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HIPSTER ISSUE 01 SPRING 2020

GOD OLD DAYS


HIPSTER

THE GREAT ADVERTISING IDEA

Agyness Deyn wears an elastic and lace minidress, from £650, to order, Christopher Kane, at Browns. Vintage and clear bangle, £8, Freedom by Topshop, at Topshop. Clear bangle, £12, Mikey. All make-up by Dior. Hair: Agyness Deyn wears an elastic and Vintage and clear bangle, £8, Freedom by Topshop, at McKnight. Kate Phelan. Photographed by Nick Knight. Susan Slocum, Lauren Peterson, Phelan. Photographed by Nick Knight. Susan Slocum, Lauren Peterson, Sara Nicholson, Breda O’Reilly, Peter Medwid.

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HIPSTER

EDITORIAL

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n fashion trends and forecasting, consumer is king. What does a consumer really want? Understanding the consumer is a vital part of the fashion world, without them products cannot be sold. First, it is important to note the difference between a consumer’s needs and a consumer’s wants. A need of a consumer is a desire to obtain a product or service, that is either for an emotional or functional reason. A ‘want’ differs from a consumer’s ‘need’ by the consumer’s desire to have a product or service that is not necessary, the consumer just wishes they had it.[41] The success of a fashion company and the prediction of future trends is dependent on addressing its consumers’ needs. Consumers all have different needs and demands that have to be suited. A person’s needs change frequently, which is why fashion trends even exist. An important factor to take into consideration when thinking of consumers’ needs is the key demographics of the customer. Gender, age, income, and even profession can help a company better understand the needs of their customers.[42] For example, a woman who is pregnant could be looking for diapers, baby strollers, and maternity clothes. Her needs would differ greatly from a woman with children that just went off to college or a teen entering high school. Often consumers need to be told what they want. Fashion companies have to do their research to ensure they know its customers’ needs before developing solutions. Steve Jobs said, “You’ve got to start with the customer experience and work backwards to the technology. You cannot start with the technology and try to figure out where you are going to sell it”. The best way to understand the consumers’ needs and therefore predict fashion trends is through market research. There are two research methods: primary and secondary.[44] Secondary methods are taking other information that has already been collected, for example using a book or an article for research. Primary research is collecting data through surveys, interviews, observation, and/or focus groups.

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

SANDRA HENDERSON

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Benefits of primary research is specific information about a fashion brand’s consumer is explored. Surveys are helpful tools; questions can be open-ended or closed-ended. A negative factor surveys and interviews present is that the answers can be biased, due to wording in the survey or on face-to-face interactions. Focus groups, about 8 to 12 people, can be beneficial because several points can be addressed in depth. However, there are drawbacks to this tactic, too. With such a small sample size, it is hard to know if the greater public would react the same way as the focus group.[44] Observation can really help a company

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HIPSTER

CONTENTS

503 08

BENEFITS OF PRIMARY RESEARCH

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SPECIFIC INFORMATION ABOUT

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FASHION BRAND’S CONSUMER

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SURVEYS ARE HELPFUL

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QUESTIONS CAN BE OPEN-ENDED

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OR CLOSED-ENDED

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A NEGATIVE FACTOR SURVEYS

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INTERVIEWS PRESENT

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IS THAT THE ANSWERS CAN BE

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DUE TO WORDING IN THE

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CAN BE BENEFICIAL BECAUSE

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FOCUS GROUPS, ABOUT 8 TO 12 PEOPLE

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THERE IS LESS OF A BIAS BECAUSE

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HIPSTER

1932 NASH ADVANCED EIGHT “FULL CLASSIC”

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HIPSTER

GOD OLD DAYS Vintage, in winemaking, is the process of picking grapes and creating the finished product (see Harvest (wine)). A vintage wine is one made from grapes that were all, or primarily, grown and harvested in a single specified year. In certain wines, it can denote quality, as in Port wine, where Port houses make and declare vintage Port in their best years. From this tradition, a common, though incorrect, usage applies the term to any wine that is perceived to be particularly old or of a particularly high quality. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion of wine that is not from the year denoted on the label. In Chile and South Africa, the requirement is 75% same-year content for vintage-dated wine. [1][2] In Australia, New Zealand, and the member states of the European Union, the requirement is 85%.[3][4][5] In the United States, the requirement is 85%, unless the wine is designated with an AVA, (e.g., Napa Valley), in which case it is 95%. Technically, the 85% rule in the United States applies equally to imports, but there are obvious difficulties in enforcing the regulation.[6] Vintage, in winemaking, is the process of picking grapes and creating the finished product (see Harvest (wine)). A vintage wine is one made from grapes that were all, or primarily, grown and harvested in a single specified year. In certain wines, it can denote quality, as in Port wine, where Port houses make and declare vintage Port in their best years. From this tradition, a common, though incorrect, usage applies the term to any wine that is perceived to be partic

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CLASSIC CAR CLUB OF AMERICA

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HIPSTER

TAKE ME TO BROADWAY SO TAKE ME TO BROADWAY, YO TAKE ME TO BROADWAY YO TAKE ME TO BROADWAY, AND DO IT TONIGHT New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggar’s Opera.[4] In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg, Virginia and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street (now called Park Row).[4] The Bowery Theatre opened in 1826,[5] followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, and especially so with the arrival of the Virginia Minstrels in the 1840s. By the 1840s, P.T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo’s Garden opened and soon became one of New York’s premiere nightspots. The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo’s

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Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton’s Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: “After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class.”[7] New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actormanagers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggar’s Opera. [4] In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg, Virginia and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre

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HIPSTER

NEW YORK DID NOT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT THEATRE PRESENCE UNTIL #56 SPRING 2020

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HIPSTER

SHOULD AIRPLANES

BE FLYING THE FIRST JET AIRLINER, THE DE HAVILLAND COMET, WAS INTRODUCED IN 1952. THE BOEING 707, THE FIRST WIDELY SUCCESSFUL COMMERCIAL JET, WAS IN COMMERCIAL SERVICE FOR MORE THAN 50 YEARS, FROM 1958 TO 2010. THE BOEING 747 WAS THE WORLD’S BIGGEST PASSENGER AIRCRAFT FROM 1970 UNTIL IT WAS SURPASSED BY THE AIRBUS A380 IN 2005. The importance of vintage, however, is both varied and disputed. In wine produced on the colder limits of wine production, vintage is often very important, because some seasons will be much warmer and produce riper grapes and better wine. On the other hand, a poor growing season can lead to grapes low in sugar, which lowers the quality of the resulting wine. In many wine regions, especially in the New World, growing seasons are much more uniform. In dry regions, the systematic and controlled use of irrigation also contributes to uniform vintages. However, such wines are regularly labeled by vintage because of consumer demand. Vintage Champagne Wines of superior vintages from prestigious producers and regions will often command much higher prices than those from average vintages. This is especially the case if wines are likely to improve further with some age in the bottle. Some wines are only labeled with a vintage in betterthan-average years, to maintain their quality and reputation, while the vast majority of wines are

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produced to be drunk young and fresh. In such cases, a vintage is usually considered less important. However, it can serve to protect consumers against buying a wine that would not be expected to improve with age and could be past its best, such as with Beaujolais nouveau, a wine style made to be consumed within months of its bottling. The importance of vintage may sometimes be exaggerated. For example, New York Times wine columnist Frank J. Prial declared the vintage chart to be dead, writing that “winemakers of the world have rendered the vintage chart obsolete” (Prial), and Bill Marsano wrote that “winemakers now have the technology and skills to make good and even very good wines in undistinguished years” (Marsano). James Laube of Wine Spectator has asserted that “even an average vintage can yield some grand wines” (Laube). Vintages in the Côte de Beaune in Burgundy Roman Weil, co-chairman of the Oenonomy Society of the US and Professor at the University of Chicago, tested the controversial hypothesis that experienced wine drinkers “cannot distinguish in blind tastings the wine of years

WORDS

LEONE DANIELI

PHOTO

SUSAN PARKER rated high from those of years rated low, or, if they can, they do not agree with the vintage chart’s preferences” (Weil). Dr. Weil used wines ranging from four to 17 years beyond their vintage with 240 wine drinkers and found that the tasters could not distinguish between wines of good and bad vintages except for Bordeaux wines. Even when they could make a distinction, the match between the tasters’ individual assessments and the charts’ rankings were little better than tossing a coin. When the tests were replicated with wine experts, including French wine academics, the results were again the same as chance. Weil does not consider a vintage chart to be useless. He suggests using one to help “find good buys in wine.

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THE FIRST ‘OPERATIONAL’ JET AIRCRAFT WAS THE GERMAN HEINKEL HE 178, WHICH WAS TESTED IN 1939. IN 1933, THE MESSERSCHMITT ME 262, THE FIRST ‘OPERATIONAL’ JET FIGHTER AIRCRAFT, WENT INTO SERVICE

BLENDED WING BODY

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HIPSTER

AIRPLANES HAD A PRESENCE IN ALL THE MAJOR BATTLES OF WORLD WAR II. THEY WERE AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF THE MILITARY STRATEGIES OF THE PERIOD, SUCH AS THE GERMAN BLITZKRIEG, THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN, AND THE AMERICAN AND JAPANESE AIRCRAFT CARRIER CAMPAIGNS OF THE PACIFIC WAR.

FOLLOWING WWI, AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGY 12

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HIPSTER

Smaller and older propeller planes make use of reciprocating engines (or piston engines) to turn a propeller to create thrust. The amount of thrust a propeller creates is determined by its disk area - the area in which the blades rotate. If the area is too small, efficiency is poor, and if the area is large, the propeller must rotate at a very low speed to avoid going supersonic and creating a lot of noise, and not much thrust. Because of this limitation, propellers are favored for planes which travel at below mach .5, while jets are a better choice above that speed. Propeller engines may be quieter than jet engines (though not always) and may cost less to purchase or maintain and so remain common on light general aviation aircraft such as the Cessna 172. Larger modern propeller planes such as the Dash 8 use a jet engine to turn the propeller, primarily because an equivalent piston engine in power output would be much larger and more complex. Jet aircraft are propelled by jet engines, which are used because the aerodynamic limitations of propellers do not apply to jet propulsion. These engines are much more powerful than a reciprocating engine for a given size or weight and are comparatively quiet and work well at higher altitude. Most modern jet planes use turbofan jet engines which balance the advantages of a propeller, while retaining the exhaust speed and power of a jet. This is essentially a ducted propeller attached to a jet engine, much like a turboprop, but with a smaller diameter. When installed on an airliner, it is efficient so long as it remains below the speed of sound (or subsonic). Jet fighters and other supersonic aircraft that do not spend a great deal of time supersonic also often use turbofans, but to function, air intake ducting is needed to slow the air down so that when it arrives at the front of the turbofan, it is subsonic. When passing through the engine, it is then re-accelerated back to supersonic speeds. To further boost the power output, fuel is dumped into the exhaust stream, where it ignites. This is called an afterburner and has been used on both pure jet aircraft and turbojet aircraft although it is only normally used on combat aircraft due to the amount of fuel consumed, and even then may only be used for short periods of time. Supersonic airliners (e.g. Concorde) are no longer in use largely because flight at supersonic speed creates a sonic boom which is prohibited in most heavily populated areas, and because of the much higher consumption of fuel supersonic flight requires.

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HIPSTER

IN THE 1980S, DESIGN HISTORY EMERGED AS A DISCIPLINE AND SEVERAL HISTORIES OF DESIGN WERE PUBLISHED. THE ACCESS TO THESE OVERVIEWS AND THE ABILITY TO EXPERIMENT WITH COMPUTER DESIGN PROGRAMS HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE OF RETRO DESIGNED

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signs you were born in the wrong era

Up until the 1960s, interiors were decorated with antiques. During the 1960s in London shops started selling pieces of second hand furniture. These shops were different from the previous antique shops because they sold daily life objects from the recent past. These objects used to be seen as junk: Victorian enamel signs, stuffed bears, old furniture painted with union jacks, bowler hats etc. A new way of producing and consuming the past emerged and a broader range of objects from the recent past was used for new designs.[13]

Before the word ‘retro’ came into use in the 1970s, the practise of adopting old styles for new designs was already common. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, designers borrowed from the past, for example classicistic style.[14] The difference is that since the 1960s people started to refer to the recent past. Up until the 1960s, interiors were decorated with antiques. During the 1960s in London shops started selling pieces of second hand furniture. These shops were different from the previous antique shops because they sold daily life objects from the recent past. These objects used to be seen as junk: Victorian enamel signs, stuffed bears, old furniture painted

#56 SPRING 2020

with union jacks, bowler hats etc. A new way of producing and consuming the past emerged and a broader range of objects from the recent past was used for new designs.[13] Before the word ‘retro’ came into use in the 1970s, the practise of adopting old styles for new designs was already common. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, designers borrowed from the past, for example classicistic style.[14] The difference is that since the 1960s people started to refer to the recent past. Up until the 1960s, interiors were decorated with antiques. During the 1960s in London shops started selling pieces of second hand furniture. These shops were different from the previous antique shops because they sold daily life objects from the recent past. These objects used to be seen as junk: Victorian enamel signs, stuffed bears, old furniture painted with union jacks, bowler hats etc. A new way of producing and consuming the past emerged and a broader range of objects from the recent past was used for new designs.[13] Before the word ‘retro’ came into use in the 1970s, the practise of adopting old styles for new designs

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HIPSTER

1

The 1970s brought about a 1950s–60s revival with American Graffiti, Grease, and Happy Days.

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This lasted into the 1980s with the rockabilly revival. The 1950s greaser look greatly influenced the punk subculture.

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The 1980s witnessed a 1960s revival. Power pop of the decade was influenced by 1960s pop rock, and various artists covered 1960s hits.

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Notable examples include “You Keep Me Hangin’ On” being covered by Kim Wilde and “Where Did Our Love Go?” being covered by Soft Cell.

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HIPSTER

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The 1990s brought a 1970s revival. Musically, a revival of 1970s disco and pop occurred, led by artists such as the A*Teens.

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Perhaps the most famous example of a retro pop-art character is the more generalized form of the Ward Cleaverstyled J. R.

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Television series I Love the ‘70s and That ‘70s Show also debuted.

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“Bob” Dobbs-esque icon which has been widely played off, copied, and parodied.

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HIPSTER

C

Retro FUNKY CHAIR We’re proud to offer you an affordable retro inspired furniture range for your home. Drawing on the iconic angles, timber legs and cut-away handles of the past, the two-tone white and wood combination finish gives each piece in the Retro range a modern flair. The Retro range has been carefully designed with unique design features while still meeting all of your living room, dining room and storage needs. Add a little personality into your home with this beautiful range! Complete the Retro look in your home with our fabulous Pop dining chairs and give your dining room a funky retro edge, perfect for entertaining family and friends. Made from solid hardwood, four legs provide a strong and sturdy base for long-lasting support. The moulded polyurethane seat features a easy to clean padded seat cushion to provide comfort while you dine in style.

It’s never been so easy to create the popular designer inspired look for an extremely affordable price! Chairs are available in black or white. We’re proud to offer you an affordable retro inspired furniture range for your home. Drawing on the iconic angles, timber legs and cut-away handles of the past, the two-tone white and wood combination finish gives each piece in the Retro range a modern flair. The Retro range has been carefully designed with unique design features while still meeting all of your living room, dining room and storage needs. Add a little personality into your home with this beautiful range! Complete the Retro look in your home with our fabulous Pop dining chairs and give your dining room a funky retro edge, perfect for entertaining family and friends. Made from solid hardwood, four legs provide a strong and sturdy base for long-lasting support. The moulded polyurethane seat features a easy to clean padded seat cushion to provide comfort while you dine in style. It’s never been so easy to create the popular designer inspired look for an extremely affordable price! Chairs are available in black or white. We’re proud to offer you an affordable retro inspired furniture range for your home. Drawing on the iconic angles, timber legs and cut-away handles of the past, the two-tone white and wood combination finish gives each piece in the Retro range a modern flair. The Retro range has been carefully designed with unique design features while still meeting all of your living room, dining room and storage needs. Add a little personality into your home with this beautiful range! Complete the Retro look in your home with our fabulous Pop dining chairs and give your dining room a funky retro edge, perfect for entertaining family and friends.

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HIPSTER

FUNKY CHAIRS ARE BACK! RETRO STYLED FROM THE 60S AND 70S, THEY’RE A MUST FOR THE LATEST IN CONTEMPORARY FURNISHINGS. GOT AN EMPTY CORNER IN YOUR LOUNGE? FILL IT WITH A FUNKY CHAIR!

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HIPSTER

BOOK OF TANG COMPRISING 200 CHAPTERS 20

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FINDING THE VALUE OF OLD BOOKS Do you have an old book and would like know its value? You might think it’s a rare and valuable book but don’t know where to find its value? One very simple method of finding an approximate value of a book is to search for similar copies on AbeBooks.com and see what prices are being asked.

AbeBooks.com is an online marketplace for new, used, rare and out-of-print books, and we have millions of secondhand and rare books listed for sale by booksellers around the world. Well known to book collectors and booklovers, our site is an excellent resource for discovering a rough value of an old book. AbeBooks has been part of the rare book world since going live in 1996.

When searching on AbeBooks.com it’s important to find copies that match the book in your possession as accurately as possible. Search carefully and avoid spelling mistakes.

HOW TO SEARCH ON ABEBOOKS TO FIND THE VALUE OF YOUR BOOK:

• Use the search box above - begin by completing the title and author fields.

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• Look inside the book and identify the book’s publisher - complete the publisher field but leave out terms like limited, company or press. • If possible identify the book’s date of publication. Complete the date fields - if you have identified the exact year of publication then put the same date into both fields. If you are unsure, you may to wish to search for books between two defined dates - eg 1870 and 1880. • Indicate whether the book is hardcover or softcover. • If the book is a hardcover and has a dust jacket then tick the relevant box. • If the book is signed by the author, tick the relevant box. • If the book was published in 1970 or later, then you could search by the ISBN number alone. • The keyword field is useful if you know the illustrator’s name or some other defining aspect like the book’s binding (perhaps it’s leather or cloth). • The search results will be presented by the lowest price first. Scroll through the listings and read how the booksellers have described the books. Look for a listing that is similar to your book.

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HIPSTER

WE Love Vinyl A gramophone record (phonograph record in American English) or vinyl record, commonly known as a record, is an analogue sound storage medium in the form of a flat polyvinyl chloride (previously shellac) disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. Phonograph records are generally described by their diameter in inches (12”, 10”, 7”), the rotational speed in rpm at which they are played ( 16 2⁄3,  33 1⁄3, 45, 78), and their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed (LP [long playing], 12inch disc,  33 1⁄3 rpm; SP [single], 10-inch disc, 78 rpm, or 7-inch disc, 45 rpm; EP [extended play], 12-inch disc,  33 1⁄3 or 45 rpm); their reproductive quality, or level of fidelity (highfidelity, orthophonic, full-range, etc.); and the number of audio channels (mono, stereo, quad, etc.). The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century, replacing the phonograph cylinder record— with which it had co-existed from the late 1880s through to the 1920s—by the late 1920s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the late 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991.[1] From the 1990s to the 2010s, records continued to be manufactured and sold on a much smaller scale, and were especially used by disc jockeys (DJ)s, released by artists in some genres, and listened to by a niche market of audiophiles. The phonograph record has made a niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009

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EMILE WITH DISC RECORD GRAMOPHONE

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HIPSTER 78 RPM DISC DEVELOPMENTS V Early disc recordings were produced in a variety of speeds ranging from 60 to 130 rpm, and a variety of sizes. As early as 1894, Emile Berliner’s United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7-inch discs with an advertised standard speed of “about 70 rpm”. One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators, or governors, as being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after 1897. A picture of a hand-cranked 1898 Berliner Gramophone shows a governor. It says that spring drives replaced hand drives. It notes that: The speed regulator was furnished with an indicator that showed the speed when the machine was running so that the records, on reproduction, could be revolved at exactly the same speed...The literature does not disclose why 78 rpm was chosen for the phonograph industry, apparently this just happened to be the speed created by one of the early machines and, for no other reason continued to be used. A multinational product: a duet sung in Italian, recorded in the U.S. in 1906 by the Victor Talking Machine Company, manufactured c. 1908 in Hanover, Germany, for the Gramophone Company, Victor’s affiliate in England By 1925, the speed of the record was becoming standardized at a nominal value of 78 rpm. However, the standard differed between places with alternating current electricity supply at 60 hertz (cycles per second, Hz) and those at 50 Hz. Where the mains supply was 60 Hz, the actual speed was 78.26 rpm: that of a 60 Hz stroboscope illuminating 92bar calibration markings. Where it was 50 Hz, it was 77.92 rpm: that of a 50 Hz stroboscope illuminating 77-bar calibration markings.[9] Early disc recordings were produced in a variety of speeds ranging from 60 to 130 rpm, and a variety of sizes. As early as 1894, Emile Berliner’s United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7-inch discs with an advertised standard speed of “about 70 rpm”. One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators, or governors, as being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after 1897. A picture of a hand-cranked 1898.

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HIPSTER

NEW YORK CONDUCTED BY BRUNO WALTER

RETRO ADVERTISING After World War II, two new competing formats came onto the market and gradually replaced the standard “78”: the  33 1⁄3 rpm (often just referred to as the 33 rpm), and the 45 rpm (see above). The  33 1⁄3 rpm LP (for “long-play”) format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in June 1948. The first LP release consisted of 85 12 inch classical pieces starting with the Mendelssohn violin concerto, Nathan Milstein violinist, Philharmonic Symphony of New York conducted by Bruno Walter, Columbia ML-4001. RCA Victor developed the 45 rpm format and marketed it in March 1949. Also released in June 1948 were 3 series of 10 inch “LPs”. The 45s released by RCA in March 1949 were in seven different colors of vinyl depending on the type of music recorded, blues, country, popular etc. Columbia and RCA Victor pursued their own r&d in secret.[39] Both types of new disc used narrower grooves, intended to be

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played with smaller stylus—typically 0.001 inches (“1 mil”) (25 µm) wide, compared to 0.003 inches (76 µm) for a 78—so the new records were sometimes called Microgroove. In the mid-1950s all record companies agreed to a common recording standard called RIAA equalization. Prior to the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred standard, requiring discriminating listeners to use pre-amplifiers with multiple selectable equalization curves. Some recordings, such as books for the blind, were pressed at  16 2⁄3 rpm. Prestige Records released jazz records in this format in the late 1950s; for example, two of their Miles Davis albums were paired together in this format. Peter Goldmark, the man who developed the  33 1⁄3 rpm record, developed the Highway Hi-Fi  16 2⁄3 rpm record to be played

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HIPSTER PRESTIGE RECORDS RELEASED

DURING THE VINYL ERA, VARIOUS DEVELOPMENTS WERE MADE OR INTRODUCED. STEREO FINALLY LOST ITS PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTAL STATUS, AND EVENTUALLY BECAME STANDARD INTERNATIONALLY. QUADRAPHONIC SOUND

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HIPSTER

HOW TO BUY VINTAGE FURNITURE

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ANTIQUE SERPENTINE CHINA CABINET ON HAIRPIN LEGS

An antique furniture is a collectible interior furnishing of considerable age. Often its age, rarity, condition, utility, or other unique features makes a piece of furniture desirable as a collectors’ item, and thus termed an “antique”. Antique furniture may support the human body (such as seating or beds), provide storage, or hold objects on horizontal surfaces above the ground. Storage furniture (which often makes use of doors, drawers, and shelves) is used to hold or contain smaller objects such as clothes, tools, books, and household goods. DETAILS Dimensions: 44.5 W × 18.0 D × 58.75 H Condition: Excellent Style: Cottage, Shabby Chic, Transitional

$499 26

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AN ANTIQUE FURNITURE $399

HIPSTER

MILO BAUGHMAN SOFA

An antique furniture is a collectible interior furnishing of considerable age. Often its age, rarity, condition, utility, or other unique features makes a piece of furniture desirable as a collectors’ item, and thus termed an “antique”. DETAILS Dimensions: 44 W × 18.0 D × 58.75 H Condition: Excellent Style: Cottage, Shabby Chic

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$599

VINTAGE BOHO WICKER CHAIR An antique furniture is a collectible interior furnishing of considerable age. Often its age, rarity, condition, utility, or other unique features makes a piece of furniture desirable as a collectors’ item, and thus termed an “antique”. Furniture can be a product of artistic design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture’s functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. DETAILS Dimensions: 44.5 W × 18.0 D × 58.75 H Condition: Excellent Style: Cottage, Shabby Chic, Transitional

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HIPSTER

6523 Vintage Rustic Wall Clock

45890 Westclox Retro 1950 Kitchen

85632 WALL CLOCK EUROPEAN

5269 VINTAGE RUSTIC HOME KITCHEN

This flip clock is newly designed and made of steel. It flips automatically every minute. A little retro and a little steampunk, this clock would be truly miraculous in a modern setting.

Kikkerland RETRO ALARM CLOCK your choice of blue, green or red AC08. Vintage inspired alarm clock. Top shut off button for beep alarm. Plastic case and numbers with an ivory face ...

Vintage inspired alarm clock with glow in the dark hands and beep alarm. Clock does not tick. Kick it old school with an alarm clock that doesn’t know what year it is.

This flip clock is newly designed and made of steel. It flips automatically every minute. A little retro and a little steampunk, this clock would be truly miraculous in a modern setting.

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HIPSTER

Clocks retro styles 21596 HIPPIH ANTIQUE WALL CLOCK

109417 KIKKERLAND RETRO ALARM

3655E ELGIN BATTERY POWERED

25282 KIKKERLAND RETRO ALARM

Kikkerland RETRO ALARM CLOCK your choice of blue, green or red AC08. Vintage inspired alarm clock. Top shut off button for beep alarm. Plastic case and numbers with an ivory face ...

This flip clock is newly designed and made of steel. It flips automatically every minute. A little retro and a little steampunk, this clock would be truly miraculous in a modern setting.

Vintage inspired alarm clock with glow in the dark hands and beep alarm. Clock does not tick. Kick it old school with an alarm clock that doesn’t know what year it is.

This flip clock is newly designed and made of steel. It flips automatically every minute. A little retro and a little steampunk, this clock would be truly miraculous in a modern setting.

#56 SPRING 2020

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HIPSTER

HISTORY OF

WORDS

LEONE DANIELI

PHOTO

SUE BLACK

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THE BICYCLE The first verifiable claim for a practically used bicycle belongs to German Baron Karl von Drais, a civil servant to the Grand Duke of Baden in Germany. Drais invented his Laufmaschine (German for “running machine”) of 1817 that was called Draisine (English) or draisienne (French) by the press. Karl von Drais patented this design in 1818, which was the first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, humanpropelled machine, commonly called a velocipede, and nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse.[7] It was initially manufactured in Germany and France. Hans-Erhard Lessing found from circumstantial evidence that Drais’ interest in finding an alternative to the horse was the starvation and death of horses caused by crop failure in 1816 (“Eighteen Hundred and Froze to Death,” following the volcanic eruption of Tambora in 1815).[8] On his first reported ride from Mannheim on June 12, 1817, he covered 13 km (eight miles) in less than an hour.[9] Constructed almost entirely of wood, the draisine weighed 22 kg (48 pounds), had brass bushings within the wheel bearings, iron shod wheels, a rear-wheel brake and 152 mm (6 inches) of trail of the front-wheel for a self-centering caster effect. This design was welcomed by mechanically minded men daring to balance, and several thousand copies were built and used, primarily in Western Europe and in North America. Its popularity rapidly faded when, partly due to increasing numbers of accidents, some city authorities began to prohibit its use. However, in 1866 Paris a Chinese visitor named Bin Chun could still observe foot-pushed velocipedes.

DENIS JOHNSON’S SON RIDING A VELOCIPEDE, LITHOGRAPH 1819. The concept was picked up by a number of British cartwrights; the most notable was Denis Johnson of London announcing in late 1818 that he would sell an improved model.[11] New names were introduced when Johnson patented his machine “pedestrian curricle” or “velocipede,” but the public preferred nicknames like “hobby-horse,” after the children’s toy or, worse still, “dandyhorse,” after the foppish men who often rode them.[7] Johnson’s machine was an improvement on Drais’s, being notably more elegant: his wooden frame had a serpentine shape instead of Drais’s straight one, allowing the use of larger wheels without raising the rider’s seat. During the summer of 1819 the “hobby-horse”, thanks in part to Johnson’s marketing skills and better patent protection, became the craze and fashion in London society. The dandies, the Corinthians of the Regency, adopted it, and therefore the poet John Keats referred to it as “the nothing” of the day. Riders wore out their boots surprisingly rapidly, and the fashion ended within the year, after riders on sidewalks were fined two pounds. Nevertheless, Drais’ velocipede provided the basis for further developments: in fact, it was a draisine which inspired a French metalworker around 1863 to add rotary cranks and pedals to the front-wheel hub, to create the first pedal-operated “bicycle” as we today understand the word. The first verifiable claim for a practically used bicycle belongs to German Baron Karl von Drais, a civil servant to the Grand Duke of Baden in Germany. Drais invented his Laufmaschine (German for “running machine”) of 1817 that was called Draisine (English) or draisienne (French) by the press. Karl von Drais patented this design in 1818, which was the first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled machine, commonly called a velocipede, and nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse.[7] It was initially manufactured in Germany and France. Hans-Erhard Lessing found from circumstantial evidence that Drais’ interest in finding an alternative to the horse was the starvation and death of horses caused by crop failure

#56 SPRING 2020

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Agyness Deyn wears an elastic and lace minidress, from £650, to order, Christopher Kane, at Browns. Vintage and clear bangle, £8, Freedom by Topshop, at Topshop. Clear bangle, £12, Mikey. All make-up by Dior. Hair: Agyness Deyn wears an elastic and Vintage and clear bangle, £8, Freedom by Topshop, at McKnight. Kate Phelan. Photographed by Nick Knight. Susan Slocum, Lauren Peterson, Phelan. Photographed by Nick Knight. Susan Slocum, Lauren Peterson, Sara Nicholson, Breda O’Reilly, Peter Medwid.

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