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Spring 2011

Issue 7 2

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The Year of Chemistry

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IN THIS ISSUE: 6

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Boston’s crazy winter climate this year, water safety, musical dopamine, medicinal marijuana, neat coop’s, bringing the mammoth back...

HOT CHEMISTRY CAREERS An inside look into an emerging field for new graduates

TRAPPING ANTIMATTER What the Large Hadron Collider is up to...

INTERVIEW WITH DR. HUH An in-depth conversation with the inventor of lung chips

E.COLI BIOENCRYPTION Who knew those buggers were so smart?

AND MUCH MORE...

Photo Courtesy of NASA Hubble Telescope


THE TEAM

KRISTINA

JAMES

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LIZZY

BRAD Who We Are: From the top weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve got our President, Kristina Deak, Our Editor in Chief, James Peerless, our Reviews and Interviews Lead, Lizzy Gilbert, and VP/ Designer Brad West...

2 NU Science

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THE TEAM

ANDREA

MIKE Who We Are: From the top weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve got our Editor/ Designer, Emily Snead, Editor Kyle Deerwester, Secretary, Andrea DeDonato, and our newest Editor, Mike Murray.

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NU Science 3


2011:

WALMART:

Chemistry

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elcome  to  the  International  Year  of  Chem-­ istry.  2011  is  intended  to  serve  as  a  year  of  ap-­ preciation,  outreach,  and  advancement  for  chemistry  in   all  its  forms.  The  decision  is  the  result  of  the  combined   efforts  of  both  the  International  Union  of  Pure  and  Ap-­ plied  Chemistry  (IUPAC)  and  a  proposal  to  the  United   1DWLRQV(GXFDWLRQDO6FLHQWLÂżFDQG&XOWXUDO2UJDQL]D-­ WLRQ 81(6&2  E\ (WKLRSLD7KH GDWH DOVR FRLQFLGHV ZLWKWKHWK\HDUDQQLYHUVDU\RI0DULH&XULHÂśVÂżUVW 1REHO3UL]HIRUKHUZRUNZLWKUDGLDWLRQ Chemistry  earned  the  title   of   the   â&#x20AC;&#x153;central   scienceâ&#x20AC;?   well   before   2011.   It   has   connections   to   all   of   the   physical   and   life   scienc-­ es   down   to   their   atoms.     More   importantly,   chem-­ LVWU\DOORZVDJUHDWHUXQ-­ GHUVWDQGLQJ RI RXU ZRUOG and  the  laws  of  nature  in   ÂżHOGVYDU\LQJLQRUGHUVRI PDJQLWXGH IURP DVWURQ-­ RP\ WR QDQRWHFKQRORJ\ Its  beauty  lies  in  its  ubiq-­ uitous   and   universal   lan-­ JXDJH HYHU\WKLQJ IURP VWDUV URFNV DQG DQLPDOV can   be   described   and   in-­ YHVWLJDWHG ZLWK FKHPLV-­ try.   The   International   Year   of  Chemistry  was  instated  to  actively  spread  not  only   awareness  of  how  chemistry  affects  our  lives,  but  also   WR SURPRWH HQWKXVLDVP IRU WKH OHDUQLQJ DQG DGYDQFH-­ PHQWRIWKHÂżHOG(YHU\FHQWXU\GHFDGHHYHQFDQFODLP LWV RZQ FKDOOHQJHV WKDW QHHG WR EH RYHUFRPH 7RGD\ ZH IDFH JOREDO FOLPDWH FKDQJH ORRPLQJ IRRG VKRUW-­ DJHV HQHUJ\ FRQFHUQV DQG VWLOO WKH FRPPRQ FROG 4 NU Science

Chemistry  creates   and   propels   solutions   to   all   WKHVH SUREOHPV DQG PRUH VRPH RI WKH PRVW SURPLV-­ LQJFKHPLFDOWHFKQRORJ\ÂżQGVDKRPHRQRXURZQYHU\ Northeastern   University   campus   in   the   forms   of   fuel   FHOOWHFKQRORJ\DQGWURSLFDOGLVHDVHÂżJKWLQJGUXJV $FWLYLWLHVUDQJHIURPLQFUHDVLQJH[SRVXUHLQZD\VERWK ODUJHDQGVPDOO7KH$PHULFDQ&KHPLFDO6RFLHW\ZLOO EHSXWWLQJRQD*OREDO&KDOOHQJHV&KHPLVWU\6ROXWLRQV SDQHODVZHOODVDGDLO\H[DPSOHRIFKHPLVWU\ÂśVDSSOL-­ cations.    More  local  events  include  various  demonstra-­ tions  by  the  Northeastern  Uni-­ YHUVLW\6WXGHQW$IÂżOLDWHVRIWKH American   Chemical   Society   186$$&6 2QWKHQGRI )HEUXDU\ 'U 1DQF\ -DFNVRQ the  President  of  the  American   &KHPLFDO 6RFLHW\ VSRNH DW Northeasternâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   Chemistry   and   &KHPLFDO%LRORJ\GHSDUWPHQW about   the   future   and   promise   RIFKHPLVWU\FKHPLVWU\VKRZV QR VLJQV RI VORZLQJ GRZQ DV WKHLQWHJUDOVFLHQFHWRH[SDQG KXPDQLW\ÂśV NQRZOHGJH DQG SURYLGHVROXWLRQVWRRXUJOREDO FKDOOHQJHV In   this   issue   we   present   ar-­ WLFOHV KLJKOLJKWLQJ FKHPLVWU\ ZLWKWRSLFVUDQJLQJIURPVPDOO RUJDQLF PROHFXOHV OLNH GRSD-­ PLQH WR ODUJH SRO\PHUV ZLWK PLOOLRQVRIUHSHDWLQJXQLWVVXFKDVWKHPDVVLYHZRRO\ mammoth  DNA.  We  hope  to  show  you  some  of  the  his-­ WRU\DQGIXWXUHRIFKHPLVWU\HYHQLWWDNHVDOO\HDU -­Nicholas  DeLateur,  Chemistry,  2014

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Q LQWHUHVWLQJ WKLQJ KDSSHQHG LQ ODWH )HEUXDU\ :DOPDUWDQQRXQFHGWKDWLWZDVH[SDQGLQJLWVEDQ RQ3%'(VLQFRQVXPHUSURGXFWVDQGWKDWEHJLQQLQJRQ -XQHVWH[WHQVLYHWHVWLQJRIVXVSHQGHGJRRGVZRXOGEH pursued  to  ensure  the  ban  is  followed.    The  announce-­ ment  came  shortly   after   the   release   of   a   study   by   the   University  of  Cal-­ LIRUQLD%HUNOH\ WKDW OLQNHG 3%'( H[SRVXUH WR GLI-­ ÂżFXOW\ LQ FRQFHS-­ tion.     PBDEs   (polybro-­ minated   diephe-­ nyl   ethers)   are   R UJ D Q R E U R P L Q H compounds   that   have   been   pro-­ duced   since   the   1960â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   for   use   as   flame-­retardants   LQDSSOLDQFHVWH[-­ WLOHV IRDPV SODVWLFV DQG RWKHU SUDFWLFDO JRRGV  %\ JOREDOVDOHVZHUHDWPHWULFWRQV,QWKH same  year  a  study  in  Sweden  by  Noren  and  Mieryonte   demonstrated   that   the   concentration   of   PBDEs   in   hu-­ PDQPLONKDGEHHQGRXEOLQJHYHU\\HDUVVLQFH ,Q'U6FKHFWHURIWKH8QLYHUVLW\RI7H[DVIRXQG WKDWEUHDVWPLONIURPWKH86IHDWXUHGWRWLPHV JUHDWHU FRQFHQWUDWLRQV RI 3%'(V WKDQ WKDW IURP (X-­ rope.    Since  this  time,  animal  studies  have  implicated   WKHFKHPLFDOLQHQGRFULQHQHXURORJLFDODQGGHYHORS-­

mental  complications.   With  such  evidence,  why  is  the  chemical  still  so  preva-­ lent  in  our  day-­to-­day  lives?    For  one,  the  chemical  poli-­ FLHVLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHVKDYHQœWFKDQJHGPXFKRYHUWKH SDVW\HDUVIDOOLQJJURVVO\EHKLQGRXUUDWHRIVFLHQ-­ WL¿F GHYHORSPHQW Today,  the  EPA  has   VXI¿FLHQW KHDOWK ULVN LQIRUPDWLRQ about   200   of   the   84,000   chemicals   used  commercially   in   our   country.     It   LV SHUKDSV D JUHDW EHQH¿W RI FDSLWDO-­ ism   that   corpo-­ rations   such   as   Walmart,   Whole   Foods   (banned   bisphenol   A   in   2008),   and   Sears   (banned   PVC),   have  addressed  the   concerns   of   their   customers  about  their  health  and  the  health  of  their  chil-­ GUHQEHIRUHWKHJRYHUQPHQWFRXOG:HOFRPHWR$PHU-­ ica,  where  the  voice  of  the  public  may  not  be  heard  by   WKHJRYHUQPHQWDQGWKH(3$EXWLWZLOOEHKHDUGDQG DFWHGXSRQE\UHWDLOJLDQWV -­Kristina  Deak,  Biochemistry,  2012

NU Science 5


Interview with Professor Sanjeev Mukerjee 186FLHQFHKDGWKHSULYLOHJHWRPHHW'U6DQ-­ MHHY0XNHUMHHWKHGLUHFWRURIWKH1RUWKHDVWHUQ 8QLYHUVLW\ &HQWHU IRU 5HQHZDEOH 7HFKQRORJ\ (NUCRET),  to  discuss  his  research  and  recent   advancements  made  in  the  lab.    NUCRET  acts   DVDQÂłDYHQXHWRFROODERUDWH´VD\V0XNHUMHH â&#x20AC;&#x153;We   predominately   focus   on   electrochemical   interfaces   with   an   immediate   impact   on   fuel   FHOOVEDWWHULHVDQGHOHFWURO\]HUV´7KURXJKFRO-­ laboration  however,  opportunities  for  research   in   other   areas   in   which   they   do   not   have   the   VDPHH[SHUWLVHVXFKDVELRVRODUDQGJUDSKHQH become  readily  available.   %LRVRODULVDÂżHOGWKDWIRFXVHVRQSURWHLQEDVHG VRODU FHOOV7KH FKDOOHQJH LV WR PDNH WKH SUR-­ WHLQV VXUYLYH ORQJ HQRXJK WR EH FRPSHWLWLYH with  commercial  silicon  solar  cells.  This  proj-­ ect  involves  a  collaboration  of  many  different   GLVFLSOLQHV LQFOXGLQJ D SURWHLQ HQJLQHHU IURP Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   Hospital,   a   material   scientist   from   MIT,  and  from  Northeastern,  a  mathematician   ZRUNLQJRQFRPSXWDWLRQVDQGDSK\VLFLVW+DY-­ LQJVXFKDGLYHUVHNQRZOHGJHEDVHKHOSVIRVWHU OHDUQLQJDQGGLVFRYHU\ZKLFKLVJUHDWO\EHQHÂż-­ cial  to  NUCRET.   Âł>*UDSKHQH@LVDQRWKHUSRWHQWLDOJURZWKDUHD´ VD\V 0XNHUMHH 7KH\ KDYH D \RXQJ SURIHVVRU ZRUNLQJ RQ EXLOGLQJ D SRUWIROLR RQ JUDSKHQH 7KLV PDWHULDO ZRQ WKH 1REHO 3UL]H LQ SK\VLFV for  2010.  It  is  a  planar  sheet  of  carbon  atoms,   RQHDWRPWKLFNLQDKRQH\FRPEODWWLFHDQGKDV implications  in  catalysis  and  photonics.   2QHRIWKHEHQHÂżWVRIKDYLQJDFHQWHUWKDWIR-­ cuses  on  collaboration  is  that  it  provides  more   RSSRUWXQLWLHVWRZULWHODUJHSURSRVDOVDQGUH-­ FHLYHPRUHJUDQWVWRFRQWLQXHUHVHDUFK,WDOVR aids  new  educational  initiatives,  such  as  mas-­ terâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   level   courses   that   are   multidisciplinary   across   several   departments,   which   can   some-­ WLPHV EH FKDOOHQJLQJ Âł,W DOVR SRROV D ORW RI HTXLSPHQWLQWRDFRPPRQ>DUHD@´VD\V0XNHU-­ 6 NU Science

jee.  NUCRET  allows  companies  in  the  area   to   come   in   and   use   the   equipment,   which   JHQHUDWHV UHYHQXH DQG KHOSV WKH RUJDQL]D-­ WLRQEXLOGLWÂśVQHWZRUN 7KHUHDUHDQXPEHURISURMHFWVEHLQJFRQ-­ ducted  at  NUCRET  that  are  currently  show-­ LQJ VWURQJ SURJUHVV 7KH FHQWHU FXUUHQWO\ has   a   project   from   the   Department   of   En-­ HUJ\ '2(  WR GHYHORS QHZ FDWDO\VWV WKDW do   not   contain   noble   metals.   Noble   met-­ als   such   as   platinum   are   typically   used   in   IXHOFHOOVKRZHYHUÂżQGLQJDQDOWHUQDWLYHWR QREOHPHWDOVZRXOGEHH[WUHPHO\EHQHÂżFLDO GXH WR WKHLU KLJK FRVW Âł,W LV YHU\ H[FLWLQJ because   it   allows   us   to   lay   the   foundation   RIVFLHQFHIRUVHYHUDOGHFDGHV´VD\V0XNH-­ UMHH18&5(7DOVRKDVDSURMHFWIRFXVLQJ on  the  electrolyte  aspect  of  the  Lithium  Air   %DWWHU\ LW LV WKH ÂłKLJKHVW FXUUHQW GHQVLW\ EDWWHU\ LPDJLQDEOH E\ ORRNLQJ DW WKH SH-­ ULRGLF WDEOH´ 7KH\ DUH ZRUNLQJ RQ D QHZ based  upon  the  hard  acid  base  theory.  The   LGHDLVWKDWFUHDWLQJGLIIHUHQWEOHQGVRIHOHF-­ trolytes  will  enable  different  levels  of  elec-­ WURQWUDQVIHUÂł2[LGDWLRQUHGXFWLRQLQYROYHV IXOO>@HOHFWURQWUDQVIHUEXWLI\RXEOHQGDQ electrolyte  correctly,  you  can  stop  transfer   >DWLQWHUPHGLDWHVWHSVRI@RUIXOOHOHF-­ tron  transfer.   'U 0XNHUMHH DOVR UHFHLYHG VHYHUDO JUDQWV WRWDOLQJPLOOLRQGROODUVLQWKHIDOORI 7KHVHJUDQWVKDYHKHOSHG1RUWKHDVWHUQJDLQ a  reputation  as  an  important  place  for  fuel   FHOOUHVHDUFKÂł,WLVJUHDWWRNQRZWKDWSHR-­ SOH KDYH FRQÂżGHQFH LQ P\ DELOLWLHV´ VD\V 0XNHUMHH 7KHVH JUDQWV DOORZ KLP WR KLUH the  best  students  and  post  docs  that  he  can   ÂżQGDQGEX\QHZVXSSOLHVDQGHTXLSPHQW This  combination  allows  him  to  publish  in   the  best  journals  and  â&#x20AC;&#x153;shapeWKHWHFKQRORJ\ for  the  futureâ&#x20AC;?.    

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THE FUTURE OF

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stations  will   be   able   to   switch   to   reformers,   ZKLFKZLOOFRQYHUWQDWXUDOJDVWRK\GURJHQ ,WLVQRWDVKXJHRIDVWUHWFKDVVRPHSHRSOH PDNH LW RXW WR EH 7KH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV LV VLW-­ WLQJ RYHU WKH ODUJHVW QDWXUDO JDV UHVHUYH LQ the  world.  â&#x20AC;&#x153;It  is  the  Saudi  Arabia  of  natural   JDV´ +\GURJHQ JDV LV YHU\ FOHDQ7KLV ZLOO FHQWUDOL]HVRXUFHVRISROOXWLRQ&DUERQ'LR[-­ LGH ZLOO VWLOO EH SURGXFHG 7KH JRDO ZLOO EH WRÂżQGDZD\WRFRQYHUWFDUERQGLR[LGHLQWR useful  materials  and  recycle  them.  There  are   DQVZHUVWRWKHFRQFHUQVDERXWJOREDOZDUP-­ LQJDVORQJDVWKH&2HPLVVLRQVFDQEHFHQ-­ WUDOL]HG Âł<RX FDQÂśW FDSWXUH WKH &2 WKDW LV FRPLQJ RXW RI D FDU EXW WKHUH DUH VROXWLRQV that  can  be  put  in  place  if  the  emissions  are   FHQWUDOL]HGUDWKHUWKDQGHFHQWUDOL]HGDVWKH\ are  now.â&#x20AC;? 'U0XNHUMHHLVRSWLPLVWLFDERXWWKHIXWXUHRI IXHOFHOOVDQGEDWWHU\WHFKQRORJ\+HHQMR\V ZRUNLQJ ZLWK XQGHUJUDGXDWHV DQG WHDFKLQJ XQGHUJUDGXDWHFODVVHVEHFDXVHÂłWKH\KDYHQÂśW EHFRPHROGWLUHGDQGMDGHG,OLNHWRHQFRXU-­ DJHWKHP´$VDSDUWLQJQRWH'U0XNHUMHH SURYLGHGDGYLFHWRXQGHUJUDGXDWHVLQWHUHVWHG LQ DOWHUQDWLYH HQHUJ\ +H EHOLHYHV WKDW LW LV LPSRUWDQWWRÂżQGVRPHWKLQJWKDW\RXDUHSDV-­ sionate  about  and  believe  in  whole-­heartedly.   Âł<RXÂśUH QRW OLYLQJ XQOHVV \RX ÂżQG \RXUVHOI O\LQJ DZDNH DW QLJKW MXVW ZDLWLQJ WR JHW RXW WKHGRRUDQG\RXFDQÂśWJHWWRVOHHSEHFDXVH \RXUPLQGLVFRQVWDQWO\FKXUQLQJRXWWKLQJV WKDW\RXZRXOGUDWKHUEHGRLQJ´ -­Brad  West,  Chemical  Engineering,  2013

NU Science 7


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Looking  Towards  the  Future:   Alternative  Careers  in  Chemistry T

KHRUHWLFDOO\ D VWXGHQW HQWHUV FROOHJH WR JDLQ DQ HGXFDWLRQ not  a   job.   Realistically,   however,   this   pattern   doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t   often   KROG $Q LPSRUWDQW SDUW RI ZRUNLQJ LQ FKHPLVWU\ FRQVLVWV RI ZHLJKLQJ IXWXUH FDUHHU RSWLRQV DQG WKH FKRLFHV WKDW ZLOO OHDG \RX WR WKHP %HIRUH ZH H[SORUH DOWHUQDWLYH FKHPLVWU\ FDUHHUV OHWÂśV WDNH D TXLFN ORRN DW WKH ÂłQRUPDWLYH´ FKHPLVWU\ FDUHHU     The   stereotypical   chemistry   career   once   you   have   a   %DFKHORUVGHJUHHIROORZVRQHRIWZRURDGVVWUDLJKWLQWRLQGXVWU\RU VWUDLJKWLQWRJUDGXDWHVFKRRO(LWKHUZD\\RXÂśUHORRNLQJIRUZDUG WRVSHQGLQJPRVWRI\RXUMREKRXUVVLWWLQJDWWKHEHQFKUXQQLQJ UHDFWLRQ DIWHU UHDFWLRQ (YHQ DIWHU DFKLHYLQJ WKH OHYHO RI 3K' the  normative  career  follows  the  same   SDWWHUQFKRRVH PRUH DFDGHPLDRUJR into  industry,  and  be  prepared  to  spend   more   time   burrowed   in   that   fume   KRRG 7KH ÂżHOG RI VFLHQFH FRQWDLQV VRPDQ\PRUHSRVVLELOLWLHVWKDWVSDUN LQWHUHVW LQ EXUJHRQLQJ VFLHQWLVWV DQ\WKLQJ RXWVLGH WKLV QRUPDWLYH SDUDGLJPZKHQLWFRPHVWRFKHPLVWU\ careers   is   considered   alternative.     Chemjobber   is   the   SVHXGRQ\PRIDQLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQWLDOFKHPLFDO job-­analyst.     He   notes   that   the   time   WKDW SDVVHV IURP WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI XQGHUJUDGXDWHHGXFDWLRQWRWKHHQGRI UHFHLYLQJD3K'WDNHVPXFKPRUHWLPHWKDQWKHKDOIOLIHRIWKH PRGHUQULVHDQGIDOORIFKHPLFDOÂżHOGV,IGXULQJ\RXUVRSKRPRUH \HDUWKHFKHPLFDOFRPPXQLW\LVFU\LQJIRUPHGLFLQDOFKHPLVWVRU electrochemists,  the  chances  are  better  than  not  by  the  time  youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re   GRLQJ\RXUEHVWZRUNWKHUROHVDUHUHYHUVHG5DWKHUVXFKGHFLVLRQV RIZKHUHWRJRZLWKDFKHPLVWU\GHJUHHVKRXOGQRWEHPDGHEDVHG RQWKHÂł'LVFLSOLQHRIWKH:HHN´PHWKRGEXWDPRUHLQGHSWKVHDUFK RI WKH YDULRXV RSWLRQV DYDLODEOH WKDW ÂżW RQHÂśV SHUVRQDOLW\ )RU D PRUHTXDQWLWDWLYHORRNDWWKHFKHPLVWU\MREPDUNHW&KHPMREEHU SURYLGHV H[FHOOHQW FRYHUDJH KWWSFKHPMREEHUEORJVSRWFRP     7KHVHOLVWLQJVHQFRPSDVVRQO\DIUDFWLRQRIWKHRSWLRQV ZLWKRXW HYHQ H[SORULQJ WKH FKRLFHV DYDLODEOH LQ WKH ÂżHOGV RI WHDFKLQJ IRUHQVLFV RU FXUDWRU  1RU GR DQ\ RI WKH SURIHVVLRQV EHORZ GHQ\ WKH DSSHDO RI FDQRQLFDO ODE ZRUN LQ LQGXVWU\ RU DFDGHPLD%XWIRUVRPHWKHUHÂśVQRWKLQJOLNHWKHURDGOHVVWUDYHOOHG Technology  Specialist   )RUWKRVHWKDWZDQWWRVWD\FXUUHQWZLWKEUHDNLQJVFLHQWLÂżFDGYDQFH ZLWKRXWWKHKD]DUGDQGPRQRWRQ\RIWKHEHQFKSDWHQWODZRIIHUV DZHDOWKRIRSSRUWXQLW\$IWHUDEDFKHORURUPDVWHUVGHJUHHPDQ\ VFLHQWLVWVEHFRPHÂłWHFKQRORJ\VSHFLDOLVWV´7KHMRERIDWHFKQRORJ\ specialist   is   to   help   patent   lawyers   understand   an   invention.     8VHIXOQHVVVRPHOHYHORIFRPSOH[LW\DQGZKHWKHUVXFKDQLQYHQWLRQ RUVRPHWKLQJYHU\FORVHKDVDOUHDG\EHHQGRQHEHIRUHPXVWDOOEH determined  by  a  trained  chemist  in  order  to  help  obtain  a  patent.  The   MREUHTXLUHVWKHDELOLW\WRNHHSXSWRGDWHNQRZOHGJHLQFKHPLVWU\ 8 NU Science

DV ZHOO DV DQDO\WLFDO VNLOOV QRW WR PHQWLRQ WKH DELOLW\ WR H[SODLQ FKHPLVWU\DQGUHODWHGVFLHQFHVWRRWKHUVZLWKRXWVFLHQFHGHJUHHV Patent  Lawyer $ QH[W OHYHO H[LVWV DV ZHOO IRU WKRVH KXQJU\ IRU PRUH $IWHU D GHJUHHLQFKHPLVWU\PDQ\JRIRUDODZGHJUHHDVZHOOLQRUGHUWR become  a  full  patent  lawyer.  Most  established  intellectual  property   ÂżUPV RIIHU SURJUDPV ZKHUH D VHDVRQHG WHFKQRORJ\ VSHFLDOLVW FDQ DWWHQG ODZ VFKRRO DW QLJKW RQ WKH ODZ ÂżUPÂśV GLPH 7KH\ WKHQHPHUJHZLWKSDWHQWODZ\HUTXDOLÂżFDWLRQVVXFKDVSUHSDULQJ RU FKDOOHQJLQJ SDWHQWV OLWLJDWLRQ and   prosecution   (which   actually   PHDQV ÂżOLQJ LQ SDWHQW ODZ  ZKLOH UHWDLQLQJ WKH VFLHQWLÂżF NQRZOHGJH DQG EDFNJURXQGRIWKHLUFKHPLVWU\WUDLQLQJ Journal  Editor $VDSDWHQWODZ\HUIDFLOLWDWHVDQGJXDUGV WKH JDWHV RI LQWHOOHFWXDO SURSHUW\ WKH journal  editor  defends  and  promotes  the   VFLHQWLÂżFDUWLFOH,QWKHÂżHOGRIVFKRODUO\ SXEOLVKLQJ DOO WKH KRXVHV IURP JLDQWV such   as   Nature   and   Science   to   small   SXEOLFDWLRQV OLNH 7KH -RXUQDO RI 7XUER Encabulator   Research,   require   editors   ZLWKVFLHQWLÂżFEDFNJURXQGV7KHVHLQGLYLGXDOVSLFNRXWLPSRUWDQW DQGLPSDFWIXOSDSHUVDQGWKHQZRUNZLWKWKHOHDGLQJVFLHQWLVWVWR HGLW UHÂżQH DQG RSWLPL]H WKH SDSHU7KH MRXUQDO HGLWRU PXVW QRW only  be  up  to  date  with  the  latest  advancements  in  science  across   EURDGGLVFLSOLQHVEXWDOVRZKLFKH[SHULPHQWVZLOOKDYHWKHPRVW LPSDFWRQWKHLUUHVSHFWLYHÂżHOGV Science  Writer While   somewhat   recursive,   no   list   of   alternative   chemistry   FDUHHUV FRXOG FODLP WR EH VXIÂżFLHQW ZLWKRXW WKH VFLHQFH ZULWHU 1HZVSDSHUV PDJD]LQHV ZHEVLWHV DQG DOPRVW HYHU\ RWKHU IRUP RI MRXUQDOLVP RXWOHW QRZ KDYH UHJXODU XSGDWHV RQ VFLHQFH HYHQ LI LW QRW WKH PDLQ IRFXV 2Q WKH RWKHU H[WUHPH OLH VHUYLFHV VXFK DV 1HZ 6FLHQWLVW RU 3RSXODU 6FLHQFH ZKRVH VSHFLDOL]DWLRQ perfectly   connects   with   a   chemistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   education.     The   classic   free-­lancer   option   offers   even   more   options   with   the   advent   of   EORJJLQJ DQG VRFLDO QHWZRUNLQJ 6FLHQFH ZULWHUV SXW QRW RQO\ WKHLU FKHPLFDO DQG RWKHU VFLHQWLÂżF NQRZOHGJH LQWR WKHLU ZRUN EXW WKHLU GDWDPLQLQJ UHVHDUFKLQJ DQG DQDO\WLFDO VNLOOV DV ZHOO     A   Ph.D.,   theoretically,   pushes   the   boundaries   of   human   NQRZOHGJHLQDVSHFLÂżFÂżHOGRIDVSHFLÂżFGLVFLSOLQHDQGVSHQGV  \HDUV GRLQJ VROHO\ WKDW &RQWUDVW WKLV WR WKH VFLHQFH ZULWHU ZKR KDV D QHZ VSHFLDOW\ HYHU\ ZHHN RU PRQWK 2QH GHDGOLQH \RXNQRZDOOWKHODWHVWUHVHDUFKWKHUHLVRQDONDOLQHSKRVSKDWDVH PXWDWLRQIRULQFUHDVHGHIÂżFLHQF\LQPHGLFLQDOWHVWLQJDQGWKHQH[W

Science  Artist :KHUH GR \RX WKLQN WKH LOOXVWUDWLRQV RQ WKH FRYHU RI ERRNV

and  hidden   inside   their   chapters   come   from?   For   those   with   a   more   steady   hand,   the   career   of   a   science   artist   allows   the   best   of   both   worlds   from   science   and   art   to   be   combined.   $ SOHWKRUD RI RSSRUWXQLWLHV H[LVW UDQJLQJ PXVHXP H[KLELWV WH[WERRNV QRYHOV DQG HYHQ FRPPLVVLRQHG GHVLJQV IRU WDWWRRV  

-­Nicholas  DeLateur,  Chemistry,  2014

M usic: Drug Use Yo u r Mom Woul d Sup p o rt M

XVLF LV KLJKO\ YDOXHG DFURVV DOO KXPDQ FXOWXUHV 7KH VSHFLÂżF VRXQGV YDU\ ZLGHO\ even  within   cultures.   My   mom   loves   to   listen   WR *UHJRULDQ FKDQWLQJ ,ÂśG UDWKHU EH LQYROYHG in   an   automobile   accident,   but   I   do   love   The   6WURNHV 7KH FRQFHSW LV WKH VDPH WKRXJK DQ DEVWUDFW VWLPXOXV LQYRNHV D SOHDVXUDEOH UHVSRQVH    6R LV PXVLF D GUXJ" 1HZ UHVHDUFK published   last   month   in   Nature   Neuroscience   E\ 6DOLPSRRU DQG %HQRYR\ LQGLFDWHV D VWURQJ VLPLODULW\ 'UXJV VH[ DQG HDWLQJ KDYH ORQJ EHHQ NQRZQ WR SURGXFH SOHDVXUH E\ UHOHDVLQJ dopamine   in   the   mesolimbic   system,   commonly   WKRXJKW RI DV WKH ÂłUHZDUG SDWKZD\´  7KHVH DUH WDQJLEOH VWLPXOL WKDW SURPRWH RU RXU ERGLHV WKLQN WKH\ SURPRWH  VXUYLYDO 0XVLF WKRXJK LV DEVWUDFW ,W IHHOV JRRG WR OLVWHQ EXW LW GRHVQÂśW provide   us   with   safety,   nutrition,   or   reproduction.    7RWHVWZKDWQHXUDOSDWKZD\VDUHHQJDJHG GXULQJPXVLFDOHQMR\PHQW6DOLPSRRUDQG%HQRYR\ ÂżUVWKDGWKHLUWHVWJURXSVHOHFWWKHLUIDYRULWHPXVLF A   â&#x20AC;&#x153;musical   frissonâ&#x20AC;?   test   was   used   to   identify   PRPHQWVRISHDNSOHDVXUHÂąLI\RXJHWÂłFKLOOV´RQ KHDULQJ Âł'21Âś7 6723 Âą %(/,(9,1*´ \RXÂśUH DFWXDOO\ H[SHULHQFLQJ D PHDVXUDEOH SK\VLRORJLFDO UHVSRQVH     Brain   activity   was   then   measured   as   subjects   OLVWHQHG WR WKHLU FKRVHQ SLHFH 7ZR W\SHV RI EUDLQ LPDJLQJ ZHUH XVHG 3(7 VFDQV ZHUH XVHG IRU WKHLU SUHFLVLRQ RYHU time,   while   fMRIs   were   used   for   their   neural   precision.   The   UHVXOWV ZHUH FRPELQHG WR DFFXUDWHO\ GHWHUPLQH H[DFWO\ ZKDW WKH EUDLQ ZDV GRLQJ DW ZKDW SRLQW LQ WKH OLVWHQLQJ H[SHULHQFH     Two   different   neurochemical   responses   were   GLVFRYHUHG ,Q WKH DQWLFLSDWRU\ VWDJH Âą OHDGLQJ XS WR WKH VXEMHFWÂśV IDYRULWH SDUW RI WKH VRQJ Âą GRSDPLQH ZDV UHOHDVHG LQ the   dorsal   striatum.   In   previous   studies,   the   dorsal   striatum   has   EHHQ OLQNHG WR OHDUQLQJ DQG DFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ 5HVHDUFKHUV DW 83HQQKDYHVSHFLÂżFDOO\OLQNHGLWWRFRFDLQHFUDYLQJVLQDGGLFWV    'XULQJ WKH SHDN SOHDVXUH VWDJHV PHDVXUHG E\ the   musical   frission   response),   dopamine   was   released   in   the   ventral   striatum.   It   is   not   clear   what   role   the   ventral   VWULDWXP SOD\V LQ WKH UHZDUG SDWKZD\ WKRXJK D SUHYLRXV VWXG\ VKRZHG LW LV VWURQJO\ OLQNHG WR VHQVDWLRQV RI HXSKRULD associated   with   amphetamine   use   in   non-­addicted   individuals.     Research   has   been   done   previously   on   the  

topic.  In   2004,   researchers   showed   that   pleasant   music   ORZHUV EORRG SUHVVXUH LQ UDWV 7KH\ VXJJHVWHG WKLV UHVSRQVH PLJKW EH GXH LQ SDUW WR WKH GRSLPDQHUJLF V\VWHP    ,Q  D VWXG\ VXJJHVWHG WKDW DFWLYDWLRQ LQ WKH YHQWUDO striatum   correlated   with   intensity   of   self-­reported   pleasurable   response   to   music.   It   also   showed   that   the   nucleus   accumbens   DJDLQ LPSOLFDWHG LQ FRFDLQH DGGLFWLRQ  ZDV DFWLYDWHG EXW WKHLU 3(7 VFDQV GLGQœW KDYH HQRXJK UHVROXWLRQ WR SLQSRLQW DFWLYLW\    7KH DFFXUDF\ RI WKH GXDO LPDJLQLQJ XVHG LQ WKH Nature   Neuroscience LV D VLJQL¿FDQW OHDS IURP VHOIUHSRUWLQJ DQG JHQHUDO mesolimbic   activity.   This   allowed   researchers   to   see   the   distinct   VWDJHV RI WKH SOHDVXUH UHVSRQVH ZLWKRXW WKH ELDV RI D VHOIUHSRUW The   pattern   of   anticipation   and   release   furthers   the   theory   that   WKHUH LV D ELRORJLFDO VLPLODULW\ EHWZHHQ GUXJ XVH DQG OLVWHQLQJ WR PXVLF ,W PDNHV VHQVH HVSHFLDOO\ LI \RXœYH HYHU WULHG WR WXUQ RII VRPHRQHœV IDYRULWH VRQJ ³ULJKW DW WKH JRRG SDUW´ 2QO\ DQ addict   could   respond   so   violently   to   a   60-­second   pleasure   delay.    

-­  Cat  Ferguson,  Behavioral  Neuroscience,  2013

NU Science 9


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Atoms  of  Antimatter  Trapped   for  the  First  Time I

QIDOORIWKHYHU\ÂżUVWDWRPVRIDQWLPDWWHUZHUHWUDSSHGat  WKH/DUJH+DGURQ&ROOLGHU /+& DW&(517KLVLVDELJVWHS IRUZDUGLQWKHUHDOPRISK\VLFDOUHVHDUFK/LWWOHLVNQRZQDERXW antimatter  aside  from  a  few  very  popular  facts  such  as  annihila-­ tion.  This  concept  says  that  if  any  of  it  were  to  come  into  contact   ZLWKUHJXODUPDWWHUVD\DQDVWHURLGRUWKHDLUWKDWPDNHVXSRXU atmosphere,  an  equivalent  amount  of  both  types  of  matter  would   ÂłDQQLKLODWH´RUFRQYHUWWROLJKW7KHDPRXQWRIHQHUJ\FRQWDLQHG LQWKHOLJKWPDGHZRXOGEHHTXLYDOHQWWRWKHPDVVLQYROYHGPRY-­ LQJDWWKHVSHHGRIOLJKW DVVHHQLQ(LQVWHLQÂśV( 0& 7KLVLVDQ XQIDWKRPDEO\KXJHFRQYHUVLRQIDFWRU+DOIDJUDPRILW DVPDOO EXWWHUĂ&#x20AC;\  SODFHG VXGGHQO\ KHUH RQ (DUWK ZRXOG UHFUHDWH WKH LQ-­ IDPRXV DWRPLF ERPELQJ RI +LURVKLPD 7KH ELJJHVW ERPE HYHU detonated,  the  1961  USSR  test  bomb  â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tsar  Bomba,â&#x20AC;?  would  only   UHTXLUHNLORJUDPVRIWKHVWXII²MXVWRYHUWKDWRI\RXUDYHU-­ DJH QHWERRN7KDW H[SORVLRQ ZRXOG OHYHO WKH VWDWH RI 5KRGH ,V-­ land.   Undoubtedly,   thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   still   much   to   learn   about   the   illusive   VXEVWDQFHDQGXQGHUVWDQGLQJWKHHOHPHQWDU\XQLWVWKDWPDNHLWXS LVWKHÂżUVWVWHS7KHUHDUHPDQ\NLQGVRISDUWLFOHVWKHPRVWLP-­ SRUWDQWRIZKLFKDUHWKHHOHPHQWDU\RQHVZKLFKOLQNWRJHWKHUWR IRUPHYHU\RWKHUSDUWLFOH7RGD\WKHNQRZQHOHPHQWDU\SDUWLFOHV DUH D SDUW\ RI  LQFOXGLQJ VL[ NLQGV RI TXDUNV DQGV HOHFWURQ KDYHDQHWHOHFWULFFKDUJH,WÂśVWKHVHSDUWLFOHVWKDWKDYHDVVRFLDWHG DQWLSDUWLFOHVZLWKSURSHUWLHVLGHQWLFDOH[FHSWIRUFKDUJHZKLFKLV HTXDO LQ PDJQLWXGH EXW RSSRVLWH LQ VLJQ 7KH UHPDLQLQJ VL[ HO-­ ementary  particles,  which  include  the  photon,  are  considered  to   be  their  own  antiparticles.    +DGURQVDUHSDUWLFOHVWKDWDUHPDGHRITXDUNV7KHVHFDQ EHFODVVLÂżHGDVEDU\RQVFRPSRVHGRIHLWKHUQRUPDORUDQWLTXDUN WULRV RU PHVRQV PDGH RI TXDUNDQWLTXDUN SDLUV 7KH SDUWLFOHV weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re  most  familiar  with  are  the  protons,  neutrons,  and  electrons.   Electrons  are  elementary  particles  and  their  anti-­parts  are  anti-­el-­ ementary  particles,  anti-­electrons  (also  called  positrons).  Protons   and  neutrons  are  baryon  hadrons  and  their  respective  antiprotons   and  antineutrons  are  combinations  of  the  anti  versions  of  the  three   TXDUNVWKDWPDNHWKHPXS 6FLHQWLVWV KDYH VSHFXODWHG RQ WKH SRVVLELOLW\ RI ÂłQHJDWLYH PDW-­ terâ&#x20AC;?  for  many  years  with  few  physical  results.  In  1928,  theoreti-­ FDOSK\VLFLVW3DXO'LUDFÂżUVWVWXPEOHGXSRQVRXQGPDWKHPDWLFDO HYLGHQFH IRU DQWLPDWWHU ZKLOH OD\LQJ GRZQ WKH IRXQGDWLRQ IRU TXDQWXPÂżHOGWKHRU\7KHWKHRU\ZKLFKPRGHOVWKHEHKDYLRURI YHU\VPDOOSDUWLFOHVPRYLQJDWUHODWLYLVWLFVSHHGV QHDUWKHVSHHG RI OLJKW  GHVFULEHG QRUPDO SDUWLFOHV DV OHDYLQJ HQHUJ\ KROHV RU GHÂżFLWVLQWKHXQLYHUVHE\YLUWXHRIH[LVWLQJZLWKPDVVDQGFKDUJH 7RSXWWKLQJVLQSHUVSHFWLYHLWZDVOLNHORRNLQJDWDEDVLQIXOORI OLTXLGRQRQHVLGHZLWKWKHRWKHULQH[SOLFDEO\HPSW\7KHPLVVLQJ HQHUJ\ZDVODWHULQWHUSUHWHGDVDQWLPDWWHUDQGYHULÂżHGH[SHULPHQ-­

10 NU Science

WDOO\LQE\&DUO'$QGHUVRQ$QGHUVRQÂśVH[SHULPHQWFRQ-­ VLVWHGRIDOORZLQJKLJKVSHHGFKDUJHGVXEDWRPLFSDUWLFOHVHQWHU-­ LQJHDUWKÂśVDWPRVSKHUHWRHQWHUDJDVÂżOOHGPDJQHWL]HGFKDPEHU 7KHFKDUJHVRQWKHSDUWLFOHVOHIWWUDLOVDVWKH\PRYHGWKURXJKWKH JDVVHVLQWKHFKDPEHUWKHFXUYHVGLFWDWHGE\HDFKSDUWLFOHÂśVLQGL-­ YLGXDOFKDUJHDQGPDVV6RPHWUDLOVUHVHPEOHGPLUURUYHUVLRQVRI electron  trails  and  thus  the  positron  was  born.  The  antiproton  was   YHULÂżHGLQDWWKH8QLYHUVLW\RI&DOLIRUQLD%HUNHOH\DQGWKH DQWLQHXWURQLQDW/DZUHQFH%HUNHOH\1DWLRQDO/DERUDWRU\  &UHDWLRQRIDQWLSDUWLFOHVERWKQDWXUDOO\DQGDUWLÂżFLDOO\ is  actually  just  as  common  as  that  of  normal  particles.  This  is  be-­ FDXVH PDWWHU LV DOZD\V IRUPHG LQ DQWLQRUPDO SDLUV 6DLG HYHQW RFFXUV ZKHQHYHU WKHUH LV D YHU\ GHQVH SUHVHQFH RI NLQHPDWLF HQHUJ\:KHQWKHVHFRQGLWLRQVDUHPHWHQHUJ\IURPWKHV\VWHP LV OLNHO\ WR EH FRQYHUWHG LQWR PDVV E\ WKH UHYHUVH RI (LQVWHLQÂśV HTXDWLRQ 1DWXUDOO\ WKLV PD\ RFFXU LQ ODUJH H[SORVLRQV LQ RXWHU VSDFH RU WKXQGHUVWRUPV KHUH RQ HDUWK$UWLÂżFLDOO\ LW KDSSHQV LQ SDUWLFOHDFFHOHUDWRUVZKHQFKDUJHGSDUWLFOHVDUHVODPPHGWRJHWKHU DW WUHPHQGRXV VSHHGV E\ PDJQHWLF ÂżHOGV LW KDSSHQV LQ SDUWLFOH DFFHOHUDWRUVZKHQFKDUJHGSDUWLFOHVDUHVODPPHGWRJHWKHUDWWUH-­ PHQGRXVVSHHGVE\PDJQHWLFÂżHOGV7KHPRYHPHQWRIDQWLSURWRQV and  positrons  is  easily  manipulated  upon  creation  by  controlled   PDJQHWLFÂżHOGVGXHWRWKHLUFKDUJH$WRPVRIDQWLK\GURJHQKDYH been  in  production  at  CERN  since  1995  but  because  of  their  neu-­ WUDOFKDUJHFRXOGQRWEHFRQWUROOHGDQGTXLFNO\YDQLVK  7KH UHFHQW H[SHULPHQW DW &(51 GXEEHG Âł$QWLK\GUR-­ JHQ/DVHU3K\VLFV$SSDUDWXV´ $/3+$ IRXQGDZD\DURXQGWKLV SUREOHPE\WDNLQJDGYDQWDJHRIWKHDWRPÂśVSRODUSURSHUWLHV$VD VWUXFWXUH FRPSRVHG RI WZR RSSRVLWHO\ FKDUJHG HQGV WKH K\GUR-­ JHQ DQWL RU RWKHUZLVH  DWRP LV DQ HOHFWULF GLSROH$QG EHFDXVH VDLGFKDUJHVDUHUHYROYLQJDERXWHDFKRWKHULWLVDOVRDPDJQHWLF GLSROH²WKHSK\VLFDOWHUPIRUDEDVLFELSRODUPDJQHW/LNHĂ&#x20AC;DJV LQ WKH ZLQG PDJQHWLF GLSROHV VSLQ LQ D PDJQHWLF ÂżHOG WR DOLJQ WKHPVHOYHV ZLWK WKH ÂżHOG WKLV LV H[DFWO\ KRZ FRPSDVVHV ZRUN ,QRUGHUWRDSSO\DSXVKLQJIRUFHUDWKHUWKDQDVSLQQLQJIRUFHDQG JDLQFRQWURORIWKHDWRPWKHPDJQHWLFÂżHOGPXVWEHQRQXQLIRUP RUGLIIHUHQWIURPSODFHWRSODFH7KLVLVDQDORJRXVWRVSLQQLQJD FRLQRQDGHVN,IERWKHQGVRIWKHFRLQDUHHTXDOO\WKUXVWWKHFRLQ will   (theoretically,   at   least)   spin   in   place.   If   one   end   is   pushed   more   than   the   other,   the   coin   should   both   spin   and   move.   This   is  the  essence  of  ALPHA.  Decelerated  positrons  and  antiprotons   DUH LQWURGXFHG WR WKH DSSDUDWXV MRLQ WR IRUP DQWLK\GURJHQ DQG WKHQJHQWO\VZD\EDFNDQGIRUWKLQWKHQRQXQLIRUPPDJQHWLFÂżHOG VHW XS E\ WKH GHYLFHÂśV RFWXSROH RU HLJKWHQG FXUUHQW PDJQHW ,Q principle,  this  could  have  been  accomplished  as  electric  dipoles   LQ DQ HOHFWULF ÂżHOG EXW LW LV PXFK KDUGHU WR FRQWURO DQ HOHFWULF ÂżHOG WKLV ZD\7KH SDUWLFOHV ZHUH GHWHFWHG E\ DOORZLQJ WKHP WR

hit  the  annihilation  detectors  that  encompass  the  machine.  The   H[SHULPHQW ZDV FUXGH \LHOGLQJ RQO\  VXFFHVVIXO SDUWLFOHV DIWHUXVLQJDERXWKDOIDWULOOLRQSRVLWURQVDQGDQWLSURWRQVLQ trials,  but  the  success  lies  in  the  proof-­of-­principle  which  will   SDYHWKHZD\IRUPRUHUHÂżQHGWHVWV 7KH DELOLW\ WR WUDS DQWLK\GURJHQ presents   opportunities   for   further,   in-­depth  studies.  Ultimately,  it  will   JLYHXVDEHWWHULQVLJKWWRWKHRULJLQ RIWKHXQLYHUVHDQGWKHLQQHUZRUN-­ LQJV RI WKH IXQGDPHQWDO IRUFHV which  will  lead  us  to  new  discover-­ LHV7KHPDWKHPDWLFVLQYROYHGVXJ-­ JHVW WKDW DQWLPDWWHU EH LQWHUSUHWHG DV QRUPDO PDWWHU WUDYHOLQJ ÂłEDFN-­ wardsâ&#x20AC;?   in   time,   a   curious   observa-­ tion  that  will  be  studied  more  thor-­ RXJKO\1HZLQIRUPDWLRQZLOODOVROHDGXVWRWKHGHYHORSPHQW RIPRUHSUDFWLFDOXVHVVXFKDVSRVLWURQHPLVVLRQWRSRJUDSK\ (PET).

 PET  places  radioactive  material  whose  decay  includes  posi-­ WURQVLQKXPDQERGLHVWRLPDJHRUJDQVE\WKHJDPPDUD\VUHOHDVHG XSRQ DQQLKLODWLRQ 6FLHQWLVWV DUH DOVR ORRNLQJ WR VWXG\ WKH DWRPLF structure  of  antimatter  in  order  to  compare  it  to  that  of  normal  matter.   )LQGLQJWKHOLJKWHPLVVLRQVSHFWUXPRIDQ-­ WLK\GURJHQZRXOGEHRQHRIWKHÂżUVWZD\V RIGRLQJWKLV7KLVFKHPLVWU\UHGRZLOODO-­ ORZXVWRFKHFNIRUGLVFUHSDQFLHVWKDWPD\ violate   universal   symmetry   laws   that   ac-­ count  for  the  symmetry  of  space,  time  and   HOHFWULFFKDUJH$VXVSLFLRQWKDWV\PPHWU\ PD\EHYLRODWHGOLHVLQWKHDSSDUHQWODFNRI antimatter  in  the  universe.  There  is  a  pos-­ sibility,   however,   that   far   way   structures,   SHUKDSVHYHQWKRVHYLVLEOHLQWKHQLJKWVN\ may   be   composed   of   antimatter.   If   this   were   the   case,   the   â&#x20AC;&#x153;antiâ&#x20AC;?   would   just   be   a   matter  of  perspective.   -­Edward  Nunez,  Physics,  2013

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WLVZHOONQRZQWKDWFRRNLQJLVFKHPLVWU\LQDFWLRQ5HFHQWO\DQHZ WHFKQLTXHLQFRRNLQJVZHHSLQJWKURXJKWKHFXOLQDU\DQGVFLHQWL¿F ZRUOGLVPROHFXODUJDVWURQRP\ 0* 0*ORRNVDWWKHVFLHQWL¿FSUR-­ FHVVHVEHKLQGHYHU\GD\UHDFWLRQVOLNHFRRNLQJDVSDUDJXV7KHFRORU EULJKWHQVZKHQSXWLQWRERLOLQJZDWHUEHFDXVHWKHDLUFHOOVRQWKHRXW-­ VLGH EXUVW EXW WXUQV WR JUD\ ZKHQ WKH KHDW VWDUWV WR EUHDN GRZQ WKH FHOOZDOO0DGHSRSXODUE\FRRNLQJVKRZVDQGSHUIHFWHGDWJRXUPHW GLQLQJHVWDEOLVKPHQWVPROHFXODUJDVWURQRP\LVDQHZFXOLQDU\JHQUH HPEUDFLQJ WKH VFLHQWL¿F DSSURDFK WR FRRNLQJ IRRG ,W LV D QHZ ZD\ WRDSSO\VFLHQWL¿FWHFKQLTXHVWRHYHU\GD\VLWXDWLRQV(VVHQWLDOO\WKH JRDORI0*LVWRGHWHUPLQHZK\FHUWDLQIRRGSUHSDUHGYLDDFHUWDLQ WHFKQLTXHWDVWHVORRNVDQGVPHOOVDFHUWDLQZD\DQGWRDSSO\WKHVFLHQ-­ WL¿FPHWKRGWRSURGXFHQXWULWLRXVGH-­ licious  food  with  the  minimum  amount   RI HIIRUW 7KLV LV XQOLNH IRRG VFLHQFH ZKLFKORRNVDWIRRGVDIHW\LQSURGXF-­ WLRQDQGQXWULWLRQ)RUH[DPSOHSODFLQJ DVSDUDJXV LQ ERLOLQJ ZDWHU EULJKWHQV WKHJUHHQFRORUEXWLILWœVRYHUFRRNHG WKH FRORU FKDQJHV WR JUD\ 0* DVNV ZK\WKHVHFKDQJHVLQFRORURFFXU  6FLHQWLVWVDQGFKHIVDOLNHDUH ORRNLQJLQWRPROHFXODUJDVWURQRP\WR RSWLPL]H WKH WDVWH RI WKH IRRG ZH HDW WKURXJKLWVSUHSDUDWLRQ7KHGLVFLSOLQH involves   the   chemical   reactions   that   WDNH SODFH WUDQVIRUPLQJ UDZ LQJUHGLHQWV WR D ¿QDO HGLEOH PHDO 0* HVVHQWLDOO\WXUQVFRRNLQJLQWRDQH[SHULPHQWWHVWLQJROGZLYHVWDOHV DQGXWLOL]LQJQHZWRROVDQGLQJUHGLHQWVLQWKHNLWFKHQVXFKDVJHOOLQJ DJHQWV DQG OLTXLG QLWURJHQ 7KLV DSSURDFK GLYLGHV UHFLSHV LQWR PXO-­ WLSOHSDUWV)LUVWRQHORRNVDWWKHLQJUHGLHQWVRIDGLVKOLNHSHDUMDP VXFK DV WKH PDNHXS RI SHDUV DV WKH\ DUH KHDWHG LQ VXJDU DQG ZDWHU 1H[WRQHORRNVDWWKHSURFHVVHVLQYROYHGLQWKHWUDQVLWLRQWKDWWDNHV

SODFHWRJHWIURPLQJUHGLHQWVWRGLVKZKLFKKDYHEHHQGXEEHG ÂłSUHFLVLRQV´0ROHFXODUJDVWURQRPLVWVDOVRSDVV RYHUJHQHUDO WHUPVLQIDYRURIPRUHWHFKQLFDOGLFWLRQZKHQGHVFULELQJWKHLU food.  A  dish  is  made  up  of  â&#x20AC;&#x153;colloidsâ&#x20AC;?,  where  a  basic  colloid  is   RQHSKDVH HLWKHUJDVVROLGRUOLTXLG $QGDSODWHLVPDGHRI VHYHUDOFROORLGV)RUH[DPSOHPD\RQQDLVHLVDQH[DPSOHRID EDVLFFROORLG0RUHVSHFLÂżFDOO\LWLVDQRLOLQZDWHUHPXOVLRQ  $ SDUW RI 0* LV WHVWLQJ ÂłSUHFLVLRQV´ IRU VFLHQWLÂżF WUXWK)RUH[DPSOHPDQ\FKHIVKDYHVD\LQJVDERXWZKDWWHP-­ SHUDWXUH PD\RQQDLVH VKRXOG EH FRRNHG LQ ZLWK UHDOO\ QR VFL-­ HQWLÂżF UHDVRQLQJ EHKLQG WKHP 7R FKHFN LI FRRNLQJ DW URRP WHPSHUDWXUH ZRXOG UHVXOW LQ SRRU PD\RQQDLVH WKH VFLHQWLÂżF PHWKRG ZDV DSSOLHG $Q H[SHULPHQW LQYROYHGFRRNLQJPD\RQQDLVHZLWKLQ-­ JUHGLHQWVDWGLIIHUHQWWHPSHUDWXUHVZDV carried   out   and   the   observations   re-­ corded.  The  conclusion  was  that  tem-­ perature  had  no  effect  on  mayonnaise   quality  because  oil-­in-­water  emulsions   DUH VWDEOH RYHU D ZLGH UDQJH RI WHP-­ peratures.   Temperature   only   becomes   DIDFWRUDWRLOÂśVIUHH]LQJSRLQWRUDWWKH temperature  where  proteins  denature.     These   precisions   or   preconceived   Arizona Foothills Magazinenotions   of   how   to   carry   out   a   recipe   UHVXOWIURPIDLOXUHV0*ORRNVDWZK\ these  failures  occur  and  what  precisions  are  true.    In  the  near   IXWXUHWKHDSSOLFDWLRQRIWKHVFLHQWLÂżFPHWKRGWRWKHFXOLQDU\ arts   will   produce   new   unique   dishes   that   will   transcend   the   JRXUPHWFLUFXLWDQGHQWHULQWRWKHKRPHVRIWKHDYHUDJHIDP-­ ily.     -­Tara  Dhingra,  Biochemistry,  2012 NU Science 11


Review: Dr. Derek Lowe’s

Things I Wonít Work With A

SHUHQQLDOFRXUVHWKUXVWXSRQXQGHUJUDGXDWHVRIPRVWVFLHQ-­ WL¿FPDMRUVIURPELRORJ\WRFKHPLFDOHQJLQHHULQJLVRUJDQ-­ ic chemistry,   complete   with   lab.   The   lab   section   is   not   what   is   GUHDGHGKRZHYHUDQGZK\VKRXOGLWEH"7KHH[HUFLVHVDUHUHOD-­ WLYHO\VLPSOHQRWWRRORQJDQGSHUKDSVPRVWLPSRUWDQWO\DUHQRW GHDGO\&RPSRXQGVVXFKDVFRQFHQWUDWHGVXOIXULFDFLGDQGGLD]R-­ nium  salts  should  always  be  treated  with  respect  and  care,  even  if   DEODVWVKLHOGLVQRWUHTXLUHG&KHPLFDOVH[LVWKRZHYHUWKDWYHU\ IHZSHRSOHLQWKHLUULJKWPLQGZRXOGWRXFKZLWKDIRRWSROH made  of  solid  steel.    (QWHU 'U 'HUHN /RZH¶V 7KLQJV , :RQ¶W :RUN :LWK 7KHVHVHULHVRIEORJSRVWVE\DVHDVRQHGRUJDQLFFKHPLVWJDLQHG DWWHQWLRQZLWKWKHLUDPXVLQJDQGDODUPLQJDFFRXQWVRIPDWHULDOV WKDWQRRQHVKRXOGZRUNZLWKDQG\HWKDYHSDSHUVSXEOLVKHGH[-­ SODLQLQJWKHLUV\QWKHVLV  6WDUWLQJZLWKDFODVVLFWKH¿UVWFRPSRXQGLVK\GURJHQ ÀXRULGH +) 1RWK\GURÀRXULFDFLGPLQG\RXZKLFKLV+)GLV-­ VROYHG LQ ZDWHU +\GURÀRXULF DFLG¶V PRVW LQIDPRXV TXDOLW\ OLHV ZLWKLQLWVDELOLW\WRGLVVROYHJODVV6\QWKHVLVRIK\GURÀRXULFDFLG LQDJODVVURXQGERWWRPÀDVNZRXOGQRWEHDGYLVHG:LWKRXWEHLQJ GLVVROYHGLQZDWHU+)LVDJDVDQGDUDWKHUQDVW\RQH $OWKRXJKQRWDQREOHJDVH[SOLFLWO\HOHPHQWDOQLWURJHQ¿QGVJUHDW VWDELOLW\LQIRUPLQJDGLDWRPLFJDVZLWKLWVHOI/LNHR[\JHQQLWUR-­ JHQJDVGRHVQRWFRQVLVWRIVLQJOHQLWURJHQPROHFXOHVEXWUDWKHU WZROLQNHGWRJHWKHUYHU\PXFKKDSS\ZLWKWKHLUDUUDQJHPHQW1L-­ WURJHQLVIUHTXHQWO\XVHGZKHQDQDHURELFFRQGLWLRQVDUHQHHGHG DQGWKHUHDUHFRQFHUQVZLWKDUHDJHQWUHDFWLQJZLWKWKHDWPRVSKHU-­ LFFRQGLWLRQV:LWKWKDWVPDOOSULPHUZHIDFHWKHSRO\D]LGHVDQG RWKHUQLWURJHQFRQWDLQLQJVWUXFWXUHV  $Q D]LGH FRQVLVWV RI WKUHH QLWURJHQ DWRPV ERQGHG LQ D URZ7KRVHWZRHQGDWRPV¿QGLWH[WUHPHO\WHPSWLQJWROHDYHWKH FRQVWULFWHG PROHFXOH DQG EH IUHH DV VWDEOH QLWURJHQ JDV ,W ZLOO QRW UHDFW IXUWKHU EXW LW ZLOO TXLFNO\ DQG YLROHQWO\ VHDUFK IRU DQ H[LWWKURXJKZKDWHYHUEDUULHUKDVLWFRQWDLQHGLHH[SORGH(YHQ FRPSRXQGVZLWKVXFKDKLJKUDWLRRID]LGHVWRFDWLRQVDVWLWDQLXP WHWUDD]LGHKDYHEHHQV\QWKHVL]HG3URSHUVDIHW\SURWRFROGXULQJ WKHV\QWKHVLVRISRO\D]LGHVFDOOVIRU³JRJJOHVEODVWVKLHOGIDFH VKLHOGOHDWKHUVXLW  DQGHDUSOXJV´&\DQRJHQD]LGHDOVRPDNHV WKH OLVW ZLWK RQO\ RQH SRRU FDUERQ WR NHHS WDPH DOO IRXU RWKHU QLWURJHQRQHFDQVHHZK\WKHERLOLQJSRLQWIRU&1KDVQRWEHHQ UHFRUGHG DV RI \HW 6DOWV RI &1 PDNHV DQ DSSHDUDQFH DQG 'U /RZH YLYLGO\ JLYHV H[DPSOHV RI MXVW KRZ HDVLO\ DQ\WKLQJ DQ\-­ RQHGRHVDQ\ZKHUHLQWKHODEZLOOPDNHWKHPH[SORGH$VVXUHGO\

12 NU Science

WKLVGRHVQRWHQGKLVLQTXLU\LQWRSUHFDULRXVQLWURJHQFRQWDLQLQJ PROHFXOHVWKDWKHUHIXVHVWRZRUNZLWK1RWDOOWKHQLWURJHQKDV WREHLQD]LGHV6RPHWLPHVDOOWKHQLWURJHQDWRPVDUHFRYDOHQWO\ ERQGHGWRRQHDQRWKHU6LWXDWLRQVVXFKDVWKLVH[WHQGRXUOLVWRI FRPSRXQGVWRUXQWKHFRPSOHWHRSSRVLWHGLUHFWLRQIURP2QHVXFK FRPSRXQGOLQNVHLJKWQLWURJHQWRJHWKHU,GRQRWNQRZLIWKH\DUH JRLQJIRUWKHZRUOGUHFRUGEXW,GRXEWWKHUHLVWRRPXFKFRPSHWL-­ WLRQLQWKH¿HOG  &RPSXWDWLRQDOFKHPLVWU\DOORZVWKHUHVHDUFKDQGH[SOR-­ UDWLRQRIPROHFXOHVWKDWGRQRWH[LVWRUPRUHLPSRUWDQWO\VKRXOG QRW'LR[\JHQGLÀRXULGHRU)22)UHVLGHVLQWKH¿HOGRIPROH-­ cules that  one  should  only  run  on  simulations  rather  than  create  in   DODE%HVLGHVEORZLQJXSDWWHPSHUDWXUHVDURXQGƒ&ƒ ) LW ZLOO DOVR EXUQH[SORGH DQ\WKLQJ DQG HYHU\WKLQJ LW IDOOV RQ 6LPLODUO\FKORULQHWULÀRXULGHFKDUPLQJO\GHVFULEHGDV³WKHPRVW YLJRURXVÀXRULQDWLQJDJHQWNQRZQDQGLVPXFKPRUHGLI¿FXOWWR KDQGOHWKDQÀXRULQHJDV´DORQJZLWK³DVWURQJHUR[LGL]LQJDJHQW WKDQR[\JHQLWVHOI´PDNHVWKHOLVWRI³FKHPLFDOVWKDWFDQVHWDQ\-­ WKLQJQRUHDOO\DQ\WKLQJRQ¿UH´,WVKDUHVWKHSHFXOLDUTXDOLW\RI EHLQJFDSDEOHRIEXUQLQJZHWVDQGZLWKWKHUPLWHDQGRWKHUVHOI FRQWDLQLQJR[LGL]LQJFKHPLFDOV 2WKHUUHDJHQWVPHQWLRQHGLQFOXGHQLFNHOFDUERQ\OSXUHOLTXLGK\-­ GURJHQ F\DQLGH FDUERQ GLVHOHQLGH 0DJLF 0HWK\O WKLRDFHWRQH DQG GLPHWK\O ]LQF 2YHUDOO WKH VHULHV SURYLGHV DQ HQWHUWDLQLQJ window  into  the  life  and  reactions  of  some  of  the  more  adrena-­ OLQHVHHNLQJUHVHDUFKFKHPLVWV'U/RZH¶VFRPPHQWDU\IURPWKH SHUVSHFWLYHRIDEHQFKFKHPLVWZLWKDIDLUDPRXQWRIH[SHULHQFH ZRUNLQJZLWKYRODWLOHRUFRUURVLYHPDWHULDOVJLYHVDFOHDUDQGKX-­ PRURXVDFFRXQWZLWKRXWHYHUORVLQJUHVSHFWIRUWKHVHGDQJHURXV FKHPLFDOV,I\RX¶YHHYHUIRXQG\RXUVHOIFRPSODLQLQJDERXW\RXU FKHPLVWU\ODERUMREWKHQWKHVHDUWLFOHVPLJKWKHOS\RXJDLQVRPH perspective.    6RPHWLPHV ZRUN ZLWK GDQJHURXV RU H[SORVLYH UHDJHQWV EHFRPHVDQHFHVVLW\2XWRIWKHPLOOLRQVRIFKHPLFDOVV\QWKHVL]HG HYHU\GD\IRUWKHLQGXVWULDOL]HGZRUOGWRNHHSWXUQLQJPDQ\FRPH IURPWR[LFÀDPPDEOHRUYRODWLOHVWDUWLQJPDWHULDOVRUSURFHVVHV Paints,  fuels,  and  ammonium  perchlorate  come  to  mind  as  some   H[DPSOHV+RZHYHUZKHUHLQGXVWU\SXUVXHVSUR¿WDQGEXVLQHVV LQDFDGHPLDWKHUH¶VQRWPXFKLIDQ\¿QDQFLDOJDLQWRSXVKWKH ERXQGDULHV RI PDQNLQG¶V NQRZOHGJH RI H[SORVLYH RUJDQLF FRP-­ SRXQGV6WLOOWKHUH¶OODOZD\VEHDWOHDVWRQHSHUVRQLQWHUHVWLQJLQ ULVNLQJLWIRUWKHVDNHRIVFLHQFH,¶OOEHVXSSRUWLQJ'U/RZHIURP RQHWRZQRYHUWKRXJK -­Nicholas  DeLateur,  Chemistry,  2014

Understanding Neglected Diseases and the Pharmaceutical Industry An Interview with Dr. Michael Pollastri NU Science:  As  a  relatively  new  professor  on  campus,  what   DWWUDFWHG\RXWRWKH¿HOGRIPHGLFLQDOFKHPLVWU\"   'U3ROODVWUL,ZDVWUDLQHGDVDQRUJDQLFFKHPLVWDQGWKHQ,ZHQW WRLQGXVWU\,ZRUNHGDW3¿]HUDQGGLGGUXJGLVFRYHU\IRUDERXW  \HDUV , JRW LQWR WKH ¿HOG EHFDXVH , ZDV LQWHUHVWHG LQ ¿QGLQJ DSSOLFDWLRQVIRURUJDQLFFKHPLVWU\DQG,ZDVDOZD\VGUDZQWRWKH LQWHUIDFHEHWZHHQFKHPLVWU\DQGELRORJ\$OVR,DPLQWHUHVWHG LQZKDWZHZRXOGFDOOWUDQVODWLRQDOUHVHDUFKE\WKDW,PHDQJHW-­ WLQJ D FRQFHSW IURP DQ LGHD LQWR VRPHWKLQJWKDWLVJRLQJWRLPSDFW SDWLHQW FDUH 6R , MRLQHG 3¿]HU DV D PHGLFLQDO FKHPLVW , ZRUNHG there  for  a  few  years  as  a  master’s   OHYHOFKHPLVW$QGWKHQ,DOVRJRW my  Ph.D.  while  at  Brown,  sort  of   OLNH D FRRS 3K' DFWXDOO\   0\ SULPDU\IRFXVDWWKH3¿]HUVLWHLQ &DPEULGJHZDVZKDWLVFDOOHGµKLW to  lead’  medicinal  chemistry.  This   LQYROYHG WDNLQJ KLJKWKURXJKSXW VFUHHQLQJ UHVXOWV YHU\ HDUO\ VWDJ-­ HVDQGJHWWLQJWRWKHSRLQWZKHUH the  company  would  decide  if  they   ZDQWXVWRFRQWLQXHZRUNLQJRQWKH SURMHFWRUQRW:HFDOOLW³WDUJHWYDO-­ LGDWLRQ¶RUµSURRIRIFRQFHSW¶7KH GUXJLQGXVWU\LVFRQWUDFWLQJSUHWW\ VHULRXVO\ ULJKW QRZ IRU D QXPEHU of   reasons.  There   have   been   a   lot   RIQHZGUXJVEURXJKWRXWWKDWFDQ-­ not   support   the   infrastructure   that   WKH GUXJ FRPSDQLHV KDYH EXLOW VR WKH\ DUH OD\LQJ RII WKRXVDQGV RI SHRSOH,OHIWLQVRUWRIVHH-­ LQJ WKDW LW ZDV FRPLQJ , GHFLGHG that   I   wanted   to   A)   start   an   aca-­ demic   career   where   I   would   have   PRUHFRQWURORYHUP\GHVWLQ\DQG% ZRUNRQQHJOHFWHGGLVHDVHV ,ORRNDWLWIURPDPRUDOSHUVSHFWLYHZH¶UHWKHULFKHVWQDWLRQLQ the  world  and  the  fact  of  the  matter  is  that  in  the  25  years  period   IURPWKHUHZHUHRUVRQHZWKHUDSHXWLFVEURXJKW WR PDUNHW  2XW RI WKRVH RQO\  ZHUH IRU QHJOHFWHG GLVHDVHV &OHDUO\WKHUHLVDJDSZKHUHRIWKHKHDOWKFDUHGROODUDIIHFWV RQO\  RI WKH SRSXODWLRQ D KXJH GLVSDULW\ 6R , VDLG IURP D PRUDOSHUVSHFWLYHµ,ZDQWWRDSSO\P\LQWHUHVWVDQGVNLOOVWRWU\-­ LQJWRLPSURYHWKHOLYHVRISHRSOHLQDVPDOOZD\¶%HFDXVHGUXJ

GLVFRYHU\LVKDUGULJKW"<RXPD\QHYHUGLVFRYHUDGUXJEXWWKH SRLQWLVDWOHDVW\RXDUHZRUNLQJWRZDUGVLW6RZKHQ,OHIW3¿]HU ,ZHQWWR%RVWRQ8QLYHUVLW\DQGVWDUWHGDUHVHDUFKSURJUDPDQG DPHGLFLQDOFKHPLVWU\FHQWHUIRUDFRXSOHRI\HDUV7KHQ,JRW IXQGLQJIURPWKH1,+ 1DWLRQDO,QVWLWXWHVRI+HDOWK WRZRUNRQ DSURMHFWZLWKDFROODERUDWRUWRGHYHORSQHZGUXJVIRUVOHHSLQJ VLFNQHVVDQGXOWLPDWHO\FDPHKHUHWR1RUWKHDVWHUQRQDWHQXUH WUDFNSRVLWLRQ NU Science:  You  mentioned  sleeping  sickness  and  neglected   diseases,   could   you   clarify   the   dif-­ ference  between  a  neglected  disease   DQGDUDUHRQH" 'U3ROODVWUL1HJOHFWHGGLVHDVHVFRP-­ prise  a  collection  of  diseases  for  which   WKH :RUOG +HDOWK 2UJDQL]DWLRQ KDV VDLG µZH QHHG QHZ GUXJV EXW WKHUH DUH QR QHZ GUXJV LQ WKH SLSHOLQH¶ 7KH\ DUH QHJOHFWHG EHFDXVH PRVW RI WKH ELRSKDUPDFHXWLFDO ZRUN LV GRQH for   the   developed   world   and   have   primarily   been   focused   on   so   called   ³EORFNEXVWHUV´7KHVHDUHGUXJVWKDW you  can  sell  to  a  lot  of  people  who  can   SD\ D ORW RI PRQH\ IRU WKHP WKLQJV OLNHGLDEHWHVFDQFHUDQGHUHFWLOHG\V-­ function.    1HJOHFWHGGLVHDVHVDUHWKRVH where   there   is   no   money   to   pay   for   DQ\WKLQJ EDVLFDOO\ <RX QHHG WR EH able   to   provide   medications   for   free   or  very  low  cost.    There  is  no  money   GLUHFWHG IRU UHVHDUFK IRU QHZ GUXJV from  the  industry  because  there  is  no   ¿QDQFLDOXSVLGHWRWKLVDQGWKH\ZRXOG ORVHDORWRIPRQH\GRLQJLW<RXSXW XSELOOLRQVRIGROODUVRQGUXJGLVFRY-­ HU\DQG\RXFDQ¶WVHOODQ\WKLQJ7KDW FOHDUO\LVQRWDZD\WRVWD\LQEXVLQHVV,WLVQRWWRMXGJHWKHSKDU-­ maceutical  industry  certainly,  they  have  their  business  model  and   WKH\DUHUHVSRQVLEOHWRWKHLUVKDUHKROGHUVDQGWKHUHLVQR¿QDQFLDO GULYLQJIRUFH+RZHYHUWKHUHLVDJRRGDPRXQWRI35WKDWFDQ EHREWDLQHGE\GUXJFRPSDQLHVVXSSRUWLQJWKLVNLQGRIUHVHDUFK LQWKHH[WHUQDOHQYLURQPHQW)RUH[DPSOHDGUXJFRPSDQ\FDQ VSRQVRUXVDQGQRWGRWKHUHVHDUFKWKHPVHOYHVLQVWHDGVHQGLQJ ELWVRIPRQH\RUUHVRXUFHVWRSHRSOHOLNHXVLQWKHQRQSUR¿WVHF-­ tor.   NU Science 13


1HJOHFWHGGLVHDVHVDIIHFWRQO\WKHSRRUHVWSDUWVRIWKHZRUOG,Q-­ FOXGLQJPDODULDPLOOLRQVDQGPLOOLRQVRISHRSOHDUHH[SRVHGWR GLVHDVHVZLWKWKHUDSHXWLFVWKDWDUHMXVWQRWJUHDW7RJLYH\RXDQ LGHDLQ$IULFDQVOHHSLQJVLFNQHVV\RXJHWELWE\DWVHWVHÃ&#x20AC;\DQG DFTXLUHÃ&#x20AC;XOLNHV\PSWRPVDQGIHHOORXV\IRUDFRXSOHRIZHHNV ,Q VXE6DKDUDQ$IULFD QRERG\ JRHV WR WKH GRFWRU ZLWK Ã&#x20AC;XOLNH symptoms  because  they  must  travel  for  miles  and  miles,  often  on   IRRWWRJHWDGRFWRU7KHV\PSWRPVJRDZD\IRUDVKRUWSHULRG DQGOLIHJRHVRQ%XWVRPHWLPHODWHUWKHSDUDVLWHV FDOOHG7U\-­ panosoma  brucei)  invade  your  nervous  system  and  cause  mental   GLVWXUEDQFHVDQGVOHHSLQHVVDPRQJRWKHUFOXHVDQGWKHQLI\RX DUHQRWWUHDWHG\RXGLH,WLVEDGIDWDOXQOHVV\RXDUHWUHDW-­ HG 'XULQJ WKH EORRGVWUHDP IRUP RI WKH GLVHDVH WKH ¿UVW VWDJH \RXIHHOORXV\DQGWKHUHDUHGUXJVDYDLODEOHWKDWFDQEHWDNHQEXW PRVWSHRSOHGRQ¶WWDNHWKHPEHFDXVHWKH\GRQ¶WVHHWKHGRFWRU 0RVWSHRSOHFRPHZKHQWKH\KDYHWKHVWDJHWZRV\PSWRPV$QG WKHUHDUHWZRGUXJVWKDWDUHFXUUHQWO\XVHGIRUWKLVRQHLVFDOOHG PHODUVRSUROLWLVDQDUVHQLFEDVHGGUXJ<RXGRQ¶WKDYHWREHD GRFWRUWRNQRZWKDWDUVHQLFLVDEDGWKLQJLQIDFWWKHGUXJLWVHOI NLOOVRISDWLHQWV%XW\RXDUHWDONLQJDERXWSDWLHQWVZKRDUH JXDUDQWHHGWRGLHRWKHUZLVH7KLVGUXJZDVGLVFRYHUHGLQWKHIRU-­ WLHVLWKDVWREHWDNHQPXOWLSOHWLPHVDGD\LQWUDYHQRXVO\DQGLV incredibly  painful  for  the  patient  to  receive  it  because  itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  corro-­ VLYH)UHTXHQWO\SDWLHQWVZLOOHYHQEHJWRGLHLQVWHDGRIWDNLQJWKH GUXJ7KHRWKHUGUXJLVFDOOHGHÃ&#x20AC;RUQLWKLQHZKLFKZDVGHYHORSHG RULJLQDOO\IRUFDQFHUWKHUDSHXWLFVKDVWR[LFLW\SUREOHPVDQGELR-­ DYDLODELOLW\SUREOHPVDOVRVR\RXKDYHWRJLYHSDWLHQWVHQRUPRXV GRVHVRYHUORQJSHULRGVRIWLPHLQRUGHUWRJHWWKHUDSHXWLFHIIHFW $QGDJDLQWKHVLGHHIIHFWVIRUERWKRIWKHVHDUHMXVWDZIXO7KLV LV DQ H[DPSOH RI ZKDW ZH KDYH WR GHDO ZLWK ZKHQ LW FRPHV WR QHJOHFWHGGLVHDVHVWKHUHLVQRUHVHDUFKJRLQJLQWRPDNLQJEHWWHU GUXJVWKHUHIRUHZHXVHZKDWZHKDYH NU  Science:  Is  your  goal  basically  to  eliminate  the  gap,  this   XVHRI\HDUROGWHFKQRORJ\"   'U3ROODVWUL:HNQRZDORWDERXWKRZWRKDQGOHDQWLELRWLFVZH KDYHSUHWW\UHDVRQDEOHPHWKRGVIRUGLVFRYHULQJGUXJVIRUFDQFHU DQG WKHVH RWKHU WKLQJV DQG LW WXUQV RXW WKH SUREOHP LV QRW WKDW PXFK KDUGHU IRU GHYHORSLQJ GUXJV DJDLQVW WKHVH SDUDVLWHV <RX PLJKWKDYHDOOWKHEHVWUHVHDUFKDQGWHFKQRORJ\LQWKHZRUOGEXW LILWLVQRWIRFXVHGRQWKHSUREOHPWKHQWKHSUREOHPLVQHYHUJR-­ LQJWREHVROYHG6RZHEXLOWDODEWKDWUHFDSLWXODWHVZKDW,KDGDW 3¿]HULQWHUPVRIWHFKQRORJ\DQGRXUDSSURDFKWRGUXJGLVFRYHU\ :HDUHIRFXVHGZLWKWKHLGHDWKDWZHVKRXOGEHDEOHWRWDNHZKDW ZHNQRZDERXWKXPDQGUXJGLVFRYHU\DQGUHSXUSRVHLWWRZKDW ZHFDQGRIRUSDUDVLWLFGUXJGLVFRYHU\ NU  Science:  Are  you  aware  of  any  statistics  for  what  percent-­ ages  of  those  who  are  infected  with  sleeping  sickness  are  actu-­ DOO\UHFHLYLQJWUHDWPHQW"2ULVLWWRRGLI¿FXOWSXWDQXPEHU RQ"

ZKHWKHU\RXKDYHVOHHSLQJVLFNQHVVRUQRW7KLQNRIWKHRSSRUWXQL-­ ties  for  infection,  itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  just  horrendous.   NU   Science:   There   is   certainly   a   technological   disparity   be-­ tween  the  development  of  drugs  and  treatment,  but  do  you  also   feel  there  is  a  disparity  between  the  raising  awareness  of  these   GLVHDVHVDQGWKRVHDWULVN" 'U3ROODVWUL7KHUHDUHDQXPEHURIRUJDQL]DWLRQVWKDWIRFXVRQUDLV-­ LQJDZDUHQHVVQRWMXVWWRWKHJHQHUDOSXEOLFEXWDOVRZLWKDIRFXV RQSXEOLFSROLF\7KLVLVEHFDXVHWKHPRQH\KDVWRFRPHIURPJRY-­ HUQPHQWVWRGRWKLVUHVHDUFKDQGPD\EHGUXJFRPSDQLHV7KH:+2 would  be  one  and  also  Universities  Allied  for  Essential  Medicines,  a   VWXGHQWDFWLYLVWJURXSZLWKDYHU\ZLGHUHDFKUDQJLQJIURPELRPHGL-­ cal   scientists   to   public   policy   students   to   medical   students.   Their   SULPDU\ IRFXV LV PDNLQJ PHGLFLQHV WKDW DUH GHYHORSHG LQ XQLYHU-­ VLWLHVDYDLODEOHIRUWKHSRRUHVWLQWKHZRUOG7KH\DUHDOVRUDLVLQJ DZDUHQHVVIRUWKHLPSRUWDQFHRIWKLVNLQGRIUHVHDUFK,QIDFWWKH 2EDPD DGPLQLVWUDWLRQKDV EDVLFDOO\ VWXFN D Ã&#x20AC;DJ RQ WKH KLOO DERXW WKLV DQG VDLG WKDW JOREDO KHDOWK LV D SULRULW\ DQG HPSKDVL]HG WKH LPSRUWDQFHRI1,+IXQGLQJIRUWKLVNLQGRIUHVHDUFK NU  Science:  What  advice  would  you  give  to  the  Northeastern   student  wishing  to  make  an  impact  on  the  lives  of  those  in  pov-­ HUW\WKURXJKWKHXVHRIPHGLFLQDOFKHPLVWU\" 'U3ROODVWUL0\DGYLFHLVWRH[FHOLQVFLHQFH:KLOH\RXNHHS\RXU PLQGRQWKHWDUJHWZKLFKLVµGRZQWKHURDG,ZDQWWRZRUNRQWKLV DUHD¶K\SHUIRFXVRQZKDW\RXDUHGRLQJDWWKHWLPH6RLI\RXDUH WKLQNLQJµ,ZDQWWRZRUNLQGUXJGLVFRYHU\¶EXW\RXGRQRWQDLO2U-­ JDQLFDQG\RXDUHMXVWQRWJRLQJWRJHWWKHUH:LWK1RUWKHDVWHUQ FRRSVLI\RXDUHWKLQNLQJRIZRUNLQJLQGUXJGLVFRYHU\\RXVKRXOG VHHNDFRRSLQGUXJGLVFRYHU\*RZRUNIRUDGUXJFRPSDQ\DQGVHH KRZLWLVGRQHOHDUQKRZWRGRPHGLFLQDOFKHPLVWU\)LQGLQJXQLTXH QLFKHVLQDQ\RIWKHVHDUHDVWKURXJKFRRSLVDKXJHRSSRUWXQLW\7R UXQ RQH RI WKHVH SURMHFWV \RX W\SLFDOO\ QHHG DQ DGYDQFHG GHJUHH VR\RXQHHGWRH[SHFWWRJRWRJUDGXDWHVFKRRODQGGR3K'ZRUN +RZHYHUWKHUHDUHDORWRIRWKHUQHHGVEHVLGHVMXVWGRLQJGUXJGLV-­ FRYHU\,JHWWKLVTXHVWLRQLQYDULDEO\IURPVRPHRQHLQWKHDXGLHQFH DOOWKHWLPHZKHQ,JLYHDWDONRQP\GUXJGLVFRYHU\µ6RZKDW",I \RXGLVFRYHUDGUXJKRZDUH\RXJRLQJWRJHWLWWRSHRSOH":KR LV JRLQJ WR GR WKH FOLQLFDO VWXGLHV"¶<RX KDYH D FRPSRXQG EXW LW GRHVQ¶WEHFRPHDGUXJXQWLO\RXJHWLWWRKXPDQVDQGVKRZWKDWLW LVVDIHDQGZRUNVZHOO%XWZKRLVJRLQJWRGRWKDW",QDGGLWLRQ WKHGUXJVKDYHWRDFWXDOO\JHWWRDVXE6DKDUDQ$IULFDLW¶VKRWDQG \RXFDQ¶WKDYHGUXJVWKDWZLOOGHFRPSRVHEHFDXVHRIWKHKHDW+RZ DUH\RXJRLQJWRVWRUHWKHP"+RZDUH\RXJRLQJWRWUDQVSRUWWKHP" +RZZLOO\RXGLVWULEXWHWKHP"7KHUHLVDZKROHDUHDLQJOREDOKHDOWK ORJLVWLFVWKDWLVLQPDVVLYHQHHG6RWKDWZRXOGEHP\DGYLFHLI\RX DUHDVFLHQWLVWIRFXVRQGRLQJJRRGVFLHQFH,I\RXDUHQRWDVFLHQ-­ WLVWEXWVWLOOZDQWWRZRUNLQWKLVDUHDWKHUHLVSOHQW\WRGRRQWKH SROLF\VLGHWKHLPSOHPHQWDWLRQVLGHDQGVRRQ7KHUHLVPRUHZRUN than  we  can  possibly  do  now.  

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JHWGLDJQRVHGZLWKVWDJHWZRVOHHSLQJVLFNQHVVLVWKURXJKDVSL-­ -­Nolan  Carr,  Biology,  2015 QDO WDS -XVW LPDJLQH EHLQJ LQ D ¿HOG KRVSLWDO LQ WKH PLGGOH RI QRZKHUHVRPHERG\LVVWLFNLQJDQHHGOHLQWR\RXUVSLQHWRGHFLGH 14 NU Science

Bioencryption with E. Coli Possibilty for Massive Data Storage

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Hopefully none of the 90+ contaminants that the Environmental Protection Agency regulates in drinking water.

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16 NU Science

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per  billion.  7KH(3$VD\VWKHUHJXODWLRQZLOOWDNHWZR\HDUVWRHQDFW DQGQRVSHFL¿F0&/KDVEHHQDQQRXQFHGDVRI\HW7ZRVWDWHV FXUUHQWO\KDYHSHUFKORUDWHUHJXODWLRQV0DVVDFKXVHWWV DWSSE  DQG&DOLIRUQLD SSE DOWKRXJKWKHUHLVDPRYHPHQWLQ&DOLIRUQLD to  reduce  the  limit  to  just  1  ppb,  which  is  the  equivalent  of  a  half   RIDWHDVSRRQLQDQ2O\PSLFVL]HGSRRO7KH(3$DOVRDQQRXQFHG WKDWWKH\ZLOOEHUHJXODWLQJDVDJURXSFDQFHUFDXVLQJFKHPL-­ FDOVNQRZQDVYRODWLOHRUJDQLFFRPSRXQGVZKLFKDUHFKHPLFDOV that   include   trichloroethylene   (TCE)   and   tetrachloroethylene   (PCE)  as  well  as  other  industrial  contaminants  and  solvents.  In   WKH SDVW FKHPLFDOV KDYH EHHQ UHJXODWHG RQ DQ LQGLYLGXDO EDVLV EXWUHVHDUFKLVVKRZLQJWKDWPDQ\FRQWDPLQDQWVFDXVHFXPXODWLYH GDPDJHWRWKHERG\DQGWKHQHZDSSURDFKLVWRDGGUHVVWKHPDV JURXSV   If  youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re  curious  about  test  results  from  your  local  water   VXSSO\ \RX FDQ FKHFN LW RXW RQOLQH DW KWWSZZZHZJRUJWDS ZDWHUZKDWVLQ\RXUZDWHU -­John  Jamieson,  Chemical  Engineering,  2015

Digging Out Taking a look back at the last winter that buried Boston

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as  taste,  odor,  or  color)  are  addressed  by  the  EPAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  National  Sec-­ RQGDU\ 'ULQNLQJ :DWHU 5HJXODWLRQV ZKLFK DUH QRQHQIRUFHDEOH JXLGHOLQHV([DPSOHVRILWHPVRQWKDWOLVWLQFOXGH]LQFLURQS+ DQGPDQJDQHVH 7HVWLQJLVGRQHUHJXODUO\RQZDWHUVXSSOLHVWRPDNHVXUHWKDWWKH\ DUHFRQVLVWHQWO\PHHWLQJVWDQGDUGVIRUDOOFRQWDPLQDQWV 5HFHQWO\ WKH (3$ DQQRXQFHG WKDW LW ZLOO EHJLQ WR UHJXODWH SHU-­ FKORUDWH LQ GULQNLQJ ZDWHU RQ D QDWLRQDO OHYHO 3HUFKORUDWH LV D FRPSRQHQW LQ URFNHW IXHO Ã&#x20AC;DUHV DQG ¿UHZRUNV ,Q PRVW FDVHV perchlorate   water   contamination   has   been   caused   by   improp-­ HU GLVSRVDO DW URFNHW WHVWLQJ VLWHV PLOLWDU\ EDVHV DQG FKHPLFDO plants.  The  EPA  says  the  chemical  can  disrupt  the  thyroidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  abil-­ LW\WRSURGXFHKRUPRQHVWKDWDUHYLWDOWRGHYHORSLQJIHWXVHVDQG LQIDQWV DOWKRXJK VWXGLHV DUH VWLOO EHLQJ FRQGXFWHG WR GHWHUPLQH LIWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQVIRXQGLQGULQNLQJZDWHUDUHKLJKHQRXJKWR FDXVHWKDWNLQGRIGDPDJH7KH(3$EHOLHYHVWKDWEHWZHHQDQG PLOOLRQ$PHULFDQVLQVWDWHVFRXOGKDYHSHUFKORUDWHLQWKHLU ZDWHUZLWKSDUWLFXODUO\KLJKUDWHVSUHVHQWLQ7H[DVDQG&DOLIRUQLD  7KH (3$¶V PRYH UHYHUVHV D MXGJPHQW E\ WKH %XVK DG-­ PLQLVWUDWLRQZKLFKGHFLGHGQRWWRUHJXODWHWKHFKHPLFDOEXWLQ-­ VWHDGUHFRPPHQGHGWKDWFRQFHQWUDWLRQOHYHOVQRWH[FHHGSDUWV

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WKHUHKDGEHHQYHU\IHZZDUPVSHOOVSDVWWKH¿UVWEOL]]DUGLQ'H-­ cember.  :KDW UHVXOWV LV SORZV DQG ORFDOV PHUHO\ SLOLQJ VQRZ on  top  of  snow  from  storm  after  storm.  The  few  spans  of  warm   ZHDWKHUWKDWRFFXUPHUHO\PHOWWKHWRSOD\HUZKLFKWKHQIUHH]HV RYHUQLJKWDQGVHUYHVWRIXUWKHULQVXODWHWKHVQRZXQGHUQHDWK$OO RIWKLVDPRXQWVWRDYROXPHQLJKWPDUH:HFDQH[SHFWODUJHSDUN-­ LQJORWVQRZSLOHVVXFKDVWKHRQHVLQWKH&ROXPEXVORWWRODVW until  April.  The  snow-­farms  in  which  Boston  dumps  the  massive   DPRXQWVRIVQRZFOHDUHGIURPVWUHHWVDQGSXEOLFZDONVZRQ¶WH[-­ pect  a  full  melt  until  mid-­summer. With  the  statistics  below  (data  provided  by  the  National  Weather   Service),  it  is  clear  what  made  this  December  and  January  differ-­ ent  that  ones  in  the  past.  The  temperatures  are  on  par  with  histori-­ FDODYHUDJHVRQO\GLIIHULQJE\GHJUHHVRUVR,W¶VRXUVQRZIDOO that  has  burned  the  2010-­2011  winter  into  our  memories.  January   snowfall  (38.3  inches)  was  only  5  inches  short  of  the  record  set  in    LQFKHV DQGQHDUO\WULSOHVWKHKLVWRULFDODYHUDJH  inches).  $KLVWRULFDOQRWHWKHZRUVWZLQWHU%RVWRQH[SHULHQFHG LQ UHFHQW PHPRU\ DQG WKH EHQFKPDUN IRU VQRZIDOO $UPDJHG-­ don,  was  the  winter  of  1995-­1996.    Leaders  in  the  Boston  Public   :RUNVVHFWRUKDGEHJXQWRFRPSDUHWRWKDWDUFKHW\SL-­ FDOQLJKWPDUHE\PLG-DQXDU\%\WKHHQGRI-DQXDU\WKHµµ season  had  produced  15  more  inches  of  snow  than  we  have  now,   ZLWKORZHUWHPSHUDWXUHVPHDQLQJHYHQOHVVPHOW/HW¶VMXVWKRSH these   statistical   anomalies   continue   to   occur   only   every   decade   RUVRRUZHPD\EHZLWQHVVWR\HWDQRWKHUVLJQRIGUDVWLFFOLPDWH FKDQJHKHUHLQ1HZ(QJODQG     -­James  Peerless,  Chemical  Engineering,  2011 NU Science 17


Interview with I

Q:  What  applications  does  this  technology  have/will  it   KDYHLQWKHIXWXUH"

Dan Dongeun Huh, Ph.D.

PDJLQHWKHSK\VLRORJLFDOFDSDELOLWLHVRIWKHKXPDQOXQJSODFHG RQWRDVLOLFRQPLFURFKLS7KLVJURXQGEUHDNLQJWHFKQRORJ\GH-­ YHORSHG DW WKH :\VV ,QVWLWXWH DW +DUYDUG ZLOO UHYROXWLRQL]H WKH IXWXUHRIWKHELRPHGLFDO¿HOG186FLHQFH0DJD]LQHKDGWKHRS-­ SRUWXQLW\WRYLVLWWKHODERI'DQ'RQJHXQ+XKDWHFKQRORJ\GHYHO-­ RSPHQWIHOORZZLWKLQWKH,QVWLWXWHDQGLQQRYDWRUEHKLQGWKHOXQJ FKLSWRGLVFXVVWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHWHFKQRORJ\LWVFXUUHQWXVH and  future  applications. Background  on  the  Wyss  Institute

 +XK H[SODLQHG WKDW WKH :\VV ,QVWLWXWH ZDV IRXQGHG DO-­ PRVW  \HDUV DJR PDGH SRVVLEOH WKURXJK WKH GRQDWLRQ RI  PLOOLRQGROODUVE\D6ZLVVHQWUHSUHQHXUE\WKHQDPHRI+DQVM|UJ :\VV+XKÂśVDGYLVRU'RQDOG(,QJEHUSOD\HGDQLQWHJUDOUROHLQ REWDLQLQJWKLVIXQGLQJDQGIRXQGLQJWKLVIDFLOLW\7KH,QVWLWXWHLV EURNHQGRZQLQWRÂł(QDEOLQJ7HFKQRORJ\3ODWIRUPV´LQFOXGLQJ Anticipatory  Medical  Devices,  Bioinspired  Robotics,  Biomaterials   (YROXWLRQ 3URJUDPPDEOH 1DQRPDWHULDOV$GDSWLYH$UFKLWHFWXUH DQG WKH SODWIRUP XQGHU ZKLFK WKH OXQJ FKLS ZDV GHYHORSHG WKH %LRPLPHWLF0LFURV\VWHPV KWWSZ\VVKDUYDUGHGX    Huh  elaborated  further  on  the  Biomimetic  Microsystems   SODWIRUPÂł+HUHZHGHYHORSÂľRUJDQRQDFKLSÂśPLFURHQJLQHHULQJ V\VWHPV WR PLPLF WKH IXQFWLRQDOLW\ RI OLYLQJ KXPDQ RUJDQV WKH OXQJ RQ D FKLS LV DQ H[DPSOH RIWKHW\SHRIZRUNZHDUHGR-­ LQJKHUH7KHLGHDLVWRXWLOL]H the   micro   and   nano-­technolo-­ J\ LQLWLDOO\ GHYHORSHG IRU WKH computer   chip   industry   and   adopt  it  to  develop  biomedical   devices.â&#x20AC;?   Within   the   platform   there  is  a  combination  of  spe-­ FLDOLVWV ZRUNLQJ WRJHWKHU ZLWK an   interdisciplinary   approach   WR GHYHORS WKH WHFKQRORJ\ LQ-­ FOXGLQJ HQJLQHHUV ELRFKHP-­ LVWV PROHFXODU ELRORJLVWV DQG clinicians.     Huh   referred   to   WKH DUUDQJHPHQW RI VSHFLDOLVWV ZRUNLQJ WRJHWKHU DV ÂłFRODER-­ UDWRULHV´ H[SODLQLQJ WKDW UHVHDUFKHUV IURP  ODERUDWRULHV ZLOO ZRUN WRJHWKHU ZLWKLQ WKH %LRPLPHWLF 0LFURV\VWHPV SODWIRUP LQ DFRPPRQVSDFH,QWKHFDVHRI+XKÂśVOXQJRQDFKLSKHZRUNHG with   a   clinician   from   Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   Hospital,   Benjamin   Matthews,   ZKRZRUNVZLWKLQWKHSHGLDWULFLQWHQVLYHXQLWDQGLVLQWHUHVWHGLQ OXQJLQMXU\+XKVWDWHGWKDWWKURXJKWKHXVHRI%HQMDPLQ0DWWHZVÂś DQLPDOPRGHOÂł:HDUHDEOHWRFRQÂżUPWKDWZKDWZHVDZLQRXULQ-­ YLWURPRGHOV\VWHPDFWXDOO\KDSSHQVLQWKHERG\XVLQJKLVDQLPDO PRGHOVZKLFKZDVFUXFLDOIRUHQKDQFLQJWKHLPSDFWRIRXUZRUN´ 4+RZGRHVWKHFKLSZRUN" 18 NU Science

$,QWKHOXQJWKHPRVWFULWLFDOIXQFWLRQDOXQLWLVWKHDOYHROLWKHVH are  microscopic   elastic   air   sacs.     When   you   breathe   in   and   out,   WKHVHDLUVDFVH[SDQGDQGFRQWUDFWWKDWÂśVKRZ\RXEUHDWKH7KH NH\IXQFWLRQDOLW\RIWKHVHXQLWVLVJDVH[FKDQJH7RGRWKLVWKH alveolar  air  sacs  are  covered  with  pulmonary  capillaries.    If  you   H[DPLQHWKHDUHDEHWZHHQWKHFDSLOODULHVDQGWKHDLUVDFV\RXVHH WKUHHGLVWLQFWOD\HUV2QWKHOXQJVLGHWKHUHLVDWKLQOD\HURIDO-­ veolar  epithelial  cells,  then  a  thin  interstitial  layer  called  basement   membrane,  and  then  on  the  blood-­side  is  a  layer  of  capillary  en-­ dothelial  cells  that  line  the  inner  wall  of  the  blood  vessel.    What   ZHZHUHWU\LQJWRGRZDVWRPLPLFWKLVWKUHHOD\HUVWUXFWXUH:H GLG WKLV E\ JURZLQJ WKHVH FHOOV LQ D VPDOO PLFUR Ă&#x20AC;XLGLF GHYLFH In   the   device,   we   have   two   chambers   separated   by   the   thin   po-­ URXV Ă&#x20AC;H[LEOH PHPEUDQH IDEULFDWHG XVLQJ PLFURFKLS WHFKQRORJ\ 2QRQHVLGHRIWKLVSRURXVPHPEUDQHZHFXOWXUHGOXQJHSLWKHOLDO FHOOV2QWKHRWKHUVLGHZHFXOWXUHGFDSLOODU\FHOOVWRPLPLFWKH RULJLQDOVWUXFWXUHRIWKHDOYHROL7KHDOYHROLPHFKDQLFDOO\PRYH DQG VWUHWFK WR LPLWDWH WKLV ZH KDYH WZR FKDPEHUV ULJKW QH[W WR the  cell  culture  chambers.    The  material  is  transparent  and  elastic   OLNHUXEEHU:HDSSO\DYDFXXPWRWKHVLGHFKDPEHUVHQDEOLQJ WKHVWUHWFKLQJRIWKHPHPEUDQHWKHUHE\VWUHWFKLQJWKHFHOOVVLWWLQJ RQWKHPHPEUDQH%\GRLQJWKLVLQDF\FOLFPDQQHUZHFDQLPL-­ WDWHEUHDWKLQJPRWLRQ:HFDOOWKLVDELRLQVSLUHGV\VWHPEHFDXVH WKHZD\ZHLQGXFHWKHFHOOVWUHWFKLQJPLPLFVZKDWKDSSHQVLQWKH body  when  you  breathe  in  and  out.

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 We  could  also  use  the  disease  models  to  better  understand   KRZWKHVHOXQJGLVHDVHVGHYHORSDQGSURJUHVV7KHEHDXW\RIWKLV V\VWHPLVWKDWWKHPDWHULDOVDUHWUDQVSDUHQW\RXFDQGRUHDOWLPH LPDJLQJ DW KLJK UHVROXWLRQ DQG VHH ZKDWÂśV KDSSHQLQJ LQVLGH WKH channel  in  the  cell.    We  also  can  apply  different  types  of  chemical   and  mechanical  cues  to  more  precisely  mimic  the  in  vivo  microen-­ YLURQPHQWRIWKHERG\,WKDVLPSOLFDWLRQVLQVWXG\LQJIXQGDPHQ-­  :HDOVRORRNHGDWWKHDEVRUSWLRQRIWKHQDQRSDUWLFOHVIURP tal  processes  in  various  diseases.   WKHOXQJVLGHLQWRWKHYDVFXODWXUH7KHUHLVFOLQLFDOHYLGHQFHWKDW LI\RXKDQGOHQDQRSDUWLFOHVLQ\RXUZRUNSODFHIRUORQJSHULRGVRI For   further   information   regarding   this   technology   and   Dan   WLPH\RXKDYHDKLJKHUFKDQFHRIJHWWLQJFDUGLRYDVFXODUGLVRUGHUV Dongeun  Huhâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  research:   3HRSOHWKLQNWKDWQDQRSDUWLFOHVZHLQKDOHKDYHWKHDELOLW\WRFURVV +XK 'RQJHXQ Âł5HFRQVWLWXWLQJ 2UJDQ/HYHO /XQJ )XQFWLRQV WKHEDUULHUIURPDLUWREORRGDQGJHWLQWRV\VWHPLFFLUFXODWLRQDQG on   a   Chip.â&#x20AC;?   Science     Sciencemag.org.   25   VSUHDGWRRWKHURUJDQVLQWKHERG\7KLVV\VWHPDOORZVXVWRVWXG\ -XQH:HE)HEKWWSZZZVFLHQFHPDJRUJFRQ-­ WKDWSURFHVV:HSXWQDQRSDUWLFOHVRQWRWKHOXQJVLGHDQGZDWFKHG WHQWIXOOY! KRZPDQ\SDUWLFOHVJHWDFURVVWKHWLVVXHOD\HUVLQWRWKHORZHUYDV-­ FXODUFKDQQHO:HIRXQGRXWWKDWWKHSK\VLRORJLFDOEUHDWKLQJHQ-­   -­Elizabeth  Gilbert,  Health  Science  and  International             DEOHVQDQRSDUWLFOHVWRWUDQVORFDWHIURPWKHOXQJVLGHWRWKHYDVFXODU     Affairs,  2013 VLGHPRUHHDVLO\:HUHSHDWHGWKHH[SHULPHQWVLQWKHDQLPDOPRGHO DQGIRXQGWKHVDPHUHVXOWVXVLQJDPRXVHOXQJDQLPDOPRGHO

3KRWR(OL]DEHWK*LOEHUW

NU Science 19


Robert Burns Woodward

Giving Cancer Cells The Munchies

Chemist, Professor, Nobel Prize Winner

D

ebate  over  the  medicinal  uses  of  marijuana  and  its  active  com-­ SRXQGVKDVEHHQJURZLQJLQWKLVFRXQWU\RYHUWKHSDVWIHZGHF-­ DGHV DOWKRXJK PDULMXDQD KDV EHHQ XVHG DV DQ KHUEDO WUHDWPHQW IRU centuries.  Use  of  the  marijuana  plant  for  its  practical  and  medicinal   XVH GDWHV DV IDU EDFN DV WKH VWRQH DJH LQ &KLQD DV DUFKDHRORJLVWV KDYHXQHDUWKHGIDEULFVPDGHRIKHPSDQGDPHGLFDOWH[W3HQ7VDœRV ZKLFKOLVWVPDULMXDQDDVDSRWHQWPHGLFLQH)LUVWWKHGUXJZDVXVHG LQFHUHPRQLHVDVDIRUPRIPDJLFEXWDVLWVSRWHQF\DVDWUHDWPHQWIRU DLOPHQWVVXFKDVUKHXPDWLVPJRXWDQGPHQVWUXDOSDLQVZHUHGLVFRY-­ HUHGPDULMXDQDZDVHOHYDWHGIURPPDJLFWRPHGLFLQH  %DFNLQRXUFXUUHQWHUDDVLPLODUUHYROXWLRQLVXQGHUZD\ 0DULMXDQDEHVWNQRZQIRULWVPDJLFDOSURSHUWLHVWRPDNHDQ\3KLVK VRQJRURUGLQDU\VQDFNVHHPOLNHDP\VWLFDOH[SHULHQFHKDVUHYHDOHG DQRWKHUDPD]LQJSURSHUW\FXUUHQWO\XQGHULQYHVWLJDWLRQ7KLVEUHDN-­ WKURXJKLQXQGHUVWDQGLQJZDVDQLQWHUQDWLRQDOHIIRUWE\UHVHDUFKODER-­ UDWRULHVLQ6SDLQ)UDQFH,WDO\DQGWKH&DQFHU*HQHWLFV3URJUDPUXQ in  part  by  Beth  Israel  Deaconess  Cancer  Center  in  conjunction  with   Harvard  Medical  School.  Conclusions  were  published  in  the  Journal   RI&OLQLFDO,QYHVWLJDWLRQ0D\VWDQGVWDWHWKHPDLQSV\FKRDF-­ WLYHLQJUHGLHQWGHOWDWHWUDK\GURFDQQLELQRO 7+& KDVEHHQVKRZQ WRLQGXFHDXWRSKDJ\LQFDQFHUFHOOV$XWRSKDJ\LVWKHSURFHVVRID FHOO ¾PXQFKLQJœ RQ LWV RZQ RUJDQHOOHV DQG FHOO FRPSRQHQWV ZKLFK HYHQWXDOO\NLOOVWKHFDQFHUFHOO0DQ\VWXGLHVKDYHUHFHQWO\UHSRUWHG WKHFDQFHU¿JKWLQJSURSHUWLHVRIFDQQDELQRLGVEXWWKLVZDVWKH¿UVW WRJLYHGLUHFWHYLGHQFHRI7+&PHGLDWHGFHOOGHDWKLQJOLRPDEUDLQ WXPRUVRQHRIWKHPRVWGLI¿FXOWFDQFHUVWRWUHDW :KLOHWKLVVWXG\KLJKOLJKWHGWKHXVHRI7+&WRWUHDWEUDLQWXPRUV

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Patients showed increased cancer cell death and reported no adverse side effects.â&#x20AC;?

20 NU Science

2

LQPLFHDQGLQWLVVXHVDPSOHVDÂżQDOH[SHULPHQWZDVFRQGXFWHG with  two  human  patients  who  received  intracranial  injections  of   7+& WR WUHDW UHFXUULQJ JOLREODVWRPD PXOWLIRUPH WKH PRVW FRP-­ PRQPDOLJQDQWDJJUHVVLYHDQGLQÂżOWUDWLYHSULPDU\EUDLQFDQFHU Patients  showed  increased  cancer  cell  death  and  reported  no  ad-­ YHUVHVLGHHIIHFWV:KLOHWKLVLVDVPDOOVDPSOHJURXSWKHUHVXOWV DJUHH ZLWK WKH PRXVH DQG SULPDU\ FHOO FXOWXUH UHVXOWV DQG RIIHU KRSH WR FDQFHU UHVHDUFKHUV H[SHULPHQWLQJ ZLWK FDQQDELQRLGV DV treatments.  0DULMXDQDÂśVHIIHFWLYHQHVVLVGXHLQSDUWWRWKHIROORZLQJ PHFKDQLVP7+&DQGFDQQLELGLRO &%' DFWRQFDQQDELQRLGUH-­ FHSWRUVWKURXJKRXWWKHERG\OLNHQDWXUDOHQGRFDQQDELQRLGV7KLV cannabinoid  pathway  activated  by  CBD  has  been  shown  to  sup-­ SUHVVYDVFXODUHQGRWKHOLDOJURZWKIDFWRU 9(*) LQFDQFHUVVXFK DVJOLRPDVEUHDVWFDQFHUVDQGOXQJFDQFHUV9(*)LVWKHPDLQ VLJQDOIRUDQJLRJHQHVLVWKHIRUPDWLRQRIQHZEORRGYHVVHOV7KLV IDFWRUYLWDOIRUWXPRUJURZWKDQGVXUYLYDOVLQFHWXPRUFHOOVZLOO GLH RII ZKHQ WKH\ DUH QRW FRQQHFWHG WR D VWHDG\ Ă&#x20AC;RZ RI EORRG DQGQXWULHQWV$VDUHVXOWGUXJVPD\EHGHYHORSHGWRPLPLF&%' ZKLFKZLOOGLVUXSW9(*)LQFDQFHURXVFHOOV7KHVHGUXJVPD\EH SRWHQWLDOO\HIIHFWLYHDJDLQVWDZLGHDUUD\RIFDQFHUW\SHVHYHQLI WKH\DUHUHVLVWDQWDJDLQVWFKHPRWKHUDS\DJHQWV  :KHWKHU PDULMXDQD VKRXOG EH OHJDO RU QRW LV D PDWWHU IRUWKHSROLWLFLDQV+RZHYHUDVIDUDVWKHVFLHQWLÂżFFRPPXQLW\LV FRQFHUQHGWKHUHLVPRXQWLQJHYLGHQFHWKDWWKHDFWLYHLQJUHGLHQWV 7+&DQG&%'KROGWKHUDSHXWLFEHQHÂżWV,IWKHP\VWHULHVWKDWKDYH surrounded  this  plant  are  to  ever  be  unraveled,  research  must  con-­ WLQXHXQDEDWHG3HUKDSVRQHGD\DOOZHFDQDJUHHRQWKHPHGLFLQDO EHQHÂżWVRIPDULMXDQDDVZHXVHLWVFRPSRQHQWVDVSRWHQWZHDSRQV LQWKHZDUDJDLQVWFDQFHU   -­Alex  Sweeney,  Biochemistry,  2011

UJDQLFFKHPLVWU\KDVDQHDUO\\HDUKLVWRU\VWHPPLQJEDFN WR)UHGHULFK:RKOHUÂśVV\QWKHVLVRIXUDQHLQ7KHÂżHOGUH-­ PDLQHGVRPHZKDWVWDJQDQWXQWLOWKHWZHQWLHWKFHQWXU\ZKHQDVXG-­ GHQUDSLGLQFUHDVHLQWKHV\QWKHVLVRIRUJDQLFFRPSRXQGVFDXVHG WKH VWXG\ RI RUJDQLF FKHPLVWU\ WR EORVVRP 5REHUW %XUQV:RRG-­ ZDUGD1REHO3UL]HZLQQLQJ$PHULFDQFKHPLVWXVKHUHGLQWKHDS-­ SURSULDWHO\QDPHG Âł:RRGZDUGLDQ (UD´ LQ  D WLPH WKDW WRWDO V\QWKHVLVRIRUJDQLFFRPSRXQGVZDVXVHGWRSURYHWKHLUVWUXFWXUH 7RWDOV\QWKHVLVLVDPHWKRGRIFUHDWLQJDQRUJDQLFFRPSRXQGLQD ODERUDWRU\ VWDUWLQJ IURP WKH VPDOO-­ est  possible  components.  Woodward   mastered   this   process,   determin-­ LQJ WKH VWUXFWXUH RI PDQ\ FRPSOH[ PROHFXOHV WKURXJKRXW WKH V 50s,  and  60s.  His  major  accomplish-­ ments  include  the  total  synthesis  of   cholesterol   and   cortisone   (1951),   terpene   lanosterol   (1954),   respine   (1956),   cholorophyll   (1960),   tretra-­ cycline   (1962),   colchicine   (1963),   and  cephalosporin  C  (1965).  In  addi-­ tion,  he  helped  determine  the  chemi-­ cal  structures  of  penicillin,  quinine,   strychine,  and  various  antibiotics  in   the  1940s  and  50s.  :RRGZDUG DUJXDEO\ D ER\ JHQLXV KDG SXUFKDVHG /XGZLJ *DWWHUPDQÂśV 3UDFWLFDO 0HWKRGV RI 2UJDQLF&KHPLVWU\DWDJH:RRG-­ ward   started   at   the   Massachusetts   ,QVWLWXWH RI 7HFKQRORJ\ 0,7  LQ  1HDUO\ GURSSLQJ RXW WKH IRO-­ ORZLQJ\HDUKHVWDUWHGDJDLQLQWKH IDOORIXSRQWKHXUJLQJRI-DPHV )ODFN 1RUULV DQ RUJDQLF FKHPLVWU\ professor   at   the   school.   Woodward   JUDGXDWHGIURP0,7LQZLWKD EDFKHORURIVFLHQFHDQGWKHQLQZLWKDGRFWRUDWHLQSKLORVR-­ SK\+HWDXJKWDW+DUYDUG8QLYHUVLW\DVDSURIHVVRUUHWDLQLQJDQ association  with  the  university  for  about  40  years  until  his  death   LQ+HFXOWLYDWHGDOLIHORQJDIIDLUZLWKRUJDQLFFKHPLVWU\WKDW PDGHKLVÂżHOGJURZE\OHDSVDQGERXQGV  ,Q :RRGZDUG ZRQ WKH 1REHO 3UL]H IRU FKHPLVWU\ +LVJUHDWHVWDFKLHYHPHQWKRZHYHUFDPHLQZLWKWKHV\QWKH-­ sis  of  vitamin  B12.  Albert  Eschemoser,  a  friendly  professional  rival   of  Woodwardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s,  collaborated  with  him  in  the  vitamin  B12  synthe-­ VLV7KHWZRÂżQLVKHGWKHV\QWKHVLVDIWHUDVHULHVRIFKHPLFDOUH-­ DFWLRQV:RRGZDUGDOVRGHYHORSHGWKHWKHQPRVWIRUZDUGWKLQNLQJ WKHRUHWLFDOV\VWHPLQWKHÂżHOGRIRUJDQLFFKHPLVWU\ZKDWEHFDPH NQRZQ DV WKH Âł:RRGZDUG+RIIPDQ´ UXOHV RI RUELWDO V\PPHWU\ :RRGZDUGÂśV PHWKRG RI H[SHULPHQWDWLRQ ZDV MXVW DV IRUZDUG WKLQNLQJDVKLVGLVFRYHULHV+HLQVLVWHGRQXVLQJWKHPRVWDGYDQFHG

WHFKQRORJLHV WR DVVLVW KLV H[SHULPHQWDWLRQ ,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQ KH KHOSHG SRSXODUL]H LQFOXGHG WKH LQIUDUHG XOWUDYLROHW DQG 105 VSHFWURPHWU\WHFKQRORJLHV  :KDW PDUNHG :RRGZDUG DV D SDUWLFXODUO\ IDVFLQDWLQJ person  was   not   his   contributions   to   chemistry,   but   rather   his   SUHVHQWDWLRQRIKLPVHOI6WHHSHGLQPHGLDFRYHUDJHDQGLGROL]HG by  his  students,  Woodward  has  been  called  an  â&#x20AC;&#x153;artistâ&#x20AC;?  in  modern   VFLHQFHMRXUQDOV,QWKHVSHHFKDQQRXQFLQJKLVDWWDLQPHQWRIWKH 1REHO 3UL]H KH ZDV FDOOHG D PDVWHU RI WRWDO V\QWKHVLV VHFRQG RQO\WRQDWXUHLWVHOIÂł,WLVVRPH-­ WLPHVVDLGWKDWRUJDQLFV\QWKHVLV LVDWWKHVDPHWLPHDQH[DFWVFL-­ HQFHDQGDÂżQHDUW+HUH1DWXUH is  the  uncontested  master,  but  I   GDUHVD\WKDWWKHSUL]HZLQQHURI this   year,   Professor   Woodward,   LVDJRRGVHFRQG´   Woodwardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   lectures   as   a   professor   were   notoriously   ORQJFRPPRQO\ODVWLQJWKUHHWR IRXU KRXUV +LV WUDGHPDUN DELO-­ LW\ FDPH LQ EHLQJ DEOH WR FRPH up  with  a  solution  to  a  problem   after   a   careful   analysis   of   all   facts   possibly   available   to   him.   +LV LQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFH SURQRXQFHG LWVHOI on  many  of  his  students.  A  few   HYHQHQGHGXSHDUQLQJWKH1REHO 3UL]H LQ FKHPLVWU\ WKHPVHOYHV QDPHO\ *HRIIUH\ :LONLQVRQ LQ  DQG 5RDOG +RIIPDQ LQ 1981.  'XULQJ WKH :RRGZDUG-­ LDQ HUD DQ RUJDQLF FRPSRXQG QRW \HW V\QWKHVL]HG PHULWHG DW-­ WHPSWVWRV\QWKHVL]HLWLQRUGHU to  determine  and  understand  its   VWUXFWXUH<HWDVWLPHSDVVHGDQGWKHZRUOGRIRUJDQLFFKHPLV-­ WU\HPHUJHGIURPWKH:RRGZDUGLDQHUDWRWDOV\QWKHVLVEHFDPH D WRRO IRU H[SHULPHQWDWLRQ DQG GLVFRYHU\ %HFDXVH WKHUH ZHUH RWKHUGHYHORSLQJPHWKRGVWRGHWHUPLQHWKHVWUXFWXUHRIDFRP-­ pound,  total  synthesis  could  be  used  to  test  new  chemical  reac-­ WLRQVDQGVWUDWHJLHV:KDWKDGRQFHVWDUWHGDV:RRGZDUGÂśVWRRO for   discovery   of   a   compoundâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   structure   had   transformed   into   D WRRO IRU H[SHULPHQWDWLRQ LQ XQFKDUWHG ZDWHUV (YHQ DIWHU KLV SDVVLQJLQ:RRGZDUGOHGWKHZD\IRUFKHPLFDOGLVFRYHU\ LQVSLULQJFKHPLVWVWRWU\QHZDQGXQNQRZQWKLQJVZLWKDPHWKRG he  perfected. -­Jessica  Melanson,  Journalism,  2014

NU Science 21


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Interview with an E Ink Co-op Student Color Your World

Andrew Balow is a sophomore chemical engineering major here at NU. For his first co-op, he has been working at E Ink, a company that produces ink in displays for products such as the Kindle and other e-readers. Barlow met with NU Science in February for an interview. &DQ\RXEULHÃ&#x20AC;\H[SODLQZKDW(,QNGRHV" 7KH\PDNHWKHGLVSOD\WHFKQRORJ\LQWKH.LQGOH6RQ\DQG1RRN HUHDGHUV6RWKHLUSURGXFWLVDOVRFDOOHG(,QN,W¶VMXVWFKDUJHGLQN displays,  which  differ  in  several  ways  from  LCD  displays. :KDWSURMHFWDUH\RXFXUUHQWO\ZRUNLQJRQ" &XUUHQWO\ZH¶UHZRUNLQJRQGLIIHUHQWZD\VWRFKDUJHVRPHRIWKH LQNV WKDW DUH PRUH GLI¿FXOW WR FKDUJH:H¶UH ORRNLQJ DW GLIIHUHQW NLQGVRISLJPHQWWRSXWLQWKHGLVSOD\VORRNLQJDWGLIIHUHQWFRORUV DQGNLQGRI¿JXULQJRXWKRZWRFKDUJHWKHFRORUVWKDWKDYHEHHQ SURYHGPRUHGLI¿FXOWWRFKDUJHLQWKHSDVW7KDW¶VKRZWKHGLVSOD\V ZRUN<RXKDYHWRFKDUJHWKHLQN +RZGRHVWKDWZRUN" ,W¶V DFWXDO LQN 6RPH RI WKH LQN ,¶YH ZRUNHG ZLWK LV MXVW UHJXODU ,QN-HWSULQWHULQN6RZH¶OOJHWLQNGLVSHUVLRQVIURPFRPSDQLHV WKDW PDNH WKDW NLQG RI LQN DQG ZH¶OO WKHQ DSSO\ RXU SURSULHWDU\ SRO\PHUVDQGVXFKWRWKHLQNVRWKDWZHFDQFRQWUROWKHPZLWKDQ HOHFWULF¿HOG7KDW¶VNLQGRIKRZ(,QNVHOOVLWVHOI,QVWHDGRIDQ /&'GLVSOD\ZKLFKLVMXVWOLJKWWKHLQNLVDFWXDOO\WKHUH,WZRXOG EHQRGLIIHUHQWWKDQLILWZDVSULQWHGRQDSDJH,W¶VWKHVDPHNLQG RILQNVRLWORRNVPRUHOLNHLW¶VDZULWWHQZRUG :KDW¶V\RXUIDYRULWHSDUWDERXWZRUNLQJDW(,QN" , WKLQN LW¶V D UHDOO\ UHOHYDQW FRPSDQ\ 7KDW¶V DOZD\V FRRO 7KDW GRHVQ¶WQHFHVVDULO\DIIHFWP\ZRUNEXWLW¶VMXVWFRROWREHDEOHWR JRWKHUHDQGVD\³:HPDNHWKLVSK\VLFDOWKLQJWKDWSHRSOHDUHWDON-­ LQJDERXWQRZ´DQGQRWVRPHWKLQJWKDWQRERG\¶VHYHUKHDUGRI, UHDOO\OLNHWKHHQYLURQPHQWWKDW,¶PLQ,W¶VDYHU\\RXQJFRPSDQ\ Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  not  very  small,  but  itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  still  a  pretty  small  company.  They  buy   XVOXQFKHYHU\RWKHUZHHNWKHHQWLUHFRPSDQ\DQGHYHU\RQHVLWV LQWKHFDIHWHULD,ZHQWWRWKHLUFRPSDQ\KROLGD\SDUW\DQGORRNHG DURXQGIRUWKHLQWHUQWDEOHDQG,NLQGRIUHDOL]HGHYHU\RQHKHUH FRXOGEHDQLQWHUQ(YHU\RQHORRNVVR\RXQJ0RVWRIWKHSHRSOH, ZRUNZLWKDUHXQGHU7KHHQYLURQPHQW¶VGH¿QLWHO\P\IDYRULWH part  of  it.

H[SHFWDWLRQVHVSHFLDOO\DFKHPLVWU\W\SHFRRSWKDWDVDVRSKR-­ PRUH \RX¶UH QRW JRLQJ WR EH PDNLQJ KLJKOHYHO FKHPLVWU\ GHFL-­ VLRQVEXW\RXZLOOEHZRUNLQJZLWKSHRSOHZKRDUHPDNLQJWKHP   7KHUHDVRQ,ZRXOGUHFRPPHQGLWLVEHFDXVHWKH\¶UHH[-­ SODLQLQJLWWR\RX7KH\¶UHSUHWW\PXFKWHDFKLQJ\RXWKHFKHPLVWU\ WKDWJRHVRQWKDW\RX¶UHGRLQJ,WFDQEHDOLWWOHWHGLRXVDWWLPHV EHFDXVH\RX¶UHDGGLQJWKLQJVWREHDNHUVVL[VHYHQWLPHVDQGWKHQ GRLQJ LW RYHU DJDLQ LQ WKH DIWHUQRRQ EXW , OLNH LW EHFDXVH HYHQ WKRXJK,¶PGRLQJWKDWDQGWKDWVRPHWLPHVFDQJHWWHGLRXVWKHSHR-­ SOHWKDW,¶PGRLQJLWIRUZLOOH[SODLQWRPHZK\ZH¶UHGRLQJWKLV DQGWKHFKHPLVWU\EHKLQGLWDQGZKDWWKHH[SHFWHGUHVXOWVDUHDQG LILWGRHVQ¶WZRUNZKDWWKHQH[WVWHSLV7KH\GRQ¶WMXVWSXW\RXLQ WKHGDUNDQGWHOO\RXWRJRGRVRPHWKLQJ7KH\H[SODLQWR\RXZK\ \RX¶UHGRLQJLWDQGZKDWWKH\¶UHH[SHFWLQJWRVHH How  has  this  co-­op  helped  you  shape  your  career  or  academic   JRDOV" ,W¶VPDGHPHWKLQNPRUHDERXWZKHWKHU,ZDQWWREHDWRWDOFKHP-­ LVWRUZRUNVRPHZKHUHHOVHWKDW¶VUHODWHGWRFKHPLFDOHQJLQHHULQJ DQGQRWGLUHFWO\MXVWFKHPLVWU\EHFDXVHDORWRIWKHSHRSOH,ZRUN ZLWKDUHMXVWFKHPLVWV7KH\GRQ¶WKDYHHQJLQHHULQJGHJUHHV7KH\ KDYHFKHPLVWU\GHJUHHV,W¶VPDGHPHWKLQNPRUHWKDWDOWKRXJK, OLNHWKHFKHPLVWU\WKDW,GRQ¶WZDQWWRGRVRPHWKLQJWKDW¶VSHU-­ FHQWFKHPLVWU\,ZDQWWRGRVRPHWKLQJWKDW¶VFKHPLVWU\DQGPD\EH VRPHWKLQJHOVH%DWWHULHVFRPHWR PLQGEHFDXVHWKDW¶V ZKDW ,¶P YHU\LQWHUHVWHGLQ,W¶VOLNHFKHPLVWU\DQGHOHFWURQLFVWRJHWKHUVR LW¶VPDGHPHUHDOL]HWKDW,¶PPRUHLQWHUHVWHGLQFRPELQLQJ¿HOGV VHSDUDWHPDUNHWVWKDW¶GEHJRRG

'R\RXWKLQN\RX¶OOFKDQJH¿HOGVIRU\RXUQH[WFRRS":KHUH GR\RXZDQWWRZRUNSRVWJUDGXDWLRQ" , WKLQN LW¶V GH¿QLWHO\ PDGH PH UHDOL]H WKDW , ZDQW WR ZRUN DW D company  thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  more  interdisciplinary,  and  itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  also  made  me  real-­ L]HWKDWDIWHUJUDGXDWLRQLI,ZHUHWRJRWRJUDGVFKRRORUZHUHWR ZRUN,¶GSUREDEO\ZDQWWRZRUNVRPHZKHUHPRUHWRZDUGWKHHOHF-­ Would   you   recommend   this   co-­op   to   other   future   co-­op   stu-­ WULFDO¿HOGEXWVWLOOFKHPLVWU\VRNLQGRIOLNHWKHRYHUODSWKDWOLHV EHWZHHQ FKHPLVWU\ DQG HOHFWULFDO HQJLQHHULQJ 6R ,¶YH GH¿QLWHO\ GHQWV" ,ZRXOG,¶YHWKRXJKWDORWDERXWZKDW,GRKHUHDQGKRZIXO¿OOLQJ VWDUWHGWKLQNLQJDERXWFRRSVWKHUH0\QH[WRQH,UHDOO\KRSHWR LWLVWRPH,WKLQN\RXKDYHWRFRPHLQWRDFRRSZLWKUHDVRQDEOH ZRUNDWDEDWWHU\FRPSDQ\ 22 NU Science

Do  you  have  any  advice  for  people  who  would  like  to  apply  for   DQ(,QNFRRS" ,WKLQNHQWKXVLDVPIRUDQ\LQWHUYLHZLVUHDOO\LPSRUWDQW,KDWHWR UDJRQHQJLQHHUVEXW,WKLQNHVSHFLDOO\LQWKHHQJLQHHULQJ¿HOGD ORWRINLGVDUHVPDUWEXWQRWYHU\JRRGLQWHUYLHZHHV6R,WKLQN VKRZLQJ HQWKXVLDVP LV D ELJ KHOS HVSHFLDOO\ QRZ WKDW , VHH WKH SHRSOH , ZRUN ZLWK 7KH\¶UH \RXQJ WKH\¶UH HQWKXVLDVWLF DERXW ZKDWWKH\GRDQGLW¶VDVPDOOFRPSDQ\VRLW¶VQRWMXVW³JRDORQJ ZLWKWKHÃ&#x20AC;RZ´7KH\ZDQWSHRSOHZKRDUHYLEUDQW

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How  many  places  did  you  apply  to  and  how  did  you  ultimately   GHFLGHWRZRUNIRU(,QN" (,QNZDVP\¿UVWFKRLFHJRLQJLQWRWKHLQWHUYLHZSURFHVV7KH\ also  happened  to  be  the  only  company  to  contact  me  within  a  rea-­ VRQDEOHWLPH6R,LQWHUYLHZHGZLWKRQHFRPSDQ\,WZDV(,QN 7KHQ,ZHQWWRZRUNWKHUH2QHRWKHUFRPSDQ\GLGFRQWDFWPHLQ very  late  December,  but  that  was  obviously  way  too  late  to  even   FRQVLGHUIRUDFRRS,KDGORQJVLQFHVLJQHGDQLQWHQWOHWWHUZLWK (,QN)LUVWFKRLFHRQO\FKRLFH7KDW¶VKRZ,HQGHGXSZRUNLQJ there.

                                                                          -­Jessica  Melanson,  Journalism,2014

Watson: The Next Big Leap for A.I.

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Contributors to this Issue: Nolan Carr, Kristina Deak, Kyle Deerwester, Nicolas Delatur, Tara Dhingra, Cat Ferguson, Lizzy Gilbert, John Jamieson, Jessica Melanson, Mike Murray, Edward Nunez, James Peerless, Emily Snead, Alex Sweeney, Brad West. [1]

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