THE BIENNIAL BRIDGE Ren Luo & Yue Zhou SHOHEI SHIGEMATSU & CHRISTINE J CHENG 2013 SPRING
BEFORE 1950 BEFORE 1950
1951-1960 1951-1960 1951-1960
1961-1970 1961-1970 1961-1970
1971-1980 1971-1980 1971-1980
SAO PAULO BIENNALE, BRAZIL
2009 Financial Crisis
HAVANA BIENNALE, CUBA
VENICE BIENNALE, ITALY
LONDON OPEN, ENGLAND
1991 Yugoslav Wars begin
1989 The Fall of Berlin Wall
1984 The Macintosh 128K
1980 Gwangju Massacre, South Korea
1968 May 1968 Protest in France
1961 Construction of Berlin Wall
1940-50 Economy grew rapidly in Brazil
1st Carnegie International
1937 Worl War II broke out
1933 Nazi German came into power
The 1st London Open
1923 Italian Facists came into power
1914 World War I broke out
CARNEGIE INTERNATIOANL BIENNALE, USA
1907 The 1st national pavilion, Belgium Pavilion, was built
The 1st Biennial
Venice became a part of Italian Kingdom
Biennale From 1951 To 1990
The Great Exhibition in London
Biennale From 1895 To 1950 Biennale From 1991 To Now
LIVERPOOL BIENNALE, UK
MARRAKECH BIENNALE, MOROCCO D-0 ARK BIENNALE, BOSNIA GWANGJU BIENNALE, KOREA
SHANGHAI BIENNALE, CHINA
Perennialsâ€™ historic time-line
Initial Founding Reasons
Perennial Scale HAVANA BIENNIAL
· In memory of spirits of civil uprising of the 1980 repression of the Gwangju
· Venice as capital of art in europe · Keep venice as a major tourism attraction · Art market
VENICE BIENNIAL since 1895
GWANGJU BIENNIAL since 1995
· Provides a platform for the showcase of contemporary art production · Expand Shanghai’s importance as the ‘gateway to the west’ through the arts sector
· A platform for local (east end) emerging artists who had no chance to exhibit in major institue
SAO PAULO BIENNIAL
LONDON OPEN since 1932
SHANGHAI BIENNIAL since 1996
· Introduce modern art into Pittsburg;
LONDON OPEN (TRIENNIAL)
CARNEIGIE INERNATIONAL BIENNIAL since 1950
artworks for his museum
LIVERPOOL BIENNIAL since 1999
· By occupying many venues across the city centre it ensured that visitors could discover the rich character of Liverpool as they experience the art
· Promote the status of the artist and contemporary culture in North Africa and to dynamize the regional creative scene
· Link between Brazil and the international scene · Stimulating the local artistic circuit and promoting Brazilian art and Brazil abroad
SAO PAULO BIENNIAL since 1957
MARRAKECH BIENNIAL since 2005
Francisco Matarazzo Sobrinho
· Introduce modern art banned by NAZI back into Germany · 1st public museum in Euro
DOCUMENTA since 1957
· Transform the ARK into a prestigious regional cultural institution that stays at the forefront in research and promotion of new artistic trends
D-O ARK BIENNIAL since 2011
· Give an opportunity to view a focused global
· To introduce and display Third World, non-western art works
HAVANA BIENNIAL since 1983
an immense added value.
BIENNIAL ONLINE since 2013
“ ... ... establish Sao Paulo as an “Kassel as
international art centre”
to the world”
“The Biennial aims to expand Shanghai’s importance as the
‘ gateway to the
through the arts sector”
“... ... seeks to invoke the latent cosmopolitan spirit of the modern metropolis of Kochi and its
“Liverpool Biennial unfolds through a programme of exhibitions and projects that lead to a
rediscovery of the city.“
“... ... intends to be not only a great event in the artistic life of Moscow and Russia
play an important social, cultural and political role internationally”
but also to
ART-PERENNIAS’ URBAN AMBITIONS
“... ... seeks to promote the status of the artist and contemporar culture in North
Our attentions were drew by perennials’ urban ambitions after studies above. It lead us to the hypothesis: art perennial more and more oftenly try to address the hosting cities. What could be the relationship between the two? What kind of impact art perennials could have on contemporary urban lives?
Africa and to
dynamize regional creative scene”
“... ... collectively emhancing Singapore’s international image as a
city to live, work, play” “... ... broadened Taiwan’s artistic vision, its professional, ability, and its
exposure in the international media.”
“This motivates cultural exchanges based upon the principle captured by the Japanese expression “seikô udoku; kakô tôdoku”, which can be rendered in English as “In summer, cultivate the fields; in winter, cultivate the mind.” Cultural facilities, created by global artists and run by local people, warmly welcome visitors and travellers. In viewing the artworks, the visitor passes through terraced rice fields and forests of native beech, encountering festivals and traditional customs, thereby
experiencing the landscapes and cultures of Echigo-Tsumari through all five senses.”
AI E SM RAR 201DIX ATEUS 2
ARSENALE PIAZZA SAN MARCO
MORE VENUES? The EXPO model requires perennial keeping expanding sites in order to satisfy its survive. It also create the concept of central pavilion- the hierarchy system of exhibition.
GISRDINI DI CASTELLO
OUTDOOR INSTALLATION MAIN VENUES WORLD HERITAGE
VENICE BIENNALE now
NO VENUE? The Emergency Biennale radicaly denounced the model of current art exhibition, while adapting a way without any permenant facilities. It also denounce, for political reasons, local authorityâ€™s supports.
The lack of spaces cannot ensure the eventsâ€™ continuity, and lack of a stable institute makes the event difficult to be promoted. As the matter of fact, the biennale does not survive.
Sao Paulo Fashion Week, 2009 In order to maintain the facilityâ€™s running, the pavilon has been used as a public space for cultural activities, including advertising and tourism.
A MONUMENT? Should the art perennial be monumentalized? The Sao Paulo Biennale has been held in the PavilhĂŁo Ciccillo Matarazzo designed by Oscar Niemeyer, with 30,000 sqm exhibition spaces. The building stays empty in the gap years.
The 30th Sao Paulo Biennale, 2012
HUB CITY OF ASIAN CULTURE
Gwangju Biennale has been held in the Biennale Hall built for it. In order to ensure the space-as well as the city-be occupied all year long, more events were created to fill up the calender.
Dominique Perrault Urban Folly Gwangju Design Biennale, 2011
Turning the Place Over TURN STREET INTO GALLERY? Liverpool Biennale is the first one to aim on urban interventions. It allows art works in public spaces stand longer than the event itself. However, could art perennial make urban impact by simply putting artworks in public spaces? Those artworks are all shut down, despite their popularities, due to financial reasons.
20 June 2007 - 8 January 2011 Turning the Place Over has been commissioned by Liverpool Biennial and co-funded by the Liverpool Culture Company, Northwest Regional Development Agency, CityFocus and The Northern Way. Co-commissioned by the Liverpool Culture Company and Liverpool Biennial, co-funded by the Northwest Regional Development Agency and The Northern Way, and facilitated by Liverpool Vision, the project was conceived as a stunning trailblazer for Liverpoolâ€™s Year as European Capital of Culture 2008, and the jewel in the crown of the Culture Companyâ€™s public art programme.
KOCHI BIENNALE? As the first art perennial in India, Kochi biennale is not heavily financed by local authorities like Gwangju; it is also lack of major funding means like Venice or Sao Paulo. All exhibition now are held in historic buildings. Without permenant facilities and reasonable financial supports, how could it survive in this harsh ecnomic environment? How could art events adapt local urban developments and truely intervene into daily lives, playing a more functional role?
“The artists and the scholars have the responsibility to make the government change the policies on art so that infrastructure comes up for promoting art in Kerala and the rest of the country”
The solution is to combine Kochi Biennale with urban infrastructures, the later which has been well financed over the years, and will continue to be so in future. One of the major investments among them is bridge constructions.
KOCHI INVESTMENT PALN: 2005-2012
Co-curator of Kochi Biennale Riyas Komu transportation 40%
Won’t give more funds for Kochi Biennale, HC told
KOCHI TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT PALN 2006-2012 (Red stands for the percentage of bridge constrction)
Author: Express News Service Published Date: Jan 9, 2013 11:30 AM Last Updated: Jan 9, 2013 11:30 AM
The petitioner submitted that the state had initially handed over Rs 5 crore for the biennale. The state government on Tuesday submitted before the Kerala High Court that it has not considered any proposal so far to grant additional financial assistance to the Kochi Biennale Foundation for conducting the ongoing KochiMuziris Biennale. P G Unnikrishnan, Under Secretary to Government, Cultural Affairs Department, made the submission on a petition filed by G Ajith Kumar, secretary, Lantern Fine Arts Society, seeking a directive to restrain the state from providing additional financial assistance to the Kochi Biennale Foundation. The court also flayed the state for not filing an affidavit and issued a directive to file a detailed counteraffidavit within ten days. The state further submitted that a Cabinet meeting is scheduled to be held on January 10 and there is no agenda so far on granting further assistance to the biennale. The petitioner submitted that the state had initially handed over `5 crore for the biennale. Meanwhile, the government is also planning to provide additional financial assistance to the foundation, without taking any steps to recover the funds already provided. The Cultural Department was in haste to disburse `5 crore, he alleged in his petition. The petitioner also sought a directive to expedite the Vigilance probe. He submitted that the government has so far not executed the order to conduct the Vigilance probe as recommended by the inspection wing of the Finance Department. Copyright © 2012 The New Indian Express. All rights reserved.
Kerala has one of the most ubiquitous education network in India. It does not only has the highest percentatge of literacy rate in the country, but also highest investments on education as well. And Kochi, as the biggest city in the state, is indeed a education center: itâ€™s primary education system owns 34 government schools, 67 private aided schools and 31 unaided schools, with other dozen of higher education schools. However Kochi is so far without any city-level library. The biggest librarian facility is Ernakulam Public Library, with 150,000 books of collection, while usually need 500,000 books to be a small city library. Allowing the art facility contain other cultural programs is another way to keep the art space occupied. The library will become a constant motivation for people coming back.
Education Kerala: Near Total Literacy
Marine Drive is the most popular public space at Ernakulam, and even the entire Kochi Metropolis area. It is a three miles long walkway at the waterfront. The place is cool and breezy, both of which make the area standing out in Kochiâ€™s unpleasant climate. The walkway has great view of the lagoon of Kochi (Backwater) and give people spaces to hang out. However the success of Marine Drive reflects one embarrassment of the city: its lacking of decent public spaces. Both Ernakulam and Fort Kochi are packed with buildings and private lands, leaving no place for public parks or squares. Hence another stratage is to merge art spaces with open public spaces. This brings provoked question: can art spaces become a part of street life? Could the boundary of art events and urban lives be blured with the efforts of architects?
The metropolitan area of Kochi is divided into two main parts: Fort Kochi (the historic center), and Ernakulam (the modern city). In last one decade, all major infrastructure construction were taken place at Ernakulam. Fort Kochi is branded as the ‘living museum’.
However Fort Kochi is still high populated. It is dying because local residents are moving to Ernakulam for better services and living conditions. Hence in order to attract investments back to the old town, a link has to be built, bringing Fort Kochi back to the daily lives of this dynamic metropolis.
KALVATHI ROAD RIVER ROAD BAZAAR ROAD MAHATMA GANDNI ROAD
JEW TOWN ROAD
BY CAR: 9.7 KM Walking time: 2 hours Driving time: 30 minutes (20km/hr)
Bazarr Road and Marine Drive are two most popular pedistrian areas in the whole city. Yet they are poorly linked by current traffic systems. The new structure will be porposed to be built as a direct link of these two.
KALVATHI ROAD RIVER ROAD BAZAAR ROAD
BY CAR: 2.5 KM Walking time: 30 minutes Driving time: 7.5 minutes (20km/hr)
The new link will take advantage of its prime location to become a playground of some most exciting urban events. In the form of parade, the Carnival Festival is the most important public celebration regardless religious and social classâ€™ differences. It has so far taken place only at Fort Kochi. However with the new bridge, it could strecth to Ernakulam, bringing the entire city together.
Kochiâ€™s climate is a tropic monsoon one. It has some most extreme wether conditions through a year: high temperature and un-bearable humidity. The current venues of Kochi Biennale are basically re-using existing historic buildings. Fancy as they are, these facilities have no cooling systems; and most of them are with poor ventilation. People rarely stay inside a venue unless viewing time-based pieces like videos. Yet the open or semi-open venues are popular among audiences due to better ventilation and comfortable natural environment. Hence, being relocated near waterfront and keep them semiopen, exhibition spaces could be improved. The programs will not be walled unless absolute necessary. Breeze from the massive water surface around will cool the air down all day long. The exhibition space will become more comfortable and more sustainable, while could housing more dynamic urban behaviors.
We believe that instead of building extra spaces on bridge, the bridge itself should be the â€˜buildingâ€™. The bridging structure will at the same time be the architectural one. Therefore our design starts with researches on structure knowledges and debates. By applying different building methods the bridge is now capable to adapt various urban contexts crossing with.
Craftsman Market, Fort Kochi side
Square, Fort Kochi side
Kochi Biennale Museum, Willington Island
Kochi Biennale Museum, Willington Island
Kochi City Library, Willington Island
Public Park, Ernakulam
Ground Floor Plan
Kochi City Library, 1f, Willington Island
Kochi City Library, 2f
art spaces/ urban walkway, 3f
bridge surface ( auto lanes)