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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

statistical annexes 2018 hungary and the czech republic


Disclaimer This document, as well as any data and any map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.


Figure 1.A1. Energy structure and intensity

Energy supply per unit of GDP, 2016

toe/USD 1 000 0.25

0.43

0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00

Energy supply per capita, 2016

toe/capita

19.2

10 8 6 4 2 0

Energy supply by source, 2016 Coal

Oil

Natural gas

Nuclear

Renewables

Other

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Share of renewables in primary energy supply, 2016 50%

90%

40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Share of renewables in electricity production, 2016 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Notes: Data may include provisional figures and estimates. Total primary energy supply: the breakdown excludes electricity trade. GDP at 2010 prices and purchasing power parities. Source: IEA (2017), IEA World Energy Balances (database); OECD (2017), “Labour Force Statistics: Population projections�, OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics (database); OECD (2017), OECD National Accounts (database).

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Figure 1.A2. Road transport

Motor vehicle ownership, 2015 Passenger cars

Other vehicles

Vehicles/100 inhabitants 100

75

50

25

n.a.

0

Road vehicle stock, % change 2005-15 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20%

n.a.

10% 0% -10%

Consumption of road fuels, 2016 Other

Biofuels

Petrol

Diesel

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. Motor vehicle totals may not include exactly the same vehicle categories in different countries. Source: IEA (2017), IEA World Energy Balances (database); ITF (2017), ITF Transport Statistics (database); national sources.

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Figure 1.B1. GHG emissions and intensity

GHG emissions per unit of GDP, 2015 t CO2 eq/USD 1 000 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

GHG emissions per capita, 2015 t CO2 eq/capita 25

20

15

10

5

0

Change in total GHG emissions, 2005-15 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -40%

Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. GHG emissions excluding emissions/removals from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). MEX: data include emissions or removals from land-use change and forestry (LUCF). GDP at 2010 prices and purchasing power parities. Source: OECD (2017), "Greenhouse gas emissions by source", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 1.B2. CO2 emissions and intensity

t/USD 1 000

CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, 2015

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0

t/capita 18

CO2 emissions per capita, 2015

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

60%

Change in total CO2 emissions, 2000-15

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -40% Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. CO2 emissions from energy use only; excluding international marine and aviation bunkers; sectoral approach. GDP at 2010 prices and purchasing power parities. Sources: IEA (2017), IEA CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Statistics; OECD (2017), “Labour Force Statistics: Population projections�, OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics (database); OECD (2017), OECD National Accounts (database).

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Figure 1.B3. SOx emissions and intensity

SOx emissions per unit of GDP, 2015 kg/USD 1 000 3.0

4.1

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

n.a

SOx emissions per capita, 2015 kg/capita

173

100 80 60 40 20 0

n.a.

Change in total SOx emissions, 2005-15 60% 40% 20% 0%

n.a.

-20% -40% -60% -80% -100% Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. GDP at 2010 prices and purchasing power parities. Source: OECD (2017), "Air emissions by source", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 1.B4. NOx emissions and intensity

NOx emissions per unit of GDP, 2015 kg/USD1 000 2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

n.a.

NOx emissions per capita, 2015 kg/capita 100 80 60 40 20 0

n.a.

Change in total NOx emissions, 2005-15 60% 40% 20% 0%

n.a.

-20% -40% -60% -80% Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. GDP at 2010 prices and purchasing power parities. Source: OECD (2017), "Air emissions by source", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 1.B5. PM2.5 emissions and intensity

PM2.5 emissions per capita, 2015 50

kg/capita

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

no data

0

Change in total PM2.5 emissions, 2005-15 150%

100%

50%

0%

no data

-50%

-100%

Average annual population exposure to air pollution (PM2.5), 2005 and 2015 2015 Âľg/m3 35

2005

Average annual exposure levels of an average resident

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. Population exposure to air pollution: estimates based on satellite observations and chemical transport models, calibrated against ground-based measurements. Source: OECD (2017), "Air emissions by source", OECD Environment Statistics (database); OECD (2017), "Exposure to air pollution", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 1.C1. Waste generation and management

900

kg/cap.

Municipal waste generation per capita, 2015

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

n.a.

Change in municipal waste generation per capita, 2000-15 30% 20% 10% no data

0% -10% -20% -30%

Municipal waste management, by type of treatment, 2015 Landfill

Incineration without energy recovery

Incineration with energy recovery

Recycling and composting

Other treatment

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

n.a.

Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. Household and similar waste collected by or for municipalities, originating mainly from households and small businesses. Includes bulky waste and separate collection. CAN: data include construction and demolition waste. Source: OECD (2017), "Municipal waste", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 1.C2. Agricultural inputs and livestock density

t/km2 agricultural land

Apparent consumption of nitrogenous fertilisers, 2015

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

t/km2 agricultural land 1.4

Pesticides sales, 2013-15

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 n.a.

0.0

Head of sheep eq./km2 agr. land

Livestock density, 2015

3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500

Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. Conversion coefficients used to convert livestock heads in sheep equivalent: 1 for sheep and goats, 6 for cattle and buffaloes, 4.8 for equines,1 for pigs, and 0.06 for poultry birds. Source: FAO (2017), FAOSTAT (database); OECD (2017), OECD Agriculture Statistics (database).

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Figure 1.D1. Fish catches and threatened species Total fish catches per capita, 2015 kg/inh. 200

Fish catches per capita

Percentage change since 2005 (right axis)

3989 441

100% 80%

150

60%

100

40%

50

20%

n.a.

0

0% -20%

-50

-40%

-100

-60%

-150

-80%

-200

-100%

Threatened species as percentage of known species, 2010-15 Mammals 80%

All species

Indigenous species

60% 40% 20%

n.a.

0%

Birds 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Amphibians 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

n.a.

..

n.a.

n.a.

Vascular plants 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

n.a.

Notes: Fish data excludes aquaculture and whales, seals and other aquatic mammals, aquatic plants and other miscellaneous aquatic animal products. IUCN: categories critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable in percentage of known species. Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. Source: FAO (2017), FAOSTAT (database); OECD (2017), "Threatened species", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 1.D2. Protected areas

Terrestrial protected areas, 2017 IUCN cat. I&II

IUCN cat. III&IV

IUCN cat. V&VI

No IUCN cat.

Areas reported as point

No IUCN cat.

Areas reported as point

% of territory 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Marine protected areas, 2017 IUCN cat. I&II

IUCN cat. III&IV

IUCN cat. V&VI

% of Exclusive economic zone

100

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Notes: Areas reported without explicitly defined boundaries are shown cumulatively. For some protected areas the data in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is reported without explicitly defined boundaries. IUCN categories reflect management objectives. Categories I and II refer to strict nature reserves, wilderness areas and national parks. Categories III and IV refer to natural monuments and habitat/species management areas. Categories V and VI refer to protected landscapes/seascapes and areas with sustainable use of natural resources. Other nationally designated areas with no IUCN category are grouped with regionally and internationally designated areas. Data refer to metropolitan or mainland countries, overseas territories are not included. Source: OECD (2017), OECD calculations using data extracted from the WDPA (January, 2017).

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Figure 1.D3. Water abstraction and wastewater treatment

m3/capita/year

Gross freshwater abstraction per capita, 2015

1 800 1 600 1 400 1 200 1 000 800 600 400 no data

200

Gross freshwater abstraction as percentage of renewable resources, 2015 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% no data 0%

Population connected to public wastewater treatment, 2015

100%

Other/not connected Independent treatment Connected to a wastewater treatment plant with primary treatment only Connected to a wastewater treatment plant with secondary and/or tertiary treatment Connected to a wastewater treatment plant (treatment level not known) partial data

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

no data

Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They include provisional figures and estimates. Freshwater abstraction: for some countries, data refer to water permits and not to actual abstractions. Wastewater treatment: "other" includes connected without treatment, not connected or independent treatment (where there is no data for independent treatment). Source: OECD (2017), "Water: Freshwater Abstractions", OECD Environment Statistics (database); OECD (2017), "Water: Wastewater treatment", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 3.A1. Environmentally related taxes

Environmentally related tax revenue, 2014

% of total tax revenue 15% 10% 5%

n.a.

0%

Composition of environmentally related tax revenue by tax base, 2014 Energy

Motor vehicles

Other

% of GDP 5% 4% 3% 2% 1%

n.a.

0% -1%

Diesel prices and taxes, 2016a

USD/litre

Price minus tax

Total tax

4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0

n.a.

0.0

Petrol prices and taxes, 2016a

USD/litre Price minus tax

Total tax

4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0

n.a.

Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. a) Diesel: automotive diesel for commercial use and unleaded premium (RON 95), except Japan (unleaded regular): USD at current prices and exchange rates. Source: IEA (2017), IEA Energy Prices and Taxes Statistics (database); OECD (2017), "Environmental policy instruments", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 3.A2. Green innovation

Environment-related R&D budgets, percentage of total government R&D budgets, 2016a 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% n.a.

0%

Public RD&D budgets for renewables energy and energy efficiency, percentage of total public energy RD&D, 2013b Renewable

Energy efficiency

100% 80% 60% 40% 20%

no data

0%

Patent applications for environment-related technologies, percentage of all technologies, 2011-13c 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Patent applications for environment-related technologies, percentage of world total, 2011-13c 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. a) Government budget appropriations or outlays for research and development (R&D); breakdown according to the NABS 2007 classification. b) Public energy technology budgets for research, development and demonstration (RD&D). c) Patents: higher value inventions that have sought patent protection in at least two jurisdictions (family size: two or more). Data is based on patents applications and refer to fractional counts of patents by inventor's country of residence and priority date. Source: IEA (2017), IEA Energy Technology RD&D Statistics (database); OECD (2017), Government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D (database); OECD (2017), "Patents: Technology development", OECD Environment Statistics (database).

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Figure 3.A3. International development co-operation Net ODA disbursements as percentage of gross national income, 2015

1.2% 1.0% 0.8% 0.6% 0.4% 0.2%

no data

0.0%

Bilateral ODA commitments to the environment, renewable energy and water sectors, average 2012-14a General environment protection

Renewable energy

Water

% of total sector allocable ODA 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% no data

0% -5%

Bilateral ODA commitments targeting the environment, average 2012-14b Principal objective

Significant objective

% of screened ODA 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

no data

Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. CHL, EST, ISR, LVA, MEX, and TUR are not members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee and report on a voluntary basis, thus data maybe not always be available, or may be partial. a) Renewable energy includes power generation/renewable sources; hydroelectric power plants; geothermal, solar, wind and ocean energy; biofuel-fired power plants. b) Activities are classified as “principal” when environment protection is a primary objective and “significant” when it is an important but secondary objective. In comparing data across countries it should be noted that the coverage ratio of the environmental policy objective (i.e. the proportion of aid which is screened against the environment policy marker) varies considerably among countries; low coverage rates can significantly increase the shares of environment-focused aid. Source: OECD (2017),OECD International Development Statistics (database).

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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

statistical annexes 2018 The Environmental Performance Review programme of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provides independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving their domestic and international environmental policy commitments, together with policy-relevant recommendations. The reviews are conducted to promote peer learning, enhance governments’ accountability to each other and to the public, and to improve countries’ environmental performance, individually and collectively. The OECD has been conducting these reviews since 1992, supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data. Each cycle of the Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD member countries and selected partner countries. This document presents companion data to the Environmental Performance Reviews of Hungary and the Czech Republic which were published in 2018.

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews 2018: Statistical Annexes for Hungary and the Czech Republic  

Companion data to the Environmental Performance Reviews of Hungary and the Czech Republic published in 2018.

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews 2018: Statistical Annexes for Hungary and the Czech Republic  

Companion data to the Environmental Performance Reviews of Hungary and the Czech Republic published in 2018.