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STEPHANIE BRACONNIER _18-03-2011_MIDTERM REVIEW 1


> How to MEDIATE THE TRANSITION from urban to natural? > How to provide FLEXIBLE AND INTERESTING PUBLIC SPACE both on land and water? > How to create a robust public space that can be ADAPTED TO DIFFERENT CONTEXTS? > How to ACTIVATE INTEREST AND INTERACTION with urban nature?


FUNCTIONAL ISSUES The city lakes represent a connection to nature in the centre of the city, yet they have few truly public staying places along the water edge. There are cafes, restaurants, and pubs--at the Søpavilion for example--but these come with a commercial obligation to use the space. The paths are the only truly public zones of the city lakes, and these are designed for passing through, not inhabitation. a. DISJOINTED & INACCESSIBLE PATHS

b. ANTI-SOCIAL SEATING

c. UNMEDIATED TRANSITIONS

d. DARK ZONES

e. BORING, REPETITIVE VIEW


FUNCTIONAL ISSUES There are numerous benches lining the city lakes, but they offer the same forwardfacing view along the length of the water. The benches can accomodate 2 or 3 people at a time, and make a statement as ‘rest stops’ rather than ‘staying places.’ The seating offers an expansive view of the city, but does not provide the sense of seclusion and concentration that is often felt in nature or the social possibilities of other urban spaces. a. DISJOINTED & INACCESSIBLE PATHS

b. ANTI-SOCIAL SEATING

c. UNMEDIATED TRANSITIONS

d. DARK ZONES

e. BORING, REPETITIVE VIEW


FUNCTIONAL ISSUES The transition between residential housing blocks or large streets and the lakes is abrupt and presents an uncomfortable confrontation between residents, traffic, and public space. There are ‘barriers’ of noise, speed, and private space that make the edge a place to pass through rather than a space to stay and enjoy. a. DISJOINTED & INACCESSIBLE PATHS

b. ANTI-SOCIAL SEATING

c. UNMEDIATED TRANSITIONS

d. DARK ZONES

e. BORING, REPETITIVE VIEW


FUNCTIONAL ISSUES There is no official lighting strategy for the city lakes, though there are some light fixtures along the western edges and on the corners of Dronning Louises Bro. The lack of lighting indicates that this is not a place to go after dark, and as such it has a lifeless character at night. a. DISJOINTED & INACCESSIBLE PATHS

b. ANTI-SOCIAL SEATING

c. UNMEDIATED TRANSITIONS

d. DARK ZONES

e. BORING, REPETITIVE VIEW


FUNCTIONAL ISSUES There are some functioning public spaces along the lakes at places of intersection and transition, and these are popular because there is a constant stream of activity to observe. The long, straight edges seem the same wherever you stand, and one lake edge is much like the other. The view is the same wherever you walk on these edges--straight across the water, or straight down the path. a. DISJOINTED & INACCESSIBLE PATHS

b. ANTI-SOCIAL SEATING

c. UNMEDIATED TRANSITIONS

d. DARK ZONES

e. BORING, REPETITIVE VIEW


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES From 2002-2006 the city lakes underwent a large remediation project that included the purification of source water, biomanipulation, and the stocking of fish. The main objectives of the remediation project were to improve the environmental quality of the water and to create more natural lake conditions. Since then the quality of the water and the biodiversity have improved greatly. But the lakes are still considered environmentally fragile, as they require constant attention and maintenance to retain water clarity and quality. Copenhagen Municipality envisions the city lakes as a freshwater natural environment where in the future people will be able to swim and fish. Before this vision can be realised, however, the lakes need to present a stable, self-sustaining ecology. a. UNSTABLE LAKE ECOLOGY

b. HARD/NON-NATURAL EDGES

c. PUBLIC PERCEPTION


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES A Littoral zone is the land-water interface and shallow areas outside the interface. In healthy natural lakes the minimum water depth is between 2-5cm and the edges slope gently, creating a shallow zone where fish can spawn and grow without risk of being preyed upon by other fish. These zones are also good for toads and frogs, which are threatened due to loss of inhabitable edges. The three largest basins of Peblinge Sø and Sortedams Sø have hard and relatively deep edges (30-50cm depending on water level) which differ greatly from Sankt Jørgens Sø, which has an edge resembling a more natural water a. UNSTABLE LAKE ECOLOGY

b. HARD/NON-NATURAL EDGES

c. PUBLIC PERCEPTION


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES The water is much clearer since the remediation, which means that the garbage that is dumped into the lakes is more evident. The public perception of the lakes is that they are unclean and this propagates a cycle of continual littering on the edges and into the water. At Sankt Jørgens Sø the edges are more naturalized and the transition from water to land is mediated with plants, so people hesitate to litter. A shallow water zone with a soft connection to the land where plants, fish, and other life can abound, reminds people to respect the water as a living organism. All the lakes have the potential to become verdant growth areas and this can change the relationship from apathy to one of mutual symbiosis. a. UNSTABLE LAKE ECOLOGY

b. HARD/NON-NATURAL EDGES

c. PUBLIC PERCEPTION


Cala Calafato Footpaths - Manuel Ruisanchez

AIM: > PROVIDE A MORE NATURALIZED EDGE to restore diversity and support the stability of the lake ecology. > SOFTEN THE TRANSITION between the constructed and natural edge through planting and materials > CREATE A CONNECTION between the use of the edge as an urban space and the use of the edge as a natural space. > DEVELOP A CONTEXT-SENSITIVE DESIGN SEQUENCE that can be applied to different sections of the lakes over time to create a better urban nature. Garden of the Familistere - BASE Landscape Arch.


CITY + NATURE = ?


URBANNATURE HOW CAN URBAN PUBLIC SPACE BE COMBINED WITH A PRODUCTIVE AND SELF-SUSTAINING, NATURALIZED EDGE TO CREATE A NEW MEANING OF NATURE IN THE CITY?


micro-scale

urban planning


‘planned’ ‘unplanned’


‘PLANNED’: like a circuit board

‘UNPLANNED’: like the internet


complicated EVERY SINGLE ELEMENT is DELIBERATELY POSITIONED with respect to EACH OTHER and THE WHOLE.

complex Something with MANY PARTS that are NOT PRE-SPECIFIED and MAY BE UNKNOWN TO ANY ONE PERSON, even if every part was placed there by someone.


‘unplanned’ DOES NOT MEAN disordered OR disfunctional... ...IT IS SAID TO BE emergent.


THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ‘planned’ AND ‘unplanned’ IS THE SCALE AT WHICH THEY ARE DESIGNED, THAT IS, THE SCALE AT WHICH systematic order PRESIDES


systematic order at any given scale is a HALLMARK OF DESIGN at that scale.


planned complicated contrived order

la ville radieuse, 1930


unplanned complex natural order

paris ca. 1400


order without a plan. the INTERACTIONS of INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS may themselves be UNCOORDINATED or CHAOTIC, but the OVERALL PATTERNS are RECURRING and FAMILIAR.


functional order disorder

direct design

emergence

macro scale (design of whole)

micro scale (local, incremental)

purposive intervention

no purposive intervention

new paths to order


‘unplanned’ complex Something with MANY PARTS that are NOT PRE-SPECIFIED and MAY BE UNKNOWN TO ANY ONE PERSON, even if every part was placed there by someone.

emergent micro scale


patterns in complexity The COMPLEXITY found in cities comes from the INTERACTION AND RELATIONSHIPS between the DIFFERENT PARTS at DIFFERENT SCALES, OVER TIME.


nature is interconnected: Nature is composed of complex, interrelated webs of relationships called ‘ecosystems’.


ecosystem THE ORDER OF THE WHOLE arises from INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE PARTS. eco + “oikos” + “house” +

system “systema” “interacting components”


city as ecosystem The city is a complex, collective, dynamic entity. The built environment is no less an environment to the creatures it accomodates than any ‘natural’ environment. The city accomodates both biological and non=biological growth.


MAJOR CROSSINGS

FREDENSBRO

DRONNING LOUISES BRO

ABOULEVARD

KAMPMANNSGADE


GREEN EDGES


FUNCTIONING PUBLIC SPACE


CORRIDORS AND ROOMS


NEW PUBLIC FUNCTIONS


PROPOSAL by Christensen & Co.


DRONNING LOUISES BRO

BIKE/ WALK

2 LANES TRAFFIC

BIKE/ WALK


FREDENSBRO

LAKE EDGE

BIKE/ WALK

6 LANES TRAFFIC

BIKE/ WALK

LAKE EDGE

current

FREDENSBRO BEACH

LAKE EDGE

BIKE/ WALK

4 LANES TRAFFIC

BIKE/ WALK

LAKE EDGE

proposed


ABOULEVARD

BIKE/ WALK

9 LANES TRAFFIC

BIKE

WALK

‘PRIVATE’

WALK

current

BIKE/ WALK

7 LANES TRAFFIC

BIKE/ WALK

ABOULEVARD MEADOW

proposed


FOCUS AREA

“CENTER FOR PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE”


ØSTER SØGADE

“STUDENT CENTER”

SORTEDAMS DOSSERING


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

WEEK 9 Study Trip (Time Variable)

MARCH

City Scale - 1:5000-1:500 WEEK 10 WEEK 11 Site Strategies Public Space Proposals Focus Area

Important Dates 18 - Mid Term Critique 1

Street Scale - 1:250-1:50 WEEK 12 WEEK 13 Focus on specific site Thresholds Spacial Transitions

Natural Edges General Lighting Production Potential

APRIL

WEEK 14 Material transitions Spacial relationships Edge Interaction

Important Dates 29 - Mid Term Critique 2

19.03 - 28.04 > OVERALL LIGHTING/PATH PROPOSAL > schematic > SPECIFIC SITE THRESHOLDS > SPACIAL/MATERIAL TRANSITIONS > EDGE INTERACTION + PRODUCTION POTENTIAL > DESIGN DETAILING @ 1:20

Detail Scale - 1:20-1:10 WEEK 15 WEEK 16 Detail Materials Seating Lighting

WEEK 17


MEDIATING TRANSITIONS


Midterm Presentation