PORTFOLIO OF ZHAOZHAN LU Selected Works From 2016 - 2019
Architecture intrigues me due to its temporal characteristic and indigenous culture, which is keeping telling their own stories as the time goes by.
01 HARMONIOUS GARDEN CITY - PLASDWR Brief Planning for Plasdwr
Group Work 2018
1.1. Research Question 1.2. Analysis 1.3. Vision Statement 1.4. Design Objectives & Action Plan
02 PIONEERING BUSKERS Detail Design for Plasdwr
Solo Work 2019
2.1. Strategic Design 2.2. Architectural Design 2.3. Tectonic Strategy
03 UNIQUE HOUSE Villa Design
Solo Work 2017
04 THE PEACH GARDEN IN THE CITY Nostalgic hotel design
Solo Work 2016-2017
COMMUNITIES ON THE EDGE This project, which runs from 2018 to 2019, mainly explores a possible development mode on the edge of developing cities by taking Cardiff as the research object. Solve some basic problems of vulnerable groups with their participation under the guidance of architects in the development process and take this opportunity to bring a positive impact on the future development of vulnerable groups and neighbourhood.
1.1. RESEARCH QUESTION
Harmonious Garden City - PLASDWR
How can homeless group benefit from the urbanisation process of developing cities; what can they gain and give back to local community? KEY WORDS: Housing, Income Activities, Connection.
1.2. ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION OF PLASDWR
The design vision of Plasdwr is to create a world-class sustainable community inspired by Howard's garden city, which were approved by Welsh Government Planning Inspectorate in 2016 and construction began in 2017 (Plasdwr 2018).
St Fagans Rd
Plasdwr is currently basically farmland and pasture, and other places are basically covered by natural vegetation.
Planning for Plasdwr is ambitious. In addition to protecting the building and some natural vegetation, the land uses of Plasdwr are basically residential. (PLASDWR 2018)
A4160 The master plan of Plasdwr is in line with the concept of a garden city, which may make the internal loop line become a core road in Plasdwr.
Master Plan of Cardiff City
INVESTIGATION OF CARDIFF In the process of moving from Cardiff city centre to the edge of the city, the demographic structure and urban appearance have also been changing. It is clear that there are many homeless people in Cardiff city centre, and they are basically only in the city centre. Plasdwr is a new start for homeless people in terms of land use, neighbourhood relations and transportation, and also a new challenge for urban development. In this new land, the homeless group may find new opportunities for themselves. Official Planning
Bird View of Plasdwr
Communities in the Edge
Public Function near the Edge
Communities near the Centre
RESEARCH ON USER GROUP Analysis Of the Homeless Group
Homeless deaths are highest in Wales (Miller. and Walford. 2019)
"Metal spikes in the floor" (Owen 2014)
Desire for shelter and work; Cigarettes and wine.
Need Safe shelters, psychotherapy and physiotherapy.
They need shelter and psychological help from their homes and family relationships.
There are many homeless buskers on the streets of Cardiff. Their needs are to other homeless people.
Age of Labor
The proportion of homeless population Total population of the city
Rough sleep is a worldwide problem (Godson 2016), the number of homeless people in Cardiff and even across the UK has been growing in recent years, reaching an estimated 320,000 in 2018 (Butler 2018; Wearecardiffguest 2017). Homeless people die on the streets almost every year, and it is reported (Miller and Walford 2019) that, Cardiff is ranked as "one of the worst places in the UK for homeless deaths" and about 24 homeless people died in Cardiff between 2013 and 2017.
2005 "Homeless 'crisis' headache for capital" (BBC NEWS 2002)
Greening rate of city Total urban area
City has modernized, but homeless people have increased.
The most common of the rough sleepers seen in Cardiff are men. Additionally, there are homeless families and couples. According to the statistics of the charity Wallich (2018), among the rough sleepers they have helped, the number of men is about five times that of women, and the average age is about 45 years old, still in the labor age range.
INTERACTIONS The reasons why they have become homeless are many and complex, including bankruptcy, family conflicts, psychological problems, criminal records, drugs and alcohol abuse. (McDonagh 2011)
According to the investigation, the ways homeless group act in public spaces in the public space are quite different from other social groups. The interaction between them and other social groups is relatively negative, basically, they are the isolated group in the cities, even though they mainly stay in the city centre.
The aged Low-income
Mutual Interference ？
Begging and misunderstanding ？
Mutual Interference ？
Begging and giving ？
Mutual Interference ？
REBALANCE Stakeholder Analysis
Rescue strategy for homeless group by Wallich
Prevent people from becoming homeless: to prevent people from becoming homeless, the first thing to do is to focus on the root problem and help those potential homeless people. It's about helping people who are facing financial and leasing crises, helping them with job skills and financial advice.
Outreach assistance: for those who have become homeless group, the basic needs of food and clothing could be met by distributing materials on the streets.
When homeless groups are considered in the development of Plasdwr, stakeholders can be divided into the homeless group, architect, local resident of the neighborhood, developers including Redrow and Bellway, government and charity Wallich. Through the stakeholder analysis, the homeless people are in a weak position here.
Involvement of Architects The direct help homeless group could gain from architects would be accommodation and skill learning. According to the case study could be concluded that in addition to responding to their housing needs, the process of building the shelter and its supporting functions could bring additional benefits to the homeless through their participation, and these benefits would serve as a basis for their future contribution to society.
Residential assistance: in addition to helping with homeless group's basic survival needs, temporary shelter is also needed for them as a transition re-enter society, and in the process, helps with psychological problems and abuse problems should also be considered. Learning and employment help: the key for homeless groups to get rid of the status quo lies in their future development, while skills would be the basis for them to get opportunities to work again, therefore, helps for them to improve their existing skills or learn new skills are needed. (Wallich 2015)
There are some buskers among the homeless people, and art could attract the attention of different social groups, which could be an element for homeless buskers to connect with the society, make connections and even be a steady job.
For the homeless group, shelter is an important step for them to change the status quo. However, the poor temporary shelter would not have many positive effects. Therefore, it is significant to provide them with relatively comfortable temporary accommodation. (Crane, M. et al. 2014)
The self-built houses built by users could well respond to their needs, and they would gain friendship, skills and confidence through joint and cooperative housing construction (Ashley Vale Community 2012). However, after the further development of the homeless group, their demand for shelter may change, so housing may need a certain degree of scalability.
The combination of these elements has the potential to free the homeless group from the weak position in the development of Plasdwr.
1.3. VISION STATEMENT Warm and harmonious communities where homeless people are no longer being homeless and feeling isolated. KEY WORDS: Housing Income Activities Connection
By their own efforts and receiving help, the homeless group will gradually be understood and accepted in the urbanisation of Plasdwr, and they will become a better version of themselves in this process, f inally integrate into this harmonious and warm garden city.
1.4. DESIGN OBJECTIVES & ACTION PLAN Perspective of Architecture
The research problem of this project is: How can homeless group benefit from the urbanisation process of developing cities; what can they gain and give back to the local community? Therefore the design objectives will be specific to what they will gain and what they will give back.
Perspective of Relationship
● ① Events in Plaswr like Forest Music Festival. ● Opportunity to build their own homes by themselves.
● ① Temporary Housing ● ② ④ Building Skills & Confidence
● ② ③ Self-built Community by themselves ● ④ Employment
. ● Friendship within their group & Wallich ● Communication & Understanding
● Friendship with Neighborhood ● Communication & Understanding & Tolerance
. ● Communication
● ① Module housing ● ① Construction of the culture centre
● ③ Affordable housing ● ① Change temporary houses to the culture centre
GIVE BACK . . ● Bring people together
The social groups mainly involved in the action plan include architects, charitable organizations, Wallich, and developers, in addition to the homeless group.
● Friendship ● Bring people together
● ① Provide sample module houses ● ① Build The temporary stages (In Plasdwr & City centre)
● ① Complete the construction of temporary housing (By Architects & Wallich & Homeless ) ● ① Change temporary stage In Plasdwr to permanent stage (By Architects & Wallich & Homeless )
● Initiate events (By Architects & Wallich) ● Architects teach homeless group & Wallish the building skills
● Architects & Wallich teach homeless group the building skills ● Improvements of existing skills By Art exchange events
● Services & help
● ② Homeless group build The self-built community ● ③ Homeless group output labor ● ① Change temporary stage In Plasdwr to permanent stage (By Architects & Wallich & Homeless ) ● Developers & Wallich manage the workforce
MAPPING FOR ELEMENTS
For homeless people, the opportunity for temporary housing is the turning point for them to re-enter society. After getting shelter, there will be a stable environment for them to gain and improve skills, gain confidence. Thus, start to contact people and solve some psychological problems. The following elements would be the keys to their re-entry into society and the keys to what they gain and give back to the community.
1. Temporary Housing & Culture Centre · Music Performance Area · Food Activities Area · Arts and Crafts Area · Temporary Housing · Exhibition Area In the early stage, it served as a place for a variety of activities that bring people together and provided temporary accommodation. After people moving out, it will be further transformed into a cultural center.
2. Self-Built Community phase I The first Self-Built community is built by people with gaining building skills, surrounded by traditional communities. This is the isolated groups' first step into the larger community.
3. Self-Built Community phase II
1.Temporary Housing & Culture Centre
Temporary housing is placed in community centres to attract residents with art activities and to create contact opportunities.
It is close to building materials company for easy management and sustainable planting could also attract residents, which would effectively reduce construction costs.
After people from surrounding communities witnessing their Slef-Built community and efforts, the new SelfBuilt communities will integrate more harmoniously into the surrounding communities.
4. Material Planting & Workshop · Timber Planting · Workshop Provide timber material source and processing Reduce the constructing price
5. Building Material Company · Exhibition Area · Office Area
2.Self-built Community Phase I
3.Self-built Community Phase II
The first phase of the self-built community is adjacent to the Plasdwr Cultural Center, making it easier to take advantage of the connections between the different groups that have been created.
The later the self-built houses are closer to the green space to prove that the homeless group wouold no longer be isolated in the future; there will be some ordinary communities between the two phases of self-built communities, which could create more contact opportunities for the wandering group in the process of exporting labor.
It is located at the center of the Plasdwr area for product presentation, office and distribution. The company will provide employment opportunities for residents of the surrounding communities.
PIONEERING BUSKERS The buskers, on the edge of the city, begin pioneering adventures.
Starting with street talent competition, the buskers and the homeless people as pioneers of urban expansion, bring the culture and the core spirit of the city centre to the edges for local residents. They would speed up the process of urbanisation in Plasdwr and get the ideal place to live in with their own hands, finally they could become better and spread happiness further.
2.1. STRATEGIC DESIGN Short Term
SHORT TERM MASTER PLAN OF PLASDWR
SHORT TERM MASTER PLAN OF CITY CENTRE
MEDIUM TERM MASTER PLAN OF PLASDWR
LONG TERM MASTER PLAN OF PLASDWR After a series of changes, the homeless people would finally spread the culture of Plaswr to the city centre.
New Option Knowledge about Module houses
Cultural events are basically held in the city centre.
Buskers as pioneers to share the culture of the city and also bring back the ideas.
Homeless people may enter Plasdwr for the benefit of temporary shelter and cultural activities.
ADVENTURES OF PIONEERS
CHANGE OF CHARACTER
AN INSPIRATIONAL STORY: The buskers come to Cardiff centre to start busking. Then they would meet a talent show event, buskers compete at the event. As the event expands, they will go to Plasdwr for the forest busking festival. Then in the medium term, about 1 year later, they will begin to work with their new friends to learn how to build their own houses. Finally, homeless people become neighbours and Share the joy of their module housing with more people, and spread The happiness of Plasdwr By busking.
W H Long Term
ci ssu es
Ordinary social groups
m l ica ono log ng Ec o ch lli Psy unse co Add
CARDIFF Busking Competition
Show us what you got!
es issu l a t Men
se & abu Drug
ol oh c l A
Gai n sh
A e us ab
g in Be
Ordinary social groups
The shelters would be only the beginning of change for the homeless, and due to the complexity of their own problems, the difference helps should be considered. Within the community, the project is designed with activity centres run by the charity Wallich, shared kitchens, psychological support offices and a physical therapist to respond to the needs of homeless people facing different problems.
W H Short Term
2.2. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Plasdwr in SHORT TERM
City centre in SHORT TERM
Temporary Stage du
In the short term, there will be a talent show competition in the city centre, and a larger race will be carried out in the forest in Plasdwr, which is a step to change for both the user group and Plaswr with the involvement of architect; for Plasdwr, it may be known by more citizen, for the homeless people, they will have the opportunities to make friends and learn something about self-built houses.
Axiomatic plan of SHORT TERM
At this stage, Architects are the initiators and teachers, and the Wallich is the organiser as well as the student of the learning module residence. The tramps are performers and the citizens are judges.
SHORT TERM PLANS In The process of the events, residents in the city edge could also be informed of the concept of modular houses and visit the model houses; therefore, different groups could be attracted by the comfortable and sunny life of modular homes.
Cultural Centre Plan
Plasdwr in MEDIUM TERM
Art Studio Mental Health Counseling
Axiomatic plan of MEDIUM TERM In the medium term, due to the influence of cultural events, the development of Plasdwr around the site would be accelerated, and the shared landscape will be used for people to play and create contacts during this period. The corresponding woodworking workshop will appear. The homeless people and Wallich will work together to complete the construction of temporary housing. In this process, the homeless people will gain the building skills and put them into practice. Wallich will become the teachers and practitioners in this process. Together, they bring cultural activities to communities on the edge of the city.
MEDIUM TERM PLANS In the medium term, the events will continue, and at this period, the shared landscape next to the cultural centre will be completed, which will also provide clues for them to build their own communities. The homeless people will study and build the components of the modular house in this temporary workshop. Due to the increasing influence of Plasdwr, the construction of surrounding areas may also speed up.
Cultural Centre First Floor Plan 1:200
Temporary Housing Shared Kitchen(Mental Health Counseling) & Art Studio
N Cultural Centre Ground Floor Plan
The shared landscape also serves as a link between communities in the following period, for preventing the self-built community from being isolated.
Shared Landscape Plan
N Workshop Plan
Shared Landscape Plan
LONG TERM In the long term, the homeless group will complete the construction of self-built community phase I and have their own homes. Community built by public cooperation will be very united. Meanwhile, the cultural center has also been completed the transformation from temporary housing to the gallery. Homeless people will no longer homeless and begin to export labour. The resident in the self-built community phase II is a mixture of different social strata. And the activities of cultural centre have become one of the links between the edge of the city and the city centre. Homeless people in Plasdwr will return to the city centre to share their joy.
al r u t
Activities Centre & Health Care
al r u t
Mental Health Counseling
LONG TERM PLANS In terms of community public space, the public space within the community will be defined by the public function of the community, preventing other people from directly entering the community internal center to create the sense of security they need, but at the same time, these public spaces have something to do with each other to prevent Homeless community from being isolated.
Cinema Room Laundry
Self-built Community Phase I Ground Floor Plan
The construction of self-built community will be finished, and homeless people will move out from the temporary housing, after that, temporary housing will be transformed into the gallery, and temporary stage will further be turned into permanent stage, for them to hold activities, at this moment, Plasdwr cultural centre has become a real cultural centre, start to tell us the story of Plasdwr.
Shared Kitchen & Art Studio
Gallery & Handicraft Exhibition
N Cultural Centre Ground Floor Plan
Eastern Elevation 1:200
Video Hall Gallery & Handicraft Exhibition
Self-built Community Phase I First Floor Plan
Cultural Centre First Floor Plan
Self-built community phase II is an affordable community, which mixed with different social groups and built by the homeless group. In this period, homeless people are the distributors of happiness.
Garden Tool Room
Activities Centre & Health Care
Self-Built Community Phase II Second Floor Plan
Self-Built Community Phase II Ground Floor Plan
N Self-Built Community Phase II Third Floor Plan
UNIT INTERNAL RENDERING
PHASE I EXTERNAL RENDERING
2.3. TECTONIC STRATEGY
First of all, the structural form of the building needs to be concise and easy to understand, because the user group may not know anything about the building. Therefore the frame could well meet the requirements of flexibility and the construction logic is clear enough. In terms of materials, due to the dense natural vegetation near the site, and mostly wood (for reference in strategic design), after proper processing, it could be used as a cheap and reliable source of building materials, and the introduction of sustainable planting methods could also be helpful to local environmental protection. Steel is added to the design as an auxiliary material, using uniform specifications of steel as a reference to reduce the manufacturing difficulty of the basic construction. Additionally, According to the case study (referring to the Brief Planning of Plasdwr section), one of the benefits of self-built communities is that they can make neighborhood relations more harmonious through cooperation between neighbors. Therefore, the construction method of this project encourages cooperation.
What we have?
Knows nothing about building
Easy to understand
Shear wall structure
Woodland for Material
Flexible Plans for different needs
After technical considerations, modular wood frame structure will be the main structure of the project, using removable external walls to meet the expansion of individual users and community expansion. Structural parts are divided and refined to reduce the use of large instruments on the basis of conforming to the construction logic.
Extensibility for changing needs
What we want ?
Horizontal wall Detail Vertical wall Detail
This structural system will be completed by on-site assembly, and users are encouraged to collaborate to reduce the use of large devices. The columns will be placed on a concrete foundation with holes left in it, which was part of the shared landscape in the medium term. The detachable walls respond to the expansion for families and the community.
TYPOLOGY By combining the pipelines to form the core, the other functions of the room become the growth part of the core, which is combined to achieve the flexible planes. After the users have fully understood the construction logic, selfbuilt houses would evolve according to their imagination.
ue n o ati v r se
od ials ter ma
USER MANUAL 1
LOGIC OF CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS
This project is to make the homeless people as pioneers to participate in the process of urbanisation, they might be isolated at first, and would not be understood in short term, but after The help from The Wallich and architects and the most important is their own efforts, they could be able to overcome many problems of their own, become better individuals, to get more connection. And use their skills and their busking to spread the happiness of Plasdwr culture. Architects and developers should solve some social problems rather than housing and economic needs in the process of urbanisation, in other words, as architects, we should think about how to bring more happiness to people by architecture.
References Ashley Vale Community. 2012. The yard self build. Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Q9nyEkgpvM41CSPg1JmBV2aKeXZcrBYT/view [Accessed: 19 January 2019]. BBC. 2002. Homeless 'crisis' headache for capital. BBC NEWS 11 December. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/2564951.stm [Accessed: 20 January 2019]. Butler, T. 2018. At least 320,000 homeless people in Britain, says Shelter. The Guardian 22 November. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/nov/22/at-least-320000-homeless-people-in-britain-says-shelter [Accessed: 25 February 2019]. Crane, M. et al. 2014. The Resettlement of Homeless Young People: Their Experiences and Housing Outcomes. Social Policy and Society 13(2), pp. 161-176. doi: 10.1017/S1474746413000468 Godson, C. 2016. HOMELESSNESS: A GLOBAL PROBLEM BEGGING A GLOBAL SOLUTION. Available at: https://atlascorps.org/homelessness-a-global-problem-begging-a-global-solution/ [Accessed: 12 January 2019]. Jin, W. and Kinsella, E. 2019. What is architecture? The Pritzker architecture prize winner in 2019, Isasaki says... Artnet News 7 March. Available at: https://www.artnetnews.cn/art-world/shenmecaishijianzhu2019pulizikejianzhujiangdezhujiqixinzheyangshuo-105619 [Accessed: 10 March 2019]. McDonagh, T. 2011. Tackling homelessness and exclusion: Understanding complex lives. JRF 12 September. Available at: https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/tackling-homelessness-and-exclusion-understanding-complex-lives [Accessed: 18 January 2019]. Miller, C. and Walford, J. 2019. The areas of Wales worst-hit by homeless deaths as stark figures reveal the number of people dying. WalesOnline 25 February. Available at: https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/areas-wales-worst-hit-homeless-15882934 [Accessed: 15 March 2019]. Owen, C. 2014. Metal spikes in the floor? Is treating homeless people like pigeons really the way forward?. WalesOnline 10 Jun. Available at: https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/metal-spikes-deter-homeless-bank-7242485 [Accessed: 15 February 2019]. Plasdwr. 2018. PLASDWR. Available at: https://plasdwr.co.uk/ [Accessed: 10 January 2019]. Wallich. 2018. South Wales Street Based Lifestyle Monitor 2017-18. Available at: https://thewallich.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/SBL_Report2018.pdf [Accessed: 13 November 2019]. Wearecardiffguest. 2017. THE NUMBER OF HOMELESS PEOPLE IN CARDIFF IS ON THE RISE. Wearecardiff 24 November. Available at: https://wearecardiff.co.uk/2017/11/24/the-number-of-homeless-people-in-cardiff-is-on-the-rise/ [Accessed: 26 January 2019].
THANK YOU ZHAOZHAN LU CHILSONLU@GMAIL.COM
Selected works from 2016-2019 Completed between 2016 in Guangzhou and 2019 in Cardiff