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Technical Handbook

Worldwide Level and Flow SolutionsSM


This Technical

Table of Contents

Handbook is the

Conversions Metric Values................................................................................1 Metric Prefixes..............................................................................1 Temperature .................................................................................2 Flow Rate .....................................................................................3 Miscellaneous...............................................................................5

result of a combined effort by the Engineering, Sales, and Marketing Departments.

All reasonable efforts have been made to accurately compile the information contained in this handbook. However, no warranty is made with regard to any such information, and Magnetrol cannot assume responsibility for any possible errors or any direct or indirect result of the use of such information.

Equivalents Liquid Measures and Weights....................................................12 Kinematic Viscosity ....................................................................12 Absolute Viscosity ......................................................................13 Electrical Units............................................................................13 Degrees API and Degrees BaumĂŠ.............................................14 Kinematic and Saybolt Viscosity ................................................15 Pressure and Head ....................................................................16 Properties Density and Specific Gravity of Selected Liquids ......................17 Density and Specific Gravity of Selected Gases .......................18 Density and Specific Gravity of Saturated Water.......................19 Density of Superheated Steam and Compressed Water ...........20 Specific Gravity of Petroleum Products .....................................21 Density of Air ..............................................................................22 Speed of Sound .........................................................................22 Dielectric Constants of Liquids...................................................23 Dielectric Constants of Solids ....................................................29 Viscosity of Gases and Vapors ..................................................30 Viscosity of Water and Steam ....................................................31 Viscosity of Various Liquids........................................................31 Viscosity of Petroleum Products ................................................32 Pipe Data Dimensions of Blind Flanges......................................................33 Flange Ratings by Class ............................................................35 Cast Iron Pipe ............................................................................38 Steel Pipe ...................................................................................39


Conversions: Metric Values The table below provides a fast and easy means of conversion from one metric notation to another. The value labeled “Unit” represents a basic unit of measurement, such as meter, gram, ohm, erg, etc. First, locate the original value in the left-hand column. Follow the row horizontally to the vertical column headed by the prefix of the desired value. The arrow and figure at this intersection represent the direction in which the decimal point should be moved and the number of places to move it.

Example: Convert 0.15 kilowatts to watts. Starting at the “Kilo-” box in the left-hand column, move horizontally to the column headed by “Unit” (since watt is a basic unit of measurement), and read 3 . Thus 0.15 kilowatts is the equivalent of 150 watts. Example: Convert 4,500 kilohertz to megahertz, read in the box horizontal to “Kilo-” and under “Mega-” the notation 3, which means a shift of the decimal point three places to the left. Thus, 4,500 kilohertz is the equivalent of 4.5 megahertz.

Desired Value

Original Value

Tera-

TeraGigaMegaMyriaKiloHectoDekaUnit DeciCentiMilliMicroNanoPico-

Giga3

3 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 21 24

Mega6 3

3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 18 21

Myria8 5 2

Kilo9 6 3 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 15 18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 13 16

Hecto- Deka10 11 7 8 4 5 2 3 1 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 9 12 15

1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14

Unit 12 9 6 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 7 10 13

Deci13 10 7 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 6 9 12

1 2 5 8 11

Centi14 11 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 4 7 10

Milli15 12 9 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 6 9

Micro18 15 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 6

Nano21 18 15 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 3

Pico24 21 18 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 6 3

3

Conversions: Metric Prefixes atto. . femto pico . nano. micro

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

a . . . . . . . one-quintillionth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . . . . one-quadrillionth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p . . . . . . . one-trillionth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . one-billionth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . µ . . . . . . . one-millionth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

milli. . . . . . . . . . . . . m. centi . . . . . . . . . . . . c . deci . . . . . . . . . . . . d . uni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . deka . . . . . . . . . . . . da

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

one-thousandth one-hundredth . one-tenth . . . . . one . . . . . . . . . ten . . . . . . . . . .

hecto kilo . . mega giga . tera. .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

one one one one one

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

h. k . M. G. T.

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

hundred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thousand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 million . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 000 billion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 000 000 trillion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 000 000 000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

000 000 000 000 001 ..............................10–18 000 000 000 001 ......................................10–15 000 000 001 ..............................................10–12 000 001.......................................................10–9 001...............................................................10–6

0.001 .......................................................................10–3 0.01 .........................................................................10–2 0.1 ...........................................................................10–1 1.0 ...........................................................................100 10.0 ...........................................................................101 100.0 ...........................................................................102 000.0 ...........................................................................103 000.0 ...........................................................................106 000.0 ...........................................................................109 000.0 ...........................................................................1012

1


Conversions: Temperature Locate temperature in middle column. If in degrees Celsius, read Fahrenheit equivalent in right hand column; if in degrees Fahrenheit, read Celsius equivalent in left hand column.

1 to 60°

–459.4° to 0° C

F

C

C F

F

C

C F

300° to 890° F

C

C F

900° to 3000° F

C

C F

F

–273.1 –268 –262 –257 –251

–459.7 –450 –440 –430 –420

–17.2 –16.7 –16.1 –15.6 –15.0

1 2 3 4 5

33.8 35.6 37.4 39.2 41.0

16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8 18.3

61 62 63 64 65

141.8 143.6 145.4 147.2 149.0

149 154 160 166 171

300 310 320 330 340

572 590 608 626 644

482 488 493 499 504

900 910 920 930 940

1652 1670 1688 1706 1724

–246 –240 –234 –229 –223

–410 –400 –390 –380 –370

–14.4 –13.9 –13.3 –12.8 –12.2

6 7 8 9 10

42.8 44.6 46.4 48.2 50.0

18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6 21.1

66 67 68 69 70

150.8 152.6 154.4 156.2 158.0

177 182 188 193 199

350 360 370 380 390

662 680 698 716 734

510 516 521 527 532

950 960 970 980 990

1742 1760 1778 1796 1814

–218 –212 –207 –201 –196

–360 –350 –340 –330 –320

–11.7 –11.1 –10.6 –10.0 – 9.4

11 12 13 14 15

51.8 53.6 55.4 57.2 59.0

21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3 23.9

71 72 73 74 75

159.8 161.6 163.4 165.2 167.0

204 210 216 221 227

400 410 420 430 440

752 770 788 806 824

538 549 560 571 582

1000 1020 1040 1060 1080

1832 1868 1904 1940 1976

–190 –184 –179 –173 –169

–310 –300 –290 –280 –273.1

–459.7

– – – – –

8.9 8.3 7.8 7.2 6.7

16 17 18 19 20

60.8 62.6 64.4 66.2 68.0

24.4 25.0 25.6 26.1 26.7

76 77 78 79 80

168.8 170.6 172.4 174.2 176.0

232 238 243 249 254

450 460 470 480 490

842 860 878 896 914

593 604 616 627 638

1100 1120 1140 1160 1180

2012 2048 2084 2120 2156

–168 –162 –157 –151 –146

–270 –260 –250 –240 –230

–454 –436 –418 –400 –382

– – – – –

6.1 5.6 5.0 4.4 3.9

21 22 23 24 25

69.8 71.6 73.4 75.2 77.0

27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9 29.4

81 82 83 84 85

177.8 179.6 181.4 183.2 185.0

260 266 271 277 282

500 510 520 530 540

932 940 968 986 1004

649 660 671 682 693

1200 1220 1240 1260 1280

2192 2228 2264 2300 2336

–140 –134 –129 –123 –118

–220 –210 –200 –190 –180

–364 –346 –328 –310 –292

– – – – –

3.3 2.8 2.2 1.7 1.1

26 27 28 29 30

78.8 80.6 82.4 84.2 86.0

30.0 30.6 31.1 31.7 32.2

86 87 88 89 90

186.8 188.6 190.4 192.2 194.0

288 293 299 304 310

550 560 570 580 590

1022 1040 1058 1076 1094

704 732 760 788 816

1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

2372 2462 2552 2642 2732

–112 –107 –101 – 96 – 90

–170 –160 –150 –140 –130

–274 –256 –238 –220 –202

– 0.6 0.0 0.6 1.1 1.7

31 32 33 34 35

87.8 89.6 91.4 93.2 95.0

32.8 33.3 33.9 34.4 35.0

91 92 93 94 95

195.8 197.6 199.4 201.2 203.0

316 321 327 332 338

600 610 620 630 640

1112 1130 1148 1166 1184

843 871 899 927 954

1550 1600 1650 1700 1750

2822 2912 3002 3092 3182

– – – – –

84 79 73 68 62

–120 –110 –100 – 90 – 80

–184 –166 –148 –130 –112

2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4

36 37 38 39 40

96.8 98.6 100.4 102.2 104.0

35.6 36.1 36.7 37.2 37.8

96 97 98 99 100

204.8 206.6 208.4 210.2 212.0

343 349 354 360 366

650 660 670 680 690

1202 1220 1238 1256 1274

982 1010 1038 1066 1093

1800 1850 1900 1950 2000

3272 3362 3452 3542 3632

– – – – –

57 51 46 40 34

– – – – –

70 60 50 40 30

– – – – –

94 76 58 40 22

5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2

41 42 43 44 45

105.8 107.6 109.4 111.2 113.0

43 49 54 60 66

110 120 130 140 150

230 248 266 284 302

371 377 382 388 393

700 710 720 730 740

1292 1310 1328 1346 1364

1121 1149 1177 1204 1232

2050 2100 2150 2200 2250

3722 3812 3902 3992 4082

– 20 – 10 0

4 14 32

7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4 10.0

46 47 48 49 50

114.8 116.6 118.4 120.2 122.0

71 77 82 88 92

160 170 180 190 200

320 338 356 374 392

399 404 410 416 421

750 760 770 780 790

1382 1400 1418 1436 1454

1260 1288 1316 1343 1371

2300 2350 2400 2450 2500

4172 4262 4352 4442 4532

10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8

51 62 53 54 55

123.8 125.6 127.4 129.2 131.0

99 100 104 110 116

210 212 220 230 240

410 413.6 428 446 464

427 432 438 443 449

800 810 820 830 840

1472 1490 1508 1526 1544

1399 1427 1454 1482 1510

2550 2600 2650 2700 2750

4622 4712 4802 4892 4982

13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6

56 57 58 59 60

132.8 134.6 136.4 138.2 140.0

121 127 132 138 143

250 260 270 280 290

482 500 518 536 554

454 460 466 471 477

850 860 870 880 890

1562 1580 1598 1616 1634

1538 1566 1593 1621 1649

2800 2850 2900 2950 3000

5072 5162 5252 5342 5432

– 29 – 23 – 17.8

2

C F

61° to 290°


Conversions: Flow Rate Velocity in Feet per Second. Find the volume flow rate (gallons per minute) in the left hand column, read the velocity flow rate (feet per second) for a specific line size in the right hand column. (Based on Schedule 40 pipe.) Line Size GPM 0.03 0.05 0.10 0.25 0.50 0.75 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,500

1" 0.011 0.019 0.037 0.093 0.186 0.279 0.371 0.743 1.114 1.485 1.857 2.228 2.971 3.713 5.570 7.427 9.283

Line Size

Line Size

1 1/4" 0.011 0.021 0.054 0.107 0.161 0.214 0.428 0.643 0.857 1.071 1.285 1.714 2.142 3.213 4.285 5.356 6.427 7.498 8.569 9.640 10.712

1 1/2" 0.008 0.016 0.039 0.079 0.118 0.158 0.315 0.473 0.630 0.788 0.945 1.261 1.576 2.364 3.151 3.939 4.727 5.515 6.303 7.091 7.878 9.454 11.030

Line Size

Line Size Line Size

2" 0.010 0.024 0.048 0.072 0.095 0.191 0.286 0.382 0.477 0.573 0.764 0.955 1.432 1.910 2.387 2.865 3.342 3.820 4.297 4.775 5.730 6.685 7.640 9.550

2 1/2" 0.007 0.017 0.034 .0050 0.067 0.134 0.201 0.268 0.335 0.402 0.537 0.671 1.006 1.341 1.677 2.012 2.347 2.683 3.018 3.353 4.024 4.695 5.365 6.707 8.384 10.060 11.737

Line Size 3" 0.011 0.022 0.033 0.043 0.087 0.130 0.174 0.217 0.261 0.347 0.434 0.651 0.869 1.086 1.303 1.520 1.737 1.954 2.172 2.606 3.040 3.474 4.343 5.429 6.515 7.600 8.686 9.772 10.858 11.944

Line Size Line Size

4" 0.013 0.019 0.025 0.050 0.076 0.101 0.126 0.151 0.202 0.252 0.378 0.504 0.630 0.756 0.882 1.008 1.134 1.260 1.512 1.764 2.016 2.520 3.150 3.781 4.411 5.041 5.671 6.301 6.931 7.561 8.191 8.821 9.451 10.081 10.712

Line Size

5" 0.012 0.016 0.032 0.048 0.064 0.080 0.096 0.128 0.160 0.240 0.321 0.401 0.481 0.561 0.641 0.721 0.801 0.962 1.122 1.282 1.603 2.004 2.404 2.805 3.206 3.606 4.007 4.408 4.809 5.209 5.610 6.011 6.412 6.812 7.213 7.614 8.014 8.816 9.617 10.419

Line Size

6" 0.011 0.022 0.033 0.044 0.056 0.067 0.089 0.111 0.167 0.222 0.278 0.333 0.389 0.444 0.500 0.555 0.666 0.777 0.889 1.111 1.388 1.666 1.944 2.221 2.499 2.777 3.054 3.332 3.610 3.887 4.165 4.443 4.720 4.998 5.276 5.553 6.109 6.664 7.219 7.775 8.330 8.885 9.441 9.996 10.551

8" 0.013 0.019 0.026 0.032 0.038 0.051 0.064 0.096 0.128 0.160 0.192 0.224 0.257 0.289 0.321 0.385 0.449 0.513 0.641 0.802 0.962 1.122 1.283 1.443 1.603 1.764 1.924 2.084 2.245 2.405 2.565 2.726 2.886 3.046 3.207 3.527 3.848 4.169 4.489 4.810 5.131 5.451 5.772 6.093 6.413 7.055 7.696 8.337 8.979 9.620 10.261

10" 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.033 0.041 0.061 0.081 0.102 .0122 0.142 0.163 0.183 0.203 0.244 0.285 0.326 0.407 0.509 0.610 0.712 0.814 0.916 1.017 1.119 1.221 1.323 1.424 1.526 1.628 1.730 1.831 1.933 2.035 2.238 2.442 2.645 2.849 3.052 3.256 3.459 3.662 3.866 4.069 4.476 4.883 5.290 5.697 6.104 6.511 7.325 8.139 10.174

3


Conversions: Flow Rate (cont.) Velocity in Meters per Second Find the volume flow rate (cubic meters per hour) in the left hand column, read the velocity flow rate (meters per second) for a specific line size in the right hand column. (Based on Schedule 40 pipe.) Line Size m3/hr 0.02 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.50 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

4

1" 0.010 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.149 0.174 0.199 0.249 0.374 0.498 0.747 0.997 1.246 1.495 1.744 1.993 2.242 2.492 2.741

Line Size

Line Size

1 1/4" 0.014 0.029 0.043 0.057 0.072 0.086 0.101 0.115 0.144 0.216 0.287 0.431 0.575 0.719 0.862 1.006 1.150 1.294 1.437 1.581 1.725 2.012 2.300 2.875

1 1/2" 0.011 0.021 0.032 0.042 0.053 0.063 0.074 0.085 0.106 0.159 0.211 0.317 0.423 0.529 0.634 0.740 0.846 0.952 1.057 1.163 1.269 1.480 1.692 2.114 2.537

Line Size

Line Size Line Size

2" 0.013 0.019 0.026 0.032 0.038 0.045 0.051 0.064 0.096 0.128 0.192 0.256 0.320 0.384 0.449 0.513 0.577 0.641 0.705 0.769 0.897 1.025 1.282 1.538 1.794 2.050 2.307 2.563 2.819

2 1/2" 0.009 0.014 0.018 0.023 0.027 0.032 0.036 0.045 0.068 0.090 0.135 0.180 0.225 0.270 0.315 0.360 0.405 0.450 0.495 0.540 0.630 0.720 0.900 1.080 1.250 1.440 1.620 1.800 1.980 2.160 2.340 2.520 2.700 2.880 3.060

Line Size 3" 0.009 0.012 0.015 0.017 0.020 0.023 0.029 0.044 0.058 0.087 0.117 0.146 0.175 0.204 0.233 0.262 0.291 0.321 0.350 0.048 0.466 0.583 0.699 0.815 0.933 1.049 1.166 1.282 1.399 1.515 1.632 1.748 1.865 1.982 2.098 2.215 2.331 2.623 2.914 3.205

Line Size Line Size

4" 0.007 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.017 0.025 0.034 0.051 0.068 0.085 0.101 0.118 0.135 0.152 0.169 0.186 0.203 0.237 0.271 0.338 0.406 0.474 0.541 0.609 0.676 0.744 0.812 0.879 0.947 1.015 1.082 1.150 1.218 1.285 1.353 1.522 1.691 1.860 2.029 2.198 2.368 2.537 2.706 3.044

Line Size

5" 0.005 0.006 0.008 0.009 0.011 0.016 0.022 0.032 0.043 0.054 0.065 0.075 0.086 0.097 0.108 0.118 0.129 0.151 0.172 0.215 0.258 0.301 0.344 0.387 0.430 0.473 0.516 0.559 0.602 0.645 0.688 0.731 0.774 0.817 0.860 0.968 1.075 1.183 1.291 1.398 1.506 1.613 1.721 1.936 2.151 2.581 3.011

Line Size

6" 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.011 0.015 0.022 0.030 0.037 0.045 0.052 0.060 0.067 0.075 0.082 0.089 0.104 0.119 0.149 0.179 0.209 0.238 0.268 0.298 0.328 0.358 0.388 0.417 0.447 0.477 0.507 0.537 0.566 0.596 0.671 0.745 0.820 0.894 0.969 1.043 1.118 1.192 1.341 1.490 1.789 2.087 2.385 2.683

8" 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.009 0.013 0.017 0.022 0.026 0.030 0.034 0.039 0.043 0.047 0.052 0.060 0.069 0.086 0.103 0.120 0.138 0.155 0.172 0.189 0.207 0.224 0.241 0.258 0.275 0.293 0.310 0.327 0.344 0.387 0.430 0.473 0.516 0.559 0.602 0.645 0.689 0.775 0.861 1.033 1.205 1.377 1.549 1.721 2.152 2.582 3.012

10" 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.008 0.011 0.014 0.016 0.019 0.022 0.025 0.027 0.030 0.033 0.038 0.044 0.055 0.066 0.076 0.087 0.098 0.109 0.120 0.131 0.142 0.153 0.164 0.175 0.186 0.197 0.208 0.218 0.246 0.273 0.300 0.328 0.355 0.382 0.410 0.437 0.491 0.546 0.655 0.765 0.874 0.983 1.092 1.365 1.638 1.911 2.184 2.457 2.730


Conversions: Miscellaneous TO CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

A acres " " " acre-feet " amperes/sq. cm. " amperes/sq. in. " amperes/sq. meter " ampere-hours " ampere-turns ampere-turns/cm. " " ampere-turns/in. " " ampere-turns/meter " " ares " atmospheres " " " " " "

TO CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

C

sq. feet 43,500.0 sq. meters 4,047.0 sq. miles 1.562 x 10-³ sq. yards 4,840.0 cu. feet 43,560.0 gallons 3.259 x 10⁵ amps./sq. in. 6.452 amps/sq. meter 10.0 amps/sq. cm. 0.1550 amps/sq. meter 1,550.0 amps/sq. cm. 10-⁴ amps/sq. in. 6.452 x 10-⁴ coulombs 3,600.0 faradays 0.03731 gilberts 1.257 amp-turns/in. 2.540 amp-turns/meter 100.0 gilberts/cm. 1.257 amp-turns/cm. 0.3937 amp-turns/meter 39.37 gilberts/cm. 0.4950 amp-turns/cm. 0.01 amp-turns/in. 0.0254 gilberts/cm. 0.01257 acres 0.02471 sq. meters 100.0 cms. of mercury 76.0 ft. of water (at 4°C) 33.90 in. of mercury (at 0°C) 29.92 kgs./sq. cm. 1.0333 kgs./sq. meter 10,332.0 pounds/sq. in. 14.70 tons/sq. ft. 1.058 B

barrels (oil) bars " " " " Btu " " " " " " " Btu/hr. " " " Btu/min. " " "

gallons (oil) atmospheres dynes/sq. cm. kgs./sq. meter pounds/sq. ft. pounds/sq. in. ergs foot-lbs. gram-calories horsepower-hrs. joules kilogram-calories kilogram-meters kilowatt-hrs. foot-pounds/sec. gram-cal./sec. horsepower-hrs. watts foot-lbs./sec. horsepower kilowatts watts

42.0 0.9869 10⁶ 1.020 x 10⁴ 2,089.0 14.50 1.0550 x 10¹⁰ 778.3 252.0 3.931 x 10-⁴ 1,054.8 0.2520 107.5 2.928 x 10-⁴ 0.2162 0.0700 3.929 x 10-⁴ 0.2931 12.96 0.02356 0.01757 17.57

Btu/sq. ft./min. bushels " " " " " "

watts/sq. in. cu. ft. cu. in. cu. meters liters pecks pints (dry) quarts (dry)

0.1221 1.2445 2,150.4 0.03524 35.24 4.0 64.0 32.0

centares (centiares) sq. meters Centigrade Fahrenheit centigrams grams centiliters liters centimeters feet " inches " kilometers " meters " miles " millimeters " mils " yards centimeter-dynes cm.-grams " meter-kgs. " pound-feet centimeter-grams cm.-dynes " meter-kgs. " pound-feet centimeters of mercury atmospheres " feet of water " kgs./sq. meter " pounds/sq. ft. " pounds/sq. in. centimeters/sec. feet/min. " feet/sec. " kilometers/hr. " knots " meters/min. " miles/hr. " miles/min. centimeters/sec./sec. feet/sec./sec. " kms./hr./sec. " meters/sec./sec. " miles/hr./sec. circular mils sq. cms. " sq. mils " sq. inches coulombs faradays coulombs/sq. cm. coulombs/sq. in. " coulombs/sq. meter coulombs/sq. in. coulombs/sq. cm. " coulombs/sq. meter coulombs/sq. meter coulombs/sq. cm. " coulombs/sq. in. cubic centimeters cu. feet " cu. inches " cu. meters " cu. yards " gallons (U.S. liq.) " liters " pints (U.S. liq.) " quarts (U.S. liq.) cubic feet bushels (dry) " cu. cms. " cu. inches " cu. meters " cu. yards " gallons (U.S. liq.) " liters " pints (U.S. liq.) " quarts (U.S. liq.) cubic feet/min. cu. cms./sec. " gallons/sec. " liters/sec. " pounds of water/min.

1.0 (C° x 9/5) + 32 0.01 0.01 3.281 x 10-² 0.3937 10-⁵ 0.01 6.214 x 10-⁶ 10.0 393.7 1.094 x 10-² 1.020 x 10-³ 1.020 x 10-⁸ 7.376 x 10-⁸ 980.7 10-⁵ 7.233 x 10-⁵ 0.01310 0.4401 136.0 27.85 0.1934 1.1969 0.03281 0.036 0.1943 0.6 0.02237 3.728 x 10-⁴ 0.03281 0.036 0.01 0.02237 5.067 x 10-⁶ 0.7854 7.854 x 10-⁷ 1.036 x 10-⁵ 64.52 10⁴ 0.1550 1,550.0 10-⁴ 6.452 x 10-⁴ 3.531 x 10-⁵ 0.06102 10-⁶ 1.308 x 10-⁶ 2.642 x 10-⁴ 0.001 2.113 x 10-³ 1.057 x 10-³ 0.8036 28,320.0 1,728.0 0.02832 0.03704 7.48052 28.32 59.84 29.92 472.0 0.1247 0.4720 62.43

5


Conversions: Miscellaneous (cont.) TO CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

TO CONVERT

C (cont.) cubic " cubic " " " " " " " " cubic " " " " " " " " cubic " " " " " " " cubic " "

feet/sec. inches

meters

yards

yards/min.

million gals./day gallons/min. cu. cms. cu. feet cu. meters cu. yards gallons (U.S. liq.) liters mil.-ft. pints (U.S. liq.) quarts (U.S. liq.) bushels (dry) cu. cms. cu. feet cu. inches cu. yards gallons (U.S. liq.) liters pints (U.S. liq.) quarts (U.S. liq.) cu. cms. cu. feet cu. inches cu. meters gallons (U.S. liq.) liters pints (U.S. liq.) quarts (U.S. liq.) cubic ft./sec. gallons/sec. liters/sec.

0.646317 448.831 16.39 5.787 x 10-⁴ 1.639 x 10-⁵ 2.143 x 10-⁵ 4.329 x 10-³ 0.01639 1.061 x 10⁵ 0.03463 0.01732 28.38 10⁶ 35.31 61,023.0 1.308 264.2 10³ 2,113.0 1,057.0 7.646 x 10⁵ 27.0 46,656.0 0.7646 202.0 764.6 1,615.9 807.9 0.45 3.367 12.74

hours 24.0 minutes 1,440.0 seconds 86,400.0 grams 0.1 liters 0.1 meters 0.1 minutes 60.0 quadrants 0.01111 radians 0.01745 seconds 3,600.0 radians/sec. 0.01745 revolutions/min. 0.1667 revolutions/sec. 2.778 x 10-³ grams 10.0 liters 10.0 meters 10.0 grams 1.7718 grains 27.3437 ounces 0.0625 grams 1.020 x 10-³ joules/cm. 10⁷ joules/meter (newtons) 10-⁵ kilograms 1.020 x 10-⁶ poundals 7.233 x 10-⁵ pounds 2.248 x 10-⁶ bars 10-⁴ E

ergs " " "

6

Btu dyne-centimeters foot-pounds gram-calories

MULTIPLY BY

E (cont.)

D days " " decigrams deciliters decimeters degress (angle) " " " degrees/sec. " " dekagrams dekaliters dekameters drams " " dynes " " " " " dynes/sq. cm.

INTO

9.480 x 10-¹¹ 1.0 7.367 x 10-⁸ 0.2389 x 10-⁷

ergs (continued) " " " " " " ergs/sec. " " " " "

gram-cms. horsepower-hrs. joules kg.-calories kg.-meters kilowatt-hrs. watt-hours Btu/min. ft.-lbs./min. ft.-lbs./sec. horsepower kg.-calories/min. kilowatts F

1.020 x 10-³ 3.7250 x 10-¹⁴ 10-⁷ 2.389 x 10-¹¹ 1.020 x 10-⁸ 0.2778 x 10-¹³ 0.2778 x 10-¹⁰ 5,688.0 x 10-⁹ 4.427 x 10-⁶ 7.3756 x 10-⁸ 1.341 x 10-¹⁰ 1.433 x 10-⁹ 10-¹⁰

farads faradays " fathoms feet " " " " " " feet of water " " " " " feet/min. " " " " feet/sec. " " " " " feet/sec./sec. " " " feet/100 feet foot-pounds " " " " " " " foot-pounds/min. " " " " foot-pounds/sec. " " " " furlongs "

microfarads ampere-hours coulombs feet centimeters kilometers meters miles (naut.) miles (stat.) millimeters mils atmospheres in. of mercury kgs./sq. cm. kgs./sq. meter pounds/sq. ft. pounds/sq. in. cms./sec. feet/sec. kms./hr. meters/min. miles/hr. cms./sec. kms./hr. knots meters/min. miles/hr. miles/min. cms./sec./sec. kms./hr./sec. meters/sec./sec. miles/hr./sec. per cent grade Btu ergs grams-calories hp-hrs. joules kg.-calories kg.-meters kilowatt-hrs. Btu/min. foot-pounds/sec. horsepower kg.-calories/min. kilowatts Btu/hr. Btu/min. horsepower kg.-calories/min. kilowatts rods feet

10⁶ 26.80 9.649 x 10⁴ 6.0 30.48 3.048 x 10-⁴ 0.3048 1.645 x 10-⁴ 1.894 x 10-⁴ 304.8 1.2 x 10⁴ 0.02950 0.8826 0.03048 304.8 62.43 0.4335 0.5080 0.01667 0.01829 0.3048 0.01136 30.48 1.097 0.5921 18.29 0.6818 0.01136 30.48 1.097 0.3048 0.6818 1.0 1.286 x 10-³ 1.356 x 10⁷ 0.3238 5.050 x 10-⁷ 1.356 3.24 x 10-⁴ 0.1383 3.766 x 10-⁷ 1.286 x 10-³ 0.01667 3.030 x 10-⁵ 3.24 x 10-⁴ 2.260 x 10-⁵ 4.6263 0.07717 1.818 x 10-³ 0.01945 1.356 x 10-³ 40.0 660.0


Conversions: Miscellaneous (cont.) TO CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

TO CONVERT

cu. cms. 3,785.0 cu. feet 0.1337 cu. inches 231.0 cu. meters 3.785 x 10-³ cu. yards 4.951 x 10-³ liters 3.785 pints 8.0 quarts 4.0 gallons (U.S. liq.) 1.20095 gallons (Imp.) 0.83267 pounds of water 8.3453 cu. ft./sec. 2.228 x 10-³ liters/sec. 0.06308 cu. ft./hr. 8.0208 lines/sq. in. 6.452 webers/sq. cm. 10-⁸ webers/sq. in. 6.452 x 10-⁸ webers/sq. meter 10-⁴ ampere-turns 0.7958 amp-turns/cm. 0.7958 amp-turns/in. 2.021 amp-turns/meter 79.58 liters 0.1183 pints (liq.) 0.25 grains (avdp.) 1.0 grams 0.06480 ounces (avdp.) 2.0833 x 10-³ pennyweight (troy) 0.04167 parts/million 17.118 pounds/million gal. 142.86 parts/million 14.286 dynes 980.7 grains 15.43 joules/cm 9.807 x 10-⁵ joules/meter (newtons) 9.807 x 10-³ kilograms 10-³ milligrams 10³ ounces (avdp.) 0.03527 ounces (troy) 0.03215 poundals 0.07093 pounds 2.205 x 10-³ pounds/inch 5.600 x 10-³ pounds/cu. ft. 62.43 pounds/cu. in. 0.03613 pounds/mil.-foot 3.405 x 10-⁷ grains/gal. 58.417 pounds/1,000 gal. 8.345 pounds/cu. ft. 0.062427 parts/million 1,000.0 pounds/sq. ft. 2.0481 Btu 3.9683 x 10-³ ergs 4.1868 x 10⁷ foot-pounds 3.0880 horsepower-hrs. 1.5596 x 10-⁶ kilowatt-hrs. 1.1630 x 10-⁶ watt-hrs. 1.1630 x 10-³ Btu/hr. 14.286 Btu 9.297 x 10-⁸ ergs 980.7 joules 9.807 x 10-⁵ kg.-cal. 2.343 x 10-⁸ kg-meters 10-⁵

MULTIPLY BY

H

G gallons " " " " " " " gallons (liq. Br. Imp.) gallons (U.S.) gallons of water gallons/min. " " gausses " " " gilberts gilberts/cm. " " gils " grains (troy) " " " grains/U.S. gal. " grains/Imp. gal. grams " " " " " " " " " grams/cm. grams/cu. cm. " " grams/liter " " " grams/sq. cm. gram-calories " " " " " gram-calories/sec. gram-centimeters " " " "

INTO

hectares " hectograms hectoliters hectometers hectowatts henries horsepower " " horsepower (metric) (542.5 ft. lb./sec.) horsepower (550 ft. lb./sec.) horsepower " " horsepower (boiler) " horsepower-hrs. " " " " " " " hours " " "

acres 2.471 sq. foot 1.076 x 10⁵ grams 100.0 liters 100.0 meters 100.0 watts 100.0 millihenries 10³ Btu/min. 42.44 foot-lbs./min. 33,000.0 foot-lbs./sec. 550.0 horsepower (550 ft. lb./sec.) 0.9863 horsepower (metric) (542.5 ft. lb./sec.) 1.014 kg.-calories/min. 10.68 kilowatts 0.7457 watts 745.7 Btu/hr. 33.479 kilowatts 9.803 Btu 2,547.0 ergs 2.6845 x 10¹³ foot-lbs. 1.98 x 10⁶ gram-calories 641,190.0 joules 2.694 x 10⁶ kg.-calories 641.1 kg.-meters 2.737 x 10⁵ kilowatt-hrs. 0.7457 days 4.167 x 10-² minutes 60.0 seconds 3,600.0 weeks 5.952 x 10-³ I

inches " " " " " " inches of mercury " " " " " inches of water (at 4°C) " " " " "

centimeters feet meters miles millimeters mils yards atmospheres feet of water kgs./sq. cm. kgs./sq. meter pounds/sq. ft. pounds/sq. in. atmospheres inches of mercury kgs./sq. cm. ounces/sq. in. pounds/sq. ft. pounds/sq. in.

2.540 8.333 x 10-² 2.540 x 10-² 1.578 x 10-⁵ 25.40 10³ 2.778 x 10-² 0.03342 1.133 0.03453 345.3 70.73 0.4912 2.458 x 10-³ 0.07355 2.540 x 10-³ 0.5781 5.204 0.03613

J joules " " " " " joules/cm. " " " "

Btu ergs foot-pounds kg.-calories kg.-meters watt-hrs. grams dynes joules/meter (newtons) poundals pounds

9.480 x 10⁷ 0.7376 2.389 x 0.1020 2.778 x 1.020 x 10⁷ 100.0 723.3 22.48

10-⁴ 10-⁴ 10-⁴ 10-⁴

7


Conversions: Miscellaneous (cont.) TO CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

TO CONVERT

K kilograms " " " " " " " kilograms/cu. meter " " " kilograms/meter kilograms/sq. cm. " " " " kilograms/sq. meter " " " " " kilograms/sq. mm. kilogram-calories " " " " " " kilogram meters " " " " " kilolines kiloliters kilometers " " " " " " kilometers/hr. " " " " " kilometers/hrs./sec. " " " kilopascals " " " " " " kilowatts " "

8

dynes 980,665.0 grams 10³ joules/cm. 0.09807 joules/meter (newtons) 9.807 poundals 70.93 pounds 2.205 tons (long) 9.842 x 10-⁴ tons (short) 1.102 x 10-³ grams/cu. cm. 0.001 pounds/cu. ft. 0.06243 pounds/cu. in. 3.613 x 10-⁵ pounds/mil.-foot 3.405 x 10-¹⁰ pounds/ft. 0.6720 atmospheres 0.9678 feet of water 32.81 inches of mercury 28.96 pounds/sq. ft. 2,048.0 pounds/sq. in. 14.22 atmospheres 9.678 x 10-⁵ bars 98.07 x 10-⁶ feet of water 32.81 x 10-³ inches of mercury 2.896 x 10-³ pounds/sq. ft. 0.2048 pounds/sq. in. 1.422 x 10-³ kgs./sq. meter 10⁶ Btu 3.968 foot-pounds 3,088.0 hp-hrs. 1.560 x 10-⁷ joules 4,186.0 kg.-meters 426.9 kilojoules 4.186 kilowatt-hrs. 1.163 x 10-³ Btu 9.294 x 10-³ ergs 9.804 x 10⁷ foot-pounds 7.233 joules 9.804 kg.-calories 2.342 x 10-³ kilowatt-hrs. 2.723 x 10-⁶ maxwells 10³ liters 10³ centimeters 10⁵ feet 3,281.0 inches 3.937 x 10⁴ meters 10³ miles 0.6214 millimeters 10⁶ yards 1,094.0 cms./sec. 27.78 feet/min. 54.68 feet/sec. 0.9113 knots 0.5396 meters/min. 16.67 miles/hr. 0.6214 cms./sec./sec. 27.78 ft./sec./sec. 0.9113 meters/sec./sec. 0.2778 miles/hr./sec. 0.6214 atmospheres 9.87x10-3 feet of water 0.335 inches of Hg 0.296 kgs/sq. meter 1.02x102 pounds/sq. ft. 20.9 pounds/sq. in. 0.145 torr 7.5 Btu/min. 56.92 foot-lbs./min. 4.426 x 10⁴ foot-lbs./sec. 737.6

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

K (cont.) kilowatts (cont.) " " kilowatt-hrs. " " " " " " " " " knots " " " " "

horsepower 1.341 kg.-calories/min. 14.34 watts 10³ Btu 3,413.0 ergs 3.600 x 10¹³ foot-lbs. 2.655 x 10⁶ gram-calories 859,850.0 horsepower-hrs. 1.341 joules 3.6 x 10⁶ kg.-calories 860.5 kg.-meters 3.671 x 10⁵ pounds of water evaporated from and at 212°F 3.53 pounds of water raised from 62° to 212°F 22.75 feet/hr. 6,080.0 kilometers/hr. 1.8532 nautical miles/hr. 1.0 statute miles/hr. 1.151 yards/hr. 2,027.0 feet/sec. 1.689 L

league lines/sq. cm. lines/sq. in. " " " links (engineer’s) links (surveyor’s) liters " " " " " " " " liters/min. " lumens/sq. ft. lux

miles (approx.) gausses gausses webers/sq. cm. webers/sq. in. webers/sq. meter inches inches bushels (U.S. dry) cu. cm. cu. feet cu. inches cu. meters cu. yards gallons (U.S. liq.) pints (U.S. liq.) quarts (U.S. liq.) cu. ft./sec. gals./sec. foot-candles foot-candles

3.0 1.0 0.1550 1.550 x 10-⁹ 10-⁸ 1.550 x 10-⁵ 12.0 7.92 0.02838 10³ 0.03531 61.02 0.001 1.308 x 10-³ 0.2642 2.113 1.057 5.886 x 10-⁴ 4.403 x 10-³ 1.0 0.0929

M maxwells " megalines megohms " meters " " " " " " " " meters/min. " " " "

kilolines webers maxwells microhms ohms centimeters feet inches kilometers miles (naut.) miles (stat.) millimeters yards varas cms./sec. feet/min. feet/sec. kms./hr. knots

10-³ 10-⁸ 10⁶ 10¹² 10⁶ 10² 3.281 39.37 0.001 5.396 x 10-⁴ 6.214 x 10-⁴ 10³ 1.094 1.179 1.667 3.281 0.5468 0.06 0.03238


Conversions: Miscellaneous (cont.) TO CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

TO CONVERT

INTO

M (cont.) meters/min. (cont.) meters/sec. " " " " meters/sec./sec. " " " meter-kilograms " " microfarad micrograms microhms " microliters microns miles (naut.) " " " " miles (statute) " " " " " " miles/hr. " " " " " " " miles/hr./sec. " " " miles/min. " " " " mil-feet milliers milligrams milligrams/liter millihenries milliliters millimeters " " " " " " million gals./day mils " " "

miles/hr. feet/min. feet/sec. kilometers/hr. miles/hr. miles/min. cms./sec./sec. ft./sec./sec. kms./hr./sec. miles/hr./sec. cm.-dynes cm.-grams pound-feet farads grams megohms ohms liters meters feet kilometers meters miles (statute) yards centimeters feet inches kilometers meters miles (naut.) yards cm./sec. feet/min. feet/sec. kms./hr. kms./min. knots meters/min. miles/min. cms./sec./sec. feet/sec./sec. kms./hr./sec. meters/sec./sec. cms./sec. feet/sec. kms./min. miles (naut.)/min. miles/hr. cu. inches kilograms grams parts/million henries liters centimeters feet inches meters miles mils yards cu. ft./sec. centimeters feet inches kilometers

MULTIPLY BY

M (cont.) 0.03728 196.8 3.281 3.6 2.237 0.03728 10² 3.281 3.6 2.237 9.807 x 10⁷ 10⁵ 7.233 10-⁶ 10-⁶ 10-¹² 10-⁶ 10-⁶ 10-⁶ 6,080.27 1.853 1,853.00 1.1516 2,027.0 1.609 x 10⁵ 5,280.0 6.336 x 10⁴ 1.609 1,609.0 0.8684 1,760.0 44.70 88.0 1.467 1.609 0.02682 0.8684 26.82 0.01667 44.70 1.467 1.609 0.4470 2,682.0 88.0 1.609 0.8684 60.0 9.425 x 10-⁶ 10³ 10-³ 1.0 10-³ 10-³ 0.1 3.281 x 10-³ 0.03937 0.001 6.214 x 10-⁷ 39.37 1.094 x 10-³ 1.54723 2.540 x 10-³ 8.333 x 10-⁵ 0.001 2.540 x 10-⁸

mils (cont.) miner’s inches minutes (angles) " " "

2.778 x 10-⁵ 1.5 0.01667 1.852 x 10-⁴ 2.909 x 10-⁴ 60.0 myriagrams 10.0

yards cu. ft./min. degrees quadrants radians seconds kilograms

myriameters

kilometers

10.0

myriawatts

kilowatts

10.0 N

nepers

decibels

8.686

ohms ohms ounces " " " " " " ounces (fluid) " ounces (troy) " " " "

megohms microhms drams grains grams pounds ounces (troy) tons (long) tons (metric) cu. inches liters grains grams ounces (avdp.) pennyweights (troy) pounds (troy)

ounces/sq. in.

pounds/sq. in.

O 10-⁶ 10⁶ 16.0 437.5 28.349527 0.0625 0.9115 2.790 x 10-⁵ 2.834 x 10-⁵ 1.805 0.2957 480.0 31.103481 1.09714 20.0 0.08333 0.0625

P parts/million grains/U.S. gal. 0.0584 " grains/Imp. gal. 0.07016 " pounds/million gal. 8.345 pascals millibar 10-2 " pounds/sq. ft. 2.09 x 10-2 " pounds/sq. in. 1.45 x 10-4 " torr 7.5 x 10-3 " in.Hg 2.96 x 10-4 pennyweights (troy) grains 24.0 " ounces (troy) 0.05 " grams 1.55517 " pounds (troy) 4.1667 x 10-³ pints (dry) cu. inches 33.60 pints (liq.) cu. cms. 473.2 " cu. feet 0.01671 " cu. inches 28.87 " cu. meters 4.732 x 10-⁴ " cu. yards 6.189 x 10-⁴ " gallons 0.125 " liters 0.4732 " quarts (liq.) 0.5 poundals dynes 13,826.0 " grams 14.10 " joules/cm. 1.383 x 10-³ " joules/meter (newtons) 0.1383 " kilograms 0.01410 " pounds 0.03108 pounds drams 256.0 " dynes 44.4823 x 10⁴ " grains 7,000.0 " grams 453.5924 " joules/cm. 0.04448 " joules/meter (newton) 4.448

9


Conversions: Miscellaneous (cont.) TO CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

TO CONVERT

kilograms ounces ounces (troy) poundals pounds (troy) tons (short) grains grams ounces (avdp.) ounces (troy) pennyweights (troy) pounds (avdp.) tons (long) tons (metric) tons (short) cu. feet cu. inches gallons cu. ft./sec. cm.-dynes cm.-grams meter-kgs. grams/cu. cm. kgs./cu. meter pounds/cu. in. pounds/mil.-ft. gms./cu. cm. kgs./cu. meter pounds/cu. ft. pounds/mil.-foot kgs./meter gms./cm. gms./cu. cm. atmospheres feet of water inches of mercury kgs./sq. meter pounds/sq. in. atmospheres feet of water inches of mercury kgs./sq. meter pounds/sq. ft. kilopascal

0.4536 16.0 14.5833 32.17 1.21528 0.0005 5,760.0 373.24177 13.1657 12.0 pounds (troy) 240.0 0.822857 3.6735 x 10-⁴ 3.7324 x 10-⁴ 4.1143 x 10-⁴ 0.01602 27.68 0.1198 2.670 x 10-⁴ 1.356 x 10⁷ 13,825.0 0.1383 0.01602 16.02 5.787 x 10-⁴ 5.456 x 10-⁹ 27.68 2.768 x 10⁴ 1,728.0 9.425 x 10-⁶ 1.488 178.6 2.306 x 10⁶ 4.725 x 10-⁴ 0.01602 0.01414 4.882 6.944 x 10-³ 0.06804 2.307 2.036 703.1 144.0 6.8948

Q quadrants (angle) " " "

degrees minutes radians seconds

quarts (dry) quarts (liq.) " " " " " "

cu. inches cu. cms. cu. feet cu. inches cu. meters cu. yards gallons liters

90.0 5,400.0 1.571 3.24 x 10⁵ 67.20 946.4 0.03342 57.75 9.464 x 10-⁴ 1.238 x 10-³ 0.25 0.9463 R

radians " " " radians/sec. "

10

degrees minutes quadrants seconds degrees sec. revolutions/min.

MULTIPLY BY

R (cont.)

P (cont.) pounds (cont.) " " " " " pounds (troy) " " " " " " " " pounds of water " " pounds of water/min. pounds-feet " " pounds/cu. ft. " " " pounds/cu. in. " " " pounds/ft. pounds/in. pounds/mil.-foot pounds/sq. ft. " " " " pounds/sq. in. " " " " "

INTO

57.30 3,438.0 0.6366 2.063 x 10⁵ 57.30 9.549

radians/sec. (cont.) radians/sec./sec. " " revolutions " " revolutions/min. " " revolutions/min./min. " " revolutions/sec. " " revolutions/sec./sec. " " rods

revolutions/sec. revs./min./min. revs./min./sec. revs./sec./sec. degrees quadrants radians degrees/sec. radians/sec. revs./sec. radians/sec./sec. revs./min./sec. revs./sec./sec. degrees/sec. radians/sec. revs./min. radians/sec./sec. revs./min./min. revs./min./sec. feet

0.1592 573.0 9.549 0.1592 360.0 4.00 6.283 6.0 0.1047 0.01667 1.745 x 10-³ 0.01667 2.778 x 10-⁴ 360.0 6.283 60.0 6.283 3,600.0 60.0 16.5

S seconds (angle) " " " square centimeters " " " " " " square feet " " " " " " " square inches " " " " " square kilometers " " " " " " square meters " " " " " " square miles " " " "

degrees minutes quadrants radians circular mils sq. feet sq. inches sq. meters sq. miles sq. millimeters sq. yards acre circular mils sq. cms. sq. inches sq. meters sq. miles sq. millimeters sq. yards circular mils sq. cms. sq. feet sq. millimeters sq. mils sq. yards acres sq. cms. sq. ft. sq. inches sq. meters sq. miles sq.yards acres sq. cms. sq. feet sq. inches sq. miles sq. millimeters sq. yards acres sq. feet sq. kms. sq. meters sq. yards

2.778 x 10-⁴ 0.01667 3.087 x 10-⁶ 4.848 x 10-⁶ 1.973 x 10⁵ 1.076 x 10-³ 0.1550 0.0001 3.861 x 10-¹¹ 100.0 1.196 x 10-⁴ 2.296 x 10-⁵ 1.833 x 10⁸ 929.0 144.0 0.09290 3.587 x 10-⁸ 9.290 x 10⁴ 0.1111 1.273 x 10⁶ 6.452 6.944 x 10-³ 645.2 10⁶ 7.716 x 10-⁴ 247.1 10¹⁰ 10.76 x 10⁶ 1.550 x 10⁹ 10⁶ 0.3861 1.196 x 10⁶ 2.471 x 10-⁴ 10⁴ 10.76 1,550.0 3.861 x 10-⁷ 10⁶ 1.196 640.0 27.88 x 10⁶ 2.590 2.590 x 10⁶ 3.098 x 10⁶


Conversions: Miscellaneous (cont.) TO CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

TO CONVERT

1,973.0 0.01 1.076 x 1.550 x 1.273 6.452 x 10-⁶ 2.066 x 8,361.0 9.0 1,296.0 0.8361 3.228 x 8.361 x

10-⁵ 10-C 10-⁶ 10-⁴

10-⁷ 10⁵

T temperature (°C) + 273 temperature (°C) + 17.78 temperature (°F) + 460 temperature (°F) - 32 tons (long) " " tons (metric) " tons (short) " " " " " " tons (short)/sq. ft. " tons of water/24 hrs. " "

absolute temperature (°C) temperature (°F)

1.0

absolute temperature (°F) temperature (°C)

1.0

kilograms pounds tons (short) kilograms pounds kilograms ounces ounces (troy) pounds pounds (troy) tons (long) tons (metric) kgs./sq. meter pounds/sq. in. pounds of water/hr. gallons/min. cu. ft./hr.

MULTIPLY BY

W

S (cont.) square millimeters circular mils " sq. cms. " sq. feet " sq. inches square mils circular mils " sq. cms. " sq. inches square yards acres " sq. cms. " sq. ft. " sq. inches " sq. meters " sq. miles " sq. millimeters

INTO

1.8

0.555 1,016.0 2,240.0 1.120 1,000.0 2,205.0 907.1848 32,000.0 29,166.66 2,000.0 2,430.56 0.89287 0.9078 9,765.0 2,000.0 83.333 0.16643 1.3349

watts " " " " " " " " watt-hours " " " " " " " webers " webers/sq. in. " " " webers/sq. meter " " "

Btu/hr. Btu/min. ergs/sec. foot-lbs./min. foot-lbs./sec. horsepower horsepower (metric) kg.-calories/min. kilowatts Btu ergs foot-pounds gram-calories horsepower-hrs. kilogram-calories kilogram-meters kilowatt-hrs. maxwells kilolines gausses lines/sq. in. webers/sq. cm. webers/sq. meter gausses lines/sq. in. webers/sq. cm. webers/sq. in.

3.4192 0.05688 107.0 44.27 0.7378 1.341 x 10-³ 1.360 x 10-³ 0.01433 0.001 3.413 3.60 x 10¹⁰ 2,656.0 859.85 1.341 x 10-³ 0.8605 367.2 0.001 10⁸ 10⁵ 1.550 x 10⁷ 10⁸ 0.1550 1,550.0 10⁴ 6.452 x 10⁴ 10-⁴ 6.452 x 10-⁴

Y yards " " " " " " "

centimeters feet inches kilometers meters miles (naut.) miles (stat.) millimeters

91.44 3.0 36.0 9.144 x 10-⁴ 0.9144 4.934 x 10-⁴ 5.682 x 10-⁴ 914.4

11


Equivalents: Liquid Measures and Weights TO OBTAIN MULTIPLY BY

U.S. Cubic Foot

8.337

0.13368 0.16054

Imperial Gallon

U.S. Gallon

1

0.833

8.0

Imperial Gallon

1.2009

1

9.60762

U.S. Pint

0.125

0.1041

1

1.042

0.01671

U.S. Pound Water*

0.11995

0.1

0.9596

1

0.016035

U.S. Cubic Foot

7.48052

6.22888

U.S. Cubic Inch

0.004329

0.00361

0.034632

0.03609

0.0005787

Liter

0.2641779

0.2199756

2.113423

2.202

0.0353154

Cubic Meter

264.170

219.969

U.S. Pint

U.S. Pound Water*

U.S. Gallon

59.8442

2113.34

10.0

62.365

2202.0

1

35.31446

*Water at 60°F (15.6°C) 1 Barrel = 42 gallons (petroleum measure)

U.S. Cubic Inch

Liter

Cubic Meter

231.0

3.78533

0.003785

277.42

4.54596

0.004546

28.875

0.473166

0.000473

27.708

0.45405

0.000454

28.31702

0.028317

1728.0 1 61.02509 61023.38

0.016387

0.0000164

1

0.001000

999.972

1

EXAMPLE: (8 Imperial gallons) (4.54596) = 36.36768 liters

Equivalents: Kinematic Viscosity To convert kinematic viscosity from one set of units to another, locate the given set of units in the left hand column and multiply the numerical value by the factor shown horizontally to the right, under the set of units desired. centistokes

stokes cm2 sec

Kinematic Viscosity centistokes stokes

(v)

(v) 1

(100 v) 0.01

cm2 sec

(100 v)

100

1

(v')

92,900

929

ft2 sec

12

As an example, suppose a given kinematic viscosity of 0.5 square foot/second is to be converted to centistokes. By referring to the table, we find the conversion factor to be 92,900. Then, 0.5 (sq ft/sec) times 92,900 = 46,450 centistokes. ft2 sec

(v') 1.076 (10–5)

1.076 (10–3)

1


Equivalents: Absolute Viscosity To convert absolute or dynamic viscosity from one set of units to another, locate the given set of units in the left hand column and multiply the numerical value by the factor shown horizontally to the right under the set of units desired.

As an example, suppose a given absolute viscosity of 2 poise is to be converted to slugs/foot second. By referring to the table, we find the conversion factor to be 2.09 (10–³). Then, 2 (poise) times 2.09 (10–³) = 4.18 (10–³) = 0.00418 slugs/foot second.

centipoise

gram cm sec

Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity

†poundsm ft sec

pounds f ft2

poundal sec ft2

(µ e)

dyne sec cm2 (µ)

(100 µ)

(µ' e)

(µ)

1

0.01

2.09 (10 )

6.72 (10–4)

(100 µ)

100

1

2.09 (10–3)

0.0672

(µ'e)

47,900

479

1

g or 32.2

(µe)

1,487

14.87

1 or .0311

1

centipoise poise gram cm sec

slugs ft sec

poise

–5

dyne sec cm2 slugs ft. sec *poundsf sec ft2 †pounds m ft. sec poundal sec ft2

g *Poundf = Pound of Force

†Poundm = Pound of Mass

Equivalents: Electrical Units Practical Unit

Cgs Electromagnetic Unit

Cgs Electrostatic Unit

Emf

volt = 108 abvolts volt = 3.3 x 10–3 statvolt

abvolt = 10–8 volt abvolt = 3.3 x 10–11 statvolt

statvolt = 300 volts (approx.) statvolt = 3 x 1010 abvolts

Resistance

ohm = 109 abohms ohm = 1.1 x 10–12 statohm

abohm = 10–9 ohm abohm = 1.1 x 10–21 statohm

statohm = 9 x 1011 ohms statohm = 9 x 1020 abohms

Current

ampere = 10–1 abampere ampere = 3 x 109 statamperes

abampere = 10 amperes abampere = 3 x 1010 statamperes

statampere = 3.3 x 10–10 ampere statampere = 3.3 x 10–11 abampere

Quantity

coulomb = 10–1 abcoulomb coulomb = 3 x 109 statcoulombs

abcoulomb = 10 coulombs abcoulomb = 3 x 1010 statcoulombs

statcoulomb = 3.3 x 10–10 coulomb statcoulomb = 3.3 x 10–11 abcoulombs

Capacitance

farad = 10–9 abfarads farad = 9 x 1011 statfarads

abfarad = 109 farads abfarad = 9 x 1020 statfarads

statfarad = 1.1 x 10–12 farads statfarad = 1.1 x 10–21 abfarads

henry = 109 abhenries henry = 1.1 x 10–12 stathenry joule = 107 ergs

abhenry = 10–9 henry abhenry = 1.1 x 10–21 stathenries erg = 10-7 joule

stathenry = 9 x 1011 henries stathenry = 9 x 1020 abhenries erg = 10–7 joule

watt = 10 ____ ergs sec

erg = 10–7 watt ––– sec

erg = 10–7 watt ––– sec

Inductance Energy

7

Power

13


Equivalents: Degrees API and Degrees Baumé Values for Baumé Scale Liquids Lighter Than Water Liquids Heavier Than Water

Values for API Scale Oil Degrees on API or Baumé Scale

Specific Gravity S

14

Weight Density Lb/Ft3 p

Pounds per Gallon

Pounds per Gallon

S

Weight Density Lb/Ft3 p

Specific Gravity

Specific Gravity S

Weight Density Lb/Ft3 p

Pounds per Gallon

0 2 4 6 8

– – – – –

– – – – –

– – – – –

– – – – –

– – – – –

– – – – –

1.0000 1.0140 1.0284 1.0432 1.0584

62.36 63.24 64.14 65.06 66.01

8.337 8.454 8.574 8.697 8.824

10 12 14 16 18

1.0000 0.9861 0.9724 0.9593 0.9465

62.36 61.50 60.65 59.53 59.03

8.337 8.221 8.108 7.998 7.891

1.0000 0.9859 0.9722 0.9589 0.9459

62.36 61.49 60.63 59.80 58.99

8.337 8.219 8.105 7.994 7.886

1.0741 1.0902 1.1069 1.1240 1.1417

66.99 67.99 69.03 70.10 71.20

8.955 9.089 9.228 9.371 9.518

20 22 24 26 28

0.9340 0.9218 0.9100 0.8984 0.8871

58.25 57.87 56.75 56.03 55.32

7.787 7.736 7.587 7.490 7.396

0.9333 0.9211 0.9091 0.8974 0.8861

58.20 57.44 56.70 55.97 55.26

7.781 7.679 7.579 7.482 7.387

1.1600 1.1789 1.1983 1.2185 1.2393

72.34 73.52 74.73 75.99 77.29

9.671 9.828 9.990 10.159 10.332

30 32 34 36 38

0.8762 0.8654 0.8550 0.8448 0.8348

54.64 53.97 53.32 52.69 52.06

7.305 7.215 7.128 7.043 6.960

0.8750 0.8642 0.8537 0.8434 0.8333

54.57 53.90 53.24 52.60 51.97

7.295 7.205 7.117 7.031 6.947

1.2609 1.2832 1.3063 1.3303 1.3551

78.64 80.03 81.47 82.96 84.51

10.512 10.698 10.891 11.091 11.297

40 42 44 46 48

0.8251 0.8155 0.8063 0.7972 0.7883

51.46 50.86 50.28 49.72 49.16

6.879 6.799 6.722 6.646 6.572

0.8235 0.8140 0.8046 0.7955 0.7865

51.36 50.76 50.18 49.61 49.05

6.865 6.786 6.708 6.632 6.557

1.3810 1.4078 1.4356 1.4646 1.4948

86.13 87.80 89.53 91.34 93.22

11.513 11.737 11.969 12.210 12.462

50 52 54 56 58

0.7796 0.7711 0.7628 0.7547 0.7467

48.62 48.09 47.57 47.07 46.57

6.499 6.429 6.359 6.292 6.225

0.7778 0.7692 0.7609 0.7527 0.7447

48.51 47.97 47.45 46.94 46.44

6.484 6.413 6.344 6.275 6.209

1.5263 1.5591 1.5934 1.6292 1.6667

95.19 97.23 99.37 101.60 103.94

12.725 12.998 13.284 13.583 13.895

60 62 64 66 68

0.7389 0.7313 0.7238 0.7165 0.7093

46.08 45.61 45.14 44.68 44.23

6.160 6.097 6.034 5.973 5.913

0.7368 0.7292 0.7216 0.7143 0.7071

45.95 45.48 45.00 44.55 44.10

6.143 6.079 6.016 5.955 5.895

1.7059 1.7470 1.7901 1.8354 1.8831

106.39 108.95 111.64 114.46 117.44

14.222 14.565 14.924 15.302 15.699

70 72 74 76 78

0.7022 0.6953 0.6886 0.6819 0.6754

43.79 43.36 42.94 42.53 42.12

5.854 5.797 5.741 5.685 5.631

0.7000 0.6931 0.6863 0.6796 0.6731

43.66 43.22 42.80 42.38 41.98

5.836 5.788 5.722 5.666 5.612

1.9333 – – – –

120.57 – – – –

16.118 – – – –

80 82 84 86 88

0.6690 0.6628 0.6566 0.6506 0.6446

41.72 41.33 40.95 40.57 40.20

5.577 5.526 5.474 5.424 5.374

0.6667 0.6604 0.6542 0.6482 0.6422

41.58 41.19 40.80 40.42 40.05

5.558 5.506 5.454 5.404 5.354

– – – – –

– – – – –

– – – – –

90 92 94 96 98 100

0.6388 0.6331 0.6275 0.6220 0.6166 0.6112

39.84 39.48 39.13 38.79 38.45 38.12

5.326 5.278 5.231 5.186 5.141 5.096

0.6364 0.6306 0.6250 0.6195 0.6140 0.6087

39.69 39.33 38.98 38.63 38.29 37.96

5.306 5.257 5.211 5.165 5.119 5.075

– – – – – –

– – – – – –

– – – – – –


Equivalents: Kinematic and Saybolt Viscosity Equivalents of Kinematic and Saybolt Furol Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity, Centistokes v

Equivalents of Kinematic and Saybolt Universal Viscosity Equivalent Saybolt Furol Viscosity, Sec

At 122°F (50°C) Basic Values

At 210°F (99°C)

48 50 60

25.3 26.1 30.6

25.2 29.8

70 80 90

35.1 39.6 44.1

34.4 39.0 43.7

100 125 150 175

48.6 60.1 71.7 83.8

48.3 60.1 71.8 83.7

200 225 250 275

95.0 106.7 118.4 130.1

95.6 107.5 119.4 131.4

300 325 350 375

141.8 153.6 165.3 177.0

143.5 155.5 167.6 179.7

400 425 450 475

188.8 200.6 212.4 224.1

191.8 204.0 216.1 228.3

500 525 550 575

235.9 247.7 259.5 271.3

240.5 252.8 265.0 277.2

600 625 650 675

283.1 294.9 306.7 318.4

289.5 301.8 314.1 326.4

700 725 750 775

330.2 342.0 353.8 365.5

338.7 351.0 363.4 375.7

800 825 850 875

377.4 389.2 400.9 412.7

388.1 400.5 412.9 425.3

900 925 950 975

424.5 436.3 448.1 459.9

437.7 450.1 462.5 474.9

1000 1024 1050 1075

471.7 483.5 495.2 507.0

487.4 499.8 512.3 524.8

1100 1125 1150 1175

518.8 530.6 542.4 554.2

537.2 549.7 562.2 574.7

1200 1225 1250 1275 1300 Over 1300

566.0 577.8 589.9 601.3 613.1 Saybolt Furol Seconds = Centistokes x 0.4717

587.2 599.7 612.2 624.8 637.3 Log (Saybolt Furol Seconds - 2.87) = 1.0276 [Log (Centistokes)] 0.3975

Kinematic Viscosity, Centistokes v

Equivalent Saybolt Universal Viscosity, Sec At 100°F (37.8°C) Basic Values

At 210°F (99°C)

1.83 2.0 4.0

32.01 32.62 39.14

32.23 32.85 39.41

6.0 8.0 10.0 15.0 20.0

45.56 52.09 58.91 77.39 97.77

45.88 52.45 59.32 77.93 98.45

25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0

119.3 141.3 163.7 186.3 209.1

120.1 142.3 164.9 187.6 210.5

50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0

232.1 255.2 278.3 301.4 324.4

233.8 257.0 280.2 303.5 326.7

75.0 80.0 85.0 90.0 95.0

347.6 370.8 393.9 417.1 440.3

350.0 373.4 396.7 420.0 443.4

100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0

463.5 556.2 648.9 741.6 834.2

466.7 560.1 653.4

200.0 220.0 240.0 250.0 280.0

926.9 1019.6 1112.3 1205.0 1297.7

300.0 320.0 340.0 360.0 380.0

1390.4 1483.1 1575.8 1668.5 1761.2

400.0 420.0 440.0 460.0 480.0 500.0

1853.9 1946.6 2039.3 2132.0 2224.7 2317.4

Over 500

Saybolt Seconds = Centistokes x 4.6347

Saybolt Seconds = Centistokes x 4.6673

Note: To obtain the Saybolt Universal viscosity equivalent to a kinematic viscosity determined at t, multiply the equivalent Saybolt Universal viscosity at 100°F (37.8°C) by 1+(t - 100) 0.000 064. For example, 10 v at 210°F (99°C) are equivalent to 58.91 multiplied by 1.0070 or 59.32 sec Saybolt Universal at 210°F (99°C). These tables are reprinted with the permission of the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM). The table at the left was abstracted from Table 1,D2161-63T. The table at the right was abstracted from Table 3, D2161-63T.

15


16

2048.16

14.2233

5.1929

62.315

70.7262

2.78450

2088.54

20885.4

0.036062

0.432744

0.491154

0.0193368

14.5038

145.038

in./water*

ft./water*

in. mercury†

mm mercury†

Bars‡

MPa‡

.0014198

mm water column

.20445

.0000966

0.0098692

9.8692

0.98692

0.0013158

0.033420

0.029446

0.002454

0.0000968

0.96784

1

0.000473

0.068046

Atmospheres

EXAMPLE: (5 kg/cm2) (2048.16) = 10,240.8 lb./ft.2

*Water at 68°F (20°C)

0.145038

kPa

20.8854

0.204816

0.001422

kg/m

2

kg/cm

2116.22

14.696

1

144.0

lb/ft2

2

0.0069444

1

lb/in2

Atmospheres

2

lb/ft.

lb/in.2

TO OBTAIN MULTIPLY BY

.99819

101.972

101972.0

10197.2

13.595

345.319

304.249

25.354

1

10000.0

10332.0

4.88243

703.070

kg/m2

.039370

4.02190

4021.90

402.190

0.53621

13.6197

12.0

1

0.03944

394.41

407.520

0.019257

27.7300

in. water (68°F)*

†mercury at 32°F (0°C)

.0000998

0.0101972

10.1972

1.01972

0.0013595

0.03453

0.030425

0.00253

0.0001

1

1.0332

0.000488

0.070307

kg/cm2

.002891

0.2953

295.300

29.5300

0.03937

1

0.88108

0.073423

0.002896

28.959

29.921

0.014139

2.03602

in. mercury (32°F)†

.073423

7.50061

7500.61

750.061

1

25.4

22.3793

1.8649

0.073556

735.558

760.00

0.35913

51.7149

mm mercury (32°F)†

.0000979

0.01

10.0

1

0.001333

0.033864

0.29837

0.002486

0.000098

0.98066

1.01325

0.0004788

0.068948

Bars ‡

.0000098

0.001

1

0.10

0.0001333

0.0033864

0.0029837

0.000249

0.0000098

0.098066

0.101325

0.0000479

0.0068948

MegaPascals (MPa)‡

0.04788

6.8948

kPa

1 .0097889

1000.0

100.0

0.13332

3.3864

2.9837

0.24864

0.0098

98.066

101.325

‡MPa (MegaPascal) = 10 Bars = 1,000,000 N/m2 (Newtons/meter2)

.003281

0.33516

335.158

33.5158

0.044684

1.1350

1

0.08333

0.003287

32.868

33.9600

0.016048

2.3108

ft. water (68°F)*

1

102.156

102156.0

10215.6

13.6197

345.94

304.800

25.4

1.00181

10018.1

10351.0

4.89127

704.342

mm water (68°F)

To convert from one set of units to another, locate the given unit in the left hand column, and multiply the numerical value by the factor shown horizontally to the right, under the set of units desired.

Equivalents: Pressure and Head


Properties: Density and Specific Gravity of Selected Liquids Liquid Acetaldehyde Acetone Acetic Anhydride Acid, Acetic Conc. Acid, Benzoic Acid, Butyric, Conc. Acid, Hydrochloric, 42.5% Acid, Hydrocyanic Acid, Nitric, Conc. Boil. Acid, Ortho-phosphoric Ammonia, Saturated Aniline Argon Asphalt Beer Benzene Brine, 10% CaCl Brine, 10% NaCl Bromine Bunkers C Fuel Max Butane-n Carbon Disulphide Carbon Monoxide Carbon Tetrachloride China Wood Oil Chloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic Acid Citric Acid Cocoanut Oil Corn syrup 86.4 Brix Corn syrup 78.4 Brix Creosote Cresol, Meta Decane-n Diesel Fuel grade 1-D Diesel Fuel grade 2-D Diesel Fuel grade 4-D Diphenyl Distallate Dowtherm A Ethanol Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Alcohol Ethylamine Ethyl Benzene Ethyl Chloride Ethyl Oxide Ethylene Glycol Fluorine Formaldehyde Formic Acid Fuell 3 Max Fuel 5 Min Fuel 5 Max Fuel 6 Min Fuel Oil (Bunker C) Furfural Gasoline Gasoline, Natural Glucose Glycerol (Glycerine) Glycol Helium Heptane Heptane-n Hexane-n Hexanol Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen Sulfide Ink, printers Ionene Isobutyl Alcohol Isopropyl Alcohol Jet Fuel, grade JP-4 Kerosene Lard

Temperature °F °C 64 60 68 68 59 68 64 64 64 65 10 68 60 75 60 32 32 32 60 60 60 32 60 68 60 77 68 68 60 60 60 60 60 60 68 60 60 60 60 163 60 700 77 77 68 77 61 68 68 30 60 60 113 100 60 60 60 60 59 68 60 60 60 122 68 60 68 60 60 77 60 60 60 60 77 68 68 60 60 60

17.8 15.6 20.0 20.0 15.0 20.0 17.8 17.8 17.8 18.3 -12.2 20.0 15.6 23.9 15.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.6 15.6 15.6 0.0 15.6 20.0 15.6 25.0 20.0 20.0 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 20.0 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 72.8 15.6 371.1 25.0 25.0 20.0 25.0 16.1 20.0 20.0 -1.1 15.6 15.6 45.0 37.8 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 20.0 15.6 15.6 15.6 50.0 20.0 15.6 20.0 15.6 15.6 25.0 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 25.0 20.0 20.0 15.6 15.6 15.6

Density➀ Specific➁ Gravity lb/ft3 38.9 49.4 67.5 65.5 79.0 60.2 92.3 43.5 93.7 114.4 40.9 63.8 102.9 61.1 63.0 56.1 68.1 67.2 182.7 63.3 36.4 80.6 49.9 99.6 58.8 97.3 69.1 92.9 75.5 96.1 57.9 91.1 87.9 66.7 64.5 45.5 51.5 54.0 57.3 61.9 63.0 45.5 48.6 44.7 56.1 49.1 42.6 53.6 78.0 54.9 70.5 69.7 50.8 56.1 56.0 60.2 61.9 61.9 62.3 72.3 46.8 42.4 87.3 78.6 69.2 8.7 42.7 42.9 41.4 50.7 57.4 53.6 49.3 74.8 58.3 50.5 49.9 53.0 50.8 59.9

0.8 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.4 0.8 1.5 1.8 0.7 1.0 1.7 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.1 3.0 1.0 0.6 1.3 0.8 1.6 1.0 1.6 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.5 0.9 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.8 0.7 1.4 1.3 1.1 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.8 1.0

Liquid Lard Oil Linolenic Acid Linseed Oil M. C. Residuum Mercury Mercury Mercury Mercury Mercury Methane Methyl Alcohol Methylene Chloride Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Propyl Milk Mineral Oil Naphtha, Petroleum Naphtha, Wood Naphthalene Nonane-n Nonanol Ocimene Octane-n Oil, Olive Palmitic Acid Pentane Petroleum Ether Phenol Phosgene Phosphorus Propane Propanol Propyl Alcohol Propylene Propylene Glycol Pyridine Resorcinol Rosin Oil Sabiname SAE 10 Lube SAE 30 Lube SAE 70 Lube Salt Creek Crude Silane Sorbaldehyde Sperm Oil Starch Stearic Acid Styrene Sucrose 60 Brix Sucrose 76 Brix Sulphur Dioxide Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric Acid Sulphur Trioxide 32.6° API Crude 35.6° API Crude 40° API Crude 48° API Crude Tar, Road RT-4 Tar, Road RT-8 Tar, Road RT-12 Terpinene Toluene (Toluol) Transmission Oil Trichloroethylene Turpentine Varnish, spar Vegetable Oil Water Water Water, Distilled Water, sea Whale Oil Xylol (Xylene)

Temperature °F °C 60 77 60 60 20 40 60 80 100 -2.66 77 68 72 58 60 80 59 77 77 60 77 77 60 69 77 59 60 77 32 93 0 77 77 77 77 68 77 60 77 60 60 60 60 77 77 60 60 77 77 60 60 32 68 60 70 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 212 68 80 68 60 60 60 60 100 70 60 60 68

15.6 25.0 15.6 15.6 -6.7 4.4 15.6 26.7 37.8 -16.3 25.0 20.0 22.2 14.4 15.6 26.7 15.0 25.0 25.0 15.6 25.0 25.0 15.6 15.0 25.0 15.0 15.6 25.0 0 33.9 -17.7 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 20.0 25.0 15.6 25.0 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 25.0 25.0 15.6 15.6 25.0 25.0 15.6 15.6 0.0 20.0 15.6 21.1 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 100.0 20.0 26.7 20.0 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 37.8 21.1 15.6 15.6 20.0

Density➀ Specific➁ Gravity lb/ft3 57.4 56.3 58.0 58.3 849.7 848.0 846.3 844.6 842.9 29.1 49.2 83.4 49.9 50.5 64.8 56.1 41.6 43.7 60.1 64.8 51.3 49.9 44.1 57.3 53.2 38.9 39.9 66.8 86.1 108.5 30.1 50.3 50.0 32.2 60.4 61.3 79.3 61.1 50.8 54.6 56.0 57.1 53.8 44.8 56.0 86.7 93.6 58.7 56.5 80.5 86.7 89.2 116.0 114.1 119.8 53.8 52.8 51.4 49.2 67.4 70.5 71.7 53.0 54.1 58.6 91.5 53.9 56.1 56.8 62.4 61.9 61.7 64.2 57.7 55.0

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 13.6 13.6 13.6 13.5 13.5 0.5 0.8 1.3 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.6 1.1 1.4 1.7 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.4 1.5 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.5 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9

➀ Density is shown for the temperature listed. ➁ Specific gravity uses water at 60°F as base conditions.

17


Properties: Density and Specific Gravity of Selected Gases

Gas

Chemical Formula

Acetylene Air Ammonia Argon Bio Gas (65% Methane, 35% CO2)

Molecular Weight

Density➀ lb/ft3

Density➁ kg/m3

Specific➁ Gravity

C2H2

26.04

.0673

1.1459

0.899

28.96

.0748

1.2740

1.000

NH3

17.03

.0440

0.7491

0.588

Ar

39.95

.1032

1.7572

1.379

25.83

.0668

1.1363

0.892

Butane-N

C4H10

58.12

.1502

2.5567

2.007

Butylene

C4H8

56.11

.1450

2.4681

1.937

Carbon Dioxide

CO2

44.11

.1137

1.9359

1.520

Carbon Monoxide

CO

28.01

.0724

1.2321

0.967

Chlorine

Cl2

70.91

.1833

3.1205

2.499

Ethane

C2H6

30.07

.0777

1.3227

1.038

Ethylene

C2H4

28.05

.0725

1.2340

0.969

Helium Hextane, Average Hydrogen

He

4.00

.0103

0.1761

0.138

C6H14

86.18

.2227

3.7908

2.976

H2

2.02

.0052

0.0887

0.070

Hydrogen Sulfide

H2S

34.08

.0881

1.4997

2.125

Methane

CH4

16.04

.0415

0.7057

0.554

Nitric Oxide

NO

30.00

.0776

1.3202

1.071

Nitrogen

N2

28.01

.0724

1.2323

0.967

N2O

44.01

.1138

1.9367

1.376

Oxygen

O2

32.00

.0827

1.4076

1.105

Pentane

C5H12

72.15

.1865

3.1738

2.491

Propane

C3H8

44.10

.1140

1.9397

1.523

Propylene

C3H6

42.08

.1088

1.8510

1.453

Sulphur Dioxide

SO2

64.06

.1656

2.8191

2.213

Nitrous Oxide

➀ Density is given for gas at 14.7 psia @ +70° F. ➁ Density is given for gas at 1 bar @ +0° C.

18


Properties: Density and Specific Gravity of Saturated Water Temperature 째F

째C

Pressure PSI

Density lbs/ft3

S.G.

Temperature 째F

째C

Pressure PSI

Density lbs/ft3

S.G.

32

0

0.09

62.42

1.00

210

99

14.13

59.88

0.96

35

2

0.10

62.42

1.00

212

100

14.70

59.81

0.96

40

4

0.12

62.42

1.00

220

104

17.19

59.63

0.96

45

7

0.15

62.42

1.00

230

110

20.78

59.35

0.95

50

10

0.18

62.42

1.00

240

116

24.97

59.10

0.95

52

11

0.19

62.38

1.00

250

121

29.82

58.82

0.94

54

12

0.21

62.38

1.00

260

127

65.42

58.55

0.94

56

13

0.22

62.38

1.00

270

132

41.83

58.24

0.93

58

14

0.24

62.38

1.00

280

138

49.18

57.94

0.93

60

16

0.26

62.34

1.00

290

143

57.53

57.64

0.92

62

17

0.28

62.34

1.00

300

149

66.98

57.31

0.92

64

18

0.30

62.34

1.00

310

154

77.64

56.98

0.91

66

19

0.32

62.34

1.00

320

160

89.60

56.66

0.91

68

20

0.34

62.31

1.00

330

166

103.00

56.34

0.90

70

21

0.36

62.31

1.00

340

171

117.93

55.96

0.90

72

22

0.39

62.27

1.00

350

177

134.53

55.59

0.89

74

23

0.42

62.27

1.00

360

182

152.92

55.22

0.88

76

24

0.45

62.27

1.00

370

188

173.23

54.85

0.88

78

26

0.48

62.23

1.00

380

193

195.60

54.47

0.87

80

27

0.51

62.23

1.00

390

199

220.20

54.05

0.87

82

28

0.54

62.19

1.00

400

204

247.10

53.65

0.86

84

29

0.58

62.19

1.00

410

210

276.50

53.25

0.85

86

30

0.62

62.15

1.00

420

216

308.50

52.80

0.85

88

31

0.66

62.15

1.00

430

221

343.30

52.38

0.84

90

32

0.70

62.11

1.00

440

227

381.20

51.92

0.83

92

33

0.74

62.07

0.99

450

232

422.10

51.47

0.82

94

34

0.79

62.07

0.99

460

238

466.30

50.99

0.82

96

36

0.84

62.03

0.99

470

243

514.10

50.51

0.81

98

37

0.89

62.03

0.99

480

249

565.50

50.00

0.80

100

38

0.95

62.00

0.99

490

254

620.70

49.48

0.79

110

43

1.28

61.84

0.99

500

260

680.00

48.95

0.78

120

49

1.70

61.69

0.99

520

271

811.40

47.82

0.77

130

54

2.23

61.54

0.99

540

282

961.50

46.62

0.75

140

61

2.89

61.39

0.98

560

293

1131.80

45.31

0.73

150

66

3.72

61.20

0.98

580

304

1324.30

43.90

0.70

160

71

4.74

60.98

0.98

600

316

1541.00

42.32

0.68

170

77

6.00

60.79

0.97

620

327

1784.40

40.57

0.65

180

82

7.52

60.57

0.97

640

338

2057.10

38.57

0.62

190

88

9.34

60.35

0.97

660

349

2362.00

36.14

0.58

200

92

11.53

60.13

0.96

680

360

2705.00

32.98

0.53

700

371

3090.00

27.28

0.44

705

374

3204.00

19.79

0.32

19


Properties: Density of Superheated Steam and Compressed Water Superheated Steam and Compressed Water Density lbm/ft3

Temperature 째F

20

째C

1 PSIA

2 PSIA

5 PSIA

10 PSIA

20 PSIA

50 PSIA

100 PSIA

200 PSIA

500 PSIA

750 PSIA

1000 PSIA

32 40 60 80 100

0 4 16 27 38

62.42 62.42 62.37 62.23 62.00

62.42 62.42 62.37 62.23 62.00

62.42 62.42 62.37 62.23 62.00

62.42 62.42 62.37 62.23 62.00

62.42 62.42 62.37 62.23 62.00

62.42 62.42 62.37 62.23 62.00

62.42 62.42 62.37 62.23 62.00

62.46 62.46 62.42 62.27 62.04

62.54 62.54 62.46 62.31 62.07

62.58 62.58 62.50 62.38 62.15

62.62 62.62 62.58 62.42 62.19

120 140 160 180 200

49 60 71 82 93

.002901 .002804 .002713 .002628 .002548

61.73 .005619 .005435 .005263 .005101

61.73 61.39 60.98 .01321 .01280

61.73 61.39 60.98 60.55 .02575

61.73 61.39 61.01 60.57 60.10

61.73 61.39 61.01 60.57 60.13

61.73 61.39 61.01 60.57 60.13

61.77 61.43 61.01 60.61 60.13

61.81 61.46 61.09 60.68 60.21

61.84 61.50 61.13 60.72 60.24

61.88 61.58 61.20 60.75 60.31

220 240 260 280 300

104 116 127 138 149

.002472 .002402 .002334 .002271 .002211

.004950 .004807 .004672 .004545 .004425

.01241 .01205 .01171 .01139 .01108

.02495 .02420 .02351 .02285 .02223

59.59 .04885 .04738 .04602 .04473

59.60 59.10 58.51 57.94 .1140

59.60 59.10 58.55 57.94 57.31

59.67 59.10 58.55 57.97 57.34

59.70 59.17 58.62 58.04 57.41

59.77 59.24 58.69 58.07 57.57

59.81 59.28 58.72 58.14 57.54

320 340 360 380 400

160 171 182 193 204

.002154 .002100 .002049 .002000 .001954

.004311 .004203 .004100 .004002 .003908

.01079 .01052 .01026 .01002 .009781

.02165 .02109 .02057 .02007 .01960

.04352 .04239 .04131 .04029 .03933

.1107 .1076 .1047 .1019 .09938

56.63 .2213 .2146 .2084 .2026

56.66 55.96 55.22 54.47 .4238

56.75 56.05 55.31 54.56 53.74

56.82 56.12 55.40 54.65 53.82

56.88 56.18 55.46 54.71 53.91

420 440 460 480 500

216 227 238 249 260

.001909 .001866 .001826 .001787 .001750

.003819 .003734 .003653 .003575 .003500

.009557 .009343 .009139 .008944 .008756

.01914 .01871 .01830 .01791 .01753

.03841 .03753 .03670 .03590 .03514

.09696 09466 .09249 .09042 .08845

.1973 .1923 .1876 .1832 .1790

.4104 .3982 .3870 .3766 .3670

52.88 51.98 50.99 1.049 1.008

52.97 52.08 51.13 50.08 48.97

53.08 52.17 51.23 50.20 49.12

520 540 560 580 600

271 282 293 304 316

.001714 .001680 .001647 .001615 .001585

.003429 .003360 .003294 .003230 .003169

.008576 .008405 .008239 .008080 .007927

.01717 .01682 .01649 .01617 .01587

03441 .03371 .03304 .03240 .03178

.08657 .08477 .08305 .08140 .07982

.1750 .1712 .1676 .1642 .1609

.3580 .3496 .3416 .3341 .3270

.9728 .9413 .9128 .8870 .8633

1.603 1.530 1.468 1.415 1.367

47.94 46.64 2.142 2.035 1.947

620 640 660 680 700

327 338 349 360 371

.001555 .001527 .001499 .001473 .001448

.003111 .003054 .002999 .002947 .002896

.007780 .007638 .007501 .007369 .007242

.01557 .01529 .01501 .01475 .01449

.03119 .03061 .03006 .02953 .02902

.07830 .07683 .07543 .07408 .07278

.1577 .1547 .1518 .1490 .1464

.3202 .3137 .3076 .3017 .2960

.8413 .8209 .8019 .7840 .7671

1.325 1.287 1.252 1.219 1.189

1.871 1.804 1.746 1.693 1.645

720 740 760 780 800

382 393 404 416 427

.001423 .001400 .001376 .001354 .001333

.002847 .002799 .002753 .002709 .002666

.007119 .007000 .006885 .006774 .006666

.01425 .01401 .01378 .01355 .01334

.02852 .02804 .02758 .02713 .02670

.07152 .07030 .06913 .06800 .06690

.1438 .1413 .1389 .1366 .1344

.2906 .2854 .2804 .2755 .2709

.7510 .7359 .7215 .7077 .6946

1.161 1.135 1.111 1.087 1.065

1.601 1.560 1.523 1.488 1.455

820 840 860 880 900

438 449 460 471 482

.001312 .001292 .001272 .001253 .001235

.002624 002584 .002545 .002507 .002470

.006562 .006461 .006363 .006268 .006175

.01313 .01293 .01273 .01254 .01235

.02628 .02587 .02548 .02509 .02472

.06584 .06482 .06382 .06286 .06192

.1322 .1301 .1281 .1261 .1242

.2664 .2621 .2579 .2539 .2500

.6820 .6700 .6584 .6473 .6366

1.045 1.025 1.006 .9877 .9703

1.424 1.394 1.367 1.340 1.315

920 940 960 980 1000

493 504 516 527 538

.001217 .001199 .001182 .001166 .001150

.002434 .002399 .002365 .002332 .002300

.006086 .005998 .005914 .005832 .005752

.01217 .01200 .01183 .01167 .01151

.02436 .02401 .02367 .02334 .02302

.06101 .06013 .05928 .05845 .05764

.1224 .1206 .1187 .1172 .1155

.2462 .2425 .2389 .2355 .2321

.6263 .6163 .6068 .5976 .5885

.9537 .9377 .9223 .9075 .8933

1.291 1.269 1.247 1.226 1.206

Saturated Steam Saturated Water Tsat 째F

.002998 61.96 101.74

.005755 61.61 126.07

.01360 60.94 162.24

.02603 60.28 193.21

.04978 59.42 227.96

.1175 57.90 281.02

.2257 56.37 327.82

.4372 54.38 381.80

1.078 50.63 467.01

1.641 48.33 510.84

2.242 46.32 544.58


Properties: Specific Gravity of Petroleum Products Temperature Relationship for Petroleum Oils (Reproduced by permission from the Oil and Gas Journal)

0.8

0.7

0.6

4 . 6 24 6 0.

0.5

C 3H

H 10 C4 H 10 C4

09 8

8

0.3

C5

4 58 0. 564 0.

0.5

0.4

.0 65 .6 70 .6 76 .9 82 .5 89 H 12

Specific Gravity 60/60 1.04 API Gravity 1.00 at 60° F .98 .96 .94 7 .92 10 .1 12.9 .0 .90 1 5 .88 19.0 .9 .86 22.3 .84 25.7 .82 29 .80 .3 33. .7 0 37 .7 8 . 0 .74 6 41 .7 .1 45 .7 2 49 .4 .6 0 .9 5 .6 8 6 59 4.7 .7

0.9

0.37 C 2H 6

S – Specific Gravity of Oil at any Temperature (Referred to water at 60° F)

1.0

CRITICAL TEMPERATURE

0.2

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Temp. (°F) Example: The specific gravity of an oil at 60°F is 0.85. The specific gravity at 100°F = 0.83.

C₂H₆ = Ethane C₃H₈ = Propane C₄H₁₀ = Butane iC₄H₁₀ = Isobutane iC₅H₁₂ = Isopentane

To find the weight density of a petroleum oil at its flowing temperature when the specific gravity at 60°F is known, multiply the specific gravity of the oil at flowing temperature (see chart above) by 62.4, the density of water at 60°F. *Reprinted from Crane Company’s Technical Paper 410.

Specific Gravity versus API Gravity (for hydrocarbon based products and water gravity °A.P.I.)

°API 1.00

Specific Gravity

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

°API =

141.5 – 131.5 G

0.50 150

130

110

90

70

50

30

10

0

21


Properties: Density of Air Temperature

Air Density lbm/ft3 500 600 PSIA PSIA

700 PSIA

800 PSIA

900 PSIA

1000 PSIA

1100 PSIA

4.0533 3.8295 3.6321 3.4567 3.2992

4.7628 4.492 4.2547 4.0447 3.857

5.4768 5.1594 4.8805 4.6347 4.4157

6.2031 5.8308 5.5086 5.2258 4.9748

6.9315 6.5051 6.1382 5.8175 5.5338

7.6632 7.1811 6.7684 6.409 6.092

2.6266 2.5205 2.4234 2.3339 2.2511

3.1569 3.0275 2.9093 2.8006 2.7001

3.6879 3.5347 3.3949 3.2666 3.1482

4.2191 4.0416 3.8798 3.7316 3.5951

4.7502 4.5478 4.3637 4.1954 4.0406

5.2805 5.0529 4.8464 4.6577 4.4845

5.8098 5.5567 5.3274 5.1184 4.9265

1.7406 1.684 1.6311 1.5815 1.5349

2.1744 2.103 2.0364 1.9741 1.9156

2.6073 2.521 2.4405 2.3654 2.2948

3.0391 2.938 2.8432 2.7551 2.6725

3.4695 3.3529 3.2444 3.1432 3.0485

3.8985 3.7665 3.6439 3.5296 3.4228

4.3257 4.1783 4.0417 3.9144 3.7953

4.7509 4.5882 4.4375 4.2972 4.1658

1.4911 1.4497 1.4107 1.3737 1.3388

1.8606 1.8088 1.7599 1.7136 1.6698

2.2288 2.1666 2.1078 1.9997 2.0523

2.5956 2.5231 2.4546 2.3897 2.6553

2.9608 2.8779 2.7997 2.7256 2.6553

3.3239 3.2306 3.1424 3.059 2.98

3.6846 3.4803 3.4819 3.389 3.3013

4.0424 3.9264 3.8174 3.7147 3.6184

°F

°C

14.73 PSIA

–40 –20 0 20 40

–40 –29 –18 – 7 4

0.0949 0.0905 0.0866 0.0830 0.0797

0.6488 0.6182 0.5905 0.5652 0.5421

1.3087 1.245 1.1875 1.1353 1.0878

1.9796 1.8799 1.7906 1.71 1.6368

2.661 2.5227 2.3995 2.2887 2.1886

3.3525 3.1728 3.0135 2.8711 2.7429

60 80 100 120 140

16 27 38 49 60

0.0765 0.0737 0.0711 0.0687 0.0664

0.5208 0.5012 0.4829 0.4660 0.4503

1.0442 1.0041 0.9670 0.9327 0.9007

1.5699 1.5085 1.4519 1.3997 1.3511

2.0974 2.0141 1.9375 1.8668 1.8013

160 180 200 220 240

71 82 93 104 116

0.0641 0.0621 0.0602 0.0585 0.0568

0.4356 0.4218 0.4089 0.3967 0.3853

0.871 0.8432 0.8171 0.7927 0.7697

1.3061 1.264 1.2246 1.1877 1.1529

260 280 300 320 340

127 138 149 160 171

0.0552 0.0537 0.0523 0.0510 0.0497

0.3745 0.3644 0.3547 0.3456 0.3369

0.7480 0.7275 0.7081 0.6898 0.6724

1.1202 1.0893 1.0601 1.0325 1.0063

100 PSIA

200 PSIA

300 PSIA

400 PSIA

Properties: Speed of Sound Gases air, dry ammonia argon carbon dioxide carbon monoxide chlorine deuterium ethane ethylene helium hydrogen hydrogen bromide hydrogen chloride hydrogen iodide hydrogen sulfide illuminating (coal gas) methane neon nitric oxide nitrogen nitrous oxide oxygen sulfur dioxide

22

m/sec

ft/sec

331 415 308 259 338 206 890 308 317 965 1284 200 206 157 289 453 430 435 324 334 263 316 213

1086 1362 1010 850 1109 676 2920 1010 1040 3166 4213 656 676 515 948 1486 1411 1427 1063 1096 863 1037 699

Vapors acetone benzene carbon tetrachloride chloroform ethanol ethyl ether methanol water

m/sec

ft/sec

230 202 145 171 269 206 335 494

755 663 476 561 883 676 1099 1621

Note: the speed of sound in gases is measured at 32°F (0°C) except ethane and nitric oxide which is measured at 50°F (10°C). The speed of sound in vapors is measured at 206°F (97°C) except water which is measured at 270°F (134°C).


Properties: Dielectric Constants of Liquids This listing contains dielectric values for the most commonly used materials. This information can be used to help select a probe, establish how much capacitance information your particular application will develop, or determine the effect of a coating on the probe.

Liquids Acenaphthene Acetal Acetaldehyde Acetaldoxime Acetamide Acetanilide Acetic Acid Acetic Anhydride Acetone Acetone Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetoxime Acetylacetone Acetylbromide Acetylchloride Acetylmethyl Hexyl Ketone Acrylic Resin Aliphatic Amine Allyl Alcohol Allyl Bromide Allyl Chloride Allyl Iodide Allyl Isothiocyanate Alluminum Bromide Alluminum Oleate Alox 600 Aminox Ammonia Ammonia Ammonia Ammonia, Aqueous Amyl Acetate Amyl Alcohol Amyl Alcohol Amyl Alcohol Amylamine Amyl Benzoate Amyl Bromide Amyl Chloride Amylene Amylene Bromide Amyl Ether Amyl Formate Amyl Iodide Amylmercapton Amyl Nitrate Amyl Thiocyanate Aniline Aniline Aniline Anisaldehyde Anisoldoxine Anisole Antimony Pentachloride Antimony Tribromide Antimony Trichloride Antimony Tricodide Arsenic Tribromide

Temperature °F °C 70 70 50 70 68 71 65 70 75 80 130 70 75 75 68 68 68 66 70 195 70 66 68 66 64 212 68 130 275 -30 -104 75 70 68 -180 68 140 72 68 50 52 70 58 60 66 62 68 62 68 32 68 212 68 145 68 68 212 166 347 98

21 21 10 21 20 22 18 21 24 27 54 21 24 24 20 20 20 19 20 90 21 19 20 19 18 100 20 54 135 -34 -75 24 21 20 -118 20 60 22 20 10 11 21 14 16 19 17 20 17 20 0 20 100 20 63 20 20 100 74 175 37

Dielectric Constant 3.0 3.6 22.2 3.4 4.0 2.9 6.1 22.0 20.7 20.7 17.7 37.5 17.3 3.0 23.1 16.5 15.8 27.9 3.0 7.2 21.0 7.0 8.2 6.1 17.5 3.4 2.4 4.1 2.4 22.4 25.0 16.9 16.8 5.0 35.5 15.8 11.2 4.6 5.1 6.3 6.6 2.0 5.6 3.1 5.7 6.9 4.7 9.1 17.4 7.8 7.3 5.5 15.8 9.2 4.3 3.2 20.9 33.0 13.9 9.0

Non-conductive materials are those with dielectric values less than 10. Conductive materials are those with dielectric values greater than 10.

Liquids Arsenic Trichloride Arsenic Triiodide Arsine Asphalt Azoxyanisole Azoxybenzene BPA Beef Talo Benzal Chloride Benzaldehyde Benzaldoxime Benzene Benzil Benzonitrile Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzophenone Benzotrichloride Benzoylacetone Benzoyl Chloride Benzoyl Chloride Benzyl Acetate Benzyl Alcohol Benzylamine Benzyl Benzoate Benzyl Chloride Benzyl Cyanide Benzyl Ethylamine Benzyl Methylamine Benzyl Salicylate Bornyl Acetate Boron Bromide Boronyl Chloride Bromal Bromocotyl Bromide Bromohexadecane Bromine Bromo-2-Ethoxyheptane Bromoaniline Bromoanisole Bromobenzene Bromobutylene Bromobutyric Acid Bromodecane Bromodocosane Bromododocane Bromo-2-Othoxypentane Bromoform Bromoheptane Bromohexane Bromolsovoleric Acid Bromonaphtholene Bromooctodecane Bromopentaeocane Bromoproplonic Acid Bromotoluene Bromotridecone Bromoundecone Butane N-Butylacetate

Temperature °F °C 70 302 -58 75 122 104 68 70 68 68 68 68 202 68 160 68 122 68 68 158 75 70 68 68 68 68 68 68 67 68 70 32 202 70 68 76 68 68 66 86 68 68 68 76 130 76 76 68 76 76 68 66 86 68 68 68 50 15 30 66

21 150 -50 24 50 40 20 21 20 20 20 20 95 20 71 20 50 20 20 70 24 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 20 21 0 95 21 20 24 20 20 19 30 20 20 20 24 54 24 24 20 24 24 20 19 30 20 20 20 10 –9 –1 19

Dielectric Constant 12.4 7.0 2.7 2.7 2.3 5.1 5.0 2.8 6.9 17.0 3.8 2.3 13.0 26.0 22.0 13.0 11.4 7.4 3.8 22.1 19.0 5.0 13.0 4.6 4.8 6.4 18.3 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.6 2.6 5.2 7.6 12.6 3.7 3.1 5.5 13.0 7.1 5.4 5.8 7.2 4.4 3.1 4.1 6.5 4.4 5.3 5.8 6.5 5.1 3.5 3.9 11.0 5.1 4.2 4.7 1.4 5.1

23


Properties: Dielectric Constants of Liquids (cont.) Liquids Iso-Butylacetate Iso-Butylamine N-Butyl Alcohol Iso-Butyl Alcohol Iso-Butyl Alochol Iso-Butyl Alcohol Butylomine N-Butyl Bromide Butyl Chlorol Butyl Chloride N-Butyl Formate N-Butyl Iodide Iso-Butyl Iodide Iso-Butyl Nitrate Butyric Anhydride Butyroldehyda Butyric Acid N-Butyricacid Iso-Butyric Acid Butyric Anhydride Butyronitrile Iso-Butyronitrile Cable Oil Camphanedione Camphene Camphorpinacane Caproic Acid Caprolactum Caprylic Acid Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Carbon Disulfide Carbon Tetrachloride Carvenone Carveol Carvone Castor Oil Castor Oil Camphene Camphoric Imide Cetyl Iodide Chloral Hydrate Chlorocetic Acid Chlorine Chloroocelle Acid Chloroacetone Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzene Chlorocyclohexane Chloroheptane Chloroform Chlorohexanone oxime Chlorohydrate Chloronophtholene O-Chlorophenol 3-Chloro-1, Dihydroxprone Chlorooctane Chlorotoluene Cholestrol Chorine Chromyl Chloride Cis-3-Hexene Cinnamaldehyde Citranconic Anhydride Cocaine Copper Oleate Creosol O-Cresol M-Cresol P-Cresol

24

Temperature °F °C 68 70 66 112 32 68 70 68 64 68 317 77 68 66 68 79 68 68 68 68 70 75 75 398 68 68 160 180 65 32 -110 68 68 68 64 71 58 75 104 480 68 59 140 32 68 68 68 212 76 71 32 192 68 76 66 68 76 68 80 170 68 76 75 68 68 68 62 75 75 75

20 21 19 45 0 20 21 20 18 20 158 25 20 19 20 26 20 20 20 20 21 24 24 203 20 20 71 82 18 0 -80 20 20 20 18 22 14 24 40 249 20 15 60 0 20 20 20 100 24 22 0 89 20 24 19 20 24 20 27 77 20 24 24 20 20 20 17 24 24 24

Dielectric Constant 5.6 4.5 7.8 31.7 20.5 18.7 5.4 6.6 10.0 9.6 2.4 6.1 5.8 11.9 12.0 13.4 2.8 2.9 2.7 12.9 20.7 20.8 2.2 16.0 2.7 3.6 2.6 13.1 3.2 1.6 2.1 2.6 2.2 18.4 11.2 11.0 4.8 2.6 2.3 5.5 3.3 5.5 12.3 2.0 21.0 29.8 5.9 4.7 7.6 5.5 5.5 3.0 3.3 5.0 8.2 31.0 5.1 4.7 2.9 1.7 2.6 2.1 16.9 40.3 3.1 2.8 10.6 5.8 5.0 5.6

Liquids

Temperature °F °C

Cresol 75 Crisco Oil 130 Crotonic Nitrice 68 Cumaldehyde 59 Cumene 68 Cumicaldehyde 58 Cupric Oxide 60 Cyanoacetic Acid 40 Cyanoethyl Acetate 68 Cyanogen 73 Cyclohedane 68 Cyclohexane 68 Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid 88 Cyclohexanone oxime 192 Cyclohexanemethanol 140 Cyclohexanone 68 Cyclohexylomine –5 Cyclohexylphenol 130 Cyclohexyltrifluoromethane -120 Cyclohexanol 77 Cyclopentane 68 P-Cymene 63 Cymene 62 Decahydronaphthalene 68 Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane 68 Decamethyltetrasiloxane 68 Decane 68 Decane 340 Decylene 62 Decyne 68 Decanol 68 Deuterium 68 Deuterium Oxide 76 Diacetoxybutane 76 Diallyl Sufide 68 Dibenzyl Sebacate 68 Dibroheptane 24 Dibromobenzene 68 P-Dibromobenzene 190 Dibromobutane 68 Dibromoethylene 32 Dibromomethane 50 Dibromoheptane 76 Dibromohexane 76 Dibromopropane 68 Dibromopropyl Alcohol 70 Dibenzylomine 68 Dibutyl phtolote 86 Dibutyl tartrote 109 Dichlorocetic Acid 68 Dibutyl sebacote 86 Dichlorocotone 68 O-Dichlorobenzone 77 P-Dichlorobenzone 68 O-Dichlorobenzene 68 Dichlorobenzene 127 1, 2-Dichloroethane 77 Dichloroethane 68 Dichlorostyrene 76 Dichlorotoluene 68 Dicyclohexyladipate 95 1-Diethoxyethane 76 Diethyloniline 66 Diethyl Benzalmalamate 32 Diethyl Di-malmate 64 Diethyl Disulfide 64 Diethyl Glutarate 86 Diethyl Ketone 58 Diethyl-L-malate 68 Diethyl Malanate 70

24 54 20 15 20 14 16 4 20 23 20 20 31 89 60 20 –21 54 -84 25 20 17 17 20 20 20 20 171 17 20 20 20 24 24 20 20 -4 20 88 20 0 10 24 24 20 21 20 30 43 20 30 20 25 20 20 53 25 20 24 20 35 24 19 0 18 18 30 14 20 21

Dielectric Constant 5.0 2.2 28.0 11.0 2.4 10.7 18.1 33.0 19.3 2.6 2.0 2.0 2.6 3.0 9.7 18.2 5.3 4.0 11.0 15.0 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.5 2.4 2.0 1.8 2.7 2.2 8.1 1.3 78.3 6.6 4.9 4.6 5.1 8.8 4.5 5.7 7.7 7.8 5.1 5.0 4.3 9.1 3.6 6.4 9.4 10.7 4.5 14.0 7.5 2.9 7.5 2.8 10.7 16.7 2.6 6.9 4.8 3.8 5.5 8.0 10.2 15.9 6.7 17.3 9.5 7.9


Properties: Dielectric Constants of Liquids (cont.) Liquids Diethylamine Diethyl Oxalate Diethyl Oxalacetate Diethyl Racemote Diethyl Sebacate Diethyl Succinate Diethyl Succinosuccinate Diethyl Sulfide Diethyl Sulfite Diethyl Tortrate Diethyl Disulfide Dihydrocoroane Dihydrocorvane Diimylamine Diioomylene Diiodoethylene Diiodomethane Diisoomyl Diisobutylomine Dimethoxybenzene Dimethylbromoethylene Dimethyldichloro Silane Dimethyleyclohexyomine Dimethyloniline Dimethyl Ethyl Dimethyl Ethyl Carbinol Dimethylheptane Dimethyl-2-hexane Dimethyl-1-Hydroxybenzene Dimethyl Malanate Dimethyl Oxalate Dimethylpentane Dimethylquinoxaline Dimethyl Sulfide Dimethyl Sulfate D imethyltoluidine M-Dinitro Benzene Dinitrogen Oxide Dinitrogen Tetroxide Dioctyl phthalate Dioxane 1,4 Dipolmitin Dipentene Diphenyl Diphenylomine Diphenylethane Diphenyl Ether Diphenylmethane Diproppylomine Dipropyl Ketone Distearin Docosane Dodeanol Dodecamethylcyclohexisolox Dodecamethylpentasiloxane Dodecyne Dowtherm Epichlorohydrin Epon Resin Ethonediomine Ethanethiol Ethanethiolic Acid Ethanol Ether Ethoxybenzene Ethoxyethyl Acetate Ethoxypentane Ethoxy-3-metylbutane Ethoxytoluene Ethoxynaphthalene

Temperature °F °C 68 70 66 68 86 86 66 68 68 68 66 66 66 64 62 180 76 62 71 73 68 68 180 68 68 68 68 68 62 68 68 68 76 68 68 68 68 32 58 76 77 161 68 166 125 230 82 62 70 62 172 122 76 68 68 76 70 68 75 68 58 68 77 75 68 86 73 68 68 66

20 21 19 20 30 30 19 20 20 20 19 19 19 18 17 82 24 17 22 23 20 20 82 20 20 20 20 20 17 20 20 20 24 20 20 20 20 0 14 24 25 72 20. 74 52 110 28 17 21 17 78 50 24 20 20 24 21 20 24 20 14 20 25 25 20 30 23 20 20 19

Dielectric Constant 3.7 8.2 6.1 4.5 5.0 6.6 2.5 7.2 15.9 4.5 15.9 8.7 8.5 2.5 2.4 4.0 5.3 2.0 2.7 4.5 6.7 12.3 4.4 4.4 11.7 11.7 1.9 2.4 4.8 10.4 3.0 1.9 2.3 6.3 55.0 3.3 2.8 1.6 2.5 5.1 2.2 3.5 2.3 2.5 3.3 2.4 3.9 2.6 2.9 12.6 3.3 2.0 6.5 2.6 2.5 2.2 3.4 22.9 13.3 14.2 6.9 13.0 24.3 4.3 4.2 7.6 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.3

Liquids Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Acetoacetate Ethyl Acetoneoxalate Ethyl Acetophenoneoxalate Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl Acrylate Ethylamine Ethyl Amyl Ether Ethyloniline Ethyl Benzene Ethyl Benzoate Ethyl Benzoylacetate Ethyl Benzoylacetoacetate Ethyl Benzyl Ether Ethyl 1-Brombutyrate Ethyl Bromide Ethyl Bromoisobutyrate Ethyl Bromoproprionate Ethyl Butyrate Ethyl Carbonate Ethyl Chloracetate Ethyl Chloroformate Ethyl Chloropropionate Ethyl Cinnamate Ethyl Cyanoacetate Ethyl Cyclobutane Ethyl Dodeconoate Ethylene Chloride Ethylene Chlorohydrin Ethylene Cyanide Ethylenediamine Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Oxide Ethyl Ether Ethyl Ether Ethyl Ether Ethyl Ethoxybenzoate Ethyl Formate Ethyl Formylphenylacetate Ethyl Fumorate Ethyl Iodide Ethyl 2-Iodoproprionate Ethyl Iso-Thioconate Ethyl Isothiocyanate Ethyl Levulinate Ethyl Maleate Ethyl Mercoptan Ethyl Nitrate Ethyl Oleate Ethyl Polmitate Ethyl Pentane Ethyl Phenylacetate Ethyl Propionate Ethyl Solicylate Ethyl Silicate Ethyl Stearate Ethyl Toluene Ethyl Trichloroacetate Ethyl Thiocyanate Ethyl Undeconoate Ethyl Volerate Ethyl Benzene Etibine Eugenol Fenchone Ferric Oleate Ferrous Oxide Ferrous Sulfate Flexol Flourine

Temperature °F °C 68 71 66 66 77 257 70 68 68 68 68 68 70 68 68 64 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 66 68 68 68 68 75 136 64 68 30 –148 –40 68 70 66 68 73 68 68 68 68 70 73 68 68 80 68 68 70 68 70 68 104 76 68 68 68 68 76 –58 64 68 68 60 58 75 -332

20 22 19 19 25 125 21 20 20 0 20 20 21 20 20 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 20 20 20 20 24 58 18 20 –1 –100 –40 20 21 19 20 23 20 20 20 20 21 23 20 20 27 20 20 21 20 21 20 40 24 20 20 20 20 24 –50 18 20 20 16 14 24 -20

Dielectric Constant 6.4 15.9 16.1 3.3 24.3 11.7 6.3 4.0 5.9 5.5 6.0 12.8 8.6 3.8 8.0 4.9 7.9 9.4 5.1 3.1 11.6 11.3 10.1 5.3 27.0 2.0 3.4 10.5 25.0 58.3 16.0 37.0 13.9 8.1 5.7 4.3 7.1 8.4 3.0 6.5 7.4 8.8 19.7 19.7 12.1 8.5 8.0 19.7 3.2 3.2 1.9 5.4 5.7 8.6 4.1 3.0 2.2 7.8 29.6 3.6 4.7 3.0 2.5 6.1 12.0 2.6 14.2 14.2 5.3 1.5

25


Properties: Dielectric Constants of Liquids (cont.) Liquids

Temperature °F °C

Fluorotoluene 86 Formamide 68 Formic Acid 60 Freon 12 70 Freon 11 70 Freon 113 70 Furan 76 Furfuraldehyde 68 Furmanium Tetrachloride 76 Furfural 70 Gasoline 70 Germanium Tetrachloride 77 Grapeseed Oil 60 Glycerine 68 Glycerol 68 Glycerol 32 Glycerol Triacetate 70 Glycol 68 Glycol 122 Glycolic Nitrile 68 Guaiacol 0 Glucohepititol 248 Hagemannic Ester 68 Helium-3 58 Heptadecconome 140 Heptane 68 Heptanone 68 Heptanoic Acid 160 Heptyl Alcohol 70 Hexamethylene 75 Hexamethylene Diamine 150 Hexomethyldisiloxane 68 Hexane 68 Hexanol 76 Hexanone 59 Hexdecamethylcyloheptasiloxane 68 Hexyl Iodide 68 Hexylene 62 Hydrocyanic Acid 70 Hydrofluoric Acid 32 Hydrogen -423 Hydrogen Bromide 76 Hydrogen Chloride 82 Hydrogen Cyanide 70 Hydrogen Fluoride 32 Hydrogen Iodide 72 Hydrogen Peroxide 32 Hydrogen Sulfide –120 Hydrogen Sulfide 48 Hydroxy-4-Methyl-2-Pentanone 76 Hydroxymethylene Camphor 86 Hydroxymethylenebenzyl Cyanide 68 Hydrazine 68 Indanol 140 Ido-Iedohexodecane 68 Iodine 284 Iodohexane 68 Iodoheptane 71 Iodomethane 68 Iodotoluene 68 Isoamyl Alcohol 74 Iodooctane 76 Isoamyl Bromide 76 Isoamyl Butyrate 68 Isoamyl Chlorocetate 68 Isoamyl Chloride 64 Isoamyl Chloroformate 68 Isoamyl Iodide 65 Isoamyl Propionate 68 Isoamyl Solicylate 68

26

30 20 16 21 21 21 24 20 24 21 21 25 16 20 20 0 21 20 50 20 –18 120 20 14 60 20 20 71 21 24 66 20 20 24 15 20 20 17 21 0 -253 24 28 21 0 22 0 –84 9 24 30 20 20 60 20 140 20 22 20 20 23 24 24 20 20 18 20 18 20 20

Dielectric Constant 4.2 84.0 58.5 2.4 3.1 2.6 2.9 41.9 2.4 42.0 2.0 2.4 2.9 47.0 43.0 47.2 6.0 42.2 35.6 27.0 11.0 27.0 10.6 1.1 5.3 1.9 11.9 2.6 6.7 14.1 6.0 2.2 1.9 13.3 14.6 2.7 6.6 2.0 2.3 83.6 1.2 3.8 4.6 95.4 84.0 2.9 84.2 9.3 5.8 18.2 5.2 6 52.9 7.8 3.5 11.0 5.4 4.9 7.0 6.1 15.3 4.6 6.1 3.9 7.8 6.4 7.8 5.6 4.2 5.4

Liquids

Temperature °F °C

Isoamyl Volerate 66 Isobutyl Acetate 68 Isobutyl Alcohol 68 Isobutylamine 70 Isobutyl Benzene 62 Isobutyl Benzoate 68 Isobutyl Bromide 68 Isobutyl Bulyrate 68 Isobutyl Chloride 68 Isobutyl Cyanide 74 Isobutyl Chloroformate 68 Isobutyl Formate 66 Isobutylene Bromide 68 Isobutyl Iodide 68 Isobutyl Nitrate 66 Isobutyl Rininoleate 70 Isobutyl Volerate 66 Isobutryic Acid 68 Isobutryic Anhydride 68 Isobutyronitrila 75 Isocopronitrilo 68 Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) 68 Isopropylamine 68 Isopropyl Benzene 68 Isopropylether 77 Isopropyl Nitrate 66 Isoquinoline 76 Isonofrol 70 IsoValeric Acid 68 Jet Fuel (Military—JP4) 70 Kerosene 70 Lactic Acid 66 Lactonitrilla 68 Lead Carbonate 60 Lead Nomoxide 60 Lead Oleate 64 Lead Tetrachloride 68 Lemon Oil 70 Limonene 68 Linseed Oil 55 Linoleic Acid 32 Lonone 65 Malonic Nitrate 97 Maleic Anhydride 140 Mannitol 71 Mandelic Nitrile 73 Mandenitrile 73 Menthol 107 Menthenol 110 Methallmine 77 Methoxyethyl Stearate 140 Mercury Diethyl 68 Mesitylene 68 Mesitylene 68 Mesityl Oxide 68 Methal Cyanacetate 69 Methane 32 Methane -280 Methanol 77 Methoxybenzene 76 Methoxytoluene 68 Methoxy-4-Methylphenol 60 Methyl Acetate 68 Methyl Acetopheononoaxalate 64 Methylal 68 Methyl Alcohol –112 Methyl Alcohol 32 Methyl Alcohol 68 Methylamine 70 Methyl Benzoate 68

20 20 20 21 17 20 20 20 20 23 20 18 20 20 19 21 19 20 20 24 20 20 20 20 25 19 24 21 20 21 21 19 20 16 16 18 20 21 20 13 0 18 36 60 22 23 23 42 43 25 60 20 20 20 20 21 0 -173 25 24 20 16 20 18 20 –80 0 20 21 20

Dielectric Constant 3.6 5.6 18.7 4.5 2.3 5.9 6.6 4.0 7.1 13.3 9.2 6.5 4.0 5.8 11.9 4.7 3.8 2.6 13.9 20.8 15.7 18.3 5.5 2.4 3.9 11.5 10.7 3.4 2.7 1.7 1.8 19.4 38.4 18.1 25.9 3.2 2.8 2.3 2.3 3.4 2.9 10.0 47.0 51.0 3.0 18.1 17.0 4.0 2.1 9.4 3.4 2.3 2.4 3.4 15.4 29.4 1.6 1.7 33.6 4.3 3.5 11.0 7.3 2.8 2.7 56.6 37.5 33.1 10.5 6.6


Properties: Dielectric Constants of Liquids (cont.) Liquids Methyl Benzylamine Methyl Butane Methyl Butyl Ketone Methyl Butyrate Methyl Chloracetate Methyl Chloride Methyl Cyclohexonal Methyl Cyclohexanone Methyl Cyclopentane Methyl-1-Cyclopentanol Methylene Chloride Methylene Iodide Methyl Ether Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Ethyl Ketoxime Methyl Heptanol Methyl Hexane Methyl Kezyl Ketone Methyl Iodide Methyl-5 Ketocyclohexylene Methyl Nitrobenzoate Methyl Octane Methoxyphenol Methyl O-Methoxybenzoate Methyl-2, 4-Pentonddiol Methyl-2-Pentoene Methylphenyl Hydrazin Methyl Propionate Methyl Propyl Ketone Methyl p-toluate Methyl Salicylate Methyl Thiocyanate Methyl Trichloro Silane Methyl Volorate Metilox Mineral Oil Monomyristin Monopalmitin Monostearin Nanene Napthalene Napthalene Napthonitrile Napthtyl Ethyl Ether Nitric Acid Nitroenisole Nitrobenzol Doxime Nitrobenzene Nitrobenzene Nitrobenzene Nitrobenzyl Alcohol Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitromethane Nitroglycerin Nitrosodimethylamine Nitrosyl Bromide Nitrosyl Chloride Nitrotoluene Nitrous Oxide Nonane O-Chlorophenol Octadecanol Octamethyltrisiloxane Octanone Octane Octane Octyl Alcohol Octylene Octyl Iodide

Temperature °F °C 65 68 62 68 68 77 68 192 68 95 70 70 78 72 68 68 68 62 68 68 80 69 82 70 86 68 66 66 58 91 68 68 68 66 160 80 158 152 170 50 185 68 70 67 57 68 248 68 77 176 68 68 -203 68 68 68 4 10 68 32 68 66 136 68 68 68 76 64 65 68

18 20 17 20 20 25 20 89 20 35 20 21 26 22 20 20 20 17 20 20 27 21 28 21 30 21 19 19 14 33 20 20 20 19 71 27 70 67 77 10 85 20 21 19 14 20 120 20 25 80 20 20 -130 20 20 20 -16 -12 20 0 20 19 58 20 20 20 24 18 18 20

Dielectric Constant 4.4 1.8 12.4 5.6 12.9 12.9 13.0 18.0 2.0 6.9 9.3 5.1 5.0 18.4 3.4 5.3 1.9 10.7 7.1 24.0 27.0 30.0 11.0 7.8 24.4 13.1 7.3 5.4 16.8 4.3 9.0 35.9 6.8 4.3 4.5 2.1 6.1 5.3 4.9 2.0 2.3 2.5 6.4 3.2 40.0 24.0 48.1 36.1 34.9 26.3 22.0 19.7 1.5 39.4 19.0 54.0 13.4 18.2 25.0 1.6 2.0 8.2 3.4 2.3 10.3 2.0 2.1 3.4 4.1 4.9

Liquids Octic Acid Oil, Almond Oil, Cottonseed Oil, Grapeseed Oil, Lemon Oil, Linseed Oil, Olive Oil, Paraffin Oil, Peanut Oil, Petroleum Oil, Pyranol Oil, Sesame Oil, Sperm Oil, Terpentine Oil, Transformer Oleic Acid Palmitic Acid Paraldehyde Peanut Oil Pentochloroethane Pentane Phenethiene Phenenthrene Phenetidine Phenetole Phenol Phenol Ether Phenol Isobuthyl Phenoxyacetylene Phenylacetaldehyde Phenylacetanitrile Phenylacetate Phenylacetic Phenylethanol Phenylethyl Acetate Phenylisocyanate Phenyliso-Thiocyanate Phosgene Phenyl-1-Iropane Phosphine Phosphorus Phenylsolicylate Phtholide Pinocolin Pinocone Pinane Piperidine Propane Propionoldehyde Propionic Acid Propionic Anhydride Propionitrile Propyl Acetate Propyl Alcohol Propyl Benzene Propyl Bromide Propyl Butyrate Propyl Cholorformate Propyl Ether Propyl Formate Propyl Nitrate Propyl Propionate Propyl Volerate Pseudocumene Pulegone Pulezone Pyridine Pyroanol Oil Quinoline Quinoline

Temperature °F °C 68 68 57 61 70 55 68 68 52 68 68 55 68 68 68 68 160 68 110 60 68 68 230 70 70 130 85 85 76 68 80 68 68 68 58 68 68 32 68 –76 93 122 166 62 75 68 68 32 62 66 60 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 78 66 64 68 65 60 68 66 68 68 77 460

20 20 14 16 21 13 20 20 11 20 20 13 20 20 20 20 71 20 43 16 20 20 110 21 21 54 29 29 24 20. 27 20 20 20 14 20 20 0 20 –60 34 50 75 17 24 20 20 0 17 19 16 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 26 19 18 20 18 16 20 19 20 20 25 238

Dielectric Constant 2.5 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.3 3.4 3.1 2.2–4.7 3.0 2.1 5.3 3.0 3.2 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.3 14.5 3.5 3.7 1.8 2.8 2.7 7.3 4.5 8.8 9.8 14.9 4.8 4.8 18.0 6.9 3.0 13.0 4.5 8.9 10.7 4.7 2.7 2.5 4.1 6.3 36.0 12.8 7.4 2.7 5.9 1.6 18.9 3.1 18.0 27.7 6.3 21.8 2.4 7.2 4.3 11.2 3.4 7.9 14.2 4.7 4.0 2.4 9.5 9.7 12.5 5.3 9.0 5.1

27


Properties: Dielectric Constants of Liquids (cont.) Liquids Safrol Salicyladehyde Santowax Selenium Sesame Oil Silicon Tetrachloride Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Oleate Sorbitol Stannic Chloride Stearic Acid Styrene (phenylethene) Succinamide Succinic Acid Sulfur Dioxide Sulfurous Oxychloride Sulfur Monochloride Sulfur Trioxide Sulfuryl Chloride Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Dioxide Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric Oxychloride Sulfur Trioxide Tartaric Acid Tartaric Acid Terpinene Terpineol Tetrobromiethone Tetrachloroethylene Tetradecamethylcycloheptas Tetraethyl Silicate Tetradecanal Tetraethyl Amylenetetrarar Tetraethyl Propane Tetracarboxylate Tetraethyl Propylene Tetracarboxylate

Tetrahydro-B-Naphthol Tetratriocontadiene Tetronitrimethane Thioacetic Acid Thionyl Bromide Thionyl Chloride Thiophene Thiophosphoryl Chloride Tin Tetrochloride Titanium Tetrochloride Thujone Toluene Toluidine Tolunitrile Totane Tolyl Methyl Ether Trans-3-Hexane Transformer Oil Transmission Oil Trichloroethane Tallowamine Triethylamine Triethylamine

28

Temperature °F °C 70 68 70 482 55 60 70 68 176 72 71 77 72 78 -4 72 58 64 72 752 245 32 68 72 70 68 58 70 68 68 70 68 68 100 66 66 66 68 70 68 68 68 68 68 70 68 68 32 68 68 73 111 68 76 68 80 68 108 75 39

21 20 21 250 13 16 20 20 80 22 160 25 22 26 -20 22 14 18 22 400 118 0 20 22 21 20 14 21 20 20 21 20 20 38 189 19 19 20 21 20 20 20 20 20 21 20 20 0 20 20 23 44 20 24 20 27 20 42 24 4

Dielectric Constant 3.1 13.9 2.3 5.4 3.0 2.4 80.0 2.7 33.5 3.2 2.3 2.4 2.9 2.4 17.6 9.1 4.8 3.1 10.0 3.4 3.5 15.6 84.0 9.2 3.6 6.0 35.9 2.7 2.8 7.1 2.5 2.7 4.1 4.7 4.4 5.2 5.2 11.0 2.8 2.2 13.0 9.1 9.3 2.8 5.8 2.9 2.8 10.0 2.4 6.0 18.8 5.5 3.5 2.0 2.2 2.2 7.5 2.6 2.4 2.9

Liquids Trifluoroacetic Acid Trinitrotoluene Triethyl Ethanetricarbox Trimethyl-3-Heptane Tribomopropane Tributylphosphate Trichloroacetic Acid Trichlorotoluene Trichloroethylene Trichloropropane Tricosanane Tricosyl Phosphate Triethyl Aconitate Triethylamine Triethyl Aluminum Triethyl Isoaconitate Trifluoroactic Acid Trifluorotoluene Triethylomine Trimethylbenzene Trimethylborate Trimethylbutane Trimethylpentane Trimethylsulfanilic Acid Trinitrobenzene Trinitrotoluene Tripolmitin Triphenylmethane Tistearin Triolein Turpentine Undecane Undecanone Urea Urethane Valaraldehyde Valeric Acid Valeronitrile Vanadium Oxybromide Vanadium Oxychloride Vanadium Tetrachloride Vegetable Oil Vegetable Oil Veratrol Vinyl Ether Water Water Water Water (Ultra-Clean, DI) Wax Xylene Xylenol Xylidine

Temperature °F °C 68 68 66 68 68 86 141 70 61 76 176 104 68 70 68 68 68 86 39 68 68 68 68 64 68 69 140 212 158 76 68 68 58 71 74 58 62 70 78 78 78 100 230 73 68 32 68 212 68 100 68 62 68

20 20 19 20 20 30 61 21 16 24 80 40 20 21 20 20 20 30 4 20 20 20 20 18 20 21 60 100 70 24 20 20 14 22 23 14 17 21 26 26 26 38 110 23 20 0 20 100 20 38 20 17 20

Dielectric Constant 39.0 22.0 6.5 2.2 6.4 8.0 4.5 6.9 3.4 2.4 4.0 6.9 6.4 3.2 2.9 7.2 39.0 9.2 2.9 2.3 8.2 1.9 2.0 89.0 2.2 22.0 2.9 2.5 2.8 3.2 2.2 2.0 8.4 3.5 3.2 11.8 2.6 17.7 3.6 3.4 3.0 4.0 3.3 4.5 3.9 88.0 80.0 48.0 12–15 7.5 2.4 3.9 5.0


Properties: Dielectric Constants of Solids Material Acetamide Acetanilide Acetic Acid Aluminum Phosphate Ammonium Bromide Ammonium Chloride Antimony Trichloride Asbestos Asphalt Bakelite Barium Chloride Barium Chloride Barium Nitrate Barium Sulfate Calcium Carbonate Calcium Fluoride Calcium Sulfate Cellulose Cellulose Acetate Cement Cereals Charcoal Cupric Oleafe Cupric Oxide Cupric Sulfate Diamond Diphenylethane Dolomite Ferrous Oxide Fly Ash Glass Iodine Lead Acetate Lead Carbonate Lead Chloride Lead Nomoxide Lead Nitrate Lead Oleate Lead Oxide Lead Sulfate Magnesium Oxide Malachite Mercuric Chloride Mercurous Chloride Mica Napthalane

Dielectric Constant 41.0 2.8 4.1 6.0 7.2 7.0 5.3 4.8 2.7 5.0 11.0 9.4 5.8 11.4 9.1 7.4 5.6 4.0 3.6–7.5 1.5–2.1 3.0–5.0 1.2–1.8 2.8 18.1 10.3 10.0 2.7 8.0 14.2 1.9–2.6 3.7–4.2 4.0 2.5 18.1 4.2 25.9 37.7 3.3 25.9 14.3 9.7 7.2 3.2 9.4 7.0 2.5

Material Nylon Paper Paraffin Phenonthrene Phenol Phosphorus, Red Phosphorus, Yellow Polyethylene Polypropylene Porcelain Potassium Aluminum Sulphate Potassium Carbonate Potassium Chlorate Potassium Chloride Potassium Chloronate Potassium Iodide Potassium Nitrate Potassium Sulfate Quartz Resorcinol Rice Rubber Sand Selinium Shellac Silver Bromide Silver Chloride Silver Cyanide Slate Sodium Carbonate Sodium Carbonate Sodium Chloride Sodium Nitrate Sodium Oleate Sodium Perchlorate Sulfur Sugar Sucrose Tantalum Oxide Thallium Chloride Thorium Oxide P-Toluidine Urea Zinc Sulfide Zirconium Oxide Teflon

Dielectric Constant 3.7 2.0 2.2 2.8 4.3 4.1 3.6 4.0–5.0 1.5 5.0–7.0 3.8 5.6 5.1 5.0 7.3 5.6 5.0 5.9 4.4 3.2 3.5 3.0 3.0–5.0 11.0 3.5 12.2 11.2 5.6 7.0 8.4 5.3 6.1 5.2 2.8 5.4 3.4 3.0 3.3 11.6 46.9 10.6 3.0 3.5 8.2 12.5 2.0

29


Properties: Viscosity of Gases and Vapors The curves for hydrocarbon vapors and natural gases in the chart at the upper right are taken from Maxwell; the curves for all other gases (except helium) in the chart are based upon Sutherland’s formula, as follows: µ = µo

)( )

0.555 To + C 0.555 T + C

(

T To

Viscosity of various gases

Viscosity of Various Gases O2

³⁄₂

.040

Helium Air

.036

where:

N2 CO2 SO2

µ = viscosity, in centipoise at temperature T. .032

T = absolute temperature, in degrees Rankine (460 + deg. F) for which viscosity is desired. To = absolute temperature, in degrees Rankine, for which viscosity is known. C = Sutherland’s constant. Note: The variation of viscosity with pressure is small for most gases. For gases given on this page, the correction of viscosity for pressure is less than 10% for pressures up to 500 pounds per square inch.

Fluid

µ – Viscosity in Centipose

µo = viscosity, in centipoise at temperature To.

127 120 111

CO2 CO SO2

240 118 416

NH3 H2

370 72

HYDRO CARBON VAPOR AND NATURAL GASES

Sg = .5 NH3 Sg = .75

CO

Sg =1.00

.024

.020

H2

.016

Approximate Values of “C”

O2 Air N2

.028

.012

.008

0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 t – Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit

Viscosity of Refrigerant Vapors (saturated and superheated vapors)

Upper chart example: The viscosity of sulphur dioxide gas (SO2) at 200°F (93°C) is 0.016 centipoise.

.019 CO

.018

Lower chart example: The viscosity of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) at about 80°F (26.7°) is 0.015 centipoise.

2

.017 µ – Viscosity in Centipoise

.016 2 SO

.015

F-12

.014

F-11

.013 .012

F

I

C CH 3 3 1 -1

-114 F

.011 .010 .009 .008 .007 -40

NH 3

0

40

80

120

160

t – Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit

30

200

240


Properties: Viscosity of Water and Steam Temperature °F (°C)

Viscosity of Water and Steam – in Centipoise (µ) 1 PSIA

2 PSIA

5 PSIA

10 PSIA

20 PSIA

50 PSIA

100 PSIA

200 PSIA

500 PSIA

1000 PSIA

Saturated Water

.667

.524

.388

.313

.255

.197

.164

.138

.111

.094

Saturated Steam

.010

.010

.011

.012

.012

.013

.014

.015

.017

.019

1000

(538)

.030

.030

.030

.030

.030

.030

.030

.030

.030

.031

950

(510)

.029

.029

.029

.029

.029

.029

.029

.029

.029

.030

900

(482)

.028

.028

.028

.028

.028

.028

.028

.028

.028

.028

850

(454)

.026

.026

.026

.026

.026

.026

.027

.027

.027

.027

800

(427)

.025

.025

.025

.025

.025

.025

.025

.025

.026

.026

750

(399)

.024

.024

.024

.024

.024

.024

.024

.024

.025

.025

700

(371)

.023

.023

.023

.023

.023

.023

.023

.023

.023

.024

650

(343)

.022

.022

.022

.022

.022

.022

.022

.022

.023

.023

600

(316)

.021

.021

.021

.021

.021

.021

.021

.021

.021

.021

550

(288)

.020

.020

.020

.020

.020

.020

.020

.020

.020

.019

500

(260)

.019

.019

.019

.019

.019

.019

.019

.018

.018

.103

450

(232)

.018

.018

.018

.018

.017

.017

.017

.017

.115

.116

400

(204)

.016

.016

.016

.016

.016

.016

.016

.016

.131

.132

350

(177)

.015

.015

.015

.015

.015

.015

.015

.152

.153

.154

300

(149)

.014

.014

.014

.014

.014

.014

.182

.183

.183

.184

250

(121)

.013

.013

.013

.013

.013

.228

.228

.228

.228

.229

200

( 93)

.012

.012

.012

.012

.300

.300

.300

.300

.300

.301

150

( 66)

.011

.011

.427

.427

.427

.427

.427

.427

.427

.428

100

(37.8)

.680

.680

.680

.680

.680

.680

.680

.680

.680

.680

50

( 10)

1.299

1.299

1.299

1.299

1.299

.1299

1.299

1.299

1.299

1.298

32

(

1.753

1.763

1.753

1.753

1.753

1.753

1.752

1.751

1.749

0)

1.753

Values below the line are for water. 10

6.0 5.0

Properties: Viscosity of Various Liquids

19

4.0 18

3.0

Carbon Dioxide ......................................................CO₂ Ammonia ................................................................NH₃ Methyl Chloride ......................................................CH₃CI Sulphur Dioxide ......................................................SO₂ Freon 12 .................................................................F-12 Freon 114 ...............................................................F-114 Freon 11 .................................................................F-11 Freon 113 ...............................................................F-113 Ethyl Alcohol...........................................................C₂H₅OH Isopropyl Alcohol ....................................................(CH₃)₂ CH₂0 20% Sulphuric Acid ................................................20% H₂SO₄ Dowtherm E Dowtherm A 20% Sodium Hydroxide..........................................20% NaOH Mercury ..................................................................Hg 10% Sodium Chloride Brine ...................................10% NaCl 20% Sodium Chloride Brine ...................................20% NaCl 10% Calcium Chloride Brine ..................................10% CaCl₂ 20% Calcium Chloride Brine ..................................20% CaCl₂

11 16 9

2.0 8

15

µ – Viscosity in Centipoise

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

13 14

17

1.0 .9 .8 .7 .6 .5

5

.4

3

.3

2

12

7 6 4

.2

1

.1 .09 .08 .07 .06 .05 .04

Example: The viscosity of ammonia at 40°F is 0.14 centipoise.

.03

-40

0

40

80

120 160 200 240 280 320 360

t – Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit

31


Properties: Viscosity of Liquid Petroleum Products

4000 20

3000

21 19

2000 18 17

1000 800

1. Ethane (C₂H₆)

600

3. Butane (C₄H₁₀)

400

4. Natural Gasoline

2. Propane (C₃H₈)

300

5. Gasoline

16

6. Water

200

7. Kerosene 8. Distillate

13

100 80

9. 48 Deg. API Crude 10. 40 Deg. API Crude

60

11. 35.6 Deg. API Crude 12

40

12. 32.6 Deg. API Crude

µ – Viscosity in Centipoise

30

13. Salt Creek Crude 11

14. Fuel 3 (Max.)

15

20

15. Fuel 5 (Min.)

14

16. SAE 10 Lube (100 V.I.)

10

10 8

17. SAE 30 Lube (100 V.I.)

6

18. Fuel 5 (Max.) or Fuel 6 (Min.)

8

19. SAE 70 Lube (100 V.I.)

4

9

3

20. Bunker C Fuel (Max.) and M.C. Residuum

7

2

6

1.0 .8

21. Asphalt

5

.6 .4

4

.3 .2

3

2

.1 .8

1

.6 .4 .3 10

20

30

40

60

80 100

200

300

t – Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit

Example: The viscosity of water at 125°F is 0.52 centipoise (Curve No. 6). Note: Consult factory whenever viscosity of fluid exceeds 300 centipoise.

32

400

600

800 1000


Pipe Data: Dimensions of Blind Flanges

"O.D" "B.C"

"D" "T" NOTE: Pressure ratings shown for forged steel flanges apply to all ASA/ANSI standard flanges. Cast Iron–125# Outside Dia. of Nominal Thickness Bolt Circle Dia. of Pipe “T” Flange “O.D” “BC” Size

1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 3¹⁄₂" 4" 5" 6" 8"

4¹⁄₄" 5" 6" 7" 7¹⁄₂" 8¹⁄₂" 9" 10" 11" 13¹⁄₂"

⁷⁄₁₆" ⁹⁄₁₆" ⁵⁄₈" ¹¹⁄₁₆" ³⁄₄" ¹³⁄₁₆" ¹⁵⁄₁₆" ¹⁵⁄₁₆" 1" 1¹⁄₈"

3¹⁄₈" 3⁷⁄₈" 4³⁄₄" 5¹⁄₂" 6" 7" 7¹⁄₂" 8¹⁄₂" 9¹⁄₂" 11³⁄₄"

Cast Iron–250# Dia. of No. of Bolt Holes Holes “D”

4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8

⁵⁄₈" ⁵⁄₈" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈"

Outside Dia. of Nominal Thickness Bolt Circle Dia. of Pipe “T” Flange “O.D” “BC” Size

1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 3¹⁄₂" 4" 5" 6" 8"

4⁷⁄₈" 6¹⁄₈" 6¹⁄₂" 7¹⁄₂" 8¹⁄₄" 9" 10" 11" 12¹⁄₂" 15"

¹¹⁄₁₆" ¹³⁄₁₆" ⁷⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1³⁄₁₆" 1¹⁄₄" 1³⁄₈" 1⁷⁄₁₆" 1⁵⁄₈"

3¹⁄₂" 4¹⁄₂" 5" 5⁷⁄₈" 6⁵⁄₈" 7¹⁄₄" 7⁷⁄₈" 9¹⁄₄" 10⁵⁄₈" 13"

Dia. of No. of Bolt Holes Holes “D”

4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12

³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" 1"

Forged Steel – 150#

Forged Steel – 300#

Outside Dia. of Dia. of Nominal Thickness Bolt Circle No. of Bolt Holes Dia. of Pipe “T” Holes Flange “O.D.” “BC” “D” Size

Outside Dia. of Dia. of Nominal Thickness Bolt Circle No. of Bolt Holes Dia. of Pipe “T” Holes Flange “O.D.” “BC” “D” Size

¹⁄₂" ³⁄₄" 1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 3¹⁄₂" 4" 5" 6" 8"

3¹⁄₂" 3⁷⁄₈" 4¹⁄₄" 5" 6" 7" 7¹⁄₂" 8¹⁄₂" 9" 10" 11" 13¹⁄₂"

⁷⁄₁₆" ¹⁄₂" ⁹⁄₁₆" ¹¹⁄₁₆" ³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ¹⁵⁄₁₆" ¹⁵⁄₁₆" ¹⁵⁄₁₆" ¹⁵⁄₁₆" 1" 1¹⁄₈"

2³⁄₈" 2³⁄₄" 3¹⁄₈" 3⁷⁄₈" 4³⁄₄" 5¹⁄₂" 6" 7" 7¹⁄₂" 8¹⁄₂" 9¹⁄₂" 11³⁄₄"

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8

⁵⁄₈" ⁵⁄₈" ⁵⁄₈" ⁵⁄₈" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈"

¹⁄₂" ³⁄₄" 1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 3¹⁄₂" 4" 5" 6" 8"

3³⁄₄" 4⁵⁄₈" 4⁷⁄₈" 6¹⁄₈" 6¹⁄₂" 7¹⁄₂" 8¹⁄₄" 9" 10" 11" 12¹⁄₂" 15"

⁹⁄₁₆" ⁵⁄₈" ¹¹⁄₁₆" ¹³⁄₁₆" ⁷⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1³⁄₁₆" 1¹⁄₄" 1³⁄₈" 1⁷⁄₁₆" 1⁵⁄₈"

2⁵⁄₈" 3¹⁄₄" 3¹⁄₂" 4¹⁄₂" 5" 5⁷⁄₈" 6⁵⁄₈"" 7¹⁄₄"" 7⁷⁄₈" 9¹⁄₄" 10⁵⁄₈" 13"

4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12

⁵⁄₈" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" 1"

33


Pipe Data: Dimensions of Blind Flanges Forged Steel – 600#

Forged Steel – 900#

Outside Dia. of Dia. of Nominal Thickness Bolt Circle No. of Bolt Holes Dia. of Pipe “T” Holes Flange “O.D.” “BC” “D” Size

Outside Dia. of Dia. of Nominal Thickness Bolt Circle No. of Bolt Holes Dia. of Pipe “T” Holes Flange “O.D.” “BC” “D” Size

¹⁄₂" ³⁄₄" 1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 3¹⁄₂" 4" 5" 6" 8"

3³⁄₄" 4⁵⁄₈" 4⁷⁄₈" 6¹⁄₈" 6¹⁄₂" 7¹⁄₂" 8¹⁄₄" 9" 10³⁄₄" 13" 14" 16¹⁄₂"

⁹⁄₁₆" ⁵⁄₈" ¹¹⁄₁₆" ⁷⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1¹⁄₄" 1³⁄₁₆" 1¹⁄₂" 1³⁄₄" 1⁷⁄₈" 2³⁄₁₆"

2⁵⁄₈" 3¹⁄₄" 3¹⁄₂" 4¹⁄₂" 5" 5⁷⁄₈" 6⁵⁄₈" 7¹⁄₄" 8¹⁄₂" 10¹⁄₂" 11¹⁄₂" 13³⁄₄"

4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12

⁵⁄₈" ³⁄₄" ³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ³⁄₄" ⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" 1" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1¹⁄₈" 1¹⁄₄"

¹⁄₂" ³⁄₄" 1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8"

4³⁄₄" 5¹⁄₈" 5⁷⁄₈" 7" 8¹⁄₂" 9⁵⁄₈" 9¹⁄₂" 11¹⁄₂" 13³⁄₄" 15" 18¹⁄₂"

⁷⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1¹⁄₄" 1¹⁄₂" 1⁵⁄₈" 1¹⁄₂" 1³⁄₄" 2" 2³⁄₁₆" 2¹⁄₂"

3¹⁄₄" 3¹⁄₂" 4" 4⁷⁄₈" 6¹⁄₂" 7¹⁄₂" 7¹⁄₂" 9¹⁄₄" 11" 12¹⁄₂" 15¹⁄₂"

4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12

⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₄" 1¹⁄₄" 1¹⁄₄" 1¹⁄₂"

Forged Steel – 1500#

Forged Steel – 2500#

Outside Dia. of Dia. of Nominal Thickness Bolt Circle No. of Bolt Holes Dia. of Pipe “T” Holes Flange “O.D.” “BC” “D” Size

Outside Dia. of Dia. of Nominal Thickness Bolt Circle No. of Bolt Holes Dia. of Pipe “T” Holes Flange “O.D.” “BC” “D” Size

¹⁄₂" ³⁄₄" 1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8"

34

4³⁄₄" 5¹⁄₈" 5⁷⁄₈" 7" 8¹⁄₂" 9⁵⁄₈" 10¹⁄₂" 12¹⁄₄" 14³⁄₄" 15¹⁄₂" 19"

⁷⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1¹⁄₄" 1¹⁄₂" 1⁵⁄₈" 1⁷⁄₈" 2¹⁄₈" 2⁷⁄₈" 3¹⁄₄" 3⁵⁄₈"

3¹⁄₄" 3¹⁄₂" 4" 4⁷⁄₈" 6¹⁄₂" 7¹⁄₂" 8" 9¹⁄₂" 11¹⁄₂" 12¹⁄₂" 15¹⁄₂"

4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12

⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₈" 1¹⁄₄" 1³⁄₈" 1⁵⁄₈" 1¹⁄₂" 1³⁄₄"

¹⁄₂" ³⁄₄" 1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8"

5¹⁄₄" 5¹⁄₂" 6¹⁄₄" 8" 9¹⁄₄" 10¹⁄₂" 12" 14" 16¹⁄₂" 19" 21³⁄₄"

1³⁄₁₆" 1¹⁄₄" 1³⁄₈" 1³⁄₄" 2" 2¹⁄₄" 2⁵⁄₈" 3" 3⁵⁄₈" 4¹⁄₄" 5"

3¹⁄₂" 3³⁄₄" 4¹⁄₄" 5³⁄₄" 6³⁄₄" 7³⁄₄" 9" 10³⁄₄" 12³⁄₄" 14¹⁄₂" 17¹⁄₄"

4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12

⁷⁄₈" ⁷⁄₈" 1" 1¹⁄₄" 1¹⁄₈" 1¹⁄₄" 1³⁄₈" 1⁵⁄₈" 1⁷⁄₈" 2¹⁄₈" 2¹⁄₈"


Pipe Data: Flange Ratings Flanges DIN versus ANSI Pressure Rating ANSI 125 lbs. 150 lbs. 300 lbs. 400 lbs. 600 lbs. 900 lbs. 1500 lbs. 2500 lbs.

PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN

Type Flat Face Raised Face

Sizes ANSI

DIN 6 / PN 10 16 25 / PN 40 64 100 150 250 320 / PN 400

= Form B flange = Form C flange (Form E is smoother facing finish) Ring Joint Flange = Only for ANSI flanges

DIN

1" 1¹⁄₂" 2" 2¹⁄₂" 3" 4" 5" 6"

DN DN DN DN DN DN DN DN

25 40 50 65 80 100 125 150

A DIN flange is never identical to an ANSI flange; the table at left is a guideline to find the most equivalent ANSI/DIN flange. DIN increments differ from country to country, the table refers to the German DIN standard.

Class 150 pressure-temperature ratings (pressure-PSIG) Materials Temp. °F

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000

304 SS

304L/ 316L SS

310 SS

275 230 205 190 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

230 195 175 160 145 140 125 110 95 80 65 -

260 235 220 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

316 SS

321 SS

347/ 348 SS

275 235 215 195 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

275 245 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

275 255 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

A105 Carp. Carbon 20SS Steel

285 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 -

Hast. C & Monel Grade Grade Grade Grade Hast. Inconel Incoloy Inconel 400 & Nickel F22 F11 F91 F1 C625 & B2 200 800 600 405 ¹⁄₂ Mo 1¹⁄₄ Cr- 2¹⁄₄ Cr- 9 CrIncoloy ¹⁄₂ Mo 1 Mo 1 Mo-V 825

265 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 -

290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

275 255 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20

230 200 190 185 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 -

140 140 140 140 140 140 -

Temp. °F.

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000

Class 300 pressure-temperature ratings (pressure-PSIG) Materials Temp. °F

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

304 SS

304L/ 316L SS

310 SS

316 SS

321 SS

347/ 348 SS

720 600 540 495 465 435 430 425 415 405 395 390 380 320 310 255 200 155 115 85 60 50 35 25

600 505 455 415 380 360 350 345 335 330 320 -

670 605 570 535 505 480 470 455 450 435 425 420 385 345 335 260 190 135 105 75 60 45 35 25

720 620 560 515 480 450 445 430 425 420 420 415 385 350 345 305 235 185 145 115 95 75 60 40

720 645 595 550 515 485 480 465 460 450 445 440 385 355 315 270 235 186 140 110 85 65 50 40

720 660 615 575 540 515 505 495 490 485 485 450 385 365 360 325 275 170 125 95 70 66 40 35

A105 Carp. Carbon 20SS Steel

740 675 655 635 600 550 535 535 505 410 270 170 105 50 -

750 720 715 675 655 605 590 570 530 510 -

Hast. C & Monel Grade Grade Grade Grade Hast. Inconel Incoloy Inconel 400 & Nickel F22 F11 F91 F1 C625 & B2 200 800 600 405 ¹⁄₂ Mo 1¹⁄₄ Cr- 2¹⁄₄ Cr- 9 CrIncoloy ¹⁄₂ Mo 1 Mo 1 Mo-V 825

695 680 655 640 620 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 280 165 -

750 750 720 695 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 320 215 145 95 60 40 -

750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 375 260 175 110 70 40 -

750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 385 365 360 300 225 145 -

750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 -

750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 385 365 360 325 275 186 146 110 -

720 660 625 600 580 575 570 565 530 505 485 450 385 365 360 325 275 205 130 60 50 35 30 25

750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 325 215 140 95 70 60 -

600 530 495 480 475 475 475 475 470 460 340 245 -

360 360 360 360 360 360 -

Temp. °F.

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

35


Pipe Data: Flange Ratings (cont.) Class 600 pressure-temperature ratings (pressure-PSIG) Materials Temp. °F

304 SS

304L/ 316L SS

-20 to 100 1440 1200 200 1200 1015 300 1080 910 400 995 825 500 930 765 600 875 720 650 860 700 700 850 685 750 830 670 800 805 660 850 790 645 900 780 950 765 1000 640 1050 615 1100 515 1150 400 1200 310 1250 225 1300 170 1350 125 1400 90 1450 70 1500 55 -

310 SS

316 SS

1345 1440 1215 1240 1140 1120 1070 1025 1015 955 960 900 935 890 910 870 900 855 875 845 855 835 835 830 775 775 685 700 670 685 520 610 375 475 275 370 205 295 150 235 115 190 90 150 65 115 50 85

321 SS

347/ 348 SS

1440 1290 1190 1105 1030 975 955 930 915 900 895 885 775 715 625 545 475 320 280 220 170 130 105 75

1440 1320 1230 1145 1080 1025 1010 990 985 975 970 900 775 725 720 645 550 345 245 185 135 110 80 70

A105 Carp. Carbon 20SS Steel

Hast. C & Monel Grade Grade Grade Grade Hast. Inconel Incoloy Inconel F22 F11 F91 400 & Nickel F1 C625 & 800 B2 200 600 2¹⁄₄ Cr1¹⁄₄ Cr9 Cr405 ¹⁄₂ Mo Incoloy ¹⁄₂ Mo 1 Mo 1 Mo-V 825

1480 1350 1315 1270 1200 1095 1075 1065 1010 825 535 345 205 105 -

1390 1360 1305 1280 1245 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 975 900 560 330 -

1500 1440 1425 1345 1310 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 -

1500 1500 1445 1385 1330 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 975 900 640 430 290 190 125 75 -

1500 1500 1455 1410 1330 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 975 900 755 520 350 220 135 80 -

1500 1500 1455 1410 1330 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 975 900 775 725 720 605 445 290 -

1500 1500 1455 1410 1330 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 -

1500 1500 1455 1410 1330 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 975 900 775 725 720 645 550 370 295 215 -

1440 1325 1250 1200 1155 1145 1140 1130 1065 1015 975 900 775 725 720 645 550 405 260 125 100 70 60 50

1500 1200 1500 1055 1455 990 1410 955 1330 950 1210 950 1175 950 1135 950 1065 935 1015 915 975 680 900 495 655 430 280 185 135 125 -

720 720 720 720 720 720 -

Temp. °F.

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

Class 900 pressure-temperature ratings (pressure-PSIG)

Materials Temp. °F

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

36

304 SS

304L/ 316L SS

310 SS

316 SS

321 SS

347/ 348 SS

2160 1800 1620 1490 1395 1310 1290 1275 1245 1210 1190 1165 1145 965 925 770 595 465 340 255 185 145 105 80

1800 1520 1360 1240 1145 1080 1050 1030 1010 985 985 -

2015 1820 1705 1605 1520 1440 1405 1370 1345 1310 1280 1255 1160 1030 780 565 410 310 225 175 135 100 75

2160 1860 1680 1540 1435 1355 1330 1305 1280 1265 1255 1245 1160 1050 1010 915 710 555 440 350 290 225 175 125

2160 1935 1785 1655 1545 1460 1435 1395 1375 1355 1340 1325 1160 1070 1030 815 710 555 420 330 255 195 155 115

2160 1980 1845 1720 1620 1540 1510 1485 1475 1460 1455 1350 1160 1090 940 985 825 515 370 280 205 165 125 105

A105 Carp. Carbon 20SS Steel

Hast. C & Monel Grade Grade Grade Grade Hast. Inconel Incoloy Inconel F22 F11 F91 400 & Nickel F1 C625 & 800 B2 200 600 405 ¹⁄₂ Mo 1¹⁄₄ Cr- 2¹⁄₄ Cr- 9 CrIncoloy ¹⁄₂ Mo 1 Mo 1 Mo-V 825

2220 2025 1970 1900 1795 1640 1610 1600 1510 1235 805 515 310 155 1080 -

2085 2035 1955 1920 1865 1815 1765 1705 1595 1525 1460 1350 845 495 -

2250 2160 2140 2020 1965 1815 1765 1705 1595 1525 -

2250 2250 2165 2080 1995 1815 1765 1705 1595 1525 1460 1350 955 650 430 290 185 115 -

2250 2250 2185 2115 1995 1815 1765 1705 1595 1525 1460 1350 1130 780 525 330 205 125 -

2250 2250 2185 2115 1995 1815 1765 1705 1595 1525 1460 1350 1160 1090 1080 905 670 430 -

2250 2250 2185 2115 1995 1815 1765 1705 1595 1520 -

2250 2250 2185 2115 1995 1815 1765 1705 1595 1520 1460 1350 1160 1090 1080 965 825 555 440 325 -

2160 1990 1870 1800 1735 1720 1705 1690 1595 1520 1460 1350 1160 1090 1080 965 825 610 390 185 150 100 95 75

2250 2250 2185 2115 1995 1815 1765 1705 1595 1520 1460 1350 980 965 415 280 205 185 -

1800 1585 1485 1435 1435 1435 1435 1435 1405 1375 1020 740 -

1080 1080 1080 1080 1080 1080 -

Temp. °F.

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500


Pipe Data: Flange Ratings (cont.) Class 1500 pressure-temperature ratings (pressure-PSIG)

Materials Temp. °F

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

304 SS

304L/ 316L SS

310 SS

316 SS

321 SS

347/ 348 SS

3600 3000 2700 2485 2330 2185 2150 2125 2075 2015 1980 1945 1910 1605 1545 1285 995 770 565 430 310 240 170 135

3000 2530 2270 2065 1910 1800 1750 1715 1680 1645 1810 -

3360 3035 2845 2675 2530 2400 2340 2280 2245 2185 2135 2090 1930 1720 1680 1305 934 685 515 375 290 225 165 130

3600 3095 2795 2570 2390 2255 2220 2170 2135 2110 2090 2075 1930 1740 1720 1525 1185 925 735 585 480 380 290 205

3600 3230 2975 2760 2570 2435 2390 2330 2290 2255 2230 2210 1930 1785 1580 1360 1185 925 705 660 430 325 255 190

3600 3300 3070 2870 2570 2570 2520 2470 2460 2435 2425 2245 1930 1820 1800 1610 1370 855 615 465 345 275 205 170

A105 Carp. Carbon 20SS Steel

Hast. C & Monel Grade Grade Grade Grade Hast. Inconel Incoloy Inconel F22 F11 F91 400 & Nickel F1 C625 & B2 200 800 600 405 ¹⁄₂ Mo 1¹⁄₄ Cr- 2¹⁄₄ Cr- 9 CrIncoloy ¹⁄₂ Mo 1 Mo 1 Mo-V 825

3705 3375 3280 3170 2700 2735 2685 2665 2520 2060 1340 860 515 260 -

3470 3395 3260 3200 3105 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 2435 2245 1405 825 -

3750 3600 3565 3365 3275 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 -

3750 3750 3610 3465 3325 3025 2940 2840 3660 2540 2435 2245 1595 1080 720 480 310 190 -

3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 2435 2245 1885 1305 875 550 345 205 -

3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 2435 2245 1930 1820 1800 1510 1115 720 -

3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 -

3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 2435 2245 1930 1820 1800 1610 1370 925 735 640 -

3600 3310 3120 3000 2890 2870 2845 2840 2650 2535 2435 2245 1930 1820 1800 1610 1370 1020 650 310 245 170 155 125

3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 2435 2245 1635 1080 695 465 340 310 -

3000 2640 2740 2390 2375 2375 2375 2375 2340 2290 1695 1235 -

1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 -

Temp. °F.

-20 to 200 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

Class 2500 pressure-temperature ratings (pressure-PSIG)

Materials Temp. °F

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

304 SS

304L/ 316L SS

310 SS

6000 5000 4500 4140 3880 3640 3580 3540 3460 3360 3300 3240 3180 2675 2570 2145 1655 1285 945 715 515 400 285 230

5000 4220 3780 3440 3180 3000 2920 2860 2800 2740 2680 -

5600 5060 4740 4460 4220 4000 3900 3800 3740 3640 3560 3480 3220 2865 2800 2170 1570 1145 855 630 485 370 275 215

316 SS

321 SS

347/ 348 SS

6000 5160 4660 4280 3980 3760 3700 3620 3560 3520 3480 3460 3220 2915 2865 2545 1970 1545 1230 970 800 630 485 345

6000 5380 4960 4600 4285 4060 3980 3880 3820 3760 3720 3680 3220 2970 2605 2255 1970 1545 1170 915 715 545 430 315

6000 5500 5120 4780 4500 4280 4200 4120 4100 4060 4040 3745 3220 3030 3000 2685 2285 1430 1030 710 570 455 345 285

A105 Carp. Carbon 20SS Steel

Hast. C & Monel Grade Grade Grade Grade Hast. Inconel Incoloy Inconel 400 & Nickel F22 F11 F91 F1 C625 & B2 200 800 600 405 ¹⁄₂ Mo 1¹⁄₄ Cr- 2¹⁄₄ Cr- 9 CrIncoloy ¹⁄₂ Mo 1 Mo 1 Mo-V 825

6170 5625 5470 5280 4990 4560 4475 4440 4200 3430 2230 1430 860 430 -

5785 5660 5435 5330 5180 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 2345 1370 -

6250 6000 5940 5610 5460 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 -

6250 6250 6015 5775 5540 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 2655 1800 1200 800 515 315 -

6250 6250 6070 5880 5540 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 3145 2170 1455 915 570 345 -

6250 6250 6070 5880 5540 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 3220 3030 3000 2515 1855 1200 -

6250 6250 6070 5880 5540 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 -

6250 6250 6070 5880 5540 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 3220 3030 3000 2685 2285 1545 1220 900 -

6000 5520 5200 5000 4820 4780 4740 4700 4430 4230 4060 3745 3220 3030 3000 2685 2285 1695 1080 515 410 285 255 205

6250 6250 6070 5880 5540 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 2725 1800 1155 770 565 515 -

5000 4400 4120 3980 3960 3960 3960 3960 3900 3820 2830 2055 -

3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 -

Temp. °F.

-20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

37


Pipe Data: Cast Iron Pipe Cast Iron Pipe–ASA Standard Pipe Size

Pipe O.D.

3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

3.96 4.80 6.90 9.05 11.10 13.20 15.30 17.40 19.50 21.60 25.80

Class 50 50 PSIG WALL

I.D.

0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.48 0.54 0.54 0.57 0.63

3.32 4.10 6.14 8.23 10.22 12.24 14.34 16.32 18.42 20.46 24.54

Class 100 100 PSIG WALL 0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.51 0.54 0.58 0.62 0.68

Class 150 150 PSIG

I.D.

I.D.

WALL

3.32 4.10 6.14 8.23 10.22 12.24 14.28 16.32 18.34 20.36 24.44

0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.51 0.54 0.58 0.62 0.73

3.32 4.10 6.14 8.23 10.22 12.24 14.28 16.32 18.34 20.36 24.34

Class 200 200 PSIG WALL 0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.55 0.58 0.63 0.67 0.79

Class 250 250 PSIG

I.D.

WALL

I.D.

3.32 4.10 6.14 8.23 10.22 12.24 14.20 16.24 18.24 20.26 24.22

0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.52 0.59 0.63 0.68 0.72 0.79

3.32 4.10 6.14 8.23 10.22 12.16 14.12 16.14 18.14 20.16 24.22

Class 300 300 PSIG

Class 350 350 PSIG

I.D.

WALL 0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.48 0.51 0.59 0.68 0.73 0.78 0.85

3.32 4.10 6.14 8.23 10.14 12.16 14.12 16.04 18.04 20.04 24.10

I.D.

WALL 0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.52 0.56 0.64 0.68 0.79 0.84 0.92

3.32 4.10 6.14 8.23 10.06 12.08 14.02 16.04 17.92 19.92 23.96

Cast Iron Pipe–AWWA Standard Pipe Size 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 72 84

Pipe Size 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36

38

Class A 100 Ft. 43 PSIG O.D. 3.80 4.80 6.90 9.05 11.10 13.20 15.30 17.40 19.50 21.60 25.80 31.74 37.96 44.20 50.50 56.66 62.80 75.34 87.54

WALL 0.39 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.50 0.54 0.57 0.60 0.64 0.67 0.76 0.88 0.99 1.10 1.26 1.35 1.39 1.62 1.72

Class B 200 Ft. 86 PSIG I.D. 3.02 3.96 6.02 8.13 10.10 12.12 14.16 16.20 18.22 20.26 24.28 29.98 35.98 42.00 47.98 53.96 60.02 72.10 84.10

Class E 500 Ft. 217 PSIG O.D. 7.22 9.42 11.60 13.78 15.98 18.16 20.34 22.54 26.90 33.10 39.60

WALL 0.58 0.66 0.74 0.82 0.90 0.98 1.07 1.15 1.31 1.55 1.80

I.D. 6.06 8.10 10.12 12.14 14.18 16.20 18.20 20.24 24.28 30.00 36.00

O.D. 3.96 5.00 7.10 9.05 11.10 13.20 15.30 17.40 19.50 21.60 25.80 32.00 38.30 44.50 50.80 57.10 63.40 75.00 88.54

WALL 0.42 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.57 0.62 0.66 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.89 1.03 1.15 1.28 1.42 1.55 1.67 1.95 2.22

Class C 300 Ft. 130 PSIG I.D. 3.12 4.10 6.14 8.03 9.96 11.96 13.98 16.00 18.00 20.00 24.02 29.94 36.00 41.94 47.96 54.00 60.06 72.10 84.10

Class F 600 Ft. 260 PSIG O.D. 7.22 9.42 11.60 13.78 15.98 18.16 20.34 22.54 26.90 33.46 40.04

WALL 0.61 0.71 0.80 0.89 0.99 1.08 1.17 1.27 1.45 1.73 2.02

O.D. 3.96 5.00 7.10 9.30 11.40 13.50 15.65 17.80 19.92 22.06 26.32 32.40 38.70 45.10 51.40 57.80 64.20 76.88 –

WALL 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.56 0.62 0.68 0.74 0.80 0.87 0.92 1.04 1.20 1.36 1.54 1.71 1.90 2.00 2.39 –

Class D 400 Ft. 173 PSIG I.D. 3.06 4.04 6.08 8.18 10.16 12.14 14.17 16.20 18.18 20.22 24.22 30.00 39.98 42.02 47.98 54.00 60.20 72.10 –

Class G 700 Ft. 304 PSIG I.D. 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 24.00 30.00 36.00

O.D. 7.38 9.60 11.84 14.08 16.32 18.54 20.78 23.02 27.76 – –

WALL 0.65 0.75 0.86 0.97 1.07 1.18 1.28 1.39 1.75 – –

O.D. 3.96 5.00 7.10 9.30 11.40 13.50 15.65 17.80 19.92 22.06 26.32 32.74 39.16 45.58 51.98 58.40 64.82 – –

WALL 0.48 0.52 0.55 0.60 0.68 0.75 0.82 0.89 0.96 1.03 1.16 1.37 1.58 1.78 1.96 2.23 2.38 – –

I.D. 3.00 3.96 6.00 8.10 10.04 12.00 14.01 16.02 18.00 20.00 24.00 30.00 36.00 42.02 48.06 53.94 60.06 – –

Class H 800 Ft. 347 PSIG I.D. 6.08 8.10 10.12 12.14 14.18 16.18 18.22 20.24 24.26 – –

O.D. 7.38 9.60 11.84 14.08 16.32 18.54 20.78 23.02 27.76 – –

WALL 0.69 0.80 0.92 1.04 1.16 1.27 1.39 1.51 1.88 – –

I.D. 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 24.00 – –


Pipe Data: Steel Pipe Cross-sectional Area Inside Wall Thickness, Diameter, in. in. Flow, ft2 Metal, in2

Circumference, ft., or surface, ft2/ft of length

Capacity at 1-ft/s velocity U.S. gal/ lb/h water min

Weight of plain-end pipe, lb/ft

Nominal Pipe Size, in.

Outside Diameter, in.

¹⁄₈

0.405

10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S

.049 .068 .095

.307 .269 .215

.055 .072 .093

.00051 .00040 .00025

.106 .106 .106

.0804 .0705 .0563

.231 .179 .113

115.5 89.5 56.5

.19 .24 .31

¹⁄₄

0.540

10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S

.065 .088 .119

.410 .364 .302

.097 .125 .157

.00092 .00072 .00050

.141 .141 .141

.107 .095 .079

.412 .323 .224

206.5 161.5 112.0

.33 .42 .54

³⁄₈

0.675

10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S

.065 .091 .126

.545 .493 .423

.125 .167 .217

.00162 .00133 .00098

.177 .177 .177

.143 .129 .111

.727 .596 .440

363.5 298.0 220.0

.42 .57 .74

¹⁄₂

0.840

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 160 XX

.065 .083 .109 .147 .188 .294

.710 .674 .622 .546 .464 .252

.158 .197 .250 .320 .385 .504

.00275 .00248 .00211 .00163 .00117 .00035

.220 .220 .220 .220 .220 .220

.186 .176 .163 .143 .122 .066

1.234 1.112 0.945 0.730 0.527 0.155

617.0 556.0 472.0 365.0 263.5 77.5

.54 .67 .85 1.09 1.31 1.71

³⁄₄

1.050

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 160 XX

.065 .083 .113 .154 .219 .308

.920 .884 .824 .742 .612 .434

.201 .252 .333 .433 .572 .718

.00461 .00426 .00371 .00300 .00204 .00103

.275 .275 .275 .275 .275 .275

.241 .231 .216 .194 .160 .114

2.072 1.903 1.665 1.345 0.917 0.461

1036.0 951.5 832.5 672.5 458.5 230.5

0.69 0.86 1.13 1.47 1.94 2.44

1

1.315

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 160 XX

.065 .109 .133 .179 .250 .358

1.185 1.097 1.049 0.957 0.815 0.599

.255 .413 .494 .639 .836 1.076

.00768 .00656 .00600 .00499 .00362 .00196

.344 .344 .344 .344 .344 .344

.310 .287 .275 .250 .213 .157

3.449 2.946 2.690 2.240 1.625 0.878

1725 1473 1345 1120 812.5 439.0

0.87 1.40 1.68 2.17 2.84 3.66

1¹⁄₄

1.660

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 160 XX

.065 .109 .140 .191 .250 .382

1.530 1.442 1.380 1.278 1.160 0.896

0.326 0.531 0.668 0.881 1.107 1.534

.01277 .01134 .01040 .00891 .00734 .00438

.435 .435 .435 .435 .435 .435

.401 .378 .361 .335 .304 .235

5.73 5.09 4.57 3.99 3.29 1.97

2865 2545 2285 1995 1645 985

1.11 1.81 2.27 3.00 3.76 5.21

1¹⁄₂

1.900

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 160 XX

.065 .109 .145 .200 .281 .400

1.770 1.682 1.610 1.500 1.338 1.100

0.375 0.614 0.800 1.069 1.429 1.885

.01709 .01543 .01414 .01225 .00976 .00660

.497 .497 .497 .497 .497 .497

.463 .440 .421 .393 .350 .288

7.67 6.94 6.34 5.49 4.38 2.96

3835 3465 3170 2745 2190 1480

1.28 2.09 2.72 3.63 4.86 6.41

2

2.375

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80ST, 80S 160 XX

.065 .109 .154 .218 .344 .436

2.245 2.157 2.067 1.939 1.687 1.503

0.472 0.776 1.075 1.477 2.195 2.656

.02749 .02538 .02330 .02050 .01552 .01232

.622 .622 .622 .622 .622 .622

.588 .565 .541 .508 .436 .393

12.34 11.39 10.45 9.20 6.97 5.53

6170 5695 5225 4600 3485 2765

1.61 2.64 3.65 5.02 7.46 9.03

2¹⁄₂

2.875

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 160 XX

.083 .120 .203 .276 .375 .552

2.709 2.635 2.469 2.323 2.125 1.771

0.728 1.039 1.704 2.254 2.945 4.028

.04003 .03787 .03322 .02942 .02463 .01711

.753 .753 .753 .753 .753 .753

.709 .690 .647 .608 .556 .464

17.97 17.00 14.92 13.20 11.07 7.68

8985 8500 7460 6600 5535 3840

2.48 3.53 5.79 7.66 10.01 13.69

3

3.500

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 160 XX

.083 .120 .216 .300 .438 .600

3.334 3.260 3.068 2.900 2.624 2.300

0.891 1.274 2.228 3.016 4.213 5.466

.06063 .05796 .05130 .04587 .03755 .02885

.916 .916 .916 .916 .916 .916

.873 .853 .803 .759 .687 .602

27.21 26.02 23.00 20.55 16.86 12.95

13,605 13,010 11,500 10,275 8430 6475

3.03 4.33 7.58 10.25 14.32 18.58

3¹⁄₂

4.0

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S

.083 .120 .226 .318

3.834 3.760 3.548 3.364

1.021 1.463 2.680 3.678

.08017 .07711 .06870 .06170

1.047 1.047 1.047 1.047

1.004 0.984 0.929 0.881

35.98 34.61 30.80 27.70

17,990 17,305 15,400 13,850

3.48 4.97 9.11 12.50

4

4.5

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 120 160 XX

.083 .120 .237 .337 .438 .531 .674

4.334 4.260 4.026 3.826 3.624 3.438 3.152

1.152 1.651 3.17 4.41 5.58 6.62 8.10

.10245 .09898 .08840 .07986 .07170 .06647 .05419

1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178

1.135 1.115 1.054 1.002 0.949 0.900 0.825

46.0 44.4 39.6 35.8 32.2 28.9 24.3

23,000 22,200 19,800 17,900 16,100 14,450 12,150

3.92 5.61 10.79 14.98 19.00 22.51 27.54

Schedule No.

Outside

Inside

39


Pipe Data: Steel Pipe (cont.) Cross-sectional Area Inside Wall Thickness, Diameter, in. in. Flow, ft2 Metal, in2

Nominal Pipe Size, in.

Outside Diameter, in.

5

5.563

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80SX, 80S 120 160 XX

.109 .134 .258 .375 .500 .625 .750

5.345 5.295 5.047 4.813 4.563 4.313 4.063

1.87 2.29 4.30 6.11 7.95 9.70 11.34

6

6.625

5S 10S 40ST, 40S 80XS, 80S 120 160 XX

.109 .134 .280 .432 .562 .719 .864

6.407 6.357 6.065 5.761 5.501 5.187 4.897

8

8.625

5S 10S 20 30 40ST, 40S 60 80XS, 80S 100 120 140 XX 160

.109 .148 .250 .277 .322 .406 .500 .594 .719 .812 .875 .906

40

Schedule No.

Circumference, ft., or surface, ft2/ft of length

Capacity at 1-ft/s velocity U.S. gal/ lb/h water min

Weight of plain-end pipe, lb/ft

Outside

Inside

.1558 .1529 .1390 .1263 .1136 .1015 .0900

1.456 1.456 1.456 1.456 1.456 1.456 1.456

1.399 1.386 1.321 1.260 1.195 1.129 1.064

69.9 68.6 62.3 57.7 51.0 45.5 40.4

34,950 34,300 31,150 28,850 25,500 22,750 20,200

6.36 7.77 14.62 20.78 27.04 32.96 38.55

2.23 2.73 5.58 8.40 10.70 13.34 15.64

.2239 .2204 .2006 .1810 .1650 .1467 .1308

1.734 1.734 1.734 1.734 1.734 1.734 1.734

1.677 1.664 1.588 1.508 1.440 1.358 1.282

100.5 98.9 90.0 81.1 73.9 65.9 58.7

50,250 49,450 45,000 40,550 36,950 32,950 29,350

7.60 9.29 18.97 28.57 36.39 45.34 53.16

8.407 8.329 8.125 8.071 7.981 7.813 7.625 7.437 7.187 7.001 6.875 6.813

2.915 3.941 6.578 7.265 8.399 10.48 12.76 14.99 17.86 19.93 21.30 21.97

.3855 .3784 .3601 .3553 .3474 .3329 .3171 .3017 .2817 .2673 .2578 .2532

2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258

2.201 2.180 2.217 2.113 2.089 2.045 1.996 1.947 1.882 1.833 1.800 1.784

173.0 169.8 161.5 159.4 155.7 149.4 142.3 135.4 126.4 120.0 115.7 113.5

86,500 84,900 80,750 79,700 77,850 74,700 71,150 67,700 63,200 60,000 57,850 56,750

9.93 13.40 22.36 24.70 28.55 35.64 43.39 50.95 60.71 67.76 72.42 74.69

10

10.75

5S 10S 20 30 40ST, 40S 80S, 60XS 80 100 120 140, XX 160

.134 .165 .250 .307 .365 .500 .594 .719 .844 1.000 1.125

10.482 10.420 10.250 10.136 10.020 9.750 9.562 9.312 9.062 8.750 8.500

4.47 5.49 8.25 10.07 11.91 16.10 18.95 22.66 26.27 30.63 34.02

.5993 .5922 .5731 .5603 .5475 .5185 .4987 .4729 .4479 .4176 .3941

2.814 2.814 2.814 2.814 2.814 2.814 2.814 2.814 2.814 2.814 2.814

2.744 2.728 2.685 2.655 2.620 2.550 2.503 2.438 2.372 2.291 2.225

269.0 265.8 257.0 252.0 246.0 233.0 223.4 212.3 201.0 188.0 177.0

134,500 132,900 128,500 126,000 123,000 116,500 111,700 106,150 100,500 94,000 88,500

15.19 18.65 28.04 34.24 40.48 54.74 64.43 77.03 89.29 104.13 115.64

12

12.75

5S 10S 20 30 ST, 40S 40 XS, 80S 60 80 100 120, XX 140 160

0.156 0.180 0.250 0.330 0.375 0.406 0.500 0.562 0.688 0.844 1.000 1.125 1.312

12.438 12.390 12.250 12.090 12.000 11.938 11.750 11.626 11.374 11.062 10.750 10.500 10.126

6.17 7.11 9.82 12.88 14.58 15.74 19.24 21.52 26.07 31.57 36.91 41.09 47.14

.8438 .8373 .8185 .7972 .7854 .7773 .7530 .7372 .7056 .6674 .6303 .6013 .5592

3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338

3.26 3.24 3.21 3.17 3.14 3.13 3.08 3.04 2.98 2.90 2.81 2.75 2.65

378.7 375.8 367.0 358.0 352.5 349.0 338.0 331.0 316.7 299.6 283.0 270.0 251.0

189,350 187,900 183,500 179,000 176,250 174,500 169,000 165,500 158,350 149,800 141,500 135,000 125,500

20.98 24.17 33.38 43.77 49.56 53.52 65.42 73.15 88.63 107.32 125.49 139.67 160.27

14

14

5S 10S 10 20 30, ST 40 XS 60 80 100 120 140 160

0.156 0.188 0.250 0.312 0.375 0.438 0.500 0.594 0.750 0.938 1.094 1.250 1.406

13.688 13.624 13.500 13.376 13.250 13.124 13.000 12.812 12.500 12.124 11.812 11.500 11.188

6.78 8.16 10.80 13.42 16.05 18.66 21.21 25.02 31.22 38.49 44.36 50.07 55.63

1.0219 1.0125 0.9940 0.9750 0.9575 0.9397 0.9218 0.8957 0.8522 0.8017 0.7610 0.7213 0.6827

3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665

3.58 3.57 3.53 3.50 3.47 3.44 3.40 3.35 3.27 3.17 3.09 3.01 2.93

459 454 446 438 430 422 414 402 382 360 342 324 306

229,500 227,000 223,000 219,000 215,000 211,000 207,000 201,000 191,000 180,000 171,000 162,000 153,000

23.07 27.73 36.71 45.61 54.57 63.44 72.09 85.05 106.13 130.85 150.79 170.21 189.11

16

16

5S 10S 10 20 30, ST 40, XS 60

0.165 0.188 0.250 0.312 0.375 0.500 0.656

15.670 15.624 15.500 15.376 15.250 15.000 14.688

8.21 9.34 12.37 15.38 18.41 24.35 31.62

1.3393 1.3314 1.3104 1.2985 1.2680 1.2272 1.1766

4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189

4.10 4.09 4.06 4.03 3.99 3.93 3.85

601 598 587 578 568 550 528

300,500 299,000 293,500 289,000 284,000 275,000 264,000

27.90 31.75 42.05 52.27 62.58 82.77 107.50


Pipe Data: Steel Pipe (cont.) Nominal Pipe Size, in.

Outside Diameter, in.

Schedule No.

Cross-sectional Area Inside Wall Thickness, Diameter, in. in. Flow, ft2 Metal, in2

Circumference, ft., or surface, ft2/ft of length

Outside

Inside

Capacity at 1-ft/s velocity U.S. gal/ lb/h water min

Weight of plain-end pipe, lb/ft

80 100 120 140 160

0.844 1.031 1.219 1.438 1.594

14.312 13.938 13.562 13.124 12.812

40.19 48.48 56.61 65.79 72.14

1.1171 1.0596 1.0032 0.9394 0.8953

4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189

3.75 3.65 3.55 3.44 3.35

501 474 450 422 402

250,500 237,000 225,000 211,000 201,000

136.61 164.82 192.43 223.64 245.25

18

18

5S 10S 10 20 ST 30 XS 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

0.165 0.188 0.250 0.312 0.375 0.438 0.500 0.562 0.750 0.938 1.156 1.375 1.562 1.781

17.670 17.624 17.500 17.376 17.250 17.124 17.000 16.876 16.500 16.124 15.688 15.250 14.876 14.438

9.25 10.52 13.94 17.34 20.76 24.16 27.49 30.79 40.64 50.28 61.17 71.82 80.66 90.75

1.7029 1.6941 1.6703 1.6468 1.6230 1.5993 1.5763 1.5533 1.4849 1.4180 1.3423 1.2684 1.2070 1.1370

4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712 4.712

4.63 4.51 4.58 4.55 4.52 4.48 4.45 4.42 4.32 4.22 4.11 3.99 3.89 3.78

764 760 750 739 728 718 707 697 666 636 602 569 540 510

382,000 379,400 375,000 369,500 364,000 359,000 353,500 348,500 333,000 318,000 301,000 284,500 270,000 255,000

31.43 35.76 47.39 58.94 70.59 82.15 93.45 104.67 138.17 170.92 207.96 244.14 274.22 308.50

20

20

5S 10S 10 20, ST 30, XS 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

0.188 0.218 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.594 0.812 1.031 1.281 1.500 1.750 1.969

19.624 19.564 19.500 19.250 19.000 18.812 18.376 17.938 17.438 17.000 16.500 16.062

11.70 13.55 15.51 23.12 30.63 36.21 48.95 61.44 75.33 87.18 100.3 111.5

2.1004 2.0878 2.0740 2.0211 1.9689 1.9302 1.8417 1.7550 1.6585 1.5763 1.4849 1.4071

5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236 5.236

5.14 5.12 5.11 5.04 4.97 4.92 4.81 4.70 4.57 4.45 4.32 4.21

943 937 930 902 883 866 826 787 744 707 665 632

471,500 467,500 465,000 451,000 441,500 433,000 413,000 393,500 372,000 353,500 332,500 316,000

39.78 46.06 52.73 78.60 104.13 123.11 166.40 208.87 256.10 296.37 341.09 397.17

24

24

5S 10, 10S 20, ST XS 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

0.218 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.562 0.688 0.969 1.219 1.531 1.812 2.062 2.344

23.564 23.500 23.250 23.000 22.876 22.624 22.062 21.562 20.938 20.376 19.876 19.312

16.29 18.65 27.83 36.90 41.39 50.39 70.11 87.24 108.1 126.3 142.1 159.5

3.0285 3.012 2.948 2.885 2.854 2.792 2.655 2.536 2.391 2.264 2.155 2.034

6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283

6.17 6.15 6.09 6.02 5.99 5.92 5.78 5.64 5.48 5.33 5.20 5.06

1359 1350 1325 1295 1281 1253 1192 1138 1073 1016 965 913

679,500 675,000 662,500 642,500 640,500 626,500 596,000 569,000 536,500 508,000 482,500 456,500

55.37 63.41 94.62 125.49 140.68 171.29 238.35 296.58 367.39 429.39 483.12 542.13

30

30

5S 10, 10S ST 20, XS 30

0.250 0.312 0.375 0.500 0.625

29.500 29.376 29.259 29.000 28.750

23.37 29.10 34.90 46.34 57.68

4.746 4.707 4.666 4.587 4.508

7.854 7.854 7.854 7.854 7.854

7.72 7.69 7.66 7.59 7.53

2130 2110 2094 2055 2020

1,065,000 1,055,000 1,048,000 1,027,500 1,010,000

79.43 98.93 118.65 157.53 196.08

5S, 10S, and 40S are extracted from Stainless Steel Pipe, ANSI B36.19–1976, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York. ST = standard wall, XS = extra strong wall, XX = double extra strong wall, and Schedules 10 through 160 are extracted from Wrought-Steel and Wrought-Iron Pipe, ANSI B36.10–1975. Decimal thicknesses for respective pipe sizes represent their nominal or average wall dimensions. Mill tolerances as high as ± 12¹⁄₂ percent are permitted.

41


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LEVEL & FLOW HANDBOOK by MAGNETROL