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In This Issue
>> cover story
Page 3 Night Vision Devices Essential for Modern Warfare
The term night vision device usually refers to a complete unit, including an image intensifier tube, a protective and generally water-resistant housing, and some type of mounting system. Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
Are Our Politicians Losing Interest in India’s Defence? ‘After Kargil war, during which I made that famous statement: “We shall fight with whatever we have”, India’s defence budget was raised to 2.41 per cent of its GDP. Since then, there has been a steady downslide, to 1.47 per cent this year, not counting the thousands of crores surrendered by the MoD near annually.’
Page 5 Sighting Systems in Small Arms Research and Development is being undertaken globally to enhance the reach, improve the resolution and reduce the weight of sights in order to provide a better edge to own side. SP’s Correspondent
illustration: Anoop Kamath
Page 6 Trijicon® Inc. Launches the New MRO™— A Brilliant Aiming Solution™ for Red Dot Optics R. Chandrakanth Page 7 Defexpo Explores ‘Make in India’ Possibilities Defexpo had attracted 1,055 companies compared to 624 in the previous edition and the net exhibition area was up from 27,515 square metres to 40,725 square metres, an increase of 48 per cent. R. Chandrakanth Page 10 Army Conducts Exercise Shatrujeet to Validate Strike Capability Exercise Shatrujeet conducted by the Indian Army for the elite Strike l (1 Corps) in the deserts of Rajasthan. Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Plus
Ashok Leyland Strong Presence at Defexpo R. Chandrakanth Allison Transmission, Automatic Choice R. Chandrakanth Interview: Marcio Manique Global Business Director, Life Protection, DSM Dyneema News in Brief
8 8 General v.p. malik (Retd)
he Standing Committee on Defence, headed by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Member of Parliament Major General B.C. Khanduri (Retd), has recently conveyed to the Parliament that the “Growth in the budgetary allocation for defence is not suf-
ficient and woefully inadequate for modernisation.” This assessment cannot be a surprise to anyone, except those who have stopped taking interest in India’s defence requirements. After Kargil war, during which I made that famous statement: “We shall fight with whatever we have”, India’s defence budget was raised to 2.41 per cent of its GDP. Since then, there has been a
steady downslide, to 1.47 per cent this year, not counting the thousands of crores surrendered by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) near annually. So the Defence Secretary G. Mohan Kumar was absolutely right when he admitted before the parliamentary panel that India’s military spending for financial year (FY) 2016-17 is not as per the requirements of the services.
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E D I T O R I A L
>> cover story
The Defence Minister has recently announced the formation of an 11-member committee led by Lt General D.B. Shekatkar (Retd). This includes several other senior military officers as well as civilian experts, who have been given three months to chalk out an action plan. The overall aim is to ensure India’s combat capabilities and potential are enhanced, with a better teeth-to-tail combat ratio, within budgetary constraints. It is reported that the committee will hold its first meeting with Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar
once he returns from his May 2023 trip to Oman and UAE. It is hoped that this would enable a certain amount of reduction in the overall number of personnel which in turn would allow savings of funds and manpower. This would facilitate new raisings such as the Mountain Strike Corps (MSC) whose necessity stands established but whose raising has been delayed. The MSC will impart offensive capability to the ground forces in the Eastern theatre across the line of actual control (LAC) against China which is not only considered vital for an offensive / counter-offensive capability in the East but it will also give the armed forces additional operational flexibility both inter and intra theatre. With the increasing revenue budget, due to increased strengths, and revised salaries and allowances from time to time, the availability of funds for modernisation of the armed forces especially the Army is declining
A question linked to the above-mentioned observation would be, “Are the government and political parties losing interest in India’s defence?” I believe so. Not only the NDA regime but all political parties seem to be losing interest in India’s defence matters when one notices that only 10 out of 24 political parties had given their views in this report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence. As an armed forces veteran, I noticed two firsts in the annual budget presented to the Parliament this year. First, the Finance Minister Arun Jaitley never mentioned the word ‘defence’ in his speech. I cannot recall that happening in the last five decades or more. In the budget 2014-15, there was a cryptic reference to the ‘Make in India’ programme in defence self-reliance. This year, there was not even that. To many people, this lack of mention would have conveyed the impression that India’s security and `3,40,000 crore of India’s defence budget (total defence outlay plus the pensions bill) is of little importance. Second, for the first time, the Finance Minister included ‘defence pensions’ as part of the Defence Ministry Allocation (Item No. 21 in the Summary of Demands for Grant). Till now, military pensions were never a part of defence budget. It was a separate allocation. The Finance Minister included this expenditure as part of the defence budget probably for two reasons: To convey that this particular item has impacted the rest of defence allocation (military pensions are likely to increase from `60,238 crore in FY 2015-16 to `82,332 crore in FY 2016-17). To convey that total defence outlay has been increased substantially. What is the actual defence allocation for this year? What are its implications for
All political parties are losing interest in India’s defence matters as only 10 of the 24 had given their views in the report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence 2
SP’s Land Forces 2/2016
every year. The burgeoning revenue, pension and salary bill is affecting the modernisation of the Services. A case in point is the pension bill which is a staggering `82,332 crore, about `12,000 crore more from the last financial year. The salary and pension and the revenue expenditure put together is more than the money available to buy new weapon systems this year. The Army with the maximum manpower is the worst sufferer and the rising trend in revenue expenditure is only likely to increase in the coming years. No new weapon system has been inducted in the Army in the past three decades or so notwithstanding the introduction of some indigenous missile systems which are only usable in full-scale conventional conflicts. Now the situation has become critical because of the past neglect. Today the Army requires replacement of virtually all types of weapons ranging from the infantry man’s assault rifle and carbines to the artillery and
the armed forces? Let me analyse and state my views. The defence allocation sought in the budget estimate (BE) for the FY 2016-17 is: Revenue—`1,48,498.85 crore, Capital—`78,586.68 crore, Pensions—`82,332.66 crore, Miscellaneous (other than armed forces)—`68,537.63 crore. On the basis of BE of last year, there is an increase of mere 1.16 per cent. This allocation does not even cover India’s inflation rate and will be insufficient to fulfil military’s basic needs, let alone its modernisation. In the FY 2015-16, MoD was unable to spend `18,295 crore out of its allocated budget. This included `11,595 crore from the Capital expenditure, or 13.4 per cent of the funds earmarked to purchase new military equipment. The rest unspent amount was from Revenue expenditure, mostly maintenance requirements of the military. For the unspent money, which leads to reduction in the Revised Estimates (RE) year after year, we can blame the Ministry of Defence for its cumbersome procedures, and also its Finance Adviser who takes his cues on curtailing defence expenditure from the Ministry of Finance. Usually, he is seen to be more loyal to his parent ministry than the one in which he is located. For the FY 2016-17, the Capital expenditure outlay for the armed forces is `78,586.68 crore. Last year, at the BE stage, it was `85,894.44 crore. This clearly implies lesser money for modernisation this year. Of the allocated amount, more than 80 per cent funds are expected to be paid for deals which have already been signed. Lack of funds will force the Defence Ministry to cancel several projects, and even withdraw some already floated tenders. The delays in the replacement of the army’s obsolescent weapons and equipment, making up of deficiencies in fighter squadron strength of the air force and the submarine fleet of the navy to meet future threats and challenges is indeed worrisome. Several big-ticket purchases being worked out for modernisation of the army, navy and air force are likely to suffer. This would also affect our defence industrial sector which is looking for expansion and more supply orders as part of India’s ‘Make in India’ programme. Everyone knows that India’s defence modernisation had suffered heavily during the UPA regimes which ordered probes into every charge of corruption and blacklisted
air defence guns and missiles and Army aviation helicopters. We are at the ‘bottom of the pit’ as far as the equipment profile of the Army is concerned. While the Indian Navy is vital for the protection of our sea lines of communications and protection of our offshore and coastal assets and indeed for a host of other equally vital reasons, and the IAF for air defence of India and for providing the necessary deterrence to belligerent neighbours, it is the ground forces which have to invariably bear the brunt of any aggression small or big of our opponents across our land borders and even in the proxy war waged in our border regions. With disputed borders on both flanks, i.e. the line of control (LoC) with Pakistan in the West and LAC with China in the North and Northeast, the ground forces have to be ever vigilant and unfortunately it is the Army that is the most neglected service today as far as modernisation is concerned.
Given India’s increasing vulnerabilities and international demands to act as a net provider of security as a rising regional power, the defence allocation and expenditure needs to be supplemented to create the capabilities which the armed forces will need in future suspect defence vendors. The blacklisting went to such an extent that at one stage almost every defence industry company in the world stood banned. In fact, the NDA came to power accusing the UPA for its overcautious Defence Minister A.K. Antony neglecting the military, and promised to make India stronger. The maintenance (Revenue) expenditure is no less a worry. The allocation this year`1,48,498.85 crore which is an increase from last year’s BE `1,37,153.03 crore. The fact is that this expenditure has been bloating year after year and thus skewing maintenance versus modernisation ratio in defence allocation. Ideally, it should be about 50:50 for the air force and navy, and about 65:35 for the manpower-intensive army. In the past, whenever Revenue expenditure overshot the budgeted allocation, there was a tendency to dip into the Capital expenditure. This year, with extra Revenue expenditure required on account of 7th Pay Commission recommendations, and postPathankot attack extra security measures for large defence installations, I doubt if we can come anywhere close to these ratios next year. I have four additional comments to make. As a ratio of projected GDP for the FY 2016-17, India’s defence expenditure will be around 1.47 per cent. In comparison, China spends more than 2.5 per cent, and Pakistan around 3.5 per cent of their
This year the defence budget is only 1.47 per cent of the GDP an ever decreasing percentage despite the ‘hollowness’ in the three Services. We would not be exaggerating if we state that the status of the armed forces equipment profile today is worse than it was in 1962 vis-à-vis our likely adversaries. In view of the above the lead article in our current issue of SP’s Land Forces is authored by a former Chief of Army Staff, General V.P. Malik and the subject is “Are Our Politicians Losing Interest in India’s Defence?” Additionally we have also included the following articles in this issue: Night Vision Devices and Sighting Systems in Small Arms.
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
respective GDP. India’s per capita expenditure on defence is less than $10, while the average expenditure of the top ten spenders in Asia is approximately $800. Given India’s increasing vulnerabilities and international demands to act as a net provider of security as a rising regional power, the defence allocation and expenditure needs to be supplemented to create the capabilities which the armed forces will need in future. The inability to spend allocated capital modernisation budget must be rectified urgently. We should reconsider ‘non-lapsable, roll-on allocation’ for defence capital budget. This was instituted by the last NDA Government under Atal Bihari Vajpayee. While seeking additional resources from the government, it is also the responsibility of the Ministry of Defence and the armed forces to control the ever bloating Revenue expenditure. This requires stricter check over manpower expansion, with greater use of technology where necessary. With greater integration of services, we can cut down duplication (sometime triplication) of our non-combat resources. In order to meet Standing Committee’s observation on greater efficiency of spending, we should also institute a ‘technical audit’ every five years to check if the allocated Capital resources have been utilised optimally for the desired capabilities. In his speech to the Combined Commanders in December 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, “In a world of rapid changes, India faces familiar threats and new ones. Our challenges cover land, sea and air at the same time. It includes the full range, from terrorism to conventional threat to a nuclear environment. Our responsibilities are no longer confined to our borders and coastlines. They extend to our interests and citizens, spread across a world of widespread and unpredictable risks.” Surely, that could not be mere rhetoric. There is a feeling amongst large number of armed forces personnel that the government, particularly the Finance Minister, was upset with some armed forces veterans’ continuing agitation over ‘One Rank One Pension’ issue despite the government conceding most of their demands. My appeal to the government is that whether that is true or not, it must not come in the way of the armed forces modernisation. SP —The writer is former Chief of the Army Staff
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>> night vision
Night Vision Devices Essential for Modern Warfare The term night vision device (NVD) usually refers to a complete unit, including an image intensifier tube, a protective and generally water-resistant housing, and some type of mounting system photograph: US Army
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
ight vision implies the ability to see at night. It is a vital ingredient of battlefield transparency. The side that possesses this capability will have a distinct advantage over their opponents if the latter are not similarly equipped. Hence this capability is considered an essential ingredient of modern warfare and developments in science and technology have made it possible to develop such devices which enable humans to see in the dark as well as under inclement weather conditions such as fog, rain, and snow, and even through smoke and dust. The side that can see better by night will have greater advantage on a battlefield and other issues being equal it may turn out to be a war-winning factor. In urban environment of counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations its vital importance for security forces involved cannot be downplayed.
US Army soldiers agents as seen through a night vision device during an operation in Afghanistan
The term night vision device (NVD) usually refers to a complete unit, including an image intensifier tube, a protective and generally water-resistant housing, and some type of mounting system. Many NVDs also include sacrificial lenses, IR illuminators and telescopic lenses. Research and development (R&D) is being undertaken globally to enhance the reach, improve the resolution and reduce the weight of night vision devices in order to provide a better edge to own side. The Indian Army too has hand-held NVDs on its inventory in various categories and quantities albeit equipping both in terms of quantity and quality on its weapon systems is still not satisfactory. For example, its assault rifles are not fitted with night scopes. The concept and philosophy for night vision accessories too needs refining if we are to learn from the past mistakes. For example, when the HHTIs were first imported from Israel and France only one charger per four HHTIs were procured. This created major
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>> night vision problems with widely dispersed deployments in J&K and forced the infantry to improvise chargers, which may have caused inadvertent damage to the equipment. Another example was of artillery which went in for numerous laser target designators but only one charger that was kept centrally at the School of Artillery and every time charging was needed, individual designators had to be flown in and out. And there is no gainsaying that our Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and public sector undertakings (PSUs) are way behind in the field of NVDs compared to their foreign counterparts. Our night vision products are bulkier and with lesser resolution.
The extensive use of night vision goggles in the military and law enforcement segments is a major factor that will result in the steady growth of this market segment during the next four years
Types of NVD
Disadvantages l Since they are based on amplification methods, some light is required. This method is not useful when there is essentially no light. l Inferior daytime performance when compared to thermal imagers. l Possibility of blooming and damage when observing bright sources under low-light conditions.
Night vision devices used for military purposes are of two types – Image Intensifiers and Thermal Imagers. Both have their advantages and disadvantages and advent of new technologies is resulting in more sophistication and better products. Some basic characteristics of both types of NVDs are given in succeeding paragraphs. Image Intensifiers: Night Vision Goggles and Night Scopes Today, the most popular and well-known method of performing night vision is based on the use of image intensifiers. Image intensifiers are commonly used in night vision goggles and night scopes. More recently, on-chip gain multiplication CCD cameras have become popularised for performing low-light security, surveillance and astronomical observation. The working of the night vision device (image intensifiers) involves the amplification of the available light to achieve better vision. Image Intensifiers are more common as their light amplification technology uses the small amount of ambient light like moon / stars light and converts this light energy (photons) into electrical energy (electrons). An objective lens focuses available light (photons) on the photocathode of an image intensifier. The light energy causes electrons to be released from the cathode which are accelerated by an electric field to increase their speed (energy level). These electrons enter holes in a microchannel plate and bounce off the internal specially-coated walls which generate more electrons as the electrons bounce through. This creates a denser ‘cloud’ of electrons representing an intensified version of the original image. The final stage of the image intensifier involves electrons hitting a phosphor screen. The energy of the electrons makes the phosphor glow. The visual light shows the desired view to the user or to an attached photographic camera or video device. A green phosphor is used in these applications because the human eye can differentiate more shades of green than any other colour, allowing for greater differentiation of objects in the picture. All image intensifiers operate in the above fashion. Technological differences over the past four to five decades have resulted in substantial improvement to the performance of these devices. The different paradigms of technology have been commonly identified by distinct generations of image intensifiers. Intensified camera systems usually incorporate an image intensifier to create a brighter image of the low-light scene which is then viewed by a traditional camera. The advantages and disadvantages of Image Intensifier devices are listed below. Advantages l Excellent low-light level sensitivity. l Enhanced visible imaging yields the best possible recognition and identification performance. l High resolution. l Low power and cost. l Ability to identify people.
SP’s Land Forces 2/2016
Thermal Imaging Thermal imaging is a method of improving visibility of objects in a dark environment by detecting the objects’ infrared radiation and creating an image based on that information. Thermal imaging, nearinfrared illumination, low-light imaging are the three most commonly used night vision technologies. Unlike the other two methods, thermal imaging works in environments without any ambient light. Like near-infrared illumination, thermal imaging can penetrate obscurants such as smoke, fog and haze. The next question is how does thermal imaging work? An easy way to understand is that all objects emit infrared energy (heat) as a function of their temperature. The infrared energy emitted by an object is known as its heat signature. In general, the hotter an object is, the more radiation it emits. A thermal imager (also known as a thermal camera) is essentially a heat sensor that is capable of detecting tiny differences in temperature. The device collects the infrared radiation from objects in the scene and creates an electronic image based on information about the temperature differences. Because objects are rarely precisely the same temperature as other objects around them, a thermal camera can detect them and they will appear as distinct in a thermal image. Thermal images are normally grayscale in nature: black objects are cold, white objects are hot and the depth of gray indicates variations between the two. Some thermal cameras, however, add colour to images to help users identify objects at different temperatures. Uncooled and Cryogenically Cooled Devices Thermal imaging devices are generally ‘Uncooled’ or ‘Cryogenically Cooled’. The uncooled ones are more common wherein the IR detector elements are contained in a unit that operates at room temperature. These devices are noiseless, activate immediately and have in-built batteries. Cryogenically cooled devices have the elements sealed inside a container that cools them to below 0 degree Celsius. The advantage of such a system is the incredible resolution and sensitivity that result from cooling the elements. Though more expensive and more susceptible to damage from rugged use, these systems enable a soldier to see whether a person is holding a gun more than 300 metres away. Unlike traditional most night-vision equipment which uses image enhancement technology, thermal imaging is great for detecting people or working in near-absolute darkness with little or no ambient light.
Uses of Thermal Imaging l First developed for military purposes, thermal imaging has since been adopted by law enforcement, fire and rescue teams and security professionals. For law enforcement and security staff, thermal imaging detects suspicious activity over long distances in total darkness and through fog, smoke, dust, foliage, and many other obscurants. This allows officers to approach in stealth mode and make better informed decisions more quickly. Cameras may be hand-held, vehicle-mounted, tripod-mounted, or weapon-mounted. l For security and surveillance systems, thermal imaging cameras complement CCTV cameras to provide comprehensive threat detection and integrate seamlessly with larger networks. l For predictive maintenance, thermal imaging reveals ‘hot spots’ where failure may be imminent in many electrical and industrial facilities and installations.
Night Vision Devices — Generations of Image Intensifiers A night vision device can be either a first, second, third or fourth-generation unit. What this stands for is what type of image intensifier tube is used for that particular device; the image intensifier tube is the heart and soul of an NVD. First-generation is currently the most popular type of night vision in the world. Utilising the basic principles described earlier, a first-generation unit will amplify the existing light several thousand times letting you clearly see in the dark. These units provide a bright and sharp image at a low cost, which is perfect, whether you are boating, observing wildlife, or providing security for your home. You may notice the following when you are looking through a first-generation unit. l A slight high-pitched whine when the unit is on. l The image you see may be slightly blurry around the edges. This is known as geometric distortion. l When you turn a first-generation unit off it may glow green for some time. l These are inherent characteristics of a first-generation unit which are normal. Second-generation is primarily used by law enforcement or for professional applications. This is because the cost of a secondgeneration unit is approximately $500 to $1,000 more than a first-generation unit. The main difference between a first- and a second-generation unit is the addition of a micro-channel plate, commonly referred to as a MCP. The MCP works as an electron amplifier and is placed directly behind the photocathode. The MCP consists of millions of short parallel glass tubes. When the electrons pass through these short tubes, thousands more electrons are released. This extra process allows second-generation units to amplify the light many more times than first-generation giving you a brighter and sharper image. There are various categories of upgrades in second-generation tubes. Each is an upgrade on the former with slightly better resolution, better signal to noise ratio and a longer tube life. Third-generation. By adding a sensitive chemical, gallium arsenide to the photocathode, a brighter and sharper image has been achieved over second-generation units. An ion barrier film was also added to increase tube life. Third-generation provides the user with good to excellent low light performance. Similarly third-generation devices have a number of upgrades with better features. Fourth-generation. Gated/filmless technology represents the biggest technological breakthrough in image intensification of the past 10 years. By removing the ion barrier film and ‘Gating’ the fourth-generation system demonstrates substantial increases in target detection range and res-
olution, particularly at extremely low light levels. This generation of devices also has a number of upgrades improving the performance slightly with each upgrade. The use of film less technology and auto-gated power supply in fourth-generation image intensifiers result in: l Up to 100 per cent improvement in photo response. l Superb performance in extremely low light level (better S/N and EBI). l At least triple high light level resolution (a minimum of 36 lp/mm compared to 12 lp/mm).
Choice of NVDs While choosing NVDs, three important performance parameters that need to be born in mind: l Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) l Resolution and modular transfer function (MTF) l Lifetime of the tube. Signal-to-noise ratio is by far the most important parameter for an Image Intensifier. It is a measure of the light signal reaching the eye divided by the perceived noise as seen by the eye. The value of the SNR determines the resolution at very low light-levels. Therefore, the higher the SNR the better the ability to resolve image details under low light-level conditions. The SNR is related to the specific design of the tubes. MTF is the maximum line density on a target that can be resolved by a human eye and is expressed in line pairs per mm (lp/ mm). A more objective performance indicator is given by the modulation transfer function. High MTF values at low spatial frequencies provide sharp images with a good contrast. Lifetime of an Image Intensifier is an extremely important parameter for night vision applications. A number of different definitions are used depending on the manufacturer. All Image Intensifier tubes provide a green illuminated picture and no night vision tube is similar to another. All tubes have different cosmetics in terms of small spots or specs, photocathode colouring, or a chicken wire effect from the micro channel plate. Most cosmetics are only noticed during viewing in high light situations such as viewing with the daylight filter on in a lit room. Most commercial and military systems are thoroughly tested by manufacturers to ensure reliability.
Market Trends According to the analysts upcoming market trend that will positively affect the growth prospects of the night vision devices market is the augmented utilisation of graphene. Graphene is an ultra-thin, ultra-light, ultrastrong, and ultra-flexible material that can be used in any product. The new graphenebased thermal sensor is just one atom thick, and it uses a cryogenic cooling system to identify heat patterns from a long distance. The incorporation of graphene not only helps to reduce the weight of night vision devices but also helps to lower the price of the device. Product-based segmentation of the night vision devices market is as under: l Night vision goggles l Night vision cameras l Night vision scopes The market research analysts have estimated the night vision goggles product segment to account for approximately 47 per cent of the total market share by 2020. The extensive use of night vision goggles in the military and law enforcement segments is a major factor that will result in the steady growth of this market segment during the next four years. Extensive market research carried out by the analysts has shown that the military market segment will post an impressive market value of nearly $4 billion by 2020. SP
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>> Small arms
Sighting Systems in Small Arms Research and development is being undertaken globally to enhance the reach, improve the resolution and reduce the weight of sights in order to provide a better edge to own side photograph: US Army
Holographic Weapon Sights (HWS)
sight is a device used to assist aligning or aim weapons, surveying instruments, or other items by eye. Sights can be a simple set or system of markers that have to be aligned together as well as aligned with the target (referred to as an iron sights on firearms). They can also be optical devices that allow the user to see the image of an aligned aiming point in the same focus as the target. These include telescopic sights and reflector (or ‘reflex’) sights. There are also sights that project an aiming point onto the target itself, such as laser sights. At its simplest, a sight is typically composed of two components, front and rear aiming pieces that have to be lined up. Such sights can be found on many types of devices including weapons, surveying and measuring instruments, and navigational tools. On weapons, these sights are usually formed by rugged metal parts, giving these sights the name ‘iron sights’, a term relative to other weapon sights in that they are not optical or computing sights. On many types of weapons they are built-in and may be fixed, adjustable, or marked for elevation, windage, target speed, etc. They also are classified in forms of notch (open sight) or aperture (closed sight). These types of sights can take considerable experience and skill in the user who has to hold a proper eye position and simultaneously focus on the rear sight, the front sight, a target at different distances, and align all three planes of focus.
Telescopic Sight A telescopic sight, commonly called a scope, is a sighting device that is based on an optical refracting telescope. They are equipped with some form of graphic image pattern (a reticle) mounted in an optically appropriate position in their optical system to give an accurate aiming point. Telescopic sights are used with all types of systems that require accurate aiming but are most commonly found on firearms, particularly rifles. Other types of sights are iron sights, reflector (reflex) sights, and laser sights. The optical components may be combined with optoelectronics to form a night scope.
Reflex Sight Another type of optical sight is the reflector (or ‘reflex’) sight, a generally non-magnifying optical device that allows the user to look through a glass element and see a reflection of an illuminated aiming point or some other image superimposed on the field of view. These sights have been around for over 100 years and been used on all types of weapons and devices.
Collimator Sight A collimator sight is a type of optical sight that allows the user looking into it to see an illuminated aiming point aligned with the device the sight is attached to regardless of eye position (with little parallax). Collimator sights are ‘blind’ sights; that is, they are used with both eyes open while one looks into the sight, with one eye open and moving the head to alternately see the sight and then at the target, or using one eye to partially see the sight and target at the same time. Collimator sights are a relatively old idea, being
A US Army soldier checks through his rifle scope for any suspicious activity at an observation point in Iraq
used in many forms for almost 100 years. They are also referred to as collimating sights or ‘occluded eye gun sight’ (OEG).
equipped with a secondary ‘finder scope’ such as a red dot sight.
Holographic weapon sights use a laser transmission hologram of a reticle image that is recorded in three-dimensional space onto holographic film at the time of manufacture. This image is part of the optical viewing window. The recorded hologram is illuminated by the collimated light of a laser diode built into the sight. The sight can be adjusted for range and windage by simply tilting or pivoting the holographic grating. To compensate for any change in the laser wavelength due to temperature, the sight employs a holography grating that disperses the laser light by an equal amount but in the opposite direction as the hologram forming the aiming reticle. Like the reflector sight, the holographic sight is not ‘parallax free’, having an aim-point that can move with eye position. This can be compensated for by having a holographic image that is set at a finite distance with parallax due to eye movement being size of the optical window at close range and diminishing to zero at the set distance (usually around a desired target range of 100 metres). Since the reticle is a transmission hologram, illuminated by a laser shining Continued on page 6...
Laser Sight The laser has in most firearms applications been used as a tool to enhance the targeting of other weapon systems. For example, a laser sight is a small, usually visible-light laser placed on a handgun or a rifle and aligned to emit a beam parallel to the barrel. Since a laser beam has low divergence, the laser light appears as a small spot even at long distances; the user places the spot on the desired target and the barrel of the gun is aligned (but not necessarily allowing for bullet drop, windage, distance between the direction of the beam and the axis of the barrel, and the target mobility while the bullet travels). Most laser sights use a red laser diode. Others use an infrared diode to produce a dot invisible to the naked human eye but detectable with night vision devices. The firearms adaptive target acquisition module LLM01 laser light module combines visible and infrared laser diodes. In the late 1990s, green diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser sights (532 nm) became available. Modern laser sights are small and light enough for attachment to the firearms.
Red Dot Sight A red dot sight is a common classification for a type of non-magnifying reflector sight for firearms, and other devices that require aiming, that gives the user an aim point in the form of an illuminated red dot. A standard design uses a red light-emitting diode (LED) at the focus of collimating optics which generates a dot style illuminated reticle that stays in alignment with the weapon the sight is attached to regardless of eye position (nearly parallax free). They are considered to be fast acquisition and easy to use gun sights for target shooting, hunting, and in police and military applications. Aside from firearm applications, they are also used on cameras and telescopes. On cameras they are used to photograph flying aircraft, birds in flight, and other distant, quickly moving objects. Telescopes have a narrow field of view and therefore are often
2/2016 SP’s Land Forces
>> Small arms
Trijicon® Inc. Launches the New MRO™— A Brilliant Aiming Solution™ For Red-Dot Optics sp’s Correspondent
rijicon® takes the science of the red dot sight to the next level with the Trijicon Miniature Rifle Optic or MRO™, a red-dot sight tough enough for combat, the mean streets of law enforcement, competition shooting or hunting in the harshest of environments. Light and rugged, the Trijicon MRO mounts easily, zeros quickly and adapts to almost any shooting scenario. With its large objective lens and shortened optical length, the MRO virtually eliminates the ‘tunnel vision’ or tube-effect common to so many red dot sights. The 2 MOA dot is bright and crisp, and is perfectly sized for fast target acquisition at CQB distance out to extended ranges. The MRO features eight brightness settings, including two that are night vision compatible, plus one extremely bright setting for use with lights or in very bright outdoor conditions. And, it gets an amazing five years of continuous use on a single 2032 battery! Half-minute adjustments with 70 MOA total travel allow for zeroing in most any configuration on a
variety of platforms. What’s more, no special tools are required—windage and elevation adjustments can be made even with the rim of a 5.56mm casing. The brightness control atop is ambidextrous, so your shooting hand need not leave the fire control area. The MRO is parallax free, with infinite eye relief for quick and accurate engagement no matter your position. Trijicon engineers built—and tested—the MRO to operate in temperatures ranging from -60° F to +160° F. Waterproof to 100 feet, chemical and corrosion resistant, and housed in 7075-T6 Aluminium, the MRO can withstand the rigours of combat, sub-zero mornings on an ice-encrusted hunting stand or bouncing between stages during a competitive shooting event. The MRO. A compact and rugged aiming solution, perfect for realworld operators who need to get the job done—fast and accurately. MSRP: $579 without mount; $629 with mount. For more information on the Trijicon MRO and the complete array of Brilliant Aiming Solutions™ for the military and law enforcement markets, contact Trijicon, Inc. at (248) 960-7700 or visit: www.trijicon.com SP
Model SpecificationS Magnification Objective Lens Clear Aperture
1x 25mm 0.805 in.
Eye Relief Adjustments Adjustment Range Dimensions (L x W x H) Weight
Infinite 1 click = 1/2 MOA 70 MOA Total Travel 2.6 x 1.7 x 2.0 in. (w/o mount)
Illumination Source Battery Life Brightness Settings
LED Powered by CR2032 battery 5 years of continuous use*, at day-setting 3 8 Total Settings NV1, NV2, Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, Day 4, Day 5, Day 6 (Super-Bright)
66 x 43 x 51mm
2.0 MOA Dot
4.1 OZ. (W/ Supplied lithium battery and w/o mount) 116g
*When used at 70°F (21°C) Extreme temperatures (high or low) will affect lithium battery performance
Ambidextrous Brightness Control
/2 MOA Sub-Flush Adjusters 1
180° of travel
Forged 7075 Aluminum Housing 70 MOA Total Adjustment Large Objective Lens
Parallax-Free / Waterproof to 30 Metres
Sighting Systems in Small Arms... continued from page 5 through hologram presenting a reconstructed image, there is no need for the sight ‘window’ to be partially blocked by a semi-silvered or dielectric dichroic coating needed to reflect an image in standard reflex sights. The optical window in a holographic weapon sight looks like a piece of clear glass with an illuminated reticle in the middle. The aiming reticle can be an infinitely small dot whose perceived size is given by the acuity of the eye. For someone with 20/20 vision, it is about one minute of arc. One drawback of a holographic sight is shorter battery life when compared to reflex sights that use LEDs, such as red dot sights. However, the holographic weapon sight is optically, electronically, and otherwise superior to red dot sights. The two types of sight differ in optical performance and construction.
Diopter Sights The diopter is an aperture sight component used to assist the aiming of devices, mainly firearms, airguns and crossbows. It is found in particular as a rear sight element on rifles. The diopter is in principle a height and sideways (elevation and windage) adjustable occluder with a small hole (aperture), and is placed close in front of the shooter’s aiming eye. Through this small hole the shooter can view the front sight component(s) and the intended target. The typical occluder used in target shooting diopters is a disc of about 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter with a small hole in the middle. The small diopter viewing opening ensures the shooter’s eye is very precisely and consistently centred behind the diopter sight. The diopter sight is easy to use and usually allows for very accurate aiming, because a relative long sighting line can be used.
SP’s Land Forces 2/2016
Modern Assault Rifles Most modern assault rifles in use have optical sights such as the red dot sights and diopter sights. Most of them can be fitted with a detachable scope mounts and night vision devices. Some examples are given below. The Tavor TAR-21 assault rifle was developed by Israel Military Industries (IMI) back in the early 1990s. This weapon is simple, tough and versatile. It was adopted by Israel in 2006 and became a standard issue infantry rifle. This assault rifle has been exported to more than 20 countries. This weapon has a standard Picatinny-type rail and is compatible with various scopes or night vision systems. It comes with red-dot sight as standard. The Steyr AUG (universal army rifle) was designed in Austria. It has been adopted by Austrian Army back in 1977. When it first appeared it was considered to be revolutionary in many respects. Immediately after its introduction the AUG became popular. The original model has integral 1.5x magnification sight. It is designed for up to 300 m range. Also there are back-up iron sights for emergency use. Newer models lack integral sights, but have Picatinny-type rail and can be fitted with any sights. The G36 assault rifle has been designed by Heckler & Koch to replace the G3 assault rifle in service with the Bundeswehr. Since 1995 the G36 is a standard issue infantry rifle with the German armed forces. This weapon became an export success. It has been exported to more than 40 countries around the world. Sights are built into the carrying handle. A standard German Army rifle has a dual sight system. It consists of one 3.5x magnification scope, for long-range accurate
shooting and one 1x magnification red dot sight above it, for close ranges. The AK-74M with the Russian Army can be fitted with collimator and optical sights to ensure fast and precise targeting with improved combat efficiency. The standard optical sight is the 1P29 universal sight with 4x magnification. It has a field of vision of 80. SIG SG 550 is the assault rifle with the Swiss Army. Sighting equipment consists of a flip-up front sight and adjustable rear diopter. It has a sighting range of 400 m. Every rifle can be fitted with a detachable scope mount. Swiss Army rifles are often used with 4x magnification scope. Current production models are available with a Picatinny-type rail and can mount various scopes, red dot or night vision sights. India’s Excalibur rifle fires a standard NATO 5.56x45mm ammunition. It features high ruggedness for battlefield engagements and is lighter to handle. It is well suited for low intensity conflicts and close quarter combat situations. The rifle is also ergonomically designed with folding butt and Picatinny rails for mounting optical/electronic devices.
Companies Dealing with Sighting Systems Aimpoint AB is a supplier of electro-optical sighting systems including passive red dot collimator sight, laser device, fire control systems and mounts. The company strengthened its position as market leader when it was awarded the first multi-year contract ever for red dot sights by the US Army in 1997. Since then, Aimpoint has continued to deliver large quantities of sights to the US Army, French Army, US Air Force, US
SOCOM, Swedish Army, Norwegian Army, Dutch Army, Danish Army and Italian Army. Optex Systems. US-based optical sighting systems manufacturer Optex Systems has secured a contract to supply new periscopes for the US Army. Under the terms of the $8,41,000 deal, the company will supply an undisclosed number of periscopes to be installed aboard the army’s Abrams tanks. The periscopes will feature glass and plastic laser protection for soldiers’ eyes. Photonic. is a globally active contractor for optical and opto-electronic instruments since 1986, whose optical products enjoy an excellent reputation in the field of infantry and artillery weapon systems. The well-known manufacturer of reliable and highly efficient optical instruments has developed a unique sighting system to lay muzzle-loaded indirect fire weapons such as 60mm mortars. Thales Optics. The Sight Unit Small Arms, Trilux (or SUSAT) is a 4x with telescopic sight with tritium-powered illumination, utilised at dusk or dawn. The full name of the current model is the SUSAT L9A1. The SUSAT sight was developed in the United Kingdom by Royal Armaments Research Development Establishment (RARDE) and is manufactured by United Scientific Instruments and Avimo, now known as Thales Optics. Trijicon has led the industry in the development of superior any-light aiming systems since the company’s founding in 1981. World-renowned for its innovative applications of tritium and advanced fibre optics, Trijicon manufactures the most advanced riflescopes and sights for tactical and sporting applications. SP
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> show report
Defexpo Explores ‘Make in India’ Possibilities Defexpo had attracted 1,055 companies compared to 624 in the previous edition and the net exhibition area was up from 27,515 square metres to 40,725 square metres, an increase of 48 per cent photographS: SP Guide Pubns, DPR Defence
Bharat Forge, AM General tie up
Kalyani Group’s flagship company, Bharat Forge Limited, and US-based AM General LLC, announced to bid for India’s light specialist vehicle (LSV) programme using AM General’s battle-tested HMMWV as the LSV’s base platform — with final build and production to take place in India. “The teaming between world renowned light tactical vehicle provider AM General and Bharat Forge known for manufacturing excellence will lead to providing cost-effective and best-in-class mobility solutions for Indian armed forces,” said Baba N. Kalyani, Chairman and Managing Director of Bharat Forge. “AM General is pleased to be teamed with the Kalyani Group’s Bharat Forge to bring our proven light tactical vehicle solutions to India for military and paramilitary requirements,” said AM General President and CEO Andy Hove. “Bharat Forge has proven to be a world-class manufacturer, and we look forward to working together with them to deliver combat-proven mobility solutions to customers in India.”
uitol in Goa may be back of beyond. But from March 27 to 31, 2016, it beckoned those in defence and aerospace to the ninth edition of Defexpo 2016, the most definite land, naval and homeland security exhibition. The place was transformed from scratch into an exhibition area, though with hiccups, and it signalled to the world that there is so much space for development in India and it can happen anywhere, not just in big cities. Defexpo 2016 attracted a record number of participants reflecting industry sentiments to India’s march towards indigenisation, development and an economic powerhouse. This edition attracted 1,055 exhibitors, up from 624 in the last edition held at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. Inaugurating Defexpo 2016, the Minister of Defence Manohar Parrikar said: “The huge number of exhibitors is encouraging. Maybe Goa has something to do with it or may be ‘Make in India’ initiative has something to do with it.” He gave a hint that the successive editions may be held in Goa and asked the Chief Minister of Goa to look into aspects such as road widening.
Rockwell Collins campaign Rockwell Collins demonstrated its strong value proposition for customers in India with commercially-based, customisable, technologically-advanced products and systems. “We are fully aligned with the government’s ‘Make in India’ campaign by developing capability locally while simultaneously aligning with local strategic partners,” said Sunil Raina, Managing Director, India, for Rockwell Collins.
Domestic and export markets Parrikar announced that the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) had been tweaked and the latest updates had been put up on the Ministry of Defence’s website. “This will boost the agenda of ‘Make in India.’ It will create a defence industry network not just for domestic consumption but also exports. similarly, there were issues related to offsets which would be tackled in a few months, all to create a conducive defence industrial base.”
BEL ties up with Rosoboronexport The Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) and Rosoboronexport (part of Rostec State Corporation) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) under which the two will cooperate for the joint development of various subsystems of major defence projects under the offset clause of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP). The industrial tie-up will cater to the requirements of all the three arms of the Indian defence forces as well as the civilian sector.
Growing from strength to strength The Secretary of Defence Production, Ashok Kumar Gupta, mentioned that this edition had attracted 1,055 companies compared to 624 in the previous edition and the net exhibition area was up from 27,515 square metres to 40,725 square metres, an increase of 48 per cent. The gross area of exhibition has increased over threefolds to 1,50,000 square metres against 45,000 square metres in 2014. The exhibition showcased India’s capabilities in land, naval and security systems as well as its emergence as an attractive destination for investment in defence sector. The event provided a platform for forging alliances and joint ventures in the defence industry. About 47 countries from different continents took part in the exhibition against 30 countries which participated in the last edition. The countries were Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland,
M777 howitzer takes centre stage
(Top) Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar at the Defexpo 2016; (middle) Main Battle Tank Arjun Mk II and (above) Armoured Fighting Vehicle (Wheeled) demo at the Defexpo 2016.
Taiwan, Turkey, UK, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates and the United States of America.
Foreign OEMs making moves Though there were no major industrial partnership announcements at Defexpo, there certainly was anticipation in the air that the government would further tweak its policies to push the ‘Make in India’ programme and also attract foreign players. The biggies such as Airbus Group, Boeing Defense and Security, BAE Systems, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, Saab and many others showed the road map they have created to be part of India’s indigenisation efforts. Israeli, Russian, US and French companies had strong presence
at the event and were busy in connecting with Indian companies. Boeing announced that it would be expanding its sustainment programme in India considering that the number of military aircraft acquisitions was going up considerably. While Indian companies such as the Bharat Electronics Limited, Mahindra, L&T, DRDO institutions, Ordnance Factory Board, Alpha Design Technologies, Zen Technologies, Bharat Forge, Ashok Leyland and others excelled in their presentations on how India was capable to deliver in the defence realm, albeit starting a bit late. Many of them have tied up with foreign companies to bring in latest technologies.
BAE Systems’ world-class, battle proven M777 ultra lightweight howitzer, for which India and the United States are in discussions for a foreign military sale (FMS) for the Indian Army, took centre stage at Defexpo. The company recently reaffirmed its commitment to ‘Make in India’ by downselecting Mahindra and Mahindra as its business partner for the proposed in-country assembly, integration & test facility. In addition to the M777 ultra lightweight howitzer, BAE display included the Archer 155mm FH 77 BW L52 self-propelled field howitzer along with a full spectrum of munitions spanning hyper velocity projectile, 81mm mortar, 105mm and 155mm artillery ammunition, 120mm tank ammunition and the 3P ammo. There were many such products and solutions from foreign OEMs which were new to India and the refrain at Defexpo was to get into partnerships as to make India’s dream of defence indigenisation come true. SP
2/2016 SP’s Land Forces
>> show report
Ashok Leyland Strong Presence at Defexpo Ashok Leyland continues to make challenging and demanding products rendering greater capabilities to India’s armed forces R. Chandrakanth
ver 70,000 Stallion trucks from the stable of Ashok Leyland form the backbone of the logistics operations of the Indian Army. They are well known for their performance, reliability and durability. Ashok Leyland continues to make challenging and demanding products rendering greater capabilities to India’s armed forces. At Defexpo in Goa, Ashok Leyland showcased some of its products and solutions which make major difference in the armed forces.
Field Artillery Tractor The Field Artillery Tractor (FAT) 6x6 was on show and it functions as a Common Gun Tower for all artillery guns rendering unprecedented flexibility in utilisation of artillery resources and rapid deployment. Collectively on Super Stallion platform FAT 6x6, MBRL 6x6 and HMV 8x8, Ashok Leyland has won orders of over 450 vehicles from the Indian Army.
Ambulance The air-conditioned Ambulance 4x4 has double walled insulated body. It is equipped with advanced life support systems.The rear air suspension reduces shocks to casualties during transportation. Ashok Leyland recently won an Indian Army order for 825 units in 4x4 and 4x2 configurations.
Rhino The Rhino 4x4 is a highly improved logistics vehicle offering greater crew comfort and easy drivability. It has a higher power to weight ratio, grade ability, increased payload, ground clearance and step climbing capability. It has ABS, CTIS, reduced turning circle diameter, provision for HVAC and many more exciting features. A must have for Army looking to enhance its capability.
Simulator Ashok Leyland’s TruckDriving Simulator for Stallion 4x4 is co-developed with Saab to reduce training costs and provide situational training in a secure environment. All terrain, weather and traffic conditions are simulated
TruckDriving Simulator Stallion 4x4
on a replica of driver’s compartment. The software renders a review of training session to improve driving proficiency. Multiple simulators can be integrated for group movement. Ashok Leyland vehicles are now available from 4x4 to 10x10 configurations for applications like troop carriers, mine protected vehicles, field artillery tractor, tank transporter and vehicle platforms for multi-barrel rocket launcher, mounted
gun system, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) launcher, command post, electronics warfare systems and bridge launcher. Ashok Leyland and Saab have joined hands to deliver high mobility vehicles 8x8 for Saab’s BAMSE short-range surface-toair-missile. It also provided a high mobility vehicle for nexter systems’ caesar gun-howitzer (155mm, 52-calibre) for mounted gun system for Indian Army. SP
Allison Transmission, Automatic Choice We see ourselves working in specialist vehicles, tactical and logistic wheeled vehicles and tracked vehicle platforms R. Chandrakanth
ith the invention of the world’s first heavy-duty automatic transmission, and even now Allison is the premier designer, developer and manufacturer of medium- and heavy-duty fully automatic transmissions and hybrid propulsion systems. It is a brand to trust. At Defexpo in Goa, Dana J.H. Pittard, Vice President, Defense Programs, and Col. Rajneesh Kacker, Head Military Programs, said the company has been talking to major companies in India with regard to the futuristic infantry combat vehicle (FICV) and BMT. “There is so much potential in India and we have the capacity to manufacture for both military and commercial applications,” said Pittard. He mentioned how Allison Transmission had bagged a major order in the US for the JLTV (joint light tactical vehicle) wherein it would be supplying 55,000 units through Oshkosh. Excerpts of the interview:
SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): What is the technology behind your automatic transmission? How is it useful to military applications? Allison: Allison Automatics optimise all aspects of operational mobility, including acceleration and on/off road mobility. Our continuous power technology offers uninterrupted power to the drive wheels, smooth take-off, low speed control and manoeuvrability. Superior startability and grade-ability are also facilitated by the torque converter/planetary gear design. Transmission mounted power take-offs (PTO) provides installation flexibility and the ability to provide power to vehicle mounted specialty
SP’s Land Forces 2/2016
X-200 transmission used for tracked defence vehicles displayed at Defexpo
equipment such as self-recovery winches or wrecker systems. The wide range of electronically-controlled input and output options provide the ability to integrate vehicle systems such as central tyre inflation, locking differentials and blackout lighting. SP’s: What kind of service/repair/maintenance support does Allison have in India? Can it cater for the Indian Army requirements in the coming years? Allison: The global Allison team’s promise is to provide the most reliable and valued propulsion solutions in the world to enable our customers to work more efficiently. We also have a highly motivated and skilled team of service and customer support including engineering team based out of Chennai and Delhi with a vast dealership network. There is a training centre at Allison plant in Chennai where we impart instructions to the operators/technicians/drivers.
SP’s: Since Allison is over 100 years old and an established brand in AT can you give us its presence in the armies across the globe? Allison: As a global company, Allison operates in all continents of the world. Allison developed first AT in 1940s for US Military tracked vehicle and commissioned SP series in wheeled platforms in the 1980s. Our SP and X Drive transmission models are fitted in the entire range of light, medium and heavy tactical wheeled and tracked vehicles. Allison Transmission is used in the US, Canada, Britain, Turkey, Korea, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Egyptian and Australian armies. Well over 3,00,000 military vehicles across the globe are fitted with Allison AT.
SP’s: What is your take/views on ‘Make in India’? Allison: I feel we have already participated in the ‘Make in India’ initiative - Allison already has a manufacturing facility in Chennai producing transmissions for wheeled vehicles since 2010. The challenge we see is convincing the Indian Army to adopt fully automatic transmissions in their military vehicles (wheeled and tracked) quickly.
SP’s: Do you think Allison has been able to establish itself in the Indian defence sector? Allison: Allison has established itself in the Indian defence sector very well. 6x6 MBRL wheeled vehicle on Ashok Leyland platform for the Indian Army has Allison 3200 SP. We are now working on different wheeled and tracked platforms with major OEMs in the Indian defence sector.
SP’s: Can you throw some light on Allison Chennai plant in terms of product range? Allison: The Chennai plant currently produces the 1000/2000 series for our global customers. Our investment at the Chennai facility was well over $100 million. As the demand for our products increases over time, we’ll evaluate our manufacturing needs vs. market demand, and bring in investment at the appropriate time as needed. As we did with the 1000/2000 series transmissions, we’ll invest as the demand for other products increases to the level that it makes business sense to expand our local manufacturing capability.
SP’s: Do you find Indian defence market responsive in terms of AT? Can you name few military programmes with Allison AT? Allison: Yes, there is a paradigm shift from manuals to AT. We have over the past few years seen RFIs and RFPs in both wheeled and tracked platforms with AT. Allison is working with OEMs in the following programmes for the Indian Army – LAMV; LSV; WHAP; 8x8, 10x10 and 12x12 platforms and BMP re-powering.
SP’s: The K-9 Vajra-T howitzer developed by L&T and Samsung Techwin is likely to bag over `5,000-crore order for the 100 such tracked self-propelled 155mm artillery guns. This platform is believed to have an AT. Can you tell us something about the product type? Allison: K-9 Vajra howitzer (155mm artillery gun) developed by L&T and Samsung Techwin on a tracked platform is fitted with Allison X-1100. SP
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
DSM Dyneema’s Innovative Technologies for Life Protection DSM Dyneema remains highly committed to bringing new technological dimensions to support India’s evolving needs for life protection, states Marico Manique, Global Business Director, Life Protection, DSM Dyneema, in an exclusive interview. photographS: DSM Dyneema
SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): How was Defexpo 2016 held in Goa for your company in terms of business? Would you prefer New Delhi to Goa for Defexpo? Marcio Manique (Manique): India has always been one of our key markets in the AsiaPacific region. Defexpo is the key defence and security exhibition in India where we are able to engage end-users, and also connect and collaborate with our Indian customers. Similar to previous years, we were able to fulfil our objectives and showcase our latest innovations for the Indian market at Defexpo 2016. Defexpo 2016 being organised in Goa was a new experience for everyone and the key element is to ensure that it always remains a quality platform that allows global exhibitors like us to continuously engage and connect closely with our Indian customers and end-users. SP’s: What products attracted attention in Goa and the reasons for it? Manique: Amongst our diverse range of products and solutions, we continue to receive much interest from the Indian market in our multi award-winning Dyneema® Force Multiplier Technology. Globally, including the Asia-Pacific region, Dyneema® Force Multiplier Technology continues to set new standards in ballistic protection and has garnered many achievements. These include being used by top armour developers from around the world in many prestigious, high-profile soft and hard armour systems that require high performance ballistic protection at a lighter weight, and winning multiple awards for innovation. In body armour, Dyneema® Force Multiplier Technology can reduce the weight by up to 30 per cent without sacrificing ballistic protection, while enhancing comfort and agility with fewer layers of material and increased flexibility. Used in helmets, Dyneema® Force Multiplier Technology enables designs protecting against 9mm FMJ handgun ammunition and fragments to weigh as light as about 1 kg. Over the years, India has been progressing with its soldier modernisation programme and has also set high standards in the area of ballistic protection in body armour. A huge focus is placed on higher threat level protection, more body area protection, and at the same time significant body armour weight reduction and ensuring robustness. It will be challenging to balance these requirements which are focused on higher protection at a lighter weight by using traditional solutions like steel and aramids. Dyneema® represents the next generation armour technology that offers high performance ballistic and multi-threat protection at a lighter weight, with greater user comfort and freedom of movement. SP’s: You mentioned about the company introducing the Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology. Could you give details of the same, and how foolproof is it? Manique: Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology is the latest patented anti-stab material for soft armour applications that answers the industry’s need for innovative and signifi-
DSM Dyneema® remains highly committed to bringing new technological dimensions to support India’s evolving needs for life protection with our ever-expanding portfolio of innovative Dyneema® technologies and solutions. (we are unable to officially comment on current programs where there are no official announcements of the outcome) SP’s: Are you making a pitch to non-army outfits in India, to police, paramilitary forces, why would they need anti-stab technology? Manique: Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology was launched in November 2015 as part of DSM Dyneema’s radical innovation platform and it is now available to the Indian market. With threats constantly evolving especially in urban area operations, there is a need for more advanced multi-threat protection. Even in Asia-Pacific, including India where ownership of firearms are controlled, law enforcement officers and military personnel engaged in urban operations may still face hostile confrontations involving firearms and also threats which come in the form of knives, blades and sharp objects. These operational personnel who may just have a split second to react need to feel confident that they have full protection to handle any situation. Multi-threat protection vests made with Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology and Dyneema® Soft Ballistic products deliver high performance stab and ballistic protection at a lighter weight compared to traditional materials like aramid and steel. In addition to being lighter, Dyneema® provides greater flexibility enabling personnel to feel more comfortable especially during extended deployment periods and better freedom of movement when situation calls.
(Top) Marcio Manique, Global Business Director, Life Protection, DSM Dyneema; (above) Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology
cant advancements in stab protection. A vest manufactured with Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology provides outstanding protection against knives, blades and other sharp weapons in accordance to international standards like the UK HOSDB Body Armour Standard. It is up to 25 per cent lighter and thinner than current market solutions made with aramid without sacrificing protection, and its flexibility provides greater comfort and mobility to the wearer. In addition, Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology can be combined with Dyneema® soft ballistic products to develop the next generation of high performance, lightweight multi-threat protective gear that meets the specific needs of law enforcement officers who face hostile confrontations, as well as military personnel engaged in urban operations. It meets rigorous and widely used international standards, including the commonly used standards in the Asia-Pacific region such as the UK HOSDB KR1 and KR2 Body Armour Standards for stab protection,
and NIJ0101.04 Level IIIA for ballistic protection against handgun ammunitions such as 9mm FMJ and .44 Magnum SJHP SPEER. With Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology, we are presenting the Indian market with another innovative platform that will set new standards in multi-threat protection, and provide another technological dimension to meet current and future needs against evolving threats. SP’s: How important is India as a market for you? Presently the Indian Army is looking for bullet proof jackets. Are you part of the field trials? Manique: India has always been a key market for DSM Dyneema® and we continue to be highly engaged and active with our key customers and end-users. Dyneema® is well known since the 1990s as the material of choice in many defence and law enforcement programmes which require higher ballistic protection at a lighter weight for both personal and vehicle armour.
SP’s: With anti-stab technology, will the cost of acquisition go up and if yes by how much? Manique: Depending on the protection level, Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology is up to 25 per cent lighter and thinner than current established aramid solutions. This also means lesser material can be used to achieve existing protection levels or the same amount of weight can achieve up to 25 per cent higher protection performance. Furthermore, Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology offers greater enhancements in user comfort and freedom of movement as it is more flexible than current solutions made with steel, aramids or other composites. (Due to pricing confidentiality, we are unable to openly disclose pricing and cost of ownership) SP’s: Bullet proof to anti-stab technology, is there any weight difference? Manique: There is sometimes a misconception that a body armour that protects against bullets can also effectively protect against stabs from knifes, blades. They are two different solution platforms. Traditionally, to factor in stab protection to a vest that offers ballistic protection involves adding another solution such as steel, aramids or other composites. This Continued on page 10...
2/2016 SP’s Land Forces
>> exercise / interview
Army Conducts Exercise Shatrujeet to Validate Strike Capability Exercise Shatrujeet conducted by the Indian Army for the elite Strike l (1 Corps) in the deserts of Rajasthan photographS: Indian Army
(Top) Coordinated night firing; BMPs crossing water obstacle; assault by dismounted infantry, (above) crossing of tanks over PMS bridge, firepower by the Indian Army artillery and Para Special Forces in action.
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
ore than 30,000 soldiers have taken part in Exercise Shatrujeet conducted by the Indian Army for the elite STRIKE l (1 Corps) in the deserts of Rajasthan wherein the capability to strike deep in enemy territory in an integrated air-land battle environment is being tested. Exercise Shatrujeet is an operational-oriented exercise which is focused on validating integrated theatre battle fighting concepts incorporating new age technologies, weapon platforms and systems as well as long-range precision targeting vectors. The Indian Army conducts a Strike Corps level exercise regularly for every Strike Corps so that their planning norms and methodology, their drills and procedures, use of force multipliers and new age technologies, efficacy of their mobile com-
munications and other systems including air defence, and their responses to operational situations created on the battlefield can be monitored. This ensures that the formations concerned are kept in a high state of battle readiness and their drills and procedures are honed to near perfection. The build-up and preparatory training prior to the actual Corps exercise is carried out earlier. This includes unit and formation level exercises which are conducted during the six to eight weeks period preceding the main Corps exercise. This allows sub-unit, unit and formation commanders to check the efficiency of their own sub-units, units and formations including drills and procedures and responses to battle situations. For example, in an armoured regiment of tanks, first the tank troop leader is given time to train with his three tanks without supervision, and similarly the squadron commander is given free time to train his squadron of 14 tanks and then the regi-
mental commander trains with his 45 tanks. In independent armoured brigades and in the armoured division, the training is done in an integrated manner wherein with a regiment of tanks may be grouped one or two companies of mechanised infantry, a troop of tank trawls, an engineer platoon, an air control team with a tentacle, an air defence troop of air defence missiles on mobile platforms, and forward observations officers of artillery. All elements together form a combat group. An armoured brigade may comprise of two or three such armour/infantry heavy groups depending upon the missions in battle. The formation and units are also made to undergo operational oriented training during this period using their actual war equipment. Such training manoeuvres at various levels, prepares the Strike Corps for the major exercise planned at the Corps level which comprises integrated operational manoeuvres to validate its opera-
tional plans in simulated high tempo battlefield environment and terrain. The focus of the Corps exercise is to achieve joint and seamless coordination among all the forces in a nuclear, biological, chemical warfare scenario so as to deliver the enemy a lethal punch with full might at lightning speed. In order to achieve this aim, high-end technology and all the latest multidimensional modern weaponry at the disposal of the armed forces has been utilised. In the last decade or so, there has been a paradigm shift in India’s offensive doctrine and capability and such exercises are undertaken regularly by the Army to train its troops in their offensive role and weapon usage. Detailed de-briefing sessions are held at unit and formation levels after the exercise to collect and collate the tactical and logistic lessons learnt in the exercise and the same are sent to the higher formations for further dissemination and to Army Headquarters for their use as considered appropriate. SP
requirements of the respective countries, including India. Dyneema® has been used by top Indian armour developers for many years, since the 1990s for many defence and law enforcement programmes. And the market, including Indian end-users are increasingly aware of the technological benefits compared to traditional materials like aramids, steel and other composites. Building on this success, DSM Dyneema® remains deeply commit-
ted to continuously set new standards and deliver more innovative personal and vehicle protection solutions with Dyneema®; as well as working closely with our Indian partners to develop higher performance and lighter weight protection that meets current and future requirements of India’s military and law enforcement agencies. (Due to market and pricing confidentiality, we are unable to openly disclose pricing and cost). SP
DSM Dyneema’s Innovative... continued from page 9 can add to the bulk and also weight by up to 40 per cent, depending on the solution and threat protection level. Compared to current established aramid solutions, Dyneema® Anti Stab Technology provides superior protection against knives and blades and it is up to 25 per cent lighter and thinner. In addition, it provides greater flexibility which enables enhanced comfort and freedom of movement to users. SP’s: How price competitive are your prod-
SP’s Land Forces 2/2016
ucts compared to similar Indian products? Manique: DSM Dyneema® is well-positioned with its expanding and wide range of soft and hard ballistic product grades, as well as latest technologies. Each and every one of DSM Dyneema’s products and solutions, from the highest performance to cost competitive have specific innovative value as a stronger and lighter weight solution that meets the evolving life protection trends and needs, along with the different and increasing local threats and protection
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> News in Brief UK’s MI5 raises threat level UK security service MI5 has raised the threat level to Great Britain from Northern Ireland-related terrorism. The threat level has been increased from moderate to substantial, meaning there is a strong possibility of terrorist attack. MI5 Director General Andrew Parker previously said that there were more than 20 attacks from the dissident republican group in 2014. UK Home Secretary Theresa May said: “The main focus of violent dissident republican activity continues to be in Northern Ireland where they have targeted the brave police and prison officers who serve their communities day in and day out. The reality is that they command little support. They do not represent the views or wishes of the vast majority of people, both in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, who decisively expressed their desire for peace in the 1998 Belfast Agreement and have been transforming Northern Ireland ever since.” MI5 is working with the police and other relevant authorities to ensure appropriate security measures are in place. The threat levels to the UK from international terrorism remains at ‘severe’, meaning an attack is highly likely. MI5 stated that the public should also remain vigilant and report any suspicious activity to the police.
Germany to recruit 14,300 additional Soldiers The Germany Defence Ministry plans to recruit nearly 14,300 soldiers over the next seven years, marking the German Army’s first expansion since the Cold War. The ministry will also increase its budget from €34.2 billion to €39.2 billion by the end of the decade. According to German Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen, the proposed plan will help the armed forces to react appropriately to new tasks. Germany is currently involved in 16 foreign missions, including monitoring the migration of refugees across the Mediterranean and supporting Nato allies in the east. In a statement, von der Leyen said: “A quarter century of contraction is over. It is time for the Bundeswehr to grow again.” In January, the German Parliament’s military ombudsman Hans-Peter Bartels revealed that the country’s army is operating with fewer personnel and obsolete equipment. The army currently employs 87,000 civilian personnel and 1,77,000 military staff, but is reportedly facing a
shortage of soldiers for a range of multinational operations. The recruitment will break the cap of 1,85,000 troops imposed in 2011. The majority of the new soldiers will be trained in modern warfare capabilities, such as cyber-warfare. Germany has the second largest armed forces in the EU after France.
Jordan to acquire TOW missiles from Raytheon
The Jordanian Ministry of Defence is set to acquire tube-launched, optically tracked, wireless-guided (TOW) missiles from Raytheon. An agreement for the missiles has been signed between Jordan’s Ministry of Defence and the US Department of Defense. The TOW missile can destroy armoured targets up to 3,750 m away, and is the preferred heavy-assault weapon system for Nato and UN peacekeeping operations worldwide. Raytheon TOW Program Director Scott Speet said: “Our international partners rely on the kind of extended-range precision TOW provides.” Under the agreed terms, Raytheon will begin delivering the missiles later this year. To date, the company has supplied more than 6,90,000 TOW missiles to US and allied warfighters. The missiles are used by more than 40 international armed forces and more than 15,000 ground, vehicle and helicopter platforms worldwide. The TOW weapon system will be in service with the US military from 2025. In October, Raytheon introduced the next-generation TOW Eagle Fire launcher, which is designed to fire both wire-guided and wireless radio frequency missiles. The new launcher is said to reduce obsolescence issues and offer increased capabilities over the TOW 2 launcher at a lower cost. It features ergonomic handgrips and extensive built-in-test capabilities.
BAE and EDT partner to develop M777 SP artillery system
>> Show Calendar 13–17 June Eurosatory Paris Nord Villepinte Exhibition Centre, Paris, France www.eurosatory.com 28–29 June Future Armoured Vehicles Weapons Systems Hilton London Kensington, London, UK www.smi-online.co.uk/defence/uk/ conference/Future-Armoured-VehiclesWeapons-Systems 28–29 June MILSATCOM USA Sheraton Pentagon City, Arlington, Virginia, USA www.smi-online.co.uk/defence/ northamerica/conference/milsatcom-usa 30 August–1 September Military Radar London, UK www.militaryradarconference.com 24–25 October Air Missile Defence Technology Dorint Hotel Don Giovanni Prague, Prague 3, Czech Republic www.smi-online.co.uk/defence/europe/ conference/Air-Missile-Defence
BAE Systems has partnered with Emirates Defense Technology (EDT) to develop the M777 155mm lightweight howitzer in the UAE. Under the terms of the agreement, the companies will produce a self-propelled 155mm artillery system integrating the M777 with EDT’s indigenous Enigma 8x8 armoured modular fighting vehicle for the UAE land forces. The M777 self-propelled artillery system would provide the mobile indirect fire variant with fire-and-move and precision attack capabilities. BAE Systems campaign management head Stephen Luk said: “This agreement affirms our desire for an enduring industrial partnership in the UAE. The M777’s credentials are unmatched by any other 155mm lightweight howitzer. It would provide the UAE armed forces with a high-quality howitzer that is easy to use and reliable in combat.” Weighing less than 4,218 kg, the 39-calibre gun is highly mobile on land, at sea and in the air. Nearly 1,090 M777s are in service with ground forces in the US, Canada and Australia.
Obama contemplates lifting arms ban on Vietnam President Barack Obama is reportedly considering lifting the arms ban on Vietnam as part of plans to bolster military ties with Hanoi. Reports of Obama reviewing the arms transfer policy have emerged ahead of his visit to Vietnam later this month, Reuters reported. The countries are working together on maritime security issues as China continues to demonstrate its military strength in the South China Sea. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and the Pacific Daniel Russel was quoted by Reuters as saying: “One of the important factors that would make a lift of the ban possible would be to continue forward momentum in meeting universal human rights standards and progress in important legal reform.” Center for Strategic and International Studies regional expert Murray Hiebert reportedly said that though the ban of arms is completely lifted, the US will still have a right to reject individual arms transfers if it discovers human rights violations by Vietnam. Vietnam mostly depends on Russian suppliers for weapons. In October 2014, the US sent defensive maritime equipment shipments to help Hanoi tackle China’s operations in the South China Sea.
India test-fires Prithvi-II nuclearcapable missile
Publisher and Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal Editor Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Senior Editorial Contributor Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Senior Technical Group Editor Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) Assistant Group Editor R. Chandrakanth Contributors India General V.P. Malik (Retd), Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd), Lt General R.S. Nagra (Retd), Lt General S.R.R. Aiyengar (Retd), Major General Ashok Mehta (Retd), Major General G.K. Nischol (Retd), Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd), Brigadier S. Mishra (Retd), Rohit Sharma Chairman & Managing Director Jayant Baranwal Executive Vice President (Planning & Business Development) Rohit Goel Administration Bharti Sharma Asst-Admin, HR & Infra Pooja Tehlani Creative Director Anoop Kamath Design Vimlesh Kumar Yadav, Sonu Singh Bisht Research Assistant: Graphics Survi Massey Sales & Marketing Director Sales & Marketing: Neetu Dhulia General Manager Sales: Rajeev Chugh SP’s Website Sr. Web Developer: Shailendra P. Ashish Web Developer: Ugrashen Vishwakarma
The Indian Army’s Strategic Forces Command (SFC) has reportedly conducted another user trial of the Prithvi-II nuclearcapable missile. During the trial, the indigenously developed surface-to-surface missile was launched from complex-3 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) in Chandipur, off the Odisha coast. The trial was supervised by scientists from the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), reported the Press Trust of India (PTI). Developed by DRDO under the Integrated Guided-Missile Development (IGMD) programme, the Prithvi-II has been designed to intercept targets at a distance of 350 km. Powered by liquid-propellant twin engines, the 9-m-long missile uses an advanced inertial guidance system to carry warheads ranging from 500 kg to 1,000 kg payloads. PTI quoted defence sources as saying: “The missile trajectory was tracked by DRDO radars, electro-optical tracking systems and telemetry stations located along the coast of Odisha.” Initially, two successive trials were planned to evaluate PrithviII. However, the plans for the second trial have been scrapped due to technical problems after the first test-firing. In 2003, the Prithvi-II entered operational service with the SFC, which has since conducted several tests for user training. In February, a similar user trial was conducted by the Indian Army from the same test range in Odisha.
Thales’ boost for ‘Make in India’ with thermal imagers Boosting the ‘Make in India’ initiative, French aerospace and defence major Thales has signed a new contract to provide thermal imaging cameras for the Indian Army’s T-90 main battle tank (MBT), it was announced here recently. As a part of the contract Thales will be affecting the transfer of production to integrate 260 compact thermal imaging Catherine cameras into the TI sights that will be installed into the T-90 tanks. The Catherine camera is already in service in the army and this new order consolidates the Thales leadership in optronic technologies in India. SP
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