Auldhame Table of Contents

Page 1

From chains to brooches

Con te n ts

Acknowledgements

ix

List of Figures

xi

List of Tables

xv

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Structure of the monograph 1.2 Geographical setting 1.3 Archaeological discoveries around Auldhame 1.3.1 Hamilton’s excavations on the headland in 1949 1.4 Fieldwork 2005 and 2008 1.4.1 Introduction 1.4.2 Walkover survey 1.4.3 Evaluation 1.4.4 Excavation 1.4.5 Walkover survey 2008

1 1 1 2 6 7 7 9 9 9 10

2  The Excavated Features 11 2.1 Introduction

11

2.2 The graveyard 2.2.1 The extent of the graveyard 2.2.2 Soils

11 11 13

2.3

The chapel complex 2.3.1 Introduction 2.3.2 Building 1 2.3.3 Building 2 2.3.4 Building 3 2.3.5 Building 4

14 14 16 16 16 17

2.4

Burials 18 2.4.1 Introduction 18 2.4.2 Grave alignment 18 2.4.3 Body position 20 2.4.4 Grave type 20 2.4.5 Grave markers 31 2.4.6 Grave goods 31 2.4.7 Gender and age 31 v

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L i v i n g a nd dying at Auldhame, East Lothi an 2.5 Other features 2.5.1 Ditch 1 2.5.2 Zone 1 2.5.3 Zone 2 2.5.4 Zone 3 2.5.5 Zone 4 2.5.6 Zone 5 3  CHRONOLOGY

31 31 34 35 35 35 37 41

3.1 Aims and objectives 41 3.1.1 Constraints on the evidence and analytical approach  John Barber 41

3.2 Results 3.2.1 Phase 1: ad 650–1000 3.2.2 Phase 2: ad 1000–1200 3.2.3 Phase 3: ad 1200–1400 3.2.4 Phase 4: ad 1500–1700 3.2.5 The date of the buildings

43 44 49 49 49 49

3.3 Summary 50 3.3.1 Age and gender over time  Melissa Melikian 51 4  THE ARTEFACT ASSEMBLAGE 53 4.1 Anglo-Saxon 4.1.1 Copper alloy  Alice Blackwell 4.1.2 Glass Ewan Campbell

53 53 58

4.2 Viking 61 4.2.1 The copper alloy belt set and associated organic materials  Penelope Walton Rogers 61 4.2.2 The iron artefacts  Andrew Heald and Caroline Paterson 64

4.3 Medieval and post-medieval 68 4.3.1 Pottery Derek Hall 68 4.3.2 Copper alloy  Dawn McLaren and Fraser Hunter 70 4.3.3 Silver Nicholas M McQ Holmes 74 4.3.4 Iron Dawn McLaren and Fraser Hunter 75 4.3.5 Lead Dawn McLaren and Fraser Hunter 84 4.3.6 Vitrified material  Dawn McLaren 85 4.3.7 Bone Dawn McLaren 86 4.3.8 Stone Dawn McLaren and Andrew Heald 86 4.3.9 Building materials  Dawn McLaren 90 4.4 Miscellaneous date 90 4.4.1 Pottery Ann MacSween 90 4.4.2 Fired clay  Rob Engl 90 4.4.3 Chipped stone and quartz pebbles  Rob Engl 90 4.4.4 Coarse stone  Rob Engl 91 4.5 Summary of the artefactual evidence  Andrew Heald 91 4.5.1 Chronology 91 4.5.2 People and place 92 vi

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From chains to brooches 5 Osteoarchaeological Studies  Melissa Melikian 93 5.1 Introduction

93

5.2 Results 5.2.1 Preservation and completeness 5.2.2 Demographic results 5.2.3 Sex determination 5.2.4 Metric data 5.2.5 Non-metric traits 5.2.6 Dental health 5.2.7 Pathology

94 94 94 94 96 96 96 98

5.3 Isotope analysis  Jane Evans 5.3.1 Introduction 5.3.2 Results

105 105 107

5.4 Discussion of the human remains from Auldhame  Melissa Melikian 5.4.1 The assemblage 5.4.2 Population origins and demographic composition 5.4.3 Skeletal pathology

111 111 111 113

5.5 Conclusions 119 6  THE ECOFACT ASSEMBLAGE 121 6.1

The faunal remains  Jackaline Robertson 121 6.1.1 Introduction 121 6.1.2 Discussion 121 6.1.3 Summary 122

6.2 The charred macroplant remains  Jackaline Robertson 122 6.2.1 Introduction 122 6.2.2 Results 122 6.2.3 Summary 123 6.3 Marine molluscs  Ruby Ceron-Carrasco 6.3.1 Introduction 6.3.2 Results

123 123 123

6.4 Micromorphological analysis of the buried soil [002]  Lynne Roy 125 6.4.1 Introduction 125 6.4.2 Summary description 125 6.4.3 Discussion and interpretation 126 6.5 Summary of the ecofactual evidence 126 7  LIVING AND DYING AT AULDHAME 129 7.1 Introduction 7.1.1 Later prehistoric activity

129 129

7.2 Episode 1: The monastic settlement ad 650–1000 129 7.2.1 Anglian Lothian: the historical and archaeological context 129 7.2.2 Phase 1a: an Anglian monastic settlement 135 7.2.3 Phase 1b: Viking activity: contacts, conversion and the end of the monastic settlement? Andrew Heald 142 vii

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L i v i n g a nd dying at Auldhame, East Lothi an

7.3 Episode 2: The parish church and graveyard ad 1000–1650 145 7.3.1 A documentary history of Auldhame from ad 1000 to c  ad 1830  Morag Cross 145 7.3.2 Phase 2: ad 1000–1200 159 7.3.3 Phase 3: ad 1200–1500 161 7.3.4 Phase 4: ad 1500–1700 163

7.4 A historian’s view of the evidence from Auldhame  Alex Woolf 166 7.4.1 Auldhame and Tyninghame 166 7.4.2 The ‘Viking’ burial 170

7.5 Summary Bibliography

170 173

Appendices 187 Appendix 1   The Hamilton archive 187 Appendix 2  Burial data 190 Appendix 3 Osteoarchaeological studies: methodology 198 Appendix 4 Osteoarchaeological studies: tables 202 Appendix 5 Isotope analysis: methodology 221 Appendix 6 Micromorphological analyses: thin-section descriptions 225 Index

228

viii

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