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Access to basic

INFRASTRUCTURE:

Gaps in access between income groups are still wide

Most countries are closing internal gaps, but some are slower than others

Percentage of population, by income quintiles, with access to...

Urban-rural gap in percentage of population with access to improved drinking water

Not keeping pace with economic growth

100% 80% 60% 40% 20%

0

Although some slums are shrinking, others are still growing

20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

40

Laos 30

Myanmar ...improved drinking water

Cambodia 100% 80%

Vietnam

20%

20

...improved sanitation Philippines

Cambodia

Indonesia

ASEAN

10

Myanmar

Indonesia

60% 40%

China

World

Percentage of urban population living in slums

0

Vietnam

2005

1995

1990

2000

2005

2008

Malaysia Thailand

Laos

Urban-rural gap in percentage of population with access to improved sanitation China 50

Laos Philippines

Myanmar

Poorest

2nd

3rd

4th

Richest

Cambodia

40

World

30

Why can’t some cities keep up with the pace of urbanisation?

Why have improvements in some parts of ASEAN not reached the poor?

ASEAN

20

Myanmar 10

China

0 1995

2000

“Poor sanitation and water supplies are the engines that drive cycles of disease, poverty and powerlessness in developing nations.”

Paved roads as a percentage of total road network

100

Non-solid cooking fuel, remains a rarity in some countries Percentage of population using solid fuels for cooking

Road density (km of road per 100 sq km of land area) 0

Brunei Vietnam

Cambodia

Myanmar

10

20

30

40

50

60

100

70

90

4

80

80

Laos

60 40

Thailand

Indonesia

20

Indonesia

15

70

more than 95%

more than 95%

60

21

50

Singapore

Laos

Thailand

35

China

36

40 30

less than 5%

20

Vietnam Philippines

2008

Why has rural provision of infrastructure lagged behind?

– Human Waste Report 2002

Road networks, vital for economic activity, are still lacking in many countries.

2005

Malaysia

46

Brunei

10

less than 5%

0

63

Myanmar

Myanmar

Laos

Cambodia Vietnam Indonesia

China Philippines Thailand Singapore Malaysia

Why has it been so difficult to provide access to non-solid cooking fuel?

How badly does lack of roads impede rural development?

ASIAN TRENDS MONITORING Myanmar Cambodia

People living in urban areas without... (As a percentage of the population)

People living in rural areas without... (As a percentage of the population)

Laos

Vietnam Philippines Indonesia Thailand

Malaysia Singapore

China

electricity

81%

34%

16%

0.4%

3%

6%

0%

0%

0%

0%

improved water

25%

19%

28%

1%

7%

11%

1%

0%

0%

2%

improved sanitation

14%

33%

14%

6%

20%

33%

5%

4%

0%

42%

electricity

90%

87.5%

58%

15%

35%

68%

1%

2%

NOT APPLICABLE

1%

improved water

31%

44%

49%

8%

13%

29%

2%

1%

NOT APPLICABLE

18%

improved sanitation

21%

82%

64%

33%

31%

64%

4%

5%

NOT APPLICABLE

48%

Rising Asia, Growing Inequalities (basic infrastructure)  

While Southeast Asia has similarly experienced its own economic miracles, the problems of endemic poverty, increasing divides between rural...

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