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Princeton University School of Architecture Workbook— 14/15


1 CONTENTS

Workbook— 14/15   3

Dean’s Letter

  5

M.Arch Thesis Projects

M.Arch Studios

  6

AVIV—Dorit, Fall 2013

60

ARC 501/MICHAEL MEREDITH—Fall 2013

12

CHEN—Debbie, Fall 2013

64

ARC 503/PAUL LEWIS—Fall 2013

18

WANG —Fei, Fall 2013

68

ARC 505A/LIAM YOUNG —Fall 2013

24

CHAPMAN—Julia, Spring 2014

72

ARC 505B/STAN ALLEN—Fall 2013

30

CHURALSKA—Tsvetelina, Spring 2014

76

ARC 502/AXEL KILIAN—Spring 2014

36

MAY—Lindsey, Spring 2014

80

ARC 504/ANDRÉS JAQUE—Spring 2014

42

PAJERSKI—Nick; FRIES-BRIGS—Gabriel;

84

ARC 506/JESSE REISER—Spring 2014

SHEA—Brendan, Spring 2014

48

TEELING —Milou, Spring 2014

54

WEI—Harry Mingxia, Spring 2014

89

Undergraduate Program

90

ARC 404/MARIO GANDELSONAS—Fall 2013

98

JUNIOR INDEPENDENT WORK/HALEY EBER—Spring 2014

106 AVIS—Charles, Senior Thesis Spring 2014 108 GEBB—Samantha, Senior Thesis Spring 2014 110

MILLS—Alison, Senior Thesis Spring 2014

112

ORTMEYER—Katherine, Senior Thesis Spring 2014

114

SANTILLO —Amanda, Senior Thesis Spring 2014

117

Doctoral Program

144

GROSSMAN—Vanessa

124

RESEARCH SEMINARS

146

HANDWERKER—Margo

130

ARAGÜEZ—José

148

KOTSIORIS—Evangelos

132

AVILÉS—Luis

150

MEISTER—Anna-Maria

134

BEDFORD —Joseph

152

OLAIYA—Yetunde

136

BRITZ—Marc

154

PANTELEYEVA—Masha

138

EVERSOLE—Britt

156

RICCHI—Daria

140

FABRICIUS—Daniela

158

VANNUCCHI—Federica

142

GONZALEZ GALAN—Ignacio


3

Architecture and education both require a profound commitment to a better future. But the future is a leap into the void, a belief in something out there ahead, impossible to predict with any certainty. As architects, we design buildings, landscapes and cities for a society whose ideas and technologies will inevitably change; as educators, we teach new generations of students who will practice in a world more global, more urban, more technologically complex, and more open to change. The only certainty is change itself, and our first obligation is to equip all students with the practical and intellectual tools necessary to invent new practices for the new century. Architecture at Princeton has always been taught in this broad cultural context. Our design studios and technical courses are rigorous and demanding; they prepare our graduates to practice effectively in a competitive environment. A broad range of technology courses complement the design curriculum and promote innovation. Our history and theory curriculum, with its strong interdisciplinary ties, encourages the critical intelligence necessary to make sense of a changing world. Moreover, the School’s small size enables us to integrate design and theory as no other school can, taking advantage of the overlaps and intersections between studio work and a rich culture of research and intellectual speculation. Architecture is a collective art-form, involving the expertise of many different fields. As a School, we promote imagination, inquiry and experimentation. The School is committed to a culture of collaboration involving architecture, urbanism, landscape technology and media. Architecture is constantly enriched by the traffic between theory and practice. We are committed to engage the world outside the academy. At Princeton, we are confident that our long history of a productive dialogue between academic research and practical design work will produce a new generation of architects prepared to transform our complex world in previously unimagined ways. Stan Allen Acting Dean of the School of Architecture

D E A N ’ S S TAT E M E N T

Workbook—14/15


5

FALL 2013 TH E S I S D I R E CTO R

S P R I N G 2014 TH E S I S D I R E CTO R

Liz Diller

Alejandro Zaera-Polo Michael Meredith

AS S I STANT

Ryan Neiheiser

AS S I STANT

Federica Vannucchi Each semester, the thesis students are challenged to make an architectural response to a general thematic question. The theme is explored in workshops, stated as a written proposition and elaborated as a design proposal during the students’ final semester. Thesis topics are one word themes, agreed upon by the faculty, that serve as a hinge point between architecture and questions of politics, culture, technology or society. The thematic organization of the final semester’s independent design research creates a shared point of departure for students, faculty and visiting critics.

M. ARCH FA L L 11— S P R I N G 12

M.Arch Thesis Projects


AVIV—Dorit M.AR C H TH E S I S FALL 2013

M.E.E.T. — Middle East Energy Treaty: new assembly typology for environmental diplomacy FAC U LTY ADVI S O R S

Liz Diller, Stan Allen

The Middle East is a geographic region with shared climactic characteristics that traverse the national and sectarian boundaries of its fractured political status. 80 percent of the region consists of arid deserts with a high degree of solar radiation. If envisioned strategically, renewable energy offers the potential not only to rethink the desert as an immense resource, but also as an economic incentive for trans-national collaboration in the region. At an architectural scale, this project attempts to tackle the problem of face-to-face human interaction within a desert climate. How far can architects harness the power of the beating sun to conversely create places where people meet and assemble? Historic precedents of pre-electric passive cooling in the region ranging from the Bedouin tent to the Persian malqaf (wind catcher) have been replaced by a contemporary expectation of large, inefficiently enveloped and hyper-cooled halls. This project proceeds from a prototypical site in the desert outside Aqaba, Jordan to explore passive cooling at the large scale of a contemporary meeting hall for regional dialogue. I develop two strategies to leverage optimal temperature gradients that complement one another across a day-night cycle: 1. A downdraft solar chimney with evaporative cooling: In daytime, a mist (of salty or treated grey water) sprays inside the chimney crown. Dry desert air is evaporatively cooled and pulled down the chimney. Cool air is directed into the assembly hall via free convection. At an outdoor temperature of 40°C, internal temperature can be cooled to 25°C. 2. Radiative cooling of the architectural slab: The slab performs as a thermal mass. At night, the aperture of the roof’s chimney is structurally activated to dilate and expose a maximum surface area of the concrete slab to the night sky above. With the chimney open, the slab has the heat capacity to store up to 5°C of cooling on a cloudless night. The assembly hall’s grid-shell roof structure is parametrically designed to geometrically optimize the performance of both these cooling techniques on its site. This approach to envelope design provides a scalable model for passive cooling optimization on other sites, where inputs can be inflected to account for different environmental parameters (outdoor temperature, dew point, water access) and target outcomes (number of people, desired temperature, air velocity) to generate locally efficient assembly spaces in desert climate.


7

M. ARCH FA L L 13

AVIV—Dorit


9

M. ARCH FA L L 13

AVIV—Dorit


11 M. ARCH FA L L 13

AVIV—Dorit


CHEN—Debbie M.AR C H TH E S I S FALL 2013

The Municipal CHUW (Center for Harvesting Utility from Waste): A New Resource Infrastructure for New York City FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Paul Lewis

Municipal waste is the largest untapped resource for our cities today. It is a resource that continues to be marginalized under our lifestyle of linear consumption. From the market to the dump, products and goods consumed in our urban environment find their way to the fringes of society, both physically and culturally. Waste, and the burden of eliminating it from everyday life, is a stigmatized municipal infrastructure that remains critical to the city’s performance. However, as transportation costs become burdensome and landfill space scarce, a rethinking of our waste system is brought to bear. Cities literally need to be resource(ful). In light of this consideration, an opportunity arises to exploit city waste for the extraction of environment, economic and social value. Using New York City as a test site, the Municipal C.H.U.W. proposes to re-institutionalize the city’s waste management system in pursuit of these values. Focusing specifically on quotidian household waste, the C.H.U.W. operates on a dispersed micro-grid system that champions the benefits of digesting our waste locally. Collection and transportation methods, frequency of distribution, material recovery, and energy generation all figure in to a new environmental efficiency that matches the agility of the city. The project focuses on one prototypical C.H.U.W. facility located in the borough of Manhattan. Embedded within the urban fabric of East Village, the C.H.U.W. operates like a machine for processing collected waste into its constituent categories of organics, metals, paper, plastic and glass. The design, however, promotes a duality of extraction and production, coupling material recovery and on-site light manufacturing. Part supplier and part factory, the C.H.U.W. generates economic value through the local production of raw material as well as end product. In having a physical presence in the city, the Municipal C.H.U.W. narrows the gap in our social consciousness between what we consume and what we produce. Community participation is fostered through composting and fabrication workshops, programs that emphasize interaction with waste material in the spirit of production. Dismantling outmoded and unaffordable notions of city waste, the project aims to present a new resource infrastructure that is interconnected and cyclical rather than dissociated and linear. The C.H.U.W. embodies a multi-scalar ecosystem that blurs the boundary between waste and value at all levels of the city, from the home to the street to the neighborhood and back again.


13 M. ARCH FA L L 13

CHEN—Debbie


15 M. ARCH FA L L 13

CHEN—Debbie


17 M. ARCH FA L L 13

CHEN—Debbie


WANG—Fei M.AR C H TH E S I S FALL 2013

Rural Agency: Re-envisioning Chinese Rural Development in the Age of Digital Economy FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Axel Kilian

Architecture has always been a form of physical capital, and urbanization is the process of centralizing the physical capitals. With the triumph of city, rural area has long been marginalized by geographical distance, economic hypodynamia, and populational deprivation. Compared to urbanization that advocates for a core-periphery model, digital technology now manifests new possibilities for democracy, equality, and productivity. By breaking information asymmetry, optimizing resource imbalance, and traversing physical distance, online C2C economy is triggering the decentralization of capital through many minds and many hands. Behind this drastically increasing economy, a paradigm shift of production is emerging, in which digital platform is liberating productivity through the power of mass individuals regardless of locations, and transforming every customer into producer simultaneously. Traditional distinction between private and public is challenged by “common” that advocates sharing, producing and consuming collectively. If urbanization is making the decay of rural unavoidable, now it’s time to use digital technology to re-envision a productive rural, which poses the question that how rural architectural development respond to this digital paradigm shift. Last 20 years, along with unprecedented urbanization, capital centralization, and labor migration, Chinese society has witnessed a significant decline of its rural area, where large amounts of young population have left countryside and swarmed into cities in order to be employed. The deterioration of Chinese rural is marked by the incomplete social structure in which most families only have the old and kids left, as well as the barren agricultural economy that does not breed desirable job opportunities. Last 10 years, the rise of digital economy provides an alternative for rural population to make their living. Rather than leaving hometowns and rushing into city for employment, more and more people choose to stay in the countryside and start

e-commerce on digital platform such as Taobao, which is now marked by the fact that one of five e-traders is a rural resident. Last 5 years, Chinese government has implemented a developing policy called “Building A New Socialist Countryside” that aims at maintaining the rural population and improving the living quality in the countryside. The development now steps into a stagnation because it only produces homogenized social housing but doesn’t create profitable way of production, which eventually fails to fulfill its goal. As an endeavor to regain the agency and productivity of the rural, the thesis proposes Rural Agency — a new individual-entrepreneurbased commune — for Chinese rural development in the age of digital economy. Rural Agency criticizes two rural developing models: one is the historical institution — “People’s Commune (1958– 1978)” — that invented communal architecture based on absolute communism and egalitarianism; the other is the current governmental policy — “Build A New Socialist Countryside (2006–)” — that produces private and homogeneous housing cluster without providing profitable jobs. Instead of implementing either collectivization or privatization, Rural Agency situates between the two. It provides an institutional framework and architectural type that advocates the new living-working mode based on individual entrepreneurship and communal production. As a new institution for living-working collective in the countryside, Rural Agency exploits the potential of C2C e-commerce, advocates individual entrepreneurship, emphasizes the benefits of collective, challenges the preconceived division between private and public, spatializes residential and community programs for social structure’s soundness, invents economical and sustainable construction system, aggregates individual families into a collective “commune”, and finally seeks a new morphology as the architectural manifestation and catalyst for all of the above.


19 M. ARCH FA L L 13

WANG窶認ei


21 M. ARCH FA L L 13

WANG窶認ei


23 M. ARCH FA L L 13

WANG窶認ei


CHAPMAN—Julia M.AR C H TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Middle Grounds: Landscape, Infrastructure, and High Density Development for Penn Station and West Midtown FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Stan Allen

Over the last two decades, landscape practices have embraced largescale urban and infrastructural projects, responding to environmental concerns with green propositions to address post-industrial decay and suburban sprawl. Landscape urbanism has claimed territory between and alongside hard infrastructure, emphasizing peripheral and post-industrial sites and horizontal continuities. But in doing so, Landscape Urbanism has often not been urban enough. This thesis contends that landscape might find new opportunities to transform both architecture and urbanism when confronted with the vertical density of the urban core. This thesis proposes to reconcile the competing ambitions of high density development, public landscape, and working infrastructure through a reconfiguration of their vertical organization. Landscape here might the zones between vertical layers of hard infrastructure (roads, rail lines, subways, etc.) directly in the midst of high density construction. The testing ground for this thesis is New York City’s Pennsylvania Station and the surrounding neighborhood of West Midtown. Outdated, inefficient, and illegible, Penn Station is a center of current architectural imagination, especially in the wake of the New York City Council ruling in 2013 to limit Madison Square Garden’s lease to just ten years. While other proposals suggest that high density private development in the neighborhood would help to fund a new Penn Station as a low density, public monument, this thesis proposes that public and private development be superimposed throughout the neighborhood, creating public space beyond the confines of the station site, and achieving a contemporary form of monumentality that is horizontal and subterranean, but also open and vertical. Cutting vertically through the city, this thesis questions the conception of a new Penn Station as homage to a destroyed monument. Instead, it proposes a new monumentality, both horizontal in its expanse but also vertical in its spatial experience. The project is, on the one hand, a development model which suggests the vertical shifting of air rights in order to turn the region surrounding infrastructural layers into public territory, and on the other hand, a concrete proposal for sixteen sites already slated for upzoned development. The thesis takes an acupunctural approach, piercing through the surface level grid at multiple points to access and provide light to a continuous underground concourse. Accordingly, the network connects to the neighborhood, city, and region at multiple levels. Landscape finds new territory in the middle ground between towers both deep and tall, connecting layers of infrastructure while opening the city’s underbelly to the street life above.


25 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

CHAPMAN—Julia


Landscape Territories

Project Layers

SUBTITLE

Architecture, Landscape, Infrastructure +40’

Penn Station

480 8th Avenue

323 West 34th Street

420 7th Avenue

AMPHITHEATER

1311 Broadway

TOWERS

972 Avenue of the Americas

433 7th Avenue

-40’

Shakespeare at Penn

Political Rally

LANDSCAPES

Picnic Time

Impromptu Concert +40’

-40’ 415 8th Avenue

Moynhihan Station

416 8th Avenue

225 West 30th Street

155 West 29th Street

855 Avenue of the Americas

1255 Broadway

460 8th Avenue

323 West 34th Street

SITES AQUARIUM

SANDPIT

460 8th Avenue

CAVE

480 8th Avenue

Moynihan Station

420 7th Avenue Penn Station

415 8th Avenue 0’

225 West 30th Street

155 West 29th Street

SUBWAYS Hudson River

Playground

Nightclub

Visiting Shark Show

Volleyball

Bookclub Reading

Goldfish Give-Away

Beach Day

Nap Spot

Fishing

Dog Run

Cooling Zone

-20’

-40’

-60’

HILLSIDE

SUNKEN FOREST

URBAN BEACH

PEDESTRIAN CONCOURSE

-20’ -40’

Boundary

Summer

Swimming Lessons

Climbing Wall

Fall

Pool Party

Hideout

Winter

Rescue Training

Lookout

Spring

Cool-off

TRAINS

-60’

RAISED BED GARDEN

MEADOWLANDS

TILTED LAWN

-80’

-100’

-120’

Outdoor Classroom

Bird Watching

Sunbathing

Pick-YourOwn

Bird Watching

Frisbee

Vegetable Food Bank

Bird Watching

Movie Night

Local Food Fair

Bird Watching

Sledding

TOWER BASES

-20’

-200’

972 Avenue of the Americas 1241 Broadway

416 8th Avenue

855 Avenue of the Americas

1311 Broadway


27 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

Sections

Site Plans

Site Model Key

9th Avenue to 5th Avenue, 29th to 35th Streets

CHAPMAN—Julia

TOWERS (60’+)

GROUND (0’)

WEST

7th AVE

8th AVE

6th AVE

EAST

PENN

UPPER CONCOURSE (-20’)

EAST

6th AVE

8th AVE

7th AVE

WEST

PENN

LOWER CONCOURSE (-40’)

PENN TRACKS (-60’)

TOWER BASES (-120’)


29 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

CHAPMAN—Julia


CHURALSKA—Tsvetelina M.AR C H TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Socially Empowered: Independent Productive Communities in Suburban America FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Hayley Eber

Due to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, in many areas, the housing market has also suffered resulting in evictions, foreclosures and prolonged unemployment. One sector particularly hard-hit was the suburbs. Although the suburbs have long attracted families as part of the American Dream, today’s suburbs have gotten new set of dysfunctions: sealed windows, weedy lawns, empty parking lots and storefronts, immigrants in large masses flocking into decaying neighborhoods, unbuilt communities and abandoned factories. The suburbs have proved not to be recession-proof. This thesis will re-evaluate the suburbs through the systems of infrastructure and the finance that supports it, in order to propose a more robust model. Social capital has untapped potential in mitigating the demise of the suburbs, or can offer an alternate model of the suburbs. The Chapter 1 thesis is looking at the architectural effects from social capital and community development for a community improvement.

US

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITY PROCESS Farming Co-op

Production Co-op

1x

200 sq.feet.

AD

LE

RO

VIL EL

M

10’

20’

1 Bushel of Barley = 48 pounds 256 x

and/or

MAIN STREET

and/or N

LIRR

TRAIN

IO STAT

house owner

nyc on-site production

consumption by owner

consumption by co-op member Return of investment

farms his land or another co-op member

rents to a neighboring farmer through SharedLand

house owner

STRATEGIES Production, Agriculture, Residence

house owner shares his production unit with neighbor

10%

MECHANISM Developers

Farming Cooperative -Grow produce in exchange for: -new amenities -investment return -Defines overall land usage

Manufacturing Cooperative -Responsible for manufacturing of the product

Retail Cooperative

FBI

(FARMING BUREAU OF IMPROVEMENTS)

-Redevelope foreclosed housing -Manage facilities and amenities

Businesses

-Use cooperatives for growing + production

Local government -Tax exemptives -Rezoning

-Organize Farmer’s Market -Looks fro opportunities for selling the product -Advertise business that buy produce

18

SOCIAL CAPITAL

IS

SHARING.......BARTERING.......LENDING....... TRADING......RENTING.......GIFTING.......SWAPPING


31 US

AS INDIVIDUALS Separation from Nature

Dependence on Foreign Oil

Financial Burden

CHURALSKA—Tsvetelina

AS A NATION:

Social Disconnect

Dependence on Foreign Industry

AS RESIDENTS OF AMERICAN SUBURBS Bring Diverse Communities

Fight “brain drain”

To Use Homeownership as path to wealth

$$$ $

21

60

$$$$

AS RESIDENTS OF BIG CITIES High rent

$ $$

Too Much Density

Unhealthy Living Conditions

Limited Jobs for Unskilled Workers

Security

$$ $$$

Chapter 27

US -provides loans for revitalization of distressed communities

employment loans

increased contracts

-rebuilding suburbia Local developer

-intervention from mortgage companies on property values

M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

Chapter 1

on-time payment

profit

increase property values

product

security and prosperity

-use co-ops for farming and production -provides initial capital -provides seeds and equipment for companies to start

health and safety

trust and security

seeds for testing

-tax exemptives & incentives -rezoning -donation of land

55


Chapter 3

Youngsto

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL POLITICAL

Combination:

Combination:

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

15’

81


33 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

CHURALSKA—Tsvetelina

Chapter 3

86-88

Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstow

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

79


35 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

CHURALSKA—Tsvetelina


MAY—Lindsey M.AR C H TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Open Lobby FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Liz Diller

Open Lobby is a network of public, affordable coworking spaces set in the underused and overlooked lobbies of New York City office towers. Open Lobby manages the physical spaces, the urban policy mechanisms, and the financial structures that support this new urban amenity.

ExistiNg LOBBY cOmPONENts matEriaLs & acOustics Marble Tile Interior Finish Travertine Floor Tile

LightiNg Can Lights Electrical Wiring

1/ sEcuritY & circuLatiON

thE fOLLOwiNg sYstEms arE thE ExistiNg iNfrastructurE EmBEDDED iN LOBBY sPacEs:

2/ structurE & fLOOriNg

structurE & fLOOriNg Steel Construction Concrete Wall

3/ matEriaLs & acOustics 4/ LightiNg 5/ facaDE & thrEshOLDs

sEcuritY & circuLatiON

Elevator Access Security Desk

facaDE & thrEshOLDs

Revolving Door Glass Facade


37

2/ structurE & fLOOriNg

The enormous columns that penetrate the lobby support the entire weight of the building above. As a result, within the space of the lobby itself, the columns provide excess structural capability and are able to perform more work than at present.

3/ matEriaLs & acOustics

The hard slab materials currently used in the lobby are acoustically reflective and result in a harsh cacophony of echoes and reverberations. This is not conducive to a comfortable working environment. Providing ample work surface or desktop area is essential to the productive environment. There are currently no work surfaces in the existing spaces.

4/ LightiNg

Lobbies typically are lit from above by a grid of can recessed lighting. This lighting is uniform throughout the lobby.

5/ facaDE & thrEshOLDs

The facade of the lobby is a flat, hermetic seal between the city and the tower. Often, the glassâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reflectivity and flatness combine to produce a glare that renders the facade opaque. By rendering the material in a new way, the lobby can create a new identity, interest, and transparency. Moreover, revolving doors slow down the passage of visitors and interrupt the potentially fluid entry and exit into the lobby.

MAYâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Lindsey

At present, the lobby is an empty space under constant surveillance by attending guards. People enter and exit the lobby directly and efficiently.

M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

1/ sEcuritY & circuLatiON


NEw DEsigN critEria structurE & fLOOriNg

circuLatiON Circulation

Structure & Flooring

matEriaLs & acOustics Structure & Flooring

Materials & Acoustics

wOrkstatiONs Materials & Acoustics

facaDE & thrEshOLD

LightiNg

Workstations

Workstations

Lighting

Lighting

Facades

Facades

ExistiNg

Circulation

tO ENsurE a PrODuctivE, safE, aND cOmfOrtaBLE LOBBY sPacE, thE fOLLOwiNg arE BasE DEsigN critEria fOr thE NEtwOrk:

Step 1/ Remove marble panels

10’-0” Area A Total Lobby - Area B = Open Lobby

Area Area A B 27% max.- Area of total Total Lobby B lobby area is alloted = Open Lobby to tower circulation

Step 2/ Replace with acoustically absorbant material

Step 2/ Replace with acoustically absorbant material

Repurpose marble panels Step 1/ Extend ceiling can light wiring to create hanging task lighting

10’-0” Area B 27% max. of total lobby area is alloted to tower circulation

Area A + Mezzanine Area

50 sf per worker

Area A + Mezzanine Area

If mezzanine level covers more than 75% of Area A*, 50% of the mezzanine flooring material must be perforated .

If mezzanine level covers more than 75% of Area A*, 50% of the mezzanine flooring material must be perforated .

Step 3/ Marble panels must be mounted back on the walls (3a) or reused as mezzanine flooring (3b).

Step 3/ Marble panels must be mounted back on the walls (3a) or reused as mezzanine flooring (3b).

1:1 chair to worktop ratio

Chairs LoungeTask Chairs

Lounge Chairs Minimum 25% of workstation seats

3:1 chair to worktop ratio

3:1 chair 1:1 to chair to worktop worktop ratio ratio

Daylighting Step 3b

Step 3b

Step 3a

Circulation

Example 1/ Facade adjustment in plan

Example 2/ Facade adjustment in section

Example 2/ Facade adjustment in section

Example 3/ Hybrid Facade adjustment

Example 3/ Hybrid Facade adjustment

Step 2/ Arrange task lighting to create workstation clusters

Minimum Minimum 25% 25% of of workstation workstation seatsseats

Seating

Task Chairs Minimum 25% of workstation seats

Example 1/ Facade adjustment in plan

50 sf per worker

Worktop

Seating Shift entrance from center to off-axis. Replace revolving doors with sliding doors to facilitate fluid circulation.

Worktop

aPPLicatiONs

Shift entrance from center to off-axis. Replace revolving doors with sliding doors to facilitate fluid circulation.

Convert a minimum 66% of the facade (in linear feet) into an occupiable zone

Step 1/ Extend ceiling can light wiring to create hanging task lighting

Step 2/ Arrange task lighting to create workstation clusters Total workstation requirement:

Total workstation requirement:

Convert a minimum 66% of the facade (in linear feet) into an occupiable zone

Daylighting

Step 3a

Structure & Flooring

Circulation

Materials & Acoustics

1/ sEcuritY & circuLatiON

2/ structurE & fLOOriNg

The existing on-axis entry reinforces the formality of the lobby and the approach to the impending security desk. Shifting the lobby entry off-axis interrupts the formal symmetry. This gesture also leaves the majority of the area for a uninterrupted workspace. Security can also be monitored through more technologically integrated and spatially subtle means. Smartphone apps and readers can provide the same level of surveillance while giving individuals the tools to control access.

The structural columns that penetrate many lobbies bear the load of the entire building above. As a result, within the scope of the lobby, the columns are Step 1/very over-structured Remove marble panels than is currently and have a greater potential used. Taking advantage of the load bearing capacity of the column, new structures and as a result, floor area, within the lobby can cling to the columnsStep for support. 2/

critEria

Provide new mezzanine area equal to 30% of Area A 8’-0”

critEria

10’-0” Area A Total Lobby - Area B = Open Lobby

Replace with acoustically absorbant material

Structure & Flooring

Provide new mezzanine area equal to 30% of Area A

Repurpose marble panels

1/ The circulation path from the entry to the elevator core will be less that 27% of the overall floor area.

10’-0”

Area A + Mezzanine Area

2/ If the design calls for a mezzanine that is more than 75% of the ground floor working area, 50% of the mezzanine flooring must be constructed with perforated materials for a visual connection.

2/ The circulation path from the entry to the elevator core will be no more than 12 ft wide.

 !!

 ?

!!

??

If mezzanine level covers more than 75% of Area A*, 50% of the mezzanine flooring material must be perforated .

Step 3/ Marble panels must Shift entrancebe from centerback to on mounted off-axis. Replace therevolving walls (3a) or doors with sliding doors to reused as mezzanine facilitate fluidflooring circulation. (3b).

50 sf per worker

Total workstation requirement:

  Shift entrance from center to off-axis. Replace revolving doors with sliding doors to facilitate fluid circulation.

Step 2/ Replace with acoustically absorbant material

8’-0”

Area B ft, A the lobby is at least 1/ If the heightArea of 20 27% max. of total Total Lobby - Area B lobby area is alloted = Open Lobby the lobby must have at least a 20% addition to tower circulation to the ground floor coworking area through the provision of a mezzanine.

Area B 27% max. of total lobby area is alloted to tower circulation

Workstations

Step 1/ Remove marble panels

!!

Seating

actiONs

8’-0”

8’-0”

Repurpose marble panels

If mezzanine level covers more than 75% of Area A*, 50% of the mezzanine flooring material must be perforated .

Worktop

Provide new mezzanine area equal to 30% of Area A

Provide new mezzanine area equal to 30% of Area A

Step 1/ Remove marble panels

Task Chairs Minimum 25% of workstation seats

1:1 chair to worktop ratio

Lounge Chairs Minimum 25% of seats Stepworkstation 3/ Marble panels must be mounted back on the walls (3a) or 3:1aschair to reused mezzanine worktop flooring (3b).ratio


39 Structure & Flooring

Materials & Acoustics

Circulation

Existing lobby materials are hard, planar, modular, acoustically reflective, and commonly white or gray. The coworking program includes and accommodates collaborative working, and as a result, the space needs to be acoustically attenuated.

A workstation is a place for an occupant to engage in meaningful work whether it is individual or collaborative. One potential application of the marble/travertine Step 1/ Remove marble panels wall panel is the conversion to a unit of hardware.

Step 1/ Remove marble panels

Provide new mezzanine area equal to 30% of Area A

Step 2/ Replace with acoustically absorbant material

1/ Remove marble panels.

10’-0” Area B 27% max. of total lobby area is alloted to tower circulation

Area A Total Lobby - Area B = Open Lobby

3/ Marble panels must be mounted back on the walls (3a) or reused as mezzanine flooring (3b).

!!

?

!!

  Step 3/ Marble panels must Shift entrance from center to back on be mounted off-axis. Replace revolving the walls (3a) or doors with slidingreused doors as to mezzanine facilitate fluid circulation. flooring (3b).

Structure & Flooring

Materials & Acoustics

Seating

Minimum 25% of workstation seats

  ??

!!

Lighting

Facades

The flat glass facade of the lobby reads to an outsider as an impenetrable wall.

1/ Increase the grain of the lighting grid. Grid spacing from Repurpose 2’-0” to 3’-0” marble is recommended. This Step 2/ panels provides more Replace with acoustically flexibility for localized illumination. absorbant

Example 1/ Area A + Facade Mezzanine Area adjustment in plan

50 sf per worker

3/ Flexible, small-scale Mezzanine lightsAreacan provide zones of program and workstation clusters. Step 2/ Arrange task lighting to create workstation clusters

?

!!

  If mezzanine level covers more than 75% of Area A*, 50% of the mezzanine flooring material must be perforated .

Worktop

Seating

!!

Task Chairs Minimum 25% of workstation seats

1:1 chair to worktop ratio

Lounge Chairs Minimum 25% of Step 3/workstation seats Marble panels must be mounted back on the walls (3a) or chair to reused 3:1 as mezzanine worktop flooring (3b). ratio

Convert a minimum 66% of the facade (in linear feet) into an occupiable zone

Step 1/ Extend ceiling can light wiring to create hanging task lighting

Step 1/ Extend ceiling can light wiring to create hanging task lighting

2/ Install recessed lighting that includes a retractable cable component.

1/ Buildings must have an occupiable public armature incorporated into the facade design. This armature must occupy at least 66% of the total facade length.

Convert a minimum 66% of the facade (in linear feet) Repurpose into an marble occupiable zone panels

Example 1/ Facade adjustment in plan

50 sf per worker

Step 2/ Arrange task lighting to create workstation clusters

Total workstation Example 2/ requirement: Facade adjustment in section

Example 2/ Facade adjustment in section

 ?

  ??

!!

Task Chairs

Lounge Chairs

Minimum 25% of workstation seats

Minimum 25% of workstation seats

Example 3/ 1:1 chairHybrid to Facade worktop ratio adjustment

3:1 chair to worktop ratio

Task Chairs

Lounge Chairs

Minimum 25% of workstation seats

Minimum 25% of workstation seats

Example 3/ 1:1 chair Hybrid to Facade worktop ratio adjustment

3:1 chair to worktop ratio

Facades

critEria

Step 1/ Remove marble panels

Step 2/ Arrange task lighting to create workstation clusters

Total workstation Example requirement: 2/ Facade adjustment in section

Minimum 25% of Step 3/ workstation seats Marble panels must be mounted back on the walls (3a) or 3:1mezzanine chair to reused as worktop flooring (3b). ratio

1:1 chair to worktop ratio

50 sf per worker

in plan

?

The fixed recessed lighting used to illuminate lobbies is static and insufficient task lighting.

Area A +

Example 1/ Area A + Facade Mezzanine Area adjustment

6/ facaDE & thrEshOLDs

Total workstation requirement:

??

Lounge Chairs

Workstations

Lighting

Seating

aB % max. of total by area is alloted ower circulation

Task Chairs

5/ LightiNg

material

10’-0”

If mezzanine level covers more than 75% of Area A*, 50% of the mezzanine flooring material must be perforated .

Worktop

-0”

Materials & Acoustics

Workstations

critEria Provide new mezzanine area equal to 30% of Area A

!!

Worktop

??

m center to evolving doors to ulation.

Step 1/ Extend ceiling can light wiring to create hanging task lighting

2/ Of the total workstations, at least 25% of Step 2/ the total must be task stations and at least Arrange task to create 25% of the total must lighting be lounge stations. workstation clusters The remaining 50% can be any type of Total workstation requirement: workstation. 

If mezzanine level covers more than 75% of Area A*, 50% of the mezzanine flooring material must be perforated .

Step 2/ Replace with

acoustically 1/ To calculate the minimum number of Step 1/ absorbant Extend ceiling material workstations, divide the total square footage can light wiring to of working area (Areacreate A +hanging Mezzanine task lighting Area) by 50 sf/worker. 50 sf/worker is a programmatic-area allocation Area A comfortable + 50 sf per worker Mezzanine Area for shared working settings .

Seating

lobby area is alloted to tower circulation

Convert a minimum 66% of the facade (in linear feet) Repurpose into an marble occupiable zone panels

Worktop

2/ Replace with acoustically absorbent Area B material. 27% max. of total

Facades

Workstations

critEria

Repurpose marble panels

8’-0”

10’-0”

Lighting

MAY—Lindsey

4/ wOrkstatiONs

Provide new mezzanine area equal to 30% of Area A

aB

Materials & Acoustics

3/ matEriaLs & acOustics

critEria 8’-0”

Workstations

Structure & Flooring

M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

Circulation

Example 3/ Hybrid Facade adjustment


amENitY PartNErshiPs 56th St

fuELedâ&#x201E;˘

by Park Avenue, Bryant Park, and Special 47th Street Business Improvement Districts

by Starbucks FUELed is a branch of Starbucks Coffee that has partnered with Open Lobby to keep the Open Lobby coworkers caffeinated and fed. Starbucks has a vast food service infrastructure in New York City. This network affords Starbucks the agility and resources to keep up with the growing and evolving Open Lobby network.

E

E

M

M

50th St

49th St

Lexington Ave

Park Ave

52nd St

51st St

With increasing regularity, wifi is becoming an open, free, accessible urban provision. As opposed to the city providing this service, businesses, and business improvement districts (BIDs) are taking it upon themselves to provide wifi to the neighborhood. Recently, Google released free public wifi to the Chelsea neighborhood. From the point of view of Google, the costs of this gesture are far outweighed by the neighborhood outreach, positive PR, and the fact that they are essentially making it easier for the neighborhood to use their own product (website).

Madison Ave

5th Ave

54th St

53rd St

frEE PuBLic wifi

Future 2nd Avenue Subway 55th Street Station

55th St

6th Ave

uNDErstaNDiNg thE OvEraLL BENEfits Of OPEN LOBBY fOr BrOaD auDiENcEs, sEvEraL PartNErs suPPOrt thE OPEN LOBBY NEtwOrk BY PrOviDiNg EssENtiaL amENitiEs tO aNY wOrksPacE: wifi aND cOffEE.

4 6

B F D M

48th St

47th St

46th St

45th St

44th St

43rd St

42nd St

41st St

B F D M

7

Bryant Park

40th St

Area of Study East Midtown Rezoning Area Business Improvement District Areas

4 5 6 7

Future Metro-North Railroad LIRR East Side Access Grand Central Station

Future 2nd Avenue Subway 42nd Street Station


41 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

MAY—Lindsey


PAJERSKI—Nicholas; FRIES-BRIGGS—Gabriel; SHEA—Brendan M.AR C H TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Reimaging Fabrication: Toward a tipping point for representational futures in architecture FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Axel Kilian

Counter++ Intuition Keyframe Diagram Time = 0000ms

ORIENT VECTOR 2

Reimaging fabrication develops a synthetic representational environment. This reskilling is an interface between instrumental intuition and material contingencies. Reimaging fabrication promotes an architecture of non-ideal form, through material computation and participatory instrumentation.

RANGE

MAX 2

MIN 2

SENSOR 2

CENTER OF MASS

CENTER OF LOAD

CALIBRATION ANGLE

CALIBRATION LOAD READING

WORLD Z VECTOR CENTER OF PLATFORM

PLATFORM VECTOR MAX 1

MAX 3

MIN 1

MIN 3

SENSOR 3 RANGE

RANGE

SENSOR 1

ORIENT VECTOR 3

ORIENT VECTOR 1

23m

m

x3-Vault

23m

m

24m

m

710

g

691

g

21m

m

725

g

21m

Proposal for Tectonic Networks V1, Verticality V2

34mm

634g

m

632

21m

g

33mm

593g

m

648

663g

g

19m

35mm

m

649

126

2g

19m

g

119

7g

30mm

471g

m

582

g

18m

599

g

131

0g

17m

24m

31mm

m

505g

m

25m

m

m

558

506g

31mm 367g

105

4g

514

402g

g 16m

m

105

5g

318g

m

496

g

24m

28mm

g

23m

27mm

998 m

25mm

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54216m g m

25m

m

15m

830

477

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m

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750

22mm 189g

m

16m

15m

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696

m

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21mm 150g 477

496

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g

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22m

514

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g

m

16m

542

558

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22m

17m

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g

582

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18m

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599

602

m

g

23m

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649 g

g

g

m

648

632

227g

19m

21m

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g

g

m

21m

m

m

725

691

887

21m

23m

22m

m

23mm

m

g

m

24m

23m

710

g

24mm

285g

m

24m

g

21m

m

540

g

16m

m

227g

22mm 189g

23mm

21mm 150g

318g

285g

24mm

367g

27mm

25mm 402g

506g

28mm

17m

m

514

g

18m

21mm 150g

477

540

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542

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602

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131

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998g

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22mm 189g

m

227g

19m

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599

21m

285g

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477

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318g

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367g

21m

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23m

m

632

g m 750 22m

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31mm

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g

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505g

m

691

g

g 695

712

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5g m 10522m 593g

638g 23m

m

1197

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m

1155

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121

126

2g

8g

24m

m

24m

m

24m m

m

34mm 603g

568g

0g

33mm

m 24m g 998

131

32mm

4g

33mm

m

105

35mm

663g

g

25m

30mm

471g

m 23mg 830 679

24m

28mm

24m

m

g

g

m

27mm

21m

648 696

21m

25mm

21m

649

g

24mm

g

602

23mm

g

g

m

22m

21m

m

m

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24m

m

m

22m

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558

887

21m

25m

24m

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23m

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24m

m

25m

m

30mm

471g

g

m

593g

505g

31mm

31mm

m

496

21m

33mm 634g

g

663g

477

16m

g

m

34mm

m

477

21m

35mm

m

15m

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While the tools for making have rapidly changed, the translation of construction practices into drawing has remained relatively intact. Fabrication requires a new representational vocabulary in which translation is imaged in contact with the real.

m


43 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

Rubber Trusswork Proposal for Tectonic Networks V2

465mm

401mm 398mm 421

400mm

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725g

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387m

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527g

PAJERSKI—Nicholas; FRIES-BRIGGS—Gabriel; SHEA—Brendan

477mm

471mm

m

57

9m

7m m 60 m

0m

4m m

59 62 m

0m


23'0"

35'0"

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35

Public Housing 23'0"

32'0"

3g

66

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33

25'0"

Aggregate Corner Conditions

27'0"

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Proposal for Vertical Landscape

64'0"

Proposal for Verticality V3 '0"

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14°

16'0"

'0"

507g

46

43

'0"

'0"

45°

'0"

33°

22

54° 17°

33°

860

24'0"

4 16.

g

54°

22'0"

43'

0"

22'0" 53°

47° 18°

477g

'0"

15'0"

2°

50°

22'0"

22

5g

43'0"

65

22' 0"

22'0"

0"

23'

.7 16

7°

43'

0"

17.9 22

36°

12°

'0"

'0"

22

32'0"

32°

21'0" 43'0"

57 7g

22' 0"

27'0"

20.3

12.2

24'0"

21

'0"

23'0"

7g

47

14.3

27'0"

'0"

17.0

21

32'0"

13.4

35'0" 23'0" 25'0"

13.1

15.8

5

21. .4

11.6

19

23'0"

14.0

28'0" 30'0"

15.5

.8

21

25'0"

.6

17

8.6

.5

18

23'0"

26'0" 30'0"

'0"

35

15.2

7.1

16

.1 34'0"

25'0"

.7

19

3g

66

6.8

35'0"

'0"

33

13

48°

22'0"

.7

3°

14.9

14

20°

35°

6.5

43

43

'0"

'0"

.6 24'0"

8g

57

'0"

29

.4

0°

12.

16°

5

22'0"

24'0"

10

.8

31°

12

725g

22'0"

48°

5g

11.0

'0"

17°

22'0"

22'0"

5.3

46

'0"

43

46

23°

43'

50°

0"

19°

'0" 24'0"

.7

21°

26'0"

50

43'0"

'0"

36°

24'0"

22' 0"

24°

11.9

26°

10

7.4

22

34°

11°

8g

37

683g

'0"

27

8.3

23°

2°

24'0"

'0"

50

0"

24'

26'0" 8°

'0"

42°

0g

54'

20'0"

131 24'0"

614g

11.3

26'0"

7°

4.1

0"

28'

2°

0"

47°

9.8

'0"

3°

33°

10.1

46

46

39°

7.7

g

280

50

'0"

"

54'0

0" 28'

0" 54'

30°

587g

12°

9°

1g

26'0"

8.0

117

"

15°

25'0

24°

19'0"

36°

'0"

8.

9

3.8

"

11°

28'0

50

g

216

9.2

0"

22'

28'0 36°

"

"

28'0

28

33°

54'0

46°

5

28

9g

"

93

'0"

59'0

'0"

6°

6

31

54'0"

"

45°

9.

5.

46°

24'0

1.1

31°

"

17'0"

540g

21°

28'0

5.9

"

'0"

17°

0"g 21' 150

"

28

31'0 36°

'0"

'0"

23

2.9 7°

28

32°

7°

'0"

g

59'0"

848

'0"

34

29°

"

16'0"

509g

2.6

42°

7

64'0"

4.

54'0"

31'0

2.3

7°

25°

"

34'0

8g

68

0"

35°

23'

2

6.

59'0

'0"

11°

31

"

3.5 1.4

15'0"

477g

64'0

"

'0"

22

64

'0"

4.4

4g

58

17°

2.0 0°

34'0"

'0"

26'0"

21 34'0"

0.5

5.0

7g

47

25'0"

0.8

'0"

28'0"

21

25'0"

30'0"

3.2

1.7

28'0" 0"

35'

30'0"

25'0"

0"

g

33'

34'0"

663

26'0"

25'0" g

590

'0"

46°

64'0"

48°

35

'0" 17°

34 "

34'0

11°

53°

21°

48°

31

'0"

59'0

"

1g 66'0" 30

725g

"

31'0

64'0

"

28'

0"

17°

64

28

59'0"

22°

31'0

"

"

45°

0"

"

54'0

0"

10°

25'

724g

47°

54'

33°

17°

24'0"

28'0

28'

0"

23'0"

34'0"

3g

42

689g

13°

54°

11°

11°

0"

'0"

54'

48°

'0"

24'0"

0g

49

59'0 "

26'0"

44°

28'0

"

"

28'0

13

"

54'0

50

'0"

35°

28

39°

'0"

14°

"

36°

24'0"

28'0

31°

26'0"

'0"

50

g

91

11

'0"

25

46

33°

'0"

40°

28

609g

34°

'0"

46

40°

2°

18°

22'0"

'0"

12°

28

54'0"

26'0"

27°

20'0"

'0"

5°

'0" 0g 21 15

21'0"

641g

19°

54'0"

37°

g

228

'0"

36°

28

0"

23'

1°

24'0"

50

'0"

6g

'0"

24

130 43

43

'0"

'0"

38°

g

10

4°

29°

'0"

22°

31

g

305

24'0" 34° 2°

28°

g

29

10

23°

26'0"

22'0"

13°

18'0"

552g

29°

9°

40°

50 '0"

24'0"

22'0" 12°

'0"

'0" 43

56°

22'0"

43

16'0"

32°

14°

46

'0"

0"

25'

6°

515g

'0"

46

17°

22'0"

19°

24'0"

0g

0"

47°

92

43'

22'0"

'0"

23

22'0"

'0"

28°

15'0"

9g

72

0"

43'0"

22'

22'0"

477g

30°

24°

36°

10°

22

'0"

23

43' 10°

0"

22

28°

'0"

44°

'0"

0"

43'0"

22'

22

5g

60

26'0" '0"

30'0"

21

25'0"

7g

47

35'0" '0"

25'0"

21

30'0" 23'0"

28'0"

34'0"


45 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

Assembly Interface Development of compressing representational interface. Control (Output): Hexpod - 6DOF Platform Robot, ABB7600, Material Dispensing Input: Flexiforce Sensor Triangulation, CAM01(Arm), CAM02(Platform) Representation: Platform center of load, Center of mass, Load Totals, Orientation Development

VERSION 0.0

PAJERSKI—Nicholas; FRIES-BRIGGS—Gabriel; SHEA—Brendan

VERSION 1.0

VERSION 2.0

VERSION 3.0

VERSION 4.0

Performing Fabrication

lA dd M at er

ia

DESIGN

ed

Vi ew

Se

nt to

Ro bo t

Instrument, Material, Interface

MATERIAL VIEW

en sin g

INTERFACE

aV iew Ca m er

Se

ns or S

en d

to

Ro bo tic

In te r

fa

ce

Co nt ro l

M at er

ia

lS

ROBOTIC RESPONSE


47 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

PAJERSKI—Nicholas; FRIES-BRIGGS—Gabriel; SHEA—Brendan


TEELING—Milou M.AR C H TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Mass Housing Strategies for Istanbul: “Anticipatory Preservation” FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Alejandro Zaera-Polo

Housing, one of the concerns most central to the history of modern architecture, is also, paradoxically, the most isolated, often located in distant peripheries, reinforcing systems of segregation. In its current state, the production of mass housing still adheres to the principles of modernism as it promotes the implementation of a monofunctional typology, (“towers-in-the-park”) that is removed from all other urban functions. As a result, the global city has developed monstrous landscapes of homogenous residential ghettos. This thesis problematizes the mass housing tower as a mono-functional entity and subjects it to the mechanisms of hybridity that exist within the well-functioning, traditional city, making mass housing areas an integral part of the global city. The project recycles the existing physical infrastructures in order to provide alternate strategies that transform the dedicated mass housing areas into hybridized modes of occupation. This programmatic re-envisioning of the mass housing tower resembles the complexity of traditional city, but incorporates modern technologies that are flexible and energy-efficient. By reprogram­ ming and restructuring existing models of mass housing, architecture aims to transform peripheral development into a well-functioning urban structure that is resilient to economic, social and environmental fluctuations.

BALCONY PANEL

VERTICAL ROTATING LOUVER PANEL

DRYING RACK PANEL

HALF GLAZED NON-OPERABLE PANELS

HALF GLAZED TURN-OPERABLE PANELS

1E

1D

N

DEMOLISHED EXISTING FACADE

2A

S

S

S

HALF GLAZED OPERABLE PANELS

3B

S 4A 5B

5A S

FULLY GLAZED (NON)OPERABLE PANELS

FULLY GLAZED SLIDING DOOR PANELS

5B

S

S

S 7A

FULLY GLAZED FOLDING DOOR PANELS

S

DOUBLE FACADE SYSTEMS

1F

4C 6D

1D 6E

1E 6F

1F 6

5C

5D

5E

5F

N 6E

S

S

N/E 6F

6H

N/E 7E

7D

N

N/E 6G

N/E

N 7C

7B

S

1E

SE 6D

6C

1D

SE

S

S

5B

3C

SE 4B 6C

5A

N

SE

EXISTING FACADE

HALF GLAZED NONOPERABLE PANELS

N

1F

2C

2B

3A

HALF GLAZED TILT-OPERABLE PANELS

N/E

7F

N/E


49 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

TEELING—Milou

HORIZONTAL HALF GLAZED TILT-OPERABLE PANELS

FULLY GLAZED DOUBLE-SKIN VENTILATED PANELS

FULLY GLAZED NON-OPERABLE PANELS

1G N

N/E 1G

N/E

5G

N/E 5J

7G

6H

1K 6L

N/E

N/W

N

N/W

4M 1N

1N 5O

5M

1N

6P

7N

1N

5O

7K

7L

6M

N/E

1Q

4P 1Q

1Q 5R

1Q

5R

6S

7O

6P

7Q

E/W

S/W

5S

1T

1T

5U

6V

7R

6S

S

3V

E/W 4U 6V

4V

S/W 5U

S/W

S/W

S

S/W

E/W

S/W

S/W

E/W

1T 5U

S/W

2V

3U

E/W 4S 1T

5R

E/W

E/W 1T

3S

6S

1V

2U

E/W

S/W

N/E

E/W

E/W

E/W

4R

FULLY GLAZED FOLDING DOOR + VERTICAL ROTATING LOUVER PANELS

1U

2S

3R

S/W 1Q

FULLY GLAZED SLIDING DOOR + VERTICAL ROTATING LOUVER PANELS

1T

E/W

E/W

5P

FULLY GLAZED + VERTICAL ROTATING LOUVER PANELS

1S

E/W 3P

E/W

E/W

1R

2R

N/E 5O

FULLY GLAZED FOLDING DOOR + HORIZONTAL LOUVER PANELS

E/W

E/W

N/E 4O 6P

N/E

E/W

6M

1Q

N/E

N/E

FULLY GLAZED SLIDING DOOR + HORIZONATAL LOUVER PANELS

2P

3O

N/E

N/E 7J

7I

1N

N/E

E/W

N/E

N/E 3M

FULLY GLAZED + HORIZONTAL LOUVER PANELS

1P

2O

N/E

5L

5K

N/E

N/E

4L 6M

FULLY GLAZED FOLDING DOOR + BALCONY PANELS

1O

2M

3L

N/E

FULLY GLAZED SLIDING DOOR + BALCONY PANELS

1N

N/E

N/E

N/E

6L

6K

N

4J 6K

FULLY GLAZED + BALCONY PANELS

1M

2L

N/E

N/W

N

6I

1K

5J

5I

5H

3J

N/W

N/E

N

N

4I 5J

4H 6I

1K

FULLY GLAZED FOLDING DOOR + DRYING RACK PANELS

1L

N/E

N/E 2J

N/W

N/E

N/E

N

3I

FULLY GLAZED SLIDING DOOR + DRYING RACK PANELS

1K

N/W

N/E 3H

1G 6H

N 2I

2H

FULLY GLAZED + DRYING RACK PANELS

1J

1I

N

6G

FULLY GLAZED TILT-OPERABLE PANELS

5V

S/W


51 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

TEELING—Milou


53 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

TEELING—Milou


WEI—Harry MACHINE

M.AR C H TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

ARCHITECTURAL RETROFITS

5 [DYS]FUNCTIONAL MACHINES

Specifications are subjected to change. Satisfaction not guaranteed. Low Efficiency High Performance. Component Based. Machine crafted.

Dysfunctional Machines FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Michael Meredith

FUNCTION The fifth of a series of architectural retrofits that hacks and graft onto buildings in a manner that is contextual and heuristic. Instrument 5 inherits its basic principle from heliostats, it lives on generic curtain walls and windows while actively projects images onto the interior using sunlight. In our contemporary culture that over privileges high-definition imagining, and measures satisfaction in pixels per inch – 4k, retina – Instrument 5 is decidedly low-definition. The objective is to weave together atmospheric conditions, and digital technologies within architecture, yet exchange the properties of each other. Thus digital media, normally ephemeral, would become palpable; and the sunlight, normally natural and scaleless, is digitized and transformed into obedient pixels.

Machines have profoundly impacted architectural discourse ever since the dawn of Modernism. Corbusier, Banham and the ‘Ecotech’ all retain affinities with modernist conception of the machine — it solves problems while affording temporal, economic, and production efficiencies. However, this relentless pursuit of function and optimization often supersedes more fundamental spatial experiences — reducing architecture to a woeful state of utility. Given such a legacy, this thesis zeros in on a distinctly different relationship with machines — Can machines be performative without the conventions of functionality and efficiency? As Adorno has indicated, once under demands of pure functionality, technology can no longer be experienced — only operated. This thesis will build on the notion of performance not in terms of measurable achievements, but performance predicated on human experience. In the current state of emaciated experience, the true contemporary spirit dwells in the ‘Dysfunctional Machine’. Dysfunctional Machines are a series of 1:1 responsive devices that retrofit architectural elements in a manner that is contextual and heuristic. They can be seen as compressions of architectural space, manipulating phenomena in the same way that architecture does — using space, time, sound, light, and materiality to reground architecture’s capacity for generating affect, perception, and wonder.

Although Instrument 5 reconfigures both the form and experience of natural lighting, nothing is actually produced – the material is simply being recycled. The project goal is to elicit a "technological sublime", parallel to the "natural sublime".

DIMENSIONS A 90mm

18mm

A

[yaw]

[yaw]

71mm 7mm

50mm

A

A[pitch]

[pitch]

14:00

10:00

100mm

55mm

18:00

1:2

RECIPE Dimensions:

114mm(H) x 100mm(W) x 90mm(D)

Fabrication Time:

~10min

Assembly Time:

~45min

Material Cost:

~$16 per unit

Ingredients:

-Acrylic Sheet (clear, 3/32”) (mirrored, 1/8”) -Micro-Servo (high torque, metal gear) -Rubber Suction Cup (w/male thread) -Hardware (M2 machine fasteners & standoffs, 0-80 machine screws) -Metallic Spray Paint (Gold)

Fabrication:

Laser cut main frame. Spray paint motor, suction cup, back of mirror.

Assembly:

See back

Setup:

Tack onto window with direct sunlight.

Demo Video:

http://harrywei.com/dys-Functional-Machines

06:00


55 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

M5 ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTION

COMPONENTS

F5

M5 100mm

M1 F1

114mm

F2

A6

PITCH AXIS

A7

F2

A8

S1 A5

M

1

F3

X1

1/8” MIRRORED ACRYLIC SHEET:

A 12

$9.44/ft2

MATERIAL AREA:

0.12 ft2

MATERIAL COST:

$9.44 X 0.12 = $1.16

A 11

117mm

Grasshopper + Firefly

A7 A1

A2

A6

For driver and demo video please visit: http://harrywei.com/dys-Functional-Machines

A8

A12

155mm

A10

F1

Fasteners

A9

F2

F3

F4

F5

F6

F7

F8

F9

F 10

F 11

X24

X14

X4

X4

X4

X1

X1

X2

X3

1:1 A11

A5

MISSING

5mm

YAW AXIS Qty: A3

A#

A4

1

X2

X3

YAW UNIT

$2.68/ft2

MATERIAL AREA:

0.20 ft2

MATERIAL COST:

$2.68 X 0.20 = $0.52

F3

F3

X12

3/32” CLEAR ACRYLIC SHEET:

mounting horn calibration

A

1. Mount horn and rotate gear CCW to a stop. 2. Remove horn and remount motor horn horizontaly with short end pointing right.

A

4 motor for yaw axis

11

F 10

F3

F4

X3 RUBBER SUCTION CUP:

$1.00 x 3 = $3.00

A3 !

A 12 thread wire through before motor housing thread wire through slot

X2

MICRO SERVOMOTOR (metal gear):

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F 10 F 11

A5

suction feet

A 10

S1

F6

F4 F4

C1

!

$4.00 x 2 = $8.00

X2

Standoff M2x20mm

X3

Standoff M2x15mm

X24 X14

Machine Screw M2x6mm Hex Nut M2

X4

Machine Screw 0-80x3mm

X4

Machine Screw 0-80x6mm

X4

Hex Nuts 0-80

X1

Machine Screw M3x8mm

X1

Knurl Nuts M3x3mm

X2

Machine Screw 2-56x3mm

X3

Hex Nuts 8-32

Misc Metal Fasteners

= ~$3.00

2

PITCH UNIT

F2

1. Mount horn and rotate gear CCW to a stop. 2. Remove and remount motor horn verticaly with short end pointing down.

A2 F6

F3 F4

!

mounting horn calibration

A6

F3

F2

F1

!

F7

A9

F5

F3

A8

F3

F9

A7

F8

A1

final step motor for pitch axis

F 10

1. Attach yaw unit to pitch unit. 2. Connect to Aruduino (not included). 3. Driver can be downloaded from http://harrywei.com/dys-Functional-Machines

thread wire through slot

!

WEI—Harry

A9 M1


57 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

WEI—Harry


59 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

WEI—Harry


ARC 501—Graduate Design Studio I N STR U CTO R

Michael Meredith FALL 2013

medium (technical support) + convention (artistic genre, typology, history) + play (!@#?) = Architecture

Medium is how we conceptualize and work through a project (i.e. form, function, material, program, context, and so on). Convention is how we situate and evaluate the work within the discipline. Play is something else. History has proven these elements to be highly unstable, of course every generation tasked to rewrite them and each of these with their own specific outcome or emphasis in mind. While convention may offer some protection against the anxiety generated by change, medium continually produces new enthusiasms and frictions which exacerbate the improvisation of play. This introductory course presents the discipline of architecture through a series of interrelated discrete exercises. These problems are not meant to represent the synthetic totality of the discipline, rather an overview of a few important aspects, points of architecture that help construct a self-conscious framework, allowing for the students to individually connect-the-dots, providing a foundation for further development.

SONIC AIRSPACE—Lily Zhang, Sanger Clark


61 M. ARCH FA L L 13

NEW BUILDING FOR PRINCETON UNIVERSITY—Stephen Froese

ARC 501 MEREDITH—Graduate Design Studio

TINY TOWER—Joanna Grant


SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE EXTENSION—Sasha Urano

A

CH=32'-0"

CH=24'-0"

CH=30'-0"

CH=20'-0"

B

CH=38'-0"

CH=18'-0"

B'

CH=22-0"

CH=22'-0"

CH=30'-0" CH=20'-0" CH=18'-0"

CH=10'-0" CH=18'-0"

CH=28'-0"

CH=30'-0"

CH=28'-0"

CH=20'-0"

CH=20'-0"

CH=16'-0"

CH=17'-0"

A' 0

10

1

2


63 M. ARCH FA L L 13

DESIGNING FROM STRUCTURE—Kayla Manning

ARC 501 MEREDITH—Graduate Design Studio


ARC 503—Integrated Building Studio I N STR U CTO R S

Paul Lewis with Nat Oppenheimer and Mahadev Raman FALL 2013

Street Squash, Newark, NJ

This integrated building studio is based on five propositions: 1. Integrated design is opportunistic 2. Integrated design is synthetic. 3. Integrated design should seek the unprecedented. 4. Integrated design induces a sprawl of invention. 5. Integrated design operates in section. The site is in the Ironbound section of Newark, a low-lying area which suffered significant flooding during Sandy. In contrast to the ocean coastline which was more directly hit by the storm surge, the Ironbound region was effected by the storm surge migrating up the Passaic River, which overflowed its banks and leached into the city. The river’s waters accessed the Ironbound through the studio’s site block, and as such, the studio will develop the site as a type of retention basin for future flooding, working to mitigate some of the threats from future flooding.

Augmenting the recreational facilities on the adjacent parks, the program is a facility for the organization StreetSquash, which uses the game of squash as a means to galvanize comprehensive youth enrichment programs in Harlem and Newark. Based in part on a newly constructed StreetSquash facility in Harlem, this facility will consist of 5 squash courts, two classrooms, a media lounge, locker-rooms and offices. All of these facilities will need to be located well above the Design Flood Elevation. Therefore the building’s 6th elevation, or underbelly and its relationship to the ground/retention basin will be a primary site of invention for the studio.


65 M. ARCH FA L L 13

STREET SQUASH—Lindsey May, Claire Thomas 2.

1.

2.

1.

KEY 1. METAL ROOF PANELS 2. COVERED WALKWAY

ROOF PLAN - 1/8’’= 1’-0’’ SCALE

KEY 1. METAL ROOF PANELS 2. COVERED WALKWAY

1.

2.

4. TO RIVERBANK PARK

3.

5.

TO MARKET STREET PARK

1.

2.

4. TO RIVERBANK PARK

3.

5.

TO MARKET STREET PARK

RAYMOND BOULEVARD

KEY 1. SQUASH COURTS BELOW 2. OFFICE AND ADMINISTRATION MEZZANINE 3. DECK SITTING RAMP 4. COVERED ROOFDECK 5. CLASSROOMS

MEZZANINE/BRIDGE FLOOR PLAN - 1/8’’= 1’-0’’ SCALE

13.

10. 6. 2

1

14.

7.

4.

9.

KEY 1. SQUASH COURTS BELOW 2. OFFICE AND ADMINISTRATION MEZZANINE 3. DECK SITTING RAMP 4. COVERED ROOFDECK 5. CLASSROOMS

11.

5.

MEZZANINE/BRIDGE FLOOR PLAN - 1/8’’= 1’-0’’ SCALE 12.

3

VAN

BUR

EN STR

EET

8.

KEY 1. LOUNGE 2. SQUASH COURTS 3. CIRCULATION AND VIEWING STREET 4. LOCKER ROOMS 5. STORAGE 6. WC 7. MULTI-USE PIT 8. BERM AND WALKWAY ABOVE 9. KITCHEN 10. LIBRARY PLATFORM 11. CLASSROOMS 12. ENTRY 13. QUIET STUDY 14. ROOFBRIDGE TO RIVERBANK PARK

N

GROUND FLOOR PLAN - 1/8’’= 1’-0’’ SCALE

1.

2.

3.

4.

N

KEY 1. FIRE EGRESS 2. BUILT IN CEILING LIGHTS 3. EQUIPMENT ATTACHMENT RACKS 4. SERVICE

REFLECTED CEILING PLAN PLAN - 1/8’’= 1’-0’’ SCALE

METAL ROOF FINISH WATER DRAIN CHANEL FASCIA PANEL

ROOFING AND DECKING

DECK GUARD RAIL

WOOD DECKING

PLYWOOD; RIGID INSULATION; WATERPROOF MEMBRANE

TRANSLUSCENT GLAZING

STRUCTURAL WOOD LATTICE

STRUTURE AND ENCLOSURE

WOOD BEAM FRAME OPERABLE SHADES

FACADE PANELS

PERFORATED METAL EGRESS STAIR ENCLOSURE

CAST IN PLACE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

PROGRAM SUPPORT

RAINSCREEN STRUCTURAL SYSTEM METAL RAINSCREEN

ARC 503 LEWIS, OPPENHEIMER, RAMAN—Integrated Building Studio

ROOF PLAN - 1/8’’= 1’-0’’ SCALE


SQUASH(ED) TOWER—Julia Chapman, Brendan Shea LEVEL 10

ROOF

LEVEL 9

LEVEL 10 LEVEL 8

LEVEL 9: INTERIOR SQUASH COURT VIEW

LEVEL 7

LEVEL 6

LEVEL 8

LEVEL 7: INTERIOR ATRIUM VIEW LEVEL 6

LEVEL 5

LEVEL 5 LEVEL 4

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 3: INTERIOR CLASSROOM VIEW

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1

LEVEL 0 LEVEL 0


67 M. ARCH FA L L 13

STREET SQUASH—Pak Lun Leung, Daniel Tappe

ARC 503 LEWIS, OPPENHEIMER, RAMAN—Integrated Building Studio


ARC 505A—Graduate Design Studio I N STR U CTO R

Liam Young FALL 2013

BRAVE NEW NOW 2013 vimeo.com/channels/bravenewnow2013

The 2013 studio was developed with Ivan Poupyrev of Disney research and motion workshops by OLGV. BRAVE NEW NOW students were Alastair Stokes, Gina Morrow, Jamie Kwan, Jose Meza, Ruiqing Li, Shota Vashakmadze, Sonia Flamberg, Tyler Hopf, Yang Li, Yshai Yudekovitz, Zigeng Wang. We have always imagined the spaces and environments of a day yet to come. As we flick through the catalogues of yesterday’s tomorrows we see starry spaceship skies, moon base futures, jet pack ray guns, food in pill form, flying cars and xray specs and we wonder whatever happened to the futures we were promised. In these polemic visions we furnish the fictional spaces of tomorrow with objects and ideas that at the same time chronicle the contradictions, inconsistencies, flaws and frailties of the everyday. These visions

DATA WILDS—Gina Morrow

of what’s to come do not merely anticipate but actively shape technological futures through their effects on the collective imagination. This capacity for a fictional project to simultaneously reflect the current condition while suggesting the possibility of the next is what drives our engagement with these visions of the future. BRAVE NEW NOW slips suggestively between the real and the imagined to present filmic fragments of the near future city. In 2013 the studio followed the fibre optic cables and traversed the anonymous corridors of big box server farms to uncover the physical infrastructures of the internet. As the cooling fans spin and the LED’s flicker the BRAVE NEW NOW speculated on our future relationships to data.


69 M. ARCH FA L L 13

NON-PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURES—Tyler Hopf

BEIJING BLUE—Zigeng Wang

ARC 505A YOUNG—Graduate Design Studio

THE WRITING OF THE WALLS—Sonia Flamberg


OBSERVATORIES—Shota Vashakmadze

THE SEARCH—Alastair Stokes + Yshai Yudekovitz

YAKUTSKAYA—Yang Li


71 M. ARCH FA L L 13

HELLO WORLD: GREETINGS FROM THE BOTS—Jamie Kwan

SURVEYING THE DARK AGE—José Meza

ARC 505A YOUNG—Graduate Design Studio

GOOGLE CITY—Ruiqing Li


ARC 505B—Graduate Design Studio I N STR U CTO R

Stan Allen FALL 2013

The Place of Houses, Revisited

Architectural design is often taught as a selective simulation of professional practice — selective in as much as real world criteria (budgets, codes, etc.) are often ignored; simulated in that it operates on a fictional, and often idealized basis. Our strategy is different. In this studio, we start with an existing historical document, which serves as a prompt for design experiments and touches upon the impact of the house, both within the discipline of architecture and in society and culture at large. Our emphasis will be on the process itself as a project, leading to concrete, verifiable proposals. Precise constraints are an opportunity for creativity and invention. The work will be open to the messiness and unpredictability of real life. The pace will be varied, with design exercises and analysis projects; working media will include models, drawings, diagrams and computer modeling, with an emphasis on the instrumentality of specific representational techniques.

The question of the house is poised between the history of the discipline and the broader understanding of architecture’s role in public and private life. Houses figure in film, literature and popular culture, as much as they have been an object of design and study for architects. The 1974 book The Place of Houses aspires to be a pattern book, a genre that traces its roots back to Palladio’s collection of Villa designs in the Four Books. Pattern books present design expertise in a publically accessible and usable fashion. They present analysis as well prototypes designs. This is the ambition of the studio: to examine the place of houses today, and produce a working manual for the design of the house in the 21st century. The starting point will be your own design propositions, which will then be placed in a larger cultural and architectural context in a re-written manual.


73

M. ARCH FA L L 13

(MACHINE) )ROOM(— Loren Yu

ARC 505B ALLEN—Graduate Design Studio


ALONE TOGETHER—Phi Van Phan


75 M. ARCH FA L L 13

ATHABASCA COTTAGES—Han Dong

ARC 505B ALLEN—Graduate Design Studio


ARC 502—Graduate Design Studio I N STR U CTO R

Axel Kilian S P R I N G 2014

MODELS OF DESIGN: Introduction and motivation

The studio focus is on MODELS OF DESIGN. The term MODEL appears in all disciplines but has a wide range of meanings. In the studio students explore the Model of Design as a combination of thought construct, physical construct and computational construct. The most common use of models in architecture is for representative, scaled mockups of design proposals as physical artifacts. But a model can also refer to the concepts behind a design, to the thought construct that embodies the design intention. Computation has increased the importance of scientific models in design and engineering as more processes rely on numeric methods that require the development of algorithms to process data according to such The studio focused on the integration of computational processes into the conceptual formation of design, attempting to invent novel models of design specific to each student’s approach. This approach is slow and experimental and requires building up some fluency in programming, parametric design, electronics or other areas as necessary. By learning to design with computational processes, constructing a process driven by the design agenda, the hope is to allow for a more critical engagement of the dominant, geometry focused design models of today.


77 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

PLAY STRUCTURES AND THE URBAN VOID—Kayla Manning

ARC 502 KILIAN—Graduate Design Studio


“CHURCH”—Matthew Schneider


79 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

MODELS OF DESIGN—Sanger Clark

ARC 502 KILIAN—Graduate Design Studio

1

2

3

4

5

6

A

B

Mechanical 1, PP-1

7

Electrical

Bathroom 2, PP-1

2

8

Bathroom 3

C

D

E


ARC 504—Graduate Design Studio I N STR U CTO R

Andrés Jaque S P R I N G 2014

Urban Enactments: Beauty, Conflict, Risk and Market as Sustained Urbanisms

Students worked at detecting, describing, discussing and transforming specific ‘urban enactments’, happening as fragmented but connected constellations of entities geographically distributed in Mexico City and New York City. 40.8292° N, 73.9264° W Yankee Stadium, Bronx, NYC, U.S.A

New Era Cap Co Inc Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, NY, U.S.A.

Majestic Athletic Factory Newlins Mill Road, Easton, PA, U.S.A

25.7185° N, 100.3158° W Estadio de Béisbol Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico

40.67177°N, 74.00514°W Red Hook Ball Fields, Brooklyn, NYC, U.S.A


81 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

BASEBALL-BEISBOL NETWORKED REALITIES—Patricia Chia

ARC 504 JAQUE—Graduate Design Studio


SINKING CITIES—POST-CATASTROPHIC URBAN ENVIRONMENTS—Daniel Tappe

Solar Farm

Fancy Condos

Rooftop Pool

Platform High-Rise

Floating Homes

Rooftop Park

Transit Station

Floating Stadium

Elevated Transit System

Ferry

Pedestrian Bridge Underwater-Hotel

Diluvium

Flooded Su Tunnels

Gneiss

Granite


83 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

ARC 504 JAQUE—Graduate Design Studio

Old School Office Tower

Rooftop Villa

Squatter Housing

Public Heliport

Cluster Housing

Dense Apartments

Floating Market

Wind Farm

ubway Diluvium

Gneiss


ARC 506—Graduate Design Studio I N STR U CTO R

Jesse Reiser S P R I N G 2014

UTOPIAN IMPULSE: Umekita Station Agglomeration

It can be argued that Kenzo Tange’s Tokyo Bay project in 1960 is the last major piece of planning in Japan led exclusively by an encompassing architectural vision. The ambitions and scope of the Tokyo Bay project were necessarily large and comprehensive, ranging from the macro to the micro: from the effects of planning down to the specific architectural character (style) of the project itself. As such, it encompassed the full environmental, social, political, and aesthetic possibilities of which architecture is capable. Such a vision is utopian in the best sense of the word. For it embodies, not a flight of fancy, but rather a radical empiricist desire to project, in eminently concrete terms, a possible world; and in doing so, advanced the discipline of architecture irrespective of whether or not it was realized. Thus, its most important function was that of a concept engine which immeasurably affected the subsequent culture of architecture, the architects, and the projects they produced. This studio, will in the most hopeful manner, suggest new metropolitan paradigms — in other words — new ways of life. Asking the question “if” all is open and manipulable — from the genome to cultural practices, what new positive worlds can emerge? And what new forms of architecture and urbanism will foster such worlds? Japanese culture has historically shown an unsurpassed ability to invent, adapt and change. Moreover, it is one of the only societies 50% satura�on 90% satura�on that can lay claim to the ability to fast forward technologically in one period and to reverse technology in another. The stakes have never been greater.

Residen�al Office Commercial

URBAN FALSE NETWORK—Serguei Bagrianski


85 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

UMEKITA STATION AGGLOMERATION—Jaime (Ting Yan) Kwan

ARC 506 REISER—Graduate Design Studio


OSAKA SANDWICH— Ruiqing Li


87 M. ARCH S P R I N G 14

UMEKITA COMMONS—Shota Vashakmadze

ARC 506 REISER—Graduate Design Studio


89

The undergraduate program in architecture offers an opportunity for in-depth study of the discipline of architecture within the context of a liberal arts education. The program of study emphasizes the complex relationship between architectural form, culture and society considered through an in-depth exploration of architectural design, history and theory of architecture, building technology, urbanism, and landscape architecture. Particular attention is paid to the social and political aspects of architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban setting, and its impact on the natural environment. Princetonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s undergraduate program is known for its rigorous interdisciplinary approach. The course of study includes a sequence of design studios and complementary courses in the history and theory of architecture, drawing and representation, computation, environmental and building technology. The broad academic program prepares students for graduate study in architecture and related disciplines such as landscape architecture, urban planning, civil engineering, art history, and the visual arts. In addition, the B.S.E. program in architecture and engineering is offered through the School of Engineering and Applied Science. The School also directs the university-wide Program in Urban Studies which offers additional opportunities for interdisciplinary study. Each student completes a senior thesis, a rite of passage for all Princeton students. The thesis gives seniors the opportunity to pursue original research and scholarship on topics of their own choice under the guidance of faculty advisers. The senior thesis is a detailed project, presenting a well-argued piece of research on a precise architectural theme, and may include architectural drawings, models, video, photographs, and computergenerated images. The thesis is a yearlong project that begins in the fall semester. Faculty thesis advisers are assigned at the beginning of the fall term of the senior year, and students work closely with the adviser in the formulation of the topic, research methods, organization of the thesis material, and presentation of the work.

U N D E R G R A D UAT E

Undergraduate Program in Architecture


ARC 404—Senior Independent Work/ Advanced Design Studio I N STR U CTO R

Mario Gandelsonas TEAC H I N G AS S I STANT

Evangelos Kotsioris FALL 2013

Liquid Landscapes: A Twenty-First Century Water Park

For an architectural student, it is impossible to overstate the importance of first-hand exposure to the sites and cities that are the subject of their design work. For most of our students, the fall 2013 senior urban studio will be their first opportunity to travel to São Paulo, Brazil; for some of the American students, it is their first significant educational experience abroad. While in São Paulo, they will not only experience the city directly (gathering site information and photographs necessary for their design work) -- they will be working closely with their counterparts in São Paulo University. Travel to Brazil offers our students exposure to a unique mix of the urgent issues associated with urbanization and globalization, while at the same time introducing them to Brazil’s rich historical and cultural past. Indeed, it is this mix of history and modernity that makes the experience of Brazil so important for our students. The 2013 Senior Joint Studio has been developed in conjunction with the Faculty of Architecture, University of São Paulo. The site for the studio will be San Miguel Paulista, one of the Eco ports of the Hidroanel, a major urban infrastructural project, a 170 km. water ring in São Paulo. The program for the first part of the studio will be the “reading” of the work of the Brazilian landscape designer Roberto Burle Marx within the context of five hundred years of Western and non-Western garden design and the program for the second part will the design of a water park as a new cultural and entertainment node for the S ão Paulo metropolitan region. A meeting in São Paulo has been scheduled during the fall term break at the end of October for a joint presentation of the student projects and a discussion to assess and compare the different architectural and pedagogic approaches to the program.

The goal of the studio is to introduce the students to three urban concepts that separate urbanism from architecture: First, the notion of the city as the result of a never ending process of construction and destruction that develops through time as opposed to the architectural building as product and object, and second, the replacement of the figure of the architect as author by a inter and trans-disciplinary collective entity that includes technical, artistic and social science practices blurring their roles and boundaries. Finally the studio will focus on the growing importance of megacities in reshaping the architecture and urbanism of the 21st century and of the development of a new global, urban culture complicating the aesthetic, economic, political, and social responsibilities of students, researchers and practitioners.


issue of a cultural coherency in Brazil IVANOVA & through suchANI dialectics as realitymythology, object-environment, and KATHERINE ORTMEYER organicism-artificiality.

ENVIRONMENT

WATER/LAND SECTION

PAVILION

PERSONIFICATION

91

ARAUCARIA ANGUSTIFOLIA

CURRENT PROPOSAL FOR THE SITE

REVISIONS THE PROPOSAL MATATO ATLANTICA

The project centers on dialectics, juxtaposing two discrete entities and exploring the tensions between the two.

By exploiting the newly established datum, the project aims to address the issue of a cultural coherency in Brazil through such dialectics as realitymythology, object-environment, and organicism-artificiality.

ECO-FICTIONS—Ani Ivanova, Katherine Ortmeyer CURRENT PROPOSAL FOR THE SITE

Water-Land relationship Object-Environment relationship

CAATINGA

PODS RAMP

U N D E R G R A D UAT E

The proposed park represents a break from the traditional, reversing the relationship between land and water and creating a “park on the water.”

LOCATION

Circulation

The project centers on dialectics, juxtaposing two discrete entities and

The ramp provides the onlybetween height inthe thetwo. park at which the visitor is able exploring the tensions to see the pods from above while still allowing for various activities to take place on the ramp.

REVISIONS TO THE PROPOSAL

Program

Circ

The ramp provides the only height in the park at which the visitor is able Structure to see the pods from above while still allowing for various activities to take place on the ramp.

Prog

Water-Land relationship Object-Environment relationship

MANGROVE FOREST

PODS RAMP

PANTANAL

Observation

Stru

ARAUCARIA ANGUSTIFOLIA

Axon

Ramp envelopes program

Ramp becomes program

Obs

OB

Circulation

PE

The project centers on dialectics, juxtaposing two discrete entities and exploring the tensions between the two.

R

FO

SERV

RM

AN

ATION SPACE PLAZA

CE

SU

N-

BA

TH

CA

PODS RAMP

G

FE

IN

Water-Land relationship Object-Environment relationship

KI

SO

UV

ENI

Ramp becomes program SE

DS

AT

IN

G

OR ’ C

N

R

E

The ramp provides the only height in the park at which the visitor is able to see the pods from above while still allowing for various activities to take place on the ramp.

Axo

R SHOP

Program

EX

H

LO

IC T P

TIC

INF

K-U

P/D

CK

ER

H

R O P-

NS

ES

D

TS

BOA

E LAK D LAN

S A N

IO

OM

IT

FR

Structure

EN

IB

RE

BATHRO

M

S

OFF

KETING

ORM

ATION

PROGRAMMATIC DIAGRAM Observation

P T

P T

Axon

Ramp envelopes program

Ramp becomes program

BACK-SIDE ELEVATION

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

SECTION

ARC 404 GANDELSONAS—Fall 2013

Ramp envelopes program


NESTED SYSTEMS: EMPOWERMENT OF THE BODYâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Peyton Knisley, Amanda Santillo

direction

disorientation

transformation

completion


93

transportation

socialization

restoration

and Canal

Leisure Lake

Leisure Lake

Secondary Leisure Lake

s/Flood Zones Wetlands and Canal

Leisure Lake

SELECTION OF SITE

Boating Wetland

2. CONFIGURATION OF WETLAND PLANTS Canal

DEEP MARSH

Secondary Leisure Lake

Ripiarian Marshland Vallisneria americana

Scirpus tabernaemontani

Ripiarian Marshland Victoria amazonica

SHALLOW MARSH

Marshlands/Flood Zones

Viewing Pods

Viewing Pods - Water Slide

Hippuris vulgaris

25.75 ha

Sagittaria latifolia

WET MEADOW

Water Slide Circulation

Scirpus acutus

Ripiarian Marshland

Water Slide Circulation

Achyranthes aspera

Viewing Pods

Ruellia simplex

Main Visitor Facility

LOW SHRUBS

Circulation - Water Slide

Main Visitor Facility

- Automobile Circulation - Pedestrian

Alstroemeria psittacina

Xylopia aromatica

Local Wetland Trails

Amaranthus blitum

HIGH SHRUBS

1.99 ha

Water Slide Circulation

Local Wetland Trails

10.15 ha

Main Visitor Facility

3.32 ha

Local Wetland Trails 1.23 ha

TOTAL AREA = 55 HECTARES 1.69 ha

Circulation - Automobile

Schinopsis balansae

Annona coriacea

Spondias mombin

Astronium fraxinfolium

Aloe bainesii

Tabebuia ochracea

0.54 ha

8. PERSPECTIVES 4. WETLAND CROSS SECTIONS 8. PERSPECTIVES Deep Shallow Wet Low

ODED CIRCULATION MASTER PLAN & PROGRAM ON 7. EXPLODED CIRCULATION

DRIVING

8. PERSPECTIVES Marsh Marsh

Meadow

Shrub Wetland

High Shrub Wetland

Land Buffer

Hydric Soil/ Flood Plain

Hydric Soil/ Flood Plain

Non-Hydric Soil

- Prestressed concrete

DRIVING

GAMES DRIVING

- Prestressed concrete TOILETS

- Prestressed concrete

GONDOLA ACCESS

PARKSPACE

WALKING WALKING

- Elevated -walkway Elevated walkway - Transparent, glass railings - Transparent, glass railings - Programmed grass pods - Programmed grass pods

WALKING

- Elevated walkway - Transparent, glass railings KITES - Programmed grass pods

PEDESTRIAN ENTRANCE VISITOR CENTER PARKSPACE

GONDOLA ACCESS

CRAFTS CAFE

PEDESTRIAN ENTRANCE

WATER GONDOLA

Water Depth 6’-3’

Water Depth 18”-6”

Water Depth 6”-0”

Water Lily Pond Weeds Wild Celery

Soft-stem Bulrush Hard-stem Bulrush Pickerelweed

Cattails Blue Flag Iris Woolgrass

Sweetflag Swamp white oak Highbush blueberry Black gum Arrowwood Spicebush

WATER

- Open tube for floating

WATERand swimming - Open tube for floating and swimming

- Open tube for floating ACCESS and swimming

VISITOR CENTER

TRIAN ANCE

Glinus radiatus

ARC 404 GANDELSONAS—Fall 2013

10.31 ha

- Pedestrian

Boating Wetla

Boating Wetland

Canal

Canal

6. CIRCULATION DIAGRAM Secondary Leisure Lake

U N D E R G R A D UAT E

LATION DIAGRAM M SUPERSWAMPsãomiguel—Ali Mills, Greta Hayes

Upper Catwalk

PARKSPACE

Lower Catwalk

PARKSPACE PARKSPACE TOILETS PARKSPACE INSECT CATCHING WATER LOOP ENTRANCE

GARDENING PARKSPACE

TRAIN STATION ENTRANCE

9. SECTION AA’

VISITOR CENTER

BUS STATION ENTRANCE

Deep Marsh

Shallow Marsh

Wet Meadow

Low Shrub Wetland

High Shrub Wetland

Land Buffer


HYDRASTRUCTUREâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Olivia Huang, Isabelle Song, Donald Taylor-Patterson

2

B 3

2

C

3

SECTION OF RIVER

15 ft +

ground level

water level

50 ft


Central Garden

95 U N D E R G R A D UAT E

’ A

WATER YOU DOING?­—Tien Chen, Ryu Ahn, Charlie Avis

Water Slide

B’

Cliff Jumping Rooftop Boardwalk B A

Infinity Pool

KEY: INSTALLATION ACTIVATED ROOF ENTRANCE TO SITE BOARDWALK SWIMMING POOL RIVER STRUCTURE

Water Play

ARC 404 GANDELSONAS—Fall 2013

Urban Beach


ROBERTO BURLE MARX’S PARQUE DEL ESTE: THE PUZZLE EDITION—Greta Hayes This puzzle allows you to re-create his Parque Del Este in Caracas, Venezuela any way you would like. There are five sets of each piece, all painted differently. The rules are easy - simply select any piece that fits (pieces are shown in dark green) and insert it! Repeat until you have created your ideal park.

AUGMENTED PERCEPTION­— Charlie Avis This device is one of many plug-ins for the Augmented Perception headband. The SoundView device allows one to tune a visual display that plays with the colors and sounds of the park. It’s aim is to make the user focus on the soundscape of the park.


97 U N D E R G R A D UAT E

SITIO BURLE MARX POP-UP— Cody Kitchen This pop-up model documents the development of Burle Marx’s own house and garden in Rio de Janeiro: from the acquisition of the plot by Marx in 1949 all th way to his death in 1994.

ARC 404 GANDELSONAS—Fall 2013

REDESIGNING THE PARQUE DEL ESTE USING THE DIGITAL AS A TOY—Peyton Knisley The Parque del Este is composed of four unique types of landscapes that join to form a cohesive whole. As a device, the kaleidoscope was a way to regenerate new plans of the park using configurations of these four parts. This fun and playful children’s toy allows patrons to design their own creative arrangement of the park.


JIW—Junior Independent Work I N STR U CTO R

Hayley Eber TEAC H I N G AS S I STANT

Alastair Stokes S P R I N G 2014

Temporary Arts Pavilion At Princeton University

Throughout history, pavilions have acted as paradigms of innovative design. Often without a program or the necessary regulations of a conventional building, the pavilion has yielded some of the most adventurous and influential works of modern architecture. It is precisely because pavilions do not need to subscribe to conventional architectural rules and regulations—be weather tight, enduring or pragmatic—that they are able to become experimental investigations of the built environment and embody an event or place. Their scale, mobility and comparatively short lifespan allow them to exist as temporary, unfinished laboratories. The studio will examine how these light-weight and temporary projects are intrinsically linked to our current state of continuous crisis, both economically and environmentally, while at the same time allow architects to test ideas in increasingly contemplative ways: by researching fundamental ideas of time, movement, structure and program. The Serpentine Pavilion, a temporary structure commissioned each summer by the Serpentine Gallery and installed in Hyde Park in London, envisions the modern pavilion as an architectural experiment. We will look at 14 years of the Pavilions for the Serpentine Gallery. These will be analyzed through drawings and physical models in terms of material, structure, environment, ground, technology and fabrication methods.

The final project will be the design of a temporary arts pavilion for Princeton University. The given site is the platform and parking lot adjacent to the Dinky Station. Princeton University’s plan for an “Arts and Transit Neighborhood” proposes to build a new arts complex on that site. Your task is to design a temporary exhibition and performance space for the current site, before the new site design is implemented. It should serve these functions, but be inexpensive and dismountable after one year or until the permanent venues are in place. Like the pavilions you have analyzed, these limitations should provide an opportunity for design and experimentation. Learning from the Serpentine, you are required to extract the “DNA” of the pavilion you analyzed, and use that as the generative seed for the new pavilion, by intersecting it with the given site and program. Your design for the art pavilion will be site-specific, critically interrogating a selected Princeton theme and addressing a particular audience. Your pavilion might be sculpturally experimental or a choreographed event; preserve wildlife habitats or experiment with surprising materials such as chemicals or air; carry a political message; consist of a field of components or exist in physical and digital realms simultaneously.


99 U N D E R G R A D UAT E

SERPENTINE STUDY_HERZOG & DE MEURON—Caleb Negash

JIW EBER—Spring 2014


SERPENTINE STUDY_TOYO ITO—Jose Escamila 1/2 2/3

1/10

1/10

4/10

1/10

2/3 1/2

7/10

1/2

2/3

2/3 1/2

1/2

1/2 6/10

2/3 1/10 2/3 1/2

1/10

2/3

2/3

INITIAL BOX OUTLINE

1/2

8/10

2/10 6/10

2/10

2/3 1/2

2/3

1/2

1

RATIO SELECTION

2

180

o

RECURSIVE PATTERN GENERATION 3

PATTERN EXPANSION 4

TRIMMING OUTLINE 5

PAVILION PLAN LAYOUT

6

180

PERSPECTIVAL LAYOUT

o

7


101

DESIGNING THE SET THE GOAL:

U N D E R G R A D UAT E

SERPENTINE STUDY_OLAFUR ELIASSON—Misha Semenov

Design a Circulation Diagram that connects each entry point to all 7 other entry points, accommodating varying speeds and modes of movement.

“tree” path structure

3’

ROAD

4’

HIGHWAY

5’

ideal diagram

adding pipe thickness and nodes at intersections

ground plan: green thicket and stages/elevators

use of a pathway grid to generate seating...

...and structural columns

JIW EBER—Spring 2014

distortion of the ideal diagram to fit site conditions

LANE


SERPENTINE STUDY_SOU FUJIMOTO—Injee Unshin


103 U N D E R G R A D UAT E

SERPENTINE STUDY_DANIEL LIEBSKIN—Dhlama Foldesi

JIW EBER—Spring 2014


SERPENTINE STUDY_OSCAR NIEMEYER—Michael Glassman

x 2

x 4.5

x 4.75


105 U N D E R G R A D UAT E

SERPENTINE STUDY_JEAN NOUVEL—Maryia Rusak

JIW EBER—Spring 2014


The following thesis abstracts offer examples of the scholarship of the Senior Theses.

â&#x20AC;&#x201A;AVISâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Charles S E N I O R TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Simulations and Sand Castles FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Axel Kilian

What purpose should industrial robotics serve in the field of architecture? The construction of building elements and production of architectural representation continues to be explored, but how robots can contribute to an architectural space through augmented design processes or as embedded architectural objects requires further development. The robotic object often eclipses the conceptual narrative of a project, and becomes the narrative itself. There seems to be a fascination with the industrial robot that yields projects for the robot as opposed to projects with the robot. Their precise, performative movements open up exciting opportunities for real-time architectural simulations and continuous design feedback. Robots can enable mobility and adaptation in architectural design. By considering the relationship between human interaction, sensed input and robotic articulation, proposed in this thesis is a model for architectural robotics that is performative and adaptive. Working with the industrial robot in the Labatut Lab at the Princeton University School of Architecture Center for Embodied Computation, the thesis presents an argument for a definition of interactivity between users and robots that recognizes the robot as an architectural object capable of simulating experiences of space and augmenting applications of materials in a way that stimulates user feedback. One way that this can be achieved is through the development of software for industrial robots that enables adaptive stimulates user feedback. One way that this can be achieved is through the development of software for industrial robots that enables adaptive robotic intervention to landscape models; digital precision and human design decisions both manifest in the design space of a sandbox. (clockwise from top right) Robotic tracing of placed object. Robotic delineation of space. Path of robot traces for road of best fit. Closeup of robotically traced path.


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AVIS—Charles


GEBB—Samantha S E N I O R TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Negotiating Desire: Human Movement as an Architectural Medium FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Mario Gandelsonas

I am interested in human movement as architecture, as a set of constantly shifting formal relations that are built upon and in turn augment the material environment. This idea, rather than being concrete, is an ephemeral construct that lives within Rudolf von Laban’s attitude towards movement that supports his highly-developed notational system, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari’s rhizomatic approach towards existence, and Madeline Gins and Shusaku Arakawa’s project of the “architectural body” that is constantly reinventing and relocating itself. Through examination of the treatment of movement throughout the 20th and 21st centuries both as the vehicle for experiencing architecture and as the primary medium of artistic dance, analogous trajectories are established, delineating the changing dynamic between the choreographer-architect, his medium, and the receptive audience-user. In dance, this trajectory is marked through Martha Graham, Merce Cunningham, and William Forsythe; in architecture, Le Corbusier, Cedric Price, and Gins & Arakawa.

What specific forms or general spatial constructs, in both dance and architecture, cause a ‘memory trip’? It is the memory trip that is the primary invoker of the imaginary. While these articulations will change with each environment, two war memorials, Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial and Peter Eisenman’s Holocaust Memorial, will be used here as case studies to explicate the imaginary as motivated by actual experience in two unique environments. The notion of verticality as a datum register and a necessary void will be emphasized as an affective device in the actual and imagined path of users through the site. Finally, these ideas will be pitted against the recent aims and articulations of parametricism, bringing movement, desire, and the imaginary into the current architectural climate.

The reading of movement as and within architecture invokes the imaginary as an invented yet percepted field of possible lines, forms, and connections between all combinations of users and built elements. The imaginary is a physicalization of Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of desire, the germination of and the reaction to which engages the user and forms a more intimate relationship between material expression and human inhabitation. Desire acts in an anticipatory mode for the choreographer-architect, and in a reactionary mode for the lay experiencer. The complexity of desire is compounded when the experiencer is not a layperson but a dancer-architect, both in work of his own and of others.

above: Vietnam Veterans Memorial, case study site photo top right: Julie Mehretu, Immanence (2003) right: Gins & Arakawa projective mapping far right: Holocaust Memorial, case study sketch


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GEBB—Samantha


MILLS—Alison S E N I O R TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Interstate 0: A History and Theory of the Los Angeles River as Cultural and Urban Infrastructure FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Guy Nordenson

The following thesis will naturally transform the Los Angeles River into yet another highway in the city. The story of the river begins and unfolds over the last 100 years, throughout which Los Angeles has constantly wrestled with an unrelenting fear of water’s presence and absence. After a 50-year storm cost the city $1.3 billion in property damage in 1938, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers soaked the river in concrete, desperate to transform the irregular, unpredictable device into a flood channel with a highly controlled flow. Since then, theorists of urbanism in Los Angeles have struggled to comprehensively understand how the city occupies its river, making unfounded assumptions about its industrial nature. The old, foreign river has been repressed partially into the subconscious, and now, with the many renderings of revitalization that have begun to creep out of it, the city is left with a Freudian sense of the uncanny that it just cannot quite place. By deciphering the geographical, historical, and imagined contexts of the river, this thesis tackles these uncertainties, bringing architecture into the conversation surrounding the river, and arguing that the Los Angeles River is actually crucial to understanding how the city grows and works as both an architectural and cultural construct. In order to illustrate the ways in which the river serves as a template for development in the city, the thesis broadly collects and surveys satellite images of the contemporary edge conditions that occur along the river’s 52 miles, before focusing on 8 sites along the river to detail its precise relationship to the urban fabric. These 8 sites represent the various conditions that occur along the entire length of the river, effectively sampling the river to create an accurate assessment of its unique physical and cultural urban connections. By diagramming zoning, solids, streets, and density patterns at areas including the beginning of the river at Owensmouth Avenue in Canoga Park, the equestrian bridge at the Glendale Narrows, the 1st Street bridge, and the mouth of the river at Palm Beach Park on W. Shoreline Drive in Long Beach, the thesis asserts several crucial urban implications and architectural maneuvers that result from the concretization of the river.

Having outlined the typologies of urbanism, movement, connection, and culture that surround the river for the first time, the thesis provides a comprehensive account of the effects of the history of the development of the Los Angeles River and advances potential revisions that might better serve the city at large. While the L.A. River basin is an important case to consider in and of itself, the thesis also seeks to briefly generalize some of its conclusions and strategies to apply to other urban rivers with parallel problems.

above: Walker stands framed in the prioritized concrete bed of the Los Angeles River from the film Point Blank. top right: contributing to the invisibility and ignorance of the Los Angeles River is the active neglect and resulting garbage that litters the river. right: the Los Angeles River shaping one of its surrounding environments.


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MILLS—Alison


ORTMEYER—Katherine S E N I O R TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

Living Light: A Study of Illumination and Illusion in the Nineteenth Century Theatre FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Jesse Reiser

At the beginning of the twentieth century, lighting and set design in theatres took a drastic turn, rejecting the realist detail of the nineteenth century and opting instead for abstracted and suggestive sets. The shift has largely been attributed to the advent of electric lighting because it exposed various flaws in the previously passable backdrops and precluded the formation of any convincing illusion for the audience. I argue that, though the major overhauls to set design occurred after its decline, the crucial developments in the perception of light were fostered by electric light’s predecessors of the nineteenth century—gas lighting, lime lighting, and electric arc lighting. This thesis studies the developments in nineteenth century lighting technologies as the basis for the gradual creation of a living and motivated light on stage by drawing on Banham’s theories regarding the concealment of mechanical services. The first chapter discusses the increased brightness of the gas lamps in comparison with its candle and oil counterparts and the effect that the brighter flame had in allowing the lamp technology to be hidden onstage and in the home. Without the visual reminder of the lamp, I argue that the light produced came to be considered as an independent entity, thus freeing it for an active role in the theatre. Chapter II further elucidates the separation of the lamp technology from the light on a larger scale, delving into the remote manipulation of systems of gaslights and the networking of the gaslight throughout the city as methods for conceptually removing the mechanical workings of the lamp from the changes in the produced light. In Chapter III, I explore the uses of the limelight and electric arc light that first began to attach meaning to the isolated and independently acting light onstage as a precursor to twentieth century developments. Chapter IV addresses these later developments more fully, focusing on revolutionaries like Appia and Meyerhold for their creation of an abstract but suggestive stage that denied literal representation and concrete, external referents. The thesis concludes by positing that, though the effects made possible by the nineteenth century lighting innovations were largely co-opted into the prevailing aesthetic of realism and naturalism, they created a framework and an understanding of light that allowed lighting designers of the twentieth century to break away and cultivate a suggestive and self-referential theatre.

above: man in mask tends the footlights. top right: angels descend in a beam of light. right: Peace – Burial at Sea, J. M. W. Turner (1842), shadow provides the main structure for a painting of ships. far right: Appia’s design using light as an active and structural entity onstage.


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ORTMEYER—Katherine


SANTILLO—Amanda S E N I O R TH E S I S S P R I N G 2014

[ECO]Systemizing the City: Promoting a Multidisciplinary Discussion of Ecologically Sustainable Planning Strategies FAC U LTY ADVI S O R

Mario Gandelsonas This thesis offers a discussion of strategies aimed at promoting the establishment of a continuous network of natural spaces that permeates the existing urban fabric, in the context of Midtown East, Manhattan. This network is called an “eco-network”, and the process of designing and constructing said network is called “ecosystemization”. The functions of an eco-network are multifaceted. The thesis discusses the functions of the eco-network from both ecological and social perspectives. The ecological argument is that an eco-network promotes ecological productivity and biodiversity protection that is destroyed by current urban planning practices. From a social perspective, the eco-network is significant in that it creates an increased awareness and appreciation of the natural environment, which is necessary if a general shift in public opinion toward a mindset that encourages active support of environmental protection efforts, is to be achieved. In order to shift public opinion to support the cause of environmental protection and sustainability, this thesis argues that the design and implementation of the econetwork must occur in a way that appeals directly to aesthetic preferences that are inherent to the human psyche, so that the natural environment can be seen as beautiful and worth protecting in the urban setting. Once this value is realized, urban populations would be inspired to actively fight for environmental protection. Furthermore, this thesis argues that human aesthetic preference is manipulatable, and that the eco-network should develop over time into a more natural, less manicured, setting, which would gradually shift human aesthetic preferences to favor environments that are more ecologically productive. Finally, this thesis argues and demonstrates that a multidisciplinary discussion is necessary in order to achieve sustainable planning strategies. For example, this thesis combines issues of psychology, planning, ecology, and policy. In order to solve the complicated planning challenges of the future, professionals from many fields will need to work together.


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SANTILLO—Amanda


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The interdisciplinary nature of the program stresses the relationship of architecture, urbanism, landscape, and building technologies to their cultural, social and political milieux. Supported by strong affiliations with other departments in the humanities, sciences, and social sciences, the program has developed a comprehensive approach to the study of the field. Students interact with their peers to sustain individual projects in a context of collective research. The fields of study are normally, but not exclusively, selected within the history and theory of architecture, urbanism, landscape, and engineering/building technology. The History and Theory Track During the first year of residence, a two-semester pro-seminar introduces students to historical research and methodological approaches, and guides the development of individual research proposals. The proseminars in the Fall are followed by collaborative workshops in the Spring generating polemical publications, exhibitions, films and other multimedia platforms. These workshops also act as one of the hubs of the interdisciplinary Program in Media and Modernity at Princeton, positioning architectural research within a wider field. A guest seminar series, supported by the School of Architecture and administered by the students in residence, forms a venue for ongoing discussions.

The Computation, Energy, and Technology in Architectural Track A new architectural technology PhD track for computation, energy, and architectural technology was launched in 2014. The new track is an addition to the PhD program that will develop and research new techniques of embodied computation and new systems for energy and environmental performance. It will be supported by many connections to the School of Engineering and Applied Science, particularly with Computer Science and the Andlinger Center for Energy and Environment. New courses and curriculum for the track are being developed, and with the recent acquisition of a powerful industrial robotic arm and the planned renovation of the Architectural Laboratory, students will actively contribute to handson applied research in architecture while becoming experts in their field. The pro seminar for students in the PhD track in Computation, Energy, building Technology is organized as a research seminar to introduce the participants to scientific research methods in the context of design in Architecture and science in engineering. It is structured as a series of introductory presentations of exemplary methods based on case studies and a number of guest presentations from collaborating disciplines. The participants will identify an area of research in the first half of the semester and work on developing a research project by defining research methods, a hypothesis and an experimental component as we precedent analysis.

PH.D. PROGR AM

The Ph.D. Program


PROGRAM COMMITTEE — 

M. Christine Boyer, Urbanism Chair, Acting Director of Graduate Studies, Ph.D. Program Lucia Allais, History and Theory Beatriz Colomina, History and Theory (on leave) Axel Kilian, Computational Design Forrest Meggers, Energy and Environment Spyridon Papapetros, History and Theory Stan Allen, Acting Dean of the School of Architecture

SUPPORTING FACULTY — 

RECENT VISITING FACULTY — 

Sigrid M. Adriaenssens, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Jean-Louis Cohen Spring 2012, Fall 2012–14 Professor, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University

Elie R. Bou-Zeid, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Eduardo Cadava, Department of English Media Technologies, Literary Theory, 19th-Century American Literature, Comparative Literature, Theories of Translation Esther da Costa Meyer, Department of Art and Archaeology 19th- and 20th-Century Architectural History Brigid Doherty, Departments of German and Art and Archeology 19th- and 20th-Century Art and Literary History, Aesthetics Adam Finkelstein, Department of Computer Science Computer Graphics, Digital Imaging, Rendering and Visualization Hal Foster, Department of Art and Archaeology 19th- and 20th-Century Art History, Cultural Theory Rubén Gallo, Department of Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Cultures 20th-Century Literary and Cultural Theory, History of Latin America Michael W. Jennings, Department of Germanic Languages and Literature Late 18th-Century and Early 20th-Century European Culture Thomas Y. Levin, Department of Germanic Languages and Literature Aesthetics, 20th-Century European History and Art History, Cultural Theory Anson Rabinbach, Department of History 20th-Century European History, Intellectual History, History of Technology Barry P. Rand, Department of Electrical Engineering and the Andlinger Center for Energy and Environment Dan Steingart, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment Claire E. White, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment

Sylvia Lavin Fall 2009–11, Fall 2013–14 Chair of the Ph.D. in Architecture program and Professor of Architectural History and Theory, UCLA John Rajchman Fall 2006 Adjunct Professor, Director of Modern Art M.A. Program, Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University Elizabeth Grosz Spring 2006 Professor, Women’s Studies in Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, Duke University Mirko Zardini Fall 2007 Director, Canadian Centre for Architecture


119 PH.D. A B S T R AC T S

RECENTLY COMPLETED DISSERTATIONS —  The wide range of possible research topics is illustrated by the following dissertations.

AnnMarie Brennan (University of Melbourne), Olivetti: A Working Model of Utopia (2011) Craig Buckley (Yale University), Graphic Apparatuses: Architecture, Media, and the Reinvention of Assembly 1956–1973 (2013) Mark Campbell (School of Architecture at the Architectural Association), A Beautiful Leisure: The Decadent Architectural Humanism of Geoffrey Scott, Bernard and Mary Berenson (2013) Sarah Deyong (Texas A&M University), Archigram and the City of Tomorrow (2008) Zvi Efrat, The Object of Zionism: Architecture of Statehood in Israel, 1948–1973 (2014) Inês Fernandes, Building Brasilia: Modern Architecture and National Identity in Brazil (1930–1960) (2003) Anthony Fontenot (Woodbury School of Architecture), Non-design and the Non-planned City (2013) Gina Greene (University of Pennsylvania), Children in Glass Houses: Toward a Hygienic, Eugenic Architecture for Children During the Third Republic in France (1870–1940) (2012) Romy Hecht (Pontificia Universidad Católica in Santiago, Chile), The Attack on Greenery: Critical Perceptions of the Man-Made Landscape, 1955–1969 (2009) Branden Hookway (Cornell University), Computational Environments of the 20th Century (2011) Lisa L. Hsieh (University of Minnesota), ArchiteXt: The Readable, Playable and Edible Architecture of Japanese New Wave (2013) Alicia Imperiale (Tyler School of Art–Architecture/ Temple University), Alternate Organics: The Aesthetics of Experimentation in Art, Technology & Architecture in Postwar Italy (2014) Karin Jaschke (University of Brighton), Mythical Journeys: Ethnography, Archaeology, and the Attraction of Tribal Cultures in the Work of Aldo van Eyck and Herman Haan (2012) Lydia Kallipoliti (Columbia University, The Cooper Union), MISSION GALACTIC HOUSEHOLD: The Resurgence of Cosmological Imagination in the Architecture of the 1960s and 1970s (2013)

Joy Knoblauch (University of Michigan), Going soft: Architecture and the human sciences in search of new institutional forms (1963–1974) (2012) Roy Kozlovsky (Northeastern University), Representation of Children in Postwar Architecture (2008) Daniel Lopez-Perez (University of San Diego), SKYSCRAPEROLOGY: Tall Buildings in History and Building Practice (1975–1984) (2013) Joaquim Moreno (Columbia University), From a Little Magazine to the City: Arquitecturas Bis (1974–85) (2010) Ernestina Osorio (University of California, Los Angeles), Intersections of Architecture, Photography, and Personhood: Case Studies in Mexican Modernity (2006) Emmanuel Petit (Yale University), Irony In Metaphysics’s Gravity. Iconoclasms and Imagination in the Architecture of the Seventies (2006) Stephen Phillips (California Polytechnic State University), Elastic Architecture: Frederick Kiesler’s Mobile Space Enclosures (2008) Beatriz Preciado (Université Paris VIII, Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona), Gender, Sexuality, and the Biopolitics of Architecture from the Secret Museum to Playboy (2012) Enrique Ramirez, Airs of Modernity 1881–1914 (2013) Lutz Robbers (IKKM Weimar), Modern Architecture in the Age of Cinema: Mies van der Rohe and the Moving Image (2011) Ingeborg Rocker (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Evolving Structures: The Architecture of the Digital Medium (2010) Rafael Segal (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), A Unitary Approach to Architecture — Alfred Neumann and the ‘Humanization of Space’ (2011) David Smiley (Barnard College), Pedestrian modern: modern architecture and the American Metropolis, 1935–1955 (2007) David Snyder (Shenkar College of Engineering and Design), The Jewish question and the modern metropolis : urban renewal in Prague and Warsaw, 1885–1950 (2007) Molly W. Steenson (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Architectures of Information: Christopher Alexander, Cedric Price, and Nicholas Negroponte & MIT’s Architecture Machine Group (2014)


Sara Stevens (Rice University), Developing Expertise: The Architecture of Real Estate, 1908–1965 (2012) Irene Sunwoo (Bard College), Between the ‘Well-Laid Table’ and the ‘Marketplace’: Alvin Boyarsky’s Experiments in Architectural Pedagogy (2013) Els Verbakel (Technion Institute of Technology), Of Voids, Networks and Platforms: Post-War Visions for a European Transnational City: 1952–1958 (2013) Diana Kurkovsky West (STS Center and Russian Computer Scientist Project, European University, St. Petersburg, Russia), CyberSovietica: Planning, Design, and the Cybernetics of Soviet Space, 1954–1986 (2013) Shundana Yusaf (University of Utah), Wireless Sites: Architecture in the Space of British Radio (1927–1945) (2011) Tamar Zinguer (The Cooper Union School of Architecture), Architecture in Play: Intimations of Modernism in Architectural Toys, 1836–1952 (2006)


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COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS — 

124 MODERN HISTORIOGRAPHY:

142 GONZALEZ GALAN — Ignacio The Logics of Arredamento: Circulation and Display of the Italian Interior, 1928–1963

LATIN AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE — 

2012–13 and 2013–14 126 RADICAL PEDAGOGY© —  2010–11 and 2011–12; exhibition 2013–ongoing 128 PLAYBOY & ARCHITECTURE: 1953–1979 —  2008–09 and 2009–10; exhibition 2012–ongoing DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS — 

130 ARAGÜEZ — José Form’s Patterned Idiosyncrasy 132 AVILÉS — Luis Postwar Rhetoric.Technology, History, Ornament (1947–1966) 134 BEDFORD — Joseph Re-enchanting Modernism: The Cambridge school and the hermeneutic theory of architecture (1965–1995) 136 BRITZ — Marc Durand in Deutschland: Formal Economy, Financial Argumentation, and the Scarcity of Means in German Architecture from 1799 to 1848 138 EVERSOLE — Britt The Disenchantment with Democracy: Architectural Models of Self-Organization, Italy 193x–196x 140 FABRICIUS — Daniela Calculation and Risk: The Rational Turn in West German Architecture, 1965–1985

144 GROSSMAN — Vanessa A Concrete Alliance: Modernism, Communism and the Design of Urban France, 1958–1981 146 HANDWERKER — Margo Public Displays of Effection: Ecological Art and Utility, 1969–1984 148 KOTSIORIS — Evangelos Komp’iuter Architecture(s), 195x–198x 150 MEISTER — Anna-Maria From Form to Norm: The Systematization of Values in German Design 192x–196x 152 OLAIYA — Yetunde Expert, Artifact, Fact: The Technopolitics of Architectural Production in French Black Africa, 1945–75 154 PANTELEYEVA — Masha First they learn to play Jazz, next they sell out the Motherland: Youth and Modernism in Soviet Russia during the Thaw, 1954–1965 156 RICCHI — Daria From Storia to History: Literature and Fiction in Italian Architectural Writing, 1940–1957 158 VANNUCCHI — Federica From Control to Discipline: Design and Power at the Milan Triennale, 1945–1973

PH.D. PROGR AM

Research topics in progress by students in the program include:


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Over the last decade, the Ph.D. program has transformed traditional academic training into a collaborative scholarly workshop generating polemical publications, exhibitions, films and other multimedia platforms. Two years of proseminars in the Fall are followed by workshops in the Spring that also act as one of the hubs of the interdisciplinary Program in Media and Modernity at Princeton, positioning architectural research within a wider field.

RESE ARCH SEMINAR

Ph.D. Collaborative Research Projects


MODERN HISTORIOGRAPHY —  Latin American Architecture Research Seminar, 2012–13 and 2013–14 Professor Beatriz Colomina with students: Lluis Casanovas Blanco, Michael Faciejew, Justin Fowler, Evangelos Kotsioris, Matthew Mullane, Victoria Øye, Masha Panteleyeva, Clelia Pozzi and Nicholas Risteen Historiography is as much an analysis of historical method as it is a means of identifying blind spots in the historical record. As a vehicle for critical self-correction, the historiographic turn often appears in moments of generational transition or disciplinary introspection. Seeking to generate new contemporary practices through alternative readings of the past, this proseminar addressed the brief period from the 1930s to the early 1960s in which historians of modern architecture, architects, journalists, institutions, and governments from around the world trained their sights on Latin America. Beyond merely reevaluating past efforts, the seminar devoted attention to those aspects of historical practice that might constitute a “modern” historiography. Students explored the use of new media in exhibitions, governmental funding of architectural publications for purposes of cultural influence and exchange, and other modes of historical transmission. The case study of the construction of modern Latin American architecture is one where historiography converges with the future-oriented notion of the architectural project. Student research from this seminar was presented at the 2013 São Paolo conference ARCHITECTURAL ELECTIVE AFFINITIES: correspondences, transfers, inter/multidisciplinarity, as well as in workshops at the University of São Paolo in 2014.


125 RESE ARCH SEMINAR

MODERN HISTORIOGRAPHY — 2012–14


RADICAL PEDAGOGY © —  Research Seminar, 2010–11 and 2011–12; exhibition, 2013–ongoing Professor Beatriz Colomina with students: Anthony Acciavatti, Juan Cristobal Amunategui, Jose Araguez Escobar, Joseph Bedford, Esther Choi, Britt Eversole, Daniela Fabricius, Ignacio Gonzalez Galan, Vanessa Grossman, Evangelos Kotsioris, Anna-Maria Meister, Federica Soletta and Federica Vannucchi This two-year research seminar studied pedagogical experiments that played a crucial role in changing architectural discourse and practice in the second half of the twentieth century. Derived from the Latin radix — that which belongs to the root, foundation or origin of something — the term radical denotes those moments in pedagogy that questioned and fundamentally reshaped the field of architecture. These new modes of teaching shook foundations and disturbed assumptions rather than reinforcing them. They operated as small endeavors on the fringes of institutions but had long-lasting impact. The research project included the seminars, interviews with key protagonists, archival research and guest lectures. The project casts the teaching and learning of architectural history and theory as an experiment in itself, exploring the potential of collaboration —  in what is often considered an individual field — and addressing the challenges and opportunities of new media. The ongoing research of the students in the seminar has led to collectively authored publications and invited lectures at the Architectural Association in London and other venues. Students in the course also curated and designed an installation about Radical Pedagogy at the 2013 Lisbon Architecture Triennial: Close Closer. The most recent manifestation of this research project is a large exhibition in the Monditalia section at the 2014 Biennale di Venezia, as well as an interactive online platform. The exhibition received a Special Mention from the awards jury.


127 RESE ARCH SEMINAR

RADICAL PEDAGOGY© — 2010–12


PLAYBOY & ARCHITECTURE — 1953–1979 Research Seminar, 2008–09 and 2009–10; exhibition 2012–ongoing Professor Beatriz Colomina with students: Pep Avilés, Joseph Bedford, Marc Britz, Britt Eversole, Daniela Fabricius, Gina Greene, Vanessa Grossman, Margo Handwerker, Joy Knoblauch, Yetunde Olaiya, Enrique Ramirez, Daria Ricchi, Molly Steenson, and Federica Vannucchi from Princeton University The research seminar was dedicated to the study of Architecture in Playboy: 1953–1979. The thesis of this seminar was that Playboy played a crucial yet unacknowledged role in the cultivation of design culture in the USA. Through a range of strategies, the magazine integrated state-of-the-art designers and architects into a carefully constructed vision of a desirable contemporary lifestyle. The seminar explored the ways in which Playboy was ahead of professional and popular magazines in promoting modern architecture and design. The collaborative research seminar analyzed the magazine, secondary literature on Playboy and related archives; interviews with protagonists were also conducted. The research led to a large traveling exhibition: Playboy Architecture, 1953– 1979. The exhibition showed how modern architecture — buildings, interiors, furniture, cities and product design — was mobilized to shape a new sexual and consumer identity for the American male and how architectural taste became critical to success in the art of seduction. It opened in September 2012 at the Bureau Europa/NAiM in Maastricht, the Netherlands. It traveled to Amsterdam in 2013 and was redesigned for a February 2014 show at the Deutsche Architekturmuseum in Frankfurt, Germany. Student research was published in a 2012 special issue of Volume dedicated to architectural interiors.


129 RESE ARCH SEMINAR

PLAYBOY & ARCHITECTURE — 2008–10


The following dissertation abstracts offer examples of the scholarship that is presently underway within the Ph.D. Program.

 ARAGÜEZ — José The Architecture-Engineering Hybrid and the Formal Domain, 1957–2002 As social, environmental and political concerns became increasingly pressing over the course of the twentieth century, the question of form in architecture kept taking on more and more forms. The understanding of form in nature, form as the reification of power structures, the psychology of formal perception, the quest for form’s “interiority,” form as the catalyst of participatory processes, the phenomenology of form, the relationship between form and formalism — the ubiquity of form in our field cannot be taken but as a marker of its significance. Though everywhere, however, “form” in architecture is far from having been sufficiently theorized. Rather, it tends to remain in the background of other narratives that are built into spheres peripheral to architecture. The ultimate goal of this dissertation is to develop a new conceptualization of architectural form centered around questions of three-dimensional configuration and internal spatial arrangement — as opposed to those relating to external envelope, volumetric outline or mass, which I make correspond to the domain of shape.

design procedures can not be separated from the fact that, despite their obvious differences — Burt closer to being a geometer, Giorgini to an artist, and Balmond embodying a stronger intellectual inclination — their work can be jointly discussed as featuring a self-defined rigor underlying the apparently capricious. Giorgini’s general hypothesis entailed that, whether a point, a segment, a triangle, a parallelogram or a symmetrical mesh, any geometric unit can be taken through a deformational sequence in such a way that an asymmetrical structure would be obtained similar to those existing in nature, where only curved lines and surfaces, he believed, could be found. Burt’s research gravitated chiefly around the study of systems of space subdivision based on polyhedra with double-curved surfaces — so-called “saddle polyhedra” — with incidental reference to analogous cases with planar surfaces. Balmond conceived abstract principles in such a way that opportunism, instinct and the capacity to seize the immediate became central to make any one contingent condition along the form-thinking process into another order.

I hypothesize and show that the medium through which to make this contribution in the realm of form is a particular lineage within the tradition of the architecture-engineering hybrid. This tradition is, in fact, older than that of the figure who falls unambiguously in either of the two categories, architect or engineer. Within it, the lineage my study delineates is one which, I argue, appeared only during the second half of the twentieth century. Three case studies are examined — Italian Vittorio Giorgini (1926–2010), Israeli Michaël Burt (b. 1937), and Sri Lankan-born, London-based Cecil Balmond (b. 1943). Instead of each separately being regarded as architect-engineers in any customary sense, it is their work that I read together as featuring distinctive aspects within the architecture-engineering hybrid. Those have to do primarily with an approach to design which, while deeply inflected by an engineering valance, nevertheless yields the full range of spatial articulations that are characteristically architectural.

Thus, whether through periodical continuity (Burt), geometrically controlled, topologically sound transformations (Giorgini) or sequences of relational templates (Balmond), all three sought to establish a consistent structure or logic originating what otherwise comes across as whimsical, random or just plain weird. It is in the negotiation of these two aspects, and therefore as an index of that which sets apart the production of each author in terms of such a negotiation, that the question of disposition will be posited as central — if composition emphasizes fixity and visual considerations, disposition will be taken here to release a sort of open order. As a result, this dissertation will capture form’s patterned idiosyncrasy, viz., a qualitative realm of form that is defined within the liminal space between the idiosyncratic and the lawful, or in other words, between that which falls outside received ways of grouping resemblances and differences, and that which is rule-governed.

Overlooked in the scholarship, the work of Giorgini, Burt and Balmond is thus examined here in its capacity to induce the platform from which to extend the bounds of possibility of the concept of architectural form. In that regard, the idiosyncratic character of their formal production is essential for the purposes of this project, for it allows to access such a concept beyond received formulations, most of which revolved around so-called “canonical” architecture instead. As I illustrate the engineering valance of their


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ARAGÜEZ — José


AVILÉS — Luis Postwar Rhetoric. Technology, History, Ornament (1947–1966) Right after the Second World War, modern architecture entered a period of self-affirmation and defense of past accomplishments while being contested and opposed. The forerunners of modern architecture slowly moved from prominent attacking positions — which originally qualified their proposals as avant-gardist — to defensive ones, abandoning in turn many of the interwar normative precepts such as the banishment to ornament. Architectural discourse glided constantly between epideictic oratory, forensic debates, and deliberative opinions, challenging the persuasive capacity of its protagonists. Modern architecture was no longer about utopia but about eloquence.

of those concepts to the artistic avant-gardes and the ideological transformations they required. The third chapter — Elocutio — deals with the debates around the never fully accepted vision of modern architecture as a style. Originally rejected by some of the harbingers of modernity such as Sigfried Giedion, the coiners of the label “International Style” Henry Russell-Hitchcock and Philip Johnson felt compelled to fine-tune their original syllogisms in order to respond to the new techno-cultural situation. Eventually, as every style, indeed relied in a codified grammar that had to be recalibrated to face the new challenges that society was experiencing.

Meanwhile, the increasing sophistication of industrial modes of production expanded the aesthetic palette of architects combining standardization and expressive freedom under the same paradigm: new techniques and materials — plastics, polished metals, acrylics, or plywood just to name a few — flooded the market after the efforts of war economy. Beginning with the arrival of the European émigrés to the United States, this dissertation examines the influence of the industrial rhetoric of affluent societies in the development of postwar architecture, paying close attention to the adjustment of classical modernism and the frictions between emerging interpretations to legitimize their views within an international context.

The fourth chapter departs from the revival of past architectures — Memoria — to gain new impulse for architecture production. The incorporation of the prehistory of the modern movement to the discourse through formerly disregarded figures — such as Louis Sullivan or Antoni Gaudí — together with the demystification of foundational ones — Adolf Loos — also contributed to the expansion of the architectural lexicon. Finally, the last chapter — Pronuntiatio — pays attention to the sculptural effervescence and material gesticulations of architects such as Marcel Breuer, Edward Durrell Stone, Minoru Yamasaki, or Ernesto Nathan Rogers among others. The use of lattices, patterns, and textures in façade compositions materialized what Alois Riegl termed as Unendlich rapport, a continuous tissue of geometric abstract motifs that characterized the architecture of the period. The reemergence of ornament in postwar architecture constitutes a paramount historical stratum in the archaeology of postmodern architecture.

Rhetoric constitutes a privileged field to face this challenge. It not only provides an organizational method — the five chapters of the dissertation follow the classical and still widely accepted organization of rhetoric studies that was first proposed by Quintilian in his Institutio Oratoria (1 A.D. ) — but also an epistemology: hidden behind literary metaphors, dialectic persuasiveness, and material gaiety stand many of the cultural and ideological assumptions that are historically relevant to understand the transition between the avant-gardes and postmodernism. Beginning with technological and industrial achievements — Inventio — the first chapter analyzes how an aesthetic consideration of mechanization triggered a reappraisal of geometric patterns and ornaments as legitimate companions for modern architecture. The second chapter — Dispositio — investigates the historical origins of fundamental concepts and expressive techniques of postwar architecture (such as texture) and their gentle assimilation in the architectural vocabulary. Starting with Moholy-Nagy’s posthumous book Vision in motion (1947), this chapter examines the indebtedness


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AVILÉS — Luis

(clockwise from top left) Frank B. Gilbreth, “Cyclograph of an Expert Surgeon Tying a Knot,” 1914. From Sigfried Giedion, Mechanization Takes Command, 1948 László Moholy-Nagy, “The Transformation”, 1927 Herbert Bayer, “Einsamer Großstädter”, 1932 László Moholy-Nagy, “Space Modulator”, 1945 Marcel Breuer, Paul Rudolph, Victor Lundy, et. al., Pavilion for the American Concrete and Masonry Association. Concrete Industries Exposition, Ohio, 1958. [Smithsonian Archives for American Art] Marcel Breuer, US Embassy in Den Haag, 1955–58 [Smithsonian Archives for American Art]


BEDFORD — Joseph Hermeneutic-Phenomenology’s Architectural Genealogy: Dalibor Vesely and Joseph Rykwert. (1968–1988) The advanced masters level course in the History and Theory of Architecture offered by Dalibor Vesely and Joseph Rykwert at the University of Essex in England between 1968 and 1978 was the first of its kind. It was the first taught-course in the history and theory of architecture that granted a degree. Degree courses prior to 1968 had only been in the building sciences and were largely in the service of developing principled technical knowledge by which the architectural profession hoped that it might lead the construction industry. But the newly founded course at Essex had an entirely different ambition. It aimed precisely to challenge the then dominant concern for technical knowledge in architecture. Its goal was to redefine architectural theory on the basis of meaning rather than method. Through a mixture of philosophy and history, it simultaneously diagnosed architecture’s dangerous imbrications with the extreme positivistic and rationalistic attitude towards science — seeing it as the very symptom of a crisis of nihilism in the West — and it offered a cure for the sick patient, in the recovery of architecture’s relationship to cultural traditions and to the basis of such traditions in the non-rational dimension of life. While the Essex course lasted only a decade, it fuelled an entire genealogy within Anglo-American architectural education over subsequent years. The major members of this genealogy include Daniel Libeskind, Alberto PerezGomez, David Leatherbarrow and Peter Carl. The roots, stem and branches of this family tree have coursed with ideas drawn from phenomenological-hermeneutics. Through consistent readings of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer, this genealogy has developed a particular understanding about the way that ideas are intertwined with practices. On the basis of these ideas a number of pedagogical strategies were developed in design studio to reconnect the embodied practical life-world that takes place within buildings to a higher-level content by which it could become more meaningful.

This dissertation explores the history of this course and the impact of the ideas developed within it upon the teaching of architecture in England and North America from 1968 to the present. It offers an account of these efforts to transform the teaching of architecture and in particular how they interacted with other discourses and problems within architecture during this period and with the institutional conditions of the various schools in which these ideas were put into circulation.


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BEDFORD — Joseph


BRITZ — Marc Durand in Deutschland: Formal Economy, Financial Argumentation, and the Scarcity of Means in German Architecture from 1799 to 1848 As architectural educator, prominent French theorist Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand (1760–1834) had a considerable influence on the German architectural production throughout the first half of the 19th century. Attracted by the French architect’s modern teaching method, a generation of young German architects became guest students in his course on architecture at the École Polytechnique in Paris and interns in Durand’s private atelier. In contrast to the rather unstructured education in their homelands, Durand provided the Germans with a codified system of architectural composition and a radically concise conception of the architectural object. For Durand, architecture was referential only to the history of its own solutions and thus divisible into genres of autonomous artifacts in the service of common public welfare. Durand propagated the idea that the prime objective of every architectural design lay in the achievement of the most fitting and the most economic disposition of a conventionally defined architectural repertoire within the ideal constraints of a building’s given genre. German students like Gottlob Georg Barth (1777–1848), Clemens Wenzeslaus Coudray (1775–1845), Johann Friedrich Christian Hess (1785–1845), Leo von Klenze (1784–1845), Peter Cremer (1785–1863), and Adolph Anton von Vagedes (1777–1842) continued to practice along the lines of Durand’s teachings throughout their subsequent careers in the many capitals of the various German states. As court architects or state-employed architectural inspectors, they were forced to adjust and fine-tune Durand’s abstract universal theory of architectural disposition to the quite often hostile contingencies of their commissions. Guided by the will to stick to Durand’s generally classicizing architectural idiom and faced with the primary task of erecting public and private buildings under the pressure of material and financial scarcity, these site-specific adjustments took on many forms. Given these circumstances, Durand had involuntarily set the agenda for the Germans to follow with an ingenious conflation of architectural form, budget, and beauty: “All of the architect’s talent comes down to the solution of two problems: (1) in the case of private buildings, how to make the building as fit for its purpose as possible for a given sum; (2) in the case of public buildings, where fitness must be assumed, how to build at the least possible expense. It will thus be seen that in architecture there is no incompatibility, and no mere compatibility, between beauty and economy: for economy is one of the principle causes of beauty.”1 Durand’s discovery that architectural form could be supported by a financial

argument resonated in the many ways in which the German architects tried to match their own sense of beauty to their patrons’ budgets. From the formulation and implementation of administrative guidelines for urban and rural planning to the reorganization of architectural education, including the erection of institutional buildings, and the renewal of architectural theory, Durand’s followers were forced to set his lucid theory of architectural fitness and economy to work in the muddled complexity of a nation struggling to emerge from provinciality. This dissertation will examine Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand’s architectural theory in correspondence to the architectural production of his former German students by analyzing the multiple compositional tactics and building techniques in which the German architects followed Durand’s economical dictum throughout their careers. The dissertation’s main focus will be on the notion of financial argumentation as a potentially subversive strategy to realize architectural objects according to specific formal preferences. Apart from highlighting Durand’s influence on Germany’s early modern architecture, the dissertation will thus describe the more practical problems related to the implementation of architectural projects against the financial and material scarcity in early 19th century Germany. Following the trajectory of the German disciples’ professional development and drawing from the different texts, buildings, projects, and biographies involved, the ultimate objective of the dissertation is to examine the theoretical conflation of architectural form and financial argumentation in Durand’s theory within the material constraints of a number of concrete examples ranging from Coudray’s failed theatre project in Weimar to Klenze’s successful museum in Munich.

1 Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand; Précis of the Lectures on Architecture; The Getty Research Institute Publications Program, Texts and Documents; Los Angeles; 2000; p. 86.


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(left) Leo Klenze, Design Study, Paris, ca. 1804

BRITZ — Marc

(above) Clemens Wenzeslaus Coudray, Design Study, Paris, 1801


EVERSOLE — Britt The Disenchantment with Democracy: Architectural Models of Self-Organization, Italy 193x–196x Political philosopher Norberto Bobbio has written: “I have to confess that…each and every day, I experience a flash of wonder, verging on incredulity, at the longevity of this chronic ailment that is our democracy.” Indeed, among Europe’s postwar democracies, none is more paradoxical than Italy. Despite, or perhaps because of its compromised origin — the creation of a formal democracy of rules and standards without substantive norms for how it would be implemented, reinforced and perpetuated — as well as its fickle political alliances, endless numbers of parties, ideological intransigence, and the public’s resignation to dysfunction, Italy’s democracy provided fuel for architects and urbanists to experiment with and sometimes against the State and the political system. Yet the bond between postwar Italian design and forms of governing has never been comprehensively studied. Questioning the relationship of political economy to design practices requires a historical study not of “how things got to be the way they are,” but of the alternatives explored, the hypotheses tested, the imagining of different futures, the roads not taken, and those moments when architects participated in government and in governing, formed their own political parties, joined existing parties or worked against them, wrote laws, made policy, worked with legislators and took politics into their own hands. This dissertation hypothesizes that rereading Italian architectural theory and experimentation from the 1930s to the 1960s as political theory offers the possibility of registering the growing disenchantment on the part of Italian

architects with the paradoxes, aporias and limitations of liberal democracy. It is organized into six paradigms — party, institution, participation, bureaucracy, school and territory. Case studies within each paradigm explicate the networks of power, policy, law, economics and activism into which architects and planners insinuated themselves. Architects were central in the nation’s rebirth, first during Reconstruction by imagining a post-Fascist, democratic Italy, and later, by posing alternatives to what came to be known as Italy’s “difficult democracy.” Italy’s post-Fascist democracy was neither total with regard to its form and ideas nor universally accepted. After designs that reflected, and in some cases challenged the new political system, the government’s unsuccessful attempts to implement effective planning policies to constrain unplanned urban growth posed new problems for architects. Urban dilemmas were not mere byproducts of the boom economico; they reflected the compromises and intransigence of parliamentarism and the inertia of the partitocrazia (the democracy of the parties). In short, this dissertation collects a series of experiments that range from efforts to give architectural form to liberal democracy, to projects that conclude that liberal democracy had become a threat to the city.


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EVERSOLE — Britt


FABRICIUS — Daniela Calculation and Risk: The Rational Turn in West German Architecture 1965–1985 In this study, calculation, and the related concepts of risk and rationalization, will provide the central mode of understanding a series of practices in West German architecture between the 1960s and the 1980s. As it will be defined here, calculation is distinct from the more rarified topic of mathematics in architecture, with the potential to address not only questions of aesthetics, form, and design but also those of economy. Mathematics has traditionally held a privileged, even mystical status in architecture; calculation, by contrast, is usually associated with the drudgeries of labor. Yet calculation has an expressive quality and proper aesthetic beyond that of mere numbercrunching. Nor is it free of mystification, as the seemingly objective nature of calculation, its claims of exhaustive evidence, proof, and mastery (hence the shared etymology of accounting and accountability), make it particularly vulnerable to misplaced faith. Calculation is a form of prediction used to manage uncertainty and risk. In the 1980s, Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens argued that modern industrial society was no longer instrumentally rational as it produced a series of new risks. These risks are not eliminated, but managed and integrated, forming a “risk society.” Several aspects in West Germany in the 1970s correspond to this theory, and indeed set the historical stage for Beck’s formulation. As West German architects turned increasingly away from functionalism and its perceived risks one paradoxical response was the return of a “radical rationalism.” Even with the influence of the Frankfurt School`s critique of instrumental reason, rationalism not only lingered, but intensified. Politically progressive architects like those at Ulm and the TU Berlin looked to systems theory and sociology for alternatives in architecture and planning; however, these were also used to rationalize government bureaucracies, industry, and national security. This universal use of calculation is one of the reasons why it is difficult to identify an architectural project in West Germany that used calculation in a manner consistent with an avant-garde.

Case studies will focus on practices in West Germany that prioritize and thematize calculation visibly. Architecturally, this can be seen in an interest in abstract languages, numbers and formulas, quantifiable information, statistics, parametrics, and typology. As architectural information was quantified, calculation took place both at the scale of the building and of the city. Early examples will center around the Ulm School for Design, which was instrumental in introducing calculation into German architectural practices in the 1960s and 70s. Other case studies include the optimization of form in the experimental engineering of Frei Otto, and the of geometric and typological systems in the work of Oswald Mathias Ungers. The development of Frankfurt am Main into a city of skyscrapers in the 1970s will illustrate the use of calculation and risk at the level of the postmodern city that became a financial capital. In the two decades that will be studied here calculation increasingly loses its basis in the real and approaches simulation in the form of predicted and projected futures. No longer applied teleologically, numbers are abstracted from their material referent. The examples here share a tendency towards the numerical on the one hand but also the production of a symbolic economy. With the absence of function, or more specifically Zweck, an architecture of calculation accumulates other meanings. Questions emerge around form, language, symbol, and utopia. But even these architectural examples cannot escape the “real” effects of calculation that occur on a social and economic level.


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FABRICIUS — Daniela

Frei Otto/IL, “Multimedia” test of simultaneous measurements of the Olympics stadium model using cameras and gauges, c. 1968


GONZALEZ GALAN — Ignacio The Logics of Arredamento: Circulation and Display of the Italian Interior 1928–1963 This dissertation examines the transformation of the architectural interior in Italy in the central decades of the 20th century through the lens of its circulation. Throughout this period, Italian discourse on interiors conceptualized its object of concern primarily as “arredamento” — a term meaning both furniture and the ensemble of elements that furnishes a livable space. While the word “interni” was also used at the time, the emphasis on “arredamento” signaled a distinct interest in the material elements that construct an environment, different both from the association between interior and interiority of the German philosophical tradition and the insistence on social control of French modern practices of the interior. Italian discourse transformed the interior from a unified and enclosed realm, as it was hitherto understood, into an ordered arrangement of elements that moved beyond stable boundaries. Curated displays of furniture and interior ensembles were central tools for the management of the interior’s circulation in the media and in the market. I will argue that the discourse of arredamento not only concerned the arrangement of elements within a room, but also the movement of goods, meanings and people throughout the territory. I will consider circulation as the central characteristic of modern liberal economies, systems of information and urban and territorial strategies of modern regimes of power. Circulate! In Italy, the circulation of arredamento was particularly entangled in narratives of national formation and eventually in its international dissemination. The national unification concluding in 1870 facilitated an internal market and migratory movements in a still predominantly rural society, and opened new routes of cultural circulation. Simultaneously, the nation state legitimated the forces that managed all forms of circulation, conducing to fascism as a maximum expression of these forms of control. Throughout the fascist period, a belated development of industrial production and the rise of mass media coexisted with the control of foreign trade and programs aiming at consolidating traditional familial structures. A thriving culture of arredamento unfolded in relation to these economic, cultural and social processes. This culture manifested in a particular attention to the market of applied arts, increasing publications concerned with the development of the modern interior and a series of programs developed by the fascist organization Dopolavoro addressing the household. This particular culture continued to play protagonist roles through the postwar, in the reconsideration of Italian identity after fascism and within the neorealist imaginaries of the country’s reconstruction. It also became a key actor of its so-called economic miracle ending in 1963. Italian industrial design products and its associated imaginaries spread

over international media and markets, questioning national boundaries while appealing to a supposedly idiosyncratic “taste” and “way of life.” Neither Fascism nor postwar democratic Italy, were unified centers of power or frictionless contexts for the processes of circulation governing the transformation of the interior. My work considers the diversity actors and media constituting these circulatory landscapes, which came both from the architecture profession and from an array of political, commercial and media agencies. Milanese architect Gio Ponti was central to this constellation, simultaneously concerned with the interior’s design and with its circulation: He was the editor of magazines such as Domus and Stile, directed institutions like Milano Triennale, and collaborated with the department store La Rinascente or the newspaper Corriere della Sera. Critics and designers such as Giulio Carlo Argan, Achille Castiglioni and Alberto Rosselli became key to a number of consequent circulatory enterprises, while the cinematographic studios Cinecittà before the war, the Riunione italiana per le mostre di arredamento in the postwar, and later the Associazione per il Disegno Industriale or the national television network RAI also developed their different agendas through architectural interiors, and built diverse constituencies around them (markets, audiences, workers and inhabitants also in circulation). In the different case studies I analyze, designs went beyond the representation and transmission of already formed social realities, and became active in their production: (1) interiors were considered to represent a civilization, while they rather incubated such an ideal formation; (2) they performed as cinematographic stages and reproduced specific social structures; (3) they aimed to form a popular taste for the construction of a post-fascist democratic society; (4) and they were designed to congeal new audiences in a booming economy. Exhibited chairs, photographed living rooms or showcased television sets, brought together different actors and audiences, negotiating their diverse cultural and economic interests and effects. When circulated in film stages, specialized magazines and commercial showrooms, interiors appeared to have no relation to any specific exterior. Constructed as rooms with no outside, windowless settings, interiors however remained attached to societal material conditions. In them, architecture exceeded the design of the object of furniture or interior and became a form of mediation between a new productive and commercial process and an increasingly larger audience. Throughout this period, the interior went from a taste-making chamber to a node in a communication network.


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GONZALEZ GALAN — Ignacio

(clockwise from top left) RAI Pavillion at the Milan Fair, Achile and Pier Giacomo Castiglione (1952) Furnishing for the RIMA show, Ignazio Gardella (1946) Announcement of “Italy: The New Domestic Landscape” Exhibition at MoMA, in Domus (1972) “Ambienti in Transformazione,” article by Gio Ponti in Il Corriere della Sera (1933)


GROSSMAN — Vanessa A Concrete Alliance: Modernism, Communism and the Design of Urban France, 1958–1981 French modernism has long enjoyed a privileged status in the history of 20th century architecture. The massive reshaping of French cities that took place at the hands of modern architects between 1958 and 1981 is commonly regarded as a unique episode when modernist ideals were tested on an unprecedented scale. The French urban architecture that emerged from this period has been historicized alternatively, as evidence of the influence of Le Corbusier, as a symptom of European capitalist development, as an episode in the history of colonialism, as the context for the invention of the grands ensembles, and as the theater for a social critique of modernism around the events of May 1968. Yet, the history of postwar French modernism has never fully accounted for the pervasive influence, throughout this entire period, of one of architecture’s most important institutional patrons, the French Communist Party (PCF). This dissertation contends that the PCF was a crucial agent to study the city as a modern architectural project during France’s postwar urbanization. Although communists’ ultimate ambition was a return to a national strategy rather than an ultimate dispersal of power, the PCF was an unwitting participant in France’s political decentralization, particularly from 1958 onwards. Then, the PCF took on the role of a paradoxical architectural bureaucracy on the municipal stage, on which it constituted its own planning infrastructures, appointed its own architects, and became almost a State within a State, producing an independent form of public architecture. Architecture helped French communist elected officials to shape and program the city around projects that would anticipate social change on a meta-historical scale, while also contributing to the more immediate welfare of the working classes. Midsized French cities thus became sites of opportunity for architects pursuing political change through design. Sharing design agency with politicians, complicit in ideological, cultural and electoral endeavors, architects agreed on the city as a common project that represented both a means of political thinking, and a unit of governance, planning and design. Due to their early engagement with urban issues, communist-affiliated architects became among the first to confront shifting trends in urbanization, to appropriate French urban sociology, and to anticipate the crisis that the modern city would experience over the course of the 1960s.


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GROSSMAN — Vanessa


HANDWERKER — Margo Public Displays of Effection: Ecological Art and Utility, 1969–1984 “Public Displays of Effection: Ecological Art and Utility, 1968–1984” examines a pivotal but neglected group of artists who rejected traditional notions of the art object and instead considered it as a tool for achieving environmental remediation. This innovative approach to the art object required a parallel transformation in the viewer, who instead became a user. This new dynamic gave these artworks an explicitly architectural logic — one that made them difficult to recognize as art, and yet enabled their viability. Because the works served a tangible function, they found financial support beyond conventional patronage and so withstood the decline of arts funding. The contemporary cultural landscape — from artist-run community gardens and free schools to public practice more broadly — is indebted to the legacy of this work, which has been overshadowed within scholarly criticism absent an account of such interaction as the most urgently needed form of art and architectural design. The first of these actors is artist and curator Gyorgy Kepes, professor in the School of Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1945–74) and founder of its Center for Advanced Visual Studies. Kepes was an early champion of projects that both facilitated awareness about the Earth’s most pressing problems while simultaneously developing viable solutions. Some have written about the interdisciplinary efforts within Kepes’s curatorial oeuvre, but there has been little focus on his conception of the user for whom he designed these collaborations. The first chapter focuses specifically on Kepes’s later writings, namely two of his unpublished books: “Art on a Public Scale” (1970–74) and “Arts of Participation” (c. 1970–74). These unpublished transcripts evince Kepes’s longstanding but understudied interest in coordinating a shift in the user’s inter-spatial and interpersonal perspectives specifically for the purpose of reshaping their awareness of nature as part of the commonwealth. Another chapter is among the first extensive looks at artist Robert Smithson’s letter campaign to mining corporations in the years and months leading up to his untimely death. Smithson piggybacked on regulation of the mining industry, which required companies to reclaim their mines if not to their original state, then at least for some other “useful” purpose. The artist capitalized on the ambiguity of this term, offering to rebuild the mining industry’s sites and its image with Earthwork. Negotiations for the first of these projects were under discussion when the artist died in a plane crash, and his essay “Earth Art and Mining Reclamation” (1971) was never published. Smithson’s wife and occasional collaborator Nancy Holt would continue the charge with her

landfill reclamation works Dark Star Park (1979) in Arlington, Virginia and Sky Mound (1984–present) in Hackensack, New Jersey. The work of artist Mierle Laderman Ukeles has been subsumed under the category of Land art, a movement dominated by men and exemplified by such works as Michael Heizer’s Double Negative (1969–70). Heizer, though he made large-scale artworks using materials from the Earth, in no way sought to conserve the environment, nor did he engage viewers at the level of activism. Ukeles’s work, on the other hand, was both preservation-driven and public — qualities that hinged on the artist’s interest in making her work accessible enough to be used. The chapter devoted to her begins in 1969, when Ukeles wrote her “Manifesto for Maintenance Art,” in which she draws a comparison between art making, female care giving and sanitation work. Ukeles’s synthesis of the preservation of life with the preservation of a city generated what became an intensely public practice: her collaboration with the New York Department of Sanitation. Though completed in 1969, the manifesto was not published until 1971, when art historian Jack Burnham included part of Ukeles’s text in his Artforum article “Problems of criticism: art and technology” (1971). The chapter ends in 1984, when Ukeles began making artworks about Staten Island’s Fresh Kills Landfill, which since and with her assistance is in the process of becoming a public park. Jack Burnham also promoted the early career of “problemsolving artists” Newton and Helen Mayer Harrison. The final chapter addresses the Harrisons multi-part “Survival Series,” a series of projects wherein the artists cultivated foodstuffs in a gallery setting. Their strategy was altogether different from contemporaneous attempts to revisit the landscape tradition. The couple was more interested in producing fertile landscapes than they were in creating immersive ones, such as Walter De Maria’s Earth Room (Munich, Germany; 1968). Their installations, which included “flat and upright” pastures and were often accompanied by “feasts,” offered restorative solutions to deforestation and a model for self-sufficient food production in the wake of increased industrial farming. They eventually magnified their interest in putting unproductive domesticated landscapes to good use as small-scale farms by putting unproductive landfills to good use as public parks, namely the Spoils’ Pile Reclamation (1976–78) in Lewiston, New York.


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PH.D. A B S T R AC T S

HANDWERKER — Margo


KOTSIORIS — Evangelos Komp’iuter Architecture(s), 195x–198x

This dissertation will attempt to compose an architectural history of computerization during the Cold War, by focusing on the introduction, dissemination and use of the digital electronic computer in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc between the late 1950s and the early 1980s. In doing so, this study will investigate the imbrications of architecture and computerization through three major binaries: the United States/Soviet Bloc, materiality/ immateriality, and publicity/ secrecy. In this study, computerization, and its different modes of intersection with architecture during the Cold War, will provide the main vehicle to investigate and interpret a series of spatial phenomena and design practices that took shape between the 1950s and the 1980s. Computerization, as a process that increasingly characterized societies on both sides of the Iron Curtain after World War II, will be used as a lens to scrutinize and undermine the hierarchies between well-known oppositions of Cold War architectural culture, including: materiality and immateriality, perceivability and imperceivability, sitedness and sitelessness, publicity and secrecy. The non-human protagonist of this story — the digital electronic computer — played a decisive role in bringing the long-enduring problematics of these oppositions to the fore: its enigmatic ontological duality of hardware and software posed serious challenges to designers in both communicating its twofold nature and representing its operation to the wider public. For the United States and the Soviet Union, computerization became a site of contestation and a new benchmark of technological supremacy. Initially associated with the operations of the military, scientific institutions and the Space Race, the digital electronic computer was progressively considered as an omnipotent tool that could be utilized in multiple areas of governance, particularly ones which involved the co-processing of large amounts of data, such as statistics or the economy. The geopolitical, ideological and socio-economical dichotomy of the East and the West — thus — became the battleground for the development and application of computer technologies. Even if these technologies were implemented at a different pace in these two contexts, groups of scientists, bureaucrats and designers on both sides increasingly shared a particularly intense confidence in its multifarious capacities. The programmable electronic computer was progressively understood as an incredibly flexible tool that could serve military defense, scientific research, governance, and — ultimately — design purposes.

Computing power — a power of the “electronic age” — relied on the intricate coupling of both physical and non-physical elements. Its dissemination and use by governmental institutions was anticipated to render manual decisionmaking, and with it traditional notions of governmentality, obsolete. In this context, the development (or acquisition) of computing power on both sides of the Atlantic instigated a competition that resulted into a vast array of new systems for the collection, processing, storage, and retrieval of information, as well as an unprecedented number of data technologies, such as magnetic-core memory, real-time computing, data networks and electronic satellites. As a true product of the Cold War, the “computerization race” was a competition that was carried out simultaneously in public and secretly. The antagonistic situation of this race was nurtured by a reciprocal demonstration of technological competence and a shared uncertainty of the enemy’s true might: on the one hand, computerization of one’s nation became an accomplishment for public showcasing and exhibition; on the other, the development of computing power by the enemy created a field of undisclosed monitoring and espionage. Not unlike the computer itself, architecture was asked to operate like a “black box”; that is, to selectively make certain information available, while simultaneously keeping its inner workings to itself; to communicate the processes it housed to civilians and the enemy, without disclosing their securitysensitive content. And it is precisely between these two modes of operation, that architects, city planners and industrial designers were called to operate: to provide a physical environment for the secretive institutions that manufactures or used computers, and at the same time crystalize a powerful image of computing power that could be disseminated through media.

(from top) IBM employee working on the AN/ FSQ-7 Maintenance Console of the SAGE System, the first computerized air surveillance system developed against Soviet attacks, 1957 Curious visitors by the IBM stand at the American National Exhibit in Moscow, 1959. Some of them wait for the RAMAC 305 computer to answer their questions on American culture; others hold their keepsake printouts A “pixelated” CCCP acronym formed by selectively lit-up office space modules on Novi-Arbatskyii Prospekt in Moscow during a national holiday, c. 1970


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KOTSIORIS — Evangelos


MEISTER — Anna-Maria From Form to Norm: the Systematization of Values in German Design 192x–196x The search for form was a driving concern of architectural theorists in 19th century Germany. As a new nation-state sought a coherent aesthetics to represent its political unity, “good form” was presented as a reflection of “good ethics.” With the advent of full mechanization in the early 20th century, however, architecture underwent a scale change: once a public art devoted to representing the state, it became part of the new discipline of industrial design, and buildings came to be seen as objects among others. At the same time, large industrial machinery was scaled down to household appliances, which became objects of design as well. The mass-production of those objects provoked the regulation of their shape, form and physical appearance. Standards were set, tolerances were defined — negotiated by an ever-growing set of technical norms. Formerly relying on principles derived from nature, good form was now to be prescribed by absolute quantities. The search for “the good” gradually migrated from aesthetic theory to the design of (and with) technological specifications. My dissertation addresses “the norm” as design project in mid-20th century Germany, identifying it as a shared concern of bureaucratic authorities and creative producers who sought to bind together aesthetics and morals. Beyond their task of regulating object-producing machines, norms manifested and communicated desired social values. Whereas form-finding in the 19th century had been an individual undertaking, institutional frameworks became the primary sites for the production and implementation of 20th-century aesthetic norms. Norms were both a designed project and design endeavor — conceived, administered, and disseminated by industrialist groups, state administrations, schools or art magazines. Design as authored by these institutional agents was not mere shaping or styling, but rather a way to extend the reach of aesthetics from a quest for “good form” towards a search for the “best format.” Institutions of different backgrounds and motivations partook in this agenda of formatting society — the norm was their shared tool. The first attempt to standardize norms on a national level came from the German Institute of Norm ( DIN ), founded in 1917. Originally conceived to coordinate Germany’s military and industry, this technocratic organization soon broadened its ambitions to regulate the future for the “benefit of all of Germany.” The DIN created the Normenwerk to normalize German production — a systemt that broadly disseminated moral and aesthetic values, materialized as technological specifications. Under the rhetoric of economic optimization, norms provided the

instrument to streamline the momentum of industrial progress, which was seen as the gateway to a betterment of society. Norms proliferated and regulated more and more objects, boosted by the desire for social reform through technological growth. Schools soon followed suit. The Bauhochschule Weimar under Otto Bartning pushed towards a “new architecture” through typological method. The Dessau Bauhaus under Hannes Meyer educated the modern architect as a scientist who would operate through standardized processes, while dismissing “form-finding” as “purely artistic.” The logic of the norm both amplified and altered the disciplinary drive for new forms; German committees, programs and councils were created not only to disseminate normed objects, but to approve and administrate the values they embodied. The growing collection of norms mediated between large scale industrialization and the individual. Processes of homogenization and reduction left the consumer with only one available option — the screw, or the window. Idealized definitions of everything were circulated as parts of objects, buildings and cities. Where the A4 formatted administrative processes, the norming of a window was to format one’s view of the world. The norm prescribed behavioral codes by establishing specific relations between object and subject, and negotiating “tolerable errors” in things and people alike. The dynamic between production and reception of norms became reversible: curricula were standardized, while in turn normalizing students, and the normed door handle was both the physical manifestation of values and a normative object in German homes. The dissertation traces the dissemination and reception of objects both normed (such as the A4 paper format or the serialized window) and normalizing (such as Ernst Neufert’s Bauordnungslehre and Maßordnung) through three different German political systems, from the Weimar Republic through the Third Reich to postwar reconstruction. I will take the norm as an ontological model: its multiple temporalities of documentation and prescription, its material status as reproducible object defining reproducible objects, its respective role in the larger Normenwerk, its definition of tolerable deviation and minimally necessary precision. The operations of the norm system, designed to facilitate mass produced objects, will then be traced in the production of knowledge, of institutional values, and of politics. My case studies will span from the 1920s, when the first DIN designed objects reached mass-consumers, to the 1960s, when the self-proclaimed morality instilled in “good objects” at the HfG Ulm was superseded by the design of processes and environments.


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This dissertation aims to trace the progression from formfinding to norm-defining and its investment in moral and aesthetic values beyond the rhetoric of economic and technological advancements. I hope to embed the norm in the history of German design, scrutinizing tropes associated with Modern architecture (such as rationality, order and normativity) in relation to qualities often assigned to the norm as “rational” tool (such as neutrality, technocracy, efficiency). This dissertation as part of a larger intellectual project wants to undermine the assumed distinction between an enlightened rationality of technology and a re-enchanted ideology of aesthetics and morals. I pose the analysis of (literal and material) normalization processes as necessary for an understanding of Germany’s attempt to (re-)create values through design by reading the norm as the origin of both the design of information, and the design through information.

MEISTER — Anna-Maria

Although aesthetic discourses surrounding the norm revolved around technological and economic advancement, the norm inspired strikingly vivid spiritual fantasies of moral virtue, embodying what Walter Hellmich, the DIN ’s first director, called Idealistische Sachlichkeit (idealistic objectivity). The norm served as medium for reenchantment, offering its reliable systematicity as projection screen for a new morality. Hellmich saw as one aspiration of the norm the creation of a Gewissensgemeinschaft (community of conscience), and Walter Porstmann called the A4 paper format he invented “the carrier of the spiritual traffic of the world.” Bruno Latour has argued that the advent of industrialization encouraged a delegation of ethics to machines. In Germany, however, what was regulated were not only tasks, but the very desire for codification: as if precision, tolerance, and the elimination of flaws could be outsourced to bureaucracy itself. Reform was seen as the necessary step to societal change on a national, and ultimately global, level — and it was communicated, disseminated and imagined through the norm.

(top left) Good Design for Better Societies: Design at the HfG Ulm (top right) Man as Normed Measure in Ernst Neufert’s ‘Bauentwurfslehre,’ 1936 (above) The Normformat and its Entourage, ca. 1930


OLAIYA — Yetunde Expert, Artifact, Fact: the Technopolitics of Architectural Production in French Black Africa, 1945–75 After World War II, territories in French Black Africa — once considered the outer limits of la plus grande France — found themselves in an unfamiliar position: both in recognition of their wartime utility in resistance efforts and by pure serendipity, they became the centerpiece in an ambitious scheme to modernize the French overseas territories. The legacy of this scheme are the many civic buildings, housing settlements, and urban plans initiated in this period to improve living standards for France’s African subjects; but these were only one part of the story. The rest is that such colonial intervention had been made even more conspicuous by the rudimentary development that preceded it in these particular territories. Furthermore, tackling the climatic and sanitary concerns blamed for this rudimentary development in the tropics now presented the ultimate showcase for French ingenuity after the losses of the war. More than any other time and place, the cultivation of technical expertise became the crucial first step in the postwar modernization of French Black Africa. Between 1945 and 1975, French authorities therefore launched research ensembles to systematically document local conditions, advisory committees to standardize building solutions, and technical consultancies to convey this wealth of knowledge to the many architects and planners working in the tropics for the first time. My dissertation examines how the technical expertise cultivated within this elaborate apparatus of colonial development facilitated postwar architectural production in French Black Africa and thereby, enacted the colonial administration’s broader political objectives. The sort of entanglement outlined here between technical expertise and politics has been understood through the concept of techno-politics. Notably, techno-political readings have revealed how specific technological practices in colonial science, medicine, both shaped the exercise of political power and masked the other forms of agency present therein. Yet architecture, despite its earlier-noted centrality to modernization efforts, has only entered such readings so far in its simplest form as shelter from the elements. The goal of this dissertation is two-fold. On one hand, it introduces a broader analysis of architectural design to the discourse of techno-politics, which recognizes architecture’s inherent image-making role. Where architectural history itself struggles to articulate the complexity of postwar architectural production outside the West — either portraying it as a one-way traffic from imperial metropolis to colonial peripheries or privileging only the human actors — the dissertation, on the other hand, draws useful insights from techno-political research. As such, the techno-politics of postwar architectural production in French

Black Africa becomes not just a way to track the political implications of technical expertise generated in the colonial development apparatus at this time, but also, to uncover the broader spectrum of agencies involved in this process. The main question posed by the dissertation is therefore this: how was the particular assemblage forged, from technical expertise, politics, and several other factors, that facilitated postwar architectural production in French Black Africa? In this respect, the dissertation follows a precedent set by research into the construction of scientific facts and technological artifacts within science and technology studies. Initially, the standard methodology in this field was to identify a situation of complexity, to track its resolution, and in so doing, to determine the broader implications of that resolution. More recently, however, new methodologies have emerged that re-imagine this linear trajectory as a heterogeneous web of interactions. Rather than conventional human actors, scholars like Bruno Latour and Michel Callon instead track the agency of “actants,” which may be human or non-human on one hand and act as individual actors or networks on the other. To make the same methodological shift in this dissertation would be to address both the human (colonial administrators, architects, subject populations) and non-human (policies, materials, instruments) actants involved in postwar architectural production in French Black Africa while continually situating these individual actors within the broader apparatus of colonial development. My hypothesis is that such symmetrical analysis will help answer the dissertation’s research question. The dissertation engages this hypothesis from two angles. Chronologically, it charts the evolution of technical expertise within the colonial development apparatus over the three most active decades of operation; and thematically, it examines these successive periods through the respective entry-points of expert, artifact, and fact. Part one (1945– 55) focuses on the French architect Jean-Henri Calsat, who emerged as an “expert” of tropical architecture through his advisory role in both CSTB (Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment) and BCEOM (Bureau Central d’Équipement du Bâtiment), and design role on the 1950 master plan for Douala, Cameroun. Part two (1955–65) follows the implementation of a technological “artifact,” the mass-produced aluminum roof-umbrella, by French design ensemble ATEA-SETAP as part of their 1960 master plan for Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, commissioned by SCET (Société Central d’Équipement du Territoire). Part three (1965–75) traces the construction of the scientific “fact” constituted by the urban research of SMUH (Secrétariat des Missions d’Urbanisme et d’Habitat) and its successive outgrowths,


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MFU (Mission Française d’Urbanisme) and BEAU (Bureau d’Études et Aménagements Urbaine) in the Congolese capital of Kinshasa. Where each of the dissertation’s parts offers a different narrative of techno-politics, read in conjunction, they reveal a larger transition from the ambitious projects of the immediate postwar period to the more sustainable bilateral development that continued after the independence of France’s African territories. By weaving together these micro and meta-narratives, the dissertation in turn seeks to bring specificity to discussions on postwar architectural production outside the West whilst proposing more accurate strategies for global development initiatives. (from top clockwise) Coverage of postwar architectural production in Côte d’Ivoire from special issue of Urbanisme (1969). Inauguration of the Houphouët-Boigny Bridge in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, on 15 March 1958. Council president of French Republic, Gaston Monnerville (center, cutting ribbon); and Ivorian president, Felix Houphouët-Boigny (far right, behind girl). Systematic documentation of sun paths published in BCEOM’s Essaie sur l’Habitation Tropicale (1951).

Progressive phases of construction underneath mass-produced aluminum roof-umbrella shown in the ATEA-SETAP brochure, Habitat en Zone Tropicale Humide (1962).

OLAIYA — Yetunde

Massing model for Abidjan’s business district by ATEA-SETAP included in Mission 1959 (Abidjan: Ivorian Ministry of Public Works, 1959).


PANTELEYEVA — Masha First They Learn to Play Jazz, Next They Sell Out the Motherland. Youth and Modernism in Soviet Architecture During the Thaw, 1954–1965 Stalin’s death in March 1953 signified the beginning of an ideological Spring for Soviet Society. It dismantled the Empire of “socialism in one country”, the neoclassical architecture that had signified it, as well as travel restrictions and foreign influence for Soviet architects. This was a time of tremendous optimism, but also uncertainty, as a new generation threatened to expose an ideological split within Soviet society: what melted under the thaw were not only the rigidity of the accepted doctrine but also the homogeneity of social order and ideology. In this context youth emerged as a crucial entity promising to help the state compensate for this split. This dissertation examines youth as a multivalent force: a cultural constituency, a generation of designers, and a unique spatial program, charged with the task of reconciling architectural modernism with political socialism into a new architectural paradigm. Soon after Stalin’s death, Khrushchev started his ventures into foreign policy, implementing a ‘soft’ approach that accepted a modern lifestyle and its association with the young generation. In architecture, this meant an official acceptance of modernism, which had been banned during Stalin and was now strategically rebranded as a ‘new socialist style.’ In the absence of a bourgeois class that in the West sustained the modernist view of the world, I propose that youth during the Thaw was a social basis for this modernist ‘heterotopia’, rendering the return of Modernism to Soviet architecture as the product of a negotiation between the authorities and youth. On the one hand, the postwar political machine attempted to enlist a new generation through state architectural commissions for youth, and on the other, with the rise of consumerism and informal sub-cultures, Soviet youth eventually undermined the ideological goals of the state. Ultimately, modernism and youth both became cultural forces of their own. Khrushchev was personally involved in architectural matters: the question of architectural style became his weapon in an attempt to devalue Stalinist ideology. He officially spoke against the excesses and superfluous embellishment of neoclassical architecture. His first move after seizing power was to replace the functionaries of the Stalin period with younger actors in all spheres of cultural and political life, yet he was not interested in investing architecture with particular ideological meaning. This lack of a strong direction from above produced considerable anxiety among the ‘old-timers’, but also granted a greater freedom of expression to the younger generation of architects: they began to look outwards for inspiration. The new leader proposed a new agenda for modernism, largely motivated by the need to build fast and cheap, and manifested in the large-scale conversion of the construction industry to flexible and modular solutions. Yet Soviet

acceptance of ‘modernism’ was driven not only by the ‘modernization’ of the building industry, but also by the change in the socio-cultural phenomena of the Thaw. Within overall cultural ‘softening’, it brought the emergence of freedom in experimentation in architectural theory and research for young generation of architects. After decades of travel embargoes, Khrushchev accepted authorized architects to travel abroad and allowed foreign coverage in Soviet architectural media: in 1961 the main source for foreign architecture — the Russian translation of L’Architecture d’Aujoud’hui was launched, presenting Western architecture as an acceptable influence. In Soviet sociology, youth was presented as a contested subject: on the one hand they were perceived as a new generation of builders of communism, on the other, as an autonomous and potentially subversive social group influenced by Western ideas. Youth were also increasingly visible in large cities, presenting a spatial challenge to the urban order: this was initiated by the massive displacement of young people from rural environments (with traditional forms of generational control) to the newly developed industrial cities (where youth more easily slipped out of social control). New freedoms were granted, but criticism and ideological ‘tightening’ also followed. This dissertation will focus on case studies that span the whole range of architectural repercussions of this dynamic: statecommissioned buildings for youth, such as the educational and recreational facilities associated with education reform; larger state projects such as the Virgin Lands Campaign initiated to increase the country’s agricultural production; experiments in modernism where a new generation of architects exercised their design freedom; and spatial manifestations of informal youth street subculture, inadvertently caused by the ‘softening’ of the state. These narratives will act as multiple slices through the development of architectural modernism during the Thaw. Each chapter will identify a specific and distinct interaction between architectural production, state ideology, and youth as a powerful social force within changing Soviet society. While the state manipulated the young generation in order to present itself as less formal through a modern architectural aesthetic, the newfound architectural freedoms of youth gave rise to informal spatial practices and designs that ultimately undermined state power. The state’s opportunistic turn to young generation caused a complex combination of political and architectural softening, where official freedoms inadvertently led to an ideological split. What began as a political alignment between youth and the state, eventually turned into a radical separation of the ‘60s generation’ from official patronage, both within the architectural profession and in street culture at large.


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PANTELEYEVA — Masha

(clockwise from top left) Soviet Stilyagi (The Stylish Opposition). Moscow, 1959 Architect I. Pokrovsky demonstrates the model of the Pioneer Palace to N. S. Khrushchev, 1958 Artek Pioneer Camp, Crimea, 1959–60. Architect A. Polyansky The Communist Youth League volunteer construction site, 1971. “Few are lucky to live so generously — to give people cities” NER group in MARKHI (Moscow Architectural Institute), 1960 NER group. New Element of Settlement, 1960 Loktev, Kinetic City, 1965 Cafe Youth, Moscow, 1962


RICCHI — Daria From Storia to History: Literature and Fiction in Italian Architectural Writing, 1940–1957 In the decades surrounding World War II, Italy was host to an extraordinary abundance of architectural writing. Not merely significant in terms of quantity, these texts were unprecedentedly varied in the range of genres they encompassed. History, criticism, theory, journalism, and fiction all took architecture as their subject matter. This wide range of writerly modes, as distinct from one another in the nature of their prose as in their means of dissemination, was produced by an equally varied cast of figures such as Bruno Zevi, an architecture historian and politician, Giulio Carlo Argan an art historian, Italo Calvino, a fiction writer, and Elio Vittorini and Cesare Pavese, writers and translators. Rather than converge on a single view of architecture, each form of writing embedded a different theory of architecture in its structure. By examining these differences, this dissertation will argue that writing rather than building practice became the primary means of architectural debate, and that writing about architecture was at that time both a topic for a specialized audience and a broader public.  My dissertation roughly starts around 1940 and ends in 1957. It begins with multiple stories told under the form of myths. During World War II and in the early postwar, history is oriented toward the future. The preferred narrative is a form of fictitious, half-true story. Italian architectural historians and writers looked at America as the symbol of freedom and new possibilities free from a heavy past. Both writers, Cesare Pavese and Elio Vittorini never visited the United States but they imagined it as a land for new possibilities. Cesare Pavese recognized in the writing of Midwestern American writers such as Sherwood Anderson and Sinclair Lewis a voice and a style to be imitated by Italian writers to discover their own regionalisms. Elio Vittorini, who founded the magazine Il Politecnico in 1945 asked other writers to imitate authors such as Hemingway whose truthful and almost journalistic account could be used to solve problems of the Italian reconstruction. The same overzealous tone characterized the first writings of a young Zevi who did not conceal his enthusiasm for the American mythical pioneers such as Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright. Like Giulio Carlo Argan, Zevi visited the United States in 1939 to study at Harvard graduating in 1943. In the spring of 1950, Cesare Pavese wrote an article about his conception of myth in the magazine Cultura e Realtà [Culture and Reality]. Criticized and condemned by the communist party, Pavese’s article marks the end of this mythical period. As the title reads culture is synonymous with reality and cannot be hidden or told in a different way. It is the beginning of the well-known neorealist moment.

History is considered an objective science. Chronicles, as the chronological recollection of events almost coincide with storytelling. History is concerned with the present condition to be told in a more straightforward and bare way. Main focus of this chapter is the magazine L’architettura cronache e storia, where the myth of America is downsized, and the weekly magazine L’espresso where Zevi holds his column. This is an example not only of architecture mingling with other disciplines, but also of how architectural history entered the general public domain via journalism, a new way of writing, and the popular press. Also writers such as the little-known Carlo Emilio Gadda, and popular authors, Elio Vittorini, Alberto Moravia, Natalia Ginzburg depicted scenes of everyday life with a pronounced emphasis on architectural settings. Architecture appeared in the background, but buildings and the expanding city also acted as protagonists. Besides depicting social life and its moral and intellectual values, these authors also gave an account of what was happening in the field of building construction and urban life, but without fictionalizing the bleak reality of that era. At this time fiction informed history and was part of history. Calvino’s realist novel La speculazione edilizia (A Plunge into Real Estate, 1957) partly published in Botteghe Oscure, set the scene around building problems, representing the social and moral habits of that time. The third chapter starts with this book, and does not have a temporal end. History writing turned to fantasy but also concerned the past and included a new attention to historicism. This turn to fantasy, though, does not imply an abandonment of urban issues, even if within the genre of fiction. An interest in the city, in urbanity, permeates Calvino’s writing, from Marcovaldo or The Seasons in the City to The Invisible Cities. 1957, a seminal year for ‘historicism,’ also marks a return to more conventional writing styles in history writing. Disillusion and skepticism become established, and the only solution against the present condition seems the retreat to the past or the escape to fantasy.


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RICCHI — Daria


VANNUCCHI — Federica From Control to Discipline: Design and Power at the Milan Triennale, 1945–1973 The history of architecture in the second half of the 20th century is threaded through by a continuous and schizophrenic quest for disciplinary organization. On the one hand, the boom of the postwar decades granted architecture a new relevance, and gave rise to numerous attempts to systematize architectural rules for controlling urban growth. On the other hand, this renewed prominence pushed architecture to establish itself as an autonomous field: a discipline, capable of resisting political pressure by force of its internal discursive coherence. Between control and disruption, regulation and deregulation, compliance and resistance, the quest for a disciplinary core was at the center of a power struggle between architects and a variety of external actors. This dissertation traces the coalescence of forces that led to architecture’s “disciplinary turn” by examining the history of one institution, the Milan Triennale. From 1945 to 1973, the Triennale served as a laboratory and testing ground for debating the relationship between architecture and power in the Italian context — a negotiation that produced what the dissertation calls “controlling mechanisms.” These were new types of planning practices, design strategies, discursive patterns, and modes of visual display, that could both shape architecture into a discipline and control the rebuilding of the Italian peninsula. The dissertation proposes that the Triennale contributed to the formation of the discipline by defining, testing, and resisting, various instruments of territorial, architectonic, aesthetic and visual control. Thus the Triennale is understood not simply as a space devoted to exhibitions but as a complex institutional apparatus bridging architectural, political and public spheres. The Triennale is known in architectural history for exhibitions that captivated an international public while capturing the essence of the Italian architectural mood. Every three years, the Palazzo dell’Arte opened its doors to an international audience looking for the newest industrial design, the latest interiors and the most radical architectural innovations. The exhibition’s mandate was unique: not only to “exhibit” but also to “produce” architectural experiments by gathering disparate strands under one thematic umbrella. The themes themselves were subject to intense negotiations between two committees, which had overlapping missions and memberships: the Study Center (Centro Studi), a group of architects responsible for the organization of the various venues, and the Council of Administration (Consiglio di Amministrazione), a political committee overseeing the activities of the Triennale. The preparatory meetings of the Study Center included a striking coterie of architects, from late-modernists such as Ernesto Nathan Rogers, Franco

Albini, Ignazio Gardella, Ludovico Belgioioso, Carlo Mollino, to the successive generation who contested the modern legacy, such as Giancarlo De Carlo, Marco Zanuso, Vittorio Gregotti and Aldo Rossi. This architectural who’s who was joined by an equally stellar cast of Italian intellectuals, such as Elio Vittorini, Umberto Eco, Enzo Paci and Marco Bellocchio. Through these lengthy debates, the Study Center effectively managed to produce thirty years of architectural discourse. In fact, behind the dazzling display, a deep architectural anxiety haunted the Palazzo. Repeatedly, the organizing committee asked: what is the conceptual and physical form of architecture today? At every exhibition, a new theoretical formulation of architecture was tested. What was evaluated was not only the public’s appreciation of architecture, or the contemporaneity of certain trends, but also — and inevitably — the architects’ intellectual control over their own discipline. As Manfredo Tafuri theorized in a lecture at the Istituto Universitario di Venezia in 1966, architecture had turned into a disciplinary study through the application of an intellectual control. Constructing an historical argument, the historian explained that this transformation had occurred during the Renaissance. By applying “methods of control” such as space, form and perspective, architects transformed architecture into a system of rules that governed design, rather than a set of more or less pragmatic construction methods. This dissertation borrows Tafuri’s conception of the architectural discipline as shaped by controlling systems, but follows the fate of these systems in the Italian postwar context, when architects, politicians, corporate patrons, and even the Vatican, sought to “discipline” architecture in its conceptual and physical form. Through this pattern of interference between architects and political actors, I will argue, architectural “control” shifted to architectural “discipline.” Whereas fascist Italy had used architecture for direct territorial control, in the postwar new strategies arose. In the face of a weakened state, political power could be interlaced with economic interests, to create instruments that could “control” the environment, “discipline” architects, and “communicate” to the consuming public. In this sense, architecture served as one of many cultural apparatuses that transformed the promise of the welfare state (a promise inherited from fascist modernism) into a normalizing society of control (which paved the way for postmodern disciplinarity). A crucial component of this historical dynamic was the requirement that these mechanisms be designed for “display” in the Palazzo dell’Arte. In other words, it was


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XIII Triennale of Milan (1964) dedicated to “Leisure.” The photograph illustrates Il Barnum centrale a quattro percorsi (The Central Barnum with Four Paths), from L’Architettura: cronache e storia 109 (November 1963), 442

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(from top) IX Triennale di Milano (1951), Lo studio delle proporzioni (The Study of Proportions), from Domus 261 (September 1951), 16

Gianemilio Simonetti and Giancarlo De Carlo at the entrance of the XIV Triennale of Milan (1968), from Mioni, Angela, and Etra Connie Occhialini, eds., Giancarlo De Carlo: immagini e frammenti (Milan: Electa, 1995), 57

Three objectives motivate my study: (1) To understand the evolution of disciplinary debates in relation to political power in Italy between 1945 and the early 1970s. (2) To reconsider the classical neo-Marxist conception of architecture that dominates Italian historiography from Benedetto Croce to Manfredo Tafuri, whereby architectural history is mainly moved by economic drives. A consequence of this concept is that architectural criticism assumes the form of a superficial layer, underneath which an economic reality proliferates. This study proposes that economic interests interlace with other means, and the latter are strong enough to activate structural changes in architectural history. In the place of a hierarchical relationship, I will seek to describe a circular dynamic, inspired by Carlo Ginzburg, whereby history proceeds by a constant exchange, circular in fact, between a determining power and the forms of this determination. What this historical model allows is the identification of the specific means — what I call architectural “controlling mechanisms” — responsible for these structural changes. (3) To provide a pre-history of the postmodern architectural discourse of “Autonomy”, especially as it was imported into American architectural academia beginning in the 1970s. By describing the specific socio-political conditions wherein in the Tendenza’s visions of architectural “purity” was institutionalized as an architectural agenda, the dissertation will reveal how interference between architectural problems and political interests were built into the disciplinary freedom that architecture sought in the late decades of the century.

VANNUCCHI — Federica

the “communicative” potential of architecture that raised its political stakes. As a medium, the exhibition appeared pluralistic. With its thematic variety, the Triennale was able to display a broad heterogeneity of architectural speculations: neighborhood plans, consumer products, management schemes, graphic strategies, theoretical pronouncements, and so on. But these were all ways to test from what stance architecture should draw its disciplinary strength: by “performing” like a law (as with the QT8 scheme, which became a legislative blueprint), by “persuading” like an advertisement (as with the Golden Compass, the first prize for industrial design), by “communicating” like a language (as with Vittorio Gregotti and Umberto Eco’s proposal for a “communicative” architecture), by fostering new social “processes” (as with De Carlo’s architecture for “the great number”), and so on. The Triennale, this dissertation will argue, was the place where legislation, linguistics, procedure, history and image — all crucial themes of postwar architectural discourse — were tested as possible modes of disciplinary control.


Princeton University School of Architecture Princeton, NJâ&#x20AC;&#x201A; 08544-5264 Main Office 609-258-3741 Programs Office 609-258-3641 Fax 609-258-4740 E-Mail soa @ princeton.edu Internet soa.princeton.edu Design: Omnivore Thesis review photographs: Daniel Claro Printed October 2014

In the United States, most state registration boards require a degree from an accredited professional degree program as a prerequisite for licensure. The National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB), which is the sole agency authorized to accredit U.S. professional degree programs in architecture, recognizes three types of degrees: the Bachelor of Architecture, the Master of Architecture, and the Doctor of Architecture. A program may be granted a 6-year, 3-year, or 2-year term of accreditation, depending on the extent of its conformance with established educational standards. Doctor of Architecture and Master of Architecture degree programs may consist of a pre-professional undergraduate degree and a professional graduate degree that, when earned sequentially, constitute an accredited professional education. However, the pre-professional degree is not, by itself, recognized as an accredited degree. Princeton University School of Architecture offers the following NAAB-accredited degree program: Master of Architecture (Pre-Professional Program)

Next accreditation visit: 2015


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