Page 1


This book has been reproduced directly from computer-generated copy submitted in final form to APS Press by the editor of the volume. No editing or proofreading has been done by the Press. Reference in this publication to a trademark, proprietary product, or company name by personnel of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or anyone else is intended for explicit description only and does not imply approval or recommendation to the exclusion of others that may be suitable. Library of Congress Control Number: 2003111803 International Standard Book Number: 0-89054-313-5 Ăˆ 2004 by The American Phytopathological Society All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced in any form, including photocopy, microfilm, information storage and retrieval system, computer database, or software, or by any means, including electronic or mechanical, without written permission from the publisher. Copyright is not claimed in any portion of this work written by U.S. government employees as a part of their official duties. Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper The American Phytopathological Society 3340 Pilot Knob Road St. Paul, Minnesota 55121-2097, U.S.A.


 

&RQWHQWV

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

LLL


 

3UHIDFH

  (QYLURQPHQWDOLVWV±RUGLQDU\SHRSOHZKRZLVKWRSURWHFWWKHHDUWK IRUSUHVHQWDQGIXWXUHJHQHUDWLRQV±RIWHQYRLFHFRQFHUQDERXWWKUHDWV OLNHDFLGUDLQFDUERQGLR[LGHEXLOGXSLQWKHDWPRVSKHUHZDWHU FRQWDPLQDWLRQDQGGHFOLQLQJELRGLYHUVLW\5HFHQWO\PDQ\KDYHFRPH WRUHFRJQL]HDQRWKHUHTXDOO\VHULRXVWKUHDWWKDWZHFDOO³ELRORJLFDO SROOXWLRQ´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

LY


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

Y




&RQWUROOLQJ%LRORJLFDO3ROOXWLRQ  .HUU\2%ULWWRQ 86'$)RUHVW6HUYLFH 6RXWKHUQ5HVHDUFK6WDWLRQ $WKHQV*$ 

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


7KHLUSHVWVRIWHQDFFRPSDQLHGWKHQHZSODQWV$WWKHWLPH LQWURGXFWLRQRISHVWVGLGQ¶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

 )LJ:LVWHULD¶VVHGXFWLYHVSULQJEHDXW\FRQFHDOVLWVGHVWUXFWLYH SRZHU,PSRUWHGDVDQRUQDPHQWDOZLVWHULDVSUHDGVE\UXQQHUVDQG E\VHHGVPRWKHULQJHYHU\WKLQJLQLWVSDWK 




)RUHVWSODQWDWLRQVSURGXFHZRRGILEHUYHU\UDSLGO\EXWWKH\DUH KLJKO\YXOQHUDEOHWRSHVWVEHFDXVHDVLQJOHVSHFLHVFRYHUVDEURDG DUHD,QWKHODVW\HDUVSODQWDWLRQVRI(XFDO\SWXVSLQHZLOORZ DQGSRSODUKDYHEHHQHVWDEOLVKHGKDOIDZRUOGDZD\IURPWKHLUQDWLYH KDELWDW)UHHGIURPWKHSHVWVRIWKHLUQDWLYHODQGWKHVHWUHHVRIWHQ JURZDPD]LQJO\UDSLGO\%XWWKHGDPDJHFDQEHHTXDOO\DPD]LQJLIWKH ZURQJSHVWVKRZVXS2QFHDJDLQWKHULVNFDQEHUHGXFHGE\VKDULQJ RILQIRUPDWLRQDERXWGLIIHUHQWVSHFLHV¶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³MXPS´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³2QD JOREDOEDVLVWKHWZRJUHDWGHVWUR\HUVRIELRGLYHUVLW\DUHILUVW KDELWDWGHVWUXFWLRQDQGVHFRQGLQYDVLRQE\H[RWLFVSHFLHV([WLQFWLRQ




E\KDELWDWGHVWUXFWLRQLVOLNHGHDWKLQDQDXWRPRELOHDFFLGHQWHDV\WR VHHDQGDVVHVV([WLQFWLRQE\LQYDVLRQRIH[RWLFVSHFLHVLVOLNHGHDWK E\GLVHDVHJUDGXDOLQVLGLRXVUHTXLULQJVFLHQWLILFPHWKRGVWR GLDJQRVH´    

  )LJ.XG]XZDVILUVWLPSRUWHGDVDQRUQDPHQWDOEXWMXVWEHIRUH :RUOG:DU,,IDUPHUVZHUHSDLGSHUDFUHWRSODQWNXG]XIRU HURVLRQFRQWURO




025($1'%(77(5  +RZFDQZHSURWHFWRXUVHOYHVDJDLQVWELRORJLFDOSROOXWLRQ" &HUWDLQO\ERUGHULQVSHFWLRQVDUHSDUWRIWKHVROXWLRQ3URPSW HUDGLFDWLRQVZKHQXQZDQWHGVSHFLHVVOLSWKURXJKDUHDQRWKHUSDUW %XWZHDUHDOUHDG\GRLQJWKHVHWKLQJV7KHUHVHHPVOLWWOHGRXEWWKDW ZHPXVWGRZKDWZHDUHDOUHDG\GRLQJEXWWKDWZHPXVWGRLWEHWWHU :HWKLQNWKDWHQYLURQPHQWDOLVWVFDQKDYHDODUJHUUROH:HQHHG WKHLUXQGHUVWDQGLQJDQGWKHLUVXSSRUW7KH\FDQKHOSXVWRVSUHDGWKH ZRUGWKDWELRORJLFDOSROOXWLRQLVYHU\VHULRXV5HVHDUFKFDQSURYLGH WKHNQRZOHGJHWRGHDOUDWLRQDOO\ZLWKWKHLQGLYLGXDOWKUHDWVSRVHGE\ ELRORJLFDOSROOXWDQWV%XWUHVHDUFKLVH[SHQVLYHDQGLWVIXQGLQJPXVW EHEURDGO\VXSSRUWHG(QYLURQPHQWDOLVWVFDQSURYLGHWKDWVXSSRUW $QGWKH\PD\EHDEOHWRKHOSXVGLUHFWO\LQRXUHIIRUWVWRHUDGLFDWH LPSRUWHGSHVWV 7KHLQWURGXFWLRQRIH[RWLFVSHFLHVKDVHQRUPRXVO\LQFUHDVHGWKH SURGXFWLYLW\RIDJULFXOWXUHLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV([RWLFRUQDPHQWDOV KDYHJLYHQXVPRUHEHDXWLIXODQGYDULHGODQGVFDSHV%XWLWPD\EH WLPHWRKDYHDQHZORRNDWLPSRUWLQJSODQWVSHFLHV0D\EHZHVKRXOG EHFRQVLGHULQJPXFKVWURQJHUOLPLWDWLRQVRQWKHVHLQWURGXFWLRQV &HUWDLQO\WKH\VKRXOGEHDWWHPSWHGRQO\ZKHQWKHHIIHFWVDUH SUHGLFWDEOH$JDLQHQYLURQPHQWDOLVWVFDQDVVLVWLQWKHSROLWLFDO SURFHVVLQZKLFKODZVDUHFKDQJHGDQGLQSXEOLFL]LQJWKHYDOXHRI QDWLYHSODQWVLQODQGVFDSLQJ ,I\RXFDUHDERXWWKHSUREOHPVWKDWZHGHVFULEHLQWKLVSXEOLFDWLRQ \RXFDQKHOS,QIDFWZHFDQQRWVXFFHHGZLWKRXW\RXUKHOS   /LWHUDWXUH&LWHG   ([RWLF3HVWVRI(DVWHUQ)RUHVWV%ULWWRQ.2HG .HHQ,PSUHVVLRQV$VKHYLOOH1&SS   &DUHIRRW*/DQG6SURWW(5³)DPLQHRQWKH :LQG´5DQG0F1DOO\DQG&R1HZ<RUNSS   +RUVIDOO-*,PSDFWRILQWURGXFHGSHVWVRIPDQ3S LQ([RWLF3ODQW3HVWVDQG1RUWK$PHULFDQ$JULFXOWXUH :LOVRQ&/DQG*UDKDP&/HGV$FDGHPLF3UHVV1HZ <RUNSS 




    

 

 

/DUJH(&7KH$GYDQFHRIWKH)XQJL+HQU\+ROW DQG&R1HZ<RUNSS 0F.QLJKW%1%LRORJLFDO3ROOXWLRQ7KH&RQWURO DQG,PSDFWRI,QYDVLYH([RWLF6SHFLHV,QGLDQD$FDG6FL ,QGLDQDSROLVSS 6FKRXOWLHV&/6H\PRXU&3DQG0LOOHU-: :KHUHDUHWKHH[RWLFGLVHDVHWKUHDWV"LQ([RWLF3ODQW 3HVWVDQG1RUWK$PHULFDQ$JULFXOWXUH:LOVRQ&/DQG *UDKDP&/HGV$FDGHPLF3UHVV1HZ<RUNSS 86&RQJUHVV2IILFHRI7HFKQRORJ\$VVHVVPHQW³+DUPIXO 1RQ,QGLJHQRXV6SHFLHVLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV´27$) :DVKLQJWRQ'&86*RYHUQPHQW3ULQWLQJ2IILFH 6HSWHPEHU :LOVRQ(2)RUHZRUGLQ6WUDQJHUVLQ3DUDGLVH 6LPEHUORII'6FKPLW]'&DQG%URZQ7&HGV,VODQG 3UHVV:DVKLQJWRQ'&SS



Biological Pollution: An Emerging Global Menace  

Environmentalists often voice concern about threats like acid rain, carbon dioxide buildup in the atmosphere, water contamination, and decli...