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Unbanked and

Penetration of information and communications technology

The fastest growing communications technology: the mobile phone

Circle size represents the number of broadband internet subscribers per 1,000 people

Mobile phone subscriptions per 1,000 people over time

UNCONNECTED: Is the gap too wide to close?

Threshold for 30% access to internet

1,600

225

1,400

Mobile phone subscribers per 1,000 people

Many poor, rural, and remote populations remain unconnected.

1,400 1,200

Singapore

1,200

Philippines

Vietnam

Malaysia

Thailand

800

Threshold for 1 mobile per capita

800

Indonesia

600

600

77.8

Laos

400

Threshold for 1 mobile per capita

1,000

60.9

1,000

China

400

Cambodia

200

Laos Indonesia

China

Myanmar 0

Philippines

Malaysia

200

0

0

100

200

300

400

Vietnam

Thailand

Singapore

500

600

700

800

Cambodia

Myanmar 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

900

Internet subcribers per 1,000 people

Is the pervasive financial exclusion a stumbling block for inclusive growth?

More than a billion people worldwide own a mobile phone, but have no access to financial services.

Is income inequality a threat to social & political stability?

More than a billion people have no access to financial services in ASEAN+China

Income share in pecentage, held by population quintile

Circle size represents the percentage of population with access to financial services 0%

20%

Thailand 14

26%

Number of bank branches per 100,000 adults

12

Philippines

Malaysia

Thailand

60%

98%

59%

6

0

51.5%

Philippines

50.4% 47.8% 45.4%

19.2% 19.2%

11.4% 7%

41.8

6.6%

40.7

4.5%

37.9

13.7% 9.1%

5.6%

45.6

14.7% 9.8%

5.7%

41.5

7.3%

37.8

13.7% 8.7%

21.2% 22%

Gini coefficient

3.9%

13.1% 9.4%

21.6%

21.3%

100%

15.1% 10.9%

Income share held by the 2nd richest 20%

Income share held by the 4th richest 20%

Income share held by the 3rd richest 20%

Income share held by the poorest 20%

China

Growing income inequality: a trend with explosive conflict potential?

42%20% 29%

2

Malaysia

Income share held by the richest 20%

Cambodia

4

51.7%

80%

Singapore

40%

8

Cambodia

Vietnam

Indonesia

60%

58.6%

China

10

40%

Vietnam

25% 19%

What policies are needed to provide better equality of opportunity?

Laos

Myanmar 5

Fewer opportunities and weak safety nets for the poor 15

25

35

45

55

65

75

Scoring index from the Bertelsmann Transformation Index 2010 (the higher the better)

Number of automated teller machines per 100,000 adults

Cambodia Vietnam

10 9

To what extent do social safety nets exist to compensate for poverty and other risks such as old age, illness, unemployment or disability?

China

8 7 6

Thailand

5 4 3

Indonesia

2

“[…] rising inequality can also weaken social cohesion and adversely affect prospects for economic growth.”

1

Singapore

– Haruhiko Kuroda, President of the Asian Development Bank

To what extent does equality of opportunity exist?

Laos

Philippines

Malaysia Myanmar

ASIAN TRENDS MONITORING Myanmar Cambodia

GDP per capita

Laos

Vietnam Philippines Indonesia Thailand

Malaysia Singapore

China

587

768

886

1,068

1,748

2,327

4,151

6,917

36,112

3,739

DATA NOT AVAILABLE

13¢

17¢

16¢

11¢

17¢

10¢

12¢

DATA NOT AVAILABLE

3.7

1.6

3.2

11.8

7.7

11.0

11.4

10.5

3.9

81%

80%

75%

71%

74%

60%

41%

40%

2%

58%

Mobile phone subscriptions

10

423

512

1,115

1,003

692

973

1,097

1,452

555

Internet broadband subscriptions

0.3

2.0

1.3

30.4

18.7

7.4

14.7

60.9

225.2

77.8

(In current US$, as of 2009)

Share of income

(The richest 20% earn $1, the poorest 20% will earn...)

Number of bank branches (Per 100,000 adults)

No access to financial services (As a percentage of the adult population)

(Number of subscribers per 1,000 people)

(Number of subscribers per 1,000 people)


Rising Asia, Growing Inequalities (finance & ICT)