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THE BIENNIAL BRIDGE Ren Luo & Yue Zhou SHOHEI SHIGEMATSU & CHRISTINE J CHENG 2013 SPRING


BEFORE 1950 BEFORE 1950

1951-1960 1951-1960 1951-1960

1961-1970 1961-1970 1961-1970

1971-1980 1971-1980 1971-1980

1981-1990 1981-1990

1991-2000 1991-2000

2001-2010 2001-2010

2011-NOW 2011-NOW

SAO PAULO BIENNALE, BRAZIL

2009 Financial Crisis

HAVANA BIENNALE, CUBA

2010 2011

1895

BEFORE 1950

2005

VENICE BIENNALE, ITALY

2001 9/11

DOCUMENTA, GERMANY

1999 2000

LONDON OPEN, ENGLAND

1991 Yugoslav Wars begin

1989 The Fall of Berlin Wall

1984 The Macintosh 128K

1980 Gwangju Massacre, South Korea

1968 May 1968 Protest in France

1961 Construction of Berlin Wall

1940-50 Economy grew rapidly in Brazil

1st Carnegie International

1937 Worl War II broke out

1933 Nazi German came into power

The 1st London Open

1923 Italian Facists came into power

1914 World War I broke out

CARNEGIE INTERNATIOANL BIENNALE, USA

1995 1996

1895

1907 The 1st national pavilion, Belgium Pavilion, was built

The 1st Biennial

Venice became a part of Italian Kingdom

1866

Biennale From 1951 To 1990

1990

1990

1983

1955

1950 1951

1950

1932

1895

1890

The Great Exhibition in London

1851

Biennale From 1895 To 1950 Biennale From 1991 To Now

LIVERPOOL BIENNALE, UK

MARRAKECH BIENNALE, MOROCCO D-0 ARK BIENNALE, BOSNIA GWANGJU BIENNALE, KOREA

1895

SHANGHAI BIENNALE, CHINA

1981-1990

1991-2000

2001-2010

2011-NOW

Perennials’ historic time-line


Initial Founding Reasons

Perennial Scale HAVANA BIENNIAL

SHANGHAI BIENNIAL

· In memory of spirits of civil uprising of the 1980 repression of the Gwangju

· Venice as capital of art in europe · Keep venice as a major tourism attraction · Art market

DOCUMENTA

VENICE BIENNIAL since 1895

GWANGJU BIENNIAL since 1995

Riccardo Selvatico

· Provides a platform for the showcase of contemporary art production · Expand Shanghai’s importance as the ‘gateway to the west’ through the arts sector

· A platform for local (east end) emerging artists who had no chance to exhibit in major institue

MARRAKECH BIENNIAL

SAO PAULO BIENNIAL

VENICE BIENNIAL

LONDON OPEN since 1932

SHANGHAI BIENNIAL since 1996

Charles Aitken

· Introduce modern art into Pittsburg;

LONDON OPEN (TRIENNIAL)

CARNEIGIE INERNATIONAL BIENNIAL since 1950

CARNEGIE BIENNIAL

artworks for his museum

GWANGJU BIENNIAL

LIVERPOOL BIENNIAL since 1999

Andrew Carnegie

LIVERPOOL BIENNIAL

D-0 ARK

· By occupying many venues across the city centre it ensured that visitors could discover the rich character of Liverpool as they experience the art

James Moores

· Promote the status of the artist and contemporary culture in North Africa and to dynamize the regional creative scene

· Link between Brazil and the international scene · Stimulating the local artistic circuit and promoting Brazilian art and Brazil abroad

SAO PAULO BIENNIAL since 1957

MARRAKECH BIENNIAL since 2005

Francisco Matarazzo Sobrinho

Vanessa Branson

· Introduce modern art banned by NAZI back into Germany · 1st public museum in Euro

DOCUMENTA since 1957

· Transform the ARK into a prestigious regional cultural institution that stays at the forefront in research and promotion of new artistic trends

D-O ARK BIENNIAL since 2011

Arnold Bode

· Give an opportunity to view a focused global

· To introduce and display Third World, non-western art works

HAVANA BIENNIAL since 1983

Edo Hozic

an immense added value.

BIENNIAL ONLINE since 2013


“ ... ... establish Sao Paulo as an “Kassel as

international art centre”

Documenta City”

“(Gwangju as)

Aisa’s cultural

window

to the world”

“The Biennial aims to expand Shanghai’s importance as the

west’

‘ gateway to the

through the arts sector”

“... ... seeks to invoke the latent cosmopolitan spirit of the modern metropolis of Kochi and its

mythical past,

Muziris”

“Liverpool Biennial unfolds through a programme of exhibitions and projects that lead to a

rediscovery of the city.“

“... ... intends to be not only a great event in the artistic life of Moscow and Russia

play an important social, cultural and political role internationally”

but also to

ART-PERENNIAS’ URBAN AMBITIONS

“... ... seeks to promote the status of the artist and contemporar culture in North

Our attentions were drew by perennials’ urban ambitions after studies above. It lead us to the hypothesis: art perennial more and more oftenly try to address the hosting cities. What could be the relationship between the two? What kind of impact art perennials could have on contemporary urban lives?

Africa and to

dynamize regional creative scene”

“... ... collectively emhancing Singapore’s international image as a

city to live, work, play” “... ... broadened Taiwan’s artistic vision, its professional, ability, and its

vibrant

exhibition-organisation

exposure in the international media.”

“This motivates cultural exchanges based upon the principle captured by the Japanese expression “seikô udoku; kakô tôdoku”, which can be rendered in English as “In summer, cultivate the fields; in winter, cultivate the mind.” Cultural facilities, created by global artists and run by local people, warmly welcome visitors and travellers. In viewing the artworks, the visitor passes through terraced rice fields and forests of native beech, encountering festivals and traditional customs, thereby

experiencing the landscapes and cultures of Echigo-Tsumari through all five senses.”


AI E SM RAR 201DIX ATEUS 2

ARSENALE PIAZZA SAN MARCO

MORE VENUES? The EXPO model requires perennial keeping expanding sites in order to satisfy its survive. It also create the concept of central pavilion- the hierarchy system of exhibition.

GISRDINI DI CASTELLO

OUTDOOR INSTALLATION MAIN VENUES WORLD HERITAGE

VENICE BIENNALE now


NO VENUE? The Emergency Biennale radicaly denounced the model of current art exhibition, while adapting a way without any permenant facilities. It also denounce, for political reasons, local authority’s supports.

The lack of spaces cannot ensure the events’ continuity, and lack of a stable institute makes the event difficult to be promoted. As the matter of fact, the biennale does not survive.


Sao Paulo Fashion Week, 2009 In order to maintain the facility’s running, the pavilon has been used as a public space for cultural activities, including advertising and tourism.

A MONUMENT? Should the art perennial be monumentalized? The Sao Paulo Biennale has been held in the PavilhĂŁo Ciccillo Matarazzo designed by Oscar Niemeyer, with 30,000 sqm exhibition spaces. The building stays empty in the gap years.

The 30th Sao Paulo Biennale, 2012


HUB CITY OF ASIAN CULTURE

MORE FAIRS?

ICON ...

GWANGJU

Gwangju Biennale has been held in the Biennale Hall built for it. In order to ensure the space-as well as the city-be occupied all year long, more events were created to fill up the calender.

Dominique Perrault Urban Folly Gwangju Design Biennale, 2011


Richard Wilson

Turning the Place Over TURN STREET INTO GALLERY? Liverpool Biennale is the first one to aim on urban interventions. It allows art works in public spaces stand longer than the event itself. However, could art perennial make urban impact by simply putting artworks in public spaces? Those artworks are all shut down, despite their popularities, due to financial reasons.

20 June 2007 - 8 January 2011 Turning the Place Over has been commissioned by Liverpool Biennial and co-funded by the Liverpool Culture Company, Northwest Regional Development Agency, CityFocus and The Northern Way. Co-commissioned by the Liverpool Culture Company and Liverpool Biennial, co-funded by the Northwest Regional Development Agency and The Northern Way, and facilitated by Liverpool Vision, the project was conceived as a stunning trailblazer for Liverpool’s Year as European Capital of Culture 2008, and the jewel in the crown of the Culture Company’s public art programme.


KOCHI BIENNALE? As the first art perennial in India, Kochi biennale is not heavily financed by local authorities like Gwangju; it is also lack of major funding means like Venice or Sao Paulo. All exhibition now are held in historic buildings. Without permenant facilities and reasonable financial supports, how could it survive in this harsh ecnomic environment? How could art events adapt local urban developments and truely intervene into daily lives, playing a more functional role?


“The artists and the scholars have the responsibility to make the government change the policies on art so that infrastructure comes up for promoting art in Kerala and the rest of the country”

The solution is to combine Kochi Biennale with urban infrastructures, the later which has been well financed over the years, and will continue to be so in future. One of the major investments among them is bridge constructions.

KOCHI INVESTMENT PALN: 2005-2012

Co-curator of Kochi Biennale Riyas Komu transportation 40%

Won’t give  more  funds  for  Kochi  Biennale,  HC told

KOCHI TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT PALN 2006-2012 (Red stands for the percentage of bridge constrction)

Author: Express News Service Published Date: Jan 9, 2013 11:30 AM Last Updated: Jan 9, 2013 11:30 AM

The petitioner  submitted  that  the  state  had  initially  handed  over  Rs  5  crore  for  the biennale. The  state  government  on  Tuesday  submitted  before  the  Kerala  High  Court  that  it  has  not  considered  any proposal  so  far  to  grant  additional  financial  assistance  to  the  Kochi  Biennale  Foundation  for  conducting  the ongoing Kochi­Muziris Biennale. P  G  Unnikrishnan,  Under  Secretary  to  Government,  Cultural  Affairs  Department,  made  the  submission  on  a petition filed by G Ajith Kumar, secretary, Lantern Fine Arts Society,  seeking a directive to restrain the state from providing additional financial assistance to the Kochi Biennale Foundation. The court also flayed the state for not filing an affidavit and issued a directive to file a detailed counter­affidavit within ten days.  The state further submitted  that  a  Cabinet  meeting  is  scheduled  to  be  held  on  January  10  and  there  is  no  agenda  so  far  on granting  further assistance to the biennale. The petitioner submitted that the state had initially handed over `5 crore for the  biennale. Meanwhile, the government is also planning to provide additional financial assistance to the foundation, without taking any steps to recover the funds already provided. The Cultural Department was in haste to disburse `5 crore, he alleged in his petition. The petitioner also sought a directive to expedite the Vigilance probe. He  submitted  that  the  government  has  so  far  not  executed  the  order  to  conduct  the  Vigilance  probe  as recommended by the inspection wing of the Finance Department. Copyright © 2012 The New Indian Express. All rights reserved.

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006


Kerala has one of the most ubiquitous education network in India. It does not only has the highest percentatge of literacy rate in the country, but also highest investments on education as well. And Kochi, as the biggest city in the state, is indeed a education center: it’s primary education system owns 34 government schools, 67 private aided schools and 31 unaided schools, with other dozen of higher education schools. However Kochi is so far without any city-level library. The biggest librarian facility is Ernakulam Public Library, with 150,000 books of collection, while usually need 500,000 books to be a small city library. Allowing the art facility contain other cultural programs is another way to keep the art space occupied. The library will become a constant motivation for people coming back.

Education Kerala: Near Total Literacy


Marine Drive is the most popular public space at Ernakulam, and even the entire Kochi Metropolis area. It is a three miles long walkway at the waterfront. The place is cool and breezy, both of which make the area standing out in Kochi’s unpleasant climate. The walkway has great view of the lagoon of Kochi (Backwater) and give people spaces to hang out. However the success of Marine Drive reflects one embarrassment of the city: its lacking of decent public spaces. Both Ernakulam and Fort Kochi are packed with buildings and private lands, leaving no place for public parks or squares. Hence another stratage is to merge art spaces with open public spaces. This brings provoked question: can art spaces become a part of street life? Could the boundary of art events and urban lives be blured with the efforts of architects?


SHANMUGHAM ROAD

The metropolitan area of Kochi is divided into two main parts: Fort Kochi (the historic center), and Ernakulam (the modern city). In last one decade, all major infrastructure construction were taken place at Ernakulam. Fort Kochi is branded as the ‘living museum’.

PARK AVENUE

However Fort Kochi is still high populated. It is dying because local residents are moving to Ernakulam for better services and living conditions. Hence in order to attract investments back to the old town, a link has to be built, bringing Fort Kochi back to the daily lives of this dynamic metropolis.

KALVATHI ROAD RIVER ROAD BAZAAR ROAD MAHATMA GANDNI ROAD

JEW TOWN ROAD

VENDURUTHY BRIDGE

BY CAR: 9.7 KM Walking time: 2 hours Driving time: 30 minutes (20km/hr)

THOPPUMPADY BRIDGE

Ernakulam

Bazarr Road and Marine Drive are two most popular pedistrian areas in the whole city. Yet they are poorly linked by current traffic systems. The new structure will be porposed to be built as a direct link of these two.

SHANMUGHAM ROAD

PARK AVENUE

Fort Kochi

KALVATHI ROAD RIVER ROAD BAZAAR ROAD

BY CAR: 2.5 KM Walking time: 30 minutes Driving time: 7.5 minutes (20km/hr)


The new link will take advantage of its prime location to become a playground of some most exciting urban events. In the form of parade, the Carnival Festival is the most important public celebration regardless religious and social class’ differences. It has so far taken place only at Fort Kochi. However with the new bridge, it could strecth to Ernakulam, bringing the entire city together.


Kochi’s climate is a tropic monsoon one. It has some most extreme wether conditions through a year: high temperature and un-bearable humidity. The current venues of Kochi Biennale are basically re-using existing historic buildings. Fancy as they are, these facilities have no cooling systems; and most of them are with poor ventilation. People rarely stay inside a venue unless viewing time-based pieces like videos. Yet the open or semi-open venues are popular among audiences due to better ventilation and comfortable natural environment. Hence, being relocated near waterfront and keep them semiopen, exhibition spaces could be improved. The programs will not be walled unless absolute necessary. Breeze from the massive water surface around will cool the air down all day long. The exhibition space will become more comfortable and more sustainable, while could housing more dynamic urban behaviors.


study models


THE PROPOSAL


We believe that instead of building extra spaces on bridge, the bridge itself should be the ‘building’. The bridging structure will at the same time be the architectural one. Therefore our design starts with researches on structure knowledges and debates. By applying different building methods the bridge is now capable to adapt various urban contexts crossing with.


Craftsman Market, Fort Kochi side


Square, Fort Kochi side


Kochi Biennale Museum, Willington Island


Kochi Biennale Museum, Willington Island


Kochi City Library, Willington Island


Public Park, Ernakulam


section


Ground Floor Plan


Kochi City Library, 1f, Willington Island

Kochi City Library, 2f

art spaces/ urban walkway, 3f

bridge surface ( auto lanes)


Biennial Bridge  

Studio portfolio for Shohei Shigematsu & Christine J Cheng's studio in GSAPP, Columbia University

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