Urban Manufacturing Districts

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This publication has been prepared as a part of the 2013 Master’s Research Studio in the Northeastern University School of Architecture. All research and content in this publication was produced by the “New Life for Urban Manufacturing Districts” studio research team.

Published by Northeastern University School of Architecture 360 Huntington Avenue Boston Massachusetts, 02115 Copyright © 2013 by Northeastern University School of Architecture All rights reserved.


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Contributors: Tim Love | Elizabeth Decorso | Basil Koutsogeorgas Chris Marciano | Ryan Matthew | Jonathan Miller | Rachel Mutschler | Nicole Pandolfo | Matthew Piccirillo | Eric Pereira Jenna Principi | Kate Schneider

INTRODUCTION A Case For Urban Manufacturing A Case For Architects Relevance

1 3 5 7

FIELD RESEARCH

9

GEOGRAPHY / LOGISTICS New Bedford Greater Boston

53 55 65

STANDARDS Pallets Transporatation Warehouse Design

79 81 87 91

TYPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS Organizational Strategies Expressing The Contents Daylighting Strategies Prototypical Strategies

95 97 103 111 115



A CASE FOR URBAN MANUFACTURING A CASE FOR THE ARCHITECT RELEVANCE

INTRODUCTION The goal of our research initiative was to understand how architects and urban designers can better impact the conception, planning, and design of manufacturing facilities as part of a healthy mixed-use urban neighborhood. Central to our analysis and speculative thinking are two foundational questions: What kinds of manufacturing (still) needs to be located in cities and why? Why do architects need to be at the center of the discussion about the proper program-mix, layout, spatial qualities, and expressive strategy of these kinds of facilities? These questions were posed not only to guide our research priorities, but also because our shared research was formulated and formatted to launch speculative design proposals by each of the eleven students on the research team.


introduction

A CASE FOR URBAN MANUFACTURING REASONS WHY MANUFACTURING TAKES PLACE IN NORTH AMERICAN CITIES 1 Manufacturing needs to be close to designers and/or engineers because of

on-going adjustments and revisions to the design of the product. Examples include small batch prototyping for new medical instruments, “bespoke” fashion and leather goods, and custom architectural components. 2 Manufacturing needs to be close to parts suppliers for bespoke and small

batch production. Examples include the relationship between accessory suppliers (buttons, zippers, fabric, and thread) and manufacturers in the Garment District in New York. 3 Manufacturing needs to be close to a skilled work force with technical

proficiency in all areas of relevant production. Examples include sewers and other specialists in the Garment District in New York and precision metal fabricators that work for defense suppliers in Connecticut. 4 Manufacturing needs to be close to a targeted consumer group because

products are sold on-site in a showroom, testing room, or store. Examples include artisanal food production that appeals to nearby city residents and/or tourists drawn to a district by other destinations. 5 Manufacturers want to provide directly to retailers (and eliminate third-

party distribution from the supply chain). Examples include micro-breweries distributing directly to stores, bars, and restaurants via their own fleet of trucks. Each of the rationales for urban manufacturing has specific design implications, whether at the interface of people visiting the facility (designers, consumers, and/or potential new employees), the need to receive just-intime stock for manufacturing, and/or the need to efficiently park a fleet of small trucks – all in a dense urban neighborhood.

Facing Page: Men pulling racks of clothing on busy sidewalk in Garment District, NYC. World Telegram & Sun photo by Al Ravenna.



introduction

A CASE FOR THE ARCHITECT FIVE REASONS FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF AN ARCHITECT 1 The company both manufactures and sells products at the same location to

highlight the manufacturing process itself as part of the marketing strategy and/or to provide shelf space during the early phases of a product line roll out (before third-party distributors have agreed to carry the product). As a result, the quality and character of the customer experience during tours of the facility and in the showroom are essential to the success of the business. 2 The company wants to broadcast the business brand by the shape and color

of the building, applied graphics, transparency to the functions inside, and/or the character of the architecture itself. 3 Because of the physical characteristics of the neighborhood context, the

exterior planning and architecture of the facility needs to be compatible with adjacent buildings in terms of scale, materiality, and relationship to the sidewalk and larger urban realm. 4 Because

of land values and/or in-place development guidelines, manufacturing functions need or want to be part of a mixed-use building that includes other uses on the ground and/or upper floors.

5 Because of land values and/or in-place development guidelines, manufacturing functions need to be on multiple floors – thus complicating

freight access, ventilation, and structural solutions. Each of these overlays to the basic function of manufacturing requires an architectural response that balances the need for flexible high bay space with the idiosyncrasies of a specific business communication strategy and local context. Facing Page: Craigieburn Train Maintenance Facility, HBO+EMTB.



introduction

RELEVANCE DESIGNING HEALTHY MIXED-USE URBAN MANUFACTURING NEIGHBORHOODS Every large American city has a dedicated manufacturing and industrial district that was created from scratch in the late 1950s and 1960s to remove industry from the central business districts and to relocate manufacturing companies to the new interstate highway system. Many of the districts, such as Newmarket in Boston, Mill River in New Haven, CT, and Morris Point in the Bronx, still have vital companies, but not at the density that they had at their inception and through the 1970s. The question today is what to do with these districts from an economic development and urban design standpoint. Until recently, “post-industrial” sites were often seen as targets for mixed use residential/commercial/retail development – modeled on the mix of (non-industrial) uses that made up the traditional city. More recently, public policy has highlighted the need to preserve and attract manufacturing jobs to the city, casting these once-forgotten districts in a new light. This studio will begin by understanding why certain businesses still thrive in 1960s era industrial districts to understand models for densification. We will also look at rapidly gentrifying districts like Red Hook in Brooklyn, NULU in Louisville, and the LA Garment District to learn about new kinds of businesses like micro-breweries, artisanal food producers, and precision fabrication shops that are flourishing in industrial districts located near potential customers. Our goal will be to leverage these lessons to develop a tool-kit for urban design and architectural interventions that can maximize the density of these districts while attracting and maintaining as many manufacturing jobs as possible. The hope is to achieve levels of density that inspire pedestrian activity, resulting in the chance encounters that can create synergies between businesses based on shared technological know-how, transportation needs, and talent.

Facing Page: Research team at Higher Ground (Kate Schneider)



ARTISAN’S ASYLUM BOLT RADLAB TAZA CHOCOLATE HARPOON BREWERY HIGHER GROUND FARM

FIELD RESEARCH In order to gain an in-depth understanding of urban manufacturing, our research team visited and analyzed a targeted range of local businesses. The goal of to the research was to better understand the advantages and challenges of an urban location and to understand the logistical and urban design issues that impact specific manufacturing facilities. Through the analysis of six local models, our research team was able to better understand the programmatic and spatial requirements of urban manufacturing across diverse scales of production and distribution. By visiting six facilities, we were able to compare dimensions, spatial adjacencies, and the flow of product during the production and distribution process. We also spoke with the business managers of each company to gain an understanding of the complex variables that affect their businesses. Through these visits our research team was able to see and hear firsthand how each of these businesses operates and learn about the challenges and advantages of operating a business in the city. More broadly, our research was guided by these questions: Which types and scales of manufacturing currently exist in the city? What non-industrial programs currently inhabit post-industrial buildings? What opportunities exist for mixeduse industrial sites?



FiELd rESEArcH

LOCATION MAP While a wide range of manufacturing occurs in the greater Boston area, we were able to identify four kinds of businesses that gravitate towards urban sites: large-scale manufacturing of consumer goods, “maker” spaces, urban agriculture, and food/ beverage production. We identified businesses from each of these categories in order to better understand the unique parameters of each type. Unfortunately, due to the heightened security surrounding large-scale facilities that manufacture consumer products, we were not able to gain access to or information about these facilities.

3 1

4

2

We were, however, able to visit and document the remaining categories of manufacturers by visiting the following businesses: Bolt, Artisan’s Asylum, Higher Ground Farm, Harpoon Brewery, Taza Chocolate, and RadLab.

5 6


1| Artisan’s Asylum

2| Bolt

4| Taza Chocolate

3| Rad Lab

6| Higher Ground Farm

5| Harpoon Brewery

0

175

250

500


ARTISAN’S ASYLUM “THE BEST MAKERSPACE IN THE COUNTRY” -CHRIS QUINTERo, BOLT

UMD Field Research

Artisan’s Asylum, Inc. is a non-profit community craft studio launched in 2010 by robotics engineer Gui Cavalcanti. The organization’s mission is “to support and promote the teaching, learning and practicing of craft of all varieties,” whether that be in fiber arts or electrical fabrication. To support their mission and encourage DIY culture, Artisan’s Asylum offers a range of affordable, publicly-accessible classes taught by local artisans, monthly and daily membership plans, access to industrialgrade equipment for local artists and businesses, and on-site material storage. The 40,000 square foot facility is located in part of the former Ames Safety Envelope plant in Somerville, once a sprawling, multi-block operation over twelve buildings. Today, Artisan’s Asylum operates next door to diverse businesses including a clean energy idea incubator and a rockclimbing facility.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec Fabrication

Large Batch

Facing Page: Artisan’s Asylum, Kate Schneider.



ArtiSAn’S ASYLuM

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

Som

er vil

le A ve

Residential C, Light Industrial, Business Arts Overlay District

Light Industrial Manufacturing, Warehouse 1.7 miles 1.0 miles 131,816 SF 1 Semi Truck 187 Off-Street

Tyle r

Stre

et

JWF LLC 1910 40,000 SF of 132,041 SF 24’-0” 50’-0” maximum 2 1.01 24’-0” Yes

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access 0

300

600’

1200’


3 1

5

2

2

4

3

Production & Fabrication

30% 5% 10% 10%

Wood Shop Machine Shop Welding Shop Electronics Screen Printing Hot Craft

Loading Dock Administration Space Storage Space Maker Spaces Individual Tenant Spaces

35% 10%

Circulation

Artisan’s Asylum is one of the largest and most efficiently run shared maker spaces in the country. They require membership to access and utilize a facility of approximately 40,000 square feet that is divided up among various tenants and shared production spaces. The production spaces include: a wood shop, machine shop, welding shop, and bike shop. The facility also has designated areas for hot crafts, electronics, screen-printing, and a chemical booth. In order to use any of the tools within a shop, members must become certified to work with that shop’s particular equipment. Tenants of Artisan’s Asylum either operate their small business out of their individual rented space, use the space in the facility as a second production office for their company, or are weekend hobbyists and artisans. There is a long wait list for open tenant space, but members are not required to rent a cubicle or shelf space, but instead can bring in their projects to work on them. All members also have access to the loading dock but must be present to receive their shipment orders.


ARTISAN’S ASYLUM

PUBLIC PROGRAMMING During all hours of the day, a wide variety of classed are taught in Artisan Asylum’s shared workspaces. Members serve as instructors in courses from jewelry making to welding.

DRAWING KEY

Midnight

Public Programming Open for Members

6:00p

6:00a Noon

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Bike Shop

Wood Shop

Machine Shop

Welding Shop

Multipurpose Room

Fiber Arts/ Glass


4

1

1 4 3

3

2

2

1

200 ft² Bike Shop

1

200 ft² Bike Shop

2

100 ft² Sculptor’s Work Space

2

100 ft² Sculptor’s Work Space

3

50 ft² Graphic Design Studio

3

100 ft² Graphic Design Studio

4

50 ft² Painter’s Work Space

4

100 ft² Graphic Design Studio Storage


Welding Shop, Kate Schneider.


Artisan’s Asylum, Kate Schneider.

Workstation, Kate Schneider.

Toolbox, Kate Schneider.


BOLT “WE BUILD HARDWARE BUSINESSES”

UMD Field Research

Bolt, a short-term intensive program designed to accelerate hardware startups, inhabits part of a 71,000 square foot commercial space in downtown Boston. The innovation of Bolt is in their business model. A team of mentors provides guidance and expertise in everything from design for manufacturing, to funding, to getting the product on the shelf. Bolt’s facility is part machine shop, part office, and part event space. The space opens up to local innovators for weekly ideasharing events.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec Fabrication

Large Batch

Facing Page: Bolt Desktop, Kate Schneider.



BoLt

ZONING & STATISTICS

BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

re et St

SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces

Commercial, Mixed Use N/A

Commercial Commercial 0.5 miles 0.1 miles * 0 N/A 0

Ch au nc y

NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning

Essex Stre

et

Chauncy Place Corporation 1910 9,796 SF of 71,000 SF * * * * 11’-0” Yes * = Information not available Knee

land

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access 0

300’

600’

1200’

Stre

et


6

3

5 4

1

2

Ground Level

Lower Level Production & Fabrication Production Space

30% 5% 10%

Administration Space Storage Space Studio Space Open Studio Space Smaller Meeting Rooms Conference Room

40% 15%

Circulation

Bolt is a venture capital company that helps to grow and build hardware start up companies. Bolt is unique because a full time staff is on hand to help each start-up team design and prototype their product. Bolt’s team of on site experts has backgrounds in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and industrial design.


Ground Level Workstations, Kate Schneider.


Tools, Kate Schneider.

Breakout Rooms, Kate Schneider.

Sketches, Kate Schneider.

Basement Workshop, Kate Schneider.


RADLAB A MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN & FABRICATION FIRM

UMD Field Research

During co-founder Matt Trimble’s education at MIT, he was intrigued by his classmates’ innovative use of scripting as an integrated part of the design process. Through the use of tools like the laser cutter, 3D printer, and CNC router, Trimble “began to see a range of potential commercial applications for ‘design computing’ (modeling, scripting, programming, animating, rendering). These applications included architecture, but were not limited to architecture.” At RadLab, Trimble and his small team of industrial designers and programmers work as consultants for architects, product designers, and entrepreneurs. The office has recently completed work across scales: from a retail interiors scheme to high-volume production of tactile braille graphics.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec Fabrication

Large Batch

Facing Page: Crafted Wood, Kate Schneider.



rAdLAB

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces

Residential C, Institutional, Mixed Use N/A

Industrial Manufacturing 0.1 miles 0.1 miles 11,615 SF 1 Box Truck 5 ice

Sp et

Open To Public?

e Str

BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height

Spice Street LLC * 3,000 SF of 29,548 SF * N/A * 2.5 20’-0” No * = Information not available

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access 0

300’

600’

1200’


1

6

2

5 4

3

5

Clean Zone

Open Studio Production & Fabrication Clean Production Dirty Production

55% 5% 10% 5% 10% 15%

Loading Dock Administration Space Storage Space Studio Space Studio & Meeting Space

Circulation

Dirty Zone The design of the Rad Lab facilities was driven by the desire to encourage design and production to be as unified as possible. In addition, the organization of the space needed to accommodate the technologically advanced production equipment that allows Matt Trimble and his colleagues to create highly customized and complex prototypes and building components. As a result, the facility is organized into separate clean and dirty production spaces, with an open studio space located between them. The use of glass partitions between the work zones ensures that natural light permeates the space and site lines are maintained between design and production spaces. Since moving into its Sullivan Square location, RadLab has attracted a variety of other design firms to the area that plan to collaborate with Matt Trimble and his team.


Shared Workstation, Kate Schneider.


Machine Shop, Kate Schneider.

Wood Paddles, Kate Schneider.

Lobby, Kate Schneider.


TAZA CHOCOLATE STONE GROUND CHOCOLATE

UMD Field Research

Two years ago, Taza Chocolate opened its Factory Store and began offering public tours. Since then, Taza has become known for its many food-culture events and for its holiday celebrations. This focus on in-factory programming has resulted in an increased demand for its products in grocery stores regionally. Despite these public programs, Taza struggles with finding its place in a continuously evolving neighborhood. While the factory is located in an industrial enclave that is experiencing an uptick in activity, it feels separated from the larger demographic forces that are making Somerville a center for entrepreneurial activity. Currently, the area is accessible by car, but the location is off the beaten track for pedestrians. With the extension of the Green Line to nearby Union Square, the neighborhood between Taza and Union Square is likely to be filled in with additional retail, entertainment venues, “maker” spaces, and arts-related organizations; thus improving Taza’s visibility and impact.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec Fabrication

Large Batch

Facing Page: Equipment Repair, Kate Schneider.



tAzA cHocoLAtE

ZONING & STATISTICS

BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

Residential, Commercial Arts Overlay District

Ave

SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces

ster Web

NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning

Transit Oriented Development 135 Industrial Warehouse 1.3 miles 1.0 miles 27,481 SF 1 Semi Truck *

Windsor Pl

Millers River Realty Trust 1920 83,224 SF 65’-0” * 5 3.0 12’-0” Yes Cambri

* = Information not available

dge Str

eet

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access 0

300

600’

1200’


6 7 5

10

8

9

2 3 4 11

12

Upper Level

1

Ground Level

5%

20% 5%

Selling Space Production & Fabrication Roasting Room Hot Room & Molding Cold Room Demolding Room

Loading Dock Administration Space Staff Space Office Space

25% 10% 15%

20%

Storage Space Packaging & Shipping Automated & Hand Packaging Shipping

Circulation

Taza Chocolate has sought to bring the rich tradition of Mexican chocolate to the United States, by using the same methods that have been used to make chocolate in Mexico for centuries. The centerpiece of their production process are hand-carved granite millstones which are fabricated on site using the same techniques used by traditional Oaxacan chocolatiers. It is precisely this milling process that gives Taza chocolate its distinctive texture and bright flavor.


Entry, Kate Schneider.

Kate Schneider, Roaster


Taza Chocolate, Chocolate Sample

Loading Dock, Ryan Matthew.

Cocoa Beans, Kate Schneider.


HARPOON BREWERY THE LARGEST CRAFT BREWER IN NEW ENGLAND

UMD Field Research

Harpoon was an early participant in the major resurgence of local, craft brewing in the U.S. in the late 1980s. At the start, the founders set out to recreate the rich beer culture that they had experienced in their travels and sought to incorporate the brewery into the local community. Today, Harpoon has become famous for their weekend-long events and tours at the facility are often at capacity. While their location on the South Boston waterfront makes them difficult to access by public transportation, the brewery has easy access to interstate 93, an important connector to its suburban distribution center in Woburn, MA and second brewery in Windsor, VT.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec Fabrication

Large Batch

Facing Page: Brewery Tour, Ryan Matthew.



HArPoon BrEWErY

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

Industrial N/A

Industrial, Economic Development Manufacturing, Retail 0.4 miles 1.4 miles 50,000 SF 2 Semi Truck 51

No

rth

ern

Av e

Economic Dvlpmnt. & Industrial Corp. of Boston 1920 45,000 square feet 43’-7” N/A 2 0.9 28’-0”

Drydock Ave

Yes * = Information not available

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access 0

300

600’

1200’


9

9 5

4

5

8 7

6

3 1 2

Upper Level: Observation

Ground Level

Selling Space 10%

Beer Hall & Retail Space

Production & Fabrication Brewing

25% 5% 15% 15% 15% 15%

Loading Dock Administration Space Storage Space Grain & Hops Storage Post-packaging Storage

Bottling & Packaging Circulation

Harpoon Brewery is all about the beer experience and bringing Europe’s rich beer culture to the United States. The founders of Harpoon have always aspired to have a beer hall that emulated the models found throughout their European travels. Recently they were able to make this dream a reality. They have a large beer hall which also doubles as rentable event space. The beer hall looks out onto the second story of their custom beer-bottling machine allowing customers to watch part of the beer making process while drinking their favorite Harpoon Ale. Harpoon also offers daily tours, which leave from the beer hall and take customers on a catwalk over the brewery, where customers can learn about the brewing process and sample the wide range of beers produced by the brewery.


HArPoon BrEWErY

OBSERVATION CATWALK


HArPoon BrEWErY

DISTRIBUTION 2| Harpoon Brewery Secondary Brew House Windsor, VT Local Distribution

Small Portion of Product Sent to Distribution Warehouse

3| Harpoon Brewery Distribution Warehouse Woburn, MA Regional Distribution Majority of Product Sent to Distribution Warehouse

1| Harpoon Brewery Headquarters Boston, MA Hyper-Local Distribution


Harpoon Brewery Beer Hall, Ryan Matthew.


Pedestrian Catwalk, Ryan Matthew.

Vintage Cans, Ryan Matthew.

Packaging, Ryan Matthew.

Northern Avenue Gates, Ryan Matthew.


6| Higher Ground Farm

HIGHER GROUND FARM BOSTON’S FIRST ROOFTOP FARM During its inaugural growing season in 2013, Higher Ground Farm, grewgreens, tomatoes, and herbs in planters on the roof of Boston’s Design Center. This fresh produce is marketed to Boston restaurants and retailers. UMD Field Research

Currently, the farm provides bicycle deliveries to local restaurants three times a week. Current buyers include the Franklin Cafe, Neptune Oyster, Tavern Road, Ten Tables JP, Tres Gatos, Coppa, Toro, Sweet Cheeks, Anchovies, Giacomo’s, American Provisions, Clio, Teatro, and Bee’s Knees. In the future, farm founders Courtney Hennessey and John Stoddard hope to expand their offerings to include a CSA and a farm stand in the lobby of the Design Center.

Local

Custom

Small Batch

Regional

Fabricated

Medium Batch

National

Spec Fabrication

Large Batch

Facing Page: Basil Leaves, Ryan Matthew.



HiGHEr Ground FArM

ZONING & STATISTICS NEIGHBORHOOD Adjacent Zoning Additional Zoning SITE Zoning Land Use Distance To Freeway Distance to T Station Lot Area Loading Docks Truck Type Parking Spaces BUILDING Owner Year Built Building area Total building height Total allowable height Number of floors F.A.R. Ceiling Height Open To Public?

General Industrial, Light Industrial, Mixed Use Restricted Parking District

General Industrial Manufacturing and Processing & Offices 0.3 miles 1.3 miles 160,010 SF 1 of 15 Box Truck, Semi Truck *

No

rth

ern

Av e

Boston Design Center LLC 1919 40,000 SF of 559,690 SF * * 8 3.5 N/A

Drydock Ave

No * = Information not available

MAP KEY Site Industrial Zoning Loading Dock

Non-Industrial Building Industrial Building Truck Access 0

300

600’

1200’


1

6

Loading Dock Below 3 4

5

2

4 3

Roof

Growing Space Current and Future Growing Space

50% 5% 10%

30%

Loading Dock Staging Space Circulation

Higher Ground Farm has a ten-year lease with the Design Center for approximately 55,000 square feet of the building’s roof space. Photovoltaic panels currently occupy the balance of the available area. Higher Ground Farm looked at three potential rooftop growing locations for their urban farm and ultimately decided on the roof of the Boston Design Center because it allowed them to have the most soil depth and, therefore, the largest variety of crops. This was determined after a structural analysis of Higher Ground’s options, including a calculation to determine the maximum amount of dead load that could be added to the existing roof without need for structural reinforcement.


The Rooftop Farm, Ryan Matthew.


Milk Crate Planters, Kate Schneider.

Courtney Hennessey, Kate Schneider.

Tomato Vines, Ryan Matthew.



INTRODUCTION NEW BEDFORD GREATER BOSTON

GEOGRAPHY/ LOGISTICS Although manufacturing centers first developed within dense urban cores to be near ports and rail terminals, industrial districts were relocated to suburban parcels near the interchanges of the new federal interstate system in the mid twentieth century. This change was compelled by not only the shift to a more flexible national truck transport system, but also because of relatively low property values and government action, that included urban renewal and stricter land use regulations. Both policies aimed to remove noxious manufacturing from the central city. This chapter includes two separate comparative analyses: 1) A comparison of urban and suburban industrial districts and 2) The influence of the surrounding urban context on the evolution of historic industrial areas.


BOSTON WORCESTER

PROVIDENCE

NEW BEDFORD


BROCKTON RT 24

geography / logistics

NEW BEDFORD To better understand the benefits and limitations of urban industrial zones and suburban industrial parks, two industrial districts in New Bedford were compared. The first is located the city’s historic core and the second was planned in a green field site along Route 140, which connects New Bedford to Boston.

I-495 TAUNTON MIDDLEBOROUGH

I-495

RT 140

I-195

RT 24

FALL RIVER

I-195

RT 140

NEW BEDFORD


NEW BEDFORD WATERFRONT “THE WHALING CAPITAL OF THE WORLD”

UMD Geography+Logistics

New Bedford’s waterfront is an industrial area that has grown organically over time. It’s development began with a focus on whaling; however, when the industry began declining in the 1880’s, the city shifted its focus towards the cotton textile industry, which had already established itself in places such as Lowell and Pawtucket. By the end of the 19th century, New Bedford was one of the largest producers of cotton yarns and textiles in the country. Over the last century, industry in the area has shifted again and the textile mills have been re-used for electronic circuitry production, needle trade, and other types of manufacturing uses. Additionally a large presense of seafood wholesale and distribution companies has been established n the area. Recently some of the historic mill buildings in the area have also been adapted to other uses such as light manufacturing, small businesses, professional offices, and residential use.

New Bedford, Massachusetts, Google Maps.


ZONING MAP KEY

16 15

Waterfront Industrial Industrial A Industrial B Mixed Use Residential A Residential B Residential C

ZONING ANALYSIS The industrial zones in the area exist along the waterfront, reflecting the industry’s historic connection to the water. These industrial areas are separated from adjacent residential zones by the JFK Memorial Highway (Route 18). A pocket of mixed use zoning defines New Bedfords “downtown” at the intersection of the JFK Memorial Highway and Route 6. This mixed use zoning has begun to spread as some of the historic mil structures have been re-zoned for other uses including residential and business.

0

1000

2000

4000


16

NeW BeDForD WaterFroNt

15

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS FABRICATION

21%

11%

ABCO Electric Inc.

Marine Hydraulics Inc.

Bobby T. Machine Co.

Mass Fabricating & Welding

Continental Plastics Inc.

Oberon Co. (safety equipment)

CL Machining

Revere Copper Inc.

Crystal Ice Co.

Whaling City Iron Co.

Evergreen Sheet Metal DISTRIBUTION Bruce's Splicing & Rigging

NGN Transport

Crystal Ice Company

Packaging Products Corporation

New Bedford Ice & Cold Storage

West Terminal Cold Storage

SUPPLY

15%

CAT Marine Equipment

Marine Enterprises

Global Co-Op Warf (oil & fuel)

New Bedford Ship Supply Co.

Lighthouse Marine Supply

New Bedford Welding Supply

Luzo Fishing Gear

NStar Power Plant

FOOD PROCESSING/WHOLESALE American Pride Seafood

Northern Pelagic Group

Big G Seafood

Pier Fish Company

Eastern Fisheries

Saraiva Enterprises (wine/beer)

Hygrade Ocean Products

Sea Trade International

Kylers Seafood Market

Skip's Marine Seafood Packaging

Marder Trawling Inc.

Sea Watch International

Mariner

Tichon Seafood

Mar-Lees Seafood

Top Quality Seafood Inc.

M&B Sea Products

32%

SERVICE/OTHER Dockside Repairs

New Bedford Glass Museum

Fishermen's Pier Visitor Center

Ryder Transportation Services

Goyette Auto Part Recycling

Shuster Machine Engineers

Knuckle Head Bar & Grill

State Pier & Ferry Terminal

LECH Auto Body

21%

Warf Tavern

Mill Stores Factory Outlet 0

1000

2000

4000


6

4

3

5 2 1

1. OBERON SAFETY EQUIPMENT AREA: 42,532 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: MANUFACTURING

2. CL MANUFACTURING AREA: 190,514 FLOORS: 4 USE: BUSINESS/LIGHT MFG.

3. SEA WATCH INTERNATIONAL AREA: 28,252 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE/DISTRIBUTION

4. FISHERMAN’S PIER AREA: 32,160 FLOORS: 1 USE: BUSINESS/DISTRIBUTION

5. SKIP’S MARINE SEAFOOD PCKG AREA: 43,346 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE/DISTRIBUTION

6. HYGRADE OCEAN PRODUCTS AREA: 46,677 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE/DISTRIBUTION

0

250

500

1000


NEW BEDFORD BUSINESS PARK “NEW ENGLAND’S MOST COST EFFECTIVE LOCATION”

UMD Geography+Logistics

The New Bedford Business Park is comprised of 150 acres of industrially zoned land. The area currently employs over 2,500 employees and accounts for approximately $650 million in sales revenue. The New Bedford Business Park advertises itself as “New England’s most cost effective location” thus demonstrating the trend of moving industrial centers out of cities with high property values to the more affordable suburbs. The park is located adjacent to Route 140 and is located 40 miles from Boston and 25 Miles from Providence. In addition the park has access to three airports within an hour’s commute time.

New Bedford, Massachusetts, Google Maps.


ZONING MAP KEY

40 te 1 Rou

7

Industrial A Industrial B Industrial C Mixed Use Residential A Residential B Residential C

ZONING ANALYSIS The New Bedford Business Park, adjacent to undeveloped greenfield sites, is zoned exclusively for industrial uses. The Park is also adjacent to a small mixed use zone near the Route 140 interchange. Unlike many organically grown urban industrial areas, this area is a result of planned development and is run by a separately established management company, the Greater New Bedford Industrial Foundation. As a result, it is constantly undergoing infrastructure improvements and provides it employees many services within the park including a daycare, restaurants, and a career center for job recruiting.


NeW BeDForD BUsiNess parK

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS 4 te 1 Rou

FABRICATION Titleist Ball Plants 2 & 3

C.P. Bourg

Morgan Technical Ceramics

Polyneer

Symmetry Medical New Bedford

Poyant Signs

Massachusetts State Lottery

GEC Durham

HighTech Manufacturing

Zapp Precision Strip

New England Plastics

A & R Machining

Five Star Companies

AFC Cable Systems

Aerovox

45% DISTRIBUTION Lighthouse Masonry

Milhench Supply

Symmetry Medical

Schaefer Marine

Edson

Horacio’s Welding & Sheet Metal

23% ASSEMBLY

16%

Better Image Apparel

Epec Engineered Technologies

Nameplates for Industry

Vectrix/Gold Peak Industries

SUPPLY Butler Architectural Woodworking Maximum Weather Instruments

13% 3%

FOOD PROCESSING / DISTRIBUTION Reinhart Food Service

Imtra Marine Products Ahead Inc.

7

0


1. AMERICAN CABLE SYSTEMS AREA:100,000 FT2 FLOORS:1 DOCKS: 7 USE: MANUFACTURING

2. MASSACHUSETTS STATE LOTTERY AREA: 100,000 FT2 FLOORS: 1 USE:MANUFACTURING

3. TITLEIST AREA: 100,000 FT2 FLOORS: 2 USE: MANUFACTURING

4. NEW ENGLAND PLASTICS AREA: 40,000 FT2 FLOORS: 1 USE: MANUFACTURING

5. IMTRA MAXIMUM AREA: 30,000 FT2 FLOORS:1 USE: MANUFACTURER

6. AEROVOX AREA: 60,000 FT2 FLOORS:1 USE: MANUFACTURER


BOSTON WORCESTER

PROVIDENCE

NEW BEDFORD


I-93

geography / logistics

GREATER BOSTON

I-95

RT 1

WOBURN

CHELSEA REVERE CAMBRIDGE

I-90

BOSTON

NEWTON

RT 3 I-95

I-93

QUINCY NORWOOD

WALPOLE

Three urban manufacturing centers located in the Greater Boston area were compared to understand how their function and character has been directly shaped by their surrounding urban context. These areas include Cambridge, whose industrial profile has been heavily influenced by its adjacency to MIT; the Boston Marine Industrial Park, which is currently being pressured by mixed-use development on its borders; and Newmarket, a district that the City of Boston is planning to maintain its identity as a manufacturing and food distribution district through zoning revisions that allow for a wider range of contemporary manufacturing business.


NEWMARKET INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT “BOSTON’S ‘PREMIERE’ INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT”

UMD Geography+Logistics

In the 1950s, Newmarket Square was built as a modern new home for the meatpacking and food processing companies that were being relocated from Faneuil Hall and Haymarket to allow for redevelopment of the area for retail, restaurants and office space. After the establishment of Newmarket, manufacturing and distribution continued to locate in the area, resulting in the establishment of the Newmarket Business Association in 1976. The organization was charged with maintaining continued business growth, encouraging collaboration between businesses, and advocating policies that would improve the economic health of the district. Today, Newmarket has grown substantially and though it now hosts a diversity of businesses, it still remains true to its core as a historically manufacturing-based district. Most food processing companies that were relocated in the late 50s are still alive and flourishing.

Boston Massachusetts, Google Maps.


ZONING MAP KEY General Industrial Economic Dev. Area Commercial Subdistr. Residential MFR Residential 2F 3F

ZONING ANALYSIS The industrial zoning of Newmarket, a legacy of the establishment of the district in the 1950s, allows for a very narrow bandwidth of uses. As a result, zoning in the district, is currently under review by the Boston Redevelopment Authority. The revised code will allow for uses that are compatible with and supportive of an industrial area such as specialty food production, accessory retail so companies can sell their products, and certain kinds of specialty manufacturing that are currently restricted. These new provisions will attract businesses, promote job creation, and will help retain existing businesses by allowing them to expand and diversify.

0

500

1000

2000


NeWMarKet iNDUstrial District

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS FABRICATION

5%

20%

5%

Atel

Harry Miller Company

O’Bass Electronic

The Harvard Common Press

DISTRIBUTION Accurate Fasteners Inc.

P.J. O’Donnel Co.

Harrison Supply

Portland Pine & Fitting Co.

R & R Sales

Royal Fire Door Company Inc.

Waldo Bros Co.

The Waterproofing Company

Whitney Building Products

Chester Brown Wholesale Florist

SUPPLY New England Wood Floor

Maxwell Box Company

Capitol Wood Floor Supply Inc.

The Waldwin Group

18

FOOD PROCESSING/WHOLESALE Atlantic Seacove Inc.

Katsiroubas Bros.

Foley Fish Company

Chinese Spaghetti Factory

Slade Gorton Co.

City Packing Company

16

Steve Connolly Seafood Company Costa Provision

30%

30%

Boston Briske Co.

Dancing Deer Bakery

Boston Lamb and Veal Co.

Mutual Beef

J & D Imports

Boston Salads & Provision

J. Carter Veal Co.

Lun Fat Produce

Metropolitan Meat SERVICE/OTHER Eagle Elevator

Boston Body Work

Morgan Linen & Uniform Service

Dorchester Tire Company

Guigliano Corp

Middlesex Truck & Coach

Suffolk Construction

American Ice Co.

Alternate Concepts Inc.

Peninsula of Boston Inc.

Paul Revere Transportation

Castle Self Storage Inc.

Boston Freightliners

Planet Self Storage

C & L Auto

Howard Storage

First Call Trucking

New England Storage Warehouse

Boston Veterinarian

Public Storage

Salami’s Truck Center

Patriot Self Storage

United Waste

0

500

1000

2000


4 3

6

1 2 5

1. KATSIROUBAS PRODUCE AREA: 15,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: WHOLESALE

4. CHESTER BROWN AREA: 80,000 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: DISTRIBUTION

0

200

600

1000

2. SLADE GORTON & CO. AREA: 50,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: WHOLESALE

5. STEVE CONNOLY SEAFOOD AREA: 20,000 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE

3. BOSTON LAMB AND VEAL CO. AREA: 50,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: WHOLESALE

6. BOSTON FOOD TERMINAL AREA: 100,000 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: WHOLESALE


BOSTON MARINE INDUSTRIAL PARK “MANUFACTURING ON THE WATERFRONT”

UMD Geography+Logistics

The Boston Marine Industrial Park is a 191-acre industrial area located on the eastern end of South Boston waterfront on the site of former South Boston Naval Annex, a military base that was decommissioned in 1974. The district is primarily known for its seafood processing and wholesale companies. Under Mayor Thomas Menino’s initiative to reinvigorate and enhance business growth in the area, the Marine Industrial Park has been attracting new businesses that use innovative new manufacturing processes. “Boston, Massachusetts.” Map. Google Maps. Google, 25 October 2013.

Boston Massachusetts, Google Maps.


ZONING MAP KEY General Industrial Economic Dev. Area Commercial Subdistr. Residential MFR Residential 2F 3F

ZONING ANALYSIS The Boston Marine Industrial Park has specifically-worded industrial and maritime regulations that are designed to protect existing industrial uses and promote industrial job growth in the region. The BMIP Master Plan, issued in 1999, provides a plan for the rehabilitation and reuse of commercial-industrial spaces through a public-private redevelopment investment strategy. Chapter 91 regulations (the Massachusetts Public Waterfront Act) also play a significant role in protecting maritime industry in BMIP, since the Act requires periodic comprehensive harbor plans that need to balance the needs of industrial ports and the rights of pedestrians to access the water’s edge.

0

500 1000

2000

4000


BostoN MariNe iNDUstrial parK

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS

24

FABRICATION

15%

Adcotron EMS Inc.

Lumenpulse

Bitwise International Tech.

Reflex Lighting Group

Matt J. McDonald Co. Inc.

Coastal Cement

Loki Custom Furniture

Design Communications

Fort Point Cabinet Makers DISTRIBUTION Genalco Grainger

10%

HADCO

Amramp Megellan Distribuition Wagner Solar

25

Back Stage Hardware

SUPPLY

5%

Calvin Fabrics

Discover Tile

Koplow Games

Again Faster Equipment

FOOD PROCESSING/WHOLESALE

30%

30%

Commercial Lobster

Atlantic Coast Seafood Inc.

F.J. O’Hare

Beau’s Seafood Inc.

Fresh Water Fish Co.

Puritan Fish Co.

Globe Fish Co.

Stavis Seafod

North Coast Seafood

Ideal Seafood Inc.

P.J. Lobster

Frasher Fish Ltd.

John Nagle Co.

Jonh Mantia & Sons Co.

Sousa Seafood Inc.

Red’s Best

Sunny’s Seafood

Sea Jem Imports Inc.

B& M Fish Company

Pangea Shellfish

SERVICE/OTHER Allegra Print and Imaging

Computer Science Corp.

Blanchard Press

Tide Street Tech Center

Copy Cop

R & R Builders

Seaport Graphics

Bachtel

Sir Speedy

First Call Trucking

Waterfront Printing

Boston Buffalo Express

Recycles Printing Co.

Portside Truck Repair

Francine Zaslow Photography

Baker Design Group

John Holt Studio

Philips Design Group

Boston Art

Silverman Trykowski Design

Casewell Framing

Peter King Design Co. 0

500 1000

2000

4000


4

5

3

0

500

1000

2000

6

1

2

1. THE BRONSTEIN BUILDING AREA: 400,000 SF FLOORS: 8 USE: MULTIPLE SERVICES

2. 88 BLACK FALCON AVE AREA: 200,000 SF FLOORS: 3 USE: MULTIPLE SERVICES

3. NORTH COAST SEAFOOD AREA: 140,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: SEAFOOD DISTRIBUTION

4. FISHING PIER AREA: 270,000 SF FLOORS: 3 USE: SEAFOOD DISTRIBUTION

5. HARPOON BREWERY AREA: 112,000 SF FLOORS: 2 USE: BEER MANUFACTURING AND DISTRIBUTION

6. NEW BOSTON SEAFOOD CENTER AREA: 80,000 SF FLOORS: 1 USE: SEAFOOD DISTRIBUTION


CAMBRIDGE/SOMERVILLE “INTELLECTUAL CENTER WITH INDUSTRIAL ROOTS”

UMD Geography+Logistics

Cambridge has a long history of manufacturing and was one of the main industrial cities of New England in the 1920s. From Carter’s Ink Company to the New England Glass Company, Cambridge hosted many major manufacturers at the time. After World War II, however, most of the industrial base left and Cambridge began its transition to an intellectual center of Boston. It was not until the 1980s that Cambridge brought in high-technology startups to reinvigorate its urban manufacturing heritage.

Cambridge Massachusetts, Google Maps.


ZONING MAP KEY Industrial Mixed Use / Special Office Residential A & B Residential C

ZONING ANALYSIS The Cambridge Community Development Department has classified seven industrial districts into ‘light industrial’ and ‘heavy industrial’ zones. Light industrial districts permit a broad range of industrial activity, but are subject to stringent regulation, while heavy industrial districts permit assembly, processing, and manufacturing activities, depending on off-site impacts. Cambridge also consists of a number of Special Districts such as the Cambridge Center Mixed Use Development District, which requires a balance of land uses including light industrial, office, retail, institutional, and residential. These Special Districts constitute the majority of the Cambridge zoning districts where industrial uses are permitted; however, overlay districts such as Harvard Square, Massachusetts Avenue, and Central Square, require industrial development to maintain a visual continuity with the existing context and not obstruct the identity of landmarks.

0

1000

2000

4000


28

28

caMBriDge/soMerVille

BUILDING USE ANALYSIS FABRICATION

26%

Bolt Beraneck & Newman Inc

International Service Conslnts

Boston Precision Parts CO

L Singer Fire Alarm Line

Brankamp Process Automation, Inc

Massachusetts Foundry Inc

Cambridge Electric Motor Service

Mass Gas & Electric Of Boston

Cambridge Keys & Security

Norel Service CO Inc

China Fair

Nuclead Inc

Ck Estores LLC

Patricio Sandoval Oilfield Supply

Concept Equipment Corporation

Reliable Shade & Screen CO

MANUFACTURING Alien Industries

7%

3

Precibio Medical Devices, LLC

Bayard Industries Inc

Soy Soul Candles

Component Assembly Systems

Style Factory

WAREHOUSE / STORAGE

17%

5 College Storage

Hold Everything

AAA Warehousing & Dstrbtn

Joseph Barrell Plbg & Htg

Academy Movers

Ligon Discovery

All Star Storage & Moving CO

Lyman Real Estate Trust

Arty's Warehouse

M & A Space

MACHINERY / EQUIPMENT / TECH 1087systems Incorporated

Holleran Daily Grind

2nd Gear, Inc

Medisense Inc

Abcam

Opteon Corp

Adaptive Optics Associates Inc

Oscomp Systems Inc

Airgas East

Perkinelmer, Inc

am Dutch Distribution Products

Perkinelmer Inc

Amplitude Laser Inc

Harvard Observatory Model Shop

Best Mold Removal Of Cambridge

President Fllows Hrvard Cllege

Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc

Pro Line Printing Ink Of NE

Biospace Lab Usa

Pvi (America) Inc

Bmr Rogers St LLC Fire / Elevator Lines Quaker Case Licsw

45% 5%

Boston Biochem

Sed Physics

Brankamp Process Automation

Senior Spring Productions

Brankamp Process Automation, Inc

Spring Technologies Inc

OTHER INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS / SERVICES Accumet Corp

Intelligent Medical Devices

0

1000

2000

4000


1 5 2

4

3

1. FLANN MICROWAVE CO. AREA: 25,000 FLOORS: 12 USE: FABRICATION

0

250

500

1000

2. CAMBRIDGE BRANDS INC - TOOTSIE ROLLS AREA: 12,000 SF FLOORS: 6 USE: FOOD/WHOLESALE

3. WAAV INC + RIVE TECHNOLOGY AREA: 150,000 SF FLOORS: 6 USE: FABRICATION

5. GOLDEN CANOLLI SHELLS CO. AREA: 2,500 FLOORS: 2 USE: MANUFACTURING

4. CAMBRIDGE BREWING COMPANY AREA: 12,500 SF FLOORS: 6 USE: MANUFACTURING



PALLETS TRANSPORTATION WAREHOUSE DESIGN

STANDARDS The dimensional logic of modern manufacturing and distribution is built up from the dimensions of a standard 40” by 40” pallet. The pallet is the driving metric for global shipping and manufacturing industry; as a result, 80% of all US trade is carried on pallets. The dimensions of pallets influence the four fundamental ways that pallets are moved through a distribution system – by stacking, lifting, containerizing, and shipping. Each one of these categories, the stacked pallets of materials define spatial volumes and the logistics of truck, rail, and water transport; loading dock configurations; forklift operations; and shelving systems. As a result, the architect must fully understand these systems in order to design buildings that meet the needs of the contemporary global manufacturing and distribution network.


PALLETS A DRIVING METRIC FOR MANUFACTURING

UMD Standards

The standard pallet size used in the US is 40” x 48”. When loaded and wrapped with goods, it represents a single unit load, which can then be easily stored or moved by pallet lifts and/or forklift trucks. In addition to packaging a wide range of products and goods into a single universal volume, this method minimizes the handling of individual products, reducing both cost and damage. The Service Duty of a palette is understood using the following weight categories: Light-Duty (1000lbs); Medium-Duty (2000 lbs); Heavy-Duty (3000 lbs). For ‘Heavy-Duty’, stacking no more than 60” is allowable.

40”

48”



TRANSPORTATION A STANDARDIZED METHOD OF STORAGE AND SHIPMENT

UMD

The pallet is the smallest unit in a globally standardized system of intermodal freight transport. Pallets are designed to fill a shipping container, which can then be loaded, unloaded, stacked, and transported either by semi-trailer trucks, freight trains, or container ships.

Standards

Loaded Pallet - The height of the load is largely dependant on its mass. For lighter loads (< 1000lbs), a height of up to 92” is feasible. It is recommended that loads that approach the maximum capacity of a standard pallet (3000lbs) are stacked no higher than 60”.

LOADED PALLET The height of the load is largely dependant on its mass. For lighter loads (< 1000lbs.), a height of up to 92” is feasible. It is recommended that loads that approach the maximum capacity of a standard pallet (3000lbs.) are stacked no higher than 60”.


INTERMODAL CONTAINER

CONTAINER SHIP

ISO-standard intermodal containers measure either 20’ or 40’ in length, with a height and width of 8’. These dimensions allow for compatibility with the truck, rail, and ship. The smaller of the two standard sizes has a capacity of 9-10 standard pallets, while the large can hold 20-21 depending on the arrangement.

Container ships exclusively transport ISO-standard intermodal containers. Load capacity is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) and categorizes the seven sizes of ships. The panamax vessel, the fourth largest of seven (12,000 TEU), is limited by the width of the Panama canal. It can accomodate a maximum of 19 rows of containers.


TRANSPORTATION

LENGTH

APRON SPACE The transportation of pallets into and out of the building occurs via the truck. The type of truck that is most likely to be servicing the building brings with it a unique set of constraints that must be anticipated when designing the building. Once critical dimension to be considered is an adequately dimensioned Apron Space. This zone of tarmac must be provided immediately adjacent to the loading docks so trucks can be successfully maneuvered into their designated bay.

0’

15’

30’

60’ (53’ TRAILER)

HEIGHT (BED) 0’

15.5’

31’

130’ LENGTH 0’

15’

30’

0’

60’ 55’ (48’ TRAILER)

HEIGHT (BED) 31’

15.5’

62”

120’

55”-62”

LENGTH 0’

Semi The Semi truck has an overall length of 60’, thus the apron space required is 130’ = 2(7’ + 53’) + 10’ Container The Container truck has an overall length of 55’, thus the apron space required is 120’ = 2(7’ + 48’) + 10’

62” 45”-55”

Apron Space Depth = 2(Length of Truck + Trailer) + 10’ This rule of thumb will provide a good working dimension for planning, but the final configuration of the Apron Space should be determined by testing the turning radii of the range of trucks that are likely to access the loading bays of a specific facility. For tight urban sites, easy of truck maneuverability should be weighed against other factors.

60’

15’

30’ 47’ (40’ TRAILER)

HEIGHT (BED) 0’

104’

60’

31’

46.5’

62”

19”-25”

Low Boy The Low Boy truck has an overall length of 47’, thus the apron space required is 104’ = 2(7’ + 40’) + 10’

LENGTH

City The City truck has an overall length of 26‘, thus the apron space required is 62’ = 2(40’) + 10’

HEIGHT (BED)

0’

0’

62’

15’

15.5’

30’

60’

31’

62”

26’

45”-48”


52 PALLETS 4’

52

LOAD

PALLETS

4’

LOAD

4’

40

LOAD

PALLETS

5’ LOAD 5’

40

LOAD

PALLETS

5’ LOAD

5’

8

LOAD

PALLETS

CITY

8 PALLETS

CONTAINER

40 PALLETS

LOW BOY

40 PALLETS

SEMI

4’

LOAD


TRANSPORTATION

PALLET ENTRY The loading dock and truck bay, the threshold condition between truck and industrial building, are determined by the largest standard dimensions of trucks. As a result, standard bays are 9’ wide and 10’ tall, measured from the loading dock level (typically 4’ above grade). This makes the unloading of pallets manageable and gives truck drivers some maneuvering flexibility when backing into a bay. The loading dock can either be exterior or an enclosed space. An exterior strategy is the most common because it is cost effective. Interior docks may be necessary due to security concerns and/or in northern climates where there is a large volume of shipments involving a large number of employees.

10 FOOT The 10’ high door provides the best access. At least one door should be the 10’ to allow for double-stacked pallets to be moved from the building to the truck.

10’-0” high 13’-6” max

9 FOOT The 9’ high door is the second most flexible door height - still allowing for access to a double stacked trailer – but moving pallets is more difficult because it’s a tight fit.

9’-0” high 13’-6” max

8 FOOT The 8’ high door is able to accommodate most single stacked pallet arrangements, but it does not provide access to trailers that are double stacked with pallets.

8’-0” high 13’-6” max

Porter, W. (2013). Loading dock design. Retrieved from http://loadingdocksupply.com/


11 FOOT

8’-6” wide

The width of the truck bay door is critical in making the process of unloading pallets manageable. An 11’ door width allows for an amount of flexibility of truck alignmentwhen backing into a designated bay. 11’-0” wide

9 FOOT

8’-6” wide

A 9’ bay is the standard truck bay width. It is 6” wider than the maximum legal truck width (without a special permit).

9’-0” wide

7 FOOT

8’-6” wide

12’

landing strip

BAY DISPLACEMENT The minimum spacing between loading docks is 12’ on center. This allows for a truck 10’ in width to have room to unload. The greater spacing, the easier the process

While available, a 7’ wide door is not recommended because it is not broad enough to efficiently unload pallets from the trailer of a truck.

7’-0” wide

The Landing Strip is the concrete surface found outside of the doors. Asphalt, at certain temperatures, is not safe for standing trailers of considerable weight, thus concrete must be used.


PALLET ENTRY: CANTILEVER In this scenario, the dock face projects past the exterior wall of the building. This is desirable because it helps to protect the building itself in the case that the bumper fails.*

*

PALLET ENTRY: OPEN The Open loading dock is most preferred by the USPS, and its implementation is less cumbersome as compared to the Cantilever. The issue is there is little in terms of drainage.


PALLET ENTRY: FLUSH The Flush scenario is the most common, as it is the most cost effective; relying solely on the bumper. It is necessary that this bumper projects a minimum of 4.5� from the wall.

PALLET ENTRY: ENCLOSED The Enclosed condition is widely used by package handlers and those exchanging sensitive materials. In this case, the space must be properly ventilated however.


48’

WAREHOUSE DESIGN A MODEL FOR EFFICIENCY

UMD Standards

Warehouse design is driven by the dimensional constraints of the pallet and the pallet lift. In plan, a 48’ x 48’ column grid optimizes the efficiency of shelf and aisle layouts. Assuming a standard aisle width of 12’, each structural bay can accommodate 24 pallet racks. The standard ceiling height is determined using a similar logic. The most common pallet lift, the counterbalanced lift, has a vertical reach of 15.5’, making the tri-level racking system ideal. The total height of such a system is 18‘, with each individual vertical segment being 6’ tall. An additional 10’ above the topmost pallet is recommended to ensure sufficient space is reserved for decking, lighting, and refrigeration units.

10’

28’ 18’

6’

Gandall, D. (2013). Pallet rack estimator. Retrieved from http://webtools.cisco-eagle.com/rack/


” 12

AD LO

H

D

A HE

Head Length: 6’-6” Load Length: 4’-0” Min. Aisle Width: 12’-0

T NG

LE

Max. Lift Height: 16’-0” Turning Radius: 72o Load Capacity: 6000 lbs.

6”

TH

NG

LE

AISLE WIDTH Pallet rack layout is largely dependent on the type of lift truck. The aisle width is defined as the dimension between pallets stored in the aisle. This is typically 6” narrower than the ‘rack to rack’ aisle dimension. Each truck varies in its dimensions, number of wheels, turning radius, and lift height. The necessary aisle width for a specific truck is equal to the sum of the head length, the load length, 12“ for maneuverability, plus the 6” pallet overhang. The most common lift truck, the counterbalanced lift, requires an aisle width of approximately 12’. Although this is wider than average, this model boasts a load capacity of up to 6000 pounds.


COUNTERBALANCED

ORDER PICKER

Max. Lift Height: 16’-0” Min. Aisle Width: 12’-0” Load Capacity: 6000 Lbs.

Max. Lift Height: 30’ Min. Aisle Width: 5’-0” Load Capacity: 3000 Lbs. 30’

MINIMUM AISLE WIDTH

MINIMUM AISLE WIDTH 3’

0’

6’

9’

0’

3’

100

150

9’

12’

150

200

250

5’

12’

NUMBER OF PALLETS PER 1000 SF

NUMBER OF PALLETS PER 1000 SF 50

6’

200

250

50

100

180

72

Aisle Width: 5’ Building Height: 40’ Pallet Load: 72 + 108 Cost/SF: $170 Cost/Pallet: $930

Aisle Width: 12’ Building Height: 28’ Pallet Load: 72 Cost/SF: $160 Cost/Pallet: $2,240

12’

5’


TURRET STOCKPILER

DEEP REACH

Max. Lift Height: 41’-0” Min. Aisle Width: 5’-0” Load Capacity: 3000 Lbs.

Max. Lift Height: 42’-0” Min. Aisle Width: 9’-0” Load Capacity: 3000 Lbs.

MINIMUM AISLE WIDTH

MINIMUM AISLE WIDTH 0’

3’

6’

9’

12’

0’

3’

100

200 180

9’

12’

150

200

250

NUMBER OF PALLETS PER 1000 SF

150

Aisle Width: 9’ Building Height: 46’ Pallet Load: 72 + 108 Cost/SF: $190 Cost/Pallet: $1,070

9’

5’-6’

9’ NUMBER OF PALLETS PER 1000 SF 50

6’

250

50

100

216

Aisle Width: 5’ Building Height: 46’ Pallet Load: 72 + 144 Cost/SF: $190 Cost/Pallet: $890

5’



ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS DAYLIGHTING STRATEGIES PROTOTYPES

TYPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS Like modern housing and office buildings, manufacturing facilities have both essential program components and time-tested circulation armatures that both provide access to and organize the relationship between the parts. When considered through a completely pragmatic lens, the determinants of space organization in factories are more complex than other building types because circulation patterns and space arrangement needs to suit the needs of both personnel and product movement. In addition, most manufacturing spaces need to account for spaces that can handle the machinery process as well as storage for stock items and completed goods before they are shipped. These competing demands on the layout of a factory need to be balanced with the desire for flexibility to allow for changes in manufacturing processes because of technology and/or changes in production runs. As a result, a natural tension exists between the desire for universal space, on the one hand, and specialized spaces of specific tasks, on the other. Given these pragmatic and efficiencydriven parameters, factory design has recently been the purview of industrial engineers and not architects. The goal of our analysis is to take a half a step back to understand whether an architectural framework can point in innovative new directions.


ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES ANALYZING BUILDING ARRANGEMENT TECHNIQUES THROUGH PRECEDENT STUDIES AND PROTOTYPICAL DIAGRAMMING

UMD Typological Considerations

In the development and design of industrial buildings, the placement of high and low bay spaces regulates both programmatic and spatial efficiencies. High bay spaces are often associated with the process and manufacturing of products the client fabricates. They also contain the building’s loading dock, a variable that may determine the ultimate height of the building. Contrasting this element is the low bay space which contains support programs including office and maintenance facilities. These two pieces are instrumental in the organization of an industrial building, and with the proper analysis of their relationships one may formulate effective prototypes for future use.

Tobias Grau, Industrial Buildings: a Design Manual.

Facing Page: Gira, Industrial Buildings: a Design Manual.



ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES

PLAN ARCHETYPES ANALYZING PLAN ARRANGEMENTS USING HIGH AND LOW BAY SPACES. The fundamental organizational structure of a manufacturing building is the relationship between high and low bay spaces. Low bay spaces, with conventional ceiling heights, line the edges of a central high bay space. The remaining exposure of the high bay space is often determined by the required number of truck bays to service the facility. Companies with high demand for truck access typically have loading docks along the long edge of the high bay space, for example.

Detached

Long Side

The administrative program is physically disconnected from the manufacturing

The administrative program is arranged along one side of the manufacturing

3

4

Short Side

Embedded

The administrative program is arranged along one side of the manufacturing

The administrative program is centrally located, dividing the manufacturing space

5

1 6

‘Sandwich’

Absent

The administrative program is arranged along two sides of the manufacturing

The administrative program is removed 0

10

2

7

8


12

17

34

13

27 21

18

22 14

19 35 23

20

15

28

9

10 29

30

31 24

11

16

25

26

32

33

36

1: Somerset Industries 2: AWM 3: Edison Industrial 4: Factory for Plastic 5: Mors 6: Framingham 7: Metalsa 8: Schwarzenberger 9: Craigburn 10: Stadwerke 11: Lipton Tea Plant 12: DHC 13: Fournitures Select 14: Bio Mass 15: Agmont 16: Louis Leitz Factory 17: Yutes 18: Veenman 19: Walloon Forestry 20: EKZ 21: Edison Industrial 22: Erco Leuchten 23: Gira 24: Faustino Winery 25: Tobias Grau 26: Cartier Factory 27: IWB 28: Machine Factory 29: Daily Journal 30: Factory Warehouse 31: Model F 32: Electronics Factory 33: Agmont 34: Ricola Storage Building 35: Shipyard 36: Kaufmann SEE INDEX


ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES

SECTION ARCHETYPES

18

ANALYZING SECTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS USING HIGH AND LOW BAY SPACES. Given efficiencies in pallet stacking and the requirements of machine processing, the ceiling height is typically a more critical dimension than the overall plan dimensions of a high bay space. Since most modern production spaces are at least 25’ tall, the low bay spaces that surround the central space are often stacked two high in a variety of arrangements. In addition. These support spaces with lower ceilings can be located, over or within the high bay space.

10

8

20

Above

Stacked Adjacent

The low-bay program is located above the high-bay program

The low-bay program is stacked adjacent to the high-bay program

34

5

Hung Within

Detached

The low-bay program is located within the high-bay space as a mezzanine

The low-bay program is separated from the high-bay program

19

29

Absent

36

There is no low-bay space 0

10


2 30 9

23 26 7

11

22

25 12 16 28

27

24

1: Somerset Industries 2: AWM 3: Edison Industrial 4: Factory for Plastic 5: Mors 6: Framingham 7: Metalsa 8: Schwarzenberger 9: Craigburn 10: Stadwerke 11: Lipton Tea Plant 12: DHC 13: Fournitures Select 14: Bio Mass 15: Agmont 16: Louis Leitz Factory 17: Yutes 18: Veenman 19: Walloon Forestry 20: EKZ 21: Edison Industrial 22: Erco Leuchten 23: Gira 24: Faustino Winery 25: Tobias Grau 26: Cartier Factory 27: IWB 28: Machine Factory 29: Daily Journal 30: Factory Warehouse 31: Model F 32: Electronics Factory 33: Agmont 34: Ricola Storage Building 35: Shipyard 36: Kaufmann SEE INDEX


EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS STRATEGIES FOR EXPRESSING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS AND THE COMPANY BRAND Expressive strategies help convey either a message about the company or the product they manufacture, and are often conceived as part of a broader branding strategy. Companies can use a wide UMD

range of strategies, from painting an exterior wall the company color to including large expanses of glass to expose the production process to people passing by. Many companies choose to express

Typological Considerations

the company brand through the architecture but wish to conceal, for various reasons, actual production. An example of this can be seen in a printing press with large letters wrapping around its facade. For other companies, the plant tour is a central part of the marketing strategy. Often, the architects for these buildings have

Veenman Printing, Industrial Buildings and Factories.

included special viewing areas such as elevated mezzanines and catwalks. Understanding this range of expressive strategies equips the architect and client with a shared framework to make decisions about the design of a building for a specific company and site.

Facing Page: BMW Central Building, Zaha Hadid


“BMW Factory.” Inthralled.


EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS

Expressive Building Shape

DECORATED SHED/DUCK Using both building shape and graphic representation on the building skin, this type of building contains a publice image, but does not actually reveal what happens inside. This is often a tactic to only convey a specific message, or is due to a necessity of privacy or safety for the specific program of the building. As a tool, this type of image strategy can be useful to both maintain an amount of necessary privacy while still addressing the public.

DHC Energy Production, ArchDaily.

Graphic Skin Expression

Veenman Printing, Industrial Buildings and Factories.


VEENMAN PRINTING PRESS This building for a printing press company uses the pattern and letter graphics on the faรงade to suggest what is happening inside. This strategy conveys a clear public message about the function of the building without actually exposing the machinery within.

Veenman Printing, Industrial Buildings and Factories.

DHC ENERGY PRODUCTION Instead of revealing the complex processes that take place within the building, a large LED screen communicates both the the type of energy being produced and quantity of energy produced per day.

-

DHC Energy Production, ArchDaily.

METALSA This distinctive and memorable building for automotive manufacturer Metalsa has a sculptural saw-toothed roofline that is reminiscent of old industrial buildings and references nearby mountains.

-

Metalsa, Designboom.


EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS

TRANSPARENCY Literally exposing the contents of a manufacturing space is a strategy for communicating the function of a building and the focus of a business. This is accomplished by using large areas of non-reflective glass and/or dramatic lighting of the production equipment at night. This strategy is deployed when a company’s brand is tied to their transparency of purpose and role in the larger society.

Biomass Plant, ArchDaily.

Transparent Skin

Mors Distribution, Industrial Buildings: a Design Manual.


BIOMASS PLANT The main building of the biomass plant is clad entirely with glass, exposing all spaces, including both administrative and production areas. A wood “basket� screen wraps around the top portion of the building to create a distinctive crown and help shade some of the glazing.

-

Biomass Plant, ArchDaily.

THE DAILY JOURNAL This building for an off-set printing press company was designed to show off the brightly painted printing presses on the interior.

The Daily Journal, Industrial Buildings and Factories.

MORS DISTRIBUTION CENTER This project, designed for a footwear company, includes a large glass window that reveals both the showroom and machinery of the company.

Mors Distribution Center, Industrial Buildings: a Design Manual.


EXPRESSING THE CONTENTS

VIEWING THE PROCESS For some companies, tours of the production area are an important component of the marketing strategy. Some facilities include mezzanines or catwalks to provide views into the fabrication process.

Aston Martin Production Line, Aston Martin.

Designed Viewing Area

Tillamook Tour, Tillamook.


HARPOON BREWERY Recent renovations to Harpoon Brewery in Boston include a beer hall with views into the bottling production area and catwalks above the full production line for tours.

Harpoon Brewery, Ryan Matthew.

TAZA CHOCOLATE Taza chocolate relies on their on-site store and tours to drive an important percentage of their business. Two large windows in the store provide views into the most interesting aspects of the chocolate production process: the melting and mixing machine, which includes piping to move the melted chocolate through the room. In addition, guided tours take visitors through the entire production line. Taza Chocolate, Ryan Matthew.

BMW FACTORY This BMW Factory, by Zaha Hadid, takes a different approach to both building layout and experience. Partially assembled vehicles move through the office spaces on an overhead track between two points on the production line.

BMW Factory, Inthralled.


DAYLIGHTING STRATEGIES NATURAL DAYLIGHTING STRATEGIES FOR MANUFACTURING.

UMD Typological Considerations

The concept of passive daylighting strategies is not new for the manufacturing industry. Before the invention of inexpensive artificial lighting technology after World War II, architects and engineers experimented with a wide variety of skylight and clerestory configurations to provide glare free natural light for production and to improve the working conditions for laborers. In order to best serve the manufacturing process, the configuration of window and skylight apertures and glazing strategies were conceived to avoid bands of direct sunlight from entering the factory interior. In addition, energy savings has always been a driving factor in daylighting design and has reemerged as the primary rationale for the introduction of skylight systems. Presented are six strategies for optimizing natural light levels.

Daylighting, Industrial Buildings and Factories.


SUN

SUN

24ยบ

ยบ

70ยบ

0 UN 7

ER S

TER

MER

SUM

M SUM

WIN

Direct

Low Light

Indirect

High Light

WIN

TER

SUN

24ยบ

Direct

Low Light

Indirect

High Light

POP-UP CLERESTORY ROWS (TRANSPARENT GLAZING) Depending on the orientation of the clerestories, light might enter directly into the space at certain times of the day. The amount of direct light can be mitigated by changing the orientation and/or spacing of the clerestory rows, adding overhangs, and/or using translucent glass on the south-facing elevations.

POP-UP CLERESTORY ROWS (DIFFUSE GLAZING) This type of clerestory rows optimizes the admittance of light. Diffuse glazing removes the need for shading and prioritzes capturing as much direct light as possible. The typical spacing for clerestories and skylights is a ratio of 1.5:1 where 1 equals the ceiling height of the space.

Clerestory, Industrial Buildings and Factories

Albert Kahn Skylights, Industrial Buildings and Factories


WIN

TER

70ยบ

Low Light

24ยบ

SUN

70ยบ

Direct

SUN

MER

SUN

24ยบ

SUM

SUN

MER

TER

SUM

WIN

Indirect

High Light

SAWTOOTH SKYLIGHTS North-facing sawtooth skylights minimizes the amount of direct natural light, but does not allow the maximum amount of natural light. Angles can be adjusted to allow for sun angles in different locales.

Sawtooth Pattern, Industrial Buildings and Factories

Direct

Low Light

Indirect

High Light

LIGHT WELLS Light wells bring indirect natural light into a space by reflecting direct light off of light-colored surfaces. Unlike pop-up clerestory rows, the small amount of actual glazing used in light wells means that there is relatively less heat gain, an advantage in warm climates.

Light Well, ArchDaily


70ยบ

24ยบ

Direct

Low Light

SUN

SUN

24ยบ

70ยบ

TER

SUN

SUN

WIN

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MER

TER

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Indirect

High Light

Direct

Low Light

Indirect

High Light

LIGHT SHELF The light shelf brings light in from the side and bounces it to the ceiling, allowing the roof to be solid. With a properly sized shelf, no direct light will enter into the space, but it may need to penetrate deep into the space. Light shelves are less expensive than most skylight systems, but can only be used on the southern side, and cannot be a complete solution for a deep floor plate.

LOUVERS Properly shaped and positioned louvers beneath a glass roof is one of the most effective daylighting strategies as it provides even lighting throughout the day. However, this strategy can be costly to install and maintain.

Light Shelf Installed, ArchDaily

Louvers, ArchDaily


PROTOTYPICAL STRATEGIES A COMPREHENSIVE SET OF PROTOTYPICAL BUILDING DESIGNS.

UMD Typological Considerations

After analyzing both plan, section, and expressive strategies to determine the various models implemented by past architects and engineers, an opportunity was presented to reconstruct each phase of the design process to produce ideal prototypes. Using the three basic design elements analyzed earlier in this chapter to break down manufacturing spaces into their fundamental pieces created a tool, which could then be used to reassemble the pieces using the strategies studied. Since the needs of both client and site vary from case to case, multiple templates were constructed to meet the ever changing demands of the marketplace. These prototypes generate a comprehensive list of organizational and expressive tools to be implemented as a set of options for future designers.

Steel Beams, Wasatch Steel.


1. EMBEDDED ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

2. EMBEDDED ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX

3. EMBEDDED WITHIN DECORATED DUCK

4. EMBEDDED WITHIN TRANSPARENT BOX

5. EMBEDDED STACKED DECORATED DUCK

6. EMBEDDED STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

7. SHORT-SIDE ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

8. SHORT-SIDE ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX

9. SHORT-SIDE STACKED DECORATED DUCK

10. SHORT-SIDE STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

11. SHORT-SIDE WITHIN DECORATED DUCK

12. SHORT-SIDE WITHIN TRANSPARENT BOX


13. SHORT-SIDE DETACHED DECORATED DUCK

14. SHORT-SIDE DETACHED TRANSPARENT BOX

15. LONG-SIDE ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

16. LONG-SIDE ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX

17. LONG-SIDE STACKED DECORATED DUCK

18. LONG-SIDE STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

19. LONG-SIDE WITHIN DECORATED DUCK

20. LONG-SIDE WITHIN TRANSPARENT BOX

21. LONG-SIDE DETACHED DECORATED DUCK

22. LONG-SIDE DETACHED TRANSPARENT BOX

23. SANDWICH ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

24. SANDWICH ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX


25. SANDWICH STACKED DECORATED DUCK

26. SANDWICH STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

27. SANDWICH WITHIN DECORATED DUCK

28. SANDWICH WITHIN TRANSPARENT BOX

29. SANDWICH DETACHED DECORATED DUCK

30. SANDWICH DETACHED TRANSPARENT BOX

31. DETACHED STACKED DECORATED DUCK

32. DETACHED STACKED TRANSPARENT BOX

33. ABSENT ABOVE DECORATED DUCK

34. ABSENT ABOVE TRANSPARENT BOX

35. ABSENT ABSENT DECORATED DUCK

36. ABSENT ABSENT TRANSPARENT BOX


1

SOMERSET INDUSTRIES 2009 | Heller Inc | Somerset, NJ 296,161 sf | Warehouse

2

AWM 2002 | Allman Sattler Wappner | Germany 59,341 sf | Vehicle Depot

3

EDISON INDUSTRIAL 2009 | Costar | Edison, NJ 44,00 sf | Warehouse

4

FACTORY FOR PLASTIC 2009 | David Haid | Wheaton, IL 69,000 sf | Factory

5

MORS 1988 | Benthem Crouwel | Netherlands 13,175 sf | Distribution

6

FRAMINGHAM 2009 | Northeast Properties | MA 13,900 sf | Warehouse

7

METALSA 2013 | Brooks + Scarpa | Mexico 55,000 sf | Manufacturing

8

SCHWARZENBERGER 1993 | Michael Jockers | Germany 30,128 sf | Distribution + Storage

9

CRAIGBURN 2012 | HBO+EMTB | Australia 215,278 sf | Train Maintenance


10

STADWERKE 1996 | Christoph Mackler | Germany 2,673 sf | Steam Station

11

LIPTON TEA PLANT NA | John B. Parkin Assoc. | Canada 155,000 sf | Tea Processing

12

DHC 2008 | Alday Jover Arch. | Spain 19,375 sf |Power Plant

13

FOURNITURES SELECT 2010 | Blouin Tardif | Dorval, Canada 13,400 sf | Restoration Equipment

14

BIO MASS 2009 | Matteo Thun & Part. | Germany 10,763 sf | Power Plant

15

AGMONT 2009 | Lemay et Assoc. | Canal Lachine 5,000 sf | Textiles

16

LOUIS LEITZ FACTORY 1950 | Heinrichs and Muller | Germany 55,000 sf |Office Materials

17

YUTES NA | Flores Prats | Spain 21,527 sf | Fabric Production

18

VEENMAN 1997 | Neutelings Riedijk | Netherlands 32,453 sf | Printing Press


19

WALLOON FORESTRY 1995 | Samyn and Partners | Belgium 12,497 sf | Timber Production

20

EKZ 1994 | EKZ GmbH | Germany 25,920 sf | Warehouse

21

EDISON INDUSTRIAL NA | PCG | Southborugh, MA 148,725 sf | R&D

22

ERCO LEUCHTEN 2001 | Schneider + Schumacher | Germany 23,449 sf | High Bay Storage

23

GIRA 2002 | lngenhoven Overdiek | Germany 38,976 sf | Electronics Production

24

FAUSTINO WINERY 2010 | Foster + Partners| Spain 134,548 sf | Wine Production

25

TOBIAS GRAU 1998 | Bothe Richter Teherani | Germany 43,077 sf | Assembly

26

CARTIER FACTORY 1992 | Jean Nouvel | Switzerland 18,019 sf | Watch Production

27

IWB 1999 | Baader Architekten | Switzerland 62,969 sf | Storage


28

MACHINE FACTORY NA | Werner Luz | Germany 215,278 sf | Machine Tool Production

29

DAILY JOURNAL NA | SOM | IN 11,000 sf | Printing Press

30

FACTORY WAREHOUSE NA | Bert Allemann | Switzerland 19,375 sf | Factory Warehouse

31

MODEL F 2010 | D.I.G Architects | Japan 1,515 sf | Home Manufacturing

32

ELECTRONICS FACTORY NA | Foster and Partners | England 32,000 sf | Electronics Factory

33

JACKSON TRIGS 2001 | KPMB | Canada 15,930 sf | Wine Production

34

RICOLA STORAGE BUILDING 1987 | Herzog | Switzerland 4,843 sf | Storage

35

SHIPYARD 1995 | Bois Consult Natterer | Switzerland 12,271 sf | Ship Construction

36

KAUFMANN 1992 | Hermann Kaufmann | Austria 104,787 sf | Timber Storage


URBAN MANUFACTURING DISTRICTS

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Beyond, Great. Sugar Factory, September 7, 2011. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ tonyjcase/6305276468/. “Brooks + Scarpa: Metalsa SA| Architecture & Design Magazine.” Designboom | Architecture & Design Magazine. Accessed November 3, 2013. http://www.designboom.com/weblog/ cat/9/view/19178/brooks-scarpa-metalsa-sa.html. Brown, David. Van Nelle Factory, Rotterdam, August 30, 2007. http://www.flickr.com/photos/d_ brown/1424015713/.

Han, Lei. Domino Sugar Factory, Brooklyn, October 30, 2011. http://www.flickr.com/photos/sunsetnoir/6309767550/. Ian. CoOp_Old Factory_Digbeth_Birmingham_Jan10, January 23, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/ photos/iancvt55/4760779587/. ICHINOHE, Shinya. Factory, September 12, 2011. http://www.flickr.com/photos/shinyai/6139840155/. “Inapal Metal / Menos é Mais.” ArchDaily. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.archdaily. com/7548/inapal-metal-menos-e-mais/.


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———. Kite Factory Torrington Avenue, July 16, 2008. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ pikerslanefarm/2674367929/. Ursino, Michele. Warehouse, September 5, 2011. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ micurs/6118627854/. Westermayer, Till. Factory Building, August 26, 2005. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ tillwe/38526321/. westvang, astrid. Cement Factory, June 9, 2012. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ astrid/7459089344/. ———. Factory, August 12, 2008. http://www.flickr.com/photos/astrid/2802228255/.

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———. Industrial Building, February 16, 2008. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ astrid/2299373281/.

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———. Industrial Building, June 30, 2013. http://www.flickr.com/photos/astrid/9211762033/.

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URBAN MANUFACTURING DISTRICTS ARCH 7130 GRADUATE RESEARCH STUDIO FALL 2013 Every large American city has a dedicated manufacturing and industrial district that was created from scratch in the late 1950s and 1960s to remove industry from the central business districts and to relocate manufacturing companies to the new interstate highway system. Many of the districts, such as Newmarket in Boston, Mill River in New Haven, CT, and Morris Point in the Bronx, still have vital companies, but not at the density that they had at their inception and through the 1970s. The question today is what to do with these districts from an economic development and urban design standpoint.


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