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SDMAWorkshop:JudicialWatchͲReviewofVerdictbyAsianCivilSociety Gwangju,RepublicofKorea 17May2012  ConceptNote   I.Background  Independenceofthejudiciaryisvitalforconsolidatingdemocracyandprotectinghumanrights.The roleandindependenceofthejudiciaryiscrucialinpursuingcorruptionandpreventingabusesbythe legislativeandexecutivebranches.  Unfortunately,judicialbodiesforgothisresponsibilityinmanyAsiancountries,actinginsteadasa powerintheirownright.Itiscommonlyfoundthataselectfewelitelegalprofessionalsmonopolise andabusejudicialpower,insodoingfailingtoendimpunityandcorruption.   Assuch,itisindispensibleforcivilsocietytomonitorthejudiciaryinordertomakeitindependent andtransparent.TheRegionalWorkshoponJudicialWatchaimstoshareAsiancivilsociety’s experiencesandstrategiesinmonitoringjudicialbodiesandcomeupwithacommonmonitoring guideline.   Duringthe2011GwangjuAsiaForum,humanrightsdefendersfromIndonesia,TimorͲLeste,Taiwan, CambodiaandSouthKoreasharedtheirexperiencesregardingjudicialmonitoringintheirown countries.Thisopportunityemphasizedtheneedtodevelopacommonjudiciarymonitoring guidelineapplicabletoallAsiancountries,regardlessofdifferencesinlegalsystemsacrossborders.   Amongvariousjudicialmonitoringstrategies,the‘reviewofverdict’ischosenasthisyear’stheme. Thereviewofverdictconsistsofdeliveringcritiquesonjudicialverdictsfromcivilsociety’s perspective.Thisremindsthejudiciarythatcivilsocietycanactivelymonitorjudicialbranchesand determinewhetherornottheyprotectandpromotethebasicrightsenshrinedintheConstitution. Also,thereviewofverdictshowstheimportanceofhavingjudicialofficersfromdiverse socioeconomicandideologicalbackgrounds.Weexpecttocomeupwithacommonmonitoring guidelineonthereviewofverdictforAsiancivilsocietythatreflectstheseprinciples. 

II.PastDevelopments   1)“DemocracyinAsia:ProgressorCrisis?”,19Ͳ20May2010 ͲIdentifiedemergingtrendsandchallengesinprotectinghumanrightsanddemocracyinAsiaand conductedgroupdiscussiononmonitoringthethreegovernmentbranches.PSPDsharedits experienceregardingjudicialbodymonitoring.  2)NGOParallelMeetingtotheBaliDemocracyForum:“AdvancingDemocraticGovernancein Asia:ChallengesandWayForward”,8Ͳ9December2010 ͲConductedgroupdiscussiononruleoflawandindependenceofjudiciary.ParticipantsfromKorea andIndonesiasharedtheirexperiences.  3)“RegionalWorkshoponJudiciaryWatchbyAsianCivilSociety”,16Ͳ17May2011 ͲAsafollowͲuptoprevioustwomeetings,participantsfromIndonesia,TimorͲLeste,Taiwan, CambodiaandSouthKoreasharedtheirexperiencesandstrategiesonjudicialbodymonitoring.

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   4)“RegionalConsultationonDemocratisationandPeople’sParticipationinAsia”,6Ͳ7December 2011 ͲParticipantsdiscussedtheInstituteforDemocracyandElectoralAssistance(IDEA)guidelineson assessingdemocracy. 

III.Objectives  Inlinewiththediscussionatthepreviousworkshops,thegeneralobjectivesofthisyear’s“Regional WorkshoponJudicialWatch–ReviewofVerdictbyAsianCivilSociety”arethefollowing: 1) ToidentifydifferentlegalsystemsinAsiaandassesstheindependenceofthejudiciary branchinrelationtopeople’sparticipation; 2) ToshareexperiencesandstrategiesonjudicialmonitoringinAsia;and, 3) Todevelopacommonjudiciarywatchguideline.  Asasteptoachievetheaboveobjectives,thespecificobjectiveofthe“RegionalWorkshopon JudicialWatch–VerdictReviewbyAsianCivilSociety”isthefollowing:  1) TofinalisetheguidelineforreviewofverdictinAsia. 

IV.ProgrammeAgenda 

JudicialWatch ͲReviewofVerdictbyAsianCivilSociety 11:30–12:30 

12:30–13:30 13:30–15:30

15:30–15:50

17May2012 Session1:JudicialMonitoringanReviewofVerdict   PSPDwillshareitsexperienceinjudiciarymonitoringtoexplorewhatkindof commonstrategymightbepossibleinAsia.Amongdifferentstrategies, PSPDwillexplainwhytheychoosethereviewofverdictasthefirstthemeof judicialwatch.   x Presenter:ProfessorSanghieHan(PSPD) Lunch Session2:ReviewofVerdictͲSuccessandChallengesstoriesinAsia Ͳ CambodiaJusticeInitiative(Cambodia) Ͳ LBHJakarta(Indonesia) Ͳ JudicialSystemMonitoringProgramme(TimorͲLeste) Ͳ JudicialReformFoundation(Taiwan) Ͳ CampaignforJudicialAccountabilityandJudicialReforms  (India)  Eachspeakerwillpreparetheirpresentationbasedonthe‘DraftGuideline forReviewofVerdict’whichisattachedtothisconceptpaper.Theywill sharetheirexperienceandthechallengesthattheyarefacingwhile reviewingjudicialverdictsintheirowncountries.  x Moderator:PoengkyIndarti(Imparsial)  Coffee/TeaBreak -8-


  15:50–17:20

Session3:PlanofAction  Participantswillcomeupwithcommonstrategiesonthereviewofverdictat theregionallevelandfurtherdiscussourplanforthe2012BaliDemocracy Forum.   x Moderator:AdilurRahmanKhan(Odhikar)

  

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G ㇠ⷉ⺴㢌G ⓹⫱㡴G ⴰ㨰㨰㢌㢌G ⵐ㤸㜄G 㢼㛨G 㩅㟈䚐G 㟈㋀㢨␘UG 㺐ḔỀ⥙㣄G ☥G 㥉㾌Ề⥙G ⵃG 䚽㥉Ề⥙㢌G ⇜㟝㡸G ⵝ㫴䚌ḔG ⺴㥉⺴䑜⪰G 㷌ⷀ䚌⏈G ⒤G 㢼㛨G ㇠ⷉ⺴㢌G ⓹⫱ḰG 㜡䚔㡴G ⁡G 䙸㟈䚌␘UG G Ἤ⤠⇌G 㙸㐐㙸G ạᴴ☘㜄㉐G ㇠ⷉ⺴⏈G ␘⪬G ạᴴỀ⥙㡸G ᵄ㐐䚌ḔG ᷠ㥐䚌⏈G 㜡䚔㡸G 䚌ὤ⸨␘SG ἬG 㣄㷨ᴴG Ề⥙㡰⦐㉐G ạⴰ☘㜄᷀G Ấ⫰䚌ḔSG ␘⪬G Ề⥙ḰG ᷤ䇵䚌㜠G 䏭Ề᷸㽩㡸G 䝉㉥䚌ὤ⓸G 䚐␘UG G 㢨⤠䚐G ㇠ⷉỀ⥙㢨G ⸨␘G 䍠⮹䚌ḔG ḩ㥉䚌᷀G 䚽㇠╔G ㍌G 㢼⓸⦑G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀ᴴG ᵄ㐐䚌⏈G 㢰㡴G ⴰ㨰㨰㢌G ⵐ㤸㡸G 㠸䚨G ⺼ᴴᷤ䚌␘UG 㙸㐐㙸G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G 㠀䆠㍁㡴G 㙸㐐㙸G ᴵạ㢌G ᵐⷸ㤵G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G 䞐┍㢌G ᷱ䜌㡸G ḩ㡔䚌ḔG Ἤᶷ㡸G 㫸㤸㐐䇘Ḕ㣄G ὤ䟁╌㛼␘UG G 㫴⇐䚨G ṅ㨰㙸㐐㙸䔠⤰㜄㉐⏈G 㢬⓸≘㐐㙸㺃┍䐤⯜⪨㺃␴⬀㺃㾸⸨♈㙸㺃䚐ạ㢌G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G 䞐┍㇠⥴G ⵐ䖐⪰G 䚐G ⵈG 㢼␘UG Ἤ⫠ḔG Ἤ⤠䚐G ᵐⷸ㤵G ᷱ䜌㡸G ≌㛨G ᴵạ㢨G 㷌䚐G 㥐⓸㝴G ㇵ䞝㢌G 㵜㢨㜄⓸G ⺼Ạ䚌ḔG ḩ䋩㤵㡰⦐G 㤵㟝䚔G ㍌G 㢼⏈G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G ⵝ㐑㢌G ᵐⵐ㢨G 䙸㟈䚌␘⏈G ḩᵄG 㙸⣌SG ⯜⒬G ᵐⵐ㡸G 㠸䚐G ḔⴰḰG ⊰㢌ᴴG ᷸㋁╌㛼␘UG G G 㝠䚨㜄⏈G ␘㛅䚐G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G ⵝⷉ☘G 㩅G ˄䑄ᷤ⽸䓽˅G ㇠㛹㜄G 㸼㥄㡸G ▄ḔSG 㢨G 䞐┍㡸G ᴵạ㢌G ㇵ䞝㜄G ⬒᷀G 㤸ᵐ㐐䇘ὤG 㠸䚐G ㇠㤸㦤ᶨ㡸G 㥄ᶴ䚌ḔSG Ἤ㜄G ♤⪬G 㤵㟝G ᴴ⏙䚐G 㤸⣩㡸G 㬐⏈G ᶷ㡸G 㨰㟈G ⯝䖐⦐G ㇰ㙸G 㠀䆠㍁㡸G 㫸䚽䚌Ḕ㣄G 䚐␘UG G 䑄ᷤ⽸䓽㡴G ⷉ㠄㢌G 䑄ᷤ㜄G ␴䚨G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀ᴴG 䓽ᴴ䚌ḔG ⽸䑄䚜㡰⦐㒜G ㇠ⷉỀG 㜡㐐G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀ᴴG 㵬㜠䚌ḔG ᵐ㢹䚔G ㍌G 㢼⏈G ␴ㇵ㢸㡸G ㇵὤ㐐䇘ḔSG ㇠ⷉ⺴㢌G Ạ㉥㠄☘㢨G 䜀ⷉ㢨G 㥉䚐G ὤ⸬Ề㢌G ㍌䝬G 㜡䚔㡸G 㥐␴⦐G 䚔G ㍌G 㢼⓸⦑G ᷠ㢬䚌⏈G 㜡䚔㡸G 䚐␘UG ❄䚐G 䑄ᷤ⽸䓽㡴G 㢹ⷉ㜄G 㨴䚌⏈G 㜵䛙⥙㡸G ᴴ㫸G 䑄ᷤ㡸G ⇨⫠⏈G 䜀ⷉ㣠䑄㋀㝴G ␴ⷉ㠄G ☥G 㺐ḔG 㣠䑄㋀㢌G 㢬㤵G Ạ㉥㢌G ␘㛅㉥Oᴴ㾌ḴSG 㫵㛹SG Ẅ㡕SG ᷸ἽG ☥G 㽕⮨㜄㉐P㢌G 䙸㟈㉥㡸G ᴸ㥅㤵㡰⦐G ⸨㜠㨰⏈G ㇠㛹㢨ὤ⓸G 䚌␘UG G 㢨⤠䚐G 㢌⴬⪰G ᴴ㫸G 䑄ᷤ⽸䓽㡸G 䋩䚨G 㙸㐐㙸G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀㜄㉐G ㇼ⦡᷀G 㐐㣅䚌⏈G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G 䞐┍㢌G ᴴ⏙䚐G ⯜⒬㡸G ⵐẨ䚌Ḕ㣄G 䚐␘UG

G XTXU

ᷱḰG G XPG YWXW ≸G \ 㠈G X`¥YW 㢰SG YWXWG ṅ㨰㙸㐐㙸䔠⤰G c㙸㐐㙸G ⴰ㨰㨰㢌G aG ḩḔ䞈㢬ᴴG 䝭㡴G 㠸ὤ㢬ᴴfeG TG 㙸㐐㙸G ᴵạ㢌G 㢬ỀḰG ⴰ㨰㨰㢌G ㇵ䞝㡸G 㥄ᶴ䚌ḔSG ⴰ㨰㨰㢌⪰G 㐔㣙㐐䇘ὤG 㠸䚐G ᴵạG 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀㢌G ⊬⥙㜄G ␴䚐G ⺸Ḱ䋔⦔㡸G 㫸䚽䚜UG ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G 䞐┍ḰG Ḵ⥜䚌㜠G 䚐ạ㢌G ᷱ䜌O㵬㜠㜤␴G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐㉰䉤㢌G 䞐┍P㡸G ḩ㡔䚌㜴㢀UG

G YPGYWXW ≸G XY 㠈G _¥` 㢰G ⵐ⫠䔠⤰G TG ạᴴG ᴸG 䝅㢌㷨㢬G 㥐 Z 㵜G ⵐ⫠ⴰ㨰㨰㢌䔠⤰㜄G ⸅䚽䚌㜠G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀ᴴG ὤ䟁䚐G ⴰ㨰㨰㢌G 䔠⤰UG 㢨⏈G ṅ㨰䔠⤰G ⊰㢌㢌G 㜤㣙㉔ㇵ㜄G 㢼㛼㡰⮤SG ˄h‹ˆ•Š•ŽG kŒ”–Š™ˆ›ŠG n–Œ™•ˆ•ŠŒG •GhšˆaGjˆ““Œ•ŽŒšGˆ•‹G~ˆ Gm–™žˆ™‹˅G ⪰G 㨰㥐⦐G 䚌㜴㢀UG

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  TG ⷉ㢌G 㫴ⵤ㝴G ㇠ⷉ⺴㢌G ⓹⫱㜄G Ḵ䚐G ⺸Ḱ䋔⦔㡸G 㫸䚽䚜UG 㨰㥐㝴G Ḵ⥜═G 䚐ạḰG 㢬⓸≘㐐㙸G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀G 䞐┍㡸G ⵐ䖐䚜UG G ZPGYWXX ≸G \ 㠈G X]¥X^ 㢰SGYWXXG ṅ㨰㙸㐐㙸䔠⤰G TG YWXW ≸㜄G 㢨㛨G 㫸䚽═G ṅ㨰㙸㐐㙸䔠⤰㡴G Y ᵐ㢌G ᵐⷸG 㠀䆠㍁G 䝉䈐⦐G ⺸⫠╌㛼ḔSG ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐㜄G Ḵ䚐G 㨰㥐ᴴG ἬG 㩅G 䚌⇌⦐G ㉔㥉╌㛼㢀UG O㠀䆠㍁G 㨰㥐aG c䊀⤠㝴㢌G 㤸㣵ḰG 㙸㐐㙸G ⴰ㨰㨰㢌eGc㙸㐐㙸G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G 㠀䆠㍁ePG TG 㙸㐐㙸G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀㢌G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G 䞐┍㡰⦐㉐G 㢬⓸≘㐐㙸SG ┍䐤⯜⪨SG ␴⬀SG 㾸⸨♈㙸SG 䚐ạ㢌G ㇠⥴⪰G ⵐ䖐䚌㜴㢀UG G [PGYWXX ≸G XY 㠈G ]¥^ 㢰G ⵐ⫠䔠⤰G TG YWXW ≸G ⵐ⫠䔠⤰㢌G 㜤㣙㉔ㇵ㜄㉐G ˄yŒŽ–•ˆ“G j–•šœ“›ˆ›–•G –•G kŒ”–Š™ˆ›¡ˆ›–•G ˆ•‹G wŒ–—“ŒNšGwˆ™›Š—ˆ›–•G•Ghšˆ˅⪰G ᵐ㺐䚜UG TG ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐㜄G Ḵ䚐G 㨰㥐ᴴG 㢰⺴G 䔠䚜╌㛼㢀UG

G ppU ⯝䖐G G YWXXG ṅ㨰㙸㐐㙸䔠⤰㢌G 㜤㣙㉔ㇵ㜄㉐G 㙸㐐㙸G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀㢌G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G ᷱ䜌G ḩ㡔㝴G 㜡⣽G ᵉ䞈⪰G ⯝䖐⦐G 䚐␘UG G ̺G 㫴⇐䚨㜄G 㢨㛨G 㢨G 㠀䆠㍁㢌G 㣙ὤ㤵G ⯝㤵㡴G ␘㢀ḰG ᵍ␘UG TG 㙸㐐㙸G ᴵạ㢌G ㇠ⷉ㐐㏘䊐㡸G 㫸␜䚌ḔG ㇠ⷉ⺴㢌G ⓹⫱ḰG 㐐ⴰ㵬㜠㢌G 㥉⓸G 䑀㙹G TG 㙸㐐㙸G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀㜄㉐G 㢨⨜㛨㫴ḔG 㢼⏈G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐䞐┍G ḩ㡔G TG 㙸㐐㙸G ᴵạ㜄G 㤵㟝G ᴴ⏙䚐G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G ᴴ㢨☐⢰㢬G 㣅㉥G G ̺G YWXY ≸G 㠀䆠㍁㢌G ␜ὤ⯝䖐⏈G ␘㢀ḰG ᵍ␘UG TG ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐䞐┍G 㩅G 䑄ᷤ⽸䓽㡸G 㠸䚐G ᴴ㢨☐⢰㢬G 㣅㉥G TG 䑄ᷤ⽸䓽㡸G 㠸䚐G ㇠㤸G 㷨䆠⫠㏘䏬G 㝸㉥G

G pppU 䘸⦐Ἤ⣜G 㢰㥉G G 㙸㐐㙸G 㐐ⴰ㇠䟀G ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G 㠀䆠㍁G aG ㇠ⷉᵄ㐐G ⵝⷉ㡰⦐㉐G 䑄ᷤ⽸䓽㢌G 㢌⴬㝴G ᴴ⏙㉥G ␴䚐ⴰạSG ṅ㨰G YWXYUG\UGX]G

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㥄㐠G ㉬㊌G YG G 䑄ᷤ⽸䓽G 䞌ᷱ⺸㉑G ㇠㤸㦤㇠G ⸨ḔG ⸨Ḕ XUG 㾸⸨♈㙸G Ojˆ”‰–‹ˆGqœš›ŠŒGp•›ˆ›ŒPG ⸨Ḕ YUG 㢬⓸≘㐐㙸OsioGqˆ’ˆ™›ˆPG ⸨Ḕ ZUG ┍䐤⯜⪨Oqœ‹Šˆ“Gz š›Œ”Gt–•›–™•ŽGw™–Ž™ˆ””ŒPG ⸨Ḕ [UG ␴⬀Oqœ‹Šˆ“GyŒ–™”Gm–œ•‹ˆ›–•PG ⸨Ḕ \UG 㢬⓸Ojˆ”—ˆŽ•G–™Gqœ‹Šˆ“GhŠŠ–œ•›ˆ‰“› Gˆ•‹Gqœ‹Šˆ“GyŒ–™”šPG

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  X\a\WTX^aYWG

㉬㊌ ZG G 䑄ᷤ⽸䓽G ᴴ㢨☐⢰㢬G 㝸㉥G 㣅㛹G • ㇠䟀aGh‹“œ™Gyˆ”ˆ•Grˆ•GOv‹’ˆ™PG

G

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Guidelineforreviewofverdict   1.Isthejudicialverdictmadepublicinyourcountry? £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ1) ¤G No(Pleasesharethereasonandgotoquestion1Ͳ5)  1.1Towhomistheverdictmadeavailable? £G Availabletoeveryonewithoutlimit ¤G Availablebyrequestonly ¥G Availableonlytopeoplewhoarerelatedtothetrial(plaintiff,prosecutors,lawyersetc) ¦G Availableinalimitedmanner,usuallytomembersofacademiaorofthepress(Inthiscase, howisitmadeavailablespecifically?) §G Others(Pleaseexplainthewayinwhichtheverdictsmadeavailable)  1.2Towhatextentistheverdictmadeavailable?Whatpercentageofthewholeverdictismade available? £G Theentiredecisionisavailablewithoutlimit ¤G Thefinalrulingsonly(eg.Supremecourtorhighcourtdecisiononly) ¥G Others(Pleasespecify)   1.3Howistheverdictmadepublic? £G AvailableviaInternet ¤G Availableinahardcopydelivery ¥G AvailableonlybyvisitingtheCourt(eg.OnͲsitereadingorphotocopyatthecourt) ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  1.4Arethereanylegalregulationsrelatingtomaketheverdictpublic?(Criminalorcivillaw) £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ5Ͳ1) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestions2)  1.4.1Pleasewritedowntherelatedarticlesofthelawthatarerelatedtomaketheverdictpublic?  2.Isitallowedtocriticisetheverdict? £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion2Ͳ1) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestion3)  2.1Canacademicspubliclycommentontheverdict?   2.2Cancivilsocietypubliclycommentontheverdict?  2.3Cancivilsocietyorcitizensorganiseapressconferenceorademonstrationtocriticisethe verdict?  3.Arethecourtproceedingsauthoritative? 

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   3.1Doesthejudgebehaveinapropermannertowardthedefendant,plaintiffandwitnesses?  3.2Istherealawoncriminalcontemptofcourt? £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion3Ͳ2Ͳ1to3Ͳ2Ͳ3) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestion4)  3.2.1Whataretherelatedarticlesorclauseofthecontemptofcourt?(Pleaseincluderelevant penaltyifitisapplicable)  3.2.2Arethereanycasesinthepastthatcontemptofcourtisappliedtotheverdictcriticsmade bycivilsociety?–Ifyes,pleaseincludedetailsofthecase  4.Isthetrialheldinanopencourt? £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ1) ¤G No(Pleasewritedownthereason.Then,pleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ4)  4.1Towhomisthetrialopen? £G Toeveryonewithoutlimit ¤G Generallyopenexceptsomespecialcases,wheretrialsareheldbehindcloseddoors ¥G Trialsareonlyopentorelatedpeopleincludingfamilyandpartiestothelitigation ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  4.2Incasethelitigantsspeakinadifferentlanguagetotheofficiallanguageofthecourt,are interpretationandtranslationservices(includingsignlanguages)providedopenly?  4.3Incasethetrialiscomposedofthreeormorejudges,areminoropinionsalsoincludedinthe verdict?  4.4.Howarethecourts’recordkept?  4.4.1Howistheprotocolforthewrittenpublictrial?(Pleaseincludewhatcontentsmustbe included,whetherinvolvedpartiesconsentisrequiredetc)  4.4.2Isitpossibletotakenote,recordsoundorvideoduringthetrial?  4.4.3Istheprotocolforthepublictrialavailabletopublic?Areanyobjectionsorcriticstothe protocolaccepted?  4.4Isthepressallowedtoreportonthecourtproceedings? £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4.4.1) ¤G No  4.4.1Doespresscovercourtproceedingsinafairandbalancedway?   4.5Istherealegalframeworkrelatedtoopennessofpublictrial?Ifyes,pleaseincludeabrief descriptionofitscontents.

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   5.Others 5.1Hasthereeverbeenatelevisiondramaormoviebasedonrealcourtcases? £G Yes(Pleasespecify.PleasegotoQuestion5.1.1) ¤G No  5.1.1Whatwasthereactionofthejudicialbodiesregardingthisfilmortelevisionshow?  5.2Isitpossibleforthelegislativebodytoconducthearingsorinvestigationonthematters directlyrelatedtoatrialwhileitisstillinprogress? £G Yes(Pleasegivesomeexamplesincludingjudicialbody’sreactiononthis) ¤G No  5.3Howdoescivilsocietyinterveneintheappointmentprocessofthejudges?  5.3.1Cancivilsocietyfreelycommentonthedecisiontoappointjudges?Howdoescourtrespond tothesecomments?  5.4Arethereanygroupstosupportvictimsofthejudiciarysystem?Ifyes,pleaseexplainfurther.  6.Whataretherecentactivitiesofjudicialbodiesregardingaboveissues? 

- 19 -


  ળʹ‫ٵ‬૞ࡳ ࡟ଛ ‫ ࢴۉ‬঎਷ն‫ݘ‬ચ    ળʹ‫ ࡲה‬ːʋѵ˅ ࢎВɹ! £ ࠖ a ̧ए ओ‫ ߾ח‬зଥ ࣯‫ ࡁۿ‬ ¤ ߅Тࠝ શʼ‫˓ ࢇח‬ʎѸए ߉ˈ ࢑Е ࢇࡪձ ࢶ߭ ࣯‫ ࡁۿ‬Ի ࢇѰ    ːʋ л‫ߪ ࡲە‬Ҟ̤ऌࢆɹ!  £ ࢿଞ ߷ࢇ ࢊ؆ ˓ʎ  ¤ ˓ʎ ࡁঐࢇ ࢑Е ˁࡉ߾ ࢊ؆ ˓ʎ ¥ ࢢશ к‫߾࢕ی‬ʯփ ˓ʎ ¦ ࠉ˱ ߯Խীࢢ ּࢶ ҟ ࢊٕ߾ʯփ ࢿଞࢶࡳԻ ˓ʎ ࣯Ի ߭ӊʯ ˓ʎѸЕए ࠖձ Қִ"  § ̛੉ ઞ‫ط‬ଞ ࡕ৕ ߷ࢇ ࢕ࢂࢶࡳԻ ˓ʎѸЕ ˁࡉ ҟ ˓ʎ ߦۘࡶ ۶ָଥ ࣯‫ ࡁۿ‬   ːʋ ‫࡟آ‬В ߪҞ̤ऌࢆɹ! £ ֻҘ શʼ‫ࢿ ࡶח‬ଞ ߷ࢇ ˓ʎ ¤ о‫ ࡕئ‬ҟ ফࣗࢶࡳԻ ୙ࢽѹ શʼ‫ח‬փ ˓ʎ ¥ ̛੉ ۶ָଥ ࣯‫ ࡁۿ‬   ːʋɹ ѵВ ળʹ‫ࢴ ࡲה‬঎ ળʹ‫ࢺ  ֶ ࡿה‬ѣࢆɹ!  ːʋ ،‫ࢆߵב ࡲݢ‬ɹ!    ળʹ‫ ה‬ːʋࠧ ˔ԭଙࠃ ‫ࡰࢳأ‬Ը ̊ࢺଙ˅ ࢎВ ࣌ଡࢄ ࢎВɹ! ୆‫ۉ‬㺃‫ أܛܒۉ״‬Ҝ  £ ࠖ  ‫ࡳء‬Ի ࢇѰ  ¤ ߅Тࠝ  ‫ࡳء‬Ի ࢇѰ    ˔ԭ ࣌ଡࡳ ࢳߪ ࣬‫࠾ۼ‬   ળʹ߻ лଛ ࠆˮΜ ‫ٵ‬ળࡲ ଭࡅѵВɹ!  £ ରࡈѹЬ a ̧ए ओ‫ ߾ח‬зଥ ࣯‫ ࡁۿ‬ ¤ ରࡈѸए ߉ЕЬ  ‫ࡳء‬Ի ࢇѰ    ଚ‫ ࢳה‬५ࡒࡿ ળԴ૞‫ࡧ࢒ ࡲۮ‬Ըࡈɹ! 

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   тАл╫┤▌бтАм╨мржО╔╣ рк│╩╣▀╗ ╨╗рмЫ ╧ЯрлЮрб│ рмЩ╨Т ╩ерб▓ рвТрбз╘╕рбИ╔╣!   тАл╫┤▌бтАм╨мржО ╙У╨Т тАл╫┤▌бтАм╥ЧрвД рдУрна╬Ь ╠ШрвТрна╩╖рб│ раЗ╦Е рвЯрк│▀╗ ╨╗рмв тАл┘╡тАмрк│рб│ рмЩ╨Т ╩ерб▓ рмнрбЕ╤╡╨Т╔╣!   рвЯрк│рдОрмкрб▓ ╦╜рбЯрв│рвЖ╔╣!   тАл █н▀╗рв║╪гтАмрк│тАл█ЙтАм╨Т рбТ╦Е╬Ь рмС╦Е рдЛрвЖ╥Ч▀╗╩м рзУрв╡рмЩ╩м ╨╗рмЩ╨Т╔╣!   тАлргбра┐╓╕рв║╪гтАм╔╣ рвО╨Т╔╣!  рвС╨м a ╠зрдП рдУтАл ▀╛╫ЧтАм╨╖рме ргптАл рбБ█┐тАм ┬д ▀╖╨м  тАлрб│╪бтАм╘╗ рвЗ╤░    ╦Ф╘н тАлргМ╪гтАмрмбрб▓ тАлрвЖ▀╡╫СтАм╔╣! ржЕтАлргМ ╪атАмрмб рлгрмЮ    тАл█Й╫┤▌бтАмрнарб┐ рк│╩╣ тАл┘╡тАмрк│▀╗ ╨╗рмЩраГ тАлргбра┐╓╕рв║╪гтАм╔╣ рв│рбЕ╤╢ тАл█ЙтАм╘┤╔╣ рвО╨Т╔╣! рвО╨й╓▒ ╔╗╘ХроЯ тАл▄ТтАм╩Лрмв ╨о╙┐ ▀к╥╝рмЫ ржЕтАл рб│╪атАм╪Д▀О╨ТрдМ рлгрмЮ     рб│ ╨┤тАл╪│тАмрмЫ тАл█ЙтАм╘Г╓А  рбЯрб┐ тАл█ЙтАм╘┤▀╗ ╨╗рмЫ тАл█Й╫┤▌бтАмрнарб┐ тАл▀к рб▓рб╕╪ГтАм╥╝рмй╬Ь!   рвЯрк│рб▓ ╦Р╩Лрв│рб░╘╕ рдОрмк╤╡╨Т╔╣! ┬г раЦ ┬д ▀Е╨враЭ ╦У╩ОрмЬрдП ▀Й╨Х рвЗрбк╒▒ рв╢▀н ргптАлрбБ█┐тАм╘╗ рвЗ╤░    рвЯрк│рб▓ ╧╣╦о▀╗╩м╠дрдМ ╦Р╩Л╤╡╨Т╔╣!  ┬г ╓╗╥Ш тАл█МтАм╘Ж▀╛╩п рв┐рмЮ ▀╖рвЗ ╦У╩О ┬д рбХрзХрв╢рб│╘╗ ╦У╩ОрмЬ╦И ркЮтАл╪╖тАмрмЮ тАлрбк█МтАм╔╝ рвСрб╢ ╦БрбЙ тАл╦У┘╕тАм╩О ┬е рвврк╢ ╨║тАл ракрвХ█МтАм╔╝ргРрвЗ╬Я рмФрмервХ ╥Я тАл█МтАм╩в ╦Ч╦ГрвХ╠зрдП╓Г ╦У╩О ┬е ╠ЫрйЙ █╢╓╕рме ргптАл рбБ█┐тАм   рвЯрк│рб│ ╪МржНрмЩ╘л╓▒ ▀к╥╛ рв╡рел╒о ╩ЭржЦ▀Ы рмЩ╨Т╔╣! ┬г тАл╪╖тАм╤жрвВ рв╕рео ▀╖рвЗ ╪ПржР ╔╝╨Ь ┬д тАл▌жтАмржР тАл ╪АтАмрм░╔╝ рв╕рео╒▒ ╩аржЩ▀Ю рмб рв╕рео▀╛ ╨╛рме █╢╓╕рме ргптАл рбБ█┐тАм 

- 22 -


   ࢟ળ߻ۭ ‫ࡅۉ‬ѵВ ː‫࢟ ࠧߪ߬ݢ‬ળз‫࢒ۉ‬ɹ ‫ࡅۉ‬ଙВ ߬ߪɹ Щծ ʾࡆ ੹㺃‫ࢄࠄ؞‬ ːʋࢳࡰԸ ࢄՑߪऌВɹ! ܶ୕ࡿ ʾࡆѣ ૣଞ     ࢆ ࢄ‫ࡰە‬Ը ˮ‫ۺ‬ѵВ ଟࡿْ ‫ ࢆࢺأ‬ʾࡆ ‫؃‬лࡿʷࢄΜ ‫ࡿܶܒ‬ʷࡲ ળʹ‫ش ߻ה‬ѣԸ ̘࢟ѵВɹ!   ࢟ળࡿ ̘Թࡲ ߪҾ ،‫ࡰݢ‬Ը ࢄՑߪऌВɹ!   ːળۭ࣌В ߪӇʬ ࢓‫ۺ‬ଙВɹ! ࢓‫࣬ۺ‬঎ࠧ ଔܶࢳࡰԸ ̘Թଢߛ ଙВ έࡅ ࢟ળз‫ ߻࢒ۉ‬лଛ ѭࡿࠃْ Ҝ ˮ঎ࢳࡰԸ дଢ ࣬‫࠾ۼ‬   ːળ έࡅ߻ лଛ ‫ ׽ ̘ܓ‬Ϟࡵ ࠏ‫ ە‬Ϟ୕ Ҝࢄ ɹЙଛɹ!  

ːળۭ࣌В

ࠇԃ

ɹЙଛɹ!

ࢄ߻

лଛ

ࢄࡿࢼ̘Μ

ܶࢺ࠾ˮВ

؄߂җࠃऌВɹ!   ߬Ժࡿ ࢟ળ ˒ࢺ߻ лଛ ‫ؼ‬ѣВ ɹЙଛɹ! £ ɼМଡ ¤ ٙɼМ   ߬Ժࢄ ‫ؼ‬ѣଙВ ࢟ળ˒ࢺࡲ ːࢺଛɹ! ࠰ˆࢄΜ ૙રࢳࢆ έࡅࢄ ࢴЮѵВɹ!   ࢟ળ ːʋ߻ ˔ଙࠃ ̊ࢺଙ˅ ࢎВ ‫࣌أ‬ଡࢄ ࢎВɹ! ࢎЩֱ έࡅࡳ ࢳߪ ࣬‫࠾ۼ‬   ̘੆   ‫ࢼݥ ۭ߻ࡒأ‬Ը ЩՑ߶ш ‫ۉ‬ʟࢄΜ ળʹࡳ ‫࢟ܒ‬Ը ଛ ғӿվΜ ࠏ୕ࡿ ࢼ࢓ࢄ ࢄՑߪऎ ࢳࢄ ࢎВɹ! £ ࠖ ‫ی‬Էձ ɾЯ஢ ࢶ߭ ࣯‫ ࡁۿ‬ ¤ ߅Тࠝ    ߻ۭ Ğࠓğӿ˅ дଛ ʾࡆ  ࡟ ‫ۉ‬Դ߻ лଛ ‫ࢄࡸ؃ ࡿࡒأ‬Μ ੐ѣВ ߪҼ଩Μ!

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    рк│╩╣рвД ╬н╘лргЙ╩Э╬Ь рвЯрк│рвД ╦АтАл█Й рвЖрг╡ ▄УтАм╩Я▀╗ ╨╗рмв ╦прна ╥Ь▀╗█н ╦Ф╘н тАл█ЙтАм╩Я▀╗ ╨╗рмЫ ╦прв║ргМтАл█ЙтАм╒о рмЩ╩Э╬Ь ржНтАл╫ФтАмрна╒о ╩ЛржирмЬ ▄╢ рвО╨Т╔╣! ┬г раЦ тАл█МтАм╘╖╒▒ ╔╛╘Шров рв╢▀н ргптАл рбБ█┐тАм ┬д ▀Е╨враЭ    ▀╗█н ─ЮраУ─Я╙┐╦Е ╨╗╨┤рмЫ ╩╛рбЖ  рбЯ тАл█ЙтАм╘┤▀╗ ╨╗рмЫ тАл рб┐рбТ╪гтАмрйР╤г╨Т ▀к╥╝рмй╬Ь!   тАл█Й╫┤▌б █н▀╗рв║╦Т╓╡рвЛ рб┐╦Ф╪гтАмрнарб┐ ╩ЛрвМрб▓ ▀к╙З╩м рвД╒С▀крдМ╨Т╔╣!  тАл ▀╗╓╡рвЛ рб┐╦Ф╪гтАм╨╗рмЫ тАл█Й╫┤▌бтАмрнарб┐ тАл┘╡тАмрк│рб▓ ╔╣╨ЩрмЫ╔╣! ╠Н▀╗ ╨╗рмЫ тАлрб┐рбТ╪гтАм рйР╤г╨Т ▀к╥╝рмЫ╔╣!   тАл╪г█ЙтАмрмСрмврвТ╥Чрб┐ ╓╕рвЛрвД╬Ь рнШ╤нрб▓ рвО╨Т╔╣! рвО╨й╓▒ ▀к╥╛ ╓╕тАлрб░▌ЮтАм╘╕ рдОрмк╤╡╦Е рвО╨Т╔╣!   рвДтАл рб┐█ХтАмрдРтАл╦Ф ╦Т╫ФтАм╘нрмЩраГ ржи╠П тАл╪г█ЙтАм╩Лрм┐рб┐ рбМрдНрвЛрвД рвО▀╢╨Т╔╣!



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  Cambodia Justice Initiative (Cambodia) 

Guidelineforreviewofverdict   1.Isthejudicialverdictmadepublicinyourcountry? £ Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ1)  ¤ X  No(Pleasesharethereasonandgotoquestion1Ͳ5)   1.1Towhomistheverdictmadeavailable? £G Availabletoeveryonewithoutlimit ¤G Availablebyrequestonly ¥G X  Availableonlytopeoplewhoarerelatedtothetrial(plaintiff,prosecutors,lawyersetc) ¦G Availableinalimitedmanner,usuallytomembersofacademiaorofthepress(Inthiscase, howisitmadeavailablespecifically?) §G Others(Pleaseexplainthewayinwhichtheverdictsmadeavailable)  1.2Towhatextentistheverdictmadeavailable?Whatpercentageofthewholeverdictismade available? £G Theentiredecisionisavailablewithoutlimit ¤G X  Thefinalrulingsonly(eg.Supremecourtorhighcourtdecisiononly) ¥G Others(Pleasespecify)   1.3 Howistheverdictmadepublic? £G AvailableviaInternet ¤G Availableinahardcopydelivery ¥G X  AvailableonlybyvisitingtheCourt(eg.OnͲsitereadingorphotocopyatthecourt) ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  1.4 Arethereanylegalregulationsrelatingtomaketheverdictpublic?(Criminalorcivillaw) £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ5Ͳ1) ¤G X  No(PleasegotoQuestions2)  1.4.1Pleasewritedowntherelatedarticlesofthelawthatarerelatedtomaketheverdictpublic?  2.Isitallowedtocriticisetheverdict? £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion2Ͳ1) ¤G X  No(PleasegotoQuestion3)  2.1Canacademicspubliclycommentontheverdict?   2.2Cancivilsocietypubliclycommentontheverdict?  2.3Cancivilsocietyorcitizensorganiseapressconferenceorademonstrationtocriticisethe verdict?

- 27 -


   3.Arethecourtproceedingsauthoritative?   3.1Doesthejudgebehaveinapropermannertowardthedefendant,plaintiffandwitnesses?  No  1.1 Istherealawoncriminalcontemptofcourt? £G X  Yes(PleasegotoQuestion3Ͳ2Ͳ1to3Ͳ2Ͳ3) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestion4)  3.2.1Whataretherelatedarticlesorclauseofthecontemptofcourt?(Pleaseincluderelevant penaltyifitisapplicable)  CriminalCodeArticles522and523  3.2.2Arethereanycasesinthepastthatcontemptofcourtisappliedtotheverdictcriticsmade bycivilsociety?–Ifyes,pleaseincludedetailsofthecase  Notyet  4.Isthetrialheldinanopencourt? £G X  Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ1) ¤G No(Pleasewritedownthereason.Then,pleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ4)  4.1 Towhomisthetrialopen? £G Toeveryonewithoutlimit ¤G Generallyopenexceptsomespecialcases,wheretrialsareheldbehindcloseddoors ¥G Trialsareonlyopentorelatedpeopleincludingfamilyandpartiestothelitigation ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  4.2Incasethelitigantsspeakinadifferentlanguagetotheofficiallanguageofthecourt,are interpretationandtranslationservices(includingsignlanguages)providedopenly?  No  4.3Incasethetrialiscomposedofthreeormorejudges,areminoropinionsalsoincludedinthe verdict?  No  4.4.Howarethecourts’recordkept?  4.4.1Howistheprotocolforthewrittenpublictrial?(Pleaseincludewhatcontentsmustbe included,whetherinvolvedpartiesconsentisrequiredetc)  Informativechecklistonproceduralregularityratherthansubstantiveanalysisoffairtrial  

- 28 -


  4.4.2Isitpossibletotakenote,recordsoundorvideoduringthetrial?  No  4.4.3Istheprotocolforthepublictrialavailabletopublic?Areanyobjectionsorcriticstothe protocolaccepted?  Informativechecklistlikelyproceduralregularityratherthansubstantiveanalysisoffairtrial.Also, trialmonitorguidedbyitsowncodeofethicsoftrialmonitor  4.4 Isthepressallowedtoreportonthecourtproceedings? £G X  Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4.4.1) ¤G No  4.4.1Doespresscovercourtproceedingsinafairandbalancedway?   Dependonwhatpressis.  4.5Istherealegalframeworkrelatedtoopennessofpublictrial?Ifyes,pleaseincludeabrief descriptionofitscontents.  CriminalprocedurecodeArticle316  5.Others 5.1 Hasthereeverbeenatelevisiondramaormoviebasedonrealcourtcases? £G Yes(Pleasespecify.PleasegotoQuestion5.1.1) ¤G X  No  5.1.1Whatwasthereactionofthejudicialbodiesregardingthisfilmortelevisionshow?  5.2Isitpossibleforthelegislativebodytoconducthearingsorinvestigationonthematters directlyrelatedtoatrialwhileitisstillinprogress? £G Yes(Pleasegivesomeexamplesincludingjudicialbody’sreactiononthis) ¤G X  No  5.3Howdoescivilsocietyinterveneintheappointmentprocessofthejudges?  Nothing  5.3.1Cancivilsocietyfreelycommentonthedecisiontoappointjudges?Howdoescourtrespond tothesecomments?  Nosuchcasehashappened  5.4Arethereanygroupstosupportvictimsofthejudiciarysystem?Ifyes,pleaseexplainfurther.  No.LawyermaycomplaintoSupremeCouncilofMagistracy,butveryrare.  6.Whataretherecentactivitiesofjudicialbodiesregardingaboveissues? - 29 -


   None

- 30 -


‫ ؿ ৢ   ˈ ؿ‬ҡ ߅

 

- 31 -


G ൏᝞⤗G ⒡ሻU

G ౗᝿G ⟇㓄⚓ឳG 㕬ᯬG \YY⟇▗G \YZ⟇ୗG ⛟ሻU

G ⒛⤘ඣ⤗G ┝ሻU

- 32 -


 G ❳ౌ፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻU

G ㍃㒿፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG

G ౌ❬㒳G ✃㉧⚛G ♛㒳G ∻⤟❘⛏G ᳛⁴᱋ሻᇫG ❟⭿❘G ള❬┧G ቗㒳G ❬᱋ ❳ౌG ⭿☧⚯G Ⰻ⿃ᤃ⇻㈏┧G ୗපሻU

G ୗᇼ㒯⤗G ⒡ሻU

- 33 -


G ⒵⁳G ᤧ㓟ᐷG ∻⤟❘G ဋ☀᱋ሻᇫG ❟⭿❘G ള❬┧G ౗㒳G Ⰻ⿃ᤃ⇻⿃ୗG ⟋✃㒯ᧇSG ⛧Ⰻ❘⛏G ✃㉧୧ጜ♻ᤃള❬┧G ᒇᣏG ✃㉧G ᧿ሟょୗG ⛟ሻUG 

G ┏ិG ᤻Ⰻ┧G ᒇᛓG ሻᣋሻU

G 㕬 ⃣⃸ᯬG ZX]⟇ୗG 㓋ቐ፳ሻU

G ౗╃㒯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻU

- 34 -


G 㓋ቐG ౗᝿G  ோ⛋G ┝ሻU

G ┝ሻUG ᰗ㖏 ᇫG ⶯⒟㉧ ⲳష♛☧㗣┧G ⛋⚯ᣓG ❳ඇ㒷G ⅯG ⛟⤗ᤣG ൏ᝃ㒳G ఔ☇ᇫG ᤻☇G ᐳ᪓ሻU

G ┝ሻU

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  LBH Jakarta (Indonesia)

 Guidelineforreviewofverdict   1.Isthejudicialverdictmadepublicinyourcountry? £G яYes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ1)   ¤G No(Pleasesharethereasonandgotoquestion1Ͳ5)  1.1 Towhomistheverdictmadeavailable? £G Availabletoeveryonewithoutlimit ¤G Availablebyrequestonly ¥G Availableonlytopeoplewhoarerelatedtothetrial(plaintiff,prosecutors,lawyersetc) ¦G Availableinalimitedmanner,usuallytomembersofacademiaorofthepress(Inthiscase, howisitmadeavailablespecifically?) § яOthers(Pleaseexplainthewayinwhichtheverdictsmadeavailable) Thelawissayingthattheverdictshouldbereadinatrialwhichopenforpublic,andthe copyoftheverdictshouldbeavailabletothosewhoarerelatedtothetrial   1.2Towhatextentistheverdictmadeavailable?Whatpercentageofthewholeverdictismade available? £G яTheentiredecisionisavailablewithoutlimit ¤G Thefinalrulingsonly(eg.Supremecourtorhighcourtdecisiononly) ¥G Others(Pleasespecify)   1.2 Howistheverdictmadepublic? £G AvailableviaInternet ¤G Availableinahardcopydelivery ¥G яAvailableonlybyvisitingtheCourt(eg.OnͲsitereadingorphotocopyatthecourt) ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  1.4 Arethereanylegalregulationsrelatingtomaketheverdictpublic?(Criminalorcivillaw) £G яYes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ5Ͳ1) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestions2)  1.4.1Pleasewritedowntherelatedarticlesofthelawthatarerelatedtomaketheverdictpublic?       Article13(2)LawNo.48of2009ontheJudicialPower:  Verdictshallonlybevalidandhaslegalpowerifitispronouncedinatrialwhichopenfor public    TheSupremeCourtDecisionNo.144/KMA/SKNIII/2007ontheAccesstoInformationinCourt:  Kindsofinformationthatshouldbeannouncedbycourt,including:Finalcourtverdict.

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    2.Isitallowedtocriticisetheverdict? £G яYes(PleasegotoQuestion2Ͳ1) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestion3)  2.1Canacademicspubliclycommentontheverdict?     Yes  2.2Cancivilsocietypubliclycommentontheverdict?     Yes  2.3Cancivilsocietyorcitizensorganiseapressconferenceorademonstrationtocriticisethe verdict?     Yes  3.Arethecourtproceedingsauthoritative?   3.1Doesthejudgebehaveinapropermannertowardthedefendant,plaintiffandwitnesses?    Incasesrelatedtominorities,judgestendtovictimisethevictim  3.2 Istherealawoncriminalcontemptofcourt? £G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion3Ͳ2Ͳ1to3Ͳ2Ͳ3) ¤G яNo(PleasegotoQuestion4)  3.2.1Whataretherelatedarticlesorclauseofthecontemptofcourt?(Pleaseincluderelevant penaltyifitisapplicable)  3.2.2Arethereanycasesinthepastthatcontemptofcourtisappliedtotheverdictcriticsmade bycivilsociety?–Ifyes,pleaseincludedetailsofthecase  4.Isthetrialheldinanopencourt? £G яYes(PleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ1) ¤G No(Pleasewritedownthereason.Then,pleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ4)  4.1 Towhomisthetrialopen? £G Toeveryonewithoutlimit ¤G яGenerallyopenexceptsomespecialcases,wheretrialsareheldbehindcloseddoors ¥G Trialsareonlyopentorelatedpeopleincludingfamilyandpartiestothelitigation ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  4.2Incasethelitigantsspeakinadifferentlanguagetotheofficiallanguageofthecourt,are interpretationandtranslationservices(includingsignlanguages)providedopenly?    Bylaw,yes  4.3Incasethetrialiscomposedofthreeormorejudges,areminoropinionsalsoincludedinthe verdict?

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     OnlyintheConstitutionalCourt,whiletheothercourt,likeSupremeCourtandcourtsbelowit, minorordissentingopinionsarenotincluded  4.4.Howarethecourts’recordkept?     Inwriting  4.4.1Howistheprotocolforthewrittenpublictrial?(Pleaseincludewhatcontentsmustbe included,whetherinvolvedpartiesconsentisrequiredetc)    Courtrecordsarenotavailableforpublic  4.4.2Isitpossibletotakenote,recordsoundorvideoduringthetrial?     Yes  4.4.3Istheprotocolforthepublictrialavailabletopublic?Areanyobjectionsorcriticstothe protocolaccepted?    Yes,protocolisavailableforpublic.Objectiontoprotocolneverbeenaccepted  4.4 Isthepressallowedtoreportonthecourtproceedings? £G яYes(PleasegotoQuestion4.4.1) ¤G No  4.4.1Doespresscovercourtproceedingsinafairandbalancedway?  Inmostcasefairenough,butnotalways.  4.5Istherealegalframeworkrelatedtoopennessofpublictrial?Ifyes,pleaseincludeabrief descriptionofitscontents. Article13(1)LawNo.48of2009ontheJudicialPower: Everycourttrialisopenforpublic,exceptthelawruledotherwise.  5.Others 5.1 Hasthereeverbeenatelevisiondramaormoviebasedonrealcourtcases? £G яYes(Pleasespecify.PleasegotoQuestion5.1.1)theMarsinahcasetrial ¤G No  5.1.1Whatwasthereactionofthejudicialbodiesregardingthisfilmortelevisionshow? Notpubliclyknown  5.2Isitpossibleforthelegislativebodytoconducthearingsorinvestigationonthematters directlyrelatedtoatrialwhileitisstillinprogress? £G яYes(Pleasegivesomeexamplesincludingjudicialbody’sreactiononthis)somecases relatedtocorruption,thelegislativebodyformingataskforceforthecasewhilethetrialstill inprogress ¤G No  5.3Howdoescivilsocietyinterveneintheappointmentprocessofthejudges?    Bysubmittingalettertotheselectionpanel,butnotnecessarilyeffectontheappointment  5.3.1Cancivilsocietyfreelycommentonthedecisiontoappointjudges?Howdoescourtrespond tothesecomments? - 39 -


  Yes.Thecourtrarelyresponds  5.4Arethereanygroupstosupportvictimsofthejudiciarysystem?Ifyes,pleaseexplainfurther.    Yes.TheJudicialWatchCoalition.  6.Whataretherecentactivitiesofjudicialbodiesregardingaboveissues?    ThejudicialbodiesunderthecoordinationofSupremeCourthavedevelopedsystemswhich createmorepublicaccesstothejudicialinformation,includingbutnotlimitedtothecourt’sverdict. Thecourtclerksarealsoequippedbytechnologywhichsupportstheideaofaccesstocourt information.However,itdoesn’tseemwentwell.  G

- 40 -


‫ ࢉ   ˈ ؿ‬Ѧ ό ‫߅ ݤ‬

 G ᯬ┧G ᒇᣋ᧋G ㉧ఇ⚗G ౌ୳G ✃㉧┧⁳G ငጜ፯┋ⓓG 㒯షG ㉧ఇG ᱌ ᱏ⚗G ✃㉧ ౓G ౗᝿፳G  ᛣᐻ┧௣G ౌ୳፯┋ⓓG 㒳ሻUG

 

- 41 -


G  ᯬೣ┧G ౗㒳G ᯬᢷOsˆžG u–U[_VYWW`P⚯G XZ⟇G Y㓄G aG ㉧ఇ⛋G ౌ୳✃ ㉧┧⁳G ㎳᧜፳G ఔ☇┧ᤣG ♷㗿㒯ᧇG ᯬ❘㗿᝼⚛G ୗ⤛ሻUG G G ᯬ☧GဋG❬᱋G❨൓┧G౗㒳G቗ᯬ☧G㉧ఇOu–UX[[VrthVzrupppVYWW^PGaG 㖬❬㉧ఇ⚛G ㍃㒿㓋G ᯬ☧⛋G ౌ୳㓋ⓓG 㒯ᇫG ❬᱋⚯G ⟜᢯ᐻ⚛G ❳∳㒿U

G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻU

G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻU

G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG

G ⃣Ⅿ⤨ሿ౓G ౗᝿፳G  ோ┧⁳G ㉧ ᐻ⛋G 㒓㓋⛧ᣓG ಋោ㛟ᇫG ఔ㓼⛋G ⛟ሻU

- 42 -


 G ᯬ⚯G ⚯㓋G ❳ౌ፳ሻU

G 㔣ᯬG ✃㉧⃣⚯G ఔ☇┧ᤣG ㍃㒿፯షG ቗ᯬ☧౓G ൏G ⛋㒯⚯G ᯬ☧┧⁳G ⃣ⅯG ᭦G ᭯቗G ⚯ః⚗G ㍃㒿፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻU

G ᪏⁳ឳG ඇ឴፳ሻUG

- 43 -


G ᯬ☧G ඇ឴⚗G ቗⡨ᐻ┧௣G ౌ୳፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻU

G ୗᇼ㒯ሻU

G ౌ㉧⟇⁳ᇫG ቗⡨ᐻ┧௣G ౌ୳፳ሻUG ౌ㉧⟇⁳┧G ቗㒳G ⛋⚯O–‰‘ŒŠ›–•P ᇫG ❟቗G ᭲⒛ᐻ╃⤗⤗G ⒡ᇫሻU

G 㓄‘G ൏ᝇG ௚⚗G ⒛ሟ⤗ᤣG ቗᳗᳛⚯G ఔ☇G ⴀ᳛㛟G ౌ❬㒯ሻU

G  ᯬೣ┧G ౗㒳G ᯬG XZ⟇G YWW`⚯G [_㖏┧G ⚯㒯᧋G ᧿ᐷG ✃㉧⚗G ᯬ⛋G ᶛౌ୳ ឳG ള❬㒯ᇫG ఔ☇ᣓG ❳●㒯షG ౌ୳G ✃㉧⛋ሻU

 G ᤟ᣋ∳࿯G  ோG ✃㉧

- 44 -


G ౌ୳❘⚓ឳG ⒣᝻➏G ⛟⤗G ⒡ሻU

 ᳗❬᳗㉿G  ோ⚯G ఔ☇G ✃㉧⛋G ⤛㓠G ⡨⛏G ጛ⡨┧G ⛜ᯬ᳗ᇫG  ோG ❛ቋ㉗⚛G ೃ₈㒳ሻUG

G㉿ၧ┧௣G㌏⤗ᣓG❳ⳳ㒿⚓ឳ⊿G౗╃㒯⤗ᤣG⤗᧜┧ᇫG⿇G╘㓼⚛G࿓⶯⤗G⒡ ᇫሻU

G ┏ൠ㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG ᯬ☧⚗G ே⚯G ᭯⚨⚛G ᱋⛋⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG

G  ᯬ୧∳╇㓀Oqœ‹Šˆ“G ~ˆ›ŠG j–ˆ“›–•P⛋G ⛟ሻU

G ቗ᯬ☧⚯G ⡓ጛ㒯┧G ୘G  ᯬඇ౗ᐻ⛋G ᯬ☧G ㉧ఇ⚛G ㍃㒿㒯╃G  ᯬ❬᱋┧G ቗ 㒳G቗⡨⚯G❨൓₈⚛Gჩ⛋ඇG♛㒳G∳⇻コ⚛G୳᭳㒯షG⛟ሻUGᯬ☧⤘☧ᐻGᕧ㒳G❬ ᱋❨൓₈⚛G ჩ⛋ඇG ♛㒳G ඇⅷ⤗☧⚛G ᭲షG ⛟⚓࿯SG ❳቗ឳG ☋╘፯ᇫG ௚G ୰⤗ᇫG ⒡ሻU

- 45 -


  Judicial System Monitoring Programme (Timor-Leste)

 Guidelineforreviewofverdict   1.Isthejudicialverdictmadepublicinyourcountry?     ձ —  Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ1)     ղ  No(Pleasesharethereasonandgotoquestion1Ͳ5)  1.1Towhomistheverdictmadeavailable? £ Availabletoeveryonewithoutlimit ¤ Availablebyrequestonly ¥ Availableonlytopeoplewhoarerelatedtothetrial(plaintiff,prosecutors,lawyersetc) ¦ Availableinalimitedmanner,usuallytomembersofacademiaorofthepress(Inthiscase, howisitmadeavailablespecifically?) § —Others(Pleaseexplainthewayinwhichtheverdictsmadeavailable) ¨G Thelawsaidthatallcourtproceedingareopentothepublicinlimitedpubliccharacterand circumstances.However,thelimitationonthepubliccharacterofaproceedingshallnever coverthereadingofasentenceorthedecision.   1.2Towhatextentistheverdictmadeavailable?Whatpercentageofthewholeverdictismade available? £ —Theentiredecisionisavailablewithoutlimit ¤ Thefinalrulingsonly(eg.Supremecourtorhighcourtdecisiononly) ¥G Others(Pleasespecify)   1.3 Howistheverdictmadepublic? £ AvailableviaInternet ¤ Availableinahardcopydelivery ¥ —AvailableonlybyvisitingtheCourt(eg.OnͲsitereadingorphotocopyatthecourt) ¦G Others(Pleasespecify):Wecanalsoobtaintheverdictbysubmittingarequesttothecourt  1.4 Arethereanylegalregulationsrelatingtomaketheverdictpublic?(Criminalorcivillaw) £ —Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ5Ͳ1) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestions2)  1.4.1Pleasewritedowntherelatedarticlesofthelawthatarerelatedtomaketheverdictpublic? • Inarticle76(2)ofLawNo.13/2005ofTL’sCriminalProcedureCodeonlimitationsonthe publiccharacterofproceedings,definesthat:  Alimitationonthepubliccharacterofa proceedingshallnevercoverthereadingofasentenceorthedecision.  • Inarticle132ofTL’sCivilProcedureCode,statedthatthecivilproceedingsarepublic,unless regulatedotherwisebylaw;  2.Isitallowedtocriticisetheverdict?

- 47 -


  £ —Yes(PleasegotoQuestion2Ͳ1) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestion3)  2.1Canacademicspubliclycommentontheverdict?       Yes.   2.2Cancivilsocietypubliclycommentontheverdict?      Yes.    2.3Cancivilsocietyorcitizensorganiseapressconferenceorademonstrationtocriticisethe verdict?     Yes,it’softentodothepressconferenceratherthandemonstration.  3.Arethecourtproceedingsauthoritative?       Yes,theyare.   3.1Doesthejudgebehaveinapropermannertowardthedefendant,plaintiffandwitnesses?      Yes,theydo.   3.2 Istherealawoncriminalcontemptofcourt? A. —  Yes(PleasegotoQuestion3Ͳ2Ͳ1to3Ͳ2Ͳ3) B. No(PleasegotoQuestion4)  3.2.1Whataretherelatedarticlesorclauseofthecontemptofcourt?(Pleaseincluderelevant penaltyifitisapplicable)  InArticle283ofTimorLeste’sPenalCodeonCoercionagainstamagistratesaidthat:  Anypersonwho,bymeansofviolence,threattocauseseriousharm,orbyanyothermeans,actsin suchamannerastopreventajudgeorpublicprosecutorfromfreelyperforminghisorherduties,is punishablewith1to4yearsimprisonment.  3.2.2Arethereanycasesinthepastthatcontemptofcourtisappliedtotheverdictcriticsmade bycivilsociety?–Ifyes,pleaseincludedetailsofthecase  No.   4.Isthetrialheldinanopencourt? £ —Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ1) ¤G No(Pleasewritedownthereason.Then,pleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ4)  4.1 Towhomisthetrialopen? £ Toeveryonewithoutlimit ¤ —Generallyopenexceptsomespecialcases,wheretrialsareheldbehindcloseddoors

- 48 -


  ¥ Trialsareonlyopentorelatedpeopleincludingfamilyandpartiestothelitigation ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  4.2Incasethelitigantsspeakinadifferentlanguagetotheofficiallanguageofthecourt,are interpretationandtranslationservices(includingsignlanguages)providedopenly?  Yes,it’sacompulsory(Article83ofCriminalProcedureCode).    4.3Incasethetrialiscomposedofthreeormorejudges,areminoropinionsalsoincludedinthe verdict?  ThereisnoexplicitdescriptiononminoropinioninTimorLestejudicialverdictpractice.   4.4.Howarethecourts’recordkept?  Inwritingdocument.  4.4.1Howistheprotocolforthewrittenpublictrial?(Pleaseincludewhatcontentsmustbe included,whetherinvolvedpartiesconsentisrequiredetc);  It’snotavailabletothepublic.   4.4.2Isitpossibletotakenote,recordsoundorvideoduringthetrial?   Yes.   4.4.3Istheprotocolforthepublictrialavailabletopublic?Areanyobjectionsorcriticstothe protocolaccepted?   Yes,theprotocolisprovidespublicly,butit’snotinregularbasis.    4.4 Isthepressallowedtoreportonthecourtproceedings? ձ —  Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4.4.1) ղ No  4.4.1Doespresscovercourtproceedingsinafairandbalancedway?   It’snotreallyclear,becausetheydocoveronlysomegeneralaspectofthecourtproceedings.  4.5Istherealegalframeworkrelatedtoopennessofpublictrial?Ifyes,pleaseincludeabrief descriptionofitscontents.  Article75:  Publiccharacterofproceedings (1).Acriminalproceedingisopentothepublicfromthetimetheindictmentispresented.  5.Others 5.1 Hasthereeverbeenatelevisiondramaormoviebasedonrealcourtcases? £ Yes(Pleasespecify.PleasegotoQuestion5.1.1)

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  ¤G —No  5.1.1Whatwasthereactionofthejudicialbodiesregardingthisfilmortelevisionshow?  5.2Isitpossibleforthelegislativebodytoconducthearingsorinvestigationonthematters directlyrelatedtoatrialwhileitisstillinprogress? £ Yes(Pleasegivesomeexamplesincludingjudicialbody’sreactiononthis) ¤G —No  5.3Howdoescivilsocietyinterveneintheappointmentprocessofthejudges? Troughthemediabyprovidinggeneralcommentandrecommendationand/orby submittingalettertothecompetencebodywhichinvolveintheappointmentprocess.  5.3.1Cancivilsocietyfreelycommentonthedecisiontoappointjudges?Howdoescourtrespond tothesecomments?  Yes,wecan,butit’snotreallytakenintoconsiderationorlesseffectedtodecisionmaking process.   5.4Arethereanygroupstosupportvictimsofthejudiciarysystem?Ifyes,pleaseexplainfurther.  Yes,theVictimSupportService(VSS)withinJSMP.It’sprovidesfreelegalassistancesto helpingthevictimsofgenderbaseviolenceaccessestocourtofformaljusticesystem.  6.Whataretherecentactivitiesofjudicialbodiesregardingaboveissues?  Currently,theMinistryofJusticeisdesigninganewsystemwhichcalled:Integrated InformationofManagementSystem(IIMS),whichexpectedtoenablepublicaccessto relatedcourtdocumentincludingthejudicialverdictandtoprovidespacetobothparties andinterestedgroupstoknowandtofollowupthecasesanditsprocessesduringthetrial process.

- 50 -


‫   ˈ ؿ‬Ѱ ફ ֻ ծ

 Gᯬ┧G ᒇᣋ᧋Gᯬ☧⚯G᧿ᐷG ⃣⃸❟⭿ᇫG❳㒳፳Gᯫ♛G ဋ┧⁳Gౌ୳፳ሻUG൏ᝃ ࿯G ⛋ᝃ㒳G ౌ୳┧ᇫG ఇ❬⛋࿯G ⁷ష⚯G ငጜ⚛G ㍃㒿㒷G ⅯG ┝ሻU

 

- 51 -


G㕬 ⃣⃸ᯬOsˆžGu–UXZVYWW\PG^]⟇GY㓄O⃣⃸❟⭿Gౌ୳⚯G❳㒳┧G౗ 㒳G ള❬PG aG ⃣⃸❟⭿⚯G ౌ୳ᇫG ㉧ఇG ᕧᇫG ఇ❬⚯G ငጜ⚛G ㍃㒿㓋⁷G ⒟፳ ሻU G ᭓ ⃣⃸ᯬG XZY⟇┧G ᒇᣋ᧋G ᭓ G ⃣⃸⚗G ሻᣏG ᯬ┧G ⚯㓋G ള❳፯⤗G ⒡ᇫG 㒳G ౌ୳፳ሻU

G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻU

G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻU

G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG ∳♛᱋ሻG ඇ⛧㗣ః⚛G ㄌ㒳G ᶛ㉧⛋G ካG ᤥሻUG

G ೣ♛❘⛋ሻU

G ❘㓀㒯௣G 㓠ጰ㒳ሻU

- 52 -


G 㕬ᯬG Y_Z⟇O⶯⒟㉧ ┧G ቗㒳G ♛㓋┧G ౗㒳G ⟇㓄PG aG ᅛೃᐷ⤗G ㍄᝼⚛G ㄌ㒯╃G ≃୘㒳G 㒓㓋ᣓG ᭳‴∳⿻ே࿯SG ඇ〗⚯G Ⅿሿ⚛G ㄌ㓋G ㉧ G ᕧᇫG ௗ  ୗG⛧∷⚯G⚯᪋ᣓG⛧♷ោ௣G⛋㓠㒯ᇫG௚⚛Gᮀ㓋㒯ᇫG⛧ᇫGX¥[ႛ⚯G⤬ ╄㕬⚓ឳG ⯯ᯣ፳ሻU

G ┝ሻU

 G 㕬 ⃣⃸ᯬG _Z⟇┧G ᒇᛓG ⚯᪋❘⚓ឳG ❳ౌ፳ሻU

- 53 -


G ጰ㉇᧿ᣋ⚯G  ᯬG ㉧ఇG ౗㓠┧⁳G ⃣ⅯG ⚯ః┧G ቗㒳G ᧜㖬㒳G ┏ൠ⚗G ┝ሻU

G ᪏⁳ឳG ඇ឴፳ሻUG

G ౌ୳፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻU

G ୗᇼ㒯ሻU

G ള❬ⱟ⒟⚗G ౌ୳❘⚓ឳG ❳ౌ፯⤗ᤣG ❬ඇ❘⚓ឳG ❳ౌ፯⤗ᇫG ⒡ᇫሻU

G ┏ិ⛋G ᯬ❬G ⃣⃸❟⭿⚯G ⛓᳗᳛ᤣG ᱋ጛ㒯ඇG ᒣ᪏┧G ᧜㖬㒯⤗G ⒡ሻU

G ^\⟇O⃣⃸❟⭿⚯G ౌ୳PG X㓄G aG 㕬 G ⃣⃸⚗G ඇ⃣ୗG ❳ඇ፳G ⅳ୛᳗ょG ౌ୳ ፳ሻU

- 54 -


G ┏ិ⚛G ㄌ㓋G ⛓᭯❘⛏G ⺫᦯㈏▗G Ⳬ⯳⚛G ❳ౌ㒯షV㒯ே࿯G ㉧ G ⤗᧜G ೣ 㒳⚛G ୗ⤛G ඇ౗┧G ㌏⤗ᣓG ᱋ရ⚓ឳ⊿G ౗╃㒳ሻU

G ┏ൠ㒷G ⅯG ⛟⤗ᤣG ⤗᧜G ఇ❬G ౓❬┧G ே⚯G ╘㓼⚛G ࿓⶯⤗G ⒡ே࿯G ష ᝻቗‘⛋G ፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG

Gqztwဋ┧G㛃‴⛧☧⟇⁳ᶛ⇻O}zzPୗG⛟ሻUG⛋GሿⰋᇫG₈㍄᝼G㛃‴⛧ᐻ⛋G  ᯬG ∳⇻コ⛏G ᯬ☧⚛G ⛋☀㒷G ⅯG ⛟ጛ឴G ᪋ᠣG ᯬᢷG ⁳ᶛ⇻ᣓG ❳ౌ㒳ሻU

Gⲳ൓G ᯬ᳗ᇫGㄌ㓀❬᱋౗ᤃ∳⇻コOpptzPᛓᇫG‟ឳ☋G∳⇻コ⚛Gష⒟㒯షG⛟ ሻUG⛋G∳⇻コ⚛Gㄌ㓋G㉧ ⚯G㉧ఇ⚛G㍃㒿㒳G౗᝿Gᯬ☧G᪏⁳┧G቗㒳G቗⡨⚯G❨ ൓⛋G ୗᇼ㓋⤗షSG ⓨG ⵸౓G ౗᝿G ቐ ⛧ᐻ⛋G ✃㉧G ౓❬G ጰ⒟G  ோ౓G ൏G ❟⭿ ᣓG ⒣షG ᒇᛓୟG ⅯG ⛟ጛ឴G ጛ▗⡛G ௚⛋ሻUG

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  Judicial Reform Foundation (Taiwan) 

Guidelineforreviewofverdict   1.Isthejudicialverdictmadepublicinyourcountry? ¢ Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ1)  ¤G No(Pleasesharethereasonandgotoquestion1Ͳ5)  1.1 Towhomistheverdictmadeavailable? ¢ Availabletoeveryonewithoutlimit ¤ Availablebyrequestonly ¥ Availableonlytopeoplewhoarerelatedtothetrial(plaintiff,prosecutors,lawyersetc) ¦ Availableinalimitedmanner,usuallytomembersofacademiaorofthepress(Inthiscase, howisitmadeavailablespecifically?) §G Others(Pleaseexplainthewayinwhichtheverdictsmadeavailable)  1.2Towhatextentistheverdictmadeavailable?Whatpercentageofthewholeverdictismade available? £ Theentiredecisionisavailablewithoutlimit ¤ Thefinalrulingsonly(eg.Supremecourtorhighcourtdecisiononly) ¥G Others(Pleasespecify)   1.2 Howistheverdictmadepublic? £ AvailableviaInternet ¤ Availableinahardcopydelivery ¥ AvailableonlybyvisitingtheCourt(eg.OnͲsitereadingorphotocopyatthecourt) ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  1.5 Arethereanylegalregulationsrelatingtomaketheverdictpublic?(Criminalorcivillaw) £ Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ5Ͳ1) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestions2)  1.4.1Pleasewritedowntherelatedarticlesofthelawthatarerelatedtomaketheverdictpublic?  2.Isitallowedtocriticisetheverdict? ¤G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion2Ͳ1) ¦G No(PleasegotoQuestion3)  2.1Canacademicspubliclycommentontheverdict? ġ ġ Yes,theycan.  2.2Cancivilsocietypubliclycommentontheverdict?  Yes,itcan. 

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  2.3Cancivilsocietyorcitizensorganiseapressconferenceorademonstrationtocriticisethe verdict?   Yes,theycan.  3.Arethecourtproceedingsauthoritative?  Generally,theyare.  3.1Doesthejudgebehaveinapropermannertowardthedefendant,plaintiffandwitnesses?  Sometimes,hedoesnot. 3.2 Istherealawoncriminalcontemptofcourt? £ Yes(PleasegotoQuestion3Ͳ2Ͳ1to3Ͳ2Ͳ3) £G No(PleasegotoQuestion4)  3.2.1Whataretherelatedarticlesorclauseofthecontemptofcourt?(Pleaseincluderelevant penaltyifitisapplicable)  3.2.2Arethereanycasesinthepastthatcontemptofcourtisappliedtotheverdictcriticsmade bycivilsociety?–Ifyes,pleaseincludedetailsofthecase  4.Isthetrialheldinanopencourt? ¢ Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ1) ¤G No(Pleasewritedownthereason.Then,pleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ4)  4.1 Towhomisthetrialopen? £ Toeveryonewithoutlimit £ Generallyopenexceptsomespecialcases,wheretrialsareheldbehindcloseddoors.How ever, the supreme courts trial generally is not open.  ¥ Trialsareonlyopentorelatedpeopleincludingfamilyandpartiestothelitigation ¦G Others(Pleasespecify)  4.2Incasethelitigantsspeakinadifferentlanguagetotheofficiallanguageofthecourt,are interpretationandtranslationservices(includingsignlanguages)providedopenly?  Yes,inprinciple. 4.3Incasethetrialiscomposedofthreeormorejudges,areminoropinionsalsoincludedinthe verdict?  No. 4.4.Howarethecourts’recordkept?  Itiskeptinfilesaswellasincounputers.  4.4.1Howistheprotocolforthewrittenpublictrial?(Pleaseincludewhatcontentsmustbe included,whetherinvolvedpartiesconsentisrequiredetc)  (Idonotknowwhat“protocol”exactlymeanshere.)  4.4.2Isitpossibletotakenote,recordsoundorvideoduringthetrial?  Takingsimplenoteispossible,butnotallowtorecordsoundorvideo. 4.4.3Istheprotocolforthepublictrialavailabletopublic?Areanyobjectionsorcriticstothe protocolaccepted?  (sameas4.4.1above) 

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  4.4 Isthepressallowedtoreportonthecourtproceedings? ¢ Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4.4.1) ¤G No   4.4.1Doespresscovercourtproceedingsinafairandbalancedway?   Generally,yes.  4.5Istherealegalframeworkrelatedtoopennessofpublictrial?Ifyes,pleaseincludeabrief descriptionofitscontents.  Everyoneisabletobetheaudienceinthetrial.Ifthecourtroomisnotlarge  enoughtohaveallaudience,thentheticketwilldeliveron“thefirstcomefirst  serve”basis.  5.Others 5.1 Hasthereeverbeenatelevisiondramaormoviebasedonrealcourtcases? £ Yes(Pleasespecify.PleasegotoQuestion5.1.1) £G No  5.1.1Whatwasthereactionofthejudicialbodiesregardingthisfilmortelevisionshow?  5.2Isitpossibleforthelegislativebodytoconducthearingsorinvestigationonthematters directlyrelatedtoatrialwhileitisstillinprogress? £ Yes(Pleasegivesomeexamplesincludingjudicialbody’sreactiononthis)  £G No  5.3Howdoescivilsocietyinterveneintheappointmentprocessofthejudges?  Noway  5.3.1Cancivilsocietyfreelycommentonthedecisiontoappointjudges?Howdoescourtrespond tothesecomments?  Itcanfreelycomment,butthecourtmakesnoresponse.  5.4Arethereanygroupstosupportvictimsofthejudiciarysystem?Ifyes,pleaseexplainfurther.  Yes,severalgroups,suchasTaiwanJudicialReformFoundation,TaipeiBar Association.  6.Whataretherecentactivitiesofjudicialbodiesregardingaboveissues?  “TheJudicialYuan”(thehighestjudicialbody)recentlyisproposingtoadoptso  called“LaymanObserverTrial”System.  

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‫   ˈ ؿ‬о փ

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G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻU

G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻU

G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG G

G ❛᭯❘⚓ឳG ൏᝞ሻU

G ୗྫG ൏᝞⤗G ⒡⚛G ᒣጛG ⛟ሻU

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G 㒯⤗ᤣG ⛓᭯❘⚓ឳG ቗ᯬ☧G ✃㉧⚗G ౌ୳፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG

 G ☧ⶰ❘⚓ឳG ❳ౌ፳ሻU

G ㍃㒿፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG

G ⹋㐿ょ㉣⛓౓G ᪏⁳G ㉣⛓ឳG ❗⛼፳ሻU

G Oሿ┋G —™–›–Š–“⚯G ᧜㖬㒳G ⚯᭏ᣓG ᧿ᣋ௷ሻUP

G ୛ሿ㒳G ჏㈏ᇫG ୗᇼ㒯⤗ᤣG ა⚣⛋࿯G ა㖫ᇫG ⒟G ፳ሻU

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G Oሿ┋G —™–›–Š–“⚯G ᧜㖬㒳G ⚯᭏ᣓG ᧿ᣋ௷ሻUP

G ❛᭯❘⚓ឳG ൏᝞ሻU

G ᧿ᐷG  ᛣ⛋G ✃㉧┧G ⮏⁴㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG ᤣⓔG ᯬ❬⛋G ⿃⤗G ⒡⒛G ᧿ᐷG  ᛣᐻ ⚛G Ⅿ☀㒷G ⅯG ┝ሻ᧋G ⁷⮀ⅳ⚓ឳG ㉇⹪⛋G ᳗᭳፳ሻU

G ౗╃㒯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻU

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G ⛧♷ោ௣G ┏ൠ㒷G ⅯG ⛟⚓࿯G ᯬ☧⚗G ᭯⚨㒯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻU

G ቗ᤣ ᯬ୳㕘✃ሿO{ˆžˆ•G qœ‹Šˆ“G yŒ–™”G m–œ•‹ˆ›–•P౓G ቗ᤣᰗ㖏  㕨㗣O{ˆ—ŒG iˆ™G hšš–Šˆ›–•P౓G ୰⚗G ሿⰋୗG ⛟ሻU

G ⲳషG  ᯬG ඇ౗⛏G  ᯬ☧Oqœ‹Šˆ“G €œˆ•P⚗G ⃣♛G �⛓᭯⛏G ▌❗ᯛG ✃㉧ Osˆ ”ˆ•G v‰šŒ™Œ™G {™ˆ“PG ∳⇻コ�G ⮛〴⚛G ❳⒟㒯షG ⛟ሻUG

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   April 25 2012  CJAR (CAMPAIGN FOR JUDICIAL ACCOUNTABILITY AND REFORM, India) 

Guidelineforreviewofverdict    BACKGROUNDNOTE:   INDIAHASACOMMONLAWTRADITION,WITHADVERSARIALLITIGATION.  THEREISATHREETIERHIERARCHYINCOURTS–DISTRICTCOURTS,HIGHCOURTS&THEAPEX COURT,THESUPREMECOURT.INTHEDISTRICTCOURTS,THEREARECIVILANDCRIMINALCOURTS  JUDGES.   INDIAHASONLYALLOCATEDAROUND0.2%OFITSGNP(GROSSNATIONALPRODUCT)TOTHE JUDICIARY,ANDASACONSEQUENCE,THEADMINISTRATIONOFJUSTICEISEXTREMELY RESOURCEͲCONSTRAINED.APARTFROMRESOURCEͲCONSTRAINTS,THEMANAGEMENTALSO REQUIRESENORMOUSIMPROVEMENT.    1.Isthejudicialverdictmadepublicinyourcountry? ¢G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ1)         ͲYES ¤G No(Pleasesharethereasonandgotoquestion1Ͳ5)  1.1Towhomistheverdictmadeavailable? ¢G Availabletoeveryonewithoutlimit ¤G Availablebyrequestonly ¤ Availableonlytopeoplewhoarerelatedtothetrial(plaintiff,prosecutors,lawyersetc)–     ¦G Availableinalimitedmanner,usuallytomembersofacademiaorofthepress(Inthiscase, howisitmadeavailablespecifically?)  § Others(Pleaseexplainthewayinwhichtheverdictsmadeavailable)  THELAWPROVIDESTHATVERDICTS/JUDGEMENTSBEPRONOUNCEDINOPENCOURTS, ANDFORLENGTHYJUDGMENTS,THATTHEOPERATIVEPORTIONBEPRONOUNCED/ READOUTINOPENCOURT.   ASACOROLLARY,THEENTIREVERDICTISREQUIREDTOBEMADEAVAILABLETOTHE PUBLIC.  FURTHER,THESUPREMECOURT&HIGHCOURTSARECOURTSOFRECORD,I.E.THEIR VERDICTSHAVEPRECEDENTVALUE.THEREFORE,THEIRJUDGMENTS/VERDICTSAREALSO REQUIREDTOBEMADEAVAILABLETOTHEPUBLIC.  

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  VERDICTSOFTHESUPREMECOURT&HIGHCOURTSAREALSOPUBLISHEDINREPORTERS EVERYWEEK/MONTH.THESEAREAVAILABLEINCOURTS,LIBRARIES,ANDAREALSO AVAILABLEFORAPRICETOSUBSCRIBERSSUCHASLAWYERS.   THEREAREEXCEPTIONSTOPUBLICHEARINGS–THESEARE‘INCAMERA’PROCEEDINGS. THESEARETORETAINCONFIDENTIALITYOFTHEPARTIES,INTHEINTERESTOF ADMINISTRATIONOFJUSTICE.   HOWEVER,THEREAREBARRIERSTOIMPLEMENTATIONONBOTHTHEPUBLICHEARINGS ANDPRONOUNCEMENTSINOPENCOURT,ASILLUSTRATEDBELOW:  EXAMPLE1.INTHENAMEOFSECURITY,ALLMEMBERSOFTHEPUBLICARENOT PERMITTEDFREEENTRYINTOTHESUPREMECOURTANDHIGHCOURTS.ENTRYPASSES AREREQUIREDANDSUCHPASSESARENOTGENERALLYAVAILABLETOMEMBERSOFTHE PUBLIC,ANDAREONLYISSUEDTOPARTIESTOTHEMATTER,WITNESSES,ETC.   EXAMPLE2.VERDICTSARENOTPUBLISHEDONWEBSITESOFTHEDISTRICTCOURTSAND THOSEOFMANYHIGHCOURTS.THEREISALSO,ADELAYINMAKINGTHEMAVAILABLE ONWESBITESOFSEVERALHIGHCOURTS.   EXAMPLE3.VERDICTSONWEBSITESOFHIGHCOURTSARENOTEASYTOFIND,ASTHE SEARCHISDRIVENBYTHENAMESOFPARTIESANDADVOCATESINTHECASEORTHE CASENUMBER.AFREETEXTSEARCH,ALTHOUGHOSTENSIBLYAVAILABLE,ISUSUALLY NONFUNCTIONAL.  1.2Towhatextentistheverdictmadeavailable?Whatpercentageofthewholeverdictis madeavailable? ¢G Theentiredecisionisavailablewithoutlimit ¤ Thefinalrulingsonly(eg.Supremecourtorhighcourtdecisiononly)  THEENTIREDECISIONISAVAILABLEINCLUDINGTHEOPERATIVEPORTION,SUBJECTTO THEABOVEͲMENTIONEDBARRIERSINIMPLEMENTATION.   HOWEVER,COURTPROCEEDINGSARENOTRECORDED,UNLESSARGUMENTSARE SUBMITTEDBYWAYOFWRITTENSUBMISSIONS.   THEJUDGEMERELYTAKESDOWNNOTESDURINGTHEPROCEEDINGSANDUSESTHEMTO RECORDHIS/HERORDER.  ¥G Others(Pleasespecify)   1.3Howistheverdictmadepublic? ¢ AvailableviaInternet  ¤G Availableinahardcopydelivery ¥G AvailableonlybyvisitingtheCourt(eg.OnͲsitereadingorphotocopyatthecourt) ¦ Others(Pleasespecify)

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   THEPRACTICESVARY.ALTHOUGHUNDERLAW,EVERYVERDICTOUGHTTOBEMADE PUBLIC,THEENABLINGINFRASTRUCTURE/SYSTEMISNOTADEQUATETOENSURETHAT THISHAPPENSINARELIABLEMANNERACROSSTHEBOARD.  INCASEOFTHESUPREMECOURT,ORDERSAREUPLOADEDONTHECOURT’SWEBSITE.FEW HIGHCOURTSALSOUPLOADTHEIRORDERSONTHEIRWEBSITE,BUTMANYDONOT. COMMISSIONSSUCHASTHENHRC(NATIONALHUMANRIGHTSCOMMISSION)MAILSITS ORDER.INDISTRICTCOURTS,ONEHASTOTYPICALLYAPPLYFORCERTIFIEDCOPIESOFTHE ORDER.   1.4Arethereanylegalregulationsrelatingtomaketheverdictpublic?(Criminalorcivillaw) ¢G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ5Ͳ1) ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestions2)   1.4.1Pleasewritedowntherelatedarticlesofthelawthatarerelatedtomaketheverdictpublic?  ORDER20OFTHECODEOFCIVILPROCEDUREMANDATESTHISFORCIVILMATTERSBY READINGOUTTHEWHOLEOFTHEJUDGMENT/OPERATIVEPORTIONOFHEJUDGMENTIF LENGTHY.S353OFTHECODEOFCRIMINALPROCEDUREMANDATESTHISFORCRIMINAL MATTERS. BYARTICLES129&215OFTHECONSTITUTIONOFINDIA,THESUPREMECOURT&HIGH COURTSARECOURTSOFRECORD,BYVIRTUEOFWHICHTHEIRVERDICTSAREBINDING PRECEDENTS.THEREFORE,THECONTENTSOFTHESEMUSTBEMADEAVAILABLETOTHE PUBLIC.     2.Isitallowedtocriticisetheverdict? ¢ Yes(PleasegotoQuestion2Ͳ1)–   THELAWPERMITS‘CONSTRUCTIVECRITICISM’OFVERDICTS.BUTINPRACTICE,SUCH CRITICISMISNOTTOLERATEDTOOKINDLY.CRITICISMISONLYACCEPTEDIFITISALONG THELINESTHATTHEJUDICIARYWISHESTOHEAR.  OFCOURSE,IFTHEVERDICTISAPPEALED,ITISCRITCIZEDBYTHEAPPELLANT.   THATAPART,THEMOSTACTIVECRITICSOFVERDICTSCOMPRISECIVILSOCIETY/ ACTIVISTS.THEMEDIAALSOCRITICIZESVERDICTSBUTINAMORETENTATIVEAND CAREFULMANNER.   ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestion3)  2.1Canacademicspubliclycommentontheverdict?   

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  ACADEMICSAREPERMITTEDTODOSOINTHEIRPERSONALCAPACITY.ONEAGAIN,THEREARE RESTRAINTSIMPOSEDBYSOMEOFTHEORGANIZATIONSTOWHICHTHEYAREALIGNED.   2.2Cancivilsocietypubliclycommentontheverdict?   THEYAREPERMITTEDTODOSO.HOWEVER,ITISEXPECTEDTHATITWOULDBEA‘CONSTRUCTIVE’ CRITICISMOFTHEVERDICT,ALONGTHELINESOFWHATTHEJUDICIARYWANTSTOHEAR. MEMBERSOFCIVILSOCIETYAREOFTENVICTIMIZEDIFTHEYDARECRITICIZECOURTVERDICTS,  COMMENCINGCONTEMPTPROCEEDINGSAGAINSTTHEM,E.G.AUTHORARUNDHATIROYWAS PUNISHEDFORCONTEMPT,FORCRITICIZINGACOURTORDERBYSAYINGTHATITSHOWEDA DISQUIETINGATTEMPTBYTHESUPREMECOURTTOMUZZLEPUBLICDISSENT/OPINION,PRASHANT BHUSHAN,ADVOCATEANDCIVILRIGHTSACTIVIST,HADCONTEMPTPROCEEDINGSINITIATED AGAINSTHIM,FORSAYINGTHATAROUNDHALFTHEJUDGESOFTHESUPREMECOURTARE CORRUPT,THEPUBLICATION(EVENINGDAILY)‘MIDDAY’,FOREXPOSINGTHETHENCHIEF   JUSTICE,FORTHENEXUSTHATHEHADWITHAMALLDEVELOPERINAMATTERTHATBENEFITEDHIS SONS.  2.3Cancivilsocietyorcitizensorganiseapressconferenceorademonstrationtocriticisethe verdict?   THEYCAN,BUTONCEAGAIN,THEYARESUBJECTTOTHEABOVEͲMENTIONEDTREATMENT.  3.Arethecourtproceedingsauthoritative?   3.1Doesthejudgebehaveinapropermannertowardthedefendant,plaintiffandwitnesses?  MOSTPARTIESAPPEARTHROUGHADVOCATES/COUNSEL,SOTHEOPPORTUNITYTOINTERACT DIRECTLYWITHTHEJUDGEISLIMITED,EXCEPTTHROUGHCOUNSEL.  SOMEJUDGESDOBEHAVEINAPROPERMANNERTOWARDTHELITIGANT,BUTSUCHJUDGESARE FEWANDFARBETWEEN.MOSTJUDGESAREIMPATIENTANDARENOTVERYGOODLISTENERS. MANYAREALSONOTCOMPETENTTOHANDLETHEMATTERBEFORETHEM.BESIDES,THEIR SENSITIVITYTOTHELITIGANT’SPROBLEMSANDAPPLICATIONOFTHELAW,ISALSOLIMITED.   EVENTHOUGHTHEREISNOBARTOPETITIONERSAPPEARINGINPERSON(UNLESSTHEPARTYIS EXTREMELYOBSTRUCTIVE),THEJUDGEPREFERSTOHAVEMATTERSREPRESENTEDTHROUGH ADVOCATE/PLEADER,ASTHEYFINDTHATMUCHEASIER/SIMPLERTODEALWITH.THUS,THE JUDGE’SINTERFACEISLIMITEDTOTHEADVOATESINTHEMATTER.                            3.2Istherealawoncriminalcontemptofcourt? ¢G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion3Ͳ2Ͳ1to3Ͳ2Ͳ3)      YES ¤G No(PleasegotoQuestion4)  3.2.1Whataretherelatedarticlesorclauseofthecontemptofcourt?(Pleaseincluderelevant penaltyifitisapplicable)   ARTICLES129&215OFTHECONSTITUTIONOFINDIAAREPROVISIONSDEALINGWITHTHEPOWERS OFTHESUPREMECOURT&HIGHCOURTTODEALWITHCONTEMPTOFTHEMSELVES.THE CONTEMPTOFCOURTSACT,ISASPECIALSTATUEDEALINGWITHCONTEMPTOFCOURTS.  S12, S14,S15OFTHECONTEMPTOFCOURTSACTARECLAUSESRELATINGTOPUBISHMENT. - 70 -


  THESUPREMECOURTRULESALSOCONTAINPROVISIONSTOREGUALTECONTEMPTOFITSELF.   THEPENALTYIFTHEACCUSEDISFOUNDGUILTYOFCONTEMPT,ISFINEAND/ORSIMPLE IMPRISONMENTFOR6MONTHS.HOWEVER,NOWADAYS,THESUPREMECOURT&DELHIHIGH COURTFAREXCEEDTHEIRAUTHORITYANDPOWERSININVOKINGTHEIRCONTEMPTJURISDICTION, ANDTRYTOTAKEAWAYTHEPOWERTOAPPEARINCOURT,ARGUE,ETC.,INEFFECT,TAKINGAWAY THEVERYRIGHTTOACCESSJUSTICE.   3.2.2Arethereanycasesinthepastthatcontemptofcourtisappliedtotheverdictcriticsmade bycivilsociety?–Ifyes,pleaseincludedetailsofthecase  AUTHORARUNDHATIROYWASPUNISHEDFORCONTEMPT,FORCRITICIZINGACOURTORDERBY SAYINGTHATITSHOWEDADISQUIETINGATTEMPTBYTHESUPREMECOURTTOMUZZLEPUBLIC DISSENT/OPINION.THISPERTAINSTOTHECASEDEALINGWITHTHENARMADABACHAOANDOLAN, RELATINGTODAMSINGUJARAT.  4.Isthetrialheldinanopencourt? ¢G Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ1)  YES ¤G No(Pleasewritedownthereason.Then,pleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ4)  4.1Towhomisthetrialopen? £G Toeveryonewithoutlimit £ Generallyopenexceptsomespecialcases,wheretrialsareheldbehindcloseddoors   MOSTCASESAREHELDINOPENCOURT,EXCEPTFORSOMEWHICHAREHELDINCAMERA FORREASONSOFCONFIDENTIALITY/PROETCTIONOFTHEPARTIESINTHELARGER INTERESTOFTHEADMINISTRATIONOFJUSTICE.  REVIEWPETITIONSINTHESUPREMECOURTOFINDIAAREDECIDEDBEHINDCLOSED DOORS,I.E.BYCIRCULATIONBEFOREJUDGES.THEYARENOTDECIDEDINOPENCOURT.  ¥G Trialsareonlyopentorelatedpeopleincludingfamilyandpartiestothelitigation ¦ Others(Pleasespecify)   4.2Incasethelitigantsspeakinadifferentlanguagetotheofficiallanguageofthecourt,are interpretationandtranslationservices(includingsignlanguages)providedopenly?  INTRIALS,UNDERS281OFTHECODEOFCRIMINALPROCEDURE,THEEXAMINATIONOFTHE ACCUSEDISREQUIREDTOBEINTHELANGAUGEOFTHECOURT,ANDTHELANGUAGEOFTHE RECORDINTHELANGUAGETHATTHEACCUSEDISEXAMINEDIN,I.E.INALANGUAGETHATHE UNDERSTANDS.FURTHER,ANINTERPRETERISSUPPOSEDTOBEPROVIDED.  THESUPERIORCOURTSDONOTCONDUCTTRIALS,ASTRIALSARECONDUCTEDBYTHEDISTRICT COURTS.THESUPERIORCOURTSͲTHESUPREMECOURT&HIGHCOURTSͲREQUIRE‘DOCUMENTS’ TOBETRANSLATEDINTOTHELANGUAGEOFTHESUPERIORCOURTS,WHICHISENGLISH. PROCEEDINGSINTHESUPERIORCOURTSARECONDUCTEDINENGLISH,ANDUNFORTUNATELY, PEOPLEWHOARENOTFLUENTINENGLISH,ARECUTOFFFROMWHATISGOINGON.NO INTERPRETERISPROVIDED,THELITIGANTSIMPLYHASTOENGAGEALAWYERWHOSPEAKSINA LANGUAGE(ENGLISH)THAT(S)HE,OFTEN,CANNOTEVENFOLLOW. - 71 -


   4.3Incasethetrialiscomposedofthreeormorejudges,areminoropinionsalsoincludedinthe verdict?   YES–MAJORANDMINOROPINIONSAREPROVIDED.   4.4.Howarethecourts’recordkept?   COURTRECORDSAREKEPTINPAPERFILES.   NOWADAYS,THEYARETRYINGTOSCANANDMAINTAINEͲFILESORELECTRONICRECORDS.  COURTSAREMANDATEDTOMAINTAINRECORDSASFOLLOWS:–COURTSOFRECORDSHAVETO KEEPTHEIRRECORDSFOR2YEARS,ANDTHEIRJUDGMENTSINPERPETUITY.TRIALCOURTSHAVETO MAINTAINTHEIRRECORDSFOR7YRS.  4.4.1Howistheprotocolforthewrittenpublictrial?(Pleaseincludewhatcontentsmustbe included,whetherinvolvedpartiesconsentisrequiredetc)  INCRIMINALCASES,ALLEVIDENCEISRECORDED,ANDINCIVILCASES,ALLDEPOSITIONSARE RECORDED.   HOWEVER,ORALPROCEEDINGSOFTHECOURTARENOTRECORDED.THEONLYRECORDIFANY,IS THATOFWRITTENARGUMENTS/SUBMISSIONSINCASETHOSEAREPROVIDEDBYTHEPARTIES.THE JUDGEMAKESHIS/HEROWNNOTESANDMAKESUSEOFTHEMTOWRITETHEORDER/VERDICT, WHICHISTHEONLYPUBLICRECORDOFWHATHAPPENEDINTHECOURT.  4.4.2Isitpossibletotakenote,recordsoundorvideoduringthetrial?    ONLYNOTESAREALLOWED,NOSOUNDRECORDINGORVIDEOISPERMITTEDDURINGTRIAL.   WEHAVE,BYWAYOFANAPPLICATIONINAPUBLICINTERESTLITIGATION,SOUGHTTHATCASESBE VIDEOͲRECORDED.THATAPPLICATIONISPENDINGHEARING.  4.4.3Istheprotocolforthepublictrialavailabletopublic?Areanyobjectionsorcriticstothe protocolaccepted?   EVIDENCEOFWITNESSESISAVAILABLE,HOWEVER,THEREISNOWRITTENRECORDOFPLEADERS UNLESSSUBMITTEDINWRITTENSUBMISSIONSFORM.THESECANBEAPPLIEDANDOBTAINED HOWEVER,THEREMAYBEAFEEANDREQURIEMENTTOSHOWBONAFIDESINTERSET.  INCASEOFDISSATISFACTION,THEREISAPROVISIONFORAPPEAL.  HOWEVER,THEREHAVEBEENCASESWHENATRIALHASBEENREͲOPENEDE.G.INTHECASEOF  JESSICALAL,INWHICHAWOMANWASSHOTINPUBLIC,BUTWHERETHEMURDERERWASAN INFLUENTIALPERSON,ITWASPUBLICPRESSURETHATFORCEDTHECOURTSTOREͲOPENTHETRIAL.  THESEARERARE,BUTTHEREISINCREASINGPUBLICPRESSUREWHENTHEREAREGLARINGLAPSES INVERDICTS.  

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  4.4Isthepressallowedtoreportonthecourtproceedings? £ Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4.4.1)–   YESTHEPRESSISALLOWEDTOREPORTONCOURTPROCEEDINGS.  HOWEVER,INORDERTOCURTAILTHAT,THEREISACONSTITUTIONALBENCHMATTER BEINGHEARD.   THISMATTERHASBEENTAKENUPBYTHESUPREMECOURTTOCONSIDERWHETHER THEREOUGHTTOBEREGULATIONS/GUIDELINESISSUEDTOTHEPRESS/MEDIAWHILE REPORTINGCOURTPROCEEDINGS,ANDWHATTHESEREGULATIONSOUGHTTOBE.THE PROFESSEDAIMISTOAVOIDANYPREJUDICETOTHERIGHTSOFTHEPARTIES.THE CONSTITUTIONBENCHISALSOCONSIDERINGWHETHERITWILLBEAPPROPRIATETO FRAMECERTAINGUIDLEINESSOTHATTHEMEDIADOESNOTIMPACTFAIRTRIALINANY CASE.   ¤G No  4.4.1Doespresscovercourtproceedingsinafairandbalancedway?   BROADLY,WHILETHEPRESSDOESNOTCOVERCOURTPROCEEDINGSINAVERYINFORMED MANNER,OREVEN,INAFAIR/BALANCEDMANNER,OVERALLITEVENSOUTTOGIVETHEPUBLICA GENERALIDEAOFWHATISGOINGONINATRIAL.   THEREARESOMEPUBLICATIONSHOWEVER,THATDOCOVERPROCEEDINGS,ANDTHEJUDGMENT ANDITSCONSEQUENCES,INAFAIRANDBALANCEDMANNER.  INGENERAL,THEPRESSISFAIRLYSENSATIONALISTANDBIASED,WITHLITTLEANALYSIS,OR CHECKINGOFFACTS.IFTHEYPUTINALITTLEMOREEFFORT,ITWOULDHUGELYIMPROVE REPORTING.  HOWEVER,ASMENTIONED,ITBALANCESOUT–ANDTHEPRESSHASPLAYEDAVERYPOSITIVEROLE INCERTAINTRIALS–BYAWAKENINGTHENATIONALCONSCIENCE.ATRIALWASREͲOPENED, ESPECIALLYWHEREINFLEUENTIALANDMONEYEDPEOPEZECRIMESINCLCRIMESAGAISNTWOMEN, CORRUPTION,ETC.  4.5Istherealegalframeworkrelatedtoopennessofpublictrial?Ifyes,pleaseincludeabrief descriptionofitscontents.   INDIAISACOUNTRYTHATFOLLOWSTHEPRINCIPLESOFCOMMANLAW,ANDALLTRIALSARE MEANTTOBEFAIRPUBLICTRIALSBYVIRTUEOFINDIAHAVINGSIGNEDANDRATIFIEDTHE UNIVERSALDECLARATIONOFHUMANRIGHTS,ANDINTERNATIONALCOVENANTS(INTERNATIONAL COVENANTFORCIVILANDPOLITICALRIGHTS).THECODEOFCIVILPROCEDURE(CPC)ANDTHECODE OFCRIMINALPROCEDURE(CRPC)MANDATEAFAIRTRIALASDOESOURCONSTITUION.   5.Others 5.1Hasthereeverbeenatelevisiondramaormoviebasedonrealcourtcases? £G Yes(Pleasespecify.PleasegotoQuestion5.1.1)YES,OCCͲ 

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  ¤G No  YES,THEREAREAFEW,FOREXAMPLE,THEFILM“NOͲONEKILLEDJESSICA”.  BUTINGENERAL,THE EFFORTISTOPRESENTAFINCTIONALISEDVERSIONOFCOURTPROCEEDINGS,ANDNOTSPECIFIC COURTTRIALS.  THEREWASATELEISIONDOCUMENTARYNAMED‘ALLRISEYOURHONOUR’TO PORTRAYTHEDISMALFUNCTIONINGOFTHECOURTS.   5.1.1Whatwasthereactionofthejudicialbodiesregardingthisfilmortelevisionshow?  THEREARENOPUBLIC/OPENREACTIONSFROMTHEJUDICIARY.BUTINGENERAL,THEJUDICIARY TENDSTOPROTECTITSELFFROMANYCRITICISM,ANDTRIESTOATTACKANDMUZZLEANY PORTRAYALOFITSELFINAPOORLIGHT.  5.2Isitpossibleforthelegislativebodytoconducthearingsorinvestigationonthematters directlyrelatedtoatrialwhileitisstillinprogress? £G Yes(Pleasegivesomeexamplesincludingjudicialbody’sreactiononthis) ¤G No  5.3Howdoescivilsocietyinterveneintheappointmentprocessofthejudges?   THEREISNOPROVISIONFORCIVILSOCIETYTOINTERVENEINTHEAPPOINTMENTOFJUDGES.EVEN THELEGALPROFESSIONCANNOTPLAYADIRECTROLE.  THESYSTEMOFAPPOINTMENTOFJUDGESISOPAQUEANDNONͲTRANSPARENT.MOSTOFTEN,ONE DOESNOTEVENCOMETOKNOWWHOISGOINGTOBEAPPOINTEDASJUDGE,UNTILTHE APPOINTMENTISOVERANDANNOUNCED.  THECONSTITUTIONOFINDIA,PROVIDESFORAPPOINTMENTOFJUDGESBYTHEGOVERNMENTIN CONSULTTATIONWITHTHEJUDICIARY.ARTICLES124&217OFTHECONSTITUTIONPROVIDEFOR APPOINTMENTOFJUDGESOFTHESUPREMECOURT&HIGHCOURT.HOWEVER,THROUGHA JUDGMENTOFTHESUPREMECOURT,THEJUDICIARYUSURPEDTHATPOWERUNTOITSELF.INDIAIS ACOUNTRYWHEREJUDGESAPPOINTTHEMSELVESTHROUGHANOPAQUESYSTEMWITHLITTLE ACCOUNTABILITY.  THEREHAVEBEENATTEMPTS–THROUGHCIVILACTION–THROUGHATTEMPTSATIMPEACHMENT, COMPLAINTSTOTHESUPREMECOURT,ETC.,WHEREINELEVATIONTOTHESUPREMECOURTHAS BEENCONTESTED/CHALLENGEDBASEDONTHEMISCONDUCTOFCANDIDATEJUDGES.   CIVILSOCIETYHAS,INACASE,EVENATTEMPTEDIMPEACHMENTOFAJUDGE,WHO,FINALLY,HAD TORESIGNBECAUSEOFPRESSUREBROUGHTABOUTBYCIVILSOCIETYTHROUGHMEDIA.THISWAS JUSTICEDINAKARANOFTHEKARNATAKAHIGHCOURT.  CIVILSOCIETYHASALSOTRIEDTOINFLUENCEPUBLICOPINIONBYHOLDINGSEMINARSAND DISCUSSIONSANDPROPOSINGSYSTEMICREFORMINAPPOINTMENTOFJUDGES,ANDALSO,BY PROVIDINGINPUTSONJUDICIALACCOUNTABILITYLEGISLATIONS.   5.3.1Cancivilsocietyfreelycommentonthedecisiontoappointjudges?Howdoescourtrespond tothesecomments? 

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   CIVILSOCIETYISNOTENCOURAGEDTOCOMMENTONDECISIONSTOAPPOINTJUDGES.   EVENIFCIVILSOCIETYDOESCOMMENTONSOMEDECISIONS,ITSVOICEISGENERALLYIGNORED, ANDITISONLYWHENAVOIDANCEISINESCAPABLETHATAHASTYDECISIONTOHOLDBACKTHAT APPOINTMENTISTAKENINRARECASES.THESEAREEXTREMELYRAREEXCEPTIONS,AND ENORMOUSPUBLICPRESSUREHASRESULTEDINTHERESIGNATIONOFAJUDGEJUSTICE DINAKARAN,ALTHOUGHHEHADBEENRECOMMENDEDFORELEVATION.  5.4Arethereanygroupstosupportvictimsofthejudiciarysystem?Ifyes,pleaseexplainfurther.   IFTHEREISVICITMIZATIONINTERMSOFJUDICIALPROCESS,ITCANBETAKENUPINAPPEAL. SIMILARLY,TRANSFERSOFCASESCANBESOUGHTONGROUNDSOFBIAS.   THEREARESEVERALGROUPSͲCIVILSOCIIETYGROUPSTHATSUPPORTSUCHVICTIMS.  THEYPROVIDELEGALSUPPORTORAIDTOCERTAINGROUPS/PEOPLEWHOAREVICTIMIZEDINTHE ABOVEͲMENTIONEDMANNER,SUCHASTHEHOMELESS,MARGINALIZEDORABUSEDWOMEN, ECONOMICALLYDEPRIVEDGROUPS,ETC.  6.Whataretherecentactivitiesofjudicialbodiesregardingaboveissues?  RECENTLY,INFEWCASES,THEREHAVEBEENTRANSFERSOFCASESFROMONESTATETOANOTHER FORFEAROFSTATEINFLUENCE–E.G.FROMGUJARATTOBOMBAYINTHEBESTBAKERYCASE, FROMTAMILNADU,INACASERELATINGTOCHARGESAGAINSTTHECHIEFMINISTEROFTHAT STATE.

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‫ ࢉ   ˈ ؿ‬Ѧ

�G ᮇఔ⁻᧜G ⛏ጛᇫG ᱋ㄌᯬ❘G ❛ㄌ┧G ᒇᛓG ቐ ⛧⡓⚯❘G ⃣⃸⛋G ⤛㓠፳ሻU ᯬ☧⚗G₏Gሿఛ⚯G≃ൠೃ⟇ᣓGୗ⤛ሻO⤗ᮀᯬ☧SGషᑈᯬ☧SGⲳషᯬ☧⚓ឳ⁳⚯G ቗ᯬ☧PUG ⤗ᮀᯬ☧┧ᇫG ᭓ ✃㉧᳗▗G 㕬 ✃㉧᳗ୗG ⛟ሻU ⛏ጛᇫG ೄ᭓ⱴ‴ ⚯G WUYLG ❬ጛᤣ⚛G  ᯬ᳗┧G 㒷ቐ㒯షG ⛟ඇG ᒣ᪏┧SG  ᯬ ⤨㓠┧G ⛟┋G ≃୘㒳G ╟ ᳗⟈⚛G ఁషG ⛟ሻUG ╟ ᳗⟈G ᪏❳ᣓG ❳●㒯ካᛓጛG ☋╘G ⵸᧋┧⁳G ᤥ⚗G ᭳❛⛋G ◫ೃ፳ሻU

G ⛏ጛᯬ⚗G ㌠ఇV㉧ఇ⛋G ౌ୳G ᯬ☧┧⁳G ㎳᧜፯┋ⓓG 㒯షG ㉧ఇ⛋G ඏG ఔ☇G ㉧

ఇ⡓᪏⛋G ౌ୳G ᯬ☧┧⁳G ㎳᧜Vငጜ፯┋ⓓG 㒳ሻషG ള❬㒳ሻUG G G ൏┧G ᒇᣏG ఇ౓ឳ⊿G ㉧ఇG ❛᪏⚗G ቗⡨ᐻ⛋G ⛋☀㒷G ⅯG ⛟ጛ឴G ౌ୳፯ጛ឴G ፯┋⛟ሻUG G ᕧ㒳SG ቗ᯬ☧౓G షᑈᯬ☧┧⁳G ⛋ᠿ┋⤗ᇫG ✃㉧౓G ㉧ఇ⚗G ඇ឴፯ᧇG ⁷ភឳG ࿿⚛G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG ᒇᛓ⁳G ቗ᯬ☧౓G షᑈᯬ☧⚯G ㌠ఇV㉧ఇG ᕧ㒳G ቗⡨ᐻ⛋G ❨൓ 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ጛ឴G ౌ୳፯ጛ឴G ፯┋⛟ሻUG G ቗ᯬ☧౓G షᑈᯬ☧⚯G ㉧ఇ⚗G ᤻⡓V᤻☫G ᱋ష⁳ឳG ᭳୛፳ሻUG ⛋G ᱋ష⁳ᇫG ᯬ ☧౓G ጛ⁳౗┧⁳G ⛋☀ୗᇼ㒯ᧇG ᰗ㖏 ▗G ୰⚗G ❬ඇG ೃጜ⛧┧௣G ♷ᠣឳG ❳ౌ

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፳ሻUG G ౌ୳≃ᤃ⚯G ╟●ള❬⚓ឳ⁳G ᶛౌ୳≃ᤃ❟⭿ୗG ⛟ሻUG ✃㉧G ቐ ⛧⚯G ᶛ᭗♷ ⤗ᣓG ♛㒳G ᯬ⤨㓠⛋G 㒛◫㒳G ఔ☇┧G 㓋ቐ፳ሻU ൏ᝃ࿯G ౌ୳፳G ✃㉧┧⁳G ≃ᤃG ᭦G ㉧ఇ⚯G ⁷షᣓG ᮀⰄ㒯ᇫG ௚⚗G ሻ⚣౓G ୰⚗G ┋᝻☗⛋G ⛟ሻUG G G XUG ᱋⒟‘⚯G ⛋♷ឳG ᧿ᐷG  ᛣᐻ⛋G ⛧♷ោ௣G ቗ᯬ☧౓G షᑈᯬ☧┧G ᐻ┋ ୟG ⅯG ┝ሻUG ᐻ┋ୗඇG ♛㓋⁷G ⳳ⛜☀G ㉿⇻ୗG ⛟┋ⓓG 㒳ሻUG ⛓᭯ ᛣᐻ⚗G ⛋G ㉿⇻ᣓG ⛋☀㒷G ⅯG ┝⚓ᧇG ᨀఀ⛧G ᑈG ✃㉧౓G ౗᝿G ⛟ᇫG  ᛣ┧௣ᤣG ❳ౌ፳ ሻUG G G YUG ⤗ᮀᯬ☧౓G ቗᳗᳛⚯G షᑈᯬ☧G ♐ ⛋㈏┧ᇫG ㉧ఇ⛋G ௣∳G ፯⤗G ⒡ᇫ ሻUG ᕧ㒳G ⛓᳗G షᑈᯬ☧G ♐ ⛋㈏┧⁳ᇫG ㉧ఇG ௣∳G ⛨├⛋G ⤗╇፯ඇጛG 㒳 ሻUG G G ZUG ㉧ఇG ௗ†⛋G  ோG ቐ ⛧ᐻ౓G ᰗ㖏 ᐻ⚯G ⛋ᣛ⛋࿯G  ோG ᯟ㖏ឳG ⛋ᠿ ┋⤗ඇG ᒣ᪏┧G షᑈᯬ☧G ♐ ⛋㈏┧⁳G ㌠ఇ⚛G ⮕ඇᛗG ⇔⤗G ⒡ሻUG ㎳᧋‘⚓ ឳᇫG ௗ†⛋G ⛧♷ឳ☋G ௚G ୰⚓࿯G ∻⤟❘⚓ឳG ே⚯G ඇᇼ⚛G 㒯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG

G ㉧ఇ⡓᪏⚛G ㍃㒿㒳G ㉧ఇG ❛ⰋୗG ⛋☀G ୗᇼ㒯࿯G ♛┧⁳G ┏ൠ㒳G Zୗ⤗G ┋ ᝻☗⛋G ⟋✃㒳ሻUG ൏ᝃ࿯G ᰗិ⛋G ⁳᧋㕬〳ឳG ❳ⳳ፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻ᧋G ᯬ☧G ✃㉧G ❟⭿ᇫGඇ឴፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG㉧ ᐻ⚗G⃣⃸G ❟⭿Gጰ⒟Gⓔ୛⚯G ᦫ᧿ᣓG㒯షG㉧ఇ ⚛G ဋᤋG ᒣG ⛨₈㒳G ᦫ᧿ᣓG  ☀㒳ሻUG

G ఔ☇┧G ᒇᛓG ሻᣋሻUG ᯬ┧G ᒇᣋ᧋G ᧿ᐷG ㉧ఇ⛋G ౌ୳፯┋ⓓG 㒯⤗ᤣSG ൏௚ ⚛G ୗᇼ㒯௣G 㒷G ᤣ㒳G ⛏㑛ᛓ࿯G ∳⇻コ⛋G ❛᭯❘⚓ឳG ᳗⟈㒯ሻUG

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G ቗ᯬ☧⚯G ఔ☇G ቗ᯬ☧G ♐ ⛋㈏┧G ᯬ☧G ᧜ថ⛋G ௣∳፳ሻUG ♐ ⛋㈏┧G ᯬ☧G ᧜ថ⚛G௣∳㒯ᇫGషᑈᯬ☧⚗Gே⚯G┝ሻUGೄୗ⛏ೣ♛☧㗣▗G୰⚗Gඇ౗⚗G൏ᐻ ⚯G ᧜ថ⚛G ☇㌏⚓ឳG ᱋ဏሻUG ⤗ᮀᯬ☧⚯G ఔ☇SG ⛓᭯❘⚓ឳG ᯬ☧G ᧜ថ┧G ᑈᱏ ⚛G ∷Ⰴ㓋ⓓᤣG 㒳ሻUG  

G ᭓ ✃㉧⚯Gఔ☇G᭓ ⃣⃸ᯬOv™‹Œ™GYWP┧⁳G㉧ఇG❛ⰋᣓGငጜ㒯ጛ឴G

ള❬㒯షG⛟⚓ᧇSG㉧ఇ⛋GඏGఔ☇G㉧ఇ⡓᪏⚛Gငጜ㒿⚓ឳ⊿G㉧ఇ⚯Gౌ୳ ᣓG ⚯᪋㖫G 㒳ሻUG 㕬 ✃㉧⚯G ఔ☇ᇫG 㕬 ⃣⃸ᯬOzŒŠ›–•G Z\ZP┧⁳G ⛋ᣓG ⚯᪋㖫㒳ሻU G 㔣ᯬG XY`⟇▗G YX\⟇┧G ⚯㓋G ቗ᯬ☧౓G షᑈᯬ☧⚗G ඇ឴ᯬ☧⛋ᧇSG ൏┧G ᒇᛓG ㉧ఇ⚗G ೃ⃤᝼⚛G ୗ⤗ᇫG ⁷ភୗG ፳ሻUG ᒇᛓ⁳G ඇ឴G ဋ☀⚗G ቗⡨ᐻ ┧௣G ᭯ᐳ∳G ౌ୳፯┋ⓓG 㒳ሻUG

 G ⛏ጛG ᯬ⚗G ㉧ఇ┧G ቗㒳G �ோ⁻❘G ᶛ㉧OŠ–•š›™œŠ›ŒG Š™›Šš”P�⚛G 㔟☀㒳ሻUG 㒯⤗ᤣG ∻❳❘⚓ឳG ㉧ఇ┧G ቗㒳G ᶛ㉧⚗G ౗቗㒯௣G Ⅿ☀፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG ᶛ㉧⚗G   ᯬ᳗ୗGⅯ☀㒷G∳┧ᤣG᭲⒛ᐻ╃⤛ሻUG᪓ិG㉧ఇ┧G቗㒳G㓄⃣ୗG❳ඇ፯᧋G⛋G㉧ ఇ⚗G㓄⃣⛏┧G⚯㓋Gᶛ㉧⚛G᭲ᇫሻUG⛋ᣓG❳●㒯᧋G㉧ఇ┧G቗㒳G㖳᭳㒳Gᶛ㉧⚗G ቗᳗᳛G ∳᭓ 㗣࿯G 㖳ጰୗᐻ┧G ⚯㓋G ⛋ᠿ┋⤛ሻUG ┏ិጛG ㉧ఇ┧G ቗㒳G ᶛ㉧⚛G 㒯⤗ᤣG ∳᭓G  㗣࿯G 㖳ጰୗᐻ᱋ሻᇫG ⟇≃⇻᝔షG ⃣൐❘⛋ሻUG

G 㒰ఛᇫG ╄ᜠ┧G ᒇᛓG ㉧ఇ┧G ቗㓋G ┏ൠ㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG 㒯⤗ᤣG ᤟⮃ୗ⤗ឳG 㒰 ఛ▗G ╇ఛ፳G ⛓᳗G ඇ౗┧G ⚯㒳G ❳㒳⛋G ⛟ሻUG

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G ∳᭓ 㗣ᇫG ㉧ఇ┧G ቗㒳G ౌ୳❘G ┏ൠ⚛G 㒷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG 㒯⤗ᤣG ⛋G ┏ൠ⚗G ㉧ ఇ┧G ቗㒳G �ோ⁻❘G ᶛ㉧�⛋┋ⓓG 㒯షG  ᯬ᳗ୗG Ⅿ☀㒯᝻ᇫG 㒳㓋⁳G 㔟☀፳ሻUG ᤣⓔG∳᭓ 㗣Gೃ₈☧⛋G♛㔯⚛G᪋ᣜ⑇షGᯬ☧G㉧ఇ⚛Gᶛ㉧㒳ሻ᧋G⟜⟜G⛋ᐻ ⚛G ‘቗ឳG 㒯ᇫG ᯬ❬G ㉧ఇG ᧿ጜ┧G ቗㒳G ⃣⃸⛋G ⤛㓠፯ᇫG ᑈ⚯G 㒓㓋ୗG ⛟ሻUG ⛨ୗG ⒛ᡃሻ㉇Gឳ⛋Oh™œ•‹ˆ›G y– PᇫGᯬ❬᧿◬⚓ឳG ⯯ᯣ⚛G ᭲⒯ᇫ዇SG൏ᇫG ቗ᯬ☧⛋G ᧜ថ⚛G ㄌ㓋G  ᛣᐻ⚯G ᭯቗⚯ః⚛G ┌ᅛᣋ᝻G 㒿⚓ឳ⊿G  㗣❘G ᳟⒟ ⚛G ⓓඇ㓟ሻషG ᶛ㉧㒳G ᭫G ⛟ሻUG ᰗ㖏 ⛋⛧G ᭓ೣG ☋ጰୗ⛏G 㑛ᛓ‿㈏G ᵣ㘛‿ Ow™ˆšˆ•›G iœšˆ•P⚗G ቗ᯬ☧G ㉧ ᐻG ❟᭯⛋G ᳗㉿㓟ሻᇫG ᭳┏⚛G 㓟ሻᇫG ⛋ ♷ឳG ᯬ❬᧿◬┧G ቗㒳G ✃㉧⚛G ᭲⒯ሻUG ⁴୛⛓୛⤗⛏G �᭏ᐳ዇⛋Ot‹‹ˆ P�ᇫG ቐ∳G ቗ᯬ☧⛼⛋G ⅓㒨ᨇG ୳᭳├⛧▗G ╇౗፳G  ோ┧G ୳⛜፯┋G ⛟┟ᇫ዇SG ൏G  ோ⛋G ቗ᯬ☧⛼⚯G ⒛ᐻ┧௣G 㕳〴⚛G ⡓┟ሻᇫG ௚⚛G ᭴㕫ሻᇫG ⛋♷ឳG ⃣⃸⚛G ቐ㒯ඇጛG 㓟ሻU

G ∳᭓ 㗣࿯G ∳᭓ᐻ⚗G ඇ⛧㗣ః⚛G ╋షG ∳♛ᣓG ⟇⤘㒷G ⅯG ⛟⚓࿯G ♛┧⁳G ┏ൠ㒳G ᳗ቐ㒳G ⃣⃸┧G 㙯ᤧᤋG ⅯG ⛟ሻUG G

G ᰗ㖏⛏O቗ᤃ⛏P⚛G ㄌ㒳G ఔ☇ᣓG ❳●㒯షG ㉧ ᣓG ⤘❨❘⚓ឳG ‘቗㒷G ඇ㗣 ᇫG❘ሻUG ᧞᧞G㉧ ᐻ⚗G⃣⃸G ቐ ⛧┧௣G❘❟㒳G〳ጛᣓG ⴿ㒯⤗ᤣG൏ᝃ㒳G㉧  ᇫGே⚯G ᐳ᪓ሻUG቗᳗᳛⚯G㉧ ᐻ⚗G ⃣⃸Gቐ ⛧ᐻ⚯G⡓⛼⚛G ྴඣ⤗G⛯Gᐻ ┋⡓⤗G ⒡⚓ᧇG ₈ൠ㒯ሻO”—ˆ›Œ•›PUG ᕧ㒳G ᤥ⚗G ㉧ ᐻ⚗G ቐ ⛧ᐻG ⒵┧⁳G  ோ⚛G ሻᠿᇫG ዇G ᇼⅰ㒯⤗G ⒡⚗዇ሻSG ൏ᐻ⚯G ᪏❳┧G ቗㒳G ㉧ ⚯G ᭓୧₈ OšŒ•š›› P⛋࿯G ᯬ⚛G ❘☀㒯ᇫG ᇼ᝼G ᕧ㒳G ᓿ┋⤛ሻUG G G 〛☧G∷Ⰴ⛏⛋G୳⛏❘⚓ឳGᯬ☧┧G࿯〗࿯ᇫG዇G❳㒳⛋G┝ሻషG㒯⤗ᤣO⃣⃸G ቐ ⛧ୗG⃣⃸G౓❬┧G≃㒳Gᮀ㓋ୗG፯⤗G⒡ᇫሻ᧋PG㉧ ᐻ⚗Gᯬ❘G ⒟⛋Gᰗ 㖏 ᣓGㄌ㓋G❳ඇG፷Gఔ☇GሻᠿඇୗGካ☈G⇔షG୛ሿ㒯ሻషG╃௿Gᰗ㖏 ᣓGㄌ 㓋G᪏❳ୗG❳ඇ፯ඏG᭫ᛗሻUGᒇᛓ⁳G㉧ ▗⚯G⤘❨❘G቗᧋⚗Gᰗ㖏 ᐻ┧௣ឳG ❳㒳፳ሻUG

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G 㔣ᯬG XY`⟇▗G YX\⟇ᇫG ቗ᯬ☧౓G షᑈᯬ☧⚯G ೣ㒳⚛G ള❬㒯షG ⛟⚓ ᧇSG ᯬ❬᧿◬⚛G ሻᡃሻUG ᯬ❬᧿◬ᯬ⚗G ⛋ᣓG ሻᠿᇫG ㈐ᰛᯬ⛏዇SG XYSG X[SG X\⟇┧⁳G ⯯ᯣ┧G ౗㒳G ᳗᳛⚛G ള❬㒯షG ⛟ሻUG ቗ᯬ☧ളⶰG ᕧ㒳G ᯬ❬᧿ ◬┧G ቗㒳G ള❳ᣓG ቋషG ⛟ሻUG ᯬ❬᧿◬⚓ឳG ඇ⃣፯┋G ♷⠛ୗG ⁷ష፯᧋G ᯣൟG ᕧᇫG ]୳☫⚯G ⤬╄㕬⛋G ᳗౓፯ே࿯G ᰨ౓፷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG ൏ᝇ዇G ◫⣯G ቗ᯬ☧⛋࿯G ዏᤃG షᑈᯬ☧⚗G ⛧∷ᐻ⚯G ೣ㒳⚛G ࿿☀㒯╃G  ᯬ౗㒷ೣ⚛G ❘☀∳⿿G ࿯ᦏ⤗SG ᯬ❬᧿◬⚛G ᯬ❬⛋࿯G  㗣❘G დ✘SG ൏G ᭭⚯G ሻⓨ㒳G ొ┧⁳G ౓ጛ㒯௣G ❘☀㒯᝻షG 㒳 ሻUG ൏ᝃ㒳G ఇ౓ឳG  ᯬ┧G ቗㒳G ❨൓ೣ⛋G ⭿ሿ፯షG ⛟ሻU

G ⛨ୗG ⒛ᡃሻ㉇G ឳ⛋Oh™œ•‹ˆ›G y– PᇫG ᯬ❬᧿◬⚓ឳG ⯯ᯣ⚛G ᭲⒯ᇫ ዇SG൏ᇫG቗ᯬ☧⛋G᧜ថ⚛Gㄌ㓋G ᛣᐻ⚯G᭯቗⚯ః⚛G┌ᅛᣋ᝻G㒿⚓ឳ⊿G  㗣❘G ᳟⒟⚛G ⓓඇ㓟ሻషG ᶛ㉧㒳G ᭫G ⛟ሻUG ⛋G  ோ⚗G ೃ⛧ᛓ㈏ Onœ‘ˆ™ˆ›P⤗ᮀ⚯G ቧG ோ⁻┧G ᭯቗㒯ᇫG ࿯ᣋ᤟ሻG ᭫ⷋ╻G ⒟ጣᛗOuˆ™”ˆ‹ˆG iˆŠˆ–G h•‹–“ˆ•PG ⷷ㋯⛏౓G ╇౗⛋G ⛟┟ሻUG

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G ⃣⃸G ቐ ⛧⚯G ᶛ᭗G ♷⤗V᱋㖏G ᑈG  ᯬ❟⭿⚯G ⤛㓠┧G ⛋⛌⛋G ⛟ᇫG ఔ☇ ᣓG ❳●㒯షG ቗᳗᳛⚯G  ோ⚗G ౌ୳G ᯬ☧┧⁳G ╋ᤇሻUG ቗ᯬ☧┧G ቗㒳G ‘ష㔟ୗᇫG ㉧ ᐻ┧௣ᤣG 㗣ᛣ፯ᇫG ᑈG ᶛౌ୳ឳG ఇ❬፳ሻU

 G 㕬 ⃣⃸ᯬG ₐ₯G Y_X┧G ᒇᛓG 㒓ష⛏┧G ቗㒳G ≃᪏⚗G ᯬ☧G ౌ∴┏┋ឳG ⛋ ᠿ┋⤗ᧇSG ඇ឴፯ᇫG ┏┋ᇫG 㒓ష⛏⛋G ⒣⒛ᐻ⚛G ⅯG ⛟ᇫG ┏┋╃ⓓG 㒳ሻUG ᕧ㒳G 㒛◫㒳G ఔ☇G ㄌ╄⛋G ❳ౌ፳ሻUG G ‘ൠG ᯬ☧ᐻOšœ—Œ™–™G Š–œ™›šP⚗G ⤗ᮀᯬ☧┧⁳G ⛋ᠿ┋⤗ᇫG ✃㉧౓ᇫG ቃᛓ ⁳SG ቗ᯬ☧౓G షᑈᯬ☧┧⁳ᇫG ‘ൠᯬ☧G ౌ∴G ┏┋⛏G ╘┋ឳG ᯟ╄፳G �᪏⁳�ୗG ◫ೃ፳ሻUG ‘♛G ᯬ☧┧⁳⚯G ⃣⃸G ❟⭿ᇫG ╘┋ឳG ⛋ᠿ┋⤛ሻUG ᒣ᪏┧G ╘┋┧G ᇼⅰ㒯⤗G⒡ᇫG  ᛣᐻ⚗G⃣⃸G⤛㓠G ౓❬⚛G⛋㓋㒯⤗Gᨒ㒯௣G ፳ሻUGㄌ╄⛋G❳ ౌ፯⤗G ⒡⚓ᬗឳG ⃣⃸ቐ ⛧ᇫG ╘┋ᣓG  ☀㒯ᇫG ᰗ㖏 ᣓG ష☀㓋ⓓG 㒳ሻU

G ሻⅯG ⚯ః౓G ⃣Ⅿ⚯ః⛋G ❳ౌ፳ሻUG

Gᯬ☧G ඇ឴⚗G᪏⁳G㉣⛓ឳG ❗⛼፳ሻUG◫⣯┧ᇫGඇ឴⚛G ⇻ⷫ㓋⁳G❛⛧G㉣⛓ ⛋࿯G❛⛧G ඇ឴⚓ឳG᱋♷㒯షG⛟ሻUG ᯬ☧⚗Gሻ⚣౓G୰⛋G ඇ឴⚛G᱋♷㒷G⚯᪋ ୗG ⛟ሻUG ඇ឴ᯬ☧⚗G ✃㉧ඇ឴⚛G YႛG ጰ⒟G ᱋౗㒯ᧇSG  ோ┧G ቗㒳G ㉧ఇ⚗G ╘ೃ❘⚓ឳG ᱋♷፯┋ⓓG 㒳ሻUG X≃G ᯬ☧⚗G ✃㉧G ඇ឴⚛G ^ႛG ጰ⒟G ᱋♷㓋ⓓᤣG 㒳ሻUG

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G 㕬 G  ோ⚯G ఔ☇G ᧿ᐷG ⣴ேᇫG ඇ឴⚓ឳG ࿿ᇫሻUG ᭓ G  ோ⚯G ఔ☇G ᧿ᐷG ⤛ⅷG აⴿ឴⛋G ඇ឴⚓ឳG ࿿ᇫሻUG ൏ᝃ࿯G ⓨ⵸⛋G ᪏⁳ឳG ፳G ✘❧  㓄Gᑈ⚛G❬ᤃ㓋G❳ⳳ㒯⤗G⒡ᇫG㒳SGೃᎧឳG⛋ᠿ┋⤛Gᰗិ⚗Gඇ឴፯⤗G⒡ ᇫሻUG ㉧ ᐻ⚗G ✃㉧G ⡨┧G ᦫ᧿ᣓG 㒯ᇫ዇SG ⛋G ᦫ᧿ᣓG ᧜ថ⛋࿯G ㉧ఇ⚛G ဋᤃᇫ዇G ☀㒯ᧇSG⛋᝞௣G⛨₈፳G᧜ថ⁳GᕧᇫG㉧ఇ᪏ᤣ⛋G♷⛓㒯௣Gౌ ∴❘⛏G ᪏⁳ୗG ፳ሻU

G ᪏⁳G ඇ឴ᤣG ୗᇼ㒯ᧇG ⚣₈G ა⚣⛋࿯G ᶛᑫ╻G ა㖫ᇫG 㔟☀፯⤗G ⒡ᇫ ሻUG 㒯⤗ᤣG ౌ⛌⚛G ♛㒳G ✃㉧┧⁳G ᶛᑫ╻G ა㖫ᣓG ❘☀㒯ᇫG ᮀ⒟⚛G ᤟᝿ 㒯షG ⛟ሻUG ⛋┧G ቗㒳G დ⚯ୗG ౌⰄ㗣┧⁳G ⛋ᠿ┋G ⤟G ௚⛋ሻUG

Gᨀఀ⛧⚯G⣴┏⚗G⛏❬፳ሻUG൏ᝃ࿯G∷Ⰴ⛏⛋G❳ⳳ㕬∴┧GᒇᛓG⁳᧋⚓ ឳG ඇ឴⚛G ❳ⳳ㒯⤗G ⒡ᇫG 㒳G ⁳᧋ඇ឴⚗G ࿿⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG ᇫG ቗⡨ᐻ⛋G ⒣G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG 㒯⤗ᤣG ᪏⁳ឳG ❳ⳳ፯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻ᧋G ⃣⃸G ቐ ⛧⚯G ඇ឴⚗G ᪏⁳ ឳGඇ឴፯⤗G⒡ᇫሻUG⛋Gඇ឴ᐻ┧G቗㒳G∷Ⰴ౓G᱋♷ୗG⛋ᠿ┋⤟GⅯG⛟⤗ ᤣG ⓔ୛⚯G ᶛ☀⛋G ◫ೃ፯ᧇSG ⁷⚯⚯G ⚯ጛᛓᇫG ௚⛋G ⣴᧜፯┋ⓓG 㒳ሻUG ✃㉧┧G ቗㒳G ᳟ᤣ⛋G ⛟ᇫG ఔ☇G 㓄⃣⟇㓄⛋G ⛟ሻUG G ౗᝿㒯╃SG ✃㉧⛋G ሻ∳G ╋ᤇG  ோ⛋G ⛟┟ሻUG ❳∳ⷋG ᛛOqŒššŠˆG sˆ“P  ோ⚯G ఔ☇SG ౌౌ⛼⃣┧⁳G ⱴ‘⚛G ቐ㓟ᇫ዇G ​⛏⛧ୗG ╘㓼᝼G ⛟ᇫG   ᛣ⛋┟┟షG ቗⡨⚯G ⒬᝼⛋G ே₏⤗⛧G ᯬ☧⚗G ⛋G  ோ⚛G ሻ∳G ✃㉧㓟ሻUG ⛋ᝃ㒳G ఔ☇ᇫG ᐳ᪓⤗ᤣG ✃㉧G ఇ౓ୗG ❬ቐ㒯⤗G ᨒ㒯ሻషG ╃௿⤗ᇫG   ோ┧G ቗㒳G ቗⡨⚯G ⒬᝼⚗G ❧❧G ⸻⤗షG ⛟ሻUG

 G ┏ិ⚗G ⃣⃸❟⭿┧G ቗㒳G ᱋ጛᣓG 㒯ጛ឴G 㔟☀፳ሻUG ൏ᝃ࿯G ⛋ᣓG ❳㒳㒯ඇG ♛㒳G 㔣ᯬ❘G ᪏❳ୗG ❳ඇ፯షG ⛟ሻUG ⛋G ᪏❳ᇫG ቗ᯬ☧┧G ⚯㓋G ❳ඇ፳G ௚⚓ ឳSG ┏ិV᭏ᑫ┋ୗG ✃㉧౓❬⚛G ᱋ጛ㒯ᇫG ዇G ቗㒳G ❳㒳Vୗ⛋ᐳᛓ⛏⛋G 㒛◫㒳 ୗ▗G 㒛◫㒯ሻ᧋G ൏௚⛋G ᪋┞⛏ୗ┧G ౗㒳G ௚⛋ሻUG ⛋G ᨀ❘⚗G ⃣⃸G ቐ ⛧⚯G ೣᤃᣓG♛㓋G ┋ᓷ㒳G㌏ఃጛG㒓㒯ష⛧G 㒿⛋ሻUG⛋G᪏❳ᇫG ┏ិ⛋Gౌ❬㒳G✃㉧

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┧G ╘㓼⚛G ࿓⶷G ⅯG ┝ጛ឴G 㒯ᇫG ㈐❬㒳G ୗ⛋ᐳᛓ⛏⚛G 㕬₈㒯ᇫG ௚⛋G ❘❟㒳 ୗᣓG ሻᠿ௣G ፳ሻU

G ⛓᭯❘⚓ឳG ┏ិ⚗G ᯬ❬G ⃣⃸G ❟⭿ᣓG ❬㖬㒯షG ⛧₏㒯௣G ᱋ጛ㒯⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG ┋ᓻG ఔ☇┧ᇫG ౌ❬㒯షG ഷ㕬G ⛸㛣G ∳୘┧⁳G ᱋ጛ㒯⤗G ⒡⚛G ᒣ ጛG ⛟ሻUG ┏ិ⚗G ✃㉧┧⁳G ⛓┋࿯ᇫG ⛓┧G ቗㒳G ❛᭯❘⛏G ⒛⛋ᑫ┋ᣓG ❳ ౌ㒳ሻUG 㒯⤗ᤣG ⛓᳗ᇫG ⃣⃸G ❟⭿▗G ㉧ఇSG ൏G ఇ౓ᣓG ౌ❬㒯షG ഷ㕬G ⛸ 㛣G ᮀ∴⚓ឳG ᱋ጛ㒳ሻUG G ⛓᭯❘⚓ឳG ┏ិ⚗G ⁷❬❘⛋ே࿯G ㌏㓼፯┋G ⛟⚓ᧇG  ோG ᭦G ⃣⃸G ❟⭿ ┧G቗㒳G᳛⁴⛋࿯G ∻┧G቗㒳G㖬⛏⛋G᳗⟈㒯ሻUGᤣⓔG┏ិ⛋G⟇ൟᤣGካG ჏᝼㒳ሻ᧋G ᱋ጛ⚯G ⤟⛋G ⿃௣G 㓼‘፷G ௚⛋ሻUG G G 㒯⤗ᤣG ┏ិ⚗G ഷ㕬⚛G ⛋ᠿඇጛG 㒯ᧇG ೄ᭓G ⚯∴⚛G ඿☇⶿⚓ឳ⊿G ㈐❬G ✃㉧┧⁳G᤻☇G൤❬❘⛏G╄㒷⚛G㒳ሻUG㈐㛟G╃₈⚛G‘቗ឳG㒳Gᯫ⠛▗G᳗ ㉿G ᑈG ╘㓼᝼G ⛟షG ᳗♷㒳G  ᛣᐻ⛋G ❗⤗ᣋᇫG ᯫ⠛⚯G ఔ☇G ✃㉧⛋G ሻ∳G ╋ᤃඇጛG 㓟ሻUG

G⛏ጛᇫG ᱋ㄌᯬ⚯G☧ᤃᣓGᒇᣋషG ⛟ᇫGೄୗ⛋ሻUG᧿ᐷG ✃㉧⚗G⛏ጛୗG⁳᧜ 㒯షG ᶛ⡗㒳G ₏ఛ⛏ೣ⁷┏౓G ೄ❳G ⟇ⓔO∳᭓❘❬⶯❘G ೣᤃ┧G ౗㒳G ೄ❳G ള ⓔP┧GᒇᛓGౌ❬㒳Gౌ୳G✃㉧⚓ឳG⛋ᠿ┋⤛ሻUG᭓ ⃣⃸ᯬOjwjP౓G㕬 ⃣⃸ ᯬOjywjP⚗G 㔣ᯬ౓G ᤟⮃ୗ⤗ឳG ౌ❬㒳G ✃㉧⚛G ⚯᪋㖫G 㒳ሻUG

 G ╘㖫G �⒛᪋ጛG ❳∳ⷋᣓG ⡔⛋⤗G ⒡⒯ሻOu–G –•ŒG ’““Œ‹G qŒššŠˆP▗G ୰⚗G ᧞ ᧞G 㑛ឳ൏᛿⛋G ⛟ሻUG 㒯⤗ᤣG ୗ‘⚯G ᯬ❬G ⃣⃸G ❟⭿ᣓG ሻᡃG ဋ☀⛋G ᤥషG ㈐ ❬G ᯬ❬G ✃㉧⚗G ே⚯G ሻᠿ⤗G ⒡ᇫሻUG ᯬ☧⚯G ≃୘㒳G ╄㒷G ᳗✃ᣓG ሻᡃG {}G

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ሻ⾧᦯ょᤃG �᧿ᎧୗG ቐ∷⚯G ᧜╟ᣓG ♛㓋Oh““G ™šŒG –™G –œ™G –•–œ™PୗG ⛟┟ ሻUG

G  ᯬ᳗ᇫG ౌ୳❘⚓ឳG ┋ᓷ㒳G ᭯⚨ጛG ᱋⛋షG ⛟⤗G ⒡ሻUG 㒯⤗ᤣG ⛓᭯ ❘⚓ឳG  ᯬ᳗ᇫG ⛧∷ᐻ┧G ቗㒳G ┋ᓷ㒳G ᶛ࿳┧G ቗㓋⁳ጛG ᮀ┋❘⛏G ⛜⛼ ⚛G ⴿ㒯ᧇSG ᳗❬❘⛏G ᧋┧G ቗㒳G ᧿ᐷG ㌠ୗ▗G ᩯ ┧G ቗㓋⁳ᇫG ᪋᤟㒯ே ࿯G ౌఀ㒯᝻G 㒳ሻU

G ∳᭓G  㗣⚯G ㉧ G ⤗᧜౓❬┧G ቗㒳G ୳⛜┧G ౗㒳G ള❬⚗G ┝ሻUG ≃⤗┋G ᯬ ❘G ❛᪏ୗጛG ⛋G ౓❬┧G ⤘❨❘⛏G ╘㓼⚛G ࿓⶷G ⅯG ┝ሻUG ㉧ ⚯G ⛛᧜┧G ౗㒳G ∳⇻コ⚗G ㆃ᧜㒯⤗G ⒡⚓ᧇG ᭳㎳፯ඇG ❛ඣ⤗G ᅛୗG ㉧ ឳG ⤗᧜፷⤗G ᧿ᣏሻUG 㔣ᯬ⚗G㉧ ⚯G ⛛᧜⚛G ᯬ᳗▗⚯G㕨⚯ᣓG ேⰧG❬᳗ୗG㒯ጛ឴G 㒯షG⛟ሻUG㔣 ᯬG XY[⟇▗G YX^⟇ᇫG ቗ᯬ☧౓G షᑈᯬ☧⚯G ㉧ G ⛛᧜❟⭿ᣓG ള❬㒯షG ⛟ሻUG ൏ᝃ࿯G቗ᯬ☧⚗G㉧ఇ⚛Gㄌ㓋G⛋ᝃ㒳Gೣ㒳⚛G ᯬ᳗ឳGᷓ⒮⒛▫ሻUG⛏ጛ┧⁳G ㉧ ⚯G ⛛᧜ᮀ∴⚗G ㆃ᧜㒯⤗G ⒡⚓ᧇSG ே⚯G ⮜⛛⚛G ⤗⤗G ⒡ᇫG ᮀ∴⚓ឳG ⛋ᠿ ┋➏▫ሻUG G G G ቗ᯬ☧⚓ឳ⚯G∐⤛౓❬┧⁳G㉧ G㘛᱋⛧ᐻ⛋G᳗❬㒳Gᮀᯬ⚛Gㄌ㓋Gఔ✘㒯ష ⛧G 㓟ኯG ⛓┧G ቗㒯╃SG ቗ᯬ☧┧G 㓄⚯㒯ඇG ♛㓋G ∳᭓☋ጰ⚛G ㄌ㓋G ㉧ G 〛㓌G ∳ጛG ᑈ⚛G 㒳G ❘⛋G ⛟ሻUG ⛋G ౓❬┧⁳G ∳᭓ 㗣ᇫG ≃⤗┋G ㉧ ᐻ┧G ቗㒳G 〛 㓌⚛G ∳ጛ㓟ᇫ዇SG ఇೄ┧G ቐ ⛧ᇫG ∳᭓ 㗣G ᭦G ╃ិ⚯G ⒬᝼⚛G ᭲⒛G  ⛛㓟 ሻUG൏ᇫGⷋᣋ࿯〗ⷋ⡓Orˆ™•ˆ›ˆ’ˆPGషᑈᯬ☧⚯Gᑫ࿯ⷋᛗOk•ˆ’ˆ™ˆ•P⛋ᛗG㉧ ╗ ሻU ∳᭓ 㗣ᇫG₏᭏࿯▗Gヷិ⚛G╋షG㉧ G⛛᧜G∳⇻コG୳㕘⒟⚛G❳⒟㒯ᇫGᑈ⚯G ᭫├⚓ឳG╃ិ┧G╘㓼⚛G᭏⶯᝻షG㓋▫ሻUGᕧ㒳G ᯬ᳗⚯G⮜⛛₈⚛G୬㖫㒯ᇫG

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⛜ᯬ⒟⚛G ᤣᐻጛ឴G ჏᝼㒯ඇጛG 㒳ሻU

G ∳᭓ 㗣ୗG ㉧ G ⤗᧜G ఇ❬┧G ቗㓋G ┏ൠ㒯ᇫG ௚⚗G ⛼᝻፯⤗G ⒡ᇫ ሻUG∳᭓ 㗣ୗG⛓᳗G㉧ G⤗᧜Gఇ❬┧G቗㓋G┏ൠ⚛G㒯ካᛓጛG᱋ㄌG᪋∳ ፳ሻUG╻⤘G᳟ୗ㒓㒳Gఔ☇┧G㒳㒯╃G൏ᝃ㒳G㉧ G⤗᧜Gఇ❬⚯G⯷㗣ୗG⛋ ᠿ┋⤗࿯G ⛋௚⚗G ᐳ᪏G ╟⛋ሻUG ቗⡨G ⒬᝼⛋G ே₏⤗⛧G ᑫ࿯ⷋᛗG ㉧ ᇫG ቗ᯬ☧G ㉧ ⤘┧G Ⳬ⯳⛋G ፯┟⚣┧ጛG  ⛛㓋ⓓG 㓟ሻUG

G ᤣⓔG  ᯬG ౓❬┧⁳G 㒓㓋⛧ୗG ‴උሻ᧋G 㓄⃣ୗG ❳ඇ፷G ⅯG ⛟ሻUG ⛋▗G ♷  㒯௣G ᯬ᳗⚯G ㌏㓼₈⚛G൓ேឳG㒳G  ோ⚯G⛋⃸⚛GⰄೃ㒷G ⅯጛG⛟ሻUG ᯬG ∳⇻コ┧G ⚯㒳G 㒓㓋⛧ᣓG ጬᇫG ∳᭓G ሿⰋୗG ⟋✃㒳ሻUG ⛋ᐻG ሿⰋᇫG ჏ⅰ⛧SG ⃣●፳G 㒰቗G 㒓㓋G ╃₈SG ఔ❳❘⚓ឳG ┋᝻☋G ሿⰋG ᑈG 㒓㓋ᣓG ᭲⚗G ㈐❬G  ᛣ ⛋࿯G ሿⰋ┧௣G ᯬ❘G ጛ☗⚛G ❳ౌ㒳ሻUG

G ⲳ൓G ⡓⚯G ╘㓼᝼Oš›ˆ›ŒG •“œŒ•ŠŒP┧G ቗㒳G ☇᝻ឳG ⡓G  ⛋┧⁳G  ோG ⛋ ⃸⛋G ⛟┟ሻUG ╟ᣓG ᐻ┋G iŒš›G iˆ’Œ™ G  ோ⚗G ೃ⛧ᛓ㈏Onœ‘ˆ™ˆ›P┧⁳G ᪛᭫⛋ ឳG ⛋⃸፯┟షG 〗᭗G ࿯ᎧO{ˆ”•G uˆ‹œP⚯G Ⅿ⁴G ⛼౗┧G ቗㒳G 㕧⚯G ౗᝿G  ோ ጛG ⛋⃸፯┟ሻUG

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  May 7 2012 Jinyoung Lee (PSPD, Korea Republic) 

Guidelineforreviewofverdict   1.Isthejudicialverdictmadepublicinyourcountry? ෭ £Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ1) ¤No(Pleasesharethereasonandgotoquestion1Ͳ5)  1.1Towhomistheverdictmadeavailable? ෭ £Availabletoeveryonewithoutlimit ¤Availablebyrequestonly ¥Availableonlytopeoplewhoarerelatedtothetrial(plaintiff,prosecutors,lawyersetc) ¦Availableinalimitedmanner,usuallytomembersofacademiaorofthepress(Inthis case,howisitmadeavailablespecifically?) §Others(Pleaseexplainthewayinwhichtheverdictsmadeavailable)  1.2Towhatextentistheverdictmadeavailable?Whatpercentageofthewholeverdictismade available? £Theentiredecisionisavailablewithoutlimit ¤Thefinalrulingsonly(eg.Supremecourtorhighcourtdecisiononly) ෭ ¥Others(Pleasespecify)   ȥ Irespondedthatthetextsofcourtdecisionsareopento'thegeneralpublicwithnolimits attached'inthepreviousquestion.But,not'all'thetextsareopentothe'all'people'withnolimits attached.'Inprinciple,athirdpersonwhoisnotdirectlyinvolvedinthetrialcanhaveaccesstotexts whosedetailedinformationsuchasnameoftrialparticipantsandcertainplacesaredeleted. Furthermore,onlysmallportionoftherevisedtext,5percentofthetotaltextdescribingcourtruling, areavailableonlinewithnostringsattached.Whoeverwantstoreachtheremaining95percent mustknowthecasenumberandpaysmallamountofcommissiontothecourt.   1Ͳ2Ͳ1.Howmuchpercentdoesopentexttakeinthetotalnumberofcourtrulingdocuments? ȥ Asmentionedabove,only5percentofthetextsisavailableonlinewithnolimitsattached.Case numbersandcommissionpaymentarerequiredtoobtaintheremaining95percentofrecordson courtdecisions.However,therequestcanbeasignificantconstrainttoresearchersandattorneys whosearchforcourtjudgementsbyyearandcases. ȥ Asanexception,peoplecanonlyhaveanaccesstothecollectionoftherevisedtextviathree displaydevicesinSupremeCourtLibrarylocatedatSupremeCourt.However,itlacksaccessibility andonlyallowsvisitorstoreadthetexts.  1.3Howistheverdictmadepublic? ෭£AvailableviaInternet ෭¤Availableinahardcopydelivery ෭¥AvailableonlybyvisitingtheCourt(eg.OnͲsitereadingorphotocopyatthecourt)

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  ¦Others(Pleasespecify)   1.4Arethereanylegalregulationsrelatingtomaketheverdictpublic?(Criminalorcivillaw) ෭ £Yes(PleasegotoQuestion1Ͳ5Ͳ1) ¤No(PleasegotoQuestions2)  1.4.1Pleasewritedowntherelatedarticlesofthelawthatarerelatedtomaketheverdictpublic? ȥ Article162ofCivilProceedingsAct(RequestforPerusalofLitigationRecord,andforDeliveryof Certificates)    ༃Apartyorathirdpersonvindicatingtheinterestsmay,undertheconditionsasprescribedby theSupremeCourtRegulations,filearequestwiththejunioradministrativeofficer,etc.ofacourt foraperusalandcopyingoflitigationrecordsandadeliveryofanauthenticcopy,certifiedcopyor abridgedcopyofthejudicialdocumentsorprotocol,oradeliveryofacertificateofmattersrelating tothelitigation.    ༄AsstipulatedbySupremeCourt,apartytryingtoprotectrights,conductresearches,and supportpublicinterestsmayfilearequestwiththejunioradministrativeofficer,etc.foranapproval toreadrecordsfinalrulingsonlawsuits.Yet,thedefenserecordsforbiddentoreleasetothepublic areanexception. ȥ Article59Ͳ2ofCriminalProcedureLaw(ReadingandMakingacopyofFinalJudgementRecords) ༃Anyonetryingtoprotectrights,conductresearches,andshieldpublicinterestscanmakea requesttoProsecutionServiceforanapprovaltoreadandmakecopiesoffinaljudgement records. Ȅ Lawrevisionin2011orderedjudgementsincriminalandciviltrialtobepostedonlinefrom2013 and2015respectively.Newstipulationisasfollows. ȥ Anyonecanreadthetextsoffinalrulingsviaelectronicmeansincludingtheinternetandother electronicdataprocessingsystembutalsomakecopiesofthem.   2.Isitallowedtocriticisetheverdict? ෭ £Yes(PleasegotoQuestion2Ͳ1) ¤No(PleasegotoQuestion3)  2.1Canacademicspubliclycommentontheverdict?  Yes  2.2Cancivilsocietypubliclycommentontheverdict? Yes  2.3Cancivilsocietyorcitizensorganiseapressconferenceorademonstrationtocriticisethe verdict? ȥ Yes.However,theyarebannedtostageralliesorprotestswithin100metersofthecourt.  3.Arethecourtproceedingsauthoritative?   3.1Doesthejudgebehaveinapropermannertowardthedefendant,plaintiffandwitnesses?

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  ȥ Therehasbeensomeimprovementsbutalotofjudgesstillpresideovertrialsinanauthoritative andoverbearingmanner. ȥ AccordingtoareportannouncedbyacivicgroupcalledTheGoodLawin2010,judgesignoredor talkeddowntoparticipantsin14percentoftrials.(Thecivicgroupmonitorscourtstomakeits assessmentontrialsduringtheNationalassembly'sannualinspectionofgovernmentministriesand agencies.)4,307peoplemonitoredtrialsatSeoulHighCourtfromJuly2009toJuly2010.Inaddition, thereportsaidsomejudgesdidnotlistentothefulltestimoniesofparticipantsandinterrupted them(22.9%),werelatefortrials(11.6%),andnoddedoffduringtrials(4%). ȥ Accordingto2011AssessmentonJudgesreleasedbySeoulBarAssociation,afewproblematic behaviorsbyjudgeswerereported.    •Presidingjudgesturnedtheirbackonanattorneyandadefendantwhoweremakinglast testimonybymovingtheirchair.   •Ajudgeseriouslyunderminedfairnessofatrialbytalkingtooneoftheparticipantswhowasa managerofabank.Thejudgesaid,"Iamoneofthepeopleborrowingmoneyfromyourbank.How's yourbranchmanagerdoing?"   •Apresidingjudgethrewpreparatorydocumentstoaparticipantandrebukedhimorher,saying, "Ifyoudon'tunderstand,askotherswhoknowmuchaboutwritingthedocument."    •Ajudgetoldaparticipantoftrial,"Asyouhavebeenbeatenfor20year,keepyourselfbeaten foryearsaheadaswell."    SeoulBarAssociationoffersitsmemberlawyerstoassessjudges.395memberlawyersevaluated 939judgesnationwidein2011andthereportanalyzed2555evaluationsofthememberlawyers.  3.2Istherealawoncriminalcontemptofcourt? ෭ £Yes(PleasegotoQuestion3Ͳ2Ͳ1to3Ͳ2Ͳ3) ¤No(PleasegotoQuestion4)  3.2.1Whataretherelatedarticlesorclauseofthecontemptofcourt?(Pleaseincluderelevant penaltyifitisapplicable) ȥ Article138ofCriminalLaw(ContemptofCourtortheNationalAssembly)Apersonwhooffends courtorcausesdisturbanceinornearthecourtroomorNationalAssembly'smeetingroomaimedat interruptingcourt'sjudgementorhinderingparliamentarydeliberationsubjectstoimprisonment lessthan3yearsorpenaltylessthan$700. ȥ UnlikeContemptofCourt,acourtcanorderaround20dayinadetentioncentrewithouttrial. (Article61ofCourtOrganizationLaw).  3.2.2Arethereanycasesinthepastthatcontemptofcourtisappliedtotheverdictcriticsmade bycivilsociety?–Ifyes,pleaseincludedetailsofthecase ȥ Noproblematicoccasionoccurred.(Noonewasindictedforcontemptofcourtin2011.) ȥ Asapunishmentfornotimplementingcourtorder,thereisnochargesunderthecontemptof courtinanabstractform,butitislimitedtospecificinsultanddisturbance.  4.Isthetrialheldinanopencourt? ෭£Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ1) ¤No(Pleasewritedownthereason.Then,pleasegotoQuestion4Ͳ4)  4.1Towhomisthetrialopen? - 89 -


  £Toeveryonewithoutlimit ෭ ¤Generallyopenexceptsomespecialcases,wheretrialsareheldbehindcloseddoors ¥Trialsareonlyopentorelatedpeopleincludingfamilyandpartiestothelitigation ¦Others(Pleasespecify) ȥ Inprinciple,criminaltrialsareopentothegeneralpublic.(Article27oftheConstitution). However,releaseofstatementsmadebyvictimscanbeprohibitedtoprotecttheirprivacyand safety.(Article294Ͳ3ofCriminalProcedureLaw)   4.2Incasethelitigantsspeakinadifferentlanguagetotheofficiallanguageofthecourt,are interpretationandtranslationservices(includingsignlanguages)providedopenly? ȥ IntheeventthatanypersontakingpartinpleadingsdoesnotspeakKoreanlanguages,orhas anyimpedimentinhearingorspeaking,thecourtshallhaveaninterpreterconductingthe interpretation:Provided,Thatthecourtmaymakethepersonhavingthesaidimpedimenttoask questions,ortomakestatements,inwriting.(Article143ofCivilProceedingsLaw) ȥ Thepresidingjudgeofajudgemay,whenheexaminesadefendantinlightofhisage,gender, nationalityoranyotherfactor,allowapersonwhohasareliablerelationshipwiththedefendantto sitincompanywiththedefendant.(Article276Ͳ2ofCriminalProcedureLaw)  4.3Incasethetrialiscomposedofthreeormorejudges,areminoropinionsalsoincludedinthe verdict? ȥ ThedocumentoffinaljudgementmadeinacourtotherthanSupremeCourtorConstitutional Courtonlycontainsthefinalconclusion,notdissentingorminorityopinionsamongthejudges.Also, itislegallyprohibitedtodisclosehowthejudgesreachedanagreement.    4.4.Howarethecourts’recordkept? ȥ Alltheprotocolofpublictrialshallbepreparedonthedateofpublictrial.(Article51ofCriminal ProcedureLaw).  4.4.1Howistheprotocolforthewrittenpublictrial?(Pleaseincludewhatcontentsmustbe included,whetherinvolvedpartiesconsentisrequiredetc) ȥ Courtstaffmemberswhotookpartinthetrial,forexamplecourtdeputydirector,writetrial report.  ȥ Details:Dateandnameofthecourt,participantsofthetrial,whetherthetrialwasopentothe publicornotandthereasonwhyitwasheldinclosedsessionifitwasnotopentothepublic, readingofastatementoffactsconstitutingtheoffensecharged,rightsofadefendantandother detailsrelatedtothetrialprocedures. ȥ Thetrialreportmustbemadeimmediatelyafterthetrial.Also,thereportmustbereadinthe nexttrialtonotifythemainpointsoftheprevioustrial.  4.4.2Isitpossibletotakenote,recordsoundorvideoduringthetrial? ȥ Unlessthereisanyextraordinaryreasonotherwise,everycourtshall,uponamotionfroma publicprosecutor,adefendant,oradefensecounsel,assignastenographertotakestenographic notesofahearinginthecourt,inwholeorinpartormakeaudioorvideorecords(includingthose - 90 -


  withsoundrecorded;hereinafterthesameshallapply)ofahearingbyusinganaudioorvideo recordingsystem,andmayalsoorderexofficiototakesuchnotesormakesuchrecording,if deemednecessary.(Article56Ͳ2ofCriminalProcedureLaw)  4.4.3Istheprotocolforthepublictrialavailabletopublic?Areanyobjectionsorcriticstothe protocolaccepted? ȥ Prosecutor,defendantorattorneyisabletorequestcorrectionorraiseanobjectionoverthe detailswrittenintrialreports.Inthiscase,reasonsformakingtherequestorobjectionaswellas judge'sopinionsregardingthedemandsmustbeaddedinthereport.  4.4Isthepressallowedtoreportonthecourtproceedings? ෭ £Yes(PleasegotoQuestion4.4.1) ¤No ȥ Presscannotvideotapeordirectlyreportonthetrialproceedings.Reportersusuallydelivernews byattendingtrialsinpersontowritenotesorbyreferringtopressreleaseprovidedbythecourt duringorafterthetrial.  4.4.1Doespresscovercourtproceedingsinafairandbalancedway?  ȥ Mediaemphasizesdifferentpartsofthejudgementormakedifferentassessment(whichcanbe eitherpositiveornegative)accordingtoitspoliticalview. ȥ Forinstance,ProsecutionServiceindictedanumberofprotesterswhoattendedarallyagainst theSouthKoreaͲU.S.FreeTradeAgreementin2008andmostofthetrialswerehandledbySeoul CentralDistrictCourt.OneofjudgesrequestedtheConstitutionalCourttodeliberateonthe constitutionalityofthebanonnighttimerallies.Conservativemediaoutletsunleashedastringof harshcriticismonthejudgeeveryday.Whatisworse,theconservativepressremainedsilentonthe interventionofthethenchiefjusticeofSeoulCentralDistrictCourtinthetrialandcontinuedto makelopsidedreportstoblamethejudgewhoraisedtheissue.Asaresult,thejudgewhoaskedfor theConstitutionalCourttoreviewtherelevantarticlesteppeddownwhereastheChiefJusticewas appointedasSupremeCourtJustice.Consequently,sucheffortsseriouslyunderminedjudicial independence.  4.5Istherealegalframeworkrelatedtoopennessofpublictrial?Ifyes,pleaseincludeabrief descriptionofitscontents. ȥ (ThethirdclauseofArticle27oftheConstitution)Allcitizenshavetherighttoaspeedytrial.  Theaccusedhavetherighttoapublictrialwithoutdelayintheabsenceofjustifiablereasonstothe contrary.  5.Others 5.1Hasthereeverbeenatelevisiondramaormoviebasedonrealcourtcases? ෭ £Yes(Pleasespecify.PleasegotoQuestion5.1.1) ¤No ȥ In2007,Aformerprofessorshotacrossbowatajudgeforaverdictagainsthim,inasuithe filedtobereinstatedinhisjob.Thecourtdubbedtheincident'terroragainstjudiciary'andfound himguiltyincriminalcourt.Afilmentitled'ABrokenArrow',isbasedonthisstoryandreleasedin theatersearlythisyear.Themoviedrew3millionviewersnationwideandpromptedimmensepublic attention.

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   5.1.1Whatwasthereactionofthejudicialbodiesregardingthisfilmortelevisionshow? ȥ Afterthereleaseofthemovie,court'sunilateralandarbitrarywayofproceedingtrialsemerged asasocialissue.Itreaffirmedhighpublicdistrustofjudiciary.Inresponse,SupremeCourtsaidthe filmisbasedonafiction,seekingboxofficehitandmisleadingfactoftheincident.TheSupreme Courtdistributedmanualstojudgesacrossthenationwhoareinchargeofdealingwithmedia coverage.SeoulCentralDistrictCourtheldaneventaspartofanefforttolistentothepublicopinion butunderwentcriticismforendingupasaoneͲoffevent.   5.2Isitpossibleforthelegislativebodytoconducthearingsorinvestigationonthematters directlyrelatedtoatrialwhileitisstillinprogress? ෭ £Yes(Pleasegivesomeexamplesincludingjudicialbody’sreactiononthis) ¤No ȥ Lastyear,theNationalAssemblyembarkedoninvestigationintothebreakdownofnonͲ monetaryinstitutionsincludingsavingsbanks.However,theNationalAssemblyfacedmany difficultiesbecausetherewasnoforciblewaytosummonwitnesseswhorefusedtoparticipatedue tootherscheduleslikeotherinvestigationortrial.Also,itwashardtofindthefactofcasesdueto thelackofcooperationfrominvestigationagenciesincludingProsecutionService.  5.3Howdoescivilsocietyinterveneintheappointmentprocessofthejudges? ȥ TheChiefJusticeoftheSupremeCourtisappointedbythePresidentwiththeconsentofthe NationalAssembly.TheSupremeCourtJusticesareappointedbythePresidentonthe recommendationoftheChiefJusticeandwiththeconsentoftheNationalAssembly.Judgesother thantheChiefJusticeandtheSupremeCourtJusticesareappointedbytheChiefJusticewiththe consentoftheConferenceofSupremeCourtJustices.(Article104oftheConstitution).Civicsociety doesnothavemanylegalchannelsensuringitsparticipationinappointingjudges. ȥ TheSupremeCourtJusticeNominationAdvisoryCommitteeortheJudgesAppointment CommitteerecommendscandidatesforSupremeCourtJusticeanddiscussesnominationofjudges. Althoughcivicgrouppersonnelcanbeamemberofthetwocommittees,theChiefJusticeofthe SupremeCourthastherighttoappointthecommitteemember.  ȥ InrecommendingcandidatesforSupremeCourtJustice,anindividual,acorporatebody,ora groupareinstitutionallyallowedtorecommendthemostappropriatecandidateandcollectopinions todeliverunanimousviewontherecommendationsmadebytheSupremeCourtJusticeduringa certainperiod(Article6oftheSupremeCourtJusticeNominationAdvisoryCommitteeAct). ȥ Theviewsexchangedduringthedesignatedperiodarenotreleasedtothepublic.Therefore, civicsocietyseparatelyannouncesitsowncriteriaforidealSupremeCourtJusticeandpublicly recommendscandidatesforthepositions.  5.3.1Cancivilsocietyfreelycommentonthedecisiontoappointjudges?Howdoescourtrespond tothesecomments? ȥ IndesignatingSupremeCourtJusticeandConstitutionalCourtJustice,confirmationhearingsare heldtogainapprovalfromtheNationalAssemblyandcivicsocietytakespartintheprocess.Civic societysendsitsownquestionnairemadetoassesscandidatesortoaskforNationalAssembly's approvalforattendingthehearing.Civicsocietyhasconstantlypointedoutthatmanyretiredjudges andpublicprosecutorsgoontobecomelawyers.Thepointmadebythecivicsocietyplaysan importantroleinevaluatingthecandidates'legalethics. 

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   5.4Arethereanygroupstosupportvictimsofthejudiciarysystem?Ifyes,pleaseexplainfurther. 去 Therehasbeenagrowingnumberofpeoplethatshowtheirdistrustandraisequestionsonthe overalljudicialproceduresaftertheyaredissatisfiedwithunilateral,uneventrialorinvestigation. Theyhavecreatedseveralgroupsofvictimssufferingfromjurisdiction.Theyhavecontinuedtostage aone筒manprotestinfrontofcourtorinvestigationagencybuildingsorfileacivilcomplaint.  6.Whataretherecentactivitiesofjudicialbodiesregardingaboveissues? 去 TheSupremeCourtandtheSouthKoreangovernmenthaverevisedcriminalacttoensure defenserightsofdefendantsanddueprocesssince2004.Aspartofthesameeffortwhich outstandinglyexpandscitizens'participationinjurisdictionprocedure,jurysystemsuggestedbycivic societyhasbeendiscussedandlegislated.Inregardstothereleaseofthetextillustratingcourt rulings,thebillreflectingcivicsociety'sstancetodisclosefulldocumentpassedtheNational Assemblylastyear.  

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List of Participants 㵬ᴴ㣄G⮹␜G *organized in alphabetical order Organization

#

Country

Full Name

1

Bangladesh

Mr. Adilur Rahman Khan

Odhikar

2

Bangladesh

Mr. Ahmed Swapan Mahmud

VOICE

3

Burma

Ms. Khin Ohmar

Burma Partnership

4

Cambodia

Mr. Panhavuth Long

Cambodia Justice Initiative

5

India

Mr. Lenin Raghuvanshi

People's Vigilance Committee on Human Rights

6

India

Ms. Indira Unninayar

Campaign for Judicial Accountability & Judicial Reform

7

India

Mr. Prashant Kumar

Campaign for Judicial Accountability & Judicial Reform

8

Indonesia

Mr. FebiYonesta

LBH Jakarta

9

Indonesia

Ms. Poengky Indarti

Imparsial

10

Indonesia

Mr. Wendy Andhika Prajuli

Initiatives for International Dialogue (IDSPS)

11

Korea Republic

Mr. Chanho Kim

The May 18 Memorial Foundation

12

Korea Republic

Mr. Deepak Prasad Bashyal

The May 18 Memorial Foundation

13

Korea Republic

Ms. Heejeong Kim

The May 18 Memorial Foundation

14

Korea Republic

Ms. Mihoko Yamamoto

The May 18 Memorial Foundation

15

Korea Republic

Mr. Youngjeong Kim

The May 18 Memorial Foundation

16

Korea Republic

Ms. Gayoon Baek

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

17

Korea Republic

Ms. Huisun Kim

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

18

Korea Republic

Mr. Jaegun Lee

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

19

Korea Republic

Ms. Jinyoung Lee

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

20

Korea Republic

Ms. Mihyeon Lee

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

21

Korea Republic

Mr. Sang hie Han

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

22

Korea Republic

Ms. Sangmi Lee

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

23

Korea Republic

Ms. Sunmi Lee

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

24

Korea Republic

Mr. Taeho Lee

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

25

Korea Republic

Mr. Yang Chihchiang

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

26

Korea Republic

Ms. Youngmi Yang

People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD)

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 27

Korea Republic

Mr. Seungwon Lee

Soengkonghoe Univ., Democracy and Social Movements Institute

28

Malaysia

Mr. Wong Chin-Huat

Monash University Malaysia

29

Nepal

Mr. Krishna Gautam

Informal Sector Service Centre (INSEC)

30

Pakistan

Mr. Rashid Rehman Khan

Human Rights Commission of Pakistan

31

Singapore

Mr. James Gomez

Thammasat University

32

Sri Lanka

Mr. Niran Joshua Anketell

Inform Human Rights Documentation Centre

33

Taiwan

Mr. Chuan-yueh Chen

Judicial Reform Foundation

34

Taiwan

Mr. Wen-Lung Cheng

Judicial Reform Foundation

35

Timor- Leste

Mr. LuisdeOliveiraSampaio

Judicial System Monitoring Programme

36

Regional

Mr. Sayeed Ahmad

Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)

37

Regional

Mr. John Liu Yn Tynn

Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)

38

Regional

Mr. Yap Swee Seng

Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)

39

Regional

Ms. Giyoun Kim

Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)

40

Regional

Ms. Sejin Kim

Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)

41

Regional

Mr. Isagani V. Abunda II

Initiatives for International Dialogue (IID)



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'아시아 시민사회 사법감시 워크숍

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