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McRae Anderson, ASLA, CLP


© 2011 GREENWALLS VERTICAL PLANTING SYSTEMS ALL

RIGHTS RESERVED.

NO

PART OF THIS BOOK, ITS CONCEPTS OR MATERIALS MAY BE

REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPYING, RECORDING, OR BY ANY INFORMATION STORAGE OR RETRIEVAL SYSTEM WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM

PRINTED

IN

2011

GREENWALLS/MCCAREN DESIGNS, INC.

BY:

GREENWALLS® 760 VANDALIA STREET, SUITE 100 SAINT PAUL, MINNESOTA 55114 651-646-4764 FAX: 651-646-8393 WWW.GREENWALLS.COM EMAIL: INFO@GREENWALLS.COM COVER

PHOTO

PLANT

BACK COVER PHOTOS: PLANTERRA TROPICAL GREENHOUSE , WEST BLOOMFIELD, MICHIGAN COURTESY OF PLANTERRA CORPORATION RIGHT: CLEVELAND METRO ZOO RAINFOREST EXHIBIT, CLEVELAND, OH COURTESY OF BOB WEST.

AND

MATERIAL PHOTOS COURTESY OF:

BATSON’S FOLIAGE GROUP TRIAD NURSERY INC. OLIVE HILL GREENHOUSES


Design and Planning for Greenwalls in Buildings by McRae Anderson, ASLA, CLP


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Table of Contents Introduction 8-9

History 10-13

Design Considerations 14-17

Case Study—Jamison Place 18-23

Greenwall® Products 23-24

Plants for Greenwalls 26-33

Photo Left: Jamison Place, Calgary, Alberta by Greenery Office interiors

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Photo Courtesy of: John Mini Distinctive Landscapes, Congers, NY


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G

reenwalls aren’t exactly new, but their time has certainly come — you begin to know that’s true when you see them appearing in McDonald's advertising and in Whole Foods Markets.

Greenwalls — also known as vertical planting systems, vertical gardens, plant walls or vegetated walls have been successfully implemented in many projects around the globe over the past 18 years. European projects and Canadian projects have taken the lead in implementing these planting systems.


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Cleveland Metro Zoo Rainforest Exhibit, Cleveland, OH Photos courtesy of McCaren Designs, Inc.


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M

y first greenwall project was for the Cleveland Metro Zoo installed in 1993. The photo above shows the greenwall after installation and the photo at the left is a photo of that same wall taken in 2010 some 17 years later. This greenwall was one of the earliest major living wall installations in the world. It remains today as an example of the essential elements that make up a quality, long�lasting installation. Those elements essential, to a successful greenwall, were carefully considered in Metroparks’ greenwall design and installation and are incorporated into our current GreenwallŽ products.


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Where will Greenwalls work? While Greenwalls速 first made their appearance in zoological exhibits, they are adaptable to almost any vertical surface. Whether a Greenwall速 is inside or outside, it adds remarkable visual value to an area, making any visitor take note. They are dramatic, attractive, and distinctive statements, a message saying you care about the environment both inside and outside of your building. Photos Courtesy of : Left Photo: Atria, Inc.; Wolcott, CT Center Photo: Greenery Office Interiors; Calgary, Alberta, Canada Right Photo: Plant Solutions; Scottsdale, AZ Photo Opposite: KokoBo Plantscapes; Hempstead, NY 11550


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Design Considerations Several design and construction requirements are integrated into our Greenwalls® Vertical Planting System. They are: •

Load Bearing Capacity. Many systems weigh in at a hefty 25 to 40 pounds per square foot. Greenwalls® only weigh 10 pounds per square foot planted and fully wet!

Long-term, lightweight planting medium that is not subject to deterioration through decomposition.

Protection of the structural support. Greenwalls® integrate a waterproof layer into our system to protect your project’s structural integrity.

Positive drainage throughout the system keep plants in optimal growing conditions at both the bottom and the top of what may be a several stories tall planting.

No need to pre-grow panels, ease of planting and quick adaptation of the plants to the environmental conditions. Because the plantings start as 3 or 4” potted materials, shipping costs are reduced and the plant materials quickly adapt to the vertical environment — they look good from the day they are planted.

Integrated irrigation and fertilization for optimum plant growth and sustainability

Provisions for maintenance. We have incorporated the ability to remove individual components without removing the whole wall. Irrigation systems can be pulled or flushed out easily should the need arise.

Photo Left: Jamison Place, Calgary, Alberta by Greenery Office interiors

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Other Design Considerations Lighting Interior plants are not dependent upon solely natural lighting, but can thrive quite well utilizing either natural, artificial or a combination of both lighting types. Intensity, duration and light quality, must be considered in determining the best lighting form for the interior landscape. The minimum level of illumination for most desired interior greenwall plants is between 1200 and 2400 foot-candle hours per day Sheer quantity of light will be the strongest determinant in the success of a project's greenwall. Irrigation The supply of moisture to the soil mass is critical to the survival of the greenwall. The planting media must not dry out because it will cause irreparable damage to the plant materials. A sensor or timer controlled drip irrigation system can manage the Greenwall® using a minimum of water. Waterproofing Catchment basins and certain types of walls and structures need waterproofing. Fluid applied elastomeric materials offer excellent protection and ease of application. Our systems integrate a water resistant membrane, some applications will still require waterproofing of the structural system behind the wall. Drainage Requirements A Greenwall® system can be designed with a closed drainage system or an open system. In closed drainage systems the irrigation water is collected and recycled. A closed system is more ecological to operate, however, it does have drawbacks in that it requires sanitation of the reused water. In an open system, excess irrigation water is discharged into the building’s drainage system. With either system, irrigation runoff must be captured at the base of the greenwall. Ventilation Good ventilation is necessary to maintain a normal transpiration rate, which in turn, is necessary for the normal photosynthetic rate. Placement of HVAC grilles directly next to the planting can result in problems of drying and burned foliage due to excessive moisture loss (i.e. forced transpiration). This is mainly a problem during the winter heating season when hot, dry, blowing air comes in direct contact with the plant’s foliage. .

Photo Left: Scripps Network; Knoxville, TN by McCaren Designs, Inc.

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Drafts Interior greenwalls should not be subject to drafts of hot or cold air. Even a rapid change of 15 to 20 degrees has the potential to damage plants. Consistent temperatures are best. Temperature Interior greenwalls are designed using tropical and semi tropical plant materials that are adaptable to our human comfort zones. Therefore it is generally recognized that a temperature of 72 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter and 75 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer is acceptable. Night temperatures can be 10 degrees cooler, or between 62 to 65 degrees F. Finishes of Surrounding Areas A greenwall system generates humidity. It is probable, through routine operation and maintenance, that some dripping or splashing will occur. This should be taken into account when determining the finishes around the greenwall system. Storage Provisions should be made for the storage of gardening materials and supplies. This storage should be readily available to the horticultural staff members who care for the plantings. Additionally, this area can function as the location of the greenwall’s irrigation controller. Safety and Serviceability The challenge in managing a vertical garden is the safety and serviceability of the plantings. Specifically designed lift systems or ladder systems must be included to facilitate routine maintenance. Maintenance Professional maintenance of the plantings should be accounted for when budgeting and planning. Special attention must be given to pruning plant materials in order to maintain balance between plant size and root growth. Regular plant grooming to remove dead and dying foliage, should also be accounted for and systems should be designed to facilitate these activities. Photo Left: St Ignatius School; Courtesy of the Plant Lady; Kitchener, ON, Canada Photo Above Courtesy of: Greenery Office Interiors; Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Case Study Jamieson Place Biowall Calgary, Alberta Installation - February 2010 Features nearly 2,000 sq ft of GreenwallŽ Vertical gardens — greening 'up' to conserve space, improve air quality, absorb toxins and attract retail business for tenants Owner: British Columbia Investment Management Developer: Bentall LP Building Architect: Gibbs Gage Interior Plantscaper: Greenery Office Interiors


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Jamieson Place Biowall Calgary, Alberta Photo at Installation - February 2010 Photo opposite page - September 2010 The project was installed using very small 20

stage 4 starter plant liners. (plants as 1� plugs). While they were not large enough to give a finished appearance when installed, they quickly adapted to their vertical environment. Joanne Young, President of Greenery Office Interiors in Calgary was quite impressed with the GreenwallsŽ system. She stated: "Being a lifetime designer of living architecture himself, it was evident that McRae was personally committed to creating an uncommonly intuitive maintenance and installation system." Estimated construction cost ~ $275,000 (U.S.$) Monthly maintenance cost ~ $2,400.00 (C.$)


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"Bentall LP is thrilled with the biowall installation at Jamieson Place in Calgary. This biowall embodies our commitment and 22 the commitment of our client, British Columbia Investment Management (bcIMC), to sustainability initiatives within its real estate portfolio across Canada. Containing over 20,000 plants and standing 2 1/2 stories high, the biowall adds incredible warmth and a sense of calm to the Winter Garden and we have received numerous compliments as this "oasis" within the City has been discovered by our tenants, real estate professionals and the general public." John Marotta Senior Vice President, Western Region Bentall LP


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Modular Model

Drip irrigation channel — allows for easy installation of irrigation system.

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Waterproof layer — each panel overlaps the next to create an integral waterproof membrane, no need for additional waterproofing

Foam planting media — allows optimum root penetration and plant stability. Does not decompose or become over saturated. Panels only weights 10# per square foot - planted.

Easy planting — just cut a slit into the foam panel and insert 3” or 4” starter plants. They adapt quickly to their new environment No need to pre-grow panels

Product Description: This is the unit used to build a large to monumental sized greenwalls. From 6’x6’ walls to 200’ plus walls, this product is engineered to do the job in the interior environment.


Portable Models Product Description: Mobile and transportable, these units contain everything you need to make a greenwall… except the imagination and the plants. The units are self-contained, delivered fully assembled and includes: A greenwalls™ planting area, drip irrigation system, irrigation pump and timer and a water reservoir base.

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Base Model (shown above): Base is 48”x16”x16” the planting area is 60” x 46”. Base model comes in a black finish. (Polly pebbles not included) Contemporary Model (shown right): Base is 66”x16”x16” the planting area is 80” x 48”. Model comes in a satin silver finish.


Plants for Greenwalls

Adiantum raddianum

Aeschynanthus

Aglaonema ‘Maria Cristina’

Aglaonema ‘Maria’

Aglaonema ‘Pink Jade’

Aglaonema ‘Silver Bay’

Alocasia odora ‘California’

Alocasia ‘Polly’

Anthurium sp.

Asparagus sprengeri

Asplenium antiquum ‘Victoria’

Asplenium ‘Crissie’

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Plants for Greenwalls

Asplenium nidus

Beaucarnea recurvata

Begonia ‘Rex’

Blechnum ‘Silver Lady’

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Brassia arboricola

Calathea ‘Burle Marx’

Calathea Corona

Calathea makoyana

Calathea ‘Medallion’

Calathea ornata

Chlorophytum bichetii 'Siam Lily'

Chlorophytum comosum


Plants for Greenwalls

Cissus discolor

Codiaeum ‘Brazil’

Codiaeum Zanzibar

Coffea arabica

Cryptanthus sp.

Cyrtomium falcatum

Davallia fejeensis

Dieffenbachia ‘Camille’

Dieffenbachia ‘Compacta’

Dracaena ‘Lemon Lime’

Dracaena ‘Lime Light’

Dracaena ‘Song of India’

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Plants for Greenwalls

Dryopteris erythrosora

Epipremnum aureum

Epipremnum aureum ‘Jade’

Epipremnum ‘Pearls and Jade’

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Epipremnum Marble Queen

Ficus repens

Ficus repens ‘Variegata’

Fittonia ‘Bianco Verde’

Fittonia ‘Mini Red’

Gibasis geniculata

Gynura aurantiaca

Hedera helix


Plants for Greenwalls

Hedera canariensis

Hemigraphis ‘Exotica’

Homalomena ‘Emerald Gem’

Hoya kerrii

Hypoestes ‘White Splash’

Hypoestes ‘Pink Splash’

Hypoestes ‘Red Splash’

Maranta leuconeura

Maranta ‘Erythroneura’

Maranta ‘Lemon Lime’

Nephrolepis exaltata

Nephrolepis ‘Fluffy Ruffles’

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Plants for Greenwalls

Nephthytis ‘Cheery’

Nephthytis ‘Neon’

Nephthytis ‘Splash’

Nephthytis ‘White Butterfly’

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Pellaea rotundifolia

Peperomia argyreia

Peperomia ‘Chocolate Ripple’

Peperomia ‘Emerald Ripple’

Peperomia ‘Ginny’

Peperomia ‘Golden Gate’

Peperomia ‘Hope’

Peperomia obtusifolia


Plants for Greenwalls

Peperomia obtusifolia variegata

Peperomia orba

Peperomia orba variegata

Peperomia ‘Mini Watermelon’

Philodendron ‘Brazil’

Philodendron cordatum

Philodendron ‘Prince of Orange’

Philodendron ‘Rojo Congo’

Philodendron selloum ‘Hope’

Phlebodium aureum

Pilea cadierei

Pilea depressa

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Plants for Greenwalls

Pilea involucrata

Platycerium sp.

Radermachera sinica

Saintpaulia

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Scindapsus pictus

Scindapsus ‘Silver Satin’

Selaginella emmeliana

Selaginella kraussiana ‘Gold Tip’ Plant Photos Courtesy of: Batson’s Foliage Group, Inc., : (352) 735–6835 Triad Nursery Inc (561) 637-4444 Olive Hill Greenhouses (760) 728-4596

Spathiphyllum ‘Domino’

Spathiphyllum ‘Petite’

Tradescantia zebrina


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A Division of McCaren Designs, Inc. 760 Vandalia Street Saint Paul, Minnesota 55114 800-524-7081 or 651-646-4764 info@greenwalls.com www.greenwalls.com


Embrace the Vertical