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nYn Ca kñúgbnÞb;svnakar ExFñÚ qñaM2011 ¬rbU ft ³ G>v>t>k¦


segátkarN_ ³ dMeNIrkat;eTasemdwknaMExμrRkhm

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segátkarN_ ³ dMeNIrkat;eTasemdwknaMExμrRkhm

CRmHsaladMbUgTak;TgeTAnwgRbvtiþénbkSkumμúynIsþkm<úCa nigRbvtþisavtarrbs;CnCab;ecaT nYn Ca eGog sarI nigexov sMpn tamdIkadMeNaHRsayenAkñúgsMNMuerOg002 muneBlGgÁCMnMuCRmHGnuBaØat[mankarsYredjedalCn Cab;ecaT edImbNþwgrdæb,evNI sakIS nigGñkCMnajGMBI GgÁehtuEdlerobrab;xagelI. k¦ RbvtþibkSkumμúynIsþkm<úCa enAkñúgdIkabBa¢ÚnerOgeTACMnMuCRmHkñúgsMNMuerOg002 rbs;shecARkmesIubGegát)anelIkeLIgfa eRkayBIbkS kumμúynIsþ\NÐÚcin)anrlayenAkñúgqñaM1951 GtItsmaCik rbs;bkSenH)anbegáItGgÁkarbdivtþn_dac;edayELkBIKñaenA kñúgRbeTsnImYy² ehIybkSfμImYyEdlbegáIteLIgenAkm<úCa maneQμaHfa {bkSRbCaCnbdivtþn_Exμr}. bkSenHmankar cUlrYmBIRkúm\sSr³edIm,ITamTarÉkraCüBIGaNaniKm)araMg EdlkarTamTarenH)anTTYleCaKC½y nigRtÚv)anTTYlsÁal; enAsnñsi TI TIRkúghSWENvkñgú qña1M 954. enAéf¶T3I 0 ExkBaØa qñaM1960 bkSRbCaCnbdivtþn_Exμr)aneFVImhasmaC ehIy )anbþrÚ eQμaHeTACa {bkSBlkrExμr} EdlenHCacMNcu cab;epþmI BitR)akdénkarbegáItclnakumμúynIsþExμr. bkSenH)an begáIt {maKa’yuT§sa®sþ} nig {maKa’yuT§viFI} c,as;las; kñúg qñaM1960enAGMLúgeBlmhasnñi)atbkSelIkTI1. enAEx mkra qñaM1965 {bkSBlkrExμr} )anGnum½tesckþIseRmc mYyEdl)anbdiesFcMeBaH {karpøas;bþÚredaysnþiviFI} eTA kan;lT§isgÁmniym nig)anbBa¢ak;fa {CakarcaM)ac;EdlRtÚv eRbIR)as;hgi Sabdivtþn}_ kñgú karts‘RU bqaMgnwgBYkcRkRkBtþ.i enAExkBaØa b¤tula qñaM1966 bkSBlkrExμrRtÚv)anbþÚr eQμaHeTACa {bkSkumμúynIsþkm<úCa} Edl)anseRmceday RbFanbkSenAkñúgGgÁRbCMuKN³mCÄim. enAéf¶TI17 Exmkra qñaM1968 kgkmøaMgrbs;bkSkumμúynisþkm<úCa)anebIkkar vayRbharelIkgT½Brbs;rdæaPi)alenAPUmi)aydMraM ¬PaK xagtÚ,gRkúg)at;dMbg¦ ehIyrwbGUs)anGavuFmYycMnYn. kalbriecäTénkarvayRbharenHRtÚv)anbkSkumy úμ niskþ m<Cú a 2

kMNt;faCaéf¶kMeNItrbs;kgT½Bbdivtþkm<úCa ehIyb:unμanEx eRkaymk kgkmøaMgrbs;bkSkumμúynisþkm<úCa)anbnþkar vayRbharrbs;xøÜnenATUTaMgRbeTs. enAéf¶TI23 ExmIna qñaM1970 semþc sIhnu )anRbkasbegáIt {rNsirSrYbrYm Cati} edIm,IeFVIkarbHe)arRbqaMgrdæaPi)al EdlkarRbkas enHeFVIeLIgeRkayBI ln; nl; eFVIrdæRbharTmøak;RBHGgÁenA éf¶T1I 8ExmInaqña1M 970.Ca»kasl¥ bkSkumy úμ niskþ m<Cú a )ancgsm<n½§PaBCamYysemþc sIhnu ehIybegáItrdæaPi)al nireTsfμImYymanmUldæanenATIRkúgeb:kaMgmaneQμaHfa {raC rdæaPi)alrYbrYmCatikm<úCa} nigRbkasCapøÚvkaréf¶TI5 Ex

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RBHsgÇkBM gu edrI clU bnbÞ s; vnakar mCÄmNÐlÉksarkm<úCa


segátkarN_ ³ dMeNIrkat;eTasemdwknaMExμrRkhm

]sPa qñaM1970. bkSkumμúynIsþ)anebIkkarvaylukelI tMbn;EdlRKb;RKgedayrdæaPi)alrbs; ln; nl; CabnþbnÞab; ehIyenAéf¶TI17 Exemsa qñaM1975 bkSkumμúynIsþkm<úCa )anrMedaHykTIRkúgPMñeBj. EteTaHbICay:agNakþI GtßiPaB rbs;bkSkumμúynisþkm<úCaRtÚv)anRbkasCapøÚvkarenAExkBaØa qñaM1977. x¦ Rbvtþisavtarrbs;CnCab;ecaTmñak;² bnÞab;BIRbvtþibkSkumμúynIsþkm<úCa RkLabBa¢I)anbnþ GanGMBItYnaTI nigkarcUlrYmkñúgclnakumμúynisþrbs;CnCab; ecaT nYn Ca/ eGog sarI nig exov sMpn muneBlénrbbkm<úCa

RbCaFibetyü EdlepþatsMxan;eTAelItnY aTIrbs;CnCab;ecaT mñak;²cab;taMgBIkarcUlRbLÚkneya)ay rhUtdl;karcab;epþmI énrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyükñúgExemsa qñaM1975. 1¦ Rbvtþisavtarrbs;CnCab;ecaT nYn Ca CnCab;ecaT nYn Ca )ancab;epþImcUlRbLÚky:ag skmμkñúgskmμPaBneya)ayenAcugTsvtSr_qñaM1940 enA xN³eBlEdlxøÜnenAkñúgRbeTséf. CnCab;ecaTrYbenH )ancUlrYmCamYy{GgÁkaryuvCnRbCaFibetyü} Edlsßit enAeRkambkSkumμúynIsþéf. bnÞab;mk CnenH)anvilmk km<úCaedIm,IcUlrYmclnats‘Urbs;bkSkumμúynisþ\NÐÚcinenA

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3


segátkarN_ ³ dMeNIrkat;eTasemdwknaMExμrRkhm

dMbn;sMLÚt edayTTYlbnÞúkxageXasnaenAkñúgbkS. enAkñúg xN³eBlenaHCnCab;ecaT nYn Ca )anTak;Tgy:agskmμ CamYyRkúmkumμúynIsþevotNam nigsmasPaBkumμúynIsþ énclnaExμr\sSr³. CnCab;ecaTrUbenH)aneTAsikSavKÁ neya)ayenARbeTsevotNamGs;ry³eBl2qñaM eRkay mkk¾køayeTACaemdwknaMmñak;énclnakumμúynisþsm¶at;enA TIRkúgPñMeBj. CnCab;ecaT nYn Ca RtÚv)aneRCIstaMgCa GnuelxabkSenAExkBaØa qñaM1960 ehIycenøaHqñaM1970 nig1975 CnCab;ecaTrUbenHmantYnaTICaGnubBa¢akareyaFa Can;x<s; kgT½BRbCaCnénclnarMedaHCatikm<úCa nigCaRbFan Epñkneya)ayrbs;kgT½Bbdivtþn_. 2¦ Rbvtsiþ avtarrbsC; nCabe; caT eGog sarI

KN³Gcié®nþy_ bnÞab;mkeTotenAqñaM1963 RtÚv)anbkS eRCIserIsCasmaCikeBjsiT§iénKN³Gcié®nþy_rbs;bkS kumy úμ nIskþ m<Cú a ehIyenAqña1M 966 CnenHmantYnaTICaelxa PUmiPaK|san. enAkñúgqñaM1970 CnCab;ecaT eGog sarI )aneFVIdMeNIreTATIRkúghaNUy nigTIRkúgeb:kaMgedIm,Icg sm<½n§PaBCamYybkSkumμúynisþcin. enAExFñÚ qñaM1970 CnCab;ecaTrUbenH)anerobcMeLIgvijnUv {viTüúseM LgrNsirS rYbrYmCatikm<úCa} EdlmanmUldæanenATIRkúghaNUy ehIy dak;[sßti enAeRkamkarRKb;RKgedayCnCab;ecaT eGog FIrTi .§ enAqñaM1971 CnCab;ecaT eGog sarI )antaMgmUldæanCa Gcié®nþy_enATIRkúgeb:kaMgkñúgzan³CaebskCnBiessénGñk ts‘UépÞkñúgenAeb:kaMg ehIyCnenH)anRtLb;mkkm<úCaCa

eGog sarI kgúñ bnbÞ s; vnakar ¬rbU ft ³ G>v>t>k¦

CnCab;ecaT eGog sarI ehA {v:an;})ancab;epþmI cUlrYm skmμPaBneya)aykñúgTsvtSr_qñaM1940 enAxN³Edl xøÜnCanisSiténviTüal½yRBHsIusuvtßi. enAqñaM1950 CnCab; ecaTrUbenH)anbnþkarsikSaenATIRkúg)arIsRbeTs)araMg ehIyxN³enaH eGog sarI )ankøayCasmaCikbkSkumy úμ nisþ )araMgCamYy b:ul Bt nigCnCab;ecaT exov sMpn. enAqñaM 1957 CnCab;ecaT eGog sarI )anRtLb;mkRbeTskm<úCa vij ehIy)ancUlrYmCamYyKNbkSbdivtþnR_ bCaCnkm<Cú a. bnÞab;mkenAqñaM1960 CnCab;ecaTrUbenHRtÚv)anbkS eRCIserIsCasmaCikKN³mCÄim nigCasmaCikeRtómén 4

Gcié®nþy_kñúgExemsa qñaM1975. kñúgfazan³CaebskCn Biess CnCab;ecaTrUbenH)aneRbIR)as;menaseBa©tna esñhaCatikñúgkarbMBak;bMb:n nigGUsTajRbCaCnkm<úCa[ cUlrYmCamYyraCrdæaPi)alrYbrYmCatikm<úCa. 3¦ Rbvtþisavtarrbs;CnCab;ecaT exov sMpn CnCab;ecaT exov sMpn ehA{Ehm} CaskmμCnmñak; kñúgclnakumμúynIsþkm<úCa Edl)ancab;epþImcUlkñúgqak neya)aycab;taMgBITsvtSr_qñaM50enARbeTs)araMgem:øH. enAeBlRtLb;mkRbeTskm<úCavij CnenH)anbegáItkaEst CaPasa)araMgEdlmaneQμaHfa {L’Observateur} ¬Gñk mCÄmNÐlÉksarkm<úCa


segátkarN_ ³ dMeNIrkat;eTasemdwknaMExμrRkhm

segátkarN_¦ edaymankarKaMRTnigpþl;fvikaedayskmμCn kumμúynIsþénRbeTskm<úCa. CnCab;ecaT exov sMpn RtÚv)an EtgtaMgCaGnuRbFanrNsirSrYbrYmCatikm<úCa nigCaGKÁ embBa¢akarénkgT½BrMedaHRbCaCnkm<úCa ehIyenAEx]sPa qñaM1970 CnenHRtÚv)anEtgtaMgeFVICa]bnaykrdæm®nþI nig Cardæm®nþIkarBarCatirbs;rdæaPi)alrYbrYmCatikm<úCa. enAqñaM 1971 CnCab;ecaTrUbenH)ankøayCasmaCikebkçCnrbs; KN³mCÄiménbkSkumμúynIsþkm<úCa ehIycenøaHExmkranig emsa qña1M 975 CnenH)anGMBavnav[RbCaCnTIRkúgPñeM Bj eRkakeLIgts‘rU eM daHCatingi )anRbkasfa {rNsirSrYbrYmCati km<úCa} nig {raCrdæaPi)alrYbrYmCatikm<úCa} Gacnwgkan;kab; RkúgPñMeBjnaeBlqab;².

exov spM n kgúñ bnbÞ s; vnakar ¬rbU ft ³ G>v>t>k¦

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edjedalCnCab;ecaT elakRbFanGgÁCMnMuCRmH nil Nun )anRbkasfa karsYredjedalnwgcab;epþImmuneKBIkarsak sYrCnCab;ecaT nYn Ca bnÞab;mknwgbnþeTACnCab;ecaT eGog sarI nigcugeRkay KWCnCab;ecaT exov sMpn. 1¦ CnCabe; caT nnY Ca kareFkVI N M ts; maÁ lr; bs; nnY Ca muneBlsYredjedalCnCab;ecaT nYn Ca GgÁCMnMu CRmH)anGnuBaØat[CnCab;ecaTeFVIkarbgðajBICIvitts‘UEpñk neya)ayrbs;xøÜnknøgmk. eRkayBITTYl)ankarGnuBaØati CnCab; ecaT nYn Ca )ancMNayeBlevlaesÞIrEtTaMgRsug edIm,IbgðajBITwkcitþesñhaCati karRsLaj;yutþiFm’ nigkar lHbg;rbs;xøÜnsRmab;CatimatuPUmi. Cak;Esþg nYn Ca )an 

nnY Ca kgúñ bnbÞ s; vnakar ¬rbU ft ³ G>v>t>k¦

elIkeLIgfa {kalenAv½ykumarPaB EdleBlenaHRbeTs kMBugsßitenAeRkamGaNaniKm)araMg xøÜn)aneXIjRbCaCn ExμrRtÚv)aneKcab;eFVI)ab nigdak;kñúgmnÞIrXMuXaMg Gñkman CiHCan;ngi ekgRbv:aj;kmøagM BlkmμGkñ Rk}. nYn Ca )anbEnßm fa minRtwmEtRbeTskm<úCaeT sUm,IRbeTséfk¾dUcKñaEdr KWGñkmanCiHCan;GñkRk CaBiessCnCaticinCiHCan;CnCati éf. edayeXIjsPaBEbbenH xøÜn)anseRmccitþcUlrYm CamYyGgÁkaryuvCnRbCaFibetyü nigbnÞab;mkcUlbkS kumμúynIsþéfedIm,IRbqaMgnwgkarCiHCan; ehIyxøÜn)aneFVIskmμ PaBmYycMnnY RbqaMgnwgGñkkan;GN M acmYycMnnY enARbeTséf. 5


segátkarN_ ³ dMeNIrkat;eTasemdwknaMExμrRkhm

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6

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segátkarN_ ³ dMeNIrkat;eTasemdwknaMExμrRkhm

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cUlrYmRbCMuCamYynwgbkSkumμúynIsþenaH edaysarEteK elIkeLIgEtBIbBaðarbs;)araMg. eRkayeBlRtLb;mk RbeTskm<úCavijenAqñaM1958 Cn Cab;ecaT exov sMpn )anGHGagfa xøÜnminEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYybkSkumμúynIsþ km<úCaeLIy eRBaHkarTak;TgCamYynwgbkSkumμúynIsþkm<úCa enaHGacnwgeFIV[xøÜnmaneRKaHfñak; edaysarmanKijtamdan xøÜnCanic© sUmI,enAeBlEdlxøÜneFIVCatMNagra®sþ nigCardæ elxaRksYgBaNiC¢kmμ. Tak;TgnwgkarkfaxNÐ1127 én dIkadMeNaHRsayEdlelIkeLIgfa kaEstEdlCnCab;ecaT exov sMpn )anecjpSayCakaEstEdl]btßmedayBYk kumμúynIsþenaH RtÚv)anCnCab;ecaT exov sMpn GtßaFib,ay faGñkEdl]btßmkaEstrbs;xøÜnPaKeRcInminEmnCaGñk kumμúynIsþeTeTaHbICamanGñkkumμúynIsþxøHk¾edayeRBaHBYkeK CatMNagra®sþénsPaCati dUcCah‘U yn; hU‘ nwm G‘uc Evnnig sU En CaedIm. CnCab;ecaT exov sMpn )anrMBk£ fa enAeBlRtLb; mkRbeTskm<úCavij h‘U nwm nig h‘U yn; EdlCamitþPkþieron CamYyKñaenAÉRbeTs)araMg )anesñI[xøÜnecjkaEstmYy edImI,bgðajBIsMeLgrbs;yuT§Cn kaEstenaHe)aHBum<Ca Pasa)araMg KWkaEstGubesva:T½r (L’Observateur).kaEst enHecjpSaykñúgeKalbMNgKaMRTdl;clnaGBüaRkwtürbs; semþc sIhnu nigsgwÇmfaGaceFIV[mankarcuHfyKmøat CIvPaBRbCaCn)anxøHeRBaHkaEstenHe)aHBum<eLIgsMedA sRmab;GñkdwknaMRbeTsGan edaysarGñkdwknaMenAeBlenaH cUlcitþGankaEstCaPasa)araMg rIÉRbCaCnsamBaØminsUv manGñkGankaEstenaHeLIy. CnCab;ecaT exov sMpn )an bgðajBIkartieToneTAdl;semþc neratþm sIhnu enAkñúgesckþI EføgkarN_rbs;xøÜn enAeBlEdlCnCab;ecaTrUbenHniyay dl;karecaTRbkan;kaEstrbs;xøÜnfaCa kaEstRkhm b¤ kaEstkumμúynIsþ. exov sMpn GHGagfa Baküfa kaEst RkhmenHKWecjmkGMBIsemþc sIhnu cab;epþImmankarP½y RBÜyBIKMnitÉkraCürbs;xøÜn. manéf¶mYyenaH xøÜnRtÚv)an ekaHehAeTAsYrcemøIyenARksYgb:UlIsBiess enAeBlEdl mCÄmNÐlÉksarkm<úCa


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segátkarN_ ³ dMeNIrkat;eTasemdwknaMExμrRkhm

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evidentiary-hearings-in case-002