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æaf6f], ;To / hLjg d g} x'“ . dåf/f afx]s sf]xL lktfsxf“ cfpg ;Sb}g .Æ

of] k':tsn] o]z" v|Li6sf] af/]df atfp“5 . s] o]z"n] eGg'ePsf] ;a} ;To lyof] < s] pxf“n] pxf“dfly ljZjf; ug]{x¿sf] nflu k|lt1f ug'{ePsf] cgGt hLjg ;To 5 t < jf s] pxf“ csf]{ wd{sf k|j4{s dfq x'g'x'G5 t <

gof“ s/f/ afOan

of] egfO{ pxf“sf] xf] h;n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ lktf egL ;Daf]wg ug'{eof] / k/d]Zj/sf] tk{maf6 af]Ng'eof] .

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

kljq afOansf] of] gof“ s/f/ k9\g'xf];\ / k/d]Zj/nfO{ tkfO{+;“u af]Ng lbg'xf];\ . afOann] dfgjsf] uGtJo / k[YjLsf] af/]df s] atfp“5, ;f] k9\g'xf];\ . tkfO{+sf] uGtJosf] af/]df k9\g'xf];\ .

d"No ;xof]u :j?k ?= !%÷–

gof“ s/f/ afOan


hLjgsf] ;Gb]z -gof“ s/f/ – gof“ g]kfnL afOan ;+s/0f_


k/d]Zj/

pxf“sf] k'q o]z" v|Li6åf/f tkfO{+;“u JolQmut, k|]ldnf] ;DaGw :yfkgf ug{ pT;'s x'g'x'G5 . pxf“sf] o; lgdGq0ffk|lt tkfO+{af6 hjfkm kfpg pxf“n] w}o{tf– k"j{s k|ltIff ul//xg'ePsf] 5M æx]/ d 9f]sfdf pleP/ 9S9Sofp“5' . s;}n] d]/f] ;f]/ ;'g]/ 9f]sf vf]lnlbof] eg], d To;sxf“ leq k:g]5' / To;;“u ef]hg vfg]5', / To;n] d;“u vfg]5Æ k|sfz #M@) -k[i7 $)%_ . k/d]Zj/nfO{ JolQmut¿kdf lrGgaf6 xfdLnfO{ afwf lbg] d'Vo s'/f pxf“ sf] x'g'x'G5 / pxf“n] xfd|f] nflu s] ul/lbg'ePsf] 5 egL a'‰g grfxg' xf] . gof“ s/f/, o]z" v|Li6åf/f k/d]Zj/;“u JolQmut ;DaGw :yfkgf ug'{ eg]sf] s] xf] eGg]af/]df xfdLnfO{ a'emfpg JofVof ul/Psf] k/d]Zj/sf] tl/sf jf dfWod xf] . oL k[i7x¿leq, o]z" v|Li6n] dfq kfk Ifdf ug'{x'G5, hLjgsf] clGtd p2]Zo, dgdf zflGt / kl/jt{g x'g] zlQmsf] af/]df tkfO{+n] a'‰g ;Sg'x'g]5 . of] gof“ s/f/ tkfO{+sf] cflTds ofqfnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . o;df $ cf]6f kf7x¿ ;dfj]z ul/Psf 5g\, h;n] tkfO{+nfO{ csf]{ sbd rfNg / k/d]Zj/;“u JolQmut ;DaGw ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u ub{5 .


hLjgsf] ;Gb]z -gof“ s/f/ – gof“ g]kfnL afOan ;+s/0f_


hLjgsf] ;Gb]z -gof“ s/f/ – gof“ g]kfnL afOan ;+s/0f_ New Nepali Bible Version (Pavitre Bible) copyright © 1998, 2006 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide

k/d]Zj/nfO{ JolQmut ?kdf lrGg' copyright © 1968-2010 Bright Media Foundation; v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg copyright © 1984-2010 CCCI. All rights reserved This edition first published 2015

dLl8of ;e{åf/f k|sflzt www.mediaserve.org ISBN 978-1-906389-42-0 Nepali Printed in Nepal


ljifo ;"rL k/d]Zj/nfO{ JolQmut¿kdf lrGg'

gof“ s/f/ dQL ! ds"{; %% n"sf *( o"xGgf !$( k|]l/t !($ /f]dL @%# ! sf]l/GyL @&% @ sf]l/GyL @(^ unftL #!) Plkm;L #!* lkmlnKkL #@% sn:;L ##) ! y];nf]lgsL ##^ @ y];nf]lgsL #$)

! ltdf]yL #$# @ ltdf]yL #$( tLt; #%# lkmn]df]g #%^ lxa|" #%* ofs"a #&% ! kq'; #*! @ kq'; #*& ! o"xGgf #(! @ o"xGgf #(& # o"xGgf #(* ox"bf #(( k|sfz $)!

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjgM kf7 PsM k|f/De kf7 b'O{M k/d]Zj/sf] k|]dsf] cg'ej ug'{ kf7 tLgM zlQm ;|f]t kf7 rf/M v|Li6df j[l4

$@( $#$ $$% $%$


k/d]Zj/nfO{ JolQmut¿kdf lrGg' h;/L ef}lts Joj:yfn] a|Dxf08df zf;g u5{, To;}u/L cflTds Joj:yfn] k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwdf zf;g ub{5 .

lgod PsM k/d]Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ k|]d ug'{x'G5 / xfd|f] hLjgdf pb]ssf] of]hgf /fVg'x'G5 . -s[kof ;Gbe{x¿ afOanLo k|;+udf k9\g'xf]nf . tkfO{+sf] ;'ljwfsf] nflu k[i7;+Vofx¿ lbOPsf 5g\ ._

k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d ælsgls k/d]Zj/n] ;+;f/nfO{ o:tf] k|]d ug'{eof], pxf“n] cfgf Psdfq k'q lbg'eof], pxf“dfly ljZjf; ug]{ sf]xL klg gfz gxf];\, t/ To;n] cgGt hLjg kfcf];\Æ o"xGgf #M!^ -k[i7 !%$_ .

k/d]Zj/sf] of]hgf ærf]/ t rf]g{, dfg{, / gfz kfg{ dfq cfp“5≤ d t ltgLx¿n] hLjg kfpmg\ / Tof] k|z:t dfqfdf kfpmg\ eg]/ cfP“Æ o"xGgf !)M!) -k[i7 !&!_ .

k|foM dflg;x¿n] lsg k|z:ttf / cy{k"0f{ hLjgsf] cg'ej ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ < lsgeg]===

VII


VIII

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

lgod b'O{M xfdL kfkL 5f}+ / k/d]Zj/af6 cnlUuPsf 5f}+ . To;}sf/0f, xfdL k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d yfxf kfpg, cg'ej ug{ / xfd|f] hLjgdf pxf“sf] of]hgf a'‰g ;Sb}gf}+ . xfdL kfkL 5f}+ ælsgls ;a}n] kfk u/]sf 5g\ / k/d]Zj/sf] dlxdfaf6 6f9f ePsf 5g\Æ /f]dL #M@# -k[i7 @%&_ . xfdL k/d]Zj/;“u ;+ult ug{sf] nflu ;[lhPsf xf}+, t/ xfd|f] cfÇg} x7L cfTd–OR5fsf] sf/0f xfdLn] :jtGtqfk"j{s lx“8\g] af6f] /f]Hof}+ / k/d]Zj/;“usf] ;+ult 6'6\g uof] . o:tf] cfTd–OR5fn] ;lqmo ljb|f]x jf lgis[o pbfl;gtfsf] dgf]j[lQnfO{ hgfp“5, h;nfO{ afOann] kfk eGb5 .

xfdL cnlUuPsf 5f}+ ælsgls kfksf] Hofnf d[To' xf], t/ k/d]Zj/sf] j/bfg v|Li6 o]z" xfd|f k|e'df cgGt hLjg xf]Æ /f]dL ^M@# -k[i7 @^)_ .

kljq k/d]Zj/

of] /]vflrqn] k/d]Zj/ kljq x'g'x'G5 / xfdL kfkL 5f}+ eGg] s'/f b]vfp“5 . Pp6f 7"nf] vf8Ln] xfdLnfO{ cnu ub{5 . tL/sf] lrqn] xfdL lg/Gt/ k/d]Zj/sxf“ hfg k|of; ul//x]sf] b]vfp“5g\ / xfdL cfÇg} ann] c;n hLjg, bz{g jf wd{sf]¿kdf k|z:ttfsf] hLjg kfpg sf]lz; ul//x]sf 5f}+ .

kfkL dflg; t];|f] lgodn] o; vf8Ldf k'n agfpg] Pp6} dfq pkfosf] af/]df JofVof ub{5===


k/d]Zj/nfO{ JolQmut¿kdf lrGg'

IX

lgod tLgM k/d]Zj/n] xfd|f] kfksf] nflu ul/lbg'ePsf] Ps dfq k|aGw o]z" v|Li6 x'g'x'G5 . pxf“åf/f dfq xfdL pxf“sf] k|]dsf] cg'ej ug{ / xfd|f] hLjgdf k/d]Zj/sf] of]hgf yfxf kfpg ;S5f}+ . pxf“ xfd|f] ;§f dg'{eof] æt/ k/d]Zj/n] cfgf] k|]d xfdLk|lt o;/L bzf{pg'x'G5M xfdL kfkL 5“b}, v|Li6 xfd|f lglDt dg'{eof]Æ /f]dL %M* -k[i7 @%(_ .

pxf“ d[To'af6 af}/L p7\g'eof] æ=== wd{zf:qcg';f/ v|Li6 xfd|f kfksf] lglDt dg'{eof], pxf“ ufl8≥g'eof], pxf“ wd{zf:q–cg';f/ t];|f] lbgdf hLljt x'g'eof],  clg pxf“ kq';sxf“ clg To;kl5 afx| hgf r]nfx¿sxf“ b]vfkg'{eof] .  To;kl5 pxf“ kf“r ;oeGbf a9≥L efOx¿sxf“ Ps}rf]l§ b]vfkg'{eof], h'gdWo] w]/} hgf ce}m hLljt 5g\, clg slt t dl/uPÆ ! sf]l/GyL !%M#–^ -k[i7 @(@_ .

pxf“ dfq k/d]Zj/sxf“ k'Ug] af6f] x'g'x'G5 o]z"n] eGg'eof], æaf6f], ;To / hLjg d g} x'“ . dåf/f afx]s sf]xL lktfsxf“ cfpg ;Sb}gÆ o"xGgf !$M^ -k[i7 !*)_ .

k/d]Zj/ o]z"

of] /]vflrqn] k/d]Zj/n] vf8Ldf k'nsf] sfd ug'{ePsf] b]vfp“5, h'g vf8Ln] xfdLnfO{ pxf“af6 cnu u5{ . pxf“n] cfÇgf] k'q o]z" v|Li6 xfd|f] kfksf] df]n ltg{ q"m;df dg{ k7fpg'eof] .

dflg; oL tLg lgodx¿ hfg]/ dfq k'Ub}g===


X

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

lgod rf/M xfdLn] o]z" v|Li6nfO{ JolQmut¿kdf cfgf] d'lQmbftf / k|e' egL u|x0f ug'{k5{, ta dfq xfdLn] k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d cg'ej ug{ / xfd|f] hLjgdf pxf“sf] of]hgf a'‰g ;S5f}+ . xfdLn] o]z"nfO{ u|x0f ug}{k5{ æt/ hltn] pxf“nfO{ u|x0f u/], / pxf“sf] gfp“dfly ljZjf; u/], ltgLx¿ ;a}nfO{ pxf“n] k/d]Zj/sf ;Gtfg x'g] clwsf/ lbg'eof]Æ o"xGgf !M!@ -k[i7 !$(_ .

xfdLn] ljZjf;åf/f o]z"nfO{ kfpg ;S5f}+ ælsgls ltdLx¿ ljZjf;åf/f cg'u|xaf6 arfOPsf xf}— / of] ltdLx¿ cfk}maf6 xf]Og, of] t k/d]Zj/sf] j/bfg xf] . sd{x¿åf/f xf]Og, gqtf s;}n] 3d08 ug]{5Æ Plkm;L @M*–( -k[i7 #!(_ .

o]z" v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f u/]kl5 xfdLn] gof“ hGdsf] cg'ej ug{ ;S5f}+ o"xGgf #M!–* -k[i7 !%#_ k9\g'xf];\ .

JolQmut lgdGq0ffåf/f xfdL o]z"nfO{ u|x0f ug{;S5f}+ æd oxf“ 5' ∕ d 9f]sfdf pleP/ 3r3Rofp“5' . olb s;}n] d]/f] cfjfh ;'G5 / 9f]sf vf]lnlbG5 eg], d To;sxf“ leq cfpg]5' clg To;l;t vfg]5', / To;n] dl;t vfg]5Æ k|sfz #M@) -k[i7 $)%_ . v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f ugf{n] cfk}mnfO{ k/d]Zj/lt/ 8f]¥ofp“5 -kZrftfk u/fp“5_ / v|Li6nfO{ e/f];f ugf{n] xfd|f] kfk Ifdf x'G5 / xfdLnfO{ pxf“sf] OR5fcg';f/ c;n dflg; aGg v|Li6nfO{ xfd|f] hLjgdf cfpgsf] nflu pxf“df e/f];f pTkGg u/fp“5 . o]z" v|Li6 k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g'x'G5 / pxf“ xfd|f] kfksf] vflt/ q"m;df dg'{eof] eGg] s'/f xfd|f] ;demn] a'e]m/ dfq k'Ub}g . g ls of] efjgfTds ¿kdf cg'ej ug]{ s'/f xf] . xfdL o]z" v|Li6nfO{ ljZjf;åf/f


k/d]Zj/nfO{ JolQmut¿kdf lrGg'

XI

cfÇgf] OR5fdf u|x0f ub{5f}+ . oL b'O{ cf]6f rqmn] b'O{ lsl;dsf] hLjgnfO{ k|ltlglwTj ub{5M

:j–lgb]{lzt hLjgM d – cfk}mnfO{ l;+xf;gdf /fVg' – v|Li6 hLjgb]lv aflx/ • – OR5fx¿ cfk}maf6 lgb]{lzt, kl/0ffd k|foM lj/f]wfefif / lg/fz

d

d

v|Li6–lgb]{lzt hLjgM – v|Li6 hLjgdf / l;+xf;gdf x'g'x'G5 d – d rflx“ v|Li6åf/f ;+rflnt • – OR5fx¿ v|Li6åf/f ;+rflnt, k/d]Zj/sf] of]hgf Ps¿ktfdf kl/0ffd

s'grflx“ rqmn] tkfO{+sf] hLjgnfO{ ;a}eGbf 7Ls;“u k|ltlglwTj ub{5 < s'grflx“ rqmn] tkfO{+sf] hLjgnfO{ k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] tkfO{+nfO{ dgk5{ < tkfO{+ o; ;do ljZjf;åf/f k|fy{gf u/L v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . k|fy{gf eg]sf] k/d]Zj/;“u ;+rf/ -s'/fsfgL_ ug'{ xf] . k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+sf] Xbo / dgsf] s'/f hfGg'x'G5, tkfO+{n] s] eg]/ k|fy{gf ug'{x'G5, To;df pxf“n] rf;f] /fVg' x'Gg t/ tkfO{+sf] Xbo s:tf] 5 o;n] km/s kfb{5 . o;/L k|fy{gf ug'{ pko'Qm x'G5M

k|e' o]z", dnfO{ tkfO{+sf] vf“rf] 5 . d]/f] kfksf] nflu q"m;df dg'{ePsf]df wGojfb r9fp“5' . d d]/f] hLjgsf] 9f]sf tkfO{+sf] lglDt vf]Nb5' / tkfO{+nfO{ d]/f] d'lQmbftf / k|e' egL u|x0f ub{5' . d]/f]


XII

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

kfk Ifdf ug'{ePsf]df wGojfb r9fp“5' . d]/f] hLjgsf] l;+xf;gnfO{ lgoGq0f ug'{xf];\ . tkfO+{sf] OR5fcg';f/sf] dflg; dnfO{ agfpg'xf];\ . s] of] k|fy{gfn] tkfO{+sf] Xbosf] rfxgfnfO{ JoQm ub{5 < olb ub{5 eg], of] k|fy{gf clxn] g} ul/xfNg'xf];\, pxf“n] k|lt1f ug'{ePcg';f/ v|Li6 tkfO{+sf] hLjgdf cfpg'x'G5 .


dQLn] n]vs ] f ;';dfrf/ o]zs " f] j+zfjnL oxf]/fd plHhofxsf lktf, ca|fxfdsf k'q, bfpmbsf k'q o]z" ( plHhofx of]tfdsf lktf, v|Li6sf] j+zfjnLsf] ljj/0fM of]tfd cfxfhsf lktf, cfxfh lxhlsofsf lktf, @ ca|fxfd O;xfssf lktf lyP, !) lxhlsof dgZz]s ] f lktf, O;xfs ofs"asf lktf, dgZz] cdf]gsf lktf, ofs"a ox"bf / ltgsf bfHo"efOx¿sf cdf]g of]lzofxsf lktf, lktf, !! clg of]lzofx o]sf]lgof / ltgsf # ox"bf ˚f/]; / h]/xsf lktf, efOx¿sf lktf, ltgLx¿ ltgLx¿sL cfdf tfdf/ lyOg\, a]lanf]glt/ nluPsf ;dodf ˚f/]; x];f| g] sf lktf, hGd]sf lyP . x];f| g] cf/fdsf lktf, $ !@  cf/fd cDdLgfbfasf lktf, a]lanf]gdf nluPkl5M cDdLgfbfa gxzf]gsf lktf, o]sf]lgof zfnltPnsf lktf lyP, gxzf]g ;Ndf]gsf lktf, zfnltPn o?afa]nsf lktf, % !# ;Ndf]g af]chsf lktf, o?afa]n clapbsf lktf, ltgsL cfdf /fxfa lyOg\, clapb PNofsLdsf lktf, af]ch cf]ab] sf lktf, PNofsLd cfhf]/sf lktf, !$ ltgsL cfdf ¿y lyOg\, cfhf]/ ;fbf]ssf lktf, cf]ab] loz}sf lktf, ;fbf]s cflvdsf lktf, ^ clg loz} /fhf bfpmbsf lktf lyP . cflvd Plnpbsf lktf, !% Plnpb Pnfhf/sf lktf, bfpmb ;'nd] fgsf lktf lyP, ltgsL Pnfhf/ dQfgsf lktf, cfdf klxn] pl/ofxsL kTgL lyOg\, dQfg ofs"asf lktf, & ;'nd] fg /xafdsf lktf, !^ clg ofs"a o";k' msf lktf, hf] /xafd claofsf lktf, v|Li6 elgg] o]zn " fO{ hGdfpg] claof cf;fsf lktf, dl/odsf klt lyP . * cf;f oxf]zfkftsf lktf, !&  oxf]zfkft oxf]/fdsf lktf, o;/L ca|fxfdb]lv bfpmb;Dd hDdf

! 


dQL @ 

rf}w k':tf, bfpmbb]lv a]lanf]gdf nluPsf] ;do;Dd rf}w k':tf, clg b]z lgsfnfb]lv v|Li6;Dd rf}w k':tf 5g\ . o]z" v|Li6sf] hGd o]z" v|Li6sf] hGd o;/L eof]M pxf“sL cfdf dl/odsf] ljjfx o";k' ml;t x'g] k|lt1f ePsf] lyof], t/ ltgLx¿sf] ljjfx x'gcl3 g} ltgL kljq cfTdfåf/f ue{jtL ePsL lyOg\ . !(  ltgsf klt o";k' m Ps wfld{s dflg; ePsfn] / cfk"m ;dfhdf ckdfg x'g grfx]sfn], ltgnfO{ ;'6S' s Toflulbg] ljrf/ u/] . @)  t/ tL lbgx¿df o";k' mn] o:tf] ljrf/ u/]kl5 k/dk|es ' f] Ps hgf b"tn] ;kgfdf ltgLsxf“ b]vf k/]/ eg], æbfpmbsf] k'q o";k' m, dl/odnfO{ ltd|f] kTgLsf] ¿kdf 3/ n}hfg g8/fpm, lsgls hf] ltgsf] ue{df x'gx' G' 5 pxf“ kljq cfTdfaf6 x'gx' G' 5  . @!  ltgn] Pp6f 5f]/f hGdfpg]l5g\ clg ltdLn] pxf“sf] gfp“ o]z" /fVg", lsgls pxf“n] cfgf dflg;x¿nfO{ ltgLx¿sf kfkb]lv arfpg'xg' 5 ]  .Æ @@  oL s'/fx¿ To;/L g} k"/f eP h;/L k/dk|en ' ] cfgf cudjQmfåf/f eGg'ePsf] lyof]M @# æsGof ue{jtL eP/ Pp6f k'q hGdfpg]l5g\ clg ltgLx¿n] pxf“nfO{ ODdfg'Pn eGg]5g\,Æ h;sf] cy{ xf], æk/d]Zj/ xfdLl;t .Æ @$  o";k' m Ao"e“ m] kl5 k/dk|es ' f] b"tn] eg]em} “ u/] clg dl/odnfO{ kTgLsf] ¿kdf 3/df nu] . @% t/ ltgn] k'q ghGdfp~h]n ltgLl;t ;xjf; u/]gg\ . clg ltgn] afns hGd]kl5 pxf“sf] gfp“ o]z" /fv] . !* 

2

Hof]ltifLx¿åf/f bz{g /fhf x]/f]bsf] ;dodf ox"lbofsf] a]yn]xd] df o]zs " f] hGd ePkl5 k"ja{ f6 Hof]ltifLx¿ o¿zn]ddf cfP @ / ;f]w,] æox"bLx¿sf /fhf eP/ hGdg'ePsf] sxf“ x'gx' G' 5 < xfdLn] k"jd{ f pxf“sf] tf/f b]Vof}+ / xfdL pxf“nfO{ b08jt\ ug{ cfPsf 5f} + .Æ #  To;a]nf /fhf x]/f]bn] h;} of] ;'g] ltgL / o¿zn]ddf ePsf ;a} ljrlnt eP . $ clg ltgn] ;a} d'Vo k"hfxf/Lx¿ / Joj:yfsf lzIfsx¿nfO{ af]nfP / v|Li6sf] hGd sxf“ ePsf] xf] egL ;f]w ] . % ltgLx¿n] hjfkm lbP, æox"lbofsf] a]yn]xd] df, lsgls cudjQmfn] o;/L n]vs ] f 5g\M

@ 

æ‘t/ ox"bfdf ePsf] a]yn]xd] , ltdL s'g} lsl;dn] klg ox"bfsf zf;sx¿dWo] ;fgf] 5}gf}≤ lsgls ltdLaf6 Ps hgf zf;s lg:sg'xg' 5 ] hf] d]/f dflg;, O;|fPnsf uf]7fnf x'gx' g' 5 ] .’Æ

^

&  ta x]/f]bn] Hof]ltifLx¿nfO{ ;'6S' s af]nfP/ tf/f b]vf k/]sf] 7Ls ;do kQf] nufP . * clg ltgn] ltgLx¿nfO{ a]yn]xd] df k7fP/ o;f] eg], æhfcf] clg xf]lzof/L;fy afnsnfO{ vf]h . ltdLx¿n] ltgnfO{ e]§fpg] lalQs}, dnfO{ eg, / d klg uP/ ltgnfO{ b08jt\ ug]5 {  ' .Æ (  /fhfaf6 of] s'/f ;'gk] l5 ltgLx¿ cfgf] af6f] nfu], clg ltgLx¿n] k"jd{ f b]vs ] f] tf/f ltgLx¿ To; afns ePsf] 7fp“df gk'uG' h]n ltgLx¿sf] clu nfUof] .


3

dQL # 

ha ltgLx¿n] Tof] tf/f b]v,] ta ltgLx¿ ?jfO / 7"nf] ljnfk, clt cfglGbt eP/ /dfP . !! 3/df /fx]n cfgf afnsx¿sf] lglDt /f]PsL cfOk'uk] l5 ltgLx¿n] afnsnfO{ cfgL clg ltgL zfGt x'g gdfg]sL, cfdf dl/odsf] ;fydf b]v] clg ltgLx¿n] lsgls ltgsf afnsx¿ ca /x]gg\ .Æ 3f]K6f] k/]/ pxf“nfO{ b08jt\ u/]  . ta gf;/tdf kms{s ] f ltgLx¿n] cfgf sGt'/ vf]n/] pxf“nfO{ ;'g, ;'ulGwt w"k / d"/s { f e]6L r9≥fP  . !( x]/f]bsf] d[To'kl5, k/dk|es ' f] Pp6f b"t !@  To; /ft x]/f]bsxf“ ghfg" eGg] ;kgfdf ld>b]zdf ;kgfdf o";k' msxf“ b]vf k/], r]tfjgL kfP/ ltgLx¿ cs}{ af6f] eO{ cfgf] @) clg eg], æpm7, afns / ltgsL cfdfnfO{ b]zdf kms] { . lnP/ O;|fPnsf] d'ns ' df hfpm, lsgls afnssf] hLjg lng rfxg]x¿ dl/;s]sf ld>b]zlt/ k|:yfg 5g\ .Æ !#  @!  ltgLx¿ uO;s]kl5 k/dk|es ' f] Pp6f b"t clg ltgL p7], afns / ltgsL ;kgfdf o";k' msxf“ b]vf k/]/ eg], æpm7, cfdfnfO{ lnO{ O;|fPn b]zdf uOxfn]  . afns / ltgsL cfdfnfO{ lnP/ ld>b]zdf @@ t/ ha ltgn] x]/f]bsf] 7fp“df ltgsf k'q hfcf]  . d}n] k]ml/ s]xL geg'Gh]n ToxL“ clv{nfp;n] ox"lbofdf /fHo ub}5 { g\ eGg] a;, lsgls x]/f]bn] afnsnfO{ vf]h/] dfg{ ;'g,] ta ltgL Toxf“ hfg 8/fP . ta ;kgfdf vf]Hb}5 .Æ r]tfjgL kfP/ ltgL ufnLnsf] lhNnfdf uP . !$  o;sf/0f ltgL p7], afns / ltgsL @# clg ltgL gf;/t eGg] zx/df uP/ a;] . cfdfnfO{ lnP/ /ftL g} ld>b]zlt/ o;/L cudjQmfx¿åf/f elgPsf] s'/f k"/f k|:yfg u/], !% hxf“ ltgLx¿ x]/f]bsf] d[To' eof]M æpxf“nfO{ gf;/L elgg]5 .Æ geOGh]n /x] . clg o;/L k/d]Zj/n] cfgf cudjQmfåf/f eGg'ePsf] jrg k"/f eof]M alKt:df—lbg] o"xGgfn] af6f] tof/ kf/]sf æd}n] cfgf] k'qnfO{ ld>b]zaf6 af]nfP“ .Æ tL lbgx¿df ox"lbofsf] phf8≥–:yfgdf !^  ha Hof]ltifLx¿åf/f cfk"m 7luPsf] alKt:df–lbg] o"xGgf k|rf/ ub}{ o;f] x]/f]bn] yfxf kfP, ta ltgL cf}wL l/;fP eGb} cfP, @ ækZrfQfk u/, lsgls :ju{sf] clg Hof]ltifLx¿åf/f 7Ls kQf] nufOPsf] /fHo ghLs cfPsf] 5 .Æ # oL ltgL g} x'g,\ ;docg';f/ a]yn]xd] / To;sf ;Ldfgfdf h;sf] af/]df oz}of cudjQmfåf/f o;f] ePsf b'O{ jif{ / To; d'lgsf afnsx¿nfO{ elgPsf] lyof]M dfg]{ cfb]z lbP . !& ta old{of cudjQmfåf/f æphf8≥–:yfgdf s/fpg] Ps hgfsf] ;f]/, elgPsf] of] jrg k"/f eof]M ‘k/dk|es ' f] af6f] tof/ u/, !* æ/fdfdf Pp6f cfjfh ;'lgof], pxf“sf] lglDt ky ;f]emf] agfcf] .’Æ !) 

# 


dQL $ 

o"xGgfsf] j:q p“m6sf] /f}n + ] ag]sf] lyof], clg ltgn] 5fnfsf] k6'sf sDd/df af“ws ] f lyP . ltgsf] ef]hg ;nx / jg–dx lyof] . % o¿zn]d, ;a} ox"lbof clg ob{gsf ;Dk"0f{ Onfsfaf6 dflg;x¿ ltgsf] k|rf/ ;'GgnfO{ hfGy]  . ^ cfgf kfkx¿ :jLsf/ ub}{ ltgLx¿n] ltgLaf6 ob{g gbLdf alKt:df lnGy] . &  t/ ha ltgn] cfk"mn] alKt:df lbO/x]sf] 7fp“df kml/;L / ;b'sLx¿nfO{ cfO/x]sf b]v,] ltgn] eg]M æx] ;k{sf ;Gtfg xf]  ∕ ltdLx¿nfO{ cfpg nfu]sf] qmf]waf6 efUg s;n] r]tfjgL lbof] < * kZrfQfkcg';f/sf] kmn kmnfcf] . ( clg ‘xfd|f lktf ca|fxfd x'g’\ egL eGg ;S5f}+ eg]/ g7fg . d ltdLx¿nfO{ eGb5', oL 9'·fx¿af6 k/d]Zj/n] cfgf] ;Gtfg v8≥f ug{ ;Sg'xG' 5  . !) ¿vsf] h/fdf a~r/f] kl/;s]sf] 5 . clg c;n kmn gkmnfpg] x/]s ¿v 9fn]/ cfuf]df xflng]5 . !!  æd t ltdLx¿nfO{ kZrfQfksf] nflu kfgLsf] alKt:df lbG5' . t/ dkl5 deGbf zlQmzfnL Ps hgf cfpg'xg' 5 ] , h;sf] h'Qf af]Sg] of]Uosf] d 5}g “ . pxf“n] ltdLx¿nfO{ kljq cfTdf / cfuf]n] alKt:df lbg'xg' 5 ]  . !@  pxf“sf] lgkmGg] gfª\nf] pxf“sf] xftdf 5, clg pxf“n] cfgf] vnf] ;kmf ug'x{ g' 5 ] / ux'“ wg;f/df hDdf u/]/ e';rflx“ slxNo} glgEg] cfuf]df hnfOlbg'xg' 5 ]  .Æ $ 

4

o"xGgfn] o;f] eg]/ pxf“nfO{ /f]Sg vf]h,] ædnfO{ kf] tkfO{a+ f6 alKt:df x'g' vf“rf] 5, t/ s] tkfO{+ dsxf“ cfpg] <Æ !%  o]zn " ] hjfkm lbg'eof], æclxn] o;} x'g b]pm≤ ;a} wfld{stf k"/f x'gnfO{ xfd|f] nflu of] ug'{ g} plrt 5 .Æ ta o"xGgf /fhL eP . !^  o]zn " ] h;} alKt:df lng'eof], pxf“ kfgLaf6 lg:s]/ dfly cfpg'eof]  . To; a]nf :ju{ pl3|of], clg pxf“n] k/d]Zj/sf] cfTdfnfO{ 9's/' e}m“ cf]nb{+ } cfP/ cfk"mdfly a:g'ePsf] b]Vg'eof]  . !& clg :ju{af6 Pp6f cfjfhn] o;f] eGof], ælogL d]/f k'q x'g,\ h;nfO{ d k|d] u5'≤{ logLl;t d clt k|;Gg 5' .Æ

o]zs " f] k/LIff ta o]z" z}tfgåf/f k/LlIft x'gnfO{ kljq cfTdfåf/f phf8≥–:yfgdf nlug'eof] . @ clg rfnL; lbg / rfnL; /ft pkjf; a;]kl5 pxf“ w]/} ef]sfpg'eof] . #  k/LIff ug]n { ] pxf“sxf“ cfP/ eGof], æolb ltdL k/d]Zj/sf k'q xf} eg], oL 9'·fx¿nfO{ /f]6L eOhfpmg\ egL eg .Æ $  o]zn" ] hjfkm lbg'eof], æwd{zf:qdf o;f] n]lvPsf] 5M ‘dflg; /f]6Ln] dfq xf]Og t/ k/d]Zj/sf] d'vaf6 lg:s]sf] x/]s jrgn] af“Rb5 .’Æ %  ta z}tfgn] pxf“nfO{ kljq zx/df nUof] clg pxf“nfO{ dlGb/sf] ;a}eGbf cUnf] 7fp“df pEofof] ] . ^ clg eGof], æolb o]zs " f] alKt:df ltdL k/d]Zj/sf k'q xf} eg], cfk}mnfO{ !#  To;kl5 o]z" o"xGgfåf/f alKt:df x'gnfO{ tn v;fn  . lsgls wd{zf:qdf o;/L ufnLnaf6 ob{gdf cfpg'eof]  . !$ t/ n]lvPsf] 5M

$ 


5

æ‘pxf“n] ltd|f] ljifodf cfgf b"tx¿nfO{ cf1f lbg'xg' 5 ] , clg ltgLx¿n] ltdLnfO{ ltgLx¿sf xftdf prfNg]5g\, h;df ls ltd|f] kfp s'g} 9'·fdf g7f]lSsof]; \ .’Æ

dQL $ 

u}/–ox"bLx¿sf] ufnLn, cGwsf/df a:g] dflg;x¿n] Pp6f 7"nf] Hof]lt b]vs ] f 5g\≤ d[To'sf] 5fofdf a:g]x¿dfly Pp6f Hof]lt pbfPsf] 5 .Æ

!^

To; a]nfb]lv o]zn " ] o;f] eGb} k|rf/ ug{ nfUg'eof], ækZrfQfk u/, lsgls :ju{sf] /fHo ghLs cfPsf] 5 .Æ k|yd r]nfx¿sf] af]nfj6 !*  o]z" ufnLn ;d'b|sf] lsgf/df lx“l8≥/xg'ePsf] ;dodf pxf“n] b'O{ efOx¿nfO{ b]Vg'eof], kq'; elgg] l;df]g clg ltgsf efO clGb|of; . ltgLx¿ hfnxf/L ePsf x'gfn] ;d'bd| f hfn xfGb} lyP . !( o]zn" ] ltgLx¿nfO{ eGg'eof], æcfcf], dnfO{ k5Øfcf], clg d ltdLx¿nfO{ dflg;x¿sf hfnxf/L agfpg]5 ' .Æ @) ltgLx¿ t'?Gt} cfgf hfnx¿ 5f]8/≥] pxf“sf] kl5 nfu] . @!  clg Toxf“af6 clu a9\b} ubf{ pxf“n] c¿ b'O{ efOx¿nfO{ b]Vg'eof], hAbLsf] 5f]/f ofs"a / ltgsf] efO o"xGgf . ltgLx¿ cfgf] o]zn " ] k|rf/ ug{ yfNg'ePsf] hfn tof/ kfb}{ cfgf lktf hAbLl;t 8'·fdf !@  ha o]zn " ] o"xGgf ‰ofnvfgdf k/]sf lyP . @@ o]zn" ] ltgLx¿nfO{ af]nfpg'eof] clg 5g\ egL ;'Gg'eof], ta pxf“ ufnLndf t'?Gt} ltgLx¿n] cfgf] 8'·f / lktfnfO{ kms{ge' of]  . !# gf;/tnfO{ 5f]8/≥] pxf“ 5f]8/]≥ pxf“sf] kl5 nfu] . skmg{xd' df uO{ a:g'eof], h'g ha"ng" / o]zn " ] la/fdLnfO{ lgsf] kfg'e { Psf] gKtfnLsf] Onfsfdf ;d'bs | f] lsgf/df lyof] . !$ oz}of cudjQmfn] eg]sf s'/f k"/f @# o]z" ;ef3/x¿df l;sfp“b,} /fHosf] x'gnfO{ o;f] ePsf] lyof]M ;';dfrf/ k|rf/ ub}{ clg dflg;x¿sf k|To]s /f]u / la/fdL lgsf] kfb}{ ufnLnel/ !% æha"ng" / gKtfnLsf d'ns ' , 3'Dg'eof]  . @$ pxf“sf] ljifosf s'/f ;f/f ;d'bl| t/ ob{gsf] 5]p, l;l/ofel/ lk“mlhof], clg dflg;x¿n] o]zn" ] To;nfO{ hjfkm lbg'eof], æwd{zf:qdf o;f] klg n]lvPsf] 5M ‘t}n + ] k/dk|e' cfgf k/d]Zj/sf] k/LIff gug" { .’Æ *  k]ml/, z}tfgn] pxf“nfO{ Pp6f clt cUnf] kj{tdf nu]/ ;+;f/sf ;a} /fHox¿ clg ltgLx¿sf] j}ej b]vfof], ( clg eGof], æolb ltdLn] 3f]K6]/ dnfO{ b08jt\ u¥of} eg], d oL ;a} ltdLnfO{ lbg]5 ' .Æ !)  To;kl5 o]zn" ] To;nfO{ eGg'eof], æx] z}tfg, t“ daf6 6f9f eOhf ∕ lsgls o;/L n]lvPsf] 5M ‘t+n} ] k/dk|e' cfgf k/d]Zj/nfO{ b08jt\ ug",{ clg pxf“sf] dfq ;]jf ug" { .’Æ !!  ta z}tfg pxf“nfO{ 5f]8/]≥ uOxfNof] clg :ju{bt" x¿ cfP/ pxf“sf] ;]jf6xn u/] . & 

!& 


dQL % 

6

ljleGg lsl;dsf /f]u nfu]sfx¿, w]/} !) wGo ltgLx¿ hf] wfld{stfsf] lglDt si6 ef]us ] fx¿, e"t nfu]sfx¿ 5f/]/f]u ;tfOG5g\, nfu]sfx¿ clg kIff3ft ePsfx¿nfO{ lsgls :ju{sf] /fHo ltgLx¿s} xf] . pxf“sxf“ NofP, clg pxf“n] ltgLx¿nfO{ lgsf] !!  æltdLx¿ wGosf xf} ha dflg;x¿n] kfg'e{ of] . @% ufnLn, 8]sfkf]ln;, o¿zn]d, d]/f] vflt/ ltdLx¿nfO{ ckdfg u5{g,\ ox"lbof clg ob{g kfl/sf dflg;x¿sf] 7"nf] v]bf] u5{g\ clg ltdLx¿sf] lj?4df e"m6f] eL8≥ pxf“sf] kl5 nfUof] . af]n/] ;a} lsl;dsf v/fa s'/fx¿ u5{g \ . !@  ta cfgGb dgfcf] / v'zL xf]cf], lsgls 8f“8f≥ sf] pkb]z :ju{df ltdLx¿sf] nflu 7"nf] Ogfd 5  . pxf“n] ha eL8≥nfO{ b]Vg'eof], pxf“ ltdLx¿eGbf cl3sf cudjQmfx¿nfO{ klg 8f“8f≥ df pSng'eof] / a:g'eof] . pxf“sf ltgLx¿n] To;} u/]sf lyP . @  r]nfx¿ pxf“sxf“ cfP  . clg pxf“n] g"g / Hof]lt ltgLx¿nfO{ o;f] eGb} l;sfpg'eof]M !#  æltdLx¿ k[YjLsf g"g xf}  . t/ olb # æwGo cfTdfdf bLg x'gx] ¿, g"gn] cfgf] g"lgnf]kg x/fof] eg] To;nfO{ lsgls :ju{sf] /fHo ltgLx¿s} xf] . s]n] km]l/ g"lgnf] agfpg]  < of] t kmflng' $ wGo zf]s ug]x{ ¿, / dflg;x¿åf/f s'lNrg' afx]s c¿ s'g} lsgls ltgLx¿n] ;fGTjgf sfdsf] of]Uo 7xl/+bg}  . kfpg]5g\ . !$  æltdLx¿ ;+;f/sf Hof]lt xf} . 8f“8f≥ df % wGo gd|x¿, a;]sf] zx/ n'Sg ;Sb}g . !% gtf dflg;x¿n] lsgls ltgLx¿n] k[YjLsf] clwsf/ aQL afn]/ kfyLn] 5f]k/] g} /fV5g\  . t/ kfpg]5g\ . ltgLx¿n] To;nfO{ ;fdbfgdf /fV5g\, ^ wGo wfld{stfsf] lglDt ef]sfpg] / clg To;n] 3/leq ePsf ;a}nfO{ pHofnf] ltvf{pg]x¿, lbG5 . !^ o:t} lsl;dn], ltdLx¿sf] Hof]lt lsgls ltgLx¿ t[Kt x'g5 ] g\ . dflg;x¿sf] ;fd' rDsf];,\ / ltgLx¿n] & wGo bofjfgx¿, ltdLx¿sf c;n sfdx¿ b]v/] :ju{df lsgls ltgLx¿n] bof kfpg]5g\ . x'gx' g' ] ltdLx¿sf lktfsf] dlxdf u¿g\ . * wGo Xbodf z'4 x'gx] ¿, lsgls ltgLx¿n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ Joj:yf k"/f x'g] sfd b]Vg]5g\ . !&  æd Joj:yf / cudjQmfx¿nfO{ /2 ug{ ( wGo d]nldnfk u/fpg]x¿, cfPsf] x'“ egL g;Dem≤ d ltgLx¿nfO{ /2 lsgls ltgLx¿ k/d]Zj/sf k'qx¿ ug{ xf]Og, t/ tL k"/f ug{ cfPsf] x' “ . !* d sxnfOg]5g\ . ltdLx¿nfO{ of] ;To atfp“5,' ha;Dd :ju{

% 


7

/ k[YjL lat]/ hf“bg} g\, ta;Dd Joj:yfaf6 Pp6f ;fgf] cIf/ cyjf laGb';Dd klg s'g} sf/0fn] k"/f geO{ /xg]5g} . !( s;}n] oL cf1fx¿dWo] Pp6f ;a}eGbf ;fgf]nfO{ pNnª\3g u5{ clg c¿nfO{ klg To;} ug{ l;sfp“5 eg] pm :ju{sf] /fHodf ;a}eGbf ;fgf] x'g5 ] , t/ h;n] oL cf1fx¿ kfng u5{ clg c¿nfO{ l;sfp“5, Tof] :ju{sf] /fHodf dxfg\ elgg]5 . @) lsgls d ltdLx¿nfO{ eGb5', ltdLx¿sf] wfld{stf kml/;L / zf:qLx¿sf] eGbf a9≥L ePg eg] ltdLx¿ sbflk :ju{sf] /fHodf k:g kfpg]5g} f} . xTof æltdLx¿n] ;'gs ] f 5f}, dflg;x¿nfO{ w]/} cl3 s] elgPsf] lyof], ‘xTof gu/, clg h;n] xTof u5{ To;sf] OG;fkm ul/g]5 .’ @@  t/ d eGb5', hf] cfgf] efOl;t l/;fp“5 Tof] OG;fkmdf k5{  . k]ml/ h;n] cfgf] efOnfO{ ‘P a]js'km’ eG5, Tof] dxf;efdf nlug] of]Uosf] x'G5 . t/ h;n] ‘t“ d"v { ∕’ eG5, Tof] g/ssf] cfuf]df kg]{ hf]lvddf x'G5 . @#  æo;sf/0f, ltdLn] j]bLdf cfgf] e]6L r9≥fp“b} ubf{ ltd|f] lj?4df ltd|f] efOsf] s]xL s'/f 5 eGg] ;Demgf cfof] eg], @$ ltd|f] e]6L ToxL j]bLs} ;fd'Gg] 5f]8 ≥ . klxn] hfpm clg ltd|f] efOl;t ldnfk u/≤ clg cfP/ cfgf] e]6L r9≥fpm . @%  æltdLnfO{ cbfntdf n}hfg] lj/f]wLl;t em§} s'/f ldnfOxfn  . of] sfd ltdL pml;t af6f]df x'b“ } ul/xfn  . gq p;n] ltdLnfO{ GofofwLzsxf“ ;'lDkb]nf, clg GofofwLzn] clwsf/Lsxf“ ;'lDkb]nfg\, clg @! 

dQL % 

ltdL ‰ofnvfgdf k/f}nf . d ltdLnfO{ of] ;To atfp“5,' ltdLn] clGtd k};f glt¿~h]n ltdL aflx/ lg:sg]5g} f} . @^ 

Jolerf/ æltdLx¿n] ‘Jolerf/ gug"’{ eg]sf] ;'gs ] f 5f} . @* t/ d ltdLx¿nfO{ eGb5', h;n] s'g} :qLnfO{ s'bl[ i6 nufp“5, p;n] cfgf] Xbodf To;l;t Jolerf/ ul/;s]sf] x'g5 ]  . @( olb ltdLx¿sf bflxg] cf“vfn] ltdLnfO{ kfk ug{ nufp“5 eg] To;nfO{ lgsflnb]c] f] . lsgls ltdLx¿sf] ;Dk"0f{ z/L/ g/ssf] cfuf]df kmflng'eGbf t To;sf] Pp6f c· u'dfpg' ltdLx¿sf] nflu /fd|f] x'G5 . #) clg olb ltdLx¿sf] bflxg] xftn] ltdLx¿nfO{ kfk ug{ nufp“5 eg] To;nfO{ sf6]/ kmflnb]cf] . lsgls ltdLx¿sf] ;Dk"0f{ z/L/ g/ssf] cfuf]df hfg'eGbf t To;sf] Pp6f c· u'dfpg' ltdLx¿sf] nflu /fd|f] x'G5 . @& 

ljjfx—ljR5]b æo;f] elgPsf] 5, ‘olb s;}n] cfgL kTgLnfO{ TofU5 eg], To;n] p;nfO{ Tofukq b]cf]; \ .’ #@  t/ d ltdLx¿nfO{ eGb5', h;n] cfgL kTgLnfO{ j}jflxs ljZjf;3ft afx]s c¿ sf/0fn] TofU5, To;n] p;nfO{ Jolerfl/0fL agfp“5, clg h;n] TofluPsL To; :qLnfO{ ljjfx u5{, p;n] klg Jolerf/ u5{ . #! 

zky æk]ml/, dflg;x¿nfO{ w]/} cl3 o;f] elgPsf] ltdLx¿n] ;'gs ] f 5f}, ‘ltdLx¿n] zky e· gu/, t/ ltdLx¿n] k/d]Zj/l;t ## 


8

dQL ^ 

u/]sf] zky k"/f u/ .’ t/ d ltdLx¿nfO{ eGb5' zky vf“b} gvfcf]M gtf :ju{sf] gfp“df, lsgls of] t k/d]Zj/sf] l;+xf;g xf]≤ #% gtf k[YjLsf] gfp“df, lsgls of] pxf“sf] kfpbfg xf]≤ gtf o¿zn]dsf] gfp“df, lsgls of] dxfg\ /fhfsf] zx/ xf] . #^ clg ltd|f] lz/sf] zky gvfcf], lsgls ltdLn] Pp6} s]znfO{ klg ;]tf] jf sfnf] agfpg ;Sb}gf} . #& vfln ltd|f] ‘xf]’ rflx“ ‘xf]’ xf];,\ clg ‘xf]Og’ rflx“ ‘xf]Og’ g} xf];≤\ o;b]lv afx]s ;a} b'i6af6 cfp“5 . #$ 

cf“vfsf] abnf cf“vf æltdLx¿n] o;f] eg]sf] ;'gs ] f 5f}, ‘cf“vfsf] abnf cf“vf clg bf“tsf] abnf bf“t .’ #( t/ d ltdLx¿nfO{ eGb5', b'i6 dflg;sf] d'sflanf gu/  . olb s;}n] ltdLx¿sf] bflxg] ufnfdf lxsf{of] eg], pmtk{m csf]{ klg kmsf{Ob]cf] . $) clg olb s;}n] d'2f rnfP/ ltdLx¿sf] bf}/f lng vf]H5 eg], To;nfO{ ltdLx¿sf] vfi6f] klg lbOxfn . $! olb s;}n] ltdLx¿nfO{ s/ nufP/ Ps lsnf]ld6/ hfcf}+ eG5 eg], pml;t b'O{ lsnf]ld6/ uOb]cf] . $@ ltdLx¿l;t dfUg]nfO{ b]cf], clg ltdLx¿l;t C0f dfUg]bl] v tls{ghfcf] .

aGg]5f} . pxf“n] b'i6 / c;n b'js } f] lglDt ;"o{ pbfOlbg'xG' 5, clg wfld{s / cwfld{s b'js } f] lglDt kfgL k7fpg'xG' 5 . $^ olb ltdLx¿nfO{ k|d] ug]x{ ¿nfO{ dfq ltdLx¿ k|d] u5f}{ eg], ltdLx¿n] s] Ogfd kfpg]5f}  < Tof] t s] dx;'n p7fpg]x¿n] klg ul//x]sf 5}gg\ / < $& clg ltdLx¿ cfgf efOx¿nfO{ dfq clejfbg u5f}{ eg], ltdLx¿n] c¿n] eGbf s] a9≥L ub}5 { f} < Tof] t d"lt{kh" sx¿n] klg ub}g{ g\ / < $* ltdLx¿sf :juL{o lktf h:tf] l;4 x'gx' G' 5, ltdLx¿ klg To:t} l;4 xf]cf] .

vf“rf]df k/]sfx¿nfO{ lbg] sfd æxf]lzof/ a;, ltdLx¿sf ‘wfld{stfsf sfdx¿’ dflg;x¿n] b]v"g\ egL ltgLx¿sf ;fd' gu/ . To;f] u¥of} eg], ltdLx¿n] cfgf :juL{o lktfaf6 s'g} Ogfd kfpg]5g} f} . @  æo;sf/0f ltdLx¿ ha vf“rf]df k/]sfx¿nfO{ lbG5f}, ta kml/;Lx¿n] ;ef3/­ x¿df / ;8≥sx¿df dflg;x¿åf/f dfg kfpgnfO{ u/]em“} t'/xL k'ms]/ 3f]if0ff gu/ . d ltdLx¿nfO{ ;To s'/f atfp“5,' ltgLx¿n] cfgf] ;Dk"0f{ Ogfd kfO;s]  . # ha ltdL vf“rf]df k/]sfx¿nfO{ lbG5f}, ta ltd|f] bflxg] xftn] h] ub}5 { Tof] ltd|f] b]a]| xftn] zq'kl| t k|d] rfn gkfcf];,\ $ / ltd|f] bfg u'Ktdf xf]; \ . $#  æltdLx¿n] o;f] eg]sf] ;'gs ] f 5f}, ‘ltd|f] ta u'Ktdf b]Vg'xg' ] ltdLx¿sf lktfn] l5d]sLnfO{ k|d] u/ clg ltd|f] zq'nfO{ 3[0ff ltdLx¿nfO{ Ogfd lbg'xg' 5 ]  . u/ .’ $$ t/ d ltdLx¿nfO{ eGb5'M cfgf k|fy{gf zq'x¿nfO{ k|d] u/ clg ltdLx¿nfO{ v]bf] ug]x{ ¿sf] lglDt k|fy{gf u/, $% / ltdLx¿ % æclg ha ltdLx¿ k|fy{gf u5f{,} tL :ju{df x'ge' Psf] ltdLx¿sf lktfsf k'qx¿ sk6Lx¿ h:tf gxf]cf], lsgls ltgLx¿ #* 

^ 


9

c¿ dflg;x¿åf/f b]lvgnfO{ ;ef3/x¿ clg ;8≥sx¿df pleP/ k|fy{gf ug{ dg k/fp“5g\ . d ltdLx¿nfO{ of] ;f“rf] s'/f atfp“5,' ltgLx¿n] cfgf ;Dk"0f{ Ogfd kfO;s]sf 5g\ . ^ t/ ha ltdLx¿ k|fy{gf u5f},{ cfgf] sf]7fdf uP/ 9f]sf aGb u/, clg ltdLx¿sf gb]lvg] lktfnfO{ k|fy{gf u/ . ta u'Ktdf ul/Psf sfdx¿ b]Vg'xg' ] ltdLx¿sf lktfn] ltdLx¿nfO{ Ogfd lbg'xg' 5 ]   . & clg ltdLx¿n] k|fy{gf ubf{ d"lt{kh " sx¿e}m“ ga/a/fO/x, lsgls ltgLx¿sf w]/} zAbx¿sf] sf/0f ltgLx¿sf] ;'gfO x'g5 ] egL ;DemG5g\ . * ltgLx¿h:tf gag, lsgls ltdLx¿n] dfUgeGbf klxn] g} ltdLx¿nfO{ s] rflxG5 egL ltdLx¿sf lktfn] hfGg'xG' 5 . (  æta, ltdLx¿ o;/L k|fy{gf u/M æ‘x] xfd|f :ju{df x'gx' g' ] lktf, tkfO{s + f] gfp“ kljq xf];,\ !) tkfO{s + f] /fHo cfcf];,\ tkfO{s + f] :ju{df k"/f ePsf] OR5f o; ;+;f/df k"/f ul/of]; \ . !! xfd|f] lbgel/sf] /f]6L cfh xfdLnfO{ lbg'xf]; \ . !@ xfd|f ck/fwx¿ Ifdf ug'x{ f];,\ h;/L xfdLn] klg cfgf ck/fwLx¿nfO{ Ifdf u/]sf 5f} + . !# clg xfdLnfO{ k/LIffdf gNofpg'xf];,\ t/ b'i6b]lv 5'6fpg'xf]; \ . [lsgeg] /fHo, k/fqmd / dlxdf ;bf;j{bf tkfO{s + } x'g,\ cfd]g .]’ lsgls

!$ 

ltdLx¿sf]

lj?4df

dQL ^ 

ug]x{ ¿nfO{ ltdLx¿n] Ifdf lbof} eg], ltdLx¿sf :juL{o lktfn] klg ltdLx¿sf kfkx¿ Ifdf lbg'xg' 5 ] . !% t/ ltdLx¿n] dflg;x¿sf kfk Ifdf u/]gf} eg]tf, ltdLx¿sf lktfn] ltdLx¿sf kfk Ifdf ug'x{ g' 5 ] g}  . pkjf; æha ltdLx¿ pkjf; a:5f}, sk6Lx¿ h:tf dlng eO{ ga;, lsgls dflg;x¿nfO{ b]vfpgnfO{ ltgLx¿n] cfgf cg'xf/ laufb{5g\ . d ltdLx¿nfO{ ;f“rf] s'/f] eGb5', ltgLx¿n] cfgf ;Dk"0f{ Ogfd kfO;s]sf 5g\  . !& t/ ha ltdLx¿ pkjf; a:b5f} ta lz/df t]n nufcf] clg cfgf] d'v wf]cf], !* / ltdLx¿ pkjf; a;]sf 5f} eg]/ s'g} dflg;n] xf]Og, t/ ltdLx¿sf cb[io lktfn] dfq b]vg"  \ . clg u'Ktdf ul/Psf sfd b]Vg'xg' ] ltdLx¿sf lktfn] ltdLx¿nfO{ Ogfd lbg'xg' 5 ]  . !^ 

:ju{df wg æcfgf] lglDt k[YjLdf wg gy'kf/, hxf“ sL/f / lvofn] gi6 kf5{ clg rf]/n] 3/ kmf]//] rf]l/lbG5 . @) t/ cfgf] lglDt wg :ju{df y'kf/, hxf“ sL/f / lvofn] gi6 kfb}g{ clg rf]/n] 3/ kmf]//] rf]l/n}hf“bg}  . @! lsgls hxf“ ltdLx¿sf] wg x'G5, ToxL“ ltdLx¿sf] dg klg x'g5 ]  . @@  æz/L/sf] aQL cf“vf xf]  . olb ltdLx¿sf cf“vf c;n 5g\ eg], ltdLx¿sf ;Dk"0f{ z/L/ g} pHofnf] x'G5  . @# t/ kfk olb ltdLx¿sf cf“vf g} v/fa 5g\ eg], !( 


418

k|sfz !^ 

5ftLdf ;'gsf l˚Qf af“ws ] f lyP . ta ^ lsgls ltgLx¿n] tkfO{s + f ;Gtx¿ tL rf/ hLljt k|f0fLx¿dWo] Ps hgfn] tL clg cudjQmfx¿sf /ut aufPsf ;ft :ju{– b"tx¿nfO{ ;bf;j{bf lhpg'xg' ] 5g\, k/d]Zj/sf] qmf]wn] el/Psf ;ftcf]6f ;'gsf / tkfO{n + ] ltgLx¿nfO{ ;'xfpg] u/L srf}/fx¿ lbP . * clg dlGb/ k/d]Zj/sf] /ut lkpgnfO{ lbg'ePsf] 5 .Æ dlxdfaf6 clg pxf“sf] zlQmaf6 cfPsf] &  clg j]bLaf6 s;}n] o;/L pQ/ lbPsf] w"jf“n] el/of], / tL ;ft :ju{bt" x¿sf ;ft d}n] ;'gM+] ljklQx¿ k"/f x'gc' l3 sf]xL klg dlGb/leq æxf], ;j{zlQmdfg\ k/dk|e' k/d]Zj/, k:g ;s]g . tkfO{s + f OG;f˚x¿ ;To / Gofok"0f{ k/d]Zj/sf] qmf]wsf ;ft srf}/fx¿ 5g\ \ .Æ ta d}n] dlGb/af6 ;ft *  :ju{bt" x¿nfO{ rsf]{ ;f]/n] o;f] rf}yf] :ju{bt" n] cfgf] srf}/f ;"od{ fly elg/x]sf] ;'g,+] æhfcf], clg k/d]Zj/sf] vGofP, clg ;"on { fO{ dflg;x¿nfO{ cfuf]n] qmf]wsf ;ft srf}/fx¿ k[YjLdf vGofOb]cf] .Æ kf]Ng] clVtof/ lbOof]  . ( ltgLx¿ k|r08 @  klxnf] :ju{bt" n] uP/ cfgf] srf}/f tfkn] 89≥] clg oL ljklQx¿dfly clVtof/ hldgdfly vGofOlbP, clg To; kz'sf] 5fk ePsf k/d]Zj/sf] ltgLx¿n] lgGbf u/], t/ nfu]sf / To;sf] d"lt{nfO{ k"Hg] dflg;x¿df ltgLx¿n] kZrfQfk ug{ / pxf“nfO{ dlxdf l3gnfUbf / si6bfos 3fpvl6/f lg:s] . lbg OGsf/ u/] . #  !)  bf];f| ] :ju{bt" n] cfgf] srf}/f ;d'bd| f kf“rf} :ju{b"tn] To; kz'sf] vGofP, clg Tof] d/]sf] dflg;sf] /ute}m“ l;+xf;gdfly cfgf] srf}/f vGofP, clg eOxfNof], / ;d'bd| f ePsf] k|To]s hLljt To;sf] /fHodf 3g3f]/ cGwsf/ eof]  . k|f0fLx¿ d/] . dflg;x¿n] si6df cfgf cfgf lha|f] $  t];f| ] :ju{bt" n] cfgf] srf}/f gbL / 6f]s,] !! clg vl6/f / j]bgfsf]] sf/0f :ju{sf kfgLsf d"nx¿df vGofP, clg tL /ut k/d]Zj/sf] lgGbf u/], t/ ltgLx¿n] u/]sf eOxfn]  . % clg kfgLsf lhDdfdf /x]sf sfdx¿sf] nflu kZrfQfk u/]gg\ . !@  :ju{bt" n]] o;f] eg]sf] d}n] ;'gM+] 5}6f}+ :ju{bt" n] cfgf] srf}/f dxfgbL o"km]| l6;dfly vGofP, clg k"js { f /fhfx¿sf] ætkfO{+ oL OG;f˚x¿df GofoL x'gx' G' 5, nflu af6f] tof/ kfl/lbgnfO{ To;sf] kfgL tkfO{+ hf] x'gx' G' 5 clg hf] x'gx' G' Yof], ;'lsxfNof]  . !# ta d}n] Eofu'tfx¿ h:tf tkfO{+ kljq x'gx' G' 5, b]lvg] b'i6fTdfx¿nfO{ To; clh·/sf] lsgls tkfO{n + ] o;/L g} OG;f˚ d'vaf6, To; kz'sf] d'vaf6 / To; e"m6f ug'e{ of]≤ cudjQmfsf] d'vaf6 lgl:s/x]sf] b]v +] . & 

!^ 


419

ltgLx¿ tL crDdsf lrGxx¿ b]vfpg] e"tfTdfx¿ x'g,\ clg ltgLx¿ tL k[YjLsf /fhfx¿nfO{ ;j{zlQmdfg\ k/d]Zj/sf] dxfg\ lbgdf n8≥fO“ ug{ e]nf ug{nfO{ hfG5g\ . !%  æx]/, d rf]/e}m“ cfp“5 ' ∕ Tof] wGosf] xf], hf] hfuf /xG5 clg gUgtfsf] z/d gb]lvof];\ eg]/ cfgf] j:qsf] lx˚fht u5{ .Æ !^  ta ltgLx¿n] /fhfx¿nfO{ lxa|" efiffdf cf/–dfu]88 \ f]g eGg] 7fp“df e]nf u/fP . !&  ;ftf}+ :ju{bt" n] cfgf] srf}/f xfjfdf vGofP, clg dlGb/sf] l;+xf;gaf6 o;f] eGg] rsf]{ cfjfh cfof], æca l;l4of]  ∕Æ !* clg Toxf“ lah'nLsf] rds, d]3 uh{g / cfjfhx¿ eP clg 7"nf] e}r + fnf] uof] . Tof] e+r +} fnf] olt 7"nf] lyof] ls k[YjLdf dflg;x¿ ePb]lv otf To:tf] slxNo} uPsf] lyPg . !( Tof] dxfg\ zx/ tLg efudf 6'lqmof], clg b]z–b]zsf zx/x¿ Wj+; eP  . k/d]Zj/n] dxfg\ a]lanf]gnfO{ ;Demg'eof] clg To;nfO{ cfgf] qmf]wsf] eofgs dBn] el/Psf] dB lkpg lbg'eof] . @)  k|To]s 6fk" nf]k eP/ uof] / kxf8≥x¿sf] kQ} kfOPg . @! cfsfzjf6 Ps dg tf}n ePsf 7"nf 7"nf cl;gf dflg;x¿dfly v;] . clg ljklQ 8/nfUbf] ePsfn] cl;gfsf] sf/0f dflg;x¿n] k/d]Zj/sf] lgGbf u/] . !$ 

kz'dfly ;jf/ ePsL :qL ;ftcf]6f srf}/fx¿ ePsf ;ft :ju{bt" x¿dWo] Ps hgf cfP/ dnfO{ eg], æcfpm, d ltdLnfO{ w]/} kfgLx¿dfly a:g] dxf j]Zofsf] ;hfo b]vfOlbg]5 ' . @ To;l;t k[YjLsf /fhfx¿n] Jolerf/ u/] clg To;sf] Jolerf/sf] dBn]

!& 

k|sfz !& 

k[YjLsf afl;Gbfx¿ dflQP .Æ #  ta To; :ju{bt" n] dnfO{ cfTdfåf/f Pp6f phf8≥–:yfgleq nu]  . Toxf“ d}n] Pp6L :qLnfO{ O{Zj/–lgGbfx¿n] el/Psf] clg ;ft lz/ / bz l;ª ePsf] Pp6f /ftf] kz'dfly al;/x]sL b]v +] . $ To; :qLn] a}hgL / rxlsnf] /ftf] j:q nfPsL lyO{, clg ;'g, /Tg / df]tLx¿n] l;+ufl/PsL lyO{ . To;n] xftdf l3gnfUbf s'/f cyf{t\ To;sf Jolerf/sf cz'4 s'/fx¿n] el/Psf] Pp6f ;'gsf] Kofnf klqmPsL lyO{  . % To;sf] lgwf/df of] pkflw n]lvPsf] lyof]M /x:o, k[YjLsf j]Zofx¿ clg l3gnfUbf s'/fx¿sL cfdf, dxfg\ a]lanf]g . d}n] To; :qLnfO{ ;Gtx¿sf] /utn], cyf{t\ o]zs " f ;fIfLx¿sf /utn] dflQPsL b]v +] . To;nfO{ b]v/] d ;fx|} crlDdt eP“  . &  ta tL :ju{bt" n] dnfO{ eg]M æltdL lsg 5Ss k5f} { < d ltdLnfO{ To; :qLsf] clg Tof] a;]sf] ;ft lz/ / bz l;ª ePsf] kz'sf] /x:o atfOlbg]5 ' . * Tof] kz', h'g ltdLn] b]Vof}, s'g} ;do lyof], clxn] 5}g, clg ljgfzdf hfgnfO{ ctn– s'08af6 dfly lg:s]/ cfpg]5 . ;+;f/sf] pTklQb]lv hLjgsf] k':tsdf gfp“ gx'g] k[YjLsf afl;Gbfx¿n] To; kz'nfO{ b]v/] crDd dfGg]5g\, lsgls Tof] s'g} ;do lyof], t/ca 5}g / kl5 cfpg]5 . (  æa'l4 o;}df 5 . tL ;ft lz/x¿ ;ftcf]6f kj{tx¿ x'g\ h;dfly Tof] :qL a:5] . !) ltgLx¿ ^ 


k|sfz !* 

420

;ft hgf /fhfx¿ klg x'g \ . kf“r hgfsf] ktg eO;s]sf] 5, Ps hgf 5“b5 } , csf]r { flx“ cem cfOk'us ] f] 5}g, t/ ha Tof] cfp“5, ta s]xL ;dosf] nflu /xg'k5{ . !! Tof] kz' hf] Ps ;do lyof], / clxn] 5}g, Tof]rflx“ Ps hgf cf7f}“ /fhf xf]  . Tof] ;ftdWo]sf] Ps hgf xf] / To;sf] ;j{gfz x'g5 ]  . !@  æltdLn] b]vs ] f tL bz l;ªx¿ bz /fhfx¿ x'g\ h;n] cem;Dd /fHo kfPsf 5}gg\, t/ ltgLx¿n] To; kz'l;t Ps 38≥Lsf] lglDt clVtof/ kfpg]5g\  . !#  ltgLx¿sf] nIo Pp6} x'g5 ] clg ltgLx¿n] cfgf zlQm / clVtof/ To; kz'nfO{ lbg]5g\  . !$ ltgLx¿n] y'dfsf] lj?4df n8≥fO“ ug]5 { g\, t/ y'dfn] ltgLx¿nfO{ lhTg'xg' 5 ] lsgls pxf“ k|ex' ¿sf k|e' / /fhfx¿sf /fhf x'gx' G' 5, clg pxf“l;t pxf“åf/f af]nfOPsf, r'lgPsf / ljZjf;Lx¿ x'g5 ] g\ .Æ !%  ta :ju{bt" n] dnfO{ eg], æltdLn] b]vs ] f tL kfgLx¿, h;dfly Tof] j]Zof a:b5], dflg;x¿, eL8≥x¿, hfltx¿ / efiffx¿ x'g \ . !^ ltdLn] b]vs ] f] Tof] kz' / bz l;ªx¿n] To; j]ZofnfO{ 3[0ff ug]5 { g\ . ltgLx¿n] To;nfO{ gi6 ug]5 { g\, gf·f] kfg]5 { g\≤ ltgLx¿n] To;sf] df;' vfg]5g\ / af“sL cfuf]n] hnfOlbg]5g\  . !& lsgls k/d]Zj/n] cfgf] dgf]/y k"/f ug{nfO{ ltgLx¿n] To; kz'nfO{ cfgf clVtof/ b]pmg\ egL ltgLx¿sf] Xbodf xflnlbg'eof] . of]rflx“ pxf“sf] jrg k"/f gxf]p~h]nsf] nflu xf] . !* ltdLn] b]vs ] f] :qLrflx“ k[YjLsf /fhfx¿dfly zf;g ug]{ dxfgu/L xf] .Æ

a]lanf]gsf] ktg o;kl5 d}n] csf]{ :ju{bt" nfO{ :ju{af6 tn cfO/x]sf] b]v +] . ltgLl;t 7"nf] clVtof/ lyof], clg ltgsf] j}ejn] k[YjL pHofnf] eof]  . @ ltgL zlQmzfnL ;f]/n] s/fPM

!* 

ædxfg\ a]lanf]gsf] ktg eof], ktg eof] ∕ Tof] e"tx¿sf] jf;:yfg clg k|To]s b'i6fTdfsf] c8\8f, k|To]s cz'4 / 3[l0ft r/fsf] c8\8f ePsf] 5 . # lsgls ;a} hfltx¿n] To;sf] cz'4 sfdjf;gfsf] dB lkPsf 5g\ . k[YjLsf /fhfx¿n] To;l;t Jolerf/ u/]sf 5g\, clg k[YjLsf Jofkf/Lx¿ To;sf] cTofwLs ljnfl;tfsf] k|efjn] wgL ePsf 5g\ .Æ ta d}n] :ju{af6 csf]{ cfjfhn] o;f] eg]sf] ;'gM+] $ 

æx] d]/f dflg; xf], To;af6 lg:s]/ cfcf], / ltdLx¿ To;sf kfksf ;xefuL x'g gk/f];,\ / ltdLx¿df To;sf s'g} ljklQ klg gcfcf];,\ % lsgls To;sf kfkx¿ :ju{;Dd} y'kf| ] nfu]sf 5g\, clg k/d]Zj/n] To;sf ck/fwx¿


421

;Demg'ePsf] 5 . To;n] h] u/]sL lyO{, To;nfO{ ToxL ˚sf{Ob]cf]≤ To;n] h] u/]sL 5 Tof] bf]Aa/ u/L To;nfO{ b]cf] . To;n] srf}/fdf h] ld;fPsL lyO{, To;sf] bf]Aa/ x'g] u/L To;nfO{ b]cf] . & Tof] cfk}mn] hlt dlxdf / ef]uljnf; n'6L Tolts} oftgf / ;Gtfk To;nfO{ b]cf] . cfgf] Xbodf To;n] o;/L 3d08 u5],{ æd /fgLe}m“ a:5'≤ d ljwjf xf]Og“, / d slxNo} zf]s ug]5 { g}  “ .Æ * o;sf/0f Ps} lbgdf To;dfly ljklQx¿ cfpg]5g\M d[To', zf]s / clgsfn . Tof] cfuf]åf/f e:d x'g5 ] , lsgls To;nfO{ Gofo ug]{ k/dk|e' k/d]Zj/ ;j{zlQmdfg\ x'gx' G' 5 . ^

æha To;l;t Jolerf/ ug]{ clg To;sf] ef]uljnf;df ;xefuL x'g] k[YjLsf /fhfx¿n] Tof] hn]sf] w"jf“ b]Vg]5g\, ltgLx¿ To;sf] nflu ?g]5g\ / ljnfk ug]5 { g\ . !)  To;sf] oftgfåf/f eoeLt eP/ ltgLx¿ 6f9} pleP/ lrRRofpg]5g\M ( 

æ‘xfo ∕ xfo, x] dxfgu/L, x] zlQmzfnL a]lanf]g ∕ Ps} Ô0fdf g} t]/f] ktg eof] ∕’

k|sfz !* 

æk[YjLsf Jofkf/Lx¿ To;sf] lglDt ?g] / ljnfk ug]5 { g\ lsgls ca k]ml/ s;}n] klg To;af6 dfn;fdfg lsGg]5g} , !@ cyf{t\ ;'g, rf“bL, ax'dN" o kTy/ / df]tLx¿, dl;gf] ;'tL sk8≥f≤ a}hgL, /]zd / rxlsnf] /ftf sk8≥fx¿, x/]s lsl;dsf ;'ulGwt sf7, / x/]s lsl;dsf xl:txf8sf ;fdu|Lx¿, ax'dN" o sf7, lkQn, kmnfd / l;·dd{/sf ;fdu|Lx¿, !# bfnlrgL / d;nf, ;'ulGwt w"k, d"/,{ h6fd;L / ;]tf] w"k, dB / h}tg" sf] t]n, dl;gf] kL7f], ux',“ ufO{j:t' / e]8f≥ x¿, 3f]8f≥ x¿, /yx¿, sdf/fsdf/Lx¿ / dflg;x¿sf k|f0fx¿ x'g \ . !$  æltgLx¿n] eGg]5g\, ‘ltdLx¿n] dg k/fPsf ˚nx¿ ltdLx¿b]lv uPsf 5g\  . ltd|f ;a} wg / j}ejx¿ slxNo} gkfpg] u/L lanfOxfn]sf 5g\ .’ !% oL rLhx¿ a]r/] To;af6 wg sdfpg] tL Jofkf/Lx¿ To;sf] oftgfdf 8/fP/ 6f9≥} pleg]5g\  . ltgLx¿ ?g] / ljnfk ug]5 { g\ . !^ clg lrRRofpg]5g\M !! 

æ‘xfo ∕ xfo, x] dxfgu/L, h;n] dl;gf] ;'tL sk8≥f, a}hgL / rxlsnf] /ftf] /·sf] j:q nufP/ ;'gsf] rds, ax'dN" o kTy/ / df]tLx¿ klx/]sL lyO{ ∕ !& Ps} 306fdf olt w]/} ;DklQ gi6 eP ∕’ æhxfhsf] x/]s sKtfg, clg hxfhaf6 ofqf ug]x{ ¿ ;a}, gfljsx¿, clg ;d'ba| f6 hLljsf rnfpg]x¿, ;a} 6f9≥f pleg]5g\  . !*  ha ltgLx¿n] Tof] :qL hn]sf] w"jf“ b]Vg]5g\, ltgLx¿ lj:do;fy s/fpg]5g\,


k|sfz !( 

422

‘s] o:tf] dxfg\ zx/h:t} c¿ zx/ slxNo} lyof] <’ !( ltgLx¿n] cfgf]–cfgf] 6fpsf]df w"nf] xfNg]5g\, clg ?jfO / ljnfk;fy o;/L s/fpg]5g\M æ‘xfo ∕ xfo, x] dxfgu/L, h;sf ;d'bd| f hxfh ePsfx¿ To; :qLsf] wgn] wgL ePsf 5g\ ∕ Ps} 306fdf Tof] e:d ePsL 5 ∕ @) x] :ju{, To;dfly /dfcf] ∕ x] ;Gtx¿ / k|l] /tx¿ / cudjQmfx¿ /dfcf] ∕ ltdLx¿l;t To;n] h:tf] Jojxf/ u/]sL lyO{ To;/L g} k/d]Zj/n] To;sf] OG;f˚ ug'e{ Psf] 5 .’Æ

t]/f Jofkf/Lx¿ ;+;f/sf dxfg\ JolQmx¿ lyP . t]/f dGqtGqn] hfltx¿ axlsPsf lyP . @$ To; :qLdf cudjQmfx¿sf / ;Gtx¿sf, clg k[YjLdf dfl/Psfx¿ ;a}sf] /ut kfOPsf] lyof] .Æ xNn]no" fx ∕ o;kl5 d}n] :ju{df Pp6f 7"nf] eL8≥n] uh]s { f] e}m“ ;f]/n] o;/L lrRRofPsf] ;'gM+]

!( 

æxNn]no" fx ∕ d'lQm, dlxdf / zlQm xfd|f k/d]Zj/sf ta To; ;fdyL{ :ju{bt" n] 7"nf] x'g,\ hf“tf]h:t}} Pp6f 9'·f p7fP / To;nfO{ @ lsgls pxf“sf OG;f˚x¿ ;To / ;d'bd| f of“lslbP, clg eg]M Gofok"0f{ 5g\ . æo:t} a]ul;t dxfg\ zx/ a]lanf]g tn cfgf Jolerf/åf/f k[YjLnfO{ e|i6 ˚flng]5, kfg]{ To; dxfj]ZofnfO{ pxf“n] / Tof] slxNo} k]mnf kg]5 { g}  . /2 ug'e{ Psf] 5 . @@ ;·Ltsf/x¿ / jL0ff, af“;/' L–afbs / pxf“sf bf;x¿sf /utsf] abnf clg t'/xL ahfpg]x¿sf] ;·Lt, lnO;Sg'ePsf] 5 .Æ k]ml/ t“df slxNo} ;'lgg]5g}  . #  clg ltgLx¿ k]ml/ lrRRofPM t“df k]ml/ s'g} lzNksf] lzNksf/ slxNo} kfOg]5g}  . æxNn]no" fx ∕ hf“tf]sf] cfjfh t“df slxNo} To; :qLaf6 w"jf“ ;bf;j{bfsf] nflu ;'lgg]5 g . dfly hfG5 .Æ @# aQLsf] pHofnf] $  tL rf}aL; wd{u?' x¿ clg tL rf/ k]ml/ t“df slxNo} rDsg]5g}  . hLljt k|f0fLx¿n] 3f]K6f] k/]/ l;+xf;gdf b'nxf / b'nxLsf] ;f]/ a:g'xg' ] k/d]Zj/nfO{ b08jt\ u/]  . clg k]ml/ t“df slxNo} ;'lgg]5g}  . ltgLx¿ o;f] eGb} s/fPM @! 


423

æcfd]g, xNn]no" fx ∕Æ

k|sfz !( 

ltd|f efOx¿e}m“ Ps hgf ;xsdL{ x' “ . k/d]Zj/nfO{ k'h  ∕ lsgls cudjf0fLsf] ta l;+xf;gaf6 o;f] elg/x]sf] Pp6f cfTdf g} o]zs " f] ;fIfL xf] .Æ cfjfh cfof]M ;]tf] 3f]8f≥ df ;jf/ x'gx' g' ] æxfd|f k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|z;+ f u/, !!  x] pxf“sf ;a} bf;x¿, d}n] :ju{ p3|s ] f] b]v]+ clg d]/f] ;fd' ltdLx¿ hf]x¿ pxf“l;t 8/fp“5f}, Pp6f ;]tf] 3f]8f≥ lyof], h;sf] ;jf/nfO{ cyf{t\ ;fgf / 7"nfx¿ b'j } .Æ ljZjf;of]Uo / ;To elgG5  . pxf“n] Gofol;t OG;f˚ / n8≥fO“ ug'x{ G' 5 . !@ pxf“sf ^  ta Pp6f 7"nf] eL8≥sf] h:tf], kfgL cf“vfx¿ aNb} u/]sf] cfuf]h:tf 5g\, clg uh{s ] f] / d]3 uh{gsf] cfjfh h:tf]n] o;/L pxf“sf lz/df w]/} d's6' x¿ 5g\  . pxf“df lrRRofPsf] d}n] ;'gM]+ Pp6f gfp“ n]lvPsf] 5 hf] pxf“afx]s c¿ æxNn]no" fx ∕ s;}n] hfGb}g . !# pxf“n] /utdf rf]lkPsf] lsgls xfd|f ;j{zlQmdfg\ k/dk|e' Pp6f kf]zfs klxl/g'ePsf] 5, clg k/d]Zj/n] /fHo ug'x{ G' 5 . pxf“sf] gfp“ k/d]Zj/sf] jrg xf] . !$ ;]tf & xfdL cfgGb dgfcf}+ / v'zL xf]cf}+ 3f]8f≥ x¿df ;jf/ ePsf clg ldlxg ;]tf / clg pxf“nfO{ dlxdf lbcf} + ∕ :jR5 ;'tL sk8≥f nfPsf :juL{o ;]gfx¿n] lsgls y'dfsf] ljjfxsf] a]nf pxf“nfO{ k5ØfO/x]sf lyP . !% hfltx¿nfO{ cfOk'us ] f] 5, k|xf/ ug{nfO{ pxf“sf] d'vaf6 Pp6f wfl/nf] clg pxf“sL b'nxLn] cfk}mnfO{ tof/ t/jf/ lg:s]sf] 5  . æpxf“n] ˚nfdsf] kf/]sL l5g\ . 808fn] ltgLx¿dfly zf;g ug'x{ g' 5 ]   .Æ * ltgnfO{ rxlsnf] / :jR5 ;'tL pxf“n] ;j{zlQmdfg\ k/d]Zj/sf] qmf]wsf] sk8f klx/gnfO{ lbOPsf] lyof] . dBsf] sf]n s'Nrg'xG' 5 . !^ pxf“sf] j:q / l˚nfdf of] gfp“ n]lvPsf] 5M -dl;gf] ;'tL sk8≥fn] ;Gtx¿sf wfld{s /fhfx¿sf /fhf clg k|ex' ¿sf k|e ' . sfo{ hgfp“5_ !&  (  clg d}n] Ps hgf :ju{bt" nfO{ ;"od{ f clg tL :ju{bt" n] dnfO{ eg], æof] n]v, ‘y'dfsf] ljjfxsf] ef]hsf] lgDtf] kfpg]x¿ ple/x]sf] b]v,+] h;n] cfsfzsf] aLrdf wGosf x'g \ ∕’Æ clg ltgn] cem yk]/ eg], pl8≥/x]sf r/fx¿nfO{ rsf]{ ;f]/df elg/x]sf lyP, æcfcf], k/d]Zj/sf] 7"nf] ef]hsf] æoL k/d]Zj/sf ;To jrgx¿ x'g \ .Æ !)  clg d ltgsf] kfpdf b08jt\ ug{nfO{ nflu Ps;fy e]nf xf]cf], !* clg ltdLx¿n] 3f]K6+ ] . t/ ltgn] dnfO{ eg], æo;f] gu/ ∕ /fhfx¿, sKtfgx¿, zlQmzfnL dflg;x¿, d o]zs " f] ;fIfL sfod /fVg] ltdL clg 3f]8f≥ x¿, To;sf ;jf/x¿ clg :jtGq / % 


k|sfz @) 

424

sdf/f–sdf/Lx¿, 7"nf / ;fgfx¿ ;a}sf df;' vfg]5f} .Æ !(  ta d}n] To; kz' clg k[YjLsf /fhfx¿ clg ltgLx¿sf ;]gfx¿nfO{ To; 3f]8f≥ dfly ;jf/ x'gx' g' ] / pxf“sf ;]gfx¿l;t o'4 ug{nfO{ Ps;fy e]nf ePsf] b]v +] . @) t/ Tof] kz' clg To;sf] kIfdf crDdsf lrGxx¿ ug]{ Tof] e"m6f cudjQmf kqmfp k¥of] . oL lrGxx¿åf/f kz'sf] 5fk nfpg] / To;sf] d"lt{nfO{ k"hf ug]x{ ¿nfO{ axsfPsf] lyof] . tL b'j} lhp“b} uGws hNb} u/]sf] clUgs'08df ˚flnP . @! c¿ af“sL /x]sfx¿rflx“ 3f]8f≥ df ;jf/ x'gx' g' s ] f] d'vaf6 lg:s]sf] t/jf/åf/f dfl/P, clg ;a} r/fx¿n] ltgLx¿sf df;' n'5b\ } vfP .

ltgLx¿n] To; kz' jf To;sf] d"lt{sf] k"hf u/]sf lyPgg\ clg cfgf lgwf/x¿ / xftx¿df To;sf] 5fk nufPsf lyPgg\ . ltgLx¿ k]ml/ hLljt eP clg v|Li6l;t Ps xhf/ jif{;Dd /fHo u/]  . % -d/]sf c¿ af“sL /x]sfx¿rflx“ Ps xhf/ jif{ glat'Gh]n hLljt ePgg\  ._ oL dflg;x¿ hLljt x'gx] ¿df klxnf] x'g \ . ^ klxnf] k'g?Tyfgdf ;xefuL x'gx] ¿ wGo / kljq x'g \ . ltgLx¿dfly bf];f| ] d[To'sf] zlQmn] s]xL ug{ ;Sb}g, t/ ltgLx¿ k/d]Zj/sf clg v|Li6sf k"hfxf/Lx¿ x'g5 ] g\ / pxf“l;t Ps xhf/ jif{;Dd /fHo ug]5 { g\ . z}tfgsf] ;j{gfz To; Ps xhf/ jif{ lat]kl5, z}tfg To;sf] s}baf6 d'Qm ul/g]5, * clg k[YjLsf rf/} lbzfdf ePsf hfltx¿nfO{ cyf{t\ uf]u / dfuf]unfO{ n8≥fO“sf] nflu axsfpg clg hDdf ug{nfO{ Tof] lg:s]/ hfg]5 . ;ª\Vofdf ltgLx¿ ;d'bs | f] lsgf/df ePsf afn'jfe}m“ x'g5 ] g\  . ( ltgLx¿n] k[YjLsf] kl/qmdf u/]/ k/d]Zj/sf hfltsf 5fpgL, cyf{t\ pxf“n] k|d] ug'e{ Psf] zx/nfO{ 3]/ ] . t/ :ju{af6 cfuf] a;]/{ ltgLx¿nfO{ eid kf¥of] . !) clg ltgLx¿nfO{ 7Ug], Tof] lbofan;, Tof] uGws hNb} u/]sf] s'08df ˚flnof] hxf“ Tof] kz' / e"m6f cudjQmf klg ˚flnPsf lyP . Toxf“ ltgLx¿n] lbg/ft ;bf;j{bf oftgf ef]Ug]5g\ . & 

Ps xhf/ jif{ Tof] d}n] ctn–s'08sf] ;f“rf] xftdf lnPsf clg xftdf Pp6f 7"nf] ;fª\nf] klg lnPsf Ps hgf :ju{bt" nfO{ :ju{af6 lg:s]/ tn cfO/x]sf] b]v +] . @ ltgn] To; clh·/ cyf{t\ Tof] k'/fgf] ;k{ hf] lbofan; jf z}tfg xf], To;nfO{ kq]m/ Ps xhf/ jif{;Dd af“w/] /fv] . # ltgn] To;nfO{ To; g/s–s'08df ˚flnlbP, clg Ps xhf/ jif{ glat'Gh]n hfltx¿nfO{ gaxsfcf];\ eg]/ Tof] ctn–s'08 aGb u/L To;dfly 5fk nufOlbP . To;kl5 s]xL ;dosf] nflu Tof] d'Qm ul/g'kg]5 {  . $  d}n] OG;f˚ ug]{ clVtof/ kfPsfx¿nfO{ d[tsx¿sf] OG;f˚ l;+xf;gdf al;/x]sf b]v +] . clg d}n] o]zs " f] ;fIfLsf] lglDt clg k/d]Zj/sf] jrgsf] !! ta d}n] Pp6f 7"nf] ;]tf] l;+xf;g clg lglDt lz/ sfl6Psfx¿sf cfTdfnfO{ b]v +] . To;dfly a:g'xg' n ] fO{ b]v +] . k[YjL / cfsfz

@) 


425

pxf“sf] pkl:yltaf6 efu] clg ltgLx¿nfO{ 7fp“ g} ePg . !@ clg d}n] 7"nf / ;fgf ;a} d[stx¿nfO{ l;+xf;gsf] ;fd' ple/x]sf] b]v,+] clg k':tsx¿ vf]lnP . csf]{ Pp6f k':ts klg vf]lnof], h'grflx“ hLjgsf] k':ts xf] . tL k':tsx¿df n]lvPsf s'/fsf] cfwf/df ltgLx¿sf sfdcg';f/ d[tsx¿sf] OG;f˚ eof]  . !# ;d'bn | ] cfk"ml;t ePsf d'bf{x¿ lbOxfNof], clg d[To' / kftfnn] klg ltgLx¿df ePsf d'bf{x¿ lbOxfn], clg k|To]sn] h] u/]sf] lyof] To;cg';f/ To;sf] OG;f˚ ul/of]  . !$ d[To' / kftfn clUg– s'08df ˚flnP  . Tof] clUgs'08 bf];f| ] d[To' xf] . !% h;sf] gfp“ hLjgsf] k':tsdf n]lvPsf] e]§fOPg, To;nfO{ clUgs'08df ˚flnof] . gof““ o¿zn]d ta d}n] Pp6f gof“ :ju{ / Pp6f gof“ k[YjL b]v,+] lsgls klxnf] :ju{ / klxnf] k[YjL t laltxfn]sf lyP, clg Toxf“ ;d'b| klg lyPg . @ clg d}n] kljq zx/ cyf{t\ gof“ o¿zn]dnfO{ b'nxLe}m“ tof/ eP/ cfgf kltsf] lglDt ;'Gb/ j:q klx/]/ :ju{bl] v k/d]Zj/af6 tn eml//x]sf] b]v +] . # clg d}n] l;+xf;gaf6 rsf]{ ;f]/n] o;f] elg/x]sf] ;'g,+] æca k/d]Zj/sf] jf; dflg;x¿l;t ePsf] 5, clg pxf“ ltgLx¿l;t a:g'xg' 5 ]  . ltgLx¿ pxf“sf hflt x'g5 ] g\, clg k/d]Zj/ cfk}m ltgLx¿l;t eP/ ltgLx¿sf k/d]Zj/ x'gx' g' 5 ]   . $ pxf“n] ltgLx¿sf cf“vfaf6 x/]s cf“;s ' f] yf]kf k'l5lbg'xg' 5 ]  . Toxf“ d[To'

@! 

k|sfz @! 

jf ef]s jf si6sf] lrRRofO ca pk|fGt x'g5 ] g} lsgls k'/fgf s'/fx¿sf] Joj:yf laltxfn]sf] 5 .Æ %  l;+xf;gdf a:g'xg' n ] ] eGg'eof], æd x/]s yf]s gof“ agfpg]5 ' ∕Æ ta pxf“n] eGg'eof], æoL jrgx¿ n]v, lsgls oL jrgx¿ ljZjf;of]Uo / ;To 5g\ .Æ ^  pxf“n] dnfO{ eGg'eof], æca l;l4of]  . d cN˚f / cf]du] f x',“ cyf{t\ cflb / cGt . hf] ltvf{p5 “ d To;nfO{ hLjgsf] kfgLsf] d"naf6 l;Q}df lkpgnfO{ lbg]5 ' . & h;n] lhT5 To;n] of] ;a} pQ/flwsf/ kfpg]5, clg d To;sf k/d]Zj/ / Tof] d]/f] k'q x'g5 ]   . * t/ 8/kf]sx¿, cljZjf;Lx¿, l3gnfUbfx¿, xTof/fx¿, Jolerf/Lx¿, dGqtGq ug]{x¿, d"lt{k"hsx¿ clg ;a} e"m6fx¿sf] 7fp“ uGws hNb} u/]sf] clUgs'08 x'g5 ]  . of] bf];f| ] d[To' xf] .Æ (  ;ftcf]6f clGtd ljklQx¿n] el/Psf ;ftcf]6f srf}/f lnPsf :ju{bt" x¿dWo] Ps hgf dsxf“ cfP/ o;f] eg], æcfpm, d ltdLnfO{ b'nxL cyf{t\ y'dfsL kTgL b]vfOlbg]5 ' .Æ !) clg ltgn] dnfO{ cfTdfdf Pp6f 7"nf] / cUnf] kj{tdf nu], clg k/d]Zj/af6 :ju{bl] v tn eml//x]sf] kljq zx/ o¿zn]d b]vfOlbP . !! Tof] k/d]Zj/sf] dlxdfn] rlDs/x]sf] lyof], clg To;sf] rds ax'dN" o /Tgx¿e}m“ lyof], laNnf}/e}m“ / :˚l6sh:tf] ;kmf lyof] . !@ To;sf ljzfn / cUnf kvf{n lyP h;df afx|cf]6f 9f]sfx¿ lyP, clg 9f]sfx¿df afx| hgf :ju{bt" x¿ lyP . tL 9f]sfx¿df O;|fPnsf afx| s'nsf gfp“ n]lvPsf lyP  . !# k"jd{ f tLgcf]6f,


k|sfz @@ 

426

pQ/df tLgcf]6f, blIf0fdf tLgcf]6f clg klZrddf tLgcf]6f 9f]sfx¿ lyP . !$  zx/sf kvf{nsf afx|cf]6f hux¿ lyP, clg ltgLx¿df y'dfsf afx| k]l| /tx¿sf gfp“x¿ lyP . !%  dl;t af]Ng] :ju{bt" l;t zx/, 9f]sfx¿ clg To;sf kvf{n gfKgnfO{ ;'gsf] gfKg] 6f“uf] lyof] . !^ Tof] zx/ juf{sf/ lyof], clg To;sf] nDafO / rf}8fO a/fa/ lyof]  . ltgn] To; 6f“uf]n] zx/x¿nfO{ gfk] clg Tof] b'O{ xhf/ rf/ ;o lsnf]ld6/ kfP . To;sf] nDafO, rf}8fO / p“rfO Ps ;dfg lyof]  . !& ltgn] To;sf] kvf{n klg gfk], clg dflg;sf] gfkcg';f/ Tof] k};+ 6\7L ld6/ df]6f] lyof] . of] :ju{bt" sf] rnfpg] gfk klg xf] . !* Tof] kvf{n laNnf}/n] algPsf] lyof], clg zx/rflx“ lgv'/ ;'gn] algPsf] lyof], h'grflx“ sf“re}m“ lgv'/ lyof]  . !( zx/sf] kvf{nsf hux¿ k|To]s lsl;dsf] ax'dN" o kTy/n] l;“ufl/Psf lyP  . klxnf] hu laNnf}/, bf];f| ] gLndl0f, t];f| ] nfndl0f, rf}yf] kGgf, @) kf“rf} ;fl8{o;dl0f, 5}6f}+ uf]db] , ;ftf}+ kLtdl0f, cf7f}+ l˚/f]hf, gjf}+ k'ik/fu, bzf}+ n;'g,] P3fx|f+} w"ds | fGt / afx|fr +} flx“ dlt{;dl0f lyof]  . @! tL afx| 9f]sfx¿ afx| df]tL lyP, k|To]s 9f]sf Pp6f Pp6f df]tLn] algPsf] lyof]  . zx/sf 7"nf ;8srflx“ 5n{·} b]lvg] sf“rh:t} lgv'/ ;'gsf] lyof] . @@  d}n] zx/df dlGb/ b]lvg“, lsgls ;j{zlQmdfg\ k/dk|e' k/d]Zj/ clg y'df g} To;sf] dlGb/ x'gx' G' 5 . @# To; zx/df rDsgsf] nflu 3fd / h"gsf] cfjZostf lyPg, lsgls k/d]Zj/sf] dlxdfn] To;nfO{

k|sfz lbG5, clg y'df g} To;sf] aQL x'gx' G' 5 . @$ Toxf“s} k|sfzdf hflt–hfltx¿ lx“88 ≥ n ' ug]5 { g\, clg k[YjLsf /fhfx¿n] cfgf j}ej To;df Nofpg]5g\ . @% s'g} lbg klg To;sf 9f]sfx¿ aGb x'g5 ] g} g\, lsgls Toxf“ /ft slxNo} x'g5 ] g}  . @^ hflt–hfltsf dlxdf / ;Ddfg To;df NofOg]5g\  . @&  To;df s'g} cz'4 s'/f k:g]5g} , gtf zd{sf / 5nsf sfd ug]{ sf]xL, t/ ltgLx¿ dfq h;sf] gfp“ y'dfsf] hLjgsf] k':tsdf n]lvPsf 5g\ . hLjgsf] gbL ta To; :ju{bt" n] dnfO{ k/d]Zj/ / y'dfsf] l;+xf;gaf6 aUb} lg:s]sf] laNnf}/e}m“ :jR5 hLjgsf] kfgLsf] gbL b]vfP, @  h'grflx“ zx/sf] aLraf6 alu/x]sf] lyof] . gbLsf b'jl} t/ k|To]s dlxgf afx| lsl;dsf ˚nx¿ ˚nfpg] hLjgsf] ¿v lyof] . clg tL ¿vx¿sf] kftx¿rflx“ hfltx¿nfO{ lgsf] kfg{sf] nflu x'g \ . # Toxf“ ca pk|fGt >fk x'g5 ] g}   . To; zx/df k/d]Zj/sf] clg y'dfsf] l;+xf;g x'g5 ] , clg pxf“sf bf;x¿n] pxf“sf] ;]jf ug]5 { g\ . $ ltgLx¿n] pxf“sf] cg'xf/ b]Vg]5g\, clg pxf“sf] gfp“ ltgLx¿sf lgwf/x¿df x'g5 ]  . % ca pk|fGt /ft x'g5 ] g}  . ltgLx¿nfO{ aQLsf] pHofnf] / ;"os { f] pHofnf]sf] cfjZostf kg]5 { g} , lsgls k|e' k/d]Zj/n] g} ltgLx¿nfO{ pHofnf] lbg'xg' 5 ]  . clg ltgLx¿n] ;bf;j{bf /fHo ug]5 { g\ . ^  tL :ju{bt" n] dnfO{ eg], æoL jrgx¿ ljZjf;of]Uo / ;To 5g\ . cudjQmfx¿sf

@@ 


427

k|sfz @@ 

cfTdfx¿sf k/dk|e' k/d]Zj/n] pxf“sf 9f]sfx¿ leq k:g kfpm“ egL y'dfsf] /utdf bf;x¿nfO{ ca rf“8}≥ x'gcfpg] s'/fx¿ cfgf j:q w'gx] ¿ wGosf x'g \ . !% aflx/kl§ b]vfpgnfO{ cfgf :ju{bt" k7fpg'eof] .Æ t s's/' x¿, dGqtGq ug]x{ ¿, Jolerf/Lx¿, xTof/fx¿, d"lt{kh " sx¿ / e"m6 dg k/fpg] o]z" cfp“bx} g' x' G' 5 / To;}cg';f/ rNg]x¿ x'g5 ] g\ . &  !^  æx]/, d rf“8}≥ cfp“b5 }  ' ∕ o; k':tssf æd, o]zn " ,] d08nLx¿nfO{ of] ;fIfL cudjf0fLsf jrgx¿ kfng ug]x{ ¿ wGosf lbg" egL d]/f] b"tnfO{ ltdLsxf“ k7fPsf] 5' . x'g \ .Æ d bfpmbsf] d"n / ;Gtfg, clg laxfgsf] *  oL s'/fx¿ ;'Gg] / b]Vg] d, o"xGgf x' “ . rxlsnf] tf/f x' “ .Æ !&  clg ha d}n] oL ;'g+] / b]v,+] ta oL s'/fx¿ cfTdf / b'nxL eGg'xG' 5, æcfpg'xf]; \ ∕Æ dnfO{ b]vfO/xg] :ju{bt" nfO{ k'h“" eg]/ clg h;n] ;'G5 To;n] egf];,\ æcfpg'xf]; \ ∕Æ d ltgsf] kfpdf 3f]K6f] k/] + . ( t/ ltgn] hf] ltvf{Psf] 5, Tof] cfcf];≤\ / h;n] dnfO{ eg], æo;f] gu/ ∕ d t ltdLl;t clg OR5f u5{, To;n] hLjgsf] kfgLsf] j/bfg ltd|f cudjQmf efOx¿ / o; k':tssf l;Q}df n]cf]; \ . !*  jrgx¿ kfng ug]{ ;a}sf Ps ;xsdL{ x' “ . o; k':tsdf ePsf cudjf0fLsf k/d]Zj/nfO{ g} b08jt\ u/ .Æ jrgx¿ ;'Gg] x/]snfO{ r]tfjgL b]pm . olb !)  ta ltgn] dnfO{ eg], æo; k':tssf s;}n] o;df s]xL yKof] eg], k/d]Zj/n] cudjf0fLsf jrgx¿df 5fk gnfpm, To;dfly o; k':tsdf j0f{g ul/Psf lsgls ;do ghLs} 5 . !! h;n] e"n u5{ ljklQx¿ ylklbg'xg' 5 ]  . !( olb s;}n] o; To;n] e"n} ul//xf];≤\ hf] cZnLn 5 Tof] k':tssf] cudjf0fLsf jrgx¿ lgsfn]df, cZnLn} /xf];≤\ hf] 7Ls 5 To;n] 7Ls} k/d]Zj/n] o; k':tsdf j0f{g ul/Psf ul//xf];≤\ / hf] kljq 5 Tof] kljq g} hLjgsf] ¿vdf / kljq zx/df ePsf] eO/xf]; \ .Æ To;sf] efu lgsflnlbg'xg' 5 ]  . !@  @)  æx]/, d rf“8} cfp“b5 }  ' ∕ d]/f] Ogfd o; s'/fsf] ;fIfL lbg'xg' n ] ] eGg'xG' 5, dl;t 5, / d k|To]snfO{ p;n] u/]sf] æx]/, d rf“8}≥ cfp“b5 }  ' .Æ sfdcg';f/ lbg]5 ' . !# d cN˚f / cf]du] f cfd]g . cfpg'xf];,\ x] k|e' o]z " . @!  x',“ cyf{t\ klxnf] / kl5Nnf], cflb / cGt . k|e' o]z"sf] cg'u|x k/d]Zj/sf !$  æhLjgsf] ¿vsf] xs kfpg / zx/sf hgx¿l;t /xf]; \ . cfd]g .


v|Li6df tkfO{s + f] hLjg kf7 Ps

k|f/De o]z" v|Li6nfO{ lrg]/ tkfO{+n] ;a}eGbf a9L pT;fxk|b ;DaGw :yflkt ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . of] ;a}eGbf k|]ldnf] / ;a}eGbf zlQmzfnL k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] hLjgsf] ofqfsf] ;'¿jft xf] .

rf/ cflTds lgod -k/d]Zj/nfO{ JolQmut ?kdf lrGg'df x]g'{xf];\_ n] Pp6f dflg;n] o]z" v|Li6;“u ;DaGw :yflkt ug{sf nflu a'‰g'kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ s'/fx¿nfO{ :ki6;“u JofVof ub{5 . o]z" v|Li6;“usf] tkfO{+sf] gof“ ;DaGwaf/] a'‰g k|:t't ul/Psf oL cjwf/0ffx¿n] tkfO{+nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] 5g\ . lgod PsM k/d]Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ k|]d ug'{x'G5 / xfd|f] hLjgsf] nflu Pp6f pb]ssf] of]hgf agfpg'x'G5 . lgod b'O{M xfdL kfkL / k/d]Zj/af6 cnu ePsf 5f}+ . To;}sf/0f, k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d / xfd|f] hLjgdf pxf“sf] of]hgf xfdL a'‰g ;Sb}gf}+ . lgod tLgM o]z" v|Li6 dfq k/d]Zj/n] xfd|f] kfksf] nflu lbg'ePsf] 5 . pxf“åf/f dfq xfdL k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d / xfd|f] hLjgdf pxf“sf] of]hgf a''‰g ;S5f}+ . lgod rf/M xfdLn] JolQmut¿kdf o]z" v|Li6nfO{ d'lQmbftf / k|e' egL u|x0f ug'{k5{, clg xfdL k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d / xfd|f] hLjgdf pxf“sf] of]hgf a'‰g ;S5f}+ . 429


430

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

efu !M

k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwsf] lgZrotf v|Li6;“usf] tkfO+{sf] ;DaGwsf] af/]df tkfO{+ lglZrt x'g'k5{ lsgeg] tkfO{+n] k"0f{¿kdf kfkaf6 Ifdf kfpg'ePsf] 5 / k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+nfO{ :jLsf/ ug'{ePsf] 5 . k/d]Zj/;“usf] of] vf; ;DaGw q"m;df v|Li6sf] d[To'åf/f dfq ;Dej 5 . Plkm;L @M*,( -k[i7 #!(_ k9\g'xf];\ . xfdL v|Li6df :jLsf/ ul/g'sf] cfwf/sf] af/]df tLg dxTjk"0f{ zAbx¿ oL kbx¿df JofVof ul/Psf] 5 .

cg'u|xM kfpg nfos gePsf] bof, gsdfPsf] s[kf k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO+{sf] ;DaGw :yflkt ug{ bofn] s:tf] e'ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] 5 < -of] ;DaGw k|fKt ug{ tkfO{+ of]Uo x'g'x'GgYof] g t o;nfO{ lsGg g} ;Sg'x'GYof] . jf:tjdf, of] k/d]Zj/af6sf] l;Q}sf] j/bfg xf] h'g tkfO{+n] v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f u/]/ kfpg'ePsf] 5 ._ arfOPsf]M p4f/ kfPsf], ljklQaf6 arfOPsf] tkfO{+ æarfOPsf]Æ x'g'x'G5 eGg] of] kbsf] af/]df tkfO+{sf] wf/0ff s] 5 < tkfO{+ s]åf/f arfOg'eof] < -/f]dL ^M@# -k[i7 @^)_ n] eG5 ls kfksf] clGtd kl/0ffd d[To' xf] . ha tkfO{+n] tkfO{+sf] kfksf] Hofnf q"m;df v|Li6sf] d[To'åf/f ltl/Psf] 5 egL :jLsf/ ug'{eof], ta tkfO+{ cgGtsf] b08af6 / tkfO+{sf] cfÇg} kfksf] Hofnf ltg{af6 arfOg'ePsf] 5 ._


kf7 Ps

431

e/f];fM ljZjf;, cf:yf, ljrf/sf] k|ltj4tf, dgf]j[lQ, sfd v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f u/]kl5 e/f];fn] s] ug'{kb{5 < -e/f];f ug'{ jf k/d]Zj/ / pxf“sf] jrgdf lglZrt x'g' . ha tkfO{+n] v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f ug'{eof], pxf“sf] d[To' tkfO+{sf] kfksf] nflu ePsf] xf] egL :jLsf/ u/]/ tkfO{+n] v|Li6df e/f];f /fVg'x'G5 . ca k/d]Zj/sf] s[kf kfpgsf] nflu tkfO{+ cfÇg} of]Uotfdf e/ kg'{sf] ;f6f] v|Li6n] tkfO{+sf] nflu h] ug'{ePsf] 5 ;f] sf] sf/0f k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] k'gld{ng ePsf] 5 egL tkfO{+ e/f];f ug'{x'G5 ._ k|d'v k|ZgM sNkgf ug'{xf];\ ls tkfO{+ k/d]Zj/sf] cl3 pleg'ePsf] 5, pxf“n] tkfO{+nfO{ k|Zg ;f]Wg'eof], æd ltdLnfO{ lsg :ju{df hfg lbp“ <Æ tkfO{{ s] eGg'x'G5 <


432

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

efu @M

k/d]Zj/;“usf] tkfO{+sf] ;DaGw a'‰g' k/d]Zj/;“usf] tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwnfO{ cfglGbt t'Nofpg] y'k|} ;To s'/fx¿ 5g\ . oL ;Totfx¿nfO{ a'‰gfn] k/d]Zj/df a9\gsf] nflu Pp6f husf] lgdf{0f ug{ ;xof]u ldNb5 . v|Li6n] tkfO+{sf] nflu ug'{ePsf] kf“r cf]6f afOanLo ;Totfx¿nfO{ oxf“ s]lGb|t ul/Psf] 5 . != v|Li6n] tkfO{+sf] kfk Ifdf ug'{eof] . Plkm;L !M& -k[i7 #!(_ k9\g'xf];\ . ha tkfO+{n] cfÇgf] kfksf] lglDt v|Li6nfO{ e/f];f ug'{eof], tkfO{+sf] ;a} kfkx¿ Ifdf ePsf 5g\=== ljutsf kfkx¿, jt{dfgsf kfkx¿ / eljiosf kfkx¿ . tkfO{+sf ;a} kfkx¿ Ifdf ePsf 5g\ egL yfxf kfp“bf tkfO{+n] s:tf] leGgtf dxz'; ug'{x'G5 <

@= v|Li6n] tkfO{+nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] ;Gtfg agfpg'ePsf] 5 . o"xGgf !M!!–!# -k[i7 !$(_ k9\g'xf];\ . k/d]Zj/sf] ;Gtfg x'gsf] nflu tkfO{+n] s] ug{'k5{ elgPsf] 5 < -tkfO+{n] v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f ug'{eof] . tkfO{+ arfOgsf] nflu tkfO{+n] pxf“nfO{ e/f];f ug'{eof] ._

#= v|Li6 tkfO{s + f] hLjgdf cfpg'eof] / pxf“n] tkfO{n+ fO{ slxNo} TofUg'xg' ] 5}g . k|sfz #M@) -k[i7 $)%_ k9\g'xf];\ . olb tkfO{+nfO{ v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f ug{sf] nflu k|fy{gf ug'{ePsf] 5 eg], tkfO+{;“usf] ;DaGwdf pxf“ clxn] sxf“ x'g'x'G5 < -tkfO+{sf] hLjgdf ._ lxa|" !#M% -k[i7 #&$_ k9\g'xf];\ . s:tf] cj:yfdf v|Li6n] tkfO{+nfO{ TofUg


kf7 Ps

433

;Sg'x'G5 < -s'g} klg cj:yfdf TofUg'x'g]5}g ._ o;sf] cfwf/df eGg] xf] eg], ca slt kN6 v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f ug'{k5{ < -Ps kN6 dfq ._

$= v|Li6n] tkfO{+nfO{ gof“ hLjg lbg'eof] . @ sf]l/GyL %M!& -k[i7 #)!_ k9\gx' f]; \ . ha tkfO{n+ ] v|Li6nfO{ tkfO{s + f] d'lQmbftf / k|e' egL e/f];f ug'e{ of], tkfO+n{ ] gof“ cflTds hLjg ;'¿ ug'e{ Psf] 5 . tkfO{+ pxf“df x'ls{b+ } hf“bf k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{d+ f cem gof“ u'0f:t/Lo j[l4 Nofpg'xg' 5 ]  .

%= v|Li6n] tkfO{+nfO{ cgGt hLjg lbg'eof] . ! o"xGgf %M!!–!# -k[i7 #(^_ k9\g'xf];\ . s;df cgGt hLjg kfpg ;lsG5 < -k/d]Zj/sf] k'qdf ._ sf];“u cgGt hLjg 5 < -hf];“u k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g'x'G5 ._ tkfO{+;“u k'q -o]z"_ x'g'x'G5 < tkfO{+;“u cgGt hLjg 5 < slxn]b]lv tkfO{+df cgGt hLjgsf] ;'¿jft eof] <

k|d'v k|ZgM olb tkfO{+ cfh} /flt dg'{eof] eg], tkfO+{ k/d]Zj/;“u cgGtsf] hLjgdf x'g'x'G5 egL slQsf] lglZrt x'g'x'G5 < -Pp6fdf uf]nf] lrGx nufpg'xf];\_ )%...................@%%...................%)%...................&%%..................!))% ;f/f+zM oL pb]ssf kmfObfx¿ k"0f{¿kdf v|Li6df cfwfl/t 5g\ . oL s'g} klg s'/f sdfpg ;lsb}+g . tkfO{+n] cfÇgf] ljZjf; v|Li6df /fv]sf] If0f tkfO{+n] oL ;a kfpg'ePsf] 5 . ca oL kf“r cf]6f ;Totfx¿dWo] s'grflx“ tkfO{+sf] nflu ;a}eGbf a9L cy{k"0f{ 5 < lsg <


434

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

efu #M

v|Li6;“usf] tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwdf ePsf] z+sfnfO{ ;fdgf ug'{ oBlk efjgf dxTjk"0f{ ePtf klg v|Li6;“usf] tkfO{+sf] ;DaGw tYodf cfwfl/t x'G5, lbgx'“ kl/jt{g x'g;Sg] efjgfTds ljrf/;“u xf]Og . z+sf, k|Zg / ab\ln/xg] efjgfx¿ x/]s dflg;sf] hLjgsf] Pp6f ;fdfGo kf6f] xf], t/ ltgLx¿ v|Li6;“usf] ;DaGwdf s'g} Ps JolQmsf] cg'lrt dfkg dfq x'g\ . v|Lli6og -h;n] v|Li6nfO{ d'lQmbftf / k|e' egL e/f];f u/]sf 5g\ ._ k/d]Zj/sf] jrg / pxf“sf] ljZjf;of]Uotfdf ljZjf;åf/f lhp“5 . of] 6«s -cyjf 6«\ofS6/, pbfx/0fsf] cfwf/df_ sf] /]vflrqn] tYo -k/d]Zj/ / pxf“sf] jrg_, ljZjf; -k/d]Zj/ / pxf“sf] jrgk|lt tkfO{+sf] e/f];f_ / efjgf larsf] ;DaGwnfO{ lrq0f ub{5 .

efjgf

tYo

ljZjf;

6«s -cyjf 6«\ofS6/– pbfx/0fdf cfwfl/t_ 8Aaf;lxt jf 8Aaflagf u'8\g]5 . oBlk, 6«]n/n] of] 6«snfO{ tfGg g;Sg] klg x'g;S5 -cyjf 6«\ofS6/_ . o;}u/L, tkfO{+ klg cfÇgf] efjgfdf e/ gkg'{xf];\ . k/d]Zj/sf] jrg tkfO{+sf]


kf7 Ps

435

clwsf/ xf] g ls tkfO+{sf] efjgf . t/ olb tkfO{n] ef]lnsf lbgdf v|Lli6ogn] h:t} ;f]Rg'ePg eg] < tkfO{+sf] ljZjf;nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] ljZjf;of]Uotf / pxf“sf] jrgsf] e/f];fdf 5f]8\ g'xf];\ . hlt tkfO{+n] k/d]Zj/sf] jrg cWoog ug'{x'G5, Tolt g} z+sfx¿ pk/ tkfO{+n] 7f]; tYosf;fy hjfkm lbg ;Sg'x'g]5 . tkfO+{sf] efjgfn] tkfO{+sf] kl/ l:yltx¿nfO{ xf]Og ls k/d]Zj/sf] jrgsf] ;TotfnfO{ k|ltlqmof b]vfpg]5 .

efu $M

Jojxfl/s k|of]u tkfO{+n]=== === tkfO{s + f] kfksf] lglDt v|Li6n] r'sfpg'ePsf] d"Nok|lt e/f];f ug'e { Psf] 5, === k /d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwsf] cfwf/ a'‰g'eof], === k /d]Zj/;“u tkfO+{sf] ;DaGwsf] af/]df kf“r ;Tox¿ l;Sg'eof], pxf“;“usf] tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwdf tkfO{+ lglZrt x'g ;Sg'x'G5 . of] xKtfel/, v|Li6df a9\b} hf“bf oL ;Tox¿nfO{ tkfO{+sf] hLjgsf] c+u agfpg'xf];\M tkfO{+n] Ifdf kfpg'ePsf] 5M sn:;L !M!#, !$ -k[i7 ##!_, • sn:;L @M!#–!$ -k[i7 ###_, lxa|" !)M!%–!* -k[i7 #^*–#^(_ .


436

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

• tkfO{+ k/d]Zj/sf] ;Gtfg x'g'ePsf] 5M o"xGgf !M!!–!# -k[i7 !$(_, /f]dL *M!% -k[i7 @^@_, ! o"xGgf #M! -k[i7 #(#_ . • tkfO{+df v|Li6n] af; ug'{ePsf] 5M k|sfz #M@) -k[i7 $)%_, unftL @M@) -k[i7 #!@_ . • tkfO{+;“u gof“ hLjg 5M @ sf]l/GyL %M!& -k[i7 #)!_, Plkm;L @M$,% -k[i7 #!(_ . • tkfO{+;“u cgGt hLjg 5M ! o"xGgf %M!!–!# -k[i7 #(^_, o"xGgf %M@$ -k[i7 !%*_, o"xGgf !)M@&–@( -k[i7 !&@_ . k|To]s lbg Pp6f ;TonfO{ lng'xf];\ / To;df dgg ug'{xf];\ . k|To]s ;Todf lbOPsf] kbx¿ k9\g'xf];\ . of] tkfO{+sf] lglDt ;To ePsf] sf/0f k/d]Zj/nfO{ wGojfb r9fpg'xf];\ . oL cfjZos ;TonfO{ hfGg' eg]sf] v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] j[l4sf] nflu cfpg] lg0f{os cj:yf xf] . v|Li6;“u :yflkt ePsf] tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwsf af/]df of] xKtf PshgfnfO{ eP klg atfpg'xf];\ .

k|d'v k|ZgM v|Lli6og hLjg lhpg] k|of;sf] qmddf ;+3if{ / ptf/r9fj cfof] eg] s] x'G5 <


v|Li6df tkfO{s + f] hLjg kf7 b'O{

k/d]Zj/sf] k|]dsf] cg'ej k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] ;DaGw ;'/lIft 5 lsgeg] v|Li6åf/f tkfO{+sf] kfk Ifdf ePsf] 5 / k/d]Zj/åf/f :jLsfl/Psf] 5 . of] ;'/lIft ;DaGwnfO{ yk alnof] agfpgsf] nflu tkfO{+ k/d]Zj/sf] ghLs /x]/ lx“8]sf] / pxf“;“u x/]s lbg s'/fsfgL u/]sf] k/d]Zj/ rfxg'x'G5 . o;nfO{ ;+ult elgG5 . ha xfdLn] kfknfO{ 5fG5f}+, xfd|f] ;DaGw -k/d]Zj/sf] 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] ¿kdf xfd|f] :yfg_ nfO{ s'g} k|efj kb}{g, t/ xfd|f] ;+ultnfO{ eg] afwf lbG5 . afa'–5f]/f÷5f]/Lsf] pbfx/0fM ;f+;fl/s lktf;“usf] tkfO{+sf] ;DaGw :yfoL xf] . tkfO{+n] h] ug'{ePtf klg km/s kb}{g, tkfO+{ ;w}+ pxf“sf] 5f]/f÷5f]/L g} /xg'x'G5 . t/ dflglnp“ tkfO{+n] tkfO{+sf] lktfsf] lj¿4df ljb|f]x ug'{eof] / tkfO{+sf] lktfn] s'/f ldnfpg] k|of; ug'{x'“bf l/;fP/ 3/ 5f]8\g'eof] eg], s] tkfO+{ ce}m klg tkfO+{sf] lktfsf] 5f]/f÷5f]/L /lx/xg'x'G5 < -xf] /xg'x'G5 ._ pxf“;“usf] tkfO{+sf] ;+ultnfO{ s] x'G5 xf]nf < -afwf kg{ ;S5 ._

437


438

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k/d]Zj/;“usf] tkfO{+sf] ;DaGw / ;+ultnfO{ cfk;df t'ngf ug'{xf];\ .

k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwM

k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] ;+ultM

tkfO{+n] v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f ug'{ePkl5 ;'¿jft eof] -o"xGgf !M!!,!@ [k[i7 !$(]_

tkfO{+n] v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f ug'{ePkl5 ;'¿jft eof] -sn:;L @M^ [k[i7 ##@]_

of] cgGt;Dd /xg]5 -! kq'; !M#,$ [k[i7 #*!]_

;+s6df kg{;S5 -oz}of %(M@*_

k/d]Zj/åf/f sfod ul/Psf] 5 -o"xGgf !)M@&–@( [k[i7 !%)]_

s]xL efu xfdLåf/f sfod /xg] 5 -! o"xGgf !M( [k[i7 #(!]_

slxNo} ab\lnb}+g -lxa|" !#M% [k[i7 #&$]_

ha xfdL kfk u5f}{+ To;n] kl/jt{g Nofp“5 -ehg;+u|x ^^M!***_

;a} v|Lli6ogx¿n] k/d]Zj/;“u ;DaGw :yflkt ug{ ;S5g\, ;a}hgfn] k/d]Zj/;“usf] ;+ultsf] cg'ej ub}{gg\ . xfdLn] s;/L lg/Gt/ ¿kdf k/d]Zj/;“u ;+ult ul/x/g;S5f}+ <

============================ *

oz}of %(M@ – t/ ltdLx¿sf cwd{n] ltdLx¿nfO{ cfÇgf k/d]Zj/af6 cnu u/]sf 5g\, / ltdLx¿sf kfkn] ubf{ pxf“sf] d'xf/ ltdLx¿af6 5]lsPsf] 5, pxf“n] ltdLx¿sf] s'/f ;'Gg'x'g]5}g . ** ehg;+u|x ^^M!* – olb d}n] d]/f] Xbodf cwd{nfO{ cf>o lbPsf] eP, k/d]Zj/n] ;'Gg'x'g]lyPg .


kf7 b'O{

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k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d / Ifdfbfgsf] nflu cfjZostf k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d cg'ej ug{af6 xfdLnfO{ kfkn] 6f9f /fV5 . t/ w]/} h;f] dflg;x¿ s] kfk xf] / s] rflx“ kfk xf]Og eGg] bf]wf/df 5g\ . kfk s] xf] < 5n ug'{, e"m7 af]Ng', ckljq Jojxf/ ug'{ cflb kfk xf] . oL lqmofsnfkx¿ kfksf] dgf]j[lQsf] kl/0ffd dfq xf] . kfksf] ;/n kl/efiffM k/d]Zj/n] xfdLaf6 h] rfxg'x'G5 To;sf] 7Ls ljk/Lt xfdLn] rfx]sf] s'/frflx“ u5f}{+ eg] Tof] kfk xf] .

kfksf] kl/0ffd s] xf] < cv|Lli6og -v|Li6nfO{ u|x0f gu/]sf] dflg;sf] -k[i7 $#$ df x]g'{xf];\_ nflu kfkn] k/d]Zj/;“usf] ;+ultnfO{ cnu u/fp“5 . Plkm;L @M!–# k9\g'xf];\ -k[i7 #!(_ . c;n / g}ltsjfg hLjg lhP/ k/d]Zj/sxf“ k'Ug sf]lz; ug]{ dflg;sf] cj:yf s:tf] x'G5 < s] ltgLx¿ k/d]Zj/af6 cnu x'G5g\ < lsg x'G5g\ jf x'b“ g} g\ < -k[i7 VIII df x]g'{xf];\ . xfdL c;n / g}ltsjfg hLjg lhP/ k/d]Zj/sxf“ hfg ;Sb}gf}+ lsgeg] kfkn] xfdLnfO{ k/d]Zj/af6 cnu u5{ . v|Li6n] dfq k'nsf] sfd ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 ._ v|Lli6ogsf] nflu, kfkn] k/d]Zj/;“usf] ;+ultdf afwf Nofp“5 . ! o"xGgf !M^–* k9\g'xf];\ -k[i7 #(!_ .

;f/f+zM xfdL ;a}n] kfk u/]sf 5f}+ . To;}sf/0f, xfdLn] xfd|f] dgf]j[lQ / sfdsf] nflu k/d]Zj/sf] IfdfbfgnfO{ cg'ej ug'{k5{ .


440

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k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d / Ifdfbfgsf] cfwf/ xfdLnfO{ k/d]Zj/;“u jf:tljs ;DaGwdf Nofpgsf] nflu Ifdfbfgsf] cfwf/ v|Li6sf] d[To' xf] . k/d]Zj/;“usf] xfd|f] b}lgs ;+ultdf klg pxf“sf] d[To' Ifdfbfgsf] cfwf/ xf] . ! kq'; #M!* -k[i7 #*$_ k9\g'xf];\ . sn:;L @M!#, !$ -k[i7 ###_ k9\g'xf];\ . ækfksf] ;"rLÆ of] n]lvPsf] lbgdf, ltgLx¿nfO{ l;qmLn] afFw]/ ‰ofnvfgfsf] 9f]sfdf /flvof] . o;df ck/fwL ;fljt ePsf] x/]s aGbLx¿sf] ;"rL lyof] . ha sf/faf;sf] ;do k"/f eof] jf hl/jfgf ltl/of], clwsf/Ln] klxn]sf] ;"rL lems]/ æk"0f{¿kdf e'Qmfg eof]Æ n]vs ] f] ;"rL 6f“;LlbP . aGbLn] of] ;"rLnfO{ klxn] u/]sf] ck/fw ca k]ml/ ug]{ 5}g eGg] b]vfpg k|df0fsf] ¿kdf k|of]u u¥of] . v|Li6n] p;sf] kfksf] nflu ltl/lbg'ePsf] df]ndfly h'g v|Lli6ogn] e/f];f ub{5, p;n] slxn] klg k]ml/ kfk ug]{ k|of; ub}g{  . p;sf] kfksf] æk"0f{¿kdf e'QmfgÆ eO;s]sf] 5 . p;n] k/d]Zj/af6 k"0f{¿kdf Ifdf kfO;s]sf] 5 . tkfO{+sf] kfksf] nflu k/d]Zj/n] s] ul/lbg'ePsf] 5 < -k/d]Zj/n] Ifdf ul/lbg'ePsf] 5 ._ slt cf]6f kfksf] lglDt o]z" v|Li6 q"m;df dg'{eof] < -;a} kfksf] lglDt ._ tkfO{+sf] kfksf] lglDt v|Li6 slxn] dg'{eof], eljiosf] lglDt tkfO{+;“u slt cf]6f kfkx¿ lyP < -;a} ._ tkfO{+n] k"0f{¿kdf kfkaf6 Ifdf kfpg'ePsf] 5 eGg] s'/fn] tkfO{+sf] b}lgs hLjgdf s] leGgtf Nofp“5 <


kf7 b'O{

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tkfO{+ x/]s lbg k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d / Ifdfbfgsf] cg'ej ug{;Sg'x'G5 . tkfO+{sf] kfk k"0f{¿kdf Ifdf ePsf] ePtf klg k/d]Zj/;“usf] ;+ultnfO{ lg/Gt/ cg'ej ug{sf] nflu tkfO{+n] ce}m klg b}lgs ?kdf kfksf] ;fdgf ug'{k5{ . tkfO{+n] cfk}mnfO{ afa'–5f]/f÷5f]/Lsf] pbfx/0f -k[i7 $#&_ df /fVg'xf];\ . lktf;“u tkfO{+sf] ;DaGw k'g:yf{lkt ug{sf] nflu tkfO{+ s] ug'{x'G5 < tkfO{+n] s;/L lktf;“u tkfO+{sf] ;+ult k'g:yf{lkt ug'{x'G5, x]/f}+ . ! o"xGgf !M( -k[i7 #(!_ k9\g'xf];\ .

s_ :jLsf/M k/d]Zj/;“u kfk :jLsf/ ug'{ . tkfO+{n] ug'{ePsf] s]xL s'/f hf] kfk xf], To;k|lt ha k/d]Zj/n] tkfO+{sf] Wofg cfs[i6 ug'{x'G5, To;nfO{ :jLsf/ ug'{xf];\ . of] :jLsf/f]QmLdf slDtdf tLg cf]6f tYo ;dfj]z ePsf x'G5g\M != tkfO{+n] kfk ug'{ePsf] 5 egL k/d]Zj/sf] cl3 :jLsf/ ug'{xf];\ . @= tkfO+{n] cl3af6} kfk Ifdf kfO;Sg'ePsf]df k/d]Zj/nfO{ wGojfb lbg'xf];\ . #= k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+sf] unt dgf]j[lQ / sfo{nfO{ kl/jt{g ug'{x'g] s'/fk|lt pxf“df e/f];f ug'{xf];\ . kfkaf6 6fl9P/ k/d]Zj/df kmls{cfPkl5 -kZrftfk u/] kl5_, tkfO{+n] q"m;df v|Li6sf] d[To'åf/f pknAw k/d]Zj/sf] k|]d / Ifdfbfgsf] cg'ej ug'{x'g]5 .


442

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

uNtL / ck/fw af]wsf] ;§f, tkfO{+n] k/d]Zj/;“u ;+ult k'g:yf{lkt ePsf] yfxf kfpg ;Sg'x'g]5 .

v_ :jLsf/M o;sf] cEof; ug'{ . clxNo} cyjf tkfO{+ cfh /flt ;'Tg' cl3 of] s'/fsf] cEof; ug'{xf];\M != tkfO{+sf] hLjgdf s'g} kfkx¿ 5g\ eg] Tof] k|s6 u/fOlbgsf] nflu k/d]Zj/;“u k|fy{gf ug'{xf];\ . @= logLx¿sf] Pp6f ;"rL agfO{ Pp6f sfuhdf n]Vg'xf];\, of] tkfO{+ / k/d]Zj/ larsf] dfq s'/f xf] . #= ;r " L agfpg ;lsPkl5 o;df ! o"xGgf !M( sf] k|lt1f n]Vg'xf];\ -k[i7 #(!_ . $= v|Li6n] q"m;df tkfO+{sf] kfk Ifdfsf] nflu h] ul/lbg'ePsf] 5, To;sf] nflu k/d]Zj/nfO{ wGojfb r9fpg'xf];\ . %= ca ;"rLnfO{ Roft]/ Çof“lslbg'xf];\ . tkfO{+n] sltkN6 hlt kfk :jLsf/ ug'{ cfjZos k5{ < -Ps k6s ._ tkfO{+n] slxn] kfk :jLsf/ ug'{k5{ < -tkfO{+nfO{ kfk u/]sf] af]w x'g] laltSs} ._


kf7 b'O{

443

u_ :jLsf/M kl/0ffdsf] cg'ej ug'{ . tkfO+{n] kfk :jLsf/ ul/;s]kl5 klg tkfO{+nfO{ lxgtfaf]w eof] eg] tkfO{+n] s] ug'{k5{ < -ehg;+u|x #@M#–%*, !)#M!@** k9\g'xf];\ ._ -tkfO{+sf] kfk Ifdf ePsf]df k/d]Zj/sf] jrgnfO{ ofb ug'{xf];\ / tkfO{+sf] ljrf/lt/ Wofg gnufpg'xf];\ ._ bf]if / z'4tfsf] af/]df oL cg'R5]bx¿n] s] eG5g\ < -olb s'g} klg s'/f :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5}g eg], xLgtfaf]w /lx/xg] sf/0f x'G5 ._ tkfO{+n] bf]if / Ifdfbfgsf] af/]df h] hlt l;Sg'ePsf] 5, tn lbOPsf] tYonfO{ tkfO{+ s;/L k"/f ug'{x'G5 <

æha d}n] d]/f ;a} kfkx¿ :jLsf/ u/]+, d=============================================== .Æ

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ehg;+u|x #@M#–%M æs'g} ;dodf d}n] cfÇgf] kfk :jLsf/ ub}{glyP“ . t/ d]/f] a]OdfgLkgn] dnfO{ b'Mlvt / lg/fz t'Nofof] . lbg/ft tkfO{+sf] afx'nLsf] ef/ ddfly /x\of] . d]/f] z/L/sf] zlQm u|Lidsf] tfkn] ePe}+m ;'ls;s]sf] lyof] . ta d}n] cfÇgf] kfk tkfO{+sf] ;fd'Gg] :jLsf/ u/]+, / d]/f] cwd{ d}n] n'sfOgF . d}n] cfk}mnfO{ eg]+, ‘d tL ;a} tkfO{+sf] ;fd'Gg] :jLsf/ ug]{5' . / tkfO{+n] dnfO{ Ifdf ug'{x'g]5 ∕’ d]/f ;a} bf]ifx¿ d]l6g]5g\ .Æ ** ehg;+u|x !)#M!@M æklZrdaf6 k"j{ hlt 6f9f 5, pxf“n] xfd|f ck/fwx¿ xfdLaf6 Tolt g} 6f9f x6fOlbg'ePsf] 5 .Æ


444

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v|Li6df tkfO{s + f] hLjg kf7 tLg

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445


446

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efu !M

v|Lli6og hLjgsf] zlQm ;|f]t kljq cfTdf x'g'x'G5 kljq cfTdf k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 -! sf]l/GyL @M!!–!@ [k[i7 @&&]_ . pxf“ tkfO{+df jf; ug{ cfpg'eof] -/f]dL *M( [k[i7 @^@_ . pxf“ ;+;f/sf] kfksf] ljifodf bf]ifL 7x/fpg / Gofo ug{ cfpg'eof] -o"xGgf !^M* [k[i7 !*#]_ . pxf“ tkfO+{nfO{ ;Totfdf 8f]¥ofpg cfpg'eof] -o"xGgf !^M!# [k[i7 !*$]_ . pxf“ v|Li6nfO{ dlxldt kfg{ cfpg'eof] -o"xGgf !^M!$ [k[i7 !*#]_ . k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{+sf] ;DaGwdf kljq cfTdfsf] s] e'ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 < /f]dL *M!$–!^ -k[i7 @^@_ k9\g'xf];\ . -xfdL k/d]Zj/sf 5f]/f5f]/L xf}+ egL pxf“n] lglZrt ug'{x'G5 ._ tkfO{+sf] hLjgnfO{ kmnjGt agfpg pxf“n] s] OR5f /fVg'x'G5 < unftL %M@@–@# -k[i7 #!&_ k9\g'xf];\ . k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+leq oL u'0fdWo] s'grflx“ ljsf; ug'{ePsf] tkfO{+nfO{ ;a}eGbf a9L dgk5{ < xfdLdf kmn kmNgsf] nflu xfdLn] ug'{kg]{ sfdsf] ;DaGwdf o]z"n] s] eGg'x'G5 < o"xGgf !%M$–% -k[i7 !*@_ k9\g'xf];\ . -xfdL v|Li6df lhpg'k5{, pxf“df /xg'k5{ / pxf“sf] ghLs x'g'k5{ ._ tkfO{+nfO{ tof/ kfg{sf] nflu kljq cfTdfn] s] rfxgf ug'{x'G5 < k|]l/t !M* -k[i7 !(%_ k9\g'xf];\ .


kf7 tLg

447

tkfO+{nfO{ v|Li6sf] lglDt ;fIfL aGg' eGg'sf] cy{ s] xf] < -ujfxL lbg]n] p;n] b]v]sf] / ;'g]sf] s'/f eGb5 . v|Lli6og ;fIfLn] v|Li6sf] af/]df p;nfO{ yfxf ePsf] ;Totf c¿nfO{ eGb5 ._ tkfO{+sf] ljrf/df ;fIfL aGgsf] nflu lsg kljq cfTdfsf] zlQm rflxG5 < -pxf“n] tkfO{+nfO{ 7Ls zAb / lg8/tfsf ;fy tL af]NgnfO{ k|lt1f ug'{ePsf] 5 ._

;f/f+zM h'g O{Zj/Lo ljz]iftf tkfO{+sf] hLjgdf k|s6 ePsf] 5, ;f] tkfO{+n] slxn]b]lv / tkfO{+sf] hLjgsf] x/]s s'/fn] pxf“df slt e/f];f /fv]sf] 5, To;df lge{/ ub{5 . h;n] ev{/} dfq kljq cfTdfsf] af/]df a'‰g yfn]sf] 5, nfdf] ;dob]lv k/d]Zj/sf] ;TotfnfO{ cg'ej ub}{ cfO/x]sf] kl/kSj v|Lli6og h:t} geP klg pm xtf]T;flxt x'g'kb{}g .

k/d]Zj/df e/f];f ± ;do ≠ cflTds kl/kSjtf


448

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

efu @M

;a} v|Lli6ogn] kljq cfTdfsf] cg'ej ub}{gg\ kljq cfTdfsf] sfdåf/f tkfO{+ v|Lli6og aGg'ePsf] 5 -Plkm;L !M!# [k[i7 #!*]_ . To; ;dob]lv kljq cfTdf tkfO+{df jf; ug'{ePsf] 5 -o"xGgf !$M!%–!& [k[i7 !*!]_ . ;a} v|Lli6ogleq kljq cfTdf jf; ug'{ePtf klg ;a} v|Lli6ogx¿ kljq cfTdfåf/f lgb]{lzt / ;zQm ePsf x'“b}gg\ . afOann] atfPcg';f/ tLg lsl;dsf dflg;x¿ x'G5g\M

!= k|fs[lts÷:jefljs dflg; – ! sf]l/GyL @M!$ -k[i7 @&&_ tL JolQmx¿, h;n] pgLx¿sf] kfksf] df]n v|Li6n] ltl/lbg'ePsf] 5 egL ljZjf; u/]sf x'“b}gg\ / To:tf dflg;x¿df v|Li6n] jf; ug'{x'“b}g .

d

of] rqmn] JolQmsf] hLjgnfO{ k|ltlglwTj ub{5 . k|fs[lts dflg;n] p;sf] hLjgnfO{ cfk}m lgb]{lzt ub{5 / kl/0ffd:j¿k pm cfÇg} lgoGq0fdf x'G5 . k|fs[lts dflg;;“u v|Li6 a:g'x'“b}g / To;}n] v|Li6 - _ rqmsf] aflx/kl§ x'g'x'G5 .


kf7 tLg

449

@= cflTds dflg; – ! sf]l/GyL @M!% -k[i7 @&&_ h;n] v|Li6nfO{ d'lQmbftf egL u|x0f u/]sf] 5 / v|Lli6og hLjg lhpgsf] nflu kljq cfTdfsf] zlQmdf ljZjf; u/sf] 5 .

   

cflTds JolQmn] v|Li6 - _ nfO{ p;sf] hLjgdf kljq cfTdfsf] zlQmåf/f lgoGq0f ug{ :jfut u/]sf] x'G5 . Tof] JolQm v|Li6sf] lgb]{zgdf rNb5 .

d

#= zf/Ll/s dflg; – ! sf]l/GyL #M!–@ -k[i7 @&&_ v|Li6n] p;sf] kfksf] nflu df]n ltl/lbg'ePsf] 5 egL ljZjf; u/]sf] 5, t/ v|Lli6og hLjg lhpgsf] nflu cfÇg} an / k|of;df e/ kb{5 . -zf/Ll/stfn] æz/L/Æ sf] s'/fnfO{ k|fyldstf lbG5 / æcfTdfÆ sf] s'/fnfO{ lj/f]w ub{5 ._ zf/Ll/s v|Lli6og z/L/sf] andf lhp“5, kljq cfTdfsf] zlQmdf lhp“b}g .

d

zf/Ll/s dflg;sf] hLjgdf v|Li6n] jf; ug'{ePtf klg, p;n] cfÇgf] hLjgnfO{ kljq cfTdfåf/f lgb]{lzt ug{ :jLs[lt lbPsf] x'“b}g . o;sf] ;§f Tof] dflg; cfÇg} lgoGq0fdf /xG5 .

k|d'v k|ZgM tkfO{+sf] hLjgnfO{ k|ltlglwTj ug]{ ;a}eGbf pko'Qm rqm s'g xf] <


450

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

efu #M

tkfO{+ kljq cfTdfn] el/Og ;Sg'x'G5 cfTdfn] el/Psf] hLjg v|Li6 lgb]{lzt hLjg xf] h;åf/f kljq cfTdfsf] zlQmdf tkfO{+åf/f v|Li6 lhpg'x'G5 . tkfO{+ ljZjf;åf/f dfq kljq cfTdfn] el/Og ;Sg'x'G5, pxf“sf] k|lt1fcg';f/ tkfO{+sf] hLjg kmnjGt x'gsf] nflu k/d]Zj/df e/f];f /fVg'kb{5 . tkfO{+ cfTdfn] s;/L el/Og ;Sg'x'G5 egL lgDg tLg sbdx¿n] JofVof ub{5g\M

:jLsf/M yfxf ePsf ;a} kfkx¿ :jLsf/ ug'{xf];\ . ehg;+u|x ^^M!* n] eG5, æolb d}n] d]/f] Xbodf cwd{nfO{ cf>o lbPsf] eP, k/d]Zj/n] ;'Gg'x'g] lyPg .Æ kljq cfTdfn] el/gsf] nflu lsg yfxf ePsf ;a} kfkx¿ :jLsf/ ug{ dxTjk"0f{ 5 < -xfdLn] k/d]/Zj/sf] cl3 xfd|f] Xbo hfgLa'emL ;kmf gu/];Dd pxf“ xfdL;“u ;+ult ug{ ;Sg'x'Gg ._ ck{0fM tkfO{+sf] hLjgsf] ;a} If]q k/d]Zj/nfO{ lbg'xf];\ -/f]dL ^M!@–!# [k[i7 @^)]_ . tkfO{+sf] hLjgsf] ;a} If]qdf v|Li6nfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg] ;DaGwdf tkfO+{ s] ljrf/ ug'{x'G5 < -tkfO{+sf] ;DklQ, ;DaGw, k]zf, kl/jf/, oL ;ayf]ssf] af/]df lg0f{o ug'{cl3 k/d]Zj/;“u ;Nnfx lng'xf];\ ._


kf7 tLg

451

e/f];fM el/Ogsf] nflu kljq cfTdfdf e/f];f ug'{xf];\ . != k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+nfO{ kljq cfTdfn] el/gsf] nflu cf1f lbg'ePsf] 5 -Plkm;L %M!* [k[i7 #@#]_ . @= k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+sf] laGtLnfO{ ;'Gg] k|lt1f ug'{ePsf] 5, h'g pxf“sf] OR5fcg';f/ x'g]5 -! o"xGgf %M!$–!% [k[i7 #(^]_ . tkfO+{ ljZjf;åf/f dfq kljq cfTdfn] el/Og ;Sg'x'G5 . of] ljZjf;nfO{ JoQm ug]{ c;n tl/sf k|fy{gf xf]M

æk/d]Zj/ lktf, d hfGb5' ls d}n] cfÇg} tl/sfn] d]/f] hLjgnfO{ lgb]{lzt ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5', / o;sf] kl/0ffd, d}n] tkfO{+sf] lj¿4df kfk u/]sf] 5' . q"m;df v|Li6sf] d[To'åf/f tkfO{+n] d]/f] kfk Ifdf ug'{ePsf]df tkfO+{nfO{ wGojfb r9fp“5' . d]/f] hLjgsf] l;+xf;gdf /fHo ug{sf] nflu ca d v|Li6nfO{ lgDTofp“5' . olb d}n] ljZjf;df dfu]sf] s'/f tkfO+{n] ug]{5' egL ug'{ePsf] k|lt1fcg';f/ / tkfO{+n] cf1f ug'{ePcg';f/ dnfO{ kljq cfTdfn] eg'{xf];\ . d]/f] ljZjf;cg';f/, d]/f] hLjgnfO{ lgoGq0f ug'{ePsf]df / dnfO{ kljq cfTdfn] el/lbg'ePsf]df tkfO{+nfO{ wGojfb r9fp“5' .Æ s] of] k|fy{gfn] tkfO{+sf] Xbosf] k'sf/nfO{ JoQm ub{5 < s] tkfO{+n] ljrf/ ug'{ePsf] 5 olb tkfO+{n] of] k|fy{gf clxn] g} ug'{ePsf] eP s] x'GYof] < olb of] tkfO{+sf] Xbosf] rfxgf xf] eg], tkfO+{ of] k|fy{gf ul/ kljq cfTdfn] el/Og ;Sg'x'G5 .


452

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

efu $M

Jojxfl/s sfo{ olb tkfO{+n] k/d]Zj/sf] cf1fnfO{ tf]8]/ k'gM kfk ul/ cfgf] hLjgnfO{ cfg} lgoGq0fdf /fVg'ePsf] 5 eg], cfTdfdf Zjf; lng'xf];\ -ljZjf;åf/f cz'4tfnfO{ aflx/ lgsfNg'xf];\ / z'4tfnfO{ leq tfGg'xf];\_ . of] dxTjk"0f{ cEof; ul//xgfn] v|Li6sf] lgoGq0f tkfO{+sf] hLjgdf ePsf] cg'ej ug{ ;xof]u ldNb5 . Zjf; aflx/ lgsfNg'M tkfO{+n] ug'{ePsf] kfk :jLsf/ ug'{xf];\ -! o"xGgf !M( [k[i7 #(!], lxa|" !)M!–@% [k[i7 #^*–#^(]_ . ljrf/ ug'{xf];\ ls :jLsf/ ug{sf] nflu lgDg tLg s'/fx¿ ;dfj]z x'G5g\M

!= tkfO{+n] kfk ug'{ePsf] 5 egL k/d]Zj/;“u ;xdt x'g'xf];\ . @= k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+nfO{ cl3af6} Ifdf lbO;Sg'ePsf]df pxf“nfO{ wGojfb lbg'xf];\ . #= tkfO{+sf] unt dgf]j[lQ / sfo{nfO{ k/d]Zj/n] kl/jt{g ug'{x'G5 egL e/f];f /fVg'xf];\ . Zjf; lng'xf];\M cfTdfsf] kl/k"0f{tf tkfO{+sf] hLjgdf 5 egL ljZjf;åf/f bfaL ug'{xf];\ -Plkm;L %M!* [k[i7 #@#]_ . != tkfO{+sf] hLjgnfO{ v|Li6df ;dk{0f ug'{xf];\ . @= pxf“n] ca tkfO{+nfO{ lgb]{lzt / ;zQm ug'{x'G5 egL e/f];f ug'{xf];\ .


kf7 tLg

453

k|To]s lbg sDtLdf !% ldg]6 jf ;f]eGbf a9L ;do afOan k9\g / k|fy{gf ug{sf] nflu 5'6\ofpg] sf]lz;\ ug'{xf];\ . oxf“ s]xL ;'emfjx¿ lbOPsf 5g\M

!= Plkm;L %M!*–@! -k[i7 #@#_ / sn:;L #M!@–!& -k[i7 ##$_ k9\g'xf];\ . cfTdfn] el/Psf] hLjgsf] af/]df oL b'O{ cg'R5]bn] s] eGg vf]h]sf 5g\, t'ngf ug'{xf];\ . @= Plkm;L #M!$–@! -k[i7 #@!_ df kfjnsf] k|fy{gf k9\g'xf];\ . kfjnn] pgsf ldqx¿sf] lglDt rfxgf u/]sf] æzlQmÆ s] xf] < of] zlQm sxf“af6 cfp“5, pxf“n] xfd|f] lglDt s] ug'{x'G5 < #= cf“wL cfPsf] a]nf r]nfx¿n] k/d]Zj/sf] jf:tfnfO{ z+sf u/]sf] 36gf k9\g'xf];\ . ds"{; $M#%–$! -k[i7 ^@_ . r]nfx¿ lsg 8/fP < s] s'/fdf pgLx¿n] k/d]Zj/­dfly z+sf u/] < ;f/f+zM kljq cfTdf v|Lli6og hLjgsf] zlQm ;|f]t x'g'x'G5 . ha tkfO+{n] o]z" v|Li6nfO{ ljZjf; ug'{x'G5, k/d]Zj/sf] cfTdfn] pxf“sf] rl/qnfO{ tkfO{+leq kmn kmnfpg'x'G5 / pxf“sf] ;fIfL x'gsf] nflu tkfO{+nfO{ ;zQm u/fpg'x'G5 . k|d'v k|ZgM v|Lli6og hLjg lhpg]qmddf v|Li6nfO{ cem /fd|f];“u lrGgsf] nflu k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+sf] nflu s:tf] of]hgf agfpg'ePsf] 5 <


v|Li6df tkfO+s { f] hLjg kf7 rf/

v|Li6df j[l4 x'g' tkfO{+n] v|Li6 lgb]{lzt hLjg lhpg ;sf];\ eg]/ kljq cfTdfn] tkfO{+nfO{ ;zQm u/fpg rfxfg'x'G5 . h;} tkfO{+ lg/Gt/ cflTds Zjf;–k|Zjf; ug'{x'G5 -Zjf; lgsfNg'– tkfO{+sf] kfk :jLsf/ ug'{ / Zjf; lng'– kljq cfTdfsf] k"0f{tfnfO{ bfaL ug'{_, tkfO{+n] k/d]Zj/;“u ulx/f] ;+ultsf] cg'ej ug'{x'g]5, h;n] tkfO{+nfO{ v|Lli6og kl/kSjtfdf j[l4 x'g ;xof]u ub{5 .

e/f];f

kl/kSj x'g ;do nfU5, of] t'¿Gt} x'“b}g .

cflTds hGd

;do

of] hLjgsfn el/sf] k|lqmof xf] ∕ 454


kf7 rf/

455

efu !M

v|Li6df j[l4 x'g' eg]sf] s] xf] < o;sf] dtna v|Li6sf] 1fg, pxf“k|lt xfd|f] k|]d / xfd|f] cf1fsfl/tfdf j[l4 x'g' xf] . cgGt hLjgsf] u'0fsf] af/]df o]z" s] eGg'x'G5 < o"xGgf !&M# -k[i7 !*%_ k9\g'xf];\ . -k/d]Zj/nfO{ lrGg' ._ k'/fgf] s/f/df ^)) eGbf a9L cf1fx¿ 5g\ . o]z"n] dQL @@M#&–#( -k[i7 $)_ df dfq o;sf] rrf{ ug'{eof] egL tkfO{+ lsg ljrf/ ug'{x'G5 < -olb xfdL ;f“rf] ¿kdf k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d u5f}{+ eg], xfdLn] csf]{ cf1fnfO{ klg kfngf ul//x]sf x'G5f}+ ._ tkfO{+sf] hLjgnfO{ o;n] s;/L k|efj kf5{ ha tkfO{+n] cfÇgf] ;f/f Xbo, cfTdf / k|f0fn] k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug'{x'G5 < pxf“k|lt tkfO{+sf] k|]dsf] j[l4n] s] kl/0ffd Nofp“5 < o"xGgf !$M@! -k[i7 !*!_ k9\g'xf];\ . cfdfafa'sf] ;DaGw;“u aRrf x's{+b} hfg] Pp6f k|fs[lts k|lqmof h:tf] xf], To:t} of] klg k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO{s + f] k|]dsf] ;DaGwdf x's{+b} hfg] Pp6f k|fs[lts k|lqmof xf] .


456

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

efu @M

tkfO{+ v|Li6df s;/L j[l4 x'g ;Sg'x'G5 < s'g} klg ;DaGwdf ;+rf/sf] dxTjk"0f{ e'ldsf x'G5, k/d]Zj/;“u tkfO+{sf] ;DaGwdf klg . ;+rf/sf] rf/ cf]6f kIfx¿ 5g\ h;n] tkfO{+nfO{ kljq cfTdfsf] zlQmdf lx“8\bf v|Li6;“usf] ;DaGwdf x's{g ;xof]u ub{5g\M

k/d]Zj/ k|fy{gf v|Lli6ogx¿ ;+ult

d

c–v|Lli6ogx¿ ;fIfL aGg'

afOan


kf7 rf/

457

afOanM k/d]Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ pxf“sf] rl/q / OR5f k|s6 ug{ afOanåf/f xfdL;“u ;+rf/ -s'/fsfgL_ ug'{x'G5 . @ ltdf]yL #M!^–!& -k[i7 #%@_ k9\g'xf];\ . tnsf] cg'R5]bdf pNn]v ul/Psf ;"rLx¿ pknAwLk"0f{ 5g\M l;sfpg – n] k/d]Zj/ / xfd|}af/]df ;To k|:t't ub{5≤ clt{ – n] unt s'/fnfO{ c+lut ub{5≤ ;Rofpg – n] ;xL s] xf] eGg] s'/f xfdLnfO{ b]vfp“5≤ wfld{stfsf] tflnd – n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ v';L kfg]{ hLjg lhpg]af/]df JofVof ub{5 . oL dWo] s'grflx“ pknAwL clxn] tkfO{+sf] nflu ;a}eGbf a9L ;xof]uL x'G5 < afOan cWoogaf6 tkfO+{n] kfpg'ePsf] ;xof]unfO{ tkfO+{ s;/L d"Nof+sg ug'{x'G5 <

k|fy{gfM xfdL k|fy{gfåf/f k/d]Zj/;“u ;+rf/ -s'/fsfgL_ u5f}{+ – xfd|f ljrf/x¿, cfjZostfx¿ / xfd|f] rfxgfx¿ pxf“sf] OR5fcg';f/ ug{ ;S5f}+ . lkmlnKkL $M^–& -k[i7 #@(_ / ! o"xGgf %M!$–!% -k[i7 #(^_ k9\g'xf];\ . k|fy{gfsf] af/]df oL kbx¿n] s] eG5g\ < -;a} s'/fsf] nflu k|fy{gf u/ . ha xfdL k/d]Zj/sf] OR5fcg';f/ k|fy{gf u5f}{, pxf“n] xfd|f] k|fy{gf ;'Gg'x'G5 / pQ/ klg lbg'x'G5_ . tkfO+{n] k|fy{gf ug{ ;Sg] ljifox¿ s] s] 5g\ < ! y];nf]lgsL %M!* -k[i7 #$)_ k9\g'xf];\ . pxf“nfO{ wGojfb r9fpg' lsg dxTjk"0f{ 5 < -xfdLn] pxf“nfO{ wGojfb r9fPsf], pxf“k|ltsf] xfd|f] e/f];f JoQm u/]sf] pxf“ rfxg'x'G5 ._


458

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

;+ultM xfdL ;+ultåf/f Ps–csf{nfO{ pT;fx lbP/ / Ps–csf{nfO{ lgdf{0f u/]/ v|Lli6ogx¿;“u ;+rf/ -s'/fsfgL_ u5f}{+ .

y'k|} bfp/fx¿ Ps;fy /fd|f];“u aN5, t/ Pp6f bfp/fnfO{ lems]/ lr;f] cu]gfdf /fVof] eg] Tof] Psl5g kl5 lgE5 . c¿ v|Lli6ogx¿;“u tkfO{+sf] ;+ult klg o:t} g} xf] . lxa|" !)M@$–@% -k[i7 #^(_ / lkmn]df]g !M& -k[i7 #%^_ k9\g'xf];\ . c¿ v|Lli6g;“u ;do latfpg lsg dxTjk"0f{ 5 < -k|]d / c;n sfd ug{sf] nflu, Ps csf{nfO{ pT;fx ldNg] jftfj/0fdf /xg ._ clxn] tkfO{+sf] lglDt of] lsg dxTjk"0f{ 5 < k|]l/t @M$@–$& -k[i7 !(*_ k9\g'xf];\ . tkfO+{nfO{ cg's"n x'g] ;xof]uL v|Lli6og ;+ult tkfO{+ sxf“ kfpg ;Sg'x'G5 < -c;n d08nL jf afOan cWoog ;d"xdf ._ k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{ / pxf“;“u lx“8\g] dflg;x¿;“u xfdLn] xfd|f] v|Lli6og cg'ej af“8\g'k5{ ;fy} pgLx¿nfO{ klg af“8\g lbg'k5{ . k/d]Zj/n] c¿ v|Lli6ogx¿;“u e]63f6 u/L pxf“sf] jrg ;'Ggsf] nflu tf]lslbg'ePsf] 7fp“ d08nL xf] . afOan cWoog / ;efx¿ klg Psbd} ;xof]uL / pko'Qm 7fp“x¿ x'g\ .


kf7 rf/

459

;fIfL x'g'M xfdL v|Li6;“usf] xfd|f] ;DaGwsf] af/]df ;fIfL ag]/ c–v|Lli6ogx¿;“u ;+rf/ ug{ ;S5f}+ . k|]l/t $M!@ -k[i7 @)!_ k9\g'xf];\ . c¿ dflg;nfO{ v|Li6sf] af/]df atfpg tkfO+{nfO{ s]n] pTk|]l/t u5{ < -v|Li6n] tkfO{+sf] hLjgdf h] ul/lbg'ePsf] 5 ._ v|Li6n] tkfO{+sf] hLjgdf ul/lbg'ePsf] s'/f tkfO+{ s;nfO{ atfpg rfxg'x'G5 < rf/ cflTds lgod -k[i7 VII x]g'{xf];\_ ;';dfrf/sf] :ki6 ;Gb]z xf] h'g ca tkfO{+ c¿nfO{ ;lhn};“u atfpg ;Sg'x'G5 .

;f/f+zM ! sf]l/GyL #M^–& -k[i7 @&*_ k9\g'xf];\ . k/d]Zj/ tkfO{+sf] j[l4sf] ;|f]t x'g'x'G5 . tkfO+{n] æ;fFlRrs} b'MvÆ u/]/ cflTds kl/kSjtfsf] ljsf; ug{ ;Sg'x'Gg . ha tkfO{+ kljq cfTdfsf] zlQmdf lx“8\g'x'G5, afOan k9\g'x'G5, k|fy{gf ug'{x'G5, dflg;x¿nfO{ v|Li6sf] af/]df atfpg'x'G5 / c¿ v|Lli6ogx¿;“u ;do latfpg'x'G5, cflTds kl/kSjtfsf] j[l4 ug{ / kmn kmnfpg k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+df sfd ug'{x'G5 .


460

v|Li6df tkfO{+sf] hLjg

efu #M

Jojxfl/s sfo{ k/d]Zj/n] tkfO+{sf] hLjgdf s:tf u'0fx¿ pTkGg ug'{ePsf] tkfO{+ rfxfg'x'G5, To;sf] ;"rL agfpg'xf];\ . @ kq'; !M%–( -k[i7 #*&_ n] v|Lli6og j[l4sf] lrq0f ub{5 . of] cg'R5]bcg';f/, xfd|f] j[l4 x'gaf6 /f]Sg] k|fylds afwf s] xf] < -kfksf] Ifdf / k/d]Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ b]vfpg'ePsf] pxf“sf] c;Ld bofnfO{ la;{g'_ .

:d/0f ug'{xf];\M tkfO{ h:tf] x'g'x'G5, ToxL cj:yfdf k/d]Zj/n] tkfO+{nfO{ ljgfzt{ k|]d ug'{x'G5 . tkfO{+sf] lglDt pxf“sf] c;Lldt k|]d v|Lli6ogsf] ¿kdf tkfO+{sf] j[l4df lge{/ /x“b}g . b}lgs afOan cWoog / k|fy{gfsf] nflu ;do / 7fp“ 5'6\ofpg'xf];\ . ;'¿jft ug{sf] nflu pko'Qm k':ts gof“ s/f/sf] o"xGgfsf] k':ts xf] -k[i7 !$(_ . h;} tkfO{+ k9\g'x'G5, cy{k"0f{ kbx¿df lrGx nufpg'xf];\ . pxf“ sf] x'g'x'G5 / tkfO{n] pxf“nfO{ s;/L a'‰g'x'G5 ;f] s'/f hfGgsf] nflu k|fy{gf ug'{xf];\ / k/d]Zj/nfO{ ;f]Wg'xf];\ . tkfO{+sf ljrf/x¿nfO{ b}lgsLsf] ¿kdf n]Vg'xf];\, tkfO{+sf] k|fy{gfsf] ljifox¿sf] ;"rL agfpg'xf];\ ;fy} k|fy{gfsf pQ/x¿ kfpg' ePsf] 5 eg] n]Vg'xf];\ . lj:t[t cWoogsf] nflu, kf7df lbOPsf cg'R5]bx¿sf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug'x{ f]; \ . cWoog ug{sf] nflu cGo cg'R5]bx¿ sn:;L !M(–!@ -k[i7 ##!_, dQL &M&–!! -k[i7 !!_, @ sf]l/GyL %M!&–@! -k[i7 #)!_, ! sf]l/GyL !@M!@–@& -k[i7 @*(_, o"xGgf !%M!–& -k[i7 !*@_ / n"sf (M@#–@^ -k[i7 !!@_ x]gx{' f]; \ .

s'g} Pshgf;“u v|Li6sf] af/]df s'/f ug{ gla;{g'xf];\ .


æaf6f], ;To / hLjg d g} x'“ . dåf/f afx]s sf]xL lktfsxf“ cfpg ;Sb}g .Æ

of] k':tsn] o]z" v|Li6sf] af/]df atfp“5 . s] o]z"n] eGg'ePsf] ;a} ;To lyof] < s] pxf“n] pxf“dfly ljZjf; ug]{x¿sf] nflu k|lt1f ug'{ePsf] cgGt hLjg ;To 5 t < jf s] pxf“ csf]{ wd{sf k|j4{s dfq x'g'x'G5 t <

gof“ s/f/ afOan

of] egfO{ pxf“sf] xf] h;n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ lktf egL ;Daf]wg ug'{eof] / k/d]Zj/sf] tk{maf6 af]Ng'eof] .

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

hLjgsf] ;Gb]z

kljq afOansf] of] gof“ s/f/ k9\g'xf];\ / k/d]Zj/nfO{ tkfO{+;“u af]Ng lbg'xf];\ . afOann] dfgjsf] uGtJo / k[YjLsf] af/]df s] atfp“5, ;f] k9\g'xf];\ . tkfO{+sf] uGtJosf] af/]df k9\g'xf];\ .

d"No ;xof]u :j?k ?= !%÷–

gof“ s/f/ afOan

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NT / Nepali  

New Testament (pocket size) in Nepali. Includes supplementary material for new believers.

NT / Nepali  

New Testament (pocket size) in Nepali. Includes supplementary material for new believers.

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