and 1980s, he was instrumental in setting up the Regional Rural Banks (1975) and the EXIM Bank of India as well as National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (1981-82). A powerful orator and scholar, Mukherjee’s intellectual and political prowess as well as remarkable knowledge of international relations, financial affairs and parliamentary process, are widely admired.

Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India

Dr Manmohan Singh, the 15th Prime Minister of India, is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26, 1932, in a village in Punjab province of undivided India, Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK, where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh’s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971, Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are

Secretary in the Ministry of Finance, Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career, the most prominent are India’s second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan (1987); the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress Association (1995); the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994); the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993); the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956); and the Wright’s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John’s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004.

A.K. Antony

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Defence Minister A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24, 2006, marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28, 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala, to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai, he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17, 1985 to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed the students’ unions.

Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning, he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony, who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice, is an astute politician with a spotless image.

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Indian Defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

CONTENTS

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Radha Krishna Mathur Secretary, Defence Production Radha Krishna Mathur, Secretary, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, has been appointed as Secretary, Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence. Mathur, an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of the 1977 batch from Manipur-Tripura cadre succeeds Shekhar Agarwal, who retired on September 30, 2012. A B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering from IIT, Kanpur, and M.Tech in Industrial Engineering from IIT, Delhi, he has also done his Masters in Business

Administration from ICPE, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Mathur has served in various ministries in the Government of India in different capacities, including the Ministry of Industry, External Affairs, Information and Broadcasting and Textiles. From 2000 to August 2008, he served the Government of Tripura as Principle Secretary and finally as Chief Secretary. From September 2008 to October 2011, he was the Additional Secretary and Special Secretary in the Ministry of Defence.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

he has handled Land Revenue Management and District Administration, Labour, Youth Affairs and Sports, Urban Development, Social Justice and Empowerment and Road Transport. At the Centre, starting from December 2, 2003, he has been deputed to the Ministry of Defence, and has served as Joint Secretary and has also been DG (Acquisition) for three years. He has had short stints as Secretary in the Ministry of Information and Technology and in the Ministry of Finance before joining the Ministry of Defence once again as the Defence Secretary on July 14, 2011.

TECHNOLOGY

Shashi Kant Sharma is a 1976 batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of the Bihar cadre. He has had wide and varied experience both in the state and the Centre by virtue of the type of assignments held by him in both places. He is a post-graduate in Political Science and has also obtained a post-graduate degree in Administration from the University of New York. He has also attended a large number of capsules and courses in financial management, urban development and administration during the course of his career, both at mid and at senior levels. In the state,

BUSINESS

Defence Secretary

INDIAN DEFENCE

Shashi Kant Sharma

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

and Culture. He is the grandson of Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar KCSI (1911-2009), the last ruling Maharaja of Alwar. He is fond of sports and his special interests include, flying aeroplanes and photography and trekking in the Himalayas. He is a national medalist in trap shooting. He is a widely travelled politician. He was inducted as a Minister of State for Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports in the latest Cabinet reshuffle in October 2012.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Born in the royal family of Alwar in Rajasthan, Jitendra Pratap Singh Prabhakar Bahadur is a Member of Parliament from Alwar. He has a Bachelor of Commerce degree from Delhi University. Singh is a member of the All India Congress Committee, has been a Member of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly for two terms and was elected to the 15th Lok Sabha on May 18, 2009. He has been a Member of Public Accounts Committee and Committee for Transport, Tourism

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Jitendra Pratap Singh Minister of State for Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports


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Who’s Who in Indian Defence Public Sector Undertakings R.K. Tyagi Chairman, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited R.K. Tyagi took over as Chairman of the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in March 2012. Previously, he was Chairman and Managing Director of Pawan Hans Helicopter Ltd. He is an Engineering Graduate in Electronics and Telecommunications (1975) from IIT Roorkee and is also a Masters in Business Administration. Subsequently, he also attended an Advanced Leadership

course on Public Sector Management for 15 months at the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad in the years 2004-05. He joined Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) as a Graduate Trainee in the year 1976 and through various assignments rose to the position of General Manager in the year 2003 and continued serving ONGC up to May 2007.

Anil Kumar Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Electronics Limited Anil Kumar took charge as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) on October 1, 2011. He was Director (Other Units) of BEL before his elevation as CMD. As Director (Other Units), he headed eight of nine units of BEL located at Ghaziabad, Panchkula, Navi Mumbai, Kotdwara, Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai and Machilipatnam. Anil Kumar joined BEL

at Ghaziabad unit in February 1975 after graduating in Mechanical Engineering from Punjab University in 1974. He completed M.Tech from IIT Delhi in 1979 while in service. He has extensive experience in Development and Engineering, Production, Material Management and Installing and Commissioning of Radar and Communication systems.

P. Dwarakanath

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Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Earth Movers Limited P. Dwarakanath has assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) from October 10, 2012. He joined the Board of BEML Limited on March 1, 2008, as Director (Metro and Rail Business). He is a graduate in Mechanical

Engineering from the National Institute of Technology, Warangal. He joined BEML in 1978 as a Management Trainee and served in all business verticals of the ­company namely, Rail and Metro, Defence and Mining, and Construction.

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Year

Sales OFs

Sales DPSUs

Total

2007-08

6,937.81

16,740.25

23,678.06

2008-09

7,229.31

20,403.64

27,632.95

2009-10

8,715.26

25,899.64

34,614.90

2010-11

11,215.01

25,975.06

37,190.07

Note: All figures above are in crores of rupees As a matter policy, ordnance factories and DPSUs have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have over the years developed a wide vendor base which apart from the large-scale industries, includes many small-scale enterprises.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Participation by the Private Sector

With the strategic objective of self-reliance in defence production, the DDP&S has been endeavouring to indigenise defence equipment wherever technologically feasible and economically viable.

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REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

E

n National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) The ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been on a constant drive to modernise, upgrade their capabilities, and expand their range of products. They have also developed a large number of major products on their own and have developed capabilities in various fields through transfer of technology. Production and turnover of ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been increasing steadily to meet the increasing requirements of the armed forces. The turnover for the last four years is as follows:

stablished in 1962, the Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S) was mandated to develop a comprehensive production infrastructure with the aim to achieve self-reliance in defence production. Over the years, the department has established wide ranging facilities for the production of a variety of defence equipment by ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs). Products include arms and ammunition, tanks, armoured vehicles, heavy vehicles, earth moving equipment, combat aircraft, helicopters, warships, submarines, missiles, ammunition, electronic equipment, special alloys and special purpose steel. The Department of Defence Production and Supplies has the following organisations under it: n Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) n Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) n Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) n Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) n Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) n Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) n Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSEL) n Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) n Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) n Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) n Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) n Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) n Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) n Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) n Directorate of Planning and Coordination (Dte of P&C)

BUSINESS

As a matter of policy, ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have, over the years, developed a wide vendor base which apart from the large-scale industries, includes many small-scale enterprises

INDIAN DEFENCE

Department of Defence Production & Supplies

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Defence Industry

SP Guide Pubns

7

Indian

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Programmes and Projects DRDO has empowered the country with cutting-edge technologies and provided the services with contemporary systems to enhance their combat effectiveness. The value of products from DRDO inducted into the armed forces stands at `1,30,000 crore. DRDO has a variety of projects in hand. Some of the achievements in the recent past are elaborated on in the succeeding paragraphs.

Missile Systems Prithvi: A surface-to-surface tactical battlefield missile, Prithvi is produced in three versions categorised by range which is 150, 250 and 350 km with payload capability varying from one tonne to 500 kg. All the three versions have been inducted into the armed forces. Also, as part of user trials, Prithvi salvo launch capability has also been proven. PrithviII missile was successfully flight tested on June 9, 2011, from Launch Complex III, Interim Test Range, Chandipur, Odisha. Agni-I: A surface-to-surface missile with a range of 700 km, the Agni-I was successfully flight-tested from Wheeler Island on December 1, 2011, by the armed forces from the road mobile launcher system. It has a

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Organisational Structure With its headquarters at Delhi, DRDO is headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister who is also the Secretary to the Government of

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F

India. The DRDO headquarters has two types of Directorates, namely Corporate and Technical. While the former is responsible for matters related to human resource (HR), finance and administration, the latter is responsible for all technical and scientific issues. DRDO has two societies under it namely the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to undertake design and development of advanced technology aircraft and the Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research (SITAR) for designing digital components for various projects. DRDO has around 30,000 knowledge workers on its rolls, which includes 7,000 scientists, 12,000 technical personnel and 11,000 administrative support staff. DRDO has a mission to design, develop and produce state-of-the-art complex and strategic defence systems and technologies; to provide technological solutions to the armed forces to optimise combat readiness; to build a strong indigenous technology base and to foster quality workforce. A number of projects are being executed through a network of laboratories, field stations, regional centres of military airworthiness (RCsMA) located across the country.

ormed on January 1, 1958, by merging the units of Defence Science Organisation and the Technical Development Establishments of the armed forces, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India was a fledgling research establishment with just 10 laboratories. In 1980, the DRDO became a department under the Central Government. Today, it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian Government with a network of 52 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. With a vision to empower India with cutting-edge technologies and to equip the services with internationally competitive systems, DRDO has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics, armaments, combat vehicles, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, life sciences, advanced materials, composites and naval systems. DRDO has expertise in system design, system integration, testing and evaluation and project management built over the last five decades, which has enabled it to develop indigenous capabilities in weapons and delivery systems. Today, DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design, development, integration and production. DRDO has achieved technological self-reliance in critical areas including ammunition, armoured systems, missiles, radars, avionics and electronic warfare system, sensors, nuclear biological chemical (NBC) defence, low-intensity conflict technologies and advanced computing. DRDO plays a significant role in providing scientific and technological advice to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in support of defence policy; as evaluator of defence equipment for the military operational requirements and generating new technological knowledge to be transferred for development of state-of-the-art weapon systems indigenously. It also advises the government to make technical assessment of international security threats and the military capabilities of both current and potential adversaries.

BUSINESS

Today, DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design, development, integration and production

INDIAN DEFENCE

Achieving Technological Self-reliance

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Development

REGIONAL BALANCE

8

Defence Research &

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CONTENTS

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INDIAN DEFENCE

CONTENTS

www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m

Director: Dr S.C. Sati Post Box No. 51 Station Road, Agra Cantt Agra–282001 Phone: 0562-2260023, 2258200 Fax: 0562-2251677

Director: Anil M. Datar Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post Pashan, Pune–411021 Phone: 020-25893274, 25885007 Fax: 020-25893102

AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE)

CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC)

Director: P.S. Krishnan Suranjan Das Road, C.V. Raman Nagar, Bengaluru–560093 Phone: 080-25283404, 25057001, 25057034 Fax: 080-25283188

Chief Executive: Dr K. Tamilmani Ministry of Defence, Defence R&D Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post Bengaluru–560037 Phone: 080-25230680, 28517272 Fax: 080-25230856, 25234781

ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE)

COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE)

Director: Anil M. Datar Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post Pashan Pune–411021 Phone: 020-25893274, 25885007 Fax: 020-25893102

Director: Dr P. Sivakumar Avadi Chennai–600054 Phone: 044-26383722, 26364001, 26364003 Fax: 044-26383661

CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS)

DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE)

Director: Dr S. Christopher Ministry of Defence Defence R&D Organisation, Belur, Yemlur Post Bengaluru–560037 Phone: 080-25225121, 26572638 Fax: 080-25222326

Director: P.M. Soundar Rajan Post Box No. 9366 C.V. Raman Nagar, Phase II, New Thippasandra Post Bengaluru–560093 Phone: 080-25347704, 25349571 Fax: 080-25347717

CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR)

DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL)

Director: V.S. Mahalingam DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru–560093 Phone: 080-25342646, 25244298 Extn: 2270/2271 Fax: 080-25244298

Director: Dr V.C. Padaki Post Box No: 9326, C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru–560093 Phone: 080-25058325, 25280692, 23446987 Fax: 080-25282011

CENTRE FOR FIRE, EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES)

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL)

Director: Dr Sudershan Kumar Ministry of Defence Brigadier S.K. Mazumdar Marg, Timapur Delhi–110054 Phone: 011-23813239, 23907102, 23919555 Fax: 011-2381 9547

Director: R.C. Agarwal Post Box 54, Raipur Road Dehradun–248001 Uttarakhand Phone: 0135-2787224 Fax: 0135-2787290, 2787265

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ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE)

TECHNOLOGY

AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE)

BUSINESS

Director: Rajesh Goyal Defence Research and Development Organisation Ministry of Defence, CEPTAM Metcalfe House Complex Delhi–110054 Phone: 011-23810276, 23819217 Fax: 011-23810287, 23882306, 23817489

INDIAN DEFENCE

Director: C.V.S. Sastry PO: DRDO, Kanchanbagh Hyderabad–500058 Phone: 040-24347630 Fax: 040-24347679

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

CENTRE FOR PERSONAL TALENT MANAGEMENT (CEPTAM)

REGIONAL BALANCE

ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG)

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Indian Defence R&D Establishments


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

to implement the internal security reforms. The Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram at the Chief Ministers Conference on Internal Security held in New Delhi on August 17, 2009, said: “Let me recall the three challenges to internal security—terrorism; insurgency in the North-eastern states; and left-wing extremism or Naxalism. Each one of them shares many characteristics with the other two. At the same time, each one of them is significantly different from the other two. We have one instrument to confront and defeat the three challenges and that is the police. In the final analysis, it is the policemen and the policewomen who can help us win these battles. To that policemen and policewomen, this conference must send out a clear message that the government at every level is duty bound to provide them every kind of support—monetary, material and moral.” The government’s resolve to reform the internal security apparatus of the country was apparent in the Home Minister’s statement.

I

n the era immediately after independence, threats to India were mainly external—from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day, the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However, as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew, the Indian Government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. It is now widely acknowledged that there is more to security than purely military factors. Today’s definition of security acknowledges political, economic, environmental, social and human thread, among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today, it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, namely the ‘human being’ or ‘civil security’ as the Americans term it, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human security’ with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore, the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well-being of its people.

Internal Security Management Internal security management has been an important component of India’s national security management ever since independence in 1947. The Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India handles India’s internal security management mechanism. In the formative years after independence, India focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order, communal peace and harmony, crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. But in the past five decades or so, besides the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the focus is also on the extinguished insurgency in Punjab, the dissidence

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Challenges to Internal Security Consequent to the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26, 2008, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government went into high drive

305 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. Kapoor

INDIAN DEFENCE

In the formative years after independence, India focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order, communal peace and harmony, crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. But in the past five decades or so, besides the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the focus is also on the extinguished insurgency in Punjab, the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir and the burgeoning Naxalite violence.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces

REGIONAL BALANCE

Homeland Security

SP Guide Pubns, PIB, NSG, Indian Army

1

India’s

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

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L

“  Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

eft-wing extremism, religious fundamentalism and ethnic violence are major challenges facing the country,” Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said while inaugurating the Annual Conference of Chief Ministers on Internal Security in New Delhi on April 16, 2012, and urged states to fight them together with the Central Government. India’s internal security remains an area of major concern even 65 years after independence. In the early years, the government focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order, communal peace and harmony, crime control and counter-insurgency mainly confined to the Northeast. However, in the past six decades or so, the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), the burgeoning Naxalite violence which is currently affecting 20 states and union territories (223 districts), the jehadi terrorism unleashed by our unscrupulous western neighbour, poor governance in most states, all put together, have become a serious threat, which can destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government after the November 26, 2008, terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks, public anger became palpable and the government was forced to act speedily. India’s Home Minister and the Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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BUSINESS

casualties. A spate of reforms, which were already in the pipeline were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile, the perception was growing stronger that India’s external and internal security was getting inextricably linked, especially on its western borders. A large number of India’s internal security problems are connected to jehadi groups based in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK). Pakistan’s intelligence agencies and the military are funding, training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now stand fully exposed. However, despite a restrained but tough stance taken initially, the national leadership has now decided to get back to the negotiation table with Pakistan both at the official and at the Track-II level. The internal security situation in the country in 2011 showed distinct signs of improvement over the previous years. The level of infiltration from across the borders and the resultant terrorist activities in the Valley of Kashmir showed a significant decline. The incidents of terrorist violence declined from 708 in 2008, 499 in 2009 and 488 in 2010 to 340 in 2011. The number of security forces killed declined from 75 in 2008, 79 in 2009 and 69 in 2010 to 33 in 2011. The number of civilians killed also declined from 91 in 2008, 71 in 2009 and 47 in 2010 to 31 in 2011. The number of terrorists killed declined from 239 in 2009 and 232 in 2010 to 100 in 2011; showing the effects of better domination of the line of control and the resultantly lower infiltration. In the North-eastern states as well, the number of incidents of terrorist violence has come down from 1,297 in 2009 to 627 in 2011. The number of civilians killed has also come down from 264 in 2009 to only 70 in 2011. In both these areas, the civil society is emerging and the economy is showing signs of recovery.

INDIAN DEFENCE

n LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

In view of the repeated terror attacks on the Indian soil and the disjointed actions by the state government and the police following the attacks in Mumbai and the public outcry thereafter, the government was forced to speedily undertake a number of internal security reviews and adopt measures which could either pre-empt future terror attacks or at least improve the crisis management after such attacks occur.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Measures to Improve Defence Capabilities

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Security

PIB

2

Internal


As the Maoist juggernaut gathers steam, there is still time for the Indian state to get its act together. Can we afford to fight a three-front war—the third front within India? Do we want our additional Army formations raised/to be raised, sucked into the Maoist insurgency? n Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

that the day will come, sooner than later, when the have-nots would hit the streets. In a way, it seems to have already started with the monstrous and grotesque acts of the Maoists. And when that rot occurs, not one political turncoat will escape being lynched.”

The Maoists are well organised in battalions, companies, platoons, intelligence and logistics departments and with arms and improvised explosive device (IED) manufacturing capacity. They undertake overt operations to seek legitimacy and public support for controlling territory. Refusing to recognise national norms, rule of law, human rights, slaughtering and beheading those who oppose them, they adopt copycat tactics of Mao’s “People’s War”; guerrilla as well as mass attack. Their writ already runs over large tracts of territory including vast declared ‘liberated areas’. Their strategy is to expand the ‘Red Enclaves’ rapidly. Financial back up of the Maoist terror industry is estimated at over `1,500 crore, growing annually by 15 per cent through drugs, ransom, looting, extortion, robbery, poppy and ganja cultivation. Income from poppy cultivation is estimated at `2.5 crore per hectare. The Maoists Empire spans over 200 districts in West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Uttrakhand and Uttar Pradesh. In fact, they are present in 20 states and union territories of India and are investing in urban centres. The influence of the Maoist can be gauged from the fact that in the panchayat elections in Jharkhand and Odisha, a large number of seats went in favour of the Maoists uncontested with bulk of the others won by proxy candidates of Maoists. During elections, in most Maoistaffected areas, there was no polling after 3:00 p.m., notwithstanding

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES INDIAN DEFENCE

Maoists

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

I

ndia’s response to the Maoist insurgency is no different from its response to corruption—hapless, sans cohesive strategy and most significantly devoid of political will. The continuing irony is deliberate downplaying of the issue in the utopian hope that the problem will wish itself away. Such notions led the Home Minister to state in 2010, “The government is confident that the problem of left-wing extremism (LWE) will be overcome in the next three years.” We are already midway from the stated ‘three years’. To what extent have we resolved the issue? Despite the recent spate of kidnappings and killings, Maoists are being described as “down but not out” while some strategists describe the Maoists a “ragtag force with some captured weapons and little external support”. This is hardly the case and reminds one of Kashmiri militants being tagged “ragtag” during 199091. The fact is that if anyone is down but not out, it is the Indian state in its response to the Maoist issue. Ironically, India has traditionally only stirred after extreme crisis situations. Though the Maoists have commenced kidnapping and/or killing ground level politicians and bureaucrats, perhaps India will consider it ‘extreme crisis’ only after Maoists start targeting the leadership at the Centre and state capitals. Perhaps the scenario envisaged by the Europeans is not too far, as described by a former European Director of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), “Europeans believe that Indian leaders in politics and business are so blissfully blinded by the new, sometimes ill-gotten wealth and deceit that they are living in defiance, insolence and denial to comprehend

TECHNOLOGY

Threats from Revolutionary Movements

BUSINESS

Insurgency

REGIONAL BALANCE

blogs.lse.ac.uk, wordpress.com, warendsworld.com, niticentral.com

3

Maoist

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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through Raigad on the Maharashtra coast, to carry out the serial blasts in Mumbai during 1993. There is continuous movement of all types of vessels for trade, fishing, military, policing, sports, and so on. It is understood that there are about 1,50,000 small fishing boats with no modern navigation means or communications. There are also some disputed areas in the EEZ. Thus management and security of India’s maritime zone including the coastline is by itself a formidable and complex task. Complacency on the part of the Government of India and the state governments resulted in the Mumbai terrorist attack on November 26, 2008. The attack again brought the crucial matter of coastal security into focus which triggered the government agencies to put appropriate mechanisms in place for effective coastal security.

I

ndia’s Defence Minister A.K. Antony stated in the Shangri-La Dialogue on June 2, 2012, that “Given India’s geographical location, extensive maritime interests, dependence on the seas for trade and the evolving asymmetric threats in the form of maritime terrorism, piracy and drug trafficking, maritime security issues have become a strategic priority for us. The first is the concern for safeguarding of our territories and our adjacent waters against seaborne threats. The second is the desire to ensure that the traditional freedoms at sea are preserved to ensure success for all.” India has a coastline of 7,516 km, touching nine states and four union territories. India’s total number of islands is 1,197 which accounts to a stretch of 2,094 km additional coastline. There is more than 2.5 million square km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The mining areas allotted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is about 2,000 km from the southernmost tip of India. A significant portion of India’s mercantile trade—almost 90 per cent by volume and 77 per cent by value, is carried by the sea through India’s 12 major ports and about 198 minor ports. The coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat are strategically located and prosperous which makes them prone to smuggling, poaching of seafood and anti-national activities. Smuggling of gold, arms and explosives has been quite common in this area. Explosives were smuggled

On March 12, 1993, terrorists carried out a series of explosions in Mumbai which ravaged the city, caused 250 fatalities and 700 were injured. The explosives were smuggled through Raigad and Shekhadi. The Government of India launched ‘Operation Swan’ during August 1993 to prevent clandestine landings along the coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat, by strengthening joint patrolling. Operation Swan involved a three-layer joint security arrangement based on the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard (ICG). It was to have a joint patrolling team including personnel from the Indian Navy, ICG, state police and Customs. Before the launch of Operation Swan, coastal security solely rested with the ICG. A scheme was formulated for implementation in six years with effect from 2005-06 for creating additional infrastructure

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Operation Swan

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

TECHNOLOGY

Management and security of India’s maritime zone including the coastline is by itself a formidable and complex task. Complacency on the part of the Government of India and the state governments resulted in the Mumbai terrorist attack on November 26, 2008. The attack again brought the crucial matter of coastal security into focus which triggered the government agencies to put appropriate mechanisms in place for effective coastal security.

BUSINESS

Increasing Vulnerabilities along the Coastline

INDIAN DEFENCE

Surveillance

PIB, SP Guide Pubns, ICG

4

India’s Coastal

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CONTENTS

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section five

Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

340 341 341 341 341 342 342 342 342 342 343 343 343 343 344 344 344 344 344 344

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Afghanistan 337 Algeria 337 Australia 337 Bahrain 337 Bangladesh 338 Cambodia 338 People’s Republic of China 338 Egypt 338 Indonesia 338 Iran 339 Iraq 339 Israel 339 Japan 339 Jordan 339 Kazakhstan 340 Kuwait 340 Kyrgyzstan 340 Laos 340 Lebanon 340 Libya 340

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Asian Who's Who


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  Australia Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since January 6, 1952). Governor General Quentin Bryce Prime Minister Julia Eileen Gillard Defence Minister Stephen Francis Smith Chief of the Defence Forces General David Hurley Chief of Army Lt Gen David Morrison Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Ray Griggs Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Geoff Brown Chief Joint Operations Lt General Ash Power Department of Defence Russel Offices Suite MF149, Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600 Phone: 02 6277 7800 Phone: +6162659111 Fax: 02 6273 4118 Defence National Phone: 1300 3333623

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

  Algeria Head of State President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal Minister of National Defence Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Chief of General Staff General Ahmed Salah Gaida Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy Major General Malek Necib Commander of the Gendarmerie Major General Ahmed Boustila Ministry of Defence Avenue des Tagarins Algiers Algeria Phone: +2132611515

  Bahrain Head of State HM King Hamad bin isa al Khalifa Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa Minister of Interior Lt General Shaikh Rashid bin Abdullah Al Khalifa Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa Al Khalifa

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

National People’s Army HQ Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja, Algiers, Algeria Phone: +2132634176, 631765, 611515

Head of State and Government President Hamid Karzai First Vice President Mohammad Qasim Fahim Second Vice President Abdul Karim Khalili Defence Minister Bismillah Khan Mohammadi Foreign Minister Dr Zalmai Rassoul Interior Minister Lt General Ghulam Mujtaba Patang Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces Lt General Sher Mohammad Karimi Commander of the Air Force Major General Abdul Wahab Wardak Ministry of Defence Kabul, Afghanistan Phone: 0093 (O) 202300331 Phone: 0093 (O) 700275707

BUSINESS

  Afghanistan

INDIAN DEFENCE

Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (As on November 30, 2012)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Asian Defence Forces

REGIONAL BALANCE

Who’s Who in

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section six

One Two Three Four Five Six

GDP & Military Expenditure Central & South Asia East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia West Asia and North Africa Security Threats in the Asia-Pacific Region Equipment & Hardware Specifications

345 349 377 417 451 457

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Regional Balance


GDP Current Prices ($ billion)

GDP Based on PPP ($ billion)

GDP Current Prices Per Capita ($)

GDP Based on PPP Per Capita ($)

1

Afghanistan

19.847

31.8

619.886

993.229

2

Algeria

206.545

274.496

5,659.74

7,521.74

3

Australia

1,542.06

960.722

67,982.74

42,354.19

4

Bahrain

26.509

32.444

23,027.12

28,182.13

5

Bangladesh

118.693

305.513

791.086

2,036.23

6

Bhutan

1.701

4.813

2,288.21

6,474.09

7

Cambodia

14.246

36.587

933.928

2,398.50

8

China

8,250.24

12,382.56

6,094.04

9,146.38

9

Egypt

255.001

537.758

3,109.47

6,557.38

10

India

1,946.77

4,710.81

1,591.57

3,851.31

11

Indonesia

894.854

1,211.96

3,660.42

4,957.55

12

Iran

483.78

997.43

6,355.74

13,103.90

13

Iraq

130.574

155.384

3,882.08

4,619.68

14

Israel

246.78

247.946

32,060.47

32,212.00

15

Japan

5,984.39

4,616.88

46,895.74

36,179.43

16

Jordan

31.353

38.666

4,901.28

6,044.40

17

Kazakhstan

200.642

232.349

12,021.22

13,920.87

18

Korea, South

1,151.27

1,621.87

19

Kuwait

174.628

165.941

20

Kyrgyzstan

6.197

13.472

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32,431.04

46,142.29

43,846.72

1,109.09

2,411.04

345 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Country

BUSINESS

Sr No.

INDIAN DEFENCE

(estimates for 2012)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

GDP Total/Per Capita Based on Current Prices/Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

REGIONAL BALANCE

1

GDP & Military Expenditure

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Central Asia Central Asia is a region that comprises the five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the ‘Centre of the World’. Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location, it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century, it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later, it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9/11 terrorist events in the United States brought further global attention to this region, reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this, the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the United States, Russia and China. The Fergana Valley is the best-suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. Soviet leader Josef Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided, however, Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself; Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west; and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the valley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within

South Asia The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. Today, international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally, Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now, Pakistan-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. The impasse in their relationship is the result of Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26, 2008, which emanated from Pakistan. The new political dispensation of coalition politics in Pakistan has not stabilised, while the resurgence of Taliban in the

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Kyrgyzstan’s portion of the valley, affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access fairly deep into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia’s core, and hence Central Asia itself. Central Asia is also referred to as the “backyard of Russia and China”. It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the United States on one side, and Moscow and Beijing on the other side. Post9/11, Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility, enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players, namely the US, Russia and China, the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their “grand strategies”, the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including “strategic partnership”, “non-alignment” and a “multi-vectored approach”. The key to what became known as Kazakhstan’s “multi-vectored” approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today, this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia’s Eurasec, Gazprom, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), but it nonetheless remains in place. The major attraction for key players, as also countries like India, Japan and the European Union, is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia, which already enjoys military presence in the region, has in conjunction with China, sought to counterbalance Washington’s influence in the region through SCO. Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region.

entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world’s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia, and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world’s largest landmass (39,95,800 sq km) and has vast natural resources, including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically, it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people, goods and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia and East Asia. On the other hand, South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India’s economic growth and dynamism had made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. Despite the global economic meltdown, India’s GDP was expected to grow at the rate of eight per cent during 2010 and more thereafter. However, 2011-12 has not been so promising. India’s economic growth has been slowing for seven successive quarters, touching a two-year low of 6.1 per cent in the October-December 2011 period. High interest rates and the drift in the government’s decision-making process have led to a sharp fall in investment and consumer demand, and have choked growth. The rupee has slumped to below 55 vis-à-vis the dollar, making costly oil imports even more expensive and imposing a bigger burden on Indians travelling or studying abroad.

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In Bangladesh, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has sought to increase Bangladesh’s presence on the world stage. As a leader of one among the countries most vulnerable to climate change, Hasina has been a vocal advocate for mitigation and adaptation by both developed and developing countries, aligning with the Copenhagen Accord in January 2010. In a sharp change from previous administrations, her government has actively confronted violent extremist groups to deny space to terrorist networks and activities within its borders. The simultaneous elections of the Awami League and the Congress Party in India set the stage for renewed bilateral talks between the countries, an atmosphere which has been improved by counter-terrorism cooperation. In January 2010, Hasina travelled to New Delhi to meet Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, where they signed three agreements on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters, transfer of sentenced persons, and countering terrorism, organised crime, and illegal drug trafficking; and two memoranda of understanding on energy sharing and cultural exchange programmes. In September 2011, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Dhaka. India and Bangladesh inked historic agreements to settle their vexed land boundary issues, including exchange of 162 enclaves, but a last-minute scrapping of Teesta River water sharing deal marred Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s maiden visit to Dhaka. Prime Minister Singh announced 24-hour access to Bangladeshi nationals through the Tin Bigha corridor besides duty-free access to 46 textile items with immediate effect. He also said that India and Bangladesh have agreed to reach a mutually-acceptable solution to water sharing of Teesta and Femi rivers. Pakistan having earlier encouraged, trained and funded terrorist groups including the Taliban is now plagued by terrorism, insurgency and sectarian violence within its territory. Pakistan is passing through an unprecedented political, economic and social crisis exacerbated by worsening relations with the United States and Western powers. Tensions with India over Kashmir have resurfaced regularly ever since the partition of the subcontinent and the two nuclear-armed powers have on numerous occasions been on the brink of renewed conflict. India has accused Pakistan of failing to cooperate adequately over the investigation into the November 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai and suspended talks on improving relations for over two-and-a-half years. Moreover, India also accuses Pakistan of not dismantling the terror camps established in PoK and continuing its proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir. Details pertaining to the countries of the region have been given in the following sequence:

western provinces of Pakistan opposite Afghanistan, namely FATA and Baluchistan, has further complicated the governance in Pakistan. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) air attacks and the US Predator attacks in Pakistan have further worsened the domestic politics in Pakistan. The 2011, NATO attack in Pakistan, also known as the Salala incident, occurred when the US-led NATO forces engaged Pakistani security forces at two Pakistani military check posts along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border on November 26, 2011, killing 24 Pakistani soldiers. This further exacerbated the worsened relations between the two countries. Pakistan retaliated by ordering the evacuation of Shamsi Airfield and closure of the NATO supply line. The closure of the supply routes via Pakistan into Afghanistan for nearly six months have severely impacted upon the operational fitness of NATO and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops deployed in Afghanistan. Efforts are now on between the United States and Pakistan to open supply line at the earliest. After intense negotiations and an apology by the US Secretary of State, Pakistan has allowed resumption of supplies to the NATO forces. The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Left-wing extremism (Naxalite violence) which has affected 20 states and about 220 districts of the Indian Union, nearly 40 per cent of India’s geographical area is becoming more and more virulent, virtually overwhelming the state authority in certain places. In neighbouring Nepal, between 2008 and 2011, there have been four different coalition governments, led twice by the United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), which received a plurality of votes in the Constituent Assembly election, and twice by the Communist Party of Nepal (United MarxistLeninist). In November 2011, Maoist Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai, who was elected in August 2011, and the leaders of the main political parties signed an agreement seeking to conclude the peace process and recommit the Constituent Assembly to finish drafting the constitution by the May 2012 deadline. However, Nepal descended into a new crisis on May 27, 2012, after rival political parties in the Himalayan nation failed to reach an agreement on a new constitution before the national legislature’s term expired at midnight. Baburam Bhattarai dissolved the Constituent Assembly. He said he would remain in power and that his government would hold elections in November for a new assembly. The continued political instability in Nepal will only worsen the situation in a tiny country pinned between China and India. Power failures have become common, while the economy has been battered because of the country’s political uncertainty. In Sri Lanka, with the defeat of LTTE and the demise of Prabhakaran, a new chapter has opened. Rehabilitation of the Tamil population will provide long-term peace to this war-torn country. However, there is clearly a lack of sincerity on the part of the Sri Lankan Government in pursuing the issue, despite the fact that it has enough strength in the legislature to ratify any decision that the present government may choose to take on the ethnic issue. This led to the UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) resolution against Sri Lanka titled “Promoting reconciliation and accountability in Sri Lanka”. International pressure has ultimately made Sri Lanka address the Tamil issue, but the progress is very slow.

Central & South Asia n Kazakhstan n Kyrgyzstan n Tajikistan n Turkmenistan n Uzbekistan n Afghanistan n Bangladesh n Bhutan n India n Nepal n Pakistan n Sri Lanka

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KAZAKHSTAN

been and will continue to be the engine of this growth. Landlocked, with restricted access to the high seas, Kazakhstan relies on its neighbours to export its products, especially oil and grain. Although its Caspian Sea ports, pipelines, and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation and roadways have been neglected. Telecoms are improving, but require considerable investment, as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic because of regional dependencies. At the end of 2007, global financial markets froze and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan’s economy, it has rebounded well. In response to the crisis, Kazakhstan’s Government devalued the tenge (Kazakhstan’s currency) to stabilise market pressures and injected around $10 billion in economic stimulus. Rising commodity prices have helped revive Kazakhstan’s economy, which registered roughly seven per cent growth in 2010-11. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators, the government realises that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries, the so-called “Dutch disease”. In response, Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification programme, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010, Kazakhstan joined the Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships. The government expects to join the World Trade Organisation in 2012, which should also help to develop the manufacturing and service sector base.

  General Information

Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions

Religions Languages

Literacy Government

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Defence Total Armed Forces : Active: 49,000 (Army: 30,000; Air: 12,000; Navy: 3,000; MoD: 4,000) Terms of Service : 24 months Paramilitary Forces : Presidential Guard: 2,000 Internal Security Troops: 20,000 est. State Border Protection Force: 9,000 est. Government Guard: 500

: 27,24,900 sq km : Astana : 0 km (landlocked) : 1,75,22,010 (July 2012 est.) : Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1 per cent, Russian 23.7 per cent, Ukrainian 2.1 per cent, Uzbek 2.8 per cent, German 1.1 per cent, Tatar 1.3 per cent, Uighur 1.4 per cent, others 4.5 per cent (2009 census) : Muslim 47 per cent, Russian Orthodox 44 per cent, Protestant 2 per cent, others 7 per cent : Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4 per cent, Russian (official, used in everyday Business, designated the “language of inter-ethnic ­communication”) 95 per cent (2001 est.) : 99.5 per cent : Republic authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch : 18 years of age; universal

Security Environment Kazakhstan faces no significant external threats. Unique in the postSoviet Central Asian region for its significant and sustained economic growth which has translated into consistent standard of living increases for the population, Kazakhstan has also had a measured foreign policy since independence. Although Russia and China, its two economically and militarily sizeable neighbours, are perceived as threatening by some Kazakhs, it is not in a military sense. Rather, Kazakhs worry about Russian and Chinese investors exerting influence as a result of economic power, and they express concern about political bullying. They have managed these problems predominantly by maintaining good relations with these countries, as well as building ties with the United States. Kazakhstan has sought not so much to balance any one partner against others as it has to ensure that a network of good relationships prevents conflict. In its own region, Kazakhstan has aspired to Central Asian leadership with variable success. Kazakhstan is a strategic fulcrum in the vast Central Asian-Caspian Basin zone, a region rich in energy resources and a potential gateway for commerce and communications between Europe and Asia. It is also an area that faces a vast number of security challenges. Ensuring a stable and secure Central Asia is important for the world and for Kazakhstan which has a vital stake in the security of this region. The security perspective of Kazakhstan and the region can be appreciated by considering the following factors:

: 14 provinces and three cities

Overview of the Economy Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002, Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit rating. Kazakhstan’s economy has largely recovered from the global financial crisis of 2008, and GDP increased seven per cent year-on-year in 2011. Extractive industries have

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Japan-China-Korea Meetings Japan, China and Republic of Korea (South Korea) have been regularly holding talks as a part of Tripartite Cooperation among the People’s Republic of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea. China is hosting the Fifth Trilateral Summit Meeting among China, Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) from May 13 to 14, 2012, as the coordinator for this year’s trilateral cooperation. After more than 10 years of development of the cooperation, the three countries have established a full-fledged mechanism for cooperation, and formed an all-dimensional, multi-tiered and wide-ranging cooperation framework with the Trilateral Summit Meeting at its core, and supported by 18 ministerial meetings in areas like foreign policy, economy and trade, science and technology and culture and over 50 working-level mechanisms. These trilateral meetings have also served as confidence building measures as all three countries exchange views on each other’s security and defence policies and regional issues. In the context of counter-terrorism, they expressed their intent to cooperate for the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations, which is specified in the “Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020” adopted at the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Summit in May 2010.

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Japan-China Relations Japan’s long chain of invasions and war crimes in China between 1894 and 1945 as well as modern Japan’s attitude towards its past are major issues affecting the current and future Sino-Japanese relations. SinoJapanese relations had worsened because of the repeated visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. One consequence was a complete freeze in mutual visits at the highest political levels between 2001 and 2006. Even exchanges at other levels were affected. The ice was broken in 2006 when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited China, and the ice began to thaw when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited Japan in 2007. These two Prime Ministerial visits set the stage for President Hu Jintao’s ‘warm-spring’ visit to Japan between May 6 and 11, 2008. The relations have been steadily improving between Japan and China. Yoshihiko Noda became Prime Minister in August 2011 following the departure of Naoto Kan, who resigned following a brief premiership marred by economic gloom and a nuclear crisis triggered by the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in March 2011. Noda became Japan’s sixth Prime Minister in five years, and the third premier since his centre-left Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) came to power in August 2009 after winning a landslide election that ended half a century of conservative rule. His predecessor, Naoto Kan, became Prime Minister in June 2010 following the resignation of Yukio Hatoyama amid a damaging dispute over an unpopular US air base off Okinawa. Noda inherits some daunting challenges from Kan. Support for the DPJ rapidly ebbed away when it failed to rein in the country’s huge public debt, which in August 2011, stood at twice the size of the economy, and the leadership’s popularity ratings plummeted even further when it was perceived to be making heavy weather of the task of disaster recovery.

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Some analysts feel that Japan is now a shrinking, more insular and less relevant nation. Its birth rate dwindles because women don’t want to raise children in a society where husbands are forced by corporate loyalties to be absentee parents. Its suicide rate, at nearly 25 per 1,00,000 is among the world’s highest. Thousands of its rural towns are dens of lonely elderly without the youthful infrastructure to sustain their longevity. Its political system has been shorn of credibility. Its fiscal deficit is very large, more than twice its gross domestic product. Japan’s old-boy system of corporate cronyism and top-down control continues to flourish, as the current Olympus scandal demonstrates. The Fukushima disaster proved again the nation’s inability to properly manage a foreseeable crisis. Dodging responsibility, not demanding accountability, remains the “Japanese way”. Japan’s unique culture of conformity, insularity, sacrifice and order was superbly suited for a 20th century paradigm of mass production and hardware, but has great difficulty adapting to the 21st century, dominated by personalisation, individuality and software. Japan expects China to further expand its maritime activities in the South China Sea and the Pacific. Its annual defence report in August 2011 gave the latest expression of regional security concerns about China’s military build-up. Tokyo’s annual white paper also urged caution against cyber attacks and said North Korea’s nuclear and missile projects posed serious threats to national security.

ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important superpowers in the region are the United States, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia: China-Japan relations, North Korea, Taiwan, and international terrorism.

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has served them well during the past three-and-a-half years. China, which regards Taiwan as a renegade territory, had warned that a win by Tsai, whose party has traditionally backed formal independence, could threaten the “peaceful development of cross-strait ties.” Ma, a nationalist, has overseen a raft of agreements that have revolutionised the way ordinary Chinese and Taiwanese interact. There are now direct flights, postal service and new shipping routes between Taiwan and the mainland, and a landmark free trade agreement has slashed tariffs on hundreds of goods. The US interest in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming deeper. This can be seen by the fact that it is reposturing its naval forces in the AsiaPacific region. By 2020, the Navy will reposture its forces from today’s roughly 50:50 split between the Pacific and the Atlantic to about a 60:40 split between those oceans, the US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told Asian officials at a conference in Singapore in June 2012. This will include six aircraft carriers in this region, a majority of their cruisers, destroyers, combat ships and submarines. It is being done in a steady, deliberate and sustainable way—the United States military is rebalancing and brings enhanced capabilities to this vital region. To combat terrorism threat, the US has pressed countries in the region to arrest suspected terrorist individuals and organisations, funded and trained Indonesia’s elite counter-terrorist unit, and deployed troops to the southern Philippines to advise the Philippine military in their fight against the violent Abu Sayyaf Group. It has also launched a Regional Maritime Security Initiative to enhance security in the Strait of Malacca, increased intelligence sharing operations, restarted militarymilitary relations with Indonesia, and provided or requested substantial aid for Indonesia and the Philippines from the US Congress. Also, since 2001, Thailand and the United States have substantially increased their anti-terrorism cooperation. The responses of countries in the region to both the threat and to the US reaction generally have varied with the intensity of their concerns about the threat to their own stability and domestic politics. In general, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines were quick to crack down on militant groups and share intelligence with the United States and Australia, whereas Indonesia began to do so only after attacks and arrests revealed the severity of the threat to its citizens. Since that time, Indonesian authorities have been aggressive in their pursuit of terrorists and extremist groups. Many governments view increased American pressure and military presence in their region with ambivalence because of the political sensitivity of the issue with both mainstream Islamic and secular nationalist groups. The Muslim insurgency in southern Thailand has escalated in recent years as has terrorist activity in southern areas of the Philippines.

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The United States has continued to express concern over the growth of China’s influence and military power in the Asia-Pacific region. In its annual report to the Congress in 2011, the US Department of Defense notes, China’s long-term, comprehensive military modernisation is improving the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) capacity to conduct highintensity, regional military operations, including —anti-access and area denial (A2AD) operations. The terms—anti-access and area denial refer to capabilities that could be employed to deter or counter adversary forces from deploying to, or operating within, a defined space. China continues to base many of its most advanced systems in the military regions (MRs) opposite Taiwan. Although these capabilities could be employed for a variety of regional crisis or conflict scenarios, China has made less progress on capabilities that extend global reach or power projection. Outside of peacetime counter-piracy missions, for example, China’s Navy has little operational experience beyond the regional waters. Although the PLA new roles and missions in the international domain reflect China’s expanding set of interests, regional contingencies continue to dominate resources and planning. Tensions Between North and South Koreas Tensions between the North and South Korea remain very high following the sinking of a South Korean warship Cheonan that killed 46 sailors, and an exchange of artillery fire in November 2010 across the disputed western maritime border that left four South Koreans dead. This incident came as North Korea was transferring power from ailing leader Kim Jong-il, who passed away in December 2011, to his son, Kim Jong-un—a process that some analysts believe was behind North Korea’s above actions. The authoritarian nation maintains one of the world’s largest armies, clings to its nuclear weapons programme despite broad condemnation and sanctions, and regularly flings warlike rhetoric at rival South Korea. Japan normalised relations with South Korea in 1965 but has no formal ties with North Korea. Seoul and Tokyo have been in the final stages of talks for two agreements on logistics and sharing military intelligence. Defense Minister Kim Kwan-jin had planned to visit Japan to sign the intelligence-sharing deal in May 2012 but the visit was postponed at the last minute. South Korea and Japan want to share intelligence on missile and nuclear threats from North Korea. On the nuclear issue involving North Korea, there has been no substantive movement. International talks involving the two Koreas, China, Russia, Japan and the US, aimed at ending North Korea’s nuclear ambitions remain permanently stalled, despite Chinese calls for them to resume. The revelation in November 2010 that North Korea has a modern uranium enrichment facility with at least 1,000 centrifuges, potentially offering Pyongyang another route to a nuclear weapon, made further talks even less likely. The US officials said they were “stunned” at the scale of the facility, although not surprised that it existed. In January 2012, Taiwan held its presidential elections—only the fifth time since Taiwan threw off single-party rule in 1996. During the election, voters were concerned with issues like stagnant wages, a growing wealth gap and steep housing prices that have frozen young urbanites out of the real estate market. They also considered another important issue: whether this vibrantly democratic island should speed, slow or halt its wary embrace of China. On January 14, Ma Ying-jeou was re-elected President by a comfortable margin, fending off a challenge from his main rival, Tsai Ing-wen, who criticised his handling of the economy but also sought to exploit fears among voters that Ma’s conciliatory approach towards China was eroding the island’s sovereignty. Ma’s victory was welcomed by Taiwanese business leaders, who feared his defeat could irritate China and set back the détente that

Sharing Intelligence Report Sandwiched between India, China, Bangladesh, Thailand and Laos, Myanmar is being wooed by both neighbours and developed countries. Visitors from both the West and East are “landing there like an avalanche”, says India’s former Ambassador Rajiv Bhatia. For India, Myanmar is a gateway to the economically vibrant South East Asia. For Myanmar, India – with which it shares a 1,600-km border and centuriesold civilisation ties, is the bridge to the growing economy of South Asia. The visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh comes after 25 years, the last being Rajiv Gandhi in 1987. Sanctions had crippled the country that has seen nearly 50 years of military rule. Today, a nominally civilian government rules the country. The military occupies 25 per cent of the seats in the national parliament, whose prominent member now is the India-educated pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. There appears to be a consensus across Myanmar’s government headed by President

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India-ASEAN Trade in Goods (TIG) Agreement was signed in Bangkok on August 13, 2009, after six years of negotiations and it came into force on January 1, 2010. Seen as the world’s largest free-trade agreement (FTA), covering a market of almost 1.8 billion people with a combined GDP of $2.8 trillion, the India-ASEAN pact envisages tariff liberalisation of over 90 per cent of products traded between the two dynamic regions. Tariffs on over 4,000 product lines will be eliminated by 2016, at the earliest. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows: n Australia n Cambodia n China n Indonesia n Japan n North Korea n South Korea n Laos n Malaysia n Myanmar n The Philippines n Singapore n Taiwan n Thailand n Vietnam

Thein Sein and opposition Aung San Suu Kyi-led National League for Democracy that the country needs to move closer to India at it travels down the path of political and economic reforms. Officials in Myanmar feel that now that they are on the path of political reforms, they need greater interaction with India, one of the world’s biggest democracies where the political system has its own checks and balances.

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India’s “Look East Policy” India’s relations with its extended neighbourhood have received a fillip with the formulation of its ‘Look East Policy’ in the early 1990s. Forging comprehensive and mutually beneficial bonds with South East Asia has been the cornerstone of this policy. India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, speaking at the India-ASEAN Summit at Hanoi on October 30, 2010, said India’s economy was expected to witness a sustained growth rate of 9-10 per cent in the coming years, which would offer many opportunities for trade and investment. The Summit came out with a five-year ‘Plan of Action’ outlining roadmap for enhanced multi-faceted cooperation. The Plan of Action contains 82 points identified for implementation to tap the vast potential in various fields. Describing it as an “ambitious roadmap” for implementation of ‘partnership of peace, progress and shared prosperity’ between the two sides, Singh said it shows the desire to develop a multi-faceted India-ASEAN relationship. Manmohan Singh said that India believed that ASEAN is the core around which the process of economic integration of the Asia-Pacific region should be built. The

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Area : 77,41,220 sq km Capital : Canberra Coastline : 25,760 km Maritime Claims : Territorial sea : 12 nm Contiguous zone : 24 nm Exclusive economic zone : 200 nm Continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Population : 2,20,15,576 (July 2012 est.) Ethnic Divisions : White 92 per cent, Asian 7 per cent, aboriginal and others 1 per cent Religions : Protestant 27.4 per cent (Anglican 18.7 per cent, Uniting Church 5.7 per cent, Presbyterian and Reformed 3 per cent), Catholic 25.8 per cent, Eastern Orthodox 2.7 per cent, other Christian 7.9 per cent, Buddhist 2.1 per cent, Muslim 1.7 per cent, others 2.4 per cent, unspecified 11.3 per cent, none 18.7 per cent (2006 Census) Languages : English 78.5 per cent, Chinese 2.5 per cent, Italian 1.6 per cent, Greek 1.3 per cent, Arabic 1.2 per cent, Vietnamese 1 per cent, others 8.2 per cent, unspecified 5.7 per cent (2006 census) Literacy : 99 per cent Government : Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Suffrage : 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Administrative Divisions : Six states and two territories

Defence Total Armed Forces Reserve Foreign Forces

: Active– 56,552 (Army: 28,246, Navy: 14,250, Air: 14,056) : 20,440 (Army: 15,840, Navy: 2,000, Air: 2,600) : US Pacific Command: 129, New Zealand Air Force: 9, Singapore Air: 230

Security Environment Originally composed of six separate colonies of the British Empire, Australia’s path to independent statehood began with the formation of a federal state in 1901 and was largely complete by World War II. The last few remaining constitutional links with the United Kingdom were severed in 1986, although Australia remains part of the Commonwealth, and the Queen is the head of state, represented by a Governor General. The future of the monarchy is a recurring issue in politics. In a 1999 referendum, about 55 per cent of Australians voted against becoming a republic. The six states of the federation retain extensive powers, particularly over education, police, the judiciary and transport. Australia’s growing orientation towards its Asian neighbours is reflected in its economic policy. It is a key member of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum and aims to forge free trade deals with China and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). It has also played a bigger regional role, mediating between warring groups in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, as well as deploying thousands of peacekeepers in newly-independent East Timor. Australia’s Defence White Paper 2009 states that Australia will spend more than $70 billion to boost its defence capability over the next 20 years in response to a regional military build-up and global shifts in power. A long-term strategic blueprint for the future of Australia’s armed

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Overview of the Economy Australia’s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron ore, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the $40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia also has a large services sector and is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy and food. Key tenets of Australia’s trade policy include support for open trade and the successful culmination of the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, particularly for agriculture and services. The Australian economy grew for 17 consecutive years before the global financial crisis. Subsequently, the former Kevin Rudd government introduced a fiscal stimulus package worth over $50 billion to offset the effect of the slowing world economy, while the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to historic lows. These policies—and continued demand for commodities, especially from China—helped the Australian economy rebound after just one quarter of negative growth. The economy grew by 1.3 per cent during 2009—the best performance in the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) —by 2.7 per cent in 2010, and by three per cent in 2011. Unemployment, originally expected to reach 8-10 per cent, peaked at 5.7 per cent in late 2009 and fell to five per cent in 2011. As a result of an improved economy, the budget deficit is expected to peak below 4.2 per cent of GDP and the government could return to budget surpluses as early as 2015. Australia was one of the first advanced economies to raise interest rates, with seven rate hikes between October 2009 and November 2010. The Julia Gillard-led government is focused on raising Australia’s economic productivity to ensure the sustainability of growth and continues to manage the symbiotic, but sometimes tense economic relationship with China. Australia is engaged in the Trans-Pacific Partnership talks and ongoing free trade agreement negotiations with China, Japan and Korea.

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AUSTRALIA

REGIONAL BALANCE

regional balance

East asia, pacific rim & australia: australia

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Developments in Iraq Iraq, an area once home to some of the earliest civilisations, became a battleground for competing forces after the US-led ousting of President Saddam Hussein in 2003. After the counter-insurgency campaign in Iraq, in June 2009, the US troops withdrew from Iraq’s towns and cities, handing over security to Iraqi forces. In line with a pledge by the US President Barack Obama the last US combat troops left Iraq in August 2010. Other US troops left Iraq by the end of 2011. Iraq held a national legislative election in March 2010—choosing 325 legislators in an expanded Council of Representatives (COR)—and after nine months of deadlock, the COR approved the new government in December 2010. Nearly nine years after the start of the Second Gulf War in Iraq, the US military operations there ended in mid-December 2011. As pro-democracy uprisings have spread across West Asia, the rulers of the monarchies are feeling threatened. Saudi Arabia—the region’s great bulwark of religious and political conservatism—is feeling increasingly isolated and concerned that the United States may no longer be a reliable backer, as officials and diplomats state. The country’s rulers were shaken by the forced departure of the Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak, a close and valued ally. They are anxiously monitoring the continuing protests in neighbouring Bahrain and in Yemen, with which Saudi Arabia shares a porous 1,760-kilometre border. Those concerns come on top of long-festering worries about the situation in Iraq, where

Civil Conflict in Syria In the summer of 2011, Syria’s crackdown dragged on, thousands of soldiers defected and began launching attacks against the government, bringing the country to what the United Nations in December called the verge of civil war. An opposition government in exile was formed, the Syrian National Council, but the council’s internal divisions have kept Western and Arab governments from recognising it as such. The opposition remains a fractious collection of political groups, long time exiles, grassroots organisers and armed militants, divided along ideological, ethnic or sectarian lines. The conflict is complicated by Syria’s ethnic divisions. The Assads and much of the nation’s elite, especially the military, belong to the Alawite sect, a minority in a mostly Sunni country. While the Assad Government has the advantage of crushing firepower and units of loyal elite troops, the insurgents should not be underestimated. They are highly motivated and over time, demographics should tip in their favour. Alawites constitute about 12 per cent of the 23 million Syrians. Sunni Muslims, the opposition’s backbone, make up about 75 per cent of the population. Nuclear Programme in Iraq Iran’s nuclear programme is one of the most polarising issues in one of the world’s most volatile regions. While American and European officials believe that Tehran is planning to build nuclear weapons, Iran’s leader-

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

Arab Spring As far as Arab Leagues democratic deficit and the Arab Spring are concerned, many analysts are of the view that this deficit does not appear to be rooted in religious beliefs. However, the region’s institutional history shows that overwhelming popular support for Islamists may undermine democratic efforts by concentrating political power in the hands of these groups. Indeed, the recent past shows that Islamists are just as likely to establish autocratic rule as other groups in the absence of checks on their power. Thus, unless other interest groups, such as labour unions or commercial interests check their power, Islamists may replace secular rulers and usher in a new wave of autocracy in some Arab countries. Currently, the analysts are cautious about using the evidence they have regarding democratic change in the Arab world as a guide for future policy decisions. The Israel-Palestine conflict extends well beyond the Middle East. Unresolved for more than 60 years, it has become a colossal obstruction to international politics and cooperation. It is felt that 2012 is more likely to be a year in which the conflict escalates once again, rather than the one in which an enduring peace is secured.

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the toppling of Saddam Hussein has empowered Iran, Saudi Arabia’s great rival and nemesis.

he term “West Asia” is coterminous with the Middle East which describes geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism, international organisations such as the United Nations have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel, a Jewish country, all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically, most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq, which is largely dominated by Shias, and Iran, which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world’s most widespread religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits, which were discovered in the early 20th century, have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest, as it has the largest oil reserves. Iran, Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically, most of the states are monarchies, sheikhdoms or single-party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom.

REGIONAL BALANCE

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West Asia and North Africa

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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regional balance

West Asia and North Africa

of talks were held in Baghdad, but they ended with no clear signs of progress, though the Iranians agreed to reconvene for more negotiations in Moscow in June 2012. Iran and Western superpowers have started a new round of talks in Turkey. The outcome of talks is still very uncertain. Over the long-term, whether or not there are significant strides, will depend in large part on finding a workable solution to the question of uranium enrichment. Some experts believe that a long-term solution will require Iran retaining some small-level capacity for uranium enrichment. In the near term, however, making progress requires that Iran take some confidence-building measures of immediate importance, including suspending work at the deeply-buried Fordo enrichment site and halting production of 20 per cent enriched uranium. The other major problems of this region are the fundamentalist Islamic militancy, and sectarian violence and terrorism; all these pose threats to peace in West Asia. The US is involved in a significant way in clearing up or resolving all of them.

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ship says that its goal in developing a nuclear programme is to generate electricity without dipping into the oil supply it prefers to sell abroad, and to provide fuel for medical reactors. Iran and the West have been at odds over its nuclear programme for years. But the dispute has picked up steam since November 2011, with new findings by international inspectors, tougher sanctions by the United States and Europe, threats by Iran to shut the Strait of Hormuz to oil shipments and Israel signalling increasing readiness to attack Iran’s nuclear facilities. In March 2012, the United States and other global powers announced that they had accepted an offer to resume talks about Iran’s nuclear programme that broke off in stalemate more than a year before. In midApril, diplomats from Iran, the United States and other world powers met in Istanbul. The talks went surprisingly well and were something of a turning point in the American thinking about Iran. At the meeting, Iranian negotiators seemed more flexible and open to resolving the crisis, even though no agreement was reached. In May, another round

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regional balance

West Asia and North Africa

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REGIONAL BALANCE

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INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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West Asia and North Africa: ALGERIA

ALGERIA

and a large hydrocarbon stabilisation fund. In addition, Algeria’s external debt is extremely low at about two per cent of GDP. Algeria has struggled to develop industries outside of hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy. The government’s efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases. Public spending has increased by 27 per cent annually during the past five years. Long-term economic challenges include diversification from hydrocarbons, relaxing state control of the economy, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.

  General Information

Defence Total Armed Forces : Terms of Service : Paramilitary Forces :

Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Exclusive fishing zone Population Ethnic Divisions Religions

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Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

Active– 1,47,000 Reserve– 1,50,000 Conscription 18 months Gendarmerie– 20,000 National Security Forces– 16,000 Republican Guard– 1,200 Legitimate Defence Groups– 1,50,000 est.

Security Environment In the 1990s, Algerian politics was dominated by the struggle involving the military and Islamist militants. In 1992, a general election won by an Islamist party was annulled, heralding a bloody civil war in which more than 1,50,000 people were slaughtered. An amnesty in 1999 led many rebels to lay down their arms. Abdelaziz Bouteflika, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent, and was re-elected for a second term in 2004, and overwhelmingly won a third term in 2009 after the government amended the constitution in 2008 to remove presidential term limits. Long-standing problems continue to face Bouteflika, including large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electricity and water supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the continuing activities of extremist militants. Although political violence in Algeria has declined since the 1990s, the country has been shaken by a campaign of bombings carried out by a group calling itself Al-Qaeda in the Land of Islamic Maghreb (AQLIM). The group was formerly known as the Salafist Group for Call and Combat, and has its roots in an Islamist militia involved in the civil war in the 1990s. Although experts doubt whether AQLIM has direct operational links with Osama bin Laden, its methods, which include suicide bombings, and its choice of targets such as foreign workers and the UN headquarters in Algiers, are thought to be inspired by Al-Qaeda. The North African Government fear that local Islamist groups in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia may be linking up under the umbrella of the new movement. After years of political upheaval and violence, Algeria’s economy has been given a lift by frequent oil and gas finds. It has estimated oil reserves of nearly 12 billion barrels, attracting strong interest from foreign oil firms. Thousands of people have been holding pro-democracy rallies in Algeria’s capital Algiers, defying a government ban. Scuffles broke out between the protesters and riot police and a number of people were reportedly arrested. Algeria—like Egypt, Tunisia and other countries in the region—has recently witnessed demonstrations for greater freedoms and better living standards. Public demonstrations are banned in Algeria because of a state of emergency still in place since 1992. However, the government in 2011, introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency

: 23,81,741 sq km : Algiers : 998 km : 12 nm : 32-52 nm : 3,54,06,303 (July 2012 est.) : Arab-Berbers 99 per cent, European less than 1 per cent : Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent, Christian and Jewish 1 per cent : Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects : 69.9 per cent : Republic : 18 years of age; universal : 48 provinces

Overview of the Economy Algeria’s economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country’s socialist post-independence development model. In recent years, the Algerian Government has halted the privatisation of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues, 30 per cent of GDP, and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Thanks to strong hydrocarbon revenues, Algeria has a cushion of $173 billion in foreign currency reserves

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle

counter dynamics of possible triggers for state-on-state conflict. Nuclear proliferation and cyber terrorism denote the opposite continuums of an emerging threat spectrum that demands responses spread from government to the private sector and from states to individuals. Continuous challenges due to natural disasters such as the tsunami in Japan supplemented by lack of adequate safety instruments to evade collapse of key infrastructure such as nuclear power reactors have posed new dynamics in the Asia-Pacific region, which is vulnerable to catastrophic events given the asymmetry between land and sea mass. Security investments are increasingly challenged by austerity resulting from a decline in the global economy. This is affecting military capacity building, even as tensions between states seem to be rising, particularly with growing brinkmanship in the South China Sea. While counterbalancing has led to the US strategic shift or pivot towards the Asia-Pacific, it has created new fears of a Sino-US conflict in East and South East Asia to which states in the region seem to be increasingly averse. Moreover, traditional multilateral security mechanisms such as Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum (ARF) are unable to resolve dilemmas faced by states over issues like maritime boundaries and legacy of control over island territories which have assumed increasing significance by providing additional leeway of an exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Military tensions are thus seen endemic in the Asia-Pacific. A brief survey of the key vectors of security challenges and responses in the region are as follows:

A

sia-Pacific security environment remains increasingly complex with a wide variety of threats, traditional and non-traditional, nuclear and conventional, state and non-state, existing concomitantly. This exposed states to new security vulnerabilities leading to cooperation in some spheres as well as confrontation in others. Terrorism continued to be a major threat worldwide, with piracy and maritime crime adding to hybrid nature of challenges pervading the Asia-Pacific region. Radical political ideologies including right-wing religious radicalism and left-wing extremism signified by Maoist insurgency in India fuelled non-state actors. Support by recalcitrant, irresponsible and rogue states to militants continued in a deniable form. State as well as non-state actors exploited technology including cyber technology to a great effect. This has added to overall state of disorder in some parts of the region and particularly West Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Oceans as a base for resources combined with ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) by most countries have led to exponential increase in maritime activity, economic and as a follow-up military. This is the additional dimension of blue waters supplementing their importance for trade. Thus states are employing newly acquired capabilities for political influence, to settle long-standing territorial disputes or resource grab in maritime commons. Provocative and destabilising behaviour of states such as North Korea represents the

Multilateralism & Security in Asia-Pacific In the Asia-Pacific, East and South East Asia have a strong tradition of

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Seen as a matrix of global economic progress in the 21st century, the Asia-Pacific region is emerging as an arena for geopolitical and regional rivalries with territorial disputes, both land and maritime, impacting relations between states. This has affected the healthy trend of multilateralism that prevailed in the region, particularly in East and South East Asia.

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Traditional & Non-traditional, Nuclear & Conventional

REGIONAL BALANCE

Asia-Pacific Region

PIB, MEA

5

Security Threats in the

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Security Threats in the Asia-Pacific Region

the US will stand with China in case it decides to settle some of the contentious issues by use of force. The Scarborough Shoal incident in April between China and the Philippines which had emerged as a flashpoint wherein some contend that the United States failed to stand by its treaty ally in some respects represents the military dilemmas that will be posed to principal actors in this sphere. In July 2012, China has also established the Sansha Garrison Command of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA). This is located on the Yongxing Island and covers Zhongsha, Xisha and Nansha. This is the first indication of militarisation of the South China Sea through garrisoning, which is likely to induce other players to mirror Chinese actions and build up their physical presence in these waters. Hopes of implementation of the Declaration of Conduct for Parties in the South China Sea, signed between ASEAN and China in 2002 in the near future have now withered away as there has been no consensus in the recent ASEAN meet in Cambodia held in July 2012. The Code of Conduct being drafted for the South China Sea, another document to prevent conflict in this region and promote stability; may also be now put on the back-burner. The division that has emerged in the otherwise stolid ASEAN with reference to China’s claim in the South China Sea contested by four ASEAN states—Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam—denotes the limits of multilateralism on issues where states seek to assert their rights of sovereignty. Follow-up efforts by Indonesian Foreign Minister Dr Marty Natalegawa has led to a consensus. However, China is likely to continue to resolve these issues bilaterally rather than multilaterally through ASEAN where it is worried about extra regional powers playing a role to undermine its interests. These conflicting trends underline the need for building integral security capacity over the long-term, at least to pose optimal deterrence to protect their sovereign and territorial interests. The geography of the area would imply the necessity for combined all arms forces, land, sea and air, mainly projected by ships, aircraft or helicopters. Apart from the bilateral contentions over outlying island territories and offshore resource hubs, the larger issue is that of maritime freedom and rites of passage over international waters. For Asia-Pacific in particular, which is more sea than land; maritime security will remain a key concern. Ensuring free navigation across the oceans and waters is incumbent on all states abiding by universally agreed laws and principles, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea . Where states choose to contest the same, how these security dilemmas will be resolved needs greater clarity. For countries like India which have a long coastline of over 7,500 km and large number of island territories numbering 600, maritime security is assuming greater importance. Moreover 90 per cent of India’s trade by volume and 77 per cent by value is transported through the sea. India has a land and maritime boundary with Myanmar and a maritime zone with Indonesia, 90 nautical miles from the Andaman Islands. The EEZ is over 2.5 million square kilometres and sea mining areas extend to 2,000 km from the southern tip as per the UNCLOS. Energy-rich oceans are another dimension of maritime security which has so far not been exploited to the degree envisaged. This has resulted in two primary imperatives of maritime security for India, safeguarding coastline and the EEZ against varied types of seaborne threats and ensuring freedom of the seas to all. This would denote requirement of what is popularly known as brown and blue water Indian Navy supplemented by other elements of safeguard, such as the Coast Guard and Coastal Security Police. The other states in the region are also likely to face a similar challenge in the near future. Maritime capacity will also have to be supplemented by continental military build up for land and sea powers as India with contentious boundary issues with China and settlement of the line of control (LoC) with Pakistan. Air forces are also increasingly enhancing their maritime roles with concepts such as the Air Sea battle gaining impetus in public

multilateralism based on the successful ASEAN compact. This has been projected in the military and security dimension in the form of dialogues and forums for exchange of views on defence and security. The key examples of which are intra-ASEAN processes with regional partners, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum, the ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting (ADMM), the ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting-Plus, the East Asia Summit and the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC). These have provided mechanisms for managing contentious issues preventing escalation. Increasing frequency of such meetings such as ADMM-Plus from three to two years are attempts to add to the overall scope for reconciliation. Similar mechanisms however are not evident in West Asia with tensions between the US and Iran having created innate challenges for regional as well as international security with particular reference to energy. Interposed on this larger rubric is the success story of multilateral efforts to combat piracy in the region be it in the Malacca Strait conjoining naval capabilities of several ASEAN countries and extra-regional partners like India. The extensive international cooperation in combating piracy off the Strait of Hormuz is another salient example of such mechanisms operating across diverse state responses ensuring security of key sea lines of communication (SLOC) connecting trade and energy resources with major markets. Combating piracy requires securing the seas as well as the land supporting the pirates. Cooperative security efforts in this dimension have succeeded most significantly in the Malacca Strait and increasingly so in the Gulf of Aden area. Yet dependence on a strong maritime military underlines the need for continued capacity building by navies in this sphere. New strands of multilateralism are emerging such as the first IndiaJapan-South Korea Trilateral Dialogue held on June 29, 2012, in New Delhi. This dialogue was based on convergence of strategic interests between the three countries particularly in the Indian Ocean region. From a nuclear security perspective as well, cooperation was envisaged to deal with the risks of nuclear and missile proliferation. Joint anti-piracy patrols launched by China, India and Japan, are now being supplemented by South Korea which is joining the group, thereby leading to consolidation of security objectives of states based on common interests. This reinforces growing trend of multilateralism to meet the maritime security challenges affecting the global commons. However, it is apparent that cooperative security structures are underpinned by a coagulation of military capacity. Devoid of concepts such as common understanding of the military challenges and interoperability of diverse forces, the initiatives in the Eastern Indian Ocean as Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against ships in Asia (RECAAP) and establishment of Information Fusion Centre (IFC) in Singapore, which shares information and analysis on “white shipping” among maritime security partners, would not have been successful. India also has its own web-based system for displaying positional information of merchant ships called the Indian Merchant Ship Information System (MSIS). Thus multilateralism and security capacity building bear a direct rather than an inverse co-relation with each other as is normally perceived.

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South China Sea and Multilateralism Multilateralism however has limits. This is more than evident in the South China Sea conundrum. These waters have emerged as a major flashpoint threatening regional stability not so much due to piracy, but by contentious territorial claims between China on one side and several ASEAN states bilaterally with China on the other. This has certainly posed a major challenge to security in the region whose manifestations are not yet clear but portends could end the long decades of peace and stability in South East Asia. One outcome is the US decision of an Asia-Pacific shift outlined in America’s National Security Strategy 2011. This may increase rather than decrease tensions due to possibility of smaller states getting caught in the whirlpool of great power rivalry. Moreover there is no guarantee that

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China Main battle tanks (MBTs)

: Type-98/Type-99, Type-90-II, Norinco Type-85-III : Type-62, Type-63, Type 63A

Light tanks (Lt Tks) Armoured personnel carriers/infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs), (ICVs) : Type-90, ZBD-04 IFV/ZBD (Type-97), NORINCO VP1, Type-89 (YW 534), Type-85 (531H), Type WZ 501, Type 77, Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers : Type-83 152mm, PLZ45 155mm How, Enhanced PLZ45 systems (SP Guns and Hows) : NORINCO Type-85 122mm How Towed anti-tank (A Tk) guns, guns and howitzer : Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun, Type-66 152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs) : Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs : Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, PL-9C (SP AA Guns and SAMs) : Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System Towed AA Guns : Chinese Type-56, 14.5mm Gun, NORINCO 37mm Type-74 Czech/Slovak Republics APCs/ICVs

SP Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs

Germany MBTs

APCs/ICVs

India MBTs Towed ATk Guns, Guns and Hows MRLs

: BRDM-2, OT-64 C (SKOT-2A), BMP-1 & OT90 APC

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: Leclerc, AMX-30 : AMX-13 : Giat AMX-10P, Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marines, AMX VCI (ICV), Improved VAB 4x4 version (Wheeled), Panhard PVP, Panhard M3 : GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun, GIAT 155mm, GCT SP Gun : Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System, Crotale Low Alt SAM System, Shahine Low Alt SAM System, AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System

: Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2A7, Leopard 2A6, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT : Neuer Schutzenpanzer Puma AIFV, Condor, Fuchs, Rheinmetall Land System Marder 1A3 ICV

: T-90, Arjun : IFG Mk.2 105mm : Smerch, Pinaka MR System

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Army equipment is listed below in the following order:

INDIAN DEFENCE

France MBTs Lt Tks APCs/ICVs

ARMY Equipment

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tank, ship or an aircraft passes through various phases of development and appears in different versions with varied fitments and operational parameters. We have listed these variants, but greater details of each version with specific parameters are given in the dedicated publications. We have also relied on such publications in compiling our data. In this volume, specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors and weapon control systems have been omitted, as they may vary from craft to craft, even within the same class.

his chapter contains specifications of all important military hardware being employed by the countries mentioned below. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented under separate headings for the Army, Navy and Air Force. We have listed each type of hardware under the headings of its country of origin like Russia, UK and the US. The development of weapon systems is a long-term process. Over the years, a composite unit like a

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Equipment & Hardware Specifications

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equipment & hardware specifications: Army

Towed AA Guns

ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Israel MBTs

: Merkava Mk3, Merkava 4, Sabra MBT

Reconnaissance Vehicles (Recce Vehs) : RAM family of light AFVs SP Guns and Hows : Soltam L-33 155mm Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : Soltam M-71 155mm Gun/How Italy SP Guns and Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer

Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs

Pakistan MBTs APC

: Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How, Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer

: SSPH-1 Primus

South Africa APCs/ICVs

: Casspir Mk. III, Ratel 90

Spain APCs/ICVs : Type-74, Type-90 : Type-87 : Type-73, Type-89, Mitsubishi Type SU 60 : Type-75 155mm, Type 99 155mm : Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System

: K1, Hyundai Rotem K2 MBT : 155mm KH179 How

: BMR-600

Sweden Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Bofors FH-77 B 155mm Towed AA Guns : Bofors L-40/-70, 40mm Auto AA Gun Switzerland APCs/ICVs Towed AA Guns

: Mowag Piranha : Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns, Oerlikon Contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns

: Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid), Type Al Zarrar : Type Saad, Type Talha, Type M113A2

United Kingdom MBTs

Russia MBTs

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Singapore SP Guns and Hows

South Korea MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer

: Oto Palmaria 155mm

: ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun, 100mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19

: Chieftain Mk. 5, Centurion Mk 13, Challenger 2, Khalid, Vickers MBT Mk3 Lt Tks : Alvis Scorpion Recce Vehs : Alvis Saladin, Daimler Ferret Mk 2/3 APCs/ICVs : Stormer, GKN Def Desert Warrior, FV432 SP Guns and Hows : AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : 105mm Lt Gun (L 118), 155mm Lightweight How (M 777)

: Black Eagle Development Tank, T-95, T-54, T-55, T-55 (Upgraded), T-62, T-64B, T-72, T-80U, T-90S Lt Tks : PT-76B Recce Vehs : BRDM-2, PRP-4 APCs/ICVs : BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-1 ACV, BTR-50, BTR-80, MT-LB, BTR-152VI SP Guns and Hows : M 1973 (2S3) 152mm, M 1974 (2S1) 122mm, (MSTA-S) 152mm Self-Propelled Artillery System 2S19 Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : D-30 122mm Fd Gun, M-46 130mm Fd Gun, 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs : Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs : ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System, ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, 2K22M Tunguska System, SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System, SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System, SA-8B SAM System, SA-9 Gaskin SAM, SA13 Gopher SAM System

United States of America MBTs

: M-1 Abrams, M-48 series, M 60 A3 Lt Tks : M-41, Sting Ray APCs/ICVs : M-113 A3 SP Guns and Hows : 155mm/ 52-calibre International Howtizer, M-107 175mm SP Gun, M- 109 Series of 155mm SP How, M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch) Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : M-198 155mm How SP AA Guns and SAMs : M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System, M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System, M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM

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458 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue


NORTH KOREA Submarines : Romeo class Sang-O class Frigates : Najin class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 483) Soho class TRAL class Patrol forces : SO1 class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 483) Soju class -do Hainan class-doRUSSIA Patrol Submarines : Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes : SOUTH KOREA Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes

THAILAND Air Craft Carriers Frigates Corvettes

INDIA Submarines : Shishumar class Kilo class Foxtrot class Scorpene class Air Craft Carrier : Hermes class Kiev class (Ex Admiral Gorshkov) Destroyers : Delhi class Kashin class Frigates : Godavari class

Kilo class Lada class Kashin class Sovremenny class Krivak class Nanuchka class Taran Tul class

: Chang Bogo class : KDX-2 class : Ulsan class : P O Hang class – (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 200910 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 487)

: Chakri Naruebet class : Naresuan class : Khamronsin class

UNITED KINGDOM (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 489) Frigates : Leander class Salisbury class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) class Lekiu class Missile Craft : Dhofar (Province) class Corvettes : Qahir class

479 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dolphin class Eilat (SAAR 5) class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) class Reshef class Super Dvora class

TECHNOLOGY

ISRAEL Submarines : Corvettes : Patrol forces :

BUSINESS

CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines : Jin class XIA class Han class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 469) Shang class - doPatrol Submarines : Song class Yuan class Kilo class Ming class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 471) Romeo class - do Modified Romeo class - doDestroyers : Luzhou class Sovremenny class Luyang class Luyang II class Luda class Luhai class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 474) Luhu class -doAircraft Carriers : Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov class) Frigates : Jiangkai class Jiangkai II class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 200910 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 476) Jiangwei class Jiangwei II class Jianghu 1/II/V class Fast attack missile craft : Houku (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 478) Houxin class -do Huangfen/Hola class -do Huchuan -do-

Bharamputra class Talwar class Shivalik class Leander class

INDIAN DEFENCE

Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NAVAL EQUIPMENT

REGIONAL BALANCE

regional balance

equipment & hardware specifications: Navy

CONTENTS

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regional balance

equipment & hardware specifications: NAVY

NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

Torpedoes

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 491) Guided Missile Destroyers : Gearing class Frigates : Adelaide class Amphibious forces : Austin class

Countermeasures Radars Sonars

WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 493) Submarines : Agosta class (France, Spain) Daphne class (France) HDW class (Germany) Frigates : Al Riyadh class (France) Madina class (France) La Fayettes class (France) Descubierta class (Spain) Fast attack missile craft : Combattante class (France) Ratcharit class (Italy) Aircraft carriers : Principe De Asturias class (Spain)

Structure

Patrol Submarines Song class (Type-039/039G) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 1,700 surfaced; 2,250 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 246 × 24.6 × 17.5 (74.9 × 7.5 × 5.3) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16V 396 SE; 6,092 hp(m) (4.48 MW) diesels; 4 alternators; 1 motor; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 15 surfaced; 22 dived Complement : 60 (10 officers) Missiles : SSM: C-801A; radar active homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50); passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/ passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted Mines : In lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning Radars : Surface search: I-band Sonars : Bow-mounted; passive/active search and attack; medium frequency. Flank array; passive search; low frequency Operational: Basing: North (315, 316, 327, 328); East (314, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325); South (320, 326, 329)

China Strategic Missile Submarines Jin class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres)

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: 8,000 : 449.5 × 38.7 × 7.5 (137.0 × 11.8 × 2.3) Main machinery : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; 1 shaft Speed, knots : To be announced Complement : 140 Missiles : SLBM; 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5); 3-stage solid-fuel rocket; stellar inertial guidance to over 8,000 km (4,320 n miles); single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Countermeasures : Decoys: ESM. Radars : Surface search/navigation: Type 359; I-band Sonars : Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Structure: Likely to be based on the Type 093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. XIA class (Type-092) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) Main machinery Speed, knots Complement Missiles

: 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. : Type 921-A; radar warning. : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. : Trout Cheek; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. : Diving depth 300 m (985 ft).

4+4 Yuan class (Type-041) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) Main machinery

Missiles

: 6,500 dived : 393.6 × 33 × 26.2 (120 × 10 × 8) : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 90 MW; 1 shaft : 22 dived : 140 : SLBM: 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3); inertial guidance to 2,150 km (1,160 n miles); warhead single nuclear 250 kT.

Torpedoes

: To be announced : 236.2 x 27.5 x? (72.0 x 8.4 x?) : Diesel-electric; 4 diesels; 1 motor; 2 Stirling AIP (to be confirmed); 1 shaft : SSM: C-801A; inertial cruise; active radar homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg. : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET50); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET65E); active/passive homing

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480 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue


India Israel Russia Sweden United Kingdom United States of America

Germany India Italy Russia United Kingdom United States of America Training Brazil India United Kingdom China/Pakistan

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

: Embraer EMB-312 Tucano : HAL HJT-16 Kiran, HAL HPT-32 Deepak, HAL HJT-36 Sitara : BAE Systems Hawk 100 (Two-seat ­version) : K-8 Karakoram

Maritime Reconnaissance

Transport Aircraft Germany Russia Spain Ukraine United Kingdom United States of America

: Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma/AS 532 Cougar : Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550/ AS 555 Fennec : Eurocopter SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/366 Dauphin II, AS 565 Panther : Eurocopter SA 316/319 Alouette III : Eurocopter SA 330 Puma : Eurocopter SA 341/342 Gazelle : Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 : Advance Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv : EH-AW 101 VVIP Communication : Kamov Ka-25 : Kamov Ka-25 B SH : Kamov Ka-31 : Mil Mi-6 : Mil Mi-8 : Mil Mi-17 : Mil Mi-24 : Mil Mi-25/-35 : Mil Mi-26 : Westland Sea King : Bell 407 : Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra : Boeing AH-64 Apache : Boeing CH-47 Chinook : Sikorsky UH-60/SH-60/S-70 : Blackhawk, S-92

France Russia United States of America

Dornier Do-228 Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-76 Tupolev Tu-134 Tupolev Tu-154 Yakovlev Yak-40 EADS CASA C-212 EADS CASA CN-235M Antonov An-12 Antonov An-24 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-32 BAE Systems HS-748 Boeing 737-100/200 (VIP) Boeing 737-300

: : : :

Dassault Aviation Atlantique 2 Ilyushin IL-38, Tupolev Tu-142 Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion MMA P-8 Poseidon

Airborne Early Warning & Control Brazil Sweden United States of Russia /Israel

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

France

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Helicopters

: Hong-6 : Jian-7 : Jian-8 : Jian Hong-7 : Jianjiao-7 : Qiang-5 : FC-1 : J-10 : J-11 (locally produced Su-27) : Eurofighter Typhoon : Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H, Dassault Aviation Mirage III, Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C, Dassault Aviation Mirage 5, Dassault Aviation Rafale : LCA : IAI Kfir : Mikoyan MiG-21 : Mikoyan MiG-23 : Mikoyan MiG-25 : Mikoyan MiG-27M : Mikoyan MiG-29 : Mikoyan MiG-31 : Sukhoi Su-24 : Sukhoi Su-25 : Sukhoi Su-27 : Sukhoi Su-30MK : Sukhoi Su-30MKI : MiG-35 : JAS-39 Gripen : BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series, BAE Systems Sea Harrier : Boeing F-15A/B/C/D Eagle : Boeing F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet : Lockheed Martin F-16A/B/C/D Fighting Falcon : Northrop F-5E Tiger : F-22 Raptor : Joint Strike Fighter F-35

: Embraer AEW : Saab 2000 : Boeing E-3 Sentry, America Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye : IL-76 with Phalcon System

Combat Aircraft China Hong–6 Westernised designation

495 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

: B-6

REGIONAL BALANCE

China Europe France

TECHNOLOGY

Combat Aircraft

BUSINESS

Air equipment is given as under in the following order:

: BBJ : Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules : C-130J/C-130J-30 : Embraer Legacy (VIP)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Brazil

AIR EQUIPMENT

INDIAN DEFENCE

regional balance

equipment & hardware specifications: air force

CONTENTS

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regional balance

equipment & hardware specifications: Air force

Users

: Bangladesh (A-5C), China (Q-5), Myanmar (A-5-C/-M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499.

AIR EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Users : China. Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Jian–7 Westernised designation Type

FC–1 Export designation : Super-7 Users : China, Pakistan Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500.

: F-7 : Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft : MiG-21 F (Soviet)

Design based on Other versions: (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I; exported to Albania, Egypt, Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I; also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles, exported to Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe); F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt: (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles; F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA; Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7/FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users : China (J-7 II/ IIA/ H/ IIM/ III/ IIIA/ E), Bangladesh (F-7M), Egypt (F-7A/B), Iran (F-7M), Myanmar (F-7M), North Korea (F-7), Pakistan (F-7P/PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS)

Jianji–10 Westernised designation : F-10 Type : Multi-role fighter Versions : Design : Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore planes; single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins; single ventral engine air intake. Accommodation : Pilot only, on zero/ zero ejection seat. Range : 1,000 nm Armament : 11 external stores points, including one on centerline, tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing, the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs; C-801 or C-802 ASMs; and laser guided or free fall bombs. Combat Radius : 250-300 nm Users : China J–11 (Su-27SK) For details see Su-27 under Russia User : China

Jian–8 NATO reporting name : Finback Westernised designation : F-8 Users : China Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499.

Europe Eurofighter Typhoon Crew Length Wingspan Height Wing area Empty weight Loaded weight Max take-off weight Powerplant Dry thrust Thrust with afterburner Maximum speed At altitude At sea level Supercruise Range Ferry range Service ceiling Rate of climb Wing loading Thrust/weight

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Jian Hong–7 Westernised designation : B-7 Users : PLA Navy. Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Jianjiao–7 Westernised designation Users

: FT-7 : Bangladesh (FT-7B), China (JJ-7), Iran (FT-7), Myanmar (FT-7), Pakistan (FT7P/ PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Qiang–5 NATO reporting name Westernised designation

: : : : : : : : : : :

1 or 2 15.96 m (52 ft 5 in) 10.95 m (35 ft 11 in) 5.28 m (17 ft 4 in) 50 m_ (540 ft_) 11,000 kg (24,250 lb) 15,550 kg (34,280 lb) 23,000 kg (51,809 lb) 2 Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofans 60 kN (13,500 lbf) each 90 kN (20,250 lbf) each

: Mach 2 : Mach 1.2 (1,470 km/h, 915 mph) : Mach 1.2 (1,470 km/h, 915 mph) : 1,390 km (864 mi) : 3,790 km (2,300 mi) : 19,812 m (65,000 ft) : 315 m/s (62,007 ft/min) : 311 kg/m_ (63.7 lb/ft_) : 1.18

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: Fantan : A-5

496 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue


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Abbreviations

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A A&E Ammunition and Explosives A&N Andaman & Nicobar A/S Mortars Anti-Submarine Mortars A/S Anti Submarine AA Air Attaché AA Anti-Aircraft AAA Anti-Aircraft Artillery AAD Advanced Aircraft Defence/anti-arcraft defence/Army Air Defence AAM Air-to-Air Missile AAP Annual Acquisition Plan AAPCC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee AAPCHC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee AAR Air-to-Air Refuellers AAV Amphibious assault vehicle AAW Anti-Air Warfare AB Airborne/Air Base ABL Airborne Laser ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile Ac/ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat, Command and Control System ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMUs Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS(PP & FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile/Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP(CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP(HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) ACOP(P&C) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Personnel & Conditions) ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel Acqn Acquisition ACV Air Cushion Vehicle/ Armoured Combat Vehicle ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence

ADA

Aeronautical Development Agency/ Air Defence Artillery ADAMS Air Defence Advanced Mobile System ADC&RS Air defence control and reporting system ADC Aide-de-Camp ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre Addl FA Additional Financial Advisor Addl Additional ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADF Australian Defence Force ADG Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation ADG DV Additional Directorate General Discipline and Vigilance ADG EM Additional Directorate General Equipment Management ADG Mov Additional Director General, Movements ADG Additional Directorate General Procurement Procurement ADG PS Additional Directorate General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Directorate General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Directorate General Information Systems ADGIW Additional Director General, Information Warfare ADGMI Assistant Director General, Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General, Military Operations ADGOL Additional Director General, Operational Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence Adj Adjusted/adjutant ADC&R Air Defence Control and Reporting System ADMM ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meet ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AEA Airborne Electronic Attack AEC Army Education Corps AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array AEW Airborne Early Warning AEW&C Airborne Early Warning & Control

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AF Air Force/Auxiliary Fleet AFA Air Force Academy AFB Air Force Base Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AFSPA Armed Forces Special Powers Act AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area AFV Armoured Fighting Vehicle AG Adjutant General AGM Air-to-Ground Missile AGPL Actual Ground Position Line AH Attack Helicopter AIFV Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle AIP Air Independent Propulsion AIP Approval In Principle AIS Automatic identification system AIT Automatic identification technologies AJT Advanced Jet Trainer ALCM Air Launched Cruise Missile AlGaAs Aluminium gallium arsenide ALGs Advanced Landing Grounds ALH Advanced Light Helicopter ALTB Airborne Laser Test Bed AM Acquisition Manager AMAS Australian Minesweeping System AMD Anti-missile defence Amn Ammunition amph Amphibious/amphibian AMRAAM Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile AMRs Anti-material rifles AMTIR Amorphous Material Transmitting Infrared Radiation ANA Afghan National Army ANC Andaman & Nicobar Command ANP Afghan National Party ANURAG Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group ANZAC Australian and New Zealand Army Corps ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States AOA Air Officer-in-Charge, Administration/ Angle of Attack AOC Army Ordnance Corps AOC-in-C Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief AOM Air Officer-in-Charge Maintenance AON Acceptance of Necessity AOP Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel AOPVs Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels APAR Active Phased Array Radar APC Armoured Personnel Carrier APCs(T) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Tracked) APCs(W) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Wheeled) APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation


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abbreviations APFSDS

Armour-piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot Appx Approximately APSOH Advanced panoramic sonar hull AQIM Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb AR&DE Armament Research and Development Establishment ARC Aviation Research Centre AREN Army Radio Engineering Network ARF ASEAN Regional Forum ARIS Anti-resonance isolation system ARM Anti-Radiation/Radar Missile Armd Armoured ARMREB Armament Research Board ARTRAC Army Training Command Arty Artillery ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle AS Additional Secretary ASAT Anti-Satellite ASC Army Supply Corps/Army Service Corps ASCM Anti-Ship Cruise Missile ASCON Army Static Communication Network ASD Admiral Superintendent Dockyards ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASEM Asia-Europe Meeting ASG Abu Sayyaf Group ASL Advanced Systems Laboratory ASLAV Australian Light Armoured Vehicle Aslt Assault ASM Air-to-Surface Missile/Anti-Ship Missile ASO Air Staff Office ASPL Akash Self-Propelled Launcher ASR Air Staff Requirements ASTE Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment ASuW Anti-Surface Warfare ASV Anti-Surface Vessel/armoured security vehicles ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare AT Anti-tank ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATC Air Traffic Control ATE Advanced Technologies and Engineering ATEP Advanced technical exploitation programme ATGM Anti-Tank Guided Missile ATGW Anti-Tank Guided Weapon Atk Anti-tank ATL Advanced Tactical Laser ATP Acceptance Test Procedure ATTF All Tripura Tigers Force ATTS Air-Transportable Towed System ATV Advanced Technology Vessel Auto Automatic AUV Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUW All Up Weight AV Armoured Vehicles

AVIC Aviation Industries Corporation Avn Aviation AVS Committee Ajai Vikram Singh Committee AVSM Ati Vishist Seva Medal AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System

B BACN

Battlefield air-borne communication node BADZ Base Air Defence Zone BARC Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bbr Bomber Bde Brigade BDL Bharat Dynamics Limited BE Budget Estimate BECA Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement BEL Bharat Electronics Limited BEML Bharat Earth Movers Limited BFSR Battlefield Surveillance Radar BFSR-SR Battlefield Surveillance Radar-Short Range BHEL Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Bhp Brake horsepower BIMSTEC Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation BIS Bureau of Indian Standard BM Border Management BMC2 Battle Management Command and Control BMCS Bi-Modular Charge System BMD Ballistic Missile Defence BMS Battlefield Management System Bn (bn) Battalion BNP Bangladesh National Party BOPs Border Out Posts BRIC+M Brazil, Russia, India, China and Mexico BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, China BRO Border Roads Organisation BSF Border Security Force BSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited BSS Battlefield Surveillance System Bty Battery BVR Beyond Visual Range BVRAAM Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile BW Biological Warfare

C C&R C2 C2RP C2W C3 C3CM C3I

Control and Reporting Command and Control Command and Control Reconnaissance Post Command and Control Warfare Command, Control & Communications Command, Control & Communications Countermeasures Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence

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C4I

Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence C4I2 Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information and Intelligence C4I2SR Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information management, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance C4ISR Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance C4ISTAR Command, Control, Communications, Computers and (military) Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance CA Combat Aircraft CAB Complaint Advisory Board CABS Centre for Airborne Systems CAE Computer Aided Engineering CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate CAIR Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Cal Calibration CAM Computer Aided Machining Capt Captain CAR Central Asian Republics CARAT Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training CAS Chief of the Air Staff/Close Air Support Casevac Casualty evacuation Cat Category Cav Cavalry CAW College of Air Warfare CBG Carrier Battle Group CBMs Confidence Building Measures Cbt Combat CC Central Committee CC(R&D) Chief Controller (Research & Development) CCA Central Coordinating Authority CCC Committee on Climate Change CCD Charge Coupled Device CCS Cabinet Committee on Security CCT Combat Capable Trainer CCTNS Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System CCTV Closed Circuit Television CDA Controller of Defence Accounts CDEC Custom Duty Exemption Certificate CDF Chief of Defence Force CDISS Centre for Defence and International Security Studies CDM College of Defence Management CDO Command Diving Officer CDP Committee for Defence Planning Cdr Commander CDS Chief of Defence Staff CE Corps of Engineers/Chief Engineer CEC Central Military Commission CEMILAC Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification


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abbreviations

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CENTO CEP CEPA

Central Treaty Organisation Circular error probable Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement CEPTAM Centre for Personal Talent Management CERT Computer Emergency Response Team-India CFA Competent Financial Authority CFC Combined Forces Commander CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics CFEES Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety CG Commanding General/Combined Group/Coast Guard CGAIS Coast Guard Air Inspection Superintendent CGAS Coast Guard Air Station CGDA Controller General Defence Accounts CGE Central Government Expenditure CGHQ Coast Guard Headquarters CGRPT Coast Guard Refit Production Team CGS Chief of the General Staff/Coast Guard Ship CHRI Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative CI Counter-insurgency CIA Central Intelligence Agency CIAT Counter-insurgency and Anti-Terrorism CICP Computerised Inventory Control Procedure CIDS Chief of Integrated Defence Staff CIDSS Command Information Decision Support System CIFs Counter Insurgency Forces CIG Counter Insurgency Grid CII Confederation of Indian Industry CIJWS Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare C-in-C Commander-in-Chief CINCAN Commander-in-Chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid CIR Cargo Integration Review CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CISC Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee CISF Central Industrial Security Force CISMOA Communication Interoperability and Security Memorandum Agreement CISO Chief Information and Security Officer CIWS Close-in Weapon System CJCS Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff CKD Complete Knocked Down CLAWS Centre for Land Warfare Studies CLGP Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile CLO Chief Law Officer CLS Capsule launch system cm Centimetre CM Cruise Missile

CMC CMCs CMD CMDS

Central Military Commission Ceramic matrix composites Chairman & Managing Director Counter Measure Dispensing Systems CMM Common Modular Missile CMOS Complimentary metal-oxide semi-conductor CMS Combat management system CMT Carrier Mortar Tracked/ Continuous Moldline Technology CMTV Carrier mortar tracked vehicle CNC Commercial Negotiation Committee CNC Computer Numerical Control/Cost Negotiations Committee CNN Cable News Network CNO Chief of Naval Operations CNO Computer networks operation CNP Comprehensive national power CNPC China National Petroleum Corporation CNS Chief of the Naval Staff CO CGS Delhi Commanding Officer Coast Guard Ship Delhi COAS Chief of the Army Staff COD Central Ordinance Depot CODOG Combined diesel or gas turbine COIN Counter Insurgency COL Controller of Logistics COM Chief of Materials comb Combined/combination comd Command COMINT Communications Intelligence comns Communications Comp Composite COMSAT Communication satellite CONOPS Concept of Operations COP Chief of Personnel COP Common operational picture COS Chief of Staff COSC Chiefs of Staff Committee COTS Commercial off the shelf Coy Company CP Central Purchase CPB Charged Particle Beams CPF Central Police Forces CPMF Central Paramilitary Forces CPI(M) Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI(ML) Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) CPI Consumer Price Index CP-NPA-NDF Communist Party of Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front CPOs Central Police Organisations CPT Carriage Paid To CPWD Central Public Works Department CRC Control and Reporting Centre CRL Central research laboratories CROWS Common remotely operated weapon station

508 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

CrPC Criminal Procedure Code CRPF Central Reserve Police Force CRT Cathode-Ray Tube CRZ Compact Revolutionary Zone CS Centre-State CSAR Combat Search and Rescue CSE Core System Evaluation CSFO Counter Surface Force Operations CSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CSM Communications Support Measures CSSC China State Shipbuilding Corporation CST Comparative Statement of Tenders CSTO Collective Security Treaty Organisation CT Counter-terrorist CTBT Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty CTBTO Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation CTK FLT Chetak Flight CTM Communist Terrorist Movement CTOT Complete Transfer of Technology CTPTs Counter Terrorism Pursuit Teams CUNPK Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping CVC Central Vigilance Commission CVRDE Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment CW Continuous Wave CWIN Cyber Warning and Information Network CWP&A Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition CYBERINT Cyber Intelligence

D D (Admin) D (AV) D (FE) D (FM) D (INT) D (Log) D (MAT) D (Med) D (MPRT) D (Ops) D (Pers) DA DAC DADCs DAF DAI DARE DAS DASE DASI DASR DCAS

Director (Administration) Director (Aviation) Director (Fisheries and Environment) Director (Fleet Maintenance) Director (Intelligence) Director (Logistics) Director (Materials) Director (Medical) Director (Manpower Planning, Recruitment & Training) Director (Operations) Director (Personnel) Defence Attaché Defence Acquisition Council Division Air Defence Centres Delivered At Frontier Director of Administration Inspection Defence Avionics Research Establishment Director of Air Staff Director of Armament System Equipment Directorate of Air Staff Inspection Directorate of Air Staff Requirements Deputy Chief of Air Staff


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abbreviations DCF DCMG DCN DCNS DCOAS DCP DD DDG MF DDG DDGMS

Discounted Cash Flow Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Chief of the Army Staff Directorate of Civilian Personnel Demand Draft Deputy Director General Military Farms Deputy Director General Deputy Directorate General Management Studies DDH Destroyer, Helicopter DDOs Direct Demanding Officers DDP Department of Defence Production DDP Directorate of Data Processing DDP&S Department of Defence Production & Supplies DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid DE Directorate of Education DEAL Defence Electronics Application Laboratory DEBEL Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory DECS Director Electronics and Computer Sciences DEE Directorate of Electrical Engineering DEO Defence Exhibition Organisation Dept Department DEQ Delivered Ex Quay DES Delivered Ex-Ship DES Directorate of Engineering Support DESA Director Ex-Serviceman’s Affairs DESIDOC Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre Det Detachment DEW Directorate of Electronic Warfare/ Directed Energy Weapons DF Deuterium Floride DFM Directorate of Fleet Maintenance DFPR Delegation of Financial Power Regulations DFRL Defence Food Research Laboratory DFS Directorate of Flight Safety DG Director General/Diesel Generator DG(I&S) Director General (Inspection and Safety) DG AAD Directorate General Army Air Defence DG CW Directorate General Ceremonials and Welfare DG DCW Directorate General Discipline Ceremonials and Welfare DGFP Directorate General Financial Planning DG Inf Directorate General Infantry DGMF Directorate General of Mechanised Forces DGPP Directorate General Perspective Planning DG WE Directorate General Weapons and Equipment DG, OS Director General, Ordnance Services DG, SP Director General, Seabird Project

DGAFMS

Directorate General Armed Forces Medical Services DGAQA Director General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance DGAR Director General Assam Rifles DGCA Directorate General of Civil Aviation DGDIA Director General Defence Intelligence Agency DGDPS Director General Defence Planning Staff DGFI Director General of Forces Intelligence DGFT Directorate General of Foreign Trade DGI Directorate General of Infantry DGICG Director General Indian Coast Guard DGIS Directorate General Information Systems DGMI Director General Military Intelligence DGMO Director General Military Operations DGMP Directorate General Manpower Planning DGMS Director General Medical Services DGMT Directorate General Military Training DGNAI Director General Naval Armament Inspection DGNCC Director General National Cadets Corps DGND Director General of Naval Design DGOF Director General Ordnance Factories DGOL&SM Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Moves DGQA Director General of Quality Assurance DGR Director General Resettlement DGS&D Director General Supplies & Disposal DGSD Directorate General Staff Duties DHD Dimasa Halam Dogah DHQ District Headquarters/Defence Headquarters DIA Defence Intelligence Agency DIAT Defence Institute of Advanced Technology DIBER Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research DIHAR Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIME Dense Inertial Metal Explosive DIPAS Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences DIPP Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion DIPR Defence Institute of Psychological Research Dir Director DIR(MM) Director (Material Management) Div Division DL Defence Laboratory DLRL Defence Electronics Research Laboratory DLS Director Life Sciences DLS Director Logistic Support DM Director Missiles

509 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

DMA DMI DMPR DMRC DMRL DMS DMSP DMSRDE DMZ DNA DNAI DNAS DNE DNI DNO DNP DNPF DNRD DNS DNT DOA DOC DOD DODY DOE DOFA DOP DOT DP DP DPA DPB DPC DPJ DPM DPP DPrP DPR DPRK DPS DPS DPSA DPSU DQMG DRDE DRDL DRDO

Director of Maintenance Administration Director of Maintenance Inspection Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory Disaster Management Support Defence Meteorological Satellite Programme Defence Material & Store Research and Development Establishment Demilitarised Zone Directorate of Naval Architecture Directorate of Naval Armament Inspection Directorate of Naval Air Staff Director of Naval Education Directorate of Naval Intelligence Director of Naval Operations Director Naval Plans Director Non Public Funds Director Naval Research and Development Director Naval Signals Directorate of Naval Training Director of Administration Director of Contracts Department of Defence/ Director of Diving Directorate of Dockyards Director of Education Defence Offset Facilitation Agency Directorate of Personnel Directorate of Tactics/ Doctrine, Organisation and Training Delhi Police Delivery Period Directorate of Pay and Allowances Defence Procurement Board Digital Pulse Compression / Departmental Promotion Committee Democratic Party of Japan Defence Procurement Manual Defence Procurement Procedure Defence Production Policy Detailed project report Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Defence Planning Staff Director of Personnel Services Deep penetration strike aircraft Defence Public Sector Undertaking Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation


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abbreviations DSA DSCA DSCS DSE DSEI Dse DSIR DSP DSR DSSC DTI DTRL DVE DVE DVI DW DWE

Director of Systems Application/Draft Supplementary Agreement Defence Security Cooperation Agency Defence Satellite Communications Systems Defence and Security Exhibitions Defence Systems and Equipment International Director of system evaluation Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Directorate of Ship Production Directorate Staff Requirement Defence Services Staff College Department of Trade and Industry Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Directorate of Value Engineering Driver’s vision enhancers Digital video interface Directorate of Works Directorate of Weapons Equipment

E

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EA EAC

Electronic Attack Eastern Air Command/Expenditure Angle Clearance EADS European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EAM External Affairs Minister EASA European Aviation Safety Agreement EBO Effects-based operations ECCM Electronic Counter Counter Measures ECM Electronic Counter Measures ECO Economic Cooperation Organisation ECS Electronics & Computer Sciences EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EFC Expenditure Finance Committee EFP Explosively Forged Projectiles EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service EHS Early Harvest Scheme EIC Equipment Induction Cell E-in-C Engineer-in-Chief ELINT Electronic Intelligence El-Op Electro-optic Industries Ltd EM Earnest money EMC Electro Magnetic Compatibility EMCON Emissions Control EMD Earnest Money Deposit EMI Electro Magnetic Interference EMP Electro Magnetic Pulse EMS Electromagnetic spectrum ENC Eastern Naval Command Engr Engineer EO Electro Optical EOCM Electro-optical countermeasures EOFCS Electro-optic Fire Control System EoI Expression of Interest EP Electronic Protection

EPABX

Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange EPR Evolutionary Pressurised Reactor Eqpt Equipment ER Extended range ERA Explosive Reactive Armour ERFB Extended Range Full Bore ERP Enterprise Resource Planning ERV Exchange Rate Variation ESM Electronic Support Measures ESP Engineering Support Package Est Estimate Estt Establishment ET Electro Thermal EU European Union EUMA End Use Monitoring Arrangement EurASEC Eurasian Economic Community EW Electronic Warfare EWS Electronic Warfare Support Excl Excludes/excluding

F FA FA(DS) FAA FAC

Financial Advisor Financial Advisor (Defence Services) Federal Aviation Administration Fast Attack Craft/Forward Air Controller FAS Favourable Air Situation FAS Free Alongside Ship FAST Fleet assistance and shipboard training FATA Federally Administrated Tribal Areas FB Fast Boat FBM Fleet ballistic missile FBW Fly-by-wire FCA Free Carrier FCS Fire Control System FCU Fire Control Unit Fd Field FDI Foreign Direct Investment FE Forecast estimates/Foreign Exchange FEALAC Forum for East Asia-Latin America FEBA Forward Edge of the Battle Area FEDEP Federation Development FF Frigate FFG Frigate, Guided Missile FGA Fighter, Ground-Attack FGFA Fifth Generation Fighter aircraft/ Future Generation Fighter Aircraft FIC Fast Interception Crafts/Flight ­information centres FICV Future infantry combat vehicle FIDs Future Indian Destroyers Fin Finance F-INSAS Future Infantry Soldier as a System FIPB Foreign Investment Promotion Board FIS Flying Instructors’ School Flg Offr Flying Officer FLIR Forward Looking Infra red

510 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Flt Flight/fleet FM Financial Manager FMBT Future main battle tank FMC Financial Management Cell FMCW Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave FMECA Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis FMS Flight Management System/Foreign Military Sales FMTC Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty FMUs Fleet Maintenance Units FOB Free On Board FOC-in-C Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief FOGA Flag Officer Goa Area FOL Fuel Oil Lubricants FOMAG Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra & Gujarat Area FONA Flag Officer Naval Aviation FOSM Flag Officer Submarines FOST Flag Officer Sea Training FP Financial Planning FPA Focal plane array FPDA Five Power Defence Arrangement FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array FPQ Fixed Price Quotation FPU Formed Police Unit FPVs Fast Patrol Vessels FR Financial Regulation FRA Flight Refuelling Aircraft FRP Fibre Reinforced Polymer FRP Full Rate Production FSA Fluid Supply Assembly FSU Former Soviet Union Ft Feet FTA Free Trade Agreement FTC Fast Torpedo Craft Ftr/ftrs Fighter/fighters FY Financial year FYDP Five Year Defence Plan

G GA GaAs GAETEC

Group Army/Ground Attack Gallium arsenide Gallium Arsenide Enabling Technology Centre GAGAN GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation GCC Gulf Cooperation Council GCI Ground Controlled Interception GDP Gross Domestic Product GE General Electric GED General Engineering Department Gen General GFR General Financial Regulations GGA Gain Generator Assembly GHG Greenhouse gas GHQ General Headquarters GIS Geographical Information System GITS II Gunner’s integrated TOW system


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abbreviations GLONASS GMDSS

Global Navigation Satellite System Global Maritime Distress and Safety System GMS Greater Mekong Sub GOC-in-C General Officer Commanding-in-Chief GOI Government of India GoM Group of Ministers GOST Gost Specifications (Russian) Gp Goup GPS Global Positioning System GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic GRS Gross tonnage GRSE Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited GSB General Staff Branch GSD General Staff Department GSL Goa Shipyard Limited GSLV Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSO Ground Staff Office GSQR General Staff Qualitative Requirements GSR General Service Regulations GTD General Trade Department GUIDEx Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defence Experimentation GWOT Global War on Terror

H HAA HAF HAL HALE HARM HATSOFF

High Altitude Airship Hellenic Air Force Hindustan Aeronautics Limited High Altitude Long Endurance High-speed Anti Radiation Missile Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying HDW Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG HE High Explosive HEAT High Explosive Anti-tank HEL High Energy Laser HELLADS High energy liquid laser area defence system Helo/hel Helicopter HEMRL High Energy Materials Research Laboratory HEO High Earth Orbit HEU Highly Enriched Uranium HFSWR High Frequency Surface Wave Radar HHTIs Hand-held thermal imaging devices HINDRAF Hindu Rights Action Force HITPRO Hit Probability HM Home Minister HMMWV High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle HOBOS Homing and Bombing System Hp Horsepower Hp/ton Horse Power per ton HPSI High Power System Integration HQ Headquarters

HQ IDS

Head quarters Integrated Defence Staff HR Human resources HRD Human Resource Department Hrs Hours HS Home Secretary HUD Head-Up Display HuJI Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam HUMINT Human Intelligence HUMSA (NG) Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced (Next Generation) HuT Hizb-ut-Tahrir HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System HVF Heavy Vehicles Factory Hy Heavy

I IA IACCS IAEA IAF IAI IAPTC IB IBR IBs IBSA ICBM ICG ICV ID/IQ IDF IDPs IDS IDSA IDSN IEA IED IEDs IEEE IEP IFA IFCs IFDSS IFF IFG IFS IFV IGA IGMDP IHPTET

Indian Army Integrated Air Command & Control Systems International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Air Force/Israeli Air Force Israel Aircraft Industries International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres Intelligence Bureau Integrally bladed rotor Interceptor Boats India-Brazil-South Africa Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Indian Coast Guard Infantry Combat Vehicle Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Indigenous Design Fighter/Israel Defence Forces Internally Displaced Persons Integrated Defence Staff Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses Integrated Service Digital Network International Energy Agency Indigenous Explosive Devices Improvised Explosive Devices Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer Integrated Electric Propulsion Integrated Financial Advisor Integrated Functional Commands Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System Identification Friend or Foe Indian field gun Indian Foreign Service Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inter Governmental Agreement Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology

511 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

IIGs IIR IISc IISS

Indian Insurgent Groups Imaging Infrared Indian Institute of Science International Institute for Strategic Studies IIT Image Intensifier Tubes/ Indian Institute of Technology IITF India International Trade Fair IJT Intermediate Jet Trainer ILMS Integrated Logistics Management System ILT Instructor Led Training IM Indigenously Manufactured IMA Indian Military Academy IMD India Meteorological Department IMDP Integrated Missile Development Programme IMF International Monetary Fund IMI Israel Military Industries IMINT Imagery Intelligence IMO International Maritime Organisation IMOLS Integrated Maintenance and Logistics System IMMOLS Integrated Material Management Online System IMU Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan IN Indian Navy INCOTERM International Commercial Terms INDSAR Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue INDU Indian National Defence University Inf Infantry INMAS Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences INS Inertial Navigation System/Indian Naval Ship INSAS Indian Small Arms System INSAT Indian National Satellites InSb Indium antimonide Int Intelligence INTW Indian Naval Work Up Team IOC Initial Operational Capability/ Clearance IOR Indian Ocean Region IORARC Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation IORB Indian Ocean Rim Block IP Industrial Policy IP integrity pact IP Intellectual Property IPBG Integrity Pact Bank Guarantee IPC Indian Penal Code IPC Inshore Patrol Craft IPKF Indian Peace Keeping Force IPMT Integrated project management teams IPR Intellectual Property Right IPS Integrated Power Systems IPVs Inshore Patrol Vessels IR Infrared IRBM Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile


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abbreviations IRBs IRDE IRGC

IRIAF IRS IRSS IS ISACs ISAF ISAP ISC ISFC ISGA ISI ISLEREP ISPS ISR ISRO ISRR ISRT ISSA IST IT ITA 2008 ITBP ITCs ITEC ITM ITU IW

India Reserve Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps/Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force Indian Remote Sensing infrared suppression system Information System Information Sharing and Analysis Centres International Security Assistance Force Information Security Assurance Program Integrated Space Cell Integrated Special Forces Command Interim Self-Governing Authority Inter-Services Intelligence Island M-SAAR Ship Reporting System international ship and port facility security Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Infra Red Search & Tracking System Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis Indian Standard Time Information Technology Information Technology Act 2008 Indo-Tibetan Border Police Integrated Theatre Commands Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Institute of Technology Management International Telecommunication Union Information Warfare

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J J&K Jammu & Kashmir JADC Joint Air Defence Centre JAG Judge Advocate General JCG Japanese Coast Guard JSDF Japan Air Self-Defence Force JASSM Joint Air to Surface Stand off Missile JCOs Joint Combat Operations JDAM Joint direct attack munition JeM Jaish-e-Mohammed JI Jemaah Islamiyah JIC Joint Intelligence Committee JIEDDO Joint Improvised Explosive Devices Defeat Organisation JNPP Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project JOCAP Joint Capsule JOCOM Joint Operations Committee JOCs Joint Operation Centres JPC Joint Planning Committee

JRI JS JSA JSF JSIC JSOW JSQR JSSC JSTARS JTAGS JTC JTFI J-UCAS JV JVC

Joint Receipt Inspection Joint Secretary Joint Systems Analysis Joint Strike Fighter Joint Service Intelligence Committee Joint Stand Off Weapon Joint Service Qualitative Requirements Joint Services Staff College Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Joint Tactical Ground Station Joint Training Committee Joint Task Force on Intelligence Joint Unmanned Combat Air System Joint Venture Joint Venture Company

K KALI Kilo Ampere Linear Injector KCP Kangleipak Communist Party KE Kinetic Energy Kg Kilogramme KGF Kolar Gold Fields KIFV Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle KLO Kamtapur Liberation Organisation Km Kilometre Km ph kilometres per hour KORCOM Korea Command KRC Kargil Review Committee Kt Kilo tonne Kw Kilowatt KYKL Kanglei Yowal Kunna Lup

L L&D L&T LAAD LAC LACM LADAR LAF LASTEC LAV LAW LBL LC LCA LCAC LCD LCH LCM LCP LCPA LCS LCT LCU LCVP

Learning & Development Larsen & Toubro Latin America Aero and Defence Line of actual control Land attack cruise missile Laser Detection and Ranging Lebanese Armed Force Laser Science & Technology Laboratory Light Armoured Vehicle Light Anti-tank Weapon Long Baseline Landing Craft/Letter of Credit Landing Craft, Assault/ Light Combat Aircraft Landing Craft, Air Cushion Liquid Crystal Display Light Combat Helicopter Landing Craft, Mechanised Landing Craft, Personnel Landing Craft, Personnel Aircushion littoral combat ship Landing Craft, Tank Landing Craft, Utility Landing Craft, Vehicles and Personnel

512 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

LD Liquidated Damages LDP Liberal Democratic Party LED Light-emitting diodes LEL Low Energy Laser LEO Low Earth Orbit LeT Lashkar-e-Toiba LFA Low frequency active LFDS Low Frequency Dunking Sonar LFG Light field gun LFV Light forces vehicle LGB Laser Guided Bomb LIA Lead intelligence agency LICO Low Intensity Conflict Operations LICs Low Intensity Conflicts LLADS Liquid Laser Area Defence System LLTR Low Level Tactical Radar LMG Light machine gun LND Local Naval Defence LNG Liquefied Natural Gas LOA Laser Optics Assembly LoC Line of Control Log Logistics LOI Letter of Intent LORADS Long Range Radar & Display System LORROS Long-range reconnaissance and observation system LOS Line of Sight LP Local Purchase LPA Lao People’s Army LPAF Lao People’s Armed Forces LPC Large Patrol Craft LPD Landing Platform, Dock LPH Landing Platform, Helicopter LPIR Low Probability of Intercept Radar LPP Last Purchase Price LRC Line-replaceable components LRDE Electronics and Radar Development Establishment LRF Laser Range Finder LRIP Low Rate Initial Production LRLAP Long-range land attack projectile LRMP Long-range maritime patrol LRMRASW Long Range (armed) Maritime Patrol/ Anti Submarine warfare LRSAM Long Range Surface-to-Air-to-Air Missile LRTR long-range tracking radar LRU Line Replaceable Unit LS&HR Life Sciences & Human Resources LSA Logistics Support Agreement LSD Landing Ship, Dock LSL Landing Ship, Logistics LSM Landing Ship, Medium LSP Limited Series Production LSRB Life Sciences Research Board LSRVs Light Surveillance & Reconnaissance Vehicles LSS Logistic Support Ships LST(L/M) Landing Ship Tank (Large/Medium) LSV Landing Ship Vehicles Lt BPVs Light Bullet Proof Vehicles Lt Light


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abbreviations LTAP LTE LTH LTIPP LTPP LTPPFC

Long-term Action Plan Limited Tender Enquiry Light-weight towed howitzer Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee Ltr/ltrs Litre/litres LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam LUH Light Utility Helicopter LUTs Local User Terminals LWE Left Wing Extremists LWT Light Weight Torpedo

M M&C Materials and Components M&S Modelling & Simulation M/sec Metres per second MA Military Assistant MA Military Attaché MAC Metal Augmented Charge MAC Multi-Agency Centre Maint Maintenance MALE Medium Altitude and Long Endurance MANPADS man-portable air-defence systems MARS Marine Acoustic Research Ship MARCOS Marine Commandos M-ATV MRAP all-terrain vehicles Max Maximum MBA Master of Business Administration MBAT Multi-beam array tracking MBFSR Mobile Battle Field Surveillance Radar MBRLS Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System MBT Main Battle Tank MC Maintenance Command MCA Medium Combat Aircraft MCM Mine Counter Measures MCMV Mine Counter Measures Vessel MCSS Mobile Cellular Communications System MCT Mercury Cadmium Telluride MDA Maritime Domain Awareness MDL Mazagon Dock Limited MDSR Movement Detection and Security Radar MEA Ministry of External Affairs MEADS Medium Extended Air Defence System Mech Mechanised MEM Micro-Electro Mechanical MEO Medium Earth Orbit MES Military Engineering Service MET Maintainability Evaluation Trial Mev Million Electron-Volts MF Main File MFCR multi-function control radar MFO Multinational Force and Observers MFOs Muslim Fundamentalist Organisations MFR Multi Function Radars MG Machine Gun

MGCI MGO MGSIS

Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative Master General of Ordnance Military Geo-Spatial Information System MHA Ministry of Home Affairs MHC Mine Hunter Coastal MHI Mine Hunter, Inshore MHPV Mine-Hardened Patrol Vehicle MHR Man Hour Rate MIDHANI Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited Mil/mily Military MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front MILSPECS Military specifications MINDER Miniature Detection Radar MIRACL Mid Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser MIS Management Information System MLRS Multiple Launch Rocket System mm millimetre MMG Medium Machine Gun MMRCA Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft MNCs Multinational Corporations MND Ministry of National Defence MNLF Moro National Liberation Front Mob Mobilisation/mobile MoD Ministry of Defence MoD/D(MC) Ministry of Defence/D (Monitoring of Contracts) MODA Ministry of Defence & Aviation MODte Military Operations Directorate MOFTU MiG Operational Flying Training Unit MOPs Mobile Observation Posts/ Massive Ordnance Penetrator MOQ Minimum Order Quantity Mor Mortar MoS Minister of State Mot Motorised/motor M0U Memorandum of Understanding MP Military Police/Member of Parliament MPA Maritime Patrol Aircraft MPAT Multi-purpose Anti Tank MPVs Mine-Protected Vehicles MR Maritime Reconnaissance/ Motor-Rifle/ Multiple Rocket/ Military Region MRBM Medium Range Ballistic Missile MRCA Multi-role Combat Aircraft MRCC Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre MRD Motorised Rifle Division MRH Multi Role Helicopters MRL Multiple Rocket Launcher MRLS Manufacturer Recommended List of Spares MRLS Multiple Rocket Launcher System MRMR Medium-Range Maritime Reconnaissance MRSAM Medium-range surface-to-air missile MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre MS Military Secretary/Mild steel MSAS Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System

513 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

MSA Mine Sweeper, Auxiliary M-SAR Maritime Search and Rescue MSC Mine Sweeper, Coastal MSDFs Maritime Self Defence Forces MSI Mine Sweeper, inshore Msl Missile MSO Mine Sweeper, Ocean MSQA Missile System Quality Assurance MSS Missiles & Material Sciences MT Metric tonne Mt/mts Minute/minutes MTA Multi-role Transport Aircraft MTBF Meantime between failures MTBO Minimum Time Before Overhaul MTBUR Mean Time Between Unit Replacement MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime MTHEL Mobile Tactical High-Energy Laser MTI Moving Target Indicator mtn mountain MTOE Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent MTOW Maximum Take off Weight MTTR Mean Time To Repair MULTA Muslim United Liebration Tigers of Assam MW Megawatt MWR Millimetre Wave Radar MZI Maritime Zones of India

N N miles NA NA NADP NAM NATGRID NATO NAY NBC NCC NCOs NCW NDA NDFB NDPG NDRF NDU NE NEC NEO NETD NFU NG NGCI NGN

Nautical miles Naval Attaché/Not-available Numerical Aperture National Academy of Defence Production Non-Aligned Movement National Database Grid North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Naval Aircraft Yard Nuclear, biological and chemical National Counterterrorism Centre National Combat Operations Network-centric warfare National Democratic Alliance National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Defence Programme Guidelines National Disaster Response Force National Defence University North East Network-enabled capability Network-enabled operations Noise equivalent temparature difference No first use Next Generation Northrop Grumman and Cobham joint venture Next generation network


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abbreviations NGO NHQ NHRC NIA NIMA NLC NLFT NM NMRL NMS NMSARCA NOE NOSDCP NPC NPCIL NPOL NPT NPV NREGA NRO NS&ACE NSA NSC NSCN(IM) NSCN(K) NSCS NSCT NSG NSRY NSS NSTL NTRO

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NWFP

Non-governmental organisation Naval Headquarters National Human Rights Commission National Investigation Agency National Imagery and Mapping Agency Naval Logistics Committee National Liberation Force of Tripura Nao Sena Medal/ Naxalite Management Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Military Strategy/New Management Strategy National Maritime SAR Coordinating Authority Nap of the Earth National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan National Police Commission Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Net Present Value National Rural Employment Guarantee Act National Reconnaissance Office Naval Systems & Armament & Combat Engineering National Security Adviser National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Issac-Muviah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat Naval Special Clearance Team National Security Guard/ Nuclear Suppliers Group Naval Ship Repair Yards National Security Strategy/ National Security System Naval Science & Technological Laboratory National Talent Research Organisation/ National Technical Research Organisation North West Frontier Province

OEM OF OFB OFILAJ

Original Equipment Manufacturer Ordnance Factory Ordnance Factory Board Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ambajhari OFILAM Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ambernath OFILAV Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Avadi OFILDD Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Dehradun OFILIS Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ishapore OFILKH Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Khamaria OFILKN Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Kanpur OFILMK Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Medak OFT Operational Flight Trainer OIC Organisation of Islamic Conference OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OM Office Memorandum ONGC Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited OODA Observe, orient, decide, act Op Operational OPCON Operational control OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPLAN Operational plan Ops Operations Opsec Operations Security OPV Offshore Patrol Vessel Org Organised/organisation ORP Operational Readiness Platform ORSA Operational Research and Systems Analysis ORV Oceanographic Research Vessel OSCC Offshore Security Coordination Committee OSCE Organisation and Security Cooperation in Europe OSD Officer on Special Duty OSS Office of Strategic Services OTE Open Tender Enquiry OTH-B Over the Horizon-Backscatter

O

P

O&S O, I, D LEVEL OASIIS

P&C P&MM P&W PA PAC

Operating and Support Operator, Intermediate, Depot Level On aircraft scheduled inspections industrial service Obs Observation OCU Operational Conversion Unit ODAs Operation Detachments Alpha ODF Operational Deployment Force OEF Operation Enduring Freedom OEF Ordnance Equipment Group of Factories

Personnel and Conditions Planning & Material Management Pratt and Whitney Price Agreement/Production Agency Project Appraisal Committee/ Proprietary Article Certificate/Patriot advanced capability PAF Pakistan Air Force PAP People’s Armed Police Para Parachute/paratroop PAT Perform, Achieve and Trade

514 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

PAVE PBF PBFG PBFT PBL PBs PBR PC PCB PCC PCF PCDA

Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Patrol Boat Fast Patrol Boat Fast Guided Patrol Boat Fast Torpedo Performance Based Logistics Patrol Boats Patrol Boat Riverine Personal Computer Printed Circuit Board Patrol Craft, Coastal Patrol Coastal Fast Principal Controller Defence Accounts PCFG Patrol Craft Fast Guided PCI Patrol Craft, Inshore PCO Patrol Craft, Ocean PCPA People’s Committee against Police Atrocities PCR Patrol Craft, Riverine PD Principal Director (Policy (Policy & Plans) and Plans) PD(AV) Principal Director (Aviation) PD(FM) Principal Director (Fleet Maintenance) PD(HRD) Principal Director (Human Resource Development) PD(MAT) Principal Director (Materials) PD(Ops) Principal Director (Operations) PDD Project definition document PDI Pre Dispatch/Delivery Inspection PDMS Point Defence Missile Systems Pdr Pounder Pers Personnel PGMs Precision Guided Munitions PHM Patrol Hydrofoil (with SSM) PHT Patrol Hydrofoil (with torpedo) PHWR Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors PIB Public Investment Board PIVADS Product Improved Vulcan Air Defence System Pl Platoon PLA People’s Liberation Army PLAAF People’s Liberation Army Air Force PLANAF People’s Liberation Army, Navy, Air Force PM Prime Minister/Provost Marshal PMF Paramilitary Forces PMO Prime Minister’s Office PMOC Principal Maintenance Officers Committee PNC Price Negotiation Committee PNVS Pilot Night Vision Systems PoK Pakistan Occupied Kashmir POL Petrol, Oil and Lubricants POV Professional Officers Valuation PPBP Planning and Participatory Budget Programme PPOC Principal Personal Officers Committee PPP Public-private partnership PPS Principal Private Secretary PQ Procurement Quantity PRA Pressure Recovery Assembly


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abbreviations PRC PREPAK

People’s Republic of China People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak Proc Procurement PROM Programmable Read Only Memory PRT Pollution Response Team PS Private Secretary PSEs Public Sector Enterprises PSI Proliferation Security Initiative PSLV Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSO Principal Staff Officer PSO Project sanction order PSOC Principal Supply Officers Committee PSOH Offshore Patrol Vessel with Hangar PSQR Preliminary services qualitative requirements PSR Preliminary Staff Requirements PSU Public Sector Undertaking Psyops Psychological Operations PTA Pilotless Target Aircraft PTS Point Tracker Subsystem PTTs Post Task Trainers PV Prototype Vehicle PVSM Param Vishist Seva Medal PWG People’s War Group PXE Proof and Experimental Establishment

Q QA QFI QMG QRM QRs QR SAM QSR

Quality Assurance Qualified Flying Instructor Quarter Master General Quick Reaction Missile Quantitative Requirements Quick reaction surface-to-air missile Qualitative Staff Requirements

R R&D ENGRS R&D RAAF RAF RAF RAM RAMICS RAS RAW RBG RC RCC RCI RCIED RCL RCS

Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) Research and Development Royal Australian Air Force Rapid Action Force Royal Air Force Radar Absorbing Material/Rolling Airframe Missile Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System Replenishment at Sea Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Guards Rate Contract/Regional Command Revolutionary Command Council/ Regional Communication Centres Research Centre Imarat Remotely Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices Recoilless Launcher Radar Cross Section

RCWS RDS RE REAs ReCAAP

Remote Control Weapon System Remotely Deployed Sensors Revised Estimate Rapid Environmental Assessments Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery Recce Reconnaissance Regt Regiment Res Reserves Retd Retired RF Radio Frequency RFI Request for Information RFID Radio-frequency identification RFP Request for Proposal RHQ Regimental/Regional Headquarters RIC Russia-India-China RL Rocket Launcher RM Resources & Management, Raksha Mantri (Minister of Defence) RMA Revolution in Military Affairs RMN Royal Malaysian Navy RNA Royal Nepal Army ROC Republic of China ROE Rosoboronexport/Rules of Engagement ROI Region of interest ROIC Readout integrated circuit ROK Republic of Korea ROP Road Opening Party Ro-ro Roll-on, roll-off ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle RPFC Railway Protection Force Commandos RPG Rifle Propelled Grenade/RocketPropelled Grenade Rpm Revolutions per minute RPV Remotely Piloted Vehicle RR Rashtriya Rifles RR Rolls-Royce RSTA Reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition RUF Revolutionary United Front RUR Raksha Udyog Ratna RWR Radar Warning Receiver RWS Remote weapon stations

S SA TO RM SA SAAM SAARC SAC SACLOS SAG SAGs SAGE SAM Bdes

Scientific Advisor To Raksha Mantri Scientific Advisor/South Africa/ Supplementary Agreement Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Southern Area Command Semi-automatic command-to-light-ofsight Special Action Group/Scientific Analysis Group Special Action Groups Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Surface-to-Air Missile Brigades

515 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

SAM SAPTA

Surface-to-Air Missile South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement SAR Search and Rescue/Synthetic Aperture Radar SARDP Special Area Road Development Programme SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SASE Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment SASO Senior Air Staff Officer SATCOM Satellite Communications SBAS Satellite Based Augmentation System SBG Smooth Bore Gun SBI State Bank of India SBIRS Space-Based Infrared System SBL Space Based Laser SBM Single buoy moorings SCAP Services Capital Acquisition Plan SCAPCC Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee SCAPHCC Services Capital Acquisition Plan Higher Categorisation Committee SCD Standing Committee on Defence SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCOC Standard Conditions of Contract SD Security Deposit SDB Small Diameter Bomb SDBs Seaward Defence Boats SDC Supreme Defence Council SDF Self Defence Forces SDLF Shaft Driven Lift Fan SDR Software Defined Radio/software driven/Strategic Defence Review SDS Satellite Data System SEAD Suppression of Enemy Air Defence Secy Secretary SES Surface Effects Ship SEZ Special economic zone SF Special Forces SFC Specific fuel consumption SFC Strategic Forces Command SFF Special Frontier Force SFTS Special Forces Training School SFW Sensor Fused Weapon SG Speical Group SHBO Special Helicopter Borne Operations SHQ Service Headquarters SI Services Interaction SIDs Signal Intelligence Directorates SIGINT Signals Intelligence Sigs Signals SIM Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute SITAR Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research SKD Semi Knocked Down SLAM Stand-Off Land Attack Missile SL-AMRAAM Surface launched advanced medium-range air-to-air missile


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abbreviations

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SLBD SLBM

Sea Lite Beam Director Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile/Surface Launcher Ballistic Missile SLCM Submarine Launcher Cruise Missile SLOCs Sea Lines of Communication SM Sena Medal/Submarine SMD Storage Module Device SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises SMH Standard Manhour SMSO Senior Maintenance Staff Officer SMT Special Maintenance Tools SO Supply Order SOF Special operations forces SOFA Status of Forces Agreement SOG Special Operations Group SOP Standard Operating Procedures SOS Systems of Systems SP Self-Propelled SP Arty Self Propelled Artillery Sp Hels Support Helicopters SPA Supreme People’s Assembly SPAAG Self-Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun SPC Stores Procurement Committee SPG Self-Propelled Gun SPS Stratospheric Platform System SPSG Southern Philippines Secessionist Groups Spt Support Sqn Squadron SQR Services Qualitative Requirements SR Short Refit SRAM Sideways Random Access Memory SRBM Short Range Ballistic Missile SRE Security related expenditure scheme SRG Special Ranger Groups SRR Search and Rescue Region SRU Shop Replaceable Unit SS Special Secretary SSB Sashastra Seema Bal/Special Service Bureau SSBN Ship sub-mercible ballistic nuclear SSC Diesel submarine, coastal SSG Special Service Group SSHC Solid State Heat Capacity SSI Small Scale Industries SSK Diesel submarine, ASW SSM Surface-to-Surface Missile SSN Nuclear-Fuelled Submarine STAP Short-term Action Plan STARS Surveillance Target Attack Radar System STE Single Tender Enquiry/Special Test Equipment STEA Strategic & Technical Environment Assessment STF Special Task Forces Stk Strike/Stock STO Short Take-Off STOBAR Short take-off but arrested recovery STOL Short Take-off and Landing

STOVL Short take-off verticle landing STP Specialized technical panels Str Strength STRI Simulation Training and Instrumentation STSS Space Tracking and Surveillance System Surv Surveillance SWAC South Western Air Command Sys System SYSM Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal

T T Tonne TA Territorial Army/Transport Aircraft Tac Tactical TacC3I Tactical Command, Control, Communications and Information TACDAR Tactical Detection and Reporting System TACDE Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment TAPI Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-PakistanIndia TAR Tibet Autonomous Region TBA Tactical Battle Area TBMD Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence TBRL Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory TC Technical Committee TCA Technical Collaboration Agreement TCDL Tactical Common Datalink TCS Tactical communications system TD Technology Demonstrator TE Tender Enquiry TEC Technical Evaluation Committee Temp Temporary TEPCO Tokyo Electric Power Company TES Theatre Event System THEL Tactical High Energy Laser TI Thermal Imager TIALD Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator TIFA Trade and Investment Framework Agreement TIFCS Tank Integrated Fire Control System TISAS Thermal Imaging Stand Alone Sights TIZ Territorial Interest Zone Tk Tank Tkr Tanker TLPS Thunderbolt Lifecycle Programme Support TM Technical Manager TMC Trinamool Congress TNC Technical Negotiations Committee/ Tender Negotiation Committee TOC Technical Oversight Committee TOOC Technical Offer Opening Committee ToT Transfer of Technology TOTE Table of Tools and Equipment

516 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

TOW missile

Tube-launched Optically-tracked Wire-guided missile TPC Tender Purchase Committee Tps Troops Tpt/tptn Transport/transportation TR Bdes Tank Brigades Trg Training TRV Torpedo recovery vehicle TS Training Ship/ Thermal sight TST Time Sensitive Targets TT Target towing TTCP The Technical Cooperation Programme TTL Total Technical Life TTLS Torpedo tube launch system TTP Taliban’s Tehrik-e-Pakistan TU Transport Unit TUAV Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle TVC Thrust Vector Control TVM Track-via-missile TVN Thrust-vectoring nozzles

U UAC UAE UAS UAV UBGLs UCAR UCAS UCAV UCPDC UDD UFH UGC UGS UGV UHQ UK ULFA UMV UN UNDOF UNIFIL UNIKOM UNLF UNMEE UNMOGIP UNMONUC UNPAs UNPKF UNPROFOR

United Aircraft Corporation United Arab Emirates Unmanned Aerial Systems Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/ Unmanned Air Vehicle Under-barrel grenade launchers Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft Unmanned Combat Aerial Systems Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Uniform Customs & Practices for Documentary Credits United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship Ultra-lightweight field howitzer University Grants Commission Unattended Ground Sensors Unmanned Ground Vehicle Unified Headquarters United Kingdom United Liberation Front of Asom Unit Maintenance Vehicle United Nations United Nations Disengagement Observer Force United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission United National Liberation Front UN Mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UN Mission in Congo United Nations Protection Areas United Nations Peace Keeping Force United Nations Protection Force


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abbreviations UNRWA UNSC UNSCR

United Nations Relief and Works Agency United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation UPA United Progressive Alliance URV Unit Repair Vehicle USAF United States Air Force USBL Ultra Short Baseline USD US Dollar USMC United States Marine Corps USN United States Navy USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republic UTD Unit Training Device Utl Utility UUVs Unarmed Underwater Vehicles UW Underwater UWB Ultra wideband UYSM Uttam Yudh Seva Medal

V V/STOL VAs VBSS

VCAS Vice Chief of the Air Staff VCDS Vice Chief of Defence Staff VCNS Vice Chief of the Naval Staff VCOAS Vice Chief of theArmy Staff Veh Vehicle VHF Very High Frequency VIS-X Vehicular intercom systems VLCC Very large crude carrier VLS Vertical launch system VM Vayusena Medal VOIP Voice over Internet Protocol VOx Vanadium Oxide VPs Vital points VR Virtual Reality VRCs Village Resource Centres VRDE Vehicles Research and Development Establishment VSM Vishist Seva Medal VSSC Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre VTO Vertical Take-Off VTUAV Vertical Take-off UAV

WCMD WE

Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser War Establishment/Weapons and Equipment Wg Wing WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access WLR Weapon Locating Radar WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction WPI Wholesale Price Index Wpn weapon WSOI Weapons Systems, ORSA & Infrastructure WTO World Trade Organisation WTT Weapons and Tactics Trainer WV&V Weapons, Vehicles and Equipment WWR War Wastage Reserves WZC War Zone Campaign

Y YSM

Vertical/ Short Take Off and Landing Vital areas Visit, Board, Search and Seizure

W WAC WASS

Western Air Command/ Western Area Command Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei

517 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Yudh Seva Medal

Z ZnS ZnSe

Zinc blende structure Zinc Selenide


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Index 26/11/2008, Mumbai terrorists’ attacks 8, 9, 13, 54, 143, 144, 161, 194, 246, 305, 312, 313, 315, 317, 329, 349, 454, 456 9/11/2001 5, 15, 54, 347, 454

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A

Abbottabad, Pakistan 143, 370 Abdullah, Dr. 17 active-cum-passive towed array sonar (ATAS) 300 active electronically scanned array (AESA) 87, 88, 233 Additional Director General Administration & Coordination (ADG Adm & Coord) 171 Additional Director General Army Aviation (ADG Army Avn) 170 Additional Director General Army Postal Services (ADG APS) 171 Additional Director General Engineer Personnel (ADG Engr Pers) 171 Additional Director General Engineer Staff (ADG ES) 171 Additional Director General Engineer Stores & Plant (ADG Engr Stores & Plant) 171 Additional Director General Equipment Management (ADG EM) 171 Additional Director General Information Systems (ADGIS) 169 Additional Director General Information Warfare (ADGIW) 169 Additional Director General Land, Works & Environment (ADG LW&E) 171 Additional Director General Military Intelligence (ADGMI) 169 Additional Director General Military Operations (ADGMO) 169 Additional Director General Movements (ADGMOV) 169 Additional Director General Operation Logistics (ADGOL) 169 Additional Director General Personnel Services (ADGPS) 170 Additional Director General Procurement (ADG Procurement) 171 Additional Director General Public Information (ADGPI) 169 Additional Director General Quartering (ADG Quartering) 171 Additional Director General

Recruiting (ADG Rectg) 170 Additional Director General Remount & Veterinary Service (ADG RVS) 171 Additional Director General Signal Intelligence (ADGSI) 169 Additional Director General Technical Examiner of Works (ADG TE Wks) 171 Additional Director General Territorial Army (ADG TA) 170 Adjutant General (AG) 168, 169, 170, 254 advanced light helicopter (ALH) 69, 70, 111, 120, 175, 218, 236, 243, 244, 252, 280, 282, 299 Advanced medium combat aircraft (AMCA) 224 Advanced Panoramic Sonar Hull (AP SOH) 116, 203 Advanced torpedo defence system (ATDS) 300 Advani, L.K. 332 Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) 281, 297 Aeronautical Research & Development Board (AR&DB) 300 Aerospace Offsets Policy 94 AeroVironment RQ-11 102 A.E. Serdyukov 143 Afghanistan 2, 7, 8, 17, 18, 25, 26, 29, 70, 102, 109, 141, 143, 311, 337, 345, 347, 349, 350, 353, 354, 355, 356, 358, 359, 361, 362, 368, 372, 373, 382, 386, 451, 453, 456, 464, 469, 470, 471, 472, 497, 500, 502 —General Information 361 —Overview of the Economy 361 —Defence 361 —Security Environment 361, 362 —National Army (ANA), 16, 17, 361, 456 —US and NATO forces, military intervention 9, 16, 18, 142, 143, 350, 356, 361, 456 Afghan Central Bank 17 Afghan National Police (ANP) 16, 361 Afghan National Security Force (ANSF) 16, 17, 18 Afghanistan-Pakistan (Af-Pak) region 5, 141, 142, 190,

518 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

350, 456 Africa 1, 4, 5, 6, 65, 67, 135, 172, 260 African Union 66 Agni (surface-to-surface missile) 40, 97, 98, 100 Agni-II 40, 98, 174, 185, 298, 368, 369 Agni-III 40, 98, 99, 298, 369 Agni-IV 40, 98, 144, 298 Agni-V 40, 75, 97, 98, 99, 100, 143, 298 AgustaWestland AW-101 120, 147, 218, 222, 237, 394, 502 AH-64 Apache 123, 152, 393, 408, 424, 433, 437, 444, 448, 495, 503 Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud 3, 28, 339, 428, 429 Ahmadzai, Mohammad Najibullah 18 Airborne electronically scanned array 224 Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) 118, 120, 241, 299, 388, 504 Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) 44, 106, 120, 218, 219, 222, 232, 233, 241, 242, 394 Air Craft Carrier —Kiev Class 202, 479 —Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (Project-71) 194, 202 Aircraft and System Testing Establishment 219, 263, 268 Air defence (AD) 46, 110, 117, 139, 146, 163, 166, 176, 178, 184, 193, 210, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 226, 228, 275, 286, 298 air defence control and reporting system (ADC&RS) 176 Air Defence Direction Centres (ADDCs) 241, 242 Air Defence Ground Environment (ADGES) 241 Air Equipment —Combat Aircraft 495 —Transport Aircraft 495, 500 —Helicopters 495, 501 —Training 495 —Maritime Reconnaissance 495 —Airborne Early Warning & Control 495, 504


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Index Air Force Academy (AFA) 219, 226 Air Force Administrative College (AFAC), Coimbatore 219 Air Force Network (AFNET) 146, 219, 241 Air Force Research Laboratory 92 Air Force Technical College (AFTC), Jallahali 219 Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) 147 Air Traffic Controllers’ Training Establishment, Hyderabad 219 Airports Authority of India (AAI) 286 Air-to-ground missiles (ATGM) 71, 72, 101, 175, 497 Ajai Vikram Singh (AVS) Committee 176 AK-47 235, 278, 328, 329 Akash (surface-to-air) missile system 97, 98, 100, 111, 175, 226, 286, 287, 293, 298 Akbar, M.J. 65 Aksai Chin, occupied by China 52 Akshardham Temple 312 ALH Weapons Systems Integrated (ALH WSI) 71, 72, 283 Algeria 12, 200, 337, 345, 347, 420, 421, 455, 462, 469, 470, 471, 472, 475, 490, 492, 497, 498, 500, 501, 502 —General Information 420 —Overview of the Economy 420 —Defence 420 —Security Environment 420, 421 Ali, Zinedin Ben 11 Alize 115 Allahabad 218, 370 All India Radio (AIR) 20, 310 Allied Organisations of the Department of Defence Production and Supplies 294 All Party Delegation (APD) 318 Al-Qaeda 7, 15, 17, 142, 372, 389, 390, 406, 443, 449 American Cold War 7 Amphibian Aircraft 68, 105, 108 An-32 218, 232, 364, 495, 500 AN/BLQ-11 AUV 104 Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands 20, 165, 189, 190, 194, 215, 218, 334, 335, 404 Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) 157, 158, 159, 180, 190, 254, 254, 261 Andhra Pradesh 8, 173, 247, 249, 272, 277, 285, 287, 292, 293, 319, 320,

322, 325, 327, 328, 334 Aneja, Air Vice Marshal A. 221 annual acquisition plan (AAP) 128, 137, 145, 198 Annual Defence Dialogue 142 Ansari, Zabiuddin 13 Anti radiation missiles (ARMs) 77, 78, 79, 210 Anti-Satellite (ASAT) 6, 51, 56, 67, 75, 99 Anti-ship Cruise Missile (ASCM) 37, 370, 429, 456 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 103, 114, 116, 147, 193, 195, 202, 203, 206, 207, 211,212, 213, 260, 278, 291, 369, 374, 383, 388, 391, 394, 398, 412, 416, 423, 429, 433, 446, 453, 504 Antony, A.K. 32, 33, 98, 110, 139, 142, 143, 144, 145 146, 147, 224, 253, 256, 258, 331, 333, 334 APG-79 87 APG-81 87 approval of necessity (AON) 161 Arab Peninsula 2, 3, 5 Arab Spring 3, 11, 28, 141, 41, 417, 420, 444, 449 Arjun main battle tank (MBT) 139, 173, 174, 182, 274, 295, 299, 300, 369, 457, 465 Armoured Corps Centre & School, Ahmednagar 173 Army Aviation 38, 69, 70, 72, 111 Army Aviation Corps (AAC) 69, 70, 71, 72, 111, 175 Army Cadet College 176 Army Equipment —China 457, 459, 460, 461 —Czech / Slovak Republic 457, 461, 462 —France 457, 462, 463, 464 —Germany 457, 464 —India 457, 464, 465 —Israel 458, 465, 466 —Italy 458, 465, 466 —Japan 458, 466, 467 —Pakistan 458, 467 —Russia 458, 469, 470, 471, 472 —Singapore 458, 473 —South Africa 458, 473 —South Korea 458, 473 —Spain 458, 473, 474 —Sweden 458, 474 —Switzerland 458, 474 —United Kingdom 458, 474, 475, 476 —United States of America 458, 476 Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) 168, 176 Army Research Laboratory 92 Army Service Corps (ASC) 168, 176, 193

519 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Army Training Command (ARTRAC) 110, 166, 167, 173, 255, 266 Army War College 173, 263, 264, 265, 267 artillery combat command and control system (ACCCS) 112, 174, 176 Arunachal Pradesh 20, 32, 33, 142, 165, 168, 171, 218, 264, 314, 324, 325, 366, 454 AS-10 Karen 240, 353, 360 AS-332 388, 398, 437 Asaphi La 33 ASEAN countries 6, 22, 62, 63, 64, 368, 389, 452, 453 ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meet –Plus Eight (ADMM-Plus Eight) 63, 64, 452 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) 62, 382, 407, 408, 415, 451, 452 Ashram Schools 321 Ashok Leyland 300 Asia 5, 6, 8, 10, 23, 34, 35, 38, 43, 61, 62, 63, 67, 100, 165, 172, 177, 288, 298, 349, 352, 360, 368, 378, 386, 397, 407, 417 Asian Defence Forces 337 —Afghanistan 337 —Algeria 337 —Australia 337 —Bahrain 337 —Bangladesh 338 —Cambodia 338 —People’s Republic of China 338 —Egypt 338 —Indonesia 338 —Iran 339 —Iraq 339 —Israel 339 —Japan 339 —Jordan 339 —Kazakhstan 340 —Kuwait 340 —Kyrgyzstan 340 —Laos 340 —Lebanon 340 —Libya 340 —Malaysia 340 —Myanmar 341 —Nepal 341 —North Korea 341 —Oman 341 —Pakistan 342 —Philippines 342 —Qatar 342 —Saudi Arabia 342 —Singapore 342 —South Korea 343 —Sri Lanka 343


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Index —Syria 343 —Taiwan 343 —Tajikistan 344 —Turkmenistan 344 —United Arab Emirates 344 —Uzbekistan 344 —Vietnam 344 —Yemen 344 Asian Development Bank 66 Asian Development Bank Report 6 Asia-Pacific 2, 10, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67, 100, 141, 378, 380, 382, 386, 408, 451, 452, 453, 455, 456 Asia-Pacific Nanotechnology Forum 90 Assam 53, 218, 302, 310, 314, 319, 320, 363, 365, 368 Assam Rifles 309, 313, 314, 367, 316, 323 Assistant Military Secretary 170 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 6, 13, 14, 20, 22, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66,67, 368, 380, 381, 386, 389, 399, 406, 407, 408, 451, 452, 453, Astra 298 Atmar, Hanif 17 Atta, N. Muhammad 17 Attack Helicopters 69, 70, 72, 77, 84, 111, 120, 139, 218, 222, 223 Aung San Suu Kyi 19, 20, 21, 22, 378, 380, 403, 404 Avro 748 fleet 225 Australia 63, 66, 67, 102, 337, 345, 347, 377, 378, 380, 381 —General Information 381 —Overview of the Economy 381 —Defence 381 —Security Environment 381, 382, 383 Australia Group 66 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) 103, 104 AVSC-II 227 AWACS 44, 106, 218, 219, 222, 232, 233, 241, 242, 394, Azerbaijan 30, 358, 455, 470, 471

B

Baburam Bhattarai 341, 350, 371 Backward Regions Grant Fund 321 BAE Systems 104, 149, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 174,

281, 468, 477, 495, 498, 499, 500, 504 BAeHAL Software Limited 283 Baghdad 418, 430, 431 Bahrain 11, 12, 28, 337, 338, 345, 347, 417 —General Information 426 —Overview of the Economy 426 —Defence 426 —Security Environment 426, 427 Bali 62, 64, 389, 390 Baluchistan 143, 350 Bangladesh 54, 63, 74, 109, 168, 218, 262, 265, 311, 329, 338, 345, 347, 350 —General Information 363 —Overview of the Economy 363 —Defence 363 —Security Environment 363, 364 BAP-100 240 Base Air Defence Zone (BADZ) 241 Batalik 218 Battlefield Management Command, Control, Communication, Computer, Information, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (BMC4I2SR) 77 battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs) 112, 174 battlefield surveillance system (BSS) 112, 176 Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) 61, 63, 404 Behl, Air Marshal A.K. 221 Beijing 35, 36, 38, 55, 62, 64, 118, 142, 328, 349, 357, 382, 385, 386, 392, 404, 410, 453, 454, 455 Belarus 352, 360, 470, 471, 472 Behzad, Ahmad 17 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra 72, 495, 519, 503 Bengal 53, 218 Bengaluru 95, 143, 173, 200, 218, 219, 222, 230, 263, 271, 280, 281, 282, 284, 286, 287, 288, 289, 295, 296, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303 Beretta 175 Beriev 108 Beyond visual range 44, 86, 228 Bhadauria, Air Vice Marshal R.K.S. 220 Bhagwat, Admiral Vishnu 57 Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) 147, 231, 272, 273, 275, 278, 279, 293

520 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) 49, 58, 147, 148, 273, 278, 288, 289, 290 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 95, 133, 147, 174, 175, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 211, 214, 231, 241, 270, 273, 274, 275, 278, 279, 286, 287, 288, 300, 334 Bharat Forge 111, 300 Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) 96, 147, 286 Bhatia, Rajiv 378 Bhonsle, Brigadier (Retd) Rahul 141, 451 Bhushan, Lt General 255, 264 Bhutan 19, 22, 53, 63, 171, 262, 264, 314, 345, 347, 350 —General Information 365 —Overview of the Economy 365 —Defence 365 —Security Environment 365, 366 Biden, Joe 8 Bihar 53, 114, 173, 259, 274, 278, 310 314, 318, 319, 320, 322, 327, 328, 336 Black Hawk helicopter 70, 154, 382, 383, 387, 393, 394, 402, 410 BLG-66 Beluga 240 Bluefin 21 UUV 104 BM-21 RL 183 BMC2 78 BMP-1/2/3 103, 110, 174, 182, 186, 287, 353, 355, 356, 358, 360, 362, 369, 376 BMP-1/2 ICV 174, 458, 470 BMP-2 103, 110, 174, 287, 353, 355, 356, 358, 360, 369, 376, 390, 421, 429, 435, 437, 446, 458, 470 Boeing 8, 71, 102, 119, 123, 125, 139, 149, 150, 152, 153, 155, 156, 194, 211, 218, 222, 283, 286, 495, 499, 500, 501, 503, 505 Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) 218, 222, 234, 370, 383, 402, 495, 501 Bofors 50, 110, 111, 134, 174, 183, 205, 207, 208, 209, 215, 458, 468, 474, 487 Border guarding force (BGF) 307, 313, 314 Border Peace and Tranquility


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Index Agreement (BPTA) 33 Border Roads Organisation (BRO) 32, 311, 368 Border Security Force (BSF) 69, 234, 280, 309, 311, 314, 316, 317, 323, 367 Border Security Force (Amendment) Bill 322 Bosusco, Paolo 329 Brahmaputra class 190, 196, 204, 369 BrahMos 24, 48, 100, 111, 143, 146, 174, 195, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 210, 211, 222, 254, 298, 299, 369, 370, 415 Brazil 4, 45, 234, 288, 299, 371, 455, 476, 495, 501, 504 Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC) 6 BRDM-2 182, 355, 358, 360, 369, 384, 421, 423, 425, 446, 450, 457, 458, 461, 469 Browne, Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. 119, 142, 143, 144, 158, 220 223, 254, 260 Brunei 62, 64, 414, 452, 462 Budget Estimates 137, 145, 323 Bureau of Police Research and Development 322, 325 Burma 20, 399, 403, 404 Burns, William 8 Bush, George W. 7, 9, 428, 431 buy and make Indian 128, 129, 130

C C-130 Hercules Transport Aircraft 119, 131, 146, 147, 152, 153, 218, 222, 223, 233, 234, 383, 444, 495, 501 C-17 Globemaster 110, 119, 125, 139, 146, 147, 149, 153, 222, 223, 383 Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) 47, 48, 49, 50, 55, 112, 159, 161, 163, 174, 222, 326, 333, 334 Cabinet Secretary 94, 144, 321, 335 Cambodia 62, 63, 64, 172, 173, 266, 311, 338, 345, 347, 380, 399, 407, 411, 412, 414, 452 —General Information 383 —Overview of the Economy 383, 384 —Defence 384 —Security Environment 384 Cam Ranh Bay 63

Canada 63, 205, 286, 403, 407, 455, 464, 476, 478 Canberra 217, 381, 382, 455 capital expenditure 110, 130, 138, 145, 222 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 6 Caspian Basin 349 Cell Phone Radar (CELLDAR) 80 Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) 74, 178, 179, 305, 307, 309, 310, 312, 316, 317, 318, 321, 322, 323, 325, 328, 329 Central Asia 2, 5, 10, 25, 26, 14, 349, 352, 353, 354, 356, 360, 366, 386 Central Bureau of Investigation 148 Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) 309, 312, 313, 314, 316, 317, 323, 329, 367 Central Coordinating Authority (CCA) 246 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 102, 373 Central Military Commission 338, 341, 454 Central Police Forces Canteen System (CPFCS) 318 Central Police Organisation (CPO) 76, 322 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 309, 310, 314, 316, 322, 323, 328, 367 Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) 140 Central Vigilance Commissioner (CVC) 48, 58 Center for Entrepreneurship and Research Commercialisation, Duke University 96 Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping (CUNPK) 172, 173 CERT India 226 Ceska Zbrojovka 175 CH-47 Chinook 71, 120, 149, 150, 382, 393, 394, 398, 408, 410, 412, 424, 426, 429, 430, 448, 495, 503 Chachra, Lt. General Sanjeev 255, 264 Chadha, Ajay, DG ITBP 312 Chait, Lt. General Anil 255, 265 Chairman Chief of Staff Committee (CISC) 158, 159, 161, 254 Chanakya 51, 52 Chandra, Air Marshal J. 255, 269 Charged Partical Beam (CPB) 78 Chatterjee, Vice Admiral Pradeep K. 191, 255, 263 Chaudhary, Arun, DG SSB 314

521 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Chauhan, Air Marshal J. 255, 268 Cheema, Vice Admiral S.P.S. 158, 254, 261 Cheetah 69, 70, 72, 175, 196, 208, 218, 236, 281, 282, 283, 317, 369, 371, 387 Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) 91 Chengdu J-20 36, 85, 118, 454 Chennai 10, 203, 207, 244, 247, 248, 249, 270, 278, 285, 286, 287, 294, 295, 299, 301, 312, 317 Chetak 69, 70, 72, 175, 193, 202, 203, 204, 205, 207, 209, 213, 214, 218, 236, 243, 244, 251, 252, 281, 282, 283, 369, 370, 502 Chidambaram, P. 305, 318, 321 Chief Ministers Conference 305, 315, 320, 321, 322 Chief Minister of Maharashtra 315 Chief of Air Staff (CAS) 118, 119, 142, 158, 219, 220, 223, 224, 225, 226,227, 254, 340, 342, 343 Chief of Army Staff (COAS) 41, 42, 47, 49, 54, 57, 110, 168, 169, 173, 177, 178, 179, 180, 254, 342, 343 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) 49, 54, 55, 157, 159, 161, 162, 180, 224, 343 Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) 57, 190, 191, 193, 197, 198, 199, 254, 342, 343 Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) 49, 55, 145, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 224, 254 China 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24,25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 49, 52, 53, 54,55, 56, 61, 62,63, 64, 67, 68, 69, 74, 75, 76,93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99,100, 109, 110, 112, 117,118, 119, 120, 141,142, 143, 144, 145, 148, 164, 165, 171, 172, 173, 178, 199, 200, 214, 227, 241, 288, 298, 311, 328, 329, 338,


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Index

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345, 347, 349, 350, 352, 353, 357, 358, 366, 367, 368, 371, 373, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 385, 386, 388, 392, 393, 395, 399, 404, 406, 407, 409, 410, 414, 415, 429, 446, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 460, 461, 463, 470, 471, 472, 479, 480, 481, 482, 490, 491, 495, 496, 498, 500, 501, 502, 504, —Armed Forces, modernization 36, 38 —Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 35, 38, 392 —India, relations/conflict, 31, 64, 142, 317, 454 —Free Trade Agreement (FTA) 62, 63, 64, 96, 368, 378, 380, 381 —General Information 385 —Overview of the Economy 385 —Defence 385, 386 —Security Environment 386, 387, 388 —military modernisation 35, 118, 382 — Pakistan alliance/nexus? relations 55, 373 —Russia, relations 25, 386 —Tibet issue 31, 32, 33, 34 —United States, relations 2, 8 —PLA Navy 36, 338, 378, 496 —China Occupied Kashmir 52 Colin S. Grey 52 Chinese Defense Ministry 37 Chola Empire 52 Chopra, Air Marshal Anil 220, 221, 255 Chopra, Vice Admiral Anil 255, 266 circular error probability (CEP) 91, 98, 183 civil military integration (CMI) 94, 95 Claire Sterling 58 Clausewitz 51 Clinton, Bill 8 Clinton, Hillary Rodham 8, 10, 62, 63, 360, 373 Coastal Security Scheme 332, 333, 335 coastal surveillance 211, 212, 331, 332, 333, 334 Coast Guard 69, 74, 144, 146, 189, 190, 211, 243, 244, 246, 247, 249, 252, 257, 290, 296, 332, 334, 335, 358, 363, 364, 367, 370, 392, 394, 405, 406, 409, 421, 422, 423, 425,

426, 427, 436, 437, 443, 444, 447 Coast Guard and Coastal Security Police 452 Cohen, Stephen P. 42 College of Air Warfare (CAW) 219, 261, 268 College of Defence Management (CDM) 160, 173, 261, 263 College of Material Management, Jabalpur 173 College of National Security Policy 160 combat aircraft 26, 118, 119, 217, 224, 227, 238, 273, 353, 433, 444, 455, 495 Commercial Negotiation Committee (CNC) 222 command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence (C4I2) 51, 56, 75 command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4I2SR) 55, 56, 75 command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) 92, 154, 178, 220 command information decision support system (CIDSS) 176 Common Display System (CDS) 234 common integrated processors (CIPs) 87 Commando Battalions for Resolute Action (Cobra) 310, 316, 317, 322 Communist Party of India (Maoist) 320, 328, 329 Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) 25, 375, 393 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) 8, 39 Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) 48, 163 Computer Emergency Response Teams 164 Comoros islands 107 Concept Development Centres (CDCs) 76 concept of operations (CONPOS) 223 confidence-building measures (CBMs) 33, 42, 142, 166, 418 Congo 58, 172, 219, 311, 317, 471 Constitution of India 57, 307, 319 Contract Negotiation Committee (CNC) 125, 131, 194 Control & Reporting Centres (CRCs) 241

522 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Corvette 205 —Khukri Class 206 —Pauk Li Class 205 —Tarantul Class 205 Cossipore 133, 274, 278 COTS 112 Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) 161 Council of Representatives 417 Counter-Insurgency and Anti-Terrorist (CIAT) Schools 319, 322 counter-insurgency (CI) 22, 69, 70, 109, 110, 118, 137, 173, 175, 263, 264, 305, 310, 311, 313, 315, 317, 329, 417 Counter-insurgency Force (CIF) 167 counter-insurgency grid (CIG) 329 counter-terrorism 63, 64, 164, 179, 219, 328, 350, 377, 407, 456 CUTLASS 102, 103 cyber security 1, 6, 74, 75, 164, 226, 456 Czech Republic 300, 455, 461, 462 Czech Tamara System 80

D D-30 Gun How 183, 353, 355, 356, 358, 360, 362, 364, 369, 373, 384, 387, 396, 400, 415, 421, 425, 429, 433, 439, 440, 446, 450, 458, 471 Dahanu 244 Daksh 103, 300 Daman 244, 334 Dantewada 328, 329 Darjeeling 53 Debroy, Bibek 324 Declaration of the Conduct of Parties in South China Sea 62 deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) 117 Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) 48, 50, 95, 111, 121, 128, 129, 130, 145, 146, 159, 161, 175, 225, 295 Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) 301 Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) 159 Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) 273, 296 defence industry 48, 49, 50, 76, 95, 112, 121, 126, 127, 133, 134, 135, 136, 146, 147, 148, 174,


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Index 123, 124, 129, 133, 134, 136, 138, 139, 140, 143, 145, 148, 161, 162,174, 175, 178, 195, 210, 219, 226, 227, 241, 254, 256, 274, 275, 276, 280, 287, 293, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304

225, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296 Defence Institute of Works Study, Mussoorie 173 Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) 157, 159, 164, 254 Defence Minister’s Committee 59 Defence Offsets Facilitation Agency (DOFA) 147, 295 Defence Offsets Guidelines (DOG) 121, 122, 125, 126, 147, 148 Defence Offsets Managment Wing (DOMW) 121, 124, 125, 126, 147 defence offset policy 95, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128 Defence Planning Guidance 164 Defence Planning Staff (DPS) 157 Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 48, 49, 76, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 146, 148, 173, 178, 225, 227 Defence Procurement Board (DPB) 48, 125, 128, 129, 157, 159, 161, 162 Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S) 161, 253, 273, 274, 295, 296, 298, 336 Department of Border Management 306, 307 Department of Home 307 Department of Internal Security 307, 314 Department of Official Languages 275, 307 Department of Pension and Pensioners’ Welfare 318 Department of State 306, 307 Department of Defence Production (DDP) 95, 121, 124, 130, 134, 253, 256, 257, 259, 273, 274, 275, 276, 280, 293, 298 Defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) 48, 49, 50, 95, 112, 115, 133, 134, 135,136, 147, 148, 198, 219, 226, 273, 274, 278, 279, 296 Defence Research and Development Board (DRDB) 128, 161 Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) 210, 226, 302 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 46, 48, 49, 50, 55, 74, 75, 76, 97, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104,111, 121, 122,

Defence Services Staff College, Wellington 173, 219, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 267, 268, 269 Defence, Ministry of (MoD) 34, 47, 48, 54, 58, 75, 94, 95, 96, 110, 119, 128, 135, 136, 137, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 157, 161, 162, 163, 167, 168, 176, 190, 193, 194, 222, 225, 226, 243, 253, 256, 259, 261, 262, 264, 265, 266, 269, 274, 275, 278, 280, 282, 288, 290, 291, 292, 293, 295, 296, 297, 298, 301, 302, 303, 313, 314, 322, 326, 332, 333, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 91, 95, 103 Delhi 10, 13, 32, 49, 58, 74, 114, 144, 218, 237 Delhi High Court 316 Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) 312 Delhi Police (DP) 323, 325 Delhi University 259, 328 Denel NTW-20/14.5 135, 187 Denel NTW-20/14.5mm 187 Department of Public Enterprise 147 Department of Telecommunications (DoT) 244 Deputy Chief of Army Staff 168, 169, 170, 173, 263, Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (DCIDS) 158, 161, 260, 261, 266 Deputy Director General Canteen Services (DDG CS) 171 Deputy Director General Defence Security Corps (DDG DSC) 170 Deputy Director General Management Studies 9DDGMS) 169

523 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Deputy Director General Military Farms (DDG MF) 171 Deputy Director General Pioneers (DDG Pnr) 171 Deputy General Ordnance Services (DG OS) 171 Deputy Master General of Ordnance (Deputy MGO) 171 Deputy Quarter Master General (DQMG) 171 Deshpande, Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip 113 Destroyer 66, 92 114, 190, 194, 195, 198, 202, 203, 212, 260, 262, 263, 266, 267, 290, 269, 378, 388, 395, 398, 410, 453, 454, 479, 480, 481, 491, 492 —Delhi Class (Project-15) 202 —Kolkata Class 203 —Rajput (Kashin II) Class 202 Destruction of enemy air defence (DEAD) 78 DF-2/3/4/5 37 DF-3A 99, 386 DF-4 99 DF-4 (CSS-3) 386 DF-5 (CSS-4) 99, 386 DF-21 37, 99, 386 DF-21 (CSS-5) 37 DF-31 99 DF-31A 99 DF-31 (CSS-9) 386 Dhanoa, Air Vice Marshal B.S. 220 Dhanush 97, 202, 207 Dharam Vira 324 Dhowan, Vice Admiral R.K. 191, 255, 262 Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) 218, 280, 299 Diplomatic, Information, Military and Economic (DIME) 75 Directed Energy Weapon (DEW) 56, 74 Director General Army Air Defence (DG AAD) 170, 255 Director General Artillery (DG Arty) 170, 254 Director General of India Coast Guard (DGICG) 243 Director General Defence Planning Staff (DG DPS) 157 Director General Discipline Ceremonials and Welfare (DG DCW) 170 Director General Electrical & Mechanical Engineers (DG EME) 171 Director General Financial Planning (DGFP) 170 Director General Infantry (DG Inf) 170 Director General Information System (DGIS) 169, 176, 255 Director General Manpower


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Index

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Planning (DGMP) 170 Director General Mechanised Forces (DG Mech Forces) 70, 254 Director General Medical Services (Army) (DG MS(Army)) 170, 192 Director General Military Training (DGMT) 169, 173 Director General of Military Operations (DGMO) 168, 254 Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) 275 Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Move (DGOL&SM) 169 Director General Organisation & Personnel (DG Pers & Org) 170 Director General Personnel (DG Pers) 171 Director General Perspective Planning (DGPP) 170, 255, 265 Director General Rashtriya Rifles (DGRR) 170, 255 Director General Staff Duties (DGSD) 169, 255 Director General Supply & Transport 255 Director General Weapons & Equipment (DG WE) 170 Director General Works (Army) (DG WKS(Army)) 171 Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business (DISB) 300 Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) 273, 274, 275, 276, 295 Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) 271, 273, 274, 275, 276, 294, 295, 296 Directorate of Industry Interface and Technology Managements (DIITM) 123 Directorate of Planning and Coordination 273, 295 Directorate of Standardisation 273, 295 Disaster Management 306, 307, 309, 310, 311, 316, 456 Dornier DO-228 495, 500 Dornier-228 193 Dostum 17

E East Asia 1, 2, 6, 13, 61, 63, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405,

406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 447, 452, 510 East Asia Summit (EAS) 63, 452 Eastern Air Command 1, 218, 255, 261, 267, 268, 510 Economist, The 322 Ecuador 173, 462, Egypt 11, 12, 14, 28, 269, 338, 345, 347, 420, 422, 423, 427, 432, 434, 440, 444, 449, 455, 463, 469, 470, 472, 474, 476, 477, 478, 496, 497, 499, 501, 502, 503, 505 —General Information 422 —Overview of the Economy 422 —Defence 422 —Security Environment 422, 423, 424 EH/ AW-101 237 Eilat (SAAR 5) class (FSGHM) 487 EL/ M=2075 Falcon airborne warming & control system (AWACS) 44, 106, 120, 218, 242, 394 EL/M-2083 Tethered Aerostat Radar System 242 electronic counter measures (ECM) 77, 424 Electronic Counter Counter Measures (ECCM) 78, 510 electronic support measure (ESM) 219 electronic warfare (EW) 116, 180, 195, 218 224, 299 electro-optical (EO) 102 Embraer 43, 120, 218, 234, 241, 299, 317, 495, 501, 503, 504 Engineer-in-Chief (E-in-C) 168, 171 Ethiopia 172, 432, 516 Euro 1, 3, 4, 10, 141, 145, 258 Eurocopter 70, 72, 283, 433, 495, 501, 502 Eurocopter Tiger 72 Europe 2, 4,6, 65, 67, 90, 100, 150, 288, 298, 349, 352, 353, 358, 361, 385, 404, 417, 418, 349 European Union (EU) 4, 392, 428 Europe NanoBusiness Association 90 Ewart, Terry 103 exclusive economic zones (EEZs) 66, 67, 105, 144, 189, 207, 211, 243, 331, 332, 384, 451, 452, 455 Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) 102, 103

524 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

explosive reactive armour (ERA) 174, 186 External Affairs Ministry (MEA) 40, 55, 162, 173, 307, 312

F F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 87 F/A-18A/B Hornet 383 F/A-18D Hornet 402 F/A-18 (-C 31, -D 8) 437 F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet 495, 499 F-15 Combat 455 F- 22/A 86, 87 F-35 85, 86, 88, 115, 382, 495, 499, 500 F-86 Sabre 217 F-117A Night Hawk 85, 86 F-AB Laser Bomb Units 240 Faheem, Marshal 17 Fast interceptor crafts (FICs) 195, 334 Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) 350 Federal Aviation Administration 43, 45, 101 Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) 96, 300 FH-77B 110, 174, 183, 369 Fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) 23, 24, 85, 119, 143, 146, 147, 217, 223, 224, 281, 283 Finance Commission 325 Finance Minister 3, 109, 144, 145, 163, 258, 321, Financial Planning 157, 158, 161, 168, 170, 219, 220, 268 Fire control system (FCS) 174, 200, 214, 286, 287, 478, 488 Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) 8 Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) 193 Flight Refuelling Aircraft (FRA) 120, 210, 218, 222, 229, 233, 498 Flying Instructor’s School (FIS), Tambaram 219 Force Multiplier Systems 84 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) 48, 50, 96, 121, 133, 145, 146, 274, 409, 424, 430 Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) 274 Foreign military sales (FMS) 111, 119, 140, 234 Formed police unit (FPU) 313 Forward Composite Aviation Bases 72 France 6, 24, 63, 97, 99, 117, 119, 143, 162, 186, 195, 201, 213, 222, 224, 229, 230, 231, 236, 238, 239, 240, 241, 286, 293, 300,


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Index 455, 457, 462, 463, 480, 495, 497, 501 Francois, Bob 103 French Air Force 224, 225 Frigates 24, 66, 110, 113, 114, 139, 156, 190, 193, 194, 195, 198, 203, 243, 290 —Godavari Class 203 —Brahmaputra Class 204 —Talwar Class 204 —Shivalik Class 204 —Leander Class 205 Fuel oil lubricants (FOL) 116 Fukushima 24, 103, 377, 392, 455 Future Infantry Soldier As A System (F-INSAS) 111, 112, 175, 178 Futuristic Infantry Combat Vehicle (FICV) 110, 174, 266, 300

G al-Gaddafi, Colonel Muammar Abu Minyar 11, 142 G-20 1, 10, 66 Gandhi, Indira 54, 58, 74 Gandhi, Rajiv 34, 54, 321, 378 Gandhi, Sonia 21 Gandhinagar 218, 244, 247, 370 Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited (GRSE) 195, 198, 207, 208, 209, 215, 273, 278,279, 290, 291 Garud Commando Force 218 Garud Air Marshal A.P. 220, 221, 255 Gates, Robert 8 General Atomics MQ-1 Predator 101, 102 General Dynamics 103, 104, 150, 153, 156, 208, 465, 488, 489, 499 General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR) 111, 146 George Casey 8 Germany 29, 146, 162, 173, 193, 200, 232, 252, 282, 286, 455, 457, 464, 480, 495, 500, 502 German Air Force 102 Ghauri III 99 Gilgit, Baltistan 41, 52, 143 Gladiator 103 Global Positioning System (GPS) 75, 91, 152, 282, 335, 460 Globemaster 110, 119, 139, 146, 222, 383 Global Strategic Partnership 10 Gnat 101, 102, 217 Goa 193, 207, 218, 239, 244, 247, 248, 249,

255, 266, 291, 333, 353, 355, 356, 358, 360, 370 Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 147, 198, 208, 209, 215, 271, 273, 275, 278, 291, 292, 333 Gogoi, Air Marshal A.K. 255, 267 Golan Heights 28, 172 Goldwater Nichols Act 60 Greater Mekong Sub Region (GMS) 61, 62 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 1, 4, 31, 48, 49, 65, 66, 93, 95, 109, 120, 137, 138, 140, 141, 143, 145, 146, 148, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 352, 354, 355, 357, 359, 363, 370, 375, 377, 380, 381, 383, 385, 389, 392, 393, 397, 399, 401, 405, 407, 409, 414, 420, 422, 424, 425, 426, 428, 434, 436, 439, 440, 441, 443, 447, 449, 509 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Military Expenditure 346-348 Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) 189 Ground-Based Air Defence Weapons Systems (GBADWS) 77 Group of Ministers (GoM) 48, 49, 157, 161, 162, 164, 168, 224, 314, 318, 332 Gujarat 8, 10, 165, 193, 194, 218, 241, 244, 247, 249, 255, 263, 269, 313, 322, 325, 331, 332, 334, 335 Gulf Cooperation Council 437, 449 Gulf of Aden 107, 144, 194, 199, 452 Gulf War 73, 85, 90, 101, 417 Gunji 312 Gyangtse 53

H HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd 283 HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd 283 Hamas 12, 28, 432, 433, 441 Hanoi 63, 344, 368, 380, 414 Haqqani Group 9, 17 Harpoon 240, 383, 398, 402, 408, 410, 413, 424, 437, 440, 487, 488, 489, 492,

525 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

493, 494, 497, 499 Hasnain, S.A. 169, 170, 254 HATSOFF Helicopter Training Pvt Ltd 283 Hawai Sepoys 217 Hawk 132, 219 Hawk AMRAAM System 78 Hawk AJT 219, 222, 281 Hawk-132 120, 280, 281 HCL 95 HDW 1500 193 Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS) 128, 137, 157, 224 Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF) Avadi 110 Helina 72, 299 Heron I/II 237 high altitude long endurance (HALE) 101, 102 High Explosive Anti Tank (HEAT) 97, 186 high power microwave (HPM) Systems 78 Hikaka, Jhina 329 Himachal Pradesh 32, 33, 311, 313, 314, 324 Himalayas 52, 165, 259, 311 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited 69, 76, 71, 72, 117, 147, 218, 219, 222, 224, 225, 270, 273, 275, 278, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285 Hindustan Shipyard Limited 147, 271, 273, 275, 278, 292, 293 HJT-16 Kiran 120, 369, 495, 503 HJT-36 Sitara 120, 495 Home Secretary 306, 307, 308, 314, 321, 336 Hong Kong Stock Exchange 74 Hoping 32, 142 Hotel Oberoi-Trident 312 Hotel Taj 8, 9, 312 Howitzer, 155mm 110, 111 HPT-32 aircraft 120, 226 HQ-2 Missiles 78 HQ-12 SAM System 78 HS-748 ELINT 119, 218 Hu Jintao 8, 32, 38, 377, 481 hull mounted sonar advanced (HUMSA) 116 hull-mounted variable depth sonar (HUMVAD) 116, 203 Hunter 209, 217, 260, 268, 269, 398, 402, 411, 433, 439, 444 Hurriyat 54 Hussein, Saddam 28, 417 Hyderabad 21, 52, 95, 219, 267, 270, 280, 281, 285, 287, 289, 293, 294, 295, 301, 302,


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Index 304, 312, 317, 319 Hydravion 105

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I IAF Biu, 1932 217 Identification Friend or Foe 91 Igla SHORAD 175 Ilyushin IL-38 107, 193, 495, 504 Ilyushin IL-76 495, 500 Ilyushin IL-76MD 232 Ilyushin IL-76TD (AWACS) 233 Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) 102, 175 Indegenously developed Indian (Maritime) Search and rescue (INDSAR) 244 India —General Information 367 —Overview of the Economy 367 —Defence 367 —Security Environment 367, 368, 369, 370 India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) 6 India-Iran 3, 12 Indian Air Force (IAF) 24, 42, 44, 46, 69, 98, 111, 117, 139, 143, 144, 146, 149, 151, 161, 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 231, 232, 236, 244, 246, 261, 262, 267, 268, 269, 280, 283, 286, 294, 298, 408 Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) 45 Indian Mujahideen 144, 316 Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRQ) 243, 244 Indian Administrative Service (IAS) 59, 162, 259 Indian Airlines, IC-814 54, 329 India-Russia inter-governmental commission on military technical cooperation (IRIGC-MTC) 143 Indian Army 24, 41, 46, 47, 48, 58, 69, 70, 71, 103, 109, 110, 112, 120, 142, 146, 148, 152, 161, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 184, 264, 265, 266, 274, 275, 278, 280, 282, 293, 294, 295, 298, 299, 309, 311, 313, 328

—equipment and hardware specification 48 —modernisation plans 48, 178 Indian Coast Guard (ICG) 144, 190,243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 251, 254, 266, 269, 280, 291, 331, 332, 335 Indian Army Aviation Corps 67, 69, 72, 111 Indian Military Academy (IMA) 173, 176, 264, 266 Indian National Defence University (INDU) 157, 159, 164 Indian Navy 1, 24, 42, 46, 66, 68, 104,106, 113, 114, 115, 116, 143, 144, 181, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 207, 212, 213, 214, 215, 243, 244, 246, 260, 261, 262, 263, 266, 267, 269, 271, 278, 280, 281, 282, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 298, 299, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 452 Indian Ocean 2, 10, 20, 61, 63, 67, 98, 165, 189, 377, 389, 452 Indain Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC) 452 Indian Ocean region (IOR) 2, 10, 63, 67, 74, 144, 148, 165, 198, 367, 452 Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) 54, 310 Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860 324 Indian production agency (IPA) 225 Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 97, 244, 280 Indo-Gangetic Plain 218 Indonesia 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 107, 173, 189, 190, 286, 288, 338, 345, 347, 378, 382, 452, 453, 455, 456 —General Information 389 —Overview of the Economy 389 —Defence 389 —Security Environment 389, 390, 391 Indo-China conflict 313 Indo-Myanmar border 313 Indo-Pacific 66, 67 Indo-Pakistan War 54, 218 Indo-Russian Aviation Limited 283 Indo-US 7, 8, 9, 10, 143 Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) 32, 309, 311, 312, 316, 317, 323

526 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Indra-I/II 241, 242 Infantry Combat Vehicles (ICV) 38, 103, 110, 174 Infantry School, Mhow 173 infantry weapon effect simulating system ( IWESS) 81 information and communication technology (ICT) 1, 6, 177 Information Fusion Centre (IFC) 452 information systems (IS) 47, 50, 76, 104, 168, 169, 176, 254, 255, 266, 299 Information Technology (IT) 24, 25, 45, 49, 74, 93, 146, 150, 164, 192, 197, 219, 220, 258, 286, 293, 311, 352, 367, 407 Information Technology Enabled Services (ITeS) 25 Information Warfare (IW) 75, 159, 180, 266, infrared (IR) sensors 79, 86, 102 Initial operation clearance (IOC) 282 INS Airavat 194 INS Amba 193 INS Arihant 144, 194, 195, 201 INS Chakra 144 INS Dweeprakshak 334 INS Himgiri 195 INS Kalveri 193 INS Krishna 194, 263 INS Nistar 193 INS Ratnagiri 194 INS Shalki 195 INS Sharab 194 INS Teg 194 INS Vindhyagiri 194 INS Vikramaditya 116, 140, 143, 194, 202, 210 INS Vikrant 115, 213, 266, 271 INS Viraat 115, 190, 201, 260, 261, 266, 271 INS Zamorin 195 Institute of Advanced Technology Studes 160 Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) 60, 67 Institute of Defence Management 160 Institute of National Integration, Pune 173 Integrated Air Command & Control Systems (IACCS) 241 Integrated Coastal Survillance System 300 Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) 49, 95, 128, 130, 137, 157,158,159, 160, 161, 173, 180, 224, 254, 260, 261, 266, 268, 295 integrated functional commands (IFCs) 55 Integrated guided missile development programme (IGMDP) 97


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Index Integrated Joint Operations (IJO) 36 Integrated project management teams (IPMT) 128, 130 integrated material management online system (IMMOLS) network 219 Integrated Special Forces Command 56 Integrated Theatre Commands (ITCs) 54, 55 Integrated vehicle health monitoring system (IVHM) 87, 88 Intelligence Bureau (IB) 54, 159, 246, 318, 323 intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) 41, 45, 75, 76, 110, 163, 190 Interceptor boats (IBs) 243, 244, 252,332 intercontinental-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) 98, 454 intermediate jet trainer (IJT) 211, 280, 282 Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) 37, 97, 98, 143, 152, 396 Internal Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 16, 141, 350, 361 International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd 283 International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres (IAPTC) 172, 173 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 3, 353, 455 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1, 66, 145, 372, 375, 384, 422, 430, 434 International Seabed Authority 67 International Social Security Association (ISSA) 161 Internet Protocol (IP) 132 Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Pakistan 9, 41, 74, 143, 329, 368 Iran 2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 99, 102, 141, 142, 143, 172, 200, 339, 345, 347, 353, 357, 358, 361, 417, 418, 431, 436, 437, 440, 448, 452, 455, 456 —General Information 428 —Overview of the Economy 428 —Defence 428 —Security Environment 428, 429, 430 —nuclear programme 9, 27, 28 Iraq 7, 10, 12, 13, 17, 27, 28, 29, 30, 61, 73, 101, 102, 103, 118, 151, 156, 172, 186, 339, 345, 347, 382,

417, 436, 437, 443, 448 —General Information 430 —Overview of the Economy 430, 431 —Defence 431 —Security Environment 431 Islamabad 8,9,17, 372, 373 Israel 2, 12, 14, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 91, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 135, 146, 155, 174, 175, 193, 201, 211, 214, 237, 242, 260, 282, 286, 293, 298, 300, 339, 345, 347, 417, 418, 422, 429, 435, 437, 438, 455, 456, 458, 487 —General Information 432 —Overview of the Economy 432 —Defence 432 —Security Environment 432, 433 Israeli Spike ER 72 Istanbul 418 Ivory Coast 172

J J-10 32, 38, 118, 142, 388 J-11 (Su27SK) 118, 388, 496 J-20 36, 85, 118, 454 J-21 118 J-30 147 Jaguars 119, 193, 218, 222, 230, 240, 283 Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) 41 Jammu & Kashmir (J&K), Kashmir issue 32, 40, 52, 109, 143, 144, 65, 166, 176, 177, 178, 217, 218, 305, 315, 349, 350 Japan 2, 6, 10, 20, 22, 25, 38, 63, 67, 90, 143, 144, 150, 173, 246, 283, 339, 345, 347, 349, 368, 377, 378, 380, 381, 382, 385, 386, 390, 407, 409, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 458, 466 —General Information 392 —Overview of the Economy 392 —Defence 392 —Security Environment 392, 393, 394 —Democratic Party of Japan (DJP) 377 Japan-China-ROK Trilateral

527 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Counter-Terrorism Consultations 377 Java 107 Javelin Anti-Tank Missile 186 Jawaharlal Nehru University 328 Jericho-III 99 JF-17 fighter 26 JF-17 Thunder/FC-1 118 JH-7/7A 118, 388 joint operation centres (JOCs) 144, 333, 334 joint operations committee (JOCOM) 159 Joint Planning Committee (JPC) 159 joint service intelligence committee (JSIC) 159 joint training committee (JTC) 159 Joint Venture 45, 49, 71, 72, 95, 100, 112, 115, 119, 120, 122, 123, 128, 129, 134, 135, 136, 146, 147, 195, 198, 274, 283, 286, 288, 290 Jolly, Air Marshal R.K. 255, 268 Jordan 154, 339, 345, 347 —General Information 434 —Overview of the Economy 434 —Defence 434 —Security Environment 434, 435 Joshi, Subhash, DG BSF 311 Joshi, Admiral D.K. 191, 197, 254, 260 Jundal, Abu 13, 143

K K-13 AA-2 Atoll 238 Kalam, Dr A.P.J. 97 Kamov 70, 116 Kanwal, Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet 31, 39, 109 Kapoor, Deepak 8 Kapoor, Lt General V.K. 137, 176, 187, 305, 315 Kargil conflict (war) 1999 24, 47, 48, 54, 69, 98, 110, 117, 118, 127, 157, 168, 194, 217, 332 Kargil Review Committee (KRC) 54, 157, 161, 164, 168 Karen National Union (KNU) 20 Karzai, Hamid 14, 17, 337, 361, 362 Kashmir valley 52, 265, 269, 315, 318 Kaul, B.M. 53 Kautilya 59 Kazakhstan 264, 340, 345, 347, 349, 350, 357, 358, 360, 455 —General Information 352 —Overview of the Economy 352 —Defence 352 —Security Environment 352, 353


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Index

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Kelkar, Vijay 134 Khajuria AM D.S. 221 Khalid, Al 110, 373, 458, 467 Khalili, Abdul Karim 17, 337 Khurshid, Salman 21 Kim Jong iI 341, 454 Kim Jong-un 378, 454, 455, Kim Kwan-jin 343, 378 King Abdullah 13 Kiran MK 1&2 226 Kochi 144, 190, 193, 203, 207, 209, 214, 244, 247, 248, 249, 271, 295, 303, 333, 334, 369 Kolkata 166, 195, 203, 207, 214, 258, 271, 274, 278, 287, 289, 291, 294, 312, 317, 328, 369 Kolibri Micro Helicopter 102 Konkurs 146, 186, 272, 293, Korean Peninsula 382, 386, 454, 455 Korea, Republic of 63, 149, 156, 172, 343, 377, 397, 454, 455 Korean War 53, 397 Kornet E missile 186 Krepon, Michael 41 Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam 312 Kumar, Vice Admiral N.N. 191, 192, 255 Kumar, Air Vice Marshal S. 221 Kumaria, Air Marshal D.C. 220, 255, 262, 267 Kuwait 12, 13, 29, 172, 340, 345, 347, 417, 426 —General Information 436 —Overview of the Economy 436 —Defence 436 —Security Environment 436, 437 Kvadrat 98, 111, 175 Kyi Aung San Suu 19, 20, 21, 22, 378, 380, 403, 404 Kyrgyzstan 300, 340, 349, 345, 347, 350 —General Information 354 —Overview of the Economy 354 —Defence 354 —Security Environment 354, 355

L L-40/-70 458, 474 Ladakh 32, 33, 52, 111, 168, 171, 218, 264, 313, 318 Laden, Osama bin 9, 15, 70, 75, 102, 143, 163, 361, 372, 389, 420, 443 Lakshadweep 165, 189, 218, 334 Land attack cruise missile (LACM) 37

Land and Continental Strategy 51, 52, 54, 55 Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) 62, 64, 379, 399 —General Information 399 —Overview of the Economy 399 —Defence 399 —Security Environment 399, 400 Larsen & Toubro (L&T) 95, 96, 110, 300 Laser-guided bombs (LCBs) 38, 44, 142, 151, 230, 239 Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) 41, 74, 144, 329 Latin America 1, 4, 5, 288 Lead intelligence agency (LIA) 243, 314 Lebanon 12, 28, 172, 190, 438, 441, 462, 471, 472, 475, 477, 478, 502 —General Information 438 —Overview of the Economy 438 —Defence 438 —Security Environment 438, 439 Left-wing extremism (LWE) 144, 178, 179, 305, 310, 316, 320, 321, 325, 327, 350, 451 Letter of Request (LoR) 222 Lhasa 31, 32, 53, 386 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 241, 350, 375 Liberia 172 Libya 11, 12, 102, 142, 190, 224, 340, 346, 347, 424, 425, 444, 462, 463, 466, 469, 470, 471, 472, 477, 492, 497, 498, 500, 502, 503 —General Information 424 —Overview of the Economy 424, 425 —Defence 425 —Security Environment 425, 426 Life Science Research Board (LSRB) 300 Light-bullet Proff Vehicles (Lt BPVs) 175 light combat aircraft (LCA) 76, 115, 119, 223, 224, 231, 268, 280 —HAL Tejas MKI 222, 224 —MK II 222 —Tejas 221 Light combat helicopter (LCH) 72, 111, 175, 280, 281, 282 Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) Technology 79 Light helicopters 110 Light-Strike Vehicals (LSVs) 175 Light utility helicopter (LUH) 281, 283 Linchi 32, 142 Line of Actual Control (LAC) 31, 32, 33, 34, 46, 71, 142, 171 line of control (LoC) 41, 112, 168, 217, 218, 260, 262,

528 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

265, 309, 311, 315, 317, 452 Lipulekh Pass 312 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 14 Lockheed Martin 8, 119, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 222, 233, 495, 499, 501, 504 Long-range Observation System (LORROS) 174 Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM) 195, 298 Long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) 49, 112, 128, 130, 137, 145, 161, 162, 163, 198, 227, 300 Long-term perspective plan (LTPP) 128, 161, 162, 178, 455 Look East policy 6, 20, 21, 61, 64, 368, 380, 454 Lothal 190 Low-level transportable radars (LLTR) 120, 147, 163 LTPP Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) 161

M M-9 40 M-11 missiles 40 M-46 SP Gun (Catapult) 183 M777 Ultra lightweight Field Howitzer 111, 146, 152, 183 Mach 3 100, 117 Maharashtra 144, 172, 173, 193, 194, 218, 244, 247, 255, 263, 269, 277, 284, 285, 287, 303, 322, 325, 327, 331, 332, 336 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) 321 Mahila (Ladies) Battalion 310 Mahindra & Mahindra 95, 300 main battle tank (MBTs) 274, 457, 459 Majhi, Jagabandhu 328 Majlis-all-Shura 13 make (high tech) 128, 129, 130 Malacca Strait 2, 6, 44, 61, 64, 107, 144, 165, 452 Malaysia 62, 64, 286, 288, 340, 341, 346, 347, 378, 379, 380, 382, 383, 390, 401, 402, 407, 414, 426, 452, 455, 456, 463, 464 —General Information 401 —Overview of the Economy 401 —Defence 401


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Index —Security Environment 401, 402 Maldives 54, 74, 194, 217, 246 Malik, General (Retd) V.P. 47, 54 Malyutka 186, 470 Managing Director Army Welfare Education Society (MD AWES) 170 Managing Director Army Welfare Housing Organisation (MD AWHO) 170 Manekshaw, Sam 54 Manila 63, 342, 405 Manipur 20, 22, 259, 310, 313, 318, 320, 324, 329 Maoist insurgency 54, 74, 307, 327, 328, 329, 330, 451 Marine Commandos (MARCOS) 144, 190, 194 Maritime Capability Perspective Plan 68, 113, 198 Maritime and Costal Security 144, 335 Maritime Capability Perspective Plan (MCPP) 68, 113, 198 Maritime Doctrine 113, 144 Maritime Military Strategy 113 Marine Commando Force 194 Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres (MRCC) 144, 244, 246, 249 Marine Special Force 194 Martinque 105 Marwah, Lt General N.C. 158, 254, 261 Moscow 24, 25, 58, 143, 154, 265, 268, 269, 283, 285, 349, 356, 418 Masson, Air Vice Marshal A. 221 Massoud, Ahmad Zia 17 Master General of Ordnance (MGO) 168, 169 Matheswaran, M. 158, 254 Matra Durandal Bomb 240 Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) 113, 114, 147, 193, 198, 203, 271, 273, 275, 278, 290, 291 McMahon Line 53 Medium altitude and long endurance (MALE) 101, 102, 226, 227, 237, 299 Medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) 8, 24, 45, 119, 139, 140, 143, 146, 147, 222, 223, 224, 227, 455, 498 Medium range combat aircraft 110 Medium range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) 97, 98, 175, 298 Medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) 37, 98, 298 Medium Transport Aircraft 143, 222, 224 Meghalaya 218, 313, 318, 324 Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative (MGCI) 63 Menon, Alex Paul 329

Menon, Krishna 54 Menon, Shivshankar 2, 34, 143 Merchant ship Information System (MSIS) 452 Mi-8 218, 234, 235, 353, 355, 356, 358, 360, 384, 388, 396, 400, 423, 426, 429, 446, 450, 495 Mi-17 24, 154, 218, 222, 235, 278, 356, 362, 364, 374, 376, 384, 387, 390, 391, 400, 404, 416, 421, 495, 502 Mi-25/ Mi 35 71, 72, 235, 370 Mi-26 71, 218, 384, 387, 400, 495, 502 Mi-29K 24 Micro navigation system (MINS) 99, 143 Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMES) 95, 123, 147, 259 Microbat 102 Middle East 2, 3, 5, 6, 18, 30, 43, 390, 404, 409, 417, 432, 434, 436, 438, 443, 447 MiG-21 118, 119, 217, 218, 228, 238, 260, 262, 268, 269, 355, MiG-23 117, 118, 396 MiG-23BN 117, 240, 421, 426, 446, MiG-25 117, 120, 421, 426, 446, 495, 497 MiG-27 M 218, 229, 495, 497 MiG-27 117, 119, 218, 228, 229 MiG-27S 119 MiG-29 117, 147, 218, 222, 223, 224, 239, 267, 358, 360, 364 MiG-29A/B 229 MIG-29K/LCA (Navy) 115, 116, 193, 194 MiG-29M 218 MiG-29 UPG 119 Mil Mi-8 218, 234, 495, 502 Mil Mi-17 235, 495, 502 Mil Mi-25/-35 235, 495, 502 Mil Mi-26 235, 495, 502 MILAN 186, 362, 369, 421, 423, 425, 435, 439, 440, 446, 448 Military Area Command (MAC) 36, 38 Military College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Secunderabad 173 Military Operations Directorate 160, 263, 265 Military Secretary (X) (MSX) 170 Military Training and Intelligence

529 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

School and Depot, Pune 173 MIM-23 B 78 Mine Neutralisation Vehicle (MNV) 104 Ministry of Home Affairs 32, 55, 164, 179, 305, 307, 309, 313, 316, 317, 321, 322, 324, 325, 332, 335, 336, Mirage 2000 40, 117, 118, 119, 147, 218, 222, 223, 224, 238, 269, 448 Mirage 2000H 229, 495, 497 Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) 147, 272, 273, 275, 278, 293, 294 missile system quality assurance (MSQA) 295 Marty Natalegawa, Dr 452 Mission Unmanned Tracked (MUNTRA) 103 Mitchell, James Molony 43 Mathur, Radhakrishna 259 Mizoram 20, 22, 218, 313, 324, 363 mobile observation posts (MOPs) 241 Molecular Nano Technology (MNT) 89 Morocco 12, 420, 455, 473, 478 Morsi, Mohamed 14, 338 Moscow 24, 25, 58, 143, 265, 268, 269, 283, 285, 349, 356, 418 Moskva 100 Mozambique 172, 311 MQ-9 Reaper 101 MQ-4C 102 MQ-8 Fire Scout 102 MR -SAM 98, 120, 226 Mubarak, Mohamed Hosni 11, 417, 422 Mujahideen Groups 17 Mujahideen-e-Khalq (MEK) 28 Mukherjee, Pranab 3, 65, 109, 258, 321 Mullen, Mike 8 Multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) 111, 146, 208, 298 Multidisciplinary committee / TAC 123, 124 Multifunction Utility/Logistics Equipment Vehicle (MULE) 103 Multinational corporations (MNCs) 96 Multinational Peace Keeping Operation Exercises 172 Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) 98, 99, 298 Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar 80 Multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs) 103, 175 Multi-role transport aircraft (MTA) 23, 119, 143, 147, 223, 224, 281, 282, 283 Mumbai 8, 9, 54, 143, 144,


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Index 161, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 200, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 209, 214, 215, 244, 246, 247, 248, 249, 260, 261, 263, 267, 269, 270, 271, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 305, 312, 313, 315, 317, 328, 331, 334, 349, 350, 368, 369, 373, 456 Muralidharan, Vice Admiral M.P. 245, 254, 257, 269, 334 Murphy, Stan 103 Musharraf, Pervez 8, 118 Myanmar (formerly Burma) 9, 10, 19, 20, 22, 62, 63, 64, 67, 189, 218, 311, 341, 346, 347, 367, 368, 377, 378, 380, 382, 399, 403, 404, 407, 411, 412, 452, 456, 459, 460, 461, 471, 472, 476, 496, 497, 500, 502 —General Information 403 —Overview of the Economy 403 —Defence 403 —Security Environment 403, 404 —China, relations 22 —India, relations 20

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N Nag anti-tank missile system 72, 97, 100 Nagaland 20, 22 Nagpur 218 Naresh Chandra/Task Force Review 161, 162, 163, 164, 224 Nasr Missile 41 Nath, Lt General K. Surendra 265 National Cadet Corps (NCC) 176, 296 National Counter-terrorism Centre (NCTC) 144, 318, 322, 329, 330 National Cyber Command 56 National Defence Academy (NDA) 166, 173, 176, 219 National Defence College 160, 173, 254, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 271, 336 National Defence University 36, 157, 159, 160, 162, 164 National Disaster Management Authority 164 National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) 311, 316 National Forces Alliance 12

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) 325 National Information Board and Computer Emergancy Response Teams 164 National Innovation Council 94 National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) 273 National Institute of Strategic Studies 160 National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) 164, 319, 322, 323, 330 National Investigation Agency (NIA)/Act 319, 323 National League for Democracy (NLD) 20, 380, 403 National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council 94 National Maritime Agenda 66 National military strategy (NMS) 51, 55, 56, 163,164 National Maritime Search and Rescue (M-SAR) 243, 244, 246 National Mission for an Integrated Science and Technology Advancement Strategy (VISTAS) 94 National Police Commission (NPC) 324 National Rural Health Mission 321 National Science Foundation 90 National Security Advisor (NSA) 2, 34, 40, 55, 94, 143, 164 National Security Advisory Board (NSAB) 40, 55 National Security Commission 324 National Security Council (NSC) 54, 60, 112, 164, 172 National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) 164, 226 National Security Guard (NSG) 9, 154, 309, 312, 316, 317, 323, 329, 330 National Security Strategy (NSS) 51, 54, 55, 56, 63, 163, 169 National Security Strategy Report 8 National Socialist Council of National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) 164, 226 National Technology Advisory Council 94 National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) 96 National UN Course 172 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) 7, 9, 23, 29, 55, 142, 143, 201, 234, 350, 356, 361, 373, 393, 425, 427, 456, 469, 500, 502

530 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Naval Equipment —China 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487 —India 479, 487 —Israel 479, 487, 488, 489 —North Korea 479, 489, 490 —Russia 479, 490, 491, 492 —South Korea 479, 492, 493 —Thailand 479, 493, 494 —United Kingdom 479 —United State of America 480 —West European Countries 480 Naval Research Board (NRB) 300 Naval Research Laboratory 92 Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) 104, 303 Naval Ship Repair Yard (NSRY) 193, 195 Navigation Training School, Begumpet 219 Naxalism/Naxalite(s) insurgency 305, 312, 315, 322, 323, 324, 326 Nehru, Jawaharlal 20, 21, 51, 53, 258, 272, 292, 328 Nepal 53, 63, 109, 173, 314, 347, 350, 365, 370, 371, 461, 474, 476, 500, 501, 502 —General Information 370 —Overview of the Economy 370 —Defence 371 —Security Environment 371 Neptune Spear 70, 372 Network-centric warfare (NCW) 55, 74, 75, 76, 266 New Delhi 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 23, 32, 37, 54, 59, 141, 142, 144, 146, 190, 219, 244, 247, 249, 256, 257, 260, 261, 265, 266, 271, 287, 288, 291, 292, 293, 305, 308, 309, 315, 321, 324, 350, 368, 370, 452, 453 New Pension Scheme 318 New Zealand 63, 381, 382, 407, 455 No first use (NFU) 39, 40, 143, 144 North Korea (DPRK) 9, 41, 43, 99, 141, 341, 377, 378, 379, 395, 396, 397, 410, 451, 454, 455, 471, 479, 489, 498, 502 —General Information 395 —Overview of the Economy 395 —Defence 395 —Security Environment 395, 396 North Vietnamese Navy 101 North West Frontier Province (NWFP) 143, 217, 372


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Index Northeast 22, 52, 109, 144, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 177, 178, 179, 241, 260, 264, 265, 305, 307, 310, 311, 313, 315, 324, 329, 366 Northeast Frontier Agency (NEFA) 313 Northrop Grumman 87, 102, 149, 152, 233, 286, 505 Norwegian P-3 Orion 107 Norwegian Sea 106 NSG Act 318 NTW-20/14.5 187 Nuclear Liability Act 9 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 8 Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) 10 Nuclear Risk Reduction Measures (NRRMs) 42 Nuclear Security Summit 455 Nuclear submarines 153, 193, 195 Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 9, 66 Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) 42, 175 Nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles 40, 142 Nyingchi 142

O Obama, Barack 7, 8, 9, 62, 356, 362, 372, 417, 428, 431, 453 Obama Administration 8, 9, 10, 356, 362, 431, 433 Observe, orient, decide, act (OODA) 178 Officers Training Academy 173, 176 Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) 195, 243, 244, 251, 291, 404, 408, 415 Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) 243, 246 Oil & Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) 142, 193, 246, 270, 415, 454 Oman 12, 154, 439, 440, 461,462, 471, 472, 474, 476, 477, 499, 500, 501, 502, 504 —General Information 439 —Overview of the Economy 439 —Defence 440 —Security Environment 440, 441 Omar, Mullah Mohammed 17 Operation Swan 194, 331 Order of Battle (ORBAT) 83 Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) 50, 111, 174, 175, 273, 274, 275, 276 Organisation of Indian Coast

Guard Headquarter 245 Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) 13, 14 Original equipment manufacturers (OEM) 94, 95, 129, 148, 219, 225 OSA-AK 98, 111, 175, 226 Osprey V-22 71

P P-IV (HAROP) 147 P-18 241 P-19 241 Pachari, R.K. 5 Pacific Ocean 2, 63, 67, 377, 410 Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) 324 Pakistan 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 17, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 34, 40, 41, 42, 52, 54, 55, 69, 74, 75, 76, 98, 99, 101, 102, 109, 110, 112, 117, 118, 119, 120, 141, 142, 143, 164, 165, 178, 217, 226, 246, 311, 315, 328, 330, 342, 346, 347, 349, 350, 358, 361, 367, 368, 372, 373, 374, 376, 382, 386, 407, 412, 424, 439, 441, 451, 452, 455, 456, 458, 461, 463, 466, 467, 468, 469, 471, 472, 474, 477, 478, 486, 495, 496, 497, 499, 501, 502, 504, 505, 506, 514, 516 —General Information 372 —Overview of the Economy 372 —Defence 372 —Security Environment 372, 373, 374 Pakistan Army Aviation 69 Pakistan occupied Kashmir 52, 74, 165, 315, 349, 373 Pallam Raju, M.M. 146, 334 Palsule, AVM K.P. 221 Panetta, Leon E. 2, 63, 143, 453 Pangta 32, 142 Pant, Air Vice Marshal B.C. 220 PARS-3 French 72 Paramilitary forces (PMF) 328 Parnaik, Lt General K.T. 255, 264 Pashtun 16, 17 Patil, Pratibha Devisingh 141 Patil, Shivraj, Home Minister 318 Pattnaik, R.K. 158, 254 PC-7 MK II 120, 226, 402

531 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Pechora 98, 206, 226, 239, 424 Pentagon 15, 37, 54, 63, 362, 431 Pentagon’s South Asia Defence and Strategic Yearbook 2010 54 People’s Army 328 People’s Committee against People’s Liberation Army (PLA), China 31, 35, 41, 52, 63, 173, 329, 410, 452, 459 Air Force (PLAAF) 38, 118, 142, 514 Army 173 People’s Republic of China 35, 36, 62, 63, 64, 338, 368, 377, 515 Peres, Shimon 91, 339 Permanent Commissions (PC) 227 Persian Gulf 27, 73, 165, 426, 428, 436 Petrol Forces 207 —Bangaram Class Petrol Vessels Bangaram Class Patrol Vessels 207 —Car Nicobar Class Water Jet FAC 207 —SDB MK5 207 —Sukanya Class 207 —Super Dvora MK II 207 207 Philippines 37, 62, 63, 64, 260, 286, 342, 346, 347, 378, 380, 382, 390, 405, 406, 414, 452, 453, 455, 456, 466, 475, 477, 500, 501, 502, 503 —General Information 405 —Overview of the Economy 405 —Defence 405 —Security Environment 405, 406 Pilatus PC-7 MkII 120, 217, 223, 226 Pinaka 111, 146, 183, 278, 369, 457, 465 Pinaka multi-barrel rocket system 111 Pinaka RL 183 Planning Commission 94, 144, 258, 322, 324 Pokhran 39, 40, 54, 300 Poland 173, 193, 200, 215, 455, 464, 471 Police Act 324, Police Establishment Board 324 Police Modernisation Scheme 319, 325 Pollution Control Vessel (PCV) 244 Porbandar 214, 244, 247, 248, 249, 334 Port Blair 144, 193, 207, 208, 244, 247, 248, 250, 333, 334, 369 Post Boast Vehicles (PBV) 98 Prachanda 328


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Index Pradhan Air Vice Marshal P.N. 220 Prahaar 298 precision-guided missiles/ munitions (PGMs) 44, 56, 75, 90, 111, 120 President Army Standing Establishment Committee 169 Prime Minister’s Gram Sadak Yojana 321 Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) 160, 514 Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC) 159, 514 Principal Supply Officers Committee (PSOC) 159, 515 Principle Staff Officer (PSO) 168 Prithvi 40, 97, 98, 99, 100, 174, 185, 207, 293, 297, 369 Prognostics and Health Management 88 Project 15A 194, 203 Project 17A 195 Project 28 195, 206 Project 75 191, 195, 201 Provost Marshal (PM) 170, 514 Public Accounts Committee (PAC) 48 Public Interest Litigation 58, 324

Q Qatar 12, 14, 17, 28, 29, 342, 346, 347, 441, 462, 463, 474, 497, 502 —General Information 441 —Overview of the Economy 441 —Defence 441 —Security Environment 441, 442 Qualitative requirements (QRs) 224 Quetta Shoora 17 Quick reaction surface-to-air-missile (QRSAM) 98, 146, 175

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R R-33-R AA-7 Apex 238 R-550 Magic I 238 R-550 Magic II 238 R-60 AA-8 Aphid 238 Radar Absorbent Material (RAM) 86, 488 Radar Cross Section (RCS) 85 Radio and Navigation Aids (RANADS) 44 Rafael 487, 488 Raghavan, Lt. General (Retd) V.R. 1 Raha, Air Marshal Arup 255, 267 Rahfat, Azita 17 Rajaram AVM H.B. 221 Rajasthan 111, 218, 259, 313, 318

Rajiv, DG, CISF 313 Rajiv Gandhi Grameen 321 Vidhyutikaran Yojana 321 Rajshree, ICG Ship 333 Raksha Udyog Ratnas 134, 515 Ramachandran, Mullapally 306, 307, 336 Ramdas, Chief Admiral L. 58, 60 Ranjan, Arvind, DG NSG 312 Rapid Action Force (RAF) 310, 317 Rapid response force (RRF) 36 Rashtriya Rifles (RR) 146, 167, 179, 255, 260 Rattan, Air Vice Marshal N. 221 Raza, Maroof 58 Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) 41, 45, 55, 70, 75, 77, 78, 87, 91, 92, 102, 112 Re-entry Vehicles (RV) 98 Revenue Expenditure 110, 137, 138 Revised Estimates 137, 145, 323 Regional Centre for Military Airworthiness (RCMA) 303 Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ship in Asia (RECAAP) 246, 452 remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) 103 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) 104, 300 remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) 45 request for proposals (RFP) 130 Research & Development (R&D) 42, 44, 54, 55, 68, 76, 90, 93, 121, 145, 161, 224, 276, 280, 286, 300 Research & Development Establishment (R&DE) 303 Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) 31, 54, 159 Reserve Bank of India (RBI) 145, 258 Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) 55, 76, 91, 110 Ribeiro Committee 324 Rice, Condoleezza 8 Ring Laser Gyro (RLG) 99 Ring Laser Gyro based inertial navigation system 143 Rohini MPR (Medium Power Radar) 120 Rosoboronexport 24, 111, 146, 154, 283, 515 Roy, Air Marshal P.K. 158, 254, 261 Royal Air Force 225, 260, 515 RQ4 Global Hawk 102 Russia (former USSR,Soviet Union) 2, 6, 9, 12, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 63, 70, 71, 72, 74, 85, 97, 98, 99, 100, 107, 110, 111, 114, 118, 119, 120, 135, 139,

532 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

143, 144, 154, 173, 190 —involvement in Afghanistan 26 Rustom 102, 227, 299 Rwanda 172

S SA-2 & SA-3 78 SA-5 78, 396, 426, 430, 446, 300, 371 SA-6 78, 184, 353, 369, 416, 421, 424, 426, 446, 458, 472 SA-7 184, 355, 356, 358, 362, 369, 396, 400, 415, 416, 421, 423, 425, 429, 430, 435, 439, 440, 442, 446, 450 SA-11 78, 446 SA-13 185, 358, 362, 369, 435, 446, 450, 458, 472 SA-16 185, 239, 369, 370, 374, 396, 398, 404, 415, 416, 435 SA-20/21 78 SA-8B Osa-AK 239 SA-8B SAM 458, 472 Sagarika 100, 201 Sahay, Pranay, DG CRPF 310 Sahgal, Brigadier Arun 42 Saleh, Mohaqiq Amrullah 17 Saltoro Ridge 54 SAMTEL HAL Display System Ltd 283 Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 52 Sarva Siksha Abhiyan 321 Saraswat, Dr V.K. 99, 254, 256 Sarath ICV 174 Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) 309, 313, 316, 366 Saudi Arabia 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 28, 29, 143, 342, 346, 347, 417, 426, 437, 440, 443, 444, 455, 462, 463, 464, 474, 476, 477, 478, 497, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505 —General Information 443 —Overview of the Economy 443 —Defence 443 —Security Environment 443, 444, 445 Saurashtra 218 ScanEagle 102 School of Artillery 173 Scientific Advisor to COAS 170 Scorpene class 194, 195, 201, 479 Sea Eagle 193, 210, 211, 213, 230, 370, 444, 499 Sea Harrier 115, 193, 194, 201,


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Index 210, 262, 266, 369, 494, 495, 499 Sea King 115, 116, 193, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 208, 213, 214, 278, 369, 374, 383, 423, 429 Sea lines of communication (SLOCs) 63, 66 Seahawk 154, 383, 394, 412, 494 Searcher II 120, 214, 237 Security Related Expenditure 322, 516 Sein, U. Thein 19 Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) 128, 145, 161, 162, 515 Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) 161 Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) 161 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) 6, 66, 349 Shangri La Summit 453 Shared Awareness and De-confliction 144 Sharma, Air Cmde, N.K. 221 Sharma, Air Marshal R.K. 255, 268 Sharma, Air Vice Marshal, S. 220 Sharma, Air Vice Marshal, A.K. 221 Sharma, Shashi Kant 142, 253, 259 Sharma, Vijay 169, 171 Shia 2, 3, 11, 12, 26, 28, 29, 30, 143, 355, 361, 372, 417 Shia-Sunni Friction 2 Shinmaywa 105, 106, 108 Shinzo Abe 377 Short Service Commission (SSC) 227 short take off & landing (STOL) 107 short-range air defence 78 short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) 37 Short service commission officers 176 Shourya 299 Siachen Glacier 32, 69, 71, 165, 168, 171, 262, 264 Sibal, Munish 169, 171, 254 Sierra Leone 172 Signal Intelligence directorates (SIDs) 159 Signal Officer-in-Chief (SO-in-C) 169, 254 Sikkim 32, 33, 53, 168, 171, 264, 313, 314, 318 Siliguri Corridor 54, 366 Simulated Fire 81 Singapore 45, 63, 64, 135, 173, 251, 260, 288, 290, 300, 342, 343, 346, 347, 378,

380, 381, 382, 406, 407, 408, 409, 452, 453, 455, 456, 458, 462, 466, 473, 474, 477, 499, 500, 501, 503, 505 —General Information 407 —Overview of the Economy 407 —Defence 407 —Security Environment 407, 408 Singapore Technologies 135, 408, 473 Singh, Air Marshal Daljit 220 Singh, Air Marshal Jagjeet 221 Singh, Air Marshal R. 269 Singh Air Vice Marshal J.V. 221 Singh, Arun 157, 161 Singh, General V.K. 41, 47, 54, 57, 58, 60, 110, 139, 148, 173 Singh, Lt General Ranbir, DG AR 313 Singh, Lt General A.K. 255 Singh, General Bikram 58, 111, 169, 177, 254, 260 Singh, General Bikram 58, 111, 169, 177, 254, 260 Singh, Jaswant 40 Singh, Lt General Dalbir 58, 255 Singh, Lt General S.K. 169, 254, 262 Singh, Jitendra Pratap 253, 256, 259 Singh, Manmohan 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 21, 51, 99, 133, 141, 142, 143, 148, 176, 253, 258, 315, 321, 322, 328, 350, 363, 378, 380, 404 Singh Narendra 169, 170, 254, 263 Singh, N.K. 324 Singh, Prakash 324 Singh, Ratanjit Pratap Narain 306, 308, 336 Singh, R.K. 306, 308, 336 Singh, General V.K. 41, 47, 54, 57, 58, 60, 110, 139, 148, 173 Sinha, Ranjit 31 Sinha, Vice Admiral Shekhar 255, 266 Sinha, Vice Marshal S.B.P. 220 Sino-Indian War 52 52 Sir Creek 143 Sky Marshals 312 Small and Medium enterprise 95, 123, 146, 147, 259, 375, 516 Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd 283 Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research (SITAR) 515 Software Defined Radios (SDRs) 56, 75, 286 Somalia 102, 142, 144, 172, 190, 194, 441 Sonar USHUS 200, 300 Soni, Vice Admiral Satish 255, 267 South Africa 4, 6, 67, 187, 267,

533 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

278, 455, 458, 466, 473, 474, 489, 515 South Asia 2, 5, 22, 26, 42, 54, 63, 74, 141, 177, 349, 351, 367, 375, 378, 404 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 5, 66 South Block 59, 256, 257 South China Sea 2, 36, 37, 61, 62, 63, 64, 141, 142, 377, 401, 405, 406, 409, 410, 414, 415, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456 South East Asia 1, 2, 6, 13, 20, 21, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 141, 280, 368, 378, 380, 381, 390, 399, 404, 407, 410, 411, 412, 415, 451, 452, 453, 454, 456 South Korea 38, 45, 63, 67, 143, 154, 175, 193, 207, 209, 343, 368, 377, 378, 380, 390, 395, 397, 398, 407, 409, 452, 453, 454, 455, 458, 469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 477, 478 , 479, 492, 493, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503 , 504 —General Information 397 —Overview of the Economy 397 —Defence 397 —Security Environment 397, 398 Southern Air Command 218, 255, 268, 269 South-Western Air Command 218, 255, 267, 268, 269, 516 Soviet Union,Soviet Union. See Russia 18, 24, 26, 101, 103, 117, 119, 127, 193, 349, 352, 354, 432 SP Guns and Hows 457, 458, 460, 463, 467, 473, 477 Specialised India Reserve Battalion 322, 325 Spyder SAM systems 222 Sri Lanka 54, 63, 109, 168, 190, 194, 217, 244, 286, 289, 310, 343, 346, 348, 350 —General Information 375 —Overview of the Economy 375 —Defence 375 —Security Environment 375, 376 —Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 375


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Index SR SAM 226, 293 Stalin, Josef 349 Standing Committee on Defence (SCD) 50, 111, 161, 162, 163 State Counter Terrorism Centre (SCTC) 330 State Marine Police 332, 333 State Security Commission 324 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 2, 454 Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) 159 Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group (SSQAG) 295 Strategic Defence Review (SDR) 159 Strategic Forces Command (SFC) 157, 159, 180, 224 SU-27UBK 32, 388, 416 Su-30 40, 118, 224, 281 Su-30K 118, 260, 498 Su-30MKI 118, 119, 143, 218, 222, 223, 224, 226, 230, 280, 281, 298, 495, 498 Su-30MKK 32, 388, 416, 498 Subic Bay 63 submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) 40, 100, 144 Submarines rescue diving recompression system (SRDRS) 104 Submarines 40, 42, 66, 100, 103, 104, 105, 110, 114, 115, 116, 135, 144, 153, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200, 201, 210, 263, 273, 290, 291, 292, 369, 374, 378, 382, 387, 390, 393, 396, 398, 408, 410, 415, 421, 423, 425, 429, 433,453, 455, 479, 480, 481, 487, 489, 490, 492 Subrahmanyam, K. 39, 40, 47, 157 Suez Canal 2, 27 Suhag, Lt General Dalbir Singh 58 Sukhoi 24, 142, 283, 285 Sukumar, Air Vice Marshal S. 220, 255, 263 Sun Tzu 55 Sundarji, General Krishnaswamy 40 Super 530 D 238, 370 suppression of enemy defence (SEAD) 78 Supreme Court 58, 324, 368 Suresh, Air Vice Marshal B. 220 surface-to-air missile (SAM) 78, 97, 98, 195, 218, 226, 239, 468 surface-to-surface missiles 40, 41, 77, 97, 100, 293, 297, 298 Surveillance Radars 299

Surveillance and Target Aquisition (SATA) 111, 174 Sweden 110, 174, 183, 186, 455, 458, 474, 495, 498, 504 Switzerland 146, 286, 455, 458, Syria 11, 12, 14, 28, 29, 30, 142, 343, 346, 348, 417, 437, 438, 442, 444 —General Information 445 —Overview of the Economy 445 —Defence 445 —Security Environment 445, 446

T T-55 110, 182, 362, 369, 425, 431, 446, 458, 467, 469 T-72 M1 (Ajeya) 110, 174 T-80 U 110 T-90 (Bhishma) 295 T-90S 110, 146, 173, 174, 181, 358, 369, 421, 458, 469 Tactical Battle Area (TBA) 69, 70, 313, 516 Tactical communications system (TCS) 95, 516 Tactical detection and reporting system) 516 Taiwan 32, 34, 37, 344, 346, 377, 378, 379, 380 —General Information 409 —Overview of the Economy 409 —Defence 409 —Security Environment 409 —China, relations 36 Tajikistan 344, 346, 348, 349, 350 —General Information 355 —Overview of the Economy 355 —Defence 356 —Security Environment 356 Takeshima Islands 455 Taliban 7, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 26, 142, 349, 350, 353, 359, 361, 368, 372, 456 Talwar class 139, 194, 204, 479 Tanguska 175 Tata Motors 300 Tata HAL Technologies Ltd 283 Technical Offset Evaluation Committee (TOEC) 124, 125 Tehran 9, 14, 27, 28, 29, 417, 428, 429 Tejas 119, 117, 194, 224, 231, 280, 281, 283, 293, 497

534 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Tellis, Ashley J. 6 Test Pilots School 219 Thailand 8, 21, 62, 63, 64, 378, 379, 190, 289, 346, 348, 368, 378, 380, 382, 384, 403, 404, 407 —General Information 411 —Overview of the Economy 411 —Defence 411 —Security Environment 411-413 Thakur, Lt General D.S. 169, 254 Thapliyal, Vice Admiral A.G. 191, 192, 255 THD-1955 241 Thermal Imager 146, 174, 460 Thermal Imaging Standalone Sights (TISAS) 174 Thomas, P.J. 58 Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region 2, 31, 32, 33,34, 36, 37, 38, 40, 52, 53, 142, 171, 218, 371, 386 Thiruvananthapuram 218 Tiger 61 Tiger Hill 218 Time magazine 58 Times of India 57 Tokyo 10 377, 378, 392, 393, 455 trainer aircraft 120, 147, 153, 222, 226, 268, 269, 282 transfer of technology (ToT) 96, 111, 121, 122, 123, 128, 135, 147, 174, 201, 209, 225, 227, 273 Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South East Asia (TAC) 63 Trefor Moss 54 Trishul 97, 98, 100, 111, 175, 204, 261 Tu-142 Transport Aircraft 193, 211, 495, 504 Tunisia 11, 12, 420, 422, 427, 440, 449 Turbomeca 71, 213, 230, 236, 237, 282, 501 Turkey 12, 27, 28, 29, 102, 418, 390, 446, 455 Turkmenistan 349, 350 —General Information 357 —Overview of the Economy 357 —Defence 357 —Security Environment 357, 358 Type-02 387 Type-03 387, 393 Type-031 396 Type-039 480 Type-04 387 Type-041 480 Type-05 387, 388 Type-051/ 051C/ 051D/


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Index 051Z/ 051DT 388, 454 Type-054/ 054A 454 Type-07 387, 388 Type-092 480 Type-25T 494 Type-51 410, 415 Type-52 373 Type-53 363, 387, 404 Type-54 987, 415 Type-55 373, 387 Type-56 387, 415, 461 Type-56 (ZPU-4) 371 Type-56 (D-44) 373, 375 Type-56 (M-160) 387 Type-59 364, 373, 376 Type-60 387, 393, 415 Type-62 364, 384, 387, 415, 457, 459 Type-63/63A/63C 384, 387,, 388, 396, 404, 415, 425, 429, 446, 457, 459 Type-64 410 Type-65 387, 415 Type-66 376, 387, 457, 461 Type-69 364, 373, 404, 412, Type-70 387 Type-71 387 Type-72 373 Type-73 387, 393, 458 Type-74 387, 393, 404, 412, 457, 458, 461, 466 Type-75 387, 393, 458, 467 Type-77 460 Type-78 387 Type-79 387, 393, Type-80 394, 404, 457, 461 Type-80 (SP) 387 Type-80 (ZU-23-2) 387 Type-81 387, 393, 394 Type-82 393 Type-83 373, 387, 457, 460 Type-85 73, 376, 387, 404, 412, 457, 460 Type-86 387, 388 Type-87 393, 458, 466 Type-88/88A 387, 393 Type-89 387, 393, 457, 458 Type-90 458 Type-95 387 Type-96 387, 393 Type-98/98A 387, 388, 459 Type-99/99A-1/99A-2 393, 394, 459, 467, Type-PB 90 404 Type-W87 387

U Ultra-light howitzer 71, 110, 140, 146, 174

under barrel grenade launcher (UBGL) 112 United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) 224, 282 United Arab Emirates (UAE) 28, 344, 346, 348, 441 —General Information 447 —Overview of the Economy 447 —Defence 447 —Security Environment 447, 448 United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 350, 371 United Kingdom (UK) 6, 20, 45, 63, 97, 99, 102, 103, 152,153, 156, 162, 193, 205, 219, 225, 230, 252, 381, 393, 458, 474, 479, 495, 498, 500, 502 United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) 363, 365 UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) 350 UN Military Contingent Officers Course (UNMCOC) 172 UN Military Observers Course (UNMOC) 172 UN Staff and Logistic Officers Course (UNSLOC) 172 United Nations (UN) 9, 28, 42, 142, 172, 266, 331, 417 —Peace Keeping 172, 310 —Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) 311 —Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 105, 107, 331, 451, 452 —Peace keeping missions 172, 219 —Security Council (UNSC) 23, 66, 112, 144, 172, 446 —Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) 404 United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 21, 162, 305, 315, 318, 325, 368 United States of America (USA) 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 23, 24, 27, 28,29, 45, 60, 61, 62,63, 64, 67, 68, 90,94, 95, 97, 99, 101,110, 115, 118, 119,141, 143, 172, 173,241, 300, 377, 417,418, 453, 54, 455 —Afghanistan-Pakistan strategy 15-18 —Withdrawal of forces from Afghanistan 16 —Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement 453

535 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

—Air Force (USAF) 101, 102, 225, 407, 441 —Army 8, 36, 102, 103, 112, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 260, 265, 356, 397 —China relations 455 —Global war on terror (GWOT) 54, 118, 373 —India relations 7, 8 —Navy 9, 75, 87, 92, 102, 104, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 155, 156, 194, 208, 213, 415, 427, 453, 504 —Special Force 63, 70 University of Washington 103 Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967 318 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 66, 75, 77, 78, 91,101, 102, 103, 118, 120,140, 146, 147, 174, 193, 195, 214, 226, 227, 237, 295, 299, 334, 369, 370, 374, 376, 382, 387, 388, 396, 398, 402, 406, 408, 409, 412, 423, 424, 429, 433 unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) 77, 78, 101, 102, 111, 226, 227 unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) 103, 104 US-Japan-Australia-India 10 US War College 51 Uttrakhand 327 Uzbekistan 344, 346, 348, 349, 350, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359 —General Information 359 —Overview of the Economy 359 —Defence 359 —Security Environment 359- 360 Uzis 328, 329

V Varadarajan, S. 302 Verma, Admiral Nirmal K. 334 Vice Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS) 168, 169, 254 Vice Chief of Air Staff (VCAS) 220, 255, 260 Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) 157 Vice Chief of Naval Staff (VCNS) 190, 191, 255, 262 Vietnam 27, 38, 62, 63, 64, 101, 142, 173, 344, 346, 348, 350, 383, 384, 399, 314 —General Information 414


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Index —Overview of the Economy 414 —Defence 414 —Security Environment 414- 416 Visakhapatnam 144, 190, 193, 195, 200, 201, 206, 207, 208, 209, 214, 215, 247, 248, 249, 285, 287, 292, 293, 295, 333, 334, 369, 392, 393

W

X Xiaotian, General Ma

63, 142

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Wadhwa, Vivek 96 Wagah Border 142 Washington 7, 8, 9, 10, 103, 155, 156, 266, 268, 339, 349, 355, 372, 386, 423, 428, 431, 433, 440, 443, 447, 455 weapon locating radars (WLRs) 174 weapon systems, ORSA & infrastructure (WSOI) 161 weapons, vehicles and equipment

(WV&E) 275, 276 Wen Jiabao 142, 377, 481 West Asia/North Africa 1, 2, 6, 11, 14, 26, 63, 141, 349, 417, 418, 455, 456 West Bank 432, 433 West Bengal 24, 165, 173, 247, 249, 278, 285, 307, 314, 319, 320, 322, 327, 363 Western Air Command 218, 255, 260, 262, 267, 268 Western Europe 417 West Philippines Sea 62 Wholesale Price Index (WPI) 145 World Bank 1, 20, 66, 356, 384, 399, 430 World Trade Organisation (WTO) 31, 66, 383, 399, 443 World War II 70, 94, 105, 217, 381, 392, 393, 432

536 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2013  |  41st Issue

Xiaoping, Deng 34, 35 Xinjiang 32, 36, 38, 41, 357, 385, 386, 387

Y Yang Jiechi 62 Yantar Shipyard, Kaliningard 194 Yatung 53 Yemen, Republic of 172, 344, 346, 348, 417, 437, 441, 444, 449 —General Information 449 —Overview of the Economy 449 —Defence 449 —Security Environment 449-450

Z Zhisheng 10 72 ZSU-23-4 175, 184, 355, 358, 362, 369, 400, 415, 421, 423, 424, 425, 429, 433, 435, 446, 450, 458, 472


1964 1964

Our Journey Starts as Guide Publications was founded by its Founder Publisher & Founder Editor Shri S P Baranwal...

Apart from many publications written, edited and published by the Founder, Military Yearbook is introduced in 1965...

1974

Military Yearbook continues relentlessly with collective support from dignitaries including the Prime Ministers and Presidents of India...

1984

50

JUST 1 STEP SHORT OF


0

2014

WE SHALL BE 50 THIS YEAR

Guide Publications is rechristened as SP Guide Publications offering tribute and gratitude to its Founder...Also envisioned is the path of introduction of a few magazines...

2013

Military Yearbook is

SP’s Aviation, SP’s Land

rechristened as SP’s

Forces, SP’s Naval Forces

Military Yearbook

are launched starting

SP’s Airbuz, SP’s

conveying gratitude to

from ‘98 and within a

M.A.I. follows the

Founder Publisher...

span of a few years...

intensity of magazines introduction...

1994

F 50 YEARS

2004


SP's Military Yearbook 2013  

SP's Military Yearbook as an authoritative source of information not only in the Indian subcontinent and Asia, but the world over. Four deca...

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