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School and University

School and University

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Sciences

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Physics tics Modern Physics · Thermodynamics · Mechanics · Optics

Chemistry Electrochemistry · Spectroscopy · Pysical Chemistry

Biology Ecology and Environment · Senses and Nerves · Microbiology

Applied Sciences

V

X-ray · Renewable Energy · Material Sciences · Medicine

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Service

Service from A to Z – our service, your satisfaction

Customer service before, during and after your purchase The PHYWE service does not end with the delivery of the equipment. With our after sales service, we offer you comprehensive support:

Individual Service for individual needs By choosing a PHYWE product you decide for a comprehensive service at the same time. We support you with our multi-level service concept. From planning through to installation and up to our extensive after sales service. Rely on our strengths: rugged and long-lasting products made in Germany, customized for your needs.

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Customized information

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Installation and setting-up

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Stockage service / instruction

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Training courses at PHYWE or on-site

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Technical service

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Repair service

1st response within 24 hours with tracking number P. +49 (0) 551 604-126 F. +49 (0) 551 604-106 service@phywe.de

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5 Applied Sciences

Applied Sciences 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.4.1

Agricultural sciences Plant physiology and biochemistry Agrology and Agrochemistry Microbiology and biotechnology Hydrology Applied mechanics Statics and dynamics Fluid mechanics Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Applied optics - Photonics Laser and Fibre optics Interferometry Holography Renewable energy General

609 610 622 626 628 633 634 647 658 667 668 674 682 685 686

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5 Applied Sciences

5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.7 5.8 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.8.3 5.8.4 5.8.5 5.8.6 5.8.7 5.9 5.9.1 5.9.2 5.9.3 5.9.4 5.9.5 5.9.6 5.9.7 5.9.8 5.9.9 5.9.10 5.9.11 5.10

Heat Photovoltaic Fuell Cell Wind and Water Electrical Engineering - Electronics Devices Circuits Geosciences Geology und Geomorphology Climatology und Meteorology Structural analysis with X-rays Food chemistry Material sciences Metallography Mechanical Properties Magnetic Properties Thermal and Electrical Properties X-ray fluorescence Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology Medicine Biomechanics Fluid mechanics - Blood circuit Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology Ultrasound diagnostics X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry Laboratory Diagnostics Geometrical Optics - Eye Human physiology Neurobiology Biochemistry Models Ecology

excellence in science 608

694 705 709 719 723 724 735 747 748 752 758 767 777 778 781 784 787 796 803 814 823 824 826 831 841 846 853 858 861 872 877 884 887


5 Applied Sciences 5.1 Agricultural sciences

Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4

Plant physiology and biochemistry Agrology and Agrochemistry Microbiology and biotechnology Hydrology

610 622 626 628

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5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

The effect of gravity and centrifugal force on plants

Principle and tasks To measure the alignment of shoots and roots under the effect of centrifugal forces which are less than, equal to or greater than gravity. To raise sunflower seedlings in small beakers in a rotating drum. To set different centrifugal forces by changing the speed of rotation of the drum motor. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Positive geotropism of roots Negative geotropism of shoots Centrifugal force Rotational speed Statoliths

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4050200

excellence in science 610


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Effect of the soil temperature on the germination and growth of higher plants

Principle and tasks To investigate the effect of soil temperature on the germination of garden cress (Lepidium sativum). To determine the most favourable value for the germination and growth of cress using a temperature organ. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Plant germination Temperature optimum/ maximum/ minimum Soil temperature Temperature preferendum

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4060100

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 611


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Photosynthesis (bubble-counting-method) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle Photosynthesis (bubble counting method) Tasks 1. 2.

To measure the dependence of photosynthesis on light by counting the oxygen bubbles given off by an aquatic plant. To investigate the influence of the carbon dioxide content of the water on the rate of photosynthesis.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪

Dependence of photosynthesis on light and carbon dioxide content Oxygen bubble counting Lux measurement

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4110111

Photosynthesis (O2 pressure measurement) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4110211

excellence in science 612


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Transpiration of leaves (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle Transpiration of leaves. Tasks 1. 2.

To prepare diagrams to illustrate the transpiration of plants. To discuss the reasons of the differences of the pressure curve decrease.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Transpiration Water and nutrients transport Influence of wind Temperature Humidity and type of leaves

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4110311

Glycolysis (pressure measurement, with Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4110411

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 613


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle Amino acid molecules carry both acid and amino groups. They can therefore form both acidic anions and basic cations. The pH at which these two types of iones are both present in the same concentration is called the isoelectric point. Tasks 1.

This isoelectric point is to be determined by recording the titration curve for the amino acid glycine.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Isoelectric point Acidic anions Basic cations Zwitterions Equivalence (inflection) points pKs value Titration Motor piston burette

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4120111

Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine) (with the Cobra3 Chem-Unit) P4120140

excellence in science 614


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Ionic permeability of the cell membrane (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle The cell membrane regulates the transport of nutrients and water into the cell, and of waste products and water out of the cell. This can take place passively, e.g. on the basis of osmotic processes (differences in concentration), as well as actively. Tasks ▪

In this experiment, the selective permeability of an artificial cell membrane (dialysis tube) for H+ and OH- inons is to be examined.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ionic permeability Artificial cell membrane Dialysis tube H+ ions OH- ions Osmotic processes

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4120211

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 615


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Determination of the Michaelis constant (with the Cobra3 Chem-Unit)

Principle The enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in aqueous solution liberates carbon dixide and ammonia. The ions of these compounds increase the conductivity of the solution. Conductivity measurements can so be made to determine the rate of hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme urease at various substrate concentrations. Tasks 1.

The Michaelis constant can then be calculated from these values.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Michaelis constant Enzymatic hydrolysis of urea Conductivity measurement Bodenstein principle Enzyme-substrate complex Lineweaver-Burk plot

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4120340

Determination of the Michaelis constant (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4120311

excellence in science 616


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Substrate inhibition of enzymes (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle The enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in aqueous solution liberates carbon dioxide and ammonia. The ions of these compounds increase the conductivity of the solution. Tasks 1.

Conductivity measuremnts enable the rate of hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme urease to be determined at various substrate concentrations. Inhibition of the enzyme by the substrate occures at excessive substrate concentrations.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Substrate inhibition Enzymolysis of urea Conductivity-time plot Reaction velocity of enzymatic hydrolysis

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4120411

Substrate inhibition of enzymes (with the Cobra3 Chem-Unit) P4120440

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 617


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Photosynthesis (O2 pressure measurement) (with Cobra4)

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English Demo advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4Biochemie & Pflanzenphysiologie 01331-01 German Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02 English P1351260

To compare the increase in oxygen pressure during photosynthesis in white light, green light and in the dark. Literature for this experiment as follows:

Ionic permeability of the cell membrane

Demo advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4Biochemie & Pflanzenphysiologie 01331-01 German Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02 English P1351360

Photosynthesis (bubble-counting-method) P1360860

Transpiration of leaves

The cell membrane controls the transport of nutrients and water into the cell, and of waste products and water out of the cell. This can take place passively, e.g. on the basis of osmotic processes (concentration differences) as well as actively. In this experiment, the selective permeability of an artificial cell membrane (dialysis tube) for H+ and OH- ions is to be examined. Scope of delivery: ▪

▪ ▪ ▪

Wireless transmitter and receiver units to connect to the conductivity sensor and to a PC, can also be used for others sensors to measure parameters common in physics, chemistry, biology and medical education Sensor-Unit conductivity/ temperature Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 Data acquisition and analysis software Literature for this experiment as follows:

To prepare and analyse diagrams to illustrate the transpiration of plants, depending on different environmental conditions, using a wireless data acquisition system:

Demo advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4Biochemie & Pflanzenphysiologie 01331-01 German

Scope of delivery:

Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02 English

▪ ▪ ▪

Wireless transmitter and receiverunits to connect to thepressure sensor and to a PC, can also be used for others sensors to measure parameters common in physics, chemistry, biology and medical education Thermodynamics sensor with 2x temperature and pressure absolute 2 NiCr-Ni thermoelements Data acquisition and analysissoftware

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P1369760


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Glycolysis (temperature measurement)

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4Biochemie & Pflanzenphysiologie 01331-01 German Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02 English P1360760

Basic set Biochemistry and plant physiology (Cobra3) Principle Investigating the temperature increase during the fermentation of sugar by yeast cells using a wireless and computer interfacted data acquisition system. Scope of delivery: ▪

▪ ▪ ▪

Wireless transmitter and receiver units to connect to the pressure sensor and to a PC, can also be used for others sensors to measure parameters common in physics, chemistry, biology and medical education Thermodynamics sensor with 2x temperature and pressure absolute 2 NiCr-Ni thermoelements Data acquisition and analysis software Literature for this experiment as follows:

TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English Demo advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4Biochemie & Pflanzenphysiologie 01331-01 German Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02 English P1351460

The enzymatic activity of catalase

Function and Applications Instrument set to perform the following experiments: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Photosynthesis Transpiration of leaves Glycolysis Ionic permeability of the cell membrane Determination of the Michaelisconstant Substrate inhibition of enzymes Enzyme inhibition Enzymatic activity of catalase

Equipment and technical data: The instrument set consists of: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Computer interface for data acquisision with 7 measurement inputs (5 analog and 2 digital inputs), one voltage output (5V and 0.2A) with 4mm sockets sampling rate 500 kHz online frequency analyser Sensors for: Temperature -20...110°C, pH/potential, Conductivity, Pressure Software for data analysis Lamp socket with reflector, diameter 20 cm, and 120 W filament lamp special glassware special stand material for the experiment setups

Required Accessories: ▪

Standard lab equipment and chemicals.

Basic set Biochemistry and plant physiology (Cobra3) 65980-88 Standard labware set for Biochemistry & plant physiology, 230 V 65980-77 Chemicals set Biochemistry & plant physiology 65980-10

To examine the enzymatic decompositionof hydrogen peroxide, a cell respiratorypoison, in the liver. To investigate theinfluence of temperature and pH on themetabolic activity.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 619


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Basic set Cobra4 Biochemistry and Plant physiology

Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V.

16506-02

Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT)

01320-02

Function and Applications:

Strobe drum

Instrument set with the wireless computer interface Cobra4 to perform the following experiments: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Photosynthesis (2 methods) Transpiration of leaves Glycolysis (2 methods) Ionic permeability of the cell membrane Determination of the Michaelis constant Enzyme inhibition Substrate inhibition of enzymes Enzymatic activity of catalase

Scope of delivery: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Cobra4 wireless computer interface for data acquisition Sensors to measure temperature, pH, conductivity, light intensity and pressure Lamp socket with reflector (diameter 20 cm) and 120 W filament lamp special glassware special stand material for the experiment setups experiment manual, English language (56pages, in color)

The "measure Cobra4" software (single user and school license) is not included. Standard lab equipment and chemicals are required additionally. Features: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ten experiments in one set Uniform computer interface Flexible experimenting thanks to wireless data transmission Compact setup Reliable and reproducible results All components in one package For both demonstration and student experiments

Basic set Cobra4 Biochemistry and Plant physiology 65982-89 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics, pressure abs. 2 bar and 2 temperature NiCr-Ni 12638-00 Cobra4 Wireless-Link 12601-00 Cobra4 Wireless Manager 12600-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude 12670-00 Software Cobra4 - Single user and school licence 14550-61

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To produce moving stimuli for the investigation of the resolving power of the eye, for testing human reaction capacity and as a type of centrifuge for investigating the effects of mass acceleration on plants and animals. Diameter: 32 cm Circumference: 100 cm Height: 20 cm Pattern: 180 black stripes. With drive belt. Strobe drum 65976-00 Insertion piece for centrifuge 65976-10


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.1 Plant physiology and biochemistry

Temperature organ

Osmosis/ electrochemistry chamber

Function and Applications This ring-shaped apparatus enables a temperature gradient to be formed, and is a valuable tool for working out ecological relationships. Benefits It allows, e.g., to observe the influence of the temperature of soil on germination and growth of plants , Soil organisms placed in the temperature organ can move freely and migrate the region they prefer, so that their temperature and/or moisture preferences can be studied

Osmosis and electrochemistry chamber 35821-00 Suppl.chamber f.osmosis/el.chem. 35821-10 Scale 350 mm 64840-00 Capillary tube,i.d. 1.5mm,l 450mm 05939-00

Equipment and technical data Temperature gradient 10 to 45°C, Built-in electric heater and through-flow cooling, 12 radial holes to insert thermometers, Transparent cover plate with 12 sections 65983-93

Ussing chamber

Membranes Membrane, permeable for cations, 5pcs 31504-02 Cellophane, 300x200 mm, 5 sheets 32987-00 Pig's bladders, 3 off 64856-01

Function and Applications Ussing chamber, two polystyrene tubes with acrylic glass windows and flanges which can be screwed together. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Each container with abore for electrodes vascular content 120ml measuring surface approx. 7 cm²

65977-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 621


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.2 Agrology and Agrochemistry

The pH value of various soils

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English P1521163

Raised bog and fen

Principle Information concerning the quality of soils is of great importance for agricultural production. The students are familiarised with this subject via two experiments with pH measurements that show how much soils may differ from each other (experiment "Characteristic pH values of various soils") and how significant the differences within a soil itself may be (experiment "Soil profile"). Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English

Moorland provides a location for plants specialised for soils with an excess of moisture. Apart from this common feature, moors can exhibit a great many differences. For instance both raised boggy moorland and fens count as moorland but they support quite different communities of plant-life due to the different living conditions they provide, as we shall see in this experiment. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English

P1521062

Salinity of soils and plant substrates

TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English

Principle Demonstration experiment using wireless data communication to send readings to a large-size display. How suitable are certain soils and plant substrates in terms of plant nutrition? This experiment is concerned with the measurement of conductivity, which gives an indication of which of the studied soils and plant substrates already contain nutrient salts necessary for the growth of plants and which ones would be better if nutrients were added in the form of fertiliser. Plants gain their nutrition in the form of salt ions from the soil. The most important of the 16 nutrients which plants need to grow are nitrogen in the form of nitrates and ammonia, phosphorus in the form of phosphates and potassium in the form of potassium salts. In addition, soils need to have lime (calcium carbonate) to reduce their acidity (reduction in pH). For agricultural purposes, such nutrients are added to the soil in the form of inorganic fertilisers. For house plants, fertiliser-enriched potting soil is used.

excellence in science 622

Principle

P1521262


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.2 Agrology and Agrochemistry

TESS Applied Sciences Cobra4 Environment and outdoors, for 4 work groups

Cobra4 Mobile-Link

Function and applications This device set is ideally suited to shared-work experiments with school groups. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Whether in the classroom, outdoors or on project days: in this robust aluminium case, you will always find the right device for carrying out fascinating experiments with school groups. Up to 4 work groups can work on and investigate interesting topics in parallel. All data are saved on SD memory cards. Evaluation of the data can be carried out e.g. at home, as homework. The measure evaluation software is included for FREE and may, of course, be used privately by each pupil.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Highly stable aluminium case 4 x Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x Cobra4Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connection 1 xCobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: airpressure, humidity, ambient temperature, brightness 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit, Temperature-Semiconductor 20...110 °C 1x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity with permanently connected stainless steel electrode 1x pH plastic, gel-filled electrode 1 x100 red pH 4 buffer trays 1 x 100 green pH 10 buffer trays 1 x 460 ml calibration solution for conductance electrode 1 x protective case for GL 25pH electrode 1 x 120 labels, 4 x 100 ml square flange (HDPE) 2 x 250 ml PP laboratory beaker 4 x 1 GB 20 MB/sec SDmemory card for Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x110...240 V Charger for metal hybrid batteries 2 x Mignon 1.2 V 2700 mAh spare batteries - set of 4 Operating manual plus CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software, incl. FREE evaluation software Experimental descriptions and configuration settings for experiments

TESS Applied Sciences Cobra4 environment and outdoors, for 4 work groups 12622-88 TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Mobile-Link is a modern, high performance hand measuring device for mobile data recording, to which all Cobra4 Sensor-Units can be connected via a secure plug-in/lockable connection. Benefits The Cobra4 Mobile-Link particularly stands out for the following features ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Up to 1,000 measuring values/sec Data can be saved on an SD memory card Automatic detection of all Cobra4 Sensor-Units Foolproof navigation with central navigation cross "measure" evaluation software can be used for FREE Water-resistant and reliable for outdoor work.

The Cobra4 Mobile-Link is idealfor use in: ▪ ▪ ▪

Students experiments with no computer (as a digital multi-meter for numerous measuring parameters) Outdoor experiments with student groups Project days, trips, schoolhiking days etc.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Power supply: 2 x Mignon batteries Power consumption: < 300 mA Data storage: Max. 2 GB SD card Data rate: 1,000 values/s Dimensions: L x B x H: 155x65x35 mm Weight: 200 g Delivery incl. operating manual plus CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software incl. FREE evaluation software, experiments descriptions and configuration settings for experiments. Delivery without batteries and memory card.

Cobra4 Mobile-Link 12620-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude 12670-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity, with stainless steel electrodes 12633-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry, pH and 2 x Temperature NiCr-Ni 12630-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 623


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.2 Agrology and Agrochemistry

Cobra4 Display-Connect, Set of transmitter and receiver forusing the Cobra4 Mobile-Link with largescale displays

Benefits ▪ ▪

▪ ▪

The manual contains detailed descriptions of experiments for determining soil characteristics It contains a complete schedule for soil testing, from taking samples to differentiating the various soil types, from the determination of the nutrient content to the calculation of the amount of fertiliser required It also supplies valuable background information All necessary reagents, equipment and accessories are clearly positioned in the case, so that a glance suffices to check that it is complete.

Equipment and technical data

Function and Applications Device combination from a sender and a receiver for the radio-based communication between a Cobra4 Mobile Link and up to 2 digital large displays. Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The system works with 5 switchable send channels at a carrier frequency of 433 MHz. With this set it is possible to represent the measured values wellreadable for a big auditory in a classroom or lecture hall. For this purpose must the transmit unit only be inserted between an any Cobra4 SensorUnit and the Cobra4 Mobile-Link. The receiver unit is pluged into the input socket of the digital large display. The current supply of the sender and receivers occurs in each case via the devices at those ones these are connected. A parallel write-out of a series of measurements to the SD-Card of the Mobile-Link is possible.

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Extraction Solutions Balance 2 scoops 3 syringes Pleated filter Colander Spray bottle 5 containers 2 cylinders 2 funnels Blades Spoon

Accessories ▪ ▪

Soil auger (64221-01) Soil auger, small (64222-00)

30346-00

TESS Applied Sciences set soil examination

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪

Cobra4 Display-Connect RX, receiver (for digital large display) Cobra4 Display-Connect TX, sender (for Cobra4 Mobile-Link)

Cobra4 Display-Connect, Set of transmitter and receiver for using the Cobra4 Mobile-Link with large-scale displays 12623-88 Large-scale display, digital, RS-232 port 07157-93

Excursion set, soil analysis

Function and applications Case with material for 6 work groups. To investigate the 18 most important soil parameters: soil profile (soil horizons, soil type), mineral matter (stone content, fine earth content, soil texture), body of humus (humus content, humus type), water/ air (soil moisture, water capacity, water permeability rate, utilisable water capacity), soil structure (soil compaction, aggregate stability/ tilth), acidity (pH value, lime content), nutrients (nitrate content of soil, nitrate content of fruit and vegetables), soil life (soil animals). Includes 65 page manual on the theoretical basis of the topics and with experimental instructions.

Function and Applications The case contains the complete equipment for the determination of the type of soil, the soil structure, the pH of the soil and its nutrient content, i.e. the nitrogen, phosphate and potassium content available to plants.

excellence in science 624

TESS Applied Sciences set soil examination 30836-88 TESS Applied Sciences manual examination of soil 30836-02


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.2 Agrology and Agrochemistry

Humidity determination apparatus in transport box

Berlese apparatus

Function and Applications Function and Applications

For the extraction of micro-arthropods from soil samples.

To determine the moisture content of the soil. This method can be implemented particularly in ecological pilot projects, which it provides fast and reliable results.

Equipment and technical data:

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

CM pressure cylinder manometer 3 manometer sealings 3 bottle sealings precision spring balance testing medium for the manometer metal grinding bowl 4 stainless steel bullets in plastic can 20 calciumcarbide phials in plastic can chisel operating manual bottle brush plastic scoop 5 weighing pans metalcase

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Stand (height = 500 mm) Double socket Lamp holder E 27 Plug Bulb 230 V/ 25 W Stand ring (diameter = 100 mm) with socket Funnel (diameter = 100 mm) Sieve (150 x 150 mm) Beaker glass (250 ml)

Berlese apparatus 64204-88 Sieve for Berlese apparatus 64204-01 Stereo microscope ST-30-2LO,2x/4x 62459-93

Humidity determination apparatus in transport box 64203-02 Calcium carbide, amp., 100 off 64203-10

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 625


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.3 Microbiology and biotechnology

We visit a wastewater treatment plant

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie Handbuch Komplettversuche (CET) 01855-01 German Complete Experiments Chemistry/Biotechnology 01855-02 English P1313600

Microbial synthesis of ethanol by Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis

Principle A visit to a water treatment plant reveals some fascinating procedures and purification methods. We will not merely be concerned with interesting impressions, but instead we will increase our understanding for microbiological processes by measuring the key parameters: temperature, pH and salinity.

P1313700

Bacteria and mining - microbial extraction of ore by Thiobacillus ferrooxidians and thiooxidans

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English P1521662

Fermentation of molasses to ethanol with yeast

Principle Scientists first recognised importance of certain bacteria for the extraction of metals from ore in the 1950s. Nowadays the microbial ore leaching with so-called 'lean ores' represents more than 10% of the total production of copper in the USA alone. The bioreactor shown here can be used to clearly demonstrate to the students this method of extraction (e.g. copper from copper ore) using such bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie Handbuch Komplettversuche (CET) 01855-01 German Complete Experiments Chemistry/Biotechnology 01855-02 English P1313900

Complete Experiments Chemistry/Biotechnology

Fermenters are used for the biotechnological production of enzymes and other products using bacteria, yeast and cell cultures. For educational purposes a bubble bioreactor used in this experiment is a more convenient and ecomical alternative to commercial fermenters. To demonstrate how fermenters work, in this experiment molasses which is a waste product of sugar production is fermented in the so-called batch process.

excellence in science 626

01855-02


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.3 Microbiology and biotechnology

Bioreactor, 1 l, 7 connections

Function and applications

Electrophores.power supp.100/200V 35019-99 PowerPac Basic, 10 - 300 V 35020-93 Electrophoresis power supply 100V/200V 65966-93 Restriction digestion and restriction analysis of DNA kit 35019-02 DNA Electrophoresis 35019-01 PCR kit for 200 reactions 35019-52

Thermocycler for 24 microtubes (0.2 ml)

For the production of biotech products, such as Citric acid or penicillin using bacteria, yeasts, and lower fungi. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

The connectors serve for sample removal, introduction of measuring probes, introducing and removing medium, addition of acids or bases and for air venting. In this bioreactor, mixing and tempering are carried out using a magnetic stirrer with hot plate or heating coil. An aquarium pump is used for a eration.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

A 1 litre vessel with plain cover and silicone O-ring 7 threaded glass connectors in the following sizes: 3× GL 18 and 4× GL 25 Dimensions of seals: 1× GL 25/8, 3×GL 25/12, 3× GL 18/8 3 GL 25 screw-caps without a hole

Bioreactor, 1 l, 7 connections 66000-00 Heating coil f. bioreactor 66000-10

Function and Application Applications For any type of programmable temperature profiles between 0 and 100°C. Licenced for PCR.24-well block for 0.2 ml microtubes. Benefits

Electrophoresis chamber, vertical

▪ ▪

Automatic, motorized heated lid. Graphical user interface.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and applications For precast gels.

Max. ramp rate: 8°C/sec Thermal uniformity: +/- 0.3°C Thermal accuracy: +/- 0.2°C Memory for 1000 protocols Touchdown-programming power failure protection Dimensions: 16 x 17 x 23 cm Weight: 4 kg

46882-99

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

2-gel system includes electrode assembly Tank Lid with power cables Mini cell buffer dam Runs up to 4 mini gels (7 cm x 8.5 cm) Leak-free electrophoresis and gel casting Indestructible molded polycarbonate construction

Heating block for 2 ml, 1.5 ml, 0.5 ml and 0.2 ml microtubes 46881-99 Microcentrifuge with rotor for 24 x 1.5/2.0 ml tubes and adaptors for 0.2 and 0.5 ml tubes 65978-93

Electrophoresis chamber, vertical 35018-20 Electrophoresis chamber, horizon. 35018-10

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 627


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.4 Hydrology

Acidity changes of a watercourse

ther down stream, and how the salinity can still be measured after the stream has converged into a river. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English

Principle The pH value (a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions) in running waters depends on the geological conditions, the pollution load that is caused by agricultural production, and on plant activities. This experiment shows how the pH value of a stream changes even at a short distance and just a few kilometres away from the spring.

P1521462

Water quality - contamination with heavy metals

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English Principle P1520862

Salinity changes of a watercourse

Demonstration experiment using wireless data transmission to a large digital to display. Heavy metal ions can seep into water courses, for example from galvanising plants or other similar industries. They have the effect of suppressing the action of enzymes, so that the metabolic processes of organisms, which they would normally control, are disrupted or even eliminated. This apparatus demonstrates how enzyme functioning can be blocked by heavy metal ions using the example of decomposition of urea by urease enzymes. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English P0990163

This experiment shows how the salt that is washed out of an abandoned potassium rock pile drastically increases the salinity of a water course, as well ashow the salinity decreases only slightly fur-

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5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.4 Hydrology

TESS Applied Sciences Cobra4 environment and outdoors, for 4 work groups

TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors

12622-02

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude

Function and applications This device set is ideally suited to shared-work experiments with school groups. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Whether in the classroom, outdoors or on project days: in this robust aluminium case, you will always find the right device for carrying out fascinating experiments with school groups. Up to 4 groups can work on and investigate interesting topics in parallel. All data are saved on SD memory cards. Evaluation of the data can be carried out e.g. at home, as homework. The measure evaluation software is included for FREE and may, of course, be used privately by each pupil.

Tip

Equipment and technical data

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Depending on application type, the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Benefits: ▪ ▪

This device is also ideal for use e.g. in the context of a school hiking day: here, a topographic profile can easily be produced with the weather sensor. In Geography lessons, the data can be evaluated and interpreted together. If the height is then set against the temperature, humidity relative to the path, or temperature relative to the time of day, great discoveries can be made, which are both practical and fun. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications

Highly stable aluminium case 4 x Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x Cobra4 Sensor uniz, pH, BNC connection 1 x Cobra4 Sensor unit, Weather: air pressure, humidity, ambient temperature, brightness 1 x Cobra4 Sensor unit, Temperature-Semiconductor 20...110 °C 1 x Cobra4 Sensor unit, Conductivity with permanently connected stainless steel electrodes 1 x pH electrode, plastic, gel-filled 1 x 100 red pH 4 buffer tablets 1 x 100 green pH 10 buffer tablets 1 x 460 ml calibration solution for conductivity electrode 1 x protective case for GL 25 pH electrode 1 x 120 labels, 4 x 100 ml square flange (HDPE) 2 x 250 ml PP laboratory beaker 4 x 1 GB 20 MB/sec SD memory card for Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x 110...240 V charger for metal hybrid batteries 2 x Mignon 1.2 V 2700 mAh spare batteries - set of 4 Operating manual plus CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software, incl. FREE evaluation software Experimental descriptions and configuration settings for experiments

12622-88

At the same time, the following measuring parameters may be recorded: airpressure, relative humidity, airtemperature, brightness, height. Idealfor use in outdoor experiments, on classtrips or for project or school hikingdays.

Equipment and technical data: Relative Humidity: ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 100 % accuracy +/- 5 %

Air Pressure: ▪ ▪

measurement range 10 - 1100 mbar accuracy +/-5 %

Air Temperature: ▪ ▪

measurement range -40 - +125 °C accuracy +/- 0.5 °C

Brightness: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 10,000 lx accuracy +/- 5 % calculation using air pressure Data transfer rate for each sensor: 1 Hz Dimensions (L x B x H): 64 x 70 x 31 mm Weight: 60 g

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude 12670-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity, with stainless steel electrodes 12633-00 Cobra4 Mobile-Link set, incl. rechargeable batteries, SD memory card, USB cable and software "measure" 12620-55 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connector 12631-00 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 629


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.4 Hydrology

Function and applications

Cobra3 Chem-UNIT

This kit allows up to 8 work groups to carry out field examinations of running water and lakes. The following parameters are measured: Temperature, oxygen content, pH, conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and ammonium content, alkalinity (total hardness). The examinations can be extended to further parameters when the kit is supplemented with extra equipment, available as accessories and for which room has been reserved in the case:

Function and application Allows to measure all important measuring quantities in chemistry and biology. Advantages You can run the ChemUnit with a computer (via serialinterface) or without a computer(combined with the Com-Unit). Equipment and specification: Inputs: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

pH/Potential 0-14 pH (0.01 pH)-2.2-2.2 V (+/-1mV)10 Giga-Ohm BNC-Conductivity 6 ranges of measurement 0-1000 mS/cm.pH/ Potential andConductivity are electrically isolated Temperature NiCr-Ni-Thermoelement T1,T2,T3 -100 to +1500 degrC-Temperature Pt1000 sensorT4 -100 to +850 degr.C Temperature sensor in housingT0 0 to 85 degr.C. Analog In 3 ranges of measur.+/-3.2V; 32V; 81V TTL In/Out for drop counter or motor piston burett Voltage output 5V / 0.2A e.g.for drop counter Connections RS232-D-Sub-9 jack-Bit rate up to 115200 bit/s Voltage supply 12V / 6W shock-resistant plastic housing with support bases, a wide range of fixing possibilities and two lateral connectors for cascading further units

Depth of transparency (measured using a Secchi disc or a Lux meter with immersion probe), water profiles (measurement down to 10 m depth using a water scoop). The methods are mainly chemico-physical determinations acc. to BACH. They allow an objective assessment of the water quality, and are referred to by the Scottish and American Environmental Authorities, as well as those of some German Federal States, in their reports on water quality. The chemico-physical examination methods always give momentary values, and so allow measurements of variation over time (daily and seasonal variations) as well as at different positions (e.g. pollution by influents). Added meaning is given by supplementing these methods with biological methods, which aim at the documentation of long-term changes in the condition of the body of water. TESS Biology set Chemo-physical water analysis 30837-88 Secchi disc 65568-00

TESS Biology set Biological water analysis

Cobra3 Chem-Unit 12153-00 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT)

Function and Applications 01320-02

TESS Biology set Chemo-physical water analysis

Eco-Kit "Biological testing of water quality". The physical, chemical and bacteriological examination procedures primarily allow an assessment of the momentary water quality. As the variety of species in a body of water decreases with increasing pollution, and the composition of the organism societies thereby changes, the biological determination of the water quality provides additional important indications on the water quality and allows conclusions to be drawn on the previous pollution. The species and frequency of indicator organisms at various degrees of pollution are thereby coupled to the water quality classes I to IV. Benefits ▪ ▪

This kit enables 6 working groups to simultaneously carry out examinations of running and standing waters in the filed. All important pieces of equipment are present 6-fold. The enclosed manual containing tables and sheets for analysis allow assignment to the water quality classes I. .. IV

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

excellence in science 630

Screens Trays


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.4 Hydrology

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Dishes, large and small Tweezers Brushes Pipettes Magnifier glasses, large and small Petri dishes Dip net for catching aquatic organisms Caliper Rulers Manual with identification key Snap lid jars

Compact photometer PF12

30834-88

TESS Biology manual biological water quality testing

30834-02

For evaluation of colorimetric tests on extinction measurement using a factor or value diagram; direct display of concentration ▪ ▪ ▪

Water analysis case

Six-language user guidance via LEDdisplay Data interface RS 232- With rechargeable batteries for fielduse The handy filter photometer fills thegap between colorimetric evaluations and laboratory analyses. The detailed manual provides information about the chemical and ecological significance of the individual parameters, explains statutory limiting values for drinking water, treated sewer sludge, waste water, etc.

Extent of delivery: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Filter photometer Stabile case 4 NC batteries including battery charger 2 Round cuvettes Plastic funnels

Manual- Technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications For the determination of the quality of bodies of water which are to a great extent unburdened with waste water and of the pollution caused in them by an influx of municipal waste water, or for the monitoring of pond fertilization. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Digital display LCD 9x56 mm, 8-digits Light source: Tungsten bulb Filter: Filter wheel with 6 coloured glass filters: 365 nm / 405 nm / 470nm / 520 nm / 605 nm / 720 nm Round cuvettes with screw fitting; External diameter: 16 mmEnergy supply: 5-6 V 4 NC batteries with battery charger; sufficient for approx. 1500 measurements Data interface: RS 232 Languages: D, E, F, S, I, NL; is setin the works Dimensions: length: 195 mm, width:100 mm height: 40 mm Weight: approx. 0.52 kg incl. batteries

35608-00

suitable for examining both standing and running waters the excursion case inclusdes test kits for the determination of: ammonium pH nitrate nitrite phosphate iron total water hardness carbonate oxygen

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

water analysis case manual with detailed instructions

Water analysis case 30831-00 Reagent case for water analysis with filter photometer 30839-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 631


5.1 Agricultural sciences 5.1.4 Hydrology

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5 Applied Sciences 5.2 Applied mechanics

Applied mechanics 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3

Statics and dynamics Fluid mechanics Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

634 647 658

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Moments

Principle Coplanar forces (weight, spring balance) act on the moments disc on either side of the pivot. In equilibrium, the moments are determined as a function of the magnitude and direction of the forces and of the reference point. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Moment as a function of the distance between the origin of the coordinates and the point of action of the force. Moment as a function of the angle between the force and the position vector to the point of action of the force. Moment as a function of the force.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Moments Couple Equilibrium Statics Lever Coplanar forces

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5110100

Modulus of elasticity P5110200

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Mechanical hysteresis

Principle The relationship between torque and angle of rotation is determined when metal bars are twisted. The hysteresis curve is recorded. Tasks 1. 2.

Record the hysteresis curve of steel and copper rods. Record the stress-relaxation curve with various relaxation times of different materials.

What you can learn about Mechanical hysteresis, Elasticity, Plasticity, Relaxation, Torsion molulus, Plastic flow, Torque, Hooke's law Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5110300

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with a precision pivot bearing

Principle A moment acts on a body which can be rotated about a bearing without friction. The moment of inertia is determined from the angular acceleration. Tasks From the angular acceleration, the moment of inertia is determined as a function of the mass and the distance from the axis of rotation 1. 2. 3.

of a disc of a bar of a mass point

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Angular velocity Rotary motion Moment Moment of inertia of a disc Moment of inertia of a bar Moment of inertia of a mass point

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2131305

excellence in science 636


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Moments of inertia of different bodies/ Steiner's theorem with Cobra3

Principle The moment of inertia of a solid body depends on its mass distribution and the axis of rotation. Steiner's theorem elucidates this relationship. Tasks 1. 2.

The moments of inertia of different bodies are determined by oscillation measurements. Steiner's theorem is verified.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Rigid body Moment of inertia Centre of gravity Axis of rotation Torsional vibration Spring constant Angular restoring force

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2132811

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 637


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Hooke's law with Cobra3

Principle The validity of Hooke's Law is proven using various helical springs with different spring constants. In comparison, the behaviour of a stretched rubber band is examined, for which there is no proportionality between acting force and resulting extension. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Calibration of the system (movement sensor and force sensor). Measurement of the tensile force as a function of the path for three different helical springs and a rubber band. Determination of the spring constant and evaluation of a hysteresis curve. Verification of Hooke's law.

What you can learn about Spring constant, Limit of elasticity, Extension and compression Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2130111

excellence in science 638


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Harmonic oscillations of spiral springs - springs linked in parallel and in series

Principle The spring constant D is determined for different experimental setups from the oscillation period and the suspended mass. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Determination of the spring constant D for different springs. Determination of the spring constant for springs linked in parallel. Determination of the spring constant for springs linked in series.

What you can learn about Spring constant, Hooke's law oscillations, Limit of elasticity, Parallel springs, Serial springs, Use of an interface Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2132611

Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus P5110400

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Forced oscillations - Pohl's pendulum with Cobra3, complete set (interface version)

Principle If an oscillating system is allowed to swing freely it is observed that the decrease of successive maximum amplitudes is highly dependent on the damping. If the oscillating system is stimulated to swing by an external periodic torque, we observe that in the steady state the amplitude is a function of the frequency and the amplitude of the external periodic torque and of the damping. The characteristic frequencies of the free oscillation as well as the resonance curves of the forced oscillation for different damping values are to be determined. Therefore, the oscillations are recorded with the Interface system in connection with the movement sensor. The curves of the different oscillations are displayed and the necessary quantities for the determination of the characteristic values can easily be calculated. Tasks A. Free oscillation 1. 2. 3.

To determine the oscillating period and the characteristic frequency of the undamped fall. To determine the oscillating periods and the corresponding characteristic frequencies for different damping values. Successive, unidirectional maximum amplitudes are to be plotted as a function of time. The corresponding ratios of attenuation, the damping constants and the logarithmic decrements are to be calculated. To realise the periodic and the creeping fall.

B. Forced oscillation 1. 2. 3.

The resonance curves are to be determined and to be represented graphically using the damping values of A The resonance frequencies are to be determined and are to be compared with the resonance frequency values found before hand. The phase shifting between the torsion pendulum and the stimulating external torque is to be observed for a small damping value assuming that in one case the stimulating frequency is far below the resonance frequency and in the other case it is far above it.

What you can learn about Angular frequency, Characteristic frequency, Resonance frequency, Torsion pendulum, Torsional vibration, Torque, Damped/ undamped free oscillation, Forced oscillation, Ratio of attenuation / decrement, Damping constant, Logarithmic decrement, Aperiodic fall, Creeping Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2132711

excellence in science 640


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Laws of gyroscopes/ 3-axis gyroscope

Principle The momentum of inertia of the gyroscope is investigated by measuring the angular acceleration caused by torques of different known values. In this experiment, two of the axes of the gyroscope are fixed. The relationship between the precession frequency and the gyro-frequency of the gyroscope with 3 free axes is examined for torques of different values applied to the axis of rotation. If the axis of rotation of the force free gyroscope is slightly displaced, a nutation is induced. The nutation frequency will be investigated as a function of gyro frequency. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Determination of the momentum of inertia of the gyroscope by measurement of the angular acceleration. Determination of the momentum of inertia by measurement of the gyro-frequency and precession frequency. Investigation of the relationship between precession and gyro-frequency and its dependence from torque. Investigation of the relationship between nutation frequency and gyro-frequency.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Momentum of inertia Torque Angular momentum Precession Nutation

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2131900

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 641


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Michelson interferometer - High Resolution

Principle: With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement, light is brought to interference. While moving one of the mirrors, the alterationin the interference pattern is observed and the wave length of the laser light determined. Tasks: 1. 2. 3.

Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate components. The interferometer is used to determine the wavelength of the laserlight. The contrast function K is qualitatively recorded in order to determine the coherence length with it.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2220900

excellence in science 642


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Holography - Real time procedure (bending of a plate)

Principle: In real time procedures, alterations of an object are directly observed. A hologram is recorded under the initial object conditions and remains in exactly the same position (at exactly the same place) where it was located during the image-capture procedure while it is being developed. The hologram is reconstructed with the reference beam and the object beam (both waves are unchanged with respect to the captured image). The light scattered by the object interferes with the reconstructed light wave of the hologram. During the occurrence of minor alterations (e.g. bending) of the object, interference fringes become visible on observing the hologram. Tasks: 1.

Image-capture and reconstruction of a hologram of a plate which is covered with different masses during there construction.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interference Optical path length Refraction index Phase difference

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2260306

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 643


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Oscillations in metal plates

Movement sensor with cable Function and applications Low-friction incremental decoder with a high resolution to detect rotary movements and linear movements. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Principle After a round or square metal plate is struck, a complex natural frequency spectrum is generated. Fourier analysis can be used to quickly determine the suitable frequencies for generating Chladni patterns. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra3 (C3PT) 01310-01 German Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 English P1362200

String grooves Ø 6 mm, 12 mm. Dimensions: 72 x 34 x 113 mm Plastic housing with mounting shaft and cable Resolution 512 steps/ revolution

Movement sensor with cable 12004-10 Precision pivot bearing 02419-00 Inertia rod 02417-03 Precision pulley 11201-02 Light barrier with counter 11207-30 Turntable with angle scale 02417-02

Angular oscillation apparatus

Newton sensor

Function and Applications For connection to COBRA3 force measurement module. Metal casing with load hook for tensile forces & load plate for pressure forces.

Apparatus for the investigation of moment of inertia. Consists of: ▪ ▪ ▪

Rotation axis with spring, metal- and styrofoam disk Full material and hollow cylinder Sphere and bar with adjustablemass pieces.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

With holder stem and fixed connecting cable Limits of travel for overload protection Stroke approx. 0.4 mm/N Measuring range: max. +/- 4 N Resolution: max. +/- 0.0035 mN Compensation: +/- 4 N Dimensions (mm): 62 x 40 x 120

Newton sensor 12110-01 Measuring module Newton 12110-00 Software Cobra3-Force/ Tesla 14515-61 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

excellence in science 644

Angular oscillation apparatus 02415-88 Light barrier, compact 11207-20 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Gyroscope with 3 axes

Examples of experiments: determination of the frequency of adamped oscillation, representation of sequential amplitudes of a damped oscillation (log. decrement), non periodical or crawling adjustment to the zero position for correspondingly adjusted damping, forced oscillations and their resonance graphs for different damping conditions, phase shift between exciter and resonator in the resonance case. Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications

Demonstration and practical set for working up the gyroscope laws. Benefits The following relationships can be produced: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Precession (influence of torque and rotational frequency) Nutation (influence of the speed of the disc on the nutational frequency) Measurement of the moment of inertia of the gyroscope disc from the angular acceleration for a known torque Investigation of the relationship between the duration of a precession rotation and the rotational frequency of the gyroscope disc Investigation of the relationship between the precession frequency and the turning moment exerted on the gyroscope axis for constant rotational frequency of the disc Determination of the relationship between the rotational and nutational frequency of the gyroscope disc Gyroscope disc with double ball bearings, balanced and freely movable via 3 axes, which is wound up by hand with the aid of a thread Mounted on a metal stand Sliding counterweight for calibrating the gyro disc

Copper wheel held on ball bearings which acts as an oscillating system (resonator). Periodic excitation through high sensitivity adjustment direct current gearing motor which acts on the exterior end of a spiralspring by means of an excenter and alever. The other end of the spiralspring is attached to the axle of there sonator. Two potentiometers for coarse and fine adjustment of the motor; two pairs of 4 mm jacks for powersupply of the motor and of the eddy current brake.; pair of 4 mm jacks for direct connection of a voltmeter to the motor. Exciter and resonator have pointers; ring scale with slots for shadow projection; damping of the oscillating system through electromagnetic eddy current brake.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Eigenfrequency approx. 0.5 Hz excitation frequency 0.1.3 Hz continuously adjustable connections motor and rotation adjusting unit max. 24 V-, 650 mA eddy current brake 0.max. 20 V, max. 2A dimensions: base plate (mm)140×430 scale d = 300 mm.

11214-00

Measuring microphone with amplifier

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Disc diameter: 245 mm Disc thickness: 25 mm Disc weight: approx. 1317 g Counterweight: approx. 925 g

02555-00

Torsion pendulum after Pohl Function and applications Electret capsule with 1.5 m long cable suitable for special investigations, e.g. point shaped plotting of sound fields.

Function and Applications To investigate forced and free oscillations under different damping conditions.

Measuring microphone w.amplifier 03543-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software Cobra3 - Fourier analysis 14514-61

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 645


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.1 Statics and dynamics

Handbook Laser Physics III: Interferometry

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

01401-02

Bottom clamp screws. When carrying out the experiments, the base plate remains in the bottom of the case. Separate case hood with lock. Case dimensions (mm): 620 × 460 × 280. Mass: 13 kg.

Optical base plate with rubberfeet 08700-00 Interferometerplate w prec.drive 08715-00 Photoelement f. opt. base plt. 08734-00 Optical base plate in exp.case 08700-01 Cell with magnetic base 08748-00 Magnetic foot f. opt.base plt. 08710-00 Insert f. cell 08748.00 f films 08748-02 Holographic sheet film 08746-01

He/Ne laser, 5 mW

Function and applications He/Ne laser with fixed connection cable with HV jack for laser power pack.

Handbook Laser Physics II: Holography

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Wave length 632.8 nm Modes TEMOO Degree of polarisation 1:500 Beam diameter 0.81 mm Beam divergence 1 mrad Max. power drift max. 2.5%/ 8 h Service life ca. 15000 h Coaxial cylinder casing Ø = 44.2mm, l = 400 mm Incl. 2 holders with three-point bearing and 2 setting collars

01400-02

Cell with magnetic base

He/Ne Laser, 5mW with holder 08701-00 Power supply for laser head 5 mW 08702-93

Optical base plate in exp.case

Function and applications Holding apparatus to be used for exposure and development bleaching and cleaning/ rinsing of holographic films or holographic film plates. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and applications For vibration-damped storage of magnetically adherent optical components. Equipment and technical data

excellence in science 646

Cuvette made out of clear tempered float glass with 2 hose olives. With two fixation elements for exact positioning of inserts for holographic films or plates. Dimensions (mm): 225 × 56 × 202. Mass: 1015 g.

08748-00


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Surface of rotating liquids

Principle A vessel containing liquid is rotated about an axis. The liquid surface forms a paraboloid of rotation, the parameters of which will be determined as a function of the angular velocity. Tasks On the rotating liquid surface, the following are determined: 1. 2. 3.

the shape, the location of the lowest point as a function of the angular velocity, the curvature.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Angular velocity Centrifugal force Rotary motion Paraboloid of rotation Equilibrium

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2140200

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 647


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Optical determination of the velocity of sound in liquids

Principle A stationary ultrasonic wave in a glass cell full of liquid is traversed by a divergent beam of light. The sound wave length can be determined from the central projection of the sound field on the basis of the refractive index which changes with the sound pressure. Tasks To determine the wavelength of sound in liquids, and from this calculate the sound velocity, from the structure of the centrally projected image. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ultrasonics Sound velocity Frequency Wavelength Sound pressure Stationary waves

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2151000

Temperature dependence of the velocity of ultrasound in liquids P2151200

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Mechanics of flow

Principle The Doppler effect is used with ultrasonic waves to investigate the laws of stationary laminar flow, which underlie a great many technical applications. The liquid under investigation flows through a circuit of tubing. Particular aspects to be studied experimentally include the relationship between the speed of flow and the surface of the tubing (continuity condition) plus that between the resistance to the flow and the diameter of the tube (Hagen-Poiseuille law). By means of these two laws, the dynamic viscosity or fluidity can be derived using familiar geometry. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Measure the average speed of 3 different flows using the ultrasonic Doppler sonograph with Doppler prisms. Determine the nature of the flow. Measure the drop in pressure between the measuring points and determine the resistance to the flow. Calculate viscosity and fluidity and compare with those for other liquids

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ultrasonic Doppler effect Laminar and turbulent flow Continuity equation Bernoulli's equation Hagen-Poiseuille law Viscosity and fluidity

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5140100

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

LDA - laser Doppler anemometry with Cobra3

Principle: Small particles in a current pass through the LDA measuring volume and scatter the light whose frequency is shifted by the Doppler effect due to the particle movement. The frequency change of the scattered light is detected and converted into a particle or flow velocity. Tasks: 1. 2.

Measurement of the light-frequency change of individual light beams which are reflected by moving particles. Determination of the flow velocities.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interference Doppler effect Scattering of light by small particles (Mie scattering) High- and low-pass filters Sampling theorem Spectral power density Turbulence

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5141011

Level measurement P5141100

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Viscosity of Newtonian/non-Newtonian liquids (rotary viscometer)

Principle: The viscosity of liquids can be determined with a rotation viscometer, in which a motor with variable rotationspeed drives a cylinder immersed in the liquid to be investigated with a spiralspring. The viscosity of the liquid generates a moment of rotation at the cylinder which can be measured with the aid of the torsion of the spiral spring and read on a scale. Tasks: 1.

Determine the gradient of the rotational velocity as a function of the torsional shearing stress for two Newtonian liquids (glycerine, liquid paraffin). Investigate the temperature dependence of the viscosity of Castor oil and glycerine. Determine the flow curve for a non Newtonian liquid (chocolate).

2. 3.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Shear stress Velocity gradient Internal friction Viscosity Plasticity

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5141500

Viscosity measurement with the falling ball viscometer P5141600

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Ultrasonic Doppler effect

Principle: If a source of sound is in motion relative to its medium of propagation, the frequency of the waves that are emitted is displaced due to the Doppler effect. Tasks: 1.

The frequency changes are measured and analysed for different relative velocities of source and observer.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Propagation of sound waves Superimposition of sound waves Doppler shift of frequency Longitudinal waves

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5142015

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Measurement of the speed of sound in air

The speed of sound in air is determined by measurements of sound travel times. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra3 (C3PT) 01310-01 German Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 English P1336200

Car, motor driven

Function and applications For the experimental investigation of uniform movements and introduction of the concept of speed. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Acoustic Doppler effect

Drive: integrated battery powered electric motor (with radio noise suppression). Sliding switch for continuous speed adjustment; forward and backward switches, 4-wheel drive Recess with clamping spring to attach holding bolt (03949-00) eccentric clamps to attach recording tape for recording timer (11607-00)

Equipment and technical data ▪

Dimensions without wheels (mm): 114 × 53 × 64

Car, motor driven 11061-00 Attachment for car 11061-02 Light barrier, compact 11207-20

Ultrasound operation unit Principle It should be verified, how the frequency measured from the stationary microphone changes, when a constant frequency fed loudspeaker is moved slowly towards or away from the microphone. Here, the frequency should be represented as a function of the speed of the sound source. For the quantitative examination of the results, the speed of sound is measured from the slope of the line and compared to the theoretical value. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra3 (C3PT) 01310-01 German Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 English

Function and applications Ultrasound operation unit. Benefits

P1336500

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Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3

▪ ▪ ▪

01310-02

Microprocessor controlled quartz-stabilised operation unit for ultrasonic transmitter and receiver. Adjustable output amplitude, 2 DIN sockets, one with 180° phaseshift, continuous and burst mode operation. 1 synchronous BNC output for delay time measurement. Input signal amplifier with 3 main amplifications and fine adjustment with one BNC-socket for oscilloscope and 4 mm sockets for XY-recorder. Overload warning LED allows adaption of ultrasound intensity to the experiment.

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

▪ ▪

Ideally suited for ultrasound experiments with large distances between transmitter and receiver, e.g. Doppler-effect with ultrasound. Fail-safe housing.

Digital Function Generator, USB

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency (quartz-stabilised): 40 kHz Range: 39...41 kHz Step width: 300 Hz Transmitter output: 2 x DIN-socket and 1 synchronised BNC-socket Phase shift: 0° or 180° Receiver input: BNC-socket Receiver output: AC-signal BNC XY-recorder (± 10 V) 4 mm-sockets Supply: 100...260 V AC/ 5 V AC Frequency: 50...60 Hz Dimensions H × W × D (mm):138 × 205 × 160 Mass: 980 g

Required accessories ▪

Power supply for ultrasound operation unit (13900-99)

Function and Applications Digital signal generator for use as a programmable voltage source in practical or demonstration experiments, particularly in the disciplines of acoustics, electrical engineering and electronics Benefits ▪

Ultrasound operation unit 13900-00 Ultrasonic transmitter 13901-00 Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902-00 Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A withDC-socket 2.1 mm 13900-99

Function generator, 0.1 Hz - 100 KHz

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Can be used as universal stand-alone device or controlled via a USB interface (with a software package available as of 2011) Universally applicable thanks to broad, continually adjustable frequency range Usable as programmable voltage source via amplifier output Intuitive, menu-driven operation using control knob and function buttons, with help capability Illuminated monochrome graphic display for maximum visibility and readability Simple setting of voltage and frequency ramps in stand-alone mode Features V = f(f) output for easy reading of frequency in the form of a voltage - ideal for measuring circuit response to frequency ramps using an oscilloscope Low distortion and signal-to-noise ratio for brilliantly clear signals - ideal for acoustics/audio experiments

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications Versatile sine wave, triangle wave and square wave signal generator for student experiments, practical work and demonstration. Short circuit proof output. Constant output amplitude over the complete frequency range. Strong power output enables direct connection to a loudspeaker Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency range: 0.1 Hz...100 kHz Signal shape: Sine, triangle and square Signal output: 20 V (open), 10 V Ra = 50 Ohm Output power: approx. 0.25 W Nominal terminal resistance: 50 Ohm Distortion factor (typical): < 1 % Power consumption: max. 5 VA Mains voltage: 230 V/ 50...60 Hz Housing dimensions (mm): 194 × 140 × 130

13652-93

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13654-99

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Frequency range: 0.1Hz…1Mhz Steps: 0.1Hz Distortion factor: <0.5% Signal forms: Sine, triangle, square, frequency ramp, voltage ramp Amplifier output, short-circuit-proof, via BNC and 4-mm connectors Output voltage : 0…20 Vpp for Rout > 40 Ω DC offset: ±10V (steps 5 mV) Power output: 5W (for up to 1A) where Rout = 20 Ω Headphone output via 3.5-mm jack socket: Switch for selecting standard headphones or speakers Output voltage: 0…1 Vpp for Rout = 400 Ω Sync (trigger) output via BNC: Output resistance: 50 Ω Logic level: CMOS (5V) V=f(f) output via BNC, short-circuit-proof: For outputting frequency in the form of a proportional voltage 0...10V (0...1MHz) Sweep function for frequency ramp Monochrome graphic display with continuous setting for background illumination: 128 x 64 pixels USB 2.0 port Settings via buttons and knob or software-assisted via USB Power supply 100V~ - 240V~ at 50/60Hz Impact-resistant plastic case with carrying handle Dimensions (mm): 194 x 140 x 130


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Rotary viscometer, 3 - 6,000,000 mPas, 110...240 V

Function and Applications Falling ball viscometer. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Thermometer Diameter of the fall tube: 15.95 mm Initiable fall times: 25...300 s Fall distance: 100 mm 6 balls

18220-00

Ultrasonic generator

Function and Applications Classic rotational viscometer for the viscosity determination according to ISO2555 ("Brookfield method") and many ASTM standards. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The results are 100% compatible to the Brookfield method All results (viscosity, torque in %, speed, spindle) are displayed on the built-in display Visual and acoustic signals at critical measuring conditions Warning, if the device is used outside of the permissible measuring ranges Digital speed control with "built-in" accuracy through stepping motor Touchless, optoelectronic torque measuring system with high accuracy and without wear It is supllied as a complete measuring unit consisting of the basic instrument with stand, set of spindles with a storage rack in a stable case

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Viscosity range: 3 - 6,000,000 m Pas- Torque (rpm): 0.1/ 0.2/ 0.3/ 0.5/ 0.6/ 1/ 1.5/ 2/2.5/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 10/ 12/ 20/ 30/ 50/ 60/100/ 200 Accuracy of torque: <±0,5% of the absolute value Temperature range: -15...+120°C Accuracy: ±1% of full scale Reproducibility: ±0.2% of full scale Power supply: 100...240 V/ 50...60 Hz

18222-99

Falling ball viscometer

Function and applications Ultrasonic generator for sine- and pulse operation for experimentation with wave phenomena and run time measurements, for exemplatory technical applications e.g. ultrasonic welding. Equipment and technicla data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

With 3-digit LED for frequency and adjustable frequency for optimisation experiments and exactly determination of wave length under different experimental conditions Monitor- and trigger-outputs with BNC sockets for phase determination with an oscilloscope Robust plastic housing Including: sealed sound head Frequency range (Sinus): 780...820 kHz Maximum sound output power: 16 W Puls repetition frequency: 500 Hz Puls duration: 3 µs Supply voltage: 110...240 V AC Dimensions, H × W × D (mm): 170 × 232 × 260 Mass: 3.67 kg

Ultrasonic generator 13920-99 Ultrasonic pickup 13920-00 Laser, He-Ne, 1.0 mW, 230 V AC 08181-93

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 655


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Immersion thermostat Alpha A, up to 85°C, 230 V

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Sensitivity (900 nm) 860 mV/µW/cm² Band width 65 kHz Slot filter d = 0.3 mm Mounting rod l = 110 mm, diameter = 10 mm

Si-Photodetector with Amplifier 08735-00 Control Unit for Si-Photodetector 08735-99

Basic set: Ultrasonic Doppler technique

Function and applications

Function and Applications

Immersion circulator with simple, reliable options for obtaining consistent results. Compact unit can be combined with any existing baths up to 25 mm wall thickness.

Kit containing instrument and accessories for general ultrasonic sonography experiences. The software displays the measured data from the ultrasonic doppler apparatus, basic instrument of this kit, in realtime on the computer screen. Modular and extendable with accessory kits for experimentations in the fields of hydraulics and medical diagnostics.

Immersion thermostat Alpha A, 230 V 08493-93 External circulation set for thermostat Alpha A 08493-02 Bath for thermostat, Makrolon 08487-02

Si-Photodetector with amplifier

Benefits ▪

This kit forms a very didactic experimentation system beginning from the basics of sonography and can with accessory kits be extended for the use in specific applications as hydraulics and medical diagnostics (only for training purposes!) an experimentation manual is included

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

x x x x x x x

ultrasonic pulse Doppler apparatus centrifugal pump ultrasonic gel liquid for sonography (1l) ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Doppler prisma 3/8 Set of flexible tubes

Ultrasonic pulse Doppler apparatus

Principle Silicon diode with high signal-to-noise ratio for photometric measurements where there is a high degree of interference.

13923-99

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Movable holder for diode on round mounting rod with lens for incoming light Removable slot filter 1.5/m lead with diode plug for connecting to the required control unit Spectral range 390 nm...1150 nm Maximum sensitivity 900 nm Voltage when dark 0.75 mV

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Frequency: 2 MHz Amplification: 10 - 40 dB Visualisation: LED-bar, acoustical signal volume controlled PC connection: USB Dimensions: 256 x 185 x 160 mm Main voltage: 90-230 V, 50/ 60 Hz Power of electricity: 100 VA

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.2 Fluid mechanics

Extension Set: Mechanics of flow

Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope

Function and application With the ultrasonic echoscope the basics of ultrasound and its wave characteristics can be demonstrated. Terms like amplitude, frequency, sound velocity or Time Gain Control TGC will be explained. The cylinder set can be used to vividly demonstrate reflection as well as sound velocity and frequency depending on attenuation in solid state materials. The principles of image formation from A-scan to B-scan can be explained. With the different probes the frequencyd epending resolution can be evaluated. Benefits Function and applications With this set the Doppler effect as well as basic flow phenomena can be demonstrated. A flow circuit can be built up, containing various tube diameters and therefor with different flow velocities. With the Doppler prisms, the relationship between Doppler frequency shifts, the angle of incidence, the transmission frequency and flow velocity can be determined. Within the flow profile, laminar or turbulent flow can be measured. The stand pipes indicate the pressure measured at different points in the circuit. With data of pressure, tube diameter and flow velocity fundamental laws of laminar flow, like the Bernoulli equation and the Hagen-Poiseuille law, can be studied Benefits ▪ ▪

Due to the closed loop cycle, the experiment can be mounted in a normal class/ lab room No water tap is required

Supply ▪ ▪

1x set prisms and pipes incl. tubes 1x standpipe

Extension Set: Mechanics of flow 13923-01 Doppler dummy fluid 1l 13925-70 Centrifugal pump 64569-99

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics

16508-02

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The Ultrasonic echoscope is a highly sensitive ultrasonic measuring device designed to connect to a PC or simply to an oscilloscope The supplied software enables an extensive signal processing (RFsignal, amplitude signal, B-scan, M-mode, spectral analysis). The ultrasonic probes are connected by robust snap-in plugs. The probe frequency is recognised automatically by the measuring device. By adjusting the power transmission and gain the ultrasonic signal can betuned to nearly every arbitrary object of investigation. The loss of intensity of the ultrasonic signal from deeper layers of investigation is balanced by a timedependent amplification (TGC time-gaincontrol). Threshold, start and end point or slope can be chosen freely. Important signals (trigger, TGC , RFsignal and amplitude signal) areavailable at BNC outlets.

Scope of supply ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic

echoscope probe 1 MHz probe 2 MHz test block cylinder set test plates gel

Technical data (Ultrosonic echoscope) ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Size: 220 x 300 x 400 mm Frequency: 1 - 5 MHz PC connection: USB Measuring operations: reflection and transmission Transmitter signal: 10 - 300 V Transmitter power: 0 - 30 dB Gain: 0 - 35 dB TGC: 0 - 30 dB, threshold, slope, width Outlets: trigger, TGC, RF, LF Main voltage: 115 - 230 V, 50 - 60 Hz Power of electricity: 20 VA

Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope 13921-99 Ultrasonic coupling gel 250 ml 13924-25

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material

Principle The velocity of sound in acrylics shall be determined by time of flight reflection technique with an ultrasonic echoscope. The measurements are done, by reflection method, on three cylinders of different length. Two measurement series are carried out with ultrasonic probes of different frequencies. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Measure the length of the three cylinders with the calliper. Determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic reflection pulses for the three cylinders and the two ultrasonic probes. Calculate the sound velocities, probe delays and use the two mean values obtained to calculate the cylinder length.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Sound velocity Propagation of ultrasonic waves Time of flight Ultrasonic echography Thickness measurement Probe delay

Literature for this experiment as follows: Laboratory Experiments Physics, Chemistry, Biology andApplied Sciences, CD-ROM, incl. operating manuals 16502-42 English TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160100

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Ultrasonic echography (A-Scan)

Principle An ultrasonic wave transmitted in a sample will be reflected at discontinuities (defects, cracks). From the relationship between the time of flight of the reflected wave and the sound velocity, the distance between ultrasonic transducer and defects(reflector) can be calculated. Position and size of these defects can be determined by measuring in different directions. Tasks 1.

Measure the longest side of the block with the calliper and the time of light of ultrasound wave for this distance with the 2 MHz probe Calculate the sound velocity. Measure the position and the size of the different defects of the test block with the calliper and the ultrasound echography method.

2. 3.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Propagation of ultrasonic waves Time of flight Echo amplitude Reflection coefficient A-scan Flaw detection Non destructive testing (NDT) Ultrasonic transceiver

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160200

Ultrasonic echography (B-Scan) P5160300

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 659


5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Angle beam measurement

Principle The experiment demonstrates the application of ultrasonic angle beam probes in non-destructive testing. Echoes of transverse and longitudinal waves coming from an aluminium testblock are investigated using three different delay line angles. For straight beam probes, the distance is calculated using simply the time of flight and the sound velocity of longitudinal wave. Angle beam probes require in addition the length of the delay line, the sound velocity of the transverse wave, the angle of the probe and the sound exit point of the delay line. The probe calibration is checked measuring half and full skip distance on a cylindrical discontinuity. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Examine with three different angle delay lines, the half and full skip distance in an aluminium alloy bloc. Determine which probes allow to measure longitudinal and transverse wave echoes. Measure first with the 38 째 and then with the 17 째 angle delay line, the time of flight and the positions of the probe at half and full skip distance. Calculate the sound exit point, the incidence angle, the acoustic path, the sound velocity and the length of the delay line. Check the probe characteristics on a cylindrical discontinuity. Measure the depth and the projected distance of the flaw in the test block and compare these values with the sketch.

What you can learn about Angle beam probe , Incident angle, Ultrasonic refraction, Longitudinal wave, Shear wave, Angle beam echo, Skip distance, Ultrasound echography, A-mode, Reflection Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160400

Time of flight diffraction (TOFD) P5160500

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Detection of discontinuities

Principle Various ultrasonic locating techniques are used on a test body with a variety of differing discontinuities. The body is first tested by scanning through it and an investigation is made to determine which techniques are best for detecting which types of faults. Afterwards, signal to noise ratio is measured at each of the discontinuities, once with an angle testing probe and once with a normal one. A discussion of the results will then follow with the aim of selecting the right locating technique for a specific test exercise. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160600

Frequency dependence of resolution power P5160700

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state materials

Principle The attenuation of ultrasound in solid bodies (polyacrylic) is measured at three different frequencies using a reflection method and by scanning through the bodies with an echoscope. The results give an indication of how attenuation depends on frequency. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160800

Shear waves in solid state materials P5160900 Determination of the focus zone P5161000

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Chladni figures with the FG module and Cobra3

Principle To show the two-dimensional standing waves on the surface of a square or circular plate. Tasks A frequency generator is connected to a sound head. The sound head drives a Chaldni plate. White sand is sprinkled randomly to cover the entire black surface of the plate. Drive the plate at a predetermined harmonic frequency and the sand will migrate into the nodal regions. A well defined standing wave pattern can be clearly seen in the first photo. The circular and square Chladni plates will create characteristic patterns. Adjust the oscillator slowly in the 0.2 to 2 kHz frequency range and watch for the pattern to emerge when a harmonic is tuned. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Wavelength Stationary waves Natural vibrations Two-dimensional standing waves

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2150515

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Ultrasonic computer tomography

Principle First an explanation of image generation using the CT algorithm is given. An attenuation and sound speed tomogram is then made on a simple test object and any differences are then discussed. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5161200

Mechanical scan methods P5161100 Spectral investigations P5161300

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Oscillations in metal plates

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The supplied software enables an extensive signal processing (RFsignal, amplitude signal, B-scan, M-mode, spectral analysis). The ultrasonic probes are connected by robust snap-in plugs. The probe frequency is recognised automatically by the measuring device. By adjusting the power transmission and gain the ultrasonic signal can betuned to nearly every arbitrary object of investigation. The loss of intensity of the ultrasonic signal from deeper layers of investigation is balanced by a time dependent amplification (TGC time-gain control). Threshold, start and end point or slope can be chosen freely. Important signals (trigger, TGC , RFsignal and amplitude signal) areavailable at BNC outlets.

Scope of supply: Principle After a round or square metal plate is struck, a complex natural frequency spectrum is generated. Fourier analysis can be used to quickly determine the suitable frequencies for generating Chladni patterns. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra3 (C3PT) 01310-01 German Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 English P1362200

Analysis of simple and composite sinusoidal signals P1361200 Spectral analysis of various signal forms - sinusoidal, rectangular and triangular signals P1361300

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Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic

echoscope probe 1 MHz probe 2 MHz test block cylinder set test plates gel

Technical data (Ultrosonic echoscope) echoscope):: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Size: 220 x 300 x 400 mm Frequency: 1 - 5 MHz PC connection: USB Measuring operations: reflection andtransmission Transmitter signal: 10 - 300 V Transmitter power: 0 - 30 dB Gain: 0 - 35 dB TGC: 0 - 30 dB, threshold, slope, width Outlets: trigger, TGC, RF, LF Mains voltage: 115...230 V, 50...60 Hz Power of electricity: 20 VA

Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope 13921-99 Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz 13921-05 Ultrasonic probe 4 MHz 13921-02

Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Extension set: Non destructive testing

Function and applications With the ultrasonic echoscope the basics of ultrasound and its wave characteristics can be demonstrated. Terms like amplitude, frequency, sound velocity or Time Gain Control TGC will be explained. The cylinder set can be used to vividly demonstrate reflection as well as sound velocity and frequency depending on attenuation in solid state materials. The principles of image formation from A-scan to B-scan can be explained. With the different probes the frequency depending resolution can be evaluated. Benefits ▪

The Ultrasonic echoscope is a highly sensitive ultrasonic measuring device designed to connect to a PC or simply to an oscilloscope.

Function and Application Studies of Ultrasound techniques Used in NDT applications: ▪ ▪ ▪

Flaw detection Angle beam inspection Time of flight diffraction (TOFD)

Particular suitable for NDT training Benefits Different NDT techniques can be demonstrated with the same equipment. No special unit for TOFD required Accessories ( required but not included)

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5.2 Applied mechanics 5.2.3 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

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Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope: 13921-99 Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz : 13921-05

13921-01

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1x 1x 1x 1x

CT scanner CT control unit with tomography software Water tank CT sample

CT Scanner

Extension set: Shear waves

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Linear movement: ca. 400 mm, resolution <10 µm Maximal speed: 18 cm/min Rotation: 360°, resolution 0.225° Maximal speed: 1 rotation/s Size: 500 x 400 x 200 mm

CT Control unit ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Output: 3 x stepper motor control, bipolar, 5 V, max. 2 A, 6 x limit switches Interface PC: USB Size: 250 x 180 x 170 mm Main voltage: 90-230 V, 50/60 Hz Power of electricity: < 50 VA

13922-99 Function and Applications When an ultrasonic wave hits a solid state material in a certain angle, shear waves will be generated with increasing angle. Shear waves have a sound velocity differing to that of longitudinal waves. With this experimental equipment the transition from longitudinal to shear waves can be measured angle-dependently. Benefits Basics of ultrasounds which can not been demonstrated with industrial equipment are shown in an very didactical manner Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x

Ultrasonic probe 1 MHz Shear wave set (incl. 2 probe holders) Aluminium sample for shear waves Hydrophone for sound field measurement Hydrophone plate Hydrophone holder Holder block

13921-03

Extension Set: CT Scanner

Function and Applications This set is an extension to the ultrasonic pulse echo methods, including automated imaging methods like CT and B mode. With this set the development of a CT image can be demonstrated step by step. Automated B-scan images can be made with this set as well. The scanned objects can be measured and evaluated in axial and lateral direction. The results of the automated measurements with scanner have a much better quality, especially with the imaging methods. Benefits For a rather low invest, compared to real life systems, the advantages of mechanical scanning can be demonstrated in a very comprehensible way. Equipment and technical data

excellence in science 666


5 Applied Sciences 5.3 Applied optics - Photonics

Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Laser and Fibre optics Interferometry Holography

668 674 682

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.1 Laser and Fibre optics

Helium neon laser, basic set

Principle The difference between spontaneous and stimulated emission of light is demonstrated. The beam propagation within the resonator cavity of a He-Ne laser and its divergence are determined, its stability criterion is checked and the relative output power of the laser is measured as a function of the tube's position inside the resonator and of the tube current. The following items can be realised with advanced set 08656-02. By means of a birefringent tuner and a Littrow prism different wave lengths can be selected and quantitatively determined if a monochromator is available. Finally you can demonstrate the existence of longitudinal modes and the gain profile of the He-Ne laser provided an analysing Fabry Perot system is at your disposal. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Set up the He-Ne laser. Adjust the resonator mirrors by use of the pilotlaser (left mirror: VIS, HR, plane; right mirror: VIS, HR, r = 700 mm). Check on the stability condition of a hemispherical resonator. Measure the integral relative output power as a function of the laser tube's position within the hemispherical resonator. Measure the beam diameter within the hemispherical resonator right and left of the laser tube. Determine the divergence of the laser beam. Measure the integral relative output power as a function of the tube current.

The He-Ne laser can be tuned using a BFT or a LTP. Longitudinal modes can be observed by use of a Fabry Perot Etalon of low finesse. Remark: These points can only be covered quantitatively if a monochromator and an analysing Fabry Perot system are available. What you can learn about Spontaneous and stimulated light emission, Inversion, Collision of second type, Gas discharge tube, Resonator cavity, Transverse and longitudinal resonator modes, Birefringence, Brewster angle, Littrow prism, Fabry Perot Etalon Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5210201

Helium neon laser, advanced set

P5210205

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.1 Laser and Fibre optics

Optical pumping

Principle The visible light of a semiconductor diode laser is used to excite the neodymium atoms within a Nd-YAG (Neodymium Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) rod. The powe routput of the semiconductor diode laser is first recorded as a function of the injection current. The fluorescent spectrum of the Nd-YAG rod is then determined and the maon absorption lines of the Nd-atoms are verified. Conclusively, the mean life-time of the 4F3/2-level of the Nd-atoms is measured in appoximation. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

To determine the power output of the semiconductor diode laser as a function of the injection current. To trace the fluorescent spectrum of the Nd-YAG rod pumped by the diode laser and to verify the main absorption lines of neodymium. To measure the mean life-time of the 4F3/2-level of the Nd-atoms.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Spontaneous emission Induced emission Mean lifetime of a metastable state Relaxation Inversion Diode laser

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5210400

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.1 Laser and Fibre optics

Nd-YAG laser

Principle: The rate equation model for an optically pumped four-level laser system is determined. As lasing medium, a Nd-YAG (Neodymium-Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) rod has been selected which is pumped by means of a semiconductor diode laser. The IR-power output of the Nd-YAG laser is measured as a function of the optical power input and the slope efficiency as well as the threshold power are determined. Finally, a KTP-crystal is inserted into the laser cavity and frequency doubling is demonstrated. The quadratic relationship between the power of the fundamental wave and the beam power for the second harmonic is then evident. Tasks: 1. 2. 3.

Set up the Nd-YAG laser and optimise its power output. The IR-power output of the Nd- YAG laser is to be measured as a function of the pump power. The slope efficiency and the threshold power are to be determined. Verify the quadratic relationship between the power of the fundamental wave, with lambda = 1064 nm, and the beam power of the second harmonic with lambda = 532 nm.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Optical pumping Spontaneous emission Induced emission Inversion Relaxation Optical resonator Resonator modes Polarization Frequency doubling

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5210500

excellence in science 670


5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.1 Laser and Fibre optics

Fibre optics

Principle: The beam of a laser diode is treated in a way that it can be coupled into a monomode fibre. The problems related to coupling the beam into the fibre are evaluated and verified. In consequence alow frequency signal is transmitted through the fibre. The numerical aperture of the fibre is recorded. The transittime of light through the fibre is measured and the velocity of light within the fibre is determined. Finally the measurement of the relative output power of the diodelaser as a function of the supply current leads to the characteristics of the diodelaser such as "threshold energy" and "slope efficiency". Tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Couple the laser beam into the fibre and adjust the setting-up in a way that a maximum of output power is achieved at the exit of the fibre. Demonstrate the transmission of a LF- signal through the fibre. Measure the numerical aperture of the fibre. Measure the transit time of light through the fibre and determine the velocity of light within the fibre. Determine the relative output power of the diodelaser as a function of the supply current.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Total reflection Diode laser Gaussian beam Monomode and multimode fibre Numerical aperture Transverse and longitudinal modes Transit time Threshold energy Slope efficiency Velocity of light

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5220100

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.1 Laser and Fibre optics

Experimental set Helium-Neon laser

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Digital display of output current. High-voltage plugs for connection to laser tube. Power supply: 100 V...240 V, AC, 50/60 Hz. Ignition voltage: max. 12 kV. Operating voltage: max. 4 kV. Power output: 3...10 mA.

08701-99

Basic set optical pumping Function and applications Experimental set Helium-Neon laser.. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

6 mW-He-Ne-capillary discharge tube with two 55.5°-Brewsterwindows ballast resistor and HV connectors 2 xy-variable holders on slidemounts for laser tube variable power supply 2...8 mA for laser tube 2 LCD-displays for HV and tube current 2 xy-adjustable holders for opt. components 2 holders for laser mirror set of 3 laser mirrors with dielectric HR-surfaces: HR-plano, HRconcave, OC-planoconcave, r = 140 cm, diameter = 12.7/ 25.4 mm 0.8 mW-alignment laser, coaxialtype random polarised TEM00-mode 2 xy-adjustable holders on slidemounts for alignment laser power supply for 0.8 mW-laser 3 slide mounts for opt. profile bench for rods of diameter 10-13 mm

Exp.Set-Helium-Neon Laser 08656-93 He-Ne-Laser alignment glasses 08581-11 Exp.set HeNe-laser, advanced set 08656-02 Littrow-prism with x/y-holder 08656-20 Lyot-plate with holder and rider 08656-10 Fabry-Perot etalon in x/y-holder 08656-30

Univ. power supply for He-Ne laser

Function and applications The light from a lasersiode is used to excite neodymium atoms in a Nd:YAG crystal. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The power emitted by the laser diode can be measured as a function of the supply current. The fluorescence spectrum of the Nd:YAG crystal is analysed and the main absorption lines of the Nd-Atoms are verified. Finally the half-life of the 4F3/2-level is estimated. With only a small number of additional components it is possible to build a Nd:YAG laser with this system.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1

Flat rail 500 mm with scale Laser diode 450 mW in X-Y adjustment holder on carrier Control electronics LDS 1200 Beam shaping optics in holder on carrier Beam Focusing in holder on carrier Nd:YAG crystal in holder adjustable on carrier Filter holder on carrier with filter RG 1000 Photo detector in holder on carrier and adjustment target BNC cables IR detector converter screen 800-1200 nm Set for optics cleaning User manual

08590-93

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics

16508-02

Function and applications For operation of He/Ne laser tubes with an output of between 0.5 and 10 mW. The current at the output of the device can be continuously varied between 3 and 10 mA. Equipment and technical data

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.1 Laser and Fibre optics

Basics set Nd:Yag-Laser

Essential components for the experiments "Optical pumping" and "Nd: Yag-Laser" Basic set optical pumping 08590-93 Frequ. doubling crystal in holder 08593-00 Nd-YAG laser cavity mirror/holder 08591-01 Laser cav.mirror frequ. doubling 08591-02 Sensor f. measurem. of beam power 08595-00 Filter plate, short pass type 08594-00 Protection glasses HeNe-laser 08581-10 Cleaning set for laser 08582-00 Danger sign -laser06542-00 Protection glasses for Nd:Yag laser 08581-20

Module G: PIN-Si photo diode mounted in a housing with click mechanism and BNC socket. Mounting plate on a carrier. Module H: Laser diode controller providing all voltage and currents needed for the safe use of the laser diode and the Peltier-cooler. Built-in amplifier for Module G and modulator for the injection current of the laser diode. Comprehensive manual included. 08662-93

Experimental set Fibre optics

Module A: Laserdiode module DIMO 100 is mounted into the XY-adjustment holder. The adjustment holder allows the sensitive adjustment of the laser in the x and y direction to ensure the correct directional orientation with regard to the optical axis of the setup. The module contains a laser diode with an output power of 30 mW at a wave length of 820 nm (wave length is subject to certain deviations within the range of ± 5 nm ). The integrated Peltier element allows temperature control in the rangeof 15 to 40 °C by means of the control unit LDC-01. Module B: Microscope objective screwed into a mounting plate on a carrier collimates the laser diode radiation. Module C: Optics for coupling the laser diode radiation into fibre. The microscope objective can be adjusted in the directions x and y and in two orthogonal angles. Module D: Fibre holder. The fibre is put into the groove of the holder and fixed in its position by means of a magnet. The fibre holder is mounted on translation stage to enable a precise adjustment of the fibre position with respect to the focused laser diode beam. Module E: Hinged joint angle connector onto which the second fibre holder has been screwed for angle resolved measurements, for example the numerical aperture of the fibre or the intensity distribution of the laser diode. Module F: 100 m monomode fibre with a core diameter of 5 µm.

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.2 Interferometry

Michelson interferometer

Principle: In the Michelson arrangement interference will occur by the use of 2 mirrors. The wavelength is determined by displacing one mirror using the micrometer screw. Tasks: 1.

Determination of the wavelength of the light of the used laser.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interference Wavelength Refractive index Velocity of light Phase Virtual light source

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5230305

Determination of the refraction index of carbon dioxide with the Michelson interferometer

P5231005

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.2 Interferometry

Michelson interferometer - high resolution

Principle: With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement, light is brought to interference. While moving one of the mirrors, the alteration in the interference pattern is observed and the wavelength of the laser light determined. Tasks: 1. 2. 3.

Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate components. The interferometer is used to determine the wavelength of the laser light. The contrast function K is qualitatively recorded in order to determine the coherence length with it.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5230400

Doppler effect with the Michelson interferometer

P5230700

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.2 Interferometry

Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer

Principle With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement, light is brought to interference. Due to the magnetostrictive effect, one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample, and the change in the interference pattern is observed. Tasks 1. 2.

Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate optical components. Testing various ferromagnetic materials (iron and nickel) as well as a non-ferromagnetic material, copper, with regard to their magnetostrictive properties.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source Ferromagnetic material Weiss molecular magnetic fields Spin-orbit coupling

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5230800

Refraction index of air with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

P5231200

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.2 Interferometry

Fabry-Perot interferometer - determination of the wavelength of laser light

Principle: Two mirrors are assembled to form a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Using them, the multibeam interference of a laser's light beam is investigated. By moving one of the mirrors, the change in the interference pattern is studied and the wavelength of the laser's light determined. Tasks: 1. 2.

Construction of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using separate optical components. The interferometer is used to determine the wavelength of the laser light.

What you can learn about ... ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5231405

Fabry-Perot interferometer - optical resonator modes

P5231406

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 677


5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.2 Interferometry

Advanced Optics, Interferometry Package incl. manual, 230 V

Handbook Laser Physics III: Interferometry

01401-02

Michelson interferometer

Function and Applications A complete set to perform the following experiments using the experimental system "Advanced Optics": ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Michelson interferometry, both the compact and high resolution setup Diffraction index of CO2 using Michelson interferometry Diffraction index of air using Mach Zehnder interferometry Determination of wave length of light using Fabry-Perot interferometry Visualisation of optical resonator modes using Fabry-Perot interferometry.

Incl. Handbook "Interferometry" with 18 described experiments. With the aid of a base plate and magnetic adhering holders, which can be positioned jolt-free, 1- and 2-dimensional setups can be quickly and reliably realised. By folding the lightpaths experiments with larger focal distances can be carried out on the working base. The high stiffness and vibration damping of the base plate allows sensitive interferometer arrangement to be set up.

Function and Application To measure light wavelengths and refractivity of liquids and gases. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

metalbase-plate 120 x 120 mm with removable holding stem and with adjustable surface mirrors 30 x30 mm two polarising filters and micrometer Fine shoots to the tilt adjustment of fixed mirror Bracket for additional required cell for investigation of gases

08557-00

Accessories for optical base plate experiments

08700-66

Collection of interferometers with 1 mW HeNe-Laser, 230 V

Function and applications This set contains all the components necessary to build the following five types of interferometer and use them with a 1-mW HeNe laser: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Michelson interferometer (P13066-00) Sagnac interferometer (P13069-00) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (P13075-00) Fabry-Perot interferometer (P13077-00) Twyman-Green interferometer (P13081-00)

08700-88

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Holder f. coaxial laser D30-45 08705-00 Magnetic foot f. opt.base plt. 08710-00 Adjusting ring D25xD13x10 08710-01 Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm 08711-00 Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08711-01 Surface mirror,large, d=80 mm 08712-00 Sliding device, horizontal 08713-00 xy shifting device 08714-00 Adapter ring device 08714-01 Interferometerplate w prec.drive 08715-00 Rot. guide rail w. angular scale 08717-00 Holder f. diaphr./beam splitter 08719-00 Concave mirror,f=5mm, with holder 08720-00 Lensholder f. optical base plate 08723-00


5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.2 Interferometry

Diaphragm holder f.opt.base plt. 08724-00 Prism table w.holder f.opt.b.pl. 08725-00 Holder,dir.vis. prism,opt.b.pl. 08726-00 Slit, adjust. f. opt. base plt. 08727-00 Fresnel mirror f.opt. base plt. 08728-00 Polarizing filter f.opt.base pl. 08730-00 Pol.filter halfshade f.opt.b.pl. 08730-01 Newton colourglass f.opt.b. pl. 08730-02 Diffusing screen, transparent,with holder, for optical bench 08732-00 Faraday modulator f.opt.base pl. 08733-00 Photoelement f. opt. base plt. 08734-00 Polymer Optical Fibre with 2 holders 08736-00 Motor w.gearing and cord pulley 08738-00 Perforated disk w. driving belt 08738-01 Beam splitter 1/1,non polarizing 08741-00 Beam splitter T=30,R=70, w.holder 08741-01 Pin hole 30 micron 08743-00

Achromatic objective 20x N.A.0.4

Function and applications Accessory for all B-series microscopes. Equipment and technical data â&#x2013;Ş

Achromatic objective lens, 20x, numerical aperture 0.4

62174-20

Mirror for optical resonator

Screen, white, 150x150mm Function and Applications For the setup of a Fabry-Perot interferometer on the optical base plate. Different modes in the HeNe laser light can be made visible. Accessories The adjusting bracket (08711-00) is recommended for support and adjustment.

Function and Applications For student experiment with the support optical bench.

Plane mirror HR>99%,mounted 08711-02 Concave mirror OC;r=1.4m,T=1.7% 08711-03

Equipment and technical data Both-sided white screen on stem., Length of stem: 30 mm., Diameter of stem: 12 mm. 09826-00

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.2 Interferometry

Control Unit for Si-Photodetector

Green Laser 0.2/1 mW; 532 nm

Function and Applications Function and applications Amplifier for silicon photodetector

Diode pumped Yttrium-Vanadate(Nd:YVO4) solid state laser with frequency doubling.

Equipment and technical data

Benefits

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

3 BNC outputs: Output 1 (monitor output), gain 1, bandwidth for DC ... 60 kHz Output 2 , gain 1 ... 100, band width for AC 10 Hz ... 60 kHz Output 3 (filter output), gain 1 ... 100, band width for AC 200 Hz ...10 kHz Input: 5-pole diode socket for silicon photodetector Connections +9 V ... +12 V Power consumption 1 W Impact-resistant plastic case (194 x 140 x 130) mm with carrying handle Includes 110-V/240-V power supply

Control Unit for Si-Photodetector 08735-99 Si-Photodetector with Amplifier 08735-00

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The laser complies with the technical requirements of DIN 608251,laser class 2. It is equipped with a keyswitch, an indicator diode indicating the operating status and an electronic shutter to limit the laser output. It istherefore approved for being used at schools and universities. The human eye is specially sensitive for green light, therefore this green laser is more suitable for eperiments using laser light then a red laser.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Output power: 1/0.2 mW Wavelength: 532 nm Lifetime: > 18000 h Beam diameter: approx. 2 mm linear polarised two support rods (length 180 mm and 150 mm, diameter 10 mm), a power supply unit, and instruction manual

08762-99

Danger sign -laser-

Diode laser 0.2 / 1.0 mW, 635 nm

Function and Applications Warning sign. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Material: glass fibre. Dimensions (mm): 315 x 220. With stem. Diameter of stem: 10 mm. Length of stem: 30 mm. Function and Applications

06542-00

Diode laser approved for being used at schools. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

excellence in science 680

The diode laser complies with the technical requirements of DIN 60825-1, laser class 2. It is equipped with a key switch, an indicator diode indicating the operating status and an electronic shutter to limit the laser output.


5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.2 Interferometry

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

It comes supplied with a support rod (length: 180 mm, diameter: 10 mm), a power supply unit and instruction manual and several test records. Output power: 1/0.2 mW. Wavelength: 635 nm. Lifetime: > 18000 h. Beam diameter (mm): approx. 2 x 4. Min. polarisation: 75:1.

He-Ne Laser, 5 mW with holder

Diodelaser 0.2/1 mW; 635 nm 08760-99 Fixing unit for diode laser 08384-00

Laser, He-Ne, 0.2/ 1.0 mW, 230 V AC Function and applications He-Ne laser with fixed connection cable with HV jack for laser power pack. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and applications Linearly polarised light source, very short design. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Welded glass tube assures a very long lifetime > 18 000 operating hours Key switch and integrated greyfilter to reduce radiation power to 0.2mW. Screw-in release to activate the grey filter. Anodised aluminium casing with integrated mains power supply,screw in holding stem, signal light and required warnings printed on both sides. Fixed mains connecting cable 140 cm.

Wave length 632.8 nm Modes TEMOO Degree of polarisation 1:500 Beam diameter 0.81 mm Beam divergence 1 mrad Max. power drift max. 2,5%/ 8 h Service life ca. 15000 h Coaxial cylinder casing Ø = 44.2 mm, l = 400 mm Incl. 2 holders with three-point bearing and 2 setting collars

Optical base plate with rubberfeet 08700-00 Optical base plate in exp.case 08700-01 He/Ne Laser, 5mW with holder 08701-00 Power supply for laser head 5 mW 08702-93

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Wavelength 632.8 nm Optical output power without filter 1.0 mW, with filter 0.2 mW Beam diameter 0.5 mm Beam divergence < 2 mrad. Minimum polarisation 500:1 Max. drift over 8 hours ±2.5% Oscillating mode TEM00 Lifetime > 18000 h Power requirements 35 VA Connecting voltage 230 V, 50.60 Hz.

Laser, He-Ne, 0.2/1.0 mW, 230 V AC 08180-93 Laser, He-Ne, 1.0 mW, 230 V AC 08181-93

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5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.3 Holography

Recording and reconstruction of holograms

Principle: In contrast to normal photography a hologram can store information about the three-dimensionality of an object. To capture the three-dimensionality of an object, the film stores not only the amplitude but also the phase of the light rays. To achieve this, a coherent light beam (laser light) is split into an object and a reference beam by being passed through a beam splitter. These beams interfere in the plane of the holographic film. The hologram is reconstructed with the reference beam which was also used to record the hologram. Tasks: 1. 2. 3.

Capture the holographic image of an object. Perform the development and bleaching of this phase hologram. Reconstruct the transmission hologram (reconstruction beam is the reference beam during image capture).

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Object beam Reference beam Real and virtual image Phase holograms Amplitude holograms Interference Diffraction Coherence Developing of film

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5240100

Transfer hologram from a master hologram (5mW version) P5240700 Real-time procedure I (bending of a plate) (5mW version) P5241106

excellence in science 682


5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.3 Holography

Advanced Optics, Holography package incl. manual, 230 V

He/Ne Laser, 5 mW with holder

Function and Applications

Function and applications

A complete set to perform the following experiments using the experimental system "Advanced Optics" incl. handbook "Holography" with 11 described experiments:

He/Ne Laser with fixed connection cable with HV jack for laser power pack.

▪ ▪ ▪

white light holography transmission holography transfer a hologram from a masterhologram

With the aid of a base plate and magnetic adhering holders, which can be positioned jolt-free, 1- and 2-dimensional setups can be quickly and reliably realised. By folding the lightpaths experiments with larger focal distances can be carried out on the working base. The high stiffness and vibration damping of the base plate allows sensitive holography arrangement to be set up. 08700-55

Handbook Laser Physics II: Holography

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Wavelength 632.8 nm Modes TEMOO Degree of polarisation 1:500 Beam diameter 0.81 mm Beam divergence 1 mrad Max. power drift max. 2,5%/ 8 h Service life ca. 15000 h Coaxial cylinder casing Ø = 44.2 mm, l = 400 mm Incl. 2 holders with three-point bearing and 2 setting collars

He/Ne Laser, 5mW with holder 08701-00 Power supply for laser head 5 mW 08702-93

Cell with magnetic base 01400-02

Object for holography

Function and Applications

Function and applications

Three dimensional model body on magnetic foot.

Holding apparatus to be used for exposure and development bleaching and cleaning/ rinsing of holographic films or holographic film plates.

Equipment and technical data ▪

Total height: 17 cm.

Equipment and technical data 08749-00

Cuvette made out of clear tempered float glass with 2 hose olives.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 683


5.3 Applied optics - Photonics 5.3.3 Holography

▪ ▪ ▪

With two fixation elements for exact positioning of inserts for holographic films or plates. Dimensions (mm): 225 × 56 × 202. Mass: 1015 g.

Components for the setup of a room filter

08748-00

Insert for cell of photoplates

Folgende Komponenten werden zum Aufbau eines Raumfilters und damit zur optimalen Vorbereitung des Laserstrahles für Holografie-Experimente benötigt:

Function and Applications Corrosion-proof stainless steel holder for standard plates (102 × 127) mm or even for half-size in cuvette with magnetic feet (08748.00). Equipment and technical data ▪

Dimensions (mm): 170 × 130 × 40.

Achromatic objective 20x N.A.0.4 62174-20 Pin hole 30 micron 08743-00 Adapter ring device 08714-01 Sliding device, horizontal 08713-00 xy shifting device 08714-00

Holographic plates, 20 pieces

08748-01

Insert for cell 08748-00 f films

Function and applications Function and Applications Corrosion-proof Plexiglas holder for holography films (80 × 60, 80 × 100 or 127 × 102) mm. Can be used in cuvette with magnetic feet (08748.00). The plane film fixing is achieved by producing low air pressure with the aid of a hand-held vacuum pump with manometer (08745.00). Equipment and technical data ▪

Dimensions (mm): 170 × 130 × 40.

08748-02

excellence in science 684

Photo plates with extremely high resolution (approx. 6000 lines/mm). Sensitive for He-Ne laser light (633 nm). Equipment and technical data ▪

Plate format (mm): 127×102.

Holographic plates, 20 pieces 08746-00 Darkroom equipment for holography, 230 V 08747-88 Holographic sheet film 08746-01 Set of photographic chemicals 08746-88


5 Applied Sciences 5.4 Renewable energy

Renewable energy 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5

General Heat Photovoltaic Fuell Cell Wind and Water

686 694 705 709 719

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5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.1 General

Solar ray collector

Principle The solar ray collector is illuminated with a halogen lamp of known light intensity. The heat energy absorbed by the collector can be calculated from the volume flow and the difference in the water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the absorber, if the inlet temperature stays almost constant by releasing energy to a reservoir. The efficiency of the collector is determined from this. The measurement is made with various collector arrangements and at various absorber temperatures. Tasks To determine the efficiency of the solar ray collector under various experimental conditions. Absorption of energy from the environment (20째C) without illumination by sun or halogen lamp, water temperature at the absorber inlet Te; 5째C. 1. 2.

Absorber with insulation and glassplate (complete collector) Absorber alone (energy ceiling)

Illumination with halogen lamp. Water temperature Te; 20째C. 1. 2.

Complete collector Collector without glass plate

Illumination with halogen lamp. Water temperature Te; 50째C. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Complete collector Complete collector, cold jet of air impinges Collector without glass plate Collector without glass plate, cold jet of air impinges.

What you can learn about Absorption, Heat radiation, Greenhouse effect, Convection, Conduction of heat, Collector equations, Efficiency, Energy ceiling Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5310100

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5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.1 General

Characteristic curves of a solar cell

Principle The current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell are measured at different light intensities, the distance between the light source and the solar cell being varied. The dependence of no-load voltage and short-circuit current on temperature is determined. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To determine the light intensity with the thermopile at various distances from the light source. To measure the short-circuit current and no-load voltage at various distances from the light source. To estimate the dependence of no-load voltage, and short-circuit current on temperature. To plot the current-voltage characteristic at different light intensities. To plot the current-votlage characteristic under different operating conditions: cooling the equipment with a blower, no cooling, shining the light through a glass plate. To determine the characteristic curve when illuminating by sunlight.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Semiconductor p-n junction Energy-band diagram Fermi characteristic energy level Diffusion potential Internal resistance Efficiency Photo-conductive effect Acceptors Donors Valence band Conduction band

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5320101

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 687


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.1 General

Stirling engine with Cobra3

Principle The Stirling engine is submitted to a load by means of an adjustable torquemeter, or by a coupled generator. Rotation frequency and temperature changes of the Stirling engine are observed. Effective mechanical energy and power, as well as effective electrical power, are assessed as a function of rotation frequency. The amount of energy converted to work per cycle can be determined with the assistance of the pV diagram. The efficiency of the Stirling engine can be estimated. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Determination of the burner's thermal efficiency Calibration of the sensor unit. Calculation of the total energy produced by the engine through determination of the cycle area on the oscilloscope screen, using transparent paper and coordinate paper. Assessment of the mechanical work per revolution, and calculation of the mechanical power output as a function of the rotation frequency, with the assistance of the torque meter. Assessment of the electric power output as a function of the rotation frequency. Efficiency assessment.

5. 6.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

First and second law of thermodynamics Reversible cycles Isochoric and isothermal changes Gas jaws Efficiency Stirling engine Conversion of heat Thermal pump

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5311015

excellence in science 688


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.1 General

Characteristic curve and efficiency of a PEM fuel cell and a PEM electrolyser

Principle In a PEM electrolyser, the electrolyte consists of a proton-conducting membrane and water (PEM = Proton- Exchange-Membrane). When an electric voltage is applied, hydrogen and oxygen are formed. The PEM fuel cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen. The electrical properties of the electrolyser and the fuel cell are investigated by recording a current-voltage characteristic line. To determine the efficiency, the gases are stored in small gasometers in order to be able to measure the quantities of the gases generated or consumed. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Recording the characteristic line of the PEM electrolyser. Recording the characteristic line of the PEM fuel cell. Determination of the efficiency of the PEM electrolysis unit. Determination of the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrolysis Electrode polarisation Decomposition voltage Galvanic elements Faraday's law

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5330100

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 689


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.1 General

Electrical energy from wind energy

Solar-hydrogen system

Principle Experiment using a model to generate electrical energy with the help of a windmill. A lamp is connected to the wind generator to act as a load and the brightness of the lamp is observed for various different wind speeds. Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00

Principle Model of a solar-hydrogen system, built with equipment from the Renewable Energy school sets EN1 and EN2. The motor can also be powered directly from the solar battery. This system offers the possibility of storing solar energy first by conversion of water into hydrogen so that it can be used later in a fuel cell whenever needed. Literature for this experiment as follows:

Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00 P9515100

Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00 P9516300

Generation of electricity with the Pelton wheel The PEM solar hydrogen model P1397600

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1

Principle Model of a hydroelectric power station The Pelton wheel is connected to a water hose and driven by a jet of water. The wheel is connected to a generator by a drive belt and an incandescent lamp is connected to the generator. In the experiment, observers can note that the output of the generator (i.e. how bright the lamp is lit) is higher when the flow rate of the jet of water striking the buckets of the turbine is greater. For quantitative measurements, the work and power meter (13715-93) can be inserted between the generator and the lamp.

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Sekundarstufe 1,Mechanik, Akustik, Wärme, Elektrik, regenerative Energie,Optik 01500-01 German Demo advanced Physics Manual, Heat,Renewable Energy, Electrics, Optics 01500-02 English

Mechanics,

P1431300

excellence in science 690

Acoustics,

Function and application Set to perform more than 30 student experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Energy conversion Energy storage Solar energy (voltaic, thermal) Wind energy Water enery Geothermal energy Further topics, e.g. greenhouse effect and thermal insulation

Benefits Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources in 30 experiments: ▪

Easy teaching and efficient learning by using the interactive Software interTESS


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.1 General

▪ ▪

The PC based experimentation with interTESS minimises the preparation time and facilitates efficient step-by-step setup, operation, analysis and evaluation Enables studente performing the experiments and understanding the scientific background

Equipment and technical data Selected parts: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Optical bench Halogen light (20 W) Source-fan (204m^3/h) Wind generator (0.4 to 5.9 volts) Solar collector Water wheel Thermal generator Electric building blocks 2 solar cells Solar battery 5-V-motor (starting current 25 mA) Ni-MH high power storage battery (2700mAh)

students performing the experiments and understanding the scientific background. Equipment and technical data Selected parts: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Fuel cell Electrolyser Water turbine Electric building blocks (potentiometer, gold cap) Concave mirror for CSP technology

Accessories ▪ ▪

Power supply 0-12V, 6V~, 12V~ 2 multimeter

13288-88

Demo Renewable Energy

Accessories ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

E-learning software interTESS with the descriptions of the experiments Power supply 0-12V, 6V~,12V~ 2 multimeter Light source instead of sun: 120 W

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1 13287-88 TESS Renewable Energy EN1 13287-77

TESS Applied Science Set Renewable Energy EN2

Function and Applications 2 Equipment sets to perform more than 40 demo board experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources: sonversion, storage, solar (voltaic, thermal), wind, water, geothermal energy, topics as the greenhouse effect and thermal insulation, hydrogen and fuel cell technology, concentrated solar power technology (CSP). Benefits: ▪ ▪

Function and applications Set to perform 21 experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources. The set complements set 1 with following topics: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Hydrogen and fuel cells technology Wind-to-hydrogen technology Solar-to-hydrogen technology CSP technology (concentrated solar power) Electrical power from water turbines Storage of energy

Characteristic curves of all power devices of set 1 and 2 will be measured. Benefits Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources with more than 50 experiments. Easy teaching and efficient learning by using the interactive software interTESS. The PC based experimentation with interTESS not only minimises the preparation time and facilitates efficient step by step setup, operation, analysis and evaluation, but also allows

▪ ▪ ▪

Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources with more than 40 experiments. 100% Reliable contact due to magnetic adhesive, puzzle-like connectable building blocks with corrosion-free, gold-plated contacts even under humid climate conditions Circuit diagram demonstratively visible on the connected building blocks. 100 percent reliable contact due to interlocking building blocks . Higher power devices (f.e. thermogenerator, solarcell, electrolyzer, fuel cell) to drive everyday devices like mp3 players, portable CD-players, toys, etc.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Buildingblocks with gold contacts,magnetically adhesive, labeling Solar Cell, Solar Battery, Light Source Solar Collector, Concave Mirror for CSP Thermogenerator Blower, Wind Generator Water Turbine Motor Quattro PEM Fuell Cell, Douple PEM Electrolyzer, Direct Methanol Fue Cell, Gas storages Magnetic adhesive holders. loads, consumables Including two wodden storage boxes with foam inserts. Size of building blocks (mm):60 × 60 × 46

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 691


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.1 General

▪ ▪

Dimensions H × W × D (mm):150 × 410 × 545 Mass: 15 kg

Recommended accessories: ▪

Cobra4 sensor unit energy, current, voltage, work, power

Experimental literature and Demo board, Demomultimeter / PCInterface, Power Supply

Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT1 09492-88 Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT2 09493-88

Set double PEM fuel cell and double PEM electrolyser, gas storage and connecting blocks, DB

For the measurement and direct display of measurement variables relating to the power consumption and energy in the direct and alternating current circuit (current, voltage, active and apparent power, phase shifting, frequency, electric work), in particular with experiments for renewable energy. Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Energy electricity, voltage, power, capacity 12656-00 Cobra4 Mobile-Link 12620-00 Function and applications Demonstratione lectronic building block with quattro PEM fuel cell for O2/H2 operation and Air/H2 operation. To perform demonstration experiments in the field of hydrogen technology, for example conversion of hydrogen to electrical energy and its use.

Solar ray collector, test field

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy. With air/H2 operation for a more realistic application of h-technology, for example in cars or power supplies. 100% reliable contacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions. Integrated electrical devices are visible from the rear.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

PEM fuel cell H2/O2 PEM fuel cell H2/air Imprinted polarity indication Gold coated side contacts Magnetic pad for vertical setup Function and applications

09487-88

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics

To investigate temperature behaviour of four different solar collectors; theinfluence of absorber enamel, thermal insulation and glass covering is demonstrated. Measurements are carried out simultaneously under the same conditions (illumination, air flow). Equipment and technical data ▪

16508-02

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

excellence in science 692

Four collectors in a white metal frame with an angular scale and lateral fastening screws to adjust the angle of incidence of light Every absorber has a socket at the back to take temperature probes or thermometers Collectors: white absorber; black absorber; black absorber on PUR-foam; black absorber on PUR-foam with glass cover Absorber: material copper with enamel coat; dimensions (mm) 100 × 100 × 2 Casing dimensions (mm) 365 × 280 × 60


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.1 General

Accessories ▪

Further required accessories: solar collector stand (06757-00), thermometer -10...+110°C (4×) (38005-02) or another temperature measuring probe.

06756-00

Exp. car for energy conversion

Function and Applications To demonstrate the effect of electric energy obtained through direct energy conversion from luminous or thermal energy. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Car with 2 V- direct current motor. Buffers with reversing switches on both faces. This causes the car to reverse when hitting an obstacle. Clamping system for devices with 10 mm round rod and two 4 mm sockets for motor power supply on the car platform. Maximum operating voltage: 2 V. Speed on a plane trajectory, with 2 V: 5 cm / s. Empty weight approx.: 580 g. Effective load: 2.5 kg. Dimensions (mm): 310 × 130 × 80.

11061-21

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 693


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation with Cobra3

Principle According of Stefan-Boltzmann's law, the energy emitted by a black body per unit area and unit time is proportional to the power "four" of the absolute temperature of the body. Stefan-Boltzmann's law is also valid for a so-called "grey" body whose surface shows a wavelength independent absorption-coefficient of less than one. In the experiment, the"grey" body is represented by the filament of an incandescent lamp whose energy emission is investigated as a function of the temperature. Tasks 1.

To measure the resistance of the filament of the incandescent lamp at room temperature and to ascertain the filament's resistance R0 at zero degrees centrigrade. To measure the energy flux density of the lamp at different heating voltages. The corresponding heating currents read off for each heating voltage and the corresponding filament resistance calculated. Anticipating a temperature-dependency of the second order of the filament-resistance, the temperature can be calculated from the measured resistances.

2.

What you can learn about â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş

Black body radiation Thermoelectric e. m. f. Temperature dependence of resistances

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2350115

Solar ray collector P5310100

excellence in science 694


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

Electric compression heat pump

Principle: Pressures and temperatures in the circulation of the heat electrical compression heat pump are measured as a function of time when it is operated as a water-water heat pump. The energy taken up and released is calculated from the heating and cooling of the two water baths. When it is operated as an air-water heat pump, the coefficient of performance at different vaporiser temperatures is determined. Tasks: 1.

Water heat pump: To measure pressure and temperature in the circuit and in the water reservoirs on the condenser side and the vaporiser side alternately. To calculate energy taken up and released, also the volume concentration in the circuit and the volumetric efficiency of the compressor. 2. Air-water heatpump: To measure vaporiser temperature and water bath temperature on the condenser side under different operating conditions on the vaporiser side,

▪ ▪ ▪

with stream of cold air with streamof hot air without blower.

If a power meter is available, the electric power consumed by the compressor can be determined with it and the coefficient of performance calculated. What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Refrigerator Compressor Restrictor valve Cycle Vaporization Condensation Vapour pressure Vaporisation enthalpy

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5310200

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 695


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

Heat insulation/ heat conduction

Principle: A model house with replaceable side walls is used for determining the heat transition coefficients (k values) of various walls and windows and for establishing the heat conductivities of different materials. For this purpose the temperatures on the inside and outside of the walls are measured at a constant interior and outer air temperature (in the steady state). With a multilayer wall structure the temperature difference over a layer is proportional to the particular thermal transmission resistance. The thermal capacity of the wall material affects the wall temperatures during heating up and temporary exposure to solar radiation. Tasks: 1.

Measurement and interpretation of water temperatures during the heating up and during temporary external illumination of the walls. Determination of the heat conductivities of wood and Styropor. Determination of the k values of ordinary glass and insulating glass windows and of wooden walls of different thicknesses, and of walls with wood, Styropor or cavity layers.

2. 3.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Heat transition Heat transfer Heat conductivity Thermal radiation Hothouse effect Thermal capacity Temperature amplitude attenuation

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5310400

Stirling engine with Cobra3

P5311015

excellence in science 696


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

Semiconductor thermogenerator

Principle: In a semi-conductor thermogenerator, the no-load voltage and the short-circuit current are measured as a function of the temperature difference. The internal resistance, the Seebeck coefficient and the efficiency are determined. Tasks: 1. 2.

To measure no-load voltage Uo and short-circuit current Is at different temperature differences and to determine the Seebeck coefficient. To measure current and voltage at a constant temperature difference but with different load resistors, and to determine the internal resistance Ri from the measured values. To determine the efficiency of energy conversion, from the quantity of heat consumed and the electrical energy produced per unit time.

3.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Seebeck effect (thermoelectric effect) Thermoelectric e.m.f. Efficiency Peltier coefficient Thomson coefficient Seebeck coefficient Direct energy conversion Thomson equations

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5311200

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 697


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

Peltier heat pump

Principle: The cooling capacity; heating capacity and efficiency rating of a Peltier heatpump are determined under different operating conditions. Tasks: 1. 2.

To determine the cooling capacity Pc the pump as a function of the current and to calculate the efficiency rating hc at maximum output. To determine the heating capacity Pw of the pump and its efficiency rating hw at constant current and constant temperature on the cold side. To determine Pw, eta w and Pc , eta c from the relationship between temperature and time on the hot and cold sides. To investigate the temperature behaviour when the pump is used for cooling, with the hot side aircooled.

3. 4.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Peltier effect Heat pipe Thermoelectric e. m. f. Peltier coefficient Cooling capacity Heating capacity Efficiency rating Thomson coefficient Seebeck coefficient Thomson equations Heat conduction Convection Forced cooling Joule effect

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5311300

excellence in science 698


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

Heating water using a parabolic trough

Absorption of thermal radiation with a solar collector

Principle How can liquids be heated efficiently by solar power alone? This experiment shows how a parabolic reflector works and how it should be positioned to heat a test tube. This involves investigating how the heat of the water in the test tube changes. This technique is used in parabolic reflector solar energy plants, such as the Desert Tec project. The experiment can be set up using equipment from the Renewable Energy school sets EN1 (13287-88) and EN2 (13288-88). Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00 P9519100

Principle Clamp-on holder 02164-00 is fixed to the aluminium frame of the demonstration board as a holder for a reflector lamp. The absorber plates of solar collector 02165-00 can be used to study how the colour of the absorber affects its function, for example. Magnetic symbols indicating temperature and time can be arranged on the demonstration board. Literature for this experiment as follows: Phys.Demovers.-W盲rme/Hafttafel 01154-01 German Phys.Exp.Magnet Board Heat 01154-02 English P1292100

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1 Peltier effect: Heat Pump

Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1 13287-88 Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 TESS Renewable Energy EN1 13287-77

P9517400

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 www.phywe.com 699


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

Utilisation of radiant energy with a solar collector

Heat insulation

Principle Principle Water warms up as it flows through the fully assembled solar collector. The temperature increase is a function of the flow rate of the water. Literature for this experiment as follows: Phys.Demovers.-W채rme/Hafttafel 01154-01 German Phys.Exp.Magnet Board Heat 01154-02 English Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Sekundarstufe 1,Mechanik, Akustik, W채rme, Elektrik, regenerative Energie,Optik 01500-01 German

The thermal insulation properties of different materials are compared with one another using test containers. Available materials include polystyrene and mineral wool (insulation materials), sand and sawdust (as examples of stone or wooden walls) and aluminium foil (as an example for metal window frames). Air between the glass panes can serve as an example of double glazing or cavity walls. When cooling the water, the heat capacity of the wall also plays a role. In order to be able to investigate the influence of heat capacity and heat conduction, the exterior temperature is also measured, whereby good thermal conductivity results in higher exterior temperature. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Sekundarstufe 1,Mechanik, Akustik, W채rme, Elektrik, regenerative Energie,Optik 01500-01 German

P1292200

Electric energy generation with a thermogenerator

Demo advanced Physics Manual, Heat,Renewable Energy, Electrics, Optics 01500-02 English

Mechanics,

Acoustics,

P1427500

Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT1 and 2

Principle The thermogenerator consists of a block with multiple thermostats. These are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel, so that their thermoelectric voltages add up. Water baths can be used to bring the two sides of the thermogenerator to different temperatures. The amount and polarity of the voltage generated are measured and users can investigate which conditions are required in order to be able to drive a small motor. Literature for this experiment as follows:

Function and Applications

Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Sekundarstufe 1,Mechanik, Akustik, W채rme, Elektrik, regenerative Energie,Optik 01500-01 German Demo advanced Physics Manual, Heat,Renewable Energy, Electrics, Optics 01500-02 English

Mechanics,

Acoustics,

2 Equipment sets to perform more than 40 demo board experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources: energy conversion, storage, solar (voltaic, thermal), wind, water, geothermal energy, topics as the greenhouse effect and thermal insulation, hydrogen and fuel cell technology, concentrated solar power technology (CSP). Benefits

P1431500

excellence in science 700


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources with more than 40 experiments. 100% Reliable contact due to magnetic adhesive, puzzle-like connectable building blocks with corrosion-free, gold-plated contacts even under humid climate conditions Circuit diagram demonstratively visible on the connected building blocks. 100 percent reliable contact due to interlocking building blocks . Higher power devices (f.e. thermogenerator, solarcell, electrolyzer, fuel cell) to drive everyday devices like mp3 players, portable CD-players, toys, etc.

Solar ray collector

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Buildingblocks with gold contacts,magnetically adhesive, labeling Solar Cell, Solar Battery, Light Source Solar Collector, Concave Mirror for CSP Thermogenerator Blower, Wind Generator Water Turbine Motor Quattro PEM Fuell Cell, Douple PEM Electrolyzer, Direct Methanol Fue Cell, Gas storages Magnetic adhesive holders. loads, consumables Including two wodden storage boxes with foam inserts. Size of building blocks (mm):60 × 60 × 46 Dimensions H × W × D (mm):150 × 410 × 545 Mass: 15 kg

Recommended accessories ▪

Experimental literature and Demo board, Demomultimeter / PCInterface, Power Supply

Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT1 09492-88 Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT2 09493-88

Solar ray collector, magnetic

Function and Applications Compact unit for study of all collector functions. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Flat collector to heat water through absorption of radiation energy or thermal energy from environment. Black stainless steel absorbers with 2 temperature measurement points at inlet and outlet. Metal mirrored back wall and front glass cover removable. Collector frame with angular scale and fastening screw to adjust illuminating angle. Absorber dimensions (mm): 300 x 400. Absorber volume: approx. 50 ml. Insulation: 20 mm polyurethane foam. Dimensions (mm): 480 x 520 x 60.

Accessories ▪

Stand for solar collector (06757.00).

Solar ray collector 06753-00 Solar ray collector, test field 06756-00 Solar collector stand, teaching aid 06757-00 Heat exchanger 06755-00 Circulating pump w.flowmeter 06754-01

Leslie radiation cube For experiments on the working principle of a solar collector. Made up of: 2 coated copper plates, black and white; 1 transparent plate made of Macrolon; 1 copper tube coil; Support plate with magnetic film, threaded bolts and knurled nuts to hold plates, copper blocks with an 8 mm bore hole to hold thermometers or temperature sensors. Dimensions 150 x 150 mm 02165-00

Function and Applications To investigate the thermal radiation of a body as a function of temperature and surface constitution. Equipment and technical data

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 701


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Hollow brass cube with removable lid to be filled with hot water. With four different lateral surfaces: polished metal, dull metal, white enamel, black enamel. Lid with two orifices (d = 10 mm) for thermometer and stirrer. Dimensions (mm): 120 x 120 x 120.

High insulation house

Leslie radiation cube 04555-00 Stirrer for leslie cube 04555-01

Thermopile, Moll type Function and Applications Device for quantitative experiments with thermal insulation. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications Thermopile for detection of heatradiation and for measurement of radiant fluxes.

▪ ▪ ▪

Benefits: Metal cylinder with polished conical reflector, with non-selective blackcarbon coating and 16 series connected thermocouples and 4 mm sockets. With removable stem. Including protective window for fluxloss reduction and calibration certificate with confirmed sensitivity. Equipment and technical data:

The high insulation house consists of a thermally insulated base rack with removable lid, measuring walls, exterior insulation and heating. Basic rack: ground insulated through a 5 cm thick Styrofoam plate. Side walls with square apertures (210 mm × 210 mm);. The measuring walls are set in from the inside and pressed by two screws against the aperture gasket. Each of the exterior walls carry a profile and a small eccentric plate to hold supplementary insulating material. Every angle pillar has a hole to introduce temperature probes. The hole is sealed off with foam material. Lid insulated by a 5 cm thick Styrofoam plate, fixed to the angle pillars of the base rack with 4 knurled screws which cannot be lost. Casing dimensions (mm): 400 × 400 × 400 .

High insulation house 04507-93 Thermal regulation for high insulation house 04506-93

Spectral range: ▪ ▪

without window: 200...50000 nm with window: 300...3000 nm

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Response time (95%): max. 30 s Diameter absorber surface: 12 mm Field of view: 10° Maximum radiation intensity:2000 W/m² Sensitivity: 20...40 µV/W/m² Diameter housing: 34 mm Length housing: 80 mm Length stem: 170 mm Diameter stem: 10 mm Mass: 600 g

Thermopile, Moll type 08479-00 Shielding tube, for 08479-00 08479-01 Slit, attachable, for 08479-00 08479-02

Heat pump, compressor principle

Function and Applications To demonstrate the function of an electric compression heat pump. Symmetrical design to show that refrigerator and heat pump are based on the same principle. Protected against operating mistakes through thermostat controlled expansion valve and pressure protection switch for over and underpressure. Equipment and technical data:

excellence in science 702


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Observation of the cycle through 2 looking glasses in which the liquidgas phase transitions are visible. 4 temperature measuring points situated respectively before and after the heat exchangers 2 manometer gauges Two insulated water containers as heatreservoirs to determine the amounts of absorbed or released energy. Back wall of the casing can be removed in order to examine the layout of the pipes in detail. Working material R 134a Pressostates: high pressure side 1.5 MPa and low pressure side 0.2 MPa throttle valve thermostatic control mains connection 230 V/50.60 Hz. Further voltage connections on request: nominal power 120W performance number approx. 2.2 (at?T = 20 °C) casing dimensions (mm)750×50×630

Standard accessories: ▪

2 insulated water containers, 5 l with draining tap to determine the amounts of energy absorbed or released by the heat pump

Recommended accessories: for temperature measurement: ▪

digitalthermometer 4-2

temperature probe ▪

immersion type (4×)

for power measurement: ▪

work and powermeter.

04370-88

Work and power meter

Temperature meter digital, 4-2

Function and Application Modern, user-friendly designed instrument for measuring temperature and temperature differences at four different measuring points. Interface for simultaneous display and evaluation of the measured values from all four measuring points with a computer. Temperature meter digital, 4-2 13617-93 Temp. probe, immersion type, Pt100, stainless steel, -20...+300°C 11759-01 Softw. temperature meter 4-2 14405-61 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Converter USB - RS232, active 14602-10

Stirling engine transparent

Function and Applications For AC and DC circuits Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Two 4-digit, 20 mm LED-displays Display 1 for real and apparent power,current, voltage, phase difference and freqency Display 2 for energy and time Selector for serial display of all units LED-Status-display and automactic range selection Power: max. 2400 W Resolution: max. 0.001 W Voltage: 0-30V AC/DC, 0-240 Veff- Current: 0...10A AC/DC Phasen difference: 0...+/- 90 degree Frequency: 0...10000 Hz Energy: max. 9999 Wh or Ws Resolution: max. 0.001 Ws Analog output for all units of disp. 1 Mains: 110/230V, 50/60Hz Shock-resistant plastic housing with carry handle and base

13715-93

Function and Applications Stirling motor mounted on a base plate. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Large transparent flywheel. Both cylinder and displacement piston made of heatproof glass. Connecting rod and crank of wear resistant plastic. Hardened, ball bearing mounted steel connecting rod. Displacement piston with 2 measuring connecting pieces for temperature measurements.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

base plate 207 × 290 mm flywheel diameter 140 mm hole in temperature measuring connection piece (for thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed) 0.6 mm motor power approx. 1 W rotating speed without load min. 800/min volume 32 cm 3.44 cm3

Accessories

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 703


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.2 Heat

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

motor/generator unit torsiometer sensor unit thermoelectric element

Stirling engine transparent 04372-00 Motor/ generator unit 04372-01 Torque meter 04372-02 Accessories for solar motor work 04372-03 Chimney for stirling engine 04372-04

Meter for Stirling engine, pVnT 04371-97 Sensor unit pVn for Stirling engine 04371-00

Thermogenerator with 2 water baths

Meter for Stirling engine, pVnT

Function and Applications To commute thermal energy into electrical energy directly and for operation as heat pump. Also been used to demonstrate the Seebeck effect and the Peltier effect. Equipment and technical data ▪

▪ Function and Applications To display temperature and number of revolutions per minute and for the output of analogue voltages for Stirling motor pressure and volume. Equipment and technical data Revolutions per:

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Minute: ▪ ▪

4 digit display range: 0...1999 min-1

Pressure: ▪ ▪

analogue voltage value range: 0...5V

Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4 digit display T1: range: -10..+500 °C resolution: 1°C T2: -10...+190 °C resolution: 0.2 °C

Pressure: ▪ ▪ ▪

analogue voltage value range: 0...5 V approx. Po±1000 hPa

Volume: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

analogue voltage value range: 0...5 V Vmin...Vmax Mains voltage: 230 V / 50...60 Hz

excellence in science 704

▪ ▪

Generator block consisting of two nickel coated copper plates with hole for thermometer, between these, p- and n-conducting silicon thermocouples, connected thermally parallel and electrically in series. Two water containers with open sides, which are used as heat reservoirs, are screwed to the generator block. They can be exchanged for flowthrough heat exchanger or air cooler. Standard accessories: 2 open water containers (brass, nickel coated); 2 rubber gaskets; 2 clamping jaws and 4 knurled screws. Number of thermocouples: 142. Permanent operating temperature: approx. 100°C. Interior resistance: 2.8 Ohm. Operation as thermo generator: output voltage at T = 40°C: approx. 2 V; efficiency at T = 40°C: approx. 1%. Operation as heat pump: max. permanent current 6 A. Dimensions (mm): generator block: 24 × 80 × 126, water container 28 × 70 × 94.

Thermogenerator with 2 water baths 04366-00 Flow-through heat exchanger 04366-01 Air cooler 04366-02


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.3 Photovoltaic

Characteristic curves of a solar cell

Principle The current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell are measured at different light intensities, the distance between the light source and the solar cell being varied. The dependence of no-load voltage and short-circuit current on temperature is determined. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To determine the light intensity with the thermopile at various distances from the light source. To measure the short-circuit current and no-load voltage at various distances from the light source. To estimate the dependence of no-load voltage, and short-circuit current on temperature. To plot the current-voltage characteristic at different light intensities. To plot the current-votlage characteristic under different operating conditions: cooling the equipment with a blower, no cooling, shining the light through a glass plate. To determine the characteristic curve when illuminating by sunlight.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Semiconductor p-n junction Energy-band diagram Fermi characteristic energy level Diffusion potential Internal resistance Efficiency Photo-conductive effect Acceptors Donors Valence band Conduction band

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5320101

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 705


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.3 Photovoltaic

Pumping water using solar energy

The PEM solar hydrogen model

Principle Can solar energy be used to "charge up" pumped storage power stations? In this experiment a pump is powered by a solar battery. An investigation is made to see how light intensity affects the pumping performance. The experiment can be set up using equipment from the Renewable Energy school sets EN1 (13287-88) and EN2 (13288-88). Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00

Principle Electrical energy from solar cells supplies an electrolyser. The gases generated by the PEM electrolyser - hydrogen and oxygen - are sent directly to the PEM fuel cell. The electrical energy generated is used to drive a small motor. The solar cells can be irradiated by a 120-watt lamp or sunlight. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Elektrik/Elektronikauf der Tafel (ET) 01005-01 German

P9518100

Electricity/Electronics on the Magnetic Board, Handbook 01005-02 English

Solar-hydrogen system P1397600

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1

Principle Model of a solar-hydrogen system, built with equipment from the Renewable Energy school sets EN1 and EN2. The motor can also be powered directly from the solar battery. This system offers the possibility of storing solar energy first by conversion of water into hydrogen so that it can be used later in a fuel cell whenever needed. Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00 P9516300

excellence in science 706

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1 13287-88 TESS Renewable Energy EN1 13287-77 TESS Applied Science Set Renewable Energy EN2 13288-88


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.3 Photovoltaic

Demo Renewable Energy

Solar battery, 4 cells, with cable and connectors

Function and Applications Function and Applications 2 Equipment sets to perform more than 40 demo board experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources: Conversion, storage, solar (voltaic, thermal), wind, water, and geothermal energy, further topics such as greenhouse effect and thermal insulation, hydrogen and fuel cell technology, concentrated solar power technology (CSP). Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources with more than 40 experiments. 100% Reliable contact due to magnetic adhesive, puzzle-like connectable building blocks with corrosion-free, gold-plated contacts even under humid climate conditions Circuit diagram demonstratively visible on the connected building blocks. 100 percent reliable contact due to interlocking building blocks . Higher power devices (f.e. thermogenerator, solarcell, electrolyzer, fuel cell) to drive everyday devices like mp3 players, portable CD-players, toys, etc.

To investigate characteristics of solarbattery and supply devices with approx. 2 V and to perform student experiments in the field of renewable energy. Benefits Easy and comprehensive experimentation in the field of renewable energy due to compatibility to other energy sources and appliances and standard 4mm connectors. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

four polycrytalline silicon cells in series on plastic couted metall plate, 50 mm x 50 mm each cell, with surface protection 30 cm cable and 4 mm connectors voltage 2V max. current 700 mA 130 mm x 115 mm

Solar battery, 4 cells, with cable and connectors 06752-20 Solar cell (2.5 x 5 cm), with plugs 06752-13 Holder for solar cell (2.5 x 5 cm) 06752-14

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Magnetic building blocks with gold contacts, labelled Solar Cell, Solar Battery, Light Source Solar Collector, Concave Mirror for CSP Thermogenerator Blower, Wind Generator Water Turbine Motor Quattro PEM Fuell Cell, Douple PEM Electrolyser, Direct Methanol Fue Cell, Gas storages Magnetic adhesive holders loads, consumables Including two wodden storage boxes with foam inserts Size of building blocks (mm): 60 × 60 × 46 Dimensions H × W × D (mm): 150 × 410 × 545 Mass: 15 kg

Recommended accessories ▪

Experimental literature and Demo board, Demomultimeter / PCInterface, Power Supply

Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT1 09492-88 Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT2 09493-88

Capacitor (gold cap), 1F, SB

Function and Applications Students Electronic Building Block with capacitor to perform experiments in the field of energy storage from renewable energy sources (solar, wind,water, fuel cells). Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

Demonstration of an alternative, efficient and fast way to store electrical energy. 100% reliable contacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions. Integrated electrical devices are visible from the rear.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

electric double layer capacitor (Gold Cap) max. operating voltage 5.5V capacity range 0.8 - 1.8F max. current 2A, temporary 5A

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 707


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.3 Photovoltaic

▪ ▪

imprinted polarity indication gold coated side-contacts

05650-10

Motor with indicating disc, SB

ments are possible, e.g. for the charactersitic of alternating current resistances or for the investigation of the energy demand of consumers. The Cobra4 Sensor Unit Energy can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless Link, the Cobra4 Mobile Link or the Cobra4 USB Link through a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. The data can be measured and displayed in student or demonstration experiments with or without PC. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

measuring range and resolution 30 V (0.3 mV), 6 A (0.3 mA) frequency range: up to 2 kHz

12656-00

Solar cell, 5 x 10 cm

Function and Applications Electronic building block with motor and disc to perform experiments in the field of energy conversion from renewable energy sources (solar, wind, water, fuel cells). Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

Low starting current and large indicating disc for clearly visible indication of electrical energy even from low power sources. 100% reliable contacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions. Integrated electrical devices are visible from the rear.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Operating voltage 0.3 - 5.9 V Starting current 25 mA Imprinted polarity indication Gold coated side-contacts

05660-00

Function and Applications For converting energy from radiation into electrical energy and investigating the properties of an individual solar cell. Equipment and technical data

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Energy electricity, voltage, power, capacity

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Polycrystalline silicon cell Plastic base with mounting rod Transparent protective cover Labelled 4-mm sockets Heat resistant up to 100°C Size of plastic plate (mm): 110 x 115 Number of cells: 1 Cell dimensions (cm): 5 x 10 Effective area of cell: 50 cm2 Threshold voltage U0: 0.6 V Nominal current: 1.1 A Short-circuit current Ik: ≤ 1.32 A Efficiency: 9% approx. Temperature coefficient for U0: -2.1 mV/K Temperature coefficient for Ik: +0.01%/K Maximum sensitivity wavelengths: 0.48 ... 1.0 µm Power loss due to cover pane: 11%

06752-05

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor Unit Energy is used for the measurement and direct indication of measurement variables of the electrical power and energy in direct-current and alternating current circuits (current, voltage, effective and apparent power, angular phase shift, frequency, electric work). Benefits Through the direct measurement of alternating current and directcurrent sizes numerous basic as well as application-oriented experi-

excellence in science 708

Solar battery, 4 cells, 2.5 x 5 cm 06752-04 Solar battery, 8 cells, switchable 06752-03


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

Characteristic curve and efficiency of a PEM fuel cell and a PEM electrolyser

Principle In a PEM electrolyser, the electrolyte consists of a proton-conducting membrane and water (PEM = Proton- Exchange-Membrane). When an electric voltage is applied, hydrogen and oxygen are formed. The PEM fuel cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen. The electrical properties of the electrolyser and the fuel cell are investigated by recording a current-voltage characteristic line. To determine the efficiency, the gases are stored in small gasometers in order to be able to measure the quantities of the gases generated or consumed. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Recording the characteristic line of the PEM electrolyser. Recording the characteristic line of the PEM fuel cell. Determination of the efficiency of the PEM electrolysis unit. Determination of the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrolysis Electrode polarisation Decomposition voltage Galvanic elements Faraday's law

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5330100

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 709


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

Wind hydrogen system

PEM fuel cell

Principle Model of a wind-hydrogen system, built with equipment from the Renewable Energy school sets EN1 and EN2. Wind-hydrogen technology is one interesting possibility for using wind energy independently of the weather. The wind energy is converted to electrical energy, which can either be used directly or stored in the form of hydrogen with the help of an electrolyser. Using an air fuel cell allows electrical energy to be gained from the hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen. Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00

Principle

Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00 P9516400

Solar-hydrogen system

PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology refers to the type of fuel cell favoured by car makers and companies that build combined heat and power plants. The demonstration set-up depicted here produces hydrogen using the classic method by reacting hydrochloric acid with zinc in a gas generator and passing it through distilled water for purification. In the PEM fuel cell, it is then reacted with oxygen (from the air) to produce water and electrical energy directly. That electrical energy produced from the fuel cell is used to drive a small motor. The advantage of the set-up shown here is that neither an external power supply (electrolysis) nor a compressed gas cylinder is required in order to generate the hydrogen. It is possible to produce just as much hydrogen as needed at any time without a great deal of effort. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie Handbuch Komplettversuche (CET) 01855-01 German Complete Experiments Chemistry/Biotechnology 01855-02 English P1312000

Principle Model of a solar-hydrogen system, built with equipment from the Renewable Energy school sets EN1 and EN2. The motor can also be powered directly from the solar battery. This system offers the possibility of storing solar energy first by conversion of water into hydrogen so that it can be used later in a fuel cell whenever needed. Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00 P9516300

excellence in science 710


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN2

The PEM solar hydrogen model

Principle

Function and applications

Electrical energy from solar cells supplies an electrolyser. The gases generated by the PEM electrolyser - hydrogen and oxygen - are sent directly to the PEM fuel cell. The electrical energy generated is used to drive a small motor. The solar cells can be irradiated by a 120-watt lamp or sunlight.

Set to perform 21 experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources. The set complements set 1 with following topics:

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Elektrik/Elektronikauf der Tafel (ET) 01005-01 German Electricity/Electronics on the Magnetic Board, Handbook 01005-02 English

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Hydrogen and fuel cells technology Wind-to-hydrogen technology Solar-to-hydrogen technology CSP technology (concentrated solar power) Electrical power from water turbines Storage of energy

Characteristic curves of all power devices of set 1 and 2 will be measured. Benefits

P1397600

Electrical energy from hydrogen with a PEM fuel cell

Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources with more than 50 experiments. Easy teaching and efficient learning by using the interactive software interTESS. The PC based experimentation with interTESS not only minimises the preparation time and facilitates efficient step by step setup, operation, analysis and evaluation, but also allows students performing the experiments and understanding the scientific background. Equipment and technical data Selected parts: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Fuel cell Electrolyser Water turbine Electric building blocks (potentiometer, gold cap) Concave mirror for CSP technology

Accessories ▪ ▪

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Sekundarstufe 1,Mechanik, Akustik, Wärme, Elektrik, regenerative Energie,Optik 01500-01 German Demo advanced Physics Manual, Heat,Renewable Energy, Electrics, Optics 01500-02 English

Mechanics,

Power supply 0-12V, 6V~, 12V~ 2 multimeter

TESS Applied Science Set Renewable Energy EN2 13288-88 TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1 13287-88 TESS Renewable Energy EN1 13287-77

Acoustics,

P1430200

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 711


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

Demo Renewable Energy

Function and Applications 2 Equipment sets to perform more than 40 demo board experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources: sonversion, storage, solar (voltaic, thermal), wind, water, geothermal energy, topics as the greenhouse effect and thermal insulation, hydrogen and fuel cell technology, concentrated solar power technology (CSP). Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources with more than 40 experiments. 100% Reliable contact due to magnetic adhesive, puzzle-like connectable building blocks with corrosion-free, gold-plated contacts even under humid climate conditions Circuit diagram demonstratively visible on the connected building blocks. 100 percent reliable contact due to interlocking building blocks . Higher power devices (f.e. thermogenerator, solarcell, electrolyzer, fuel cell) to drive everyday devices like mp3 players, portable CD-players, toys, etc.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Buildingblocks with gold contacts,magnetically adhesive, labeling Solar Cell, Solar Battery, Light Source Solar Collector, Concave Mirror for CSP Thermogenerator Blower, Wind Generator Water Turbine Motor Quattro PEM Fuell Cell, Douple PEM Electrolyzer, Direct Methanol Fue Cell, Gas storages Magnetic adhesive holders. loads, consumables Including two wodden storage boxes with foam inserts. Size of building blocks (mm):60 × 60 × 46 Dimensions H × W × D (mm):150 × 410 × 545 Mass: 15 kg

PEM Fuel Cell for hydrogen/ oxygen operation and hydrogen/ air operation, SB, Set

Function and Application Set Students Electronic Building Block with PEM fuel cell. To perform student experiments in the field of hydrogen technology, for example conversion of hydrogen to electrical energy and its use. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy. With air/H2 operation for a more realistic application of h-technology, for example in cars or power supplies. 100% reliable contacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions. Integrated electrical devices arevisible from the rear.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

PEM Fuell Cell H2/O2: 500 mW PEM Fuell Cell H2/air: 150mW Dimensions H x W x D: 50 mm x 40 mm x 50 mm Imprinted polarity indication Gold coated side contacts

05661-88

Set Double PEM Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer, Gas storage and connecting blocks, DB

Recommended accessories: ▪

Experimental literature and Demo board, Demomultimeter / PCInterface, Power Supply

Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT1 09492-88 Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT2 09493-88

Function and Application Demonstration Electronic Building Block with double PEM fuel cell for O2/H2 operation and Air/H2 operation. To perform demonstration experiments in the field of hydrogen technology, for example conversion of hydrogen to electrical energy and its use. Benefits Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy. With air/H2 operation for a more realistic application of h-technology, for example in cars or power supplies. 100% reliable contacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions. Integ-

excellence in science 712


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

rated electrical devices are visible from the rear. With magnetic pad for vertical setups. Set double PEM fuel cell and electrolyzer, gas storage and connecting blocks, DB 09486-88 Set double PEM fuel cell and double PEM electrolyser, gas storage and connecting blocks, DB 09487-88

Function and Applications Students Electronic Building Block with Electrolyser for H2 and O2 production. To perform student experiments in the field of hydrogen technology, for example solar-hydrogen and wind-hydrogen technology. Benefits ▪ ▪

PEM fuel cell for hydrogen/ oxygen operation and hydrogen/ air operation, SB

▪ ▪

Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy, especially wind generator. 100% reliablecontacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions. Integrated electrical devices are visible from the rear Reverse voltage protection by a diode

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Hydrogen production: 5 cm3/min Oxygen production: 2.5 cm3/min Power: 1.16 W H x W x D: 50 mm x 40 mm x 57 mm Imprinted polarity indication gold coated side contacts

Accessories ▪ ▪ Function and Applications Students Electronic Building Block with PEM fuel cell for H2/O2 operation and H2/air operation. To perform student experiments in the field of hydrogen technology, for example conversion of hydrogen to electrical energy and its use.

Gas storage, SB (05663-00) PEM fuel cell, SB (05661-00)

05662-00

Gas storage, SB, incl. tubes and plugs

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy. With air/H2 operation for a more realistic application of h-technology, for example in cars or power supplies. 100% reliable contacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions Integrated electrical devices are visible from the rear.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

PEM fuel cell H2/O2: 500 mW PEM fuel cell H2/air: 150 mW H x W x D: 50 mm x 40 mm x 50 mm Imprinted polarity indication Gold coated side contacts

Accessories ▪ ▪

Gas storage, SB (05663-00) PEM electrolyser, SB (05662-00)

05661-00

PEM electrolyser, SB

Function and Applications Students Electronic Building Block with Gas Storage for 303cm H2 or O2. To perform student experiments in the field of hydrogen technology, for example solar-hydrogen and wind-hydrogen technology. Benefits Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

Volume: 30 cm3 H x W x D: 90 mm x 55 mm x 40 mm

Accessories ▪ ▪

PEM electrolyser, SB (05662-00) PEM fuel cell, SB (05661-00)

05663-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 713


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

Double PEM electrolyser, DB

periments in the field of hydrogen technology, for example conversion of hydrogen to electrical energy and its use. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy. With air/H2 operation for a more realistic application of h-technology, for example in cars or power supplies 100% reliable contacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions Integrated electrical devices are visible from the rear.

Equipment and technical data

Function and Application Demonstration electronic building block with double electrolyser for H2 and O2 production. To perform student experiments in thef ield of hydrogen technology, for example solar-hydrogen and wind-hydrogen technology.

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Double PEM fuel cell H2/O2 Double PEM Fuell Cell H2/air Dimensions H x W x D (mm): 65 x 48 x 60 Imprinted polarity indication Gold coated side contacts Magnetic pad for vertical setup

Accessories Gas storage, DB (09489-00), Electrolyser, SB (09488-00)

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy, especially wind generator. 100% reliable contacts due to interlocking building blocks and gold contacts even under humid climate conditions. Integrated electrical devices are visible from the rear. Magnetic pads for vertical setups.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Hydrogen production: 10 cm3/min Oxygen production: 5 cm3/min Power: 2.33 W Dimensions H x W x D (mm): 56 x 42 x 57 Imprinted polarity indication gold coated side contacts magnetic pads for vertical setups

Quattro PEM fuel cell for hydrogen/ oxygen operation andhydrogen/ air operation, DB 09487-00 Double PEM fuel cell for hydrogen/ oxygen operation and hydrogen/ air operation, DB 09486-00

Generator with metrical thread axis and nut

Accessories Gas storage, DB (09489-00), Double PEM fuel cell, DB (09486-00), Quattro PEM fuel cell, DB (09487-00) 09488-00 Function and Applications

Quattro PEM fuel cell for hydrogen/ oxygen operation andhydrogen/ air operation, DB

Generator with metrical thread axis and nut to mount for example rotors for a wind engine model. Suitable for demonstration experiments as well as student experiments in the field of energy conversion for example from wind power. Benefits Compatible with all other devices in the field of renewable energy for a comprehensive understanding of the potential of wind power. Generator with metrical thread axis and nut 05751-01 Rotor, 2 pieces 05752-01

Function and Applications Demonstration electronic building block with quattro PEM fuel cell for O2/H2 operation and air/H2 operation. To perform demonstration ex-

excellence in science 714


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Energy, Current, Voltage, Power, Work

PEM electrolyser, junior

PEM electrolyser with water tanks, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks. Mounted on a black base plate, for production and storage of hydrogen and oxygen. Technical data: Power 1.16 W. H2: 5 ml/min, O2: 2.5 ml/min. Gas storage 30 ml. H x B x D (mm) 100 x 170 x 135. Weight 305 g Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor Unit Energy is used for the measurement and direct indication of measurement variables of the electrical power and energy in direct-current and alternating current circuits (current, voltage, effective and apparent power, angular phase shift, frequency, electric work). Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Energy electricity, voltage, power, capacity 12656-00 Cobra4 Mobile-Link 12620-00

06767-00

PEM fuel cell H2 / O2 Air, junior 06773-00 PEM fuel cell kit, dismantable 06746-00

PEM fuel cell

Gas storage with magnetic pad, incl. tube and plug Function and Applications Gas Storage for 30 cm3 H2 or O2 on magnetic pad. To perform demonstration or student experiments in the field of hydrogen technology, for example solar-hydrogen and wind-hydrogen-technology. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

Easy and comprehensive experimentation due to compatibility to other devices in the field of renewable energy. Magnetic pad for setup on a magnetic plate Vertical setup with elbow and building block with magnetic pad

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

3

Volume: 30 cm H x W x D: 90 mm x 55 mm x 40 mm tube, 1 m clamb

Accessories Electrolyzer, SB (05662-00), Double electrolyser, DB (9488-00), Building block with magnetic pad, DB (09490-00), Elbow (09490-01) Gas storage with magnetic pad, incl. tube and plug 09489-00 Metal angle for building block with magnetic pad 09491-00 Building Block with magnetic pad, DB 09490-00

Function and Applications For the production of electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen, whereby even air can be used as the source of oxygen. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Fuel cell mounted on a stable base plate. The cell is optimised for high gas utilisation and a good efficiency. Without the use of caustic lyes or acids. Incl. operating instructions with detailed description of experiment. Electrode surface area: 16 cm2. Output: 1.2 W. No-load voltage: 0.9 V.

06747-00

PEM electrolyser 06748-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 715


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

PEM set with reversible fuel cell, junior with solar cell, motor and DVD incl. manual

Function and Applications Modular solar hydrogen system consisting of reversible fuel cell RFC H2/O2/ Air,t wo gas storage tanks and black base plate. For production, storage and use of hydrogen and oxygen.

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

2 Meters Stopwatch 6 Connecting leads (2-mm plugs) 250 ml of distilled water Handbook with methodical suggestions and experiment instructions

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrolyser: 1 W Fuel cell: 500 mW Gas reservoir H2/O2: 30 cm3 each Solar module: 2.0 V/350 mA Ventilator: 10 mW Resistor decade: max. 1W

06771-00

Hydrogen fuel cell car

Benefits ▪ ▪

Fuel cell can be operated in air breathing mode as well. Fan tutorial, solar module tutorial, battery box and textbook are included.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Elektrolyzer: 1.16 WH2: 5 ml/minO2: 2,5 ml / min Fuel Cell: 300 m WH2/O2 : 300 m WH2/Air : 100 mW Gas Storage H2 / O2: 30 cm3 each base plate (mm): 135 x 170 solar modul: 2,0 V / 600 mW weight 1,1 kg Funktion und Verwendung

06772-00

PEM lab, junior set with DVD incl. manual and additional informations

Zur anschaulichen Demonstration der Nutzung von Wasserstoffenergie. Das Auto besitzt eine schwarz lackierte Metallplatte und wird mit einer reversiblen PEM Brennstoffzelle und zwei Gasspeichern für Wasserstoff und Sauerstoff bestückt. Die Komponenten sind magnetisch haftend, sitzen also während des Versuches fest auf der Platte. Das Auto besitzt einen Elektromotor mit Getriebe und einen Umschalter für Lade- und Fahr-Betrieb. Zum Füllen der Gasbehälter wird nur destilliertes Wasser benötigt. Die Brennstoffzelle kann wahlweise über ein Solarmodul, eine Batteriebox oder ein Steckernetzteil (alles im Lieferumfang) geladen werden. Alle elektrischen Verbindungen erfolgen über 2-mm-Stecker bzw. Buchsen. Vorteile ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Autofahren auch außerhalb des Klassenraums möglich, da zum "Laden" der Gasspeicher auch Batterie-Box oder Solarbatterie zur Verfügung stehen. Solarmodul auf magnetisch haftendem Metallbügel, der unter 3 verschiedenen Winkeln aufgestellt werden kann Auch für quantitatative Experimente einsetztbar Handbuch mit ausführlichen Versuchsanleitungen und weiterführenden Informationen

Ausstattung und technische Daten Function and Applications Complete solar-powered hydrogen plant in storage case. Equipment set for students to carry out qualitative and quantitative experiments on solar energy and hydrogen fuel cell technology. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

All equipment can be easily assembled on a base plate Measurements can be carried out quickly using a resistor decade Includes handbook and DVD with methodical suggestions and experiment instructions

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

Base plate with electrolyser, fuel cell, solar module and ventilator Resistor decade

excellence in science 716

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

reversible Brennstoffzelle: Elektrolysebetrieb: 1.16 W Gasproduktion 5 cm3/min H2 2,5 cm3/min O2 Brennstoffzellenbetrieb: H2/O2: 300 mW H2 / Luft: 100 mW Gasspeicher: H2 / O2: je 30 cm3 Solarmodul: max. Spannung: 2,0 V max. Stromstärke 600 mA Größe L x B x T: 135 mm x 95 mm x 30 mm Batteriebox :4,5 V / 0,8 A Ladezeit (30 cm3)


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

mit Netzteil: ca. 4 min mit Batterie-Box: ca. 7 min mit Solarbatterie: ca. 9 min Fahrzeit ca. 8 min

▪ ▪ ▪

Power supply 5V DC, 1.2 A. Spotlight: 300W. Dimensions: width: 800 mm, height: 600 mm, depth: 300 mm.

06741-00 06769-00

PEM solar-hydrogen model, junior with DVD

PEM fuel cell with hydrogen/ oxygen or hydrogen/air operatio ,reversible, on magnetic plate

Function and Applications Solar hydrogen experimantation system consisting of solar module, PEM electrolyzer, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, PEM fuel cell and electric load. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Mounted on a black baseplate. DVD with textbook and additional informations included. Electrolyzer: 1 W. Fuel cell: 500 mW. Gas storage: 30 cm³ H2; 30 cm³ O2. Solar module: 2.0 V / 350mA. Fan: 10 mW. Dimensions (mm): 100 x 300 x 150. Weight: 600 g.

06738-00

Function and Applications A reversible fuel cell can act both as electrolyser, whereby it generates hydrogen and oxygen if a voltage is applied, and as a normal fuel cell using hydrogen and oxygen to generate energy. If a cell can take in air, then pure oxygen does not need to be supplied as air will suffice. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

PEM solar-hydrogen model with DVD

06739-00 ▪

PEM-station on base plate with DVD incl. manual

Voltage inputs protected against reversal of polarity A large number of experiments can be carried out thanks to the flexible interaction with components Fuel cells attached to magnetic base allow for secure attachment to a metal plate With addition of additional gas reservoirs, which can also be attached to the base plate, it becomes possible, for example, to assemble a complete electrolyser By adding ventilators and solar modules to the base plate, it is possible to assemble a complete solar-powered hydrogen plant

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrolyser operation: Power: 1.16 W Gas production H2: 5 cm³/min; O2: 2.5 cm3/min Fuel cell operation: Output (O2): 300 mW, (air): 100 mW Dimensions: H x W x D : 50 x 40 x 57 mm Electrical connections: 2-mm sockets

06722-00

Function and Applications Especially designed functional system for the unsupervised long-term operation of a hydrogen system. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Consisting of PEM electrolyser, water storage container, PEM fuel cell, Power supply, solarmodule, fan and high power light source. Electrode surface area: electrolyser: 40 cm2, fuel cell: 16 cm2. Output: electrolyser: 10 W, fuel cell: 1.2 W. Solar module: 2 V, 1 A.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 717


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.4 Fuell Cell

PEM methanol fuel cell, junior

Direct methanol fuel cell, with built-inmethanol tank. Operated with 3% ofmethanol-in-distilled water solution.Methanol solution is included forproducts delivered within Europe.Technical Data:Power 10 mWHxWxD ( mm): 50x50x40Weight 60g3%-methanol solution (delivered ineurope) 06768-00

Panel f. compl. experim. set-ups

Function and Applications Panel with regular punching to receive the hooks of the holder horizontal or vertical positioning in the frame, one panel is neccessary for each experiment Equipment and technical data â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş

Material: sheet steel, powder painted with good mechanical and chemical resistance Dimensions: 65 x 48.8 x 2.5 cm

Panel f. compl. experim. set-ups 45510-00 Frame for complete experiments 45500-00 Rear-cover for compl.-exp. panel 45501-00

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics

16508-02

excellence in science 718


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.5 Wind and Water

Wind Energy under Load

Pumping water using solar energy

Principle

Principle What happens to a wind turbine when it is used to supply an electrical load? The wind turbine is driven by a fan and a "load" is connected, e.g. a lamp or LED. Observations are made of the status with and without a load and the voltage produced by the wind turbine is measured. Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00

Can solar energy be used to "charge up" pumped storage power stations? In this experiment a pump is powered by a solar battery. An investigation is made to see how light intensity affects the pumping performance. The experiment can be set up using equipment from the Renewable Energy school sets EN1 (13287-88) and EN2 (13288-88). Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00 P9518100

P9515400

Running water drives a generator Wind hydrogen system

Principle Model of a wind-hydrogen system, built with equipment from the Renewable Energy school sets EN1 and EN2. Wind-hydrogen technology is one interesting possibility for using wind energy independently of the weather. The wind energy is converted to electrical energy, which can either be used directly or stored in the form of hydrogen with the help of an electrolyser. Using an air fuel cell allows electrical energy to be gained from the hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen. Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00

Principle Model of a hydroelectric plant. Water pump 05753.00 is used as a generator in this experiment. It can be used with the aid of a small water spray, although the experiment is, of course, much more impressive if it is connected directly to the tap. Literature for this experiment as follows: Software interTESS, DVD 01000-00 Software interTESS Applied Science, Renewable Energy, DVD 01081-00 P9518400

P9516400

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 www.phywe.com 719


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.5 Wind and Water

Generation of electricity with the Pelton wheel

▪ ▪ ▪

easy teaching and efficient learning by using the interactive Software interTESS the PC based experimentation with interTESS minimizes the preparation time and facilitates efficient step-by step setup, operate, analyse and evaluation enables the students doing the experiment and understanding the scientific background

Equipment and technical data Selected parts:

Principle Model of a hydroelectric power station The Pelton wheel is connected to a water hose and driven by a jet of water. The wheel is connected to a generator by a drive belt and an incandescent lamp is connected to the generator. In the experiment, observers can note that the output of the generator (i.e. how bright the lamp is lit) is higher when the flow rate of the jet of water striking the buckets of the turbine is greater. For quantitative measurements, the work and power meter (13715-93) can be inserted between the generator and the lamp. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Sekundarstufe 1,Mechanik, Akustik, Wärme, Elektrik, regenerative Energie,Optik 01500-01 German Demo advanced Physics Manual, Heat,Renewable Energy, Electrics, Optics 01500-02 English

Mechanics,

Acoustics,

P1431300

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

optical bench halogen light (20 W) source-fan (204 m3/h) wind generator (0.4 to 5.9 V) solar collector water wheel thermal generator electric building blocks 2 solar cells-solar battery 5 V motor (starting current 25 mA) Ni-MH high power storage battery (2700 mAh)

Accessories ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

e-learning software interTESS with the descriptions of the experiments Power supply 0-12 V, 6 V~,12 V~ 2 multimeter light source instead of sun: 120 W

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1 13287-88 TESS Renewable Energy EN1 13287-77 TESS Applied Science Set Renewable Energy EN2 13288-88

Demo Renewable Energy

TESS Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy EN1

Function and Applications Function and Application Set to perform more than 30 student experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

energy conversion energy storage solar energy (voltaic, thermal) wind energy water enery geothermal energy further topics such as greenhouse effect and thermal insulation

Benefits Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources:

excellence in science 720

2 Equipment sets to perform more than 40 demo board experiments in the field of energy and sustainable energy sources: sonversion, storage, solar (voltaic, thermal), wind, water, geothermal energy, topics as the greenhouse effect and thermal insulation, hydrogen and fuel cell technology, concentrated solar power technology (CSP). Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪

Comprehensive solution to cover the field of energy, conversion and storage of energy and sustainable energy sources with more than 40 experiments. 100% Reliable contact due to magnetic adhesive, puzzle-like connectable building blocks with corrosion-free, gold-plated contacts even under humid climate conditions Circuit diagram demonstratively visible on the connected building blocks.


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.5 Wind and Water

▪ ▪

100 percent reliable contact due to interlocking building blocks . Higher power devices (f.e. thermogenerator, solarcell, electrolyzer, fuel cell) to drive everyday devices like mp3 players, portable CD-players, toys, etc.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Buildingblocks with gold contacts,magnetically adhesive, labeling Solar Cell, Solar Battery, Light Source Solar Collector, Concave Mirror for CSP Thermogenerator Blower, Wind Generator Water Turbine Motor Quattro PEM Fuell Cell, Douple PEM Electrolyzer, Direct Methanol Fue Cell, Gas storages Magnetic adhesive holders. loads, consumables Including two wodden storage boxes with foam inserts. Size of building blocks (mm):60 × 60 × 46 Dimensions H × W × D (mm):150 × 410 × 545 Mass: 15 kg

Recommended accessories: ▪

Experimental literature and Demo board, Demomultimeter / PCInterface, Power Supply

Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT1 09492-88 Demo Applied Sciences Set Renewable Energy ENT2 09493-88

Blower, 12V

Rotor, 2 pieces (05752.00)

05750-00

Generator with metrical thread axis and nut

Function and Applications Generator with metrical thread axis and nut to mount for example rotors for a wind engine model. Suitable for demonstration experiments as well as student experiments in the field of energy conversion for example from wind power. Benefits Compatible with all other devices in the field of renewable energy for a comprehensive understanding of the potential of wind power. Easy experimentation due to mounting rod for optical bench or supporting material and standard 4mm sockets. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Generating voltage 0-5.9 V Generating power >120 mW Connecting via 4 mm sockets Housing dimensions L x D: 35 mm x 40 mm Axis length: 30mm Rod length: 140mm

Accessories Blower, 12 V (05750-00), Rotor, 2 pcs. (05752-01) Generator with metrical thread axis and nut 05751-01 Rotor, 2 pieces 05752-01

Function and Applications

Water pump/ water turbine/ generator

Blower to generate a variable air flow to perform demonstration experiments as well as student experiments in the field of energy conversion from wind power. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Variable air flow to simulate different wind conditions Easy experimentatio due to mounting rod for optical bench or supporting material Safe experimentation due to protective screen against mechanical contact Standard 4mm sockets for electrical connection

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

max. operating voltage 12V max. electrical power 12.5W max. air flow 204 m^3/h max. sound volume 58dB connecting via 4mm sockets case LxWxH: 50mm x 90mm x 110mm rod length 90mm

Accessories ▪

Generator with 4mm axis (05751.00)

Function and Application To investigate the principle and operation of water power plants. Operating voltage: 1.5-2.5V; max. flow rate: 13l/h; water height: 10cm at 2.5 V. Clamp (05764-00) required. Water pump/ water turbine/ generator 05753-00 clamp, d = 16 mm, with mounting rod 05764-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 721


5.4 Renewable energy 5.4.5 Wind and Water

Cobra4 sensor unit energy, current, voltage, work, power

Francis turbine, model

Function and Applications For the measurement and direct display of measurement variables relating to the power consumption and energy in the direct and alternating current circuit (current, voltage, active and apparent power, phase shifting, frequency, electric work), in particular with experiments for renewable energy. Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Energy electricity, voltage, power, capacity 12656-00 Cobra4 Mobile-Link 12620-00

Pelton wheel, model

Function and Applications Completely transparent device with high efficiency to demonstrate functioning of a Pelton turbine as well as to determine power and efficiency. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The axle of the bucket wheel protrudes from the side of the device and is fitted with a pulley with cord drum to drive a generator or lift a load. Water inlet over nozzle with hose olive. Water outlet over pipe sleeve. Wheel diameter: 95 mm. Water inlet: olive 8.2 mm. Water outlet: olive 20 mm.

02521-00

excellence in science 722

Functioning model of an over pressure turbine. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Pipe connecting sleeve with olive to connect with a hose to a watertap. Rotor axle with pulley. Diameter of pipe connecting sleeve: 12 mm. Height of turbine: 200 mm.

02524-00


5 Applied Sciences 5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics

Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 5.5.2

Devices Circuits

724 735

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 www.phywe.com 723


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Temperature dependence of different resistors and diodes with the FG module and Cobra3

Principle The temperature dependence of an electrical parameter (e.g. resistance, conducting-state voltage, blocking voltage) of different components is determined. To do this, the immersion probe set is immersed in a water bath and the resistance is measured at regular temperature intervals. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Measurement of the temperature dependence of the resistance of different electrical components. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conducting state voltage of semiconducting diodes. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the voltage in the Zener and the avalanche effects.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Carbon film resistor Metallic film resistor PTC NTC Z diode Avalanche effect Zener effect Charge carrier generation Free path Mathie's rule

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2410415

excellence in science 724


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Characteristic curves of semiconductors with the FG module

Principle Determine the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode. Determine the collector current with the collector voltage for various values of the base current intensity. Tasks 1. 2.

To investigate the dependence of the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode. To determine the variations of the collector current with the collector voltage for varios values of the base current intensity.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Semiconductor P-n junction Energy-band diagram Acceptors Donors Valence band Conduction band Transistor Operating point

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2410915

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 725


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Switch-on behaviour of a capacitor and an inductance with the FG module

Principle To measure the course of current strength and voltage in a capacitance/inductivity in the instant of switching on. The capacitance/inductivity is determined from the measurement curve. Tasks 1. 2.

To measure the course of current strength and voltage in a capacitance in the instant of switching on. The capacitance is determined from the measurement curve. To measure the course of current strength and voltage in inductivity in the instant of switching on. The inductivity is determined from the measurement curve.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Charging Discharging Time constant Exponential function Half life

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2420215

excellence in science 726


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Dielectric constant of different materials

Principle The electric constant is determined by measuring the charge of a plate capacitor to which a voltage is applied. The dielectric constant is determined in the same way, with plastic or glass filling the space between the plates. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

The relation between charge Q and voltage U is to be measured using a plate capacitor. The electric constant is to be determined from the relation measured under point 1. The charge of a plate capacitor is to be measured as a function of the inverse of the distance between the plates, under constant voltage. The relation between charge Q and voltage U is to be measured by means of a plate capacitor, between the plates of which different solid dielectric media are introduced. The corresponding dielectric constants are determined by comparison with measurements performed with air between the capacitor plates.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Maxwell's equations Electric constant Capacitance of a plate capacitor Real charges Free charges Dielectric displacement Dielectric polarisation Dielectric constant

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2420600

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 727


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Inductance of solenoids with Cobra3

Principle A square wave voltage of low frequency is applied to oscillatory circuits comprising coils and capacitors to produce free, damped oscillations. The values of inductance are calculated from the natural frequencies measured, the capacitance being known. Tasks To connect coils of different dimensions (length, radius, number of turns) with a known capacitance C to form an oscillatory circuit. From the measurements of the natural frequencies, to calculate the inductances of the coils and determine the relationships between:

▪ ▪ 1. 2. 3.

inductance and number of turns inductance and length inductance and radius.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Lenz's law Self-inductance Solenoids Transformer Oscillatory circuit Resonance Damped oscillation Logarithmic decrement Q factor

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2440311

excellence in science 728


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Resistance, phase shift and power in AC circuits

Principle Series circuits containing self-inductances or capacitances and ohmic resistances are investigated as a function of frequency. Measuring the electrical magnitudes with a work or power measurement instrument, real power or apparent power can be displayed directly. Tasks Series circuit of self-inductance and resistor (real coil)

▪ 1. 2. 3.

Investigation of impedance and phase shift as a function of frequency Investigation of the relation between real power and current intensity Determination of self-inductance and ohmic resistance Series circuit of capacitor and resistor

▪ 1. 2. 3.

Investigation of impedance and phase shift as a function of frequency Investigation of the relation between real power and current intensity Determination of capacitance and ohmic resistance

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Impedance Phase shift Phasor diagram Capacitance Self-inductance

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2441100

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 729


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3

Principle The resistivity and Hall voltage of a rectangular germanium sample are measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The band spacing, the specific conductivity, the type of charge carrier and the mobility of the charge carriers are determined from the measurements. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Hall voltage is measured at room temperature and constant magnetic field as a function of the control current and plotted on a graph (measurement without compensation for defect voltage). The voltage across the sample is measured at room temperature and constant control current as a function of the magnetic induction B. The voltage across the sample is measured at constant control current as a function of the temperature. The band spacing of germanium is calculated from the measurements. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of the magnetic induction B, at room temperature. The sign of the charge carriers and the Hall constant RH together with the Hall mobility mH and the carrier concentration p are calculated from the measurements. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of temperature at constant magnetic induction B and the values are plotted on a graph.

What you can learn about Semiconductor, Band theory, Forbidden zone, Intrinsic conductivity, Extrinsic conductivity, Valence band, Conduction band, Lorentz force, Magnetic resistance, Mobility, Conductivity, Band spacing, Hall coefficient

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5410211

Hall effect in n-germanium with Cobra3

P5410311

excellence in science 730


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Fundamentals of electricity and electronics, 10 experiments with FG module

Frequency ranges: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Range 1: 200 Hz-20 kHz Interval: 10 Hz Range 2: 2 Hz-200 Hz Interval: 1 Hz Signal form: Sinusoidal, square-wave, triangular-wave signals, direct voltages and frequency- or voltage-ramps

Voltage source: ▪ ▪ ▪

Amplitude: 0 V...10 V Interval: 5 mV Offset voltage: -10 V...10 V (adjustable)

Current source:

Function and Applications Multifunctional and easy adaptable basic set for computer-based analysis of current and voltage characteristics, especially for very fast signal response (500 kHz) and dependance of frequencies for practicals and demonstration. The set contains everything for the performance of the following experiments: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ohm´s law Characterics of semiconductors (Diodes, Transistors) Switch on behaviour of capacitors Switch on behaviour of coils Coil in AC circuit Capacitor in AC circuit Inductance of solenoids Magnetic induction RLC-circuit High-pass and low-pass filters

▪ ▪ ▪

Amplitude: 0 mA...100 mA Interval: 5 mA Offset current: 100 mA...100 mA

Measuring module function generator 12111-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Immersion probes for determining ct

12111-88

Measuring module function generator

Function and applications 10 components for determining temperature dependence (up to max. 100°C) of characteristic parameters such as resistance, conductingstate voltage and off-state voltage. Equipment and technical data ▪ Function and Applications Plug-in measurement module for generating sinusoidal, square-wave and triangular-wave signals, direct voltages and frequency- or voltage-ramps. Benefits The module can be used as a voltage or current source: ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪ ▪

6 Resistors: constantan and copper wire, graphite layer and metal, NTC and PTC. 4 Diodes: 1 germanium, 1 silicon and 2 zeners Samples mounted onto special circuit boards with circuit symbols and 4-mm sockets. Includes heat-resistant plastic pouch for use in thermostat-regulated water bath.

07163-00

If it is used as a voltage source, the actual frequency and current can be displayed and measured during operation If it is used as a current source, the actual frequency and voltage can be displayed and measured. In addition, up to 2 measurement quantities can be recorded and evaluated with the help of an interface.

Equipment and technical data

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 731


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Plate capacitor, d = 260mm

Universal measuring amplifier

Function and Applications Universal measuring amplifier for amplification of AC and DC voltages. Suitable for practical exercises. Equipment and technical data Function and Appliations

input impedance:

High accuracy capacitor for electrostatic experiments, e. g. to investigate the relation between charge, voltage and capacity on a plate capacitor, to measure the dielectric constant and for precise determination of the electrostatic induction constant.

electrometer: > 10 (13) Ohm

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The fixed plate is highly insulated whereas the mobile plate is connected conductingly to the support. Highly precise adjustment of distance by means of a spindle drive. Distance is read on a vernier scale with a precision of 1/10 mm. Distance between plates: 0.70 mm. Reading accuracy: 1/10 mm. Plate diameter: 260 mm. Plate thickness: 6 mm.

Plate capacitor, d 260mm 06220-00 Plastic plate 283 x 283 mm 06233-01 Glass plates f.current conductors 06406-00

low drift: 10 kOhm ▪ ▪

input voltage: -10 to + 10 V output voltage: -10 to + 10 V

frequency ranges: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

V=1 0...100 kHz V=10 0... 75 kHz V=10(2) 0... 10 kHz V=10(3) 0... 6 kHz V=10(4) 0...2.5 kHz V=10(5) 0... 2 kHz mains voltage: 230 V AC dimensions: 194 x 140 x 126 mm

13626-93

High voltage supply unit, 0-10 kV

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics

16502-32

Function and Applications For electrostatic experiments and for operation of spectral and gas discharge tubes. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

excellence in science 732

It supplies 3 continuously variable DC voltages isolated from earth and ground. Two of the voltages are connected in series 0-5 kV DC = total of 0 -10 kV DC. Selectable positive and negative polarity. 3-figure LED display. Outputs short-circuit proof. Special safety sockets.


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Modern plastic housing, impact resistant, easy to service, light stackable with retractable carrying handle and stand. Internal resistance: approx.5 MOhm. Ripple: < 0.5%. Supply voltage: 230 V. Short circuit current: max. 3 mA. Housing dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168.

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Sweep function for frequency ramp Monochrome graphic display with continuous setting for background illumination: 128 x 64 pixels USB 2.0 port Settings via buttons and knob or software-assisted via USB Power supply 100V~ - 240V~ at 50/60Hz Impact-resistant plastic case with carrying handle Dimensions (mm): 194 x 140 x 130

13670-93 13654-99

Digital Function Generator, USB

Power frequency generator, 10 Hz - 1 MHz

Function and Applications Sinus and rectangular signal generator with signal and power output for optimal adaptation to different experimental circuits. Function and Applications Digital signal generator for use as a programmable voltage source in practical or demonstration experiments, particularly in the disciplines of acoustics, electrical engineering and electronics Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Can be used as universal stand-alone device or controlled via a USB interface (with a software package available as of 2011) Universally applicable thanks to broad, continually adjustable frequency range Usable as programmable voltage source via amplifier output Intuitive, menu-driven operation using control knob and function buttons, with help capability Illuminated monochrome graphic display for maximum visibility and readability Simple setting of voltage and frequency ramps in stand-alone mode Features V = f(f) output for easy reading of frequency in the form of a voltage - ideal for measuring circuit response to frequency ramps using an oscilloscope Low distortion and signal-to-noise ratio for brilliantly clear signals - ideal for acoustics/audio experiments

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency range: 0.1Hz…1Mhz Steps: 0.1Hz Distortion factor: <0.5% Signal forms: Sine, triangle, square, frequency ramp, voltage ramp Amplifier output, short-circuit-proof, via BNC and 4-mm connectors Output voltage:0…20 Vpp for Rout > 40 Ω DC offset: ±10V (steps 5 mV) Power output: 5W (for up to 1A) where Rout = 20 Ω Headphone output via 3.5-mm jack socket: Switch for selecting standard headphones or speakers Output voltage: 0…1 Vpp for Rout = 400 Ω Sync (trigger) output via BNC: Output resistance: 50 Ω Logic level: CMOS (5V) V=f(f) output via BNC, short-circuit-proof: For outputting frequency in the form of a proportional voltage 0...10V (0...1MHz)

Benfits ▪ ▪ ▪

Large frequency range, frequencies can be continuously adjusted to five decade areas Output for sinus and regtangular signals Power output for sinus

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

Demonstative frequency display with 4 digit LED display Supplementary headphone and loudspeaker connector jack

Signal output: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Max. output voltage Upp: approx. 6 V Power: 1 W Nominal final resistor: 4 Ohm Distortion factor: < 1% (typically < 0.2%)

Power output: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Max. output voltage Upp: approx. 18 V Power: 10 W Nominal final resistor: 4 Ohm Distortion factor: < 1% (typically < 0.3%)

Input: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Input voltage range: Up = 0...1V Electric strength: Up < 30V Input resistance: 50 kOhm Required power: max. 70 VA Dimensions (mm): 370 x 236 x 168

13650-93

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 733


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.1 Devices

Work and power meter

The Hall module provides all operating parameters for the samples and displays the sample.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications For AC and DC circuits Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Two 4-digit, 20 mm LED-displays Display 1 for real and apparent power,current, voltage, phase difference and freqency Display 2 for energy and time Selector for serial display of all units LED-Status-display and automactic range selection Power: max. 2400 W Resolution: max. 0.001 W Voltage: 0-30V AC/DC, 0-240 Veff- Current: 0...10A AC/DC Phasen difference: 0...+/- 90 degree Frequency: 0...10000 Hz Energy: max. 9999 Wh or Ws Resolution: max. 0.001 Ws Analog output for all units of disp. 1 Mains: 110/230V, 50/60Hz Shock-resistant plastic housing with carry handle and base

13715-93

Hall effect module

Function and Applications Hall module with- central power supply to provide an adjustable constant current for the sample and for the integrated sample heater Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

digital LED display (3 digits, 9mm) to show either the sample current or the sample temperature sample heater with fully automatic temperature control system to avoid damage to the samples electronic compensating circuit for Hall voltage offset compensation RS 232 interface to connect an interface for comfortable data capturing, display and evaluation using a PC Different boards can be plugged easily and safely into the Hall module which requires only a 12V AC power supply.

excellence in science 734

Max. current of probe: +/- 60 mA Max. temperature of probe: 175 °C Power supply: 12 VAC/max.3,5 A Dimensions: (16x10,5x2,5)cm Weight: 0,25 kg

Hall effect module 11801-00 Hall effect,n-Ge,carrier board 11802-01 Hall effect,p-Ge,carrier board 11805-01 Intrins.conduct.Ge,carrier board 11807-01


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

RLC circuit with Cobra3 and the FG module

Principle The current and voltage of parallel and series-tuned circuits are investigated as a function of frequency. Q-factor and band-width are determined. Tasks Determination of the frequency performance of a Series-tuned circuit for

▪ 1. 2. 3.

voltage resonance without damping resistor, current resonance without damping resistor, current resonance with damping resistor. parallel-tuned circuit for

▪ 1. 2. 3.

current resonance without parallel resistor, voltage resonance without parallel resistor voltage resonance with parallel resistor.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Series-tuned circuit Parallel-tuned circuit Resistance Capacitance Inductance Capacitor Coil Phase displacement Q factor Band-width Loss resistance Damping

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2440611

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 735


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

RLC measuring bridge

Principle Ohmic resistances, inductances and capacitances are determined in a Wheatstonebridge circuit operated on AC. Balancing is done aurally through headphones, using the high sensitivity of the human ear. Tasks To determine

▪ 1. 2. 3.

ohmic resistances inductances capacitances with the Wheatstonebridge, using bridge balancing.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Wheatstone bridge Inductive and capacitive reactance Ohmic resistance Impedance Kirchhoff's laws

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2441000

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

Wheatstone bridge

Principle The Wheatstone bridge circuit is used to determine unknown resistances. The total resistance of resistors connected in parallel and in series is measured. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Determination of unknown resistances. Determination of the total resistance of resistors in series, of resistors in parallel. Determination of the resistance of a wire as a function of its cross-section.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Kirchhoff's laws Conductor Circuit Voltage Resistance Parallel connection Series connection

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2410200

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

Rectifier circuits

Principle The ripple of the output voltage of various rectifier circuits is measured as a function of the load current strength and the charging capacitance. The characteristics of a voltage stabilizer and of a multiplier are investigated. Tasks Using the half-wave rectifier:

▪ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to to to to to

display the output voltage (without charging capacitor) on the oscilloscope measure the diode current ID as a function of the output current strength IO (with the charging capacitor) measure the ripple component UACpp of the output voltage as a function of the output current (C = constant) measure the ripple as a function of the capacitance (IO = constant) measure the output voltage UO as a function of the input voltage Ui (IO= 0).

Using the bridge rectifier:

▪ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to to to to to

display the output voltage (without charging capacitor) on the oscilloscope measure the current through one diode, ID , as a function of the output current Io (with the charging capacitor) measure the ripple of the output voltage as a function of the output current (C = constant) measure the ripple as a function of the capacitance (Io = constant) measure the output voltage as a function of the input voltage.

To measure the voltage at the charging capacitor, UC , and the output voltage of a stabilized voltage source as a function of the input voltage Ui .

To measure the output voltage of a voltage multiplier circuit as a function of the input voltage.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Half-wave rectifier Full-wave rectifier Graetz rectifier Diode and Zener diode Avalanche effect Charging capacitor Ripple r.m.s. value Internal resistance Smoothing factor Ripple voltage Voltage stabilisation Voltage doubling

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2440700

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

RC filters

Principle: Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuits serve as filters for frequencies. The frequency response of the most commonly used RC filters is recorded by point-by-point measurements as well as the frequency sweep method, and displayed on the oscilloscope. The results are plotted and verified using the measure analysis software. Tasks: 1.

Record the frequency response of the output voltage of 1. a high-pass filter, 2. a low-pass filter, 3. a band-pass filter, 4. a WienRobinson bridge, 5. a parallel-T filter, point by point and to display the sweep on the oscilloscope. Investigate the step response of, 6. a differentiating network, 7. an integrating network. Analyse and verify the measurements using the measure analysis software.

2.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

High-pass Low-pass Wien-Robinson bridge Parallel-T filters Differentiating network Integrating network Step response Square wave Transfer function

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2440801

RC filters P2440800

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

Coupled resonant circuits

Principle: The Q factor of oscillating circuits is determined from the band width and by the Pauli method. In inductively coupled circuits (band-pass filters) the coupling factor is determined as a function of the coil spacing. Tasks: 1. 2.

Determine the dissipation factor t and k and the quality factor Q from the band width of oscillating circuits. Determine the dissipation factor and Q factor of oscillating circuits from the resonant frequency , the capacitance Ctot and the parallel conductance Gp by the Pauli method. Determine the coupling factor k and the band width of a band-pass filter as a function of the coil spacing s. Analyse and verify the measurements using the measure analysis software.

3. 4.

What you can learn about: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Resonance Q factor Dissipation factor Bandwidth Critical or optimum coupling Characteristic impedance Pauli method Parallel conductance Band-pass filter Sweep

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2450201

Coupled resonant circuits P2450200

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

High-pass and low-pass filters with the FG module

Principle A coil, a capacitor, an ohmic resistance and combinations of these components are investigated for their filter characteristics as a function of frequency. The phase displacement of the filters is determined also as a function of frequency. Tasks Determination of the ratio of output voltage to input voltage with the

▪ 1. 2. 3. 4. ▪ ▪

RC/CR network, RL/LR network, CL/LC network, Two CR networks connected in series Determination of the phase displacement with the RC/CR network. Determination of the phase displacement with two CR networks connected in series.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Circuit Resistance Capacitance Inductance Capacitor Coil Phase displacement Filter Kirchhoff's laws Bode diagram

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2440915

High-pass and low-pass filters P2440901

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

Transformer

Principle An alternating voltage is applied to one of two coils (primary coil) which are located on a common iron core. The voltage induced in the second coil (secondary coil) and the current flowing in it are investigated as functions of the number of turns in the coils and of the current flowing in the primary coil. Tasks The secondary voltage on the open circuited transformer is determined as a function

▪ 1. 2. 3.

of the number of turns in the primary coil, of the number of turns in the secondary coil, of the primary voltage. The short-circuit current on the secondary side is determined as a function

▪ 1. 2. 3.

of the number of turns in the primary coil, of the number of turns in the secondary coil, of the primary current. With the transformer loaded, the primary current is determined as a function

▪ 1. 2. 3.

of the secondary current, of the number of turns in the secondary coil, of the number of turns in the primary coil.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Induction Magnetic flux Loaded transformer Unloaded transformer Coil

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2440100

Internal resistance and matching in voltage sources P2410300

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

Forced oscillations of a nonlinear electrical series resonant circuit - chaotic oscillation

Phase relationships in a series resonant circuit

Literature for this experiment as follows:

Literature for this experiment as follows:

Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra3 (C3PT) 01310-01 German

Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra3 (C3PT) 01310-01 German

Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 English

Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 English

P1362500

Coupled electrical resonant circuits

P1363200

Cobra3 Measuring module function generator

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra3 (C3PT) 01310-01 German Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 English P1362400

Function and Applications Plug-in measurement module for generating sinusoidal, square-wave and triangular-wave signals, direct voltages and frequency- or voltage-ramps. Measuring module function generator 12111-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics

16502-32

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

Fundamentals of electricity and electronics, 10 experiments with FG module

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

outputs A and B: connection BNC-sockets; internal resistance 100 Ohm external resistance 10 kOhm overload capacity short-circuit proof mains supply 230 V, 50.60Hz casing dimensions (mm) 190×110×60

11444-93

Universal Counter

Function and Applications Multifunctional and easy adaptable basic set for computer-based analysis of current and voltage characteristics, especially for very fast signal response (500 kHz) and dependance of frequencies for practicals and demonstration. The set contains everything for the performance of the following experiments: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ohm´s law Characterics of semiconductors (Diodes, Transistors) Switch on behaviour of capacitors Switch on behaviour of coils Coil in AC circuit Capacitor in AC circuit Inductance of solenoids Magnetic induction RLC-circuit High-pass and low-pass filters

12111-88

Function and Applications The universal counter is used for measuring time, frequency, pulse rates, pulse counting, periodic times, speeds and velocities. Benefits: ▪

▪ ▪

Difference amplifier

▪ ▪

Function and Applications For the simultaneous potential-free measurement of two voltages when connected to the inputs of a two channel oscilloscope. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The high resistance difference inputs can be connected to any point of a circuit, without influencing the electrical behaviour of the circuit. Allows demonstration of the phase shift between voltage and current in alternating current circuits. Enables characteristics to be presented in the xy operation mode of an oscilloscope. Input voltages can be added.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

amplification 1 ± 3% frequency range for UE 20 Vss 0. 15 kHz, for UE 6 Vss 0.70 kHz, for UE 2 Vss 0.100 kHz inputs A and B: connection 4-mm-pair of sockets impedance 1 M_/10 pF overload capacity mains voltage proof

excellence in science 744

▪ ▪

The device has all the qualities that are expected of a modern universal counter and is also equipped with a number of technical specifics of how it specifically arise from the requirements of science teaching practice. For the scientifically correct representation of each measurement is shown in principle with the associated unit. With the overflow of the display is automatically switched into the next area. Before the measurement starts it can be manually adjusted to a maximum of 6 decades defined range, eg to suppress is not physically meaningful digits on the display. A special jack for direct connection of a GM counter tube is available for radioactivity experiments. The required voltage can be changed manually to determine the characteristics of a counter tubes to. The stopwatch function can be entered by means of electrical contacts, sensors, or manually in the various types of triggers for the precise starting and stopping for time measurement. The measured values are represented by six red 20mm highcontrast 7-segment displays. An additional three-digit display is used to display the unit (ms, s, Hz, kHz, MHz, I / s, RPM, Imp, V, m / s). The various operating states are indicated by LEDs. Range switching in all modes manually (before measurement) and automatically when an overflow.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Operating temperature range 5th .. 40 ° C Relative humidity <80% Digital display: Measurement reading LED 6-digit, 7-segment, 20 mm Units LED 3-digit, 5x7 dot matrix Units ms, s, Hz, kHz, MHz, I / s, RPM, Imp, V, m / s Signal Input: Signal bandwidth 0.1 Hz .. 10 MHz Counter Tube Input voltage 150 V. .. 660 V (factory setting: 500V) with manual adjustment Photoelectric output for power supply of 5 V sat. max 1 A Stopwatch 0.000 ... 99,999.9 s, resolution 1 ms Timer 0.000 ms ... 3999.99 s, resolution1µs Velocity 0.000 m/s...9999, 9 m / s, resolution 0.001 m / s Period measurement 0.000 ms ... 99.9999 s, resolution 1µs Frequency measurement 0.00 Hz .. 9.99999 MHz, resolution 10 mHz


5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Speed measurement 6. .. 99,999 RPM, 1 RPM resolution Pulse counting 0. .. 999,999 Imp Pulse rate measurement 0.0 ... 99,999.9 I / s Mains supply: Mains voltage 110 .. 240 V, 50/60 Hz, 20 VA Housing dimensions (W, H, D) 370 x 168 x 236 (mm) Mass of 2.9 kilograms

Universal Counter 13601-99 Software Universal counter 14412-61

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

For outputting frequency in the form of a proportional voltage 0 ... 10V (0...1MHz) Sweep function for frequency ramp Monochrome graphic display with continuous setting for background illumination: 128 x 64 pixels USB 2.0 port Settings via buttons and knob or software-assisted via USB Power supply 100V~ - 240V~ at 50/60Hz Impact-resistant plastic case with carrying handle Dimensions (mm): 194 x 140 x 130

13654-99

Digital Function Generator, USB

Function and Applications Digital signal generator for use as a programmable voltage source in practical or demonstration experiments, particularly in the disciplines of acoustics, electrical engineering and electronics Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Can be used as universal stand-alone device or controlled via a USB interface (with a software package available as of 2011) Universally applicable thanks to broad, continually adjustable frequency range Usable as programmable voltage source via amplifier output Intuitive, menu-driven operation using control knob and function buttons, with help capability Illuminated monochrome graphic display for maximum visibility and readability Simple setting of voltage and frequency ramps in stand-alone mode Features V = f(f) output for easy reading of frequency in the form of a voltage - ideal for measuring circuit response to frequency ramps using an oscilloscope Low distortion and signal-to-noise ratio for brilliantly clear signals - ideal for acoustics/audio experiments

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency range: 0.1Hz…1Mhz Steps: 0.1Hz Distortion factor: <0.5% Signal forms: Sine, triangle, square, frequency ramp, voltage ramp Amplifier output, short-circuit-proof, via BNC and 4-mm connectors Output voltage : 0…20 Vpp for Rout > 40 Ω DC offset: ±10V (steps 5 mV) Power output: 5W (for up to 1A) where Rout = 20 Ω Headphone output via 3.5-mm jack socket: Switch for selecting standard headphones or speakers Output voltage: 0…1 Vpp for Rout = 400 Ω Sync (trigger) output via BNC: Output resistance: 50 Ω Logic level: CMOS (5V) V=f(f) output via BNC, short-circuit-proof:

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5.5 Electrical Engineering - Electronics 5.5.2 Circuits

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5 Applied Sciences 5.6 Geosciences

Geosciences 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3

Geology und Geomorphology Climatology und Meteorology Structural analysis with X-rays

748 752 758

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.1 Geology und Geomorphology

Literature for this experiment as follows:

Terrain mapping

TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English P1521062

Principle The drawing of maps is one of the favourite tasks of the students during geography lessons and of a high didactic value. The altitude measuring function of the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit "Weather" is a userfriendly tool which provides altitude values so that contour lines can be added to maps.

TESS Applied Sciences set soil examination

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English P1520662

The pH value of various soils

Function and Applications Case with material for 6 work groups. To investigate the 18 most important soil parameters: soil profile (soil horizons, soil type), mineral matter (stone content, fine earth content, soil texture), body of humus (humus content, humus type), water/ air (soil moisture, water capacity, water permeability rate, utilisable water capacity), soil structure (soil compaction, aggregate stability/ tilth), acidity (pH value, lime content), nutrients (nitrate content of soil, nitrate content of fruit and vegetables), soil life (soil animals). Includes 65 page manual on the theoretical basis of the topics and with experimental instructions. 30836-88

TESS Applied Sciences manual examination of soil

30836-02

Principle Information concerning the quality of soils is of great importance for agricultural production. The students are familiarised with this subject via two experiments with pH measurements that show how much soils may differ from each other (experiment "Characteristic pH values of various soils") and how significant the differences within a soil itself may be (experiment "Soil profile").

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.1 Geology und Geomorphology

Cobra4 Environment and outdoors, for 4 workgroups with english handbook, incl. aluminum case

Excursion set, soil analysis

Function and Applications This device set is ideally suited to shared-work experiments with schoolgroups. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Whether in the classroom, outdoors or on project days: in this robust aluminium case, you will always find the right device for carrying out fascinating experiments with schoolgroups. Up to 4 work groups can work on and investigate interesting topics in parallel. All data are saved on SDmemory cards. Evaluation of the data can be carried out e.g. at home, as homework. The measure evaluation software is included for FREE and may,of course, be used privately by each pupil.

Tip This device is also ideal for use e.g.in the context of a school hiking day: here, a topografic profile can easily be produced with the weather sensor. In Geography lessons, the data can be evaluated and interpreted together. If the height is then set against the temperature, humidity relative to the path, or temperature relative to the time of day, great discoveries can be made, which are both practical and fun. Equipment and technical data The highly stable aluminium case contains the following materials: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4 x Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x Cobra4Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connection 1 xCobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: airpressure, humidity, ambient temperature, brightness 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit, Temperature-Semiconductor 20...110 °C 1x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity with permanently connected stainless steel 1x pH electrode, plastic, gel-filled 1 x100 red pH 4 buffer trays 1 x 100 green pH 10 buffer trays 1 x 460 ml calibration solution for conductance electrode 1 x protective case for GL 25 pH electrode 1 x 120 labels, 4 x 100 ml square flange (HDPE) 2 x 250 ml PP laboratory beaker 4 x 1 GB 20 MB/sec SD memory card for Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x 110...240 V charger for metal hybrid batteries 2 x Mignon 1.2 V 2700 mAh spare batteries - set of 4 operating manual plus CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software, incl. FREE evaluation software experimental descriptions and configuration settings for experiments

Function and Applications The case contains the complete equipment for the determination of the type of soil, the soil structure, the pH of the soil and its nutrient content, i.e. the nitrogen, phosphate and potassium content available to plants. Benefits ▪ ▪

▪ ▪

The manual contains detailed descriptions of experiments for determining soil characteristics It contains a complete schedule for soil testing, from taking samples to differentiating the various soil types, from the determination of the nutrient content to the calculation of the amount of fertiliser required It also supplies valuable background information All necessary reagents, equipment and accessories are clearly positioned in the case, so that a glance suffices to check that it is complete.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Extraction Solutions Balance 2 scoops 3 syringes Pleated filter Colander Spray bottle 5 containers 2 cylinders 2 funnels Blades Spoon

Accessories ▪ ▪

Soil auger (64221-01) Soil auger, small (64222-00)

30346-00

12622-77

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 749


5.6 Geosciences 5.6.1 Geology und Geomorphology

Humidity determination apparatus in transport box

Geiger-Müller-Counter Gamma-Scout®

Function and Applications To determine the moisture content of the soil. This method can be implemented particularly in ecological pilot projects, which it provides fast and reliable results. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

CM pressure cylinder manometer 3 manometer sealings 3 bottle sealings precision spring balance testing medium for the manometer metal grinding bowl 4 stainless steel bullets in plastic can 20 calciumcarbide phials in plastic can chisel operating manual bottle brush plastic scoop 5 weighing pans metalcase

Humidity determination apparatus in transport box 64203-02 Calcium carbide, amp., 100 off 64203-10

Mohs hardness scale

Function and Applications This hand-held device measures radioactive radiation (alpha-, beta-, gamma-) permanently. Every single type of radiation can be selected by a switch. The measurement datas are stored directly in the internal memory. Benefits The measurement datas can be analysed with the help of the enclosed Windows Software. Equipment and technical data Including USB cable, Software for PC and operation instruction., Display: LCD, 4-digit, numeric with dimension, quasi-analogue logarithmic bar chart, operating mode indicators., End-window alphabeta-gamma detector counting tube according to the Geiger-Mueller principle., Stainless steel housing with neon halogen filling., Measuring length: 38.1 mm., Measuring diameter: 9.1 mm., Mica window: 1.5 - 2 mg / cm²., Gamma sensitivity: 90.00 pulses per minute at Co-60 radiation = 1 µSv / h in energy band of ambient radiation., Zero rate < 10 pulses per minute with screening by 3 mm Al and 50 mm Pb., Operating temperature_ -20...60°C., Operating voltage: approx. 450 V., Calibrated range of radiation: 0.01 µSv / h to 1.000 µSv / h., Ray types: alpha from 4 MeV, beta from 0.2 MeV, gamma from 0.02 MeV., Memory: 2 kByte., Dimensions: 163 x 72 x 30 mm., Mass: 150 g. 13608-00

Ores collection, 40 ores

Function and Applications Function and Applications To determine the hardness of a mineral, according to internationally established standard set of mineral hardness 1 .. 10. Equipment and technical data mineral samples with hardnesses from 1 to 10: 1 talcum, 2 gypsum , 3 calcite, 4 fluorite, 5 apatite, 6 feldspar, 7 quartz , 8 topaz, 9 corundum , 10 diamond magnet, pin, file, cleaving knife , streak plate, In wooden storage box, Dimension 230 x 130 mm 39784-00

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40 selected raw materials for producing metals; particularly rich-content ores have been selected as display pieces. The corresponding description contains details of the most important ore deposits worldwide. They give additional information about their use and origin, as well as the special position of the ores within the minerals. The set contains the following ores: Aluminum Ore: Bauxite, Magnesium ores: Manesit, Dolomite, Beryllium Ore: Beryl, CE-ore: Bastnaesite, Uranium-ore: Carnotite, Calciumore: Calcite, Strontium ore: Strontianite, Barium ore: Barite, Lithium Ore: Amblygonite, Sodium-ore: Halit, Potassium ore: Sylvite, Rudidium, cesium ore: Carnallite, Boron ore: Ulexite, Iron ore: Mangetit, Hematite, Manganese ore: Limonite, Siderite, Pyrolusite, Mangan-


5.6 Geosciences 5.6.1 Geology und Geomorphology

nomelan, Nickel ore: Nickeline, Cobalt ore: Skutterudite, Chrome Ore: Dhromite, Vanadium Ore: Descloizite, Titanium ore: Zemenit, Molybdenum ore: Molybdenite, Tungsten ores: Wolframite, Scheelite, Zirconium ore: Zircon , Copper Ores: Chalcocite, Chalcopyrite, Lead Ores: Bornite, Tetrahedrite, Zinc Ore: Galanit, Tin-ore: Sphalerite, Smithsonite, Mercury-ore: Cassiterite, Antimony ore: Cinnabar, Silicon ores: Stibnite, Quartz

Contour line model 88061-00 Model underground deposits 88060-00 Plate tectonics 88054-00

Equipment and technical data Set of 40 pieces, Format of the pieces 45×60 mm, in a wooden box with lid, Dimensions 260×495 mm 39782-00

Fossils, basis set of 20 pcs

Function and Applications These collections contain fossils, the occurrence of which signifies certain geological periods. Ordered according to geological age, they provide an overview of the development of life. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

The pieces are numbered Each collection contains a list of contents with the exact name of the pieces, details of where they were found and their age

87946-01

Models

Interior structure of the earth 88051-00 Model of a volcano 88055-00 Model River and glacial river valley 88057-00 Model of a glacier with collecting basin, glacier snout andmoraine 88058-00 Model: Karst, caves and water action 88059-00 Model Folds and Faults, 8 models 88056-00 Model of the Pacifictic oceans floor 88053-00 Model of the Atlantic oceans floor 88052-00

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.2 Climatology und Meteorology

Barometric height formula

Principle Glass or steel balls are accelerated by means of a vibrating plate, and thereby attain different velocities (temperature model). The particle density of the balls is measured as a function of the height and the vibrational frequency of the plate. Tasks Measurement of the particle density as a function of: 1. 2.

the height, at fixed frequency the vibrational frequency of the exciting plate, at fixed height

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Kinetic gas theory Pressure Equation of state Temperature Gas constant

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2140700

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.2 Climatology und Meteorology

Daily course of luminosity

Properties of the atmospheric pressure Principle Pressure plays an important role in daily life, even when it is not often that it makes itself noticeable. But it is always there. In this experiment we will examine what pressure actually is, its properties and its origin. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German

In a 24-hour long-term measurement thecourse of luminosity is recorded in theimmediate vicinity of a window. Literature for this experiment as follows:

TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English P1500460

Demo advanced Chemie / Biologie Handbuch Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-01 German Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-02 English

Measuring the height of a tower

P1332500

Comparison of the heat capacities of water and soil

Principle The weather sensor can be used todetermine the height of a tower as afunction of the change in air pressurewith the aid of the barometric formula. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German

To prepare comparison curves showing thedifferent heat capacities of water andof land. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie / Biologie Handbuch Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-01 German Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-02 English

TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English P1520362

P1350900

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 753


5.6 Geosciences 5.6.2 Climatology und Meteorology

24-hour weather observation

ation of a Cobra4 Mobile-Link and a "Weather" multisensor enables single or continuous measurements of these weather parameters. In the case of a single measurement, the measured value is read off the display and noted. In the case of continuous measurements, the values are stored on an SD card and can then be viewed and analysed with the software "measure for Cobra4". Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English

Principle The compact Cobra4 Weather multisensormakes for fitting out your own weatherstation with little means. It allows therelations between air pressure, humidityand temperature, and also brightness, tobe made understandable. Fluctuationsover a period of 24 hours are shown asan example, but the same set-up alsoenables longterm measurements to becarried out.

TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English P1520462

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German

Relative humidity

TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English P1520461

Weather observation with the Cobra4 Mobile-Link Principle Dew or frost can be formed on the inside of windows, although one has the feeling that the air in the room is quite dry. A cellar cannot be dehumidified on warm days in summer by simply opening the cellar window. This experiment shows why. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English P1520560

Principle The compact Cobra4 "Weather" multisensor can be employed as a simple means to setup a weather station, which can then be used to explain the relationship between the air pressure, humidity, temperature, and the light intensity. The measurement combin-

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.2 Climatology und Meteorology

Impact of the forest type on humidity, temperature and brightness

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude

Principle

Function and Applications

Various types of woodland exhibit different sorts of climate data. Temperature, humidity and lighting conditions do not only depend on meteorological factors but also on the nature of the vegetation. The density of the tree canopy determines how much light can penetrate and therefore affects the temperature. The low density of vegetation on a managed highland forestry estate (often beech forests at European latitudes) also affects the movement of winds in the forest, which also affects humidity. In this outdoor experiment, we will be conducting measurements on various types of woodland during the same day and at approximately the same time in order to eliminate meteorological differences as far as possible.

Depending on application type, the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection.

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English

Benefits ▪ ▪

At the same time, the following measuring parameters may be recorded: airpressure, relative humidity, airtemperature, brightness, height Ideal for use in outdoor experiments, on classtrips or for project or school hikingdays.

Equipment and technical data Relative Humidity: ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 100 % accuracy +/- 5 %

Air Pressure: ▪ ▪

measurement range 10 - 1100 mbar accuracy +/-5 %

Air Temperature: P1521762

▪ ▪

measurement range -40 - +125 °C accuracy +/- 0.5 °C

Brightness:

Kinetic gas theory apparatus

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 10,000 lx accuracy +/- 5 % calculation using air pressure Data transfer rate for each sensor: 1 Hz Dimensions (L x B x H): 64 x 70 x 31 mm Weight: 60 g

12670-00

Function and Applications Kinetic gastheory apparatus with vertical chamber and built in motor. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

chamber (mm) 60 x 20 x 180 motor supply 12 VDC /20 W

09060-00

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.2 Climatology und Meteorology

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit CO2

▪ ▪ ▪

max. switching capacity: 0.6V weight: 0.3kg dimensions: 112 x 162 x 140 mm

Cup anemometer for Cobra3 12124-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Timer/Counter 12651-00

TESS Applied Sciences Cobra4 Environment and outdoors, for 4 workgroups with english handbook, incl. aluminum case

Function and Applications Sensor of the Cobra4 family for the measurement of the CO2 concentration in the air. The measured data of the sensor can be transferred with the Cobra4 Wireless Link by radio to the PC in connection with the Cobra4 Wireless Manager. All Cobra4 Sensor Units are quickly connectable through a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measuring range: 0... 6000 ppm resolution: 50 ppm data transfer rate: 1 Hz dimensions (L x W x H): 60 mm x 70 mm x 30 mm weight: 60 g

Accessories ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Cobra4 Wireless Link (12601-00) and Cobra4 Wireless Manger (12600-00) and/or alternative: Cobra4 USB Link (12610-00) to the connection to a PC Software measure Cobra4, individual position and school license (14550-61) for the realization, representation and evaluation of the measurements Cobra4 Mobile Link (12620-00) for the measuring without PC

Function and applications This device set is ideally suited to shared-work experiments with school groups. Whether in the classroom, outdoors or on project days: in this robust aluminium case, you will always find the right device for carrying out fascinating experiments with school groups. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

12671-00

Up to 4 work groups can work on and investigate interesting topics in parallel. All data are saved on SD memory cards. Evaluation of the data can be carried out at home, e.g. as homework. The measure evaluation software is included for FREE and may, of course, be used privately by each pupil.

Equipment and technical data The ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Cobra Windsensor

▪ ▪

Function and Applications Wind sensor with large speed measurement range of 4 to 140 km/h for fitting to masts or support rods or poles. Equipment and technical data ▪ Operating temperature: o...+70°C ▪ Measuring range: 1...40m/s resp. 4....140km/h

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▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

highly stable aluminium case contains the following materials: 50-page manual with experimental literature 4 x Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x Cobra4Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connection 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: air pressure, humidity, ambient temperature, brightness, 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit,Temperature-Semiconductor, 20...110 °C 1x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity with permanently connected stainless steel electrodes 1x pH electrode, plastic, gel-filled 1 x100 red pH 4 buffer pellets 1 x 100 pH 10green buffer buffer pellets 1 x 460 ml calibration solution for conductivity electrode 1 x protective case for GL 25 pH electrode 1 x 120 labels 4 x 100 ml square flange (HDPE) 2 x 250 ml PPlaboratory beaker 4 x 1 GB 20 MB/sec SD memory card for Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x110...240 V charger for metal hybrid batteries 2 x Mignon 1.2 V 2700 mAh spare batteries - set of 4

Tip This device is also ideal for use e.g. in the context of a school hiking day: here, a topografic profile can easily be produced with the weather sensor. In Geography lessons, the data can be evaluated and in-


5.6 Geosciences 5.6.2 Climatology und Meteorology

terpreted together. If the height is then set against the temperature, humidity relative to the path, or temperature relative to the time of day, great discoveries can be made, which are both practical and fun. Delivery incl. operating manual plus CD ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software incl. FREE evaluation software, experimental descriptions and configuration settings for experiments. Cobra4 Environment and outdoors, for 4 workgroups with english handbook, incl. aluminum case 12622-77 TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software COBRA3 Temperature 14503-61

Cobra3 Measuring module, pressure

TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors

12622-02

Humidity sensor for Cobra3 Function and Applications Plug-in module for measuring pressures or pressure differences. Equipment and technical data ▪ Measuring range: 0...2000 hPa ▪ Resolution: 0.5 hPa ▪ Overload capacity: up to 4000 hPa ▪ Response time: ≤1 ms ▪ Suitable media: non-aggressive gases and liquids

Function and Applications Measurement of relative humidity (RH), absolute humidity and temperature with Cobra3 Basic-UNIT. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Humidity Range: 5-95% RH (non-condensing) accuracy: ± 5% RH at 25°C response rate: approx. 15 seconds in moving air at 25°C repeatability: ± 0.5% RH temperature range: 40°C.+85°C accuracy: ± 1°C at 25°C resolution: ± 0.1°C.

12121-00

Measuring module, pressure 12103-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Software Cobra3-Weather station 14518-61 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT)

01320-02

Cobra3, sensor -20...110 C

Cobra3, sensor -20..110 C 12120-00

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set

▪ ▪ ▪

Accessories are always ready at hand Utensils are stored safely Dust-free storage

Equipment and technical data The set includes the following components: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit, 09057-99 XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit with a tungsten X-ray tube, 09057-80 measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software, 14414-61 XR 4.0 X-ray slide mounts for the optical bench, 4 pieces, 09057-19 XR 4.0 X-ray fluoroscopic screen, 09057-26 XR 4.0 X-ray protective sheath, 09057-49

Recommended upgrade sets for various applications and topics

Function and Applications Basic set covering the fundamental principles and areas of applications of X-rays, e.g. fluoroscopy experiments and X-ray photography. It can be extended by upgrade sets for specific applications and topics. Benefits Safety concept complying with the applicable standards and regulations ▪ ▪

The set complies with all of the German (X-ray ordinance, RÖV) and European regulations for radiation protection. Type approval by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, BFS) concerning the use of the unit at schools and universities in Germany (not subject to approval, but to reporting). (Type approval submitted.) Lead-enforced acrylic glass windows as a shield against the X-rays (breakproof in accordance with DIN/EN 61010)

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

XRW 4.0 X-ray wireless demonstration upgrade set, 09115-88 XRP 4.0 X-ray solid state upgrade set, 09120-88 XRC 4.0 X-ray characteristics upgrade set, 09130-88 XRS 4.0 X-ray structural analysis upgrade set, 09140-88 XRI 4.0 X-ray imaging upgrade set, 09150-88 XRM 4.0 X-ray material analysis upgrade set, 09160-88 XRD 4.0 X-ray dosimetry and radiation damage upgrade set, 09170-88 XRT 4.0 X-ray Computer Tomography upgrade set, 09180-88

09110-88

XRS 4.0 X-ray structural analysis upgrade set

S-Lock - PHYWE's safety lock ▪ ▪

Electro-mechanical system for maximum security Prevents door opening during X-ray emission by multiple safety circuits

MultiLINK ▪ ▪ ▪

External socket panel Easy and safe connection of PHYWE components, such as the X-ray energy detector (09058-30) and other standard devices, e.g. digital cameras USB 2.0, N2, BNC, XRED,...

Plug & measure ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Self-calibrating goniometer (option) safe and easy handling collision protected goniometer Protects expensive equipment: GM counter tube and X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Tube XChange Technology ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

XXL Chamber ▪ ▪

Particularly spacious experiment chamber for sophisticated setups Integrated optical bench for the easy and reproducible set-up of experiments (can be extended to the outside)

3View ▪

Observation through windows on three sides; optimal for the transparent execution of experiments

Lockable tray for accessories

Function and Applications Upgrade set as an extension of the XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set (09110-88). This set is particularly suitable for the structural analysis of different types of samples in materials physics, chemical analysis, and mineralogy. The set covers the following experiments and topics: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Fluoroscopy and X-ray imaging Debye-Scherrer analyses and images Laue diffraction patterns Fundamental principles of X-ray spectroscopy Bragg reflection Bremsspectrum Determination of Planck's quantum of action X-ray diffractometry Texture analyses of grown materials Monochromatisation of X-rays Analysis of crystals with different crystal structures: cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal, diamond, BCC, and FCC

Benefits ▪ ▪

Material analyses with different techniques: diffractometric and photographic analyses Samples of different structures: monocrystalline and polycrystalline samples, powder crystallites

Equipment and technical data

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

The set includes the following components: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer, 09057-10 Geiger-Müller counter tube, type B, 09005-00 XR 4.0 X-ray LiF crystal in a holder, 09056-05 XR 4.0 X-ray NaCl monocrystals, set of 3,09058-01 XR 4.0 X-ray set of chemicals for edge absorption, 1 set, 09056-04 XR 4.0 X-ray diaphragm tube with Ni foil, 09056-03 XR 4.0 X-ray potassium bromide monocrystal in a holder for the Bragg reflection, 09056-01 XR 4.0 X-ray diaphragm tube with Zr foil, 09058-03 XR 4.0 X-ray crystal holder for Laue images, 09058-11 XR 4.0 X-ray universal crystal holder for the X-ray unit, 09058-02 XR 4.0 X-ray sample holder for powder samples, 09058-09 XR 4.0 X-ray accessories for the structural analysis set, 09057-28

09140-88

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector, 09058-30 Multi-channel analyser, 13727-99 Software for the multi-channel analyser, 14452-61 XR 4.0 X-ray set of chemicals for edge absorption, 1 set, 09056-04 XR 4.0 X-ray lithium fluoride (LiF) monocrystal in a holder, 09056-05 XR 4.0 X-ray universal crystal holder for the X-ray unit, 09058-02 XR 4.0 X-ray sample holder for powder samples, 09058-09 XR 4.0 X-ray diaphragm tube with Zr foil, 09058-03 XR 4.0 X-ray Compton module, 09058-04 XR 4.0 X-ray accessories for the material analysis set, 09057-36 Balance, DENVER DLT-411, 400 g/0.1 g, 49061-00

09160-88

Additional XR 4.0 X-ray upgrade sets

XRM 4.0 X-ray material analysis upgrade set

Upgrade sets as an extension of the XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set (09110-88). Function and Applications Upgrade set as an extension of the XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set (09110-88). This set is particularly suitable for the qualitative and quantitative X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of metallic samples in physics and material science (non-destructive testing). The set covers the following experiments and topics: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Various different types of samples can be analysed: powders, solids, and liquids Material analyses of pure metals and multi-component alloys Compton effect - Moseley's laws energy-dispersive Bragg structure analysis K and L edge absorption Determination of the lattice constant of monocrystals Duane-Hunt's law of displacement X-ray fluorescence analysis for layer thickness determination Characteristics and the special resolving power of an X-ray energy detector

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

In combination with the XR 4.0 X-ray multi-channel analyser (13727-99), the entire X-ray energy spectrum (2-35 keV) of the analysed materials can be determined The set includes a sensitive XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (09058-30) with a resolution of FWHM < 400 eV, rate independent up to 20 kcps The XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector is mounted directly and easily onto the XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer (09057-10) of the XR 4.0 X-ray unit (09057-99) Direct connection of the XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (09058-30) via the internal and external socket panel to the multichannel analyser (13727-99) that also supplies the supply voltage. Immediately ready for use, as indicated by a standby LED

Equipment and technical data The set includes the following components: ▪

XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer, 09057-10

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XRP 4.0 X-ray Solid state physics upgrade set 09120-88 XRC 4.0 X-ray characteristics upgrade set 09130-88 XRI 4.0 X-ray imaging upgrade set 09150-88 XRD 4.0 X-ray dosimetry and radiation damage upgrade set 09170-88 XRT 4.0 X-ray Computer Tomography upgrade set 09180-88 XRW 4.0 X-ray wireless demonstration upgrade set 09115-88


5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit

3View ▪

Observation through windows on three sides; optimal for the transparent execution of experiments

Lockable tray for accessories ▪ ▪ ▪

Accessories are always ready at hand Utensils are stored safely Dust-free storage

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications School/full-protection device with X-ray tube quick-change technology for fluoroscopy and X-ray imaging, ionisation and dosimetry experiments, Laue and Debye-Scherrer images, X-ray spectroscopy, Bragg reflection, bremsspectrum/characteristic lines of various different anode materials, Moseley's law, determination of Planck's constant and Rydberg constant, Duane Hunt's law, material-thickness- and energydependent absorption, K and Ledges, contrast medium experiments, Compton scattering, and X-ray diffractometry. Benefits Safety concept complying with the applicable standards and regulations ▪ ▪

▪ ▪

The unit complies with all of the German (X-ray ordinance, RÖV) and European regulations for radiation protection. Type approval by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, BFS) concerning the use of the unit at schools and universities in Germany (not subject to approval, but to reporting). (Type approval submitted.) Lead-enforced acrylic glass windows as a shield against the X-rays (breakproof in accordance with DIN/EN61010) PHYWE safety lock technology (registered utility model)

S-Lock - PHYWE's safety lock ▪ ▪

electro-mechanical system for maximum security Prevents door opening during X-ray emission by multiple safety circuits

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Microprocessor-controlled basic unit with two independent safety circuits for the door position and two independent monitoring circuits for the door locking system Four different X-ray tubes (Fe, Cu, Mo, and W) can be plugged in and remain visible during operation Determination of the X-ray intensity via an integrated GeigerMüller counter tube connection with a variable counter tube voltage (0...700 V) and an integrated loudspeaker TFT colour display (dimensions 4,3"(95x54 mm), 16 Bit, 56.536 colours, 480x272 Pixel) for the manual control of the unit "Display Connect" interface for the connection of a large-scale display unit True-colour line-shaped interior LED lighting system High voltage 0.0...35.0 kV Emission current 0.0...1.0 mA Housing (mm): 682 (W) x 620 (H) x 450(D) Experiment chamber (mm): 440 (W) x 345(H) x 354 (D) Connection: 110/240 V~, 50/60 Hz Power consumption: 200 VA Mass: 55 kg PC control via USB 2.0

Required accessories When the unit is used for the first time, at least one X-ray tube, e.g. the tungsten X-ray tube 09057-80, is required. XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit 09057-99 XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer 09057-10

measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software

MultiLINK ▪ ▪ ▪

External socket panel Easy and safe connection of PHYWE components, such as the X-ray energy detector (09058-30) and other standard devices, e.g. digital cameras USB 2.0, N2, BNC, XRED,...

Plug & measure ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Self-calibrating goniometer (option) safe and easy handling collision protected goniometer Protects expensive equipment: GM counter tube and X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Tube XChange Technology ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

XXL Chamber ▪ ▪

Particularly spacious experiment chamber for sophisticated setups Integrated optical bench for the easy and reproducible set-up of experiments (can be extended to the outside)

Function and application Software package of the "measure" series for controlling the XR 4.0 Expert Unit (X-ray unit). XRm 4.0 consists of a module for device control and measurement data recording and a module for measurement data processing (main program). Benefits AUTORUN

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

▪ ▪ ▪

Automatic identification of the connected devices of the XR 4.0 series Loading of predefined settings Working directly without the need for specialist knowledge

Double control ▪ ▪

Simultaneous operation of the XR 4.0 Expert Unit via manual control and via a computer No restrictions concerning the execution of experiments

Plug & measure ▪

The intuitive user concept considerably simplifies the operation of such a complex device and puts the experiment into the focus of attention.

Multilingual ▪

XRm 4.0 is available in more than 20 languages, among them German, English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Russian. As a result, XRm 4.0 is also suitable for beginners' laboratory courses at universities and the secondary school level.

Reference experiments ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪

The comprehensive collection of reference experiments simplifies the selection of suitable experiments and can be used as a template for own experiment scripts/laboratory handbooks. All of the relevant topics concerning the characterisation and application of X-rays are documented. Experiment descriptions in PDF files with learning objectives, brief description, set-up picture, equipment list, experiment procedure, reference results with a reference to the theoretical background, and device and software settings that are specifically adapted to the experiment. All of the experiment-relevant settings can be loaded at the push of a button. The experiment descriptions include configuration files and example measurements. They are provided free of charge on the measure DVD.

Benefits: Tube XChange Technology: ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Anode angle 19° Max. operation datas 1 mA/35 kV Test voltage 50 kV Mass 4.3 kg Dimensions (26.7 x 18.8 x 20.3) cm Incl. dust protection cover

XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube 09057-50 XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube 09057-60 XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Fe tube 09057-70 XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube 09057-80

XR 4.0 X-ray Universal crystals and holder

System requirements ▪

PC with at least a Pentium 3 processor, 512 MB RAM, 1 GB free hard drive space, DVD drive, USB 2.0, Microsoft ®Windows XP or higher.

measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software 14414-61 measure XRt 4.0 X-ray CT Software 14421-61

XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in tubes

Function and application Monocrystal mounted in holder. In connection with x-ray unit for Laue-experiments and for the analysis of x-ray energies by the Bragg-method. XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluorid crystal,mounted 09056-05 XR 4.0 X-ray Potassium Bromide Crystal,mounted 09056-01 XR 4.0 X-ray Univ. crystal holder f.x-ray-unit 09058-02

Function and Applications Factory adjusted tube in sheet steel housing ready for use in connection with XR 4.0 expert unit. Housing with plugs to accept the tubes operating quantities from the basic unit. With handle, mechanical lock and two switching pins,which only operate correspondingly security microswitches of the basic unit when the plug-in module is correcly inserted.

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Function and Applications With the new X-ray energy detector you can directly determine the energies of single x-ray quanta. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

In connection with the multi-channel analyser (MCA) you can characterise the complete x-ray energy spectrum of the analysed material. Characteristic x-ray lines for all elements of the PSE included in the software. Directly mountable on the goniometer of the x-ray unit, without loss of functionality of the goniometer Directly connectable to MCA (USB) without any additional interface on Green Operation-LED Parallel observation of the signals in the oscilloscope (optional)

Typical application laboratory experiments in universities and high schools: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Characterisation of X-rays of different anode materials (Cu, Fe, Mo) Fluorescence analysis of pure materials and alloys Determination of the composition of alloys Compton effect-Mosley's law-Energy dispersive Bragg structure analysis

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Energy range: 2 - 60 keV Resolution: < 400 eV Active detector surface 0,8 mm² Power supply included Rate independent resolution up to 20 Kcps (kilo counts per second) max. 4000 channels 2 or 3 point calibration

09058-30

Multi channel analyser - extended version suitable also for operation of the X-ray energy detector

Function and applications The multi channel analyser is for analysing voltage pulses which are proportional to energy and for determining pulse rates and intensities in conjunction with an X-ray detector, alpha detector or gamma detector. The analogue pulses from the detector are shaped by the analyser, digitised and summed per channel according to pulse height. This results in a frequency distribution of detected pulses dependent on the energy of the radiation. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Analogue output for observing heights of the pulse spectrum on an oscilloscope, A USB output for connecting to a computer, Integrated power supply for alpha detector pre-amp Integrated power supply for X-ray energy detector Includes 1.5-m mains lead, USB cable type A/B Multi-channel analyser software (required) Resolution (per spectrum): up to 4096 channels (12 bit) Lag time: 60 µs Coincidence window: 1 µs Analogue input: negative pulse impedance: 3.3 kilohms, 150 pF Amplification: three stages, 6, 12 and 24 digitally adjustable Pulse height: max. 4 V Analogue output: positive pulse 0 to 4 VPulse length: 15 µs offset approx. 12-bit digital resolution Maximum offset: 4 V (disable input/coincidence input) Logic input (TTL) for coincidence measurements at voltage outputs Diode socket: ± 12 V / max. 30 mA BNC socket (bias voltage): -33, -66, -99 V Plastic case with carrying handle Dimensions H × W × D (mm): 90 x 140 x 130 Mains voltage: 115/230 V~ Mains frequency: 50/60 Hz

Accessories

XR 4.0 X-ray Specimen sets X-ray fluorescence XR 4.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for X-ray fluorescence, set of 7 09058-31 Xr 4.0 X-ray Specimen set alloys for fluorescence, set of 5 09058-33 XR 4.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for fluorescence, set of 4 09058-34

Multichannel analyser software (required) Multi channel analyser - extended version suitable also for operation of the X-ray energy detector 13727-99 measure Software multi channel analyser 14452-61

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5.6 Geosciences 5.6.3 Structural analysis with X-rays

TESS expert Handbook Physics X-Ray Experiments

Experiments with X-rays and their use in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, material science, and geology Description Comprehensive collection of reference experiments concerning the fundamental principles and use of X-rays in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, material science, and geology with the XR 4.0 X-ray unit platform as a pool of ideas concerning the potential areas of application in demonstration and laboratory experiments. A clear matrix simplifies the orientation in terms of scientific fields and topics. Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Characteristic X-radiation / atomic structure / quantum physics and chemistry X-ray absorption Compton scattering Dosimetry Crystal structures/structural analysis with X-rays/Debye-Scherrer experiments (counting tube goniometer) Transirradiation experiments/non-destructive testing

Features ▪

▪ ▪ ▪

Experiment descriptions with clearly structured learning objectives, fundamental principles, photo of the set-up, equipment list, tasks, illustrated instructions concerning the set-up and procedure, theory and evaluation with example results plus important notes concerning the operation and safety of the equipment. This simplifies the orientation and execution as well as the selection of the experiment parts for personalised laboratory experiments. The information provided is so comprehensive that no other background information is required. For every experiment, the software package "XRM 4.0 measure Xray" includes presettings for the easy and direct execution of the experiment at the push of a button as well as numerous example measurements. Experiment matrix for quick orientation Operating instructions concerning the components of the XR 4.0 platform including detailed information DIN A4 format, spiral-bound, colour print

01200-02

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5 Applied Sciences 5.7 Food chemistry

Food chemistry

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

Kinetics of the inversion of saccharose

Principle The inversion reaction of saccharose, which is catalysed by protons, produces invert sugar, which is a mixture of glucose and fructose. The reaction is accompanied by a change in the optical rotation of the system. Glucose rotates the polarisation plane of linearly polarised light to the right, while inverted sugar rotates it to the left. A half-shade polarimeter is used for the measurement of the change in the angle of rotation of polarised ligh during the inversion reaction of saccharose over time. Tasks 1. 2.

Determine the specific rotation of saccharose and lactose by measuring the rotation angle of solutions of various concentrations. Determine the rate constant of the inversion of saccharose.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Reaction rate First order reaction Polarimetry Optical rotation

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3050301

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

Potentiometric pH titration (phosphoric acid in soft drinks)

Principle The cell voltage and the Galvani voltage of the electrodes of an galvanic cell are dependent upon the concentration of the ions involved in the potential forming process. Thus, conclusions can be made about the concentration of the ions to be investigated from the measured cell voltage at a constant potential of a suitable reference electrode (potentiometric titration) Tasks Using the Cobra3-System, measure the change in the cell voltage in the titration of a) diluted phosphoric acid with 0.1 molar sodium hydroxide solution b) a sample of a carbonated beverage (Cola) containing phosphoric acid (E338) with 0.1 molar sodium hydroxide solution and calculate the beverage's phosphoric acid content from the consumption of the standard solution. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Galvanic cell Types of electrodes Galvani voltage Cell voltage Nernst equation Potentiometry Volumetry

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3061740

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

Determination of the calorific value of food stuffs

Determination of the heating value of fuel oil and of thecalorific value of olive oil

Principle In order to determine the heating capacities of commercially available solid fuels (coal, coke, lignite, peat, etc), pieces weighing 0.5 to 1 g are used. Wood and peat have to be air-dried, and coal and lignite have to be stored under dry conditions. In order to determine the calorific values of solid foodstuffs (bread, meat, cooked egg white, etc), samples of the respective "dry matter" weighing 0.5 to 1 g are used. To determine the heating values of gases (natural gas, ethane, propane, butane, etc), it takes 500 ml of that gas, which is stored in a gasometer. The substances to be analysed are burned in stream of oxygen with excess oxygen in order to ensure complete combustion. Solid materials are placed in the combustion chamber of the calorimeter insert on a thermally insulated base and ignited by means of an ignition source (combustion lance with butane cartridge). The oxygen is supplied via a combustion lance. To burn the gases, the combustion lance is inserted deep into the combustion chamber of the calorimeter insert. The heating values and calorific values can be calculated from the amount of the substance burned and the amount of heat, which is released in the reaction and measured with the calorimeter.

Principle A simple modification can be used to convert the glass jacket into a vertical calorimeter, which is particularly well suited for determining the energy content of fluids such as vegetable oils, for example. Literature for this experiment as follows: Handbuch Glasmantel 01196-11 German Handbook Glass jacket system 01196-12 English P1224300

Literature for this experiment as follows: Handbuch Glasmantel 01196-11 German Handbook Glass jacket system 01196-12 English

Chromatographic separation processes: gas chromatography

P1224100

Principle Installing a gas separation column in the glass jacket creates an educationally vivid set-up for demonstrating the main operating principles of a gas chromatograph while at the same time achieving good separation in the low-temperature range of up to 100째C. Dinonyl phthalate on diatomaceous earth is used as the separating agent. Helium is used as the mobile phase. A soap bubble flow meter is

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

used to set and monitor the flow velocity. A thermal conductivity detector is used for detection. The signals are passed along via a control unit for recording on a Yt recorder or to an interface. To control the temperature of the gas separation column, the glass jacket is connected to the external circuit of a circulation thermostat. This set/up makes it possible to separate both gas mixtures and liquid mixtures. If an interface for recording the signals is to be used instead of the Yt recorder shown here, the recorder must be replaced with the following equipment:

Steam distillation

- Cobra3 Chem unit (12153-00) - Power supply 12 VDC/2 A (12151-99) - Software Cobra3 Chem unit (14520-61) Literature for this experiment as follows: Handbuch Glasmantel 01196-11 German Handbook Glass jacket system 01196-12 English P1224451

Production of curd cheese

Principle An elegant and simple apparatus for carrying out water vapour distillations: the advantage of this arrangement is that it eliminates the need for a separate vapour generator, making it possible to operate with a single heat source (other set-ups require two). The vapour is generated in the outer chamber and then passes through the inner chamber. Due to the structural arrangement, the inner chamber is heated directly by the vapour generated in the outer chamber. This also eliminates the possibility of overheating the substances being extracted. Parts of plants suitable for the extraction of essential oils include orange peel and cloves, for example. Literature for this experiment as follows: Handbuch Glasmantel 01196-11 German Handbook Glass jacket system 01196-12 English P1224551

What components is starch made of? Principle In the production of natural curd cheese, milk is acidified through the addition of rennet or the action of lactic acid bacteria. For purposes of this experiment, students lower the pH by adding acid. As a result, the main protein fraction of the milk, the casein, flocculates and can be separated by filtration. This so-called 'curd' is the starting material for the production of cheese. The whey proteins retained in the filtrate can also be precipitated out through subsequent heating. The Biuret reaction is used to identify both precipitates as proteins. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS Chemie Handbuch Lebensmittelchemie 01839-01 German TESS Chemistry manual Food Chemistry 01839-02 English P1255600

Principle Starch consists of the polysaccharides amylose and amylopectin. Their different solubility in water makes it possible to separate these two components from one another by heating the starch with water and pouring the warm solution through a pleated filter. Due to its poor solubility in water, the undissolved amylopectin is trapped by the filter while the aqueous amylose solution collects in the glass beaker.

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS Chemie Handbuch Lebensmittelchemie 01839-01 German

Manual titration of citric acid with the Basic-Unit

TESS Chemistry manual Food Chemistry 01839-02 English P1261900

Distillation - determination of the alcohol content of wine

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie / Biologie Handbuch Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-01 German Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-02 English P1370530

Principle If the alcohol content of a wine is determined directly with an alcohol meter (hydrometer), the resulting alcohol content reading is approximately 0% by volume. This is due to the composition of the wine. The effect of the alcohol on the density is cancelled out by other components such as sugars, acids, essential oils, etc. For this reason, in order to determine alcohol content by density, the alcohol must be separated out by means of distillation prior to the determination. This corresponds to the official method which currently applies for measuring alcohol in wines. First the wine is titrated to neutrality against bromothymol blue. After transfer to the distillation apparatus, two thirds of this wine sample is distilled off into the receiver flask. Subsequently the distillate is filled back up to the original volume again. Now the density is measured with a pycnometer or hydrometer.

Automatic titration of household vinegar with the Basic-Unit

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie Handbuch Komplettversuche (CET) 01855-01 German Complete Experiments Chemistry/Biotechnology 01855-02 English

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie / Biologie Handbuch Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-01 German

P1308900

Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-02 English P1370630

Automatic titration of household vinegar, complete set (interface version Cobra3 Chem-Unit) P1370640

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

Changes in pH during the ageing of milk (souring) with theBasic-Unit

The buffering properties of foods with the Basic-Unit P1371230 Determination of the calcium carbonate content of egg shells with the Basic-Unit P1371330 Chloride in mineral water with the Basic-Unit P1371530

Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT)

01320-02

Literature for this experiment as follows:

TESS Chemistry set 5 Food Chemistry

Demo advanced Chemie / Biologie Handbuch Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-01 German Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-02 English P1371130

Determination of the common salt content of meat broth with the Basic-Unit

Function and Applications This chemistry equipment system Food Chemistry consists of 2 interdependent equipments sets which are required to perform 52 experiments to the following topics:

Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie / Biologie Handbuch Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-01 German Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-02 English P1371430

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Proteins (4 Experiments) Fat (14 Experiments) Beverage (3 Experiments) Spices (1 Experiments) Carbohydrate (15 Experiments) Vitamines and minerals (2 Experiments) Water (3 Experiments) Additives (10 Experiments)

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

complete device set: simple implementation of the experiments rugged storage: durable, easy to store (stackable), fast verification of the integrity (foam insert) experimental literature available for students and teachers: minimal preparation time adjusted to the education plans: all topics covered

Equipment and technical data ▪ Determination of the phosphoric acid content of a soft drink with the Basic-Unit P1370730 The pH value and degree of acidity of coffee with the Basic-Unit P1370830 Determination of the fruit acid content of juices and wine with the Basic-Unit P1370930 Titration curves of fresh milk and sour milk with the Basic-Unit P1371030

The device set consists of all the components necessary for the experiments Sturdy, stackable storage box with molded foam insert device

Accessories ▪ ▪

Manual 01839-02 TESS Chemistry Set 2, also required 13298-88

TESS Chemistry set 5 Food Chemistry 13294-88 TESS Chemistry set 2 Basic Set 13298-88

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

TESS Chemistry manual Food Chemistry 01839-02

Glass jacket

Handbook Glass jacket system

01196-12

Cobra3 Set automatic titration, 230 V

Function and Applications Glass jacket, used as cooling or heating mantle. Benefits The cylinder is made of DURAN 50 ®, which gave him an extreme heat resistance, high thermal shock resistance, mechanical strength and excellent chemical resistance. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

cylindrical glasstube with screw closures for different inserts Length: 205 mm Outer diameter: 75 mm Connecting nut and gasket for flanging cylindrical inserts with an outer diameter of 36 mm watertight and airtight 1 Flange with ring nut

Glass jacket 02615-00 Calorimeter insert f.glass jacket 02615-01 Combustion lance for gases 02613-00

Heating apparatus for glass jacket system

Function and Applications With this setup titrations can be carried out completely automatised, e.g. quantitative analyses, determination of concentrations, determination of dissociation constants of weak bases and acids. Benefits This set allows to execute measurements in a didactical clear and easy way: ▪ ▪ ▪

All system components are visible and thus easily identifiable Precise, reproducible results Because measured values are recorded with an interface the titration curves can be presented easily

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Tripod material and all necessary small hardware items. Cobra3-Chem Unit Software "measure" pH-electrode Immersion temperature probe, Teflon Motor piston burette Magnetic stirrer Small hardware items CD with literature

Accessories ▪

Conductivity-probe for the recording of conductivity titrations

43040-88

Heating apparatus for glass jacket system 32246-93 Gas separation column 36670-00 Control unit gas chromatograph 36670-99 Mesure probe for gas chromatograph, BNC contact 36670-10

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

TLC-material set biochemistry

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Cobra3 Chem-Unit 12153-00 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

Spectrophotometer 190 - 1100 nm

TLC-material set biochemistry 35041-00 TLC set, fats and cholesterol 35043-00 TLC-set, pharmaceuticals 35044-00

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY

Function and Applications Spectrophotometer 190-1100 nm Benefits

16504-12

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Measuring module pH/potential

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▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Measuring module pH/potential 12101-00 Software Cobra3 pH and potential 14509-61 pH-electrode, shock resistant 18452-00 pH-electrode, polythene sheathed 18450-00 pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10

The UV-VIS spectral photometer is characterised by its compact design and due to its wide range of possible uses. Operation is via a clearly set out overlay keyboard on the screen dialogue. Current wave lengths and measured values can be displayed in large format. Alternatively, all measured values can also be presented graphically or in table format on the LCD screen with background lighting. Strong light, high performance optics enable absorption and transmission measurements to be taken in the whole wavelength range of 200 to 1100 nm with automatic switching between the twolight sources. A high speed scanner minimises the susceptibility to errors during a wavelength changeover and thusenables very precise measurement. Storage of measurement parameters, data, calibration curves, spectra,etc. Spectral scanning of samples with freely selectable wavelength range,automatic baseline correction and band/trough identification Production of a calibration curve withup to 10 concentration standards, details of the straight line formula, automatic correction against the zero solution The device can be connected to aprinter or computer with a serial port via an installed Centronix or RS232 interface.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Light sources: 1 Halogen lamp, 1 Deuterium lamp Wave length range: 190-1100 nm Wave length accuracy: ± 1 nm Wave length repeatability: ± 0.3 nm Spectral band width: 5 nm Photometric range: - 0.3 to 3 Abs, 0.0 to 200% Transmittance Long-term stability: ± 0.005 Abs/h Cuvette holder: for square cuvettes with external dimensions 12 × 12 mm Outputs: serial RS232C, parallel Centronix Dimensions (W x D x H): 420 x 380 x 275 mm Mains: 230 V~

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5.7 Food chemistry Food chemistry

Spectrophotometer 190-1100 nm 35655-93 Macro-cuvettes, PS, 4ml,100 pcs 35663-10

Half-shade polarimeter, 230 V AC Function and Application Half-shade polarimeter Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Polarimeter support with built-inlight source and filters polarimeter tube length 100 and 200 mm 2 scales 0-180 degrees division 1 degree vernier reading 0.05degrees with nonius light source sodium lamp 589 nm

35906-93

Function and Applications Immersion circulator with simple,reliable options for obtaining consistent results. Compact unit can be combined with any existing baths up to 25 mm wallthickness. Benefits

Wide temperature range to meet application needs. Digital settings for simple operation. Strong pump for high temperature conformity. To be used with water as heat transfer liquid. Screw clamp for bath walls up to 25 mm. Robust design using high grade stainless steel and temperature resistant polymer. Wear-free; integrated overload protection

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Heater capacity: 1.5 kW Temperature accuracy: ± 0.05 K Working temperature range: 25 to 85°C With additional cooling: -25 to 85°C

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Power supply: 230 V; 50-60 Hz Dimensions (WxDxH): 125 x 125 x 300 mm

Accessories ▪ ▪

Cooling coil (08493-01) Pump set (08493-02)

Immersion thermostat Alpha A, 230 V 08493-93 External circulation set for thermostat Alpha A 08493-02 Bath for thermostat, Makrolon 08487-02

Complete Experiments Chemistry/Biotechnology

01855-02

Immersion thermostat Alpha A, 230 V

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5 Applied Sciences 5.8 Material sciences

Material sciences 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.8.3 5.8.4 5.8.5 5.8.6 5.8.7

Metallography Mechanical Properties Magnetic Properties Thermal and Electrical Properties X-ray fluorescence Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

778 781 784 787 796 803 814

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.1 Metallography

Metallographic sample preparation - grinding and polishing

Principle Metallography is the art of preparing metallic samples by grinding, polishing and eventual etching for subsequent microscopic examination. Grinding and polishing is to prepare the specimen surface so as to enable the microstructure to be revealed by a suitable etching procedure. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Check the six metal specimens by means of the magnifier for any coarse defects. Grind and polish the samples according to the general rules and the detailed instructions given, considering the hardness and ductility data and the basic processing guidelines specified. Evaluate the influence of the individual process parameters on the surface quality obtained in the intermediate steps and after the final polishing. Try to optimize the grinding and polishing procedures.

4.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Grinding Polishing Metallographic preparation Ductility

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5510100

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.1 Metallography

Metallographic sample preparation - chemical etching

Ideal add to P5011100, polishing equipment required Principle Chemical etching is the most common method for contrasting polished metalsurfaces to reveal structural details of pure metals and alloys. The precondition for a good result in etching is a carefully polished and clean surface. The experiment describes the basic procedure, gives some recipes and presents a few pictures of several metal structures and phases. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Check the six metal specimens polished according to Experiment Section LEA 1.1.1 by means of the microscope to see if any macroscopic or microscopic structural features can be noticed. Prepare the etching solutions and etch the specimens according to the instructions. Examine the specimen surfaces as to whether the structural details have been satisfactorily revealed.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Etching Reveal crystallographic structure Micrography Metallographic phases Metal Microscopy

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5510200

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.1 Metallography

Grinding and polishing wheels SiC plane-polishing disk Ø 200 mm, MD-Primo 220 70021-01 Diamant plane-polishing disk Ø 200 mm, MD-Piano 220 70020-01 Diamant fine-polishing disk Ø 200 mm, MD-Piano 220 70022-01 Fine-polishing disk Ø 200 mm, MD-Allegroto use with diamant suspension 70024-01 Fine-polishing disk Ø 200 mm, MD-Largoto use with diamant suspension 70023-01 Grinding and polishing wheelaluminum 200 mm 70000-11 Grinding and polishing wheelPVC 200 mm 70000-12 Ø 200 mm, Special Magnetic Foilto fix on polishing disk 70000-15

Sample set applied science containing 8 metal samples Set of flat bars to determine the modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus). Set contains 7 precision flat rods with different dimensions of steel, brass and aluminium. 70001-01

Grinding and polishing machine, 230V200/250 mm, 50-600 rpm, variable Function and application Grinding and polishing machine to prepare metallographic samples. Benefits

Grinding and polishing materials Al2O3 suspension, 1l, 0.05 µm 70055-70 SiC Paper Grinding Discs G240, 200 mm, (100 Pcs.) Self- Adhesive Back 70011-70 Diamantstick 6 µm, 25g 70050-04 Diamond Suspension 6 Mic. 250 ml, bottle with sprayer 70040-25 Diamond Suspension 3 Mic. 250 ml, bottle with sprayer 70041-25 Diamond Suspension 1 Mic. 250 ml, bottle with sprayer 70042-25 Diamond Suspension 0,25 Mic. 250 ml, bottle with sprayer 70043-25 Diamond Lubricant, Water-based, 1.0 lt., bottle 70060-70 Diamond Lubricant 1 l,Oil-Water Base 70061-70

Polishing cloths Ø 200 mm, Thin Metal Plateto fix polishing cloth 70000-16 Polishing cloth Ø 200 mm, METAPO-P, 10 pcs for 10-6 micron diamonds 70002-03 Polishing cloth Ø 200 mm, METAPO-B, 10 pcs for 3-1 micron diamonds 70003-03 Polishing cloth Ø 200 mm, METAPO-V, 10 pcs for 1-0,1 micron diamonds 70004-03 Fine-polishing cloth Ø 200 mm, MD-Nap, 5 pcs 70005-02

Variable grinding speed to prepare hard and soft samples. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Diameter grinding platen: 200 and 250 mm, respectively Speed: 50-600 RPM Connected Power: 60 W Power supply : 230 VAC Dimensions (L x B x H): 380 x 690 x 340 mm Weight: 30 kg

Accessories ( not included) Grinding platen, aluminium, 200 mm (70000-11), Polishing platen, PVC, 200 mm (70000-12), Splash guard, 200 mm (70000-13), Lid (70000-14), Magnetic foil, 200 mm (70000-15), Metal disc, 200 mm (70000-16) 70000-93

excellence in science 780

Etching chemicals Nitric acid 1, 40, 65%, 500 ml 30213-50 Hydrochloric acid 30% 500 ml 48451-50 Ammonia solution, 25%, 250 ml 30933-25 Hydrogen peroxide, 30%, 250 ml 31710-25 Sodium hydroxide, flakes, 500 g 30157-50 Zinc chloride, dry, 250 g 31983-25 Iron-III chloride, 250 g 30069-25 Denaturated alcohol (spirit for burning), 1000 ml 31150-70 Isopropyl alcohol, 1000 ml 30092-70


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.2 Mechanical Properties

Hooke's law with Cobra3

Principle The validity of Hooke's Law is proven using various helical springs with different spring constants. In comparison, the behaviour of a stretched rubber band is examined, for which there is no proportionality between acting force and resulting extension. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Calibration of the system (movement sensor and force sensor). Measurement of the tensile force as a function of the path for three different helical springs and a rubber band. Determination of the spring constant and evaluation of a hysteresis curve. Verification of Hooke's law.

What you can learn about Spring constant, Limit of elasticity, Extension and compression Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2130111

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.2 Mechanical Properties

Modulus of elasticity

Principle A flat bar is supported at two points. It is bent by the action of a force acting at its centre. The modulus of elasticity is determined from the bending and the geometric data of the bar. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Determination of the characteristic curve of the dial gauge Determination the bending of flat bars as a function- of the force- of the thickness, at constant force- of the width, at constant force- of the distance between the support points at constant force Determination the modulus of elasticity of steel, aluminium and brass.

What you can learn about Young's modulus, Modulus of elasticity, Stress, Deformation, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5110200

Mechanical hysteresis P5110300 Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus P5110400

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.2 Mechanical Properties

Torsion apparatus, complete

Newton sensor

Function and application

Function and Applications To investigate deformations due to torques. For demonstration of the combined effects of force and lever. Torsion apparatus, complete 02421-88 Torsion apparatus 02421-00 Torsion rod, steel, l = 500 mm, d = 2 mm 02421-01 Torsion rod, Al, l = 500 mm, d = 2 mm 02421-02 Torsion rod, Al, l = 400 mm, d = 2 mm 02421-03 Torsion rod, Al, l = 300 mm, d = 2 mm 02421-04 Torsion rod, Al, l = 500 mm, d = 3 mm 02421-05 Torsion rod, Al, l = 500 mm, d = 4 mm 02421-06 Torsion rod, brass, l = 500 mm, d = 2 mm 02421-07 Torsion rod, Cu, l = 500 mm, d = 2 mm 02421-08

For connecting to the COBRA3 force measurement module. Metal casing with load-bearing hooks for tension forces and load plate for handling compression forces. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

With mounting rod and fixed mains lead End limit sensors for overload protection Lifting range 0.4 mm/N approx. Measuring range: max. +/- 4 N Resolution: max. +/- 0.0035 mN Compensation: +/- 4 N Dimensions (mm): 62 x 40 x 120

Newton sensor 12110-01 Measuring module Newton 12110-00 Movement sensor with cable 12004-10 Software Cobra3-Force/ Tesla 14515-61

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics

16502-32

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.3 Magnetic Properties

Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer

Principle With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement, light is brought to interference. Due to the magnetostrictive effect, one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample, and the change in the interference pattern is observed. Tasks 1. 2.

Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate optical components. Testing various ferromagnetic materials (iron and nickel) as well as a non-ferromagnetic material, copper, with regard to their magnetostrictive properties.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source Ferromagnetic material Weiss molecular magnetic fields Spin-orbit coupling

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5230800

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.3 Magnetic Properties

Ferromagnetic hysteresis

Principle A magnetic field is generated in a ring-shaped iron core by a continuous adjustable direct current applied to two coils. The field strength Η and the flux density B are measured and the hysteresis recorded. The remanence and the coercive field strength of two different iron cores can be compared. Tasks Record the hysteresis curve for a massive iron core and for a laminated one. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Induction Magnetic flux coil Magnetic field strength Magnetic field of coils Remanence Coercive field strength

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5551111

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.3 Magnetic Properties

Cobra3 Measuring module, Tesla

Faraday modulator

Function and Applications Copper coil on temperature-stable aluminium winder with insert for holdingglass rods (SF58) for Faraday effect. Equipment and technical data ▪ Function and Applications Plug-in module for a precise measurement of magnetic DC and AC fields. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Detection of the field direction (sign) in the case of DC fields Software-controlled zero adjustment and compensation of interference fields up to ± 1 T Already calibrated, i.e. no calibration magnet neeeded Use of the Hall probes of the teslameter no. 13610-93 Measuring ranges: ± 10 mT, ± 100 mT, ± 1 T Max. resolution 5 µT (12 bit) Compensation ± 1 T in all measuring ranges

Measuring module, Tesla 12109-00 Hall probe, tangential, protection cap 13610-02 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Software Cobra3-Force/ Tesla 14515-61 Rheostat, 10 Ohm , 5.7A 06110-02 Coil, 600 turns 06514-01

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with round stem, clamp screws and fixed connection cable = 1m with 4-mm jacks number of windings 1200 inductivity 6,3 mH ohm's resistance 4 Ω internal diameter 14 mm max. current 5 A (1min)

Faraday modulator f.opt.base pl. 08733-00 Rods for magnetostriction,set 08733-01

Cobra4 Sensor Tesla, ± 1 Tesla

Function and Applications Sensor to measure the magnetic field strength in DC and AC fields

Teslameter, digital

Cobra4 Sensor Tesla, ± 1 Tesla 12652-00 Cobra4 Mobile-Link set, incl. rechargeable batteries, SD memory card, USB cable and software "measure" 12620-55 Hall probe, tangential, protection cap 13610-02 Hall probe, axial 13610-01 Cobra4 Sensor Tesla, Set with 2 hall probes 12652-88

TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics Teslameter, digital 13610-93 Hall probe, tangential, protection cap 13610-02

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16508-02


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

Thermal expansion in solids and liquids

Principle The volume expansion of liquids and the linear expansion various materials is determined as a function of temperature. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

To determine the volume expansion of ethyl acetate (C4H8O2), methylated spirit, olive oil, glycerol and water as a function of temperature, using the pycnometer. To determine the linear expansion of brass, iron, copper, aluminium, duran glass and quartz glass as a function of temperature using a dilatometer. To investigate the relationship between change in length and overall length in the case of aluminium.

What you can learn about Linear expansion, volume expansion of liquids, thermal capacity, lattice potential, equilibrium spacing, Gr眉neisen equation Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2310100

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3

Principle Heated specimens are placed in a calorimeter filled with water at low temperature. The heat capacity of the specimen is determined from the rise in the temperature of the water. Tasks 1. 2.

To determine the specific heat capacity of aluminium, iron and brass. To verify Dulong Petit's law with the results of these experiments.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Mixture temperature Boiling point Dulong Petit's law Lattice vibration Internal energy Debye temperature

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2330111

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals

Principle The thermal conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined in a constant temperature gradient from the calorimetrically measured heat flow. The electrical conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined, and the Wiedmann-Franz law is tested. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter in a mixture experiment as a preliminary test. Measure the calefaction of water at a temperature of 0掳C in a calorimeter due to the action of the ambient temperature as a function of time. To begin with, establish a constant temperature gradient in a metal rod with the use of two heat reservoirs (boiling water and ice water) After removing the pieces of ice, measure the calefaction of the cold water as a function of time and determine the thermal conductivity of the metal rod. Determine the electrical conductivity of copper and aluminium by recording a current-voltage characteristic line. Test of the Wiedmann-Franz law.

What you can learn about Electrical conductivity, Wiedmann-Franz law, Lorenz number, Diffusion, Temperature gradient, Heat transport, Specific heat, Four-point measurement Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2350200

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

Dielectric constant of different materials

Principle The electric constant is determined by measuring the charge of a plate capacitor to which a voltage is applied. The dielectric constant is determined in the same way, with plastic or glass filling the space between the plates. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

The relation between charge Q and voltage U is to be measured using a plate capacitor. The electric constant is to be determined from the relation measured under point 1. The charge of a plate capacitor is to be measured as a function of the inverse of the distance between the plates, under constant voltage. The relation between charge Q and voltage U is to be measured by means of a plate capacitor, between the plates of which different solid dielectric media are introduced. The corresponding dielectric constants are determined by comparison with measurements performed with air between the capacitor plates.

What you can learn about Maxwell's equations, Electric constant, Capacitance of a plate capacitor, Real charges, Free charges, Dielectric displacement, Dielectric polarisation, Dielectric constant Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2420600

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

Hall effect in p-germanium (with Cobra3)

Principle The resistivity and Hall voltage of a rectangular germanium sample are measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The band spacing, the specific conductivity, the type of charge carrier and the mobility of the charge carriers are determined from the measurements. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Hall voltage is measured at room temperature and constant magnetic field as a function of the control current and plotted on a graph (measurement without compensation for defect voltage). The voltage across the sample is measured at room temperature and constant control current as a function of the magnetic induction B. The voltage across the sample is measured at constant control current as a function of the temperature. The band spacing of germanium is calculated from the measurements. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of the magnetic induction B, at room temperature. The sign of the charge carriers and the Hall constant RH together with the Hall mobility mH and the carrier concentration p are calculated from the measurements. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of temperature at constant magnetic induction B and the values are plotted on a graph.

What you can learn about Semiconductor, Band theory, Forbidden zone, Intrinsic conductivity, Extrinsic conductivity, Valence band, Conduction band, Lorentz force, Magnetic resistance, Mobility, Conductivity, Band spacing, Hall coefficient Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2530111

Hall effect in n-germanium (with the teslameter) P2530201 Hall effect in metals P2530300

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

Linear expansion of solid bodies

Change over between °C and K; temperature difference values and taredvalues are automatically presented in K.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Principle Metal pipes made of different materials are heated by passing steam through them. While each pipe is being tested, one end is securely fixed and the other rests on a rotating shaft, the motion of which is indicated with a pointer. The linear expansion of the different metals is compared qualitatively and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion is calculated.

Measuring range: - 50 ... + 300°C Resolution: up to 0.01°C Probe type: Pt 100 Probe connection: 4 diode plug, 5 pin Interface: RS 232 C, 9600 Baud Mains supply: 230 V / 50...60 Hz Casing dimensions (mm): 270 × 236 × 168

Temperature meter digital, 4-2 13617-93 Temp. probe, immersion type, Pt100, stainless steel, -20...+300°C 11759-01 Surface temperature probe PT100, -20...+300°C 11759-02

Dilatometer and accessories

Literature for this experiment as follows: Phys.Demovers.-Wärme/Hafttafel 01154-01 German Phys.Exp.Magnet Board Heat 01154-02 English Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Sekundarstufe 1,Mechanik, Akustik, Wärme, Elektrik, regenerative Energie,Optik 01500-01 German P1291500

Temperature meter digital, 4-2

Dilatometer with clock gauge 04233-00 Aluminium tube for 04231.01 04231-06 Copper tube for 04231.01 04231-05 Tube, quartz for 04231.01 04231-07 Measuring tube,l.300mm,IGJ19/26 03024-00

Heat conductivity rods

Function and Application Modern, user-friendly designed instrument for measuring temperature and temperature differences at four different measuring points.

For determination of heat conductivity.

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Two demonstrative 4 digit LED displays(+ sign), with 20 mm high digits for presentation of the values measured at the selected measuring points. RS 232 interface for simultaneous display and evaluation of the measured values from all four measuring points with a computer. Recorder output can be switched for output of the measured values of one of the digital displays to a tY recorder. Measurements of temperature difference between two probes in any combination. Tare function (set 0.00) with a ten times better resolution in a wide range on each side of the newly set zero. Automatic compensation of probedifferences with an adjust function.

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Function and Applications Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Material: copper, aluminium Length: 420 mm. Diameter: 25 mm. Covered with transparent plastic.

Heat conductivity rod, Cu 04518-11 Heat conductivity rod, Al 04518-12


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

Calorimeter, 500 ml

Plate capacitor, d = 260mm

Function and Applications For determination of the specific heat capacities of solid state bodies and liquids. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Calorimeter, 500 ml. Aluminium vessel in container with heat insulation. Cover with stirrer. 4 mm sockets for power supply. Spiral heating resistance: approx. 2.4 Ohm. Diameter: 134 mm. Height: 160 mm. Function and Applications

Calorimeter, 500 ml 04401-00 Metal bodies, set of 3 04406-00

High accuracy capacitor for electrostatic experiments, e. g. to investigate the relation between charge, voltage and capacity on a plate capacitor, to measure the dielectric constant and for precise determination of the electrostatic induction constant. Equipment and technical data

High voltage supply unit, 0-10 kV

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The fixed plate is highly insulated whereas the mobile plate is connected conductingly to the support. Highly precise adjustment of distance by means of a spindle drive. Distance is read on a vernier scale with a precision of 1/10 mm. Distance between plates: 0.70 mm. Reading accuracy: 1/10 mm. Plate diameter: 260 mm. Plate thickness: 6 mm.

Plate capacitor, d 260mm 06220-00 Plastic plate 283 x 283 mm 06233-01 Glass plates f.current conductors 06406-00 Function and Applications For electrostatic experiments and for operation of spectral and gas discharge tubes.

Universal measuring amplifier

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

It supplies 3 continuously variable DC voltages isolated from earth and ground. Two of the voltages are connected in series 0-5 kV DC = total of 0 -10 kV DC. Selectable positive and negative polarity. 3-figure LED display. Outputs short-circuit proof. Special safety sockets. Modern plastic housing, impact resistant, easy to service, light stackable with retractable carrying handle and stand. Internal resistance: approx.5 MOhm. Ripple: < 0.5%. Supply voltage: 230 V. Short circuit current: max. 3 mA. Housing dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168.

13670-93

Function and Applications Universal measuring amplifier for amplification of AC and DC voltages. Suitable for practical exercises. Equipment and technical data input impedance: electrometer: > 10 (13) Ohm low drift: 10 kOhm ▪ ▪

input voltage: -10 to + 10 V output voltage: -10 to + 10 V

frequency ranges:

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

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V=1 0...100 kHz V=10 0... 75 kHz V=10(2) 0... 10 kHz V=10(3) 0... 6 kHz V=10(4) 0...2.5 kHz V=10(5) 0... 2 kHz mains voltage: 230 V AC dimensions: 194 x 140 x 126 mm

Hall effect, Cu, carrier board

13626-93

Hall effect module Function and Applications To demonstrate the normal Hall effect in a metal. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications Hall module with- central power supply to provide an adjustable constant current for the sample and for the integrated sample heater Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

digital LED display (3 digits, 9mm) to show either the sample current or the sample temperature sample heater with fully automatic temperature control system to avoid damage to the samples electronic compensating circuit for Hall voltage offset compensation RS 232 interface to connect an interface for comfortable data capturing, display and evaluation using a PC Different boards can be plugged easily and safely into the Hall module which requires only a 12V AC power supply. The Hall module provides all operating parameters for the samples and displays the sample.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Max. current of probe: +/- 60 mA Max. temperature of probe: 175 °C Power supply: 12 VAC/max.3,5 A Dimensions: (16x10,5x2,5)cm Weight: 0,25 kg

Hall effect module 11801-00 Hall effect,n-Ge,carrier board 11802-01 Hall effect,p-Ge,carrier board 11805-01 Intrins.conduct.Ge,carrier board 11807-01

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Integrated heating system with thermocouple to demonstrate temperature independence of the Hall voltage (contrarily to semiconductors). The lateral 4 mm outwards leading sockets allow for easy holding between the pole pieces of an electromagnet (e. g. iron core 06501.00 with pole pieces 06489.00). Holding rod.

Hall effect, Cu, carrier board 11803-00 Hall effect, zinc, carrier board 11804-01


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.4 Thermal and Electrical Properties

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.5 X-ray fluorescence

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.5 X-ray fluorescence

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.5 X-ray fluorescence

XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set

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Accessories are always ready at hand Utensils are stored safely Dust-free storage

Equipment and technical data The set includes the following components: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit, 09057-99 XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit with a tungsten X-ray tube, 09057-80 measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software, 14414-61 XR 4.0 X-ray slide mounts for the optical bench, 4 pieces, 09057-19 XR 4.0 X-ray fluoroscopic screen, 09057-26 XR 4.0 X-ray protective sheath, 09057-49

Recommended upgrade sets for various applications and topics

Function and Applications Basic set covering the fundamental principles and areas of applications of X-rays, e.g. fluoroscopy experiments and X-ray photography. It can be extended by upgrade sets for specific applications and topics. Benefits Safety concept complying with the applicable standards and regulations ▪ ▪

The set complies with all of the German (X-ray ordinance, RÖV) and European regulations for radiation protection. Type approval by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, BFS) concerning the use of the unit at schools and universities in Germany (not subject to approval, but to reporting). (Type approval submitted.) Lead-enforced acrylic glass windows as a shield against the X-rays (breakproof in accordance with DIN/EN 61010)

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XRW 4.0 X-ray wireless demonstration upgrade set, 09115-88 XRP 4.0 X-ray solid state upgrade set, 09120-88 XRC 4.0 X-ray characteristics upgrade set, 09130-88 XRS 4.0 X-ray structural analysis upgrade set, 09140-88 XRI 4.0 X-ray imaging upgrade set, 09150-88 XRM 4.0 X-ray material analysis upgrade set, 09160-88 XRD 4.0 X-ray dosimetry and radiation damage upgrade set, 09170-88 XRT 4.0 X-ray Computer Tomography upgrade set, 09180-88

09110-88

XRM 4.0 X-ray material analysis upgrade set

S-Lock - PHYWE's safety lock ▪ ▪

Electro-mechanical system for maximum security Prevents door opening during X-ray emission by multiple safety circuits

MultiLINK ▪ ▪ ▪

External socket panel Easy and safe connection of PHYWE components, such as the X-ray energy detector (09058-30) and other standard devices, e.g. digital cameras USB 2.0, N2, BNC, XRED,...

Plug & measure ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Self-calibrating goniometer (option) safe and easy handling collision protected goniometer Protects expensive equipment: GM counter tube and X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Tube XChange Technology ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

XXL Chamber ▪ ▪

Particularly spacious experiment chamber for sophisticated setups Integrated optical bench for the easy and reproducible set-up of experiments (can be extended to the outside)

3View ▪

Observation through windows on three sides; optimal for the transparent execution of experiments

Lockable tray for accessories

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Function and Applications Upgrade set as an extension of the XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set (09110-88). This set is particularly suitable for the qualitative and quantitative X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of metallic samples in physics and material science (non-destructive testing). The set covers the following experiments and topics: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Various different types of samples can be analysed: powders, solids, and liquids Material analyses of pure metals and multi-component alloys Compton effect - Moseley's laws energy-dispersive Bragg structure analysis K and L edge absorption Determination of the lattice constant of monocrystals Duane-Hunt's law of displacement X-ray fluorescence analysis for layer thickness determination Characteristics and the special resolving power of an X-ray energy detector

Benefits ▪ ▪

In combination with the XR 4.0 X-ray multi-channel analyser (13727-99), the entire X-ray energy spectrum (2-35 keV) of the analysed materials can be determined The set includes a sensitive XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (09058-30) with a resolution of FWHM < 400 eV, rate independent up to 20 kcps


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.5 X-ray fluorescence

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The XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector is mounted directly and easily onto the XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer (09057-10) of the XR 4.0 X-ray unit (09057-99) Direct connection of the XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (09058-30) via the internal and external socket panel to the multichannel analyser (13727-99) that also supplies the supply voltage. Immediately ready for use, as indicated by a standby LED

XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit

Equipment and technical data The set includes the following components: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer, 09057-10 XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector, 09058-30 Multi-channel analyser, 13727-99 Software for the multi-channel analyser, 14452-61 XR 4.0 X-ray set of chemicals for edge absorption, 1 set, 09056-04 XR 4.0 X-ray lithium fluoride (LiF) monocrystal in a holder, 09056-05 XR 4.0 X-ray universal crystal holder for the X-ray unit, 09058-02 XR 4.0 X-ray sample holder for powder samples, 09058-09 XR 4.0 X-ray diaphragm tube with Zr foil, 09058-03 XR 4.0 X-ray Compton module, 09058-04 XR 4.0 X-ray accessories for the material analysis set, 09057-36 Balance, DENVER DLT-411, 400 g/0.1 g, 49061-00

09160-88

Additional XR 4.0 X-ray upgrade sets

Function and Applications School/full-protection device with X-ray tube quick-change technology for fluoroscopy and X-ray imaging, ionisation and dosimetry experiments, Laue and Debye-Scherrer images, X-ray spectroscopy, Bragg reflection, bremsspectrum/characteristic lines of various different anode materials, Moseley's law, determination of Planck's constant and Rydberg constant, Duane Hunt's law, material-thickness- and energydependent absorption, K and Ledges, contrast medium experiments, Compton scattering, and X-ray diffractometry. Benefits Safety concept complying with the applicable standards and regulations ▪ ▪

▪ ▪

The unit complies with all of the German (X-ray ordinance, RÖV) and European regulations for radiation protection. Type approval by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, BFS) concerning the use of the unit at schools and universities in Germany (not subject to approval, but to reporting). (Type approval submitted.) Lead-enforced acrylic glass windows as a shield against the X-rays (breakproof in accordance with DIN/EN61010) PHYWE safety lock technology (registered utility model)

S-Lock - PHYWE's safety lock Upgrade sets as an extension of the XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set (09110-88). XRS 4.0 X-ray structural analysis upgrade set 09140-88 XRP 4.0 X-ray Solid state physics upgrade set 09120-88 XRC 4.0 X-ray characteristics upgrade set 09130-88 XRI 4.0 X-ray imaging upgrade set 09150-88 XRD 4.0 X-ray dosimetry and radiation damage upgrade set 09170-88 XRT 4.0 X-ray Computer Tomography upgrade set 09180-88 XRW 4.0 X-ray wireless demonstration upgrade set 09115-88

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electro-mechanical system for maximum security Prevents door opening during X-ray emission by multiple safety circuits

MultiLINK ▪ ▪ ▪

External socket panel Easy and safe connection of PHYWE components, such as the X-ray energy detector (09058-30) and other standard devices, e.g. digital cameras USB 2.0, N2, BNC, XRED,...

Plug & measure ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Self-calibrating goniometer (option) safe and easy handling collision protected goniometer Protects expensive equipment: GM counter tube and X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Tube XChange Technology ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

XXL Chamber ▪ ▪

Particularly spacious experiment chamber for sophisticated setups Integrated optical bench for the easy and reproducible set-up of experiments (can be extended to the outside)

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.5 X-ray fluorescence

3View ▪

Observation through windows on three sides; optimal for the transparent execution of experiments

Lockable tray for accessories ▪ ▪ ▪

Accessories are always ready at hand Utensils are stored safely Dust-free storage

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Microprocessor-controlled basic unit with two independent safety circuits for the door position and two independent monitoring circuits for the door locking system Four different X-ray tubes (Fe, Cu, Mo, and W) can be plugged in and remain visible during operation Determination of the X-ray intensity via an integrated GeigerMüller counter tube connection with a variable counter tube voltage (0...700 V) and an integrated loudspeaker TFT colour display (dimensions 4,3"(95x54 mm), 16 Bit, 56.536 colours, 480x272 Pixel) for the manual control of the unit "Display Connect" interface for the connection of a large-scale display unit True-colour line-shaped interior LED lighting system High voltage 0.0...35.0 kV Emission current 0.0...1.0 mA Housing (mm): 682 (W) x 620 (H) x 450(D) Experiment chamber (mm): 440 (W) x 345(H) x 354 (D) Connection: 110/240 V~, 50/60 Hz Power consumption: 200 VA Mass: 55 kg PC control via USB 2.0

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Double control ▪ ▪ ▪

The intuitive user concept considerably simplifies the operation of such a complex device and puts the experiment into the focus of attention.

Multilingual ▪

XRm 4.0 is available in more than 20 languages, among them German, English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Russian. As a result, XRm 4.0 is also suitable for beginners' laboratory courses at universities and the secondary school level.

Reference experiments ▪ ▪ ▪

When the unit is used for the first time, at least one X-ray tube, e.g. the tungsten X-ray tube 09057-80, is required.

measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software

Simultaneous operation of the XR 4.0 Expert Unit via manual control and via a computer No restrictions concerning the execution of experiments

Plug & measure

Required accessories

XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit 09057-99 XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer 09057-10

Automatic identification of the connected devices of the XR 4.0 series Loading of predefined settings Working directly without the need for specialist knowledge

The comprehensive collection of reference experiments simplifies the selection of suitable experiments and can be used as a template for own experiment scripts/laboratory handbooks. All of the relevant topics concerning the characterisation and application of X-rays are documented. Experiment descriptions in PDF files with learning objectives, brief description, set-up picture, equipment list, experiment procedure, reference results with a reference to the theoretical background, and device and software settings that are specifically adapted to the experiment. All of the experiment-relevant settings can be loaded at the push of a button. The experiment descriptions include configuration files and example measurements. They are provided free of charge on the measure DVD.

System requirements ▪

PC with at least a Pentium 3 processor, 512 MB RAM, 1 GB free hard drive space, DVD drive, USB 2.0, Microsoft ®Windows XP or higher.

measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software 14414-61 measure XRt 4.0 X-ray CT Software 14421-61

XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in tubes

Function and application Software package of the "measure" series for controlling the XR 4.0 Expert Unit (X-ray unit). XRm 4.0 consists of a module for device control and measurement data recording and a module for measurement data processing (main program). Benefits AUTORUN

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Function and Applications Factory adjusted tube in sheet steel housing ready for use in connection with XR 4.0 expert unit. Housing with plugs to accept the tubes operating quantities from the basic unit. With handle, mechanical lock and two switching pins,which only operate correspondingly security microswitches of the basic unit when the plug-in module is correcly inserted.


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.5 X-ray fluorescence

Benefits:

XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Tube XChange Technology: ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Anode angle 19° Max. operation datas 1 mA/35 kV Test voltage 50 kV Mass 4.3 kg Dimensions (26.7 x 18.8 x 20.3) cm Incl. dust protection cover

XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube 09057-50 XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube 09057-60 XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Fe tube 09057-70 XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube 09057-80

XR 4.0 X-ray Universal crystals and holder

Function and Applications With the new X-ray energy detector you can directly determine the energies of single x-ray quanta. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

In connection with the multi-channel analyser (MCA) you can characterise the complete x-ray energy spectrum of the analysed material. Characteristic x-ray lines for all elements of the PSE included in the software. Directly mountable on the goniometer of the x-ray unit, without loss of functionality of the goniometer Directly connectable to MCA (USB) without any additional interface on Green Operation-LED Parallel observation of the signals in the oscilloscope (optional)

Typical application laboratory experiments in universities and high schools: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Characterisation of X-rays of different anode materials (Cu, Fe, Mo) Fluorescence analysis of pure materials and alloys Determination of the composition of alloys Compton effect-Mosley's law-Energy dispersive Bragg structure analysis

Equipment and technical data Function and application Monocrystal mounted in holder. In connection with x-ray unit for Laue-experiments and for the analysis of x-ray energies by the Bragg-method. XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluorid crystal,mounted 09056-05 XR 4.0 X-ray Potassium Bromide Crystal,mounted 09056-01 XR 4.0 X-ray Univ. crystal holder f.x-ray-unit 09058-02

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Energy range: 2 - 60 keV Resolution: < 400 eV Active detector surface 0,8 mm² Power supply included Rate independent resolution up to 20 Kcps (kilo counts per second) max. 4000 channels 2 or 3 point calibration

09058-30

XR 4.0 X-ray Specimen sets X-ray fluorescence XR 4.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for X-ray fluorescence, set of 7 09058-31 Xr 4.0 X-ray Specimen set alloys for fluorescence, set of 5 09058-33 XR 4.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for fluorescence, set of 4 09058-34

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.5 X-ray fluorescence

Mult ichannel analyser - extended version suitable also for operation of the X-ray energy detector

TESS expert Handbook Physics X-Ray Experiments

Function and applications The multi channel analyser is for analysing voltage pulses which are proportional to energy and for determining pulse rates and intensities in conjunction with an X-ray detector, alpha detector or gamma detector. The analogue pulses from the detector are shaped by the analyser, digitised and summed per channel according to pulse height. This results in a frequency distribution of detected pulses dependent on the energy of the radiation. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Analogue output for observing heights of the pulse spectrum on an oscilloscope, A USB output for connecting to a computer, Integrated power supply for alpha detector pre-amp Integrated power supply for X-ray energy detector Includes 1.5-m mains lead, USB cable type A/B Multi-channel analyser software (required) Resolution (per spectrum): up to 4096 channels (12 bit) Lag time: 60 µs Coincidence window: 1 µs Analogue input: negative pulse impedance: 3.3 kilohms, 150 pF Amplification: three stages, 6, 12 and 24 digitally adjustable Pulse height: max. 4 V Analogue output: positive pulse 0 to 4 VPulse length: 15 µs offset approx. 12-bit digital resolution Maximum offset: 4 V (disable input/coincidence input) Logic input (TTL) for coincidence measurements at voltage outputs Diode socket: ± 12 V / max. 30 mA BNC socket (bias voltage): -33, -66, -99 V Plastic case with carrying handle Dimensions H × W × D (mm): 90 x 140 x 130 Mains voltage: 115/230 V~ Mains frequency: 50/60 Hz

Experiments with X-rays and their use in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, material science, and geology Description Comprehensive collection of reference experiments concerning the fundamental principles and use of X-rays in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, material science, and geology with the XR 4.0 X-ray unit platform as a pool of ideas concerning the potential areas of application in demonstration and laboratory experiments. A clear matrix simplifies the orientation in terms of scientific fields and topics. Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Features ▪

Accessories Multi channel analyser software (required) Multi channel analyser - extended version suitable also for operation of the X-ray energy detector 13727-99 measure Software multi channel analyser 14452-61

Characteristic X-radiation / atomic structure / quantum physics and chemistry X-ray absorption Compton scattering Dosimetry Crystal structures/structural analysis with X-rays/Debye-Scherrer experiments (counting tube goniometer) Transirradiation experiments/non-destructive testing

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Experiment descriptions with clearly structured learning objectives, fundamental principles, photo of the set-up, equipment list, tasks, illustrated instructions concerning the set-up and procedure, theory and evaluation with example results plus important notes concerning the operation and safety of the equipment. This simplifies the orientation and execution as well as the selection of the experiment parts for personalised laboratory experiments. The information provided is so comprehensive that no other background information is required. For every experiment, the software package "XRM 4.0 measure Xray" includes presettings for the easy and direct execution of the experiment at the push of a button as well as numerous example measurements. Experiment matrix for quick orientation Operating instructions concerning the components of the XR 4.0 platform including detailed information DIN A4 format, spiral-bound, colour print

01200-02

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Chladni figures with the FG module and Cobra3

Principle To show the two-dimensional standing waves on the surface of a square or circular plate. Tasks A frequency generator is connected to a sound head. The sound head drives a Chaldni plate. White sand is sprinkled randomly to cover the entire black surface of the plate. Drive the plate at a predetermined harmonic frequency and the sand will migrate into the nodal regions. A well defined standing wave pattern can be clearly seen in the first photo. The circular and square Chladni plates will create characteristic patterns. Adjust the oscillator slowly in the 0.2 to 2 kHz frequency range and watch for the pattern to emerge when a harmonic is tuned. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Wavelength Stationary waves Natural vibrations Two-dimensional standing waves

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2150515

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material

Principle The velocity of sound in acrylics shall be determined by time of flight reflection technique with an ultrasonic echoscope. The measurements are done, by reflection method, on three cylinders of different length. Two measurement series are carried out with ultrasonic probes of different frequencies. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Measure the length of the three cylinders with the calliper. Determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic reflection pulses for the three cylinders and the two ultrasonic probes. Calculate the sound velocities, probe delays and use the two mean values obtained to calculate the cylinder length.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Sound velocity Propagation of ultrasonic waves Time of flight Ultrasonic echography Thickness measurement Probe delay

Literature for this experiment as follows: Laboratory Experiments Physics, Chemistry, Biology andApplied Sciences, CD-ROM, incl. operating manuals 16502-42 English TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160100

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Ultrasonic echography (A-Scan)

Principle An ultrasonic wave transmitted in a sample will be reflected at discontinuities (defects, cracks). From the relationship between the time of flight of the reflected wave and the sound velocity, the distance between ultrasonic transducer and defects(reflector) can be calculated. Position and size of these defects can be determined by measuring in different directions. Tasks 1.

Measure the longest side of the block with the calliper and the time of light of ultrasound wave for this distance with the 2 MHz probe Calculate the sound velocity. Measure the position and the size of the different defects of the test block with the calliper and the ultrasound echography method.

2. 3.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Propagation of ultrasonic waves Time of flight Echo amplitude Reflection coefficient A-scan Flaw detection Non destructive testing (NDT) Ultrasonic transceiver

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160200

Ultrasonic echography (B-Scan) P5160300

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Angle beam measurement

Principle The experiment demonstrates the application of ultrasonic angle beam probes in non-destructive testing. Echoes of transverse and longitudinal waves coming from an aluminium testblock are investigated using three different delay line angles. For straight beam probes, the distance is calculated using simply the time of flight and the sound velocity of longitudinal wave. Angle beam probes require in addition the length of the delay line, the sound velocity of the transverse wave, the angle of the probe and the sound exit point of the delay line. The probe calibration is checked measuring half and full skip distance on a cylindrical discontinuity. Tasks 1. 2.

Examine with three different angle delay lines, the half and full skip distance in an aluminium alloy bloc. Determine which probes allow to measure longitudinal and transverse wave echoes. Measure first with the 38 ° and then with the 17 ° angle delay line, the time of flight and the positions of the probe at half and full skip distance. Calculate the sound exit point, the incidence angle, the acoustic path, the sound velocity and the length of the delay line. Check the probe characteristics on a cylindrical discontinuity. Measure the depth and the projected distance of the flaw in the test block and compare these values with the sketch.

3. 4.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Angle beam probe Incident angle Ultrasonic refraction Longitudinal wave Shear wave Angle beam echo Skip distance Ultrasound echography A-mode Reflection

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160400

excellence in science 806


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Time of flight diffraction (TOFD)

Principle The depth of the cracks of an aluminiumtest block with seven cracks ofdifferent depths (saw cuts) isdetermined with two methods. During theexperiment, the cracks in the materialare examined with the aid of theultrasound angle beam probe and thedepth of the cracks is determined withthe aid of the signal amplitude and theTOFD method (time of flightdiffraction). Both methods are comparedbased on their measurement results andin view of their performance anddetection limits. The test block isscanned in accordance with the TOFDmethod as well as with a special probecombination so that the correspondingscan image of the crack distribution canbe generated. Tasks 1. 2.

Determine the sound velocity ofthe shear wave in a test block for thecrack depth determination with the anglebeam probe based on the corner echoes athalf and full skip distance. Prepare a characteristic groovecurve for the cracks of the aluminiumtest block for determining the crackdepth based on the echo amplitude. Determine the crack depths of thetest block with the TOFD method andcompare the results to the results ofthe echo amplitude method. Scan the test object with a TOFDscanning head and analyse the cracks inthe TOFD scan.

3. 4.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Non-destructive testing (NDT) TOFD method (time of flight diffraction) Ultrasonic diffraction Sound velocity Shear waves (transverse waves) Corner echo B-scan Preferential corrosion measurement

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160500

Detection of discontinuities P5160600 Frequency dependence of resolution power P5160700

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state materials

Principle The attenuation of ultrasound in solid bodies (polyacrylic) is measured at three different frequencies using a reflection method and by scanning through the bodies with an echoscope. The results give an indication of how attenuation depends on frequency. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160800

excellence in science 808


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Shear waves in solid state materials

Principle An echoscope is used to measure the emergence of longitudinal and transverse waves when sound passes through flat rectangular blocks made of differing materials. The relationship between amplitude and angle can be used to determine the speed of sound in the blocks in longitudinal and transverse directions and these results can then be used to determine the coefficient of elasticity for those materials. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5160900

Determination of the focus zone P5161000

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Mechanical scan methods

Principle A computer-controlled scanner is used to make a B scan of a test body using two probes of different frequency (1 MHz and 2 MHz) and various locating resolutions. A comparison is then made between the effects on the resolution capabilities. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5161100

Ultrasonic computer tomography

Principle First an explanation of image generation using the CT algorithm is given. An attenuation and sound speed tomogram is then made on a simple test object and any differences are then discussed. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5161200

excellence in science 810


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Spectral investigations

Principle An echoscope is used to investigate the difference between a spectrum produced by a pulse and a spectrum produced by a periodic signal using multiple reflections from a block. The periodic spectrum allows the cepstrum (Fourier transform of the log spectrum) to be determined along with the period of the signal. The period can then be used to determine the thickness of the block. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5161300

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Oscillations in metal plates

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By adjusting the power transmission and gain the ultrasonic signal can be tuned to nearly every arbitrary object of investigation. The loss of intensity of the ultrasonic signal from deeper layers of investigation is balanced by a time-dependent amplification (TGC time-gain control). Threshold, start and end point or slope can be chosen freely. Important signals (trigger, TGC , RF signal and amplitude signal) are available at BNC outlets.

Equipment and technical data

Principle After a round or square metal plate is struck, a complex natural frequency spectrum is generated. Fourier analysis can be used to quickly determine the suitable frequencies for generating Chladni patterns. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra3 (C3PT) 01310-01 German Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 English P1362200

Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope

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Ultrasonic echoscope Ultrasonic probe 1 MHz Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Ultrasonic test block Ultrasonic cylinder set Ultrasonic test plates Ultrasonic gel Size: 220 x 300 x 400 mm Frequency: 1 - 5 MHz PC connection: USB Measuring operations: reflection and transmission Transmitter signal: 10 - 300 V Transmitter power: 0 - 30 dB Gain: 0 - 35 dB TGC: 0 - 30 dB, threshold, slope, width Outlets: trigger, TGC, RF, LF Main voltage: 115.230 V, 50.60 Hz Power of electricity: 20 VA

Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope 13921-99 Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz 13921-05 Ultrasonic probe 4 MHz 13921-02

Extension set: Non destructive testing

Function and Applications With the ultrasonic echoscope the basics of ultrasound and its wave characteristics can be demonstrated. Terms like amplitude, frequency, sound velocity or Time Gain Control TGC will be explained. The cylinder set can be used to vividly demonstrate reflection as well as sound velocity and frequency depending on attenuation in solid state materials. The knowledge e.g. regarding sound velocity will be used to measure the test block. The principles of image formation from A-scan to B-scan can be explained. With the different probes the frequency depending resolution can be evaluated. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

The Ultrasonic echoscope is a highly sensitive ultrasonic measuring device designed to connect to a personal computer or simply to an oscilloscope The supplied software enables an extensive signal processing (RFsignal, amplitude signal, B-scan, M-mode, spectral analysis). The ultrasonic probes are connected by robust snap-in plugs. The probe frequency is recognised automatically by the measuring device.

excellence in science 812

Function and Application Studies of Ultrasound techniques Used in NDT applications: ▪ ▪ ▪

Flaw detection Angle beam inspection Time of flight diffraction (TOFD)

Particular suitable for NDT training Benefits Different NDT techniques can be demonstrated with the same equipment. No special unit for TOFD required Accessories ( required but not included) ▪ ▪

Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope: 13921-99 Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz : 13921-05

13921-01


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

Extension set: Shear waves

CT Scanner ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Linear movement: ca. 400 mm, resolution <10 µm Maximal speed: 18 cm/min Rotation: 360°, resolution 0.225° Maximal speed: 1 rotation/s Size: 500 x 400 x 200 mm

CT Control unit ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications When an ultrasonic wave hits a solid state material in a certain angle, shear waves will be generated with increasing angle. Shear waves have a sound velocity differing to that of longitudinal waves. With this experimental equipment the transition from longitudinal to shear waves can be measured angle-dependently.

Output: 3 x stepper motor control, bipolar, 5 V, max. 2 A, 6 x limit switches Interface PC: USB Size: 250 x 180 x 170 mm Main voltage: 90-230 V, 50/60 Hz Power of electricity: < 50 VA

13922-99

Ultrasonic coupling gel 250 ml 13924-25

Benefits Basics of ultrasounds which can not been demonstrated with industrial equipment are shown in an very didactical manner Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x

Ultrasonic probe 1 MHz Shear wave set (incl. 2 probe holders) Aluminium sample for shear waves Hydrophone for sound field measurement Hydrophone plate Hydrophone holder Holder block

13921-03

Extension Set: CT Scanner

Function and Applications This set is an extension to the ultrasonic pulse echo methods, including automated imaging methods like CT and B mode. With this set the development of a CT image can be demonstrated step by step. Automated B-scan images can be made with this set as well. The scanned objects can be measured and evaluated in axial and lateral direction. The results of the automated measurements with scanner have a much better quality, especially with the imaging methods. Benefits For a rather low invest, compared to real life systems, the advantages of mechanical scanning can be demonstrated in a very comprehensible way. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1x 1x 1x 1x

CT scanner CT control unit with tomography software Water tank CT sample

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 813


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

Atomic Resolution of the graphite surface by STM (scanning tunnelling microscope)

Principle Approaching a very sharp metal tip to an electrically conductive sample by applying a electrical field leads to a current between tip and sample without any mechanical contact. This so-called tunneling current is used to investigate the electronic topography on the sub nanometer scale of a fresh prepared graphite (HOPG) surface. By scanning the tip line-by-line across the surface graphite atoms and the hexagonal structure are imaged. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Prepare a Pt-Ir tip and the graphite (HOPG) sample and approach the tip to the sample. Investigate the topography of clean terraces and the step height between neighboring terraces in constant-current mode. Image the arrangement of graphite atoms on a clean terrace by optimize tunneling and scanning parameters. Interpret the structure by analyzing angles and distances between atoms and atomic rows and by using the 2D and 3D graphite model. Measure and compare images in the constant-height and constant-current mode.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Tunneling effect Hexagonal Structures Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Imaging on the sub nanometer scale Piezo-electric devices Local Density Of States (LDOS) Constant-Height and Constant-Current-Mode

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P2532000

excellence in science 814


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

Investigate in surface atomic structures and defects of diffrent samples by STM

Principle Approaching a very sharp metal tip to anelectrically conductive sample byapplying a electrical field leads to acurrent between tip and sample withoutany mechanical contact. This so-calledtunneling current is used to investigatethe electronic topography on the subnanometer scale of a fresh preparedgraphite (HOPG) surface. By scanning thetip line-by-line across the surfacegraphite atoms and the hexagonalstructure are imaged. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Prepare a Pt-Ir tip and the graphite (HOPG) sample and approach the tip to the sample. Investigate the topography of cleanterraces and the step height betweenneighboring terraces in constant-currentmode. Image the arrangement of graphiteatoms on a clean terrace by optimize tunneling and scanning parameters. Interpret the structure by analyzing angles and distances between atoms and atomic rows and by using the 2D and 3D graphite model. Measure and compare images in the constant-height and constant-current mode.

4.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Tunneling effect Hexagonal Structures Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Imaging on the sub nanometer scale Piezo-electric devices Local Density Of States (LDOS) Constant-Height and Constant-Current Mode

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P2532500

Roughness and nanomorhology of different metal samples using by STM P2537000

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

Nanoscale workfunction measurements by scanning tunneling spectroscopy Principle Approaching a very sharp metal tip to an electrically conductive sample by applying an electrical field leads to a current between tip and sample without any mechanical contact. This so-called tunneling current is used to investigate the electronic topography on the sub nanometer scale of a fresh prepared graphite (HOPG) surface. By scanning the tip line-by-line across the surface graphite atoms and the hexagonal structure are imaged. Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4.

Prepare a Pt-Ir tip and the graphite (HOPG) sample and approach the tip to the sample. Investigate the topography of clean terraces and the step height between neighboring terraces in constant-current mode. Image the arrangement of graphite atoms on a clean terrace by optimise tunneling and scanning parameters. Interpret the structure by analysing angles and distances between atoms and atomic rows and by using the 2D and 3D graphite model. Measure and compare images in the constant-height and constant-current mode.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Tunneling effect Hexagonal structures Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Imaging on the sub nanometer scale Piezo-electric devices Local Density Of States (LDOS) Constant-Height and Constant-Current Mode

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P2533000

Nanoscale electrical charakteristics of different samples by STS P2533500 Application and visualisation of quantum mechanical effects by STM P2535000

excellence in science 816


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

Surface treatment / plasma physics

Principle Different samples are exposed to a dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma induces both chemical and physical reactions on the sample surface altering the surface structure and thus the surface energy. The contact angle of water on the sample surface is observed in the exposed and in the unexposed region to analyse the effect of the plasma treatment on the surface energy. Tasks Various samples are to be treated with a plasma for different periods of time. The effect of the treatment on the contact angle of water on the surface is to be observed by drop size measurement or by web cam photography. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Arc discharge Glow discharge Electron avalanches Townsend breakthrough Mechanism Streamers Microdischarges Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) Surface energy Contact angle (CA) Contact angle measurement

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5540100

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

Contact angles

Principle The edge of a drop of liquid that is on a solid surface forms a characteristic angle to the solid surface. To determine this boundary angle for a liquid of known surface tension, the weight increase which occurs when a right-angled plate with a smooth surface and known geometry is immersed in the liquid is measured. Tasks Determine the contact angle of water on silicate glass using the Wilhelmy method. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Contact angle Wilhelmy equation Surface tension Wetting

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3040401

excellence in science 818


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

Electrokinetic potential

Principle An electrical potential (zeta potential) is formed at a solid-liquid interface, and is the cause of electrokinetic phenomena. On applying an electrical field to a system composed of a fine-grained solid and a liquid, a mechanical movement of the phases is generated. This phenomenon is termed electro-osmosis. The liquid movement can be detected with the aid of a precision manometer. Tasks Determine the time required for a pressure change of 0.1 hPa in the U-tube as a function of the applied cell voltage. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrochemical double layer Helmholtz (Smoluchowski) equation Electro-osmosis Phase boundary

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3040601

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope, complete set incl. tools, sample kit and consumables, in aluminium case

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Handbook incl. short description of starting experiments with HOPG and gold films Quick Installation Guide Weight (incl. case) 6.7kg

Accessories ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications Easy to use scanning tunneling microscope to image conducting surfaces and to investigate effects and characteritics on atomic and molecular scale. A variety of experiments in the fields of Material Sciences, Solid State Physics/Chemistry, Nanotechnology and Quantum Mechanics can be performed. For example: micro- and nano morphology of surfaces, nano structures, imaging of atoms and molecules, conductivity, tunneling effect, charge density waves, single molecule contacts, and nanostructuring by self organisation (self assembled monolayers). Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Out-of-the-box-device incl. all necessary accessories for a prompt entry into the world of atoms and molecules Portable and compact: transportable, easy to install with a small footprint Single device for more stable measurements Quick atomic resolution on a normal table. No need for expensive vibration isolation Easy to use: Ideal for nanotechnology education, preparing students for their work on high-level research devices, and outreach Accessible sample stage and scanning tip: Quick exchange of tip and sample Low operating voltage: Safe for all users

Equipment and technical data ▪

Scan head with integrated control-unit on vibration-isolated experimentation board: ▪ Maximum scan range (XY) 500nm x 500nm ▪ Maximum Z-range 200nm ▪ Resolution in XY better than 8pm ▪ Resolution in Z better than 4pm ▪ Current 0.1-100nA in 25pA steps ▪ Tip voltage +/-10V in 5mV steps ▪ Dimensions 21cm x 21cm x 10cm ▪ Constant-Current Mode ▪ Constant-Height Mode ▪ Current-Voltage Spectroscopy ▪ Current-Distant Spectroscopy ▪ Control-Unit with USB socket, 16-Bit ▪ DA converter for all three dimensions, up to 7 measurement channels, and maximum scanning speed of 60 ms/line

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Scan head cover with magnif. lense:10x Toolset for preparing and mounting tunneling tips: side-cutter, tong and tweezers Pt-Ir wire for tunneling tips: length 30cm, diameter 0.25mm Sample kit: Graphite (HOPG), Gold(111) films, and 4 spare sample supports Power supply (100-240V, 50/60Hz) USB cable: length 3m Aluminium case (44cm x 32cm x 14cm) Software for measuring, analysing and visualization (one, two, and three dimensions)

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excellence in science 820

Computer with Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7, USB interface, 256MB RAM, 1024x758 graphics card, 16-bit color resolution or better other samples electrical conductive adhesive for mounting own samples ethanol and cloth for cleaning

Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope, complete set incl. tools, sample kit and consumables, in aluminium case 09600-99 Pt/Ir wire, diameter 0.25mm, length 30 cm, for tunneling tip 09604-00 Silver paint, for mounting samples on sample support 09605-00 Sample support, 10 pcs, for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope 09619-00 HOPG (Graphite) on sample support, for Compact Scanning Tunnling Microscope 09606-00 Gold (111) on sample support, for Compact Scanning Tunnellin Microscope 09607-00 MoS2 on sample support, natural, for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope 09608-00 MoS2 on sample support, synthetic, for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope 09609-00 WSe2 on sample support, for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope 09610-00 TaSe2 on sample support, for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope 09611-00 TaS2 on sample support, for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope 09612-00 Set samples nanomorphology, for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope 09613-00


5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

Plasma Physics Experimental Set

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eddy current damping element front and side scales overloadprotection and a stem

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications The equipment for investigating Paschen's law uses two electrodes inside a vacuum chamber, the separation of which can be adjusted by means of a micrometer. A discharge electrode at a fixed distance serves the purpose of creating a plasma on the surface of various probes.

Range front scale: 10 mN Range side scale: ±3 mN Raw subdivision: 1 mN Fine subdivision: 0,1 mN Maximum lever load: 0,2 N Scale diameter: 170 mm Length of lever arm: 240 mm

Torsion dynamometer, 0.01 N 02416-00 Dial gauge 10/0.01 mm 03013-00

Precision manometer

Benefits The vacuum chamber can be vented with gases via the relevant inlets. The voltage applied can be measured using a voltmeter via 4-mm safety sockets. Equipment and technical data The experiment set consists of two stations mounted on a common base plate. The vacuum chamber has two connectors for a vacuum pump and for a pressure measuring instrument. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Distance between electrodes: 0...5 mm or 2 mm (fixed separations). Applicable pressure: 1 mbar up to atmospheric pressure. Field strength: max. 10 kV/mm. Field frequency: 200 Hz approx. Dimensions (mm): 300 x 90 x 135. Weight: 1.5 kg.

Accessories ▪ ▪

Complete set of probes of various thicknesses, made of glass plus a variety of plastics and metals (09108-30). Power is supplied via the plasma physics control unit (09108-99).

Plasma Physics Experimental Set 09108-10 Plasma Physics Sample Set 09108-30 Plasma Physics Operating Unit 09108-99

Torsion dynamometer, 0.01 N

Function and Applications Differential pressure manometer with inclined measuring tube filled with red oil, to measure under and over pressures. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Plexiglas block on stem with integral spirit level Displacement zero adjustment 2 connecting nozzles Ranges: ▪ 0...2 mbar division: 0.1 mbar ▪ 0...4 mbar division: 0.2 mbar

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Scale length: 140 mm Nozzle diameter: 5...8 mm Stem diameter: 10 mm Stem length: 60 mm Dimensions (mm): 350 x 30 x 190

Accessories ▪ ▪

Filling oil, 100 g rubber hose

03091-00

Function and Applications Torsion dynamometer to measure small forces or investigate electrostatic and magnetic interactions between bodies. Benefits ▪ ▪

force compensation zero point adjustment

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5.8 Material sciences 5.8.7 Surfaces, boundaries and nano technology

excellence in science 822


5 Applied Sciences 5.9 Medicine

Medicine 5.9.1 5.9.2 5.9.3 5.9.4 5.9.5 5.9.6 5.9.7 5.9.8 5.9.9 5.9.10 5.9.11

Biomechanics Fluid mechanics - Blood circuit Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology Ultrasound diagnostics X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry Laboratory Diagnostics Geometrical Optics - Eye Human physiology Neurobiology Biochemistry Models

824 826 831 841 846 853 858 861 872 877 884

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.1 Biomechanics

Moments

Principle Coplanar forces (weight, spring balance) act on the moments disc on either side of the pivot. In equilibrium, the moments are determined as a function of the magnitude and direction of the forces and of the reference point. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Moment as a function of the distance between the origin of the coordinates and the point of action of the force. Moment as a function of the angle between the force and the position vector to the point of action of the force. Moment as a function of the force.

What you can learn about Moments, Couple, Equilibrium, Statics, Lever, Coplanar forces Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5110100

Modulus of elasticity P5110200 Mechanical hysteresis P5110300

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.1 Biomechanics

Video analysis software "measure Dynamics"

Function and Applications Software "measure Dynamics", automaticvideo analysis of movements.The new measurement software "measureDynamics" provides an inexpensive way to analyze movements and display them in the shape of diagrams. All you need is adigital video camera, whereby modern webcams, camcorders or common digital cameras with film mode function are completely sufficient. The schoollicence permits the installation of thesoftware on every PC at school and on all personal PCs of the students and teachers! Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Automatic object recognition and tracing, including several filmed objects simultaneously, e.g. coupled pendulum Dialogue-supported creation of trajectories as well as movement, velocity and acceleration diagrams Stroboscopic effect for motionsequences (visualization of the entirepath of movement) Easy data transfer of all measured values to MS Excel®, PHYWE measure, and other applications Video processing inclusive of cutting, compression, etc. Software-guided modeling for didactical transfers (includinghomework)

As such, it is possible to investigate e.g.the acceleration of the sensor in freefall or the acceleration of a schoolchild on a bicycle etc.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring ranges: -2g...+2g or -6g...+6g Resolution: 1 mg or 5 mg Presentable channels: x, y and z Max. data rate: 160 Hz per channel Weight: 80 g

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit 3D-Acceleration, ± 2 g, ± 6 g 12650-00 Cobra4 Mobile-Link set, incl. rechargeable batteries, SD memory card, USB cable and software "measure" 12620-55 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 4 N 12642-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 40 N 12643-00

Possible Classroom Applications ▪ ▪

Demonstration experiments in the classroom, for example, all types of one-dimensional and two-dimensional movements "Field studies", for example, display of motion sequences in shot-putting, basket-shooting in basketball, trampoline jumping, high-jump, and muchmore.

Software "Measure Dynamics", single user license 14440-61 Software "Measure Dynamics", school licence 14440-62

Cobra4 Sensor-Units

Funktion and Applications Depending on application type, theCobra4 Sensor-Unit 3D-Acceleration, ± 2g, ± 6 g can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Benefits ▪

Specifically with this sensor, the use of Cobra4 Wireless enables completely new experimentation possibilities.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 825


5.9 Medicine 5.9.2 Fluid mechanics - Blood circuit

Mechanics of flow

Principle The Doppler effect is used with ultrasonic waves to investigate the laws of stationary laminar flow, which underlie a great many technical applications. The liquid under investigation flows through a circuit of tubing. Particular aspects to be studied experimentally include the relationship between the speed of flow and the surface of the tubing (continuity condition) plus that between the resistance to the flow and the diameter of the tube (Hagen-Poiseuille law). By means of these two laws, the dynamic viscosity or fluidity can be derived using familiar geometry. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Measure the average speed of 3 different flows using the ultrasonic Doppler sonograph with Doppler prisms. Determine the nature of the flow. Measure the drop in pressure between the measuring points and determine the resistance to the flow. Calculate viscosity and fluidity and compare with those for other liquids

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ultrasonic Doppler effect Laminar and turbulent flow Continuity equation Bernoulli's equation Hagen-Poiseuille law Viscosity and fluidity

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5140100

excellence in science 826


5.9 Medicine 5.9.2 Fluid mechanics - Blood circuit

Doppler sonography

Principle This set-up shows how blood flow studies are performed using Doppler ultrasound (Doppler sonograph). On a realistic arm dummy, the differences between continuous (venous) and pulsating (arterial) flow are shown as well as the difference in flow through a normal blood vessel and a stenosis. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Analyse blood flow and search positive and negative flow components. Explain the differences Locate the built-in stenosis and compare the spectral distribution upstream and downstream of the stenosis Examine and compare the three pulse modes of the pump.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Venous Flow Arterial flow Stenosis Blood flow velocity tracings Frequency shift Doppler effect Doppler angle Doppler sonography Colour Doppler Continuity equation

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5950100

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.2 Fluid mechanics - Blood circuit

Ultrasonic Time Motion Mode

Principle Using a simple heart model, the wall motion is recorded with the ultrasonic time motion method (M-mode or also TM-mode). The heart rate and the cardiac output (CO) are determined from the recorded TM-mode curve. Tasks ▪ ▪

Simulate with heart model, the cardiac wall motion and record a time motion-image On basis of the time-motion image, determine the cardiac output and heart rate parameters.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Pulse duration (DT) Heart rate End systolic diameter ESD End systolic volume ESV Cardiac output (CO) Heart wall motion Echocardiography Time-Motion-Mode Representation of motion sequences Ultrasonic echography

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5950200

Blood pressure measurement (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P5980211 Changes in the blood flow during smoking (with Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P5980311

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.2 Fluid mechanics - Blood circuit

Basic set: Ultrasonic Doppler technique

Extension Set: Mechanics of flow

Function and Applications Kit containing instrument and accessories for general ultrasonicsonography experiences. The software displays the measured data from the ultrasonic Doppler apparatus, basic instrument of this kit, in realtime on the computer screen Modular and extendable with accessory kits for experimentations in the fields of hydraulics and medical diagnostics. Benefits ▪

This kit forms a very didactic experimentation system beginning from the basics of sonography and can with accessory kits be extended for the use in specific applications as hydraulics and medical diagnostics (only for training purposes!) An experimentation manual is included

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1 1 1 1 1 1

x x x x x x

ultrasonic pulse Doppler apparatus centrifugal pump1 x ultrasonic gel liquid for sonography, 1 l ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Doppler prisma 3/8 Set of flexible tubes

Ultraconic pulse Doppler apparatus: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency :2 MHz Amplification : 10 - 40 dB Visualization: LED-bar, acoustical signal volume controlled PC connection : USB Size :256 x 185 x 160 mm Main voltage 90-230 V, 50/60 Hz Power of electricity : 100 VA

Basic set: Ultrasonic Doppler technique 13923-99 Ultrasonic coupling gel 250 ml 13924-25 Centrifugal pump 64569-99 Doppler dummy fluid 1l 13925-70

Function and Applications With this set the Doppler effect as well as basic flow phenomena can be demonstrated. A flow circuit can be built up, containing various tube diameters and therefor with different flow velocities. With the Doppler prisms, the relationship between Doppler frequency shifts, the angle of incidence, the transmission frequency and flow velocity can be determined. Within the flow profile, laminar or turbulent flow can be measured. The stand pipes indicate the pressure measured at different points in the circuit. With data of pressure, tube diameter and flow velocity fundamental laws of laminar flow, like the Bernoulli equation and the Hagen-Poiseuille law, can be studied Benefits Due to the closed loop cycle, the experiment can be mounted in a normal class/ lab room, no water tap is required Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

1x Set prisms and pipes incl. tubes 1x Standpipe

13923-01

Extension Set: medical Doppler Sonography

Function and Applications A realistic arm model is used to simulate the application of the Doppler effect in medicine. With a Doppler sonography the influence of a stenosis on the flow profile can be investigated. A pump generates different flow types (continuous and pulsatile) and can simulate

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.2 Fluid mechanics - Blood circuit

the human blood circulation. The measured Doppler signals can be presented acoustically as well as in a colour-coded Doppler spectrum, whereas the results and images are similar to measurements of those on patients. Benefits Due to the pump induced flow, different flow conditions can be simulated as well as some pathologies, which not be simulated with real patients. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

1x Arm dummy 1x Doppler probe 2 MHz

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Size: 220 x 300 x 400 mm Frequency: 1 - 5 MHz PC connection: USB Measuring operations: reflection and transmission Transmitter signal: 10 - 300 V Transmitter power: 0 - 30 dB Gain: 0 - 35 dB TGC: 0 - 30 dB, threshold, slope, width Outlets: trigger, TGC, RF, LF Main voltage: 115.230 V, 50.60 Hz Power of electricity: 20 VA

13921-99

13923-02

Extension set: medical ultrasonic diagnostics Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope

Function and Applications Function and Applications With the ultrasonic echoscope the basics of ultrasound and its wave characteristics can be demonstrated. Terms like amplitude, frequency, sound velocity or Time Gain Control TGC will be explained. The cylinder set can be used to vividly demonstrate reflection as well as sound velocity and frequency depending on attenuation in solid state materials. The knowledge e.g. regarding sound velocity will be used to measure the test block. The principles of image formation from A-scan to B-scan can be explained. With the different probes the frequency depending resolution can be evaluated. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The Ultrasonic echoscope is a highly sensitive ultrasonic measuring device designed to connect to a personal computer or simply to an oscilloscope The supplied software enables an extensive signal processing (RFsignal, amplitude signal, B-scan, M-mode, spectral analysis). The ultrasonic probes are connected by robust snap-in plugs. The probe frequency is recognised automatically by the measuring device. By adjusting the power transmission and gain the ultrasonic signal can be tuned to nearly every arbitrary object of investigation. The loss of intensity of the ultrasonic signal from deeper layers of investigation is balanced by a time-dependent amplification (TGC time-gain control). Threshold, start and end point or slope can be chosen freely. Important signals (trigger, TGC , RF signal and amplitude signal) are available at BNC outlets.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic

echoscope probe 1 MHz probe 2 MHz test block cylinder set test plates gel

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Kit containing medical models for experimentations in the field of medical diagnostics (echo-cardiography, breast tumour diagnostics and ophthalmology (thickness measurements in the eye). Benefits With this dummies real applications of ultrasonic diagnostics can be simulated in a very didactical manner. Equipment and technical data 1 x simplified heart dummy for echocardiography, 1 x breast dummy, 1 x eye dummy 13921-04


5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

Electrokinetic potential

Principle An electrical potential (zeta potential) is formed at a solid-liquid interface, and is the cause of electrokinetic phenomena. On applying an electrical field to a system composed of a fine-grained solid and a liquid, a mechanical movement of the phases is generated. This phenomenon is termed electro-osmosis. The liquid movement can be detected with the aid of a precision manometer. Tasks Determine the time required for a pressure change of 0.1 hPa in the U-tube as a function of the applied cell voltage. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrochemical double layer Helmholtz (Smoluchowski) equation Electro-osmosis Phase boundary

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3040601

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

Ion migration velocity

Principle The movement of ions is responsible for current flow in solutions of electrolytes. The migration of coloured ions can be easily observed by the migration of the colour front in an electric field. Tasks Demonstrate the migration of the permanganate anion in an electric field and measure the ionic velocity at five different concentrations. What you can learn about Charge transport in liquids, Ion mobility, Conductivity Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3060301

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

Conductivity of strong and weak electrolytes (with the Cobra3 Chem-Unit)

Principle It is possible to differentiate between strong and weak electrolytes by measuring their electrical conductance. Strong electrolytes follow Kohlrausch's law, whereas weak electrolytes are described by Ostwald's dilution law. The examination of the concentration dependence of the conductivity allows the molar conductivities of infinitely diluted electrolytes to be determined, and facilitates the calculation of degree of dissociation and the dissociation constants of weak electrolytes. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Determine the concentration dependence of the electrical conductivity of potassium chloride and acetic acid solutions. Calculate the molar conductivity using data from the measurements taken and determine the molar conductivity at infinite dilution by extrapolation. Determine the dissociation constant of acetic acid.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Kohlrausch's law Equivalent conductivity Temperature-dependence of conductivity Ostwald's dilution law

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3060640

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

Determination of diffusion potentials

Principle An electrochemical potential establishes itself at the interface between two solutions of different ion concentrations. The magnitude of this is determined by the concentration ratio and the transference numbers of the ions involved. This potential difference can be measured as a function of the concentration at semi-permeable and ion-selective membranes. Tasks 1. 2.

Measure the diffusion potential as a function of the concentration gradient at a cellophane membrane and at a cation-selective membrane. Determine the transference numbers of the ions in HCl, naCl and KCl.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Concentration cells with transport Transference numbers Semi-permeable membrane Selectively permeable membrane Nernst equation

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3061101

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

Model experiment illustrating the development of resting potential (with Cobra4)

Principle and tasks The potential difference between two electrolyte concentrations separated by a membrane (cellophane or cation permeable) is detected by two silver chloride electrodes and measured with a mV meter. The measured and calculated values are compared. What we can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Selective ion permeability of membranes Resting potential Diffusion potential Asymmetry potential Silver chloride electrodes Ion pump

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4010462

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

Electromyography (EMG) on the upper arm (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle and tasks To prepare an electromyogram (EMG) from a contracting or relaxing upper arm muscle (biceps) using surface electrodes. Measurement of the frequency and the amplitude of the EMG at maximum concentration. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electromyogram Muscle contractions Biceps Muscle potentials Compound action potentials

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4030111

excellence in science 836


5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

Human electrocardiography (ECG) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle and tasks To record an electrocardiogram (ECG) between the left leg and the right and left arm (lead II according to Einthoven). To relate the ECG segments to the course of heart contraction (P wave, P-Q segment, QRS complex, Twave). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrocardiogram according to Einthoven II Heart rate Quiet and strained heart ECG segments Atria Ventricles AV nodes

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5960311

Human electrooculography (EOG) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P5960811

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

We investigate our heartbeat - electrocardiography

Function and Applications Complete instrument set to perform computer-assisted standard experiments covering human and animal physiology: heart, muscle, eye, nerve. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Principle To record an electrocardiogram (ECG) between the left leg and the right and left arm (lead II according to Einthoven). Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4 Elektrophysiologie:EKG, EMG, EOG 12673-11

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

computer interface with USB port, seven measurement inputs (5 analog and 2 digital), voltage output (5V and 0.2A) for 4mm connectors data transfer rate 500 kHz online frequency analysis Bio-Amplifier with 100x and 1000x signal amplification and measurement settings for ECG, EMG and EOG radial reflex hammer for the mechanical triggering of an inpulse to be connected directly to the computerinterface with radial switch in the hammer head to start measurement, incl. 2 m long cable and two 4 mm plugs electrode collecting cable to connect ECG and EMG electrodes with color-coded cables (red, yellow, green) three stainless steel ECG electrodes, contact area 30 x 80 mm with connectors for electrode collecting cable three EMG electrodes with cable and 2 mm-miniature connector electrode gel to improve contact between electrodes and skin storage box for accessories.

65981-66

TESS Set Electrophysiology EP

TESS advanced Biology manual Cobra4 Electrophysiology: ECG, EMG, EOG 12673-12 English P1332760

Function and Applications We investigate our physical fitness - the heart under stressEP3 P1522160 We determine our heart frequency EP2 P1522060 We measure our eye movements - electrooculography P1350460 We measure our reading speed - measuring reading skills EP6 P1522260 We investigate our muscular power - electromyography P1350360 Electronystagmography P0873560

Electrophysiology Lab, 230 V

Complete instrument set and accessories to perform computer-assisted experiments in human and animal physiology of heart, muscle, eye. Equipment and technical data ▪

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Wireless transmitter and receiver units to connect to the electrophysiology sensor and to a PC, can also be used for others sensors to measure parameters common in physics, chemistry, biology and medical education electrophysiology sensor-unit for ECG, EMG and EOG with connectors for three measurement leads three separate and shielded leads, color-coded (red, yellow, green) with 3.5 mm phone jacks to connect to the sensor-unit and 2 mm jacks to connect to reusable and disposable electrodes three reusable stainless steel ECG electrodes, contact area 30 x 80 mm with connector for leads three reusable EMG electrodes with cable and 2 mm connectors disposable electrodes (100/pkg), three crocodile clips for disposable electrodes, electrode gel to improve contact between electrodes and skin software for wireless and wired data acquisition, for data analysis, automatic sensor recognition, automatic setup of measurement parameters and integrated experiment instructions 68-page manual in German language with experimental literature storage box for instrument set and accessories.

TESS Biology Set Electrophysiology EP 12673-89

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

TESS advanced Biology manual Cobra4 Electrophysiology: ECG, EMG, EOG 12673-12

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Electrophysiology

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Analog in 3 ranges of measur. +/-3.2V; 32V; 81V TTL In/Out for drop counter or motor piston burett Voltage output 5V / 0.2A e.g.for drop counter Connections RS232-D-Sub-9 jack-Bit rate up to 115200 bit/s Voltage supply 12V / 6W shock-resistant plastic housing with support bases, a wide range of fixing possibilities and two lateral connectors for cascading further units

Cobra3 Chem-Unit 12153-00 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61 Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 13701-01

Biological amplifier

Cobra4 Wireless Manager 12600-00 Cobra4 Wireless-Link 12601-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Electrophysiology: EKG, EMG, EOG 12673-00 Software Cobra4 - Single user and school licence 14550-61

Cobra3 Chem-Unit

Function and Applications With the aid of this biological amplifier a wide range of electrophysiological experiments can be carried out on human beings, insects and earthworms. The frequency range for the measurement can be pre selected to match the different biological current sources as in ECG, EMG, EEG, EOG, ENG. Equipment and technical data

Function and Applications Allows to measure all important measuring quantities in chemistry and biology.

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Trigger input R < 220 Ohm Trigger output 5 V (TTL), 5 µs leading Operating voltage 230 V ± 50 -60 Hz Housing dimensions (cm) 20×14×13 Differential amplifier Input resistance 10 MOhm Input voltage 10 µV...100 mV Amplification stages ×100, ×1000 Frequency ranges of types of measurement: EEG, ENG, EOG 1...25 Hz ECG, ERG 0.5...75 Hz EMG 80 Hz...5 kHz Output voltage 10 V max Output resistance < 1 kOhm

You can run the ChemUnit with a computer (via serialinterface) or without a computer (combined with the Com-Unit).

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Equipment and technical data

65961-93

Benefits

Inputs: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

pH/Potential: 0...14 pH (0.01 pH); -2.2...+2.2 V (+/-1mV) 10 GigaOhm, BNC Conductivity: 6 ranges of measurement: 0...1000 mS/cm; pH/Potential and Conductivity are electrically isolated Temperature: NiCr-Ni-Thermoelement T1,T2,T3; -100 to +1500 degr.C Temperature: Pt1000 sensor T4; -100 to +850 degr.C Temperature sensor in housing T0; 0 to 85 degr.C.

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.3 Electrical Conduction, Potentials and Electrophysiology

Osmosis and electrochemistry chamber

Thickness: 15 mm.

Groove: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Width: 10 mm Length: 60 mm Depth: 0.2 mm. Stem diameter: 10 mm.

Accessories included ▪

6 transparent plastic covers for the groove

06605-00 Function and Applications The Osmosis/electrochemistry chamber can be easily assembled and cleaned. Any semi-permeable membrane can be fixed between the chambers. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

2 transparent glass parts, each with a flange and a GL 25/8 neck to insert a capillary tube 1 plastic flange clamp 1 set of flange gaskets, pack of 10

35821-00

Suppl.chamber f.osmosis/el.chem. 35821-10 Ussing chamber 65977-00

Flat chamber for ionic migration

Function and Applications For demonstrating the migration of coloured ions in an electrolyte and for the determination of the absolute mobility of ions. Transparent plastic plate with engraved groove; upper face of the plastic plate blackened, except the groove. At each end face of the groove there is a nickel electrode with a 4-mm socket; the longitudinal sides of the groove have a scale with 5-mm divisions. The upper face of the plastic plate has a water level for horizontal adjustment of the flat chamber. The process of ionic migration can be especially well observed in projections using an overhead projector. Equipment and technical data Plate dimensions: ▪ ▪

Width: 90 mm Length: 145 mm

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.4 Ultrasound diagnostics

Ultrasonic computer tomography

Principle First an explanation of image generation using the CT algorithm is given. An attenuation and sound speed tomogram is then made on a simple test object and any differences are then discussed. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5161200

Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material P5160100

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.4 Ultrasound diagnostics

Doppler sonography

Principle This set-up shows how blood flow studies are performed using Doppler ultrasound (Doppler sonograph). On a realistic arm dummy, the differences between continuous (venous) and pulsating (arterial) flow are shown as well as the difference in flow through a normal blood vessel and a stenosis. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

Analyse blood flow and search positive and negative flow components. Explain the differences Locate the built-in stenosis and compare the spectral distribution upstream and downstream of the stenosis Examine and compare the three pulse modes of the pump.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Venous Flow Arterial flow Stenosis Blood flow velocity tracings Frequency shift Doppler effect Doppler angle Doppler sonography Colour Doppler Continuity equation

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5950100

Ultrasonic Time Motion Mode

P5950200

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.4 Ultrasound diagnostics

Ultrasonic investigation with breast dummy

Principle This experiment shows a typical application of ultrasounds in medical diagnostics. On a realistic breast dummy is a benign tumour which has to be diagnosed, localized and measured with an ultrasound cross section imaging method. Tasks ▪ ▪

Examine the breast dummy and search for any pathological changes. Try to characterize them as accurately as possible (size, location, mobility, strength of the change) Produce an ultrasonic B-scan image of the breast dummy, especially in the regions of interest. Based on the ultrasound image, estimate the location and magnitude of the tumour.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Breast sonography Tumour size Benign Tumour Ultrasound imaging procedures Ultrasound echography A-mode B-mode

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5950300

Ultrasonic investigation with eye dummy P5950400

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.4 Ultrasound diagnostics

Basic set: Ultrasonic Doppler technique

a stenosis on the flow profile can be investigated. A pump generates different flow types (continuous and pulsatile) and can simulate the human blood circulation. The measured Doppler signals can be presented acoustically as well as in a colour-coded Doppler spectrum, whereas the results and images are similar to measurements of those on patients. Benefits Due to the pump induced flow, different flow conditions can be simulated as well as some pathologies, which not be simulated with real patients. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

Function and Applications Kit containing instrument and accessories for general ultrasonic sonography experiences. The software displays the measured data from the ultrasonic doppler apparatus, basic instrument of this kit, in realtime on the computer screen. Modular and extendable with accessory kits for experimentations in the fields of hydraulics and medical diagnostics.

1x Arm dummy 1x Doppler probe 2 MHz

13923-02

Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope

Benefits ▪

This kit forms a very didactic experimentation system beginning from the basics of sonography and can with accessory kits be extended for the use in specific applications as hydraulics and medical diagnostics (only for training purposes!) an experimentation manual is included

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

x x x x x x x

ultrasonic pulse Doppler apparatus centrifugal pump ultrasonic gel liquid for sonography (1l) ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Doppler prisma 3/8 Set of flexible tubes

Ultrasonic pulse Doppler apparatus ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency: 2 MHz Amplification: 10 - 40 dB Visualisation: LED-bar, acoustical signal volume controlled PC connection: USB Dimensions: 256 x 185 x 160 mm Main voltage: 90-230 V, 50/ 60 Hz Power of electricity: 100 VA

Function and Applications With the ultrasonic echoscope the basics of ultrasound and its wave characteristics can be demonstrated. Terms like amplitude, frequency, sound velocity or Time Gain Control TGC will be explained. The cylinder set can be used to vividly demonstrate reflection as well as sound velocity and frequency depending on attenuation in solid state materials. The knowledge e.g. regarding sound velocity will be used to measure the test block. The principles of image formation from A-scan to B-scan can be explained. With the different probes the frequency depending resolution can be evaluated. Benefits ▪ ▪

13923-99

Extension Set: medical Doppler Sonography

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The Ultrasonic echoscope is a highly sensitive ultrasonic measuring device designed to connect to a personal computer or simply to an oscilloscope The supplied software enables an extensive signal processing (RFsignal, amplitude signal, B-scan, M-mode, spectral analysis). The ultrasonic probes are connected by robust snap-in plugs. The probe frequency is recognised automatically by the measuring device. By adjusting the power transmission and gain the ultrasonic signal can be tuned to nearly every arbitrary object of investigation. The loss of intensity of the ultrasonic signal from deeper layers of investigation is balanced by a time-dependent amplification (TGC time-gain control). Threshold, start and end point or slope can be chosen freely. Important signals (trigger, TGC , RF signal and amplitude signal) are available at BNC outlets.

Equipment and technical data

Function and Applications A realistic arm model is used to simulate the application of the Doppler effect in medicine. With a Doppler sonography the influence of

excellence in science 844

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ultrasonic echoscope Ultrasonic probe 1 MHz Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Ultrasonic test block Ultrasonic cylinder set Ultrasonic test plates Ultrasonic gel Size: 220 x 300 x 400 mm Frequency: 1 - 5 MHz


5.9 Medicine 5.9.4 Ultrasound diagnostics

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

PC connection: USB Measuring operations: reflection and transmission Transmitter signal: 10 - 300 V Transmitter power: 0 - 30 dB Gain: 0 - 35 dB TGC: 0 - 30 dB, threshold, slope, width Outlets: trigger, TGC, RF, LF Main voltage: 115.230 V, 50.60 Hz Power of electricity: 20 VA

13921-99

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1x 1x 1x 1x

CT scanner CT control unit with tomography software Water tank CT sample

CT Scanner ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Linear movement: ca. 400 mm, resolution <10 µm Maximal speed: 18 cm/min Rotation: 360°, resolution 0.225° Maximal speed: 1 rotation/s Size: 500 x 400 x 200 mm

CT Control unit

Extension set: medical ultrasonic diagnostics

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Output: 3 x stepper motor control, bipolar, 5 V, max. 2 A, 6 x limit switches Interface PC: USB Size: 250 x 180 x 170 mm Main voltage: 90-230 V, 50/60 Hz Power of electricity: < 50 VA

13922-99

Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Function and Applications Kit containing medical models for experimentations in the field of medical diagnostics (echo-cardiography, breast tumour diagnostics and ophthalmology (thickness measurements in the eye). Benefits With this dummies real applications of ultrasonic diagnostics can be simulated in a very didactical manner. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

1 x simplified heart dummy for echocardiography 1 x breast dummy 1 x eye dummy

13921-04

Extension Set: CT Scanner

Function and Applications The 2 MHz probes are suitable for largerange use. Due to the higher frequency the axial and lateral resolution is better compared to the 1 MHz probes. On the other hand the damping of 2 MHz sound waves in most materials is not too large, so that they can be used for medium range investigations. The 2 MHz probes are suitable for measurements at medical objects and as ultrasound Doppler-probes. Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz 13921-05 Ultrasonic coupling gel 250 ml 13924-25

Centrifugal pump

Function and Applications This set is an extension to the ultrasonic pulse echo methods, including automated imaging methods like CT and B mode. With this set the development of a CT image can be demonstrated step by step. Automated B-scan images can be made with this set as well. The scanned objects can be measured and evaluated in axial and lateral direction. The results of the automated measurements with scanner have a much better quality, especially with the imaging methods. Benefits For a rather low invest, compared to real life systems, the advantages of mechanical scanning can be demonstrated in a very comprehensible way. Equipment and technical data

Centrifugal pump 64569-99 Doppler dummy fluid 1l 13925-70

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.5 X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.5 X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.5 X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.5 X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry

XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set

▪ ▪ ▪

Accessories are always ready at hand Utensils are stored safely Dust-free storage

Equipment and technical data The set includes the following components: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit, 09057-99 XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit with a tungsten X-ray tube, 09057-80 measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software, 14414-61 XR 4.0 X-ray slide mounts for the optical bench, 4 pieces, 09057-19 XR 4.0 X-ray fluoroscopic screen, 09057-26 XR 4.0 X-ray protective sheath, 09057-49

Recommended upgrade sets for various applications and topics

Function and Applications Basic set covering the fundamental principles and areas of applications of X-rays, e.g. fluoroscopy experiments and X-ray photography. It can be extended by upgrade sets for specific applications and topics. Benefits Safety concept complying with the applicable standards and regulations ▪ ▪

The set complies with all of the German (X-ray ordinance, RÖV) and European regulations for radiation protection. Type approval by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, BFS) concerning the use of the unit at schools and universities in Germany (not subject to approval, but to reporting). (Type approval submitted.) Lead-enforced acrylic glass windows as a shield against the X-rays (breakproof in accordance with DIN/EN 61010)

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

XRW 4.0 X-ray wireless demonstration upgrade set, 09115-88 XRP 4.0 X-ray solid state upgrade set, 09120-88 XRC 4.0 X-ray characteristics upgrade set, 09130-88 XRS 4.0 X-ray structural analysis upgrade set, 09140-88 XRI 4.0 X-ray imaging upgrade set, 09150-88 XRM 4.0 X-ray material analysis upgrade set, 09160-88 XRD 4.0 X-ray dosimetry and radiation damage upgrade set, 09170-88 XRT 4.0 X-ray Computer Tomography upgrade set, 09180-88

09110-88

XRI 4.0 X-ray imaging upgrade set

S-Lock - PHYWE's safety lock ▪ ▪

Electro-mechanical system for maximum security Prevents door opening during X-ray emission by multiple safety circuits

MultiLINK ▪ ▪ ▪

External socket panel Easy and safe connection of PHYWE components, such as the X-ray energy detector (09058-30) and other standard devices, e.g. digital cameras USB 2.0, N2, BNC, XRED,...

Plug & measure ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Self-calibrating goniometer (option) safe and easy handling collision protected goniometer Protects expensive equipment: GM counter tube and X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Tube XChange Technology ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

XXL Chamber ▪ ▪

Particularly spacious experiment chamber for sophisticated setups Integrated optical bench for the easy and reproducible set-up of experiments (can be extended to the outside)

Function and Applications Upgrade set as an extension of the XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set (09110-88). This set is particularly suitable for studying the fundamental principles of X-ray imaging in medical applications (radiography) and material science (non-destructive testing). The set covers the following experiments and topics: ▪ ▪

Fluoroscopy experiments and X-ray photography Radiography experiments on various different models

Benefits ▪ ▪

Direct, digital image recording - state of-the-art technology Familiarisation with the radiography technology in medical applications in a technically particularly easy and intuitive way

Equipment and technical data The set includes the following components: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

09057-22 XR 09057-21 XR 09058-06 XR periments 09058-07 XR

4.0 X-ray fluoroscopy object 4.0 X-ray optical bench, external 4.0 X-ray blood vessel model for contrast media ex4.0 X-ray implant model for X-ray images

3View ▪

Observation through windows on three sides; optimal for the transparent execution of experiments

09150-88

Lockable tray for accessories

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.5 X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry

XRT 4.0 X-ray Computer Tomography upgrade set

Additional XR 4.0 X-ray upgrade sets

Function and Applications

Upgrade sets as an extension of the XRE 4.0 X-ray expert set (09110-88).

Upgrade set as an extension of the XRE 4.0 expert set (09110-88). To perform X-ray imaging (radiography), and X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) experiments. Particularly suitable for experiments in lab courses and lectures in physics, medical education and material sciences.This set covers the following experiments and topics: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

X-ray imaging of biological and technical samples NDT (Nondestructive testing) X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) in medicine, engineering and material sciences Digital geometry processing to generate a three-dimensional image of an object Volumetric (3D) reconstruction, included rendering

Features and Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Direct aquisition of the X-ray images by a direct X-ray direct digital image sensor: ▪ No extra fluorescent screen is necessary ▪ Experimentation under daylight conditions

XRM 4.0 X-ray material analysis upgrade set 09160-88 XRS 4.0 X-ray structural analysis upgrade set 09140-88 XRP 4.0 X-ray Solid state physics upgrade set 09120-88 XRC 4.0 X-ray characteristics upgrade set 09130-88 XRD 4.0 X-ray dosimetry and radiation damage upgrade set 09170-88 XRW 4.0 X-ray wireless demonstration upgrade set 09115-88

XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit

High-performance CMOS image sensors for the direct digital Xray radiography to create superior image quality, high resolution, and large active area images based on CMOS technology. X-ray computer tomography (CT) is based on the X-ray direct digital image sensor, the Z-axis rotation unit and the powerful measure XRt tomography software package. Z-axis rotation of the sample to be analysed: Movement of the sample is not influenced by gravitational effects, rigid bodies of flexible size can be analysed on a simple way. Acquisition of high resolution CT scan, 360° image stack within 10 minutes (one frame per second, one degree per frame)

Equipment and technical data The set includes the following components: ▪ ▪

XR ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4.0 direct digital image sensor, 09057-41 Active area 5 x 5 cm² Resolution 46µm Image depth 12 bit USB 2.0 interface

▪ ▪

XR 4.0 CT object Z-rotation unit, 09057-41 ▪ Angle resolution < 1 degree ▪ Motorised, USB 2.0 interface

▪ ▪

Measure XRt 4.0 tomography software package, 14421-61 XR 4.0 CT accessories, 09057-42

09180-88

Function and Applications School/full-protection device with X-ray tube quick-change technology for fluoroscopy and X-ray imaging, ionisation and dosimetry experiments, Laue and Debye-Scherrer images, X-ray spectroscopy, Bragg reflection, bremsspectrum/characteristic lines of various different anode materials, Moseley's law, determination of Planck's constant and Rydberg constant, Duane Hunt's law, material-thickness- and energydependent absorption, K and Ledges, contrast medium experiments, Compton scattering, and X-ray diffractometry. Benefits Safety concept complying with the applicable standards and regulations ▪ ▪

excellence in science 850

The unit complies with all of the German (X-ray ordinance, RÖV) and European regulations for radiation protection. Type approval by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, BFS) concerning the use of


5.9 Medicine 5.9.5 X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry

▪ ▪

the unit at schools and universities in Germany (not subject to approval, but to reporting). (Type approval submitted.) Lead-enforced acrylic glass windows as a shield against the X-rays (breakproof in accordance with DIN/EN61010) PHYWE safety lock technology (registered utility model)

XR 4.0 X-ray expert unit 09057-99 XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer 09057-10

S-Lock - PHYWE's safety lock ▪ ▪

electro-mechanical system for maximum security Prevents door opening during X-ray emission by multiple safety circuits

measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software

MultiLINK ▪ ▪ ▪

External socket panel Easy and safe connection of PHYWE components, such as the X-ray energy detector (09058-30) and other standard devices, e.g. digital cameras USB 2.0, N2, BNC, XRED,...

Plug & measure ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Self-calibrating goniometer (option) safe and easy handling collision protected goniometer Protects expensive equipment: GM counter tube and X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Tube XChange Technology ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

XXL Chamber ▪ ▪

Particularly spacious experiment chamber for sophisticated setups Integrated optical bench for the easy and reproducible set-up of experiments (can be extended to the outside)

3View ▪

Observation through windows on three sides; optimal for the transparent execution of experiments

Lockable tray for accessories ▪ ▪ ▪

Accessories are always ready at hand Utensils are stored safely Dust-free storage

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Microprocessor-controlled basic unit with two independent safety circuits for the door position and two independent monitoring circuits for the door locking system Four different X-ray tubes (Fe, Cu, Mo, and W) can be plugged in and remain visible during operation Determination of the X-ray intensity via an integrated GeigerMüller counter tube connection with a variable counter tube voltage (0...700 V) and an integrated loudspeaker TFT colour display (dimensions 4,3"(95x54 mm), 16 Bit, 56.536 colours, 480x272 Pixel) for the manual control of the unit "Display Connect" interface for the connection of a large-scale display unit True-colour line-shaped interior LED lighting system High voltage 0.0...35.0 kV Emission current 0.0...1.0 mA Housing (mm): 682 (W) x 620 (H) x 450(D) Experiment chamber (mm): 440 (W) x 345(H) x 354 (D) Connection: 110/240 V~, 50/60 Hz Power consumption: 200 VA Mass: 55 kg PC control via USB 2.0

Required accessories When the unit is used for the first time, at least one X-ray tube, e.g. the tungsten X-ray tube 09057-80, is required.

Function and application Software package of the "measure" series for controlling the XR 4.0 Expert Unit (X-ray unit). XRm 4.0 consists of a module for device control and measurement data recording and a module for measurement data processing (main program). Benefits AUTORUN ▪ ▪

Automatic identification of the connected devices of the XR 4.0 series, loading of predefined settings Working directly without the need for specialist knowledge

Double control ▪ ▪

Simultaneous operation of the XR 4.0 Expert Unit via manual control and via a computer No restrictions concerning the execution of experiments

Plug & measure ▪

The intuitive user concept considerably simplifies the operation of such a complex device and puts the experiment into the focus of attention.

Multilingual ▪

XRm 4.0 is available in more than 20 languages, among them German, English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Russian.

Reference experiments ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪

The comprehensive collection of reference experiments simplifies the selection of suitable experiments and can be used as a template for own experiment scripts/laboratory handbooks. All of the relevant topics concerning the characterisation and application of X-rays are documented. Experiment descriptions in PDF files with learning objectives, brief description, set-up picture, equipment list, experiment procedure, reference results with a reference to the theoretical background, and device and software settings that are specifically adapted to the experiment. All of the experiment-relevant settings can be loaded at the push of a button. The experiment descriptions include configuration files and example measurements. They are provided free of charge on the measure DVD.

System requirements

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 851


5.9 Medicine 5.9.5 X-ray diagnostics and dosimetry

PC with at least a Pentium 3 processor, 512 MB RAM, 1 GB free hard drive space, DVD drive, USB 2.0, Microsoft ®Windows XP or higher.

TESS expert Handbook Physics X-Ray Experiments

measure XRm 4.0 X-ray Software 14414-61 measure XRt 4.0 X-ray CT Software 14421-61

XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in tubes

Function and Applications Factory adjusted tube in sheet steel housing ready for use in connection with XR 4.0 expert unit. Housing with plugs to accept the tubes operating quantities from the basic unit. With handle, mechanical lock and two switching pins,which only operate correspondingly security microswitches of the basic unit when the plug-in module is correcly inserted. Benefits: Tube XChange Technology: ▪ ▪ ▪

Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) adjustment free Complete protection against touching hot parts

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Anode angle 19° Max. operation datas 1 mA/35 kV Test voltage 50 kV Mass 4.3 kg Dimensions (26.7 x 18.8 x 20.3) cm Incl. dust protection cover

XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube 09057-50 XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube 09057-60 XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Fe tube 09057-70 XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube 09057-80

Experiments with X-rays and their use in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, material science, and geology Description Comprehensive collection of reference experiments concerning the fundamental principles and use of X-rays in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, material science, and geology with the XR 4.0 X-ray unit platform as a pool of ideas concerning the potential areas of application in demonstration and laboratory experiments. A clear matrix simplifies the orientation in terms of scientific fields and topics. Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Characteristic X-radiation / atomic structure / quantum physics and chemistry X-ray absorption Compton scattering Dosimetry Crystal structures/structural analysis with X-rays/Debye-Scherrer experiments (counting tube goniometer) Transirradiation experiments/non-destructive testing

Features ▪

▪ ▪ ▪

Experiment descriptions with clearly structured learning objectives, fundamental principles, photo of the set-up, equipment list, tasks, illustrated instructions concerning the set-up and procedure, theory and evaluation with example results plus important notes concerning the operation and safety of the equipment. This simplifies the orientation and execution as well as the selection of the experiment parts for personalised laboratory experiments. The information provided is so comprehensive that no other background information is required. For every experiment, the software package "XRM 4.0 measure Xray" includes presettings for the easy and direct execution of the experiment at the push of a button as well as numerous example measurements. Experiment matrix for quick orientation Operating instructions concerning the components of the XR 4.0 platform including detailed information DIN A4 format, spiral-bound, colour print

01200-02

excellence in science 852


5.9 Medicine 5.9.6 Laboratory Diagnostics

Distribution equilibrium

Principle At constant temperature and under constant pressure, a dissolved substance distributes itself between two immiscible liquids in a constant concentration ratio. This ratio is equal to the partition coefficient (distribution coefficient) of the substance examined in the given twophase system. Tasks Measure the extinction of various concentrated solutions of trans-azobenzene in acetonitrile at constant wavelength. Subsequently determine the equilibrium concentrations (extinctions) of trans-azobenzene in the system n-heptane / acetonitrile after single and repeated distribution at constant temperature. 2. Calculate the partition coefficients and effectiveness of the extractions from the experimental data and compare them. 1.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Principles of thermodynamics Partial molar free enthalpy (chemical potential) Equilibrium between phases Distribution and extraction Nernst distribution equation Lambert-Beer law Photometry

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3030701

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.6 Laboratory Diagnostics

Absorption of light (UV-VIS spectroscopy) Principle The structures of molecules are not changed by their chemical environment in the gas phase. In contrast to this, on transition to the condensed phase, in dilute solution, the solvent changes the binding state of the dissolved substance. One of the way this influence makes itself shown is in the elctron spectrum (solvatochromatic shift). Tasks 1. 2.

Plot and discuss UV-visible absorption spectra of methyl orange in various solvents. From the decadic molar extinction coefficients of the bands in the visible range, determine the type of electron transition that causes these bands. Plot the wavelengths of the absorption maxima in the visible range against the dielectric constants of the various solvents.

3.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Absorption of light Electron excitation Influence of solvents Solvatochromic, hypsochromic and bathochromic shifts Lambert-Beer's Law Decadic molar extinction coefficient

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3070101

Excitation of molecules P3070301

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.6 Laboratory Diagnostics

Absorption spectra and pKa values of p-methoxyphenol

Principle For weak acids HA, the position of the Ka and pKa values that characterize the dissociation equilibrium in the ground state can be determined from photometric measurements in solutions having different pH values. Further to this, the pKa* value for the excited state is accessible from the spectrophotometric data. Tasks 1. 2.

Record near UV absorption spectra of p-methoxyphenol in dilute HCl, NaOH and 5 different borate buffer solutions of known pH. Calculate the pKa and pKa* values for the system.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ground and excitation states of molecules Electron excitation spectroscopy (UV-visible spectrometry) Spectroscopical energy and adsorption measurement Jablonski diagram and Förster cycle pKa and pKa* values Henderson-Hasselbalch equation Van't Hoff's reaction isotherms Gibbs-Helmholtz equation Lambert-Beer's Law Photometry

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3070401

Quantitative analysis of Sudan Red in a colorant mixture with a photometer P1303200

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 855


5.9 Medicine 5.9.6 Laboratory Diagnostics

TESS expert Medicine Sets Clinical Chemistry and Haematology

makes it possible to record both emission and absorption spectra. The light to be investigated is guided by optical fibres to a grid fixed inside the spectrometer, which disperses it into its spectral colours. The spectrum is recorded with the aid of a CCD array, which records the entire spectrum at once, making it possible to reliably record rapid changes in the spectrum itself. The spectra can be displayed and stored by means of the supplied software with its versatile functionality. The spectrometer is connected to a PC via a USB port, which also suffices to supply power to the spectrometer, so that no additional supply is needed. The cuvette holder holds standard cuvettes measuring 1 cm x 1 cm. The built-in light source makes it possible to record absorption spectra for solutions. The rapid measuring rate of the spectrometer even allows the speed of reactions involving changes in colour to be measured (reaction kinetics). Light having passed through the cuvette is guided into the spectrometer via optical fibre. Fibres for fluorescence measurements can also be attached at 90° to the path of the incident light.

The sets clinical chemistry and hematology provide full practical courses consisting of consumables, equipment and handbook. The experiments are designed for both the practical courses in medicine at the university and for the education of assistant medical technicians. The sets include kinetic measurements, photometric determinations and all the examinations for the complete blood count. The detailed and intuitive descriptions are suitable to be used directly by students in practical courses. The students get experienced in handling for example blood samples, photometers, coagulometers and microscopes in other words: they get all skills they need for the work in clinical laboratories and the interpretation of the.

Benefits

Theme fields (examples):

Cuvette holder:

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Complete blood count Special experiment for the diagnosis of Malaria Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Kinetic measurements Coagulation: prothrombin ratio and partial thromboplastin time Quantitative analysis of blood glucose and other blood parameters Examination of urine

Additionally needed: Chemicals, Set for up to 12 Workgroups (Art. No. 13952-88) and test kits for clinical chemistry (to be purchased on local markets) TESS expert Medicine Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, Students Basic Set 13950-88 TESS expert Medicine Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, Lab Equipment for 3-5 Student groups 13951-88

Measurespec spectrometer with cuvette holder and light source

Spectrometer: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Robust aluminium case Rapid measurement of full spectral range Flexible introduction of light to be investigated by means of optical fibres No additional power supply required Measurement of emission spectra and absorption spectra Intuitive "measure" software for controlling the apparatus and recording spectra Robust aluminium case Long-lived tungsten lamp Flexible introduction of light to be investigated by means of optical fibres Universal power supply via plug-in transformer Measurement of absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, reaction kinetics

Equipment and technical data Spectrometer: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Supplied with software, USB cable and optical fibres Range of wavelengths: 350...850 nm Detector: silicon CCD array Resolution: 4 nm Connection to computer: USB Optical fibre connection: SMA 905 Dimensions (mm): 170 x 126 x 55

Cuvette holder: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Supplied with plug-in power supply and optical fibres Type of lamp: tungsten (lifetime approx. 2000 hours) Optical fibres: 50 µm x 2 m 2 optical fibre connectors: SMA 905 Size of cuvettes: 1 cm x 1 cm Power supply: 100 ... 240 V / 50 ... 60 Hz Dimensions (mm): 95 x 51 x 46

Accessories Matching cuvettes: ▪ ▪

Function and Applications This set consisting of a Measurespec spectrometer (35610-00) and a cuvette holder and light source for the Measurespec (35610-99)

excellence in science 856

Cuvettes for spectral photometer, optical glass, 12 x 12 x 45 mm, set of 2 (35664-02) Polystyrene macro-cuvette, 12 x 12 x 44 mm, 4 ml, set of 100 (35663-10)

Measurespec spectrometer with cuvette holder and light source 35610-88 Spectrometer Measurespec with optical fibre 35610-00 Cuvette holder with light source for spectrometer Measurespec 35610-99


5.9 Medicine 5.9.6 Laboratory Diagnostics

Macro-cuvettes, PS, 4ml,100 pcs 35663-10 Cells f.spectrophotometer, 2 pcs 35664-02

Spectrophotometer S800, 330...800 nm 35600-99 Repacement lamp for Spectrometer S800 and S1200 35600-01

Spectrophotometer S800, 330...800 nm Diode-array spectrometer S1200, 330...800 nm 35601-99 Spectrophotometer 190-1100 nm 35655-93 Macro-cuvettes, PS, 4ml,100 pcs 35663-10 Cuvette rack, PE, 12 places 35661-00

Spectrophotometer, SPEC 5000, 335-1000 nm

Function and Applications This visible diode array spectrophotometer has been designed to meet the routine spectroscopy needs of customers requiring a small, lightweight instrument that is easy to use. This photometer is ideal for use in educational, biotech or industrial establishments. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

It measures absorbance, % transmission, absorbance ratio and concentration. The large backlitgraphical display enables wavelengthscans, kinetic assays (including slopecalculation) and standard curves to be viewed. The instrument is delivered with "Grafico", a PC utility software package, and the requisite serial lead, providing the user with the means to capture, print and store data from the instrument on to a PC. The cell hoder accepts standard 10mm pathlength glass or plastic cuvettes. Large LCD-Display splashproof touch-sensitive keyboard serial interface (RS232) for transfering datas to PC measuring methods: absorbance; transmission; kinetical tests (absorbance and time-curves)

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

optical system: single beam device with monochromator lamp source: tungsten wavelength range: 330...800 nm wavelength accuracy: ± 2 nm bandwidth: 7 nm absorbance range: -0.300...2.500 Abs photometric reproducibility: ±0.002 Abs at 0...0.5 Abs and 546nm photometric accuracy:±0.01 Abs bei 1 Abs cell holder for standard cuvettes with outside dimension: 12 mm x 12 mm interface: RS232 digital dimension (mm): 215 x 270 x 120 weight: appr. 2 kg mains connection: 230 V~, 50/60 Hz

Function and Applications The spectrophotometer is an easy to use device for measurement of the degree of absorption or transmission of liquid samples in the visible range (335...1000nm). Benefits ▪ ▪

The display shows the wavelength, the degree of absorption and transmission or the concentration respectively it has RS232 resp. USB interfaces for connecting to a computer.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Light source: Tungsten Wavelength range: 335 ... 1000 nm Wavelength precision: ± 2 nm Wavelength repeatibility: ± 1 nm Spectral bandwidth: 10 nm Cuvette holder: for square cuvettes with external dimensions 12 mm x 12 mm External dimensions (mm): 385 x 310 x190 Mains connection: 230 V, 50 Hz Included: Two square cuvettes (glass) Data cable for connecting to PC Two spare fuces (1 A)

35667-93

Cells f.spectrophotometer, 2 pcs 35664-02 Cells f.spectrophotom., quartz, 2 35665-02

Scope of delivery: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

spectrophotometer plastic cuvettes data cable for connection to PC software and operating instructions

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 857


5.9 Medicine 5.9.7 Geometrical Optics - Eye

Law of lenses and optical instruments

Principle The focal lengths of unknown lenses are determined by measuring the distances of image and object and by Bessel's method. Simple optical instruments are then constructed with these lenses. Tasks 1. 2. 3.

To determine the focal length of two unknown convex lenses by measuring the distances of image and object. To determine the focal length of a convex lens and of a combination of a convex and a concave lens using Bessel's method. To construct the following optical instruments:

a) Slide projector; image scale to be determined b) Microscope; magnification to be determined c) Kepler-type telescope d) Galileo's telescope (opera glasses). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Law of lenses Magnification Focal length Object distance Telescope Microscope Path of a ray Convex lens Concave lens Real image Virtual image

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English P2210200

excellence in science 858


5.9 Medicine 5.9.7 Geometrical Optics - Eye

Benefits Structure and function of the human eye P1105200 Short-sightedness and its correction (myopia) P1105300 Long-sightedness and its correction (hyperopia) P1105400

Human eye, working model

Topics to demonstrate: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Pictures of an object appear upside down on the retina Demonstration of myopia and its correction Demonstration of hyperopia and its correction Vision correction by superior optics

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

stylized eyeball lensholder, adjustable candle holder, adjustable ancillary lens

A full text is included. 87043-00

Eye with var. lens, large workingmodel

Function and Applications This model is a mechanical copy of an eyeball. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The back part of which is formed as a projection surface and is removable various eyeball lengths can be attained by inserting spacer rings correction of sight defects is achieved with lenses placed in front of the model it allows a vivid demonstration ofs hort-sightedness and longsightedness compared to the normal vision of the human eye and of how such defects can be corrected the image on the "retina" (projection surface) is not turned rightside up, as it is by brain activity and is so seen upside down.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Eyeball 2 spacer rings 2 lens diameter: 110mm

66650-00

Eye, physiolog. mod

Function and Apllications Eye with variable lens as a functional working model. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

to simulate the accomodation of the lens far- and nearsightedness prebyopia modification by corrective lenses

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

model on a wooden base dimensions: 45x30 cm

Eye w.var.lens,large working model 87037-00 Eye w.var.lens,small working model 87038-00

Function and Applications Eye model to visualize the physical basis of sight.

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.7 Geometrical Optics - Eye

Scheiner optometer

Demo Physics Magnet board optics,w/o board+lit. 08271-88 Magnet board optics, basic set 08270-55 Magnet board optics, suppl. set 08270-66

Phys. Exp. Magnet Board Optics, Manual

01151-02

Function and Applications Scheiner optometer for demonstration of accomodation of human eye. Equipment and technical data ▪

1 m long ruler with attachable optometer diaphragm, lens holder with lens and 2 sliders

65986-00

Demo Physics Magnet board optics without board and literature

Function and Applications Demo Physics Magnet board optics including the equipment for 60 experiments in the subjects: propagation of light, mirrors, refraction, lenses, colours, the human exe, optical equipment. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

magneto-adhesive lamp 12V/50W light box 12V/20W with magnetic base optical blocks as semicircle, planoconvex, planoconcave, trapezoid, triangle, light guide model,plane- and concave/convex mirror, optical disc, 2 diaphragm with holdercuvette, earth/moon model, accessories for colour mixing experiments storage case with cover and foam insert

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Human electrocardiography (ECG) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle and tasks To record an electrocardiogram (ECG) between the left leg and the right and left arm (lead II according to Einthoven). To relate the ECG segments to the course of heart contraction (P wave, P-Q segment, QRS complex, T wave). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrocardiogram according to Einthoven II Heart rate Quiet and strained heart ECG segments Atria Ventricles AV nodes

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4020111

Electromyography (EMG) on the upper arm (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4030111

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 861


5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Muscle stretch reflex and determination of the conducting velocity (with Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle and tasks To trigger a stretch reflex in the lower leg musculature by tapping the Achilles tendon (Achilles tendon reflex). To record the compound action potential and determine the reflex latency and the conduction velocity. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electromyogram Muscle stretch reflex Achilles tendon Reflex latency Conduction velocity Jendrassik effect Facilitation

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4030211

Regulation of human body temperature (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4060311

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Human electrooculography (EOG) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle To record the changes in the elctrical field induced by eye movements, using electrodes stuck to the skin near the eyes. Tasks To measure an electrooculogram (EOG) with a practised reader, a less practised (six year old) schoolchild and if possible, a test person who practises a rapid reading technique. To evaluate the rapid horizontal eye movements (sacchades) and the fixation periods. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrical field measurement Eye movements Dipole Sacchades Fixation period Practised reader versus schoolchild Rapid reading techniques

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4070511

Test of human reaction capacity P4070400 Additive colour mixing and colour masking P4070600

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 863


5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Phonocardiography: Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement (PCG) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle and tasks Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement at different locations of the circulatory system. Measurement of the pulse rate at different levels of athletic loading. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Pulse Throat and chest sonic measurement Quiet and strained heart Contracting tune Systole Flapping sound Diastole

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5980111

Blood pressure measurement (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P5980211

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Changes in the blood flow during smoking (with Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle and tasks To prepare a curve showing the change in skin temperature during smoking. To discuss different curves depending on the smoking habits of the test person. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Skin temperature Heavy and moderate smokers Occasional smokers Non-smokers

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5980311

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 865


5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Hearing threshold and frequency differentiating threshold in humans (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

For hearing the intensity of sound has to cross a treshold level. This hearing treshold depends on the frequency. This means the sentiveness of the ear is not equal in all ranges of hearing. Principle and tasks: â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş

Determinie the hearing treshold for a number of frequencies in the hearing range of humans and plot a hearing treshold curve. Determine the frequency difference between two sounds of the same intensity which can just still perceived as two different sounds (frequency differentiating treshold.)

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4040215

Human merging frequency and upper hearing threshold P4040101 Acoustic orientation in space (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P5980611

excellence in science 866


5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Determination of the human visual field

Principle and tasks Determination of the visual field of the right and left eye for white, blue, red and green. Detection of any visual field deficiency (scotoma). Location of the blind spot (site of optic nerve emergence). The extent of the visual fields of both eyes and the position of the blind spot are determined with the aid of a perimeter. What you can learn about Perimeter, Visual field (for white, blue, red, green), Field of view, Blind spot, Scotoma, Rods and cones Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 English P5980700

Time resolving capability of the human eye P5980800 Measurement of the human respiratory rate (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P5980911

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

We investigate our heartbeat - electrocardiography

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4 Elektrophysiologie:EKG, EMG, EOG 12673-11 TESS advanced Biology manual Cobra4 Electrophysiology: ECG, EMG, EOG 12673-12 English

Principle To record an electrocardiogram (ECG) between the left leg and the right and left arm (lead II according to Einthoven). Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German

P1350460

TESS Set Electrophysiology EP

TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4 Elektrophysiologie:EKG, EMG, EOG 12673-11 TESS advanced Biology manual Cobra4 Electrophysiology: ECG, EMG, EOG 12673-12 English

Function and Applications Complete instrument set and accessories to perform computer-assisted experiments in human and animal physiology of heart, muscle, eye.

P1332760

We investigate our muscular power - electromyography

P1350360

We measure our eye movements electrooculography

TESS Biology Set Electrophysiology EP 12673-89 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Electrophysiology, set incl. cords and ECG electrodes 12673-77 Cobra4 Wireless Manager 12600-00 Cobra4 Wireless-Link 12601-00

TESS advanced Biology manual Cobra4 Electrophysiology: ECG, EMG, EOG

12673-12

Cobra3 set Electrophysiology

Principle To record an electrocardiogram (ECG) between the left leg and the right and left arm (lead II according to Einthoven). Function and Applications

excellence in science 868


5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Complete instrument set to perform computer-assisted standard experiments covering human and animal physiology heart, muscle, eye, nerve. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

computer interface with USB port, seven measurement inputs (5 analog and 2digital), voltage output (5V and 0.2A) for 4mm connectors data transfer rate 500 kHz online frequency analysis Bio-Amplifier with 100x and 1000x signal amplification and measurement settings for ECG, EMG and EOG radial reflex hammer for the mechanical triggering of an inpulse to be connected directly to the computerinterface with radial switch in the hammer head to start measurement, incl.2 m long cable and two 4 mm plugs electrode collecting cable to connect ECG and EMG electrodes with color-coded cables (red, yellow, green) three stainless steel ECG electrodes, contact area 30 x 80 mm with connectors for electrode collecting cable three EMG electrodes with cable and 2 mm-miniature connector electrode gel to improve contact between electrodes and skin storage box for accessories.

Measuring accuracy: equal to the accuracy of the gauges used

Pressure: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0...2000 hPa Resolution 0.1 hPa Measuring accuracy: ± 0,5% Data flow rate: max. 5 Hz Dimensions: approx. 62mm x 63mm x 35mm Weight: approx. 190 g

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics, pressure abs. 2 bar and 2 temperature NiCr-Ni 12638-00 Cobra4 Wireless-Link 12601-00 Cobra4 Wireless Manager 12600-00 Blood pressure measuring unit 64234-00

Cobra3 Measuring module, pressure

Electrophysiology Lab, 230 V 65981-66 Biological amplifier 65961-93 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics, pressure abs. 2 bar and 2 temperature NiCr-Ni

Function and Applications Plug-in module for measuring pressures or pressure differences. Benefits ▪ ▪

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics is a measuring recorder for pressure and temperature measurements, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪ ▪

It canbe fitted with two NiCr-Nithermoelements (type K), in order to measure up to two temperatures and one absolut pressure value simultaneously The unit can be connected to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data Temperature: ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -200..+1200°C Resolution: 0.1 K

With hose connector and hose section for connecting the module to any type of peripheral equipment (the vacuum rubber tubing no.39288-00 is recommended for extension purposes). The measuring module replaces mercury manometers or crusher gauges normally used for studying the gas laws, for recording vapour-pressure diagrams or for measuring the barometric pressure. Pressure sensor integrated in the measuring mod.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range 0...2000 hPa Resolution 0.5 hPa Overload capacity up to 4000 hPa Response time ≤ 1ms Suitable media: non-aggressive gases and liquids

Measuring module, pressure 12103-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Blood pressure measuring unit 64234-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 869


5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Acoustic probe

Cobra4 Mobile-Link set, incl. rechargeable batteries, SD memory card, USB cable and software "measure" 12620-55

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Spirometry

Function and Applications Highly sensitive miniature microphone for measuring cardiac and vascular sound and for determining the heartbeat rate. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Electret microphone with FET amplifier Including a 1.5 m cable with 9-pin Sub-Dplug Frequency range: 50 Hz...20 kHz

Acoustic probe for COBRA3 03544-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Spirometry 12675-00 Cobra4 Wireless-Link 12601-00 Cobra4 Wireless Manager 12600-00 Software Cobra4 - Single user and school licence 14550-61

Scheiner optometer

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Pulse, Heart rate, incl. ear clip

65986-00

Perimeter, diameter 60 cm

Function and Applications Sensor of the Cobra4 family for measuring the heart rate on the ear or finger. Measurement of the signal amplitude and the heart rate. All Cobra4 sensors can be connected directly to the Cobra4 WirelessLink, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection. Equipment and technical data ▪ Range 40...240 pulses/minute ▪ Accuracy 2% ▪ Including ear clip (cable length: 1 m) ▪ Digital and graphical display of the heart rate ▪ Size: 60 x 70 x 35 mm ▪ Weight: 100 g Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Pulse, Heart rate, incl. ear clip 12672-00

excellence in science 870

Function and Applications Perimeter consisting of semicircular channel with protractorscale-10 degr. divisions, rotable around one axis. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

10 metal disks diameter 13 mm 1 sheet of diff. coloured labels 1 strong magnet Depth: 25 cm Width: 60 cm

Perimeter, diameter 60 cm 65984-00 Stimulant light source 65985-00


5.9 Medicine 5.9.8 Human physiology

Sine wave generator, 10 Hz - 20 KHz 65960-93 Digital Function Generator, USB 13654-99

Equipment and technical data

Spatial orientation (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications

For the demonstration of binaural (spatial) hearing and for measurement of the threshold angle. Benefits ▪ ▪

Highly sensitive microphones can be positioned in the ears, which are faithful copies of the natural ones The microphones can be connected to the two amplifier inputs of a computer interface or storage oscilloscope. (Neither the tripod nor the microphones are included in the equipment supplied).

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

Head made of styropor, anthrazit Ears made of gum

Artificial head w/o microphones 65975-01 Protractor scale with pointer 08218-00 Measuring microphone w.amplifier 03543-00

Digital Function Generator, USB

Low distortion and signal-to-noise ratio for brilliantly clear signals - ideal for acoustics/audio experiments

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency range: 0.1Hz…1Mhz Steps: 0.1Hz Distortion factor: <0.5% Signal forms: Sine, triangle, square, frequency ramp, voltage ramp Amplifier output, short-circuit-proof, via BNC and 4-mm connectors Output voltage : 0…20 Vpp for Rout > 40 Ω DC offset: ±10V (steps 5 mV) Power output: 5W (for up to 1A) where Rout = 20 Ω Headphone output via 3.5-mm jack socket: Switch for selecting standard headphones or speakers Output voltage: 0…1 Vpp for Rout = 400 Ω Sync (trigger) output via BNC: Output resistance: 50 Ω Logic level: CMOS (5V) V=f(f) output via BNC, short-circuit-proof: For outputting frequency in the form of a proportional voltage 0...10V (0...1MHz) Sweep function for frequency ramp Monochrome graphic display with continuous setting for background illumination: 128 x 64 pixels USB 2.0 port Settings via buttons and knob or software-assisted via USB Power supply 100V~ - 240V~ at 50/60Hz Impact-resistant plastic case with carrying handle Dimensions (mm): 194 x 140 x 130

13654-99

TESS advances Physics Set Acoustics

Function and Applications Function and Applications Digital signal generator for use as a programmable voltage source in practical or demonstration experiments, particularly in the disciplines of acoustics, electrical engineering and electronics

For 20 experiments in acoustics. 13289-88

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Can be used as universal stand-alone device or controlled via a USB interface (with a software package available as of 2011) Universally applicable thanks to broad, continually adjustable frequency range Usable as programmable voltage source via amplifier output Intuitive, menu-driven operation using control knob and function buttons, with help capability Illuminated monochrome graphic display for maximum visibility and readability Simple setting of voltage and frequency ramps in stand-alone mode Features V = f(f) output for easy reading of frequency in the form of a voltage - ideal for measuring circuit response to frequency ramps using an oscilloscope

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 871


5.9 Medicine 5.9.9 Neurobiology

Neurobiology: the nerve cell

Principle and tasks To use a nerve function model to study the following aspects of a nerve cell: intercellular potential and actionpotential. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Comparison between low and high threshold levels Comparison between low and high stimulus levels Membrane time constant and low passfiltering Membrane time constant Low-pass filtering Excitatory Synapse Depolarisation Temporal summation Spatial summation Synaptic amplification by terminal branches Effect of decreasing stimulus Hebbian synapse Synaptic learning and forgetting Inhibitory synapse Hyperpolarization Spacial inhibitory-excitatory summation Veto synapse

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4010711

Neurosimulator: membrane time constant and low-pass filte-ring (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4010511 Neurosimulator: mode of operation of excitatory synapses (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4010611 Neurobiology: nerve cell interactions P4010811 Neurobiology: neural networks P4010911 Neurobiology: complex neural networks P4011011

excellence in science 872


5.9 Medicine 5.9.9 Neurobiology

Recording of nerve potentials after the electrical stimulation of an anaesthetised earthworm (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit

Principle and tasks To work on the following themes by measuring nerve and muscle potentials: ▪ ▪ ▪

The action of an anaesthetic The different conduction velocities of median and lateral giant fibres Refractory period of the median giant fibre

What you can lern about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Nerve and muscle potentials Electrical stimulation Anaesthetization of muscles Electrical resistance of nerve fibres Double pulse stimulation Refractory period

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4010311

Recording of nerve and muscle potentials by mechanical stimulation at the rear end of an earthworm (Cobra3) P4010111 Recording of nerve and muscle potentials by mechanical stimulation at the front end of an earthworm (Cobra3) P4010211

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 873


5.9 Medicine 5.9.9 Neurobiology

Neurobiology: neural networks

Experiments with one Neurosimulator and Cobra3 P1087030 Neurobiology: nerve cell interactions P1087130 Neurobiology: complex neural networks P1087330

Neurobiology Lab, 230 V The following experiments can be performed: With 1 Neurosimulator: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Intracellular potential and action potential Comparison between low and high threshold levels Comparison between low and high stimulus levels Membrane time constant and low-pass filtering Membrane time constant Low-pass filtering Excitatory synapse Depolarization Temporal summation Spatial summation Synaptic amplification by terminal branches Effect of decreasing stimulus Hebbian synapse Synaptic learning and forgetting Inhibitory synapse Hyperpolarization Spacial inhibitory-excitatory summation Veto synapse

With 2 Neurosimulators: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Renshaw inhibition Motoneuron signals with recurrent inhibition by Renshaw cell Motoneuron signals without recurrent inhibition Functional characteristics of Renshaw inhibition Lateral inhibition and contrast improvement Lateral inhibition Contrast improvement Neuronal principles of classic conditioning Conditioned reflex Reversed stimulus succession doesn´t bring about a conditioned reflex

With 3 Neurosimulators: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Transient (phasic) responses: focus on visual sense Transient responses: ON neuron Transient responses: OFF neuron Simultaneous activation of ON and OFF neurons Neuronal oscillator (internal clock) Rotating excitation (short-term memory) Rotating excitation variation 1: dampening Rotating excitation variation 2: convulsive excitation Rotating excitation variation 3: equilibrium Special anatomical circuits Cerebral cortex and sensoric learning: functional characteristic of a triad

An additional neurosimulator can be added to this configuration to permit additional experiments for 4 Neurosimulators. Literature for this experiment as follows: Neurosimulator Handbuch 01191-01 German Neurosimulator Handbook 01191-02 English P1087230

excellence in science 874

Function and Applications Complete instrument set consisting of neuron unit, operating unit, computer interface, measure software for data acquisition and analysis, diverse cables, experiment manual describing 31 experiments. Benefits ▪ ▪

With the instrument set 13 experiments covering the topic "nerve cell" can be performed. Optional upgrade available to perform additional experiments about nerve cell interactions and neuronal networks.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Computer interface: 7 measurement inputs (5 analogue, 2 digital) one voltage output (5V and 0.2A) with 4mm sockets sampling rate 500 kHz and online frequency analyser.

Operating unit: ▪

4 output channels which generate "muscle and sense signals", also serves as supply power to operate up to 4 neuron units.

Neuron unit: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

simulates a generalised nerve cell with an apical dendrite and its synaptic contacts, a cell body (soma) and a nerve fibre (axon) with myelin sheathes and a Ranvier's ring. The dendrite comprises exciting, inhibiting, presynaptic and Hebbian synapses which are marked by the corresponding colours of the sockets. Here the axons end in presynaptic buttons. These are represented together with a part of the (afferent) fibre providing the signal. The connection between the (efferent) axon of a neuron unit which leads away or the stimulus output socket of the operating unit and a synapse is established by means of a white cable which is inserted into the desired synapse socket. The yellow sockets serve for the derivation of the state of excitement of the simulated neuron. They are connected to a computer interface. The action potentials can be made audible with the aid of the integrated acoustic monitor. The turning knob "S"serves for setting the "firing threshold" of the neuron.

Neurobiology Lab, 230 V 65963-11 Additional nerve cell 65963-10


5.9 Medicine 5.9.9 Neurobiology

Neuro-simulator

Neurosimulator Handbook

01191-02

Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT)

01320-02 Function and Applications The neuron unit Neurosimulator simulates a generalised nerve cell with an apical dendrite and its synaptic contacts, acell body (soma) and a nerve fibre (axon) with myelin sheathes and a Ranvier's ring.

Biological amplifier

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The dendrite comprises exciting, inhibiting, presynaptic and Hebbian synapses which are marked by the corresponding colours of the sockets here the axons end in presynaptic buttons these are represented together with a part of the (afferent) fibre providing the signal the connection between the (efferent) axon of a neuron unit which leads away or the stimulus output socket of the operating unit and a synapse is established by means of a white cable which is inserted into the desired synapse socket the yellow sockets serve for the derivation of the state of excitement of the simulated neuron they must be connected to suitable measuring instruments (e.g.oscilloscope) or a computer interface the action potentials can be made audible with the aid of the integrated acoustic monitor the turning knob "S" serves for setting the "firingthreshold" of the neuron.

Equipment and technical data Neurosimulator 1 Set of connecting cords: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Connection pipe, 6 cm, white Connection pipe, 15 cm, white Connection pipe, 50 cm, white Connection pipe, 50 cm, yellow Signal cable, 35 cm, grey

Required Accessories Operating device for the generation of stimuli and to power 65963-00

Function and Applications With the aid of this biological amplifier a wide range of electrophysiological experiments can be carried out on human beings, insects and earthworms. The frequency range for the measurement can be pre selected to match the different biological current sources as in ECG, EMG, EEG, EOG, ENG. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Trigger input R < 220 Ohm Trigger output 5 V (TTL), 5 µs leading Operating voltage 230 V ± 50 -60 Hz Housing dimensions (cm) 20×14×13 Differential amplifier Input resistance 10 MOhm Input voltage 10 µV...100 mV Amplification stages ×100, ×1000 Frequency ranges of types of measurement: EEG, ENG, EOG 1...25 Hz ECG, ERG 0.5...75 Hz EMG 80 Hz...5 kHz Output voltage 10 V max Output resistance < 1 kOhm

65961-93 Neuro-simulator, power supply 65963-93 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61

Earthworm experiment chamber 65981-20 Stimuli generator 65962-93 Stimulus bristle, triggering 65981-21

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 875


5.9 Medicine 5.9.9 Neurobiology

TESS Biology Set Electrophysiology EP

Function and Applications Complete instrument set and accessories to perform computer-assisted experiments in human and animal physiology of heart, muscle, eye. Equipment and technical data ▪

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Wireless transmitter and receiver units to connect to the electrophysiology sensor and to a PC, can also be used for others sensors to measure parameters common in physics, chemistry, biology and medical education electrophysiology sensor-unit for ECG, EMG and EOG with connectors for three measurement leads three separate and shielded leads, color-coded (red, yellow, green) with 3.5 mm phone jacks to connect to the sensor-unit and 2 mm jacks to connect to reusable and disposable electrodes three reusable stainless steel ECG electrodes, contact area 30 x 80 mm with connector for leads three reusable EMG electrodes with cable and 2 mm connectors disposable electrodes (100/pkg) three crocodile clips for disposable electrodes, electrode gel to improve contact between electrodes and skin software for wireless and wired data acquisition, for data analysis,automatic sensor recognition, automatic setup of measurement parameters and integrated experiment instructions 68-page manual in German language with experimental literature storage box for instrument set and accessories.

TESS Biology Set Electrophysiology EP 12673-88 TESS advanced Biology manual Cobra4 Electrophysiology: ECG, EMG, EOG 12673-12

excellence in science 876

Electrophysiology Lab, 230 V

Function and Applications Complete instrument set to perform computer-assisted standard experiments covering human and animal physiology: heart, muscle, eye, nerve. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

computer interface with USB port, seven measurement inputs (5 analog and 2 digital), voltage output (5V and 0.2A) for 4mm connectors data transfer rate 500 kHz online frequency analysis Bio-Amplifier with 100x and 1000x signal amplification and measurement settings for ECG, EMG and EOG radial reflex hammer for the mechanical triggering of an inpulse to be connected directly to the computerinterface with radial switch in the hammer head to start measurement, incl. 2 m long cable and two 4 mm plugs electrode collecting cable to connect ECG and EMG electrodes with color-coded cables (red, yellow, green) three stainless steel ECG electrodes, contact area 30 x 80 mm with connectors for electrode collecting cable three EMG electrodes with cable and 2 mm-miniature connector electrode gel to improve contact between electrodes and skin storage box for accessories.

65981-66


5.9 Medicine 5.9.10 Biochemistry

The enzymatic activity of catalase (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle Determination of the enzymatic activity of catalase. Tasks 1. 2.

The examine the enzymatic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, a cell respiratory poison, in the liver. To investigate the influence of the temperature and pH on the metabolic activity.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Enzyme catalase Decomposition of H2O2 Poisonous by-product of cell respiration Influence of temperature and pH

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4120611

Ionic permeability of the cell membrane (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4120211

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 877


5.9 Medicine 5.9.10 Biochemistry

Glycolysis (temperature measurement, with Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle Glykolyse (measurement of temperature) Tasks 1. 2.

To depict the increase in temperature, which results, when yeast cells ferment sugar. To compare the temperature curves of the solutions with and without yeast.

What you can learn about Glycolysis, Yeast fermentation of sugar, Temperature measurement, Respiration energy Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4110511

excellence in science 878


5.9 Medicine 5.9.10 Biochemistry

Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine) (with the Cobra3 Chem-Unit)

Principle Amino acid molecules carry both acid and amino groups. They can therefore form both acidic anions and basic cations. The pH at which these two types of iones are both present in the same concentration is called the isoelectric point. Tasks 1.

This isoelectric point is to be determined by recording the titration curve for the amino acid glycine.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Isoelectric point Acidic anions Basic cations Zwitterions Equivalence (inflection) points pKs value Titration Motor piston burette

Literature for this experiment as follows: Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02 English P4120140

Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes) (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit) P4120511

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 879


5.9 Medicine 5.9.10 Biochemistry

Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes)

Investigating the temperature increase during the fermentation of sugar by yeast cells using a wireless and computer interfacted data acquisition system. Scope of delivery: ▪

▪ ▪ ▪

Wireless transmitter and receiver units to connect to the pressure sensor and to a PC, can also be used for others sensors to measure parameters common in physics, chemistry, biology and medical education Thermodynamics sensor with 2x temperature and pressure absolute 2 NiCr-Ni thermoelements Data acquisition and analysis software Literature for this experiment as follows:

TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German Principle The enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in aqueous solution liberates carbon dioxide and ammonia. The ions of these compounds increase the conductivity of the solution. Conductivity measurements enable the rate of hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme urease to be determined. The addition of an appropriate inhibitor poisons the enzyme, so that it no longer converts substrate. Scope of delivery: ▪

▪ ▪ ▪

Wireless transmitter and receiver units to connect to the conductivity sensor and to a PC, can also be used for others sensors to measure parameters common in physics, chemistry, biology and medical education Sensor-Unit conductivity/ temperature Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 data acquisition and analysis software. Literature for this experiment as follows:

TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English Demo advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4Biochemie & Pflanzenphysiologie 01331-01 German Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02 English

TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English Demo advanced Biologie Handbuch Cobra4Biochemie & Pflanzenphysiologie 01331-01 German Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02 English P1351460

Ionic permeability of the cell membrane P1369760 Determination of the Michaelis constant P1369860 Substrate inhibition of enzymes P1369960 The enzymatic activity of catalase P1360760

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity/ Temperature (Pt1000)

P1370060

Glycolysis (temperature measurement)

Function and Applications The Cobra4 sensor unit, Conductivity/Temperature (Pt1000), is a microcontroller-based measuring recorder with a 5-pin diode socket for connecting conductance measuring sensors with a cell constant of K = 1.00/cm or Pt1000 thermocouples.

Principle

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.10 Biochemistry

Benefits ▪

The Cobra4 sensor may be connected directly to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link unit, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link unit or the Cobra4 USB-Link unit using a secure and reliable snap-in connection.

Equipment and technical data Conductivity: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring

range 1: 0.0 ... 2500.0 µS/cm approx. accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±0.15 µS/cm range 2:0 ... 45 000 µS/cm approx. accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±3 µS/cm range 3:0.00 ... 1100 mS/cm approx. accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±0.05 mS/cm

Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring accuracy: -20.0°C...150.0°C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: ±0.5 K (in the range 0...100°C)

General: ▪ ▪

Measuring cycle: 0.8...2 s (adjusted automatically) Dimensions: 62 x 63 x 35 mm approx.

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity/ Temperature (Pt1000) 12632-00 Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 13701-01 Cobra4 Wireless-Link 12601-00 Cobra4 Wireless Manager 12600-00 Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02

Measuring module Conductivity 12108-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V.

16506-02

TESS Chemistry manual Food Chemistry 01839-02 TLC-material set biochemistry 35041-00 TLC set, fats and cholesterol 35043-00

DNA, dynamic model

Measuring module Conductivity

Function and Applications The model allows the representation of sections of DNA molecule up to a length of 20 base pairs of different sequence and graphically explains the process of identical eduplication. Benefits ▪ Function and Applications Plug-in module for conductivity measurements. Benefits ▪

Can be connected to the module port and/or sensor port 1 or 2 (with moduleconverter and data cable)

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4 Measuring ranges 0...0.2/2/20/200mS/cm Measuring frequency approx. 4 kHz dimensions: (100x50x40) mm cell constant: 0,85...1,15/cm Plastic housing with rear D-sub-25-plug

The structure of the DNA double helix is allowed by rigid coils of clear plastic, without a tripod Individual components of contrasting colored plastic in the form of their structural formulas

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1 base plate with3 fixing sockets for the supporting helixes and stuck on key 2 support helixes (each with 1.5 turns) 40 phosphoric acid molecules 40 deoxyribose molecules 10 cytosine molecules 10 thymine molecules 10 guanine molecules 10 adenine molecules

65560-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 881


5.9 Medicine 5.9.10 Biochemistry

Recombinant DNA Manipulatives Demonstration

DNA Electrophoresis 35019-01

Electrophoresis chamber, horizon.

Function and Applications Teach your students the basics of recombinant DNA technology using this large plasmid model. You can demonstrate to your class the process of cutting plasmid DNA with restriction enzymes, while your students follow along using the included manipulative sets. Then use the laminated electrophoresis boards to represent the separation of fragments on a gel. Equipment and technical data All components are made of durable plastic and magnetic strips are included to mount the plasmid model pieces. You will receive a manual, instructional video, and materials for 15 setups.

Function and Applications For carrying out a garose gel electrophoresis using the "submerged technique" with the aim of separating nucleic acids. Benefits

87917-00

Principles of DNA Sequencing Lab Activity

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The gels have a size of 7×7 cm; an electrophoretic separation can be carried out in a school lesson. The gel is poured on to a UV transparent, removable gel tray. A comb is used to form pockets for applying the sample. The gel is placed on the gel tray in the chamber and coated with buffer - thus the name "submerged technique". The current circuit can not be connected until the safety hood has been placed in position.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications A dry lab explaining DNA sequencing and analysis, this activity illustrates how DNA sequencing is used to determine the primary structure of DNA. Actual autoradiograms from DNA sequencing experiments are provided for identification of mutated nucleotides. Contents can also be viewed using an overhead projector for full classviewing. Benefits ▪

For your convenience and safety, this experiment does not contain radioactive materials, does not require electrophoresis, and does not contain any perishable reagents or supplies.

Equipment and technical data ▪

bufferchamber and safety lid made of Plexiglas connection cable with special plugs UV transparent gel tray 2 gelpouring bridges made of aluminium comb, 8 teeth, 1,5 mm; comb, 15 teeth, 1,5 mm spirit level for horizontal orientation of the chamber detailed instructionsfor use.

Electrophoresis chamber, horizon. 35018-10 Electrophoresis chamber, vertical 35018-20 Electrophores.power supp.100/200V 35019-99 PowerPac Basic, 10 - 300 V 35020-93 Electrophoresis power supply 100V/200V 65966-93

Chemicals for DNA gel electrophoresis

Includes materials for six setups.

Accessories Highly recommended: visible light box for individual or student group viewing of autoradiograms. An overhead projector may be used for entire class viewing. 87918-00

DNA extraction kit 35019-06

excellence in science 882

Agarose for electrophoresis,125g 35018-11 DNA sample appl. buffer, 1ml 35018-13 DNA Fast Blast Stain, 500x,100 ml 35018-14 Electrophoresis buffer 10xTBE,1 l 35019-10 tris buffer,acetic acid,EDTA,50x 35019-11


5.9 Medicine 5.9.10 Biochemistry

Gel Electrophoresis Simulation Lab Activity

For precast gels. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications Perfect for communicating the practice of electrophoresis simply and effectively without the need for electrophoresis equipment, this kit includes pop beads that students use to simulate the process of electrophoresis. Three investigations are included: assembling pop bead chains of amino acids to understand amino acids and protein structure, analyzing electrophoretic "results", and determining DNA and protein fragment length.

2-gel system includes electrode assembly tank lid with power cables mini cell buffer dam Runs up to 4 mini gels (7 cm x 8.5 cm) leak-free electrophoresis and gelcasting indestructible molded polycarbonate construction throughout

Electrophoresis chamber, vertical 35018-20 Electrophores.power supp.100/200V 35019-99

TESS expert Medicine Sets Clinical Chemistry and Haematology

Equipment and technical data The kit includes enough materials for 15 setups, as well as a teacher's guide and student copymaster. 87916-00

Model of protein synthesis

Function and Applications Clear, step-by-step instructions and simple parts help students create their own protein to learn about its formation in cells. Benefits Labeled pieces representing ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA, and amino acids fit together to demonstrate RNA function in protein synthesis. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

You will receive 54 die-cut cardboard pieces and a 31-page illustrated instruction manual. Aall stored compactly in an 8 1/2″ x 11″ envelope.

87914-00

Electrophoresis chamber, vertical

The sets clinical chemistry and hematology provide full practical courses consisting of consumables, equipment and handbook. The experiments are designed for both the practical courses in medicine at the university and for the education of assistant medical technicians. The sets include kinetic measurements, photometric determinations and all the examinations for the complete blood count. The detailed and intuitive descriptions are suitable to be used directly by students in practical courses. The students get experienced in handling for example blood samples, photometers, coagulometers and microscopes in other words: they get all skills they need for the work in clinical laboratories and the interpretation of the. Theme fields (examples): ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Complete blood count Special experiment for the diagnosis of Malaria Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Kinetic measurements Coagulation: prothrombin ratio and partial thromboplastin time Quantitative analysis of blood glucose and other blood parameters Examination of urine

Additionally needed: Chemicals, Set for up to 12 Workgroups (Art. No. 13952-88) and test kits for clinical chemistry (to be purchased on local markets) TESS expert Medicine Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, Students Basic Set 13950-88 TESS expert Medicine Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, Lab Equipment for 3-5 Student groups 13951-88

Function and Applications

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5.9 Medicine 5.9.11 Models

DNA, dynamic model

Function and Applications The model allows the representation of sections of DNA molecule up to a length of 20 base pairs of different sequence and graphically explains the process of identical eduplication. Benefits ▪ ▪

The structure of the DNA double helix is allowed by rigid coils of clear plastic, without a tripod Individual components of contrasting colored plastic in the form of their structural formulas

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1 base plate with3 fixing sockets for the supporting helixes and stuck on key 2 support helixes (each with 1.5 turns) 40 phosphoric acid molecules 40 deoxyribose molecules 10 cytosine molecules 10 thymine molecules 10 guanine molecules 10 adenine molecules

Blood Typing Demonstration Model, Demo Size

Function and Applications Provide a visual interpretation of a concept often difficult for students to understand. Benefits Using the model, you can demonstrate the antigen-antibody reactions that occur at the molecular level, including blood typing reactions, successful and unsuccessful blood transfusion reactions, and Rh incompatibility. Equipment and technical data The demonstration size model kit contains two erythrocytes, and one pair each of A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies. Blood Typing Demonstration Model, Demo Size 87909-00 Blood Typing Demonstration Model, Class Size 87910-00

Blood circulation, functional model

65560-00

Valves of the veins, working model

Function and Applications Funtional working model consisting of a transparent tube made of acrylic glass to simulate the function of the valves in an air stream. Benefits ▪ ▪

Function and Applications

Instead of the blood stream a stream of air is generated. With it you can demonstrate the flow of blood in the opening flap and the back pressure, which is formed when the flaps are closed automatically by the pressure of the blood.

Equipment and technical data Components: ▪ ▪ ▪

87071-00

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Functional working model of blood circulation.

heart lung arteries


5.9 Medicine 5.9.11 Models

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

veins capillary system material: acrylic glass and siliconefilled with coloured liquid dimensions: on a stand 35x37 cm

87073-00

Eye, 3x, mod

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

stylized eyeball lensholder, adjustable candle holder, adjustable ancillary lens

A full text is included. 87043-00

Eyeball with part of orbit, model

Function and Applications 6-piece eye model, 3-fold increased. Benefits Model includes the following parts: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

White sclera with cornea and eye muscle attachments (2 parts) Choroid with iris and retina (2 parts) Lens Body

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

on a base numeration with supplementary sheet dimensions incl. base (mm): 90 x 90 x 150

Eye, 3x, mod 87036-00 Eye, 5x, mod 87039-00

Function and Applications Eyeball with ocular muscles and opticnerve (2 parts) in orbit (eye socket). Vitrious orbit, ocular lens and cornea, ocular muscles M. rectus superior and M.rectus lateralis can be removed. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

3.5-times enlarged 8 parts, on base dimensions: 19 x 20 x 28 cm with documentation in different languages (L / D / GB / F)

87040-00

RNA Protein synthesis kit

Eye, physiolog. mod

Function and Applications The model allows the assembly of an m-RNA strand of 12 base pairs. With the help of 4 t-RNA blocks the translation at the ribosome can be depicted. Function and Applications

Equipment and technical data

Eye model to visualize the physical basis of sight.

Content:

Benefits Topics to demonstrate: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Pictures of an object appear upside down on the retina Demonstration of myopia and its correction Demonstration of hyperopia and its correction Vision correction by superior optics

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

6 blocks of each of the bases: uracil, adenine, guanine, cytosine 12 ribose- and 12 phosphate blocks 4 t-RNA and 4 amino acid blocks 1 handbook

39852-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 885


5.9 Medicine 5.9.11 Models

DNA-Model with 12 base-pairs

Function and Applications Illustrative molecular models made of plastic with which the DNA double helix can be established: The bases are represented by flat plastic body in four different colors. About the shaping of the model, it is only possible to sew together the complementary bases (adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine). The pentose phosphate backbone is also assembled from deoxyribose and phosphate elements. Benefits The models can be built as a double helix using the supplied stand or be laid flat to show, for example, the process of replication. Equipment and technical data 6 blocks of the bases: adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine, 24 riboseand 24 phosphate blocks, 12 spacer colorless, 1 instruction manual (in English), 1 tripod base plate and bar with a final piece, Dimensions assembled (mm): 240 x 110, Delivery in solid plastic box DNA-Model with 12 base-pairs 39851-00 DNA-Model with 22 base-pairs 39850-00

List of available models

Neuron, model 66580-00 Human skeleton with roling stand, model 87088-01 Human skeleton with stand, mod 87088-02 Types of joint, model 66131-01 Spinal cord, flexible, mod 87101-00 Vertebra set, 5 pcs, model 66413-00

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Human shoulder joint, model 66377-01 Human elbow joint, model 66378-01 Human elbow joint, model 66378-01 Human knee joint, model 66379-01 Human hip joint, model 66380-01 Male torso with open back 66306-00 Human head,median section,model 66311-00 Human torso w.head unisex mod. 66305-00 Male pelvis, 2parts, model 66407-00 Female pelvis,2 parts, model 66406-00 Skin, block model 66403-00 Skin section, model 66402-00 Heart, sect.through chambers, mod 87066-00 Functional Ear Model 87913-00 Human ear, model 66328-00 Hearing organ, 4 parts,model 66395-00 Neuro-anatom.brain,8 parts, mod 87030-00 Brain, 8 parts, mod 87027-00 Synapse, greatly enlarged, model 66579-00 Spinal cord w.nerve branches,mod 87031-00 Neuron,2500x, model 87035-00 Chromosomenmodell 66455-00 Heart, 2 parts, model 66401-00


5 Applied Sciences 5.10 Ecology

Ecology

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

Dissociation equilibrium (with the Cobra3 Chem-Unit)

Principle Carboxylic acids are potential electrolytes which exist in a weakly dissociated condition in aqueous solutions. The location of the dissociation equilibrium is quantitativly described by the Ka or pKa value which can be determined with potentiometric measurements. Tasks 1. 2.

Measure the alteration of the pH value during a titration of approximately 0.1 molar aqueous solutions of formic acid, acetic acid, monochloroacetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid with a 0.1 molar sodium hydroxide solution at constant temperature using Cobra3 system. From the neutralisation curves read the pKa values of the acids and compare them.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

True and potention electolytes Strong and weak acids Law of mass action Henderson-Hasselbalch equation Dissociation constant and pKa value Substituent effects Potentionmetry

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3030940

Distribution equilibrium P3030701

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

Chromatographic separation processes: gas chromatography (with the Cobra3 Chem-Unit)

Principle Chromatographic procedures allow a separation of substance mixtures with the aid of a stationary separation phase and a mobile phase. In gas chromatography the mobile phase is a gas. The mobile phase, to which the mixture to be separated is added, transports the substance mixture through the separation column at a constant flow rate. Interactions occur between the mobile phase and the stationary phase. The establishment of equilibria between the stationary phase and the different substances (distribution equilibria, adsorption-desorption equilibria) results in different migration rates of the individual components. At the end of the column there is a detector in the form of a thermal conductivity cell, which can detect the different substances on the basis of their differing thermal conductivities. The detector signal is recorded as a funtion of time. The different thermal conductivities of the carrier gas and the substance cause temperature alterations in the electrically heated temperature sensor, which is located in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The resulting electrical signal is recorded by a plotter as a function of time (chromatogram). Tasks 1. 2.

Determine the retention times of different gases and perform a chromatographic material separation of a mixture of butane gases. Separate and identify the components of a two-component mixture consisting of ethanol and ethyl acetate chromatographically.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Chromatography Chromatogram Multiplicative distribution Nernst's law of distribution (number of theoretical trays) Thermal conductivity detector

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3031740

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

Temperature dependence of conductivity (with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit)

Principle The electrical conductivity of an electrolytic solution is dependent not only upon the type and concentration of the electrolytes, but also other state values. Thus, an increase in conductivity is generally observed with an increase in temperature. This is fundamentally due to the exponential decrease of the solutions's viscosity. In aqueous solutions a limit is reached at approximately 90°C. Above this temperature the conductivity again decreases. Tasks Determine the temperature dependence of the conductivity of a 10% sodium chloride solution from 20°C to approximately 60°C. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Electrolytic resistance Conductance Specific and molar conductivity Ion mobility Equivalent conductance at infinite dilution Kohlrausch's law Ostwald's law of dilution Transference numbers Viscosity

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3060511

Temperature dependence of conductivity (with the Cobra3 Chem-Unit) P3060540

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

pH measurement

Principle The course, reaction rate and equilibrium position of many chemical reactions are strongly influenced by the concentration or more accurately, the activity of hydrogen ions in solutions αH+. Rapid and accurate determinations of hydrogen ion activity are thus of great importance. Since αH+ can vary over many orders of magnitude, it has proved convenient to introduce the pH scale (pH from the Latin "pondus hydrognii" meaning "amount of hydrogen"). The most important and common method used to determine the pH value is to measure the potential of the electrode which is sensitive to hydrogen ion activity. In certain practical situations, however, a simpler and more direct method o determining pH is required, and use is often made of pH indicators. Tasks Calibrate the following pH-sensitive electrodes in buffer solutions of known pH: ▪ ▪ ▪

the glass electrode the antimony electrode the quinhydrone electrode.

Using these calibrated electrodes, measure the pH of an unknown solution. Compare and contrast the results obtained with the three pHsensitive electrode. Use the glass electrode to determine the pH range in which the following indicators change colour: ▪ ▪ ▪

methyl orange bromothymol blue phenolphthalein

Compare the suitability of the three indicators for different types of acid-base titrations. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Potentiometric determination of pH Glass electrode pH indicators Acid-base titrations

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 English P3061501

Potentiometric pH titration (phosphoric acid in soft drinks) P3061740

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

Water quality - contamination with heavy metals

leased into the air, therefore these flue gases have to be desulphurised. This model experiment provides a simple demonstration of the chemical processes of flue gas desulphurisation as it is carried out in power plants today. The clear, compact setup and the simplifications undertaken relative to industrial scale desulphurisation make it easy to understand the process. Literature for this experiment as follows: Demo advanced Chemie Handbuch Komplettversuche (CET) 01855-01 German Complete Experiments Chemistry/Biotechnology 01855-02 English P1310000

Principle Demonstration experiment using wireless data transmission to a large digital to display. Heavy metal ions can seep into water courses, for example from galvanising plants or other similar industries. They have the effect of suppressing the action of enzymes, so that the metabolic processes of organisms, which they would normally control, are disrupted or even eliminated. This apparatus demonstrates how enzyme functioning can be blocked by heavy metal ions using the example of decomposition of urea by urease enzymes.

The pH value of various soils

Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English P0990163

Model experiment on the desulphurisation of flue gas

Principle Information concerning the quality of soils is of great importance for agricultural production. The students are familiarised with this subject via two experiments with pH measurements that show how much soils may differ from each other (experiment "Characteristic pH values of various soils") and how significant the differences within a soil itself may be (experiment "Soil profile"). Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsph채nomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English P1521062

Principle German coal contains an average of one tonne of sulphur per 100 tonnes of coal. During combustion, this generates in about two tonnes of sulphur dioxide. Thus, a large 700-megawatt power plant which burns about 200 tonnes of coal per hour produces about 100 tonnes of sulphur dioxide per day. These days of course, such a large quantity of a pollutant can no longer be simply re-

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

Acidity changes of a watercourse

TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English P1521762

Cobra4 Environment and outdoors, for 4 workgroups with english handbook, incl. aluminum case

Principle The pH value (a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions) in running waters depends on the geological conditions, the pollution load that is caused by agricultural production, and on plant activities. This experiment shows how the pH value of a stream changes even at a short distance and just a few kilometres away from the spring. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Applied Sciences Handbuch Cobra4 Umwelt und Freiland 12622-01 German TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02 English P1520862

Impact of the forest type on humidity, temperature and brightness Principle Various types of woodland exhibit different sorts of climate data. Temperature, humidity and lighting conditions do not only depend on meteorological factors but also on the nature of the vegetation. The density of the tree canopy determines how much light can penetrate and therefore affects the temperature. The low density of vegetation on a managed highland forestry estate (often beech forests at European latitudes) also affects the movement of winds in the forest, which also affects humidity. In this outdoor experiment, we will be conducting measurements on various types of woodland during the same day and at approximately the same time in order to eliminate meteorological differences as far as possible. Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German

Function and Applications This device set is ideally suited to shared-work experiments with schoolgroups. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Whether in the classroom, outdoors or on project days: in this robust aluminium case, you will always find the right device for carrying out fascinating experiments with schoolgroups. Up to 4 work groups can work on and investigate interesting topics in parallel. All data are saved on SDmemory cards. Evaluation of the data can be carried out e.g. at home, as homework. The measure evaluation software is included for FREE and may,of course, be used privately by each pupil.

TIP: This device is also ideal for use e.g.in the context of a school hiking day: here, a topografic profile can easily be produced with the weather sensor. In Geography lessons, the data can be evaluated and interpreted together. If the height is then set against the temperature, humidity relative to the path, or temperature relative to the time of day, great discoveries can be made, which are both practical and fun. Equipment and technical data The highly stable aluminium case contains the following materials: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4 x Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x Cobra4Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connection 1 xCobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: airpressure, humidity, ambient temperature, brightness 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit,Temperature-Semiconductor 20...110 °C 1x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity with permanently connected stainless steel 1x pH plastic, gel-filled electrode 1 x100 red pH 4 buffer trays 1 x 100 green pH 10 buffer trays 1 x 460 ml calibration solution for conductance electrode 1 x protective case for GL 25pH electrode 1 x 120 labels, 4 x 100 ml square flange (HDPE) 2 x 250 ml PP laboratory beaker 4 x 1 GB 20 MB/sec SDmemory card for Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x110...240 V Charger for metal hybrid batteries 2 x Mignon 1.2 V 2700 mAh spare batteries - set of 4 operating manual plus CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software, incl. FREE evaluation software

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

experimental descriptions and configuration settings for experiments

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude

Cobra4 Environment and outdoors, for 4 workgroups with english handbook, incl. aluminum case 12622-77 TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02

TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors

12622-02

Function and Applications

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit CO2

Depending on application type, the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection. Benefits ▪ ▪

At the same time, the following measuring parameters may be recorded: airpressure, relative humidity, airtemperature, brightness, height Ideal for use in outdoor experiments, on classtrips or for project or school hikingdays.

Equipment and technical data Relative Humidity: ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 100 % accuracy +/- 5 %

Air Pressure: ▪ ▪

measurement range 10 - 1100 mbar accuracy +/-5 %

Air Temperature: ▪ ▪

measurement range -40 - +125 °C accuracy +/- 0.5 °C

Brightness: Function and Applications Sensor of the Cobra4 family for the measurement of the CO2 concentration in the air. The measured data of the sensor can be transferred with the Cobra4 Wireless Link by radio to the PC in connection with the Cobra4 Wireless Manager. All Cobra4 Sensor Units are quickly connectable through a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measuring range: 0... 6000 ppm resolution: 50 ppm data transfer rate: 1 Hz dimensions (L x W x H): 60 mm x 70 mm x 30 mm weight: 60 g

Accessories ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Cobra4 Wireless Link (12601-00) and Cobra4 Wireless Manger (12600-00) and/or alternative: Cobra4 USB Link (12610-00) to the connection to a PC Software measure Cobra4, individual position and school license (14550-61) for the realization, representation and evaluation of the measurements Cobra4 Mobile Link (12620-00) for the measuring without PC

12671-00

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▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 10,000 lx accuracy +/- 5 % calculation using air pressure Data transfer rate for each sensor: 1 Hz Dimensions (L x B x H): 64 x 70 x 31 mm Weight: 60 g

12670-00

Cobra4 Mobile-Link set, incl. rechargeable batteries, SD memory card, USB cable and software "measure" 12620-55


5.10 Ecology Ecology

TESS Biology set Chemo-physical water analysis

TESS Biology set Biological water analysis

Function and Applications

Function and Applications This kit allows up to 8 work groups to carry out field examinations of running water and lakes. The following parameters are measured: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

temperature oxygen content pH-conductivity nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and ammonium content alkalinity (total hardness)

The examinations can be extended to further parameters when the kit is supplemented with extra equipment, available as accessories and for which room has been reserved in the case: ▪ ▪

depth of transparency (measured using a Secchi disc or a Lux meter with immersion probe) water profiles (measurement down to 10 m depth using a water scoop)

The methods are mainly chemico-physical determinations acc. to BACH. They allow an objective assessment of the water quality and are referred to by the Scottish and American Environmental Authorities, as well as those of some German Federal States, in their reports on water quality. The chemico-physical examination methods always give momentary values and so allow measurements of variation over time (daily and seasonal variations) as well as at different positions (e.g.pollution by influents). Added meaning is given by supplementing these methods with biological methods, which aim at the documentation of long-term changes in the condition of the body of water. Equipment and technical data The following units are included: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

rapid test for ammonia, pH, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, oxygen and total hardness conductivity tester 0-2 mS / cm thermometer -10 ... +50 C° 500-ml bottles (2x for waste) detailed manual

Eco-Kit "Biological testing of water quality". The physical, chemical and bacteriological examination procedures primarily allow an assessment of the momentary water quality. As the variety of species in a body of water decreases with increasing pollution, and the composition of the organism societies thereby changes, the biological determination of the water quality provides additional important indications on the water quality and allows conclusions to be drawn on the previous pollution. The species and frequency of indicator organisms at various degrees of pollution are thereby coupled to the water quality classes I to IV. Benefits ▪ ▪

This kit enables 6 working groups to simultaneously carry out examinations of running and standing waters in the filed. All important pieces of equipment are present 6-fold. The enclosed manual containing tables and sheets for analysis allow assignment to the water quality classes I. .. IV

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Screens Trays Dishes, large and small Tweezers Brushes Pipettes Magnifier glasses, large and small Petri dishes Dip net for catching aquatic organisms Caliper Rulers Manual with identification key Snap lid jars

30834-88

TESS Biology manual biological water quality testing

30834-02 in the case is also room for: ▪ ▪ ▪

Secchi disk (water transparency) water bottles (water profile) 2 hand-held instruments according to choice

30837-88

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

Benefits

Water analysis case

▪ ▪ ▪

The evaluation of the test is made either by comparing the colour of the sample solution with the colour scale supplied or by simply counting the number of drops of reagent added until the colour change in the sample solution occurs The simple handlingallows the tests to be carried out even by untrained people The tests contained in this water laboratory are so sensitive, that they allow the stringent limiting values of the German Drinking Water Regulations to be reached The reagents used are bio-degradable or of no environmental concern

Equipment and technical data Function and Applications For the determination of the quality of bodies of water which are to a great extent unburdened with waste water and of the pollution caused in them by an influx of municipal waste water, or for the monitoring of pond fertilization.

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

biodegradable and environmentally friendly reagents color chart Sample glass detailed instructions

30380-00

Benefits ▪ ▪

suitable for examining both standing and running waters the excursion case inclusdes test kits for the determination of:

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

ammonium pH nitrate nitrite phosphate iron total water hardness carbonate oxygen

Excursion set, soil analysis

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

water analysis case manual with detailed instructions

30831-00 Function and Applications Reagent case for water analysis with filter photometer 30839-00

Water test lab for quick analysis

The case contains the complete equipment for the determination of the type of soil, the soil structure, the pH of the soil and its nutrient content, i.e. the nitrogen, phosphate and potassium content available to plants. Benefits ▪ ▪

▪ ▪

The manual contains detailed descriptions of experiments for determining soil characteristics It contains a complete schedule for soil testing, from taking samples to differentiating the various soil types, from the determination of the nutrient content to the calculation of the amount of fertiliser required It also supplies valuable background information All necessary reagents, equipment and accessories are clearly positioned in the case, so that a glance suffices to check that it is complete.

Equipment and technical data Function and Applications This small water laboratory for the most important water parameters contains complete sets of chemicals for the examination of water for: Measuring range: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ammonium 0.05-10.00 mg/l Nitrate 10.00-80.00 mg/l Nitrite 0.02- 1.00 mg/l Phosphate 0.50- 6.00 mg/l Total hardness 1 drop = 1°dH pH 5.00-9.00

excellence in science 896

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Extraction Solutions Balance 2 scoops 3 syringes Pleated filter Colander Spray bottle 5 containers 2 cylinders 2 funnels Blades


5.10 Ecology Ecology

Spoon

Accessories ▪ ▪

Soil auger (64221-01) Soil auger, small (64222-00)

30346-00

TESS Applied Sciences set soil examination

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

3 bottle sealings precision spring balance testing medium for the manometer metal grinding bowl 4 stainless steel bullets in plastic can 20 calciumcarbide phials in plastic can chisel operating manual bottle brush plastic scoop 5 weighing pans metalcase

Humidity determination apparatus in transport box 64203-02 Calcium carbide, amp., 100 off 64203-10

Berlese equipment

Function and Applications Case with material for 6 work groups. To investigate the 18 most important soil parameters: soil profile (soil horizons, soil type), mineral matter (stone content, fine earth content, soil texture), body of humus (humus content, humus type), water/ air (soil moisture, water capacity, water permeability rate, utilisable water capacity), soil structure (soil compaction, aggregate stability/ tilth), acidity (pH value, lime content), nutrients (nitrate content of soil, nitrate content of fruit and vegetables), soil life (soil animals). Includes 65 page manual on the theoretical basis of the topics and with experimental instructions. 30836-88

TESS Applied Sciences manual examination of soil 30836-02

Humidity determination apparatus in transport box

Function and Applications For the extraction of micro arthropods from soil samples. Such arthropods participate alongside micro organisms in the complex decomposition processes in soil. Berlese apparatus 64204-88 Sieve for Berlese apparatus 64204-01 Stereo microscope ST-30-2LO,2x/4x 62459-93

Function and Applications To determine the moisture content of the soil. This method can be implemented particularly in ecological pilot projects, which it provides fast and reliable results. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

CM pressure cylinder manometer 3 manometer sealings

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5.10 Ecology Ecology

TESS Applied Sciences Set Gas examination

Function and Applications For investigating air pollution caused by car exhaust gases. Equipment and technical data The case contains the following: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Gas detector pump (100 ml air/stroke) Test tube for carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, 2x carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous gases, benzene and hydrocarbons 100-l test bag for exhaust gases with measuring connection, rubber hose and clamp Handbook with detailed instructions

TESS Applied Sciences Set Gas examination 30838-77 TESS Applied Sciences Manual gas examination 30838-02

Bag f. exhaust gas,w.connec.pc. 64199-20 Gas tester I, quantitat.analysis 64199-02 Accessory set for Gas Tester 64199-06 BSB-determination set OxiTop 64227-00

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6 Additional material

Additional material 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5

Software measure Cobra4 Cobra3 Power supply units Small to medium voltage power supply units Stabilised and regulated power supply units High-voltage power supply units Signal generators Measurement instruments Hand-held measuring instruments - electricity Demonstration measurement instruments - electricity Oscilloscopes, recorders Measuring amplifiers Time measuring instruments, counters

901 904 926 949 950 952 955 956 959 960 963 967 968 970

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6 Additional material

6.5.6 Meteorological instruments 6.5.7 Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers 6.5.8 pH and conductivity measuring instruments 6.5.9 Oxygen, lux and pressure measuring instruments 6.5.10 Radioactivity, sound level and gas measuring instruments 6.5.11 Photometers, spectroscopes, polarimeters, refractometers 6.5.12 General - measurement instruments 6.6 Microscopes

excellence in science 900

973 974 981 987 989 991 994 995


6 Additional material 6.1 Software measure

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6 Additional material 6.1 Software measure

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6 Additional material 6.1 Software measure

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

The following views can be selected individually by measuring channel: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ All Cobra4 devices are listed in the following order: • Basic units • Sensors • Accessories • Sets for all disciplines.

▪ ▪

1. Digital measuring value window 2. Analogue measuring value window 3. Graphs 4. Additional measuring graphs with a free choice of scale application 5. AS WITH MICROSOFT® PRODUCTS: Open the correct application window by doubleclicking or using the right mouse button 6. All modifications can also be made DURING THE MEASUREMENT.

LOAD EXPERIMENTS:

You will find further information on articles, manuals and experiments in the respective chapters and on the PHYWE website website.

Software Cobra4 - Single user and school licence

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Numerous experiments examples are easily loadable. In addition to a comprehensive experiments description in pdf format with structure image, material list, experimental set-up and results, the parameters required for this experiment are loaded automatically.

These are the details: ▪ ▪

1. Sensor settings 2. Illustrations - multi-graph / virtualdevice

AND EVEN BETTER: ▪

all experiment descriptions, configuration files and sample measurements are included on the "measure Cobra4" CD-ROM for FREE.

KEY WORDS IN SAMPLE EXPERIMENTS: ▪ ▪ ▪

For each sample experiment, all associated key words are displayed automatically. A single click on a keyword will immediately display help with detailed explanations. This makes it possible to carry out all experiments very easily, quickly and reliably.

System requirements: ▪ Funktion und Verwendung The "measure Cobra4" measuring software leaves nothing to be desired. As soon as a Cobra4 sensor is connected to a PC,irrespective of whether by Cobra4 Wireless or Cobra4 USB, the "measureCobra4" software opens completely automatically and shows the connected sensors, the required measuring windows and the current measuring data. Measurement recording is then started with a single CLICK. This all takes under 40 seconds! Vorteile: Embedded experiments with online documentation and measurement examples and automatic configuration NAVIGATOR On the left hand side of the software EVERYTHING ALWAYS IN VIEW. In theNAVIGATOR, you can: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

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1. Automatically see all connected sensors 2. See / change the condition of the sensors (activated, deactivated) 3. Change all sensor parameters by double clicking 4. Add calculated channels that allow e.g. the online conversion of measuring values (e.g. °C to K) or the calculation of measured values from different measuring channels (e.g. calculation, illustration of the resistance from current and voltage) 5. Easily load measuring examples- experiments descriptions, parameter settings, displays and graphs come automatically 6. Easily load configuration files. You will automatically have the optimum setting for your application

MEASURING WINDOW: All measuring values are displayed immediately.

excellence in science 908

PC with min. Pentium 3, 512 MB RAM, 1 GB free space on the hard disk, CD- ROM drive, USB 2.0, Microsoft ® Windows 2000 or higher.

14550-61

TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Function

Cobra4 Wireless-Link

Impressive experimental descriptions from the fields of physics, chemistry and biology that pays attention in particular to the advantages of the radio-controlled transmission of measured values with the Cobra4 system. In total more than 120 demonstration and student experiments are described in detail. Experiments on the interdisciplinary topic "everyday life phenomena" are contained. Contents ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Physics: Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Electricity Chemistry: Chemical equilibrium, Electrochemistry Biology: Ecology, Physiology, Biochemistry and Plant physiology Everyday science: Home, Outdoors, Hobby, Technics, Transportation

Equipment and technical data Arch file size A4, 350 color print pages 01330-02

Function and Applications Interface module for the radio-based transmission of sensor measuring values in conjunction with the Cobra4 wireless manager.

Cobra4 basic units

Benefits: ▪

How do you want to measure? All Cobra4 sensor units can be connected to basic units through a secure plug-latch insert, and are identified automatically by the system.

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Cobra4 Wireless Manager

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All Cobra4 Sensor-Units can be quickly connected using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. All Cobra4 measuring sensors are easy to plug in and automatically detected The radio network with the Cobra4Wireless Manager is established automatically and is extremely stable, as it uses its own radio protocol Up to 99 Cobra4 Wireless-Links can be connected to one Cobra4 Wireless-Manager No more cable mess, thanks to radio measuring With radio transmission, moving sensors offer completely new experimentation options, e.g. the measurement of acceleration of a student on a bicycle etc. The use of high performance batteries means that no external power supplyis required.

Cobra4Wireless is particularly suitable for: ▪

Function and Applications USB device for radio-based communication with the Cobra4 WirelessLink. Benefits: Simply connect the device to the computer's USB port. Up to 99 measuring sensors can be connected to one computer Automatic detection of all connected measuring sensors. Equipment and technical data: Power consumption: < 100 mA, Connection voltage (via USB): 5 V, Radio output power: 1 mW, Max. data rate (burst):125,000 values/s, Range with no obstacles: 20 m , max.number of Cobra4 Wireless-Links in the network: 99, Dimensions L x B x H: 75 x 25 x 10 mm, Weight: 20 g, incl. CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software , incl. FREE evaluation software, experiments description and configuration settings for experiments, operating manual

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Computer aided student's experiments using only one teacher's computer (max. 99 sensors on one computer) convenient experimentation without annoying cables Experiments with moving sensors, e.g. freefall acceleration etc.

Equipment and technical specifications: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Voltage supply: 2 x Mignon batteries Power consumption: < 300 mA Radio output power: 1 mW max.data rate (burst): 125,000 values/s Range with no obstacles: 20 m Dimensions L x B x H: 125x65x35 mm Weight: 200 g 2 high performance 2,700mAh batteries operating manual

12601-00

12600-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 909


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

The Cobra4 Junior-Link is an interface module for the transmission of sensor measuring data to a PC via an USB connection. It is specially designed for the use in simple student experiments with only one Sensor-Unit. All Cobra4 Sensor-Units can be connected to the Cobra4 Junior-Link using a stable plug-in / lockable connection.

Cobra4 USB-Link

Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

the Cobra4 Junior-Link shows the following features: the Cobra4 Junior-Link can be connected to a PC (via USB port on the PC) automatic detection of all Cobra4 Sensor-Units power supply from USB connection, no additional external power supply required

In particular, it is ideally suited for student experiments (if a PC is available for each work group). Equipment and technical data Function and Applications The Cobra4 USB-Link is a highly efficient interface module for the transmission of sensor measuring values to a PC via a USB connection. Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

All Cobra4Sensor-Units can be connected to the Cobra4 USB-Link using a stable plug-in / lockable connection. Up to 400,000 measuring values/sec Several Cobra4 USB links can be connected to one PC (via USB portson the PC or by USB hub) Automatic detection of all Cobra4Sensor-Units Power supply from USB connection, no additional external power supply required.

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power supply via PC < 300 mA max. data rate: 10,000 datas/sec dimensions L x B x H: 125x65x35 mm weight: 100 g delivery incl. USB cable, operating manual and CD-ROM with drivers and demoversion of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software incl. FREE evaluation software, experiments descriptions and configuration settings for experiments

12615-00

Cobra4 Remote-Link

ideally suited to the following applications: ▪ ▪ ▪

Especially fast measurements(acoustic, electrical etc.) Demonstration experiments Student's experiments (if one PC is available for each work group).

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Power supply via PC: < 300 mA Max. data rate (burst):400,000 values/sec Dimensions L x B x H: 125x65x35 mm Weight: 100 g Delivery incl. USB cable operating manual and CD-ROM with drivers and demoversion of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software incl. FREE evaluation software, experiments descriptions and configuration settings for experiments. Function and Applications

12610-00

The Cobra4 Remote-Link can be used to control the measuring value recording of an experiment constructed using a radiobased Cobra4 network.

Cobra4 Junior-Link

Benefits: ▪ ▪

The measuring value recording start and stop commandis transmitted by radio to the Cobra4Wireless Manager on the PC. Optimum application, e.g. in student experiments, freefall with an acceleration sensor etc.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications

excellence in science 910

Voltage supply: 2 x Mignon batteries Power consumption < 200 mA Radio output power: 1 mW Range with no obstacles: 20 m Dimensions L x B x H: 125x65x35 mm Weight: 200 g 2 high performance batteries operating manual

12602-00


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

bra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Cobra4 sensor units What do you want to measure? The Cobra4 sensor units are connected directly to basic units, and are identified automatically by the system.

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Temperature, semiconductor -20...110 °C

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Temperature measuring range: -200..+1200 °C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: equal to the accuracy of the gauges used Data flow rate: 5 Hz Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm Weight: 85 g

12641-00

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics, pressure abs. 2 bar and 2 temperature NiCr-Ni

Funktion and Applications Cobra4 -20..110°C Sensor-Unit Temperature-semiconductor Benefits ▪

can be connected directly to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Sensoatar jacket: stainless steel Measuring range: -20..+110°C Absolute accuracy: ± 0.5°C Resolution: 0.05°C Time constant: 7 s Data flow rate: 200 Hz Connecting port: sub-D-15-pole Sensor length / diameter: 200 mm, 6 mm Cable length: 120 cm Weight: 125 g

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics is a measuring recorder for pressure and temperature measurements, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪

12640-00 ▪

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit 2 x Temperature, NiCr-Ni

It canbe fitted with two NiCr-Nithermoelements (type K), in order to measure up to two temperatures and one absolut pressure value simultaneously The unit can be connected to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -200..+1200°C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: equal to the accuracy of the gauges used

Pressure: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0...2000 hPa Resolution 0.1 hPa Measuring accuracy: ± 0,5% Data flow rate: max. 5 Hz Dimensions: approx. 62mm x 63mm x 35mm Weight: approx. 190 g

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit 2 x Temperature NiCr-Ni is a measuring recorder for temperature measurements, which is controlled by microcontroller.

12638-00

Benefits ▪ ▪

It canbe fitted with two NiCr-Ni thermoelements (type K), in order to measure up to two temperatures simultaneously or to measure a temperature difference The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit 2 x Temperature NiCr- Ni can be connected to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Co-

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 911


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry, pH and 2 x Temperature NiCr-Ni

The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connection is a measuring recorder for pH and potential measurements, which is controlled by microcontroller. Benefits ▪ ▪

It can be fitted with a pH probe or Redoxmeasuring chain, in order to measure pH or potential values The unit can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Equipment and technicla data pH: ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH and 2 x temperature NiCr-Ni is a measuring recorder for pH, potential and temperature measurements, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪ ▪

It can be fitted with two NiCr-Ni thermoelements (Type K) and a pH probe or Redox measuring chain, in order to measure up to two temperatures and one pH or potential value simultaneously The unit can be connected to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/lockable connection.

Measuring range: 0...14pH Resolution: 0.01K Measuring accuracy: ± 0.5%

Potential: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -2000...+2000 mV Resolution: 0.1 mV Measuring accuracy: ± 0.5% Data flow rate: 5 Hz Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm Weight: 70 g

12631-00

Electrodes with BNC plug

Equipment and technical data Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -200..+1200 °C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: equal to the accuracy of the gauges used

pH: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0...14 Resolution 0.01K Measuring accuracy: ± 0,5%

Potential: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range -2000..+2000 mV Resolution: 0.1 mV Measuring accuracy: ± 0.5% Data flow rate: 5 Hz Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm Weight: 95 g

12630-00

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connector

These electrodes with a BNC plug may be connected to both Cobra4 Sensor units Chemistry and pH. pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 Redox electrode, BNC 46267-10 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity/ Temperature (Pt1000)

Function and Applications Function and Applications

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity /Temperature (Pt1000) is a measuring recorder for conductance measuring sensors with a cell constant of K = 1.00/cm and which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪

The Cobra4 sensor may be connected directly to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data Conductivity: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring

range 1: 0.0...approx. 2,500.0 µS/cm accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±0.15 µS/cm range 2: 0...approx. 45,000 µS/cm accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±3 µS/cm range 3: 0.00...approx. 1,100 mS/cm accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±0.05 mS/cm

Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0 to 100°C Measuring accuracy: ± 0.8°C Resolution: 0.1°C Data flow rate: 1 Hz Connecting port: sub-D-15 pole Measuring electrode length, diameter,electrode spacing: 7 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm Cable length: 60 cm Weight: 85 g

12633-00

Cobra4 Sensor-Units Force ± 4 N and ± 40 N

Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring accuracy: -20.0°C...150.0°C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: ±0.5K (in the range 0...100°C)

Measuring cycle: 0.8...2s (adjusted automatically) Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm Temp. probe, imm. type, Pt1000, Cobra3 12123-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity/ Temperature (Pt1000) 12632-00 Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 13701-01

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity, with stainless steel electrodes

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Units Force ± 4 N and ± 40 N contain a bending beam (DMS technology), which converts the mechanical load into an electrical signal. Benefits: ▪

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Depending on the type of application, the force sensor can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. On the top of the casing, a plate can be plugged in for measuring weights that are placed on it. On the bottom of the device, there is a hook on which weights may be hung. On the mechanically secure in take of the Cobra4 sensor unit, force from above or below is applied using a drop rod with a M6 thread.

Equipment and technical data: Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity/Temperature with stainless steel electrodes can be connected directly to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Benefits ▪

Particularly good application for school and outdoor experimentation, as the measuring gauge is already firmly connected.

Equipment and technical data Conductivity: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0.2 µS/cm...200 mS/cm Measuring accuracy: 6% of the measuringvalue ± 0,2µS/cm Resolution: 0.1 µS/cm, 1 µS/cm, 10µS/cm, 100 µS/cm

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100 mm long rod with M6 thread Weight plate Weight hook Operating manual Measuring range: -4...+4 N Maximum sampling rate: 16 Hz Measuring accuracy: 0.2 mN Dimensions (L x B x H): 64 x 70 x 35 mm Weight: 100 g

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 4 N 12642-00 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 40 N 12643-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 913


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Electricity, current ± 6 A/ voltage ± 30V

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Current /Voltage ±30 V ± 6 A is a secured measuring sensor, which can be connected to theCobra4 WirelessLink, the Cobra4 Mobile Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection, depending on the application type. Benefits ▪ ▪

The sensor has a voltage difference input. Simultaneous measurement of current and voltage is possible.

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Power supply via 4 mm sockets or wall power supply with hole socket Operation temperature: 5...40°C Relative humidity: < 80% Gain/amplification: 1.0 Input resistance: > 10000 GOhm Input current: < 0.5 pA Input capacitance: < 50 pF Input voltage: Amplifier (socket 1): ± 10 V2. input (socket 2): 1 kV Power supply: 12 V AC/25 mA hole socket: 2.1/5.5 mm or External power source: 12 V AC25 mA 4 mm sockets or: Cobra3 interface: ± 15 V RS232 socket Output voltage: ± 10 V Output current: 1 mA Output resistance: < 500 Ohm Dimensions H × W × D (mm):65 × 113 × 35 Weight: 150 g

Electrometer Amplifier 13621-00 Power supply 12V AC/500 mA 11074-93

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Energy electricity, voltage, power, capacity

Equipment and technical data Measuring range: ▪ ▪

Voltage: -30...30 V Current: -6...6 A

Resolution: ▪ ▪

Voltage: 15 mV Current: 3 mA

Internal resistances: ▪ ▪ ▪

Voltage: 1 MOhm Current: 33 mOhm Weight: 100 g

12644-00

Function and Applications

Electrometer Amplifier

The Cobra4 Sensor Unit Energy is used for the measurement and direct indication of measurement variables of the electrical power and energy in direct-current and alternating current circuits (current, voltage, effective and apparent power, angular phase shift, frequency, electric work). Benefits

Operational amplifier with high resistance input for quasi-static voltage measurement and measurement of very small charges.

Through the direct measurement of alternating current and directcurrent sizes numerous basic as well as application-oriented experiments are possible, e.g. for the charactersitic of alternating current resistances or for the investigation of the energy demand of consumers. The Cobra4 Sensor Unit Energy can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless Link, the Cobra4 Mobile Link or the Cobra4 USB Link through a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. The data can be measured and displayed in student or demonstration experiments with or without PC.

Benefits

Equipment and technical data

Function and Applications

Suited for experiments with electrostatics, e.g. charge measurement, capacity measurement of sphere-capacitor, measurement of direct voltages, quasi-static measurements and measurement of small currents. Equipment and technical data

excellence in science 914

▪ ▪

measuring range and resolution 30 V (0.3 mV), 6 A (0.3 mA) frequency range: up to 2 kHz

12656-00


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Timer/Counter

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit 3D-Acceleration, ± 2 g, ± 6 g

Funktion and Applications

Function and Application Sensor-Unit of the Cobra4 family. Interface-module with timer and counter functionality for up to four light barriers, one measuring microphone, movement sensor, falling sphere apparatus or other devices with TTLcompatible signals. Optionally anexternal trigger device can be used (switch, starter system for motion track, ...). The measured values of the sensor can be transmitted with the Cobra4 Wireless manager and the Cobra4 Wireless-Link by radio or with the USB-Link to the PC. All Cobra4 sensor-units are quickly connectable through a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Some applications: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

linear Motion incl. laws of collision with motion and air track free fall with picket fences or falling ball apparatus oscillations rotational motion frequency of acoustical signals

Benefis ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

With the aid of the intuitive softwaremeasure for Cobra4 the singleapplication scenarios can be started comfortably with 10 preset modes All relevant attempts with timemeasurement and counting are covered The simultaneous observation of thesignal level facilitates the understanding of the measured values of light barriers Investigation of complex contexts through combination with other sensors from the Cobra4 family Thanks to radio measurement NO disturbing cable anymore - NEW didactic possibilities through radio transmission (not depending on the location of the PC, moving sensors)

Depending on application type, theCobra4 Sensor-Unit 3D-Acceleration, ± 2g, ± 6 g can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Benefits ▪ ▪

Specifically with this sensor, the use of Cobra4 Wireless enables completely new experimentation possibilities. As such, it is possible to investigate e.g.the acceleration of the sensor in freefall or the acceleration of a schoolchild on a bicycle etc.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring ranges: -2g...+2g or -6g...+6g Resolution: 1 mg or 5 mg Presentable channels: x, y and z Max. data rate: 160 Hz per channel Weight: 80 g

12650-00

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Tesla

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Power supply: by the Cobra4 WirelessLink or another Cobra4 basic device, from 3 light barriers with enclosedexternal power supply Current consumption: < 300 mA resolution: 1 microsecond Dimensions: (LxBxH) 125x65x35 mm Weight: 200 g Accessories (included): Adapter for light barriers,external power supply

Accessories ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Light barrier, compact (up to 4 lightbarriers) Cobra4 adapter for Sensor-Unit Timer/Counter to connect a light barrier Measuring microphone Falling sphere apparatus Movement sensor with cable

12651-00

lFunction Function and Applications Sensor-Unit to measure the magnetic field strength in DC and AC fields. Hall probes may be connected via a diode plug. Tecnical data Measuring ranges DC field ▪ ▪ ▪

± 1 T (1 mT), ± 100 mT (100 µT), ± 10 mT (10 µT) every range can be compensated up to the maximum value of the measuring range Accuracy approx. ± 2 % of the maximum value of the measuring range

Measuring ranges AC field ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency: 15 Hz...1 kHz 1 T (1 mT), 100 mT (100 µT), 10 mT ( 10 µT) AC field measurements are of RMS type - no compensation

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 915


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Accuracy approx. ± 5 % of the maximum value of the measuring range

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit CO2

General ▪ Maximum data rate: 5 Hz ▪ Dimensions (L x W x H in mm): 60 x 70 x 35 ▪ Weight (g) 100 Cobra4 Sensor Tesla, Set with 2 hall probes 12652-88 Cobra4 Sensor Tesla, ± 1 Tesla 12652-00 Hall probe, axial 13610-01 Hall probe, tangential, protection cap 13610-02

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude Function and Applications Sensor of the Cobra4 family for the measurement of the CO2 concentration in the air. The measured data of the sensor can be transferred with the Cobra4 Wireless Link by radio to the PC in connection with the Cobra4 Wireless Manager. All Cobra4 Sensor Units are quickly connectable through a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Equipment and technical data

Function and Applications Depending on application type, the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection. Benefits ▪ ▪

At the same time, the following measuring parameters may be recorded: airpressure, relative humidity, airtemperature, brightness, height Ideal for use in outdoor experiments, on classtrips or for project or school hikingdays.

Equipment and technical data

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measuring range: 0... 6000 ppm resolution: 50 ppm data transfer rate: 1 Hz dimensions (L x W x H): 60 mm x 70 mm x 30 mm weight: 60 g

Accessories ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Cobra4 Wireless Link (12601-00) and Cobra4 Wireless Manger (12600-00) and/or alternative: Cobra4 USB Link (12610-00) to the connection to a PC Software measure Cobra4, individual position and school license (14550-61) for the realization, representation and evaluation of the measurements Cobra4 Mobile Link (12620-00) for the measuring without PC

12671-00

Relative Humidity: ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 100 % accuracy +/- 5 %

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Pulse, Heart rate

Air Pressure: ▪ ▪

measurement range 10 - 1100 mbar accuracy +/-5 %

Air Temperature: ▪ ▪

measurement range -40 - +125 °C accuracy +/- 0.5 °C

Brightness: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 10,000 lx accuracy +/- 5 % calculation using air pressure Data transfer rate for each sensor: 1 Hz Dimensions (L x B x H): 64 x 70 x 31 mm Weight: 60 g Function

12670-00

Sensor of the Cobra4 family for measuring the heart rate on the ear or finger. Measurement of the signal amplitude and the heart rate.

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

All Cobra4 sensors can be connected directly to the Cobra4 WirelessLink, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection. Technical specifications: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Range 40...240 pulses/minute Accuracy 2 % Including ear clip (cable length: 1 m) Digital and graphical display of the heart rate Dimensions: 60 x 70 x 35 mm Weight: 100 g

Crocodile clips for disposable electrodes, 3/pkg 12673-02

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Spirometry

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Pulse, Heart rate, incl. ear clip 12672-00 Ear clip for Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Pulse 12672-10

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Electrophysiology

Function and Application The Cobra4 Sensor Unit Spirometry is used for the measurement of the breath-dependent pulmonary volume. Benefits Through the possibility of the recording of measurement one receives a diagram by means of which different function varaibles of the breath volume can be determined. The Cobra4 Sensor Unit Spirometry can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless Link, the Cobra4 Mobile Link or the Cobra4 USB Link through a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. The data can be measured and displayed in student or demonstration experiments with or without PC. Equipment and technical data To perform electrophysiological, noninvasive measurements of heart, eye and muscle activities. The measurement electrodes are connected to 3,5-mm jacks using three separate and shielded measurement cords. The sensor can be connected to a PC wireless or to a USB-port. Requires measurement cords and ECG and/ or EMG/ EOG electrodes. Technical specifications: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measurement mode: permanent measurement Operation with three separate and shielded measurement cords Maximum data throughput: 1000 Hz Signal filter: ECG filter: 0.03 Hz to 20 Hz with 450-fold magnification EMG filter: 80 Hz to 5000 Hz with 1600-fold magnification EOG filter: 0.03 Hz to 10 Hz with 800-fold magnification Galvanic separation with 4000 V Dimensions: 62 mm x 110 mm x 35 mm Weight: 0.3 kg

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Electrophysiology, set incl. cords and ECG electrodes 12673-77 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Electrophysiology: EKG, EMG, EOG 12673-00 ECG electrodes, 3/pkg 65981-01 EMG electrodes, 3 off 65981-02 Electrode Gel, tube 65981-06 Electrodes for ECG Sensor, 100 pcs. 12559-01 Shielded leads for electrophysiology, color-coded, 3/pkg 12673-01

measuring range (accuracy): -15... +15 l/s (3 %)

12675-00

Cobra4, Accessories Accessories for all Cobra4 Basic units and Sensor units, respectively

Accessories for the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit

Cobra4 drop counter With the drop counter, in combination with a Cobra4 timer/counter sensor unit, drops are recorded which drop from a burette into a container below. Advantages The drop counter makes possible a semi-automatic implementation of quantitative titration in a simple way.

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Equipment and technical data The drop counter consists of a metal body with a photoelectric barrier in an elongated hole, 2 receptacles for electrodes up to a diameter of 12 mm and a V-shaped centering aid for drip tips; Length: 185 mm, width: 50 mm, height: 30 mm, length of the mount bar: 90 mm, diameter of the mount bar: 10 mm, diameter of the 2 electrode receptacles: 13 mm, dimensions of the elongated hole: 25 mm x 15 mm, length of the connection cable: 90 cm, connection: 3.5 mm jack plugs.

Fast Charging System for up to 4 MeH Accumulators

Function and Applications

Forked photoelectric barrier compact

For 1-4 Mignon AA or Micro AAA.

Infrared photoelectric barrier with stem, which can be screwed into 4 different positions. With receptacle device for incremental wheel for the determination of path sections. Inside dimensions (mm): 40 x 40, supply voltage: 5 V, including incremental wheel.

Benefits

Adapter for forked photoelectric barrier Up to 4 forked photoelectric barriers can be connected conveniently and without a cable tangle with the timer-counter sensor unit. The adapter has a multipolar cable of 1 m length. Wind sensor For the measurement of the wind speed. Measuring range: 1 ... 40 m/s and 4 ... 140 km/h, dimensions (mm): 112 x 162 x 140. Movement recorder Incremental encoder with extremely high resolution for the recording of rotation and linear movements. Resolution: 512 steps/rotation. With signal output for rotation direction, cord grooves 6 mm and 12 mm, plastic casing with holder stem and connection cables, dimensions (mm): 72 x 34 x 113.

Adjustable charging current by a switch "Fast charge/ Standardcharge" (2100 mA/ 850 mA for Mignon AA cells and 850 mA/ 350 mA for Micro AAA cells), Multiple over charging protection by deltaV detection, temperature control and safety timer, Trickle charging, faulty cell and Alkaline detection, Reverse polarity protection, Cooling of the batteries by a fan, Battery status is displayed by LED per charging slot Equipment and technical data External power supply with wide range input 100-240 VAC and 12 V car adapter 07930-99

Ni-MH accu, Mignon, 1.2 V, 2000 mAh, Eneloop Type, 4 pcs. 07930-03

Stand for Cobra4

Microphone Electret converter on 25 cm sensor tube, with amplifier for the pointmeasuring of sonic fields. Directly connectable, low power consumption, high resolution in location and intensity. Frequency range 15 Hz... 40 kHz, sensitivity 6 mV/ Pa at 1kHz, adjustable amplification 50 ... 5000, dimensions (mm): Housing 115 x 70 x 35, probe 250 x 8. Cobra4 Drop Counter 12635-00 Light barrier, compact 11207-20 Cobra4 adapter for Sensor-Unit Timer/Counter to connect one light barrier 12651-01 Cup anemometer for Cobra3 12124-00 Movement sensor with cable 12004-10 Measuring microphone 03542-00

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Supporting stand of aluminum with a tiltangle of about 30째 to place Cobra4Mobile-links and Cobra4 USB-Links ondesks. The devices are fixed by aspecific hook and loop fastener on thestand. A 50 cm long stripe of this selfadhesive hook and loop fastener isdelivered together with the stand. Toattach the devices to the stand, acorrespondingly suitable small piece ofthe self-adhesive hook and loop fasteneris stuck onto the back of this devices. 12681-00


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Cobra4 sets Complete solutions for your experiments! The sets include all necessary accessories for dealing with various topics, or for certain areas of application.

TESS Applied Sciences Cobra4 Environment and outdoors

experimental descriptions and configuration settings for experiments

TESS Applied Sciences Cobra4 environment and outdoors, for 4 work groups 12622-88 TESS Cobra4 Environment and outdoors, with 1 measurement instrument and german handbook, in aluminum case 12619-88 TESS advanced Applied Sciences manual Cobra4 environment and outdoors 12622-02

TESS Biology Set Electrophysiology

Function and Applications This device set is ideally suited to shared-work experiments with schoolgroups. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Whether in the classroom, outdoors or on project days: in this robust aluminium case, you will always find the right device for carrying out fascinating experiments with schoolgroups. Up to 4 work groups can work on and investigate interesting topics in parallel. All data are saved on SD memory cards. Evaluation of the data can be carried out e.g. at home, as homework. The measure evaluation software is included for FREE and may, of course, be used privately by each pupil.

Function and Applications Complete instrument set and accessories to perform computer-assisted experiments in human and animal physiology of heart, muscle, eye. Equipment and technical data ▪

TIP This device is also ideal for use e.g.in the context of a school hiking day: here, a topografic profile can easily be produced with the weather sensor. In Geography lessons, the data can be evaluated and interpreted together. If the height is then set against the temperature, humidity relative to the path, or temperature relative to the time of day, great discoveries can be made, which are both practical and fun. Equipment and technical data: The highly stable aluminium case contains the following materials: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4 x Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x Cobra4Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connection 1 xCobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: air pressure, humidity, ambient temperature, brightness 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit, Temperature-Semiconductor 20...110 °C 1x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity with permanently connected stainless steel 1x pH plastic, gel-filled electrode 1 x100 red pH 4 buffer trays 1 x 100 green pH 10 buffer trays 1 x 460 ml calibration solution for conductance electrode 1 x protective case for GL 25pH electrode 1 x 120 labels, 4 x 100 ml square flange (HDPE) 2 x 250 ml PP laboratory beaker 4 x 1 GB 20 MB/sec SDmemory card for Cobra4 Mobile-Link 1 x110...240 V Charger for metal hybrid batteries 2 x Mignon 1.2 V 2700 mAh spare batteries - set of 4 operating manual plus CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software, incl. FREE evaluation software

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Wireless transmitter and receiver units to connect to the electrophysiology sensor to a PC, can also be used for other sensors to measure parameters common in physics, chemistry, biology and medical education electrophysiology sensor-unit for ECG, EMG and EOG with connectors for three measurement leads three separate and shielded leads, color-coded (red, yellow, green) with 3.5 mm phone jacks to connect to the sensor-unit and 2 mm jacks to connect to reusable and disposable electrodes three reusable stainless steel ECG electrodes, contact area 30 x 80 mm with connector for leads three reusable EMG electrodes with cable and 2 mm connectors disposable electrodes (100/pkg), three crocodile clips for disposable electrodes, electrode gel to improve contact between electrodes and skin software for wireless and wired data acquisition, for data analysis,automatic sensor recognition, automatic setup of measurement parameters and integrated experiment instructions 68-page manual in English language with experimental literature storage box for instrument set and accessories.

TESS Biology Set Electrophysiology EP 12673-89 TESS advanced Biology manual Cobra4 Electrophysiology: ECG, EMG, EOG 12673-12

Cobra4 Basic set Biochemistry and plant physiology Function and Applications

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 919


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Instrument set with the wireless computer interface Cobra4 to perform the following 10 experiments: Photosynthesis (2 methods), Transpiration of leaves, Glycolysis (2 methods), Ionic permeability of the cell membrane, Determination of the Michaelis constant, Enzyme inhibition, Substrate inhibition of enzymes, Enzymatic activity of catalase.

Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪

Scope of delivery ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Cobra4 wireless computer interface for data acquisition Sensors for temperature, pH, conductivity, light intensity, pressure Lamp socket with reflector, diameter 20 cm, and 120 W filament lamp special glassware special stand material for the experiment setup experiment manual, English language (56 pages, in color)

The measure Cobra4 software (single user and school license) is not part of the scope of delivery. Standard lab equipment and chemicals required additionally. The Standard labware set consists of: balance 210g/ 0.01g with RS232 interface, lab-lifting apparatus (160 x 130 mm), magnetic stirrer, diverse lab glassware and small items, diverse lab consumables, microliter syringe (100 µl) mortar and pestle, bunsen burner with safety gas tubing. The Chemicals set consists of: sodium hydrogen carbonate, 250 g; Tartrazin (E102), 25 g; Patent blue V (E131), 25g; buffer solution pH 4.01, 460 ml; buffer solution pH 10.01, 1000 ml; hydrochloric acid, 1.0 mol/l, 1000 ml; sodium hydroxide solution, 1.0 M, 1000 ml; Urea, pure, 250 g; urease solution in 50% glycerol, 10 ml; silver nitrate, pure, 15 g; water, distilled, 5 l; glycerol, 99 %, 100 ml; hydrogen peroxide, 30 %, 250 ml. Basic set Cobra4 Biochemistry and Plant physiology 65982-89 Standard labware set for Biochemistry & plant physiology, 230 V 65980-77 Chemicals set Biochemistry & plant physiology 65980-10 Software Cobra4 - Single user and school licence 14550-61 Demo advanced Biology Manual Cobra4 Biochemistry & plant physiology 01331-02

With the radio-based recording of values, experiments can conveniently be carried out The optimum use of this device set is in the area of demonstration experiments. Furthermore, moving sensors offer completely new experimentation options, e.g. the measurement of acceleration of a school child on a bicycle, measuring the acceleration of a body in freefall etc.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

1 x Cobra4 WirelessManager 1 x Cobra4 Wireless-Link 1 xCobra4 Sensor-Unit Temperature Semiconductor, 20...110°C 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Current/ Voltage 1 xCobra4 3D Sensor-Unit Acceleration,+-6 g 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force, 40 N 1 x "measure Cobra4" software, individual work station and school licence. Delivery incl. CD-ROM with all drivers and the full version of the "measureCobra4" measuring software incl. 130 experiment descriptions and configuration settings for experiments plus 2 high performance batteries for the Cobra4 Wireless-Link and an operating manual.

Cobra4 Wireless, Basic Set Physics, incl. Software and aluminium case 12605-89 Cobra4 USB, Basic Set Physics incl. Softwareand plastic case 12611-88 TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02

Cobra4 Wireless, Basic Set Chemistry

Cobra4 Wireless, Basic Set Physics

Function and Applications This attractive device set is ideally suited to computer-aided experiments in the field of Chemistry. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications This attractive device set is ideally suited to computer-aided experiments in the field of physics.

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With the radio-based recording of values, experiments can conveniently be carried out. The optimum use of this device set is in the area of demonstration experiments. Furthermore, with modern radio transmission, moving sensors offer completely new experimentation options. With this system it is possible now, that experiments can to be carried out far away from the PC.


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Therewith it is surely set that the PC is not endangered by liquids or similar things.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The stable case contains the followingdevices: 1 x Cobra4 Wireless Manager 1 x Cobra4 Wireless-Link 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry, pH and 2 x Temperature NiCrNi 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity/ Temp. (Pt1000) 1 x pH-electrode, plastic, refillable BNC plug 1 x Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 2 x Protection sleeve for electrodes 1 x "measure Cobra4" software, individual workstation and school licence Delivery incl. CD-ROM with all drivers and the full version of the "measureCobra4" measuring software incl. experiments descriptions and configuration settings for experiments 2 high performance batteries for the Cobra4 Wireless-Link operating manual

Cobra4 Wireless, Basic Set Chemistry, incl. Softwareand english handbook in case 12606-89 Cobra4 USB, Basic Set Chemistry incl. Softwareand english Handbook, in case 12612-89 TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02

Cobra4 Display-Connect

Case for storage

Cobra4 Display-Connect, Basic Set with digital large-scale display, Mobile Link, weather sensor and English handbook, 12607-89 TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02

Cobra4 Mobile-Link

Function and Applications This attractive device set serves excellently for use as a digital multimeter set for numerous measurements. Benefits This set is ideal for use in: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Student experiments without a PC Outdoor experimentation Project days, school hiking days, trips, etc. With this set, simply choose your Cobra4 Sensor-Units and compile your own personal set of equipment. Sufficient extra space has been left in the case for storing the sensors The "measure" evaluation software can also be used by pupils at home for FREE.

Equipement and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications Complete device set for the wireless transmission of measurements from Mobile-Link to a digital large-scale display. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Cobra4 Display-Connect (set of sender and receiver for the use of the Cobra4 Mobile-Link with a digital large-scale display) Cobra4 Mobile-Link, incl. accumulators SD memory card Fast battery charger for up to 4 Metal-hydride-Accumulators, 110...240V Digital large display with RS 232 interface Cobra4 Sensor Unit weather: air pressure, air humidity, temperature, light intensity, altitude Software, CD-ROM Manual Cobra4: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday life phenomena

8 x and 4x Cobra4 Mobile-Link incl. SD memory cards, respectively 4 x spare Mignon 1.2V 2700 mAh batteries, set of 4 1 x battery charger. operating manual plus CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measure Cobra4" measuring software incl. FREE evaluation software, experimental descriptions and configuration settings for experiments

Cobra4 Mobile, for 8 work groups, incl. aluminium case 12621-88 Cobra4 Mobile, for 4 work groups, incl. plastic case 12621-44

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 921


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Cobra4 Supplementary set TESS, Wireless or USB: Mechanics, Electric Building Blocks, Heat

TESS and Demo advanced Manual Cobra4 Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Everyday Science 01330-02 English TESS advanced Physik Handbuch Cobra4 Mechanik, Wärme, Elektrik / Elektronik 01332-01 German TESS advanced Physics Manual Cobra4 Mechanics, Heat, Electricity/ Electronics 01332-02 English P1042260

Cobra4 Mobile-Link

Function and Applications This attractive device set is ideally suited to perform computer assisted student experiments from the PHYWE TESS experiment sets Mechanics ME 1/2, Electric Building Blocks system EB 1/2 and Heat WE 1/2. Benefits This set enables the easy and convenient performance of more than 20 experiments (see manual 01332-02). Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

2 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Temperature, semiconductor -20...110°C 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Electricity Current/ Voltage 6 A, 30 V 1 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force 4 N

Wireless version: 1 x Cobra4 Wireless-Link, 1 x Cobra4 Wireless Manager USB version: 1 x Cobra4 USB Link Required accessories 1 x "measure Cobra4" measuring sofware incl. data analysis software "measure", experimental descriptions and configuration settings for experiments (14550-61) Cobra4 Wireless, Student set TESS Mechanics, Heat, Electricity 12604-88 Cobra4 USB, Student set TESS Mechanics, Heat, Electricity 12604-66 TESS advanced Physics Manual Cobra4 Mechanics, Heat, Electricity/ Electronics 01332-02

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Mobile-Link is a modern, high performance hand measuring device for mobile data recording, to which all Cobra4 Sensor-Units can be connected via secure plug-in/lockable connection. Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The Cobra4 MobileLink is ideal for use in: ▪

Thermal equilibrium

Up to 1,000 measuring values/sec. Data can be saved on an SD memory card Automatic detection of all Cobra4 Sensor-Units Foolproof navigation with central navigation cross "measure" evaluation software can be used for FREE Water-resistant and reliable for outdoor work.

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Students experiments with no computer (as a digital multi-meter for numerous measuring parameters) Outdoor experiments with student groups Project days, trips, schoolhiking days etc.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Why do tea or coffee get cold onstanding, but never hot? Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS und Demo advanced Handbuch Cobra4Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Alltagsphänomene 01330-01 German

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Power supply: 2 x Mignon batteries Power consumption: < 300 mA Data storage: Max. 2 GB SD card Data rate: 1,000 values/s Dimensions: L x B x H: 155x65x35 mm Weight: 200 g 2 Mignon 2,700 mAh batteries 1 GB SD memory card operating manual plus CD-ROM with drivers and demo version of the "measureCobra4" measuring software FREE evaluation software, experiments descriptions and configuration settings for experiments

Cobra4 Mobile-Link set, incl. rechargeable batteries, SD memory card, USB cable and software "measure" 12620-55


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Cobra4 Mobile-Link 12620-00 SD memory card for Cobra4-Mobile-Link, 2 GB, 20MB/sec 12620-01 SD card reader 12620-03

Cobra4 Display-Connect, Set of transmitter and receiver for using the Cobra4 Mobile-Link with largescale displays

Large-scale display, digital, RS-232 port 07157-93 Data cable for cobra probes 12150-07 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00

Thermocouples NiCr-Ni (type K)

Thermocouples, that can be connected to Cobra4 Sensor Units 2 x temperature, Thermodynamics and Chemistry. Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Function and Applications Device combination from a sender and a receiver for the radio-based communication between a Cobra4 Mobile Link and up to 2 digital large displays. Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The system works with 5 switchable send channels at a carrier frequency of 433 MHz. With this set it is possible to represent the measured values wellreadable for a big auditory in a classroom or lecture hall. For this purpose must the transmit unit only be inserted between an any Cobra4 SensorUnit and the Cobra4 Mobile-Link. The receiver unit is pluged into the input socket of the digital large display. The current supply of the sender and receivers occurs in each case via the devices at those ones these are connected. A parallel write-out of a series of measurements to the SD-Card of the Mobile-Link is possible.

Cobra4 Display-Connect, Set of transmitter and receiver for using the Cobra4 Mobile-Link with large-scale displays 12623-88 Cobra4 Display-Connect TX, transmitter for using the Cobra4 Mobile-Link with large-scale displays 12623-00 Cobra4 Display-Connect TX, receiver for using the Cobra4 Mobile-Link with large-scale displays 12623-01

Comming soon

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Light

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Light is a measuring recorder for light intensity measurements, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪ ▪

It can be fitted with different luxmeter probes. The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Light can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link, the Cobra4 Junior-Link or

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 923


6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Equipment and technical data ▪ measuring range: 300 lx ...300 klx ▪ Resolution: max. 0.15 lx ▪ Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Dissoved oxygen is a measuring recorder for oxygen in solutions, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪ ▪

Accessories ▪ ▪

Luxmeter probe (12107-01) Lux immersion probe, 10 m cable (07137-01)

It can be fitted with an oxygen probe. The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Dissoved oxygen can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link, the Cobra4 JuniorLink or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data 12660-00

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Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Radioactivity

O2-concentration: 0…30 mg/l Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm

(available from 2012) 12676-00

Cobra4 JUNIOR-Link, Basic Set Physics for 5 groups, incl. Software, Handbook and aluminium case

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Radioaktivity is a measuring recorder for radioactive radiation, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪ ▪

It can be fitted with different Geiger-Müller counter tubes. The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Radioacitivity can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link, the Cobra4 JuniorLink or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Max. pulse frequency: 4x105 pulses per minute Counter tube voltage: variable 100 … 650 V Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm

Accessories ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications This attractive device set is ideally suited to computer-aided student experiments in the field of physics and containes all needed devices for 5 working groups. Benefits ▪ ▪

By recording values with the help of the Cobra4 Junior-Link, experiments can conveniently be carried out. The optimum use of this device set is in the area of student experiments.

Equipment and technical data

Counter tube, type A (09025-11) Counter tube, type B (09005-00) Counter tube, GM, 45 mm (09007-00)

12665-00

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Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Dissolved oxygen

5 x Cobra4 Junior-Link 5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 40 N 5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Energy 5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics,pressure abs. 2 bar and 2 temperature NiCr-Ni 5 x Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 1 x "measure Cobra4" software, individual work station and school licence. Delivered in a stable aluminium case

12616-89

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6 Additional material 6.2 Cobra4

Cobra4 JUNIOR-Link, Basic Set Chemistry for 5 groups, incl. Software, Handbook and aluminium case

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5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure, Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude 5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Pulse, Heart rate, incl. ear clip 5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Spirometry 1 x "measure Cobra4" software, individual work station and school licence. Delivered in a stable aluminium case

12618-89

Function and Applications This attractive device set is ideally suited to computer-aided student experiments in the field of chemistry and containes all needed devices for 5 working groups. Benefits ▪ ▪

By recording values with the help of the Cobra4 Junior-Link, experiments can conveniently be carried out. The optimum use of this device set is in the area of student experiments.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

5 x Cobra4 Junior-Link 5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry, pH and 2 x Temperature NiCrNi 5 x Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 5 x pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity, with stainless steel electrodes 1 x "measure Cobra4" software, individual work station and school licence. Delivered in a stable aluminium case

12617-89

Cobra4 JUNIOR-Link, Basic Set Biology for 5 groups, incl. Software, Handbook and aluminium case

Function and Applications This attractive device set is ideally suited to computer-aided student experiments in the field of bgiology and containes all needed devices for 5 working groups. Benefits ▪ ▪

By recording values with the help of the Cobra4 Junior-Link, experiments can conveniently be carried out. The optimum use of this device set is in the area of student experiments.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

5 x Cobra4 Junior-Link 5 x Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Temperature, semiconductor -20...110°C

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 925


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

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6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 www.phywe.com 927


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

temperature, pressure, pH/potential, light intensity, cardiac and vascular sounds, heart rate, voltage. Equipment and technical data: Cobra3 Biology Set contents: All Cobra3 devices are listed in the following order: • Sets • Literature • Basic units • Software modules • Measuring modules and accessories • General accessories You will find further information on articles, manuals and experiments in the respective chapters and on the PHYWE website.

computer interface with 7 measuring inputs, of which 5 are analog inputs and 2 are digital inputs, sampling rate 500kHz, analog output with a voltage range of +/-10V, voltage output (5V at 0.2A), USB, incl. USB cable, External power supply, Software Universal Recorder, Software Temperature, Software Pressure, Software pH/potential Pressure measuring module pH/potential measuring module, pH electrode, polythene-sheathed, Photo diode, in G1 housing, 2 temperature sensors, -20...110°C, Acoustic measuring probe, with FET amplifier, Handbook Chemistry/Biology, computerassisted experiments 12173-77

Sets As well as the classical sets consisting of a basic unit and a selection of sensors for the different specialist departments, there exists a selection of sets which include everything to cover whole project areas. For example, gas laws, basics of electrics/electronics, calorimetry, neurobiology or plant physiology.

Fundamentals of electricity and electronics, 10 experiments with FG module

Cobra3 Physics set

Function and Applications

The Physics Set consist of: Cobra3 BASIC-Unit, Power Supply 12 V/ 2A, Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole, Software Cobra3 Universal recorder, Software Cobra3 Timer/ Counter, Software Cobra3 Translat./ Rotation, Software Cobra3 Temperature, Software Cobra3 Fourier analysis, Ligth barrier comact, Photo diode, G1, Wire resistor, 0.2 Ohm, 2 W, G1, Temperature sensor, -10...120 °C, Beam stopper, Measuring microphone with amplifier, Handbook Physics, computer assisted experiments with Cobra3 12171-77

Cobra3 Biology set

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Ohm´s law Characterics of semiconductors (Diodes, Transistors) Switch on behaviour of capacitors Switch on behaviour of coils Coil in AC circuit Capacitor in AC circuit Inductance of solenoids Magnetic induction RLC-circuit High-pass and low-pass filters

12111-88

Function and Applications Analog/ digital computer interface including all components necessary to take measurements of the following parameters:

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Multifunctional and easy adaptable basic set for computer-based analysis of current and voltage characteristics, especially for very fast signal response (500 kHz) and dependance of frequencies for practicals and demonstration. The set contains everything for the performance of the following experiments:


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Set calorimetry, 230 V

Set gas laws with glass jacket, 230 V

Function and Applications With this setup a great number of measurements to heat capacities, reaction enthalpies, solution enthalpies, neutralisation enthalpies, melting enthalpies and enthalpies of mixtures can be carried out. Advantages This set allows to execute the measurements in a didactical clear and easy way: ▪ ▪

the transparent calorimetric vessel allows at every time a free insight into the system the heat capacity of the calorimetric system itself is determined especially conveniently by supplying an exactly known amount of electric heating energy to the system

Equipment and Technical Data It will be delivered complete with tripod material and all necessary small hardware items. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Calorimeter, transparent Heating coil with sockets Magnetic stirrer Work and power meter Universal power supply Small hardware items- CD with literature

Not included are temperature measuring instruments. Accessory data acquisition set with Cobra3 Basic Unit for recording the temperature by means of a PC. 43030-88

Cobra3 Data acquisition set for set calorimetry Function and Applications This set allows the computer-assisted measuring and evaluation of temperature in a comfortable way for experiments with the "Set calorimetry".

Function and Applications With this set, experiments on the following topics can be carried out: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Gas law of Boyle-Mariotte Gas law of Gay-Lussac Gas law of Amonton (Charles) Determination of molar masses according to the vapor density method

Benefits This set allows to execute the measurements in a didactical clear and easy understandable way: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

clear set-up easy to understand completely mercury-free quickly to execute short preparation time

Equipment and technical data It will be delivered complete with tripod material and all necessary small hardware items: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Glass jacket Gas syringe Heater Tripod material Small hardware items CD with literature

Not included are measuring instruments as thermometers or manometers. Accessories Data acquisition set with Cobra3 Basic unit for recording the measured data by means of a PC. 43003-88

Advantages Because the temperature data are recorded with a PC it is very easy to analyse and represent the results fast and graphically. Equipment and Technical Data

Cobra3 Data acquisition set for set gas laws 43003-30

The set is completely supplied with all small hardware items which are required to mount the temperature probe in the calorimetric vessel. Scope of delivery: Cobra3 BASIC-UNI USB, Power supply unit 12 V DC/ 2 A, Software Cobra3 Temperature, Measuring module, Temperature Pt100, Temperature probe, immersion type, Pt100, Small hardware items 43030-30

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 929


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Cobra3 Set automatic titration, 230 V

This set allows to execute themeasurements in a didactical clear andeasy way:- small costs- easy to understand for the students- quickly to execute- because the measured values arerecorded with an interface thetitration curves can be representedeasily Equipment and technical data It will be delivered complete withtripod material and all necessary smallhardware items:- Cobra3-ChemUnit- Software measure- pHelectrode- Immersion temperature probe, Teflon- Drop counter- Magnetic stirrer- Small hardware items- CD with literature Accessories Conductivity-probe for the recordingof conductivity titration 43050-88

Function and Applications

Electrophysiology Lab, 230 V

With this setup titrations can be carried out completely automatised, e.g. quantitative analyses, determination of concentrations, determination of dissociation constants of weak bases and acids. Benefits This set allows to execute measurements in a didactical clear and easy way: All system components are visible and thus easily identifiable, Precise, reproducible results, Because measured values are recorded with an interface the titration curves can be presented easily Equipment and technical data Tripod material and all necessary small hardware items., Cobra3-Chem Unit, Software "measure", pH-electrode, Immersion temperature probe, Teflon, Motor piston burette, Magnetic stirrer, Small hardware items, CD with literature

Function and Applications

Accessories

Equipment and technical data

Conductivity-probe for the recording of conductivity titrations

computer interface with USB port, seven measurement inputs (5 analog and 2 digital), voltage output (5V and 0.2A) for 4mm connectors, data transfer rate 500 kHz, online frequency analysis, Bio-Amplifier with 100x and 1000x signal amplification and measurement settings for ECG, EMG and EOG, radial reflex hammer for the mechanical triggering of an inpulse to be connected directly to the computerinterface, with radial switch in the hammer head to start measurement, incl. 2 m long cable and two 4 mm plugs, electrode collecting cable to connect ECG and EMG electrodes, with color-coded cables (red, yellow, green), three stainless steel ECG electrodes, contact area 30 x 80 mm with connectors for electrode collecting cable, three EMG electrodes with cable and 2 mm-miniature connector, electrode gel to improve contact between electrodes and skin, storage box for accessories.

43040-88

Cobra3 set pH titration with drop counter, 230 V

Complete instrument set to perform computer-assisted standard experiments covering human and animal physiology: heart, muscle, eye, nerve.

65981-66

Cobra3 Basic set Biochemistry and plant physiology

Function and Applications With this set titrations can be carriedout, at which the volume of addedreagent is determined with a dropcounter. This kind of application isfaster and more comfortable than amanual application. Possiblemeasurements are e.g. quantitativeanalyses, determination ofconcentrations, determination ofdissociation constants of weak basesand acids.

Function and Applications

Benefits

Instrument set to perform the following experiments:

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6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

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Photosynthesis Transpiration of leaves Glycolysis Ionic permeability of the cell membrane Determination of the Michaelisconstant Substrate inhibition of enzymes Enzyme inhibition Enzymatic activity of catalase

Equipment and technical data The instrument set consists of ▪ ▪ ▪

Computer interface for data acquisision with 7 measurement inputs (5 analog and 2 digital inputs), one voltage output (5V and 0.2A) with 4mm sockets Sampling rate 500 kHz Online frequency analyser

Sensors for ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Temperature -20...110°C pH/ potential Conductivity Pressure Software for data analysis Lamp socket with reflector (diameter 20 cm) and 120 W filament lamp Special glassware Special stand material for the experiment setups

Neuron unit ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Simulates a generalised nerve cell with an apical dendrite and its synaptic contacts, a cell body (soma) and a nerve fibre (axon) with myelin sheathes and a Ranvier's ring. The dendrite comprises exciting, inhibiting, presynaptic and Hebbian synapses which are marked by the corresponding colours of the sockets. Here the axons end in presynaptic buttons. These are represented together with a part of the (afferent) fibre providing the signal. The connection between the (efferent) axon of a neuron unit which leads away or the stimulus output socket of the operating unit and a synapse is established by means of a white cable which is inserted into the desired synapse socket. The yellow sockets serve for the derivation of the state of excitement of the simulated neuron. They are connected to a computer interface. The action potentials can be made audible with the aid of the integrated acoustic monitor. The turning knob "S" serves for setting the "firing threshold" of the neuron.

Neurobiology Lab, 230 V 65963-11 Additional nerve cell 65963-10

Required Accessories ▪

Standard lab equipment and chemicals

Basic set Biochemistry and plant physiology (Cobra3) 65980-88 Standard labware set for Biochemistry & plant physiology, 230 V 65980-77

Cobra3, literature The diverse possibilities which the Cobra3 family offers are combined into extensive experiment collections. This includes, for example, more than 140 demonstration experiments and more than 120 experiments for college practical training in scientific specialist departments.

Cobra3-Set Neurobiology

Function and Applications Complete instrument set consisting of neuron unit, operating unit, computer interface, measure software for data acquisition and analysis, various cables and manual. Benefits ▪ ▪

With this instrument set 13 experiments covering the topic "nerve cell" can be performed. Optional upgrade available to perform additional experiments about nerve cell interactions and neuronal networks.

Handbook Cobra3, Physics Computer-assisted experiments with Cobra3 01310-02 Demo advanced Chemistry / Biology Manual Cobra3 (C3BT) 01320-02 Neurosimulator Handbook 01191-02 TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16508-02 TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments CHEMISTRY 16504-12 Labortory Experiments Biol., L.V. 16506-02

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Computer interface: 7 measurement inputs (5 analog and 2 digital inputs) One voltage output (5V and 0.2A) with 4 mm sockets Sampling rate 500 kHz and online frequency analyser.

Operating unit ▪

4 output channels which generate "muscle and sense signals", also serves as supply power to operate up to 4 neuron units.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 931


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Cobra3, basic units There are four basic units, of which up to 8 items can be cascaded. As well as the COM-UNIT, which replaces the computer, and the DISPLAY UNIT, which can be used as a demo-display unit in connection with the other basic units, the BASIC UNIT and the CHEM UNIT play a central role as actual basic units for data acquisition.

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Interface: USB Data transfer rate: 115200 bit/s Memory: 12000 values Dimensions (mm): 190 x 135 x 90 Fail-safe plastic housing with support feet, several fixation possibilities and lateral docking option for further units.

Included accessories ▪

USB Cable

Required accessoires:

Cobra3 Basic-Unit, USB

Cobra3 Power supply (12150-99)

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

Cobra3 Chem-Unit

Function and Applications Computer interface for measurement and control in naturalscience education (physics, chemistry and biology). Benefits ▪ ▪

Operation either with PC (USB port) or with special operation unit (COM-Unit). Upgrade for measurement of non-electrical quantities by use of plug-in modules.

Equipment and technical data 3 analog input channels ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Module port: ± 10 V Connection type: 25-pole Sub-D Sensor port 1: ± 30/ 10 V Connection type: 4 mm socket 9-pole Sub-D Input: grounded Input resistance: 500 kOhm Sensor port 2: ± 30/10/3/1/0.3/0.1 V Connection type: 4 mm sockets 9-pole Sub-D Difference potential input: Input resistance: 1 MOhm

For all analog inputs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Maximum sampling rate: 500 kHz Online sampling rate: 5 kHz Burst-mode: 5 Hz...500 kHz Resolution: 12 bit Voltage protection: 230 V AC Trigger: adjustable

Timer/Counter 1 ▪ ▪ ▪

Number of counts: 32 bit Resolution: 800 ns Connection type: 4 mm sockets

Timer/Counter 2 ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Number of counts: 40 bit Resolution: 200 ns Connection type: 4 mm sockets Analog control output: ± 10 V Resolution: 12 bit Connection type: 9-pole Sub-D

General data ▪

Supply voltage: 12 V DC/ 6 W

excellence in science 932

Function and application Allows to measure all important measuring quantities in chemistry and biology. Advantages You can run the Chem-Unit with a computer (via serial interface) or without a computer (combined with the Com-Unit). Equipment and specification: Inputs: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

pH/potential: 0...14 pH (0.01 pH); -2.2...+2.2 V (+/- 1 mV) 10 Giga-Ohm, BNC Conductivity: 6 ranges of measurement: 0...1000 mS/cm; pH/ Potential and conductivity are electrically isolated Temperature: NiCr-Ni thermoelement T1, T2, T3; -100...1500°C Temperature: Pt1000 sensor T4; measuring range -100...850°C Temperature sensor in housing T0; measuring range 0...85 °C. Analog In: 3 measuring ranges +/-3.2V; 32V; 81V TTL In/Out for drop counter or motor piston burett Voltage output: 5V / 0.2 A e.g.for drop counter Connections RS232-D-Sub-9 jack-Bit rate up to 115200 bit/s Voltage supply 12V/ 6W Shock-resistant plastic housing with support bases, a wide range of fixing possibilities and two lateral connectors for cascading further units

Cobra3 Chem-Unit 12153-00 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Cobra3 Display-Unit

Cobra3, software modules As well as the free software measure, with the aid of which all measured data can be evaluated securely and reliably, and interconnections represented rapidly, there are specially-coordinated software modules for every application. The selection is oriented either to the measurement variable or the project area of the experiment, or the universal applicability of the Cobra3 measuredvalue recording system.

Further Cobra3 software modules Function and Applications For large display of electrical and nonelectrical measured values and their units in combination with: ▪

Cobra3 Basic-Unit and Com-Unit with modules

Cobra3 Chem-Unit and Com-Unit, hand-held measuring devices and electronic balances

Cobra3 Display Unit 12154-00 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

Cobra3 Com-Unit

Function and Applications: For using the Cobra3 Basic-Unit without a computer. Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Easy connection to the Basic-Unit by plugging it into the lateral edge connector. LCD display with background lighting for selecting and presenting the measurement data. It is possible to connect large-format displays for demonstration purposes. Selection wheel for a comfortable use of the menu and for entering data.

Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61 Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61 Software COBRA3 Temperature 14503-61 Software Cobra3, Oxygen 14505-61 Software Cobra3 Radioactivity 14506-61 Software Cobra3, Lux 14507-61 Software Cobra3 Conductivity 14508-61 Software Cobra3 pH and potential 14509-61 Software Cobra3, Pressure 14510-61 Software Cobra3 Timer/Counter 14511-61 Software Cobra3-Force/ Tesla 14515-61 Softw. Cobra3 translat./rotation 14512-61 Software Cobra3 - Fourier analysis 14514-61 Software Cobra3 - gas laws 14516-61 Software Cobra3-Weather station 14518-61 Software Cobra3-hall effect 14521-61 Software package Cobra3 for BASIC- and CHEM-UNIT 14540-61

Power supply (12151-99) required. Cobra3-Com-Unit 12152-00 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 933


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Cobra3, measurement modules and accessories All necessary units for the recording of different measurement variables, and/or for different subject areas: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Current/ Voltage Current, voltage, frequency Arbitrary voltage signals Movement Force Charging Acoustics, heart and vascular sound processing Temperature Pressure Gas laws Meteorological data Light strength/ light intensity Magnetic field Radioactivity Hall effect pH-value and potential Conductance Titration Scales Dissolved oxygen Nerve physiology

▪ ▪

Limiting frequency: 20 kHz Continuity resistance: < 0.01 Ohm

Cobra3 current probe 6A 12126-00 Cobra3 current probe 30A 12127-00

Cobra3 Industry-Sensor-Adapter

Function and Applications

Measurement context: Voltage and current

The Industry sensor adapter is used to adapt commercially available industrial sensors with 2-, 3- and 4-conductor technology to the Cobra3 interfacesystem. Benefits:

Cobra3 Current probes

All sensor signals are converted into the Cobra3-typical 0...10 V signal.

Equipment and technical data: ▪

Supply voltage output: 24 V DC/50 mA

max. Signal input: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

2-conductor 4...20 mA: R_i = 500 Ohm 3-conductor 0...20 mA: R_i = 500 Ohm 4-conductor 0...10 mA: R_i = 130 kOhm Signal output (Cobra3):0...10 V or 2...10 V DC Resolution 5 mV (corresponds to 10 mA sensor signal)

12132-00 Function and Applications These galvanically separated sensors serve for measurements of direct and alternating currents. Equipment and technical data Plastic housing with 4-mm safety sockets. 350-mm data cable enabling the connection to the appropriate interface. Dimensions of sensors: 97 x 42 x 25 (mm). Weight: approx. 0.12 kg. Current probe 6 A: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 6 A, 0.6 A Continuous current: max. 6 A Accuracy: +/- 1.5 % Resolution: 0.1 % (of end value of measuring range) Limiting frequency: 20 kHz Continuity resistance: < 0.02 Ohm

Current probe 30 A: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 30 A, 3 A Continuous current: max. 25 A Accuracy: +/- 1.5% Resolution: 0.1 % (of end value of measuring range)

excellence in science 934

Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61 Software Cobra3 - Fourier analysis 14514-61


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Measurement context: Current, voltage, frequency programmable voltage and current source

Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Measurement context: Arbitrary voltage signals Cobra3 Measuring module function generator Measuring devices with analogue output

Function and Applications Plug-in measurement module for generating sinusoidal, square-wave and triangular-wave signals, direct voltages and frequency- or voltage-ramps. Benefits: The module can be used as a voltage or current source: ▪ ▪ ▪

If it is used as a voltage source, the actual frequency and current can be displayed and measured during operation If it is used as a current source, the actual frequency and voltage can be displayed and measured. In addition, up to 2 measurement quantities can be recorded and evaluated with the help of an interface.

Equipment and technical data:

Meter for Stirling engine, pVnT 04371-97 Control Unit for Si-Photodetector 08735-99 Control unit gas chromatograph 36670-99 Biological amplifier 65961-93

Frequency ranges: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Range 1: 200 Hz-20 kHz Interval: 10 Hz Range 2: 2 Hz-200 Hz Interval: 1 Hz Signal form: Sinusoidal, square-wave, triangular-wave signals, direct voltages and frequency- or voltage-ramps

Stirling engine with Cobra3

Voltage source: ▪ ▪ ▪

Amplitude: 0 V...10 V Interval: 5 mV Offset voltage: -10 V...10 V(adjustable)

Current source: ▪ ▪ ▪

Amplitude: 0 mA...100 mA Interval: 5 mA Offset current: 100 mA...100 mA

12111-00

Principle The Stirling engine is submitted to a load by means of an adjustable torquemeter, or by a coupled generator. Rotation frequency and temperature changes of the Stirling engine are observed. Effective mechanical energy and power, as well as effective electrical power, are assessed as a function of rotation frequency. The amount of energy converted to work per cycle can be determ-

Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 935


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

ined with the assistance of the pV diagram. The efficiency of the Stirling engine can be estimated.

Light barrier, compact

Tasks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Determination of the burner's thermal efficiency Calibration of the sensor unit. Calculation of the total energy produced by the engine through determination of the cycle area on the oscilloscope screen, using transparent paper and coordinate paper. Assessment of the mechanical work per revolution, and calculation of the mechanical power output as a function of the rotation frequency, with the assistance of the torque meter. Assessment of the electric power output as a function of the rotation frequency. Efficiency assessment.

What you can learn about First and second law of thermodynamics, Reversible cycles, Isochoric and isothermal changes, Gas jaws, Efficiency, Stirling engine, Conversion of heat, Thermal pump Literature for this experiment as follows: TESS expert Handbook Laboratory Experiments Physics 16502-32 English

Function and Applications Universal fork-type light barrier to measure short and long shadowingperiods. Benefits:

P2360415

Measurement context: Movement

An incremental wheel with a string groove which can be attached to the fork of the light barrier allows to measure paths by counting the ribs of the incremental wheel. Areas of application: track experiments, freefall, pendulum experiments, leaf springoscillations, drop counters, volumetric measurements concerning the gas laws.

Equipment and technical data:

Movement sensor with cable

▪ ▪

Dimensions: 40 x 40 mm Supply voltage: 5 V

11207-20

Softw. Cobra3 translat./rotation

14512-61

Falling sphere apparatus

Function and Applications Low-friction incremental decoder with a high resolution to detect rotary movements and linear movements. Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

String grooves Ø6 mm, 12 mm. dimensions: (72x34x113) mm Plastic housing with mounting shaft and cable Resolution 512 steps / revolution

Function and technical data Determination of the gravitational acceleration of the earth with great precision.

12004-10

Benefits: ▪

excellence in science 936

The exclusively mechanical retention of the falling body allows to avoid mistakes caused by residual magnetism from electromagnetic retention systems for precision measurements of the falling times of a free falling ball.


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

▪ ▪ ▪

Release unit with ball for timely defined local release of suited bodies, e.g. balls, falling rods,etc. Impact switch release and impacts witch are fixed to a support by means of clamps. This allows to determine the falling trajectory arbitrarily.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪

Release unit with ball Impact switch

02502-88

Function and Applications Plug-in module for measuring forces in conjunction with the Newton sensor (no.12110.01). Benefits: Especially suitable for experiments dealing with extremely small forces, e.g. surface tension experiments, Coulomb's law, current balance etc. Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring ±4 mN, ±40 mN, ranges ±400 mN, ±4 N Resolution 0.0035 mN,0.035 mN, 0.35 mN, 3.5 mN Compensation± 4 N in every measuring range. Dimensions: (100x50x40) mm

12110-00

Software Cobra3 Timer/Counter 14511-61 Light barrier, compact 11207-20 Beam stopper 02504-00

Newton sensor

Measurement context: Force

Cobra3 Measuring module Newton

Function and Applications For connecting to the COBRA3 force measurement module. Metal casing with load-bearing hooks for tension forces and load plate for handling compression forces. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

With mounting rod and fixed mains lead End limit sensors for overload protection Lifting range 0.4 mm/N approx. Measuring range: max. +/- 4 N Resolution: max. +/- 0.0035 mN Compensation: +/- 4 N Dimensions (mm): 62 x 40 x 120

12110-01

Cobra3 newton sensor +/- 50N

Function and Applications

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 937


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Force sensor with 4 strain gauges in full bridge circuit, with tare function, load hooks and fixing screw for assembly to stands.

Equipment and technical data ▪

Benefits: ▪ ▪

With 1.9 m fixed cable between sensor and probe Including 350 mm data cable 2 x Sub-D, 9-pin type.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: ± 50/15/5/1/0.5 N Resolution: 0.1% of upper limit of effective range Max. loading: 120 N Limiting frequency: 500 Hz Tare: possible in every measuring range max. 50 N Dimensions (mm): 70 x 50 x 15 Weight (only sensor): 80 g

12125-00

Software Cobra3-Force/ Tesla

14515-61

Measurement context: Charge

Electrometer Amplifier

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Power supply via 4 mm sockets or wall power supply with hole socket Operation temperature: 5...40°C Relative humidity: < 80% Gain/ amplification: 1.0 Input resistance: > 10000 GOhm Input current: < 0.5 pA Input capacitance: < 50 pF Input voltage: Amplifier (socket 1): ± 10 V2. input (socket 2): 1 kV Power supply: 12 V AC/25 mA hole socket: 2.1/5.5 mm or External power source: 12 V AC25 mA 4 mm sockets or: Cobra3 interface: ± 15 V RS232 socket Output voltage: ± 10 V Output current: 1 mA Output resistance: < 500 Ohm Dimensions H × W × D (mm): 65 × 113 × 35 Weight: 150 g

Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61 Electrometer Amplifier 13621-00 Data cable for cobra probes 12150-07

Measurement context: Acoustics, heart and vascular sound processing

Measuring microphone

Function and Applications With an integrated amplifier and three selectable output modes: level, signal,TTL-level. Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Continuously adjustable amplification. Amplifier with minimum current requirements. Powered by a battery. Automatic shutdown after about 90 min if powered by a battery. Reactivation by means of a push-button.

Equipment and technical data: Function and Applications Operational amplifier with high resistance input for quasi-static voltage measurement and measurement of very small charges.

Frequency range: 30 Hz...20kHz, (15...30 Hz and 20...40 kHz) with a reduced reception 25 cm sensor tube (d = 8 mm) ensuring an interference-free measurement of soundfields Flexible shielded cable (l = 2m), BNC plug threaded rod for secure fastening

Benefits

▪ ▪

Suited for experiments with electrostatics, e.g. charge measurement, capacity measurement of sphere-capacitor, measurement of direct voltages, quasi-static measurements and measurement of small currents.

03542-00

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6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Measuring microphone w.amplifier

Software Cobra3 Timer/Counter 14511-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Measurement context: Temperature

Cobra3, sensor -20..110 C

Function and Applications Electret capsule with 1.5 m long cable suitable for special investigations, e.g. point shaped plotting of soundfields. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency range 30 Hz ... 20 kHz Sensitivity 6.0 mV/Pa at 1 kHz Gain 0 ... 1000 in phase with sound signal Signal output 4V max. at 3 Ohm Dimensions: (mm) 120 x 25 x 60

Required accessory ▪

9 V battery

03543-00

Acoustic probe for COBRA3

Function and Applications To be connected directly to the sensorports of the Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Equipment and techical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Sensor sheathing: stainless sationsteel Diameter: 6 mm Sensor length: 200 mm Measuring range: -20°C...+110°C Resolution: 0.2°C Total length incl. cable: 1.5 m

12120-00

Cobra3 Measuring module, temp. NiCrNi, 330°C

Function and Applications Highly sensitive miniature microphone for measuring cardiac and vascular sound and for determining the heartbeat rate. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Electret microphone with FET amplifier Including a 1.5 m cable with 9-pin Sub-Dplug Frequency range: 50 Hz...20 kHz

03544-00

Function and Applications Plug-in module for measuring temperatures by means of NiCr-Ni thermocouples in the range of -50. 330°C. Benefits ▪

Can be combined with the pressure measuring module,e.g. to record vapour-pressure diagramsor to compensate the influence of thetemperature on the electric conductivity or the pH value in solutions together with the corresponding modules and sensors.

Equipment and technical data Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Software Cobra3 - Fourier analysis 14514-61

▪ ▪

Measuring range -50...333°C Resolution: 0.2°C.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 939


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Measuring module, Temperature NiCr-Ni, 330°C 12104-00 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05

Measuring mod.,Temperature PT100

Temperature sensor Pt1000 with 4 mm plug connectors (for CHEM UNIT)

Function and Applications For temperature measurement and for automatic temperature compensation of the pH and conductance measurement, with the employment of measurement cells, without built-in temperature sensor. Connection: 4 mm plug connector. Temperature probe Pt-1000 13702-01 Temp. probe Pt-1000, 10m cable 07139-01

Software COBRA3 Temperature 14503-61 Software Cobra3 - gas laws 14516-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61 Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61

Measurement context: Pressure Function and Applications Plug-in module for a high-resolution measurement of temperatures using Pt 100 sensors. Benefits ▪ ▪

Cobra3 Pressure sensors

Two sensors can be connected simultaneously (multiplexing). Measurement of the temperature difference with a resolution of 0.01 K.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -60...350°C Resolution: 0.01 K

Measuring mod.,Temperature PT100 12102-00 Temp. probe, immersion type, Pt100, stainless steel, -20...+300°C 11759-01 Surface temperature probe PT100, -20...+300°C 11759-02 Temp.probe, imm., PT100, -20...+300°C, teflon 11759-04 Temp. probe, imm. type, Pt1000, Cobra3 12123-00

Function and Applications Absolute and differential pressure sensors for overpressure and vacuum systems. Can be used in combination with a Pc and the Cobra3 Basic-Unit or without a PC combined with the Cobra3 Basic-Unit and the Cobra3 Com-Unit. Benefits ▪ ▪

With hose connector and hose section for connecting the module to any type of peripheral equipment. Including data cable for Cobra3 sensors.

Equipment and technical data

excellence in science 940


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

35 cm data cable Measuring range: 80 mbar and 2.0 bar, respectively Autorange: (80-8-2,4) mbar and (0.6-2.0) bar, respectively Max. pressure: 750 mbar and 10 bar, respectively Accuracy: 5 % and 1.5 %, respectively Resolution: 0.05 % Dimensions (mm): 75 x 42 x 25

Cobra3 press. sensor 2.0 bar abs. 12128-00 Cobra3 press. sensor 80 mbar diff. 12130-00 Cobra3 press. sensor 2.0 bar diff. 12129-00

Software Cobra3, Pressure 14510-61 Software Cobra3 - gas laws 14516-61 Software Cobra3-Weather station 14518-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Benefits ▪ ▪

With hose connector and hose section for connecting the module to any type of peripheral equipment (the vacuum rubber tubing no.39288.00 is recommended for extension purposes). The measuring module replaces mercury manometers or crusher gauges normally used for studying the gas laws, for recording vapour-pressure diagrams or for measuring the barometric pressure. Pressure sensor integrated in the measuring mod.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range 0...2000 hPa Resolution 0.5 hPa Overload capacity up to 4000 hPa Response time ≤1 ms Suitable media: non-aggressive gases and liquids

Measuring module, pressure 12103-00 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Modulconverter COBRA3-mea.unit 12150-04

Cobra3 Measuring module Temperature NiCr-Ni, 330°C

Measurement context: Gas laws

Cobra3 Measuring module, pressure

Function and Applications Plug-in module for Cobra3 interface. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -50...+330°C Resolution: 0.2°C. Dimensions (mm): 100 x 50 x 40

Measuring module, Temperature NiCr-Ni, 330°C 12104-00 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Cobra3, sensor -20..110 C 12120-00

Software Cobra3 - gas laws

Function and Applications Plug-in module for measuring pressures or pressure differences.

14516-61

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 941


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Measurement context: Meteorological data

Humidity sensor for Cobra3

Software Cobra3-Weather station

14518-61

Measurement context: Light strength/ light intensity

Photo diode, G1

Function and Applications Measurement of relative humidity (RH), absolute humidity and temperature with Cobra3 Basic-UNIT. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Humidity Range: 5-95% RH (non-condensing) accuracy: ± 5% RH at 25°C response rate: approx. 15 seconds in moving air at 25°C repeatability: ± 0.5% RH temperature range: 40°C.+85°C accuracy: ± 1°C at 25°C resolution: ± 0.1°C.

Cup anemometer for Cobra3

Function and Applications Wind sensor with large speed measurement range of 4 to 140 km/h for fitting to masts or support rods or poles. Benefits Can be screwed onto the tripod rod/pole (M6) or attached to any mast or jib using the fixing angle supplied. Equipment and technical data Operating temperature: o...+70°C Measuring range: 1...40m/s resp. 4....140km/h max. switching capacity: 0.6V weight: 0.3kg dimensions: 112 x 162 x 140 mm

12124-00

excellence in science 942

Photo diode, G1 Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪

12121-00

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications

Plastic housing (37 x 18 x 32 mm) with 4mm plugs in 19 mm spacing Open circuit voltage 380 mV at 1 klx Short circuit current: approx. 35μA at 1klx

Photo diode, G1 39119-01 resistor 470 Ohm, 1W, G1 39104-15


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Cobra3 Measuring module lux

Measurement context: Magnetic field

Cobra3 Measuring module, Tesla

Function and Applications

Function and Applications Plug-in module for measuring the illuminance. Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪

Measuring range selectable with the aid of the software. Measuring Range, resolution: 300 Lx 0.15 Lx; 3 kLx1.5 Lx; 30 kLx 15 Lx; 300 kLx 150 Lx

Measuring module lux 12107-00 Luxmeter probe 12107-01 Lux immersion probe, 10m cable 07137-01

Software Cobra3, Lux 14507-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Plug-in module for a precise measurement of magnetic DC and AC fields. Advantages ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measurements possible from 5 µT to 1T. Detection of the field direction (sign) in the case of DC fields. Software-controlled zero adjustment and compensation of interference fields up to ± 1 T. Readily calibrated, i.e. no calibration magnet necessary. Use of the Hall probes of the teslameter no. 13610.93. Measuring ranges: ± 10 mT, ± 100 mT, ± 1 T. Max. resolution: 5 µT (12 bit). Compensation ± 1 T in all measuring ranges.

Measuring module, Tesla 12109-00 Hall probe, axial 13610-01 Hall probe, tangential, protection cap 13610-02 Software Cobra3-Force/ Tesla 14515-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 943


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Measurement context: Radioactivity

Cobra3 Counter tube module

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Self-quenching halogen triggered tube with chrome-iron jacket and mica window, for investigating alpha-, beta- and gammarays. Handle for attachment included. Including a grill protecting the counter tube. Mica: 2 ...3 mg cm2 Working voltage: 500 V Plateau length: 200 V Plateau increase: 0.04 %/ V Dead time: about 100 µs Zero effect: aboout 45 pulses/ min Case diameter: 22 mm Diameter of counter tube: 45 mm Length of counter tube: 80 mm Weight: 320 g

09007-00

Counter tube holder on fix. magn.

Function and Applications Counter tube module 12106-00 Counter tube, type A, BNC 09025-11 Counter tube, type B 09005-00

Counter tube, GM, 45 mm

Function and Applications Highly sensitiv counter tube, especially suitable to investigate weakly radioactive samples. Because of the large active area experiments with natural beam sources deliver very good results. Benefits In the implementation of student experiments a radioactive source is no longer necessary.

excellence in science 944

For base plate (09200-00) or Physics demonstration board (02120-00). For attaching counting tubes with 22 mm casing diameter. Equipment and technical data Painted. Metal holder with placement marks and magnet with sturdy non-slip foil. Adhesive force 10 N. Counter tube holder on fix.magn. 09201-00 Holder f.counter tube large 09206-00 Screened cable, BNC, l 250 mm 07542-10 Screened cable, BNC, l 750 mm 07542-11

Software Cobra3 Radioactivity 14506-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Measurement context: Hall effect

Cobra3 Measuring module pH/ potential

Hall effect module

Function and applications Hall module with central power supply to provide an adjustable constant current for the sample and for the integrated sample heater. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

digital LED display (3 digits, 9 mm) to show either the sample current or the sample temperature sample heater with fully automatic temperature control system to avoid damage to the samples electronic compensating circuit for Hall voltage offset compensation RS 232 interface to connect an interface for comfortable data capturing, display and evaluation using a PC Different boards can be plugged easily and safely into the Hall module which requires only a 12 V AC power supply. The Hall module provides all operating parameters for the samples and displays the sample.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Max. current of probe: +/- 60 mA Max. temperature of probe: 175 °C Power supply: 12 V AC/ max. 3.5 A Dimensions: 16 x 10.5 x 2.5 cm Weight: 0.25 kg

Hall effect module 11801-00 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Hall effect,n-Ge,carrier board 11802-01 Hall effect,p-Ge,carrier board 11805-01 Intrins.conduct.Ge,carrier board 11807-01 Measuring module, Tesla 12109-00 Hall probe, tangential, protection cap 13610-02 Software Cobra3-hall effect 14521-61

Measurement context: pH-value and potential

Function and Applications Plug-in module for measuring pH values and potentials. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪

Front DIN-socket for pH probe. Temperature probe calibration and compensation are software controlled. Plastic housing with D-sub-25-plug on the back .

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Range -2... +2 V Resolution 1 mV Input impedance 10 ohms exp. 12 Impact-resistant plastic housing Dimensions: 100 x 50 x 40 mm

Measuring module pH/potential 12101-00 pH electrode, sterilisable 18456-00 pH-electrode, shock resistant 18452-00 pH-electrode, polythene sheathed 18450-00 Reference electrode, AgCl 18475-00 Platin.electrode in prot.tube,8mm 45206-00 pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 Redox electrode, BNC 46267-10 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10 Redox electrode, BNC 46267-10

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 945


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Measurement context: Conductance

Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Measurement context: Titration

Motor piston burette, univer.

Cobra3 Measuring module Conductivity

Function and Application For uniform portioning and reproducible titrations - microprocessor controlled and with remote control. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications Plug-in module for conductivity measurements. Benefits ▪

Can be connected to the module port and/or sensor port 1 or 2 (with moduleconverter and data cable)

Display: LCD matrix (64 x 128 pixels) Dispensing accuracy: +/- 0.15 % Burette volume: 50 ml Display accuracy: 0.01 ml Glass cylinder: DURAN® Line voltage: 230 VAC

Motor.piston burette,univer.50ml 36499-93 Cable Chem-Unit/Motor piston burette 36501-01 Cable Basic-Unit/Motor piston burette 36501-03

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4 Measuring ranges 0...0.2/2/20/200mS/cm Measuring frequency approx. 4 kHz dimensions: (100x50x40) mm cell constant: 0,85...1,15/cm Plastic housing with rear D-sub-25-plug

Light barrier, compact

Measuring module Conductivity 12108-00 Conductivity probe K1 18151-02 Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 13701-01 Software Cobra3 Conductivity 14508-61 Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61 Function and Applications

excellence in science 946


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Universal fork-type light barrier to measure short and long shadowingperiods.

scaling. Integrated application programs: Counting, %-weighing, net total/recipe; animal weighing; switchover between 2 units

Benefits:

Equipment and technical data Readability: 1 mg, weighing range: 620 g, weighing scale pan diameter: 110 mm (stainless steel), Adjustable feet for level installation, integrated bi-directional serial interface (RS232) for simple data transfer, casing dimensions (mm): 213 x 342 x 153, included power supply unit included in the scope of delivery, mains power connection voltage: 230 V~, including measure software for weighing scales.

An incremental wheel with a string groove which can be attached to the fork of the light barrier allows to measure paths by counting the ribs of the incremental wheel., Areas of application: track experiments, freefall, pendulum experiments, leaf springoscillations, drop counters, volumetric measurements concerning the gas laws. Equipment and technical data: Dimensions: 40 x 40 mm, Supply voltage: 5 V 11207-20

Set of Precision Balance Sartorius CPA 623S and measure software, 230 V 49224-88 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Balance adapter, 25/9 pins 14601-01 Converter USB - RS232, active 14602-10

Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61 Software Cobra3 Conductivity 14508-61 Software Cobra3 pH and potential 14509-61

Measurement context: Scales

Set composed of Sartorius weighing scale and software

Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Measurement context: Dissolved oxygen

Cobra3 Measuring module,oxygen

Function and Applications Set composed of Sartorius CPA623S weighing scale, with built-in RS232 interface and the measure software for weighing scales. (The series-connection cables for the connecting of the weighing scale with the PC are not included in the scope of delivery.) The Sartorius weighing scales of the CP series offer many technical advantages, which ensure the permanent operation of the weighing scales with maximum measurement accuracy: Monolithic weighing system technology, robust, precise, reliable - for years! Benefits Four digital filter stages; with these the weighing scale can be adapted optimally to the environmental conditions at the installation location. Internal, motor-operated adjustment weight: Highest weighing scale precision by simple key press. Calibration and adjustment function isoCAL: It guarantees the constant high precision of the weighing scale through a regular, fully-automatic adjustment. Exceptional read-off, back-lit display with particularly large characters (16.5 mm). Simple operation; all keys with perceptible pressing point; clear operator panel. Functional wind protection; detachable side disks for precise dosing. Perfect purity. Large scale pan: For more convenient

Function and Applications Plug-in module for oxygen measurements.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 www.phywe.com 947


6 Additional material 6.3 Cobra3

Benefits: ▪ ▪

Neurosimulator

Simultaneous measurement of the oxygen concentration and the temperature using the oxygen/ temperature probe no.12105.01. If there is also a pressure measuring module or a conductivity measuring module these can be connected to a free sensor port for correcting the atmospheric pressure or the salt content.

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring ranges O2-concentration 0.30 mg/l O2-saturation 0.2% Temperature 0.5 °C Accuracy O2 2% of the measured value Temperature automatic compensation (0.5 °C) Atmospheric pressure correction: manual or automatic using the pressure module Salt content correction manual or automatic using the conductivity module Electrode in air saturated calibration water or in the air.

Measuring module,oxygen 12105-00 Oxygen/Temperature probe 12105-01 Software Cobra3, Oxygen 14505-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Measurement context: Neurophysiology

Biological amplifier

Function and applications The neurosimulator simulates a generalised nerve cell with an apical dendrite, a cell body and a nerve fibre. Neuro-simulator 65963-00 Neuro-simulator, power supply 65963-93 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525-61

Further information You will find further information on the possibilities of computerassisted recording of neurophysiological data in the respective chapters.

Accessories

With the aid of this biological amplifier a wide range of electrophysiological experiments can be carried out on human beings (ECG, EMG, EEG, EOG, ENG) and animals. Biological amplifier 65961-93 Reflex hammer, triggering 65981-10 ECG electrodes, 3/pkg 65981-01 EMG electrodes, 3 off 65981-02 Electrode commoning cable 65981-03

excellence in science 948

Modulconverter COBRA3-mea.unit 12150-04 Converter USB - RS232, active 14602-10 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99

Data cable for cobra probes 12150-07 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Data cable USB, plug type A/B, 1.8 m 14608-00 USB 2.0 4 Port Hub, incl. Power supply 14612-00 Data cable, socket/socket, null modem, 9 pole 14603-00


6 Additional material 6.4 Power supply units

Power supply units 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4

Small to medium voltage power supply units Stabilised and regulated power supply units High-voltage power supply units Signal generators

950 952 955 956

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 www.phywe.com 949


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.1 Small to medium voltage power supply units

Multitap transformer, 14 VAC/ 12 VDC, 5 A

Variable transformer, 25 VAC/ 20 VDC, 12 A

Function and Applications Power supply unit for low voltage supplies DC and AC voltages in2 V steps. Equipment and technical data Galvanic isolation for all outputs, free-of-ground, Selection of voltage output via one side fixed 4 mm bridge plug, AC output: 2/4/6/8/10/ 12/14 V/5 A, DC output: 2/4/6/8/10/12/14 V/5 A, Max. current (short term): 10 A, Max. power: 80 VA, Fuses: 10 A , SUPPLY VOLTAGE: 230 V AC, DIMENSIONS (mm): 230 x 236 x 168 13533-93

Function and Application Standard heavy duty power supply unit for low voltage. Supplies unit for continuously adjustable DC and AC voltages & 2 frequently required fixed voltages Equipment and technical data AC output: 0...25 V/12 A, DC output: 0...20 V/12 A, Max. current (short term): 13 A, Add. fixed voltages: 6 V AC/6 A12 V AC/6 A, Max. current (short term): 10 A, Max. power: 375 VA, Fuses: one 13 A and two 10 A, supply voltage: 230 V AC, dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 234 13531-93

Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Variable transformer 25 VAC /20 VDC, with display

Function and Applications Standard heavy duty power supply unit for low voltage. Supplies unit for continuously adjustable DC and AC voltages & 2 frequently required fixed voltages Equipment and technical data AC output: 0...15 V/5 A, DC output: 0...12 V/5 A, Max. current (short term): 10 A, Add. fixed voltages: 6 V AC/6 A12 V AC/6 A, Max. current (short term): 10 A, Max. power: 150 VA, Fuses: one 6 A and two 10 A, Supply voltage: 230 V AC, dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168 13530-93

Function and Applications Standard heavy duty power supply unit for low voltage. Supplies continously adjustable DC and AC voltages & 2 frequently requiredfixed voltages. Equipment and technical data AC output: 0...25 V/12 A, DC output: 0...20 V/12 A, Max. current (short term): 13 A, Add. fixed voltages: 6 V AC/6 A12 V AC/6 A, Max. current (short term): 10 A, Max. power: 375 VA, Fuses: one 13 A and two 10 A , Displays: 2 analogue meters for current voltage, supply voltage: 230 V AC, dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 234

13532-93

excellence in science 950


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.1 Small to medium voltage power supply units

Variable transformer 36 VAC/ 30 VDC, 18 A

Function and Applications Supplies a continuously adjustable DC and alternating current; with two ironvane instruments for voltage and current, switch between DC and alternating voltage; start-up current attenuation. Equipment and technical data Galvanically isolated from the mains and non-grounded; protected also with an over current circuit-breaker. U, Imax (continuous), 0.36 V~, 18 A, 0.30 V-, 18 A, U, Imax (short term) 30 V-/36 V~, 20 A, Protection devices (secondary, automatic) 1 Circuit breaker, Power input 750 VA, Mains voltage 230 V~/50.60 Hz, Housing dimensions (mm) 370×235×234 13537-93

Transformer 3 phase 3-23/40V,3A

Variable transformer/ display 250/ 230 VAC/ DC

Function and Applications Heavy duty variable transformer with particularly high load capacity. Equipment and technical data Outputs galvanically isolated from the mains and non-grounded; overload and short circuit protected through overload safety switch (circuit breaker); protection class 2 (protective insulation, VDE 0550); startup current attenuation avoids circuit breaker tripping when switched on; DC and alternating current is continuously variable. 2 iron vane instruments for exact display (effective value) of output voltage and current.-output: 0-250 V~/ 6 A; 4-mm-safetyplugs; parallel 2 pole plug; 0.230 V-/ 6A; bridge rectifier-protection: through overload safetyswitch (circuit breaker)-start up current attenuation: start up sequence max. 3/min for mains voltages, voltages with Bor L- characteristic fuses-mains voltage: 230 V~/50.60 Hz-power consumption: 1500 VA-housing dimensions: 370×236×234 mm 13535-93

Lamp transformer, 220 V - 6-12V AC/ 90 VA

Function and Applications Low-voltage three-phase transformer for star and delta circuits. Equipment and technical data Switchable output voltages: 10/17 V~ (3-phase) and 23/40 V~ /max. 3 A, Star point withstands full loading, 3 x 3-A automatic circuit breakers, Floating outputs, 4-mm safety sockets, Mains switch and indicator lamp, Mains lead with Cekon three-phase earthed plug, Mains connection (three phase): 230/400 V, Impact-resistant, stackable plastic case with carrying handle and stand, Dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168 13665-96

Function and Applications Safety transformer,primary & secondary windings separated spatially & electrically. Equipment and technical data Output voltage available on 4 mm plugsecurity sockets.Output: 6 V AC / 5 APower supply voltage: 230 V ACCasing dimensions (mm):70 x 85 x 60 07473-93

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 951


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.2 Stabilised and regulated power supply units

Power supply, 5V/ 1A, +/-15 V

Power supply, universal

Function and Applications 3 DC voltage outputs; useful for electronic experiments.

Function and Applications

Equipment and technical data

Versatile heavy duty power supply which can also be used as a constant current supply in schools, laboratories or workshops.

Output voltage ± 15 V/ 0.2 A; 5 V/ 1.0 A; 4-mm safety plugs; residual ripple < 5 mV; power consumption approx. 35 VA; mains voltage 230 V/ 50.60 Hz; housing dimensions 194 × 140 × 130 mm. 13502-93

Power supply 0...12 V DC / 6 V, 12 V AC, 230 Volt

Equipment and technical data Direct current source: Stabilised, regulated output direct voltage, continuously adjustable from 0...18 V, Adjustable current limit between 0...5 A, LED display for constant current operationn, Permantely short-circuit proof &protected against exterior voltages, Alternative voltage output:, Multitap transformer 2...15V, outputs galvanically separated from mains grid, Full load capacity (5A), even if direct current is supplied simultaneously, Short-circuit protection through overcurrent circuit breaker, All output voltages available at 4 mm safety plug sockets. 13500-93

Power supply, universal, analog display

Function and Applications High quality power supply specially suitable for student experiments in electricity and electronics as well as for demonstration. Equipment and technical data Stabilised, Shortcircuit proof , Output voltage: 1...12 V DC 6 VAC, 12 VA, Crated current: 2 A/ 5 A, Ripple: approx. 1 MV, Resistance: 1 mOhm, Mains voltage: 230 V, Housing dimensions: 194 x 140 x 130 mm

Function and Applications Same as 13500-93. Equipment and technical data

13505-93

Additionally along with an analog display instrument with measuring ranges of 0.18 V and 0-5 A and a commutating switch for voltage/current measurement. 13501-93

excellence in science 952


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.2 Stabilised and regulated power supply units

Power supply -2op-, 2x15V/2A

Function and Applications Specially suited for electronics experiments. Equipment and technical data Output voltage 2x0...15Vnominal current 2A / 1Acurrent regulation 0...2Ainternal resistance <= 10mOhmmains voltage 230V / 50...60Hzpower consumption 170 VAhousing dimensions 230x236x168mm 13520-93

Power supply 0-30VDC/20A,stabil

Power supply, 0...600 VDC

Function and Applications Power supply with 5 output voltages especially designed for experiments with tubes, fine beams and conducting the Frank-Hertz experiment. Benefits Electronically stabilised DC voltages, short-circuit protected, galvanically isolated from one another so that they can be possible to connected in series, featuring LED current-limiting indicator and protection against polarity reversal, AC voltage with automatic circuit breaker, All outputs are floating and isolated from the mains and use 4-mm safety sockets. Equipment and technical data Output 1: 0...12 V-/0.5 A, Stability: < 0.1 %, Residual ripple: < 5 mV, Output 2: 0...50 V-/50 mA, Stability: < 0.01 %, Residual ripple: < 5 mV, Outputs 3/4: 300 V-/0...300 V-/50 mA, Stability: < 0.01 %, Residual ripple: < 20 mV, Output 5: 6.3 V~/2 A, Power consumption: 100 VA approx., Mains voltage: 230 V~, Impact-resistant, stackable plastic case with carrying handle and stand, Dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168 13672-93

Power supply 12V AC/500 mA

Function and Applications Heavy duty power supply with stabilised output voltage, low residual ripple and with constant current operation. Equipment and technical data Two moving coil instruments for simultaneous display of voltage and current. LED display of constant voltage and current operation. Output voltage: 0...30 VDC Nominal current: 0.2...20 A Residual ripples: 30 mV Required power: 900 V AInterior resistance: 40 mOhm Output is earth and mains-free, 4mm safety bushes. Power supply voltage: 230 V Impact resistant, stackable plastic housing with carrying handle and fold-away stand. Dimensions: 370 x 236 x 234 mm 13536-93

Function and Applications Power supply for AC output voltage with output safety plug, to be use for e.g. electrometer amplifier 13621-00. Equipment and technical data Output: 12 V AC/500 mA Supply voltage: 230 V AC Dimensions [mm]: 70 x 50 x 40Mass: 500 g 11074-93

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 www.phywe.com 953


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.2 Stabilised and regulated power supply units

Pow.suppl.3/4,5/6/7,5/9/12V 0.25A

Power supply 5 V DC/2.4 A with 4 mm plugs

Function and Applications Short circuit proof plug-in powersupply unit. Equipment and technical data Function and Applications Plug-in power supply for powering small appliances. Equipment and technical data 6-position sliding switch for selecting various output voltages, Fixed output lead with end socket to accommodate 7 different adapter plugs with polarity labelling, Output: 3 / 4.5 / 6 / 7,5 / 9 / 12 V DC, 250 mA, Mains voltage: 230 V~

With built-in 1.3 m connection cord and 4 mm plugs. Output: 5 V DC / 2.4 AInput voltage: 110...230 V AC 11076-99

Power supply 12V / 2A

11078-93

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A withDC-socket 2.1 mm

Function and Applications Small switching power supply with safetey class 2. Benefits Stabilised output voltage and short circuit resistant., Including power supply cable., Recommended for use with Cobra3. Function and Applications

Equipment and technical data

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A withDC-socket

Supply voltage: 100...230 V AC, Supply frequency: 50...60 Hz

Equipment and technical data Power supply with plug and 1.3 m line cable and 2 m cable on secondary output side., Output side: DC-socket 2.1 mm, Input voltage: 100...260 V AC, Frequency: 50...60 Hz, Output voltage: 5 V DC, Output current: 2.4 A, Output plug:Outer diameter: 5 mm and Inner diameter: 2.1 mm, Dimensions (mm): 40 Ă&#x2014; 41 Ă&#x2014; 120 mm, Weight: 345 g 13900-99

excellence in science 954

12151-99


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.3 High-voltage power supply units

High voltage supply unit, 0-10 kV

Special safety sockets protect the user from unwanted spark discharges.

Equipment and technical data ▪

Continuously adjustable DC voltage of 0.25 kV

13671-93

Function and Applications For electrostatic experiments and for operation of spectral and gas discharge tubes. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

It supplies 3 continuously variable DC voltages isolated from earth and ground. Two of the voltages are connected in series 0-5 kV DC = total of 0 -10 kV DC. Selectable positive and negative polarity. 3-figure LED display. Outputs short-circuit proof. Special safety sockets. Modern plastic housing, impact resistant, easy to service, light stackable with retractable carrying handle and stand. Internal resistance: approx.5 MOhm. Ripple: < 0.5%. Supply voltage: 230 V. Short circuit current: max. 3 mA. Housing dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168.

13670-93

Power supply, high voltage, 0-25 kV

Function and Applications High voltage source, particularly suited for electrostatic experiments requiring a very high and exactly adjustable DC voltage. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

While operating gas discharge tubes, the drop voltage is to be checked at the integrated digital display, which should not rise above 5 kV for protection against radiation. Voltage stabilised through electronicregulation Demonstrative voltage display on at three digit LED-display Earthing socket allows the positive or the negative outputs to be grounded Gas discharge tubes can be operated without protective resistor

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 955


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.4 Signal generators

Power frequency generator, 10 Hz - 1 MHz

Function generator, 0.1 Hz - 100 KHz

Function and Applications Sinus and rectangular signal generator with signal and power output for optimal adaptation to different experimental circuits. Benfits Large frequency range, frequencies can be continuously adjusted to five decade areas, Output for sinus and regtangular signals, Power output for sinus Equipment and technical data Demonstative frequency display with 4 digit LED display, Supplementary headphone and loudspeaker connector jack Signal output: Max. output voltage Upp: approx. 6 V, Power: 1 W, Nominal final resistor: 4 Ohm, Distortion factor: < 1% (typically < 0.2%)

Function and Applications Versatile sine wave, triangle wave and square wave signal generator for student experiments, practical work and demonstration. Short circuit proof output. Constant output amplitude over the complete frequency range. Strong power output enables direct connection to a loudspeaker Equipment and technical data Frequency range: 0.1 Hz...100 kHz, Signal shape: Sine, triangle and square, Signal output: 20 V (open), 10 V Ra = 50 Ohm, Output power: approx. 0.25 W, Nominal terminal resistance: 50 Ohm, Distortion factor (typical): < 1 %, Power consumption: max. 5 VA, Mains voltage: 230 V/ 50...60 Hz, Housing dimensions (mm): 194 Ă&#x2014; 140 Ă&#x2014; 130

Power output: Max. output voltage Upp: approx. 18 V, Power: 10 W, Nominal final resistor: 4 Ohm, Distortion factor: < 1% (typically < 0.3%) Input: Input voltage range: Up = 0...1V, Electric strength: Up < 30V, Input resistance: 50 kOhm, Required power: max. 70 VA, Dimensions (mm): 370 x 236 x 168

13652-93

Sine wave generator, 10 Hz - 20 KHz

13650-93

Function and Applications For generation of sine wave signals for audiometry und acoustics. Benefits Connection for head phone (jacksocket) and loud speaker (4 mm output sockets), 4-digit digital display, Cut-off switch for the headphone Equipment and technical data 3 Frequency ranges: 10...200 Hz100...2000 Hz1...20 kHz, Max. output voltage:0...6 V for 4 Ohm0...10 V for > 20 Ohm, Output power: 1 W for 4 Ohm, Distortion factor (typical):< 1% for 1 kHz, Supply voltage:230 V AC/50...60 Hz 65960-93

excellence in science 956


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.4 Signal generators

Digital Function Generator, USB

Function and Applications Digital signal generator for use as a programmable voltage source in practical or demonstration experiments, particularly in the disciplines of acoustics, electrical engineering and electronics Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Can be used as universal stand-alone device or controlled via a USB interface (with a software package available as of 2011) Universally applicable thanks to broad, continually adjustable frequency range Usable as programmable voltage source via amplifier output Intuitive, menu-driven operation using control knob and function buttons, with help capability Illuminated monochrome graphic display for maximum visibility and readability Simple setting of voltage and frequency ramps in stand-alone mode Features V = f(f) output for easy reading of frequency in the form of a voltage - ideal for measuring circuit response to frequency ramps using an oscilloscope Low distortion and signal-to-noise ratio for brilliantly clear signals - ideal for acoustics/audio experiments

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Frequency range: 0.1Hz…1Mhz Steps: 0.1Hz Distortion factor: <0.5% Signal forms: Sine, triangle, square, frequency ramp, voltage ramp Amplifier output, short-circuit-proof, via BNC and 4-mm connectors: Output voltage : 0 … 20 Vpp for Rout > 40 Ω DC offset: ±10V (steps 5 mV) Power output: 5W (for up to 1A) where Rout = 20 Ω Headphone output via 3.5-mm jack socket: Switch for selecting standard headphones or speakers Output voltage: 0 … 1 Vpp for Rout = 400 Ω Sync (trigger) output via BNC: Output resistance: 50 Ω Logic level: CMOS (5V) V=f(f) output via BNC, short-circuit-proof: For outputting frequency in the form of a proportional voltage 0 ... 10V (0...1MHz) Sweep function for frequency ramp Monochrome graphic display with continuous setting for background illumination: 128 x 64 pixels USB 2.0 port Settings via buttons and knob or software-assisted via USB Power supply 100V~ - 240V~ at 50/60Hz Impact-resistant plastic case with carrying handle Dimensions (mm): 194 x 140 x 130

13654-99

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 957


6.4 Power supply units 6.4.4 Signal generators

excellence in science 958


6 Additional material 6.5 Measurement instruments

Measurement instruments 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.5.6 6.5.7 6.5.8 6.5.9 6.5.10 6.5.11 6.5.12

Hand-held measuring instruments - electricity Demonstration measurement instruments - electricity Oscilloscopes, recorders Measuring amplifiers Time measuring instruments, counters Meteorological instruments Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers pH and conductivity measuring instruments Oxygen, lux and pressure measuring instruments Radioactivity, sound level and gas measuring instruments Photometers, spectroscopes, polarimeters, refractometers General - measurement instruments

960 963 967 968 970 973 974 981 987 989 991 994

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6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.1 Hand-held measuring instruments - electricity

Digital multimeter for pupils, AmpSafe, electronic overload protection

▪ ▪ ▪

Peak-Hold Auto power off Safety: IEC-1010-1; CAT II 1000 V

Accessories included ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

holster carrying case test leads typ-K- thermocouple probe battery and manual

07128-00

DMM with NiCr-Ni thermo couple Function and Applications Multimeter for measurement of voltages, current and resistance. Benefits Protected by an electronic relay this multimeter is completely overload protected., Ergonomically designed for pupils use, safe, with integrated shockabsorbing frame, Measurement of AC/DC voltage and current, resistance and contactless AC voltage detection via LED., Auto Power off.Built in pocket lamp (LED)., Overload protected by relay neverreplace a fuse again! Equipment and technical data Measurement ranges:, DC voltage: 0...600 V, AC voltage: 0...600 V~, DC current: 0...200 mA, AC current: 0...200 mA~, Resistance: 0...20 MOhm, Supply voltage:2 × 1,5 V AAA batteries, Dimensions H × W × D (mm):120 × 55 × 40, Mass: 160 g, 4 mm safety sockets- 12 mm , 3 1/2-digit LCD with maximum display, value: 2000- Autorange , DataHold function, Compliant to safety rules: IEC-1010-1, CAT III 1000 V Accessories included 2 × batteries AAA, 1 pair test probes, manual

Function and Applications Hand-held instrument for measurement of voltages, currents, resistances,capacitance, frequency and temperature; Benefits with continuity check function and diode test, auto power off,display illumination and measurement value hold function. Equipment and technical data

07127-00

Digital multimeter 2010

Overload protection by diodes and fine fuses for 0.2 A and 20 A., Plastic housing with rubber frame and 4 mm safety sockets., Thermocouple socket type K., 3 1/2-digit LC-display: 38 mm, Voltage:0...0.2/ 2/20/200/1000 V DC0...2/20/200/700 V AC, Current AC/DC: 0...0.2/2/ 20/200 mA0...20 A, Resistance: 0...200 Ohm0...2/20/200 kOhm/2/20 MOhm, Temperature: -20...760°C, Frequency: 0...20 kHz, Impedance: 10 MOhm, Dimensions (mm): 92 × 195 × 38, Mass: 380 g, Including test leads, 9 V batteryblock, NiCr-Ni thermocouple type K and manual. 07122-00

DMM, auto range, NiCr-Ni thermocouple

Function and Applications 3 ½ digit Steady performance digital-multimeter. Benefits ▪ ▪

provides an overload protection and the functions of measuring like DCV,ACV, DCA, ACA, resistance, capacitance,frequency, diode, continuity test with buzzer and temperature; ideal for the education- and service-fields.

Equipment and techical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

3 ½-dgt. LCD display, 28 mm, with backlight manual range selection low battery indicationh FE-Test

excellence in science 960

Function and Applications


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.1 Hand-held measuring instruments - electricity

Hand-held instrument for measurement of voltages, currents, resistances, capacitance, frequency and temperature with autorange. Benefits With continuity check function and diode test, auto power off, display illumination,°C/°F selection, battery tester, high current adapter and measurement value hold function. Overload protection by diodes and fine fuses for 0.4 A and 20 A. Equipment and technical data Plastic housing with rubber frame and 4 mm safety sockets. Thermo couple socket type K.3 3/4-digit LC-display: 38 mm Voltage:0...0.4/ 4/40/400/1000 V DC0...4/40/400/700 V AC Current AC/DC: 0...0.4/4/40/ 400 mA0...4/20 A With high current adaptor:0...400 A AC/DC Resistance: 0...400 Ohm0...4/40/400 kOhm/4/40 MOhm Capacitance:0...40/ 400 nF/4/40/100 µF Temperature: -20...760°C Frequency:0...5/50/500 Hz/5/50/500/5000 kHz Impedance: 10 MOhm Dimensions (mm): 92 × 195 × 38 Mass: 380 g Including test leads, 9 V battery block, NiCr-Ni thermo couple type K and manual.

testPeak detectDATA-, MAX-, MIN-HOLDRelative functionAuto and manual range selectionAuto power off and low batteryindicationSaftey: EN 61010-1/EK-1, CAT III 1000V/CAT IV 600VAccessories: test leads, carrying case,USB-interface cable, software forWindows98/ 2000/NTXP/VISTA/Win7 32bit/64bit,batteries and manualDCV 220 mV/ 2,2/22/220/1000 V; 0,1 mV; +/- 0,05 % + 3 dgt.ACV 220 mV/2,2/22/ 220/700 V; 0,1 mV; +/0,8 % + 4 dgt. / Frequency range: 40... 400 HzDCA 220/2200 µA/22/220 mA/10 A; 0,01 µA;+/- 0,8 % + 4 dgt.ACA 220/2200 µA/22/220 mA/10 A; 0,01 µA;+/- 1,0 % + 3 dgt. / Frequency range:40 ... 400 HzOhm 200 Ohm/2,2/22/220 kOhm/2,2/22/220MOhm; 0,01 Ohm; +/- 0,8 % + 2 dgt.Cap. 22/220nF/2,2/22/220µF/2,2/22/ 220nF;1nF; +/- 2,5 % + 3 dgt.Freq. 22/220 Hz/2,2/22/220 kHz; 0,01 Hz;+/- 0,2 % + 3 dgt.Operating voltage 4 x 1,5 V (AA) Batt. Dimensions (WxHxD) 102 x 205 x 58 mm. Weight 390 g 07121-01

Voltmeter 5/ 15 V DC

07123-00

DMM with USB interface, auto range

Voltmeter 5/15 V DC, moving coil instrument,. Two ranges: 0 - 5 V DC, 0 - 15 V DC, class: 1.5. Scale length: 78 mm.

Function and Applications New constructed and GS-approved high class digital multimeter with 4 1/2digit multifunciton display (max.22000), 46-segment analogue bargraph and integrated USB-interface for easy connection with computer to realize macro recording, monitoring and capture of transient dyncamic data. Full input protection, backlight, and easy operating for choosing several measurement functions with the help of the clear view push button section. The True RMS AC voltage and current readings are other most important features of this new constructed multimeter. Equipment and technical data 21 mm, 4 1/2-digit LCD-display,backlight and 46-segement bargraph; max.display: 22000True RMS measurement for ACV and ACAUSB 2.0interface to transmit measuringdata to the PCDiode-, continuity-

Voltmeter 5/15 V DC 07037-00 Ammeter 1/5 A DC 07038-00 Voltmeter,0.3-300VDC,10-300VAC / 07035-00 Ammeter 1mA...3 A 07036-00 Galvanometer -3.5...0...3.5mil-A 07039-00 Multi-range meter, centre zero 07027-01 Multi-range meter/overl.prot.B 07026-00 Protect.sleeve f.meter, h 55mm 07026-01 Multi-range meter w.overl.prot. 07021-01

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 961


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.1 Hand-held measuring instruments - electricity

Multi-range meter, analogue

Function and Applications Moving coil instrument for measuring direct or alternating voltage or current, and also for measuring resistance. Low resistance current measurement ranges through current converter. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Overload protected by fuses Voltage: 100 mV...300 V~/ 10 V...300 V~ Current: 50 µA...3 A~/ 3 mA...10 A~ Resistance: 1 Ohm...500 kOhm Internal resistance: 20/ 6.7 kOhm/V~ (DC/ AC) Ohm/V~ Accuracy class: 2.5 Overload protection: with fuses and diodes Dimensions: 100 × 140 × 35 mm

Multi-range meter, analogue 07028-01 Multirange meter,zero left/centre 07041-00

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6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.2 Demonstration measurement instruments - electricity

Multimeter ADM1

Multimeter ADM2, demo., analoque

Function and Applications Electronic analogue multimeter for measuring direct and alternating voltage and current, and for measuring resistance. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications Switchable, overload protected moving coil instrument for measuring direct and alternating voltage and current. Passive instrument. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Independent of a mains, battery or accumulator supply of power. Separate selection measuring range and type of current for clear settings. Reading of measured values made easy by automatic call-up of a scale with 30 or 100 divisions when the measuring range is selected. Scale is clearly visible from a distance, scale length 200 mm, digit height 20 mm. Extensive overload protection. System Moving coil measuring system (core magnet).

Equipement and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Accuracy Class 1.5 for DC, Class 2.5 for AC. Frequency range 10 Hz...10 kHz. Overload Voltage measuring ranges min. 230 V. Current measuring ranges: 1 A in measuring ranges to 0.3 A, 15 A in measuring ranges to 10 A. Dimensions (mm): 320 × 130 × 385 Weight approx. 5 kg

Multimeter ADM1, demo., analog 13810-00 Current transformer/Clamp Ammeter adaptor 07091-10 Fuse f 10 G, pkg of 10 07503-01 Fuse F 0.63H, pkg. of 10 07503-60 Battery cell 1.5 V, Mono, R20/UM-1, type D 07922-10 Fuse F 0.63H, pkg. of 10 07503-60 Fuse f 10 G, pkg of 10 07503-01 Current transformer/Clamp Ammeter adaptor 07091-10 Probe 10/1, cable length 1500 mm 17044-00 High voltage probe 40 kV, 1000:1 07029-20

▪ ▪ ▪

Eight demonstrative scales with a total of 66 measuring ranges. Measures direct or alternating current from 1 mikroA to 10 A. Measures direct or alternating voltage from 1 mV to 10 kV. Measures resistance up to 1 MOhm. Scale with zero in the middle with automatic middle positioning of pointer. Automatic switch-off of battery after approx. 50 min. Operatable and readable also from the back. Extensive overload protection in all measuring ranges even when line voltage is falsely applied. Eliminates the need for fuses and cutouts.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Display system: Moving coil measuring system (core magnet) Control display on the back 3 Digit LCD display with floating decimal point and sign Accuracy: Class 1.5 Rectifier principle: Effective value (True RMS-to-DC Converter) Frequency range: 15 Hz...20 kHz Signal shape: Arbitrary Power supply: 3 × 1.5 V Battery lifetime: 400 hours of operation Casing dimensions (mm): 320 × 190 × 385 Weight: 6.4 kg

13820-00

Moving coil instrument

Function and Applications Moving coil instrument for interchangeable range multipliers. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Plastic case with 4 mm sockets Case dim. approx. 260 x 105 x 290mm Overload protection by builtin protective devices

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 963


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.2 Demonstration measurement instruments - electricity

▪ ▪ ▪

Zero correction and setting of the pointer to scale center by setting wheel on the underside Scale length 187 mm readable from both rear- and front-side.

Electrostatic voltmeter, 7.5kV

11100-00

Accessories for moving coil instrument Range multiplier + 300 deg.C 11106-05 Range multiplier, 1 V DC 11104-31 Range multiplier, 1-0-1 mA DC 11102-71 Range multiplier, 10 mA DC 11102-11 Range multiplier, 10 V AC 11105-41 Range multiplier, 10 V DC 11104-41 Range multiplier, 100 mA DC 11102-21 Range multiplier, 100 mV DC 11104-21 Range multiplier, 100 micro-A DC 11102-81 Current transformer/Clamp Ammeter adaptor 07091-10 [deleted] Range multiplier, 3 V AC 11105-33 Range multiplier, 3 V DC 11104-33 Range multiplier, 30 V AC 11105-43 Range multiplier, 30 V DC 11104-43 Range multiplier, 300 mA DC 11102-23 Range multiplier, 300 V AC 11105-53 Range multiplier,30 mic.V-10 mV 11110-01 Range multiplier, 300 mV DC 11104-23 Probe 10/1, cable length 1500 mm 17044-00 Fuse F 0.63H, pkg. of 10 07503-60 Storage rack f. range multipliers 11101-01 Fuse f 10 G, pkg of 10 07503-01 Instrument fuse F 2 H, pkg.of 10 07503-02

Function and Applications For wattless measurement of direct and alternating voltages in the range1...7.5 kV, or 3...26 kV and 3...18- kV~ (eff.) Benefits ▪ ▪

For measuring charge in combination with a Faraday cup. Electrostatic measuring system, shielded against exterior electricfields.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Practically load-free measurements from 1 kV to 26 kV, because of the high input resistance > 1014. Insulation resistance of the ceramic high voltage socket > 1014 . The Plexiglas cover on the back allows a view of the system Integrated sphere spark gap The measured value can also be read from the back

11150-00

Electrostatic voltmeter, 26 kV

Function and Applications For powerless measurement of direct and alternating voltages in the range of 1...7.5 kV AC/ DC or 3...26 kV DC and 3...18 kV AC (eff.). To measure charges in combination with a Faraday cup. Accuracy class: 1.5. Limit frequency: 100 kHz...1 MHz (for 1...3.5 kV). Response voltage of sphere gap:12 kV (crest value). Capacity: approx. 30 pF. Length of scale: 187 mm. Zero adjustment: with knurled screw. Dimensions: 260 x 100 x 350 mm. Electrostatic voltmeter, 26 kV 11151-00

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6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.2 Demonstration measurement instruments - electricity

Connecting cord, 30 kV, 1000 mm 07367-00 Connecting cord, 30 kV, 500 mm 07366-00 Faraday pail 06231-00

Demomultimeter, p, pH, T, U, I, R, f, RS232, 230 V

Work and power meter Function and Applications Modern multi-purpose device for measuring of voltage, current, resistance, frequency, temperature, pressure and pH. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

45 mm LED-display LED-matrix for display of the units Serial port for connecting PC Auto-range function

Equipment and technical data Function and Applications For AC and DC circuits Equipment and technical data Two 4-digit, 20 mm LED-displays, Display 1 for real and apparent power,current, voltage, phase difference and freqency, Display 2 for energy and time, Selector for serial display of all units, LED-Statusdisplay and automactic range selection, Power: max. 2400 W, Resolution: max. 0.001 W, Voltage: 0-30V AC/DC, 0-240, Veff- Current: 0...10A AC/DC, Phasen difference: 0...+/- 90 degree, Frequency: 0...10000 Hz, Energy: max. 9999 Wh or Ws, Resolution: max. 0.001 Ws, Analog output for all units of disp. 1, Mains: 110/230V, 50/60Hz, Shock-resistant plastic housing with carry handle and base 13715-93

Teslameter, digital

Voltage: ▪ ▪

4 ranges: 0 mV - 500V AC/ DC Resolution: 0.1 mV/ 10 mV/ 100 mV/ 1 V

Current: ▪ ▪

3 ranges: 0 mA - 10 A Resolution: 0.1 mA/ 10 mA/ 100 mA

Resistance: ▪ ▪

5 ranges: 0 Ohm - 10 MOhm Resolution (Ohm): 1/ 10/ 100/ 1000 /100.000

Frequency: ▪ ▪

4 ranges: 1 Hz - 100 kHz Resolution: 1 Hz/ 10 Hz/ 100 Hz

Temperature: ▪ ▪

2 ranges 200°C - 1370°C Resolution: 0.1°C/1°C

pH- Resolution: ▪ ▪

1 range: 0 - 14 pH Resolution: 0.01

pH- Pressure: ▪ ▪

2 ranges: 0 - 7000 hPa Resolution: 0.1 hPa/ 1 hPa

Dimensions (mm): 288 x 165 x 235

Function and Applications For the measurement of magnetic DC and AC fields. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Teslameter with 3 1/2 digit LED display, 20 mm high 3 measuring ranges: 20 - 200 - 1000 mT fsd Sensitivity: 10 µT For alternating and direct fields Calibrated analogue output

Teslameter, digital 13610-93 Hall probe, axial 13610-01 Hall probe, tangential, protection cap 13610-02

Demomultimeter p, pH, T, U, I, R; RS 232, 230 V 13721-93 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05 pH-electrode,plastic body,gel,BNC 46266-10 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 965


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.2 Demonstration measurement instruments - electricity

Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Software Demomultimeter 14409-61 Pressure sensor, absolute press. 07136-01 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10 Pressure sensor 2, 500-7000 hPa 07136-02

Electric field meter

Large-scale display, digital, RS-232 port

Function and Applications For measurement of static electric fields without losses and with the correct sign as well as for electrostatic measurement of voltages in those cases in which normal static voltmeters are not sensitive enough. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Function and Applications Special four-digit large-format display for presenting the measurement data supplied by the new Cobra4 Mobile-Link with Cobra4 Display-Connect, the Cobra3 Com-Unit, the PHYWE hand-held measuring instruments and Sartorius or Scaltec balances equipped with data interfaces. Benefits Fit for the future: The large-format display can be updated and adapted to other measuring instruments which are not available on the market yet. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4-digit digital display with a digit height of 56 mm Matrix display (15 × 14) pixels for presenting the units Serial interface (RS 232) for connecting a measuring instrument. Second connector for the simultaneous presentation of another measuring quantity. Threaded connectors for connecting support stands or a clamp (to attach the display to various experimental setups).

07157-93

excellence in science 966

▪ ▪

Measuring ranges: 1/ 10/ 100 kV/m, 10/ 100/ 1000 V Steel sheet casing on a rod Push-button key for measuring range selection Rotating knob for electric zero adjustment two pair of 4 mm sockets to connect power supply and measuring instrument Gold plated measuring head with gold plated winged wheel Voltage measuring attachment gold plated with two 4 mm sockets to connect voltage which is to be measured. Power supply: 14...18 VDC (e.g. from universal power supply 13500-93). Data output (9-pin Sub-D jack) for connection to the serial interface (RS 232) of a computer via the special cable supplied. Dimensions (mm): 70 x 70 x 150 Accessory (not included): Software Electric Field Meter (14406-61)

Electric field meter 11500-10 Meas.slit x10 f.elec.field meter 11500-03 Software f. electrofieldmeter 14406-61


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.3 Oscilloscopes, recorders

Oscilloscope, 50 MHz, 2 channels

Jitterfree, superb trigger sensitivity, Internal compensation circuit for lowdrift, With calibrator output for testing the transmission quality from probe to monitor Equipment and technical data Band width (-3dB): DC 10 Hz to 30 MHz, Modes: CH 1/2, ADD, DUAL, CHOP, ALT, Input impedance: 1 MOhm // 30 pF, Input voltage: 400 V DC or ACpp, Accuracy: ± 3 % (± 5 % at x 5 MAG), Mains voltage: 115/230 V AC, 50/60 Hz manual, , spare fuse,, Powercord,, 2 probes 11459-95

Function and Applications Oscilloscope for the measurement & storage off a st periodical & non periodical voltage signals.

25 MHz Digital storage oscilloscope with colour display, 2 x BNC cables l =75 cm incl. 11456-99

Equipment and technical data Oparation modes:Ch1,Ch2;altern.,chop,xy,sum,diff.invert.Ch2. Vertic. deflect.(analog/digital) Band width 2xDC...50 MHz, Deflect.(1mV-20V)/cm,14-calibr.Positions & variable. Horizont. deflect.(analog/digit.)

Probe 10/1, cable length 1500 mm 17044-00 High voltage probe 40 kV, 1000:1 07029-20

Time base (50ns-0,5s)/cm,22-calibr.positions & variable,delay,x-extension & hold-off-time., Trigger (analog/digital)Ch1,Ch2;altern.,mains or external,, with LED-display., Coupling ACDC-HF-LF Digital storage: Refresh, Roll,Single, XY,Envelope, Average, Random-Sampl., Dot-jointfunction, Post-pre-trigger Storage/CH 2kx8 Bit. Handling/Display : Auto Set, , Save & Recall, Readout, Frequ.measurem., Component tester, Cursor measurement(analog/digit.) Delta(U,t,1/ t),Gain,Rise,Time,Ratio X&Y,, Phase angle (only digit.): Pulse count, search, Peak-Peak, avm, rms., Scaled Screen (8x10)cm, Accelaration voltage 2 kV, Connect. (100-240)V;50/60Hz;42 W, Mass 6 kg, Dimensions (285 x 125 x 380) mm 11458-99

Oscilloscope, 150 MHz, 2 channels, RS-232 11452-99

Oscilloscope, 30 MHz, 2 channels

Function and Applications Oscilloscope in modern design and technology, especially destined for education and laboratory. Benefits

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 967


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.4 Measuring amplifiers

Universal measuring amplifier

Measurement range: 0.1 mV...10 V in 6 decade ranges, Input resistance: 10 gOhm Charge measurement Measurement range: 0.1 nAs...0.001 mAs in 5 decade ranges, Accuracy: 3%, Input: BNC socket, Overload protection: 250 V, Power supply: 230 V, Housing dimensions: 230 x 236 x 168 mm, Modern plastic housing, impact resistant, with retractable carrying handle and stand 13620-93

LF amplifier, 220 V

Function and Applications Universal measuring amplifier for amplification of AC and DC voltages. Suitable for practical exercises. Equipment and technical data input impedance: electrometer: > 10 (13) Ohm low drift: 10 kOhm input voltage: -10 to + 10 V, output voltage: -10 to + 10 V frequency ranges: V=1 0...100 kHz, V=10 0... 75 kHz, V=10(2) 0... 10 kHz, V=10(3) 0... 6 kHz, V=10(4) 0...2.5 kHz, V=10(5) 0... 2 kHz, mains voltage: 230 V AC, dimensions: 194 x 140 x 126 mm 13626-93

Function and Applications For amplifying direct and alternating voltage up to 100 kHz. Can be used for induction experiments and for examining acoustic and electromagnetic fields. Signal output for the amplified measured signal. Benefits

DC measuring amplifier

Effective value output for display of the effective value of the signal output voltage. , Power amplifier 12.5 W for weak acoustic frequency signals to control low resistance loudspeakers., For signals from frequency generators or computer interfaces., Amplification is continuously adjustable. Equipment and technical data Ampl. factor: 0.1...10000, continuously adjustable, Input impedance: 50 kOhm/ AC, 100 kOhm/ D, Input voltage: -10 V...+10 V, Frequency range: 3.5 Hz....200 kHz,, Accuracy of amplification factor: < 5% amplification factor, Output voltage: 10 Veff, Nominal final res.: 8 Ohm signal output, 1 kOhm RMS output, Load capacity: Permanently shortcircuit proof, Offset: Voltage compensation with potentiometer, Mains supply 230 V AC/ 50...60 Hz, Casing dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168 13625-93

Function and Applications Versatile measuring amplifier for measurement of very small direct currents, electrical charges and for quasi-static measurements of DC voltages.

Difference amplifier

Equipment and technical data 8 current measurement ranges with very low voltage drop, 6 voltage measurement ranges with extremely high input resistance, 5 charge measurement ranges, Analogue output for connection of demonstration measurement instruments/ pen recorders, button for reversing output voltage, Selection of measurement modes using push-button, Diode indicators for active measurement range, Zero point adjustment, discharge button, range selection buttons Current measurement Measurement range: 0.01 nA...0.1 mA in 8 decade ranges, Voltage drop: 1 mV Voltage measurement

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Function and Applications


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.4 Measuring amplifiers

For the simultaneous potential-free measurement of two voltages when connected to the inputs of a two channel oscilloscope.

Power supply 12V AC/500 mA

Benefits The high resistance difference inputs can be connected to any point of a circuit, without influencing the electrical behaviour of the circuit. , Allows demonstration of the phase shift between voltage and current in alternating current circuits., Enables characteristics to be presented in the xy operation mode of an oscilloscope., Input voltages can be added. Equipment and technical data amplification 1 ± 3%, frequency range for UE 20 Vss 0. 15 kHz, for UE 6 Vss 0.70 kHz, for UE 2 Vss 0.100 kHz, inputs A and B: connection 4-mm-pair of sockets, impedance 1 M_/10 pF, overload capacity mains voltage proof, outputs A and B: connection BNC-sockets; , internal resistance 100 Ohm, external resistance 10 kOhm, overload capacity short-circuit proof, mains supply 230 V, 50.60Hz, casing dimensions (mm) 190×110×60 11444-93

Electrometer Amplifier

Function and Applications Power supply for AC output voltage with output safety plug, to be use for e.g. electrometer amplifier 13621-00. Equipment and technical data Output: 12 V AC/500 mA Supply voltage: 230 V AC Dimensions [mm]: 70 x 50 x 40Mass: 500 g 11074-93

Function and Applications Operational amplifier with high resistance input for quasi-static voltage measurement respectively charge measurement in fail-safeplastic housing. Benefits Suited for experiments with electrostaticse.g. charge measurement, capacity measurement of sphere-capacitor, measurement of direct voltages,quasistatic measurements and measurement of small currents. Equipment and technical data Power supply via 4 mm sockets or wall power supply with hole socket., Operation temperature: 5...40°C, Relative humidity: < 80%, Gain/ amplification: 1.0, Input resistance: > 10000 GOhm, Input current: < 0.5 pA, Input capacitance: < 50 pF, Input voltage:, Amplifier (socket 1): ± 10 V-, 2. input (socket 2): 1 kV , Power supply: 12 V AC/25 mA hole socket: 2.1/5.5 mm or, External power source: 12 V AC25 mA 4 mm sockets, or: Cobra3 interface: ± 15 V RS232 socket, Output voltage: ± 10 V, Output current: 1 mA, Output resistance: < 500 Ohm, Dimensions H × W × D (mm):65 × 113 × 35, Mass: 150 g 13621-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 969


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.5 Time measuring instruments, counters

Timer 2-1 ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications The chronometer Timer 2-1 has a 4-digit digital display and has been specially designed for use in student experiments and demonstrative teacher experiments. Benefits The starting and stopping of the built-in timer piece, as well as counting, is effected by the opening and closing of electrical circuits, across light barriers or other TTL signal sources., Many and various experimental requirements can be fullfilled with the 4 different operating modes that the Timer 2-1 makes available for track experiments, for the measurement of the time, of revolution, of a turning movement, for the direct measurement of the period of a full swing, of a mechanical pendulum and for the counting of events Equipment and technicla data (typical for 25°C) Operating temperature range: 5...40°C, Relative humidity: < 80% Control: (Start/ Stop) by electricalcircuits (contact closure/ contact opening or level ACC to TTL-Norm), Digital display: 4-Digit LED display, digit height 19 mm, Time measurement: Measuring range 0.000...9.999 s, resolution 1 ms, Pulse counting:Measurement range 0...9999 pulses, Limiting frequency 1 kHz,, shading period > 500 µs, Operating voltage: (Stabilized) 5 V ± 5 %, (suitable power supply 5 VDC/ 2.4 A, 13900-99, standardly supplied), Power consumption: 1.8 VA, Supply connector: connecting socket for hollow plug, diam. 2.1 mm at the back of the instrument, 5 VDC/ 350 mA, Overvoltage and reverse polarity protection: up to max. 12 V, Housing dimensions (mm): 190 × 130 × 140 (W, H, D), Weight: approx. 920 g 13607-99

Universal Counter

▪ ▪

al specifics of how it specifically arise from the requirements of science teaching practice. For the scientifically correct representation of each measurement is shown in principle with the associated unit. With the overflow of the display is automatically switched into the next area. Before the measurement starts it can be manually adjusted to a maximum of 6 decades defined range, eg to suppress is not physically meaningful digits on the display. A special jack for direct connection of a GM counter tube is available for radioactivity experiments. The required voltage can be changed manually to determine the characteristics of a counter tubes to. The stopwatch function can be entered by means of electrical contacts, sensors, or manually in the various types of triggers for the precise starting and stopping for time measurement. The measured values are represented by six red 20mm highcontrast 7-segment displays. An additional three-digit display is used to display the unit (ms, s, Hz, kHz, MHz, I / s, RPM, Imp, V, m / s). The various operating states are indicated by LEDs. Range switching in all modes manually (before measurement) and automatically when an overflow.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Operating temperature range 5th .. 40 ° C Relative humidity <80% Digital display: Measurement reading LED 6-digit, 7-segment, 20 mm Units LED 3-digit, 5x7 dot matrix Units ms, s, Hz, kHz, MHz, I / s, RPM, Imp, V, m / s Signal Input: Signal bandwidth 0.1 Hz .. 10 MHz Counter Tube Input voltage 150 V. .. 660 V (factory setting: 500V) with manual adjustment Photoelectric output for power supply of 5 V sat. max 1 A Stopwatch 0.000 ... 99,999.9 s, resolution 1 ms Timer 0.000 ms ... 3999.99 s, resolution1µs Velocity 0.000 m/s...9999, 9 m / s, resolution 0.001 m / s Period measurement 0.000 ms ... 99.9999 s, resolution 1µs Frequency measurement 0.00 Hz .. 9.99999 MHz, resolution 10 mHz Speed measurement 6. .. 99,999 RPM, 1 RPM resolution Pulse counting 0. .. 999,999 Imp Pulse rate measurement 0.0 ... 99,999.9 I / s Mains supply: Mains voltage 110 .. 240 V, 50/60 Hz, 20 VA Housing dimensions (W, H, D) 370 x 168 x 236 (mm) Mass of 2.9 kilograms

Universal Counter 13601-99 Software Universal counter 14412-61

Timer 4-4 with USB-interface

Function and Applications The universal counter is used for measuring time, frequency, pulse rates, pulse counting, periodic times, speeds and velocities. Benefits ▪

The device has all the qualities that are expected of a modern universal counter and is also equipped with a number of technic-

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Function and Applications


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.5 Time measuring instruments, counters

Measures up to 4 times simultaneously. Multiple time measuring instrument for a variety of applications in teaching, wherever times are to be accurately measured. The timer unit has four 4 digit displays. The starting and stopping of the four built-in independent timers is actuated by the opening or closing of electrical circuits, or by means of light barriers or other TTL signal sources (e.g. a microphone).

Timer meas.modes: single, add., auto& double , Display: 6 digit, LED, 20 mm highf or measured values, diode matrix 3 digit,20 mm for all units, Loudspeaker can be turned off., Modern plastic casing, shock-proofeasy to service, light & stackablewith retractable carrying handle and set-up foot. , Dimensions:230 x 236 x 234 mm

Benefits The 6 different operating modes allow the timer unit to be adjusted to suit almost any experimental requirement. Three different operating modes are suitable for track experiments (distance-time law for four tracks, measurement of speed at four positions, principles of collisions), and in each case all four displays are utilized. Two further operating modes allow, for example, the measurement of the orbiting time of a rotary movement and the direct measurement of the duration of a complete swing of a mechanical pendulum. If required, two of the 4-digit displays can be combined to give an 8-digit display (0000.0000 to 9999.9999).

13603-93

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Timer / Counter

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Four 4-digit LED displays Digit height: 9 mm Number of timers: 4 Measuring range: 0.000...9.999 s or 0000.0000...9999.9999 s Resolution: 1 ms or 0.1 ms Control (start/ stop): By electrical circuits (contact closure / contact opening or level according to TTL norm) Integrated power supplies for lightbarriers 4 × 5 V, 1.5 A Mains supply: 100...240 V~, 50...60 Hz Power requirement: 18 VA Dimensions (mm): 184 × 140 × 130 USB - interface for PC-based experiments

Timer 4-4 with USB-interface 13604-99 Software Timer 4-4 14413-61

Digital counter, 6-decade

Function and Applications Sensor-Unit of the Cobra4 family. Interface-module with timer and counter functionality for up to four light barriers, one measuring microphone, movement sensor, falling sphere apparatus or other devices with TTLcompatible signals. Optionally anexternal trigger device can be used (switch, starter system for motion track, ...). The measured values of the sensor can be transmitted with the Cobra4 Wireless manager and the Cobra4 Wireless-Link by radio or with the USB-Link to the PC. All Cobra4 sensor-units are quickly connectable through a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. Some applications: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

linear Motion incl. laws of collision with motion and air track free fall with picket fences or falling ball apparatus oscillations rotational motion frequency of acoustical signals

Benefis ▪ ▪ Function and Applications Microprocessor controlled universal counter for experiments in mechanics, acoustics, electricityelectronics and radioactivity. Equipment and technical data: Operating modes: Time: Stopwatch, additive & intermediate recording., 2 timers with 2time measurement possibiliteseach, one of which is storable., 8 triggering possibilites., Meas.range: 1000 s & 10000 s, Frequency: 3 ranges 10kHz to10MegaHz, Rate: Measuring range:10000 Imp/s, 8 triggering alternatives:1 s to100 s, Period: 0.1 s to 10 s, RPM: 100000 RPM/min, gate times: 1 s / 10 s, Impulse: max.100000Imp , selectable display of impulses, meas. time,or impulse rate, Inputs:4 mm pair of sockets for frequency, start/stop & stop for timer 1 & timer 2., Outputs: BNC for counting tubes electable between 200V & 500V; 4mm pair of sockets f.light barriers (5V/1A,short circuit proof)& f.analog output (5V/500 Imp/s)

▪ ▪ ▪

With the aid of the intuitive softwaremeasure for Cobra4 the singleapplication scenarios can be started comfortably with 10 preset modes All relevant attempts with timemeasurement and counting are covered The simultaneous observation of thesignal level facilitates the understanding of the measured values of light barriers Investigation of complex contexts through combination with other sensors from the Cobra4 family Thanks to radio measurement NO disturbing cable anymore - NEW didactic possibilities through radio transmission (not depending on the location of the PC, moving sensors)

Accessories ▪ ▪

Light barrier, compact (up to 4 lightbarriers) Cobra4 adapter for Sensor-Unit Timer/Counter to connect a light barrier

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Timer/Counter 12651-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 971


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.5 Time measuring instruments, counters

160 x 25 x 105M6 , Threaded holes in casing: 7, Stem included: 100 mm, M6 thread

Cobra4 Junior-Link 12610-00

11207-30

Light barrier, compact PHYGATE USB interface for light barriers + software

Function and Applications Universal fork-type light barrier to measure short and long shadowing periods. Benefits ▪

An incremental wheel with a string groove which can be attached to the fork of the light barrier, which allows to measure distances by counting the ribs of the incremental wheel.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Dimensions: 40 x 40 mm Supply voltage: 5 V Incl. incremental wheel

Light barrier, compact 11207-20 Incremental wheel 11207-21 Adapter plate for Light barrier compact 11207-22

Light barrier with counter

Function and Applications With the function of an electronic time measuring and counting device. Benefits: 4 figureluminous display, selection switch for 4 operating modes, RESET key, BNC jack for exterior starting and/ or stopping of time measurement, TTL output to control peripheral devices, power supply connector (4 mm jacks) Equipment and technical Data: Fork width: 70 mm, Usable barrier depth: 65 mm, Sensitivity adjustable, Max. working frequency: 25 kHz, External dimensions (mm):

excellence in science 972

PHYGATE can be used to connect the"Compact" light barrier to the USBinterface of the PC. Measured data fromup to 5 light barriers can be recordeddirectly at the computer using the"measure" software PHYCON and berepresented in graphical formimmediately. PHYGATE can be used in manyexperiments, for demonstratingtranslation, rotation and movement, forexample. 11207-25


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.6 Meteorological instruments

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude

Measurement of relative humidity (RH), absolute humidity and temperature with Cobra3 Basic-UNIT. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Humidity Range: 5-95% RH (non-condensing) accuracy: ± 5% RH at 25°C response rate: approx. 15 seconds in moving air at 25°C repeatability: ± 0.5% RH temperature range: 40°C.+85°C accuracy: ± 1°C at 25°C resolution: ± 0.1°C.

12121-00

Function and Applications Depending on application type, the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection. Benefits ▪ ▪

At the same time, the following measuring parameters may be recorded: airpressure, relative humidity, airtemperature, brightness, height Ideal for use in outdoor experiments, on classtrips or for project or school hikingdays.

Weather station 04850-00 Weather station, wireless 04854-00 Weather monitor, 6 lines LCD 87997-10 Weather monitor with satellite-based data 87997-20 Demonstration barometer 02687-00

Cup anemometer for Cobra3

Equipment and technical data Relative Humidity: ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 100 % accuracy +/- 5 %

Air Pressure: ▪ ▪

measurement range 10 - 1100 mbar accuracy +/-5 %

Air Temperature: ▪ ▪

measurement range -40 - +125 °C accuracy +/- 0.5 °C

Brightness: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 10,000 lx accuracy +/- 5 % calculation using air pressure Data transfer rate for each sensor: 1 Hz Dimensions (L x B x H): 64 x 70 x 31 mm Weight: 60 g

12670-00

Humidity sensor for Cobra3

Function and Applications Wind sensor with large speed measurement range of 4 to 140 km/h for fitting to masts or support rods or poles. Benefits Can be screwed onto the tripod rod/pole (M6) or attached to any mast or jib using the fixing angle supplied. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Operating temperature: o...+70°C Measuring range: 1...40m/s resp. 4....140km/h max. switching capacity: 0.6V weight: 0.3kg dimensions: 112 x 162 x 140 mm

12124-00

Function and Applications

Rainfall gauge, diem type 04855-00 Cup anemometer 03085-10 Maximum-minimum thermometer 04160-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 973


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.7 Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Temperature, semiconductor -20...110 °C

Air Pressure: ▪ ▪

measurement range 10 - 1100 mbar accuracy +/-5 %

Air Temperature: ▪ ▪

measurement range -40 - +125 °C accuracy +/- 0.5 °C

Brightness:

Funktion and Applications

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 10,000 lx accuracy +/- 5 % calculation using air pressure Data transfer rate for each sensor: 1 Hz Dimensions (L x B x H): 64 x 70 x 31 mm Weight: 60 g

Cobra4 -20..110°C Sensor-Unit Temperature-semiconductor 12670-00

Benefits ▪

can be connected directly to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry, pH and 2 x Temperature NiCr-Ni

Sensoatar jacket: stainless steel Measuring range: -20..+110°C Absolute accuracy: ± 0.5°C Resolution: 0.05°C Time constant: 7 s Data flow rate: 200 Hz Connecting port: sub-D-15-pole Sensor length / diameter: 200 mm, 6 mm Cable length: 120 cm Weight: 125 g

12640-00

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity, Air pressure,Temperature, Light intensity, Altitude Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH and 2 x temperature NiCr-Ni is a measuring recorder for pH, potential and temperature measurements, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪ ▪

It can be fitted with two NiCr-Ni thermoelements (Type K) and a pH probe or Redox measuring chain, in order to measure up to two temperatures and one pH or potential value simultaneously The unit can be connected to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data Temperature: Function and Applications Depending on application type, the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection. Benefits ▪ ▪

At the same time, the following measuring parameters may be recorded: airpressure, relative humidity, airtemperature, brightness, height Ideal for use in outdoor experiments, on classtrips or for project or school hikingdays.

Equipment and technical data Relative Humidity: ▪ ▪

measurement range 0 - 100 % accuracy +/- 5 %

excellence in science 974

▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -200..+1200 °C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: equal to the accuracy of the gauges used

pH: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0...14 Resolution 0.01K Measuring accuracy: ± 0,5%

Potential: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range -2000..+2000 mV Resolution: 0.1 mV Measuring accuracy: ± 0.5% Data flow rate: 5 Hz Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm, weight: 95 g

12630-00


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.7 Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit 2 x Temperature, NiCr-Ni 12641-00

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity / Temperature (Pt1000)

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity /Temperature (Pt1000) is a measuring recorder for conductance measuring sensors with a cell constant of K = 1.00/cm and which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits: Function and applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics is a measuring recorder for pressure and temperature measurements, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits ▪ ▪

It canbe fitted with two NiCr-Nithermoelements (type K), in order to measure up to two temperatures and one absolut pressure value simultaneously. The unit can be connected to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -200...+1200°C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: equal to the accuracy of the gauges used

Pressure: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0...2000 hPa Resolution 0.1 hPa Measuring accuracy: ± 0,5% Data flow rate: max. 5 Hz

The Cobra4 sensor may be connected directly to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data: Conductivity: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring

range 1:0.0 .. approx. 2,500.0 µS/cm accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±0.15 µS/cm range 2:0 .. approx. 45,000 µS/cm accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±3 µS/cm range 3:0.00 .. approx. 1,100 mS/cm accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±0.05 mS/cm

Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring accuracy:-20.0°C..150.0°C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: ±0.5K (in the range 0..100°C) Measuring cycle: 0.8...2s (adjusted automatically) Dimensions approx. 62 mm x 63 mm

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity/ Temperature (Pt1000) 12632-00 Temp. probe, imm. type, Pt1000, Cobra3 12123-00

Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm x 35 mm. Weight: approx. 190 g

Cobra3, sensor -20..110 C Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics, pressure abs. 2 bar and 2 temperature NiCr-Ni 12638-00 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05

Function and Applications To be connected directly to the sensorports of the Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Equipment and techical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Sensor sheathing: stainless sationsteel Diameter: 6 mm Sensor length: 200 mm Measuring range: -20°C...+110°C Resolution: 0.2°C

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 975


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.7 Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers

Total length incl. cable: 1.5 m

12120-00

Cobra3 Measuring module temperature, NiCr-Ni, 330°C

Surface temperature probe PT100, -20...+300°C 11759-02 Temp.probe, imm., PT100, -20...+300°C, teflon 11759-04

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

Function and Applications Computer interface for measurement and control in naturalscience education (physics, chemistry and biology). Benefits Measuring module, Temperature NiCr-Ni, 330°C 12104-00 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05

Cobra3 Measuring module temperature PT100

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Operation either with PC (USB port) or with special operation unit (COM-Unit). Upgrade for measurement of non-electrical quantities by use of plug-in modules.

Equipment and technical data 3 analog input channels: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Module port: ± 10 V Connection type: 25-pole Sub-D Sensor port 1: ± 30/10 V Connection type: 4 mm socket 9-pole Sub-D Input: grounded Input resistance: 500 kOhm Sensor port 2:± 30/10/3/1/0.3/0.1 V Connection type: 4 mm sockets 9-pole Sub-D Difference potential input:Input resistance: 1 MOhm

For all analog inputs: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Maximum sampling rate: 500 kHz Online sampling rate: 5 kHz Burst-mode: 5 Hz...500 kHz Resolution: 12 bit Voltage protection: 230 V AC Trigger: adjustable

Timer/Counter 1: ▪ ▪ ▪

Number of counts: 32 bit Resolution: 800 ns Connection type: 4 mm sockets

Timer/Counter 2:

Measuring mod.,Temperature PT100 12102-00 Temp. probe, immersion type, Pt100, stainless steel, -20...+300°C 11759-01

excellence in science 976

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Number of counts: 40 bit Resolution: 200 ns Connection type: 4 mm sockets Analog control output: ± 10 V Resolution: 12 bit Connection type: 9-pole Sub-D

General data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Supply voltage: 12 V DC/6 W Interface: USB Data transfer rate: 115200 bit/s Memory: 12000 values


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.7 Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers

▪ ▪

Dimensions (mm): 190 x 135 x 90 Fail-safe plastic housing with support feet, several fixation possibilities and lateral docking option for further units.

Includes accessories: ▪

USB Cable

Required accessoires: ▪

Cobra3 power supply 12150.99

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software COBRA3 Temperature 14503-61 Cobra3 Chem-Unit 12153-00 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 Temp. probe, imm. type, Pt1000, Cobra3 12123-00 ADAPTER COND.4MM SOCKET/DIN PLUG 13701-02 Temp. probe Pt-1000, 10m cable 07139-01 Temperature probe Pt-1000 13702-01 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Converter USB - RS232, active 14602-10 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61

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2 LED displays, 4-digit , height 20 mm Plotter output Differential temperature measurement Calibration function (set 0.00) Automatic comparison of sensor differentials (adjust) Can be switched between °C and K display modes

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Meauring range: -50...+300°C Resolution: 0.1°C/( 0.01°C if 0.00 set) Pt 100 probes Connectors: 4 diode plugs, 5-pin Dimensions: 270 x 236 x 168 mm RS 232 C, 9600 baud

Temperature meter digital, 4-2 13617-90 Softw. temperature meter 4-2 14405-61 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00

Temperature immersion probe Pt100, stainless steel -20...+300°C Function and Applications Temperature probes Pt100 for temperature measuring device 4-2 (13617-93) in protective conduit of stainless steel and Teflon, or in movable gilded silver lamina in bent stainless steel tubing (11759-02). Precision of the absolute temperature: 0.1 K at 0°C to 0.2 K at 100°C. Connection cable with four isolated copper lines for the impedance measurement according to four-conductor method, 5-pole diode insert.

Temp. probe, immersion type, Pt100, stainless steel, -20...+300°C 11759-01 Surface temperature probe PT100, -20...+300°C 11759-02 Temp.probe, imm., PT100, -20...+300°C, teflon 11759-04

Digital thermometer, NiCr-Ni, -50...+1300°C

Temperature meter digital, 4-2

07050-00

Digital Thermometer, 2 x NiCr-Ni 07050-01

Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed

Function and Applications The equipment is suitable for the simultaneous measurement of up to 4 temperatures. Benefits The device has the following advantages in particular:

Function and Applications Thermocouple with standard type-K 2-pin flat plug which makes no contribution to the thermovoltage.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 977


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.7 Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers

Benefits ▪

Suitable for use with a digital thermometer, hand-held temperature meter, or any interfaces using type-K connectors (e.g. Cobra 4 Thermodynamics or NiCr-Ni thermocouple sensor units)

Other measurements: up to 400°C, Delay: < 10 s, Length: 70 cm approx. 07019-01

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Magnesium oxide powder insulation Stainless steel sheath Response time: <1 s Cable: 1 m

Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05

Meter, 10/30 mV, 200 deg.C

Accessories temperature measuring

Protective sleeves f.temp.probe,2 11762-05 Holder for thermometer/tube, 3 pieces 38002-01 Glass tube holder with tape measure clamp 05961-00 Heat conductive paste,50 g 03747-00 Heat sensitive paper 04260-00

Laboratory thermometer

Function and Applications Enclosed-scale thermometer with blue or red filling; scale support in frosted glass, fixing of the weighing scale support above with melted glass pin; button or ring for support; in protective sleeve. Depth of immersion = 50 mm.

Function and Applications Meter for measurements with thermocouples. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Meter 10/30 mV moving coil instrument for temperature determination with diff. thermocouples to 1700 °C class 1.5 input resitance 50/100 Ohm mV-scale and temperature scale for Fe/Cu-Ni-thermocouple

Thermometer -10...+30 C 05949-00 Thermometer -10...+50 C 38034-00 Lab thermometer,-10..+50C 38055-00 Lab thermometer,-10..+100C 38056-00 Lab thermometer,w.stem,+15..+40C 38057-00 Lab thermometer,-10..+150C 38058-00 Lab thermometer,-10..+250C 38065-00

07019-00

Laboratory thermometer with immersion shaft Thermocouple Fe-CuNi 2,2 Ohm Function and Applications Equipment and technical data Thermocouple leads individually spun with glass fibre and woven together with glass fibre, Measuring probes point/welded and insulated, Two 4-mm plugs, Temperature range: Measurement at a specific point (one probe only): up to 700°C

excellence in science 978

Implementation as laboratory thermometer, with blue filling, depth of immersion = 160 mm, in protective sleeve. Lab thermometer,w.stem,+15..+40C 38059-00


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.7 Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers

Lab thermometer,w.stem,-10..+110C 38060-00 Lab thermometer,w.stem,-10..+250C 38061-01

Student thermometer

Function and applications Enclosed-scale thermometer with red toluene filling. Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪

Normal glass 16/III Measuring range: -100...+30 °C Can be calibrated

38151-00 Function and Applications Enclosed-scale thermometer with red filling; scale support in pasteboard; ring for support; in protective sleeve. Diameter 8 mm. Depth of immersion = length of the immersion shaft (rejuvenation of the glass tube). Students thermometer,-10...+110°C, l = 180 mm 38005-02 Students thermometer, -10...+110°C, l = 230 mm 38005-10

All-use thermometer 1°C subdivision (without Hg filling) Function and Applications Mercury-free, upright thermometer. Complete-immersion adjusted enclosed-scale thermometer with red or blue filling. Prismatic capillary tube, free, with protective sleeve. Lab thermom. -50...+50°C,w/o Hg 47038-00 Lab thermom. -10...+50°C,w/o Hg 47039-00 Lab thermom.-10...+100°C,w/o Hg 47040-00 Lab thermom.-10...+150°C,w/o Hg 47041-00 Lab thermom.-10...+200°C,w/o Hg 47042-00 Lab thermom.-10...+250°C,w/o Hg 47043-00

Lab thermometer, with stem, -10..+360°C, d = 6 mm Thermometer with a green ecologicallysafe (mercury-free) filling:* measuring range: -10...+360°C* division: 2°C* depth of immersion: 76 mm* diameter: 6 mm* length: 300 mm,* white background with a black skale* holding ring* delivery takes place inprotection-tube out of plastic 38069-00

All-use thermometer with Hg Function and Applications Mercury-content enclosed-scale thermometer, for daily laboratory use. Complete-immersion adjusted, prismatic capillary tube , free, with protective sleeve. Chemical thermometer,-10...+360 C 38008-00 Lab therm.-10...+200°C, grad.1° 47047-00

Precision thermometer with Hg, division <1°C Function and Applications Mercury-content precision thermometers with high resolution, calibratable, complete-immersion adjusted. For improved readability, blue-illuminated, prismatic measuring capillary tube, including protective sleeve. Thermometer, -10...+360 C 38029-00 Thermometer, -10...+ 50 C 38033-00

Laboratory straight enclosed-scale thermometer

Function and Applications Enclosed-scale thermometer with blue filling, measuring capillary tube prismatic, yellow background, scale support in frosted glass, in protective sleeve; upper diameter: approx. 17 mm; upright diameter: approx. 8 mm; depth of immersion = upright length. Lab thermometer,stem,-35..+50C 38062-00 Lab thermometer,stem,0..+100C 38063-00 Lab thermometer,stem,0..+250C 38064-00

Thermometer,-100....+30 C Clinical thermometer,+35...+42 C

Function and applications

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 979


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.7 Temperature measuring instruments, thermometers

Clinical thermometer for measuring maximum temperature, calibrated and mercury-free. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: +35...+42 °C Precision: +/- 0.1°C Complete with protective case

Function and applications The thermometer can be used to measure soil temperature simply by inserting it into the soil using the handles. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

04165-00

Clinical thermometer, digital

Temperature sensor made of normal glass in sturdy metal frame with a piercing tip, scale backing made of frosted glass Measuring range: -38°C ... +50°C Scale divisions: 1°C Penetration depth: up to 300 mm

64219-00

Non-graduated thermometer for thermal expansion Function and applications Calibrated electronic thermometer with digital display and alarm when final temperature reading is attained. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -32...+42°C Precision: 0.1°C Automatic cut-off: after 10 mins.

04166-00

Demonstration thermometer

Function and applications Demonstration thermometer with coloured filling. Advantages Thanks to its coloured scale, which can be seen well from a distance, this thermometer is well suited for use in demonstration experiments Equipment and technical data Measuring range: -60...+160°C, Scale divisions: 1°C, Total length: 500 mm.

This non-graduated thermometer is used for the preparation of the temperature scale through marking of the 2 fundamental points, melting point of ice 0°C and boiling point of water 100°C at an ambient pressure of 1013 hPa. Agitation thermometer, non-graduated With red alcohol filling, round capillary tube, white background, in glass rod, length 240 mm, diameter 8 mm. Non-graduated thermometer Thermometer with blue alcohol filling, prismatic capillary tube, attached on metal plate 330 mm x 35 mm. Demonstration thermometer, non-graduated With blue-colored alcohol filling which is readable from a distance, round capillary tube, attached on angled Al profile section so that the capillary is protected against mechanical damage to a large extent, Al profile section with bore and support bracket, 700 x 80 x 1.5 mm.

Stirring thermometer non-graduat. 38003-00 Thermometer, non-graduated 04256-00 Thermometer, ungraduated 04136-00

04135-00

Soil thermometer

excellence in science 980

Function and Applications


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.8 pH and conductivity measuring instruments

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry, pH and 2 x Temperature NiCr-Ni

pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10 Redox electrode, BNC 46267-10

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connector

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH and 2 x temperature NiCr-Ni is a measuring recorder for pH, potential and temperature measurements, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits: ▪ ▪

It can be fitted with two NiCr-Ni thermoelements (type K) and a pH probe or Redox measuring chain, in order to measure up to two temperatures and one pH or potential value simultaneously. The unit can be connected to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Equipment and technical data: Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -200..+1200 °C Resolution: 0.1 K Measuring accuracy: equal to the accuracy of the gauges used Measuring range: 0...14 Resolution 0.01K Measuring accuracy: ± 0,5%

Potential: ▪ ▪ ▪

The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connection is a measuring recorder for pH and potential measurements, which is controlled by microcontroller. Benefits: ▪ ▪

pH: ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications

Measuring range -2000..+2000 mV Resolution: 0.1 mV Measuring accuracy: ± 0.5%

It canbe fitted with a pH probe or Redoxmeasuring chain, in order to measure pH or potential values. The unit can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Equipment and technicla data: pH: ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0...14pH Resolution: 0.01K Measuring accuracy: ± 0.5%

Potential: ▪ ▪ ▪

Data flow rate: 5 Hz Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm Weight: 95 g

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry, pH and 2 x Temperature NiCr-Ni 12630-00 Cobra4 Mobile-Link set, incl. rechargeable batteries, SD memory card, USB cable and software "measure" 12620-55 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04

▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: -2000...+2000 mV Resolution: 0.1 mV Measuring accuracy: ± 0.5%

Data flow rate: 5 Hz, Dimensions: approx. 62 mm x 63 mm, Weight: 70 g Cobra4 Sensor-Unit pH, BNC connector 12631-00 pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10 Redox electrode, BNC 46267-10

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 981


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.8 pH and conductivity measuring instruments

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity/ Temperature (Pt1000)

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity, with stainless steel electrodes

Function and Applications

Function and Applications

The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity /Temperature (Pt1000) is a measuring recorder for conductance measuring sensors with a cell constant of K = 1.00/cm and which is controlled by micro-controller.

The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity/Temperature with stainless steel electrodes can be connected directly to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Benefits: The Cobra4 sensor may be connected directly to the Cobra4 WirelessLink, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection.

Benefits

Equipment and technical data:

Equipment and technical data

Conductivity:

Conductivity:

▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range 1: 0.0 .. approx. 2,500.0 µS/cm, Measuring accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±0.15 µS/cm Measuring range 2: 0 .. approx. 45,000 µS/cm, Measuring accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±3 µS/cm Measuring range 3: 0.00 .. approx. 1,100 mS/cm, Measuring accuracy: 4% of the measuring value ±0.05 mS/cm

Temperature: Measuring accuracy:-20.0°C..150.0°C, Resolution: 0.1 K, Measuring accuracy: ±0.5K (in the range 0..100°C) Measuring cycle: 0.8...2s (adjusted automatically), Dimensions approx. 62 mm x 63 mm Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Conductivity+, Conductivity/ Temperature (Pt1000) 12632-00 Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 13701-01 Temp. probe, imm. type, Pt1000, Cobra3 12123-00

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Particularly good application for school and outdoor experimentation, as the measuring gauge is already firmly connected.

Measuring range: 0.2 µS/cm...200 mS/cm Measuring accuracy: 6% of the measuringvalue ± 0,2µS/cm Resolution: 0.1 µS/cm, 1 µS/cm, 10µS/cm, 100 µS/cm

Temperature: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0 to 100°C Measuring accuracy: ± 0.8°C Resolution: 0.1°C Data flow rate: 1 Hz Connecting port: sub-D-15 pole Measuring electrode length, diameter,electrode spacing: 7 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm Cable length: 60 cm Weight: 85 g

12633-00

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

Function and Applications Computer interface for measurement and control in naturalscience education (physics, chemistry and biology).

excellence in science 982


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.8 pH and conductivity measuring instruments

Benefits ▪ ▪

Operation either with PC (USB port) or with special operation unit (COM-Unit). Upgrade for measurement of non-electrical quantities by use of plug-in modules.

Equipment and technical data 3 analog input channels: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Module port: ± 10 V Connection type: 25-pole Sub-D Sensor port 1: ± 30/10 V Connection type: 4 mm socket 9-pole Sub-D Input: grounded Input resistance: 500 kOhm Sensor port 2:± 30/10/3/1/0.3/0.1 V Connection type: 4 mm sockets 9-pole Sub-D Difference potential input:Input resistance: 1 MOhm

For all analog inputs: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Maximum sampling rate: 500 kHz Online sampling rate: 5 kHz Burst-mode: 5 Hz...500 kHz Resolution: 12 bit Voltage protection: 230 V AC Trigger: adjustable

Timer/Counter 1: ▪ ▪ ▪

Number of counts: 32 bit Resolution: 800 ns Connection type: 4 mm sockets

Timer/Counter 2: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Number of counts: 40 bit Resolution: 200 ns Connection type: 4 mm sockets Analog control output: ± 10 V Resolution: 12 bit Connection type: 9-pole Sub-D

General data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Supply voltage: 12 V DC/6 W Interface: USB Data transfer rate: 115200 bit/s Memory: 12000 values Dimensions (mm): 190 x 135 x 90 Fail-safe plastic housing with support feet, several fixation possibilities and lateral docking option for further units.

Includes accessories: ▪

USB Cable

Required accessoires: ▪

Cobra3 power supply 12150.99

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Measuring module pH/potential 12101-00 pH-electrode, polythene sheathed 18450-00 pH-electrode, shock resistant 18452-00 Reference electrode, AgCl 18475-00 Platin.electrode in prot.tube,8mm 45206-00

Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504-61 Measuring module Conductivity 12108-00 Conductivity probe K1 18151-02 Software Cobra3 Conductivity 14508-61 Cobra3, sensor -20..110 C 12120-00 Cobra3 Chem-Unit 12153-00 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10 Redox electrode, BNC 46267-10 Temp. probe Pt-1000, 10m cable 07139-01 Temp. probe, imm. type, Pt1000, Cobra3 12123-00 Temperature probe Pt-1000 13702-01 Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 13701-01 Conductivity probe K1 18151-02 ADAPTER COND.4MM SOCKET/DIN PLUG 13701-02 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Converter USB - RS232, active 14602-10 Power supply 12V / 2A 12151-99 Software Cobra3 Chem-Unit 14520-61

Demomultimeter, p, pH, T, U, I, R, f, RS232, 230 V

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 983


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.8 pH and conductivity measuring instruments

Funktion und Verwendung

Digital pH-meter

Modern multi-purpose device for measuring of voltage, current, resistance, frequency, temperature, pressure and pH Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

45 mm LED-display LED-matrix for display of the units serial port for connecting PC Auto-range function

Equipment and technical data: Voltage: ▪ ▪

4 ranges 0mV - 500V ACDC Resolution: 0.1mV/10mV/100mV/1V

Current: ▪ ▪

3 ranges 0mA - 10A Resolution: 0.1mA/10mA/100mA

Resistance: ▪ ▪

Function and Applications

5 ranges 0Ohm - 10MOhm Resolution (Ohm): 1/10/100/1000/100.000

Frequency: ▪ ▪

4 ranges1Hz - 100kHz Resolution: 1Hz/10Hz/100Hz

Temperature: ▪ ▪

2 ranges 200°C - 1370°C Resolution: 0.1°C/1°C 1 range : 0 - 14pH Resolution: 0.01

2 ranges 0 - 7000hPa Resolution: 0.1hPa/1hPa

Dimensions (mm): 288x165x235 Demomultimeter p, pH, T, U, I, R; RS 232, 230 V 13721-93 pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15 pH-electrode,plastic body,gel,BNC 46266-10 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 Pressure sensor, absolute press. 07136-01 Pressure sensor 2, 500-7000 hPa 07136-02 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, -50...500°C 13615-02 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni, sheathed 13615-01 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, -50...400°C 13615-03 Immers. probe NiCr-Ni, teflon, 200°C 13615-05 Surface probe NiCr-Ni 13615-04 Data cable, plug/ socket, 9 pole 14602-00 Software Demomultimeter 14409-61

excellence in science 984

▪ ▪ ▪

pH- Pressure: ▪ ▪

Benefits

pH- Resolution: ▪ ▪

with clear, easy to operate and splashproof film keyboard; for demonstration classes and practicals. Due to the installed RS-232 interface and the available software, it is possible to transfer data to the computer for storage and analysis.

▪ ▪

demonstrative 4-digit display with a character-height of 20 mm automatic display of the units belonging to the measured values manual, or for connected Pt-1000temperature probe, automatic temperature compensation of the measured values to calibrate the pH-probe, free selection of the buffer solutions (anypH-value) 20 storage spaces for measured data;remain stored even after the measuringdevice has been switched off storage of the pH-probe calibration retained even after the device has been switched off, analogue for pX-probes with the appropriate probes, enablesion selective measurements (pX), e.g.X=Cl- ; NO3- ; Na+- due to high input resistance, ideally used as an mV-meter for the measurement of electronic potentials Display of the electrode steepness modern plastic casing, impactproof,easily serviced, light and stackable,with handle for carrying that can belowered into the case afterwards and feet for working position

Equipment and technical data pH ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0 - 14 pH Accuracy: 0.01 pH Resolution: 0.01 pH

pX ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0 - 14 pX Accuracy: 0.01 pX Resolution: 0.01 pX VoltageMeasuring range: -2000 - +2000 mV Accuracy: 0.1% Resolution: 1 mV

Temperature ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range: 0 - 100°C Accuracy: 0.5°C Resolution: 0.1°C Mains supply: 230 V / 50-60 Hz

Dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168 Digital pH-meter 13702-93 Temperature probe Pt-1000 13702-01


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.8 pH and conductivity measuring instruments

pH-electrode, shock resistant 18452-00 pH-electrode, polythene sheathed 18450-00 pH electrode, f.surface measurem. 18453-00 pH electrode, sterilisable 18456-00 Software pH meter DEMO 14408-61 PC-CABLE 25P.PLUG-25/9P.SOCKET 14601-00

Digital conductivity meter

Software Conductivity Meter Demo 14400-61 PC-CABLE 25P.PLUG-25/9P.SOCKET 14601-00 Stand.solu.1413 Stand.solu.1413æS/cm(25 S/cm(25øC), C), 460ml 47070-02

pH-elektrodes with DIN plug pH-electrode, polythene sheathed 18450-00 pH-electrode, shock resistant 18452-00 pH electrode, f.surface measurem. 18453-00 pH electrode, sterilisable 18456-00

pH-elektrodes with BNC plug

Function and Application For measurement of conductivity, specific resistance, concentration and temperature Benefits: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

The clearly arranged keyboard allows easy operation of the instrument, which is distinguished by not only being capable of displaying conductivity, but also derived quantities. Cell connection via a 5 pin diode socket The following quantities are displayed: conductivity, specific resistance, concentration, temperature 4 digit demonstrative display, height of digits 20 mm Automatic temperature compensation Standard value of cell constants manually changeable or automatic calibration with standard calibration solution RS 232 interface and software for data transfer to a computer for storage Automatic selection of measuring range and display of the units: µS/cm or mS/cm, Ωcm or kΩcm, mg/l or g/l, °C.

pH-electrode, plastic body, gel, BNC 46265-15 pH-electrode,plastic body,gel,BNC 46266-10 pH-electrode, plastic, refill., BNC 46266-15 pH-electrode, glass, refill., BNC 46268-10 Potassium chloride,sol. 3M 100ml 48203-10

Redox electrode, BNC

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Conductivity measuring range: 0.001 µS...200 mS Concentration measuring range: 1 μg/l...1 kg/l Specific resistance measuring range: 1 mΩcm...1 MΩcm Temperature measuring range: -30...+100°C Interface RS232 Mains supply 230 V/ 50...60 Hz.

Digital conductivity meter 13701-93 Conductivity temperature probe Pt1000 13701-01 ADAPTER COND.4MM SOCKET/DIN PLUG 13701-02 Data cable RS 232, SUB-D/USB 07157-01 Conductivity probe K1 18151-02

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 985


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.8 pH and conductivity measuring instruments

Function and Applications

Reference electrode, AgCl

For measuring of electrochemical potentials with plastic shaft and BNC plug. Benefits ▪ ▪

low- maintenance because of gel electrolyte. robust design

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

electrode with plastic shaft and a platinum rod measurement chain made of platinum electrode and Ag / AgCl reference electrode temperature range: 0 ... +80 ° C dimensions of the shaft (mm): 120 x 12 cable length: 1m

Function and applications Recommended accessories for the measurement of electrochemical potentials in pH/potential measurements.

46267-10

Benefits

Platin.electrodes

Equipped with refillable Ag/AgCl electrolyte, Suitable for use in conjunction with measuring electrodes (e.g. 45206-00) for pH, redox potential and ion-selective measurements Equipment and technical data Electrode with glass shaft and ceramic diaphragm, Shaft diameter: 12 mm, Shaft length: 120 mm, Temperature range: -5 ... +80°C, Cable length: 1 m

Function and Applications

18475-00

Special electrodes with 4mm plug. Equipment and technical data Platinum electrode in protective tube, d=8mm Platin.electrode in prot.tube,8mm 45206-00 Electrode platinum,short 45207-00

Antimony electrode

Function and Application Measuring electrode from antimony;together with a silver chloride reference electrode for measuring of pH values in the range from pH 2.0 to pH 9.5 Equipment and technical data: diameter: 10 mm, lenght: 120 mm, fixed cable of 1 m lenght with a 4 mm plug 18477-01

excellence in science 986

Storage of pH electrodes Storage flask for pH electrodes,filled with 250 ml 3.0 M KCl solution 18481-20 Protection sleeve for electrode with a diameter of 12 mm 37651-15


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.9 Oxygen, lux and pressure measuring instruments

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics, pressure abs. 2 bar and 2 temperature NiCr-Ni

Plug-in module for measuring the illuminance. Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪

Measuring range selectable with the aid of the software. Measuring Range, resolution: 300 Lx 0.15 Lx; 3 kLx1.5 Lx; 30 kLx 15 Lx; 300 kLx 150 Lx

Measuring module lux 12107-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50

Luxmeter, digital display 47672-01

Cobra3 pressure sensors

Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics is a measuring recorder for pressure and temperature measurements, which is controlled by micro-controller. Benefits It canbe fitted with two NiCr-Nithermoelements (type K), in order to measure up to two temperatures and one absolut pressure value simultaneously. The unit can be connected to the Cobra4Wireless-Link, the Cobra4 Mobile-Link or the Cobra4 USB-Link using a secure and reliable plugin / lockable connection.

Benefits ▪

Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Thermodynamics, pressure abs. 2 bar and 2 temperature NiCr-Ni 12638-00 Cobra4 Mobile-Link set, incl. rechargeable batteries, SD memory card, USB cable and software "measure" 12620-55

Measuring module lux

With hose connector and hose section for connecting the module to any type of peripheral equipment. Including data cable for Cobra3 sensors.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

35 cm data cable Measuring range: 80 mbar and 2.0 bar, respectively Autorange: (80-8-2,4) mbar and (0.6-2.0) bar, respectively Max. pressure: 750 mbar and 10 bar, respectively Accuracy: 5 % and 1.5 %, respectively Resolution: 0.05 % Dimensions (mm): 75 x 42 x 25

Cobra3 press. sensor 2.0 bar abs. 12128-00 Cobra3 press. sensor 2.0 bar diff. 12129-00 Cobra3 press. sensor 80 mbar diff. 12130-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50 Software Cobra3, Pressure 14510-61

Lux meter, hand-held, RS232 interface, data logger Function and Applications For determining light intensities of up to 300 klx in air and water bodies. Benefits ▪ ▪

2 four-digit LCD Display with 15 or 7.5 mm digit height Analog bar display with good resolution (2% of measuring range)

Function and Applications

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 987


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.9 Oxygen, lux and pressure measuring instruments

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RS232 interface to transmit the measurements to a computer or on a large display built-in data logger for storing max.250 measurements Representation of the minima, maxima and averages of a series of measurements Battery, accu or external power supply automatic shut-down water protected keyboard Calibration manually or automatically

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4 measuring ranges 0,001 Lx-300 kLx resolution 0,1/1/10/100 Lx Accuracy 3/3/3/5 % 5pole probe connector jack Data interface type RS 232 (serial) Baudrate 9600 bit / s USB port connector

Softw. Luxmeter, hand-held 14417-61 Lux meter, hand-held 07137-00 Luxmeter probe 12107-01 Lux immersion probe, 10m cable 07137-01

excellence in science 988


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.10 Radioactivity, sound level and gas measuring instruments

Geiger-Müller-Counter

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Counter tube voltage: 500 V ± 5% Max. pulse frequency: 400,000 pulses per min

Counter tube module 12106-00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150-50

Gas detector for the quantitative determination of gas Function and Applications Function and Applications

For the determination of gaseous air pollution

Demonstration and student use unit in connection with Geiger Müller counting tubes for experiments on radioactivity.

Benefits

Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

4-digit LED display, 20mm high. 4 standard measurement times 1/10/60/100 s Automatic measurement sequence with memory 10 s Freely selectable measuring time BNC-socket for counting tube 500V 4-mm-bushes for event counting with TTL signals Mains 100-230 V/50-60 Hz Shock proof casing with carrying handle Dimensions 190 x 140 x 130 mm

13606-99

Accessories for the measurement of radioactivity

Bellows pumps to be operated by hand for the suctioning of defined air quantities. With different test-tubes, gaseous air pollution can be determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Equipment and technical data Suction volume: 100 ml/stroke, automatic stroke counter to avoid faulty measurements, optical display signals that the necessary test air has been suctioned. Gas tester I, quantitat.analysis 64199-02 Accessory set for Gas Tester 64199-06

Oxygenmeter, hand-held Function and Applications

Counter tube, GM, 45 mm 09007-00 Counter tube, type B 09005-00 Counter tube, type A, BNC 09025-11 Screened cable, BNC, l 750 mm 07542-11

Counter tube module

For measurement of oxygen concentration or saturation of temperature and of atmospheric pressure. Benefits ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

2 four-digit LCD Display with 15 or 7.5 mm digit height Analog bar display with good resolution (2% of measuring range) RS232 interface to transmit the measurements to a computer or on a large display built-in data logger for storing max.250 measurements Representation of the minima, maxima and averages of a series of measurements Battery, accu or external power supply automatic shut-down water protected keyboard Automatic air pressure and temperature correction Manual salinity correction

Equipment and technical data Oxygen ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring ranges: Concentration 0,0...20,0 mg O2/l Saturation 0-120% Accuracy 1,5% of meas. value Salinity correct. 0...70 salinity Connection 5 pin diode socket

Temperature Function and Applications Plug-in module for measuring radioactive radiation with the aid of a Geiger Müller counter tube. Benefits ▪

The module also supplies the counter tube with the necessary supply voltage.

Equipment and technical data

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Measuring range 0...+45C Resolution 0.1C Accuracy +-( 0.1C + 1Digit) Type of probe Pt 1000

Atmospheric pressure ▪

Measuring range 500...1100 hPa (mbar)

Accessories

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 989


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.10 Radioactivity, sound level and gas measuring instruments

12105-01 Oxygen/Temperature probe Oxygenmeter, hand-held 07135-00 Oxygen/Temperature probe 12105-01 Softw. Oxygenmeter, hand-held 14415-61

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Speed measurement 6. .. 99,999 RPM, 1 RPM resolution Pulse counting 0. .. 999,999 Imp Pulse rate measurement 0.0 ... 99,999.9 I / s Mains supply: Mains voltage 110 .. 240 V, 50/60 Hz, 20 VA Housing dimensions (W, H, D) 370 x 168 x 236 (mm) Mass of 2.9 kilograms

13601-99

Geiger-Müller-Counter Gamma-Scout®

Universal Counter

13608-00

Sound level indicator 40-120dB Function and Applications Sound level indicator Equipment and technical data

Function and Applications The universal counter is used for measuring time, frequency, pulse rates, pulse counting, periodic times, speeds and velocities. Benefits ▪

▪ ▪ ▪

▪ ▪

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The device has all the qualities that are expected of a modern universal counter and is also equipped with a number of technical specifics of how it specifically arise from the requirements of science teaching practice. For the scientifically correct representation of each measurement is shown in principle with the associated unit. With the overflow of the display is automatically switched into the next area. Before the measurement starts it can be manually adjusted to a maximum of 6 decades defined range, eg to suppress is not physically meaningful digits on the display. A special jack for direct connection of a GM counter tube is available for radioactivity experiments. The required voltage can be changed manually to determine the characteristics of a counter tubes to. The stopwatch function can be entered by means of electrical contacts, sensors, or manually in the various types of triggers for the precise starting and stopping for time measurement. The measured values are represented by six red 20mm highcontrast 7-segment displays. An additional three-digit display is used to display the unit (ms, s, Hz, kHz, MHz, I / s, RPM, Imp, V, m / s). The various operating states are indicated by LEDs. Range switching in all modes manually (before measurement) and automatically when an overflow.

Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Operating temperature range 5th .. 40 ° C Relative humidity <80% Digital display: Measurement reading LED 6-digit, 7-segment, 20 mm Units LED 3-digit, 5x7 dot matrix Units ms, s, Hz, kHz, MHz, I / s, RPM, Imp, V, m / s Signal Input: Signal bandwidth 0.1 Hz .. 10 MHz Counter Tube Input voltage 150 V. .. 660 V (factory setting: 500V) with manual adjustment Photoelectric output for power supply of 5 V sat. max 1 A Stopwatch 0.000 ... 99,999.9 s, resolution 1 ms Timer 0.000 ms ... 3999.99 s, resolution1µs Velocity 0.000 m/s...9999.9 m / s, resolution 0.001 m / s Period measurement 0.000 ms ... 99.9999 s, resolution 1µs Frequency measurement 0.00 Hz .. 9.99999 MHz, resolution 10 mHz

excellence in science 990

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Measuring range 54-126 dB Number Ranges 7 Resolution 2 dB Analogue output 0.7 Vrms / rms Frequency range 300 Hz-8 kHz Power supply 9-volt battery Dimensions 180x68x36 mm Weight 160 g

65969-00


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.11 Photometers, spectroscopes, polarimeters, refractometers

Spectrophotometer 190-1100 nm

Benefits The display shows the wavelength, the degree of absorption and transmission or the concentration respectively , it has RS232 resp. USB interfaces for connecting to a computer. Equipment and technical data Light source: Tungsten, Wavelength range: 335 ... 1000 nm, Wavelength precision: ± 2 nm, Wavelength repeatibility: ± 1 nm, Spectral bandwidth: 10 nm, Cuvette holder: for square cuvettes with external dimensions 12 mm x 12 mm, External dimensions (mm): 385 x 310 x190, Mains connection: 230 V, 50 Hz, Included: Two square cuvettes (glass), Data cable for connecting to PC, Two spare fuces (1 A)

Function and Applications Spectrophotometer 190-1100 nm Benefits The UV-VIS spectral photometer is characterised by its compact design and due to its wide range of possible uses, operation is via a clearly set out overlay keyboard on the screen dialogue, current wavelengths and measured values can be displayed in large format, alternatively, all measured values can also be presented graphically or in table format on the LCD screen with background lighting, strong light, high performance optics enable absorption and transmission measurements to be taken in the whole wavelength range of 200 to 1100 nm with automatic switching between the twolight sources , a high speed scanner minimises the susceptibility to errors during a wavelength changeover and thusenables very precise measurement, storage of measurement parameters, data, calibration curves, spectra, etc, spectral scanning of samples with freely selectable wavelength range, automatic baseline correction and band/ trough identification, production of a calibration curve withup to 10 concentration standards, details of the straight line formula, automatic correction against the zerosolution, the device can be connected to aprinter or computer with a serial port via an installed Centronix or RS232interface. Equipment and technical data Light sources: 1 Halogen lamp1 Deuterium lamp, Wavelength range: 190-1100 nm, Wavelength accuracy: ± 1 nm, Wavelength repeatability: ± 0.3 nm, Spectral bandwidth: 5 nm, Photometric range: - 0.3 to 3 Abs 0.0 to 200% Transmittance, Long-term stability: ± 0.005 Abs/h, Cuvette holder: for square cuvettes with external dimensions 12 mm × 12 mm, Outputs: serial RS232C, parallel Centronix, Dimensions (WxDxH): 420 x 380 x 275 mm, Mains: 230 V~ 35655-93

Software f. UV-Spectrophotometer 35655-01

Spectrophotometer, SPEC 5000, 335-1000 nm

35667-93

Compact photometer PF12

For evaluation of colorimetric tests on extinction measurement using a factor or value diagram; direct display of concentration Six-language user guidance via LEDdisplay , Data interface RS 232With rechargeable batteries for fielduse , The handy filter photometer fills thegap between colorimetric evaluations and laboratory analyses. The detailed manual provides information about the chemical and ecological significance of the individual parameters, explains statutory limiting values for drinking water, treated sewer sludge, waste water, etc. Extent of delivery: Filter photometer , Stabile case , 4 NC batteries including battery charger , 2 Round cuvettes , Plastic funnels Manual- Technical data: Digital display , LCD 9x56 mm, 8-digits , Light source: Tungsten bulb , Filter: Filter wheel with 6 coloured glass filters: 365 nm / 405 nm / 470nm / 520 nm / 605 nm / 720 nm , Round cuvettes with screw fitting; External diameter: 16 mm- Energy supply: 5-6 V, 4 NC batteries with battery charger; sufficient for approx. 1500 measurements , Data interface: RS 232, Languages: D, E, F, S, I, NL; is setin the works , Dimensions: length: 195 mm, width:100 mm height: 40 mm , Weight: approx. 0.52 kg incl. batteries 35608-00

Function and Applications The spectrophotometer is an easy to use device for measurement of the degree of absorption or transmission of liquid samples in the visible range (335...1000nm).

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 991


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.11 Photometers, spectroscopes, polarimeters, refractometers

Pocket spectroscope 1

Spectrometer/goniom. w. vernier

Function and applications Function and Apllications Simple spectroscope with fixed slit width without wavelength scale. Equipment and technical data: Slit width: 0.02 mm, Length: 92 mm, Focal length of the objective: 40 mm, External diameter: 18 mm, Incl. case.

Spectrometer/ goniometer with double vernier. Equipment and technical data With magnifying glasses , 60° glass prism, Illumination device and telescope 35635-02

35580-00

Half-shade polarimeter, 230 V AC Pocket spectroscope 4

Function and Applications Function and Applications

Half-shade polarimeter..

Spectroscope with variable slit widt hand superimposed wavelength scale.

Equipment and technical data

Equipment and technical data Slit width: 0...0.8 mm, Focal length of objective: 40 mm, Wavelength scale: 400...750 nm, Divisions: 10 nm, Dimensions (mm): 55 x 110 x 23, Incl. case. 35585-00

Spectroscope,Kirch.-Bunsen type

Function and applications For qualitative observation and measurement of emission and absorption spectra. Equipment and technical data Table unit with fixed optical flint prism, Swiveling observation telescope with ocular, Scale tube with 100 division scale, Flint glass prism 60°, height: 20 mm with removable cover , Adjustable stand, Total height: approx. 230 mm 35645-00

excellence in science 992

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Polarimeter support with built-inlight source and filters polarimeter tube length 100 and 200 mm 2 scales 0-180 degrees division 1 degree vernier reading 0.05degrees with nonius light source sodium lamp 589 nm

Half-shade polarimeter, 230 V AC 35906-93 Polarimeter tube, l=100 mm 35906-02 Polarimeter tube, l=200 mm 35906-03


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.11 Photometers, spectroscopes, polarimeters, refractometers

Abbe refractometer

Function and applications Abbe refractometer for measuring the refraction index of liquids and solids with light of 590nm wavelength (sodium D line) and determining average dispersion nC-nF. The refractive index scale also includes an additional scale indicating sugar content from 0 - 95%. The prism and scales can be illuminated by daylight or by a separate lighting unit. Equipment and technical data: Measurement range: refractive indices 1.3-1.7 , Sugar content scale: 0-95%, corresponding to refractive indices from 1.33 to 1.53, Precision: 0.0003, Prism box with nozzles for connecting thermostats, Protective storage box, Adjustable glass plates, 1 Bottle of immersion liquid (1-bromonaphthalene), Conversion and correction tables, Thermometer, 0-70掳C, with removable protective sleeve 35912-00

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 www.phywe.com 993


6.5 Measurement instruments 6.5.12 General - measurement instruments

Speed of Light Meter Set

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Number of timers: 4 Measuring range: 0.000...9.999 s or 0000.0000...9999.9999 s Resolution: 1 ms or 0.1 ms Control (start/ stop): By electrical circuits (contact closure / contact opening or level according to TTL norm) Integrated power supplies for lightbarriers 4 × 5 V, 1.5 A Mains supply: 100...240 V~, 50...60 Hz Power requirement: 18 VA Dimensions (mm): 184 × 140 × 130 USB - interface for PC-based experiments

13604-99

App.for determ.of melting point Function and Applications The complete set to measure the light velocity in air, transparent liquids and solids. Equipment and technical data Consists of 1x Light velocity measuring apparatus, 1 x Retroreflector with stem, 1x Power supply 12 V/ 2 A, 1x Slide mount for optical bench, 1x Optical bench, l = 1800 mm, 1 x Holder for speed of light measuring instrument, 1 x Acrylic glass cylinder with a holder, 1 x Tubular cell with a holder Speed of Light Meter Set 11226-88 Speed of Light Meter 11226-00

Timer 4-4 with USB-interface

Made of DURAN® glass, has a GL 18/8 threaded connector for holding a thermometer and two inclined side tubes for insertion of melting point tubes.Height: 160 mm 35910-15

Melting point determination tubes, 100 pcs. 39052-00

Lab thermometer,stem,0..+250C 38064-00

Function and applications: Measures up to 4 times simultaneously. Multiple time measuring instrument for a variety of applications in teaching, wherever times are to be accurately measured. The timer unit has four 4 digit displays. The starting and stopping of the four built-in independent timers is actuated by the opening or closing of electrical circuits, or by means of light barriers or other TTL signal sources (e.g. a microphone). Benefits: The 6 different operating modes allow the timer unit to be adjusted to suit almost any experimental requirement. Three different operating modes are suitable for track experiments (distance-time law for four tracks, measurement of speed at four positions, principles of collisions), and in each case all four displays are utilized. Two further operating modes allow, for example, the measurement of the orbiting time of a rotary movement and the direct measurement of the duration of a complete swing of a mechanical pendulum. If required, two of the 4-digit displays can be combined to give an 8-digit display (0000.0000 to 9999.9999). Technical data: ▪ ▪

Four 4-digit LED displays Digit height: 9 mm

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6 Additional material 6.6 Microscopes

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6 Additional material 6.6 Microscopes

TESS Biology Set 4 Microscopy

TESS Biology manual Microscopy

Function and Applications

Specification

To perform 50 microscopy experiments on:

Experimental literature for TESS Biology 50 experiments with student worksheets and teacher informations.

microscopy basics, work techniques, microscopy reagents, cell components, seed plants, vertibrates, other animals, other plants, fungi, protists, procaryonts Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

50 microscopic slides 50 cover glasses 12 snap-cap vials 10 reagent bottles 10 dropping pipettes with bulbs tweezers dissecting needles, pointed and lancet-shaped scissors scalpelholder 10 scalpel blades 200 sterileblood lancets powder spatula 2 glassrods funnel 3 beakers (100 ml, PP) 3beakers (250 ml, PP) beaker (1000 ml,PP) graduated cylinder (100 ml, PP) graduated pipette (10 ml) bulb pipettor(3 valves) 6 petri dishes (PS) testtube holder magnifying glass 120 labels prepared microscopic slides foam insert wooden box

▪ ▪ ▪

literature: TESS Biology manual Microscopy (13290-02) CD-ROM for TESS Microscopy (13290-12) microscope set of chemicals (13290-10)

13290-88

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

basics of microscopy worktechniques cell components seed plants and ferns vertibrates invertibrates fungi protists prokaryotes

Contents Ring file with 200 pages and CD-ROM ▪ ▪ ▪

with black/white drawings for easy copying teacher's sheets with colored digitalmicroscopy images CD-ROM with master copies of color presentation files (PDF format) for 47 microscopy topics to print transparencies or to show directly via avideo beamer and PDF files of student worksheets andteacher's sheets

13290-02

Chemicals set for TESS Microscopy (for up to 10 workgroups) Function and Applications Chemicals set for TESS Microscopy (for up to 10 workgroups). Equipment and technical data

Required Accessories ▪

Range of topics

incl.

CD-ROM

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Acetic acid 99 %, 250 ml raw alcohol (96% and 70%) isopropanol, absolute, 250 ml rotihistol, 250 ml glycerol, 100 ml Canada balsam (malinol), 50 ml sodium cloride safranine solution 1%, 50 ml Lugol's solution, 100 ml modified azure eosine methylene blue solution (Giemsa), modified, 50 ml neutral red, 5 g carmineacetic acid solution, 50 ml methyl green, 10 g distilled water, 500 ml

13290-10

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6 Additional material 6.6 Microscopes

Student microscope SFC-100F-LED

adapter plug. Delivered with a focusable macro lens which allows that the camera can be used without a microscope to image any object on the PC monitor. Benefits ▪

With the included image editing software for PC and Macintosh OSX platforms, the images can be measured and analyzed. It also provides a variety of other tools for teachers, students and researchers. Equipped with all necessary accessories that fit cameras on virtually any microscope eyepiece and thus allows you to turn any microscope into a digital microscope.

Equipment and technical data Function and Applications The student microscope model that can not be missing in the basic configuration. Budget models - with the all-metal stands for robust school life very well equipped. High quality DIN objective and precise mechanical components ensure excellent optical properties. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Monocular inclined with prism, rotated by 360° wide-pointer eyepiece: 10x 3-position turret Objective: 4x, 10x, 40x Magnification: 40x, 100x, 400x Condenser n.a. 0.65 with iris diaphragm and filter holder Coarse and fine drives LED lighting installed in the stand with 20 mA, 3.5 V and 70 mW LED Charger Dust cover

Student microscope SFC-100F-LED 62421-93 Spare bulb 230V/20W for SFC-100FL 62417-01 Halogen lamp 12V/10W,spare M100 62170-13 Replacement-LED-Lamp for Motic-Series SFC/F11/18/ 28, 62170-16 Objective 60x,N.A. 0.85, achrom. 62170-08 Objektive 100x,N.A. 1.25 62170-09 Eyepiece, Huygenian 15x,Accessory 62448-00 Micrometer ocular WF 10x/18mm 62170-05 Mechanical stage f.SFC-100 a.F-11 62416-01

CCD cameras

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

CCD camera Moticam 352 for PC, 0.3 megapixels 88037-01 CCD camera Moticam 1000 for PC, 1.3 megapixels 88037-02

Stereo microscope ST-30C-6LED,2x/4x

Function and Applications Stereomicroscope. The ST-30 series is a unique transition to more powerful stereo microscopy. To provide proper optical alignment was a high value, and thereby ensures precision mechanics comfortable long term use. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Function and Applications Digital cameras to be placed on microscope eyepieces of any diameter. The four included eyepiece adapter for eyepieces with a diameter of 28 mm, 30 mm, 34 mm and 35 mm can be adapted to any eyepieces, even if they differ from the mentioned diameter. Nor can you connect the camera to microscopes, which have a photo tube with C-mount

USB-cable with 16 mm CCD Clip 3 lux light sensitivity Ocularadapter for all microscopes (Oculars with 28mm, 30mm, 34mm and 35mm Diameter) Calibration slides Focusing lens for webcam use Macrotubus to view objects without a microscope Software Motic Image Plus 2.0, on Windows and MacOS X running

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Binocular inclined tube Stereohead rotatable through 360° Stable stand with stage plate and 2 stage clips Height-adjustable binocular eyepiece unit Focussing by means of two coaxial focussing knobs with sliding clutch One pair of interchangeable wide-field eyepieces WF10×/20 with eyecups Rotatable nosepiece with 2 aligned pairs of objectives 2×/4× or 1×/3× for rapid magnification change Magnification:20×/40× or 10×/30× 5 LEDs for incident light and 1 LED for transmitted light Rechargeable so it can be used independent from a network Connection voltage 230 V,50...60Hz Complete with dust cover and battery charger

62466-93

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com 999


6 Additional material 6.6 Microscopes

excellence in science 1000


al Correction: Contrary to our expectations, the procedure for type approval of our X-ray apparatus „PHYWE X-ray XR 4.0 expert unit, Basic set“, carried out by the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (BFS) [Federal Office for Radiation Protection], is still not completed. The patent for our S-Lock safety system has been applied for, however, it is still pending. We hereby put right statements that say otherwise on various pages in this catalogue. Furthermore, we clarify that we are considered to be “one” of the world’s leading suppliers of integrated overall solutions for the area of scientific technical training in schools, universities and educational institutions. We correct our statement in this catalogue insofar as being “the” world’s leading supplier. Göttingen, den 15.09.2011 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG

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Tel. +49 (0) 551 604 - 0 Fax +49 (0) 551 604 - 107

00001-02

info@phywe.com

Copyright by PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG. Subject to change without notice. Errors and omissions excepted. Edition 06/2011

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG Robert-Bosch-Breite 10 D-37079 Gรถttingen

In te rn

s n o i t u l o s s Worldclas : n o i t a c u d e r e t t e b r o f m o c . e w y h p . www

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EN PHYWE Catalogue Applied Sciences  

The PHYWE catalogue is Your reference book for experiments and products in the field of natural sciences for school and university. This ist...

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