Issuu on Google+


Contents Al Omran 5th Issue | 2006

_…€Hf»*2aŒG*£*|žŒG*j›À

PHOTOGRAHY: ISMAIL ABU ELKAS

”яG*¨›< œ’†›G£f†•G*~F|HvfkkD* i|G*2Ñ+·¬4fžŒH Ρ„6KaªgH§+ s|wkG*M4f„H ”яG*,4§„8 œ’†›G£f†•G*~F|H¨¡gH

46 47

50

…€I§ªIf1j¡Ma¼jª.*ÎG*mfHьG*ŸJ&*¢H ..—§E|+jŒ›E £*|žŒG*p*|if¤„7£fžª›„62fM5 .  jM|.&¸*Éfg¼*“›kGjgg„€¼*jª„€ª)|G*œH*§ŒG* ¬KfŒ›gG*2§žÁ . 

52

¬4fžŒ¼*œžŒG*·i§„6fº* *awk„6*jªGa/ i§„6f0

54

lªgG*¾(*|-§ªgž˜G*$f/ ..N*Ô1&*K

56 59 60

Al Omran 5th Issue | 1

j¡ªžnG*£2fŒ¼*¨›<lt¡G*¢D

j¹fŒ¼*hªGf„6&* ..ÉfnG*$~¹*jªIf„6|»*m%f„¡¼*œFf„H jª„6a¡Jmfª¡•-

3 4 5

8 11 13

¬§„€ªŒG*Ÿª›º*ag<jHf„6&* . .2 *Î0(¸*jDf•.K ..¬4fžŒ¼* jª0fkkD(¸* ¬}­»*«/fIfž/ . ,~ªžkHjª›Á,4fž<§tI jŒHf¹*jž›F jŒHf¹*s4f1Kœ1*2jª›t¼*4fg1&¸*Õ+jG§/ £*|žŒG*4fg1&* jª„6a¡¤G*p*a0&¸*ŸJ&*¾(*f¤GÑ1¢H”|ŒkI «›t¼*aªŒ„‚G*¨›< «„6(¸*aŒ„6&*,}€ªH . 4*§º*L|/&*i|G*2Ñ+·¬4fžŒH £*|žŒG*$f•G jª+|ŒG*,4fžŒG*·jMa•Imf„6*42 ..jDf•nG*K,4fžŒG* ifkF·,$*|E ift„€I(¸*¨›<Nfgª•Œ-|:*§»*¢H ..jŒ/4ԏ+§›04 –ª•G*ug„8aM|D . .2

Éfg¼*mf¤/*K·jª/f/~G*Š)*§º* £f„€I(¸*…€’I¨›<£*§G&¸*Ô.&f-

63

Մ6a¡¤ž›G«EÑ1&¸*£§If•G* j¡¤¼*mfªEÑ1&* oŒ„7œHfFÕGfžF . .2

64

j›0|¼*£f„6|D jª„6a¡J|:*§1 «„€¡¼*“„6§M . .2

15

18 Éfg¼*·jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I&¸* *awk„6* ..jcªg›Gj•Ma„8jž‰I&*

¢„€ªÁjHф6až0&* . .2

21

i§›†¼*K §¤’¼*Õ+ ..É*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG* ¨„6§Hœ)fI . .2

22

i§›•G*,4fž< ..jªHф6(¸*,4fžŒG* œ†„6&¸*Ë|˜G*ag<až0&* . 

24 ̌-¸Kf¤+ft„8&*$*4&*¢<̌-j›q¼*·,4§„¡¼*mfIÑ<(¸*K$*4%¸*Km¸f•¼*ªž/ .|M|tkG*jcªJ¬&*4¢<,4K}­Gf+

·f•.~F|H¥I(* ..ɧEa„8Ρ„6KaªgH§+ £*|žŒG*m¸f•H f•„€G*¬|˜„7vф8 . 

œ’†›G£f†•G*~F|H £*|žŒG*M4f„H

29

…8f1|M|•-s|wkG*M4f„H

40

jª›„‚’G*M4f„¼*


Editorial Architect and culture of respect

Al Omran Editing Staff

¬4fžŒ¼*

£*|žŒG*j›À jŒHf¹f+j„6a¡¤G*jª›F·jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€E¢<4a„‚-j„‚„‚wkHjM4fžŒHj›À «¡¤¼*K«Ê2fF&¸*aªŒ„‚G*¨›<jM4fžŒ¼*Žf„9K&¸*,4§„8œ•¡+j›q¼*¨¡Œ-K,~+jªHф6(¸* 4KaG*¬2'§-£&*j›q¼*œH&f-KŸ›ŒG*¢Hœ•0*{J·«¼fŒG*4§†kG*Hœ„8*§kG*,2fM5K¨›t¼* .f¤›/&*¢Hl›Œ/«kG*”*aJ&¸*–ª•³Kžkq¼*jHa1œ/&*¢Hf¤+ˆ§¡¼*

 *Î0(¸*jDf•.K

œgEŸ¤-fg=4 ÎtIK,aMa<m*|HjDa¤k„€¼*jc’G*$*4%* 2fª-4(*,|Jf;«„’-Hj„8f1K,a0*§G*j¡¤¼*$ÑH~G Õ¡„€G*Ì<Ÿ¤›‰FŸ¤H5ÑMN*K&fHŸ¤ª›<…9|’I£&* jª)agHmf††w¯,a<jM4fžŒHh-f˜¼¢)f+~G*…­Œ+ «kG*K j•+f„6mf††Â¢H–„‚›G*Kx„€¡G*,|Jf;£(* ¥G§„‚t+«¤k¡-fH,2f<¢M|1%*$ÑH5œgE¢Hjžž„‚H ¬|-K|-§ªgž˜G*}‚<HjG§¤„6ÐF&*ltg„8&* fÃ¥’„8¾(*¥g„€˜+Ÿ¤¡HœFjg=|Gf¤¡Hm*}ŒG*¨›< N m§ªgGfDÑM§:f¡’E§k„€-£& *hqM f¤If•-(f+Մ6a¡¤¼* f¤GjžªE¸fž<&f+jª„6a¡¤G*h-f˜¼*f„I*¾(*¬2'§M ¥I&f+f¡ž›„6*3(*Kf¤ª¡Ff„6…‚)f„‚1H–D*§k-£&*hqM …6a¡¤¼*jgª¤+…€µjª„‚w„7mf<~¡+œžŒG*§’„8ԘŒ-K ”Ñk1*£(fD…‚)f„‚»*…€’¡+}gG*¢H£f¡.(*a/§M¸ …­Œ+¢M§¤-,|Jf;£(fD™G{F…6f¡G*Õ+¬4fžŒ¼* 2aŒ+£§˜M£&*hqM|1%¸*¢<‘*|DœFŸªž„‚- ¬4fžŒ¼*hIfq›GL|1&¸*mf„‚„‚wkG*¢HՄ6a¡¤¼* f¡„­Œ+¢<fI~ªµKf¡DÑk1(* …­ŒgGŽ}6&*i{/·Ÿ¤¡HNjg=4jª„6a¡¤G*M4f„¼*¢H f¡-f„64f÷ *Î0¸*jDf•.xª„6|-¢Ha+¸¿fkGfgD ¢M{G*K…6f¡G*jHf<™+|MfߤJf±(f+M4f„¼*¦{J f¡-fŒžkÀKf¡¡:K¨›<ÌF&¸*’¡Gf+™G32§ŒªGjªH§ªG* jªžJ&*KjªJf¯¬4fžŒ¼*œžŒG*jžª•GNfF*42(*œE&*ŸJ jª˜›¼*—§•0 *Î0*Kmf„‚„‚wkG* *Î0*f¡„8fw„7&*K —fª„€G**{J·Kjª„6a¡¤G*fž<&¸*¢HhIf¹**{J m*{G* *Î0*¥›F*{JœgEKjM|˜’G*Kf¤¡Hjª+2&¸* ·¬4fžŒ¼*…6a¡¤¼*mfg/*K¨„€¡I¸£&*hqMNf„­M&* «kG*K *Î0(¸*jDf•.£(*¢M|1%¸* *Î0*¨›<fJaM§Œ-K £&*aŒ+KNf„8§„‚1Ÿªž„‚kG*¢HjDa¤k„€¼*jc’G* *Î0* žkq¼*·2§„€-£&*hqMjªGf<jª<fžk/(*jžªE«J N*4f˜D&*£K4|˜M¢M{G*ÕM4fžŒ¼*Մ6a¡¤¼*2a<2*25* £&*hqM«kG*KjªHf„€G*Ÿª•G*¢H«¤G¥-fcDjDf˜+ j•+f„6mf††ÂŸ„64£KaªŒMK&*j¤+f„kHjªžªž„‚¢H£§˜ªG«„6a¡¤G*‡„6§G*·–ž<&*La¯Kx„6Οªž„‚-·œžŒG*mf<f„64f„‚k1¸j’ª’:mÑMaŒk+ ½fŒHŸ„64·L{k³,KaEÕM4fžŒ¼*KՄ6a¡¤¼* j›EKjM2f„‚kE¸*Žf„9K&¸*Éa-œ;·j„8f1Éfg¼* Ÿ„6|MQfž)*2¬4fžŒ¼*£fFfžFŸª•G*Éf„€I(¸*š§›„€G* jª„8§„‚1™G{+՛JfqkHE§k¼*¬2f¼*2K2|¼* ,4f„­º—}¼*Éf„€I(¸*¥/§G*KjªI*|žŒG*jcªgG*½fŒH §J¬4fžŒ¼*œžŒG*£&f+Kj’›kw¼*Ÿ¤-f/fªk0*K2*|D&¸* }gG* ¨k0¥„€’I4|˜M£&*hqM¸K2aqkHKŽagHœž< ¬Ð-«kG*,~ªžk¼*K,~ªž¼*¥kª„‚w„7¨¡gHœ˜G£§˜M jªGfž/ŸªEKj<§¡kHjM4fžŒHœ›t+É*|žŒG*f¡qª„€I jªGf<  ÎtMœ’†›G£f†•G*~F|HL4&*£&*É}6a•G jDfF¥ª›<«¡gM…6f„6&fF¦ažkŒMKjG§’†G*…6fª•H «/4f1|¤‰H¢H¥›ž„Mf¯Ÿªž„‚kG*mfI§˜H ,~ªž¼*jªI§›G*f¤G§›0KjM4fžŒ¼*mf¤/*§G*œª˜„-K mfªGfŒ’G*h„6f¡-Kjª›1*aG*mf=*|’G*…7|D¢HK £&f+š|Œ„-f¤›F«kG*Kjªgk˜¼*mfHa»*Kj†„I&¸*K ·Nf„ž¤H£§˜MfHNfgGf=§J¬{G*K œ’†G*…6fª•H *{J·¥k˜›ÃK¥kGf„9N*Ô1&*a/KaE jªI*|žŒG*f¡kcª+ ¢H¾*¬4fžŒ¼*|‰I§G*{g0fM~ªž¼*¬4fžŒ¼*v}‚G* jª†ž¡G*M4f„¼*¢HÌkŒ-«kG*M4f„¼*·¨k0Ÿž„‚M m§ªgG*œnHjªžªž„‚kG*f¤-fª†ŒHNf•g„€H”K|Œ¼*K …­Œ+f¤žž„‚M«kG*Km§ªgG*¦{Jl„€ªG&*jª¡˜„€G* m*}ŒG…6f¡G*…­ŒgGLK&fH«J fM&*Ñ1Մ6a¡¤¼* ",fªº*La¼f¯4KÕ¡„€G* s~žk„€IK–žŒ+|‰¡G*aªŒI£&*f¡+|Ma/…€ªG&*

jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€E

«¡ª†„€›’G*žkq¼*·¬4fžŒ¼*j¡¤H£&*™„7¸ aMaŒG*šf¡J£fFaªŒ+Ô=¢H5{¡žD$f•-4¸*·,{1%* f¯|GK&*¬4fžŒ¼*KÉa¼*…6a¡¤¼*Õ+~ªµ¸…6f¡G*¢H N *…­ŒgG*£fJ3&*¢<if= œžŒGf+¨ž„€MfHšf¡J£&f+ф8& Õª)f„I(¸*Մ6a¡¤ž›G£KaD*§kM…­ŒgG*£fFK¬4fžŒ¼* ™„7¸K«„6a¡¤G*œžŒG*·j›„€›„€G*jM*a+Ÿ¤I&fFK aEjªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹f+jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€E2§/K£&* M4f„¼*£(fD™G{F §¤’¼**{JÔª-·jªGfŒ’+ŸJf„6 jM4*2(¸*Kjª¡˜„€G*s*|+&¸*KÉfg¼*Kjžw„­G*jª„6a¡¤G* xª„6|-K¬4fžŒ¼*œžŒG*‡ª„¡-·Nf„­M&*ma<f„6aE «¡ª†„€›’G*žkq¼*¢HjŒ„6*Kmf<f†ELaG¥kªžJ&* «„6a¡¤G*œžŒGf+}7fgHšf˜k0(*¨›<ŸJ¢Hj„8f1K «¡ª†„€›’G*…6a¡¤¼*œ„8KœJ*'§„€G*¨•gM¢˜GK |Ma•-f¤ªDŸkM"jª„9|Hj›0|H¾*,~=Žf†E·aMatkGf+K dDf˜M¬{G*KŸ)Ѽ*4a•Gf+«<*a+(¸*K«žªž„‚kG*¦a¤/ «¡ª†„€›’G*£*|žŒ›Gjª¡:§G*jM§¤G*uHÑH5*|+(*·¥kªžJ&*  f<œ˜„+«¡ª†„€›’G*žkqž›G¬4f„­º*¥/§G*K mfªF§›„6Kmf„64fÃa¡<“E§kG*$|¼*ª†k„€Mf¡J –+f„€G*'Kf„€kG*¨›<j+f/(¸*£&f+Žfg†I(¸*«†Œ-,ÔnF Ôn˜G*f¡HfH&**5fHaªF&fkGf+ ¸ ™„7¨I2&*Ñ+«J ¢H–tk„€-fHm{1&*aE,4fžŒG*j¡¤H£&f+|Œ„I¨k0 ¦{J…­Œ+¾*¥M§¡kG*h/K*{¤G|Ma•kG*K *Î0(¸* ¬{G*4KaG*K¥•0¬4fžŒ¼*…€wg-«kG*mf„64fž¼*  aMatkG*¥/K¨›< ¬4fžŒ¼*…6a¡¤¼*¨›<hqM |J*§‰G*¦{J˧•kG¥+ fª•G* §žŒGf+«„6a¡¤G*žkq¼*K œžŒ›G fŒG*§¹*$f•I¢Hœ›•-«kG*h)*§„G*jG*5(*K ¢<oMaº*£&*HKhªgº*f¡<f†E·«„6a¡¤G* |H&¸*¢HÔn˜G*}‚kwI£&*¢˜Êf¡I&*¸(*§†M™G3 j•›Œk¼*jª+fqM(¸*Ÿª•G*«„6a¡¤G*œžŒG*·f¡w„64*3(*  *Î0(¸*jDf•.ÕHf„­¯ K&¸*fž¤GKf¡-¢Ha+¸Օ„7oMaº**{¤G£(* «„6a¡¤G*K ¬4fžŒ¼*œžŒG* *Î0(*jDf•.xª„6|-§J §JÉfnG*K«›t¼*žkq¼*mf<f†E‡„6K  f<œ˜„+ ·aMatkGf+,4fžŒG*j¡¤H *Î0(*·ŸªJf’¼*¦{JjM§•ŸªžŒ-KL|1&¸*mf„‚„‚wkG*¢HՄ6a¡¤¼*ˆf„6K&* «„6a¡¤G*žkq¼*mfcD«Ef+œž„ªG §¤’¼**{J Nf•ª.KNf:fg-4(*‡g-|H,4fžŒG*j¡¤¼žkq¼* *Î0*£(* h„6f¡¼*œªnžkG*f¤GŸ¤›ªnµKŸ¤k¡¤¯ÕM4fžŒ¼*2*ak<(f+ ÕM4fžŒ¼*Մ6a¡¤¼* *Î0*¾*,4f„7(¸*¢Ha+¸f¡JK

jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*£fÊ(*¢HfEцI(* 1993j¡„6·jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€EvfkkD*¶ 2*a<(*·Ÿ„€•G*jGf„64œnžk-K,aMa¹*jª¡ª†„€›’G*jGKaG*$f¡+jª›ž<·f¤kF4f„H,4K}­+ ¨›<¦f•›¼*jªG§c„€¼*š*42(f+Kjª›t¼*¥kcª+K¥Œžkq¼$fžkI(¸f+~ªžkMÕM4fžŒ¼*¢HaMa/œª/ ”a¤MK¥¤/*§-«kG*œFf„ž›G§›º*„9K·Žag¼*«ž›ŒG*Ԙ’kG*¥MaG£§˜MK¥•-f< e2fg¼f+j˜„€žk¼*jª¡ª†„€›’G*jª„‚w„G*Kjª›t¼*jM4fžŒ¼*jM§¤G*¨›<‹f’º*¾(*Ÿ„€•G* .j’›kw¼*¥-fcDK¥-f„€„6'§HjDf˜+«›t¼*žkq¼*Hœ„8*§kG*4*|žk„6*¾(*KjªHф6(¸*jDf•nG*K m¸fÀ·¦|M§†-Kžkq¼*jHa»f¤+œFK«kG*jIfH&¸*¬2'§M£&*¾(*Ÿ„€•G*¨Œ„€MK jM}gG*mfEf†G*K24*§¼*jDfFÑk„6*Ñ1¢H«¡¤¼*K«Ê2fF&¸*¬4fžŒ¼*…‚„‚wkG* otgG*K“ª•nkG*–M|:¢<fJ$*2&*|M§†-KՄ€³Kj0fk¼*jªžª›ŒkG*œ)f„6§G*K,|D§k¼* ·E*§Gf+f¤†+4Kjª„6*4aG*rJf¡¼*oMa³K«Ê2fF&¸*42f˜›G|žk„€¼*|M§†kG*K«ž›ŒG* «¡:§G*Ÿ¤g/*K*K2'§M«˜GՄ6a¡¤žFKjg›†FÕM4fžŒ¼*LaG«žª›ŒkG*L§k„€¼*D4œªg„6 .Ù*$f„7£(*|M|tkG*–M|:¨›<j›Hf„G*jªŒžkq¼*j„­¤¡G*œ/&*¢H a•kG*j›q<D2·

Back Cover

£f†•G*¢„€t¼*ag<j„€„6'§H Ù* *4 £§’ª›-

¬§„€ªŒG*Ÿª›º*ag<jHf„6&* . .2 |M|tkG*…€ª)4 jM4*2(¸*£K'§„›GjŒHf¹*…€ª)4h)fIa<f„€H p*ÎG*,4fž<~F|H|MaH–ª•G*ug„8aM|D . .2 |M|tkG*§c„€H j„6a¡¤G*jª›Faªž<«„€¡¼*2§žÁ“„6§M . .2 |M|tkG*”}H |˜+…€I§Ma¤D .  |M|tkG*jcªJ$f„­<&* 4fž<Ÿª›„6Ô¤„6 .  «„6(¸*aŒ„6&*,}€ªH .  fM|.§+&*¬aÀ£fÊ(* .  fD}G*…€ªž1$f’ªJ .  ,Ka•G*mfD|<½f„6 .  …6f˜G*§+&*œª<fž„6(* .  ·*|=§-§D|M§„‚s*|1(*KŸªž„‚-

14

22

44

¨„€ª<K,2ft„7jF}7 }‚¡G*Ž4f„7,~= £§’ª›-

$f¡gG* 5*§GKmfIfJa›G¢M~¼*jF}7 aM*5xª„G*4*K2fªJ¸lª+ £§’ª›-

jM4fqkG*§›º*j„€„6'§HjF}7 4fkw¼*|ž<Ž4f„7,~= £§’ª›-

ŸE4&¸*4*2+f†H·j<fg†G*lµ ,~+jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*œ+f•H 97082822059“-fJ j„6a¡¤G*jª›F ..jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€E 108i.…8Ն„€›D,~=jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹* 284097082860700“-fJ 97082860800…€FfD www.iugaza.eduarch arch@iugaza.edu

Al Omran 5th Issue | 2

Al Omran 5th Issue | 3

¬§„€ªŒG*Ÿª›º*ag<jHf„6&* 2 £*|žŒG*j›À|M|³…€ª)4 jM4*2(¸*£§c„›GjŒHf¹*…€ª)4h)fIa<f„€H


Al Omran News Islamic University of Gaza

Head of the Board of Trustees ( IUG ) towards a distinctive local architecture

§tCI

jª„€ª)|G*¢M*§¡ŒG* jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*4fg1&*|M|•- …8

jª›t¼*jª„6a¡¤G*4fg1&¸*¢<|M|•- …8

,~CªžkHjCª›Á,4fCž<

uM}‚k+¥-2fª„6¾2&*Ÿ.m*Ìkw¼*K …6fg<2§žÁ…€ª)|G*,2fª„6,4fM5Ñ1 «F|-ÔH&¸*§ž„6¨¡gH fH&*¢H«’t„8 ‡M}7…‚•+œ„­’-jªHф6(¸*jŒHfq›G fª/§G§¡˜kG*Kj„6a¡¤›G~M~ŒG*ag<¢+ …€M4akG*jcªJK,4*2(¸*¨¡g¼vfkkD¸* vK}8¢HNf0}84K5&*"¥ªDfE ‡„6§kM¬{G*¢M|tgG*j˜›Ã¨¡gH§JK jŒHf¹*§JKjª¡ª†„€›’G*jDf•nG*KŸ›ŒG* ‡M}G*…‚EœªgE,~+jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹* N f¼¥+|wk’IŸ›ŒHьD«JKjªHф6( ¸* fž/…6a¡¤¼*fE¨¡g¼*vfkkDf+NfI*{M(* «/§G§¡˜kG*K«ž›ŒG* a•kG*¢H¥ªD¦f¡M&*4 jŒHf¹*$f¡H&*…6fÀ…€ª)4¬}­»*«/fI fI$f¡+&*dª¤-«kG*4§H&¸*¢H™G3Ô=K £&*f¡D}MKfIaŒ„€MKfI}€M"jªHф6(¸* …6fg<…€ª)|G*¨„­HK")*4«ž›<œg•k„€¼ vfkkDf+…6fg<2§žÁ…€ª)|G*,2fª„6œ„­’kM N jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*,4*2(¸§E&*"Ñ)fE  a•-&*K¢M|tgG*j˜›Ã¨¡gH¨¡g¼**{J N*a/Ÿª‰<K)*4œžŒ+£§H§•-Ÿ˜I&* Nf˜›H¢M|tgG*j˜›ž¼œM~¹*|˜„Gf+ £&*aM|Iœ+¥ª›<ŸF|˜„I£&*aM|I¸ vф8(¸*jªŒž/¾(*KNfgŒ„7KjH§˜0K N œžŒ+£§H§•-ьDŸkI& *K¥ª›<Ÿ¤†gI jŒHf¹*uGf„‚G¥+*§Ha•-fH¨›<jMÔ»* ¦{¤+£§˜M£&*E§-&*½¢˜GK¥kŒE§"jªHф6(¸* "jž‰ŒG* aD§G*K…€ª)|G*,2fª„6jG§/l›ž„7aEK jŒHf¹*·j’›kw¼*Éfg¼*–D*|¼*

,4|t¼*«„9*4&¸*¾(*jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€Ej›04

Al Omran 5th Issue | 5

,}6&* l¤±* ,~= Žf†E £aHK L|E Žf•+ œž/&* ¨›< jM|º* …€ž„7 —*}7(* H jª„€M4akG*jcª¤G*$f„­<&*KmfM§k„€¼*“›k¢Hf¤-fgGf†+jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€E ¾(*aJfq¼*f¡gŒ„7fJf¡µf¼f:j›04·j„6a¡¤G*jª›Faªž<Nf„­M&*Ÿ¤F4f„7KŸJ}6&*K …7§=KË4f„€kImf¡:§k„€¼f+N*4K|H¥+§¡/¾(*Žf†•G*fž„7¢H,4|t¼*«„9*4&¸* 4f†H·j0*΄6f+,4fM~G*l¤kI*K,4|t¼* fMuªD4¨k0ŸªGf˜M2«’ªIK“ª†E N * ,~= fJ|t+¦fªH—§DK,~=$fž„6·hM|Efž<–ª›tk›G¥-*|)f:2§Œ-£&* ÑH% ,4|t¼*–:f¡¼*‡ª†w-jŒªg†GŸ„€•G*«„64aH¢HNfª›ž<Nf0}7,4fM~G*œ›w-K jª•gk¼*m%f„¡¼*jŒªg†GjªI*aªHmѪ›³¾(*jDf„9¸f+

hk˜¼*H£KfŒkGf+«+цG*«ŒHf¹* |º*j•Ma0Ÿªž„‚-j•+f„€H jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹f+«„6a¡¤G* …6a¡¤¼*K¬§„€ªŒG*jHf„6&*4§kFaG* «„6a¡¤G*hk˜¼*¢Hj›ªw„6§+&*œª<fž„6(* ~F|H¢H¬KfŒ›gG*2§žÁ…6a¡¤¼*K ažÁ«<*4~G*…6a¡¤¼*Kp*ÎG*,4fž< —f„€¼*«„64aHK¬Kf¡º* j„€ž»*~F*|¼f+,~)f’G*M4f„¼*lIfFK ŸJ'Kfž„6&*jªGfkG*jg›†›G¾K&¸* ÕJf„7~kŒH¨„€ª<§+&*až0&*K&¸* §+&*Ë4j†gG*$f<2j›ª˜<|ž„6ÉfnG* Ô»* ,2§/£*K4¢„€Á f)KoGfnG*ŽK}¼* jE2§+&*|ž„6 £f„JaG*$f¡J4|˜HoGfnG*ŽK}¼* œª›1xª„G*£fÊ(*…6*4§+&*$fžª„7 …‚MÌ¡G*Ë4oŒ„7jž›„6+*|G*

jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€EÕ+£KfŒkG*¶ jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹f+«„6a¡¤G*hk˜¼*K  |º*j•Ma0Ÿªž„‚-j•+f„€Hv|:· ‡ª†w-—f„€H¢ž„9«+цG*«ŒHf¹*  fEKoGfnG*L§k„€ž›GE*§¼*–ª„€¡-K Ÿªž„‚-KE§¼*‡ª†wk+mfgGf†G*Kjg›†G* +f†G* Î³«kG*,~ªž¼*}8f¡ŒG*…­Œ+ H¨„7fžk-KjŒHf¹*Éfg¼¬4fžŒ¼* j:f„€+K,a0KK£*~-*¢H–ª„€¡kG*…€„6&* jM}‚gG*4Kft¼*¨›<,aF'§¼*Kh„6f¡-K  |t›GÉ*|žŒG*‡ªtž›GjªF|º*K œž˜k„€M£&*…9Β¼*¢HK«ŒHf¹* jH5ÑG*mf††w¼*«„6a¡¤G*hk˜¼* «kG*4f˜D&¸*¢H,2f’k„6¸*aŒ+{ª’¡k›G Ÿ„€•G*jg›:f¤HaE aMa³KM4f„¼*Ÿªª•-K…9|<¶aEK ¢HlI§˜-Ÿª˜³j¡¹œgE¢Hf¤¡H~)f’G* jM4*2(¸*£K'§„›G…€ª)|G*h)fIa<f„€H

¬}­»*«/fIfž/  jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*$f¡H&*…€›À…€ª)4 fÀ·Մ‚„‚wk¼*4K2jªžJ&*5ÌM¥›F*{JK *{¤+ fžkJ¸*,4f.(*$h<Ÿ¤ª›<•M¢M{G*,4fžŒG* mfEf†G*K2§¤¹*a„0K,42fg¼*{1&*KŽ§„9§¼* œ›»**{Jj¹fŒ¼,~ªÃM4f„HK4f˜D&*Ëa•-œ/&*¢H j„6a¡¤G*jª›˜+,4fžŒG*Ÿ„€E£&*a•k<&*fI&*KÔg˜G* ,§1(¸*§<2&*™G{GKŽ§„9§¼**{J·,2fM|›GœJ'§H m*4*5§G*ªž/H£KfŒkG*¾(*Ÿ„€•G**{J·$ÑH~G*K Ñ1¢HՄ6a¡¤¼*j+f•IKjžk¤¼*mf„€„6'§¼*K M4f„HK4f˜D&*j=fª„‚Gj<ag¼*mfEf†G*œFa„0 jM4fžŒ¼*,4§„‚G*Մ€³·Ÿ¤„€-£&*f¤¡˜ÊjM2fM4 5*|+(*jGKfÁK,~=Žf†E·Éfg¼*Km%f„¡ž›GjHfŒG* f¡.*|-¾(*«žk¡M‡ÇŽf†•G**{¤G~ªÃ5*|:K‡Ç 5ÌM‡ÇjªHф6(¸*Kjª+|ŒG*f¡-4f„­0K«¡ª†„€›’G* jE}H,4§„8Ÿ„64¨›<f¡-4aEaF'§MKfž¹*½fŒH …94&¸*Žf•+·½fŒG*4f‰I&*‡Á §ªG*§J¬{G*f¡gŒ„G ·Kj„6a¡¤G*jª›F·,2§/§¼*mfEf†G*£&*™„7¸K ,a)*4£§˜-£&*KÔn˜G*¡„‚-£&*f¤If˜H(f+,~=Žf†E ¥-4f„­0K¥wM4f-hªgº*f¡<f†•GaªŒ-KŽag¼*œžŒG* ¦2fÀ&*K

aŒ+KÙ*§„64¨›< Ñ„€G*K,ф‚G*KÙažº* hŒ„G*f¤„7f<,fIfŒ¼*¢Hj›M§:m*§¡„6aŒ+ 4f0aI*aŒ+Kj„8f1,~=Žf†EKjHf<«¡ª†„€›’G* •MjHfJj›0|H §ªG*&*ag-,~=Žf†E¢<Ñk0¸* 4fž<¸*Kjªž¡kG*Ž§„9§Hf¤-fM§GK&*Ÿ›„6…6&*4¨›< jªžJ&*¢H“<f„­M™„7¸K*{JKÑk0¸*¦|H2f¼ ¥I&*fžF f<œ˜„+£§„6a¡¤¼*¥+ §•M¬{G*4KaG* ¢M{G*Ն†w¼*KÕM4fžŒ¼*œJfF¨›<N*ÔgFNfcg<„­M Žf†E½fŒH¨›<jt„9*KŸ¤-fž„‚+£§˜-£&*hqM ,~= jª›ž<· f¤G*ŸJ4K2Մ6a¡¤ž›G£fF*3(*K mf„€„6'§H¢HÔn˜G*·,4*2(¸*¨k0K4fž<(¸* ·ÐF&*5ÌMÕM4fžŒ¼*Մ6a¡¤¼*4K2£(fD¢:§G* j›0|¼*·$f¡gG*jª›ž<‡Gf1¬{G*Ôg˜G*¦§„kG*j¹fŒH ¢˜Ê¬{G*¬4fžŒ¼*5*|†G*¥ŒHŽf„9¬{G*Kjª„9f¼* ,~=Žf†E£ažFNfIaH~ªÊ£&* NfM4fžŒHN*5*|:f¤G…€ž›-½fŒG*·,ÔnF£aHšf¡J j„€ª)|G*f¤<4*§„7a0&*·§qkG*2|q¯,~ªÃNf¼fŒHK ¬4fžŒ¼*‡ž¡G*™G3¢HNfcª„7…€ž›-2f˜-¸fž¡ª+ ¦{¤GfHœF¢HŸ=|Gf+,~=Žf†Ei§±lI&*K~ªžk¼* ¬4f„­0p*|-K–M|<xM4f-¢H…94&¸*¢HjŒE|G* „6§kG*jª›ž<¢<rkIaEN*Ԇ1Nf¤M§„-£(*œ+œª„8&* jt„9*KjM'K42§/K a<œ;·«)*§„ŒG*É*|žŒG* ¬4fžŒ¼*œ˜„G*oª0¢H$f¡gG*jª›ž<Ÿ˜tM¥/§-K m%f„¡¼*KÉfg¼*~ªÊ¬{G* fŒG*

$f’„Gf+$fC<2 jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€E·,}9ft¼*K£*|žŒG*j›À|M|³,}6&*§„­<«„6(¸*aŒ„6&*,}€ªHj›„9f’G*j„6a¡¤¼*j›ªH~G*l„9|Œ¾fŒ-K¥Iftg„6Ù*§<aIKjªI24&¸*jŒHf¹*·Ôk„€/f¼*fª›ŒG*f¤k„6*42œž˜-oª0£24&¸*·Ԅ6p2f0¾(*jŒHf¹*· f¤kg›:Kf¤kŒHf/Kf¤›J&*¾(*j¼f„62§Œ-£&*Kf¤ªDfŒMKf¤ªDf„M£&*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 4

jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*·¢M|tgG*j˜›Ã¨¡gHukk’M…6fg<2§žÁ…€ª)|G* vф8(¸*jªŒž¹KNfgŒ„7KjH§˜0KNf˜›H¢M|tgG*j˜›ž¼œM~¹*|˜„G*¬}­»*…6a¡¤¼*


Al Omran News Local

ŸªHf„‚kG*¦{J¨›< mfI§˜¼*$fª0(*,2f<(f+NfªGf0~F|¼* §•M  *awk„6f+jÊa•G*,a›g›GjªwM4fkG*KjM|.&¸*  a•kG*¢H,2f’k„6ÑGjg„6§t¼*rH*ÌG* 4§†-aªŒ„8¨›<pa0¬{G*œ)f¤G* jg„6§t¼*rH*ÌG*KmfH§›Œ¼*fª/§G§¡˜É*|žŒG*p*ÎG*–ª.§-K$fª0(*,2f<(*·

¨›<œžŒMp*ÎG*,4fž<~F|H jM|.&¸*Éfgž›Gj’„74&*K–ª.§i§„6fº*mfª¡•- *awk„6f+

œ’†›G£f†•G*~F|H¨¡gHvfkkD(* ·¥0fkkD*ŸkªG  fŒG̞kg„6|¤„7 |M|tkG*K$ѹ*|¤„7 ̞kg„6 f’:&¸*j†„I&f+¨¡ŒM£f†•G*~F|HK vK*Î-jM|ž<j›0|H·jªDf•nG*KjM§+ÎG* œž„ªGNfHf<}<j„€ž1¾(*ÕHf<Õ+fH K&¸*§JKj„8f»*mf/fªk0¸*¬K3 jg„6f¡¼*¦{¤+K,~=Žf†E·¥<§I¢H ¬4fžŒ¼*v}‚G**{¤G£*|žŒG*l„‚„‚1 ¥GKf¡kkG2aŒG*ŽK}Hmft’„8~ªž¼* jª¡’G*Kjªžªž„‚kG*¦4KfÁ¨k„+

Al Omran 5th Issue | 7

PHOTOGRAHY: ISMAIL ABU ELKAS

Ñk0(¸*¦|H2fH4fž<(*,2f<(*KŸªH|-Kvф8(* ¢˜„€¼*ÔD§-¨›<,4*5§G*l›ž<™G{F ¾(*j/ft+«kG*Kj+§˜¡¼*mÑ)fŒ›GŸ)Ѽ* fH¢ž„9j›)f<$*§M(*¶oª0LK&fH £f˜„6(¸*M4f„H·–•„7¢Hf¤G|D§¢ž„9j›)f<$*§M(*¶fžFjž)f•G* hM|•G*·KaM*5xª„G*j¡MaHŽK}H ŽK}¼…6f„6&¸*|q0„9KŸkM”§„6 ¨›<aM*5¢+j’ª›1xª„G*j¡MaH$f„I(* ,|žŒk„€¯”|ŒM£fFfÃ,4|t¼*…94&¸* £&*E§k¼*¢H¬{G*KuD4j‰Dft¯s*ÔH ¸¢Ã¢:*§H“G*¿*§0h<§k„€M «kG*mÑ)fŒG*¢HKLK&fH¸KŸ¤G¢˜„€H ¦4aEœM§žk+f¤G5f¡HÑk0¸* aJ j’ª›1xª„G*§ž„6f¤+ŽÌ-4¸K2£§ª›H m*4fH(¸*jGK2…€ª)4aM*5¢+

 fŒG*Éf˜„6(¸*‡†w¼*KjªI*|žŒG*jªž¡k›G lHfEՆ„€›D·¬}­º*|M§†kG*K œª˜„k+£f˜„6(¸*KjHfŒG*f„7&¸*,4*5K ·4*}9&¸*vф8(*K}‚ºjM~F|Hj¡¹ £f¹f¤¡<–ng¡M—|†G*KÉfg¼*«<f†E mf‰Dft¼*œF·jª<|D ŸªH|-¶a•Djª)~¹*4*}9&¸*—f†I·K jªGfHj’›˜k+~¡Hvф8(*K 4¸K2l›+ CG{ª’¡kG*l³ŸªH|-fž<&*šf¡JK 4¸K2jªGfHj’›˜k+~¡H 2aŒ+mf„‚Ef¡ž›G,~Jf/L|1&*K 2aŒ+ŸªH|-¾(*j/ft+5f¡HK~¡H lG*5fH«kG*5f¡¼*fH&*~¡H ¾(*œ„‚kD4fž<(*,2f<(*¾(*j/ft+ ~¡H

œ’†›G£f†•G*~F|HvfkkD*Ù*œ„­’+¶ j¡MaH·,a0§G*Ž4f„7¨›<”}¼* ¥:§†1K¬4fžŒ¼*¥¡M§˜k+~ªžk¼*,~=  fE¬{G*Kj+*{¹*¥I*§G&*KjcM|¹* ›g¯£f†•G*¢„€t¼*ag<aª„€G*¥›M§žk+ lHfEoª04¸K2£§ª›HA¥kžªE jM4fžŒHj•+f„€Hv|†+j„‚„‚wkHj¡¹ hk˜Hf¤+5fDKŽK}¼**{JŸªž„‚kG ¦{ª’¡k+lHfEK…6a•Gf+¬4f„k„6¸*4K2 &*a+aEKm¸Kf•ž›G¬}­»*jHf„6&*jF}7 ·j„9f’kI¸*jM*a+HŽK}¼f+œžŒG*

Ÿªž„‚-K‡ª†w-ŽK}H jª<fq„G*«k•Ma0 «gJ{G*d:f„G*K

j›/fŒG*jMf<|G*ŽK}H ,~=Žf†E«+§˜¡¼

H£KfŒkGf+,~=jMa›+lHfE 4§„‚-„9§+jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹* «k•Ma0Ÿªž„‚-K‡ª†wkG «gJ{G*$¨:f„G*Kjª<fq„G* USAIDj„€„6'§H¢HœM§žk+  §•MKCHFj„€„6'§H,4*2(f+ 2*a<(f+¬4f„k„6&¸*4K2hk˜H jª›žŒ+$ag›GjM{ª’¡kG*mf††w¼* jªGfž/(*j’›˜-¢ž„9™G3K{ª’¡kG* 4¸K2jžª•+4a•jª¡:§G*jªqª-*΄6¸*¾(*N*2f¡k„6*

ŽK}¼**{Jœž„M i4f•-jªI*~ª¯jªk³jª¡+ŽK}H ¦{J §•-K4¸K2 ¢Hj’›kÂ$*~/&*jª†k+M4f„¼* 4a•-jª<fž/(*j’›˜k+,~=Žf†E jHa•H4¸K2£§ª›Hjžª•+ $fÇ(ÑG«+|ŒG*—Ka¡„‚G*¢H «Hф6(¸*™¡gG*,4*2(f+¬2f„‚kE¸* ¢H¥G–„€¡MrHfI|+¢ž„9jªž¡k›G ¶K«›t¼*Ÿ˜º*,4*5KÑ1 jŒ+4&*¨›<M4f„¼*Kjt¡¼*Ÿª„€•,~=£§If0lª+«JKmfMa›+ uD4…€I§ªIf1

jª.*|-mfž„€+–)*a0Ÿªž„‚-ŽK}HŸkkwMp*ÎG*,4fž<~F|H CHF Internationalj„€„6'§HH£KfŒkGf+ ¬Kf„€ª<,~ž0 œª›»* jM|Jf‰G* f•„€G* mfD|<4§I&* œª›»* 4fqDlª+ ,24K§+&*$Ѫ„€I«gJ{G*$¨:f„G* jg„‚<§+&*ažÁ œª›»* ¥I3&* uªg„8fIfM25*~•G*f¡M2«<ÌG*4fJ5&* Ì=&¸*|Ma=fMa+ ¨„€ª<*a¡ªG…6a¡E4f¡Hm*Ԅ‚¡G* ÕJf„7Ñ<՛ŒI ¬|˜+h¡M5 ¬4*§0£fÊ(*¥q0 ¨›<Ù*ag<£f/|HŸnªJ…€I§M£f1 ug„82§žÁj+*|< Ù*“›1 f„‚<sfº*ažÁ £fÊ(*2«„8fŒG*£fÊ(*2¢HœF”*}7(f+ |ž„6ª+4ÉfH&*jª¡„€0jM2fIuD4 f†<ažÁ2ažŒG* i|<5ÕH|Iœª<fž„6* $f’ªJ 4fž<Ô¤„6 ¢HœF”*}7(f+ ,Ka•G*½f„6 ¬}‚¼*a)f< fD}G* p*ÎG*,4fž<~F|H 2*aº*ažÁ  jª+|G*j’„­G*·lE§G*…€’I·¶aEK *{„7jªŒž/H£KfŒkM oª0jª+цG*j•+f„€¼*…€’Iv|: Ÿªž„‚-·£§¡’G*KjDf•n›G ·,4fžŒG*Ÿ„€EmfgGf:KiÑ: U aQR •-Q j<§žÀŸªž„‚kGjª¡:§G*vfq¡G*jŒHf/ ,~=£*§ª0j•Ma0 £KfŒkGf+j’›kE*§¼jHfŒG*–)*aº*¢H *j„€„6'§HKjM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€EH CHF ,~)f’G*¾K&¸*M4f„¼*lIfFK ¢HŽf†•G*£f˜„6¥ªIfŒMf¼N*|‰I jª¤ªDÎG*K$*}­»*–:f¡¼*j›E «kG*K£*§ªt›G–)*a0j„8f1K jªtMKÎG*f¤kžªE¾(*jDf„9(*œ˜„j„8f1KjHfJjª’ª•n-Kjªž›<jžªE ,4fž<~F|H£KfŒkMf’:&ÑG jDf•n›G*{„7jªŒž/Hp*ÎG* ŸªHf„‚-„9K·£§¡’G*K HŸ=f¡k-oªt+£*§ª0–)*aº ¿(*jDf„9(¸f+*{Jj†ªt¼*jcªgG* –ª„€¡kG*·jª›Á2*§H *awk„6* mfª†ŒHHNfª„7fµÐF&*£§˜|žnk„€Moª0«¡ª†„€›’G*E*§G* ‡ª†w-—f„€H·jg›†G*a¤/ *{JuGf„‚GE*§¼*–ª„€¡-K jg„8$f’„9(*£fž„­GKŽK}¼* ¬4fžŒ¼*f¡.*|-¢Hjž¤›k„€Hjª›Á ÕnŒkg¼*~ªµLaH¨›<œGaM¬{G*|H&¸* f¤›ª„‚³¶«kG*,a)f’G*Մ6a¡¤¼*…€¼ aF&*fžFՕ+f„€G*ÕnŒkg¼*œgE¢H 4f„7&*KŸ¤›ž<·Ÿ¤ªIf’-KÕª¡ª†„€›’G* œGaMfHÔ1£&*¨›<¬KfŒ›gG*…6a¡¤¼* 4fkwk„6j„6a¡¤G*jª›F£&*¾(*–ª•G*4§kFaG* ¥D*aJ&*–ª•³·£KfŒkG*rHfI|+vfŨ›< j+f•IH£KfŒkGf+m*4KaG*¦{¤GÕt„7|¼* pK4§¼*¨›<‹f’º*·jžJf„€¼*· s3fÇ4fªk1¸,~=mf‰DfÁ·Մ6a¡¤¼* ÕnŒkg¼*…­Œ+£&*§J«¡ª†„€›’G*¬4fžŒ¼* ·ŸJf„€-Kjª›˜G*KjŒHf¹*”}-L|1&* jHfJœž<E*§H£%¸*œktM¢Ma)fŒG* «¡ª†„€›’G*£f„€I(ÑGjE}H,4§„8$f†<(* ՛EfIj•M|ŒG*,~=j¡MaH4f.%*ŸªH|-· a<f„€H¬KfŒ›gG*2§žÁ…6a¡¤¼*E§-K ·f¤ª›<*§I|µ«kG*mfª¡•kG*Km*Ì»* N*aMa„7fgE(¸*£§˜M£&f+~F|¼*|MaH jM}‚¼*4f.%¸*E*§H ¬{G*¢„€tkG*aŒ+j„8f1u¡¼*¦{J¨›< aŒ+K}‚H¾(*K¢Hœ•¡kG*¨›<&*|:

Nf:fg-4*KjªŒE*KÐF&*f¤›Œ/K,4fžŒG* ~F|¼* §•MK«›t¼*žkq¼*j/ft+ HmfEÑ<™ªg„-Kj’n˜H2§¤q+ «¡ª†„€›’G*Éa¼*žkq¼*mf„€„6'§H jªGKaG*Kjª›t¼*jª›M§žkG*mf„€„6'§¼*K M4f„Hjg›†›GŸ„€•G*v|†Moªt+ mfEf„€H¢ž„9mf„€„6'§¼*¦{Jf¤/fk³ ŸJ4Ka+jg›†G* §•ªG‡ª†wkG*KŸªž„‚kG*  §•-Ÿ.4fž„­¼**{J·…€Df¡kGf+ jª›<fDÐF&¸*M4f„¼*«¡gk+mf„€„6'§¼* f¤-fg›†kHHjH$ÑHK jF4f„¼f+Ÿ„€•G*mfgGf:Kjg›: fEaEK jk„6Ÿªž„‚kG…€Df¡kG*KjM4fžŒ¼*j•+f„€¼f+ ·,~=Žf†E·jHf<–)*atFE*§H $¨:f„G*jª<fq„G*fªJ¸lª+¢HœF uD4K…€I§M£f1m*Ԅ‚¡G*«gJ{G* ,~)f’G*¾K&¸*M4f„¼*lIfFK *§„G*f¤ImfgGf†›GfªJ¸lª+ «„‚ªtgG*Õ¡0«„‚ªtgG*$fžª„7 jž„€I¬Kf„ª•G*|ž„6jª<fq„G*

Õª)f„‚1&¸*¢Hj<§žÀ4§„­t+ CHF«›nÃKj’›kw¼*mfMa›gG*«›nÃK ,4fž<~F|H fE&*International f¤+ fE«kG*ŸªHf„‚kG*mf„Ef¡Hp*ÎG* j„8f»*KjM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€Ejg›: mfž„6m*3jHf<–)*a0Ÿªž„‚k+ jªŒªq„-~)*§/j„€„6'§¼* a•k„6Kjª.*|¦{¤+¢M~)f’›Gjg›†›G|Ma•-m*2f¤„7K ¦{J£&*¦|F3|Ma¹*¢HKj•+f„€¼* Žf†E¢Hj’›k–:f¡Hl›ž„7–)*aº* jª¤ªD|-mf0f„€H–›1”a¤+,~= j‰k˜¼*Nf„8§„‚1jªI*|žŒG*–:f¡¼*· f¤G«kG*–:f¡¼*™G{FK£f˜„€Gf+f¤¡H ¢›<&*KjªwM4f-jªžJ&*K&*jª.*|-m¸§GaH –ª•G*aM|D2p*ÎG*,4fž<~F|H|MaH «<f„€H¢ž„9«-&f-jªEf’-¸*¦{J£&* E*§Gf+jg›†G*M4f„H‡+|Gjnªnº*~F|¼* ·Kjª›t¼*mf/fªk0¸*K«¡ª†„€›’G* |M§†-¾(*«H|-«kG*~F|¼*j†1$§„9 Ÿ„€•GjªÊ2fF&¸*mfEf„€¼*mf/|Â

jM|.&¸*Éfg¼*ŸªH|-¨›<hM4ak›G£f1f=&¸*j„€„6'§HH£KfŒ-rHfI|+ ¬Ô1žÀ·jM|.&¸*½fŒ¼*ŸªH|-fÀ “„6§M4§kFaG*j„6a¡¤G*jª›Faªž<v}8 aEjDf•n›G£f1f=&¸*j„€„6'§H£&f+«„€¡¼* £fgŒ„7£f†›„€G* &*E§HK¬|.&¸*™+ H£KfŒkG*rHfI|+aMaµ¨›<l•D*K |MaH–ª•G*aM|D4§kFaG*aF&*¥kª0fI¢H ¢HK&¸*¢H$N *ak+(*L|1&*j¡„€Gjª›˜G* jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹f+p*ÎG*,4fž<~F|H u„9K&*aEK 2f•G* fŒ›G|Mf¡M Մ6a¡¤¼*hM4a-¨›<՞)f•G*$*Ì»*£&* ŸJ|Ma•-KŸ¤+fq<(**Ka+&*Õª¡ª†„€›’G* £KfŒkG*rHfI|+~ªÊfH£&f+«„€¡¼*4§kFaG* La¯KՕ+f„€G*ÕnŒkg¼f+¢MaMa„G* ma+&*£f1f=&¸*j„€„6'§H£&f+jH2f•G*j¡„€›G ¢HÌF&*2a<ifŒªk„6(*¨›<f¤k•D*§H §JKŸ¤›žŒ+Ÿ¤H*~kG*KŸ¤„8Ñ1(* §:&*m*ΒGKÕª¡ª†„€›’G*Մ6a¡¤¼* “ª;§-¾(*j„€„6'§¼f+L{0¬{G*|H&¸* ¨›<j„€„6'§¼*l•D*Koª0–+f„€G*¢H  §•-«kG*ŸªHÎG*M4f„H·Ÿ¤¡HÕ¡.(* ·Õª¡ª†„€›DՄ6a¡¤HjªIfž.hM4ajª+|ŒG*}‚HjM4§¤ž/·j„€„6'§¼*f¤+

Al Omran 5th Issue | 6

¥-a¤„7¬{G*ÔHakG*K&*j’›kÂjªwM4f- jg›†G*a¤/4fžnk„6*Ì<™G3K,~=j¡Ma¼ jqªkIKÑk0¸*mf„64fÃ$*|/j¡Ma¼* l³,4fžŒG*Ki§„6fº*mfEf„€H· Éfg¼**agk„6*K}8fŒ¼*¬}­º*§ž¡›G h„€k˜MK¬}‚¼*a)f<…6a¡¤¼*”*}7(* *{J£(fD*{G,aMa/L|1&f+jÊa•G* £&*¾(*|‰¡Gf+L§„‚EjªžJ&*ŽK}¼**{J ¬~G*£*|žŒG*Ÿª„€±¾(*”a¤MŽK}¼* ,~=j¡Ma¼jÊa•G*,a›gG*mfI§˜Hh›=&* jª•ª•0,4§„8$f†<(*¢ž„­Mf¯Ëa•G* ¬}­º*rª„€¡G*¢ž„9,2§/§HaŒ-½ mѪ˜„-KjªI*|žŒG*uHѼ*¢<jªŒE*KK œ0*|HÌ<,4|˜k¼*m¸*5(ÑGN*|‰I¿fº* ,ΒG*™›-·$f¡gG*


j¡„6¦atk¼*mfM¸§Gf+a•<L{G*GLOBEX mfM§k„€¼jª„6*4aG*j†»*…9|ŒGjªIf˜H(*šf¡JœJ ·K,4fžŒG*Ÿ„€E·,*4§kFaG*KÔk„€/f¼*K…6§M4§Gf˜gG* ",2aqk¼*jEf†G*…‚„‚wmfŒHf¹*¨D…6§M4§Gf˜gG*j/42œª¡G¥„6*4aG*,aH j¡„€G* j›HfFj¡„6f¤¡Hm*§¡„6l„6—|k„€-jªIf†MÌG* ”*}7(*o³jŒHf¹*s4f1hGf†G*f¤ª„­Ê ¥Œ+*|G* Nf„­M&*f¡MaG f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/·Մ‚„‚wkHÕM4fžŒH m*3m¸fq¼*¢H2a<¨DÔk„€/f¼*rH*|+¢H2a< rH*ÌG*¦{JÐF&*É*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG*K,4fžŒGf+jEьG* ,2aqk¼*jEf†G*K4fžŒ¼*¨D MSc rHfI|+§J,|¤„7 ¢H2a<ÌF&*,2f<i{kqMK f<¨D&*a+¬{G*K ¨Dj„6*4aG*,aHjGK2¢M}<¢HÐF&*¢HÕH2f•G*jg›†G*  f<œF¢H̞kg„6|¤„7¨D&*ag-¥›HfFj¡„6¨JrHfIÌG* «JK§„‚DK&*m*ÎDpÑ.¾(*jª„6*4aG*j¡„€G*Ÿ„€•Ôk„€/f¼*j/42¨›<§„‚t›G“ª„‚G*Kª+|G*K“M|»*

jª+|ŒG*mfŒHf¹*œŒ/·|.&*œ„8&¸*«+|<™I§˜GœJ "™Gfž<&*,a¡/&*¨›<ÐF&*jM§GK&*¬K3i|ŒG*iцG*K  fžkJ(ÑGLa¤/L4f„‚Ea+&*£&*¨¡ŒM¨k¡¤H”}7 œHfŒ-&*£&*KŸ¤-*a•kŒHKŸ¤G§„8&*lIfFfž¤H«+ц+ ¨•kG&*£&*N*a/É}€Mg†Gf+jD|ŒHKŸ›<iцFŸ¤ŒH ¢Haª’HfÀ¨Df<L§k„€H¾(*£§›„‚MNf+|<Nf+Ñ: ª†k„6&*fHŸ¤G aE&*£&*Nfž)*2Kf0&*KjD|Œ¼*m¸fÀ Ÿ¤k„6*42¨D*K&*agM£&*aŒ+KœgE,a<f„€HKŸ<2¢H j/4aG«+Ñ:h›=&*£&*™G3¨›<œªGaG*K·*}7(*o³ ¨›<–g†¡MNf„­M&**{Jjª+|<§„8&*¢HŸJ,*4§kFaG* mfž‰¡¼*KjªntgG*~F*|¼*KmfŒHf¹*H«-fEÑ< 2a<HjªÊ2fF&*mf:fg-4*¬aGoª0jª¼fŒG*jªž›ŒG* «¡’ª„­k„€-«kG*Kjª+|ŒG*¥ªntgG*~F*|¼*KmfŒHf¹*¢H ¨/4f1¢tkÃK&*|)*53fk„6&fF

Al Omran 5th Issue | 9

“›k¢Hi|<jg›:H™Ff˜k0*K™-Ì1–›†¡H¢H i|ŒG*jg›†›G«Ê2fF&¸*„9§›G™žªª•-§JfžDmfª„€¡¹* —§’kG*ˆf•¡+–›ŒkMfžªD…8f1œ˜„+Õª¡ª†„€›’G*jg›†›GKœ˜F "4§„‚•G*ˆf•IK l‰0¸fª›ŒG*mf„6*4aG*fÀ·«k+|±Ñ1¢H Õª+K4K&¸*Ô=¢HhIf/&¸*iцG*£&*jHf<j’„‚+ NfkEKh›†kML{G*2f¹*«ntgG*œžŒ›GÐF&*2*aŒk„6*Ÿ¤MaG ¨›<«¡ª†„€›’G*K«+|ŒG*hGf†G*NfEf„7N*a¤/K§:&* Ÿ¤ŒHl›HfŒ-¨kG*m¸fº*Ÿ‰ŒH¨D…8§„‚»*¥/K j›)fJ,4aE¥MaG£&*l‰0¸¢tkžžFK&*”}H3fk„6&fF hGf†G*¨D¥k‰0¸fÃÐF&*«ntgG*œžŒ›GÌF&*N*2*aŒk„6(*K f¤žJ&*f¯4œH*§<,a<¾(*/|M*{J«M&*4·«+|<ԏG* ¨Dr„­¡G*K«•›»* *~kG(¸*a/K&*L{G*K«¡MaG*œHfŒG* m*4a•G*¦{JœnHhGf†G*™›kÊfHa¡<g†Gf+Ԙ’kG* «ntgG*–†¡¼*KªD|G*«ž›ŒG*L§k„€¼*K$fF{G*hIf/¾(* ·Kaª/«nt+œž<sfkI(*¨›<¦a<f„€ª„6*{JŸª›„€G* l‰0¸a•D4§„‚•G*ˆf•¡Gjg„€¡Gf+j¡˜Ã,aH}‚E&* ¥„‚•¡-lIfFhGf†G*£&*N*a/j›ª›•G*m¸fº*…­Œ+¨D h„6f¡¼*«ntgG*4*|•G*3fw-*¨›<,4a•G*K…€’¡G*·j•nG* vΕ¼*Ÿªž„‚k›GŽf†EK«/4f1|‰¡Hœ˜„7 *{J£&*a•k<&*j•+f„6fž<&*¢H,aMa/4f˜D&*sfk¡k„6*K N */|M «kG*jŒHf¹*¾(*¢˜GK¥„€’IhGf†G*¾(*…€ªGф8& fª›ŒG*¥k„6*42&*agM£&*œgEf¤ªD…642

«›žŒ¼*4fgk1(ÑGŸªž„‚kG*Ÿ„€À2*a<(*œ˜„7

·Nf„8§„‚1K,a„+j+§›†HjEf†G* *awk„6*m¸fÀ Ÿ‰ŒH¥/*§-oª0«†„6K&*—}G*½fŒG*K2·¿fº*lE§G* m*4fgk<¸jEf†G*šÑ¤k„6*Õ¡•-jª’ªF·mfMa³½fŒG*£*a›+ jªÊ2fF&*j„€„6'§žF¥+lžE¬{G*4KaG*§JfžDjM2f„‚kE*Kjªcª+ œž<…74KKm*|µ'§HKm*4K2¢Hfq¼**{J·j„‚„‚wkH |˜DKjDf•.}I”a¤+™G3KxG(*™›M§µl³K&*™D*}7(f+ ",2aqk¼*jEf†G* lF4f„7 f¤q¡-§IjŒHfq+jcªgG*K4fžŒ¼*j„64aH j•›Œk¼*j†„I&¸*¨DjF4f„¼*¨›<j„‚M|0lG*5¸K N a•ŒMfq¼**{J¨D|µ'§Hf¡MaGÑnžD¦2aqk¼*jEf†Gf+ |µ'§¼**{J¢H¥H2f•G*,4KaG*ISETjM4K2j’„‚+ lª<2a•D«„‚w„G*L§k„€¼*¨›<Մ‚G*·a•Œk„6 ¨DŸªE&*f¤„­Œ+œž<…74K·jF4f„¼*KŸª‰¡-¾(* jªGK2m*|µ'§H¢ž„9ŸªE&*|1%¸*…­ŒgG*Kœ„‚’¡H4f:(* |µ'§HÑ1f¤kž‰I«kG*,4KaGfF,2aqk¼*jEf†G*§0

jª¼fŒG*jž‰¡¼*· Fellow š4f„H§„­<fI&* jž‰¡¼*·«kM§„­<Ñ1¢Hm*§¡„6{¡HIEFjEf†›G §0jªGKaG*m*|µ'§¼*¢HaMaŒG*·jF4f„ž›Glª<2 ·՞k¤ž›GjªgM4a-œž<…74K{ª’¡-K,2aqk¼*jEf†G* ·¦{ª’¡k+ §E&*«nt+ŽK}HNf„­M&*¬aGfq¼**{J aEl¡FŽK}¼|M§†-K&*2*akH*§JKjªgª›G*$*|t„‚G* «ntgG*ŽK}¼**{J,*4§kFaG*jGf„64¢H$~qF¥-&*a+ aMÌkG*·¥’ª;§-¢˜ÊaMa/Ÿªž„‚-|M§†-¾(*”a¤M a0&fFœžŒMK Passive jªŒªg†G*—|†Gf+jcDakG*K  œ˜„7 “•„€G*·rHa¼*¨¡˜„€G*¨¡g¼*}8f¡< £~w¼*¢Ff„€G*$f¼* *awk„6*¨›<Ÿªž„‚kG**{JažkŒM ¢˜Ê¬{G*K&*a„‚›GjHKf•HKj›’•HjªIaŒHjª<K&*· «›„‚D·~¡¼*¾(*K¢H,4*|º*f•kI¸‡ª„6§F¥’ª;§ŸkM œ˜„7 «›žŒ¼*4fgk1¸*aŒ+$fk„G*K“ª„‚G* œ0*|HpÑ.¨›<NfªI*aªHŽK}¼**{J4fgk1*K{ª’¡N * NfªIf.K œ˜„7 ,2|’¡HjªIaŒ¼*jª<K&¸*4fgk1*¸K& œ˜„7 Ÿªž„‚k›Gm¸f0pÑnG|„‚Hs3§Ç4fgk1* ,4§F{¼*m¸f0pÑn›GœHfFs3§Ç4fgk1*NfnGf.K  l¡FjªI*aª¼*m*4fgk1¸*$*|/(*,ÎDÑ1 œ˜„7

Ÿ¤¡ª˜žkGÕª›t¼*Մ6a¡¤ž›GjªgM4a-m*4K2{’I&*Nf„­M&* «ž›ŒG*otgG*hªGf„6&*KjªntgG*,~¤/&¸* *awk„6*¢H jEf†›G¿KaG*|µ'§¼*·lF4f„7j¡„6·É*aª¼* ·ŽK}¼*…9|Œ+lžEoª0ENERGEX98 |Ma•-,2f¤„7lt¡HaEKjªntgG*—*4K&¸*¢H2a<œ˜„7 œžŒG**{J¾(*É*aJ¬{G*ÙažºfDjªgJ3jªG*aªHK Ù*É*aJ£&*¸§G¬akJ&¸l¡FfHK  ,4fžŒG*fÀ·…64a-«kG*mf„‚„‚wkG*jŒªg:«JfH Architecture and"¨ž„€Hl³ f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/· ""Built Environment mfŒHf¹*…­Œ+·¶,Ô1&¸*m*§¡„€G*Ñ1  f„€E&*H,4fžŒG* f„€E&*¢HaMaŒG*ªž±jªIf†MÌG* ”|Œ-,a0*Kj•-§+¨D$f¡gG*jª¡•- f„€E&*K£a¼*‡ª†wSchool of the BuiltK&*jcªgG*j„64a¯4f„‚k1f+ |M§†kGj„8|’G*vf-&* ªžqkG**{JEnvironment m*32*§H¨›<f¤¡ªž„­-K¬4fžŒ¼*Ÿª›ŒkG*rH*|+ Solar«„€ž„G*4fžŒ¼*,2fHœnH¥ªž›<jª¡•-jg„8 ,2fHKArchitecture for different Regions Building Design in differentyf¡¼*K4fžŒ¼* «ž›ŒG*hIf¹f+j•›Œk¼*2*§¼*¢HfJÔ=KClimates jª¡•-Ž|D¢H¦{-f„6&*f¤„€M4ak+ §•M«kG*K,4fžŒG*¢H Building Technology$f¡gG* jŒHf¹*·,4fžŒG*Ÿ„€EÕ+KŸ˜¡ª+jªEf’-*lµ¥I&*Ÿ›ŒI Ôk„€/f¼*j›ž0¢Hj<§žÀs|w-fJ4fž.¢H£fFKjªHф6(¸* ¥/K&*«JfžD,2aqk¼*jEf†G*K,4fžŒG*fÀ·,*4§kFaG*K ·L|1&¸*jª„6a¡¤G* f„€E&¸*Õ+KŸ˜¡ª+£KfŒkG*m¸fÀK "f¤/4f1KfªIf†M|+œ1*2mfŒHf¹* mfŒHf¹*¢H2a<H£KfŒk›G,ÔnFrH*|+f¡MaG jª„6*42u¡H$f†<(*¨›<~F|Mf¤„­Œ+jªg¡/&¸*Kjª+|ŒG* ¥„6*4aG*¢Hfª›ŒG*mf„6*4aG*iÑ:՘žkGjF΄H œžŒG*¨›<~F|-L|1&*rH*|+šf¡J f¤q¡-§IjŒHfq+ jªž›ŒG*m*$f•›G*Ÿª‰¡-KšÎ„¼*«ntgG*

i|G*2Ð+¶¬4fžŒH «„9f•G*ӄ+ažÀ 2

4*§º*L|/&* «„6(¸*aŒ„6&*,}€ªH  ¨›<«„8|0K ‘*|’›G «0fª-4(* a<£&*a•k<&* m*Ì»*¢HaM~¼*if„€kF(*¨D,aMa„G*«kg=4KlE§G* l³f¤kª„­H&*¨kG*K|„‚G*{¡HjM}6&¸*«kM*a+¥gg„6 ¨k0K¬aG*K£fFoª0|•’G*¢HN*a/jgŒ„8”K|; N*a/‡ª„€+|/&f+¢M|1%¸*~+f¨DN*5fg1œžŒM¥k1§wª„7 £|D fH&*¥ª„­Êœª›G**§:|žk„€M£fF—f„7œž<œ+f•H ,a<f„€¼*Kf³lIf˜D«-aG*KfH&*h†ºf+œžŒMÔgF aªJ5|/&*œ+f•HNf„­M&*~¡¼*¨D”§„‚G*~=¨DœžŒGf+ f¤ªD†k„€I½2fª<&*NfIfª0&*f¡ª›<m|H fM&¸*™›-¨D Ÿ)Ѽ*¢˜„€¼*¨k0™›Ç¢˜I½KaªŒG*jªt„9&*$*}7 m§ª+¨Dœª›G*jª„­µ¾(*|†‰IfIfª0&*f¡Ff¡I&*|F3&*oª0 a0&*¨D §¡›G¥ŒHÉa1&fM¬aG*K£fFNfIfª0&*Ki4fE&¸* ¨›<Nfž)fI«k›ªG«„­H&*oª0¥ªDœžŒML{G*~gw¼*£fF4&* fHa¡<|F{-&*lG5¸¨¡˜GKN*ԏ„8l¡F–ªEaG*…6fªF&* ,a<~gw¼*œ1aH¾(*sK|»*¾(*|†„­M¬aG*K£fF ¾(*£|’G*hª¤G¢HNf+|J–)fE2„­gGKj›ª›G*¨Dm*|H |‰¡G*“Œ„­+¥+f„8&*K¥kt„8¨›<|.&**{J2|+&¸*$*§¤G* «’„‚Iœ›„7¢HÉfŒM§JKÙ*¥ž04¨D§-aEKž„€G*K m*§¡„6pÑ.¢HÐF&* *2 ¨D…9§»*¨›<œ„9fD&¸*f¤)*|•GKj›qž›G¦4{Œ¼* ¢Hf¤ªDaqM£&*¨¡µ&*¨kG*Kmfª„8§„‚»*¦{JœnH j‰<§¼*K£§ŒG*…­Œ+hŒ„8&*K&*j›.fÔK|‰+£K|Ê ,fªº*j¤/*§H¨›<~Dfº*f¤ªDa/&*lG5¸¨I&*oª0 £&*a•k<&*¬2¸K&*f¤+|F3&*Nfž)*2KmfMa³¢Hf¤ªDfHK …9§»«›ªJ&f-K«›•„8·lžJf„6jª„6f•G*”K|‰G*™›¥GÔ1§JKfcª„7£f„€I(¸*¦|˜M£&*¨„€<KifŒ„‚G* ¥›„-¬{G*h„‚¡¼*K¿fº*Ÿ˜›žŒ+‡g„­Gf+f¡’M|Œ-§/|I " f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/· jEf†G*K4fžŒ¼*fÀ¨D}9ftžFNf„6f„6&*œž<&*fI&* Ôk„€/f¼*jg›:¢H2a<¨›<Nf„­M&*”}7&*K,2aqk¼* ,4fžŒG*·j’›kw¼*mf„‚„‚wkG*¬K3¢H,*4§kFaG*K jM4*2(* f¤H¬aG™G{FjªIa¼*Kjª˜ªIf˜ª¼*j„6a¡¤G*K MSc Ôk„€/f¼*rHfI|+,4*2(*K¨›<”*}7(¸*¨Dœnžn«kM§„­<¾(*jDf„9(*,2aqk¼*jEf†G*K4fžŒ¼*fÀ¨D œ)f„64mfIftkH(*$*|/(*Kjªž›ŒG*£fq›G*¢H2a<¨D ¿fž<&*Kf¤/4f1K f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/œ1*2,*4§kFaG* jªntgG* ŸJ&*«JfHK" f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/s4f1mf:f„I™MaGœJ "jªntgG*™Gfž<&*

i|Œ›GNfD}HNf/3§Ç£fF£fH2(¸*K&* –„ŒG*a0¾(* ¥›žŒ+2f¹* *~kG¸*K2f¤k/¸*Kaq›G N¸fnH¥kD|<" Nf/3§ÇNf„­M&*£fF*{JœF—§DK¥„‚„‚w-m¸fÀ·,2aŒk¼*¥-*5fÅ(*K¥›ž<·¥E§’-Ì<fªIf†M|+·՞ª•¼* £fF¥G–ªžŒG*ŸJ|Ma•-K¢M|1%¸*2Kh„€˜M¥›Œ/fÃ¥F§›„6K¥¡Ma+ *~kG¸*¢„€0K–›»*j.fH2K„9*§k›G ¢:§›G—§„G*j<§GKj+|G*rJK¥ª›<ak„7*¢Hœ˜Gœ;j0*K j›Àf¤+…‚1«kG*¥kGf•¼«-$*|EaŒ+¥G¬|Ma•-K«+fq<(*2*5K¥kD|<fžF«„9f•G*ažÁ4§kFaG*§J™G3 m*§¡„€G*Ñ1¥G«kD|ŒHK¥¡H«+|EŸ=4f¤+Ÿ›<&*¢F&*½jª„‚w„7hI*§/¢<f¤GÑ1¢H“„F«kG*K£*|žŒG* –ª•G*aM|D 2 "¥kgt„‚+f¤kª„­E«kG*+4&¸* ¦{JœnH|D§k-£&*¨¡žkMf¤¡HÔn˜G**5fH™„7¸¨kG*K ¥)f¡+¨DŸJf„€ªG2§ŒM¨k0 &¸*¢:§G*¨D”K|‰G* hM|•G¦|;f¡G*a=£(*K¥k„­¤IK

i|E$*4§/f-,a›+aªG*§H¢H«„9f•G*Ԅ+ažÁ £*aGK¥GKsK~kHj¡„6…€›+*|:j¡MaH fÀ¨D BSc …6§M4§Gf˜gG*j/42¨›<œ„8f0  fªgªG …€›+*|†+´f’G*jŒHf/¢H£a¼*‡ª†w-K,4fžŒG* ¨D MPhil Ôk„€/f¼*j/42¨›<Ÿ.j¡„6 a›ª’ª„7jŒHf/¢H ,2aqk¼*jEf†G* jM4fžŒ¼* §›ŒG*fÀ j/42¨›<™G{Ff¤¡Hœ„‚0Kj¡„6fªIf†MÌ+ j¡„6fq¼*…€’I¨D PhD ,*4§kFaG* ¥ŒH$f•›G**{J£*|žŒG*,}6&¸£fFK

"™=*|DmfEK&*·f¤„64fµj¡ªŒHmfM*§J™MaGœJ aqª„6«Ê2fF&¸*œžŒGf+£f„€I(¸*–tk›MfHa¡< *{J‘*|DlEK¥G£§˜M£&*N*a/N*a/42f¡G*¢H¥I&* N*ÔnF¥’G%*½«¡I&*l›E*3(*Gf+&*¸ ‘*|DlEK u›†„‚¼* jªH§ªG*«-fª0¢Hif=f¯4¥I&*K|„‚G*{¡H«-fª0¨D l›žF&*fž›˜D f¤q¡-§IjŒHfq+«EftkG(*aŒ+j„8f1 |1%*œž<¨DNf˜ž¤¡H¨„€’Ia/&*¦5fÅ(*¨›<hqMfH N |-§ªgžFrHfI|+|M§†-j›„8*§HÑnHL4fªk1( *¢H¨Df„9(* «ŒE§H|M§†-j›„8*§HK&*j•+f„6,ÎD¨D¥-&*a+l¡F aŒ+¥¡H«¤kI&*½¬{G*KlIÎI(¸*j˜g„7¨›<«„‚w„G* httpwww«JjŒHf¹*·jª„‚w„G*«kt’„8K nottinghamacuksbestaffacademic fJ}¡Gjªž›<jE4Kj+fkF fµ(* K&* ibtindexhtml Ÿ¤Gfž<&*¨D¿f’:&*,a<f„€HK&*jªž›ŒG*jDft„‚G*¨D rH*|+a0&* *awk„6*¨DNf„642ŸJ$f†<(*K&*jª„64a¼* La0(*¨DjG§/¨DŸ¤+ft†„8(*K&*jªž›ŒG*|-§ªgž˜G* «kG*«„¼*jM*§J¨k0f¡kªgG,4Kfq¼*¥HfŒG*–)*aº* «-2§<a¡<K&*«›ž<¾(*hJ*3fI&*Kf¤„64fH&*f¤+kžk„6&* j<f„6“„‚Ii4f•MfHa1&f-fH,2f<¨kG*K~¡¼*¾(* f„­M&*kžk„6&*fI&fD«„¼*¾(*jDf„9(*¦f±(*œF¨D¨H§M¢H  *awk„6f+f¤„64fH&*«„9f¼*¨Dl¡F¨kG*KŸ„6|G*jM*§¤+ f¤„64fH&*fI&fD£%¸*fH&*h„»*K&*…7fž•G*K¥ªkM~G*£*§G&¸* œ)f„6KKŸªHf„‚-2*a<(*·f¤’;K&*¨kG*K|-§ªgž˜G*¨›< jŒHfq›Gjª)f<22*§HK&*«-*}9ft¼¥ªtª„9§-

fªgªGs4f1Kœ1*2¢HœF·œžŒG*m*Ì1Km¸fÀ«JfH " &¸*¢:§G* ¨¡ªªŒ-¶ …€›+*|: ´f’G*jŒHf/¢H«/|w-aŒ+ ,a¼jŒHf¹*…€’¡+,4fžŒG*Ÿ„€•+ }9fÁa<f„€H aªŒžF Ñk„6*¢Hl¡˜µ,ΒG*…€’IÑ1m*§¡„6pÑ. fJaŒ+¬4fžŒžF¨k¡¤Hj„64fèD«kEK¢H$~/ aŒ+Ôk„€/f¼*j/42œª¡GԄ­tk›GfªIf†M|+¾(*m|Df„6 }9ftžFœžŒ›GfªgªG¾(*ma<Ôk„€/f¼*¨›<¿§„‚0 fªIf†M|+¾(*L|1&*,|Hma<Ÿ.´f’G*jŒHfq+¬4fžŒHK ¾§„‚0aŒ+,}7fgH,*4§kFaG*j/42œª¡GԄ­tk›G  f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/HœžŒG*¨›<…9|<,*4§kFaG*¨›< School ofjcªgG*K4fžŒ¼*j„64a¯Nottingham ¨›<”}HK}9ftžFthe Built Environment jEf†G*K4fžŒ¼*"fÀ¨D MSc Ôk„€/fHrHfI|+ |M§†-Kœ•„‚Gj¡ªž.j„8|D™G3¨DlM&*4aEK ",2aqk¼* N*a/jg„6f¡Hjªnt+Kjªžª›Œ-jcª+¨Djªž›ŒG*«-fIf˜H(* «¡:§H¨D,|D§kH¢˜-½f¤I&*lE§G*™G3¨DŸ›<&*l¡F «›„8&¸*

*{J·4K2™-}6&¸£fFœJœžŒG*Ka¹*fJ'§›H™-fª0 œ0*|H·&*a+aE,fªº*¢H‡ž¡G**{J£&* &*"™-fª0jM*a+{¡H "j•0¸

"™ª›<Nf’›kÂN*Ô.&f-«›„8&¸*¢:§¼*s4f1œžŒ›G£fFœJ “„6&ÑG,f<aHlG*5¸KlIfFjG&f„€H¦{Jg†Gf+ j+Ώ¼*jª+|ŒG*m*Ì»*¢H¿fnH&¸f¯4KNfª„‚w„7¿

Al Omran 5th Issue | 8

Intreview Dr. Muhammed Al Gadi


…9fM|G*ifkF jª’t„‚G*jHfžªG*j„€„6'§H}7f¡G* jt’„8|+§kF&* 

jDf•nG*K,4fžŒG*

jª+|ŒG*,4fžŒG*·jMa•Imf„6*42

Al Omran 5th Issue | 11

ŸªŒ¡G*Ù*ag<¬4f„H2“ªG&fjŒHf/¢H,*4§kFaG*j/42¨›<œ„8f0‡†ÂK¬4fžŒH§JK œžŒMK  f<,atk¼*j˜›ž¼*·¢Mf-£§+&*œ„6fF§ªI ™›¼*jŒHfq+,4fžŒG*Ÿ„€E·¬4fžŒ¼*a•¡›Gš4f„H3fk„6(fF mfHfžkJ(*¥G$f¡gG*j›q¯|M|tk›GN*4f„k„€HK fHaGf+œ„‚ªD «+|ŒG*rª›»*j•†¡H·,}8fŒ¼*KjMaª›•kG*,4fžŒGf+jŒ„6*K ¢HaMaŒG*™G3·}IKjM2§Œ„€G*jª+|ŒG*j˜›ž¼*K ¬4fžŒ¼*Ÿª›ŒkGf+mfHfžkJ(*¥GfžFjªž›ŒG*pft+&¸* *{J·m*4*a„8(¸*¢H2a<¥GK,4fžŒG*j¡¤Hj„64fÃK fq¼*

Ÿª›„€G* ™G{+§JK …6K42,4§„8·«„9f¼* a•M £&*3(*œg•k„€¼*,4fž<$f¡gGf¤¡HŸ›ŒkG*¢˜Ê fJÔ.&f-f¤GfMf„­EÔn-£&*Kf³ifk˜G*mf<§„9§H …‚„‚wk¼*e4f•G*Da-£&*Kf³K«›g•k„€¼*K}9fº* f¤„ªŒM£&*…9ΒMԘ’kG*¢Hmf0f„€H¾(*¬2fŒG*K ,|Jf;œnµ,4fžŒG*£§F¢H+fI*{JœŒGK£%¸* «¤D œg•k„€HK}9f0K«„9fH 2fŒ+&¸*jª.Ñ.jª¡H5 œg•k„€¼*·|žk„€-K}9fº*œ/&*¢H«„9f¼*·«¡g£&*“G'§¼*2*4&*§„‚Djk„6¨›<ifk˜G*¬§ktM ,}8fŒ¼*,4fžŒG*fMf„­E¢Hjž¤Hjª„­Ef¤¡HœFœnÊ £&*h-f˜›G–g„6j›•k„€Hmf„6*42¢<,4fg<«JK mÑÀ,a<·fJ}IKmf+f„6f¡H,a<·f¤HaE a0*KŽ§„9§žFifk˜G**{J·|¤‰-f¤¡˜Gjªž›< jEьG*¦{Jœnµoª0jDf•nGf+,4fžŒG*jEÑ<~’tM j›+fEf¤I&*h-f˜G*L|MmfŒ:f•kG*¢Hj<§žÀ ”§„6,2aŒk¼*,4fžŒG*m¸fq¼fI|‰IfH*3(fD,2fM~›G fJÔgŒ-f¤G£§˜M£&*¢˜ÊjDf•.j0f„€HœF£&*aÅ f¤G£§˜M£&*¢˜ÊjM4fžŒH,4§„8œFK¬4fžŒ¼* ifk˜G* a•M…6f„6&¸**{J¨›<jªDf•nG*f¤-¸f˜„7(* j„6fª„€G*«JmfŒ:f•-jk„6· "jDf•nGf+,4fžŒG* 5Ñ-" «JKžkq¼*Kj¼§ŒG*Kj›G*KjM~H|G*KjM§¤G*K ¢<̌-f¡J«¤D™G{Gj0§k’HK,ÔgFmfŒ:f•,4fžŒ›Gj„8f1jM'K4K|‰Ij¤/K ·j„6fª„€G*K,4fžŒG*¨›<K&¸*œ„‚’G*~F|MK l„9|Œ-«kG*m*Ô.&fkG*¢<patkMK«+|ŒG*½fŒG* Õª„9f¼*ÕI|•G*Ñ1jª+|ŒG*,4fžŒG*Kj¡Ma¼*f¤G

Ôn˜Gf+jª+|ŒG*jM4fžŒ¼*hk˜G*…­Œ+f¡ŒGf†¢HaMaŒG*·f¤„­Œ+…9§w-KxM4fkG*¢H ¢HaMaŒG* fH&*“E§kIf¡Jf¡I&*¸(*jª¡•kG*m¸f˜„7(¸* hGfE·ifk˜G**{JfJÔnM«kG*jM4fžŒ¼*fMf„­•G* …‚Gf1¬a•I  &*jGf„8&*"«Jjž¤HjªGf˜„7(*jM*agG*·ifk˜G* a•M f¡kDf•.·NfÊaEu›†„‚¼**{JKagMK",4fžŒG*,}8fŒH ·jM|˜’G*—|’G*Õ+“ª¡ŒG* 2f„‚kG*£&*3(*jª+|ŒG* KftMf¡J¥¡˜Gf¡ª›<aMa¹*|H&¸f+…€ªGf¡k•†¡H Õt›†„‚HltIÑ1¢H,aMa/,§†1§†wM£&* ՞k¤¼*K"jGf„8&¸*,}8fŒH"§JfžJa0&*՞¤H j„8|D,|˜’G*¦{J·£KaqMaEp*ÎGf+f¡J p*ÎG*™ª˜’k+j†g-|HjG&f„€¼*£&*¬&*oMatk›G ¿fº*f¡kE§Gjg„6f¡H,}8fŒH,4§„‚+¥k=fª„8,2f<(*K §J ",}8fŒ¼*jGf„8&*"|1%¸*u›†„‚¼*£(fD™G3HK p*ÎG*™ª˜’-£&*¬&*,|˜’›Gœž˜¼*|1%¸*$~¹* «„­k•M}8fŒ¼*™ª˜’-K}8fŒHœ˜„+¦$f¡+«„­k•M *{J£&*|¤‰MK4K{¹*K§„8&¸f+¥†+|Mœ˜„+¦$f¡+ jª-fª0«0f¡¼N*2*akH*§J,4fžŒG*·Ÿ)f•G*a¹* «kcH¢HÐF&*{¡Hf¤kH|+jª+|ŒG*j•†¡¼*2§„€-,ÔnF 4*|•k„6*¬&*¾(*§„8§G*£K2 f< «’„€›Dv|:¨›<™G{Fifk˜G*jHa•H¬§k³ …8f1œ˜„+~F|-K¬a•¡G*¬4fžŒ¼*otgG*hªGf„6&¸ fž¤I§Fjª)fªžª„€G*KjªD*|=*§¡.(¸*j„64a¼*¨›< ™G3œgEK¥-fM§k„€HK¨¡Œ¼*·£f„9§w-Õk„64aH *{J·K¬4fžŒ¼*œ˜„G*¢H¥„8Ñwk„6*K¥ž¤D ·*}k„6¸*a•¡G*¨¡ŒH·h-f˜G*h¤„€M2a„‚G* jª’„8§G*2Kaº*a¡<“•-¸jMa•¡G*j+fk˜G*£&*3(* —2&*œ˜„+Ÿk¤-œ+¨¡g¼*œª›tk+‡•D¨¡Œ-¸K ¥ª/§kG*f¤¤ª/§-K,4fžŒ›Gjª›g•k„€¼*m*§†»*Ÿ„6|+

¢H…­ª’G**{J¢HN*$~/*§„‚„‚wM£&*¥E5|+Ÿ¤ª›< ,4a•G*£§˜›kʢß›ŒG*iÑ:¨›<—f’I(¸*¨D—5|G* aMaŒG*«¡k›„8KaEKjM2f¼*,4a•G*ŸJ5§Œ-¢˜GKjªž›ŒG* j›„8*§H¨D£§g=|Mm*§1&*K,§1(*¢Hmф6*|¼*¢H ¬2f¼*Ÿ<aG*¾(*j/fº*…€H&*¨DŸ¤¡˜GKfª›ŒG*Ÿ¤k„6*42 *{¤G|D§-*§H&*¬&*Ÿ¤-fg=4–ª•³¢H*§¡˜žkM«˜G ¨D…8f1LÔ1if„€0¨Df¤Œ„9K¢˜Ê…9|G* ˆK}7h„€0–’¡-«˜G«ŒHf/«ž„64”*}7(f+KfªIf†M|+ j•ªE2Kjt„9*Kjªž›<ÔMfŒHK {¡H…642&*É&f+f¡J“ª„9&*£&*2K&*L|1&*j¤/¢HK 4fžŒ¼*|M§†-KotgG«¼f<~F|H2fqM(¸Nf<K}H,ÎD 5fqM(*K4f„‚k1(f+ f¤q¡-§IjŒHfq+™G3K«Hф6(¸* j„8f1Kjª¼fŒG*m*Ì»*ªq„-¾(*”a¤M~F|¼**{¤D –ª.§kGmf„6*4aG*Kp§tgG*$*|/(*¨›<jž›„€¼*Kjª+|ŒG* oMa04f:(*¨DNfª¼f<¥)fª0(*K«Hф6(¸*4fžŒ¼*|M§†-K £§˜-£&*¢˜Êp§tgG*¦{Jjªž›<…€„6&*¨›<ažkŒM ,*4§kFaG*KÔk„€/f¼*L§k„€H¨›<K&*aH&¸*,Ԅ‚E aª„84¾(*sfktMv§ž†G*ŽK}¼**{JœnHg†Gf+ jªnt+m%fDf˜HKjª„6*42u¡Hœ˜„7¨D¥D}‚G¬2fH jªž›ŒG*mfIf˜H(¸* f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/¨Df¡MaGÙažº* œHfŒHKN*a/,4§†kH|-§ªgžFrH*|+K,~¤/&*¢HjªDf˜G* ¨¡I(*¥ª„­w„G*m*Ì»*¾(*jDf„9(*jª¡•-¥ªž›</*|HK f¡.*|.¨›<‹f’º*¨DjžJf„€¼*œ/&*¢HK„9*§-œ˜+K i4f±aŒ+Ô»*œJ&¸vΕ¼**{J aE&*–M|ŒG*«Hф6(¸* Ôk„€/f¼*j›ž0¢H2a<rM|wk+f¤0fÅlng-&*¥ª„‚w„7  §E&*lG5¸KlžEf¯™G{FKfq¼**{J¨D¦*4§kFaG*K œDft¼*¨D|Ma•kG*fI¨•ªg†-¨I*aªH¨nt+œž<¢H¥+ vf¡/2*a<(¸,§<2j¡„€G*¦{Jlª•›-«¡I&*fžFjªž›ŒG* §JK«Hф6(¸*4fžŒ¼*¢<fªIf†M|+·Ÿ)*2…9|Œ¼œHfF ”a¤MjªHф6(¸*,4f„­º*¢<Ÿ)*2…9|ŒH¢H$~/ ·jM}g›G¦§HaEfHK՞›„€¼*K Ñ„6(¸f+“M|ŒkG*¾(* |F{kªGK Ñ„6(¸*|qDŽ§›:{¡HjD|Œ¼*m¸fÀ“›k ,&fDf˜H¨D–ªE2K“„‚¡H¥GÑ/œ/Ù*£&f+œ„­’G*œJ&* ¦|MN*Ô1,43f•nHœžŒM¢žD Õ¡„€t¼*

a0&*u†„6¨›<jªIaŒ¼*jª<K&¸*¢Ha0*§GÉ*aª¼*4fgk1(¸*œ˜„7 jªgª›G*$*|t„‚Gf+—5|Hj¡Ma¯¨Ifg¼*

f¤-*~ªHf¤G«Hф6(*K«+|<žkÀ·,fªº*g†Gf+ ¬aªŒFjªHф6(¸*Ÿ„6*§¼*Ñ1j„8f1~ªžk¼*f¤žŒ:K ÐF&*œŒGKË|˜G*£f„­H4|¤„7Ñ1K¨t„9&¸*K|†’G* £3'§¼*m§„8§Jj+|G*2Ñ+·¥ªG(*—fk„7&*K¦a•kD&*fH rHfI|+hª„‚¡-¾(*m&f¹™G{G,ф‚›G¬2f¡M§JK lªgG*¨D¬a¡<|-§ªgž˜G*5f¤/¨D,ф‚G*lªE*§¼ ,ф‚G*a<§HœžŒG*jž05«¡ª„€¡-¸«˜Ghk˜¼*K f¡I&*¨›<Nf„­M&*Ù*až0&*£*3&¸*m§„‚+kžk„6&*«˜GK Օ+f:¢H¨›„‚HK&*aq„€Hf¡MaG f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/¨D œ•¡G*K$§„9§G*–D*|¯2K~HKՄ€¡¹*¢H՛„‚ž›G j„8|Df¡Gvfk-Nfž)*2f¡I&*fžF,ф‚G*K£*3&ÑG«-§„‚G* ifŒG&¸*m¸f„8La0(*œ1*2fI}6&*HaªŒG*,ф8$*2&* jªHф6(¸*jžŒ:&¸*£(fD|1%*hIf/¢HKjD§•„€¼* ¨›<KjG§•ŒH4fŒ„6&f+K,|D§kHÑº*Ÿt›G*…‚1&¸f+K «k/K5£&¸N*a/4K}€HfI&fD«Hф6(¸*KÉf„€I(¸*aªŒ„‚G* ¢H՞›„€¼*f’:&ÑGjª+|ŒG*j›G*Ÿª›Œk+,ÎD{¡H §•“M}G*“t„‚¼*,$*|E¢H*§¡˜žkM™G{+Ki|ŒG*Ô= jª<fžk/(¸*jª0f¡G*¢HN*ÔnFfIa<f„6œH*§ŒG*¦{J|D§4§Œ„G*fHa0¾(*f¡<aŒ+&*oª0jª¡¤¼*Kjª¡MaG*K jª+|ŒG*fI2¸K&*jM§J¨›<‹f’º*¨›<f¡If<&*Kj+|Gf+

Ÿªž„‚k›GœHf˜G*s2§ž¡G*¢Hm¸f0pÑnGÉ*aª¼*4fgk1(ÑGvΕHœ˜„7

 f¤q¡-§IjŒžq+jcªgG*K4fžŒ¼*j„64a¯fª›ŒG*Ÿ¤-f„6*42 …‚„‚w-· f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/«qM|» ""Architecture of Built Environment" Ÿ˜kD|ŒHjž/ÎG…8|’G*Ÿ˜Gvfk-£&*§/4&* ŸF2Ñ+¨DE*§G*…94&*¾(*Ÿ˜ž›<K "¥ªDoMaº*K&*¥kDf„9(*h³fH™MaGœJ Ÿ›ŒHœFKDfIŸ›ŒGhGf:œF–D§M£&*Ù*§<2&* hGf:¨›<–’¡HœFN*Ô1Ù*¬5fqM£&*K¥ºf„8jD|Œ¼ Ÿ›< Ù*…9fD&*¢H§<2&*£&f+¿*§tž„€-£&*§/4&*f¡JK

¬Kf„€kGf+jž„€•H,a0Kvfq¡+ŸkM£&*hGf†G*¨›< “M|»*Kª+|G*«›„‚DÑ1Nf’I%*,4§F{¼*§„‚’G*¨›< jªžªž„‚kG*M4f„¼*Km*}9ft¼*–M|:¢<j„6*4aG*Ÿkˆ}+K“ª„‚G*œ„‚D¨DfH&*mfIftkH(¸*…­Œ+KjªntgG*K «›„‚D¢Hœ˜GœE&¸*¨›<‡„6§kH¨›<§„‚º* Ôk„€/f¼*jGf„645fÅ(f+hGf†G* §•Mª+|G*K“M|»* jEf†Gf+jEÑ<¥GŽ§„9§H¨DK,{-f„6&¸*a0&*”*}7(*o³ ¢HÔn˜G*hGf†G*m*4aEKjg=4H–’kMK,2aqk¼* Ÿ¤I*a›g+j•›ŒkHª„9*§H£K4fkwMjg›†G* œª¡G–M|<rHfI|+Nf„­M&*f¡MaG f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/¨D jg›†G*Ÿ‰ŒH¥cªgG*K4fžŒ¼*fÀ¨D,*4§kFaG*j/42 jGf„64Kot+5fÅ(*Ÿ¤¡˜Êotg›GÕ=|’k¼*K¢M42f•G* j/42¨Dœªq„€k›Gm*§¡„6pÑ.,ÎDÑ1,*4§kFaG* N j/42¨›<ф8f0hGf†G*£§˜M£& *ˆÎ„M,*4§kFaG* j›G*¨DՌHL§k„€H¥GKh„6f¡HaŒ¯Ôk„€/f¼* Ôk„€/f¼*j/4aGhGf†G*šÑkH(* a<jGf0·jM~ª›Å(¸* aŒ+K MPhil Ôk„€/f¼*j/42·Nfª)agH¥›ªq„€-¢˜Ê ,*4§kFaG*rHfI|+¾(*¥›•IjªIf˜H(*otgG¥žªª•-ŸkMj¡„6 £(*jª<fžk/¸*™-fª0·hI*§¹*…­Œ+¨›<”|ŒkI£&*2§I |Œ„-œJK…MfŒkG*KŸ›E&fkG*·œFf„Hl¤/*KœJK¢˜H&* ",aŒ„8&¸*œF¨›<¥ªG(*§g„‚-fHl••0aE™I&f+

Ÿªž„‚k›G|„‚¼*s2§ž¡G*¢Hm¸f0pÑnGÉ*aª¼*4fgk1(ÑGvΕHœ˜„7

L&¸j„6§ž›¼*jM4f„­º*|Jf‰¼*ŸJ&*¢H«J,4fžŒG* ¥kžŒI|˜„I£&*¾(*Nfž)*2f¡ž¤›M£&*Ù*§<2&*jªHф6(¸* «kG*KjªHф6(¸*,4fžŒG*s2fÇ¢HÔn˜G*¨D¦*|IfžFjH&* ¢M|+f„‚G*¢H£§˜I£&*Kf¡ª›<ŸŒI&*«kG* jcªgG*Hf¤+Kfqk+™G{FKjªGfž¹*fJ}8f¡Œ+fž)*2m~ªµ jª¡=j•†¡H·£§„ªŒ-ŸkI&*Nfª1f¡HKNfªŒªg:f¤+j†ªt¼* ¢HœF¾(*jªE|+f„64(¸v§k’Hfq¼*£%¸*™MaG ‡•D…€ªG¥ª›<*§‰DftD¬4f„­º*¬4fžŒ¼*m*ÐG**{¤+ "fªgªG·œJ&¸* ¥ž¤DjGKft¯Nf„­M&*¢˜GK¢˜H&*fž›F–ª.§kG*KjIfª„‚Gf+ ¥ªDfH¾(*Ÿ˜•DKKÙ*Ÿ˜If<&*šf¡JœJ&ÑG§E&* }8f¡<œ˜„7¨DNfM4fžŒH¥kž/|-K¥ªDotgG*K¥„€M4a-Kl„9|DfH*3(*¨¡ªÁf„6«-aG*§G§E&*K2ÑgG*Ô1KŸFÔ1 Ÿ¤’I«˜G¥I&f+j+|qkG*m|¤;&*a•GjnMa0jM4fžŒH f„‚-(¸*K&*™-4fM5¨D|1&fkG*NfIfª0&*œžŒG*”K|;¨›< i§›„6&f+¥ªDotgG*¾(*sfktIN*aª/Nfž¤D¬4fžŒ¼*f¡.*|2fkŒ¼*a<§¼*¨D™+ |-§ªgž˜G*rH*ÌFj„‚„‚wk¼*m*K2&¸* *awk„6f+K«ž›< Ն„€›D·,~=·jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*·,4fžŒG*jg›†G ¥+ fEfH§J™G3¨›<œªG2i|E&*K,4§†k¼*jªž›ŒG* "f¤ªD«Ê2fF&¸*ŸEf†G*Kf¤ªqM|1K Ñ1«nt+2§¤À¢HjªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*¨qM|1…­Œ+

Al Omran 5th Issue | 10

Books Architecture & Culture


jŒ/4ӏ+*§›04

Architecture & Culture Books

,~=¢Hift„€I(·*¨›<fgª•Œ-|:*§º*¢H

Al Omran 5th Issue | 13

–ª•G*ug„8aM|D 2 p*ÎG*,4fž<~F|H|MaH uHѯf¤g„8K…94&¸*¦{J½fŒHœª˜„¬{G*2*a/&¸*p*Î+Kj„‚Gf1jª¡ª†„€›D |žk„6*K¥„€ž:N*aJf/Ñk0(¸*Kf0 ¸(*jMKf»*mf¡:§k„€¼*Ÿtk•M…8fgG* |¤•G*aªEf¡<«JfJjÊ~¤G*mfž„‚+¢H ¥-fª:l³L|1&¸*§›-,a0*§G*‡•„€N j0*΄6ÑGmfª¡t¡¼*a0&*a¡<Ѫ›Ef¡’E§¥F*§’G*…­Œ+h›q+$ÑH~G*a0&*Ž§†-K ªž¹*Ž4f„6,4Kfq¼*§•º*a0&*¢H ¢HÔn˜G*f¡+¢˜M½£(*Kf¤Hf¤kG¸ —§„G*K§„­’G*£fFa•›DŽ§¹* «„8*§¼*…94&*¢H4fžnG*¦{J—K{kG ¦{J“›1*§:Õ¡„€Glª•+«kG*K $*4KD*aG*§Jf¤ª•tk„€H|‰k¡-~/*§º*  a<·Nf•ÁaG§G*£fFa•GŸ¤¡G**{J l„€ªGj¤Ff’G*¦{¤DjªkªgG*¥F*§’G*h›/ —*{H¥I&¸f¯4)*4—*{Hf¤GfJԏF 4f„‚kI(¸*j¤˜¡+ …8fgG*4*2&**§qkG*¢HœHfF4f¤IaŒ+K œ„‚-½*3f¼|˜D&*m&*a+K,2§Œ›G¥k¤/K ",*~G*œª04Ÿ=4«g›E¾(*aŒ+j0|’G* "–:f¡¼*¦{JjM'K|+¬|;fIkµŸ=4K Žf„9&*fH§Jj¼'§¼*mfM|F{G*‡M}7œJ ·m&*a+*3f¼¬42&*¸"j0|’G*¦{J ¾K&¸*«-aª„‚E/΄6&*,2§ŒG*j›04 a¡/fMœ0ΛDaMa/¢HL|1&*,|H *§›04ŸŒI¦%*œ0ΛDœ:fgG* m&*a+aŒ+œžk˜-½j0|’G*¢˜GK ¥qkM…8fgG*&*a+fHa¡<™G3|Œ„k„6&* N Ž}€M…8fgG*£fF¬f¡ª<™G{FK¸fž„7 ªž¹*£fFlE§G*|1&f-a•›D¨†»* ¾*2§ŒMKœª›G*jž›;¢H…8Ñ»*aM|M …8fgG*“†ŒI*,&fqD$fª„­G*oª0¥kª+ lIfF*3f¼NfHfµlF42&fDi|G*¦f±f+ ¦f±f+lE§G**§:£fk„‚1f„7¬f¡ª< *K~+j0|’G*lIfF*3f¼Kfž„G* «JŸŒI"j„8§•¡H,~=¢<Ñk0(¸* šf¡JlG*5fH¢)*a¼*,42…6a•G* vfg„‚G* KaE|‰k¡-

fI|F{-f¤I&¸m*2§/§¼*¦{JjM'K4 a< ¾K&¸*jg-|¼*¨›<…€Df¡kINfž)*2f¡FK fH£&f+f¡„6f„€0(*KÑk0(¸*mf’›w¯ £%¸*fIaE¥I&f+™„7¸ j„6*4aG*· u›„‚-¸,3§g¡HjgM|= f„€/&*§J¨•g f¤ª›<¥k„€Df¡Ha0&*ª†k„€M¸N,2f¤„7 É*|ž<rª„€I¬&*¢H$N ~/£§˜-£&¸ †•¡M¸v§ž:K,ÔgF Ñ0&*¥G£fF «„9f¼*5Kf±·jg=|G*Õ+K«›g•k„€H j¡1f„6 §ªG*™G3p*a0&¸*lIfFa•G «¡ª†Œ-Nf„­M&*…94&¸*lIfF$f¡gG*,2f<(*K Ÿ¤-§ª+¾(*£§GK|¤M…6f¡G*&*a+,&fqDK «+*|-i*ÎG**{J…€ªG&*·f„G*i*§¹* m&*a+Kf¡gMŸªÂ·N*aª¤„7‡•„6a•G §J«E§D¦§<45K&*¦§Œ¡„8fHœF£(* §qkG*¡H…9|D·Ñk0(¸*m*§E N * fHjŒ+fk¼ŽfM{¼*L§„6œªg„6šf¡J¢˜M½ N*aM|Da¤„¼*£fFŸ¤GNfH§M¢˜M½ф8& «kG*jM4fF{kG*4§„‚G*¢HÔn˜G*–tk„€M —a„8&*¸2fF&*¥HfH&*m|ž„€-KpatM *'§„€G*¢˜GKf¤:f•kG¸ªž¹*–+f„€f¡H£§H|F&¸*‡•„€MfžF‡•„6aE¥I&f+ Nfª)|H£fFªž¹*¦fg/¨›<Ÿ„€-4*¬{G* f¤ªDš42&*«kG*¾K&¸*,|¼*lIfFNfŒªž/ ª†k„€IœJ£§ªŒG*¥c†w-¸œ˜„+ œJ£*a•’G*,4*|HKÑk0(¸*,§„€E ¾*…94&¸*¦{¤G–„ŒG**{JœFœM§³  Ñ0&¸*¦{JœF¨›<j„8f„8|G*«„­•NfH*§F&*,*~G*f¤F|-£&*aŒ+,|J~H£f¡/ –J~-œJKf¤¡ª0lG'Kf„€-"v§ž†G*K f¤ªDŸª•I£&*ª†k„€IœJ" fF|G*¢H j+fk˜G*lIfFjG§¤„€G*¦{¤+v*K4&¸* ¦{Jjžª•+£f„€I(¸*|Œ„-«kG*M4f„¼* «˜Gaª0§G*…€’¡k¼*«JlE§G*™G3· f¤„8Ñwk„6*·,fIfŒ¼*dDf˜MK«„9*4&¸* |‰04*a/j„7fª¹*“:*§ŒG*¦{J—ÎwfJԞŒ-ª†k„€IœJÑk0(¸*¢.*|+¢H }<jªIfž.¨„­Ha•GÙ*fM*§qkG* 4fžnk„6*œ„­D&*–•tM£5*§kHœ˜„+ fJKfM'K|G*¦{J–•tk-£&*œgEL|1&*NfHf< …ªŒG*œ’˜-jª<f¡„8–:f¡H¢Hf¤-*Ô» 4fŒG*K¬~»*fM3&*£K|qM£§›0|MŸJ ¬K&f-jª¡˜„6m*4KfÀK¢:*§ž›GË|˜G* fI&*K¬|:f1·§±4f˜D&¸*¦{JlIfF f¡ªª¡-jª<*45–:f¡HK¢M2}¼*”¸%¸* ,aªŒgG*jª›H|G*ÑkG*¦{J¾*¿§0|‰I&* ¢M|1%¸*—*§„6&*·f¡G*§H&*4*aJ(*¢< *{J$«qª„6£fFœJK«„€’I·§E&*K |D§-jªŒªg:mfªžÁK$*}­1–:f¡HK ·lg„8«kG*m*|†•G*¦{J¸§G §ªG* ‡„6KՄ6a˜k¼*Žf†•G*£f˜„€GNf„€’¡kH Nfž)*2oªG*K&*…€ªGK&*"|M|tkG*|t+ š*3K*{JœgEK$fž„‚G*jªk¡ž„6(¸*œk˜G* ,|†E £5*§kG*Š’tM *ak„€H«†ª†w-i§›„6(f+ ·Ôn-K–D&¸*·v§›-«„9*4&¸*m&*a+ jH2f•G*fª/&¸*–0¢H…‚•k¡M¸K«cªgG* m*4f„€’k„6¸*Kj›c„6&¸*ÕMÑH«„€’I —§D¢Hm*4a•¼*¦{J¢H,2f’k„6(¸*· mfªt„­kG*LaH…94&¸*¦{J”|Œ-œJ Ռ+–:f¡¼*¦{JhE*4&*m&*a+jgM|Ej›jEfk„H«JœJ"f¡G2§ŒkGfJf¡HaE«kG* jg›†›G¥t„9K&*l¡FfH|F{-&*Kj„‚t’kH ¨†1KfIf†1Õ+~ªµœJ"f¡›nHf¡ªG(* gkMmf¡:§k„€¼*‡ª†w- f‰I£&*¢H fHa¡<¥+fI|Œ„7¬{G*$”aG*£fF",*~G* j¡˜ÃjMfž0¨„‚E&*ÔD§kG¬2§•¡ŒG* f‰¡G* œª’F,4|t¼*…94&¸*f¡H*aE&*m&f:K j›ª„6§G*…‚t’kIf¤kEKf¡F“ªFKf¤G f¤ž)f„€IlIfFKi*§¹f+«¡ª-&fM£&f+ –:f¡¼f+mf¡:§k„€¼*¦{JrHaG¨›n¼* Ÿ˜G«g0·™„-K&*«¡g-fŒ-f¤I&fFK gk-«kG*K,4Kfq¼*jª¡ª†„€›’G*jªI*|žŒG* N É&f+ѪG2™ª’˜M¸& *Ÿ˜cªq¼«’¤›-K fJ«˜g„G*‡ª†wkG* f‰If¤ž‰ŒH· «-fg¡/Õ+¢HŸ¤k/|1&*K,*~G*l‰’G Ÿ„€¹*¢„­ktªGlE§G*N*3(*£f0aE§J Ÿ¤)*4KÕF4f-*§/|1ŸŒI¢M|=f„8 i*|-¢HjªGfG*–:f¡¼*¦{J«¡ª†„€›’G* N 4§Œ„7f¡MΌM£fFa•Gi*|»*¢H¸Ñ4K2$f/aEfJ¥›1*a+fJ|¤„‚MK¢:§G* fMf•+¢Hi*ÎE(¸*a¡<…8f1Ž§I¢H ,2f<(*·jªG§c„€¼**§›žtkªGՄ6a¡¤¼* ·jg=|G*ÕgD,a)fgG*mf¡:§k„€¼*œFfªJ

§¹*¢Hjž¤›k„€HK“E§¼*jª„8§„‚1 mf1}8¥ªD«¡-a/K¬{G*«„€’¡G* ,*~G*h:fw-*§:Õ¡„6{¡Hl•›†I* 22|-mf„­g¡G*¦{JlIfFKœª0|Gf+ ¬2f¡M|w„‚G* ¬2f¡M|q„G*K }­1&¸*h„ŒG*K œ0ΛDœ:fgG*a¡/fMœ0ΛD N ђ:–IfŒ-…€ž„GfD |ž0&*N*|žEœžtM ¬2f¡M|w„‚G* ¬2f¡M|q„G*K }­1&¸*h„ŒG*K œ0ΛDœ0ΛDœ0ΛD |wg-|qº*rJK·j+|G*œªGfM |q³m§¼*œ0K·h„8fG*…0KfM ™+fªI&*—~µ¬fk’„7 ™„6f’I&*Š’›-«-fž„€I sf/5«g›E4fg=K }€˜kM™ª¡ª<· o˜µ¢GN*a+&*«„94&*· f¤ªD«„94&* |q’kM£§kM5f¤ªD –If„H2*§<&*Ka-œ+f¡„6K 4&*~-¿fg/¢†+·“„8*§<K œ0ΛDœ:fgG*a¡/fMœ0ΛD N ђ:–IfŒ-…€ž„GfD |ž0&*N*|žEœžtM ¬2f¡M|w„‚G* ¬2f¡M|q„G*K }­1&¸*h„ŒG*K œ0ΛDœ0ΛDœ0ΛD ¢„6·fI&*K,aª„‚•G*¦{JlgkFa•G ·m|†„6fHK&*lIfFa•G}<j¡HfnG* Õ¡„6{¡H”|G*¨›<¨•›¼*|Œ„G*ifkF «¡-~’k„6(*«kG*mf‰t›G*|F3&*lG5fH «¡:f+¢Hmf1}‚G*¦{Jl/|1&*K ¾K&¸*j„9f’kI(¸*jM*a+lIfFa•G jŒHf/Ñk0(¸*m*§El•›=&*oª0 ma<…64aIf¡Foª0vfq¡G* ¾(*,4fª„€G*…€’I·Õº*™G3·¥ŒH |„‚G*{¡Hj„6*4aG*·«›ªH5£fFuD4

Nf+|†„­H §ªG*™G3vfg„8l„­¤I Nf•0œJN*Ԅ€’-¥G™›H&*¸4§Œ„7«¡MΌM fHK",4|t¼*–:f¡¼*jM'K|G §ªG*hJ3&f„6 …­HfG*‡ª›»**{¤+|Œ„7&*«¡›ŒqM¬{G* ¢HNfŒ+fI£fF™G3œŒG"…€ª„6f0&¸*¢H j›0|G*jŒªg:aMa³¨›<«-4a•H a< šf¡J«¡MΌ-aE«kG*|<f„¼*jªJfH¸K ¥kMf=aMa³¨›<«¡H4aE&*«¡+(*£fFa•G ¥k†¡„7Ԅ­³¾(*Ž4f„€Dj›0|G*¢H ½‡•Dm¸§F&f¼*¢H}€ª-f¯fJaMK~-K aM~¼*„9K·¥H&*mfg=4HiKfqkM ž„6¥I&f+f¤+f/&*jgª•º*·¥F*§’G*¢H f¤+,Ñw¼*mf¡:§k„€¼*£&f+¥)fEa„8&*¢H ¢Hf¡+ÎE*KjŒHf¹*f¡›„8Kf¤¡HÔn˜G* lG5fHfI&*K—цIÑG…‚+μ*…8fgG* fH$«„7i*ÎE¸*¢HjgJ|Gf+|Œ„7&* j›0|G*¦{JmfŒg-¨„wM£fF«›1*a+ ift„€I(ÑGjtIf„6j„8|’G*«JfJN*3(* £§„64a¼*KmfgGf†Gf+&ÑkH(*aE…8fgGfD …‚›žkG*lGKf0s4f»f+£K|‰k¡M*§G*5fH œ˜„+NfIf˜H¿~q0&*½«¡I&*jqt+ ¾*«¡›12&*$ÑH~G*4*}8(*¢˜GK–g„€H «„9*4&¸*¦f±f+š|tkGf+fI&*a+…8fgG* …9fg•I(¸f+«g›E&*a+Ki§¡¹*¾(*,4|t¼* ¢Hf¡+ÎE*£&*fHK…8fgG*j<}6aM*~-H š42&*m&*a+¨k0,4|t¼*«„9*4&¸*–D&* &*a+a•Gj¤/*§¼*¦{J¢<«Hfq0(*hg„6 mfM|F3«¡MΌMmfM|F{G*¢Hœª„6 j›=§H«JfžFh›•G*—fž<&*·j›=§H ¬a›1·Š•ªk„€-m&*a+,|F*{G*fMf¡.· $f¡+&*fJa+fF«kG*,fIfŒ¼*ˆfª„6¢H£*§G&* lG$f„€- §ªG**{J¾*§„8§›G«gŒ„7 ¿§0ŸJ¢HœF£&f+™„7¸¬|:fw+  §/§G*”fª:&*«Jf¤Df¤¡HaMaŒG*ÎqM «•gM½Ñk0(¸fD…8fgG*¨›<Ÿªw/΄6&*m&*a+K¢žnG*¥ŒD2&*K¸(*f¡HN*2|D mfª¡H&*Kl„­H fM&*mf+*{<«-|F*3· ¢<f¤ªDÑk0(¸**K5L|If¡FjÊaE hŒ„‚MjMf=Kf¡¼*aªŒ+Nfž›0f¡„94&* j<4f„€k¼*h›•G*mfE2m&*a+Kf¤F*42(* Žf•M(f+¬a„€/·ia-f¤-fq›1K ¢Hjª0§k„€H¬*aMf¤k†1,aª„‚EK&*

f¤Gf˜„7&*K,4fžŒG*§0f•M£&*¢˜Ê¬{G*Ôn˜G*šf¡J m¸§³+4&*¾(*m¸§tkG*¦{Jœ„‚’G**{JŸ„€EaEK jªDf•nG*Kjª<fžk/¸*mfªF|ºf+f¤†+4K oMaº*&*agMoª0jª<|’G*m¸§tkG*…­Œ+f¤G”f„9&*K fHa¡<+*|G*œ„‚’G*·¥+|Œ„I£&*¢˜ÊfH*{JœŒGK ™›-“„‚MK}<„6fkG*£|•G*·jª+|ŒG*,4fžŒG*¢< ,2aŒk¼*f¤ªIfŒHKj›G*½f<¾(*,4fžŒG*“G'§¼*DaM ¦{J“•-Ki|Gf+ *a†„8*K”|Œ-,ÎDf¤I&f+,ΒG* ¬aª›•kG*¬4fžŒ¼*u›†„‚¼*¢<patkMœ„‚’G**{¤D ¢HaMaŒ›G…9|Œk-K¾K&¸*jª¼fŒG*i|º*jM*a+a¡<,ΒG* £&*f¡JaF'§M§JKjM}‚gG*¥›)f„64Kjª’ª;§G*¥-f:fg-4*K jž„8f< §g¡†„6*¨›<Õ+4K&¸*Ô.&f-¢H$N *ak+*p*a0&¸* jM4fžŒ¼*mfªž„€¼*·…8§-£&*hqM,4fžŒ›Gf¡-|‰I ,|Jf•G*‡ª†w-K }<„6fkG*£|•G*·jªIfžnŒG*jDÑ»* fI24&*fH*3(fDCjª›t¼*jDf•n›GѪ„8*f„6f˜ŒI*«J«kG* aMaº*j˜„6$f¡+¨k0£|•G*™G3¢HÉfnG*“„‚¡G*· ¦{J¥ª¡Œ-f¯&*agI£&*hqMjª›t¼*f¡-4fž<Ÿ¤’I£&* "…€G§+§ª›¤G*"‡ª†w-K¢M}ŒG*£|•G*›†H·jM5fqº* N *,4fžŒG* «¤DÕ+|º*Õ+fH,4fž<fH&*,|Jf•G*·,aMa¹*}‚H ¦{Jm&f„I“ªFKf¤-ft›†„‚H¥ª¡Œ-f¯K¸K& N *mft›†„‚¼* jª¼fŒG*f¤„‚)f„‚1f¤GjM4fžŒk„6* "jªGfªI§G§F",4fž< ¾(*,§<2œnÊifk˜G*¢H$~¹**{Jф8& $f¡+¾(*§<aMK f<œ˜„+jª+|ŒG*,4fžŒG*·|‰¡G*,2f<(* ·jM§¤G*,|˜D2§Œ„8¨›<œ„‚’G**{J~F|MKjª›t¼*K a•¡G*"«J,|˜’G…€„6'§MK¬4fžŒ¼*u›†„‚ž›G "ŸqŒH" fž¡ª+«+|ŒG*½fŒG*·jnMaº*j¡Ma¼*œª˜„-K,ΒG*™›jM|M|tkG*jªH§•G*jF|º*jŒ+*|G*jª„6fª„€G*j›0|¼*œnµ ՞k¤¼*Õ+f¤•M|:a±£&*¨¡žkI "£4f•¼*¬4fžŒ¼* «kG*K "jªH§•G*,4fžŒG*"C+¥ªž„€I£&*¢˜ÊfH$§„IK jª+|ŒG*,4fžŒGf+ …­Œ+K «tkD¢„€0 jª›t¼*,4fžŒG*f¤¡Hma<f„‚,4fžŒG*§0,~F|Hj„6*4a+…€Hf»*œ„‚’G*2|’¡MK «kG*j„8f»*fMf„­•G*…­Œ+,4f.(*K,}8fŒ¼*jM2§Œ„€G*  «/42f¹*lŒD4Kjª˜HažÁ jMaMaqkG*m¸Kft¼* ,|˜D¨›<…8f1œ˜„+~F|MKjªGfº*f¤-4§„8lŒ¡„8 f¤¡HK £*4a+Ÿ„6*4 ,aMa¹*jMaª›•kG*™G3aŒ+Ÿ. Ô.&f-Ÿ¤Dj+§Œ„‚G*¢H¥I&*3(*«›t¼*fJÔ.&f-Kj¼§ŒG* ,4fg<f¤›FKj.*aº*aŒ+fHKjªžª›E(¸fF,2aŒkH…64*aH ¢<j„8f1j„6*422*|D(*£K2fJfMf„­EK,4fžŒG*¨›<j¼§ŒG* lIfF«kG*jGf„8&¸*Kp*ÎG*¾(*,2§Œ›Gm¸KfÁ¢< ,2aÁjª„6fª„6KjªDf•.2fŒ+&*m*3,4fž< Ô.&fkG*l³s4a¡ªDÔ1&¸*Ô.&fkG*fH&*jª+|ŒG*j¡Ma¼*f¤ª›< jDf•nG*fMf„­EœFÔnªDifk˜G*¢HÔ1&¸*œ„‚’G*fH&* jªD*|¹*2Kaº*‡Ef„€-K$f¡gG*mfª¡•kGKjª¼§Œ›Ga<f„‚k¼* jª¡gG*j„6*42Ñ1¢H,4fžŒG*œª˜„-·f¤-fHf¤„6*K $«„7¬&*œ•IjªIf˜H(*¿fkGf+K¨¡ŒH£K2¢Hl›Œ/«kG* fJ5|D&*«kG*jª¡˜„€G*mfcªgG*K¬2§Œ„€G*žkqž›GjªDf•nG* "5*|†G*",|˜D™G{+l†•„€Dj•)fDj<}€+K£f˜H¬&¸ NfMa•IN*4f:(*„­MKjM4fžŒ¼*jM§¤Gf+Ÿk¤MÉfnG*œ„‚’G* Ñ1jM2f„‚kE¸*Kjª„6fª„€G*¥-¸§³Ñ1žkq¼**{J jHKf•¼*"u›†„‚Hifk˜G*v|†MK¢M}ŒG*£|•G* jM2|’G*jM§¤G* «JjM§¤›G+4&*mfM§k„€H¨›<Nfª¡gH fJ4f.&*«kG*j+fqk„6¸*K¬atkG*,|˜’GœMagF "jªDf•nG* jM2|’G*jM§¤G* K jªF*42(¸*jª<fž¹*jM§¤G*  jªF*42(¸* |‰k¡-¸K,42fgHjª+|ŒG*jcªgG*£§F «gI§-aG§I4&*

j<§„9§H«JK jªžª•G*jª<fž¹*jM§¤G* K jªžª•G*  L§E&¸*¾(*j’ªŒ„­G*jM§¤G*¢H&*ag- «g-*|-œ˜„+ ¥/K¨›<œ„‚’G**{JjF|ºf+&*ag-¨k0jDf•.¬a³ Õ+i|•-«kG*mft›†„‚¼*Kmf’M|ŒkGf+rŒM…8§„‚»* ¥kM§Ja<f„‚k-¬4fžŒ¼*œ˜„G*£&*f¡J“G'§¼*aF'§MK ™G{+|•k„€ªD¨›<&¸*L§k„€¼*¾(*œE&¸*L§k„€¼*¢H otgG*¨›<o³K f<œ˜„+,4fžŒG*K·f•nG*œŒ’G* N Ÿ¤’I£&*fI24&*fH*3(*jª„6f„6&*jªq¤¡Hj›ª„6§F "·*|=§¡.(¸*" *{J·Kf¡kMK¦Ôª-hŒ„‚MNfcª†+ј„7ug„‚MK N fnžF f<œ˜„+,}8fŒ¼*jªqª›»*,4fžŒG*4f:(¸* ,4fžŒ›G·f•nG*hIf¹*ьD ÔªkG*lHKfE«kG*f˜„7&¸*…­Œ+,$*|E¥GÑ1¢H¢˜Ê ,$*|•+jDf•nGf+,4fžŒG*mf˜+f„kG¥-4f.(*ifk˜G*ŸkkwMK ·f•.œŒD,4fžŒG*Kj¡Ma¼*£&*Õg-jª+|ŒG*j¡Maž›GjM|Œ„7 jÊaEÉfŒHoŒgM¬{G*¬}‚gG*fJ4§„­0·m|žk„6*K ,4fžŒG*j›˜„H£&*K…‚„‚wkG*,|˜D5KfqkMÉf„€I(* ¥ž¤’I£&*¢˜ÊfHKf¤k’ª;K·œHfF§³lG§³fž¡ª+ ¢<otgG*ŸJf„€M£&*¢˜Ê“ªF§Jj„6*4aG*¦{J¢H ¢M|˜’¼*œgE¢H,$K|•HÔ=f¤I§F·«Jjª+|ŒG* a•kŒM«kG*jM}‚gG*ª„‚G*¢HaMaŒG*aªG§-·jM§¤G* ifg„6&*¢Hhg„6jªDf•nG*f¤kG~ŒDi|ŒG*Ւ•n¼*K fMf„­Ev|:£&*u„9*§G*¢H£fF f<œ˜„+Kf¤Œ/*|- ,a¹*Kj.*aº*·j¡ŒÃ«Jfž¡ª+ "jªwM4f-"f¤I*…­ŒªG* žkq¼*Kj¼§ŒG*Kj›G*KjM~H|G*KjM§¤G*Kj„6fª„€G*œnH ¥k+fnG* "jM4fªŒ¼*jM§¤G*",|˜D,a„+a•k¡-j„6*4aG*£&*fžF "jM§¤G*š|³"jG&f„€H·otg›GNfŒ„6*Kfq¼*uk’-K ifgG*uk’-}8fŒ¼*¬a•¡G*¬4fžŒ¼*|˜’›Gm¸fqžF "¬4fžŒ¼*œ˜„G*jª˜ªHf¡M2K" Ôn˜G*,$*|E,2f<(¸jª+|ŒG*,4fžŒGf+՞k¤¼* fH&*NfŒ„6*K r¤k¡MK–ªž<œ˜„+¨¡Œ¼*jª„­EoGfnG*œ„‚’G*ÔnM £&*£K2jª+|ŒG*£a¼*f¤+r„­-«kG*jM4fžŒ¼*i4fqkG*¢H }8f¡<a0&*j„6*4aG«/§G§ªžª„€G*œª›tkG*h-f˜G* œg•k„€¼*,$*|•GNf„6K42f¤¡H…‚›wk„€I 3(*jM~H|G*¥kžªEŸ¤’G $*§¤G*“•›H jMaª›•kG*,4fžŒG* jM|˜D,$*|•Gm*§†»*…­Œ+„9K·&*agMifk˜G**{J |˜’G*KE*§G*f¤I&¸f¤+§ª<KfJfM*~Hœ˜+jª+|ŒG*,4fžŒ›G Nf:fg-4*šf¡J£&*h-f˜G*a•kŒM*3f¼f¡JŸ¤’I£&*f¡¡˜Ê œ˜„›G·f•nG*Ԅ€’kG*£&*K,4fžŒG*KjDf•nG*Õ+Nf•ªž< E*§G*¢Hi*ÎE(ÑGjª›•<jGKfÁ§J œ˜„+jª+|ŒG*f¡k•†¡H·ÔgFœ˜„+œž¤H¬4fžŒ¼* jM4fžŒ¼*mf„6*4aG*œžÀœªµoª0i*|k„6¸*ÔnM fž¡ª+ ",|+fŒG*"mfªGfž¹*·otgG*Kjªt†„€G*¾(*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 12

Article They have gone.. and will never return again


Articles Pompidou Center

Í¡„6KaªgH§+ ¶f•.~F|H¥I(*ȧEa„8

f•„€G*¬|˜„7vф8  *ÔI*j„€„6'§H|MaH

h›E·+f•G*—ÑžŒG**{¤D¥›1*2¬§tMf¯«0§M¸aEs4f»*·Ÿ˜HfH&*¥IK|-fH£(fDj’›kw¼*f¤I*§G&f+j†+fJK,a<f„8L§›k-«kG*jžw„­G*hª+fI&¸*™›-Kœ)f¤G*ÉaŒ¼*&f„¡¼**{J|‰¡HŸ˜¡<awM¸ jª„€I|’Gf+¨ž„€MfHK&*£§¡’G*KjDf•n›G«¡:§G*KaªgH§+s4§/~F|H¥I(*fŒ¡„‚H…€ªG…€M4f+j¡MaH$fª0&*—|<&*a0&*

¢H¦$f’1(*£§M4fžŒ¼*¢tIfI2§Œ-fHœF œHfF2*|D(*¢˜H&*oªt+m*aMaµKhª+fI&* N*ÎH“G&*j)fHjGfgG*jª›1*aG*j0f„€¼* f¤›Hf˜+j0§k’HjŒg„€G*f¤•+*§†+NfŒ+|H ¥ªDjª¡’G*KjªDf•nG*j†„I&¸*“›kw¼ jM4fžŒ¼*fM5fkIf’G*¦{J«¡-4f.&*fž›nHK a¹*¢HÔn˜G*ŽK}¼**{J4f.&*a•D "h1f„‚G*"K "~’k„€¼*"¦5*|:hg„€+ ¥ªD¬&*4aEKÉfg¼*H“G%fk¼*Ô=K parody fM2K4fgG*¢Hf<§I£KÔn˜G* ”|ŒMf¼Nf14f„8Nfw„€HL|0&¸f+K&* techno "jª<f¡„‚G*jª¡•kG*"m%f„¡¼f+ $fª0&¸*a0&* ·•M¥I&¸Kindustrial «0jª„€I|’G*jž„8fŒG*¢HjªwM4fkG* ¢˜MŸ›D Beaubourg "4§+§+" Éfg¼*HNfž=f¡kHKagM£&*¥Gœ¤„€G*¢H «º*™G3f¤+d›kÊ«kG*jªwM4fkG* jMa›gG*¨¡gHŸ„­M¬{G*K–M|ŒG*«„€M4fgG* m*§¡„6„­+—|k„6&*aE|H&¸*£&*a•k<&*K ¥ŒH“G%fkG*¢Hšf¡J…6f¡G*¢˜žkM£&*œgE £fFl›1m*§¡„6,aŒGK™G3Ÿ=4K

h›†G*m4|˜D j›G*¦{J·jž)*aG* ¥I&fFK*a+4§’G*¨›<Kv}G*…­Œ+H £&*aM|-¦%*"fEK¬a„‚EŸ¤D Š’›-K "Beaubourg"¾(*hJ{«„€FfkG*–)f„6Š0¸f¼K "4§+§+" fžªDjªI¢„€t+2*4&*«-Ô0K«+*|k„6* «¡Œ-"f•D2§„‚•¼*¿}€’M£&*KagM ½KKÎgG*,f’„‚H"la Raffinerie *{¤GNf˜0f„94fq’I¸*¢H«„€’I™Gfµ&* Ÿ‰ŒžDv~ʸ¥I&*fE¥¡˜G“„8§G* Ÿ¤I&*fžF*{˜J¥I§’„‚MÕª„€M4fgG* Beaubourg "4§+§+~F|H"¥I§ž„€M ¬{G*«º*Ÿ„6*¾(* jg„€I Centre ¢HÔn˜G*LaG£&*Š0¸&*½K¥ž„­M N œ0*|G*Ÿ¤„€ª)4Ÿ„6*|F{GѪHÕª„€I|’G* ~F|¼**{J¥ªG(*h„€¡M¬{G* $*2|G*"œnH~F|¼**{J¿*a+a•G £fªŒ›GKag-s4f»*«’D"i§›•¼* «kG*m*§„º*Kjª›1*aG*¥If†gG*Ki§ª¹* lI&fDf¤)f’1(*·ˆfª»*a¤kqMfH,2f< jª/4f»*mf¤/*§G*¨›<™HfH&*L|-

NfH§M¥ª†<&*fH,2f<¬{G*|D§›G*“tk¯ N Ÿ‰ŒH,4fM~GNfªDfF2f˜Gf+£§˜MÑHfF ~F|¼**{¤G¾K&¸*«-4fM5fH&*¥kt¡/&* ·lE'§¼*¥EÑ=(*l•g„6aElIfFa•D lM|/&*oª04§¤„7„­g+ f< ,ΒGhª-|-,2f<(*KjIfª„8fž<&*¥ªD m*§¡„6+4&¸*¢Hi|•MfHm|žk„6* ,Ԅ‚•G*K¾K&¸*,4fM~G*™›-aŒ+K ·¥ªG(*,2§ŒGf+,aMa„7jg=4«¡k˜›µ ,2§ŒGf+«kg=4·2*5fÃKjªIf.,4fM5 mf¡ª„€tkG*«JfHL4&*£&*m24&*«¡I&*§J ¥ªDlM|/&*«kG*,aMa¹*mfgª-ÎG*K ¢H+4&¸*m*§¡„€G*™›-lg›†-oªt+ œžŒG* aMa³·Nft„9*Kl¡F«¡I&*ma•k<* –)f„6¢Hlg›:fž¡ª02§„‚•¼*£f˜¼* s4§/~F|H"¾(*«¡›„8§M£&*«„€FfkG* ¨0K&*–)f„€G*œŒD24¢˜GK"KaªgH§+ |H&¸*£&*ma•k<*Kl›EfHŸ¤’M½¥I&f+ j¡˜›Gf+mfž›˜›G«‰’G·j›˜„¯–›ŒkM «k›˜„H¦{Jjg„6f¡¼f+K jª„€I|’G*

œ0*|G*«„€I|’G*…€ª)|G*Ÿ„6f+«ž„6aEK —Ñ:(f+42f+¬{G*§JKKaªgH§+s4§/ ¢Hmf¡ªŒg„€G*›†H·ŽK}¼**{J «-&fM£&*¥ªD2*4&*¬{G*K«„9f¼*£|•G* d„I&*KŽ4f„G*œ/|GjDf•nG*K¢’G* j•+f„€¼f+5fD¬{G*Ÿªž„‚kG*h„€0 ¿f†M(¸*§Ifª+K~¡M4ÕM4fžŒ¼*¢H a•¼*K «¡ª„I*|DKÉf†MÌG*5|/K424f„kM4K ¥ªDœžŒG*&*a+oª0¿f†M(¸*§˜¡’Ifª/ |žk„6*K fŒG*¢HœM|+&*|¤„7· £fª¡gG*œžkF*¨k0m*§¡„6…€ž»*j+*|E ¢<lŒž„6K&*m&*|EfHN*ÔnF«¡I&*Ÿ=4K ¥-aJf„H¾(*„6&*½«¡I&*¸(*~F|¼**{J …€M4f+¾(*,Ԅ‚•G*«-*4fM5¢H¬&*Ñ1 3(* f<·j„8|’G*lIf0¨k0 jª›„­D&*£f˜¼**{¤Gš*{I%*¬a¡<¢˜M½ K&* "œ’M(*s|+"œnHL|1&*¢FfH&*¨›< "|D§›G*“tkH"K&* " *2|-§Ijª)*4a-fF" ¢H„€kH¬aG|D§kM¸fž¡ª0Nf„8§„‚1 K&*ÕH§M¢HÐF&¸…€M4f+·lE§G* NfI§k’HNfHK2l¡F«¡I&*j•ª•º*Kj.Ñ.

Al Omran 5th Issue | 14

Al Omran 5th Issue | 15

Centre National d’Art et de Culture George Pompidou


œ•I«Jjª›1*aG*mf=*|’G*fžŒk„6* l„€ªGjª›1*aG*mf=*|’GfDhM|=4§Œ„7 N fž¡ª+,4KfÀ£fgH¾(*jM4*2(¸*h-f˜¼* ¢Hѕk¡HԄ€-lI& fD¥ª›<fI2§Œ-fžF f¤›Hf˜+jª›1*aG*mf0f„€¼*l„‚„‚1 „­+Žf’-4f+|1%*¾(*«„6&*4L§k„€H N l‰0¸fžFj’›kw¼*jªDf•nG*j†„I&ÑG ÑHfFN f•+f:K&*–+f:“„‚IK&*½Ñ„6 ¨›<lM|/&*aEjt„9*KmÑMaŒ-£&* K&*‘*|DK&*¢F4œF·™c/f’MfHaqkG –+*§†Gf+«„€ª)|G*–+f†G*f„‚-*j›ª„6K $*§„9&¸*K£*§G&¸*¢HjŒ)*4j’ªG§-jMK*5 j„‚„‚w¼*K…94&¸*i§„€¡Hœ’„6&*pÑnG* Nf„6f„€0(*™ª†ŒkGf¤›FŸ=f¡k-m*§„8&¸*K jgk˜¼*fH&*jª0}€¼*Kjª•ª„6§¼*…9K|Œ›G fž¡ª+*{JœF¬aª›•-Ô=£f˜H·™I&f+ N ~F|¼*·Nfž¤HNfIf˜Hœk³«kG*KjHfŒG* NfM}‚+ф8*§-jª/f/~G*mf¤/*§G*|D§–+f†G*¢H}7fgHœ1aHf¤G…‚„‚1a•D ”Î<&*£&*œq1&*l„€GKs4f»*H hk˜HK«„€ª)|G*œ1a¼*oª0«„94&¸* ·l¡F«¡I&* …6|žk¼*¬4fžŒ¼*fI&*K

mfHьk„6¸*hk˜HK§1aG*|F*{- fž<aF&fkG*·j+§Œ„8a/&*£fª0&¸*…­Œ+ ª+mÑÁŸ„­kDÕI*~ª¼*«•+f:fH&* ‡ª³«kG*jª¡’G*†•G*™›-lIfF*3(* j†g-|Hf¤›FKfMÔkDf˜G*Km*4fF{kG* †E«J &*mf„9K|Œ¼*¢H$~/«J«+ œMaŒkG**{JL2&*aEK½Ñ„€G*Ka<f„‚¼f+  ~/&*£&*ª†k„6&*K~F|¼f+…8f»*pf.&¸* 4§¤ž¹*jF|0·j•›†HjG§¤„6–ª•³¾(* ~F|¼*,4*2(*¥-2*4&*fH‡g„­Gf+*{J£&* m¸fžŒk„6¸*m*3mf=*|’G*¢ž„9 «’„8§+¥kª¡<fH}€’M™G3£&*j•ª•º*K f¡J¥M§¡kG*|Ma¹*¢H¥›ŒGKj’›kw¼* "¬aª›•-Ô= "¥I&f+£f˜¼**{¤G ·«„€I|’G*…8f»*Žf†•G*jžJf„€¯ ¥›1*2·KaªgH§+s4§/~F|HŸ„­MK ›g¯ŸªHÎG*fž<&*“ªGf˜-¢H$~/ ¬{G*KoMaº*¢’›G«¡:§G*“tk¼* ™G3œnµaEK4¸K2ÕMÑHjk„€G*5Kf± …64*aH¢Hjª¡’G*fž<&¸*ŸJ&*¥ªD…9|Œ¥D§G&fH$fž„6&*m*3mfF}7¢Hmf<Ìk+ mf0f„€Hl„‚„‚1fž¡ª+oMaº*¢’G* "24f˜M4§IÔ+"K "£*4§G¢„6“M(*"œnH jª¡Dfž<&*…9|ŒGšf¡JKf¡J,ÔgF ŸJÔ=K jHfŒG*jgk˜¼*œk³fžFjkE'§Hm*ΒG m4f.&*«kG*,Ôn˜G*}8f¡ŒG*Õ+¢HœŒGK ~F|¼*j0f„€H¢HNfž¤HNfIf˜Hjžw„­G* jF|tk¼*½Ñ„€G*™›-«J«k„J2 fž¡ª„€›G…9|ŒG*mf<fE¾(*jDf„9(¸f+*{J ¥M§ktªGf¤¡HœF&f„I&* «kG*escalators “„8f•H„­+K¨•ª„6§¼*Kv}€¼*K ~F|¼*j¤/*K¨›<Ÿw„9”f’„7i§gI&* hk˜G*ª+mÑÁKjŒM}€G*mfg/§›G ™+aŒ„‚-j›)fJ¨ŒD&*f¤I&fFKjª/4f»* fJÔ=Km*4fF{kG*Kmf<§g†¼*K jGÑ:(*™t¡µfž¡ª+fª›ŒG*mf•g†G*¾(* h-f˜ž›G~F|¼*¢HŸ„€E…‚„‚1fžF ,4Kfq¼*…€M4f+$fª0&¸)*4|‰¡H¨›< ¥q¤gH,ÔnFmf0f„€Hšf¡JKjM4*2(¸* jq¤gGf+N*4§Œ„7™t¡µ¿fkGf+«JK jŒGf†¼*Ÿ¤¡˜Êoª0f’:&¸*fžŒk„6¸ …9K|ŒG*,aJf„HK&*”~ŒG*K&*Ÿ„6|G*K&* jDf•n›G«¡:§G*KaªgH§+s4§/~F|H Ÿ¤+j„8f»* fž<&¸*a0&*–t+§J…€M4f+·£§¡’G*K “„‚k¡H·~F|ž›GjªIfnG*«-4fM5· ¥žž„8œªEfH¥¡<œªE,}8fŒ¼*jM4fžŒ¼* ¥ªD«¡k’Œ„6&*fHh„€0K fŒG* *§kgnM£&**K2*4&*f¯4£K|HfH£§M4fžŒH jMaª›•kG*Ô=ŸJ4f˜D&*KŸ¤-ft†„7£&* mf¡ª„€tkG*j‰0ÑH¢Hl¡˜µ«-|F*3 mf0f„€¼*·,Ôn˜G*mÑMaŒkG*K ·¬aª›•kG*r¤¡G*Latk-£&*f¤¡˜Ê j¡žªJŠ0¸&*£&*«¡¡˜H&*fžFjª›1*aG* aE~F|¼**{J£&*3(*£fF*{˜JK,4fžŒG* $f/4&¸*ž/·jnMaº*fª/§G§¡˜kG* 4*K5fJ2f-|M«kG*½fŒ¼*a0&fF¥„€’I…9|D jª)§„­G*m*4f„7(¸*Ki§„6fº*mf„7f„7 fžF "j˜)Ѽ*K¢¹*j¡MaH"K&*4§¡G*j¡MaH "Մ€0¥:"œ0*|G*hM2&¸*fJfž„6 fJÔ=KjªIKΘG(¸*jM2f„74(¸*mf0§›G*K ¨›<lM|/&*«kG*jž¤¼*mÑMaŒkG*¢HK

¨›<j’›kw¼*£*§G&¸*¥ª’„­-fHŸ=4K 2*4&*a•Dhw„8Kfž/~F|¼**{J jG¸2£*§G&¸*™›-«†Œ-£&*£§žž„‚¼* ¨›ŒD¥ªD}8f¡ŒG*“)f;K”Ñk1*¨›< jª˜ªIf˜ª¼*}8f¡ŒG*lª†<&*fn¼*œªg„6 Š0ÑIfž¡ª+|ž0&¸*£§›G*a<f„‚¼fF œ1*2m&f„I&*aEjF|tk¼*½Ñ„€G*£&* jM§¤kG*hª+fI&*fH&*f¤M§ktM”f’„7i§gI&* hª+fI&*K—45&¸*£§›G*lª†<&*a•D hª+fI&*K}­1&¸*£§›G*lª†<&*¦fª¼* lª†<&*jª)f+|¤˜G*m*aMažkG*K,~¤/&¸* ¾(*l/|1&*f¤Œªž/K|’„8&¸*£§›G* …€’I–g†MfžFjª/4f»*mf¤/*§G* Ÿª„€•-¨›<£*§G&¸* *awk„6f+~ªªžkG* ¢FfH&ÑG|’„8&¸fD~F|¼*mf:f„I jHfŒG*jgk˜ž›G}­1&¸*KjF΄¼* oMaº*¢’›G«¡:§G*“tkž›G|ž0&¸*K ™+fk¡M¨k0~F|¼*œ1*2¾(*“Ga-£&*fHK

…6§›¹*¢FfH&*Km*4fF{kG*ª+šf„F&*K £§ª•ª„6§¼*K£§If¡’G*f¤ªD«•k›MjHfŒG* ¢HÔgF2a<f¤+‡ªtMK£§/|¤¼*K «Jf•¼*KŸ<f†¼*KjM4fqkG*mÑt¼* ¦fªH,4§DfIKag-f¤gI*§/a0&*·K fž<&¸*K”4f1~Gf+~ªžk-jžw„9 œ1a-£&*œgEKjŒ)*|G*£*§G&¸*Kjªkt¡G* a± fH&¸*·*5ÑgG*̌-fž¡ª+~F|¼* šf¡JjF|0Khw„8Ÿ„‚1·™„€’I ¢Hšf¡JKjªI*§›¤gG*ifŒG&¸f+ §•M¢H Ÿ„6|M¢Hšf¡JKjª•ª„6§HjG%*¨›<”~ŒM ™›-™›Œ±*{˜JK,4fž›Gmf¤M|-4§+ œ1*aG*·™›g•k„€ª„6f¼&fª¤H$*§/&¸* ¢HNfgM|•-¥›Hf˜+~F|¼**{Jaª„7a•G Ÿ„€À¢<,4fg<¥I(*sf/~G*K£aŒ¼* ¥-až<&*Kjª)f„I(¸*¦}8f¡<Ÿw„9”f’„7 œž³jªIaŒHhª+fI&*¢HhGfG*·jI§˜H &f„¡¼*…9|<œHfF¨›<akµmfI§Gfž/

—§’M4*K~G*¢HN*2a<œg•k„€M~F|¼**{J …€M4f+·L|1&¸*“0fk¼*¢H¬&* Nf•0¸2f<Ô¤„G*|D§›G*“tkH£&*¸(* 2a<oª0¢H,4*a„‚G*E§H2΄€ªG jªGfž/(¸*j’›˜kG*l›+aEK4*K~G* 4¸K2£§ª›Hjc¼*i4f•MfH~F|¼**{¤G NfM§¡„6|)*5ÕMÑHjŒg„€G*¿*§0œg•k„€MK N “ª„8|G*¨›<Ž4f„G*·ÑM§:l’E§¢Hl›•¡-"$«„G*"*{JœH&f-&*œ+f•¼* §•M¿f0£f„€Gfž¡ª+L|1&*¾(*jMK*5 ""·f•.~F|H"*{J£&*…9Β¼*¢H&* œg•Dœ1*aGf+¬|qM*3fHL4&¸|‰kI&f„6 lE§G*…­ŒgG§±&*£&*m4|Eœ12&*£&* f¤D|:¨›<•M«kG*jžw„­G*j0f„€G*· 4§M(*"£*aªHŸ„6f+”|Œ-«JK~F|¼* rŒ-jg04j0f„6«JK"«˜„€¡D*΄6 a0·œ˜„-Khw„‚G*KjF|ºf+ N ¦4fq„7&f+Ѫž/N fM}­0N*~F|Hf¤-*3

Al Omran 5th Issue | 16

Al Omran 5th Issue | 17

Articles Pompidou Center


jcªg›Gj•Ma„8jž‰I&*

Articles Architecture & Solar Energy

jª)§„9K|¤˜G*fMÑ»*£*§G&*…­Œ+ jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jª›»*mfI§˜H jHfŒG*$f+|¤˜G*j˜g„+œ„‚k¼*«)§„9K|¤˜G* f‰¡G*mfI§˜H Éfg¼*·jª)§„9K|¤˜G*m*a0§G*hªF|-—|:

4

5

Al Omran 5th Issue | 19

6

¬{G*Ki§¡q›Gjg„€¡Gf+jª›»*¥ª/§- ¨„‚E&*¨›<§„‚t›G¥ª/§-œ„­D&*§J «„€ž„7ŽfŒ„7(*jªžF jªžF·jª›„‚’G*KjªH§ªG*mfDÑk1¸* jª›»*f¤›g•k„€-«kG*jª„€ž„G*jEf†G* m*$f’FKmf’„8*§H·”Ñk1¸* HŽ§I¢HÐF&*œª„8§-jGf0·fMÑ»* ¿fž/(¸*²f¡G*£&*oª0…­ŒgG*f¤„­Œ+ ,$f’FœE&¸*fMÑ»f+2atª„6 fMÑ»*¨›<œ;¬&*£&*oª0Ñ‰G* ‹§t›Hœ˜„+œ›•ª„6Ѫ›E£fF§G¨k0 ,aG§¼*$f+|¤˜G*jªžF¢H œ›‰-«kG*K4§ª†G*mf’›ÂK4fgG* jEf†G*jªžF¢Hœ›•-KfMÑ»*¢HN*$~/ jªžF¿fkGf+Kf¤ª›<j†Ef„€G*jª„€ž„G* jqk¡¼*$f+|¤˜G*

…€ž„G*jEf: jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I&¸*mf•ªg†¨›<‡Ef„€G*…€ž„G*$§„9Ÿ„€•¡M jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I&¸*¢H£f<§Ia/§M Ô=$§„9K}7fgH$§„9¾*…94¸* jHfŒG*$f+|¤˜G*j˜g„+œ„‚kHK&¸* —ÎwM}7fg¼*$§„­G*lk„HK&*}7fgH Gridconnected PV

Stand œ„‚’¡HÉfnG*K systems u†„6¾(*,}7fgHœ„‚MK¬§¹*”яG*  awk„€M alone PV systems $§„­G*¢H$~/lk„kMfž¡ª+…94&¸* jHa•k¼*KaG*·œ„‚’¡¼* f‰¡G* $f¼*mfcM~/K4fgG*m*43œŒ’+«„€ž„G* ,aªŒgG*¢FfH&¸*·$f+|¤˜G*aªG§kG ¾(*œ„‚MK¬§¹*”яG*·,2§/§¼* jHfŒG*$f+|¤˜G*j˜g„+j›„‚kHԏG* fMÑ»* awk„€-}7fgHÔ=œ˜„+…94&¸* fnHf¤›ª„8§-hŒ„‚G*¢H«kG*K&* ¾*jDf„9(¸f+}7fg¼*$§„­G*jª)§„9K|¤˜G* m*4f„7(¸*jgE*|¼*mf†Á™G3¨›< u†„6&¸*¢H…€˜Œ¡¼*Klk„¼*$§„­G* jM§•-mf†Ájª’M|G*m§ªgG*jM|tgG* f¤¡˜Êoª0$f+|¤˜G*aªG§kG,4Kfq¼* “-*§¤G*–M2f¡„8,4fI(*§M2*|G*f„64(* ¨›<jž)f=$fž„€G*£§˜-fHa¡<œžŒG* Nf„­M&*jª¡•kG*,{J awk„€-KŽ4*§„G*K ¦{J£&*¢H…­ŒgG*¢‰MaEfH…€˜< i4*§•G*œnHjª¤ªDÎG*mf<f¡„‚G*· …€ž„G*£§˜-fHa¡<‡•DœžŒ-fMÑ»* œª„-K caravans j›•¡k¼*m§ªgG*K jªžFŸªª•kGKjªDf„8$fž„€G*KjŒ:f„6 œnH–)*aº*·jHawk„€¼*,~¤/&¸* ՌHE§H·fJaªG§-¢˜Ê«kG*$f+|¤˜G* ·NfgGf= awk„€-Kjª„€ž„G*ÔD*§¡G* jª„€ž„G*jEf†G*jªžF|Ma•-Ÿ¤¼*¢H¥I(fD $f+|¤˜G*¢M~wkGmfM4f†+jž‰I¸*¦{J £&*oª0 fŒG*Ñ1E§¼*·,|D§k¼* ,ÔgFjªž˜Gsfªk0¸*jGf0·¢˜GK jªžF,2fM~+2*2~-,aG§¼*$f+|¤˜G*jªžF jž‰I&¸*¦{Jœª„8§-¢˜Ê$f+|¤˜G*¢H jª›»*¨›<j†Ef„€G*jª„€ž„G*jEf†G* «+|¤FaG§HœnHÉf.aªG§-4a„‚HH …€ž„G*hª-fHa¡<œª›G*,ÎDÑ1K Biomass jM§„­ŒG*2*§¼*¢H ¢<“E§k-jª)§„9K|¤˜G*fMÑ»*£(fD K&* $*§¤G*vK*|HK&*  generator ,aG§¼*$f+|¤˜G*¢M~w-¢˜Ê™G{GœžŒG*  f‰I¢M§˜kG™G3K2§E§G*m*aG§H f¤H*awk„6*ŸkªGmfM4f†+·4f¤¡G*Ñ1 aªG§kG Hybrid system ¢q¤H  Ñ‰G*mf<f„6· jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I&¸* awk„€-KjEf†G* Nf„­M&*jªHf¡G*KaG*·„6*K—f†I¨›< jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I&¸*m*~ªÃ jcªg›Gj•Ma„8jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I&¸* K&*jHf<$f+|¤Fj˜g„7a/§M¸oª0 ·j„8f1KjªDfFÔ=,2§/§¼*j˜g„G* Ô=j’ª‰Ij•M|†+$f+|¤FaG§-f¤I&*¨¡Œ¯ jDf„9(¸f+jcªgG*¨›<Nfg›„6,|.'§HK&*j.§›H Ôn˜G*£&*¦|F3|Ma¹*¢Hjª)f¡G*–:f¡¼* ,ÔgFjªžFf¤ªD|D§kMjªHf¡G*KaG*¢H jIfª„‚G*¢Hœª›•G*¾(*sfk³f¤I&*¾(* q„MfàfŒG*Ñ1jª„€ž„G*jEf†G*¢H jF|tkH$*~/&*¨›<¬§k³¸f¤I&¸N*|‰I $f+|¤˜›GfJaªG§-·jž‰I&¸*¦{JažkŒjª¡•kG*¦{J *awk„6*¨›<ÐF&* jEf†G* jEf†G*¢H2aqkH4a„‚H¨›< Éfg¼*·jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I¸*hªF|-—|: fª/§G§¡˜-ÌkŒ-f¤I&*fžF jª„€ž„G* «/4f»*œ˜ª¤G*¨›<jž‰I&¸*¦{JhF|-

jª¡t¡¼*u†„6&¸*Hh„6f¡kkG«›G*K“››Gj›+fEjI|H£§˜jM|)*aG*K jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jª›»*œž<jª’ªF jEf:¢H…­Œ+…‚kµf¤IfDjª›»*¨›<$§„­G*‡•„€MfHa¡< dM~/œF£(fD¿fkGf+K Photons $§„­G*mfcM~/ ¢HhGf„6£KΘG*a•D¾*¬2'§Mjª›»*¥„‚kµ«)§„9 Positive Nfg/§HNf=*|D¦$*4KNf’›Â£§˜ª›ª„€G*,43 jª›»*¢HjgGf„€G*jM§›ŒG*j•g†G*œª„8§-ŸkM hole jª+|¤F,|)*2Ñ1¢H™G3Kjg/§¼*jª›’„€G*j•g†Gf+ £fM}6¾*¬2'§Mfà External circuit jª/4f1 aG§MfH§JKjg/§¼*j•g†G*¦f±f+jgGf„€G*mfIKΘG¸*  œ˜„7  Direct current N*|žk„€HNfª)f+|¤FN*4fªÌF&*£§˜ª›ª„€G*jtM}7¨›<‡Ef„€G*$§„­G*jEf:lIfF*3(* ,a)*~G*jEf†G*£(fD£KΘG¸*|M|tkGjH5ÑG*jEf†G*¢H £(fDjªDfFÔ=jEf†G*lIfF*3(*fH&*,4*|0¾(*§tk$f+|¤FaªG§-ŸkM¸K4|tkM¸£KΘG¸* «)§„9K|¤˜G* f‰¡G*mfI§˜H $f+|¤˜G*j˜g„+œ„‚k¼*«)§„9K|¤˜G* f‰¡G*mfI§˜H ,a0§G*rk¡-  œ˜„G*· f<œ˜„+j¡ªgHjHfŒG* fH‡„6§k¼*·$f+|¤F PV Module jª)§„9K|¤˜G* mf/fªk0*jª†kG¥I(fD¥ª›<Km*K¾*Õ+ m*K§›ªFKAÕ+fH™›¤k„€M«¡˜„6~¡H «†-jª)§„9K|¤F,a0K¾(*Õ+fH awk„€M fMÑ»*Ž§Ih„€0+|HÎH¾*Õ+fHj0f„€H …€ž„›Gjg„€¡Gf+m*a0§G*¥ª/§-Kjª)§„9K|¤˜G* N*|žk„€HN*4fª-aG§-jª)§„9K|¤˜G*m*a0§G*Ÿ‰ŒHK fž¡ª+lG§D¦4*a•Ha¤/—|’+ DC Current

AC 22ÎH«+|¤F4fªk+œžŒ-jªG~¡¼*jª)f+|¤˜G*,~¤/&¸* ™G{GlG§D¦4*a•Ha¤/—|’+ Current  Inverter §Á«)§„9K|¤˜G* f‰¡G*· awk„€M ¿f<22ÎH4fªkGa¤¹*…­’w¡¼*|žk„€¼*4fªkG*œM§tkG a¤¹*

Èfg»*¶jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I&·* *awk„6* ¢„€ªÁjHф6až0&* 2  f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/¢HjM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*¦*4§kF2

1

fªIf†M|+  f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/·jª)§„9K|¤Fm*a0§Gš|tkH«žª›Œ-s3§Ç

,$f’F2a³f¤-$f’F4*a•H¨›<…€˜Œ¡M¬{G*KfJaª•Œ,aG§¼*$f+|¤˜G*«¡Œ- Photovoltic jª)§„9K|¤˜G* $§„9¢Hf¤ª›<‡•„€MfHœM§³¨›<f¤-4aELa¯jª›»* PV jª)§„9K|¤FfMÑ1 awk„€-oª0$§„­G*¢H jqªkI¾(*Õ+fHvK*Î-«kG*K$f+|¤F¾(* «+|¤F4fªkGf¤ª›<‡Ef„€G*…€ž„G*$§„9œM§tkG Cells jª)§„9K|¤˜G*fMÑ»*$*2&*¨›<,|.'§¼*œH*§ŒG* jª›w›Gjª)fM~ª’G*mf’„8*§¼*Kª¡„‚kG*—|:”Ñk1¸ jªG~¡¼*jª)f+|¤˜G*,~¤/&¸*œª„-· awk„€M|žk„€H L|1&*œH*§<šf¡J£(fDf¤„€’Ijª›»*,$f’F¾*jDf„9(¸f+ ·f¤-$f’F4*a•HH,2f<h„6f¡kMjª›»*|Œ„6f¤„€’I aªG§kGfMÑ»*¦{J awk„€-,$f„9( ¸*Ki§„6fº*,~¤/&*K f¤¡Hjª›»*fJaG§-«kG*$f+|¤˜G*jªžF¨›<|.'§fMÑ1Ž*§I& * …­Œ+  œ˜„7ÕgMK$f+|¤˜G*sfkI( * Ô=Kjcªg›Gj.§›HÔ=j’ª‰Ij•M|†+Éfg¼*·$f+|¤˜G* j/42m2*5fž›Fjª›»*sfkI(*œ•Moª0,4*|º*j/42 f¤-$f’F4*a•HKjª)§„9K|¤˜G*£§˜ª›ª„€G* jª›»*£§˜k-¨¡g¼*œ1*2~ª0¬&*f„7*£Ka+Kjq<~H f¤+j†ªt¼*,4*|º* j›„8§H¥g„7,2fH¢HÐF&*K&*Õk•g:¢Hjª)§„9K|¤˜G* HNfM2|:h„6f¡k-«kG*K«„€ž„G*ŽfŒ„7¸*jªžF mf’„8*§HK£*§G&*Kf˜„7&f+jª)§„9K|¤˜G*fMÑ»*¡„‚f¤¡žDÉfg¼*·j’›kw¼*mf•ªg†kG*Hh„6f¡kkGj’›k ¥„9|Œ-a¡<¬{G*K Silicon £§˜ª›ª„€G*¢HNfgGf= jqk¡¼*$f+|¤˜G* $§„­G*3f’¡+už„€M¬{G*”f’„7“„‚¡G*K”f’„G* ¢H¥H*awk„6*¢˜Êjª›»*·N fª)f+|¤FN*4fª-aG§M$§„­›G …€ž„G*E§¼jg„€¡Gf+jª›»*œªHjMK*5 ¢H,aG§¼*$f+|¤˜G*jªžFKjªIaŒHmф8§HÑ1 2 a+ awk„€M¬{G*K ›gM j›ª›EŸ„6ן„6¿*§0fJ2fŒ+&*,a0*Kjª›1 fMÑ1,a<‡+4ŸkM™G{G m*KKlG§DA ™ª+fg„G*·¬2fŒG*sf/~G* ¢HNfgGf= jG5f<j•g:l³ž±K…­ŒgG*f¤„­Œ+H jª/f/~G*mf¤/*§G*K ™G{FjMKfž„€G*,$f„9(¸*K  PV Module jª)§„9K|¤F,a0K¢M§˜kG sf/~G* «)§„9K|¤˜G* f‰¡G*·«„€ª)|G*$~¹*ÌkŒ-«kG*K ¬2fH|G*œnHj’›k£*§G&*f¤G HšÑ„6&¸f+m*a0§G*¢H2a<¬&*œª„8§-¢˜ÊK }­1&¸*K2§„6&¸*K«¡gG*K Monocrystalline Multicrystalline Thick-film Amorphous Silicon Cells Silicon Cells Silicon Silicon  PV Panel jª)§„9K|¤Fj0§G¢M§˜kGf¤„­Œ+ £*§G¸*…­Œ+¾(*jDf„9(¸f+ ٪١٥ ‫ ﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ٪١٢ ‫ ﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ٪١٠ ‫ ﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ٪٦ ‫ ﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬  œ˜„7 jEf†G*¢HÌF&*jªžF¨›<§„‚t›G œ˜„7 j/4ak¼*Kj†›kw¼* œ˜„+“›kw-jª)§„9K|¤˜G*fMÑ»*¢HŽ*§I& *,a<šf¡J fMÑ»*Ž*§I& * …­Œ+K  f¤-$f’F4*a•HKjª)§„9K|¤˜G*£§˜ª›ª„€G*fMÑ1Ž*§I&*…­Œ+ ¬aHKf¤ªDjHawk„€¼*jª¡•kG*Kª¡„‚kG*j•M|:·«„6f„6&*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 18

3

NfªGf0,|D§k¼*,aª0§G*,2aqk¼*jEf†G* f¤H*awk„6*Kf¤gªF|-¢˜Ê¥I&f+lg.«kG*K jž‰I¸*mfI§˜H–)*§<£Ka+ j)2fJj•M|†+$f+|¤FaG§-jª)§„9K|¤˜G* f¤¡<rk¡M¸K«-§„8sf<5(*f¤ªD…€ªG œª„kG*,ÎDÑ1,4f„9m*5f=¬&* ,2fH¢H«„6f„6&*œ˜„+j<§¡„‚Hf¤I&*fžF ,|D§kH,2fH«JK œH|G* £§˜ª›ª„€G* f¤H*awk„6*¬2'§M¸K„6*K—f†I¨›< fMÑ»*£&¸N*|‰IKjcªgGf+4*}9(¸*¾(* hªFÎG*jŒM}6«¤Dm*a0K·jŒžÀ jG§¤„€+f¤ªD2ažkG*KfJ2a<,2fM5¢˜ÊK jª)§„9K|¤˜G*m*a0§G*aG§-™G{FK ™G{G *awk„6¸*£f˜H·$f+|¤˜G* jqªkI$f+|¤˜G*·ÔgFa•Da/§M¸ œª„8§kG*


Articles Urban Planning

i§›†»*K §¤’»*Ô+

Al Omran 5th Issue | 21

¨„6§Hfž/œ)fI 2 lM5Ô+jŒHfqC+a<f„€H3fk„6&*

‡†»*Kmf¤/§kG*„9K™G{FK  xG(*ŸªGfE¸*Õ+—|†G* Žf„9K&*Մ€³¾(*”a¤-¨kG*jª›g•k„€¼* j¡MaHœž„ªGŸª›E(¸* §¤’H–ª„­MaEK  $*§„€G*¨›<žkq¼*K2|’G* „€kMaEK £fkªG§+Kμ* ,ÔgF,a0*K É*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG*£&*u„­kMf¡J¢H mf‰Dft¼*K£a¼*¢HN*2a<œž„ªG N*$a+j›Hf„7Kjt„9*K¥ªq¤¡H¨›<ažkŒM ,2aÁÔMfŒHa/§-¸¥I(fD¿fkGf+K jM}gG*¥gI*§/“›k¢HE§¼*j„6*4a+ £&* ¸(* Ÿª›E(¸*Ÿq0aMatkGjª¼f<– œž„Moªt+jª-fHa»*KjM2f„‚kE¸*K  f‰¡G*KjªD*|=§ÊaG*KjªD*|¹*jŒªg†›G £f˜„€G*Õ+jª<fžk/¸*mfEьG*œª›³ ·LÌFjªžJ&*¥+§žŒ¼*¬4*2(¸* œHfŒ-i§›„6&*K2*|D&ÑG fŒG*š§›„€G*K 4a•+¨<*|Moªt+ŸªGfE&¸*2Ka0„9K …­ŒgG*f¤„­Œ+Hžkq¼*u)*}7“›k ¦{JM5§-·£5*§-2§/K£f˜H(¸* jM2f„‚kE¸*mf:f„¡G*j„6*42™G{FK 24*§¼* LaHK,|D§k¼*jM|M§†kG*M4f„¼*K §¤D‡ª†wkG*¢HoGfnG*L§k„€¼*fH&*K 2*|D&¸*œ12L§k„€HD4¨Df¤kžJf„€H ¨›t¼*‡ª†wkG*œnÊK«›t¼*‡ª†wkG* jDf„9(*jGf†gG*m¸aŒH…9f’wI*K jM~F|HÑG*jžE ¬}­º*K&*«’M|G*$N *§„6

“›kw¯«-fHa»*„9§G*a„84¾(* ‡†»*jª›t¼*mfcª¤G*¨¡gk-oªt+ jªžª›ŒkG*Kjªt„‚G*mfHa»*Ž*§I&* ¢Hf¤-f/fªk0*H $Ñk-«kG*M4f„G*K œFf„¼*5|+&*aMa³KxG(*jM4fqkG*K ,2at¼*”*aJ&¸*Hjžq„€¡¼*Kj¤/ jGK*~HKÉf˜„€G*žqkG*œž<–ªŒ-¨kG* L|1&*j¤/¢Hfª›ŒG*mfM§k„€¼*¨D i§›„6& * L§„6…€ªG«¡:§G*‡ª†wkG*K L§k„€¼*¨›<šÎ„H«†ª†w- f‰I }€MKjG§¤„€+jªH§ªG*Ÿ¤-fªº£f˜„€G* ¥0fÅjM~F|HÑG* f‰I–ªg†-lg.&*a•D ¨›< §•M‡ª†wkG*hªGf„6&*¢HoMa0 jM4*|žk„6(¸*«JfM*~¼*¦{JŸJ&*«H§•G* mfM§GK&*Ÿ›„6·œFf„¼*¦{J„9KK fžªDNf„8§„‚1«¼fŒG*L§k„€¼*¨›< KaG*¢Hj<§žÀaª0§-KŸ„9…6f„6&* ÐF&¸*KŸJ&¸*œFf„¼*jD|ŒH¨¡„€kM¨k0  jª+|ŒG*KaG* Õ+·*|¹*œ„8*§kG*K 4§Œ„G*Ÿ¤)f†<(*K£f˜„€G*jª<§k+–›ŒkM ¢HjM2f„‚kE¸*24*§¼*¨EŽ§¡kG*K £§˜-oªt+…8*§»*Kmf’„‚G*j„€Ifqk¼* jM§IfnG*KÔ.&fkG*,2Kat¼*™›-¢HjªG§ž„7 fJ3fw-*ŸkM¨kG*m*4*|•G*¨D¥ªG§c„€¼f+ „9§+ §•-K–„6f¡kHœ˜ªJf¤¡ª+fžªD KaG*¢HÔn˜G* §•-œFf„¼*¦{JœºK fàf12*§HKjªIaŒHKjªŒªg:m*K|. ¦{¤GjªGfHjªGѕk„6*H¢H*~-*3(*Nf„8§„‚1 jHfŒG*”*aJ&¸*2a³Kfª›ŒG*j„6fª„€G* œHf˜kG*¢HŽ§I–ª•tkGj„8|’G*«†ŒM ¨›<2fžk<¸f+f¤¡HjªHf¡G*Nf„8§„‚1K mf†›„€G* $*§„6j0fk¼*fJ24*§Hªž/Ñk„6¸ …€If±2§/K¾( * jDf„9( * ¬2f„‚kE¸* jª¼fŒG*mfM|‰¡G*Ks3fž¡G*pa0&*–ªg†j/fº*£&*u„­kM¥I(fD–g„6fH¨›<$N f¡+ ¢MaG*K¥›G*,a0KK·f•.K«<fžk/* ”a¤+jM2f„‚kE*K*jM}+K&*jªŒªg:lIfF Ôn˜G*·f¤0fÅlkg.&*£§˜-aE¨kG*K ¨D¨„­HlEKL&*¢HÐF&* §ªG*jt›H f¤+§Œ„7¥Ha1KjF4f„¼*¥GKaG*|M§†- œ„­D&* a•-f¤I&*™G{+,a•kŒHKaG*¢H *{JœnH–ªg†-¥/K·–)fŒG*¢˜GK «•ª•º*¦4K2É*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG*¾§kM£&* aª›•kG**{¤G£&*¸(*f¤+§Œ„G¢˜ÊfH jªIf˜„€G*mfŒžqkG*|M§†-Kjªž¡-· m*4*|•G*3fw-*jM~F|H¾(*2§ŒMs3§ž¡G* ‡ª†wkG*¢HL§k„€¼**{J£&*u„9*§G*¢HK „9KŸkM½*3(*jª.4fFmfªŒg-¨ž<&¸* mf„‚„‚wkG*ªž/,a<f„€¯Ն„€›D· ¿fkGf+Kjª¡’G*KjM4*2(¸*mfªIf˜H¸*…‚•IK Õ+jŒ¡†„‚¼*jª„6fª„€G*2Kaºf+”ÎŒM¸ jDf„9(*jªg¡/&¸*m*Ì»*¨›<2fžk<¸* ¨›<KjªŒE*K…€„6&*¾*a¡k„€MfÇ(*KKaG* 24*§¼*¾(*N*2f¡k„6(*”*aJ¸*aMa³K‡†»* f¤¡Hjª„6a¡¤G*Nf„8§„‚1KjEьG*m*3 ·f˜G*œM§žkG*¨›<§„‚º*j+§Œ„8¾( * f¤¡ª+fžªD¢M§˜kG*·…€IfqkG*LaH f¤Gяk„6*ŸkM¨k0,|D§k¼*mfªIf˜H¸*K Ÿ)ÑkMɧIfE4f:(*·Kf¤Dfª:&*“›kw¯ L̘G*M4f„ž›G ¢HœHf„G*«H§•G*‡ª†wkG*ug„8& *aEK ‡ª†wk›G¢˜Ê¸KfžFfJ|M§†-K œ;·£f˜„€›GjM}‚ŒG*mf/fªk0¸*H ¨›<fnHÔ1K,}8fŒ¼*,fªº*l›g›†kH ‡ª†wkG*§¤D‡ª†wkG*¢HÉfnG*Ž§¡G*fH& * jª›g•k„€Hm*4§„‚-„9KfžJ(*uªt„‚G* fžªDv§„9§G* a<K,|žk„€¼*m*ԏkG* K2¢HÔn˜G*Õ+œ„8fº*£KfŒkG*™G3  +*|G*aŒgG* Ñg•k„€HE§¼*|M§†-¥ª’ª˜G N ¨›<«¡ª†„€›’G*£f„€I(¸*,2fª„€+–›ŒkM ¾(*«„6f„6&*œ˜„+”a¤M¬{G*K«žª›E(¸* L§k„€¼*K«¡:§G*L§k„€¼*Õ+i4f•kG* ™G{FK«+K4K¸*2f³(¸*K2 –f+K4K&* ¨›<24*§¼*Ñk„6*Kmf/fªk0¸*jª†-K ,4K}9¨›<aªF&fkG*hqMKfžF¥„94&* f˜M|H&*K2…­Œ+Õ+œ„8fº*£KfŒkG* M5§-Kj„6*42¾§kMoª0«›t¼* ¥/Kœ„­D&* ¥ªžJ&*¨›<«¡ª†„€›’G*¢:*§¼*jª<§·fª•M|D( *K2¢H2a<£KfŒ-Kjª¡ª-ÑG* “›kÂÕ+jª<fžk/¸*KjHfŒG*mfHa»* ‡ª†wkG*Ÿª„€•-¢˜M¥I(fDjªIf.¥ª0fI¢H L§k„€H–ª•³·É*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG* fq¼*…€’I jª„6f„6&¸*¥Hf¤H¢HK¥G¥Œ+fkG*–:f¡¼* jª„€ª)4mfM§k„€HpÑ.¾(*É*|žŒG* f¡Gfª/&¸Kf¡Gœ„­D&*«-fHa1K«-fª0 jŒ„9§+«+|ŒG*¢:§G*¾*fI|‰I*3( * fH& * ŸªGfE& ¸ *H£KfŒkG*K–ª„€¡kG*L|1& ¸ * «H§•G*L§k„€¼*§JK&¸*L§k„€¼* jH2f•G* ªž/¨›<¬��ktM¥I&*aÅf¡I(fD¿fº* jM§ž¡kG*M4f„¼*–ªg†-·L|1&¸* œHf„G*«H§•G*‡ª†wkGf+œnžk¼*K vfÅ¥G¢ž„­-«kG*mfH§•¼*K…€„6&¸* –„7jª<f¡„8–:f¡H L̘G*jM4fžnk„6¸*K

f¤-f:f„I2aŒ-KjM}‚ŒG*,fªº*4§†kG£(* jª-fHa1jª¡˜„6jM4f±jª<f¡„8

}8fŒ¼*£f„€I¸*mfg›†kHaM*~-K xG(* ¨›<N*}7fgHNf„6f˜ŒI(*j-f/fªk0*K ¨DNf„8§„‚1KmfHa1KÉfg¯…94&¸* f¤k0f„€Hm2*25*«kG*jM}­º*mfŒžqkG* f¤kDfnFlžw„­-Kf¤ªIfgHlŒ’-4*K œFf„¼*¢HÔn˜G*™G{+jgg„€HjªIf˜„€G* ¬4K|¼* f025¸*K«cªgG*p§›kGfF ˆÑk1*K«t„‚G*¢˜„€¼*ÔD§-j+§Œ„8K ¬4f±«¡˜„6K«<f¡„8 mfH*awk„6¸*  xG(*¨¤ªD|-K ,2f<¸j›ª„6K2§/K¢Ha+¸£fFf¡J¢H jªIf˜„€G*mfŒžqkG*Ÿª‰¡-Khª-|mf:f„¡G*Kf¤’)f;KM5§-¥GKfÁK oªt+fŒDi§›„6(f+f¤ªDj’›kw¼* jªIf˜„€G*KjªD*|¹*jŒªg†G*HŸ)ÑkM  §¤’¯œnµfH§JKE§ž›Gjª<fžk/¸*K É*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG*  §¤’HaMa³§0$*4%¸*m2aŒ-a•G ¨›<…­ŒgG*¦*|Ma•DÉ*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG* jªI%¸*jªI*|žŒG*œFf„¼*j¹fŒ¼j›ª„6K¥I&* Õ0·Éf˜„6ž±¬&*f¤¤/*§M«kG* jª„6f„6&¸*¥k’ª;K£&*|1%¸*…­ŒgG*a•kŒM j˜g„Guªt„8Ÿªž„‚-„9K¨D~FÎ¥I&*K&*jªktkG*jª¡gG*mfHa1K—|†G* Ÿª„€•-K5|D¨›< §•Mi§›„6&*L§„6…€ªG †•G*¢HÌF&*2a<¾(*jŒ„6*§G*«„9*4&¸* Éfg¼*¢Hj<§žÀ$f„I(*KfJ4fžnk„6*”a¤+ f¤ª›< £&*¨›<*§•’-*Õn0fgG*¢HÔn˜G*£&*¸(* É*|žŒG*‡ª†wk›GjªG§ž„7ÐF&¸* §¤’¼* ¥G«›žŒG*K«ž›ŒG*¨¡Œ¼*žqM¬{G*K j›Hf„7j„6*4aGjª„€ª)|G*œg„€G*a0&* §J mfHa»*K£f˜„€G*M5§k+–›ŒkMfžªD 2Ka0¨Djª<fžk/¸*–D*|¼*KjHfŒG* œFf„¼*ŸJ&*aMa³Kj¡ªŒHjªD*|/j•†¡H 2fqM(*jGKfÁKj•†¡¼*¦{Jf¤¤/*§-¨kG* 24*§¼*KmfªIf˜H(¸*4f:(*¨Df¤G§›º* jM2f„‚kE¸*KjªŒªg†G*KjM}gG*,|D§k¼*

8

7

9

10

11

12

13

 f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/· jŒHf/·«„€ž„G*lªgG* 24§’„€F&* 14

jª)§„9K|¤˜G*“•„€G*mf:Ñ+  f¤q¡-§IjŒHf/· jŒHf/¨¡gH·…€ž„7m}6fF fªIf¼&* ÕŸ|M&* ·j¡¡„€¼*“•„€G*m*a0K 2§EKjcgŒ-j†Á m*a0K awk„€M¨¡gH NfŒH£*4a¹*K“•„€G* ·jª¡t¡¼*“•„€G*m*a0K *a¡G§J –M|0$f’:(*j†Á ¨¡gH·£*4a¹*m*a0K fªIf†M|+ ÌF&¸*y&¸*rHfI|+ jDf’„7“„‚I“•„6m*a0K

Al Omran 5th Issue | 20

È*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG*

‡)*§º*¨›<K&*“•„€G*¨›<fH(*lgn-fHNfgGfDj’›k—|†+¨¡gž›G Nfª/3§ÇNfIf˜Hj›)f¼*“•„6&¸*ÌkŒ- œ˜„7 ¨¡gž›Gjª/4f»* ¢˜Ê™G{FjG§¤„€+f¤kªgn-¢˜Êoª0m*a0§G*¦{JhªFÎG ™G3¨›<fnH¨¡gž›G«/4f»*”яG*¢H«„6f„6&*$~qFf¤gªF|mf:ÑgG*a+“•„€G*·lgn-«kG*jª)§„9K|¤˜G*“•„€G*mf:Ñ+ jª/4f»*mf¤/*§G*¨›<jª)§„9K|¤˜G*m*a0§G*hF|-fžFjM2fŒG* f¤H*awk„6*¢˜ÊKjª/4f1hª†„-,2fžFK$f+|¤˜G*aªG§kGÉfgž›G …€ž„G*jŒ„7&¸m*}6fFK|†ž›Gjª/4f1mщžF Ñ‰G*j›EK…€ž„G*jŒ„7&¸Ÿ)*aG*f¤„9|Œk+“•„€G*m*a0K~ªžkjMK*~GjqªkIjªGf<f¤-$f’F£&*fžF,4Kfq¼*Éfg¼*¢Hf¤ª›<j†Ef„€G* hªFÎG*j›¤„6f¤I§˜GjDf„9(¸f+*{J…€ž„G*E§¼jg„6f¡¼*f¤›ªH “ª„­-a•D™G3HKj›ª›EhM|w-K$*ak<¸f¤„9|Œ-jªIf˜H(*K ¥„€’I“•„€G*mfI§˜H¢HlIfF*3(*¸(*“•„€G*¨›<NfªDf„9(*NfI5K fžF,4Kfq¼*Éfg¼*Ñ‰GÐF&*j„9|ŒH«¤D£*4a¹*m*a0KfH&* jª)|Hf¤I&f+~ªžk-f¤¡˜GKjª„6*|G*f¤›ªHjMK*~GjqªkIœE&*f¤-$f’F£&* jcªgGf+ fžkJ¸*LaHÕgMj¤/*§G*·i{/}‚¡ŒF awk„€-KÐF&* j+§=|¼*Ô=…€ž„G*jŒ„7&*K|†¼*¢HjMfžº*·Nf„­M&* awk„€-K £*4a¹*K&*“•„€G*·$*§„6Éfg¼*·jÀa¼*m*a0§G*m*~ªÃ¢H fJ2§/KÑ1¢H–•³f¤I&*™G3¨¡g¼*$f„I(*j’›˜-¢H…­’w-f¤I&* jMaª›•kG*$f¡gG*2*§H *awk„6*·|D§-f¤I&*K&¸*Õª„6f„6&*Մ9|= aG§-f¤I&*ÉfnG*sf/~G*K&*i§†G*K&*“•„€G*ˆÑgFf¤›Áœ³«kG* f¤-*~ªÃ¢HK¨¡g¼*·jª)f+|¤˜G*,~¤/&¸*œª„kG awk„€-$f+|¤F hF|-fÇ(*Kf¤kªgnkGjª/4f1jªDf„9(*œFfªJ¾(*sfk³¸f¤I&*Nf„­M&* jªGfž/j’ª;K–•³f¤I&*fžF2§/§¼*¨¡g¼*œ˜ªJ¨›<,}7fgH jž‰I&¸*¦{J£&f+Éfg¼*ift„8&*…­Œ+LaG4§„‚-šf¡JK¨¡gž›G |D§-Ñ1¢H¢˜GKjª›t¼*jMaª›•kG*,4fžŒG*¨›<–ªg†k›Gj›+fEÔ= j’›k fq0&*K£*§G&*Kf˜„7&f+jª)§„9K|¤˜G*m*a0§G*KfMÑ»* jG§¤„€+¬4fžŒHŸªž„‚-¬&*·jž‰I&¸*,{JrH2£f˜H(¸f+ug„8&*  f˜„7&¸* …8f»*¥Œ+f:¨›<Ô.fkG*£K2 jª)§„9K|¤˜G*jž‰I&¸*j’›˜¾(*sfk³¸f¤I&*oª0N*a/j›ª›Ejž‰I&¸*¦{Jœª„-j’›˜-ÌkŒ£(fD™G3HK,ÔgFjIfª„8¾(*sfk³¸f¤I&*fžFœª„k›G2§EK ÌkŒ-«kG*f¤„€’Ijª)§„9K|¤˜G*m*a0§G*j’›˜-·¢ž˜-j›˜„¼* ·jªGf<fª/§G§¡˜-h›†k-,aMa/jª¡•-f¤I§˜GN*|‰IN*a/jªGf= f¤ª›<h›†G*j›•GN*|‰I™G{FKmfF}G*…­Œ+fJ|˜k³Kf¤k<f¡„8 ¨›<‹f’º*·fJa)*§DKf¤kªžJ&¸…6f¡G*¢HÔn˜G*jD|ŒH aŒGjqªkI fHjž‰I&¸*¦{¤+,aG§¼*$f+|¤˜G*,a0K|Œ„6£&*§•G*¢˜ÊKjcªgG* *{JjMaª›•kG*—|†Gf+,aG§¼*jM2fŒG*$f+|¤˜G*,a0K¢H¨›<&**5 *3(*fH&*4fgk<(¸*Ռ+‡•DfJa0KjM2f„‚kE(¸*œH*§ŒG*m{1&**3(* ¦{J£(fDjMaª›•kG*42f„‚¼f+$f+|¤˜G*sfkI(*f¤gg„€M«kG*4*}9&¸*m{1&* Ôn˜+œ„­D&*K|DK&*K…‚14&*£§˜k„6f¤+,aG§¼*$f+|¤˜G*Kjž‰I&¸*


jªHЄ6(·*,4fžŒG* i§›•G*,4fž<

¢H…€ªGKjª›˜„G*jª0f¡G*¢Hj•›†¡H£§˜-«kG*jªHф6(¸* &f†1™G3Ô=«JK Ñ„6(¸*¢Hf¤I&*N*4§„‚-«†Œ-«˜G ,4fžŒG*“M|Œ-·…7f•¡G*Ka¹*ÐFa•G jM4fžŒ¼*Ÿ¤Gfž<&*£&*K&*,aª•ŒG*¢<42f„‚G*£§ž„­¼*jª0fI ¥tª„9§-«g¡M *{J‡›k1*Kfž¤¡ª+—|’G*K՞›„€¼*,4fž<KjªHф6(¸* ¬{G*|H&¸* Ñ„6(¸*vK4¢<£§˜-fHaŒ+&*«JKjªHф6(* f¤I(fDjªHф6(¸*£Ka+,4fžŒG*jž›FfžŒk„6*a¡<fH&* ÔnF¨›<jªHф6(¸*j’„‚G*£§•›†M…­ŒgG*ug„8&*Kš*{+ 2Ñ+·,4fžŒG*¢HÔnF¨›<K՞›„€¼*a¡<,4fžŒG*¢H Ÿ›„€¼*¬4fžŒ¼*œgE¢HNfMa)f•<KNfM|˜D¥k¤/*§H¢Ha+¸ ,4fžŒG*K,4fžŒ›G fŒG*“M|ŒkG*l³œ1a-™G3a¡< ¢HlgnkG*K& *jª<}7§„8&*¾(*Ž§/|G*£Ka+ Ñ„6(¸* žkq¼*,4fžŒGjžªž„‚kG*Ÿª•›G…6f„6&fF,aª•ŒGf+ *~kG¸*K ¢ž„9Nf„­M&*s4a¡- Ñ„6(¸*2Ñ+·,4fžŒG*K՞›„€¼*a¡< T ¥ª›<Ù*¨›„8Ù*§„64j¡„6KÙ*ifkF–M|:¢<™G3 «Hф6(¸* jªq¤¡H…€˜Œ-«kG*«J՞›„€¼*,4fžŒD §¤’¼**{J Ÿ›„6K ,4fž<¨ž„€HÑ0(*¢˜Ê¸¥I&f+–g„6fÃf¡GÕgkMK «g›-«kG*,4fžŒG*«JK Ñ„6(¸*|J§/a„€±K¥M|˜D Š’›G*·…€ªGmft›†„‚¼*¦{JÕ+—|’G*£(* œ˜G£(fD…€˜ŒG*K&*jªHф6(¸*,4fžŒG*£f˜H՞›„€¼* 2Ñ+·£fF$*§„6jŒM}›G…64fž¼*Ÿ›„€¼*mf/fªk0* £f„€G·$f/fžF,4fžŒG*“M|ŒkD|J§¹*·fÇ(*K‡•D jt„9*Km¸¸2j•+f„€G*mft›†„‚¼*™›-¢H,a0*K jŒM}G*ŸªªGfŒ-H…94fŒk-¸£&*ˆ}+fJÔ=K&* Ñ„6(¸* ¨›<$«„7œF,4fžŒG*£f˜¼*¥+|žŒMfH‡ªt¼*i|ŒG* L|1&¸*¢<fJ~ªµ $ftž„€G* Ÿª‰ŒG*«º*§JœªEKj›ªg•G*¢H|„8&*,4fžŒG*K…6&*|G* jMKfž„6jŒM}72|qžFNfH§M Ñ„6(¸*¢˜M½ Ž*§I&*œFœž„-a•D՞›„€¼*2Ñ+·,4fžŒG*fH&* |)fž<f¤Œž/K +f†G*K,fªº*·Nfžª˜0Nf+§›„6&*Nfž)*2KNf„­M&*£fF¥¡˜GK K&*j¡„€G*Kifk˜G*ŸªGfŒ-Hjª„žk¼*,4fžŒG*,4fžŒG* ‡ªtMfHœF·,a)f„€G*jž¡G*£§˜M£&*hqM«Hф6(¸* ½£(*KlIfF,4fž<¬&*K&*Ÿ›„€¼*mf/fªk0*«g›-«kG* £|•G*¿(* jªHф6(¸*,4fžŒG* jªž„€-—Ñ:(*2§ŒMK ŸªGfŒkG*K,aª•ŒG*hI*§q+j†g-|H,4fžŒG*£(fDf¡J¢HKf¡+ £&¸™G3Kjª<}7Nf„8§„‚Il’Gf1£(*K¦|F3 a•-f¯“- ¨ž„€HK §¤’HÕª+|G*ÕE}k„€¼*aM«›<}<„6fkG* jGf0…€ªGK«Hф6(¸*·f•nG*p*ÎG*“¡F¢H24K £f˜HK£fH5œ˜Gjºf„‚G*2fŒ+&¸*m*3jªHф6(¸* ¥-4fž<¨›<™G3…€˜Œ¡MaEKNf•„6fD£§˜MaEŸ›„€¼* jªHф6(¸*,aª•Œ›G,a„€À …94fŒ-a/§M¸¥I&*aª’Mœ)f„€¼*¦{Juª„9§-£(* ‡•DNfªHф6(*œžŒG**{J£§˜M£&*,4K}­Gf+…€ªG¢˜GK m24Ka•D$f¡gG*¨¡Œ¯,4fžŒG*jž›F *awk„6*fH&*  *~kG¸*Õ+KjnMaº*$f¡gG*2*§HKmfª¡•kG*¢H,2f’k„6¸*Õ+ f¤ª›<՞›„€¼*,4fž<j’„8—Ñ:*£(*K&*Nfž›„€H¥I§˜G ,}‚k•Hl„€ªG՞›„€¼*,4fž<£&*KjªHф6(¸*jŒM}Gf+ K&*՞›„€¼*œgE¢Hm|ž<f¤I& R ¸f¤ª›<jªHф6(¸*K&*   jM%¸*j+§kG*,4§„6·,a0*K,|HË|˜G*£%*|•G*· UQ jMQ fQ•„6S ŸU kR ›U ŒQ /Q *&Q " UQ aS qS „€U ¼UQ *Q,4f ¥ªD|.'§-¬{G*+f†G*K&*£§ž„­¼*«JfÇ(*KՌH5*|:¨›< ՞›„€¼*«„9*4&*·fJ2§/§G XÙfS+¢Q HQ %*¢U žQ FQ  *S |Q º* Q žQ <S KXQ sfº*Q Q Ù*œªS N WÙ*KXQ Ù*a¡ jªHф6(¸*Ÿª•G* NfžŒ†Hœ1aM¬{GfDÑnHi}­I™G3hM|•kGK Q <S Q£K§R kQ „€U MQ ¸X Q /Q KQ |S 1%S ¸* S §U ªQ GU *KQ S g„6 Q · S aQ Jf …6f˜ŒI*«JžkÀ¬&*·,4fžŒG*lIfF*3(*K Ÿ›„€¼*«Jf†G*¥G a•MK«Hф6(¸*ŸŒ†¼*if+¨›<hkF Ÿ›<*K"£fªgG*vK4Ԅ€’-·K"ÕQ ¼fVS ‰G* Q §QU •GU *¬aS ¤U MQ ¸Q jª„6fª„€G*KjªDf•nG*Kjª<fžk/¸*KjM2f„‚kE¸*œH*§Œ›G j’„8—Ñ:(*u„‚Mœ¤Djª<}G*mf<§¡ž¼*¢H¥ªDNf•g:  a¤I*fHaMa±K$f¡gG*f¤¡HNf<*§I&*Ÿ„­-a/f„€¼*,4fž<£&* a/f„€¼*·œM2f¡•G*–ª›Œ-f¤¡HK…7|’Gf+f¤¡ªM~-f¤¡HK …6fª•Gf+£fª¡gG* f˜0&*ˆfg¡k„6*¢˜Ê™G{gDžkq¼*™G{G g†Gf+"՞›„€¼*–g:¥I&*K&*"–g†G**{J¨›<«Hф6(¸*  Ñ„6(¸*·mÑHfŒ¼*KŽfžk/¸*K2f„‚kE¸* f˜0&f+ P¦f:¥wg:–g:K&*«Hф6(*ŸŒ†H·–g: aE¥¡˜GK¸ £(*¾fŒ-fE oMaº*·K"Ž§ž„G*Kuª+f„‚¼*s*}6&*K œnHifgG**{J—|:Õ.at¼*Õn0fgG*…­Œ+Kf0aEK jªHф6(¸*j’„8—Ñ:(*a¡<K Ñ„6(¸f+¥GjEÑ<¸Ÿ›„€H ¨+§†DfJ4fž<f¤ªD¬4*K5£(*Ka/f„€¼*«„94&*·«-§ª+ ¬4fžŒ¼*fH&* …94&¸*,4fž< ¥+fkF· ÌF&*œªž/

$*§„6jªHф6(*,4fž<šf¡J£&f+Ÿ¤’MR ,4fžŒG*¨›< œM~C¡kG*4*§I&*·K" «kª+·É4*5Ÿ.¥kª+·|¤†-agŒG ,4fžŒG*vц„8*£&*ÌkŒªD«/42f¹*lŒD4«E*|ŒG* ŸJÔ=K&*£§ž›„€¼*f¤Hawk„6* f¤-4fž<¢HK¬Kf„­ªgG*Ԅ€’k+”K|Œ¼*œMK&fkG*4*}6&*K «JKjª¡M2f¤I§F¢HÐF&*jªDf•nG*ª„‚G*¢H§JjªHф6(¸* |F{G*K,2fgŒG*jH*2(*Ks}€Gf+fJ|M§¡-K…7|’Gf+f¤¡ªM~¢H«Hф6(¸*§JfHfžJÕG*'§„6,4f.(*¾(*fI2§•M*{JœF fªIaG*oMatF¥GÍ-½fž<f¤kIfª„8KŸ›ŒG*…642K …­Ef¡kHKh„6f¡HÔ=ÔgŒ"jªHф6(*,4fžŒG*œŒqM¬{G*fHK",4fžŒG* sfkIlIfF՞›„€¼*,4fž<£&*¿(*¦fgkI¸*4aqMK ¥Œ¡„8fHœF§Jj¡¤¼*«„64fÃa¡<,4fžŒG*“M|Œ-K i§›•G*,4fž<«JjªHф6(¸*,4fžŒG*¨¡ŒH£(* jª1f¡¼*œH*§ŒG*¢H¥kMfž0œ/&*¢H£f˜¼*·£f„€I(¸* ¬{G*|˜’G*Hj/~kÃjª<fžk/¸*KjªcªgG*Ÿ¤-f/fº “¤˜G*,4§„6·œ/K~<Ù*§•Mœ/K~<Ù*,2fgŒ+ ¸* ¥k„ªŒH…9*|=&*¢H…9|=œª¤„€kGK&*jªŒªg†G*K m*ԏk¼*h„€t+¢H~G*H4§†kMKfMfq„€G*š|tM  S,*aQQ GU fS+Ÿ¤VR +4Q Q£§<R aU MQ ¢M U K"  jM% Q Q {VS G*Q HQ ™Q „€UQ ’IQ ÌU S „8* Q ¡Q ªU <Q aR ŒQU -¸Q KQ ¥R ¤Q /U KQ Q£KaMR |S MR X«„S ŒQ GU *KQ Qj¡Q M S5aMR |RS -ŸU ¤R ¡U <Q šf mf†¡t¼*½f<·o˜Ê¸Km§g.«›<«„6|M¸K ¥G2fª•I¸*KÙ Ñ„€k„6¸*§J Ñ„6(¸*“M|Œ-K UQ ”§„8§¼f+‡g-|-j’„8jªHф6(¸*K&*«Hф6(¸*Kj<f†Gf+ «H§¤’HÕ+¢MfgkG*œ˜„M*{JKxM4fkG*·fŒ+fE«•gMK ¦R *§Q JQ Q gVQ -*KfQ S <Q ¥R gQ ›U EQ f¡Q ›U ’Q U=&*Q ¢U HQ U †RS -¸Q Kf Q I|S FU 3¢ Q ªQ IU WaG* S,fªQ º* ~¡HfªIaG*£(*¿*~G* fH(¸*§•M"f:N |RR D¦R |R HU &*Q  Q£fFQ KQ ,2aÁug„‚kGjªHф6(¸*f¤ªG(*l’ª„9&*jHf<jž›F,4fžŒGfD sfk¡F՞›„€¼*,4fž<Kj’„€›DK|˜’FjªHф6(¸*,4fžŒG* …9|=K ,4fžŒG* ”§„8§ž›GjD|ŒHj’„8jªHф6(¸*K f˜„7&*K œJ3¢žDhF|H£agG*K¾fŒ-Ù*¾(*¢M|)f„€G*5f¡H¢H |H&*Ÿ‰k¡M½fHK¦|’„6ŸkM½hF|¼*K~¡¼*Ô+a-¢< –›†IfHa¡ŒD¥t„9§-f¤›gENfž„6(*“„‚-f¤I&*j’„‚G* ,4fž<«JjªHф6(¸*,4fžŒG*£&*§•G*¢˜Ê™G{G …€º*¢<NfE2f„8N*ÔgŒ-Nf„­M&*«J՞›„€¼*,4fž<Ki§›•G* ¬{G*Ù*¾(*Žf†•I¸*KœkgkG*|H&*ŸkM¸fªIaG*·…7fŒ¼* fH(*,4fž<f¤+a„‚•If¡I&ÑD,4fžŒG*¨›<jªHф6(¸*j’„8 «g›-«kG*,4fžŒG*Ž*§I&*œF«Jr¤¡HK|˜’F«Hф6(¸* š§›„€G*§J §„6|G*oM2f0&*·K&*Ë|˜G*£%*|•G*·f¤ª›<Nf„8§„‚¡H jŒM}G*Hf¤„94fŒ- a<ˆ}+Ÿ›„€¼*mf/fªk0* Nf„6fI&*¥ªDL|I¬{G* §ªG*«-fM¸£&*§/|IN*Ô1&*K £K2jªHф6(¸f+fž<&¸*“„8KKŸ›„6K¥ª›<Ù*¨›„8 ,4fžŒG*·£§„‚„‚wkHŸ¤I&*jqt+՞›„€¼*£§›k„€M ՞›„€¼*¾(*f¤kg„€I™G{FK4§‰t¼*·E§MaEaF&f-

Al Omran 5th Issue | 22

Al Omran 5th Issue | 23

œ†„6&¸*Ë|˜G*ag<až0&*  ,4fžŒG*Ÿ„€•+}9fÁ


Projects Qattan Center for the Child

œ’†›G£f†•G*~F|H

£§ž„­»f+œ˜„G*jEÐ<K,}8fŒ»*Kp*ÍG*4*§0

jª›ª˜„-m¸KfÁÑ1¢H,}8fŒ¼*K œ˜„G*a/¢Hj’›kÂ5§H4f¤q„€¡q„7f÷f•.¬§+|-¨¡g¼*£§ž„­¼*K Ÿªž„‚kG*·¬|˜Dœ1aH *awk„6*¨›< vf-&*f’:&¸* §„64jM§’<2fžk<*£&*fžF ¬4fžŒ¼*œ˜„G*·2f¤k/ÑGfq¼* 4|0¬{G*|H&¸*j¤+f„HjM§’<Kfªw+ Ÿªž„‚k›Gvf-&*K«›˜„G*aª›•kG*,4K}9¢H «kG*jªGfª»*mfgªFÎG*œ˜„7{1&fM£&* †•G*KmfgŒ˜¼*¢Hf’:&¸*f¤Œ¡„‚M jªg„»* ¶«gM|qkG*œ1a¼**{JÑ1¢HK

,2¸§G*¢Hf’:&ÑG,~ªžkHjª-fH§›ŒH ‡„6K·£f†•G*~F|H•MŽK}¼*E§H j¡„6¨k0K ¨›<œ†Moª0s4aG*«0·,~=j¡MaH ŽK}¼*}8f¡< ·,~ªÃjHÑ<~F|¼*œnÊK,a0§G*Ž4f„7 ¥ªDŽ5§k-KՕ+f:¢H~F|¼*£§˜kM j•†¡¼*¦{J –:f¡H¾(*lž„€Ej†„I&¸*¢Hj<§žÀ œª†k„€¼*¥›˜„+¨¡g¼*ŽK}¼*j0f„€H |’„8 j’›kw¼*4fž<&¸*h„6f¡kGjª„€ª)4  ¥k0f„€H›g-Nfªg„€I   K  Km*§¡„6  ŽK}¼*“„8K }8f¡<j•D|¼*jª•D&¸*‡Ef„€¼*|¤‰-K ¢„€t¼*ag<j„€„6'§Hmf<K}Ha0&*§J j’›kw¼*ŽK}¼*mfI§˜HK jžJf„€¼*œ/&*¢H¥„€ª„6&f-¶£f†•G* ŽK}¼*Ÿªž„‚-,|˜D «<fžk/¸*·f•nG*L§k„€¼*D4· j„8|Dœ’†›G£f†•G*~F|HŽK}HÌkŒM œ’†›G¬§¡Œ¼*K«¤ªDÎG*«žª›ŒkG* p*ÎG*4*§0¢<̌-j+|qk+ fª•›GjªgJ3 jªgk˜HjHa1ÔD§-Ñ1¢H«¡ª†„€›’G*

…6a¡¤¼*|Ma¼*Ñ1¢H "«ž›<Khª†1" uM|DE§¼*…6a¡¤HK£fgŒ„7§+&*¨’†„‚H f„‚-¸*¨›<£K}‚M*§IfF¢M{G*4fq¡G* Ÿ›tIf¡F,ΒG*¦{J·|žk„€¼*4Kf„kG*K Ÿ›Œk¡Df¡+§›E·f’:&¸*…ŒIŸ„6|IK m*4*§0·”K|º*™˜’IK Ñ˜G* ·jª¡„­Hœž<œ0*|Hf¤Œgk-j•ª„7 ¸f¡JKjM4fžŒHmѪ˜„-¾(*jž/ÎG* ¬{G*…6fžº*KŸ<aG*|F{I£&*¸(*f¡Œ„€M *{J,Ԅ€H·4K2–M|D$f„­<&*jDfF¥HaE …6a¡¤¼*«˜M}7|F{Gf+…‚1&*KŽK}¼*  aGf1…6a¡¤¼*™G{FKԄ­1§+&*2fž<

jM§¤G*j=fª„8KhM|qkG*K”f„kF¸* lIfF¦{Jf¡kGf0·K,}8fŒ¼*jªI*|žŒG* Ô1f¤ª›<՞)f•G*K£f†•G*j„€„6'§H  a•kH4Ka+lHfEj„€„6'§H¨›<fnH rHfIÌG*¾(*jDf„9(*jMf<|G*K2*a<(¸*· «ª)f„‚1&*H£KfŒkGf+¥-a<&*¬{G*4§†k¼* lG§Ha•DhIf/&*KÕ¡ª†„€›Dmfgk˜H f¡žEŽÑ:*Kot+j›04£f†•G*j„€„6'§H mfgk˜¼,aMa<s3fÇ,4fM~+f¤GÑ1¢H BritishH–ª„€¡kGf+fªIf†M|+·j’›k |M§†-·ma<f„6«kG*Council ¬4fžŒ¼*j„€„6'§¼*mažk<*fžFrHfIÌG* ·f¤¡<œnžžF£fE§:|’Œ/|Ma•G* jŒD2¨†<&*¬{G*|H&¸*jM4fžŒ¼*4§H&¸* ŽK}¼**{J·¬4fžŒ¼*4*§t›Gjª¡=  *4·j„€„6'§¼*|MaH fE$f¡.&¸*¦{J· jŒ+fkHK–ª„€¡k+“›12fM5…6a¡¤¼*Ù* ̄8Kjª¡¤HKjªGfŒ’+j’›kw¼*4*K2&¸* f¡JK|Ma•kG*K *Î0¸*–tk„€Mœ˜„+ ¿fŒG*–ª„€¡kG*K£KfŒkG*L§k„€H¨„€¡I¸ ·£§D}¼*£§„6a¡¤¼*¥+ fE¬{G*

j„8|D,4fžŒGfD¥ª›<KŸ¤k¡MaH·…6f¡›G f¡g)f„‚¼jŒM}€G*§›º*lGftk„6**3(*" ¢Hžkq¼*··f•nG*K¬|˜’G*4*§t›G œžŒ¡›D}9fº*f¡ŒžkÀŽf„9K&*m2|-K j¡HfF5§H4K4f˜D&*¢H¥Ha•-fHÑ1 œg•k„€Hœ/&*¢HœM§†G*œH&¸*¨›<N*3(* mftI¬4fžŒ¼*É*|žŒG*rª„€¡G*· œž<Kf¤+¡kE*mfž›F"œ„­D&* ¥-*K2&*Kj¡Ma¼*Ž4*§„7¥„94fŒH«›ª˜„£f†•G*¢„€t¼*ag<aª„€G*f¤•ª•³¨›< …6f¡G*š|tkM¥-f-§t¡HK$f¡gG*fª/§G§¡˜£f†•G*j„€„6'§HŽK}H,|˜Dh0f„8 –+*§:+4&*"2fŒMf¤žq0Kf¤›1*2· œ’†›G·f•nG*£f†•G*~F|HÌkŒM«kG* ¦{JKhGfG*· "ÈK2“„‚I¨›< jDf•nG*¿fÀ·,aMaŒG*f¤Gfž<&*¢HN*$~/ mfF4f„¼*¢HaMaŒG*Ëa•kGjªgJ3j„8|D jª+ÎG*K «Œžkq¼*4*§º*·¬4fžŒž›GjM|˜’G* Ÿž„‚H“„6§M|ž<…6a¡¤¼*§•MK ·f•nG*$f„­’G*·og-ÉfgHÑ1¢H ·ÔgF4K2¢M4fžŒž›G£(* ŽK}¼*  a•-,|˜kgHjcM|/mѪ˜„-KN*5§H4 ¬|qM«kG*œ„8§G*j•›0Ÿ¤Džkq¼* N ¨¡gHœFug„‚M*{¤+Kjg„6f¡H¸§›0 mf0§ž:Kmfg›†kHjž/|-f¤GÑ1¢H hªkFK&*jGf•Hj+fn¯¬4fžŒž›Gjg„€¡Gf+ rª„€¡G*·jž)fEjª›ŒDÉfgH¾(*Ÿ¤ŒžkÀ ¸&*hqMKvK|†¼*Ž§„9§¼*·¬|˜D ‡ª†wkG*K,4fžŒ›GKj¡Maž›GÉ*|žŒG* h0f„8¥gŒ›M¬{G*4KaG*jªžJ&*¨„€¡I ¨›<œžŒ-j¤/¢H«¤Dj/K2~Hj’ª;K ™G3K¥¡<jG§c„€¼*j¤¹*K&*ŽK}¼* jªI*|žŒG*žkq¼*mf/fªk0*–ª„€¡-KÕH&faŒ¼*rHfIÌG*4§†-L§k„€HÑ1¢H j¤¹*¢HKjª-fª0hI*§/œª¤„€-K jªžJ&f+Ÿ¤MaG|D§k¼*«<§G*¾(*jDf„9(¸f+ aJ*§„+j¡Ma¼*$f¡=(*¾(*už†-L|1&¸* j¤¹*¦{JjM2*aŒk„6*K¬4fžŒ¼*œžŒG* jM§¤G*5~ŒM~ªžkHÉ*|ž<rª„€IKjªGfž/ 5*~k<¸*K|w’G*L§k„€HD|MKjª¡:§G* ¨›<¥Œªq„-KœžŒG**{J|M§†-KjMf<|G

Al Omran 5th Issue | 24

Al Omran 5th Issue | 25

PHOTOGRAHY: ISMAIL ABU ELKAS

…6a•G*¬4f„k„6¸*4K2hk˜HŸž„‚¼* Ԅ­1§+&*2fž< “„6§M|ž< 


Projects Qattan Center for the Child 3

1

2

«C„€ª)4œC1aH ¬§CIf.œC1aH jCHa1œC1aH Ÿ˜³”|=5£~wCH …9*|=&¸*,2aŒkHj<fE fCMÔCkDfF f’:&¸f+j„8f»*jCª¡’G*fž<&ÑG…9|ŒH mfH§›Œ¼*fª/§G§¡˜-,a0K «žª›Œ-|-§ªgžFj<fE jªIKΘG*mfHьk„6* «žª›Œ-|-§ªgžFj<fE  jª/4f»*j†„I&ÑG $f¡D m*§¡„6£K2fHf’:&* j-Kaº*j<fE j¡„6 …9|ŒGf+Ÿª›ŒkG*,a0K mfC„€›/ j¡„6 mf:f„¡G*,2aŒkHj<fE jª¡DKjMKaMf„7&*j•†¡H œCž<jC„74K j¡„6 ¢Hf’:&ÑGj<fE j„8f»*mf/fªk0¸*¬K{Gj<fE jM4*2(*h-f˜H ŽK}¼*,4*2(*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 27

5

£f˜¼*·j±f¡G*$f„9§„­G*…8f„‚kH*· jªq0&¸*fHKjªq0&¸f+*K|•k„€ªG5fG&¸*K †•G*…­Œ+jDf„9(*¶…8f„‚kH¸*,2fM~GK Ÿ›ŒkG*KhM|qkG*KotgG*½f<¸(* j/fº*h„€0™G3K2fq„€G*¢Hj’›kw¼* ŽK}¼*mfg›†kHK j0§k’¼*mf=*|’G* «›1*aG*‘*|’G* œ1*aG*·j0§k’¼*mf=*|’G* f‰I$f/ £*§G&¸*j„6*42 ¥I&*fžF,4fžŒG*·£|¼*~ªº* §¤’H¢H N*4K2£*§G&¸*hŒ›-jª/4f»*£*§G&¸* ÔªkG*·jIK|ž›Gjgk˜¼*mf/f0«g›M j†ª„€+£*§G&¸*jªq0&¸*rª„€I·N*ÔnH rH*ÌG*·m*ԏk¼*jgF*§¼œª˜„kG*K fH4£*§G&*fžJK—45&¸*K|’„8&¸* jgk˜¼*“D4&*lHawk„6*aEK‡†»*K a¡<K$f¼*K…94&¸*£*§G&*fJ|t+K,~= œª˜„-f¤GÑ1¢H¢˜ÊjI|H:*§•F Ôw›GN*~H4}­1&¸*£§›G*«-&fMfž¤†›1 œ˜„+jF|0K$KaJ–:f¡H¾(*‘*|’G* a¡<£*§G&¸*Ÿ›<·™G{FK,}­»*K aEKjgk˜ž›Gj’›kw¼*mfg›†k¼*h„6f¡M £§›G*¾(*£fM2'§M|’„8&¸*K—45&¸*‡›1 mfc’›Gjª„€ª)4–:f¡H¾(*jgk˜¼*lž„€E jªI§GjGf¡G a•M¥-*3at+*{J}­1&¸* f¤I&fFKNf•+f„6|F3fžFj’›kw¼*jM|žŒG* jEÑ<f¤GÑ1¢Ha„€Å¬~H4+f:m*3 œnžk¼*«„€ª)|G*4*5fgG*f¤†+|M—*§„6&* aJf„¼*«<K·jM|˜DjM§+|«„€ª)|G*4§t¼f+ ¥I&fFK¨¡g¼*Ÿ„€/jª/4f»*£*§G&¸*|¤‰-K mf=*|’G*¢<j±f¡G*$f„9§„­G*h¡qkGK §qª›G*jgŒGœnHhªFÎG*K™’›G—Ka¡„8 m*3,4fŒk„€H“•„6&* awk„6*j0§k’¼* £§›G*$*|’„8j›M§†G*jª/4f»*£*4a¹fD £&*¾(*jDf„9(*$f„9§„­›G¿f<…8f„‚kH* ‡+|MK£§›G*$fE45,Ԅ‚•G*£*4a¹*K NfªDf„9(*N*4K2hŒ›k„6mfM§kt¼*Khk˜G*

j/fº*h„€0 j„€gk•HmfgF|H *awk„6f+¨¡g¼*œª˜„jgk˜¼*h›E$«„­Moª0«›1*aG*$f¡’G* ¬4fžŒ¼*p*ÎG*}8f¡<ÕHf„­H¢H jª/4f»*,$*|•G*j„8|Df’:&ÑGuªkMK ·|º*f¤›˜„+ *~kG¸*£K2«¡ª†„€›’G* «›1*aG*$f¡’G*¢˜GKj„‚•G*jM*K4K j0§G¢<,4fg<mf¤/*§G*K¨¡g¼*£f˜D N jª¡D&¸*œnHNfŒ+|HK&*Ѫ†k„€Hm& fM½ j›M§:jª›ž<~kw-jMaM|±j-§t¡HK&* LОF“„‚Iœ˜„7¨›<$f/œ+jª.*ÎG* ¿fž/£5*§-·,aMaŒG*mfg›†k¼*–ª„€¡kG œ˜„MKj„‚•G*jM*K|GNf/4aHh<§k„€ªG $f†<(¸už†MNfM4fžŒHQN*2f¤k/*$f/¬~H4 N j’›kw¼*4fž<&¸*–:f¡HÕ+Nfª+fª„€I*¸f•kI* N*}8fŒHN*aŒ+p*ÎG* jgk˜¼*· j„€gk•H«JKj›M§†G*jª•D&¸*™ª+fg„G* œ˜„G*¨›<,|˜’G*Ô.&f- ·,2§/§¼*jgE*|¼*KŽfDaG*—§•„7¢H jª.*ÎG*}8f¡ŒG*¢HN*2a< *awk„6*¶aEK N HjÊa•G*…6a•G*4*§„6&*¨›<KŽÑ•G* ŽK}ž›Gjg„6f¡Hjª=*|D¸§›0 a•-«kG* jª’ª;§G*j/fº*–DK¥ª/§kG*”Ñk1* œ˜„G*§04*§º*5§H4£&*¾(*jDf„9(¸f+ «JKf¤ªDjt„9*Km|¤;£§ž„­¼*K ™ª+fg„7fH&*jMfžt›Gjª„6&*4ŽfDaG*—§•„D «„€ª)|G*4§t¼*·œnµ¬{G*4*5fgG* jM'K4ÔD§-œ/&¸™G3Kjª•D&*«¤Djgk˜¼* ¨›<j’›kw¼*mf:f„¡G*K jg„‚•G*

$§„­Gf+Ÿ˜tk›GKœ1*aG*¢HjªH*4§If+ 4*5fgG*,$f„9(*l„€gkE*aEKÕgIf¹* kHKjD|Œ¼*4*5f+",|˜DlI§˜-*{¤+ œ˜„7¨›<4*5fgF¨¡g¼*$fqD "fª»* f¤¡˜GKifg•G*e2fgHfg•k„6¸*jGf„8K œžŒ-jªI*§†„6*:f•Hœ˜„7¨›<l-&* f’:&¸*§„­DÔnMhqŒG*—Ka¡„8 mfJf±¸*“›k¢H$§„­›G“EўF 5§H|G*¢Hj›04·¥ŒHŸ¤gt„€MK

4

Al Omran 5th Issue | 26

¨¡gž›GjªE}G*j¤/*§G* ¨¡gž›Gjª+§¡¹*j¤/*§G* jª›1*aG*…7*§0&¸*|¤‰M¬§›<4§‰¡H j’›kw¼*jM§›ŒG*,$f„9(¸*hªGf„6&*K ŽK}ž›G«„€ª)|G*œ1a¼* jª<f¡„‚G*KjªŒªg†G*,$f„9(¸*Ÿ=f¡-


3 Projects Graduation Report

«›1*aG*~ªº*jIK|HKj0§k’Hmf=*|D f¤Gf˜„7&*K,$f„9(¸*42f„‚HŽ§¡- j’›kw¼*4fž<&¸*h„6f¡ªGpf.&¸*Ž§¡- £f†•G*jgk˜Hœ1a¼jª›1*2,4§„8 ¨¡g¼*|¤‰-«kG*£*§G&¸* *awk„6*·,&*|/ hªFÎG*K™’›GjgŒG¥I&fFK

f¤k„Ef¡H¶«kG*M4f„¼*$fž„6&f+jž)fE«›MfžªDK «ntgG*$~¹*”*}7(* «„€¡¼*“„6§M2¬§„€ªŒG*jHf„6&*2

Al Omran 5th Issue | 29

«›žŒG*$~¹*”*}7(* –ª•G*aM|D2¬§„€ªŒG*jHf„6&*2iÑ: jªg¼K&¸*j¡Ma¼*Ÿªž„‚-K‡ª†w-ŽK}H ÕJf„72§žÁ…6f˜G*§+&*œª<fž„6(*j›M§:§+&* 5f0«„€¡¼*ÔH&* …94&¸* §›<KjªcªgG*pft+&*~F|HŽK}H ¬ak¤¼*ŸªJ*|+(*Ù*“›1 f„‚<jªHf„7až0&* «¡ª†„€›’G*«¡:§G*mfH§›Œ¼*~F|HŽK}H Ôg„7ažÁa+f<ažÁsfº*ažÁ fž„G*·jŒHf¹*¨¡gHŸªž„‚-K‡ª†w-ŽK}H Ù*5|0ažÁ«›<Ù*ag<£f/|HŸnªJ 4fž<Ô¤„6 ¢„€ÁË|˜G*ag<2mfgGf: “ª†E…7§=j•†¡H‡ª†w-ŽK}H £fgŒ„7§+&*Ñ<«¡¼*¨¡HfD}G*2*2K½f„6$*}6(* ,fªº*Žf¡„8j¡MaHŽK}H if†1$ÑŬK*|’Œ¹*2f¤„6¬KÑH|G*,§„I œ’†G*m*4aEjªž¡-~F|HŽK}H ,agG§+&*¢MԄ7œž¹*fªG*2jGfž„7§+&*2f¤IjGfž„7§+&*¨¡gG $f„­’G* §›<~F|HŽK}H —K~E~G*£fÊ|Iœ†„6&¸*lD|HiÑFjgJiÑFfªG*2 j„8f»*mf/fªk0¸*¬K3œªJ&f-~F|HŽK}H ,2§<œMaJf¡¤H$¸%*ÕJf„7,K|Hv§›G*$f¡J u›gG*|M2jª<f¡„‚G*j¡Ma¼*‡ª†w-ŽK}H 4fq¡G*vfž„6…­M§<§+&*ÉfH&*,2fI5§+&* fJ4”|¹*jGfJ

…8f1|M|•-

s|wkG*M4f„H

ÕH&fkGK4f„€¼*·jªŒªg†G*,$f„9(¸*¢< ,$*|•›Gh„6f¡HK…€IfqkH$§„9 ·jM§¤-mftkDa/§-jM§¤kG* |D§M¬{G*|H&¸*jM§›ŒG*™ª+fg„G*œF oª0j/fº*a¡<jªŒªg†G*jM§¤k›Gj„8|D jM§¤kG*¨›<«-&fM«„€ª)|G*~ªFÎG*£&* “ªª˜kG*,~¤/&*…8§„‚w+fH&*jª<f¡„‚G* lŒ„9KKu†„€G*¨›<lŒ„9Ka•D 4fŒk„€H“•„6·hª+fI&¸* j†ªt¼*jªI*|žŒG*jcªgG*j„6*42 ™G3Kj†ªt¼*jcªgG*H~F|¼*¨¡gHœ<f’kM «›MfžF ,a0§G*Ž4f„7¨›<jªHfH&¸*j¤¹*· hŒkž›Gj†Á£§˜M£&*¨¡g¼*KftM ¨›<…6§›¹*¢˜Êoª0£f„†ŒG*K Ñ„G*”*|:&* Ž4f„G*¨›<j›†¼*jªE}G*jª0f¡G*¢HK «kG*,Ôg˜G*jtk’G*~F|¼*…9|ŒM«<|’G* £§˜k„6«kG*jgk˜¼*,4fª„€GNf/*|F£§˜k„6 f¤„9|<j•M|:Kf¤I*§G&f+|‰¡›Gjk’›H ,|Jf;K‡ªt¼*,f<*|H–›†¡H¢HK fJ4§†-fžk0*K,~=·jªGfŒG*Éfg¼* j„€Hf1j¤/*§Fu†„€G*|¤;4*§¹*· hg•G*K4*5fg›Gmfª†-¢HL§k0*f¯ “ªª˜kG*,~¤/&¸¢FfH&*¾(*jDf„9(¸f+ u†„€G*|¤;¿fkGf+Kjgk˜¼*mfª¡•-K fª/§G§¡˜kG*f¤EÎw-jªD*|1j¡Ma¼Nf¤+f„H jª<f¡„‚G*m¸%¸*K

6

7

9

8

10

f’:&ÑG 4*5fgG*4§Á·aJf„¼* «-&fML|1&¸*j’›kw¼*jt¡/&¸*·fH&* jM§¤kG*K,$f„9(¸* jŒE§kHԏG*42f„‚¼*“›k¢H$§„­G* ,$f„9(¸*lgŒGjªŒªg†G*,$f„9(¸* mftkD¢H,|HK“•„€G*¢H,|žD $*§/&*œª˜„-·Nfª„€ª)4N*4K2jªŒªg†G* «•D&*–„7K&*ԏ„8+|H¢H,|HKjM|)*2 ¨›<§„‚º*,f<*|Hlµoª0~F|¼* jª)§„­G*m%f/f’¼*¢Hj›„€›„6œM§: mfg›†k¼*Km¸fº*“›kÂ…€˜Œ-«kG* ·,}7fgHÔ=Kj„6K4aHKj„€IfqkH,$f„9(* –:f¡¼*…­Œ+ hg•G*·,$f„9(¸*«FftMœ˜„+jª’ª;§G* «„€ª)|G*4§t¼*Kfg•k„6¸*j<fE«’D jÊa•G*—*§„6&¸*KmfHfžº*K a¡<jª)§„­G*m*Ô.&fkG*¢H,2f’k„6¸*¶ ÔD§kGjª›1*aG*jª¡D&¸*lHawk„6*fžF jg•G*œnHj’›kw¼*jM4fžŒ¼*}8f¡ŒG*Ÿªž„‚jgk˜¼*h›E·jªŒªg:,$f„9(* $*§„9&¸*„9K¶jª<f¡„‚G*,$f„9(¸* …8f1~ªF|-$f†<(*H4*5fgG*Kjª„€ª)|G* ,4f¡¼*m*|ž¼*Kifg•G*œ1*2jª<f¡„‚G* jgk˜¼*¾(*§1aG*Kfg•k„6¸*j<fE¨›< ²f¡G*Ô.&fkG*…€’I¨›<ŠDf³¨k0NfªŒªg: –D*|M¬{G*«)§„­G*Žf•M(¸*¾(*jDf„9(¸f+

¢<,4fg<«J«kG*$f„­ªgG*jD*|D|G*fž¤¡ª+ jªŒªg†G*mf-fg¡G*¥¡H¾ak-j<*45…9§0 ÕI§›G*‡›1¢<rk¡-«kG*,}­w›G~H|F Nf¤g„-™G3KjM§•G*£*§G&¸*lHawk„6*K ¨›<~ªFÎG*,2fM~GKf’:&¸*ifŒG&f+ ·|.'§ª„6¬{G*¬~H|G*¬}‚gG*œª˜„kG* j¡Ma¼*,|F*3 £*§G&*lHawk„6*jª›1*aG*£*§G&¸* ,$f„9(¸*jªGfŒD,2fM5œ/&*¢H™G3Kj)2fJ j³f’G*£*§G&¸*a<f„€-«˜GKjªŒªg†G* f’:&ÑGfq¼*Žf„€-*KjM|º*$f†<(*¨›< ¨›<Ÿ„6|G*K£f˜¼*œª˜„-·՛HfŒG*K œ)f„6K“›k–ª›Œ-K…9|<K&*£*4a¹* jª+2&¸*Kjª¡’G*mfqk¡¼*K&*vf„­M(¸*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 28

«„6*4aG* fŒ›Gs|wkG*M4f„H …‚ž¤G*aª0Kaª¤„G*jŒD2 ™G3Ks|wkG*M4f„H¢Hj<§žÀjM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€E…EfI ÕqM|»*¿fJ&*jF4f„¯Kj’›kw¼*mf„€„6'§¼*Km*4*5§G*«›nÃ4§„­t+ ¢Hj„‚„‚wkHj¡¹f¤k„EfI«kG*M4f„¼*lGfIaEKmfqM|»*K f•„€G*vф8…6a¡¤¼*Ÿ¤„6&*4¨›<”§ª„­G*¢Hj<§žÀKŸ„€•G*œ1*2 M4f„¼*lGfIaEK™ª˜„6fž/…6a¡¤¼*KԄ­1}‚I…6a¡¤¼*K oªt+Ÿ¤ŒM4f„Hjg›†G*4fkwM£&*,2fŒG*m|/K4§„­º*ªž/$*|:* ªž/j›„6*|¯ §•MŸ„€•G*£&*Ÿ›ŒG*H{ª’¡k›Gj›+fEKjªŒE*K£§˜¨›<f¤0|†GŸ¤-f/f0”*}k„6¸j’›kw¼*mfMa›gG*Km*4*5§G* Ÿ„€•G*mfEf„€H¢ž„9M4f„HK&*s|w-M4f„žF$*§„6Ÿ„€•G*jg›: j’›kw¼* $f¡H&*…€›À…€ª)4¬}­»*«/fIfž/…6a¡¤¼*£&*¦|F3|Ma¹*¢H oª0j„9f’kI¸*s§DŸ„6* fŒG**{J«qM|1¨›<–›:&*aEjŒHf¹* –›:&*f¡ª+jF4fg¼*¨„‚E&¸*j„9f’kI(*jM*a+HŸ¤k„6*42*K&*a+Ÿ¤I&* ¨›<…‚ž¤G*aª0Kaª¤„G*Ÿ¤›ªH5Ÿ„6*jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€E§qM|1 ¨›<œ„‚tM£&*œgE¾K&¸*j„6*4aG*Õ¡„6·Ÿ¤F4f„7oª0Ÿ¤kŒD2 fª›ŒG*,2f¤„G*


Projects Olympic City

,~=Žf†•+jªgžªGK&¸*ifŒG&¸*j¡MaH …6f˜G*§+&*œª<fž„6(*«„€¡¼*ÔH&*2*a<(* ÕJf„72§žÁj›M§:§+&* 5f0 «¡ª†„€›’G*ifg„G*mfg›†kHÔD§-¾(*ŽK}¼*”a¤M jžž„‚¼*Kj„8f»*jªg¼K&¸*m%f„¡¼*ÔD§-Kjª„9fM|G* mfM4fgHjDf„­k„6*¢˜Êoªt+jªGKaG*ÔMfŒ¼*h„€0 f¤+jªGK2 ¨›<jª„9fM|G*Ն„€›DjIf˜HD4§tI«Œ„€G*K «¼fŒG*«„9fM|G*L§k„€¼* «„9*4&¸*La0(*—§DŽK}¼*…94&*4fªk1(*¶a•GK £§˜Moªt+ f•+f„6Ë4f„€kIj¡:§k„€H ,4|t¼* ,2f’k„6*œª¤„€kG™G3K,~=Žf†•Gf†„6§kHŽK}¼* Žf†•G*«¡:*§H¢H¢˜Ã2a<ÌF&*

¬§›<4§‰¡H«gžªGK&¸*2fk„6(¸* «›1*24§‰¡H«gžªGK&¸*2fk„6(¸* …€¡kG*jGf„8 ¦f†¼*mf/*4aG*jGf„8

jª„€ª)|G*}8f¡ŒG* j¡Maž›G«„€ª)|G*œ1a¼* jª„€ª)|G*j0f„€G* «gžªGK&¸*2fk„6(¸* ¦f†¼*jª„9fM|G*jGf„‚G* jª)f¼*mf„9fM4¸~F|H j•›¼*mf/*4aG*jGf„8 «gžªGK&¸*…€¡kG*~F|H hM4akG*hŒ›H m*4fª„6“E*§H ŽK}ž›G¬§If.œ1aH

jªEa¡gG*KjHfžº* ŽK}¼*4fŒ„7

1

2

jM§IfnG*}8f¡ŒG* jªg¼K&¸*j¡Ma¼*,4*2(*AS ŽK}¼*aq„€HB ¬4fqkG*~F|¼*C «g†G*~F|¼*D jHfŒG*mfHa1E «HÑ<(¸*~F|¼*F

s|wkG*M4f„H…8f1|M|•ŽK}ž›G fŒG*E§¼*

jª„€ª)|G*,4§„‚•¼* fžŒG*mfHa1KjIfª„8…74K 2fk„6(¸*,4*2(* mfHьk„6(¸*K¢H&¸*”|=

3

 Ñ<(¸*KjDft„‚G*Ÿ„€E

4

 f˜º*KÕg<ÑG*Ÿ„€E 4§¤žq›G¦fªHm*4K2 j¡Maž›G f<4§‰¡H  f•-«kG*j†„I&¸*u„9§M jŒ+fkG*jª„9fM|G*m%f„¡¼f+ j¡Maž›G

Ÿ˜tkG*”|= ¢M~w-mf=*|D K&¸*–+f†›G«•D&¸*‡•„€¼*

«„94&¸*–+f†›G«•D&¸*‡•„€¼*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 30

Al Omran 5th Issue | 31

ª+ˆf•IKjªg:ˆf•I


Projects Environment Graduation Report and Geological Researches Center

jM§¹*2f„84&¸*m*Ìk¨¡gH jªcªgG*mf„6*4aG*¨¡gH jM~F|¼*,4*2(¸*¨¡gH …94&¸* §›<m*Ìk¨¡gH j+ÎG*m*Ìk¨¡gH jHfŒG*m*Ìkw¼*¨¡gH jªº*mf¡)f˜G*m*Ìk¨¡gH jª)f¼*$fª0&¸*m*Ìk¨¡gH j<*4~G*m*Ìk¨¡gH ¦fª¼*m*Ìk¨¡gH jHf<£5f mfMf’¡G*m*ÌkÂKh-f˜H mfMf’¡G*j¹fŒHK—|0 jEf†G*aªG§-j†Á jªntgG*Ž4*~¼* m*Ìkw¼*j0f„6 m*4fª„6“E*§H ŽK}ž›G«„€ª)|G*œ1a¼* ŽK}ž›G¬§If.œ1aH

…94&¸* §›<KjcªgG*pft+&*~F|H  f„‚<¬ak¤¼*ŸªJ*|+(*jªHf„7až0&*2*a<(* Ù*“›1 ‡„6K…94&¸*K §›<KjcªgG*pft+&*~F|HŽK}H•M Ž4f„7 «žª›E(*Ž4f„7fž„G*¢H¦atMK,~=Žf†E ŸJ&*¢HÌkŒM¬{G*,~=¬2*K¨›<цH ¢MaG*vф8 ,~=Žf†E·jªŒªg†G*24*§¼* ¶jªŒªg†G*jªžt¼*¦{J¨›<f„8|0K™G3¨›<N*$f¡+ jDf‰I¨›<j‰Dft¼*·jžJf„€ž›GŽK}¼*E§H4fªk1(* jºf„8jªŒªg:jcªgF¦2§/KÑk„6*K¬2*§G*¦fªH$f•IK a0*K£%*·mf„6*4aG*Ki4fqkG*$*|/(¸

j<*4~G*K¦fª¼*m*ÌkÂKjªº*mf¡)f˜G*m*ÌkÂj<§žÀ

£5f jHf<m*Ìk ժ¡Dh-f˜H œ1aHjGf„8 Õn0f+h-f˜H Õn0fgGf+j„8f1m*Ìk j<*4~G*m*Ìk jª›1*2j<4~H

s|wkG*M4f„H…8f1|M|•-

mfMf’¡G*j¹fŒH¨¡gH

jM~F|¼*,4*2(¸*¨¡gH

jªcªgG*mf„6*4aG*¨¡gH

Al Omran 5th Issue | 32

Al Omran 5th Issue | 33

ŽK}ž›GjHfŒG*j¤/*§G*


Projects Tal Al Qatifah Replanning

œªJ&f-,2f<(*ŽK}H j’ª†•G*œ-j•†¡H

œ1*2Kœ0f„€G*¨›<jM4fžnk„6*jª0fª„6  aw-jª¡˜„6–:f¡Hv*ÎE*Kžq¼* a•GK¥¤/*§I¬{G*Éf˜„€G*„6§kG* i§›„6&*§J«<fŒ„7(¸*‡ª†wkG*£fF ,|˜’G* awM¥I§˜G™G3Kgk¼*‡ª†wkG* 2§/K,|˜D«JKj0Ε¼*jª†ª†wkG* ¨¡H£fgŒ„7§+&*Ñ<½f„6sfº*$*}6(*2*a<(* fD}G*2*2K«¡¼* fž„G*·«ž›<~F|HK&¸*j.Ñ.~F*|H ¬4f±·f•.«wM4f-«„€ª)4~F|HÉfnG*K ·«¤ªD|-~F|HoGfnG*K‡„6§G*· j•†¡¼Ÿ)f•G*„9§G*j„6*4a+ fª•G*¶ ¿fž„G*¢M~F|¼*Ÿªž„‚-¶Ki§¡¹* ·,{wk¼*j„6fª„€G*lIfFKžq¼* ‡„6§G*·2§/§¼*«„€ª)|G*K jª„€ª)|G*—|†G*¨›<‹f’º*«J‡ª†wkG* jª„€ª)|G*jM~F|¼*j•†¡¼*jªž„€-¶a•GK ·f¡Haw-«kG*Kžq¼*œ1*2,akž¼* aM4&*R f¼ xM4fkG*4*§0 j•†¡¯jª†„6§G* jG*5(*HŽf†•G*–:f¡H«Ef+H¥À2 ¶f¤†„6K«’D P£fŒH¢H¥+œ„‚-£&* ¸lIfF£(*,ԏ„‚G*jª<|’G*—|†G* ²f¡G*xM4fkG*4*§0¨¡gH2§/Kv*ÎE* jª†ª†wkG*,|˜’G*H…94fŒk-K ~›·f•.«wM4f-¨¡gHHaq„€HrH2¢< œ1*2jª¡+&¸*ªž/jG*5(*…9*ÎD*¶fžF fJ}9f0Kf¤ª„9fHj•†¡¼*j„‚E«˜tM m¸fžŒk„6*‡†Â„9K¶Kžq¼* ¥ªDlÀ2¨¡gž›Gh„‚IŸªž„‚-H ‹f’ºf+¥ªDf¡žEžqž›GaMa/«„9*4&* ¬{G*Ÿ›•G*¢<̌Mœª˜„-HjI{c¼* –:f¡Hv*ÎE*Hjª<*4~G*–:f¡¼*¨›<

…8f1|M|•s|wkG*M4f„H Al Omran 5th Issue | 34

Al Omran 5th Issue | 35

·aq„€¼*,|˜DlIfFKxM4fkG*hk˜M «kG*jÊa•G*,a›gG*¢<,3§1&fH‡„6§G* ‡ª³Kj¡Maž›GN*~F|Hf¤ªDaq„€¼*£fF v*ÎE*¶*{¤Gj’›kw¼*“)f;§G*¥+ HxM4fkG*4*§0¨¡g¯‡ª³—*§„6&*2§/K jªDf•nG*v4f„€¼*f¤ªDa/§-,ÔgFj•Ma0 …94&¸*u†„6œ’„6&*—*§„6&*HjD§„˜¼* ¨›<&*j•†¡¼*$ftI&*ªž/,fªº*ŸŒkG …94&¸*u†„6œ’„6&*K


Projects Deir Al Balah Industrial Zone

|M2j•†¡H‡ª†w-ŽK}H jª<f¡„‚G*u›gG*

M4f„¼*La0(*«Jjª<f¡„‚G*–:f¡¼* j0f„€G*¨›<m|¤;«kG*jnMaº* ¢HŽ§I4§¤;jM*a+Hjª¡ª†„€›’G* ·¬2f„‚kE¸*K«„6fª„€G*4*|•k„6¸* M4f„¼*¦{JœnHma/KaEKj•†¡¼* HlžF*|-jž/jM2f„‚kE*œFf„Hœº «›ª)*}6(¸*Ñk0¸*$*|/¢H¢H~G*4K|H ¢H¢˜µ™G{FKjª¡ª†„€›’G*–:f¡¼*¨›< ¾(*fJ|Ma„‚k+jª<f¡„‚G*f¡-fqk¡H4fžnk„6* m%f„¡¼*,4fž<£(*j’›kw¼*½fŒG*K2 …‚)f„‚1ŸJ&*…€˜ŒMsfkI«Jjª<f¡„‚G* jª<fžk/¸*m*ԏkG*oª0¢H}‚ŒG* «¤D£f„€I(ÑG¬|˜’G*4§†kG*K a•kG*K  a•-¢HfI}‚<·¬|qMf¯j†g-|H jM4fžŒ¼*mfM|‰¡›G«/§G§¡˜-K«ž›< Õ+jG2fgk¼*mfEьGf+™G{FK$f¡gG*2*§HK jG%¸*K£f„€I(¸*

…8f1|M|•s|wkG*M4f„H Al Omran 5th Issue | 36

Al Omran 5th Issue | 37

2fI5§+&* fJ4…­M§<§+&*ÉfH&*2*a<(* ”|¹*jGfJ4fq¡G*vfž„6


Projects Islamic University branch | Child Abilities Developing Center

Â&#x;ÂŞÂ&#x17E;Â&#x201E;Â&#x201A;-KÂ&#x2021;ÂŞÂ&#x2020;w-Â&#x17D;K} H ¡jÂŞHĂ&#x2018;Â&#x201E;6(¸*jÂ&#x152;Hfš*Â&#x17D;|D Â?fÂ&#x17E;Â&#x201E; G*jÂ&#x2030;DfĂ 5|0Ă&#x201D;J5aÂ&#x17E;Ă ÂŤÂ&#x203A;<}Â&#x201A;IĂ&#x2122;*ag<2*a<(* ÂŁf/|H¢Â&#x201E;Â&#x20AC;tÂź*ag<Â&#x;nÂŞJĂ&#x2122;* jÂŞÂ&#x152;Hfš*Ă&#x2030;fgÂź*jÂ&#x201E;6*4a+¨¥Â&#x152;MÂ&#x17D;K} H Â&#x;ÂŞÂ&#x17E;Â&#x201E;Â&#x201A;k+jÂ&#x201E;6*4aG*ÂŚ{J¢HsK|Âť*K ¡jÂŞHĂ&#x2018;Â&#x201E;6(¸*jÂ&#x152;Hfš*Â&#x17D;|Â&#x2019;GÂ&#x153;HfÂ&#x2DC;kH Â?fÂ&#x17E;Â&#x201E; G*jÂ&#x2030;DfĂ

Â&#x2026;8f1|M|Â&#x2022;s|wkG*Â?M4fÂ&#x201E; H jÂŞÂ&#x17E;ÂĄ-~F|HÂ&#x17D;K} H Â&#x153;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2020;G*m*4aE ¢MĂ&#x201D;Â&#x201E;7jGfÂ&#x17E;Â&#x201E;7§+&*¨¥gGÂ&#x153;Â&#x17E;š*fÂŞG*22*a<(* jGfÂ&#x17E;Â&#x201E;7§+&*2f¤I,agG§+&*

Â&#x2026;8f1|M|Â&#x2022;s|wkG*Â?M4fÂ&#x201E;Â H

Al Omran 5th Issue | 38

Al Omran 5th Issue | 39

jÂŞH§Â&#x2022;G*Â?M4fÂ&#x201E; Ÿ*Â&#x;J&*¢HÂ&#x17D;K} Ÿ*Ă&#x152;kÂ&#x152;M ,4aEjÂŞÂ&#x17E;ÂĄ-KjÂ&#x201E;6*4a+Â&#x;k¤MÂĽI&¸Â&#x2122;G3K Â?HÂ&#x153;HfÂ&#x152;kMÂ&#x17D;K} Ÿ*£§FKÂ?fÂ&#x2019;:&¸* ÂŁfFjG§Â&#x2019;Â&#x2020;G*jÂ&#x203A;0|HÂ&#x153;nHjÂ&#x201E;6fÂ&#x201E;Â&#x20AC;0jÂ&#x203A;0|H jDfF4fgk<(¸*Ă&#x2022;Â&#x152;+{1&¸*Ă&#x2022;Â&#x17E;Â&#x17E;Â&#x201E;Â&#x201A;Âź*¨Â&#x203A;< Â&#x2122;G3KÂ&#x153;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2020;Â&#x203A;GjÂŞIagG*KjÂŞÂ&#x201E;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x2019;ÂĄG*mfÂ&#x2022;Â&#x203A;Â&#x152;kÂź* Â&#x153;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2DC;MÂ&#x153;HfÂ&#x2DC;kHÂ&#x;ÂŞÂ&#x17E;Â&#x201E;Â&#x201A;-¨Â&#x203A;<Â?§Â&#x201E;Â&#x201A;tÂ&#x203A;G Â?fÂ&#x2019;:¸ÂŹ|Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2019;G*s§Â&#x201E;­¥G*Kj0*|G*KjÂ&#x152;kÂź* Ă&#x2022;Â&#x2020;Â&#x201E;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x203A;D


E*§»*–ª„€¡-Kj¡k„€gG*

Projects Landscape Design

jª›„‚’G*M4f„»*

+*|G*L§k„€»*jg›:M4f„H

|M§†-ŽK}H jª<fq„G*£*aªH ¬Kf„ª•G*|ž„62*a<(* f•„€G*…9fM4jž„€I

¬4fF{kG*h„‚¡G*

 f<4§‰¡H

jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€Ejg›:Hœ„8*§k›GN*4*|žk„6* M4f„¯f„8f1*|M|•-Ÿ˜ªG(*24§IjªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹f+ œ„‚’G*Ñ1™G3KmfM§k„€¼*“›k·jg›†G* «„6*4aG* fŒG*¢HÉfnG*«„6*4aG* «„6*4aG* fŒG*¢HÉfnG*«„6*4aG*œ„‚’G*Kf¡- " ™G3KM4f„¼*¢Hj<§¡kHj<§žÀ *{J·Kœ„‚’G**{JÑ1j0K|†¼*mfEf„€¼*¢ž„9 ¢H£fF«kG*M4f„¼*ŸJ&*¨›<$§„­G*‡ª›„€-¶2aŒG* f¤¡ª+ j¡k„€gG*—f„€H·+*|G*L§k„€¼*jg›:M4f„H E*§¼*–ª„€¡-K oGfnG*L§k„€¼*jg›†G¬4f±~F|HŸªž„‚-ŽK}H   Ÿªž„‚-Ÿ„6|H—f„€H¢ž„9 ¢Hjª¡˜„€G*mѪ’G*M4f„H¢Hj<§¡kHj<§žÀ e2fgH—f„€H¢ž„9ÉfnG*L§k„€¼*jg›:Ÿªž„‚¬4fžŒ¼*Ÿªž„‚kG* "M4f„¼*¦{J¨›<,|‰IŸ˜ªG(*K

j•Mat›G fŒG*‡•„€H

j•Ma0ŽK}H «gJ{G*d:f„G* uªg„8fIfM25*~•G*f¡M22*a<(* «<ÌG*4fJ5&*,24K§+&*$Ѫ„€I  f<4§‰¡H

 f<4§‰¡H

 f<4§‰¡H

j•Mat›G fŒG*‡•„€H

|ž„6ª+4ÉfH&*jª¡„€0jM2fI2*a<(* i|<5ÕH|Iœª<fž„6* ŽK}¼*Ÿ„€À

Al Omran 5th Issue | 40

Al Omran 5th Issue | 41

·j•Ma0ŽK}H uD4j‰DfÁ


oGfnG*L§k„€»*jg›:M4f„H

ÈfnG*L§k„€»*jg›:M4f„H

jª¡˜„6ѪDŽK}H

Ÿªž„‚-ŽK}H ¬4f±~F|H

™ª˜„6aÀ&*hGf†G*2*a<(*

~gž•G*§+&* Ñ„6jgGf†G*2*a<(*

«„94&¸*–+f†G*‡•„€H

«„94&¸*–+f†G*‡•„€H

ŽK}¼*Ÿ„€À

¬4§‰¡H…k˜„6*

jª¡˜„6ѪDŽK}H

Ÿªž„‚-ŽK}H ¬4f±~F|H

œª›1xª„G*£fÊ(*jgGf†G*2*a<(*

*|’G*¬Ì„8ažÁhGf†G*2*a<(*

«„94&¸*–+f†G*‡•„€H

ŽK}¼*Ÿ„€À

«„94&¸*–+f†G*‡•„€H

DESIGN STUDIO 2

DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Ÿªž„‚-Ÿ„6|H

Ÿªž„‚kG*e2fgH

ŽK}¼*Ÿ„€À

jª¡˜„6ѪDŽK}H

Al Omran 5th Issue | 43

jª„€ª)|G*j¤/*§G*

Ѥ„7§+&*~kŒHhGf†G*2*a<(*

¬4§‰¡H…k˜„6*

jªE}G*jª+§¡¹*j¤/*§G*

«„94&¸*–+f†G*‡•„€H

ŽK}¼*Ÿ„€À

Al Omran 5th Issue | 42

Ÿªž„‚-ŽK}H ¬4f±~F|H

¬aGf»*f„74jgGf†G*2*a<(*


Al Omran 5th Issue | 44

Al Omran 5th Issue | 45


Article the Art of curving the precious Metals

—§E|+jŒ›E

Al Omran 5th Issue | 47

PHOTOGRAHY: ISMAIL ABU ELKAS

jª.*ÍG*mfHЌG*ŸJ&*¢H …€I§ªIf1j¡Ma»

£f„€I(¸*f¤„7f<«kG*jM|.&¸*¢FfH&¸*¥G§0K&*¥¡ž„9 f¤GjŒ+fkG*–:f¡¼*K…€I§M£f1j0f„€H›g-KNfÊaE …­ª+&¸*|tgG*i|G*¢HfJatMKÈK2 A

¢HKuD4j¡MaHi§¡¹*¢HKjª›H|G*f¤IfgnFK‡„6§k¼* ¬4fw’G*j•†¡HKj<*~1K£f„€g<KѪ¤„6«¡+—}G* u›gG*|M2j•†¡HKf•›„€G*¬2*Kfž„G*¢HK «JK £f1 ¾K&¸*£fkž›F¢H£§˜k-…€I§M£f1 ¾(*jg„€I …€I§M jªIfnG*K—§„€G*¨¡Œ¯jª„64fDjž›F ¬{G*™ªGfž¼*¢H4*2K*aG* ¬5K4§¡G*…€I§M ÔH&¸* «’;§H4fgF¢H§JK —§E|+ ÔH&¸*m*4f„‚kI*…Mf< £f†›„€G*¢Hœ)f„6|G*ª›gk+ §•M£&*¥-fg/*KK$f„I(¸* £*§MaG*¢H4a„‚MfHœF¨›<ŽÑ:¸*K¥ªG(*K  4*2 Kjª+|ŒG* ,*K2 jž›F¢H“G&fk-4*2K*aG*K «JK ,*KaG*™„€Ã ug„‚kD™„€ž¼*¨¡Œ¯jª„64f’G* ÌkŒ-K£f†›„€›G…8f»*Ô-|˜„€G*j’ª;K2fŒ-j’ª;K ,Ԇ»*“)f;§G*¢H

if¤„7£fžª›„62fM5  jM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€•+}9fÁ

¥¡H,a0KœFœnµ«kG*,~=Žf†EL|EK£a¼}‚H ,4f„­0f¤ª›<…€˜Œ¡-«kG*,%*|¼*«J,4fžŒG* " fI}‚<¨k0K a•G*{¡Hf¤ª›<lgEfŒ-m*4f„­0xM4f“›kÂj„6*4a+¿fkGf+K"Ÿ¤Ha•-KŸ¤ªE4Ki§Œ„G* Žf†•G*£aHLa0(*«J…€I§M£f1j¡MaHK¿fº* aMa³ª†k„€Ij’›kw¼*4§„‚ŒG*4*aH¨›<m*4f„­º* j•M|ŒG*KL̘G* “›k· a•kG*LaHK«ž›ŒG*K·f•nG*L§k„€¼* i§¡/ÎH§›ªF  aŒ+¨›<…€I§ªIf1•“„k„€IÄ&¸*¦{JÉfgHœª›tk+K,fªº*hI*§/ jM}‚¼*2Kaº*¢HÎH§›ªF  aŒg-K,~=j¡MaH «J,4fžŒG*£&*fžFԞŒkG*K$f¡gG*fÀ·4§†kG* 5fkµK|tgG*u†„6¢<N*ÎH  fJ~F|H§›ŒMK Nftªt„8œ‰ªDŽawM¸Ki{˜M¸¬{G*xM4fkG* ,4f„­º*KjªIa¼*4K{/œnÊK¦}8f¡<K¥Áѯ «¡ª†„€›’G*«›0f„€G*œ¤„€G*·jg„‚»*…94&¸*$f•kG(f+ lHKfE«kG*jÂf„G*vK}‚G*K4f.%¸*·™G3…€ž›IK $f¡ª„6$*|t„8KNfE}7h•¡G*·jMK*|t„‚G*mfcªgG*H ¢HœFÕ+jM4fqkG*œD*§•›GN*}€/ÌkŒ-KNf+§¡/ ”K|;KmfMa³¢Hl<f†k„6*fH …€˜ŒGf+K}‚HÕ+Ki|ŒG*,|M~/K—*|ŒG*K f„G* f¤Gfž„7¨„‚E&*¢HՆ„€›DL|EK£aHÕ+œ•¡kGf+K ¢ž„9$f/f¤ŒE§H£&*KfžFNf„­M&*jª+|º*m*K~›GK œF£&*aÅf¤+|=¾(*f¤E}7¨„‚E&*¢HKf¤+§¡/¾(* j¡MaH·§qŒG*œ-¢Hakʬ{G*É*|žŒG*o›n¼* ¥wM4f-–g<¥ªDŸ„IK¥-fM|F3«˜tMf¤ªD•M$~/ —}G*¾(*ÎH§›ªF  aŒgM¬{G*j<4f’G*œ-K,~= 4f‰I&¸*‡Á a•G*{¡HKNfž)*2f¤›Œ/Ն„€›DE§žD ¥-a<fEakµo›nH…6&*|+¥g„7&*œkG**{JK…€I§ªIf1¢H ¾fŒ-K¥Iftg„6Ù*f¤„6aEK,4fqkG*—|†+lž˜³a•D N jª0fI¢Hjª+|G*jª+§¡¹*j+*§gG*«JK¥)fªgI&*K¥-¸f„6|+ •-o›n¼**{JKNf+§¡/uD4¨k0K¸fž„7,~=¢H

¨›<lt¡G*¢D j¡ªžnG*£2fŒ¼* ¬ak¤¼*£*K|HŸªJ*|+(* 

fžJ*a0(¸¢˜Ê¸£fkž›F¢’G*K,4fžŒG* O œ˜DL|1& ¸*¢<f„‚’I¸* §tIԄ€MŽfŒ„7fž¤¡H O fž¹*–ªC•³ …ªCŒM£&*¬4fžŒž›G¢˜ÊR ¸j•ª.§G*jEьG*¦{CJ¢H ¬{G*…8f»*¥¼f<K¥0K4$*{C=§¤D¢’G*¢<N*aªCŒ+ ¢’›GK¥-*3K¥„‚w„G,%*|HK¥-fg=|GNf<fg„7(*¥ªCDL|M O |t+§¤Df¤G}‚0¸,ÔCnCFm¸fÀK,2aŒkH f˜„7& * O j’›kCw¼*”|º*Kmf<f¡„‚G*¢HaMaCŒG*Ÿ„­M„6*K O sfktM—*4P¢CD¨›<$§„­G*‡›„€CI£& R *aCM|If¡J¢H ¨›<,4aC•G*·œnžkM~ªC RÃŽ*a+(*Kj„8f1m*4aE¾( * P ¢D§JK¸&*a0*KP£%*·–ªCEaG*{ª’¡CkG*KŸªž„‚kG* hJ{GfFj¡ªžnG*£2fŒ¼*¨›<¬KaªG*|’º*Klt¡G* j„­’G*K…‚Gf»* ·œCnžkC-«kG*K f»*,2f¼*~ªC¤qk+&*agC-j›04  P£|D·jªGf<,4*|0mf/4aG¥„­M|Œk+£aCŒ¼*|¤„8 j„8f1jFfž„€+NfªG§:Nf†M}7ug„‚kGf¤gt„6Ÿ.¢HK…8f1 &*ag-¦~ªC¤±K£aŒ¼*2*a<(*aŒ+KœžŒG*$agG,~Jf/K jŒªCg:f¤g›†kC-,2aŒkCHR ÔCMfŒHh„€0Ÿªž„‚kG*jª›ž< Ž§If¤ž˜tMKÕCkHrk¡¯sK|w›Gj¤/¢H£aŒ¼* L|1&*j¤/¢HŸªž„‚kG*· awk„€¼*5*|†G* ”K|0K$fž„6&*ÕC+fHmfqk¡¼*ŸªHf„‚-Ž§¡CkC-K j’›kC RÂjMaCM|±L|1&*Kjª„6a¡Jf˜„7&*Km*4fŒ„7K &*ag-Ÿªž„‚kG*jª›ž<·gkC-,ÔnCFhªGf„6& *šf¡J R jª„6a¡¤G*”4f1~G* *awk„6f+j›nžk¼*jªCE}G*hªGf„6&¸f+ ¥Gf˜„7&f+«+|ŒG*‡»*”4f15KjM§„­ŒG*”4f1~G*K «kG*jnMaº*mf„€ž›G*Kˆ§†»*…­Œ+H¢˜GKj’›kw¼* jC›nžk¼*jnMaº*hªGf„6&¸f+«¤kC¡-K}‚ŒG*vK4f¤ª†Œ*{JœF4§†k¼*fI}9f0Hjg„6f¡Ck¼*jcM|¹*ˆ§†»f+ $f†<(*·ÌCF&¸*4KaG*hŒ›-«kG*h„€¡G*,f<*|HH«-&fM N ÕCŒ›GNftM|HѪž/N f¡M§˜-œC˜„G* Ÿ)*aG*aCMaCqkG*£&*§CE&*£&*¸(*«¡Œ„€M¸N*ÔC1&* ¥ªG(*už:&*fH§J¢’G*¢HŽ§¡G**{¤G|žk„€¼*4§†kG*K ¥GjMf¤I¸|CH& O *œž/&¸*¾(*§„8§G*£&¸Nfž)*2

Al Omran 5th Issue | 46

Heritage Barqouq Castle


Օ+f:¢H£§˜kªDjª„€ª)|G*j+*§gG*4f„€M¢<•MK f¤„9|<K4fkH&*  f¤G§:j›ª†k„€HjD|=«„94&¸* NfHa¤H£§˜M2f˜M¬{G*¬§›ŒG*–+f†G*K4fkH&* 

N É*§†„6*$~/¨›<§žÁ§gE¢<,4fg<¥’•„6ÑHfF ,a<fE¨›<jHf•HK,2§•ŒHjž•+«¤k¡-«kG*jI{c¼*fH&*K f˜„7&*K”4f15¥+Éfž.¢H£§˜H$f¡+fJ§›ŒMjŒ+|H ¨¡„€º*Ù*$fž„6&*¢H2a<f¤ª›<…•IjªHf14|)*K2K «¤Dœ1*aG*·”|G*KjEK4&ÑGjg„€¡Gf+fH&*K —*K4K~ª›J2f¤HfH&*K4§„€›Gj•„8ÑHK,4KfqkH jŒ›•G*Kjg+aH2§•Œ+¥ª›<uk’MK¢t„‚G*§0“k›M £5fwž›Gf¤¡H«›’„€G*…‚„‚wMՕ+f:¢HjI§˜H ¨›<œž„ªD¬§›ŒG*–+f†G*fH&*KmÑg†„6¸*K ¬§ktMKsfqº*K¢M|Df„€¼*K$¸~¡G*lªg¼m*|q0 ¬Kfž„€G*$f¡’G*jŒ›•G*‡„6§kMK$*|Œ„›G£*§M2¨›< «FÎG*}‚ŒG*·œk„6*K,4§DfIK¦fªž›G|c+¥+a/§MK jM|˜„€ŒG*jªHfº*2*|D&*jHfE(¸”|=$f„I(¸ «kG*mf+fk˜G*K…7§•¡G*¢HÔnFšf¡J£&*|F{M Ÿª•G*m|¤;&*«kG*K$f¡gG*·j’›k¢FfH&*·ma/K jHfE(¸*xM4f-m2a0«kG*mf+fk˜G*Kj›ªž¹*jª¡’G* ¾(*m~H4«kG*m*4fŒ„G*Kf¤ªDlHfE«kG*2§¤ŒG*K ™›¼*¦{w-(*¬{G*2§„6&¸*…•If¤¡HK4§„‚ŒG*¦{J «+fkF…‚Ij+*§gG*¨›<&*a/§MK¥GN*4fŒ„7…6̪+|Jf‰G* j„€ž1¢H£§˜kM f1|G*¢Hj0§G¨›<…7§•¡H ,$*|•G*hŒ„8…‚¡G**{JK¢Ma„6&¸*…•IÕ+4§†„6 ¥ª›<j+|-&¸*ŸF*|-KœF%f-K¢’Œ-¢H¥+f„8&*fHhg„€+ Ÿ„€+ f¤ªD$f/j+*§gG*«gIf/¨›<mf+fkFa/§-KfžF Ù*K$f„M¢H¥ª-'§MÙ*œ„­D™G3Ÿª0|G*¢ž0|G*Ù* fIaª„6 fM&*·£f»**{J$«„I&*Ÿª‰ŒG*œ„­’G*K3 §+&*¢MaG*KfªIaG*“ª„6|Jf‰G*™›¼*£f†›„€G*fI¸§HK

,|Hf<fÁ£f»*§0m|¤;*{˜JKifg„6&¸*¢H jM|E¥g„7—§D¾(*l•-4*Ÿ.,|J*5jM|Em4f„8Ÿ. j¡MaHj/42¾(*N*Ô1&*K mfIf»*¢<“›kwMaMa/‡ž¡+$f/£f»*‡ª†wm*3¥žªž„‚-·j¡ª„‚º*jŒ›•G*¥g„M§¤DL|1&¸* £f1jŒ›ENf•0¸lªž„6™G{Gs*|+&¸*KjªGfŒG*4*§„6&¸* m$f/KÈK2  §tIjŒ›•G*j0f„€Hl›+…€I§M Ÿª<a-¶KÎH A ¥Œ›„9§:+|Hœ˜„7¨›<  Ka¤H¥g„7fªGf0£f»*„9KKjM|)*aG*s*|+&¸f+¦fM*K5 j+*§gG*¨›<¬§ktM¬{G*K¥¡H«HfH&¸*Ÿ„€•G**a< «kG*jI{c¼*Kaq„€¼*K«„€ª)|G*œ1a¼*œnµ«kG*jªHfH&¸* s|+jª•+K«+|G*hIf¹*·jªHfH&¸*j¤/*§G*·•¿f<4§„6£f»f+‡ªtMKjª+|G*jª+§¡¹*jMK*~G*·   ¾(*¥<f’-4(*œ„‚Mjª<fD2œ)f„6§+~¤À™ªž„6 ¢<,4fg<«JK  f¤„€G*œ=*~H mftkD¥+K4fkH&* ‡„6§kMK£§ŒD*aHf¤’›1‡+*|Mj•ª„9j›M§:mftkD j+*§+¢<,4fg<§JK«„€ª)|G*œ1a¼*jª+|G*j¤/*§G* lM~G*h˜„€Gj›ª†k„€HjtkD¥+a•Œ+¨›<&*¢H«¤k¡xM4f-œžtM«+fkF…•I¦Ñ<&*K¢MakŒ¼*¨›<«›¼* jŒ›•›G«„6f„6&¸*$~¹*ÌkŒM¬{G*aq„€¼*fH&*K$f¡gG*

£a¼*œ1*2f¤„­Œ+KœD*§•G*—|:¨›<f¤„­Œ+ŸªE&*K …9f•I&*¨›<lHfE…€I§M£f1j¡MaH£&*|F{MK “G&fkM«Hф6(¸*«+|ŒG*£fw›GÉ*|žŒG*‡ª†wkG*K /*|¼*…­Œ+K …€„€¡M Ÿ„6(f+lD|<jÊaEj¡MaH N mf<2§k„€HK,ÔgF$fHjF|+¥†„6§k-„6*K¢t„8¢H jª¡ª-ÑG*jž›˜G*¢<ѕI …€„€¡/ & f†1f¤kgkF )f„­gG*Ž*aM(¸$f¡’G*¨›<j0§k’HlªI*§0K£5fÂK ¬”|0jª+|ŒGf+¥›+f•MJ”|0£&¸ JENYSUS

œžk„MKfžFjHfE(ÑG¢˜„€G*”|=fª›ŒG*–+*§†G*·K œ„64&*Õ0jŒ›•Gf+…€I§M£f1j¡MaHl†g-4* j„6*|t›GKi*Ka›Gœg†„6(*œnHjHaw›G¢FfH&*¨›< jŒ›•G*$f„I(¸…€I§MÔH&¸*—§E|+«F§›ž¼*£f†›„€G* œ1*aHKj›ªž¹*”4f1~Gf+j¡M~¼*f¤k¤/*§+m|¤k„7*K §JfžF¬2ѪH  –D*§¼*¬|qJ   f< ,~=j¡MaH·lM~G*£f1f¤k›nH&*¢Hjžw„9,2§•ŒH §JK—§E|+jŒ›Elªž„6KjŒ›•G*j+*§+¨›<Nft„9§H ¬{G*Kjª+§¡¹*jª0f¡G*¢HÔg˜G*¬|žŒG*Hf¹*œ+f•H jŒ›•G*s*|+&**§¡˜„6¢M{G*}‚H·j„€F*|¹*š§›HK&* ͛G*£f1K¢M}ŒG*£|•G*¢Hmf¡ªk„€G*·¥HaJ¶ NfH5f0£fFj¡„6  |žŒG*¢H…7f<jª/ÌGf+*§D|<K fJÔ=K£*K*|†•G*£f1K,ÔgG*£f1K j„64aHK4§„€¹*K—|†G*&f„I&*Ÿ›ŒG*KÔ»*œJ&¸NfgÁ j¡Ma¼*~F|HÌkŒM…€I§M£f1j¡MaH·£f»*K fJÔ=K¢M}‚•G* £f»*¾(*jg„€Ij¡Ma¼*jªž„€-¶KjªI*|žŒG*f¤-*§IK jªwM4f-p*a0&*…€I§M£f1j¡MaH¨›<lg›•…€I§M fE&* " Ն„€›DfI2Ñ+ ¥+fkF·‘f+aG*|F3K  f•HœnHjM|.&¸*½fŒ¼*…­Œ+Ÿ„­-KfžF,2aŒkH jŒ›Eœ˜„7·jM|qJ   f<£f»**{J4*2K*aG* ,Ôg˜G*£f„€g<jM|Ea¡< Ñ„€G*¥ª›<œª›»*ŸªJ*|+(* jž)fEf¤/*|+&*…­Œ+*~M¸K"£fF4&¸*j¡ªkHj¡ª„‚0 ,2§ž0xª„G*—§„6K ¥I§ž„€MK –£f»**{J£f˜D|Jf;f¤0K}8…­Œ+K ¾(*jDf„9(¸f+jªžJ&*…€I§M£f1j¡MaH·£fw›G N*3ÑHKj›+f„€›Gj0*4j+fn¯ltg„8&*Ÿ.jŒ›•G* §ªG* NfHfJN*4K2lgŒG«kG*Ն„€›D·,2aŒk¼*mfIf»* ¢M{G*–)Ñ»*¥ªDlŒžk/*¨k0ogGfHK4fqk›G 2fg-Kmf•’„‚G*a•ŒG—*§„6&*KjM4f±mf†ÁK~F*|žF hg„6¬&f+f¤¡H£Kaª’k„€MK&*œD*§•G*jHaw+£§H§•M 4fqkG*K¢M|Df„€¼*j0*΄6(¸¢FfH&*f¤I&*KfžF›„€G*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 48

Al Omran 5th Issue | 49

PHOTOGRAHY: ISMAIL ABU ELKAS

 ¥IfF4&*mfºf„‚Gf+a„7K¥If†›„6Ù*a›1—§E|+aªŒ„6 “M}G*~Œ¼*¥’EK&* j+fk˜G*·$f/…•¡G**{Jœ’„6&*K |¤;·}G*¬Ô’„€G*«žª<~G*¬ÔH&¸*¬§G§¼*¿fŒG* ÔH&*ÕFf„€¼*K$*|•’G*ht+”K|Œ¼*Õ:ф€G*Kš§›¼* ™›¼*£f†›„€G*fI¸§H4*2K*aG*¬5K4§¡G*…€I§MÕ¡H'§¼*  ¦$*~/“<f„9K¦}‚IK¾fŒ-Ù*¦~<&*¬|Jf‰G* «gIf/¨›<,4§F{¼*jª+fk˜G*…7§•¡G*—§D|¤; ¢<,4fg<‡„6K&¸*m*4fŒ„7pÑ.jª„€ª)|G*j+*§gG* £f†›„€G*fI¸§H~<—§E|+ ¥›1*2hkF¬Kf„­ª+œ˜„7 *{J«gIf/¨›<£*4fŒ„G*fH&*K ¦}‚I~<|Jf‰G*™›¼* jMK*aG*4fŒ„7f¤+Õ-|)*2¢<,4fg<œ˜„G* ifª=K a¤-¢H£f»*¥ªG(*œ„8K¬{G*fº*Ÿ=4 œFf„¼*K“›kG*¢H¥ªG(*i}€-fHf„­M&*K,ÔnF$*~/&¸ ,a<mf„6*42œž<¶a•Djª•gk¼*$*~/&¸*f¤ªIfŒ-«kG* ¦{J…‚ªw„-¶KŸª‰ŒG*v}‚G*¨›<‹f’º*œ/&*¢H «kG*K$f¡gG**{J¢H¨•g-f¼lE|†-«kG*…9*|H&¸* $*~/&¸*¥¡HlIf<¬{G* fŒG*fžJ(¸*¾(*/|MfHf¤¡H £fª¡gG*4fq0&*‡Ef„€-¾(*/|MfHf¤¡HKjª•gk¼* §ž¡-«kG*mf-fg¡G*K¥I*4a/·,|Jf‰G*—§•„G*K ifg„6&*šf¡JK¥˜„6fµ,§E¢H“Œ„­-K¦4*§„6&*¨›< —|†›GjªktkG*jª¡gG*Kj†ªt¼*jcªgG*KE§¼f+jEÑ<f¤G Ÿ.¢HK$f¡gG**{J“ª;§-KÑk„6(*$§„6Kmф8*§¼*K ¥ª›<‹f’º*KŸªHΛG‡†»*KsьG*—|:„9K ¦4K{q+i}­M¬|.&¸*Ÿ›Œ¼**{J¨•gM¥›F*{JH ¦{¤G¬4fžŒ¼*pK4§¼*œ‰MKxM4fkG*—fž<&*· ¥-fg.K¦2§ž„8¨›<,aJf„G*¦4*§„6&f+Kj•M|ŒG*j¡Ma¼* ¢H~G*if•0&*¢Hjžª‰<jg•t+¥„94&*‡+|MK

PHOTOGRAHY: ISMAIL ABU ELKAS

Heritage Barqouq Castle


Heritage Historical Buildings Damage Cuases

£*Ô¡G*l-&*aEK¨„‚E&¸*aq„€¼*–M|0 vф8Ì¡HK£*4a¹*K“•„€G*¨›< «g„»*¢MaG*

|0$fH,4§„8·j„‚kž¼*j+§:|G*K hqM™G{GKf¤†„¡-KvÑH&¸*hM{$f¡gG*2*§H¢HvÑH&¸*…8Ñwk„6* ¢HjªGf»*jM|qº*œk˜G*£(fD™G{FK …8f„‚kH¸f¤kª›+fENfgM|•- aŒ¡-vÑH&¸* jŒg„¼*$f¡gG*2*§H£&*u„9*§G*Kj+§:|G* ¢Hj+§:4…‚kµvÑH&¸*¢Hj’›kÂŽ*§I&f+ |0$fHjcªJ¨›<‡ªt¼*§¹*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 51

/*|¼* ag<2jªwM4fkG*KjM|.&¸*Éfg¼*jIfª„8KŸªH|ÕJf„7~Œ¼* f¤ª›<‹f’º*Kf¤kIfª„8Kf¤žªH|-jM|.&¸*Éfg¼* ,4§+2s4§/ K£*|ž<4*~J  jª†<až0&*2¬|.&¸*p*ÎG*jIfª„8KjMfž0 ·f’˜G*aªžº*ag< K

m*aªg¼f+j+f„‚¼*$*~/&¸*K&*£*4a¹* jª)fªžª˜G* «)fªžªF§M~ª’G*“›kG*4f†1&*¢HjIfª„‚G*fnGf. mfgg„€H|†1&*¢H«JKj+§:|G* fJ42f„‚HÌkŒ-«kG*K4f.%¸*¨›<4*}9&¸* jªt„‚G*m*aMažkG*u„74KhM|¤- 4f†H&¸*¢<²fIu„74 jªD§¹*¦fª¼*¢<²fIu„74 “.f˜kG*¢<j±f¡G*j+§:|G* f¤k¹fŒHœ)f„6K¢HK $*§¤›GaMa±œž<f¤DaJKjM§¤kG* j+§:|G*“n˜-¡µ,4§„‚+ $*§k0*jGf0·f¤H*awk„6*¡ÊKjcDakG* |.&fk-jªD|15K&*jM4fžŒH}8f¡<¨›<¨¡g¼* jM4*a¹*4§„‚G*Kif„1&¸fFf¤+Nfg›„6 vÑH&¸*…8Ñwk„6* vÑH&¸*Õ+jF΄HjEÑ<šf¡J j+§:|G*…‚kµvÑH&¸fDj+§:|G*K

lª+·a•<,4fq0‡„6§k-jªg„ŒG*mf-fg¡G* ,~=¬|.&¸*¬K*|’Œ¹*

$§„­Gf+¨¡g¼*|ž=¨›<œžŒG* —§•„G*KyK}G*Km*§q’G*a„6 f¤GNfŒq¤HmfI*§ªº*fJ{wk-aE«kG* ,|w+&f+,$§+§¼*¢FfH&¸*Ôwg- lM̘G* £*|c’G*jGf0·Kjž)*aG*jDf‰¡G* j„6*42aŒ+jª)fªžª˜G*m*aªg¼* *awk„6* aEK$f¡gG*2*§H¨›<«)fªžª˜G*fJÔ.&f«gIf¹*Ô.&fkG*¢HfJ§›»a)f„‚¼*œžŒk„€…­ª+&¸*œž¡G* yK}G*K—§•„G*K¥-*|žŒk„€H…74 m*aªg¼f+ f¤c›HK£*4a¹*§0—f’I&*|’0 m*aªg¼f+ ,$§+§¼*¢FfH&¸*Ôwg- if„‚¼*$~¹*K&*if„1&¸*…74 Ô.&fkG*j„6*42aŒ+,aªg¼*œªGft¼f+f¤¡H «)fªžª˜G* ¬ÌG*œt¡G* ·œt¡G*,24f†HK…7f„<&¸*jG*5(* mftk’G*a„6K¨¡gž›G,4Kfq¼*¢Ff„€¼* ¥G§12¡µ4f†E&f+«˜g„7™›„€+ j•ªEaG*mf¡)f˜G* ·,|žk„€¼*m*ԏkG*¬2f’-«g¡M œ’„6&*…74™G{FKjªg„€¡G*j+§:|G*

՘Gf¼*¢HažŒk¼* a¤G* §ª„€G*K4f†H&¸* §ª„€G*K|†¼*¦fªH”}8j˜g„7$f„I(* |t¡-K£*4a¹*§0žqk-¸¨k0 f¤›’„6&* ˆf•IjG*5(*K¨¡g¼*jHKf•H,2fM5 m*§q’G*K—§•„G*·j›nžk¼*“Œ„­G* |.&fk-¸jM§EjI§¯œ„8*§’G*œªt˜- $f¡gG*2*§Hh„€0fJ4fªk1*ŸkM¦fª¼f+ j›žŒk„€¼*,4fqº*Ž§IK jG5f<j•g†+“•„6&¸*mf:Ñ+jª†- “M}‚kG*£fž„­GhM4*~¼f+fJaMK~-K |†¼*¦fª¼M}€G* –<*§„‚G*K5¸~G* jŒ’-|¼*–:f¡¼*·f¤-4§†1¢ž˜|†»**{J¢H“ª’wkG*ŸkM™G{GK –<*§„8mfŒIf¯fJaMK~k+ «/§G§ªgG*“›kG*4f†1&*¢HjIfª„‚G*fªIf. §ž¡-mf-fg¡G*£&*”K|Œ¼*¢Hmf-fg¡G* jGf0ŸJ&*aŒ-™G{Gœ„8*§’G*·fJ4K{+ jg„6f¡HjI§¯f¤›ªt˜-KfJa„6«JjIfª„8 ¥I&¸K&f+K&*mf-fg¡G*j¹fŒH™G{F h-Î-Kj¹fŒ¼*hŒ„‚-fJ|ž<2fM25f+ ¨¡g¼*¨›<,4§†1ÐF&*N*4f.%* mfI*§ªº*

jM|.&¸*Éfg¼*jIfª„‚Gjg„€¡Gf+fH&*K ¿fkGfFf¤žª„€•-¢˜žªDjªwM4fkG*K «˜ªIf˜ª¼*“›kG*4f†1&*¢HjIfª„‚G* N¸K&* “„8*§ŒG*KvfM|G* m*{Gf+Éfg¼*§0¢HfH|G*jG*5(* jMK*|t„‚G*jcªgG*· jF|tk¼*fH|›Gm*a„‚HjHfE(* –M|:¢<Éfg¼*§0¢Hj+ÎG*lªgn- jª<f¡„‚G*¢)*a›Gf+f¤„74 a„‚GÉfgž›Gjž1fk¼*–:f¡¼*Ôq„- fH|Gf+j›žt¼*“„8*§ŒG*KvfM|G* ¬}gG*”Ñ-(¸* ¢Ha³«kG*mfŒM}kG*KÕI*§•G*¢„6 jª<§kG*}I™G{FKÕ¡:*§¼*mfMaŒjM|.&¸*½fŒ¼*¨›<‹f’º*jªžJ&f+ 4f¡G* *awk„6fF–M|º*mfgg„€H2fŒ+(* ™G{FKfŒk„7¸*j›¤„62*§¼*Ž*aM(*K&* 4f¡G*¨›<,ažkŒ¼*mf<f¡„‚G* fªE¡H œ)f„6§+Éfg¼*aMK~-KjgM|E¢FfH&*· 4*{I(¸* hM|wkG*K a¤G* «kG*ÕI*§•G*¢HŸJ&*§JfH„9K«g¡M j†1„9K§JKhM|wkG*K a¤G* |± Ÿ.¢HK–ª.§kG*KŠ’t›Gj›Hf„7jª¡:K ¢HjM|.&¸*E*§¼*KÉfg¼*œ•IKŸªHÎG* jHfŒG*mfª˜›¼*¾(*j„8f»*mfª˜›¼* “ª’wkGKjªDf•nG*jª˜›¼*jªH§ž<–ª•tkG

|.&¸f+ …€„6&*¨›<Ÿ•M½¬{G*d:f»*ŸªHÎG* jtªt„8jªq¤¡HKjªž›< jM§ElIfF$*§„6§ª„€G*K4f†H&¸* NfE¸~I*pa³K&*¨¡g¼*¢H$N *~/&*”|qkD K&*«)f„I(¸*¥-fg.“Œ„­MfÃj+ÎG*· jª¡+“Œ„­-KjI§¼*œM~kDj’ª’1lIfF ,4fqº* ¨¡g¼* a¤k+hg„€k-aE«kG*K5¸~G* ,~¤G*K&**~G~G*j/42h„€0¥›Hf˜+ jª„94&¸* ·jŒE*§G*Éfg¼*ÌkŒ-–<*§„‚G* f¤Gj„9|<a„7&*jª›g¹*KjŒ’-|¼*–:f¡¼* ¥gª„‚-¬{G*$~¹* *a¤I*·hg„€k-«JK ¨¡g¼*·–)*|0pa³K¦}7fgHj+f„8(* ¬|.&¸* §¹*p§›-Kj†ªt¼*m*5fG* Éf.5fFjM§¹*m*5fG*|.'§-oª0 aM4§›FKÕq„€F&¸*K£§+|˜G*aª„€F&*  2*§<K$f¼*4fw+KÕ/K4aª¤G*aªkMÌFK |.'§M«/4f»*§¹fDjg›„‚G*mfF|t¼* 4§†kG*m*3£a¼*·§JK4f.%¸*¨›< N*Ô.&f-ÐF&*«<f¡„‚G* $*§¤G*œžtMoª0|tgG*3*34 Ÿ.j¡Ma¼*œ1*2¾(*|tgG*3*34h:|G* m*4§›+¢H,ԏ„8–)fE2h„6ÎkD“qM •+£§˜k-K,4fqº*u†„6¨›<vÑH&¸* hGft†G*KmfM|†’G*f¤ª›<§ž¡-jg:4 |qº*mf•g†Gi}€kMKu›¼*iK{MK&* u†„€G*lk’ªD «)fªžªF§M~ª’G*“›kG*œH*§<fªIf. ,4*|º*mf/42·Ôg˜G*mKf’kG* ¾(*¬2'§M¬{G*K jI§˜¼*mfgªgº*Õ+‡+*ÎG*4fª¤I* f¤›HfŒ-”Ñk1*jqªkIjª/4f»*j•g†›G ¬4*|º* jª/4f»*mf•g†G*Õ+‡+*ÎG*4fª¤I* f¤Gf„‚’I*Kf¤ª›-«kG*jª›1*aG*K Õ+K‡)*§º*ˆÑHÕ+‡+*ÎG*4fª¤I* ,4*|0¥I*~k1*jqªkI£*4a¹*u†„6&* jªGf< jª/4f»*mf•g†G*}•-K–•„- u†„6&ÑG u„7|G*¦fªHi§„€¡H·i{+{kG* „¡G*K mf„6f„6&¸*§0¦fª¼*¦{Jžqk-fHa¡< jM|Œ„G*jª„8f»f+£*4a¹*·’-|2*§¼*™k¤-K“Œ„9¾(*¬2'§M¬{G*|H&¸* mfI§¼*KjM|qº*œk˜G*mfgªgºj†+*|G* j+|-·,ÔgFmfªž˜+lŒž±*3(*K HKf¤k›w›1¾(*¬2'§-mf„6f„6&*¢„­k³ 4f¤¡-¢H~G* j+§:|G*m¸aŒH·,Ôg˜G*m*ԏkG*

jª„€ª)|G*œH*§ŒG* jM|.&·*Èfg»*“›kGjgg„€»* ¬KfŒ›gG*2§žÁ  p*ÎG*,4fž<~F|H

œH*§ŒG*Õ+—|’I£&*f¡Ga+¸jM*agG*· “›kG*Õ+KjM|.&¸*Éfg¼*“›kGmfgg„€¼*K |qt›Gjª/4f»*,}•G*œF%fkD¥„€’I N ¥-fcM~/Õ+™„6fžkG*jª¡+“Œ„9K&*ÑnH ¬|.&¸*¨¡g¼*}8f¡<hª„‚-N*4*}9&*ÌkŒpa0f¼fJ¸§Gmfgg„€Hšf¡J¢˜GK ·…9|Œk¡„6*{G“›kG*K4}­G**{J Éfg¼*“›kGjª„€ª)|G*œH*§Œ›Gf•¼**{J jM|.&¸* «˜ªIf˜ª¼*“›kG*œH*§<¸K&* “„8*§ŒG*KvfM|G* ¾(*Ž|’kM¬{G*K¬}gG*”Ñ-(¸* œF¨›<«-&fMԆ1œHf<«JK–)*|º* fŒk„7ÑGj›+f•G*2*§¼* ,|HaH4f.%*¢Hf¤GfHKiK|º* f¤+ §•M«kG*hM|wkG*K a¤G*fž<&* j†ªt¼*jcªgG*|M§†kGmf†›„€G*K&*…6f¡G*

¨¡g¯jªk¡ž„6&¸*jI§¼*fžŒk„6f+d:f»*ŸªHÎG* s4aG* –,~= –jMaž0&¸*jMK*~G*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 50

jªg„€¡G* f¤›ž0KvÑH&¸*j+*3(*¾(*¬2'§MŽf’-4¸* ·4§›gk-oª0jD§„˜¼*u†„6&¸*¾(* f¤kk’-¾(*¬2'§MfÃjª/4f»*mf•g†G* 4§›g-K|J~-¾(*¬2'§M…9f’wI¸*fž¡ª+ fÃvÑH&¸* mf•g:Kj†+*|G*2*§¼*lk’-¾(*¬2'§M v§†„€G* «/§G§ªgG*“›kG*fH*§<fnGf. œžŒ-Nf„9fž0&*5|’-«kG*Kmf-fg¡G* |¤‰-Kmf„6f„6&¸*·4fq0&¸*œF%f-¨›< ,|Jf‰G*,4fqº*·¦§„N …­ª³fHa¡<ÑnHˆ*§:§G* mfI*§ªº* ™G{FKj¡F*2jª¡+•g+£*4a¹*¦§„¾(*¬2'§-Kmf„6f„6&¸*a¡<|’³£*|c’G*  j+ÎG*œw›wl³|’tM…­ª+&¸*œž¡G* m*}º* Ÿ/f¤MKjI§¼*¨›<L{kMKmf„6f„6&¸* …7f„<&*$f¡g+ §•M¬ÌG*œt¡G*if„1&¸*  f¤kG*5(*hŒ„‚M œ<f’kG*‡ª„¡- mfM|†’G*KfMÔk˜gG*  j+ÎG*K$f¡gG*4fq0&*Õ+«)fªžª˜G* L|1&¸*$f¡gG*2*§HK4fq0&¸*œ›³™G{F …9fž0&¸*œŒ’+f¤k+ф8Žfª„9Kf¤kk’-K jªÊ~I&¸*


Computer Architecture and Computer

i§„6f¹* *awk„6(*jªGa/ ¬4fžŒ»*œžŒG*¶

¬}‚¼*uGf„8a)f<  jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*·}9fÁ ¦{JH…94fŒkMf¯4*|žk„6f+ԏk-f¤I(fD|-§ªgž˜G* jª›žŒG*jHa1¨›<—§’k+K,42fEf¤I&*¸(*L|1&¸* NfHfµjªžªž„‚kG*,4f¤¼* uª„9§-KŸªž„‚k›GL|1&¸*œ0*|¼*·jªžªž„‚kG* j’›k—|†+$fª„7&¸*~ªªµi§„6fº*ª†k„€M¸™G{F œMaŒkG*jªIf˜H(*KjEaG*,2fM5Ks§k¡¼*j’<f„­HK4f˜D&¸* f¡JK“›kG*¢HM4f„¼*Š’0K ”Updating“ Ž*a+(*¢HŸž„‚¼*¢˜ÊfÃL}gG*œ•ŒG*ª†k„€Mfž›nH ,aMa/r)fkI…8Ñwk„6*Kœ˜„G*…€’¡Gj’›kÂÉfŒH l<f†k„6*«kG*¥/K&¸*ŸJ&¸j›nH&¸*…­Œ+i}­¡„6 oGfnG*aŒgG*·K&*«„6&*|G*K«•D&¸*¢MaŒgG*·$N *§„6 f¤ªD,a<f„€¼*jªGfº*rH*ÌG* œªwkG*¨›<,a<f„€¼*·ÔgF4K2jª„8f»*™›kGK jM§„­ŒG*,4fžŒG*KM4f„¼*,4*2(* …€ªGK«)fM~ª’G*«¡Œ¼f+jM§„­ŒG*,4fžŒGf+«¡ŒIf¡JK jª¡t¡Hf¤:§†1KjI|HÉfg¼*£§˜-£&*¬&*«’„€›’G* Frank¬Ô/™I|D4§¤„¼*¬4fžŒ¼*ÉfgžFN*a/

œ¤„€G*¢H¢˜M½«kG*K¦{ªHÑ-…­Œ+KGehry mfH§„6|G*·i§„6fºf+jIfŒk„6(¸*£K2f¤›ªwjM{ª’¡kG*mfH§„6|GfDjª)f„I(¸*Kjªžªž„‚kG*KjM{ª’¡kG* mf„6*42KN*a/jªGf<¥E2¾(*j/ft+M4f„¼*™›kG —|†Gf+ŸkkG¢˜-½ŽK}¼*¢H$~/œ˜Gj›„‚’H M4f„¼*,4*2(*rH*|+l†<&*a•D™G{FjMaª›•kG* œžŒG*4f„€HŸªª•-KŸª‰¡-«›<ÕD}ž›G¥„8|’G* jEf†G*K,$f„9(¸* jªŒªg†G*,$f„9(¸*Kf¡k-«˜G,|)*aG*„€k-f¡JK jg„€k˜¼*jEf†G*Kjª<f¡„‚G*,$f„9(¸*K "…€ªž„kG*" ¨›<,4a•G*ÕM4fžŒ¼*¨†<&*i§„6fºfD,2§•’¼*K ¢M2at¼*£fH~G*K£f˜¼*·jªŒªg†G*Ñ‰G*j„6*42 N Ÿ¤„­Œ+¨›<¥›kFK¨¡g¼*Ñ;…64aI£&*f¡¡˜ÊÑnžD j<f„€G*·K…6a•G*j•†¡H·¥ŒªE§k+™G3K…­ŒgG* N *|¤;,a0*§G* …€ªG¥ª/§kG*·œMaŒkG*jªIf˜H(*HÑnHN

fHa¡<«’kw-jª„8f»*™›-£(fD™G{GKŽ*a+(¸*K jª„6f„6&¸*œ0*|¼*·|-§ªgž˜G*,a<f„€¯Ÿªž„‚kG*&*agI |-§ªgž˜G*mfH§„64·mfEьG*jŒªg:§Jhg„€G*K jM}gG*j„€ž›G*£K2 f‰¡G*¨›<jª¡gH£§˜-«kG* ¢H‡•D,a0*Kj•M|†+mfH§„6|G*Ÿ¤’Mi§„6fºfD j›„8§¼*ˆ§†»*K‘*|’G*·‡•¡G*mfª.*a0(*Ñ1 ,|F*{G*·f¤+Š’ktM«kG*mfH§›Œ¼*«JKf¤¡ª+ ¸jGfº*¦{J·Kj/fº*a¡<f¤GaŒMK&*f¤Œ/΄€MK "N*2aÁ"¢˜GKŸªž„‚k›G "N*a<f„€H"|-§ªgž˜G*£§˜M Ž*a+(ÑG¿fkGf+KŸªž„‚k›G ¾(*ÕM4fžŒ¼*…­Œ+$f„6&*a•D—fª„€G*…€’I·K™G{F …9|ŒG*rH*|+KŠ’º*mfªIf˜H(*Ñk„6f+Ÿ¤-fžªž„‚™ª„6ÑFj„9§¼*¢HŽ§I¾(*,4fžŒG*œM§tkG ™›- *awk„6f+*§HfEfžFK&*«:§EoMa0 uª„9§- aŒ+Ÿªž„‚kG*eKf„€H¢<��ª›„­k›Gm*K2&¸* M4f„¼*…­Œ+·jM4fžŒ¼*ˆ§†»* ¨›<,42fEÔ=jªGfº*mfªÀÌG*£&*¢HŸ=|Gf+K¢˜GK Ÿªž„‚k›GjªGK&¸*4f˜D&¸*$f¡+·fŒDœ˜„+,a<f„€¼* j’›kw¼*mfªg›„€G*K”Conceptual design“

£&*fžFjªž›ŒG*m¸fq¼*jDfFi§„6fº*ŸtkE*a•G j„6a¡¤G*·ÔgF4K2i§„6ft›Gug„8&*¥I&*|˜¡M¸N*a0&* jª„6f„€0«•g-¢˜GÔ1&¸*a•ŒG*·j„8f1jM4fžŒ¼* Õ+¢’G*KŸ›ŒG*Õ+‡›wMŸ›ŒFjM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*  *awk„6*§0”Ñ»*&f„If¡J¢HKfª»*KE*§G* Ôn˜G*jª„­•G*¦{Jlgg„6a•D,4fžŒG*·i§„6fº* jM4fžŒ¼*…64*a¼*lž„€•I*oªt+2|G*K…7f•¡G*¢H ¦{J¢H22ÎHÕ+K…94fŒHKaM'§HÕ+f¤„€’I¨›< ”§„6f•¼**{J·Kf¤ªD™˜„HKfª/§G§¡˜kG* i§„6fº*j„€Df¡HLaH…Ef¡IKŽ§„9§¼**{¤G…9|ŒkI j„6a¡¤G*·i§„6fº*4K2§JfHK¬4fžŒ¼*Ž*a+(¸ jM4fžŒ¼*  f„€•I*·hg„€-aE,4fžŒG*·Ÿ›ŒG*K¢’G*œ1*a-£(* pa0fžFNfHfµi§„6fº* *awk„6*jª„­E§0$*4%¸* ,|†„€¼fFjªGfº*¬4fžŒ¼*Ÿ„6|G*m*K2&*§12a¡< ¦{JœF£&*¨›<|H&ÑG£K|‰¡M£KaM'§¼fDo›n¼*K f¤ŒM§†-¬4fžŒ¼*«›<hqMm*K2&*2|À$fª„7&¸* £§„94fŒ¼*Kjªžªž„‚kG*jª›žŒG*jt›„‚HK¥kt›„‚¼ a³Kjª<*a+(¸*m*4a•G*œk•-m*K2&¸*¦{J£(**§G§•M œ›•MaEi§„6fº* *awk„6*£&*fžFŸªž„‚kG*jM|0¢H dª„€G*¢Haª¹*Ÿªž„‚kG*~ªªµ«›<,4a•G*¢H £&*aÅՕM|’G*¬&*4”Ñk1*ifg„6&*·–žŒkG*a¡<K "“ªF¢˜GKi*§„‚G*¢H$«„7¥ªDfžJÑF¬&*4 ¨›<K¥„€’I¬4fžŒ¼*«›<ažkŒ-f¤kH|+jª„­•G*£(* f¤„6&*4¨›<Kmfª/§G§¡˜kG*¦{¤G¥H*awk„6*j•M|: uªt„‚G*Ÿ¤’G* a<·¢ž˜Mœ›»fDi§„6fº* "*{Jf¡H§M¿(*K"i§„6fºfDi§„6fº* *awk„6*j’„€›’G ˆfg¡k„6¸*Kœª›tkG*KԘ’kG*¨›<,42fEÔ=,*2&*2|À mfª›žŒG*ÐF&*¢HŸªž„‚kG*jª›ž<£(fD”K|ŒH§JfžFK N Nf¡ªŒHј„7„­MfHa¡<¬4fžŒ¼*£& *oª0N*aª•Œmftk’G*Kœ1*a¼fF,ÔnF¬|1&*2fŒ+&*·|˜’M¥I(fD f¤„­Œg+f˜„7&¸*jEÑ<Kœ˜„G*KjŒ„€G*Kj’ª;§G*K $f¡gG*2*§HK…7|’G*¨k0K jªGfŒG*j’›˜kG*Nf„­M&*«„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„6|G*rH*|+eKf„€H¢HK Žfª„9K "jª˜›¼*K4f˜k+¸*—§•0–g†-«kG*£*a›gG*·" ¬4fžŒ¼fDmf=*|’G*Õ+h„€¡G*K…6fª•¼f+…6f„€0(¸* ¥MaGlE§G*4K|HHug„‚MՌH…6fª•¯Ÿž„‚MfHa¡< ÌkŒMfH§JKjG§•ŒHjEa+K2fŒ+&¸*|Ma•-·,Ì1  fq0&¸*|Ma•-¢HŸž„‚¼*¢˜Rµ¥HfJjªžªž„‚-,4f¤H j„7f„7¨›<4§„‚›Gjg„€¡Gf+fH&*…6fªE£K2mf„6f•¼*K

Al Omran 5th Issue | 52

Al Omran 5th Issue | 53

K&*–ª›ŒkG*~ªªµH|º*Ÿ„6|G*¨›<,4a•G*iцG*K ,$f„9(¸*f˜„7&*j„6*42ª†k„€If¡I(*œ+h„€tD™G3 ”}¼*hk˜Moª0œ˜„G*·fžF£§›Gf+j+fk˜G* œ1*2,}7fgHԏG*K,}7fg¼*f¤<*§I&*œ˜+jª<f¡„‚G* ¥I&*Ÿ›ŒG*HL|1&*£*§G&f+iцG*K|ž0&¸*£§›Gf+ Ôn˜G*¥ª/§-¶a•DjEf†›Gjg„€¡Gf+fH&*¥/4f1K¨¡g¼* œFŠ’0¨›<,4a•H¨›<f¡I(fD,}9ft¼*jMf¤I· ·mf=*|’›G¬4*|º*$*2&¸*if„€ºmf„6*4aG*¢H f„­M&*–ª.§k›GKjŒ/*|ž›Gf¤DÑ1K4§„‚G*Kmf+fk˜G* mfªÀ|+|M§†-¾(*mf„6*4aG*¦{Jm|ž.&*aEKÉfg¼* ™›-§JaŒM½i§„6fº*œ„­’+KaŒ+¢<Ÿª›ŒkGfD ,2§•’¼*Kjg„€k˜¼*jEf†G*if„€0¨›<,42fEj„‚„‚wkH ug„8&*œ+¸2|›GK§„8§›GNfHfM&*|‰k¡-«kG*jGf„6|G* jªŒªg†G*,$f„9(¸*jªžFK$f¡gG*2*§¼jM4*|º*mÑHfŒ¼*K …‚w„7¬&*H¬4§’G*4f˜D&¸*2fg-f˜„7&*¢Hœ˜„7 4f˜D&¸&*2fg-KaŒ+¢<Ÿª›ŒkG* £fH~G*K£f˜¼*2§ªE£K2½fŒG*· ukDa•DÕM4fžŒ¼*Õ+Nf•)f<œ˜„-mfDf„€¼*aŒ-½ œg•k„€¼*Kr)fk¡G* œgE¢H¥DK|ŒH¢˜-½Ÿª›Œk›Gm¸fÀi§„6fº* ,aMa<fM*~Hf¤-fH*awk„6*K¥À*|+Ki§„6ft›G£(* Virtual LearningCCFŸJÔ=K&*ÕM4fžŒž›G$*§„6 aªÅ£&*hqMf¡I&*«ŒI£&*ÕM4fžŒžFf¡ª›ŒDi§ª<K …­Œ+ §•-oª0Online Learning and œF£&*Kf¤ª›<,|†ª„€G*Kfª/§G§¡˜kG*™›-,2fªE¢D Online–ªg†k+jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*f¤¡HKmfŒHf¹* j•M|:«›<K¥„€’I¬4fžŒ¼*«›<ažkŒ-mfªg›„€G* ·hGf†G* §•Moªt+WebCTCCFLearning –t›I£&*hqMfžFKj’›kw¼*m*K2&ÑG¦4fžnk„6* jž›Fj†„6*§+m*}9ft¼*¾(*§1aGf+£fH5K£f˜H¬&* ¸£&*f¡ª›ŒDf¤-*K2&*ÔÅKjª/§G§¡˜kG*jH§‰¡¼*hF|+ aM|+¿(*¥-¸'Kf„€k+oŒgMŸ.Ÿ›ŒkMK…64aMKj¡ªŒH4K|H ·$«„G*„­I¸£&*KjM4fžŒ¼*…€„6&¸*Ka<*§•G*¨„€¡I …64a¼* ¥If˜HÔ= Ž*§I&*pa0&*ÌkŒM¬{G*KVirtual LearningfH&* §M4fžŒHŸJ §ªG*f¡+цDL|1&*jª0fI¢HK™G{F Onlinei§ª<L2f’kM¬{G*KaŒ+¢<Ÿª›ŒkG* NjD|ŒHœE&**§I§˜M¸£&*hqªD "}9fº*…€ªGK"œg•k„€¼* oª0 f¤G*…64a¼*4K2f¤ªDhªM«kG*Learning jª¼fŒG*jM4fžŒ¼*…64*a¼*iÑ:¢Hfª/§G§¡˜kGf+ K…64a¼*«›<ažkŒMVirtual Learning£&* fª/§G§¡˜kG*™›-œ˜+Ÿ¤t›„€I£&*f¡ª›<hqMfžFK lIÎI¸*¨›<ՌHE§H¨›<£§•k›MiцG* ™›-œ˜+f¡-4f„­0s~ÇKf¡kDf•.¨„€¡I¸£&*f¡ª›<K ¨›<,}7fgH,}9ft¼*…64a¼*«•›ªG2aÁlEK·K fTI&*¢H'§¼*jGf„9jž˜ºfD"f¡HawMfHf¤¡H{1&fIK §›ŒG* aEfžFVideojF|tk¼*,4§„‚G*Km§„‚Gf+iцG* ¨›„8Ù*§„64fEfžF "f¤+…6f¡G*–0&*§¤DfJa/K iцG*L|MK "ifªG*K4§„­º*"{1&f+…64a¼* §•M Ÿ›„6K¥ª›<Ù* iцG*&f„€MaE…€˜ŒGf+K§Maª’G*m*|HfFÌ< |H&¸*sfk0*£(*K,4§„‚G*Km§„‚Gf+K,}7fgH…64a¼* White Board *awk„6*¢˜žªDuª„9§kG*KŸ„6|›G …64a¼*«†Œ-«kG*Kjt’„‚G*…€’I¨›<¬KaªG*Ÿ„6|›G


Computer Architecture and Computer

lªgG*½(*|-§ªgž˜G*$f/*Ó1&*K

2fF§-K&¸*mfH§„64s*|1(* i§„7§-§’G*rHfI|+j†„6*§+ mf0*|¹*¨¡g¼jM4§‰¡Hj†•G s|wkG*ŽK}H¢Hjª„‚„‚wkG*  f<

VRay*f„8§„‚1KSystems httpwwwevermotionorg ¥H§¤’Hf¤I&* a•k<&* Computer Graphic4f„‚k1*CG httpwwwcgarchitectcom Vray·*Î0(¸*Ôª„‚kG*rHfI|+mfMak¡HKE§H httpwwwchaosgroupcom |+f¡¼*«+|<™ªD*|/E§HÌF&*KL§E&* httpwwwmaxforumsnet i|ŒG*Մ6a¡¤ž›Gž±ÌF&*jª¡•kG*E§H httpwwwtknenet GISjªD*|¹*mfH§›Œ¼* f‰IKCADi§„6fºf+Ÿªž„‚kG*£§c„+¨¡ŒM«+|<E§H httpwwwcadmagazinenet

Al Omran 5th Issue | 55

jcª+œžŒG3ds maxrHfI|+ *awk„6* jÊaEjª+|< j•+f„€H·f¤+lF4f„7«kG*fž<&¸*a0&* ¾K&¸*wwwmaxforumsnet|+f¡¼* aEK‡„6K&¸*—}G*L§k„€H¨›<™ªD*|q›G jªIfnG*jg-|¼*¨›<m5f0

aM~-£&*K&*ša<f„€-£&*f¤¡˜Ê™k›c„6&*¢<j+f/(¸*f¤kž¤H,*2&*¢<,4fg<|-§ªgž˜G*£&* ™›„D¢H Ÿ¤D*K…8f„8|G*Ÿ›•Gf+¥•ªEaG*mfªFK|˜G*Kmf„k˜„6¸f+™-fžªž„‚-&*a+* œžŒG*¢•k-½*3(*,}7fgH|-§ªgž˜Gf+Ÿž„‚-K&*Ÿªž„‚kG*&*ag-£&*šfM(*K™žªž„‚…6fª•¼f+…6f„€0(¸*ša•’M¥I&¸™Gfž<&*·|-§ªgž˜G* *awk„6*…64fµ£&*šfM(fD¬KaªG*   "¥<*a+(*™¡¡˜Ê¸¥ž¤Dª†k„€-¸fžD"Éf„€I(¸* šÎD2™MaG¢˜ªGK¦*|-fHœFŸ„64&*j„64fž¼f+™ª›<jMKaªG*m*4f¤¼*|M§†kG œ˜„G*—§D¥ª›<Ÿ„6ÎG”f’„7—4K„9§+ŸEŸ„6|Gf+j„8f»*hk˜G*+f-…8f»* ¾(*j/fº*K…6fžºf+|Œ„-½£(*¢˜GjM*agG*·a›•-£&*Nfgª<…€ªG¥ž„64aM|-¬{G*  Ñ‰G*·¥kŒž„7&f’:&*¢žFlI&fD£f•-(¸* š|˜Dlk„-£&*šfM(*K §MaŒ+NfH§M|¤‰-«kG*,aMa¹*m*K2&¸f+ŽÑ:*¨›<¢F f¤-*4a•+Ÿ›Œ-£&*™ª’˜M¢˜Gf¤ž›Œk+ œžŒ›G”K|‰G*™-|†„9*£(*¢˜GNfHf„64l„€GK¬4fžŒH…6a¡¤HlI&*jMf¤¡G*· ™›J'§MK™„€’Ilgn-™G{+™I&¸r<~¡-ÑD,}7fgHs|wkG*aŒ+¬4fžŒ¼*Ÿ„6|G*· j•0ÑG*mfªGK'§„€¼*œžtkG™›ž<

mf+|ŒG*¾(*…8f„8|G* ÑE&*¬4fgH¢Hd„7œF¨›<¥•g:Kjª+fª„€I(¸*&*agH„9K«<f¡„‚G*Ÿªž„‚k›GՄ€„6'§¼*$f+%¸*a0&f+”K|Œ¼*«<f¡„8Ÿž„‚H¬§GaI§Ê*4 

jGf•¼*¦{Jj+fkF¢HŽ§g„6&*œgElHfEoª0½fŒG*§0CADCG*K™ªD*|¹*mfªÀ|+fÀ·,a)*|G*ds max*K2fF§-K&¸*rHfIÌG,4§†¼*AutodeskjF}7ÌkŒ- 

Kds max ÕÀfIÌG*¨›<¨•gk„6f¤I&f+Autodeskl¡›<&*4¸K2£§ª›Hf¤kžªEj•’„8œ+f•H™G3K—ÑžŒG*MayarHfIÌGjqk¡¼*AliasjF}7f¤k„€Df¡H$*}+ fž¤¡ª+œHf˜kG*¢HaM~k„6K“Œ„­G*ˆf•IrGfŒk„6f¤¡˜GKfžJfžF Maya f¤<*§I&*¨k„+sf/~G*K£2fŒ¼*K…7fž•G*Kh„»*œnH2*§¼*…€ž›HK|¤‰H,fFfÁ§JmfHf»f+2§„‚•¼* 

™MÑ=…€žª/¥’G'§¼£fž¡MfD24f„kM4Ÿ›<K,fª0jM|•gŒG*ifkF¢H£fž¡MfD24f„kM4 

mfHf1¢H ~›MfHjDf„9(*K2fF§-K&¸*mf’›H2*Ôk„6f+ §E&*£&*¢˜Ê¬&*2fF§-K&¸* jªIf+fªG*jªGfk•G*Kaª˜M&*jgŒG·¢HfnG* *~º*œHf0§JK¬f„€¡„6*2fHfM§„€kžª„7§M§•M šf¡J£&*uªt„8Ÿ¤H|H&*¾(*«JfgkI*ma„7mfHf»*jG&f„€H¢˜Gm*ÔHfFK,$f„9(*K £&*¢˜ÊœžŒ›G,aMa/,*2&* *awk„6*Ÿ›Œ-£(fD¿fkGf+K"…€„6&¸*·¢ž˜-,§•G*"£&* ¦2f¡„6(* ŸkM£&* a+¸¢˜G 3ds max rHfIÌG*fJ|D§M«kG*  mfHf»*¢HaMaŒG* LaH¥žŒ†-aª„‚G*NfIf„€I(*Ÿ›<NfH§M¥žŒ†-j˜ž„6NfIf„€I(*‡<&*"Ëa•G*§•G*¥ª›<–g†¡M …­Œ+4f¤;(*¢<«¡k„€M¸|H&¸*£&*KfžFmfHf»*2*a<(¸™G3K4§„8j¹fŒHrHfIÌ+ ·j’›kw¼*|-§ªgž˜G*mf•ªg†- *awk„6¸jªG%*v*ÎE*§JjGf•¼*¦{J¢H”a¤G*K ",fªº* ™›-· Photoshop i§„7§-§’G*4a„‚-a•G|-§ªgž˜G* *awk„6f+Nf„­M&*‡Ef„€¼* ¬4fžŒ¼*s*|1(¸* ¨¡ŒHœ˜+¥’³£fF  f<·™G3£fFlªgG*¾(*|-§ªgž˜G*$f/N*Ô1&*K Adobe¥F}7¥Ha•-¬{G*KL§E&¸*rHfIÌG*§J£fFKj0f„€G*¦Î’G* Windows 95¾(*jDf„9(¸f+16MB RAMHPentium I5f¤/jž›˜G* ™G{FKjŒkÃ,$*|•G*lIfFjM~ª›Å(¸*j›Gf+i§„7§-§DifkF«)*aJ(f+¬aG*K fE *{Jjª+|ŒG*¢HÔn˜+L§E&*jM~ª›Å(¸f+,|D§k¼*hk˜G*£(fD“„6&ÑGKœŒ’Gf+–ªg†kG* lIfF¿§ªH£&*uªt„8¥ŒHf¹*l›12aE¢F&*½ifŒG&ÑG¦4§†kHjŒ†E2|À£fF ™›g•k„€H·™•0Ñk„6«kG*mft›†„‚¼*¢HaM~¼*Ÿ›Œ-¨›<šÌ±f¤I&*¾(*jDf„9(¸f+ ¥ªDug„8&f„6¬{G* §ªG*™G3¾(*…ª<&f„6É&f+ՕM¨›<¢F&*½¢˜GŸ„6|G*KœªwkG*¾(* œ„­’Gf+Ÿ¤G¢M2&*¢M{G*$fEa„8&¸*¬aG£fF«-*3a¤q+Nf„­M&*¥kž›Œ-¬|-§ªgž˜G* ifŒG&¸*Ԅ€˜-–„<&*l¡F«¡I&¸|-§ªgž˜G*j„6a¡¤+¬aG*K«¡t„‚I¬4fžŒH…6a¡¤H ªž/·,fªº*ŽÑ†k„6*h0K§„­’GfD"f¤›1*a+fHKf¤›ž<j•M|:“„˜k„6&¸ ·|H&¸*jª„6a¡¤G*f¡-fH*awk„6¸¥ŒM§†-j•M|:KrHfIÌG**{JfMf’1¨›<”|ŒkG*· ¨›<N*$f¡+K¥ŒHf¹*·¾K&¸*j¡„€G*m|H  "Õ<ag¼*}6*~M¸¥I&*a•k<&*f¤ª0*§I f¤ŒgkM£&*¢˜Êˆf•Išf¡J£&*…­ŒgG*œªwkMaEj„64fž¼f+œ¤„6¥¡˜GNfgŒ„8KagM¥M*agG* m*2f¤k/*§J¥IK|-fHœFKuªt„8Ô=™G3¢˜G¬4fžŒ¼*s*|1(ÑG awk„€H¬&* ¥•’-¸™I&*…€³NfIfª0&*…‚„‚wkG**{JhM|=¦4fžŒG*j„6a¡J·l„‚„‚w-–g„6fH rH*ÌG*ªž/¨›<–g†¡M&*ag¼**{JŸ¤-fH*awk„6¸¦§<§:KrHfIÌG**§¡•-&*…8fw„7&¸ ¢GK¥-fgg„€H4§Œ„7œ˜›D œ˜G*·œ˜G*™I&f+ |Œ„-NfIfª0&*K,a)fD£Ka+KNfcª„7 ¥GK*akMaEfHNftªt„8…€ªGK¥-*K2&*·…€ªGK awk„€¼*·Ž*a+(¸*£&*¾(*jDf„9(¸f+ f¡ž›Œ-™›žŒ+™HfH&*¢Hm|¤+&*K&*l<a+&*aE™I&*l„€„€0&**3(*¸(*…7fŒkI(¸f+|Œ„,4fg<|-§ªgž˜G*£&*¦fgkI(¸*hqM¢˜G|1%¸*¢Hœ„­D&*ÉђG*rHfIÌG*£&*·…­ŒgG* i4f±¿lIfF¬4fžŒ¼*Ÿªž„‚kG*§JKj„6a¡¤G*h›+fI&*a+K«„6a¡¤G*K¬KaªG*Ÿ„6|G* ¦a0§GŸ„6|M£&*ª†k„€M¢GK «g=NfIfª0&*¥¡˜G|<f„Hm*3¥G%*¦Ìk<&*fI&* $fž„8jG%*¢< ½|-§ªgž˜G*j<}8¢˜G¬KaªG*Ÿ„6|G*l¡•-&*É&*l„€„€0&*j›„7fDL|1&*Kjt/fI N ,|†„€¼*KŸ›•G* *awk„6¸Nf¡•kH¢˜-½*3(fDNfDaJ…€ªGK¦|†„€¼*KŸ›•GfF,*2&*2|À§¤D Nf¡•kHў<L4& *fHa¡<|¤+&*l¡F«¡+{/¥I&*f•M–ºfDlE§G*™G3·,}k¡H¢˜§J|-§ªgž˜G*£§˜M¢›D™„€’¡+™-f<*a+(*s*|wk„6¸Nf¡•kH¢˜-½*3(*¥›F™G3œgEK ¥kD2f„8fHK&*£fFlnt+KN*ÔnFlG&f„6«›1*a+lG*5fHifŒG&¸*Ԅ€˜-,~M|=¢˜G ¦{¤GÕF4a¼*Ô=…8fw„7&¸*Žaw-K™„€’IŽaw-lI&fDœº*¥I&*ma•k<**3(*Kœº*  f‰I¨›<œžŒM£fF£&*aŒgDjª<§I,~’E|1%¸*§J2fF§-K&¸*rHfI|+«•M|:· ™„€’I|Ha-¥Mf¤¡G*·™¡˜GŸªž„‚kG*i§ª<¢HaMaŒG*«’wM¥I&*uªt„8j•ª•º* mfª¡•kG*¾(* jDf„9(¸f+*{J 5KaI§G* Ñ1¢Hug„8&* ¥•+f„€G*¥-*4*a„8(* ·DOS §JK…€-§FœM2–›:&*fžFK«„6a¡¤G*—§„€G*·™›ž<aŒ+¸(*¥+…€³¢Gfcª†+N*ÔHaoGfnG*aŒgG*mfH*awk„6*·  jEўŒG*AutodeskjF}7f¤kDf„9&*«kG*¦aMa¹* |†1&*¢H|-§ªgž˜G*j†„6*§+…G*"¦aM|’G*¥-4fg<«<f¡„‚G*Ÿªž„‚kG*·4f„k„€H ¢H«„6a¡¤G*¬4*§„H¢HjªIfnG*j¡„€G*· 2fŒ+&¸*«)f¡nG* K&¸*¥•„+2fF§-K&¸*lž›Œ«.Ñ. ÉfnG*–„G*Ÿ›Œk+¥g=|G*¬aGm2*5…€›„6K–ªE2rHfI|+jªžª›Œ-,4K2Ñ1 lEKœgEl„­HfHf<¢M}<¢<aM~MfH{¡Hl›ªEjžª˜º*¥k‰0ўD "…G*Ž*§I&* ™G3«’Dj¡J*|G*f¡-fª0·f¤Hawk„€I«kG*j„Ja¼*m*|-§ªgž˜G*4§¤;¢HœM§: ¥ª›ž<lIfFifkF¢H¦|M§„‚k+lžE$~/Ñ1¢Hfª-*3¥kž›Œ-a•DœŒ’Gf+K 2fŒ+&¸* lHfE«kG*i4fqkG*KœžŒG*¢HaM~¼*™G3g-̄8¾(*j/ft+f¤¡˜GjŒkߪ›ŒkG* jM§•G*m*|-§ªgž˜G*£&*£Ka•kŒM*§IfF¥HfM&*·՞›Œ¼*K՞ž„‚¼*£&*Š0¸lE§G* Ÿ¤kD|ŒH…‚•IKjª¡’G*m*4f¤ž›GŸ¤I*a•D¢<…9§Œ-”§„6jH2f•G*jªÀÌG*mf•ªg†kG*K fJ|M§†-KmfH§›Œ¼*lªgnk+ –0¨›<£fFœM2Ÿªž„‚kG*e2fgHKŸªJf’¯ *3(fD¥k„‚t’-f¤ŒH–D|HCDšf¡J£fFK|-§ªgžFj›ÀlM΄7*j¡„€G*™›-“ª„8· ¨›<œžŒM£fF£&* aŒ+rHfIÌG*ÌFa•GK&¸*4*a„8(¸*3ds maxrHfIÌGjMf<2¥+ jªGfkG*ˆf•¡G*jªžJ&*¨›<~F4&*«¡I(fD¥GÑ1¢HK|-§ªgž˜G*H¬4*§„H*{J maJf„7a•G¾K&¸*¥-4*a„8(f+5KaI§G* f‰I¨›<aMa/¢H“0~Mug„8&*K…6KaG* Ÿ›ŒkG*œ0*|H·“<f„­Ha¤/{+K|-§ªgž˜G*mf•ªg†-Ÿ›Œ-KaMatkG”aJ„9K jF|º*KmfHf»*K,$f„9(¸*·jª<§Ij›•I£fFrHfIÌG*“„8§G¥•D|¼*§Maª’G*mf’›H ¾K&¸* ¸(*¥ª›<œžŒM¢˜M½KN*}k¡H¢˜M½rHfIÌG*Ÿ›Œ-m4|EjªIfnG*j¡„€G*l¤kI*£&*aŒ+ Ÿ›ŒkG*¢H&f’F&*Kœ„­D&*f¤I&¸/*|¼*K&*hk˜G* *awk„6f+«-*{G*Ÿ›ŒkG*¨›<2fžk<(¸* …€ªG*{J£&*l’„kF*«¡¡˜G,4Ka+l•tkG*¥Mf¤¡G*·+f„8&¸*¨›<£KaŒM…8fw„7&* $fª„7&¸*…­Œ+–ª•³$|¼*KftM£&*hqM|1%¸lEK¢žDjªžª›ŒkG*m*4KaG*Ñ1¢H ¢Hi42§J¥+ f¼(¸*£&*K™ªD*|¹*fÀvfkqM—Ñž<fÇ(*K2fŒ+&¸*«.Ñ.rHfI|+2|À ¥-4aE—§’-«kG* ¬4fžŒH…6a¡¤žF«¡H~›Mf¯½&*£&*¬&*…‚„‚wkG*h/K™G{GmѪtk„€¼*iK42 f¤ªDa±a•Dj„6a¡¤G*K&*™ªD*|¹f+…‚kw-«kG*lIÎI(¸*Ñ1¢HmfMak¡¼*jŒ+fkH «ž›Œ-£&*™„7¸jªžª›ŒkG*mfI*§†„6(¸*Khk˜G*KlIÎI(¸*…6K42ž/&*m&*a+ mfMak¡¼*¦{J¨›<fnHšaª’MfH «„­H&*l¡FŸ›ŒkG*KŸ¤’G*jª›ž<«›<}€MaEjª.ÑnG*2fŒ+&¸f+…‚kwMfžªD2fF§-K&ÑG ¢G™G3¢˜GlE§G*¢HÔn˜G*Ÿ¤k›M¥I&*uªt„8rHfIÌG*¨›<œžŒGf+«=*|DlEK ½fŒG*L§k„€H¨›<™ªD*|¹*j<f¡„‚G«g¡/&*E§HL§E&* l¤/*KjnGfnG*j¡„€G*·«žªHf„‚-·¥Hawk„6&*m&*a+a„‚³Ž4~-fž˜D$N fgJª„­M httpforumscgsocietyorg Nf„8§„‚1jÊ~<KN*4*}8(*¸(*É2~M½™G3¢˜G¿fž<&*l„€ªG¦{J£&f+mfHf¤-(¸*…­Œ+ Renderings*|1(¸*rH*Ì+Ÿk¤M oGfnG*aŒgG* ™ªD*|¹*·…‚k«g¡/&*E§H HœHfŒkMrHfIÌG*£&*ma/K$f¡.&¸*¦{J·¿fž<&*,$f’F·2*5K¿fª1…ŒI&*¥I&*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 54

2K*2ažÁ¢MaG* f„€0  ,4fžŒG*j„6a¡JÔk„€/fH


ŸqF l¡ž„6&*  ŸqF œH4  jªIf„6|»*£f„‚ž•G*Ž*§I&*  “ª›kG*jª›ž<f¤›„­D&*Ž*§I&*,a<jªIf„6|»*£f„‚ž•›G ŸqF  – jªž„€ž„6jž„‚0 ÎG A jª)fžªFmfDf„9(*,2fH  …­Œ+·2§/§G¢˜GKmf¤/+4&*¢Hif„‚¼*§„­Œ›G ŸqF Fibrin ,2fH  –„8ÑH4f/mf„6f„6&¸*K&*,až<&¸*·$*§„6m¸fº* ÎG $fH  2§/KK&*¢F|G*2§ž<œnHÕkª0fIK&*jª0fI¢H§„­Œ›G |˜gH2f¤/(*$f†<(¸jª)fžªF,2fHjDf„9(*¶aEK j.Ñ.K&*Õk¤/¢H“ª›kG*jª›ž<¢Ha+ÑDՌH–)f< ,2fM5KjM3f’¡G*œª›•-KjI§¼*,$f’F,2fM~GKjIf„6|w›G aMaºf+…‚ªž•G*mfIfF‡+4¢„€tkM™G3·K‡•D §„8K£fž„­GjªGf<jª›ª„-ÔD§-H«)f¤¡G*2f¤/(¸* ug„‚-‡+|G* a<jGf0·¥I&¸«›„8&¸*2§žŒ›G«„6&*|G* ,2fHjDf„9(*KŸªHÎG*¢FfH&*¿(*j+§g„‚¼*jIf„6|»* ¬2'§-aMa¹*Žf†•G*«›<œžº*·jM~F|H¸šf¡J …‚ªž•G*Õ+f„‚’I*pKa0Ÿ.¢HK K~<pKa0¿(* Ÿ„6¿(* œ„‚-mfFfž„6«›<§„‚t›GFibrin  Ÿk-K…7fž˜I¸f+|.&fkG* a<K,aMa¹*u†„6&¸*· j•†¡ž›GKjªGfŒG*fž0&¸*a¡<«›„8&¸*§„­ŒG*KÉf„6|»* «q¡-*4…6f„6&*m*3jª)fžªF,2f¯K&*$f¼f+$*§„6j¹fŒ¼*  fžkJ¸*Kf¤ªDmfIf˜G*,2fM~+¨„8§M…‚ªž•G*¢Hfª›ŒG* «›„8&¸*uª›„€kG*aMa0·*aª/f¤†+|+ ÉfnG*i§›„6&¸* £f„‚ž•G*j•M|†+m*|ž˜G*vф8(*{ª’¡-fž<&* N K&¸*i§›„6&¸*·¾K&¸*j„€ž»*m*§†»*Žfg-*ŸkM ¬2'§M¥I(fDmf¤/pÑ.¢HK&*ÑHfF…‚ªž•G*£fF$*§„6 N ,2fM5¿*¬2'§MfÃNf„9|<K¸§:,|ž˜G*Žf†E,2fM5¿( * Ô=,$f’˜G*jªGf<jªk¡ž„6&*¢•0,2f¯h„‚G*jª›ž<Ÿk- Expagrout,2fHœnH2ažkG*jª)f¡.…7fž˜IÑGj›+fE vф8(*¢˜ÊfžFa)*~G*…‚•G*L§Eœž³«›<f¤-4aE jg„€¡+ÄŸ„€ž„6‡G5jDf„9(* jªIf˜H(* HLD …‚ªž•G* *awk„6f+fª›ŒG*…‚•G*L§E¢<jc„7f¡G*yK}G* œª›•-HjIf„6|w›GjªGf<jG§ª„6£fž„­G™G3K£5§Gf+ jŒgk¼*m*§†»*«›MfžªDK¿fŒG*…‚•G*j•†¡H· «)*ak+¸*™„G*¢Hœ„8fº*…7fž˜I¸*¡HKjM3f’¡G*  jªº*fž0&¸*Kjkª¼*fž0&¸* ,|ž˜G*fž0&*jG*5(* jIf„6|»*2f¤/(*D4K ¨›<,aMa/fM*K5„9K–M|:¢<m*|ž˜G*Ÿ<2 $f¼f+j¹fŒ¼*Ÿk- œž<K&*,až<&¸*Õ+¬aMa0}€/K&*,až<&¸*hI*§/ jHf<mf‰0ÑH fJÔ=Kmf„6f„6&¸*¨k0“•„€›GmfHf<2 —|†G*j•M|†+Éf„6|»*§„­ŒG*·j+f„‚¼*¢FfH&¸*jG*5(* £fJ2ŸkM«/4f»*§q›Gu†„6&¸*,{J…9|Œ-”2f„‚-*3(* ™ª›M|F¸*¢Hjªk¡ž„6&*$Ñ:,2fH¢HÕ-aHfŒkHÕk•g: jºf„‚G*jIf„6|»*¨k0NfMKaMœªH*5&¸f+ jMfžºjG5f<ÕgF|H¢H,2fH«JKaŒ¼*|žªG§gG* lªgnkG |Mf„7&* Ž45K,|ž˜G*uª›„€-aMa0jDf„9(* «/4f»*aMaºf+*aª/|Mf„7¸* fºKuª›„€kG*aMa0 j’›kw¼*jM§¹*œH*§ŒG*KvÑH&¸*K£§+|˜G*¢HjIf„6|»* jªDf„9(*jMfžtFjª›1*aG*u†„6&¸*«›<f¤IfJ2¢˜ÊK ‡+4œžŒGjª„€F§gM*,2f¯jIf„6|»*u†„6£fJ2 Éf„6|»*u†„€›G jÊa•Gf+,aMa¹*jIf„6|»* Ÿ„6¢<jIf„6|»*j•g:aM~-¸jªg„1,a„7œž< jªIf„6|1£f„‚žEœž<j†„6*§+ŸªHÎG*jnGfnG*j•M|†G* jIf„6|»*…7fž˜I*¢Hj››•HKj¡ª›H,2fHjDf„9(* Jacketing if„‚¼*§„­ŒG*§0 ·mftkDœž<–M|:¢<$*§„6h„‚G*jª›ž<Ÿk- j•g†+¥’ª›k+Éf„6|»*Žf†•G*,2fM5K&*,2fŒk„6*«JK K&¸*œ„­D&¸*KhI*§¹*¢HK&*“•„€G* $f¼f+h„‚G*¢HÕ<§g„6&*,a¼j¹fŒ¼*jª›ž<Ÿk- Žf†•G*j0f„€H,2fM~G™G3Kjt›„€¼*jIf„6|»*¢H,aMa/ jkª¼* –jªº*Kjkª¼* fž0&¸*œžtkG§„­Œ›G«„9|ŒG* Éf„6|»*2§žŒ›G{ª’¡kG*fž<&¸jg„€¡Gf+fH&*K œ„‚tM¿fkGf+K ,aMa¹* œ•¡+ §•IÉf„6|»*§„­ŒG*œFf„HœM~I£&*œgE j+§:|›G,{’¡HÔ=j•g†+Éf„6|»*§„­ŒG*j:f0* Õk¤/¢HmfHf<2„9K–M|:¢<2§žŒ›Gfž0&¸*  jIf„6|»*jMfž0 ,4f„­G*2*§¼*K M5§-¢˜Ê¸Kmf„6f„6&¸*¾(*§„8§G*¨k0œE&¸*¨›< ¬|1&*,až<&*¨›<fž0&¸* ,2fM5jqªkI™G3K«›„8&¸*aMat›G&*a„‚G*Ô.&f-œª›•kG «„6&*|G*h›„‚G*j0f„€H —|†G*j•M|†+Éf„6|»*§„­ŒG*·j+f„‚¼*¢FfH&¸*jG*5(* –M|:¢<Confinement«gIf/‡„9ÔD§- jºf„‚G*jIf„6|»*¨k0NfMKaMœªH*5&¸f+ jªIf„6|»*mf<f†•G*KmfIf˜G* «„9|ŒG*uª›„€kG* j„6K4aH£§˜-oªt+2§žŒG*§0aMa0j˜g„7œž< «›„8&¸*œžº*,4aE,2fM5¿(*¬2'§Mfà …‚ªž•›G ,aMa¹*fž0&¸*œžtkGŸž„‚¼*…6a¡¤¼*œgE¢HN*aª/ ,až<&ÑG aMaº*|†E”fŒ„9&*,}<LaŒkM¸aŒgG*£§˜Moªt+ …‚ªž•G*·¿§†G* N*4f„9‡ªt¼*‡„6§G*£fF*3(*aMa/4§Ja-pKa0¡H jIf„6|»f+ aMa0lªgnkG|Mf„7&*Ž45K,|ž˜G*uª›„€-aMa0jDf„9(* ¥-fH*awk„6* f¤<45K&*«/4f»*aMaºf+*aª/|Mf„7¸* fºKuª›„€kG* ·™G{FK,až<&¸*œž³,4aE,2fM5Kvф8(*· jª„€F§gM*,2f¯ œ˜„+,aª’HKPIERS¬4fg˜G*mfHf<2vф8(* ‡+4œžŒGjª„€F§gM*,2f¯jIf„6|»*u†„6£fJ2 vф8(¸ awk„€-K$f¼*l³mf0ф8(¸*·…8f1 jÊa•Gf+,aMa¹*jIf„6|w›G ¢HfJÔ=Kmf„6f„6&¸*Kj†Ef„€G*m*|ž˜G*K“•„6&¸* œ˜„G*«›<|.'§-¸oªt+jªg„1,a„7œž< jªIf„6|»*m%f„¡¼* ¬4fžŒ¼*

jªIf„6|º*m%f„¡»*œFf„H j¸fŒ»*hªGf„6&*ÈfnG*$~¸*

§G2a/fHjHf„6&*  j†+*4jª„€F§gM*,2f¯¥žªH|-2*|¼*}‚¡ŒG*…74j•M|:

aMaº*&*a„8f¤„6f„6&*jªIf„6|1œFf„H

h„‚G*j†„6*§+ŸªHÎG*jªIfnG*j•M|†G* fžJÕ+§›„6&f+™G{Fj•M|†G*¦{J{ª’¡-¢˜ÊK K&¸*i§›„6&¸* j•g†G*¾(*§„8§G*¨k0j+f„‚¼*jIf„6|»*jG*5(*ŸkM –:f¡ž›G™G3KŸ„64*a•¯uª›„€kG*aMa0œ’„6&*jžª›„€G* &*a„8uª›„€-aMa0f¤+a/§M«kG* j•g†G*¾(*§„8§G*¨k0uª›„€kG*aMa0“ª‰¡-ŸkM yfª„6&¸f+&*a„82§/K a<¢HaF&fkG*KjŒHÑG* ¸uª›„€kG*aMaº¥’ª‰¡-¶¬{G*$~¹*£&*,f<*|HŸkM ·KaMaº*†•Hj0f„€H¢H¢<¥ªDœF%fkG*aM~M Ž45Kyfª„6&¸*¦{J$fG(*ŸkMjg„€¡G*¦{J¢<,2fM~G*jGf0 ¢H¢M΄€ªG§gG*¢Hjª)fªžªF,2fHj†„6*§+L|1&*yfª„6&* uª›„€kG*aMa0Ž45KlªgnkGÕgF|H hF|H¢Hjª„€F§gM*,2f¯¥IfJ2ŸkMaMaº*“ª‰¡-aŒ+ L|1&*,|HaMaº*&*a„‚G*¡¼™G3K™I~G*§JKa0*K ,2f¯f¤žªH|-2*|¼*jªIf„6|»*u†„6&¸*£fJ2ŸkM jÊa•G*jIf„6|»*‡+|G«„€F§gM¸*¢Hj•„8¸jª)fªžªF l„64*|žk„6ÑGjª›+fEm*3«JK,aMa¹*ŸªHÎG*jI§¯ jªg„»*,a„G*œž<jªIf˜H(¸™G3Kmf<f„6 jªGfkG*j†›»f+ŸªHÎG*œž<ŸkM

,2f¯f¤žªH|-2*|¼*jªIf„6|»*u†„6&¸*£fJ2ŸkM jÊa•G*jIf„6|»*‡+|G«„€F§gM¸*¢Hj•„8¸jª)fªžªF ,aMa¹*ŸªHÎG*jI§¯ jªGfkG*j†›»f+ŸªHÎG*œž<ŸkM ŸqF l¡ž„6&*  ŸqF œH4  ÎGjª)fžªFmfDf„9(*,2fH  ŸqF Fibrin ,2fH  ÎG – $fH  jI§¼*,$f’F,2fM~G™G3Kjª)fžªF,2fHjDf„9(*¶aEK Fibrin,2fHK2f¤/(¸*,2fM5KjM3f’¡G*œª›•-K u†„6&¸*·Ÿ„6¾(*œ„‚-mfFfž„6¨›<§„‚t›G $f¼f+$*§„6j¹fŒ¼*Ÿk-K…7fž˜I¸f+|.&fkG* a<K,aMa¹* «q¡-*4…6f„6&*m*3jª)fžªF,2f¯K&* ÉfnG*i§›„6&¸* –+f„€G*i§›„6&¸*¢H¾K&¸*…€ž»*m*§†»*…€’¡+&*agI Ÿ. ̪’Gf+jt›„€H|žªG§gG*¢Hjªk¡ž„6&*jI§¯…ªg›kG*ŸkM ™„6fžkG*œnHj¡„€Á…8*§1m*3£§˜-KŸªHΛG £K2,ÔgFmfFfž„6¢M§˜kG awk„€-a„G*K$f¡tI¸*K …7fž˜I¸*¢<j±fIyK}7pKa0 $f¼f+K&*«q¡-*4…6f„6&*m*3jª)fžªF,2f¯j¹fŒ¼*Ÿk-

Éf„6|»*}‚¡ŒG*“ª‰¡-j•M|:

fJ{ª’¡-Kvф8(¸*j•M|: – jªIf„6|»*m%f„¡¼*ŸªHÎGjª¡’G*—|†G* ·hªŒG*jŒªg:h„€0vф8(¸*j•M|:f¡JažkŒI $*§„6jªIf„6|»*m%f„¡¼*ŸªHÎGaM*~k¼* fžkJÑGN*|‰I vф8(¸*¢H…9|G*KŽa„‚kG*j/42KjIf„6|»* hªGf„6&*·Ôg˜G*4§†kG*jqªkIjnMaº* &*f¤¡HjÊa•G* 2*|¼*j•†¡ž›G§„8§G*jG§¤„6K|¤‰¼*jªžJ&*K jª¡’G*—|†G*Ëa•-¢Ha+ÑDj’›kw¼*Éf„6|»*$f„I(¸* j†ªt¼*”K|‰›Gvф8(¸*j•M|:jŒ/*|HKf¤0ф8(* ŸªHÎG,$f’˜G*m¸aŒH¨›<&*¾(*§„8§›Gjª›žŒG*§›t›G fJÔ=Kj’›˜kG*K —|†G*¦{J¢HKm%f„¡¼*¦{J jª›žŒ+ §•I*3f¼§JK*'§„6v|†Ma¡gG**{J·K Õ+§›„6&*¨›<œžk„-K …ªg›kG* «JK¾K&¸*j•M|†G* f¤¡Hifg„6&*,aŒG£§˜-j+f/(¸*K"vф8(¸* ŸªHΛG StrengthjHKf•¼*,2fM5K&*Žf/΄6* ¨›<œžk„-Kh„‚G*j•M|:«JKjªIfnG*j•M|†G* Stiffness,$f„€¹*,2fM5K&*Žf/΄6* ŸªHΛGÕ+§›„6&* Function«’ª;§G*$*2&¸*Մ€³ §0£f„‚žEœž<j†„6*§+ŸªHÎG*jnGfnG*j•M|†G* Durability¢H~G*HœžtkG*Մ€³ “•„6&¸*Km*|ž˜G*K,až<&¸* AppearancejIf„6|»*|¤‰HՄ€³ œnH&¸*ŸªHÎG*¾(*§„8§G*j•+f„€G*—|†G*·«<K4a•GK Water Resistance$f¼*a„9~ŒG*Մ€³ —|†G*¢<Ÿ›˜kI£&*œgE¢˜GKj¡˜ž¼*“ªGf˜kG*œE&*H ¥ªG(*&*a„‚G*mfgg„€H§„8K¡¯uª›„€kG*aMa0jMfž0 jŒgk¼*jtªt„‚G*m*§†»*uª„9§-hqMŸªHΛGjª¡’G* vф8(¸*j•†¡H~ª¤± – vф8(¸*jª›žŒG vfÅ(*·œH*§ŒG*ŸJ&*¢HÌkŒMvф8(¸*§„­<2*a<(* ¨k0jIf„6|»*jG*5(*jª›ž<£fF&*$*§„6ŸªHÎG*jª›ž< vф8(ÑGjŒgk¼*m*§†»* aMa0vф8(*jª›ž<K&*uª›„€kG*aMa0œ’„6&¸§„8§G* …‚ªw„kG* – K&*¢•0K&*…ªg›-jª›žŒG¦~ª¤±K&*a„‚G*¢Huª›„€kG* …‚ªw„-jª›ž<¢Ha+¸vф8(*œž<¬&f+$agG*œgE ŸªHÎG*mfª›ž<¢HfJÔ= j›˜„ž›Gh„6f¡¼*vф8(¸*aMa³ŸkM¨k0jtªt„8 vф8(¸*jª›žŒGjžª›„€G*{ª’¡kG*j•M|: – if„‚¼*}‚¡ŒG*sfktMœJ'Kf„€-2|Mf¡JKjªIf„6|»* |JfHK…‚k«¡Dvф8(¸*jª›žŒ+ §•M£&*hqM ¾(*œ•¡IsfktM£fF*3(fD"¸ &*vф8(*¾(*jIf„6|»*¢H ¢HfJÔ=KŸªHÎG*jª›ž<K&*2*§¼*‡›1jª›ž<·$*§„6 jªGfkG*,§†»* K&*NfMKaM$N *§„62*§¼*{ª’¡-i§›„6&*j„8f1K{ª’¡kG*fž<&* vф8(¸*LKa/˧•-Kj„6*42 – Nfª˜ªIf˜ªH œE&*vф8(¸*jª›ž<œJvф8(¸*j’›˜-j„6*42f¤ªDŸkM jª›ž<¢Hj’›˜-œE&*¥G*agk„6*K¨¡g¼*jG*5(*œJ &*j’›˜…ªg›kG*j†„6*§+ŸªHÎG*¾K&¸*j•M|†G* ª†k„6&*¸KŸ¤H¨¡g¼*œJ2§/&*£§˜-Kvф8(¸* K&¸*i§›„6&¸* vф8(¸*jª›ž<™G3·K$f„I(¸*,aH¥¡<5f¡-&*£&* j•g†G*¾(*§„8§G*¨k0j+f„‚¼*jIf„6|»*jG*5(*ŸkM mf+f/(¸*Km¸'Kf„€kG*¢Hj<§žÀ*{˜JKœ„­D&* –:f¡ž›G™G3KŸ„64*a•¯uª›„€kG*aMa0œ’„6&*jžª›„€G* ,§†»*¾(*œ•¡Ij’›˜-œE&*K¬aÀvф8(¸*£fF*3(*K &*a„8uª›„€-aMa0f¤+a/§M«kG* jªGfkG* j•g†G*¾(*§„8§G*¨k0uª›„€kG*aMa0“ª‰¡-ŸkM mfM§GK&¸*aMa³KœžŒG*j†1„9K – N yfª„6&¸f+&*a„82§/K a<¢HaF&fkG*KjŒHÑG* mfM§GK&¸*Ô=ÑnH$f„I( ¸*$f¡.&*|¤‰-«kG*mfM§GK&¸*œJ N ¸uª›„€kG*aMaº¥’ª‰¡-¶¬{G*$~¹*£&*,f<*|HŸkM ÑnžD¨¡g¼*fžŒk„6*aŒ+|¤‰-«kG*i§ªŒG*jGf0· ·KaMaº*†•Hj0f„€H¢H¢<¥ªDœF%fkG*aM~M rGfŒ-£&*hqM¾K&¸*j.ÑnG*4§¤„G*·jIf„6|»*yK}7 Ž45Kyfª„6&¸*¦{J$fG(*ŸkMjg„€¡G*¦{J¢<,2fM~G*jGf0 f¤›ª/&f-5§qM¸KfŒDvф8(*¨›<§„‚t›Gj<}€+ ¢H¢M΄€ªG§gG*¢Hjª)fªžªF,2fHj†„6*§+L|1&*yfª„6&* ,a)*5fž0&¸l„9|Œ-«kG*jªIf„6|»*$f„­<&¸*yK}7fH&* uª›„€kG*aMa0Ž45KlªgnkGÕgF|H ug„‚M¸KlE§G*…­Œ+—|k„€kD¨¡g¼*fžŒk„6*aŒ+ hF|H¢Hjª„€F§gM*,2f¯¥IfJ2ŸkMaMaº*“ª‰¡-aŒ+ fž0&¸*D4¢˜H&**3(*j„8f1K¾K&*jM§GK&*f¤0ф8(* L|1&*,|HaMaº*&*a„‚G*¡¼™G3K™I~G*§JKa0*K *{˜JKif„‚¼*§„­ŒG*¢<

Al Omran 5th Issue | 56

Al Omran 5th Issue | 57

Technics Concrete Constructions Defects


Technics Curtain Walls

jª/f/~G*‡)*§¹* Èfg»*mf¤/*K¶

jM4fqkG*§›º*j„€„6'§H«„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€•G*

jIf„6|»*…7fž˜I*¢Hj››•HKj¡ª›H,2fHjDf„9(* ·mftkDœž<–M|:¢<$*§„6h„‚G*jª›ž<Ÿk- K&¸*œ„­D&¸*KhI*§¹*¢HK&*“•„€G* aŒ+K$f¼f+h„‚G*¢HÕ<§g„6&*,a¼j¹fŒ¼*jª›ž<Ÿk- “•„€›GmfHf<aG**~-|¤„7 j•+f„€G*—|†G*Žfg-(*¢˜ÃÉf„6|»*“•„€›Gjg„€¡Gf+K jH~0&¸*K,až<&¸*œž³,4aEj„6*42aŒ+™G3K¥žªHÎ+ ,2fM~›G  f¤+fg„6&*f¤<*§I&*jªIf„6|»*yK}G* 2f•G*2aŒG*· f¤/Ñ<—|:K

jª/f/~G*‡)*§º* f‰IlHawk„6*«kG*s*|+&¸*œ)*K&*¢H§›º*s|+

¨¡gž›Gœ„­D&*£fH&*œHf<ÔD§-œ/&*¢H«„9*ÎCD* kp vfM|G* ‡„9 jªžt¼*j¤/*§G* ¨¡g¼*Žf’-4*

jªžt¼*ԏG*j¤/*§G*

–:f¡¼*œF

Aj•†¡¼*

Bj•†¡¼* hªFÎG*E§H

…9Β¼*‡„­G*

A

B

C

D

A

B

C



















































































Al Omran 5th Issue | 59

wind pressurevfM|G*‡„9ŸªCEu„9§MKaC/ :f•¼*4fªk1*ŸkMoªt+™G{G,aŒ¼*K,2at¼*jGfº* 4fªkC1*ŸkMvfM|G*‡„­Gjg„6f¡¼*jžª•G*if„€0aŒ+ j‰0ÑHH‡„6§k¼*”*|tI¸*…‚tDÑ1¢H ‡g-|¼*†C•¼*4fªkC1*£&*oªC0h„6f¡¼*†C•¼* vfM|G*jG§ž0K:*§•G*fž0&¸+fkCk¼*ÔC.&fkG*£&* j‰t›G*4fªk1*Ñ1¢H¥+f„€0ŸkMvfM|G*jG§žt+ *{J·£fg„€º*·*{1&fM½ §ª¡H§G&¸*·Õ¡H*~k¼* j„‚„‚w¼*j•†¡ž›G†•¼*·«-*{G*4§„‚•›Gjg„6f¡¼* jª/f/~G*‡)*§º*,§EÔC.&f-™G{FK4fªk1¸* «J §ª¡H§G&¸*:f•H·j/|º*jGfº*£(fD f<œ˜„+K

¿fkG*œ˜„G*·fžFhªFΛG«•ª•º*Žf’C-4¸* ¢Hjª›’„€G*$*~/&¸*£(fD¨¡g¼*Žf’-4*”ÑkC1*a¡<K œ˜„+vfM|G*¢HjªžÁ£§˜-«kG*«J’C-|¼*¨¡g¼* –ª„€¡-}8f¡<KÉfg¼* ‡ªt¼*jžJf„€¼™G3Kœ„­D&* fž›F2*2~-vfM|G*j<}6£&¸™G{FK jgM|•G*E§¼* ¢˜Ê¨¡g¼*£(fD™G3HK…94&¸*u†„6¢<f¡Œ’-4* *{J£&*oª0vfM|›GN*2f„­H…€ªGNfª+f„€0¦4fgk<*

,2aŒkHjMf¡+uª›„€-K…€ª„6&f-a¡<fº*§JfžFԏG* –+*§†G* vfM|G*£5Kh„€0 §ª¡H§G&¸*:f•H4fªkC1* ¢HCurtain Wallsjª/f/~G*‡)*§º*£§C˜CkCL|1&*K mullions mfHf„€•G*«JKjM2§žC<$*~CC/&* £§˜-K transverses …94*§ŒG*«JKjªC•CD&* vfM|G*jG§ž0jM2§žŒG*$*~/&¸*·jª„€ª)|G*jG§žº* jª/f/~G*‡)*§º*£5Kjª•CD&¸*$*~/&¸*·fž¡ª+ ¾(*”a¤-«kG*Kjª/f/~G*‡)*§º*¢HŽ*§I&*,a<šf¡J ÔD§-HÕCM4fžŒ¼*Մ6a¡¤¼*ªž/mfg›†kH$f„94(* ¾(*jDf„9(¸f+–)*|º*jHKf•HK¢H&¸*K¬4*|º*~ŒG* jª/f/~G*‡)*§º*£*5K&*£(fD*{¤GKj„8f1mfg›†kH |1&¸Ž§I¢HN*ÔnCF“›kw|.'§MÑD §ª¡H§G&¸*:*§C•G«-*{G*£5§›Gjg„€¡Gf+fH&* «+f„€º*š§›„€G*¨›<|.'§M¸¥I&¸œª›tkG*a¡<N*ÔnF hªFÎGf+…8f»* j•†¡¼*Žf’C-4*¨›<ažkŒ-vfM|G*jG§ž0jžªE£&*fžF £fkC•†¡Hšf¡J¥I&*oª0hªCFÎG*f¤ªD¨¡gCM«kG* R ¢< Žf’C-4*¨k0–:f¡H¾K&¸*j•†¡¼*A |tgG*u†„6L§k„€H L§k„€H¢< ¢H¨›<&* –:f¡HjªIfnG*j•†¡¼*B |tgG*u†„6 m¸f0+4&*a/§kDhªFÎG*E§¼jg„€¡Gf+fH&* ,ԏ„8j¡MaH·¨¡gMR –+*§:jŒ+4&*¢HhªF|- jª’M4j•†¡HK&*,ԏ„8j¡MaH·¨¡gMhªF|- L|1&¸*Éfg¼*¢H¿f1£f˜H·¨¡gMhªF|- ¨IfgHa/*§kC-¸oª0|tgG*hIfq+¨¡gMhªF|- ¨¡g¼*Žf’C-4*,|H2fŒ-jDf„€H¨›<L|1&* hªFÎG*Žf’C-4* m¸fº*¦{Jf¡G|¤‰-hªFÎG*Žf’C-4¸jg„€¡Gf+  ¢HœE&*    K Õ+    K Õ+    K Õ+    K Õ+   ‡)*§º*hªF|- hªFÎG*£§˜MfHa¡<j‰0ÑH ¢<aM~M$f¡tIf+jŒ’C-|Hj•†¡H· jª/f/~G* U 4*atI¸*jM*a+¢H…6f•M”§„6¨¡g¼*Žf’-4*£(fD

j†Ef„€G*m*|ž˜G*Kj+f„‚¼*,až<¸*¢Hs3fÇ«›MfžªDK f¤’ª‰¡-j•M|:K

s*|F$f¡g+ "$f¡gG*a¤ŒkH"“›˜M£&*žkq¼*2fk<* ¥¡˜GKa0*K4K2¢H£§˜HlE'§Hԏ„8¨¡gHK&* ¨¡gH«¡gM£&*'K|qM¸Õ¡„€G*|H¨›<¥-*Ì1œFH ™G{FKmfªŒg-¢H¥Gf¼¥•-f<¨›<4*K2&¸*2aŒkH £*5K&ÑGj•ªE2jªž›<mf+f„€0¢H¥/fktMf¼ fž0&¸*K ÔgF &*£fFԏ„8«¡D¬&*ª†k„€Mfº*™G{FK |†»*£&*oª0 §ª¡H§G&*šfg„7hF|MK¡„‚M£&* …€ªGK$*§¤G*K$f¼*i}€-§J2§/§¼*aª0§G* v*K4&¸*¨›<|†1™Gf¡J Curtain Wallsjª/f/~G*mf¤/*§G*¢˜GK …6f¡G*v*K4&f+—aÁ|†1fJ4fª¤I(*œnžkM«kG*K ,2aÁjªž›<jªq¤¡Hj†„6*§+h„€³£&*hqM ¦{¤Gjtªt„‚G*jD|Œ¼*¥MaG…6a¡¤Hf¤›žŒ+ §•M ¦f±jªIa¼*jªGK'§„€¼*œžtkM¿fkGf+Kmf+f„€º*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 58

jg„€¡Gf+ՒŒ„9«JjDf„€H·hªFÎG*•MfHa¡<fž¡ª+ §J£§˜M”§„6Žf’C-4¸*£(fD¨¡g¼*Žf’C-4¸


Technics Psychological Effects of Colors

|’„‚¼*}­1&¸*£§›G*K}­w¼*—45&¸*£§›G* £*§G&¸*K«„6f„6&*£§›F|žt¼*«q„€’¡gG*£§›G*K&* «q„€’¡gG*£§›G*ŸžkH }­w¼*|’„8&¸*£§›G,4Kfq¼* |’„8&¸*K}­1&¸*£fI§›G*fžJK £*§G&¸*,|)*2¨›< «.ÑnG*Ÿ=f¡kG* f¤„­Œ+¢<aŒgG*jMKf„€kH£*§G&*j.Ñ.4fªk1*ŸkMK ¬Kf„€kHo›nHŸ„6|+™G3ŸkMK£*§G&¸*,|)*2·…­ŒgG*

£*§G&·*Ó.&f-

£f„€I(·*…€’I¨›<

$f¡gG* 5*§GKmfIfJa›G¢M~¼*jF}7«„6a¡¤G*Ÿ„€•G* jM2f0&¸*£*§G&¸*fžŒk„6*  fŒ†G*jGf„8·|ž0&¸*£§›G* *awk„6*

j’:fŒG*Kˆf„¡G*K,2§¼f+N*4§Œ„7«†ŒMKh›•G*mfE2 ¥Hawk„€-*3f¼}€’M*{JK fŒ†G*jª¤„7ÔnMNf„­M&*§JK  fŒ†G*jGf„8£fJ2·Nf•D§HN*4fª1aŒM*3f¼KŸ<f†¼* N*§J5£*§G&¸*ÐF&*¢H¿f•-ÌG*£§›G*ÌkŒM¿f•-ÌG*£§›G* a¡<j›)f’k¼*vK|G*KjªGfŒ’I¸*jEf†G*¢<̌MKNfcD2K

j„ªŒ¼*jGf„8·¿f•-ÌG*£§›G* *awk„6*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 61

hª0|-KjŒ„6«†ŒMKÔ.&fkG*2f0Ô=£§G§JK£f„€I(¸* j„ªŒ¼*Kfg•k„6¸*m¸f„8£fJ2· awk„€M™G{G f’:&¸* §I”|=£fJ2·¥H*awk„6*¢˜ÊK v|¼f+Nf„6f„€0(*´f’G*|’„8&¸*£§›G*«†ŒM|’„8&¸*£§›G* «0§M§JK'Kf’kG*Ksf¤k+¸f+4§Œ„G*K—*}7(¸*K ™G{G¦fgkI¸*h›qMK£*§G&¸*¢H¦Ô=¢HÐF&*$§„­Gf+ œ1a¼*K§¤gG*·«¡gž›G«›1*aG*Ÿªž„‚kG*· awk„€M Ÿ¤t¡Ê¥I§F™G3K¢„€G*4fgF”|=· awk„€MK „8f¡G*|’„8&¸*fH&*|1%*£§G¬&*¢HÐF&*,2fŒ„€Gf+N*4§Œ„7 ¢„€G*4fgFNfª„€’I–›•M¬{G*K|<f„¼*rªª¤-¨›<œžŒM if„G*K}8f•G*K

H£§›G*œ<f’-¢H¨-&fk-«kG*K¥¡Hj/4ak¼*£*§G&¸*Ÿ.  2§„6&¸*¬2fH|G*…­ª+&¸* jM2fªº*£*§G&¸* ¬{G*K«„€’¡G*£*§G&¸*Ÿ›ŒDf•¼*Ž§„9§H¾(*2§ŒIK LaHKŸ¤-f<fg†I*K…6f¡G*mÑHfŒHœª›³·otgM NfH§¤’HÔn-j¡ªŒHNfI*§G&*£&*L|Mj’›kw¼*£*§G&¸f+ŸJ|.'§Ÿ„€•¡-jHf<£*§G&¸fD«„€’¡G*fJÔ.&fkGNf•g:NfM§EKNf„8f1 *{JjD|ŒHKjG2fŒkH£*§G&*K&*,24f+K&*jcD*2£*§G&*¾(* h„6f¡¼*£§›G*4fªk1*¨›<a<f„€MŸª„€•kG*¢HŽ§¡G* mf=*|’G*£fJaG £*§G&¸*,|)*2¨›<fJaÅ,4fº*K&*jcD*aG*£*§G&¸*K Õ+KNfcD2£*§G&¸*a„7&*§J¬{G*|ž0&¸*Õ+,4§„‚Á Õ+,4§„‚t¼*«J,24fgG*£*§G&¸*K}­w¼*|’„8&¸* §JN*3(*}­w¼*|’„8&¸fD«q„€’¡gG*K}­w¼*|’„8&¸* ¢˜ÊKjcD*aG*£*§G&¸*K,24fgG*£*§G&¸*Õ+fHœ„8f’G*aº* …€˜ŒGf+K¥ªD|’„8&¸*£§G2*25**3(*NfcD*2£§›G**{J4fgk<* £§›G*2*5K|’„8&¸*£§›G*œE*3(*N*24f+NfI§G¦4fgk<*¢˜Ê }­1&¸* j+fqk„6¸*¨›<…€˜Œ¡M«„€’IÔ.&f-Nf„­M&*£*§G&ÑGK  §•-oª0jM§ªº*¥’)f;K¨›<fJ4Ka+|.'§-KjM§„­ŒG* œnH£f„€I(¸*a¡<jª„€º*Kjª’:fŒG*mfª›žŒG*‡ª„¡k+ j<}6K ¿f•-ÌG*K&*¶f•G*|ž0&¸*£§›G*H jª¤„G*,2fM5 *{˜JK |ž0&¸*£§›G*H h›•G*mfE2

jcD*aG*£*§G&¸* ,24fgG*£*§G&¸*N jEÑ<Ô= ,4*|º*j/42K£*§G&¸*Õ+jª„€’IjEÑ<šf¡J |‰¡M«q„€’¡gG*K}­1&¸*K—45&¸*œnH£*§G&¸*j<§žÀ £*§G&¸fD ÎH§HÎG*f¤ª›<aM«kG*jª)fM~ª’G*,4*|º* $f¼f+f¤I*ÎE*¾(*¥Œ/|H™G3œŒGK,24f+£*§G&fFf¤ªG(* œŒGK$”aGf+…6f¡G*|Œ„-|’„8& ¸*K¿f•-ÌG*K|ž0&¸* S ,}­1K$fH¢HjŒªg†G*K$fž„€G*jE45¢H¥I§G…€˜Œ¡¼* 4f¡G*£§GK…€ž„G*£§›+f¤I*ÎE*¾(*/|M™G3 …6f¡G*…€0·N*24f+NfI§G¢F*aG*¬2fH|G*£§›G*aÅfž¡ª+ dD*2£§Gm*{Gf+ÌkŒM|ž0&¸*£§›G*|ž0&¸*£§›G* |†¼*Kifg„­Gf+¥I*ÎE*¾(*¥Œ/|H™G3œŒGK ¨›<«/§G§ª„€DÔ.&f-¥Gj•ª•º*·KÔnHK&*kì§EK $Ka¤G*K£§˜„€Gf+|Œ„M—45&¸*£§›G*—45&¸*£§›G* j<}6K aG*‡„9¢H|ž0&¸*£§›G*aM~MK…6f¡G*Ÿ‰ŒH £fD"Ô¤„G*h-f˜G*jtª„‚I}€’M™G3œŒGKhº*K

£§›G*Õ+«.ÑnG*Ÿ=f¡kG* ¿f•-ÌG*£§›G*H}­1&¸* «q„€’¡gG*£§›G*H

«„6f„6&*£§›F|žt¼*«q„€’¡gG*£§›G* |’„8&¸*Ÿžk¼*£§›G,4Kfq¼*£*§G&¸*K £§›G*K}­1&¸*£§›G*fžJK}­w¼* |’„8&¸*

H|ž0&¸*s~H¢Hrk¡MK É*§/4&¸* £§›G* «q„€’¡gG* ¿f•-ÌG*H|’„8&¸*¢Hrk¡MK¿f•-ÌG*|’„8&¸*£§›G* H—45&¸*s~H¢Hrk¡MK}­w¼*—45&¸*£§›G* }­1&¸* H¿f•-ÌG*s~H¢Hrk¡MK¿f•-ÌG*|ž0&¸*£§›G* |ž0&¸* H}­1&¸*s~H¢Hrk¡MK|’„‚¼*}­1&¸*£§›G* |’„8&¸* H—45&¸*¢Hrk¡MK«q„€’¡gG*—45&¸*£§›G* «q„€’¡gG* …­ŒgG*f¤„­Œ+Hj„€IfqkHKj•„6f¡kH£*§G&*4fªk1¸K jž‰I&¸*¢Ha0*K–DKfJ4fªk1*Ÿž„‚¼f+4aqM £*§G&¸*,|)*2¨›<j•g†¼*jªI§›G* mfžª„€•kG*

Ԙ’kG*2|qžgDNf•ª.KNf:fg-4*£fJaGf+£*§G&¸*l†g-4* ,2aŒk¼*f¤ªIfŒ¯£*§G&¸*£fJ3&¸*¾(*42fgk-£fJaG*jª›žŒ+ £§›G*jª)fM~ªDm*Ô.&f-£fª0&¸*…­Œ+·d„¡-£*§G&¸fD jªDf•.m¸§GaHf¤GK aG*‡„9¢HaM~M|ž0&¸* N*~H4i§Œ„G*…­ŒgGjg„€¡Gf+œ˜„M…­ª+&¸*£§›G* …9|GK –~)f¡¹*K£~t›GN*~H4L|1&*i§Œ„GKs*K~›G jD|ŒH«g¡M£*§G&ÑG–D§¼*4fªk1¸*¾(*§„8§G* jª„€’¡G*f¤-*Ô.&f-Kf¤ªIfŒHKf¤-¸§GaH j„6*42$f†<(*¢Ha+¸f•¼*Ž§„9§H·…9§»*œgEK œnžk-£&*¢˜Ê«kG*K£*§G&¸*jM|‰Ie2fgH¢<j†„€gH a0&*h„€0£*§G&¸* j›q< ,|)*2Ñ1¢HNfM}‚+ j’›kw¼*jªI§›G*jž‰I&¸*

j¡Mfgk¼*£*§G&¸* ,&*|/KjªGf<,4f¤Hh›†k-j¡MfgkH£*§G&*4fªk1*jª›ž<K a0&*h„€0ÐF&*K&*ÕI§G4fªk1*¢˜ÊKŸž„‚¼*œgE¢H

|’„8&¸*K|ž0&¸*K—45&¸*£*§G&¸* *awk„6f+«.ÑnG*Ÿ=f¡kG*

j+§›†¼*£*§G&¸*¨›<¦fM*K5}7'§kG,|)*aG*œ1*2ŽÑ„9&¸* K&*|’„8&¸*£§›G*H|ž0&¸*£§›G*H—45&¸*£§›G*œnH «q„€’¡gG*£§›G*H¿f•-ÌG*£§›G*H}­1&¸*£§›G* j/4ak¼*£*§G&¸* ¾(*j/4ak¼*£*§G&¸*Ÿ„€•¡-K «„6f„6&*a0*K£§G4fªk1*ŸkMK,4Kfqk¼*£*§G&¸* £§›G*4fªk1*œnH¥G¢M4Kfq¼*ÕI§›G*Ÿ.ŽK}ž›G —4~¼*}­1&¸*fžJK¥G¢M4Kfq¼*ÕI§›G*K—45&¸* —4~¼*«q„€’¡gG*K ŽK}ž›Ga0*K£§G4fªk1*ŸkMK¬2f0&¸*£§›G*

£§G¢HjI§˜¼*jªI§›G*,|)*aG* |’„‚¼*}­1&¸*£§›G* £§›G*K¥GŸžk¼*£§›G*K |žt¼*«q„€’¡gG*

£§›G*jžžkH£*§G&* —45&¸*K|’„‚¼*¿f•-ÌG* ¢F*aG*

£§G¢H£§˜k-£*§G&¸* j›q< ,|)*2 £*§G&¸*¢Hmf<§žÀpÑ.¾(*fJ4Ka+Ÿ„€•¡-K ¾K&¸*j<§žq¼* —45&¸*K|’„8&¸*K|ž0&¸*jª„6f„6&¸*£*§G&*j.ÑnG*Ÿ„­-K jªIfnG*j<§žq¼* £*§G&¸*s~H¢Hrk¡-«kG*jM§IfnG*£*§G&*j.ÑnG*Ÿ„­-K «JKf¤¡ª+fžªDjª„6f„6&¸* |’„8&¸*H—45&¸*s~H¢Hrk¡MK}­1&¸*£§›G* |’„8&¸*H|ž0&¸*s~H¢Hrk¡MK¿f•-ÌG*£§›G* —45&¸*H|ž0&¸*s~H¢Hrk¡MK«q„€’¡gG*£§›G* jnGfnG*j<§žq¼* HjM§IfnG*£*§G&¸*s~H¢Hrk¡-«kG*£*§G&*jk„€G*Ÿ„­-K  j›q< ,|)*2¨›<f¤G4Kfq¼*jª„6f„6&¸*£*§G&¸*a0&* «JK£*§G&¸*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 60

™G3¢H«„€’¡G*Ô.&fkG*LaHK‘*|’G*…€’¡Gj’›k£*§G&*,a<fžŒk„6*

jªGfkG*j•k„¼*jž‰I&¸* |†E¨›< ՛+f•kHÕI§G4fªk1*ŸkMKjžžk¼*£*§G&¸* £§›G*K|’„‚¼*}­1&¸*£§›G*œnH£*§G&¸*,|)*2· a0*K £§›G*K|’„‚¼*¿f•-ÌG*£§›G*™G{FK|žt¼*«q„€’¡gG* ¢CF*aG*—45&¸* ŽK}ž›GNfª„6f„6&*NfI§G4fªk1*ŸkMK,|†„¡¼*jžžk¼*£*§G&¸* £§›G*™G3fnHŸžk¼*£§›G¢M4Kfq¼*ÕI§›G*™G{FK £§›G¢M4Kfq¼*ÕI§›G*4fªk1*K«„6f„6&*£§›F|ž0&¸* fžJK £*§G&¸*,|)*2¨›<|ž0&¸*£§›G*ŸžkH }­1&¸*


Eithics The Ethical Law for Engineers

oŒ„7œHfFÕGfžF 2 jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹*…€ª)4

Al Omran 5th Issue | 63

¥ŒE§HK¥kIf˜H e2fg¼*KŸª•G*«¡g-Kªžq›GjDK|ŒHKjH§›ŒH£§˜-j¡¤ž›G—Ñ1& *$f„64(*£(* P …6a¡¤¼*¥›ªH5K…6a¡¤¼*Õ+jEьG*·jªEÑ1&¸*hI*§¹*Kf¡kM+*|G*4§t¼*K žkq¼*K ԏ„‚G* Մ6a¡¤¼*žkÀ¨›<’¡Gf+2§ŒMžkq¼*¢H,4aQ•¼R *fª›ŒG*  §•M™G{FK¢‰G*¢„€0K}8f¡kG*K£KfŒkG*¨›<¨¡gR-oªt+£§˜-£&*«g¡MfžF l„€„6&*«kG*,Ôn˜G*jª¡¤¼*m*|µ'§¼*ma•<aEK¦§/K,a<¢H Ôg˜G* Ÿ¤+‡ªt¼* hª›-¢H4f:(*·¥›F™G3K$f¡gG*a•¡G*Kj’M}G*j„€Df¡¼*¨›<L|1&*jª0fI¢H ¥¡<l„­wµfH|¤„7&*¢H£fFKj¡¤¼*j„64fž¼jªEÑ1&¸*hI*§¹*lŒ+f-KlV›„8&*K žkqž›GjHfŒG*jt›„‚ž›G ¬{G*K"Մ6a¡¤ž›G«EÑ1&¸*£§If•G*"¨ž„€M£§IfE¢Hf¤¡<4a„8fHj†„I&¸*¦{J ,fªt›G«•I«t„8§/2fqM(¸jH5ÑG*jªEÑ1&¸*hI*§¹*Kf¡kM…€Hf»*4§t¼*K 2§žt¼*K–)ÑG*”}‚kG*¥ª›<£§˜M£&*«g¡MfHœ„‚’-Ku„9§-N*a¡+·4a„8 žkÀŸ„€/œ1*2œž<mfªG%*KŸ‰IŸ)f<2¨„6|-oªt+Մ6a¡¤¼*žkÀ·jª¡¤¼* f¤G£§„9|ŒkM«kG*“E*§¼*h„€t+Kj’›kw¼*”K|‰G*·Մ6a¡¤¼*K&*…6a¡¤¼*¢H ,fªº*i§„-aEjªg›„642*§+jM&*Nfª)fEK §•-KŸ¤¡ª+jª+fqM( ¸*vK|G*«ž¡-Մ6a¡¤¼* |1%f+K&*œ˜„+mfg/*KŸ¤ª›<f¤GKf¤ŒH£§›HfŒkM«kG*mf¤¹*“›k¦f±K T jª¡¤¼* ½fŒG*L§k„€H¨›<jª¡¤¼*mfªGfŒ’G*Kj†„I&¸**~-¸KlG*§-aEK*{J Žfžk/*·4a„8¬{G*Մ6a¡¤ž›G«EÑ1&¸*£§If•G*£&*|F{Gf+|Ma¹*¢HK j„64fÃjª˜ªHf¡M2Ÿ˜t+,aqk„€¼*jªEÑ1&¸*hI*§q›Guª„9§kG*KœªŒ’kG*KՄ€tk›G N ˆf„¡G*Ÿ‰¡-«kG*jª¼fŒ›GK&*j¼§Œ›GNfª+fqM(*Nf•ªg†-K¸fnH£§˜MaE«¼f<«¡¤H m&*|:«kG*jª<fžk/¸*KjM2f„‚kE¸*Kjª¡’G*Kjªž›ŒG*m*aqk„€¼*HNf+Kf±j¡¤¼* e2fg¼fDmfŒžkq¼*¢HžkÀ¬&¸«¡•kG* a•kG*LaH¢<|‰¡G*…­+Éf„€I(¸* «„6a¡¤G*ˆf„¡G*¥¡ž„9¢HKÉf„€I(¸*ˆf„¡G*¨›<&*|†-K …6a¡¤¼*œž<·jª„6f„6&*NfgI*§/Kf¡k-f¤›F¢˜M½£(*f¤ž‰ŒH·jªEÑ1&¸* mfªEÑ1&*u„9§-«kG*2§¡gG*£&*aÅՄ6a¡¤ž›G«EÑ1&¸*£§If•G*…9*|Œk„6f+K $*§„6KjªGfŒG*jª¡•kG*K&*j†ª„€gG*jMaª›•kG*œ)f„6§G*ŽK}¼**{J· awk„€M£fF$*§„6 4KfÁ,a<¨›<f¤-4§›+Kf¤Œªž±¢˜Êj¡¤¼* ,aMa<ÕMÑ+K&*ÔIfIaG*K&*m*4¸KaG*¢H”¸%*jŒ„­+jªGf¼*ŽK}¼*jžªElIfF ·ŸJ4K2K4§¤ž¹*¦f±Մ6a¡¤¼*K…6a¡¤¼*jªG§c„€H£fª+¥DaJK&¸*4§t¼* ¢˜-½£(*j¤+f„kHjªEÑ1&¸*,|‰¡G*Ka0*Kh/*§G*K,a0*KjªGK'§„€¼fDf¤¡H ¥kªž¡-K¦|M§†-K¥kMfž0Kžkq¼*¨›<j‰Dft¼* £§›HfŒkM¢M{G*¢)f+~G*HœHfŒkG*·jªEÑ1&¸*hI*§¹*Kf¡kMÉfnG*4§t¼*K 4f:(*·Ÿk-£&* ~›M«kG*Kj+§›†¼*jª„6a¡¤G*jHa»*Ÿ¤G a•ªG…6a¡¤¼*H,}7fgH …6a¡¤ž›G|Ma•kG*KjH*|˜G*|D§MKjHa»*hGf:£§+~G*jt›„‚H awMªD4«EÑ1&*  awk„€¼*K&*œžŒG*i4HœHfŒkG*·jªEÑ1&¸*hI*§¹*Kf¡kMoGfnG*4§t¼*K  fª•G*KjIfH&¸*$*2&*…6a¡¤¼*¬|³¢H™G3¥H~›k„€MfHK…6a¡¤¼*¥MaGœžŒM¬{G* …6a¡¤ž›GNf„­M&*Š’tMf¯K¥¡H awk„€¼*¥ŒE§kMfHh„€t+¥Hawk„€H¦f±h/*§Gf+

‘*|’G*·£fJaG*K£*§G&¸*Õ+ |¤‰¼*§JKhª†„kG*œ0*|H¢Hj›0|H|1%*£fJaG*ÌkŒM 4fªk1*a¡<,a<4§H&*,f<*|HhqM™G{G¨¡gž›G«)f¤¡G* f¤¡H£fJaG*£§G M5§-jªG%*¨<*|Mf¤I*§G&*4fªk1*a¡<jª›1*aG*mf=*|’G* £*§G&*Õ+Kfž¤¡ª+ fq„€I*šf¡J£§˜ªGf¤›1*2,$f„9(¸* h„6f¡kM,$f„9(ÑGj/fJ§G*uª+f„‚¼* *awk„6*a¡ŒD£fJaG* l¡„€M4§›’G*uª+f„‚HfH&*|’„8&¸*K|ž0&¸*£fI§›G*f¤ŒH «›1*aG*‘*|’G*·}­1&¸*K—45&¸*ÕI§›G*…€˜Œ,$f„9(¸*¥›„‚-¸NfžkŒH£fF*3(*«›1*aG*‘*|’G* *3(*fH&*Nf’ª’1Nf³fD£fJaG*£§G£§˜M£&*œ„­’ªDjªDf˜G* u„‚¡ªD,aMa„7,$f„9(¸K&*4f¤+(¸«›1*aG*‘*|’G*…9|Œjµf•G*£*§G&¸* *awk„6f+ ·«›1*aG*‘*|’G*h„6f¡M¬{G*£§›G* *awk„6*ŸkM ,$f„9(¸*}‚¡<,f<*|HH¥GfžŒk„6*f¤ªDИM«kG*mfEK&¸* «<f¡„‚G*K«Œªg†G* mftkDlIfF*3(*,24fgG*£*§G&¸*fžŒk„6*œ„­’M £&¸‘*|’G*œ1*2¢Hjª+§¡¹*j¤/*§G*¨›<™ª+fg„G* fž¡ª+,}7fg¼*…€ž„G*jŒ„7&¸…9|Œk-jª+§¡¹*j¤/*§G* ‘*|’G*œ1*2¢HjªGfž„G*j¤/*§G*¨›<™ª+fg„G*mftkD …€ž„G*jŒ„7&*f¤ª-&f-¸oª0jcD*aG*£*§G&¸*fžŒk„6*œ„­’M ,}7fg¼* oª0¢Hmf=*|’G*¨›<Nft„9*KN*Ô.&f-£*§G&¸*«†Œ- –ª„­+$N ftM(*«†Œ-jµf•G*£*§G&¸fDf¤•ª„9Kf¤<f„€-* ‘*|’G*jŒ„€+$N ftM(*«†ŒkDj³f’G*£*§G&¸*fH&*‘*|’G* £*4a¹*£§GHpf.&¸*Ÿq0K£§G,f<*|HhqM ‘*|’›G N*ԏ„8£fF*3(*¥žq0¢HÌF&*‘*|’G*KagM«˜G £§›G*œnHa0*K£§G¢HjI§›H,$f„9(*fžŒk„6*¢˜žªD fžŒk„6*K£§›G**{J¢Hj’›kÂmf/42¨›<}­1&¸* jŒ„€+$N ftM(*KNfM}‚+Nf<*a1pat S MR S ¬{G*Kj³f’G*£*§G&¸* ‘*|’G* £§›+£*4a¹*£fJa+u„‚¡ªDN*a/N*ÔgF‘*|’G*£fF*3(* ‘*|’G*Ÿq0¢Hœª›•k›G¶fE £§›+“•„€G*£fJ2ŸkM£&*vΕM…­’w¡¼*“•„€G* £*4a¹*£fJ2K‘*|’G*„6§+…6f„€0(¸*ÔnªG„8fI…­ª+&* £f˜¼*Žf’-4f+N*4§Œ„7«†ŒMfÃjª„6&*4ˆ§†w+

…64*a¼* Ô.&f-¥Gj<2fw¼*£*§G&¸*¢H§JK«q„€’¡gG*£§›G* 4f„‚G*¥+hqŒMKjª„6f„€º*Kv|’Gf+«0§M«„€’I ·K£fªk’G*Kf’:&¸*”|=·vfq¡+¥H*awk„6*ŸkMK j+%f˜›GN*4a„‚H£§˜MaEœ+f•¼*·KhŒ›G*mf0f„6 ¢„€G*4fg˜Gjg„€¡Gf+

 §¡G*jD|=·—45&¸*£§›G* *awk„6*

—45&¸*£§›G* *awk„6f+ "¿fn¼*s*K~G*"¥+fkF· "a›ªD  *awk„6f+u„‚¡MR ¸œ+f•¼*·KՏGfgG* §I”|=$цG ¢H“Œ„­Moª0 fŒ†G*m¸f„8·—45&¸*£§›G*  fŒ†›Gjª¤„G* œ‰Gf+Nf„6f„€0(*«†ŒM}­1&¸*£§›G*}­1&¸*£§›G* §JKif„‚<&¸*K|‰¡›GjtM|¼*£*§G&¸*¢H§JKj0*|G*K §¤D™G{G£§˜„€Gf+«0§MKjŒªg†G*·hGfG*£§›G* «¡gG*rªgG*¬2fH|G*…­ª+&¸* jG2fŒk¼*£*§G&¸*¢Hj<§žÀ *awk„6* ,aMft¼* jG2fŒk¼*£*§G&¸*NfnGf. …­ª+&¸*œnHNfI*§G&*Ÿ„­-«kG*KjG2fŒk¼*£*§G&¸*j<§žÀ a<f„€-£*§G&¸*¦{JKrªgG*K«¡gG*K2§„6&¸*K¬2fH|G*K £*§G&¸*Õ+jž)Ѽ*¨›<a<f„€-Kmfª’›»*œž<¨›< £*§G&¸* *awk„6*¨›<a<f„€-jG2fŒk¼*£*§G&¸*Kj’›kw¼* £*§G&¸*¦{J¢HKŸªž„‚kG*fž<&*·j’›kw¼* ÐF&¸*£*§G&¸*¢H…­ª+&¸*£§›G*ÌkŒM…­ª+&¸*£§›G* $f•¡G*K,2§¹*K,$f„9(¸f+‡g-|MK«•I£§G§JKNf<§†„6 ,aMa<ŸªJf’HKm¸¸2¥GK Ñ„€G*Kj0*|G*h›qMK …­ª+&¸*£§›G*…‚)f„‚1¢HKmfª’„k„€¼f+j›„8¥GK £§›G*K¥gIf/¾(*£§G¬&*Ô.&f-,§E…­’1¨›<¥-4aE |1%*£§G¬&f+|.&fkM¸«•¡G*…­ª+&¸* œªÊ¥I(fDj•G&fk¼*£*§G&¸*H…­ª+&¸*£§›G*‡›1a¡<K jª+fg„9Ž§†„6m*3£*§G&*¾(*f¤›M§³Kf¤•G&f-h›„6¾(* j’›kÂmf0f„€¯mf=*|’G*…­Œ+· awk„€MKjžkŒH ¾(*jDf„9(¸f+£*§G&¸*¢HÔn˜G*H¥H*awk„6*¢˜ÊK ¦{J¢Hj’›kÂmfqM4a-œžŒG£*§G&¸f+¥†›1jªIf˜H(* £*§G&¸* jEfI&¸*K,§•Gf+jEÑ<¥†+|-2§„6&¸*£§›G*2§„6&¸*£§›G* m¸§GaH™G{F¥GK–žŒGf+4§Œ„7«†ŒMKmfªž„6|G*K a<f„€M¢˜GK¦2|’¯ awk„€M¸,2f<£§G§JKjªg›„6 £§˜„€G*K§ž„€G*¢HjG~¡H¾(*§„8§›GL|1&¸*£*§G&¸* Nf„8§„‚1KL|1&¸*£*§G&¸*¢HaMaŒG*HšÎ„MK NfI*§G&*«†ŒªG|ž0&¸*£§›GfFjM§•G*KjcD*aG*£*§G&¸* ¢˜GKmf=*|’G*¢HaMaŒG*· awk„€MKjµfEK,|HfH ,2KaÁmf0f„€¯KjMf¡Œ+ jI~k¼*£*§G&¸*¢H¬2fH|G*£§›G*ÌkŒM¬2fH|G*£§›G* £*§G&¸*ÐF&*§J‡„6§k¼*¬2fH|G*Nf„8§„‚1K,aMft¼* ¾(*œªÊÔgŒkG*¢HNfHfµf1£§G§JKN*2fª0f¤Œªž/ ,2KÌG*¾(*Kj¡1f„€G*£*§G&¸f+s~kÊfHa¡<jI§w„€G* §tM¬2fH|G*K,24fgG*£*§G&¸f+¥/*~kH*2*2~MfHa¡< ¬2fH|G*„9KKjžq„€¡H£*§G&*¾(*£*§G&¸*mf¡Mfg· awk„€MK£§›G*,a„7¢HaM~MfH£§G4*§q+

 fŒ†G*m¸f„8·}­1&¸*£§›G* *awk„6*

jª›1*aG*,$f„9(¸*·¥GfžŒk„6*{gtMKfžŒk„6¸*2aŒkH £fJ2·™G{FœžŒk„€MKj„ªŒ¼*m¸f„8K §¡G*”|G œžŒk„€MK fŒ†G*Km¸f’k0¸*m¸f„8Kx+f†¼*£*4a/ ·KœžŒG*¢FfH&*Kmfª’„k„€¼*·Nf„­M&*£§›G**{J

 §¡G*jD|=·«q„€’¡gG*£§›G* *awk„6*

Al Omran 5th Issue | 62

Մ6a¡¤ž›G«EÑ1&¸*£§If•G*

£*§G&¸*HNf„8§„‚1Kmf=*|’G*¢HaMaŒG*·Kmfª’›»* jM2f0&¸* N £§G§JKNfcD*2¸2fŒkHN fI§G«¡gG*£§›G*ÌkŒM«¡gG*£§›G* pf.&¸*·,И+«¡gG*£§›G* awk„€MK‡ª„€+Kl+f.Ô= j14f„‚G*£*§G&¸*a0&*H awk„€MaEK«Œªg†G*«g„»* Nf„6f„€0(*«¡gG*£§›G*«†ŒMK|ž0&¸*K&*5*§FÎG*£§›G*œnH j’G&¸*K„9*§kG*j’„8u¡ÊKif„‚<&¸*$Ka¤+ j•D*§kHjª„8f1¥Gh›•kH£§G§JrªgG*£§›G*rªgG*£§›G* jª’›wFÌkŒM§JKjM§•G*jcD*aG*K,24fgG*£*§G&¸*H $f1΄6¸*¢HNf<§I«†ŒªG‘*|’G*· awk„€MKjG2fŒkH L|1&¸*£*§G&¸*H awk„€M™G{FK£§˜„€G*K ¨›<fJa<f„€ªGf¤¡Hjµf•G*Nf„8§„‚1Kf¤ªG(*”f„­MK jg„6f¡H,4§„‚+fJ4f¤;(*


Thoughts Nowdays Heroes

j›0|¼*£f„6|D «„€¡¼*2§žÁ“„6§M 2 j„6a¡¤G*jª›Faªž< ·Éa¼*žkq¼*jF4f„H$f¡gG*K4fž<(¸*,2f<(*|M|tkG*aŒ+,~=Žf†E m*KaIKm*|µ' P §¼¢MKf¡<K¢MKf¡<mf¡:§k„€HÑ+,~=Žf†E4fž<(¸* £f„6|Da0&*§J…6a¡¤¼*Kœg•k„€¼f+'Kf’-KfH%*KՄ‚„‚wkHK՞k¤¼m*4fŒ„7K ¥¡H¦|‰k¡Mf¼¥-a<…6a¡¤¼**{Ja<&*œ¤DԞŒkG*K$f¡gG*,2f<(*$*§GœHf0Kj›0|¼* |M§†-K$f¡+·fJ4K2jª+f•¡G*Kjªžª›ŒkG*f¡-f„€„6'§Hm{1&*œJK"¥¡:KK¥ŒžkÀ "|M§†kG*K$f¡gG*,Ԅ€H·¬2fM|G*¦4K2{1&*¢H¢˜žkªG…6a¡¤¼*m*4aE «J¦{¤Dfq¼**{J·fJ4Ka+ŸJf„€-£&*Kf³mf„€„6'§¼*…­Œ+£&*uªt„8 hF*§kGjªÊ2fF&¸*f¤À*|+|M§†kGNfHK2¨Œ„€-,~+jªHф6(¸*jŒHf¹f+j„6a¡¤G*jª›F jIfH&*œž0¨›<¢M42f•G*Մ6a¡¤¼*rM|w-·¬2fM|G*fJ4K2{1&fkGKaMa/œF N,aJf/œžŒ-K,aMa¹*mf„‚„‚wkG*¢Hj›0|¼*mf/fªk0*…€„€tk-K4fž<(¸* „­-«Jf¤Dj+§›†¼*rH*ÌG*Kmf„‚„‚wkG*vfkkD¸jªž„6|G*mf¤¹*H–ª„€¡kGf+ rHfI|+ fŒG**{JltkkD*£&*aŒ+jªcªgG*j„6a¡¤G*…‚„‚w-¨›<,Ô1&¸*mf„€ž›G* jDf„9(*i§„6fº*Km¸f„‚-¸*mf„‚„‚w-·jª)f+|¤˜G*j„6a¡¤G*·fª›ŒG*mf„6*4aG* * 2fžk<¸jk+f.¨†w+Ԅ€MœžŒG*K,2aŒk¼*f¤-f„‚„‚wk+jªIa¼*j„6a¡¤G*·f¤À*|+¾( N œ†-KÕ0œF·ž›-m*}g¼*lG*5fHKjM4fžŒ¼*j„6a¡¤G*·Ôk„€/f¼*rHfI|+ jªGKaG*Kjª›t¼*mf•+f„€¼*·ÕqM|»*mf0fÅK~ªµf¡ª›< iK$aG*$f†ŒGf+,~ªžk¼*KjªGfº*f¤-4K2·K,~=mf‰Dft¯Մ6a¡¤¼*j+f•I¦{JK œžŒG*¢HN*~ªžkHNf/3§ÇŸ„6ÎGf¤•M|:–„- h¡„7§+&*œª<fž„6(*aª¤„G*,4K2

K{tkGL|1&¸*mf+f•¡›GN,KaE£§˜M£&*,4*a/œ˜+–tk„€M¬{G*Ka)*|G*«+f•¡G* ¨›<|Ma•kG*KÔ»*œF–tk„€M¬{G*hŒ„G**{¤G$f†ŒG*·f¤•+f„€-KfJK{0 jM|º*mfM}+¾K&f+Ù*œ„­’+l/§k-«kG*Km¸fq¼*œF·jŒ†•¡HԏG*¥-fªt„­*jHfE(*¢Hj+f•¡G*¦{Jl¡˜µÙ*œ„­’gDÑ•k„6¸*K jF§›Ã…94& P *¨›<Ÿ)*2¨¡gHK& N m¸fÀ¨k„7·j›„‚k¼*mf:f„¡G*«JfJKjª-*{G*Մ6a¡¤¼*2§¤q+fJ'K*}7¶j+f•¡›G N œ›H¸Kœ›F£K2N *4f¤IKѪGœ„8*§k-«<fžk/¸*K·f•nG*K«ž›ŒG*«+f•¡G*œžŒG* P

Al Omran 5th Issue | 64

,4*a/œ˜+4fž<(¸*,2f<(*j›0|H,2fªE¨›<£K42f•G*Ÿ¤I&*£§„6a¡¤¼*aF'§M*{˜JK «Œžkq¼*œžŒG*·Ÿ¤-f0fq¡+*K~ªµ¢M{G*Մ6a¡¤¼*¢H,a)*|G*s3fž¡G*«JfJK Ÿ¤-*Ì1ŸªžŒkGjGKfÁ·f¤-fª„€H&*·Ÿ¤¡HN*2a<Մ6a¡¤¼*j+f•IlDf„­k„6*¢M{G*K «Œžkq¼*œžŒG*mf0f„6Ÿ¤Ga¤„-¢M{G*K¨H*a•G*£§„6a¡¤¼*Ÿ¤¡H£f˜D¢M|1%ÑG –ª•³¢H*§¡˜µs|wkG*«nMa0¢H¢M|1%*K2Ka0Ñ+$N f†<Ÿ¤Œžkq¼*§HaEŸ¤I&* Մ6a¡¤ž›GN*|wD*§If˜D«Œžkq¼*œžŒG*·,~ªžkHmfžJf„€HKmf0fÅ §JmfE§Œ¼*œ˜GՕ.*§G*¬a³Ki§›•G*|žŒ-mfŒ›†kG*KfH%¸*lG*5fHK œ˜G*Kj›0|¼*…64fD§J¥›ž<·ÕH&¸*K¥ž›Œ+~ªžk¼*…6a¡¤¼*Kj›0|¼*£*§¡< ¸£fH~G*j›q<K”§¤›¼*—§„+¦|‰k¡MKœg•k„€¼*¾(*›†kMK“E§¼*hE|M }ŒH¢tIf¡Hi§›†¼*fHf¡F42&*œ¤DaM~¼*|‰k¡M*5fHœ˜G*K|µ fM&¸*K“E§kf¡kH&*¢;¢„€0a¡<f¡FK" fH&¸*¾(*jtªt„‚G*m*§†»*fI§†1œJK"Մ6a¡¤¼* "f¡ªD



omran palestine