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⍈⊹

Ꮡ♉ᛂ᧎ 虃䋶䏖䛀␘➘⊏㕟K虇峈㳳溃岬虄 !‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


2

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

⍈⊹ ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 㞾 凥 伢 ᾼ 䠓 䲻 ‛ ┆ 㢇虇咀 㜖 㢇 ▜ Exodus 䀟 卹 㑘 ᾐ 㜖虇㞾 ⾛ 卧 㜖 ┆ ▜ exodos aigyptou虃ҽ ⎉ ⥒ ╙ Ὶ 彾 Ҿ虄䠓 侽 ⵺Ҹ㳳 ▜ℎ崏冔凩䊵㝋㢇┆欥ⓐ⡪䱯虇│⁴吁⎦⁉桱朚⥒╙䠓㛔‚Ҹ 㳳㢇檧ᾚᾘⓐ⋼䱯宧慿⁴吁⎦⁉⏜ㄏ嬎ῒῚ㝔䮚虇᾵ᾙ⾬■⁥ ↠⛮䫉⫠亓╙⌅㨬㳍虇仟ⷍ㕞慿㢒⿤䠓亿⏖╙⌅ら憯Ҹ⾛₾ℕ ┆ ▜ ⏖ ℬ ㄹ ╳ ⁲ 朒 丂 䐈 ⁉ 虃 Semitic虇 ㎥ 䯀 朒 㝞 ⁉ 虄 䠓 兡 ㋲ 虇 ⁴ 朚 䱯 䠓 榼 」 ↚ ⳦ 䉉 ⃫ ♐ ☌ ▜ 虖 ⷀ 㳳 㢇 军 宏 虇 │ 䉉 wдllê šmôt 虃ҽ ⁥ ↠ 䠓 ▜ ⳦ 㞾 Ҿ虄虇憩 ⿇ 侽 䛴 䉉 šmôt虇㊞ │Ӂ ▜ ⳦ ӂҸ㳳 ┆ ▜ 㒖 䠓 㞾 桔 ▓ 䣍 ⳟ 䠓Ӂ ▜ ⳦ ӂ虇 ⁥ ↠ 䠓 ㄛ 婣 䜅 㟑 ⢷ ⥒ ╙ 虇 䛀 㳳 㐙 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 厖 凥 伢 ᾼ 䠓 ⏜ ᾏ ┆ 㢇 ͑͑ ␄ ᾥ 宧 ͑͑ 憲 俺 弆 ℕ虖␄ ᾥ 宧 仟 㣮㟑虇⏪⬌宧悘桔▓厖䣍ⳟᾚ⥒╙䠓㛔‚Ҹ憨↚憲俺虇姷㞝⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 㞾 㜃 ↚ Ӂ ⬴ 㑘 ӂ虃 Torah虄 ㎥ ‣ 伢 虃 Pentateuch虄 㜖 ⴇ ✽ ⋒ 䠓ᾏ扷⎕Ҹ 㙩 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 ㏏ 悘虇ᾏ 儳 䠍 ⭢ ⢷ ⥒ ╙ ╦ ⩢ 慺虇ㄛ ℕ 憒 ― ⎉ ℕ 虇 伢懝㡯捝䠓㝔䮚虇ℕ⎿ᾏ〶⸀ᾚҸ⢷憨婰虇ᾙ⾬憞懝㗸嬎■⁥ ↠榡⾒䫍儳㒖イ☛㶠㝞凥⩖䠓亿⏖虇军䠍⭢΅㒘ᾙ⾬䠓▸☟ⴛ ㎟―凥⩖䠓ら憯Ҹ㛔‚ᾏ朚⭚⋗㛧慿⁴吁⎦⁉娺慺㢜ℜᾏ↚⁉ 朢伀㹊冔虇⎿仟ⷍ⏖宧慿⁥↠㮑㊞㢜ℜᾏ⃜厂⶙䠓凥▪Ҹ欥扷 ⎕䠓㛧‚虇宧悘⁴吁⎦⁉⢷⥒╙ⵓⷔ☛桱朚䠓伢懝虇憨㵄‚忮 ▛㮲╜嬕⎉䖍㝋⾛₾ℕ凥伢䠓⌅檧䵖䱯虇⒔㑻寸䵖ҷ⋗䥴榟宏 ☛㛧‚㜖Ҹ▛㮲捜嬐䠓㞾虇憨㵄㛧‚䉉⎉⥒╙宧䲻‛扷⎕㢘杫 ⫠亓☛㢒⿤䠓㕞⵺⫯⴩⦉䪝Ҹ厖㳳▛㟑虇ⴒ΅㐙Ὴ嬐䠓⁴吁⎦ 䫼䫏䬽⊏夜⋴⎉⥒╙䠓㛔‚ᾼҸ朆῔⁴ℕ虇憨㵄㛧‚㎟―㟽儔 ⪶䣍☛ⴇ姢䛛杫㹷䠓䊵灭虇䐈⎴㞾杫῝ⴒ䠓㴆▁䢮⵵ㆶ 虃 historicity虄 䠓 ⛞ 槛 Ҹ !‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


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I.

3

⎉⥒╙宧ҷ⎉⥒╙厖懝╊ ‛ҷᾘⓐ〃⏜虇⪶⪩㜇凥伢ⴇ冔抌㢒ᾜ␯㐈⎳⢿㔴╦⎉⥒

╙宧䠓㛔‚⾒⷏虇⇖⴩⁴吁⎦⁉╦⩢慺ҷㄦ㑾㛠ҷ⢷㡯捝䠓㝔 䮚虇⁴╙ᾙ⾬⢷嬎ῒ槾䖍᾵榡⾒⫠亓虇抌㞾㴆▁‚⵵Ҹ⁉↠䢇 ⅰ虇⎉⥒╙䠓㛔‚伢⁴吁⎦⁉䠓ᾜ▛㝞儳㻐≂ᾚℕ虇ヱ㎟↚⎴ 䠓㛧‚㎥┮⭚幖㜨虇㋱㋱仓▗㎟㎠↠⁙⪸㏏嬚⎿⎉⥒╙宧䠓Ὴ 㛧‚虖厂㝋⎉⥒╙☛嬎ῒ㛧‚ㄛ㢘杫㢒⿤䠓䵖䱯虇ㄗ╾劌㞾⎉ 卹䫼▇儳汣䠓㏚䳕Ҹ䋅军虇ⴇ冔⶜㝋ᾙ慿⪶扷⎕⁴厂⋷扷‚₅ 䠓䢮䩉ㆶ虇ㄭ㢹㕟⎉懝⡃㧋䠓幹䜠Ҹ│ℎ⢷ᾙᾥ亏ᾒⓐ☛⋺ⓐ 〃⁲虇桥䋅⪶⪩㜇ⴇ冔⾁ᾜ⌜嬥␄ᾥ宧⎦䫥䠓㛧‚䉉⋻⋒⏜‛ ⓒ亏㝸㢮䠓䚮㻊宧撓虇⃕㞾虇㐙⎉⥒╙‚₅宼⴩䉉䠋䚮㝋棡搔 ⟷ 㟩 㢮 虇 │ ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ 1500 厂 2000 〃 Ὶ 朢 虇 憨 ↚ 䢚 㹤 ⢷ ⴇ 姢 䛛 ⁜ 䔁ㄦᾜⶠ⁉䠓㔴亜Ҹⴇ冔懚䚷ᾏ去㏏䯀䠓㴆▁无⎴ 虃 historical-critical虄 ㎥ 㴆 㟑 ㆶ 虃 diachronic虄 懁 彾 虇 捜 㭚 伢 㜖 剛 ㄛ䠓㴆▁ҷ䫍㢒☛⴦㛨⵵㹐虇⾛㢪坘㳳―孲凥伢㟑⁲㏏䠋䚮䠓 ‚㉔Ҹ ᾜ懝虇憨㮲䠓䢚㹤⾁朚⭚⑤㖥Ҹᾏ䢃⁴ℕ虇ⴇ冔╹䜅⎉⥒ ╙宧䉉桕▗―▓䮽┮⭚幖㜨䠓㬑䛴宧悘虇⡯军ㆌ䛴⌅㜃汣Ὴ 槛Ҹ憨䮽厙䠓捚伢㝈㹤虇⾁伢⁳ᾜⶠ⁉㊮⎿⫀㢪Ҹ⡯㳳虇⎿― ᾙ ᾥ 亏 ᾒ ⓐ 〃 ⁲虇凥 伢 䦣 䰅 朚 ⭚ 凩 䊵 㝋 㢏 ㄛ 䠓 ㎟ ♐Ҹ 1 憨 槭 䯀 䉉 㳲 ⌇ 无 ⎴虃 canonical criticism虄䠓 䦣 䰅 㝈 㹤虇᾵ ᾜ ㆌ 䛴 䖍 㢘 伢 㜖 剛ㄛ㏏╾劌⳧⢷䠓媖桫ヱ㎟懝䮚虇⃕㢃テ屎⌅⃫䉉ᾏ扷ⴛ㜃㳲 ⌇䠓捜嬐ㆶ虖㳳⪥虇⢷㔱亱仓㎟㳲⌇䠓↚⎴㵄嗌⶜⌅㜃汣䠓㊞ 儸㟑虇‵ㄏㄏ姷䖍⎉㞝槾䠓䫭ⴇ≍■Ҹ⽽ᾜ⪩⢷▛ᾏ㢮朢虇䜅

1

⁲ 姷 ⃫ 㞾 Brevard S. Childs, The Book of Exodus: A Critical Theological Commentary, OTL (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1974)Ҹ

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


4

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

⁲ 㜖 ⴇ 䦣 䰅 䠓 強 ⑱ ΅ 朚 ⭚ ⶜ 凥 伢 䦣 䰅 䚱 䚮 ㄀ 榎Ҹ 2 厖 㳲 ⌇ 䦣 䰅 ᾏ 㮲虇▓ 䮽 ▓ 㮲 䠓 㜖 ⴇ ⎕ 㤟虃 ℚ處ⅽ 愼 无 ⎴ 㹤Ӊ rhetorical criticismӊ ҷ 㛧 ‚ 汣 无 ⎴ 㹤Ӊ narrative criticismӊ㎥ 㛧 慿 ⴇӉ narratologyӊҷ崏 冔 ⡭ ㍘ 无 ⎴ 㹤 Ӊ reader-response criticism ӊҷ ㊞ 峧 无 ⎴ 㹤 Ӊ ideological criticismӊ虄虇㔰 䚷 䠓 抌 㞾 ⌀ 㟑 ㆶ虃 synchronic虄䠓 䦣 䰅懁彾Ҹ㜖ⴇ䦣䰅嬥伢㜖䉉≂㉔懣㊞䠓⃫♐虇嗦捜䖍⳧䠓㜖㢻 军棭⌅仓㎟扷⎕虖ⴒ㰱嬥伢㜖䠓䖍⳧仟㭚ҷ坬姢㐏⽶☛Ὴ槛Ҹ 䊰履㢘ㅒ㎥䊰㊞虇憨槭䦣䰅懁彾呴棭㝆⴩虇ⷀ㞾≍■⇖宼凥伢 䠓亯㣟㞾埪㭚⎉ℕ䠓虇伢懝⃫冔䠓⒯ㅒ䓷懚虇亿ㅒ佷俣㎟㜖寭 䚮⑤㢘␪䠓尭㵄Ҹ 憨‪⎉䖍㝋‛ⓐᾥ亏㢺䠓㜿䯝䦣䰅㝈㹤虇ㅈ〤㛈崙―≂伀 䚷ℕ㔱䰅⾛₾ℕ凥伢厖懝╊〃⁲䠓杫⅑Ὶ㝈ゞҸ⶜㝋凥伢㏏宧 悘 䠓 ‚ ₅ ☛ ⁉ 䏸 䠓 䢮 䩉 ㆶ虇㢘 ⋸ ↚ ㎹ 䋅 ᾜ ▛ 䠓 䱚 ⧃Ҹ⌅ ᾼ ᾏ 㝈 虇 㢘 㟑 䯀 䉉 ⅽ 㳲 㻍 虃 revisionist虄 ㎥ ⃝ 柟 㻍 虃 minimalist虄虇 ⁥ ↠ 㐙 」῝㏏㢘凥伢㣟㜨䠓⵺⃫〃₌抌⴩㝋㹱㜾㟑㢮虃⋻⋒⏜⋼厂⡪ ᾥ亏虄㎥㢃戁虇ᾣ尜䉉伢㜖⶜㝋㎠↠―孲㝸⏜䠓ᾥ⁲㵺䊰⊈⇋Ҹ 3 㬄䱾䠓ᾏ㻍䚩厂≍■▵⴩⁴吁⎦䠓⳧⢷虇ᾜ尜䉉ⴒ厖㘡㵜凂宧 ☛⎦䔚亏㏏宧慿䠓䔚⢚㢘₊⃤䢇≞Ὶ埤虇㢃ᾜ尜䉉ⴒ厖亓㢇‭ 宧☛⩺⾺宧ᾼ䠓㚾㻍虇㎥憒桱⥒╙ҷ⢷嬎ῒ䱚⢚䠓㶠㝞㢘₊⃤ 杫憲Ҹ㙩⁥↠㏏尹虇凥伢ᾼ䠓Ӂ⁴吁⎦ӂ╹㞾㜖ⴇ㣫㘿䠓⶞尹 ␄⃫虇䛀䚮㻊㝋⋻⋒⏜⋼厂⡪ᾥ亏虇㎥ᾘ厂ᾏᾥ亏䠓䓅⪹⁉䫍 儳埪㭚⎉ℕ虇䡽䠓㞾␄憯ᾏ↚怺⎕尜▛虇⁴戎⋜㝞儳⢷⾬⢚䠓 2

憨 槭 䦣 䰅 ⬑ 桷 ㄛ 㞴 䳜 去 㿶 䖍 虇 ᾏ ↚ 㝸 㢮 ℚ ⳟ 㞾 Robert Alter, The Art of Biblical Narrative (New York: Basic Books, 1980)Ҹ虃 ᾼ 峾處⫶ 䏍 䐈 嗦虇灒 ㊗ 恡 ҷ 峩 㠃 峾 處ҿ 凥 伢 㛧 慿 㜖 䠓 坬 姢 ӀӉ 欨 㾾 處 ⪸ 懢 虇 2005ӊҸ 虄

3

ℚ 處 Thomas L. Thompson, The Mythic Past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel (London: Basic Books, 1999)虖 Giovanni Garbini, Myth and History in the Bible, JSOTS 362 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2003)Ҹ

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


⶝履

5

伀㹊ᾚ懼╦▛⒥Ҹ憨ᾏ㻍䚩厂尜䉉虇⎉⥒╙㢻怺Ӂ᾵㸡㢘₊⃤ ╾ ⅰ 䠓 㴆 ▁ 㧈 㙩 ㎥ ⌅ ⁥ 棭 㴆 ▁ 䠓 孲 捚 ӂҸ 4 㢘‪⃝柟㻍ⴇ冔䠓䩉㔴╦⁴吁⎦⢷旄⟷㟑⁲虃⋻⋒⏜ⓐ‛ 厂⋼ᾥ亏虄⾁伢⳧⢷虇⃕⦔㒐╹劌⪯ㄭ冒╳ⴇ㎥伢⪥㜖䔊ᾼ䔁 ㄦ⌅⳧⢷☛䫍㢒棱帛䠓峘㙩Ҹ⁥↠尜䉉虇╹㢘戲‪厖⇖㊂ᾼ䠓 䔚⢚╙䔚⢚Ὶ⏜䠓凾䡮㚾㻍▛㟑⁲䠓㜖⳦宧撓㎥⌅⁥戉䏸虇㏜ 彂⁴峘㞝⁴吁⎦⋗㝋娺㙓Ὶ⏜䠓懝╊虖⢷憨㝈棱虇凥伢㢻怺㞾 㻍ᾜᾙ䚷⧃䠓Ҹ╾㞾虇⶜凥伢㣟㜨䠓⊈⇋⳧䜠䠓ⴇ冔虇⢷⁥↠ 䠓嗦⃫ᾼ俌㞾≍■寕㵏㎥尳䚷冒╳ⴇ䠓䠋䖍虇⡯㳳⁥↠‵䊰㹤 䉉⁴吁⎦娺㙓⏜䠓懝╊㐍⎿凥伢⁴⪥䠓峘㙩Ҹ5 厖 憨 䮽 埪 䊰 㻍 䢚 㹤 䢇 ╜虇汧 柟 㻍虃 maximalist虄䠓 孏 灭 尜 䉉虇 凥伢ⷀ⁴吁⎦㴆▁㏏⃫䠓⦉㢻㕞慿虇⪶厃ᾙ㞾╾棯䠓Ҹ岆⏉䠓 㞾虇㒐憨槭䱚⧃䠓ⴇ冔▛㮲↮␸冒╳ⴇ☛╳⁲慠㤀㜖䔊㏏㕟K 䠓幖㜨Ҹᾜ懝虇⁥↠␪⢥⎸䚷憨‪冒╳㒥㔧☛䦣䰅䠓㎟㤫虇⁴ ╙⎉⢮戉嗦虇ℕ⿺␸孲捚䚩厂Ӂ峘㞝ӂ凥伢伢㜖䠓宧悘虖㳲⬑ 䖍⁲冒╳ⴇ☛慠㤀䦣䰅⢷ⓐῬᾥ亏䠋ⷤ⎬㢮㏏嬐懣⎿䠓䡽䠓ᾏ 㮲Ҹ 6 憨 ‪ 䦣 䰅 懁 彾 䢇 䜅 捜 嬥 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 ㏏ 㕟 ⎉ 䠓 Ὴ ツ虇➦ 寵 ㄭ 」 㝈棱埤䖕㢇ᾼ䠓㛧‚Ҹⴇ冔寵⢥峘㞝虇⥒╙⁉懼╦捜⪶䈌桲㎥ 㼆㷃⎕朚虇抌㢘╾劌⬑㢇┆㏏㕞慿去䠋䚮虖⁥↠␹␪䉉㗸嬎⎉ 䚮☛⁴吁⎦⁉憒桱⥒╙无⴩䀥䩉䠓〃₌虇╗➦寵憌⶚⎉⥒╙䠓 彾佩☛䩉䱚嬎ῒ⸀䠓⃜僽Ҹ

4

Philip R. Davies, In Search of ‘Ancient Israel’, JSOTS 148 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1992), 119.

5

憨 履 灭 㞾 䛀 冒 ╳ ⴇ 冔 ㅆ ウ 虃 William G. Dever虄 㕟 ⎉ 䠓 虇 嬚 ⁥ 䠓 㜖 䱯 處 “Histories and Nonhistories of Ancient Israel,” BASOR 316 (1999): 89-105Ҹ

6

ℚ 處 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003)Ҹ

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


6

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

ⅽ㳲㻍╹⃣䢇⶜ⶠ㜇虇悒⪩㜇ⴇ冔Ὴツ凥伢㏏悘幖㜨呴棭 ⴛ⋷䢮䩉虇΅㞾⪶汣ᾙ䢮䩉虖军Ὴ㻐ⴇ冔虇⏖埤㝋ᾙ慿⋸㻍Ὶ 朢 䠓 ⃜ 僽Ҹ 7 ⁥ ↠ ╜ ⶜ ⃝ 柟 㻍 虈 汧 柟 㻍 ‛ ⋒ ⎕ ⒥ 䠓 䱚 ⧃Ҹ⪶ ⪩ 㜇 凥伢ⴇ冔⢷弔懝ᾏ↚ᾥ亏⁴ℕ虇尜峧⎿凥伢㛧‚ᾜ劌娺孲崏䉉 䶰✽䠓㴆▁Ҹ⁥↠➦寵―孲虇伢㜖㛧‚厖凥伢㏏宧悘䠓懝╊㟑 ⁲䠓⁉槭䚮㻊⵵㹐虇䰅䱮㢘⃤杫⅑Ҹ⁥↠䠋䖍虇⶜㝋凥伢㛔‚ ⁉⁉抌㢘ᾜ▛䢚㹤虇㵞↚⁉俌㢒㒘嗦↚⁉厗弲ҷ亯檙☛ᾥ䛛孏 ℕ杀崏凥伢Ҹ ᾜ懝虇㎠↠⋗⡭尹ⅽ㳲㻍Ҹ⁥↠ㅈ〤▵⴩凥伢⶜⁴吁⎦弆 䀟☛㶠㝞怺⎕䠓宧悘虇憨↚孏灭䩉⵵⁳⁉⡿㚍Ҹ⃕╵ᾏ㝈棱虇 ⁥ ↠ ⦔ 㸉 尜 䉉 凥 伢 ᾵ ᾜ ⒔ ► 㴆 ▁ ͑͑ 军 ᾣ虇ㄭ 凥 伢 ᾼ 㷇 懯 ᾜ 㢒 㐍 ⎿ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ ㎥ ₊ ⃤ 㶠 㝞 䠓 Ӂ 㴆 ▁ ӂ虇 8 憨 榔 Ὴ ツ ┊ ⅒ ℎ Ὴ 㻐 ⴇ 冔 捜 㜿寤₿⌅㢻怺䠓孏灭處㴆▁㞾䚩灋虚ⴒ厖凥伢㣟㜨㢘⃤杫⅑虚 ⷀ㴆▁㘿嗦憨₅⽴⃫军⃫⎉䠓ㄛ䖍⁲㐈⎳虇⶜㝋懚䚷┮⭚㜖⳦ 幖㜨捜㭚懝╊䠓≂伀㝈㹤虇㕟⎉―幹䜠Ҹ㎠↠憨‪Ӂᾼ朢㻍ӂ 䠋䖍虇嬐尜峧⢷⁙ᾥ⁲Ӂ䢮㳲ӂ䠋䚮⃤‚ㄏㄏ΅ㄗ⡿桲虇䚩厂 㸡 ╾ 劌 ⇩ ⎿虇 㝋 㞾 ㎠ ↠ 㛍 㩓 ― ⁉ 劌 ⪯ 䠋 㔧 」 ⓒ 〃 ⏜Ӂ 䢮 㳲 䠋 䚮 ӂ ⃤‚䠓䢚㹤Ҹ㎠↠⶜㥟↚㟑⁲䠓㴆▁佷們冔虇⬑⃤╦怺埤䠓ᾥ 䛛㄀榎军⧠憯⁥↠⶜懝╊䠓䢚㹤虇╜↡㞾㛞摂ㄦ⪩Ҹ军ᾣ虇㎠ ↠㢏ㄛ΅憟䃇㛍㩓―╦㳟㻁㴆▁䢇⶜履圿栅䠓ㆬ㊂㮰ゞ虇│ᾜ ⌜ 㐙 ㏏ 㢘 ┮ ⭚ 㜖 ⳦ 幖 㜨 ⎕ 槭 䉉 㴆 ▁ҷ⡯ 㳳 㞾 䢮 ⵵ 䠓虇㎥ 棭 㴆 ▁ ҷ

7

John R. Bartlett, “Between Scylla and Charybdis: The Problem of Israelite Historiography,” in Biblical and Near Eastern Essays: Studies in Honour of Kevin J. Cathcart, ed. Carmel McCarthy and John F. Healey, JSOTS 375 (London: T&T Clark International, 2004), 180-94.

8

憨 䮽 ㊞ 嬚 㛲 嬚 㝋 ⪩ 䵖 履 㜖 虇 㛅 佷 㝋 Lester L. Grabbe, ed., Can a “History of Israel” Be Written? JSOT 245; European Seminar in Historical Methodology 1 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997)Ҹ

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


⶝履

7

⡯㳳㞾埪㭚䠓Ҹ9 ℕ 䀟 无 ⎴ ⴇ 虃 source criticism 虄 ☛ 佷 ⅽ 无 ⎴ ⴇ 虃 redaction criticism虄 抌 寵 ⢥ 㔱 䰅 ‣ 伢 䠓 仓 ㎟ 扷 ⎕ 虇 ╙ ⌅ 佷 悾 厖 桕 仟 䠓 懝 䮚Ҹ伢懝⪩〃䠓䦣䰅虇仟㤫䩉⵵槾㞝虇⾛₾ℕ凥伢令棭。摹䢃 慿⢿宧悘⁴吁⎦懝╊䠓▁⵵Ҹ尜峧⎿ら㭚㴆▁㏏䐌㼘䠓㉔㹐虇 ㎠↠ⷀ劌㞝䠌虇厂ⶠⷀ⎉⥒╙宧军宏虇㐙ⴒ䠓仓㎟㣟㜨䜅⃫㴆 ▁佷們㞾ᾜㇿ䜅䠓Ҹ│㞾尹虇⎉⥒╙宧䠓⃫冔☛佷ⅽ冔⢷㘿⵺ 懝╊䠓‚₅☛⁉䏸㟑虇᾵㸡㢘⶜┮⭚㣟㜨␯⁴⡃㧋无⎴虇㎥嬐 㷑懚䚷╾棯䠓㣟㜨Ҹ㜖ⴇ⎕㤟䠓仟㤫䠋䖍虇⎉⥒╙宧㞾ᾏ扷仓 俣亿ⵕҷ㏚㹤乍⽶䠓⃫♐虇ⴒ㢻怺㏏⌆∨䠓㨬䖕☛嬞␒虇厖䖍 ⁲㴆▁㘿嗦䠓杫㹷捜灭㸡㢘杫⅑Ҹⴒ㔰䚷慓⁙⾁䊰ㄭ憌䀾䠓≂ 伀☛㣟㜨虇仟▗≂⫖㛔‚ҷ㶠朢≂尹ҷ㰣㧗幖㜨ҷら⏅宧撓ҷ 㹤ㄚ㜖䔊䳘▓䮽亯㣟虇䡽䠓ᾜ㞾䉉Ⅼ⳧㢘杫懝╊䠓宧撓虇军㞾 槾 㞝 ᾙ ⾬ ⶜ ᾏ ↚ 㶠 㝞 ͑͑ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ 䠓 宗 ␒ ☛ ⃫ 䉉虇䐈 ⎴ 㞾 ╜ 㞯 ― 娺 㙓⏜凥伢㢇┆⎬䯎佷㎟㟑㢮䠓㶲↨虇⪶㬑㞾⢷⋻⋒⏜⋼ᾥ亏⢚ ⵅ棱卷嬕‰┓懚䠓㟑⁲Ҹ≞㜃扷凥伢戲㮲虇⎉⥒╙宧䠓Ὴ㝷㞾 䉉―㛨⶝虇ᾜ㞾䉉―宧撓Ҹⴒ΅寀䢚⃋ᾏ扷㴆▁㢇虇军㳲㞾ⴒ 帛⃋㴆▁䠓⪥孏虇イ弆⁉↠⶜㢇ᾼ〃⁲䠓寀⪩㥴䰅虖ᾜ懝虇䖍 ⢷呴⌜⁴㳳㝈ゞ䢚ㄔ⎉⥒╙宧虇⾁䊰䚩␸䡙Ҹ 戲灋虇㎠↠封⬑⃤䖕孲憨扷⃫♐䠓㢻幹☛⵺⃫䡽䠓虚⢷‛ ⓐᾏᾥ亏Ὶ⎬虇㎠↠㵣⁴ㄏ㢃㮑㝋ㄹ⌅⁥㝈ゞ╊䖕孲ⴒ䠓㎟㢇 懝䮚虇⁴╙ⴒ厖⵵㟑懁䮚☛‚₅䠓杫⅑Ҹᾜ懝虇⢷㎠↠⁴憨槭 㜿孏灭㰱嬥⎉⥒╙䠓≂伀Ὶ⏜虇㎠↠ㅔ榗⋗捜䀺≂伀䠓㴆▁无 ⎴ 㹤 ͑͑ 㧈 㙩 憨 ↚ 䦣 䰅 懁 彾虇⎉ ⥒ ╙ 䠓 剛 㟾 无 ⴩ 䉉 ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ ‛ ⓒ 亏 㢺䠓⥒╙☛嬎ῒҸ憨㮲⇩虇┮⡯㢘‛Ҹ䲻ᾏ虇㎠↠嬐㒖⎉虇䉉 䚩灋⎉⥒╙☛嬎ῒ㛧‚䠓⌆汣幖㜨ᾜⷻ㝋╾毦峘䠓㴆▁䠓䵓

9

Hans Barstad, “History and the Hebrew Bible,” in ibid., 39-53.

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


8

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

䜖Ҹ䲻‛虇㎠↠嬐㒖⎉虇⎉⥒╙㛧‚䠓並䛴⒍䛺虇΅㢘╾劌╜ 㞯懝╊䠓棱帛虖嬐捜㜿䠋䖍懝╊虇㎠↠╾↮␸⾛₾ℕ凥伢⁴⪥ 䠓䲻ᾏ㏚幖㜨Ҹ冒╳ⴇ虇⁴ⴒ㢏⵻ひ䠓►儸ℕ尹虇憨↚䚷⁴䠋 㔧㏚⽴☛㜖⳦戉䏸䠓㝈㹤虇ⷀ㞾憨榔㔱亱㏏ℎ䚷䠓⽴⌆Ҹ憨‪ 戉䏸䉉伢㜖⃋嬐㕞慿䠓㟑㢮虇㕟K―䓷䱚䠓┮⭚幖㜨Ҹ 冒╳ⴇ⶜㝋㎠↠䩉䱚凥伢宧悘ҷ冒╳戉⣏䠋䖍虇⁴╙凥伢 ᾥ 䛛 Ὶ 㜖 䔊 䠓 Ⓘ ▗ 灭 虇 㢘 㬄 捜 嬐 䠓 ⊈ ⇋ Ҹ 10 欻 ⷋ ⁥ 䨠 㜖 虃 Merneptah Stela虄虇 ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ ⓐ ᾘ ᾥ 亏 㢺 䠓 ⥒ ╙ 䦂 䨠 虇 ᾙ 棱 䠓 ⳦ ⏊ 㞾 㢏 㝸 㕟 ⎿ ╳ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ 䠓 凥 伢 ⁴ ⪥ 峘 㙩虖11 ㄭ 欻 ⷋ ⁥ 䨠 㜖 朚 ⭚ 虇 冒╳ⴇⵅ䢇個䠋㔧⎿▓䮽⎉⢮㜖䏸ҷᾜ▛䠓冒╳㜖⒥ⷳ☛䨠⏊ 戉䏸虇憨‪䠋䖍抌厖⢷㍘寀Ὶ⢿䠓⁴吁⎦憲ᾙ杫⅑Ҹ䋅军虇⶜ 㝋㔱䰅悒㝸⏜䠓〃⁲虇│㎠↠⇖⴩⁴吁⎦⁉桱朚⥒╙ҷ廿伢嬎 ῒⓙ⺅䠓〃⁲虇冒╳ⴇ䠓⃫䚷㬄Ὶ㢘柟Ҹ伢懝ᾏ↚ᾥ亏⁴ᾙ䠓 䦣䰅虇」⁲冒╳ⴇⵅ☛⥒╙ⴇⵅ呀幊⪶捞ㅒ姏虇⁜㸡㢘䠋㔧⎿ 厖⎉⥒╙宧ᾼ䠓⁴吁⎦⁉⢷⥒╙ⵓⷔҷ憒廿☛嬎ῒ⪶嬞㮰戆ㄨ 䢇 杫 䠓 峘 㙩 Ҹ 12 嬐尹㞝冒╳ⴇ㸡劌峘⵵⎉⥒╙宧㛧‚虇╹榗厘」↚ℚⳟⷀ 彂⪯Ҹ欥⋗虇冒╳ⴇ冔ㄭ㸡㢘⢷⥒╙䠋㔧⎿₊⃤㜖㢻㕟╙㗸嬎 ☛‭↺虇㎥㞾⁥↠厖䜅⢿㛎㹊☛⴦㛨榧娥䠓沴䎼虇㎥㞾㢘⪶捞 娺慺⇩呵⽴厗ら⢚ⵅ⽴䮚䠓‭㻁⁉桱朚⥒╙ᾏ‚Ҹ⌅㲰虇桥䋅 ᾏ↚⪩ᾥ亏⁴ℕ虇冒╳ⴇ冔⶜嬎ῒⓙ⺅㔴慠⋼喻。㝈⋻捛䠓棱 10

嬚 William G. Dever, What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us about the Reality of Ancient Israel (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001)Ҹ

11

Michael G. Hasel, “Israel in the Merneptah Stela,” BASOR 296 (1994): 45-61.

12

James Weinstein, “Exodus and Archaeological Reality,” in Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence, ed. Ernest S. Frerichs and Leonard H. Lesko (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1997), 87.

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


⶝履

9

䯜⇩懝ひ㹪䠓屎㥴☛㒥㔧虇⃕⭚仑㐍ᾜ⎿㢘ᾏ⪶儳⁉ㄭ⥒╙ᾘ 孡 㻁 㤀 扷 戆 䮊 厂 灝 ⍰ 䐈虃 Levant虇⢿ ᾼ 㼆 㤀 扷 㹎 ⹇ ⢿ Ⓩ 虄ⓦ 扷 䠓 彰巰Ҹ‚⵵ᾙ虇桥䋅⢷嬎ῒ⒦扷䠓⢿ᾼ㼆㹎⹇㢘毪䱨㎥⦰⩧䠓 戉彰虇⃕㢻㍘㞾㡯捝㛧‚厭╿䠓嬎ῒᾼ扷☛ⓦ扷⇞懯⢿⿅虇┊ ⋷䊰棡搔⟷㟑⁲ᾼ㢮☛㟩㢮⁉槭䚮㻊䠓彰巰Ҹ军ᾣ虇桥伢懝」 ⁲ⴇ冔䠓␹␪㔱亱虇⃕」῝㏏㢘⎉⥒╙㛧‚ᾼ㕟⎿䠓⢿▜虇⒔ 㑻 㳛 䕙 ⥝ ҷ 㵣 㤀 ☛ 垼 ⧭ ⋸ 〶 䯜 帷 ⥝ ҷ 五 㼆虃 垕 嗵 㼆 虄虇 䚩 厂 嬎 ῒ 㢻 怺 虃 ⴇ 冔 㕟 ⎉ 懝 ⓐ ⋼ ↚ ╾ 劌 䠓 ⃜ 僽 虄虇 抌 㸡 㢘 ㄦ ⎿ 㳲 棱 䠓 无 ⴩�� 13 │ ℎ 㞾 ⶠ 㜇 劌 ⪯ 愷 峧 ⎿ 䠓 ⃜ 僽 ͑͑ ℚ ⬑ ␯ ⃝ 㜾 ⾃ ⷋ ‭虇㧈 㙩㶠㜇宧⪩埤宧悘虇ⴒ㞾嬎ῒ⒦扷㢏⪶䠓伯㻁虇΅㞾⁴吁⎦⁉ 懁 ⋴ 慵 ⓦ ⢿ Ὶ ⏜ 䠓 ᾏ ↚ 捜 嬐 婫 仵 䱨 ͑͑ ΅ 㸡 㢘 ⢷ ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 ᾼ ⎉ 䖍懝虇军ᾣ峘㞝㞾ら憯㝋⋻⋒⏜ⓐᾥ亏虇╗㸡㢘₊⃤戉䏸劌无 ⴩䉉ⷻ㝋ⴇ冔㏏㔷㝆䠓⎉⥒╙〃⁲虃棡搔⟷㟑⁲㟩㢮虇⋻⋒⏜ ⓐ ⡪ 厂 ⓐ ᾘ ᾥ 亏 虄Ҹ 14 ㄭ ⥒ ╙ ☛ 嬎 ῒ ㄦ ⎿ 䠓 冒 ╳ ⴇ 䠋 䖍 虇 ⋷ 扷 㸡 劌⪯㕟K㳲棱䠓峘㙩Ҹ ⢷⁴吁⎦⢿㏏⇩䠓冒╳䦣䰅虇⁴╙⃃Ὶ军ℕ䠓⁴吁⎦弆䀟 䖕履虇΅䊰␸㝋孲㸉⎉⥒╙䠓䜠桲虇䚩厂懸ㄦ⌅╜Ҹ‛ⓐᾥ亏 ⋼ⓐ☛ᾒⓐ〃⁲虇冒╳ⴇⵅ⢷⁴吁⎦汧⢿䠋㔧⎉㜇䠍↚㜿䠓㣠 嗌 戉 ⣏ 虇 无 ⴩ 䉉 ⷻ 旄 ⟷ 㟑 ⁲ ᾏ 㢮虃 ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ ⓐ ‛ 厂 ⓐ ᾏ ᾥ 亏 虄Ҹ ⌅ ⃜僽⪶⪩ᾜ䉉慵ⓦ⁉㏏⃣㙩虇⡯䉉⁥↠Ὴ嬐ⷔ⃞㝋㹎㼆ᾏ⿅☛ 悒 ⵻ 杙 ⸀ 巆 䠓 ⥝ ⾎虇㎥ ㍘ 䯀 䉉 ⥝ 戵虃 city-states虄虖憨 ‪ 㣠 嗌 娺 峧 ⎴䉉⁴吁⎦⁉㏏ⷔῚ⢿虇╗厖⁴吁⎦⃣㙩⌅⢿䠓凥伢≂伀䢇 杫虇΅│ᾏ去㏏无⴩䠓旄⟷㟑⁲ᾏ㢮Ҹ欻ⷋ⁥䨠㜖ᾙ㏏㒖䠓虇 13

John Van Seters, “The Geography of the Exodus,” in The Land that I Will Show You: Essays on the History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East in Honour of J. Maxwell Miller, ed. J. Andrew Dearman and M. Patrick Graham, JSOTS 343 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001), 255-76.

14

Carol Meyers, “Kadesh Barnea: Judah’s Last Outpost,” BA 39 (1976): 148-51.

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


10

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

╾劌㳲㞾憨‪ⷔ㶠Ҹ ⃕憨‪ⷔ㶠䰅䱮㞾䚩灋⁉虚欥⋗虇冒╳ⴇ䠓㒥㔧㢹劌峘⵵ ⎉卹⥒╙䠓㝞儳⃣榧慵ⓦ⢿䠓凥伢㛔‚Ҹ亓㢇‭宧㏏宧悘⁴吁 ⎦⁉⃣㙩䠓ᾘⓐᾏ↚⢿灭ᾼ虇╹㢘ᾏ↚虃₾䐈⎸虄䲵▗㮨䀥虇 劌 厖 凥 伢 㛧 ‚ 憲 ᾙ 杫 ⅑Ҹ15 ⪶ 嬞 㮰 䠓 ⋴ ⅄ 姛 ⑤虇㸡 㢘 䔁 ㄦ 冒 ╳ ⴇ 峘㙩㚾㒐Ҹ柳㳳Ὶ⪥虇憨‪㜿䠋䖍䠓凩ⷔ⢿䠓䏸幹㜖⒥槾䫉虇 ⌅ ⷔ 㶠 㹎 嬁 ― 䜅 ⢿ 慵 ⓦ ┮ ⃞ 㶠 ⪶ 扷 ⎕ 䠓 䏸 幹 㜖 ⒥Ҹ16 㢃 ᾣ虇ㄛ 样 㟑㢮搧㜖ᾙ䠓尭宏虇䜅䋅戓㢘⾛₾ℕ凥伢䠓尭宏虇΅抌厖慵ⓦ ⁉䠓尭宏余ⵕ䢇杫Ҹ 寀⪩冒╳ⴇⵅ☛凥伢ⴇ冔⡯军㐙㜿凩ⷔ⢿䠓ⷔ㶠无⎴䉉慵 ⓦ⁉虇⁥↠桱朚⥝⾎ᾼㅒ虇ㄏ⸀⢿朚東㜿⢿㝈Ҹ憨‪⁉╲䠓戆 䮊虇⃋῝刖⡯㝋⋻⋒⏜ⓐᾘᾥ亏䫍㢒䠓㬄〵⑤䡹虇⡯䉉棡搔⟷ 㟑⁲㟩㢮⥝⾎㜖⒥⺸嗌虇⥒╙⾬⢚⶜灝⍰䐈䠓㔶⏅⾁◙䙵孲虇 㳳⪥戓㢘ひ㹪䠓‍㞀ҷ櫠員ҷ䜺䝔䳘㄀榎⡯亯Ҹ⁥↠厖▛╦䫍 㢒⑤䡹㄀榎䠓㹎㼆☛⒦扷ⷔ㶠虇΅寀戓⒔㑻ᾏ‪㤀扷䠓䏶㶠虇 凾▗㎟䉉ㄛℕ㏏䯀䠓⁴吁⎦⁉Ҹ汧⢿㣠嗌悒䉉ⳳ䱚ҷ栣令虇䉉 㜿 䠓 㶠 㝞 怺 ⎕ ␄ 憯 ― 㢘 ⎸ 䠓 䘿 ⨒ 虇 ヱ ㎟ ᾏ 䮽 ⶙ 桔 ⽜ 虃 Yahweh虄 䉉 䫭 䠓 ㆬ ㊂ 汣 亊 Ҹ 17 憨⫦⇖尹⪶⪶㛈叾―慁㶠弆儸䠓䖕履㮰⤚虇ⴒ榦⌆尹㢜 ␪虇΅ 䔁 ㄦ ひ 㹪 㔴 亜Ҹ慁 㶠 弆 儸 Ὶ 尹 㝋 ‛ ⓐ ᾥ 亏 ⋼ ⓐ 〃 ⁲ ⎉ 䖍 虇 ╥ ⁲ ― 䜅 㟑 䚷 ⁴ 䖕 孲 ⁴ 吁 ⎦ 弆 䀟 䠓 ⋸ ⪶ 䖕 履 ͑͑ 㛊 ⃣ 㮰 ⤚ ╙ ☛ 15

Lawrence E. Stager, “Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel,” in The Oxford History of the Biblical World, ed. Michael D. Coogan (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 131-34 and Table 3.1.

16

Elizabeth Bloch-Smith and Beth Alpert Nakhai, “A Landscape Comes to Life: The Iron Age,” NEA 62 (1999): 62-92, 101-27.

17

Beth Alpert Nakhai, “Israel on the Horizon: The Iron I Settlement of the Galilee,”in The Near East in the Southwest: Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, ed. Beth Alpert Nakhai, AASOR 58, (Boston: ASOR, 2003), 140-42.

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


⶝履

11

。䂁憞㮰⤚Ҹ㜿⇖尹䊰㊞ᾼ憯㎟―ᾏ↚仟㤫虇ⷀ㞾幹䜠凥伢䠓 宧悘處⴩ⷔ㝋慵ⓦ⢿䠓⁉㞾⪥ℕ冔虇⁥↠䠓ᾙᾏ⋸⁲⁉憒桱⥒ ╙䠓⑭ㄈ虇戆䮊⎿㳳Ҹ⬑㤫㜿㣠嗌䩉㞾䛀㻐桱⫀㏏ҷㅒ㎆ᾜ䂎 䠓慵ⓦ⁉䳘㝞儳ら㎟虇戲灋⎉⥒╙䠓宧悘⃋῝╹㞾⁴㏁␖⒥䠓 㛔‚㕞慿⁥↠䠓㜿ⷔ⣏虇᾵ᾣ䉉⁥↠㢏仑╥⁲☛◇亜⁜⃞⢷⥝ ⾎ᾼㅒ☛㎿䛴捜攽䠓慵ⓦ⁉㕟K䖕䛀Ҹ│ℎ⶜憨⇖尹㕟⎉幹䜠 䠓 ⁉ 虇 ΅ ᾵ ᾜ ⴲ 䯀 㜿 ⃞ 㶠 ℕ 卹 ⥒ ╙ Ҹ 18 ⁴䯜㬄懁╥䠓㝈ゞ峘㞝⎉⥒╙㛧‚䠓㴆▁䢮⵵ㆶ虇㬄⌅捞 ╹ 㞾 䢚 ⃋ ╾ ⅰ虖憨 ᾏ 灭虇憲 㔰 ╥ 憨 ‪ 䦣 䰅 懁 彾 䠓 ⁉ ΅ ▛ ㊞Ҹ 19 ᾜ 懝虇䊰履Ⅼⴗ㻍㎥ᾼ朢㻍ⴇ冔抌㢒䱚⏊㒖⎉虇│ℎ僉῞䢃㔴䠓 峘 㙩 ͑͑ ⒔ 㑻 ℕ 卹 慵 ⓦ ⢿虇⁴ ╙ ⥒ ╙ ☛ 嬎 ῒ 䠓 峘 㙩虇΅ ᾜ 姷 䫉 ⎉ ⥒╙☛嬎ῒ⋷㞾埪㭚⎉ℕ䠓Ҹ凥伢ᾼ宧慿䠓ᾏ亊⎦捜⪶‚₅虇 桥䋅ⳤ剁⎉ᾏ↚㢏仑㄀榎ⓒ䠍喻⁉䠓⴦㛨㜖⒥虇⃕⢷ⴒ㢻怺䠓 㟑⁲虇΅≔㞾⢿ᾼ㼆㤀扷㝞儳戆ㄨ㻊⑤䠓ᾏ↚ㄽᾜ彂懢䠓扷⎕ 军⾁虇ᾜ⪶╾劌イ弆䜅㟑弔亩㛎㲙䠓㹷㊞虇΅ᾜ㢒⢷╳⁲亏ㆄ 䨠㎥㡯捝⏜♷䱨䠓戉⣏䛨ᾚ₊⃤㮨宧Ҹ䋅军虇俀ℎ㴆▁䦣䰅㢹 劌峘⵵⎉⥒╙宧⏜㵄㛧‚ᾼ㕟⎿䠓Ὴ嬐‚₅ҷ榧娥☛⪶㐈䠍 ⭢虇⃕㜃汣㛔‚⾒⷏☛寀⪩⎴⌆吁ヸ䠓専亿㕞俹虇抌╾個倛㔴 ╦冒╳ⴇ☛⥒╙╳䏸ⴇ䠓毦峘Ҹ 䲻ᾏ↚桲槛㞾處㎠↠封ㄭ⥒╙㴆▁ᾼ䠓♹ᾏ↚㟑㢮虇ℕ⶚ 㐍厖⎉⥒╙㛧‚䢇杫䠓㣟㜨虚嬐ㄭ凥伢㢻怺䠓〃⁲宧撓ℕ䉉⎉ ⥒ ╙ Ӂ 无 ⴩ 㝴 㢮 ӂ虇 㞾 ㄡ ⑭ 䊰 ␮ 䠓 Ҹ ‚ ⵵ ᾙ 虇 ⴇ 冔 桥 㕟 ⎉ ― 㢘 ␪ 䠓ら峿虇尜䉉㝴㢮╾⴩䉉⋻⋒⏜ⓐ⋼厂ⓐ‛ᾥ亏⎬㢮虇┊㸡㹤

18

Ziony Zevit, The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches (London: Continuum, 2001), 84-121.

19

James K. Hoffmeier, Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


12

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

懣 ⎿ ⌀ 峧 ㎥ 㕟 ⎉ 孲 㸉 桲 槛 䠓 㝈 㧗Ҹ20 ⃕ 㞾虇⬑ 㤫 ㎠ ↠ ᾜ ⦔ 㒐 䉉 凥 伢 ᾼ 䠓 並 䛴 幖 㜨 虇 ℚ ⬑ ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 ⓐ ‛ 䱯 40 厂 41 䵏 ☛ ⎦ 䔚 亏 ᾙ ⋼䱯 1 䵏䠓㜇⳦⴩⎉䩉⵵䠓〃₌虇戲灋ⴇ冔㕟⎉䠓〃₌䵓⢜虇 ㍘彂⁴䉉㎠↠䠓㔱宝㕟K⋔⎕䠓㧕㥅Ҹ㕪宏Ὶ虇㎠↠╾⁴ㄭ棡 搔⟷㟑⁲㟩㢮䠓⥒╙☛嬎ῒ虇│⥒╙䲻ⓐ⋺☛ⓐῬ䔚㢬嗦㏚虇 ⶚㐍厖⎉⥒╙㛧‚㢘杫䠓䘿⨒峘㙩Ҹ䠓䩉虇厖⎉⥒╙㛧‚䠓ᾘ ↚ Ὴ 嬐 仓 ㎟ 扷 ⎕ ͑͑ 棭 ⥒ ╙ ⁉ ㄭ 嬎 ‭ 戆 厂 ⥒ ╙ҷⵓ ⷔҷ桱 朚 ͑͑ ⪶ 厃 。 姛 ㎥ 槭 慠 䠓 㴆 ▁ 虇 ΅ ㉮ 䓷 ⎉ 䖍 ⢷ 憨 ᾏ 㵄 䠓 ⥒ ╙ 㟑 㢮 Ҹ 21 ㄭ⡪ⓒ亏⁴ㄛ䠓㜃㵄⥒╙㴆▁ᾼ虇」῝抌㢘⪶捞幖㜨槾䫉 ‭㻁⁉朢㳖ㆶ戆ㄏ⥒╙Ҹ䋅军虇⢷⋻⋒⏜‛ⓒ亏ᾚⓙ嗘虇䜅⥒ ╙⢷㛧⎸‭虈⾃②㜾⣵⢿䯀棇虇⪶捞⁉╲ㄭ嬎‭䮊ⷔ⥒╙Ҹ寀 ⪩⁉㞾⢷⥒╙槊俐ㄐ₟灝⍰䐈ⓦ扷㎥㢃懯⢿Ⓩ㟑娺Ⅷ埫虇⿅╊ ⥒╙⇩⬃桇Ҹℚ⬑虇⋻⋒⏜ⓐ‣ᾥ亏㢺⥒╙⢷㛧⎸‭虈⾃②㜾 ⣵ ⢿ 䠓 ᾏ 㲰 懯 ㄐ虇埫 䔁 ⁉ ╲ 㢘Ӂ ㎿ 恙 ㏚ 550 ▜虖⌅ ⭊ ⳟ 240 ▜ 虖 慵 ⓦ ⁉ 640 ▜虖欥 榧 䠓 ⋡ ⳟ 232 ▜虖欥 榧 䠓 ⬂ ⋡ 323 ▜虖⭍ 270 ▜ ӂ虇 ⁴ ╙ ⪶ 捞 ㎿ ⎸ ♐ Ҹ 22 ╵ ᾏ 㲰 ㄐ ₟ ‭ 㻁 䠓 恜 ‚ 姛 ⑤ 虇 埫 䔁 ⁉ ╲ 㢃 懣 ⪸ 㜖 㜇 ⳦虇䚩 厂 㢘 ╾ 劌 娺 尖 ⪶處 Ӂ ♗ 䠽 泾 ⁉虃 Apiru虄33,600 ▜虇㻊 䠓 㸨 垖 ⁉虃 Shasu虇㸨 䂯 ⃞ 㶠 虄15,200 ▜虇㛧 ⎸ ‭ ⁉ 36,000 ▜ ʫʫӉ ⁴ ╙ ⌅ ⁥ ⁉ ӊ俌 㜇 䉉 89,600 ▜ ӂҸ 23 Ӂ ♗ 䠽 泾 ӂ⪶ 㬑 㞾 姷䫉䫍㢒怺⎕虇军棭㶠㝞怺⎕虇㢘‪⁉尜䉉憨↚寭厖凥伢ᾼ䠓

20

John H. Walton, “Exodus, Date of,” DOTP, 258-72.

21

⢷ ⥒ ╙ 䠋 䖍 厖 憨 ᾘ 㵄 㛧 ‚ 䢇 杫 䠓 幖 㜨 虇 㛅 撓 㝋 Carol Redmount, “Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt,” in The Oxford History of the Biblical World, ed. Michael D. Coogan (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 98-103Ҹ

22

“The Memphis and Karnak Stelae of Amenhotep II,” trans. James K. Hoffmeier (COS 2.3), 21.

23

Ibid., 22Ҹ ⃕ 㜖 䔊 ᾼ 䠓 㜇 ⳦ 䴦 撾 ― 虇 ⵵ 株 俌 㜇 ㍘ 䉉 101,128蘼

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


⶝履

13

⾛ ₾ ℕ ⁉ 䢇 杫 Ҹ 24 ⢷㳳㢮朢虇΅㢘⥒╙䠓染ぇ⢚㐙⌅⁥‭㻁⁉䜅⃫帱♐憐⎿ ⥒╙╊Ҹᾏⶐ⋻⋒⏜ⓐ⡪ᾥ亏㹤冐厃⦉吁䔚䠓⎌₅虇㕟╙⡪ⓐ ▜䂑‽䠓⬂ℜ拡冔憐⋴䠖ⴽ虖䛀凅彾㘡⍆䔚ⵓ⎉䠓」ⶐ⎌₅虇 ⏖ 㕟 ⎿ ⁴ ⁉ ╲ 䉉 憐 仵 㹤 冐 䠓 䬽 䏸Ҹ25 柳 㳳 Ὶ ⪥虇΅ 㢘 ⌅ ⁥ ⁉ ⡯ ⛕ 㫼㻊⑤军懁⋴⥒╙虇㢘䐈⎴䠓ⷔ⃞Ⓩ⢷㾾╲⥝⾎䉉憨‪⪥⢚⛕ 㝔ら憯Ҹ⢷⥒╙㜿䔚⢚㟑㢮䠓〤㵣㜾⨢䰃⢥䛺ᾙ虇㢘㛧⎸‭⛕ ⁉䠓䛺≞虖⁥↠怺⎕槾建虇⁴厃憲Ӂ岪⊈ӂ䠓⥒╙㜖΅」῝厖 Ӂ 尹 㛧 ⎸ ‭ 尭 ӂ▛ 儸Ҹ 26 㥟 ‪ ⢷ 㢻 ⢮ 䚮 㻊 ⡿ 榢 䠓 嬎 ‭ ⁉ 䠓 㝞 儳 虇 ⃋῝΅戆䮊厂⥒╙虇䐈⎴㞾ⷋ儔㹂ᾘ孡㻁㤀扷虇⁴⶚㐍伢䅮Ⅼ 栫Ҹᾏⶐ⋻⋒⏜ⓐᾘᾥ亏㟩㢮㎥ⓐ‛ᾥ亏㝸㢮䠓⎌₅虇㕟⎿㢘 亓㝵㹂⁴㤀虇΅寀戓㢘亓㝵㹂⁴嬎䠓㝞儳虇ㄭ嬎ῒ⒦扷戙⨒懁 ⋴ ⥒ ╙虇䉉 ⁥ ↠ 卹 ⾀ ⁴ ╙ 䐁 䛫 ⶚ 㐍 ⴘ 䯸 Ὶ ⢿Ҹ27 ㏏ 㢘 憨 ‪ 戆 ㄨ ヱ ㋚抌㾔㫩槾䫉虇⢷⋻⋒⏜ⓐ‣厂ⓐ‛ᾥ亏虇ㄭ嬎‭ⓦᾚ厂⥒╙ ᾵ᾜ㞾僤嬚䠓‚Ҹ ⌅⁥幖㜨΅峘㞝‭㻁⁉ⵓⷔ㝋⥒╙虇䐈⎴㞾⢷⋻⋒⏜‛ⓒ 亏ㄛⓙ嗘䠓㜿䔚⢚Ҹⶳ⌅⁳⁉㊮厗弲虇ᾣ厖㗸嬎䱴〃㛔‚㢘杫 䠓虇㞾⥒╙㢘㛅亜染ぇ⢚▪Ὴ䠓ⳟ⬂䉉⁉幹䠓兡Ⅶ虇憨‪䔚㝞 ⳟ⬂″䛀⥒╙⁉乍咀栝ⷳ䠓ⵅ〼㘺檙虇䜅⃫⥒╙⳸䱴去䢚ㄔҸ 㢘‪‭㻁⁉⢷⥒╙䠓㛎〫扷朏㙣䜅嬐分虇⇩㐓⵺♰ҷら䵘⽴䮚 䡲䣲ҷ䠖ⴽ卂朆ҷ≂⁳ⴧ䳘虖㢘䐈⎴㏚坬䠓⁉虇⢷⽴⒯〦╦⎿ 捜嬥Ҹᾜ懝虇⪶⪩㜇䠓䮊㶠虇䐈⎴㞾⁴Ⅷ埫怺⎕㎥䜅⃫帱♐⿅

24

嬚 ⎉ ᾏ 15 寊 捚 Ҹ

25

The Amarna Letters, ed. and trans. William L. Moran (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), 366 (letter 369), 326-28 (letters 286, 287).

26

Redmount, “Bitter Lives,” 99.

27

“A Report of Bedouin,” trans. James P. Allen (COS 3.5), 16-17.

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


14

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

⎿⥒╙䠓⁉虇ⷀ嬐⢷⢚ⵅ㎥㵎ⴖ䠓⽴䮚ᾼ⇩呵⽴Ҹ厘ℚℕ尹虇 ᾏ ₌ ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ ⓐ ᾘ ᾥ 亏 䠓 㜖 䔊虇㕟 ╙ ♗ 䠽 泾 ⁉ ╒ 厖 ら 憯 ⽴ 䮚Ҹ28 ⢷ ⥒╙䠓⪥ℕ⁉ᾏ去㛲ⷔ㝋。㶠䠍⭢Ὶ朢虇㎥䉉⋻⌀㯮杫⎉␪虇 憟䃇夜⋴䜅⢿㜖⒥ᾼҸ䋅军虇΅㢘‪㟑↨⪥ℕ⁉㢒⃞⢷▛㝞⁉ 䠓凩ⷔ⢿虇䐈⎴㞾⋻⋒⏜ⓐᾘᾥ亏㢺㎥ⓐ‛ᾥ亏⎬㢮䠓ᾘ孡㻁 ⢿ ⿅ 虇 憨 厖 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 㕞 慿 䠓 ⵓ ⷔ ㉔ 㹐 䢇 䜅 槭 ⃋ Ҹ 29 ⪥ℕ⁉桱朚⥒╙䠓幖㜨⏖悒ⶠ虇䊰䜠憨㞾⡯䉉⪶⪩㜇⪥ℕ ⁉⾁夜⋴⥒╙䫍㢒虇ᾜ㏢䴦桱朚虖军ᾣ⥒╙⁉悒✫㳰宧撓◇亜 ⪥ℕ⁉虇⶜㝋䛨ᾜ⃞⁥↠虇ⷀᾜ㳁⪩㕟Ҹ⊧䴰憨㮲虇ᾏ₌噁哘 亨ⅰ⎌戓㞾宧撓―⋸▜呵⽴ㄭ⥒╙憒⎿嬎ῒ虇⃋῝㞾嬐ㄏ慵ⓦ ╊ 虇 ᾵ ᾣ 㐦 㑡 憌 㓤 Ҹ 30 俌军宏Ὶ虇朒丂䐈⁉朢㳖ㆶㄭ㛧⎸‭ⓦ扷ㄏ⥒╙戆䮊虇䊰 履㞾娺テ慺㎥⎉㝋卹槧虇⢷䲻ⓐ⋺☛ⓐῬ䔚㢬㟑㢮ⶳ䉉槊俐虇 䜅㟑⥒╙伀㹊冔㳲䱼␪椞⢉⌅⾬⢚⶜嬎‭⢿Ⓩ䠓㔶⏅Ҹ憨↚㉔ 㹐厖凥伢並䛴䠓〃⁲宧撓◊▗虇桥䋅ⴒ㸡㢘⶜⎉⥒╙宧䠓宧悘 ⿅ℕ⵵幹㚾㒐虇⃕䠓䩉姷㞝凥伢㛧‚㏏⒍②䠓‚₅虇㞾㢘╾劌 䠋䚮懝䠓Ҹ‚⵵ᾙ虇䲻ⓐῬ䔚㢬㢺㢮䠓⑤䡹虇㳲⬌⿅ℕ⥒╙䠓 槈⑱虇䉉⪥ℕ⁉桱朚⥒╙␄憯―㟑㯮Ҹ军ᾣ虇⎉⥒╙㛧‚ᾼ␯ 㕡 䠓 ≂ 尹 ☛ ⥒ ╙ 㢻 ⢮ 吁 ヸ虇΅ 槾 䫉 㛧 ‚ 冔 䌮 ㈘ 封 㟑 㢮 䠓 䑏 㹐Ҹ 31 桥䋅凥伢㏏慿䠓ᾚ⥒╙ҷⵓⷔҷ桱朚虇抌㸡㢘⌆汣䠓㴆▁ 㧈㙩虇⃕ᾙ慿槭㵣⾁䉉‚₅⵵㹐㕟K―⦉㢻嬐亯Ҹᾜ懝虇朒丂

28

イ 卹 William Johnstone, Exodus, OTG 2 (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990), 19Ҹ

29

Redmount, “Bitter Lives,” 102-3.

30

“A Report of Escaped Laborers,” trans. James P. Allen (COS 3.4), 16.

31

Baruch Halpern, “The Exodus and the Israelite Historians,” Eretz Israel 24: 89*-96*.

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⶝履

15

䐈⁉懁⎉⥒╙䠓伢毦虇╗㞾⬑⃤惘⒥䉉凥伢㛔‚䠓◱虚⬑㤫尹 㴆▁䢮⵵ㆶᾜ㍘封⌜㎟䉉冒㋽䠓⛞槛虇⁴⋜㜃↚㛔‚Ὴ槛䠓䓷 䐈ㆶ╦㖜虇戲灋虇㎠↠╗⬑⃤䖕孲憨↚㐙劺桱⑭ㄈ厖ᾙ⾬䠓槾 䖍ҷ䫍儳嬞䱯ҷ䫭凥㍁䱯憲ᾙ杫⅑䠓㛧‚◱虚 ᾏ ↚ ⼓ 㜿 孏 灭 虇 㞾 㐙 宧 ㍅ 虃 memory虄 憨 ↚ 䵓 䜖 ⿅ 懁 ⎕ 㤟 Ὶ ᾼҸ⶜䓅⪹㛨☛⦉䣲㛨憨⋸↚ⅰⁿ儳汣ℕ尹虇懝╊䠓宧㍅⶜䜅 ⏜䠓ⅰⁿ☛怺⎕尜▛抌弆嗦捜嬐⃫䚷虖憨↚懢䖕虇⶜㝋⁥↠⋸ 冔㏏䀟卹䠓戲↚凥伢ᾼ䠓䫍汣ℕ尹虇㎥寀΅㞾䢮䩉䠓Ҹ╾㞾虇 ⪶扷⎕ⷀ㴆▁☛㴆▁佷們军ⷤ朚䠓愾履虇㬄ⶠ㹷㊞⎿宧㍅⶜㝋 ヱ⧠≂伀㏏弆䠓⃫䚷虖‚⵵ᾙ虇呴劌⪯冒㋽⎿宧㍅䠓⛞槛虇ⷀ 劌 弙 懝 㴆 ▁ ⎕ 㤟 䠓 栆 柀 ☛ ᾜ 彂Ҹ32 ⁲ 姷 憨 䮽 ㆬ ㊂ 䠓 䚷 寭 㞾 宧 ㍅ 㴆 ▁虃 mnemohistory虄 虇㧈 㙩 憨 ↚ ㊂ 㹤虇杫 㝋 㶠 㝞 弆 䀟 䠓 凥 伢 ≂ 伀 虇 娺 䖕 孲 䉉 桕 汣 㜖 ⒥ 宧 ㍅ 䠓 䖍 巰虇军 棭 㴆 ▁ 宧 撓Ҹ 33 憨 㮲虇㗸 嬎 ☛ ⎉⥒╙ⷀ㎟䉉宧㍅ᾼ䠓⁉䏸☛‚₅虇军ᾜ㞾㴆▁⁉䏸☛‚₅Ҹ 宧㍅㴆▁䠓懁彾㛍㩓䚷⵵峘Ὴ儸䠓㝈㹤䦣䰅懝╊虇㛈⁴⎕㤟⁉ ↠⬑⃤宧㍅懝╊虇坘㳳军ℎ㴆▁冒⵮劌⪯厖㜖ⴇ䦣䰅ҷ㊞峧ヱ ㋚懁彾╙崏冔╜㍘䖕履䳘孏灭⌀⍅ᾏ䎟Ҹ 桕汣宧㍅☛㜖⒥宧㍅厖⁉⁉䠕䌮㈘䠓㝴⿇ⵅ〼宧㍅ᾜ▛處 㝴⿇ⵅ〼宧㍅令ⶠゅ倛」↚ᾥ⁲虇⃕桕汣☛㜖⒥宧㍅䘿俭嗦テ 䉗 䠓 儳 汣 伢 毦 军 ヱ ㎟虇伢 懝 仓 俣ҷ惘 ⒥ҷ㚃 ⷤ ╙ 䬽 ⊏ ⒥ 䠓 懝 䮚 虇 䉉䂣崙ᾼ䠓䜅⏜㛗☌Ҹ桕汣宧㍅␄憯怺⎕尜▛虖桕汣宧㍅䠓䢮

32

Michael A. Signer, “Introduction: Memory and History in the Jewish and Christian Traditions,” in Memory and History in Christianity and Judaism, ed. Michael A. Signer (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001).

33

憨 寭 䠓 䛀 ℕ ☛ 孲 捚 虇 嬚 Jan Assman, Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997), 8-22Ҹ

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16

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

䢇虇⁲姷嗦懝╊䠓⵵⢷ㆶ虃actuality虄虇军棭䢮⵵ㆶ虃factuality虄Ҹ34 㕪╴尀尹虇娺佷懁宧㍅ⵕ䩋ᾼ䠓懝╊䠓䢮䢇虇坞⢷䛀ⴒヱ⧠㎟ 䠓 怺 ⎕ 尜 ▛ 婰Ҹ35 欻 ⷋ ⁥ 䦂 䨠 ᾙ 䠓 㜖 ⳦虇峘 㞝 㢘 ᾏ 儳 ╺ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ 䠓 ⁉虇㝋⋻⋒⏜ⓐᾘᾥ亏㢺虇⢷慵ⓦ汧⢿䚮㻊虖⁥↠厖凥伢伢㜖 䢇杫䠓▓䮽䏸幹㜖⒥虇΅槾䫉憨儳卹䯀䉉⁴吁⎦⁉䠓䠍⭢䠓弆 䀟虇╾⁴▗䖕⢿憌䀾厂旄⟷㟑⁲㝸㢮虃│⋻⋒⏜ⓐᾘ厂ⓐᾏᾥ 亏 虄Ҹ 36 ≞ ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 憨 槭 㛧 ‚ 虇 㢘 ␸ 㝋 䉉 ᾏ 儳 ⺪ 厗 ᾼ 䠓 䠍 ⭢ ヱ ⧠ 怺 ⎕ 尜 ▛Ҹᾏ ↚ 㜿 䠓 㶠 㝞虃 ethnos虄⢷ ⴒ ヱ ㎟ 䠓 懝 䮚 ᾼ虇㋱ ㋱ 亾 䯜 弆ⴒ䠓桕汣宧㍅虖⢜俭嗦憨‪桕汣宧㍅虇╗ヱ㎟―テ䉗䠓儳汣 伢毦Ҹ⎉⥒╙宧䠓宧㍅㴆▁虇㳲⬌槾䫉⎉憨䮽儳汣伢毦Ҹ憨ᾏ 儳⺪厗䠓⁉虇ⷀ㞾凥伢ᾼ䠓⁴吁⎦虇⁥↠呵呵㔨㏝虇嬐厖ⴒ䠓 慵ⓦ䫥⋗㎥抿ⷔⓏ⎕⎉ℕҸ 㔱䰅⎉⥒╙虇⁴╙⎉⥒╙宧䠓⌅⁥≂伀虇΅ⷀ㞾䦣䰅⶜懝 ╊ 䠓 亏 ㆄ 虃 commemoration虄虇 ╙ ⌅ ⪩ 㝈 棱 䠓 䂣 崙 ☛ 䠋 ⷤ Ҹ 㳲 ⌇ 㢇┆Ὶ䚱䚮虇槾䫉―懝╊㴁㢗㞾⬑⃤娺⁉宧ㆄ☛ヱ⧠虇䉉⌅㢻 䀟䫍儳ҷ⌅ㄛ䠓寀⪩⁴吁⎦儳汣虇⁴╙憨‪儳汣婰䠓寀⪩⎕㚾 㛗 ␪Ҹ 37 䠓 䩉虇⎉ ��� ╙ 宧 䠓 伢 㜖 ᾜ 㟑 㢒 㞝 槾 㕟 ╙ 宧 ㍅ ☛ 亏 ㆄҸ⁴ 㜃㵄嬎ῒ㛧‚䠓Ὴ〈䉉ℚ虇ⴒ尜䉉⁴吁⎦䠓⊈⇋孏☛嬞䱯虇㞾 ㄭ╳懯䠓⁴吁⎦⁉朚⭚虇㋱㋱䂣⒥☛䠋ⷤ军㎟䠓虇ℎ憨‪⊈⇋ 孏 ☛ 嬞 䱯 夜 ⋴ ᾏ ↚ 㷇 ㇕ 㜃 汣 Ὶ ᾼҸ 38 䵏 㢮 ☛ 䫼 䫏 䬽 ⊏虃 ℚ處懍 弙

34

嬚 Maurice Halbwachs, The Collective Memory, trans. Francis J. Ditter, Jr. and Vida Y. Ditter (New York: Harper and Row, 1980)Ҹ

35

Assman, Moses the Egyptian, 14-15.

36

Elizabeth Bloch-Smith, “Israelite Ethnicity in Iron I: Archaeology Preserves What Is Remembered and What Is Forgotten in Israel’s History,” JBL 122 (2003): 401-25.

37

Ronald S. Hendel, “The Exodus in Biblical Memory,” JBL 120 (2001): 601-4.

38

Mark S. Smith, The Memoirs of God (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2004), 131-50.

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17

䵏䳘虄幵‗⁴吁⎦⁉ᾏ↚儳汣䠓怺⎕虇㐙⁥↠凾仟䉉⁉槭ⴇⵅ ㏏ 䯀 䠓Ӂ ⌀ 夜 䫍 ⢧ ӂ虃 communitas虖 39 │ ᾏ 儳 㢘 テ 䉗 ⌀ ㊮ 䠓 ⁉ 虄虇 䛀㳳㜃▗⎉嘨㑾㛠䠓㛧‚虇▛㟑΅ㄭ憨‪㛧‚㵄嗌ᾼイ䛂⎉巟 ⵛ 䠓 ㊞ 㽄 ℕҸ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 䠓 宧 悘 ╦ ⎿ 榛 㕩虇㚃 ⋔ ㎟ ᾏ ↚ 焟 ⪶ 䠓 㛧 ‚ 虇 桕▗―⫠亓ҷ䫍儳嬞䵓ҷ䬽⊏ҷ䫼▇分⎕ҷ㶠㝞凥⩖䳘㛧慿㝋 ᾏ汣Ҹ㢏仑䠓⃫♐ᾜ⃕⋶ⵈ巟ⵛ虇军ᾣ仟㭚媖桫虇憨嬐㴇␮㝋 䊰▜⏜悸䠓㊂≞␪☛␄憯␪虇⁥↠⪶㬑伢㴆―寀⪩↚ᾥ亏䠓䂺 朆 懝 䮚虇㐙 ⏜ ⁉ 䠓 伢 毦 夜 㢒 䉉 ⷻ 㝋 ⋷ 㶠 䠓 ⦉ 㢻 㛔 ‚虃 foundational stories虄Ҹ

II. 㗸嬎ҷᾙ⾬厖丂䛇⁉ 㗸嬎䠓㛔‚ㄭ⎉⥒╙宧榼」䱯朚⭚虇厂䛂☌宧仑䱯仟㣮虇 㭚㎟⎉⥒╙虈嬎ῒ㛧‚䠓㧕㥅Ҹ憨㵄宧悘㞾⁴吁⎦㶠㝞朆䵖▁ 寸䠓⫯⦉扷⎕虇㗸嬎䱨⢷ᾙ⾬☛䠍⭢ᾼ朢㜰㝚虇㞾䛿⿇䐈⎉䠓 ⁉ 䏸Ҹ40 ㄭ 憨 ᾏ 㵄 宝 履 ☛ 䮜 ㄛ 䠓 寊 捚虇㎠ ↠ 㢒 䢚 ⎿ 㗸 嬎 㞾 ↚ ⎉ 槭 㑣喒䠓咀桓⁉䏸Ҹ凥伢㐙⁥㕞俹䉉⢚ⵅ䠓⫯⦉冔虇⁥ℎ䠍⭢ㄦ ⁴憒桱⥒╙虇⢷嬎ῒ㎟䉉ᾏ↚凥亓儳汣Ҹ⢷憨↚懝䮚ᾼ虇⁥⢷ ⁴吁⎦⁉☛⥒╙⁉ᾼ朢ℕㄏҸ⁥⢷丂䛇⎬㲰懖嬚ᾙ⾬虇⁥厖ᾙ ⾬䠓㾀┩杫⅑䊰⁉劌⪯㵣㙻Ҹ ⁴吁⎦㶠㝞Ὶ䫭虇䀟弆㝋䫑⢷哙㩧╱ᾼ■㗸嬎槾䖍虇ⶳ⌅ ⇋ ㄦ 㹷 ㊞ 䠓 㞾虇憨 ‚ 䠋 䚮 ⢷ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ ⨒ ⢿ ⁴ ⪥ ͑͑ ⇖ ⬑ 憨 㛔 ‚ 亣 ⷻ 埪㭚䠓尀虇㸡㢘⁉㢒㜨⎿憨㮲䠓⧃㟾Ҹ㗸嬎⢷丂䛇⢿䠓㛧‚虇 㞾▵╵ᾏ䮽テ䉗伢毦䠓亏ㆄ虇⁴厃㎠↠㍘䜅⁣亿冒捞㗸嬎䠓榧 娥 ⢿ ⃜ ☛ 桔 ⽜ ⅰ ⁿ虃 Yahwism虇⶜ ᾏ ⃜ 䯀 䉉 桔 ⽜ Ὶ 䫭 䠓 㛻 㑫 虄䠓 39

憨 㞾 Victor Turner 䠓 䚷 尭 虖 嬚 Edith Turner, “Rites of Communitas,” in Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals, ed. Frank A. Salamone, Religions and Society 6 (New York: Routledge, 2004), 97-101Ҹ

40

Hendel, “Exodus in Biblical Memory,” 615-20.

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18

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

弆䀟虚⢷憨㵄宧悘ᾼ虇㞾▵㢘ᾏ↚㢻㝋䢮⵵伢毦䠓㧇ㅒ扷⎕虇 憟䃇䠋㕩⋘⪶虇䉉⁉㏏搧尛虇⶜ㄛℕ䠓ᾥ⁲䚱䚮㄀榎虚 㗸嬎厖丂䛇䠓杫凾虇㢘」灭䐈⎴⇋ㄦ㹷㊞Ҹ桥䋅㗸嬎⢷⎉ ⥒╙宧ᾼᾏ䢃㞾⎉吁䠓榧娥虇⃕㞾㢘⋸↚㉔䵏虇⁥抌姷䖍ㄦ䓅 巺㎥憏侽虖⋸↚㉔䵏抌䐌㼘⎿䬽⊏䠓㎟⎕虇军⁳㗸嬎┊㳴䠓抌 㞾 丂 䛇 ⁉Ҹᾏ ↚ 㞾 ⁥ 䠓 ⭊ ⳟ 嬎 ⣰ 㑘虇⢷ ᾏ 㲰 䫭 䫤 桲 孲 䠓 ㊞ ⪥ ᾼ 虇 ⬈ 㑾 㛠 ― 㗸 嬎 虃 ㎥ ⁥ 䠓 ⋡ ⳟ 虄虇 槾 䫉 ⬈ 㾀 岂 ⊏ 嬞 虃 ⡪ 24蚙 26虄Ҹ ╵ᾏ↚㞾⁥䠓⹂䏅嗘ㅡ儔䫼▇虇⁥⢷₁婐䠓‚ᾙ㒖⶝㗸嬎虇⢷ ⎉⥒╙㛧慿ᾼ䲻ᾏ↚䔊䫼䠓΅㞾⁥Ҹ憨‪㕟⎿丂䛇䠓㉔䵏㬄ᾜ ⶚⿇虇军ᾣ㕞慿ㄗ㳲棱虖䐈⎴㞾虇⬑㤫㎠↠冒㋽⎿⁴吁⎦厖丂 䛇 ⢷ 姏 佲 ᾙ 䠓 凾 俺虃 ␄ ‛ ⓐ ‣ 1蚙 4虄虇憨 」 㵄 宧 慿 ⅎ ⃋ 㞾 䉉 丂 䛇 ⁉⢷ヱ⧠⁴吁⎦懝╊㴆▁ᾏ‚ᾙ㏏㙣䜅䠓孡吁虇㕟⎉▗䖕䠓峘 㞝Ҹ憨‪宧慿╾劌⎉卹⁴吁⎦㝸㢮䠓儳汣伢毦虇⡯䉉㢘‪埤䖕 悒 ㄛ 㢮 䑏 㹐 䠓 凥 伢 伢 㜖虃 ℚ處⩺ ⋼ 䱯 虄 虇槾 䫉 ⎉ ⶜ 丂 䛇 ⁉ 䠓 㜄 ㊞Ҹ 㢘⁉尜䉉虇憨‪厖丂䛇䢇杫䠓㛧‚虇㢘╾劌⬑⵵╜㞯―⁴ 吁 ⎦ Ὶ 䫭 䠓 弆 䀟 虇 憨 ↚ 䢚 㹤 㢘 㟑 䯀 䉉 Ӂ 丂 䛇 ⇖ 尹 ӂ虃 Midianite Hypothesis虄Ҹ 卹 ㄭ 憨 ⫦ 䖕 履 ⢷ ‛ ⓐ ᾥ 亏 ⎬ ㎟ ヱ Ὶ ㄛ 虇 ⴇ 冔 ⷀ ᾜ 㝆 懚 䚷 冒 ╳ ⴇ ☛ 伢 㜖 䦣 䰅 䠓 幖 㜨虇㐙 ⴒ 㢃 㜿Ҹ41 冒 ╳ ⴇ 峘 㙩 峘 㞝 丂䛇⁉㢍⢷嬎ῒ䚮㻊虇⌅㟑ⷀ㞾⎉⥒╙宧㏏搧尛䠓㟑⁲虇㢘杫 䠓 峘 㙩 抌 ⁳ ⁉ ⓿ 巰 㾀 ⏊ Ҹ 㢘 ᾏ 䮽 ␯ ヸ 栅 䚆 ⟷ 虇 䯀 䉉Ӂ 丂 䛇 栅 ⟷ ӂ 虃 Midianite ware虄㎥Ӂ ⾛ 幗 品 栅 ⟷ ӂ虃 Hijaz pottery虄虇⎉ 䖍 㝋 ⋻ ⋒⏜ⓐᾘᾥ亏㢺☛ⓐ‛ᾥ亏⎬䠓柎㑘₾虃丂䛇虄⒦扷厂⋶噚⪺ 虃 Negev虇⁴ 吁 ⎦ ⓦ ⢿ 虄ᾏ ⿅Ҹⴇ 冔 㧈 㙩 ⌅ ⎕ ⾒ ヱ ㋚虇㔷 㝆 ⴒ ⷻ 㝋 槾 建 䠓 ⛕ 㝔 ͑͑ 丂 䛇 ⁉虇⁥ ↠ 㝋 棡 搔 ⟷ 㟑 ⁲ 㟩 㢮 㔶 ⏅ ― 汧 ⎸ 䃳 䠓欨㜨幎㞢Ҹ㕪╴尀尹虇丂䛇⁉⢷㗸嬎☛⁴吁⎦⁉㏏ⷻ⢿⥮厗 㞉䠋ⷤ䠓㟑㢮虇⏪⬌㝸㝋㎥厖⁴吁⎦⁉⎬〵⢷慵ⓦ汧⢿⎉䖍▛

41

㬑 慿 㝋 Stager, “Forging an Identity,” 142-49Ҹ

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19

㢮Ҹ㳳 ⪥虇戓 㢘 㜖 㢻 䠓 峘 㙩 槾 䫉虇⁥ ↠ 㞾 ᾏ 儳 ⢷ 㸨 䂯 ⢿ ⿅ 䚮 㻊 虇 ⷔ ⃞ 㝋 ⿂ 䶆 䠓 ⁉ 虇 㜿 䔚 ⢚ 㟑 㢮 䠓 ⥒ ╙ ⁉ 䯀 ⁥ ↠ 䉉Ӂ 㸨 垖 ⁉ ӂ虃 ⢷ 㝸 ⏜ イ 慿 懝 䠓 㜖 䔊 ᾼ 㕟 ╙ 虄Ҹ ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ ⓐ ⡪ 厂 ⓐ ᾘ ᾥ 亏 䠓 ⢿ 䖕 ▜ 撓 虇 㕟 ⎿ ⁥ ↠ 䠓 ⋸ ↚ ⢿ 䛛 處 ᾏ 㞾 Ӂ 嬎 䏍 虃 S c rr虄 䠓 㸨 垖 ⁉ ӂ虇 ╾ 劌㒖嬎䕴⸀䠓⁉虇嬎䕴憨▜䯀厖䛂☌宧ᾘⓐᾘ䱯 2 䵏╳寸ᾼ⎉ 䖍 懝 䠓 嬎 ῒ 䢇 杫虖‛ 㞾Ӂ 桔 啾虃 ya-h-wa虄䠓 㸨 垖 ⁉ ӂ虇㒖 桔 ⽜ 䠓 䠍 ⭢ Ҹ 42 ⢷ 憨 ⧙ 搧 㜖 ㎥ ⌅ ⁥ 㜖 ⳦ 宧 撓 ᾙ 䠓 Ӂ 桔 啾 ӂ虇 ㄗ ╾ 劌 ⷀ 㞾 ⾛ ₾ ℕ 凥 伢 䠓 Ӂ 桔 ⽜ ӂ虃 YHWH虄Ҹ 43 俹刁俹㄀䠓㗸嬎㛔‚ҷ⁥厖㥟丂䛇䫼▇ⵅ㝞䠓ⵕ⎖杫⅑虇 ⁴╙桔⽜欥㲰⢷丂䛇䠓ᾏ〶⸀ᾚ⛮䫉䫑䠓▜⳦䳘‚忮虇抌㞾ᾏ ↚凩ⷔ㝋封Ⓩ䠓㝞儳䠓桕汣宧㍅虇抌㢘㜖⳦宧撓䠓㚾㒐虇憨㝞 儳㏏㛻⫘Ὶ䫭䠓▜⳦虇㎟䉉―⁴吁⎦Ὶ䫭䠓▜⳦Ҹ╾㞾虇⛞槛 样Ὶ军ℕ處䉉䚩灋憨↚凾俺憨去テ⪶㢘␪虇⁴厃ⴒ㎟䉉⁴吁⎦ ⪶㛧‚䠓ᾏ扷⎕虚ⴒ厖⎉⥒╙宧☛‣伢ᾼ㗸嬎䠓槾建怺⎕╗㢘 ⃤杫⅑虚 ⋗ℕ㬑䛴䢚䢚㗸嬎䠓槾建⢿⃜虇㢒㢘␸㎠↠―孲憨⛞槛Ҹ ㄭ⁥㏁␖ㆶ䠓尤䚮㛔‚朚⭚虇䜅⁴吁⎦⁉䠓㛔‚ᾏ榐榐㕼朚虇 ㄭ⁥↠⢷⥒╙╦⩢慺弆虇⎿⁥↠⢷嬎ῒ嬹䤈ᾙ⾬䠓卷⢷虇㗸嬎 ᾏ䢃㞾㛔‚ᾼ㢏捜嬐䠓⁉䏸Ҹ㕞⵺⁥䠓㟑↨虇㛧慿冔宧ᾚ⁥ᾏ ↚╗ᾏ↚孡吁Ҹ㝸㢮虇⁥榧╦⋗䥴ゞ䠓☋╻虇⌅ㄛᾏ䢃似㒐⋗ 䥴䠓分⎕虇■䠍⭢≂懣ᾙ⾬䠓尀尭Ҹ⁥㙣䜅⪥″ⴧ☛㛎㹊榧娥 䠓分₊Ҹ⁥㝌姛䫼▇䠓䫼䬽Ҹ⁥⿅榧䠍⭢厖‭䗹␪⁉䎼㎿虇᾵ ᾣ䔁⑬Ҹ⁥婐㸉䠍⭢Ὶ朢䠓亪䎼Ҹ⁥≂懭凥亓Ҹ䜅䋅虇⁥΅㞾

42

Frank Moore Cross, From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 67.

43

David Noel Freedman, Michael Patrick O’Conner, and Helmer Ringgren, “YHWH,” TDOT 5:510Ҹ⾛ ₾ ℕ 凥 伢 婰 ᾙ ⾬ 䠓 䯀 岑虇嬚 ⎉ ᾘ 13蚙 15 寊 捚 虇 ╙ ҽ 㜿 嬥 捝 孲 崏 處 ᾙ ⾬ 䠓 ▜ ⳦ Ҿ虇 榐 77Ҹ

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20

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

↚ 㢘 ⵅ ⴳ 䠓 ⁉虇㢘 䏅 㵜ҷ⋓ ギ ⭙ ⭈ҷ⭊ ⳟҷ⮊ 嬹 ╙ ⳟ ⬂Ҹᾜ 懝 虇 桥䋅⁥⢷憨‪ⵅ〼杫⅑ᾼ䡰槾⁉ㆶ䠓ᾏ棱虇⁥΅弔弙―ᾏ去䠓 ⁉ㆶ虇ⷤ䖍毩⁉䠓⪩崙孡吁虇␄ᾚ巟␮⇘俍虇⿇⿇ᾜ槶㢚⊤☛ 㜄⶜冔䠓柊㘢虇⢷㶠㝞‚⑨䠓▓㝈棱抌䠋㕽榧娥䠓分劌Ҹ䯀⁥ 㞾 弔 ⁉ 虃 super-human 虄 ΅ ᾜ 䉉 懝 Ҹ 㗸 嬎 │ ㎥ ᾜ 㞾 ⓙ 䫭 ⓙ ⁉ 虃 demi-god虄虇 ΅ 㞾 ↚ ⓢ 䏍 ᾜ ⍰ 䠓 ⁉ 䏸 Ҹ 憨槭㜖⒥咀桓虇⿇⿇⢷㜖⒥≂㐎⎉䖍㝆婑㟑⌡弆Ҹ䍮憯ᾏ ↚䫭尀ゞ䠓⫯⦉冔⌋榧娥⁉䏸虇劌⪯䉉埤㝋㾆‑ҷᾜⴘҷ惘崙 ᾼ䠓⁉㶠⿅ℕⴘ⋷㊮虇ℎ‡ᾜ䢇ⷻ䠓㝞儳⢧仟弆ℕҸ㎠↠ᾜ⬷ 㒎 儝 ⢚ 㴆 ▁ ⃫ ᾏ ↚ 槭 㵣 Ҹ 啾 䡪 榢 虃 George Washington虄 戲 捜 嬐 军⪩㝈棱䠓榧娥孡吁虇⢷㜿⌀☛⢚䠓㝸㢮㜖䔊ᾼ㾊ᾙ―䫭尀吁 ヸҸㄭ⁥⢷䚮㟑⎿⌅ㄛ䠓ᾥ⁲虇憨⃜ⓢ弙䠓欥₊俌伀⌋⢚䏅抌 䋴䠋嗦䫭ㆶҸ桥䋅⁥䠓榧⶝╦⎿㥟㝈棱䠓棭峿虇⃕䊰䪨ᾏ↚⢚ ⵅ䫭尀䠓厗弆虇⢷⋻䣍䠓桕汣㙐㏃Ὶᾚ虇啾䡪榢䩉㞾弔弙―。 ⍰䠓⁉ㆶҸ㏏岑Ӂ啾䡪榢≂⫖ӂ䠋㕩⋘⪶虇㮨尛嗦仓㎟㜿⢚ⵅ 䠓⪩⋒儳汣䱚㊞⌡根廿ᾙ棸☌Ὶ彾虇⢧仟ᾏ厃虇憌㷑㜿䠓䚮㻊 㝈 ゞ虇⁥ ↠ ㏏ ⅰ ⫘ 䠓 䖕 ㊂虇厖 ⁥ ↠ 咀 ⢚ 榧 Ὴ 䠓 ⅰ ㆄ ⪶ ᾜ 䢇 ▛Ҹ 44 ΅寀虇䫭尀⒥☛⪩棱ㆶ⢿㕞俹㗸嬎虇▛㮲㞾䉉嗦䢇▛䡽䠓 军㢜⑨虇ⷀ㞾䉉旄⟷㟑⁲ᾏ㢮⢷汧⢿⴩ⷔ䠓㾆▗儳汣虇ら䱚☛ 似㒐ᾏ↚桕汣䠓⁴吁⎦⁉怺⎕Ҹᾜ懝虇坘㗸嬎䠓咀桓樷䵓☛⁥ 厖ᾙ⾬䠓嬹ⵕ凾俺ℕ⒥孲㝞儳⎕桱☛␁婑䠓⛞槛虇䰅䱮㞾⎉㝋 ╳⁴吁⎦ら䱚⎬㢮虇戓㞾⢷⢚ⵅ嬕‰☛娺㙓㟑㢮虇┊㞾䊰㹤㝆 ⴩Ҹ⋸冔⌋㢘䠓╾劌ㆶ悒⪶虇⡯䉉桕汣宧㍅㏏㭚㎟䠓≂伀虇㞾 坘 嗦 ⡭ ㍅ 懝 ╊ 军 䉉 䜅 ᾚ 㢜 ⑨Ҹ▛ 㮲虇䬽 ⊏ҷ嬞 㨬 ☛ 䫭 凥 亏 ‚ 䳘 虇 ᾏ去΅⪩⢷䠍⭢伢㴆␄䝪䠓惘崙㢮虇␪㷑憞懝汣䖍㥟‪嬞䵓ℕ 44

Catherine L. Albanese, Sons of the Fathers: The Civil Religion of the American Revolution (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1976), 143-81.

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21

Ⅼ ⳧ ⁥ ↠ 䠓 伢 毦 㟑 䚱 䚮Ҹ 45 憨 ‪ 䬽 ⊏ҷ嬞 㨬 ☛ 䫭 凥 亏 ‚虇ヱ ㎟ ― 似 崆 儳 汣 怺 ⎕ 䠓 ⌀ 㢘 ⏅ 〵 䠓 ⦉ 䪝 Ҹ 46 杫㝋㗸嬎⢷凥伢ᾼ䠓槾嬐⢿⃜虇剛ㄛ㢘↚捜嬐䠓㧇ㅒ‚ ⵵虇╾⁴孲㸉⁴吁⎦⁉弆䀟䠓⛞槛Ҹ㢘䮽䮽䖕履尜䉉虇㜿戆䮊 厂汧⢿䠓ⷔ㶠虇ㄛℕ㎟䉉欻ⷋ⁥䦂䨠㎥⌅⁥冒╳㜖䏸ᾙ㏏㒖䠓 ⁴吁⎦⁉虇⃕憨‪䖕履⣖䊰㹤孲捚憨↚䂣崙䠓懝䮚☛㶠㝞怺⎕ 䠓厗弆Ҹ⬑㤫尹虇ᾏ儳⁉䔁ㄦ卹䛀䠓伢毦ⷀ㞾㔷⑤憨↚懝䮚䠓 Ӂ ‚ 䏸 ӂ虇 戲 灋 虇 㗸 嬎 ⷀ 㞾 ⌅ ᾼ 䠓 Ӂ ⁉ 䏸 ӂҸ 䜅 ‡ ᾜ 䢇 ⷻ 䠓 㝞 儳 ⎉䖍㜿䠓㶠㝞卹㎠㊞峧㟑虇≂⫖⁉䏸⢷憨⧃Ӂ棸☌ӂᾼ⃣ᾏ⾼ ⃜虇΅ ᾵ 棭 僤 嬚 䠓 ‚虇ℚ ⬑ 䔚 ⢚ ⏜ ☛ 䔚 ⢚ 㝸 㢮 ╳ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ 䠓 弆 䀟 虇 抌 ⎉ 䖍 憨 ↚ ㉔ 㹐虃 ╒ ⓐ ‛ 38虇ҿ 㜿 Ӏ處 ᮛ ◫ ᑑ ᭠ ᛵ ዯ ὦ ዷ 47虄Ҹ憨 ‪⁉䏸憩⿇㞾㥟䮽ㆴ戌䠓㜖⒥惘崙䠓∻⒥␠虇憨槭㜖⒥惘崙㢘 㟑㞾⴦㛨ㆶ䠓虇㢘㟑㞾㛎㹊ㆶ䠓虇㢘㟑㞾⋸冔⌋军㢘Ὶ虇㗸嬎 䠓㛧‚ⷀ㞾ᾏℚҸ㎠↠劌㊂≞⦉䣲㛨㸡㢘凅䯛❝虚劌㊂≞ₙ㜾 垼㛨㸡㢘䯕僤灧ㅆ❝虚汧⢿慁㶠朚⭚㐙卹⾀䢚⃫⁴吁⎦⁉虇杫 攄΅寀⢷㝋⁥↠㔴亜―ᾏ↚㜿䠓䫭虇憨⃜䫭样▛ᾏ⶞儳憒桱⥒ ╙䠓桲㶠军ℕҸ⿅榧憨㲰憒‰䠓㞾ᾏ⃜泔␪⤚榧娥虇⁥㾀ⅰ䠍 ⭢憒桱⥒╙虇㞾⎉㝋憨⃜⁥⢷丂䛇⢿懖ᾙ䠓㜿䫭䠓㝷㊞Ҹᾏ⃜ 㜿䠓䫭ҷᾏ↚㜿䠓㝔䮚㛧‚ҷᾏ₌⶜卹䛀䠓⦔㒐虇⢷汧⢿ⷔ㶠 ᾼ朢㻐≂虇␄憯―ᾏ↚㜿䠓桕汣怺⎕虇㮨尛嗦⁥↠厖抿慠㜖⒥ 㢘 㥟 㝈 棱 䠓 Ⓩ ⎴Ҹ䛱 䱮虇㝔 䮚 㢻 怺 ⷀ ⁲ 姷 ᾏ 䮽 桱 ╊虇ᾏ 䮽 惘 ⒥ 虇 ᾏ䮽㜿䠓䚮㻊㝈ゞҸ亏ㆄ☛榛㕩憨㵄㛧‚䠓⺖䫏兡Ⅶ虇╾劌䛀 45

Turner, “Rites of Communitas,” 98.

46

Paul Spikard and W. Jeffrey Burroughs, “We Are a People,” in We Are a People: Narrative and Multiplicity in Constructing Ethnic Identity, ed. Paul Spikard and W. Jeffrey Burroughs (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000), 10-11.

47

Heinz-Josef Fabry and Hedwig Lamberty-Zielinski, “II/III ‘rb II/III,” TDOT 11:332.

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22

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

㗸嬎䠓䢃ⷻⵅ⁉㪜㧈Ҹ㗸嬎娺㕞慿䉉ℕ卹䫼▇ⵅ〼虇䀟㝋⎸㢹 㚾 㻍虖⇋ ㄦ 㹷 ㊞ 䠓 㞾虇㢘 ⥒ ╙ ▜ ⳦ 䠓 」 ↚ 凥 伢 ⁉ 䏸虃 㗸 嬎 卹 ⾀ 虇 戓㢘⃤ウⷋҷ棭ⷋ♗ҷ⾃㝌㏅䕴虄抌㞾⎸㢹⁉Ҹ‚⵵ᾙ虇⎸㢹 ⁉╾劌ⷀ㞾戲ᾏ儳㢍伢ⵓⷔ⥒╙虇ㄛℕ桱朚虇ᾣ⡯㸡㢘卹⾀䠓 榧⢮军㛲ⷔ㝋慵ⓦ汧⢿䠓⁉虇⁥↠䠋㕽―䡲崆ҷ≂懭ҷ㮰⧠懝 ╊䠓分劌Ҹ ⇖呴㎠↠ㆬ冒㗸嬎厖⫠亓䠓杫⅑虇΅ⷀ㞾⎉⥒╙宧㏏宧悘 成■卹䛀Ὶ㝔䠓汧䃽㵄嗌虇戓㢒㢘㢃⪩䠋䖍Ҹ慵ⓦ汧⢿䠓䫍儳 ⃋῝㞾⢷䫍㢒☛㛎㹊㝈棱抌䓷䱚䠓↚汣虇⁴⶞扷嗌䠓ヱゞㄋ㳳 沕㛲⢿似俺虇ⷤ䖍⎉ᾏ䮽槭⃋。䳘Ὴ儸䠓䏸幹㜖⒥Ҹ䉉似㒐䫍 儳䯸⴩军⏅宑䠓佀榧虇΅寀㾀╦泔␪⤚䠓␄䱚⁉䏸虃㗸嬎虄㎥ ⌅憌样冔䠓㄀榎虇⁥↠㧈㙩䎼╥卹䛀䠓伢毦虇⦔ⴗ㥟‪姛䉉䀥 ⏖Ҹ␄䱚⁉㢘ᾏ↚䐈灭虇ⷀ㞾⁥↠厖䫍儳䀥⏖虇⒔㑻棭㳲ゞ䠓 ⓣ ⴩ ㎥ 㳲 ゞ 䠓 ㄚ 㹤虇抌 㢘 ⵕ ᾜ ╾ ⎕ 䠓 杫 ⅑Ҹ48 ⁴ 㜿 怺 ⎕ ␄ ら 䠓 䫍 儳虇⁥↠䠓⋗䥴㎥⴦㛨⁉䏸ᾏ去抌娺嬥䉉ㄚ㹤䠓⏅宑冔Ҹℚ⬑ 㢘‪⁉㐙凅䯛䢚䉉≞㗸嬎䠓⁉䏸虇⃕㵣㗸嬎㢃弔弙虖䯕僤灧ㅆ 㞾↚⋗䥴⤚䠓⁉䏸虇⁥㏏␄䱚䠓䫍儳虇㐙⴦㛨☛姛䉉㎡ㄚ▗军 䉉 ᾏҸ49 㘡 㵜 凂 宧 ☛ ⎦ 䔚 亏 Ὶ ㏏ ⁴ 㸡 㢘 㐙 㢇 ᾼ 䠓 ⁴ 吁 ⎦ ☛ 䓅 ⪶ 䔚 㕞俹䉉ㄚ㹤⏅宑冔虇⪶㢘╾劌嬐㴇⡯㝋⁴吁⎦⁉宧ㆄ᾵ᾣㇹⴗ ᾏ⫦⁴ⅰ⫘䫭䉉⦉䪝䠓姛䉉ⴗ⏖虇憨⫦ⴗ⏖㞾憞懝㗸嬎憨⃜⋗

48

David Noel Freedman, “The Formation of the Canon of the Old Testament,” in Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives, ed. Erwin B. Firmage, Bernard G. Weiss, and John W. Welch (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990), 328-29.

49

E. P. Sanders, “When Is a Law a Law? The Case of Jesus and Paul,” 139-58, and Bernard G. Weiss, “Covenant and Law in Islam,” 49-83, both in Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives, ed. Edwin B. Firmage, Bernard G. Weiss, and John W. Welch (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990).

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23

䥴 ⤚ ⁉ 䏸 䠓 憌 样 冔 ㏏ 榡 ⾒ 䠓Ҹ50 䛀 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 䠓 宧 ㍅ 㴆 ▁ ㏏ 㮰 ⧠ 䠓 桕汣ㄏ㞣䏖㵄虇΅寀⎿―⋻⋒⏜ᾏⓒ亏㢺㢮娺佷㎟㳲⌇Ҹ厂㝋 ⢷㳳㢮朢虇㧈㙩⩺⾺宧厂⎦䔚亏䠓㛧‚☛⋗䥴䠓䫭屼虇㏝㧈㝋 ⁴吁⎦⎉⥒╙⡭㍅䠓ⅰⁿҷ⊈⊈孏☛兡Ⅶ虇⒔㑻㛻㑫ᾏ⃜䫭䠓 孏 ㆄ虇戓 ᾜ 㞾 ⋷ 棱 㟽 ╙Ҹᾜ ῔ ⁴ ㄛ虇伢 懝 ᾏ 㲰 䢮 㳲 䠓 ␁ 婑 伢 毦 虇 ➦懝⢚ⵅ䁔‰ҷ娺埫䛿⢿䠓䁚☂虇⎉⥒╙㛔‚䠓捜嬐ㆶ㏜捜㜿 ㄦ⎿刾⴩虇⢷䱼␪似崆怺⎕䠓㟑↨虇㎟䉉⅒懁⢧仟䠓ᾏ到␪捞Ҹ51

III. ㎟㢇厖仟㭚 ⢷䔚⢚㟑㢮Ὶ㢺☛ㄛ䔚⢚㟑㢮Ὶ⎬虇䜅ᾜ▛䠓≂伀娺佷⋴ 憟䃇㎟ヱ䠓‣伢㳲⌇㟑虇㗸嬎⾁⼓棁榼孡虇╦⎿㔷⺖虇㎟䉉仟 桕䣍⪩≂伀䠓㳲⌇ᾼ䠓㲙⮐⁉䏸Ҹ凥伢䠓榼‣┆㢇⋷㴇㝋㗸嬎 ▜ ᾚ 虇 ⬑ ⁴ 㜾 㑘 宧 ☛ ⷋ ⾛ 丂 宧 ㏏ 悘 虃 ℚ 處 㑘 ᾘ 2虖 ╒ ⷋ ⋺ 1虄虇 䯀䉉⇴ᒯិᛈᦀҸ⬑▛≂伀䫍㢒⿇嬚䠓虇⢷⁉↠⶜懝╊䠓桕汣 宧㍅ᾼ⃣㙩嬐⃜䠓㜖⒥咀桓虇劌仵⌅ㄛ䠓≂伀幵‗捜嬐⢿⃜☛ 䢮 䖕 Ҹ 52 ⡯㳳虇杫㝋⎉⥒╙宧㎟㢇䠓䖕履虇╾㛍懁‣伢㜃汣ヱ㎟䠓 孡〵ℕ冒捞ҸⓐῬᾥ亏㢺虇ⴇ冔䠋䖍⁴㗸嬎ᾏ⁉⃫䉉㳳‣┆㢇 䠓 ⃫ 冔 ⳧ ⢷ ⡿ 桲虇▛ 㟑 ΅ 䛨 ㊞ ⎿ 憨 扷 㜖 桕 槾 嗦 䠓 ᾜ ᾏ 厃ҷ捜 媖 ҷ ⏜ㄛ䥪䢍䳘⛞槛虇⡯㳳⁥↠宼㊂虇‣伢厂ⶠ㾆▗―⡪↚ᾜ▛䠓 幖 㜨 ℕ 䀟 军 佷 ㎟ Ҹ ㅆ ⢚ ⴇ 冔 ⮐ 䏍 㻸 䚮 虃 Julius Wellhausen虄 䠓 䦣 䰅 㢏 専 䡰 ☛ 㢏 ⌆ 尹 㢜 ␪ 虇 䯀 䉉 Ӂ 〤 㢻 ⇖ 尹 ӂ虃 Documentary Hypothesis虄虇㮨 䫉 ⎉ JҷEҷPҷD ⡪ ↚ 幖 㜨 ℕ 䀟Ҹ榼 ⋸ ↚ ▜ 䯀 虇 50

⪶ 姪 ╾ 劌 㞾 ↚ ℚ ⪥ Ҹ ㄭ 㘡 ᾙ ᾘ ⓐ 25 ╾ 嬚 虇 ⁥ 㞾 ╵ ᾏ ↚ ␄ 䱚 冔 Ҹ

51

F. Volker Greifenhagen, “Ethnicity In, With, and Under the Pentateuch,” JRS 3 (2001): 1-17; http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/2001/2001-1.html.

52

David Lowenthal, The Past Is a Foreign Country (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), 235.

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24

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

J ☛ E虇 㞾 ‣ 伢 ᾜ ▛ 㵄 嗌 ㏏ 䚷 䠓 ᾙ ⾬ ▜ ⳦ 䠓 侽 ⵺虇 憨 ⋸ ↚ ⳦ 㵜 ⁲ 姷 封 㵄 㛧 ‚ 䠓 ⇖ ⴩ ⃫ 冔 處 J 䠓 ⃫ 冔 ㎥ ≂ 伀 ⁴ Ӂ 桔 ⽜ ӂ虃 ㅆ 㜖 Jahweh虇⡯ 㳳 ⁴ J ▜ Ὶ 虄䯀 ☋ ᾙ ⾬虇⎉ 㝋 䔚 ⢚ 㝸 㢮虃 ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ ⓐ ㎥ Ῥ ᾥ 亏 虄虖E 䚷Ӂ ₙ 儔 厗 ӂ虃 Elohim虄䯀 ☋ ᾙ ⾬虇⎉ 㝋 ⪶ 亓 ▛ 㢮 ㎥ 䮜 戁 Ҹ D ⁲ 姷 䛂 ⌇ 佷 冔 虃 Deuteronomist虄虇 ᾏ 去 尜 䉉 㞾 ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ ᾒ ᾥ亏䠓䛂☌宧⃫冔虇⁥⶜⩺⾺宧厂⎦䔚亏ᾚ憨」┆Ӂ㴆▁㢇ӂ 㢘 捜 ⪶ ㄀ 榎虇╗ 㞾 娺 㙓 㢮 朢 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 䠓 ᾏ ⃜ Ὴ 嬐 佷 ⅽ 冔Ҹ 53 P ⁲ 姷 㥟 ⃜ 㙣 ₊ 䫼 ▇ 分 䠓 ⃫ 冔虇㢘 ⋸ ↚ ╾ 劌 〃 ₌虇ᾏ 㞾 䔚 ⢚ 㢺 㢮虃 憨 㞾 ⶠ 㜇 ⁉ 䠓 ㊞ 嬚 虄虇ᾏ 㞾 娺 㙓 㢮 朢 ㎥ 娺 㙓 ㄛ虖 ‣ 伢 ᾼ ㏏ 㢘 杫 㝋 䫼 ▇䠓宧‚虇⁴╙㥟‪㛧‚扷⎕䠓㵄嗌虇抌⎉卹⁥䠓㏚䳕Ҹ㧈㙩 憨 ⫦ ⇖ 尹虇⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 ⒔ ► 仓 ▗ 䠓 JE 㛧 ‚虇⁴ E 䉉 捜 灭虖㳳 ⪥ ΅ 㢘 P 䠓 ᾏ ⪶ 㵄 㣟 㜨虇⎉ 䖍 㝋 ‛ ⓐ ‣ 厂 ⡪ ⓐ 䱯 ╙ ⌅ ⁥ 梅 㛲 㵄 嗌ҸD ΅╾劌㢘⎕㝋⎉⥒╙宧䠓ヱ㎟Ҹ 桥䋅⌅䫭ⴇ履㙩イ弆䎼峿虇⃕㜃⫦⇖尹⢷㢻幹ᾙ䚩⌆尹㢜 ␪虇㏏ ⁴ 㴆 ῔ ᾜ 姿Ҹ㧈 㙩 憨 ⇖ 尹虇厂 ⶠ 㢘 ⡪ ↚ 䓷 䱚 䠓 幖 㜨 ℕ 䀟 虇 仓㎟ᾏ扷媖桫䠓㜖㢻虇⢷⋻⋒⏜ᾏⓒ亏ᾼ㢮䛀 P ⁴乍⽶䠓㏚㹤 ヨ桕㎟‣伢Ҹ⢷‣伢䠓䦣䰅ᾙ虇憨↚㬑ㆄ㕟K―ひ䉉㔴亜䠓䖕 履㮰⤚Ҹ╹㢘㢏Ⅼⴗ䠓ᾏ㻍ⴇ冔ᾜ㔴╦憨⫦⇖尹虇⁥↠Ὴツ虇 ‣伢䠓⃫冔㞾㗸嬎Ҹ卹ᾙᾥ亏ᾒⓐ〃⁲弆虇㝸⏜㕟╙䠓㜖ⴇ无 ⎴䳘䦣䰅懁彾亪亪㐻榼虇⶜〤㢻⇖尹⢷凥伢䦣䰅ᾙ㏏䠋㕽䠓⦉ 㢻⃫䚷虇㭚㎟⡃⺊䠓㒠㎿Ҹ懝ㄏ虇〤㢻⇖尹╦⎿ⴇ姢䛛ひ㹪㔴 亜虇嬥䉉䖕㏏䜅䋅虇⃕ㄭ憨〃⁲朚⭚虇┊娺㥟‪ⴇ冔㗡㩓虇╵ ᾏ ‪ ⴇ 冔 ⏖ 嗦 ㏚ 尜 䢮 ⢿ ⅽ 宑 ⴒ Ҹ 54 〤㢻⇖尹΅寀ᾜ⌜⶜凥伢䦣䰅弆㚾拜ㆶ䠓㄀榎虇⃕慠〃ⴇ 冔㏏⇩䠓㬑㑻䦣䰅虇΅㸡劌⶜‣伢㜃汣㎥⌅扷⎕㢇┆䠓ヱ㎟懣 53

Johnstone, Exodus, 76-86.

54

Richard E. Friedman, The Bible with Sources Revealed: A New View into the Five Books of Moses (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003), 1-31.

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25

㎟ ⌀ 峧Ҹ55 ⪶ 厃 ᾙ虇㸡 㢘 ⁉ 㢒 ㎆ 䜠 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 㞾 䛀 ⪩ ⃜ ⃫ 冔 㕟 K 䠓 ⪩ⷳ㣟㜨仓㎟虇⃕嬐⎕愷憨‪㣟㜨ҷ无⴩⌅〃₌虇᾵⎕㤟䚩灋 㟑↨ҷ伢懝䚩灋懝䮚㏜仓㎟ᾏ扷憲帺军ⴛ㜃䠓⃫♐虇┊嬐㒐倛 ᾜ㝆⢿懁姛虇军ᾣ΅㷇懯ᾜ㢒≞〤㢻⇖尹戲㮲虇ㄦ⎉ᾏ↚ひ䉉 ⁉ 㔴 亜 䠓 仟 㤫 Ҹ 厖 㳳 ▛ 㟑 虇 Jҷ Eҷ Pҷ D ⁜ ╾ 䜅 ⃫ 㝈 ⅎ 䠓 㮨 宧 虇 䚷⁴㒖䯀⎉⥒╙宧䠓㥟‪仓㎟㣟㜨Ҹ㢻寊捚㢇㢒㕟⎿ P ⢷寀⪩ 㣟㜨ᾼ䠓䐈⎉㵣捜虇΅㢒ᾜ㟑㕟⎿⌅⁥幖㜨ℕ䀟䠓䝤彰Ҹ ⴇ冔㔱宝⎉⥒╙宧䠓仟㭚虇厖䦣䰅ⴒ䠓ヱ㎟懝䮚ᾏ㮲虇桲 ⁴懣㎟ᾏ厃䠓䢚㹤Ҹ⾛₾ℕ凥伢㐓㢻㸡㢘䖍⁲凥伢峾㢻ᾏ去㔰 䚷 䠓 ⎕ 㵄 Ҹ 凥 伢 䱯 䵏 䠓 ␒ ⎕ 虇 嬐 ⎿ ⪶ 㬑 ⋻ ⋒ 1200 〃 ㏜ ⎉ 䖍 虇 厂 㝋ℬῊ槛㎥㜖ⴇ✽⋒ℕ⎕㵄ⷀ㢃ᾜ䚷尹―Ҹ⡯㳳虇䉉⎉⥒╙宧 䠓朆䵖㛧慿␒⎉⪶佀虇亣ⷻ㲙⴫Ὶ宗虇䡽䠓╹䉉䖕孲㛧‚䠓摹 栂虇᾵ᾣ尜峧⌅▓扷⎕㣟㜨䠓⪩⋒ㆶҸ䋅军虇寀⪩ⴇ冔⁜䋅䢇 ⅰ虇㳳㢇䠓⋶ⵈ摹㔡㢘⌅㢻怺䠓㨬䖕Ҹ ⎉⥒╙宧㬄㢘╾劌䛀⋸扷⎕仓㎟Ҹᾙⓙ扷⁴䲻ⓐ‣䱯⃫ 仟虇宧慿⁴吁⎦⁉⎬䔁卹䛀虇⁴寸㳛㳰㌅⁥↠懝㼆虖ᾚⓙ扷㞾 ⁴ 吁 ⎦ ⁉ ⢷ 嬎 ῒ 䠓 汣 毦Ҹ56 ╵ ᾏ ␒ ⎕ 㝈 㹤 㞾 ㄭ 丂 䛇 ⢿ 虈 嗘 ㅡ 儔 䠓 榼 」 䱯 㵄 嗌 弆虇厂 䲻 ⓐ ⋺ 䱯 ⃫ 仟虇䉉 䲻 ᾏ 扷 ⎕虖ㄭ 䲻 ⓐ Ῥ 䱯 弆 虇 ⎿ ᾙ ⾬ ⢷ 嬎 ῒ 槾 䖍 ⃫ 仟 虇 䉉 䲻 ‛ 扷 ⎕ Ҹ 57 ⋸ 䮽 ⎕ 㵄 㝈 㹤 䮜 㢘 ⎕ ⎴虇⃕▓㢘⊹灭虇抌ℎ⎉⥒╙宧䠓Ὴ槛ヱ㎟ⷳⷳ懭懁䠓▛ㅒ⢢

55

Rolf Rendtorff, “Directions in Pentateuchal Studies,” CR:BS 5 (1997): 43-65; David M. Carr, “Controversy and Convergence in Recent Studies of the Formation of the Pentateuch,” RSR 23 (1997): 22-29.

56

Mark S. Smith, “The Literary Arrangement of the Priestly Redaction of Exodus: A Preliminary Investigation,” CBQ 58 (1996): 25-50.

57

Eugene Carpenter, “Exodus 18: Its Structure, Style, Motifs and Function in the Book of Exodus,” in A Biblical Itinerary: In Search of Method, Form and Content: Essays in Honor of George W. Coats, ed. Eugene E. Carpenter, JSOTS 240 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), 91-108.

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26

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

仟 㭚虖ᾙ ⾬ 䠓 ▛ ⢷ 埤 㝋 ᾼ ㅒ ⃜ 僽虇⬑ ▛ ⋘ 吡 ■ ⪥ 㛲 ⶓҸ 58 ⌅ ⁥ ⁉ ㄭ䰉朢ҷ㟑朢ҷ㜖ⴇ㎥䫭ⴇ㝈棱⎉䠋虇⎕䉉ᾘ㵄ҷ⡪㵄虇䚩厂 ‣ ↚ ⪶ 㵄 嗌Ҹ59 ⃕ ╾ ⁴ 刾 ⴩虇㸡 㢘 ₊ ⃤ ᾏ ↚ ␒ ⎕ 㝈 㹤 劌 ⪯ 㽄 噚 㳳 㢇䠓㏏㢘䐈吁Ҹ ΅寀虇㎠↠㏚ᾙ䖍㢘䠓⎉⥒╙宧虇╹㞾ᾏ↚䛀㝋㢇⵺䠓┆ 悇朆〵㏏柟军␒⎕⎉ℕ䠓扷⎕虇军棭㢘㊞仟桕军㎟䠓ᾏ扷卹㎟ ᾏ 汣 䠓 Ӂ 㢇 ┆ ӂҸ 60 䛱 䱮 虇 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 桥 䋅 劌 ⪯ 䓷 䱚 ㎟ 㢇 虇 ⃕ ⴒ ΅ 㞾 ‣ 伢 焟 ⪶ 㛧 ‚ 䠓 ᾏ 扷 ⎕ Ҹ ⴒ 䠓 寀 ⪩ 亿 䵏 ☛ 槛 㝷 虃 motif虄 抌 厖 ⏜棱䠓␄ᾥ宧㛧‚䢇憲虇宧慿㢒⿤䠓㵄嗌΅㢘⌅ㄛ䠓⎸㢹宧㔴 倛虇㡯捝㝔䮚䠓宧悘⏖䛀⎉⥒╙宧朚⭚虇⢷㶠㜇宧個倛摹栂Ҹ 俌 军 宏 Ὶ虇΅ 寀 悒 ⬌ 䠓 ⇩ 㹤 㞾 ᾜ 嬐 亿 ⎕ ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 䠓 㵄 嗌虇䢇 ╜ 虇 嬐嬥ⴒ䉉㜃扷‣伢⋶ᾏ↚憲帺军朆䵖䠓㛧‚Ҹ㢻寊捚㐙⎉⥒╙ 宧⎕䉉ᾘ扷⎕虇㞾䉉㝈ⅎ杀崏⎉⥒╙宧虇᾵ᾜ姷䫉╳⾛₾ℕ伢 㜖㢻ℕ㢘㳳⎕㵄Ҹ

IV. 杀崏㕟䫉 ⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 ⵵ 幹 ᾙ 㞾 ᾏ 㵄 㛧 ‚ ͑͑ ⒔ ► 憲 倛 䠓 ㉔ 䵏ҷ⁉ 䏸 ☛ ⾒ ⷏Ҹ憨扷╳⾛₾ℕ㜖ⴇ∠⃫虇⌅㢏仑ヱ㋚㝋」ⓒ〃⏜ヱ㎟Ҹ⡯ 㳳虇䖍⁲䠓崏冔ᾜᾏ⴩劌⪯愷峧ⴒ䠓㋲䚷㜖ⴇ㏚㹤虇㢘‪㋲䚷 ㏚㹤⢷杀崏峾㢻㟑‵桲⁴䠋䖍Ҹ㳳⪥虇㎠↠厖凥伢ᾼ䠓ᾥ䛛㢘 㟑䰉䢇栣虇寀⪩㜖⒥⌇㛔⾁槾ㄦ㮰乙ᾜ㾔虇䊰㹤榧㢒Ҹ㢻寊捚 㞾⎉⥒╙宧䠓⃃崏╒冒虇⾛㢪⢷⁴ᾚᾜ▛㝈棱⿺␸崏冔處

58

John I. Durham, Exodus, WBS 3 (Waco: Word Publishers, 1987), xxi-xxii.

59

㬑 慿 㝋 William H. C. Propp, Exodus 1-18, AB 2 (New York: Doubleday, 1998), 37-38Ҹ

60

嬚 Menahem Haran, “Book-Scrolls at the Beginning of the Second Temple Period: The Transition from Papyrus to Skins,” HUCA 14 (1983): 11-22Ҹ

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⶝履

27

1. 㞝 䠌 㛔 ‚ 䠓 摹 㔡 虖 2. 䖕 孲 䫍 㢒 㜖 ⒥ 剛 㟾 ͑͑ 厖 ╳ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ ╙ ⌅ ᾥ 䛛 䢇 杫 䠓 㜖 ⒥ҷ伢䅮ҷ⴦㛨ҷら⏅☛䫍㢒仟㭚虖 3. 㲲 幭 㳳 㢇 ┆ 䠓 㜖 ⴇ 䐈 吁 ☛ ⅽ 愼 ㏚ 㹤 虖 4. 愷 峧 㳳 㢇 ┆ 䠓 Ὴ 槛 ҷ ⊈ ⇋ 孏 ☛ ⴒ ㏏ 姷 懣 䠓 㜿 䯝 孏 灭 虖 5. 㹷 ㊞ 㳳 㢇 ┆ ㏏ イ 弆 䠓 孲 伢 ☛ 懢 ㅆ 桲 槛 Ҹ 㢻寊捚㢇㐙⎉⥒╙宧䠓伢㜖⎕㎟ᾘ⪶㵄嗌虇個军亿⎕㎟悒 ⶞䠓䏖㵄Ҹ柳䢇杫㵄嗌䠓寊捚⪥虇戓⒔㑻⁴ᾚ婫⋔幖㜨處 1. 姷 ⎦ 虇 槾 䫉 㥟 ‪ 㵄 嗌 䠓 佷 㔡 虖 2. ỉ ᷲ ᱥ ᾢ ❴ 虇 㕟 K 䫍 㢒 㜖 ⒥ 剛 㟾 䠓 婫 ⋔ 幖 㜨 虖 3. ỉ ᷲ ᱥ ⑬ ᏸ 虇 㕞 慿 㥟 ‪ 樷 Ⅶ ㎥ 䐈 吁 ⬑ ⃤ 㹎 嬁 厂 ⾛ ₾ ℕ 凥 伢⵺㎟ㄛ㟑㢮⁴厂⁙⪸Ҹ 戓㢘⋸㨬⍰ℚ榗嬐尹㞝Ҹ䲻ᾏ虇㢻寊捚㔰䚷䠓ҿ☛▗㢻Ӏ 伢 㜖 ⁴Ӂ 凅 ☛ 啾 ӂ䉉 ᾙ ⾬ 䠓 ▜ 䯀虇 61 柳 棭 寊 捚 ᾼ 榗 嬐 䐈 ⎴ 宝 履 ⎿ ᾙ⾬䠓▜⳦虇▵⏖㢻㢇ᾏ去㢒⁴Ӂᾙ⾬ӂℕ㒖䯀Ҹ䲻‛虇⢷⎉ ⥒ ╙ 宧 ᾼ 虇Ӂ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ 䠓 ⳟ 㶠 ӂ╾ 厖 ᾙ ⾬ ☛ 㗸 嬎 ▛ ⎦ 䉉 ᾘ ⪶ Ὴ 嬐 孡 吁虖㢻㢇憩⿇䚷Ӂ⁴吁⎦⁉ӂ䯀☋Ὶ虇桥䋅憨寭㢘⪩捜►儸虇 军ᾣㄭ㴆▁孡〵ℕ尹虇䚷⁴ヱⵈ桱朚⥒╙䠓䠍⭢㢹ㅔ䀥䩉Ҹ│ 㞾尹虇⃫䉉⴦㛨☛㶠㝞䠓姷慿尭虇憨↚寭⎉䖍䠓㝴ⳟ虇╾劌戁 㝋 伢 㜖 ㏏ 㕞 慿 䠓 㟑 㢮 Ҹ ⢷ ⾛ ₾ ℕ 凥 伢 虇Ӂ ⁴ 吁 ⎦ ӂ㢘 㟑 㒖 ⋻ ⋒ ⏜ ⓐᾥ亏㢺厂⋺ᾥ亏㢺䠓⒦⢚虇㢘㟑㒖悒⪶䠓㶠㝞☛㛎㹊↚汣Ҹ ⴒ╾䚷⃫㛎㹊ҷ㶠㝞㎥䫭ⴇ䚷寭虇㝱╾姷懣㑌巰㬑ㆄ虇΅╾㒖 䯀ᾏ↚⢚ⵅ㎥ᾏ儳䠍⭢Ҹ

61

㢘 杫 ᾙ ⾬ 䠓 ▜ ⳦ 虇 嬚 ⎉ ᾘ 1蚙 ⡪ 17 寊 捚 Ҹ

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28

⌜䢚⎉⥒╙宧

崏冔΅榗㹷㊞虇⎉⥒╙宧㢘⋸㵄㕞⵺㢒⿤䠓伢㜖虇」῝⁴ ▛ 㮲 棱 帛 捜 媖 ⎉ 䖍虃 ‛ ⓐ ‣ 蚙 ᾘ ⓐ ᾏ 䱯 虇 ᾘ ⓐ ‣ 蚙 ⡪ ⓐ 䱯 虄Ҹ 㢻 寊捚㢇ᾜ㢒捜媖杰捚憨⋸↚䢇⃋䠓㵄嗌虇军╹㢒灭⎉⋸㲰栂慿 䠓⽽䛿Ҹ寊捚䠓扷⎕㢒⎉䖍⢷㕞⵺㢒⿤䠓䲻ᾏ㵄伢㜖虇΅│⎉ ⥒╙宧䲻‛ⓐ‣厂ᾘⓐᾏ䱯虖宝履䲻ᾘⓐ‣厂⡪ⓐ䱯㟑虇⏖⁴ 並汣⳦㮨䫉⎉。姛伢㜖䠓䱯䵏Ҹ 㢘‪崏冔㎥㢒㢮㢪虇⎉⥒╙宧䠓寊捚封㢘㏏岑䠓Ӂ⎉⥒╙ 彾 佩 ⢥ ӂ虇戓 㢘 㕞 俹 㢒 ⿤ ╙ ⟷ ⌆ 䠓 哘 ⢥ ☛ 亯 㕞 Ҹ㢻 㢇 䛴 ╊ ― 憨 ‪ 㣟㜨虇⋜ㄦ仵崏冔憯㎟ᾏ䮽⓿巰虇⁴䉉戲ⷀ㞾⎉⥒╙㛧‚䠓䢮 ⵵㉔ヱ虇㎥ら憯☛婬檍㢒⿤䠓㵄嗌ᾼ䢮㳲⎉䖍懝䠓䏸₅Ҹ㎠↠ ⎕㤟⁴吁⎦⁉䠓㝔䮚㎥䫭凥㢒⿤ㄛ䠋䖍虇桥䋅伢㜖䠓㕞慿仵⁉ 乍䩉䠓⓿巰虇⃕姛䮚宧撓☛㢒⿤䠓亿⏖╙⟷⌆㢘㟑㞾ᾜⴛ㜃 䠓虇憨ㄏㄏ㞾㜖ⴇ摹㔡䠓仟㤫虇΅㢘㟑㞾䛀㝋┮⭚幖㜨䠓▗℄ 桲⁴⎕愷军憯㎟Ҹ桥尹ㄗ╾劌㢘ᾏ㨬䢮⵵䠓⎉⥒╙彾佩虇㢘ᾏ ↚䢮⵵䠓ⅎ㚫ゞ凥⩖虇⃕╳⁴吁⎦䠓桕汣宧㍅䛨仵㎠↠䠓伢㜖 䏗㢻虇㎥⪩㎥ⶠ⾁桱朚―䖍⵵Ҹ␯㕡⢿⢥☛⢥䛺虇㢒ℎ⁉⶜凥 伢伢㜖幖㜨䠓㴆▁䀥䩉ㆶ憯㎟撾尳孏㊮Ҹ 㢏ㄛ虇㢻㢇䡰捞㐙䢇杫伢㜖䠓‡䢇╒䋶㾪厂㢏ⶠ虇⁴⋜伢 ⿇㏢㝆宝履Ҹ

!‫ܚ᠌ގ‬Ԥȅ፜ϼᙚӟ‫ڷ‬Ѵ༈


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