Page 1

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CONTENTS THEDOT ¿ PERSPECTIVE

E

THEEARS

44

THENOSE

45

SHADING

26

THEHANDS

THEHEAD

28

THEFEET

PORTRAITURE

THEFIGURE

THE EYES

40

BALANCE AND MOTION

THE MOUTH

42

FIGURE

SKETCHING

SKETCHES AND SIUDIES

s7

.6) .G'..+.

TJ

Published in the United States of America' by Madison Books @ 1996 by Madison Books

Published in 1912by Littlefield Adams

& Co.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Pubücation Data Pogány,

The art of drawing

/

Willy, 1882-1955. Willy Pogány.-Rev. and enl. ed.

including sketches and studies.

p.

cm.

1. Drawing-Technique.

NC650.Pó

I.

1996 741.2-4c2O

ISBN 1-56833-059-6 (pbk.

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Title. 96-139'14

alk. paper)

CP

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DOT

THE A dot is the simplest thing to drow

-

so let us begin with the dot.

Toke o smoll writins pod. Teor ouf o couple of poges.

Drow o dot onywhere on one of these blonk poges.

BLANK PAGE

LIKE THIS

fry to drow o dot on the other blonk poge in extrctly the

some

position. Do not troce. Do not meosure

You con see how wrong it would be to ploce the dot in ony one of these positions.

-

except wirh your eye.

BUT

lf you iudge with your eye the right distonce from the edge of the poper, your dor will be

in the right spof.

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'uotUodo.¡d puo uortf,a.¡!( 'eruo¡srq ¡o ¡ueu6pnl .¡no,( 6urdole^op ur ,(¡toel6 plD lll/t\ e:r¡lold sryl 'uotlle1 -red o¡ osoli ouJof no,( ¡r¡un est3loxe e¡durrs styl a)tlf,old 'se>¡o¡sru::noA

eto¡ 'tq6t¡ egt sprD/v\o¡ dn qlog ploq puD s¡op ¡ourOuo all Dao lr ero¡d ,(dor rnoÁ 1o ,bo:n:ro oql llorls 01

'safuolsrP

lfojrol

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etrojl

Jo oJnsoouJ

lou oc

'leoqs uoelf D uo ueLl{ Jo llo ,(do: uagl I

a'

<-

sryl

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0urLl¡auios

e6od uooll o uo

tuoPuor lD sloP lDlo^as elorx lxeN

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PERSPECTIVE

We know thol q cube hos six sides. We know olso fhot eoch side is o perfecl squore, but if we drow o cube os we know il lo be, it does not look like o cube. For exompfe, here ore six perfect squores but this

drowing does not look

lยกke o cube.

We know thot o mon hos o fronl ond o bock, but we hove never seen6oth front ond bock ot lhe some lime.

We know thot o lin con hos o circulor fop ond o circulor bottom of equol size, but we must odmif thot we never hove seen o tin con like thยกs.

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'1NlOd CNIHSINVA

D

Pollor sr e6ie^uo) saurl lallDiod qrrt/\^ clur {urod oti1 'turod D olur JDeddosrp ol

uJeas salod

eql puD slrDrl aql lrlun apef,ai Aeql reqtroJ aql rollDurs puo rallDrxs 6ur¡1e6 ^llour.t sa¡od eql ,rs o/v\ puo'reqlouD auo ol ieJoou puo Jojoau 6urlle6 sltrDll aql ,as a/\^ ll!lS 'ltOratl ur ¡onba lnogD llo orD se¡od qdor60lol orll toyl nou4 oM 'oull otjl Duo¡o ¡¡o lrodo e)uDlsrp auos egl aro Aeql lDrli ool nou4 oM 'lollDrDo erD

lf

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aql ul uou aql uDgl raoiol AlgoraPlsuo3 sr af,uolsrP all u! asnol eql

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r1:rqr* clur lurod aql 'INlOd DNIHSINVA o PallD) sr o6re^uof, seurl lellorDd '¡ulod o olul 'roeddosrp o¡ urees se¡od 6ur¡¡e6 Aeqt ratuD' aql,lallotrrs Puo rellours or.ll puo sllort aql ,(¡¡ouu lltun apolar am l[!l$ ,reqlouo euo ol JaJoau Puo laloau 6ur¡¡eO slf,ojl aW aas se¡od arlt aas efpuo aql l'oll monE oM 'l!6rat¡ ur ¡onbe InoqD llo oro se¡od qdor6alel .d o

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Here is o simple woy to [ind the center of o squore or on oblong. Drow the diogonols ond they will intersect in the center.

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---'") --'--l\n@.-

tÂżotll/

Holf

These diogroms show how

to repeot squores or oblongs in perspective'

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Eye level

Eye level

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uorsr^rP Jo slurod rnoÁ e9 lll^ B-v ssorf sourl 0uroje^uol esat]l olotlrN 'J lurod sl!+ ol seurl OurPr^lP rnoÁ llo MDjC eql uorj ourl D Morc

lo^el o^l a9l ol B raujo3 qonorql luotuernsootu lsDl 'ourl srtll uo slueulelnsoeur logL!nu Jo PellsoP 3ql LllDnba

'y qonorql lo^al eÁl ol lellDrDd ourl D

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Use the some sysiem of repeoting squores or oblongs in drowing these orches, win dows ond checker boord.

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V.

P.

*

V.

P.

lf you look up ot o group of high buildinss you will find the cenfer vonishing point for abo','e your eye level.

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'la^el o^o frLlpq

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rnol, 'u,nop 6ur1oo¡ uaqM

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PERSPECTIVE

DRAWING CF

Note thot the circles

seem

A

.d o

CYLINDER

flotter os they come neorer to eye level.

-.ffi r

.

,r\\.

,ñ.

Ai eye level we see only the edge of the circle os o horizontol

line.

Above eye level we see the botfom of the circle. TRY THIS EXPERIMENT.

o gloss verticolly ond observe how rhe circulor rim chonges until it becomes o stroight line ot eye level. Roíse

l8

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'sol3.rl jo e^rllodsled otl ,(ยกtoeยก: r*otls orDMssoยก0 1o sOutmol6

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HERE IS THE

SOLUTION CF

A

SIMPLE PRCBLEM

IN

PERSPECTIVE

The problem is to ploce o few Ă?igures ot some distonce oport; we wont them stonding on the spots morked A, B ond C.

Eye_]e_ve!

A

i

we tind c Vonishing Point by drowing o proiection line from point X, ot the foot of the tigure, ocross poinf A to eye leve l. First,

Drow line from X, to VP for height of figure.

Eye level

-r F

B

+ 20

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,

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lo^ol eÁl

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tods 1o aln6q ul MolP ol louuDt'tl au:os

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rxoJJ

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We meosure obiects by stretching out our orm ond, holding our pencilverticolly, indicoting ihe proportionofe size wirh the thumb l¡ke this,

-

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- *-; -*, "\r-¡. '-"

; " -1,

-^ ":,

1i :

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.' .o--t

Suppose we stonci beÉore on open v¡indow. On the window sill is flowers ond, in the distonce, c house rhci we wish to drow.

c poi of

\flhotever the size of our drowing the proportions will remoin the some. In this instonce the house wrll be obout one-fifth ihe size of the flower ond the pot, ond the [lower rn¡ill be oimost four times os high os the pot. Allobjects ond rheir proporlions ore meosured in the some wcy. After you hcue been drciwing for some time you will seldom ;-reed fo meosure in this woy. Your eyes will become so cdiusted thot only occosionolly will you need to checI by me:suring. 24

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\*

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cfq

'3utu:t1,tot¡stto.{ pall ol st uorlrolsrp lDnst^ ¡n /ruorlroaoto srr1l 'lrDg roytrDJ arD toql slroo oril oPr(j ueljo Puo 'n' ¡ ,n¡ln '¡l Jo Ino og ol ',(¡lolnlou 'no,( .¡seroou s¡tod agl 'no,( pto,v'o1 6uruoa¡ sr 1tal9o uD uatM Luaas

o

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lic PD

C

k

lic

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C

to

to

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bu

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SHADING The shope of o sphere is o circle like thยกs

-->-

However, the outline shows only its shapc, shoding

is necessory to

show

its

lorm.

These spheres ore lighted ot diร‰ferent ongles by o single light source.

,/Hish

lisht

-----

High light

-1

2 3

,4

There ore, roughly, [ive distinct lones of shoding thot chorocterize

o

llghted

ob ject:

1. Lighted surfoce 2. Shode 3. Shodow

4. Retlection 5. Cost-shodow The cost-shodow is the dorl<est shode.

On the lighted surfoce we usuolly 26

fยกnd

o brillicnf spot colled o high-light.

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多多

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HEAD

THE

The humon heod is ovol-shoped lยกke on egg. Vยกewed from the fronl one-lhird longer thon ot its widest poinls'

il

is obout

There ore vorious methods of drowing its ideal proportions.

Hoir lines t<

lv -T.t

,z

o tt

Eye brow Eye line

'1 I

+-*'4'+l1

-l-'

\-.r.

\t4 \T

tr ,^"2

End of nose

l{ lv

Mouth

Here is o very simple method:

1. Divide the ovol verlicolly ond horizontolly into

L

Dยกvยกde the horizontcl into five equol ports'

3. Divide the verticol into ten equol porls the ''holf-|ine.'' 28

holves.

-

tive obove ond five below

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'ul

Palllj sornlDaj aqi lll/\^ slo^o

all o,:

=_:_

f-'.-'-1*"-*t-'

oql no^ a^ro lll/\^ ozrs or.uDs eql Jo slo^o o^ l PDeq oql Jo odDgs eloulxorddo lr sD ePr/v\ so lnogo sr oPls oYl uror1 Pa^^or^ Pooq aql 'tlOlt1 sl

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w

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er

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To drow the heod intelligently, you should know ot leosf the elementory focts obout the skull ond the fociol muscles.

Here ore the nomes of the different porrs of the skull:

1 FRONTAL 9 NASAL 3. ZycoMATtC (MALAR)

4 5

MAXILLIAR MANDIBLE

ó SPHENOID 7. TEMPORAL

B

9

PARIATAL OCCIPITAL

Copy the skull Írom both views

drow them from

A ond

B on opposife

poge-then fry fo

nt,em.ory.

Here ore the nomes of the fociol m,:scles ond their lrunctions:

1.

FRONTALIS

Elevotes eyebrow, wrin kles foreheod.

9. TEMPORALIS Roises mondible (iowbone). 3. ORBICULARIS (oculi) Closes eye, stretches skin of foreheod. 4. LEVATOR (lobii) Lifts upper lip upword ond outword. 5. ZYGOMATICUS Roises upper lip ond pulls it oufword (loughing). ó. MASSETER Roises lower jow ogoinsf upper with greot force. 7.'BUCCINATOR Presses Iips ogoinst feeth.

B

ORBICULARIS (oris) Closes lips.

9.

DEPRESSOR

LABII Inferior Drows lower lip down ond outword. 10. LEVATOR LABII Inferior Roises lower lip ond protrudes it forword; olso wrinkles chin. The heod in lower right corner shows ot points bones of the skull oppeor just under the skin.

30

A, B, C ond

D where the

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er

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As the heod, being sphericol in shope, lurns ond is seen from diFferent ongles, our imoginory dividing lines will follow the some lows of perspeclive os ony other circulor morking or cross-sections of o sphere.

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PORTRAITURE Almost everyone who studies drcwing would like to drow portroils. noturollv, should look like the person it represents.

A

portroit,

To creote o good likeness we must remember thot besides getting lhe correct shope ond proportions of the heod ond feolures, it is importont to study the clturact,'r ond c.t'prtssiott oI the sitter.

Before beginning o portroit, study your siller's foce lrom diÉferent ongles. Select the ongle thoi will bring out oll the desired chorocteristics' Lighting is oI grect importonce. Ploce your model in o spot thot is well lighred from o singlc sourcc. This shorp light ond shode, defining cleorly the form oieoch feoture.

w¡llgive

you

light, which does not gi,re ony shorp controst ol light ond shode, should be orrnilecl hv the heoinner.

D¡Éfused

v/

,,,v

vvv

Be sure thot both you ond your model ore cor[ortoble. yourself by working in on uncom[ortoble posrtion.

lt

is unnecessory lo hondicop

Wolk owoy from your work frequently; olso let fhe srtler rest oi intervols. Tolk to now-cnd-then io keep him olerl ond interesfed.

h¡m

Be most coreIul to obserue ond study the eyes ond the mouth.

The mouth is perhops the mosl importont feoture oI the foce since it expresses the mood ond chorocter oI the person.

Wotch your sitier's mouth os he tolks ond loughs. Shut your eyes ond try to remember ond visuolize its shope cnd expression. Do the some with the eyes. Wotch their-proporlion lo the foce, their dislonce from the nose ond their dislonce from eoch other.

Wotch lhe spof of highl,ght on the

rris.

lf you wish the eyes of your portroil toJ'ollo;' the onlooker, houe lhe sitter look strcight tilo lour eyes wnen you ore drowing iis. Don't be ofroid to emphosize chorocteristic troits.

"prettying" will give you bod ond Don't ot,¿rc ntp¡asizc os in mcking o coricoture; but inortistic hobils. Checi.-up on your drowing by holding it before o mirror. You will be surprised how your mistokes willstond out when you see your drowing in reverse. lf you ore not sotisfred with your drowing ond you tind thot you ore unoble to correcl it, hove the couroge to discord it cnd siorl oll ouer ogoin. Alwoys remember thot we leorn by our misickes.

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y

38

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THE

EYES

It would be very eosy to drow the humon eyes if it were not for the eyelids. The eyebolls themselves ore simply sphericol shopes set into the eye sockets in o

woy thot permits them to revolve in oll directions.

o comero ond ore similorly construcled. The porls of eye ore the eyeboll, ihe lens, the iris, ihe pupil ond the corneo. The eyes function l¡ke

the

tio

0 Len s

Eve

ffi I

ris

Coineo

Eyeboll

The iris is the colored disc of the eye wh¡ch vories in color in diÉferent individuols. lt is o circulor-shoped diophrogm with o block hole, colleC the ptt.pil,in its center. Beh¡nd the pupil ¡s the lens wh¡ch connot be seen. The iris is covered by o tronsporenr cup colled lhe cornea.The corneo usuolly reÉlects some bright lighr which mokes the eyes brilliont ond, ot times, even glossy in oooeoronce. The eyelids oct lrke curtoins over the eyes. The upper

lid

moves up-ond-down

like o shutter or l¡ke the top of o roll-lop desk. The lower lid scorcely moves.

their Studv the eyelids in their diÉferent positions os they open ond close, noting perspeclive from difrerent ongles. Drow their shopes core[ully ond do not over-

look their thickness.

with core ond not merely os c number of rondom lines. Remember thot the eyeloshes grow on the outer edge of the lrds ond thot they rodiote from o center.

The eyeloshes should be drown

At the inner corner oIeoch eye is the lriongulor-shoped teor glono. 40

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THE

MCUTH

To drow lhe humon mouth, when qt rest wilhout ony porticulor expression, is simple enough ond should not present ony speciol diĂ&#x2030;ficulty. ll is necessory only to be coreful obour its proportions ond the perspeclive of ils curved surfoces.

42

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Llll^

'loPorü u^\o rno^ e9 PUo rorjrru o olur lool oi /\^ojp puo qlnoui eql Ápnls ol o/\^ lseg oql

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sr suorssardxe asje^rP q3ns

'uo os puD 6urllsrrlr*

'6ur¡not1s 'rell6no¡ 'etnsoe¡d /ulod 'ta6uo /ssauu.lll6 ssetdxe '1nod :o a¡ru.ts 'uorsse:dxa auros ur 6ur1:o¡ r.,Joplas sr puo ollgor.ir,(¡eu:etlxa st qlnou orll

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THE EARS plocing it on the righl spot ond When drowing the humon eor be coreful obout of the ยกowbone ond the ot the correct ongle. The eor is ploced ot the outeredge well-drown eor is o thing of ongle runs porollel with the length of the nose. A obserued ond followed' beouty. The curved forms should be very corefully by slยกpshod drowing of the eor' Mony o tine srudy of the humon heod is spoiled

1.

Helix A .. I z-. Anlr-nelrx n

3.

I

Trogus

3o. Anti-trogus 4. Lobule

5.

it ;., !

AA

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THE

HANDS

the ortisi' Copy these onoThe hond, ofter the heod, is of primory interesf to fomilior with oll the fomicol chorts repeotedly until you L"'ecome lhoroughly then drow it from memory: minute detoils of the hond

-

1. Pholonges 2. Metocorpols 3. Wrist bones i^\

\\\ I r,\

Bock of hqnd Polm

of hond

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THE FEET The muscles, bones, ond tendons of the foot ore comporotively smo

ll.

The foot is constructed in o series of orches.

o remorkoble "engineering" slruclure, moking it possible for lhe feel to support the weight of the entire

These orches form

bodv.

When drowing o foot, t¡rst "block out" its generol shope.

With¡n this outline "block out" the Íorms of the sections cf the foot, moking sure f hey ore correct in proportion ond ongle. Be especiolly coreful obout the proportions of the toes olso the posilion of the onkles.

THE BCNES CF THE FCCT Á/'\/^l

l. \Js Lorcls 2. Astrogolus 3. The bones of the Torsus 4. Metotorsoi Bones 5. The Pholonges of the Toes.

MUSCLES

The muscles of the sole, the abductors, bend the toes. The muscles of the instep, the eilcn,sors. streich the toes.

52

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FIGURE

Here ore the proporfions of the mole ond [emole odult tigures. The octuol proportions ore neorer seven ond one holf heodlengths, bui here we use eight heodlengths, becouse it is eosier to divide eight into equol ports. Furthermore, thrs elongotes the figure ond mokes it more oppeoling. We put fhe center division (see chort) ot the crotch, but in reol life i1 usuolly comes obove the crotch.

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PRCPCRTIONATE HEIGHT OF FIGURES

IN

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DIFFERENT POSITIONS.

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OF THE

BONES

SK

ELETCN

FRONT VIE\I

1. Skull 9. Clovicle 3. Humerus 4. Rodius r

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Corpus

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13. Potello

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Sternum

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Ribs

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1ó. Torsols 17. Meiotorsols 18. Pholonges

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FRCNTAL MUSCLES OF THE ARM 1. DELTOIDEUS Front Seclion pulls ond rotofes orm inword. Back Section l¡fts ond roiotes orm ouiword. 2. B\CEPS BRACH\\

15,

Drows chest downword, pelvis up.

1ó LINEA ALBA Divides Rectus Abdominis vertico lly.

1I

Turns, brings orm forword, TRICEPS BRACHII

Extends foreorm, brings orm forword ot shoulder joint.

4. BRACHIALIS

1B INGUINAL

ó.

19

ond turns hond, bends

20

B

Brings forword

FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS

Flexes wrist.

10. FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS Bends ond brings wrist forword. 11. FLEXOR POLICIS LONGUS Bends thumb.

FRCNTAL MUSCLES CF IHE TCRSC 12. PECTORALIS GROUP Brings forword ond rototes or¡.n inword, olso pulls shoulder blode forword or ribs upword. 13. LATISSIMUS DORSI Brings orm forword, exlends qnd rototes orm inword. 14. SERRATUS ANTERIOR Drows shoulderblode forword, rototes lower point o[ shoulder blode outword.

62

ond

rototes

th ig h.

92

GRACIALIS

Bends knee, lilts thigh, rototes

leg inword.

EXTENSOR DIGITORUM

Extends tingers ond wrist.

9.

PECTINEUS

91, ADDUCTOR LONGUS

TERES

Turns foreorm inword, bends elbow ioint.

ond pulls

Brings thigh forword.

foreorm.

7 PRONATOR

PSOAS ILIACUS Bends thigh, roJotes

LEG

hip-¡oint inword.

EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS

Extends

LIGAMENT

FRCNIAL MUSCLES CF THE

Bends foreorm.

5. SUPINATOR LONGUS Turns hond, polm outword.

OBL\QUUS

Compresses obdomen, pulls chest forwqrd.

bends ond turns foreqrm.

3.

RECTUS ABDOMINIS

23. SARTORIUS Rototes thigh outword, flexes thigh ond leg.

24.

RECTUS FEMORIS

Stretches leg ot [<nee ond body

on h ips. 25. VASTUS MEDIALIS Works some os Rectus Femoris. 2ó VASTUS LATERALIS Works some os 24 ond 25.

27

PATELLAR LIGAMENT

eB. GASTROCNEMIUS (Colf)

Bends knee, exfends, lifts ond turns down foot.

20

SOLEUS

Siretches, l¡fts ond turns down foot.

30. EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS Flexes onkle, stretches the four smoller toes.

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SIDE

VIEW CF MUSCLES OF ARM

1. Deltoideus 9. Biceos Brochi¡ 3. Triceps Broch¡i 4. Broch¡ol¡s 5. Supinolor Longus ó. Extensor corpi rodiolis 7. Pronotor teres 9. Flexor corpi rodiolis

SIDE 1

VIEW CF MUSCLES OF TORSC

2.

Pectoro

I

is

'13. Lotissimus Dorsi 14. Serrotus Anterior 15. Rectus Abdominis

17. Cbliquus 18. Inguinol Ligoment

VIEW OF MUSCLES CF LEG 31. Gluteus medrus' Drows thigh oside ond rototes it inword 32. Gluteus moximus: Stretches thigh, drows it forword ond rototes ii outworo 33. Tensor fosioe lotoe: StiÉfens ouier side oÉ thigh ond rototes it inword 24. Rectus Femoris 2ó. Vostus Loterolis 34. Biceps Femoris: Bends knee-ioint, strelches thigh ond rototes l"g outword when

SIDE

knee is bent

28. 35.

Gostrocnemrus Peroneus Longus: Supporfs orch of foot, strelches, lurns ond drows foot outword

^^al Joleus zy. 30. Exfensor Digitorum

64

Longus

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MUSCLES CF

IHE

BACK

37. Tropezius:

Turns lower ongle of shoulder blode ouiword ond foreword, drows the

shoulderblodes toword eoch oiher, elevotes outword top of shoulder blode, extends tfre heod 38. Infrospinotus : Rototes orm oulword

inword 40. Rhomboideus: Elevotes shoulder, rototes lower port of shoulder blode inword, drows shoulder blodes toword eoch other

39. Teres mojor:

Ro.tofes orm

13. Lotissimus Dorsi 3'[. Gluteus medius 32. Gluteus moximus z^^^llt. Aooucror rongus 2贸. Vostus Loterolis R i.o^. Fo-^ri. v?L ,, e,vvYJ I

28.

Gosirocnemius

^r J).

reroneus Longus

41

66

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Without muscles our bodies could not move. We could nof wolk, bend, [<ick, or even smile.

Conlrocted

E"ponded

A

you murcle works like o sprrng. You con see this cction very ploinly when

expond ond ccnlroct Your bicePs.

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BALANCE AND MOTION Figure 1 represents o rigid humon body. The three heovy sections denole the heod, the chest ond the pelvíc section. The smoller seciions denote the neck, the woistline ond the legloints. HoWever, the humon figure is seldom, iIever, os motionless os

in Fig. 1.

ln Figure 2 we see thot when the heod tilts one woy

the

shoulder lrne immedictely tilts in the opposite direction, ond the pelvic line tilts opposite to thot of the shoulder line. Th¡s is on unfoiling rule of perfect bolonce. This countermovement holds true in every oction, ond in every

direction. For instance, in wolking or running, when the right foot goes forword, it is the left orm thoi goes forword ot the some time, ond vice tersa (Figs. 4, 5 ond ó). Keep strictly fo this principle if you wont true movement, other-

wise your Éigures will be stotic ond pose7,.

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FIGURE

SKETCHING

Cne of the most foscincting subiects to drow is the humon figure. The tine proportions, beoutiful modeling ond delicote bolonce, ond the in[inite voriotions in movement ond repose ore such fhot there is no other living thing to compore with it. Through countless oges crfists of oll roces houe drown, pointed, ond modeled the numon rorm.

lf you hove never done ony [rgure drowing, I would suggest thot you stcrt to drow the humon [igure in its simplest pose with little or no foreshortening. Th¡s is on upright stondrng position wiih orms close to the body ond feet together.

McLe up your mind before you begin, how lorge you wont your drowing to be ond mork on your poper the totol lengrh desired. Your drowing must be exoctly the size lhot you hcve indicoted on your poper. Your next slep is to drow o stroight, verticol line connecting lhe two morks. Th¡s w¡ll indrcote the imoginory line of grovitotion running from heod to foot.

Now rork the center of the bodv bv dividing the verticol line into two equol

ports.

Mork your proportions. Drow in the ovol of the heod. Meosure rhe width of the shoulders compcred to the length of the body. Drcw in the shoulder I¡ne. Do the some wrth the hrps'

pencil in your outstretched hond, tirst gettrng the width, then meosuring verticolty the number of iimes the widrh goes into the lotol length oIthe bodv ) Now proceed ro drow the mosses of the chest, hips, legs, etc'

(To meosure, use

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To check on your drowing, wotch the shope of the backgrountl thot surrounds lhe frgure. See rf these "le[t spoces" (or negotive shopes) correspond with the outline oI your drowing. For instonce, whotever the position of your subieci, wotch the shope ond size oI the s1r(1.f between the orms ond the body; between the t¡lted heod ond the shoulder; between the two legs, elc., elc' Ihese will be your lc.l'ts¿(¡.cr. Speciolottention io them will be of greot help in mcking o correct drowing.

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WILLY POGAI\Y One of the most popular drawing guides ever published, The Art of Drawing has been an informative and thorough guide to several generations of aspiring artists. For fifty years, Willy Pogány has given the main principles of drawing in a simple, constructive way. By following the sequences laid out in the lessons, students quickly master the art of drawing.

As a further aid, Pogány gives a complete anatomical description of the body for each section, including a list of all bones and a description of the muscles and their uses. The Art of Drawing provides a complete drawing system and includes hundreds of illustrations. Every artist, beginning or advanced. should own this book. Cover illustrations used with permission of Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 387 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10016 from Bridgnton's Ct',utplete Gttide tt't Dravittq from Life by George B. Bridgman, @ 1952 by Sterling Publishing Co. Cü'er desiqtt bt'The Great Anterican Art

Co.

g@Esg. $14.e5 ANT OF DRAWINO

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Willy Poganys  

this book shows how to draw a human figure.

Willy Poganys  

this book shows how to draw a human figure.

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