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Prefab City A compendium of strategies for prefabricated building techniques in urban environments


Northeastern University Graduate Program of Architecture Masters Research Studio Littell | Fall 2010

Prepared By: Ahmed Almulla, Matt Arnold, Hope Blanchette, Travis Blake, Joanna Grab, Melissa Goldfarb, Sarah Laliberte, Andrea Leveille, Brad Mckinney, Luke Palma, Sara Rosenthal, John Stoddard


Introduction Statement This book was written by twelve graduate students of architecture (M. Arch.) at Northeastern University in the fall of 2010 as part of our Master’s Research Studio. This book will explore issues related to pre-constructed building strategies in urban environments, thus the title, Prefab City. As a result of this exploration and analysis, we hope to uncover potential design opportunities in an area that seems to be less well documented and researched in the field. This book is intended to be used by our studio, and could be useful to peers, professors or professionals wanting an integrated understanding of an approach to prefabricated building in a urban context.


Table of Contents Introduction

Determinants

Deployment Tactics

Purpose ...............................................1

Transportation ..................................10 by Ground: Rail ..........................................11

Definition, Factors ...................................69

Definitions .......................................... 2

by Ground: Road ........................................13

Mobility and Adaptability .........................70

by Water .....................................................21

Construction .............................................71

by Air ..........................................................23

Connections .............................................73

Research Methodology + Scope ......4

Density on Demand...........................68

Process.....................................................77

Site Access + Assembly....................26 Site Access ...............................................27

Parasite + Barnacle............................80

Crane Operation and Extents ...................29

Urban Infill Sites ......................................81

Cranes and Obstacles .............................31

Definitions ................................................83

Off Frame Assembly ................................33

Parasite Precedents ................................85 Barnacle Precedents ...............................89

Modular Strategies ............................38 Logistics ...................................................39

Instant Utopia ..................................98

Site Placement Strategies .......................43

Introduction..............................................96

Aggregation Techniques .........................45

The Plug-In Tower .................................100

Mechanical Systems.................................47

The Expanding Monolith .......................106 The Artificial Hill town ............................110

Component Strategies .....................49 Definitions ..................................................51

Extreme Prefab................................118

On-Site Labor ...........................................53

Launching Gantry Game .......................120

Fabricated Unit .........................................55

Incremental Launching System ............124

Panel System ............................................57

Extra-Large Prefab ...............................128

Precast Concrete ......................................59 Kit-of-Parts ................................................61


Non Physical Contexts Precedents Building Code..................................136

Rating Precedents .........................168

Regular....................................................137

Rating Systems ......................................169

HUD Code ..............................................138

Matrix Chart ............................................170

Zoning Code ...................................144

Enchridion................................................173

Prefab Scale ...........................................171 Boston ..................................................145 Charlottesville, VA ................................147 Little Rock, AK .....................................148

Economics ......................................150 Overview ...................................................151 HUD Code ................................................153 Single Family Modular .............................155 Stick Built Modular....................................156 Multi Family Modular ................................157 Multi Family Stick Built .............................158

Policy...............................................160

Precedents .....................................176


Purpose and Definitions

Pre-fabrication in urban settings is an underlooked, under-researched subject. This might have to do with the fact that there are limited examples of prefabricated architecture in the city, even less that have actually been realized, and even less that have actually been successful. Those reasons (limited built examples) as well as the stigma associated with prefabrication (cheap, indistinct) aren’t the only factors; social and economic factors (such as unions) also play an important role. There is a disproportionally high number of prefab buildings (especially residential homes) in

Four main purposes of the book:

• Exploring prefab through the city lens: explaining the process of using prefab relative to

dense, urban environments.

• Identifying and analyzing delivery methods; tracking the prefab process from the

manufacturer to site placement.

• Identfying advantages vs. disadvantages; why would someone want to use prefab in an

urban environment.

• To uncover potential design opportunities in an area that seems to be less well understood

or studied in the general field. This gathering, dissecting and organizing of specific

information is potentially valuable in the generation or advancement of a design idea.

rural settings. Our research, therefore, has purposely limited looking into this welldocumented area of prefab in order to explore and eventually identify the challenges that are

What this book is not about:

unique to urban environments.

• Prefabrication in rural settings.

• How elements are prefabricated in a factory (not part of the construction or delivery

process), unless it is significant in terms of time/labor/quality issues.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

Urban Relating to, or belonging to, a city. Examples of prefabricated architecture are disproportionally located in rural or suburban settings. Therefore, our aim is to focus on researching prefabrication in a more dense urban fabric. Although the ‘density’ factor is loosely defined, the context should be clearly understood as urban.

DEPLOYMENT

Prefab Definitions for this word vary slightly but are all common in the sense that they are too broad and general (factory-built, factory-made, pre-cut, panelized, manufactured, modular, mobile). For our purposes, we are defining prefab as a building or structure that is manufactured in standard parts offsite to be shipped and assembled elsewhere.

CONTEXT

To be even more rigid in our definition of prefab, we have developed a matrix and identified projects or methods of construction just outside the matrix to define the borders of our research zone. The projects within the matrix re-enforce our definition of prefab.

Delivery Method ‘Delivery method’ has different meanings in different fields and even within the field of architecture, it can have various implications. Since it is an important factor in Prefab City, a precise definition, for our purposes, is required. By delivery methods, we mean the mode of transportation and route from

PRECEDENTS

factory where a prefab element was made to the actual construction site, and everything in between.

Introduction •

2


Research Methodology and Scope

To make our research and findings more effective and useful, we have devised a strategy to

Asphalt Road

Drop House

100% on-site

100% off-site

calculate or ‘rate’ the degree or ‘prefabness’ for each of the examples presented. Firstly, the matrix helps us define our boundaries on what constitutes prefab. In other words, the limits of degree of ‘prefabness’ are defined by the projects around the border of the matrix, and everything within falls in our realm of study. By developing this matrix, we have given ourselves two extremes of prefab and therefore now have a scale from which we can place other objects relative to the two ends. As our own commitment to being objective about these examples, our ratings and matrix placements primarily use measurable facts and figures.


Puma City

Drop House Metastadt

INTRODUCTION Nomadic Museum

DETERMINANTS

Off-site Prefabrication

Precast Concrete Segmented Bridges

Pierson Court

Kim House

Bailey Bridge

Box City

Elemental

Use Infrastructure

Hong Kong Tower

CONTEXT

Habitat 67

2 x 4 Res.

Elemental Infill

Permanent Keetwonen

Adobe Hut/ Igloo

Zollverein

Asphalt Road

On-site Construction

Temporary

PRECEDENTS

Use Residential

DEPLOYMENT

Nakagin Tower

Custom Standard

Introduction •

4


Determinants


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT

de·ter·mi·nant    [dih-tur-muh-nuhnt] –noun 1. a determining agent or factor.

PRECEDENTS

A multitude of factors go into the design and delivery of a prefabricated element. Prefab delivery must be carefully thought through to ensure smooth transition from factory to site. Factors to pay special attention to include method of transportation, site restrictions, and the construction strategy. Determinants •

6


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

Transportation

Transportation • 8 INTRODUCTION


Transportation Types

Ground: Rail

Ground: Road

Ground: Crane

Rail transportation is one of the most efficient

With many different types, transportation by

Cranes provide the means of moving a container

modes of tranport for moving freight. However,

trucks provides some flexibility for moving

or module to its place on site. The cost of having

the constraints of connectivity to other modes of

materials and modules to site. Trucks are limited

a crane is one limitation. The dimensions of the

transport and the rigidity of the rail car are both

by the roads that lead them to a site. Local height

site and its constraints also are limiting factors.

limitations that need to be considered when using

and weight restrictions, as well as the turning

rail.

radius of the truck, must be considered.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT

Air: Skycrane

Air: Freight Airplane

Barges allow for the tranport of ‘mega structures’

Skycranes allow typically inaccessible sites to

Freight airplanes can expedite the delivery

that would otherwise be precluded from use

receive materials that could not be delievered

process of containers and kit of parts projects.

because they are unable to be moved by rail or

there otherwise. The distance of the pick up to

However, because of the dimensional and weight

road. While size of the component is not a factor

site is very limiting, as well as the skill needed to

restrictions, the typical container size is excluded

when using a barge, port locations in relation to

operate the device and the cost associated with

from this mode of transportation.

site are critical factors that limit the use of water

delivery.

transport.

Transportation •

10

PRECEDENTS

Water: Barge


by Ground: Rail Rail transportation provides an economical alternative to truck transport for longer shipping

Seattle

distances (over 250 miles). In the United States, there is an existing network of freight railways that serve the major metropolitan areas. Boston

Chicago

Cities that are located close to water most often

New York Philadelphia Washington D.C.

have the greatest convergence of railroads. Waterways offer the greatest capabilities for

Los Angeles

intermodal transport. Atlanta

The two most commonly used methods of transportation (shown below) are “trailers on flat cars” (TOFC) and “container on flat cars” (COFC). Both types allow undisturbed shipment of freight.

US System of Railways

TOFC

COFC

Beacon Park Freight Yard, Boston, MA


INTRODUCTION

The container has become the unit of measurement for rail transport. The dimensional properties of the container dictate the length of the rail car and the vertical clearance needed for transport. This can be a limiting factor when

DETERMINANTS

transporting containers into an urban

Typical container dimension

DEPLOYMENT

environment.

Railcar dimension is set by container dimension so that two containers can fit on one car

18’ -3”

req’d clearance 20’-9”

Worcester

20’ -3”

Boston PRECEDENTS

req’d clearance 18’-9”

CONTEXT

Trailer lengths also accomodate container dimensions

< 19’-6” Other Railway

Two 8’-6” Containers Stacked

Two 9’-6” Containers Stacked

Vertical Railway Clearance in Massachusetts Transportation •

12


by Ground: Road Transportation of pre fab elements in a urban environment is constrained by a number of obstacles. One of which is the complex network of roads that comprise many cities. In order to deliver pre fab modules to a site many different sized trucks need to be considered as part of the delivery process. Each truck has its own set of limitations for maximum freight weight. All of these factors must be considered when siting a pre fab project in an urban context.

Truck Types Pickup Truck Advantages: Can easily navigate small urban streets Disadvantages: Lowest freight weight capacity, very limited by size

Single Unit Truck Advantages: Comparitively narrow width (fairly easy for navigating small streets). Mid size compacity for freight (panels could fit) Disadvantages: Constrained by height.

Dump Truck

Advantages: Large freight weight compacity Disadvantages: Width could be problematic when trying to traverse complex sites.

Semi Tractor Trailer Truck Advantages: Largest carrying capacity; multiple trailer options to facilitate different sized pieces. Disadvantages: Hardest to maneuver complex street network.


Truck Dimensions Transportation • 14 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Semi-Trailer Load Capacities Semi-Tractor trailer trucks have the greatest carrying capacity. There are a number of options

48’-0”

for the trailer; some maximize the length, some height of the element that needs to be transported. Outlined below are the options.

8’-6” 8’-6”

48,000 lbs.

Flatdeck Trailer 11’-0” 37’-0” 8’-6”

a

10’-0”

b

8’-6”

48,000 lbs. a: Height restriction for truck (varies by state from 13’-6” to 14’-6”) b: Height limit for vertical clearance (typ. 14’-0” for urban areas, 16’-0” rural)

Vertical Clearance for Semi-Trailers

Single Drop Trailer 10’-0”

52’-6”

29’-0” 9’-0”

8’-6” 11’-6”

9’-2” 45,000 lbs.

Box Trailer

8’-6”

*

45,000 lbs. maximizes height

Double Drop Trailer

10’-0” 8’-6”


INTRODUCTION

48’-0” 80’-0”

8’-6”

45,000 lbs. maximizes length

*Flatdeck Trailer Stretched

DETERMINANTS

8’-6” 14’-0”

48,000 lbs.

8’-6”

Oversized Load

10’-0”

8’-6”

DEPLOYMENT

48’-0”

63’-0”

8’-6” 10’-0”

8’-6”

Single Drop Trailer Stretched

16’-0”

*Way Oversized Load

CONTEXT

43,000 lbs.

48,000 lbs. permits required

10’-0” 50’-0” 11’-6”

9’-0”

PRECEDENTS

8’-6”

10’-0”

*

40,000 lbs. maximizes height

Double Drop Trailer Stretched

8’-6”

*

dimensions contrained by road restrictions of local municipalites

Super Oversized Load Transportation •

16


Roadway Design & Obstacles Roadway design can either help or hinder the transport of prefab elements to site by truck. Outlined below are the guidelines for the dimensions of driving and parking lanes in a city.

a1

b1

c

b2

a2


INTRODUCTION City Utilities

Lighting

Signage

DETERMINANTS

Street Furniture

Pedestrian Utilities

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Landscape

PRECEDENTS

Truck Turning Obstacles ‘Making the turn’ is one of the challeneges of truck transport when building in an urban environment. The many obstacles the city presents (parked cars, telephone poles, stop signs, etc.) make routing a truck to site one of the most important parts of the process.

Parallel Parking Transportation •

18


Truck Turning Radii The swept path a truck takes as it makes a right

Swept path of truck

60°

turn is a critical moment. To the right is a diagram that explains the logics of how a truck makes a turn. The most common trucks used for transport in the city are the standard semi-truck and the

60’ radius from point on sidewalk

single unit truck. The paths for oversized loads need to be considered if larger elements need to get to site.

Critical points that determine swept path

Truck Making 60° Turn

60°

60°

90°

90° a

a

b b

a: 53’-0”

180°

b: 8’-6”

a: 53’-0”

180°

b: 8’-6” critical swept path

Standard Semi-Truck

critical swept path

Single Unit Truck


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT 60°

60°

90°

90°

90°

b

*cannot make a 180° with a 60’ radius

b

a: up to 80’-0”

a: 48’-0”

b: 8’-6”

b: 16’-0” critical swept path

Stretch Semi-Truck

b

180°

critical swept path

Oversized Load (Width)

180° a: 75’-0” or 1/3 truck bed length b: 8’-6” critical swept path

Oversized Load (Length) Transportation • 20

PRECEDENTS

a

a

a

CONTEXT

60°


by Water Vessels used for transport range in size based on the depth of water being traveled. The prefab componentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s size, if only traveling by water, is restricted by the smallest body of water it travels through. The size of the locks in at the Panama Canal determine the size of the ships allowed through. Each lock is 1,050 ft long, 110 feet wide. The Bridge of the Americas at the Pacific Entrance to the canal is the height determinate; 201 ft at high tide. These dimensions set the maximum size of ship elligible to travel through the canal known as the Panamax. A typical Panamax Container ship holds about 4,400 TEUs. Container ship unit of measure: TEU, twenty-foot equivalent units: containers measuring 20ft L x 8ft W x 8.5ft H

Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Largest Ports

(ranked by container traffic, 2006) 1.

Singapore

2.

Hong Kong

3.

Shanghai

4.

Shenzhen

5.

Busan

6.

Kaohsiung

7.

Rotterdam

8.

Dubai

9.

Hamburg

140 million containers shipped worldwide each year

10. Los Angeles 22. New York/ New Jersey 28. Port Said

Ro-RO Ship passing through a lock at the Panama Canal

-

Dampier

-

Newcastle


155 feet long, 125 feet wing span

Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest container ship, Emma Maersk: 1,302 feet long, 184 feet wide 11,000 full TEU 14-ton containers

INTRODUCTION

Boeing 757-200PF Cargo Freight:

DETERMINANTS

Size Comparison

Transport Ships Types Name

Water Type

Qualities

RO-RO Roll-on/Roll-Off

varies by size

subdivided into multiple types, many carry vehicles and containers

Sto-Ro

off wheel cargo, brought on board by a ramp at stern or side entry

Container/Ro-Ro

flexibile storage- containers on + under deck forward, ramps at stern for aft

underdeck. Ro-Ro cargo is often construction equipment

Ferry

Shallow

transport distance less than 300miles, often personal vehicles and rail cars

Heavy Lift

Deep

capable of unloading/loading heavy/bulky components - typical single lift of 100 tons

Crane Ship

off-load containers from non self-sustaining ships offshore or underdeveloped ports

FLO-FLO Float-On/Float-Off

submerges open deck entirely under water surface, smaller cargo ship is

floated over, water is pumped out of ballast tanks

Barge Carrier Ships

Shallow

very long length compared to width, hard to handle and off-load to

Container Ships

Deep

containers stack 5 or 6 high, twelve across and interlocked with fittings- typically rely

on shore cargo handling gear for unloading/loading Transportation â&#x20AC;˘ 22

PRECEDENTS

300 feet long

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Football field:


by Air It may be cost effective to transport by air using a freight aircraft if the elements are small enough and light enough to fit inside a cargo hold. Utilizing an air crane, despite its hourly cost, may be necessary if the urban site is particularly

container / palette

difficult to access by truck and standard cranes. The boom height necessary to place a prefab

large main-deck cargo door

component may require too large of a crane for the adjacent street size. In this instance lifting a prefab unit as large as many typical single family homes may be the efficient option for transport.

Cargo Freight Specs: Boeing 757-200PF Cargo Freight: Length: 155 feet Tail Height: 44 feet Wing span: 125 feet Max takeoff weight: 250,000 lb - 255,000 lb Main deck capacity: 15 max containers/palette Palette size: 7’-4” x 10’-5”

Size Comparison

Main deck volume: 6,600 cubic ft (palette loads) Upper deck volume: 1,830 cubic ft (bulk loads)

Football field:

Cruise Speed: 530 mph

300 feet long

Range: 2,900 miles Rate of climb: 1,3330 ft/min Ceiling: 12,800 ft

Cargo Freight Air Crane / Skycrane

Must land to transport


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

difficult access urban site

23 0m ax

DEPLOYMENT

im um

im t dis an ce

CONTEXT

Air Crane / Skycrane Specs: Length: 70 feet Height: 18ft 7 inches Empty Weight: 19,234 lb Max takeoff weight: 42,000 lb

extracted from fabricator, truck/rail/water transport vessel

Max Speed: 126 mph Range: 230 mi

PRECEDENTS

prefab component

Rate of climb: 1,3330 ft/min Ceiling: 9,000 ft Cost: $5,000 per hour able to hover over site for delivery Transportation â&#x20AC;˘

24


Transportation Sources

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/sealift-ships.htm http://earthpulse.nationalgeographic.com/earthpulse/earthpulse-map http://www.massfreightandrailplan.com/documents/rail_plan/Draft%20MA%20State%20Rail%20 Plan090910.pdf http://www.stevenswest.com/trailer_selector.shtml http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/trucks/trucksize/height.htm Image Credits: http://crcyc.railfan.net/wall/other/frye-beacon.jpg http://www.hankstruckpictures.com/pix/trucks/george_fiebe/2008/08-12/file002.jpg http://www.billemory.com/blogimg02/k639b4-semi-franklin.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/36722129@N06/4168030601/


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Site Access + Assembly • 26

DETERMINANTS

Site Access + Assembly INTRODUCTION


Site Access There are several logical reasons for using cranes in prefab construction. Sites completely surrounded are rendered inaccessible to bulky construction equiptment.Other existing site conditions like single access to site, corner site, or narrow site greatly limit the access points to bring in construction equiptment and modules. Buildings can be constructed on these accessible (but difficult) sites and open sites using stick frame methods, but in some cases the speed of prefabricated construction methods can expedite the process.

courtyard

crane necessary for construction

surrounded site

single access to site


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

corner site

narrow site

full access to site

Site Access + Assembly • 28

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

crane necessary for speed

DEPLOYMENT

alley


Crane Operation + Extents Special crane components There are some extra equiptment items that make craning a module more efficient and precise. Rigging keeps the forces of tension perpindicular to the module, reducing the bending forces on the unit. An antirotation device helps control a craneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s motion and the way the module shifts from pickup Winch up

Winch left

to placement.

Winch right Winch down

Emergency stop Start

Stop

Jog

Reset

Wood frame modules are best moved with strapping and rigging. Steel frame modules use

Crane school

hooks and holes intentionally in the design of

Heavy equiptment training school is essential for

modular structures to pick up the unit (as in

crane training and operation. It involves written

shipping containers).

tests based on state laws and practical examinations employing studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; skilled

Outriggers extending from the crane vehicle are

manipulation of the crane operations.

necessary to temporarily ground the module to the site. The jib is very useful to hold the modular unit in an almost upright position. It has the potential to resolve design issues thanks to its ability to

Crane cab controls

suspend the module in a way different from the way a crane typically does.

Rigging for wood frame module


INTRODUCTION

Small And Large Crane Extents All Terrain Crane Tadano ATF 110G-5 130 Ton capacity

jib

20°

20°

DETERMINANTS

143' 80° jib 122' 44°

95' 20°

80° 42'

170'

CONTEXT

101' 130'

PRECEDENTS

360° work area

outrigger

72'

24'-7"

340'-0"

outrigger

20'-0"

190'-0"

56'

DEPLOYMENT

Telescopic Boom Crane National Crane 1395 20 Ton capacity

360° work area

Site Access + Assembly • 30


Crane + Obstacles Hand signals

Permitting obstacles

between the crane operator and the individual on

Inspectational Services Department include: long

site guiding the placement of the crane. These

form permit, amendment, use of premise permit

simple gestures are necessary for several

(for using open space), electrical & fire alarm

reasons. Construction sites are often loud. There

permits, plumbing, gas, and sprinkler installation

is a lot of space between the crane operator and

permits.

Hand signals are necessary for communication

Permits in Boston one must obtain through the

the individual conducting the craneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s motions. The dual perspectives of crane operator and

Call Boston Public Works Department 24 hours

conductor are critical in ensuring safety and

prior to work to get a permit. Coordinate with

precision.

recycling, santiation, and street sweeping. Signs must be posted near the sitewith the construction schedule. In addition to this, it may be required to hire an officer to direct traffic.

Hoist

Swing

Lower

Raise Boom + Lower Load

Raise Boom

Lower Boom + Raise Load

Lower Boom

Stop

Hand signals


INTRODUCTION

Obstacles on a construction site There are a variety of existing physical barriers

that must be worked around. These can lead to interesting, even fruitful design moves. They includew but are not limited to:

DETERMINANTS

Utility poles Power lines Lamp posts Trees Fire hyrdants

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Subterranian utilities

Site Access + Assembly â&#x20AC;˘ 32


Off Frame Assembly Site Dimensions Determined by Truck Turn Truck turn dimensions can influence the decision to use a site or not. Sometimes scale and cost can dictate the use of an off frame assembly system. Often obstacles, like powerlines, can make modular construction on a site unfeasible without the use of an off frame solution. Still other obstacles, like sidewalks and buildings surrounding the site (both immediately and across

20' 6' 52' 6'

the street), can impact the delivery of an off frame modular unit. Knowing the limits and minimum site dimensions can transform a once unusable site into a valuable piece of real estate.

Standard Semi Truck

Efficiency

minimum site dimensions 20’ wide x 53’ deep module dimensions 8’-6” wide x 53’ deep

Efficiency percentage is calculated by dividing the area of the module by the area of the smallest possible rectangular site. It is clear that the most dense and efficient module-site relationship happens when the module is shorter and wider, as in the case of the oversized load (width) example.

Module

Site

43 %


INTRODUCTION 25'

6'

6'

6'

53'

53'

53'

6'

6'

6'

Stretch Semi Truck

Oversized Load (Width)

Oversized Load (Length)

minimum site dimensions 25’ wide x 48’ deep module dimensions 16’ wide x 48’ deep

minimum site dimensions 17’ wide x 63’ deep module dimensions 16’ wide x 48’ deep

21 %

64 %

50 %

Site Access + Assembly • 34

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

minimum site dimensions 41’ wide x 80’ deep module dimensions 8’-6” wide x 80’ deep

DETERMINANTS

17'

DEPLOYMENT

41'


Off Frame Assembly From Truck to Site

Off-Frame Modular Delivery Module delivery is possible without a crane. The truck begins its delivery by backing into the site. Next jacks are placed underneath the module, taking the load off of the transportation chassis. The chassis is then removed by pulling it out into the street. In some cases, like the illustrated scenario, a chassis must be cut into pieces because the distance between the in place module and existing structure across from the site does not allow its removal.

Backing up

Entering site


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT

Removing chassis from site

Breaking up chassis

Site Access + Assembly â&#x20AC;˘ 36

PRECEDENTS

Placing jacks under module


Site Access + Assembly Sources

Rent A Crane, Inc. http://www.rentacraneinc.com/equipment.html Capitol Building Supply. 2008. http://cbsigms.com/pricing/cranecharges.pdf Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. September 2010. http://www.pnl.gov/contracts/hoist_rigging/ mobile_cranes.asp#cranetypes Wikipedia. 2010 2, November. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_(machine) National Modular Housing Council. http://www.manufacturedhousing.org/mc/admin/template/ brochures/70temp.pdf City of Boston.2010. http://www.cityofboston.gov/isd/building/boa/permittypes.asp City of Boston. 2010. http://www.cityofboston.gov/transportation/ Star-Flite Systems. http://www.flickr.com/photos/starflite-systems/4930960368/sizes/m/in/ photostream/ California Crane School. 2004-2010. http://www.californiacraneschool.com/ Pennsylvania Crane School. 2009. http://www.pennsylvaniacraneschool.com/crane_practical_test. asp Gokturk, Nurhan. Personal Interview. 13 October 2010. Curbed Los Angeles. http://la.curbed.com/archives/2008/01/watching_a_pref.php University of Arkansas. http://architecture.uark.edu/719.htm


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

Modular Strategies

Modular Strategies • 38 INTRODUCTION


Logistics Module Allowable Widths 12’-0” standard

Modular strategies provide several benefits to the construction process. The use of modules greatly

Module Allowable Widths

below) by allowing builders to work simultaneously on and off site. In working primarily off-site, negative impacts on the no permitting environment 8’-6” and post-construction site revival required (standard) permit required (wide) 12’-0” are greatly reduced. escort required (wide) 14’-0” special route required (oversize) 8’-6” 16’-0” Module dimensions are determined by the 12’-0” 14’-0” Massachusetts Department of Transportation. 16’-0” MassDOT codes restrict travel of certain trucks

12’-0” standard

reduces time for the construction schedule (see

no permitting required (standard) permit required (wide) escort required (wide) special route required (oversize)

and load sizes during high volume traffic hours.

Module Allowable Lengths

standard

oversize

40’-0” 53’-0” 76’-0”

PERMITING submission + approvals

maximum standard

Site Built Construction Schedule DESIGN schematics + documents

12’-0” standard

Module Allowable Lengths

ON-SITE preparation + foundation

40’-0” 53’-0” 76’-0”

ON-SITE building construction

oversize

ON-SITE site restoration

Modular Construction Schedule DESIGN schematics + documents

PERMITING submission + approvals

ON-SITE preparation + foundation OFF-SITE building construction

ON-SITE site restoration

TIME SAVED schedule reduced by 30% to 50%


INTRODUCTION

Steel Frame Modular

6” ceiling joists HSS frame steel form deck 3” concrete HSS frame steel studs

DETERMINANTS

steel form deck

gwb DEPLOYMENT

cladding Steel framed modules are constructed with a hollow structural steel frame that is infilled with light gague steel studs. The modules arrive on site with interior and exterior finish materials installed, are fastened to one another and finishing touches are made. The steel module maximum twelve story building.

exploded axonometric mate-line concrete floor

CONTEXT

shown to the right allows for the construction of a

PRECEDENTS

mate-line gwb ceiling 2 layers type x gwb mineral wool fire stop firesafing

marriage wall section Modular Strategies • 40


Logistics Wood Frame Modular gwb ceiling 2 x 6 ceiling joists gwb finish wall

2x4 studs

(2) 2 x 12 beam floor sheathing (2) 2 x 10 beam

2x10 floor joists 2x6 studs sheathing cladding Wood framed modules are built using typical wood construction methods. Wood beams and studs act as the main structure, with exterior sheathing to prevent racking. Interior and exterior finishes come installed in the module. Wood modules are often limited in height by local codes for wood construction. gwb finish wall osb sheathing 2 x 10 joists (2) 2x12 beam air space 2 x 6 ceiling joists gwb finish ceiling 2 x 4 stud wall

marriage wall section

exploded axonometric


steel corrugated roof corrugated side wall

INTRODUCTION

Shipping Container Modular

Shipping container modules can come from actual recycled shipping containers, or can be

steel joists rubber gasket securing bars steel doors

steel block steel post steel channel 1” plywood floor

DEPLOYMENT

custom constructed for specific projects.

DETERMINANTS

steel square tube

Shipping containers are intended to be stacked for the transportation of goods, and therefore stack easily as well to form buildings. The corrugated side walls provide a lot of the containers strucural capacity, and need to be reinforced with columns if sections are removed

CONTEXT

exploded axonometric

as shown above

steel angle below steel channel at plywood seam corrugated side wall

PRECEDENTS

1” plywood floor

steel joists below corrugated end wall steel permieter beam steel bottom block steel vertical support

structure detail plan Modular Strategies •

42


Site Placement Strategies On-Frame Modular

chassis

set module on piers

There are two main strategies for placing modular

Off-frame construction (see below) is commonly

buildings on to a site. On-frame construction (see

used for multi-story buildings. The module is

above), also known as mobile homes, is limited to

placed onto the back of a flat-bed truck for

single story structures. Modules are placed on a

shipment, and is craned into its site upon arrival.

chassis, hitched to a truck, and brought to site.

The modules can be stacked according to local

The chassis is lowered onto a set of piers and

zoning and codes, as well as the structural

detached from the truck. The chassis and wheels

integrity of the system. Off-frame systems are

are left beneath the module, making the structure

typically viewed as permanant.

detach chassis

temporary in nature

Off-Frame Modular

flat-bed truck

strap module to crane

place module on foundation


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

add skirting DEPLOYMENT

anchor module to ground

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

craning sequence

anchor module to foundation Modular Strategies â&#x20AC;˘ 44


Aggregation Techniques There are several ways modules can be aggregated to form a building. Modules can be

Non-attached

Semi-attached

Solo

Framework

Field

Field joint

not attached, semi attached, or attached as seen in the diagrams to the right. Here are several examples of how modules can be aggregated within the different levels of attachment. The examples listed are existing aggregation techniques in their simplest form. The ability of modules to be stacked and shifted is reliant on their structural integrity. Different construction methods will allow for smaller or larger cantilever dimensions and variable building heights. The height of modular buildings is also reliant on local zoning codes for specific materials

Puma City, to the right, is a great example of aggregated modules where one can actually see the aggregation technique clearly. Modules oberseve stack : shift relationships as well as mate and bridge.


Attached : Void

Mate

Stack

Void : Bridge

Mate : Shift

Stack : Shift

Void: Bridge

Mate : Turn

Stack : Turn

INTRODUCTION

Attached : Stack

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

Attached : Mate

Modular Strategies • 46


Mechanical Systems Modular Building Parts As the number of modules in a modular building increases, the complexity by which they are attached also grows. A solo module arrives ready for use, and must only be tied into the foundation. As more modules are introduced there is a system by which their mechanical components are connected. Stacked modules require shafts, similar to that of standard

in-site foundation

buildings, to carry mechanical lines. Large buildings with high volume HVAC and plumbing

typical module

interstitial module

systems can introduce interstitial modules to allow lateral movement of systems in between stacked modules.

Mechanical + Modular Connections

solo module

adjacent modules

stacked modules


mechanical systems

shipping container mechanical units

stacked : adjacent modules

individual container mechanical box Modular Strategies â&#x20AC;˘ 48

INTRODUCTION PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

electrical connection

DEPLOYMENT

shaft space

DETERMINANTS

Shipping Container Connections


Modular Strategies Sources

Gokturk, Nurhan. Personal Interview. 13 October 2010. “Distill Studio: Projects.” 2009.http://distillstudio.com/?page_id=9 (accessed Oct. 2010). Garrison,James. Modular Architecture Manual. Kullman Offsite Construction. Lebanon: Kullman Buildings Corp, 2008. Modular Building Institute, “Permanant Modular Construction: Annual Report.” 2010.http://www.modular.org/documents/document_publication/permanent2010. pdf (accessed Oct. 2010). “LOT-EK.” http://www.lot-ek.com/ (accessed Oct. 2010). “Shipping Container Drawings.” Oct. 27, 2009. http://www.arktist.com/ArkPhoenix/ ShippingContainerDwgs/containerdwgs.html (accessed Oct. 2010). Images Melissa Goldfarb John Wilde http://www.lot-ek.com http://www.kullman.com


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

Component Strategies

Component Strategies • 50 INTRODUCTION


Definitions Prefab construction is often associated with whole modules or shipping container architecture. However, there are other component strategies that qualify as prefabicated construction.

Fabricated Unit

Panel System

Precast Concrete

Fabricated units as defined by this section are

Panel systems contain integrated systems within

Precast concrete is fabricated in a multitude of

typically made of extruded or poured metal

one component. Often included are structural,

sizes. Precast components are comprised of an

(aluminum or steel) The units range in scale from

thermal/waterproofing, electrical, mechanical

internal steel rebar framework and high tolerance

a small fasteners to steel bridge trusses. For the

systems. Made up of a sandwich of

concrete. Concrete is meant to withstand

consideration of construction and design logics,

complementary materials. How the panels are

transport to and movement on site. Units are

metal fabricated components from the single stud

handled on site is dependent on the weight and

limited in weight and dimensions based on the

to the 300â&#x20AC;&#x2122;-0â&#x20AC;? bridge truss are in this category.

size of each piece.

smallest unit of transportation. Refer to the Transportation chapter for size limitations.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT

Kit-of-Parts The Kit-of-Parts is a packaged set of components that results in a cohesive end product, not

PRECEDENTS

categorized by materiality; often the shipping package is used as a portion of the finished product. It can include any number and combination of the fabricated unit, the panel system, or precast components. Coordination of products is done off-site then delivered. Component Strategies â&#x20AC;˘ 52


On-Site Labor The benefit of prefabricated systems is mostly realized in the reduction of construction on-site labor. Prefabricating components, panels, or modules can significantly reduce the amount of time workers are present at the site. The reduction of on-site time obviously reduces construction labor cost but also has the potential to reduce the amount of errors experienced at the construction site. However, a consequence of prefabrication is that the building components grow in size. Increased sizes result in the need to utilize more man-power and exra equipment. Transport equipment maximum loads need to be considered in the design of the components. Logistics in transfer are key limitations to designing structurally sound pieces that can handle transport and the loads inherent in the building design. Extra time is needed than on-site construction calculating and coordinating the connecting components because on-site flexibility is severly decreased. Increased coordination is then necessary for any building components not built as part of the prefabricated system, ie: the foundation. Since prefabrication alters the time and means for on-site labor it is important to understand the relationship of on-site personnel to the size and type of prefabricated component.

launching and construction of Bailey Bridge with manual labor


51 lbs

2” H × 4” W x 8’-0” L

150 lbs

10’-0” H x 4’-0” W x 6” L

577 lbs

5’-0” H x 1’-0” W x 10’-0” L

< 2,000 lbs

4’ H x 4’ W x 3’-4” L

< 2,000 lbs

5’-0” H × 4’-0” W × 8’-0” L

20,000 lbs

11’-6” H x 8’-0” W x 48’-0” L

25,000 lbs

15’-0” H x 60’-0” W x 9’-0” L

INTRODUCTION

Dimensions

DETERMINANTS

Max. Weight

CONTEXT

Component

Component Strategies • 54

PRECEDENTS

Labor Personnel

DEPLOYMENT

Relationship of On-site Labor and Component Transfer


Fabricated Units Fabricated units have the advantage of being constructed in a controlled environment. Compared to stick-built methodology, fabrication groups the individual studs, beams and joists within a factory setting. Instead of installing and connecting each stud to the foundation through the footer of a wall, the framing is made into a component that includes the header, footer and all the studs for a predetermined length of wall.

Degrees of Prefabrication Stud

elevation plan

Stud Panel

Bridge Truss


INTRODUCTION

DETERMINANTS

Floor Slab

Fabricated Unit Logic

CONTEXT

Foundation

PRECEDENTS

Apetures

DEPLOYMENT

Framing Column-Beam Connection

Cladding

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

Interior Finish

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

Roof Structure

Steel Frame Construction Fabricated Units compose the structural framing. Other systems, energy, aesthetics, and openings are additive to the unit. Component Strategies • 56

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT


Panel System

3

4 2

Panellized construction minimizes on-site construction. Construction materials typically

1

fastened on-site are compiled into a component constructed in the controlled factory environment. Most common type of panel system is SIPs, structural insulated panels. SIPs are comprised of a thick layer of insulation between two layers of OSB, oriented strand board. A basic SIPs panel is composed of both structure and insulation layer. Panel systems may increase material cost by up to 50% but on-site labor cost can potentially

Panel Connections

decrease by 50%. The benefit exists in the

Connections

precision of factory controlled construction with

isolation from problems that exist at the site.

1. Track to Level Platform

Fastener

Spacing

countersunk screw

2 screws per 24”

1 screw in between

Installation of the panels is based on

2. Track to Panel

screw

2 screws per stud

methodology developed for the specific system.

3. Panel to Panel

screw (ex: wafer head)

12” OC

Different systems will have different advantages:

4. Track to Panel*

screw

2 screws per stud

whether the panel is lightweight or resistent to weather, earthquakes, winds, insects, debris.

*upper track connected after 12’-0” of panels installed


Last Panel

Initial Panel PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION

DUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

Panel Installation Sequence

Component Strategies • 58


Precast Concrete Structural Components Slabs

1

2

3

4

length factor by function of service width by transportation restriction

6

5

7

Beams depth is dependent on length

10

length is function of capacity load

Columns

1. Solid

height is dependent on the width Precast concrete construction is most readily

2. Hollow Core 8

3. Single Tee

9

4. Double Tee

seen within the city as infrastructure. It is a

5. Rectangular

versitile construction type. Any shape and size is

6. Inverted Tee

possible as long as the overall component

7. L-shaped

conforms to the smallest restrictions on size

8. Round|Rectangle

based on transportation used to get from

9. Square

precaster to the job site. Refer to the

10. Double Height

Transportation Sub-Chapter for restraints, per transport type. The efficiency of precast concrete units becomes apparent in the repeatability of the shape. Formwork is expensive to fabricate. The more sophisticated the form the higher the cost. Similar shapes with minimal pour adjustments will result in the most cost efficient use of the form. Utilizing precast as a technology will add additional time to the initial phase of the project for design/calculations and decrease on-site time.

Composition of Precast materials and accessories rebar concrete: portland cement, water,

air, aggregate

formwork

positive/negative connection keys epoxy cementitious grout:

between precast segments/

components


INTRODUCTION

Precast Fabrication to Construction Site Fabrication of a precast unit mirrors the method in which the unit will be installed at the site.

Short Line Casting System Bulkhead New Segment Older Segment

Older Segment Soffit Carriage

New

adjustable formwork for precast segments

Old

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

Inside Formwork

CONTEXT

Outside Formwork

Long Line Casting System

Elevation PRECEDENTS

Outside Formwork

Inside Formwork Plan Component Strategies â&#x20AC;˘ 60


Kit-of-Parts Examples Container

Sunshower Kit

Bailey Bridge Kit

A Kit-of-Parts is not defined by the specific materials and items contained, but defined by the nature of it arriving to the construction site as a cohesive unit. The package the kit arrives in can either be designed into the finished product or transported away if not being used; it is a matter of preference. In the interest of decreasing transportation costs it may be ideal and sustainable to introduce the transporting unit to the final design.

End Product


INTRODUCTION

structure doors

DETERMINANTS

windows container casework fasteners

DEPLOYMENT

panels

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

plumbing

Contained in the Kit Component Strategies â&#x20AC;˘ 62


Component Strategies Sources

Precast Concrete by NEU School of Architecture Graduate Students Fall 2009 (Michelle Callinan, Daniel Riggs, Chris Kuczynski with Matthew Littell) Barker, James M. “Construction Techniques for Segmental Concrete Bridges” 1980. http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/1980/July-August/JL-80-JULY-AUGUST-9.pdf ToolBase techSpace: Panelized Wall Systems http://www.toolbase.org/pdf/techinv/panelizedwallsystems_techspec.pdf US Department of Housing and Urban Development “Design, Fabrication and Installation of Engineered Panelized Walls: Two Case Studies” http://www.huduser.org/Publications/PDF/panelized_walls.pdf Images: http://www.enlisted.info/field-manuals/fm-5-277-bailey-bridge.shtml http://www.usace.army.mil/History/hv/Pages/098-Role_of_US_Army_Corps.aspx http://www.flickr.com/photos/42108746@N00/30019541/ http://tinyhouseblog.com/galapagos.html http://www.steelworksnz.co.nz/projects/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/nycstreets/4831935944/ http://www.kozialconstruction.com/ Barker, James M. “Construction Techniques for Segmental Concrete Bridges” 1980. http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/1980/July-August/JL-80-JULY-AUGUST-9.pdf http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/081710_sunshower.cfm http://www.metamere.com/images/segmentalbridgeunderconstruction4.jpg http://www.mtc.ca.gov/images/ta02-0307/skyway.jpg http://www.gautrain.co.za/web_images/_2S22gQ.jpg http://www.djc.com/stories/images/20090716/DSCN1968_big.jpg


Component Strategies • 64 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Deployment Tactics


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT Precedent research was integral to the

preparation for work.

development of this chapter, where the analysis

CONTEXT

Deployment: the distribution of resources in

helps to create subtle links between the urban Tactics: any mode of procedure for gaining

context and each precedent to foster design

success.

discoveries. Overall, projects were selected •

Clarity of the deployment method

Deployment Tactics takes an in-depth look at

Unique prefab implementation

current techniques to rapidly deliver prefab

Relationship to the urban condition

architecture and infrastructure. This chapter

Success of the conceptual approach

studies projects with unique construction

Scale: S - XXL

PRECEDENTS

based upon the following criteria:

solutions, which can be useful in the urban context. Deployment Tactics • 66


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Density on Demand

Density on Demand • 68 DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Definition and Factors + Transport and Location Defining Density on Demand The creation of superimposed urbanism developed through quick aggregation of compact structures became a perfect model for prefabrication. Not only did it minimize on-site construction but each piece could be shipped around the world to develop communities wherever shelter was needed. This “Density on Demand” can be seen in military bases, emergency relief shelters and temporary housing developments.

Creating Density on Demand There is specific criteria in creating urbanism from prefabricated construction. Being quickly assembled and disassembled to minimize on-site construction takes full advantage of factory prefabrication. This also means the finished product includes little or no site work and a light footprint for a structure that is easily moved around to various geographic locations and climates. Aggregation becomes important to maximize population density within compact limitations if there is any need for downtown city prefab infill.

Factors •

Mobility

Adaptability

Quick On-Site Installation

Light Footprint


The ability to be transported to a site fully constructed, with minimal site work, creates

INTRODUCTION

Mobility + Adaptability opportunities for a potential site, regardless of mobile shelters can be erected on site then moved whenever needed adds a unique aspect to their designs. In the case of the Quonset hut, since it was developed for multiple regions around the world, it incorporated sleds, wheels, chassis or even empty oil drums as pontoons to

DETERMINANTS

location, for instant urbanism. The fact these

maintain the chassis used in transport while occupying a site which can be reused in order to

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

move the building to a different location.

DEPLOYMENT

be transported. Mobile or HUD code homes

Density on Demand â&#x20AC;˘ 70


Construction On-Site Installation The amount of time spent with on-site construction has a significant effect on implemention strategies. Instant urbanism is automatically tied to its connection with the earth, the amount of on-site earthwork involved and the permanence of those connections. The Quonset Hut and Fema Trailers are two examples that minimize sitework and on-site construction to

Wood Frame House

create efficient instant urbanism. Sitework is able to proceed in parallel with the prefabrication process so when the materials arrive on site there is a minimum amount of work to prepare in order to receive the structure. The Quonset Hut has all of its pieces prefabricated on-site and utilizes simple connections in the field for quick installation. HUD code and mobile homes in general are completely prefabricated, the chassis being reused on-site as supports and remaining attached to the unit.

Mobile/HUD Code Home

Installation Time Wood Frame House + foundation - One Month Quonset Hut - One Day Mobile Home - Six Hours (approx.)

Quonset Hut


Density on Demand • 72 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Connections Light Footprint

Temporary Construction

Aspects which affect the lightness of a footprint are the permanence of the structure and the mobility for which it is designed. One crucial characteristic is the amount of earth displaced upon construction. This raises the question as to where to store or use this extra earth, particularly in

cases of wood frame houses that incorporate

a crawlspace or basement. More temporary buildings like the Quonset Hut and mobile homes end up with little or no displacement other than surface contact creating the perfect opportunity for rapid deployment and installation for disaster relief or other instant shelter needs.

Quonset Hut

Displaced Earth Footprint

Sill Plates

3000sf Wood Frame House w/basement - 9,600ft3 3000sf Wood Frame House w/crawlspace - 3,840ft

3

Minimal Earth Interaction 1000sf Quonset Hut w/Sill Plates - 16ft3 1000sf Quonset Hut w/Slab on Grade - 320ft 1000sf Mobile Home w/Footings - 12.4ft 2

3

Earth Displaced 16 ft3


INTRODUCTION CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

Temporary Construction

Quonset Hut

PRECEDENTS

Slab on Grade

Earth Displaced 320 ft3 Density on Demand •

74


Connections Semi-Permanent Construction

Mobile Home

Concrete Piers

Footings

Earth Displaced 37.3 ft3


INTRODUCTION

Permanent Conventional Construction

DETERMINANTS

Wood Frame House

DEPLOYMENT

Basement

Displacement 9600ft3

CONTEXT

Wood Frame House

PRECEDENTS

Crawlspace

Displacement 3840ft3 Density on Demand â&#x20AC;˘

76


Process

Raw Material

Factory Prefabrication

Delivery

Components

On-Site Storage

On-Site Fabrication

Off-Site Storage

On-Site Installation

Delivery


INTRODUCTION Recycled + Relocated

Erection

Military Base

Military Base

Trailer Park

Disaster Relief Trailer Park

Mobile Home Unit

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

Quonset Hut

Recylced + Relocated Density on Demand â&#x20AC;˘

78


Density on Demand Sources

Allegheny Construction & Remodeling. Web. 08 Nov. 2010. <http://www.alleghenybuilt.com/ garagespolebuildings.html>. Cotsalas, Valerie. “Standoff at Nassau’s Last Trailer Park.” The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 13 Jan. 2008. Web. 08 Nov. 2010. <http://www.nytimes.com/>. Decker, Julie, and Chris Chiei. Quonset Hut: Metal Living for a Modern Age. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2005. “Excel Home Factory Photos.” Modular Homes Consumer Guide Manufactured Home Floorplans and Prices. Web. 08 Nov. 2010. <http://www.modulartoday.com/gallery-excelfactory.html>.


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Parasite + Barnacle

Parasite + Barnacle • 80 DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Urban Infill Sites

Infill: n. A material that fills in an otherwise unoccupied space. Urban Infill: n. An architecture that is built in vacant or unused urban space.

Infill architecture maximizes the left-over space within previously developed urban conditions. It takes advantage of unused spaces, difficult or atypical sites, and existing structures within the urban context by building â&#x20AC;&#x153;up and out.â&#x20AC;? The sites for infill architecture can be found in-between, on top of, below, within, or on the side of existing structures. Prefabricated designs are the perfect solution for infill architecture. Due to dense urban environments, infill sites are difficult to build on and may require as little on-site assembly as possible. Prefabricated designs, primarily constructed in the factory whenever possible, would allow architecture to be built on sites that would otherwise not have been developed.

Infill Site Possibilities


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

“Within”

DEPLOYMENT

“On Side”

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

“Typical Infill”

“Below”

“Above” Parasite + Barnacle • 82


Definitions Prefabricated architecture that responds to these infill conditions can be categorized into two types: parasite or barnacle. Parasite and barnacle prefab depends upon itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s host for structure, real estate, systems, circulation, or regulatory benefits.

Parasite Parasite: n. An organism that has a symbiotic relationship with its host: while the host is not hurt by the parasite, it also does not benefit. The parasite takes advantage of various features of the host. Parasites are generally smaller than

remora feeding on shark

their host, show a high degree of specialization for their mode of life, and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Parasite prefab is a type of prefabricated architecture that specifically responds to infill site possibilities within the urban environment. Parasitical characteristics are represented as parasite prefab benefits from utilizing existing structures (hosts) within an architectural context. This architecture depends upon the existing structure and is unable to survive on itsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; own. It is migratory and temporary, with the ability to move from host to host. Parasite prefab can depend upon itsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; host for all five of the benefits listed above.

parasite architecture precedent


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

Barnacle Barnacle: n. A crustacean that lives permanently surface.

Barnacle prefab is a similar type of prefabricated

barnacles attached to a rock

architecture to parasite prefab, as it responds to

DEPLOYMENT

attached to a hard substrate or submerged

infill site possibilities within the urban environment in a similar way. Barnacle prefab does attach itself to an existing structure, but the CONTEXT

main difference is that it can survive on its own. Barnacle prefab is self-sufficient, with separate independent systems from its host. Primarily, the barnacle prefab would only utilize the host for structural or real estate purposes. It is more

PRECEDENTS

permanent than parasite prefab.

barnacle architecture precedent Parasite + Barnacle â&#x20AC;˘ 84


Parasite Precedents Just the Facts: 1997 Rathenow, Germany mixed-use commercial + residential fit-up 900sm addition of 12 prefab containers

This project is an addition to the rear of a 19th century building in a tight courtyard-like site. The containers were prefitted and assembled 500 km away. It took one day to deliver the containers on a standard size flatbed and one day to assemble with the help of a crane. They are housed on a concrete columnn and beam structure. The materials of the container are reinforced concrete, corrugated aluminum panels/sheeting, and steel frame insulated wall and roof panels. The building was gutted and prepared for the systems to recieve containers which were assembled with insulation and all necessary systems in the factory. These units are â&#x20AC;&#x153;plugged intoâ&#x20AC;? service systems within the floor compartment of the existing building.

Housing & Commercial Block Klaus Sill & Jochen Keim


INTRODUCTION

g in ild Bu g t in is

DEPLOYMENT

Ex

t it rs te In

on C

Existing Building

ta

in

ia

er

lS

Ad

pa

di

ce

tio

n

Interstitial Space

DETERMINANTS

Container Addition

Unoccupiable Space

The twelve prefabricated containers are “plugged CONTEXT

into” a concrete structural system. This addition acts as parasite prefab because the containers are attached to and feed on the systems of the existing building. The structural system of concrete beams and columns is directly connected to the structural system existent in the host building. These containers can not exist on

PRECEDENTS

their own; they rely on the host building to efficiently function. The containers were designed to be added to the existing building, yet this additional structural system causes a large percentage in loss of usable or functional space of the 900 square meter addition.

Unoccupiable Space Parasite + Barnacle • 86


Parasite Precedents Just the Facts: 2001 Rotterdam, The Netherlands 85 gross square meters Residential / Temporary Exhibition This project was designed as a temporary addition to a former warehouse building for an exhibition. The addition was located at the top of a small elevator shaft on the warehouse building, thus determining the size of the compact plan. This project represents parasite prefab as it is structurally supported by the host building, draws from the services of the existing building, and was designed to be temporary. This project is composed of load-bearing insulated panels, but the shape makes it dependent on the existing elevator shaft for strucutural support. The assembly of these panels on site took just a few days. The parasite prefab addition drew from the many services of the existing building, inluding the circulation

Las Palmas Parasite P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. PROJECT Kortknie Stuhlmacher Architecten

system. As this was designed and assembled for an exhibition, the structure was moved to a storage location by crane, road, and water trasportation.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

Road Transport

Crane Transport

Water Transport

Parasite Circulation

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Existing Systems

PRECEDENTS

Existing Circulation

Crane Site Assembly

Assembly Section Parasite + Barnacle â&#x20AC;˘ 88


Barnacle Precedents Just the Facts: 2009 Residential Unbuilt Project This project was designed through parametric 3D modeling software and was intended to be built on any unused spaces within the urban fabric such as blank facades, rocks, or bridges. This project, as the architect said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;finds value by turning dead public space into lively private space.â&#x20AC;? It was intended as a tool for sustainable urban densification. This project has a structural panel that would bolt the prefabricated element to the surface of the host or existing structure. The panelized components would be quick and easy to assemble on site after the structural plate is attached. The circulation system here is a staircase that can retract up into the building. As a result, the only actual footprint of the building would be the staircase landing of the retractable

Parasite Prefab Lara Calder Architects

stairs and the services duct.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT

Barnacle Addition

Independent Barnacle Circulation Connecting Bolt Plate

CONTEXT

Circulation Section

Services Shaft

Independent Barnacle Circulation

Assembly Section Parasite + Barnacle â&#x20AC;˘ 90

PRECEDENTS

Existing Building


3 Barnacle Precedents Just the Facts: Date: 1998 Location: Sevilla, Spain Typology: Temporary Scaffolding / Residential Santiago Parejo, through his Recetas Urbanas projects, is an architect who designs architecture that exploits gaps in currect building codes, administration, and legislation. He tries to find sites that offer real estate for various prefab additions to be built to existing buildings or structures throughout the city. He calls many of his projects, “Strategies for Subversive Urban Occupation.” As Benedicte Grosjean writes in ArchiLab’s Futurehouse (2002): “(Cirugeda) formulates realistic and empirical strategies to push the law to its limits and find pockets of nonlaw in which to develop a possible habitat.” In the Urban Shelter Building, Parejo finds a loop hole in local legislation that would allow someone to build their own shelter or “urban reserve.” Construction scaffolding can form a temporary

Urban Shelter Building Recetas Urbanas Santiago Cirugeda Parejo

room almost anywhere. It can either be connected to the interior or completely separate. Parejo’s temporary scaffolding room is always accessible from the public street and thus is only using the host building for real estate/regulatory reasons.


INTRODUCTION

In Sevilla, a minor work license must be obtained and the scaffolding project must be approved by an architect. The scaffolding, composed of 60 x 60 x 3 mm beams and 100 x 10 mm collars of galvanized steel, was assembled with a group of welders who helped to form the steel ribs. The structure was then covered by flexible sheets of

DETERMINANTS

PVC foam. Storage space was added to give the structure more function. The last step was to add a movable staircase and the project was ready to

DEPLOYMENT

go as a temporary shelter.

Assembly Section

Parasite + Barnacle â&#x20AC;˘ 92

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

Independent BarnacleCirculation


Parasite + Barnacle Sources

Brayer, Marie-Ange, and BĂŠatrice Simonot. ArchiLabâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Futurehouse: Radical Experiments in Living Space. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infill http://www.collagecityfilm.com/archives/category/musings http://www.remoratrade.com/ http://www.kortekniestuhlmacher.nl/laspalmas.html http://www.kortekniestuhlmacher.nl/laspalmas.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnacle http://www.calderflower.com.au/ http://www.designboom.com/weblog/cat/9/view/7625/lara-calder-architects-parasite-prefab.html http://www.recetasurbanas.net/index.php


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Instant Utopia

Instant Utopia • 94 DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Introduction

Utopia: n. An ideally perfect place, especially in its social, political, and moral aspects. The idea of creating an utopian architecture or

the utopian theme. Ultimately, adaptability to

urban fabric has often been a romanticized con-

specificities that site conditions present is what

cept rather than realistic one. While it is not new,

gives prefabricated architecture an advantage

the idea still intrigues architects today for various

over the traditional stick built type.

reasons: control, efficiency, master planning, etc.

Andreaeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Christianopolis , 1619

During the renaissance, designers and artists

Instant Utopia consists of three precedents that

such as Johannes Andreae and Bartolomeo

were selected due to the clarity of the type for

flirted with the concept of the perfect world, the

which they represent. Those buildings are as

Garden of Eden, and published catalogues of

follows:

their engraving and writings on the subject.

1. Nakagin Capsule Tower, Kisho K. 1972 2. Habitat â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;67, Moshe Safdie, 1967

Bartolomeoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s City of Truth, 1609

Today, there is a limited number of actual built

3. Metastadt, Richard Dietrich, 1972

projects that fall within the realm of utopia.

An identifying name is given to each building type

Instant Utopia attempts to identify the key fea-

that clearly addresses the unique attributes of the

tures of this architecture in regards to deploy-

type. The following page goes into further detail,

ment. Prefabricated architecture, whether in the

identifying the key features of this type and creat-

form of modular/capsule living environments, or

ing a usable language for the precedents.

panelized systems, is integral to the creation of


part of the urban context in which it sits. The

INTRODUCTION

The Plug-In Tower is both directly and indirectly a

The Plug-In Tower

armature rises out of the complexity inherent in its urban fabric, creating a resting place for the capNot unlike a cancer The Expanding Monolith is unaffected by its context. It starts as an initial growth and slowly, or rapidly, metastasizes into an endlessly adaptable system, creating city out of density. urbanism on a site, regardless of the contextual environment. Flipping and re-aggregating the

Dense Urban Fabric

Ascending Armature

Plug-In Capsule

Initial Monolith

Expanding Effect

The Expanding Monolith DEPLOYMENT

“blocks” to make a picturesque environment is what gives the type its fake variety.

Dense Urban Fabric

PRECEDENTS

The Artificial Hilltown

CONTEXT

The Artificial Hilltown explores the idea of making

DETERMINANTS

sules to plug in.

The Armature

The Single Block

Mirrored Blocks Instant Utopia • 96


Nakagin Capsule Tower

The Plug-In Tower

The Nakagin Capsule Tower is located in a dense

Just The Facts:

business district of the Ginza area of Tokyo,

Architect: Kisho Kurokawa

Japan. Originally, it was conceived of as a hotel

Location: Ginza, Japan

for business men to stay at during the week.

Program: Residential & Office

Today, it consists of 144 rental apartments. The

Construction Schedule: 1970 – 1972

first floor includes a self-service cafe and the sec-

Construction Type: Precast Concrete &

ond floor contains office space.

Prefabricated Capsules

Kisho Kurokawa designed the Nakagin Tower in

Number of Floors: 14

the midst of the metabolist movement of the

Number of Capsules: 144

1960’s. At this time, leading architects envisioned

Dimensions: 8’-0’’W x 13’-0’’L x 8’-0’’H

cities containing flexible and expanding struc-

Vertical Circulation: 2 Elevator Cores & 2

tures. The Nakagin tower was the first fully real-

Staircases

ized structure to develop from this movement.

Horizontal Circulation: Prefab Bridges

The capsules were originally designed to have a

Kitchens: Prefabricated Off-Site

life-span of 25 years, yet they continue to be used

Bathrooms: Prefabricated Off-Site

today. It is highly debated whether the building

Capsule Life-span: 25 years (and still going)

should be torn down due its intended life-span.

Superstructure Life-span: 100 years


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

The Armature Components

1 2

Precast Lift Shaft

Stair Cores

Armature

Interim Bridges

Entire Assembly

DEPLOYMENT

Podium

4

5

Exploded Axonometric

Armature: n. a framework to support the clay or

1. Precast Concrete Shell w/ Steel Frame

other material used in modelling.

2. Plug-In Service Fins

The tower is comprised of two, interconnected

3. Lightweight Precast Concrete Floor Plates

towers which serve as the framework for the cap-

4. Precast Concrete Lift Shaft

sules to rest on. The on-site preparation work to

5. Ground Level Podium - Office Space

create the armature is the first stage. Instant Utopia â&#x20AC;˘ 98

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

3


The Capsule

1 2

3 4

5 6

7 Capsule Axonometric 8

1. Plumbing, Electrical, & Waste Lines 2. Vertical Plug-In Service Fin 3. Air Conditioning Duct 4. Air Conditioning Register 5. Prefabricated Bathroom 6. Built-In Desk 7. Moveable Chair 8. Built-In Bed


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

1

2

DEPLOYMENT

3

4 5

8

Typical Capsule Plan 1. Capsule Entrance 2. Prefabricated Bathroom 3. Air Conditioning Chase 4. Interior Finish Surface 5. Welded Light-Weight Steel Truss Member “A” 6. Welded Light-Weight Steel Truss Member “B” 7. Built-In Bed 8. Circular Window Instant Utopia • 100

PRECEDENTS

7

CONTEXT

6


The Aggregation & Capsule Delivery 1

1

1 2

3 2

4

2

5 6 7 3

3

Components: Plan & Core 1. Typical Capsule 2. Lightweight Precast Concrete Floor Plate 3. Prefabricated Interim Bridge 4. Plug-In Service Fin

Aggregation: Type 1

Aggregation: Type 2

5. Precast Concrete Shell w/ Steel Frame

1. Typical Side-Entry Capsule w/ Side Window

1. Typical Side-Entry Capsule w/ End Window

6. Prefabricated Lift Cage

2. Typical Front-Entry Capsule w/ Side Window

2. Typical Front-Entry Capsule w/ End Window

7. Typical Floor Entrance/Exit

3. Side Window Capsule Aggregation

3. End Window Capsule Aggregation


2. Capsule Bolting Process 3. Capsule Bolting Connection Detail

INTRODUCTION

Capsule Delivery 1. Capsule Base Connection Detail

4. Prefabrication - 3 Hour Assembly DETERMINANTS

5. Transportation - 500km

2

CONTEXT

3

4

5

6

PRECEDENTS

1

DEPLOYMENT

6. Construction - 7-8 Months

Instant Utopia â&#x20AC;˘ 102


Metastadt

The Expanding Monolith Metastadt was designed to be a completely new

Just The Facts:

typology in city design. It was thought of as an

Architect: Richard J. Dietrich and Bernd

idealized form of luxury living that evolved out of

Steigerwald

the German post-war lifestyle. Metastadt incorpo-

Location: Wulfen, Germany

rated many modern-day conveniences such as

Program: Residential, Office, & Retail

shopping, office space, open roof gardens, and

Construction Schedule: 1965–72 (realized);

living space, which was intended to provide a

1969 (model)

sense of community. One key feature to

Construction Type: Steel & Metal Panel

Metastadt’s conception was a flexible steel rig-

Number of Units: 102

ging system that could grow or shrink over time.

Modular Dimensions: 12’-0’’W x 12’-0’’L x

This structure provided the option for residents to

11’-0’’H

make additions by simply adding steel modules to

Vertical Circulation: Elevator Cores &

the existing layout.

Staircases Kitchens: Prefabricated Off-Site

Unfortunately, due to technical faults that resulted in poor insulation and water leaks, Medastadt was demolished in the early 1980’s.

Bathrooms: Prefabricated Off-Site


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS

Concept Image 1

Richard Dietrich’s Model, 1969

Concept Image 2 Instant Utopia • 104


The Construction Components

1 2

3

Assembled Bay: Front View

4 5

Assemble Bay Exploded Axonometric 1. Panelized Roofing System 2. Interior Floors & Ceilings 3. Modular Steel Framing System 4. Panelized Plug-In Fenestration 5. Metal Panel Exterior

Assembled Bay: Interior View


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS 1 2

Steel Framing Module

CONTEXT

Stage 2

DEPLOYMENT

Stage 1

Steel Framing Assembly Steel Framing Axonometric 1. Void Module for Elevator Shaft 2. Typical Steel Framing Module

Stage 3

3. Second Floor Void Module Instant Utopia â&#x20AC;˘ 106

PRECEDENTS

3


Habitat ‘67

The Artificial Hilltown Moshe Safdie’s architectural thesis project at

Just The Facts:

McGill University, “ A Three-Dimensional Modular

Architect: Moshe Safdie

Building System”, laid out the theory and design

Location: Montreal, Canada

components to what would eventually be called

Program: Residential: 1 Bedroom (600 Sq. Ft.) –

Habitat ‘ 67. At the time, this project was just a

4 Bedroom (1,700 Sq. Ft.)

germ of an idea, but a few years later Safdie’s

Construction Schedule: 4/7/66 – 2/28/67

thesis would be selected to be part of Montreal’s

Construction Type: Precast Concrete

Expo ‘67. By the time the project was completed,

Construction Cost: 13.5 Million

Safdie was just shy of thirty years old.

Number of Floors: 12 Number of Units: 158 Units (354 “Boxes”)

Habitat ‘67 is set along the Saint Lawrence river,

Dimensions: 17’-6’’W x 38’-6’’L x 11’-6’’H

just East of downtown Montreal. It contains a total

Vertical Circulation: Multiple Elevator Cores and

of 354 precast concrete modular boxes that make

Staircases at each Node

up 158 units. Each unit is equipped with a private

Horizontal Circulation: Every Fourth Level

deck, and large open windows with views to

Kitchens: Pre-Assembled Off-Site

downtown Montreal or the Saint Lawrence river.

Bathrooms: Prefabricated Off-Site Module Weight: 63.5 Metric Tons


INTRODUCTION 1

2

Armature Components 1. Horizontal Walkway every 4th Floor 2. Parking Garage

3

4

5

Vertical Circulation

3. Typical Core Staircase 4. Typical Elevator Shaft 5. Typical Intermediate Staircase Instant Utopia â&#x20AC;˘ 108

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

Horizontal Circulation

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

The Armature Components


Constructing the Module

1 2

The Formwork Yard The Formwork Yard Axonomentric 1. Concrete & Steel Faced Form 2. Formwork Chosen for Assembly of Unit 4


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

1 5

Stage 1

Stage 5

DEPLOYMENT

2

Stage 2 6

3

Total Number of Steel Containers

Stage 3

CONTEXT

Stage 6

Creating & Fastening the Module Walls 2. Positioning the Formwork 3. Positioning the Steel Container 4

Stage 7

4. Closing the Steel Container 5. After Curing, Exposing the Module Walls 6. Positioning the Module Walls & Base

Stage 4

7. Post Tensioning the Module Walls & Base Instant Utopia â&#x20AC;˘ 110

PRECEDENTS

1. Assembling the Formwork 7


Unit 4

1

5 6

Stage 1

Stage 5 7 8 9

2

Stage 6

Stage 2

3

10 Unit 4 Assembly 1. Precast Concrete Module “A” 2. Precast Concrete Module “B” 3. Plumbing & Electrical Installation

Stage 7

Stage 3

4. Fenestration 5. Flooring Installation 6. Unit Deck installation 11

7. Pre-Assembed Millwork 8. Prefabricated Fiberglass Bathrooms

12

4 Stage 4

9. Interior Wall Installation 10. Precast Concrete Roof

Stage 8

11. Unit Above 12. Roof Deck Above


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

1

2

DEPLOYMENT

3

CONTEXT

4

5

Unit 4 Exploded Axonometric 1. Precast Concrete Roof

Unit 4 Plan & Elevations

2. Fenestration 3. Interior Walls, Prefab Bathrooms, & Millwork 4. Wood Flooring 5. Precast Concrete Modules 6. Precast Concrete Deck Instant Utopia â&#x20AC;˘ 112

PRECEDENTS

6


The Aggregation Unit 1 1 Bedroom Unit 2 2 Bedroom

Unit 1

Unit 7

Unit 2

Unit 8

Unit 3 2 Bedroom Unit 4 2 Bedroom Unit 5 3 Bedroom Unit 6 3 Bedroom

Unit 3

Unit 9

Unit 7 3 Bedroom Unit 8 3 Bedroom

Unit 4

Unit 10

Unit 9 3 Bedroom Unit 10 3 Bedroom

Unit 5

Unit 11

Unit 11 4 Bedroom

Unit Types

Unit 6

Aggregation of Unitss


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS 2

CONTEXT

Mirrored & Replicated Aggregation at Front

DEPLOYMENT

1

3

Armature Components 1. Type A 2. Type B 3. Type C - End Condition 4. Type D

5

Replicated Aggregation at Rear

5. Type E - End Condition Instant Utopia â&#x20AC;˘ 114

PRECEDENTS

4


Instant Utopia Sources

Bergdoll, and Peter Christensen. Home delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: MOMA, 2008 Campi, Mario. Skyscrapers: An Architectural Type of Modern Urbanism. Michigan: Birkhäuser, 2000 Förster, Wolfgang. Housing in the 20th and 21st Centuries. Michigan: Prestel, 2006 Gund, Graham. Habitat ‘67. New York: Queen’s Printer, 1967 Kurokawa,Kishō. Metabolism in Architecture. California: Studio Vista, 1977 Safdie, Moshe. Moshe Safdie, Volume 1. Australia: The Images Publishing Group, 2009 Images: AboutArchitecture. Ed. Bryan Veloso. http://aboutarchitecture.wordpress. com/2007/08/22/constant-and-vision-vs-reality/ MWArchitecture. Ed. Matt Ward. http://mwarchitcture.blogspot.com/ Utopias Illustrated. http://www.santa-coloma.net/voynich_drebbel/utopias/utopias.html Wikipedia. 2001. 15 January http://en.wikipedia.org


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

Extreme Prefab

Extreme Prefab • 116 DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


General Information Infrastructure construction in an urban environment can provide some insight into the potential of prefabricated architecture in the city. Infrastructure construction often contends with signiďŹ cant trafďŹ c congestion during typical work hours. This section of the book looks into the use of three assembly methods that are able to overcome complicated urban obstacles. The extra-large components used in these delivery systems allow the construction to tread lightly on the urban fabric. The size of the components are

Advantages

Quality Control

limited by transportation restrictions. The construction methods outlined below

Reduce Traffic Congestion

minimize the disturbance to the surrounding site,

Offsite Construction

including congested transportation areas and environmentally sensitive areas. Worker safety is increased because a large portion of work is performed on the ground.

Traff

Prefab Reduce Environmental Impact

Speed

Increased Worker Safety

Disadvantages

Transportation Limitations

Heavy Components

Low construction tolerances

Construction staging


Extreme Prefab • 116 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Launching Gantry Crane The launching Gantry crane is a construction environment during construction. The large

Site Disturbance

prefabricated components are able to be assembled off site and transported to the construction site on an as needed basis. This reduces the need for large staging areas at the construction site and reduces the impact on the area below the bridge spans. This type of construction can be attributed to vertical skyscraper construction, in where the launching system uses the substructure to support the crane. The superstructure is incrementally built using the already assembled superstructure as a counter balance for the sections of the bride that are being erected.

Launching Gantry Crane

Construction Staging Area

Undisturbed

method that reduces the impact on an urban

Construction Staging Area


Crane Reach

INTRODUCTION

Bridge Span

DETERMINANTS

Back Span

Substructure Superstructure Main Truss

Superstructure

DEPLOYMENT

Cross Beams

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

Substructure

Extreme Prefab • 118


Launching Gantry Crane

Construction Sequence

The launching gantry allows work to commence on two fronts. The crane

Once one side of the structure is connected back to the remainder of the

spans between two substructures allowing superstructure components to

superstructure it creates a back span for the forward components

be assembled on either side of the substructure creating a double balanced

cantilevering half way to the next substructure.

cantilever.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT The previous process is repeated as many times as needed to span the

forward span, the crane needs to be move forward to start the next span

obstacle.

CONTEXT

With the reach of the crane being limited to half the distance of the most

PRECEDENTS

and complete the previous segment.

Extreme Prefab â&#x20AC;˘ 120


Incremental Launching

Incremental Launch System

Site Disturbance

Construction Staging Area

Undisturbed

The theory of the incrementally launched bridge consists of building the superstructure segments in a assembly area located behind the bridge abutment. Each segment is prestressed to the section of superstructure already built. The entire superstructure is then jacked forward a distance equal to the length of the segment. This process is repeated until the bridge is in its ďŹ nal position. The bridge is launched along temporary bearings which allows the bridge to roll over the substructure elements. Once the bridge is complete the temporary bearings are replaced with permanent bearings.


Superstructure Substructure

INTRODUCTION

Bridge Span

Launching Nose (Bridge Span)

DETERMINANTS

Assembly Area

Launching Jack Process

Temporary Roller Bearings Pushing

DEPLOYMENT

Lifting

CONTEXT

Lowering

PRECEDENTS

Returning

Extreme Prefab â&#x20AC;˘ 122


Incremental Launching

Construction Sequence

Once the substructures are set the launching nose and ďŹ rst segments of the

The launching nose and ďŹ rst bridge section is jacked forward a distance

superstructure are constructed in the assembly area.

equal to the length of the bridge segment. With the additional length of the launching segment due to the launching nose, stress is reduced on the bridge segment.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT The launching nose is disassembled when the bridge is in its ďŹ nal location.

the substructure allow the superstructure to roll over the substructure.

the roller bearings are replaced with permanent bearings.

CONTEXT

The process is repeated as many times as needed to cross the obstacle.

launching sequence is repeated. The roller bearings attached to the top of

PRECEDENTS

Additional bridge sections are assembled in the assembly area and the

Extreme Prefab â&#x20AC;˘ 124


Extra-Large Prefab With prefabricated components being limited in size by transportation restrictions extreme prefab pieces need to turn to other modes of

Site Disturbance

transportation. Urban water ways could allow supersized prefabricated components to be 99% complete upon delivery to the site. Construction Staging Area

Extra-Large Prefab


195’ 1500 Tons

35’

Clearances

DETERMINANTS

40 Tons

Bardge Limitations 975’

Collection of bardges allowed below St. Louis river with larger locks and wide water ways.

Assembly Location

CONTEXT

280’

DEPLOYMENT

Collection of bardges allowed above St. Louis river due to locks and restricted water ways.

PRECEDENTS

105’

15 Bardges

40 Bardges

INTRODUCTION

Transportation Logistics

Extreme Prefab • 126


Extra-Large Prefab

Construction Sequence

Extreme prefab components are too large for vehicle transportation so

The large bridge section is assembled on the barges to alleviate the need to

water transportation is typically used. The staging area or assembly area

crane the bridge section onto the barge. An adjacent staging area can

needs to be adjacent to a water way that is connected to the ďŹ nal locations

receive deliveries preferably from a local factory location.

of the bridge.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT Once the bridge section arrives at its final location, the section is floated

section can clear all obstacles.

into place and jacked up into its final location. Finally, on site assembly

PRECEDENTS

occurs and the bridge is complete.

CONTEXT

The water route must be planned ahead of time to make sure the bridge

Extreme Prefab • 128


Extreme Prefab • 888 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Extreme Prefab Sources

AASHTO -. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.transportation.org VSL International Ltd. | Post-tensioning | Structural Engineering. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.vsl. com/>. Topic, By. Federal Highway Administration: Home. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <www.fhwa.dot.gov/>. “TRB 2005, Session 628: The Future Is Now... Successes in Bridge Construction - Highways for LIFE FHWA.” Federal Highway Administration: Home. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hfl/ ralls.cfm>. “PCI Journal Magazine Archives.” Site Introduction - Welcome to PCI. Web. 02 Nov. 2010. <http:// www.pci.org/publications/journal/archive.cfm>.


Extreme Prefab • 132 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Non-Physical Contexts


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS

The nonphysical context refers to the information needed in prefabrication that does not consist of physical design attributes. This information includes building codes, zoning laws, economics, and policy. All of these aspects determine how prefabrication operates in different urban areas throughout the United States. Non-Physical Contexts â&#x20AC;˘ 134


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

Building Modular Code Building Code • 136 DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Building Code Sources

International Building Code Massachusetts Building Code Boston Redevelopment Authority http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/press/PressDisplay.asp?pressID=209 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development http://www.hud.gov â&#x20AC;&#x153;HOME WORKâ&#x20AC;? by Matthew Littell Two-Story Manufactured (HUD-Code) Homes http://www.toolbase.org/Technology-Inventory/Whole-House-Systems/two-story-manufactured-homes Eliminating Barriers to the Use of HUD-Code Housing in Attached Construction http://www.huduser.org/publications/pdf/sfa_final.pdf PATH http://www.pathnet.org/ Manufactured Housing Institute http://www.factorybuilthousing.com/Default.asp TechPractices: New Colony Village http://www.toolbase.org/Home-Building-Topics/Land-Use/New-Colony-Village New Colony http://articles.baltimoresun.com/keyword/new-colony


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

ModularCode Zoning Zoning Code • 144 DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Zoning Code Sources

Gokturk, Nurhan. Personal Interview. 13 October 2010. City of Little Rock Planning and Development http://www.littlerock.org/citydepartments/planninganddevelopment/ Code of Ordinances, City of Charlottesville, VA http://library1.municode.com/default-test/home.htm?infobase=12078&doc_action=whatsnew Boston Trailer Park Thrives http://archive.seacoastonline.com/2004news/04022004/south_of/8461.htm Boston Redevelopment Authority http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/zoning/downloadzone.asp


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

Modular Economics Economics • 150 DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Economics Sources

Meetings with commercial and residential loan officers at Chelsea Groton Bank & One West Bank Refabricating Architecture by Stephen Kieran & James Timberlake


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

Modular Policy Policy • 160 DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Policy

Sources

Policy Analysis http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa132.html Prevailing Wage Laws and the Cost of Public Construction in Massachusetts http://www.cpcs.umb.edu/lrc/documents/MAPREVAILINGWAGEfinalMay2010.pdf Labor Unions http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/574/574.F2d.457.75-2770.75-2166.75-2064.html Labor and Workforce Development http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=elwdhomepage&L=1&L0=Home&sid=Elwd Davis-Bacon Wage Determination http://www.gpo.gov/davisbacon/referencemat.html


Policy • 164 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Topic

Precedents


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS

In the pages ahead, you will find precedents collected in our research that hold qualities of prefabrication that we would like to showcase. These examples have been categorized according to principles and methods we have designed in order to best display their features and components. Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 166


PRECEDENTS

Modular Precedent Ratings Precedent Ratings • 168 CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Matrix

Matrix | Prefab Scale | Enchridion Due to the complexity and duality of many of the precedents uncovered in this book, a matrix, scale and enchiridion were created in order to group precedents into a research discussion. By developing a series of organizational qualifiers, precedents were filtered into three matrixes which determined their stature.

Matrix

Prefab Scale

Enchridion

The x axis determines the building typology

measures the degree of prefabrication, delivery,

displays the multiplicity of prefabrication

based on residential on residential or industrial

construction methods and time.

processes involved in each precedent.

characteristics; y axis determines the ration of

on-site/off-site ratio

Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

use residential

degree of prefabrication

(+)

on-site/off-site construction.

permanent temporary custom standard

65 p modular panelized kit of parts precast prefab steel temporary hud/mobile grid infill/parasite infrastructure density page number

j ro

ec

t


Pierson Court Loft House

System 3 Kiem & Sill

INTRODUCTION Nomadic Museum

Honk Kong Bank

Precast Concrete Segmented Bridges

Nomiya

Stelco

Nakagin Tower

South Side

Metasdadt

Kim House

Studio East

Elemental Urban Shelter Bailey Bridge

Box City Moduli 225

Parcel 12 + 18

Habitat 67

Use Infrastructure

Hong Kong Tower

Baukasten

CONTEXT

Use Residential

Yacht House 2 x 4 Res.

Elemental Infill

Permanent Keetwonen

Adobe Hut/ Igloo

DEPLOYMENT

Metastadt

Puma City

Citizen M

Drop House

Zollverein

Asphalt Road

On-site Construction

Temporary Custom Standard

Precedent Ratings â&#x20AC;˘ 170

PRECEDENTS

Melrose II

DETERMINANTS

Off-site Prefabrication


Prefab Scoring System Performance Criteria

Type:

By defining the intertwined elements that

Modular (with superstructure) or Panels (kit of parts)

constitute a prefab building in an urban

How are the pieces are put together? (slide out, snap in place, bolted, welded, filled in, etc...)

environment, we have come up with a prefab

How many pieces make up the project? How big is the biggest piece?

scale that measures the ‘prefabness’ of a project.

How complete are the pieces when they arrive on-site? 25 points: 1 transportable piece with everything fitted, arrives on site complete

The scoring system’s only purpose is to be able to

0 points: 1,000 small or big pieces, requires welding and foundation, incomplete when on-site

match relatively smiliar buildings, and compare

Delivery:

and contrast them to each other. It is by no means set in stone. However, to make our scoring system fair, objective and relatively accurate, we only used measurable facts and figures.

Route in miles from factory to final site: (highway, intercity road, truck size) (shipping, container, barge size) (air, airplane, helicopter) (train) 25 points: 0 miles traveled by air / 0 points: 50,000 miles traveled by largest truck size in intercity road

Urban Scale:

Each of the criteria we have set for a building

How dense is the surrounding area? How many square feet is the project? How many floors?

measures its performance in that relative factor.

10 points: tight urban fabric, 1,000,000 SQF, 100 floors / 0 points: rural site, 0 SQF, 0 floors

The seven factors are: Type, Delivery, Urban

Material:

Scale Material, Longevity, Manpower, and Time. Type, Delivery and Urban Scale are the most important elements that come to define the

Precast steel or concrete, wood, plastic, poured-in-place concerete 10 points: precast concrete, plastic / 0 points: mud-hut

performance of prefabricated buildings in a city,

Longevity:

so they are each worth 20 points. Each of the rest

Temporary or Permanent, On the grid or off the grid, replaceable pieces?

are worth 10 points. The points combine so that

10 points: permanent structure (1,000 years), off-the grid, all pieces replaceable

the most prefab building gets a 100 score and the

0 points: temporary (1 day), on the grid, no replaceable pieces

least prefab gets a 0 score.

Manpower:

In order to make the distinction between what ‘Type’ elements make a project get a high or low score, we will explain the two extremes, just like we did to explain the boundaries of our matrix.

How many people did it take to construct on-site? Was a crane used? 10 points: 1 person, no crane / 0 points: 1,000 people and 10 cranes

Time: How long did it take to build on-site? 10 points: 1 minute / 0 points: 100 years

Type

Delivery

Urban Scale

20

20

20

Material Longevity Manpower 10

10

10

Time 10

100


Bluff Homes Precast Bridge Parasite Prefab Parcel 12 and 18 Pinchin St Studios Keetwoven Park Row Terrace Honk Kong Bank Habitat ‘67 Elemental

Pierson Court Melrose II Metastadt Sill and Kem Drop House Kim House Urban Shelter Building The Nomadic Museum Stelco Catalogue Housing Puma City Studio East Dining Nomiya Restaurant South Side Row Houses Rue De Meaux Las Palmas Rucksack House Box City Loft House Moduli 225 Rastipuisto Moho Manchester

Precedent Ratings • 172

INTRODUCTION

Nakagin Capsule Tower

DETERMINANTS

Spacebox

CitizenM

DEPLOYMENT

Baukasten

85 83 83 82 81 81 80 78 78 78 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 73 73 71 70 69 69 68

System 3

CONTEXT

Yacht House

67 67 66 66 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 61 58 49

PRECEDENTS

Satirenrenne


Prefab Score Modular Panelized Kit of Parts Precast Concrete Prefab Steel Temporary Hud / Mobile Grid Environment Infill / Parasite Infrastructure Density on Demand

ile y

65

Ba

Ba

Contents

Br id ge uk as t en Bl uf fH om Bo es x C ity C iti ze nM D ro p H ou El em se en ta H l ab ita tâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; 67 H on g Ko ng H ou Ba si nk ng Ke & C et om w on en mer Ki m ci al H ou se La s Pa lm Lo as ft Pa H ra ou si se M te el ro se II M et as ta dt M od ul i2 25 M O H O N ak ag in C ap su le To w er

Enchridion

66

65

71

83

78

49

58

61

80

63

78

73

70

81

81

69

68

83


64 63 82 64 76 69 73 74 67 75 66 77 76

DEPLOYMENT

64

CONTEXT

75

PRECEDENTS

77 85 78

ow

R

18 Te r

&

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12

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DETERMINANTS

67

Precedent Ratings • 174 INTRODUCTION


PRECEDENTS

Precedents Precedents • 176 CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Contents System 3 | Oskar Leo Kaufmann CitizenM | Concrete Architectural Associates | Amsterdam, Netherlands Nakagin Capsule Tower | Kisho Kurokawa | Ginza, Japan Pierson Court | Kieran & Timberlake | Yale University, CT, United States Melrose II | Danois Architects | South Bronx, NY, United States Metastadt-Bausystem | Richard J. Dietrich | Wulfen, Germany Housing and Commercial Block | Sill and Keim | Rathenow, Germany Drop House | D3 Architects Kim House | Waro Kishi | Osaka, Japan Urban Shelter Building | Santiago Cirugeda Parejo | Sevilla, Spain The Nomadic Museum | Shingeru Ban | Nomad** Stelco Catalogue Housing | Batron Myers Associates Puma City | Lotek | Nomad** Studio East Dining | Carmody Groarke | London, United Kingdom Nomiya Restaurant | Pascal Grasso | Paris, France South Side Row Houses | Affordability, Inc | Chicago, IL, United States Rue De Meaux | Renzo Piano | Paris, France Las Palmas | Kortknie Stuhlmacher Architecten | Rotterdam, Netherlands Rucksack House | Stephan Eberstadt | Liepzeig, Germany Box Office | Distill Studio | Providence, RI, United States Loft House | Studio Aisslinger | Berlin, Germany Moduli 225 | Kristian Gullichsen and Pallasmaa | Finland Rastipuisto | Helamaa and Pulkkinen | Helsinki, Finland MOHO | Shed KM, Joule | Manchester, United Kingdom Saterinrinne | Brunow and Manula | Helsinki, Finland Yacht House | Richard Horden | United Kingdom Baukasten | Walter Gropius Spacebox | Utrecht, Netherlands Bluff Homes | Vetter Denk | Milwaukee, WI, United States Precast Concrete Segmental Bridge Parasite Prefab | Lara Calder Parcel 12 & 18 Row Houses | MRVDV | Borneo-Sporenburg, Netherlands Pinchin Street Studios | Urban Space Management | London, UK Keetwonen | Tempohousing | Amsterdam, Netherlands Park Row Terrace | Vetter Denk | Milwaukee, WI, United States Hong Kong Bank Building | Norman Foster | Hong Kong, China Habitat â&#x20AC;&#x2122;67 | Moshe Safdie | Toronoto, Canada Elemental | Alejandro Aravena | Santiago, Chile Sources

179 183 185 189 193 195 199 203 205 207 209 211 213 217 219 221 223 225 227 229 233 235 237 241 243 245 247 249 251 253 255 257 259 261 263 265 271 275 279


Precedents • 178 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


System3 Oskar Leo Kaufmann | 2008 | Multi-family residential/commercial Prefab Score

(+)

Assembly Concept

Serving Space use infrastructure

(-)

degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

85

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: High-quality, affordable modules that consist of two identical rectangular forms with completely different structural and functional derivation. Units of Prefabrication: The “serving” space comes completely prefabricated to site. The “naked” space consists of prefabricated planar elements that form the space. Structure: Wood structure. Flat floor and roof plates allow for up to thirty units to stack together to form a ten-story tower. Delivery: All elements that make up a unit fit perfectly in a standard cargo container; can be shipped anywhere. All parts are prefabricated.

Building Elements

Naked Space


Precedents • 180 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


System3 Oskar Leo Kaufmann | 2008 | Multi-family residential/commercial

Alternative Uses A single unit with typical provisions and site work would cost about $130,000. As many as thirty units could be arranged and stacked to create a ten-story, 11,000 square-foot office tower.

Plan

Office Plan

Office Section

Hotel Plan

Hotel Section


External services and products:

out of stainless steel: lighting, kitchen, bath,

I.E. installations, staircases, baths...

cooling, ventilation, electricity, internet, laundry, dishwasher and vertical circulation all integrated

INTRODUCTION

In the “serving” space all elements are fabricated

space is also made up of planes that are

Skin producer

prefabricated. The material used is an unpainted

DETERMINANTS

and produced in a single factory. The “naked” Planner

Solid elements producer

4 3/4 inches thick regional wood, with a skin that is removable, changeable and washable.

Serving units producer

Building site

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

Basic Unit Assembly

DEPLOYMENT

Window producer

Large Scale Stacked Assemblies

Precedents • 182


Citizen M Concrete Architectural Associates | Amesterdam, Netherlands | 2008 | Hotel Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

83

permanent temporary custom standard

Entrance to Lobby

Pod (Hotel Room)

Fenestration

Bath and Bed

Methodology: Using pre-fabrication to eliminate hidden costs and cut unnecessary items; giving a luxury feel for a budget price. Units of Prefabrication: 215 units arrived to the site, each containing a simple bathroom and bed, under 50 square feet. The units were prefabricated locally. Structure: Steel frame housed the pods which are made of a black metal box with large glass panels angeled and set back in them to break up the rigid facade. Delivery: Units were prefabricated in a nearby factory owned by CitizenM and fit perfectly on a flat bed truck.


Precedents • 184 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Nakagin Capsule Tower Kisho Kurokawa | Tokyo, Japan | 1972 | Hotel Prefab Score

use infrastructure

permanent temporary

(+)

custom standard

Methodology: Japanese Metabolism, physical objects are never eternal, celebrates individualism, response to long commutes. Units of Prefabrication: Capsules arrive from factory completely prefabricated, ready to be lifted by crane and bolted onto the superstructure. Structure: Steel frame with light-weight concrete shaft which houses vertical circulation, mechanical shafts. Delivery: Dense urban surroundings meant that capsules were delivered from factory to site on the same day it was attached to the superstructure.

Capsule Steel Structure

Capsule Bolting

Container factory in Tsuruga

(-)

degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

83

Tokyo ring-road height clearance 11 ft 400 km (250 mi)

50 km (30 mi) Site


Precedents • 186 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Nakagin Capsule Tower Kisho Kurokawa | Tokyo, Japan | 1972 | Hotel The capsules contained a built-in bed and drop-in bathroom unit. They were outfitted off site and hoisted into place by crane, latching onto the fourteen-story superstructure and its concrete shaft of vertical circulation. All capsules were driven in by truck the same day they were to be “plugged-in”. A stop-over happened on the outskirts of Tokyo where the capsules got transfered to smaller trucks.

Although the building was designed for maximum flexibility, the clip-on capsule was decidedly

Construction, 1971

compact, leaving very little room for customization. Originally designed as living spaces for bachelors during the week, it has functioned as a hotel, apartment building, office tower and artists’ studio.

Isometric Plan of Capsule


the coreâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure were erected at a rate of one every two days, alternating with the construction of the steel frame, affording a full operational core

INTRODUCTION

The precast concrete floor slabs that were part of

framework without an external scaffold. 144 capsules were attached to the building in less than a month. Interestingly, the podium, which is the most under-looked part of the project, had more traditional construction techniques and also responsible for much of the on-site construction

DETERMINANTS

to facilitate the periodic construction of the

DEPLOYMENT

time.

attaching capsules to structure

Modern Alternative

pre-fabrication of capsules core structure and mechanical system on-site construction

pre-fabrication of steel frame and re-enforced concrete floor slabs

1969

1970

1971

1972

PRECEDENTS

1968

CONTEXT

design process

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 188


Pierson Court Kieran Timberlake | New Haven, CT | 2006 | Dormitory Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

82

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Using a crane to make construction possible in this courtyard site, this project was completed on site in 4 days over the universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spring break. Units of Prefabrication: Modular units arrive on site completely sealed and inspected Structure: Steel frame modular units are stacked

Pierson Court would not be possible without the

and bolted together.

power of the crane. The project is made up of 34 modules placed in a courtyard. The entire on site

Delivery: The modules travel via truck from the New Jersey factory to the site less than 150 miles away. A crane takes modular units off the trucks and into the courtyard site.

Layers of a module

construction process took 4 days with 12 workers. This efficiency of labor and time in an otherwise impossible situation is an excellent example of how prefabricated constructon techniques are valuable processes for architects to understand.


PRECEDENTS

Modular structure

Precedents • 190 CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Pierson Court Kieran Timberlake | New Haven, CT | 2006 | Dormitory Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

83

permanent temporary custom standard


INTRODUCTION

The diagram to the left shows securing the modules to each other on site. The light gray portion indicate horizontal brick layers layed on site. The dark gray indicates the datum line which was a layer of bricks left out to show its

DETERMINANTS

modular structure. The pink bricks were insterted to vertically lock the modules together and are also pronounced to show structural honesty of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s modular unit construction. One can also see the modularity of the structure

DEPLOYMENT

in plans, as seen on the right.

Modular Construction This construction method is clearly documented CONTEXT

through photographs. The modular arrives on site on a truck. A crane lifts the module onto the site. A construction worker guides the module into the proper spot. The images of the process show how stacking the modules act as a way

PRECEDENTS

increasing efficiency in both time and cost.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 192


Melrose II Danois Architects | South Bronx New York, NY | 2002 | Low-income Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

81

permanent temporary custom standard

Street Perspective

Methodology: Construction time was minimized with large precast concrete modules and precast structural frame. Units of Prefabrication: Structural wall panels, hollow-core floor planks, curtain wall facade panels, large entrance lobby module, precast concrete cornice, and concrete entrance stairs. Delivery: All precast modules were transported on flatbed and assembled on site with a crane and six workers.

Building Sequence

Joint Detail


INTRODUCTION

Two precast factories in New York and Massachusetts produced a precast wall panel system that imitates brick and window lintels. This minimized the amount of work on site to

DETERMINANTS

simple assembly. Melrose II was able to significantly reduce construction costs with precast concrete building methods. Assemblers can construct the entire building from six factory made modules. As illustrated in the building sequence axonomoetric,

Cornice Module

the structural frame and floor planks are panels are hung from the structure. After, a threestory entrance bay module is attached, along with

DEPLOYMENT

assembled first, then the precast window facade Lot Plan

the precast concrete stairs and projecting cornice. The structural joint is a concrete haunch system with reinforcing bar and concrete topping to planks.

CONTEXT

connect load bearing walls with hollow-core floor Facade Module

PRECEDENTS

Delivery Route

Factory Assembly

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 194


Metastadt-Bausystem Richard J. Dietrich | Wulfen, Germany | 1972 | Multi-family residential/commercial Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

81

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Using a light-weight steel infrastructure to act as a base for the users to fill in with city functions. Units of Prefabrication: Infrastructure comes to the site in component pieces that are put together. Are filled in with modular units. Structure: Steel structure, panels can be any material. Delivery: Reduces construction time on-site, can re-densify city cores and act as infrastructure.

Model


Precedents • 196 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Metastadt-Bausystem Richard J. Dietrich | Wulfen, Germany | 1972 | Multi-family residential/commercial The execution of the structural details meant that the building and ground floor plan could be altered or enlarged at any time, or be dismanteled.

Construction

South Ariel View

Typical Facade

Infrastructure Model


INTRODUCTION

The structural system that was developed uses an orthogonal steel framework with flex-resistant joints. The space-defining elements and technical infrastructure were inserted into the frame, suspended from steel pylons. The small

DETERMINANTS

dimensions of the structural could be precisely adapted to specific spatial needs. The absence of diagonal bracing created the maximum of space

Concept

Entrance Joint Detail

Perspective

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 198

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

Construction

DEPLOYMENT

and permitted the greatest possible flexibility.


Housing + Commercial Block Keim + Sill | Rathenow, Germany | 1997 | Housing + Commercial Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

80

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Preassembled units were constructed with all mechanical systems and

Building Section

finishes in place and ready to be plugged into existing system Units of Prefabrication: Twelve 3.5m x 2.3m container units Structure: 4â&#x20AC;? concrete column and beam frame for units to plug into. Delivery: Units were shipped in one day on standard flatbed trucks. Units were craned into the structural frame on the second day.

Typical Unit Plan


Precedents • 200 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Housing + Commercial Block Keim + Sill | Rathenow, Germany | 1997 | Housing + Commercial Prefab Score

65

This project is a renovation of an old 19th century building into a mixed-use program. The existing front half of the building was rehabilitated as residential. The back half of the building received an addition of twelve prefab containers forming an engineering firm studio. The total addition to the rear facade is 900 square meters. Materials include reinforced concrete, corrugated aluminum panels/sheeting, steel frame, stainless steel hardware, glass, and insulated wall and roof panels. The prefab containers are assembled with sanitary, under-floor heating system, electrical, plumbing, and communication services. The process of assembly involve preparing the existing building to receive the structures and to allow for services to be plugged in. The structural columns are then put in place and beams are added to support the container units. Finally, containers are â&#x20AC;&#x153;plugged intoâ&#x20AC;? the structure and service systems. Some containers are connected through the use of a coupling piece while others are divided by partitions


PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION

Construction Sequence

Precedents • 202


Drop House D3 Architects | 2010 | Single-family residential Prefab Score

78

Perpsective Diagram Child’s Bedroom

on-site/off-site ratio

Extruded Kitchen

Open Terrace use infrastructure

North Facade, Operable Panels

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Cargo containers are efficient, but

Extruded Entrance Exterior Terrace South Oriented South-East Facing Bris-Soleil Retractable in Winter

people feel uncomfortable in metal boxes, so this is a wood house that fits in a container. Units of Prefabrication: Arrives to site completely fitted in factory, all equipments pre-installed. Dropped onto site, folds out.

Plan

Structure: Wood and glass ‘box’ that fits perfectly in a standard cargo container. Delivery: Eliminates on-site construction, can easily be shipped anywhere in the world by truck or barge.

Parent’s Bedroom Partly Extruded

(-)

use residential

degree of prefabrication

(+)

Extruded Bathroom

Section


Precedents • 204 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Kim House Waro Kishi | Osaka, Japan | 1987 | Single-family residential Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

78

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology:Using off-the-shelf materials to create a modern house based on japanese typology, in a constrained site (8.5 feet wide, 18 feet deep)

Interior Perspective

Construction Detail

Units of Prefabrication: All the materials used to construct the house were off-the-shelf and ready for use. typical row house condition

Structure: Four wide-flange prefabricated steel 18â&#x20AC;&#x2122; deep

frames erected in equal intervals along the depth of the plot Delivery: Standard building materials, can be 8.5â&#x20AC;&#x2122; wide

replicated anywhere. Requires transportation to site and on-site construction.

Plan Diagram

Section Diagram


Precedents • 206 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Urban Shelter Building Santiago Cirugeda Parejo | Sevilla, Spain | 1998 | Scaffolding + Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

78

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Prefabricated, inhabitable scaffolding that creates a temporary space open to the public. Units of Prefabrication: Precut steel and PVC sheets Structure: Galvanized Steel beams and collars with flexible PVC foam covering Delivery: Parts arrive on site and steel members are assembled by welders. Elevated storage space and various screws required for assembly.


Precedents • 208 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


The Nomadic Museum Shingeru Ban | All Over the World | 2005 | Museum Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

77

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: The shipping containers are stacked without modification in order to save on construction time. Units of Prefabrication: 148 shipping containers Structure: The stacking of the steel shipping containers creates a self-supporting grid. Delivery: The nomadic museum travels by cargo ship to each location, then uses a crane to place the shipping containers into place.

Santa Monica (2006)

New York (2005)

Beijing Abu Dhabi

Tokyo (2007)


INTRODUCTION

The nomadic museum is a travelling gallery that started in New York in 2005. The contents of the gallery are assemebled/disassembled, then shipped in the actual shipping containers that make up the museum itself. Waterproof paper

DETERMINANTS

tubing is used for the columns and the roof trusses to cover the museum. There is flexibility in the stacking of the shipping containers to conform to each site. For example, the site in Santa Monica was shorter than that of New York, so the gallery was split into two 100m length buildings, rather than the original 200m length. The innovation behind the nomadic museum is

DEPLOYMENT

that museum can be placed anywhere a cargo

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

ship can pull up.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 210


Stelco Catalogue Housing Barton Myers Associates | 1969 | Steel housing prototype Prefab Score

(+)

on-site/off-site ratio

use infrastructure

Unit Components (-)

degree of prefabrication

use residential

Axonometric View of Cluster

77

permanent temporary

Exterior Panels

custom standard

Methodology: Using a structure of steel columns,

Opening

Fixed

modules based on a 3-foot-sqaure dimension Interior Panels

could be filled in. Units of Prefabrication: Steel column sections,

Opening Fixed

sandwich panels of prefinished steel and Framing Members

catalogue ordered parts.

Joist

Fixed Fixed Ceiling Floor Fascia

Column

Edge beam

Structure: Steel column sections, hollow tube beams, and a number of different sandwich panels with a urethane core for horizontal and vertical surfaces. Delivery: Catalogue ordered parts could be assembeled by two unskilled persons in just an hour per square frame.

1

2

3

Fixed Connectors


Precedents • 212 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Puma City Lot-ek | All Over the World | 2008 | Retail Prefab Score

76

Puma City is a nomadic structure, travelling all over the world. The process begins when the cargo ship reaches the location. A crane is used

on-site/off-site ratio

once at the site another crane is used to assemble the building. This process is done backwards for the disassembly.

use infrastructure

(-)

use residential

degree of prefabrication

(+)

to put the shipping containers onto trucks, and

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: The store is assembled, then disassembled to travel all around the globe. Units of Prefabrication: 24 shipping containers Delivery: The nomadic structure travels by cargo ship to each port. From there, the shipping containers are brought to the site by truck and then put into place by crane.


Precedents • 214 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Puma City Lot-ek | All Over the World | 2008 | Retail In order to travel from each destination, the openings of the shipping containers must be filled in. Without these pieces, the shipping containerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure becomes compromised, and it would be impossible to put them on a cargo ship for extended periods of time. There are wall cover panels, floor cover panels, and roof cover panels that travel with Puma City. Panel System


and shifting of shipping containers to create indoor/outdoor spaces, and outdoor spaces. These cantilevers become roof decks for people

INTRODUCTION

The concept behind Puma City is a pulling apart

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

to use.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 216


Studio East Dining Carmody Groarke | 2010 | London, England | Temporary Pavilion / Restaurant Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

76

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Use borrowed construction materials of live construction site on location to construct temporary pavillion Units of Prefabrication: borrowed kit-of-parts that were then recycled for no waste Structure: Scaffolding boards, poles and industrial grade heat retractable polyethylene rof membrane Delivery: No delivery necessary since all materials remained on-site.


Precedents • 218 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Nomiya Restaurant Pascal Grasso | 2009 | Paris, France | Temporary Pavillion / Restaurant Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

75

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Module created for simple construction and take-down. Units of Prefabrication: Glass cabin with perforated metal screen 18 m long, 4m wide, 3.5m high and 22 tonnes Structure: Metal and glass box Delivery: Transported in special trunks in two parts. Constructed at Cherbourg boatyard in northern France then assembled on the roof of Le Palais de Tokyo.


Precedents • 220 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


South Side Row Houses Piekarz | Chicago, IL USA | 1998 | Low-income Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

75

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Precast concrete wall panels are assembled via crane onto a pre-prepared foundation Units of Prefabrication: Insulated precast concrete wall panels, Hollow-core floor planks, Precast concrete wall panels. Delivery: Panels were transported in flatbed truck


INTRODUCTION

This project used a precast concrete foundation and structural wall panels to minimize construction time and reduce cost for affordable

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

housing.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 222


Rue de Meaux Renzo Piano | Paris, France | 1988 | Multi-family Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

74

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: A panelized system of precast concrete and terra-cotta rainscreen is attached to traditional steel frame construcion. Units of Prefabrication: GFRC - glass fiber reinforced concrete panels. Terra-cotta rainscreen cladding. Delivery: Panels were transported on flatbed and assembled on site with a crane.

Ground Floor Plan


INTRODUCTION

This project implemented precast concrete foundation and structural wall panels to minimize construction time and reduce cost for affordable

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

housing.

Section through courtyard

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 224


Las Palmas Parasite Kortknie Stuhnmacher Architecten | Rotterdam, Netherlands | 2001 | Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

73

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: A parasite style prefabricated structure that is compact in nature and relies on its host building for support Units of Prefabrication: Component construction using a panel system. All building services were connected to that of the existing building. Structure: Constructed from load bearing insulated panels and relies on th elevator shaft of an existing building for support Delivery: Parasite was assembled in 4 days despite the exceptionally difficult and windy location.


Precedents • 226 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Rucksack House Stefan Eberstadt | 2004 | Leipzen, Koln, & Essen, Germany | Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

73

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Prefabricated house extension that can be dismanteled and reassembled. Units of Prefabrication: 9 sq. meter transportable dwelling component Structure: Suspended from steel cables anchored to the roof or facade of existing building. Module is a weded steel structure with veneer plywood interior cladding Delivery: Located in place on facade by a crane


Precedents • 228 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Box Office Distill Studio | Providence, RI | 2010 | Offices Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

use residential

degree of prefabrication

on-site/off-site ratio

71

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: The shipping containers are worked on at an off-site location while the on-site work is being done. This saved time and money. Units of Prefabrication: 34 1/3 shipping containers Structure: Steel shipping containers Delivery: The shipping containers are brought to the site by truck, then stacked through the use of a crane.


INTRODUCTION

The Box Office is an office building containing 12

connected through the use of sky bridges. The shipping containers used for this project

On-site

outside. The building is three floors and is

Off-site

individual units. Each unit is accessed individually

DETERMINANTS

presented opportunities for interesting and innovative design solutions throughout. The construction schedule allows for work to be done on-site and off-site at the same time, which saves time and money. The 6 weeks of iron work after only 4 days of stacking the containers is the

Excavation

Holes for Columns Install Doors/Windows DEPLOYMENT

most costly and intensive part of the process.

Stacking CONTEXT

2-3 Months 4 Days

Iron Work Remove Walls

PRECEDENTS

6 Weeks

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 230


Box Office Distill Studio | Providence, RI | 2010 | Offices The use of shipping containers created several issues that required creative solutions. For example, each unit is mechanically independent from one another. There are 12 units total, and each unit has a condensor outside. This modular HVAC system made installing the systems much easier, and far less complicated. Another design solution occured when the two shipping containers are stacked on top of each other. They only touch at the corners, creating an open intersitial space between them. The solution achieved here was to use spray foam insulation to fill the interstitial space.

Condensor outside of unit

Interstitial space diagram


INTRODUCTION

The walls of a shipping container act as a beam, and once they are removed the container loses integrity. In order to allow for the removal of walls to create an open floor plan, a column grid was put in place. The columns were placed where the

DETERMINANTS

walls were removed, and spaced 1/3 of the

DEPLOYMENT

distance apart.

CONTEXT

Shipping container structure diagram

PRECEDENTS

Column grid layout digrams

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 232


Loft House Studio Aisslinger | 2009 | Berlin, Germany | Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

70

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Customizable living unit meant for rooftop construction on various post-war flat roofs throughout Berlin Units of Prefabrication: Interior Modular structure for customized partitions, fixed and sliding panels. Overall size: 40 sq. meters; 2.5 m high Structure: Galvanized steel and timber frame construction Delivery: Kit-of-parts stored within two standard 40 foot cube containers. Weight calculated to allow for freight helicopter or construction crane handling


Precedents • 234 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Moduli 225 Kristian Gullichsen and Pallasmaa | Finland | 1971 | Single-family residential Prefab Score

on-site/off-site ratio

18

use infrastructure

(-)

use residential

degree of prefabrication

(+)

69

15 permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: A single module that can be added to, arranged in any combination, as family grows.

5

Units of Prefabrication: Single modules arrive ready to be attached to the space frame. All materials used for the house (except for wooden

Detail of joint assembly

posts) prefabricated.

4

Structure: No foundation required, modules supported by wooden posts and stout metal pylons, hovering slightly above the ground.

3

Delivery: No foundation required, assembly could take as little as two days. All materials available within 200 miles.

Module configurations

1


Precedents • 236 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Rastipuisto Apartment Block Helamaa and Pulkkinen Architects| Helsinki, Finland | 2009 | Multi-family Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

69

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Units of Prefabrication: Precast concrete panels, precast hollow-core planks, modular window system. Delivery: Flatbed truck for transportation of panel system. Cran to assemble the structure on site.


INTRODUCTION

The main block is divided into discrete vertical segments, with each segment separated by a staircase or the gable walls. Within each segment, dwellings can be varied for room layout, amenity space and location of widows along the

DETERMINANTS

external elevation. Thus window locations along a precast panel that encloses two different apartments need not be on fixed positions, nor do they have to run in vertical alignment between floors. The storey-high precast panels stretch the full width of these vertical segments and this makes some precast units as long as 8m and keeps the number of units to a minimum, thereby

DEPLOYMENT

reducing construction cost. Where the front elevation is punctuated by the staircases they are detailed a little differently from the repeating rhythm of the precast panels that

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

enclose the apartment zones.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 238


Rastipuisto Apartment Block Helamaa and Pulkkinen Architects| Helsinki, Finland | 2009 | Multi-family Housing The standard design of the windows are of composite aluminium and hardwood construction. The exterior frame is a durable aluminium with a powder-coated finish while the interior â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;warm frameâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is a hardwood. The building frame comprises perimeter loadbearing precast sandwich panels, internal precast wall panels that divide the apartments, solid 180mm and 200mm thick precast wall units that enclose the staircase and lift core and provide lateral stability. There are no columns. The floors are hollow core prestressed floor planks that span from the front to the back of the building. The building is supported on piled foundations with interconnecting ground beams to support the loadbearing wall panels. The staircases are all precast with a terrazzo surface finish.


Precedents • 240 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


MOHO ShedKM | Manchester, MA | 2006 | Urban Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

68

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Fully-fitted prefabricated units were stacked onto pre-prepared structural steel cores. Units of Prefabrication: Prefabricated room modules. Steel sub-structure to receive modules. Delivery: Modules were transported on flatbed and assembled by a crane at a rate of six units per day.


INTRODUCTION

The construction was based in stacking prefabricated units onto a pre-prepared structural steel core. It was erected at a rate of six modules per day and minimal assembly crew. The modular units allow the construction process to be greatly

DETERMINANTS

simplified, reducing the construction schedule

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

and work crew to provide affordable housing.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 242


Saterininne Housing Development Brunow and Manula Architects | Helsinki, Finland | 2009 | Multi-family Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

67

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Maximize the size of prefabricated panels to expedite on site construction. Units of Prefabrication: Precast structural concrete panels, Precast concrete sandwich panels, and a modular window system. Delivery: Precast concrete parts were delivered on flatbed and assembled via crane and assembly crew.


INTRODUCTION

The sandwich panels totalled 1,650 pieces, each one 5.1 sq. meters in area. The panels were finished as normal grey concrete and painted on site by the main contractor. At the factory, steel casting beds were used to fabricate the 5 ton

DETERMINANTS

panels. An integrated shock-compactor was used to increase the strength of the sandwich panels. The factory then holds the de-molded pieces for two weeks unitl it is inspected and approved for delivery. Each of these sandwich panels is assembled in an interlocking pattern to increase panel size and

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

facilitate assembly.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 244


Yacht House Richard Horden | United Kingdom | 1983 | Single-family residential Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

67

permanent temporary

Plan

custom standard

Methodology: Applied â&#x20AC;&#x153;Technology transerâ&#x20AC;? used in yacht mast designs to residential construction, combining technology and housing. Units of Prefabrication: Steel tensions members

Assembly Process

and the interior wall modules. Structure: Concrete footings on short ends held structural lattice taut and level while aluminum compression and steel tension members held space frame. Delivery: Uses pre-existing alloy space-frame grid on site, house was built by the family in two weeks using simple tools.

Assembly Detail


Precedents • 246 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Baukasten Walter Gropius | 1923 | Multi-family residential Prefab Score

Building Blocks

12

on-site/off-site ratio

6 4 use infrastructure

123

3

(-)

use residential

degree of prefabrication

(+)

66

permanent temporary

2

1

custom standard

Methodology: â&#x20AC;&#x153;an oversized set of toy building blocks out of which different types of machines

123

5 Possible Combinations

for living can be assembledâ&#x20AC;? Units of Prefabrication: Standard, industrially produced elements that function as a variable kit of parts, interlocking to form a near infinite array of configurations. Structure: Concrete panels or steel frame, either would be prefabricated in a factory. Delivery: Concrete panels made in factory, could be shipped anywhere, would require on-site construction. Project was never realized.

125 12356

12345


Precedents • 248 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Spacebox ShedKM | Utrecht, Netherlands | 2004 | Studio Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

66

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Fully-fitted and prefabricated studio units are stacked on eachother - eliminating on-site construction. Units of Prefabrication: Structural studio pods that can be stacked and serviced by a minimal circulation armiture. Delivery: The factory prepares each pod fully fitted and is trasported to the site on truck and hoisted into place via crane.


INTRODUCTION

Instant, self-contained studio residences. All you need is a crane to stack them up to three units high. The Spacebox is equipped to function as a compact studio residence, complete with kitchen, shower and toilet with a surface area of

DETERMINANTS

18M or 22M. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a large window on one end and the entryway on the other. The units are equipped with a boiler, mechanical ventilation and electrical heating. Spacebox units are made of the same high-grade light weight composites that are used in shipbuilding and aircraft manufacturing.

DEPLOYMENT

Source: http://mocoloco.com/archives/000821.

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

php

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 250


Bluff Homes Vetter Denk | Milwaukee, WI USA | 2009 | Single Family Townhomes Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

65

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Units of Prefabrication: Precast concrete panels, precast hollow-core planks, modular window system. Delivery: Flatbed truck for transportation of panel system. Cran to assemble the structure on site.


INTRODUCTION

Bluff Homes is a single family townhomes project in Milwaukee. Each home was made of precast

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

concrete panels and hollowcore planks.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 252


Precast Concrete Segmental Bridge Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

65

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Width of segments is determined by the maximum allowed by road regulations. The width of the road, also the length of the unit, is determined by the maximum truck capacity and desired amount of lanes. Units of Prefabrication: Segments arrive ready to install on-site and are joined together with rebar ties and cementious grout. Structure: Precast concrete composed of cement, steel rebar Delivery: Moved from precast fabricator to construction site by a double drop deck truck trailer, then lifted by a gantry crane into position above the substructure


Precedents • 254 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Parasite Prefab Lara Calder Architects | 2009 | Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

64

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: A prefabricated parasite system that attaches to empty facades, rock faces and bridges to make use of unaddressed sites. Units of Prefabrication: A panelized system that was designed through the use of a parametric 3D modeling system. Structure: A back plate is bolted to the existing host surface and floors and wall panels rely on the strength of the plate. Delivery: Unbuilt concept


Precedents • 256 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Parcel 12 & 18 MVRDV | Borneo-Sporenburg, Netherlands | 1988 | Urban Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

64

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Precast concrete row houses were assembled with precast concrete structural frames and finished on site. Units of Prefabrication: Precast concrete insulated sandwich panels. Delivery: All modules were transported on flatbed and assembled on site with a crane.


INTRODUCTION

Borneo Sporenburg masterplan was a residential brief of 2500 dwellings, set those two peninsulas as one planning area, dictating a high density of housing. In numbers the project, according the C.A.B.E, is described as:

DETERMINANTS

â&#x20AC;˘ Average density: 100 dwellings per hectare (the 600 dwellings in the three large housing blocks bring up the average density) Source: http://urbantheorywest8amsterdam.

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

blogspot.com/

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 258


Pinchin Street Studios Urban Space Management, Ltd | London, UK | 2007 | Container Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

64

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Pre-assembled shipping containers were stacked to construct the housing development Units of Prefabrication: Shipping container house modules. Delivery: Containers were transported on flatbed and stacked on site with a crane. An assembly crew then bolted/welded the containers into place.


INTRODUCTION

Created out of 35 prefabricated containers this innovative development includes doctors surgery space with office space on the next three floors as well as a roof-top garden.

DETERMINANTS

Source: http://londonwall.blogspot.com/2009/11/

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

pinchin-street-studios-by-urban-space.html

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 260


Keetwonen Tempohousing | Amsterdam, The Netherlands | 2006 | Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

63

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: The units are brought to the site with walls and windows already in place, then are stacked to create the 12 housing complexes. Units of Prefabrication: 1,000 shipping containers Structure: Steel shipping containers Delivery: The shipping containers are brought to the site by truck, then stacked through the use of a crane.


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT in the world, consisting of 1,000 shipping containers. This housing is primarily for students,

Typical Units 1 Shipping Container 2 Shipping Containers CONTEXT

Keetwonen is the largest shipping container city

and each unit contains their own bedroom, living room, bathroom, kitchen, and balcony. The Keetwonen complex also contains office space, super markets, a sports area and a cafe for the students. Each unit is brought to the site and stacked through the use of a crane. Originally the

PRECEDENTS

project was meant to only stay on site for 5 years, but the relocation has been postponed until 2016. The units can be easily moved to a different location to create the massive container city through the use of cranes and trucks for transport.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 262


Park Row Terrace Houses Vetter Denk | Milwaukee, WI USA | 2005 | Multi-family Row Houses Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

63

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Implement a precast concrete structure to reduce cost and construction assembly. Units of Prefabrication: Precast concrete wall panels, Hollow-core floor planks, and structural load-bearing wall panels. Delivery: Prefab panelized system is easily transported on flatbed to the building site.


INTRODUCTION

Park Terrace Row Houses are a unique project in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. They are apart of an urban redevelopment trend along the riverfront in a post industrial neighborhood. The row houses were designed as two family units, one duplex

DETERMINANTS

and one single floor occupancy. Precast Concrete Panels and Hollowcore Planks were the main units of prefabrication. The concrete panels were designed to not only act as sheer walls in this project but act as the fire walls

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

between each unit.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 264


Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank Norman Foster & Associates | Hong Kong, China | 2007 | Skyscraper Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

61

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Reduce on site construction time with prefabricated building assembly methods Units of Prefabrication: Bathroom modules. Mechanical modules. Steel superstructure. Glass curtain wall system. Delivery: International delivery via barge and transported by flatbed from harbor to site.


INTRODUCTION

The Hong Kong Bank implemented an unprecedented prefabrication process that responded to urban site restrictions and a premise to minimize construction time. The structure was assembled from six steel modules fabricated in London and

DETERMINANTS

shipped by sea. Bathroom and mechanical modules were fabricated in Japan and stacked and attached to the superstructure. This allowed for on-site construction to progress quickly and increase turn-over time. However, the complexity of the design and coordination process between multiple practitioners invariably delayed the con-

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

struction process despite its proposed design.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 266


Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank Norman Foster & Associates | Hong Kong, China | 2007 | Skyscraper The steel superstructure was fabricated in London, England and shipped innternationally by sea. This pieces arrived as six modules that were assembled by crane into four sets of “mast” super-columns. These were then fitted with truss hangers that suspend the floor components. Bathroom modules were fabricated in Japan as “skinless.” They were then shipped overseas and assembed via cranes ontop of the mast towers. These modules were then attached to the truss superstructure and fitted with metal cladding. The structural glass curtain wall was fabricated in the United States and assembled on site. It consisted of a kit of parts of structural, non-structural, and solar shading components.


INTRODUCTION

The prefabricated elements of the project inlude the steel superstructure composed of mast columns, truss hangers, and suspension

columns.

Modular

bathroom

and

mechanical units are stacked and attached DETERMINANTS

to the superstructure. The floor components are completed after the truss hangers have

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

been put in place.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 268


Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank Norman Foster & Associates | Hong Kong, China | 2007 | Skyscraper The structural innovation of Hong Kong Bank has allowed the plan to benefit from an externally loaded core that services an interior column-free space. The open floor plan is also divided by movable partitions that can re-configure the spatial organization of the plan for future use capacity. This adaptable re-use concept has also been implemented in section where double height stories create spaces for sustainable social interaction and circulatiory functions that are separate yet complimentary to the office floors.


INTRODUCTION

The steel supertructure was coposed of two modules for the column masts and four modules for the truss system. These pieces were assembled by crane; a structural pin system fastened the pieces together. The

DETERMINANTS

benefits of the superstructure are evident in its ability to provide 33.5 meter spans between columns. This allows a greater flexibility of floor space that is unprece-

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

dented in contemporary construction.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 270


Habitat ‘67 Moshe Safdie | Montreal, Canada | 1967 | Multi-family residential Prefab Score

on-site/off-site ratio

Precast Concrete Roof

use infrastructure

Fenestration

(-)

use residential

degree of prefabrication

(+)

58

permanent temporary

2 X 4 Interior Wall Assembly

custom standard

Methodology: Interlocking modules that are structurally interwieved. Focus is on the indiviual unit rather than the global structure. Units of Prefabrication: With the exception of

Floor Assembly

bathroom cores and millwork, all the residential units were pre-fabricated on-site and lifted into place by crane. Structure: Concrete structure, bolted together and post-tensioned.

“B” Precast Concrete Exterior Shell

Delivery: Modules were built on-site which eliminates the travel factor that a lot of prefabricated units have.

Unit Deck

Exploded Axon


Precedents • 272 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION


Habitat â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;67 Moshe Safdie | Montreal, Canada | 1967 | Multi-family residential

Module Interlocking Diagram Typically, three modules formed a single unit. Both indiviual modules and units torque and cascade around each other which creates an infinite number of orientations to both the structure itself, and the city. Each modular unit is clearly legible as a singular unit, but understood as an absolutely irreplaceable part of a greater whole.

Typical Module Combination Plans and Elevations

Construction Photo


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT

Bridging Units and Terraces

PRECEDENTS

View from across the Saint Lawrence River

CONTEXT

Section

Precedents • 274


Elemental Alejandro Aravena | Santiago, Chile | 2001 | Low-income Housing Prefab Score

use infrastructure

(-)

(+) degree of prefabrication

use residential

on-site/off-site ratio

49

permanent temporary custom standard

Methodology: Elemental utilizes a precast and sitecast concrete to reduce overall construction time and cost. Units of Prefabrication: Six precast concrete components and hollow-core floor planks. Structure: The primary structure is precast concrete and has a seconday structure made from site-cast concrete block. Delivery: Precast panels were transported via flatbed truck. Cranes were used to hoist these panels from the truck as workers guided each panel into place.

Plans 1, 2, 3 & Elevation Exploded Axonometric


INTRODUCTION

Elemental was started as a prototype model for the development of quality low-income housing for the future. Through the use of precast concrete building methods, the construction process can be minimized to one day. The

DETERMINANTS

system utilizes precast concrete floor slabs and a structural frame that arrives on flatbed. A crane and assembly crew construct the prefab frame. The structure is then completed with site-cast concrete block for the facade. The design allows for residents to expand their homes as necessary

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

into each interstitial unit space.

Precedents â&#x20AC;˘ 276


Elemental Alejandro Aravena | Santiago, Chile | 2001 | Low-income Housing The project goal for Elemental was to replace existing slum dwellings in Santiago, Chile. The design vision considered the needs of the displaced families by focusing on an expedited building delivery system. The answer was to use a durable prefabricated concrete frame that could be assembled within hours. The building structure is completed with site-cast concrete block that adds an aesthetic appeal to the facade.

Crane type

Transport of Precast Concrete Panels

Crane Assembly Plan

Kit of Precast Parts


INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS

Area for expansion Prefabricated unit

PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

hvv

Precedents • 278


Precedents Sources System3 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008. Citizen M 1. Powers, Richard. Contemporist. 2010. http://www.contemporist.com/2010/09/15/citizenm-glasgow-hotel-by-concrete-architectural-associates/ Nakagin Capsule Tower 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008. 2. Harbison, William. “Analysis of Nakagin Capsule Tower.” 2009. wharbison.blogspot.com/2009/12-analysis-of-nakagin-capsule-tower-5th.html 3. Kurokawa, Kisho. “Metabolism in Architecture.” Westview Press, Boulder, Co. 1977. Pierson Court 1. Architectural Record. 2010. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/bts/archives/renovations/ 05_piersonCollege/photos.asp 2. Chen, Aric. Teaching Tools. Metropolis Magazine, July 25, 2007. http://www.metropolismag.com/story/20070725/teaching-tools 3. Warren, Jerry A. Capital Projects Handbook. Yale University. 2005. http://www.facilities.yale.edu/publications/ CapitalProjectsHandbook.pdf 4. Modular Building Institute. 2006. http://www.modular.org/htmlPage.aspx?name=news26#yale 5. Whitley Manufacturing Co., Inc. 1995-2010. http://www.whitleyman.com/news/article.html?id=1206713574 Melrose II 1. www.scottsystem.com/informers/Beauty_in_the_Bronx.pdf 2. www.pathnet.org/si.asp?id=2652 3.campaign=en&utm_source=en-hana-us-sk-gm&utm_medium=ha&utm_term=maps Metastadt-Bausystem 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008. 2. Anssen, M., ‘Interview mit dem Metastadt-Architekten Richard J. Dietrich : Man hätte uns nicht in Richtung Wulfen treiben dürfen’, Bauwelt, 79, 1988, pp. 1990-95. 3. Janssen, M., ‘Metastadt, Wulfen : Eine Studentin von heute über eine Utopie von gestern’, Bauwelt, 79, 1988, pp. 1990-91.


INTRODUCTION

Kim & Sill

DETERMINANTS

1. http://www.architektenprofsill.de/flash/starter1280.htm 2. http://www.detail.de/rw_5_Archive_En_HoleArtikel_1513_Artikel.htm 3. “Housing and commercial block in rathenow” Detail Magazine. Vol. 38. No. 5. Pg. 808-812. 1998 4. http://myweb.wit.edu/kiml1/590fall05/web-content/terry.pdf Drop House 1. Nuruly. Home Decor G. 2010. http://www.homedecorg.com/2010/04/the-drop-house-modern-wooden-prefab-home/ DEPLOYMENT

Kim House 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008. Urban Shelter Building 1. http://www.onesmallproject.com/pagescontributors/contributorparejo.html 2. http://www.recetasurbanas.net/indexphp?idioma=ENG&REF=1&ID=0003 Nomadic Museum:

CONTEXT

1. http://www.burohappold.com/BH/PRJ_BLD_nomadic_museum.aspx 2. http://nymag.com/nymetro/arts/architecture/11077/ Stelco Catalogue Housing 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.

PRECEDENTS

Puma City: “1. Adapting Prefabricated Industrial Systems into Innovative Architecture” by Jesse Cabrera & Daniel Ottochian 2. http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/fashion/articles/2009/04/23/a_portable_city_visits_fan_pier/ Studio East Dining 1. http://uk.westfield.com/stratfordcity/studio-east/studio-east-dining/

Precedents • 280


Precedents Sources

Nomiya Restaurant 1. http://plusmood.com/2009/09/nomiya-temporary-rooftop-restaurant-pascal-grasso-laurent-grasso/ 2. http://www.dezeen.com/2009/09/11/nomiya-temporary-restaurant-by-pascal-grasso/ South Side Row Houses 1. http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/1999/January-February/JL-99-JANUARY-FEBRUARY-3.pdf 2. http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/ascent/2000/summer/AS-00SU-3.PDF Rue De Meaux 1. http://www.housingprototypes.org/project?File_No=FRA006 Las Palmas Parasite 1. http://lifewithoutbuildings.net/2005/08/life without-books-green-house.html 2. http://www.kortekniestuhlmacher.nl/ Rucksack Housing 1. http://www.convertiblecity.de/projekte_proje kt02_en.html Box Office: 1. Josh Brandt, Stack Design Build Loft House 1. www.aisslinger.de 2. www.loftcube.net Moduli 225 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008. Rastipuisto 1. “The Art of Precast Concrete:” http://www.scribd.com/doc/18765509/the-art-of-precast-concrete-colour-texture-expression


INTRODUCTION

MOHO - Manchester 1. http://www.jouleconsultingengineers.co.uk/presnew.htm

DETERMINANTS

Saterininne 1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/18765509/the-art-of-precast-concrete-colour-texture-expression Yacht House 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008. Baukasten 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008. DEPLOYMENT

Spacebox 1. www.mocoloco.com/archives/000821.php 2. www.spaceboxusa.com/ Bluff Homes 1. http://www.thebluffhomes.com/ Precast Concrete Segmental Bridges

CONTEXT

1. Barker, James M. “Construction Techniques for Segmental Concrete Bridges” 1980. http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/1980/July-August/JL-80-JULY-AUGUST-9.pdf 2. http://www.metamere.com/images/segmentalbridgeunderconstruction4.jpg 3. http://www.mtc.ca.gov/images/ta02-0307/skyway.jpg 4. http://www.gautrain.co.za/web_images/_2S22gQ.jpg

PRECEDENTS

5. http://www.djc.com/stories/images/20090716/DSCN1968_big.jpg Parasite Prefab 1. www.calderflower.com.au Parcel 12 & 18 1. http://urbantheorywest8amsterdam.blogspot.com/

Precedents • 282


Precedents Sources

Pinchin Street Studios 1. http://www.containercity.com/pinchin-street-studios.html 2. http://londonwall.blogspot.com/2009/11/pinchin-street-studios-by-urban-space.html Keetwonen: 1. http://www.tempohousing.com/projects/keetwonen.html 2. http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/08/24/prefab-friday-keetwonen-container-student-housing/ Park Row Terrace Housing 1. www.vetterdenk.com/work.php Hong Kong Bank 1. Ford, Edward R. “The Details of Modern Architecture” Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. 2.The_Hongkong_and_Shanghai_Banking_Corporation 3. http://www.urbain-trop-urbain.fr/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Fiche-hong-kong-bank-de-Foster.pdf 4. http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/29554/52723412.pdf?sequence=1 5. http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic32894.files/7-4_Hongkong.pdf Habitat ‘67 1. Bergdoll, Barry and Peter Christensen. Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008. 2. Cotter, Bill. “Habitat 67 Then and Now.” 2004. http://www.space1999.net/~sorellarium13/habitat-67.htm Elemental 1. http://www.archdaily.com/10775/quinta-monroy-elemental/ 2. http://www.elementalchile.cl/ 3. www.acleanbreak.org


Precedents • 284 PRECEDENTS

CONTEXT

DEPLOYMENT

DETERMINANTS

INTRODUCTION

Prefab City  

This publication documents the Fall 2010 Master's degree research studio.

Prefab City  

This publication documents the Fall 2010 Master's degree research studio.

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