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Life between buildings Rethinking public space in contemporary residential development in China How can the design of landscapes enable traditional activities to occur and thus generate a sense of community in contemporary residential developments in China? Mengwei Yu s3342706


CONTENT Abstract

5

City in transition - Beijing Understanding the city

8

Extension of urban area Extension of residential area

From traditional to contemporary Time line of changing The change of buildings The change of space between buildings The change of connection to adjacent public space

Site in transition - TianTongYuan Condition in site - TTY

Location of TTY Distance from TTY to central area in Beijing Distance from TTY to activity space in Beijing Traditional activity decline in TTY

Critical issues Fast-moving traffic system Strategy development Separate for integrate Separation of pedestrian and vehicular circulation

12 12 13 14 15 16 16 16 18 19 20 28 28 30

The degree of enclosure for space

34 36 36 44 46

California --- ‘The old third street mall’

52

Strategy development Repel to invite - Create shared space Repel to invite - Typology of spaces Repel to invite - Photos about space in TTY

Precedent

8 9

(Santa Monica, Roma Design Group) Sydney --- ‘UTS Alumni Green’ (ASPECT Studios)

Merge - strategy development / synthesis

54 56


Traditional activity opportunities in TTY Temporal opportunity Spatial analysis - activity typology Morning market Night market Morning exercise Chess and card game Play for kid Outdoor fitness Table tennis Conversation Night exercise

Spatial opportunity for each activity Implementation /Test Adaptive landscape - user control Spatial separation of activities Green space Edge area adjacent to buildings

Activity merging through spatial opportunities Shared building space Central space (site common)

60 60 62

68 72 72 74

85

Conclusion

112 112 117

Conclusion

123

Reference

124

Outcome of community across site Testing in big scale in Beijing


What

is the Problem? Beijing Urbanization process

Redevelopment

Fringe area of city

Traditional residential district

Commercial Be replaced district

Not been developed district

Contemporary resiBe replaced dential district Big scale public space

Small scale public space Multiple activity space for every life

Old residents in Beijing

Great sense of community

Relocated households

Old and new residents in Beijing

Redesign

Absent of life - no activity space Lost of neighbours and sense of community

Improved by

Inner city

Problem

Who

Why

were taken into account? Residents

ages group Children Teens

What they looking for What do they need

?

Play Meet

through the public space?

Current issues

There is no activity space Problem between community Underutilized spaces with lack of quality Insecurity traffic system Lack of services Predence of undesirable

Potential

Adults

Talk

Elder

Mutiple activities

How

to redesign the public space?

Uderstand the traditional way people read and use a space Transform underutilized or abandoned spaces Redesigning real local spaces with activities for residents in areas in need

Design quality + Designed by landscape architecture student Innovative ideas adapted to the context Reinterpretation of public space as a activity space

Community impact + Increasing amont of shared space Have quality of public space Generate new activity space


Title: Life between buildings Subtitle: Rethinking public space in contemporary residential development in China RQ: How can the design of landscapes enable traditional activities to occur and thus generate a sense of community in contemporary residential developments in China? S3342706 Mengwei Yu Beijing is a fast growing city. The perimeter of the city keeps creeping outwards within the constant development of the old and new district. A large number of new residential areas were built in the fringe areas in order to supply enough dwellings for native and nonnative residents. The purpose of most design of contemporary residential areas are to make sure the profit is maximized to property developers instead to residents. The high-density towers and the accompanying underutilized spaces are the common condition for contemporary residential area, which are restricting people’s movement and negatively influencing their experiences and lifestyle. Activities are forced inside the building or into places that are very far away from where they live. The result is that public spaces between buildings are absent of life and the residential areas suffer from the loss of a sense of neighbourhood, communication, and an overall poor and inconvenient living environment. This project is about designing for the residents living in a contemporary Chinese community. It explores the reconsideration and redesign of public space to enable and encourage a series of traditional activities to take place in order to regenerate a sense of community in contemporary neighbourhoods. This project started with the research about the Chinese traditional living area - Hutong, in order to found out what is the local strategy for forming a sense of community. I intend to introduce the traditional spatial arrangement and hierarchy of community to high-density contemporary residential area to generate social inclusion at a local level. After analyzing the precedents, I extracted the strategy for redesigning and reinterpretation spaces between buildings as places for traditional activities. After the test of different activities and spatial opportunities, the designed landscape is about to re-appropriate the public space in contemporary residential areas for new uses and programs but in a traditional way. This project propose that using traditional activities as a tool to reorganized the space between buildings and improve the quality of living environment which based on the demand of residents. The design is about to make the contemporary residential areas become a place for living not just for reside.

5


CITY IN TRANSITION


Understanding the city Extension of urban area

Beijing is the capital city of china, city area have sprawled due to the fast development in the past decade, as well as a number of satellite city were set up at the edge of urban area. Unfortunately, the rapid economic development completely ignored the real requirement of citizen and the capacity of environment. Urban sprawl has caused a serious traffic and travel problems. In terms of daily life in Beijing, most people need to spend at least one hour on the way, therefore, traffic congestion and unreachable situation might be the most serious urban issue, followed by environment issue. Air pollution is more and more serious, which cause inconvenience and unhealthy environment for citizen. Furthermore, a huge number of public green space disappeared because of a series huge-scale architecture. The activity spaces were dramatically decreased.

Min

2000-2005

The central built-up area’s expansion in Beijing

8

Min-70’s

1995-2000

70’s-80’s

80’s-1995


Extension of residential area

With the development process of Beijing, Beijing has been changing rapidly with a massive housing development program. Beijing is famous for traditional architectural structure - Hutong, this type of traditional residential form represents Beijing and China’s culture. Those old Beijinger had lived in this living environment over a thousand year, the style of Hutong’s structure could provide an ideal space for residents to communicate and interact with each other, it will also enhance people’ cohesion in the community, which become a part of daily life. However, as the rapid economic development and redevelopment of central area, modern architecture and new residential districts replaced a plenty of Hutong. Original Beijing citizen were forced to move to new residential districts from their old living area. Those new residential area are commonly representing a characteristic of high-density and far away from city. This new living condition lead to many problems.

Min

Min-70’s

70’s-80’s

1995-2012

80’s-1995

1995-2012

Residential area’s expansion in Beijing

9


Understanding the city

‘Courtyard Building’ is a traditional residential form in Beijing, also known as Hutong, which is the ancient, traditional cultural symbol for Beijing even China. Furthermore, the basic characteristic of Courtyard Buildings shows that there are four surface of north, south, east, west generate a square shape, which forms the basic structure of Courtyard Building. Courtyard Buildings are located in city centre in Beijing, most of them are built along the street. In particular, the generated square of courtyard buildings is used for people communication and daily activities, because residents would access their house through the square area everyday. That is, the square area provide a good opportunity for neighbours to play chess, communicate and cooking, which also provide a sense of belonging and a sense of security, as well as improve the relationship of neighbours and have a great sense of community. Furthermore, there are a number of people from various life level could be interacted for each other in the square area, as a result, this particular structure of building forms a typical culture and life style for residents.

Traditional residential area in Beijing

10

The lifestyle in Courtyard Building is various, because most of young people go to work at the daytime, they would chat and have dinner at night. What is more, children could feel free to play games, elder people could do some exercise in the morning and have an afternoon tea with sunshine in the square. This traditional building structure generates their own lifestyle and communication. However, as the redevelopment of old town, the Courtyard Buildings are replacing by modern architecture structure. As a result, most of current residents will say goodbye for their Courtyard. They should not lose their own lifestyle, which were generated for hundred years, even if they have lost their familiar environment.


As the development of urbanisation process, most of modern residential architecture evolve into open and natural structure, which form today’s high-rise city intensive, closed apartment. This is the common architecture form in Beijing even in China so far. Nevertheless, in the modern life, normal residents would stay in residential districts for two-thirds of a day. The residential area should be a place for people lives rather than just sleeping. Developers built a part of residential estates, they emphasise a centralised big garden and simple surface beauty as a key point for selling. As a result, a number of residential districts do not represent a practical characteristic but just for good look. Lacking of service and activities infrastructure in the public space and completely ignoring the residents’ requirement for life. However, the other parts of residential districts are built by government, which also not concern about the real requirement of residents. In this regard, the current residential districts cannot meet residents’ needs. On the other hand, the most of space between buildings are decorated by simple glass and paving, which provide a bored environment for residents. This type of residential form cannot provide an appropriate circumstance for residents to enjoy activities, the current public space become lifeless space and out of dynamic. Activities are forced inside the building and circulation becomes limited internally, rather than being part of an external connection with the surrounding environment, which is restricted people’s movement and influenced their experiences and lifestyle. Daily range of activity just in their own room, the elevator is the only place for neighbours to meet each other. In such a environment, people will not know who are the neighbours even though they lived here more than 10 or 20 years. People become nothing to say with or take care about others. Lack of community interaction is a main problem. All these residential area suffer from the lost of neighbourhood and communication, which means people become harden and uneasy to talk, know, consider and communicate with each other. This change is not what people want to get but because such living environment did not provide opportunity and comfortable condition for human interaction.

Contemporary residential area in Beijing

11


From traditional to contemporary Time line of changing

1949 - 1975

12

1976 - 1989

1990 - 2005

2005 - now


The change of buildings

One-storey

High-rise

Traditional buildings

Contemporary buildings

During the process of transformation from traditional living environment to contemporary, the most obvious change is increased floor of buildings. Most of low level buildings are replaced by high level buildings, in order to maximize the use of land value. The distribution of residents have turned to concentrated living environment from planar distribution form.

13


From traditional to contemporary The change of space between buildings

Traditional space layout

Contemporary space layout

14

Due to the vertical development of architecture, the spaces between buildings have increased. The higher the building, the greater the distance between the two buildings, this role is for provide enough sunlight to buildings. As a result, the space between building might become too large to occupy. People will lose the sense of recognition and belonging about these oversized space.


The change of connection to adjacent public space

Traditional distanse

5min circle Activity centre

Contemporary distanse

In the traditional residential environment, residents could communicate with neighbours or do certain activities with a couple minutes’ walk, which is the traditional lifestyle in Beijing. However, the modern residence completely broke the old residents own lifestyle. The current public space of residential districts cannot meet residents’ needs for use, as well as there are considerable distance between residences and park, garden and activity centre. In addition, the terrible traffic problem normally take place in metropolis in china, people therefore would spend a couple hours on their way to attend public activities and communicate with their friends. On the other hand, elder people and children are not suitable for long distance travelling, they might prefer to stay at home. As a result, this group would lose the opportunity to interact with natural environment, it might cause a healthy and social issues.

15


Site in transition - TianTongYuan Condition in site - TTY

XXL Location of TTY

Site scale comparison - Melbourne CBD to TTY

16

XL


L

M

S

Population: 10425 Households: 4329 Floor space: 140000m2 Covered area: 490000m2 Car park: 350

TTY is located in north of Beijing, which is located out of Fifth Ring Road. It is a large residential district with about 10 thousands residents. Government department built this district. Most residents lived in Hutong in the past. They moved in this new area because of the development of central area of Beijing.

17


Condition in site - TTY

4000 M

1000 M 1500 M

4000 M

6000 M

Distance from TTY to central area in Beijing

18


Distance from TTY to activity space in Beijing 2000M Shortest 16000M longest

The straight-line distance between TTY to inner city and main activity area are really long, which is not convenient for people to go out for activity, especially for elder people and children.

19


Condition in site - TTY 46M

28M

Traditional activity decline in TTY

60M

15M

35M

140M

1.6M

180M

15M 20

28M

15M

Space scale


Scale of buildings and space There are lots in-between space in TTY. Now, these space just have plants. No one use them.

21


Condition in site - TTY Traditional activity decline in TTY

In summer, the space between building were totally covered by disorderly vegetation randomly, which generated a blocked square on the space. The result is these spaces become inaccessible.

22


Space with plants

23


Condition in site - TTY Traditional activity decline in TTY

? In other season, almost all of leaves had fallen, the space become too empty for people to use.

24


Old residents in Beijing are used to utilise outdoor space to communicate and for activities, it has been a habit and life style for residents. In comparison with the HU TONG, some of contemporary residential districts have more public space like TTY. But the question is, Why their do not use these public space to communicate for each other and held certain activities when they moved into contemporary residential area?

Space without plants

25


CRITICAL ISSUES


Fast - moving traffic system

Traditional pedestrian street

In the traditional living area -Hutong, the street just for pedestrian. People will feel completely safe when they occupy the space. The pedestrian -friendly traffic system can protect people from vehicular traffic. This can greatly improve the probability of going out for residents. In contemporary residential area, mixed street is the ordinary traffic pattern, where traffic is divided between pedestrians and automobiles. The street because duller for any activities. This traffic pattern restrict the movement for residents.

Contemporary mixed street

28


This is a investigation of Australian vehicular and pedestrian streets illustrates how secure people feel in these two types of street. In trafficked street, about 86% children are constrained to walk hand in hand with their parents. But in pedestrian street, most children are allowed to roam freely on the street. This investigation shows that people will feel intense or dangerous in mixed-used street., which is the main issue in contemporary residential area. The space of residential area should been mainly used by residents instead of vehicle.

Souce: <Ueing public space> -- Jan Gehl

29


Strategy development Separate for integrate Separation of pedestrian and vehicular circulation

Pedestrian route Vehicular route

30


Current traffic system - mixed street

0

5

10

15

Section for mixed street 31


Strategy development Separate for integrate Separation of pedestrian and vehicular circulation

Pedestrian route Vehicular route

32


In order to create a suitable public space for resident in TTY, especially for the group of elder residents and children, it is very important to refine the current transportation system. Therefore, utilising the design of the separation of pedestrian and vehicular circulation in residential districts, to create a considerable safety space in TTY. This design also can enhance overall quality of residential environment.

Designed traffic system - separation street

0

5

10

15

Section for separation street 33


The degree of enclosure for space

Traditional spatial arrangement

For traditional living environment, every family have their own open space in front of their house, which are shared for around families and a few families synthetic around a courtyard. A series of courtyards formed the most traditional Chinese living environment- Hu Tong. Each Hu Tong includes a common public space, and every space shows different levels of degree and sense of belonging, which could be chosen by residents for a most suitable one to communicate and outdoor activities. These kinds of space levels will create suitable environment for neighbourhood daily activities and colourful life.

34


Contemporary spatial arrangement

In the contemporary residential areas, their open space become simple. Although every building has its own green space, but due to the construction of a determinant arrangement, which makes the lack of space to surround sense of closure, because the space between buildings are too empty. As a result, residents may not know how to use these kinds of space, which are short of belonging. In addition, there is no any facilities in these space, but just be covered by green plants. These spaces are easy to be forgotten by residents, residents therefore would not use these space to communicate and our door activities any more.

35


Strategy development Repel to invite Create shared space

Current space quality - low degree of enclosure Edge area for each building Shared space - just the road Green space for each building and site Residential buildings

36

Through the analysis, the second reason of ignoring public space in residential area is that current space are created by road and buildings, these space therefore are too disperse to be identified. As a result, certain current public space lost their identity and directivity. Base on residents views, there are certain public space in residential areas but they do not know how to use them. So, what kind of space could provide space identity and belonging sense for residents? And how to create them?


+

=

Spatial cognition degree

With a number of enclosed boundary in the space, the directivity and belongingness become clearer. Although these enclosed space are separated from outside space, it results a brand new space, which could be identified, used and stay for people. Why people are used to held activities in an enclosed space? 1. The enclosed space is easier to be identified. 2. It will reduce damaged behaviour. 3. It represents private and belonging sense. 4. It could meet peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; need of joining outdoor activities. What level of enclosed space could be created but be not isolated with surrounding environment? What kinds of materials could be fused in the new space? 37


Strategy development Repel to invite Create shared space

Testing the possibility of the boundary

38


1.2M

The relationship between in and out the boundary 2M 0,1M The design of the boundary

0,1M Utilising the same materials as current buildingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; façade to create flower bed, the height of bed is the same as the eye view of a sitting people. The design of blocking view could provide certain edge area, which people willing to occupy. In terms of growing bamboo, it could make a sense for bring people back to traditional and natural environment. In addition, the density of bamboo could create a semi open public space. As a result, the people who is standing could see the surrounding space with gaps between bamboos, it ensure permeability of space. This boundary can create a space that are not completely separated.

39


Strategy development Repel to invite Create shared space

10m 20m 40m 70m

The social field of vision

40

50m

30m 60m


The scale of the shared space will influence how people read and use the space. The social field of vision will be The relationship between two people will be influenced as well. When the distance is about 20M, people can perceive the feelings and moods of others. This is a distance that meeting will become interesting but without make people feel tension.

41


Strategy development Repel for invite Create shared space

Edge area for each building Shared space - just the road Green space for each building and site Residential buildings Created shared space for each group 42

A

A

B

B

Designed space quality - high degree of enclosure


Section AA 0

2

4

6

Section BB 0

2

4

6

This strategy development is about creating a shared space among each group of buildings by using designed boundary. I designed a new space with certain degree of enclosure and make this space repel from the original spaces. The purpose of making the space separate from each other is to create a public space invites.

43


Strategy development Repel for invite Typology of spaces

Green space The green space and edge area have a sense of belong to each building because of the arrangement. The quality of them are semi-public space. These two space can be used for generate a sense of community for residents who lived in same building.

44

Edge area for each building


The designed shared space can be used for generate a sense of community for residents who lived in same group of buildings. For each shared space, they were designed along the main road, which can make the space easy to access.

Share space for group of buildings

The space in the middle area is public space for the whole site.

45

Central area for whole site


Strategy development Repel for invite Photos about space in TTY

1 4 6

2 3 5

46


47


Strategy development Repel for invite Photos about space in TTY

48


49


PRECEDENTS


Precedent California --- â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The old third street mallâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Santa Monica, Roma Design Group)

The street mall was established in the 1960s. IT was deteriorating and largely abandoned because that the space between buildings was too big and lack of amenities. After redesign, the street divided into several half-enclosed subspaces in user-friendly scale. It became a very popular pedestrian mall. The scale of the space is related to the spatial identity. People usually will not use a large open space because they do not have the sense of belonging to the space. After using landscape to divided the space into small scale and afforded infrastructures to allow the activity to occur, the space become a place for some event, people will start to occupy the place and generate a good community. After the analysis of this design. The strategy for make this space alive is that integrate activity space into the site. The building along the street are small business,such as cafe or restaurant. The needed activity space is for people to sit and eat. When people visit this street after the redesigning, they can easily to read and use the space as a meeting place or eating place.

52


Before

After

Sit & Eat Restau-

Stay Sit Shadow Enclosure

Stay Shadow

Sit & Eat Restau-

53


Precedent

Sydney --- â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;UTS Alumni Greenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (ASPECT Studios)

This is a design for main outdoor space of Alumni Green, which located in a university. The new look of Alumni Green will have three distinct zones, each with its own character and opportunities. Through the analysis of this example and redraw. I have learned certain strategy about how to design a space that can allow a variety of activities taken place as needed. In this case, the designer set aside most of the space as a green space, its function is to let users in close nature, meanwhile according to their own understanding of the space to use this piece of green space. On the other hand, in other parts space are separated into different small space, each corresponding to a particular activity, which based on the needs of space and facilities for activities itself. This design is using a visible arrangement to attract and encourage people to join activities in order to generate a sense of community. For each space of activity, it is not completely flexible. But with this kind of design could help users identify a space and improve utilization of space. In terms of generating a sense of community, first of all, every little space itself can attract people with common preferences in a relatively small range of close interaction. Secondly, a few small space formed a wide range of space of communication, it will good to generate and form a good sense of community.

54


Plan

Three distinct zones

Eating space Green space Media screen space BBQ space Table tennis space Study space Small space for different activities 55


Precedent Merge - strategy development / synthesis

1

2

3

4

5

6

Pattern - how people occupy a space

56

This diagram shows a public space with a tree. People will occupy the area around the tree. Here the tree represents protection, roof or other focal point, which is most attractive for people. This tree creates a subspace with certain degree of privacy, which give this area a sense of belonging and security. People occupy the boundary area next. And then, in order to maintain the public distance, people will occupy the unattractive middle area. With the people arrive subsequently, the distance between people come to terms with greater social distance.


This diagram is extracted from the precedent, which analysing that what kind of design of space can generate better interpersonal communication and interaction. It is easy to find that the distance between people is quite large when an activity covers a large area with the same number of participants. However, when reduced the area of activity, the distance between will be greatly reduced of same number of participants, it results considerably increase the possibility of interactions with each other.

57


TRADITIONAL ACTIVITIES


Traditional activities Temporal opportunity 24 02

22

20

04

24 HOURS

06

16

08

10

14 12 24

02

22

20

Different group of people have different schedule for everyday life. In traditional living environment, every morning, elder people, student and employed people will go out very early for exercise or go to study and work. Before they leaving, they usually get some local breakfast from nearest stall, see hello to others and start a new day. After the breakfast, elder people start to doing morning exercise and get together for other recreational activities, or looking after the grandchildren. At dusk, after the dinner, residents start to go out for night market or dancing or wandering around where they live. All these activities were disappear in the modern residential area, but the demand will not disappear. How to integrate these activities into new residential area? How these activity help to regenerate a sense of community? What kind quality of a space allow these activities to occur?

04

24 HOURS

06

Elder people Student 16

08

Employed Children

10

14 12

60

Housewife


0-4

4%

257

5-9

3%

187

10 - 19

8%

500

20 - 59

70% 4371

60 - 89

15% 937

Population composition by age in the site 24 02

22

20

04

24 HOURS

06

16

08

Daily market Morning exercise Other activities

10

14 12

Night market Night exercise

61


Traditional activities Spacial analysis

Morning market Traditional quality of space

2M

The route for vendor

Space needed for vendor

3M

Process for attracting people

The morning market normally last shorter time compare to night market. The vendor do not need to bring chairs and tables for morning market, Most customer willing to take away some food very quickly . But for night market, they usually bring some simple tables and chairs for customer to sit for eating. The night market will last much longer time.

62


Night market

The route for night vendor

Space needed for vendor at night

63


Traditional activities Spacial analysis

Morning exercise 3M

4.5M

4.5M

Traditional quality of space

7M Space needed for morning exercise

Morning exercise is for elder people. They normally get out early, This activity always happens after breakfast. They need a space with trees for shadow and block the view from the top.

64


Traditional quality of space

Chinese chess and mah-jong are the very popular activities for people in China especially in Beijing. The ideal quality of space for them is a half closed space. One side of participators are been protect, the other side is open to attract people who pass by. People like to watch this playing chess game.

3M

Chess and card game

1.5M Space needed for games

65


Traditional activities Spacial analysis

Play for kid

Traditional quality of space

Outdoor fitness

7M

Traditional quality of space

Table tennis The three activities need a space with high degree of openness. The place for kid to play should easy to watch by parents. Space needed for table tennis

66

5M


Conversation

This activity is the basic one. Sitting and talking and observing. The needed space seemed simple, but the shape of the space will be changed according to the number of participators.

Space needed for conversation

Night exercise This activity happens after dinner. People prefer to do night exercise, especially dancing. Through the spatial analysis about each activity,which informed the particular demand for quality of space to each activity. It is the principle for the further design.

0.6M 1.5M

2.7M

67


Spatial opportunity for each activity

68


69


IMPLEMENTATION


Implementation /Test Adaptive landscape - user control

Adaptive landscape on street Intimate distance: 0.5m Close friendships or family

High intensity

Personal distance: 0.5m -1m Friends Close social distance: 1m - 2.5m Acquaintances

Low intensity

Greater social distance: 2.5m - 5m Chance contacts Public distance: 5m - 7m Passive contact (see and hear)

This precedent utilised changeable intervention design, let participants to change the intervention according to their own needs, participants themselves therefore could create various sizes and qualities of spaces. The adaptive landscape design, which is designed base on the requirements of a single activity, as a result of the changeable status of design, make the whole space acquire flexibility in a manner. In addition, these space not only meet the space requirements of a specific kind of activity and provide the potential for the space of other possibilities with an invisible way.

72


Reprogramming the city - Hong Kong

This is a exhibition about reprogramming the city. This precedent is also a kind of adaptive landscape design. The main purpose of this design is to utilise basic elements and space quality on the current site to redesign a new activity space. In this case, designer used the fringe part of original ladder to design a sit area for pedestrians chat and sit on it and have a rest. People used to sit on a sheltered side of the sitting behind. Therefore, the designer use original edge area to generate new function and value in use.

73


Spatial separation of activities

+ Green space

Edge area

The first part of implementation is about testing the spatial separation of activities. According to the previous analysis about spatial opportunity for each activity, this design is about using green space and edge area to allow one particular activity to occur â&#x20AC;&#x201C; conversation. These two space is the transition area from private house to public space, especially the edge area. Residents will pass through these two space everyday. It is the first step to using design to attractive peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s occupy in order to generate a first level of community for neighbours who lived in one building.

74

Space plan for first level of community


Green space

0.7M

The first part of the design focus on residential green space. In order to meet the demands of Chinese residential areas that must have more than 30% green ratio. The existing green space is basically preserved. For green land, it is so waste of lands just for watching. But in China, most of the green spaces are not allow access for pedestrians. This has become a common cognitive of the Chinese people. So, how to increase the accessibility and usability of green space?

0.7M The design for green space

1.2M

0.2M

This is a design about seat, I focused on that let people more close to the lawn and nature. In order to create a traditional way for the use of green space. People are used to sit on the grass and there are certain masks between people. The height of seat is very close to the lawn, which could create a sort of mask. Residents can be directly sit on the seat. In addition, seats are designed around trees, this is in order to use the trees keep out the sight from top and to provide the function of the shade.

75


Spatial separation of activities Green space

Communication circle Observation view

Potential degree of contact intensity between people

76


A

A

B

B

Design plan for green space

77


Spatial separation of activities Green space

5M

10M

20M The distance of each intervention

78

In this design, the tree is an important element. How to design the seat, which could be combined with a tree? In order to maximize the use of current elements on the site. In terms of the arrangement of seats is designed to consider the existing tree. Users can choose their own needs adjacent seat which is convenient to communicate with others, or choose a seat which is keep away from others to get a quiet space for individual activity.


0

1

2

3

Section AA

0

1

2

3

Section BB

79


Spatial separation of activities Edge area adjacent to buildings

Edge area in before

If the edge works, so does the space - - Jan Gehl

Edge area now

In terms of the design of the edge area, it aims to create the first level of the community in the residential area. Let the residents began to use the closest edge area and to start to use the space between buildings, in order to create a higher level of community in residential area.

80

Potential degree of contact intensity for conversation


Testing in the edge area 81


Spatial separation of activities Edge area adjacent to buildings

Design detail

0

5

10

Design plan for one building

82

15

0.02M 0.02M

0.4M

0.01M

0.5M


The potential arrangement of the seat

83


Spatial separation of activities Edge area adjacent to buildings

Elevation 0

84 Elevation

0 1 2 3

1

2

3


Activity merging through spatial opportunities

+ Shared building space

Central space (site common)

This part of the design focus on shared space of each group and the central area of the space in the residential area. For these two spaces itself, which show a larger scale. And because each space services a group or whole residential area, the type of potential users is more complex, so the design for this two kinds of space is to merge different activities, as a result, make it possible for different activities can take place in one space. The purpose of the design is that allow different people in different time can create the appropriate contact in one space. Finally, it will form a high level of community on the scale of whole residential area.

85

Space plan for level of community


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Shared building space For the shared space, the design is based on previous spatial analysis of traditional activities, the following activities are the main types can take place simultaneously in this space, such as conversation, play games, exercise. I have tested certain strategies, which was extracted from previous precedent, when I am designing for each space. Firstly, generating a better interaction and communication between people who are joining same activities. And then expand to the surrounding. The sense of community is generated by this space is the second level. Residents start to move to shared space from edge area of the building, the level of community in residential area is increasing as residents using new public space.

The change of route

86


Design plan for shared space

0

5

10

15 87


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Shared building space

4 1

2

3

88

6

5


C

C

7M

Wood

1 Morning exercise

This space is for morning exercise. Using plants to create a traditional quality of space for this activity. Adding wood bench along the boundary, which can supply a sitting area for people to have relax. At the same time , the bench can use for people to have conversation as well.

7M

Section CC 0 1 2 3

Pedestrian route The possibility for contact 89


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Shared building space 2M

12M

2M

D

2 Play area for kid

Buy food

90

Section DD

0 1 2 3

Observation

Watch kid play

Kid play


Blue stone

Soft plastic pavement

This space is designed for kids to play, which is located in the middle part of shared space. This ensures kids can be watched from any corner. In terms of material, soft pavement is the first choice because it can protect children from getting hurt.

D

Sand

Watch kid play

Observation

Buy food

91


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Shared building space

4M

Eâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

E

This space is for chess and card games. The quality of space also can be designed for conversation. Through a intervention design to help people read and use the space in both way.

E

Eâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 4.5M

3

Chess and card game & conversation

Section EE 0 1 2 3

Pedestrian route 92

The possibility for contact


0.75M 0.45M The design of intervention

Section E’E’

0.9M

0 1 2 3 Taking care of the baby

Play and watch chess game

Conversation

Play and watch chess game

Conversation

93


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Shared building space

F

4

F

Outdoor fitness

The possibility for contact Section FF 0 1 2 3 94


4.5M

5

G

17M

G

Table tennis

Pedestrian route Section GG 0 1 2 3

The possibility for contact 95


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Central space (site common)

96

Plan of central space


1

1

2

Merging different activities This design focus on the most central area in residential area. Due to the unique location and based on previous analysis of activities, this space is mainly designed for night exercise and night market, because that these two activities will generate a considerable noise at night. The design needs to ensure the main activities can occur in central space, and them investigate the possibility for combination with other activities. 97


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Central space (site common)

Hâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Hâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

H

H

Intervention design for merging activities

98

In this space, three activities can happened through using the intervention,which makes this space more flexible in different time and for different group of people . The contact between residents will become mulriple.


Section HH 0 1 2 3

Section H’H’ 0 1 2 3

99


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Central space (site common) I designed a music fountain which function during certain time, water and music will become strong attractive point for residents. It can encourage people to use this area at daytime. At night, the space have the appropriate quality to allow market and it can transfer into a plaza for dancing and market. It also can become a skating area during the winter. This design can improve the utilize possibility.

I

I

Design for night exercise

100


Plan for night

101


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Central space (site common)

Space for daily activities - Section I I

102

0

1

2

3


103


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Central space (site common)

Space at afternoon - fountain- Section I I

104

0

1

2

3


105


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Central space (site common)

Space at night dancing - Section I I

106

0

1

2

3


107


Activity merging through spatial opportunities Central space (site common)

Space in winter - Section I I

108

0

1

2

3


109


CONCLUSION


112


Master plan

113


Conclusion Outcome of community across site

Space for morning market

Space for morning exercise

114

Space for conversation


Space for chess and card games

Space for table tennis

Space for kid to play

Space for outdoor fitness

115


Conclusion Outcome of community across site

Space for night market

116

Space for night exercise


Testing in big scale in Beijing

The site without design

Common space for whole site

Shared space for group

117

Implementation in small scale


Conclusion Testing in big scale in Beijing

The district without design

118


Implementation in medium scale

119


Conclusion Testing in big scale in Beijing

The fringe area without design Results are limited when the design implementation on a single residential area, the generated community is only between independent residential areas. However, this design is not just for the contemporary living environment to produce a sense of community, when this design is implemented in a larger scale. As a result, it will produce a new possibility to protect and restore urban traditional elements in the contemporary Beijing. People living in Hu Tong will gradually move into the new living environment, certain contemporary residential area is slowly turn to the â&#x20AC;&#x153;isolated islandâ&#x20AC;? in the city. It is an inevitable situation during the urban development. This project attempt to restore traditional living style and habits in contemporary residential area during the irreversible process of urbanisation. Eventually form the sense of community on this scale throughout the city.v

120


Implementation in big scale

121


Conclusion In this project, I am interested in how people socialize with others and how they react and engage with a space. In China, most contemporary residential areas have lots of public spaces, which are not utilized by residents. This project is about redesign the space between buildings as an activity place. Testing spatial design ideas adapted to the context. The design is for the residents living in a contemporary Chinese community through integrate different traditional activities into residential area. In the process of research, I learned some strategies for design after investigated the hutong and other precedents. First one is about space and activity. Designing space for certain activity can give people stimulation and attraction in order to let people occupy in a same space. Second one is about quality of activity space and community. An activity space with certain degree of enclosure will generate a stronger sense of community among people. In order to design a site specific landscape in Beijing, it is important to understand what do people really need to use a space in contemporary residential area, and how they use and read space for particular activity before start doing the design. I chose nine traditional activities that are the most popular traditional activities for residentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; everyday lives. I designed different quality of spaces for particular activities with some adaptive landscape interventions based on the outcome of research. This purpose of the design is to circulate the value and opportunity through the site in order to improving the environment and generating a sense of community for residents. Generating a sense of community is the outcome I want to achieve through my project, however it cannot be generated immediately. It is a long-term effect of my project. It is cannot be tested without implementation the design in a real site. But the design is offered necessary preparation in order to achieve the outcome, which is the short-term outcome of the design. The design is using intervention and corresponding spatial design to encourage residents start to occupy the space between buildings by doing traditional daily activities. The more they occupy the space the greater community will be generated. This project can improve the living condition and break down the invisible boundary between residents. I hope that through the intent of my project, would give the new possibility to the development of contemporary residential areas. People living in Hu Tong will gradually move into the new living environment, certain contemporary residential area is slowly turn to the â&#x20AC;&#x153;isolated islandâ&#x20AC;? in the city. With this project, the disappearing traditional lifestyle will be maintained in a new area. The fusion of old and new will offer a chance to form the sense of community on this scale throughout the city.

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Bibliography Books

Alexander, Christopher,.1977.A pattern language : towns, buildings, construction Certeau, Michel de.1988.The practice of everyday life Foxley, Alice.2010.Distance & engagement : Walking, thinking and making landscape Gaventa, Sarah.2008.New public spaces Gehl, Jan, .2006.Life between buildings : using public space Jan Gehl ; translated by Jo Koch. Hall,Edward T.1966. The hidden dimension. Jacobs, Jane.1961.The death and life of great american cities. Krauel, Jacobo.2006.Urban spaces : new city parks Krier,Rob. 2002.Urban space. Loidl, Hans-Wolfgang.Opening spaces : design as landscape architecture Lynch, Kevin,.1984.Site planning Madanipour, Ali.2003.Public and private spaces of the city Newman, Oscar.1973. Defensible space. Richard L.Austin,Thomas,The Yearbook of landscape architecture : private spaces in the landscape Richardson, Phyllis.2009. XS extreme : big ideas, small buildings Whyte, William H.1980. The social life of small urban spaces.

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Website http://www.archdaily.com/286223/superkilen-topotek-1-big-architects-superflex/ http://aspect.net.au/?p=200 http://www.asla.org/awards/2006/studentawards/302.html http://bsaspace.org/exhibitions/reprogramming-the-city/ http://www.lafoundation.org/research/landscape-performance-series/case-studies/case-study/391/ photos/additional-3151/ http://lifebetweenbuildings.tumblr.com http://www.marthaschwartz.com/projects/civic_institutional_coventry.php# http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/?p=12320 president/Street%20Vending%20%7C%20China%20%7C%20LAN.webarchive http://wenku.baidu.com/view/575ee4f2f61fb7360b4c65a4.html

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Mengwei Yu DRC 2013