Page 1

BASIC NUTRITION TRAINING AT VILLAGE LEVEL GUIDELINE FOR

ISBN:

January 2012

For further communications contact Tanzania Home Economics Association (TAHEA) MSUNU STREET, Nyegezi P.O. BOX 11242 MWANZA TANZANIA Phone: 255 - 028-2502555, 2550172 Tel fax: 255 - 028-2502555 OR 2500676 taheamwanza@gmail.com


PREFACE

G

ood nutrition is the foundation of good health in human beings and provides for proper growth of the body and brain development especially in children. Good nutrition also enables the body to endure the effects of various diseases, strengthens the immune system against diseases, improves the ability to reason and gives strength to work.

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

In Tanzania the understanding of nutrition is limited, especially among rural communities. This has contributed significantly to the presence of serious nutrition problems in rural communities compared to urban communities. Learning about nutrition is important and will create awareness about the importance of good nutrition and the effects of poor nutrition. Training on nutrition will provide insight to healthy eating, good life style and how to deal with the impacts of poor nutrition. In providing nutrition education, it is recommended to give priority to groups of people who are most affected including infants and young children, mothers of child bearing age and especially pregnant and lactating women not forgetting nutrition for people living with HIV and AIDS. This guide has been prepared to assist trainers in providing effective training on nutrition to rural communities. It also explains the difference between food and nutrition, which many people fail to distinguish. It also describes the various categories of nutrients and relevant foods sources as well as safety and hygiene issues necessary when handling food and water. The guideline also explains different recipes that can be made using orange sweet potatoes, commonly known as nutritious sweet potatoes rich in Vitamin A. It is also advisable for the trainers where there is need to seek for more information on nutrition from various detailed sources to expand their understanding on nutrition. Note that everyday there is new knowledge been discovered through research. It is beneficial for the facilitator to learn what the community already knows about nutrition. Then supplement it and fill in existing knowledge gaps and adjust where needed It is our hope that trainers will deliver nutrition message more appropriately to the entire community taking into consideration differences in the levels of education including those who are illiterate. Our expectation is that this guide will contribute to improve nutrition in rural communities especially to the groups that are most vulnerable.

3


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

The Preparation of this guideline is a result of efforts from various institutions and individuals. TAHEA – Mwanza would therefore like to express its appreciation to everyone who participated in one way or the other in accomplishing this work. We wish to express our appreciation for the financial support provided by Helen Keller International through the Monsanto Fund. We would like to thank the following for their technical assistance; Asia Kapande and Mary Kabati from TAHEA,Itika Kisunga from Tanzania consortium of Nutritionists and Generose Mulokozi from Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre.

Proofreading and Editing WriteRightÂŽ 0789654000 Layout and Design Sameer Kermalli 0787212256 4


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

3.0 NUTRIENT, FUNCTION AND SOURCES 3.1 What are nutrients 3.2 Carbohydrate 3.4 Fats / Oil 3.5 Protein 3.6 Vitamins and Minerals 3.6.1 Vitamin A

4 4 4 5 6 6 7

4.1 Food safety and hygiene 4.2 Water Hygiene and Safety 4.3 Environment and personal hygiene

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

ASSESSMENT AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

9 9 10

Appendix A: Table showing example of balanced meal and the food groups. Appendix B;

10

ORANGE FLESHED SWEET POTATO RECIPES 1. SMALL CAKES 2. BIG CAKES 3. BUNS - MANDAZI 4. CHAPATI (Using Orange fleshed sweet potato flour) 5. CRISPS 6. GRILLED PIECES OF ORANGE FLESHED SWEET POTATO AND MEAT 7. PORRIDGE.

12 13 14 16 17 18 20 22

REFERENCES

22

5


ASSESSMENT AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 .1 Pre test questions:

Discuss the following

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

What is food? What is nutrition? What is good nutrition? Mention five food groups? Mention different types of nutrients? Which types of food are source of vitamin A? Mention important things to consider in making sure food and water safe and hygiene is observed?.

1.2. Learning objectives: At the end of the lesson participant should be able:

1. To understanding the meaning of nutrition, good nutrition and the difference between food and nutrition. 2. To mention and explain food groups which are sources of nutrients 3. To know different types of nutrients. 4. To explain how to plan a balanced meal by using locally available food. 5. To explain actions that need to be taken to make sure food and water safety and hygiene is observed 6. To prepare different types of food/meals using different recipes of orange fleshed sweet potatoes.

6


2.0. BASIC NUTRITION 2.1 What is a food and nutrition Food is anything eaten for the purpose of giving the body nutrients important for growth and maintaining good health. Nutrition is a process of nourishing or being nourished, a result of various body processes from when food is ingested, assimilated and utilized by the body.

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

Good nutrition is attained by eating nutritious, safe and adequate food comprising of a mixture of different food groups containing adequate amount of nutrients required by the body.

2.2 What is the importance of good nutrition Good nutrition will satisfy the following: 1. Provide the body with temperature and energy enabling the body to work with a good performance and keep active. 2. Growth, building, restoring and repairing cells and tissues 3. Develop and strengthen chemical systems food breakdown, metabolism and body maintenance. 4. Protection against communicable diseases. 5. Is essential for the survival, growth and physical and mental development, it is also important for learning, increasing efficiency and productivity. To maintain good health, a daily diet should aim at good nutrition as to complete the activities mentioned above. To achieve this, it is important to consider a balanced meal.

2.3 What is a balanced meal Balanced meal means eating a variety of foods from all the food groups. A variety which provides all the nutrients that are needed by the body. It is important for a person to eat a balanced meal for a healthier and longer life.

7


Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

There are five main food groups which are: 1. Cereal; example: maize, rice, millet, sorghum. Roots and tubers; example: green bananas, sweet potatoes, yams, taro, cassava, etc. 2. Lentils and nuts example; beans, soya beans, cow peas, green lentils, bean mung, peas etc. Meat, edible insects, poultry, sea food, milk and milk products and oily seeds; example: beef, fish, yoghurt, peanuts and sesame seeds etc 3. Vegetables; example: spinach, sweetpotato leaves, carrots, pumpkin leaves 4. Fruits example: papaya, mango, pineapple, ripe bananas, guava, orange, Passion, avocado, watermelon, baobab pulp) 5. Fat, sugar and honey.

Remember to use specific examples of food that are relevant in the area. Water is an essential part of the diet as assists in the digestion and absorption of food, it is advised to drink at least one and a half liters per day of clean and safe water, also fruit juices of natural fruits such as coconut water can be used. High intake of sugar, fat and salt is associated with increased risk of chronic noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Therefore they should be taken in moderation.

3.0 NUTRIENTS, FUNCTION AND SOURCES 3.1 What are nutrients Nutrients are chemical substances for nourishing and maintaining good health. Most nutrients are from the food we eat. It is recommended to eat a balanced diet that allows the body to obtain all necessary nutrients required by the body. There are various nutrients which have various body functions. Include here are some of the known nutrients that have been studied and functions identified. 3.2 Carbohydrate Carbohydrate is used as the principal source of energy in the body. Starchy foods and sugar are good sources of carbohydrates. Some starches and sugars are transformed into body fat by the body. 8

FUNCTIONS Fibers from carbohydrate help to enhance bowel function and as a result it can prevent and treat constipation. It also helps remove toxic chemicals, and thus makes the intestines healthy and reduces the chances of getting cancer. It contributes to slow down the solubility and absorption of some nutrients and thus helps to reduce body fatness. SOURCES Carbohydrate is found in various foods including • Cereals like maize, millet, rice, wheat • The roots of starchy foods such as sweet potatoes, normal potatoes, taro, and cassava.


3.4 Fats / Oil Fat and oils can be found in foods of animal and plant origin. FUNCTIONS

Fats/Oils have the following functions in the body;

• •

• Increase the aroma and taste of food. • Makes food, particularly meat and dried foods soft. • Satiety ; Fat/Oil brings about satiety and can make a person feel satisfied for longer.

SOURCES Fat meat, nuts, coconut, cashew nut, sesame, sunflower, palm oil etc. In general is oil necessary and is required by the body as they have important functions; but these should not be in excess as they can cause increase in body weight. 3.5 Protein Protein is important nutrient for building of the body and other organs. It is also important for restoration of worn out and depleted cells. Therefore the body needs protein everyday. SOURCES Protein is found in foods of animal and plant origin. Animal sources include beef, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk etc. The foods of animal origin are known for its high levels of protein. Plant sources include soya beans, peanuts, cashews, Bambara nuts. Some protein is also found in wheat, maize / corn, and other types of grains, and vegetables too. Proteins from plant source are believed to be of lesser quality compared to animal sources.

9

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

It helps in producing hormones. Helps to carry other nutrients such as vitamins A, D, E, and K and facilitate its absorption in the body. • It is a good source of energy and body heat. • It is one of the raw materials needed to manufacture the cells particularly • brain cells and sensory nerves.

Functions of Fat/Oil on food:


3.6 VITAMINS AND MINERALS Vitamin helps protect the body from various diseases. There are many kinds of vitamins such as A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, D, E, K, folic acid, pantothenic acid and biotin. Vitamins and Minerals are required in small amounts by the body (micronutrient). Although required in small amounts they are very important and should be consumed on a daily basis. Deficiency of some vitamins and minerals has been found to be of a public importance in Tanzania. These include vitamin A, iodine and iron.

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

FUNCTIONS Minerals are needed in growth and body maintenance. Minerals also help to maintain and repair enzymes. Plants get nutrients from the soil and water. Animals get minerals by eating plants or animals that eat plants. There are various minerals needed in our bodies such as minerals Iron, Iodine, Potassium, Sodium, Selenium, Calcium and Zinc. Vitamins and minerals are also known as the food of building and protection of the body. SOURCES Vitamins and minerals are found in various foods including 1. Vegetables and fruit such as orange skinned sweet potato yellow, carrots, pumpkins, mango, papaya, and palm oil are very good sources of vitamin A. 2. Most fruits from citrus and vegetables with pale green are good sources of vitamin C, foliate and vitamin A. 3. Meats, animal internal organs such as liver is a good source of vitamins and minerals.

3.6.1 VITAMIN A Functions of vitamin A in the body

1. It helps you see better in deem light 2. Strengthens the immune system against various diseases and thus reduce illnesses and death, especially of young children. 3. Strengthens better growth and better development in children. The whole community needs to get sufficient level of vitamin A by getting large quantities of vitamin A dietary intake. However, children under five years of age and lactating mothers have more demand and so it is recommended they be given additional vitamin A supplements (capsules) more than they receive from food. Children have additional needs for growth. Similarly, children with malnutrition, measles, problems of the eyes 10


(xerophthalmia) or diarrhea, should receive vitamin A as they are at risk of having Vitamin A deficiency. Mothers who breastfeed should receive additional vitamin A soon after birth and at least for the next 8 weeks after birth so that she will have enough vitamin A for the needs of her body and also surplus that will reach the baby through breast milk. SOURCES OF VITAMIN A

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

Sources of Vitamin A are foods of animal origin such as liver, dairy foods and milk and eggs. Vitamin A is also found in foods of plant origin such as green vegetables, yellow vegetables such as carrots, pumpkins also yellow fruits like papaya, mango and passion. Palm oil and orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) also contain vitamin A in large quantities. Foods of animal origin get absorbed more easily by our bodies, so they are very good sources compared to that of plant origin which goes through different stages of change before they are utilized by the body. However, foods of animal origin are expensive so most families fail to access them easily. Foods of plant origin like fruits and vegetables are produced easily and cheaply and so many families can afford the price. STORING AND PREPARING FOODS CONTAINING VITAMIN A

Vitamin A is destroyed and lost in large quantity in direct sunlight, heat and oxygen. Therefore it is recommended that foods containing vitamin A should not being subjected for long time on direct sunlight, heat and oxygen. It is advised to be stored away from direct sunlight and heat. They should also be covered to avoid oxygen and sunlight. When drying them it is advisable to use solar driers which protect food from direct sunlight.

11


4.0 FOOD AND WATER SAFETY AND HYGIENE Food and water can easily be contaminated. When consumed while contaminated they can cause illness like diarrhea and stomach pain. It is advised to observe good hygienic practices while processing, storing, preparing and handling of food and water.

4.1 Food safety and hygiene Important things to consider:

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

1. Observe quality of packaging, labels and expiry dates for safety when using processed foods. Avoid torn paper bags, rusted, tilted and bulged cans. 2. Wash fruits and vegetables well before eating. 3. Eat food immediately after cooking, when food is kept for more than two hours it should be reheated before being eaten. 4. Store properly foods of grain and cereals origin particularly groundnuts and prevent them from getting fungus, food which has been affected by fungus should not be consumed. 5. Meat, milk, fish and eggs should be well cooked to avoid any infection. 6. Wash immediately utensils used in the processing and preparation of uncooked food to prevent contamination of cooked foods.

4.2 Water Hygiene and Safety Important things to consider:

• Boil drinking water and leave it to boil for at least 10 more minutes. • Store water in clean covered containers. • Ensure that water is stored in a bottle, a calabash or gallons or any container which allow water to be poured. 12


4.3 Environment and personal hygiene

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

1. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before preparing food and/ or before eating anything. 2. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet, assisting a child after he/she has been to the toilet and after dressing wounds. 3. Close the wounds before handling and preparing food to prevent dirt and germs entering in the food. 4. Use the toilet hygienically and it should be kept clean at all times. 5. Keep your mouth and teeth clean all the times and fingernails should be short and clean. 6. Avoid sneezing or coughing on food or to other people. 7. Ensure the food preparation areas and dining table are clean (no insects such as flies and cockroaches). 8. Wash food containers, dry and keep on clean place. 9. Dispose food waste and other debris in correct place to prevent infestation of flies and other insects.

! ALWAYS REMEMBER TO WASH EVERYTHING PROPERLY

13


Appendix A:

Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level

Table showing example of balanced meal and the food groups.

FOOD GROUP

EXAMPLE

Cereal, root and tubers

Bread, Rice, Sorghum, Sweet potatoes, Wheat, Maize, Cassava

Fruits

Orange, Guava, Mango, Pineapple, Ripe Banana, Avocado, Watermelon

Vegetables

Tomatoes,Carrots, Amarathans, Sweet potato leaves, pumpkin leaves, Peas, Spinach

Milk and milk products

Yoghurt, Cheese, Ghee, Milk

Meat

Meat, Poultry, Edible Insects, Fish and Eggs

Seeds and nuts

Beans, Ground nut, Soya beans, Bambara nuts

14


Appendix B: ORANGE FLESHED SWEET POTATO RECIPES Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP)

These are sweet potatoes that are a deep Orange flesh color. They are rich in Vitamin A. They are common in different parts of Tanzania including Mwanza. They can be used to prepare different types of foods including cakes, breads, buns, porridge and juice as shown below; SMALL CAKES

Take the eggs and put on clean container continue stirring until the eggs give foam.

Mix gradually from the requirement (b) and (c) continue stirring until all mixed, if the mixture is still stiff add fresh milk or water gradually into the mixture until

S

Mix the other requirements aside, wheat flour, baking powder and Orange fleshed sweet potato

E

Place sugar, butter in a plastic bowl, begin stirring sugar and butter until well mixed and should provide a white foam, or a color of a stiff porridge.

P

I

Preparation:

C

600 gms (2 plastic mugs) 1400 gms (4.6. Plastic mugs) 30 gms (3 tblspoons) 800 gms (1.6 plastic cup ) 1400 gms (2.8 plastic cup) 14 10 gms (one tblspoon) 10 mls (2 teaspoons) 1 liter or adequate

E

Amount required

Orange fleshed sweet potato flour Wheat flour Baking Powder Sugar Butter Eggs Pods/Lind of green lemon (grated) Vanilla (strawberry Essence) Water

R

Ingredients

you meet the mixture which is easily flowing. •

Add the vanilla or lemon pod, or fruit and mix well

Grease the baking tin with little oil

(Bake the cake at 18oC until the cake turn to light brown, which may take half an hour or more depending on whether it is a baking oven or pan.

Remove the cake from the baking tin and put into a dry, clean container to cool, park on the container which was prepared and put the label.

15


BIG CAKES Ingredients

Amount required

Orange fleshed sweet potato Wheat flour Baking powder (Mandashi brand) Sugar Butter Eggs Pod/Lind of lemon Vanilla / strawberry Essence Mixed dried fruit Water

300 gms (1 plastic cup) 700 gms (2.3 plastic cup) 15g (3 teaspoons) 400 gms (0.8 plastic cup) 700 gms (1.4 plastic cup) 6 15 gms (3 teaspoons) 10 mls (2 teaspoons) 250 gms (approximately one cup) Enough water

you meet the mixture which is easily flowing. •

Add the vanilla or lemon pod, or fruit and mix well

Grease the baking tin with little oil

(Bake the cake at 18oC until the cake turn to light brown, which may take half an hour or more depending on whether it is a baking oven or pan.

Remove the cake from the baking tin and put into a dry, clean container to cool, park on the container which was prepared and put the label.

E

S

Preparation: • Place sugar, butter in a plastic bowl, begin stirring sugar and butter until well mixed and should provide a white foam, or a color of a stiff porridge.

R 16

Mix the other requirements aside, wheat flour, baking powder and Orange fleshed sweet potato

Take the eggs and put on clean container continue stirring until the eggs give foam.

Mix gradually from the requirement (b) and (c) continue stirring until all mixed, if the mixture is still stiff add fresh milk or water gradually into the mixture until

E

C

I

P


BISCUITS

(Orange fleshed sweet potatoes flour or Boiled and mashed Orange fleshed sweet potatoes)

Ingredients

Amount required

Orange fleshed sweet potato Wheat flour Baking powder (mandashi brand) Sugar Butter Eggs Lemon rind (green) Water

600 gms (2 cups plastic) 1400 gms (14.6 plastic cup) 20 gms (2 tablespoons) 600 gms (1.2. Plastic cup) 800 gms (1.6 on a plastic cup) 8 10 gms (one tablespoon of food) enough water

Preparation: •

Put small holes on top of the biscuits by using fork or stick make sure the holes are not going deeper to the bottom of the biscuits

Place the butter in the mixture (a) then mix until it becomes like a small granules

Beat an egg and put into a separate container, mix eggs in the mixture (b) continue mixing until the mixture become soft , add water or milk gradually if needed until the dough becomes soft for kneading/rolling.

Bake at 200’C temperature until cookies turn brown, it can take 15 minutes, depending on the heat available / used.

Remove the biscuits from the baking tray and place in a clean container to cool.

After mixing leave the dough 30 minutes

Roll the dough until rich the thickness of 0.2 centimeters using a cutting tool of different shapes to cut the biscuits do so until all dough is finished.

Pack / put in a plastic bag and close well, put a label including manufacturer’s name, manufacturing and expiring date.

I

C

Grease the baking tin and arrange the cookies

E

R

Mix together all the requirements, wheat flour, baking powder, sugar, and Orange fleshed sweet potato to comply with the requirements specified.

P E S

17


BUNS (MANDAZI) Ingredients

Amount required

Orange fleshed sweet potato flour Wheat flour Baking powder (mandashi brand) Sugar Cooking Oil Water Oil for frying

600 gsm (2 plastic cups) 1400 gms (4.6 on a plastic cup) 30g (3 teaspoons of food removal) 130g (13 teaspoons of food) 18ml. (3.6 teaspoons) Enough for your needs 2 liters

Preparation: •

Sieve all the ingredients and put them

After showing it has risen roll the dough on tablet / board with thickness of 0.5cm

Cut your pastry into shapes that you like by using the cutting tool with various shapes.

Boil the oil to 160°c put pieces of pastry in boiled oil and after 5-6 minutes, turning each side until they become brown in colour.

Remove the pastry from the oil and put them into a clean, dry container to cool.

Mix all together until well mixed.

Put a small hole in center of flour and put the oil and mix well

Keep on adding a little water and kneading until the mixture do not stick on your hands and become smooth.

Let the dough raise for 45 minutes

R

E

C

I

P

E

S

in a bowl with baking powder and sugar.

18


CHAPATI

Using Orange fleshed sweet potato flour

Ingredients

Amount required

Orange fleshed sweet potato flour Wheat flour Salt Cooking oil Water Cooking Oil for frying Chapatti

600 gms (2 plastic cups) 1400 gms (4.6 plastic cups) 18.5 gms (4.6. Teaspoons removal) 40 mls (4 tablespoons of food) enough water 0.5 liter (1 plastic cup)

CHAPATI Using boiled and crushed Orange fleshed sweet potato

1000gm (1.6 on a plastic cup) 1000 gms 3.3 cup plastic) 18.5 gms (4.6 teaspoons) 30 mls (3 tablespoons of food) Enough 0.5. Liter (1 cup of plastic)

R E C

Orange fleshed sweet potato Wheat flour Salt Oil cooking Water Oil for frying chapati

I P

Preparation:

Divide the dough into small balls

Roll the ball one after another on a board or clean table in the shape of a circle / oval and spread little fat, roll again to get a good round

Add a little oil amount on the pan, place on stove / fire and start frying chapati by keep adding very little oil when needed / until chapati is cooked by turning to brown colour.

When Chapati is ready put them on hot pot or plastic bag to remain warm which prevent them from becoming hard.

E

Mix wheat flour,Orange fleshed sweet potato flour , salt, on the same container.

Add oil and continue mixing

Keep on adding little water to your mixture, and kneading until the mixture do not stick on your hands ( that shows it is ready)

Cover the mixture with your tray or container and leave for 30 minutes

19

S


CRISPS Ingredients

Amount

Orange fleshed sweet potato Salt Oil for frying

4 kg (potatoes diet of an average 8) 16g (4 teaspoons) 4 liters (8 cups, plastic)

Preparations

water drop.

Wash and peel potatoes

Use a cutting tool to get a small lightweight pieces in various shapes that will please with thickness of 0.2cm-0.3cm Soak in water the slices of potatoes (in the pot / bowl) of salt for the amount mentioned above

Put pieces of potatoes into boiling oil continuing frying until crisps turn to brown colour.

Remove potatoes from the oil and put in a clean container leave for the oil to drop

If the salt was not enough you can sprinkle salt while hot.

When cool park / put in a plastic bag and put the label

E

S

(Remove potatoes pieces from water and placed in a container with mesh vents for

C

Ingredients

Amount

Orange fleshed sweet potato flour Lemon Sugar Water

(5000g) ½ kg (2 regular tea cup) 2 medium sized 100g 10 teaspoons of food) Enough

R

PORRIDGE

E

I

P

Preparations •

Take potato flour mixed with a little water to get a thin porridge.

Boil water in a sauce pan which you will use to make porridge

Pour your mixture of potato flour with water on the boiled water and continue stirring the porridge to prevent forming balls.

• 20

Express the lemon juice and filtering to

provide seeds, and continue stirring the porridge. •

Cooked porridge a bit thick and it may take 20 minutes

Remove porridge from stove and add lemon juice and sugar stir together till well mixed.

Porridge will be ready to drink, advised to drink while warm


POTATO JUICE Ingredients

Amount

Boiled and Orange fleshed sweet potato Sugar Lemon juice Pineapple / passion fruit, or both Water

1.8 kgs (3 plastic cups) 1 kg (2 cups plastic) 240 mls (teaspoons) 300 mls (30 teaspoons of food) 5 gallon (10 cups, plastic)

Preparations •

Leave the juice to cool in a room by laying a bottle on the table.

Place a label on the bottle showing manufacturing date, manufacturer and expiring date. Drink the juice, you can add water as you will see if it is very sweet depending on taste / flavor

I

Melt sugar in a liter of water and boil the remaining mix in the melting pot to get the juice of the sugar Pour the sugar water boiled in the juice of the numbers (b) which is the mixture of fruit, crushed potatoes mixed and filtered and then boil all the juice mixture until reaching 80 - 90’c temperature.

C P E

Put the juice into clean plastic containers and covers (bottle or bucket)

E

Add lemon juice and pineapple / passion on crushed potatoes which water have been added strained.

R

Mix 2 liters of water on boiled and crushed potatoes until very tender (without balls of potatoes) and put the water and remaining 2 liters of water (4 liters to reach the water) and strain through a clean cotton cloth .

S 21


BAJIA Ingredients

Amount

Boiled and crushed Orange fleshed sweet potato Wheat flour Baking powder (mandashi brand) chilli pepper salt Fat/ butter Onion leaves Water Oil for frying

300 gms (approximately 1 cup) 300 gms (2 cups approximately) 12 gms (2.4 teaspoons) 4.5 gms (¾ teaspoon) 4 gms (one teaspoon) 5 gms (1 teaspoon) 10 gms (1 tablespoon) enough enough

Sieve and mix wheat flour and backing powder in a bowl or basin

Add salt, pepper and mix

Grind onion leaves, mix the mixture into dish or bowl with a mixture of (b)

Add crushed potato, fat on dish or bowl and mix with the whole mixture (c)

Mix all and continue kneading and add a little water until the mixture is smooth and light.

Leave the mixture after you finish kneading for 10-15 minutes

Take the dough and cut small pieces for frying

Heat the oil for frying.

Add pieces into boiling oil and continue turning until bajia appear brown.

Remove bajia from the oil and put into container which will drain the oil.

Put in a plastic bag to keep warm and prevent bajia to become very dry.

R

E

C

I

P

E

S

Preparations

22


GRILLED PIECES OF ORANGE FLESHED SWEET POTATO AND MEAT Ingredients Orange fleshed sweet potato Beef Lemon juice Mixed spices Cooking oils Grinded garlic Green pepper Grinded ginger Onion Salt and pepper Cinnamon

Amount 1 kg (two potatoes of average size) ¼ kg 10 mls (1 tablespoon ) 4 gms (1 teaspoon ) 10 mls (1 teaspoon) 5 gms (1 teaspoon) ½ (teaspoon) 5 gms (1 teaspoon) 2 Medium 4 gms (1 teaspoon) 6

Preparations

Take spices, lemon juice, garlic, mixed spices, pepper, oil, ginger, salt and pepper, mix all together

Cut the meat pieces and soak / put in a mixture of ingredients that (b) leave for 30 minutes to be well mixed.

Cut green pepper and onion in the shape of a circle or any

Shape that can attract which can be grilled.

Peel and cut potatoes into small pieces of circular or any shape which can attract when grilled.

Arrange pieces of onion, green pepper, slices of potato beef cuts for the variation in the clean sticks and rub on very little oil.

Grill potato pieces and meat on a charcoal stove, continue turning until all cooked.

Prepare a table ready to eat as snacks or a meal while hot.

C

E

Wash the potatoes, without peeling and boil whole potatoes for a very short time, to avoid it to be very cooked.

R

I P E S

23


REFERENCES Cooking with a Tanzanian Touch. United Republic of Tanzania - Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, 2001 Food and Nutrition. Anita Tull, Oxford University, GCSE Edition. 1991 National Guidelines for Nutrition care and Support for People living with HIV. TFNC, 2009

R

E

C

I

P

E

S

Sweet Potato Recipe Book. Sweet potato processed products from Eastern and Central Africa - Edited by C.Owori, Berga Lemaga, R.O.M. Mwanga, A. Namtebi and R. Kapinga. 2002.

24


R

E

C

I

P

E

S

25


Guideline For Basic Nutrition Training At Village Level NOTES

26


Â

For further communications contact Tanzania Home Economics Association (TAHEA) MSUNU STREET, Nyegezi P.O. BOX 11242 MWANZA TANZANIA Phone: 255 - 028-2502555, 2550172 Tel fax: 255 - 028-2502555 OR 2500676 taheamwanza@gmail.com

Guide_English  

GUIDELINE FOR January 2012 ISBN: For further communications contact Tanzania Home Economics Association (TAHEA) MSUNU STREET, Nyegezi P.O. B...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you