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L’efficienza energetica è stata indicata come priorità dal Governo: quali sono gli obiettivi e gli strumenti che si pensa di adottare? L’obiettivo della SEN, forse il più qualificante per le sue evidenti connessioni con il necessario sviluppo economico del Paese, è un forte recupero di efficienza nell’utilizzo dell’energia, ben oltre gli obiettivi indicati dall’Europa. Ciò comporterà naturalmente minori emissioni di combustibili fossili, ma soprattutto contribuirà a restituire competitività alle imprese e reddito disponibile ai cittadini. Tali obiettivi potranno essere conseguiti a condizione di costruire un sistema normativo chiaro e stabile che si basi su quattro strumenti fondamentali. Il primo è una serie di standard obbligatori di efficienza da applicarsi, con la necessaria gradualità, ad alcuni settori specifici, come ad esempio l’edilizia e i trasporti; il secondo è uno stabile meccanismo di detrazioni fiscali, dedicato essenzialmente al settore civile; il terzo è uno strumento di mercato, ovvero i certificati bianchi, dedicato principalmente al settore industriale; infine il quarto è un sistema di incentivi dedicato al settore pubblico. Quali novità riguardano i certificati bianchi e le detrazioni fiscali? Dove interverrà il nuovo “conto termico”? Per quanto riguarda i certificati bianchi, che, come dicevo, costituiscono lo strumento di promozione dell’efficienza energetica dedicato al settore industriale e a quello dei servizi, la via che verrà percorsa è quella di rafforzarne



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gli obiettivi e il meccanismo; ciò, comunque, dovrà avvenire anche tenendo conto della prossima direttiva comunitaria sull’efficienza energetica che è ormai completa e dovrà essere recepita in tempi relativamente brevi. Le detrazioni fiscali costituiscono un meccanismo automatico, che non richiede particolari trafile ed adempimenti; ciò le rende particolarmente adatte agli interventi di efficienza energetica nelle abitazioni. La questione centrale è quella di renderle strutturali, ma rimodulandole al fine di conseguire maggiore efficacia ed efficienza in termini di costi-benefici. Per adesso questa stabilizzazione non si è ancora potuta realizzare per questioni di finanza pubblica, anche se fino ad ora si è scongiurato il rischio di una soppressione del cosiddetto “55 per cento”, pure più volte paventato per le stesse ragioni di copertura finanziaria. Con il progressivo allentamento del rigore, che speriamo si possa realizzare in un futuro non troppo lontano, questa stabilizzazione costituirebbe un indubbio passo avanti per la promozione dell’efficienza energetica, anche con significative ricadute sulle imprese. Inoltre si intende rafforzare il modello delle ESCO, migliorare l’azione di controllo e della implementazione delle misure e le azioni di comunicazione e sensibilizzazione sia verso il consumatore finale che verso la pubblica amministrazione. Una parola a parte va spesa per l’intenzione di introdurre forme di incentivazione diretta per la pubblica amministrazione. Si tratta di misure che potranno avere effetti significativi, perché la pubblica amministrazione non va intesa solo come amministrazione centrale dello Stato, ma anche e soprattutto, come amministrazione locale.


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Non sempre le finanze locali consentono gli interventi che sarebbero necessari, anche laddove i vincoli del patto di stabilità permettessero l’utilizzo degli eventuali fondi disponibili. Il potenziale di risparmio che potrà essere generato da interventi sulla Pubblica amministrazione, inoltre, è il maggiore in termini di resa a parità di intervento, perché, in linea di massima, il patrimonio pubblico, già non particolarmente moderno, è quello su cui storicamente si è investito di meno. E non si tratta di una situazione esclusivamente italiana: non a caso, la già citata nuova direttiva comunitaria sull’efficienza energetica pone la pubblica amministrazione tra i settori su cui intervenire maggiormente. In genere nel nostro Paese si trascurano le misure di accompagnamento (informazione, monitoraggio, statistiche, etc.). Del resto esistono componenti tariffarie che finanziano la ricerca, ma non queste azioni altrettanto importanti. Cosa ne pensa? Non è del tutto vero che fino ad oggi le cosiddette misure di accompagnamento siano state trascurate; semmai è vero che tali attività sono state svolte, senza il necessario coordinamento, in modo frammentato ed episodico. Concordo quindi sul fatto che sia opportuno insistere con campagne divulgative e di informazione verso il largo pubblico e la pubblica amministrazione, ma mi pare necessario che le attività di monitoraggio e statistiche, spesso svolte da soggetti pubblici o con una missione pubblica, come Enea e Gestore dei servizi energetici, siano svolte nell’ambito di un piano ben definito e coordinato. Tanto più che queste azioni costituiscono obblighi nei confronti dell’unione europea. Ci si lamenta spesso della mancanza di incentivi, ma si fa poco per utilizzare i fondi strutturali (vedi POin

energia) e i programmi europei. Possibile che non si possa fare di più? È certamente vero che in termini di impegni pubblici, fino ad oggi il grosso sforzo è stato concentrato sul fronte della produzione di energia da fonti rinnovabili, va comunque ricordato il notevole apporto che, accanto ai certificati bianchi, è stato dato all’efficienza energetica delle detrazioni fiscali del 55%, che hanno comunque consentito investimenti di circa tre miliardi di euro l’anno. Cionondimeno, resta vero che sull’uso dei fondi strutturali si potrà e dovrà fare di più, anche attraverso un auspicabile maggiore attenzione da parte delle amministrazioni regionali, chiamate spesso in causa in prima persona da questi strumenti. È essenziale tuttavia che venga evitata ogni sovrapposizione con ogni strumento di incentivazione. Cosa possono fare le Associazioni di settore, siano esse tecnico-scientifiche o di categoria, per supportare le azioni del Governo a favore dell’efficienza energetica? Certamente, il primo ruolo delle associazioni, specie quelle di natura tecnico scientifica, è di essere protagonisti, nell’ambito di un piano ben coordinato, cui accennavo prima, dell’azione di massima diffusione delle informazioni verso il pubblico, soprattutto in relazione alle tecnologie e agli strumenti economico finanziari che la normativa pone a supporto dell’efficienza energetica. L’altro grande ruolo, poi, è di prospettare al decisore pubblico le possibili evoluzioni sia della tecnologia, sia delle modalità legislative e amministrative di supporto alla diffusione delle migliori pratiche, perché l’efficienza energetica è un obiettivo dinamico, che deve adattarsi alle continue evoluzioni dello sviluppo tecnologico e dell’organizzazione industriale e sociale.






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