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APPLICATION DOSSIER OF THE QUADRILATERO FERRIFERO GEOPARK TO THE GLOBAL UNESCO NETWORK OF GEOPARKS

Government of the State of Minas Gerais State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark Promoting Group

Minas Gerais - Brazil December 2010


GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS Antonio Augusto Junho Anastasia, Governor

STATE SECRETARY OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND HIGHER EDUCATION OF MINAS GERAIS Alberto Duque Portugal, Secretary

MINERAL AND METALLURGIC POLE OF EXCELLENCE Renato Ribeiro Ciminelli, Executive Manager

QUADRILÁTERO FERRÍFERO GEOPARK

PROMOTING GROUP Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais – UFMG) Federal University of Ouro Preto (Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto – UFOP) Fundation Center for Technology of Minas Gerais (Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais – CETEC) Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM(Serviço Geológico do Brasil – CPRM) Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais - PUC Minas) Prosecuting Counsel of the State of Minas Gerais (Ministério Público do Estado de Minas Gerais) State Institute of Forests (Instituto Estadual de Florestas – IEF) State Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (Instituto Estadual do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico de Minas Gerais – IEPHA) State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais (Secretaria de Estado de Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior de Minas Gerais - SECTES) State Secretary of Tourism of Minas Gerais (Secretaria de Estado de Turismo de Minas Gerais – SETUR) The National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional – IPHAN)


QUADRILÁTERO FERRÍFERO GEOPARK PROMOTING GROUP

GENERAL SUPERVISION Renato Ribeiro Ciminelli - State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais/Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence Octávio Elísio Alves de Brito - Federal University of Minas Gerais EXECUTIVE SUPERVISION Ana Paula Bax

SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL COMMITTEE

Federal University of Minas Gerais

Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM

Prof. Dr. Úrsula Ruchkys de Azevedo Prof. Dr. Friedrich Ewald Renger Prof. Dr. Maria Márcia Magela Machado

Dr. Carlos Schobbenhaus Prof. Dr. Marco Antônio Fonseca Décio Antônio Chaves Beato Sérgio Lima Augusto José de C.L. Pedreira da Silva

Federal University of Ouro Preto Prof. Dr. Paulo de Tarso Amorim Castro

Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais Prof. Msc. Miguel Ângelo Andrade

SPONSORS Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais – UFMG) Federal University of Ouro Preto (Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto – UFOP) Fundation Center for Technology of Minas Gerais (Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais – CETEC) Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM(Serviço Geológico do Brasil – CPRM) Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais - PUC Minas) Prosecuting Counsel of the State of Minas Gerais (Ministério Público do Estado de Minas Gerais) State Institute of Forests (Instituto Estadual de Florestas – IEF) State Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (Instituto Estadual do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico de Minas Gerais – IEPHA) State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais (Secretaria de Estado de Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior de Minas Gerais) State Secretary of Tourism of Minas Gerais (Secretaria de Estado de Turismo de Minas Gerais – SETUR -MG) The National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional – IPHAN) CONTRIBUTORS Rose Lane Guimarães Rodrigo Tinoco Isaac Abraão Silva Lana Iracy Duarte da Cunha Mayana Silva Vinti


List of Institutions, Organizations and General Abbreviations APA: Environmental Protected Area (Área de Proteção Ambiental) CECO: The Center for Studies of the Gold Cycle (Centro de Estudos do Ciclo do Ouro) CETEC: Fundation Center for Technology of Minas Gerais (Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais) CONAMA: National Environment Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente) COPAM: Environmental Policy Council of Minas Gerais (Conselho de Política Ambiental de Minas Gerais) CPRM: Geological Survey of Brazil (Serviço Geológico do Brasil– CPRM) DNPM: National Department of Mineral Production (Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral ) FAPEMIG: Research Support Foundation for the State of Minas Gerais (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais) FEAM: Environment State Foundation – Minas Gerais (Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente – Minas Gerais) FIEMG: Federation of Industries of the State of Minas Gerais (Federação das Indústrias do Estado de Minas Gerais) GEF: Global Environmental Fund IEF: State Institute of Forests (Instituto Estadual de Florestas) IEPHA: State Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (Instituto Estadual do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico de Minas Gerais) IGAM: Water Management Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Gestão da Águas) Internal Revenue Service (Receita Federal) IPHAN: The National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional MG: Minas Gerais Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence (Pólo de Excelência Mineral e Metalúrgico) Ministry of Environment (Ministério do Meio Ambiente) Ministry of Finance (Ministério da Fazenda) NGO: Non-governmental Organization (ONG-Organização Não Governamental) OSCIP: Organization of Civil Society for Public Interests (Organização da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Público) PRONABIO: National Program for Biological Diversity Conservation (Programa Nacional para a Preservação da Diversidade Biológica) PUC Minas: Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais) SEBRAE: Support Service for Micro and Small Business (Serviço de Apoio à Pequena e Micro Empresa) SECTES: State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais (Secretaria Estadual de Ciência, Tecnologia, e Ensino Superior de Minas Gerais) SETUR: State Secretary of Culture of Minas Gerais (Secretaria de Estado da Cultura de Minas Gerais) SEMAD: State Secretary of Environment and Sustainable Development of Minas Gerais (Secretaria de Estado de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável de Minas Gerais) SENAC: National Service of Commercial Learning (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizado Comercial) SETUR: State Secretary of Tourism of Minas Gerais (Secretaria de Estado de Turismo de Minas Gerais) SIGEP: Brazilian Committee for Geological and Paleobiological Sites (Comissão Brasileira de Sítios Geológicos e Paleobiológicos) SNUC: National System of Conservation Units (Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação) UFMG: Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais) UFOP: Federal University of Ouro Preto (Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto) UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) UnB: University of Brasília (Universidade de Brasília) UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura) UNESP: State University of São Paulo at Rio Claro (Universidade Estadual de São Paulo – Rio Claro) UNICAMP: University of Campinas (Universidade Estadual de Campinas) USGS: U.S. Geological Survey (Serviço Geológico dos Estados Unidos) USP: University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo)


Curral Range

Daniel Mansur


Contents A – Identification of the Area> 1

D - Economic Activity & Business Plan > 27

1. Name > 1

1. Economic activity>27

2. Surface area, physical and human geography characteristics > 1

2. Existing and planned facilities >27

3. Organization in charge and management structure > 2

4. Overview and policies for the sustainable development of: > 33

4. Application contact person> 5

- geo-tourism and economy

3. Analysis of geotourism potential >31

- geo-education B – Geological Heritage> 6

- geo-heritage

1. Location> 6

5. Policies for, and examples of, community empowerment (involvement and consultation> 35

2. General geological description > 7 3. Listing and description of geological sites >13 4. Details on the interest of these sites in terms of their international, national, regional or local value >20

C – Geoconservation> 22 1. Current or potential pressure > 22 2. Current status in terms of protection of geological sites> 22 3. Data on the management and maintenance of these sites> 22 4. Listing and description of non-geological sites and how they are integrated into the proposed Geopark> 22

6. Policies for, and examples of, public and stakeholder awareness> 35

E – Interest and arguments for joining the GGN> 37 1. Scientific Support > 37 2. Governmental Programs: Circuito do Ouro, Estrada Real > 38 3. National and international scientific relevance> 38 4. UNESCO presence in the geopark> 38

REFERENCES > 40

Annex 1 - Self evaluation document Annex 2 - Geological summary Annex 3 - Letter of support Annex 4 – Endorse documents


A. Identification of the Area 1. Name English: Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark Portuguese: Geopark Quadrilátero Ferrífero

2. Surface area, physical and human geography characteristics 2.1. Physiographic aspects As described by Barbosa & Rodrigues (1967), the Quadrilátero Ferrífero - QF – corresponds to a geological block from the Precambrian epoch whose contours were revealed by differential erosion. Thus, quartzites and itabirites form crests in altitudes between 1,300 and 1,600 meters. These crests correspond to the alignment of the Curral Range to the North, of the Ouro Branco Range to the South, of the Moeda Range to the West, and of the block formed by the Caraça Range, and the beginning of the Espinhaço Range (Serra do Espinhaço) to the North. This structure is already observed in the map elaborated by Claussen in 1840 (Map 5). The influence of altitude variations favors the appearance of microclimates presenting temperature and humidity quite different from the annual mean temperature of the region, which is approximately 20°C, and annual mean precipitation ranging from 1,300mm to 2,100mm. The predominantly hot-tempered climate of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is marked by two well-defined seasons: dry winter and wet summer (Silva, 2007). The headwaters of two large hydrographic basins – São Francisco River Basin (Bacia do Rio São Francisco), and Doce River Basin (Bacia do Rio Doce) - are located in the region and supply water to the Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte. Geologic structures influence the course of rivers, forming stretches of cascades, and deep valleys. This occurs mainly in the Velhas River (Rio das Velhas), where the variations in the altitude of the relief are remarkable. (Barbosa & Rodrigues, 1967).

2.2. Biological aspects, biomas The Quadrilátero Ferrífero spreads across a region of vegetal covering which shares the biomes the Brazilian Tropical Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica). The wide diversity of hydrological, pedological, topographical, geological, and geomorphological features, as previously observed, creates sufficient conditions for the existence of a great floristic diversity in the region, with a variety of biota, Miguel Andrade especially seasonal forests, semi-deciduous forests, montane, and submontane. Although it was formerly well-distributed, it should be observed that the Atlantic Rainforest biome is nowadays extremely degraded, restricted to isoladed fragments of vegetation. The Brazilian Tropical Savanna biome is constituted by a mosaic of phytophysiognomies, where forest areas as ciliary forests, gallery forests, open areas including campo limpo (field with sparse vegetation), campo sujo (dirty field), campo cerrado (cerrado field) as well as intermediate areas as cerradão (cerrado woodlands) and cerrado sensu stricto are observed. A typical physiognomy of the Brazilian Tropical Savanna - the campo

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project rupestre(fields of altitude in iron ore ranges) – is characteristic in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. It usually occurs at altitudes over 900 meters, on rocky outcrops, presenting sandy, fine or pebbly soil, poor in nutrients and organic matter, and low capacity to retain water.

2.3. Human aspects The population of the area proposed for the Geopark is of approximately 3,154,506 inhabitants, and since the discovery of gold at the end of the 17th century to present the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero has the largest urban concentration of the state of Minas Gerais. In its northern part, the state capital of Belo Horizonte has nearly 2.4 million inhabitants. The cities of the region have a population of about 22% of the state population, and they are responsible for 26.8% of the GDP for the state of Minas Gerais.

3. Organization in charge and management structure State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais – SECTES MG Cidade Administrativa Presidente Tancredo Neves – Rodovia Prefeto Américo Gianetti, s/n Bairro Serra Verde | Edifício Gerais – 8º. Andar CEP 31.630-901 Belo Horizonte – Minas Gerais Brasil

3.1. History of the proposition of the Geopark As the potential of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero for the comprehension of the Earth Sciences and the mining history is widely accepted, evaluation studies on the potential of this region to become a Geopark from UNESCO which was initially proposed by the Geopark Project of the Brazilian Geologocal Survey – CPRM (Schobbenhaus 2006) have been performed since 2006. One of the pioneer studies was the PhD thesis entitled “Geological heritage and geoconservation in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero: potential to create a Geopark from UNESCO” (Ruchkys 2007), submitted at the UFMG. In this very year, the Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence from State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais – SECTES, issued the Public Notice Number 14-2007 Network of Mineral Technologies by which the Research Support Foundation of Minas Gerais – FAPEMIG approved a project aiming selection and establishment of pilot sites to create the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark. The project was launched with the ‘Seminar Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark: a new perspective of use for the geoscientific heritage’ which included lectures held by UNESCO representatives, by the Brazilian Geological Survey (Serviço Geológico do Brasil – CPRM), by universities, by mining companies, by NGOs, and by the Araripe Geopark in Brazil. After this seminar, many communications were presented at renowned events for the diffuse proposal, as well as workshops for the communities surrounding some geological sites. In April 2009, the Promoting Group of Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark was created by the State Government, which, under the supervision of SECTES/Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence, promoted the necessary political articulations for the effective proposal of the Geopark to the State Government.

3.2. Management Proposal The territorial management systems have become considerably more complex in Brazil. The model recommended by UNESCO for the creation of geoparks is innovative and the State of Minas Gerais pioneered in proposing the compatibility of conservation and scientific education with the economical activity, signalizing a commitment of the State Government as a promoter of the economical, social, and environmental development. The Geopark is managed by the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark Promoting Group connected with the SECTES. Associated with the Promoting Group is the continuous Forum of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark with the participation of representatives from the national civil society (NGO, a non-profitable

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organization, Organization of Civil Society for Public Interests – OSCIP, Foundations, Scientific Societies), from the universities, the entrepreneur segment, municipalities, and from the state government. Position

Name

General Supervision

Renato Ribeiro Ciminelli Octávio Elísio Alves de Brito

Executive Supervision

Ana Paula Bax

Scientific Supervision of ScientificTechnical Committee

Prof. Dr. Úrsula Ruchkys de Azevedo Prof. Dr. Friedrich Ewald Renger Prof. Dr. Maria Márcia Magela Machado Prof. Dr. Paulo de Tarso Amorim Castro Dr. Carlos Schobbenhaus

Consulting Council

Fundation Center for Technology of Minas Gerais - CETEC Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais - PUC Minas Prosecuting Counsel of the State of Minas Gerais State Institute of Forests - IEF State Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage - IEPHA State Secretary of Tourism of Minas Gerais - SETUR

The Quadrilátero Institute, which will be in charge of the geopark management, is being created. This institute is a non-profit private entity and will hold as an objective “to develop and to promote actions related to the integrated territorial development of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero presenting sustainable social, economical, cultural, and environmental bases”. The system of management of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark is comprised of Management Committee, Instituto Quadrilátero and sites that are managed independently: 1.

Management Committee - With headquarters in the Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais CETEC, the Committee evolves of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark Promoting Group, who are initially responsible for supporting and proposing the implementation of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark. The Management Committee establishes and monitors the guidelines of the installation and functioning of Geopark. The guidelines are executed for the Geopark QF Operações entailed to the Instituto Quadrilátero. The powers of the Committee Manager are to elaborate Start-up Guidelines for the Geopark, to control the performance of the Guidelines, to support the Management of the Geopark via its Technical Chambers (Scientist, Tourism, Socio-environmental, Culture and Education), to establishing the rules for communication of the Geopark with the society This Committee will be consolidated in the following two months evolving from the current Promoting Group.

2.

The Instituto Quadrilátero - A private organisation without lucrative ends, that in 2006 received of Government of the State of Minas Gerais the qualification of Organisation of the Civil Society of Public Interest (OSCIP), which qualifies it to act as a partner also in governmental projects. The Instituto is responsible for management of the Geopark and has the objective to develop and to promote actions connected to the comprehensive territorial development of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero with social, economic, cultural and sustainable environmental bases. The Instituto Quadrilátero, via Division Geopark QF Operações, validates the cooperation agreements with the institutions managing of the sites, supports all activities related to the implementation and operation of the Geopark, including capturing resources in Brazil and abroad. The tasks of Geopark QF Operações are:

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. 3.

Drawing up the procedures that to do work the guidelines of the Management Committee for the operation of Geopark; Articulate the cooperation agreements to be signed with the institutions managing of sites; Attract resources and partners; Elaborate reports on the operation of Geopark for the Management Committee; Administrate the programs of training of managers of sites; Coordinate the development continues of new content and new exhibitions; Establish procedures to finance sites and monitors them; Define the design of products associated with the Geopark; and Mobilise the communities and visitors on specific campaigns, among other functions.

The sites are managed independently by each institution and follow the procedures established by Geopark QF Operações.

Quadrilátero Institute

Promoting Group

SECTES

Management Committee

Geopark QF Operações Guidelines Executive Supervision

Scientist Tourism

Sites in Prot. areas

Iinfrastructure Associated

Companies Sites Sites cast by GPK QF Museums

• • • • • •

Socio-environmental Culture

Restaurants Hotels Trails Schools Fairs Organic producers

Education

T e c h n i c a l

C h a m b e r s

Exhibitions

3.3. Mechanisms for establishing the geopark The mechanisms for establishing the geopark and the regulation of human activities in the sites proposed are conditioned to the Brazilian legislation. The majority of the geological sites proposed coincides with previously created conservation units recognized by the federal and state entities where the environmental agencies belonging to the system SEMAD: IGAM, FEAM, and IEF, along with COPAM, participate in the processes of environmental control, monitoring, and regulations. As it concerns an area of great mineral importance, the DNPM plays a strong role in the control and release of areas for mining, according to legal conditions. The mining sector is experiencing a new moment of environmental responsibility and has pointed to the environmental compensations performing convenient actions towards the implementation of centers and programs of environmental education, and interpretation which may be developed in the sites proposed for the geopark. Regarding the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, the performance of outstanding entrepreneurs as Vale (main Brazilian mining company), Açominas (iron and steel metallurgy), and AngloGold (gold mining) among others, is remarkable. The federal legislation that regulates the use of natural resources - Forest Code Law 4,771/65 and Law 5,197/67 of Fauna Protection, and CONAMA resolution 13/90, relating to the 10km buffer zone around the Conservation Units - UCs, set bounds to the use of resources, determine the creation of UCs at a government

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level, demarcate legal preservation areas within private properties, as well as economical activities permitted around the Conservation Units (SEMAD, 2005). Law 6,902 of April 27, 1981 institutes the Environmental Protected Areas - APAs, provide legal mechanisms for the management of soil and human activities in private areas, entrusting the environmental agency with the duty of managing the licensing of these activities. It should be emphasized that the area proposed for the Geopark is part of the Southern Environmental Protected Area of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region - APA Sul RMBH. Special Premise The installation of the QuadrilĂĄtero FerrĂ­fero Geopark sites in areas under mineral exploration rights will be allways progressed after the owners approval and the proposed strategy by the Promoting Group is to invite these private owners to led the site installation, management, and sponsoring.

4. Application contact person Name: Renato Ribeiro Ciminelli Position: General Coordinator Tel. +55 31. 3915 5091 | +55 31. 3915 4970 Fax: +55 31. 3915 5123 Email:gerenciaexecutiva@geoparkqf.org Itacolomi Park

Source IEF

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project

B ñ Geological Heritage 1. Location The Quadrilátero Ferrífero – QF is located in the mid-southeast portion of the State of Minas Gerais taking an approximatearea of 7,000km . According to Dorr (1969), this region was thus denominated by Gonzaga de Campos due to the deposits of iron ore which occur in the area that presents as vertexes the cities of Itabira, to the northeast, Mariana, to the southeast, Congonhas, to the southwest, and Itaúna, to the northwest (Map 1). 2

Map 1

1.1 ñ Area proposed for the Geopark The area proposed for the Geopark covers: Curral Range (Serra do Curral) to the North from the Rola Moça Range (Serra do Rola Moça) to the Piedade Range (Serra da Piedade), Moeda Range (Serra da Moeda) to the West; Ouro Branco Range (Serra de Ouro Branco), Itatiaia Range (Serra do Itatiaia), Itacolomi Peak (Pico do Itacolomi) to the south; Passagem / Matacavalos /Mariana, Antônio Pereira, Frazão Peak (Pico do Frazão), Caraça Range (Serra do Caraça), Tamanduá Range (Serra do Tamanduá), Brucutú Peak (Pico do Brucutú), Cambotas Range (Serra das Cambotas), Piedade mountain range to the east, comprising an approximate area of 5,900 km², involving several municipalities whose economy is based on mineral extraction and metallurgy. This region benefits from a privileged location, for it is partly situated in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte (capital of the state of Minas Gerais), providing therefore good access options. It includes the municipalities of São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, Barão de Cocais, Santa Bárbara, Catas Altas, Alvinópolis, Mariana, Ouro Preto, Ouro Branco, Congonhas, Belo Vale, Moeda, Itabirito, Rio Acima, Brumadinho, Mario Campos, Sarzedo, Ibirité, Nova Lima, Raposos, Sabará, Caeté, Belo Horizonte, Santa Luzia in the state of Minas Gerais. The geographical coordinates (Map 2) limiting the polygonal boundary in that the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark area inserted are:

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1) 2) 3) 4)

Point 1: Lat.19°41'44"S/ Long. 44°11'52"W Point 2: Lat.19°41'60"S/ Long. 43°12'50" W Point 3: Lat.20°37'56"S/ Long. 43°11'39" W Point 4: Lat.20°38'42"S/ Long. 44°12'90" W

2. General geological description 2.1 ñ Evolution of the geoscientific knowledge The geoscientific interest in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is well expressed by the quantity of works developed in the region, which were initiated through the research work developed by Vieira Couto and afterwards by Wilhelm Ludwig vonEschwege, who published several works on the mineral wealth of Minas Gerais in Europe from 1811 to1833. Besides Eschwege, the Bavarian naturalists Spix and Martius as well as the travellers Mawe, Burton and SaintHilaire published interesting observations about the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. In 1876, the School of Mines of Ouro Preto, which enabled the multiplication of studies and publications on the Quadrilátero Ferrífero including papers published in other languages and disseminated in foreign countries, was inaugurated. The French mineralogist Henry Gorceix was appointed director of the School of Mines, which soon became an internationally highly regarded school. The detailed geological knowledge of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, regarding its geological cartography, was compiled by the Program of Geological Mapping conducted by the USGS and DNPM from 1945 to 1962. As a result of these works, maps containing more than 40 sheets at a scale of 1:25,000 were presented in a series of publications, summarized by Dorr at a scale of 1:150,000 in 1969. In the final summary, the author presents a stratigraphic column for the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, which with some corrections, is still in use (Dorr, 1969).

Rola Moça Park

Miguel Andrade PiedadeRange

2.2 ñ Geological context The geological context of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is characterized by three large sets of rocks: Daniel Mansur metamorphic complexes of Archean crystalline rocks; sequences of Archean greenstone belts represented by the Rio das Velhas Supergroup and Paleo and Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary sequences represented by the Minas Supergroup, Sabará Group, Itacolomi Group, and Espinhaço Supergroup (Map 2).

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project

Map 2

The metamorphic complexes of Archean crystalline rocks are formed by a different lithologies diversity exposed in the adjacencies and in the central portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. They are structured in domes and constitute of polydeformed gneisses with tonalite to granite composition and subordinately, granites, granodiorites, amphibolites, and ultramafic rocks, generated in the Archean and remobilized during Proterozoic events (Herz 1970, Cordani et al. 1980, Machado et al. 1989, Belo de Oliveira & Teixeira 1990, Romano et al. 1992, Machado & Carneiro 1992, Noce 1995). The Rio das Velhas Supergroup is considered by Almeida (1977) and Schorscher (1986) a greenstone belt sequence. According to Dorr (1969), the rocks that form this unit are composed by the Nova Lima and Maquiné groups. Since then, several proposals of lithostratigraphic denomination and division have been presented for this supergroup. Despite the divergences regarding the subdivisions, there is consensus that the Rio das Velhas Supergroup is composed by the two original groups defined by Dorr (1969): Nova Lima and Maquiné. The Nova Lima Group is the basal unit of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup and is constituted by phyllites, graphite phyllites, chlorite-schists, sericite-schists, metagraywackes, mafic, and ultramafic rocks, iron formations of the Algoma type, metacherts, and dolomites. Some informal lithostratigraphic units are proposed by Ladeira (1980), Oliveira et al. (1983), Belo de Oliveira (1986), Vieira & Oliveira (1988), and Vieira et al. (1991). According to Noce (1995), the difficulty to establish lithostratigraphic units acceptable for the whole Nova Lima Group is due to the intense deformation, alteration processes, and deep weathering associated with the lack of a more detailed cartography in many areas. In 1996, the DNPM and the CPRM concluded the Rio das Velhas Project, which aimed at mapping the Rio das Velhas Greenstone Belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero at a scale required for prospection and mineral exploration. Mapping was conducted on 27 sheets, at the scale 1:25,000 and summarized in a geological map at the scale 1:100,000. In this work, the rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup were grouped in associations of lithofacies genetically related. The Nova Lima Group is formed by the following associations, from the bottom to the top: (1) metavolcanic-plutonic mafic-ultramafic; (2) chemical metavolcano-sedimentary; (3) SourceCPRM chemical pelitic metasedimentary; (4) clastic metavolcano-sedimentary; (5) marine clastic metasedimentary (resedimented) association.

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The Maquiné Group is the top unit of the Rio das Velhas River Supergroup occurring restricted to the mid-east portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. According to Dorr (1969), this group is composed by the following formations, from the bottom to the top: Palmital, constituted by sericitic quartzites, quartzose phyllites, and phyllites; and Casa Forte, originally defined by Gair (1962), constituted by sericitic quartzites, schists, and phyllites. In the Rio das Velhas Project, previously mentioned, the Maquiné Group was recognized as a non-marine clastic metasedimentary association presenting a coastal facies (Palmital Formation), and a fluvial one (Casa Forte Formation). The Minas Supergroup was originally denominated as Minas “Series”, by Derby (1906). Since then its stratigraphic organization has remained essentially the same, composed by three Groups: Caraça, Itabira, and Piracicaba (Dorr 1969). This unit usually overlay rocks belonging to the metamorphic complexes and to the Rio das VelhasSupergroup in Mangabeiras Park tectonic contact. The Caraça Group, base of this unit, presents the Moeda Formation in the lower part and the Batatal Formation in the upper part. The Moeda Formation contains quartzites with intercalations of phyllites and conglomerate levels. Either ferruginous or carbonaceous sericitic phyllites predominate within the Batatal Formation. The intermediate unit consists of the Itabira Group constituted by a sequence of chemical metasediments, the basal Cauê Formation overlain by the Gandarela Formation. The Cauê Formation is composed of itabirite, dolomitic itabirite, ferruginous dolomite, and phyllite. The Gandarela Formation is formed by dolomites, dolomitic phyllite, and siliceous dolomite. The Piracicaba Group is the upper unit presenting the following formations from the bottom to the top: Cercadinho, Fecho do Funil, Taboões, and Barreiro. The Cercadinho Formation is characterized by the alternation of quartzites and phyllites, frequently ferruginous. Phyllites, dolomitic phyllites, and dolomite lenses form the Fecho do Funil Formation. The fineDaniel Mansur grained orthoquartzites found in the Taboões Formation and the phyllites and graphite phyllites found in the Barreiros Formation have restricted occurrence. The Sabará Group corresponds to the Sabará Formation (Dorr 1969) elevated to the category of Group Miguel Andrade by Renger et al. (1994). It is formed by chlorite schists and phyllites, metagraywackes, conglomerates, quartzites, and rare ferriferous formations. Its rocks outcrop along practically the entire Quadrilátero Ferrífero, except for the Moeda Syncline. The Itacolomi Group, restricted to the southeast and south portions of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, is constituted by quartzites, conglomerate quartzites, and conglomerate lenses with itabirite, phyllite, quartzite, and pebbles of vein quartz. The Espinhaço Supergroup occurs in the northeast portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, represented by the quartzites from the Cambotas Range. According to Crocco-Rodrigues (1991), the stratigraphic position of this unit, initially correlated with the Tamanduá Group by Simmons & Maxwell (1961), has always been controversial, as it includes distinct rock sequences tectonically juxtaposed.

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project Itabirite Peak

Miguel Andrade

In the regional geological context of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, besides the stratigraphic sequence previously described, it is also important to mention the presence of basic and metabasic intrusive rocks which cut the supracrustal sequences and the granite-gneiss terrains, especially to the west of Belo Horizonte, as well as in the Caraça Range.

2.3 ñ Geological history A variety of tectonic models have been proposed to explain the complex pattern for years. Among the main models, the works of Alkmim & Marshak (1998) should be emphasized. Based on results of structural studies and evaluating compiled data, they suggest that the Quadrilátero Ferrífero has undergone four phases of deformation. These authors present a summary of the tectonic evolution of this region: (1) Formation of Archean granitegreenstone terrains: the most ancient crystalline rock Mangabeiras Park basements are aged 3,200 Ma. All the fragments of continental crust from this time form the basement on which the sedimentary and greenstone successions were deposited between 2,800-2,700Ma (Rio das Velhas Supergroup). The granitoid plutonism created a classical Archean granite-greenstone belt with graniteDaniel Mansur gnaisse domes surrounded by portions of greenstone. (2) Formation of the Minas Basin: between Casa Bandeirante 2,600 and 2,400 Ma, the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero passed from a continental platform to a passive margin basin. The beginning of this basin represents an extensional event, as indicated by the facies and the environments of deposition of the Caraça Group (Renger et al. 1993); Daniel Mansur

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(3) Transamazonic Event: approximately at 2,100 Ma, the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Daniel Mansur was involved by a fold-and-thrust belt with northwest vergence, resulting in the development of shear and foldzones at a regional scale, as well as, subordinately, in parasitic folds. The development of the Transamazonic fold-and-thrust belt occurred immediately after the deposition of the Sabará Group at 2,125 Ma. Belo Vale Waterfall (4) Transamazonic Orogenic Collapse: between 2,095 and 2,051Ma, an extensional regime was established regionally with the development of domeand-keel structures. (5) Espinhaço Rift: the formation of the Espinhaço Basin, to the north, is reflected in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero with the intrusion of diabase dikes at about 1,750Ma. Enabling the formation of an oceanic basin, extensional development occurs between 1,000 and 900Ma (Pedrosa Soares et al. 1992). (6) Brasiliano Event: the second contractional event occurred between 700 and 430Ma and created a fold-and-thrust belt of west vergence reactivating old structures of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. This event represents one of the last collisional orogens that formed the supercontinent Gondwana also resulting in the reactivation of shear Source CPRM and fault zones bordering the domes with westward trends.

2.4 ñMining history

Morro Velho Mine Source

The region proposed for the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark is historically marked by the development of activities related to the extraction of mineral resources. In the 16 century, the Portuguese effort to conquer mineral wealth in the Americas and to accomplish fast success as the spaniards in Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia concentrated on two strategies: the incessant search to access gold and silver reported by the natives, especially along the Paraguai and Amazon Márcia Machado river and the Bandeirantes ’ expeditions through the Brazilian middle-eastern hinterlands. History demonstrated that the second strategy turned out to be successful. A considerable amount of the gold produced in colonial and imperial Brazil came from this region, occupied since the end of the 17 century by the research expeditions of precious minerals. In the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, two events were remarkable: the research expedition of precious minerals carried by Fernão Dias and the discovery of gold in Ouro Preto. These events influenced the settlement in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, which initially occurred along two main axes, Sabará (influenced by Fernão Dias’s expedition) and Mariana and Ouro Preto (influenced by the discovery of gold in the Tripuí creek). These discoveries together with a series of expeditions that followed prepared the great phase of the gold explorations and the settlement in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero with the foundation of the villages of th

1

th

Translator’s Note: First Brazilian explorers of the 16 – 18 century who ventured through the hinterlands focusing on native slave-hunting and on the conquest of new land, gold and precious stones.

1

th

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th


Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project Mariana, Vila Rica de Ouro Preto, and Vila Real deSabará. Several hamlets and villages within or near the Quadrilátero Ferrífero had their birth associated with gold mining, such as: Caeté, Congonhas, Catas Altas, Santa Bárbara, Barão de Cocais, Cachoeira do Campo, Ouro Branco, Nova Lima, São Gonçalo do Rio Acima, and Piedade do Paraopeba, among others. Ferrand (1894) and Barbosa & Rodrigues (1967) call attention to the four phases of gold exploration in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of which the first three happened during the colonial period, permitting decisively the settlement in the region; the last one occured during the imperial period using mechanized extraction techniques. In the colonial period, gold exploration was limited to alluvial gold employing slave workforce and rudimentary techniques to extract the gold found on the earth’s surface and on river beds. The works on river banks and terraces and in mountain valleys used pit workings. This method consisted of excavations in the shape of a funnel where the miner removed the soil to the point of the pebble bed. As the gold was found, the caves were deepened in order to reach the hard rock. In the workings on the mountain flanks (workings in eluvial and colluvial material), the miners used the difference in level to have streams of water flow through the whole mass, dragged, and collected underneath. Thus, in the first phase the extraction used to be carried out along the axis of the rivers where the gold was being discovered. As the supply of gold exhausted, the deposits on hillsides started to be explored up to terraces of 30 to40 meters above the level of the river, characterizing the second phase. In some places, a third phase happened with the exploration of terraces of 60 to70 meters above the river. During the third phase the gold content decreased. Rudimentary techniques were used in mines and the lack of means for deepening the exploration resulted in decreasing output. From the second half of the 18 century onwards, the population started to abandon the mines and to dedicate to other economical activities as agriculture, which was limited by the inappropriate conditions for its development, and trading. Several factors led to the decline of the mines: the economical policy adopted by the Portuguese crown itself with a confuse and repressive legislation, inadequate administration, lack of concern to improve mining techniques and individualism of the mine owners. The mixture of races and cultures in the colonial period turned the Quadrilátero Ferrífero into a civilizing, and cultural cradle, permitting the appearance of an artistic movement linked to architecture, literature, and music. The baroque art flourished especially with the masterpieces of Antônio Francisco Lisboa – known as Aleijadinho - and Manuel da Draw of mining – Rugendas 1824 Costa Ataíde, observed in several towns of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. In the field of music, the region also counted on renowned artists as José Joaquim Emérico. Moreover, the Quadrilátero Ferrífero was also the cradle of the first expressive literary movement in Brazil with the participation of Cláudio Manuel da Costa, Tomás Antônio Gonzaga and Alvarenga Peixoto. In the fourth phase of gold mining in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (during the 19 century), more modern methods of sub-surface and surface mining were used. Gold production increased only after admission of foreign – mostly British – capital in the Brazilian mining industry in 1824. th

2

th

Translator’s Note: Literally, “the little cripple”. His nickname is associated with a debilitating painful disease which caused deformities in his body and eventually the loss of toes and fingers. Even suffering with the disease and body limitations, Aleijadinho continued to execute his works of art.

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In 1810 the mineralogist and geologist Wilhelm Ludwig Von Eschwege was hired. Upon his arrival, he was assigned to evaluate the situation of the gold mines in Minas Gerais, study ways to improve the production as well as consider the possibilities to implant new mining techniques capable of recovering the decadent mining industry of the country. As specialists insisted that the mines were not exhausted and could still offer good results with the use of advanced techniques, the English identified the opportunity to found companies and acquired promising mines in Minas Gerais. The Imperial Brazilian Mining Association was the first to be established in 1824 - and bought the gold mine Gongo Soco, in the region of Caeté. With the arrival of the English capital, the mining techniques used in the 18 century were replaced by the sophisticated machinery directed to the extractive activity, as crushers, and hydraulic wheels. However, at this very time, other economical activities attracted the attention of the population and the provincial government itself, particularly cattle raising, agriculture, and coffee plantation, the first Brazilian export product in 1831. The phase of iron forges occurred simultaneously to the fourth phase of gold extraction and even before it. Initially rudimentary, it was characterized by variations in the manner of melting, using from pans and home stoves to more refined methods. According to Rosiére et al. (2005), the iron mining activities in the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (in Itabirito) already occurred during the gold cycle with the first attempts to exploit the enormous reserves through small iron industries. The metallurgy of iron in this period is not very well documented and Landgraf et al. (1994) suggest that it was influenced by the use of the African knowledge on iron extraction once they presented a rudimentary technique, efficient though. From 1777 onwards, several factors led to a higher interest in the development of mines and iron forges (a millenary process of direct reduction of ore using charcoal in small-sized ovens) in Brazil. According to Azevedo & Paula (2003), the arrival of D. Rodrigo de Sousa Coutinho was relevant to Brazil. Being a skillful politician and a competent administrator, he took over the Ministry of Marine and Ultramarine Affairs from 1796 to 1803 and became therefore responsible for the colonial policy. Another important factor was the foundation of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Portugal in 1777, stimulating research to evaluate the economical situation of Portugal and its colonies. Furtado (1994) states that the main target of these studies was to diagnose the Portuguese delay in relation to other European nations, find the reasons and propose solutions. The arrival of the Portuguese Royal family in Brazil in 1808 was essential for the development of the metallurgy of iron, which received encouragement and financial support for the establishment of the first three units in the country, two of which in Minas Gerais: The Royal Iron Factory of Morro do Pilar and Patriotic Iron Factory in Congonhas in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. In this period, the metallurgy of iron in Brazil had the contribution and experience of some experts as Manoel da Câmara Ferreira Bettencourt e Sá; the Swedish Carl Hedberg; the Germans Varnhagen, and Eschwege, who counted on the Crown’s recommendation and financial support. The activities of mineral extraction, mainly gold, and iron, determine the present landscape of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, being important to the development of its history and culture. The large number of towns and historical hamlets, mines and sites of mineral extraction, small agricultural areas, iron and steel factories, train stations, tourist attractions are elements that confirm the great cultural and historical value of the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Barbosa & Rodrigues 1967). th

3. Listing and description of geological sites Fifty-five sites of natural, cultural, and historic interest, especially those that represent the geological history of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and of the mining history of Brazil, have been recognized. For the first phase of implementation of the Geopark, a seletion of 29 sites – geological and non-geological - is considered (Map 2). The selection of sites was based on the recommendations by the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites - SIGEP and partially used the inventory made by Ruchkys (2007). SIGEP

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project was established in 1997 with the objective of recognizing the Brazilian geological heritage. In order to understand the history of mining and of the geological evolution of the region, it is essential to emphasize the importance of the following sites. Rola Moça Range

Daniel Mansur

Description of Geosites 1.

Gneiss from Cachoeira do Campo: It is located in the municipality of Cachoeira do Campo. It is representative Gneiss from Cachoeira do Campo for one of the Archean metamorphic complexes referred in the geological context, the granitemigmatite-gneiss crystalline embasement composed of tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite (TTG), which corresponds to the most ancient rocks of the Iron Quadrangle, the basis of all geological units of this region. The gneisses composed of TTG, together with greenstone belt sequences are the most characteristic Source CPRM constituents of the Archean cratons. The first continental crusts of the earth and the first protocratonic nucleus, which started to be formed about four billion years ago, were composed of the same gneisse. The crystalline basement from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is divided into complexes that receive different local denominations such as: Bação Complex; Bonfim Complex; Belo Horizonte Complex; Caeté Complex; Santa Barbára Complex. The gneiss site from Cachoeira do Campo is located in the Bação Complex.

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2.

Metavolcanics rocks of the Rio das Velhas

Supergroup and Bicame de Pedras stone aqueduct: Serpentine schists at the base of the Rio das Velhas Supergroups in tectonic contact with quartzites of the Moeda Formation (Caraça Group). This geosite is located in Catas Altas on the road to the Quebra Osso Farm, close to the Valemix offices (Quarry One), close to the Bicame de Pedra aqueduct and to the Estrada Real (Royal Road) road sign. The Bicame de Pedra was built in 1792 by Manoel Ferreira Pinto as water supply for his gold mine at the Boa Vista Range. It is a touristic attraction along the Estrada Real and offers a beautiful view of the Caraça. The wall is 4 meters high with a Roman arch shaped portal, over which the water was conducted to be used for gold washing in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its construction cost one arroba (approximately 15 kilograms) of gold. 3.

Metarenites from the Andaime Range

Aqueduct (Bicame de Pedra)

Source CPRM Roman arch portal of the Stone aqueduct near Quebra Osso Farm

Carlos Schobbenhaus

Metarenites from theAndaime Range

This site is located in the Andaime Range, in the municipality of Itabirito and relates to the unit of the Maquiné Group, Velhas River Supergrup. The metarenites from the Andaime Range are interpreted by Pedreira (1995) and Baltazar & Pedreira (2000) as a coastal association originated in shallow marine environment in the Archean, being therefore the record Dionísio Azevedo of one of the first beaches in Brazil. The outcrops indicate the lithofacies from this environment: shallow water influenced by the tide and coastal dunes. 4.

Quartzites and basal conglomerate from the Moeda Formation – Moeda Range

This site is located in the Moeda Range, around 17 km to the south of Belo Horizonte. It was formed in a context of relative global quiescence and existence of a recently consolidated Archean platform that originated the Minas proto-basin, initially with continental followed by marine sedimentation. The Minas Supergroup started to deposit at approximately 2.5Ga, along a passive-margin basin developed in the preexistent continental platform. The first record regarding the opening of this basin is marked by auriferous and uraniferous metaconglomerates found in the basal part of the Moeda Formation. This unit was deposited in fluvial environment where the basal conglomerates represent the filling of ancient valleys cut in older rocks of the Nova Lima Group. Moeda Range

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project 5.

Caraça Range and Sanctuary

The Caraça Range is the generic name for a set of mountains that present the highest altitudes of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, with the Sun Peak (Pico do Sol) reaching 2,072m a.s.l. The Caraça Range is composed essentially of quartzites from the Moeda Formation belonging to the Caraça Group. The Inficionado Peak, located in this mountain range, holds quartzite caves, among which the Centenário grotto, the world's largest in this lithology. The cave tunnels form a quadratic network of labyrinths reaching – 481m of depth of difference in level and a total of 3,790 m of horizontal projection (4,700m of linear development). Due to this characteristic, the Caraça Range is recognized as geological heritage of Brazil by SIGEP. 6.

Caraça Range and Sanctuary

José Israel Abrantes Caraça Range and Sanctuary

Itabirites from Piedade Range

From the geological point of view, the Piedade Range is very expressive as the itabirite Miguel Andrade outcrops of the Cauê Formation, Itabira Group, represent one of the thickest ferriferous formations in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Its Piedade Range deposition occurred mainly between 2600 and 1800Ma, corresponding to about 15% of the total volume of Proterozoic sediments. These Banded Iron Formations - BIFs - belong to the Lake Superior type, constituted by rocks of milimetric to centimetric lamination. They are in their majority silicate and carbonate facies BIFs rarely containing clastic material and faciologically Source IEPHA associated with chert, dolomite, quartzite, argillite, and volcanic rocks. The presence of these rocks in Piedade Range the Precambrian record suggests changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the Paleoproterozoic. These deposits result from iron oxidation due to the increase of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere. Besides their geoecological importance to understand the phenomena that led to the evolution of life, of the oceans and of the Source IEPHA atmosphere in the Precambrian, itabirites are extremely important economically and many iron ore mines within the banded iron formations are found in the Iron Quadrangle. For long, the Piedade Range has been a religious reference for many people who make pilgrimages there every year. This geosite is recognized by the SIGEP as a Brazilian Geological Heritage and presents a privileged view over morphological units of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero.

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7.

Curral Range

The Curral Range corresponds to a homoclinal whose axis is usually oriented from the Curral Range NE to the SW, constituting the northein limit of Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Part of the metasedimentary sequence of the Minas Supergroup outcrops in the Curral Range: Caraça, Itabira, Piracicaba, and Sabará groups. These units present stratigraphic inversion caused by tectonics, and characterize a lithostructural and morphological diversity and accidented relief. The Daniel Mansur name Curral Range is associated with the former Curral Del Rey (currently the city of Belo Horizonte). The range still keeps part of the original name of the hamlet developed at its bottom. 8.

Itabirito Peak

Itabirito Peak was described by Burton during his visit to the Cata Branca Mine. Due to its majesty, it was included together with the Itacolomi Peak and the Caraça Range in the Map of the Capitany of Minas Gerais developed by Eschwege in 1821 and presented in the 1 volume of the book Pluto Brasiliensis. st

Itabirito Peak

Dionísio Azevedo

9.

Itacolomi Peak

The Itacolomi Group represents a typical deposition of fluvial environment and alluvial fans in narrow intermontane depression. The alluvial fans are sediments occurring typically adjacent to the mountainous areas. The quartzites from the Itacolomi were first described as new rocks by Eschwege, in view of their wide distribution and own characteristics, and denominated itacolumite or quartzite itacolomi. The Swiss geologist Dr. Heusser, climbed the Itacolomi Peak in 1859 and recognized carstic features in the quartzite. Itacolomi Park

Source IEF

10.

Ouro Branco Range

Recognized as a heritage by the IEPHA. In addition to the beautiful sceneries, this range has innumerable waterfalls including some of difficult access. The Estrada Real that connected Ouro Preto to Rio de Janeiro passed through it. The Ouro

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project Branco Range is formed by an approximately 20 km-long wall, which limits a plateau with altitudes ranging from 1,250 to 1,568 m – in the past it was also called Deus-te-livre Range. Ouro Branco Range

Miguel Andrade

11.

Paleontological site of Fonseca

The Fonseca Basin was recognized as a geological Paleontological site of Fonseca and paleontological heritage of Brazil by the SIGEP. Described by Mello et al. (2002), it is a classical example of Paleogene sediments. Due to its deposits of “canga”, lignite, and fossiliferous sediments, it has raised the interest of many researchers since the second half of last century. The main lithotypes constitute the sandy and clayey sediments from the Fonseca Formation, probably formed in the Eocene. These deposits are covered by the Margarete Pereira ferruginous conglomerates (“canga”) from the Chapada de Canga Formation. The fossiliferous record from the Fonseca Formation is characterized by a wide variety of Angiosperm families, of which the Melastomataceae and Mimosaceae constitute the most abundant families. The most remarkable fossil belongs to the Family Bombacacea – a relatively well-preserved flower, presenting prints left by petals and stamen (male reproductive organ of the flower). It is the only fossiliferous site of the Geopark.

Fossil flower from the Fonseca Formation - Eriotheca prima, Bombacaceae genus (DGM 1436 Pb). (a) Impression; (b) Illustrative recreation. (apud Duarte,1974 in Mello et al.2002). 12.

Rola Moça Range Rola Moça Range

The Rola Moça Range State Park (Parque Estadual Serra do Rola Moça) presents wellexposed areas of ferruginous laterite carapace from the Cenozoic, locally known as “canga”. Eschwege (1822) believes that the term tapanhoacanga was initially used by local miners on account of the terrain where this crust prevails, which presents frizzled morphology with the

Source IEF

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development of botryoidal structures. The canga or Rola Moça Range ferruginous laterite was formed by weathering processes of the itabirite. In tropical regions, these processes may provoke an enrichment of iron at the top of the section, which depends essentially on the silica dissolution by pluvial waters. The processes of laterization and the resulting formation of canga are relatively recent and are usually associated with relief leveling caused by erosion. As for the cangas from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, several authors Source IEF associate the formation of laterite to the development of the South American leveling surface, regarded as Paleogene, as propposed by King (1956). 13.

Morro Velho Mine

At Morro Velho the exploration of gold Morro Velho Mine originated in the colonial period around 1725. The mine has experienced the evolution of gold mining techniques since its beginning. During the 1920’s, it was the deepest mine of the world and the most productive gold mine of Brazil, turning to be a reference for the history of mining in Brazil. When its activities were descontinued in 2003, the directors of Anglogold-Ashanti, its present owner, Source Anglogold expressed the interest in developing a project denominated “Gold City”, a great cultural, commercial, and recreational enterprise, including a pole of gold jewellery. The mining company offers guided visit to its Memorial Center. 14.

Córrego do Meio Mine

The mining company Vale promoted a meeting between authorities and the press at the Córrego do Meio Mine in Sabará, on June 20, 2008 to officially launch the Biodiversity Project. The oldest mine belonging to Vale, named Córrego do Meio Mine, was explored for 65 years (starting in 1940) and was exhausted in 2005. The company decided to recover the area and turn it into a place for research and activities related to environmental conservation and recovery. The work in the 660 acres will be finished in 2012. They expect the center, which is named Center for Biodiversity Research and Conservation of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, to be able to produce 1 million seedlings of local plants each year. The equipment used in the old mine will be reused in the Center’s activities. 15.

Águas Claras Mine

The iron ore mine of Águas Claras was opened in 1974 and closed down in 2002, and it will be transformed into a real estate development and a recreation area. The open pits is transformed in an artificial lake. It is located in the Curral Range, close to the Mangabeiras Park, at the limit of Belo Horizonte and Nova Lima municipalities. 16.

Águas Claras Mine

Daniel Mansur

Passagem Village (Vila da Passagem)

Passagem Village, where primary gold was discovered in the beginning of the 18th century, was founded in 1719, between the towns of Ouro Preto and Mariana (the first village and capital of the state of Minas Gerais). This village corresponds to the first reference in the Brazilian mining history. Passagem Mine

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project is located in this region where a rudimentary mine was started in 1729. From 1729 to 1819, concessions Passagem Mine to explore the mineral property of Passagem were granted to several miners until 1819 when it was acquired, together with some neighbouring concessions, by the Baron Eschwege, who created the first mining company with private capital in the country – Mineralogical Society of the Passagem (Sociedade Mineralógica da Passagem) – and installed a stamp mill and stone mills – not used in Dionísio Azevedo Brazil until then. The Passagem Mine, which belongs to the Companhia Minas de Passagem – CMP, is open to visit all days (charging entrance fees) and offers a tour to the underground mine tunnels by a trolley on an inclined plane (around 300 meterslong and 120m below surface). This is the only gold mine open to the public in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. 17.

Lana Copse Mine (Capão do Lana Topaz Mine)

In 1772, the discovery of yellow topaz in the Saramenha Hill (Morro da Saramenha), on the outskirts of Ouro Preto, attracted a large number of miners, who abandoned their gold mines. Nowadays, in the region of Rodrigo Silva, district of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, is the Capão do Lana Mine, which was visited by almost all foreign naturalists who passed through Minas Gerais.

Capão do Lana Topaz Mine

Maria Márcia M. Machado

Yellow Topaz

The Imperial Topaz Mining Company started its operation in 1971, in the region of Rodrigo Silva. It is one of the few gem mining companies of the world that operates with a totally mechanized system. It has also done geological surveys, and exploration on its ground, complying with all the legal requirements.

Virgínio Mantesso Nelo

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Nossa Senhora da Lapa Grotto

Nossa Senhora da Lapa Grotto

The grotto of Nossa Senhora da Lapa was formed by the process of disintegration of the limestone (dolomites) of the Gandarela Formation, which led to the development of caverns. The place is a center for pilgrimage by devotes of Our Lady of Conception of Lapa, especially on August 15, the day dedicated to the saint.

Rose Lane Guimarães

4. Details on the interest of these sites 1.

Gneiss from Cachoeira do Campo Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

2.

Metavolcanics rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup and Bicame de Pedras stone aqueduct Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

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3.

Metarenites from the Andaime Range Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

15.

Águas Claras Mine Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

4.

Quartzites and basal conglomerate from the Moeda Formation – Moeda Range Site of national multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, and touristic

16.

Passagem Village Site of national multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, historic, and touristic.

17.

Lana Copse Mine (Capão do Lana Topaz Mine) Site of international interest: scientific, historic, and touristic.

18.

Nossa Senhora da Lapa Grotto Site of regional interest: cultural, religious, and historic.

5.

Caraça Range and Sanctuary Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, religious, historic, and touristic

6.

Itabirites from Piedade Range Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, religious, historic, and touristic

7.

Curral Range Site of national multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

8.

Itabirito Peak Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, decorative, cultural, and historic.

9.

Itacolomi Peak Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, religious, historic, and touristic.

10.

Ouro Branco Range Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

11.

Paleontological site of Fonseca Site of regional interest: scientific.

12.

Rola Moça Range Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

13.

14.

Morro Velho Mine Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic. Córrego do Meio Mine Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

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Non-geological sites 1.

Mangabeiras Park Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

2.

Ruins of the Clandestine Gold Melting House Site of regional interest: education, historic, and touristic.

3.

Patriotic Factory (Iron Foundry) Site of national interest: education, and historic.

scientific,

4.

Morro da Queimada Site of national interest: scientific, historic, and touristic.

5.

Pedra Pintada Archeological Site Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, cultural, historic, and touristic.

6.

Tripuí Ecological Station Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, decorative, cultural, historic.

7.

Museum of Science and Technique of the School of Mines / UFOP Site of international interest: scientific, education, and touristic.

8.

Gold Museum Site of international interest: scientific, education, and touristic.

9.

Tax and Accounting House Site of international interest: scientific, education, and touristic.

10. Museum of Mines and Metal Site of international interest: scientific, education, and touristic. 11. Inhotim Cultural Institut Site of international multi-thematic interest: artistic, cultural, historic, and touristic.


Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project

C ñ Geoconservation 1. Current or potential pressure The better part of the site of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero Geopak is located in areas of little or no anthropic impact and in terms of usage, are bound by the limitations associated with the APA Sul RMBH and Espinhaço Biosphere Reserve.

2. Current status in terms of protection of geological sites The following sites are protected by law: itabirite at the Piedade Range (site 6), quartzite of the Itacolomi Group (sites 10 and 11), canga of the Rola Moça Range(site 13), the Caraça Range and Sanctuary (site 5), the Curral Range (site 7), Mangabeiras Park(site 8), Itabirito Peak(site 9), Patriotic Factory (site 15), Morro da Queimada (site 17), Tripuí Ecological Station (site 22). The Piedade Range is registered as a historical and landscape site by IEPHA and IPHAN; the Itacolomi quartzites are located in the State Park of the same name and in the Ouro Branco Range (registered as a historical site by IEPHA and currently in the process of becoming a conservation unit); the canga in the Rola Moça Range is located in a State Park. The Caraça Range and Sanctuary is part of a Private Reserve of Natural Resources and the Tripuí Ecological Station is also recognized within te SNUC. A Patriotic Factory, the Itabirito Peak, the Curral Range, and the Morro da Queimada are registered as historic sites by the government. The Mangabeiras Park is a municipal conservation unit at the foothills of the Curral Range, a symbol of the city of Belo Horizonte. The Morro Velho, Córrego do Meio, and Águas Claras mines are in the process of environmental recovery with proposals for educational and leisure uses.

3. Data on the management and maintenance of these sites Several sites are part of legally recognized conservation units, or are recognized as historic sites by the government. Most of the area of the proposed Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark is part of the Southern Environmental Protected Area of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region - APA Sul RMBH described in the National System of Conservation Units - SNUC and of the Espinhaço Biosphere Reserve of the MaB UNESCO Program - on which the legally established conservation and protection measures apply.

4. Listing and description of non-geological sites and how they are integrated into the proposed Geopark 1.

Mangabeiras Park

Mangabeiras Park

Located at the foot of the Curral Range, cultural heritage of Belo Horizonte, the Mangabeiras Park was projected by the landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx. It preserves in its 2.8 million square-meter area, 21 water springs from the Córrego da Serra (“Mountain creek”) which is part of the São Francisco River Basin. In Daniel Mansur the beginning of the 1960’s was created Ferro Belo Horizonte S/A - FERROBEL, a municipal mining company, which explored iron ore in the park. By the end of 1979, FERROBEL was deactivated and studies for the creation of the park were initiated.

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2.

Ruins of the Clandestine Gold Melting House

The Portuguese policy used in Brazil was always directed to grant the Kingdom patrimonial rights, aiming at the tax collection and gains. For the purpose of assuring its profits, the Portuguese Crown instituted several fiscal measures related to the production, payment, and circulation of gold to control the quantities extracted in the mines. Within the systems adopted for collecting the taxes, the most significant is the Quinto, a tax charged by the Portuguese Crown correspondent to 20% of all gold founfound in the colony. Compared to the crown, trading attributed a much higher value to gold. Therefore, the Crown had constantly to deal with problems such as smuggling, tax dodging, and forgery. Coin counterfeiting is an example of the multiple forgery tactics developed in the Colonial Period especially when the first melting Ruins of the Clandestine Gold Melting House

h o u s e Acervo IEPHA s were established (from 1724 to 1735). Inácio de Souza Ferreira, together with Manuel Francisco, and other accomplices, founded an illegal mint in a well-located country house in the Paraopeba Valley. Once equipped and structured, it soon started to produce gold bars and coins with genuine minting dies stolen from the official melting houses and considered useless. The country house where the illegal melting house of the Paraopeba Valley operated is extremely important for the history of mining and an example of the misconduct caused by the gold in the colonial period. 3.

Patriotic Factory (Iron Foundry)

As with mining, iron metallurgy also represents Ruins of Patriotic Factory the vocation of the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and the explorations of iron define the landscape. Eschwege had the idea to build a plant to produce iron at industrial scale. Therefore, he formed a private company to construct this plant that was named Patriotic Factory (Fábrica Patriótica). The construction started in 1811 and in 1812 the first iron was forged using a mallet at industrial scale. The Dionísio Azevedo ruins of the Patriotic Factory are preserved by the IPHAN as a historical testimony of the iron metallurgy industry in Brazil. This site was recognized as a National Heritage Monument in 1938 as the first iron factory in Brazil. 4.

Morro da Queimada

The Morro da Queimada (“Burned Hill”), which is the birthplace of the city of Ouro Preto, is being transformed into an archeological park, where researchers will undertake excavation work that aims to improve the knowledge of the occupations during the Gold Cycle in Brazil. The IPHAN is responsible for this initiative. According to IPHAN director in OuroPreto and general coordinator of project, Benedito Tadeu de Oliveira, they intend to also to create a new tourist attraction for Ouro Preto.

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project

Source IPHAN

5.

Pedra Pintada Archeological Site

The archeological site of Pedra Pintada with its cave paintings is located 3 kilometers from Vila de Cocais, Barão dos Cocais district. It was studied in 1843 by the Danish Naturalist Peter Lund, and more recently, by historians Alexandra Simões Siqueira and Janaína Fonseca Mota, who estimate that the paintings are 4,000 years old. There are 122 paintings made with mineral pigments (mostly iron toxides), divided in 3 panels, where animals are predominant, as well as weaponry. In 1998, the archeologist André Proust headed a UFMG and IEPHA team which copied over three thousand paintings, which are now part of the Museum of Natural History of UFMG in Belo Horizonte, and of the Museum of Man in Paris, France. 6.

Tripuí Ecological Station Peripatus acacioi

Tripuí is considered one of the oldest places in the colonial history of Minas, where one can still find the remains of the old royal road that leads to Ouro Preto. It is currently one of the most important natural conservation areas in Minas Gerais, being world renowned for hosting a rare animal, considered to be a “living fossil” and a relic from our biological past, Peripatus acacioi.

José Israel Abrantes

Ecological Station of Tripuí

Source CPRM

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The Geopark includes also has several museums and environmental and historical education centers related to the history of mining, and geological resources. 7.

Museum of Science and Technique of the School of Mines / UFOP

Housed in the former Governor’s Palace, Museum of Science and Technique built in 1744/48 with about 23 thousand samples of the School of Mines / UFOP of minerals from the all over world, among which a highlight is a room that reproduces the interior of a gold mine. The Museum of Science and Technique was created on October 12, 1995. “12 theme sectors were designed, including the schools of Engineering of the School of Mines / UFOP: Mines, Metallurgy, Geology, Civil Engineering, and Source: UFOP Production Engineering, Astronomy, Design, Natural History (Anthropology, Paleontology, and Zoology), Mineralogy, and Topography. Six theme sectors are already open to visitation, and have didactic and pedagogical objectives”. (Museum of Science and Technique). 8.

Gold Museum

The former Gold Intendency and Melting House of Sabará, built in1721, is a beautiful genuine example of 18 century colonial architecture and now houses the Gold Museum. As one enters the museum the visitor get an exact impression of how miners lived at that time, from rustic engineering to utensils, and furniture. It is the only construction of its kind that is still standing in Minas Gerais. Its architectural style is typical of the 18 century. On the top floor pieces of furniture and religious imagery are in exhibition. On the bottom floor, where the pavements are made of pebbles, assorted pieces, models, and instruments are displayed, all related to gold and diamond mining. A press, brought to the building in the early 18 century for marking gold bars, is still at its original place. th

th

th

Gold Museum

Source IEPHA

9.

Tax and Accounting House

The building was constructed during 1782 and 1784 as Tax and Accounting House a residence of the tax collector João Rodrigues de Macedo. In 1803, the building was confiscated by the government, due to its owner’s failure to pay taxes. Between 1820 and 1832 it became a place for gold melting, and the instruments related to that activity can still be seen inside the building. Today it houses a museum, the Center for Studies of the Source Arquivo Nacional Gold Cycle - CECO, and the Internal Revenue Service of Ouro Preto. In 1973, the Ministry of Finance restored one of the most beautiful monuments of Minas baroque architecture.

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project 10. Museum of Mines and Metal Located in the area of influence of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark.This museum is being established and will be opened in 2010 at Liberdade Square in Belo Horizonte. It is a museum space that is part of the “Praça da Liberdade Cultural Circuit – Art and Knowledge”, a project coordinated by the State Secretary of Culture of Minas Gerais. The museum will house part of the collection of the current Professor Djalma Guimarães Museum of Mineralogy, also located at the Liberdade Square. 11. Inhotim Cultural Institut Located in the area of influence of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark, in a closed down mineral exploration area.Inhotim is a site that offers a broad ensemble of art works, displayed outdoors as well as in both temporary and permanent galleries, all located inside a Botanical Garden of extraordinary beauty. The landscaping was originally inspired by famed architect and landscape artist Roberto Burle Marx (1909-1994), and rare plant species are distributed in an esthetically pleasing manner throughout an estate which also sports five lakes and a preserved forest area. Inhotim Cultural Institut, decreed a Civil Society Organization of Public Interest, offers, in addition to these areas of artistic enjoyment and entertainment - which make it stand out among similar institutions develops environmental research work, educational actions and an important program of social inclusion and citizenship for the local population. Inhotim

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D - Economic Activity & Business Plan 1. Economic activity The population of the area proposed for the Geopark is of approximately 3,154,506 inhabitants, and since the discovery of gold at the end of the 17th century to present the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero has the largest urban concentration of the state of Minas Gerais. In its northern part, the state capital of Belo Horizonte has nearly 2.4 million inhabitants. The cities of the region have a population of about 22% of the state population, and they are responsible for 26.8% of the GDP for the state of Minas Gerais. The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is the most important mineral province in the Southeast of Brazil, with mining being the basis for the economy of several cities that are part of it. Brazil has an important place in two of the most important minerals of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero: iron and gold; the country is the second largest iron ore producer in the world. In 2008, its production was 19% of the world production (IBRAM 2009). In 2006, Minas Gerais produced 70% of the iron ore in Brazil, with almost all the production being from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. The Brazilian production of gold was 55 tons in 2008, which is nearly 2% of the world production. Minas Gerais is responsible for 39.7% of it. According to Foscolo et al. (2008), Minas Gerais has the largest concentration of operational mines in the world. In general, cities that are part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero have a dynamic economy and Piedade Range have had, in the past few years, a growth of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) above the national and state averages. The economy of the region is strongly influenced by Belo Horizonte, which is responsible for around 73% of the GDP, which is mostly made up by the services and industry. As far as the Human Development Index (HDI) goes, most cities are at a mid-level and just a few of the cities Miguel Andrade like Nova Lima and Belo Horizonte are at a high level.

1.1. Sources of financing Sources of financing the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark are from calls for the financing of projects and also from the establishment of partnerships. The projects listed in item I are financed by such partnerships and on the resources of public institutions of promotion. Significant support financial is supplied by the State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais, through the Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence. In the second half of 2010 was started the delineation of the lines of support for the Federal Government of Brazil to the Geopark, through the Ministry of the National Integration. The Instituto Quadrilátero is able to attract national and international resources for the implementation and operation of Geopark.

2. Existing and planned facilities 2.1. Infrastructure The Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark is well located in relation to the main points of origin for tourism in Brazil. Belo Horizonte is 586km away from Sao Paulo, 434 kilometers from Rio de Janeiro, and 716km away from Brasília, and these are moderate distances, considering the size of Brazil. The capitals have airports

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project with regular and charter flights. The Quadrilátero Ferríferoregion has two airports, one international (Confins), and another national (Pampulha). The International Airport of Confins is located between the towns of Confins and Lagoa Santa, 38km away from downtown Belo Horizonte; the airport has direct international flights to Lisbon, Panama City, and Miami. The two first destinations have flights five times a week, through TAP and COPA Airlines, respectively. The latter has four flights a week through American Airlines. There is also a stop to Buenos Aires (TAM/GOL/Varig), Paris (TAM), and Miami (TAM). The government of Minas Gerais is responsible for the largest road construction ever planned for Belo Horizonte, called Linha Verde. It is an adequation of the streets that connect downtown to the International Airport, which is now a freeway, so that this trip can be done in 35 minutes. The downtown airport of Belo Horizonte/Pampulha is used for general and regional aviation, and it has flights from the capital to several destinations in the state and in neighboring states. A special bus line links the two airports. Piedade Range

Miguel Andrade

The Quadrilátero Ferrífero region is part of an extensive system of state and federal roads, making all the cities of the geopark accessible. As a rule, the cities of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero have basic infrastructure such as water, electricity, and public health care systems sufficient to supply local population, some of then nedding improvements, especially when facing the possibility of increased tourism. The tourism infrastructure tends to be concentrated in cities. The colonial towns, Ouro Preto, Ouro Branco, Mariana, Catas Altas, Santa Bárbara, and the cities of the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, Sabará, Nova Lima, Rio Acima, and Brumadinho, are the main areas of infrastructure within the Geopark. There are several hotels, bed and breakfasts, restaurants, camping grounds, tourism agencies, local guides, as well as a diverse local commerce. Rural infrastructure is mostly made up of roadside businesses providing accommodation and family-owned restaurants.

2.2. Protected Areas The National System of Conservation Units - SNUC was created on July 18, 2000 by Law 9,985, and regulated on August 22, 2002 by Decree 4,430, was a response to the need to preserve the diversity of biomes, ecosystems, and species within the national territory. It is capable, therefore, of enabling the national preservation goals, allowing for the integrated management of protected areas. Conservation Units are divided in two categories related to the nature of its use, as: Full Protection Units, and Sustainable Use Units (Biodiversitas, 2005). In the area proposed for the creation of the Geopark the following conservation units associated to geological sites are present:

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Conservation Unit

City/Cities

Itacolomi Park(State)

Mariana, Ouro Preto

Rola Moça Range Park(State)

Belo Horizonte, Brumadinho, Ibirité, Nova Lima

Piedade Range Natural Monument

Caeté, Sabará

Tripuí Ecological Station

Ouro Preto

Southern Environmental Protected Area of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region - APA Sul RMBH (State)

Barão de Cocais, Belo Horizonte, Brumadinho, Caeté, Catas Altas, Ibirité, Itabirito, Mário Campos, Nova Lima, Raposos, Rio Acima, Santa Bárbara, Sarzedo.

Private Reserve of Natural Resources and the Tripuí Ecological Station

Catas Altas, Santa Bárbara

2.3. Building the future The concept of the geopark proposed by UNESCO is innovative as it combines science, culture, and education to diversify and complement touristic offers, and it may be seen as a strategy for territorial development. Based on these premises, we present the construction of the present and the future of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark. 2.3.1. Quadrilátero Ferrífero 2050 Program The Department of Geology of the School of Mines - UFOP with the support of the State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais has implemented the Quadrilátero Ferrífero 2050 Project (http://www.qfe2050.ufop.br/). It is a Center for Advanced Studies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero created with the intent to promote, conducte, and publish studies and knowledge in the fields of Earth Sciences, mining activities, and sustainable development of the territory of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. 2.3.2. Mining and geopark The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is one of the main mineral districts in Brazil and the world, and mining activities shaped its landscape, and are references in the area. In the geopark proposal, the concepts of geological potential and geological/mining heritage are considered to be complementary – therefore, the mining areas have their value recognized, and their legal rights respected. Considering that the mining companies have shown a growing concern to harmonize their activities with conservation, and that they have accounted for billions of dollars invested in agreements for social-environmental responsibility and environmental compensations, the initiatives of geotourism and geoconservation that include education and interpretation of the geological heritage might be developed with the support of these companies, and even using their properties. An example of how this is already happening is the Center for Biodiversity Research and Conservation in the area of the exhausted mine Córrego do Meio in Sabará, through a project of Vale mining company. The initiative is unprecedented in Brazil, and it consists of recovery and transformation of an old mine into a space to develop research and conduct activities for environmental conservation and recovery of areas that have suffered human intervention in the past. Aside from that, there is the decommissioning and recovery of the exhausted mines of Morro Velho (underground) and Águas Claras (open pit). 2.3.3. Educational potential The awareness of the importance of the geological resources is one of the main goals in the creation of geoparks. In higher education institutions, the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is widely used for field work in the areas of Geology, Geography, Biology, Tourism, and History, within the following subareas, among others: General Geology, Historical Geology, Mining Geology, Mineral Prospection and Exploration, Sedimentology, Structural Geology, and Mineral Resources. However, in relation to education of the general public,

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project especially children, there is still the understanding that it all still remains to be done when it comes to interpretation and use of geological sites. In this sense, environmental education and interpretation programs should be proposed and developed for each site for this purpose, and they should include: (a) Implementation of geotourism paths integrating the sites; interpretative visits for schools of the towns that are part of the geopark; interpretative visits included in the touristic products of the towns involved. The observation of geological aspects is so much more interesting and profitable if the observation is pedagogically directed, and if locations of clear geological nature are used. Since these requirements are met, one of the purposes of geotourism has been achieved, which is to bring the non-profissional public closer to the geological language, making it to understand scientific observations. In this sense, the definition of geotourism paths-routes is a way to organize and integrate the educational possibilities of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, showing the main spots to be visited by tourists. The routes help the organization of specific segments, to meet also specific demands. There Antônio Liccardo already a few works that might help implement such tours. In 2008, the CPRM launched a site with a proposal for a virtual tour of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, with indication of some of the sites proposed for the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark. The product was developed within the Ibero-American Mineral Routes Program and to the territorial organization for the sustainable development of society – RUMYS and it is available online (http://www.cprm.gov.br/estrada_real/index.html). The objective of this site together with the results of the research project financed by PUC Minas in 2006 is as Handicraft made of soapstone follows: “Gold Route a proposal for geotourism-cultural routes in the Circuito do Ouro and Estrada Real in the context of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero”, is the basis for the creation and publication of routes. In 2003, the Department of Geology of the School of Mines UFOP launched the project “Minas High Lands”, which proposed routes integrated in the natural aspects of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (available at http://200.131.211.7/terras). Another interesting proposal is presented by Liccardo (2007), which is the creation of mineral tourism routes linked to a mineral tourism circuit, which is a variation of geotourism that reaches not only those who appreciate nature, but also those who appreciate, collect, and purchase minerals and gemstones, an area that has special economic importance in Minas Gerais. In the area of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark, the highlight is the production of imperial topaz – in Rodrigo Silva, a district of Ouro Preto - and for soapstone, which is used for adornments and handicraft. Aside from the routes, it is important that each site has an infrastructure that is capable to promote the geological or mining resources with the right interpretative materials and signaling made available, such as panels and signs, and the production of audiovisual material to promote sites that are to be distributed in the cities that are part of geopark. The production of interpretative materials should consider the expectations of each audience (local population, students, and geotourists) in order to develop different support programs, making the scientific language associated with the mining, and geological resources accessible, so that these different publics can appreciate and understand it. The geopark already has folders and pamphlets available for some of the sites that are part of the proposal. The sites located in state parks have the Instituto Estadual de Florestas – IEF “tour guides” project, printed materials to publicize and increase tourism for the public to know, respect, and protect natural resources. It is also important to create panoramic observations points for the geological resources within the geopark, creating a special environment. Special attention should be paid to the main traffic routes where these points may allow an introduction to the significance of the resources of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, explaining the landscape evolution.

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(b) Creation and implementation of education projects for the schools that are part of Geopark: It is believed that learning through projects may favor the knowledge of the geology of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero by children, once the learning takes place through experience. To foster the knowledge of the territory by children, we are analyzing the possibility of establishing a joint venture with the Rocha Amiga Project (Friendly Rock Project), which was developed in Portugal, and is the result of cooperation between several universities and schools. The project aims to create consciousness in students about how important rocks are in their daily lives, supporting, and providing essential materials for their lives, from shelter, water, and substract to the development of plants and animals, and industrial and technological uses. The project can be adapted to the local reality, and involves new fronts like: customizing eco-friendly tote bags with geological themes, drawing contests, writing contests, and pedagogical experience with prizes. We intend to develop the project contemplating the following phases: establishment of partnership; establishing it in the towns of the region and their educational networks; creation of teaching materials and sending these to the schools; development of activities in the schools. Aside from the Rocha Amiga Project, we intend to develop other projects like “Geopark goes to school” and “School goes to Geopark”, based on the experiences of other geoparks. (c) Development of an integrated museum program for the museums that are part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and have collections related to the mining or geology: A difference between geoparks and other types of parks is their ability to make geosciences more popular; museums that have collections related to these themes must have an educational proposal to promote geological resources. These museums must work as an educational space to stimulate visitors to learn more about minerals, rocks, and fossils that register 4.5 billion years of Earth history. All these museums already develop educational programs, but these are not yet directed to the geopark, and therefore specific programs should be developed. The types of educational programs implemented will depend on the sizes of the museums, their financial resources, personnel availability, and type of collection catalogue. However, each museum should aim to maximize their educational purpose, and for that, the exhibit displays play a fundamental role. The exhibits should be innovative, attractive, and make visitors think, to be both pleasurable and educational. The Quadrilátero Ferrífero has a few museums associated with the history of mining or the geological resources, and out of these we highlight the Museum of Science and Technique of the School of Mines – UFOP, the Djalma Guimarães Museum of Mineralogy (that will be incorporated by the Museum of Mines and Metal, which is part of the Praça da Liberdade Cultural Circuit) in Belo Horizonte; the Museum of Natural History –PUC Minas, and UFMG; the Gold Museum in Sabará.

3. Analysis of geotourism potential The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a privileged area as far as tourism planning goes in the state of Minas Gerais. The reason for that is that most of its cities are part of the Circuito do Ouro as proposed by the SETUR, and by the Programa Estrada Real (Royal Road Program). The Circuito do Ouro is a series of roads that connect cities that are related to the history of gold mining, including Ouro Preto, Mariana, Congonhas, Sabará, Ouro Branco, Itabirito, Santa Bárbara, Santa Luzia, Caeté, Nova Lima, Belo Vale, Raposos, Cata Altas, Barão de Cocais, Bom Jesus do Amparo, Itabira, São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo and Rio Acima. Parts of the Estrada Real - ER are included in the Circuito do Ouro presenting remnants of the Imperial Age, such as bridges, manholes, combined sewers, stone walls, and rails, pavements, old mines, as well as forgotten villages. State

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Handicraft made of soapstone

Antônio Liccardo


Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project law n . 13,137 from 1999 on the Program to Incentivize the Tourism Potential of the Estrada Real refers to “the roads and its variants built during the 17 , 18 , and 19 centuries, in the state’s territory”. Therefore, the term “Estrada Real” refers to the union of three large pathways to the mines that were used by colonizers in different times. The routes of the three large pathways to access the mines – Old Path (Caminho Velho), New Path (Caminho Novo), and the Path to the Diamond District (Caminho para o Distrito Diamantino) – used the former roads, which might possibly date to native trails dating thousands of years. The Old Path connected São Paulo, from Piratininga, and its villages in the Paraiba Valley to the Velhas River region, and it was, in the earlier stages of gold discovery, the main route of access and supply of the gold mines. The New Path was hired by the Portuguese Crown and opened by Garcia Rodrigues Paes in order to connect Rio de Janeiro directly to the mines. The Path to the Diamond District connected two centers in the same captaincy of Minas Gerais: Vila Rica and the Arraial do Tijuco, center of diamond production. Another highlight of the tourism in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is associated with the local food, which is one of the most typical and varied in Brazil, which is the result of a mixture of different cultural heritages from the people that helped to build this state. From the Portuguese influence, there is a preference for the simplicity of preparations, which highlight the natural qualities of products, and the sophistication of seasonings, and the delicate patisserie. African and native influences are also present. A local drink is cachaça, sugar cane liquor brought to Minas by explorers and miners as a way to stay warm in the cold nights. Currently cachaça is made in farms all over the state, and is served as an appetizer or as a drink in bars. The mixture of cultural heritage of the people that helped make the state has also left behind beliefs and signs in the practices of local communities. Tourists from all over the country and the world are attracted by the regional festivals of Minas Gerais, which through celebrations, reenactments, masses, and vigils Source CPRM showcase all the religiousness of its people. The parties of the African immigrants were incorporated in Minas Gerais, especially through the sisterhoods of Nossa Senhora do Rosário.Congado, which mixes African traditions with elements of Portuguese-Spanish and native dance, and popular representations, was created through the permanence of characteristics of African religious rituals, adapted to the cult of God and the saints as depicted by Catholicism. The Divino, Nossa Senhora da Conceição, São Pedro, and São João festivals are important parts of the lives of locals (Rebio, 2005). During the Holy Week, in the towns of Ouro Preto, Mariana, Congonhas, and Sabará, colorful made from pavements of sawdust, representing the Passion of the Christ, is represented. The jubilee of the Piedade Range is an event to honor the patron saint of Minas Gerais. The carnival takes over the streets in many cities, with the carnival character of “King Momo”, caricature groups, and samba schools. The “ora-pro-nobis” festival and often called “the poor man’s meat” due to its high protein content, is organised in Sabará, during the month of May. In Itabirito, every year there is the Pastel do Angu festival, dedicated to celebrate a deep-fried savoury pastry made out of cornmeal in the month of June. The pastry or Pastelmay be filled with beef, chicken, dried salted cod fish, or banana hearts. Concerning still tourism, the capital Belo GoldMuseum - Sabará Horizonte has a rich architecture in the modern style: the architectural complex of Pampulha (Igreja de São Francisco de Assis, Museu de Arte,Casa do Baile, and the Iate Tênis Clube), one of the main landmarks of the city. The complex was designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer and built in the 1940s, and it became the most daring José Israel Abrantes accomplishment of the government of Juscelino Kubitschek, then the mayor of Belo Horizonte. It is registered as a historical site by the state and federal Heritage Institutes, the series of buildings is a reference in modern architecture in Brazil and worldwide. The combination of cultural and environmental factors in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero makes it an adequate destination for ecotourism, as well as for cultural, scientific, and geotourism. o

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4. Overview and policies for the sustainable development 4.1. Promotion of the geopark concept in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero region We intend to increase awareness of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark, with the publish of information and concepts, to make it easier to understand, as well as to increase public participation. For that, technical-scientific events and workshops will be conducted with local communities. Aside from that, traveling photography exhibits will happen in the towns included in the Geopark, to display its rich geological resources and their significance.

4.2.Strenghtening and creation of international, national, and regional partnerships We intend to develop actions to widen the network of strategic partners of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark in the territory. For this purpose, we will formalize them through joint ventures of technical cooperation, or partnerships with the mining industry and with local government, so as to provide the geosites with touristic and educational infrastructure. Seeking cooperation through a network that promotes integrated actions, and strengthens the geopark concept, formal partnerships through cooperation agreements will be developed with the Geopark Araripe, as well as with other Brazilian states that are seeking candidacy: Serra da Bodoquena Geopark, and Campos Gerais Geopark. About geoparks outside Brazil, we intend to establish partnerships with the geoparks that have already been visited by the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark Promoting Group, out of which we highlight: Reserve Geologique de Haute Provence (France), Madonie (Italy), and Naturtejo (Portugal), to promote an exchange of experience.

4.2.1. Promotion of local development We intend to develop actions that value local products and craftsmanship, to promote territorial cohesion. We will focus especially on those that directly relate to the geological resources: soapstone and itabirite. Several institutions are active in Minas Gerais with programs for training, qualification, technical assistance, and quality control of products: SEBRAE, SENAC, and CETEC. The current programs and projects developed by these institutions that relate to the geopark region will be assessed.

4.2.2. Making geotourism more dynamic To make geotourism more dynamic, we intend to implement the geotourism routes suggested by the project funded by PUC Minas (2006) and Serviço Geológico do Brasil – CPRM (2008), as well as structuring a route where sites of mineral interest will be prioritized, as suggested by Liccardo (2007). We also intend to create some circuits for visiting mines that developed throughout history and that are now abandoned, such as Morro da Queimada Mine in Ouro Preto and Morro de Santo Antonio in Mariana. For that, some areas will be selected to have interpretative panels, which will also be placed on some roads. Through a collective effort the cultural and touristic resources of the Morro Velho and Córrego do Meio mines will be made more dynamic. To make geological knowledge easier for tourists, support material such as folders, guidebooks, and catalogs will be created or reprinted. Professionals that will work on the Geopark will be trained through partnerships with the Tourism departments of PUC Minas, UFMG, and UFOP.

4.2.3. Developing educational programs We intend to develop, launch, and contribute to educational projects adequate to the different levels of education. In this context, we should highlight the development of the Projeto Rocha Amiga in a way adapted to the reality of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark territory, and the contribution to educational actions that have already been developed by museums, which are situated in the Geopark. To provide learning

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project quality on the geological resources, the following programs will be implemented: “Geopark goes to school”, and “School goes to Geopark”. To develop the educational programs, we will establish partnerships with higher education institutions, with the development of extension projects.

4.2.4. Promoting geoconservation The process of inventory of the geological sites of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero will continue, as well as the proposal of new sites for the Comissão Brasileira de Sítios Geológicos e Paleobiológicos – SIGEP (Brazilian Committee for Geological and Paleobiological Sites). Communication and partnerships with environmental agencies will be strengthened, so as to follow up on the impact on the sites described. Partnerships with mining companies will be strengthened to promote recovery of degraded areas, to be used for tourism and education.

4.3. Implementedactions During the preparation of the first Application Dossier of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark, which happened during the year 2009, many actions were still in the planning stages, though the process of implementation had already started. However, nowadays, several actions contained in the 3-5 Years Action Plan are already underway, such as: a) Establishing partnerships with site managers, both public and private; b) Deployment of signaling, through a partnership with the Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM; c) Establishment of partnership with the Centre for Living Science of Estremoz and University of Lisbon (Portugal) for development of educational programs; d) Establishment of partnerships with a important social project of the Municipality of Belo Horizonte, the Vila Viva Project (Living Village); e) Inclusion of the Geopark in Metropolitan Development Plan of Belo Horizonte; and f) Proposition and implementation of several projects, such as the Rocha Amiga Project, Implementation of the Reference Center on Geological Heritage in the Natural History and Botanical Garden Museum of the Federal University of Minas Gerais and Signalling and Education Program Project. Projects in development linked to the Federal University of Ouro Preto – UFOP a) Development of Research entitled "The geological heritage of the region of Ouro Preto and Mariana in the South of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (MG): scientific bases for tourism and sustainable actions in small communities," connected to the Centre for Advanced Studies of the QF; b) Development of a project entitled "Geological Expedition - Tourism in geological city of Ouro Preto", by Geoconsultoria Junior, a company formed by students of the University; and c) Development of a project entitled "Geology for all" in the Centre for Advanced Studies of the QF. Presentation of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark - Seminar on Geoparks (Sao Paulo, July/2009); - Geological Reserve of Haute Provence (France, September 2009); - European Congress of Geoparks (Portugal, September 2009); - Workshop Ferriferous Quadrangle 2050 (Ouro Preto, September 2009) - Actors Forum (Belo Horizonte, October/2009) Sites under implementation: I – Sanctuary and Caraça Range; I I – Sanctuary and Piedade Range; III –Curral Range and Mangabeiras Park; IV - Rola-Moça Range; V –Itacolomi Peak; VI – Gnaisse Cachoeira do Campo.

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Companies invited to implement sites: I – AngloGold Ashanti; II – Ferrous; III – Samarco.

5. Policies for, and examples of, community empowerment Local craftspeople and schoolchildren are being included in the works involving setting up the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark. With regard to culture, the QF is an area of great cultural historical value and these matters are being worked in in partnership with the state and municipal Offices of Culture, in addition to the integration of museums. The communities involvement is being made in stages, in accordance with the established agenda of mobilizing communities. The Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark has been presented and discussed in various communities around the sites through workshops, conferences, events, meetings, presentation, etc.

5.1. Presentation of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero Geopark - Seminar on Geoparks (Sao Paulo, July/2009); - Workshop Ferriferous Quadrangle 2050 (Ouro Preto, September 2009) - Actors Forum (Belo Horizonte, October/2009)

5.2. Other Accomplishments a) Participation in 3rd Workshop Ferriferous Quadrangle 2050 International Forum: Future Vision for the The Ferriferous Quadrangle (2010). b) Participation in Inovatec - Technological Innovation Fair (2009 and 2010); c) Conducting workshops and exhibition "Soils: Soils:geodiversity meeting with biodiversity geodiversity meeting with biodiversity" during the 24th Fantastic Children’s World. Partnership with the Federal University of Viçosa and the Foundation of the Parks of the City of Belo Horizonte (2010). d) Participation in the festivities of the Jubilee of the Shrine of Serra da Piedade (2009); e) Elaboration of the Ferriferous Quadrangle Geopark Rodrigo Tinoco website (2009); g) Preparation of the Ferriferous Quadrangle Geopark application file for submission to UNESCO (2009) h) Promotion of the Ferriferous Quadrangle Geopark Seminar: a new perspective for the use of geoscience heritage (2008).

6. Policies for, and examples of, public and stakeholder awareness 6.1. Actions of the Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence The Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence is an institutional framework created by the Government of Minas Gerais, through the SECTES, which brings together researchers, research and development, innovation, and education groups and networks, with a goal of enhancing the performance of the mineral and metallurgy sectors. It connects the productive chains, financing, and development institutions, government project managers, society, and international partners, to encourage cooperation

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project between production and demand of Research, Development, and Innovation, increasing competitivity and sustainability for these industry sectors, and generating new business. The Pole aims for permanent responsible mining and metallurgy, searching for new perspectives for the environment, for social responsibility, and for sustainability.

6.2.Quadrilatero Ferrifero Geopark Reference Centers The installation and operation of Microregional QuadrilĂĄtero FerrĂ­fero Geopark Reference Centers is the adopted to overcome the large dimension of the Quadrlatero. The first center, already operational, that will be adopted as pilot, to optimize functions and methodologies, is the Alto do Paraopeba Center, located in the town of Conselheiro Lafaiete. The Alto Paraopeba Regions includes the following municipalities in the GPK: Congonhas, Ouro Branco and Belo Vale. Other locations being targeted for new Reference Centres are Catas Altas, Mariana, Ibirite and Nova Lima. Itacolomi Peak

Arquivo IEF

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E ñ Interest and arguments for joining the GGN In the year 2009, the Apllication Dossier of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark was sent to UNESCO with the support of UNESCO Brazil and Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM. The Application Dossier was submitted to Dr. Celso Salatino Schenkel, coordinator of the Natural Sciences of UNESCO in Brazil, in November 17, 2009. In addition, the dossier contained a signature page that appeared with the support of: •

Prof. Dr. Marco Antônio Fonseca Regional Superintendent Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM,

Renato Ribeiro Ciminelli State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais Executive Manager - Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence General Supervision - Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark Promoting Group Associate Researcher of Acqua Institut - Mineral Resources and Biodiversity

Scientific-Technical Committee Scientific Supervision •

Prof. Dr. Úrsula Ruchkys de Azevedo Coordinator - Scientific-Technical Committee Federal University of Minas Gerais Center for Advanced Studies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero

Prof. Dr. Friedrich Ewald Renger Federal University of Minas Gerais Center for Advanced Studies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero

Prof. Dr. Paulo de Tarso Amorim Castro Federal University of Ouro Preto Center for Advanced Studies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero

Dr. Carlos Schobbenhaus Coordinator of Geoparks Project Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM

1. Scientific Support Some of the most important research and education institutions of the Southeast of Brazil are located in the area proposed for the geopark, such as UFMG, UFOP, and PUC Minas. These Universities have several undergraduate and graduate courses that can provide support to geopark, as well as develop research, and extension projects. There are also other institutions that have demonstrated an interest in the geology of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, from other parts of Brazil, among which we may highlight USP, UnB, UNICAMP, UNESP Rio Claro, and UFRJ. The natural and cultural richness of the Geopark have been constant source of research and monitoring through covenants, projects, and contracts between the educational and research institutions, and Conservation Units administrations, and local government. The results of these works are made available as to supply local and regional demands, and have informed decisions for development policy, through partnerships between NGOs, government agencies, the private sector, and educational institutions. There is a great number of doctoral theses, master’s theses, and undergraduate theses that deal with the geology of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, and other related topics.

2. Governmental Programs: Circuito do Ouro, Estrada Real

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Application Dossier Geopark Quadrilatero Ferrifero Project

The region is part of two touristic products that are already well-defined, and complement each other: the Circuito do Ouro (http://www.circuitodoouro.org.br/) and the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (http://www.estradareal.org.br/). The Circuito do Ouro (Gold Circuit) is one of the products of tourism regionalization public policies in Minas Gerais, and the region is often given, according to the demands of the cities that are part of it, projects and actions for tourism road signs, training, and improvement courses for tourism services, awareness, creation of a strategic development plan, creation of specific tours, and promotion as a tourist destination. The Instituto Estrada Real – IER has a series of initiatives for the promotion of the integrated development of tourism in the Estrada Real (Royal Road), creating business opportunities for local industry.

3. National and international scientific relevance The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is world renowned for its scientific importance of Pre-Cambrian geology. Aside from that, its mineral resources are a record of significant steps in the mining history of Minas Gerais and Brazil. Natural resources in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero are part of several protected preservation areas, which include rock formations (related to the geological resources), river courses, waterfalls, and native vegetation of varied ecosystems like Brazilian Tropical Savanna (Cerrado), fields of altitude in ranges, and remnants of the Atlantic Rainforest.

4. UNESCO presence in the geopark The area proposed for the geopark is recognized by UNESCO for its historical, cultural, and biological importance. Several cities of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero are recognized as Brazilian historical and cultural heritage, like the cities of Mariana, Sabará, Congonhas, and Ouro Preto, with the last two being considered world heritage since they preserve one of the largest amounts of colonial architecture and monuments of Minas Gerais baroque. In 2005, UNESCO recognized a part of the Man and Biosphere Program the Espinhaço Biosphere Reserve which occupies a 30,700 km area, and includes almost the entire area proposed for the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark. The region has been recognized by research work in identification of biodiversity conservation priorities. Developed for all Brazilian biomes within the National Program for Biological Diversity Conservation (PRONABIO), of the Ministry of the Environment, with co-funding by GEF, these research indicated more than 300 priority areas throughout the country, one of them the Espinhaço Range (SEMAD, 2005). 2

4.1. Local development The Quadrilátero Ferríferois undoubtedly one of the richest and most diversified regions in the world. Its geological, geomorphological, historical, and biological importance justifies the adoption of measures that promote its territorial development in an integrated way, to respect these resources. The recognition of the area as a UNESCO Geopark, in a heavily mined area, will be remarkable for Minas Gerais and Brazil, as it will reflect the importance of the establishment of a territorial development model that respects mining activites as well as guarantees conservation of resources, and local development through activities connected to tourism and education. With the creation of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark with the actions already developed by the Espinhaço Biosphere Reserve, important areas of human and economic development will benefit. Among these we might mention folk art and tourism, which combined work to increase the quality of living for several communities, promoting citizenship, and cooperation. These activities were mentioned in the application document for the creation of the Espinhaço Biosphere Reserve. Folk art enables economic development through a view of a social economy that focuses on creating jobs and income. In the geopark region, folk art is expressed through crafts that use natural resources, among which we should highlight the use of rocks from waste dumps of abandoned mines, such as soapstone and itabirite. These products are clearly associated with the geopark, and might become more widely traded

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with its creation. Several other products featuring the geopark might be created and sold: stuffed rocks and minerals, artifacts and jewelry, themed foods, among others. These products may be developed with the support of institutions that have programs for training, qualification, technical assistance, and quality control of products, among which we highlight the Support Service for Micro and Small Business - SEBRAE, National Service of Commercial Learning - SENAC and the Fundation Center for Technology of Minas Gerais CETEC. 4.2. Cooperation with existing geoparks or those being created in Brazil Considering that Brazil has, as of 2009 only one UNESCO geopark, the Araripe Geopark, it is fundamental that strategies for integration and cooperation between these are created, promoting the exchange of experiences, and the development of integrated and joint programs. The government of the state of Ceará, where the Araripe Geopark is located, tries to encourage the establishment of other geoparks in Brazil. The Quadrilátero FerríferoGeopark has a strategic geographical position in the continental position of Brazil, and can therefore assume an integrative role, helping widen the network of geoparks in Brazil, and forming and effective network of geoparks in Brazil, and in Latin America. As new geoparks are created in Brazil, the proposal for integration also allows for the exchange of information, knowledge, and experiences among these geoparks, promoting cooperative research, conservation, and the publicish of Brazilian natural resources, as well as promoting sustainable development. 4.3. Potential for contribution to the World Network of Geoparks The Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark is proposed in an area that has several active mines, which is a unique situation. The idea is that the geopark may promote the development of the territory in an integrated manner, guaranteeing alternatives for the communities once the mines are exhausted. The unique characteristics of the geopark might allow for the creation of valuable knowledge for the configurations of geoparks all over the world, with the development of actions that integrate conservation of the resources with their exploration. The team responsible for the proposal intends to invite geoparks of the world for cooperation, as well as to take part in, and promote technical-scientific and cultural events, such as workshops, congresses, seminars, and festivals. The Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark is proposed for a territory where the historical occupation, social development, and actions for conservation of environmental resources have all come together to create a favorable environment for the development of research and the exchange of experience. Ouro Preto

Daniel Mansur

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Caraรงa Range

Miguel Andrade

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Pedrosa-Soares, A.C.; Noce, C.M.; Vidal, P.H.; Monteiro, R.L.B.P.; Leonardos, O.H. 1992. Toward a new tectonic model for the late proterozic Araçuaí (S Brazil) – west Congolian (SW Africa) Belt J. South. Am. Earth Sci., 6: 33-47.

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Renger, F.E.; Noce, C.M.; Romano, A.W.; Machado, N. 1994.Evolução sedimentar do Supergrupo Minas: 500 Ma de registro geológico no Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Geonomos, 2(1): 1-11.

o

Renger, F.E.; Suckau, V.E.; Silva, R.M.P. 1993. Sedimentologia e análise da bacia da Formação Moeda, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brasil. In: SBG, VII Simpósio de Geologia de Minas Gerais, Anais, p. 41-45.

o

Romano, A.W.; Rosière, C.A.; Costa, R.D. 1992.Duplo regime cinemático na região da falha do Engenho, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais. In: SBG, Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, 37, Boletim de Resumos, p.360-361.

o

Rosière, C.A.; Renger, F.E.; Piuzana, D.; Spier, C.A. 2005. Pico de Itabira, Minas Gerais - marco estrutural, histórico e geográfico do Quadrilátero Ferrífero. In: Winge, M.; Schobbenhaus, C.; Berbert-Born, M.; Queiroz, E.T.; Campos, D.A.; Souza, C.R.G. ; Fernandes, A.C.S. (Edit.) Sítios geológicos e paleontológicos do Brasil. In: http://www.unb.br/ig/sigep/sitio042/sitio042.pdf I21/6/2005.

o

Ruchkys, U.A. 2007. Patrimônio geológico e geoconservação no Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais: potencial para a criação de um geoparque da UNESCO. Belo Horizonte, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

o

Ruchkys,U.A.; Renger,F.E.; Noce,C.M.; Machado,M.M.M. 2007. Serra da Piedade, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, MG - da lenda do Sabarabuçu ao patrimônio histórico, geológico, paisagístico e religioso In: Winge,M.; Schobbenhaus,C.; Berbert-Born,M.; Queiroz,E.T.; Campos,D.A.; Souza,C.R.G.; Fernandes,A.C.S. (Edit.) Sítios Geológicos e Paleontológicos do Brasil. In:http://www.unb.br/ig/sigep/sitio129/sitio129.pdf01/03/2007.

o

Schobbenhaus, C. , 2006. Projeto Geoparques. Serviço Geológico do Brasil, CPRM/DHT/DEGET, 8 p., Brasília, jan./2006 (unpublished).

o

Schorscher, J. H. D. . Estudos mineralógico-metalogenéticos de amostras de veios de quartzo de zonas mineralizadas em ouro. 1986.

o

SEMAD, 2005. Proposta de Criação da Reserva da Biosfera do Espinhaço. 189p.

o

Silva, F.R. 2007. A paisagem do Quadrilátero Ferrífero, MG: potencial para o uso turístico da sua geologia e geomorfologia. Tese de Mestrado, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.144p.

o

Simmons, G.C.; Maxwell, C.H. 1961. Grupo Tamanduá da Série Rio das Velhas. Rio de Janeiro, DNPM/DGM, Boletim 211, 30p.

o

Tschudi, J.J. von 1866. Viagens através da América do Sul. Publicado 1866, Leipzig, by Editora F.A. Brockhaus. Tradução: Friedrich E. Renger and Fábio Alves Júnior. Publicado 2006 by Fundação João Pinheiro, Belo Horizonte, 2v.

o

Vieira Couto, J. 1801. Memórias sobre as minas de Minas Gerais; publicado em 1900 in Rev. Arq. Públ. Mineiro, v. 6.

o

Vieira, F.W.R.& Oliveira, G.I. 1988.Geologia do distrito aurífero de Nova Lima, Minas Gerais. In: Schobbenhaus, C. & Coelho, C.E.S. (ed.). Principais Depósitos Mineraisdo Brasil. DNPM/Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, Brasília, 3: 377-391.

o

Vieira, F.W.R.; Cordani-Filho, M.; Fonseca, J.T.; Pereira, A.; Oliveira G.A.I.; Clemente, P.L.C.1991. Gold deposits related to greenstones belts in Brazil – deposit modeling. In: Workshop, Part A – Excursions, by Thorman, C. H.; Ladeira, E.A.; Shunabbel, D. C. (eds), USGS Bulletin 1980-A, p.75-86.

o

41


Annex 1 単 Self evaluation document

42


Global Geoparks Network Applicant’s Self Evaluation and Evaluators Estimate (April 2009) Applicants Identity 1. Name of Applicant QUADRILÁTERO FERRÍFERO GEOPARK PROMOTING GROUP 2. Address of Applicant Av. José Cândido da Silveira, 2.000 – Horto Belo Horizonte – MG Brazil - 31.170-000 Region: Country: Telephone: Fax: Email:

South America Brazil, Minas Gerais +55 31 3247 2033 +55 31 3247 2033 gerenciaexecutiva@geoparkqf.org

3. Size of Territory (Km2) and geographical coordinates in latitude-longitude Aproximated area of 6500 km2. The geographical coordinates limiting the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark area: 1) Point 1: Lat. 19º45'00"S / Long. 43º19'44"W 2) Point 2: Lat. 20º34'12"S/ Long. 43º19'44"W 3) Point 3: Lat. 20º34'12"S/ Long. 44º00'00"W 4) Point 4: Lat. 20º09'43"S/ Long. 44º00'00"W 5) Point 5: Lat. 20º09'43"S/ Long. 44º07'30"W 6) Point 6: Lat. 20º00'00"S/ Long. 44º07'30"W 7) Point 7: Lat. 20º00'00"S/ Long. 44º00'00"W 8) Point 8: Lat. 19º45'00"S/ Long. 44º00'00"W 4. Contact Person Geoscientist Specialist on Regional Development

Friedrich Ewald Renger; Paulo de Tarso Amorim de Castro; Úrsula Ruchkys Azevedo Renato Ribeiro Ciminelli, Octávio Elisio Alves Brito, Ana Paula Bax;

1


Application Overview Category

Weighting (%)

Selfassessment

1.1 Territory

5

1.2 Geoconservation

20

1.3 Natural and Cultural Heritage

10

510/700 (3,64) 969/1300 (14,9) 813/1000 (8,13)

II.

Management Structures

25

III

Interpretation and Environmental Education Geotourism

15

Sustainable Regional Economic Development Access

10

Evaluators Estimate

Geology and Landscape

I

IV V VI

10

497/940 (13,22) 500/1000 (7,5) 723/1080 (6,69)

5

350/700 (5) (5)

100

64,08

Total

Notes For Applicants 路

Documentary evidence should be provided for all positive statements made in this application document.

No new applicant is likely to score 100 %. However, a score of 50 % within each category is required

Applications should be submitted to the following address: Geoparks Secretariat Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences Global Earth Observation Section UNESCO 1, rue Miollis 75732 Paris Cedex 15 France Phone: 00 33 1 45 68 41 18 Fax: 00 33 1 45 68 58 22 e-mail: m.patzak@unesco.org

3


Marks available

Self Assessment

80

80

140

-

40 80

40 -

20 or more

120

-

> 25 % > 25 % > 25 %

40 40 40 20 400

40 25 10 15 210

I. Geology and Landscape 1.1 TERRITORY Applicant Setting 1.1.2 Number of Geological sites “geosites� located within territory 20 sites or more 40 Sites or more Number of sites with public Interpretation (trails, interpretation panels or leaflets) 5-10 10-20 Sites of Scientific Importance Sites used for Education Sites used for Geotourism Non-Geological Sites

Maximum Total 1.1.3 Relationship to existing Geoparks. (select one from the following options) There is no comparison with any other existing Geopark There is another Geopark with comparable geology, or infrastructure There is another Geopark with comparable geology, or infrastructure in the same Country There is another Geopark with comparable geology, or infrastructure in the same Region There is another Geopark Is its distance > 200 existing in the same geological km unit, if yes: Is its distance < 200 km Maximum Total

Territory Subtotal

300

300

260

-

210

-

150

-

100

100

60

-

300

300

Maximum points

Self Assessment

700

510

4


1.2. GEOLOGICAL CONSERVATION

Marks Self Available Assessment

1.2.1 Geodiversity How many geological periods are represented in your area? (5 points each, maximum 50 points) How many clearly defined rock types are represented in your area? (10 points each, maximum 50 points) How many distinct geological or geomorphological features are present within your area? (10 points each, maximum 100 points)

50

20

50

50

100

100

Maximum Total 1.2.2 What type of Geosites can be found in your area? (total SELF AWARDED cannot exceed 400)

200

170

At least one geosite of international significance.

160

160

At least three geosites providing different kinds of geological or geomorphological features. At least five geosites of national significance At least 20 geosites of educational interest and used by schools and universities. Do you have a geosites database?

120

120

120 150

120 150

90

60

Do you have a geosites map?

60

30

Maximum Total 1.2.3 Strategy to protect against damage of geological sites and features (one answer only)

400

375

The entire territory has legal protection. Scientifically relevant part of an area is preserved as a protected area by law. Prohibition of destroying and removing parts of the geological heritage. At least 50 % of Applicants area is preserved as a protected area or by contract.

300 120

100 120

150

-

90

20

Maximum Total 1.2.4 How are the geosites protected against misuse and damage?

300

240

General announcement of regulations against misuse and damage Announcement of regulations against misuse and damage at individual sites Use of observation posts, guarding and patrolling by wardens

40

40

40

24

60

0

Provision for enforcement of regulations (no digging and collection) Offering collecting of geological specimens under supervision at selected sites

40

0

20

20

Maximum Total 1.2.5 What measures are carried out to protect geosites and infrastructure against damage and natural degradation?

200

84

Regular maintenance and cleaning Conservation measures

60 70

60 40

5


Protective measures (preparation, sealing to avoid natural degradation)

Maximum Total Geoconservation Subtotal Maximum points 1300

70

0 100

Self Assessment 969

1.3 Natural and Cultural Heritage

Marks Self Available Assessment

1.3.1 Natural Rank (total SELF AWARDED cannot exceed 300). World Heritage Site or Man and Biosphere Reserve Area in part of the Geopark territory Other International Designation in part of the Geopark territory National designation in part of the Geopark territory Regional designation in part of the Geopark territory Local designation in part of the Geopark territory

300

300

240 180 120 60

300

60 300

World Heritage Site or Man and Biosphere Reserve Area in part of the Geopark territory Other International Designation in part of the Geopark territory National designation in part of the Geopark territory Regional designation in part of the Geopark territory Local designation in part of the Geopark territory

300

300

240 180 120 60

240 0 120 30

Maximum Total 1.3.3 Promotion of Natural and Cultural Heritage

300

300

Regular maintenance Interpretation and education Communication Conservation Promotion to the general public

40 80 80 80 120

23 24 48 46 72

400

213

Maximum Total 1.3.2 Cultural Rank (total SELF AWARDED cannot

exceed 300).

Maximum Total Natural and Cultural Heritage Subtotal

Total Points Awarded For section I: Geology and Landscape

Maximum points

Self Assessment

1000

813

Maximum points

Self Assessment

3000

2292

6


II. MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

Marks Available

Self Assessment

40 40

30 20

20 100

0

Management or Master Plan exists (not older than 10 years)

40

0

Management or Master Plan is in preparation (to be completed within two years)

20

20

20

10

10

5

20 20

10 0

5 5 5 5

5 3 2 2

10 10

5 10

10 140

5 77

40 20

30 0

60

30

50 20

0 20

10

0

2.1 How is the Applicants management structure organised? A clearly defined border and area of responsibility An effective organisation to enhance protection and sustainable development. An independently administered budget Maximum Total

50

2.2 Does a management or Master Plan exist? (Total SELF AWARDED CANNOT EXCEED 140)

2.3 Master Plan Components If a plan exists, what components does it include? (You should refer to five different components in accompanying documentation) If no plan exists, which components have been separately worked out? (You can refer to five different components in accompanying documentation) Strength and weakness analysis of Management and administration An audit of the geological and other resources Strength and Weaknesses Analysis referring to the following: Geology Landscape protection Tourism â&#x20AC;&#x153;geotourismâ&#x20AC;? Agriculture and forestry Analysis of local/regional development potentials Definition of development goals for important fields of interest (geology, geotourism etc.) Models for sustainable development Maximum Total

2.4 Does a 3/5 year action plan exist ? 3/5 year action plan exists and is being implemented 3/5 plan is in preparation (to be completed within two years) Maximum Total

2.5 Does your Application have a Marketing Strategy (the SELF AWARDED total cannot exceed 100) Strategy exists (not older than 10 years) Strategy in preparation (will be finished within 2 years) 2.5.1. If a strategy exists, which elements have been included? Market research

7


Creation of products

10

Organisation of product distribution Tourism marketing strategy Communication strategy 2.5.2. If no strategy exists, which elements have been separately worked out? Market research Creation of products Organisation of product distribution Tourism marketing strategy Communication Strategy Maximum Total

10 10 10

0 0 0 0

5 5 5 5 5 100

0 0 0 3 0 23

25

15

20

0

15 10

8 5

10

5

20

15

10 10 100

5 5

2.6 Applicant should protect its geological heritage and create sustainable Geotourism. What has been done to fulfil this duty? (the SELF AWARDED total cannot exceed 100) Definition of areas which will be the focus of tourism development Definition of areas where no tourism is allowed, (with focus on protection and research) Measures taken to regulate and reduce traffic (restricted access, central parking lots, traffic guiding system, signposting etc.) Environmental friendly hiking path system Clearly defined cycle or other trails such as bridleways or river trails (horse/pony/mules, boats, etc.)

2.7 Are there any initiatives or working groups existing, who discuss promotion of natural and cultural heritage? Regular "Working Group" meetings on specific topics Individual cooperation and contracts between Applicant, tourist organisations and other interest groups Other regular activities, not described by the answers above Maximum Total

58

2.8 Has your Applicant area received any awards or other formal recognition for its activities in the fields of geodiversity, conservation or sustainable geo-tourism during the last five years? (The total amount of SELF AWARDED cannot exceed 100) 80 (Biosphere Reserve Espinhaรงo, 2005)

International awards (name and date of award)

80

National awards (name and date of award)

40

0

European charter for sustainable tourism European diploma of European council Other (e.g. from industry) (name and date of award) Maximum Total

50 50 50 100

0 0 0

2.9 Are competent geological and scientific experts available to promote further research work 8

80


and action on a reliable scientific basis? (The total amount of SELF AWARDED cannot exceed 140) At least one advisory expert who is a practicing geoscientist Or At least one person with a degree in geosciences or other related discipline in the permanent staff At least five people with a degree in geosciences or other related discipline on the staff of the Applicant Do additional experts exist in the permanent staff (e.g. engineers, biologists) Regular and formal joint activity with at least one scientific institution (University, National Geological Survey)

10

10

20

20

10

10

10

5

15

15

Regular consulting is maintained by: Persons with scientific background in geosciences Persons with experiences in geosciences Amateurs

15 10 5

0 0 0

Network of experts exists

10

0

5

5 0 0 0 0

How many different scientific disciplines are in the expert network? <5 >5 Does a marketing expert exist? If not who does the work? Does a press office exist? If not who does the work?

10 5 5

Does a product manager exist? If not who does the work? Are other staffs available to run field trips/guided walks? Do you have administrative staff?

5 5 5

Do you have museum staff?

5 140

Maximum Total

2 3 0

70

2.10 Does your Applicant area have the following Infrastructure Museum within the area of Applicant managed by yourself or a partner in your organization 80 Information Centre within the area of Application 60 â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Info-kiosks' or other 'local information points' within the area of Application which carry information about the Applicant and its aims and work 40 Info-panels within the area 20 Geological Trails within the area of Applicant, which the Applicant has developed or been involved in developing Maximum Total

Total Points Awarded For Section II: Management Structure

80 25 2 2

40

0

240

109

Maximum points

Self Assessment

940

497

9


III. Information and Environmental Education

Marks available

Self Assessment

3.1 Research, information and education scientific activity within the territory At least one scientific/academic institution working in the Applicant’s area. At least one student final report (mapping etc.) in the Applicant’s area per year At least one of PhD thesis on Applicant’s area within the past three years At least five scientific or tourism focused academic papers from the work within the Applicant’s area during last 5 years Maximum Total

40 20 40 40

40 20 40 40

140

140

50

0

30

20

20

20

20

20

20

5

20 20

0

20

20 105

3.2 Do you operate programs of environmental education in your Applicant area? Does your permanent staff include specialists in environmental education, who undertake such work as their main role within your team. Do you operate at least one formal education programme (please outline the nature of the programme (s) Do you contribute towards at least one formal education program developed by other organisations (museums, etc.) Personal and individual program offered to children visiting the Applicant’s area Do you operate a special program for primary/elementary school classes? Do you operate a special program for secondary/high school classes? Do you operate a special program for university students? Are there any university camps/education centres in the Applicant’s area Maximum Total

200

20

3.3 What kind of educational materials exist? (The total amount of SELF AWARDED cannot exceed 120) Have you developed new educational material for school classes? Films, video, slideshow, etc. Interactive elements/internet Different special exhibitions changing on a regular basis Special education equipment (puzzles, special constructions, etc)

20 20 20 20

0 15 20 -

20 20

-

120

35

Protection of geological heritage Geological history of the area

15 15

Environmentally friendly behaviour in the area

15

15 15 15

Did you produce other material for children below 8 years? Maximum Total

3.4 What kind of published information is available in your Applicant area?

10


Other aspects of natural history which can be found within the area Other historical elements Maximum Total

15 15 10 70

10 70

3.5 What kind of professional marketing of the area takes place? Printed material (e.g. leaflets, magazines)

25

12

Popular literature for public (e.g. books, guide books) CD or video material Other promotional material or merchandise Maximum Total

15 15 15

7

70

33

10 10 10 10 10 10 10

10

7 7

3.6 In how many languages is the marketing material produced? (The total amount of SELF AWARDED cannot exceed 80) English French Russian Chinese Arabic Spanish Multi-languages in one publication Add 10 points for each other language e.g. Gaelic, Urdu, Welsh, Greek, German, Portuguese, Czech, Maximum Total

10

80

20

30

10 -

3.7 Geological provision for school groups. For example, organized visits, etc. (The total amount of SELF AWARDED cannot exceed 90) Guided tours by Applicantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s staff or through a member organisation Standard programs, regularly offered for all park visitors Limited group size (max. 30 persons per guide) Are alternatives available if tour impossible due to bad weather conditions? Do programs exist for different ages?

10 10 10 20

-

Do special, scientific programs exist? Is teacher training offered in matters relating to the Applicant? Maximum Total

20

0

20 90

0 15

5 -

3.8 Education â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Guides At least one advisory expert who is a practicing geoscientist Do you have at least one expert providing guided visit that your organization has a role in developing?

10 20

10

Personal guides Freelance guides whose training and / or program is supported by your organization Training courses Maximum Total

10

2

10 20

0

11

60

10 22


3.9 What kind of information do you provide to educational groups, which encourage them to visit your area? Letters to schools and universities Applicant-brochure

20 20

Press announcements (Newspapers, Radio, TV) Applicant newspaper or newsletter Maximum Total 3.10 Do you use the internet for school programmes? What kind of service do you provide? Own website with general information about environmental education within the area Those responsible for the education programme may be reached by e-mail

20 20 80

Regular electronic newsletter Up to date calendar of activities

15 15 90

5 30 20

40 0 5

Maximum Total

Total Points Awarded For section III: Education

15 5 5

5 5 30

Maximum points

Self Assessment

1000

500

IV. Geotourism

Marks available

Self Assessment

4.1 Do information centres and exhibitions concerning the area exist in the Applicant’s area? (The total amount of SELF AWARDED cannot exceed 100) At least one information centre centre, managed by yourself or one of the partner members of your organization No centre existing yet, but the Applicant is part of an exhibition in another facility (museums etc.) Existing 'info points' or similar facilities throughout the area managed by yourself or one of the partner members of your organization Information centre “meeting and starting point” for excursions Is the information centre accessible for wheelchair users and does it cater for individuals with other disabilities Personal and individual information offered to visitors about possible activities in the area. Do you offer tourism information at the centre? Is the information centre accessible by public transport? Is the information centre open to the public at least 6 days a week, all year round weather permitting Maximum Total

4.2. How is information and interpretation about the area presented in info centres, information points etc? 12

30

30

10

0

20

20

10

0

10

5

10 10 10

10 10 5

10 100

10

80


Static display material Films, video, slideshow etc.

10 10

Interactive displays Different special exhibitions changing on a regular basis

10 40

Maximum Total

5 5 0 0

70

10

200 100

200 0

Is public transport integrated with walking, cycling trails? Do you have car park facilities connected to the trails which you have developed?

100

0

100

40

Are there toilets available in the parking areas? Maximum Total

50 550

270

20

0

20

0

20

0

60

0

10

10 0

4.3 Public access and facilities Is it possible to reach the Applicant area by public transport?t Do you provide your own tourist transport?

30

4.4 Are visitors informed about public transport in the area and encouraged to use it before they come? Promotional material about the area (leaflets, brochures, internet) contains information about public transport Websites of the Applicant and/or local tourism organizations are linked to web-based timetables and transport information held by others. Special offers for tourists using public transport, bicycle or other forms of sustainable transport Maximum Total

4.5 What kind of guided tours have been developed by your management body or your partners? Groups with special interests in geology and geomorphology Tours take place regularly during the season Tours for a broad audience Do you offer tours for disabled visitors? Guided tours by qualified staff Limited group size (max. 30 persons per guide) Alternatives available if tour impossible due to bad weather conditions Flexible registration system (day to day basis) for participants or no registration necessary Maximum Total

10 20 10 10 10

20 10 0 0

10

0

10

0

90

40

50

25

40

0

10 100

10

4.6 What else do you use to inform visitors about your area Easy to read interpretation panels in entrance areas or at tourist locations There is at least one promoted trail dealing with geological subjects, developed by your team, alongside any developed by partners. Information panels and installations along trails are regularly checked and cleaned Maximum Total

13

35


4.7 How are information-activities of different organisations co-ordinated Joint information or promotional material Maximum Total

20 20

10 10

4.8 What kind of other interpretative material exists (not older than 5 years) Brochure

10

Fliers with seasonal changing information Books and comparable information about the area Films, videos, CDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, DVDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Promotional newspaper or newsletter Web-based media Other forms of interpretation Maximum Total

15 15 15 15 15 15 100

10 0 15 5 10 0 0 40

4.9 Do you use the internet and what kind of service do you provide? Own website with general information about the area

40

40

Links to other websites of tourist board, communities, local government, which provide a broad range of information on the Applicants area.

15

Geopark management may be reached by e-mail Regular electronic newsletter Facility to order publications on-line Up to date calendar of activities Guidance for visitors on potential excursions Maximum Total

5 10 10 15 10 100

10 5 0 5 0 0 60

10 10

6 5

10

6

10

5 10

4.10 What kind of infrastructure is available for activities such as horse riding, canoeing and cycling? Network of paths which includes main touristic and scientific points of interest Uniform/standard signposting of paths Regular checks of infrastructure and immediate repair guaranteed Special maps and information sheets for hikers, cyclists, etc. At least one path concerning a special subject (mining, archaeology, architecture, etc.) not previously counted in your score under another heading Guided cycling, walking, etc. tours, provided or actively supported by a member organization Such tours include several days all inclusive offer (hotel, half or full board) for hiking and cycling tours without luggage transport provided or actively supported by a member organization Such tours include several days all inclusive package with luggage transport provided or actively supported by a member organization There is a network of hiking/biking, etc. friendly hotels/pensions, defined by a catalogue of criteria

14

10 10

0

10

0

10

0

20


(number of participants) with whom your organization has worked on promotion and projects Maximum Total

0 33

100

4.11 How do you communicate the goals of Geotourism in your area, especially with those responsible for tourism or to active entrepreneurs Direct personal meetings or through their involvement in your organization. A regular award scheme to promote good practice. The selection and nomination of official partners/mentors/sponsors Maximum Total

10

10 20

20 20 50

20 50

Geo-trails Cultural trails Forest trails

20 10 10

Other trails Other out-door activities not mentioned elsewhere. Maximum Total

10 10

10 10 5 10

4.12 Do you have the following sustainable (e.g. non car based) trails?

0

60

35

25

15

4.13 Visitor evaluation Do you count visitors? By entrance tickets / trail counters By field trip participants? By estimation? By visitor survey? Do you evaluate where your visitors come from? 25 By booking addresses? By market analysis? By university study? Do you use visitor evaluation for your forward planning? Do you have analysis of the socio-economic profile of your visitors (families, school classes, pension groups, tourist groups, etc)? Questionnaire on visitorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; satisfaction levels? Maximum Total

Total Points Awarded For section IV: Geotourism

15

25

15

10 15

6 9

100

60

Maximum points

Self Assessment

1080

723

V. Sustainable Regional Economy

Marks available

5. 1 What efforts are undertaken to promote regional food and craft products, integrating the catering trade? Initiatives promoting food from regional and/or ecological production, which your organisation develops or actively supports.

15

50

Self Assessment

40


Meals from regional and/or ecological production are available in restaurants The Applicant organizes markets, where mainly regional agricultural products are sold A label for regional food products or local gastronomy exists Direct marketing of regional agricultural products is promoted Maximum Total

30

30

50 30

-

40

-

200

70

50 30

30 20 -

5.2. Which efforts are undertaken to create and promote regional geotourism products? The total SELF-AWARDED cannot exceed 100) Initiatives promoting geological replicas production exist Casts and souvenirs from local production are available The organization or its active partners has a retail outlet or outlets where mainly regional products are sold. Maximum Total

50 100

50

5.3. How are regional crafts promoted? The marketing of local craft products is actively supported Local craft products are showcased Maximum Total

40 40

40 40

80

80

40

20

20

10

20

80

10 40

Services (repair, management)

40

20

Design, Print Other equipment and services to support geotourism and interpretation, e.g. transport, display cabinets, etc. Maximum Total

40

20 20

5.4 What efforts are undertaken to promote links between the Applicant and local businesses? A label for regional services/products has been developed the Applicant or in partnership with others Direct marketing of regional products is undertaken by your organization Tourism offers include tours of or collaboration with local businesses Maximum Total

5.6 What kind of contracts are regularly offered to businesses in your area?

40

120

60

5.7 Networking A network of co-operating enterprises exists, fostered by the Applicant. There is a formal contract between the Applicant and its partners There are joint projects, financed in part by the EU, between the Applicant, private businesses and local authorities. Maximum Total

Total Points Awarded For section V: Sustainable Regional Economy

40 30

20 10

50

20

120

50

Maximum points

Self Assessment

700

350

16


Annex 2 - Geological summary The Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Iron Quadrangle) which covers an approximate area of 6.000 km2, located in the center-southeast of the state is internationally recognized as an important precambrian site with significant mineral resources, in special gold and iron. The geology of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero complies an Arquean and Proterozoic terranes. Archean terranes comprise a granite-greenstone belt association (Rio das Velhas Supergroup) surrounded by granite-gneiss complexes. The Proterozoic Minas Supergroup tectonically overlies the Archaean units and comprises the Caraça, Itabira, and Piracicaba groups. The Caraça Group is composed predominantly of quartzites and phyllites. The Itabira Group, comprises mainly Lake Superior-type banded iron formation at the base and, at the top, is composed of dolomitic carbonates with stromatolites. Interbedded quartzite and phyllite containing carbonatic lenses characterize the Piracicaba Group. Its upper unit (Sabará Formation) is composed of chlorite schists, phylites, graywackes, conglomerates, quartzites. The Itacolomi Group formed by Proterozoic quartzites, discordantly overlying these sequences.




Geological Heritage 1. Location The Quadrilátero Ferrífero – QF is located in the mid-southeast portion of the State of Minas Gerais taking an approximate area of 6,000 km . According to Dorr (1969), this region was thus denominated by Gonzaga de Campos due to the deposits of iron ore which occur in the area that presents as vertexes the cities of Itabira, to the northeast, Mariana, to the southeast, Congonhas, to the southwest, and Belo Horizonte, to the northwest (Map 1). 2

1.1 ñ Area proposed for the Geopark The area proposed for the Geopark covers: Curral Range (Serra do Curral) to the North from the Rola Moça Range (Serra do Rola Moça) to the Piedade Range (Serra da Piedade), Moeda Range (Serra da Moeda) to the West; Ouro Branco Range (Serra de Ouro Branco), Itatiaia Range (Serra do Itatiaia), Itacolomi Peak (Pico do Itacolomi) to the south; Passagem / Matacavalos /Mariana, Antônio Pereira, Frazão Peak (Pico do Frazão), Caraça Range (Serra do Caraça), Tamanduá Range (Serra do Tamanduá), Brucutú Peak (Pico do Brucutú), Cambotas Range (Serra das Cambotas), Piedade mountain range to the east, comprising an approximate area of 5,900 km², involving several municipalities whose economy is based on mineral extraction and metallurgy. This region benefits from a privileged location, for it is partly situated in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte (capital of the state of Minas Gerais), providing therefore good access options. It includes the municipalities of Bom Jesus do Amparo, São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, Barão de Cocais, Santa Bárbara, Catas Altas, Alvinópolis, Mariana, Ouro Preto, Ouro Branco, Congonhas, Jeceaba, Belo Vale, Moeda, Itabirito, Rio Acima, Brumadinho, Mario Campos, Sarzedo, Ibirité, Nova Lima, Raposos, Sabará, Caeté, Belo Horizonte, Santa Luzia in the state of Minas Gerais. The geographical coordinates (Map 2) limiting the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark area are: (esta compreendida entre as coordenadas) Ponto 1: 44°11'52"W 19°41'44"S Ponto 2: 43°12'5" W 19°41'6" S Ponto 3: 43°11'39" W 20°37'56" S Ponto 4: 44°12'9" W 20°38'42" S

(Noroeste ) (Nordeste) (Suldeste) (Suldoeste)

2. General geological description 2.1 ñ Evolution of the geoscientific knowledge The geoscientific interest in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is well expressed by the quantity of works developed in the region, which were initiated through the research work developed by Vieira Couto and afterwards by Wilhelm Ludwig von Eschwege, who published several works on the mineral wealth of Minas Gerais in Europe from 1811 to1833. Besides Eschwege, the Bavarian naturalists Spix and Martius as well as the travellers Mawe, Burton and Saint-Hilaire published interesting observations about the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. In 1876, the School of Mines of Ouro Preto, which enabled the multiplication of studies and publications on the Quadrilátero Ferrífero including papers published in other languages and disseminated in foreign countries, was inaugurated. The French mineralogist Henry Gorceix was appointed director of the School of Mines, which soon became an internationally highly regarded school. The detailed geological knowledge of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, regarding its geological cartography, was compiled by the Program of Geological Mapping conducted by the USGS and DNPM from 1945 to 1962.




As a result of these works, maps containing more than 40 sheets at a scale of 1:25,000 were presented in a series of publications, summarized by Dorr at a scale of 1:150,000 in 1969. In the final summary, the author presents a stratigraphic column for the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, which with some corrections, is still in use (Dorr, 1969).

2.2 ñ Geological context The geological context of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is characterized by three large sets of rocks: metamorphic complexes of Archean crystalline rocks; sequences of Archean greenstone belts represented by the Rio das Velhas Supergroup and Paleo and Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary sequences represented by the Minas Supergroup, Sabará Group, Itacolomi Group, and Espinhaço Supergroup (Map 2). The metamorphic complexes of Archean crystalline rocks are formed by a different lithologies diversity exposed in the adjacencies and in the central portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. They are structured in domes and constitute of polydeformed gneisses with tonalite to granite composition and subordinately, granites, granodiorites, amphibolites, and ultramafic rocks, generated in the Archean and remobilized during Proterozoic events (Herz 1970, Cordani et al. 1980, Machado et al. 1989, Belo de Oliveira & Teixeira 1990, Romano et al. 1992, Machado & Carneiro 1992, Noce 1995). The Rio das Velhas Supergroup is considered by Almeida (1977) and Schorscher (1986) a greenstone belt sequence. According to Dorr (1969), the rocks that form this unit are composed by the Nova Lima and Maquiné groups. Since then, several proposals of lithostratigraphic denomination and division have been presented for this supergroup. Despite the divergences regarding the subdivisions, there is consensus that the Rio das Velhas Supergroup is composed by the two original groups defined by Dorr (1969): Nova Lima and Maquiné. The Nova Lima Group is the basal unit of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup and is constituted by phyllites, graphite phyllites, chlorite-schists, sericite-schists, metagraywackes, mafic, and ultramafic rocks, iron formations of the Algoma type, metacherts, and dolomites. Some informal lithostratigraphic units are proposed by Ladeira (1980), Oliveira et al. (1983), Belo de Oliveira (1986), Vieira & Oliveira (1988), and Vieira et al. (1991). According to Noce (1995), the difficulty to establish lithostratigraphic units acceptable for the whole Nova Lima Group is due to the intense deformation, alteration processes, and deep weathering associated with the lack of a more detailed cartography in many areas. In 1996, the DNPM and the CPRM concluded the Rio das Velhas Project, which aimed at mapping the Rio das Velhas Greenstone Belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero at a scale required for prospection and mineral exploration. Mapping was conducted on 27 sheets, at the scale 1:25,000 and summarized in a geological map at the scale 1:100,000. In this work, the rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup were grouped in associations CPRM of lithofacies genetically related. The Nova Lima Group is formed by the following associations,Source from the bottom to the top: (1) metavolcanic-plutonic mafic-ultramafic; (2) chemical metavolcano-sedimentary; (3) chemical pelitic metasedimentary; (4) clastic metavolcano-sedimentary; (5) marine clastic metasedimentary (resedimented) association.

The Maquiné Group is the top unit of the Rio das Velhas River Supergroup occurring restricted to the mid-east portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. According to Dorr (1969), this group is composed by the following formations, from the bottom to the top: Palmital, constituted by sericitic quartzites, quartzose phyllites, and phyllites; and Casa Forte, originally defined by Gair (1962), constituted by sericitic quartzites, schists, and phyllites. In the Rio das Velhas Project, previously mentioned, the Maquiné Group wasMiguel Andrade




recognized as a non-marine clastic metasedimentary association presenting a coastal facies (Palmital Formation), and a fluvial one (Casa Forte Formation). The Minas Supergroup was originally denominated as Minas “Series”, by Derby (1906). Since then its stratigraphic organization has remained essentially the same, composed by three Groups: Caraça, Itabira, and Piracicaba (Dorr 1969). This unit usually overlay rocks belonging to the metamorphic complexes and to the Rio das Velhas Supergroup in tectonic contact. The Caraça Group, base of this unit, presents the Moeda Formation in the lower part and the Batatal Mangabeiras Park  Formation in the upper part. The Moeda Formation contains quartzites with intercalations of phyllites and conglomerate levels. Either ferruginous or carbonaceous sericitic phyllites predominate within the Batatal Formation. The intermediate unit consists of the Itabira Group constituted by a sequence of chemical metasediments, the basal Cauê Formation overlain by the Gandarela Formation. The Cauê Formation is composed of itabirite, dolomitic itabirite, ferruginous dolomite, and phyllite. The Gandarela Formation is formed by dolomites, dolomitic phyllite, and siliceous dolomite. The Piracicaba Group is the upper unit presenting the following formations from the bottom to the top: Cercadinho, Fecho do Funil, Taboões, and Barreiro. The Cercadinho Formation is characterized by the alternation of quartzites and phyllites, frequently ferruginous. Phyllites, dolomitic phyllites, and dolomite lenses form the Fecho do Funil Formation. The fine-grained orthoquartzites found in the Taboões Formation and the phyllites and graphite phyllites found in the Barreiros Formation have restricted occurrence. The Sabará Group corresponds to the Sabará Formation (Dorr 1969) elevated to the category of Group by Renger et al. (1994). It is formed by chlorite schists and phyllites, metagraywackes, conglomerates, quartzites, and rare ferriferous formations. Its rocks outcrop along practically the entire Quadrilátero Ferrífero, except for the Moeda Syncline. The Itacolomi Group, restricted to the southeast and south portions of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, is constituted by quartzites, conglomerate quartzites, and conglomerate lenses with itabirite, phyllite, quartzite, and pebbles of vein quartz. The Espinhaço Supergroup occurs in the northeast portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, represented Daniel Mansur by the quartzites from the Cambotas Range. According to Crocco-Rodrigues (1991), the stratigraphic position of this unit, initially correlated with the Tamanduá Group by Simmons & Maxwell (1961), has always been controversial, as it includes distinct rock sequences tectonically juxtaposed. In the regional geological context of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, besides the stratigraphic sequence previously described, it is also important to mention the presence of basic and metabasic intrusive rocks which cut the supracrustal sequences and the granite-gneiss terrains, especially to the west of Belo Horizonte, as well as in the Caraça Range.

2.3 ñ Geological history A variety of tectonic models have been proposed to explain the complex pattern for years. Among the main models, the works of Alkmim & Marshak (1998) should be emphasized. Based on results of structural studies and evaluating compiled data, they suggest that the Quadrilátero Ferrífero has undergone four phases of deformation. These authors present a summary of the tectonic evolution of this region: (1) Formation of Archean granite-greenstone terrains: the most ancient crystalline rock basements are aged 3,200 Ma. All the fragments of continental crust from this time form the basement on




which the sedimentary and greenstone successions were deposited between 2,800-2,700Ma (Rio das Velhas Supergroup). The granitoid plutonism created a classical Archean granite-greenstone belt with granitegnaisse domes surrounded by portions of greenstone. (2) Formation of the Minas Basin: between 2,600 and 2,400 Ma, the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero passed from a continental platform to a passive margin basin. The beginning of this basin represents an extensional event, as indicated by the facies and the environments of deposition of the Caraça Group (Renger et al. 1993); (3) Transamazonic Event: approximately at 2,100 Ma, the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero was involved by a fold-and-thrust belt with northwest vergence, resulting in the development ofDaniel shearMansur and foldzones at a regional scale, as well as, subordinately, in parasitic folds. The development of the Transamazonic fold-and-thrust belt occurred immediately after the deposition of the Sabará Group at 2,125 Daniel Mansur Ma. (4) Transamazonic Orogenic Collapse: between 2,095 and 2,051Ma, an extensional regime was established regionally with the development of dome-and-keel structures. (5) Espinhaço Rift: the formation of the Espinhaço Basin, to the north, is reflected in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero with the intrusion of diabase dikes at about 1,750Ma. Enabling the formation of an oceanic basin, extensional development occurs between 1,000 and 900Ma (Pedrosa Soares et al. 1992). (6) Brasiliano Event: the second contractional event occurred between 700 and 430Ma and created a fold-and-thrust belt of west vergence reactivating old structures of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. This event represents one of the last collisional orogens that formed the supercontinent Gondwana also resulting in the reactivation of shear and fault zones bordering the domes with westward trends.

2.4 ñ Mining history The region proposed for the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark is historically marked by the development of activities related to the extraction of mineral resources. In the 16 century, the Portuguese effort to conquer mineral wealth in the Americas and to accomplish fast success as the spaniards in Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia concentrated on two strategies: the incessant search to access gold and silver reported by the natives, especially along the Paraguai and Amazon river and the Bandeirantes ’ expeditions through the Brazilian middle-eastern hinterlands. History demonstrated that the second strategy turned out to be successful. A considerable amount of the gold produced in colonial and imperial Brazil came from this region, occupied since the end of the 17 century by the research expeditions of precious minerals. th

1

th

In the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, two events were remarkable: the research expedition of precious minerals carried by Fernão Dias and the discovery of gold in Ouro Preto. These events influenced the settlement in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, which initially occurred along two main axes, Sabará (influenced by Fernão Dias’s expedition) and Mariana and Ouro Preto (influenced by the discovery of gold in the Tripuí creek). These discoveries together with a series of expeditions that followed prepared the great phase of the gold explorations and the settlement in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero with the foundation of the villages of Mariana, Vila Rica de Ouro Preto, and Vila Real de Sabará. Several hamlets and villages within or near the Quadrilátero Ferrífero had their birth associated with gold mining, such as: Caeté, Congonhas, Catas Altas, Santa Bárbara, Barão de Cocais, Cachoeira do Campo, Ouro Branco, Nova Lima, São Gonçalo do Rio Acima, and Piedade do Paraopeba, among others.

 Translator’s Note: First Brazilian explorers of the 16 – 18 century who ventured through the hinterlands focusing on native slave-hunting and on the conquest of new land, gold and precious stones.

1



th

th


Ferrand (1894) and Barbosa & Rodrigues (1967) call attention to the four phases of gold exploration in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of which the first three happened during the colonial period, permitting decisively the settlement in the region; the last one occured during the imperial period using mechanized extraction techniques. In the colonial period, gold exploration was limited to alluvial gold employing slave workforce and rudimentary techniques to extract the gold found on the earth’s surface and on river beds. The works on river banks and terraces and in mountain valleys used pit workings. This method consisted of excavations in the shape of a funnel where the miner removed the soil to the point of the pebble bed. As the gold was found, the caves were deepened in order to reach the hard rock. In the workings on the mountain flanks (workings in eluvial and colluvial material), the miners used the difference in level to have streams of water flow through the whole mass, dragged, and collected underneath. Thus, in the first phase the extraction used to be carried out along the axis of the rivers where the gold was being discovered. As the supply of gold exhausted, the deposits on hillsides started to be explored up to terraces of 30 to40 meters above the level of the river, characterizing the second phase. In some places, a third phase happened with the exploration of terraces of 60 to70 meters above the river. During the third phase the gold content decreased. Rudimentary techniques were used in mines and the lack of means for deepening the exploration resulted in decreasing output. From the second half of the 18 century onwards, the population started to abandon the mines and to dedicate to other economical activities as agriculture, which was limited by the inappropriate conditions for its development, and trading. Several factors led to the decline of the mines: the economical policy adopted by the Portuguese crown itself with a confuse and repressive legislation, inadequate administration, lack of concern to improve mining techniques and individualism of the mine owners. th

The mixture of races and cultures in the colonial period turned the Quadrilátero Ferrífero into a civilizing, and cultural cradle, permitting the appearance of an artistic movement linked to architecture, literature, and music. The baroque art flourished especially with the masterpieces of Antônio Francisco Lisboa – known as Aleijadinho - and Manuel da Costa Ataíde, observed in several towns of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. In the field of music, the region also counted on renowned artists as José Joaquim Emérico. Moreover, the Quadrilátero Ferrífero was also the cradle of the first expressive literary movement in Brazil with the participation of Cláudio Manuel da Costa, Tomás Antônio Gonzaga and Alvarenga Peixoto. 2

In the fourth phase of gold mining in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (during the 19 century), more modern methods of sub-surface and surface mining were used. Gold production increased only after admission of foreign – mostly British – capital in the Brazilian mining industry in 1824. th

In 1810 the mineralogist and geologist Wilhelm Ludwig Von Eschwege was hired. Upon his arrival, he was assigned to evaluate the situation of the gold mines in Minas Gerais, study ways to improve the production as well as consider the possibilities to implant new mining techniques capable of recovering the decadent mining industry of the country. As specialists insisted that the mines were not exhausted and could still offer good results with the use of advanced techniques, the English identified the opportunity to found companies and acquired

 Translator’s Note: Literally, “the little cripple”. His nickname is associated with a debilitating painful disease which caused deformities in his body and eventually the loss of toes and fingers. Even suffering with the disease and body limitations, Aleijadinho continued to execute his works of art.

2




promising mines in Minas Gerais. The Imperial Brazilian Mining Association was the first to be established in 1824 - and bought the gold mine Gongo Soco, in the region of Caeté. With the arrival of the English capital, the mining techniques used in the 18 century were replaced by the sophisticated machinery directed to the extractive activity, as crushers, and hydraulic wheels. However, at this very time, other economical activities attracted the attention of the population and the provincial government itself, particularly cattle raising, agriculture, and coffee plantation, the first Brazilian export product in 1831. th

The phase of iron forges occurred simultaneously to the fourth phase of gold extraction and even before it. Initially rudimentary, it was characterized by variations in the manner of melting, using from pans and home stoves to more refined methods. Draw of mining – Rugendas 1824 According to Rosiére et al. (2005), the iron mining activities in the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (in Itabirito) already occurred during the gold cycle with the first attempts to exploit the enormous reserves through small iron industries. The metallurgy of iron in this period is not very well documented and Landgraf et al. (1994) suggest that it was influenced by the use of the African knowledge on iron extraction once they presented a rudimentary technique, efficient though. From 1777 onwards, several factors led to a higher interest in the development of mines and iron forges (a millenary process of direct reduction of ore using charcoal in small-sized ovens) in Brazil. According to Azevedo & Paula (2003), the arrival of D. Rodrigo de Sousa Coutinho was relevant to Brazil. Being a skillful politician and a competent administrator, he took over the Ministry of Marine and Ultramarine Affairs from 1796 to 1803 and became therefore responsible for the colonial policy. Another important factor was the foundation of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Portugal in 1777, stimulating research to evaluate the economical situation of Portugal and its colonies. Furtado (1994) states that the main target of these studies was to diagnose the Portuguese delay in relation to other European nations, find the reasons and propose solutions. The arrival of the Portuguese Royal family in Brazil in 1808 was essential for the development of the metallurgy of iron, which received encouragement and financial support for the establishment of the first three units in the country, two of which in Minas Gerais: The Royal Iron Factory of Morro do Pilar and Patriotic Iron Factory in Congonhas in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. In this period, the metallurgy of iron in Brazil had the contribution and experience of some experts as Manoel da Câmara Ferreira Bettencourt e Sá; the Swedish Carl Hedberg; the Germans Varnhagen, and Eschwege, who counted on the Crown’s recommendation and financial support. The activities of mineral extraction, mainly gold, and iron, determine the present landscape of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, being important to the development of its history and culture. The large number of towns and historical hamlets, mines and sites of mineral extraction, small agricultural areas, iron and steel factories, train stations, tourist attractions are elements that confirm the great cultural and historical value of the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Barbosa & Rodrigues 1967).




3. Listing and description of geological sites Fifty-five sites of natural, cultural, and historic interest, especially those that represent the geological history of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and of the mining history of Brazil, have been recognized. For the first phase of implementation of the Geopark, a seletion of 28 sites is considered (Map 2). The selection of sites was based on the recommendations by the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites SIGEP and partially used the inventory made by Ruchkys (2007). SIGEP was established in 1997 with the objective of recognizing the Brazilian geological heritage. In order to understand the history of mining and of the geological evolution of the region, it is essential to emphasize the importance of the following sites (Map 5).

Description of Geosites 1.

Gneiss from Cachoeira do Campo: It is located in the municipality of Cachoeira do Campo. It is representative for one of the Archean metamorphic complexes referred in the geological context, the granite-migmatite-gneiss crystalline embasement composed of tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite (TTG), which corresponds to the most ancient rocks of the Iron Quadrangle, the basis of all geological units of this region. The gneisses composed of TTG, together with greenstone belt sequences are the most characteristic constituents of the Archean cratons. The first continental crusts of the earth and the first protocratonic nucleus, which started to be formed about four billion years ago, were composed of the same gneisse. The crystalline basement from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is divided into complexes that receive different local denominations such as: Bação Complex; Bonfim Complex; Belo Horizonte Complex; Caeté Complex; Santa Barbára Complex. The gneiss site from Cachoeira do Campo is located in the Bação Complex.

2.

Metavolcanics rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup and Bicame de Pedras stone aqueduct:

Serpentine schists at the base of the Rio das Velhas Supergroups in tectonic contact with quartzites of the Moeda Formation (Caraça Group). This geosite is located in Catas Altas on the road to the Quebra Osso Farm, close to the Valemix offices (Quarry One), close to the Bicame de Pedra aqueduct and to the Estrada Real (Royal Road) road sign. The Bicame de Pedra was built in 1792 by Manoel Ferreira Pinto as water supply for his gold mine at the Boa Vista Range. It is a touristic attraction along the Estrada Real and offers a beautiful view of the Caraça. The wall is 4 meters high with a Roman arch shaped portal, over which the water was conducted to be used for gold washing in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its construction cost one arroba (approximately 15 kilograms) of gold. 3.

Metarenites from the Andaime Range This site is located in the Andaime Range, in the municipality of Itabirito and relates to the unit of the Maquiné Group, Velhas River Supergrup. The metarenites from the Andaime Range are interpreted by Pedreira (1995) and Baltazar & Pedreira (2000) as a coastal association originated in shallow marine environment in the Archean, being therefore the record of one of the first beaches in Brazil. The outcrops indicate the lithofacies from this environment: shallow water influenced by the tide and coastal dunes. 4.

Quartzites and basal conglomerate from the Moeda Formation – Moeda Range This site is located in the Moeda Range, around 17 km to the south of Belo Horizonte. It was formed in a context of relative global quiescence and existence of a recently consolidated Archean platform that




originated the Minas proto-basin, initially with continental followed by marine sedimentation. The Minas Supergroup started to deposit at approximately 2.5Ga, along a passive-margin basin developed in the preexistent continental platform. The first record regarding the opening of this basin is marked by auriferous and uraniferous metaconglomerates found in the basal part of the Moeda Formation. This unit was deposited in fluvial environment where the basal conglomerates represent the filling of ancient valleys cut in older rocks of the Nova Lima Group. 5.

Caraça Range and Sanctuary The Caraça Range is the generic name for a set of mountains that present the highest altitudes of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, with the Sun Peak (Pico do Sol) reaching 2,072m a.s.l. The Caraça Range is composed essentially of quartzites from the Moeda Formation belonging to the Caraça Group. The Inficionado Peak, located in this mountain range, holds quartzite caves, among which the Centenário grotto, the world's largest in this lithology. The cave tunnels form a quadratic network of labyrinths reaching – 481m of depth of difference in level and a total of 3,790 m of horizontal projection (4,700m of linear development). Due to this characteristic, the Caraça Range is recognized as geological heritage of Brazil by SIGEP. 6.

Itabirites from Piedade Range From the geological point of view, the Piedade Range is very expressive as the itabirite outcrops of the Cauê Formation, Itabira Group, represent one of the thickest ferriferous formations in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Its deposition occurred mainly between 2600 and 1800Ma, corresponding to about 15% of the total volume of Proterozoic sediments. These Banded Iron Formations - BIFs - belong to the Lake Superior type, constituted by rocks of milimetric to centimetric lamination. They are in their majority silicate and carbonate facies BIFs rarely containing clastic material and faciologically associated with chert, dolomite, quartzite, argillite, and volcanic rocks. The presence of these rocks in the Precambrian record suggests changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the Paleoproterozoic. These deposits result from iron oxidation due to the increase of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere. Besides their geoecological importance to understand the phenomena that led to the evolution of life, of the oceans and of the atmosphere in the Precambrian, itabirites are extremely important economically and many iron ore mines within the banded iron formations are found in the Iron Quadrangle. For long, the Piedade Range has been a religious reference for many people who make pilgrimages there every year. This geosite is recognized by the SIGEP as a Brazilian Geological Heritage and presents a privileged view over morphological units of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. 7.

Curral Range The Curral Range corresponds to a homoclinal whose axis is usually oriented from the NE to the SW, constituting the northein limit of Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Part of the metasedimentary sequence of the Minas Supergroup outcrops in the Curral Range: Caraça, Itabira, Piracicaba, and Sabará groups. These units present stratigraphic inversion caused by tectonics, and characterize a lithostructural and morphological diversity and accidented relief. The name Curral Range is associated with the former Curral Del Rey (currently the city of Belo Horizonte). The range still keeps part of the original name of the hamlet developed at its bottom. 8.

Itabirito Peak Itabirito Peak was described by Burton during his visit to the Cata Branca Mine. Due to its majesty, it was included together with the Itacolomi Peak and the Caraça Range in the Map of the Capitany of Minas Gerais developed by Eschwege in 1821 and presented in the 1 volume of the book Pluto Brasiliensis. st




9.

Itacolomi Peak The Itacolomi Group represents a typical deposition of fluvial environment and alluvial fans in narrow intermontane depression. The alluvial fans are sediments occurring typically adjacent to the mountainous areas. The quartzites from the Itacolomi were first described as new rocks by Eschwege, in view of their wide distribution and own characteristics, and denominated itacolumite or quartzite itacolomi. The Swiss geologist Dr. Heusser, climbed the Itacolomi Peak in 1859 and recognized carstic features in the quartzite. 10.

Ouro Branco Range Recognized as a heritage by the IEPHA. In addition to the beautiful sceneries, this range has innumerable waterfalls including some of difficult access. The Estrada Real that connected Ouro Preto to Rio de Janeiro passed through it. The Ouro Branco Range is formed by an approximately 20 km-long wall, which limits a plateau with altitudes ranging from 1,250 to 1,568 m – in the past it was also called Deus-te-livre Range. 11.

Paleontological site of Fonseca The Fonseca Basin was recognized as a geological and paleontological heritage of Brazil by the SIGEP. Described by Mello et al. (2002), it is a classical example of Paleogene sediments. Due to its deposits of “canga”, lignite, and fossiliferous sediments, it has raised the interest of many researchers since the second half of last century. The main lithotypes constitute the sandy and clayey sediments from the Fonseca Formation, probably formed in the Eocene. These deposits are covered by the ferruginous conglomerates (“canga”) from the Chapada de Canga Formation. The fossiliferous record from the Fonseca Formation is characterized by a wide variety of Angiosperm families, of which the Melastomataceae and Mimosaceae constitute the most abundant families. The most remarkable fossil belongs to the Family Bombacacea – a relatively well-preserved flower, presenting prints left by petals and stamen (male reproductive organ of the flower). It is the only fossiliferous site of the Geopark.

Fossil flower from the Fonseca Formation - Eriotheca prima, Bombacaceae genus (DGM 1436 Pb). (a) Impression; (b) Illustrative recreation. (apud Duarte,1974 in Mello et al. 2002). 12.

Rola Moça Range The Rola Moça Range State Park (Parque Estadual Serra do Rola Moça) presents wellexposed areas of ferruginous laterite carapace from the Cenozoic, locally known as “canga”. Eschwege (1822) believes that the term tapanhoacanga was initially used by local miners on account of the terrain where this crust prevails, which presents frizzled morphology with the development of botryoidal structures. The canga or ferruginous laterite was formed by weathering processes of the itabirite. In tropical regions, these processes may provoke an enrichment of iron at the top of the section, which depends essentially on the silica dissolution by pluvial waters. The processes of laterization and the resulting formation of canga are relatively recent and are usually associated with relief leveling caused by erosion. As for the cangas from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, several authors associate the formation of laterite to the development of the South American leveling surface, regarded as Paleogene, as propposed by King (1956).




13.

Morro Velho Mine At Morro Velho the exploration of gold originated in the colonial period around 1725. The mine has experienced the evolution of gold mining techniques since its beginning. During the 1920’s, it was the deepest mine of the world and the most productive gold mine of Brazil, turning to be a reference for the history of mining in Brazil. When its activities were descontinued in 2003, the directors of Anglogold-Ashanti, its present owner, expressed the interest in developing a project denominated “Gold City”, a great cultural, commercial, and recreational enterprise, including a pole of gold jewellery. The mining company offers guided visit to its Memorial Center. 14.

Córrego do Meio Mine The mining company Vale promoted a meeting between authorities and the press at the Córrego do Meio Mine in Sabará, on June 20, 2008 to officially launch the Biodiversity Project. The oldest mine belonging to Vale, named Córrego do Meio Mine, was explored for 65 years (starting in 1940) and was exhausted in 2005. The company decided to recover the area and turn it into a place for research and activities related to environmental conservation and recovery. The work in the 660 acres will be finished in 2012. They expect the center, which is named Center for Biodiversity Research and Conservation of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, to be able to produce 1 million seedlings of local plants each year. The equipment used in the old mine will be reused in the Center’s activities. 15.

Águas Claras Mine The iron ore mine of Águas Claras was opened in 1974 and closed down in 2002, and it will be transformed into a real estate development and a recreation area. The open pits is transformed in an artificial lake. It is located in the Curral Range, close to the Mangabeiras Park, at the limit of Belo Horizonte and Nova Lima municipalities. 16.

Passagem Village (Vila da Passagem) Passagem Village, where primary gold was discovered in the beginning of the 18th century, was founded in 1719, between the towns of Ouro Preto and Mariana (the first village and capital of the state of Minas Gerais). This village corresponds to the first reference in the Brazilian mining history. Passagem Mine is located in this region where a rudimentary mine was started in 1729. From 1729 to 1819, concessions to explore the mineral property of Passagem were granted to several miners until 1819 when it was acquired, together with some neighbouring concessions, by the Baron Eschwege, who created the first mining company with private capital in the country – Mineralogical Society of the Passagem (Sociedade Mineralógica da Passagem) – and installed a stamp mill and stone mills – not used in Brazil until then. The Passagem Mine, which belongs to the Companhia Minas de Passagem – CMP, is open to visit all days (charging entrance fees) and offers a tour to the underground mine tunnels by a trolley on an inclined plane (around 300 meterslong and 120m below surface). This is the only gold mine open to the public in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. 17.

Lana Copse Mine (Capão do Lana Topaz Mine) In 1772, the discovery of yellow topaz in the Saramenha Hill (Morro da Saramenha), on the outskirts of Ouro Preto, attracted a large number of miners, who abandoned their gold mines. Nowadays, in the region of Rodrigo Silva, district of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, is the Capão do Lana Mine, which was visited by almost all foreign naturalists who passed through Minas Gerais. The Imperial Topaz Mining Company started its operation in 1971, in the region of Rodrigo Silva. It is one of the few gem mining companies of the world that operates with a totally mechanized system. It has also done geological surveys, and exploration on its ground, complying with all the legal requirements. Dionísio Azevedo




18.

Nossa Senhora da Lapa Grotto The grotto of Nossa Senhora da Lapa was formed by the process of disintegration of the limestone (dolomites) of the Gandarela Formation, which led to the development of caverns. The place is a center for pilgrimage by devotes of Our Lady of Conception of Lapa, especially on August 15, the day dedicated to the saint.

4. Details on the interest of these sites in terms of their international, national, regional or local value 1.

Gneiss from Cachoeira do Campo Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

2.

Metavolcanics rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup and Bicame de Pedras stone aqueduct Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

3.

Metarenites from the Andaime Range Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

4.

Quartzites and basal conglomerate from the Moeda Formation – Moeda Range Site of national multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, and touristic

5.

Caraça Range and Sanctuary Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, religious, historic, and touristic

6.

Itabirites from Piedade Range Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, religious, historic, and touristic

7.

Curral Range Site of national multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

8.

9.

Itabirito Peak Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, decorative, cultural, and historic. Itacolomi Peak Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, religious, historic, and touristic.

10.

Ouro Branco Range Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

11.

Paleontological site of Fonseca Site of regional interest: scientific.

12.

Rola Moça Range Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

13.

Morro Velho Mine Site of international multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

14.

Córrego do Meio Mine Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

15.

Águas Claras Mine Site of regional interest: scientific and education.

16.

Passagem Village Site of national multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, historic, and touristic.

17.

Lana Copse Mine (Capão do Lana Topaz Mine) Site of international interest: scientific, historic, and touristic.

18.

Nossa Senhora da Lapa Grotto Site of regional interest: cultural, religious, and historic.

Non-geological sites 1.

Mangabeiras Park Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, education, decorative, cultural, historic, and touristic.

2.

Ruins of the Clandestine Gold Melting House Site of regional interest: education, historic, and touristic.

Da




3.



Patriotic Factory (Iron Foundry) Site of national interest: education, and historic.

8.

Gold Museum Site of international interest: scientific, education, and touristic.

scientific,

4.

Morro da Queimada Site of national interest: scientific, historic, and touristic.

9.

Tax and Accounting House Site of international interest: scientific, education, and touristic.

5.

Pedra Pintada Archeological Site Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, cultural, historic, and touristic.

10.

Museum of Mines and Metal Site of international interest: scientific, education, and touristic.

6.

TripuĂ­ Ecological Station Site of regional multi-thematic interest: scientific, decorative, cultural, historic.

11.

7.

Museum of Science and Technique of the School of Mines / UFOP Site of international interest: scientific, education, and touristic.

Inhotim Cultural Institut Site of international multi-thematic interest: artistic, cultural, historic, and touristic.


Annex 3 - Support In the year 2009, the Apllication Dossier of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark was sent to UNESCO with the support of UNESCO Brazil and Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM. The Application Dossier was submitted to Dr. Celso Salatino Schenkel, coordinator of the Natural Sciences of UNESCO in Brazil, in November 17, 2009 In addition, the dossier contained a signature page that appeared with the support of: •

Prof. Dr. Marco Antônio Fonseca Regional Superintendent Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM,

Renato Ribeiro Ciminelli State Secretary of Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais Executive Manager - Mineral and Metallurgic Pole of Excellence General Supervision - Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark Promoting Group Associate Researcher of Acqua Institut - Mineral Resources and Biodiversity

Scientific-Technical Committee Scientific Supervision •

Prof. Dr. Úrsula Ruchkys de Azevedo Coordinator - Scientific-Technical Committee Federal University of Minas Gerais Center for Advanced Studies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero

Prof. Dr. Friedrich Ewald Renger Federal University of Minas Gerais Center for Advanced Studies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero

Prof. Dr. Paulo de Tarso Amorim Castro Federal University of Ouro Preto Center for Advanced Studies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero

Dr. Carlos Schobbenhaus Coordinator of Geoparks Project Geological Survey of Brazil – CPRM

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Annex 4 ñ Endorse documents

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Application Dossier Quadrilátero Ferrífero Geopark - Brasil 2010