SA JUSTICE CANADA & BERMUDA MODERN SLAVERY AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING RESPONSE
Canada and Bermuda
Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Response Work Impact Report 2021
Contents: Glossary of Abbreviations
Letter from the Territorial Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Response Coordinator
Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Response Work Throughout the Territory
B.C. Division – Illuminate. Prairie Division – Winnipeg and Surrounding Area Correctional and Justice Services. Ontario Division – London and Surrounding Area Correctional and Justice Services, Toronto Harbour Light Immigration and Refugee Services.
1. Raise Awareness. Educate People. 2. Preventing Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking. Engage in Outreach. 3. Supporting Survivors. Responding Holistically. 4. Partner with Others. Advocate for Change.
Plans for 2022–2023
Territorial Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Response Committee Leadership Team
Glossary of Abbreviations: CJS – Correctional and Justice Services MP – Member of Parliament MSHT – Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking MSHTR – Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Response OPP – Ontario Provincial Police POP – Prostitution Offender Program TFWP – Temporary Foreign Workers Program TRP – Temporary Resident Permit WSA – Women Seeking Alternative Program
“I love being a Survivor Peer Support Worker. Women open up to me. They tell me things they won’t tell others because they know I’ll get it. They know I won’t judge. The truth is I think I get more out of it than they think. I get to watch women blossom. I get to jump with joy with them. I see the progress. I get to tell them how genuinely proud of them I am. We build life-long transformational relationships. And truth be told? We also grow together.” Caroline Pugh-Roberts Survivor Peer Support Worker
Letter from the Territorial MSHTR Coordinator Dear Partners in Justice, In 2021, we launched into year one of the Canada and Bermuda’s Territorial Fight For Freedom Strategy – a call to action inviting us to journey with God to bring justice, shalom, and freedom to those on the margins of exploitation. Today, there are more than 40 million women, men, and children globally impacted by MSHT. Among these, more than 15 million are in forced and early marriage, more than 24 million are in forced labour situations1, and about 30 percent of those exploited are children2. Amid this staggering and horrifying reality internationally, MSHT is also happening here in Canada and Bermuda. Whether we realize it or not, it’s happening in our homes and communities across the land. It 3 is not an “over there” issue. In Canada specifically, there is an estimated 17,000 people enslaved . It is 4 also estimated that 93% of Canada’s sex trafficking victims are born in Canada and over 50% of these 5 victims are Indigenous . While it is extremely difficult to locate any recorded statistics and estimates for MSHT in Bermuda, we know that there is no country globally exempted from this social injustice happening within its borders. The Canada and Bermuda Territory continues to believe that we have a unique role in responding and fighting against this growing phenomenon and seeks to listen and respond to God’s leading. This report highlights the progress we have achieved in year one of our strategic plan and desirable outcomes. We celebrate and rejoice in the MSHT response work that God allows us to partner with Him in as He leads and guides our focus and efforts. I cannot express enough my respect and appreciation for all our MSHTR front-line workers, survivor leaders, partners, people stepping out of their comfort zone to learn and engage, and the Territorial MSHTR Committee. Each and everyone of you are agents of change, part of the solution, and freedom fighters. We honour you! With immense gratitude, Ray Lamont (Major) Territorial MSHTR Coordinator Chair, Territorial MSHTR Committee
1. Global Slavery Index 2021 2. 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report 3. Global Slavery Index 2021 4. Joy Smith Foundation 5. Paula Newton, “Canada’s Stolen Daughters: Sex Traffickers Target Indigenous Canadians, 2017”
“If we are to better the future, we must disturb the present” Catherine Booth Salvation Army Co-Founder
MSHTR Work Throughout the Territory
The Salvation Army is committed to serving victims, survivors and their families and friends, and reducing the demand of MSHT through our programs across Canada and Bermuda. These programs range from outreach, emergency housing, short-term and long-term housing, live-in rehabilitation services, employment training, peer support, drop-in centres, and case management. Here is what we are doing... 7
British Columbia Division
The Salvation Army’s Illuminate operates six direct MSHTR services and initiatives in Canada for survivors of MSHT. They boldly disrupt the cycles of human trafficking by illuminating public awareness through education, relentless intervention strategies and safe places for survivors to heal, as well as establishing networks that build back extraordinary lives for those affected in Canada. Their services and initiatives include: PROPEL Survivor Development Centre: Is an outreach program offered to survivors ages 16 and up residing within the general population. Offered digitally and in-person, participants can engage in full-time or part-time education, training, mentorship, secondstage housing subsidies, employment programs (such as barista and cosmetology training), survivor-led case management, and registered clinical therapy. DEBORAH’S GATE Safe House: Is a high-security safe house and live-in program for female-presenting survivors ages 16 and up. Survivors have access to full-time programming customized to their needs, individual bedrooms, registered clinical therapy, and beautiful, safe learning spaces to begin the road of healing. RENEW Mental Health and Addictions: Is a full-time, part-time or online program offering promising practice treatment programming that focuses on trauma, addictions, and mental health in a specialized and multi-modal delivery.
LIVING HOPE Life and Living Skills Program: Provides specialized online and inperson education, activities, and events that strengthen and enrich the undertakings of daily living, employment, education, volunteering and social development of survivors. SHIFT Survivor-Led Research Initiatives: Conducts research to learn and respond to the unique complexities of this issue in Canada with survivor leaders engaged in the development, implementation and evaluation of each research initiative. United Nations Financial Access Project: As the host site of multiple national financial access projects, Illuminate partners with major financial institutions to give equitable access to survivors of MSHT to develop economic independence and financial viability for their future. This project is done in partnership with the United Nations Finance Against Modern Slavery Initiative. All programming offered is specialized for survivors of MSHT and developed in-house with survivor collaboration, utilizing a trauma-informed, culturally integrative, and de-colonizing praxis.
To find out more about our programming, visit our website at
Winnipeg and Surrounding Area Correctional and Justice Services (CJS). The Salvation Army’s Winnipeg and Surrounding Area CJS operates three direct MSHTR services and initiatives in Canada for both victims and survivors of MSHT and perpetrators and sex purchasers. Through key partnerships, funding agreements and collaborations, they challenge the systems and structures that promote and sustain MSHT through instrumental short- and long-term assistance to victims and survivors and a continued focus on reducing the demand. Their services and initiatives include: Women Seeking Alternatives Program (WSA): Is a community-based alternative measures program that supports women and gender diverse individuals who have been or are being sexually exploited through prostitution by offering them an alternative to the court process that avoids the punitive aspects of a criminal record, jail terms, probation, and/or fines. This program includes education, therapeutic and recreational components connecting participants to community supports. Successful completion of this program results in no conviction or a reduced sentence for the committed offence and equips participants with greater self-awareness, increased coping skills, opportunities to exit sexually exploitative situations and address homelessness and/or substance use. This program is offered in partnership with Manitoba Justice (Public Prosecutions and Probations Services) and the Winnipeg Police Service.
Trafficked Persons Response Network: In partnership with local, provincial, and First Nation organizations and agencies, Winnipeg and Surrounding Area CJS helps to support victims and survivors of MSHT in need of practical food and non-food items, shelter, survivor-led case management, legal and medical assistance and trauma counselling. The Prostitution Offender Program (POP): Is a community-based alternative measures program offered to those who have been arrested as consumers/purchasers of sex. The full-day seminar section of the program includes educational and therapeutic components meant to instruct participants on health considerations, Canadian MSHT and prostitution law, the implications of a criminal record, the impact their actions have on the community and their families, and the realities, harm and trauma caused to those entrapped in prostitution, sexual exploitation and human trafficking.
To find out more information about our programming, visit our website at
London and Surrounding Area Correctional and Justice Services (CJS). The Salvation Army’s London and surrounding area CJS operates seven direct MSHTR services and initiatives in Canada for both victims and survivors of MSHT. Led and informed by survivors, they provide safe and innovating spaces for victims and survivors to be heard and supported as they journey towards their well-being, effective intervention and advocacy strategies, and intentional engagement to reduce the demand. Their services and initiatives include: Phoenix Peer Support Outreach Program: Led by Peer Survivor Support and Outreach Workers, this program focuses on preventing MSHT and supporting women/girl survivors and their families in their journey towards well-being through outreach, case management, referrals, access to support group sessions, provision of hygiene kits and clothing, and assistance in navigating NGO and government systems and structures. Emergency Kits: Are provided to the London Police and OPP to distribute to victims exiting situations of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation.
Outreach and Prevention Supports: Includes assistance with appointments and services (legal, medical, court, dental, and counselling, etc.) including accompaniment, help with transportation, assistance with application forms, and finding information/answers that create barriers to accessing services. Support is also provided to victims and survivors in accessing food banks, meal programs, daycare supports, momsand-tots and new mom programming, and housing issues. Prevention Awareness and Education: Is provided through public presentation to churches, social groups, educational institutions, NGOs, and civil-sector actors throughout the year. The Dignity Project Evening Virtual Drop-In: Is private and secure digital meetings that have temporarily replaced their weekly drop-in group during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this safe space, victims and survivors can connect with supportive community, Peer Survivor Support Workers, and be referred to Nurse Practitioners as needed.
London and Surrounding Area CJS... Journey to Justice: In collaboration with London Abused Women’s Centre, Youth Opportunities Unlimited and WAYS Mental Health Support, this program uses evidencebased, promising intervention practices to enhance support and equitable access to justice for victims and survivors of MSHT. Using trauma-informed, survivor-centred, crosssectoral, wrap-around supports, resources and tools, Salvation Army Outreach Workers provide survivors with support when reporting to law enforcement; information about the criminal justice system to make informed choices; court accompaniment; assistance accessing victim compensation and taking social justice action; and needed advocacy with law enforcement and within the criminal justice system. Sex-Buyers Accountability Program: Is a community-based alternative measures program offered to those who have been arrested for purchasing sex. This full-day program seeks to educate sex buyers on the realities of prostitution and human trafficking. The program consists of speakers from the community, videos and group discussions. Topics include: Canadian MSHT, prostitution law and the Equality Model, the implications of a criminal record, the impact their actions have on the community and their families, and the realities, harm and trauma caused to those entrapped in prostitution, sexual exploitation and human trafficking. The goal of this program is to provide accountability and education while addressing the demand for paid sex as a path to abolition of the sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of women and children.
To find out more information about our programming, visit our website at
Toronto Harbour Light Immigration and Refugee Services (IRS). Toronto Harbour Light IRS strives to incorporate MSHTR work into their daily operations and programming for immigrants, refugees, newcomers and participants of the Temporary Foreign Workers Program. This includes: Assisting victims and survivors in their application for their Temporary Resident Permits. Assisting victims and survivors in the gathering of documentation and filling-out of forms. Assisting victims and survivors in applying for lost passports and other forms of personal identification. Distributing MSHT information to clients to bring awareness and education. Providing spiritual and pastoral care to victims and survivors.
To find out more information about our programming, visit our website at
The Salvation Army is committed to ending slavery and human trafficking in our world. Our Fight For Freedom Territorial Strategy focuses on four key areas in order to be part of the solution. Here is how we are doing for each:
Key Area #1
Raise Awareness. Educate People. We believe that effective and intentional awareness, education, and training is needed to mobilize people within Canada and Bermuda to fight against MSHT.
997 people throughout the territory attended 22 online community awareness events organized by The Salvation Army. In these events, we introduced the topic of MSHT and provided teaching on the signs, risk factors, and methods of recruitment; information on sex, labour and child trafficking, early and forced marriages; an introduction to trauma informed care; and what is our Fight For Freedom strategy and MSHT response work.
We offered 23 online workshops and webinars on specific MSHT topics in which 884 people throughout the territory attended. MSHT topics included labour trafficking and the Temporary Foreign Workers Program; the physiology of children and human trafficking; the signs, risk factors and methods of recruitment; ethical storytelling and images; feminization of labour and MSHT, and international MSHT.
227 employees and officers were provided training in MSHT.
211 out of 283 Salvation Army corps (churches) participated in the International Day of Prayer for Victims of Human Trafficking.
The SA JUSTICE MSHTR Canada and Bermuda webpage hosts the recordings of trainings that we offer in addition to access to many tools and resources. We had 7,717 visits to our webpage in 2021. Visit our website at www.salvationist.ca/trafficking.
Educating and Resourcing We want all Salvation Army personnel to be aware of and to recognize MSHT signs, risk factors, and methods of recruitment while having a basic understanding of the needs of survivors of MSHT. 4 foundational resources have been developed, published, and distributed, in addition to the International Positional Statement on MSHT, MSHT 31-Day MSHT Devotional, Global Toolkit of MSHT Responses, and the Fight For Freedom: The Salvation Army Guide to Fight MSHT.
Spot the Series posters: Provide information about the most common Signs, Risk Factors and Methods of Recruitment for both sex and labour trafficking. This resource can be downloaded, printed and used in Salvation Army ministry units. Translated into French and Spanish.
What is MSHT? video: This short video describes the meaning of MSHT in Canada and Bermuda. Translated into French.
Spot the Series brochures: Provide detailed information about the Signs, Risk Factors, and Methods of Recruitment for both sex and labour trafficking. This resource can be downloaded, printed and distributed through Salvation Army ministry units. Translated into French and Spanish.
Fight For Freedom strategy card: Provides an overview of the four goals of the Territorial Fight For Freedom Strategy and examples of how they will be accomplished. This resource can be downloaded, printed and distributed through Salvation Army Ministry Units. Translated into French and Spanish.
Key Area #2
Preventing MSHT. Engaging in Outreach. We believe that it is possible to prevent MSHT and that The Salvation Army is strategically positioned as an organization across Canada and Bermuda to help do so.
London and surrounding area CJS engaged in 195 MSHT outreach events during 2021.
Throughout the territory 573 participants connected to MSHT outreach events.
Highlight Story: In 2021, the Winnipeg and surrounding area CJS was relocated into the Centre of Hope 24/7 Women’s Shelter. This has been extremely valuable as it has allowed for seamless access to residential beds for MSHT victims in emergency situations while giving “eyes” within the largest shelter in Winnipeg to be on the lookout for potential MSHT victims. They have certainly been finding them. With trained CJS staff in MSHT accompanying the Centre of Hope Street Ministry and Outreach Team to the outdoor encampments over the winter, they were able to build a relationship of trust and credibility with a young woman who was being exploited within that camp where she was staying. Over time, this person agreed to come to the shelter where resources were provided to her. Eventually she chose to leave and reside at a different encampment where she checks in weekly with this Street Ministry and Outreach Team for safety and support.
Key Area #3
Supporting Survivors. Responding Holistically. Once survivors of sex and labour trafficking have escaped months or years of victimization, they will need diverse and holistic services that recognize the unique trauma they have experienced as they work to rebuild their lives.
There are 14 full-time and 21 part-time MSHTR employees in the Canada and Bermuda Territory.
549 survivors were supported and served through our four MSHTR-focused ministry units. LGBTQ2S (31) Male (23)
Under the age of 18 (11) Female (495) Over the age of 18 (428)
The Salvation Army was involved in helping 302 survivors exit their human trafficking situation.
Across Canada, The Salvation Army: ● Completed 331 MSHT intakes/assessments ● Created 622 safety plans with victims ● Provided crisis support interventions for 438 victims and survivors ● Handed out 477 emergency and hygiene kits to victims and survivors ● Provided 7,440 nights of housing to survivors ● Provided life-skills training to 126 survivors ● Provided trauma counselling to 40 survivors ● Had 9 survivors participate in employment training ● Had 29 graduates from in-house MSHT programs
We provided emergency assistance to 302 victims and survivors in the form of suicide and self-harm assessments; exiting exploitation support; mental-health and medical support; access to food and clothing; assistance in finding emergency shelter; transportation; and spiritual care. We were able to support 5 international MSHT survivors’ repatriation to their home countries.
Key Area #4
Partner with Others. Advocate for Change. The Salvation Army cannot do this on our own if we want to make any real, long-lasting impact in our MSHT efforts. We recognize that we need to intentionally stand and collaborate with others to advocate and fight against MSHT.
In MSHTR work, Illuminate has engaged in approximately 800 partnerships since its launch in 2009. These partnerships have centred around working together to support the needs of survivors, engaging in collective programming and projects, offering education and awareness through classes and webinars, and providing referrals.
In addition, The Salvation Army has 111 partnerships across Canada. We also have personnel participating in 7 local and national MSHT task forces and coalitions.
From one MSHTR ministry unit to other Salvation Army locations, there were 16 referrals. To external MSHTR organizations, we made 552 referrals to services such as legal and medical assistance, housing support and trauma counselling. The Salvation Army in Canada was one of nine organizations asked to support and endorse MP Arnold Vierson’s Stopping Internet Sexual Exploitation Act when he proposed it to Parliament in May of 2021.
Highlight Story: After years of Illuminate’s committed advocacy with a legal agency, one of their clients finally received her Temporary Resident Permit (TRP). This was monumental because she waited in limbo for years without being able to work or receive full health care. Since receiving her TRP, this survivor has begun a full-time job working with the same company she volunteered for while in limbo. This survivor has now accepted a leadership position and is supporting others in the vulnerable sector. 24
Plans for 2022–2023 Strengthen Systems. Growing Leaders. ● Fill all Divisional MSHTR Advocates positions throughout the territory. ● Create Divisional MSHTR Committees and develop Divisional Fight For Freedom Action Plans. ● Develop and launch stage-2 training for front-line workers and interested individuals. This training will focus on the: o Territorial MSHT Response Protocol o Identification and Screening of Potential Victims of MSHT o Safety Planning and Safety/Risk Assessments o Ethical Decision-Making in MSHT Situations o TFWP o Self-Care o Overview of Survivor Recovery and Support Services o Ethical Storytelling and Images
Raise Awareness. Educate People. ● Offer monthly webinars and training on specific MSHT topics. ● Transition and launch the MSHT Response Certificate to Booth University College allowing people to take it at anytime and anywhere.
Educating and Resourcing. ● Develop and launch 8 short videos to help educate about MSHT. ● Expand and implement the January MSHT Awareness Month 2023 campaign. ● Develop and launch MSHT Victim Identification and Screening Manual for service providers.
Partner with Others. Advocate for Change. ● Develop priorities and strategy for a Territorial MSHT Government Relations and Advocacy Strategy.
Territorial MSHTR Committee
Major Ray Lamont Chair, Territorial MSHTR Coordinator email@example.com Jason Barr Territorial MSHT Response Advocate – Social Mission Department firstname.lastname@example.org Stacey Dlamini Territorial MSHT Response Advocate email@example.com Rebekah McNeilly Territorial MSHT Response Advocate – Women’s Ministry Specialist firstname.lastname@example.org Valerie Pavey Territorial MSHT Response Advocate – Children and Youth Specialist email@example.com Major Elaine Locke Alberta and Northern Territories Divisional MSHT Response Advocate firstname.lastname@example.org Major Darlene Anderson Maritime Divisional MSHT Response Advocate email@example.com Captain Angelica Hernandez Ontario Central Regional MSHT Response Advocate firstname.lastname@example.org Greg McInnes Ontario East Regional MSHT Response Advocate email@example.com Julia Parker Ontario West Regional MSHT Response Advocate firstname.lastname@example.org Dianna Bussey Prairie Divisional MSHT Response Advocate email@example.com Captain Indira Albert Quebec Divisional MSHT Response Advocate firstname.lastname@example.org
For questions and inquires for B.C. Division, please email:
email@example.com For questions and inquires for Newfoundland and Labrador Division, please email:
firstname.lastname@example.org For questions and inquires for Bermuda, please email:
If you suspect a person may be a victim of modern slavery and human trafficking call the National Human Trafficking Hotline at
SA JUSTICE MSHTR Canada and Bermuda website:
© The Salvation Army Canada and Bermuda Territory Produced by SA Justice, Social Mission Department Design: Internal Communications Photos: Getty Images