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MedellĂ­n, Colombia: Peace in Process

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ARTICLES


ARTICLE

“LOOKING BEYOND JUAN VALDEZ” TIM O’BRIEN

Cohn, Peter. “Looking Beyond Juan Valdez.” National Journal 40 (2008): 26.

Cohn’s article for the National Journal, a weekly magazine that reports on politics for WashingtonART insiders, provides an in-depth look at the controversy surrounding pending free trade agreements between Colombia and the United States concerning coffee. The author covers many facets of the debate such as issues over labor rights in Colombia, the nation’s violent and unstable past, its growth and development, and its exclusion from the global free trade market. The article quotes numerous politicians, experts, and local Colombians involved in the issue to further illuminate the many sides of Colombian coffee and its role in the country’s future.

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INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN COLOMBIA SIMON VANCE

Blanco, Javier. “Integrated Water Resource Management in Colombia: Paralysis by Analysis?� Water Resource Development Vol. 24, No. 1 (March 2008): 91-101

Water is the most important element for human development. Access to water is tied to the internal development of nations and can cause nations to revolt or to progress. This article, published in Water Resource Development, is a study by Corporacion Ecoversa (a non-profit NGO based Bogota) detailing the present ability of Colombia to modernize its infrastructure for access to water. The Integrated Water Resource Management plan (IWRM), created by the Global Water Partnership, UNESCO, and the International Water Management Institute, is based on the ideas of efficiency, equity, and sustainability through which countries can give the most access to those most in need and will be created through existing legislation. The IWRM is divided regionally through watersheds, or River Basin Commi ttees, which are determined by the area in which the water is drawn from. These Committees have direct oversight of tariffs, water permit regulation, water use, and pollutant control. The RBCs will then give water permits first to citizens, subsidizing those who are unable to afford the taxes levied to pay for the system. These Watershed Ordering and Management Plans, or POMCAs, will cover all of Colombia and will be partially funded by the federal government and industrial and local taxes. The Water Resource Development program finds that Colombia is unable to meet the organizational requirements of the IWRM because the agencies that exist now in Colombia are unconnected and have poor oversight, leading to territorial disputes, poor funding and regulation. While Medellin as a city provides water for a high percentage of its residence, this is not true of all of Colombia. In order for Colombia to become more advanced and for the peace process to continue, simple things like water must be accessible to all in order to restore peace and balance in the country. A Watershed

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POVERTY IN COLOMBIA SIMON VANCE

World Bank. Poverty In Colombia. Washington D.C: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1994.

This article, published by the World Bank in 1994, summarizes what the World Bank perceives to be the causes of poverty in Colombia during the 20th century as well as presenting solutions to the inequality that remains. The information presented spans the entirety of the 20th century, from the early 1900s to 1994. The World Bank, from May 9th to May 21st of 1993, sent researchers working in conjunction with Colombian governmental and university scientists and anthropologists to locations all over Colombia as well as towns bordering Colombia. By investigating

poverty in both rural and urban areas, the researchers were able to determine some proximate causes for poverty (lack of education, lack of access to food, water, shelter, and healthcare, lack of adequate jobs, and age) and create graphs and tables to show the levels of poverty. The report states many of these problems are caused by government mismanagement (poor allocation of funding, poor program choice) and corruption (embezzlement of funds). This poor program choice and embezzlement of funds has stunted the growth of poverty nets as

well an adequate education, creating an even greater spiral of poverty. This study concludes that Colombia, through internal investment, trade liberalization, governmental reform (tax reform, creation of a minimum wage), health care reform (as well as implementing Social Security), worker protection (pensions), as well as massive rural and urban education programs (creating schools), could begin to increase growth in terms of GDP along with combating poverty on a country wide scale.

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UNDERSTANDING WOMEN’S STORIES OF MILL DISCIPLINE IN MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA KRISTOFER MITCHELL

Ann Farnsworth-Alvear, Orthodox Virginity/Heterodox Memories: Understanding Women’s Stories of Mill Discipline in Medellin, Colombia. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1997. Pg 71-74.

In this historical context book by Ann Farnsworth-Alvear, she discusses a working women’s role during the 1930’s and 1940’s in Medellin, Colombia to an audience presumably interested in the feministic movement there. It is to her understanding “the city’s factories both adopted and redefined sexual difference”, establishing the genders’ limits from very early on. The author recalls an interview taken in 1990 with a retired woman textile worker from Medellin, Maria Cristina Restrepo, and how her situation differed from the other women worker’s. Her textile factory, Fabricato, believed in the purity of their women workers, and made it a pre-requesite that all their workers were “chaste, feminine, and marriageable” and remained that way, and if not they were dismissed. Now, it is custom for factories to hold “reinados”, or elaborate coronations that were part of selected anniversaries for the mill, yet

Fabricato had to cancel their celebrations because Maria had become unchaste, and worse yet, her fellow female workers had covered for her. She and her workers joined a movement of sexual transgression in the mills that lasted during the 30’s and 40’s. Although, Farnsworth-Alvear strengths lie in this explanation of transgression, but she limits the text to this. It is to my belief that as industrial paternalism in Medellin grew, it was never simply a set of negative injunctions or rules, but always a positive valorization of chastity, deportment, and idealized marriage. Nevertheless, this type of discipline was unfair and did not create an example of coequal sexes. I think this resistance of power and discipline in the mill generated the hope for women to break their paternalistic bonds and finally get the social recognition of “women” instead of “workers”.

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“COLOMBIAN FOODS: LA BANDEJA PAISA .” JASMINE MAO

Lequerica-Calvo, Gustavo. “Colombian Foods: La Bandeja Paisa .” Bright Hub. http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/2410.aspx (accessed March 17, 2009).

The article about Bandeja Paisa was posted on the web on July 28th, 2008 by Gustavo Lequerica-Calvo, a Colombian-born American. Since this was an unpublished article and he usually writes video game reviews, I had trouble trusting the author in his article. However, the article does contain interesting facts. Internationally, Bandeja Paisa is a well known dish of Colombia. It is served in Antioquia, a county where the country’s capital, Medellin, is located. It is usually eaten at lunch, following the Colombian tradition of eating a large lunch, then a light dinner. Not a lot is known about the dish’s origins, but since the it had no presence before 1940, it is assumed by people in Antioguia that it was first served between 1940-1950, when it appeared on restaurant menus around Medellin. It was the result of an experiment, combining traditional Spanish foods with local, native Colombian foods. Bandeja Paisa is comprised of many elements: grilled steak, pork, kidney or red beans, fried egg, blood sausage, and arepa (a small corn roll essential to Colombian diet). Although Bandeja Paisa is known to be high in cholesterol, it has high protein, amino acids, and carbohydrates, which outweighs its cholesterol factor greatly. There was a huge stir in 2005 when the Colombian government wanted to make Bandeja Paisa the national dish. As it is a regional dish, many Colombians in other regions felt like it did not represent Colombia as a whole. Professor Marko mentions that food is very important in Colombia’s culture; there are holidays dedicated to food. Declaring Bandeja Paisa the national dish would insult many Colombians. Even so, the author writes positively about the dish, to share the dish to outsiders of Colombia and to show that Colombia is not as bad of a place it once was.

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“JUANES NOBEL CAUSES FOR LATIN CROONER” RACHEL KAYE

De La Fuente, Anna Marie. “JUANES Nobel causes for Latin crooner.” Daily Variety, August 31, 2006. http://proxy.emerson.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=f3h&AN=22211757&site=ehost-live (accessed February 1, 2009)

The focus of this article was to educate the reader about the Colombian crooner Juan Esteban Aristizabal. This article focused mainly on his donation of $3.2 million to his pet cause, the land-mine victims of Colombia in 2005.This article shows that not all young Colombians are hit-men or part of gangs and that not all Colombians are the “violent drug dealers” that stereotypes often portray them as. Juanes is just one example of the many caring Colombians whose goal is simply for a better future for the Colombian people. People such as Juanes want to change the violent ways of Colombia’s past, Colombia was known as the bloodiest country in the world a little over ten years ago, and proceed in a peaceful, nonviolent way. If Colombian’s can lessen the violence of their country there will be more time to work on improv-

ing their quality of life. These people believe in building and learning as a civilization instead of the destruction and murder which took place under Pablo Escobar. This article also reveals that Juanes was named “One of the 100 Most Influential People in the World” by Time magazine which is no little honor, and will help the Colombian community gain the respect of the larger nations of the world such as Russia, England, the United States, etc. This also proves that Colombians are becoming more respected in the national community. This article was written in 2006 so it is somewhat dated, but it still is useful for its information on the progress that Colombia has made in the recent past, moving away from violence and toward the rebuilding of the country. This article is intended for anyone interested in musicians or activism in charities

but with that said it seems mostly geared towards people outside the Colombian culture. The author came to a couple conclusions, mainly she informs the reader that she believes that what Juanes is doing for the Colombian people is very influential and positive. She believes that he connects to a lot of people world wide. Overall, the author of this piece has a highly positive tone. My reaction was one of awe when I first read this article. Never before did I realize that Juanes was so involved with various charity groups. I also did not realize that he was anything more than a catchy pop-artist. I never before had examined any of Juanes’ song lyrics too closely. Now I realize that they are often highly political and send forth very powerful messages. In conclusion, I believe that this article was well written and highly informative.

YOUTUBE LINK http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=ZqFV177MHfs

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“BLOODSHED ENFORCES TERROR IN COCAINE CAPITAL OF WORLD.” BRENDAN FIELD

Long, William. “Bloodshed enforces terror in cocaine capital of world.” Toronto Star, July 18, 1990. http://www.lexisnexis.com.proxy.emerson.edu/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do? docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T5720758644&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resul tsUrlKey=29_T5720758647&cisb=22_T5720758646&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=8286&doc No=1 (accessed January 30, 2009).

The author, William Long, uses interviews from Catholic vicars and lawyers from Medellin and startling statistics to help describe the horrible violence and corruption in Medellin, Colombia. The situation he describes is a violent and unstable situation that is being provoked by the presence of the drug cartel run by Pablo Escobar. The content of the article is very helpful in giving a good portrait of life in Medellin during the most violent part of its history. Unfortunately though, the article was written for a newspaper and because of that its intellectual level is not as high as one would find in a scholarly journal, for example. But that is not to say the article is not useful, it gives a great picture of Medellin for someone who has no prior knowledge of Medellin’s history. Which is why I found the newspaper article to be very helpful in giving me a picture of the extreme problems Medellin went through.

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“GOOD WILL ROCK AL PARQUE IN NINTH YEAR.” SASHA PRELL

Cobo, Leila. “Good will Rock al Parque in ninth year.(Latin).” Billboard 115.43 (Oct 25, 2003): 30(2). Academic OneFile. Gale. Emerson College. 4 Mar. 2009 <http://find.galegroup.com/itx/ start.do?prodId=AONE>.

The 9th annual Rock Al Parque festival took place between October 11th-13th, 2003 and had a total of 100,000 attendees and 24 local and international bands. The first festival took place in 1995 and is “considered the largest and longest-running free rock fest in Latin America”, according to the Billboard article. What’s impressive about this festival’s success is that it only cost 350 million pesos (about $140,000) to promote, produce and organize the whole thing. Even more surprising is the fact that the festival is fully funded by public money (through taxes). Each year, Rock Al Parque (along with its sister festivals Jazz Al Parque and Hip-Hop Al Parque) is produced and financed by the Institute of Culture and Tourism (IDCT) and draws music fans from all over the world. Argentine rock band member Ga-

briel Ruiz Diaz said, “The best-known and best-regarded rock festival in Latin America is Rock Al Parque.” With no corporate sponsorship and such a small budget, no big-name bands were in attendance in 2003, and the bands who did perform, did so for free. This doesn’t mean the IDCT has turned down the possibility of future corporate sponsors: “Rock audiences are big consumers, and Rock Al Parque has tremendous sponsorship potential,” says IDCT music director Juan Luis Restrepo. The fact that Colombia’s government provides Rock Al Parque for free to people all over the world, shows its dedication to promoting peace and public service.

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FILM: THE DRUG TRADE’S ENTRY‐LEVEL EMPLOYEES ANNA MCCARTHY

Rohter, Larry. “Film; The Drug Trade’s Entry‐Level Employees.” New York Times, July 11, 2004. http:// query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E3D9173BF932A25754C0A9629C8B63&sec=&spo n=&&scp=15&sq=maria%20full%20of%20grace&st=cse (accessed February 2, 2009).

Larry Rohter’s article “Film; The Drug Trade’s Entry‐Level Employees” dives deep into the concept behind the 2004 motion picture “Maria Full Of Grace” and discusses the making of the movie. Rohter talks to director/writer Joshua Marston and learns of his vision that he had in mind while creating his dream film. Marston, explains that he wanted audiences to have a new type of drug traffickingfilm, one with a narrator who has the lowest job on the Colombian drug trafficking totem pole. “’Our goal was to look at things from the ground up and to individualize people who usually get flattened to two dimensions in any discussion of the war on drugs. For once, the anonymous mule has been given a name, and a very clearly defined character”’(Rohter 1). In the article, the reader is allowed access in on how Colombians feel about the perception of their country, as well as what it took to get the movie produced. This “mule” representation is one that is a first in the entertainment industry, and will be vital in making sure the world knows exactly what the most common and most understated Colombian drug trafficking profession entails. Rohter provides the reader with direct quotes from Colombian “mules,” as well as a heartwarming story about a young boy who was inspired to get out the trafficking business after watching “Maria Full of Grace”.

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ARTICLE “SANCOCHO” RACHEL KAY

Dzurilla, Timothy. “Sancocho.” Suite101 (March-April 2008). http://south-american-food.suite101.com/article.cfm/sancocho (accessed March 4, 2009). Timothy Dzurilla has been writing about food and food culture for seven years for various on and off line newspapers. He is currently in graduate school studying conflict and urban development. In his online article “Sancocho” he describes Sancocho as “a traditional Colombian soup that is not only great for quelling an appetite, but also for nourishing the soul.” Dzurilla adds that this soup is commonly made by South American families and brings about “good- feelings and fraternity.” This article describes how to prepare Sancocho, which can be made in many different ways. This dish can be vegetarian or vegan, but traditionally it is made with chicken. Other ingredients often found in Sancocho include onion, potato, corn, red peppers, tomato, and celery. According to my research many families eat Sancocho in the middle of plazas and at festivals. It seems to be a very important dish

in the Colombian diet because it’s so accessible. I believe anyone can enjoy this dish due to its inexpensive ingredients and easy preparation. However, this is no ordinary chicken soup. In Druzilla’s article he conducts a few interviews regarding sancocho. One Colombian Juan remembers having the dish “every Saturday when the whole family [went] to [his] grandmother’s house.” This anecdote helps to show the soup’s ability to bring people together. It is a staple of the Antioquian diet that both the wealthy and the poor can enjoy. This article is geared towards people outside of the Colombian culture who may not be even aware of Sancocho let alone the cultural significance it carries. Before reading this article I was one of these people. Now after reading the article I have become far more aware of its significance and look forward to being able to try the dish for myself.

Overall I believe this article helps to shed a positive light on the Colombian people. Before doing research about Colombia I only thought of them as a violent people who were greatly involved in the drugtrafficking business. Colombia was once world-renowned for its cocaine trade and high mortality rate. It was even referred to as the most dangerous city in the worldSeeing titles like this might lead someone to somehow think Colombians are different from the rest of humanity. Through both good and bad times people in Colombia have eaten this soup, just like people all around the world eat soup. Sancocho just gives another, less violent, view into the society that most people can relate to. The common human experience of eating a soup might lead the reader to imagine what other life experiences we share.

YOUTUBE LINKS Doña Rossana cooks Sancocho http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=VoPYDJJ05iY Dia del Sancocho http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=GU7U_ibLh1k Sancocho in the plaza http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=OpxrlVM9XRk

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ARTICLE IN MAGIC EYES

LAUREN THOMPSON

Ewald, Wendy. Magic Eyes. 1982. Bay Press. 1992. In Magic Eyes, by Alicia Vasquez. Seattle: Bay Press, 1992. http://alejandrolargo.com/MagicEyes.html (accessed March 4, 2009)

Wendy Ewald is an American photographer who traveled to Colombia and met Alicia Vasquez and her mother, Maria. Both women are native to Raquira, “a small village of potters in a cool desert valley on the Western spine of the Colombian Andes.” Vasquez was working on a memoir of her childhood there. The edition that I saw was redesigned in 2008 and displayed on the e-portfolio of New York City-based graphic artist, Alejandro Largo, who is also from Colombia. His designs were beautiful and modern, but I was captivated by the photographs included in the original copy of the book, taken by Ewald. Her photos have an antique quality despite being taken in the mid 1980s; in many ways they capture a life caught between indigenous traditions and the advent of modern society. Through the smile of a new father holding his baby, and a girl standing tall and confident at a cliff’s edge, the photographs of the Vasquez’s friends and family show that the future can’t be staved off, but the their heritage will follow them through any amount of time. The title of the photo catalogue, “Magic Eyes” also reveals the different perspectives encountered in this book. It conjures many questions about the Andean experience, from Alicia’s memories of the everyday majesty of growing up in the Andes, to significance is of Ewald’s foreign eyes observing mountain village for the first time. Finally, after seeing that this book was published in the Seattle, “Magic Eyes” refers to the book’s ability to act as a portal for our society in the U.S. to Raquira’s environment of ancient history and mysticism.

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INGRID BETANCOURT RACHEL HUFFMAN

“Ingrid Betancourt.” July 7, 2008. http://galenet.galegroup.com.proxy.emerson.edu/servlet/BioRC?vrsn =149&OP=contains&locID=ecl_main&srchtp=name&ca=1&c=1&AI=U14449111&NA=ingrid+beta ncourt&ste=12&tbst=prp&tab=1&docNum=K2429100078&bConts=43&finalAuth=true (accessed March 22, 2009).

the politics of Colombia and believed she was This biographical article is about the former meant to give something back to the country 2001 presidential candidate of Colombia, she came from. Upon her Ingrid Betancourt. Backintroduction into governground is given on this ment service, Betancourt influential female figure quickly “became aware of Colombia such as her of the harsh realities of privileged childhood, her Colombian politics.” The education in France, and fortune which was beher father’s position as ing earned from drug the assistant director of trafficking in the 1980’s the United Nations Eduand 1990’s was causing cational, Scientific, and corruption at every level Cultural Organization, of society. Her campaign but the main focus is on tactics were controverher political career. The sial due to her bluntness writing begins with the about the fraudulent FARC’s abduction of her Colombian officials in on February 23, 2002. office but they got the According to the article, public’s attention. In her although the Colombian run for presidency, “she government had little to handed out Viagra pills say on the matter, this to symbolize the need to “event received worldreinvigorate Colombia.” wide press coverage.” This site goes further into A number of quotes are the details of her work. provided by Ingrid Be! I believe her actions are tancourt herself, before Ingrid Betancourt important in the underher abduction, and some standing that there are citizens and words of advice from her father and a leaders in Colombia who are fighting against family maid which express her character, her corruption and aiding in transforming the counstyle of campaigning, and her inspiration to try into a respectable, fair, and safe place for its return to Colombia at age 30 to work in the citizens and tourists. government. From an early age, Betancourt would listen in on her parents’ talks about

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EDUCATION IN COLOMBIA: ASSESSING PARTIAL HIGH SCHOOL CREDIT CRYSTAL CHAN

Lowe, Sophia. “Education in Colombia: Assessing Partial High School Credit.” World Education News & Review (New York), October 2008, Volume 21, Issue 8. http://www.wes.org/ ewenr/08oct/practical.htm (accessed March 4, 2009).

This article which is published on an online newsletter is written by Sophia Lowe, a research and policy analyst for the World Education Services (WES). The article presents research that was originally conducted through the WES office in Canada to support the integration of adult immigrants arriving in Canada with partial high school credits. Canada receives many Colombian immigrants, but these immigrants can not receive proper credit for their education if Canada does not understand the Colombian grading system for secondary education (K-12). WES researchers looked at Colombia’s equivalent credits in Spanish, mathematics and sciences, and compared them to Canada’s

secondary school courses for grades 11 and 12 in international languages, sciences and mathematics. The most effective tool that can be used to evaluate the Colombian curriculum is the statewide exam called Instituto Colombiano para el Fomento de la Educacion Superior (ICFES). Students in Colombia need to pass this exam or receive a certain score in order to go on to a post-secondary education like a college or university. To take the exam, it costs money, so students usually take it only once. The Ministerio de Educación Nacional (Ministry of National Education), which governs the Colombian educational system, uses the test to moni-

tor the quality and effectiveness of the school system. If an entire school scores exceptionally high or low on the exam, the Ministry will look into the school to determine cause. If a school consistently does poorly on the ICFES exam, they may be shut down. Towards the end of the article, links are included for further reading about the educational system in Colombia. This article is intended for a variety of readers, mainly those who are interested in the schematics of Colombian education or just the subject of education in general.

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ARTICLE THE ART OF PEACE

CASEY ROEDER

Pratt, Timothy. “The Art of Peace in Medellin.” Americas (English Edition) (March 2001): 16-23. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Art+of+PEACE+in+MEDELLIN-a072274451(accessed March 12, 2009). In 2001, an article was written in the English edition of Americas magazine1, about one dimension of the peace-process that is currently taking place in Medellín, Colombia. The article, entitled “The Art of Peace in Medellín,” can be found online at the Free Library2 and explains world-renowned Medellín artist, Fernando Botero’s attempt to have art influence peace and cultural growth in his native city: the former worldtitle holder of “most violent city.” According to the article, Botero donated his own paintings and sculptures, which usually sell for $500,000 each, to the newly built Museo de Antioquia in Medellín and Museo Botero, located in Colombia’s capital, Bogota. The donation also consists of original works by legendary artists Picasso, Renoir, and Dali – from Botero’s personal collection; that in all are worth approximately

$200 million. The entire project, including the building of the museum and transportation of the works from Sweden (where they were stored in a warehouse), cost Medellín ten times the amount of its annual arts budget. However, the final project was not paid for by the city alone – people from all over the city donated between 50 cents and $15,000 each to cover the cost of shipping the works overseas. Through this particular peace-process, Medellín acknowledged art in the vital way that, in my opinion, every culture should. Pilar Velilla, the director of Museo de Antioquia, is “sure this project will benefit the entire city.” The museum includes Botero’s works in a compilation of 300 years of Colombian art

that offer the people of Medellín a chance to see beyond the city’s seemingly infinite cycle of violence. I feel that citizens seeing the history of their country, especially its less-violent days, portrayed through the eyes of native Columbian artists can be enlightening – especially for its youth – who only know the violent Medellín. When the Museo de Antioquia opened in October 1999, Fernando Botero led a tour of young “paisas” around the museum during which he reminded them: “you can paint and draw too.”

!Colombian soldiers examining Botero’s painting, “Death of Pablo Escobar” at the Museo Antioquia

Americas is a vibrant and colorful magazine published by the Organization of American States. It features the people and cultures of North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean. 2 The Free Library is a website that offers millions of free, full text versions of classic literary works. 1

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“STUDENTS SHOW THEIR FILM ON COLOMBIAN LIFE.” MONICA BAKER

Aho, Jill. “Students show their film on Colombian Life.” Daily Emerald, College Media Network, June 6, 2007. http://media.www.dailyemerald.com/media/storage/paper859/news/2007/06/06/News/Stu dents.Show.Their.Film.On.Colombian.Li fe-2912259.shtml (accessed February 2, 2009).

This article source is focused on two University of Oregon students, Andrew Maser and Aaron Rettig, who filmed a documentary about Colombian citizens and how U.S. policies affect Colombia. The article was written in June 2007 (the film was released later that year) and is part of College Media Network, an online newspaper for the university. They interviewed farmers living in Colombia, mostly Cali, about the drug trade and how it affects them. Many of the fumigations from the “War on Drugs” policies from the U.S were meant to kill coca plants that produce cocaine. However, it destroyed farmer’s crops and drove them to move to Cali to get other jobs. Farmers were also interviewed… Many of the farmers that live outside Cali

are controlled by guerilla and paramilitaries, which produce a lot of violence in the area. Maser explains how Colombians are being driven “from rural areas because it’s too dangerous in the countryside”. This is very different from America, since drugs and violence are often found in cities. The film- makers want to raise that awareness to their audience as well “about both the good and bad parts of Colombian life.” The film is called “Lo Demas Es Loma” which in English means; “Everything Else is Wilderness”. This is a Colombian phrase that shows a person’s pride for their home. Andrew Maser and Aaron Rettig hope the film gives people a better understanding of how U.S. policies affect other countries, so citizens can speak up and go against something that may damage another culture.

! ! “Aaron Rettig had heard countless haunting stories. He had heard voices, young and old, talk about the effects of the permeating violence and the corrupt politics. Each story he heard urged him to look deeper into life in the third most populous South American country. And he captured it all on film: love of dance; a professional soccer career ended by gunfire; pain-filled, hopeful faces.” -Desiree Aflleje KD Magazine, page 25-26, Fall 2007

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CELEBRATING WOMANS DAY ERIN ALYWARD

Eduardo Avila, “Americas: Celebrating Women’s Day,” Global Voices: The world is talking. Are you listening?, entry posted March 10, 2009, http://globalvoicesonline.org/2009/03/10/americascelebrating-womens-day/

March 8th marks a day where women are celebrated worldwide, but not all women are satisfied with the annual recognition of flowers and material goods as a way to honor International Women’s Day. This article is part of an easy to navigate blog teeming with topics from science to social advocacy; one can also leave comments. Latin American women feel International Women’s Day should be a time to reflect on the ongoing violent murders and inequality by men that women still encounter daily. Published in the original language and translated into English, this article provides individual blogger testimonies that reveal a high count of illiteracy, maternal mortality rates and murder calculations all over Latin America. Even though a Colombian testimony is not found in this story, women in Medellín are no exception to this inequality. But don’t think that this editorial is only here to capture the above-mentioned strains felt by women. The last half of Avila’s story discusses what Latin Americans are

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doing to create a more meaningful Women’s Day! Venezuelan photographer, David Luna, has published under Flickr (a photography website) a group called Mujeres de Venezuela. Flickr is featuring women and their daily lives all across the Latin Americas with the help from numerous photographers. Jose R. Sosa from the Dominican Republic publishes photographs on public service billboards with slogans like, “I only hit a baseball… never a woman”. The Regional Plan of Opportunities (20092015) has 4000 women in 8 provinces in Peru working towards promoting equality. Unfortunately, since this plan is 3 months old, I was unable to find any additional information. Hopefully through these efforts, International Women’s Day will be celebrated in future not with hallmark cards, but with a great respect and dignity to women and their valued contributions to society and the world.

license er a CC d n u d e 482708/ us na/3337 na and li li o o m M s s u u s /je y Jes /photos ela/ Photo b ickr.com jeresdevenezu .fl w w /w u :/ m p t lht in/poo

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2005 FUE MEJOR, 2006 SERÁ ¡EMOCIONANTE! FERNANDO FEBRES

Periódico Compromiso. January 2006. “2005 fue mejor, 2006 será ¡emocionante!”. http://www.medellin.gov.co/alcaldia/jsp/modulos/S_Prensa/obj/pdfs/PeriodicoCompromiso/Com promiso%20Enero%20Separata2006.pdf (accessed March 4, 2009).

EN ESPAÑOL Como parte de sus movimiento para convertir a Medellín en una ciudad educada, segura y de progreso, el gobierno de Medellín creó un circular a través del cual le informa al público sobre mejoras y cambios que han ocurrido en la ciudad. Este circular es parte del Periódico Compromiso que es considerado la voz de la alcaldía, con ediciones gratuitas y mensuales producidas en papel y disponibles Internet. La edición en cuestión es titulada Compromiso Enero Separata 2006. En la página de Internet se pueden encontrar ediciones anteriores de hasta octubre del 2004. Este informe va a la par con el plan de Sergio Fajardo, alcalde de Medellín en el momento de la publicación, que es crear un Medellín educado, seguro y de progreso. El informe esta divido en seis

temas y se le dedica media página a cada uno: Educación, Crimen, Construcción, Comercio, Transparencia Gubernamental y Artes. Este informe nos desglosa los cambios que han ocurrido, por ejemplo: nuevas escuelas, cárceles y parques, a la vez que se llevaron a cabo mejoras a los ya existentes. En crimen se disminuyeron los robos, homicidios, hurtos, extorsión y estafas. Medellín también fue reconocida como ciudad modelo de seguridad y convivencia. Nuevos parques bibliotecas fueron anunciados y comenzados a construir. Nuevas empresas recibieron ayudas y prestamos para así poder comenzar su negocio. Los ciudadanos tuvieron la oportunidad de evaluar el plan económico y presupuesto, creando así un gobierno transparente. Este recurso también

complementa la transparencia gubernamental ya que pone a la disposición de los residentes información de dónde se está utilizando su dinero. Esta edición de cuatro páginas se encentra en Español en la red, pero utilizando Google tiene la opción de traducirlo al inglés, una traducción bastante acertada aunque con algunos problemas de sintaxis. Al final de esta edición se pueden encontrar testimonios con fotos y descripciones de residentes de Medellín opinando acerca de los cambios que han ocurrido en la ciudad y lo que esperan en el futuro. Este circular es un gran recurso y de gran ayuda ya que informa cambios y mejoras en Medellín, cambios que en otros países o gobierno pasarían desapercibidos.

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Medellín, Colombia: Peace in Process


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IN ENGLISH As part of its plan to transform Medellín into an educated, safe and progressive city, the government of Medellín created a newspaper to inform residents about improvements and changes in the city. This is an edition of “Commitment: The Newspaper”1. This monthly newspaper is distributed at no cost in print and is available online. This edition is entitled “Commitment January 2006 Offprint”. On the website previous editions that date back to October 2004 can be found. This newspaper goes along with the plan of Sergio Fajardo, Mayor of Medellin at the time of publication, which is to transform Medellín into a model city. The newspaper is divided into six themes and devotes half a page to each: Education, Crime, Construction, Trade, Government Transparency and Arts. This newspaper lists the changes that have occurred in Medellín, e.g. new schools, prisons and parks were built, while improvements were carried out to exist-

ing ones. By 2005, crime had decreased in robberies, homicides, robberies, extortion and fraud. Medellin was also recognized as an exemplary city in security and coexistence. New “Parques Bibliotecas”2 were announced and begun to build. New companies received loans to help them start their business. Citizens had the opportunity to assess the economic plan and budget, thus creating a transparent government. This resource also creates government transparency as it offers residents information on where their money is going. This is a four page long edition in originally in Spanish with the option to translate it into English 3 . At the end of this edition you can find testimonials with photos and descriptions of Medellin residents commenting on the changes and their expectations for the future. This newspaper is a great resource and is very helpful in reporting progress in Medellin, changes that in other governments would pass unnoticed.

If the link does not work, the source can be found by typing “Medellín la ciudad mas educada” in Google Search (The first result found at the date of access.) 2 This is the translation of “Periodico Compromiso” that makes the most sense. “Compromiso” may also be translated to: engagement and promise, words that wouldn’t go with the context of the publication. 3 Library Parks 1

This option is provided by Google, Inc. and is not affiliated with the Medellín government in any way. This translation contains many syntax errors, but it serves the purpose of giving English speakers an idea of what the source is about.

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TELEVISION


TELEVISION

“ENTOURAGE”EPISODE: WELCOME TO THE JUNGLE DANIEL FIDLER

Entourage, “Welcome to the Jungle,” HBO, June 17, 2007.

Entourage is a fictional television series that airs on the HBO network about the lives of a group of friends who have made it big in Hollywood and became famous. The fourth season premiere, entitled “Welcome to the Jungle”, is presented in the format of a documentary chronicling the film shoot of Medellin, a Pablo Escobar biopic (a biographic movie), starring Vincent Chase (played by Adrian Grenier). The film covers the rise and of Pablo Escobar, the infamous Colombian drug lord who murdered hundreds of policemen. They film in the city of Bogota, and have it made up to look like Medellin because, in the fictional world of the TV show, they did not get permission to film in the actual city of Medellin. Throughout the episode, the focus is more on the cast and crew and their on-set shenanigans than on the life of Escobar and the city of Medellin itself, but there are some interesting points to be made about the actors’ and producers’ behavior in relation to the history of Medellin’s infamous past society. The director has frequent on-set blowups; everyone involved in production exhibit a negative, borderline violent mood; they pat themselves on the back after work and retire to their all-night alcohol-infused parties. All of this was reminiscent of the Medellin days of old, what with the negative attitudes and the drinking/drugs, as well as the everyday events on the streets of Medellin – ex. the casual murders – that were scattered throughout the narrative in Fernando Vallejo’s novel, Our Lady of the Assassins.

www.medellinthefilm.com

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TELEVISION

SERGIO FAJARDO: INTERVIEW BY CHARLIE ROSE DANIEL FIDLER

Sergio Fajardo, interview by Charlie Rose, Charlie Rose, PBS, February 20, 2009, Charlie Rose, http:// www.charlierose.com/view/interview/10098 (accessed March 26, 2009).

Sergio Fajardo, the mayor of Medellin from 2003 until 2007, was on PBS’ Charlie Rose, and Mr. Rose interviewed him about the city, as well as his place in it. Fajardo, a graduate with a Ph. D. from the University of Wisconsin switched gears in 2001, moving away from science and math to get into politics. After running for Mayor of Medellin and getting elected, he worked on solving the society’s problems of inequality and violence by setting up social interventions for education and instigating a new rule of law, respectively. Fajardo had many beautiful buildings (ex. schools, libraries) built in poor areas so that the disenfranchised could get a proper education and get to go to nice places. His ‘metrocable’ was an aerial cable addition to the Metro of Medellin, allowing citizens to go up in the mountains and see new sights. As for the violence from earlier days, Fajardo posited that citizens needed to move in one direction. Working with increased police and paramilitaries in a hard re-

integration process, he rounded up gangs and drug traffickers and improved social conditions. He also talked about how he plans to run for President in 2010. He mentioned that Medellin is still a major force in the global market with commercial treaties, trading textiles and apparels, and one day they could even rival Brazil in the South American markets. He ended things by asking that the U.S. be aware of Columbia and its importance Fajardo said they need to “see us [for] our potential - so that a relationship could build with the Latin Americas and elsewhere. Throughout the interview, Fajardo remained poised and collected and spoke with a very soothing and level voice. Rose, on the other hand, almost seemed annoyed by Fajardo for some reason, and it showed in the way he tersely asked his questions and follow-ups. All the better for Fajardo, who, with his cool and patient demeanor, came off as the better man, which can only help his image and popularity in the political world.

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TELEVISION

HBO’S ENTOURAGE, “WELCOME TO THE JUNGLE” RAE BRADY

Ellin, Doug. “Welcome to the Jungle.” Entourage. Home Box Office Inc. Las Angeles, California. 17 June 2006.

“Welcome to the Jungle” is the first episode of the fourth season of Entourage, HBO’s hit series. The show revolves around Vince, an upand-coming actor, who shares his carefree lifestyle with three childhood friends. As season four opens, Vince begins filming a new movie titled Medellín. This particular episode was shot from the point of view of a camera crew making a documentary about the film in which Vince is starring. The episode was shot in Colombia and features shots of the capital,

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Bogota, which is dressed up to look like the city of Medellín, giving the viewer a mental image of the city. Many characters on the show are “interviewed” by the documentary crew, and during these talks they describe Medellín as a dangerous place filled with despair, something that I thought, while accurate, was a rather one-sided view. The also discuss Pablo Escobar and his duel roles as both a drug lord and philanthropist within the community. The episode shows the difficulties

the characters face while making the film, including a too-small budget, an insane director, and a script without an ending. By the end of the episode, the crew of Medellín has stopped having faith in each other entirely, much like the actual city during Pablo Escobar’s reign. The image of Medellín in Entourage is similar to that of the actual city, but focuses only on portraying violence and drug use, a good indicator that this is an extremely “Hollywood” view of Colombia.

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Medellín, Colombia: Peace in Process


VIDEO


VIDEO

MEDELLÍN GOING GLOBAL TABITHA HERNANDEZ

YouTube. Medellín Going Global. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XD9cNdFIzQ4 (accessed February 11, 2009).

This video blog seeks to attract tourists to Medellin, Colombia through a slide show presentation with various images and video clips. Unfortunately, who created this video blog is never stated. However, the group shown in the blog, AIESEC, is “the world’s largest student run organization” and “international platform for young people to discover and develop their potential so as to have a positive impact on society”1 complete with a student abroad program. With this example in our peace project we could provide a template of how to attract people from other nations. It allures the adventurous tourist by showing the elaborate nightlife and clips of the flower festival, Feria De Las Flores, to the luxurious tourist by displaying the fancy hotel and entertainment, and to city going tourists by showing how accessible Medellin is with the metro rail, the trains and the airport. A flaw in the blog is that it never shows the cuisine offered there. I think that this information is crucial to the tourist because they should know what they are going to have to eat. All in all this positive representation is essential to a newly thriving city like Medellin, because the more tourists you can attract means the more money you have, as well as the more popular your country can be in the future.

1

h t t p : / / w w w. a i e s e c . o r g / A I ( f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n A I E S E C )

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VIDEO

COLOMBIA/MEDELLÍN COMEBACK RACHEL HUFFMAN

Regan, Trish. “Colombia/Medellin Comeback.” July 20, 2007. http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu.proxy.em erson.edu/diglib-fulldisplay.pl?SID=20090208116363525&code=tvn&RC=877312&Row=2 (ac cessed February 2, 2009).

involves a stronger political will to defeat the groups The focus of this NBC news broadcast is on the refterrorizing the city, increased government involveormation of Medellín, Colombia into a city where ment in the affairs of the city, and a decreasing murder the citizens’ lives are safer. Trish Regan reports rate. The reporter also interviews a particular citizen’s directly from the city and narrates to footage of growing textile manuMedellín’s streets, people, facturing plant. This and construction in early example of a citizen 2007. A map of the city’s reaping the benefits location in South America of the changes underopens the segment along way in Medellín puts with a few words of its a face with a movepast as the most violent ment. The fact that city in the world because his family business’s of drug trafficking and sales are up 60% due homicides in the 1980’s to foreign clients is an and 1990’s. The improveillustration of the new ments in the city such as Medellín. Occasionthe upward climb of the ally the site cuts out, stock market by 900% distorting the visual, and “more high rises bewhich could become ing built [within Medellin] bothersome. This than in Manhattan and source, however, still Los Angeles combined” proves to be helpare stressed from the start ful in! realizing that to direct the presented inalthough Medellín is formation toward the posReporter Trish Regan most known in the media for drugs, itive transformation of this place which death, and self destruction, the presso many people around the world have minimal ent standing of the city has improved and the future knowledge on. A short clip of an interview with promises even less crime and poverty for it and its resithe current president, Álvaro Uribe, reveals how he dents. plans to continue the turnaround of the city which

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FILM


FILM

MARIA FULL OF GRACE CHELSEA STARK

Maria Full of Grace [Blu-ray]. Dir. Joshua Marston. Perf. Catalina Moreno, Virginia Ariza. DVD. New Line Home Video, 2006.

Maria Full of Grace focuses on Maria, a headstrong young woman in modern-day Colombia (2004), struggling to make enough money to support herself, her mother, her sister and her sister’s baby, all living in one house in rural Colombia. Unsatisfied with her lack of respect and opportunity, she quits her job at the only flower factory nearby because of the poor working conditions. In desperate need of a job and income, she turns to the then bourgeoning cocaine industry and becomes a drug mule, smuggling cocaine across the border to the United States. Maria must swallow balloons full of cocaine and then hold them in her stomach through customs, which physically and emotionally affects her. Her digestive system has difficulty handling the balloons and has a traumatic experience in the airport when she almost

gets caught. Although fictional, this film allows the audience to see the industry from a Colombian woman’s unique, personal perspective, which may have more of an impact on the viewer than typical news and statistics on drug trafficking. With Colombian actors and a director from the U.S., this film has creative forces from both countries, although it shares much in common with films from the United States on the same subject, such as Blow, a movie detailing the influence of cocaine in America in the ‘70s and ‘80s. The movie portrays a dark, pessimistic view of Colombia: while the ending is hopeful, this comes from Maria’s decision to stay in the United States. However, the movie depicts only one person’s story, and this film should be seen as a cultural artifact, an example of the recent past and not what is the norm in present-day Colombia.

New Line Cinema.”Maria Full of Grace trailer.” 8 Feb. 2009. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=RzFn1UoIIfw

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FILM

â&#x20AC;&#x153;MARIA FULL OF GRACEâ&#x20AC;? ALYSSA LUDWIG

Marston, Joshua. Maria Full of Grace, DVD. Directed by Joshua Marston. 2004: Columbia. HBO Films, 2004.

Maria Full of Grace is a feature film that tells the story of a 17-year old girl living in rural Columbia with three generations of her family. Maria works in a flower plant stripping roses of their thorns. With flowers being one of Colombiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main exports and largest job fields it suggests her position in the factory is secure. Yet itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s evident that Maria is restless, curious and adventurous as a maturing young woman. When she reaches the end of her patience she quits and in her search for a new position she meets a young man, Franklin. He eventually sets up a meeting between her and a drug trafficker who offers her a position as a drug mule (for cocaine), which she accepts. After swallowing 62 pellets of cocaine she is flown off to New York with a few other women who are also transporting cocaine. As they meet up with the men who are promised the illegal drugs, unfortunate events unfold with Maria caught up in the middle. The depiction of scenes from when Maria is first offered the job, to when she must swallow the drugs, to the events that unfold while she is in New York are scenes that could be based on any number of undocumented true stories of real-life drug mules who have experienced many of the same occurrences Maria does in the film. Catalina Sandino Morenoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance is one that deserves recognition for its dramatic honesty and believability. Her naturalism in performance combined with the dramatic and often terrifying events that unravel on screen touch your heart in ways that the viewer will never forget.

t'JMNFEJO"NBHVBOB .BSJTDBM"JSQPSU &DVBEPS Bogota, Columbia; Jackson Heights, Queens, New York City, Lincoln Tunnel, New York; Jersey City, New Jersey. t3BUFE3 GPSESVHDPOUFOUBOEMBOHVBHF .JOVUFT t*O4QBOJTIXJUI&OHMJTITVCUJUMFTBWBJMBCMF t%SBNBUJD"VEJFODF"XBSEBUUIF4VOEBODF'JMN Festival, lead actress was nominated for an Oscar, and overall the film had another 30 award wins and 22 nominations.

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FILM “BLOW”

ANYA DUBBLE OLSON

Demme, Ted, Johnny Depp, and Penelope Cruz, perf. Blow. DVD. N.p.: New Line Productions, Inc., 2001

“Blow” is a Hollywood movie about the life and career of George Jung, Pablo Escobar’s U.S. partner and the number one US importer of cocaine of the 1970s and ‘80s. It first outlines Jung’s childhood with his parents in Massachusetts, and continues on to chronicle his move to California and immersement in the drug scene, starting with selling small quantities of marijuana and ending with his imprisonment after being caught with hundreds of pounds of it. After his release, Jung moves on from marijuana and starts to move large quantities of cocaine from Medellin, Colombia. It is at this time that he meets Pablo Escobar, a dangerous Medellin drug lord, and becomes his American counterpart. In the end, the movie shows Jung’s fall from power, withdrawal from the Colombian drug scene, and eventual downfall when he is set up by the FBI and imprisoned. This movie is a good and informative overview on the general facts of George Jung’s life. It also outlines how the cartels in Colombia operated, and definitely shows the danger and violence that existed there. However, this would not be a good movie to watch if you wanted information about Pablo Escobar or the Medellin cartels, because it focuses mostly on George Jung and the operations that took place inside the United States. Readers also must bear in mind that although it is based on real events it is still a work of fiction, and some facts are most likely embellished or altered. It would not be a reliable source to use to gain factual information or cite in a paper.

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FILM

SOÑAR NO CUESTA NADA CHELSEA STARK

Soñar no Cuesta Nada, directed by Rodrigo Triana, Barakacine Producciones, 2006.

Soñar no Cuesta Nada, or A Ton of Luck in English, is a 2006 Colombian film about anti-guerilla soldiers in the Colombian Army attempting to stop rebel fighters in the jungle. When the guerillas ambush them, the soldiers discover $40 million buried in the jungle. The money came from drug lords working with the guerilla fighters, and the soldiers struggle with whether they should keep the money or tell their commander, Lizarazo about it. While Porras, the soldier most committed to their cause, wants to tell Lizarazo about it, the other soldiers decide to keep the money for themselves. The difficulty of hiding the money and spending it without calling attention to themselves turns out to be a tricky task. This film, directed by Rodrigo Triana, is a comedy, which is a different from the many dramatic films about Colombia such as Blow and Maria Full of Graceii. This was a welcome change, since Colombia is so often portrayed in a melancholy light, and it was refreshing to see humor, even though the subject matter itself was still dark. Blow and Maria Full of Grace treat the cocaine trade very seriously, while Soñar no Cuesta Nada depicts equally dark events as a farce. The film touches on the ethical dilemma these soldiers face, but does not dwell on the moral ambiguity of the situation. Though this film has weak character development and lacks believability, I did appreciate the fact that it takes a fresh, humorous look at Colombian subject matter. Because it is based on a true story, the film also succeeds in documenting a Colombian event and dramatizing it for the public, which can be a difficult task when much of what goes on in Colombia (drug trade, violence, etc) isn’t a palatable topic for a mainstream audience. The literal translation is “To Dream Costs Nothing.” These movies also have annotations available in the library. Article about the event on which the movie is based: HYPERLINK: “http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/21/world/colombia-soldierssteal-away-with-a-rebel-cache-of-millions.html” http://www.nytimes. com/2003/05/21/world/colombia-soldiers-steal-away-with-a-rebel-cache-ofmillions.html

“Colombian Soldiers Steal Away with a Rebel Cache of Millions.”.” New York Times 21 May 2003: A4. Nytimes.com. 21 May 2003. The New York Times Company. 25 Mar. 2009 <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/21/world/ colombia-soldiers-steal-away-with-a-rebel-cache-of-millions.html>

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DOCUMENTARY

“THE TRUE STORY OF KILLING PABLO” JACK LEARY

Keane, David. The True Story of Killing Pablo. 2002. Wild Eyes Productions, 2002. http://www.liveleak. com/view?i=39e_1191167081 (accessed February 10, 2009).

This documentary, which originally aired on The History Channel, tells the story of the rise and fall of Pablo Escobar. Directed by David Keane, and filled with interviews from both people that knew Escobar, and people who study him, such as author Mark Bowden who wrote Killing Pablo. This documentary follows not only the life and death of Escobar, but also the U.S.’s involvement in tracking the drug kingpin down. In Colombia, the government could not take down Pablo Escobar alone. He had too many connections with high-powered people, but when the U.S. government stepped in, it was a different story. Escobar literally never took no for an answer. This is really why the Colombian government struggled in stopping Escobar because everyone feared him. However, with the entrance of the U.S. Government, as the documentary explains, Colombia had the back up they needed to eventually track down and kill Pablo Escobar. I found this documentary very informational, and well made. It included insight from various people with many different takes on Escobar’s life. The main focus of the documentary was to show the rise and fall of Escobar, and they succeeded at better educating the viewer about the drug kingpin.

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DOCUMENTARY

PABLO ESCOBAR: THE REAL KING OF COCAINE AUSTIN FONTANELLA

Discovery Times. “Kingpin: The Real King of Cocaine.” Select O hits videos. 2007. HYPERLINK “http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yv8mHgCcd4k”

The documentary Kingpin: The Real King of Cocaine, is only about an hour long but it packs Pablo Escobar’s entire life, both his rise and fall, into a fascinating story that is easy to follow. It begins by quickly describing Pablo’s teenage years and explains how a small time thief who stole cars and grave stones became the most powerful man in Colombia. Pablo Escobar was nothing short of a monster to most of the outside world, but for Colombia’s poorer class Escobar was a “Robin Hood” figure of his time. Pablo helped these people by donating food, money, schools, and even soccer fields to communities who had nothing. In return these people protected Escobar from the police, and were genuinely upset when he passed away. The Discovery Times does a good job of showing both sides of the story and even ads an interview in the end from Pablo’s mother begging the public to remember the good things he did for the country. The film, however, is not perfect. The Discovery Times is a very reliable source, but it is from an American point of view. In order to get a first hand perspective of what happened in Pablo’s reign of terror a Colombian film might do the subject better justice.

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LECTURE


LECTURE

CITIES: FORGING AND URBAN FUTURE - LA TRANSFORMACIÓN DE MEDELLÍN. KRISTY ROBINSON

Fajardo, Dr. Sergio, PhD. “Cities: Forging and Urban Future - La Transformación de Medellín.” Lecture and Panel Discussion, Education for Public Inquiry and International Citizenship (EPIIC), Tufts Univer sity, February 21, 2009. Dr. Sergio Fajardo, mayor of Medellín, Colombia from 2004-2007, spoke at Tufts University on February 21st, 2009 and it was sponsored by Education for Public Inquiry and International Citizenship (EPIIC). He was one of five speakers and the others were from Sicily, South Africa, and two from Providence; they spoke on the topic of “Cities: Forging an Urban Future.” Seeing Fajardo in person makes his human nature show through. His seriousness and humor is more relatable than in writings and videos of him and the audience, of about 300, reacted well to his message. In the Q&A between the panel and the audience, more than 50% of the questions were directed towards Farjardo. The purpose of his speech was to teach the context of Medellín in order to understand the transformation. The cause of the well-known violence of the city was a combination of deep social inequalities and historical social debt. The former mathematician saw that the manner for peace in the city was to, in his words, “change the way we do politics.” A person or group who is not a government official cannot rule sections of the city. Those involved with violence went into a reintegration program. In exchange for handing in a gun, the person gets psychological and social intervention and receives education to live and get a job in society. Programs called Jóvenes con futuro víctima are in place to prevent young kids from heading down a violent path. Fajardo ends with the notion that narco trafficking and violence has not yet been eliminated in Medellín. “How is that done?” he asks the audience, “I don’t have enough time to tell you.” The audience laughed in his wit, all knowing that the 12 minute count down clock ran out a couple of minutes ago.

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Caption: Fajardo named the two problems Medellín had: Violence and Inequalities. But like these two trees, they appear separate but their roots are intertwined. One cannot pull out one tree without thinking how it is affects the other.

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TRAVEL


TRAVEL GUIDE

UNITED KINGDOM: BRADT TRAVEL GUIDES - COLOMBIA MEGAN WALSH

Woods, Sarah. Colombia. United Kingdom: Bradt Travel Guides, 2008.

This book is a general travel guide to Coto its attempt to cover so much information lombia; it is more like a first step to a more primarily on the improvements the Colomthe country’s negative past, stressing how the days of Pablo Escobar. The guide also history, and nature; it discusses plants, interested in (windsurfing, hang gliding, speakers in North America and the UK and information very recent and fresh, as it was important because it shows how outsiders than drugs and hit men. Instead, it is preto go, which shows that the public image

lombia. It is not particularly in-depth due about so many different aspects of Cocomprehensive travel guide. It focuses bian people have brought about and not much safer Colombia has become since contains passages about cultural events, wildlife, and activities travelers might be fishing, etc.). It is made for and by Englishpublished within the last year, making its only published within the last year. It’s are beginning to view Colombia – as more sented as a beautiful and interesting place of Colombia is changing for the better.

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“Cover of Colombia Travel Guide,” Bradt Travel Guides, Bradt Travel Guides, http://www.bradt-travelguides com/details.asp?prodid=187 (accessed February 10, 2009).

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ART


PAINTING

THE DEATH OF PABLO ESCOBAR CASEY ROEDER

Fernando Botero, Death of Pablo Escobar, 1999, Museo de Antioquia, Medellín, The Athenaeum, http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=22892 (accessed February 2, 2009).

This painting, is Colombian artist, Fernando Botero’s representation of the death of infamous Columbian drug lord, Pablo Escobar. The original painting, titled Death of Pablo Escobar, is housed at the Museo de Antioquia, in Medellín, Colombia – Botero’s native city; it found a home there in early 2001 when Botero donated a series of paintings and sculptures to the museum to help with the “moral renovation” of Medellín1. In the painting, Escobar is pictured as a large figure, standing on a roof in Medellín. This large, bulbous body shape is exhibited in Botero’s other works as well. Escobar played a significant role in the violence that plagued Columbia since the late 1960’s. The death of Pablo Escobar was a landmark event in Medellín’s transition towards peace and transformation into a safer city; including the creation of Parques Bibliotecas and their peace generating programs, as well as further citywide peace efforts that are taking place in Medellín. Being that Fernando Botero is an historian and alsoa native of Medellín, he is an extremely credible person to exemplify this significant event in Colombian history. This painting is part

of a series* of six or seven paintings by Botero which, for the first time in his career, focused on the brutality that existed in Colombia for many years. Originally, Botero received negative feedback about the series, including this painting, from people in Medellín who said that his paintings “worsened Colombia’s already tarnished international image.” In response, Botero explained that his paintings simply “show the history of a country”2. Although Botero was not present the day Pablo Escobar was shot to death in Medellín, he is native to the place directly affected by this event, therefore providing an accurate portrayal of the emotions felt by many other Paisas (Medellín natives) who were affected by Escobar’s death and the end of his legendary cocaine cartel. In a 2001 interview, Botero described his motive behind this painting and the others in the series: “I have painted Colombia all of my life--both the lovable side I knew as a child, and the one I see now in the press, which makes a huge impact on me. I felt the necessity to [create] paintings that reflect this reality.”2

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Hodgson, Martin. “Colombia’s Latest Weapon: Art.” The Christian Science Monitor, January 8, 2001. http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0108/p6s1.html(accessed March 3, 2009). 2 Pratt, Timothy. “The Art of Peace in Medellin.” Americas (English Edition) (March 2001): 16-23. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Art+of+PEACE+in+MEDELLIN-a072274451(accessed March 12, 2009). 1

Medellín, Colombia: Peace in Process


PAINTING

*THESE PAINTINGS ARE PART OF THE SERIES BY BOTERO, WHICH INCLUDES DEATH CONTINUED OF PABLO ESCOBAR, WHICH PORTRAYS VIOLENCE IN MEDELLÍN

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A Thief

Slaughter of the

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Innocents

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e

Massacr

Hunter

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SCULPTURE FERNANDO BOTERO AUSTIN FONTANELLA

Nusantara, “Bird.” 03/05/09.http://www.nusantara.com/pasta/home/theartwo/bird.html (accessed 03/05/09).

The documentary Kingpin: The Real King of Cocaine, is only about an hour long but it packs Pablo Escobar’s entire life, both his rise and fall, into a fascinating story that is easy to follow. It begins by quickly describing Pablo’s teenage years and explains how a small time thief who stole cars and grave stones became the most powerful man in Colombia. Pablo Escobar was nothing short of a monster to most of the outside world, but for Colombia’s poorer class Escobar was a “Robin Hood” figure of his time. Pablo helped these people by donating food, money, schools, and even soccer fields to communities who had nothing. In return these people protected Escobar from the police, and were genuinely upset when he passed away. The Discovery Times does a good job of showing both sides of the story and even ads an interview in the end from Pablo’s mother begging the public to remember the good things he did for the country. The film, however, is not perfect. The Discovery Times is a very reliable source, but it is from an American point of view. In order to get a first hand perspective of what happened in Pablo’s reign of terror a Colombian film might do the subject better justice.

Medellín, Colombia: Peace in Process


SCULPTURE CONTINUED

About the Website Nusantara.com is a website created by Peter Schoppert’s Public Art in Singapore that “brings news and notes related to public art in general, and public art in Singapore in particular”. The website is a database of artworks that currently totals 127 pieces. The website gives a brief excerpt from the May 8th 2000 edition of the Miami Herald which talks about the bombing and provides a picture of Botero’s sculpture. The website contains pictures, bios and essays that make the process of find what you want very easy.

La Violencia is not the whole story...


ACADEMIC


ACADEMIC JOURNAL ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC IN COLOMBIA KEN GILBERT

Lucio E.C. Camargo, “The Development of Electroacoustic Music in Colombia, 19651999: An Introduc tion,” in Leonardo Music Journal, Music out of Africa and South America (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2000), 10:p. 7-12, in JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1513370 (accessed February 9, 2009).

This broad, yet informative, article takes a look at some of the pioneers of Colombian ‘electroacoustic’ music. Electroacoustic music is an electronic interpretation of classical music that was initially explored to transcend the seemingly finite properties of standard acoustic (orchestral) instruments. Electroacoustic music comes solely from computers: whether it be pre-recorded samples, synthesized sounds or computer generated wave forms. Some say that electroacoustic music was a significant yet often unrealized catalyst of electronic music (often times electronic music is credited to Kraftwerk, amongst others, a German band that originated in 1970). Many of the linchpins of Colombian electroacoustic

music were born and raised in Medellín, such as Blas Emilio Atehortua. Atehortua was born in Medellín and studied at the Conservatorio de Bellas Artes de Medellín. Although he was known more for his work with organic acoustics, Atehortua produced two significant electroacoustic works in the late 60s. “The Development of Electroacoustic Music in Colombia” was a useful article that explained a good deal about musical “high-art” in Medellín and Colombia as a whole. This topic may, however, be a bit too specific to be included in our published works. Although I found the topic quite fascinating, the average person may be a bit apathetic in regards to the subject matter.

h t t p : / / w w w. s c e n a . o r g / l s m / s m 9 - 2 / i m a g e s / P H e n r y _ G R M _ 1 9 5 1 . j p g

La Violencia is not the whole story...


ACADEMIC SOURCE

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE JENNIFER STANIS

Tenenbaum, Barbara A., Georgette Magassy Dorn, Mary Karasch, John Jay TePaske, and Ralph Lee Woodward Jr., eds. Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. 2nd ed. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1996.

This article from the Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, focuses on Colombia’s fiscal reliance on the drug trade and cocaine in Colombia from the 1980s up until 1993, when Pablo Escobar died. While the cocaine drug cartels and drug trade encompass most of Latin America, it narrows in on the MedellÍn and Cali cities in Colombia that are central to the cocaine cartels and drug trade. It briefly discusses the history and why Latin America was so susceptible to the dangers, such as endless assassinations and fear of violence associated with drug trafficking. The excerpt goes on to explain the cities’ reform of the drug trafficking and that even though it is not such a problem anymore, it will never be perfect. This source will help readers have a better understanding as to why Colombia as so affected by the drug trafficking and the violence and corruption, such as policemen

who got paid off to leave drug lords alone, that it came with, which is one of the explanations behind why Latin America was so susceptible. The limitations are not necessarily from this source but rather from the fact that cocaine is such a broad topic. There is so much information pertaining to the topic that it can often be hard narrowing it down. Cocaine and the drug trade is a very broad topic that is difficult to cover, both of these separate, yet related, topics are intended for a mature reader who is looking to seek more information about cocaine and Colombia. There is so much information about Cocaine it can be overwhelming. This is a very reliable source because it is an influential encyclopedia. This source has the ability to inspire any reader to further their own research about Colombia because of the various other information they touch upon while discussing drug trade.

h t t p : / / w w w . y o u t u b e . c o m / w a t c h ? v = 1 o 2 W c b B This anti-drug ad straight from the Mayor’s Office of Medellin is a humorous way of drawing in the attention of his citizens. He is trying to show the extent people will go for cocaine, again, in a humorous way. There is an understanding established between the mayor and the people of Colombia that cocaine is addictive and can easily result in the destruction of an entire country. It is the Mayor’s well of warning people not to resort to it because Colombia will straight back to where it used to be.

La Violencia is not the whole story...


BOOK


BOOK

THE ADVENTURES AND MISADVENTURES OF MAQROLL MEGAN WALSH

Mutis, Alvaro. The Adventures and Misadventures of Maqroll. Translated by Edith Grossman. New York: New York Review Books Classics, 2002.

This book is a collection of seven novellas relating about the same character: Maqroll the Gaviero (the Lookout), who is likened to Don Quixote in reviews of the book (1). Alvaro Mutis’ first novel featuring Maqroll was published in 1986; since then, he has published many more and they have been put together in this collection. This is the first time they were published in English; there was a Spanish version published in 1993 called Empresas y tribulaciones de Maqroll el Gaviero. Maqroll travels mostly on sea, meeting prostitutes and old lovers; he provides guns to rebels, mines gold, and schemes ways to acquire more money. He is not intended to be a classically heroic character; his adventures are not for love of excitement or the desire to accomplish noble deeds, but a personal restlessness he cannot overcome due to his frustration with getting older and his distrust of happiness. He is an intriguing and unique character. Some of the novels are not about Maqroll, but his friends and companions. It is likely the author took inspiration from his own life as he traveled often; he was born in Colombia, raised in Brussels, and spent a good amount of his adult life in Mexico City. It is interesting because it is one of the few Colombian novels to be published in English and it was only translated within the last ten years.

(1) Updike, John. “The Lone Sailor.” Review of The Adventures and Misadventures of Maqroll, by Alvaro Mutis. ! The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/ archive/2003/01/13/030113crbo_books?currentPage=all (ac cessed March 22, 2009). (2) The New York Review of Books. The New York Review of Books. http://www.nybooks.com/shop/ product?usca_p=t&product_id=398 (accessed March 22, 2009).

La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE


WEBSITE

“EL CHOCÓ: MUSESTRA ITINERATE.” JENNIFER STANIS

Cagan, Steve. “El Chocó: Musestra Itinerate.” Steve Cagan Portfolios. http://www.stevecagan.com (accessed March 4, 2009).

“A c t i v i s t

P h o t o g r a p h y ”

Steve Cagan’s website is a haven for anyone who likes to look at photos that have the ability to explain themselves; his photography is captivating. Once on the site, you have the ability to go to Ohio, look at some Portraits or perhaps spend a day with Homeless People in Cleveland since all of his photographs are apart of a traveling exhibition. Mr. Cagan is an activist photographer, which means he employs a different medium to display his feelings and work towards making a difference: he uses photographs. Mr. Cagan states on his website,“For one thing, it may seem more like journalism than art. It’s more like the work of the many people who labor as journalists for alternative publications”. He integrates his “photography and the social or political activism which it is intended to be a part of”. Cagan spent time in El Chocó, Colombia, El Chocó means ‘Itinerate Teacher’. Among the pictures of the landscapes and scenery of this particular part of Colombia, Mr. Cagan includes portraits. Colombian natives are photographed as if a natural moment of their day was put on pause. One photograph in particular shows an elderly woman staring with dull eyes straight into the camera. She is leaning against as if she is thinking, faint or tired. This photo in particular is so beautifully done because it can be translated in so many ways. Most viewers have no idea as to whom she is or what is going on in her life, but after this photograph, they suddenly have interest. Is she mad? If so, why? Perhaps she is upset? Cagan establishes a personal connection between the viewer and the people in the photograph. People who may never even have been to Colombia feel as if they have walked the streets and seen the patters on everyday life, despite the fact that they have never even spoken a word to the people in the pictures. Cagan’s photography is very important for raising awareness about Colombia, and that even though it may be a somewhat reformed place, there is still unrest and violence.

La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE

FERIA DE LAS FLORES LORENZO CARIDEO

Gill, Nicholas. “Feria De Las Flores.” Suite 101. 1 Oct 2007. http://southamericatravel.suite101.com/ar ticle.cfm/feria_de_las_flores (accessed Mar 5, 2009).

The world-renowned Feria de las curs in Medellin, Colomddbia every July 28 to August 7. Known as the las Flores was fashioned in the 1950s lin. Farmers around the city were enafterward the festival came into exgangs, drug trafficking, and overall promising vacation to the Feria de once concentrated on small flower bouquets now see a fun-filled weekparades and craft sales. Currently, United States come from Medellin, the festival are intricate and someing heights of15 ft arrangements, is a joyous occasion that showcases than the stigma that was once as-

Flores is a horticulture event that ocsummer for more than a week from ‘Flower Festival’ in English, the Feria de to boost flower production in Medelticed to grow local flowers, and soon istence. Tourists once scared of violent corruption, now see a peaceful and las Flores. The festival participants that arrangements and impromptu flower long festival, full of concerts, speeches, 70% of the flowers that are sold in the and its not surprising why. The floats at times depict local landscapes, reachknown as ‘Silletas.’ Overall the festival the heart of Colombian people, rather sociated with the city of Medellin.

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La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE

STATISTICS REGARDING VIOLENCE IN COLOMBIA JACK LEARY

Statistiques Mondiales, http://www.statistiques-mondiales.com/en/colombia.htm (accessed March 24, 2009).

As Medellin works towards a brighter future, it is hard to look back at the past. However, it is necessary to look at the statistics, both current and from the past, and compare both in a way that is beneficial to the rebuilding of a country and a city. When starting with these comparisons, the site compares the birth rates in Colombia in 1970 and 2008. In 1970 the birth rate was 38.0%, while in 2008 the birth rate was 19.86%. A drastic difference is shown. After looking at birth rate, it is important to look at the mortality rate. In 2008 the mortality rate was 5.54%. In 2000, there were 60.8 homicides for every 100,000 Colombians. The population of Colombia in 1950 was 12,500,000; in 2008 the population was 45,013,674. While often brutal, it is necessary to look at these statistics when rebuilding a city like Medellin. it is hard to look at the death rate of a country and sum up all of the lives lost in a simple number, but it is also helpful because maybe one day we can look back on the death rate in 2008 in Colombia and compare how much has changed. I found this site very helpful. It states all the necessary statistics for each country and includes visuals that compliment those statistics. I found any statistic I needed, even specific ones like â&#x20AC;&#x153;the production of cereals in thousand tonsâ&#x20AC;?. Other statistical sites such as www.countrywatch.com did not have such specific details. I also liked that although the site is natively in Spanish, the actual presentation of the statistics can be in English or Spanish. This allows for a more universal approach to giving statistics on a country. The presentation of the site is welcoming and revolves around the statistics. For example, each statistical category has its own little icon. I highly recommend this site to anybody who is looking for statistics not only for Colombia, but for any country.

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WEBSITE

ICHOTELSGROUP.COM ASHLEY GRANT

2009. Medellin. Intercontinental Hotels & Resorts. Medellin, Columbia http://www.ichotelsgroup.com/intercontinental/en/gb/locations/overview/medellin . Accessed Feb ruary 2, 2009.

This website provides information about a hotel situated in Medellín, Colombia. It is called the Intercontinental Medellín, and it provides luxury services such as spas, executive club level rooms, and an interactive map on the website to help visitors explore the area of Medellín without getting lost. The website is displayed in an attractive manner, as it is not cluttered with information, it is easy to navigate, and the text is set on a white background so that readers can concentrate on what the website has to offer. The pictures that it displays of the hotel and it’s features are clean, modern, and comfortable looking. It is certainly a desirable place to reside for tourists in Medellín, as it offers many different accommodations that will help it’s guests find their way around and have a good time in the city. One accommodation that is offered is that the hotel holds two separate restaurants for guests to choose from. Another is a concierge video that is featured on the site, which is a helpful introduction to what the hotel will be like for prospective residents. Directions to and from the hotel are included in the website to create ease for the traveler, and there is a map of locations to visit in Medellín, such as restaurants, shops, and tourist attractions, featured in this website for anyone who needs this information.

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WEBSITE

WHAT IS CUMBIA DANCING? CRYSTAL CHAN

Haggerty, Christina. “What is Cumbia Dancing.” eHow. http://www.ehow.com/video_2373964_whatcumbia-dancing.html (accessed February 2, 2009). http://www.christinahaggerty.com http://www. clubsilhouette.com

This website contains a series of videos which teaches the dance steps to the Colombian folk dance, cumbia. These series of videos expand on the knowledge of Colombian culture to the rest of the world. Provided is a brief introduction to the history of cumbia, but the information is not in depth. Cumbia is a cultural fusion between American Indians and African slaves who had settled in Northern Colombia and Cumbia started out as a courtship dance practiced largely by a slave population. The African slaves were brought to the Americas by the Spanish conquerors in Colombia. Until the mid-20th century, cumbia was considered to be a vulgar dance performed primarily by the lower social classes. This dance is intended for an audience who may be new to the dance and is interested in learning. The dance instructor in the video, Christina Haggerty teaches the basic moves to a single and couple dance. She teaches the moves step by step in an easy to learn manner. Christina Haggerty started formal dance training in college where she performed several types of dances; i.e. jazz, ballet, Puerto Rican folk dance, belly dance, etc. Haggerty has instructed a Latin dance class for about 7 years in Los Angeles. She has performed in professional competitions, films, festivals, and television such as the CBS series “CANE.”

http://wwwchristinahaggerty.com, http://www.clubsilhouette.com

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WEBSITE

PARQUES BIBLIOTECAS PARA MEDELLÍN BRET WATERS

Alcaldia de Medellín. Parques Biblioteca para Medellín. http://www.medellin.gov.co/alcaldia/jsp/ modulos/I_gestion/parquesbiblioteca.jsp (accessed February 2, 2009)

This is the official website for the Parques Bibliotecas, or Library Parks, in Medellín, brought to you by the municipal government of Medellín. Constructed five years ago in some of the city’s poorest neighborhoods as an effort to turn violence into peace, their purpose is to provide a way for people to study, practice, and learn in a safe environment, and boast worldclass design, Internet access, theatres, and open-air plazas1. The site provides general information intended for potential users of the libraries and is divided into several informational sections: description, background, social component, goals and benefits, facilities and services, location, and contact. These sections each have their own page that communicates their message through short paragraphs or bulleted lists alongside photo illustrations. Of particular note are maps, phone numbers, and addresses of each Parque, schedules of monthly activities, the cost of construction and maintenance (over $28 million USD), and the story of the inception of the libraries (which was spearheaded by Sergio Fajardo, Mayor of Medellín). While this site shares basic information to students looking to become more familiar

with the Parques in Medellín, it should be noted that it is authored in Spanish, and can only be viewed in English via a subpar, word-for-word Google translation. It is recommended that the site’s users understand some Spanish so that when referencing the original document, alongside the translation, the meaning will present itself.

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WEBSITE

BIOGRAPHY: GEORGE JUNG BENJAMIN GOODMAN

Reed, Libbie. “Biography: George Jung.” Helium. 2/2/09. Helium, Inc. 2/2/09. http://www.helium.com/ items/401988-biography-george-jung

George Jung was born in Massachusetts, on the East Coast of the United States, to hardworking middle class parents. In 1968 he moved to California—where he became known as Boston George—and quickly began selling marijuana to make a living. He soon learned that he could make more money by working directly with major drug dealers, rather than middle men (who were much lower on the hierarchical chain of dealers) and in the early 1970’s began flying large amounts of marijuana from Mexico in private planes. In 1974 he was arrested for doing just ! that. After a prison sentence and a decade or so, George began selling a more lucrative (and consequently dangerous) drug: cocaine. He began dealing with one of the world’s most infamous

! Blow dir., Ted Demme interviews George Jung in Prison: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=nb8kQSAj7jo

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drug cartels, the Medellín Cocaine Cartel, led by Pablo Escobar (a violent and ruthless drug lord). He met his wife Mirtha and had a daughter named Kristina Sunshine Jung. Years later he was cut out of the chain of dealers by his former partner Carlos Lehder, and consequently lost more than $60 million dollars through his Panamanian bank. When he was unable to support his daughter he returned to drug trade (specifically with marijuana) in hopes of giving her financial security. He was caught due to a setup by his former pilot and was sentenced to 60 years in prison where he remains today. It is believed that he was responsible for more than 85% of the cocaine used in the United States during the peak of his career in the early 1980’s, according to the article.

Johnny Depp beside George Jung.

! Johnny Depp as George Jung. Blow, 2001

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WEBSITE

CIA, THE WORLD FACTBOOK BENJAMIN GOODMAN

The World Factbook, CIA. “Colombia.” March 5, 2009. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/co.html (accessed March 19, 2009).

The Central Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook is an online database of factual information about countries all over the world. Each article focuses on a particular country, providing critical information in the form of a database. The information is current in regard to Colombia as a country; though cities are mentioned and periodically discussed, they are not the focus of the database (nor of any specific statistical data). The source begins with a brief history and background on Colombia from the collapse of Gran Colombia in the 1830’s, to the present. Three countries emerged from this collapse: Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia. More recently, Colombia faced internal conflicts between government and anti-government forces--most notably the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)--that spanned nearly forty years, escalating heavily in the 1990’s. The FARC, funded primarily by drug trade, have gained notoriety through violence, but lack the strength to overthrow the government. In recent years, violence has subsided and the Colombian government has begun efforts to regain control of the entire country. The source goes on to discuss in depth the geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, and ! Current Map of Colombia *Note: This image was transnational issues of Colombia. It provides a platform, or factutaken from the annotated source. al foundation, upon which Colombia can be further analyzed and studied.This information is vital in any research regarding Colombia.

La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE

COLOMBIA: POETRY INTERNATIONAL WEBSITE KRISTEN DETROIA

Rendon, Fernando. 2007. Colombia: Poetry International Web. http:// colombia.poetryinternationalweb. org/piw_cms/cms/cms_module/index.php?obj_id=10238&x=1 (accessed February 5, 2009).

The unofficial Colombia poetry international website is an online site that provides a short article on the violent history of colombia, an article on the 2007 poetry festival and links to other sites about poetry authors and other web articles on the poetry festival in Medellin. The site initially provides background information on Colombia itself as a country. The first half of the article gives the readers a brief history on Colombia’s struggle with the shipping of cocaine in and out of the country. Also in the main article on the web page there is data on how many presidents have been assassinated over the years since 1984 because of political violence. By this site providing data on killings and the history of Colombia’s violence and drug abuse, readers who don’t know much about the country can gain a better understanding of some of the history in Colombia. The author Fernando Rendon of The International Poetry Festival of Medellin for the Peace changes the position of the article from the drug and political violence to the Poetry festival. It is noted in the online article about the festival that it contained “readings by seventy of the poets who of 2007. had taken part in this annual poetic event, considered by the international press as the largest poetry festival in the history of poetry” (Rendon). The author of this site states the two main objectives of this festival, which are, “To feed the vigorous poetic and spiritual resistance of the Colombian people...” and “To strengthen, through the continuous holding of poetry readings in Medellín and other main Colombian cities” (Rendon). The festival serves a purpose to show unity of peace and friendship amongst the people of Medellin. The festival is “firmly engaged in a collective task of searching for peace in Colombia”. Located on the sides of the article are many links to other articles on the festival, interviews and bios on poetry authors from Medellin located on the right hand side are links to poets from colombia.

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A d d i t i o n a l L i n k : h t t p : / / w w w. f e s t i v a l d e p o e s i a d e m e d e l l i n . o r g / p u b . p h p / e n / I n t r o / i n d e x . h t m

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WEBSITE

MEDELLIN – ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA WEBSITE KRISTEN DETROIA

Medellin – Antioquia, Colombia, 2006 -2007. Waterfront Realty, Inc. Brandon, http://www.medellininfo. com/facts/population.html (accessed March 5th, 2009).

The Medellin – Antioquia, Colombia website is an informational site on many aspects of Medellin’s population, cost of living, food market prices, information on plants grown and sold, maps, hotels and restaurants and suburbs an, cities and neighborhoods. With that certain information provided the site lets you virtually interact with this information. By doing this you can view pictures, graphs, be directed to links of newspaper articles and hotel websites. This interactive site allows the reader to explore many areas of Medellin that pertain to information on the city itself. This database would be very useful to people that are looking to go on a long vacation there, discover more information on the how many people live ! there or if someone is looking to live in Medellin. This site is a great way to explore all the living, recreational and wildlife options available to someone when they go to Medellin. This would serve as a good tool to someone if they wanted to live their or go for a vacation. There is a page on the website titled “what others have to say”; this gives links to magazine, newspaper and journal articles on reviews and stories about Medellin. This is very helpful because the reader can get many different perspectives on food, living spaces and travel from experts that write for magazines. There is also a page on the site

that is dedicated to the different recreation activities such as sports, museums and parks that can found in Medellin. The site gives descriptions on the places and neighborhoods to live in and tells the reader what they can do at each of these attractions. Lastly on the site it tells the reader about the website itself and how they have four reasons they base their website on. The creators of the site state, that one “the greatest change in the least amount of time, can be made through the humanitarian force of: government.” Two, “the internet is the high powered communications and knowledge tool of the world. Governments that are serious about creating more options for the poor, while improving overall economies”. Three, “Governments must accept that required english classes in Colombia and other Hispanic countries are a proven failure.” and last “Governments must take the lead regarding greater use, understanding of, and ways to obtain measured results from the Internet.” Given these guidelines and knowing that people of Medellin created this site shows that they are sincere and dedicated to the maintenance of the site and want to be true with the information they give us. Because they give us many external sources such as the news paper articles to back up their information.

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WEBSITE CUMBIA MUSIC KEN GILBERT

Tapia, Arturo. “Cumbia! The Music of Colombia!” Good Times in Medellín, Colombia Blog. Posted: 1/12/2008. http://medellin-colombia.blogspot.com/2008/01/cumbia-music-of-colombia.html

“Good Times in Medellín, Colombia” is a blog by Arturo Tapia that explores the culture, society and current events in Medellín, as well as more generic information about Colombia as a whole. Tapia’s interest in Medellín began when he traveled to the city and was pleasantly surprised by its beauty and friendliness. Tapia explains that he was treated with respect and was asked by many people to write about the transformation of Medellín: and that’s exactly what he did. Last year, the author wrote an article describing a notable style of traditional Colombian music: cumbia. Cumbia originated near the Caribbean coast of Colombia, drawing significant influence from various forms of African and indigenous music. Often described as a distant cousin of folk music, cumbia typically consists of percussion, clave, accordion, guitar and flute. 21st century musicians have begun experimenting with cumbia, integrating aspects of the style into other genres of music. Despite the loss of interest surrounding

traditional music in pop culture, Colombian pop artists have created a unique amalgam of cumbia and radio friendly pop music, resurrecting an aspect of customary artistic culture. With the help of pop sensations such as Medellín native Juanes, who incorporates aspects of cumbia on his records, Colombian music is beginning to draw global attention. This pop connection has helped showcase cumbia music to the rest of the world. Traditional music is an important part of any nation’s cultural identity. Colombia is fortunate enough to have a few different traditional styles that characterize its originality and diversity. Without national trademarks like cumbia, Colombia, and other nations around the world, would lack the unique substance that makes our planet culturally heterogeneous. Knowing and understanding cultural and societal differences is the key to avoiding prejudice and naivety. If more people spent time actually learning about other cultures (in this case Colombia’s cumbia style), odds are they would forget stereotypes and understand the individuality of each culture.

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WEBSITE

‘RELIGION, CULTURE, AND SOCIETY IN COLOMBIA: MEDELLIN AND ANTIOQUIA KRISTOFER MITCHELL

Voekel, Pamela. “’Religion, Culture, and Society in Colombia: Medellin and Antioquia.’” Abstract, His panic American Historical Review. http://find.galegroup.com/itx/start.do?prodId=AONE (accessed February 3, 2009).

This article by Pamela Voekel, visits the religious areas of Medellin, talking about socio and culturalistic areas, but more so concentrating on religion as well—specifically Roman Catholicism in the 1850’s-1930’s. A great deal of effort is put into the people of Medellin’s part to live in a life so overwhelmed and having a great influence by the Roman Catholic Church, as it seems to revolve around everything they do. It also explains how people interact with each other, having religion corre-

sponding to their daily lives and interactions. Pertaining more to the religion aspect of the article, she also talks about how people claim to be Christian, and yet they do not adhere to a holy lifestyle, like the drug traffickers, terrorists, and murderers. This article by Voekel just proves that Medellin and Colombia’s Roman Catholicism adhere to the fact that religion is still influential and even more so today, such as the many feasts and festivals honoring the Catholic saints of their Church.

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WEBSITE

BBC NEWS: COLOMBIA FARC HOSTAGES RELEASED KRISTY ROBINSON

“Colombia FARC hostages released.” BBC. (2 February 2009). Available from: BBC NEWS. <http://news bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/americas/7863811.stm> (accessed 2 February 2009).

This BBC International Online News report states that the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, or FARC, released four hostages on February 2, 2009 in hopes to have some of their members also released from the Colombia government. FARC, translated as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, is what BBC calls a “left-wing rebel” group that is headed in Colombia and has been around for the past five decades. The International Committee of the Red Cross and Senator Piedad Cordoba, a left-winged Colombian politician, recently made the negotiations with FARC for the release of hostages. The majority of FARC activity is in the rural areas of Colombia, which

caused the influx of migration of Colombian citizens to urban areas. Even though the Colombian government has weakened the group and driven them into the forests, they are still active in their attacks. To show this, BBC ends the article with that fact that the administration in the city of Cali blames FARC for a car bombing that occurred the day previous to the hostage release. “Colombia FARC Hostages Released” makes this move for the purpose of showing the ongoing violence from the organization. This article is significant because it shows the recent activity of FARC with the Colombian government for those following the organization’s activities or those new to the topic.

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WEBSITE

NEW WORLD IMAGES - PAUL SMITH PHOTOGRAPHY - FEATURES MCKENZIE LAWTON

Smith, Paul. “New World Images - Paul Smith Photography - Features.” http://www.newworldimages. net/features.htm (accessed February 3, 2009)

This website contains photography from the Colombia-based photographer Paul Smith. Smith operates this website to host and sell his photography to the world. His work includes pictures of the countries of Colombia, Peru, Mexico and many other places. His featured series on Medellín includes 26 pictures, but he has done much more work on the city that can be found through the search engine of the site. Although most of the website is bilingual, using both Spanish and English, some sections are in English-only. Smith has been living in the city of Medellín since 1999, but does not give a reason as to why he moved there. As you browse through his pictures of the city, a history is provided and illustrates how Medellín came to be through its violent past in the 1990’s. However, it is unclear where this historical information comes from. In the novel Our Lady of the Assassins by Fernando Vallejo, the narrator describes the city as the “capital of hate” (page 5). He says that Medellín is a place where “there are laws but there is now law” (page 89). The author is referring to the city when it was marked by violence and unrest. Smith’s work illustrates a healing Medellín. It allows people to see the city from a new perspective – Smith’s perspective. One of his photographs (as seen above) features a view of people looking at the city from the Biblioteca España. They are looking down the mountain from one of the poorest neighborhoods at the sparkling night lights. The juxtaposition of such a poor area with an amazing view illustrates how the city is thriving, but there are still areas that are poverty-stricken. I personally love Smith’s work and feel that it is a source of inspiration for the former “capital of hate”.

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La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE

DEBORA ARANGO: A WOMAN IN ART MCKENZIE LAWTON

Colombianart “Debora Arango: A Woman in Art.” January 18, 2008. http://colombianart.wordpress com/2008/01/18/debora-arango-a-woman-in-art/ (accessed March 4, 2009).

An entry on Débora Arango was featured on blog titled “Colombian Art” in January of 2008. The author, who remains know as “colombianart”, features his other website on his blog profile. The website, www.artcolombia.com, is dedicated to the artistic happenings in Colombia. Because this entry on Arango is a blog, it is not scholarly or entirely reliable. However, the author actually had the privilege of meeting Débora Arango a few years before her death in 2005 at the age of 98. Colombianart describes Débora as somber, which is reflected in her art. The source emphasizes the fact that Arango’s work was so important because she was a female in the male dominated art world, and sadly, her increased recognition has come only after her death. Colombianart does say that he is not a big fan of Arango’s work, however the author recognizes that she was a groundbreaker and incredibly unique. Her work often featured commentary on politics and society in a rather conservative time period in the 1940’s and 50’s. Often, the women of her paintings were nude in provocative or repulsive poses. The entry does include some of her art, but the titles and dates are not given. A scholarly biography on Arango includes information that can fill in the gaps of the blog entry (1). One of Arango’s featured works on the blog is titled Justice (as seen above) and was created in 1944. The painting features men, who appear to be police officers, grabbing a woman and possibly soliciting her for sex. Because the title of the work is Justice there seems to be a contradiction. This woman is being abused by the very men that are supposed to be protecting her well-being. Débora Arango is considered one of the first female Colombian artists and it is important that she be recognized for her contributions to the art world.

(1) Natalia Vega. “Arango, Débora.” In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T096179 (accessed March 24, 2009).

La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE

YOUTH NETWORK OF MEDELLIN MARCHES FOR HUMAN RIGHTS RAE BRADY

Sofia, Mayra. “Youth Network of Medellin Marches for Human Rights.” Weblog post. Blogger. 4 Nov. 2008. 4 Mar. 2009 <http://orbiting4peace.blogspot.com/2008/11/youth-network-of-medellinmarches-for.html>. Mayra Sofia’s blog, Orbiting 4 Peace, tracks the ongoing peace effort in Medellin, Colombia. One entry tells of her experience attending Youth Network of Medellín’s March For Peace, which took place on October 30th, 2008. This organization was started in 1990 and is composed of a core group of 30 students who have lost loved ones in the armed conflict, with an additional 150 students contributing as well. The march was part of a carnival that focuses on societal issues involving youth, crime, and social interactions between citizens, and calls for a peaceful city. The Youth Network of Medellín, also called RED-Juvenil de Medellín, is dedicated to changing the conditions of Medellín in order to eliminate violence, discrimination, and “the militarization of its society.” The author writes that the carnival focused on women’s rights, the lack of freedom of expression for students, the right to have cultural celebrations in public places, and the lack of interest from the Colombian media to address current social issues. From Sofia’s description of the events and the photographs that are up on her Weblog, it is clear that the day was indeed a success, and a great example of youth stepping up and demonstrating that peace does not have to be so difficult to achieve. Since the site is a personal blog, it is by no means a formal or official account of the day. It would have been beneficial to visitors of the site to include more about RED as an organization, not just a summation of the parade itself. Her description, however, does accurately convey the atmosphere of the day, and illustrates the hope emoted by the organization so well that it fills the reader with confidence that RED’s mission will be accomplished someday in our lifetime.

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Information about RED and the designated photo obtained from:

* Red juvenil. RED-Juvenil De Medellin Database, Medellin, Colombia. Fellowship of Reconciliation Colombia Program. 23 Mar. 2009 <http://forcolombia.org/colombiapartners/ medellinyouthnetwork>. All other photos can be found on the Orbiting 4 Peace blog.

La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE

“FERNANDO GONZÁLEZ” TIM O’BRIEN

González, Simon. “Fernando González.” Corporación Otraparte, 2009. <http://www.otraparte.org/in dex.html>. (accessed 28 January 2009).

The website provides in depth of information about the famous Colombian philosopher Fernando González, whose work laid the foundation for Nadaism, a Colombian counterculture movement intended to dismantle any faith and leave no idol in its place. The site is especially authoritative because Simon González, youngest son of Fernando González, directs it. The site is somewhat limited by the fact that it is only available in Spanish. However, Google’s translation feature does a good job at making the site understandable. Most of the site’s information about González’s life is from first person encounters, family members and friends, in addition to information compiled by leading Fernando González scholars. The site is aimed at educating the Colombian people about this important figure in their culture using collections of literature by González and information pertaining to his life.

La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE

COLOMBIAJOURNAL.COM ASHLEY GRANT

Hylton, Forrest. “Comuna 13: Colombia’s Urban Battleground.” October 28, 2002.http://www.colom biajournal.org/colombia137.htm (accessed March 4, 2009).

This online article is an excerpt from Forrest Hylton’s special report, called The Occupied Territories of Medellin. It begins by describing a scene of violence and terror in Comuna 13 of Medellin, Colombia. It is important to note that the article was published in 2002, which is 7 years ago. The amount of violence in Comuna 13 today may be drastically different, yet according to this source, in 2002, 450 people had died in Comuna 13 by October. On May 21, 2002, state agents and military officials stormed Comuna 13, and many people were killed and injured. It is also stated that approximately 70% of Medellin was controlled by the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia [AUC], yet the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia [FARC] still had control over some parts. At this time, the FARC and the National Liberation Army controlled Comuna 13, which are two very hostile groups that caused much violence in Medellin. This article is extremely informative for a person who does not know about the different groups that once controlled Medellin, and Comuna 13. Some of the groups that this article refers to are the FARC, the ELN, and the CAP. It also puts in perspective the large amounts of violence and death that have been present in Comuna 13 in the past. It is easy to understand and it presents facts about Medellin and it’s past so that readers are able to take in the information about Medellin, in particular, Comuna 13.

La Violencia is not the whole story...


WEBSITE

INTERNATIONAL POETRY FESTIVAL OF MEDELLÍN ERIN ALYWARD

Corporation of Art and Poetry PROMETEO. “XIX International Poetry Festival of Medellín.” http://www.festivaldepoesiademedellin.org/pub.php/en/Intro/index.htm (accessed Feb. 1, 2009).

In 1991, PROMETEO, a company that focuses its efforts on ending paramilitaries, criminal networks and hereditary killings from cocaine trafficking in Colombia, created the International Poetry Festival in Medellín, Colombia. The official website of PROMETEO’s Poetry Festival is a perfect location to find the history of PROMETEO, videos from the festivals and colorful photograph archives of all the poetry festivals until the VXIII Festival. This is not only a bilingual site to find all the information from poetry festivals, but it also exemplifies what Medellín has done through poetry schools to continue art education in the classroom. Medellín started a poetry school for 300 students a year and has records of each session from 1996 to 2007. Medellín became involved in cocaine drug trafficking in the late 1970’s

and PROMETEO’S user friendly website depicts what one organization has done, in regards to utilizing the art and culture of Medellín, to spread the awareness that cocaine brings destruction to Medellín. Here, one can find press stories about current influential poets from around the world sharing their experiences through poetry and investigate full stories regarding the poetry festival. The poetry festival uses poets from all over the world including Medellín to come together and share through creativity, their struggles and stories that are affect! ing their respectable countries. Through the efforts of PROMETEO and this website, poets all over the world are meeting in Medellín

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every year and trying to “reach a new historical time of peace” (Corporation) by using the written word in the poetry festival as the catalyst. According to http:// www.medellincolombiatours.com/festivals.html the annual summer festival now boasts more than 747 poetic contributions from 131 countries across 5 continents. PROMETEO has created a beautiful peace movement of language that is exponentially increasing awareness to the festival and allows poets and listeners all over the world to mutually seek harmony.

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International Poetry Festival Medellín, Colombia in the University of Antioquia. The poetry festival is also held in smaller street venues (http://www.medellincolombiatours.com/festivals.html).

Medellín, Colombia: Peace in Process


WEBSITE CONTINUED

Below is an example of the poetry one will find at the annual poetry festival in Medellín, Colombia. Each year the entries of all poets that appeared at the festival are compiled into a volume available to the public in the original language, Spanish and English.

ROSA CHÁVEZ

(GUATEMALA, NACIÓN MAYA, 1980) ((En Español)) La sangre

((In English)) Blood

ya no es un misterio

is not a mystery

se vende, se alquila,

it is sold, it is rented out,

se roba, se devuelve,

it is stolen, it is given back

se derma, se bebe, se orina, se decolora, ya no vale, no une, no detiene, no coagula, no sabe a hierro, se arman circus para absorberla la sangre ya no es un misterio

it is shed, it is drunk it is pissed, it decolorizes, it is now worthless, does not join or stop, it does not clot, it doe not taste of iron, circuses are raised to absorb her, blood is no longer a mystery

La Violencia is not the whole story...


Medellin Catalogue