Issuu on Google+

trSwf (112)

owif;pOf (1) á

o w if ; p Of

jrefrmEdik if v H w G v f yfonfo h wif;at*sipf D

T he

L i g h t n i n g

trSwf (112) c&pfESpf?2010 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv

N e w s l e t t e r

jrefrmouú&mZf (1372)

( 15-1-99 ) &ufaeYwGif pwifwnfaxmifonf/

a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ rSmMum;csufukd

tJet f ,fv'f v D il ,frsm; taumiftxnfazmfrnf a':atmifqef;pkMunf&UJ rSmMum; csuf 9 csufudk tJeft,fvf'Dvli,f rsm;u vrf;nTeftjzpf taumift xnfazmf aqmif&Guo f Gm;r,fvkdY Mo *kwf (26) &ufaeYnaeydkif;u tJef t,fv'f XD mecsKy½f H;k rSmjyKvyk w f hJ vli,f tpnf;ta0;rSm awGYqkHaqG;aEG; qkH; jzwfcJyh gw,f/ tpnf;ta0;rSm aqG; aEG;qkH;jzwfwmeJY ywfoufNyD;awmh vli,fpnf;½k;H a&;rSL;wOD;jzpfwhJ udjk rifh aX;u ]]usaemfwdYk 'D (19) &ufaeYu trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGYcsKyftpnf; ta0;u usaemfwdkY a&G;aumufyJGeJY ywfoufvYkd oydwfarSmufw,fqkdwhJ udpö? tJ'geJY ywfoufvdkY usaemfwdkY aqG;aEG;yJGrmS usaemfwkYd axmufcHw,f qdw k t hJ aMumif; usaemfwYkd aqG;aEG;jzpf w,fAs/ aemufwcku tefu,fOD; ÓPf0if;eJY tefwrD mS vdu k w f u hJ pd aö wG&dS w,f/ tcsuf 9 csuf? tJ'[ D meJY ywf oufvkdYvnf; usaemfwYkd raeYuaqG; aEG;NyD;awmh 'gudk usaemfwkdYvrf;nTef tjzpf usaemfwYkd qufNyD;awmh aqmif &GufoGm;zdkYvnf; usaemfwdkY qkH;jzwf csufcsw,f? vli,fawGu/}} [k ajym oGm;cJyh gw,f/ qufvufNy;D awmh vkyif ef;awGukd b,fvdkazmfaqmifr,fqdkwmeJY ywf oufNyD; ]]a&G;aumufyGJudkr0ifwJh t wGuf jynfov l x l ak wGtaeeJY rJay;p &mr&Sb d l;qdv k dYk &&dS if rJray;eJYqkdwhJ t csufawGudk usaemfwdkYu 'gudk t aumiftxnfazmfr,f/ aemufwcku pmrs uEf w mS (3) vH (1) Mo*k fv?aumf 2010 ckEodSpYk f ...

Ed0k ifbm (7) &uf? a&G;aumufyJrG mS teft,fvf'DtaeeJYyg0ifrSm r[kwfwJht wGuf tzJYG csKyu f rkd aJ y;vdo k rl sm; rJray;yJ ae Mu&efom&Sdw,fvdkY a':atmifqef;pk Munfu ajymvdu k yf gw,f/ ]]tJeft,fvf'Dudyk J rJay;csif w,f/ tJet f ,fv'f rD 0ifvkdY bmvkyf &rSef;rodb;l }} vdYk ajymwJah r;cGe;f awG &Sdw,f/ 'Dar;cGef;awGeJYywfoufNyD; a':atmifqef;pkMunfu ]]tJet f ,fv'f D udyk aJ y;csifw,f? tJet f ,fv'f Dr&S&d if ray;eJY aygh}} wJh tJ'DvdkajzMum;ygw,f/ aemufwck u tck&SdaewJha&G;aumufyJGu w&m;rQwrIr &Sdbl;/ 'gayr,fh tJ'Dw&m;rQwrIr&SdwJh a&G; aumufyJGOya'udak wmif vdkufem&JUvm;apmifh Munf&h r,f/ rvdu k ef mbl;qd&k ifawmh 'g[m rif;rJh p½du k yf v J Ykd a':pkuajymygw,f/ tzJUG csKyu f ]]'Dru kd a&pD? vlYtcGift h a&;eJY w&m;Oya'pd;k rdk;a&;,HMk unf csuf (3) ckay:rSm qufvufudkifpJGNyD;awmh EdkifiHa&; vkyo f mG ;r,fqw kd majymygw,f}} vdYk a':atmifqef;pkMunfeYJ oGm;a&mufawGYqHkcJhwhJ a&SYaeBuD;OD;ÓPf0if;u ADGtdkatudk ajymygw,f/ qufNyD;awmhvJ 2008 ckEpS ?f tajccHOya't& aemif ay:ayguf vmr,f ht pd k; &eJYywf oufNyD;awmhajym&mrSm ]]vuf &Sd 2008 zJGYpnf;yHkt ajccH O ya' t& pmrsuEf mS (14) aumfvH (1) odYk ...

jrefrmEkid fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrS xkwfa0onf/


á owif;pOf (2)

trSwf (112)

trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGYcsKyf 'kOuú X OD;wifOD ;[m? 1946 ckESpfrSm 'kAdkvftqifhupNyD; umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfwm0efeJY 1974 ckEpS t f xd jrefrmhwyfr awmfrSm wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh ygw,f/ tJ't D csdeu f jrefrmhwyfrawmf [m ysKdwikd ;f BudKufwhJEiS ;f qDcikd f wyfrawmfjzpfcJhwJhtaMumif; OD;wifOD;ajympum;twdkif; { &m0wD&JU ppfonfawmfpmrsuf ESmrSmazmfjyxm;wmudk aumuf Ekww f ifqufvdu k yf gw,f/ t&ifuwyfrawmfqdkwmeJY tck acwfwyfrawmfqw kd mu awmfawmfBuD; udkuGmoGm;NyDAs/ awG;wm ac:wm vkyf wm udkifwmutp uGmoGm;NyD/ usaemf wyf&if;rSL;b0wke;f uqdk rd;k ukwrf mS wm 0efxrf;aqmifz;l w,f/ rd;k ukw{f &d,mrSm aomif;usef;olawG qufaMu;r,lEdkif atmifaygh/ rdk;ukwfu csrf;omw,fr [kwfvm;/ tJ'u D qufaMu;&&if odyf awmifo h mG ;rSmqdak wmh usaemfwYkdumuG,f &r,fh wm0efxrf;aqmif&w,f/ tJ't D csed rf mS wyfom;tm;vH;k u tJ'u D ausmuf pdr;f ? ywåjrm;udpeö YJ ywfoufwmawG bm rS pdw0f ifpm;rIr&Sb d l;vdkY usaemfwkdY jrif wmyJ/ ausmufawGeJYywfoufwm bm jzpfw,f? nmjzpfw,fqw kd mvnf; wckrS pdwfr0ifpm;bl;/ vdkvnf; rvkdcsifbl;? vdck sifwhJpw d fvnf; r&Sb d l;/ bmvdYkvq J akd wmh usaemfwYkd rmS jynfh pHkw,fAs/ &du©mwdkY? bmwdkY? nmwdkY

]

umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfudk jynfol awGucsrSwfay;xm;wJh Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;wkd?Y usaemf½dkaoav;pm;wJh Akv d fcsKyfausmfaZm wdv kY dkrsKd; wyfrLS ;aumif;awG jzpfapcsifwmygyJ/

ppfuReftjzpfEGHepfrcH

jrefrmEdik fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrSxkwfa0onf/

axmufyHhrI ponfjzifhayghAsm/ tJ'Dtcg uawmh wyf&if;rSL;avmufjzpfNyDq&kd if vdak v ao;r&Sdbl;? jynfhpHkwJhtcgusawmh 'gawGeJY ywfoufNyD; acgif;xJr0ifb;l / wdw k akd jym&&if awmhAsm? ud, k t hf wGuv f yk zf Ykdqw kd mudk acgif;xJ rSmr&Sdbl;/ tJ'gudk,fhtwGufvkyf&rSm &Suf w,f? tJ'DvkdjzpfwmyJ/ aemufxyf OyrmayghAsm/ ajymif;zl;cl;pm; wmwdkY? [if;&Gufcl;pm;wmwdkYqdk&if usaemf wdkYu tJ'Dajymif;zl;csKd;pm;wJh? [if;&Gucf ;l pm; wJah umifawGukd tJ'rD mS olwYdkpm;wJh ajymif;zl;wdkY [if;&Guw f dkY&JUwefzdk; jyefay;? wjym;rS rwef &ifawmif jyefay;&r,f/ ukeu f ek af jymr,fAsm/ odyfNyD;rS qmvGef;tm;BuD;vdkY Muufudk½dkuf owfcsufpm;wmawmif tJ'yD ikd &f iS q f u D kd Muuf &JUwefzdk; aMuaMuvnfvnf auseyfwJhtxd ay;cdkif;w,fAs/ olray;Edik v f kYd&d&S ifawmif olYrmS ygwJv h ufpGyw f kdY? qGJBudK;wdYk ygwmay;cJ/h 'Dvkd rsK;d trdeYfay;Ny;D awmh vlxu k ked pfematmif rvkyf pmrsuEf mS (13) aumfvH (1) odYk ...

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf


trSwf (112)

owif;pOf (3) á a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ rSmMum;csufrS

usaemfwdkY a&G;aumufyJGqdkif&m Oya'awGu w&m;rrQwbl;? 'D Oya'udak wmifryS J 'DOya'udk xkwf vkyw f Jv h al wGu rusifhok;H bl;qdk vdYk&&Sd if 'g[m rif;rJhp½dkujf zpfw,f qdkwJhtaMumif;t&mawG&Sdw,f av/ tJ'Dawmh tJ'DtaMumif;t &mawGudk usaemfwdkY jynfol vl

xkawG em;vnfoabmayguf atmif usaemfwkYduaeNy;D awmh 0dik ;f 0ef;Ny;D awmh &Si;f jyzdYk tpDtpOfawG udk usaemfwdkY vrf;nTeftjzpf aqmif&u G zf Ykd&ydS gw,fcifAs}} [k vl i,fpnf;½kH;a&;rSL;wOD;jzpfwJh udk jrifah X;u tm&ftufzaf teJY awGY qkpH OfrmS &Si;f jyoGm;cJyh gw,f/

t&yf0wfeJY tmPm&Sifrsm;tjzpf tar&duef a0zef

tck & uf y d k i f ; twG i f ; rS m yJ ppfwyfxyd yf dik f;acgif;aqmifwcsKYd &mxl;awGuEIwfxGufNyD; t&yf 0wfeJYa&G;aumufy0GJ ifzYjkd yifaewJh t aMumif;owif;awG xGuaf y:vm ygw,f/ tJ'u D pd eö YJywfoufNyD; jrefrm ppfbufacgif;aqmifawGu t ajymif;tvJawGvyk Nf yD; ,leaD zmif; yJ0wf0wf ? t&yf0wfyJ0wf0wf tmPm&Sifu tmPm&SifygyJvdkY tar&d uefEdkifiHjcm;a&;Xmeu ajymcGifh&ol yDa*sca&mfav P.J Crowley u ajymvdkufygw,f/ jrefrmEdik if rH mS ppfreS w f hJ Edik if aH &; tajymif;tvJawGrjrifawGY&ao; wmaMumifh jrefrmEdkifiHtay:rSm xm;wJt h ar&duef&JYoabmxm; uvnf; rajymif;vJao;ygbl; vdYk ajymygw,f/ qufNyD;awmh ]]EdkifiHa&;t& vkyyf ikd cf iG ahf wGay;&ygr,f/ jrefrm Edik if w H iG ;f u wdik ;f &if;om;tiftm; pkawGeYJ aqG;aEG;nd§EidI f;&ygr,f/ Edik f iHa&;twdkuftcHawG &SifoefcGifh ay;&ygr,f? t&yfzufqikd &f m tzJYG tpnf;awGtMum;rSm ppfppf rSerf Sef ,SONf yKd ifro I abm &Sad p&ygr,f/ 'g

rif;qdk;udk

rsK;d awGr&SdbeJ YJawmh ppfom;awG yg yg? t&yf0wfawGyJygyg? vmr,fh a&G;aumufyJG[m trsm;,HkMunf vufcrH ,f?h vGwv f yfrQwwJh a&G; aumufyrGJ sK;d jrif&rSmr[kwyf gbl;/}} tar&duefEikd if jH cm;a&;Xmeu ajym cGi&hf yDa*sca&mfavu a0zefajymqdk oGm;wmjzpfygw,f/ NyD;cJw h ahJ rvu jrefrmEkid if u H kd oGm;cJw h hJ tm&Sypdzw d af 'oqdik &f m tar&duef vufaxmufEikd if jH cm; a&;0efBuD; rpöwmum'fu h if;bJvf uvnf; jrefrmppftpd;k &&JUndE§ idI ;f vdpk w d u f if;rJrh eI YJa&G;aumufyGJ vkyf ief;pOfawGtay: jyKjyifajymif;vJ vdpk w d rf &Sw d mawGaMumifh vmr,fh a&G;aumufyu GJ Edik if w H um w&m; 0ifrrI &SdwahJ &G;aumufyyGJ J jzpfvdrhf r,fvdYk ajymqdkomG ;ygao;w,f/ tckvdk a&G;aumufyJGeD;vm wmeJYtrQ ppfwyfxdyfydkif;acgif; aqmifawG vIyfvIyf& Sm;&Sm; t ajymif;tvJvkyfwJhowif ;awG xGuaf y:aeayr,fh ppftpd;k & xde;f csKyfwJh rD'D,mawGrmS awmh w&m; 0ifazmfjywmrsKd; rawGY&ao;yg bl;/ À

á

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf

ypfNyD

orkid ;f ay;tarGudk qufcMH u ouú&mZf 2010 Ekd0ifbm (7) &ufaeUwGif 2008 tajccHOya'ukd ykHazmftoufoiG f;rnfh a½G;aumufyu JG kd usif;yrnf[k ppftyk pf u k aMujim onf / aemufqufwGJt jzpf 4if;wkdU\ vuf ukdif wkwf ygwDt Ekdif&&Sd a&; twGuf t&Sut f aMumufuif;rJph mG vkyaf qmifaeonf/ acwfopf jrefrU morkid ;f ukd tMurf;zsO;f jyefvnfo;Hk oyfMunfyh gu acwf tqufqufwGif tkypf ;dk olwYdk jyXmef;aom zdEydS cf sKycf s,o f nf?h rw&m;onfh tkycf sK yfa&;Oya'wkdu U dk tzdEdSycf H jrefrmjynfow l dkUu acgi;f ikH rU cHbJ orkdi;f a&;&mwm0efw&yftaejzifh olUacwftavsmuf qefUusiftefwkwku d fyGJ 0ifcJo h nfudk awGjU rif&rnf/ 1920 ausmcf Ek pS rf sm;u GCBA OD;aqmifí'dkit f mcDtyk cf sKyfa&;ukd y,fcs vsuf ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa&;awmif;qkdaomwdkufyGJrsm;ukd trsKd;om;a&; 0HomEkpw d "f gwjf zifh wku d yf 0JG ifco hJ nf/ 1938 ckEpS w f iG f tvkyo f rm;? v,fo rm;? ausmif;om;oydwpf íHk q&mpH olyek x f onftxd Mu;D rm;us,jf yefcY &Jh onf h wkduyf GJ (1300) jynfhta&;awmfyku H m;? 1937 (91 Xmetkycf sKyfa&;) tajccHOya'ukd qefu U siw f u dk yf GJ0ifco Jh nfh jynfow l \ Ykd r[mta&;awmfyHk orkid ;f jzpfonf/ 1946 ckEpS f ykvyd Bf u;D oydw[ f ak usmMf um;vSonfh zqyv OD ;aqmifonfh trIxrf;aygif; pkHyg0ifonfh oydwfwk dufy GJum; puúLjzL pmwef;jzifhtkyfcsKyfrnfh jAdwdoQtkyfcsKyfa&;ukd ½kyfodrf;ay;&onftxd atmifjrifcJo h nf/ 1974? 75? 76 ckEpS rf sm;wGif qufwu dk jf zpfyGm;cJo h nfh tvkyf orm;ta&;tcif;? OD;oeft Y a&;tcif;? ZGef (6) (a&Tw*d o Hk ydw)f ta&;tcif; ESihf rIdi;f &mjynfhta&;awmfyHw k u dUk u kd m; tESpfom&tm;jzifh 1974 tajccHOya' ukd qefu U sit f w H k wku kd yf 0JG ifryI if jzpfonf/ wenf;tm;jzifh 1988ckEpS w f iG f jzpf yGm;cJh onfh (1350 jynfh ta&;awmfyMHk uD;) wGirf l wpfygwD tmPm&Sipf epfudk usm;uefaxmufxm; onfh 1974 tajccHOya'ukd jynfopYl rG ;f yum;jzifh tjy;D tykid f zsuo f rd ;f Ekid cf o HJh nf/ acwftqufqufu jynfow l k\ Ud rw&m;aomtkycf sKyfa&; trdet Yf m Pm Oya' wku Yd dk qefu U siw f u dk yf 0JG ifaerIrsm;onf zdEydS cf sKycf s,af omOya'rsm; taumiftxnfazmfaeorQumvywfvkH; qufvufjzpfay:aernfrSm ,krH mS ;p&mr&S/d þum; ordifk ;f \ {uHw&m;yif jzpfonf/ "r®0g'w D u Udk "r®bufwGif "r®udk ukid pf GJí t"r®0g'w D t Ydk m; wku d yf GJ0ifaerI onf avmu\ tMuD;jrwfqHk; tvSw&m;jzpfonf/ þwm0efudk vlom; onf vlom;yDopGm acwftqufquf orkid ;f tqufquf vufqifu h rf; xrf;aqmifcJhonf/ vlom;rsKd;EG,fwdkY þurÇmajrrS aysmufuG,froGm; ao;orQ þwm0efudk vlom;onf xrf;aqmifaeayvdrrhf nf/ 2010a&G;aumufyJu G m; rw&m;zdEdyS cf sKycf s,rf nfhtrdet fU mPmOya'rsm; ukd ½kyv f ;Hk azmftoufoGi;f rnfh jyZmwfwyk'?f Zmwf0ifcef;wcef;jzpfonf/ jref rmjynfow l &yfv;Hk tm; om;pOfajr;quf ppfußG et f jzpf EGeH pfaprnfh vky&f yf vnf;jzpfonf/ orkid ;f tpOftvmt& rw&m;onfh Oya'rsm;ukd orkid ;f ay; wm 0eft& zDqeftefwck MhJ uaom bk;d bGm;rsm;\ erlemaumif;ukd tarGtESpf ozG,frSwf,lí ,aeUacwfjrefrmjynfow l o dUk nf þ 2010 tajccHOya' zsuf odr;f a&;wkduyf GJMuD;ukd qifEJMT urnfrmS ,krH mS ;zG,&f mr&S/d zdEydS o f v l lwef;pm; tm; ukd,fpm;jyKaeaom ppftmPm&Sifpepfudk zsufodrf;rnfrSm ajrMuD; vufcwfrvGJj zpfonf/ wenf;tm;jzifq h dak omf jrefrmjynforkid ;f onf zdEydS o f w l Ukd jyXmef;aeonfh rw&m; onfhOya'wkdU ukd zsufodrf;awmfveS o f nfh orkdif;[k qkyd gu rSm;zG,&f m r&S/d þorkifd ;f tarGudk qufcv H suf atmifyJG jcrd jhf crd hf cH&rnfrmS vGrJ mS ;zG,&f mr&S/d

+++

jrefrmEkid fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrS xkwfa0onf/


á owif;pOf (4)

a&G;aumufyGJ (2) ck 2010 ckEpS ?f Ekd0ifbmv (7) &ufaeYwiG f ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pD t axGaxGa&G;aumufyGJtm; usif;y jyKvkyfrnf[lí ppftkyfpkuaMu nmvkduf\/ 2008 ckESpfzJGUpnf; yHt k ajccHOya't&jyKvyk rf nfh a&G; aumufyjJG zpfonf/ ,ckusif;yrnfah &G;aumufyGJ onf 1990 ckEpS f? arv (27) &uf aeYwGif taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ usif;ycJNh yD;? ESpaf ygif; (20) ausmf tMumwGif xyfrjH yKvkyfrnfh a&G;

trSwf (112)

pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyEJG iS hf ,ck usif;yrnfh 2010 a&G;aumufyJG (2) &yftm; EIid ;f ,SOMf unfv h Qifyif vGwv f yfr?I w&m;rQwrIrsm;u r wl? uGJjym;íaeonf/ jcm;em;í ae\/

(4) OD;u (rqv) \ tkycf sKyaf &; tmPmydkit f zGJYESifh EdkifiHh0efxrf; wm0efrsm;wGif xrf;aqmifaeMu

&Si\ f twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpfEiS hf yg0if cJo h nf/

2010 ckESpf? Edk0ifbmv (7) &ufaeYwGifusif;yrnfha&G;aumufyGJ[lonfu jynfolYvTwfawmf\ (75) &mckdifEIef;aom ae&mtwGuf a&G;cs,fMu&rnfha&G;aumufyGJjzpfonf/ 1990 ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJuJhodkY wpf&m &mckdifEIef;aom a&G;aumufyGJr[kwf/ aumufyjJG zpfonf/ 1990 ckEpS ?f ygwDpk'H rD u dk a&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyw JG Gif jynf olYb@mrS usyfaiGaygif; oH;k uk a#? ig;oef;ESihf ajcmufoed ;f ausmf tm;oHk;pGcJ MhJ u\/ a&G;aumufyG&J v'f[lonfu ESpfaygif; (20) Mumonfhwdkif taumiftxnf ay:rvmcJh/ ,ckwBudrfxyfrHí a&G;aumufyw JG &yftm; usif;yjyK vky&f ef ppftyk pf u k pDpOfíaejyef onf/ ppftkyfpkrSusif;yjyKvkyfcJh onfh 1990 ckEpS ?f ygwDp'kH rD u dk a&

aumfr&Sif[lonfu ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDtaxGaxG a&G;aumufyGJusif;y&eftwGuf (rqv) \jynfolYvTwfawmf onf 1988 ckESpf pufwifbmv (11) &ufaeYwGif yk*¾dKvf (5) OD; ygonfh aumfr&SiftzJGYtm; a&G; cs,fay;cJh\/ OD;baX;? OD;ausmf nGeYf ? OD;pef;armif? OD;apmMum'k;d ? q&mcs,fponfh yk*¾dKvfrsm;jzpf Muonf/ xdyk *k d¾Kvrf sm;wGif q&m cs,fwOD;onfomvQif (rqv) \ jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm; vS,w f OD;jzpfNyD; usefonfyh *k ¾Kd vf

jrefrmEdik fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrSxkwfa0onf/

onfo h rl sm;r[kwMf u/ tNird ;f pm; EdkifiH0efxrf;a[mif;BuD;rsm; jzpf Muonf/ tjrift& aumfr&Sif onf vGwv f yfonfyh *k Kd¾ vrf sm;ESihf zJYGpnf;xm;onf[í l jrifEidk o f nfh yk*Kd¾ vrf sm;jzpfonf[lí qdEk dik o f nfh tajctaejzpfonf/ aumfr&Sif OuúXtm; a&G;cs,f&mwGifvnf; aumfr&SiftzJGY0if (5) OD;\ t pnf;ta0;rS OD;baX;tm; trsm; qE´EiS hf a&G;cs,fwm0efay;cJjh cif; jzpf\/ aumfr&Siw f iG f 0efxrf;[lí xkpd Ofu aumfr&Si½f ;Hk csKy?f nTeMf um; a&;rSL;OD;at;armifomvQif aumfr

2010 a&G;aumufy\ JG aumfr &SifwiG f yg0ifMuonfholrsm;tm; vHk;u ppftpkd;&\vufatmuf wGif wm0efxrf;aqmifaeMuonfh 0efxrf;rsm;jzpfMuonf/ aumfr &SiOf uúX OD;ode;f pk;d onfyif ppft pdk;&tzJGYwGif 'kw, d w&m;olBuD; csKyw f OD;tjzpf vuf&w dS m0efxrf; aqmifaeoljzpfonf/ þtwGuf aMumifyh if aumfr&Siv f kyfief;rsm; ESihyf wfowfí tqHk;tjzwfupd ö tcsKdUü ]]txufodkYwifjy&rnf}} [líaumfr&SiOf uúXqdo k u l xkwf azmfí ajymaejcif;jzpfonf/ 2010

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf


trSwf (112) kH if a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif[lonf Ekid if aH &;ygwDrsm;tjzpf rSwyf w u xdo k Ykd aomaumfr&Sijf zpfonf/ cGifhtm; 2010 ckESpf? rwfv (8) &ufaeYwiG f Ekid fiaH &;ygwDrsm; rSwfykH wifjcif;Oya'tm;xkwjf yefí rSwf a&G;aumufyt GJ BudKumv k ifciG jhf yKc\ hJ / 2010 ckEpS f Ek0d if 1990 ckEpS ?f ygwDp'kH rD u dk a& yHw pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJusif;y bmv (7) &ufaeYwGif ygwDpHk'D &ef? OD;baX;OD;aqmifonfh aumf rkdua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ r&Sio f nf vkyif ef;tpDtpOf (26) tm; usif;yjyKvyk frnfjzpf&m a&G; ckEiS hf tcsdeZf ,m;tm; 1989 ckEpS f aumufyGJrwdkifrD EdkifiHa&;ygwD azazmf0g&Dv (16) &ufaeYrSpí rsm;\ zGYJpnf;wnfaqmufpnf;½k;H f nft h csdeu f mvu (8) vrQ xkwfjyefaMunmay;cJh\/ a&G; Ekid o aumufyGJrusif;yrD (15) vESifh yifr&S/d 2010 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv (13) (11) &ufBudKí today;xkwjf yef cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ Edik if Ha&;ygwDrsm; &ufaeYwGif jynfolYvTwfawmf rSwfyHkwifjcif;tm; 1988 ckESpf? udk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm; trnf pufwifbmv (29) &ufaeYrS pm&if;wifoGif;&rnfhaeY&ufESifh f mvtm;xkwjf yef\/ Mo 1989 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv (28) tcsdeu &ufaeYtxd tcsdefumv (3) v *kwfv (16) &ufrS (31) &ufaeY twGif; wifoGif;Mu&rnfjzpf ay;cJo h nf/ a&G;aumufyu JG sif;yrnf&h uf onf/ tcsdefu (17) &ufom& rwkid rf ED idk if aH &;ygwDrsm; zJUG pnf;xl \/ jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm; axmifí pnf;½k;H wnfaqmufciG hf vS,af vmif;rsm;taejzifh aumfr umvonf (15) vrS (18) v &SifodYk wifoGif;&rnfhaiGaMu;u txd t csd e f & cJ h M uonf / a&G ; usyfaiG ig;odef;jzpfonf/ a&G; T f aumufyOJG ya'ESihf enf;Oya'rsm; aumufyG0J ifMurnfh jynfolYvw tm; a&G;aumufyrJG usif;yrD wESpf awmfudk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm; rQBudKwifí wkid ;f jynfodkYtoday; twGuf rJqG,fpnf;½kH;&ef&onfh xkwjf yefay;cJ\ h / 1990 ckEpS ?f yg Mum;umvu (3) vyifrjynfh/ wDpH k'Drkd ua&pD taxGa xG a&G; a&G;aumufyGJ0ifrnfh EkdifiHa&; f rl (wpn) ESihf aumufy GJ usif ;ya&;aumfr &Sif ygwDrsm;twGuu GJ ygwDzYGJpnf; onf 1989 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv (MuHzh UGH ygwD) rsm;rSví (10) &ufaeYrSpí a&G;aumufyGJ wnfaxmifrItcuftcJ? jynfoYl usi;f yrnf&h uftm; (6) vcefY BudK íaMunmay;xm;cJhNyD;? udk,fpm; vS,favmif; trnfp m&if;wif oGi;f &rnfhaeY&ufESihf jyefvnfí ½kyfod rf;Ekd ifonfh aemufqH k;aeY &ufrsm;udv k nf; (48) &ufrS (72) &uftxd tcsdefay;cJo h nf/ ukd,fpm;vS,f avmif;rsm;rS aumfr&Sifod kYwifoGi f;&rnfha&G; aumufyu JG keu f sp&dwaf iGrSm usyf waomif;jzpfNy;D cdik v f ko H nfhrJ (20) &mckid Ef eI ;f ESit hf xuf&&Syd gu usyf aiGwaomif;tm; jyefíxkwf,l cGih&f \ Sd / ,ckusif;yrnfh 2010 a&G; aumufyEGJ iS yfh wfowfíMunfyh gu

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf

owif;pOf (5) á

xdrk q J E´ e,fajrrsm;onf (wpn) ESihf (MuHzh yUHG gwD) wkt Yd wGuf toifjh yifqifxm;ay;jcif; omjzpfonf[í l qk&d rnf/ vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,favmif; trnf wifoiG ;f Ekid af &;tcuftcJ? rJqG,fpnf;½kH;a&;tcuftcJ p onfh tcuftcJaygif;rsm;pGmESifh &ifqidk af e&\/ oH;k rwfom; ygvDref 2010 ckESp?f Edk0ifbmv (7) &ufaeYwiG u f si;f yrnfh a&G;aumuf yGJ[lonfu jynfolYvTwfawmf \ (75) &mckdifEIef;aomae&mt wGuf a&G;cs,Mf u&rnfah &G;aumuf yGjJ zpfonf/ 1990 ckEpS af &G;aumuf yGu J o hJ Ykd wpf&m &mckid Ef eI ;f aom a&G; aumufyGJr[kwf/ NyD;vQif 2008 ckEpS zf JGYpnf;ykw H iG jf yXmef;xm;aom ]]jynfolYvTwfawmf}} onf vlOD; a&udt k ajccHí zGYJ pnf;&rnf[q k kd aomfvnf;? ]]jynfolYvTwaf wmf}} twGuf rJqE´e,fajrrsm;owf

rSw&f mwGif vlO;D a&tm;tajccHí rJqE´e,fajrrsm;tm; owfrSwf &rnfhtpm; NrdKUe,fwckcsif;t vku d ftajccHNyD; rJqE´e,fajrrsm; tm; owfrw S fjyefonf/ NrdKUe,f wckcsif;pDu vlOD;a&xlxyfodyf onf;rIcsif;urwl/ a0;vHonfh awmifwef;a'o&Sd NrKd Ue,f\vlO;D a&ESihf &efuek w f idk ;f ? rEåav;wdik ;f ? {&m0wDwkdi;f wdkY&Sd NrdKUe,f wNrdKU e,f&dS vlO;D a&csi;f u rwl/ þwGif vlOD;a&udktajccHí zGYJpnf;rnfh ]]jynfolYvTwfawmf}} [lonfu tESpo f m&ysufíaeNyD/ þodYk NrdKU e,fwckrJqE´e,fwck[í l pwkwf wdkufxm;onfrS m ppftkyfpkt wGuf &nf&, G cf su&f o dS nf/ topf zJYG pnf;cJMh uonfh a&G;aumufyG0J if rnfh Ekid if aH &;ygwDrsm;taejzifh xkd odkYaom rJqE´e,fajrrsm;wGif oGm;a&mufí 0ifa&mufta&G;cs,f cH&efrSm rnfodkYrQrjzpfEkdif/ þt wGuf xdkrJqE´e,fajrrsm;onf (wpn) ESifh (MuHhzGHUygwD) wkdYt wGuf toifjh yifqifxm;ay;jcif; omjzpfonf[lí qk&d rnf/ Ekd0ifbma&G;aumufyGJum; a&G;aumufyJG0ifMurnfh Edkiif Ha&; ygwDrsm;tMum; ajy;vrf;ur nD/ ]]0ifcsift;kH [ ... a&G;aumufy}JG } [líyif nnf;&rvdjk zpfae\/ À

jrefrmEkid fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrS xkwfa0onf/


á owif;pOf (6)

trSwf (112)

trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJUcsKyf jrefrmEkdifiHweHwvsm; vSnfhvnfoGm;a&mufum vlrIa&;vkyfief;ESifh aumhrSL;? uGrf;jcHuek f;c&D;pOf tzJGYcsKyf trsKd;orD;vkyfief; tzJGY0ifawGeYJ tzJGYcsKyv f il ,fawGyg wJhtzJYG udk OD;wifO;D eJY OD;0if;wif wdkYuOD;aqmifNyD;awmh aumhrLS ;eJY uGrf;jcHukef;rSm&SdwJh EdkifiHa&;t usOf;om;rdom;pkawGqDudk Mo *kwfv (20) &ufu oGm;a&muf awGUqHck yhJ gw,f/ tJ't D zJYG [m Edkiif Ha&;aMumifh

aemfwYkd vkypf &mudik pf &m&Sw d mawG udk qufvufaqmif&u G o f Gm;zdYk yJ jzpfw,f/ aemufwcku a': atmifqef;pk Munfv Gwfajrmuf vmwJt h cgrSm ydkNy;D jrifhrm;wJh t&Sdef t[keef JY Edkiif aH &;vkyfief;awGudk qufaqmif&u G fomG ;zdkY tm;xkwf oGm;r,f/ a&G;aumufyJu G kdvnf; rJray;bl;? rJray;jcif;tm;jzifh oydwaf rSmufwmjzpfw,f}}vdYk yg

ay;ygqdkwhJpum;eJYtnD 'DvdkrsKd; vkyaf y;wmawmh t&rf;yJ0rf;om ygw,f/ usaemfwdkYvnf; tm;&Sd ygw,f/ txJutusOf;om;awG Mum;vdkY&Sd&if 'gydkNyD;awmhcGeftm; jzpfapwmaygh}} vdYk tusOf;usae wJh udrk sK;d ausmZf if&UJ zcifu 'DAb GD D udak jymygw,f/ NyD;cJhwJhZGefvuvnf; tzJGY csKyaf cgif;aqmifawGjzpfwhJ OD;0if;

]]tckavmavmq,frmS tzJUG csKyfu EdkifiHa&;? ygwDa&;awGeJY b,folawG bmyJajymajymEdkifiH a&;tzJYG tpnf;t&&Sdw,f/ olwYkd vnf;bJ olwdkYbufu 'D[meJY ywfoufwmudk vHk;0cH,lxm; w,f/ tJ'Dawmh Edkiif Ha&;tzJUG t pnf;w&yftaeeJY Edik if aH &;udpt ö 00udk vkyf&r,f/ qdkvkdwmu awmhAsm EdkifiHa&;tzJGUtpnf;udk

tusOf;usaewJh aumhrLS ;NrdKUu r pkpak EG;eJY uGr;f jcHuek ;f u udak 0vif; wdYk &UJ rdom;pk0ifawGukd aumhrLS ;NrdKY e,fu tzGYJ csKypf nf;½H;k a&;tzJUG 0if OD;vSat;&JUaetdrfrSmawGYqHkum vufaqmifypön;f rsm;ay;NyD; tm; ay;pum;ajymcJhw,fvdkY od&yg w,f/ tJ'aD emufrmS tzJYGcsKyftzJYG0if awGeYJ awGYqNkH yD; OD;0if;wifuajym qdk&mrSm tusOf;us EdkifiHa&;o rm;rsm;twGuf vdktyfwJhaq; ypön;f awGukd jznfq h nf;ay;Edik zf Ykd qufvufBudK;yrf;oGm;rSmjzpfwJh taMumif;ajymygw,f/ quf vufNy;D awmh tzJGYcsKyf&yfwnfcsuf eJYywfoufvdkYvnf; ]]ygwD[m 'DaeYtcsed t f xd&adS ew,f/ &Sad ewJh ygwDuq kd ufxed ;f xm;NyD;awmh us

wD'Ok uúX OD;wifO;D uajymoGm;wJh taMumif; owif;awGt&od&yg w,f/ OD;wifO;D eJY OD;0if;wifwYkdO;D aqmifwt hJ zJYG [m Mo*kwv f (17) &ufuvnf; vIid o f m,mNrdKUe,f wGi;f u Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; (20) ausm&f UJ rdom;pk0ifawGeYJ oGm;a&muf awGUqHck yhJ gao;w,f/ cEDÅ;axmifrSmtusOf;usae wJh udkrsKd;ausmZf if&UJ zcif OD;armif pdefu tzJGYcsKyfacgif;aqmifawG udk,fwdkifvmNyD;tm;ay;pum; ajymwJhtwGuftm;wuf&w,f vdkYajymNyD; ]]vuf&dStusOf;usae wJyh *k K¾v d af wGov d Ykd&&dS if olwYdv k nf; tm;wufw maygh / tm;vH k ;t wGut f usKd;&Syd gw,f/ usaemfwdYk ArmxHk;wrf;pOfvmt&qdk&if 'g vJaeolxal y;yg/ tm;i,fot l m;

wif? OD;[efomjrifw h Ykd O;D aqmifwhJ tzJGY[m tckvdkvlrIa&;vkyfief; awGaqmif&GufzdkYtwGuf u&if jynfe,fu zm;tH? vIid ;f bJUG pwJNh rdKU awGuo kd mG ;a&mufNyD; jynfoal wG eJYawGYqku H m a&SUvkyif ef;pOfawGudk aqG;aEG;cJMh uygao;w,f/

txl;ojzifh ydrk du k spfuspv f pfvpf eJY ydkNyD;jzpfoihfwmjzpfatmifvyk f EdkifrJhudpu ö dk n§dEIdif;aqmif&Guzf dkY taMumif;aygh/ usaemfwYkdtzJUG csKyf u tckvkyaf ewJu h dpöawGeJY ywf oufvdYk EdkifiHa&;udpöt00awG&Sd ygw,f}} vdYk OD;wifO;D u ADt G dkat udk ajymygw,f/ qufNyD;ajym&mrSm tzJGYcsKyf taeeJYu jynfoal wG MuKHawGUae &wJt h cuftcJawGukd wwfEikd o f avmuf 0dik f;0ef;ulnaD jz&Sif;ay;Ny;D vlxt k wGuaf qmif&u G af ewJh udpö t00udk vkyif ef;pOfawGcsNyD; quf vufaqmif&u G foGm;rSmjzpfw,f vdYk ajymygw,f/ jynfolawGtaeeJYuvnf; Edk;Mum;wuf<uaeNyD;? aetdrft wGif;tusOf;usaewJh a':atmif

jrefrmEdik fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrSxkwfa0onf/

{&m0wDwikd f;c&D;pOf tzJYGcsKyf 'kOuúX OD;wifO;D [m yxrqH;k tBudrf e,fvn S chf &D;t aeeJY {&m0wDwkdif;udk Mo*kwfv (28) &ufu pwifcJyh gw,f/ tzJYG csKy[ f m a&G;aumufyu GJ kd 0ifNyD;ta&G;cHrmS r[kwaf yrJh Edik fiH a&;vkyif ef;awGukd qufvufvyk f udkio f Gm;rSmjzpfw,fvdkY ykodrfNrdKU udka&mufaewJh tzJGYcsKyfacgif; aqmifO;D wifO;D uajymygw,f/

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf


trSwf (112)

owif;pOf (7) á

acgif;aqmifrsm;ESit hf zG0UJ ifrsm;\ ynmay;a&;vkyfief;c&D;pOfrsm;tm;pkpnf;wifjycsuf udjk rifhaX;u 'DAb DG u D adk jymygw,f/ OD;wifOD;eJYtzJGYu em*pfrkef wdik f;oifah 'oawGuv kd nf; oGm; a&mufMurSmjzpfNyD; av;&ufMum c&D;jzpfw,fvYkd o&d ygw,f/

qef;pkMunf&JUoabmxm;eJY rSm Mum;csufawGukdvnf; owif;rD 'D,mawGuwqifh rsuaf jcrjywf em;pGiahf eNyD; vlxkacgif;aqmif&UJ qdv k w kd t hJ "dygÜ ,fawGuv kd nf; em; vnfoabmaygufMuw,fvdkY ajymygw,f/ tzJGYcsKyf 'kOuúXOD;wifOD;eJY twl A[dktvkyftrIaqmiftzJGU 0ifawGjzpfMuwJh OD;0if;jrifheJY OD;

weoFm&Dwidk ;f c&D;pOf tzJUG csKyAf [dktvkyftrIaqmif OD;ÓPf0if;acgif;aqmifwJhtzJGU [m weomF&Dwdkif;c&D;pOftjzpf

vSazwdYk ukd ykodrNf rdKUu tzJUG csKy?f tzJYG0if 200 eD;yg; vma&muf awGY qHck MhJ uNyD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf &JUacgif;aqmifraI tmufrSm quf NyD;awmh vdkufemaqmif&u G fomG ; MurSmjzpfw,fvYkd OD;wifO;D uajym ygw,f/ ]]vIy&f Sm;rIawG? pdw0f ifpm;rI awG ydkrdktm;aumif;vmw,fAs/ usaemfwYkd vuf&dS ydNk yD;awmhvnf; pnf;pnf;vHk;vH;k nDnDnw G n f Gwf vnf ; jzpf v mMuw,f/ wuf a&mufvmwJh tzJYG 0ifawG pdw0f if pm;wJhjynfol vlxkawGuvnf; awmfawmf wufwuf<u<u aqG; aEG;Ny;D awmh 'Du tbwdYk&iS ;f jywm awGudkvnf; olwdkYaocsmem; axmifMuNyD;awmh tm;&auseyf Muygw,fAsm}} vdYk vli,ftzJGY0if

Mo*kwfv (16) &ufu aumh aomif;NrdKUudkpwifa&muf&SdchJ yg w,f/ OD;ÓPf0if;? OD;[Homjrifh? a':ar0if;jrifheJY weomF&Dwdkif; OuúXOD;vSrif;? twGi;f a&;rSL; OD; atmifp;kd wdYk yg0ifwt hJ zJYG[m aumh aomif;NrdKU trsK;d om;'Dru kd a&pDt zJYcG sKy0f ifawGeJY tzJGYcsKyf½kH;rSmawGY qHck yhJ gw,f/ tJ'v D kdawGYqkH&mrSm OD;ÓPf 0if;u ]]tefu,fwYkdtckvyk af ewJh usefwhJ wdik ;f eJYjynfe,fomG ;wJt h wdik ;f trsK;d om;'Dru kd a&pDtzJYGcsKyf ydrk u kd spv f pfcikd rf ma&;twGuf vm wmyg/ pnf;½Hk;a&;twGufvm wmr[kwyf gbl;/ zJYpG nf;a&;vnf; r[kwyf gbl;/ tpnf;ta0;vnf; r[kwfygbl;/ usaemfwdkY&efukef

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf

rSm&SdwJhvlawGeJY aumhaomif;u vlawG awGYMur,f/ pum;ajymMu r,f/ tjrifcsif;zvS,Mf ur,f/ t awGYtMuKHcsif;zvS,Mf ur,f/ t "du&nf&, G cf suu f awmh ydrk u kd spf vpfckid frmpGmwnf&daS ezdYk? aemuft rsKd;om;'Drdu k a&pDtzJYG csKyf&dSaeyg ao;vm;qdkwJh ar;cGef;awGaygh av/ 'geJYywfoufvYkdvnf; &Si;f jy rSmyg}}vdYOk ;D ÓPf0if;uajymygw,f/

&ufuoGm;a&mufawGYqckH yhJ gw,f/ a'gufwm a':ar0if;jrif?h OD; [Homjrif?h OD;vSrif;eJY OD;atmifp;dk wdkYygwJhtzJGY[m NrdwNf rdKYe,frmS &Sd wJt h zJGYcsKy0f if vlBu;D ? vli,f (70) avmufeYJ awGUqHNk yD; tjcm;NrdKYe,f awGrmS ajymwJt h wdik ;f yJ tzJYG csKy&f UJ &yfwnfcsufeYJOya'twdik ;f quf NyD;awmhoGm;rSmjzpfw,fvdkY OD;[H omjrifu h ajymygw,f/

ESpfaygif;ESpfq,ftwGif;rSm pDt;D pDawGu aumhaomif;udw k cg rSra&mufcJhwJhtaMumif;eJY tck vmwJt h pDtpOfuvnf; tzJYG csKyf vlBuD;awGajymjycsut f & atmuf ajceJYqufpyfwhJoabmjzpfNyD; yg wDwiG ;f rSm uspfvpfoyd o f nf;NyD; tifeJYtm;eJY qufvuf&yfwnf oGm;zdYk&nf&, G cf sufeYJ jynfoMl um; xJ u d k qif ; vmwmjzpf w J h t aMumif; aumhaomifNrdKYe,f tzJGY csKyftwGi;f a&;rSL; udjk rifharmifu 'DAb GD u D akd jymygw,f/

tzJGYcsKyftaeeJY aMunm xm;Ny;D jzpfwt hJ wdik ;f a&G;aumufyGJ udk oydwfarSmufwJhtaMumif;eJY jynfolvlxkudkawmhn§dEIdif;NyD;rS wifjyrSmjzpfwJhtaMumif;ajymyg w,f/ qufNyD;ajymwmuawmh t ajcu tzJYcG sKy0f ifawGvyk faewJh vl rIa&;vkyif ef;awG[m tzJYG csKyfu vkyaf qmifwt hJ wdik ;f yJ Edik if aH &;t usOf;om;awGeYJ rdom;pk0ifawGukd vku d Nf yD;tultnDay;aewmawG? a&&Sm;wJah e&mawGrmS a&vSLwJh udpö awG? pwmawGtygt0if tzJUG csKyf uvkyaf qmifwmeJY wxyfwnf; usw,fvYkd OD;[Homjrifu h 'DAb GD D udak jymygw,f/ Nrdwu f Ref;pkrmS &Sw d hJ tzJGYcsKyf

NrdwfNrdKUe,fc&D;pOf trsK;d om;'Dru kd a&pDtzJYGcsKyf A[dktvkyftrIaqmiftzJGY0ifrsm; OD;aqmifwJhtzJYG [m NrdwfNrdKYe,f&dS tzJYGcsKy0f ifawGukd Mo*kwv f (20)

pmrsuEf mS (8) aumfvH (1) odYk ...

jrefrmEkid fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrS xkwfa0onf/


á owif;pOf (8) pmrsufESm (7) rS tquf ...

0ifawGuvnf; acgif;aqmifawG eJYawGYzYkd twGuf Nrdwu f n kd tdyv f m cJhMuNyD; tzJGYcsKyf0ifawGtm;vHk; wuf<uaewmudka wGY&w,fvdkY OD;[Homjrifu h ajymygw,f/ &ckid jf ynfe,fc&D;pOf OD;tkef;BudKifeJYtzJGY[m *GNrdKU e,f&t dS zJYG csKyt f zJYG 0ifrsm;eJY NrdKUe,f pnf;½H;k a&;tzJYG awGukd OuúX OD;pdef ausmf&JUaetdrrf mS awGYNyD; vwfw avmEdkif iHa&;tajctaeawG eJY tzJYG csKyf (A[dk) &JU tajctaeawG

udk &Si;f vif;ajymjycJw h ,fvdYk od& ygw,f/ Mo*kwv f (4) &ufeeH ufyikd ;f rSmawmh OD;tke;f BudKifeYJ tzJUG u oH wJGNrdKUe,f pnf;½Hk;a&;aumfrwD OuúXaetdrfrmS tzJGUcsKyftzJUG 0if rsm;? NrdKUe,fpnf;½Hk;a&;aumfrwD 0ifrsm;eJYawGUNyD; tzJUG csKy&f UJ &yfwnf csuf? a':atmifqef;pkMunf&JUo abmxm;eJY&yfwnfcsuf? tzGYJ csKyf acgif;aqmifawGjzpfwhJ OD;wifOD;? OD;0if;wifwdkY&JU oabmxm;&yf wnfcsufawGukd aqG;aEG;cJMh uNyD; oufqikd &f mNrdKUe,frsm;&JU awGUMuHK &wJh tcuftcJeJY tajctaeawG udk wifjyaqG;aEG;Muw,fvYkd od& ygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf tzJGYcsKyfacgif; aqmifawG[m Mo*kwv f (4) &uf? naeydkif;rSm awmifukw fNrdKUudk

trSwf (112) jyif vdktyfwJhaq;0g;tultnD awGuykd g axmufyahH ew,fvYkd o wif;awGt&od&ygw,f/ Mo*kwfv (10) &ufu OD; wifOD;eJYO;D 0if;wifwkdYOD;aqmifNyD; ygwD0ifawGygwJt h zJYG [m ukeaf ps; EIe;f usqif;a&;qE´jyrIeYJ axmifcs cHxm;&wJh udx k ifausmf&UJ rdom;pk tjyif usefEidk if Ha&;tusOf;om;rd om;pk (10) pkausmfwkYd&UJ aetdraf wG udk oGm;a&muftm;ay;cJyh gw,f/ tJ'v D o kd mG ;a&mufc&hJ mrSm Edik f iHa &;tusOf;om;awGudk aq; ypön;f ydrk akd xmufyzhH Ykd vdt k yfaewm udkod&Sd&wmaMumifh tJ'DtwGuf

rsm;ay;um tm;ay;pum;ajymcJh Muw,fvYkd o&d ygw,f/ tJ'eD mufrmS awmh omauw rSm&SdwJh udak X;atmif? OD;cifxeG ;f ? OD;atmifjrif?h OD;a0pd;k eJY rcsKdcsKw d if wdkY&JU rdom;pk0ifawGeJYawGYNyD;wJh aemufrSm wudk,fawmfqE´jycJh MuwJh OD;pd;k jrif?h udo k ufEikd af tmif? udkausmfjrifhOD;?udk0if;atmif? udk ausmf0if;? udZk ifrif;xG#ef YJ OD;Munf atmifw dk Yrdom;pkawGu dk vnf; oGm;NyD;awGUcJMh uygw,f/ tJ'v D dak wGYqkH&mrSm tcsKyt f aESmif&dS&if vGwfwmvnf;&Sd&rSm jzpfNyD; olwYkday;qyf&wJw h efz;kd u

u@wckziG Nhf yD;awmh vkyaf qmifzYkd udyk gwD'Ok uúX OD;wifO;D uajymyg w,f/ tJ'aD eYrmS yJ ajrmufOuúvmy? ajrmuf'*HkwdkYrSm&SdwJh EdkifiHa&;t usOf;om;rsm;jzpfMuwJh udkpdk;jrifh xde?f ukeaf ps;EIef;usqif;a&;qE´ jywJu h x kd ifausmf? xm;xm;ouf? a&T0ga&mifoHCmhvIyf&Sm;rIrSmyg wJhOD;pE´m0&? udkcifvIdifpwJhtdrf awGudkoGm;a&mufawGYqkHNyD;awmh tzJGYcsKyf'kOuúX OD;wifOD;u tm; ay;pum;ajymw,fvYkdo&d ygw,f/ Ekid if aH &;tusOf;om;wk\ Yd Mo*kwfv (14) &ufrSmawmh rdom;pk0ifrsm;tm; ESpo f rd ht f m;ay; OD;wifOD;? OD;0if;wif? a':ar0if; f il ,fawGygwJt h zJYG trsK;d om;'Drdu k a&pDtzJGYcsKyf jrifeh YJ tzJYG csKyv d hJ Edik if aH &;tusOf; xdyfydkif;acgif;aqmifrsm;u t [m wmarGrmS &Sw usOf;us Edik if Ha&;orm;rdom;pkawG om;rsm;jzpfMuwJh udkMunfvGif? f kdY&UJ &JUaetdrrf sm;udo k mG ;a&mufNyD; tm; udak eausmfeYJ udkausmfrsKd;Edik w ay;ESpo f drfph um;ajymqdkMuwJht rdom;pkawGeYJ awGYNyD; axmif0ifpm

tifrwefBuD;rm;wmaMumifh vGwf ajrmufzkdYuv kd nf; 0dik ;f NyD;vkyMf u& rSmjzpfw,fvdkY tzJGYcsKyfOuúXOD; wifOD;uajymwJhtaMumif; twl vdkuyf gcJhwhJtzJGYcsKyfvli,f udk&m Zmu 'DAb GD u D akd jymygw,f/ Edik if Ha&;tusO;f om;wcsKUd [m usef;rma&;qdk;0g;aewmaMumifh vdktyfwJh aq;0g;ypönf;tult nD ay;zd kYu dk rd om;pk 0if awGu awmif;qdMk uw,fvYkdvnf; od&yg w,f/

a&mufNyD;? (5) &ufaeY eHeufydkif; rSmawmh tusOf;uscHae&wJh NrdKU e,f pnf;½H;k a&;aumfrwDOuúX OD; ausmfcikd ef YJ udak tmifrif;ode;f wdYk &UJ aetdrfawGuo dk mG ;Ny;D awmh tm;ay; pum;ajymMuygw,f/ aeYvnfydik f;rSmawmh NrdKUe,f pnf;rsm;? tzJUG 0ifrsm;eJY &if;&if;ES;D ES;D awGYNy;D aqG;aEG;cJw h ,fvYkd od& ygw,f/ awmifukwNf rdKUe,ftwGi;f u EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGjzpfwJh OD;cifv?S rd;k Edkifp;kd ? reDeDarjrif?h OD; cspfarmifarmif? armifarmifouf wd kY &JY td rf awG ud koG m;a&muf NyD;

rdom;pk0ifawGukd tm;ay;ESpo f rd hcf Jh Muygw,f/ OD;tke;f BuKd ief YJtzGUJ [m Mo*kwf v (8) &ufreufrSmawmh ppfawG NrdKUudka&mufchJNyD; pnf;½H;k a&;tzJUG 0ifrsm;? tzJUG csKyf0ifrsm;eJYawGYNyD; naeydik f;rSmawmh Edik if aH &;aMumifh tusO;f usaewJh udx k eG ;f vif;ausm?f udak ZmfxeG ;f Edik ?f udkausm0f if;? udkEidk f pd;k wdYkaetdraf wGukd oGm;cJNh yD; rdom; pk0ifawGudk tm;ay;pum;ajymcJh w,fvdYk od&ygw,f/

jrefrmEdik fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrSxkwfa0onf/

2008 tajccHOya'ESiyhf wfoufí jynfoo l Ydk &Si;f vif;ajymMum; rauG;wdkif; tzJGUcsKyfacgif; aqmifrsm;u 2008 ckEpS ?f zJGYpnf; yHOk ya'eJYywfoufNyD; NrdKUe,frsm; udk oGm;a&muf&iS ;f vif;aeaMumif; pmrsufESm (14) odkY ...

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf


trSwf (112) jrefrmjynfow l Ydk \ 'Drdkua& pDÓPf&nfonf tif'ekd ;D &Sm;jynf olawGxuf (10) ESpfwdwdapm onf/ odkYaomf jrefrmppfwyf\ 'Dru dk a&pDÓPf&nfonf tif'ekd ;D &Sm;ppfwyfxuf tESpf (50) eD;yg; aemufusaeonf/ jrefrmppfwyf onf tif'edk ;D &Sm;ppfwyfu trIu d f awmif;xJxnfhvdkufNyD;jzpfaom ql[mwkdacwf (1967-1998) qD udk tck rS jyefo Gm;aeaom aMumifjh zpfonf/ rMumcifuyJ ql[mwkdacwf u ppfom;BuD;wa,muf&JU 0efcH csufukd zwfvu kd &f onf/ tif'ekd ;D &Sm;orw qlpDvdkbefbrf;,l'dk ,dEk dku, dk w f idk f 0efccH sujf zpfonf/ ql[mwkdacwfu wkdif;jynfrSm wnfNidrfNyD; pD;yGm;a&;vnf;wkd; wufaeonfhtwGuf pD;yGm;a&;wk;d wufrEI iS hf 'Dru dk a&pDukd b,f'if; a&G;rvJ[pk Of;pm;NyD; pD;yGm;a&;wk;d wufru I kd a&G;cJo h nf[0k efco H nf/ xkt d csdeu f 'Dru dk a&pDonf tif'kd eD;&Sm;,Ofaus;rIEiS hf roifah wmfb;l [k ,HMk unfco Jh nf[q k o dk nf/ w u,fwrf; ql[mwdak cwfuv kd nf; (2) ykdif;cGJjyD; avhvmMuonf/

owif;pOf (9) á 1980 rwkid cf ifEiS fh 1980 aemuf ykdif;tajctaerSm ajymif;jyefjzpf onf/ urÇmwGif 1990 rwkdicf if u ppfat;umvjzpfNyD; ppftm Pm&Siaf wGacwfjzpfonf/ jrefrm jynfwiG f OD;ae0if;\ rqvacwf ay:cJhonf/ odkYaomf ql[mwdk acwfyxrykid ;f 1980 rwdik cf ifEiS fh rqvacwfrmS toGio f @meft& omwlNyD; tESpo f m&t& rwlay/ tif'ekd ;D &Sm;wGif Edkiif pH ;D yGm;a&;rSm t&if;&Sipf ;D yGm;a&;pepfEiS fh tpd;k & 0ifpu G rf Iaygif;pyfonfyh pkH jH zifh wkid ;f jynfp;D yGm;a&;aumif;cJhonf/ ppf at;acwfjzpfojzifh tar&duef ausmaxmufaemufcHvnf;&Sdae onf/ odYk aomf 1980 aemufyikd ;f wGif ql[mwdk tmPm&Sifvnf; jrefrmjynfu OD;ae0if; tmPm&Sif vdkjzpfvmjyD; ppfat;vGefacwf 'Dru dk a&pDvidI ;f ? 1997 tm&Sp;D yGm; ysufuyfaMumifh ed*;kH csKycf &hJ onf/

jrefrmEdik if EH iS hf tif'ekd ;D &Sm; o rkd if;wGifw laomtcsufrsm;pGm&S d onf/ udv k ekd b D 0uae 1948 ESihf 1950 wdkYwiG f vGwv f yfa&;&vm jcif;? vGwfvyfa&;tNyD; ygvDref 'Drdkua&pDpepfcPomcHNyD; wyg wDpepfqu D kd ul;ajymif;oGm;jcif;/ ppfwyf\jzwfoef;rIorkid ;f aemuf cHEiS hf pdwaf epdwfxm; pojzifh wl aomtcsurf sm;pGm&So d nf/ odYkaomf tif'ekd ;D &Sm;\ ql[mwdv k eG af cwf onf (10) ESpt f wGi;f tif'ekd ;D &Sm; onf 'Drkdua&pDpepfqDudk ckefysH ausmfvTm;cJhaomacwfjzpfNyD;? jref rmjynf\ OD;ae0if;vGefacwfonf oef;a&TtmPm&Sifp epfESifh MuHK vku d &f onf/ ql[mwdu k kd qufcH aom [mbDbo D nfyif yg&m'kid ;f topf[kaMunmNyD; tajymif;t vJrsm;pGmvkyfcJhonf/ 'Dt&Sdefudk olYaemufyikd ;f orwawGjzpfaom tufA'l&mref0g[pf? ar*g0g'Dql

umEdkyx l &D? qlpDvdkbefbrf;,l'dk ,dEk dkwkdY qufvufo,faqmifNyD; 'Dru dk a&pDvrf;aMumif;ay: a&muf cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ tif'ekd ;D &Sm;tajymif;tvJum v 1998-2001 twGif; ta&; BuD;aomtajymif;tvJ wcsKdUudk Munfv h Qif atmufygtwkdi;f awGU &onf/ 1/ 1999 a&G;aumufyJu G pNy;D ppfwyfuMum;aeNyD;? a&G;aumuf yGJrSm jynfoal wG&JUyg0ifru I zdk iG fah y; cJhwm/ 2/ tpd;k &trIxrf;awGukd *d*k g ygwDtjyif b,fygwDjzpfjzpf BuKd uf &m a&G;cGifjh yKcJw h m/ 3/ orwoufwrf;udk (5) ESpo f ufwrf; (2) ck/ pkpak ygif; (10) ESpftjzpf owfrw S cf hJwm/ 4/ zGUJ pnf;yHu k kdjyifNyD; orw tmPmudkuefYowfcJhwm? (or pmrsuEf mS (10) aumfvH (1) odYk ...

]

ql[mwdkvGefacwfonf (10) ESpftwGif; tif'ekd ;D &Sm;onf 'Dru dk a&pDpepfqu D kd ckeyf sH ausmfvmT ;cJhaomacwfjzpfNyD;? jrefrmjynf\ OD;ae0if;vGeaf cwfonf oef;a&TtmPm&Sipf epfESihf MuHKvkduf&onf/ Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf

jrefrmEkid fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrS xkwfa0onf/


á owif;pOf (10) tif'dkeD;&Sm;\ aqmif;yg;rS tquf...

w 0g[pfvufxufrmS orwu ygwDawGu wufvmwhJ0efBuD; awGudk jzKwfzkdYBudK;pm;wJhtcgrSm t,Ht k Munfr&St d qkw d ifNy;D jzKwf csonftxdvyk Ef ikd cf ho J nf/) 5/ ppfOD;pD;csKyf0&efwkdudk,f wkdiu f zGJUpnf;yHt k & rm&S,favm ay;xm;wmudk roH;k chw J m/ (ta&SU wDarmudpEö iS hf wjcm;vlUtcGihft a&;csK;d azmufraI wGrmS emrnfysuf ojzifh odu©mqnfzYkd BudK;yrf;wm vdkY wcsKdUuwGufqonf/) 6/ rm&S,af vmumvudk uefY owfonfOh ya'udk vTwaf wmfu

trSwf (112) buftzGJUtpnf;awGukd tpdk;&t zGUJ 0efBuD;awGtjzpf cefYtyfcw hJ m/ 9/ 2001- 2002 zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'tajymif;tvJwG if orwESihf 'korwudk vTwfawmf ura&G;awmhbJ vlxu k wku d ½f u dk f a&G;cs,fonfhpepfukd ajymif;vJ vku d jf cif;ESihf zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' qkid &f mw&m;½H;k \ tmPmtyfEiS ;f NyD; w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k rIukd xlaxmif vku d Ef ikd jf cif;/ 10/ ppfwyfEiS hf &JtzGUJ udk wm 0efcv JG u dk Ef ikd w f m/ 11/ ppfwyftmPmudk uefY owfvu dk w f m/ (1999 wGif ppfO;D

jzpfonf/ 0&efwdk ppfO;D pD;csKyb f 0 rSm tmPmodrf;zdkYtcGifhtvrf; ay:ayr,fh roH;k cJb h ;l vdYk qo dk nf/ orw 0g[pfvufxufwiG v f nf; ta&;ay:tajctaeaMunmzdYk t rdeYf ay;ayr,f?h trdeYf ay;zdkY t"du wm0ef&dw S Jh ,l', dk Ekd dk trdefYzq D efNy;D &mxl;tjyKwcf cH Jo h nf/ aemuft jrifwckrSm 1998 Edk0ifbmta&; tcif;aemufyikd ;f wGif ppfwyfu, kd f wkid u f emrnfysufraI wGukd tzuf q,fzYkd? olwYkd u, dk w f idk u f pepf&UJ om;aumifb0 a&muf&ygonf[k qifajcay;zdYk BuKd;pm;csifykH&onf [laom tjrifjzpfonf/

]

EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? vlrIa&;tajctaeawG b,favmufq;dk qd;k ? tolw&meufwh J acsmufatmufa&mufjyD; urf;rjrif vrf;rjrif jyefwufEdkifzdkYtaMumif; rjrifawmh&if? arQmfvifhcsufwck tjrJwrf;&Sdygao;w,f/ tJ'g 'Drkdua&pDygyJ/ 'Drkdua&pDu jyefqGJwifEdkifygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 'Drdkua&pDudk b,fawmhrS vufvw T rf cHygeJJ/Y jyifqifa&;qGcJ w hJ m/ 7/ ygvDreftwGif;u pkpk aygif; 500 wGif e*dk ppfom;trwf 75 a,mufuae 38 a,mufodkY avQmhcsEkdifNyD; a'oEÅ&tkyfcsKyf a&;rSmvnf; e*dk (5) yHkwyHkuae 10 yHkwyHktxd avQmhcsEdik fcJw h m? (ql[mwdak cwf 1973 wGif tpd;k & tzGJU 3 yHkwyHkudk ppfbufu cefY xm;NyD;? a'oEÅ&tkycf sKyfa&;wGif ppfbufu 3 yHk 2 yHk&SdcJhonf/ 1995 ta&mufwGif 4 yHkwyHkESihf 40 &mckdiEf Ief;usqif;oGm;onf/ ql[mwkdwkdY vkyfazmfudkizf ufrsKd; qufawG toufBuD;oGm;onf u taMumif;&if;[kqkdonf/) 8/ umuG,af &;0efBu;D udk ppf buf0efBuD;tpm;? t&yfbuf0ef BuD;eJY tpm;xdk;EdkifcJhwm/ t&yf

pD;csKyf 0&efwku d ta&;ay:tajc taerSm ppfwyfudk tmPmukef vTaJ y;zdYk vTwaf wmfukd rlMurf;wif aomtcgrSm vTwfawmfu vuf rcHbJ t&yfbufta&;ay:tajc taeumvudk 3 veJY? ppfbuf u ta&;ay:tajctaeumv 6 vyJcGifhjyKNyD;? ta&;ay:tajct aeumv t&yfom;tcGifhta&; awGuv kd nf; tmrcHwOhJ ya'eJY t pm;xd;k cJyh gonf/ tif'ekd ;D &Sm; toGiu f ;l ajymif; a&;umv ppfbufoabmxm; tay: tjrif (2) rsK;d &So d nf/ wrsK;d rSm ,l', kd Ekd u dk o hJ Ykd ppfbuf rSy*k Kd¾ vf rsm;\ tjrifjzpfonf/ ppfwyf acgif;aqmifykid ;f u 2008 ckEpS f u wnf;u tajymif;tvJvkyfzdkY pdwyf ikd ;f jzwfco hJ nfqadk om tjrif

jrefrmEdik fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrSxkwfa0onf/

ta&;BuD;onf[k xifaom tcsufrSm 1998 ta&;tcif;t &Sed af Mumif?h ygvDrefwiG ;f rSmvnf; jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;tawG;tac: tm;aumif;cJNh yD;? ygvDrefjyifywGif ausmif;om;qE´jyrIawG r&yfbJ ygvDrefxJu ppfom;trwfawG tm;vH;k xGuo f Gm;zdkYtxd r&yfrem; qE´jyawmif;qdkaeaom zdtm; vnf;&Sad eonf/ xkad Mumifh tif'dk eD;&Sm;'Drk dua&pDtoGifa jymif;rI onf ppfwyf? EdkifiHa&;ygwDESifh jynfow l Y\ kd oHk;yGiq hf dik f csed cf Giv f Qm n§rd jI zpfonf/ tif'ekd ;D &Sm;ppfwyf \emrnfysurf o I nf jrefrmppfwyf \ emrnfysurf EI iS fh olromuk, d rf om&Sdonf/ odkYaomf tif'kde;D &Sm; ppfwyfonf jynfolawGvufr cHEikd af wmhaom vkyfydkicf Gihfukd pGeYf

vTwfNyD;? t½IH;orm;tjzpfeJY r [kwfb?J atmifjrifpmG qkwcf mG Ekid f w,fvYkd okawoDrsm;uqko d nf/ wyfvnf; odum© jyefwufco hJ nf/ toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umv ygwD tm;vH;k onf vlxak xmufcHr&I zdYk ppfwyfacgif;aqmifa[mif;awGukd ygwDacgif;aqmifae&mrSm ygwem tjzpf xm;cJo h nfcsnf;jzpfonf/ toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;vkyNf yD; ql[m wdktvGef (5) ESpftMum? 2004 ta&mufwGif? tif'dkeD;&Sm;vGwf vyfa&;acgif;aqmif qlumEdYk o rD;jzpfol ar*g0g'Dqu l mEdkylx&D udak usmNf y;D ql[mwdv k ufxufu Adv k cf sKyaf [mif;wa,mufukd jynf olvx l ku orwtjzpf a&G;cs,cf hJ jcif;jzpfonf/ toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv wGif tif'ekd ;D &Sm;onfvnf; Edik if H a&;rwnfNidrrf aI wGEiS fh &ifqidk cf &hJ onf/ tif'ekd ;D &Sm;toGiu f ;l ajymif; a&;umv (1998-2004) twGi;f orw 4 a,mufajymif;cJhonf/ Edik if H pD;yGm;a&;wk;d wufrEI eI ;f (12) &mckid Ef eI ;f usKUH oGm;onf/ wkid ;f &if; om; vlrsK;d pkjyóemrsm;ay:onf/ tif'dek ;D &Sm;uae ta&SUwDarm cGJ xGuo f mG ;onf? tm;acs;cGx J u G af &;? ygyl0ga'ovGwfvyfa&;awmif; qkdrIjyóemrsm;ESihf &ifqkdifcJh& onf/ bmvDAH;k uGrJ Ijzpfonf/ odYk aomf tif'ekd ;D &Sm;'Dru dk a& pDtoGiaf jymif;a&;ESihf A[dck sKyu f ikd f rI avQmch sa&;tpDtpOfonf t&Sed f rysucf ahJ y? (1999? 2004? 2009) wdYw k iG f Nidr;f csr;f aom a&G;aumufyJG (3) Budru f sif;yEdkifcNhJ yD;? zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'udk 4 cgjyifqifEidk cf Jh onfukd awGU&onf/ ppfwyfonf 'Djyóemtm;vH;k udk Nird ;f csrf;aom enf; 'Dru dk a&pdwf"mwftcHESiho f m tajz&SmcJhonf[k qlpDvdkbef brf;,l'kd,kdEdku qdo k nf/ ,aeYtif'edk ;D &Sm;onf urÇmh pD;yGm;a&;xdyo f ;D 20 (*s-D 20) wGif w½kwEf iS hf tdEd, ´ NyD;vQif wwd, vdkufonf? EdkifiHwumaiGaMu;

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf


trSwf (112)

owif;pOf (11) á

&efyHkaiG (tkdiftrftufzf) &JU cefYrSe;f csufwiG f tif'dke;D &Sm;EkdifiHom;wOD;csif; (*sD'DyD) onf 2010 wESpfvHk;wGif tar&duefa':vm? 4379.658 jzpfNyD;? jrefrmEdkifiHom;wOD;csif; (*sD'DyD) onf 1243.996 jzpfonf/ (3) qcGJ ausmfumG [csujf zpfonf/ aemufxyf (5) ESpf tMum 2015 ta&mufwiG f 61 98.743 ESifh 1573.078 toD;oD;&Srd mS jzpfonft h wGuf (4) q uGm[oGm;rnfo h abmjzpfonf/ 'gawmif tif'ekd ;D &Sm;onf tm&Sp;D yGm;a&;ysufuyfuae 2007 urÇmh pD;yGm;a&;ysufuyfaemufyidk ;f rS pD; yGm;a&;a&m? Edik if aH &;udyk g oknuae jyefpch&J jcif;jzpfonf/ 'Drku d a&pD (10) ESpfc&D;wGi&f aom tif'kd eD;&Sm;\ vufawGUoifcef;pmuvnf;rSwo f m; avmufonf/ Edik fiaH &;? pD;yGm;a&;? vlrIa&;tajctae awG b,favmufqkd;qdk;? tolw&meufwJh acsmufatmufa&mufjyD; urf;rjrif vrf;rjrif jyefwufEidk zf YkdtaMumif; rjrifawmh&if? arQmfvifh csufwck tjrJwrf;&Syd gao;w,f/ tJ'g 'Dru dk a&pDygyJ/ 'Dru dk a&pDu jyefqw JG ifEikd yf gw,f/ 'gaMumifh 'Dru kd a&pDukd b,fawmhrS vufvw T f rcHygeJYJ/ 2000 ckEpS fa&mufrS ppfwyfrt S em;,lvu dk f aom ql[mwdak cwfu Adv k cf sKyfwa,muf\ 'Dru dk a&pDtay: t"dygÜ ,fziG q hf cdk sujf zpfonf/ tmPm&Siv f ufatmufu ppfwyfukd jyefu,f wifzYkd OD;aqmifBuK;d yrf;cJah om Adv k cf sKyaf [mif; wa,muf\ Ekid fiHa&;tarQmftjrifjzpfonf? xdkYaMumifhyif rESpf Zlvkid v f orwa&G;yGw J iG f tif'kde;D &Sm;vlxku olUudyk J orwtjzpf jyef vnfa&G;aumufchJonf r[kwyf gvm;/ aeoGif Mo*kwf 30? 2010/ &nfneG ;f - The Democratic Instinct in the 21st Century by Susilobambang Yudhoyono - Indonesia's Civil-Military Relationship in the Post Suharto Era by Kolonel Inf Imam Edy Mulyono

rGefjynfopfygwDukd e,fjcm;apmifhwyfzGJU&ef ppftkyfpkrS tMuyfukdizf dtm;ay;

ppfa&;jytcrf;tem;wpfcw k iG f awG&U onfh rGejf ynfopfwyfom;rsm;

pufwifbmv (1) &ufudk aemufqHk; xm;NyD; jynfoYl ppftoGi?f 'grSr[kwf e,fjcm; apmifw h yftjzpfajymif;a&; taMumif;jyefzYkd rGef jynfopfygwDudk p&zt&m&Scd sKyf 'kAv kd cf sKyBf uD; &Jjrifu h &mZoHay;vdu k yf gw,f/ etzppft&m&Sdu tck vdktMuyfud kif awmif;qdw k t hJ ay: rGet f rsKd;om;vGwfajrmuf a&;wyfrawmf&UJ ppfO;D pD;csKyf Adv k cf sKyaf Z,su? ]]usaemfwkdYu e,fjcm;apmifhwyf 'grSr[kwf? jynfoYl ppfayghaemf? tJ'gvufcHrcHaygh? tJ'D pufwifbm (1) &ufrSm usaemfwdkYoabm xm;udk taMumif;jyefay;zdkYayghaemf? Adv k fcsKyf &Jjrifhuawmh ajymvmwm&Sdw,f/ 'gayr,fh 1995 rwdkifciftajctae jyefa&mufr,fvkdY tJvkdyJem;vnfxm;ygw,f}} vdkY tm&ftufzf atudk ajymygw,f/ NyD;cJhwhJ ZGefvujyKvkyfwhJ rGefjynfopf ygwD&UJ A[dt k vkyt f rIaqmiftzJUG tpnf;a0; qHk;jzwfcsuft& ]]rGeftrsKd;om;awGtwGuf tmrcHcsufwpHw k &mr&SdbeJ YJ vufeufpeG Yf cdik ;f wm? wyftoGiaf jymif;cdik ;f wmwdkY? wyfeYJ ygwD udkcJGjcm;wmwdkY ygwDuvufcHrSmr[kwfbl;}} vdYk rGejf ynfopf&JU A[dktvkyt f rIaqmif wOD; u jiif;qdkxm;NyD;vnf;jzpfygw,f/

tckvnf; ppftpd;k &&JUe,fjcm;apmifw h yf zJGYpnf;a&;tpDtpOfudk awmufavsmufjiif; qefvmcJw h Jh rGefjynfopfygwDtaeeJYe,fjcm; apmifw h yfzJYG pnf;zdYk b,fvdrk SrjzpfEdik faMumif;? vmrJh pufwifbm (1) &uf? a&mufwt hJ cgrSm vnf; 'Dvdt k wdkif;om taMumif;jyefomG ;zdkYyJ &Sw d ,fvYkd Adv k cf sKk yfaZ,su tm&ftufzaf tudk ajymygw,f/ rGejf ynfopftaeeJY pufwifbm (1) &uf rSm tJ'v D jkd iif;qefvu kd rf ,fq&kd if typftcwf &yfpcJ w hJ hJ 1995 ckEpS f rwdik cf ifumvvdk tajc taersKd;? tjyeftvSefwdkufcdkufwJhtaet xm;udjk yefa&mufomG ;r,fvYkd ta&SUawmifwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyfwdkif;rSL; AdkvfcsKyfoufEdkif0if;u owday;ajymqdx k m;ygw,f/ ppftpdk;&zufutckvkd Ncdrf;ajcmufwJh oabmrsK;d ajymrvmcif NyD;cJw h hJ ZGev f uwnf; u ESpfzuftajctaeawGwif ;rmvmwm aMumifh rGejf ynfopfygwD½;kH awGeYJ ygwD0ifawG udk xde;f csKyfe,fajrawGqDajymif;a&TUxm;cJNh yD; e,fpyfa'oawGrmS aexdik Mf uwJh a'ocH (1000) ausmfudv k nf; ab;vGwf&mudk wdrf;a&Smifap cJNh yD; jzpfygw,f/À

- Democratizing Indonesai: Reformasi Period in Historical Perspective by Sato Yuri - Civil-Military Relations in Indonesia: Reformasi and Beyond by Mary P| Callahan

ÀÀÀ

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf

2008 tajccHOya'zsuford ;f a&;onf jrefrmEdkifiHom;tm;vkH;\trsKd;om;a&;wm0efjzpfonf/ jrefrmEkid fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrS xkwfa0onf/


á owif;pOf (12)

trSwf (112)

ppfupdk pfeyYJ w J ek jYf yef&rnf[k Akv d cf sKyfxed af rmifajymMum;

Akv d cf sKyfxed af rmif

ppftpd;k &u wywftwGi;f e,fjcm;apmifw h yftoGiaf jymif;vJ zJGYpnf;a&;awmif;qdkwmudk jiif; qef&if ppfa&;t& ta&;,lr,fvYdk u&ifNidr;f csrf;a&;aumifpu D kd zdtm; ay;vdu k yf gw,f/ Adkvfc sKyfxde farmif acgif; aqmifwhJ u&ifNidr;f csrf;a&;aumif pDu udk,fpm;vS,fawGudkta&SY awmifwdkif;ppfXmecsKyfrSm ac:,l awGYqNkH yD; Mo*kwv f uket f rD wyf toGiaf jymif;zdYk 'kAv kd cf sKyBf uD;&Jjrifh u zdtm;ay;ajymqdkvkdufwmjzpf ygw,f/ tckvdk ppftpd;k &&JUawmif; qdx k m;wJt h ay: vufcEH ikd jf cif;r&Sd wJhtaMumif; u&ifNidrf;csrf;a&; aumif p D u wk H Y jyef w muawmh ]]wywftwGi;f vky&f ifvyk ?f rvkyf &ifawmh olu b,fvdkvkyfrvJ awmh rajymwwfbl;av/ 'gayrJh usaemfwYkdrvkyb f ;l av/ b,fvykd J ajymajymaygh/ jynfolYppfvnf; r vkyfbl;aemf/ e,fjcm;apmifhwyf vnf;rvkyfbl;aygh}} ppfa&;t& ta&;,lvm&if vnf; tJ'g,l &rSmaygh/ 'gvnf; wenf;enf;eJY wkeYf jyef&rSmaygh/ usaemfwkdY Nidr;f csrf;a&;jyefvkyfvmwmuawmh

[d;k t&ifu acgif;aqmifBuD; apm bOD;BuD;rl (4) csufeJY jyef,lvm w,fav/ tJ'gyJ? tao,lxm; wmaygh? r[kwb f ;l vm;}} vkYd Adkvf rSL;&ifEu k ADtakd tudak jymygw,f/ ppftpdk;&u ppfa&;t&t a&;,lvmcJh&if? u&iftrsKd;om; tpnf;t½Hk; (KNU) taeeJY u&if Nidrf;csrf;a&;aumifpDbufu yl; aygif;wdkufcdu k rf Smjzpfw,fvdYk wJG zuftwGi;f a&;rSL; y'dak pmvSaiGu ajymygw,f/ tvm;wlawmif;qdrk IrsK;d udk {NyDv (7) &ufu 'kAdkvfcsKyfBuD; &Jjrifhuawmif;qdck hJwmudk {NyDv (22) &ufrSm vufrcHEdkifwJht aMumif; Adv k fcsKyfxed farmifu pm a&;taMumif;jyefcyhJ gao;w,f/ wqufwnf;rSmyJ u&if Nidrf;csrf;a&;aumifpDaeteJY vm r,fh a&G;aumufyJGeJY ywfoufNyD; oabmxm;udkajymwmuawmh ]]tcka &G;aumuf yJGu vlx k&JU 1990 a&G;aumufyrGJ mS &xm;wJrh J udk olwYakd pmfum;wmyJ/ tJet f ,fvf 'Dudk tmPmrtyfbl;/ rtyfbJ tck wcg xyfvmNyD;awmh a&G; aumufyjGJ yefvyk rf ,f/ a&G;aumuf yJG b,f[w k rf vJ? a&G;cs,fNyD;oGm; NyyD J[m/ b,fvakd &G;aumufyJG xyf vkyrf vJ/ a&G;aumufyq GJ kdwm ol wdkY urÇmudk rsufvSnfhjywm? 'g yJ&Sdw,f/ tJawmhtck wdkif;&if; om;acgif;aqmifawGa&m? usaemf wdYka&m bmjyefvyk rf vJqk&d if 'Da&G; aumufyw GJ Ykd rvdb k ;l / wdYkvw kd mu t&ifa&G;aumufyu GJ kd todtrSwf jyKNyD;awmh Edik w f hJygwDudk tmPm tyfzdYk 'gyJ&w dS ,f/}} u&ifNidrf;csrf;a&;aumifpD &JUacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfwhJ OD;wif rdkoDu ADGtdkatudk ajymoGm;wm jzpfygw,f/ À

jrefrmEdik fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrSxkwfa0onf/

ucsifvGwfajrmufa&;wyfzGJU vufeufcsrnfr[kwf ppftpdk;&&JYzdtm;ay;rIawG tNyD; jyKvyk w f u hJ eG *f &ufrmS wuf a&muf v mMuwJ h ucsif v G w f ajrmufa&;wyfzJGYudk,fpm;vS,f awG[m vufeufrcsEdkiw f Jhtqdk ukd wifMuw,fvYkd o&d ygw,f/ 'kAv kd cf sKyBf uD;&Jjrifu h Mo*kwf v (22) &ufu ajrmufydkif;wdkif; ppfXmcsKyfrmS awGYqu kH m? pufwif bmv (1) &uf aemufq;kH xm;NyD; vufeufcszYkd &mZoHay;cJyh gw,f/ jiif;qdck rhJ ,fq&kd if typfr&yfrD

&ifvydk J vufeufuikd rf ,fvYkd wif jywmrsm;w,f/ t&ifvdky Jae& atmifvkdY wifjywmrsm;w,f/ 'D aeYutqHk;rowfao;bl ;/ 'g aMumifh qH;k jzwfcsufcswmr&Sad o; bl;/ olwdYk a&;vmwmawG? olwkdY oabmxm;awGwifjywmyJ&adS o; w,f/ usaemht f aeeJYqd&k ifvnf; b,fvrdk SvufeufcsrmS r[kwfb;l }} vdYk KIO t&m&Sw d OD;u rZdÑrudak jym ygw,f/ jynfyEdik if t H oD;oD;udak &muf

ppfa&;jytcrf;tem;wpfcw k iG f awG&U onfh ucsifvw G af jrmufa&;wyfzUJG

utajctaersKd; jyefa&mufoGm; Edkifw,fvdkY ajymqdkoGm;aMumif; vnf; od&ygw,f/ tJ'v d dk 'kAkdvfcsKyfBuD;&JjrifheJY awGYqHkNyD;wJhaemuf? Mo*kwfv (27) &ufrSm ucsifvGwfajrmuf a&;wyfzGJYu vdkifZmNrdKUrSm ta&; ay:uGe*f &uf ac:,lcMhJ uygw,f/ autdik ftdkxde;f csKyf&m wdkif; a'o (7) ck? c½dkif (18) ckwdkYu Xmqdik &f mud, k pf m;vS,af ygif; 140 wufa&mufMuNy;D trsm;pkuvuf eufrcsvkad Mumif; tqdu k kd wifMu w,fvYkd o&d ygw,f/ wuf a &muf c J h o l w OD ; u ]]a&mufvmwJhudk,fpm;vS,fawG u wifjyMuw,f/ tJ'DxJu t

aeMuwJh ucsiw f kdif;&if;om;awG uvnf; Mo*kwv f (27) &ufpeGJ YJ pk aygif; aMunmcsufw apmif xkwNf yD; ucsifvGwaf jrmufa&;t zJYG KIO udk vufeufrcszdYk tav; teufwku d w f eG ;f vdu k fwt hJ jyif? u csiftrsK;d om;vGwaf jrmufa&;BudK; yrf;rIuv kd nf; jynfya&muf ucsif rsm;u pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;eJY wwf EkdifwhJbufu yg0ifun l o D Gm;rSm jzpfw,fvdkY aMunmcsufrSma&; xm;ygw,f/ wyf z J G Y 0if w OD ; tajymt& vwfwavmtajctaerSm ESpf bufpvHk;u ppfta&;jyifqifrI awGvky faeMuw,fvdkY od&yg w,f/ À

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf


trSwf (112) pmrsufESm (2) rS tquf ...

cJw h [ hJ mrsK;d rsm;w,fAs/ jynfov l x l q k D u ,lzdYk qdkwm a0;a&m/ wyfrawmfrSmygwJholtm;vkH; ppf om;utp [kdAkdvfcsKyfBuD;txd olY&JU uRrf;usifwJyh nm&yfeYJ oifxm;wmukd wu,fhol&Jaumif;wa,muftaeeJY jynfojl ynfom;&JU touft;dk tdrpf nf; pdrfawGudk ½kd;½kd;om;om;umuG,fNyD; awmh jynfolonf trd? jynfolonf tb qkdwhJ[mrsKd;eJY uspfuspfvspfvspf odyo f dyo f nf;onf;aeNyD;awmh jynfol awGtm;vk;H cspw f ?hJ wenf;tm;jzifq h &dk if jynfolawG tm;vkH;BudKufwJh? ysKdwkdif; BudKuw f hJ ESi;f qDcidk w f yfrawmfrsK;d ukd jyef vkcd sifw,f/ b,fygwD b,ftzGYJtpnf;udk bm ukdrS vkyfay;p&mr&Sdbl;/ wckawmh&Sd w,f/ a&G;aumufyGJwdkY? bmwkdYusvkdY&Sd &ifawmh uk, d Bf udKufwhJou l kd vSsKd U0SufrJ ay;wm ay;vkduf? &w,f/ 'gayr,fh ukd,futokH;csNyD;awmh? tokH;cscHNyD; awmh ukd,fusKd;twGufvkyfwmrsKd;u awmh rvkv d m;tyfb;l / umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfjzpfwkef;u awmh a&TxD;aqmif;&wJhoabmayghAsm/ tppt&m&m vpmeJYaxmufyHrh aI wGu usaemfwdkYtwGuf jynfhpHkaewJhtwGuf bmrSryl&bl;/ at;csrf;wmayghav/ tck t&yfom;b0a&mufawmh jynfov l x l k &JU arwåmckv d H&I wmaygh/ at;csrf;w,f vkdYrSwfw,f/ usaemfu tJ'gav;yJ/ jynfoo l nf qif;&J&if qif;&Jjcif;? csrf; om&if csr;f omjcif;? igwwfEidk w f b hJ uf uvkyfay;r,f/ tJ'gyJ/ tck umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfudk us aemfajymcsiw f m oGm;ajymvdu k &f if olpw d f qk;d rSmayghAsm/ olwYdku usaemf&h UJ atmuf u wm0efxrf;aqmifchJwmqkw d [ hJ mudk awmh usaemf rajymygbl;/ usaemfhpw d f xJrSm olwdkYu wcsdefwkef;u usaemfh vkyif ef;ukd atmifjrifatmif 0kdi;f 0ef;ul nDay;wJh vkyaf zmfuidk zf ufawGvYkd yJ rSwf ygw,f/ tJ'v D pdk w d x f m;eJYyJ qufqcH sif wmyg/ umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfudk jynfol awGucsrSwfay;xm;wJh Adv k fcsKyfatmif qef;wkdY? usaemf½dkaoav;pm;wJh Akdvf csKyfausmfaZmwdkYvdkrsKd; wyfrSL;aumif; awG jzpfapcsifwmygyJ/ À

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf

owif;pOf (13) á aemufausmzk;H owif;rS tquf ....

onf 2008 ckES pfzGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'[m ppftpdk;&eJY 'Drkdua&pD tiftm;pkawGtMum; trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;twGuf t"dutwm;tqD;BuD;wpfck jzpfaeNyDvm; / wenf; tm;jzifhawmh onfzpGJ nf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'ukd ppftpkd;&bufu vkH;0jyifray;awmhb;l qk&d if trsK;d om;jyefvnf oifhjrwfa&;u r&Sad wmhbl;vm;/ q&mb,fvkdrsm;okH;oyfygovJ/ usaemfuawmh b,fvdkajymcsifvJqkdawmh onftajccHOya'u trsKd;om;jyefvnf oifjh rwfa&;rSm t"duuswJh twm;tqD;wpfcjk zpfw,fqw dk mtrSeb f /J 'gawmhaocsmw,f/ onftajccHOya' Mum;0ifcaH e&if t&yfpum;eJYajym&r,fq&dk if jynfyef;nKcd sKcd sifvsuf qm; uzsufqw dk mrsK;d vkd onf[mBu;D u zsuaf erSmbJ/ okYd aomf usaemfu onfrmS ajymcsiw f mu onf[mBuD;u usaemfwkdY jyifr&ajymif;r&r[kwfygbl;/ onftajccHOya'ukd oifhwifh avsmufywfwyhJ pHk eH YJ n§Ed idI ;f vkyrf ,fq&dk if trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;rSm onf[mBu;D u odyt f aESmuft,Sujf zpfp&m taMumif;vJr&Sb d ;l r[kwv f m;/ onftajccHOya'eJYywfowfNyD; awmh usaemfwYdk u onf[mBuD;&Sad ewJh trsKo d m;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;r&Sb d ;l ? rjzpfEidk b f ;l vkYd usaemfrajymcsifb;l / okYd aomf trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;udpk Of;pm;wJt h cgrSmawmh onf tjccHOya'[m twm;tqD;t[efUtwm;jzpfw,fqw dk mawmh trSeb f v J Ydk usaemfajymcsiyf g w,f/ q&mwkdYbufu tMuHay;ovkd tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'ukdjyifzk dY ppftpkd;&bufu pOf;pm; w,fqkd&ifayghav q&mtaeeJU a&m b,fvkd xifovJ cifAs/ Oyrm trsKd;om;nDvmcHvd[ k mrsKd; pkHnDac:zdUk pojzifah ygah v/ b,fvdek nf;eJYjyifEikd rf ,fqw kd m q&mhtMuHjyKcsuaf v;enf;enf;avmuf tMuHjyKcsufu b,fvkd&SdygvJ/ usaemfwYdk uawmh b,fvadk jymcsifvq J &dk if usaemfrMumcifu ucsijf ynfe,fbufu ucsifEdik if aH &;orm;awG Ekid fiaH &;tiftm;pkawGxw k fazmfwt Jh oHrsKd;twkid ;f bJ usaemfwOD;wnf; oabmvdkYbJ ajymvkdY&r,fxifw,f/ bmvkdYvJqdkawmh 'gn§dEdIi;f rIu awmfawmfus,fjyefY wJhupd öMuD;jzpfaewJhtwGufaemf/ okdYaomf usaemfhoabmt&ajymr,fqkd&ifawmh 'kwd, yifvkv H k[ d mrsKd; nDvmcHvyk f&rSmyJvYdk usaemfxifw,f/ a,bk,stm;jzifh Munfrh ,fq&kd if q&mwkdYtJet f ,fvf'Dbufutqkjd yKovdk tajccHOya' jyifqifa&; 'kwd,yifvkHnDvmcH jyefac:a&;pwJhudpöawG[m a&G;aumufyGJ rwdik fcifvyk fr,fqd&k if 'gtifrwefukd oifhavsmfr,fvkdUawmh ,lqvkdUawmh &w,faygq h &m&,f/ wzufuvJ ppftpdk;&u a&G;aumufyGJukd usif;yzkdYjyifqifaewJhtcg? onfa&G;aumufyJt G NyD;rSmqdk&if onfvkdrsKd;pOf;pm;zkdY yifvHn k DvmcHac:zw kdU Ykd pwJhudpaö wG[m ykdcufcJomG ;r,fvdYk q&mhtaeeJ, Y lqrdvm;/ tif;'Dvdkawmh ajymcsifw,fAsm/ onf[mawGu 'grsKd;qkw d m Ekdiif Ha&;jyóemukd pOf;pm;wJt h cgrSm onfyo Hk @mefawGayghAsm vTwaf wmfMuD;ay:vmw,fwYdk ? a&G;aumufyBJG uD; NyD;oGm;w,fwYdk ? b,faeY b,f&ufu bmNyD;oGm;w,f 'gawGu ta&;rBu;D ygbl;/ 'gawGu vkyfvdkY&wmbJ/ 'gawGu EkdifiaH &;vkyif ef;u Ekdiif aH &;vkyif ef;wzufuaeoGm;vkYd &w,f/ onfvw T af wmfwdYk bmwkYq d dw k mawG[m Ekid if aH &;vkyif ef;vkdY ajymEkid fw,fqdak omfvnf; omref tm;jzifah wmh txl;ojzifh ppftpk;d &&JUvufatmufrmS usif;ywJh onfvadk &G;aumufyeJG YJ onf tkycf sKyfa&;yko H @mef okUd r[kwfvJ onfzpJG nf;tkyfcsKyyf kH tajccHOya'yko H @mef[m &Si;f &Si;f ajym &&if ppftpk;d &&JUvufatmufrmS uawmh onf[mawGu Ekid if aH &;oabmqkw d mxuf olwUdk &JU tkyfcsKyaf &;yko H @efeYJ vkyfaewmawGAs/ tkycf sKyaf &;Xmeopfqw kd hJ ykHo@mefrsKd;eJY vkyaf ewmAs/ tckow l Ydk [molwkYd vTwfawmfwdkY bmwkYd b,favmufbaJ y:aeae usaemfwkYd onfbufu Ekid if aH &;vrf;aMumif;eJY trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;ukd azmfaqmifEidk rf ,fq&dk if usaemfwUdk onf[mawG[m (1) ESpfeJYvnf;NyD;oGm;Ekdifw,f/ (2) ESpfeJYvJ NyD;oGm;EkdifwJhudp/ö (3) ESpef YJ vnf; NyD;oGm;Ekid fwhJupd /ö (4) ESpf (5) ESpfvJ jzpf&ifjzpfr,fayghAs/ 'gygyJ/ ÄÄÄ

jrefrmEkid fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrS xkwfa0onf/


á owif;pOf (14)

trSwf (112)

jrefrmppftpkd;&usL;vGefcho J nfhppf&mZ0wfrIrsm; pkpH rf;ppfaq;&eftar&duefoabmwl

ppftpd;k &&JU vlom;rsKd;EG,pf k awGtay: usL;vGefxm;wJh&mZ 0wfraI wGtygt0if ppf&mZ0wfrI awGudk pHkprf;ppfaq;zdkYtwGuf aumfr&Siw f &yfzGJYpnf;zdkY qHk;jzwf vdu k w f ,fvdYk orwtdrjf zLawmf uvmwJo h wif;t& od&ygw,f/ jrefrmEdik if v H Yl tcGit hf a&;qdik f &m ukvor*Gtxl;ud, k fpm;vS,f rpö w muif w m;em;awmif ; qd k xm;wJt h wdkif; tckvdk ppftpkd;& usL;vGefxm;wJh&mZ0wfrIawGukd pHkprf;ppfaq;zdkY aumfr&SifzJGYpnf; a&;udk tar&dueftpdk;&uaxmuf cHvdkufwmjzpfw,fvdkY tdrfjzL awmfajymcGi&hf rpöwmbif*srifcse;f

uajymygw,f/ orwtdrfjzLawmf? trsKd; om;vHjk cHKa&;aumifp&D UJ ajymcGi&hf rpöwmbif*srifcsef;u ]]&nfreS ;f csuftwdkif;txajrmufzdYk ouf qdkif&myk*GdKvfawGeJY t"duusol awG? wjcm;Edik if aH wG? a'owGif; tmPmydik t f zJUG tpnf;awG? tzJUG tpnf;pHu k vlawGeJY us,fus,f jyefYjyefYaqG;aEG;rIawG paeygNyD}} vdYk ajymygw,f/ oHw refenf;t& xda wGY qufqaH &;utajzr[kwyf ?J tNrJ wrf;&nfreS ;f csuu f taygif;vu© PmaqmifwhJajymifvJa&;jzpfNyD; awmh xdawGYqufqaH &;rl0g'xm;

aewJhtcsdefrSmyJ wjcm;zdtm;ay; p&mtajctaeawGeJY &ifqdkifvm &ifvnf; [efYwm;rSmr[kwfbl; vdYk bif*srifcsef;uajymygw,f/ ppftpd;k &usi;f yzdYkjyifqifae wJah &G;aumufyeJG YJywfoufNy;D {&m 0wDuar;wmudak wmh ]]jrefrmppf tpd;k &[m Edik if w H um&JUw&m;0if todtrSwfjyKrIudk &vd rfhr,fr xifygbl;/ ppftpdk;&u twdkuf tcHygwDawGeJY wdkif;&if;om;vl enf;pkawGukd yg0ifciG rhf jyKb;l / ,Hk MunfavmufwJha&G;aumufyJGt aetxm;jzpfatmifzefwD;zdkY jref rmppftpkd;&taeeJY vkyfp&mawG trsm;BuD;usefygao;w,f/ ppf rSew f t hJ rsK;d om;a&;eJY awGYqakH qG; aEG;a&;tygt0ifygyJ}} vdkY ajym oGm;ygw,f/ tar&dueftpd;k &taeeJY jref rmppftpd;k &udk xdawGYqufqaH &; rl0g'twdkif;usifhokH;vmcJhNyD; w ESpt f wGi;f rSmyJ tpd;k &tqifjh rift h &m&SdawG ESpfBudrfomG ;a&mufaqG; aEG;cJah yr,fh ppftpd;k &bufu yl; aygif;aqmif&u G fvpkd dwrf &SdcyhJ gbl;/ À

pmrsuEf mS (8) rS tquf ... od&ygw,f/ Mo*kwfv (8) &ufupNyD;awmh &Spfav;vHk;vlxkvIyf&Sm;rI (22) ESpfjynfhtjzpf ppftpdk;&a&;qJG twnfjyK xm;wJh zJGYpnf;yHkOya'eJYywfoufNyD; &Sif;vif;ajymjywJhtjyif vufurf;pmapmifjzefYa0wJhvIyf&Sm;rIawGudkvnf; vkyaf qmifchJw,fvYkd od&ygw,f/ ]]ppfrSefNyD;awmh 'Drdkua&pDenf;usus vGwfvyfpGmqE´rJay;wmwdkY? vGwfvyfpGmazmfxkwfwmwdkYu w&m;rQwjcif;eJYnDw,fyghaemf/ tJ'D 'Drdkua&pDpepftwGuf a&G;aumufyJGjyKvkyfjcif;&JU &nf&G,fcsufawGu 'gyJ/ ½dk;om;ajzmifhrwfNyD; t&nftcsif;&SdwJhvludk axmufcHrJay;&r,f/ jynfolYtusKd;pD;yGm;udkjyKvkyfrJh vl ukdom a&G;aumufwifajr§muf&r,f/ aemufNyD;usawmh jynfol[m 0ifa&mufta&G;cHwJhvl? ta&G;cHol tm;vHk; udk rESpfoufjcif;eJY rJray;yJaeEdkifovdk? a&G;aumufyJGudkvnf; r,HkMunfvdkY&Sd&if rJray;yJ aeEdkifw,f/ t"duxm;NyD;awmh uRefrwdkYaqG;aEG;w,f/ ynmay;w,f/ aemufpm&Gufpmwrf;awG a0w,fayghaemf}} trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGYcsKyf rauG;wdkif;pnf;½Hk;a&;rSL; a':cifapmaX;u tm&ftufzfatudk ajymoGm;wm jzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dtjyif zGJYpnf;yHktajccHOya'rSmygwJh jynfolem;rvnfEdkifwJh Oya'qdkif&mtoHk;tEIef;rsm;? yk'fr rsm;eJY ½IyfaxG;apwJhpmom;rsm;ukd &Sif;vif;ajymjyNyD; ppfwyfu tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;rSm yg0ifywfoufrJh tajc taeawGudk jrifomatmif yHkpHrsm;a&;qJGNyD; &Sif;vif;jyocJhw,fvdkY od&ygw,f/ À

jrefrmEdik fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrSxkwfa0onf/

jrefrmppfAv dk cf sKyfrsm; ppf&mxl;rS EkwfxGuf AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&T? 'k wd, Ad kvf csKyfrSL ;BuD; armif at;? Adkv fcsKyfBuD;ol&a&Tref; tygt0if t&m&Sd 20 avmuf [mvuf&Sd &mxl;rsm;uaet em;,lawmhrmS jzpfygw,f/ 'DESpfEdk0ifbmvrSmusif; yr,fh a&G;aumufyGrJ mS t&yf0wf tjzpfeJY0ifNyD;awmh ta&G;cHzdkY twGuftckvkd ppf&mxl;awGu tem;,lvdkufMuwmjzpfw ,f vdYk aejynfawmfuvmwJo h wif; awGt&od&ygw,f/ AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&T eJY xdyfydkif;acgif;aqmifawG[m ppfwuúodkvf Adkvfoifwef;t rSwfpOf (17) u qif;cJhMuol awGjzpfNyD; olwYkd ae&mudk tpm; 0ifr,fo h al wGuawmh trSwpf Of 18 eJY 19 rSmqif;cJhMuolawG jzpfw,fvYkdo&d ygw,f/ umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyt f jzpf 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD; ol&jrifh atmif? 'kw, d umuG,af &;OD;pD; csKyt f jzpf 'kw, d Adv k cf sKyBf uD; udk udk? yl;wJGn§dEIdif;uGyfuJa&;rSL; (Munf;? a&? av) tjzpf 'kw, d Adv k cf sKyBf uD; rif;atmifvidI ?f ppf axmufcsKy½f H;k udak wmh AdkvfcsKyf a0vGiw f kdYukd cefYtyfvu kd fw,f vdo Yk wif;awGxu G af y:aeygw,f/ udk,fpm;vS,favmif; t rnfpm&if;awGukd Mo*kwv f 30 &ufrmS aemufq;Hk xm;ay;ydYk&rSm jzpfwmaMumifh tJ'&D ufrwdik cf if &mxl;awGuEkwfxGufMuwm jzpfw,fvkdYvo J Hk;oyfaeMuyg w,f/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD; ol&a&Tref;? Adv k fcsKyBf u;D oD[ol&wifatmif jrifOh ;D ? 0efBu;D csKyf ode;f pdew f Yk[ d m aejynfawmfu rJqE´e,fawGrmS 0ifNyD;ta&G;cHMurSmjzpfw,fvdYk ppfwyftodik ;f t0dik ;f rSm owif; awGxu G af eygw,f/ À

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf


trSwf (112)

owif;pOf (15) á

a&G;aumufyGJrwkdifrD EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; vTwfay;&ef *syefawmif;qkd jrefrmEkdiif HvGwfvyfonfhowif;at*sifpD

t,f'w D mcsKyf

ZD0Zkd; wm0efct H ,f'Dwm

a&csrf; owif;t,f'w D m

rif;rif; pmrsufESmzGUpJ nf;rI

jrefrmEkid if &H dS tusO;f axmifrsm;xJrS rEÅav;tusO;f axmif\jrifuiG ;f

Ed0k ifbmv 7 &ufrwdik rf D a':atmif qef;pkMunfeJY EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm; vH;k vTwfay;zdkY *syeftpdk;&u awmif;qdk vdu k yf gw,f/ a':atmifqef;pkMunfeYJ Edik if aH &;t usOf;om;tm;vH;k udk vTwaf y;jcif;r&SdyeJ YJ a&G;aumufyJGusif;yr,fqdk&if tJ'Da&G; aumufyJG[m vGwfvyfNyD;rQwrI&SdrSmr [kwb f ;l vdYk *syefEkdiif jH cm;a&;0efBuD; um wpk,tdu k m'guajymygw,f/ tJ'DtwGuf ppftpdk;&taeeJY a': atmifqef;pkMunfeYJ tjrefq;kH awGUqHak qG; aEG;NyD; a&G;aumufyGJrSm tm;vHk;yg0ifEdkif atmifaqmif&Gufay;zdkY jrefrmppftpdk;&

ud*k syefEikd if jH cm;a&;0efBuD;u wdu k w f eG ;f vdu k fwhJtaMumif; usKdwo kd wif;rSmazmf jyxm;ygw,f/ a':atmifqef;pkMunftaeeJY ZGev f 21 &ufaeYu ppftpdk;&udkw&m;pJGzkdY EdkY wpfpmydYkw,fqw kd muvnf; wdik ;f jynfeYJ vlrsKd;twGufxrf;aqmif&r,fh wm0ef 0wå&m;awGukd ausyeG af tmifraqmif&u G f wmaMumifhjyKvkyf&wmjzpfNyD; 'dkif,m avmh*v f rf;udyk w d fwmr[kwyf J tzJYG csKyf taeeJYawGYqkHaqG;aEG;zdYk twGuf tNrJt qifoifh&Sdaeygw,fvdkY OD;ÓPf0if;u wqifah jymygw,f/ À

rsuEf mS zk;H owif;rS tquf .....

?aemifjzpfvmr,ft h pd;k &[m jynfoYlvw T f awmfuxde;f ausmif;Edkiw f ?hJ jynfoYl vTwf awmfu wnfrh wfEikd w f t hJ pk;d &r[kwb f ;l / orwu vTr;f rd;k wJt h pd;k &rsK;d jzpfw,f qdk wmjynfolawGavhvmoifhygw,f}} vkdY a':atmifqef;pkMunfuajymygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf w&m;rQwwJh a&G; aumufyaGJ y:aygufzkYdtwGuf owif;vGwf vyfc GifheJ Yywfo ufNyD;ajymwmu ]]a&G; aumufyJu G si;f yr,haf eYukd tcsdew f kdav; rSm aMunmwm[m vHk;0rw&m;bl;wJh/ olYtjrifuawmh 'gjynfolawGukdrav; pm;wmvdYk jrifaMumif;ajymygw,f/aemuf Freedom of Expression eJ Y Freedom of

Mo*kwfv? 2010 ckESpf

owif;&,lciG ?hf owif;xkwf jyefciG ?hf vGwv f yfpmG rdrq d E´xw k af zmfciG ?hf tJ'gawGrygbJeYJ w&m;rQwwJah &G;aumuf yJq G w kd m b,frmS rS r&SEd ikd yf gbl;}} vdYk a': atmifqef;pkMunfuajymwJhtaMumif; OD;ÓPf0if;u ajymoGm;wmyg/ qufNyD;awmh owif;pmawGu wqifh Ncdrf;ajcmufwmawG? vSnfhzsm; wJph um;awG? jynfoal wG&UJ em;rvnfrI udt k cGihfaumif;,lwmawGeYJywfoufNyD; vH;k 0 vufrcHEkdib f l;vdYk a':atmifqef; pkMunfuajymwJt h aMumif; OD;ÓPf0if; u jyefvnfajymMum;cJyh gw,f/ À Information

armifausmf apmifa& - 1000 wefz;kd - (5) bwf

á owif;pOfokdY pmrlrsm;? a0zeftMuHjyKpmrsm;tm; atmufygvdyfpmtwkid f; qufoG,af y;ykdYEdik fMuygonf/ P.O.Box (91) Tak, 63110 Mae Sod,Thailand. admin@binamojo.org www.binamojo.org

jynfwiG ;f vIy&f mS ;rI"mwfyrHk sm;tm; tok;H jyKcGifah y;onfh

EkdifiHa&; tHwkr_aumfrwDtm; rkd;BuKd;owif;pOfrS txl;aus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf/ t,f'w D mtzGUJ

jrefrmEkid fiHvGwfvyfonfh owif;at*sifpDrS xkwfa0onf/


รก owif;pOf (16)

ppftpkd;&u Ekd0ifbmv (7) &uf a&G;aumufyGJ&uf aMujimNyD;wJhaemuf ykdi;f a':atmifqef;pkMunfukdrsm; a&G;aumufyJGrwdkifcifvTwfay;NyD;awmh onfa&G;aumufyJrG mS yg0ifcGihaf y;rvm;qkdNyD;awmh arQmfvifo h lawGvJ &Sdygw,f/ wu,fvkdrsm;aygah v tJvt kd ajctaersm;&SdvmvkdU&Sd&if a': atmifqef;pkMunf taeeJU a&G;aumufyGJ0ifEkdifygrvm;/a':atmifqef; pkMunf&JU oabmxm; 'grrS [kwf tJeft,fvf'DygwD&U&J yfwnfcsufayghav ?b,fvkdrsm;&SdEkdirf vJ/ onf[mawGuawmh xkH;pHtwkdif;bJ cefYreS ;f csuaf wGaygh/ xifjrif csufawG 'gawGay;wmenf;w,f/ okUd aomf usaemfajymEkid w f m (2) csuf&dS ygw,f/ wpfcsufu bmvJqkad wmh tJeft,fv'f t D aeeJUuvJ onfa&G; aumufyu JG dk uefYuu G af ewmr[kwfb;l / usaemfajymaewm a&G;aumufyJG [m tajzr[kwb f ;l / jrefrmjynf&UJ vuf&EdS idk if aH &;u csOfzwft;dk BuD;vkjd zpf aew,f/ onfcsOzf wftk;d BuD;[m a&G;aumufyGeJ YJ ajz&Sif;vkdYr&bl;/ a&G; aumufyeJG YJ ajz&Si;f &if a&G;aumufyt JG NyD;rSmvJ aemufxyfEkid fiaH &;csOfzwf mEdmik bJfiv HvYdk , Gwq yfonf ;at*sif pDrSxykw 0onf tk;d BuD;jref jzpfarerS l fvw,f / tJh owif 'gaMumif h a&G;aumuf eJG UJ faywf owf/whJ

trSwf (112)

[mu onftajccHOya'[m t"duw&m;cHb/J t"dujyรณembJ/ Armjynfudk ppfuรŸG efb0ukd qufNyD;awmha&mufatmifvyk af ewJ[ h mu onftajccHOya'bJ onftajccHOya'udk jyifyg? ajymif;yg? jyefvnfo;Hk oyfygqkw d hJ awmif;qkcd su/f tJ'gawGurdk vky&f if tJet f ,fv'f [ D m a&G;aumufyu JG pd eรถ YJywfowfNyD; bmrSajymp &mr&Sb d ;l vkYd usaemfajymcsifygw,f/ aemufwpfcu k a':atmifqef;pkMunfudpรถu usaemfuawmh a':atmif qef;pkMunfukd,fpm;ajym&wmawmh cufawmh cufwmayghAsm/ 'gayr,fhvkdY acgif;aqmifwpfa,muf ud, k w f ikd u f aeNyD;awmh &Si;f vif;jyEkid w f t hJ aetxm;rsK;d rSmr&Sb d ;l qkv d Ydk &&dS if usaemfwYdk acgif;aqmifukd axmufc0H ef;&HaewJt h iftm;pkawG xJu vlwpfa,muftaeeJY usaemfajymEkdiw f mu bmvJqdkvkdY&Sd&if a':atmif qef;pkMunf[mvJ tJet f ,fv'f o D abmxm;ovkb d q J adk wmh a&G;aumufyeJG YJ ywf owfvYdk 0ifp&mtaMumif;ukrd &Sdb;l vkYd usaemfajymEkid yf gw,f/

Mo*kwfvpmrs ? 2010 ckEod Spf kY ... ufESm (13)


Mojo Journal 112