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FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION

Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue

Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

BY Charles R. Golden

AND

Clifford A. Weise

Golden, Weise and Associates, LLC

FOR

The Town of Durham, Connecticut

EVALUATION PERIOD

JUNE 25,2009 - MARCH 8, 2010

CONTACT INFORMATION

GOLDEN, WEISE AND ASSOCIATES, LLC

91 BRANSCOMB ROAD

SUITE 10

GREEN COVE SPRINGS, FLORIDA 32043-7222

OFFICE TELEPHONE: 904-589-9779

ELECTRONIC MAIL: officers@gw-a.com


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail. and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Topic

Page

1. Cover Page

2. Table of Contents

Page 1

3. Executive Summary and Findings

Page 2-3

4. Guidelines, Standards and Regulations

Page 4

5. Review of the Vargas Safety Report July 2008

Page 4-6

6. Standard Range Safety Procedures

Page 7-8

7. Technical Evaluation of Range Safety at Blue Trail Range

Page 9-19

8. Conclusions

Page 19-20

9. Glossary of Terms

Page 21-23

10. Golden, Weise and Associates Information

Page 24

11. Enclosure #1 Standard Surface Danger' Zone

Page 25

12. Enclosure #2 - BTR Range #1

Page 26-31

13. Enclosure #3 - BTR Range #2

Page 32-38

14. Enclosure #4 - BTR Range # 3

Page 39-44

15. Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 4

Page 45-56

16. Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Ranges

Page 57-72

Page 1


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Trl Mountain Road

Executive Summary Golden, Weise and Associates, LLC (hereinafter referred to as GWA) was contracted to conduct a safety review and assessment of the Blue Trail Range (BTR) and other ranges in the vicinity of Wallingford, Connecticut by the Town of Durham, Connecticut. GWA has conducted an extensive review of reports filed by the Department of Public Safety, topographical and satellite analysis of the BTR and areas where bullet strikes have been reported. The preponderance of the Public Safety Office reports indicates that the source of these bullet strikes might possibly be the Blue Trail Range located in Wallingford, Connecticut so we have included data that encompasses the Blue Trail Range, a Wallingford Rod and Gun Club range, the Tri-Mountain State Park and the area involving the homes with confirmed bullet strikes. GWA normally conducts an on-site evaluation of a shooting range to review range operations and safety procedures in order to identify any safety or operational related issues for the range owners. We then make recommendations on how to correct, eliminate or mitigate these issues with appropriate procedures, changes in siting or physical alterations to the range. Our normal procedures include visiting the range and meeting with the owners/operators to find out what their day to day operations consist of and what types of ammunition and weapons are allowed on the range and the type of firing allowed. We use a Range Safety Checklist during the interview to determine if any areas within the ranges normal operating and safety procedures might need corrections or what enhancements would prove beneficial to the overall range complex's safety or operational procedures. GWA has requested, through the Town of Durham and the Blue Trail Range Attorney, to meet with The Blue Trail Range owners/operators but as of this writing we have not been granted permission. Although GWA was not specifically asked to evaluate a range reputed to belong to the Wallingford Rod and Club, we did determine that it too had the capacity to create a public hazard in the area of concern to the Town of Durham. We provided a technical assessment of this range as well. This report provides information to the Town of Durham, Connecticut involving the operation ofthe Blue Trail Range and other local ranges which have been identified as potential escapement sources and may have potential impacts to property owners in the local area. This information is available to anyone approved by the Town of Durham, Connecticut or other entities based on State and Federal laws. The information contained in this report is based on civilian and military industry standard guidelines as delineated by the U. S. Army, U. S Marine Corps, U.S. Air Force and the National Rifle Association; hereinafter referred to as the NRA. The information prOVided also includes a review ofthe Blue Trail Range Study conducted by Mr. Clark Vargas as requested by the Town of Durham, Connecticut.

Page 2


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity ofthe Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes In the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Executive Summary Findings and Recommendations: The information below is a summary of the findings and recommendations contained in this report: Finding: Based on our Technical Evaluation there are two ranges which could have been the source of the errant rounds that have impacted homes and land parcels within the Tri-Mountain State Park area and were reported to and documented by the Connecticut State Police. The ranges include the Blue Trail Range and the range reputed to belong to the Wallingford Rod and Gun Club, located just north of the Blue Trail Range. Recommendation: The potential impact for escapement of rounds fired from these two ranges will continue until such times as the ranges are redesigned to achieve total containment of all rounds fired or until ammunition and weapons are restricted to those which do not escape the current controlled range boundaries. This would effectively limit both ranges to pistol firing only until full containment can be achieved. While closing these ranges is an option, it should also be understood that there is a potential drawback where uncontrolled firing may be redirected to "uncontrolled areas" such as "backyard ranges" resulting in shifting the current escapement issues to new areas. Finding: The owners of the Blue Trail Range have made significant efforts to reduce the possibility of round escapement and the subsequent associated risks by providing strict operating standards, limiting the use of some weapon types, adding some baffling and upgrading the security of the range based on the report provided by Mr. Vargas. These efforts appear to have made some difference as there has been only one report of an errant round strike in the past nineteen months since the improvements were instituted. Recommendation: The improvements to the Blue Trail Range appear to have mitigated some of the round escapement issues but will not result in full containment until such time as the range is redesigned to meet the full containment issue. We have suggested some further improvements for the Blue Trai.1 range in the Technical Evaluation Section of this report that we believe will mitigate more of the risks to an acceptable level for the local land and home owners. These recommendations indude the need for an additional evaluation of the range reputed to belong to the Wallingford Rod and Gun Club. We also would recommend additional baffling and the removal of the intermediate backstop on the Blue Trail Range. The bottom line is that the community leaders, park users and residents who reside downrange from these ranges will have to determine what level of risk they are willing to accept.

Page 3


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in th~ ~iclnity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the

omes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Guidelines, Standards and Regulations There are published guidelines, standards, and regulatic ~s associated with the operation and use of shooting ranges. These guidelines are designed to provl e range planners, owners and managers with specific operational and safety parameters for the safe 'c uses a combination of civilian and military regulations

rid efficient operation of shooting ranges. GWA

a d guidelines to evaluate ranges that establish

criteria for the proven design and operation of modern ,ing ranges. Specifically cited in this report are Department of The Army Pamphlet 385-63 Range Safet

dated April 10, 2003, Army Regulation 385足

63/Marine Corps Order 3570.1B, dated May 19, 2003 al ~ The National Rifle Association (NRA) Source

Book. A Guide to Planning and Construction, revised Ja~ ary 2004. GWA uses these source documents

as they provide the most comprehensive information a ~ criteria currently used by military and civilian

marksmanship range planners and organizations. The m Itary standard for the probability of hazardous

escapement of live ammunition must not present a grei er hazard than 1:1,000,000 (unlikely) to the public per Department of The Army Pamphlet 385-63, T is includes the actual round of ammunition and all of its components. Additional information on deter"" ,ing distances required for various weapons can be obtained from the NRA Source Book in Section 1, hapter 1, and Article 3. The probability of projectile escapement will vary in degree based upon t~ ain features (natural or manmade backstops), range structures (berms/bullet traps/target frame com~ sition), and the chosen shooting activity. The military standard of 1:1,000,000 is used as the standard ~hen developing the escapement potential for a given round of ammunition. However, none of the sci

tifically calculated surface danger zones (range

fans) are effective unless there is someone available to I1force published range safety standards and guidelines. In fact, the NRA Source Book adds a disclaim r that states, liThe Range Source Book is NOT a code book or certification standard, but rather a publiCI on listing general suggestions. Each range is site specific, fact sensitive, risk driven, and needs to be

nsidered in that light. The National Rifle

Association assumes no liability for information contain j herein." In fact the use of Surface Danger lones (SDls) was clarified by Mr. David Luke who is am rnber of The Range Technical Team ofthe NRA. Mr. Luke stated during the Third National Shooting Ran!

Symposium in 1966 and a subsequent article

that, "Backstops and side berms do not remove the req rement to include a safety fan (SOl). A ricochet catcher, ricochet baffle or eyebrow can be installed to r ~uce the incidence of bullets escaping the range by sliding up the face of the backstop./I

Review of the Safety Regort Study Analvsis and Scher1 tic Dated Julv. 2008 bv Mr. Clark Varaas A copy of Mr. Vargas' report was provided to GWA by t

Town of Durham, Connecticut and a

subsequent review of its contents was then conducted. ~e follOWing comments are provided based on Mr. Vargas' report (hereafter, "the report"). In paragraph one of the Executive Summary Mr. Vargas

ates, "Based on my professional review of the

range and its rules, operations at Blue Trail Range are u Ikely to have been the launching point of the bullets that have impacted residential properties ofthe astern side of the Tri-Mountain area.", ~

Page 4


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges In the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road 1. It is not known how this conclusion was reached since the report states in several areas that there was no evaluation of the 200 yard range (Range 2 in his report) or the Dinan pistol range (Range

1). Without evaluating the 200 ya rd range and the pistol range it is impossible to tell if either could be responsible for the bullet strikes down range between the firing lines and areas including the impacted homes and beyond. In fact, none of the four ranges can be eliminated as a potential candidate since baffling was not completed prior to some of the alleged bullet strike incidents going back to 1996 based on police reports. Prior to any baffling of the ranges the industry standard Surface Danger Zones (SDZ) would have been the standard for determining what areas could be impacted. Please see Enclosure #1, SDZ for firing small arms, machineguns, and shotguns firing at a fixed ground target.

2. When reviewing the report we did not find a copy of the Surface Danger Zones for each of the four ranges. A Range Surface Danger Zone Diagram is one of the most important tools used in all Range Safety Inspections. It depicts the range fan for the largest caliber of ammunition and the potential danger areas. Page 1.2 of the report states, "We identified the ranges and plotted the theoretical II

su rface danger zone" for ranges 3 and 4, which are the ranges being evaluated." We could not find

these diagrams in the report; but again, since the 200 yard range and Dinan pistol range were not evaluated we do not believe that all of the potential sources of escapement impacts from the range were identified. It is standard policy for military and civilian ranges to ensure that no one is allowed entry into any portion of the surface danger zone down range from the firing lines. The Surface Danger Zone from the Blue Trail Range from the firing lines, using standard 30.06 rifle ammunition, encompasses a large area of private and public property and extends beyond and down range from the real property owned and controlled by the Blue Trail Range. This ammunition can travel up to 3.12 miles (NRA Source Book) or the military equivalent (7.62 mm M80 Ball NATO Round) of 4,100 meters or

13,448 feet or 2.54 miles. This range (3.12 miles) is generally used during site evaluation for civilian ranges by the NRA to determine if the site is large enough to accommodate a high-power rifle range (NRA Source Book). The NRA Source Book goes on to say, "Remember that you will most likely be held responsible for the damage or injury caused from any bullet or shot that escapes the shooting range, no matter what the distance that the bullet or shot traveled."

3. As part of the review of the report, we studied the lias-built" drawings and determined that a single baffle at the firing line is most likely not sufficient to preclude firing projectiles over the rear berm and potentially over the ridge. The N RA recommends that baffled ranges meet the "No Blue Sky" criteria. "This concept is based on a blue sky gap, meaning that baffles are setup so that the shooter, regardless of shooting position, cannot see any blue sky downrange. These fixtures may be overhead, on the grou nd, on top of the backstop, in the roof of a firing line cover, in the form of an elongated box or as a completely enclosed tunnel. The prinCiple behind the design is to equip a range with baffles so that a bullet can leave the range confines, but will fall to earth within a smaller, more predictable area." (NRA Source Book) The No Blue Sky policy is also based on a shooterfiring from a fixed position at a fixed target pOSition. The entire baffling system can be corrupted if the shooter and Range Safety Officer do not adhere to the established range procedures such as moving down range from the fixed firing position or the conduct of cross lane firing as examples. These baffles, in order to be effective, must stop

PageS


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

or redirect the projectiles to the ground. Baffles that allow errant projectiles to penetrate and pass through do not provide any risk reduction downrange. "No Blue Sky" ranges are normally synonymous with "partially baffled" ranges which do not contain ricochets inside the range boundaries. The references in the report to "ballistic shadowing" are invalid if ricochets are not contained or ifthe baffles in place do not stop errant projectile. Mr. Vargas had previously given a presentation at the Third National Shooting Symposium in 1996 entitled, Design Guide Criteria for Shooting Ranges. The following are excerpts from that presentation which we consider relevant to this project:

1. "There is only one overriding design criterion paramount to the design of shooting ranges and that is safety. There is an adage known by experienced range deSigners and range operators; !! completely safe range cannot be designed. A safe range results if, and only if, it is safely operated and if the participating shooters are controlled by the rules and safety poliCies." (Underline added by GWA.)

2. liThe referenced range specifications and definitive drawings we will be using as examples are from Army Regulation 385-63, Safety Policy and Procedures for Firing Ammunition for Training, Target Practice and Combat. This publication clarifies certain requirements on ranges, reviews ballistic data, and incorporates new standardized range deSign. Other examples are from the National Rifle Association's Range Source Book." Note: These are the same guidelines and regulations used by GWA in this report.

3. liThe surface danger zone to provide a safe area for one shooter to shoot is a very large area and in most urban locations would be cost prohibitive."

4. "One of the most important criteria to contro.l range construction cost is to select a proper site. There must be sufficient distance behind the backstop so that sound does not affect the neighbors. You don't want neighbors to complain. Also, if a round or a ricochet gets out it should fall within the range's non-accessible fenced property. If you build in a populated area, your range must be totally baffled so that the range owner can demonstrate to a judge that a round cannot escape. Ranges are very expensive to construct." (Underline added by GWA.) It appears that some of the Surface Danger Zone mitigations prOVided for the Blue Trail Range by Mr. Vargas conflict with his own design criteria. There is little doubt that the improvements made as a result of his work have reduced the incidences of projectiles leaving the confines of the range. We can find nothing in the report that says any of the ranges employed any baffles before his review or when bullet strikes were reported from 1996 to 2008. There was a statement in one of the police reports that one of the ranges had some baffling previously which had been removed for a shooting event and then replaced. It appears that the baffles were not used regularly until the baffles designed by Mr. Vargas were employed. There was no discussion on what type of baffles that were used, the material they were made of or to what extent the baffles covered the down range areas forward of the firing line.

Page 6


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Standard Range Operations Safety Procedures The basic principles of live fire range safety procedures are applicable to all ranges that use live ammunition. We will address standard procedures in this portion of the report as well as some of the comments from Mr. Vargas' report. The two primary gUidelines for developing range safety and operational procedures as mentioned before are the U. S. Army Regulation 385-63 (which is also applicable to the USMC as MCO 3570.18) and the NRA Source Book which are both recognized as the industry standards for live fire operations. We will discuss some of the comments in Mr. Vargas' report first; and then the recognized industry standards. On page iii of the report, it is stated in paragraph 4, "This report summarizes the safety features at the Blue trail Range and appends the revised safety rules currently in place. The lyman Blue Trail Range's Operational Procedures have been revised to ensure the maintenance of physical safety features and conformity with safety rules. (Underline added by GWA).These operational procedures include procedures for identifying and stopping any safety rules violations." The report indicates that some range procedures were "revised". Since the Vargas report does not specify if some or all of the safety rules were revised we can only assume that some safety rules or procedures were not adhered to or were not in place prior to his recommendations. Specifically the report states on Page 3-1, "In addition, without our recommendations, the lyman Blue Trail Range instituted the following safety procedures in June and July 2008:" The report goes on to address several changes to the physical layout of the range (fences, security cameras, range safety officer house, etc.) and improved safety rules and procedures. On a positive note, each of the improvements made to the Blue Trail Range should enhance the future safe operations on these ranges if implemented and enforced at all times, and reduce potential escapement of rounds being fired on the range. The implementation of these new measures does lead to some questions which we would normally address directly with the range owner if we had the opportunity to meet with them. One of the most important questions we would ask would be if, at any time in the past, have users been allowed to fire on the range without the direct supervision of a certified Range Safety Officer? All industry standard guidelines and regulations mandate that a trained Range Safety Officer be present when all firing is conducted and that the Range Safety Officer has been trained to an established standard to enforce the written range safety procedures. A follow on question would address the possibility of anyone firing on the range without permission after normal operating hours or the ability to access and use the range during normal operating hours by anyone not approved by the range owner. If either situation occurred or could have occurred then there is absolutely no way to determine if anyone firing on the ranges adhered to all of the published range safety rules and regulations. In essence, anyone who had access to the range could conduct any type of firing without anyone knowing about it, and it would be impossible to state that the range rules were followed and that firing over the Tri-Mountain area was not done. We ask this question because the report indicated that hidden security cameras were added to control unauthorized access and improper shooting at the range. Additiohally, the report stated that the firing Page 7


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

line positions were fenced off so that access to the firing line "is now controlled". This access issue also appears to be supported by an eye witness statement. This statement was provided by a Mr. Robert Saunderson to the State Police that involved an individual that "walked around the fence approached the firing line. He then observed the male sit down at a bench on the firing line and then fire fifteen to twenty shots." The individual then went back to his vehicle, secured the weapon and drove off. This incident occurred in March 2008 per the witness statement dated May 29, 2008 as identified in DPS INCIDENT NUMBER: CFS08-00143620. We would normally have additional questions about the layout of the ranges and range safety and operational procedures prior to Mr. Vargas' visit but without being able to discuss this with the range owner they cannot be verified. Additionally, we would be interested in identifying all physical features of the range prior to the new enhancements. It was indicated in Mr. Vargas' report that changes were made to the backstops but the report only said that the backstops were to be raised. The military and the NRA have recommended height, depth and angular surface guidance published for backstops and side berms. If the previous backstops and side berms did not meet these recommended guidelines they would be considered as a safety issue and would have added to the possibility of round escapement. The operational and control enhancements made to the range undoubtedly have contributed to the decline in the incidences of stray prOjectiles in the Tri-Mountain area. Although we were not able to review all of the operating procedure Uust those contained in Mr. Vargas' report were available to us) there appears to be significant improvements in the operational safety of the range.

Page 8


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Technical Evaluation of Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri-Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri-Mountaln Road

Technical Executive Summary The observations made by Mr. Charles Golden and Mr. Clifford Weise in the evaluation of reported bullet strikes in the downrange area of the Blue Trail Range indicate that a high probability of projectile escapement has occurred in the past. During the time period of December 1996 to December 2008, approximately twenty-five projectiles have been seized; two of which were attributed to ranges other than the Blue Trail Range. Figure ES-1: Summary of Police Reports.

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As is evident in the chart, the dispute between home-owners in the Town of the Durham and the owner of Blue Trail Range has been active for more than ten years. In September of 2009 the Town of Durham and Golden, Weise and Associates, llC (GWA) entered into a contractual agreement to have GWA provide an analysis and provide a reasonable explanation as to the cause of the distress ofthese homeowners, The analysis described in the remainder of this document su pports the following conclusion: It is very likely that prior to the range improvements made by the range owner under the guidance of Mr. Clark Vargas, PE; that the cause of distress to the Town of Durham Home-Owners was a combination of direct-fire and ricocheted projectiles originating at the Blue Trail Range. The improvements made seem to have reduced the volume of projectiles exceeding the Blue Trail Range Page 9


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

boundaries; however, even if Mr. Vargas' statement is correct that direct-fire rounds are now adequately controlled, we do not feel that sufficient controls are in place to control those rounds that ricochet from various surfaces down-range. In the current configuration, the range has the potential to be a public health hazard. In addition to the Blue Trail Range, based on State Police Reports, the following ranges are, or have been, operational during the time the residents of Durham have voiced complaints: The Wallingford Rod and Gun Club range was identified during investigations as a possible source for some of the projectile strikes. We evaluated their ranges in the same manner we evaluated the Blue Trail Range and determined that their main rifle range is sited in a position faCing away from the Tri Mountain area. There is an additional range, reputed to belong to this organization, just north of the Blue Trail Range. This range was evaluated; however, we have no information on the operation of this range. 'rhe New Haven Raccoon Hunters Club was referenced as a potential source for prOjectile strikes; however, these strikes introduced an impact direction inconsistent with the majority of the complaints. According to the reports, modifications were made to the range and no additional complaints were attributed to this range. The DiNatale ReSidence was operating a home based range during the time some of the complaints were received; however, the direction of fire described in the State Police reports (North by Northwest) would not likely have been a source for prOjectiles. We have no survey information on this range; however it is evident that it may have created the potential for public health risk for those using the Blue Trail, Tri Mountain State Park and the George Washington Trail. We understand that this range is no longer in use. The Miller Residence, described as "tree farm" was also listed as a home based range; however, we have no information on this range and find that it is highly unlikely that this range was responsible for prOjectiles traveling from West to East.

Page 10


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Figure ES-2, Ranges Operational in the Area of Tri Mou ntain Road

Figure ES-3, Bullet Strike Complaint Area

Page 11


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges In the Vicinity of the Trf Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes In the VIcinity of Trl Mountain Road

Figure ES-4, Overview of the Potential Risk to Public Health Area

Figure ES-S, Overview of the Potential Risk to Public Health Area

Page 12

i

J


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges In the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Technical Method of Evaluation Background: In the spring of 2009 Mr. Charles Golden (CEO of Golden Weise and Associates, LLC) was approached by the Town of Durham with a request to evaluate complaints from the residents of Durham who are of the opinion that they are subject to undue endangerment based on projectile strikes to homes in the Tri Mountain Road area (as depicted in Figure ES-3) and substantiated by the subsequent State Police reports generated by resident complaints. In the fall of 2009 the Town of Durham placed Golden, Weise and Associates, LLC (GWA) on contract to review the evidence and conduct an evaluation of potential health risks to the residents of the area. In October 2009 the GWA staff traveled to the Town of Durham, met with the First Selectman, interviewed residents, conducted a terrain walk of the Tri Mountain State Park, and met with various public officials who were voicing the concerns of their constituents. We collected data from the Tax Assessor, received updated State Police investigation information and attended a meeting with representatives from the State Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Natural resources who are concerned with the use of the Tri Mountain State Park, the Blue Trail and George Washington Trail; that are all active public recreational areas where undue risks may also be present. We attempted to obtain admittance to the Blue Trail Range, currently in litigation for these problems; however, we were denied access. We were allowed to collect two range safety evaluations done for the Blue Trail Range by Mr. Clark Vargas of C. Vargas and Associates, LTD and the safety implementation policies and range design changes made in the summer of 2008 that were instituted as a result of his evaluations. There has been only one reported incidence of a confirmed projectile strike since these improvements were made; however, residents of the area still claim that they can hear projectiles striking branches in trees above their homes. Evaluation Procedures: Evaluating civilian ranges for proper safety procedures is a tenuous task. There is little or no legislation in most areas of the United States for operating commerchllranges other than those designed to protect thee,mployees of the complex. The National Rifle Association publishes The NRA Range Source Book which is an extremely valuable guide for the planning, deSign, operations and maintenance of shooting range facilities. After obtaining the most recent release of this reference, we determined that additional information was necessary to determine the probable causes of the reported incidents in the Tri Mountain area. As GWA primarily consults with the military on range safety issues, we determined that the use of Surface Danger Zones as described in Army Regulation 385-63 was needed to determine the correlation of incidents to the activities of ranges in the area. We further needed the guidance published in the Air Force Engineering Technical Letter (ETL 08-111. Small Arms Range Design and Construction as it provides detailed guidance in the design of outdoor baffled ranges. The staff at GWA does not wish to enforce military construction standards on civilian range owners as these standards are cost-prohibitive to civilian range owners; however, in order to provide a reasonable explanation for the concerns of the citizens of the Town of Durham we determined that we needed more technical information than what was supplied by the NRA Source Book and it's guidance to range owners and operators.

Page 13


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road Application of Surface Danger Zones: The definition of a Surface Danger Zone as provided in Army Regulation 385-63 is "The ground and airspace designated within the training complex (to include associated safety areas) for vertical and lateral containment of projectiles, fragments, debris, and components resulting from the firing, launching, or detonation of weapon systems to include ammunition, explosives, and demolition explosives." Department of the Army Pamphlet 385-63 Range Safety describes how these areas are calculated and drawn to determine the danger area produced by given ammunition type. For the purposes of this study common ammunition types were used to produce Surface Danger Zones. The chart below describes the ammunition types used and the ammunition types that were inferred as falling within the limits of the computed surface danger zones. There are many types of ammunition on the market and these may be fired from many different weapons. Both the ammunition and the weapons have distinct characteristics that determine what a projectile will do in flight if not impacted by an outside source. This list is designed to cover a broad range of possibilities. Table TE-l, Pistol Ammunition Evaluation

Page 14


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity ofthe Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Table TE-2, Rifle Ammunition Evaluation

Application of Ricochet Probability from the Range: When designing ranges (military standard) the range reputed to belong to the Wallingford Rod and Gun Club would be considered a "non-contained" range. We saw no evidence of baffles of any kind. It is therefore probable that the unconstrained shooter could fire to the full extent of the Surface Danger Zone. All ricochets from the target area could ~

. travel to approximately fifty-percent of the maximum range (as is directed on partially-contained ranges) according to the above referenced Air Force Technical Letter: "7.1.1.3.2. All eXisting partially contained ran.ges that do not have the required SDZ must be programmed for upgrade or replacement to meet either full-distance; non-contained range criteria, fully contained range criteria, or the footprint of an existing deficient SDZ must be increased to meet the 50 percent SDZ requirement for a partially contained range. Existing partially contained ranges and other facilities designed in accordance with previously published criteria may continue to operate if range safety can be verified." This would also apply to ranges one and two of the Blue Trail Range. Range One is presently used for pistols only and Range Two, according to Mr. Vargas' report, is used only for air-gun competition. Range Three and Range Four of the Blue Trail Range would qualify as partially-baffled ranges. There is baffling in place to preclude the exit of direct-fire rounds; however, there are no measures in place that prevent the exit of rounds that ricochet off of an object within the confines of the range. A fully-baffled

Page 15


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges In the Vicinity ofthe Trl Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

range contains all rounds fired. The Connecticut Army National Guard is currently in the construction phase of a fully baffled range complex in East Haven and GWA has assisted in the design of this complex. Figure TE-3 Example of a Fully-Baffled Range

Figure 1 Firing Line View

Figure 2 - Behind Range View

The complex shown above is an approximately three million dollar project that accommodates pistols and rifles firing to a distance of twenty-five meters. These types of ranges are cost prohibitive for courses of fire requiring targets at 100 yards or more. Ricochet Prediction and Control: Ricochets are difficult to predict or control and they are the primary cause of escapement on partially-baffled ranges. Unlike the Air Force, the Army does not allow the use of the fifty-percent Surface Danger Zone rule for partially-baffled ranges. The Army, at Picatinny Arsenal, uses software that was developed over a thirty year period to terrain mitigate Surface Danger Zones. The software models the terrain of the range as well as any manmade control devices (baffles) and through the software fires one-million rounds from each firing position to each associated target. This method produces the actual Surface Danger Zone for that range. To evaluate the ranges that may

Page 16


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

be causing the distress to the Town of Durham, the cost would be in excess of $100,000. The drawings below show the Surface Danger Zone for a range in New York as well as the vertical dome produced by ricochets. Figure TE-4, Range Ricochet analysis Using Government Owned Software

Vertical Hazard Zone: As depicted in Figure TE-4, ricochets have a vertical component and this vertical component, for the Army, is listed in Figures TE-1 and TE-2. These calculations are used for determining the altitude over military ranges where airspace control measures must be initiated. These values are based on ricochets leaving the target area. In the drawings included with this analysis the vertical hazard area is drawn as a plane above ground level, and then evaluated for ballistic trajectories that occur within the ricochet area as depicted by fifty-percent of the maximum range. If ballistic trajectories exist, then there is a probability of ricochets leaving the target area and creating risk to the public. Technical Evaluation Summary: Each ofthe ammunition types identified in Figures TE-1 and TE-2 have been evaluated according to the criteria described above and the following describes the steps and procedures used:足 Step 1: Identify a firing box on each of the evaluated ranges that determines the area 1:lefined by the far left firing point and target point, and the far right firing point and target point. Step 2: Apply the Surface Danger Zone for each of the ammunition types evaluated to determine the -

-,足

unconstrained hazard area. This is accomplished using ArcMap software and the Range Manager's Toolkit. The Range Manager's toolkit is Government-owned software used by all Army Range Managers. Step 3: Apply the arc that will define the fifty-percent SDZ to the danger area computed in Step 2. Step 4: Convert the final danger area into a format that will display in the public domain software "Google Earth" for the convenience of those who will be using this report and have no access to the ArcMap software. Step: 5: Apply the vertical component to the Surface Danger Zones in Google Earth. Step 6: Evaluate the areas where there is a suspected issue with public safety hazards, and determine if there is a probability of safety risk. Page 17


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Conclusions Based on the information we have available, police reports and information generated from the previously discussed guidelines and standards the following conclusions are submitted. We will break these conclusions down into two sections. We will discuss the potential escapement possibilities prior to the range improvements made from the Vargas' recommendations.

Conclusions Based on Range Usage Prior to Safety Modifications. 1. SuperviSion of firing by all range users by certified range safety officers was not conducted at all times. This is a major safety violation on all civilian and military ranges. 2. The type of firing conducted by range users was not supervised at all times. This could include cross lane firing, firing in the air and firing at objects other than the prescribed targets.

3. The use of automatic weapons could have been conducted without direct supervision at all times. Automatic weapons, such as the Soviet and Chinese made AK -47 rifles have a tendency for the barrel to rise when fired in the fully automatic mode. Based on police reports, these weapons or ones similar to them were used on this range.

4. Access to the firing ranges was not controlled at all times.

5. Caliber and types of weapons used could not be verified by the range owners on a daily basis. These weapons and ammunition could include 50 caliber rifles and ammunition which can travel up to 6,500 meters or 4.03 miles unobstructed. 6. The 200 yard range has no backstop; therefQre all ammunition fired was fired directly into or potentially over the downrange ridge line. The area commonly referred to in the police reports as "the bullet landing area" is actually known as an impact area in range terminology. This area is normally the area where rounds impact into the ground or ricochet in other directions, including vertically. Additionally, the 200 yard range could have supported firing by individuals in a prone pOSition. Firing from the prone position at targets that are elevated would have raised the angle of fire from a flat trajectory. The upward angle would both increase the probability of firing over the ridge or creating ricochets that would have an increased probability of landing beyond the ridge.

7. The experience level and previous training of range users differed between expert users and novices. The resulting accuracy offire and safety consciousness differs remarkably between the two groups. Novices are more likely to miss the target due to incorrect aiming points and more likely to fire over the target than experienced firers.'

8. The original report provided by Mr. Vargas did not take into consideration the possibility of rounds

ricocheting off of the ground or objects downrange and then striking the homes in the Tri-Mountain

Road area.

Page 18


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road 9. These same conclusions can be used for all the Blue Trail ranges since full time supervision of the ranges during all firing periods was not monitored or enforced.

10. It is our opinion that rounds fired from the 200 yard rifle range were the most likely cause of rounds striking the homes in the Tri-Mountain area. However, we also agree with the State Police that the only way to completely verify that Blue Trail Range was the source of the rounds is to match a weapon fired on the range with an associated projectile. Our opinion is based on the surface danger zones supplied in the Technical Evaluation, the potential for ricochets to occur from a range with no baffles or backstops, non-supervised firing, the use of automatic weapons and the direction of fire from the range to the residences impacted. Conclusions Based on Range Usage after the Recommended Safety Modifications.

1. Supervision of all firers is now monitored and it is assumed that safety violations are corrected on the spot and violators are removed from the range.

2. Backstops have been raised and maintained based on Mr. Vargas' follow up visit on September 3, 2009 which should reduce the potential of direct fire projectiles escaping the range. 3. Baffles have been added at the firing line which should reduce, but not totally eliminate, the chance for errant rounds to escape the range between the firing line and the back stops. There is still a potential for rounds to strike the range floor, target frames or backstop and ricochet over or off of the backstop and continue down range and/or other directions. The NRA defines a backstop as itA device constructed to stop or redirect bullets fired on a range. This is usually an earthen structure placed between 16 and

20 feet in vertical height, built in accordance with NRA recommended standards." As stated, backstops will not stop all bullets but may redirect some. The soil composition of the backstop (sand, rocks and gravel) and erosion are factors in the corresponding potential for escapement of projectiles. The baffles also do not extend overhead the length of the range from the firing line to the backstop as are required for military ranges. Please refer to the definition of a Partially Contained Range in the Glossary. Also, see the NRA Source Book Diagram for an outdoor baffled rifle range.

4. The addition of security cameras should prove valuable in assisting in the enforcement of range safety regulations and determining if the range is accessed after normal operating hours if the cameras have the capability to view the entire range and are in use 24 hours per day. The cameras would also prove to be extremely valuable to the owners in the case of a range accident involving injury to a range user.

S. The use of automatic weapons is no longer allowed on the range. 6. The overall improvements to the range should greatly reduce, but not totally eliminate the potential for escapement of projectiles from the range and should greatly enhance the safe operations of the range.

....足 ,~>"

Page 19


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

7. Based on the definition of a Partially Contained Range and the Surface Danger Zone in Enclosure # 1 some areas of the Tri-Mountain State Park and Tri-Mountain Road may still be impacted by ricochets or unobstructed rounds leaving the range. Additional information is included in each of the technical surveys of Blue Trail Ranges 1-4 in Enclosures

1-5.

Page 20


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road GLOSSARY OF TERMS Backstop: A device constructed to stop or redirect bullets fired on a range. This is usually an earthen structure, placed between 16 and 20 feet in vertical height, built in accordance with NRA recommended standards. Baffles: Barriers used to contain bullets and to reduce, re-direct or suppress sound waves and possible stray bullets. Baffles are placed either overhead, alongside or at ground level to restrict or interrupt errant or off target shots. A special baffle referred to as an eyebrow can be placed at the firing line to provide cover and minimize problems caused by double firing, or they can be placed atop backstops to ensure on-site containment of all fired rounds. Berm: An embankment used between shooting ranges to divide them, or positioned to restrict bullets to a specific area. These are built to establish shooting lanes, and are usually 8 to 12 feet in vertical height. Bullet trap: A device designed to trap or capture entire bullets or fragments versus redirecting the prOjectile into a water body, wetland or earthen backstop. Distance X: The maximum distance a projectile will travel when fired or launched at a given quadrant elevation with a given charge or propulsion system. Firing distance: The distance between the firing line and the target line. Firing line: A line parallel to the targets, from behind which firearms are discharged. Firing Range: (1) A facility designed for the purpose of providing a place on which to discharge firearms, shoot air guns and/or archery equipment; (2) May refer to several ranges constructed together, referred to as a complex or firing range complex. . Fully Contained Range: Range in which direct fire and ricochets are totally contained within the limits of the range. There is no SDl requirement outside the limits of the containment. Handgun: A term used to describe pistols, either auto-loading, single shot or cylinder types held in either one or two hands. Impact Area: The area behind a target on a backstop or bullet trap where bullets are expected to impact. This term may also refer to an area down range at an outdoor range where bullets will impact if not captured by a backstop. Line of site: An imaginary straight line from the eye through the sights of a firearm to the target. Misfire: Failure of a bullet cartridge to discharge after the firearm's firing pin has struck the primer. Non-contained Range (Impact): A non-contained range is an outdoor/open range. The firing line may be covered or uncovered. Direct-fire rounds and ricochets are unimpeded and may fall anywhere within the SDl (safety fan). The non-contained range requires a safety fan (SDl) equal to 100 percent of the Page 21


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity ofthe Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

maximum range ofthe most powerful round to be used on the range. This type of range requires the largest amount of real estate to satisfy the SDZ requirements. Partially Contained Range: This range has a covered firing line, side containment, overhead baffles, and . a bullet trap. Direct fire is totally contained by the firing line canopy, side containment; baffles and bullet trap (no blue sky observed from firing positions). Ricochets are not totally contained, but reduced by the baffles and side containment. A partially contained range requires a safety fan (SDZ) length equal to 50 percent of the maximum range ofthe most powerful round to be used on the range. A partially contained range will not permit lateral movement along the firing line or movement towa rd the target line unless the range has the additional baffles required to stop direct fire at the downrange firing lines. Pistol: A firearm capable of being held, aimed and fired with one hand. Range: The distance traveled by a projectile from a firearm to the final point of impact. Three terms

apply to range: "point blank", "effective" and "maximum". For the purposes of shooting range design,

point blank refers to distances of five yards or less, effective range means the greatest distance a

prOjectile will travel with accuracy, maximum range means the maximum distance (Distance X) a

projectile will travel.

Rifle: (1) A modern firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, generally having a barrel more than 15 inches long. Its main characteristic is a rifled (knurled grooved) barrel that imparts a spin to a single projectile as it travels through the bore. (2) Some rifles designed for military or law enforcement use will have a pistol grip in lieu of a shoulder stock. Safety rules and regulations: Standards used in the operation of a shooting range. Safety rules and regulations are set up to govern the method of range operation to include health and safety procedures that must be followed throughout the facility. Violation of range rules and regulations generally carries penalties such as suspension or banishment from a range for future use. Safety baffles: Vertical or sloping barriers designed to prevent a projectiles from traveling into an undesired area or direction. Most often used to prevent bullets from leaving the shooting range. ShC)tgun: (1) A firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a smoothbore barrel that fires shot shells possessing a varying number of round pellets. (2) Some barrels are designed to be used with rifled slugs, most generally having smooth-bores, but in rare cases may be rifled. Law enforcement and military shotguns may have a pistol grip in lieu of a shoulder stock. Shot shell: A shot shell is designed to be used in shotguns. It is composed of a hull or shell, a primer, powder, shot cup or wad and shot. Shells are normally composed of paper or plastic. Small arms: Firearms that may be discharged by one person, versus artillery pieces. Small arms are not subject to precise definitions, but the term generally refers to rifles, pistols, shotguns, submachine guns and machine guns. Small bore: An NRA-sanctioned shooting event using .22 rim fire rifles and bullets on bulls eye targets.

Page 22


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the George Washington Trail,

Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road line along which targets are placed. ".

Trajectory: The path a p Velocity: The speed

'<'

from t~e muzzle to the point of final impact. travels {usually measured and reported in feet per second or

meters per second).

Page 23


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

Golden, Weise, and Associates, LLC Information: Golden, Weise, and Associates, LLC is a Veteran Owned, Small Business that specializes in range management and consulting services. GWA is currently under contract with the National Guard Bureau to support all National Guard Bureau range projects for approximately 60 National Guard installations. The managing partners have over 20 years of experience each in the operation, development, and management of US Army range complexes. GWA also is currently under contract with the National Guard Bureau to provide instructors and materials to teach the US Army, Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) approved Levell! Range Safety Course. This course is the technical proficiency course that all US Army safety and range personnel attend for range safety certification. We have experience in providing range consulting services in the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam and Afghanistan. All members of our safety team are graduates of the US Army Level II Range Safety Course and sometimes sel'\fe as instructors on an as required basis. We are the prinCiple manager for the Army National Guard's live fire ranges for all fifty states and four territories. We assist in managing and supporting over 50 National Guard installations with their ranges and range related issues. We have managed one of the largest National Guard complexes in the country that had over sixty Ii~e fire ranges. We have provided safety inspections and invest!gations for all types of ranges ranging from small arms to tank and aviation gunnery ranges. We have assisted in the design and construction of ranges for law enforcement including the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. GWA is also a member of the NRA Business Alliance. We are currently assisting the Connecticut Army National Guard with the design and development of a baffled range complex at East Haven, Connecticut. 1t should be noted here that the range in East Haven had escapement issues over a ridge line and into a reservoir and was subsequently evaluated and designed to contain ALL ammunition fired on the range. This not only mitigated the escapement problem but entirely eliminated it.

Enclosures:

1. SDZ for firing small arms, machineguns, and shotguns firing at a fixed ground target from DA Pamphlet 385-63, Range Safety. 2. SDZ for BTR Range 1 (Dinan pistol Range) and range safety discussion with recommendations. 3. SDZ for Range 2 (200 yard range) and range safety discussion with recommendations. 4. SDZ for Range 3 (pistol only) and range safety discussion with recommendations.

5. SDZ for Range 3 and 4 and range safety discussion with recommendations.

Page 24


FINAL DRAFT SAFETY EVALUATION: Ranges in the Vicinity of the Tri Mountain State Park, the

George Washington Trail, the Blue Trail, and the Homes in the Vicinity of Tri Mountain Road

~

a::

ÂŤ 2

o ....

CI)

ffia... ....Q CI)

Notes:

For distance.x; see appendix B. table B-1.

Area A 100 m.

=

Enclosure #1- Surface Danger Zone for Firing Small Arms, machineguns and shotguns at fixed ground target.

Page 25

,,-' ,

,.


Enclosure #2 -Blue Trail Range - Range 1 SDZ

ES - 2 -Blue Trail Range is divided into four distinct ranges. Range 1 !also known as Dinan Range) is currently used as a SO yard pistol range. This range was evaluated using a standard surface danger zone based on the approximate firing limits of the range based on a map-spot.

Enclosure #2 BTR Range 1

Page 26


All Surface Danger Zones in their pure form produce conflicts with public areas; however, based on the reports from Clark Vargas and Associates, this range is fully bermed side and rear. We were not allowed to inspect this range to confirm the report. Also, none of the State Police reports have sited pistol ammunition as a source of complaints. Common ammunition types were evaluated for ricochet concerns, and none of these appear to present a public danger in the area where public complaints were received. There are some ammunition types that show a possibility of increased risk to the public hiking trails and to the Tri Mountain State Park. Detailed reports are included below:

Enclosure #2 BTR Range 1

Page 27


Ranle

Blue Trail RanBeRGl

AmmunlUon

.22 Lons Rifle

MaJdmum

1400 Meters

AMp Ricochet Ranse 700 Meters

Venit"" Hazard

96 Meters

Key $No....

,, ~

0

~ ~

1_1.lInIb

I..... 'IriIw"oInU I...... r _ _

--

........ I.IbitTrlM_ _

1III<oMIr.IMd _ _ _ _

1IImdI4tI_

-

I'II_SUI1oPoltt

.....I<-..otIo.l...

..................."'wc""""""*' 101_.... Publl~ Tr,lI. I Enlel'$ Trl Moun-

Exceeds Rldae

lain Stale Park Yes

No

Enclosure #2 BTR Range 1

II

Enlers Complainl Area

Yes

Yes

No

No.

Ne>

No

MlIl,allon Remarks Ra"le balfl... must 'be In placII to preclude flri"l <Aler rldp. Ricochets do oot present a public rilk.

Page 28


Blue Trail

Ranse

Range RGI

Ammunition

.45 Ca!ACP

Maximum

169Q Meter.

Ral\le Ricochet Ranse 845 Meters

Vertical Hazard

100 Meters --足

Inlh<J1fl_oIn_

--

_IArN

nI Mouotol._ ......

......1<......ltl1>n Tl1ib

,w.",_IoICornplail>\5

....bIkPotll

ITEM

J

Ente,. Public T..l1s Ent"" 1rl Moun足 taln State Park

Ex.... d'Rldee

Ente,. Complalnt Area

Un.onstralned SDZ

Yes

Yeo

Yeo

Yes

I\lcochetArea

"1o

"10

No

1110

MIU,atlonRemarlca "

j

Rante bafftes; muot be in plate to preclude flrint over ,Id,e. Rlcothets do not presents public risk.

~--

Enclosure #2 BTR Range 1

~~-.-

........

~~--~~~-

Page 29


Range

Blue Trail Rall8e RGI

Ammunition

.38 Spedal Ball

Maxlmum

1806 Meters<

Range Ricochet Range 903 Meters

89 Meters

Vertic'" Hazard

Key 1­

,, ~

D

~

16tntlfIoId....... lnIlHrDI M _ _

1_1lmIb

--

~

-

I_FlfIM"",o",

~§Qd-~-

1!ImdIet_

Tn _1.Stot....... iJIubIlc-....JonT..1Is A<............._

C...oIalnb

..mot.....'"

ITEM Unconstrained

Enlel'l Public Trails Enten Trl Mountaln State Park

Exteed. RI die

Enters Complaint A,.a

IMIII,allon Remarks

Yes

Yea

Yes

Yes

IRan,e baffles mutt be In pl.te to preclude fl'l", over rldle.

Yel

Yes

No

No

IA small pPftlon on the northeall corne, Intersects tr..... Appeilln: to be Inslp1iflcant.

SDZ

Ricochet Area,

Enclosure #2 BTR Range 1

Page 30


Range

Blue Trail RangeRGl

Ammunition

.9mmBall

Maximum Range

1800 Meters

RIcochet Range 900 Meters ,

Vertical Hazard 93 Meters

Key Shape

-~

,, I. - _­ f

0

~_InIh<oTrl_._

'_LIInIb

~filllolP_

_ _ lc>M

1!Ioxf1<t!-

Td ~1" stat_ Pmt

~1c:~TJ.u.

_

"".c

01 a...lcIcotloiCcollplalnt>

....

ITEM Un~n.tralned

Enters PubU, Tralfs Enters Trl Mou", taln State Park Ye.

Yes

'1'••

Yel

Exceeds Rldae

Enters £omplainl Area

MIII,allon Remarks

'1'".

Yes

R.",.. baffles must b!O In place to preclude fin", over rlelJe.

Nt;)____ ...................

No

A small portion on the south...t corne, Intersects trail. Appears to be Insl,nfl,ant.

SDZ I\lcochllO.re,

Enclosure #2 BrR Range 1

----­

Page 31


Enclosure #3 - Blue Trial Range - Range 2

Blue Trail Range is divided into four distinct ranges. Range 2 was previously used as a ~OO yard rifle range that has been closed to all activity other than air-gun (BBs and pellets). This range was open for rifle fire during the early period of complaints from the citizens of the Town of Durham residing in the vicinity of Tri Mountain Road. The owner of

Enclosure #3 - BTR Range #2

Trail Range has expressed an interest in re-opening this range, once it

Page 32


has been modified with baffles to control weapons elevations and sufficiently bermed and modified to operate safely. This range was evaluated using a standard surface danger zone based on the approximate firing limits of the range based on a map-spot. All Surface Danger Zones in their pure form, and all rifles except for .22 Long Rifle ammunition, may cause ricochets that will produce conflicts with public areas. Common ammunition types were evaluated for ricochet concerns, and all (except for .22 Long' Rifle) appear to present an increased public risk for ricochets in the area where public complaints were received. Future improvements to this range should address the comments we will present in the evaluations of Ranges 3 and 4. Detailed reports are included below:

Enclosure #3 - BTR Range #2

Page 33


81ueTrail

RiIn8e

Range RG2

Ammunition

.22 Long Rifle

Maximum

1400 Meters

Range

Rltothet Range 1700 Meters

Verf;ltal Hazard 196 Meters

Key

---

M _ S t... _

- - - ~k~~路 ~n~.~~________~

...."'_IoIC.... IoIl1otk_

~

EM

UInconstfalnlld

Entera Public Trails I Enters Trl Moun, tlln State Pari<

IE~c...ds fUdI..

Ent,,", Complaint

I MUllalion ReMarks

Ar,,~

Yel

Yel

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Ra",e baffles musl be In place to preclude fin", over rldle.

S[:Oz

RI cochBtAtea

Enclosure #3 - BTR Range #2

Page 34


Blue Trail

Ranle

Range RG2 Ammunition

S.56mm

Maximum

3100 Meters

Range Ricochet Range

1550 Meters

Vertical Hazard

319 Meters

Key ilia...

¥

~

.. ln1MTtI_.... _

~1IIon&

,-L -

0

I_Umlts

~F,,""PoIIlll

--

I~---~-

IIIoodIet AR.

-

1---"

~'\.

I'd - . 1 . stllht P....

""lIIk_'_

~AlH.IdenIiJoIC_~

Iallkll<_

ITEM

Enters Public Trails EntenTrt Moun­ taln State Park

Unconstrained SCi!!

Yes

~chetA!'ea_.

Yes

Enters Complaint Area

EMceed. Rld&e

Yes

Ye,

Yes

MIUeaUon Remarks

Ral'lle baffles must be In Place to preclude fir!..., over rldee. .

Enclosure #3 - BTR Range #2

Yes -_.­

-

Ves ..

~~-.-.---

Yes ..

-~~--.-

!

Page 35


Ranse

81ueTrail Rall8e RG2

AmmunItion

5.56mm

Maximum

3437 Meters

Range Ricochet Rall8e

1718 Meters

Vertical Hazard

325 Meters

I Key

1.11_111111

ITEM

Unconstrained

Enters Public Tr/lils Enters Trl Moun­ tal n Stale Park

Exceeds Rld,ce

Enters ComplaInt Area

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

MltI,.tlon Remarlel

Ran,e baffl.. must be In Place to preclude> fhin,

eN. rld,e.

SDZ Rlcocllet N811

Enclosure #3 - BTR Range #2

, -----­

-"'-­ ------_...

_

•..

Page 36


Range

81ueTrail Range RG2

Ammunition

7.62mm Ball

Maximum

4100 Meters

Range

Ricochet Range 2050 Meters

Vertical Hazard

ISilapto

,,

I'

D

-足

706 Meters

Key

~_"InIl!<tTri-'ln_

1_u...1ts l_flriNPoIoU

--

- -1足

i_T....I _ ~s..n-Il.mI"!-

Mount. Stilte Pafk _1< _ _ 1,.11>

U1

~

_

01 a..Id4tnllol CompIolnIs

-~-

IOlllotk_

ITEM

!-足

Unconstrained

Enters Public Ttail. Enters Trl Moun揃 taln SUle Park

EKeeed. Rldee

Ente.. Complaint Area

Mldaation Remarks

,

"

Ves

Y.s

Yes

Yes

Ves

Yes

Yes

Ves

Rani. baffles must be In place to preclude flrin, over tldae,

SDZ Ricochet Area

Enclosure #3 - BTR Range #2

i

Page 37


Range

Blue Trail RanseRG2

Ammunition

7.62mm Ball

Maximum

5288 Meters

Ranse Ricochet Range

2644 Meters

Vertical Hazard

752 Meters

--

"".of~

t.llIbIk_

ITEM

Unconslralned

I Enters Public Trails I Enlers Tri Moun路 lain Siale Park

IEkeeeds Rldae

Enlen Complalnl Area

Ves

Ves

Y.s

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

IMllI,allon Remarks IRan,e baffles must be In place 10 preclude firin, OVf1t rld,e.

SOZ

RI cochet Are.

Enclosure #3 - BTR Range #2

Page 38


Enclosure #4 - Blue Trail Range - Range 3 - Firing Positions 2-19,

I

Blue Trail Range is divided into four distinct ranges. Range 3 is used as a 25 yard pistol range and a 100 yard rifle range. This range will be evaluated for the pistol portion (firing positions 2-19) only. Range 3, firing positions 20-120, will be evaluated along with Range 4 as the same firing events occur at both. This range was evaluated using a standard surface danger zone based on the approximate firing limits of the range based on a map-spot.

Enclosure #4 - BTR Range #3

Page 39


All pistol Surface Danger Zones in their pure form produce conflicts with the complaint area in the vicinity of Tri Mountain Road; however, based on the reports from Clark Vargas and Associates, this range is fully bermed side and rear. We were not allowed to inspect this range to confirm the report. Also, none of the State Police reports have sited pistol ammunition as a source of complaints.. Common pistol a,mmunition types were evaluated for ricochet concerns, and none of these appear to present a public danger in the area where public complaints were received. There are some ammunition types that show a possibility of increased risk to the public hiking trails and to the Tri Mountain State Park. Detailed reports below:

Enclosure #4 - BTR Range #3

Page 40


Ra!'"S8

Blue Trail RanleRG3

An Ammunition

.22 Lonl Rifle

M.u lmum

1400 Meters

R8I 8II18e Ricc «het Range 1700 Meters

Vertlcal Hazard 196 Meters

~

C ~

~

•.

-•

hll_P~

ITEM EM Un~.onstralned

Enters Public Trails I Enters Trl Mountaln State Park Yes

Yes

IExceeds Rld£e

Ent"", Complaint

Yes

Yes

Rs",e baflles must be In plaoe to preclude Ilrl", over rldee. Rlooohets do not present a public risk.

SOl

JUfO'chollAl'".

IMIII.atlon Remarks

Area

No

Enclosure #4 - BTR Range #3

No

No

No

Page 41


Reanse

Blue Trail Range RG3

Ammunition AI

.45CaIACP

M MaxImum RB Ranse

1690 Meters

Rlicachet RBl18e 1845 Meters

VeertIcal Hazard 1100 Meters

Key

[

i .~

Pf>inb 'I_to _t<oIoeds..t__

•-r-~•

III -mMountaln-st•• Park

-,I'I1I>I1<_'"

-I_of--"~

I

IlaIlhdc_

ITEr.M UncIo n.tralned

Entt:rs Public Trails I Enters Trl Mounlain State Park

IE~eeed. Rld,ce

Enters Complaint Area

Yes

Yes

Yeo

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

SDZ

Rico chetArea

Enclosure #4 - BTR Range #3

IMIII,allon Remara Ra"'t: baffles musl be In place 10 preclude 110", <¥Vet '(elfe. Ricochets do not present a public risk.

Page 42


Range

Blue Trail RangeRG3

Ammunition

.38 Spedal Ball

Maximum

1806 Meters

Range RIcochet Range 903 Meters

89 Meters

Vertic'" Hazard ------_._ ,--_.­ ....

~

LJL

,-

0

J--

~

­

Key

~1IIII-.. I n I M 1 i l _ - _

l_llmIOI I........ FltIM PoInb ~

--

_ _ liurI_ _ _

l_r_l'ol.tt 1IloodIe\­

-

~

fri Mountaifl Stat. hrlf: _"'_InoTrIIlJ

_ot""""""IIII(om_

Illlio1kl'iltt!

ITEM

Unconstrained

Ente.. Public Trail. Ent.... Trl Moun, taln StalA Park

Exceed. Rletae

Ent.... Complalnl Area

MltI,adon R..marlcs .

Yes

Yes

Yeo

Yes

Rant.. baffles mUit be In place to preclude IIrlnt over rldle.

Yeo

Yes

No

No

A 1mall portion on the northea.t corner Inte ..6CU tr'lli. Appea.. 10 be Insllnlfiunl.

SOZ RlcQchetArea

--­

Enclosure #4 - BTR Range #3

I

Page 43


Ranie

Blue Trail ltanse RG3

Ammunition

.9mm Ball

Maximum'

1800 Meters

,

Itan,e Ricochet Range 900 Meters

93 Meters

Vertical Hazard

Key IShaK

,, 1f

0

IdomIIfIutIoo tdotntIfied ........ In Il>aTrI_. ""'"

,_llmIIlI

1_,......_

---足

~

-

or_ _ u.-.w_s..rt.. Ilonp!r_

I.......

t>t_ln ___

_

k_IonTlflb

"""'of _ _

~

","...1<_

11EM

Unconstrained

Enters PUblic TraUs EntAlrs Trl Moun足 tIIIn S"tate Park

Exceeds Rld,ce

Erilelll Complaint Area

MIII,allon Remarks

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

lIanae baffles must be In place to preclude firlnj over rld,ce.

Yea

Yes

No

No

A small portJon on thesO\ltheast COfner Intersects trail. App,!!ars to b,!! Insl.nlflcanl.

SOl RlcocNlI Area

I

Enclosure #4 - BTR Range #3

.

Page 44


Enclosure #5 - Blue Trail Range

Range 4 and Range 3 Firing Positions 20-120

Blue Trail Range is divided into four distinct ranges. Range 4 and Range 3 (firing positions 20;120) are used as 1DO yard rifle ranges and have 50

yard targets as well. The ranges were modified based on recommendations from Clark Vargas and Associates to include a berm at SO meters

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Page 45


and improvements were made to the 100 meter berm to increase its altitude to preclude "blue-sky" visibility when the firing line baffles are in use. These ranges were evaluated using a standard surface danger zone based on the approximate firing limits of the range based on a map足 spot. The as-built drawings from the Clark Vargas and Associates reports are illustrated. The as-built drawings referenced above include an intermediate berm at approximately 50 ,meters downrange'from the firing line. Possible ricochets in the detailed reports are presumed to originate from this berm. This berm, though presumably to control direct fire at the 50 yard targets, could act as a ground baffle when firers address the 100 yard targets. According to the NRA Source Book ground baffles should include measures to prevent ricochets from occurring near their peaks. In the Clark Vargas and Associates reports, there are no such measures indicated. Ground baffles have been known to increase ricochet hazards from projectile strikes at or near their peaks. The Air Force strictly prohibits the use of ground baffles on partially-contained ranges for this reason. Previous training we have received at the NRA Range Operations Course also specifically addressed ground baffles as undesirable, although the current NRA Source Book does not reflect the same. All Surface Danger Zones in their pure form conflict with the complaint area in the vicinity of Tri Mountain Road. Assuming that the baffling implemented by the range owner is controlling all direct fire rounds from being fired at an elevation that would allow a projectile to pass above Tri Mountain State Park, there are no controls referenced in either of Clark Vargas and Associates reports to control ricochets. Without being able to conduct an inspection of the range to confirm all possible safety issues that could exist, we can suggest that addressing the following issues may assist in reducing further ricochet incidents: 1. Removethe 50 meter berm or modify it to reduce ricochet potential and inspect the downrange area for possible sources for ricochets

(rocks, debris, etc.) and remove them.

2. A single baffle at the firing line is likely insufficient for precluding firing above the Blue Trail Ridge. There should be at least one

overhead baffle downrange constructed to neither allow "blue-sky" visibility above the ridge nor allow the highest penetrating round

fired on the range to pass through it. This will alleviate incidents based upon shoote" error or misalign~d scopes and sights.

3. The 100 meter berm should have an eyebrow baffle installed, also to be constructeti to preclude penetration. The eyebrow baffle

should not be visible to a shooter due to the baffle suggested in "2." above. This

preclude r,ounds from ricocheting from the top of

I

the 100 meter berm. There are no guarantees, based on the unpredictability of a ricocheting projectile, that these suggestions will preclude any ricochets from occurring and leaving the range. This can only be accomplished by building a fully-contained range as previously described. They 'should sufficiently control those hazards that appear to have the highest ricochet producing potential. Detailed evaluations of common ammunition on Range 4 are included below:

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Page 46

1


Blue Trail

Ran8e

RaIl8B RG4 Ammunition

.22 Lon8 RIfle

Maximum

1400 Meters

Ran8e RIcochet Rall8e 1700 Meters

Vertk:aI Hazard 196 Meters

Key

~

PoinIs

--

PoInts ;'tMdSurl_ _ lDM

wkot:het_ f r i _. . ._

-""""!!

_"'a.........

IoIC.

IloIllttkhtll

ITEM

I Enters Public Trails I Enlen Trl Moun足

IEMceed. Ri d&e

taln State Park uncons,ralne"d1 SOZ

Yes

Ricochet Area

No

I

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Enlen ComplaiM Anea

I

I Mldladon Remarks

Ves

Yes

Yes

IRan,e baffles must be In place to preclude Ii';", OVf)J( rldle,

Yes

No

No

ISmail portion of lhe southeast corner Intersects park.

Page 47


Range

Blue Trail ~ngeRG4

Ammunition

S.S6mm

Maxlmllf1l

3100 Meters

Range Ricochet ~nge 1550 Meters

Vertical Hazard

, ,,

0

Key ldentllkatlon

Iden_ .......... theTrIM_ _

I....... Umlls l_flIIMl'oInlll

--

319 Meters

'-r__ ~5url_~_

._

~-

-

M_I. _ _

_

1 < _.... , _

Ar•• 01 .......01101 Comolal....

IoIIlIlkPaIl!

ITEM

Unconstrained

Enters Public Trails Enters Tri Moun­ taln State Park

E~ceeds

lIId&e

Enters Complaint

MIII,allon Remarks

Area

'I...

V...

'I...

'lei

Rona.. baffl.. mu.t be In place to preclude flnna C1Ye( rld,e.

Y<IIs

V...

V...

Yes

S... Ricochet OIart

SOl R!~chetArea

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Page4B


Ranse

Blue Trail Range RG4

AmmunItion

0.224lnehes 4S sralns Bal coef 0.202

Initial

3600 Ft/Sec Dlr 100 Desrees

Ricochet

2000 Ft/See Dfr 100 Desrees 12 Delrees Up 1S78 Meter5

Vertical Hazard

319 Meters

., -

Key

ISIIapol

_l\t_.I.lhlr~_IoIn_

,-

0

~

_b

_f"",,,_

--•

PoInto _otnolnod _ _ _ 10M

III<Qc:bd ­

-

TrI _ _ P,OJt

_ k _ " " ' T•• n.

In.ut_ntl.IC$Qp1alfttl; 1IaI"~_-'

Round Ifflred from the Mn, line", • ""nd.rd muule we'odty of 315011 Feet Pot So_, ot SO ",,",". hili th.lnte..... dl... berm .nd rI..._ k Mixed UnItTl'lj"ct...., for Wlnmat•.224 dl.. 22lllem. e •. J. . . . .d Hollow Point (USA) ot 21100 "".. P'" Sacond At .n Bwot'on A""" of: 12de...... a.III"1I: Caeffld..... !If. 0. J.!I5- 0.185 0.185 0.185 Q. UlS V"IDdty aau"dlri.. (Feet , . Se....d) of: 2840 211«1 2840 211«1 WInd Olroctlon I., 0.0 .'dode.nd. WInd ""Iacity .f: 0.0 Mil", ""r hour WInd eompo_t I ... (MIIII. ""rHow:!: OuwnR.nll": 0,0 C.... R..",: 0.0 ""rtlc:ol: 0.0 Th~ ,Flrln, Ralnl .""ed of .ound iI: 1119.117 fps The WI. it......, bel.... t ....."""d of .ound on t .... tnJeQory (Ul8.5","I It l!57_rs AltItude: 103 Feet with I Stond.rd Atm.phlric Madol. TemperllWnll: 59 F

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Page 49


Range

Blue Trail Range RG4

Ammunition

S.S6mm

Maximum

3437 Meters

Range

RIcochet Range 11718 Meters

Vertk~ Hazard 1325 Meters

-• --­_It_... -

r_

tlI Moontalnsot. J'fadr.

",.. ",_.tl.le"",

lallltlk_

ITEM

I Entens Public rr,lIs Entet$ Trl Moun­

IEKceedsRldie

tain State Park

EnteR Complaint Area

IMldlallon Remarks

Unconstrained SOl

Yes

Ye.

Yes

Yes

Rel'1le baffles must, be In place to preciuc» fi~", OWI'rldie.

RlcochetAfelil

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

See Ricochet O1art

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Page 50


Ranae

Blue Trail Ranse RG4

Ammunition

0.224 Inches 4Sara/ns BaICoefO.17S

Initial

4000 Ft/Sec Olr 100 De,rees 50 meters

Rlcoc:het;

2000 Ft/Sec Olr 100 De,rees 22 Degrees Up

Vertical Hazard

;325 Meters

I

Round 1.lInod from the IIdnllln. It • stand.rd mu,d. ""Ioolly of 4IlIIIIFeot P .... S....nd. at 50 mote.. hit. tho Int."".dllte berm Ind """chillI:

..._".Ih

' ' ' I>

MIxed Unit TroJ.,,:tDtV'" Wlncheet...2'-4 die. 22-250 Rem. 45 .., J.daItIt~HoIIow P~lnt at 3000 Foot p.r S• ...nd ; AI an El_Uoh A"... of: n d....... e.lllllltl:at!fllclent. of: 0.1711 0.1711 0.1711 0.1711 0.175 Voloolly Sound.l1. (Felli PII!' Second) of: 31148 30411 304830411 WInd OVettlon II: 0.0 o'dock .nd tWlndlielocltv.f: 0.0 Md. per hour WInd Comp_nt.... (MI!o. per Houri: DownRlnF: 0.0 Cr... a."..: 0.0 llertl": 0.0 The FlrInJ Point .peod of .ound .: 1119,87 Ips Th. bullet drop. bel_lhe 'pc!IId of .ound On lhe I",j.dory (1118.13 fp.l ~ 4!l0 moten Altitude: ~ Foot with I ,.mp...lu.... 53 F

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Stll!d1ord AtmOlphod< Model.

Page 51


Range

Blue Trail Range RG4

Ammunition

7.62mm Ball

Maximum

4100 Meters

Range

1

Ricochet Range

2050 Meters I

I Vertlc,,1 HaZllrd

, ,,

SNipe

706 Meters

Key IdenUIImIcm ldoIntIfll!dllal\l.. lnllltllrl MlNnbIn_

CJ 1"*'Ie

u.n/b

1_ flrioliPolnls

--

- I"""",wpt足 "_011_

U - . - S u r f.... _ Z O...

-

tri McluntaIJl 5bte:Parle

I'III>II<"*<WIonT.,",,

_ of .........111101 C<>mpla"~ 1<111_ _

ITEM

Enters Public Trait. Enters Trl Moun. taln State Parle

EKeeed. Rld.le

Ente.. COmplaint

MIII,allon RemariG

Area

Uneonstr.lned SOZ

Yes

Yas

Yes

y".

Ricochet Area

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

RaMIe blIfftes must be In place to preclude ftrl"l over rldJ:e.

.

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

See RIcochet OIart -

Page 52


Ranse

Blue Trail Ranse RG4

Ammunition

0.308 Inches 123 sralns Bal Coef 0.245

Initial

2355ft/Sec Olr 100 Desrees 50 meters

Ricochet

1800 Ft/5ec Olr 100 Desrees 24 Desrees Up

Vertical Hazard

706 Meters

Key 10 IIt<t Tn MOWlI.1lnIor••

--

-. Poi"'" SuIiJoat_Z_

~.ed

~-

TIl M!lcmtoIn SlilII!_

Round Is fired fro", the ftrll'1l 'Ine at 2355 Feet Per Second to the 50 meter berm and ricochets: ua Cr Full Metal Jacket at 1800 Feet per Second At an El8lliltlon Al'1Ile of: 24 delre. Ballistic <:oeffttlenbl of: 0.245 0.245 0..245 0.2450.245 V.to~lty 8Qundarlli' (Feet per Second) of: 18921892 18921892 Wind Olreellon Is; 0.0 o'clock and • WInd \/etocl t:I{ of. 0.0 MM. per hour Wind Coml'onents are (Miles per Ho....): Down Range:O. 0 O'OM RBl'1Ie: 0.0 Vertical: 0.0 Th!! flrlrw Point speed Qllound Is; lU9.B71ps The bullet drops below the speed of sound on t,he traje",ory (U18.69Ip$) at: 279 met... Altftude, 103 Feet with a Standard Atmospheric Model. Temperalure: 59 F Ricochet path Is truncaled 10 pro.... d a clear view of theresldenllal.rea.

"'OIk _ _ ' .. ""I"'I''-------I MIXiid UnU TraJecte>ry for Winchester .308 die. 7.62 x 39mm

_111~

,II

lIaIIlstlcl>.nh

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Page 53


Range

Blue Trail RangeRG4

Ammunition

7.62mm Ball

Maximum

5288 Meter:;

i

RanBe Ricochet RanBe 2644 Meters

Vertical Hazard

, -_Its ,, -- -足

1$IIue

752 Meters

Key

IcIentIIbtIoA

IMntlIIed 101\&.. InIlHoTri MountIln_

0

IIIoAp FIJ/nr Polnto I~T"'Ifi_

..-.,,.100<l5lorl_0._ _

-

'M MDuntaln~. hft

_ic~T/'lIs

AnI''''a..Idtn!l''~

"

...111011<_

ITEM

Uneonstralned

Ente/ll Public Trails Enters Trl Moun足 taln State Park

Exceeds Rlc\le

Enteu Complaint Area

Mlti,stion Remarks

Yes

Ve.

Ves

Ves

Rance baffles must be In plac~ Ie, prl'lciude lirin, over rldee.

Yef

Yes

Yes

Ves

See Ricochet Chart

soz Ricochet Area

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Page 54


Range

Blue Trail Range RG4

Ammunition

0.308 Inches .IS0gralns 8al Coef 0.437 28~Ft/Sec

Initial

Olr 100 Degrees

so meters ~cQChet

1800 Ft/Sec OJr 100 Degrees 21 Degrees Up

Vertical Hazard

, ..

152 Meters

------

I~

rr, -

Key

~

~a._

.. tMTn_ ...."

""'_Ll~

a._FIrinI_

-• -

I_T_Point>

.... _ _

~dSurl

Rlc<ld!ctAIU

Td _ _ _

-

fluldl(; Ite<Ra!l<m ltiil.

l.w.oI_IIol~lolo

'<

_Path

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Round Is fired from the ftrlr'llllneat a standard munlevelodtyof282S Feet Per Second, at 5(1 meters hits the IntermedIate berm and rIcochets:

Mixed Unit Tr~eetorv for Winchester .30R eta. 308 Win. 15(1 cr. XP at 1800 F.... t per ~econd At an Elevation A",I~ of: 21 d.r_

Ballistic CoeMclenlll "f; 0.437 0.4370.4370.4370.437

Velocity Boundaries IFeet per Seeond) of: 2300 2300 2300 2300 Wind Dlrectlcm Is: 0.0 o'clock and a Wind Velocity of. 0.0 Miles per hour Wind Com­

ponent. are IMlles per Hour): DownRanr.: 0.0 Ceo.. RaF'lle: 0,0 Vertical: 0,0

The Flrl,. POint speed of sound Is: 1119.117 IpS The bullet drops below the speed of sound On the traJ~ctory (1116.71 Ips) at: 493 meters

Altitude: 103 Feet with a stlllldard Atmospheric Model. .

Temperatj.lre: S9 f

Data Printed In Mixed Units

Page 55


RanSE!

Blue TraJl Ranlle RG4

Ammunition

SO Cal Ball

Maximum

6100 Meter$

Ranse RIcochet Ranse 30SOMeteu

Vrica! Hazard

904 Meters

.~ 1SMp.

,, I

D

-­ _u_

Key

1CI<ttlIlfIed1lo..... lntho:TrI-.uIn_

I

II

--­ l!.VlI.flrW_

-

_ S u r l_ _ _

-

'''''-_''_­

--. . .k_T_

.... of~coml>lolnlo

UlIkIk...u.

ITEM

I Enters Public Trads I Entars Trl Moun.

EMceeds Rldae

tllin State Park Unconstrained

Enlen Compl aint

Mlti.allon Remarias

Art'!!

Yes

Yes

Ves

Ves

Ve.

Ves

Ves

Ves

Rance baffles must be in place to preclude linnc over rid•••

soz Ricochet Area

Enclosure #5 - BTR Range 3 and 4

Page 56


Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Analysis

The Wallingford Rod and Gun Club has an array of ranges available to their members. There is a 6S yard range allowing rifles, handguns and shotguns, and this range was evaluated based on State Police reports that state it may be a possible source of errant rounds within the complaint area. The rifle range at the Wallingford Rod and Gun Club is oriented to fire in a northwesterly direction and cannot be the cause of errant rounds in the Tri Mountain Road complaint area. (See next slide.)

Enc10sure #6 - Wa1lingford Rod and Gun C]ub Range

Page 57


Wallingford Rod and Gun Club - Unidentified Range

We have identified one range in the vicinity of the Wallingford Rod and Gun Club and the Blue Trail Range that is not listed as an operational recreational range In this area. The property is reportedly used by the Wallingford Rod and Gun Club; however, there is currently no information on the type of weapons activities that occur at this site. For purposes of this report, we have assumed that rifles and pistols are fired here based on the State Police reports that have identified "

,

this range as a possible source for ~ome of the errant rounds in the complaint area. Survey points are map-spotted based on aerial photographs. The range has no apparent baffling or formal firing lanes. All Surface Danger Zones in their pure form conflict with the complaint area in the vicinity of Tri Mountain Road with the exception of .22 long Rifle. Without any apparent weapons controls (baffles) it can be assumed that the

ent~re Surface Danger Zone can be an increased risk

area for citizens of Durham. Ricochet zones and possible trajectories were evaluated. More information will have to be gathered to determine if this range is actually a potential source of the errant rounds in the complaint area.

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

Page 59


Range

Wallingford lIodand Gun

Ammunition

.22 LonS mfle

Maximum Ranse

1400 Meters

Ricochet Ranle 700 Meters

Vertical Hltzard 96 Meters

, ,,

lsi-

0

Key _tIfItatIoo>

IHtitlticd_"':1he "I MOIIIII:aIn Atel

I_u_ 1.......

I'I..... JIoII'II$

-• ­

1_1_ _ -.lruldSUrfaal Danger ""'"

lIkodIot_

-

lrIM_"' _ _ 1'IlIoIIc~1l1l"

I.oir...........n!I.. Corno>IaI.ts

""'>.

il0ll1>li< ...111

ITEM

Enters Public Trail. Enlers Trl Moun­ lain State Park

Unconstrained SDZ

Yes

Rlcoehet Area

No

Yes

Exceed. Rlelle Ves

Ente,. COmplaint Area

No

Mltl,atlon Remarks Ran,e baffles must be In place to preclude flrl",

OVf!II'

rld,e. Ricochets do not present a public

risk. No

No

Enclosure #6 - Wallingfprd Rod and Gun Club Range

No

Page 60


Ranse

Wallinsford Rod and Gon

Ammunition

.45 Cal ACP

Maximum

1690 Meters

Ranle Ricochet Range 845 Meters

Vertical Ha;fard

, ,, -

SIlo""

0

100 Meters

Key ldentllkatlon ""'ntlflH IIlIltiIH In the Tri Mountlln 1If..

'_Om"" l_flllt!&...."'1$

---

'_r_tPolnts ~.tt1IlMd_()

I

__

._t_~

I

TIl_inStall! Pari< Public lIII<reatlon T<III. _oI~ComplalntA

'~

lIOHI$ticl'lllti

ITEM

I Enters Publl, Trails I EnteniT" Moun路

Exceeds Rld,e

lain State Park Unconstrained

Enters Complaint Area

Yes

Yel

YII'

Yes

No

No

No

No

SDZ

RicllChet Area

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

MIII.allon Remarlcs

RlInae baffles musl be In plaee to preclude flrln, over rid,e, Rlcod'!e!5 do not present a public risk.

Page 61


Range

Wallingford Rod and Gun

Ammunition

.9mm Ball

Maximum

1800 Meters

Range Ricochet Range 900 Meters

VerU!=al Hazard

, ..­

93 Meters

Key

511_

,, -

0

.....ntIfltrd _ _ In Iile Tfl MouIIlaln At"

I_UmlIll 1_ _ fir"", I'cInis

I_TlIIHtPoinl._ _ l _

-•-

~SUlf

~II_ft_.Po.­

''''''',,_IonT,oII.

AAlltoi lleildeatW C<>mplalnl$

..m.tkPilIil

ITEM

I Enten Public Trails I Enters T,I Moun­

EMceeds Rldte

tain State Park Unconstrained

Enters Complaint

Mlti&adon Remarks

Area

Ves

Ves

Ves

Ves

No

No

No

No

Ranae baffles mUSt be In place to p,ecllJde Itrin, over rldte.

SOZ RI~ochet Area

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

Page 62


Range

WallingfOfd Rod and Gun

AmmunlUon

; .38 Spedal 8all

Maximum

1806 Meters

Range RIcochet Range 903 Memrs

Vertical Hazard

89 Memrs

Key 1­

<$ 0

,-,

IdoIntlflutkm

IdntIflo<l b .... In.IMo TrI...,.._ Ill..... LImIts

__• Fill.. PoInt>

-

""0

1_'_1'01011 U""'--1Md ktf_I:WhIOflO••

IUooI:IMot _

TrI _ _ " .....

I'UIIIk 1IIM:rftI..... T.oIls

Al... ofbsldentlalC_ _ I

IIIII1t&Pllh

ITEM

I Enters Publl( Trails I Enters Trl Moun­

EJt(eedt Rld&e

taln State Park Unconstrained

Enters Compi Slnl

Mlti,ation Remarks

Area

Ves

Ves

Ve.

Ves

No

No

No

No

Rance baffles must be In pla~e to pre(lude flrin, OVIY ridge.

SDZ Ricochet Area

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

Page 63


Ran8e

Wallin8ford Rod and Gun Qub

Ammunition

S.S6mm

MaxImum Range

3100 Meters

RIcochet Range 1550 Meters

319 Meters

Vertical Hazard

, ,,

I'*­

Key

Idontlllaolhm

Idorltlfle4 ",,_In 1M Til Mountain _

0

"-1ltnlI$'

--

PoInt<

_TIIDt_

-..wr..... _

D.a!1ItrlaM

IIIoo<Ntlltea

TII~

__

Publk lle<fatioRr,..l.

_01

!"">

"""",,,,_ConI.

1lIIistk"'' '

ITEM

Enters Public Trails Ente,.. Trl Moun· taln Stllte Park

UnconstraIned SOZ

Yes

Yel

Ricochet Area

Yes

Ves

Exceed. Rldle

Yes

Yes -------­

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

Enters Complaint Area

"-­

,,-----,

MIIIJ;atlon Remarlas

Yes

Ranle baffles must be In place to preclude Itnn. ovet rldle,

Yes

See F\lcochet Olarl

.,,~--,-----,

Page 64


Range

Wallingford Rod and Gun dub

Ammunition

0.224 Inches 55,raln5 Bal Caet 0.235

Initial

3650 Ft/Sec Dlr 101 Degrees 300meter5

Ricochet

800 Ft/Sec: Dlr 110 De,ree~ 30 Degrees Up

Vertical Hazard

319 Meters

.,

I~

I

Key ldentifludon

,, t_

-•- -­ 0

i

_11f1<Id_... i<lth.TrlMount<tlnArH

l...eUmlt. 1~"ori

...

Po_

....._n,...

U1I<OmItrillned SWfocalJa_loM

-

~rI_m_e_

iflublk _e.tion TrIU,

_ I ot_1IlComplointl

...

a.lllt1i,Plth

Ii"",

RDund I. fired fnlml.... line at. m"".Ie""locityof36~ Feel "", Second ."d ot 300 met.... It rknchetl:

MbcodUnlt TrejectoryforW~athertw.:124 dll. 224 Wutharily 55 cr. SP at 1100 Feet por S~ .....d At on fJewt;.n Anc1. aI: 30 depe...

a.IIIttI.lAefflclent. "" 1I.2!15 0.295 0.235 0.295 0.235

VelecltyBau"d.rles (Feet p... Second) Df: 3000 3000 3000 3000

Wind Direction Is: ao D'doclc Ind. Wind Velocity .1: 111.0 Mile, per hour

WInd Comp.""nt. Ire (Mlle. por Ha....j' DownRlnp: 0.1) cra.. 111.0 Vertical: II. 0

The Flrlnl Point tpeed af ,ound iI: 1113.37 fps

Altitude: 1785 Fea with I Stlnd.rd Alma.p....rie Mod"l.

r.mpontllre: 59 F

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

R.".:

Page 65


Range

Wallingford Rod and Gun Oub

Ammunition

S.56mm

Maximum

3431 Meters

Range

,

Ricochet Range

1118 Meters

Vertical Hazard

325 Meters

,

SIIa_

,, -

0

Key ldentiliaolion "milled ...... In tile T,IMount.!• .-.... ILlneeUmits

R..... flri.. Polnu

--­ -

I_T...... _ O_IMd _ _ _ _

tli _ _ _

-

I'IItIII<_NtionT_

IN... ofRUlclentlal~ II1II1$11<_

ITEM

I Enters Public Trails I Enters Trl Moon­

hteedl Rld,e

taln State Park Untonstrallllld

Enters Complaint

,MIII,allon Remar'"

Area

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Rs",e baffles most be In plate to pre~lude flrin, over rldle.

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yeo

See RIcochet Olart

SOZ RICOchet Area

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod'and Gun Club Range

Page 66


Range

Walllnsford Rod andGunOub

Ammunition

0.224 Inches 55 grains . Bal Caef 0.235

Initial

3650Ft/Sec Oir 107 Degrees 370 meters

Ricochet

2000 Ft/Sec Dir 110 Degrees 80egrees Up

Vertical Hazard

-

325 Meters

iTri_t;;iQstlII<ol'.orlr II\JbIk lIÂŤ.reafiGn Trolls Ar... vf~ol(;_t.lnu.

8a11fSClt PatII

Round I. fired ,"""the flnniline II. muzzle lIell!dtv "I 36~ Feet Per 51""nd Ind ,eKhoI ~III meter....d ricochets: Mlleed Unit rnJectory farWeotherby .224 dl., 224 Weathen., 55 V. SP It 20111 Feet per 51ca .. d At InS_Ion Anp. of: B. <levec. BIIIIlotI. Caeffid"nt. of; 0.23511.23511.23511.235 0.235 VCI~cIty B\lunderi.. ("'. per Second) Qf: '1110 1lOIIIllOOO 3000 Wind Direction II: 0,0 ,,'dade Ind I WI.. d Velac:l!y 01:0,0 11.41,... ""rhour Wind Components are (Mlle. per Hour'!: DownRln.,.: 0.0 Crall Rln.,.: 0.0 llertlcal, 0.0 The Flrinl Point speed Qf _ou"d Is: 1119,81 "" The bullet dtuPI below the __d Qf sound on the traJect.ry (1117.25 tp.) at: 325 meten Altitude: :103 feet with. Stlndard AtmDlphari. Model. Temp_u,.. 59 F

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

Page 67


Ranae

Wallingford Rodand6un

Ammunition

7.62mm Ball

Maximum Range

4100 Meters

Ricochet Ranae 20SOMeters

Vertical Hazard

706 Meters

, ,

.......ffllnl t>qinlS

~

....r...... ""''''''

Key

1"'­

w..ntlflaotlan

0

_Umb

-•

Ide!ItIfitd "'1111"" In til. Ttl Mcnintoln .......

---

_ottalnN5ur'- o.._Zone

~-

1r"~_eP. I'ubIl<:Il........uo..Tmb

!Area oIl!ie01dd11al a>mp_

",

IIIIIotk "-til

ITEM

Uncon,traifllld

Enten Publl~ TraYs Enten Tri Moun· taln Slate ParI<

Exceed. Rlclae

Enten Complaint Area

Mllillalion Remarks

Yes

Yes

Ves

Ves

Ranlle baffles must be In place to preclude flrinll oVe!' rlclae.

Ves

Ves

Yel

Ves

See Ricochet OlaF!

SOl Ricochet Ar.a

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

Page 68


Range

Wallingford Rod and Gun Cub

Ammunition

0.308Inc;hes 124 grains 8al Coef 0.298 2350 Ft/Sec;

Initial

Dlr 107 Degrees 300 meters RIcochet

1000 Ft/Sec Dlr 110 De8ree~ 22 Desrees Up

Vertical Hazard

706 Meters

I

Key SIlo,..

,, -

1L

0

IdentIfItat_

identified

""!'I" in IIIc lIf MaunUi" AI...

I_Hlmits Points

--­ - -­

....... T_ _.. IJll<l>Mlrllned So.- !!!!II" ZOM

-----,--

-

Td_ln Stot" ParIt IIUIIII<_.~T••II' Aluol_ICompIoIDu

...

""I'll

""'.,city

\

Round I. fired the finn, lin. at. m...zl~ of 2350 F!I'It Per Second and trtVels 3110 "",lAIn downnnp and rtcad1etr. MtledUnlt Trljectoryfor Federal CartrtdP ,308 dl •• 1.6h3!lmm 124", FMlAmerlClln 1000 Feet per Second At an Elevation AnPe of: 22 decree. Balli"le CoeffIdentl r:tf: 112!i8 D,2!i8 1l2!i8 112!i8 0. 298

Veledty Baund.,ies (Feel per s.candl of: 1840 1840 184D 1N!

WInd Dllection ,,: D.D a'dad< and. WInd \Ielodty of: 0, P Mlles pe' hour

WInd Component. _IMIIe. pe,Hour): D-.Rlnp: 0.0 c.m. Ranp: 0.0 Vertical: 0,0 TIle Flrtn, PDlnt .peed Df .aund ill: 1119.81 fpo The bullet d,aps below the lpeed of .ound an the traJettary (1119.81 Ips) at: 000 mete,. Altitude: lO!lFmwlth • Sllnd.rd AtmospherteModel. Temp_ure: !Ill F

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

fa".,.t

Page 69


~,,.

'M

Range

Wallingford Rod and Gun Club

Ammunition

7.62mmBall

Maximum

5288 Meters

Range Ricochet Range

2644 Meters

Vertical Hazard

752 Meters

Key S~

ldontiflutlon

,, 1_.

~ 0

identified _ . In tINt l~ Moonhin ArM

I_UmIb FI,,,,, Points

-• ­

I_T_tPolnt.

~""" __ Donftr_

IIIa>dIel IIzel

-

'" Mountoln _e P....

P....lk _eall... y",'10

ArNot_ldanlLlI Complaints

8alllttk_

ITEM

Unconstnllned

Enter. Public Tnll. Ente,. Trl Moun­ taln Stilt- PIIrt\

Excuds Rld.e

Ente,. Complaint Area

Mltl.atlan Remarks

V..

V..

Ves

V.s

fIIInl. IMfftes must 1M '" place to pr~lud. flrll\l over rldi.,

Ve.

Ve.

Ves

Vas

See RIcocMt Chart

SOz RIcodIet Are.

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

Page 70


Range

Wallingford Rod and Gun

Ammunition

SOCai Ball

Maximum

6100 Meters

Range RlcO(het Range 3050 Meters

Vertical Hazard

, ,,

.5har>*

0

Key IdtmIlIkoIlon

IcIomtIfled 11111111$10 the T1I

_I" AI..

IlIIHIPtlmlll 111_ fldII& PoInts

---

904 Meters

..._

TlIIpI; Pol,""

~_~lloM

_t~

IfhloUr!_ _.. _

Public: """,,ott..n lI'aIlo

_

'.

of lIHId<!ntlo'.t""'fIaIM'

IIII1RllCP~

ITEM

I Enters Public Trails I Enters Tri Moun足 t1!ln Siale Park

Exceeds Rl die

Enters Complaint Area

Unconstrained SOZ

Yes

Ves

Ves

Yes

Ricochet ""lIa

Ves

Yes

Yes

Yes

Enclosure #6 - Wallingford Rod and Gun Club Range

Mlll,atlon Remarlc:s

Ranae baffles must be In place 10 preclude lI,rlna over rld,e.

Page 72


Safety Evaluation on Blue Trail Range