Page 1

S n e c m a

What will protect India in the 21st century?

T h a l e s

PEMA 2M - Crédit photos : K. Tokunaga - Dassault Aviation - Getty images

A v i a t i o n

s ure ed roc y n & P urit t itio ies ec ser ed lic l S In is Po rna ial th nt te ec In reme ia’s In e - Sp cu nd nc Pro n I ere ce s o Ref fen ocu ts’ De • F Even •

D a s s a u l t

2011 2012

Towards a safer India.

40th IssuE 40th IssuE

2011 2012

Price: Inland Rs 4,995; Foreign (Surface Mail): Stg. £ 395.00; US$ 700.00

Editor-in-Chief

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2011 2012

40th IssuE


Minister of Defence INdia

Message am happy to learn that SP Guide Publications is bringing out the SP’s Military Yearbook 2011. Over the years, SP Guide Publications has focused its attention on several strategic issues and challenges facing our Armed Forces. Today, the security situation is such that it requires constant monitoring and drawing up quick responses. Our Armed Forces are fully capable of successfully meeting all challenges from any quarter. There is no doubt that our Armed Forces are among one of the best in the world. The SP’s Military Yearbook has been recording and analysing developments in the military and related fields within the country and all over the world. I hope that the 40th edition of SP’s Military Yearbook will provide valuable inputs to our Armed Forces and defence industry. I am sure that the Yearbook will be appreciated by its readers. Please accept my best wishes for your future endeavours.

A.K. Antony

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  5


Towards a safer world

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6  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


2011 2012

40th IssuE

Editor-in-Chief

Jayant Baranwal


Copyright © 2011 by

SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial activity. Making copies in any form, electronic or otherwise, of the information in full or any portion thereof for purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law. For additional information relating to copyright, please contact: The Editor-in-Chief SP’s Military Yearbook A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi - 110 003, India. Email: editor@spsmilitaryyearbook.com The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/ claims of productivity gains.

Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965 Published by Jayant Baranwal SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD New Delhi, India

Designed by SP Guide Publications Team ISSN 0076-8782 Registered with RNI No. (P.) : F.2 (S/11) Press / 93 Processed and Printed in India by

Corporate Office: A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Tel: +91 (11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093

E-Mail:

Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, order@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@vsnl.com

Price: Inland Rs. 4,995;

Website:

Foreign (Surface Mail): £ 395.00; US$ 700.00

www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


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10  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


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12  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


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14  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


16  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


18  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


WINGS THAT THAT RULE RULE THE WINGS THE SKIES SKIES

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  19


20  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


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Readers’ Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers.

Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India

The Prime Minister has asked me to thank you very much for sending him a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-10. Mr Cameron really appreciates your kind thought and is most grateful for your support and good wishes.

Mr S Caine (Direct Communications Unit of office of Mr David Cameron, Prime Minister of United Kingdom) (as on as on August 19, 2010)

Yearbook 2009-10. The information provided through the Yearbook is not only very comprehensive and precise but provide valuable information in a concise manner. The articles cover a wide spectrum of topics on contemporary issues and would definitely widen the horizon of our officers.

Lt General Dalip Bhardwaj Director General Mech Forces, Indian Army (as on August 18, 2010)

This has reference to your letter dated 17th November 2010 alongwith which you had kindly sent me a copy of the SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-10 as well as copies of various magazines edited by the SP Guide Publications. I wish to thank you for the above-mentioned publications which indeed will prove to be very useful for us.

Thank you for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-10. The edition indeed is informative, well compiled, meticulously designed and presented in an immaculate manner. My compliments to you and your team for all the hard work in producing such an excellent Yearbook.

Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war.

Mr Giacomo Sanfelice di Monteforte Ambassador of Italy to India

Lt General Pradeep Khanna General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Headquarters Southern Command, Indian Army

Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy

I would like to thank you personally for sending the complimentary copy of SP’s Military

It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970).....I have gone through.....and found its general get up good and contents useful.

Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff, Indian Army

(as on November 23, 2010)

(as on August 14, 2010) Thank you for the copy of the SP’s Military


Yearbook 2009-10. This has been very well presented. Please convey my compliments to the Editorial team for their efforts. We shall be disseminating your letter to formations and units for their necessary action.

esting series of data put across in a lucid manner. I am sanguine, that military readers will benefit immensely from the compilation, which is a must, to be procured publication for all institutions, branches and formations of the Indian Army.

Lt General S.R. Ghosh General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Headquarters Western Command, Indian Army

Lt General K.T. Parnaik Director General of Perspective Planning, Indian Army

(as on August 10, 201010)

(as on August August 9, 2010)

Thank you for sending a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-10. Please accept my compliments on the making of an excellent Military Yearbook. I find it both well structured and informative.

Thank you for sending a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-10. The annual edition has been very well packaged through researched efforts. The contents and data is vastly informative and can be easily assimilated by a large cross section of readers interested in National Security “in particular matters Defence”.

Air Marshal S.C. Mukul CISC, Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff, Indian MoD (as on August 10, 2010) Please accept my compliments on publishing a comprehensive SP's Military Yearbook 2009-10. As one glances through the contents, it presents a very informative and inter-

Lt General J.P. Singh Deputy Chief of the Army Staff (P&S), Indian Army (as on August 8. 2010) I wish to place on record my sincere gratitude for forwarding a copy of your publication

SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-10. It is indeed a well compiled and neatly illustrated publication that has been well researched and is an “Information Warehouse. My compliments to your editorial team for the same. Hoping to continue this association for a better understanding and mutual exchange of thoughts on Defence & Security related issues.

Major General Sanjeev Madhok Additional Director General Public Information, Indian Army (as on August 6, 2010) SP Guide Publications has been playing a stellar role in publishing the quality articles that comprehensively covers products and their potentials. SP’s has maintained printing of the ultimate quality with high standards of credible journalism and informed opinion. It is a delight to go through SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-10.

Air Marshal J Chandra Director General (Systems), Indian Air Force (as on August 4, 2010)


24  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Contents CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


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C OLOUR PA G ES

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Editorial 41

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

45-128

129

Contributors Profile

130

Sin título-3 1

24/01/2011 14:19:58

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  25

CONTENTS REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Map: Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Readers’ Comments

5

TECHNOLOGY

Message from Minister of Defence, India

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e n t s


Cont e nt s 1 CPerspectives 1 oncepts & 1

Military Intervention Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan

2 Indo-US Strategic Partnership Ranjit Gupta 3 Indo-Russian Strategic Partnership Smita Purushottam 4 India’s Look East Policy Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand & Dr Gnanagurunathan

1 5

9 13

5 The Afghan War 17 Major General (Retd) Dr G.D. Bakshi 6 India’s Eastern Waters Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash 7

China’s Military Build-up Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

25

8 India’s Internal Conflicts Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi

31

9 Two-Front War Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

35

10 India’s Nuclear Options Colonel (Retd) Ali Ahmed

39

11 Aerospace Capabilities: India, Pak & China Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia 26  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

21

43


Cont e nt s 12 Energy Security Dr Bhupendra Kumar Singh

47

13 Integrated Theatre Commands Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

53

14 Integrated Special Forces Command Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

59

15 Nuclear Disaster in Japan Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey

63

16 Modelling & Simulation Commander (Retd) Devbrat Chakraborty

67

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  27


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Cont e nt s 2 TECHNOLOGY 73 1 Building

C4I2SR Systems

Lt General (Retd)

P.C. Katoch

73

2 Battle Tank Redesigned

Major General

R.P. Bhadran

79

3 Unmanned Underwater Vehicles 83 Commander Shishir Upadhyaya 4 UAVs in the Indian Air Force

Air Marshal (Retd)

A.K. Trikha

87

5 Ballistic

Missile Defence

Lt General (Retd)

V.K. Saxena

93

6 India’s

Satellite Capability

Lt General (Retd)

97

Naresh Chand   |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  29


Cont e n t s 3 BUSINESS 101 1 Rebuilding the Indian Army Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

101

2

Modernisation of the Indian Navy Commodore (Retd) Sujeet Samaddar

105

3

Modernising the Indian Air Force Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia

109

4

Defence Policies & Procedures Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

113

5

Defence Procurement Procedure 2011 Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

117

6

Defence Budget 2011-12 Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

123

7 Strategic & Business Environment Sanjay Kumar

Global Contracts

127 135

4 INDIAN DEFENCE 1 Integrated Defence Staff Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

153 153

2 The Indian Army

161

3 The Indian Navy

185

4 The Indian Air Force

211

30  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


Cont e nt s 5 Indian Coast Guard

235

6

245

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

7 Indian Defence Industry

265

8

289

Defence R&D

Homeland security 1 India’s Homeland Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

297

2 India’s Internal Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

307

focus

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CAE is a world-class training systems integrator, offering up-front training needs analysis, expert instructors, high-fidelity maintenance and aircrew training devices, and comprehensive training support services.

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11-08-23 9:06 AM

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  31


Cont e nt s 3

Maoist Insurgency Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

315

4 India’s Coastal Security Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

321

5 ASIAN WHO’S WHO

325

Afghanistan 325

Malaysia 329

Algeria 325

Myanmar 329

Australia 325

Nepal 329

Bahrain 325

North Korea

Bangladesh 326

Oman 329

Cambodia 326

Pakistan 330

People’s Republic of China 326

Philippines 330

Egypt 326

Qatar 330

Indonesia 326

Saudi Arabia

Iran 327

Singapore 331

Iraq 327

South Korea

331

Israel 327

Sri Lanka

331

Japan 327

Syria 331

Jordan 327

Taiwan 331

Kazakhstan 328

Tajikistan 332

Kuwait 328

Turkmenistan 332

Kyrgyzstan 328

United Arab Emirates

Laos 328

Uzbekistan 332

Lebanon 328

Vietnam 332

Libya 328

Yemen 332

32  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

329

330

332


Cont e nt s 6 REGIONAL BALANCE

333

1

GDP & Military Expenditure

333

2

Central & South Asia

337

Kazakhstan 340

Bangladesh 351

Kyrgyzstan 342

Bhutan 353

Tajikistan 343

India 355

Turkmenistan 345

Nepal 358

Uzbekistan 347

Pakistan 360

Afghanistan 349

Sri Lanka

363

3 East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia Australia 368

Malaysia 387

Cambodia 370

Myanmar (Formerly Burma)

China 372

4

365

389

Indonesia 376

Philippines 391

Japan 378

Singapore 393

North Korea (Dprk) 381

Taiwan 395

South Korea (Rok) 383

Thailand 397

Laos 385

Vietnam 399

West Asia and North Africa

401

Algeria 404

Iraq 414

Egypt 406

Israel 416

Libya 408

Jordan 418

Bahrain 410

Kuwait 420

Iran 412

Lebanon 422

34  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


Cont e nt s Sultanate of Oman

424

Syria 429

Qatar 426

United Arab Emirates

431

Saudi Arabia

Republic of Yemen

433

427

5 Security in the Asia-Pacific Region  Sanjay Kumar

435

6 Equipment & Hardware Specifications

441

Army Equipment

441

Naval Equipment

463

Air Equipment

479

Always Up-Front

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• ISR & Combat Aircraft Upgrades • Avionics Suits for MALE/HALE UAVs • System-in-a-box for

Top-Performing Defense Systems

Mini/Micro UAVs

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Data Recording & Management

• Airborne Digital Recorders & Servers • HUD Cameras • Mission Debriefing Systems Always on Target

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• FOG-based High-End EGI Solutions for Aircraft & AFVs • MEMS-based Solutions for UAVs & Guided Weapons

Always on Guard

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R Radars for Force P Protection

• Security & Anti-Terrorism Perimeter Surveillance Radars • Radars for Active Protection Systems

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  35


Cont e nt s Diagrams/Graphs

Defence Budget (Comparison)

124

Distribution of Capital Budget

125

Distribution of Revenue Budget

125

Share of Defence Services in Defence Budget 2011-12

131

Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff

154

 he outline structure of INDU as proposed by the Committee on T National Defence University

156

Diagrammatic Layout of the Army’s Chain of Command

163

Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters

165

Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters

187

Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters

214

Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters

237

Indian Coast Guard Locations

239

Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation

240

 ummary of the output of the defence industry, including ordnance factories S and DPSUs, during the previous three years (up to November 2009)

266

Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production (DDP)

267

Organisation Structure of OFB

268

External Functional Linkages (OFB comes under Department of Defence Production)

268

Performance Summary of DPSUs (up to 2009-10)

271

Values of stores assured by DGQA (in `crore) 287 DRDO: Ministry of Defence

290

Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation

291

Organisation of Ministry of Home Affairs

298

Organisational Command & Control of Central Police Forces

306

36  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


Cont e nt s Abbreviations & index

490

Advertiser Index AIRBUS MILITARY

www.airbusmilitary.com

22 & 23

ALENIA AERONAUTICA

www.alenia-aeronautica.it

Business Section Separator

ASHOK LEYLAND

www.defence.ashokleyland.com

15

BEML

www.bemlindia.com

26

BHARAT ELECTRONICS

www.bel-india.com

20

BOMBARDIER

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234 - Indian Defence Section

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  37


Cont e nt s CAE

www.cae.com

31

DASSAULT AVIATION

www.dassault-aviation.com

Back Cover

DIEHL Defence

www.diehl.com

132

DRS TECHNOLOGIES

www.drs.com

Book Mark

ELBIT SYSTEMS

www.elbitsystems.com

21

EMBRAER

www.embraer.com

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles Section Separator

ERICSSON

www.ericsson.com

16

EUROCOPTER

www.eurocopter.com

Concepts & Perspectives Section Separator

FFV ORDNANCE

www.saabgroup.com

Technology Section Separator

FINMECCANICA

www.finmeccanica.it

Front Cover

GENERAL DYNAMICS CANADA

www.gdcanada.com

Indian Defence Section Separator

G-NIUS

www.g-nius.co.il

39

GRSE

www.grse.nic.in

12

HAL

www.hal-india.com

19

HDW

www.hdw.de

Book Mark

IAI

www.iai.co.il

13

IMAGESAT

www.imagesatintl.com

33

ITT

www.ittdefenceindia.com

172 - Indian Defence Section

LOCKHEED MARTIN

www.lockheedmartin.com/c130j

Contents Section Separator

MAZAGON DOCK

www.mazagondock.gov.in

192 - Indian Defence Section

MBDA

www.mbda-systems.com

9

MEPROLIGHT

www.meprolight.com

37

NAVANTIA

www.navantia.es

25

NEXTER SYSTEMS

www.nexter-group.fr

27

NORTHROP GRUMMAN AS

www.northropgrumman.com/isr

4

NORTHROP GRUMMAN ES

www.northropgrumman.com/globalsecurity

Asian Who's Who Section Separator

NOVA INTEGRATED SYSTEMS

-

28

OTO MELARA

www.otomelara.it

29

PILATUS

www.pilatus-aircraft.com

2

PIPAVAV SHIPYARD

www.pipavavshipyard.com/

18

38  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


Cont e n t s PRATT & WHITNEY

www.pw.utc.com

210 - Indian Defence Section

RADA

www.rada.com

35

RAFAEL

www.rafael.co.il

17

RAYTHEON

www.raytheon.com

1

RUBIN

www.ckb-rubin.ru

10

SAGEM

www.sagem-ds.com

11

SAMTEL

www.samteldisplays.com

14

SELEX GALILEO

www.selexgalileo.com

6

TATA MOTORS

www.defencesolutions-tatamotors.com

24 & 40

TEXTRON SYSTEMS

www.textronsystems.in

Book Mark

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  39


40  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


2011 2012

40th IssuE

Editorial

I

t gives me great pleasure and immense satisfaction to present the 40th edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 to our esteemed readers. As we draw closer to the Golden Jubilee Year (2014) of our company, we wish to assure our readers of our constant endeavour and commitment to improve the depth and richness of content and the referential nature of our data. Indeed, this has been our mantra since the first SP’s Military Yearbook—a brainchild of late Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal—was published way back in 1965. It came in for high praise from the then Indian Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri, and soon became a byword for excellence in defence reference among the armed forces. The following paragraphs give an overview of global events that impact the Asia-Pacific region in general, and South Asia in particular, along with the military dimension of the resulting security situation. The "arc of instability" stretching from the Middle East to South Asia and China has received the most attention.

SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-2010 being presented to Defence Minister A.K. Antony

Politico-Economic Situation As we look at the world at the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century, the overall geostrategic outlook is hardly encouraging. The year 2011 has been marked by social, economic and political upheavals. Stock markets the world over have been on the downslide once again, weighed down by fears that the global economy is heading for a double-dip recession. Watching the

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  41


The cover of Military Yearbook 1965

global economy teetering on the brink of yet another recession, analysts have slashed optimistic growth forecasts made in the recent past. The US and Europe are struggling to contain their debt crises with the inevitable political repercussions. The overall decline of the West and 'the rise of the rest' increasingly shape the international political discourse. Analysts around the world predict the dawn of a new world order led by the non-Western giants such as China, India and Brazil, and wonder about the character of that new order. At this time, the Asian region is plunged into the throes of political transformation driven by peoples’ movements. Called ‘the Arab Spring’, a revolutionary wave of protests is rocking the Arab world. West Asia (Middle East) particularly where most states are monarchies, sheikhdoms, or single-party dictatorships, is rocked by violent convulsions. The Israel-Palestine struggle, the Iraq war and insurgency, and fragrance from the Jasmine Revolution that overthrew Tunisia’s President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali, are spreading over the larger West Asia-North Africa region. Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Libya are experiencing mass uprisings. The upsurge in Egypt ended Hosni Mubarak’s 30-year oppressive rule in February 2011. Syria's quest for popular empowerment has now entered critical mass: multiplication of protests and fatalities with the risk of escalation is posing a major obstacle to re-negotiating a genuine social contract between the state and the society. As regards Libya, fighting continues around Muammar Gaddafi's compound in Tripoli, and it seems time is running out for the regime. Most people in the Arab League’s 22 countries share the Tunisians’ and Egyptians’ dislike of corrupt dictatorial regimes, which do not provide basic public amenities/services, relieve food shortages, or deal with high prices. The Arab states have not done well either, and the upsurge may engulf them as well. Anger and frustration are deep and widespread, as is the lack of freedom. China has emerged as a major player on the global economic scene. Despite its rapid economic growth, however, the disparity between urban China and the rural hinterland is among the widest in the world. In recent years, there has been large-scale migration of the impoverished rural population to the more prosperous parts of the country on the East Coast where the cities have gone through an unprecedented boom in construction activity. Social discontent also manifests itself in protests by farmers and workers. Tens of thousands of people travel to Beijing each year to petition the authorities and seek redress for land grab and eviction. Other pressing problems include corruption, which has pervaded every segment of society, and the burgeoning rate of HIV infection. Also, devastated by widespread environmental degradation, China is now home to many of the world's most-polluted cities: a clear downside of the economic boom.

Military Dimension of Security In the first decade of the 21st century, military force has been the dominant element in statecraft in different parts of the world. Iraq, Afghanistan, the Korean peninsula, Georgia and the Israeli offensives in the Middle East have demonstrated that states continue to rely on military power to retain control. France and the UK have used military capabilities to secure their interests and safeguard their citizens in Africa. The totalitarian regimes in the Middle East have employed military forces to perpetuate dictatorships. Equally, the use of force by some major powers against the Gaddafi regime in Libya is demonstrative of the use of coercive power. China’s use of military force in maintaining order in Tibet and Zhinjiang, and its constant threat against Taiwan, add to this list of examples. The Bush Doctrine of pre-emptive use of force against perceived threats from terrorists had widened the scope of the employment of military force as part of statecraft. Therefore, some analysts believe that little has changed after the Cold War since the core geostrategic interests of major powers have not changed. If anything, the shift from geostrategic to geo-economic core interests have only accentuated the tendency to use military force in managing international relations.

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S n e c m a

T h a l e s

PEMA 2M - Crédit photos : K. Tokunaga - Dassault Aviation - Getty images

A v i a t i o n

res du roce N & P rity ITIO es ecu sert ED lici l S In IS Po rna al TH nt te eci IN reme ia’s In - Sp cu d nce Pro n In re ce s o Refe fen cu ts’ De • Fo Even •

D a s s a u l t

The Af-Pak region continues to be characterised by the political vacuum in the region. The umbilical link between Afghanistan and Pakistan is highlighted by the Af-Pak policy of the US. The Taliban, Al-Qaeda and several other terrorist organisations continue to operate with a fair amount of impunity in, and from, the territory of Pakistan. The recent killing of Osama bin Laden by US Special Forces in Abbottabad in Pakistan is a case in point. The Taliban-led insurgency in Afghanistan has What will protect India st century? in the 21parts shown no signs of abatement, with a significant rise of violence in the southern of the country. The year 2011 has been the deadliest for foreign military troops since the US invasion in 2001. The death toll of the coalition troops is 2,686, according to Operation Enduring Freedom data. The violence and the threat of violence through terrorist activities in this region have significantly heightened the feeling of insecurity in South, Central, and West Asia and China. China considers rapid defence modernisation a logical priority in the backdrop when it states, “Taiwan independence separatist force and its activities are still the biggest obstacle and threat to the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations. Separatist forces working for the independence of East Turkistan and Tibet have inflicted serious damage on national security and social stability.” China’s growing military might is reflected in its latest White Paper, China’s National Defense 2010, released in March 2011. China has categorically referred to the ground troops as “the People's Liberation Army (PLA).” This underlines the ongoing transformation of the PLA. China has stressed upon the strategic requirements of mobile operations and tri-dimensional offence and defence strategies to regional defence and transregional mobility. In further advancement of the overall transformation of the service, the PLA has invested in reform, innovation, and development. According to the White Paper, the PLA places emphasis upon the development of new types of combat forces, optimising its organisation and structure, strengthening military training in an information-based society, accelerating digitisation, upgrading and retrofitting of main battle weaponry, and deploying new types of weapon platforms, significantly boosting their capabilities in long-distance manoeuvres and integrated assaults. China’s present strategy vis-à-vis India, with whom it has a major unresolved boundary dispute, remains an indirect one, using Pakistan and increasingly other regional countries, to create strategic uncertainties for India with a view to divert attention from the growing military imbalance with China. Another major plank of strategy is to deter and discourage Indian military cooperation with western powers and countries in East Asia or the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Pakistan, having earlier encouraged, trained and funded terrorist groups, including the Taliban, is now plagued by terrorism, insurgency and sectarian violence within its own territory. The country is passing through an unprecedented political, economic and social crisis exacerbated by the devastating floods in July-August 2010. Islamic radical elements continue to pose a threat to stability in Pakistan. It seems that their institutions of governance, and particularly the army, are coming under the sway of Taliban ideology. Pakistan’s reluctance in undertaking military operations in North Waziristan to avoid antagonising militant leaders there is in consonance with their strategy and core interests. Pakistan also remains ambivalent on dealing with militant groups in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK), and particularly the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT). It has still not taken any credible action against the terrorists involved in the attack on Mumbai on November 26, 2008. India’s military capabilities have been a stabilising element in the South Asian region. This defence capability can be utilised in a wide range of security contingencies in the region. The rapidly changing military technology thresholds demand a modern defence capacity. Indian military forces are, therefore, gearing up for a major modernisation drive. The size of the Indian

2011 2012

Towards a safer India.

40TH ISSUE

SP's MYB Cover 2011-2012 final.indd 1

40TH ISSUE

2011 2012

Price: Inland Rs 4,995; Foreign (Surface Mail): Stg. £ 395.00; US$ 700.00

Editor-in-Chief

In matter of national defence, there can be no substitute for complete trust in the source, no compromise on the reliability and the availability of the aircraft and its technologies. For over half a century, we have proudly been supporting India’s air defence mission. Today, we look forward to keeping the privilege of serving India, for the next 50 years, with the world’s most advanced latest generation aircraft, Rafale. The OMNIROLE fighter

RAF_inde_221X276_SMY_uk.indd 1

Jayant Baranwal 05/07/11 12.59

24/

10/06/11 15:52:09

The cover of the current edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-2012

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Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP's Military Yearbook 2011-2012 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP's team of experts: Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay

armed forces also offers a very significant market for the global aerospace and defence majors. Unfortunately, India’s military modernisation programme lacks clear focus. Defined priorities and stipulated time frames are generally not adhered to.

A Glimpse of Contemporary Events This issue of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 contains contemporary subjects of interest for our readers. The chapter on Concepts and Perspectives has a wide variety of articles covering India’s strategic partnership with the US and Russia, recalibration of its “Look East” policy, and a host of operational, tactical and organisational issues, including a glimpse into India’s capability to fight a two-front war. The chapter on Technology contains articles on modern battle tanks, ballistic missile defence, India’s satellite capability, future of UAVs in the Indian Air force, C4I2SR and unmanned underwater vehicles. The chapter on Business gives an up-to-date account of the modernisation of the three services, apart from a critical insight into the inadequacies of our procurement and production processes. In this issue, we introduce a new section covering India’s Strategic and Business Environment, which briefly explains to an entrepreneur the defence business environment, and the challenges and opportunities in India. The chapter on India’s Homeland Security, apart from a glimpse of the ingredients of homeland security in India, focuses on the reforms carried out in this area in recent times. We can assure our readers that the contents of SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 are unmatched in their quality, richness of thought, depth of analysis, vision and data. It is a comprehensive tome of well-researched articles, business information and strategic insights. Clarifications: Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2011-2012. Despite this, it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases.  Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government, including the Ministry of Defence. Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable.

Jayant Baranwal

Editor-in-Chief

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES ASIAN WHO’S WHO REGIONAL BALANCE

Airbus Military Alenia Aeronautica Almaz-Antey Ashok Leyland Avrora BEML Bharat Electronics CAE Dassault Defence Land Systems DRS Technologies Elbit Systems Embraer Eurocopter FFV Ordnance G-NUIS GD Canada GRSE Hindustan Aeronautics ImageSat Israel Aerospace Industries ITT Defence Lockheed Martin MAZAGON DOCK MBDA Meprolight Navantia NEXTER SYSTEMS Northrop Grumman NOVA Integrated Systems Oto melara Pipavav Shipyard Pratt & Whitney RADA Rafael Raytheon Rosoboronexport Rubin SAGEM Samtel Display Systems SELEX Galileo Tata Motors Thales

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

TECHNOLOGY

special colour feature


CONTENTS ITT Defence

90

Concept

Alenia Aeronautica

49

Lockheed Martin

92

Almaz-Antey

51

MBDA

94

Ashok Leyland

53

Mazagon Dock

95

Avrora

55

Meprolight

97

Bharat Electronics

57

Navantia

98

BEML

60

Nexter Systems

100

CAE

61

Northrop Grumman

102

Jayant Baranwal SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi, India

Credits Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents.

Dassault Aviation

63

NOVA Integrated Systems

104

Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

Defence Land Systems

65

Oto Melara

106

SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD

Diehl Defence

67

Pipavav Shipyard

107

Contact Address: Corporate Office A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Phones : +91 11 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax : +91 11 24647093

DRS Technologies

69

Pratt & Whitney

109

Elbit Systems

71

RADA

110

Embraer

73

Rafael

111

Eurocopter

76

Raytheon

113

E-Mail : info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, order@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@del2.vsnl.net.in

FFV Ordnance

78

Rosoboronexport

115

GRSE

80

Rubin

118

GD Canada

81

Sagem

121

G-Nius

83

Samtel Display Systems

122

Hindustan Aeronautics

84

Selex Galileo

123

Israel Aerospace Industries

86

Tata Motors

126

ImageSat

88

Thales

127

Website: www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  45

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

46

TECHNOLOGY

Airbus Military

BUSINESS

The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Co n t en t s

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial activity. Making copies in any form, electronic or otherwise, of the information in full or any portion thereof for purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law.

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Publications

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

W E A P O N S, E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I CLE S

Copyright © 2011 by


Airbus Military Strapline here

A

irbus Military is the only military and civic/humanitarian transport aircraft manufacturer to develop, produce, sell and support a comprehensive family of airlifters ranging from three to 45 tonnes of payload. An Airbus daughter company, Airbus Military is responsible for the A400M programme, as well as the Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) A330 and for further military derivatives based on Airbus civil aircraft. Together with the smaller “Light & Medium” C295, CN235 and C212, Airbus Military is the global leader in the market for military transport, tanker and surveillance aircraft able to perform the most varied missions. Altogether, Airbus Military has sold more than 1,000 aircraft to some 130 military, civilian and governmental customers. More than 800 of these aircraft have been delivered. Headquartered in Madrid (Spain), the company’s facilities are essentially based in Spain. Its

main sites are Getafe, where the civil Airbus platforms are converted into Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft, and Seville, where the San Pablo factory, south of the airport, hosts the A400M Final Assembly Line opened in 2007, as well as the complete production and final assembly of the C212, CN235 and C295. Airbus Military was formally created in April 2009, following the integration of the former Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTAD) and of Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada (AMSL) into Airbus. This integration allows for a single and streamlined organisation. In total, Airbus Military, which has its own P&L accounting, counts more than 5,000 employees.

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  The advanced integrated avionics system of the C295 with multifunctional displays provides improved situational awareness and flight safety, lower pilot workload and enhanced mission effectiveness

Airbus Military builds on the experience developed by the former Construcciones Aeronauticas Sociedad Anonima (CASA), which became part of EADS, as MTAD, in 2000. Over the years, CASA was founded in 1923, and had specialised in the development, construction, certification and support of small military transport aircraft, while playing a leading role in the militarization of civil Airbus platforms. It is also fully in charge of the development of the all new 21st Century tactical and logistical Airlifter, the A400M. Having sold more than 1,000 of these aircraft to 130 customers, Airbus Military is well established on the world market with products

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CONTENTS ATR is an equal joint venture between Alenia Aeronautica and EADS, based in Toulouse in the South of France. The two aircraft produced by the consortium, the ATR 42 and the ATR 72, share the same fuselage section, basic systems and cockpit. The aircraft are a reliable, efficient and economical transport solution for short range routes all over the world, due to a high operational standard and a very high comfort inside the cabin.

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

  C-27J is the only true modern tactical twine engine airlifter available today on   the market

REGIONAL BALANCE

in the development and production of trainer aircraft and related ground support services. Alenia Aermacchi’s M-346 is today the only aircraft designed to meet the training needs of pilots of new generation combat aircraft. Through its joint ventures ATR and SuperJet International, Alenia Aeronautica is the world leader in the regional turboprop market and a top player in the market for regional jets.

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

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he aeronautics sector of Finmeccanica is led by Alenia Aeronautica and includes the wholly owned companies Alenia Aermacchi and Alenia North America, together with its participation in jvs and consortia like ATR, SuperJet International, Eurofighter and GMAS. It has a role of primary importance in the world’s civil and defence aeronautical industry and it counts a total workforce of ca. 12,600 people and operates in the design, development, production and integrated support of commercial and military aircraft, integrated training systems, unmanned aerial vehicles and aerostructures. In 2010 it reported revenues of ¤2.8 billions, orders of ¤2.5 billions and a backlog of ¤8.6 billions. Giuseppe Giordo is the Chief Executive Officer of Alenia Aeronautica and the Responsible of Finmeccanica’s aeronautics sector. Alenia Aeronautica owns Alenia Aermacchi, the world leader

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Finmeccanica’s Aeronautics Sector

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Alenia Aeronautica


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS of the aerial-space defense of the Russian Federation. Concern has a wide export potential with an existing portfolio around USD 6 bln. The AlmazAntey- made ADS have been oper-

  Vladislav V. Mentschikov,   Almaz-Antey Concern General Director

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INDIAN DEFENCE

ated by over 50 nations in SouthEast Asia, Middle East, Europe, Africa and Latin America. The list of defense equipment being offered for export by Almaz-Antey includes the following items: n long-range air defense systems S-300 PMU2 Favorit, S-400 Triumph and S-300VM (Antey2500); n medium-range air defense systems: Buk-M1-2, Buk-M2E; Pechora-2A; n short-range air defense missile systems Tor-M1, Tor-M2E; n automated control systems Senezh-M1E, Rubezh-ME, Baikal-1ME, PPRU-M; n air defense radar stations 96L6E, 6C19M2, 9C15MV3, Gamma-DE, Gamma-C1E, Kasta-2E2; n ground reconnaissance radar stations Zoopark-1, Credo-1, Fara-1, meteorology system Ulybka;

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

lmaz-Antey Air Defense Concern was created in 2002 and has nowadays unite over 60 enterprises to become one of the Russia’s leading defense companies – the world’s major supplier of the Russia’s air defense systems. According to the Top-100 annual rating of the US-based Defense News Weekly the Concern’s place is among 30 world’s largest defense companies. One of the latest Concern developments is S-400 Triumph long-range new generation ADS which became operational in August, 2007. This system will become the major weaponry for the Russia’s aerospace defense concept. Nowadays Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern is involved in the development of the future common system of anti-aircraft and anti-missile weapons of the 5-th generation and in the implementation of the Concept

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BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Russia’s answer for secure skies

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Almaz-Antey


CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY

Strapline here

strong fleet and this has become the veritable back bone of logistics operations making Ashok Leyland the largest supplier of logistics vehicles to the Indian Army. The Company took the onus of providing manufacturing know-how by entering into a transfer of technology agreement with the Ordnance Factory Board under Ministry of Defence, Government of India, and has continuously supported it with product improvements, value addi-

indigenously developed ‘N’-series engine, developing 265 kW @ 2200 rpm and 1400 Nm torque at 1300-1500 rpm, the Field Artillery Truck (FAT) has matching automotive drivelines to meet the tough operating conditions.

tions, warranty support, product upgrades and future interactions / tie-ups for other range of vehicles. In addition, over 1500 Light Recovery Vehicles and 600+ Truck Fire Fighting, over 250 Field Artillery Tractors and 1500+ 5KL Water Bowsers, chassis for aircraft refuellers, mechanical runway sweepers and UAVs have joined the services. Ashok Leyland has been providing robust after market engineering support to the field army by conducting

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  Powered by

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

A

shok Leyland, the flagship company of the Hinduja Group and Technology leaders in the Indian Commercial Vehicle industry are pioneers in the design, development and manufacture of special vehicles for the Armed Forces. Ashok Leyland vehicles have been serving the Armed Forces for over last 4 decades in variety of applications i.e., GS role, torpedo carriers, carrying heavy earthmoving machinery, mounting sophisticated electronic communication equipments i.e., radars, UAVs, indigenously developed Crash Fire Tenders for civil and defence air fields. This apart, over 13,000 diesel engines deployed for vital roles as prime movers for cranes, AC, DC generators, compressors etc. The development of the futuristic ‘Stallion 4x4’ has greatly contributed to the modernization of the logistics of the Indian Army. Following this, Ashok Leyland’s Stallion 4x4 has grown to a 58,000

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ASHOK LEYLAND


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

cooperation and in respect of quality of partnership that has been established. During the last 30 years over 80 control systems for technical facilities of various types and purposes, as well as trainers, have been supplied to India. The articles developed by the enterprise, which belonged to the first generation control systems, were supplied to the Indian Navy in early 1970s as part of the equipment of 641 Project submarines. Main propulsion plant control systems and those of auxiliary engines, as well as auxiliary control systems, power generation and conversion control systems, system for motion, maneuvering and stabilization control for submarines and surface ships – these are only several examples of the broad nomenclature of the equipment supplied to the Indian market. The most interesting and significant projects implemented in 19801990s, which covered the development and supply of the technical facil-

  Director General of the Concern   Mr. K.Y. Shilov welcomes high ranking delegation from India at Defexpo India

ities control systems for the Indian Navy, were the projects for outfitting of 877EKM Project submarines. The next generation of technical facilities control systems developed for the Indian Customer became the technical facilities control systems for the Talwar type frigates and for the modernized 877EKM Project. These were the first systems to implement extensively the digital control principles. At present, the Concern is executing the orders

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

arch 18th, 2010, was the 40th anniversary of the establishment of Concern Avrora Scientific and Production Association – the largest designer and supplier of maritime monitoring and control systems in the Russian Federation. In this period the enterprise has taken the leading positions in building the control systems for the technical facilities of ships and submarines of all classes for the Russian and for the foreign Naval Forces. The Concern has been successfully implementing its business targets in close cooperation with the leading enterprises, such as CDB ME Rubin, Severnoye Design Bureau, Nevskoye Design Bureau, Central Marine Design Bureau Almaz, Academician Krylov Central Research Institute, the research institutes of the Russian Navy etc. Among the foreign partners of the Concern a special place has been occupied by India both in respect of quantitative indices of

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TECHNOLOGY

Concern Avrora Scientific and Production Association JSC is the world leader in automated control systems of ship technical facilities

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Avrora


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS tigious Akash surface-to-air-missile project for the Indian Air Force (IAF). BEL is executing the project through the consortium approach and will deliver the first squadron of Akash to the IAF by June 2011. Coastal Surveillance Systems: The 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks have turned the spotlight on the importance of coastal surveillance. Rising to the occasion, BEL has developed a state-of-the-art coastal surveillance system to aid the Indian Navy and Coast Guard in securing the country’s vast coastline. BEL designed the system, selected the technology and erected the systems along the coast. The company developed the software for the system at its Central Research Laboratory. The software presents a Comprehensive Operational Picture (COP) generated

System

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INDIAN DEFENCE

  Akash Weapon

from distributed and networked sensors/systems on an underlay electronic chart. It associates real-time data with the stored database for decision support activities. It also generates alerts on unsafe and anomalous vessel movement and intrusion. The software has recording and replay facility for debriefing purpose. It has a system health monitoring module to ensure effective operational readiness and high availability. Yet another important project which BEL is executing is the Weapon Locating Radar (WLR). Besides this, the company has also worked on upgrading the Schilka self-propelled, anti-aircraft weapon system. BEL is also working on strategic areas of Tactical Communication Systems, Battlefield Management System, Command Information Decision Support System, Future Infantry Soldier System and High Data Rate Multi-band Software Defined Radio. BEL ended the year 2010-11 on a high, clocking a sales turnover of

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

here are a handful of public sector undertakings in India, which have created an exceptional record for themselves and earned the coveted “Navratna” status. Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) is one of them. The Bangalore-headquartered company, which has its manufacturing network spread over 9 Units located across the country, has made significant contributions to meet India’s defence electronics needs by designing, manufacturing and providing product support for state-of-the-art Military Communication systems, Radars, Naval Systems, C4I Systems, Weapon Systems, Homeland Security, Electronic Warfare Systems, Tank Electronics, Electro Optics and Professional Electronic Components. For the last few years, India’s defence forces have been in the process of modernising their infrastructure and equipment. BEL has been proactively participating in this modernisation drive. The company is the lead integrator for the pres-

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Empowering the nation’s defence forces

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Bharat Electronics


BEML Making a Mark in the Future of Engineering

B

EML Limited, is a leading multi-technology and multi-location Mini Ratna Category-I company under the Ministry of Defence, offering high-quality products for diverse sectors of economy such as coal, mining, steel, limestone, power, irrigation, construction, road building, aviation, defence, metro and railways. BEML has restructured its operations under three distinct Business Groups viz., Mining & Construction, Defence and Rail & Metro. It has formed Strategic Business Units and Product Groups following the concept of ‘Business within Business’. The company has warehousing facilities at Malaysia. An overseas office has been established in China for outsourcing. Besides, local company viz., PT BEML Indonesia has been established in Indonesia to capture the emerging market. . Over the years, BEML has demonstrated its engineering strengths and technical prowess by harnessing sophisticated technologies and

erecting giant equipment like the multi-crore walking draglines and electric rope shovels for the coal sector. With a commitment to market driven R&D, BEML has rolled out over 30 value-added products. Being India’s leading defence equipment manufacturer, BEML keeps the Indian Army and other defence forces abreast with stateof-the-art military equipment. The company is manufacturing variants of Tatra vehicle for all terrain operations including Bridge Layer, Field Artillery Tractor, Medium & Heavy Recovery Vehicle, Pontoon Mainstream Bridge Systems, Crash Fire Tenders, Mobile Mast Vehicle. BEML also supplies Engineering Mine Ploughs, Tank Transportation Trailers, Weapon Loading equipment, Armoured Recovery Vehicle,

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  Tatra havy recovery vehicle

Milrail Coaches and Wagons apart from Aircraft Weapon Loading Trolley, Aircraft Towing Tractor and Radar Carrying Vehicle. Two new product variants developed by BEML’s strong technology development team include Combat Post Vehicle and BEML Tatra Driving Simulator to cater for the growing needs of armed forces. BEML plays a major role in the country’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Project by supplying Ground Support Vehicles. The company has also created world-class Test Track at its KGF Complex to test defence equipment and vehicles. BEML has launched Aerospace Manufacturing Division to produce and supply of Ground Handling Equipment Toolings and Components for Aerospace Applications. Though the Division functions from Mysore Complex, with the signing of MoU with Govt of Karnataka to set up an exclusive Aerospace Manufacturing Complex at the SEZ area near Bangalore International Airport, this Division will be housed at Bangalore shortly.  n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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number of global militaries, the CDB is an open architecture database specification that allows the creation of a standardized, persistent, rapidly updatable synthetic environment. Because the CDB can be updated very quickly, it supports mission planning and mission rehearsal requirements. A database that conforms to the CDB specification contains datasets that represent the features of the virtual world, also called the synthetic environment that you are trying to

  CAE has initiated an internal research and development project aimed at developing the foundation for a persistent and dynamic synthetic environment, which would represent a fundamental paradigm shift in the use of simulation. Shown here is a synthetic image of Sira Island in Yemen “after” a dynamic event – in this case a bomb explosion. This dynamic event would trigger a database update in real-time that then persists to all users of the synthetic environment.

create. The implementation of a CDB significantly enhances interoperable training and mission rehearsal capabilities, while reducing development time, configuration control and associated database development costs. One of the main objectives of the CDB is to ensure unity and correlation between the various simulation subsystems, while improving database maintainability. A key benefit is the elimination of all source-level correlation errors. There are multiple benefits to using the CDB, but they all directly result in the capability to use simulation for mission preparation and rehearsal because the mission rehearsal timeline is greatly reduced. Military simulation and mission rehearsal end-users have also long desired and recognized the need for the synthetic environment database elements to “change” in real-time. Weapons make holes and craters, combat engineers move the terrain and buildings, weather has a dramatic effect on the environment

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ost know simulation offers a range of compelling benefits for training, including significant cost advantages, saving wear and tear on weapon systems, and addressing environmental impacts. New technologies and capabilities, however, are helping move simulation beyond traditional training to mission rehearsal, and in the future support persistent and dynamic synthetic environments. CAE, one of the world leaders in simulation, has pioneered a range of developments to support the increased use of simulation for both training and mission rehearsal. One of these developments is called the common database, or CDB. The CDB is a non-proprietary, standard database that defines a single synthetic representation of the world, and all simulation systems use the same database. Originally developed for the United States Special Operations Command and now being implemented by a

REGIONAL BALANCE

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BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

New simulation technologies support better prepared and mission ready military forces

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

CAE


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES variant, which features dual-mode (laser/GPS/INS) guidance, has been successfully tested in 2010. It allows fixed and fast-moving targets to be engaged with man-in-the-loop control in the most dynamic scenarios. A total of 3,400 AASM are on order for the French Armed Forces. GBU-24 LGB is also becoming available on Rafale, with either blast/fragmentation or penetrating warhead in the 1,000 kg class. With Damocles targeting pod, Rafale is fully capable of self-designating targets for precision strikes. It is designed to identify and pinpoint targets at extended range, by day or night. Damocles is fully operational

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

  A French Air Force RAFALE in configuration: 2 x SCALP stand-off cruise missiles + 4 x MICA (2 EM + 2 IR) + 3 x 2000 litres drop tanks

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AASM can be equipped with GPS/ INS guidance kit or infrared imaging seeker. It is fitted with a range extension kit that allows targets to be attacked at distances exceeding 50 km. The angle of impact can be selected (oblique or vertical) in order to maximise the amount of damages. Rafale can carry up to six AASMs under-wings and six widely separated targets can be engaged by day or night in a single attack run. New versions of AASM are currently being developed, with various warheads, from 250 to 1,000 kg. The 250 kg variant has proved its worth in situations where collateral damages must be avoided at all costs. Latest AASM

REGIONAL BALANCE

RAFALE : The Powerful Punch One of the key advantages of Rafale is its ability to instantly switch between air-to-air and air-to-ground missions. Such is the versatility of the “omnirole” fighter that it could carry out a precision strike and then shift to interception or combat air patrol during the very same sortie. For ground/surface attack missions, Rafale can carry laser-guided bombs, Modular Air-to-Surface precision weapons (AASM), Scalp cruise missiles, and Exocet antiship missiles. Scalp and Exocet are precision stand-off weapons which can hit high value targets, deep behind multiple lines of layered defences. Those heavily defended targets are the linchpin of the opponent’s defensive system, and putting them out of action is often the decisive step which turns the war around. Rafale’s ability to deliver these missiles with a variety of attack profiles covering all situations, makes it the commander’s preferred “game-changer”. Among the most innovative weapons ever designed for a fighter,

Photograph: Dassault Aviation - Alex Paringaux

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dassault


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Defence Land Systems

D

armoured vehicle

DLSI is currently one of the leaders in armouring of light vehicles in India. The company has supplied more than 1000 bullet resistant light vehicles to the Army, Para Military Forces and Central and State Police Forces. These vehicles have repeatedly proven itself in combat during anti terrorists / anti Naxal operations, saving precious lives of our gallant soldiers and policemen.

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FICV Project M&M is one of the four selected bidders for the Indian Army’s prestigious Futuristic Infantry Combat

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information technology solutions and customer support services. DLSI is focused on the manufacture of Up-Armoured Light Vehicles, High Mobility Vehicles, Mine Protected Vehicles, Infantry Combat Vehicles (ICV), Artillery Systems and other selected land system weapons and their upgrades. The company intends to become a national centre of excellence for design, development, manufacture, final assembly, integration and test of Infantry Combat Vehicles and Artillery Systems in support of the Indian Army’s modernisation and upgrade programs.

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BAE Systems BAE Systems is the premier global defence, security and aerospace company delivering a full range of products and services for air, land and naval forces, as well as advanced electronics, security,

  Marksman light

REGIONAL BALANCE

Mahindra & Mahindra Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd (M&M), is a US $ 11.3 billion Indian multinational with leadership position in utility vehicles, tractors and information technology and a significant presence in defence, infrastructure development and logistics.

BUSINESS

efence Land Systems India Pvt Ltd (DLSI) is a 74% - 26% joint venture between Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd, India and BAE Systems plc. Defence Land Systems India is headquartered in New Delhi with manufacturing based at a purpose built Special Military Vehicle (SMV) facility south of Faridabad, just outside of Delhi.


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Diehl BGT Defence Diehl BGT Defence plays a leading role in important European guided missile programs. The company is prime contractor of the new European air-to-air guided missile IRIS-T, which is being procured by the German, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Austrian , Swedish and Spanish Air Forces as armament for their combat aircraft. The secondary missile IRIS-T SL, selected by the German Airforce and the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement for the tactical air-defense system MEADS, is an upgraded version of IRIS-T. A decision in favour of IRIS-T SL secures missile expertise in Germany and offers export pros-

IRIS-T: Air Superiority for Combat Aircraft IRIS-T (InfraRed Imaging SystemTail/Thrust Vector Controlled) is one of the most advanced air-toair guided missiles worldwide. The new development has been replacing the Sidewinder air-to-air

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BUSINESS

pects in the IRIS-T partner nations. Apart from IRIS-T and IRIS-T SL, the product range in the capability category operational effectiveness comprises the anti-ship missile RBS 15 for the new corvette 130, the RAM system for self-defence of navy vessels, the precision-guided missile PARS 3LR for the TIGER support helicopter, the missile family Eurospike, the new-generation missile LFK NG for army air defence as well as the guided artillery rocket GMLRS. The joint venture Diehl Raytheon Missile Systeme, Überlingen, is responsible for modernization and marketing of the air-to-air guided missiles Sidewinder AIM-9L/M.

INDIAN DEFENCE

independence in terms of critical key components. Long-term strategic partnerships with multinational partners strengthen the system and equipment capabilities of Diehl Defence, simultaneously providing access to global markets.

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iehl Defence is a corporate division of the Nürnbergbased Diehl Group, concentrating all business activities in the fields of defence and security as a holding company. As a competent partner of international armed forces, the corporate division is in overall charge of and coordinates the activities of numerous subsidiaries, program and affiliated companies. The product spectrum ranges from high-precision guided missiles for army, air force and navy, intelligent ammunition solutions to innovative reconnaissance and protection systems. In the fields of equipment, repair, modernization and protection of military vehicles, Diehl Defence is also among the leading global suppliers. In-house development and production of high-performance infrared modules, fuzes and fuzing systems as well as special batteries for extreme operational conditions ensure necessary

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TECHNOLOGY

Competence in Defence and Security

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Diehl Defence


D

Scorpiontm

MRT Military Rugged Tablet

ARMOR Rugged Mobile Solutions

Rugged Laptop

technology, DRS develops, manufactures and supports a broad range of systems for mission critical and military sustainment requirements, as well as homeland security.

(HMMWV), as well as the U.S. Air Force’s special operations aircraft. DRS started out as a supplier to the U.S. Navy with its pioneering work in passive submarine detection. The new technology enabled sailors to detect and identify submarines quietly, without the noisy, telltale “pinging” of active sonar. DRS’ original, legacy system, the AN/SQR-17, is still in use today. Since those early years, DRS has grown from a small specialty electronics supplier to the highlydiversified defense technology provider it is today, with more than 10,000 employees working in

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can count on DRS to focus its resources on innovation, quality and cost effectiveness, providing a superior value. At sea, DRS products and services support the U.S. Navy’s newest ships, including littoral combat ships, destroyers, cruisers, amphibious landing craft and aircraft carriers. On the ground, DRS can be found supporting the U.S. Army’s and U.S. Marine Corps’ mine-resistant, ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles, Armored Knight Vehicles, Abrams Tanks, Bradley Fighting Vehicles, and High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles

INDIAN DEFENCE

  Focused on defense

REGIONAL BALANCE

RS Technologies, headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey, is a leading designer, manufacturer and supplier of integrated products, services and support to military forces, intelligence and homeland security agencies and prime defense contractors worldwide. Focused on defense technology, DRS develops, manufactures and supports a broad range of systems for mission critical and military sustainment requirements, as well as homeland security. Since 1968, DRS has succeeded by having the agility, technology and customer focus to respond quickly in a rapidly changing market, and has been recognized in recent years as one of the fastest growing and best managed defense technology companies in the world. DRS’ products and systems are deployed on some of the most technologically advanced platforms in the world. Customers

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS DRS Tactical Systems Facility, Melbourne, Florida

RVS-330 Rugged Vehicle System

BUSINESS

A Finmeccanica Company

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

DRS Technologies


CONTENTS INDIAN DEFENCE

  Elbit's DASH system is a mature and proven HMD system. It is a monocular, visor projected HMCS, with complete HMCS electronics, including an advanced digital electro-magnetic helmet tracker for day and night use.

three generations of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) designed for fixed and rotary wing aircraft, there is little doubt that Elbit Systems is a worldwide industry leader. The HMD business has been one of the Company’s key growth engines, with over 5,500 Elbit Systems HMDs currently deployed in four continents in over 30 countries. The DASH family of helmets is opera-

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

platform modernizations and weapon system upgrades, providing total solutions based on in-house core competencies and technologies. Elbit Systems is unique in its ability to provide complete solutions that go beyond systems and products to long-term maintenance, technical support, full integration, installation, product training, often partnering with local industries. After

REGIONAL BALANCE

Aerospace: The company has secured a specialized niche in Eastern and Western

BUSINESS

E

lbit Systems Ltd. is an international defense electronics company engaged in a wide range of programs throughout the world. The Company, which includes Elbit Systems and its subsidiaries, operates in the areas of aerospace, land and naval systems, command, control, communications, computers, intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance ("C4ISR"), unmanned aircraft systems ("UAS"), advanced electro-optics, electro-optic space systems, EW suites, airborne warning systems, ELINT systems, data links and military communications systems and radios. The Company also focuses on the upgrading of existing military platforms, developing new technologies for defense, homeland security and commercial aviation applications and providing a range of support services.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Elbit Systems Offers a Broad Range of NewGeneration Solutions and Systems for a Wide Variety of Platforms and Applications

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Elbit Systems


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Embraer

Defense and Government Market Products Embraer is recognized by the excellence of its military aircraft, both in Brazil and around the world. Approximately 30 foreign armed forces and governments also rely on Embraer products. Embraer Defense and Security In December 2010, Embraer announced the creation of

Embraer Defense and Security, an important step in consolidating the Company’s central role in the process of strengthening Brazil’s defense and security industry. “Brazil has a growing relevant role on the global geopolitical scenario and has established a long-term vision for strengthening its defense industry,” said Frederico Fleury Curado, Embraer President & CEO. “Embraer, with its technologicalindustrial capabilities and 40 years of experience in defense programs, both in Brazil and abroad, is fully committed to supporting the Brazilian Government in ensuring the advanced technological base the Country needs.” Luiz Carlos Aguiar has been appointed the President of Embraer

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INDIAN DEFENCE

  EMB AEW&C   combines highperformance Active Phased Array radar and a fast and flexible Command & Control system into the highly proven ERJ 145 regional jetliner

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partners. Asia-Pacific accounted for 22% of Embraer’s total revenues in 2010, affirming the Company’s increasing investment in the region. By the end of 2010, the Company backlog was about US$ 15.6 billion in firm orders, and its workforce comprised around 17,100 people.

REGIONAL BALANCE

mbraer (Empresa S.A.) is one of the largest aerospace companies in the world and the leader in the category of commercial jets with up to 120 seats. The Company designs, produces and sells aircraft and systems for the commercial, executive and defense markets. Embraer products are designed to provide excellent performance, while being economical to acquire and operate. Built upon a strong tradition of technical excellence and the highest level of engineering skills and customer support, Embraer has produced more than 5,000 aircraft, currently operating in more than 92 countries, during more than 40 years of existence. Headquartered in Brazil, and with offices, subsidiaries and customer service bases in Singapore, Portugal, France, China and the United States, Embraer is a customer-oriented company with a global customer base and internationally respected

BUSINESS

E


eurocopter A combat proven helicopter stands ready to answer India’s military needs – the AS550 C3 Fennec

I

ndia is today one of the world’s largest markets for defence products and services, as it embarks on a massive modernisation exercise for its huge defence establishment.

  Rainer Farid with While India’s stated requirements range from fighter jets to artillery guns, helicopters has been one of the most pressing requirements as it has been struggling with a severe

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the AS550 C3 Fennec displayed at Aero India 2011 in bengaluru

shortage of military helicopters, and most of the available ones with the armed forces are more than 20 years old. One of the biggest and most anticipated upcoming defence

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FFV Ordnance

F

FV Ordnance is, and has been for a number of years, one of the world’s leading suppliers of manportable support weapons. To reach and maintain this position requires continuous and result-focused engineering and product development. A broad development of technology as far to the forefront as possible, both technically and in time, that can be implemented into products when the situation changes and military tactical requirements arise provides the perfect relationship. FFV Ordnance has for many years developed technology within the areas of internal ballistics, external ballistics, ignition systems, and warhead effect. This is and has been FFV Ordnance’s model for success. New times result in new requirements. Within the area of weapons and ammunition, and not the least for man-portable weapon systems, users place demands for improved or different effect, increased product

safety, as well as that the weapon shall be lighter and easier to carry. In recent years, requirements on the environmental impact of the weapon systems have been highlighted. FFV Ordnance is continuously working on fulfilling these new requirements. The war on terrorism has been partly moved into built-up areas, which requires weapon systems that are light and easy to carry and that have good effect in various types of targets, and not just in armoured vehicles. But combat is also conducted outside built-up areas and in terrain that is inaccessible for vehicles, so the requirement for weapons with a long combat range and various warheads remains or is even increased.

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  Carl-Gustaf M3   is a robust, light weapon, easy to use – in both in day and night operations.

Combat in built-up areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 20 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. LAW AT4 CS HEAT is a further development of the LAW AT4 HEAT, or the M136 as it is known in the United States. LAW AT4 CS HEAT has a warhead with increased behind armour effect that is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles. The enemy not only operates from armoured vehicles, but also takes cover and operates in buildings. It is therefore a light, man-portable weapon with good effect behind walls is needed, or simply to create a new entrance into a building without jeopardizing the safety of friendly forces. AT4CS AST, where AST stands for Anti-Structure Tandem, is a new weapon in the AT4 series. The weapon, like the rest of the AT4CS series, has a liquid countermass and can be fired from rooms smaller than 25 m3.

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GRSE

T

he odyssey of GRSE began in 1884 with a vision to convert a small ship repairing unit into a premiere ship building yard, the Govt of India took over the Company on 19 April 1960 and placed it under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence. GRSE then known as GARDEN REACH WORKSHOP LTD, was the first shipyard in the independent India to build a Seaward Defence Boat (SDB) and delivered the same to the Indian Navy soon after take over. True to this vision, GRSE has now become one of the premier shipbuilding yard with seven units at Kolkata and one unit at Ranchi, dedicated for assembly and overhaul of Marine Engines. Today GRSE is holding an excellent order book position of over Rs 8000/- Cr which includes Anti Submarine Warfare Corvettes, Inshore Patrol Vessel, Offshore Patrol Vessel and Fast Attack Crafts. GRSE has also secured an export order for construction of one Offshore Patrol Vessel for republic of Mauritius. This is the first export order of Defence platform in the history of Defence Shipyards. GRSE is also negotiating with African Countries for construction and delivery of IPVs and LST(L)s and hope to secure some more export orders soon. Negotiation with the Indian Navy are

in progress or construction of Landing Craft Utilities (LCUs). GRSE is also engaged in manufacturing Portable Module Bridges which are light weight and can be erected within a short period. This unique invention has also been secured and the Government of India has granted Patent rights for the single and double lane portable steel bridges. Apart from shipbuilding business and steel bridges, GRSE is also manufacturing Marine pumps and ship borne deck machineries like Davits, Winches, Hello Traversing Systems etc . GRSE has embarked upon modernization of the shipbuilding infrastructure at an overall cost of Rs 600 Cr. This includes one dry dock and one inclined birth, both 180 mtrs long,a modular hall, a paint shop and a goliath crane having 250 T lift capacity. Once the mordernization project is completed, GRSE will be able to construct four large ships at a time. The project ids expected to be completed by end of 2011. GRSE is interested in creating an exclusive ship design centre but the same may not be possible for GRSE alone to do. GRSE is looking for suitable partners in ship design like National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH). At pres-

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ent, GRSE is engaged only in building warships but GRSE may consider building other commercial vessels as GRSE possess the experience in constructing bulk carriers, dredgers, tugs, trawlers etc. In the recent past, GRSE has also manufactured and delivered about ample FRP boats to various Coastal Police Authorities and A&N Administration for Coastal security. GSRE focus for the next decade will be on developing capability in design and construction of Stealth Frigates, Landing Ship Tanks, Fast Attack Crafts and other patrol vassels etc. Shipbuilding Industries all over the world have been encountering acute shortage of qualified and trained manpower. GRSE makes continuous endeavour to nourish the young talents from all disciplines. The shipyard has a large pool of highly skilled/trained and experienced workforce to produce quality warships and engineering products. With over a hundred years of experience and excellent dedicated workforce, GRSE today is fully geared to serving the needs of customers and meeting the exciting challenges of the ever changing technological advances with an aim to become a leading International shipbuilder and become an integral part of Defence preparedness of the Country aimed at self reliance for India’s defence forces.  n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Advanced Robotics for Next-generation Mine Countermeasures

INDIAN DEFENCE

  The MCMV is in radio contact with an RF-to-acoustic communications gateway (in this case a rigid-hulled inflatable boat), which also carries operators that remotely control the disposal vehicle (the SeaFox ROV from Atlas Elektronik).

substantially reducing risk. This approach was state-of-the-art at the time that the Hydra system was designed. The ROV tethers, however, mean that the ship’s stand-off distance is limited to a few hundred meters, which may not be far enough for a traditional steel-hulled ship. The ROV-based solution is also constrained in terms of the number of vehicles that can be practically deployed simultaneously from a

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) tethered to their mother ships and “flown by wire” by an operator. For example, the Hydra system on the Royal Swedish Navy’s Visby class corvettes uses a pair of ROVs supported by high frequency hull-mounted sonar (HMS) and a precision acoustic positioning system integrated with the Visby’s sonar systems. The ROVs allow the Visby and its crew to stand off from a MLO,

REGIONAL BALANCE

Robots and underwater MCM Several navies currently employ underwater robots in the form of

BUSINESS

M

aritime mines are one of the most cost-effective weapons in the naval arsenal. They deny access to coastal zones, thereby seriously impairing the effectiveness of surface and subsurface assets. For this reason, most navies have fleets of mine countermeasures vessels (MCMVs) designed for the six steps of a classic detection, classification, localization, identification, re-acquisition, neutralization (DCLIRN) response. But the challenges of the underwater environment can make a typical MCM mission extremely time-consuming and error-prone. Furthermore, most of the steps require proximity to the mine itself, which is dangerous for the MCMV and its crew. As a result, most navies are turning to underwater robots for DCLRIN missions.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

GD Canada


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Comprehensive Operational Solution Reconnaissance & Lead Vehicle – integrates advanced electro-optical surveillance payloads, radar and fire source detectors to provide reconnaissance from areas threatened by gunfire. At the same time,

  (Left) Guardium Mark 2 UGV  (Right) Guardium   Mark 3 UGV

borders and strategic installations in all weather conditions. Fully and Semi-Autonomous UGVs for All Types of Terrain Guardium UGV™ – a semi-autonomous UGV designed to perform routine missions and react autonomously to unscheduled events. Guardium UGV Mark2™ – a semiautonomous UGV vehicle featuring improved combat capabilities with a robust toolkit for a variety of operational scenarios. AvantGuard UGCV™ – a tracked vehicle, offering superb ground maneuverability while operating in harsh terrain environments. Gaurdium UGV Mark3™ – a fully-autonomous UGV for complex combat missions complete with a mounted weapon system and designed to operate over less structured environments.  n

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INDIAN DEFENCE

First Fully Operational UGVs Our UGVs have seen extensive operational use by the Israel Defense Forces and are in advanced stages of pilot testing for a variety of defense and security applications including route proving, close inspection, and border patrol.

the UGV acts as an advanced vehicle leading troop movements without endangering lives. Logistics – significantly reduces the manpower and potential casualties from logistics missions. The UGV can also be used as an escort for the fighting force through its followme capabilities while carrying food, fuel, ammunition, and fortification equipment and can evacuate casualties under fire. C-IED – carries a variety of sensors that enable the disruption and location of IEDs and roadside bombs before they are activated providing the UGV with the ability of responding to threats in a wide variety of scenarios such as explosives, convoy ambushes, and corridor openings. Security – around-the-clock comprehensive defense for bases, airfields,

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-NIUS Unmanned Ground Systems Ltd. is a pioneer in Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) systems for defense and security applications. G-NIUS provides a comprehensive solution that reduces casualties and facilitates longterm personnel reductions in various operational scenarios including deterrence, discovery, identification, warning, confinement, and threat destruction.

REGIONAL BALANCE

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BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

The World’s First Fully Operational UGVs

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

G-NUIS


Hindustan Aeronautics Saga of Glorious Seven Decades Plus

C

urrent HAL's Chief Shri Ashok Nayak took over as Company's 15th Chairman on April 01, 2009. He has vast experience in manufacturing, quality assurance, production, planning, customer services and export. Brief Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was found way back in year 1940 by a visionary Seth Shri Walchand Hirachand as Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore. Govt. of India became one of its shareholders in March 1941 and took over the management in 1942. The present day Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU), under Ministry of Defence and fully owned by Govt. of India was formed on 1st October 1964 by merging of Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot with Hindustan Aircraft Limited. Today,

  Light Combat Aircraft (Tejas)

  Shri Ashok Nayak,  Chief of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

HAL is the largest PSU under Dept. of Defence Production, GOI and is declared as “ Navratna “ company. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

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(HAL) is a premier aeronautical complex of SE Asia, with 19 production/overhaul divisions, 10 colocated R&D centres and 1 Facility Management Division across the country. HAL's expertise encompasses design & development, production, repair, overhaul and upgrade of Aircraft, Helicopters, Aero-engines, Accessories, Avionics and Systems. HAL today provides one stop solutions for all the design needs of aircraft & helicopters in airframes, airframe systems, avionics, mission & combat systems using advanced design tools. The 19 manufacturing divisions of HAL are equipped with modern infrastructure with state of

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Israel Aerospace Industries

I

srael Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) is a globally recognized leader in the defense and commercial markets.

Financial Figures n IAI’s 2010 sales totaled $3.15 billion, $2.5 billion (80%) of these sales are for export. n IAI’s backlog as of December 2010 reached $8.9 billion. n IAI’s 2010 net profit totaled $94 million. Core Areas of Activity Space: From its own launchers and satellites to ground services, IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and produces satellites for various purposes such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq, Eros, Opsat), Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the Amos series (GEO). Theater Defense: IAI’s Arrow Weapon System Against Tactical

Ballistic Missiles (ATBMs) leads the market. This multi-layer system, representing outstanding visionary and techno-logical achievements such as the Green Pine missile detection and fire and control radar, as well as other interoperable solutions, is the cornerstone of Israel’s defense system. MRO & Civil Aircraft Conversion: IAI is an expert one-stop-shop for commercial aircraft conversion, maintenance, repair and overhaul with the

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  ARROW Weapon System: this multi-  layer system,   representing outstanding visionary and technological achievements such as the Green Pine missile detection and fire and control radar, as well as other interoperable solutions, is the cornerstone of Israel’s defense system.

engineering, equipment and facilities to deliver rapid turnaround at competitive prices. Commercial Aircraft: IAI’s design, engineering and manufacturing capabilities are demonstrated in a highly cost-effective, intercontinental range, super-midsize business jet. IAI also develops and produces, for major international OEM’s, primary aerostructure assemblies, as well as landing gear, servo-control and actuator systems.

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ImageSat Unique satellite-based imagery services

T

he availability of intelligence information, previously being the privilege of the few, offers government and military users major advantages. High resolution space imagery provided on-line by commercial services is providing military users and government agencies an access to high quality imagery products offering unprecedented intelligence and situational understanding. The market is dominated by commercially operated, government supported U.S. based providers supplying a significant part of the imagery consumed by the U.S. military, in parallel to serving foreign government and commercial clients. Given the limited ‘ownership’ of such services by international customers, timely delivery of imagery is prone to delays, particularly in times of emergency, when they are committed to their national services, while demand for imagery exceeds availability.

  Eros-B: Bushehr The Israeli operated ImageSat International is offering a different approach, providing government users a reliable, and dependable yet affordable satellite based high-resolution imagery. ImageSat is offering

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active nuclear power plant, iran

its services competitively, efficiently and unrestricted. Based on the technology developed for Israel’s Ofeq series of military reconnaissance satellites built by Israel Aerospace Industries,

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ITT Defence

I

n an era of rapidly evolving threats and unprecedented commercial opportunities, ITT Defence International is the right partner for India in these complex times. Our broad portfolio of technologically advanced solutions and strong local presence ideally positions us to help India defend its soldiers, citizens and borders, while also enhancing economic growth. ITT is one of the world’s leading aerospace and defence contractors – a leading provider of C4ISR electronics and systems, as well as information and technical services. Our highly engineered products and services include night vision equipment, battlefield communications systems, air traffic management solutions, space-based sensors, and radar and sonar technologies to protect ships, planes and coastlines. During the past seven decades, ITT has earned a reputation for breakthrough technologies and ser-

vices. We’re proud that the India Ministry of Defence – which commands the second largest military in the world – depends on ITT as a primary provider of mission-critical technologies. In fact, recent developments have highlighted the immediate need to deploy net-centric communications, night vision goggles and air traffic management.

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  SpearNet is a handheld, highcapacity data radio which is a powerful communication tool that provides seamless, self-healing ad-hoc networking and multi-hop routing capability, multiplying the force effectiveness of Indian soldiers and border guards wherever they may be deployed.

ITT is pushing the leading edge of tactical communications with the next generation of net-centric radio systems to provide real-time information and a more accurate picture of the battlespace – throughout the chain of command. For example, our SpearNet handheld, high-capacity data radio is a powerful communication tool that provides seamless, self-healing ad-hoc networking and multi-hop routing capability, multiplying the force effectiveness of Indian soldiers and border guards wherever they may be deployed. Widely recognized as the world’s dominant night vision developer and manufacturer, ITT is ideally positioned to supply the most advanced equipment for military and homeland security applications, including systems for ground and aviation personnel. Generation 3 image intensification – the clearest, sharpest night vision technology available – provides users with superior performance and greater mobility

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Lockheed martin

India’s C-130J Super Hercules The Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules that India operates is the most advanced airlifter ever built. The C-130J combines the latest in aerospace technology with a proven, rugged airframe design, resulting in an aircraft that gives an operator more capability with

greater operational efficiency. The flexibility of the C-130J for range, payload and missions is unmatched by any other aircraft in production or planned. With a range with payload capability of over 4000 nautical miles and, coupled with the ability to land on a 2000 foot dirt strip high up in

92  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

  India's C-130J   first flight

the mountains, the C-130J will be a true force multiplier for the Indian Air Force. The C-130J is not just a cargo transport – its range of missions includes special operations, aerial refueling, search and rescue, paradrop, electronic surveillance and even weather reconnaissance.

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MBDA

B

ringing together and optimising the most advanced missile technology skills to be found in France, Germany, Italy and the UK, MBDA is unique in the guided missile sector. No other company can meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains whether in the air, on land or at sea. Such an advantage is becoming more apparent with customers around the world keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. Two European platforms have been short listed for the IAF’s MMRCA combat jet. For MBDA this offers the opportunity of supplying a range of weapons that position both Eurofighter Typhoon and Rafale among the most capable of combat jets available anywhere in the world. Air-to-air combat weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Dual Mode Brimstone and the long range SCALP / Storm Shadow and Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missiles will ensure India’s air dominance long into the

future. Looking at the existing air force fleet of Mirage fighters and Jaguar bombers, these also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA’s MICA and ASRAAM missiles respectively. The 21st century faces an increasing threat of attack from the air. Low cost cruise missiles, manned and unmanned aircraft not to mention the appearance of a new range of 600 km – class ballistic missiles, are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company is recognised as a clear sector leader with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral, MICA and Aster missiles. A major first was accomplished recently with MBDA’s Aster achieving Europe’s first successful ballistic missile target intercept. This expertise has resulted in MBDA’s involvement as a major partner in the transatlantic MEADS programme. More significantly, MBDA is sharing its skills with the Indian DRDO in the well publicised MAITRI air defence project. To protect coastal integrity and

94  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

  Mirage 2000   armed with MICA

for blue water operations, an effective anti-ship capability is a must, particularly with many navies now investing heavily in new ships. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy’s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly, other versions of the worldfamous Exocet family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). MBDA’s links with Indian industry go back some 40 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under licence for the Indian Army. Working with HAL, integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter is well advanced and MBDA is also proposing its PARS 3 LR system for the same helicopter’s land attack mission. The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA’s strategy. As it celebrates its tenth year of European integration, MBDA looks towards a future featuring ever deeper relations with its Indian partners.  n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

MAZAGON DOCK

with the job. The Godavari class of Frigates were a breakthrough in warship design and construction, as the ships were larger than the Leanders and even though the same propulsion was used, these warships were actually able to generate higher speeds than the Leanders. The first of the class was christened ‘INS GODAVARI’. Two more frigates of this class ‘INS GANGA’ and ‘INS GOMATI’ were also constructed at MDL. Mazagon Dock has also constructed one training ship ‘TIR’ and three ‘KHUKRI’ class of corvettes for the Navy. The Corvettes are smaller warships displacing about 1500 tonnes. Mazagon Dock also built four fast and powerful 1241RE Missile Boats for the Navy.

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  95

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

stealth frigate Shivalik was commissioned into the Indian Navy in early in April 2010

INDIAN DEFENCE

  MDL built first into a multi-unit and multi-product company, with significant rise in production and sophistication of products. The company’s current portfolio of designs spans a wide range of products for both domestic and overseas clients. The first modern warship to be built by the company was the Leander Class frigate “INS NILGIRI". Its design was obtained from the British Admiralty and the frigate itself was built in collaboration with M/s. Vickers Ltd. and M/s. Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd. of Great Britain. Based on the Leander platform, the Design Bureau of the Indian Navy designed a new generation frigate with modifications and a greater content of indigenisation. Mazagon Dock was entrusted

REGIONAL BALANCE

azagon Dock Limited, Mumbai, a 9000:2008, Category I, Mini Ratna PSU Company is one of the leading shipbuilding yards in India. The Yard was established in the 18th century, and over the 200 odd eventful years, has earned a reputation for high quality workmanship. The skills and resourcefulness of our workmen is well known to the shipping world in general and the Indian Navy, coast guard & ONGC in particular. Initially MDL passed through various ownerships like the P&O lines and the British India Steam Navigation Company. It was incorporated as a Public Limited Company in 1934. After its takeover by the Government in 1960, Mazagon Dock grew rapidly to become the premier war-shipbuilding yard in India, producing sophisticated warships for the Navy and offshore structures for the ONGC. It has grown from a single unit, small ship Repair Company,

BUSINESS

M


  Equipped with a wide FOV and an easily engaged 2x or 4x digital zoom, the The Ti for Assault Rifle guarantees highquality observation and precision target engagement.

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  97

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS NOA uncooled thermal sights Meprolight developed a family of uncooled thermal weapon sights: X7, Ti for Assault Rifle (Noa Nyx) and dual field magnification. The Noa thermal sight contains an advanced

electronic level indicator, a critical component in balancing the sight for effective long-range shooting. The innovative sight withstands heavy weapon recoil and enables bidirectional communications with military devices such as range finders and wireless recording systems. The Ti for Assault Rifle (Noa Nyx) is a lightweight sight with an overall weight of less than 1kg. Equipped with a wide FOV and an easily engaged 2x or 4x digital zoom, the The Ti for Assault Rifle guarantees high-quality observation and precision target engagement. The innovative dual field magnification includes wide and narrow fields of view (FOV) in the same sight. It enables the sniper maximum flexibility during missions, scanning the area with a wide FOV and engaging the target with narrow FOV.

The NOA unique sight has been mounted, and successfully operated, onto a wide range of sniper rifles including the Dragunov and MMG. The thermal sight is designed for snipers who operate under harsh environmental conditions and need to detect and accurately engage targets at long ranges reaching more than 1,000 meters in variable weather conditions and very limited light availability or total darkness. NOA’s state-of-the-art sights are equipped with a cutting-edge Fire Control System (FCS), featuring automatic ballistic compensation based on range and type of weapon and ammunition, among others. Additional features include Laser Range Finder interface for automatic target range acquisition, and the ability to upload and download data. NOA sights enable wired or wireless transmission of streaming video and real-time video recording, as well as integrated capturing and storage of still images. The NOA sights excel in low energy consumption, allowing up to 10 hours of continuous operation.  n

BUSINESS

eprolight (www.meprolight. com) designs and manufactures a wide array of electro-optical and optical sights and devices, night vision devices, uncooled thermal sights and a wide variety of night sights and other tritium- and LEDilluminated products and accessories for safety and security applications for the military, law enforcement, and civilian communities. All of our products are combat proven and in daily operational use by the Israeli defense forces. Meprolight provides comprehensive end-to-end sharpshooting and sniping solutions for snipers, infantry, and SWAT teams. The solutions include advanced weapon sights and accessories for day and night shooting, designed for quick and instinctive accurate shooting, even after physical stress and under pressure.

INDIAN DEFENCE

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One Stop Shop for Sophisticated Weapon Sights

REGIONAL BALANCE

Meprolight


Navantia

N

avantia, the Spanish shipbuilder, is a world reference in the design, construction and integration of war ships, including new generation submarines. It is also engaged in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems, Fire Control Systems, Command and Control systems, Propulsion Plants and through life support for naval vessels. Navantia has strategically situated production centres in the Ferrol Estuary, the Cartagena shipyard and the Bay of Cádiz: n Ferrol-Fene Shipyard n Cartagena Shipyard n San Fernando-Puerto Real Shipyard Specialized in New Constructions, as well as Shiprepairs in the 3 areas. These shipyards are fully equipped with slipways and docks with sufficient capacity to meet the client’s strategic requirements.

Orderbook Ferrol-Fene Frigate F-105 for the Spanish Navy (last of a serie of 5). Commissioning will be in 2012. 2 LHD’s for the Australian Navy, based on the LHD Juan Carlos I. Already launched the first one and to be commissioned in 2013 and 2015. Engineering and technical assistance for the construction (in Australia) of 3 air warfare destroyers, based on the F-105 for the Spanish Navy. To be delivered from 2014 to 2017.

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  Spanish Navy's biggest ship, LHD “Juan Carlos I”, built by navantia arrives in istanbul for a stopover during her first resistance voyage

Cartagena 4 Submarines S-80 for the Spanish Navy. Deliveries are from 2013 to 2015. Engineering and technology transfer for 6 Submarines Scorpene, as part of the DCN consortium, for the Indian Navy. San Fernando-Puerto Real 3 BAM (Maritime Action Ship), for the Spanish Navy, of a series of 4, to be commissioned during 2011 and 2012. 2 Patrol Ships for Venezuela, of a series of 8, for the vigilance of the sea, have been signed in November 2005. They will be commissioned on 2011.

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NEXTER SYSTEMS Setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems

D

uring EuroSatory 2010, Nexter Systems and Larsen & Toubro signed a Consortium Agreement in the field of artillery systems, ensuring that both companies will join forces to support the major effort of artillery mod-

ernization initiated by the Indian MoD. This agreement targets in particular the MGS (Mounted Gun System) RFP that should be issued in the second half of 2011 for which NEXTER will propose its CAESAR® System.

100  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

  CAESAR® is currently deployed in Afghanistan and Lebanon with the French Army

During July 2011, the two companies signed an other Consortium Agreement and announced the formation of Nexter Systems led consortium for 155 mm Towed Gun System (TGS) program for Indian Army. Under the proposal, Nexter

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Northrop Grumman Well-Positioned to Support India’s Present and Evolving Defence Requirements with IndustryLeading Capabilities

W

ith its proven, industryleading capabilities in intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), Northrop Grumman is wellpositioned to meet the Indian Armed Forces current and future defence and civil requirements. The company offers a portfolio of innovative capabilities across each of its four business sectors - including airborne early warning and control systems for maritime reconnaissance, fire control radars, coastal surveillance and marine navigation, unmanned aircraft systems, airborne mine countermeasures and its newest capability, lighter-than-air vehicles for maritime and border security and heavy lift operations. These include the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye airborne early warning surveillance aircraft, the MQ-8B Fire Scout vertical takeoff unmanned vehicle, scalable C4ISR provisions for fast interceptor craft & offshore patrol vessels, Harbor and Coastal

  Northrop Security system (HCS), Airborne Laser Mine Detection System and the Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) radar. Built on a legacy of providing uncompromising airborne early

102  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

Grumman’s MQ-8B Fire Scout is a multirole, VUAS, capable of autonomous take off and landing on any aviation-capable warship and various landing sites

warning and control (AEW&C) capability, Northrop Grumman’s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye was designed to provide the enhanced capabilities required to meet emerging threats and improved mission effectiveness. Features include completely redesigned aircraft systems, a state-of-the-art AN/APY-9 radar and a new glass cockpit. All E-2D’s are newly manufactured aircraft based on a proven airframe on a proven platform. Exclusive to the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, the APY-9 radar provides a two-generation leap in radar technology, allowing the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye to “see” smaller targets and more of them at a greater range than currently fielded radar systems. On track for initial operational test and evaluation in late 2011, followed by Initial Operational Capability with the U.S. Navy in 2015, the E-2D program continues to meet, or exceed, all technical and program require-

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NOVA Integrated Systems

N

OVA Integrated Systems Limited, a TATA Enterprise, is a 100% owned subsidiary of TATA Advanced Systems Limited, and a strategic initiative of the TATA group in the Aerospace & Defence Sector. 140 years lineage of the highly respected TATA Group, operating in seven business sectors of communications and information technology, engineering, materials, services, energy, consumer products and chemicals, with a total revenues of $67.4 billion (2009-10) and employing around 395,000 people worldwide, gives NOVA its cutting edge advantage in meeting the most exacting of challenges, and delivering the latest in technology. The company set up as a private sector Defence enterprise, envisions design, development, manufacture, integration and life cycle support, in the following domains, as a partner to the Indian Aerospace & Defense establishments, with technology focus in:

n Missile Systems and Sub Systems n Radars, Systems and Sub Systems n Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Systems n Electro-Optical Payloads and Subsystems n Homeland Security System Products n RF Modules for Advanced Radar Technologies Headquartered at the TATA Group headquarters, Bombay House in Mumbai, the company has its corporate office in New Delhi and Manufacturing facilities in Hyderabad with well established

104  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

  The Nova Production Facility will be Configured to Offer Design, Development, Manufacture & Integration for Advanced Aerospace & Defence Technologies

departments for Operations, Quality Assurance, Engineering, Supply chain management, Business development, Finance, Legal HR, & Administration, employing the best in class professionals with considerable man years of experience. A distinguished team of consultants from the DRDO and DPSUs bring vast experience in Design, Development and Production of defence systems and provide necessary technical support and ­mentoring, for advanced engineering insights into complex technological challenges. World class Infrastructural facilities are set up in Hyderabad, with a

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Oto melara

T

he Indian Ocean, with an area of 68,5 million sq km, has several important straits, gulfs, bays and sens, most of them being in the northern part. Major shipping lines criss-cross its vast expanse, with strategic water ways and choke point linking the Indian Ocean to other important water bodies on the globe. For this reason there is a strong need for maintaining stability, security and safety at sea. The defence systems produced by Oto Melara are the ideal solution to achieve this target, in particular the 127/64LW naval gun fitted with the kit for the new Vulcano ammunition, whose range can reach distances beyond 100 km . The 127/64LW is the most powerful multi role system available on the naval market and it is already under production for the FREMM frigates for the Italian Navy and the F125 program of the German Navy. This rapid fire gun mount is

intended for installation on large and medium size ships, for surface fire and naval gunfire support as its main role and anti-aircraft fire as its secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes the installation on narrow section crafts possible. Modular automatic feeding magazines allow the firing of up to four different and immediately selectable types of ammunition. The magazines can be reloaded while the mount is in operation.

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  127/54LW-38. For The defence systems produced by Oto Melara are the ideal solution to maintaining stability, security and safety at sea.

In the ship's main ammunition store, projectiles and propelling charges are hoisted to gun level from the feeding magazines. Ammunition flow is reversible so that rounds can be unloaded from the gun automatically. The gun console includes the Vulcano module for the use of guided ammunition that allows the initialization of the guided ammunition navigation system and the computation of firing solutions for Naval Fire Support.  n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES BUSINESS tion capacity more than the cumulative capacity of all Public and Private Shipyards in the country. In addition, we are the only shipyard in India

having modular and integrated ship construction capability. Emphasis has been given to create a vendors net work as an integral part of the shipbuilding activities. Presently, Indian shipbuilding industry is dependent largely on foreign vendors for major equipments. As the volumes increase, we would like to set up our own manufacturing facilities in India. These will meet the requirement of indigenous as well as export orders. We have already set up a large engineering complex at Pipavav for the integrated ship construction based on modular concept and we also have plans to encourage vendors to set up shops locally at SEZ and around Pipavav as we grow further.

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  107

INDIAN DEFENCE

Panamax Bulk Carriers; (Left) Nikhil Gandhi,   Non - Executive Director and Chairman, Pipavav Shipyard

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

  (Top) Launching of

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Publications (SP's): Pipavav Shipyard Ltd has reportedly emerged as the largest shipbuilders in the Indian private sector. What were the factors that inspired creation of futuristic shipbuilding capacity at such a large scale? Nikhil Gandhi (Gandhi): A huge gap between Shipbuilding requirements of the Indian Navy and the available capacities is a major factor. We thought of investing in this modern world class shipyard to bring Indian Shipbuilding on the world map. PSL is the largest shipyard in the Country with the state of the Art shipbuilding infrastructure. Shipbuilding industry brings all-round development in the country and development of South Korea is a live example. Despite having a vast coast line, a number of shipyards in the country and highly skilled work force, India’s share in the world shipbuilding is only approx. 1.4% as against approx 36% by both, China and South Korea. No major investment in developing a modern shipbuilding infrastructure was undertaken in India till recent past. PSL has taken a lead and set up an ultra modern shipyard having produc-

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

PIPAVAV SHIPYARD


CONTENTS ‘answer the call’ for humanitarian aid around the globe. With more than 50 million hours of proven military and commercial service, the F117/PW2037 reinforces Pratt & Whitney’s promise to deliver Dependable Engines. Pratt & Whitney’s F100-series engines are the workhorse for the U.S. Air Force’s (USAF) F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon and air forces in 23 nations. More than 7,200 engines have been built since entering into service in 1972. The engines have accumulated more than 21,000,000 flight hours under the most rigorous operational environments found around the world. The latest evolution, the F100PW-229 Enhanced Engine Package (EEP), is now in production. Our military products and customers worldwide benefit from a proven and comprehensive range of services to meet all maintenance, readiness and product support requirements.  n

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  109

BUSINESS

  Pratt & Whitney engines power the world’s most technologically sophisticated weapon systems such as the F135 powering the F-35 Lightning II

INDIAN DEFENCE

leled single engine safety derived from a proven fifth generation fighter engine: the F119 that continues to successfully power the F-22. The F135 delivers more than forty thousand pounds of thrust; and incorporates stealth technology, supersonic speeds and vertical lift capabilities. The F135 brings cutting-edge technology to address the complex and diverse needs of today’s military forces, and its roots in the rock-solid F119 give customers even greater confidence in its ability to deliver results and reduce risk. Pratt & Whitney’s F117 provides exclusive power for the C-17 Globemaster III – the world’s premier heavy airlifter. Four F117 engines, each rated at 40,440 pounds of thrust, enable the C-17 transport to carry a payload of 160,600 pounds, take off from a 7,600-foot airfield, and fly 2,400 nautical miles without refueling, which enables the C-17 to

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

his marks the 86th year since the founding of Pratt & Whitney, and we are proud to continue delivering an ever-expanding collection of propulsion systems to customers around the world. Since our formation, unmatched safety, dependable reliability and maturity with proven performance have been a hallmark of the Pratt & Whitney name. Accelerates to supersonic speeds in seconds. Operation at metal-searing temperatures, with uncompromising reliability. These are some of the performance demands placed on Pratt & Whitney engines that power the world’s most technologically sophisticated weapon systems—the F119 powers the F-22 Raptor and the F135 powers the F-35 Lightning II— today and into the future. The F135 is the world’s most powerful fighter engine and has successfully powered more than 1,000 test flights and nearly 1,500 flight hours to date. It promises unparal-

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Proven Performance - Yesterday, Today, and Into the Future

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

PRATT & WHITNEY


RADA State-of-the-art Radars, INS and Avionics Integration.

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ADA Electronic Industries Ltd., an Israeli defense electronics system house, won worldwide recognition as a leading supplier of avionics systems. Best known for its Video/ Data Recording and Management product lines, RADA has provided Digital Video & Data recorders, and Head-Up Display Cameras into thousands of fighter aircraft and trainers, supporting training missions, and optimized debriefing abilities with Its Ground Debriefing Stations (GDS). RADA’s systems are currently installed onboard IAF’s Su-30, MiG29, MiG-27, Jaguar, IJT and ALH aircraft, and on the Sea Harrier of the Indian Navy. Following extensive investment in Research and Development in recent years, RADA has expanded its portfolio to include Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) for air and land applications, comprehensive avionics solutions (such as aircraft upgrades, avionics for UAVs, stores management systems, mission & interface computers), and the brand new line of state-of-the-art

AESA Radars for force and border protection solutions. RADA’s range of advanced Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) was launched two years ago at AeroIndia 2009. The company offers two product classes – the R-100F fiber optical gyro (FOG) based high grade navigation systems family for aircraft, tanks and artillery, and the R-200M Micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based inertial navigation systems family, optimized for unmanned systems, guided weapons and ground vehicles. Since the launch of its INS line, RADA has established its position as a leading provider of high quality navigation solutions, competing on several pro-

110  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

  (Top) RHS-30 radar unit; (Above) R-100F

grams worldwide, for aircraft, helicopters and unmanned systems. The company integrates its INS capability with compact, low-weight hardware to introduce advanced avionics optimized for small unmanned platforms. In this class RADA offers an 'all-in-one' core-avionics solution for small UAVs known as 'MAVINS'. The company also has a large portfolio of systems customized for partners developing and producing high altitude and medium altitude unmanned platforms (HALE/MALE) such as the “Heron TP” UAV. The latest addition to RADA’s portfolio is the family of AESA Radars. RADA offers multi-mission radars that provide hemispheric coverage (MHR) and are in the heart of force protection (the RPS-40 radar), close air-defense (the RPS-42 radar) and border protection (the RHS-44 radar) solutions. These highly sophisticated and powerful, yet affordable radar systems are integrated with peripheral C4I systems over standard Ethernet links. In addition, RADA’s proven RPS-10 radar is the detection sensor for Active Protection Systems (APS) for tanks and AFVs.  n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

The Perfect Partner for India’s Defense Needs

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

RAFAEL

Defense against Short range artillery rockets

Rafael – The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel’s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently, 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael’s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  111

REGIONAL BALANCE

tems and weapons in the fields of Missiles, air defense, naval systems, target acquisition, EW, C4ISR, communication networks, data links, electro-optic payloads, add-on armor, combat vehicle upgrading, mine field breaching, border and coastal protection systems, breaching munitions and much more.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

  Iron Dome – Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd, designs, develops, manufactures and supplies a wide range of high-tech defense systems for air, land, sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer’s specific needs, Rafael provides stateof-the-art, yet cost-effective sys-


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

World-leading solutions. Trusted world-class partnerships.

INDIAN DEFENCE has designed, developed and delivered the world’s most innovative, comprehensive and reliable portfolio of Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) solutions for every type of civilian and military application. Few companies possess our depth of expertise or level of experi-

the combat experience of Hawk and added firepower of SL-AMRAAM.

ence in all phases of flight, which allows us to safely handle the evolving challenges of increased capacity and efficiency for manned and unmanned air traffic. Our design, manufacturing and servicing capabilities continue to enhance a full line of Air Traffic Management systems and products around the globe.

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  113

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

  Hawk XXI brings

REGIONAL BALANCE

Air Traffic Management For more than 60 years, Raytheon

BUSINESS

R

aytheon delivers a diverse range of integrated defence and security technologies across air, land, sea, space and cyberspace domains. They are united by a common resolve: to defend lives, nations and infrastructure against diverse and evolving threats. Our 40-year heritage of trusted industrial partnerships in India continues to push the envelope of air traffic management, multi-role combat aircraft, civil and coastal security, integrated air and missile defence, and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. We remain dedicated to helping India develop its industrial base — and to promoting the nation’s economic growth through innovative programmes and joint partnerships. Together, we’re turning innovative thinking into robust, reliable and cost-effective solutions.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Raytheon


CONTENTS type multi-role fighters to reliably protect the national air space. Their further upgrading is foreseen at the next stage of the programme. In particular, it includes plans to integrate the BrahMos Russian-Indian missile into the onboard weapon system of the fighter.

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  115

REGIONAL BALANCE

the HAL's industrial facilities is a vivid illustration of the fact that besides advanced military equipment Russia transfers to India also advanced manufacturing and repair technologies. These days the Indian Air Force is operating more than one hundred of these modern-

  Russia and India are jointly developing the fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

R

ussia is steadily increasing its arms exports to the world market. Last year Rosoboronexport, the sole arms trade state company, raised its military sales value in excess of 8.6 billion USD, which largely surpasses the 7.4 billion USD level achieved in 2009, thus setting a new record of the recent years. The equipment was imported by 58 countries, whereas Rosoboronexport cooperates with more than 70 countries in total. Notwithstanding Russia's active penetration into new regional markets, India still remains its principal partner in military technical cooperation that started in 1964 with first deliveries of the MiG-21 fighters. Aerospace technologies have always been at the heart of this cooperation, and this is where most of the large-scale and promising projects are going to be developed. The Su-30MKI multi-role fighter produced by licence at

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Russian aircraft for India: all that the Air Force, Army, Navy and Special Forces may need

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Rosoboronexport


Rubin Submarines of AMUR family

I

n the initial period of history of submarine shipbuilding the submarines were considered as "weapon of weak": using submarines, the countries that were unable to have large fleet of surface ships due to some reasons could rely upon a

success in the struggle with powerful naval enemy. Now the situation is drastically changed: submarines are no more "weapon of weak", but, on the contrary, "weapon of strong" – just countries that are characterized by

118  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

  The lead ship (Sankt-Petersburg) of the project 677 "Lada" was transferred to the Russian Navy in 2010

rather established economic position could allow themselves to operate submarines in their navies. Modern submarine is a universal tool of naval warfare capable to solve diverse combat tasks effectively and secretly, and practically

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CONTENTS Hammer air-to-ground modular weapons and an air-to-air Mica missile on a Rafale of the 1-91 Gascogne squadron of the French air force during Nato operation Unified Protector over Libya

Sitel tactical information system of the French army. This division develops and produces drone systems that call on its expertise (avionics, optronics, communications and ground control). With the Sperwer system, Sagem is the European leader in tactical drones, and it is also developing the new Patroller™ medium-altitude, longendurance drone. The Safran Electronics division comprises some 1,500 specialists in electronics and safety-critical software. Working for all Safran companies, this division develops and produces computers, printed circuit boards and the associated software. These items are used for a number of Safran group products, including landing and braking systems, aircraft engine control systems, avionics, navigation and optronics systems, etc. Sagem has worked successfully with the Indian armed forces and the Indian aviation industry for over 25 years, in particular HAL. The company supplies systems and equipment to the Indian forcer notably gyro-laser INS, that are used on the Sukhoï 30 MKI, Jaguar, MiG27, LCA, Hawk and MiG29K and artillery systems.  n

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  121

BUSINESS

  Three Sagem AASM

INDIAN DEFENCE

eignty. No. 1 in Europe and No. 3 worldwide in this sector, It develops and produces navigation systems, ranging from small vibrating sensors, to the navigation system of ballistic missile nuclear submarines. The Sigma family of laser gyro navigation systems is used by leading combat platforms, including Rafale, Su-30MK1, MiG-29, Airbus A400M, NH90 and EC725 helicopters, FREMM and Horizon frigates, Barracuda and Scorpène submarines, Leclerc main battle tank, Caesar gun, etc. Sagem provides mission planning systems, SICOPS to manage air bases and develops and produces the AASM Hammer, air-to-ground precision modular weapon. Sagem’s Optronics & Defense division offers a wide range of optronic systems for all types of platforms, including missiles (seekers). The division offers solutions based on its expertise, spanning optronics, electronics, information and communications systems, and systems integration. It is prime contractor for the French FELIN infantry program, and a major partner of FIST in the United Kingdom and the IMESS in Switzerland. It also supplies the

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

agem (Safran group) is one of the world’s leading suppliers of optronics, avionics and navigation systems, electronics and safety critical software. It has 7,000 employees, and annual sales of 1.2 billion euros. Safran is a leading international hightechnology group and a tier-1 supplier of systems and equipment for aerospace (propulsion and equipment), defense and security. The group has over 54,000 employees and operations in more than 50 countries. Sagem is organized in three divisions: Avionics, Optronics & Defense, and Safran Electronics. It has international subsidiaries, which report to these divisions: Optics 1 Inc. (US), Robonic Oy. (Finland), Safran Electronics Canada Inc. (Canada), Safran Electronics Asia Pte. Ltd. (Singapore), Sagem Avionics Inc. (US), Sagem Navigation GmbH (Germany), Vectronix AG (Switzerland), and Vectronix Inc. (US). Sagem is one of only two companies in the world to apply all key inertial navigation technologies – mechanical, vibrating, resonant, optical-fiber and laser gyros – needed for the air, land and sea, ensuring national sover-

REGIONAL BALANCE

S

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Top-tier aerospace and defense partner

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

SAGEM


Samtel Display Systems Your Partner for Cockpit, Naval and Military Displays, Avionics Equipment and Systems

S

amtel Display Systems (SDS) is a key Indian player in hightechnology products for avionics and military applications in both domestic and international markets. SDS straddles the entire value chain from design, development, manufacture, testing, qualification, repair & maintenance and obsolescence management of avionics products and equipment for military as well as commercial aircraft. Its products and services include Multi-Functional Displays (MFDs), Smart MultiFunctional Displays (SMFDs), Full Colour Displays (FCD) for commercial aircraft, Head Up Displays (HUDs), Helmet Mounted Sight Displays (HMSDs), Automated Test Equipment (ATEs), ISIS Solutions, Multifunction Indicators: 3ATI & 4ATI, Infra Red Search and Track (IRST), Rugged military displays for Land, Naval and Airborne platforms, Built-to-print (BTP) manufacturing, MRO services, and Obsolescence Management. SDS is a part of the Samtel Group — India’s largest integrated manufacturer of a wide range of displays

for television, avionics, industrial, and professional applications, glass, components for displays, machinery and engineering services. The group has an annual turnover of Rs 12 billion (USD 270M). SDS’s JV with Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) was created to address the avionics requirements of HAL, and also take up international projects eventually. SHDS’ portfolio includes system design, development, manufacturing, MRO and obsolescence management of display systems, ATE and IADS for all HAL star platforms - both fixed and rotary wing. The Samtel HAL JV has achieved the unique distinction of being the first public-private partnership in defence avionics space in India to have its cockpit display qualified and productionised for induction on Su-30 MKI aircraft. Samtel Thales Avionics – SDS’ JV with Thales, is intended to locally

122  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

  (Left) Samtel's MIL certified facilities at Delhi-NCR (Right) Samtel-HAL MFDs inducted on SU-30 MKI

develop, customize, manufacture, sell and maintain indigenous HelmetMounted Sight and Display Systems and modern Avionics Systems for the Indian and export defence markets. SDS also has a long-term contract with Thales to supply Full Colour Displays for Airbus (A320, A330/340), and is the sole source to supply Honeywell with EFIS 40—an electronic flight instrument system for Honeywell’s Bendix/King range. An MoU has also been signed between SDS and Saab Avitronics for RIGS HUD. Samtel is operating with SAE/AS 9100 Rev-B quality system standard at its production facilities in Delhi/NCR. SDS has been awarded with Frost & Sullivan Hot Investment Opportunity Award 2009, and Gold trophy of the EMPI- Indian Express Indian Innovation Awards 2010. Samtel is truly poised to become the ideal partner for all avionics display system integrators around the world.  n

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS n In the battle-space, SELEX Galileo provides a range of products that enhance battlefield effectiveness through improved situational awareness together with comprehensive Electronic Warfare products and Operational Support solutions, principally for airborne and maritime applications. n In the airborne environment, the Company delivers fully

  SELEX-Galileo leads

the development of Captor-E, an electronically scanned radar solution for the Eurofighter-Typhoon, the Gabbiano surveillance radar as well as the Grifo fire-control radar of which over 450 have been sold worldwide

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  123

INDIAN DEFENCE

Core Capabilities SELEX Galileo is at the forefront of technologies considered by many customers as being critical to mission success and survivability. The Company applies these technologies into products in an integrated way to match the required capabilities of Customers. SELEX Galileo is a partner of choice for providing capabilities in Battlespace, Surveillance, Simulation, Training, Service and Support Solutions.

integrated surveillance systems that are able to directly support decision makers in their response. They also provide a complete range of nextgeneration, electronicallyscanned, radar solutions that span the complete spectrum of airborne applications from Mini-UAV’s, through rotary wing and patrol aircraft, to front-line combat aircraft n SELEX Galileo’s simulation facilities give crews the constant training they need to reach the highest level of efficiency. n Across the whole business, innovative support and service solutions improve the overall outcomes for our Customers while reducing their throughlife costs. Key items in our extensive product portfolio are: n Airborne Radars – Supplying both mechanically-scanned

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

ELEX Galileo forms part of the Finmeccanica Group of companies that specialises in the design, manufacture and life cycle support for a wide portfolio of products and technologies that span aerospace, defence and security applications. “Our vision is to deliver to our Customers, total awareness and total protection, so helping them to see and keeping them safe.”

REGIONAL BALANCE

S

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

SELEX Galileo


Tata Motors

T

ata Motors Limited is India’s largest automobile company, with revenues of $ 27.3 billion in 201011. Through subsidiaries and associate companies, Tata Motors has operations in the UK, South Korea, Thailand and Spain. Among them is Jaguar Land Rover. It also has an industrial joint venture with Fiat in India. With over 4 million Tata vehicles plying in India, Tata Motors is the country’s market leader in commercial vehicles and among the top three in Passenger vehicles. The company is the world’s Fourth largest truck manufacturer, and the world’s second largest bus manufacturer. Tata cars, buses and trucks are being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South East Asia and South America. Tata Motors has been associated with the country’s defence forces since 1958. Over 1,00,000 vehicles have been supplied to Indian Military and paramilitary forces so far. Tata Motors defence solutions cover the complete range of logistics, and armoured vehicles. The recent launch

of combat and tactical vehicles and equipment will allow it to leverage the entire defence mobility spectrum. Tata Motors offers products and services that not only meet the needs of the domestic market, but are also positioned to meet most of the stringent requirements of armies across the world. Tata Motors exports its range of specialized defence vehicles to countries in the SAARC region, ASEAN and Africa. Tata Motors has a range of armoured vehicles for catering to varied needs of Armed forces. It includes Armoured Sumo for CIOps, Armoured Safari for VVIPs travel, Light Armoured Troop Carrier (LATC), 8x8 weapon platforms, Armoured Bus, Light Specialist vehicles (LSV) and Mine Protected Vehicles (MPV). Tata Motors is now focusing on modernization and system upgrades of mobility platforms. Project management and system integration expertise has positioned Tata Motors as prime contractor in various upgrades and life extension programme based on in-house

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core competencies and technologies. Such upgrade programme includes Missiles Carriers, Mine Protected Vehicles, Main Battle Tanks (MBT) and Infantry Combat Vehicles. In addition to products, Tata Motors defence solutions include Consultancy & Advisory Service, Prime Contracting Services, R&D and Test Services, Information Technology (Software + Hardware services), manufacturing Services, Maintenance and Repair Services, Packing Storage and Transport Service. Mr P M Telang, Managing Director (India Operations) of Tata Motors, Said, "Our aim is to participate in the entire defence value chain. Besides consolidating our traditional supplies, going forward we will also participate in creating vehicles and equipment specific to the defence sector and also offer our expertise in upgrades and life extention programmes. In addition to our own initiatives, we will form appropriate partnerships and harness the capabilities of our own subsidiaries and other Tata Group companies”.  n

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Technology leader in Defence & Security and Aerospace & Transport

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Thales Ground Transportation Activities Aerospace Activities

Lucknow Gwalior Naval Activities Airline Support

Ground Transportaion Activities Aerospace Acitvities Radar Activities Naval Support

Hyderabad

Naval Support

Vizag

Bangalore Chennai Kochi

Thales India run offices in Delhi, Gwalior, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Bangalore, Chennai, Kochi and Lucknow to better serve its Army, Navy Air Force and Civil customers. Major contracts with the MoD have included: n Air defence radars and systems (THD 1955, Master M, Flycatcher Mark 1…) n Upgrade of Mirage 2000 fleet n Vicon 91 Reconnaissance pods for the Air Force. n FLYCATCHER Mk1 Radar and Fire Control System. n Avionics and INGPS for military

Software Development

Thales India 260 employees 8 locations 2 Joint Ventures

aircraft (Mirage 2000, Mig 21 and 27, Su 30…). n Optronics: 500 HHTI Sophie and 1000 Catherine Thermal Imagers on T90. n EW systems for Army and Navy. n Sonars on the Sea King helicopters and Scorpene submarines. n Mine Hunting sonar and CMS for the Karwar class refit. n Mission Display System (on Mir29). n DA 04 and LW08 long-range surveillance radar for Navy. n Other equipment on KIRAN, CHEETAK, LUK, DO 228.

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  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  127

INDIAN DEFENCE

Mumbai

BUSINESS

Aerospace Activities Space Activities

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

hales has been operating in India since 1953. The Group participated in the creation of Bharat Electronics Ltd. and has been a constant partner of the Indian Armed Forces ever since. After opening its first permanent representative office in Delhi in 1970, Thales created a service company in 2003: Thales International Pvt Ltd, with the aim to develop in India customer support and services. A further initiative in 2006 was the creation of a new joint venture, Rolta Thales Ltd. (RTL), in the field of C4ISR, defence and homeland security. The JV is located in Mumbai. Furthermore, in 2008 Thales signed with Samtel, a JV agreement to locally develop and produce Helmet Mounted Sight and Display Systems and modern avionics for the defence market. This second JV, based in Noida, is the basis for all future aerospace development in India. All Thales entities, except JV, were incorporated in 2008 under Thales India Pvt Ltd. Today,

Delhi

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

Headquarters

TECHNOLOGY

Air Force Support


Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Udhampur (HQ Northern Command), Army Shimla (HQ Army Training Command) Chandimandir (HQ Western Command), Army New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Air Force)) New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command) Lucknow (HQ Central Command), Army Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command) Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command) Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command) Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command), Army

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command), IAF Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command) Pune (HQ Southern Command), Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command) Bengaluru (HQ Training Command), IAF Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command) Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command) New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff) Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command), Army

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  129


Authors' profile Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha

Major General (Retd) Dr G.D. Bakshi

The author’s illustrious career in the IAF comprised extensive tenure in the Jaguar strike aircraft bases as Chief Operations Officer, base commander. He superannuated from the IAF in the post of AOC-in-C, Southern Air Command.  n Article on page 87

Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash Admiral Arun Prakash retired as Naval Chief and Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee in 2006. He commanded the Indian Navy’s Eastern Fleet, the National Defence Academy, the Andaman & Nicobar Joint Command and the Western Naval Command. He is currently a member of India’s National Security Advisory Board and Chairman of the National Maritime Foundation.  n Article on page 21

Colonel (Retd) Ali Ahmed He is a Research Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi, where he works on doctrinal issues. A former Infantry colonel, he has been earlier a fellow at the United Services Institution of India, New Delhi. He writes for idsa.in, ipcs.org, claws.in, Salute and foreignpolicyjournal.com.  n Article on page 39

Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Air Marshal B.K. Pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career, he held a number of important command and staff appointments, the last being that of AOC-in-C of Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an Editor with the SP Guide Publications and is a resident of Bangalore.  n Article on page 63, 265, 289

Dr Bhupendra Kumar Singh He was a full time Consultant (Energy Security) at the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India where he helped the Government adopt an Integrated Energy Policy, contributed in the formulation of India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change, formulated India’s external policy on energy and climate change. He is a Deputy Director (Energy) at the Confederation of Indian Industry, New Delhi. He is a member of International Association of Energy Economics, USA.  n Article on page 47

Commander (Retd) Devbrat Chakraborty Commander Devbrat Chakraborty was commissioned in the Indian Navy in 1986. He holds a Masters’ degrees in Nautical Sciences and Defence and Strategic Studies. He is currently pursuing post-graduation in Advanced Modeling and Simulation at the University of Cranfield UK. He is an alumnus of the Defence Services Staff College in Wellington, Indian Institute for Foreign Trade, New Delhi, and Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore. He is now a maritime operations analyst at the Boeing Analysis & Experimentation Centre, Bangalore.  n Article on page 67

130  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 

He is a graduate of the National Defence Academy. He was commissioned in the 6th Battalion of the Jammu & Kashmir Rifles in 1971 and is a highly combat experienced officer who commanded his Battalion, Brigade and Division in live combat environments in J&K. He has authored 23 books and written over a hundred papers for prestigious defence journals to include Strategic Analysis, Indian Defence Review and Indian Military Review.  n Article on page 17

Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the L0C with Pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United Nations Mission UNTAG in Namibia. He has authored several books and is currently the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi.  n Article on page 25, 101

Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman General Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems), he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known.  n Article on page 113, 117

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand He is a former Director General, Army Air Defence, member of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, member secretary of the first National Radar Council, has served with DRDO and was also a consultant with the Bharat Electronics Ltd. He was also involved in writing the history of the Regiment of Artillery, history of the Corps of Army Air Defence, publishing the first coffee table book for the Regiment of Artillery and the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical Group Editor with SP Guide Publications.  n Article on page 97, 321

Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Lt General P.C. Katoch superannuated as Director General Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer, he commanded Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attaché in Japan with accreditation to Republic of Korea. He is currently settled in Gurgaon.  n Article on page 53, 59, 73, 315

Ambassador (Retd) Ranjit Gupta A retired Indian Foreign Service officer, Ranjit Gupta has been India’s Ambassador to Yemen (North), Venezuela, Oman, Thailand and Spain and Head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is now a member of the National Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint Research


author's profile Project with the Gulf Research Centre, Dubai and on India GCC Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs.  n

is currently Senior Editorial Adviser of SP's Naval Forces and Technical Editor of SP's Military Yearbook. n

Article on page 5

Article on page 185

Major General R.P. Bhadran

Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia

Major General R.P. Bhadran, an alumnus of the Indian Military Academy, was commissioned to the Armoured Corps in 1979. He acquired a post-graduate degree in Combat Vehicles Engineering in 1985. He is currently the Additional Director General Information Systems.  n Article on page 79

Sanjay Kumar A security analyst and prolific writer, Sanjay Kumar has to his credit a number of articles on security, published in leading Indian journals and websites. He is presently associated with the Vivekananda International Foundation, New Delhi, where he is entrusted with the responsibility of setting up a Research Resource Centre.  n Article on page 127, 435

Commander Shishir Upadhyaya Commander Shishir Upadhyaya is a Research Fellow at the National Maritime Foundation, New Delhi. He holds dual Masters Degrees in Defence Strategy and Telecommunications and a PG Diploma in Shipping Management. He attended the Combined Intelligence Research and Analysis Course with the Australian Defence Force in 2007 and is an alumnus of the prestigious SEAS 2010 Fellowship awarded by the US Department of State.  n Article on page 83

Smita Purushottam

The author has the distinction of having accumulated more than 5,000 hours of flying on all types of aircraft, but mostly on single-engine fighters in the IAF. He was conferred gallantry awards (Vir Chakra) in both 1965 and 1971 wars against Pakistan flying the Mystere and Su-7, respectively. He also has the rare distinction of being the AOC-in-C of three major operational commands of the IAF. He is currently the Senior Visiting Editor of SP's Aviation and Technical Editor of SP's MIlitary Yearbook.  n Article on page 43, 109, 211

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9, 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. Prior to superannuating, he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 90 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the Editor of SP's Land Forces and Technical Editor of SP's Military Yearbook.  n Article on page 35, 123, 161, 297, 307

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Saxena Lt General V.K. Saxena is an alumnus of Defence Services Staff College, College of Defence Management and the coveted National Defence College. He is a silver-gunner and the first ever winner of the Director General of Artillery Trophy. He is currently the Commandant of the prestigious Army Air Defence College at Gopalpur, Orissa.  n Article on page 93

Smita Purushottam is a Senior Fellow at the Institute of Defence Studies & Analyses, New Delhi. She has served as Joint Secretary at the Foreign Service Institute, Ministry of External Affairs, Joint Secretary in the Integrated Defence Staff Headquarters in the Ministry of Defence, Director/ Under Secretary (East Europe/Soviet Union) and SAARC, and Under Secretary (Bhutan) in MEA. n Article on page 9

Commodore (Retd) Sujeet Samaddar

Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan The General is a graduate from the Royal Military College of Science and Army Staff College, UK. General Raghavan retired in 1994 as Director General of Military Operations of the Indian Army. Currently, he is the Director, Delhi Policy Group and President, Centre for Security Analysis. The General has authored many books and a monograph.  n Article on page 1

Commodore Sujeet Samaddar graduated from IIT Roorkee and served the Indian Navy until his retirement as Principal Director Naval Plans in 2009. He is an alumnus of College of Air Warfare, Secunderabad; Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, National Institute of Defence Studies, Tokyo and the United Nations University, Tokyo. He has been a Fellow of the USI, New Delhi and JIIA, Tokyo. He is currently Vice President, NOVA Integrated Systems.  n

Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi Commissioned in 1961, he is an International Fellow at the Army War College, US. He has been GOC-in-C of Army Training Command and Western Command. Despite losing one leg in 1965 War, he retired as the VCOAS in 2001. He was Founder Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) and is a prolific writer.  n

Article on page 105

Rear Admiral (Retd) Sushil Ramsay Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay retired after serving in the Indian Navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions towards capacity building in logistics, defence expenditure, administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been Naval Attaché in the Embassy of India in Moscow. He

Article on page 31

Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier General Staff, Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the USI of India and is currently a senior fellow with Vivekananda International Foundation. n Article on page 13, 153

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  |  131


IRIS-T – far-sighted, highly agile and resistant to countermeasures

From the outset, IRIS-T was designed to

IRIS-T was developed jointly by Germany,

meet the new requirements of six Euro-

Greece, Italy, Norway, Spain and Sweden

pean Air Forces. IRIS-T has been selected

with Diehl BGT Defence as industrial

to arm the Eurofighter/Typhoon, Tornado,

prime contractor. IRIS-T is in full-scale

JAS 39 Gripen, F-16 and F-18 aircraft in

series production, and service introduction

those countries. Additionally, Austria and

started on 5 December 2005.

Saudi Arabia will equip their Typhoons with IRIS-T Missiles. South Africa and

Diehl BGT Defence GmbH & Co. KG

Thailand also have chosen IRIS-T to equip

P.O. Box 10 11 55

its Gripen.

88641 Überlingen, Germany

Key design features of IRIS-T are:

Phone +49 7551 89-2895

• Imaging Infrared Seeker

Fax +49 7551 89-4150

• Target Cueing with Helmet Mounted

info@diehl-bgt-defence.de

Sight and Other Sensors

www.diehl-bgt-defence.de

• High-Agility Missile, Thrust Vector Controlled • Sidewinder Interoperability

132  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2011-2012  |  40th Issue  | 


TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

One Military Intervention 1 Two Indo-US Strategic Partnership 5 Three Indo-Russian Strategic Partnership 9 Four India's Look East Policy 13 Five The Afghan War 17 Six India's Eastern Waters 21 Seven China's Military Build-up 25 Eight India's Internal Conflicts 31 Nine Two-Front War 35 Ten India's Nuclear Options 39 Eleven Aerospace Capabilities: India, Pak & China 43 Twelve Energy Security 47 Thirteen Integrated Theatre Commands 53 Fourteen Integrated Special Forces Command 59 Fifteen Nuclear Disaster in Japan 63 Sixteen Modelling & Simulation 67

BUSINESS

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

Concepts & Perspectives

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

section one

REGIONAL BALANCE

1


in statecraft in different parts of the globe. Iraq, Afghanistan, Korean peninsula, Georgia and the Israeli offensives in the Middle East have demonstrated the continuing reliance by states on military force. France and UK have used military capabilities to secure their interests and safeguard their citizens in Africa. The recent uprisings against totalitarian rulers in the Middle East have revealed the role military forces can perform in maintaining stability or perpetuating dictatorships within states. Equally, the threat of using force by some major powers against the Colonel Muammar Gaddafi regime in Libya is demonstrative of this trend. China’s use of military force in maintaining order in Tibet and Zhinjiang, and its sabre-rattling against Taiwan add to this list of examples. The role of the United Nations is significant in understanding the use of force in international affairs. The UN was expected to work as a forum to avoid the need of force, stop conflicts if they erupted, provide peacekeeping forces to separate the parties to a conflict, and help in finding solutions to the military conflict. In Iraq and Afghanistan, the UN was effectively sidelined or bypassed when military force was used by the US-led coalition. The Bush doctrine of pre-emptive use of force against perceived threats from terrorists had widened the scope of using military force as part of statecraft. Some believe that little has changed after the Cold War since the core geostrategic interests of major powers have not changed. If anything, the shift from geostrategic to geo-economic core interests, for example in the oil producing Middle East have made that region even more susceptible to the use of force in managing international relations. China’s muscular naval demonstrations in the seas around Japan and North Korea’s military actions against South Korea are examples of this. Russia’s formidable military response against Georgia was as much to

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

M

ilitary force has been viewed all through history as the ultimate arbiter in managing international relations and is one of the main sources of state power. National power has been defined as the capacity to combine economic, technological and military power to create condition of advantage in international arena. Even as economy and technology parameters have gained significance in the globalised world, force still remains the critical ingredient of national power. Statesmen are yet to find an international system for peace and harmony, and hence inter-state violence remains a significant factor in international relations. Rivalry and competition amongst states, combined with miscalculations lead to tense confrontations which even diplomacy is unable to lessen. The use of force in situations where the opponents possess nuclear weapons further complicates the situation and imposes both dilemmas and risks of misperceptions. It has been rightly said that not only is diplomacy unable to prevent states from going to war, it has also proved insufficient to get states out of war once it commences. As new powers rise in the international arena, their sense of roles and rights change, increasing the risk of conflict. Global and regional balances of power are characterised currently by unequal distribution of power. In addition, globalisation has led to greater interdependence amongst major powers, while many states find their monopoly of violence in external and internal conflicts reduced. Yet in the first decade of 21st century, military force has been the dominant element

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1 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan

INDIAN DEFENCE

The use of force in the new international security environment of statecraft will require continuous adaptation. What will not change is the close relationship between force, diplomacy and political negotiations.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Use of Force in Statecraft

REGIONAL BALANCE

Intervention

USAF

1

Military

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m


Asia. The US encouraged its allies and close friends amongst countries of the Arabian Peninsula and East and South East Asia to reorient their own policies vis-à-vis India and this has been a very welcome fallout of the strongly developing new relationship between the US and India. This rationale and all these elements have continued to be valid during Barack Obama’s presidency. This will inevitably be a period of consolidation. Such periods are always and inevitably less exciting than those which witness spectacular breakthroughs which tend to generate exaggeratedly high expectations. As the canvas of bilateral engagement enlarges and the number of issues increases, the process of strengthening relations will require great patience and a lot of hard pushing often frustrating by an increasingly larger number of people and in increasingly larger number of domains. There are new issues where both sides clearly wish to have a strong relationship, but unexpected hurdles have emerged, partly because India seems to want exceptional treatment and is often hypersensitive about sovereignty concerns, while the Americans are perceived as being too legalistic, demanding, hectoring and prescriptive. Obama is constrained by the traditional approach of Democrats on issues such as non-proliferation and Kashmir and the consequences of the imperative need to wind down America’s draining wars. Wracked by one scam after another, increasing publicly paraded evidence of deteriorating governance and a perception that a few important cabinet members do not share the enthusiasm and vision of the Prime Minister regarding stronger relations with the US, Manmohan Singh’s domestic political clout has weakened considerably too. Therefore, neither of the two can overcome increasing domestic constraints and

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

O

ne of the most significant geopolitical developments of the first decade of the 21st century has been the unimaginably dramatic transformation of India-US relations. The watershed civilian nuclear deal catapulted India from being a nuclear pariah into the exclusive nuclear club and overturned the single most important issue of bilateral contentiousness. This agreement has become the leit motif of the new relationship. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s putting his job on the line to win Parliamentary approval of this landmark agreement was indispensable in overcoming ingrained anti-American sentiment in India. In another completely new and enormously significant dimension, virtually from scratch, the United States and India have held more joint military exercises with each other than with any other country since 2002. These involved the army, navy and air force and covered a multidisciplinary array of military activities. These include some naval exercises involving Japan, Australia and Singapore also. Reaching out to India was an American initiative; otherwise the process would almost certainly have been a non-starter. However, this was not due to the blossoming of any sudden love for India, but the result of cold calculations of the neo-conservatives who surrounded the then President George W. Bush and Bush’s own view of India’s potential and that a strong strategic relationship with India is essential to the fulfillment of the long-term US strategic objectives in

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n Ranjit Gupta

INDIAN DEFENCE

India will most likely strive for a truly multipolar world and therefore graded relationships are likely. If all goes well, the US could be on the top of the list. For the US too, India could be one of its closest friends but most likely not the best one. This should not be an unsatisfactory outcome for either side.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Contours of the Relationship in the Obama Administration

REGIONAL BALANCE

Strategic Partnership

PIB

2

Indo-US

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Smita Purushottam

“containment” policies. They thus persisted with these policies, while Western advisers proffered grossly inadequate counsel on economic transition policy, which contributed to the Russian economy’s collapse. From being a geopolitical pole, Russia was relegated to a mid-level power. The crises, hardships and foreign policy setbacks that Russia suffered neutralised goodwill towards the West—which was now seen as a source of its problems.

I

n order to assess the course of the Indo-Russian strategic partnership in the 21st century, a brief survey of the overall international environment has been attempted in this article, as a purely binary framework would severely constrict useful analysis. Extrapolating linearly from the past would also be simplistic as both India and Russia have changed enormously from the days of the Indo-Soviet partnership, when the Soviet Union had stepped in to back India during the 1971 crisis in Bangladesh. And yet, while the bewildering pace of global transformation makes hazarding long-term projections a very risky enterprise—geography and balance of power continue to play as few remaining constants in international relations. Their continued silence should therefore mitigate anxieties over hypothesising about future scenarios in bilateral relations.

Russian-Chinese Partnership It was no wonder that Russia turned increasingly towards China to record its opposition to unilateralism, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) expansion, and the stationing of ballistic missile defences on its doorstep. Russia massively increased exports of military equipment to China, supplying $22 billion (`99,000 crore) worth of armaments to China between 2000 and 2010. China extended a $25 billion (`1,25,000 crore) loan to build a spur from the EPSO II pipeline originally destined exclusively for the Pacific Coast—which would deliver 15 million tonnes of Siberian oil annually for 20 years to China. A friendly Russia was essential to China during the first decade of the new century as it extended control over Central Asian energy resources, transportation networks (including parts of Pakistan occupied Kashmir), and pipelines, thus reducing its dependence on sea-routed energy supplies and petro-dollars, part of its strategy to edge the dollar out as the dominant international reserve currency and establish its primacy in the Eastern hemisphere. A genuine Russia-Chinese partnership, belying years of mutual wariness, appeared to be in the making.

Russia’s Decline The last decade of the 20th century had brought about an enormous change in Russia’s position. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s transition from a centrally planned, heavy industry oriented economy to a market economy was accompanied by severe crises and falling gross domestic product (GDP). The West, which had failed to appreciate the role that the yearning for freedom had played in the demise of the Soviet system, attributed it instead to the success of their

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n 

INDIAN DEFENCE

Russia has proven to be of great help in times of crisis for India and is a reliable partner. This is a valuable relationship which has served India over the years and is likely to remain so. However, India needs to make an extra effort to maintain it at the high levels by exploring new dimensions of friendship which can be highly beneficial to both countries and for global peace.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Changing Dimensions in the 21st Century

REGIONAL BALANCE

Strategic Partnership

PIB

3

Indo-Russian

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Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand & Dr Gnanagurunathan

thus it is useful to review the progress made so far in our Look East Policy and find portends for the future. As India’s global profile improved, the new millennium also witnessed two significant developments in the international system. First, the emergence of unconventional security challenges in the form of radical extremist Islamist groups with global agendas; piracy on the high seas; and natural disasters, which threatened the legitimacy and efficacy of nation-states; second, the advent of China as a first-tier power in the international system challenging the predominance of the United States. Historically, whenever revisionist power(s) attempted to change the existing international order, other powers’ efforts to maintain the status quo has always resulted in great power conflict and wars. Therefore, successfully negotiating these challenges has become the principal priority of the concerned states in the international system. Besides preparing to meet these new security challenges, India had also to recalibrate its engagement with countries in South East and East Asia region to enhance its economic development through seeking investment in various sectors and importing technology to facilitate its energy demands and other appropriate fields. Earlier, although most states showed initial enthusiasm to engage with India, it remained a non-starter. One reason was that their economic and trade demands were met within the region; second the United States was able to provide stability and security in the region; finally, China was yet to show signs of its great power aspirations. But as of now, South Korea has become one of the top 10 investors in India and the latest to agree for a civil nuclear cooperation with India. On the other hand, India’s long association with Japan as a major exporter of raw materials and

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

B

etter late than never—perhaps this old adage captures India’s recalibration of its engagement with South East and East Asia. Although the implosion of Soviet Union had brought about a change in the global order and unipolarity in the early 1990s, it has brought minimal change in the status quo in Asia-Pacific and South Asia. The United States maintained its hub and spoke policy in Asia-Pacific to perpetuate its dominance and continued its Pakistan-centric South Asia policy. Even though India has always had global aspirations to become an important player in the international system, resource limitation constrained India from pursuing a global role. The liberalisation of Indian economy to overcome the balance of payment crisis in 1991 not only unleashed latent market forces, but also resulted in a shift in India’s engagement with the world at large, South East and East Asian region in particular. As India began to pursue a new identity, the success of ‘Asian Tigers’ attracted India’s attention towards them in search for markets, increased trade and investment opportunities. India’s ‘Look East Policy’ was unveiled in 1992 with considerable enthusiasm and interest. But the response of the target states was limited in scope and scale towards India’s overtures. Nonetheless, India’s significance as an emerging global player has increased commensurate with its economic development. Year 2012 will be celebrated as two decades of India-ASEAN engagement with a Commemorative Summit,

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n 

INDIAN DEFENCE

Although India’s ‘Look East Policy’ was started off as an initiative to secure its economic interests, it has acquired strategic overtones over the years due to the emergence of China as a dominant power in the region and other unconventional threats.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Emerging Security Challenges

REGIONAL BALANCE

Look East Policy

PIB

4

India’s

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CONTENTS

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Afghanistan was soon producing up to 82 per cent of the world’s poppy and 93 per cent of the world’s heroin. The Taliban got a windfall of almost $4 billion (`18,000 crore) a year from this drug trade. The Taliban insurgency began to revive slowly. In 2003, there were almost four attacks per day. This rose to five attacks per day in 2004. Year 2005 was the turning point. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) now encouraged the Taliban to resume operations in a major way. The casualty figures speak out for themselves.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

he Afghan War has been the victim of two extreme episodes of hubris. First, the Taliban became a victim of its own propaganda. In 2001 (at the time of Operation Enduring Freedom), despite the withdrawal of Pakistani troops and tanks, it decided to fight like a regular army and courted disaster at the hands of the US airpower. It was the Americans turn now to display hubris, America seriously under-resourced this war. It switched its attention to Iraq and decided to leave a very small footprint of just 10,000 US troops supported by airpower in Afghanistan. As Seth Jones, the US scholar on Taliban, says that the US squandered this extraordinary opportunity. No professional Afghan National Army (ANA) was created and the new state was forced to rely upon the discredited warlords and some 50,000-70,000 poorly trained militia men of the Northern Alliance. The battered Taliban fled to sanctuaries in Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and soon reorganised itself. The poppy crop acreage in Afghanistan now shot up by ten times from 20,000 acres in 2001 to 1,83,000 acres in 2001-02; and by 2007, it had reached the astounding level of 4,77,000 acres. The simple fact is that up to 50 per cent of the Afghan population had been killed, wounded or had fled as refugees. It could just not sustain the manpower intensive agriculture. Planting poppy needed no manpower and was thus the easiest option. This provided the financial source for the rejuvenation of the Taliban.

2005

1,268 casualties

2006

3,154 casualties

2007

5,818 casualties

The bulk of these casualties were caused by IEDs

The world which had literally forgotten Afghanistan now saw disaster staring at it. A major effort to save the situation was undertaken. The levels of US/International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troop commitment quadrupled. In two surges, it rose from 22,100 troops in 2006 to over 1,00,000 men in 2011. The first surge: The first surge of some 17,000 troops and 4,000 trainers was sent in May 2009. It raised overall force levels to 68,000 US and 32,000 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) troops. The American formations inducted were: n 82 Combat Aviation Brigade (130 helicopters, 4,000 troops) n 2 Marine Expeditionary Force (8,000 marines) n 5 Stryker Brigade (4,000 troops) With this initial surge, the US and NATO forces launched Operation

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BUSINESS

Major General (Retd) Dr G.D. Bakshi

INDIAN DEFENCE

n 

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

It would be in India’s interest to see that no single state or any state inimical to India ever dominates Afghanistan. Failure of the Afghan state could have dangerous consequences for the region. Hence, all regional players need to be co-opted.

REGIONAL BALANCE

A Victim of Pride and Arrogance

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Afghan War

US Army, wikipedia

5

The


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

cial aspect of India’s approach; the maritime factor. Blessed with an abundance of archipelagos, islands, straits, channels and undersea resources, South East Asia is also plagued by maritime disputes, threats and challenges. A glance at the naval ambitions of these countries provides an indication of the importance being accorded to the maritime domain. Given India’s own extensive maritime interests and concerns, it becomes obvious that its eastern seaboard and the Bay of Bengal, now, merit special attention from strategists as well as foreign policy planners.

I

ndia’s “Look East” Policy initiated in the early 1990s by Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao had its provenance in an unusual set of circumstances. The collapse of the Soviet Union heralded the end of Cold War and the establishment of a new global equation in which the US had no peer or challenger, and India found itself friendless. In Asia, as Japan entered a period of economic recession, China began to emerge as a significant player, and the ASEAN nations dramatically improved their economies. India was groping for answers to its economic woes. The Narasimha Rao government administered several urgent firstaid measures in the form of economic reforms which were collectively termed as “liberalisation”; and the doctor who was called in to fix the problem was none other than the incumbent Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, who was then Finance Minister of the country. The “Look East” Policy was part of India’s overall response to the new and changing milieu in the region. A decade and a half later, Dr Manmohan Singh said, “... India’s Look East Policy was not merely an external economic policy; it was also a strategic shift in India’s vision of the world and India’s place in the evolving global economy. Most of all, it was about reaching out to our civilisational neighbours.” However, while reaching out to its neighbours, India’s foreign policy and security establishments have typically overlooked a cru-

Glimpses of Maritime History The most prominent features of the Indian Ocean are the two waterbodies flanking the great Indian peninsula; the Arabian Sea separating it from the African continent, and the Bay of Bengal from mainland South East Asia. Both have played a crucial role in defining India’s maritime environment and thus shaping its history as well as destiny. The waters of the Arabian Sea have sustained a tradition of trade and commerce, going back to the third millennium BCE, when the denizens of the Indus Valley (2500 BCE) traded with Mesopotamia, Egypt and Rome. Indian mariners, familiar with the clockwork regularity of the monsoon winds, and making use of a magnetic compass (matsya yantra) are said to have sailed freely across this sea in ancient times. It was only in the first century CE when a Greek navigator named Hippalus made the epochal discovery of the cyclic monsoon winds that foreign merchant ships started making a direct ocean passage from African and Arabian ports to India’s west coast.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash

INDIAN DEFENCE

India’s peninsular location at the median of the Indian Ocean places it in a dominating position, which is not without its challenges. India’s interests lie both in the Persian Gulf, Middle East and Africa to its west, as well as in South East Asia and the larger Asia-Pacific to the east. It must, therefore, assume a Janus-faced stance, looking at both directions, to safeguard its interests and keep a wary eye on emerging threats.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Threats & Challenges

REGIONAL BALANCE

Eastern Waters

www.indiandefence.com, MoD China

6

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brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

the fact that major powershifts have never occurred without large-scale upheavals. Managing the rise of China successfully is the most important fundamental challenge confronting the international community in the 21st century. Writing about China’s rise, Michael D. Swaine and Ashley J. Tellis have said, “This process is significant not only because it promises the internal transformation of one of the world’s oldest civilisations, but also because if concluded successfully it could result in a dramatic power transition within the international system.”

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

India is conscious and watchful of the implications of China’s evolving military profile in the immediate and extended neighbourhood. — Ministry of Defence Annual Report 2010-11

C

hina is making steady progress on its long march to acquire world power status. China’s long-term strategy is clearly to be recognised as the pre-eminent economic and military power in the Asia-Pacific region in the short-term and as a major global power in the long-term. Its strategy of “four modernisations”, formally adopted in 1978, is bearing fruit and is leading to fairly rapid, though regionally skewed economic development and military modernisation. In recent years, the Chinese have stressed the importance of “comprehensive national strength” in determining the country’s role in international affairs. Their concept of national defence is no longer limited merely to the defence of territory, but has been expanded to include the seaboard and outer space. In maritime security, the erstwhile strategy of “coastal defence” has been converted to a strategy of “oceanic offensive”. The emphasis on bolstering naval and air forces stems from a desire to project power well away from China’s shores. Whether China’s rise will be entirely peaceful as its leaders have repeatedly professed or one that may be marked by turbulence and chaos as some analysts fear, is a vexing issue. History is witness to

Development of Comprehensive National Power China’s grand strategy seeks to preserve national independence and increase in national power through the balancing of two competing objectives—the development of Comprehensive National Power (CNP –zonghe guoli) and the exploitation of existing “strategic configuration of power” or “shi”. China’s strategy affirms that national unity, sovereignty and stability guarantee the survival of the state, and the development of a national strategy with China at the centre of Asia. Incorporated in this strategy is Chinese patience or willingness to live with ambiguity before considering the employment of force so that advantage is obtained, moral high ground is occupied and supporters or non-supporters are identified. China’s national security policy objectives, dynamic stability and economic growth are directly linked to the maintenance of unity through preservation of the regime, domestic order and territorial integrity. In a RAND study, Michael Swaine and Ashley Tellis have written that China’s grand strategy seeks to achieve the following three interrelated objectives:

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25 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n 

INDIAN DEFENCE

Nuclear weapons are best deterred by nuclear weapons and as a logical corollary only missiles can deter missiles. Hence, India must develop, test and operationally induct the Agni-III and Agni-IV intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) so as to be able to upgrade its present strategic posture of ‘dissuasion’ to one of credible ‘deterrence’ against China.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Implications for India

REGIONAL BALANCE

Military Build-up

MoD China, www.sinodefence.com

7

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n Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi

governing class apparently remains unmoved when the problems are presented to both the bureaucratic officials as well as the elected representatives of the people in a routine manner. Lately, the political leaders have taken increasing recourse to doles, euphemistically called compensations, freebies of many ­varieties and reservations of all types in lieu of good governance. This is likely to make the situation worse, as such populist measures have a finite life and they are no substitute for improving education, health, infrastructure, good governance, fair and impartial dealings devoid of nepotism and corruption, providing skills and creating employment opportunities. Another facet of internal problems is the worsening law and order situation in the country. The police-politician-criminal nexus has emboldened the criminal elements. Their activities are creating an environment of lawlessness, where influential and rich people violate the law with impunity, because they know they can get away.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

I

nternal conflicts have been the bane of India since independence in 1947. There are many reasons for this, including the legacy of the British, who left the country split on dubious religious grounds with artificial borders, which took no account of the ethnicity of the people. The reorganisation of states also produced several anomalies. These have resulted in both internal and external problems of gargantuan proportions. The country’s diversity, all-round poverty, exploitation of the weaker sections of society by greedy businessmen with the active support of the political leadership and their bureaucratic advisors, a self-degrading political system to which our politicians are clinging on desperately, and widespread corruption are some of the other reasons for the constant mushrooming of internal conflicts. It is unfortunate that our political leadership is unable to cope with the burgeoning internal problems, mainly because they look at all internal problems from the prism of electoral politics. Our leaders have not dealt with internal conflicts firmly and have allowed them to become unmanageable. At that stage, the leadership has taken recourse to the use of force and in most cases has turned to the Army to tackle the situation. The problems of internal conflicts gets accentuated due to lack of governance and the inability of the political leadership to understand the core issues that are forcing the people of a particular area or ethnicity or religion to take up arms to draw the attention of the rulers. The

Major Internal Security Challenges of India Categories of Internal Conflicts Internal conflicts in India can be divided into three categories. The first relates to people taking up arms against the state when other means of redressal of their aspirations and demands are either not met or are glossed over by an uncaring politico-bureaucratic combine. In other words, bad governance prevails and only peripheral attempts, if that, are made to satisfy the mostly legitimate requirements of the populace. The ongoing Maoist insurgency falls squarely in this category.

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The internal security problems should not be treated as mere law and order problems. They have to be dealt with comprehensively in all their dimensions and at all levels—political, economic and social.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Mushrooming Challenges

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Internal Conflicts

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.platypus1917.org, www.stopterrorismindia.blogspot.com

8

India’s

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CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES focus on fast-paced operations could be slowed down considerably by such threats to our lines of communications and the civil infrastructure. We therefore, need to have an independent operational capability to confront such threats without diluting the main military effort. This capability is being referred to as a half front capability. n Strategic reach and out-of-areas operations capabilities: The new war doctrine also seeks to confront future challenges by acquiring an out of area capability so as to militarily meet the role and aspirations of a regional power. n Tri-service operational synergy: The key aspects of strategic planning and conduct of future wars will be based on interdependence and operational synergy among the three services. Therefore, joint operations, space-based capability, ballistic missile defence and airborne, amphibious and air-land operations must be addressed comprehensively. n Military technological dominance over adversaries: This will be covered by acquiring capabilities for network-centric warfare, information warfare, cyber warfare all integrated to facilitate speedy decision-making and exploitation of fleeting tactical opportunities.

T

he Chief of Army Staff, General V.K. Singh, while delivering the inaugural address in a seminar of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) on October 15, 2010, on “Emerging Roles and Tasks of the Indian Army”, referred to Pakistan and China as ‘two irritants’. In the same vein, but more explicitly, in end-December 2009, the former Army Chief, General Deepak Kapoor had also stated during a seminar of the Army Training Command that the Indian Army must prepare for a two-front war. The statement of the current Army Chief coming close on the heels of the former Army Chief’s declaration indicates that our armed forces are indeed planning and preparing for a contingency in which they may have to confront both neighbours simultaneously. The five thrust areas of the new war doctrine as reported in the media at that time are as follows: n Two-front capability: This is the anchor on which India’s new war doctrine is based which means that India should be prepared to effectively meet simultaneous threats from China on the northern borders and Pakistan on the western borders. n Asymmetric warfare and sub-conventional threats: Both the adversaries can be expected to use asymmetric means in the form of infiltrators and terrorists across porous borders to divide our attention and thus hope to militarily weaken our overall response. Our

Future Strategic Direction

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Thus it seems that from a strategic viewpoint, India has shifted to a doctrine of ‘active and aggressive defence’, as opposed to passive defence in the past. However, it would be wrong to assume that these capabilities show India’s growing proclivity towards military adventurism. India’s record on the contrary shows a matured and measured attitude towards engaging in wars. The doctrine’s enunciation of a ‘two-front

35 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

BUSINESS

n Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

INDIAN DEFENCE

India has exceptional security parameters which are indicative of the type of capabilities that it would have to acquire. The security parameters include 15,000 km of land borders, out of which about 7,000 km is the border with Pakistan and China, countries with whom India has major territorial disputes; 7,516 km of coastline and about 2.1 million square kilometres of exclusive economic zone.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Should India Prepare for this Contingency

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

War

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.photobucket.com, China Army, www.militaryphotos.net

9

Two-Front


(Retd) Ali Ahmed

in its pursuit of a nuclear triad. Its doctrine is explicitly a “nuclear war” deterrent one, positing ‘massive’ nuclear retaliation in case of nuclear use against India or its forces anywhere. Even if the term ’massive’ is discounted, its long-standing position has been to inflict ‘unacceptable damage’ but only in retaliation. However, the possibility of deterrence break down, admittedly remote, cannot be entirely ignored. It is in this circumstance that the military dimension of nuclear weapons comes to fore. Owing to the focus on deterrence, the military aspect has remained understudied in India. This paper attempts to shift the spotlight from nuclear deterrence to nuclear employment. In doing so it posits a nuclear employment doctrine for India as against the pre-existing one for nuclear deterrence. This it does by resurrecting the work of General Krishnaswamy Sundarji, who was not only the first in India to reflect on this aspect but also surprisingly remains perhaps the lone figure to have done so. The logic informing an employment doctrine is that once deterrence has collapsed for some reason, the situation is no longer one of deterrence. Therefore, a deterrence doctrine needs to recede and instead a nuclear employment doctrine needs to take over. Though initial deterrence breaks down, it does not mean that deterrence is no longer valid. In conflict, deterrence remains operational since nuclear weapons continue in the arsenal even after introduction of nuclear weapons into a conflict. Therefore, inconflict deterrence must inform the employment doctrine. This would be different from the initial regime of deterrence, as the scenario is markedly different, post-nuclear use. This article attempts to study this issue. It first establishes that a breakdown in deterrence is not unthinkable. Since this scenario is more

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

here are two approaches to nuclear weapons. The one understandably more subscribed to has it that owing to their destructive power these are special weapons not meant for military use. They are instead meant for deterrence. This position was articulated early in the atomic age with Bernard Brodie, the first nuclear theorist, maintaining that their advent changed the role of armies from waging war to avoiding war. The second approach came about as the Cold War evolved, providing a rationale for the vertical proliferation witnessed in superpower arsenals. This approach treats nuclear weapons as different in order of magnitude but not of kind. While it values deterrence, it believes that the military utility ascribed to nuclear weapons undergirds deterrence. It therefore emphasises the military dimension as against the political dimension of nuclear weapons. The political dimension is what makes nuclear weapons be seen as political weapons, not for military usage but for deterrence. This is the Indian perspective on nuclear weapons. India sees nuclear weapons as regrettable acquisitions. As a reluctant nuclear power, it has acquired these after considerable time and debate in order that these deter nuclear use or the threat of use against it. The necessity was brought about by the nuclearisation of the neighbourhood to India’s disadvantage. The disadvantage was negated with the Shakti tests of Pokhran II. Progressively, since then India has attempted to redress the asymmetry

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n colonel

INDIAN DEFENCE

At the nuclear level, the military cannot be separated from the political. Therefore, there is no military dimension to nuclear weapons independent of the political. The national interest, necessarily politically determined, is to ensure state survival and minimum societal disruption.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

PIB, Indian Navy, DRDO

The Military Dimension

REGIONAL BALANCE

10 Nuclear Options India’s

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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beleaguered country by asking the international community to understand its friend’s predicament and support it in its hour of crisis. Preposterous as it may sound to the international community, what becomes crystal clear is the unflinching support that China is ready to provide to its smaller partner (read lackey) even if it indulges in behaviour akin to ‘cold-blooded’ murder. It also brings to the fore the perpetual politico-military nexus between the two countries and its implications on India’s security concerns. India continues to face multiple security threats and challenges from its neighbours. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain, new threats and challenges have also added to the old inventory. Terrorism in all its varieties and forms is a palpable threat and India also faces insurgencies generally fuelled from outside by the same adversaries. On the one hand, proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir, fostered and supported in all respects by Pakistan, continues unabated, and on the other hand, China’s repeated utterances claiming large portions of Indian territory, including the entire state of Arunachal Pradesh, inspires little confidence in the minds of India’s security establishment vis-à-vis its neighbours’ intensions. Little wonder that a ‘one-and-a-half front’ or a ‘two-front’ war theory has started to gain ever-increasing currency among the policymakers and strategists in India. The evolving security paradigm necessitates India to carry out a thorough investigation of its own capabilities vis-à-vis its adversaries’ to prepare itself to adequately meet the emerging and future security and military threats and challenges. It is in the context of military capabilities that the operational capabilities of the three air forces need to be covered in great detail as the air power of a country has become a major contributor and a decisive factor in the outcome of a military conflict. It is a known fact that while the air forces of China and Pakistan (PLAAF and PAF) are

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

P

akistan’s duplicity in its fight against global terrorism stands fully exposed post-Osama bin Laden’s elimination by the US Navy SEALs in a daring night raid on the Al-Qaeda chief’s hideout in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Governments and intelligentsia across the globe have lambasted Pakistan for its acts of commission and omission. In the article “They Got Him.” the Economist suggested that it was difficult to believe that Pakistan’s “blundering spies” had no idea of the whereabouts of the Al-Qaeda. In another article, “Pakistan: A Terrorist State,” published in the Newsweek, Salman Rushdie, the renowned Booker Prize winner for the book Midnight’s Children, wrote, “As the world braces for the terrorists’ response to the death of their leader, it should also demand that Pakistan give satisfactory answers to the very tough questions it must now be asked. If it does not provide those answers, perhaps the time has come to declare it a terrorist state and expel it from the comity of nations.” Unmindful of the international lambasting, the wily Pakistani establishment chose to plead incompetence rather than admitting to its complicity in harbouring the most wanted terrorist in the world. And while the US suspicion of Pakistan’s ‘two-faced’ policy turns into concrete realisation and Obama Administration goes into a tough mode towards its shifty ally that was mollycoddled by previous US administrations despite its fostering of terrorism, China—its all-weather friend with whom Pakistan boasts of a relationship which is “deeper than the oceans and higher than the mountains”—once again rises to the occasion to provide solace to the

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia

INDIAN DEFENCE

The IAF’s strategy should be to build adequate all-round operational capabilities both in terms of combat power as well as infrastructure to provide a credible deterrence against its adversaries whether acting singly or jointly.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns, Dassault Aviation, www.ng.mil, www.sinodefence.com

IAF’s Programmes and Strategies

REGIONAL BALANCE

11 India, Pak & China Aerospace Capabilities:

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CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

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12 Security T

wenty-first century global realities have modified the very concept of power. Although military strength remained the supreme instrument of power, economic growth and development have become a cardiogram of a state’s power. The economy of a state exerts major influence on shaping its foreign policy. The first aspect of the economic element in foreign policy is the degree of dependence on external trade. This is related to and is affected by the quantity and availability of domestic natural resources, commodity composition of exports, range of markets for them, size and trends of population, and the standard of living and expectations about it. There is a direct relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. Energy consumption is both a necessary condition for growth and a consequence of it.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

World’s Energy Scenario In 2010, total world primary energy consumption was 11,165 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE) of which US and China’s consumption were 19.5 per cent each followed by Russia (five per cent) and Japan with 4.2 per cent. India too consumed 4.2 per cent. While the consumption rate has declined in the US, Russia and in Japan, it has increased in China and India being the world’s top two fastest growing economies as Table 1 depicts. However, in the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) new policy scenario, world primary energy demand increase by 36 per cent between 2008 and 2035, from around 12,300 MTOE to 16,700 MTOE or 1.2 per cent per year on an average. Fossil fuels, oil, coal and natural gas remain

Energy Security The concept of energy security is not confined to energy importing countries but also applies to countries which export energy resources. The energy security calculations of exporting country are in several respects the same as that of an importing country. While energy importing country is concerned primarily with access to resources and guaranteed supplies, an energy exporter is preoccupied with access to markets and assured demands for its products. In a seller’s market, buyers want long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, but in a buyer’s market, it is the suppliers who want firm arrangements.

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Growing population and expanding economy with the shift in focus of production from agriculture to manufacturing and services sectors has led to increase in energy intensity which has resulted in unprecedented hike in demand for energy sources. Thus the critical relevance of this concept for a nation emanates from the growing imbalance between the demand for energy and its supply from indigenous sources implying thereby growing import dependence for essential requirements of the nation. In the past 35-40 years, worldwide energy consumption has nearly doubled, driven by population growth, rising living standards, invention of energy-dependent technologies and consumerism. At the same time, limited and depleting oil reserves, unstable oil prices, the worsening problems of environment and health, and the urgent need to address global warming and climate change demand an urgent need for enhancing and strengthening the very concept of energy security.

BUSINESS

n Dr Bhupendra Kumar Singh

INDIAN DEFENCE

In a global competitive world, India needs to engage energy rich countries in a very strategic manner backed by its energy diplomacy and foreign policy for ensuring continuous availability of commercial energy at competitive prices to support economic growth

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

In the Global Competitive Environment

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

www.windy-future.info, U.S. Department of Energy, www.picture-newsletter.com, www.tradingpetroleum.com

Energy


Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

Despite fully acknowledging that no single service can individually battle present and future conflict situations, the state of integration and jointness of our defence services is far from satisfactory notwithstanding periodic statements that ‘all is well’. In one of the Unified Commanders Conference not very far back, one of the service chiefs stated, “We have very good synergy within the three Chiefs. We golf together once a month and follow it up with breakfast,” It was more of a joke but also at least half the truth. If we continue to progress in current fashion, then the race of revolution in military affairs (RMA) in true sense will remain a misnomer, both regionally and globally. Mere coining of joint warfighting doctrine is of little use unless organisations and structures are created to execute such doctrine. Making cosmetic changes to our organisations is not likely to work. We need to ensure unified command structures speedily through the three services horizontally and vertically in a time bound manner. The very first step in our march towards RMA is to make organisational changes that are necessary to give an impetus to synergising the defence forces for complete integration. We need capacity building to fight as one single concentrated effort combining all elements of the three services.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

“Reforms within the armed forces also involve recognition of the fact that our navy, air force and army can no longer function in compartments with exclusive chains of command and single service operational plans.” —Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2004

L

ack of strategic forethought in the politico-bureaucratic ­dispensation in India and the higher defence set up sans ­services participation in national defence decision-making has had direct bearing on integration and jointness of the ­military. Additionally, the latent political fear of a military coup, egged on by the Indian Police Service (IPS) lobby ­particularly by the IPS-turned-bureaucrats coupled with bureaucracy that revels in maintaining their primacy by playing on inter-service rivalry and creating avoidable hurdles by exercising overt control over financial expenditures, equipment acquisitions and appointments, has not permitted the institution of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) despite strong recommendations to the effect made by the Group of Ministers (GoM) following the Kargil War. In turn, the concept of Integrated Theatre Commands too has been given a silent burial despite various studies undertaken by the military highlighting the tremendous operational and administrative benefits that would accrue with such reorganisation.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Future Battlefield

The battlefield of tomorrow will be non-linear with multidimensional battle spaces characterised by nuclear ambiguity, increased lethality, a very high degree of mobility with simultaneity of engagement and increased tempo of operations with compressed time and space coupled with high degree of transparency. Given the current dispensations in the

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REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

BUSINESS

The biggest challenge to jointness is to bring about an attitudinal shift by turning the sense of insecurity and mutual suspicion into a sense of belongingness amongst the services as well as the politico-bureaucratic establishment. While there is an urgent need to appoint a CDS, we should get on with initiating the process of establishing ITCs and IFCs in the larger interest of achieving jointness and integration.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP Guide Pubns, Indian Navy

For Jointness & Integration of the Military

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

13 Commands

Integrated Theatre

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Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

as a controlled response in the emerging strategic environment that is showing signs of escalation. Unfortunately, they have only been used as tactical tool in conventional war other than counter-insurgency within our borders, save the sole experience as part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka, where they performed well. Radio intercepts of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) were explicit that they respected and feared the troops of our Special Forces. We have failed to acknowledge that Special Forces have ample scope of employment to face challenges of terrorism, information, asymmetric, NBC warfare and the like. Our Special Forces are split over various organisations, have different command and control set ups and continue to expand. Time is more than opportune for India to set up an Integrated Special Forces Command in order to synergise our Special Forces and optimise their potential.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

here is little doubt that for many years to come, threat perceptions will continue to be dominated by sub-conventional conflict and relate more to non-state actors albeit conventional war under the nuclear-biological and chemical (NBC) backdrop will remain a possibility in the subcontinent. Non-state actors are likely to be more and more state-sponsored in our case with increasing difficulty to pinpoint external support. Pakistan’s continuing jehadi strategy is on the threshold of cashing on to the terror infrastructure it has so painstakingly built over the years in India, nurturing the supporters simultaneously. Appointment of Adnan Shukrijumah to lead Al-Qaeda operatives in the US is mainly due to the 15 long years he has spent in the US. Pakistan is likely to follow the same policy in order to obliterate its fingerprints in future terror strikes—a tactics better than blatant unconvincing denials. Today, warfare is no longer confined to the battlefield. The boundaries between war and no war are blurred with asymmetric wars that have no borders, no rules and no regulations. Today, wars are being fought in industrial bases, computer rooms and are viewed instantly by the public in the drawing rooms with the revolution ushered in by information technology. Psychological warfare probably imposes the largest penalty but affords the highest payoffs. Successful psychological warfare demands integrated themes and subjects which need to be developed. India has a variety of Special Forces that have wide applications across the entire spectrum of conflict. They can very well be employed

Battlefield India China’s increased belligerence including its strategic footprints in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) and claim that Arunachal Pradesh is “Southern Tibet” has exacerbated the strategic environment. Delaying settlement of borders with India aids her periodic nibbling efforts albeit downplayed by India under the pretext of “differing perceptions of line of actual control (LAC)”. China has been supporting Pakistan’s jehadi strategy as part of her own strategic ambitions to keep India in check, in addition to the “String of Pearls” and stated desire to control the Indian Ocean region (IOR). Pakistan’s massive radicalisation, proved more recently in the aftermath of Governor Salmaan Taseer’s assassination, portends a future with more and more hatred towards the ‘non-believers’. Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT)

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n 

INDIAN DEFENCE

Proactive employment of Special Forces in the face of non-traditional challenges does not equate automatically to physical attack. The key lies in achieving strategic objectives exploiting the psychological component. We need to develop the necessary political will to contend with emerging strategic challenges.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns, Indian Navy

For Applications Across the Entire Spectrum of Conflict

REGIONAL BALANCE

14 Forces Command Integrated Special

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CONTENTS

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TECHNOLOGY

US Navy, US Army, wikipedia

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

15 Disaster in Japan Nuclear

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CONTENTS

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Impact on Civil Nuclear Industry

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INDIAN DEFENCE

O

n March 11, 2011, at 0546 hours UTC (1116 hours IST) a catastrophic earthquake measuring 8.9 on the Richter scale struck at a depth of approximately 80 feet below the surface of the Pacific Ocean, 130 km east of Honshu and generated a tsunami that devastated the north-east coast of Japan. The earthquake-tsunami combine caused extensive damage to the Japanese economy initially estimated to be over $300 billion (`13,50,000 crore) and triggered a crisis at a nuclear power plant necessitating large-scale evacuation. The main and the largest of the four islands that constitute the Japanese nation and the seventh largest island in the world, Honshu is only next to the island of Java in Indonesia which is regarded as the most populous in the world. Roughly 1,300 kilometres in length and width varying between 50 km and 230 km, the island of Honshu with a coastline of 5,450 km and total area of 2,27,963 square km is larger than Great Britain. The terrain is mountainous and volcanic, being frequently jolted by earthquakes. Mount Fuji is the highest terrain feature on the island and continues to be an active volcano. Notwithstanding the fact that Japan has been prone to earthquakes, it has continued to build nuclear power generation plants even in seismic zones as the other sources of energy available in the country are totally inadequate to meet the colossal demand of the world’s third largest economy.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The epicentre of the massive earthquake that generated a tsunami with ocean waves 35 feet high lay around 370 km from the Japanese capital Tokyo. In what is acknowledged as the greatest disaster of the 21st century so far and the worst earthquake in the last 140 years, large parts of north- eastern Japan including the port city of Sendai which was a major habitation nearest to the epicentre of the earthquake, lay devastated by the overwhelming fury of nature. Apart from the countless who lost their homes and belongings, thousands lay dead and many more were reported missing. The misery was compounded by as many as 25 aftershocks measuring 6.0 or above on the Richter scale that continued to rock Japan for a few days after the initial upheaval. While the combined effect of an earthquake and a tsunami by itself can be quite destructive as was the experience at Sendai, what turned the episode of March 11 into a near holocaust was the severe damage to the nuclear facility at Fukushima Daiichi located on the eastern coast of the island run by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Over 40 years old, the nuclear reactors at Fukushima are among the largest in the world and even with foolproof protection unable to withstand the fury of nature. This nuclear power generation facility has a total of six units laid out in two reactor groups. Reactor numbers one to four which were commissioned between 1970 and 1979 constitute Group I and the two newer reactors numbered as five and six are part of Group II. Plans to commission by 2016-17 two additional units numbered as seven and eight were hastily abandoned in the wake of the horrendous experience in March 2011.

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey

BUSINESS

While nuclear facilities will continue to be vulnerable to natural disasters or technical malfunction, hasty decision to bury the nuclear source of energy may neither be prudent nor warranted. On top of the agenda of both developing and developed nations ought to be the larger issue of safety standards of nuclear facilities.


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Commander (Retd) Devbrat Chakraborty

advancing our knowledge of the complex networked systems and capabilities that are being fielded. The term experimentation arises from the Latin word experiri, which means “to try”. Experimentation knowledge differs from other types of knowledge. It is always founded on observation or experience. In other words, experiments are always empirical. However, measurement alone does not make an experiment. Experiments also involve establishing some level of control and manipulating one or more factors of interest in order to establish or track the cause and effect. As per the Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defence Experimentation (GUIDEx), defence experimentation is “the application of the experimental method to the solution of complex defence capability development problems, potentially across the full spectrum of conflict types, such as warfighting, peace enforcement, humanitarian relief and peace-keeping”. It covers the performance of new equipment or the exploration of new concepts and logistics, systems integration, interoperability (single service, joint and coalition), fleet management and cost of ownership. Any aspect of systems development, operation and use that involve human decision-making processes can be addressed. More specifically, the direct benefits of experimentation are the ability to deliver timely answers with a measured level of confidence, thereby, contributing to sound risk management of programmes and their components. It thoroughly supports defence problem solving from concepts through capability development to operations.

T

he defence environment has experienced many changes in recent times, driven by developments in the political and economic sphere, technology, the legal environment and society. Application of military power in isolation may not be sufficient to deal with situations that governments and security forces may confront. Military power must instead be applied in conjunction with other state or international interventions such as diplomacy, geopolitical considerations and economic measures. There have been considerable changes even in the purely military domain. Such changes include, force development in response to asymmetric and unpredictable threats, the demands of coalition operations and the need for information supremacy. Moreover, as forces move from a platform-centric paradigm to a net-centric paradigm, concepts of operations and decision-making processes and actions continuously need to be reviewed, in order to ensure that they remain relevant and effective. The challenges associated while dealing with such changes in the defence environment are considerable. Defence strategists and planners are likely to increasingly find themselves in territories like human decisionmaking cycles, command and control, hierarchies and information management. Defence experimentation offers a cost-effective means to support focused development and transformation of allied forces by

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

n 

INDIAN DEFENCE

Improvements in modern-day computing and visualisation techniques and technologies have provided an ­impetus to the practitioner and has helped gain customer support confidence for the application of defence experimentation. The increasing variety of complex situations that the military customer finds in his day to day activities encourages him to move away from qualitative judgements to scientific ways of decision-making.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Selex Galileo, US Army, www.bt-ag.ch

Defence Experimentation to Support Focused Development

REGIONAL BALANCE

16 Simulation Modelling &

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CONTENTS

Building C4I2SR Systems 73 Battle Tank Redesigned 79 Unmanned Underwater Vehicles 83 UAVs in the Indian Air Force 87 Ballistic Missile Defence 93 India’s Satellite Capability 97

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One Two Three Four Five Six

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Technology

TECHNOLOGY

section two

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


SUPREME FIREPOWER IN URBAN TERRAIN

In the world of lIght, shoulder-launched, anti-armour systems, Carl-Gustaf and

AT4 stands supreme. Carl-Gustaf, the true multirole weapon system, and the AT4 CS (Confined Space) are continuously under development for higher performance in urban terrain. The newly developed AT4 CS AST (Anti-Structure Tandem) as well as new rounds for Carl-Gustaf offers additional capabilities for urban warfare. They are as powerful in use as they are easy to handle. Both these well-proven and reliable weapons can be integrated into your infantry platoons and increase your fighting capacity and survivability giving man-portable artillery support and a broad anti-armour firepower base. Equipped with the Carl-Gustaf and the AT4 CS systems, soldiers are provided with effective power in urban surroundings for decades to come.

ffV ordnAnCe www.saabgroup.com


If India is to graduate beyond a regional power then our national focus should include establishment of a joint force networked through an effective C4I2SR grid. Emphasis must be placed upon indigenous research and self-reliance, to ensure security and redundancy in our system.

Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

technology will act as a force multiplier to enhance operational effectiveness of commanders and troops at all levels by enabling exchange, filtering and processing of ever increasing amounts of digital information currently available but not integrated. This is very relevant at all levels and particularly at the cutting-edge where opposing forces are in contact.

We are in a state of perpetual conflict. In fact, it has become a global phenomenon with many nations engaged in asymmetric wars. Within the protracted full spectrum conflict, adaptive and asymmetric threats have overshadowed conventional conflict. The changing nature of conflict has added new complexities and challenges. Conventional conflict is increasingly intertwined with irregular forces using unconventional means and tactics; while irregular forces are becoming increasingly lethal with access to technology and equipment that previously only conventional forces used. The rapid development of high technology weapon systems and their possession by powerful states meant that weaker states and non-state groups could no more stand up to powerful states. This led to asymmetric conflict by smaller, irregular forces employing terrorism, insurgency, and guerrilla warfare while exploiting technology, networks, cyberspace and media. Fighters today are tough, techno savvy and ideologically motivated with cultural awareness impacting military operations. Launch of tactical missions has strategic implications. Information, space and cyber operations are being waged continuously. There are no rules, no regulations and no boundaries either. Defence forces and nations are using networks extensively and are feverishly engaged in bettering niche capabilities above the adver-

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES INDIAN DEFENCE

War Paradigm

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

I

n the wake of speedy technological advancements, command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence (C4I2) systems provide sterling opportunities for the defence and security establishment acting as important force multiplier for commanders at all levels. Akin to any technology, undoubtedly there are problems but these are not insurmountable and can be managed. The challenge lies in making C4I2 systems interoperable, survivable, inexpensive, reliable and maintainable on the battlefield. Given the terrific capacity building that C4I2 systems offer and given the effective training on C4I2 systems, our forces will have that necessary edge to emerge winners in future conflict situations. Add surveillance and reconnaissance (SR) to C4I2 and you have the acronym C4I2SR implying a group of functionalities and applications of a defence system that integrates the many levels of a military chain of command including troops, tanks, weapon platforms, aircraft, surveillance stations and the highest level of tactical and strategic information available in order to back up military decisions and actions. These systems are axiomatically designed to obtain advantages over the adversaries. Rapid developments in technology has revolutionised warfare. The key to success will lie in attaining higher levels of net-centricity; effective command and control across the force, an accelerated decision-action cycle and an ability to conduct synergised operations simultaneously within the defence and security establishment. Harnessing information

REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

TECHNOLOGY

Interoperable, Survivable, Reliable, Maintainable

BUSINESS

C4I2SR Systems

SP Guide Pubns

1

Building

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CONTENTS

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Major general R.P. Bhadran

Changing Complexion of Battlefield Higher density of population, widespread urbanisation, improved surface communication in most countries globally and an ever increasing aversion to collateral damage during operations, have brought in certain new imperatives into the battlefield while rendering certain old ones redundant. Further, in the context of the fourth generation warfare, a more active United Nations role in restoring order and peace enforcement in conflict zones have become evident lately. This in turn calls for better strategic mobility in the forces of participating countries. These, coupled with the developments in the fields of micro electronics, automation and information technology during the past over a decade, have raised two profoundly pertinent issues which merit due deliberation. These are, first, the threat profile prevailing against the tank has undergone a drastic change; second, technology now allows the tank to be designed to be a more viable weapon platform than today.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

ank as a weapon system has undergone many an evolutionary transformation in nearly a century of its existence. These changes were primarily focused at out-gunning, outarmouring and out-powering the adversary. Thus, the period between the two World Wars saw the power to weight ratio and gun calibres increasing from 9:1 and 37mm respectively in the 1930s to 15:1 and 90mm towards the end of the war. Armour protection also increased correspondingly during this period, from about 45mm to over 120mm. It would be noticed that changes of these nature were guided by two primary imperatives; need for enhanced protection and creation of more space within the tank to accommodate the more powerful engine and the larger calibre gun. The increased armour envelop had its attendant implications on weight as well. During the postWorld War period, the trend continued till the early 1980s, wherein the power to weight ratio and gun calibres rose to 25:1 and 125mm respectively and the weight of the tank stabilised in the region of 57 tonnes to 68 tonnes. These heavier tanks, however, were not suited for employment in certain types of terrain, especially in riverine, mountainous terrain and in afforested areas. Air transportability was also severely restricted. Therefore, a family of lighter tanks also evolved to meet these specialised requirements. Obviously, the levels of protection and firepower of these tanks were much less.

The Threat Profile In future, most of the battles will be fought in urban or semi-urban ­terrain. This changed environment has certain major ramifications for the tank. First, it is no longer likely that armies would undertake deep manoeuvres as of yesteryears—penetrations will be shallow and battles will be fought closer to the borders. Built-up areas and wide network of waterways will constrain penetration in space while international opinion will limit it in time. The classical tactics of trading space for time will no longer hold true and battles are likely to be much more intense where every inch of territory will be bitterly contested. Second, in the context of urban warfare, the frontal arc would be

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INDIAN DEFENCE

With the changing complexion of the battlefield, armies will have to rise above the established norms and proven methods, adapt to the changes and espouse the best from what technology can offer

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

An Evolutionary Transformation

REGIONAL BALANCE

Redesigned

www.forte.jor.br, SP Guide Pubns, US Army

2

Battle Tank

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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Commander Shishir Upadhyaya

cessful designs in nature. Two such vehicles are Festo’s AquaJelly and Evologics’ Bionik Manta. Today, while most AUVs are capable of unsupervised missions, most operators remain within range of acoustic telemetry systems in order to maintain a close watch on their investment. This is not always possible. For example, Canada operates AUVs to survey the sea floor underneath the Arctic ice in support of their claim under Article 76 of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. Also, ultra-low-power, long-range variants such as underwater gliders are becoming capable of operating unattended for weeks or months in littoral and open ocean areas, periodically relaying data by satellite to shore, before returning to be picked up.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Design Sensors: Primarily oceanographic tools, AUVs carry sensors to navigate autonomously and map features of the ocean. Typical sensors include compasses, depth sensors, side scan and other sonars, magnetometers, thermistors and conductivity probes. A demonstration at Monterey Bay in California in September 2006 showed that a 21-inch (533mm) diameter AUV can tow a 300 feet (91 m) long hydrophone array while maintaining a three knot (5.6 km/h) cruising speed. Navigation: AUVs can navigate using an underwater acoustic positioning system. There are three broad classes of underwater acoustic positioning systems that are used to track underwater vehicles and divers. They are long baseline (LBL), ultra short baseline (USBL) and short baseline (SBL) systems. LBL systems use a network of sea-floor mounted baseline transponders as reference points for navigation. These are generally deployed around the perimeter of a work site. The

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83 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

U

nmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) are vehicles that are able to operate underwater without a human occupant. These vehicles may be divided into two categories, remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) controlled by a remote human operator, and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which operate independently. The latter category would constitute a kind of robot. AUVs form the majority of all types of UUVs and hence the term UUV is often used loosely to describe AUVs. The first AUV was developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington as early as 1957 by Stan Murphy, Bob Francois and subsequently, Terry Ewart. Over the last five decades, hundreds of different types of UUVs have been designed and developed and are currently used in the fields of scientific marine research, oil/gas exploration and military. Vehicles range in size from man portable lightweight AUVs to large diameter vehicles of over 10 metres length. Most AUVs follow the traditional torpedo shape as this is seen as the best compromise between size, usable volume, hydrodynamic efficiency and ease of handling. There are some vehicles that make use of a modular design, enabling components to be changed easily by the operators. As of 2008, a new class of AUVs are being developed, which mimic designs found in nature. Although most are currently in their experimental stages, these biomimetic (or bionic) vehicles are able to achieve higher degrees of efficiency in propulsion and manoeuvrability by copying suc-

REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

TECHNOLOGY

Operating underwater is difficult and complex, and complicates efforts to coordinate operations among robotic vehicles and surface vessels. Nevertheless, UUVs hold great promise as platforms of the future, especially as naval operations shift from blue water to the littorals.

BUSINESS

Platforms of the Future

INDIAN DEFENCE

Underwater Vehicles

BAE Systems, Saab Group

3

Unmanned

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha

tors were being directed towards these aircraft, other UAVs jammed Syrian ground controlled interception (GCI) communications thus reducing the Syrian jets to sitting ducks. In the course of a single afternoon, Syrian Air Force was virtually decimated. The significance of the stunning success of this new tool of war was not lost on the Indian Air Force (IAF). However, India at that time was largely locked out of the Western arms market. India also had no diplomatic relation with Israel who was clearly the leader in UAVs. Therefore, even while IAF became alive to developments taking place in the field of UAVs, it had no access to them. The end of the Cold War marked the beginning of the thaw in India’s relations with the West. Ultimately, it was the shock of Kargil that brought home the necessity of keeping a constant vigil over several hundreds of kilometres of India’s borders. With the improvement of relations with the US and Israel, acquisition of UAVs for surveillance and reconnaissance came within the realm of possibility.

U

nmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have come to be understood as powered aerial vehicles that do not carry human operators on board. If directed or controlled by a ground or airborne controller, it becomes a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). UAVs have been in use for a long time. In more recent times, the US employed them extensively during the Vietnam War. However, it was Israel which demonstrated their tremendous potential first in the 1973 Yom Kippur War with another spectacular repeat in the 1982 Operation ‘Peace for Galilee’ campaign in the Syrian Bekaa valley. Well before the offensive, Israeli UAVs conducted systematic reconnaissance to build a comprehensive threat library of Syrian surface-to-air missiles (SAM) radars. The gathered data was used to programme their anti-radiation missiles (ARMs). The offensive on June 9, 1982, opened with a superbly crafted deception plan. UAVs flew across the battlespace mimicking a full scale attack. As anticipated, Syrians reacted furiously by firing large number of SAMs, which gave away the location of the emitters. While the SAM launchers were being reloaded, fighters attacked the SAM radars with ARMs. Simultaneously, laser guided bombs assisted by illumination provided by UAVs, wiped out the threatening missile sites. UAVs also helped in picking up the scrambling Syrian fighters and relayed the information to an on station AWACS. While Israeli intercep-

Role of UAVs in IAF The Indian Air Force currently employs scores of ‘Searcher II’ and ‘Heron 1’ UAVs of Israeli origin for surveillance and reconnaissance along the western and northern borders. In addition, IAF also has Harpy-a hunter killer UAV designed to neutralise hostile radars. Their brief description and capabilities are described below.

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IAF is conscious of the force multiplication impact since UAVs were added to its arsenal about a decade ago. The prevailing military environment in the neighbourhood and future portents can only increase their relevance. From that standpoint, it is inevitable that IAF would periodically upgrade its UAV force both qualitatively as well as quantitatively and also diversify their missions. Addition of strike capability to a surveillance platform may be the first qualitative upgradation in the not too distant future.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Future Trends

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Air Force

SP Guide Pubns, PIB, IAI

4

UAVs in the

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Lt General (Retd) V.K. Saxena

selves to the terminal phase of the threat missiles when as early as 1962, the concept of ballistic missile intercept through the kinetic energy rockets was developed. With the passage of time and technology, the ballistic missile defence (BMD) system architecture developed in multiple tiers of defences. The aim being to put up defence-in-depth as a single tier system could neither ensure fool-proof detection nor a leak-proof engagement. The first of the layered system, i.e. the lower tier systems were basically meant to defend against short- or medium-range missiles basically in the terminal phase of the trajectory. Their interception was largely endo-atmospheric. Several fully matured and developed systems were fielded and deployed the world over, for example the PAC 3 was battle tested in operation Iraqi Freedom. The current technology is driven towards enhancing the reach of this system (PAC-3 MSE) and developing the air launched hit-to-kill version of PAC-3. Similarly, the US-Israeli Arrow series of anti-tactical ballistic missiles (ATBMs) fall in this category. Some more systems include the medium extended air defence system (MEADS) BMD system, a joint venture of Lockheed Martin, EADS and MBDA which are scheduled for initial deployment in 2014 and the Navy Area theatre ballistic missile defence (TBMD) based on Aegis class of ships and equipped with standard missile (SM-3) class of hit-to-kill interceptor. The Russian TMD systems include S-300 PMU-1, S-300 PMU-2 (SA 10E ‘Favorit’) and S-400 ‘Triumf ‘ (SA-2, ‘Growler’), an enhanced version of S-300 PMU-3. The Chinese besides the PMU series have an indigenous Hongqi-10 (150 km, further enhanced to 200 km) TMD system capable of countering the missile threat both in the terminal as well as mid-course phase of threat trajectory.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

“Space is no longer just an ultimate high ground; it is a contested environment and an integral part of joint operation.” — General C. Robert Kehler, US Army & Lt General John T Sheridan, US Army

I

n the context of putting up a defensive shield overhead against a potential missile attack, the world has indeed moved a long way from the days of shock and total helplessness when during World War II, Adolf Hitler’s Vengeance Weapon 2 (V-2) came screaming down from the upper atmosphere wreaking havoc upon a helpless population. The first ballistic missile had arrived. In little over half a century, the severity and lethality of the ballistic missile arsenal has grown exponentially in range, reach, accuracy and technological prowess. In this context, as the technology has gradually transited various developmental milestones, the missile arsenal has grown from the tactical ballistic missiles (TBM) to short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) to medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM) to intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBM) class, till finally arriving at the range pedestal of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), wherein, today, the missiles not only from China, but also from North Korea have the capability to reach the US mainland. The defensive shield against the above threat has grown in a typical cause-effect relationship. The defenders initially could only limit them-

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In little over half a century, the severity and lethality of the ballistic missile arsenal has grown exponentially in range, reach, accuracy and technological prowess. As the technology has gradually transited various developmental milestones, the missile arsenal has grown from the TBM to SRBM to MRBM to IRBM class, till finally arriving at the range pedestal of ICBM.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Emerging Technologies Embracing Space Frontiers

REGIONAL BALANCE

Missile Defence

US Navy, www.mda.mil

5

Ballistic

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

lites and other space assets by using directed energy weapons and/or nuclear and conventional missiles. Communications satellites are stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Navigational satellites enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location by using radio time signals transmitted by the satellites. Global positioning system (GPS) is an example. Reconnaissance satellites are earth observation satellites or communication satellites deployed for military or intelligence applications. Earth observation satellites are intended for non-military use such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making, etc. Space stations are man-made structures that are designed for human beings to live in outer space. A space station does not have its own propulsion and other vehicles are used for transportation. Astronomical satellites are used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects.

M

oon is a celestial body and a natural satellite that orbits a planet or a smaller body. However, in this article, by “satellite” we mean an artificial satellite, an object which has been placed into orbit by man. Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite launched by Russia in 1957. After Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2 was launched in the same year and carried the first living passenger, a dog named Laika. Russia’s Sputnik programme started a space race between the US and Russia. Three months after Sputnik 1, the US launched Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958. Since then, thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the earth and a few have also been placed in orbit around the moon, venus, etc, which have become their artificial satellites. Satellites are used both for civil and military applications like communications, navigation, weather forecasting, intelligence gathering and research. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the earth is the International Space Station. About 50 countries have launched their own satellites but the launching capabilities exist only in about 10 countries.

Type of Orbits Geocentric orbit is an orbit around the Earth and is the most common type of orbit. Sputnik 1 was also put into geocentric orbit. At present about 2,456 satellites are orbiting the earth. Geocentric orbit is further classified by altitude, inclination and eccentricity. The commonly used altitude classifications are low earth orbit (LEO) which is below 2,000 km, medium earth orbit (MEO) which is higher than that but still below the altitude for geosynchronous orbit at 35,786 km and high earth orbit (HEO) which is an orbit higher than 35,786 km.

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Important Satellites Anti-satellite weapons are designed to destroy enemy warheads, satel-

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INSAT and IRS have the potential to be used for India’s military needs for transmission of communications and data, surveillance, weather forecast, digital mapping, navigation, missile warning and a score of other applications. A start has been made by providing the Indian Navy with a dedicated communication satellite. It is certain that ISRO will cater to India’s military needs in the future by its dedicated military satellite programme.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Potential for National Development

REGIONAL BALANCE

Satellite Capability

ISRO, ESA

6

India’s

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section three

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven

Rebuilding the Indian Army Modernisation of the Indian Navy Modernising the Indian Air Force Defence Policies & Procedures Defence Procurement Procedure 2011 Defence Budget 2011-12 Strategic & Business Environment Global Contracts

101 105 109 113 117 123 127 135

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Business


The approach to modernisation must be more focused the priorities must be clearly established and then adhered to. The government must give a firm commitment in terms of funds and the MoD must streamline its procedures and processes for speedy procurement of high priority weapons and equipment.

n Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

crisis. Growth at such a rapid rate would not have been possible but for the sustained vigilance maintained by the Indian armed forces and the many sacrifices they made in the service of the nation over the last six decades.

A

young nation with an ancient civilisation, India faces many threats and challenges to its external and internal security. The foremost among these are the long-festering dispute over Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) with Pakistan and the unresolved territorial and boundary dispute with China. Since independence on August 15, 1947, India has fought four wars with Pakistan (1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999) and one with China (1962). India’s internal security environment has been vitiated by a ‘proxy war’ through which Pakistan has fuelled an uprising in Jammu & Kashmir since 1988-89. Various militant movements in India’s Northeastern states and the rising tide of Maoist terrorism in large parts of Central India have also contributed to internal instability. India’s regional security is marked by instability in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite these tensions, India has maintained its coherence and its gross domestic product (GDP) is now growing at an annual rate in excess of eight per cent, except for the dip suffered during the financial

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With a personnel strength of approximately 1.2 million soldiers, the Indian Army has made a huge contribution towards keeping the nation together, particularly in facing internal security challenges. It is a firstrate army, but has been saddled for long with second-rate weapons and equipment, despite heavy operational commitments on border management and in counter-insurgency operations. The modernisation dilemma that the Indian Army faces is that the budgetary support available for modernisation is grossly inadequate. It can undertake substantive modernisation only by simultaneously effecting large-scale downsizing so as to save on personnel costs—the largest chunk of the Army’s annual budget. However, it would not be prudent to downsize, as the Army’s operational commitments on border management and internal security duties require large numbers of manpower-heavy infantry battalions. In his budget speech on February 28, 2011, Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee set aside `1,64,425 crore ($36 billion) for defence during the Financial Year (FY) 2011-12. This is less than two per cent of the country’s GDP despite the recommendations of successive Standing Committees on Defence in the Parliament that it should be at least three per cent if the emerging threats and challenges are to be successfully countered. Meanwhile, China has increased its official defence expenditure for 2011 by 13 per cent to $91.5 billion (`4,11,750 crore) while its actual expendi-

INDIAN DEFENCE

Modernisation Dilemma

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

“Despite our best intentions and earmarking huge budgets and allocating money, the modernisation efforts have not borne the desired results. We must continuously reduce and even eliminate procedural delays and bottlenecks in our procurement procedures.” — Defence Minister A.K. Antony, December 15, 2010

TECHNOLOGY

Modernisation Plans Stagnating

BUSINESS

Indian Army

SP Guide Pubns

1

Rebuilding the

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Building the 2020 Navy may require some prompt and focused course corrections and realignment with the forecast operational scenario of 2022 and beyond. No matter what the force levels, force structure and force composition, the Indian Navy must deliver on the simple objective of defeating the barbaric, hybrid or state forces in the area of our maritime interest.

Commodore (Retd) Sujeet Samaddar

only about 40 per cent of the cost of three P17s being built at MDL for `8,800 crore and with equal, if not better, capability. These three ships

T

Table 1 Type and Nos

Country of Origin

Ordered

Delivery Period

1.

9 x Murasame Class Destroyers (4,550 T)

Japan

1992

March 1996March 2002

2.

8 x Maestrale Class Frigates (3,500 T)

Italy

1980

February 1981May 1985

3.

2 x Luzhou Class China Destroyers (7,100 T) )

2004

October 2006March 2007

4.

4 x Akixuki Class Destroyers

Japan

2007

October 2010November 2014

5

3 x KDXII Class Destroyers (7,700 T)

South Korea

2007

May 2007March 2011

6

3 x P17 Class Frigates

India

2003

First in April 2010, second in August 2011, and third due in 2012

7

3 x P15A Class Destroyers

India

2003

TBD-TBD (?)

8

4 x P28 Corvettes

India

2003

TBD-TBD (?)

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Sl No

INDIAN DEFENCE

A comparison of global standards for shipbuilding

he Indian Navy has been very fortunate to have had visionary leaders. From a minor littoral force of hand-me-down frigates, sloops and craft at the time of independence, the Indian Navy has now emerged as the fifth largest naval power in the world. This journey has been neither smooth nor easy. The tenacity of purpose and the overall corporate conviction that the charted path of force development would be mainly through indigenous capacity has not wavered, is a clear testimony to the Navy’s sound leadership and rank and file consensus on its identity and self-belief. The Indian Navy has long prided itself to be a builder’s Navy. It has been the pioneering service promoting indigenous industry to deliver it the finest ships in the region. Integrating cutting-edge weapons, sensors and sophisticated communications with advanced propulsion and power packages from diverse sources to make state-of-the-art ships designed by the Navy, is a splendid achievement and the Indian Navy can be justly proud of this heritage. But naval planners are perennially faced with the challenge of marrying the deep desire for remaining a builder’s navy with the stark reality of delayed deliveries and cost overruns in all its indigenous programmes (see Table 1). The three Talwar Class frigates, under procurement from Yantar shipyard, Russia, at a total cost of `5,400 crore has been made available at

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n 

BUSINESS

Force Levels for the 2020 Navy: A Gap Analysis

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Indian Navy

Indian Navy, HAL, PIB

2

Modernisation of the

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

AIR MARSHAL (RETD) V.K. BHATIA

a soul-searching mission to rationalise its defence needs. In the 1960s, after two quick wars with China and Pakistan, various studies were conducted to strengthen the armed forces. As far as the IAF was concerned, a force level of up to 64 squadrons (with 45 combat squadrons) was recommended to effectively fight against its belligerent neighbours. The closest that the IAF has been able to come to this was the officially declared figure of 391⁄2 combat squadrons achieved during the golden era of the 1970s and 1980s. The late 1970s saw the dawn of the golden decade of the IAF with the induction of the Anglo-French Sepecat Jaguar Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft (DPSA) into operational service. This was quickly followed by the induction of the Soviet MiG-23s (both strike and air defence versions) into the IAF in substantial numbers. MiG-27, a fixed-intake improvement of the MiG-23BN, followed in quick succession and this variant was also licenceproduced by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). At about the same time, the IAF also received from the Soviet Union the trisonic (Mach 3) strategic reconnaissance version of the formidable MiG-25 and the MiG-29 air superiority fighters. But the icing on the cake was the prized acquisition of the multi-role Mirage 2000 from France which formed two frontline state-of-the-art combat squadrons in the early 1980s. These also provided much greater teeth in terms of enhanced operational capability and were to show their prowess later during the 1999 Kargil War against Pakistan. These were truly happier times for the IAF, but unfortunately the golden period did not last long. The beginning of the 1990s witnessed the then unimaginable and sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union as also the dire financial state that India found itself in. While the former had a crip-

S

ustained and fast-paced economic growth since the dawn of the new millennium has put India in the forefront of the leading nations of the world. Emergence of India as the new economic powerhouse has also put additional responsibilities on the shoulders of its armed forces, especially the Indian Air Force (IAF). The IAF has aspired for more than a decade now to transform itself from a mere subcontinental tactical force to an intercontinental, strategic aerospace power in conformity with other leading air forces in the world. India’s economic rise on the world stage coupled with changing geopolitical-cum-security scenario has transformed the IAF’s perceptions of its vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities. But has the IAF been able to equip itself adequately to live up to its aspirations or to match its increasing roles and responsibilities?

Background To redux, throughout its long and mostly turbulent history, the IAF has at times super-cruised, and at other times, literally stalled in its quest to create operational capabilities to meet the multifarious challenges. This has by and large been due to the knee-jerk policies of the Indian Government which is known to respond only in a reactive mode as far as the country’s defence needs are concerned. In the past, after each war, it was forced to fight with its neighbouring countries, India embarked on

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There is little doubt that the IAF is keen and doing its best to modernise and improve its overall operational capabilities whether in the air, space or on the ground, not only to meet the challenges of its adversarial neighbours but also for all-inclusive growth to become a modern strategic and continental air force. The big question however is whether it is being done adequately and in the required time frame.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Meeting Future Threats and Challenges

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Air Force

Sukhoi, SP Guide Pubns, USAF, IAF

3

Modernising the

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Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

the academia and the R&D institutions. Within the overall aim of ensuring an edge for the Indian forces over their potential adversaries, the following objectives have been spelt out in DPrP: n To achieve substantive self-reliance in the design, development and production of equipment/weapon systems/platforms required for defence in as early a time frame as possible. n To create conditions conducive for the private industry to take an active role in this endeavour. n To enhance the potential of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in indigenisation. n To broaden the defence R&D base of the country.

T

he month of January witnessed the release of two policy documents of great import to the building of indigenous defence industry base and modernisation of the Indian armed forces. First, the updated version of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) was released by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) on January 6, 2011 (made applicable with effect from January 1, 2011), and thereafter, the much awaited Defence Production Policy (DPrP) was unveiled on January 13, 2011. While the primary thrust of DPP is to acquire equipment for the armed forces expeditiously, DPrP aims at promoting indigenous production to reduce dependence on foreign vendors, reiterating that self-reliance in defence is of vital importance for both strategic and economic reasons. DPrP stresses the need to “synergise and enhance the national competence in producing state-of–the-art defence equipment within the price lines and timelines that are globally competitive”. For that, the policy claims to strive to achieve maximum synergy among the armed forces, public sector, ordnance factories, Indian industry, and research and development (R&D) institutions. Claiming credit for building up capabilities in defence R&D, ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings; MoD feels that the time has come to achieve self-reliance by harnessing the emerging dynamism of the Indian industry along with the capabilities available in

Although DPrP is a collection of statements of intent and no specifics have been provided, it indicates the direction in which MoD intends to move. Salient features of the policy are as follows: n Preference will be given to indigenous design, development and manufacture of defence equipment. Procurement from foreign sources would be resorted to only if the Indian industry is not in a position to make and deliver the required equipment within the timelines laid down by the services, keeping the urgency and criticality of the requirement in mind. n Equipment, weapon systems and platforms approved in long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) for acquisition after 10 years will generally be designed and developed/integrated/produced indigenously. However, in case it is not considered economically viable or practical

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Salient Features of the Policy

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n 

TECHNOLOGY

The updated version of the DPP was released by the MoD on January 6, 2011, and thereafter, the much awaited DPrP was unveiled on January 13, 2011. While the primary thrust of DPP is to acquire equipment for the armed forces expeditiously, DPrP aims at promoting indigenous production to reduce dependence on foreign vendors, reiterating that self-reliance in defence is of vital importance for both strategic and economic reasons.

BUSINESS

Exercise in Bureaucratic Generalities

INDIAN DEFENCE

Procedures

PIB, SP Guide Pubns

4

Defence Policies &

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Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

first version of DPP was promulgated in 2002. It has been subjected to periodic reviews and has undergone major revisions in 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2008. Significant amendments were issued to DPP 2008 in November 2009. The latest version of DPP 2011 was formally made public on January 13, 2011, and is applicable to all procurement cases in which the request for proposals (RFP) is issued after January 1, 2011. While retaining the basic objectives of the procedure, DPP-2011 strives to “expand India’s defence industrial base, encourage indigenous defence production and reduce defence imports.”

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

F

or the sake of accounting convenience, expenditure from the defence budget is divided into two heads—revenue and capital. Expenditure incurred on the maintenance and operation of existing equipment and on the procurement of replacement of sanctioned assets falls under the revenue head. On the other hand, capital head covers all expenditure incurred to increase assets and potential of the armed forces and for the procurement of new equipment for induction into service. Ideally, revenue expenditure should be minimal to spare maximum resources for the modernisation of the forces. As funding of both the heads is done from the defence budget, funds can be transferred from one head to another, if considered necessary. Defence Procurement Manual 2009 (DPM 2009) contains detailed guidelines for revenue procurements and is applicable to all the three services, Ministry of Defence (MoD) and inter-services organisations. DPM 2009 endeavours to ensure greater transparency, timely procurement, greater competition and optimal utilisation of the defence budget. Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP), on the other hand, deals exclusively with capital procurements. The stated aim of DPP is to expedite procurements; ensure optimal utilisation of allocated budgetary resources; demonstrate the highest degree of probity and public accountability, transparency in operations, free competition and impartiality; and achieve self-reliance in defence equipment. The

Planning Process There has been no change in the planning process at all. Based on the Defence Planning Guidelines issued by the MoD, a 15-year Defence Capability Plan is evolved by Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS). Thereafter, the 15-year long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) is prepared to plan defence procurements over three five-year defence plans. After approval by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), LTIPP acts as the mother document for capital procurements. In tandem with a five-year defence plan, HQ IDS formulates the five-year Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) in consultation with respective Service Headquarters (SHQ). Subsequently, all the three services prepare their respective two-year roll-on annual acquisition plans (AAP). Being a subset of SCAP, AAP consists of the schemes included in approved SCAP. However, proposals not listed in SCAP may be processed after due approval of DAC. AAP is approved by the Defence Procurement Board (DPB).

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While retaining the basic objectives of the procedure, DPP 2011 strives to expand India’s defence industrial base, encourage indigenous defence production and reduce defence imports.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Applicable to all Procurement Cases

REGIONAL BALANCE

Procedure 2011

SP Guide Pubns, Rheinmetall, USAF

5

Defence Procurement

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

flict involving counter-insurgency and counterterrorist operations to limited conventional conflicts under the nuclear shadow on two widely separated flanks, in the West and in the Northeast. The dilemma is only regarding the extent of emphasis that should be laid to acquiring each type of capability. Thus the requirements of the armed forces are vast and wide ranging.

I

t is a well-known fact that building military capability is a long-term exercise which depends not only on the level of expenditure, but also on a holistic plan which presents stage-wise and priority-wise milestone of capability development. In the Indian context, it involves formulation of the 15-year longterm integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) by Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff in consultation with the Service Headquarters (Army, Navy and Air Force). The five years capital acquisition plan and the annual acquisition plans are derived from the LTIPP and form the basis of working out the capital budget for all major procurements during a year. The capital budget requirement of each service added to the revenue budget constitutes their overall budget demand during the year.

Budget Details The defence budget over the last three decades has generally varied between two and three per cent of the GDP, which corresponds to 13-17 per cent of the Government expenditure. The Union Budget for the Financial Year (FY) 2011-12, presented to the Parliament on February 28, 2011, shows increased defence allocation of `1,64,415.49 crore ($36 .50 billion). The annual increase in the budgets in the last couple of years has varied from as low as three per cent to as high as 34 per cent as witnessed in FY 2009-10. This was due to the substantial increase in the revenue expenditure to cater to the enhanced pay and allowances sanctioned in the Sixth Pay Commission report. This year’s allocation represents 11.59 per cent growth over the previous year’s budget. This year’s defence budget is only 1.83 per cent of the GDP while last year (FY 2010-11), the defence budget was 2.12 per cent of the GDP. The defence budget was accompanied by the usual remarks from the Finance Minister that “any additional requirement for the security of the nation will be provided for.” The increase in the defence budget has resulted in an additional allocation of `17,071.49 crore over the previous budget of which

Threats and Challenges The security threats and challenges facing India have increased enormously. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain, new threats and challenges like terrorism and insurgencies have been added to the old inventory. Moreover, a simultaneous and collusive threat from China and Pakistan in many situations cannot be ruled out. This has been adequately covered in the “Concepts and Perspectives” section of this Military YearBook. India needs to prepare itself for the full spectrum of warfare ranging from low intensity con-

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INDIAN DEFENCE

This year’s budget allocation represents 11.59 per cent growth over the previous year’s budget. This year’s defence budget is only 1.83 per cent of the GDP while last year (FY 2010-11), the defence budget was 2.12 per cent of the GDP. The defence budget was accompanied by the usual remarks from the Finance Minister that “any additional requirement for the security of the nation will be provided for.”

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Building India’s Military Capability

REGIONAL BALANCE

Budget 2011-12

Indian Army, SP Guide Pubns, PIB

6

Defence

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

n 

Sanjay Kumar

past decade, India’s drive to rapidly modernise her military capabilities are increasingly seen as a ray of hope for arms producing countries that are still trying to find out ways to recuperate from the global resource crunch. During his visit to India, the US President struck business deals with India worth $20 billion (`90,000 crore) with stated potentials for generating 53,000 new jobs for his people back home. The defence agreements between the two countries during Obama’s visit included, among others, 10 C-17 Globemaster III heavy-lift transporters worth $4 billion (`18,000 crore) for the Indian Air Force, four P-8I maritime reconnaissance aircraft worth $1.1 billion (`4,950 crore) for the Indian Navy, and over hundred General Electric GE-414 engines for India’s light combat aircraft (LCA) Tejas worth $800 million (`3,600 crore). More significantly, from India’s viewpoint, Obama announced his plans to remove export controls from Indian entities like the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Bharat Dynamics Ltd (India’s prime production agency for missile systems) as well as many of their respective laboratories. With the US Ministry of Commerce notifying the above changes later on January 24, 2011, these companies can easily access technologies which are required critically for India’s military modernisation.

I

n the year 2010, India’s international profile went up several notches, especially with a record number of important global luminaries including important Heads of State visiting New Delhi. On an average, New Delhi welcomed one Head of State every fortnight during the preceding year. More significantly, starting from the visit of UK’s Prime Minister David Cameron in July 2010 and ending with the visit of Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev in the last week of December, India enjoyed an unmatched privilege of receiving the Heads of State from all P-5 countries over a span of six months. Among the galaxy of world leaders who visited India in 2010, the visit by the US President Barack Obama in September 2010, succinctly underscored India’s rising international profile not only in terms of geopolitical dynamics, but also in terms of her projected ability to influence the global economic order. In recent years, despite a global economic downturn, India has shown tremendous resilience, emerging as a favoured destination for global business leaders, especially arms manufacturers such as the United States, Russia, France and the United Kingdom. Interestingly, barring China, other four Heads of State from P-5 countries who chose to visit India in 2010 had each an underlying agenda —lobbying for the mother of all defence contracts, the 126 fighter jets for the IAF which is valued over $10 billion (`45,000 crore). With its economy averaging 7.3 per cent growth annually over the

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

A country’s defence preparedness is not just the reflection of its real or perceived security threats, but is also at times a statement of her economic prowess. It also explicitly expresses that country’s drive for power— essentially a desire for recognition in the comity of nations. The process of military modernisation in India is the outcome of several congruent influences.

INDIAN DEFENCE

India’s Security and Economic Environment

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Environment

Drivers for Modernisation

A country’s defence preparedness is not just the reflection of its real or perceived security threats, but is also at times a statement of her economic prowess. It also explicitly expresses that country’s drive for power—essentially a desire for recognition in the comity of nations.

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PIB, www.ininb.com, SP Guide Pubns, GE Aviation

7

Strategic & Business

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Rockwell Collins, Inc.

US Air Force

REGIONAL BALANCE

Lockheed Martin Corporation

Harris Corporation

Australian Defence Department

US Army

BAE Systems

US Army, TACOM

Lockheed Martin Corporation

General Dynamics C4 Systems

US Department of Defense (DOD)

US Army

Country/Supplier/ Company

Country/ Recipient

17

551

Quantity

BUSINESS

Senior ­leadership command, ­control, and communications system—airborne communications programme

Enhanced AN/ TPQ-36 (EQ-36) radar

THAAD Field Support

Falcon III handheld systems

Reset Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems

Warfighter Information Network (WIN) Tactical Increment 2 (T INC2)

Product/Job/Task

INDIAN DEFENCE

$208,905,836

$108,490,207

$434,738,000

$112 million (US)

$145,170,882

$164,000,000

Contract Value

Multi Year

March 2015

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

The contractor will provide secure voice, data, and video systems for the very important ­person special air mission fleet, up to 40 ­aircraft, to include: communication system operator work stations; passenger stations voice-over Internet protocol phones; video teleconferencing systems; classified and unclassified local area networks; and training, maintenance, and logistic support.

The government intends to procure 17 enhanced AN/TPQ-36 (EQ-36) radar systems with the ­associated sustained operational group and mission essential group (MEG) ­non-recurring engineering and MEG installation under an undefinitised contractual action with an ­obligation of 49 per cent of the ­estimated value.

Lockheed Martin will provide logistics, ­maintenance, software, training, and ­engineering services to fielded THAAD fire units.

Tactical radios Falcon III hand-held systems have proved popular with the US military seeing heavy use in Afghanistan and Iraq leading the purchase by Australian Defence Department.

Involves modifications and resetting of 551 Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems.

Procurement of equipment for three brigade combat teams, one division headquarters, four regional hub nodes, and one base equipment complement to support the initial operational test and evaluation for WIN-T INC2 for programme manager, WIN-T.

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

August 30, 2011

Multi Year

Date of Delivery

TECHNOLOGY

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

Date of Contract

Global Contracts

CONTENTS

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Country/Supplier/ Company

Lockheed Martin maritime systems & sensors

Anham

L-3 Services

Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding

Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems and Sensors

Raytheon

Refinery Associates of Texas

Country/ Recipient

US Navy

US Defense Logistics Agency

US Special Operations Command

US Navy

Missile Defense Agency

NASA Goddard

Defense Logistics Agency

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Naval distillate fuel

Earth Observing System Engineering

Aegis BMD Baseline

Long lead time material in support of the construction of DDG 114 under the DDG 51 class destroyer programme

Information technology support

Full-line food and beverage support

Fully integrated persistent threat detection systems

Product/Job/Task

17

Quantity

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

Date of Contract

April 2011

Five years

Multi Year

Multi Year

18 Months extendable

Multi Year

Date of Delivery

Naval fuel contract for the US Navy and ­associated agencies.

Contract to maintain and manage large ­volumes of sensing data and imagery from space instruments.

The modification will exercise options to provide system engineering, programme management, and other efforts to complete the development and test of the Aegis BMD Baseline 4.0.1 weapon system and to conduct the installation, test, and checkout of the Aegis BMD Baseline 4.0.1 weapon system ­modifications aboard four Aegis cruisers or destroyers.

This contract provides propulsion gas turbines, generators, controllable pitch propeller, and other components to support construction of DDG 113 and DDG 114.

Information technology support to USSOCOM headquarters, its components, theater ­special operation commands and the military departments–Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps–that provide direct support to Special Operations forces.

This contract provides for one 18-month option and three one-year periods. The date of performance completion is 18 months post first delivery order.

This contract is for procuring 17 fully integrated persistent threat detection systems, support equipment, and initial spares, to provide a responsive, dedicated day/night netted sensor capability that enables the US and coalition forces to detect, locate, characterise, identify, track, and target forces in their battle space.

Remarks

Business

$250 million

$151,862,595

$114,003,000

$150,000,000

$6,469,092,827

$142,100,000

Contract Value

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global contracts


$1 billion

$500 million

$732,943,752

$255,106,530

$300,000,000

$464 million

Hesco Bastion Ltd., United Kingdom

BAE Systems and Nurol Holding AS

Equilon Enterprises

Valero Marketing & Supply Co

Baldi Bros and seven other ­companies

Harris Corporation

Defense Logistics Agency

Malaysia

Defense Logistics Agency

Defense Logistics Agency

US Navy

US Special Operations Forces Command

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Lockheed Martin

US Army

629

BUSINESS

Enhancements to International MaxPro Dash Mine Resistant Ambush Protected

Mine resistant ambush protected vehicles

INDIAN DEFENCE

$191 million

$102,324,363

1

For 250 vehicles

Quantity

Three years

Multi Year

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

The order falls under Navistar’s three-year contract awarded in May 2008 to support the Afghan National Police and Afghan National Army.

Modification under a previously awarded ­firm-fixed-price, indefinite-delivery/indefinitequantity contract for the procurement of various kits and parts for the mine resistant ambush protected vehicles.

The funds will be used to purchase long lead time materials and major equipment in s­ upport of the new ship, such as main engines and diesel generators and other equipment including electrical switchboards, deck equipment and fire extinguishing s­ ystems.

Procurement and sustainment of improved special operations forces high-frequency ­manpack radio systems in support of US Special Operations Command.

For new construction and repair of dry utilities at various locations within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Southwest area of responsibility.

To provide for Aviation fuel to US defence agencies.

To provide for Aviation fuel to US defence agencies.

To design and produce 250 wheeled vehicles with a variety of capabilities. This contract is part of a major investment by Malaysia in its armed forces. The end result will be an ­established production capability indigenous to Malaysia.

To provide for protective barriers in the US Forces in the US Central Command’s area of responsibility.

Remarks

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

10 years ­sustainment

April 2011

April 2011

Two years plus two years extendable

Date of Delivery

TECHNOLOGY

May 2010

May 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

April 2010

Date of Contract

CONTENTS

Business

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Navistar Defense

Marine Corps Systems Command

Long lead ­materials for LPD 26

HF Manpack radio

Construction and repair of utilities in naval facilities

Aviation fuel

Aviation fuel

Armoured vehicle production line

Protective barriers

Product/Job/Task

global contracts

REGIONAL BALANCE

Northrop Grumman Corporation

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US Navy

$184 million

Contract Value

Country/Supplier/ Company

Country/ Recipient

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section four

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Indian Defence 153 161 185 211 235 245 265 289

  Homeland Security One Two Three Four

India’s Homeland Security India’s Internal Security Maoist Insurgency India’s Coastal Security

297 307 315 321

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who’s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence R&D

REGIONAL BALANCE

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

INDIAN DEFENCE

Contents


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The time has come to take stock of the defence set up and review what has already been achieved so far, and plans be made on how to move further on the path. But empirical evidence suggests that it would not be an easy task given the number of contextual inhibiting factors.

n Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

of Defence Staff (CDS) and the setting up of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS).

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The responsibilities of the CDS, who would be the permanent Chairman

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES ASIAN WHO’S WHO

After considering the report of the task force on the management of defence, the GoM made the following key recommendations: n Integration of the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry of Defence (MoD). n Creation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS). n Setting up of IDS to support the CDS. n Establishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). n Organising an Andaman & Nicobar Command (ANC). n Creation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). n Establishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). n Setting up of an Indian National Defence University (INDU). n A number of other long-term recommendations on aspects concerning air space and maritime management, budgetary reforms including performance budgeting, private sector participation in defence production, improvement in service conditions, media handling and cost-effectiveness. All the recommendations, except the one on the appointment of the CDS, were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on May 11, 2001. The decision about appointing a CDS was kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Key GoM Recommendations

he Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC), when it became clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three services and that the time had come for ‘jointmanship’. Working under the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS), the DPS had under it Directorates covering policy and plans, international and regional security affairs, weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the Military Wing, which was established at the time of independence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After the Kargil War in 1999, the report of the Kargil Review Committee, headed by K. Subrahmanyam, was examined by a Group of Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task forces to review the national security system: n Management of Defence n Internal Security n Border Management n Intelligence Systems & Apparatus The Task Force on the Management of Defence, headed by Arun Singh, recommended among other things, the appointment of a Chief

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

TECHNOLOGY

For Jointness in the Armed Forces

BUSINESS

Defence Staff

PIB

1

Integrated

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CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

India’s National Security Objectives n India's national security objectives have evolved against the backdrop of India’s core values, namely, democracy, secularism and peaceful coexistence and the national goal of social and economic development. They include defending the country’s borders as defined by law and enshrined in the Constitution. n Protecting the lives and property of its citizens against war, ­terrorism, nuclear threats and militant activities. n Protecting the country from instability and religious and other forms of radicalism and extremism emanating from neighbouring states. n Securing the country against the use or the threat of use of weapons of mass destruction. n Development of material, equipment and technologies that have a bearing on India’s security, particularly its defence preparedness through indigenous research, development and production, interalia to overcome restrictions on the transfer of such items. n Promoting further cooperation and understanding with neighbouring countries and implementing mutually agreed confidence-­ building measures.

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and these conflicts have the capacity of deflecting the Indian Government from their long-term social and economic development plans. India is also affected by the trafficking in drugs and proliferation of small arms. Thus the security challenges facing India are varied and complex. India’s response to these threats and challenges has always been restrained, measured and moderate in keeping with its peaceful outlook and reputation as a responsible and peace-loving country.

he global security architecture is shifting towards multi-polarity in power equations with a discernible shift in the global centre of gravity to Asia. India’s security environment is defined by global and regional security concerns together with the growing internal security problems. The conventional threats from traditional adversaries, continuing presence of terrorist and fundamentalist forces in its western and eastern neighbourhood has prompted India to maintain high level of defence vigilance and preparedness to face any challenge to its security. The developments across India’s western borders are alarming and dangerous as the drift in both Pakistan and Afghanistan shows the lack of state control and breakdown of economy, law and order and governance. Both states are staying afloat because of the aid from the United States and the international community. Moreover, there is also the ever-present possibility of hostile radical fundamentalist elements gaining access to the weapons of mass destruction in Pakistan. A bigger worry is terrorists launching weapons of mass disturbance—nerve gas, radiological attacks and the like. The proxy war conducted by Pakistan against India and terrorist activities unleashed by the various radical jehadi outfits nurtured by them in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) are continuing unabated. In the North-east, China’s challenge to India’s security is looming large on the horizon. Its strategy of encircling India through her neighbours and confining her within the subcontinent is apparent and palpable apart from its outlandish claims on the Indian territory in Arunachal Pradesh. It has vastly improved the infrastructure in the form of roads and airfields opposite the entire Indian border especially opposite Arunachal Pradesh. Internally, the country faces a series of low-intensity conflicts characterised by tribal, ethnic and left-wing movements and ideologies

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Indian Army remains the repository of the Indian citizens’ hopes and aspirations. In a milieu of degenerating institutions, it remains, as is often touted, the last bastion that inspires confidence. The Indian Army’s role has gone far beyond national defence to also substantially address nation-building.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

In the Emerging Security Environment

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

SP's Military Yearbook (SP's): After having commanded the Indian Army for over a year what are your feelings regarding the combat capabilities of your fighting force? In which areas do we lack the capabilities that we desire? Chief of Army Staff (COAS): It is indeed an honour for me to be heading one of the most professional Armies, which is well-equipped and trained. The Indian Army is fully poised to meet the varied security challenges confronting our country, both internal and external. Due to the rapidly changing nature of conflict, ranging from conventional to irregular warfare, including its proxy war manifestation and the effects of emerging technologies, a constant reappraisal is required with resultant improvements. Having laid down an all-encompassing ‘Vision for the Indian Army’, we are focusing our efforts on some salient issues, namely; to modernise our Army, while concurrently seeking to consolidate and address aspects of hollowness and critical deficiencies. Modernisation, based on technology upgradation and induction, is an area that remains high on my agenda. The primary areas that are being addressed are aimed at greater battlefield transparency, increasing the lethality and precision of firepower capabilities, overcoming night blindness and achieving network-centricity. In addition, imparting realistic training towards

all existing and emerging contingencies, as also to prepare our troops for the future battlefield environment is another area of focus that we are addressing. My main focus is presently on transforming the Army into an agile, lethal, versatile and networked force. This force will be prepared for the emerging security environment and complex challenges of the 21st century. SP’s: In your view which are the areas of responsibilities, as the COAS, which work takes most of your time? COAS: As COAS, my areas of responsibilities are large. When I take an eagle’s eye view on the security environment prevalent in our immediate and extended neighbourhood, I find a complex set of external and internal security challenges confronting our nation, across the spectrum of conflict. The regional and global trends show a strategic shift towards ‘balance of interest’ rather than ‘balance of power’. Our armed forces need to be extremely dynamic in measuring up to these challenges. Therefore, I feel the greatest responsibility is to hone the Army into a well motivated, operationally prepared, well-equipped force, capable of meeting the security challenges faced by the nation. I am satisfied with the Army’s role both in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Northeast. We are now helping the misguided elements and youth,

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

General V.K. Singh took over as the Chief of Army Staff (COAS) on April 1, 2010. In a candid interview with SP’s Military Yearbook, General Singh shared his thoughts and perceptions on several issues like transformation of the Army, status of insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, offensive and defensive capabilities on two widely separated fronts, visibility of troops in Jammu and Kashmir, procurement system and the state of modernisation of the Army, etc.

INDIAN DEFENCE

‘We are focusing on modernising our Army, while concurrently seeking to consolidate and address aspects of hollowness and critical deficiencies’

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns

Chief of Army Staff

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CONTENTS

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army MBTs T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Width, over tracks Height, over turret roof Engine

Road range Armament and amn

: 2.23 m : V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multi-fuel diesel engine, developing 840 hp

Main gun rate of fire

: 550 km : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional amn. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG (2,000 rounds)AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) : 8 rounds/min

: 3 : 46,500 kg : 2.228 m : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSVT (300 rounds)

Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour protection

: : : : :

Trench crossing Shallow fording Armament

: 2.6 to 2.8 m : 1.2 m : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG AD: 1 x 12.7mm MG : 16° to -6° : 360° : 3 km : 8 rounds/ min : Auto : 44 projectiles/ charges

: 3 : 46.5 tonnes : 3.37 m

T-72S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament

Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds) 45 x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH (inclusive 6 ATGW) V-12 multi-fuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2,000 rpm 60 km/h (max) 550 km 280mm (max)

Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height (turret roof) Engine

Power to Weight ratio Max speed (on road) Max speed (Cross country) Gradient ability Vertical obstacle

: 3 : 43.5 tonnes : 2.19 m : Up rated V46-6 engine; a 12 cylinder 4 stroke, V 60 turbocharged, water-cooled, multi-fuel, direct injection engine developing 1,000 hp at 2,000 rpm. : 22.98 hp/t : 60 km/h

Elevation/depression Traverse Max range Main gun rate of fire Amn loading Amn stowage

: 35 to 45 km/h : 60° : 850mm

Note: Other improvements include explosive reactive armour, ­integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS.

: 3 : 43,000 kg : 2.26 m : Main: 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds)

Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour

T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament

AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2,800 rounds) : 43 rounds x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH : V-2-55/V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp : 50 km/h (max) : 500 km : 140mm

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Arjun Country of origin: India Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Overall length (with gun forward) Overall height (with AD gun mount) Overall width Ground pressure Armament

AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG Main gun amn : 39 rounds (HESH/ FSAPDS) Main gun rate of fire : 6-8 rounds/minute Fire control : Director type & Electro-hydraulic system & gun control Night Vision : Thermal Imaging Ballistic computer : Digital Engine : MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled Diesel developing 1,400 hp at 2,500 rpm Transmission : 4 Fwd+ 2 rev, Torque converter, Mech.

: 4 : 58.5 tonnes : 10.638 m : 3.03 m : 3.864 m : 0.85 kg/cm2 : Main: 1 x 120mm Rifled gun

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Coaxial (Both): 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1,000 rounds) ATGW : BMP1: AT-3 BMP2: AT-5 Engine : V-16 in line water cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp Speed : BMP1 : Land : 65 km/h Water : 7 km/h BMP2 : Land : 65 km/h Water : 7 km/h Range : 550-600 km (Both) Armour : 20mm

BMP1 3+8 BMP2 3+7 BMP1 12,500 kg BMP2 14,300 kg BMP1 6.74 m BMP2 6.735 m BMP1 2.94 m, BMP2 3.15 m BMP1 2.18 m, BMP2 2.45 m Main gun BMP1: 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP2: 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds)

BRDM-2 Characteristics Crew : 4 Weight : 7,000 kg Armament : 6 x AT-3 [ATGM] 1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG Co-axial (2,000 rounds)

Engine

: GAZ-41 V-8 water cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3,400 rpm Speed : Land: 100 km/h Water: 10 km/h Range : 750 km Armour : 14mm

Arty 130mm M-46 Med Gun Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight (Travelling position) Elevation/depression

: 8 : 130mm : 8,450 kg : +45° to-2.5°

Traverse : Projectile Weight : MV : Range : Rate of fire :

50° (total) 33.4 kg 930 m/sec 27 km (full charge) 19.1 km (reduced charge) 5-6 rounds/min

Traverse : MV : Range : Rate of fire :

60° (total) 935 m/sec 24 km (HE 77B) 30 km (HE ER) 6 rounds/min

Range : Rate of fire :

24.7 km 30 km (rocket assisted) up to 5 RPM (intense) 2 RPM (sustained)

155mm FH-77B How Contractor: Bofors AB, Sweden Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight Elevation/depression

: 6 : 155mm : 11,500 kg : +50° to -3°

155mm M777 Ultralightweight Field Howitzer Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight MV

: 7 (can be reduced to 5) : 39mm : 3,175 kg : 827 m/sec (Charges-super)

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130mm M-46 SP Gun (Catapult)

The Catapult is the 130mm M-46 towed gun mounted on a Vijayanta chassis and uses the same amn as the 130mm M-46. The Catapult can carry 30 rounds of amn.

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Characteristics Crew : Weight : Length : Width : Height : Armament :

TECHNOLOGY

Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs) / Recce Vehs BMP-1/2/2k

BUSINESS

Max speed : Road: 70 km/h Cross country: 40 km/h Shallow fording : 1.4 m Vertical obstacle : 0.914 m Trench crossing : 2.43 m Gradient : 35°

INDIAN DEFENCE

Suspension Fuel Track

Lockup clutch & hydro dynamic retarder : Double radii, Mech steering with neutral turn : Hydrogas : Renk transmission DHPP (A) : Diehl L - German

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Steering

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Background The maritime traditions of the country can be traced as far back as the Mohenjodaro civilisation with many archeologists claiming that a basin dating back to 4000 BC, discovered in Lothal was the world’s first drydock. Indian trade and culture were carried across the seas during the Chola, Satavahana, Chalukya, Pandyan and Kalinga periods. The story of the Ramayana and Mahabharata spread by Indian seafarers can, even today, be seen in temple murals and carvings in as distant as Indonesia, Kampuchea and Thailand. These seafarers took Indian silks, spices and

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

T

survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and war. The Navy will hopefully, in the very near future, provide the third leg of the nuclear triad, which India seeks to develop, in order to safeguard its interests as a de facto nuclear weapon state. The relief operations carried out after the devastating tsunami in December 2004 have demonstrated the ability of the Indian Navy to respond with alacrity to the humanitarian needs of the neighbouring countries in the region, while simultaneously undertaking disaster relief tasks for fellow citizens in our own coastal states and island territories. Thereafter, in 2006, we witnessed the swiftly executed refugee evacuation operation from strife-torn Lebanon, where again the Navy rendered succour, not just to Indian citizens but also to stranded Sri Lankans and Nepalese. These two successful operations were observed by navies worldwide, and they highlighted the fact that the Indian Navy was capable of discharging its tasks; commensurate with India’s regional status and responsibilities.

he Indian Navy’s responsibilities include safeguarding a wide spectrum of the country’s maritime interests, comprising a coastline of 7,516 kilometres and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of over two million square kilometres. In its EEZ, the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country’s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes, over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value moves through the medium of the sea, to and from 13 major ports, and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east, more than 950 kilometres from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, stretching 720 kilometres from north to south. The southernmost of these islands is only 150 kilometres from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north, Myanmar (Coco islands) lies only 35 kilometres away. To the west, about 250 kilometres from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. India’s merchant marine is close to nine million tonnes GRT (gross register tonne), comprising over 700 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India’s current oil consumption which was 2.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2005, and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl/d by 2025. This will mean a drastic increase in oil imports, half of which will come from the Middle East. Any stoppages or even interruptions are likely to have a crippling effect on the economy. Thus, India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to its

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Indian Navy currently has approximately 56,000 personnel on active duty, including 5,000 members of naval aviation branch, 2,000 marine commandos and the recently sanctioned 1,000 Sagar Prahari Bal soldiers, making it the world’s fourth largest Navy

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Safeguarding India’s Maritime Interests

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

SP Guide Pubns, Wikipedia

3

The

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192 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

SP’s Military Yearbook (SP’s): For prosperity of the nation, the Indian Navy has multidimensional responsibilities in the Indian Ocean region assigned to it by the Government of India. How do you visualise capability build-up of Indian Navy to fulfill these responsibilities? Admiral Nirmal Verma (CNS): The multidimensional capabilities and professional versatility makes the Indian Navy a catalyst for peace, security and stability in the Indian Ocean region (IOR). The Navy has a track record of responding swiftly to regional security requirements by undertaking diverse missions such as humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR), combating piracy and terrorism, providing search and rescue facilities to those in distress, conducting hydrographic surveys in waters of friendly foreign countries, and coordinating navigational warnings over vast oceanic and littoral areas. The opportunities these missions have generated has strengthened bilateral relationships, enhanced interoperability, and helped in sharing best practices with other navies in the IOR. In discharging its responsibilities to safeguard the national maritime interests, the Indian Navy assumes a three-pronged approach. First, it maintains constant surveillance in our primary areas of interest in order to enhance its maritime domain awareness. Second, it maintains credible all-round capabilities to execute core missions and has a robust plan of force accretion to enhance these in the years to come. Third, it pursues an active regional engagement plan to combat common concerns, as well as enhance the capacities and capabilities of smaller regional nations in the interest of strengthening regional security. Maintaining constant surveillance in our areas of interest requires significant capabilities and the coordinated application of a number

of surface, airborne and space-based means. Accordingly, induction of capable ships and long-range and medium-range maritime patrol aircraft has been planned, with augmentation by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially for close-coast surveillance. Our force accretion plans also include the induction of modern surface and sub-surface platforms in significant numbers, in order to sustain, enlarge and sharpen our ability to undertake principal tasks. Our regional engagement philosophy is broad-based and includes confidence building through multi-level exchanges and operational cooperation. We are exploring a variety of mechanisms for sharing maritime domain awareness with other navies in the IOR. We are also augmenting our amphibious capabilities, important as they are for the sustenance and protection of our island territories, as also for HADR, which is vital to a region that is home to 70 per cent of the world’s natural disasters. SP’s: The Indian Navy’s maritime strategy propagates an all-round capability building approach. How in your view is the modernisation plan of the Indian Navy progressing? CNS: The Indian Navy’s force development perspective planning is now driven by a conceptual shift from one that considers ‘numbers’ of platforms to one that concentrates upon ‘capabilities’. In terms of force accretion in the immediate future, we are acquiring ships, submarines and aircraft in accordance with the Navy’s current maritime capabilities perspective plan. There are currently 39 ships and submarines on order, with our preferred induction choice being through the indigenous route. At Mumbai, the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) is engaged in the construction of three Kolkata class destroyers and two stealth frigates

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The Indian Navy is a catalyst for peace, security and stability in the Indian Ocean region. In an interview with SP’s Military Yearbook, Chief of the Naval Staff, Admiral Nirmal Verma outlined the Indian Navy’s three-pronged approach.

INDIAN DEFENCE

‘Indigenisation has always been the focus of Indian Navy’

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns

Chief of Naval Staff

REGIONAL BALANCE

Interview

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy

CONTENTS

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Scorpene Class (Project 75)

Launched Status

: 6x533mm torpedoes, 12xK-15 Sagarika— SLBM, Shaurya missile (expected) : July 26, 2009 : Sea trials

Akula (Bars) class (Project 971/971U/09710) (SSN) from 53 cm tubes; inertial flight to 45 km (24.3 n miles); warhead nuclear 200 kT or Type 40 torpedo. Novator SS-N-16 Stallion fired from 650 mm tubes; inertial flight to 100 km (54 n miles); payload nuclear 200 kT (Vodopad) or Type 40 torpedo (Veder). Torpedoes: 4-21 in (533mm) and 4-25.6 in (650mm) tubes. Combination of 53 and 65 cm torpedoes (see table at front of section). Tube liners can be used to reduce the larger diameter tubes to 533mm. Total of 40 weapons. In addition the Improved Akulas and Akula IIs have six additional 533mm external tubes in the upper bow area. Countermeasures : ESM: Rim Hat; intercept. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Pair or Snoop Half with back-to-back aerials on same mast as ESM. Sonars: Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503); hull-mounted; passive/active search and attack; low/medium frequency. Mouse roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Skat 3 towed array; passive; very low frequency. India is likely to lease one in the near future as per media reports

Displacement, tonnes

: 7,500 surfaced; 9,100 (9,500 Akula II) dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 360.1 oa; 337.9 wl × 45.9 × 34.1 (110; 103 × 14 × 10.4) Main machinery : Nuclear; 1 VM-5 PWR; 190 MW; 2 GT3A turbines; 47,600 hp(m) (35 MW); 2 emergency propulsion motors; 750 hp(m) (552 kW); 1 shaft; 2 spinners; 1,006 hp(m) (740 kW) Speed, knots : 28 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 62 (31 officers) Missiles : SLCM/SSM: Reduga SS-N-21 Sampson (Granat) fired from 21 in (533mm) tubes; land-attack; inertial/terrain-following to 3,000 km (1,620 n miles) at 0.7 Mach; warhead nuclear 200 kT. CEP 150 m. Flies at a height of about 200 m. Novator Alfa SS-N-27 subsonic flight with supersonic boost for terminal flight; 180 km (97 nm); warhead 200 kg may be fitted in due course. SAM : SA-N-5/8 Strela portable launcher. 18 missiles A/S : Novator SS-N-15 Starfish (Tsakra) fired Aircraft Carriers Hermes Class Class : Indian Designation : Total No. in service : Specifications Displacement (in tonnes) : Dimensions, metres : Width (over all) :

Hermes class INS Viraat 1

Armament

: Aircraft : Sea Harriers Helo : Sea Kings / Chetak / Ka- 25 Missiles : SAM 1 x Barak M Guns : 2 x 30mm Sensors : Air Search RAWL - 02 Air/Surface Search RAWS EW : C Pearl system Ex Israel Main machinery : Engines: 2 Vickers Armstrong Turbine 2

Standard 23,900, 28700 (full load) 227 x 48 x 8.7 48.8 m

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Range

: 300 m (980 ft) (estimated) : 95 officers and 100 sailors : Bharat Electronics Ltd USHUS

BUSINESS

Displacement Propulsion

Test Depth Complement Sensors and Processing Systems Armament

: Length - 111 m (364 ft), Beam – 15 m (49 ft), Draft – 11 m (36 ft) : 5,000-6,000 tonnes (estimated) : PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe); one turbine (47,000 hp/70 MW); one shaft; one 7-­bladed, high-skew propeller (estimated) : Unlimited except by food supplies

INDIAN DEFENCE

Dimensions

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Arihant Class (SSBN or SSGN)

REGIONAL BALANCE

: Hull mounted passive and attack–medium frequency Programme : Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN, France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by 2012 and thereafter one every year. Details of equipment package are speculative and based on those built for Chilean Navy. Design consideration provides special attention to stealth features with the hull forms, the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 antiship missile, the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare; intelligence gathering and special operations. Structure : Diving depth more than 300 m (984 ft)

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Sonars

Displacement, tonnes : 1,668 dived Dimensions, : 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) feet (metres) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 (metres) diesels; 1 Jeumont Scheneider motor; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 20 dived 12 surfaced Range, miles : 550 at 4 kt dived 6,500 at 8 kt surfaced Diving Depth : More than 300 m (984 ft) Complement : 31 (6 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes Countermeasures : ESM Weapons control : UDS International SUBTICS Radars : Navigation; Sagem; I-band


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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Looking Back On October 8, 1932, the IAF Bill was passed, allowing creation of the Number 1 Squadron of the IAF with only one flight, equipped with four obsolescent Westland Wapiti aircraft, at Drigh Road, Karachi on April 1, 1933. The flight was commanded by a RAF officer and had five pilots and the first batch of “Hawai Sepoys”. The fledgling IAF went into action for the first time in 1937, during air policing operations in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). During World War II, the IAF expanded rapidly

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

T

to about 10 squadrons. For its achievements during the war, the service was awarded the prefix “Royal” in March 1945. The division of assets and manpower of the armed forces at the time of independence in August 1947 reduced the force level to a little more than half its original size. Two months later, the RIAF went into action in Kashmir, which saw the landing of Dakotas at what was termed “the roof of the world”. On January 26, 1950, India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the “Royal” prefix. The 1950s witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process was kicked off in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire—the first combat jet of IAF. Subsequently, Ouragan, Mystere, Canberra, Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the USSR resulted in the IAF acquiring the MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963, which then went on to pave the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards, the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation, which is still in evidence 48 years after the first induction of the MiG-21. This also had a great bearing on the evolving shape and structure of the aviation industry in India. The 1965 war saw the IAF aggressively using the famous Gnat, demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict, scoring a number of kills in the air. In the mid-1980s and towards the end of that decade, the IAF played a key role during the Sri Lanka and Maldives

he Indian Air Force (IAF) would have to seek greater governmental indulgence to acquire additional aircraft. In addition, the force will have to vigorously pursue development and acquisition of fifth generation fighter aircraft. Manifestations of flight capabilities (the third dimension) in military affairs have witnessed phenomenal changes. The term “air power” is used to denote the flight potential of military services. Air power is in itself an indicator of its undeniable impact on modern warfare. The role of the Air Force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context, the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999, when intruding Pakistani soldiers, stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response, retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC). However, its current effectiveness notwithstanding, the origin of the IAF was very humble.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The IAF modernisation process commenced in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire, the first combat jet. Subsequently,Ouragan, Mystere, Canberra, Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Today, the IAF is trying hard to accelerate its modernisation/acquisition programmes not only to regain but substantially improve its operational capabilities. Some major programmes have been brought to fruition while others are being ­pursued vigorously.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Modernising & Improving its Operational Capabilities

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Air Force

Indian Air Force, SP Guide Pubns, DRDO

4

The Indian


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

SP's Military Yearbook (SP’s): As the Chief of the Air Staff-designate, what is your vision of the role and responsibilities of the IAF in the next 30 years to meet the challenges before the nation, which is emerging as a regional power? CAS: The IAF has come a long way from its beginning as a tactical force. We are transforming into a potent strategic force with full spectrum capability in keeping with our national aspirations. The IAF vision addresses not only the physical security of India but also the protection of our core values and enhanced national interests based on the country’s growth profile and aspirations. In the coming decade, the IAF envisions itself to be a modern force with cutting-edge technologies; flexible, adaptable and nimble. While I would be articulating my personal vision for the IAF only when I take over, I can mention at this stage that “people and mission,” would be the focus. It is only when we align the entire human resource with the mission of the IAF, we will be able to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing security environment.

bers and the only way forward in the coming years is to go up. Induction of new platforms and sensors over the next five years would ensure that the IAF retains its cutting-edge at all times. On a different note, I would like to reiterate that capability building and not number crunching is the way to achieve this. SP’s: Do you feel that in a unipolar world, it would be desirable for India to develop a long-term strategic and military partnership with the USA in order to play a leading role in the region? CAS: Polarity today is determined not only by military power, but is also a function of economic power and the power of human capital. I do not agree that we are today in a truly unipolar world. Try telling that to the Europeans or the Chinese. I think we are headed towards a multipolar world order with India displaying immense potential to contribute to this multipolarity. IAF has very cooperative and symbiotic relationships with most of the air forces in the world today, including that of the USA. We similarly have robust strategic relationships with Russia and look to building strong strategic relationships with the EU and countries like Brazil and South Africa.

SP’s: Today, the strength of combat squadrons has declined to under 30 and is likely to decrease further in the near future. What is your vision of the shape and size of the IAF in the next 30 years and in what time frame would the plans to restore the force levels be actually translated into reality? CAS: The IAF currently has 34 combat squadrons comprising a mix of modern and older generation fighter aircraft and possesses the combat capability to face any challenge to our national security. Peaks and troughs are phases that all organisations go through. I would like to believe that we are close to the bottom of the loop in terms of the num-

SP’s: Development of the armed forces in India has been somewhat Pakistan-centric, humiliation by China in 1962 notwithstanding. How do you see the equation with China in the event of a full-scale military confrontation with or without collusion with Pakistan? CAS: While I agree that a Pakistan-centric approach was certainly a factor in the earlier decades, the strength and capability of the Indian armed forces allows us the flexibility of developing a capability-based

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne took over as the Chief of the Air Staff on retirement of Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik on July 31, 2011. In a candid interview as Chief of Air Staff-designate, he spoke to SP's Military Yearbook about the responsibilities that lie ahead in his new assignment.

INDIAN DEFENCE

'People & mission would be my focus'

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

IAF, SP Guide Pubns

Chief of the Air Staff

REGIONAL BALANCE

Interview

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21MF/Bis NATO reporting names Country of origin Type Number in Service

: : : :

Performance Max speed Above 10000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb ‘g’ Limits

Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) USSR Single seat multi-role fighter 200+ all variants.

Construction Wings: Delta planform with a 2° anhedral and 57° sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage: Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics, and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type, mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant: One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9,400 lb dry and 14,000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2,750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis is powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15,000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit: K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment: ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass, IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament: One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23/2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally, and up to 2,500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2,1000 lb, RVV-AE, R-73/R-60 AAMs, S-24 and UB80/UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wing span Length Height Wing area Weights Take-off (combat) Max take-off

: : : :

: Mach 2.23 : Mach 1.1 : 390 km : 6,500 m/min : + 7/–1.5

Note 1: While the ‘FL’ version of the MiG-21 is being phased out, a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have reportedly undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following: n  Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which, in combination with the active homing RVV-AE, beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a ‘fire-and-forget’ capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer, the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft’s over all air-to-surface capability. n  The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales Monolith Ring Laser Gyrobased INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. n  The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian-made liquid crystal multi-function display and a head-up display. n  Additional avionics include a HAL made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and TARANG, RWR equipment. n  An Israeli video recording system has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the ‘Bison’ by the Indian Air Force. Note 2: About 90 Non-Bison upgrade aircraft to be phased out in 201213. But the 120+ upgraded MiG-21Bis Bison aircraft to remain in service with gradual phase out commencing in 2017.

7.15 m 16.10 m including pitot boom 4.5 m 23.45 m2

: 8,750 kg : 10,500 kg

Mikoyan MiG-27M

www.spguidepublications.com

NATO reporting name Indian Air Force name Country of origin Type Number in service

: : : : :

entially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions. Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Cockpit: KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23mm-calibre shells. Power plant: One Tumansky R-29 17,500 lb/st dry25, 35lb/streheat ­turbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6,700 litres. Avionics and Systems: KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone, VHF/UHF, IFF equipment. Doppler nav/attack system and radar altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Duck nose houses Laser ranging/targeting equipment. Doppler nav/attack system with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav/attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception/broad

Flogger-J Bahadur Russia Single seat variable geometry strike fighter 145+

Construction Wings: Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16 degree, 45 degree and 72 degree. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers/lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage: Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differ-

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force

Mikoyan MiG-29A/B HUD, helmet mounted sights operable up to 40 degree off the axis. Advanced 360 degree passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF/UHF communication systems. AoA indicator, radar altimeter, three-axis autostabilisation system, auto pilot, deception jammer in wing root. Armament: 1 GSh-301 30 mm cannon in port wing root, with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73, R-27R, R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3,500 kg on six external hard points. Dimensions Wing span : 11.40 m Length overall : 17.34 m Height overall : 4.75 m Wing area : 35.35 m2 Weights Empty : 8,340 kg Normal Interceptor role : 15,750 kg Max take-off : 20,000 kg Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 2.35 At sea level : Mach 1.06 Max combat radius : 650 km g Limits : +9.0/ -3

NATO reporting name : Fulcrum Indian Air Force name : Baaz Country of origin : USSR Type : Single seat air superiority fighter Number in Service : 62 Construction Wings: Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42 degree, with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. Fuselage: Semi-monocoque all-metal structure, sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. Tail Unit: Twin vertical fins swept back at 40°, and canted outward at 7 degree, with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tail planes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tail planes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15 per cent of construction is believed to be of Carbon-Boron composite materials. Power Plant: Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11,250 lb dry and 18,500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising/lowering of nose-wheel on take-off/landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4,000 litres with a provision for a single 750 litre drop tank to be carried between engines, underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. Cockpit: K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-­ conditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a two piece blister design. Avionics : NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO ‘Slot Back’) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100 km detection and 70 km track range with full look up/ down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up/down shoot down IRST on nose on star-board side. Navattack computers,

Note: Mid-life upgrade of 60 MiG-29s has commenced with completion of the project by 2013. The upgraded aircraft are likely to stay in service till 2025.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Note: More than 50 MiG-27 aircraft have undergone mid-life upgrade, at the HAL, Nasik Division.

TECHNOLOGY

Mach 1.3 Mach 1.9 600 km Max 20 deg/sec; sustained 14 deg/sec Normal +7.5/-1.5; Ultimate +10/-3 750 km

BUSINESS

: : : : : :

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

: 15,780 kg : 20,250 kg

INDIAN DEFENCE

Clean Max take-off Performance Max level speed At sea level At 30,000 ft Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Turn rate g Limits Combat radius (lo-lo-lo)

band ECM equipment and Flare/chaff dispensers. Armament: One GSh-23/6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5,000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal, Beluga, FAB 500/750, FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L/T ASMs are also available. Dimensions: Wing span : 16°: 14.30 m; 72°: 8.21 m Length overall : 18.15 m Height overall : 5.55 m Wing area : 27.45 m2 Weights Empty : 8,200 kg

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REGIONAL BALANCE

and 21,385 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity of 3,980 litres with provision for drop fuel tanks underbelly and inboard wing pylons. Detachable inflight refuelling probe forward of cockpit on ­starboard side. Avionics: Quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system. Invertors, transformers and battery units. Thomson-CSF RDM multi-mode radar. Sager Uliss-52 inertial platform, ESD Type 2,984 central digital computer and digibus. Comprehensive ECM active/passive suite. VHF/UHF communications suite, HUD, nav attack computer etc. Patric/Litening pods. Armament: Two underbelly 30mm DEFA cannons with 125 rounds each. Up to 13,890 lb of ordnance on nine external hard points. Options include various AAMs including R-73, Magic II & R-530D. Alternatively various types of ground attack weaponry including laserguided bombs can be carried.

Country of origin : France Indian Air Force name : Vajra Type : Single seat multi-role fighter Number in Service : 50+ Construction Wings: Low wing delta monoplane with leading edge sweepback of 58 degree. Full span twin segment leading edge flaps. Two section trailing edge elevons of full length with carbon fibre skin and light alloy honeycomb core. Air brakes above and below each wing. Fuselage: Conventional structure, waisted Tail Unit according to the area rule. Small fixed strakes over each air intake. Cantilever ­vertical fin with inset rudder only comprises the tail unit. Rudder a ­ ctuated by fly-by-wire system. Sweepback on fin leading edge 45 degree. Power Plant: One SNECMA M-53 P-2 Turbofan rated at 14,462 lb dry

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H


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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Duties and Functions The Coast Guard Act, 1978, specifies the duties and functions of the service, mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks: n Safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals, installations and devices. n Protection and assistance to fishermen at sea while in distress. n Preservation and protection of marine environment. n Prevention and control of marine pollution. n Assistance to customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. n Enforcement of maritime laws in force. n Safety of life and property at sea.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

T

n Collection of scientific data. n Other duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India. The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard: n Coordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pollution response in the maritime zones of India. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) Preparedness Meeting. n The authority for coordinating maritime search and rescue in the Indian search and rescue region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board. n The Director General Indian Coast Guard is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC), and regular meetings are conducted at the national level to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage, terrorist attacks, hijacking of platforms, drill ships, jack-up rig, blowouts, fire hazards, etc. n The authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. n Nominated as the Lead Intelligence Agency (LIA) for the country’s coastal/sea borders for the purpose of generating, coordinating and sharing the intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an EEZ measuring 2.01 million square kilometres that are home to inter-alia 3,565 square kilometres of mangroves, 18,000 square kilometres of coral reefs, and a potential 4.72 million tonnes of fisheries resources. It is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of

he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18, 1978, to undertake the predominantly peace-time tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India, with a view to the protection of maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence, primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has military functions in a war situation when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates inducted from the Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs.

INDIAN DEFENCE

From a meagre force level of seven ships at the time of inception, the Indian Coast Guard (ICG) has made rapid progress through its development plans. The Coast Guard fleet today comprises 17 OPVs, 28 FPVs, 22 interceptor boats, six Hovercraft, 28 Dornier aircraft, 18 Chetak helicopters and four ALH. The manpower sanctioned is 1,693 officers, 9,093 enrolled personnel and 1,578 civilians.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Maritime Security in Peace and War

REGIONAL BALANCE

Coast Guard

Goa Shipyard, PIB

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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Total No. in service : 6 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light: 1,840, Deep: 2,000 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 101.95x11.5x3.65 m Armament : 2x12.7mm HMG CRN 91 2x12.7mm gun

Flight Deck Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew)

: : : : :

with Electro-Optical Fire Control (EOFCS) Can operate ALH & Chetak 2xDiesels, 7710 kw each 23.5 6500 nm at 12 knots 106

Flight deck Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew)

: : : : :

2x12.7mm HMG Can operate Chetak 2 diesels, 4707kw each 22 4,000 nm at 14 knots 90

Main Machinery

: 2 MTU 20 V 8000 M90 diesels, 24,150 hp(m) (18.0 MW), 2 shafts, cp props : 26 : 4,500 nm at 16 knots : 118 (16 officers)

Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) “Vikram” class Total No. in service : 8 + 1 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light: 1100 Deep: 1220 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 74.1x11.4x3.2 m Armament : 40/60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun Optical sight Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) “Vishwast” class Total No. in service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : 1840 full load Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 93.66 x 12.2 x 3.6 m Armament : RN 91-30mm Flight deck : Can operate one Light Engine Helicopter (HAL Dhruv)

Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew)

Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) “Samudra Prahari” class Total No. in service : Specifications Make : Displacement (in tonnes) : Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : Armament : Flight deck :

1

Main Machinery

Indian built 3300 full load 94.00 x 15.5 x 4.5 m 1 – 30mm Platform for 1 medium helicopter

Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew)

: 2 Bergen B32, 40 L6P Diesels, 8050 hp (6.0 mw), 2 shafts, cp props, 1 Ulstein Aquamaster bow thrusters, 1185 hp (883 kw) : 20 : 8,000 nm at 14 knots : 85 (10 Officers)

Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew)

: : : : :

40/60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun, 2x12.7mm HMG 2xdiesels, 1480 kw each 23 2,400 nm at 14 knots 35

Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew)

: : : : :

30mm 2A42 Gun, 2x12.7mm HMG 3xdiesels, 2720 kw each 35 1,500 nm at 12 knots 35

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) “Priyadarshini” class Total No. in service : Specifications Make : Displacement (in tonnes) : Dimensions (LOAxBxD) :

8 Indian built Light 164, Deep 215 48x7.5x2.09 m

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPVs) “Samar” class

TECHNOLOGY

Surface

BUSINESS

Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard

INDIAN DEFENCE

INDIAN DEFENCE

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7 Indian built Light 235, Deep 260 48.14x7.5x2 m

Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) “Jija Bai” class Total No. in service : Specifications Make : Displacement (in tonnes) : Dimensions (LOAxBxD) :

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7

Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew)

Japanese/Indian built Light: 165, Deep 181 44x7.4x1.5 m

243 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

: : : : :

40/60, 2x12.7mm HMG 2xdiesels 1480 kw each 25 2,375 nm at 14 knots 35

REGIONAL BALANCE

Total No. in service : Specifications Make : Displacement (in tonnes) : Dimensions (LOAxBxD) :

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) “Sarojini Naidu” class


Indian Defence Compiled by SP Guide Publications team As on August 31, 2011

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

6

Who’s Who in

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Union Government Prime Minister..................................................................................................................................................... Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence.............................................................................................................................................. A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence................................................................................................................................ M.M. Pallam Raju

TECHNOLOGY

President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces........................................................................................ Pratibha Devisingh Patil Vice President...................................................................................................................................................... M. Hamid Ansari

Defence Secretary................................................................................................................................................ Shashi Kant Sharma Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare) ...................................................................................................................... Neelam Nath Joint Secretary (Ordnance/Navy) ......................................................................................................................... Binoy Kumar Joint Secretary (Establishment) & Public Grievance.............................................................................................. Arun Kumar Bal Joint Secretary (General/Air)................................................................................................................................ Subhash Chandra Joint Secretary (Ex-Serviceman Welfare)............................................................................................................... Sanjeeva Kumar Joint Secretary (Training)...................................................................................................................................... Upamanyu Chatterjee

BUSINESS

Ministry of Defence Department

Department of Defence Production

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Secretary (Defence Production)............................................................................................................................ Shekhar Agarwal Special Secretary (Defence Production)............................................................................................................... R.K. Mathur Addl. Secretary (Defence Production) & CVO........................................................................................................ V. Somasundran Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems)..................................................................................................................... Satyajeet Rajan Joint Secretary (Land Systems)............................................................................................................................. Rashmi Verma

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INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Director General (Acquisition).............................................................................................................................. Vivek Rae Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & Addl. Secretary................................................................................................. Amit Cowshish Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems)......................................................................................... Vacant Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime Systems)................................................................................... Preeti Sudan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air).......................................................................................................... Ranjan Kumar Ghose Technical Manager (Land Systems)...................................................................................................................... Major General N.S. Vidyarthi Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems)............................................................................................................. Rear Admiral B.R. Taneja Technical Manager (Air)....................................................................................................................................... Air Vice Marshal Pradeep Singh Finance Manager (Land System) & Joint Secretary................................................................................................ Vishvajit Sahay Finance Manager (Maritime & System) & Joint Secretary..................................................................................... Rajnish Kumar Finance Manager (Air).......................................................................................................................................... Praveen Kumar

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

Acquisition Wing


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Indian Defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

Pratibha Devisingh Patil

President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces The 12th President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, is the first woman to have been elected to this august office. Born on December 19, 1934 in Nadgaon in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, she assumed office of the President of India on July 25, 2007. Her early education was from R.R. Vidyalaya, Jalgaon and her Master’s in Political Science and Economics was completed from the Mooljee Jetha College, Jalgaon. Having studied law from Government Law College in Mumbai, she began her law career in the Jalgaon District Court and simultaneously devoted herself to various social activities especially for the upliftment of women. At the age of 27, she successfully contested her first election to the Maharashtra State Legislature from the constituency of Jalgaon. Subsequently, for the next four times, she was elected MLA from the Edlabad (Muktai

Nagar) constituency till 1985. Thereafter, she served as a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha from 1985 to 1990 and was later elected a Member of Parliament to the 10th Lok Sabha in the 1991 General Elections from Amravati. Pratibha Patil enjoys the unique distinction of having won every election that she contested. Having represented India at various international fora, she attended the International Council on Social Welfare conference at Nairobi and Puerto Rico. In 1985, she was a member of the AICC(I) delegation to Bulgaria and three years later she attended the Commonwealth Presiding Officers Conference in London. Patil led the Indian delegation to the Conference on the Status of Women in Austria and was a delegate at the World Women’s Conference in Beijing in September 1995.

Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India

Dr Manmohan Singh, the 15th Prime Minister of India, is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26, 1932, in a village in Punjab province of undivided India, Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK, where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh’s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971, Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are

Secretary in the Ministry of Finance, Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career, the most prominent are India’s second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan (1987); the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress (1995); the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994); the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993); the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956); and the Wright’s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John’s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004.

A.K. Antony www.spguidepublications.com

Defence Minister A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24, 2006, marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28, 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala, to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai, he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17, 1985 to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed the students’ unions.

Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning, he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony, who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice, is an astute politician with a spotless image.

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Indian Defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

CONTENTS

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M.M. Pallam Raju

He was first elected to Parliament in 1989 and was the youngest MP in the ninth Lok Sabha. He has served as a Director on the boards of Indian Airlines and Air India during 1994-97. He is a successful entrepreneur in the field of information technology, and was on the boards of a few very successful public limited companies until his induction into the Union Council of Ministers. He has been a very active member of the Indian National Congress and has held several important positions in the state unit and at the national level. At present, he is a Member of Parliament (15th Lok Sabha).

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

An alumnus of the Hyderabad Public School, Begumpet, Mallipudi Mangapati Pallam Raju is an electronics & communications engineering graduate from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam and an MBA from Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. He worked in Philadelphia and Boston in the US and in Oslo, Norway, in the field of computers and information technology. He has a political lineage with his grandfather, the late Mallipudi Pallam Raju, being a freedom fighter and his father, M.S. Sanjeevi Rao, being a Union Minister in the Government of India from 1982 to 1984.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Minister of State for Defence

Shashi Kant Sharma

the state, he has handled Land Revenue Management and District Administration, Labour, Youth Affairs and Sports, Urban Development, Social Justice and Empowerment and Road Transport. At the Centre, starting from December 2, 2003, he has been deputed to the Ministry of Defence, and has served as Joint Secretary and has also been DG (Acquisition) for three years. He has had shorts stints as Secretary in the Ministry of Information and Technology and in the Ministry of Finance before joining the MoD once again as the Defence Secretary on July 14, 2011.

BUSINESS

Shashi Kant Sharma is a 1976 batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of the Bihar cadre. He has had wide and varied experience both in the state and the Centre by virtue of the type of assignments held by him in both places. He is a post-graduate in Political Science and has also obtained a post-graduate degree in Administration from the University of New York. He has also attended a large number of capsules and courses in financial management, urban development and administration during the course of his career, both at mid and at senior levels. In

TECHNOLOGY

Defence Secretary

Shekhar Agarwal

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

areas of the government both at the Centre as well as in some States. He was Special Secretary working in the Ministry of Defence for the last three and half-years before assuming this appointment. He is a post-graduate in Chemistry from Delhi University and a gold medalist from St. Stephen’s College, Delhi University.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Shekhar Agarwal assumed charge as Secretary, Department of Defence Production on Juky 7, 2011. He belongs to the 1977 batch of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) of the UP cadre. He has a vast experience of working in Home, Finance and Personnel Administration and has worked in all core

INDIAN DEFENCE

Secretary, Defence Production


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Indian Defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence Public Sector Undertakings Ashok Nayak Chairman, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Ashok Nayak took over as the 15th Chairman of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in April 2009. He is a mechanical engineer from Bangalore University and joined the premier aeronautical agency as a management trainee in 1973. In his career spanning over three decades, Nayak has held key positions in the fields of manufacturing, quality assurance, production, planning, customer services and export including a stint as general manager of aerospace

division in 2004 where he looked after the manufacturing of GSLV Mk. III structural assemblies and tankages. As General Manager of HAL’s aircraft division in 2006, Nayak gave a fillip to concurrent engineering and upgrade of Jaguar aircraft. He has led seven vital divisions of the company including fleet serviceability and multiple projects like the Hawk, IJT and Light Combat Aircraft (LCA). He brought in attitudinal change by focusing on exports, which resulted in several orders from global aircraft manufacturers.

Ashwani Kumar Datt Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Electronics Limited Ashwani Kumar Datt (57) took over as the Chairman and Managing Director of Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) on May 1, 2009. He was Director (Other Units) of BEL before his elevation as CMD. A graduate in Mechanical Engineering from Delhi University, Datt joined BEL in January 1973. In May 1973, he was assigned to the team which set up the second unit of the company at Ghaziabad. Datt has exten-

sive experience in development and engineering, production, quality assurance and installation/commissioning of complex radar and communication systems. He is a qualified Lead Assessor for Quality Systems. During his varied assignments, he has received intensive training in India and aborad on project managment, technology transfer and quality management systems.

V.RS. Natarajan

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Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Earth Movers Limited V.RS. Natarajan joined Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) on December 1, 2002, as Chairman and Managing Director. Prior to joining BEML he was associated with the Lakshmi Group, Blue Star Limited, Binny Limited, Bharat Gold Mines Limited and Electronics Corporation of India Limited. Natarajan is a member of the Executive Committee of SCOPE, New Delhi and is the Chairman of Southern Region, SCOPE; the Chairman, Mining and Construction Equipment

Division, Confederation of Indian Industry; Chairman of the Defence Committee FICCI; Chairman of the Society of Defence Technologists; Chairman, Management Council for Combat Engineering, Ministry of Defence. He is also the Chairman of the Board of Directors of BEML Midwest Limited and Vignyan Industries Limited. He is a post-graduate in Social Sciences and has been trained in Corporate Management in AOTS, Japan.

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The Department of Defence Production & Supplies has the following organisations under it: n Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) n Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) n Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) n Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) n Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) n Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSEL) n Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) n Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) n Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) n Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) n Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) n Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) n Directorate of Standardisation n Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) The Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) was transferred from the Ministry of Shipping to the Department of Defence Production and Supplies on February 23, 2010. HSL can now build warships and submarines for the Indian Navy.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Participation by the Private Sector

With the strategic objective of self-reliance in defence, the DDP&S has been endeavouring to indigenise defence equipment wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. It has been a part of the indigenisation effort to locate and develop broad-based indigenous supply sources both in the public sector as well as in the civil trade

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REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

he Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S) deals with the indigenisation, development and production of defence equipment both in the public and private sectors. Currently there are eight defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) and 41 ordnance factories including two that are in the process of being established, one each at Nalanda in Bihar and at Korwa in Uttar Pradesh. The mandate of the DPSUs and ordnance factories is to provide the armed forces state-of-the-art equipment and achieve high degree of self-reliance in defence production. Today, these establishments have a wide range of infrastructure for manufacture and maintenance of aircraft, warships, submarines, heavy vehicles, missiles, guns, ammunition, components for defence equipment, earthmovers, communication and electronic devices, alloys and special purpose steel. Over the years, their capabilities and capacity have been augmented and modernised by the development and induction of new technologies through foreign collaboration to meet the emerging requirements of the armed forces. In addition, the capacities of the civil sector are also utilised for defence production through outsourcing, joint ventures and commercialisation of new products developed from time to time by defence research establishments. Defence equipment being highly technology intensive, demand high levels of precision and quality control during manufacture. The Directorate Generals of Quality Assurance and Aeronautical Quality Assurance as also the Directorate of Standardisation have been established to ensure the required quality levels. Quality assurance is a high priority area and continual improvements in the standards and testing facilities are required.

BUSINESS

The mandate of the DPSUs and ordnance factories is to provide the armed forces state-of-the-art equipment and achieve high degree of self-reliance in defence production. Over the years, their capabilities have been augmented and modernised by the development and induction of new technologies through foreign collaboration.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Department of Defence Production & Supplies

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Defence Industry

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

DRDO has an institutionalised mechanism to assess trends in science and technology as also to identify futuristic technology requirements of the armed forces. Both production agencies and the users are involved from the inception of the project for better synergy amongst the various agencies involved and to reduce delay.

Programme Highlights DRDO has empowered the country with cutting-edge technologies and provided the services with contemporary systems to enhance their combat effectiveness. Status of some of the major programmes and projects during the financial year that ended on March 31, 2010 has been elaborated in the following paragraphs.

Missile Systems Prithvi: A surface-to-surface tactical battlefield missile, the Prithvi is produced in three versions categorised by range which is 150, 250 and 350 km with payload capability varying from 500 kg to 1,000 kg. All the three versions have been inducted into the armed forces. Also, as part of user trials, Prithvi salvo launch capability has also been proven. Agni: A surface-to-surface missile with a range of 700 km, the Agni I can be configured to fire from road-mobile launcher. It has a single-stage, solid rocket motor and can carry a one-tonne warhead. The missile system has been inducted into the services. User trials are being conducted by the Indian Army in coordination with the DRDO.

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Organisational Structure The organisation is headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Defence

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Programme Monitoring and Review

TECHNOLOGY

F

Minister who is also the Secretary to the Government of India. The DRDO headquarters has two types of directorates, namely corporate and technical. While the former is responsible for matters related to human resource (HR), finance and administration, the latter is responsible for all technical and scientific issues. DRDO has two societies under it namely Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to undertake design and development of advanced technology aircraft and Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research (SITAR) for designing digital components for various projects. DRDO has around 30,000 knowledge workers on its rolls, which includes 7,000 scientists, 12,000 technical personnel and 11,000 administrative support staff.

ormed on January 1, 1958, by merging the units of Defence Science Organisation and the Technical Development Establishments of the armed forces, the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) of India was a fledgling research establishment with just 10 laboratories. In 1980, the DRDO became a department under the Central Government. Today, it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian Government with a network of over 50 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. Several complex defence-related projects designed to achieve a high degree of self-reliance for the nation are currently being undertaken by the DRDO. The projects cover critical areas of defence such as tanks, combat aircraft, missiles, unmanned aerial systems, radars, sonar, electronic warfare systems and a variety of armament. It is also engaged in R&D in areas such as computational sciences, artificial intelligence, robotics, high-energy physics and systems engineering. Survival and support systems, ranging from food and shelter to psychology and health care for the personnel of the Indian armed forces are also being developed. About 70 academic institutions, 50 national science and technology centres, and more than 800 public and private sector industries have supported the efforts of the DRDO in the development and manufacturing of prototypes, components and subsystems, strengthening the technological base of the nation. In addition, expertise and infrastructure have been built up for basic/applied research in areas of relevance to defence, science and technology, quality assurance, safety and technology management. In the pursuit of self-reliance in complex and strategic defence equipment, DRDO is committed to enhancement of both infrastructure and capability. It has a vision to be a reservoir of expertise in the most advanced scientific and technological domain. DRDO functions as advisor to the Indian Ministry of Defence, assists in the evaluation of equipment for the armed forces and generates technical knowledge for use by the Indian defence industries for the development of new weapon systems.

BUSINESS

In the pursuit of self-reliance in complex and strategic defence equipment, DRDO is committed to enhancement of both infrastructure and capability. It has a vision to be a reservoir of expertise in the most advanced scientific and technological domain.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Striving for self-reliance

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

R&D

REGIONAL BALANCE

8

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INDIAN DEFENCE

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AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE)

ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE)

Director: P.S. Krishnan Suranjan Das Road,CV Raman Nagar, Bangalore - 560093 Phone: 080- 25283404,25057001, 25057034 Fax: 080-25283188

Director: Anil M. Datar Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post Pashan, Pune - 411021 Phone: 020-25893274, 25885007, Fax: 020-25893102

CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS)

CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR)

Director: Dr S. Christopher Ministry of Defence Defence R&D Organisation Belur, Yemlur Post Bangalore - 560037 Phone: 080-25225121, 26572638, Fax: 080-25222326

Director: V.S. Mahalingam DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bangalore-560093 Phone: 080-25342646, 25244298 Extn: 2270/2271 Fax: 080-25244298

CENTRE FOR FIRE, EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES)

CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC)

Director: Sudershan Kumar Ministry of Defence Brigadier S.K. Majumdar Marg, Timarpur New Delhi - 110054 Phone: 011-23813239, 23907102, 23919555 Fax: 011-2381 9547

Chief Executive: K. Tamilmani Defence R&D Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post, Bangalore - 560037 Phone: 080-25230680, 28517272 Fax: 080 - 25230856, 25234781

COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE)

DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE) Director: P.M. Soundar Rajan Post Box No. 9366 C. V. Raman Nagar, Phase II New Thippasandra Post Bangalore 560093 Phone: 080-25347704, 25349571 Fax: 080- 25347717

Director: P. Sivakumar Avadi Chennai - 600054 Phone: 044-26364001, 26364003 Fax: 044-26383661

Director: Dr V.C. Padaki Post Box No. 9326, CV Raman Nagar, Bangalore 560093 Phone: 080-25058325, 25280692, 23446987 Fax: 080-25282011

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL)

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (DLRL)

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Director: R.C. Agarwal Post Box 54 Raipur Road Dehradun-248001 Uttarakhand Phone: 0135-2787224, 2787012 Fax: 0135-2787290, 2787265

Director: G. Boopathy Chandrayanagutta Lines Hyderabad - 500005 Phone: 040- 24440061 24530264 Fax: 040- 2787161, 2787128

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DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL)

Director: Dr Z. Ahmad Post Bag No. 6 Pithoragarh , Uttarakhand - 262 501 Phone: 05964-225564, 256434, 223386, 224601 (R) Fax: 05964-225564

REGIONAL BALANCE

DEFENCE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (DARL)

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Director: S.C. Sati Post Box No. 51 Station Road, Agra Cantt. Agra - 282 001 Phone: 0562-2260023, 2258200, Fax: 0562-2251677

TECHNOLOGY

Director: C.V.S. Sastry DRDO, Kanchanbagh PO Hyderabad - 500058 Phone: 040-24347630 Fax: 040-24347679

BUSINESS

AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE)

INDIAN DEFENCE

ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG)

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Indian Defence R&D Establishments


 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

P. Chidambaram at the Chief Ministers Conference on Internal Security held in New Delhi on August 17, 2009, said, “Let me recall the three challenges to internal security—terrorism; insurgency in the North-eastern states; and left-wing extremism or Naxalism. Each one of them shares many characteristics with the other two. At the same time, each one of them is significantly different from the other two. We have one instrument to confront and defeat the three challenges and that is the police. In the final analysis, it is the policemen and the policewomen who can help us win these battles. To that policemen and policewomen, this conference must send out a clear message that the government at every level is duty bound to provide them every kind of support—monetary, material and moral.” The government’s resolve to reform the internal security apparatus of the country was apparent in the Minister’s statement.

I

n the era immediately after independence, threats to India were mainly external—from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day, the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However, as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew, the Indian Government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. It is now widely acknowledged that there is more to security than purely military factors. Today’s definition of security acknowledges political, economic, environmental, social and human thread among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today, it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, namely the ‘human being’ or ‘civil security’ as the Americans term it, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human security’ with focus on the individual and the community. Therefore, the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well being of its people.

Internal Security Management Internal security management has been an important component of India’s national security management ever since independence in 1947. The Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India handles India’s internal security management mechanism. In the formative years after independence, India focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order, communal peace and harmony, crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. But in the past five decades or so, besides the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the focus is also on the extinguished insurgency in Punjab, the dissidence and proxy

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Challenges to Internal Security Consequent to the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26, 2008, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government went into high drive to implement the internal security reforms. The Union Home Minister,

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n LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. Kapoor

INDIAN DEFENCE

Today, it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, namely the ‘human being’ or ‘civil security’ as the Americans term it, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human security’ with focus on the individual and the community. Security is now related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well being of its people.

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Changing Dimensions

REGIONAL BALANCE

Homeland Security

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

perception was growing stronger that India’s external and internal security was getting inextricably linked, especially on its western borders. A large number of India’s internal security problems are connected to Jehadi groups based in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK). Pakistan’s intelligence agencies and the military are funding, training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now stand fully exposed. However, despite a restrained but tough stance taken initially, the national leadership has now decided to get back to the negotiation table with Pakistan both at the official and at the Track 2 levels. The succeeding paragraphs give some relevant details of India’s internal security reforms or the lack of it in certain areas. Maritime security has not been included as that forms a major input by itself and has to be dealt with separately.

I

ndia’s internal security remains a major concern even years after independence. In the early years after independence, the Indian Government focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order, communal peace and harmony, crime control and counter-insurgency mainly confined to the Northeast. However, in the past five decades or so, the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the extinguished insurgency in Punjab, the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir, the burgeoning Naxalite violence which is currently affecting 20 states and Union territories (223 districts), the jehadi terrorism unleashed by our unscrupulous western neighbour, poor governance in most states, all put together have become a serious threat, which can destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government after the November 26, 2008, terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks, people came out on the streets, though peacefully, to protest the inaction on part of the government in facing growing internal threats and challenges. As the public anger became palpable, the government was forced to act speedily. India’s Home Minister and the Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political casualties. A spate of reforms, which were already in the pipeline were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile, the

Measures to Strengthen the Internal Security Apparatus In view of the repeated terror attacks on the Indian soil and the disjointed actions by the state government and the police following the attacks in Mumbai, and the public outcry thereafter, the government was forced to speedily undertake a number of internal security reviews and adopt measures which could either pre-empt future terror attacks or at least improve the crises management after such attacks occur. Several measures have been taken or are under way since then. These are briefly indicated below:

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Strengthening the Central Police Forces n The CPFs have been expanded by creation of 40 additional battalions -- 20 each in Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) and Indo-Tibetan

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n LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR

INDIAN DEFENCE

The weaknesses lie in the realm of political and administrative accountability, transparency, superintendence and control over the police, proper training and equipping of the police force, and people’s participation which would also ensure actionable intelligence. The government needs to introspect and rectify the fault lines by evolving pragmatic development plans and operational strategies and vigorous implementation of the same.

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Reforms & Recommendations

REGIONAL BALANCE

Internal Security

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n Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

Politics Mamata Banerjee’s political rally in Lalgarh in August 2010 urging Maoists to hold talks with the government drew tremendous flak. The opposition cried blue murder, labelling her having links with the Maoists. There were voices of dissent within the Congress too. The CPI(M) accused the Trinamool Congress of being hand in glove with Maoists and asked the Centre to explain the presence of extremists in the Lalgarh rally. Why the Maoists let Mamata invade their sanctum sanctorum is anybody’s guess but may be they sensed a chance to capitalise on our legacy of criminalisation of politics; United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA), Bhindranwala, Bodos, Purulia arms drop and what have you. The political clash in Jhargram in the West Bengal assembly elections between the Trinamool Congress and People’s Committee against Police Atrocities (PCPA) candidate surfaced a new poser especially since PCPA fielded none other than jailed Maoist hardliner Chhatradhar Mahato, revered by Maoists. Perhaps the Trinamool Congress did not want to leave even a single constituency uncontested as part of their plan to storm West Bengal with an overwhelming majority. However, if the overall plan was to draw Maoists into the political mainstream, it has not worked. Jhargram is the only assembly seat in West Bengal with a Maoist backed candidate. Besides, West Bengal is only one of the 16 states with a raging Maoist insurgency.

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

P

ost-Dantewada massacre, train derailing including the KolkataMumbai train sabotage that caused loss of more than hundred innocent lives, a series of effective mine/IED attacks on Central Police Organisations (CPOs), chilling killings and abductions of government officials, security personnel and perceived informers, we witnessed a period of comparative quiet in the Maoist violence albeit still dotted by sporadic violence, until a sharp upswing just before the fifth phase of West Bengal assembly elections. Where does the Maoist insurgency stand today? Do we posit a change of heart in the insurgents with the Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, announcing large financial outlays for development of the insurgency affected areas? Talk to some of the MLAs and MPs of the affected states and they brush it off lightly, labeling it as tribal agitation over forest rights? If that was the sole problem, why then should the Prime Minister describe it as the biggest threat to our security? Are we continuing with our ostrich approach, hoping that the problem will wish itself away or waiting for more Dantewada kind incidents to happen, losing critical time to China and Pakistan to exploit this fault line of ours into full grown fourth generation war? Did Mamta Banerjee’s last year speech in the Maoist stronghold of Lalgarh draw the Maoists into participative elections? While these are issues that need analyses, the fact is that while India races against time to manage social change, the Maoist insurgency needs to be accorded top priority. More intransigence may be at the cost of national integrity for our adversaries will not lose any opportunity to seek balkanisation of India.

Ideology

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It would be prudent for those who still take the Maoist problem lightly to read the Maoist document titled “Strategy and tactics of the Indian Revolution” scripted as late as 2004 that states, “The central task of the Indian revolution is the seizure of political power. To accomplish this,

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The Centre and the states need to synergise their approach on vital issues of national security. The security forces must operate in unified fashion remembering that the overall objective is reinstatement of the rule of law and the population must be won over while destroying the Maoist-terrorists simultaneously.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Revolutionary Strategy & Tactics

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Insurgency

REGIONAL BALANCE

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n Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

ries. India’s total number of islands is 1,197 which accounts to a stretch of 2,094 km additional border or coastline. The land borders have been continuously in focus due to the hostile nature of certain neighbouring countries and disputed borders. However, the same is not true of the coastal areas. There are some disputed areas in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) but apart from this, there are problems of smuggling, terrorism and illegal fishing. The coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat are strategically located and prosperous which makes them prone to smuggling, poaching of seafood and anti-national activities. Smuggling of gold, arms and explosives has been quite common in this area. For the serial blasts in Mumbai during 1993, explosives were smuggled through Raigad on the Maharashtra coast. The Government of India and the state governments were aware of the possible problems but were somewhat complacent in their actions which resulted in the terrorist attack in Mumbai on November 26, 2008.This resulted in triggering the government agencies to put appropriate mechanisms in place for effective coastal security. There is continuous movement of all types of vessels for trade, fishing, military, policing, sports, and so on. It is understood that there are about 1,50,000 small fishing boats with no modern navigation means or communications. Management of such a coastline including the maritime zone is by itself a formidable task and it becomes even more complex and challenging if the template of terrorism and piracy is superimposed upon it.

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Maritime Trade

There are about 12 major ports through which 71 per cent of the maritime traffic passes. There are also about 199 non-major ports. The total trade handled by the major ports has recorded nearly threefold increase from 179.02 million tonnes in 1993-94 to 530.8 million tonnes in 2008-09.

India’s Maritime Environment India has a coastline of 7,516.6 km, touching 13 states and union territo-

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

M

aritime traffic is a key player in world trade due to which maritime environment is exposed to greater risks because of multiple threats. Thus the security of maritime environment, including coastal security, is of paramount importance for any country which has a long coastline. Emerging new threats like terrorism and piracy apart from the traditional threats like smuggling, poaching of marine life and illegal immigration, have thrown fresh challenges for coastal security. Multiple threats warrant responses from multiple agencies which complicates the scenario. This necessitates the requirement of having appropriate maritime regulations so that safety and security of inhabitants, resources and environment is secured. It is important that the regulations are so made that the multiple agencies involved in the handling of maritime security, do so in a coherent and integrated manner while preserving each agency’s primary responsibility. The solutions arrived at should be based on the maritime threat, economic realities, existing assets, current organisations and legacy systems. They will involve coastal, underwater, surface, land, airborne and space capabilities for optimum domain knowledge, rapid situation analysis resulting in faster decision-making. The forces deployed for coastal security must be able to adapt to the rapidly changing security environment from preventive to defensive to reactive.

BUSINESS

Management of the coastline, including the maritime zone, is by itself a formidable task and it becomes even more complex and challenging if the template of terrorism and piracy is superimposed upon it

INDIAN DEFENCE

In a Rapidly Changing Environment

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Coastal Security

Indian Coast Guard

4

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section five

325 325 325 325 326 326 326 326 326 327 327 327 327 327 328 328 328 328 328 328

Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

329 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 330 331 331 331 331 331 332 332 332 332 332 332

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Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia People’s Republic of China Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Asian Who's Who


  Australia Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since January 6, 1952) Governor General Quentin Bryce Prime Minister Julia Eileen Gillard Defence Minister Stephen Francis Smith Chief of the Defence Forces General David Hurley Chief of Army Lt General Ken Gillespie Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Ray Griggs Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Geoff Brown Chief Joint Operations Lt General Mark Evans Department of Defence Russel Offices Suite MF149, Parliament House Canberra Act 2600 Phone: 02 6277 7800 Phone: +6162659111 Fax: 02 6273 4118 Defence National Phone: 1300 3333623

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

  Algeria Head of State President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia Minister of National Defence Abdelaziz Bouteflika Chief of General Staff General Salah Ahmed Gaida Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy Admiral Mohammed Taheryali Commander of the Gendarmerie General Ahmed Boustela Ministry of Defence Avenue des Tagarins Algiers Algeria Phone: +2132611515

  Bahrain Head of State King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa Minister of Interior Rashid bin Abdallah bin Ahmad Al Khalifa Deputy Prime Minister Ali bin Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa

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National People’s Army HQ C/0 Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja, Algiers, Algeria Phone: +2132634176, 631765, 611515

BUSINESS

  Afghanistan Head of State and Government President Hamid Karzai First Vice President Mohammad Fahim Khan Second Vice President Abdul Karim Khalili Defence Minister General (Retd) Abdul Rahim Wardak Foreign Minister Dr Zalmai Rassoul Interior Minister General Bismillah Khan Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces Lt General Sher Mohammad Karimi Commander of the Air Force Major General Mohammad Dawran Ministry of Defence Kabul (Afghanistan) Phone: 0093 (O) 202300331 Phone: 0093 (O) 700275707

INDIAN DEFENCE

Compiled by SP Guide Publications Team As on July 31, 2011

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Asian Defence Forces

REGIONAL BALANCE

Who’s Who in

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section six

One Two Three Four Five Six

GDP & Military Expenditure Central & South Asia East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia West Asia and North Africa Security in the Asia-Pacific Region Equipment & Hardware Specifications

333 337 365 401 435 441

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

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Regional Balance


47

Years of Excellence Personified

6

Aesthetically Noteworthy Publications

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Million Thought-Provoking Releases

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Million Expert Reports Voicing Industry Concerns

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GDP Based on PPP ($ billion)

GDP Current Prices Per Capita ($)

GDP Based on PPP Per Capita ($)

1

Afghanistan

18.332

29.865

589.749

960.774

2

Algeria

192.384

263.321

5,245.49

7,179.66

3

Australia

1,448.15

918.529

64,351.18

40,816.41

4

Bahrain

26.484

30.963

23,465.50

27,433.50

5

Bangladesh

115.387

277.919

691.951

1,666.62

6

Bhutan

1.483

4.176

2,041.70

5,747.41

7

Cambodia

13.001

32.489

900.841

2,251.14

8

China

6,515.86

11,174.33

4,833.29

8,288.82

9

Egypt

231.111

508.265

2,892.41

6,361.05

10

India

1,704.06

4,447.76

1,382.40

3,608.20

11

Indonesia

822.631

1,105.72

3,464.81

4,657.13

12

Iran

420.894

827.344

5,493.23

10,797.94

13

Iraq

108.418

125.665

3,300.71

3,825.78

14

Israel

234.908

230.455

30,933.68

30,347.32

15

Japan

5,821.95

4,417.65

45,659.37

34,645.99

16

Jordan

29.964

36.04

4,788.27

5,759.28

17

Kazakhstan

168.789

210.341

10,820.36

13,484.08

18

Korea, South

1,126.50

1,541.02

19

Kuwait

172.778

145.292

20

Kyrgyzstan

5.086

12.755

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31,410.47

46,969.84

39,497.71

942.379

2,363.21

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GDP Current Prices ($ billion)

BUSINESS

Country

INDIAN DEFENCE

Sr No.

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GDP Total/Per Capita Based on Current Prices/Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

REGIONAL BALANCE

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GDP & Military Expenditure

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Pakistan-Afghanistan Region The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. Today, international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally, Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to stimulate terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now, Pakistan-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. The current impasse in their relationship is the result of Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26, 2008, which emanated from Pakistan. The new political dispensation of coalition politics in Pakistan has not stabilised, while the resurgence of Taliban in the western provinces of Pakistan, opposite Afghanistan, namely Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) and Baluchistan, has further complicated the governance in Pakistan. The war in Afghanistan commenced on October 7, 2001, and marked the beginning of the US led war on international terrorism in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. The purpose of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy the Al-Qaeda and dethrone the Taliban regime. While the operation achieved most of its stated objectives, it has failed to establish stability in Afghanistan due to increased warlord activity and the resurgence of the Taliban activity in Afghanistan. The International Security Assistance Force was established by the

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Central Asia Central Asia is a region that comprises five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the centre of the world. Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location, it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British Empires. Later, it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9/11 events brought further global attention to this region, reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this, the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the US, Russia and China. The Fergana Valley is the best-suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. However, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet Republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided. Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself; Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west; and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the valley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within Kyrgyzstan’s portion of the valley, affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia’s core and hence Central Asia itself. Central Asia is also referred to as the “backyard of Russia and China.” It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the US on one hand, and Moscow and Beijing on the other. Post-9/11, Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

C

scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility, enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players, namely the US, Russia and China, the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their grand strategies, the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including strategic partnership, non-alignment and a multi-vectored approach. The key to what is known as Kazakhstan’s “multi-vectored” approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today, this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia’s Eurasec, Gazprom, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), but it nonetheless remains in place. Kazakhstan’s successful campaign to gain the Organisation of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) presidency is evidence of a more recent effort to engage Europeans as a fourth element in the balance. The major attraction for key players, as also countries like India, Japan and the European Union, is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin.

entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world’s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia, and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world’s largest landmass (39,95,800 sq km) and has vast natural resources, including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically, it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. On the other hand, South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further, India’s economic growth and dynamism has made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. Despite the global economic meltdown, India’s gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to grow at the rate of eight per cent during 2010 and more thereafter.

REGIONAL BALANCE

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regional balance

Central & South Asia

relations. The agreement is expected to be signed during Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s visit to Dhaka this year. The discussions include formulation of a working plan on the sharing of the waters of other common rivers—Dharla, Dudhkumar, Manu, Khowai, Gumti and Muhuri. Pakistan having earlier encouraged, trained and funded terrorist groups including the Taliban, is now plagued by terrorism, insurgency and sectarian violence within its territory. Pakistan is passing through an unprecedented political, economic and social crisis exacerbated by the record floods in July-August 2010. At one point, approximately one-fifth of Pakistan’s total land area was under water. The floods have lowered agricultural output and contributed to a jump in inflation, and reconstruction costs will strain the limited resources of the government. The Islamic radical elements continue to pose a threat to stability in Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan face the challenge of dealing with an increasingly Talibanised Pakistan where the institutions of governance and particularly the army, are coming under the sway of Taliban ideology. The United States has been exerting pressure on Pakistan to send its troops into North Waziristan after Pak Army’s successful military action in Swat and South Waziristan. Pakistan has ultimately agreed to launch military operations in North Waziristan, but has said that it alone will decide its timings. Pakistan also remains ambivalent on dealing with militant groups in PoK, and particularly the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT). It has still not taken any credible action against the terrorists who perpetrated the Mumbai attacks on November 26, 2008. Addressing the 16th SAARC Summit at Thimpu on April 28, 2010, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh likened the 25-year-old SAARC to a “glass half-empty”, warned that the region faces the risk of “marginalisation and stagnation” if the member countries fail to build it as a grouping that is better connected and better empowered. He announced the setting up of ‘India Endowment for Climate Change in South Asia’ to help member countries in meeting urgent adaptation and capacity building needs. He also proposed setting up of Climate Innovation Centres in South Asia to develop sustainable energy technologies based on indigenous resource endowments. Singh said there was a need for the member countries to “rediscover our shared heritage and build our common future” as he pitched for free movement of goods, services and people across South Asia. At the summit, India and seven other South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) nations facing threats posed by terrorism and climate change pledged to jointly combat the twin challenges. Details pertaining to the countries of the region have been given in the following sequence:

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UN Security Council at the end of December 2001, to secure Kabul and the surrounding areas. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) assumed control of the International Security Assistant Force (ISAF) in 2003. The NATO commitment is particularly important to the United States because it appears to give international legitimacy to the war. Since 2006, Afghanistan has experienced increased Taliban-led insurgent activity, record-high levels of illegal drug production, with participation by Northern Alliance drug lords in the Karzai regime, and a corrupt government with limited control outside Kabul. The Taliban can sustain itself indefinitely, according to a December 2009 briefing by the top US intelligence officer in Afghanistan. On December 1, 2009, US President Barack Obama announced that he would escalate the US military involvement by deploying an additional 30,000 soldiers over a period of six months. He also proposed to begin troop withdrawals within 18 months. On January 26, 2010, at the International Conference on Afghanistan in London, which brought together some 70 countries and organisations, Afghan President Hamid Karzai told world leaders that he intended to reach out to the top echelons of the Taliban within a few weeks with a peace initiative. Karzai set the framework for dialogue with Taliban leaders when he called on the group’s leadership to take part in a “loya jirga”—or large assembly of elders—to initiate peace talks. Doubts on the success of the war in Afghanistan intensified after the United States diplomatic cables leak by WikiLeaks as the European Union President Herman Van Rompuy was quoted saying to the US Ambassador to Belgium, Howard W. Gutman that “EU no longer believes in the success of the military mission in Afghanistan.” He also added, “Europe is doing it [war in Afghanistan] and will go along out of deference to the United States, but not out of deference to Afghanistan.” South Asia The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between nucleararmed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its North-eastern states, and intermittently, in the rest of the country. Left wing extremism (Naxalite violence) which has affected 20 states and about 220 districts of the Indian Union, nearly 40 per cent of India’s geographical area is becoming more and more virulent, virtually overwhelming state authority in certain places. In neighbouring Nepal, the fall of the Maoist-led Government in May 2009 over the sensitive question of the integration of the Maoist cadres into the Nepalese Army and civil-military relations, had brought political instability in the country. The deadlock was finally resolved when the Maoists, the largest single party, decided to withdraw their own candidate and supported Jhalanath Khanal, the chairman of the leftist Communist Party of Nepal, who became the Prime Minister The political instability resulted in delay in drafting the Constitution of the country and has adversely affected the economy of Nepal. In Sri Lanka, with the defeat of LTTE and the demise of Prabhakaran, a new chapter has opened. Rehabilitation of the Tamil population will provide long-term peace to this war-torn country. In Bangladesh, the massive mandate for change given to the Awami League by the voters presents an opportunity for India and Bangladesh to work towards a better relationship which had stagnated during the BNPled government. New Delhi and Dhaka agreement to sign a 15-year interim accord on sharing the waters of common rivers Teesta and Feni on January 10, 2011 is being seen as a major development in India-Bangladesh

Central & South Asia • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Tajikistan • Turkmenistan • Uzbekistan • Afghanistan • Bangladesh • Bhutan • India • Nepal • Pakistan • Sri Lanka

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Central & South Asia: Kazakhstan

KAZAKHSTAN

vests, and increased foreign investment; GDP growth slowed dramatically following the near-collapse of the banking sector in late 2007 and the decline in oil and metal prices associated with the global economic downturn in 2008-09. Kazakhstan has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector as well as expanding export markets away from its historical reliance on Russia. Nevertheless, growth is still driven by oil. The government has engaged in several disputes with Western oil companies over the terms of production agreements, most recently, with regard to the Kashagan project in 2007-08 and the Karachaganak project in 2009.

  General Information

Defence Total Armed Forces : Active 49,000 (Army 30,000 Air 12,000 Navy 3,000 MoD 4,000) Terms of Service : 24 months Paramilitary Forces : Presidential Guard: 2,000 Internal Security Troops: 20,000 est. State, Border Protection Force: 9,000 est. Government Guard: 500

Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions

Religions Languages

Literacy Government

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Suffrage Administrative Divisions

Security Environment Kazakhstan is not a country that faces significant external threats. Unique in the post-Soviet Central Asian region for its significant and sustained economic growth which has translated into consistent standard of living increases for the population, Kazakhstan has also had a measured foreign policy since independence. Although its two economically and militarily sizeable neighbours—Russia and China­—are perceived as threatening by some Kazakhs, it is not in a military sense. Rather, Kazakhs worry about Russian and Chinese investors exerting influence as a result of economic power, and they express concern about political bullying. They have managed these problems predominantly by maintaining good relations with these countries as well as building ties with the United States. Kazakhstan has sought not so much to balance any one partner against others as it has to ensure that a network of good relationships prevents conflict. In its own region, Kazakhstan has aspired to Central Asian leadership with variable success. Tiny neighbour Kyrgyzstan is generally acquiescent to Kazakh pressures and influence, while Uzbekistan has tended to be more hostile with its own goals of local hegemony. Turkmenistan has remained singularly isolationist, and Tajikistan primarily focused on its internal problems. None of these countries pose a significant military threat. Although Uzbekistan has mined borders with its Tajik and Kyrgyz neighbours, and relations with Kazakhstan have been tense (in part because both countries aspire to lead the region), there is little concern about significant state-to-state military conflict. Kazakhstan is a strategic fulcrum in the vast Central Asian-Caspian Basin zone, a region rich in energy resources and a potential gateway for commerce and communications between Europe and Asia. It is also an area that faces a vast number of security challenges. Ensuring a stable and secure Central Asia is important for the world and for Kazakhstan which has a vital stake in the security of this region. The security perspective of this region can be appreciated by considering the following factors: n Asian Security: Because of its proximity to Russia, China, Iran, and the South Asian subcontinent, Kazakhstan’s security and stability is an increasingly of vital interest to all major powers. n Afghanistan: Central Asia is a key area for the US and NATO military operations in Afghanistan against Taliban insurgents and Al-Qaeda militants. Central Asia is a crucial conduit for the US and NATO troops and supplies into Afghanistan. The US officials recently reached new agreements with Russia, Kazakhstan, and other Central Asian countries to allow Afghan bound non-military supplies through their territories.

: 2,724,900 sq km : Astana : 0 km (landlocked) : 15,522,373 (2011 est.) : Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4 per cent, Russian 30 per cent, Ukrainian 3.7 per cent, Uzbek 2.5 per cent, German 2.4 per cent, Tatar 1.7 per cent, Uighur 1.4 per cent, others 4.9 per cent (1999 census) : Muslim 47 per cent, Russian Orthodox 44 per cent, Protestant 2 per cent, others 7 per cent : Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4 per cent, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the “language of inter-ethnic communication”) 95 per cent (2001 est.) : 99.5 per cent : Republic authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch : 18 years of age; universal : 14 provinces and three cities

Overview of the Economy Geographically, the largest of the former Soviet Republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and ample supply of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan’s industrial sector is primarily focused on the extraction and processing of these natural resources. Kazakhstan enjoyed double-digit growth in 2000-01 and eight per cent or more per year in 2002-07—thanks largely to its booming energy sector and also to economic reform, good har-

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

E

Asian Nations (ASEAN)+3, ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) and East Asia Summit (EAS), and to play an active and leading role in cooperation with each other. In this context, they expressed their intent to cooperate for the early convening of the Japan-China-Republic of Korea (ROK) Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations, which is specified in the “Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020” adopted at the Japan-ChinaROK Trilateral Summit in May 2010. On August 30, 2009, after 54 years of one-party rule, the Japanese voted overwhelmingly to usher in a completely new government and a new way of thinking. The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which ruled Japan since 1955, was completely rejected. Obtaining only 119 out of 480 seats of the House of Representatives (the lower Diet), the LDP took a second seat to the younger and fresher Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). The DPJ won 308 seats in the House, ensuring that their leader, Yukio Hatoyama, would become Prime Minister. The DPJ’s victory guarantees that much change will come to Japan. In the first few weeks of tenure, Prime Minister Hatoyama called for the complete transformation of the traditional government-bureaucracy relationship, the need to rework Japan’s economic recovery plan, and has called for a review of the US troops stationed in Japan. However, only after eight months in office, he announced his resignation saying that he would step down over his broken campaign promise to move a US military base off the southern island of Okinawa. He was followed by Prime Minister Naoto Kan who took over even as Japan battles a strong currency, a weak economy and a bulging public debt. Kan has vowed to cap spending and debt issuance to rein in a public debt already twice the size of Japan’s $5 trillion economy, the second largest in the world after the US. The magnitude-9 earthquake that hit Japan’s north-east coast on March 11 caused a massive tsunami that devastaed the coastline. The disasters knocked out power and cooling systems at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, about 140 miles (225 km) north-east of Tokyo, setting off explosions, fires and large radiation leaks at the facility. Official reports released earlier in the week said the damage and leakage was worse than previously thought, with nuclear fuel in three reactors like melting through their main cores and larger containtment vessels. the reports also said radiation that leaked into the air amounted to about one-sixth of the Chernobyl nuclear disater in 1986. Hundreds of plant workers are still scrambling to bring the crippled Fukushima reactors to a “cold shutdown” by early next year and end of the crisis. The accident has forced more than 80,000 residents to evacuate from their homes around the plant. The disaster has renewed a national debate on the use of nuclear power in Japan, which has few natural resources and is heavily reliant on atomic energy.

ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are—the US, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia—ChinaJapan relations, North Korea, Taiwan, and international terrorism. Japan’s long chain of invasions and war crimes in China between 1894 and 1945 as well as modern Japan’s attitude towards its past are major issues affecting the current and future Sino-Japanese relations. The ice was broken in 2006 when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited China, and the ice began to thaw when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited Japan in 2007. These two Prime Ministerial visits set the stage for President Hu Jintao’s ‘warm-spring’ visit to Japan between May 6 and 11, 2008. The relations have been steadily improving between Japan and China. Japan, China and Republic of Korea (South Korea) have been regularly holding talks as a part of Tripartite Cooperation. The tenth anniversary of the trilateral cooperation was held in Beijing on October 10, 2009. On May 29, 2010, on the occasion of the third trilateral summit meeting, they announced the Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020. The major issues discussed included—Institutionalisation and enhancement of trilateral partnership; Sustainable economic cooperation for common prosperity; Cooperation in environmental protection; Promotion of friendly relations through the expansion of human and cultural exchange and cooperation; and joint efforts for regional and international peace and stability. Japan-China Security Dialogue has been held since December 1993 and the 12th round of dialogue took place in Beijing on January 20, 2011. These dialogues have served as confidence building measures as both sides exchanged views on each other’s security and defence policies and regional issues. The 1st Japan-China counter-terrorism consultations were held in Beijing on January 6, 2011. The consultations were held between Takaaki Kojima, Ambassador in charge of International CounterTerrorism Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, and Ambassador Luo Zhaohui, Director General of the Department of External Security Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China. In order to tackle the issue more effectively, they reaffirmed to utilise existing international and regional fora such as the Association of South East

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States have substantially increased their anti-terrorism cooperation. Nearly two months after the first general elections, Myanmar, on January 31, 2011, convened its two-chambered national Parliament. The first session witnessed the official ending of five decades of military rule, but critics claim that top generals continue to hold the real power. The first session also brought into effect a new Constitution. In the Parliament, the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) members contest a vast majority of seats, while the remaining quarter is reserved for serving members of the armed forces. Aung San Suu Kyi’s opposition party did not win any seat in the Parliament because her party had boycotted the November elections, which had been widely described as sham by western governments and democracy activists. Former Culture Minister Khin Aung Myint was appointed as Upper House’ Speaker shortly after the first Parliamentary session began. The military junta’s number three, Thura Shwe Mann, stepped down from his military ranks to run for election as a civilian was elected as Lower House Speaker. It is believed that either Mann or junta leader Than Shwe will be President in the new government. India’s relations with its extended neighbourhood have received a fillip with the formulation of its ‘Look East’ policy in early 1990s. Forging comprehensive and mutually beneficial bonds with SouthEast Asia has been the cornerstone of this policy. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, speaking at the India-ASEAN Summit at Hanoi on October 30, 2010, said that India’s economy was expected to witness a sustained growth rate of 9-10 per cent in the coming years, which would offer many opportunities for trade and investment. The summit came out with a five-year plan of action outlining the roadmap for enhanced multifaceted cooperation. The plan of action contains 82 points identified for implementation to tap the vast potential in various fields. Describing it as an “ambitious roadmap” for implementation of “partnership of peace, progress and shared prosperity” between the two sides, Singh said that it shows the desire to develop a multifaceted India-ASEAN relationship. Manmohan Singh said that India believed that ASEAN is the core around which the process of economic integration of the Asia-Pacific region should be built. The India-ASEAN Trade in Goods (TIG) Agreement was signed in Bangkok on August 13, 2009, after six years of negotiations and it came into force on January 1, 2010. Seen as the world’s largest FTA, covering a market of almost 1.8 billion people with a combined GDP of $2.8 trillion, the India-ASEAN pact envisages tariff liberalisation of over 90 per cent of products traded between the two dynamic regions. Tariffs on over 4,000 product lines will be eliminated by 2016, at the earliest. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region have been given in the following sequence: n Australia n Cambodia n China n Indonesia n Japan n North Korea n South Korea n Laos n Malaysia n Myanmar n The Philippines n Singapore n Taiwan n Thailand n Vietnam

The US has continued to express concern over the growth of China’s influence and military power in the Asia-Pacific region. In its annual report to the Congress in 2010, the US Department of Defence notes, “The PLA has made modest improvements in the transparency of China’s military and security affairs. However, many uncertainties remain regarding how China will use its expanding military capabilities. The limited transparency in China’s military and security affairs enhances uncertainty and increases the potential for misunderstanding and miscalculation.” Tensions between North and South Korea remain very high following the sinking of a South Korean warship, the Cheonan that killed 46 sailors; and an exchange of artillery fire in November 2010 across the disputed western maritime border that left four South Koreans dead. The latest incident also comes as North Korea begins transferring power from ailing leader Kim Jong-il to his son, Kim Jong-un—a process that some analysts believe is behind North Korea’s recent actions. On the nuclear issue involving North Korea, there has been no substantive movement. International talks involving the two Koreas, China, Russia, Japan and the US aimed at ending North Korea’s nuclear ambitions remain permanently stalled, despite Chinese calls for them to resume. The revelation in November 2010 that North Korea has a modern uranium enrichment facility with at least 1,000 centrifuges, potentially offering Pyongyang another route to a nuclear weapon, made further talks even less likely. The US officials said they were “stunned” at the scale of the facility, although not surprised that it existed. Relations between China and Taiwan are improving. A trade pact between China and Taiwan, widely seen as the most significant agreement since civil war divided them in 1949, has come into effect. The Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) cuts tariffs on 539 Taiwanese exports to China and 267 Chinese products entering Taiwan. The majority of people in Taiwan expect the deal to bring economic benefits. But opponents fear it will make the island too dependent on China, which still considers it a renegade province. The deal is seen as the culmination of efforts by Taiwan’s President, Ma Ying-jeou, who has vowed to reduce tension. It is hoped that the ECFA, signed by Chinese and Taiwanese leaders in June, will boost bilateral trade that already totals $110 billion (`4,95,000 crore) a year. Since the Bali bombing in 2002, crackdowns by various governments in the region, encouraged and in some cases supported by the US Government and military, are believed to have weakened Jemmah Islamiyah (JI) to such an extent that it essentially is no longer a regional organisation, but rather is one confined to Indonesia, with some individuals still operating in the southern Philippines. The degrading of JI’s leadership structure is believed to have altered the group’s strategy. More violent, anti-Western JI members have formed breakaway cells. In September 2009, Indonesian authorities claimed they had killed Noordin Mohammed Top, the leader of one such cell. Noordin is believed to have been responsible for organising the near simultaneous July 17, 2009 bombings of the J.W. Marriot and Ritz-Carlton hotels in Jakarta. The bombings were the first successful anti-Western terrorist attack in Indonesia in four years. Their sophistication triggered speculation that Al-Qaeda had renewed ties with top. To combat the threat, the US has pressed countries in the region to arrest suspected terrorist individuals and organisations, funded and trained Indonesia’s elite counter-terrorist unit, and deployed troops to the southern Philippines to advise the Philippine military in their fight against the violent Abu Sayyaf Group. It has also launched a Regional Maritime Security Initiative to enhance security in the Straits of Malacca, increased intelligence sharing operations, restarted military-military relations with Indonesia, and provided or requested Congress for substantial aid to Indonesia and the Philippines. Since 2001, Thailand and the United

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AUSTRALIA

Overview of the Economy Australia’s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron ore, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the $40 billion (`1,76,700 crore) Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia also has a large services sector and is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy and food. Key tenets of Australia’s trade policy include support for open trade and the successful culmination of the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, particularly for agriculture and services. The Australian economy grew for 17 consecutive years before the global financial crisis. Subsequently, the Kevin Rudd Government introduced a fiscal stimulus package worth over $50 billion (`2,20,900 crore) to offset the effect of the slowing world economy, while the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to historic lows. These policies—and continued demand for commodities, especially from China—helped the Australian economy rebound after just one quarter of negative growth. The economy grew by 1.2 per cent during 2009—the best performance in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Unemployment, originally expected to reach 8-10 per cent, peaked at 5.7 per cent in late 2009, and fell to 5.1 per cent in 2010. As a result of an improved economy, the budget deficit is expected to peak below 4.2 per cent of GDP and the government could return to budget surpluses as early as 2015. Australia was one of the first advanced economies to raise interest rates, with seven rate hikes between October 2009 and November 2010. The Julia Gillard Government is focused on raising Australia’s economic productivity to ensure the sustainability of growth, and continues to manage the symbiotic, but sometimes tense, economic relationship with China. Australia is engaged in the Trans-Pacific partnership talks and ongoing free trade agreement negotiations with China, Japan and Korea.

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 General Information

Area : 7,741,220 sq km Capital : Canberra Coastline : 25,760 km Maritime claims : Territorial sea : 12 nm Contiguous zone : 24 nm Exclusive economic zone : 200 nm Continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Population : 21,766,711 (2011 est.) Ethnic Divisions : White 92 per cent, Asian 7 per cent, aboriginal and others 1 per cent Religions : Catholic 25.8 per cent, Anglican 18.7 per cent, Uniting Church 5.7 per cent, Presbyterian and Reformed 3 per cent, Eastern Orthodox 2.7 per cent, other Christian 7.9 per cent, Buddhist 2.1 per cent, Muslim 1.7 per cent, others 2.4 per cent, unspecified 11.3 per cent, none 18.7 per cent (2006 census) Languages : English 78.5 per cent, Chinese 2.5 per cent, Italian 1.6 per cent, Greek 1.3 per cent, Arabic 1.2 per cent, Vietnamese 1 per cent, others 8.2 per cent, unspecified 5.7 per cent (2006 census) Literacy : 99 per cent Government : Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Suffrage : 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Administrative Divisions : Six states and two territories

Defence Total Armed Forces Reserve Foreign Forces

: Active – 54,747 (Army 27,461, Navy 13,230, Air 14,056 ) : 19,915 (Army 15,315, Navy 2000, Air 2,600) : US Army—29, US Navy—21, USAF- 63, USMC25, New Zealand Air Force—9, Singapore Air—230

Security Environment Australia’s Defence White Paper 2009 states that Australia will spend more than $70 billion (`3,10,100 crore) to boost its defence capability over the next 20 years in response to a regional military build-up and global shifts in power. A long-term strategic blueprint for the future of Australia’s armed forces warned that war could be possible in the AsiaPacific region in the next two decades, as emerging powers such as China flexed their military might. The United States would continue its military dominance and be an “indispensable” ally for Australia, but as emerging or resurgent powers such as China, India and Russia tested US primacy there was a small but still concerning possibility of growing confrontation between some of these powers. The paper said that China would be the strongest Asian military power, by a considerable margin, and a major power of China’s stature can be expected to develop a globally significant military capability befitting its size. But the pace, scope and structure of China’s military modernisation have the potential to give its neighbours a cause for concern if not carefully explained, and if China does not reach out to others to build confidence regarding its military plans. The paper said that greater engagement with Beijing was essential for encouraging transparency about Chinese military capabilities and intentions, and securing greater cooperation in areas of shared interest.

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a democracy—Lebanon, the Palestinian Territories and Iraq. Lebanon is a plural society with Shias, Sunnis, Christians and Druze Muslims, which holds free elections. But its democracy has a denominational character, with the top offices being divided up between religious communities and powerful families. The Palestinian territories had free and fair elections in 2006. But Hamas, which won a plurality, was excluded from the Palestinian Authority’s government. Its state power is confined to Gaza, under Israel’s occupation. In Iraq, the democratic process runs within a constitution and broad-sweep policy framework dictated by the US after the 2003 occupation. Most other Arab states are in paralysis, where some form of elected legislatures exist—as in Kuwait—but wield very little power, which is subject to the ruling families’ will. Often, elections are held only as safety-valves to vent frustration. Some of the richest Arab states, including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Qatar, are at the bottom of the democracy index. Saudi Arabia is at the bottom of the abyss. The democracy deficit is often blamed on Islam, especially salafi “desert Islam”, reinforced by ultra-conservative obscurantism. But other factors are more important. Large-scale social destruction and creation of artificial states by European imperialists; tribalism and paternalism; oil money, which obviates the need to negotiate popular participation; the state’s failure to tax the rich and break their stranglehold; and not the least, foreign aid dependence. The Western powers, led by the US, have sustained Arab autocracies for Cold War-related reasons, and now as part of the US’s strategic alliance system to which Israel, followed by Saudi Arabia and Egypt, is pivotal. Washington has bankrolled Egypt with $3.5 billion (`15,750 crore) annually since Anwar El-Sadat made peace with Israel in 1979, breaking its isolation in the Arab world. Many Arab rulers will probably follow the Egypt model when faced with a popular upsurge. The Egyptian people’s anger was rooted in opposition to the Mubarak dynasty, police brutality, widespread poverty, lack of housing, high food prices and unemployment. People under 30 make up almost two-thirds of Egypt’s population. About 90 per cent of Egypt’s jobless are under 30. The collapse of the Mubarak regime will almost certainly ignite protests in other Arab states and prove a transformative moment in West Asia-North Africa, radically reshaping it and opening a new democratic epoch. The situation is pregnant with big possibilities. The other major problems of this region are the fundamentalist Islamic militancy, sectarian violence and terrorism, and Iran’s nuclear ambitions and all these pose threats to peace in West Asia. The US is involved in a significant way in clearing up or resolving all of them.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

T

he term West Asia is coterminous with the Middle East which describes the geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism, international organisations, such as the United Nations, have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel, a Jewish country, all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically, most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq, which is largely dominated by Shias, and Iran, which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world’s most widespread religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits, which were discovered in the early 20th century, have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest, as it has the largest oil reserve. Iran, Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically, most of the states are monarchies, sheikhdoms or single party dictatorships, and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The Israel-Palestine struggle, Iraq war and insurgency, and fragrance from the Jasmine Revolution, which overthrew Tunisia’s hated President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali, is spreading over the larger West Asia-North Africa region, especially to Egypt, Yemen and Jordan. The protests in Egypt have already ended Hosni Mubarak’s 30-year oppressive rule in February 2011. By all indications, Arab citizens were watching Egypt’s protests with hope. Most people in the Arab League’s 22 countries share the Tunisians’ and Egyptians’ dislike with corrupt dictatorial regimes, which don’t provide basic public services or relieve food shortages and high prices. The Arab states haven’t done well by their people. Even the oil-rich ones have not educated them and created social opportunity. Under external pressure and recent effects of the global slowdown, many governments have further cut food and fuel subsidies, thus increasing people’s suffering. Most young Arabs are moderately educated, aware of the world, and aspire to get jobs in a modern economy. Such jobs are a rarity. The youth have no future. Their frustration is aggravated by denial of liberties. So, Egypt’s upsurge could well be replicated in other Arab countries. People’s bottled-up anger and frustration are the same everywhere, as is lack of freedom. The democratic deficit in the Arab world is huge. Elections, if and when they take place, are typically rigged—as in Egypt recently, when the ruling party increased its Parliamentary majority from 75 per cent to 95 per cent. Only three Arab countries can be called some kind of

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regional balance

West Asia and North Africa

West Asia and North Africa • Algeria • Egypt • Libya • Bahrain • Iran • Iraq • Israel • Jordan

Kuwait Lebanon Sultanate of Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates (UAE) Republic of Yemen

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• • • • • • • •

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regional balance

West Asia and North Africa

CONTENTS

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

West Asia & North Africa


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regional balance

West Asia and North Africa: ALGERIA

ALGERIA

tries outside of hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy. The government’s efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have done little to reduce high poverty and youth unemployment rates. In 2010, Algeria began a five-year, $2.86 billion (`12,674 crore) development programme to update the country’s infrastructure and provide jobs. The costly programme will boost Algeria’s economy in 2011 but worsen the country’s budget deficit. Long-term economic challenges include diversification from hydrocarbons, relaxing state control of the economy, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.

  General Information

Defence Total Armed Forces : Terms of Service : Paramilitary Forces :

Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions Religions

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Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

Active – 147,000 Reserve – 150,000 Conscription 18 months Gendarmerie- 20,000 National Security Forces – 16,000 Republican Guard – 1,200 Legitimate Defence Groups – est 150,000

Security Environnent Abdelaziz Bouteflika, with the backing of the military, won the Presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent. He was re-elected for a second term in 2004, and overwhelmingly won a third term in 2009 after the government amended the constitution in 2008 to remove presidential term limits. Long-standing problems continue to face Bouteflika, including large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the continuing activities of extremist militants. The security situation in Algeria during the period 2009-10 was marked by a decrease in the number of high-profile terrorist attacks throughout the country, although low-level terrorist activities continued in non-urban areas. The Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), which formally merged with Al-Qa’ida (AQ) in 2006 and now calls itself Al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), previously focused on targeting Algerian Government interests and had been more averse to suicide attacks and civilian casualties. Some senior members of AQIM are former GIA insurgents. Although Algerian Government interests remained the primary focus of AQIM, the group was forced to resort to kidnappings for ransom and expanded operations against westerners in the Sahel region. Algerian Government’s counterterrorism operations, which included an increased security presence and the dismantling of support and recruitment networks, restrained AQIM’s capacity to conduct high-profile attacks, particularly in major Algerian cities. There were no suicide bombings after March 2009. The month of Ramadan, typically a period of frequent attacks was quiet. Nevertheless, AQIM carried out lethal operations, using ambushes and roadside bombs against government and civilian targets, particularly in the Kabylie region, east of Algiers, and increased its terrorist activities along the Algerian-Malian border. The counterterrorism successes of the Algerian services combined with the public rejection of terrorism appears to have reduced AQIM’s overall effectiveness during the past two years. In August 2009, the Algerian Government hosted a meeting of the military Chiefs of Staff from Mali, Libya, Mauritania and Niger to develop a regional counterterrorism strategy and establish a regional command centre in the southern city of Tamanrasset. Algeria led efforts in international foray to condemn payment of ransom to terrorists. During 2008, the Government of Algeria instituted a programme to hire 1,00,000 new police and gendarme officers, reinforce the borders, augment security at airports, and increase the overall security presence in major cities. The initiative was

: 2,381,741 sq km : Algiers : 998 km : 34,994,937 (2011 est) : Arab-Berbers 99 per cent, European less than 1 per cent : Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent, Christian and Jewish 1 per cent : Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects : 69.9 per cent : Republic : 18 years of age; universal : 48 provinces

Overview of the Economy Algeria’s economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country’s socialist post-independence development model. Gradual liberalisation since the mid-1990s has opened up more of the economy, but in recent years, Algeria has imposed new restrictions on foreign involvement in its economy and largely halted the privatisation of state-owned industries. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues, 30 per cent of GDP, and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the eighthlargest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the fourth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Thanks to strong hydrocarbon revenues, Algeria has a cushion of $150 billion (`6,75,000 crore) in foreign currency reserves and a large hydrocarbon stabilisation fund. In addition, Algeria’s external debt is extremely low at about one per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). Algeria has struggled to develop indus-

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countries that remain wary of China’s continued ascent on the scale of global power are also adding further dynamics to the militarisation in the Asia-Pacific. It is not surprising that Asia-Pacific, which is the most fiercely contested region today, has witnessed in the recent past a hike in defence capabilities of several regional countries. The militarisation in Asia-Pacific is further evidenced by an increasing trend towards building of new strategic alliances and joint military manoeuvres, often with political undertones. The present chapter runs through the region’s shifting geostrategic strands, highlighting in the process major security challenges, especially China’s coercive diplomacy and its implications for regional security.

T

he Asia-Pacific region, including the Indian Ocean has remained the hub of heightened geostrategic activities in recent years, not just because it is home to the world’s few most populous and dynamic economies or for its abundance of natural reserves of oil, gases and minerals, but also because of the fact that the region lies at the crossroads of conflicted geoeconomic and geopolitical interests of several surrounding countries. The geostrategic significance of the Asia-Pacific region however has assumed even greater significance even more recently because of China’s coercive diplomacy—the buzzword in global strategic circles. The increasing attempts made by China—the second most powerful country after the US—to redraw the maritime map of this region through coercive tactics are leading the Asia-Pacific region to an era of uncertain future, underscored by higher degree of militarisation and geopolitical competitions. However, counter strategies by

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Asia-Pacific’s Security Challenges Potentially a politically instable region with fractured security environment, Asia-Pacific’s security challenges are wide and varied. These security challenges emanate from multiple sources which include, among others, conflicted land borders, military intrusion into space and outer space, strategic dominance of maritime space by state and non-state actors, conflicts over increasingly sparse natural resources, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, hegemonic intentions of rising powers, involvement of non-state actors in conflicts between states, mass terrorism, environmental deprivation, hunger, poverty and epidemics, etc. While many of these characteristics are common to a number of countries in the region, many individual countries in the Asia-Pacific also have to contend with local insurgencies and secessionist movements. The security jigsaw in Asia-Pacific is marked further

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

“The Asia-Pacific region, including South East Asia, needs much more attention by us, and this must seep into our defence and foreign policy planning as never before. There is a palpable desire on the part of the countries of this region to enhance cooperation with us, which we must reciprocate.” —Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh at the Annual Combined Commanders Conference in New Delhi on September 13, 2010

REGIONAL BALANCE

n 

TECHNOLOGY

Asia-Pacific, which is the most fiercely contested region today, has witnessed in the recent past a hike in defence capabilities of several regional countries. The militarisation in Asia-Pacific is further evidenced by an increasing trend towards building of new strategic alliances and joint military manoeuvres, often with political undertones.

BUSINESS

Shifting Geostrategic Strands

INDIAN DEFENCE

Asia-Pacific Region

US Navy, www.wordpress.com, Indian Navy

5

Security in the

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book

China Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) : Type-98/Type 99, Type-90-II Light Tanks (Lt Tks) : Type-62, Type-63, Type 63A Armoured personnel carriers/infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs), (ICVs) : Type-90, Type-89 (YW 534), Type-85 (531H), Type WZ 501, Type 77, Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers : Type-83 152mm, PLZ45 155mm How (SP Guns and Hows) : NORINCO TYPE 85 122mm How Towed Anti-Tank (A Tk) Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun, Type-66 152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs) : Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs : Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, PL-9C (SP AA Guns and SAMs) : Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System Towed AA Guns : Chinese Type-56, 14.5mm Gun, Norinco 37mm Type 74 Czech/Slovak Republics APCs/ICVs

France MBTs Lt Tks APCs/ICVs

SP Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs

Germany MBTs APCs/ICVs

India MBTs Towed ATk Guns, Guns and Hows MRLs Israel MBTs

: OT-64 C (SKOT-2A), BMP-1 & OT90 APC

Reconnaissance Vehicles (Recce Vehs) SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs

: Leclerc, AMX-30 : AMX -13 : Giat AMX-10P, Nexter Systems

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: Leopard 2A6, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT : Condor, Fuchs, Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV

: Arjun : IFG Mk.2 105mm : Pinaka MR System

: Merkava Mk3, Merkava 4, Sabra MBT : RAM family of light AFVs : Soltam L-33 155mm : Soltam M-71 155mm Gun/How : ADAMS Vertical Launch Low Alt SAM System

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Army equipment is listed below in the following order:

AMX-10P Marines, AMX VCI (ICV), Improved VAB 4x4 ­version (Wheeled), Panhard PVP, Panhard M3 : GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun, GIAT 155mm, GCT SP Gun : Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System, Crotale Low Alt SAM System, Shahine Low Alt SAM System, AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System

INDIAN DEFENCE

ARMY EQPT

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

T

an aircraft passes through various phases of development and appears in different versions with varied fitments and operational parameters. We have listed these variants, but greater details of each version with specific parameters are given in the dedicated publications. We have also relied on such publications in compiling our data. In this volume, specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors and weapon control systems have been omitted, as they may vary from craft to craft, even within the same class.

his chapter contains specifications of all important military hardware being employed by the countries mentioned below. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented under separate headings for the Army, Navy and Air Force. We have listed each type of hardware under the headings of its country of origin like Russia, UK and the US. The development of weapon systems is a long-term process. Over the years, a composite unit like a tank, ship or

REGIONAL BALANCE

6

Equipment & Hardware Specifications

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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equipment & hardware specifications: Army

South Korea MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer

ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Italy SP Guns and Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer:

Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs

Pakistan MBTs APC SAM

: Oto Palmaria 155mm Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How, Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer

Spain APCs/ICVs Sweden Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer Towed AA Guns

: Type-74, Type-90 : Type-87 : Type-73, Type-89, Mitsubishi Type SU 60 : Type-75 155mm, Type 99 155mm : Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System

Switzerland APCs/ICVs Towed AA Guns

: Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid), Type Al Zarrar : Type Saad, Type Talha, Type M113A2 : Crotale, Stinger & Anza

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United States of America MBTs Lt Tks APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows

: Casspir Mk. III, Ratel 90

: Bofors FH-77 B 155mm : Bofors L-40/-70, 40mm Auto AA Gun

: Mowag Piranha : Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns, Oerlikon Contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns

: M-1 Abrams, M-48 series, M 60 A3 : M-41, Sting Ray : M-113 A3 : M-107 175mm SP Gun, M-109 Series of 155mm SP How, M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch)

Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs

: M-198 155mm How : M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System, M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System, M-48 A1 m, Patriot Msl (PAC series) single stage low to high altitude SAM system, Stinger Towed AA Guns : M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun CHINA

South Africa APCs/ICVs

: BMR-600

: Chieftain Mk. 5, Centurion Mk 13, Challenger 2, Khalid, Vickers MBT Mk3 Lt Tks : Alvis Scorpion Recce Vehs : Alvis Saladin, Daimler Ferret Mk 2/3 APCs/ICVs : Stormer, GKN Def Desert Warrior, FV432 SP Guns and Hows : AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : 105mm Lt Gun (L 118), 155mm Lightweight How (M 777)

: T-54, T-55, T-55 (Upgraded), T-62, T-64B, T-72, T-80U, T-90S Lt Tks : PT-76B Recce Vehs : BRDM-2, PRP-4 APCs/ICVs : BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-1 ACV, BTR-50, BTR-80, MT-LB, BTR-152VI SP Guns and Hows : M 1973 (2S3) 152mm, M 1974 (2S1) 122mm, (MSTA-S) 152mm Self-Propelled Artillery System 2S19 Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : D-30 122mm Fd Gun, M-46 130mm Fd Gun, 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs : Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs : ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System, ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, 2K22M Tunguska System, SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System, SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System, SA- 8B SAM System, SA- 9 Gaskin SAM, SA-13 Gopher SAM System Towed AA Guns : ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun : S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun

: SSPH-1 Primus

: 155mm KH179 How

United Kingdom MBTs

Russia MBTs

Singapore SP Guns and Hows

: K1

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INDIA Submarines : Air Craft Carrier : Destroyers : Frigates :

RUSSIA Patrol Submarines : Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes : SOUTH KOREA Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes

THAILAND Air Craft Carriers Frigates Corvettes

Kilo Class Lada Class Kashin Class Sovremenny Class Krivak Class Nanuchka Class Taran Tul Class

: Chang Bogo Class : KDX-2 Class : Ulsan Class : P O Hang Class – (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section)

: Chakri Naruebet Class : Naresuan Class : Khamronsin Class

UNITED KINGDOM (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Frigates : Leander Class Salisbury Class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu class Missile Craft : Dhofar (Province) Class Corvettes : Qahir Class

Shishumar Class Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class Hermes Class Delhi Class Kashin Class Godavari Class Bharamputra Class Talwar Class Leander Class

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Guided Missile Destroyers : Gearing Class Frigates : Adelaide Class Amphibious forces : Austin Class

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

NORTH KOREA Submarines : Romeo Class Sang-O Class Frigates : Najin Class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Soho Class TRAL Class Patrol forces : SO1 Class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Soju Class - do Hainan Class - do -

BUSINESS

CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines : Jin Class XIA Class Han Class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Shang Class - doPatrol Submarines : Song Class Yuan Class Kilo Class Ming Class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Romeo Class - do Modified Romeo Class - doDestroyers : Luzhou Class Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luda Class Luhai Class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Luhu Class - do Aircraft Carriers : Kuznetsov (OREL) Frigates : Jiangkai Class Jiangkai II Class (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu I/II/V Class Fast attack missile craft : Houku (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Houxin Class -do Huangfen/Hola Class - do Huchuan - do -

Dolphin Class Eilat (SAAR 5) Class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Reshef Class Super Dvora Class

INDIAN DEFENCE

Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

ISRAEL Submarines : Corvettes : Patrol forces :

NAVAL EQUIPMENT

REGIONAL BALANCE

regional balance

equipment & hardware specifications: Navy

CONTENTS

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equipment & hardware specifications: NAVY

Sonars

: Trout Cheek; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. Structure: Diving depth 300 m (985 ft).

NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.) WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES (For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section) Submarines : Agosta Class (France, Spain) Daphne Class (France) Sishumar Class (Germany) Frigates : Al Riyadh Class (France) Madina Class (France) La Fayettes Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Fast Attack Missile Craft : Combattante Class (France) Ratcharit Class (Italy) Aircraft carriers : Principe De Asturias Class (Spain)

Patrol Submarines Song Class (Type 039/039G) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes : 1,700 surfaced; 2,250 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 246 × 24.6 × 17.5 (74.9 × 7.5 × 5.3) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16V 396 SE; 6,092 hp(m) (4.48 MW) diesels; 4 alternators; 1 motor; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 15 surfaced; 22 dived Complement : 60 (10 officers) Missiles : SSM: C-801A; radar active homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50); passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/ passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing ­torpedoes may also be fitted Mines : In lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning Radars : Surface search: I-band Sonars : Bow-mounted; passive/active search and attack; medium frequency. Flank array; passive search; low frequency Operational: Basing: North (315, 316, 327, 328); East (314, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325); South (320, 326, 329)

China Strategic Missile Submarines Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres)

: 8,000 : 449.5 × 38.7 × 7.5 (137.0 × 11.8 × 2.3) Main machinery : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; 1 shaft Speed, knots : To be announced Complement : 140 Missiles : SLBM; 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5); 3-stage solid-fuel rocket; stellar inertial guidance to over 8,000 km (4,320 n miles); single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Countermeasures : Decoys: ESM. Radars : Surface search/navigation: Type 359; I-band Sonars : Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Structure: Likely to be based on the Type 093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. XIA Class (Type 092) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) Main machinery

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Speed, knots Complement Missiles

Torpedoes

Countermeasures Radars

4+4 Yuan Class (Type 041) (SSG) Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) Main machinery

: 6,500 dived : 393.6 × 33 × 26.2 (120 × 10 × 8) : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 90 MW; 1 shaft : 22 dived : 140 : SLBM: 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3); inertial guidance to 2,150 km (1,160 n miles); warhead single nuclear 250 kT. : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band.

Missiles

Torpedoes

Sonars

: To be announced : 236.2 × 27.5 m (72.0 × 8.4 m) : Diesel-electric; 4 diesels; 1 motor; 2 Stirling AIP (to be confirmed); 1 shaft : SSM: C-801A; inertial cruise; active radar homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg. : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET50); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt; warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wakehoming torpedoes may also be fitted. : Bow-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium; medium frequency. Flank array; passive search; low frequency.

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equipment & hardware specifications: air force

: Hong - 6 : Jian - 7 : Jian - 8 : Jian Hong - 7 : Jianjiao - 7 : Qiang – 5 : FC-1 : J-10 : J-11 (locally produced Su-27) : Eurofighter Typhoon : Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Dassault Aviation Mirage III. Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C. Dassault Aviation Mirage 5. Dassault Aviation Rafale India : Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Israel : IAI Kfir Russia : Mikoyan MiG-21 Mikoyan MiG-23 : Mikoyan MiG-25 : Mikoyan MiG-27M : Mikoyan MiG-29 : Mikoyan MiG-31 : Sukhoi Su-24 : Sukhoi Su-25 : Sukhoi Su-27 : Sukhoi Su-30MK : Sukhoi Su-30MKI : MiG - 35 Sweden : JAS-39 Gripen United Kingdom : BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series BAE Systems Sea Harrier United States of America : Boeing F-15A/B/C/D Eagle : Boeing F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet : Lockheed Martin F-16A/B/C/D Fighting Falcon : Northrop F-5E Tiger : F-22 Raptor : Joint Strike Fighter F-35

Trainer Aircraft Brazil India United Kingdom China/Pakistan

Airborne Early Warning & Control : Dornier Do-228 : Ilyushin IL-18 : Ilyushin IL-76 : Tupolev Tu-134 : Tupolev Tu-154 : Yakovlev Yak-40 : EADS CASA C-212 : EADS CASA CN-235M : Antonov An-12 : Antonov An-24 : Antonov An-26 : Antonov An-32 : BAE Systems HS-748 : Boeing 737-100/200 (VIP) : Boeing 737-300 : BBJ

Brazil Sweden United States of America Russia /Israel

: Embraer AEW : Saab 2000 : Boeing E-3 Sentry, Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye : IL-76 with Phalcon System

Combat Aircraft China Hong – 6 Westernised designation : B-6 Users : China. Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section.

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: Ilyushin IL-38.Tupolev Tu-142 : Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion. MMA P-8 Poseidon

REGIONAL BALANCE

Russia United States of America

INDIAN DEFENCE

Maritime Reconnaissance

Transport Aircraft Germany Russia Spain Ukraine United Kingdom United States of America

: Embraer EMB-312 Tucano : HAL HJT-16 Kiran.HAL HJT-36 Sitara : BAE Systems Hawk 100 (Two-seat version) : K-8 Karakoram

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

France : Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma/AS 532 Cougar : Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550/ AS 555.Fennec : Eurocopter SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/366 Dauphin II, AS 565 Panther : Eurocopter SA 316/319 Alouette III : Eurocopter SA 330 Puma : Eurocopter SA 341/342 Gazelle Germany : Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 India : Advance Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv Russia : Kamov Ka-25.Kamov Ka-25 B SH. : Kamov Ka-31. : Mil Mi-6. : Mil Mi-8. : Mil Mi-17. : Mil Mi-24. : Mil Mi-25/-35. : Mil Mi-26 United Kingdom : Westland Sea King United States of America : Bell 407 : Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra. : Boeing AH-64 Apache. : Boeing CH-47 Chinook. : Blackhawk , S-92

China Europe France

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Helicopters

Combat Aircraft

TECHNOLOGY

Air equipment is given as under in the following order:

: Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules : C-130J/C-130J-30 : Embraer Legacy (VIP)

BUSINESS

Brazil

AIR EQUIPMENT

CONTENTS

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equipment & hardware specifications: Air force

Myanmar (A-5-C/-M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section.

AIR EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Jian-7 Westernised designation Type

: F-7 : Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft : MiG-21 F (Soviet)

FC-1 Export designation : Super-7 Users : China, Pakistan Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section.

Design based on Other versions (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I; exported to Albania, Egypt, Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I; also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles, exported to Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe); F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt: (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles; F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA; Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generation J-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7/FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II

Jianji-10 Westernised designation : F-10 Type : Multi-role fighter Versions : Design : Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore planes; single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins; single ventral engine air intake. Accommodation : Pilot only, on zero/ zero ejection seat. Range : 1,000 nm Armament: 11 external stores points, including one on centerline, tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing, the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs; C-801 or C-802 ASMs; and laser guided or free fall bombs. Combat radius : 250-300 nm Users : China J-11 (Su-27SK) For details see Su-27 under Russia User : China

Users: China (J-7 II/ IIA/ H/ IIM/ III/ IIIA/ E), Bangladesh (F-7M), Egypt (F-7A/B), Iran (F-7M), Myanmar (F-7M), North Korea (F-7), Pakistan (F-7P/PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS) Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section.

Europe Eurofighter Typhoon Crew Length Wingspan Height Wing area Empty weight Loaded weight Max takeoff weight Powerplant Dry thrust Thrust with afterburner Maximum speed At altitude At sea level Supercruise Range Ferry Range Service ceiling Rate of climb Wing loading Thrust/weight Armament Gun Air-to-Air missiles

Jian-8 NATO reporting name : Finback Westernised designation : F-8 Users : China Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section.

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Jian Hong-7 Westernised designation : B-7 Users : PLA Navy Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section. Jianjiao-7 Westernised designation Users

: FT-7 : Bangladesh (FT-7B), China (JJ-7), Iran (FT-7), Myanmar (FT-7), Pakistan (FT- 7P/ PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section. Qiang-5 NATO reporting name Westernised designation Users

: : : : : : : : : : :

1 or 2 15.96 m (52 ft 5 in) 10.95 m (35 ft 11 in) 5.28 m (17 ft 4 in) 50 m (163 ft) 11,000 kg (24,250 lb) 15,550 kg (34,280 lb) 23,000 kg (51,809 lb) 2 Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofans 60 kN (13,500 lbf) each 90 kN (20,250 lbf) each

: Mach 2 : Mach 1.2 (1,470 km/h, 915 mph) : Mach 1.2 (1,470 km/h, 915 mph) : 1,390 km (864 mi) : 3,790 km (2,300 mi) : 19,812 m (65,000 ft) : 315 m/s (62,007 ft/min) : 311 kg/m_ (63.7 lb/ft) : 1.18

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

: Fantan : A-5 : Bangladesh (A-5C), China (Q-5),

480 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

: 1x 27mm Mauser BK-27 cannon : AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-132 ASRAAM, AIM-120 AMRAAM, IRIS-T and in the


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Abbreviations

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A

ADAMS ADC&RS

A&E Ammunition and Explosives A&N Andaman & Nicobar A/S Mortars Anti-Submarine Mortars A/S Anti Submarine AA Air Attaché AA Anti-Aircraft AAA Anti-Aircraft Artillery AAD Advanced Aircraft Defence/anti-arcraft defence/Army Air Defence AAM Air-to-Air Missile AAP Annual Acquisition Plan AAPCC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee AAPCHC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee AAR Air-to-Air Refuellers AAW Anti-Air Warfare AB Airborne/Air Base ABL Airborne Laser ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile Ac/ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat, Command and Control System ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMUs Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS(PP & FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile/Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP(CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP(HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) ACOP(P&C) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Personnel & Conditions) ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel Acqn Acquisition ACV Air Cushion Vehicle/ Armoured Combat Vehicle ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency/ Air Defence Artillery

Air Defence Advanced Mobile System Air defence control and reporting system ADC Aide-de-Camp ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre Addl FA Additional Financial Advisor Addl Additional ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADF Australian Defence Force ADG Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation ADG DV Additional Directorate General Discipline and Vigilance ADG EM Additional Directorate General Equipment Management ADG Mov Additional Director General, Movements ADG Additional Directorate General Procurement Procurement ADG PS Additional Directorate General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Directorate General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Directorate General Information Systems ADGIW Additional Director General, Information Warfare ADGMI Assistant Director General, Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General, Military Operations ADGOL Additional Director General, Operational Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence Adj Adjusted/adjutant ADC&R Air Defence Control and Reporting System ADMM ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meet ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AEA Airborne Electronic Attack AEC Army Education Corps AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array AEW Airborne Early Warning AEW&C Airborne Early Warning & Control AF Air Force/Auxiliary Fleet AFA Air Force Academy AFB Air Force Base

Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AFSPA Armed Forces Special Powers Act AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area AFV Armoured Fighting Vehicle AG Adjutant General AGM Air-to-Ground Missile AGPL Actual Ground Position Line AH Attack Helicopter AIFV Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle AIP Air Independent Propulsion AIP Approval In Principle AIS Automatic identification system AIT Automatic identification technologies AJT Advanced Jet Trainer ALCM Air Launched Cruise Missile AlGaAs Aluminium gallium arsenide ALGs Advanced Landing Grounds ALH Advanced Light Helicopter ALTB Airborne Laser Test Bed AM Acquisition Manager AMAS Australian Minesweeping System AMD Anti-missile defence Amn Ammunition amph Amphibious/amphibian AMRAAM Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile AMRs Anti-material rifles AMTIR Amorphous Material Transmitting Infrared Radiation ANA Afghan National Army ANC Andaman & Nicobar Command ANP Afghan National Party ANURAG Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group ANZAC Australian and New Zealand Army Corps ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States AOA Air Officer-in-Charge, Administration/ Angle of Attack AOC Army Ordnance Corps AOC-in-C Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief AOM Air Officer-in-Charge Maintenance AON Acceptance of Necessity AOP Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel AOPVs Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels APAR Active Phased Array Radar APC Armoured Personnel Carrier APCs(T) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Tracked) APCs(W) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Wheeled) APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation APFSDS Armour-piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot Appx Approximately

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abbreviations APSOH AQIM AR&DE

Advanced panoramic sonar hull Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Armament Research and Development Establishment ARC Aviation Research Centre AREN Army Radio Engineering Network ARF ASEAN Regional Forum ARIS Anti-resonance isolation system ARM Anti-Radiation/Radar Missile Armd Armoured ARMREB Armament Research Board ARTRAC Army Training Command Arty Artillery ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle AS Additional Secretary ASAT Anti-Satellite ASC Army Supply Corps/Army Service Corps ASCON Army Static Communication Network ASD Admiral Superintendent Dockyards ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASEM Asia-Europe Meeting ASG Abu Sayyaf Group ASL Advanced Systems Laboratory ASLAV Australian Light Armoured Vehicle ASM Air-to-Surface Missile/Anti-Ship Missile ASO Air Staff Office ASPL Akash Self-Propelled Launcher ASR Air Staff Requirements ASTE Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment ASuW Anti-Surface Warfare ASV Anti-Surface Vessel/armoured security vehicles ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATC Air Traffic Control ATE Advanced Technologies and Engineering ATEP Advanced technical exploitation programme ATGM Anti-Tank Guided Missile ATGW Anti-Tank Guided Weapon Atk Anti-tank ATL Advanced Tactical Laser ATP Acceptance Test Procedure ATTF All Tripura Tigers Force ATTS Air-Transportable Towed System ATV Advanced Technology Vessel Auto Automatic AUV Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUW All Up Weight AV Armoured Vehicles AVIC Aviation Industries Corporation Avn Aviation AVS Committee Ajai Vikram Singh Committee AVSM Ati Vishist Seva Medal AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System

B

C4ISR

BACN

Battlefield air-borne communication node BADZ Base Air Defence Zone BARC Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bbr Bomber Bde Brigade BDL Bharat Dynamics Limited BE Budget Estimate BECA Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement BEL Bharat Electronics Limited BEML Bharat Earth Movers Limited BFSR Battlefield Surveillance Radar BFSR-SR Battlefield Surveillance Radar-Short Range BHEL Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Bhp Brake horsepower BIMSTEC Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation BIS Bureau of Indian Standard BM Border Management BMC2 Battle Management Command and Control BMCS Bi-Modular Charge System BMD Ballistic Missile Defence BMS Battlefield Management System Bn (bn) Battalion BNP Bangladesh National Party BOPs Border Out Posts BRIC+M Brazil, Russia, India, China and Mexico BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, China BRO Border Roads Organisation BSF Border Security Force BSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited BSS Battlefield Surveillance System Bty Battery BVR Beyond Visual Range BVRAAM Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile BW Biological Warfare

C C&R C2 C2RP C2W C3 C3CM C3I C4I C4I2 C4I2SR

Control and Reporting Command and Control Command and Control Reconnaissance Post Command and Control Warfare Command, Control & Communications Command, Control & Communications Countermeasures Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information management, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance C4ISTAR Command, Control, Communications, Computers and (military) Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance CA Combat Aircraft CAB Complaint Advisory Board CABS Centre for Airborne Systems CAE Computer Aided Engineering CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate CAIR Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Cal Calibration CAM Computer Aided Machining Capt Captain CAR Central Asian Republics CARAT Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training CAS Chief of the Air Staff/Close Air Support Casevac Casualty evacuation Cat Category Cav Cavalry CAW College of Air Warfare CBG Carrier Battle Group CBMs Confidence Building Measures Cbt Combat CC Central Committee CC(R&D) Chief Controller (Research & Development) CCA Central Coordinating Authority CCC Committee on Climate Change CCD Charge Coupled Device CCS Cabinet Committee on Security CCT Combat Capable Trainer CCTNS Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System CCTV Closed Circuit Television CDA Controller of Defence Accounts CDEC Custom Duty Exemption Certificate CDF Chief of Defence Force CDISS Centre for Defence and International Security Studies CDM College of Defence Management CDO Command Diving Officer CDP Committee for Defence Planning Cdr Commander CDS Chief of Defence Staff CE Corps of Engineers/Chief Engineer CEC Central Military Commission CEMILAC Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification CENTO Central Treaty Organisation CEP Circular error probable CEPA Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement CEPTAM Centre for Personal Talent Management CERT Computer Emergency Response Team-India

491 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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abbreviations

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CFA CFC CFD CFEES

Competent Financial Authority Combined Forces Commander Computational Fluid Dynamics Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety CG Commanding General/Combined Group/Coast Guard CGAIS Coast Guard Air Inspection Superintendent CGAS Coast Guard Air Station CGDA Controller General Defence Accounts CGE Central Government Expenditure CGHQ Coast Guard Headquarters CGRPT Coast Guard Refit Production Team CGS Chief of the General Staff/Coast Guard Ship CHRI Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative CI Counter-insurgency CIA Central Intelligence Agency CIAT Counter-insurgency and Anti-Terrorism CICP Computerised Inventory Control Procedure CIDS Chief of Integrated Defence Staff CIDSS Command Information Decision Support System CIFs Counter Insurgency Forces CIG Counter Insurgency Grid CII Confederation of Indian Industry CIJWS Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare C-in-C Commander-in-Chief CINCAN Commander-in-Chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid CIR Cargo Integration Review CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CISC Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee CISF Central Industrial Security Force CISMOA Communication Interoperability and Security Memorandum Agreement CISO Chief Information and Security Officer CIWS Close-in Weapon System CJCS Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff CKD Complete Knocked Down CLAWS Centre for Land Warfare Studies CLGP Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile CLO Chief Law Officer CLS Capsule launch system cm Centimetre CM Cruise Missile CMC Central Military Commission CMCs Ceramic matrix composites CMD Chairman & Managing Director CMDS Counter Measure Dispensing Systems CMM Common Modular Missile CMOS Complimentary metal-oxide semi-conductor

CMS CMT

Combat management system Carrier Mortar Tracked/ Continuous Moldline Technology CMTV Carrier mortar tracked vehicle CNC Commercial Negotiation Committee CNC Computer Numerical Control/Cost Negotiations Committee CNN Cable News Network CNO Chief of Naval Operations CNO Computer networks operation CNP Comprehensive national power CNPC China National Petroleum Corporation CNS Chief of the Naval Staff CO CGS Delhi Commanding Officer Coast Guard Ship Delhi COAS Chief of the Army Staff COD Central Ordinance Depot CODOG Combined diesel or gas turbine COIN Counter Insurgency COL Controller of Logistics COM Chief of Materials comb Combined/combination comd Command COMINT Communications Intelligence comns Communications Comp Composite COMSAT Communication satellite CONOPS Concept of Operations COP Chief of Personnel COP Common operational picture COS Chief of Staff COSC Chiefs of Staff Committee COTS Commercial off the shelf Coy Company CP Central Purchase CPB Charged Particle Beams CPF Central Police Forces CPMF Central Paramilitary Forces CPI(M) Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI(ML) Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) CPI Consumer Price Index CP-NPA-NDF Communist Party of Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front CPOs Central Police Organisations CPT Carriage Paid To CPWD Central Public Works Department CRC Control and Reporting Centre CRL Central research laboratories CROWS Common remotely operated weapon station CrPC Criminal Procedure Code CRPF Central Reserve Police Force CRT Cathode-Ray Tube CRZ Compact Revolutionary Zone CS Centre-State CSAR Combat Search and Rescue CSE Core System Evaluation CSFO Counter Surface Force Operations

CSIR

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CSM Communications Support Measures CSSC China State Shipbuilding Corporation CST Comparative Statement of Tenders CSTO Collective Security Treaty Organisation CT Counter-terrorist CTBT Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty CTBTO Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation CTK FLT Chetak Flight CTM Communist Terrorist Movement CTOT Complete Transfer of Technology CTPTs Counter Terrorism Pursuit Teams CUNPK Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping CVC Central Vigilance Commission CVRDE Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment CW Continuous Wave CWIN Cyber Warning and Information Network CWP&A Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition CYBERINT Cyber Intelligence

D D (Admin) D (AV) D (FE) D (FM) D (INT) D (Log) D (MAT) D (Med) D (MPRT) D (Ops) D (Pers) DA DAC DADCs DAF DAI DARE DAS DASE DASI DASR DCAS DCF DCMG DCN DCNS DCOAS DCP DD DDG MF

492 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

Director (Administration) Director (Aviation) Director (Fisheries and Environment) Director (Fleet Maintenance) Director (Intelligence) Director (Logistics) Director (Materials) Director (Medical) Director (Manpower Planning, Recruitment & Training) Director (Operations) Director (Personnel) Defence Attaché Defence Acquisition Council Division Air Defence Centres Delivered At Frontier Director of Administration Inspection Defence Avionics Research Establishment Director of Air Staff Director of Armament System Equipment Directorate of Air Staff Inspection Directorate of Air Staff Requirements Deputy Chief of Air Staff Discounted Cash Flow Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Chief of the Army Staff Directorate of Civilian Personnel Demand Draft Deputy Director General Military Farms


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abbreviations DDG DDGMS

Deputy Director General Deputy Directorate General Management Studies DDH Destroyer, Helicopter DDOs Direct Demanding Officers DDP Department of Defence Production DDP Directorate of Data Processing DDP&S Department of Defence Production & Supplies DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid DE Directorate of Education DEAL Defence Electronics Application Laboratory DEBEL Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory DECS Director Electronics and Computer Sciences DEE Directorate of Electrical Engineering DEO Defence Exhibition Organisation Dept Department DEQ Delivered Ex Quay DES Delivered Ex-Ship DES Directorate of Engineering Support DESA Director Ex-Serviceman’s Affairs DESIDOC Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre Det Detachment DEW Directorate of Electronic Warfare/ Directed Energy Weapons DF Deuterium Floride DFM Directorate of Fleet Maintenance DFPR Delegation of Financial Power Regulations DFRL Defence Food Research Laboratory DFS Directorate of Flight Safety DG Director General/Diesel Generator DG(I&S) Director General (Inspection and Safety) DG AAD Directorate General Army Air Defence DG CW Directorate General Ceremonials and Welfare DG DCW Directorate General Discipline Ceremonials and Welfare DGFP Directorate General Financial Planning DG Inf Directorate General Infantry DGMF Directorate General of Mechanised Forces DGPP Directorate General Perspective Planning DG WE Directorate General Weapons and Equipment DG, OS Director General, Ordnance Services DG, SP Director General, Seabird Project DGAFMS Directorate General Armed Forces Medical Services DGAQA Director General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance DGAR Director General Assam Rifles DGCA Directorate General of Civil Aviation DGDIA Director General Defence Intelligence Agency

DGDPS DGFI

Director General Defence Planning Staff Director General of Forces Intelligence DGFT Directorate General of Foreign Trade DGI Directorate General of Infantry DGICG Director General Indian Coast Guard DGIS Directorate General Information Systems DGMI Director General Military Intelligence DGMO Director General Military Operations DGMP Directorate General Manpower Planning DGMS Director General Medical Services DGMT Directorate General Military Training DGNAI Director General Naval Armament Inspection DGNCC Director General National Cadets Corps DGND Director General of Naval Design DGOF Director General Ordnance Factories DGOL&SM Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Moves DGQA Director General of Quality Assurance DGR Director General Resettlement DGS&D Director General Supplies & Disposal DGSD Directorate General Staff Duties DHD Dimasa Halam Dogah DHQ District Headquarters/Defence Headquarters DIA Defence Intelligence Agency DIAT Defence Institute of Advanced Technology DIBER Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research DIHAR Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIME Dense Inertial Metal Explosive DIPAS Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences DIPP Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion DIPR Defence Institute of Psychological Research Dir Director DIR(MM) Director (Material Management) Div Division DL Defence Laboratory DLRL Defence Electronics Research Laboratory DLS Director Life Sciences DLS Director Logistic Support DM Director Missiles DMA Director of Maintenance Administration DMI Director of Maintenance Inspection DMPR Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment DMRC Delhi Metro Rail Corporation DMRL Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory

DMS DMSP DMSRDE DMZ DNA DNAI DNAS DNE DNI DNO DNP DNPF DNRD DNS DNT DOA DOC DOD DODY DOE DOFA DOP DOT DP DP DPA DPB DPC DPJ DPM DPP DPrP DPR DPRK DPS DPS DPSA DPSU DQMG DRDE DRDL DRDO DSA DSCA DSCS DSE DSEI

493 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

Disaster Management Support Defence Meteorological Satellite Programme Defence Material & Store Research and Development Establishment Demilitarised Zone Directorate of Naval Architecture Directorate of Naval Armament Inspection Directorate of Naval Air Staff Director of Naval Education Directorate of Naval Intelligence Director of Naval Operations Director Naval Plans Director Non Public Funds Director Naval Research and Development Director Naval Signals Directorate of Naval Training Director of Administration Director of Contracts Department of Defence/ Director of Diving Directorate of Dockyards Director of Education Defence Offset Facilitation Agency Directorate of Personnel Directorate of Tactics/ Doctrine, Organisation and Training Delhi Police Delivery Period Directorate of Pay and Allowances Defence Procurement Board Digital Pulse Compression / Departmental Promotion Committee Democratic Party of Japan Defence Procurement Manual Defence Procurement Procedure Defence Production Policy Detailed project report Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Defence Planning Staff Director of Personnel Services Deep penetration strike aircraft Defence Public Sector Undertaking Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation Director of Systems Application/Draft Supplementary Agreement Defence Security Cooperation Agency Defence Satellite Communications Systems Defence and Security Exhibitions Defence Systems and Equipment International


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abbreviations Dse DSIR DSP DSR DSSC DTI DTRL DVE DVE DVI DW DWE

Director of system evaluation Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Directorate of Ship Production Directorate Staff Requirement Defence Services Staff College Department of Trade and Industry Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Directorate of Value Engineering Driver’s vision enhancers Digital video interface Directorate of Works Directorate of Weapons Equipment

E

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EA EAC

Electronic Attack Eastern Air Command/Expenditure Angle Clearance EADS European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EAM External Affairs Minister EASA European Aviation Safety Agreement EBO Effects-based operations ECCM Electronic Counter Counter Measures ECM Electronic Counter Measures ECO Economic Cooperation Organisation ECS Electronics & Computer Sciences EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EFC Expenditure Finance Committee EFP Explosively Forged Projectiles EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service EHS Early Harvest Scheme EIC Equipment Induction Cell E-in-C Engineer-in-Chief ELINT Electronic Intelligence El-Op Electro-optic Industries Ltd EM Earnest money EMC Electro Magnetic Compatibility EMCON Emissions Control EMD Earnest Money Deposit EMI Electro Magnetic Interference EMP Electro Magnetic Pulse EMS Electromagnetic spectrum ENC Eastern Naval Command Engr Engineer EO Electro Optical EOCM Electro-optical countermeasures EOFCS Electro-optic Fire Control System EoI Expression of Interest EP Electronic Protection EPABX Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange EPR Evolutionary Pressurised Reactor Eqpt Equipment ER Extended range ERA Explosive Reactive Armour ERFB Extended Range Full Bore ERP Enterprise Resource Planning

ERV Exchange Rate Variation ESM Electronic Support Measures ESP Engineering Support Package Est Estimate Estt Establishment ET Electro Thermal EU European Union EUMA End Use Monitoring Arrangement EurASEC Eurasian Economic Community EW Electronic Warfare EWS Electronic Warfare Support Excl Excludes/excluding

F FA FA(DS) FAA FAC

Financial Advisor Financial Advisor (Defence Services) Federal Aviation Administration Fast Attack Craft/Forward Air Controller FAS Favourable Air Situation FAS Free Alongside Ship FAST Fleet assistance and shipboard training FATA Federally Administrated Tribal Areas FB Fast Boat FBM Fleet ballistic missile FBW Fly-by-wire FCA Free Carrier FCS Fire Control System FCU Fire Control Unit Fd Field FDI Foreign Direct Investment FE Forecast estimates/Foreign Exchange FEALAC Forum for East Asia-Latin America FEBA Forward Edge of the Battle Area FEDEP Federation Development FF Frigate FFG Frigate, Guided Missile FGA Fighter, Ground-Attack FGFA Fifth Generation Fighter aircraft/ Future Generation Fighter Aircraft FIC Fast Interception Crafts/Flight ­information centres FICV Future infantry combat vehicle FIDs Future Indian Destroyers Fin Finance F-INSAS Future Infantry Soldier as a System FIPB Foreign Investment Promotion Board FIS Flying Instructors’ School Flg Offr Flying Officer FLIR Forward Looking Infra red Flt Flight/fleet FM Financial Manager FMBT Future main battle tank FMC Financial Management Cell FMCW Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave FMECA Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis

FMS

Flight Management System/Foreign Military Sales FMTC Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty FMUs Fleet Maintenance Units FOB Free On Board FOC-in-C Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief FOGA Flag Officer Goa Area FOL Fuel Oil Lubricants FOMAG Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra & Gujarat Area FONA Flag Officer Naval Aviation FOSM Flag Officer Submarines FOST Flag Officer Sea Training FP Financial Planning FPA Focal plane array FPDA Five Power Defence Arrangement FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array FPQ Fixed Price Quotation FPU Formed Police Unit FPVs Fast Patrol Vessels FR Financial Regulation FRA Flight Refuelling Aircraft FRP Fibre Reinforced Polymer FRP Full Rate Production FSA Fluid Supply Assembly FSU Former Soviet Union Ft Feet FTA Free Trade Agreement FTC Fast Torpedo Craft Ftr/ftrs Fighter/fighters FY Financial year FYDP Five Year Defence Plan

G GA GaAs GAETEC

Group Army/Ground Attack Gallium arsenide Gallium Arsenide Enabling Technology Centre GAGAN GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation GCC Gulf Cooperation Council GCI Ground Controlled Interception GDP Gross Domestic Product GE General Electric GED General Engineering Department Gen General GFR General Financial Regulations GGA Gain Generator Assembly GHG Greenhouse gas GHQ General Headquarters GIS Geographical Information System GITS II Gunner’s integrated TOW system GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System GMS Greater Mekong Sub GOC-in-C General Officer Commanding-in-Chief GOI Government of India GoM Group of Ministers GOST Gost Specifications (Russian)

494 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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abbreviations Gp Goup GPS Global Positioning System GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic GRS Gross tonnage GRSE Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited GSB General Staff Branch GSD General Staff Department GSL Goa Shipyard Limited GSLV Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSO Ground Staff Office GSQR General Staff Qualitative Requirements GSR General Service Regulations GTD General Trade Department GUIDEx Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defence Experimentation GWOT Global War on Terror

H HAA HAF HAL HALE HARM HATSOFF

High Altitude Airship Hellenic Air Force Hindustan Aeronautics Limited High Altitude Long Endurance High-speed Anti Radiation Missile Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying HDW Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG HE High Explosive HEAT High Explosive Anti-tank HEL High Energy Laser HELLADS High energy liquid laser area defence system Helo/hel Helicopter HEMRL High Energy Materials Research Laboratory HEO High Earth Orbit HEU Highly Enriched Uranium HFSWR High Frequency Surface Wave Radar HHTIs Hand-held thermal imaging devices HINDRAF Hindu Rights Action Force HITPRO Hit Probability HM Home Minister HMMWV High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle HOBOS Homing and Bombing System Hp Horsepower Hp/ton Horse Power per ton HPSI High Power System Integration HQ Headquarters HQ IDS Head quarters Integrated Defence Staff HR Human resources HRD Human Resource Department Hrs Hours HS Home Secretary HUD Head-Up Display HuJI Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam

HUMINT HUMSA (NG)

Human Intelligence Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced (Next Generation) HuT Hizb-ut-Tahrir HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System HVF Heavy Vehicles Factory Hy Heavy

I IA IACCS IAEA IAF IAI IAPTC IB IBR IBs IBSA ICBM ICG ICV ID/IQ IDF IDPs IDS IDSA IDSN IEA IED IEDs IEEE IEP IFA IFCs IFDSS IFF IFG IFS IFV IGA IGMDP IHPTET IIGs IIR IISc IISS IIT

Indian Army Integrated Air Command & Control Systems International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Air Force/Israeli Air Force Israel Aircraft Industries International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres Intelligence Bureau Integrally bladed rotor Interceptor Boats India-Brazil-South Africa Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Indian Coast Guard Infantry Combat Vehicle Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Indigenous Design Fighter/Israel Defence Forces Internally Displaced Persons Integrated Defence Staff Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses Integrated Service Digital Network International Energy Agency Indigenous Explosive Devices Improvised Explosive Devices Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer Integrated Electric Propulsion Integrated Financial Advisor Integrated Functional Commands Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System Identification Friend or Foe Indian field gun Indian Foreign Service Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inter Governmental Agreement Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Indian Insurgent Groups Imaging Infrared Indian Institute of Science International Institute for Strategic Studies Image Intensifier Tubes/ Indian Institute of Technology

IITF IJT ILMS

India International Trade Fair Intermediate Jet Trainer Integrated Logistics Management System ILT Instructor Led Training IM Indigenously Manufactured IMA Indian Military Academy IMD India Meteorological Department IMDP Integrated Missile Development Programme IMF International Monetary Fund IMI Israel Military Industries IMINT Imagery Intelligence IMO International Maritime Organisation IMOLS Integrated Maintenance and Logistics System IMMOLS Integrated Material Management Online System IMU Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan IN Indian Navy INCOTERM International Commercial Terms INDSAR Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue INDU Indian National Defence University Inf Infantry INMAS Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences INS Inertial Navigation System/Indian Naval Ship INSAS Indian Small Arms System INSAT Indian National Satellites InSb Indium antimonide Int Intelligence INTW Indian Naval Work Up Team IOC Initial Operational Capability/ Clearance IOR Indian Ocean Region IORARC Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation IORB Indian Ocean Rim Block IP Industrial Policy IP integrity pact IP Intellectual Property IPBG Integrity Pact Bank Guarantee IPC Indian Penal Code IPC Inshore Patrol Craft IPKF Indian Peace Keeping Force IPMT Integrated project management teams IPR Intellectual Property Right IPS Integrated Power Systems IPVs Inshore Patrol Vessels IR Infrared IRBM Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile IRBs India Reserve Battalions IRDE Instruments Research & Development Establishment IRGC Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps/Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps IRIAF Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force

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abbreviations IRS IRSS IS ISACs ISAF ISAP ISC ISFC ISGA ISI ISLEREP ISPS ISR ISRO ISRR ISRT ISSA IST IT ITA 2008 ITBP ITCs ITEC ITM ITU IW

Indian Remote Sensing infrared suppression system Information System Information Sharing and Analysis Centres International Security Assistance Force Information Security Assurance Program Integrated Space Cell Integrated Special Forces Command Interim Self-Governing Authority Inter-Services Intelligence Island M-SAAR Ship Reporting System international ship and port facility security Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Infra Red Search & Tracking System Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis Indian Standard Time Information Technology Information Technology Act 2008 Indo-Tibetan Border Police Integrated Theatre Commands Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Institute of Technology Management International Telecommunication Union Information Warfare

JSSC JSTARS JTAGS JTC JTFI J-UCAS JV JVC

K KALI Kilo Ampere Linear Injector KCP Kangleipak Communist Party KE Kinetic Energy Kg Kilogramme KGF Kolar Gold Fields KIFV Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle KLO Kamtapur Liberation Organisation Km Kilometre Km ph kilometres per hour KORCOM Korea Command KRC Kargil Review Committee Kt Kilo tonne Kw Kilowatt KYKL Kanglei Yowal Kunna Lup

L

J

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Joint Services Staff College Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Joint Tactical Ground Station Joint Training Committee Joint Task Force on Intelligence Joint Unmanned Combat Air System Joint Venture Joint Venture Company

J&K Jammu & Kashmir JADC Joint Air Defence Centre JAG Judge Advocate General JCG Japanese Coast Guard JSDF Japan Air Self-Defence Force JASSM Joint Air to Surface Stand off Missile JCOs Joint Combat Operations JDAM Joint direct attack munition JeM Jaish-e-Mohammed JI Jemaah Islamiyah JIC Joint Intelligence Committee JIEDDO Joint Improvised Explosive Devices Defeat Organisation JNPP Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project JOCAP Joint Capsule JOCOM Joint Operations Committee JOCs Joint Operation Centres JPC Joint Planning Committee JRI Joint Receipt Inspection JS Joint Secretary JSA Joint Systems Analysis JSF Joint Strike Fighter JSIC Joint Service Intelligence Committee JSOW Joint Stand Off Weapon JSQR Joint Service Qualitative Requirements

L&D L&T LAAD LAC LACM LADAR LAF LASTEC

Learning & Development Larsen & Toubro Latin America Aero and Defence Line of actual control Land attack cruise missile Laser Detection and Ranging Lebanese Armed Force Laser Science & Technology Laboratory LAV Light Armoured Vehicle LAW Light Anti-tank Weapon LBL Long Baseline LC Landing Craft/Letter of Credit LCA Landing Craft, Assault/ Light Combat Aircraft LCAC Landing Craft, Air Cushion LCD Liquid Crystal Display LCH Light Combat Helicopter LCM Landing Craft, Mechanised LCP Landing Craft, Personnel LCPA Landing Craft, Personnel Aircushion LCS littoral combat ship LCT Landing Craft, Tank LCU Landing Craft, Utility LCVP Landing Craft, Vehicles and Personnel LD Liquidated Damages LDP Liberal Democratic Party LED Light-emitting diodes LEL Low Energy Laser LEO Low Earth Orbit LeT Lashkar-e-Toiba LFA Low frequency active

LFDS Low Frequency Dunking Sonar LFG Light field gun LGB Laser Guided Bomb LIA Lead intelligence agency LICO Low Intensity Conflict Operations LICs Low Intensity Conflicts LLADS Liquid Laser Area Defence System LLTR Low Level Tactical Radar LMG Light machine gun LND Local Naval Defence LNG Liquefied Natural Gas LOA Laser Optics Assembly LoC Line of Control Log Logistics LOI Letter of Intent LORADS Long Range Radar & Display System LORROS Long-range reconnaissance and observation system LOS Line of Sight LP Local Purchase LPA Lao People’s Army LPAF Lao People’s Armed Forces LPC Large Patrol Craft LPD Landing Platform, Dock LPH Landing Platform, Helicopter LPIR Low Probability of Intercept Radar LPP Last Purchase Price LRC Line-replaceable components LRDE Electronics and Radar Development Establishment LRF Laser Range Finder LRIP Low Rate Initial Production LRLAP Long-range land attack projectile LRMP Long-range maritime patrol LRMRASW Long Range (armed) Maritime Patrol/ Anti Submarine warfare LRSAM Long Range Surface-to-Air-to-Air Missile LRTR long-range tracking radar LRU Line Replaceable Unit LS&HR Life Sciences & Human Resources LSA Logistics Support Agreement LSD Landing Ship, Dock LSL Landing Ship, Logistics LSM Landing Ship, Medium LSP Limited Series Production LSRB Life Sciences Research Board LSRVs Light Surveillance & Reconnaissance Vehicles LSS Logistic Support Ships LST(L/M) Landing Ship Tank (Large/Medium) LSV Landing Ship Vehicles Lt BPVs Light Bullet Proof Vehicles Lt Light LTAP Long-term Action Plan LTE Limited Tender Enquiry LTH Light-weight towed howitzer LTIPP Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan LTPP Long Term Perspective Plan LTPPFC Long Term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee Ltr/ltrs Litre/litres

496 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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abbreviations LTTE LUH LUTs LWE LWT

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Light Utility Helicopter Local User Terminals Left Wing Extremists Light Weight Torpedo

M M&C Materials and Components M&S Modelling & Simulation M/sec Metres per second MA Military Assistant MA Military Attaché MAC Metal Augmented Charge MAC Multi-Agency Centre Maint Maintenance MALE Medium Altitude and Long Endurance MANPADS man-portable air-defence systems MARS Marine Acoustic Research Ship MARCOS Marine Commandos M-ATV MRAP all-terrain vehicles Max Maximum MBA Master of Business Administration MBAT Multi-beam array tracking MBFSR Mobile Battle Field Surveillance Radar MBRLS Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System MBT Main Battle Tank MC Maintenance Command MCA Medium Combat Aircraft MCM Mine Counter Measures MCMV Mine Counter Measures Vessel MCSS Mobile Cellular Communications System MCT Mercury Cadmium Telluride MDA Maritime Domain Awareness MDL Mazagon Dock Limited MDSR Movement Detection and Security Radar MEA Ministry of External Affairs MEADS Medium Extended Air Defence System MEM Micro-Electro Mechanical MEO Medium Earth Orbit MES Military Engineering Service MET Maintainability Evaluation Trial Mev Million Electron-Volts MF Main File MFCR multi-function control radar MFO Multinational Force and Observers MFOs Muslim Fundamentalist Organisations MFR Multi Function Radars MG Machine Gun MGCI Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative MGO Master General of Ordnance MGSIS Military Geo-Spatial Information System MHA Ministry of Home Affairs MHC Mine Hunter Coastal MHI Mine Hunter, Inshore MHPV Mine-Hardened Patrol Vehicle MHR Man Hour Rate

MIDHANI Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited Mil/mily Military MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front MILSPECS Military specifications MINDER Miniature Detection Radar MIRACL Mid Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser MIS Management Information System MLRS Multiple Launch Rocket System mm millimetre MMG Medium Machine Gun MMRCA Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft MNCs Multinational Corporations MND Ministry of National Defence MNLF Moro National Liberation Front Mob Mobilisation/mobile MoD Ministry of Defence MoD/D(MC) Ministry of Defence/D (Monitoring of Contracts) MODA Ministry of Defence & Aviation MODte Military Operations Directorate MOFTU MiG Operational Flying Training Unit MOPs Mobile Observation Posts/ Massive Ordnance Penetrator MOQ Minimum Order Quantity Mor Mortar MoS Minister of State Mot Motorised/motor M0U Memorandum of Understanding MP Military Police/Member of Parliament MPA Maritime Patrol Aircraft MPAT Multi-purpose Anti Tank MPVs Mine-Protected Vehicles MR Maritime Reconnaissance/ Motor-Rifle/ Multiple Rocket/ Military Region MRBM Medium Range Ballistic Missile MRCA Multi-role Combat Aircraft MRCC Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre MRD Motorised Rifle Division MRH Multi Role Helicopters MRL Multiple Rocket Launcher MRLS Manufacturer Recommended List of Spares MRLS Multiple Rocket Launcher System MRMR Medium-Range Maritime Reconnaissance MRSAM Medium-range surface-to-air missile MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre MS Military Secretary/Mild steel MSAS Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System MSA Mine Sweeper, Auxiliary M-SAR Maritime Search and Rescue MSC Mine Sweeper, Coastal MSDFs Maritime Self Defence Forces MSI Mine Sweeper, inshore Msl Missile MSO Mine Sweeper, Ocean MSQA Missile System Quality Assurance MSS Missiles & Material Sciences

MT Metric tonne Mt/mts Minute/minutes MTA Multi-role Transport Aircraft MTBF Meantime between failures MTBO Minimum Time Before Overhaul MTBUR Mean Time Between Unit Replacement MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime MTHEL Mobile Tactical High-Energy Laser MTI Moving Target Indicator mtn mountain MTOE Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent MTOW Maximum Take off Weight MTTR Mean Time To Repair MULTA Muslim United Liebration Tigers of Assam MW Megawatt MWR Millimetre Wave Radar MZI Maritime Zones of India

N N miles NA NA NADP NAM NATGRID NATO NAY NBC NCC NCOs NCW NDA NDFB NDPG NDRF NDU NE NEC NEO NETD NFU NG NGCI NGN NGO NHQ NHRC NIA NIMA NLC NLFT NM

497 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

Nautical miles Naval Attaché/Not-available Numerical Aperture National Academy of Defence Production Non-Aligned Movement National Database Grid North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Naval Aircraft Yard Nuclear, biological and chemical National Counterterrorism Centre National Combat Operations Network-centric warfare National Democratic Alliance National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Defence Programme Guidelines National Disaster Response Force National Defence University North East Network-enabled capability Network-enabled operations Noise equivalent temparature difference No first use Next Generation Northrop Grumman and Cobham joint venture Next generation network Non-governmental organisation Naval Headquarters National Human Rights Commission National Investigation Agency National Imagery and Mapping Agency Naval Logistics Committee National Liberation Force of Tripura Nao Sena Medal/ Naxalite Management


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abbreviations NMRL NMS NMSARCA NOE NOSDCP NPC NPCIL NPOL NPT NPV NREGA NRO NS&ACE NSA NSC NSCN(IM) NSCN(K) NSCS NSCT NSG NSRY NSS NSTL NTRO

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NWFP

Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Military Strategy/New Management Strategy National Maritime SAR Coordinating Authority Nap of the Earth National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan National Police Commission Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Net Present Value National Rural Employment Guarantee Act National Reconnaissance Office Naval Systems & Armament & Combat Engineering National Security Adviser National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Issac-Muviah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat Naval Special Clearance Team National Security Guard/ Nuclear Suppliers Group Naval Ship Repair Yards National Security Strategy/ National Security System Naval Science & Technological Laboratory National Talent Research Organisation/ National Technical Research Organisation North West Frontier Province

OFILDD

Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Dehradun OFILIS Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ishapore OFILKH Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Khamaria OFILKN Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Kanpur OFILMK Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Medak OFT Operational Flight Trainer OIC Organisation of Islamic Conference OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OM Office Memorandum ONGC Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited OODA Observe, orient, decide, act Op Operational OPCON Operational control OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPLAN Operational plan Ops Operations Opsec Operations Security OPV Offshore Patrol Vessel Org Organised/organisation ORP Operational Readiness Platform ORSA Operational Research and Systems Analysis ORV Oceanographic Research Vessel OSCC Offshore Security Coordination Committee OSCE Organisation and Security Cooperation in Europe OSD Officer on Special Duty OSS Office of Strategic Services OTE Open Tender Enquiry OTH-B Over the Horizon-Backscatter

O

P

O&S O, I, D LEVEL OASIIS

P&C P&MM P&W PA PAC

Operating and Support Operator, Intermediate, Depot Level On aircraft scheduled inspections industrial service Obs Observation OCU Operational Conversion Unit ODAs Operation Detachments Alpha ODF Operational Deployment Force OEF Operation Enduring Freedom OEF Ordnance Equipment Group of Factories OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer OF Ordnance Factory OFB Ordnance Factory Board OFILAJ Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ambajhari OFILAM Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ambernath OFILAV Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Avadi

Personnel and Conditions Planning & Material Management Pratt and Whitney Price Agreement/Production Agency Project Appraisal Committee/ Proprietary Article Certificate/Patriot advanced capability PAF Pakistan Air Force PAP People’s Armed Police Para Parachute/paratroop PAT Perform, Achieve and Trade PAVE Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PBL Performance Based Logistics PBs Patrol Boats PC Personal Computer PCB Printed Circuit Board PCC Patrol Craft, Coastal PCDA Principal Controller Defence Accounts PCI Patrol Craft, Inshore

PCO PCPA

Patrol Craft, Ocean People’s Committee against Police Atrocities PCR Patrol Craft, Riverine PD Principal Director (Policy (Policy & Plans) and Plans) PD(AV) Principal Director (Aviation) PD(FM) Principal Director (Fleet Maintenance) PD(HRD) Principal Director (Human Resource Development) PD(MAT) Principal Director (Materials) PD(Ops) Principal Director (Operations) PDD Project definition document PDI Pre Dispatch/Delivery Inspection PDMS Point Defence Missile Systems Pdr Pounder Pers Personnel PGMs Precision Guided Munitions PHM Patrol Hydrofoil (with SSM) PHT Patrol Hydrofoil (with torpedo) PHWR Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors PIB Public Investment Board PIVADS Product Improved Vulcan Air Defence System Pl Platoon PLA People’s Liberation Army PLAAF People’s Liberation Army Air Force PLANAF People’s Liberation Army, Navy, Air Force PM Prime Minister/Provost Marshal PMF Paramilitary Forces PMO Prime Minister’s Office PMOC Principal Maintenance Officers Committee PNC Price Negotiation Committee PNVS Pilot Night Vision Systems PoK Pakistan Occupied Kashmir POL Petrol, Oil and Lubricants POV Professional Officers Valuation PPBP Planning and Participatory Budget Programme PPOC Principal Personal Officers Committee PPP Public-private partnership PPS Principal Private Secretary PQ Procurement Quantity PRA Pressure Recovery Assembly PRC People’s Republic of China PREPAK People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak Proc Procurement PROM Programmable Read Only Memory PRT Pollution Response Team PS Private Secretary PSEs Public Sector Enterprises PSI Proliferation Security Initiative PSLV Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSO Principal Staff Officer PSO Project sanction order PSOC Principal Supply Officers Committee PSQR Preliminary services qualitative requirements

498 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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abbreviations PSR PSU Psyops PTA PTS PTTs PV PVSM PWG PXE

Preliminary Staff Requirements Public Sector Undertaking Psychological Operations Pilotless Target Aircraft Point Tracker Subsystem Post Task Trainers Prototype Vehicle Param Vishist Seva Medal People’s War Group Proof and Experimental Establishment

Q QA QFI QMG QRM QRs QR SAM QSR

Quality Assurance Qualified Flying Instructor Quarter Master General Quick Reaction Missile Quantitative Requirements Quick reaction surface-to-air missile Qualitative Staff Requirements

R R&D ENGRS

Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) R&D Research and Development RAAF Royal Australian Air Force RAF Rapid Action Force RAF Royal Air Force RAM Radar Absorbing Material/Rolling Airframe Missile RAMICS Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System RAS Replenishment at Sea RAW Research and Analysis Wing RBG Royal Bhutan Guards RC Rate Contract/Regional Command RCC Revolutionary Command Council/ Regional Communication Centres RCI Research Centre Imarat RCIED Remotely Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices RCL Recoilless Launcher RCS Radar Cross Section RCWS Remote Control Weapon System RDS Remotely Deployed Sensors RE Revised Estimate REAs Rapid Environmental Assessments ReCAAP Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery Recce Reconnaissance Regt Regiment Retd Retired RF Radio Frequency RFI Request for Information RFID Radio-frequency identification RFP Request for Proposal RHQ Regimental/Regional Headquarters RIC Russia-India-China RL Rocket Launcher

RM

Resources & Management, Raksha Mantri (Minister of Defence) RMA Revolution in Military Affairs RMN Royal Malaysian Navy RNA Royal Nepal Army ROC Republic of China ROE Rosoboronexport/Rules of Engagement ROI Region of interest ROIC Readout integrated circuit ROK Republic of Korea ROP Road Opening Party Ro-ro Roll-on, roll-off ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle RPFC Railway Protection Force Commandos RPG Rifle Propelled Grenade/RocketPropelled Grenade Rpm Revolutions per minute RPV Remotely Piloted Vehicle RR Rashtriya Rifles RR Rolls-Royce RSTA Reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition RUF Revolutionary United Front RUR Raksha Udyog Ratna RWR Radar Warning Receiver RWS Remote weapon stations

S SA TO RM SA SAAM SAARC SAC SACLOS SAG SAGs SAGE SAM Bdes SAM SAPTA SAR SARDP SARS SASE SASO SATCOM SBAS SBG SBI SBIRS SBL

Scientific Advisor To Raksha Mantri Scientific Advisor/South Africa/ Supplementary Agreement Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Southern Area Command Semi-automatic command-to-light-ofsight Special Action Group/Scientific Analysis Group Special Action Groups Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Surface-to-Air Missile Brigades Surface-to-Air Missile South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement Search and Rescue/Synthetic Aperture Radar Special Area Road Development Programme Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment Senior Air Staff Officer Satellite Communications Satellite Based Augmentation System Smooth Bore Gun State Bank of India Space-Based Infrared System Space Based Laser

SBM SCAP SCAPCC

Single buoy moorings Services Capital Acquisition Plan Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee SCAPHCC Services Capital Acquisition Plan Higher Categorisation Committee SCD Standing Committee on Defence SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCOC Standard Conditions of Contract SD Security Deposit SDB Small Diameter Bomb SDBs Seaward Defence Boats SDC Supreme Defence Council SDF Self Defence Forces SDLF Shaft Driven Lift Fan SDR Software Defined Radio/software driven/Strategic Defence Review SDS Satellite Data System SEAD Suppression of Enemy Air Defence Secy Secretary SES Surface Effects Ship SEZ Special economic zone SF Special Forces SFC Specific fuel consumption SFC Strategic Forces Command SFF Special Frontier Force SFTS Special Forces Training School SFW Sensor Fused Weapon SG Speical Group SHBO Special Helicopter Borne Operations SHQ Service Headquarters SI Services Interaction SIDs Signal Intelligence Directorates SIGINT Signals Intelligence Sigs Signals SIM Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute SITAR Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research SKD Semi Knocked Down SLAM Stand-Off Land Attack Missile SL-AMRAAM Surface launched advanced medium-range air-to-air missile SLBD Sea Lite Beam Director SLBM Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile/Surface Launcher Ballistic Missile SLCM Submarine Launcher Cruise Missile SLOCs Sea Lines of Communication SM Sena Medal/Submarine SMD Storage Module Device SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises SMH Standard Manhour SMSO Senior Maintenance Staff Officer SMT Special Maintenance Tools SO Supply Order SOF Special operations forces SOFA Status of Forces Agreement SOG Special Operations Group SOP Standard Operating Procedures

499 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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abbreviations SOS Systems of Systems SP Self-Propelled SP Arty Self Propelled Artillery Sp Hels Support Helicopters SPA Supreme People’s Assembly SPAAG Self-Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun SPC Stores Procurement Committee SPG Self-Propelled Gun SPS Stratospheric Platform System SPSG Southern Philippines Secessionist Groups Sqn Squadron SQR Services Qualitative Requirements SR Short Refit SRAM Sideways Random Access Memory SRBM Short Range Ballistic Missile SRE Security related expenditure scheme SRG Special Ranger Groups SRR Search and Rescue Region SRU Shop Replaceable Unit SS Special Secretary SSB Sashastra Seema Bal/Special Service Bureau SSBN Ship sub-mercible ballistic nuclear SSC Diesel submarine, coastal SSG Special Service Group SSHC Solid State Heat Capacity SSI Small Scale Industries SSK Diesel submarine, ASW SSM Surface-to-Surface Missile SSN Nuclear-Fuelled Submarine STAP Short-term Action Plan STARS Surveillance Target Attack Radar System STE Single Tender Enquiry/Special Test Equipment STEA Strategic & Technical Environment Assessment STF Special Task Forces Stk Strike/Stock STO Short Take-Off STOBAR Short take-off but arrested recovery STOL Short Take-off and Landing STOVL Short take-off verticle landing STP Specialized technical panels STRI Simulation Training and Instrumentation STSS Space Tracking and Surveillance System Surv Surveillance SWAC South Western Air Command Sys System SYSM Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal

T T Tonne TA Territorial Army/Transport Aircraft Tac Tactical TacC3I Tactical Command, Control, Communications and Information

TACDAR

Tactical Detection and Reporting System TACDE Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment TAPI Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-PakistanIndia TAR Tibet Autonomous Region TBA Tactical Battle Area TBMD Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence TBRL Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory TC Technical Committee TCA Technical Collaboration Agreement TCDL Tactical Common Datalink TCS Tactical communications system TD Technology Demonstrator TE Tender Enquiry TEC Technical Evaluation Committee Temp Temporary TEPCO Tokyo Electric Power Company TES Theatre Event System THEL Tactical High Energy Laser TI Thermal Imager TIALD Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator TIFA Trade and Investment Framework Agreement TIFCS Tank Integrated Fire Control System TISAS Thermal Imaging Stand Alone Sights TIZ Territorial Interest Zone Tk Tank Tkr Tanker TLPS Thunderbolt Lifecycle Programme Support TM Technical Manager TMC Trinamool Congress TNC Technical Negotiations Committee/ Tender Negotiation Committee TOC Technical Oversight Committee TOOC Technical Offer Opening Committee ToT Transfer of Technology TOTE Table of Tools and Equipment TOW missile Tube-launched Optically-tracked Wire-guided missile TPC Tender Purchase Committee Tps Troops Tpt/tptn Transport/transportation TR Bdes Tank Brigades TRV Torpedo recovery vehicle TS Training Ship/ Thermal sight TST Time Sensitive Targets TT Target towing TTCP The Technical Cooperation Programme TTL Total Technical Life TTLS Torpedo tube launch system TTP Taliban’s Tehrik-e-Pakistan TU Transport Unit TUAV Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle TVC Thrust Vector Control

500 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

TVM Track-via-missile TVN Thrust-vectoring nozzles

U UAC UAE UAS UAV

United Aircraft Corporation United Arab Emirates Unmanned Aerial Systems Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/ Unmanned Air Vehicle UBGLs Under-barrel grenade launchers UCAR Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft UCAS Unmanned Combat Aerial Systems UCAV Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle UCPDC Uniform Customs & Practices for Documentary Credits UDD United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship UFH Ultra-lightweight field howitzer UGC University Grants Commission UGS Unattended Ground Sensors UGV Unmanned Ground Vehicle UHQ Unified Headquarters UK United Kingdom ULFA United Liberation Front of Asom UMV Unit Maintenance Vehicle UN United Nations UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon UNIKOM United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission UNLF United National Liberation Front UNMEE UN Mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UNMONUC UN Mission in Congo UNPAs United Nations Protection Areas UNPKF United Nations Peace Keeping Force UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Force UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency UNSC United Nations Security Council UNSCR United Nations Security Council Resolution UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation UPA United Progressive Alliance URV Unit Repair Vehicle USAF United States Air Force USBL Ultra Short Baseline USD US Dollar USMC United States Marine Corps USN United States Navy USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republic UTD Unit Training Device Utl Utility UUVs Unarmed Underwater Vehicles UW Underwater UWB Ultra wideband UYSM Uttam Yudh Seva Medal


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abbreviations V Vertical/ Short Take Off and Landing VAs Vital areas VBSS Visit, Board, Search and Seizure VCAS Vice Chief of the Air Staff VCDS Vice Chief of Defence Staff VCNS Vice Chief of the Naval Staff VCOAS Vice Chief of theArmy Staff Veh Vehicle VHF Very High Frequency VIS-X Vehicular intercom systems VLCC Very large crude carrier VLS Vertical launch system VM Vayusena Medal VOIP Voice over Internet Protocol VOx Vanadium Oxide VPs Vital points VR Virtual Reality VRCs Village Resource Centres

VRDE

V/STOL

VSM VSSC VTO VTUAV

Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Vishist Seva Medal Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Vertical Take-Off Vertical Take-off UAV

W WAC

Western Air Command/ Western Area Command WASS Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei WCMD Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser WE War Establishment/Weapons and Equipment Wg Wing WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access WLR Weapon Locating Radar

WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction WPI Wholesale Price Index Wpn weapon WSOI Weapons Systems, ORSA & Infrastructure WTO World Trade Organisation WTT Weapons and Tactics Trainer WV&V Weapons, Vehicles and Equipment WWR War Wastage Reserves WZC War Zone Campaign

Y YSM

Yudh Seva Medal

Z ZnS ZnSe

501 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

Zinc blende structure Zinc Selenide


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Index 3G spectrum 104 5 AGM 375 26/11/2008, Mumbai terrorists’ attacks 7, 19, 61, 89, 106, 129, 159, 170, 194, 313, 322, 436 75/24 Pack How E-2 180 9/11/2001 7, 45, 62, 322, 337, 428

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A A-50/T-50 384 AA-10 Alamo 230, 348, 358, 382, 388, 400, 431 AA-11 Archer 230, 348, 358, 382, 388 AAAV ZTD-05 374, 375 AAV-7A1 384, 396 Abbas, Mahmoud 416 Abbottabad, Pakistan 7, 36, 43 Abdullah II, King of Jordan 327, 418 Abhay class 191, 201, 357 Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) 15, 366, 391 Abu Zaby 431 ACAS (Intelligence) 252 acceptance of necessity (AON) 102, 157 acoustic telemetry systems 83 active electronically scanned array (AESA) 45, 224, 273, 291 Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) 164 acupuncture warfare 27 Adams SAM 441 Adelaide (Oliver Hazard Perry) class frigate 369, 463 Aditya class 208, 357 Advanced jet trainer (AJT) 112, 143, 219, 273, 488 advanced landing grounds (ALGs) 38, 218 advanced light helicopter (ALH) 4  6, 104, 112, 126, 206, 189, 198, 199, 200, 202, 206, 208, 212, 228, 235, 236, 243, 244, 272, 274, 308, 318, 357, 359, 486   —Civil Variant 272 Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (Anurag) 293 Advani, L.K. 322 Aegis weapon system 93, 94 Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) 293 Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) 46, 272, 289, 290 Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) 291, 293 Aeronautical Research & Development Board (AR&DB) 292 aeronautical systems 290–1 aerospace capabilities   —China 34, 44   —India 45–6, 97–100  —Pakistan 44–45

aerospace systems, capabilities   —India, Pakistan and China 43–6, 99, 109, 110, 119–20, 130, 133, 158, 216, 218 Aerospatiale 206, 284 AEW 44 Afghanistan 74, 128, 325, 349, 369, 436, 437, 438   —drug mafia/poppy cultivation 17, 341   —economy 344, 349   —India, relations/ development aid 101, 161, 356, 438   —National Army (ANA), 17, 18, 19, 20, 137, 149, 349   —security environment 349   —Soviet intervention/Russia relations 10, 11, 18, 19   —terrorism 341, 436   —UN peacekeeping mission 71   —US and NATO forces, military intervention 1–4, 7, 17–20, 60, 91, 92, 99, 102, 337–8, 340, 342, 347, 348, 432, 433, 436   —development aid 344   —withdrawal of forces 62, 344, 350 Afghanistan-Pakistan (Af-Pak) region 7, 11, 46, 61, 74, 104, 111, 216, 436 Africa 1, 15, 21, 22, 24, 61, 99, 107, 167, 279, 383, 406, 408, 409, 437 Agarwal R.C. 293 Agarwal, Shekhar 245, 248, 251 AGM-114 Hellfire 417, 433 AGM-114K Hellfire 421 AGM-119 407 AGM-130 384 AGM-142 Popeye 384 AGM-142E Raptor 370 AGM-158 JASSM 370 AGM-45 Shrike 394, 417 AGM-62B Walleye 417 AGM-65 Maverick 362, 388, 407, 417, 425, 429, 483 AGM-65A Maverick 384, 396, 407, 414 AGM-65B/G Maverick 394, 407 AGM-65D Maverick 407, 411, 419 AGM-65G Maverick 378, 407, 411, 421 AGM-78D Standard 417 AGM-84 Harpoon 384, 396, 398, 407, 481, 483 AGM-84A Harpoon 231, 370, 384, 421 AGM-84D Harpoon 384, 425 AGM-84E SLAM 483 AGM-84-H SLAMER AAM 384 AGM-88 HARM (ARM) 384, 481, 483 Agni (surface-to-surface missile) 170, 284, 289, 356, 357 Agni II 170, 182, 290, 357 Agni III 25, 30, 290, 357 Agni IV 25, 30 Agni V 290 AGOR 204, 357, 375, 377, 384, 396, 398, 430

Agusta A 109E 370 Agusta 109K2 433 AgustaWestland AW-101 112, 148 AH-64 Apache 479, 487 Ahluwalia, Lt General V.K. 247, 257 Ahmad, A.E. 14, 298, 300 Ahmad, Z. 293 Ahmadi-Moghaddam, General Ismail 327 Ahmadi-Nezad, Mahmud 327, 412, 432 (spl variation) Aich, Gautam 295 AIM-120B/C5 AMRAAM 384 AIM-7 Sparrow 380, 384, 388, 414, 417, 419, 429, 483 AIM-9 Sidewinder 362, 370, 378, 380, 384, 388, 392, 394, 396, 407, 411, 414, 417, 419, 421, 425, 429, 434, 480 air cushion vehicles 244 air defence (AD) 27–9, 37–8, 44–6, 57, 89, 93, 102–3, 104, 106, 108, 109, 112, 129, 162, 163, 170, 171, 175, 176, 189, 212, 213, 216, 218, 231–3, 290, 439   —and Strike Fighters 220–1 air defence control and reporting system (ADC&RS) 104, 170 Air Defence Direction Centres (ADDCs) 232, 233 Air Defence Ground Environment (ADGES) 231–2 Air Force Academy (AFA) 213 Air Force Academy, Hyderabad 213 Air Force Administrative College (AFAC), Coimbatore 213 Air Force Station, Bidar 213 Air Force Station, Hakimpet 213 Air Force Technical College (AFTC), Jallahali 213 air independent propulsion (AIP) 471 air space management 104, 112, 153 air squadrons 236, 323 air traffic control (ATC) 99 Air Traffic Controllers’ Training Establishment, Hyderabad 213 Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) 45, 46, 94, 112, 189, 232–3, 291, 479, 488–9 airborne laser test bed (ALTB) 96 Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) 6, 27, 44, 46, 87, 112, 212, 213, 216, 224, 232, 233, 380 Aircraft and System Testing Establishment (ASTE) 213 aircraft carriers 24, 106, 129, 186, 189, 197–8, 411, 438, 463–4, 465 air-land battle doctrine 159 air-launched missile defence system 92

502 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index Airports Authority of India (AAI) 99, 277 air-to-air missile 27, 205, 220, 223, 229, 272, 290, 480, 482, 484, 488 air-to-ground strikes 29 air-to-surface missiles (ASMS) 102, 482 air-to-surface weapons 222, 230 Ajai Vikram Singh (AVS) Committee 171 Ajeya 102, 169, 178, 267 Ajman 431, 432 AK 630 107 AK-47 227 Akash (surface-to-air) missile system 38, 103, 112, 170, 216, 284, 290 Akashdeep Aerostat 291 Akatsiya (SP Gun-How) 454 Akayev, Askar 342 Akihito 327 Aksai Chin, occupied by China 37, 44 Akula (Bars) class 197 Akula II 197 Al Fujayrah 431 Al Riyadh (Modified La Fayette) class Frigate 428, 464 AL-31FP 222, 482 Alcock Ashdown Gujarat Ltd 205 Algeria 51, 196, 325, 333, 335, 402, 404–5   —equipment and hardware 405, 474, 475, 481, 484, 485, 486 Al-Jazeera 426 ALMAZ 220 Al-Muktafi Billah Shah 329 Alouette III/SA 315B Lama 204, 206, 227, 357, 358, 362, 384, 388, 390, 409, 432, 479, 488 Alpha Jet 398, 407, 427 Al-Qaeda 3, 7, 15, 18–19, 36, 43, 59–60, 61, 316, 337, 340, 360, 361, 366, 391, 428, 433–4, 436 Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) 404 Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units (ACEMUs) 279 Al-Thani, Amir Hamad Bin Khalifa 330, 426 Altynbayev, General Mukhtar 328 Alvand (Vosper Mk 5) class frigate 413, 463 Alvis Saladin 442, 459 Alvis Scorpion 442, 459 American National Military Strategy, 2011 10 Amin, Major General Anwar Hamad 327 AML-90 Recce 411, 432, 434 Amman, hotel bombings (2005) 418 ammunition and explosives (A&E) 266 amphibious forces/capability 23, 24, 27, 28, 35, 85, 106, 107, 108, 129–30, 191, 193, 194, 203, 390, 428, 463 amphibious operations 35 amphibious warfare 85 Amu Darya 346 AMX VCI (ICV) 377, 426, 441, 446 AMX-10HOT 445 AMX-10P 25MICV 445 AMX-10P 378, 394, 426, 428, 432, 441, 445 AMX-10P Marines 441, 445, 446

AMX-10PAC 90 378, 394, 445 AMX-10RAV 445 AMX-10RC 426, 445 AMX-10SAO 445 AMX-10TM 445 AMX-13 377, 445 AMX-13SMI 394 AMX-30 SP AA 429 AMX-30 twin 441, 447 AMX-30 426, 428, 432, 441, 445, 447 AMX-VCI (ICV) 441, 446 AMX-VCI 377, 426 AN/FPS-132 94 An-12 111, 434, 479, 484 An-12 Cub 343 348, 390 An-12 PP Cub 348 An-2 Colt 386, 400 An-2/Y-5 382 An-24 Coke 348, 371, 386 An-24 382, 431, 479, 484 An-26 350, 375, 409, 431, 434, 479, 484 An-26 Curl 343, 346, 348, 362, 386, 400 An-26 RKR Curl 348 An-32 11, 212, 223, 260, 479, 484 An-32 B 350 An-32 Clive 358, 364 An-32 Club 352 An-74 Coaler 386 An-74 TK 200A 407 An-124 409, 432 Analysis and Experimentation Centre, Bangalore 72 Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands 22, 23, 24, 37, 185, 186, 208, 212, 236, 282, 322, 390 Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) 56–7, 153, 154, 155, 159, 177, 186, 246, 254, 258, 261 Andaman Sea 22, 23 Andhra Pradesh 169, 310   —Maoists’ insurgency 32, 60, 309, 316 Aneja, Air Vice Marshal A. 215 annual acquisition plan (AAP) 117, 123, 131 Ansari, M. Hamid 245, 346 anti radiation missiles (ARMs) 87 anti-aircraft gun systems 29, 60, 451, 455, 456, 469, 470, 477 anti-aircraft missiles 27, 284 anti-ballistic missile (ABM) programme 106, 290 Anti-Guerrilla Force 61 anti-material rifles (AMRs) 102, 183 anti-radar missiles 231 anti-resonance isolation system (ARIS) 228 anti-Satellite (ASAT) 94, 95, 96 anti-shipping strike 189 anti-submarine operations 85 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 189–90, 207 Anti-submarine Warfare School 189 Anti-tactical ballistic missile (ATBMs) 93 anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) 80, 82, 103, 178, 179, 284 anti-tank sub-munitions 81 Antonov AN-12 479, 484 Antonov AN-24 479, 484 Antonov AN-26 479, 484

Antonov AN-32 223, 479, 484 Antony, A.K. 46, 101, 102, 103, 245, 248, 250, 322, 323 AN-TPQ 102 ANZUS Treaty 369 AoA indicator 221 application software 82 Applied Physics Laboratory 83 Arabian Sea 21, 37, 436 Arabs 22, 360, 401, 415 al-Araidh, Jawad bin Salim 326 Archerfish 85 Areva 65 Arjun main battle tank (MBT) 102, 169, 178, 254, 286–87, 291, 357, 441, 448 Armament Research & Development Establishment (AR&DE) 293 Armament Research Board (ARMREB) 292 Armaris 190 armour capabilities  —China 102  —Pakistan 102 armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs) 441, 449 armoured personnel carriers (APCs) 102, 341, 345–46, 350, 352, 357, 359, 361, 364, 369, 371, 374–5, 377, 378, 380, 382, 384, 388, 390, 392, 394, 396, 398, 405, 407, 409, 413, 415, 419, 421, 423, 425, 426, 428, 430, 432, 434, 441–43, 445, 448, 450, 453, 456, 457, 459, 461 armoured vehicles (AV) 266 Army Education Corps (AEC) 171 Army Intranet 56, 77 Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) 164, 171, 176 Army Service Corps (ASC) 163, 169, 171, 176, 189 Army Static Switched Communication Network (ASCON) 104, 170 Army War College 55 Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal 391 artificial intelligence 75–7, 289 artillery and air defence 102–3 artillery combat command and control system (ACCCS) 104, 170, 277, 291 Arunachal Pradesh 164, 212, 303, 305, 306, 311, 312   —Chinese claim 36, 37, 38, 43, 44, 59, 62, 161, 354 AS 555 Fennec 388, 479, 485 AS 90 (Braveheart) 442, 460 AS-10 Karen 230, 341, 348 AS-332 375, 378, 384, 394, 398, 419, 421, 428, 432 AS-7 Kerry 230, 341, 348, 358, 409, 431 ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meet –Plus Eight (ADMM-Plus Eight) 15, 16 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) 14, 23, 365, 393 ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation 14 Ash Shariqah 431 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 365 Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) 365 Asian Tigers 13

503 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index Asia-Pacific 13, 15, 21, 23, 24, 25, 48, 49, 85, 98, 128, 366, 368, 369, 373, 393, 435–40 Assam 32, 38, 212, 302, 305–6, 308, 312, 353 Assam Rifles 103, 301, 305–6, 313, 317, 318, 319, 355 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 13–16, 21, 23, 30, 356, 365–6, 373, 376–7, 385, 391, 393, 399 Astra 290 ASTROIDS 104 astronomical satellites 97 ASTROS II 427, 428 asymmetric wars 73–4, 77 Athawale, Air Marshal P.V. 247, 261 Atlas Elektronik 196, 470, 475, 478 attack submarines 23, 473 Attlee, Clement 22 Aung San Suu Kyi 366, 389 Aura, unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) 46 Austal 148, 434 Austin class 203, 463 Australia 5, 6, 14, 15, 51, 68, 85, 135, 325, 365–70, 371, 377, 389, 393, 437, 439   —Defence Department 135 automated command and control 104 automated decision support system (DSS) 317, 319 automated information systems (AIS) 107, 108 automatic flight control systems 107 automatic grenade launcher (AGS-30) 169, 184 automatic identification system (AIS) 322, 323 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) 83–4 Aviation Research Centre (ARC) 317 Avinash Chander, Dr 246, 291 Awami League 338, 351 Az Zubayr 86 Azerbaijan 341, 346 Azhar, Masood 62

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B B-737 (VIP) 274, 358, 370, 378, 384, 388, 396, 398, 407, 421, 429 Badhani, Lt General M.C. 246 BAE 748 (VIP) 358, 359, 384, 398 BAE systems 85, 112, 135, 137, 143, 145, 147, 149, 150, 213, 219, 273, 452, 479, 482, 483, 484, 488 BAeHAL Software Ltd 274 Bahadur, Air Vice Marshal M. 214 Baharain 410–11 Bahrain 325, 402, 410, 420, 426   —equipment and hardware 411, 483, 484, 486 Bakiyev, Kurmanbek 342 Bakkhshi, Rear Admiral (Retd) Vineet 263 Bal, Arun Kumar 245, 248

Bali 22 ballistic missiles, ballistic missile defence (BMD) 9, 10, 23, 30, 35, 37, 45, 92, 93–6, 106, 170, 284, 290, 412–13, 438, 439, 462 Bandar Abbas 413 Bangladesh 3, 60, 98, 257, 302, 326, 351–2, 356, 370, 393   —China relations 26, 29, 30, 37, 51, 316   —Chittagong 16, 26   —emergence of (1971 crisis) 3, 9, 159, 252   —equipment and hardware 351, 480, 481, 484, 486   —illegal migration/ insurgents from 32, 397   —India relations 22, 30, 56, 101, 164, 212, 338   —Myanmar, maritime boundary dispute 22   —National Party (BNP) 328, 351 Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic (BIMSTEC) 14 Banh, General Tea 326 Bansal, U.K. 298, 300, 306 BAP-100 231 BARAK 108, 198 BARAK –I 198 BARAK NG 108 BARAK SAM 198, 199 Barak, Ehud 327 BARAK-M 190, 197 Barua, Paresh 351 Barua, Raju 351 Base Air Defence Zone (BADZ) 232 Basic-Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-Spatial Cooperation (BECA) 6 Batalik 212 battle tank, redesigned 79–82 battlefield management system (BMS) 80, 82, 104, 170, 175, 318, 319 battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs) 103, 169, 319 battlefield surveillance system (BSS) 104, 169, 170, 319 Bawa, A.S. 294 Bay of Bengal 16, 21, 23, 24, 29, 37, 99, 390   —strategic significance 22 Beech 200T 362, 388, 398, 405, 407, 417 Beechcraft 1900 C Maritime Surv 112, 407 Belarus 292 Belgium 338 Bell 407, 479, 487 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra 479, 487 Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. 104, 140, 274 BEL-Multitonnee 279 Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) 14 Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly 332, 345–6 Beri, Sudhir Kumar 268 beyond visual range (BVR) 220 beyond visual range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) 27 BG 52 Bhadauria, Air Vice Marshal R.K.S. 214 Bhalla, Lt General P.S. 246

Bhalla, Lt General Pradeep 247 Bhamathi, B. 298 Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) 6, 127, 264, 265, 267, 270, 284, 292 Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) 232, 262, 265, 267, 270, 279–81 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 102, 107, 170, 232, 262, 265, 267, 270, 277 Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) 107 Bhutan 14, 60, 98, 255, 256, 306, 316, 338, 353–4   —Royal Bhutan Guards (RBG) 353   —Royal Bhutanese Army 60, 353 Biden, Joe 11 Biden, Joseph R. (Jr.) 11 Bihar 32, 169, 265, 302, 306, 308, 309, 316 Binoy Kumar 245, 248 Bisht, Rear Admiral H.C.S. 247 Blackwill, Robert D. 19–20 BLG-66 Beluga 231 Blue-Water status 27, 29, 186, 437 BM-21 169, 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 350, 357, 371, 382, 390, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 417, 423, 430, 434, 442, 455 BM-21 MR system 169, 180, 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 350, 357, 371, 382, 390, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 417, 423, 430, 434, 442, 455 BM-21 RL 180 BMP-1/2/3 103, 169, 179, 183, 284, 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 350, 357, 364, 371, 377, 384, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 419, 421, 428, 430, 432, 434, 441, 442, 445, 453 BMP-1 APC 284 BMP-1/2 ICV 103, 169, 179, 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 350, 357, 364, 371, 377, 400, 405, 409, 413, 419, 421, 430, 434, 442, 453 BMP-3 ICV 384, 405, 421, 430, 432, 442, 445, 453 BMR-600 442, 457 Boeing 91, 380, 384, 429, 479, 483, 489 Boeing 6 111 Boeing Business Jet 225 Boeing F-15 E Strike Eagle 91 Boeing P-81 6, 107 Boeing-737 207, 212, 479, 484, 485 Boeing-737 ELINT 212 Bofors 102, 158, 179, 201, 202, 203, 204, 442 Bonus PGM 102 Boopathy, G. 293 border fencing 303 border guarding force (BGF) 305–6 border management (BM) 29, 60, 101, 103, 153, 299, 355. See also Border Security Force

504 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index Border Out Posts (BOPs) 303 Border Roads Organisation (BRO) 303, 356 Border Security Force (BSF) 225, 272, 301, 303–03, 306, 308, 312, 313, 318, 351, 355 Bosnia 303 Bouteflika, Abdel-aziz 325, 404 Brahmaputra class 186, 199, 357 BrahMos I 11, 102, 108, 170, 190, 196, 198, 216, 285 BrahMos II 290 Brazil 46, 217, 225, 279, 287, 291, 359, 436   —equipment and hardware 479, 485, 487, 488–9 Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC) 377, 437 BRDM-2 179, 341, 343, 346, 348, 350, 357, 371, 378, 400, 405, 407, 409, 430, 434, 442, 453 Bremer Vulcan 208 Brodie, Bernard 39 Browne, Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. 214, 217–19, 246, 252 Brunei 15 Bryce, Quentin 325 BTR-3U 432 BTR-40 350, 377, 382, 386, 400, 417, 434 BTR-50P 377, 378, 382, 400, 407, 409, 413, 430, 442, 452 BTR-60 345 346, 348, 350, 371, 382, 386, 400, 405, 407, 413, 430, 434, 454 BTR-70 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 350, 361, 430 BTR-80A 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 350, 352, 361, 364, 382, 384, 405, 415, 442, 454 BTR-152 382, 386, 400, 417, 430, 434, 442, 454 BTR-D 348 Burma, Air Marshal J.N. 214, 215, 247 Bush, George W. 1, 5–8, 61, 379, 396   —doctrine of pre-emptive use of force 1 buy and make Indian 118, 122, 133

C C-130 Hercules Transport Aircraft 6, 46, 111, 216, 218, 225, 344, 352, 362, 364, 370, 378, 380, 388, 479, 485 C-130J Super Hercules 6, 46, 111, 216, 218, 225, 370, 426 C-130J/C-130J-30 479, 485 C-131 class 244 C-141 class 244 C-17 Globemaster 6, 46, 102, 111, 126, 127, 130, 131, 140, 148, 152 C-17 Globemaster III 6, 46, 102, 111, 126, 127, 130, 216, 218, 370 C-212 377, 378, 479, 484 C-63 class 244, 419

Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) 53, 56–8, 60, 62, 77, 153, 155, 158, 177, 219 CACI International Inc. 139, 150 Cambodia 14, 15, 26, 168, 257, 303, 326, 333, 335, 366, 370, 371, 385, 390, 393, 397, 399, 481, 484, 485, 486 Camcopter 5.1 407 Cameron, David 127 Canada 68, 83, 119, 201, 389 capability building 36, 193, 217, 218 capability development 67, 123, 175, 177 capacity building 51–2, 53, 73, 77, 106, 174, 195, 238, 311, 317, 319, 338 capital budget 123, 125, 175 capital expenditure 102, 117, 125, 130–1, 216 carrier battle group (CBG) 106 Carrier Command Post Tracked (CCPT) 291 Carrier Mortar Tracked Vehicle (CMTV) 103 Caspian Sea 341, 346, 356 Casspir Mk 442, 456 casualty evacuation 107, 318 Catapult 179, 357 Central Air Command 212, 259 Central Asia 3, 7, 9–11, 19, 36, 49, 51, 337–64, 373, 438 Central Asia Gas Pipeline 346 Central Asian Republics 30, 36 Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) 301, 304, 308, 355 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 7, 62 Central Paramilitary Forces (CPF) 307–08, 312–13, 316–18 central police forces 174, 299, 301–6, 307   —budget allocations 313   —modernization 308, 310, 313, 316  —reforms 311 Central Police Organisation (CPO) 61, 315, 317, 318, 319, 320 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 301, 302, 303, 306, 308, 310, 312, 313, 317, 355 Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS) 293 Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) 77, 293 Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety (CFEES) 293 Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) 35 Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) 293 Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping (CUNPK) 168 Centurion Mk13 442, 458 Centurions 394, 417, 419, 449 Cessna 150L Aircraft 364 Cessna 152, 352 Cessna 170 Aircraft 392 Cessna 172 Aircraft 378, 392, 429 Cessna 177 Aircraft 392 Cessna 180 Skywagon Aircraft 390 Cessna 185 Aircraft 413 Cessna 207 Aircraft 378 Cessna 210 Aircraft 392 Cessna 310 Aircraft 429

Cessna 401 Aircraft 378 Cessna 402 Aircraft 378 Cessna 402B Aircraft 388 Cessna 421 Aircraft 362, 371 Cessna 421C Golden Eagle 364 Cessna Caravan 423 Cessna O-IE Bird Dog 362 Cessna U 206 Aircraft 417 CH-47 Chinook 369, 380, 384, 394, 396, 398, 407, 409, 413, 414, 432, 479, 487 Chairman Chief of Staff Committee (CISC) 57, 154, 155, 157, 246 Chakraborty, Air Vice Marshal A. 215 Chakri Narubet class Aircraft Carrier 398, 463, 477 Challenger 1 419 Challenger 2 425, 442, 458 Chandra, Air Marshal J. 215 Chandramouli, C. 298 Chandrayaan-2, 11 Chang Bogo class Submarine 384, 463, 475 Chasma nuclear facility 37 Chatterjee, Upamanyu 245 Chaudhary, D.R.S. 298, 300 Chaudhary, H.S. 268 Chauhan, Lt General D.S. 154, 246 Cheema, Vice Admiral S.P.S. 246 Cheetah 104,191, 203, 212, 227, 274, 357, 359, 374 Chengdu J-10 44 Chengdu J-20 44 Chernobyl nuclear disaster 64 Chetak 104, 107, 189, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 208, 212, 227, 235, 236, 243, 244, 274, 357, 486 Chhattisgarh 32, 60, 169, 308, 309, 310, 316 Chidambaram, P. 297, 298, 299, 306, 324 Chief of Air Staff (CAS) 214, 217 Chief of Army Staff (COAS) 35, 56, 57, 102, 164, 165, 168, 173–7, 246, 252, 253 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) 53, 56, 57, 58, 60, 62, 77, 153, 155, 158, 177, 219 Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) 61, 154, 187, 188, 193–5, 246, 252 Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) 56, 57, 58, 60, 153, 155, 157, 159, 162, 177, 186, 219, 246, 252, 253, 258 Chieftain Mk3 413 Chieftain Mk5 413, 442, 458 China 1, 3, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 22–4, 47, 48, 65, 77–8, 93, 94–5, 102, 127–8, 138, 195, 208, 279, 326, 333, 335, 337, 340–1, 365, 370, 372–5, 381, 385, 393, 395, 399, 400, 435–40   —aerospace capabilities 43–6   —Armed Forces, modernisation 102   —Australia, relations 368–9   —capability build up 110

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Index   —Central Military Commission (CMC), 26, 326   —Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 379   —coersive diplomacy 435, 438   —equipment and hardware 441, 442–3, 463, 464, 465, 474, 479, 488   —India, relations/conflict 7, 8, 10, 15–16, 22, 24, 35, 36–8, 40–1, 49, 50–1, 104, 110, 123, 128, 129, 161, 164, 217, 315, 356, 440   —border dispute 3, 101, 128, 354, 356, 359   —Free Trade Agreement (FTA) 14   —intrusion in Indian territory 37, 43, 60, 61, 62, 89, 303, 316, 351, 354, 436   —war (1962) 37, 38, 41, 101, 109, 231, 305   —Indonesia, relations 376, 377   —information warfare systems 27   —Iran, relations 413   —Japan relation 365, 379, 439   —Laos, relations 385   —Myanmar, relations 390   —military modernisation 110   —National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) 50   —Pakistan alliance/nexus/ relations 7, 10, 29, 36–7, 43, 59, 128, 361   —Philippines, relations 391   —power in international system 10, 11, 13, 16, 21, 23, 24, 25, 366, 435   —Russia, relations 9, 11, 12, 29, 44   —strategic challenge in Asia-Pacific 365, 435–40   —Tajikistan, relations 344   —Taiwan, relations 366, 396   —Tibet issue 359   —Turkmenistan, relations 345, 346   —United States, relations 16, 49, 438, 439. See also Arunachal Pradesh China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) 477 Chinese Hegu class 407 Chinese Romeo 407 Chinese Type-56 Towed AA 441, 445 Chopra, Air Marshal Anil 247 Chopra, Vice Admiral Anil 237, 246, 249, 261, 323 Christopher, Dr S. 293 Chun Jee AORH 384 circular error probability (CEP) 80, 180 Civil Aviation, Ministry of 98 civil military integration (CMI) 11 Civil Trade and Exports 268 CIWS (close-in weapon system) 107, 198, 466, 471, 472, 477 Clark, Laws of Predictions 81 class Delhi (Project 15) 198–9 Clausewitz 27, 41 climate change 47, 49, 52, 338, 376 Clinton, Hillary Rodham 361, 438, 439 close air support (CAS) 44 CN-235M 384, 425, 432 coastal defence 25, 322, 382, 398, 407, 409, 427, 436 coastal security 106–7, 194, 235, 238, 313, 321–4

coastal surveillance 107–8, 205, 236 Cobra 61 Cobra Dane 94 Cochin Shipyard ltd 6, 190, 194, 198 Cochin Shipyard 6 Cold War 1, 7, 21, 26, 39, 42, 87, 190, 373, 401 Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) 347 College of Air Warfare (CAW) 213, 254 College of Defence Management (CDM) 55, 56, 77, 156, 159, 168, 261 combat aircraft 6, 38, 44–6, 102, 111, 129–31, 211, 216, 229, 273, 289, 329, 341, 417, 428, 479 combat data systems 200, 204, 465, 467, 468, 469, 471, 472, 476, 477, 478 Combat Improved Ajeya (CIA) Tank 178, 267 combat management system (CMS) 188, 190, 194, 200 Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE) 291, 293 Combattante II G class Fast Track Craft-Missile 405, 409, 413 COMCOS (East) 189 COMCOS (West) 189 command and control (C2) systems 27–9, 45, 54, 58, 61, 62, 66–7, 73–5, 92, 100, 104, 107, 108, 130, 159, 168, 170, 175, 232, 233, 301, 310, 316, 317, 318 command, control, and communication (C3) 104 command, control, communication and information (C3I) systems 27 command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence (C4I2) 73, 74, 104 command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4I2SR) 73–8, 104 command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) 29, 72 command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance (C4ISTR) 130 command information and decision support system (CIDSS) 104, 157, 170 command integrated network (CIN) 170 commercial negotiation committee (CNC) 219, 279 Committee on Climate Change (CCC) 64 Common Display System (CDS) 226 Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) 311 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 60, 342 Communication Interoperability and Security Memorandum

Agreement (CISMOA) 6 communication networks 38, 76, 77, 98, 104, 170, 213 communication resources 104 communication satellite (COMSAT) 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 112, 232 communication systems/ technologies 74–6, 103, 104, 129, 170, 175, 186, 213, 221, 290 Communications School 189 Communist Party of Bhutan 353–4 Communist Party of China (CPC) 326 Communist Party of India (Marxist) [CPI-M] 315, 316 Communist Party of India (Maoist) [CPI (Maoist)] 32, 309 Communist Party of Nepal 338, 359 Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) 15 comprehensive national power (CNP) 25–6 computer numerically controlled (CNC) 279 computerised fire control systems 80 concept of operations (CONPOS) development 69–70 Condor 388, 398, 419, 448 Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) 130 confidence-building measures (CBMs) 161, 393 Consortium approach 51 Constitution of India 299 Control and Reporting Centres (CRCs) 232 Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 393 Copenhagen Climate Summit 49 Corps of Engineers (CE) 171 Corps of Signals 170, 171 corvettes 106–8, 129, 190, 191, 194, 201, 202, 281, 357, 377, 382, 384, 388, 390, 394, 398, 400, 405, 409, 411, 413, 417, 425, 425, 428, 432, 463, 470, 475, 477 COTS 201 Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) 157 counter-bombardment capability 102, 170 counter-guerrilla warfare 310 counter-insurgency (CI) 3, 34, 36, 59, 101, 103, 110, 120, 123, 159, 162, 163, 169, 170, 176, 297, 302, 303, 305, 307, 308, 313, 314, 316, 317, 318, 319, 361 Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) 318 counter-insurgency grid (CIG) 316, 319 Counter Measure Dispensing Counter Measure Dispensing Systems (CMDS) 284 Counter Surface Force Operations (CSFO) 212 counter-terrorism 14, 15, 20, 61, 176, 216, 314, 365, 393 Counter-Terrorism Pursuit Teams (CTPTs) 61 Cowshish, Amit 245, 248 Crestitalia 407

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Index crime and criminal tracking network system (CCTNS) 313 Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) 310 Crisis Management Centre 155 cross budgeting team 157 Crotale Low Alt SAM System 362, 408, 409, 411, 428, 429, 433, 441, 442, 447, 468, 469 cyber command 38 cyber security 60, 76–7, 104, 355 cyber warfare (CW) 4, 35, 38, 62, 73, 104   —China’s capability 373   —US strategy 76 Czech Republic 10, 292   —equipment and hardware 441, 445   —India cooperation 292

D D-30 Gun How 180, 224, 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 350, 352, 357, 362, 371, 374, 382, 386, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 417, 423, 425, 430, 434, 442, 455 da Gama, Vasco 22 Daewoo 476 Daimler Ferret MK 2/3 442, 459 Daksh 292 Dalai Lama 305 Dandakaranya 60 Dantewada 315 Daphne class submarine 464 DARIN 222 DARIN-III 273 Das, Dr J. Narayana 246, 264, 291 Das, N.R. 304 Dash, Sakti Pada 295 Dassault Aviation 90, 218, 221 Dassault Falcon 45 data management technology 130 Datar, Anil M. 293 DAtong 29 Datt, Ashwani Kumar 262 Datta, I.N. 268 Davis, Raymond 7 Dawran, Major General Mohammad 325 De Gaulle, Charles 58 Debroy, Bibek 311 decision making process 56, 65, 67, 74, 122, 133, 158, 170, 176, 379 decision-support system 76 deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) 109 Deepak class 208, 357, 358 Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) 117, 118, 120, 133, 155, 157, 158, 170, 287 defence acquisition process 292 Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory (DARL) 293 Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) 293 Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) 293 defence budget  —China 29   —India 28–9, 72, 102, 112, 117, 123–6, 131 defence capability 27, 29, 67, 110, 117, 216, 368 defence communication network

(DCN) 38, 56, 76, 104, 106, 170 defence communications equipment 277 Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) 155 Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) 293 Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DERL) 293 Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) 265, 287 defence expenditure  —China 28–9  —India 101  —Qatar 426   —United States 102 defence experimentation 67–72 Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) 294 defence industry 104, 265–87   —private sector participation 265–6 Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) 294 Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) 294 Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) 294 Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) 294 Defence Institute of Quality Assurance, Bangalore 286 Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) 153, 155, 177 Defence Laboratory (DL) 294 defence management 55 Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) 294 Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) 294 defence modernisarion 102, 104, 127–8, 130, 134 Defence Modernisation Fund 102, 104, 134 Defence Offset Facilitation Agency (DOFA) 133, 134, 287 defence offset policy 133–4 Defence Planning Council 157 defence planning process 56, 72, 117, 156   —jointmanship 55, 56, 153–60 Defence Planning Staff (DPS) 60, 153, 177 defence policies and procedures 113–16 Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 113, 130   —2002 (DPP-2002) 119, 158—2011   —2008 (DPP-2008) 133   —(DPP-2011) 117–22, 133 Defence Procurement Board (DPB) 117, 118, 119, 153, 155, 157, 287 Defence Procurement Manual 2009 (DPM 2009) 117 defence production 11, 114–15, 117–19, 122, 131–2, 133, 134, 153, 265, 286 Defence Production & Supplies, Department of (DDP&S) 157, 265–8, 290   —allied organisations 286–7 Defence Production Board (Def Prod Board) 118–19, 157, 287 Defence Production, Department of (DDP) 115, 157, 245, 265–8, 285, 286 Defence Production Policy (DPrP) 113–16, 132 defence public sector

undertakings (DPSUs) 77, 113, 130, 131, 157, 213, 262–4, 265–6, 268, 270–1, 287 Defence Research and Development Board (DRDB) 157 Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) 294 Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) 294 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 6, 46, 86, 90, 102– 04, 106–08, 114–16, 118, 122, 125–27, 133, 157–58, 169–70, 190, 211, 213, 232, 248, 266, 272, 284, 286, 287, 289–91, 292–96 Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) 294 Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) 294 Defence Services Staff College, Wellington 41, 55, 56, 77 Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) 294 Defence, Ministry of (MoD) 38, 56, 58, 60, 102, 113, 117, 126, 153, 174, 190, 219, 266, 272, 281, 290, 308 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 92 Delhi class 190, 463 Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) 304 Delhi Police (DP) 313 Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu 130 Denel NTW-20/14.5 183 Denel NTW-20/14.5mm 183 Deng Xiaoping 26, 438 Deputy Chief of Army Staff (DCOAS) 164, 165, 166, 168 Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (DCIDS) 157 Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (DCNS) 186, 187, 188 destroyers 105, 106, 108, 186, 190, 191, 193, 194, 198, 281, 357, 375, 384, 396, 439, 463, 465, 474, 475 Dewan, Vice Admiral D.K. 187, 247, 253 DF-2/3/4/5 29 Dhafra Air Base 432 Dhanoa, Air Vice Marshal B.S. 214 Dhanush 290 Dharam Vira 311 Dhawan, Sunil Kumar 300 Dhillon, Air Vice Marshal N.J.S. 215 Dhillon, Lt General G.S. 247 Dhofar (Province) class 425, 463 Dhowan, Vice Admiral R.K. 187, 247, 253, 255 Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) 20, 46, 104, 112, 206, 212, 228, 243, 272, 308, 357, 359, 479, 486 Digital Navigation System 207 Dimri, Sashi Dhar 268 Diptivilasa, D. 298, 301 Director General Coast Guard 238, 323 Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) 153 Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) 266

507 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business (DISB) 292 Directorate General of Information Systems (DGIS) 164, 165 Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) 265, 267, 286 Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) 272 Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) 265, 267, 286, 287 Directorate of Planning and Coordination 267, 286 Directorate of Standardisation 265, 267, 286 disaster relief and rescue 15, 57, 185–6, 193, 238, 383, 49 Diving School 189 diving support ship 208 Diving Tenders (YDT) 209 Djebel Chenona FS 405 Dó 228-212 aircraft 212, 274, 357, 358, 398, 413, 425, 479, 484 Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations 368 Dolphin class Submarine 384, 417, 463, 470 Doppler nay/attack system 220, 221, 225, 226, 227, 232 Dornier DO-228 274, 479, 484 Dornier-228 189, 205, 224, 235, 236, 244, 323 Double Eagle (ROV) 85 Dragon Strike Operation 18 Drone attacks 7 drug trafficking and smuggling 17, 23, 34, 60, 107, 161, 195, 316, 338, 341, 355, 371, 397, 436 DSO National Laboratories 85 dual-use technology 37 Dubayy 431 Durand line 60 Dushanbe 332, 343, 344 Dzhaksybekov, Adilbek 328

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E E-2 Hawkeye 396 E-3 Sentry 479, 489 EADS (extended air defence system) 93 EADS CASA 479, 484 early warning systems 16, 46, 94, 100, 107, 112, 176, 317 earth observation (EO) satellites 95 East Africa 186 East Asia 5, 13, 15, 16, 128, 337, 365–6 East Asia Summit (EAS) 14 East China Sea 15, 439 East Coast of Africa 107 East Timor 369, 393 Eastern Air Command 212 Eastern Naval Command 23 economy, economic growth 11, 21, 25, 32, 38, 44, 51, 109, 134, 322, 337, 365, 401, 436, 437  —Afghanistan 349  —Algeria 404  —Australia 368   —Baharain 410  —Bangladesh 351  —Bhutan 353  —Cambodia 370–1   —China 10, 22, 26, 372–3  —Egypt 406

 —France 58  —Germany 64   —India 12, 13, 21, 33, 37, 47–50, 55, 65, 99, 104, 106, 127, 129, 185, 195, 279, 304, 355–6  —Indonesia 376  —Iran 412  —Iraq 414–15  —Israel 416   —Japan 21, 63, 365, 369, 379  —Jordan 418  —Kazakhastan 340  —Kuwait 420  —Kyrgystan 342  —Laos 385  —Lebanon 422  —Libya 408  —Malaysia 387   —Myanmar (Bhutan) 389–90   —Nepal 338, 358–9   —North Korea 381  —Oman 424   —Pakistan 36, 41, 62, 161, 360–1  —Philippines 391–2  —Qatar 426   —Russia 9, 10, 12, 340   —Saudi Arabia 427  —Singapore 393–4   —South Korea 383  —Syria 429–30   —Taiwan 395   —Tajikistan 343, 344  —Thailand 397  —Turkmenistan 345–6   —United Arab Emirates (UAE) 431  —Uzbekistan 347   —Vietnam 399, 400  —Yemen 433 effect-based operations (EBOs) 55 Egypt 21, 326, 361, 376, 401, 402, 405, 406–7, 408, 410, 416, 417, 418, 424 Eilat (SAAR 5) class (FSGHM) 417, 463, 471, 472 EL/M-2083 Tethered Aerostat Radar System 233 Elangovan, G. 246, 291 Elbit Systems Limited 103, 223, 274, 470, 471, 472 electoral politics 6 Electrical Engineering School 189 electromagnetic compatibility testing facility 277 electromagnetic intelligence (ELINT) 45 electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) 76–7 electromagnetic weapons 81 electronic counter measures (ECM) 45 electronic intelligence system (ELINT) 27, 45, 212, 225, 233, 362 electronic support measure (ESM) 27, 213 electronic warfare (EW) 27, 37, 103, 104, 107, 159, 162, 186, 189, 190, 194, 212, 272, 277, 289, 291, 485 Electronics and Radar Development Establishments (ERDE) 294 electro-optical (EO) 88, 89 Elizabeth II, Queen 325

ELOP, Israel 284 EMB-120 225 EMB-135 225, 238 EMB-145 358 EMB-312 Tucano 479, 487 Embraer Legacy 225, 479, 485 Emerson Electric 476 Enan, Lt General Sami Hafez 326 end-use monitoring agreement (EUMA) 6 Energy Conservation Act (2001) 52 energy security/policy   —India 47–52, 346   —Japan 47, 48  —Kazakhastan 341   —Russia 48, 49   —United States 47, 48, 49   —China 22, 23, 36, 47, 48, 49, 50–1 enhanced interoperability 193 ENI 52 environmental data gathering and rapid environmental assessment 84 environmental degradation 302, 372, 389, 435 equipment and hardware, India 357–8, 481, 486   —Air Force 479–89  —Army 441–62   —Naval 463–77 ERA 81 ERJ-145 46 ESPO II 9 Eurasia 10, 11 Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC) 347 Eurocopter 104, 274 Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 479, 486 Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma 479, 485 Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil 479, 485 Eurocopter AS 365 Dauphin 479, 485 Eurocopter AS 532 Cougar 479, 485 Eurocopter AS 550 479, 485 Eurocopter AS 555-Fennec 479, 485 Eurocopter AS 565 Panther 479, 485 Eurocopter AS 565SA Panther 417 Eurocopter SA 360 479, 485 Eurocopter SA 365 479, 485 Eurocopter SA 366 Dauphin II 479, 485 Eurocopter SA-316 479, 485 Eurocopter SA-319 Alouette III 479, 485 Eurocopter SA-330 Puma 479, 486 Eurocopter SA-341/342 Gazelle 479, 486 Eurofighter Typhoon 111, 216, 218, 479, 480 Euromissile 284 European Union (EU) 12, 64, 99, 337, 338, 347, 389, 393, 436, 437 Evans, Lt General Mark 325 Evidence Act (1871) 310 Evologics’ Bionik Manta 83 evolutionary pressurized reactor (EPR) 65 Ewart, Terry 83 exclusive economic zones (EEZs) 16, 37, 108, 185, 202, 205, 235, 321, 323, 371 Explorer 1 97 explosive reactive armour (ERA) 169, 183 explosively forged projectiles (EPF) 82 Ex-Servicemen’s Contributory Health Scheme 126 extended range (ER) 102, 169 External Affairs Ministry (MEA) 14, 52, 58, 60, 195, 299, 303

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Index F F/A-18 Super Hornet 111, 218, 388, 479, 483 F-15 E 91, 380, 479, 483 F-15 K 384, 483 F-15 S 429 F-15A/B/C/D Eagle 479, 483 F-16 6, 45, 88, 110, 111, 362, 378, 384, 394, 396, 398, 407, 411, 417, 419, 425, 432, 479, 483 F-18 Super Hornets, 6 F-22 128, 139, 143, 148 F-22 Raptor fighters 479, 483 F-27 362, 378, 390, 392, 398, 405, 413, 414 F-35 369, 479, 483, 484 F-35A/B/C 483 F-4E 384, 407 F-4EJ Phantoms 380 F-5B 375, 398, 414, 429, 434 F-5E 384, 396, 411, 414, 419, 429, 434 F-5E Tiger 388, 398, 479, 484 F-7 fighter aircraft 29 F-86 Sabre 211 F-A/-18A/B/C/D Hornet 479, 483 F-AB Laser Bomb Units 231 Falcon 900 388, 405, 427, 431 fast attack craft (FACs) 189, 190, 191, 194, 281 fast attack crafts 189, 190, 191, 194, 281, 282 fast attack missile craft 463, 464, 471, 472 Fast interceptor crafts (FICs) 106, 323 FC-1 10, 37, 110, 362, 479, 480 FC-1/JF-17. See JF-17 Thunder Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) 17, 337, 360 Federation Development (FEDEP) 68 Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) 292 Fengyum-16 Satellite 94 Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore Limited 304 Festo’s AquaJelly 83 FH-77 towed AA gun 102, 179, 357, 442, 457 FH-77B 179, 357, 442, 457 FH-77B 179 fifth generation combat aircraft (FGCA) 11, 110, 211, 216, 218, 273 fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) 11, 110, 111, 211, 216, 218, 273 fighter jets 10, 74, 110, 127, 369 Fincantieri 198 fire control system (FCS) 80, 102, 106, 108, 169, 181, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 277, 291, 472 fire-control radars 470 firefinder weapon locating radars (WLRs) 102, 103, 170 Firouzabadi, Major General Hassan 327 Fishbed 220, 343, 371, 382, 386, 390, 400, 481 Five Power Defence Agreement 369, 393 Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief

(FOC-in-C) 186 Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) 189 flight management system (FMS) 225–26 flight refuelling aircraft (FRAs) 46, 112 Flying Instructor’s School (FIS), Tambaram 213 force planning 69 foreign aid and capacity building 51 foreign direct investment (FDI) 12, 116, 119, 120, 132, 134 foreign military sales (FMS) 102, 149, 169, 471 foreign policy   —India 4, 6, 21, 47–52, 60, 128, 133, 134, 195, 435  —Bhutan 353–4  —Kazakhastan 340   —Russia 9, 10  —UAE 431   —United States 10, 411, 433 formed police unit (FPU) 304 fourth generation aircrafts 44, 273 Foxtrot class 129, 189, 409, 463 France 1, 58, 64, 66, 80, 81, 106, 109, 119, 127, 131, 183, 190, 197, 221, 222, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232, 284, 292, 344, 389, 420, 426, 430, 432, 441, 445, 464, 479, 481, 485   —equipment and hardware 441, 479, 481, 485–6   —India cooperation 292 Francois, Bob 83 Franco-Siamese Treaty (1907) 385 frigates 6, 105–06, 108, 128–9, 184, 189– 90, 191, 193, 194, 199, 235, 281, 352, 463–4, 468, 470, 473, 474, 476, 477 FSU Komar 407 Fuchs 417, 421, 441, 448 fuel oil lubricants (FOL) 44 Fujairah 432 Fukushima Daiichi 63, 64, 65, 66 future Indian destroyers (FIDs) 106 future infantry soldier as system (F-INSAS) 103, 104, 175 futuristic infantry combat vehicle (FICV) 102, 169, 257, 292 futuristic main battle tank (FMBT) 102, 291

G al-Gaddafi, Colonel Muammar Abu Minyar 1, 328, 409 (Qadhafi, Moammar on 328) GAGAN 98–9, 104 Gaid, General Salah Ahmed 325 Gandhi, M.K. 6 Gangadharan, Neela 300 Ganga-Mekong group 16 Ganguly, Air Marshal D. 215 Ganju, Ashwagosha 296 Gantz, Major General Anwar Hamad 327 Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited (GRSE) 131, 190, 194 263, 265, 267, 270, 281–2 Garud 61 Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) 294

Gautam, R.D. 300 Gay Marine, Italy 85 Gaza Strip 416, 430 GCT SP Gun 441, 446 Gearing (Fram I) class Guided Missile Destroyer 463 General Dynamics 135, 138, 140, 142, 149, 204, 448, 472, 483 General Electric 6, 127, 204, 223, 472, 483, 485, 487 General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR) 102, 103 geocentric orbit (GEO) 94, 95 geocentric orbits 97 geographic information system (GIS) 80 geographical information system (GIS) 77, 80, 81 geopolitical balance/issues 5, 9, 11, 26, 50, 67, 109, 127, 128, 164, 175, 337, 359, 435, 437, 439 George, Air Vice Marshal M. 214 Georgia 1 geospatial technology 130 Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) 98, 272 (variation Geostationary) Germany 10, 64, 112, 119, 131, 189, 196, 224, 244, 258, 304, 441, 447, 448, 464, 479, 484, 486   —equipment and hardware 441, 447–8, 479, 484, 486 GFAST 157 Ghatak Platoons 170, 318, 319 Ghazi, Pak submarine 22 Ghose, Ranjan Kumar 245, 248 Ghosh, Lt General S.R. 247, 256 GIAT AMX-10P 441, 445 GIAT Mk (SP Gun and How) 441, 446 Gilani, Syed Yousuf Raza 7, 330, 356, 361 (spl variation) Gillespie, Lt General Ken 325 GKN Def Desert Warrior 442 global financial crisis 127, 344, 347, 351, 355, 363, 368, 369, 370, 372, 376, 387, 393, 397, 399, 406, 410, 416, 418, 426 Global Hawk 74 Global Information Grid 76, 77 Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) 11, 220 global positioning system (GPS) 44, 81–2, 84, 97, 98, 99, 100, 103, 220, 222, 223, 225, 226, 273, 467, 470 globalisation 1, 7, 304, 359 Gnat 211 Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 131, 194, 202, 203, 205, 209, 263, 265, 267, 270, 282–3 Godavari class 199, 463 Goel, Rashmi 298, 301 Gogoi, Air Marshal A.K. 247, 259 Golan Heights 168, 430 Golden Triangle 34, 186 Goldwater Nichols Act 57 Golmud 44 Gorshkov, Admiral 189, 198, 205 Goyal, Kamesh 295

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Index Greater Mekong Sub Region (GMS) 14 Grey Hounds 61 Gromov Flight Research Institute, Moscow 291 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 9, 14, 20, 26, 101– 2, 112, 123, 126, 129, 131, 133–4, 322   —and military expenditure 333–6 ground controlled interception (GCI) communications 87 Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) 404 Group of Ministers (GoM) 53, 56, 60, 153, 157, 159–60, 177, 219, 306, 322 Grumman, Northrop 74 GSAT-7A satellite 98, 216 GSG-9 304 GSh-23/6 220, 221, 223 GSh-301 221, 222, 482 Guangzhou 346, 374, 396 Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defence Experimentation (GUIDEx) 67–8 Guided Missile Destroyers 463 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 426 Gulf of Aden 194–5, 436–7 Gulf of Mexico 22 Gulf War (1991) 26, 310, 426 Gulfstream III, IV & V 405, 407, 411, 417, 419 Guo Boxiong, General 326 Gupta, Ashok Kumar 248 Gupta, D.M. 268 Gupta, Dheeraj 248 Gupta, Dr Vijaya Lakshmi K. 248 Gupta, Sekhar 36 Guruprasad, Dr S. 295 Gvozdika (M 1974- SP Gun-How) 454 Gwadar Port 16, 22, 26, 37, 362, 437–8 Gyan Bhushan, Lt General 247 Gyanesh Kumar 246, 249, 267

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H H-181 class 244 Hafez Mohamed, Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud 326 Hainan class (large patrol craft) 375, 382, 387, 390, 407, 463 Hainan Island 23, 400, 437 Hainggyi 390 Haitian 3 HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd 274 HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd 274 Hamas 401, 416, 430 Hambantota, Sri Lanka 16, 37 Hamel, General 95 Han class (Strategic missile submarine) 27, 463 Handa, Lt General S.N. 247 hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHTIs) 103 Haqqani Group 19 Harikumar, Air Vice Marshal C. 214 Hariri, Rafiq 422 Hariri, Saad 328, 417 Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam (HuJI) 316 Harpoon 231, 370, 384, 388, 394, 396, 398, 407, 421, 425, 470, 471, 472, 475, 476, 477, 481, 483

Harpy 87–9, 375, 417 Harpy 2 90 Harris Corporation 135,137,138 Hastak, R.S. 295 Hatoyama, Yukio 365, 379 Hawai Sepoys 211 Hawk 132 Hawk AJT 112, 143, 213, 216, 219, 262, 273, 286 Hawk MK67 384 Hawk-132 358 Hawker 800RA 384 Hawker 800XP 384 Hawker Beechcraft T-6C 112 HDW 1500 189, 196, 470 Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS) 55, 56–7, 58, 60, 61, 114, 116, 117, 118, 122, 123, 155, 157, 158, 219 head-up display (HUD) 103, 220 HEAT 178, 182, 183, 454 heavy artillery guns 29 Heavy Factory Vehicle (HVF) Avadi 102 Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin 18, 19 Helicopter Training School, Hakimpet 213 Helmand, battle 18, 19 Hermes class 197, 206, 394, 417, 463 Heron 1 UAVs 87, 88 Heron 2/Heron TP/Eitan 90 Herons 104, 112 Herzegovina 303 Hetz (SAAR 4.5) class 417, 463, 471 Hezb-e-Islami Shoora 18 Hezbollah 412, 413, 417, 422, 430 Hibako, General Yoshifumi 327 high altitude long endurance (HALE) 92, 107 high earth orbit (HEO) 97 high energy laser (HEL) 96 High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) 294 high power microwave (HPM) Systems 96 high power system integration (HPSI) programme 96 high speed anti-radiation missiles (HARM) 484–5 high technology weapon systems 73 highly enriched uranium (HEU) 37 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) 46, 109, 206, 219, 262, 265, 267, 270, 272–4 Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) 202, 203, 263, 265, 267, 270, 283–4 Hippalus 21 hit probability (HITPRO) 80, 82 Hitler, Adolf 93 Hizb-ut-Tahrir (HuT) 342 HJT-16 Kiran 112, 357, 358, 479, 487–8 HJT-36 Sitara 112, 479 Hokazono, General Ken’ichiro 327 Home Affairs, Ministry (MHA) 58, 60, 61, 62, 159, 175, 282, 297, 299–301, 305, 307, 309, 311, 313, 317, 318, 322, 323 homeland security   —India 77, 129, 297–306,

510 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue

307–14, 315–20, 321–4 7, 361, 432 479 63–6 157 22, 60, 424, 432

  —United States Hong – 6 Honshu Island, Japan Horizon Core Technology group Hormuz Straits Houku class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) (PTG) 375, 390, 463 Hovercraft 235–6, 244, 282, 323 HS-748 ELINT 212, 274, 357, 358, 479, 484 HTT-40 112 Hu Jintao 326, 365, 373 Huangfen (fast attack craft-missile) 382, 434, 463 Huchuan class (fast attack craft-missile) 352, 463 hull mounted panoramic sonar (HUMSA) 107 hull mounted sonar (new Generation) HUMSA (NG) 477 human intelligence (HUMINT) 29, 60, 62, 314 human resource (HR) 70, 72, 76, 132, 174, 186, 217–19, 289 human resource development (HRD) 77 human resource modeling 70 human resource planning, training and education 70–1 human trafficking 107, 195 humanitarian assistance and disaster relief 15, 71, 168, 193, 381 Hunter 211, 384, 388, 394, 417, 423 Hussein, Saddam 3, 420 Hutbay 236 Hydrographic School 189

I IAI Kfir 479, 481 IAR-316 (SA-316) Alouette III 384 IFG Mk.2 180, 448 Igla SHORAD 103 Ilyushin IL-103 384 Ilyushin IL-14 434 Ilyushin IL-18 382, 479, 484 Ilyushin IL-38 189–90, 206, 357, 479, 488 Ilyushin IL-62M 382 Ilyushin IL-76 44, 111, 212, 213, 224, 233, 260, 409, 414, 431, 432, 434, 479, 484, 489 Ilyushin IL-76 Candid 358 Ilyushin IL-76M (Tanker version) 224, 358 Ilyushin IL-76MD 224, 405 Ilyushin IL-76TD (AWACS) 224, 405 Ilyushin IL-78 44, 45, 212, 405 image processing systems 80 import substitution 395 improvised explosive device (IEDs) 19, 60, 170, 292, 303, 305, 344, 349 Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS)-303 205 INCOM 220 independent parachute brigade group 162 India Reserve Battalions (IRBs) 312 Indian Air Force (IAF) 7, 38, 44, 45–6, 127, 129, 131, 151, 158, 159, 211–16,


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Index 236, 238, 254, 259, 260, 272, 273, 286, 290, 344, 394   —budget allocation 216   —equipment catalogue 220–33   —modernisation 109–12, 211, 212, 213, 216   —revenue expenditure 125   —unmanned aerial vehicles in 87–92 Indian Armed Forces 29, 72, 89, 101, 113, 114, 122, 126, 128, 158, 160, 186, 217, 272, 273, 289, 313 Indian Army 29, 35, 38, 90, 111, 112, 123, 125, 126, 128, 129, 158, 159, 161–71, 173–7, 254, 255–7, 264, 266, 272, 277, 286, 289–92, 301, 304, 305, 316   —equipment catalogue 178–84   —equipment and hardware specification 441, 448   —modernisation plans 101–4 Indian Coast Guard (ICG) 107, 186, 194, 235–42, 272, 281, 282, 287, 322–3, 355, 360, 379, 391, 392   —equipment catalogue 243–4 Indian Military Academy (IMA) 168, 170, 318 Indian National Defence University (INDU) 55, 153, 155, 159 Indian Naval Academy, Ezhimala 190 Indian Naval Work up Team (INWT) 189 Indian Navy 16, 23, 36, 39, 53, 59, 97, 100, 112, 125, 126, 127, 129, 158, 190–1, 193–209, 235, 236, 238, 252, 253, 255, 258, 261, 263, 265, 272, 273, 281–3, 286, 290, 297, 322, 323, 435   —maintenance and logistic support 188–9  —modernisation 105–8  —organisation 186–8   —personnel 185, 186 Indian Ocean 16, 21, 22, 24, 27, 36, 37, 38, 59, 60, 98, 128, 129, 185, 193, 195, 355, 376, 435–38   —shipping traffic 24 Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) 195 Indian Ocean Region (IOR) 37, 59, 98, 128, 193, 195, 355, 437 Indian Oil Limited (IOL) 51 Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) 59, 253, 302. See also Sri Lanka Indian Penal Code (IPC) 310 Indian Police Service (IPS) 53 Indian Railways 277 Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 6, 97–100, 127, 236, 272 indigenous aircraft carrier (IAC) 190, 194, 198 Indonesia 14–15, 22, 63, 185, 186, 194, 279, 318, 326, 366–8, 376

  —India, relations 16, 234, 437   —equipment and hardware 377  —piracy 394   —terrorism 366, 369   —United States, relations 366 Indo-Russian Aviation Limited 274 Indo-Russian Inter Governmental Commission for Military Technical Cooperation 11 Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) 301, 303, 306, 308, 312, 313 Indra-I/II 231, 232 Industrial Policy & Promotion, Department (DIPP) 132, 266 infantry battalions 101, 103, 163, 169, 170 infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) 179 infantry modernisation 103 infantry soldier as system (INSAS) 103, 175 information age, concepts and technologies 74 information and communication technology (ICT) 76, 129, 132 information dominance 54, 76 information security assurance programme (ISAP) 77 information security 77, 78 information sharing 75, 76, 119, 133, 195, 238 information systems (IS) 70, 74, 77, 107, 164, 170 Information Technology (IT) 14, 26, 59, 73, 78, 79, 103, 134, 213, 355, 393 information warfare (IW) 27, 28, 29, 35, 74, 103, 155, 257 INFOTECH HAL Ltd 274 infrared (IR) sensors 88 infrastructure development 38, 51–2, 176, 189, 218, 344, 361, 390 INS Airavat 189 INS Amba 189 INS Arihant 11, 23, 24, 190, 194, 197 INS Bangaram 189 INS Bitra 189 INS Chapal, Chatak and Chamak 189 INS Chilka 189 INS Hamla 189 INS Himgiri 189 INS Kadamba 190 INS Kalveri 189 INS Kuthar 258, 261 INS Makar, Meen and Mithun 189 INS Nistar 189 INS Rajput 261 INS Satavahana 189 INS Satpura 190, 191, 200 INS Shalki 258 INS Shivalik class 186, 189, 190, 194, 200, 357 INS Subhadra 191, 202 INS Suvarna 191, 202 INS Udaygiri 189, 252 INS Vikramaditya 190, 198, 205 INS Vikrant 22, 253, 263 INS Viraat 186, 197, 252, 253, 258, 261, 263 INS Zamorin 190 INSAT 97 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 68 Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) 295

Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis (ISSA) 295 Institute of Technology Management (ITM) 295 Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) 295 insurgency in Kashmir, North-east and Punjab 3, 31–2, 34, 36, 54, 59, 60, 73, 101, 164, 173–4, 176, 254, 297, 299, 302, 307, 310, 315–20, 338, 349, 356, 358–9, 361, 397, 401, 412, 432. See also Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Taliban. terrorism Integrated Aerospace Command 56, 57 Integrated Air Command & Control Systems (IACCS) 232 integrated communication network 77 Integrated Cyber Defence Command 57 Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) 55, 60, 153–60, 168, 170, 177, 246, 287 integrated functional commands (IFCs) 57 integrated material management online system (IMMOLS) network 213 integrated perspective planning 156 Integrated Special Forces Command 59–62 integrated surveillance system 170 Integrated Test Range (ITR) 295 Integrated Theatre Commands (ITCs) 53–8 Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Planning 155 intellectual property rights (IPR) 10 Intelligence Bureau (IB) 34, 155, 238, 308 intelligence systems & apparatus 153 intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) 37–8, 84 intercontinental-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) 93, 94 intermediate jet trainer (IJT) 216, 262, 272–3, 275 intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) 30, 93 internal conflicts 1, 3, 31–4 Internal Security Academy 302 Internal Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 17–20, 337–8, 348, 349 international aerospace community 274 International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd 274 International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres (IAPTC) 186 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 37, 47, 64, 65, 412, 413 international border 38, 299, 302–3, 306 international coercive diplomacy 435, 438–9 international community 25, 43, 161, 168, 344–50, 433 international competitive nuclear industry 11 international conflicts 211, 341, 379, 420 international cooperation 52, 238, 286–7   —in defence production 286–7

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Index International Court of Justice 397, 422 international donors 385, 422 international exhibitions 287 international financial institutions 342 international human rights groups 387 international humanitarian assistance 381, 385 International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS) 44 international integration 399 international interventions 67, 366, 436 international laws and conventions 6, 16, 236, 440 international maritime boundaries 194 international market/trade 52, 60, 274, 345, 376, 414, 431, 436–8, 440 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 347, 360, 363, 371, 399, 406, 414, 433 international norms/system 3, 6, 13, 25, 40 international organisations 401, 406, 408 international peace efforts 168, 365, 383 international politics 190 international power equations 2 international relations (IR) 1–4, 8, 9, 27, 32, 37, 96, 186 international sanctions 412, 413 international security 1, 4, 153, 304, 337–8, 341, 410 International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 17, 337, 349 international shipping lanes 185, 195 international shipping traffic 23 International Social Security Association (ISSA) 157 International Space Station (ISS) 97 International Strategic Security Cooperation and Dialogue 155 international terrorism. See terrorism International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea 22 international war crimes 409 inter-service technical intelligence 155 Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Pakistan 7, 17, 18, 36, 60, 62, 218, 316, 356, 436 intra-state conflicts 3 Iqbal, Major 7 Iran 11, 20, 26, 49, 61, 168, 196, 327, 333, 335, 340, 345–6, 401, 402, 412–14, 420, 422, 424, 431, 432, 438, 458, 461, 474, 480, 481, 482, 484, 485–8   —nuclear programme 412 Iraq 1–4, 17–18, 51, 61, 62, 74, 91, 99, 102, 104, 110, 135, 145–6, 150, 168, 327, 333, 335, 350, 369, 383, 401–2, 411, 412, 414–5, 418, 420, 428, 430, 432, 437, 461, 480. See also Taliban. Al-Qaeda   —UN peacekeeping mission 71   —United States War (2003) 1, 3, 4, 62, 86, 92, 93, 99, 102, 104, 110, 432 IRS 97 ISDN 104

Islam 37, 342, 344, 348, 377, 401, 424   —extremism 13, 15, 36, 338, 347–8, 369, 377, 391, 394, 401, 406, 418   —fundamentalists 2, 402, 424 Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) 344, 348 Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps 327, 412, 413 Islander 205–6 Israel 1, 93, 168, 220, 222, 224, 228, 233, 252, 272–74, 284, 292, 318, 327, 333, 335, 361, 376, 401, 402, 406, 416–17, 418, 441   —equipment and hardware 448–49, 452, 455, 457, 460, 462, 470, 471, 472, 481–82, 483, 489   —Hezbollah 412, 413, 417, 422, 430   —India cooperation 46, 87, 89–90, 103–04, 112, 131, 170, 189, 190, 213, 232, 292   —Palestine, conflict 401, 422, 416   —Palestinian Islamic Jihad 430 Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) 290 Italy 85, 198, 203, 208   —army equipment and hardware 445, 464

J J-10 44, 45, 110, 375, 479 J-11 (Su27SK) 44, 110, 375, 479 J-115 44 Jafari, Major General Mohammad Ali 327 Jaguars 46, 109, 111, 189, 212, 213, 218, 222, 231, 252, 260, 273–4, 358, 425, 459 Jain, K.C. 298, 301 Jain, Rajesh K. 268 Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) 62 Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project (JNPP) 65, 66 Jalashwa (Austin) class (Amphibious Transport Dock) 119, 203, 357, 463 Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) 351 Jammu & Kashmir (J&K), Kashmir issue 5, 15, 32, 34, 36–8, 43, 60, 101, 162–4, 173–6, 212, 299, 302–3, 305, 307– 8, 312, 322, 337–8, 356. See also Kargil, Pakistan Japan 1, 5, 10, 15, 26, 36, 85, 94, 99, 305, 335, 337, 356, 365, 376, 378, 379–80, 437–8   —Air Self Defence Force 380, 439   —attack on Pearl Harbour 22   —armed forces 383   —Australia, relations 368, 439   —China, relations/conflict 15, 27, 365, 373, 439

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—civil military integration 11 —Coast Guard 15, 438–9 —Democratic Party of Japan (DJP) 365 —equipment and hardware 442, 450 —India relations 13, 14, 15, 16, 238 —Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 365 —National Defence Programme Guidelines (NDPG) 439   —Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency 64   —nuclear disaster 63–6   —Russia relations 10   —Singapore, relations 393   —South Korea, relations 383–4   —Taiwan, relations 395   —United States, relations 376, 383, 439 JAS-39 111, 479 Jaswal, Lt General B.S. 37 Java 22 Javed, Air Vice Marshal A. 215 Jawad, Rear Admiral Muhammad 326 Jebel Ali 432 Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) 377 (spelling ­variation) jet-fuel assisted take off (JATO) 284 JF-17 fighter 37, 44, 128 JF-17 Thunder 37, 45, 110 JF-17 Thunder/FC-1 10, 37, 45, 110 JH-7 44, 375 JH-7/7A 110, 375 Jha, Lokesh 301 Jharkhand 32, 169, 308, 310, 316 Jian – 7 479, 480 Jian – 8 479, 480 Jian Hong – 6 479, 480 Jianghu I class frigate 352, 375, 407, 463, 470 Jianghu II class frigate 375, 463, 470 Jianghu III 375, 398 Jianghu IV 375, 398 Jianghu V 375, 463, 470 Jiangkai 375, 463 Jiangkai I class frigate 468 Jiangkai II class frigate 375, 463 Jiangwei-class frigates 375, 469, 470 Jianji - 10 480 Jianjiao-7 479, 480 Jin class (strategic missile submarine) 23, 438, 463, 464 Jindalee Operational Radar Network 370 Jinnah, Mohammad Ali 22 joint air to surface stand-off missile (JASSM) 484 joint capsule (JOCAP) 55 joint intelligence committee (JIC) 317 joint military strategy 156, 158 joint operation centres (JOCs) 322 joint operations committee (JOCOM) 155 Joint Planning Committee (JPC) 155 joint service intelligence committee (JSIC) 155 joint services cyber command 38 joint services enterprise information architecture 76 joint tactical ground station (JTAGS) 94 Joint Task Force on Intelligence (JTFI) 308 joint training committee (JTC) 155 joint training system 58 Jordan 327, 401, 402, 418–19


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Index   —equipment and hardware   —Israel, relations Joshi, Shobhana Joshi, Vice Admiral D.K. Julong-2 missiles just in time paradigm Jyoti class

362, 419, 442, 451, 458 325 332

419, 485 417 248 247, 258 23 71 208, 357

K K-13 AA-2 Atoll 229 K-8 Karakoram 364, 479, 488 Ka 31 AEW helicopter 190 Ka Po Ng 26 KA-31 107, 198, 200, 206, 357, 479, 486 KA-32 384, 386, 400, 486 Kakria, Lt General H.L. 246 Kalsi, N.S. 298, 301 Kamov Ka-25 189, 197, 206, 479, 486 Kamov Ka-25 B SH 479, 486 Kamov Ka-25 Harmone 357, 400 Kamov Ka-27 486 Kamov Ka-28 189, 206, 357, 400, 496 Kamov Ka-28ASW 198, 375, 430 Kamov Ka-28 Helix 466–67 Kamov Ka-31 107, 189, 206, 479, 486 Kamov Ka-31 AEW 198 Kamov Ka-31 Helix 200, 357 Kamov Ka-32 384, 386 Kamov Ka-32 T Helix C 386, 400, 486 Kampuchea 22, 185 Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO) 353 Kan, Naoto 327 Kao Hua-chu 331 Kaplan, Robert 24, 437 Kapoor, Deepak 35, 128 Karakoram Range 44, 303 Kargil conflict (war) 1999 29, 37, 53, 87, 89, 91, 102, 109–10, 153, 157, 159, 211–12, 219, 322 Kargil Review Committee (KRC) 153, 157, 159, 177, 219. See also Pakistan; United States Karimov 332, 347–8 Karnik, Air Marshal A.S. 214, 215, 247 Karshi-Khanbad airbase 347 Karwar 23, 189, 190, 203, 357, 438 Karzai, Hamid 7, 19, 325, 338, 350 Kashagan 340 Kashin class 198, 252, 463, 474 Kataria, P.K. 248 Katoch, Lt General (Retd) Prakash C. 53, 59, 73, 104, 315 Kaura, B.B. 246, 267 Kaushal, M.B. 300 Kaveri engine 273, 291 Kayani, Ashfaq Parvez 7, 18, 330, 364 Kazakhstan 10, 328, 333, 335,337–8, 340, 341, 343, 346, 356, 481, 481, 484, 486 KDX-2 class Destroyer 463, 475 Kelkar Committee, 2004 115, 133 Kenya 61 Kevlar 220, 228 KF-16C/D 384 KH179 How 442, 457 Khalid (MBT 2000) 29, 37, 102, 361,

Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa Khalifa bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan al-Khalifa, Ali bin Khalifa bin Salman 325 al-Khalifa, Hamad bin isa 325 al-Khalifa, Khalid bin Abdallah 326 al-Khalifa, Muhammad bin Abdallah 326 al-Khalifa, Muhammad bin Mubarak 326 al-Khalifa, Rashid bin Abdallah bin Ahmad 325 Khalili, Abdul Karim 325 Khamronsin class Corvette 463, 477 Khan, General Bismillah 329 Khan, Mohammad Fahim 329 Khandekar, Air Vice Marshal P.P. 215 Khanna, Air Vice Marshal V.M. 215 al-Khaymah 431 Khetrapal, General (Retd) Ravi 264 Khmer Rouge 397 Khukri class (Project 25) 201, 255, 357 Khushab 128 Kiev class 198 Kilcullen, David 19 Kilo class 189, 196, 405, 413, 463, 465, 473 Kim Jong II 329, 366, 439 Kim Jong-un 329, 366, 381 Kim Yong Chun, Vice Marshal 329 kinetic energy (KE) projectile 80, 82 Kiran MK 1&2 20, 112, 205, 216, 273, 357, 358, 479, 487 Kirloskar Brothers Ltd 132 Kitazawa, Toshimi 327, 383, 439 KJ-200 45 Klub missiles 196, 200, 465 knowledge-based warfare 26 Kochar, Air Marshal G.S. 247, 259 Kochi 23, 189, 202, 205, 236, 322, 323 Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) 279 Kolay, Sukumar 268 Kolkata class 190, 193 Kondapalli, Srikanth 27 Kongsberg ADP 503 208 Konkurs 183, 284 KOPYO 220 Kora class 202 Kornet E missile 103, 183, 405 Kosovo 71, 303 Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) 441, 447 Krishna Godavari Basin 22 Krishna, S.M. 14, 16 Krishnan, P.S. 293 Krivak class frigate 189, 200, 463, 474–5 KS-19 350, 374, 382, 405, 408, 430, 456 KT-1 112 Ku Guisheng 27 Kukreja, Air Marshall Dhiraj 247, 260 Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam 303 Kumar, Air Vice Marshal S. 215 Kumaria, Air Marshal D.C. 247, 260 Kundakulam nuclear reactors 11 Kunming 14, 22, 29, 390 Kurds 429, 430 Kuwait 168, 328, 401, 402, 411, 420, 426, 428, 437   —equipment and hardware 421

Kvadrat 103 Kyrgyzstan 292, 328, 333, 335, 337, 338, 340, 341, 342–43, 344, 347, 356, 481, 484, 486   —army equipment and hardware 343

L L-100-30 362, 392, 405, 409, 421, 429, 432 L-40/70 103, 181, 357, 364, 388, 442, 457 La Fayette class Frigate 464 Lada class (Project 677) Submarine 463, 474 Ladakh 37, 164, 212, 303, 305 Laden, Osama bin 7–8, 36, 43, 337, 361, 428 Lakshadweep 37, 185, 212, 236 Lakshya 104 Lalit Kumar, Dr 295 Lamba, Lt General A.S. 165, 246, 253 land attack cruise missile (LACMs) 374 land systems 291–2 land warfare 26 landing craft, air cushion (LCAC) 204, 380 landing platform decks (LPDs) 108 Landing Ships Tank (LSTs) 190, 203 Lanzhou-Chengdu region 29 Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) 14, 328, 366, 385   —Armed Forces (LPAF) 386   —Army (LPA) 386 Larsen & Toubro (L&T) 102, 132, 169 Laser Science & Technology Laboratory (LASTEC) 295 laser-guided weapon system 103, 222 LaserMotive 92 Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) 18, 59, 60, 62, 338, 436 Latin America 51, 272, 279 —Aero and Defence (LAAD) 287 law enforcement 16, 23, 38, 311, 344, 369, 371, 412 lead intelligence agency (LIA) 235, 306 League of Arab States 406 Leander class frigate (Krishna) 189, 194, 201, 204, 252, 357, 463 leapfrog development strategy 27 Learjet series 398, 429, 432 Lebanon 422–3   —equipment and hardware 423 Lebanon 168, 185, 328, 401, 402, 412, 416, 417, 422–3, 430 Leclerc 81, 432, 441, 445 Lee Myung Bak 331, 381 left-wing extremism (LWE) 129, 308–10, 313, 338 Lekiu class frigate 388, 463 Leopard 2A6EX 391, 441, 447 Lhasa Prefecture 44 Liang Guanglie, General 326 liberalisation of economy 13, 21, 130, 304, 355, 366, 372, 385, 399, 404 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 59, 186, 232, 316, 338, 363–4 Libya 1, 49, 409   —equipment and hardware 409 Life Science Research Board (LSRB) 292

513 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index

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light combat aircraft (LCA) 6, 111, 127, 213, 219, 223, 255, 262, 272–3, 275, 290, 291, 479   —HAL Tejas MKI 46   —Navy 107, 290–1   —Tejas 46, 111, 127, 190, 213, 216, 219, 223, 272, 290–1 light combat helicopter (LCH) 46, 272 light machine gun (LMG) 103, 185, 316 light utility helicopter (LUH) 104, 108, 112, 273, 487 limited series production (LSP) 170, 275 limited war 26 Line of Actual Control (LAC) 29, 36, 37, 38, 59, 129, 164, 211–12, 301–02 line of control (LoC) 40, 103, 164, 176 line-of-sight (LOS) 88 liquid crystal multi-function display 220, 273 local naval defence (LND) 106 Lockheed Martin 6, 45, 85, 93, 94, 111, 135–7, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 148, 149, 151, 152, 216, 225, 479, 483, 485, 488 Logistics & Management School 189 logistics support agreement (LSA) 6 long baseline (LBL) 83–4 long range (armed) maritime patrol/anti-submarine warfare (LRMRASW) 107 Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM ) 103, 290 long wavelength IR (LWIR) 94 long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) 113, 117, 123, 157, 158, 177, 292 long-term perspective plan (LTPP) 131, 157, 218 Look East policy 13–16, 21, 24, 128, 356, 366, 376 Low Altitude (Alt) SAM system 441 low earth orbit (LEO) 95, 97 low energy laser (LEL) systems 96 low intensity conflicts (LIC) 56, 108, 123, 161, 176 low-level transportable radars (LLTR) 112, 231–2 LST (large) 203 LTPP Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) 157 Luda class 375, 463, 467, 468 Luhai class destroyer 463 Luthra, Rear Admiral Girish 247 Luyang I class destroyer 375, 463, 466 Luyang II class destroyer 463, 467 LVTP-7 384, 392, 396, 398 Lynx Mk-99 384, 425, 476

M M-1 Abrams MBT 369, 407, 428, 442, 460, 461 M-9 29 M-11 missiles 29, 37, 362, 374 M-31M 352 M-37M 350, 371, 382, 405 M-41 Lt Tks 396, 398, 442 M-42 Twin SPAA and How 442, 462 M-46 Fd Gun 455 M-46 Med Gun 179

M-46 SP Gun (Catapult) 179, 357 M-47 384, 413, 419 M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM 395, 408 M-48 series 442, 460 M-60 A3 MBT 396, 398, 407, 411, 417, 419, 425, 428, 460, 461 M-60A1 398, 407, 413, 417, 419, 425, 434, 461 M-107 SP Gun 466 M-107 SPAA and How 384, 400, 413, 417, 442, 461 M-109 series 442, 461 M-110 SPAA and How 362, 380, 384, 396, 411, 413, 417, 419, 442 M-113 A3 APC 442, 461 M-160 180, 371, 374, 407, 409, 430 M-163 Vulcan SP AA 398, 417, 419, 429, 434, 442, 462 M-167 Vulcan AA Gun 442, 462 M-1943 180, 382, 390, 405, 407, 430 M-198 Towed A Tk 442, 462 M777 Ultralightweight Field Howitzer 102, 169, 179, 460 Ma Ying-Jeou 331,366, 395 Maareech 292 MacArthur, General 3 Mach 3 109 Mach 3+ 229, 230 Mackinder, Halford 10 Madhya Pradesh 302, 311, 316 Madina class frigate 428, 464 Magic II 221, 222, 229 magnaetic compass 21 Mahadevan, Vice Admiral G. 187, 188, 247 Mahalingam, V.S. 293 Mahindra Satyam 132 Maikeyev, Lt General Murat 328 main battle tank (MBTs) 29, 37, 80, 102, 169, 178–9, 287, 291, 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 350, 352, 357, 361, 364, 369–70, 371, 374, 380, 382, 384, 386, 390, 394, 396, 400, 405, 407, 409, 411, 413, 415, 417, 419, 421, 423, 425, 426, 428, 430, 432, 434, 441, 442, 445, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 457, 458, 460 Maini, Anil Kumar 295 Majid, Lt General Ali Ghaidan 327 Major, Air Chief Marshal (Retd) F.H. 46, 110 Makaran Coast 22 make (high tech) 115, 122 al-Maktum, Muhammad Bin Rashid 332 Malabar Coast 22 Malacca Straits 10, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24, 60, 186, 194, 366, 376, 394, 437 Malakondaiah, Dr G. 294 Malaysia 14, 15, 16 22, 23, 26, 137,194, 279, 329, 334, 335, 366,369, 376,387– 88,389, 393, 399, 410, 438,481–8

  —equipment and hardware 388   —India, cooperation/relations 14, 16   —Internal Security Act 387 Maldives 3, 26, 37, 98, 110, 189, 195, 211, 238 Malhi, Vie Admiral (Retd) H.S. 263 Malhotra, Air Marshal L.K. 154, 246 Malik, G.S. 294 Malik, General (Retd) V.P. 56 Maliki-al, Nuri 327, 415 MALSINDO 195 Malyutka 182, 454 Manaung 390 Mandal, Dr M.K. 294 Manipur, insurgency 32, 302, 305, 308, 311, 312 manned space flight programme 11 ManTech International Corporation 150 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse Tung) 26 Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) 309 Maoist insurgency 29, 31–32, 60–64, 101, 299, 309–10, 315–20 Marine Acoustic Research Ship (MARS) 204 Marine Commandos (MARCOS) 61 Marine Engineering Training and Naval College of Engineering 189 marine police 194, 238, 283, 322–3, 376, 426–7 maritime   —boundary 14, 16, 22  —disputes 21   —domain awareness (MDA) 105, 108, 193, 195, 322   —history, India 21–2  —management 153   —joint operations centres 322   —reconnaissance (MR) 6, 189, 207, 479  —routes 10   —search and rescue (M-SAR) 189, 235, 236   —security/power 15, 16, 21–3, 25, 60, 130, 190, 194, 235–42, 307, 321–3, 355, 366, 371, 395, 436   —strategy 193–4, 438  —trade 15 Maritime Helicopter Support Co. 148 Maritime Warfare Training School, Kochi 189 Maritime Zones of India (MZI) 16, 235 Marjah operations 19 Mark III 170 Marom, Aluf Eli 327 Marwah, Lt General N.C. 154, 246, 261 Masimov, Karim 328 Masson, Air Vice Marshal A. 215 materials and components (M&C) 132, 266, 277 Mathews, Air Marshal K .J. 154, 246 Mathur, Major General P. 295 Mathur, R.K. 245, 248 Matra Durandal Bomb 231 Mau-Mau insurgents 61 Mauritius 195, 274 Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) 6, 105, 189, 190, 193, 194, 197, 199, 200, 209, 263, 265, 267, 270, 281 Mazdock Modernisation Project 281 MBDA (Matra Defense) 93, 108, 183, 229, 230, 231, 481, 484 McChrystal, General Stanley Allen 18, 19 McKiernan, General 18 McMahon Line 305

514 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index medium altitude and long endurance (MALE) 90, 107, 108, 170, 228, 291 medium combat aircraft (MCA) 46 medium earth orbit (MEO) 97 medium extended air defence system (MEADS) 93 medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) 6, 46, 111, 126, 130, 216, 218, 481–82 medium range maritime reconnaissance (MRMR) 107, 108 medium range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) 103 medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) 93 medium-range missiles 89 medium-range surface-to-air missile (MR-SAM) 46, 103, 112, 290 Medvedev, Dmitry 10, 11, 12, 94, 127 Meghalaya 212, 305, 311, 312 Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative (MGCI) 14, 390 Meredith 85 Merkava 441, 449 Merkava Mk3 441, 448–9 Merkel, Angela 64 Metcalfe 75 Meteorological Department 98, 277 MFI fighter 362, 414, 425, 429, 431 Mi-17 IV 216, 341, 359 Mi-17 44, 46, 212, 216, 226, 345, 350, 352, 362, 364, 371, 377, 378, 386, 390, 400, 405, 415, 479, 486 Mi-17S (Mi-17S) 46, 226 Mi-17V-5 112 Mi-25/35 212, 226, 409, 431, 479, 486 Mi-26 212, 227, 348, 371, 374, 386, 479, 486 Mi-8 212 MICA 433 Microwave Tube R&D Centre (MTRDC) 295 Middle East 1, 21, 24, 48, 51, 99, 185, 341, 376, 390, 395, 401, 406, 418, 422, 428 mid-life upgrades (MLUs) 190, 205 216, 226 MiG-17F 382 MiG-17U 362 MiG-19UTI 352, 362 MiG-21 45–46, 110, 111, 211, 212, 229, 252, 254, 260–61, 343, 407, 409, 431, 434, 479, 481 MiG-21 Bis (Bison) 111, 212, 220, 358, 371 MiG-21 FL Fishbed 358 MiG-21 MF/Bis 220, 480 MiG-21Bis Fishbed L&N+ 386, 400 MiG-21F 480 MiG-21M 212, 358 MiG-21R 407 MiG-21U 431, 434 MiG-21UM Mongol B+ 371, 400 MiG-23 45, 109, 110, 259, 409, 431, 479, 481 MiG-23BN 109, 405, 409, 431 MiG-23MF 229, 405

MiG-23U 409 MiG-23UB Flogger C 364, 382 MiG-25 45, 109, 112, 405, 409, 431, 471, 481 MiG-25 Foxbat 341 MiG-25R 405, 409, 431 MiG-25U 409 MiG-27 M 212, 220, 229, 479, 481 MiG-27 46, 109, 111, 212, 216, 254, 259 MiG-27ML Flogger 358, 364 MiG-29 10, 46, 109, 111, 212, 216, 229–30, 479, 481 MiG-29A/B 221, 414, 431 MiG-29C/UB 405 MIG-29K/LCA (Navy) 107–8, 189–90, 198, 205, 357, 465 MiG-29N 388 MiG-29NUB 388 MiG-29SMT 434 MiG-29UB Fulcrum 341, 346, 348, 352, 358, 382, 390, 405 MiG-29UBT 434 MiG-31 Foxhound 341 MiG-31 479, 481 MiG-35 111, 479, 481 Mil Mi-6 479, 486 Mil Mi-8 479, 486 Mil Mi-17 212, 216, 486 Mil Mi-24 479, 486 Mil Mi-25/-35 479, 486 Mil Mi-26 479, 486 MILAN 23, 24, 103, 183, 284, 350, 394, 405, 407, 409, 423, 425, 427, 430, 432, 460 MILAN shoulder-fired ATGMs 103 military capabilities   —China 26–8, 37, 366   —India 4, 11, 29, 36, 38, 43, 123, 127  —Australia 368   —Taiwan 395 United Kingdom 1 military communications 26, 58, 69, 75, 95 military doctrine, Russia 10 military expenditure 333–5   —Algeria 405   —Yemen Republic 434 military intelligence 29, 99, 155, 433 military modernisation 25, 36, 102, 110, 127–30, 158, 175, 368 Military Operations Directorate 156 military operations 67–9, 71, 73–5, 162, 164, 176  —Bhutan 353   —China 26, 37   —Pakistan 338   —United States 3, 7, 18, 100, 340, 342, 426 military technology 11, 28, 35, 36, 373 Miller, Paul D., 20 MIM-23 B 462 Mindanao 391 mine counter-measures (MCM) missions 84, 85 mine warfare 197, 203, 362, 369, 384, 398, 409 Minesweepers (266 ME) 186, 203, 352, 382, 384, 396, 411, 430, 434, 473

Ming class patrol submarine 463 Minicoy 236 Mirage 2000 109, 110, 111, 212, 216, 229, 396, 407, 427, 432 Mirage 2000H 221, 226–7, 479, 481 Mirage 5 481 Mirage F-1C 479, 481 Mirage III 479, 481 Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) 131, 264, 265, 267, 270, 285 Mishra, P.K. 246, 249, 267 Mishra, Rear Admiral (Retd) N.K. 263 Mishra, Sanjeev 298 Missile & Gunnery School 189 missile system quality assurance (MSQA) 286 missile technology control regime (MTCR) 6 missile(s), missile systems 127–8, 170, 183, 190, 216, 284, 289–90, 452 MIST 195 Mistral class 106 Mitsubishi Type SU 60 380, 442, 450, 451 Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah, Sultan 329 Mizoram, insurgency 32, 212, 305, 311, 312. See also Northeast MK 5 442, 458 MMA P8 Poseidon 479, 488 mobile cellular communication system (MCCS) 104 mobile observation posts (MOPs) 232 modeling & simulation 67–72 Modified Romeo class patrol submarine 463 Mohab Mameesh, Vice Admiral 326 Mohapatra, Lt General P. 246 Mohenjodaro 185 Mongolia 393 MONUC (Congo) 168, 303 Moorthy, Dr A.L. 294 Motorised Rifle Division (MRD) 344 Mountbatten, Lord 22 Mourad Rais FSU Koni 405 Mousavi, Lt Commander General Seyed Abdolrahim 327 Mowag Piranha 425, 442 Mowag Piranha II 426, 428 Mowag Piranha III 457 Mozambique 168, 303 MQ-9 Reaper 91, 92 MSTA-S self-propelled artillery system (2S19) 442, 454 MT-LB multipurpose tracked vehicle 454 Mubarak, Mohamed Hosni 401, 406, 416 Mubeen, General Md Abdul 326 Mujawwar, Ali Muhammad 332 Mujibur Rahman, Sheikh 351 Mukherjee, Pranab 101 Mullen, Mike, 7 Multi-Agency Centre (MAC) 308, 317 multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) 102, 169 multinational corporations (MNCs) 33 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) 290

515 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index multiple rocket launchers (MRLs) 341, 343–6, 348, 350, 357, 362, 364, 371, 374, 375, 378, 380, 382, 384, 388, 390, 396, 398, 409, 411, 417, 421, 423, 427, 428, 430, 441, 442, 444, 448, 451, 455 multi-purpose support vessel 281 multi-role transport aircraft (MTA) 11, 111 Multitonnee, UK 279 Muntho Dhalo 212 Muralidharan, Dr. R. 296 Muralidharan, M. 300 Muralidharan, Vice Admiral M.P. 187, 188, 247 Murphy, Stan 83 Murr, Elias 328 Musharraf, Pervez 110 Muslim Brotherhood Movement 406 Mussolini, Benito 61 Myanmar (formerly Burma) 16, 23, 30, 36, 56, 185, 329, 356, 365, 366, 369, 385, 389–90, 393, 397, 437   —and Bangladesh, boundary dispute 22   —China, relations 10, 26, 29, 37, 51   —equipment and hardware 390   —India, relations 14, 15, 22, 101, 164, 212, 305, 316, 351 Mystere 211

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N Nag anti-tank missile system 103, 284, 290 Nagaland, insurgency 32, 305, 306, 308, 311, 312 Nagraj, Smita 248 Naik, Air Chief Marshal P.V. 111, 217 Nair, Air Vice Marshal S.R.K. 215 Nair, Lt General G.M. 165, 166, 246 Najibullah 19 Najin class frigate 463 Nakshatra 291 Namibia 168, 274, 303 Nanjing 396 nanotechnology 11, 81 Nanuchka III class (Project 1234.1) Corvette 475 Narang, Air Vice Marshal V.K. 215 Narayana Das, J. 246, 291 Narayanan, S. Anantha 295 Narendra Kumar, Dr 294 Naresuan class frigates 463, 477 Narora reactor 65 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 406 Natarajan, V.R.S. 262 Nath, Lt General K.Surendra 247, 257 Nath, Neelam 245 Nath, Ray Pratap 298, 301 National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) 273 National Cadet Corps (NCC) 126 National Centre for Training in Search, Rescue & Disaster Response 303 National Command Post 155 national command, control communication and intelligence network 322 National Counter-terrorism Centre (NCTC) 317, 319, 365 National Crime Record Bureau

(NCRB) 317 National Cyber Command 38 National Defence Academy (NDA) 55, 156, 159, 168, 170, 213, 318 National Defence College 56, 156, 159, 168 National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) 353 National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) 61, 302 National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) 311 National Information Grid 56, 76, 77 National Institute of Communicable Disease (NICD) 303 National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) 308, 317 National Investigation Agency (NIA) 308, 317 national military strategy (NMS) 158 National Police Commission (NPC) 311 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 309 National Security Commission (NSC) 311 National Security Council (NSC) 56–7, 58, 60, 155 National Security Guard (NSG) 6, 61, 62, 302, 304, 308, 313, 318 National Security Objective 56 National Security Strategy (NSS) 56, 57, 60, 158 National Security System 153, 306, 322 National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isaac-Muviah) (NSCN-IM) 32 National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) 317 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) 7, 9, 11, 17–20, 91, 104, 206–07, 220–21, 223–24, 226–27, 230, 338, 340, 344, 349, 379, 411, 436–37, 480–82, 484, 486, 488 NATO-Russia Council 10, 11 Naval Academy 189, 190, 195 Naval Air Technical School 189 Naval Aircraft Yard (NAY) 189 Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) 295 Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) 107, 202, 295 Naval Research Board (NRB) 292 Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) 107, 295 Naval Ship Repair Yard (NSRY) 189, 190 naval systems 292 Naval Warfare College, Karanja, Mumbai 189 navigation 83-4, 86, 88, 97–100, 103, 112, 176, 193, 194, 220, 222, 226, 273, 321, 322, 436 Navigation & Direction School 189 Navigation Training School, Begumpet 213 Navistar Defense LLC 137, 147, 148 Naxalism/Naxalite(s) insurgency 31, 32–3, 129, 169, 297, 299, 306–08, 310–11, 338, 356. See also insurgency. Northeast. terrorism Nayak, Ashok 262 Nayak, Dr K.D. 246 Nayanar, Lt General Vinod 247

Nazarbayev, Nursultan A. 328 Negi, Air Vice Marshal Y. 215 Nehoshtan, Major General Ido 327 Nehru, Jawaharlal 283 Neo Kian Hong 331 Nepal 14, 29, 30, 51, 61, 98, 101, 272, 334, 335, 338, 358–9   —China relations 29, 30   —India relations 51   —Maoist power/insurgency 60, 316   —regional balance 358–9 Neri, Air Marshal Joseph 214, 215, 247 Netanyahu, Binyamin 327, 416, 417, 430 network centric, network-centricity 38, 70, 74, 75, 84, 89, 128, 170, 173, 175, 176  —communications 85  —topology 75   —warfare (NCW) 35, 38, 70, 74, 75, 76, 77, 103, 104, 110, 233 network-enabled operations (NEO) 110 Neuron 91 New Zealand 14, 15, 368, 369, 393 Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marines 441, 446 Nguyen Sinh Hung 332 Nguyen Tan Dung 332 Nguyen Van Hien, Admiral 332 NH 90 369–70 Niger 404 Nigeria 51, 168 night fighting/ night capability 29, 38, 102, 103, 120, 169, 176, 318, 319 Night Intruder 384 night vision devices 80 NIRDESH 267 Nishant 90, 104, 170, 291, 357 Nisr 407 no first-use (NFU) 41, 106, 194 Nohwar, Air Marshal K.K. 214, 247, 254 Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 6, 408 Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) Academy 318, 319 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) 99, 311, 317 Noordin Mohammed Top 366 Norinco Type 74 445 Norinco Type 85 444 Norinco YW 531 APC 444 North Korea (DPRK) 26, 37, 45, 93, 329, 365, 366, 369, 381–3, 396  —brinkmanship 439–40   —China, relations 373   —equipment and hardware 382, 463, 473   —military action against South Korea 1, 366, 383, 384   —nuclear weapon programme 366, 382, 383, 439 North West Frontier Province (NWFP) 17, 211, 361 Northeastern states, insurgency 161–2, 164, 167, 186, 218, 231, 297, 305, 312, 338, 353, 365 Northern Alliance 17, 338 Northern Army Command 163 Northrop Grumman Skyguard 74, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 148, 152, 225, 479, 489 North-South transport corridor 11 Novator SS-N-15 Starfish 197, 200, 465

516 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index NTW-20/14.5 183 nuclear deterrence 23, 30, 38–9, 41–2, 45, 106, 194 nuclear disaster in Japan 63–6 nuclear first use (NFU) 40, 42 nuclear industry  —China 65  —India 65–6   —United Kingdom 64–5   —United States 65 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 412 Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) 65 nuclear power issues   —India 6, 11, 39–42, 128   —Japan 365, 366 nuclear proliferation 128 nuclear submarines 11 Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 6 nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) 59, 76, 170, 409 nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles 30 Nuri al-Maliki 327, 415 Nyyazow 345

O Obama, Barack 5–8, 10, 18–19, 43, 61, 65, 95, 127–8, 338, 349–50, 356, 360–1, 410, 430 Obeng, Lt General Henry 96 observe, orient, decide, act (OODA) 74 Octopus 61 Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 201, 204, 357, 394, 411, 414, 421, 429, 442, 450, 457, 458, 472 offensive capability 110 Official Development Assistance (ODA) 14 offset banking 133 offset policy 119, 122, 130, 133–4, 218 Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) 51, 188, 238, 272 Oil India Limited (OIL) 51 Okinawa military base 28, 365, 439 Olmert, Uhud 416 Oman, Sultanate of 283, 329–30, 401, 402, 424–5, 426   —equipment and hardware 425, 483–6, 488 Omar, Mullah Mohammed 18, 19 Operation Brasstacks 41 Operation Desert Storm 54 Operation Detachments Alpha 62 Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) 17, 146, 337, 349, 373, 411, 426 Operation Green Hunt 129, 317 Operation Hamkari 19 Operation Iraqi Freedom 86, 93, 146, 373, 411, 414, 415, 426 Operation Moshtarek 18 Operation Parakram 40, 253, 254 Operation Pawan 253 Operation Peace for Galilee 87 Operation Sukoon 258 operational capability 32, 35, 43, 46, 57, 75, 103, 109–10, 112, 130, 164, 176–7, 190 operational command 38, 186 operational control (OPCON) 164, 186, 189

operational effectiveness 19, 73 operational efficiency 159 operational formations 162–3 operational logistics 155, 162, 164 operational planning 56, 174, 177 operational preparedness 175, 194 ordnance equipment group of factories (OEF) 266 ordnance factories 266, 269–70  —modernisation 268 Ordnance Factories Organisation 266 Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) 107, 133, 170, 265, 266, 267, 268, 287 Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) 337 Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 48, 427 original equipment manufacturers (OEM) 65, 133, 175, 213 Orissa 32, 60, 169, 189, 273, 308, 310, 316 OSA-AK 103, 112, 170, 230 Oshkosh Corporation 138, 139, 141 Oshkosh Defense 145, 147 OT-64 C (SKOT-2A) 357, 371, 405, 441, 445 Oto Melara 107, 199, 200, 442, 450, 471, 476 Oto Melara Palmaria 442, 449 Otteinger, Guenther 64 Ouragan 211 Ouyahia, Ahmed 325 over the horizon-backscatter (OTH-B) radars 94

P P-12/15 231 P-15A 190 P-16A 189 P-18 232 P-19 232 P-3C Orion 362, 370, 380, 384, 479, 488 P75 106 P-8I 6, 107, 127, 130, 190 P-8I Poseidon 190, 207, 479, 488 PAC-3 93, 380, 396, 420, 439, 462 PAC-3 MSE 93 Pacific Ocean 95 Padaki, Dr V.C. 293 Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) 311 Padmanabhan, General (Retd) S. 57 PAK-FA. See Af-Pak region Pakistan 14, 16, 17, 19, 20, 26, 43, 238, 302, 307, 315, 330, 334, 335, 337, 355, 360–1, 364, 393, 436, 437   —Afghanistan, relations 17, 161   —Air Force (PAF) 43, 44–45, 110, 480   —Army 3, 18, 29, 36, 45, 77, 102, 360, 452   —China relations 7, 10, 29, 36–7, 59, 128, 361   —defence expenditure 102   —equipment and hardware 442, 451, 488   —India relations/insurgency 3, 7, 10, 11, 18, 22, 23, 32, 35–6, 40, 45, 56, 60, 62, 101, 103, 104, 110, 123, 128–9, 161, 211,

218, 338, 369, 373, 436   —four Wars (1948, 1965, 1971, 1999) 22, 37, 101, 109, 211, 303. See also Kargil  —inflation 36   —jehadi strategy 36, 59, 62   —Military Academy 7   —military offensives in Swat and South Waziristan 18  —Navy 45   —nuclear first use 40–1   —regional balance 360–2   —Special Services Group 61–2   —United States strategy/aid 3, 7–8, 13, 36, 43, 60, 110. See also Afghanistan; China; United States Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) 9, 37, 59, 62, 102, 128, 161, 307, 338, 361, 436 Palestinian conflict. See Israel Pallam Raju, M.M. 245, 248, 251 Panda, K.P. 268 Panetta, Leon E. 7 Panhard M3 VDA Twin (SP AA Gun) 441, 447 Panhard M3 441, 446, 447 Panhard PVP 441, 446 Pannikar, K.M. 22 Papua New Guinea 393 Paracel 15, 399 Parachute Special Forces units (PARA-SF) 61 paramilitary forces (PMF) 27, 77, 169, 291, 299, 304, 309 Parnaik, Lt General K.T. 247, 255 Pasha, Ahmad Shuja 7 Pashtun 19, 20, 22 Patil, Pratibha Devisingh 245, 250 Patil, S.N. 268 Patnaik, Lalit Mohan 294 Patriot missiles 6 Patriot Msl (PAC-1) Single Stage Low to High Alt SAM system 442, 462 Patrol and coastal combatants 375, 377, 386, 388, 392, 405 Patrol Forces 191, 202, 384, 463, 470, 471 PAUK II class 201 Pawan 104 peasant uprisings 299 Pechora 112 Pegasus 205, 384, 394 People’s Armed Police (PAP) 27 People’s Committee against Police Atrocities (PCPA) 315 People’s Liberation Army (PLA), China 22, 26–9, 44, 77, 354, 366, 373, 374, 395   —Air Force (PLAAF) 27, 29, 43, 44, 110, 218, 373, 374   —Army 28, 29   —military build-up 27–8   —Navy (PLA-Navy/PLAN) 22, 23, 27, 29   —new doctrine of “active defence” 26 People’s Liberation Army of Manipur (PLAM) 316 people’s war strategy 26, 28 People’s War Group (PWG) 309 Peres, Shimon 327 Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) 52

517 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index performance budgeting 153 perimeter acquisition vehicle entry phased array system (PAVE-PAWS) 94 Persian Gulf 21, 22, 24, 36, 71, 410, 420, 432 Perspective Planning Directorate 156 perspective planning process 156–7 Petraeus, David 4, 18, 19, 20, 350 (spl variation) Phalcon 112, 216, 224–5, 232–3, 417, 479, 489 Phazotron NO10 222 Philippines 15, 16, 36, 64, 330, 366, 369, 391–2, 399, 437, 438   —China, relations 15, 16   —equipment and hardware 392   —New People’s Army-National Democratic Front (NPA-NDF) 391 Pike Jaw Sonar 473 Pilatus PC-7 MkII 112 Pillai, Dr A.S. 246, 291 Pillai, Rear Admiral S. 247 Pinaka MBRL weapon system 102, 169, 180 piracy 1, 3, 15, 16, 107, 186, 193, 194–5, 238, 304, 321, 371   —at sea 436–7, 439 PL-9C Low Alt SAM System 444 Planning and Participatory Budget Programme (PPBP) 156 Planning Commission 250, 309–10 planning process 117, 155, 156, 157, 186 PLZ45 421, 441, 444 Po Hang class Corvette 384 poaching 107, 321. See also piracy Pogosyan, Mikhail 10 Pokhran II (Shakti tests) (1998) 39, 41 Poland 10, 112, 189, 196, 208 Policy, Planning and Force Development (PP&FD) 155, 157 Polnochny A&B class LSM 400, 407, 430 Polnochny C&D class LSM 203 Pondicherry class 203 Portuguese adventurers 22 Post-Ministerial Conferences (PMCs) 14 Pourdastan, Brig General Ahmad Reza 327 power projection capability 24 Prabhakaran, V. 338 Pradeep Kumar 363 Pratt & Whitney 483 Praveen Kumar 245, 249 precision attack capability 29, 110, 112 precision-guided missiles/ munitions (PGMs) 26, 29, 46, 80, 81, 99, 102, 112, 129, 130, 169, 170, 223, 390, 433 Predator (UAVs) 61, 90, 91, 104 pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) 65–6 Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) 155 Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC) 155 Principal Supply Officers Committee (PSOC) 155 Princpe De Asturias class 464

Prithvi 170, 182, 202, 284, 289, 290, 356, 357 Prithvi II 357 privatisation 345, 355, 404, 408, 420, 422, 424 proliferation security initiative (PSI) 369, 393 Proof and Experimental Establishment (PXE) 295 proxy war 32, 34, 36, 43, 101, 161, 163, 173, 174, 175, 305, 307, 361. See also China. Pakistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Northeast PRP-4 442, 453 psychological warfare 59 PT-76B Lt Tks 442, 453 public-private partnership (PPP) 12, 52, 114–15, 132–3 Putin, Vladimir 11

Q Qaboos Bin Said al Said, Sultan of Oman 329, 424 Qahir class 425, 463 Qatar 401, 402, 426–7, 428   —equipment and hardware 426 Qiang-5 479, 480 Quality Assurance of Imported Equipment 286 Quality Management Systems 286 Quetta Shoora 18 quick reaction surface-to-air-missile (QRSAM) 103

R R-23-R AA-7 Apex 229, 368 R-530 D 221, 407, 409, 419 R-550 Magic I 229, 357, 358, 396, 409, 419, 433 R-60 220, 229, 345, 348, 371, 405, 407, 434, 442, 454, 457, 482 R-60 AA-8 Aphid 220, 229 R-73 220, 221, 222, 480, 482 Rabena, Lt General Oscar H 330 Radars (air search) 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 233, 465, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 474, 476, 477 Rae, Vivek 245, 248 Rafael 103, 471, 472 Rafale 111, 216, 218, 479 Railway Protection Force Commandos (RPFC) 61 Rais Hamidou (FSU Nanuchka II) FSG 405 Rajan, Satyajeet 245, 249, 267 Rajnish Kumar 245, 249 Rajput class 198 Raju, A.R. 300 Raksha Udyog Ratnas 133 Rama Nathan, Sellapan 331 Ramachandran, Mullapally 298, 300, 324 Ramadan class 404, 407 Ramanarayanan, C.P. 296 RAM-V-1 (Open) 449 RAND 25

Rangarajan, S.V. 295 Ranvir (a Kashin class destroyer) 252, 258 Rao, D.V.K. 268 Rao, Dr A. Subhananda 246, 294 Rao, Dr K. Sekhar 246 Rao, Dr R. Sreehari 246 Rao, Dr V. Bhujanga 246, 291 Rao, H.V. Srinivasa 295 Rao, M. Narayana 264 Rao, P.V. Narasimha 21 Rao, R. Sreehari 246, 291 Rapid Action Force (RAF) 302 rapid environmental assessment (REA) 85 rapid reaction 29 rapid response mechanism 194 Rashtriya Rifles (RR) 103, 126, 163, 166, 176, 313, 318, 319, 355 Rassoul, Dr Zalmai 325 Ratcharit class Fast Track Craft-Missile 398, 464 Ratel 90 442, 456 Ratnagiri 203, 236 Rattan, Air Vice Marshal N. 215 Ray, S.K. 295 Raytheon Company 92, 99, 102, 136, 138, 140, 141, 144, 146, 148, 149, 151, 170, 204, 452, 472, 476, 477 Raytheon MTS-B 92 Razak, Mohamed Najib bin Tun Abdul 329, 387 Reagan, Ronald 3 Recce Vehs 179, 441, 442, 445, 449, 450, 453, 454, 459 reconnaissance 32, 45, 62, 85, 87, 90, 97, 99, 104, 109, 112, 127, 130, 169, 170, 212—and attrition 103—and support battalions 103 regional boundary disputes 22 Regional Centre for Military Airworthiness (RCMA) 295 regional cooperation 14, 238, 440 Regional Response Centres 303 regional security concerns 101, 153, 161, 193, 369, 373, 376, 420, 432, 435 remote human operator 83 remotely deployed sensors (RDS) 85 remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) 83, 85 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) 291–2 remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) 87 request for information (RFI) 107, 133, 169, 190 request for proposals (RFP) 102, 103, 106, 112, 117, 120, 121, 133, 170, 213, 218, 292 Research & Development (R&D) 29, 77, 113, 115, 116, 120, 132, 133, 134, 157, 158, 175, 186, 268, 272, 277, 285, 287, 289–92 Research & Development Establishment (R&DE) 295 Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) 155, 317 Research Centre Imarat (RCI) 295 Reshef (Saar 4) class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) 417, 463, 472 retrofitting interoperability 74

518 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


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Index Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) 27, 53–4, 57, 58, 102 RF-4C 384 RF-5A 384 RFP 103 Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV 441 Rhino Project 169 Ribeiro Committee 311 Rifai, Samir 418 risk bearing approach 51 Ritz Carlton Hotels, Jakarta 366, 377 robotics 80, 86, 128 Rockwell Collins 135, 377, 392, 413, 489 Rohini MPR (Medium Power Radar) 112, 231, 232 Rolls-Royce AE3007AIP 225 Rolls-Royce Pegasus 205 Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour Mk-811 222 Romeo (Project 033) class Submarine 473 Romeo class patrol submarine 463 Rosoboronexport 102, 148, 169, 273 Roy, Air Marshal P.K. 246 RSTA 104 Rudd, Kevin 368 Rumaithi-al, Hamad Mohammed Thani 332 Rumsfeld, Donald H. 29 Rushdie, Salman 43 Russia (former USSR, Soviet Union) 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 13, 15, 16, 19, 21, 23, 27, 28, 29, 36, 44, 47, 48, 49, 61, 93, 105, 106, 109–12, 127, 130, 131, 132, 169, 189, 190, 195, 272, 282, 284, 291, 292, 337, 340, 341, 342, 343, 345, 345, 346, 366, 368, 373, 393, 395, 400, 432, 434, 436, 439   —involvement in Afghanistan 2   —China, relations 9, 10, 11, 12, 29, 44   —containment policies 9   —disintegration of Soviet Union 9–10, 109   —equipment 183, 198, 199, 205, 441, 442, 452, 463, 473–6   —gross domestic product (GDP) 9   —India cooperation 8, 9–12, 45, 46, 97, 102, 109–10, 170, 196, 216, 217, 218, 273, 274, 292   —India-China (RIC) trilateral framework 11   —United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) 111, 273   —United States, relations 97 Rustamji, K.F. 302 Rustom 90, 104, 107, 291

S S-300 PMU-1 93 S-300 PMU-2 (SA 10E ‘Favorit’) 93 S-300 PMU-3 93 S-300PMU2 surface-to-air missile 28 S-400 ‘Triumf’ (SA-2,’Growler’) 93 S-60 343, 346, 350, 352, 362, 371, 377, 378, 382, 386, 398,

405, 407–9, 430, 434, 442, 456 181 384, 479

S6M Tangushka System S-92A (VIP) SA-10 Grumble Low-to-High Alt SAM 341 SA-13 182, 346, 350, 357, 419, 430, 434, 442, 456 SA-16 182, 357–58, 362, 384, 390, 400, 419 SA-16 Gimlet 182, 357, 358, 362, 384, 390, 400, 419 SA-342 Gazelle 407, 479, 486 SA-3B Pechora 112, 230, 358 SA-6 Gainful (Low-to Mediumalt SAM) 181, 341, 357, 400, 405, 408–9, 431, 434, 442, 455 SA-7 Grail 181, 343, 345–6, 350, 357, 382, 386, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 414, 419, 423, 425, 427, 430–1, 434 SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM 346, 405, 409, 419, 430, 442, 455 SA-8B Osa-AK 103, 230 SA-8B SAM 181, 230, 357, 358, 442, 455, 456 SA-8B 181, 357–8 SA-9 Gaskin SAM 456 Saab 2000 Erieye aircraft 45, 85, 111, 272, 452, 479, 489 Sabah Oliver Hazard Perry class 411 Sabharwal, Lt General Mukesh 165, 166, 246 Sabra MBT 441, 449 Sadat, Anwar El 401, 406 Saddam Hussein 3, 420 Sagar Prahari Bal 106, 185, 186, 323 Sagardhwani class 191, 204, 357 Sagarika 24, 197 Sahay, Vishvajit 245, 249 Sahgal, Brigadier Arun 26 Sahyadri 190, 191, 200 Saignason, Lt General Choummaly 328 sail training ships (AXS), Varuna and Tarangini 194, 205, 258 Saito, Admiral Takashi 327 Sajjil 413 Saleh, Ali Abdullah 433 Salehi, General Ataollah 327 Salisbury class Frigate 463 SAM-6 (Kvadrat) 103 SAM-8 OSA-AK 103 Samsung 476 SAMTEL HAL Display System Ltd 274 Samvahak Project 104 Sana’a Water Basin Project 434 Sandhayak class 204, 357 Sang-O class Submarine 382, 463, 473 Sanjay (BSS Project) 104 Sanjeeva Kumar 245, 248 Sarabhai, Dr Vikram 98 Saran, Lt General Chea 212, 326 SARAS 273 Saraswat, Dr V.K. 246, 248, 291 Sarath ICV 103, 169, 267 Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) 301, 305–6, 307, 353 Sastry, C.V.S. 293 satellite communication systems 100, 186 Satellite Datalink Integration 229 satellite reconnaissance systems 104 Sati, S.C. 293

Satish Kumar, Dr 296 Sattaf, Abu 15 Saudi Arabia 10, 48, 330–1, 401, 402, 420, 424, 426, 427–9   —equipment and hardware 428–9. See also Saddam Hussein, United States Saunik, Manoj 246, 249, 267 Saxena, Dr P.K. 296 Sayyari, Rear Admiral Habibollah 327 Scarborough Shoals 15 Schilka 103, 170, 181, 290, 455 Schultz, George P. 3 Science Applications International Corporation 143, 144 Scientific analysis Group (SAG) 78, 296 Scorpene class (Project 75) 130, 190, 197 Scorpene class 106, 189, 190, 194, 197, 281, 463 Scorpion 377, 388, 392, 398, 413, 419, 425, 432, 459 Scud missiles 346, 350, 382, 400, 407, 413, 430, 432, 434 SDB MK-3 class 202 SDB MK5 202 SDB T54 189 Sea Eagle missile 189, 205, 206, 222, 357, 358, 429, 483 Sea Harrier 189, 190, 197, 205, 253, 357, 477 Sea King 189, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204, 206, 208, 357, 362, 369, 407, 413, 479, 486 sea lines of communication (SLOCs) 15, 22, 37, 60, 195, 376, 393, 436 Seahawk 370, 380, 398, 477 Seaking 107 search and rescue (SAR) 89–90, 98, 107, 193, 235, 236 Searcher-I 104 Searcher II 87–88, 104 Seaward defence forces 189, 191, 202 security environment   —Afghanistan 349, 436, 437, 438  —Algeria 404–5  —Asia-Pacific 435–40   —Australia 368, 371  —Baharain 410–11  —Bangladesh 351  —Bhutan 353   —China 128, 366, 373–5, 379, 385, 393, 395, 435–40   —East Asia 365–6  —Egypt 406–7   —India 1–4, 12, 27, 75, 101, 103, 128, 129, 161–71, 173, 195, 217, 321, 355–6, 440  —Indonesia 366–8  —Iran 412–13   —Iraq 414–15, 437  —Israel 416–17  —Japan 379–80  —Jordan 418–19

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Index  —Kuwait 420–1  —Kyrgyzstan 342  —Lebanon 422–3  —Libya 409  —Malaysia 387–8  —Myanmar 389–90  —Nepal 358–9   —North Korea 381–2, 439–40  —Oman 424–5   —Pakistan 355, 360–1, 436, 437  —Philippines 391–2  —Qatar 426–7   —Saudi Arabia 428–9  —Singapore 393–4   —South Korea 383–4, 439–40   —Sri Lanka 363–4  —Syria 430–1  —Taiwan 395–6  —Tajikistan 344  —Thailand 397–8  —Turkmenistan 345   —United Arab Emirates (UAE) 431–3  —Uzbekistan 347  —Vietnam 389–400   —Yemen Republic 433–4 security threats and challenges 26, 38, 43, 123, 127–9, 131, 169, 194, 297, 351, 355, 424, 432, 436. See also insurgency, terrorism, Pakistan, Northeast Sekhar, Rear Admiral (Retd) K.C. 263 self-propelled artillery system 102, 169, 279, 441, 454 Selous Scouts 61 Selvamurthy, Dr W. 246, 291 semi-automatic command– to-line-of-sight (SACLOS) 183 Sen, Samdech Hun 326 Senkaku Island 15 sensor exploitation 78 Sensor Grid 74, 76 sensor technology 94 Sepecat Jaguar 109, 222, 273 Serbian Air Defence 91 Service Headquarters (SHQ) 114, 117, 118, 121 Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) 117, 131 Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) 157 Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) 157 services qualitative requirements (SQR) 114, 115, 122, 286, 292 Seychelles 98, 189, 195 Shahine Low Alt SAM System 429, 441, 447 Shah-Safi, Brig General Hassan 327 Shaksgam Valley 37 Shakti (ACCCS system) 104 Shakti tests (Pokhran II), 1998 39 Shambaugh, David 26 Shang class (nuclear attack submarines) (SSN) 23, 463 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) 11, 337 Shankush 196, 258 Shannan 44 Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503) 197 Sharma, Air Cmde, N.K. 215 Sharma, Air Marshal R.K. 214, 247, 255

Sharma, Air Vice Marshal G.P. 214 Sharma, Air Vice Marshal, S. 214 Sharma, Air Vice Marshal, S.K. 215 Sharma, Arun 300 Sharma, Dharmendra 298, 301 Sharma, Shashi Kant 245, 248, 251 (variation Shashikant as one word) Shell 52 Shenzhou-7 mission 94 Ship Submersible Ballistic Nuclear (SSBN) 23 ship submersible nuclear (SSN) 84 shipbuilding 105, 121, 122, 190, 194, 195, 281, 282, 283 Shipping Corporation of India 208 Shishumar 196, 258 Shishumar class submarine 196, 258, 357, 463 short baseline (SBL) 83–4 short take off vertical landing (STOVL) 205, 483 short take-off but arrested recovery (STOBAR) 198 short-and medium-wave infrared (SWIR and MWIR) 94 short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) 26, 29, 93 Shukrijumah, Adnan 59 Siachen Glacier 164, 272 Siam, 22 Siddique, M.A. 299 Sidhu, Lt General D.S. 247 Signal Intelligence directorates (SIDs) 155 Signals Intelligence (SIGNIT) 88, 90, 108, 384 Sihamoni, Norodom 326 Sikkim 44, 129, 164, 167, 306, 312   —merger with India 305 Sikorsky UH-60/SH-60/S-70 Blackhawk 457, 487 Siliguri Corridor 32, 354 Sindhughosh (kilo) class 195, 196 Sindhukesari 196 Sindhuraj 196 Sindhuratna 196 Sindhuvir 196 Singal, Anil Kumar 248 Singapore 5, 23, 85, 194, 281, 292, 322, 331, 366, 369, 390, 393–4, 395   —equipment and hardware 445, 456   —India cooperation 292 Singapore Technologies 394, 456 Singh, Air Marshal Daljit 214 Singh, Air Marshal S.P. 247, 260 Singh, Air Vice Marshal A.K. 215 Singh, Air Vice Marshal Pradeep 245, 249 Singh, Air Vice Marshal S. 215 Singh, Arun 153, 157 Singh, Dr Lokendra 294 Singh, Dr Shashi Bala 294 Singh, General V.K. 35, 36, 102, 246, 252 Singh, I.G. Rajindra, 249 Singh, Lt General A.K. 247, 256 Singh, Lt General Bikram 247, 257 Singh, Lt General Chetinder 246 Singh, Lt General I.J. 247 Singh, Lt General J.P. 165, 166, 246, 254 Singh, Lt General Kuldip 247 Singh, Lt General N.K. 154, 246 Singh, Lt General Rajinder 246

Singh, Lt General Sri Krishna 247, 256 Singh, Lt General Sumer 247 Singh, Manmohan 5, 11, 16, 21, 53, 104, 128, 171, 190, 245, 250, 310, 315, 338, 351, 356, 366, 435 Singh, N.K. 311 Singh, Prakash 311 Singh, R. K. 324 Singh, V.K., 35, 102, 165, 173, 246, 252 Singh, Vice Admiral Anup 247, 258 Singhal, A.K. 246, 267 Singhal, Air Vice Marshal A. 215 single window system 292 Sinha, Vice Admiral Shekhar 154, 246, 253 Sinkiang 44 Sino. See China Sinopec 50 Sittwe 16 Sivakumar P. 293 Skandan, K. 298, 301 Skardu 37, 101 Skolkovo, 11 Skylark 103 SM-3 93, 95, 439 Smerch 29 Smerch MRL 29, 102, 160, 180, 357, 405, 421, 432, 442, 448, 455, 466 Smith, General Rupert 27 Smoke Grenade Discharger 445, 446, 447, 448, 450, 451, 453, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461 smuggling 15, 16, 23, 235, 303, 306, 321, 322, 341. See also piracy Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd 221, 274 Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) 296 So 1 class (Large Patrol Craft) 382, 400 Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research (SITAR) 289 Software Defined Radios (SDRs) 75, 77, 277 Soju class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) 463 soldier modernisation equipment 130 Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL) 296 Solomon Islands 369 Soltam L-33 441, 449 Soltam M-71 441, 449 Somalia 3, 168, 195, 434— sea pirates 60–1, 436–7 Somasundran, V. 245, 248 (variation Soma Sundaran two words) Sonar USHUS 196 Sonars 83–6, 107, 190, 196–201, 203, 204, 206, 277, 289, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478 Soneja, Lt General A.C. 247 Song class patrol submarine 28, 463, 464 Sorabjee, Soli 311 South Africa 183, 217   —equipment and hardware 442, 456, 472 South Asia 13–15, 20, 36–7, 128, 157, 337–64,

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Index 390, 420, 424, 431, 433, 436, 440 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), 14 South China Sea 15–16, 22, 23, 107, 128, 186, 387, 391, 395, 399, 437, 438 South East and East Asia; and India, defence and security cooperation, 15 South East Asia 23–24, 51 South Korea 14, 15, 26, 61, 81, 85, 189, 202, 244, 331, 347, 356, 365, 383–4, 395, 437–8, 439–40   —equipment and hardware 384, 442, 457, 463, 475–6, 483, 484   —China, relations 26, 438   —India, relations 13, 14   —Japan, relations 384   —North Korea, military conflict 1, 366, 373, 381–2, 439–40   —US, relations 376, 383 South Pacific Island 369 South. FOST 189 South-east Asia 22, 24, 51, 99, 128, 194, 195, 272, Southern Air Command 212 South-Western Command 38 Soviet Union, 7, 21 Soviet Union. See Russia Sovremenny Y class 463, 466 SP AA Guns and SAMs 441, 442, 444, 447, 455, 462 SP Guns and Hows 441, 442, 444, 446, 450, 456, 461 Space Pearl Harbour 96 space stations 97 space technology, 11 space tracking and surveillance system (STSS) 94 space-based infrared system satellites (SBIRS) 94–95 space-based intelligence, Japan 94, 99 space-based laser power stations 92 space-based surveillance & reconnaissance 112 space-based systems 27, 35, 94, 95, 99, 176, 193 space-enabled force capability 110 Spain, equipment and hardware 442, 457 Special Action Group (SAG) 61, 304 Special Forces in India 61–2 Special Forces Training School (SFTS) 318 Special Frontier Force (SFF) 61, 62, 318 special operations capabilities 29 Special Operations Group (SOGs) 61 Special Protection Group (SPG) 61 Special Ranger Group (SRG) 61, 304 Special Service Group (SSG) 60, 61, 62 Special Task Forces (STF) 61 specialist technical panels (STP) 286 Splav 442, 455 Spratly Islands 15, 373, 395, 399 Sputnik 1 97 Sputnik 2 97 Spyder SAM systems 46, 112, 216 Sri Lanka 14, 16, 98, 101, 185, 186, 211, 331, 363–4, 393   —China’s perceptions/relations 16, 22, 29, 37   —equipment and hardware 363, 364, 472, 473, 481, 484, 486

  —Indian military operations/ relations 3, 59, 164, 252, 302, 363   —Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 338, 363 Srinivasan, N. 299 Srivastava, R.B. 294 Srivastava, R.K. 298, 301 Srivastava, Raman 303 SS-11 B1 ATGM system 103 SS11B1 284 SSPH-1 Primus 394, 442 ST-68 231 ST-68U/UM 232 standardisation committee 287 Standing Committee on Defence (SCD) 157–8 Starish 85 State Counter Terrorism Centre (SCTC) 317 state police forces 33, 303, 304, 309, 313   —modernisation 311–12  —politicisation 308 stealth technology 111, 130 Sting Ray 442 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 130 Straco 61 strategic and business environment 49–50, 127–34 Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) 155 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) 10, 28 Strategic Defence Review (SDR) 155 Strategic Forces Command (SFC) 56–7, 62, 153, 155, 159, 177 Su-24E 405 Su-24M/Mk 348, 405, 409, 414 Su-27 (J-11) 27, 44, 110, 327, 348, 378, 400, 479, 480 SU-27SK 10 Su-30K 110, 252, 482 Su-30MKA 405 Su-30MKI 38, 46, 110, 212, 479, 482 Su-30MKK 27, 44 Subhash Chandra 245, 248 submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) 24, 197, 375, 464 submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM) 196, 197, 465 Submarine Training School 189 submarines 11, 23, 24, 38, 84, 106, 107, 108, 121, 129, 130, 186, 188–90, 193–5, 196–7, 265, 281–3, 357, 362, 369, 375, 377, 380, 382, 384, 394, 396, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 417, 438, 463–4, 465, 470, 473, 475 Subrahmanyam, K. 36, 156, 158, 160 Subramanian, Air Vice Marshal A. 214 Subramanian, Air Vice Marshal C. V. 215 Subsidiary-Multi-Agency Centre (SMAC) 308 Sudan, Preeti 245, 249 Sufaat, Air Marshal Imam 327 Suharto 377 Suhartono, Admiral Agus 327

Sukanya class 191, 202, 357 Sukarno 22 Sukhoi 10, 38, 44, 46 Sukhoi Su-24 479, 481 Sukumar, Air Vice Marshal S. 215 Sulayman, Michel 328 Suleman, Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar 330 Sumatra 22 Sun Tzu 27 Sundaram, S.S. 295 Sundaresh, S. 246 Sundarji doctrine 40, 41–2 Sundarji, General Krishnaswamy 39–40, 41–2 Sunit Kumar, Lt. General 247 Sunjin AG 384 Super 530 D 229, 358, 362 Super DVORA MK II classes (Fast Attack Craft-Gun) 203, 364, 417, 463, 472 Super Sea Sprite 407 support tankers 209 suppression of enemy defence (SEAD) campaign 89 Suresh Kumar, S. 298, 301 Suresh, Air Vice Marshal B. 214 surface-to-air missile (SAM) system 28–9, 46, 87, 103, 108, 110, 170, 212, 216, 230, 290, 452 surface-to-surface ballistic missiles 170 surface-to-surface cruise missiles 190 surface-to-surface missiles 108, 289 surveillance 23, 62, 76, 82, 89–90, 94, 97–100, 106, 110, 112, 120, 129, 169, 175–6, 212, 232–3, 238, 279, 281, 308, 312–13, 318–19, 322, 377   —capability 103–4, 107   —coastal and offshore 107–8, 193, 236, 323   —electronic 88, 212   —ground-based 27, 88, 170   —maritime 61, 88, 205, 437  —naval 27   —and reconnaissance (SR) 29, 38, 73, 74, 84–5, 87, 90, 92, 170, 186, 225  —space-based 112   —and target acquisition 103, 159, 170 surveillance, reconnaissance, communication/signal intelligence (COMINT/SIGINT) 88, 90 Survey Ships (AGSH) 204 survival and support systems 289 Sushil, Vice Admiral K.N. 247, 258 Suvarnabhumi 22 Swaine, Michael D. 25 Sweden 18, 19, 102, 130, 144, 179, 183, 442, 457, 479, 482, 489   —equipment and hardware 442, 457, 479, 482, 489 Swiftships 407 Switzerland 64   —army equipment and hardware 442, 457 Syed, Hafiz 62 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) 88 synthetic aperture satellite (SAS) 95 Syria 331

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Index   —equipment and hardware   —GDP and military expenditure   —security environment Syrian Air Force Syrian Bekaa

430–1 334, 336 422, 429–30 87 87

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T T-38 Talon 384 T-50 384 T-55 116, 178, 202, 350, 357, 364, 409, 415, 430, 442, 452 T-59/T-69/T-85 tanks (or separately) 29 T-62 MBT 345, 348, 350, 357, 382, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 430, 434, 442, 452 T-64B MBT 442, 452–3 T-72 81, 102, 116, 169, 178, 341, 343, 345, 346, 348, 357, 390, 405, 409, 413, 415, 430, 434, 442, 453 T-72 M1 (Ajeya) 102, 169, 178, 267 T-72S 178 T-80 U 102, 361, 384, 442, 453 T-90 (Bhishma) 11, 116, 169, 286, 287, 405, 409, 448 T-90S 102, 169, 178, 346, 357, 442, 453 Tactical Air Combat Development Establishment (TACDE) 213, 252 tactical ballistic missiles (TBM) 93 Tactical Battle Area (TBA) 305 tactical communications system (TCS) 77, 104, 470 tactical detection and reporting system (TACDAR) 94 Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment (TACDE), Gwalior 213 Taepo Dong-and No Dong ballistic missiles 37 Tafer, General Ahcene 325 Taiwan 1, 15, 28–9, 36, 365, 395   —China, relations 366, 373   —equipment and hardware 396   —India, trade relations 15   —United States, relations 376 Tajikistan 10, 91, 332, 334, 336, 337–8, 340, 343–4, 354, 356   —army equipment and hardware 345 Talabani, Jala 327 Taliban 3, 7, 17–18, 19, 20, 36, 60–61, 128, 337–38, 340–41, 344, 347–49, 356, 360–61, 436. See also Afghanistan, United States Talisman L 85 Talisman M 85 Talwar class 105, 106, 108, 189, 200 Tamilmani, K. 293 Taneja, Rear Admiral B.R. 245, 249 Tanguska 170 TARANG 191, 205, 220, 223 Tarantul class 201, 400, 434, 475 Tarapur Nuclear Plant 65

Tarmugli 189 Taseer, Salmaan 59 Tata Group 102, 132, 169, 218 TATAR 340, 347 technical evaluation process 119, 121–2 technical obsolescence 156 Technical Type Training (TETTRA) Schools 213 technological revolution 80 Technology Demonstrator (TD-1) 90–1, 272 Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap (TPCR) 158 Tehran 412, 432 Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) 360 Tejas 6, 46, 111, 127, 190, 216, 219, 223, 272, 273, 290, 291, 481 Teledyne technologies 231, 407, 461 Telangana 32 Tellis, Ashley J., 25 Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory (TBRL) 296 territorial and boundary dispute terrorism, insurgency and guerrilla warfare 3, 16, 34, 43, 59–61, 73, 101, 123, 128–9, 161, 176, 186, 193, 195, 297, 303, 307, 311, 313, 337, 341, 365, 371, 373, 393 Test Pilots School, Bangalore 213 Tezpur 38 Thailand 14, 22, 23, 26, 64, 185, 194, 255, 334, 336, 356, 366, 369, 371, 385, 389, 390, 393, 397, 399   —equipment and hardware 463, 477–8, 483– 4, 485, 487–8   —India, defence and security coop 16   —Royal Thai Navy 477 Thakur, Lt General D.S. 246 Thales Raytheon 199, 200, 232 theatre ballistic missile defence (TBMD) 93 theatre ballistic missiles 92 theatre event system (TES) 94 theatre high altitude area defence (THAAD) 94 thermal imaging (TI) 103, 169–70, 178 Thermal Imaging Standalone Sights (TISAS) 169 Thomson-CSF 196, 221, 232, 468, 472 Thrust-vectoring nozzles (TVNs) 222 Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) 1, 29, 36, 37, 38, 41, 44, 59, 62, 89, 212, 305, 359, 373, 438. See also China, Dalai Lama Tiger 369, 388, 394, 398, 407, 414, 468, 479, 484 Tillangchang 189 Timsah 407 TIR class 204 TMD systems 93 Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) 63, 64 Tonk, Lt General V.S. 165, 246, 254 Torpedo Defence System, Maareech 292

Torpedo recovery vessel (YPT) 189, 209 TOW-2/2A ATGW 384, 396, 398, 407, 413, 419, 421, 423, 425, 428, 432, 434 Towed A Tk, Guns and Hows 441, 442, 444, 450, 455, 457, 460, 462 Towed AA Guns 441, 442, 445, 456, 457, 462 trainer aircraft 112, 129, 219, 273, 479 transfer of technology (ToT) 116, 133, 134, 158, 194, 197, 203 transnational crimes 14, 16, 371 transport ships 208 Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South East Asia (TAC) 14 Tri Services Strategic Forces Command 62, 177 Trinamool Congress (TMC) 315 Trinkat class 202 Tripathi, R.P. 295 Tripura 305, 308, 311. See also Bangladesh, China, Northeast Tri-Service Disaster Management Response Committee 155 Tri-Service Special Force Command 38 tri-service strategic communication network 76 Tri-Service Strategic Forces Command 62 Trishul (SAM) 103 Trishul 103, 170, 191, 200, 284 Trivedi, Vishwapati 298, 300 Truman, Harry S. 3 TRV 71 189 tsunami 16, 65 Tu-142 Transport Aircraft 189, 207, 357, 479, 488 Tunguska 357, 442, 455 Tupolev Tu-134 382, 479, 484 Tupolev Tu-134 A Crusty 345 Tupolev Tu-134 Crusty 345 Tupolev Tu-142 189, 207, 357, 479, 488 Tupolev Tu-154 382, 479, 484 Tupolev Tu-154 Careless 341 Tupolev Tu-204-300 382 Tupolev Tu-22 409 Turbomeca Artouste IIIB 222, 227, 228, 485 Turkey 272, 376, 418 Turkmenistan 10, 11, 332, 337, 340, 341, 345   —equipment and hardware 346 Turkmenistan-AfghanistanPakistan-India (TAPI) 11 two-front war 35–8, 43, 46, 111, 128–9, 131, 34, 436 Type-02 374 Type-03 374 Type-031 382 Type-039 464 Type-04 374 Type-041 464 Type-05 374, 375 Type-051 375, 464, 467, 468 Type-052 466, 467 Type-053 469, 470, 477 Type-054 468 Type-07 374 Type-091 375 Type-092 464 Type-093 375

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Index Type-094 464 Type-1500 195 Type-170 201 Type-209 475 Type-212 417 Type-25 398 Type-25T 477 Type-375 375 Type-40 197, 390 Type-51 396, 400 Type-52 362 Type-53 196, 198, 199, 352, 374, 382, 390 Type-54 196, 198, 199, 352, 362, 400, 413, 443 Type-55 196, 198, 199, 362, 374 Type-56 (ZPU-4) 359 Type-56 196, 199, 362, 364, 374, 400, 441, 445 Type-59 196, 199, 352, 361, 362, 371, 374, 382, 398, 400, 413, 425, 432, 441, 444 Type-60 400 Type-62 196, 199, 352, 371, 374, 400, 441, 443 Type-63/63A/63C 196, 199, 371, 374, 375, 382, 390, 400, 409, 413, 430, 441, 443 Type-64 396 Type-65 196, 199, 352, 362, 374, 400 Type-66 364, 374, 441, 444 Type-69 352, 361, 390, 398 Type-70 374 Type-71 374 Type-72 362 Type-73 374, 380, 442, 450 Type-74 374, 380, 390, 398, 441, 442, 445, 450 Type-75 374, 380, 442, 450 Type-76 201 Type-77 374, 375, 441, 444 Type-78 374 Type-79 374, 380 Type-80 SP AA 374, 390, 441, 444 Type-80 ZU 374 Type-800 470 Type-81 374, 380 Type-82 374, 380 Type-83 362, 374, 375, 407, 441, 444 Type-85 361, 364, 374, 390, 398, 441, 443, 444 Type-86 375 Type-86A 374 Type-87 374, 380, 442, 450 Type-88 380, 413 Type-88A 374 Type-89 374, 380, 441, 442, 443, 450 Type-90 374, 380, 390, 432, 441, 442, 443, 444, 450 Type-94 201 Type-95 374 Type-96 374, 380 Type-98/98A 374, 441, 442 Type-99/99 A 2 374, 380, 441, 443, 451, 470 Type 212 417, 471 Type-DR77 201 Type-M521 201

Type-MBT 2000 Type-PB 90 Type-SU 60 Type-W87 Type-WZ 501 IFC

442, 451 390 442, 450 374 441, 443

U UH-60 L (VIP) 407 UH-60 369, 380, 384, 411 UH-60/SH-60/S-70 Blackhawk 487 Ukraine 64, 341   —equipment and hardware 484–5 Ulsan class Frigate 352, 384, 463, 476 ultra short baseline (USBL) 83–4 Umm al Qaywayn 431 underwater acoustic positioning system 83 Union of Soviet Socialist Republic. See Russia United Arab Emirates (UAE) 151, 332, 401, 402, 426, 431   —equipment and hardware 432–3   —and United States, Trade and Investment Framework Agreement 431 United Kingdom (UK) 1, 22, 57, 62, 68, 127, 131, 189, 195, 201, 205, 213, 219, 304, 379   —Defence Industrial Strategy 70   —equipment and hardware 442, 458, 463, 479, 482, 484, 486   —Special Air Service (SAS) 61, 304, 360   —Special Forces Support Group 62   —and West Asia and North America 415, 420, 426, 432 United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) 60, 62, 315, 316, 351, 353, 356 United Nations (UN) 1, 2, 6, 64, 69, 79, 83, 167, 302, 401, 406   —Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) 303   —Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 129, 250   —Congo Mission 303   —Convention of the Law of the Sea 83   —Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) 390   —Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) 397   —Environment Programme (2009) 434   —General Assembly Resolution (2001) 96   —Peace keeping missions 168   —Security Council (UNSC) 6, 36, 338, 409, 412, 436 United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 297, 307 United States of America (USA) 1, 13, 15, 16, 23, 28, 36, 59, 68, 75, 93–6, 102, 130, 131   —Afghanistan-Pakistan strategy 1–4, 7, 17–20, 60, 91, 92, 99, 102, 104, 337–8, 340, 342, 347, 348, 432, 433, 436   —withdrawal of forces from Afghanistan 62, 344, 350   —Air Force (USAF) 99,135, 138, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 151, 152, 432, 438   —Army 28, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142,

143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 150, 151 28, 106

  —Carrier Battle Group   —Cambodia, Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) 370   — Central Coomand (CENTCOM) 426   —China relations 16, 49, 438, 439   —Council on Competitiveness 130   —cyber warfare strategy 76   —Department of Defense 27, 68, 135, 141, 142, 145, 148, 150   —defence expenditure 102   —Defense Logistics Agency 136, 137, 141, 145   —and East Asia and Pacific Rim 5, 365–6, 368–70   —equipment and hardware 45, 463, 479, 483, 484–5, 486, 488, 489   —Global war on terror (GWOT) 7, 10, 45, 61, 110   —Goldwater-Nicholas Act 57   —India relations 1, 5–8, 12, 49, 50, 127, 128, 218, 292   —Israel, relations 87   —Marine Corps Systems Command 147, 148   —Middle East Force 410   —role in Middle East 428, 431, 432   —Missile Defense Agency 136, 137, 138, 140, 144, 146, 151   —Navy 43, 84, 85, 86, 136, 137, 138, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 148, 150, 151, 190, 323, 400, 432   —Naval Special Clearance Team (NSCT) 86   —North Korea, relations 381   —Nuclear Regulatory Commission 65   —Pakistan, relations/ defence aid 3, 7–8, 13, 36, 43, 60, 110   —Russia, relations 10, 12   —Space and Missile System Center 95   —Special Force 62   —Special Operations Command 62, 136, 137, 139, 141, 142   —and West Asia and North America, relations 401, 406, 408, 410–11, 412, 413, 415, 416, 418, 420, 424, 426, 428, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434 University Grants Commission (UGC) 250 unmanned aerial systems (UAS) 107 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 29, 38, 44–6, 61, 74, 75, 81–2, 87–92, 103–4, 106–7, 108, 112, 129, 138, 170, 189–90, 193, 228–9, 286, 291, 318, 357–8, 362, 364, 369, 374–5, 382, 384, 388, 392, 394, 396, 398, 407, 413, 417, 462 unmanned combat aerial systems (UCAS) 38 unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) 44, 46, 88, 90–91, 102, 104

523 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m

Index unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) 83–6 USS Kitty Hawk 28 Uzbekistan 332, 337, 338, 340, 341, 342, 344, 346–8

Vision 2100 41 visit, board, search and seizure (VBSS) 107 Volachit, Boun-Gnang 328 Vulture 92

W

V

Wajed, Sheikh Haseena 326 Wangchuk, Penden 354 war games for experimentation 68 war paradigm 73–4 Wardak, General Abdul Rahim 325 Warrior ICV (Tracked) 459 warship building capacity 194 Wassenaar Arrangment 6 weapon locating radars (WLRs) 102, 170 weapon systems, ORSA & infrastructure (WSOI) 157 weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) 161, 383, 396, 408, 411–12, 435 weapons, vehicles and equipment (WV&E) 266 Wen Jiabao 326, 365, 369 West Asia and North Africa 16, 36, 337, 401–34 West Bank 416 West Bengal 32, 169, 299, 304, 306, 308, 310, 315, 316 Western Air Command 212 Westland Sea King MK47 198, 199, 206, 407, 479 Whittaker 80–1 wide area network (WAN) 112 wireless energy transfer or “power beaming”, 92 wireless networks and mobile communication systems 74 Wolfowitz, Paul 95 World Bank 344, 347, 371, 385, 406, 414, 434 World Food Programme 381, 408 World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2010–11 65 World Trade Organisation (WTO) 342, 370, 399, 408, 427   —Agreement on Textiles and Clothing 370 World War II 22, 61, 79, 81, 82, 93, 211, 305, 378, 379, 383 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) 104

XIA class (Strategic missile submarine) 463, 464 Xigatze 44 Xinjiang 22, 36, 346, 373, 374 Xu Caihou, General 326 Xu Qiliang, General 326

Y Yadav, A.K. 299 Yadav, Lt General Rameshwar 247 Yadav, Ram Baran 329 Yakovlev Yak-40 479 Yang Tien-Hsiao 331 Yangon 390 Yantar Shipyard, Kaliningard 105, 106, 189 Yemen, Republic of 168, 332, 336, 401, 402, 433   —equipment and hardware 434 Yom Kippur War 87 Yongbyon 439 YouthSat 11 Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang 326, 376, 377 Yugoslavia 3, 168   —NATO bombing 91 Yuh Shi-kun 15 Yunnan 14 Yurka MSC 400, 407 Yusgiantoro, Purnomo 327

Z Zaben-al, Major General Dari Rajeb Nofal 328 Zadetkyi 390 Zahir Uddin Ahmed, Vice Admiral 326 Zardari, Asif Ali 330, 361 ZDK-03 45 Zhanzakov, Captain Zhandarbek 328 Zhinjiang 1 Zhuk 222, 341, 400, 430 Zillur Rahman 326 ZSU-23-4 (SP) AD Schilka 103, 170, 181, 343, 346, 350, 357, 400, 405, 407, 408, 409, 413, 417, 419, 430, 434, 455 ZSU-23-4 Quad SP AA 442, 455 Zulfiqar 413

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VAB 4x4 (Wheeled) 441, 446 Vahidi, Ahmad 327 Vampire 211 Varadarajan, S. 294 Varthaman, Air Marshal S. 247, 259 Varunastra 108, 284, 292 Varyag 23 Vashist, Air Marshal R.K. 215 Ved Prakash 300 Veer class 201 Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) 296 Vela 258 Venezuela 49 Vengeance Weapon 2 (V-2) 93 Venugopalan, P. 294 Verma, Admiral Nirmal K. 154, 187, 193–5, 246, 252 Verma, Air Marshal N. 215 Verma, Lt General A.M. 246 Verma, Rashmi 245, 249, 267 Verma, Rear Admiral B. K. 247 vertical take off and landing (VTOL), 107 Vessel and Air Traffic Management Systems 323 VHF/UHF communication systems 206, 207, 220, 221, 222, 227, 233, 322 Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) 153, 155 Vickers MBT Mk3 442, 458 Vidyarthi, Major General N.S. 245, 249 Vietnam 14, 23, 36, 332, 366, 370, 371, 385, 386, 399–400, 438—China, relations 15, 16—India relations 15, 16, 26, 36—United States, war 3, 18, 87 Vietnam 399–400 Vijayaraghavan, Dr R 294 Visakhapatnam 22, 23, 24, 189, 190, 196, 202, 203, 204, 283, 284, 322

X

524 SP's Military Yearbook  | 2011-2012  |  40th Issue


S n e c m a

What will protect India in the 21st century?

T h a l e s

PEMA 2M - Crédit photos : K. Tokunaga - Dassault Aviation - Getty images

A v i a t i o n

s ure ed roc y n & P urit t itio ies ec ser ed lic l S In is Po rna ial th nt te ec In reme ia’s In e - Sp cu nd nc Pro n I ere ce s o Ref fen ocu ts’ De • F Even •

D a s s a u l t

2011 2012

Towards a safer India.

40th IssuE 40th IssuE

2011 2012

Price: Inland Rs 4,995; Foreign (Surface Mail): Stg. £ 395.00; US$ 700.00

Editor-in-Chief

In matter of national defence, there can be no substitute for complete trust in the source, no compromise on the reliability and the availability of the aircraft and its technologies. For over half a century, we have proudly been supporting India’s air defence mission. Today, we look forward to keeping the privilege of serving India, for the next 50 years, with the world’s most advanced latest generation aircraft, Rafale. The OMNIROLE fighter

Jayant Baranwal 05/07/11 12.59

SP's Military Yearbook 2011-2012  

SP's Military Yearbook as an authoritative source of information not only in the Indian subcontinent and Asia, but the world over. Four deca...

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