GRAMMAR AND WRITING
E N G L I S H
Welcome to Voyages in English
Program Overview How to Use This Program
PA R T
1 Grammar Nouns Teacher Preparation
Singular and Plural Nouns More Singular and Plural Nouns Nouns as Subjects and Subject Complements Nouns as Objects and Object Complements Appositives Possessive Nouns Noun Review Noun Challenge
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Adjectives Teacher Preparation
Descriptive Adjectives, Position of Adjectives Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Adjectives Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Few and Little Adjective Phrases and Clauses Adjective Review Adjective Challenge
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
Pronouns Teacher Preparation
Person, Number, and Gender of Pronouns Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Pronouns After Than or As Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns Agreement of Pronouns and Antecedents Interrogative and Demonstrative Pronouns Relative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns Pronoun Review Pronoun Challenge
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11
18 20 22 24 26 28 30 31a–31b
31 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56
Contents • iii
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Verbs Teacher Preparation
Principal Parts of Verbs Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Troublesome Verbs Linking Verbs Active and Passive Voices Simple, Progressive, and Perfect Tenses Indicative, Imperative, and Emphatic Moods Subjunctive Mood Modal Auxiliaries Agreement of Subject and Verb—Part I Agreement of Subject and Verb—Part II Verb Review Verb Challenge
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11
Verbals Teacher Preparation
58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 83a–83b
Participles Placement of Participles Gerunds as Subjects and Subject Complements Gerunds as Objects and Appositives Possessives with Gerunds, Using -ing Verb Forms Infinitives as Subjects and Subject Complements Infinitives as Objects Infinitives as Appositives Infinitives as Adjectives Infinitives as Adverbs Hidden and Split Infinitives Verbal Review Verbal Challenge
84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11
Adverbs Teacher Preparation
Types of Adverbs Interrogative Adverbs and Adverbial Nouns Comparative and Superlative Adverbs Troublesome Words Adverb Phrases and Clauses Adverb Review Adverb Challenge
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5
Prepositions Teacher Preparation
Single and Multiword Prepositions Troublesome Prepositions Words Used as Adverbs and Prepositions Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives Prepositional Phrases as Adverbs Prepositional Phrases as Nouns Preposition Review Preposition Challenge
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6
110 112 114 116 118 120 122
123 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138
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Sentences Teacher Preparation
Kinds of Sentences Adjective and Adverb Phrases Adjective Clauses Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses Adverb Clauses Noun Clauses as Subjects Noun Clauses as Subject Complements Noun Clauses as Appositives Noun Clauses as Direct Objects Noun Clauses as Objects of Prepositions Simple, Compound, and Complex Sentences Sentence Review Sentence Challenge
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11
139 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164
Conjunctions and Interjections Teacher Preparation 165a–165b
Conjunctions and Interjections
Coordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions Conjunctive Adverbs Subordinate Conjunctions Troublesome Conjunctions Interjections Conjunction and Interjection Review Conjunction and Interjection Challenge
166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6
Punctuation and Capitalization Teacher Preparation 181a–181b
Punctuation and Capitalization
Periods and Commas 182 Exclamation Points, Question Marks, Semicolons, and Colons 184 Quotation Marks and Italics 186 Apostrophes, Hyphens, and Dashes 188 Capitalization 190 Punctuation and Capitalization Review 192 Punctuation and Capitalization Challenge 194
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5
Diagramming Teacher Preparation
Simple Sentences Appositives Compound Sentences Compound Sentence Elements Participles Gerunds Infinitives Adjective Clauses Adverb Clauses Noun Clauses Diagramming Practice Diagramming Review Diagramming Challenge
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10 11.11
195 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220
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PA R T
Written and Oral 2 Communication Personal Narratives Teacher Preparation
Chapter 1 Personal Narratives
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes a Good Personal Narrative? Introduction, Body, and Conclusion Writing Skills: Revising Sentences Word Study: Exact Words Study Skills: Graphic Organizers Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Personal Narratives Writer’s Workshop: Personal Narratives Rubrics
224 228 232 236 240 244 248 259y–259z
Business Letters Teacher Preparation
Chapter 2 Business Letters
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes a Good Business Letter? Purpose, Audience, and Tone Writing Skills: Adjective Clauses Word Study: Roots Literacy Skills: Writing Tools Speaking and Listening Skills: Job Interview Writer’s Workshop: Business Letters Rubrics
262 266 270 274 278 282 286 297y–297z
How-to Articles Teacher Preparation
Chapter 3 How-to Articles
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes a Good How-to Article? Relevant Details Word Study: Transition Words Writing Skills: Adverb Clauses Study Skills: Dictionary Speaking and Listening Skills: How-to Talks Writer’s Workshop: How-to Articles Rubrics
300 304 308 312 316 320 324 335y–335z
Descriptions Teacher Preparation
Chapter 4 Descriptions
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes a Good Description? Organization Writing Skills: Noun Clauses Word Study: Adjective and Adverb Suffixes Study Skills: Thesaurus Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Descriptions Writer’s Workshop: Descriptions Rubrics
338 342 346 350 354 358 362 373y–373z
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Book Reviews Teacher Preparation
Chapter 5 Book Reviews
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes a Good Book Review? Writing a Book Review Writing Skills: Expanding and Combining Sentences Study Skills: Outlines Word Study: Prefixes Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Movie Reviews Writer’s Workshop: Book Reviews Rubrics
376 380 384 388 392 396 400 411y–411z
Creative Writing: Fantasy Fiction Teacher Preparation 412a–412b
Chapter 6 Creative Writing: Fantasy Fiction
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes Good Fantasy Fiction? Plot Development Writing Skills: Dialogue Word Study: Figurative Language Poetry: Limericks Speaking and Listening Skills: Storytelling Writer’s Workshop: Fantasy Fiction Rubrics
414 418 422 426 430 434 438 449y–449z
Expository Writing Teacher Preparation
Chapter 7 Expository Writing
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes Good Expository Writing? Fact and Opinion Word Study: Noun and Verb Suffixes Writing Skills: Quotations Study Skills: Library and Internet Sources Speaking and Listening Skills: Destination Guides Writer’s Workshop: Expository Writing Rubrics
452 456 460 464 468 472 476 487y–487z
Research Reports Teacher Preparation
Chapter 8 Research Reports
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes a Good Research Report? Gathering and Organizing Information Study Skills: Citing Sources Writing Skills: Varied Sentences Word Study: Denotation and Connotation Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Science Reports Writer’s Workshop: Research Reports Rubrics
Common Proofreading Marks
490 494 498 502 506 510 514 525y–525z
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PA R T
3 Bonus Chapters Argumentative Writing Teacher Preparation
Chapter 9 Argumentative Writing
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes Good Argumentative Writing? Claim and Counterclaim Writing Skills: Cause and Effect Word Study: Use Precise Language Study Skills: Digital References Speaking and Listening Skills: Documentary Discussion Writer’s Workshop: Argumentative Writing Rubrics
530 534 538 542 546 550 554 565y–565z
Literary Analysis Teacher Preparation
Chapter 10 Literary Analysis
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes a Good Literary Analysis? 568 Analyzing Historical Fiction 572 Writing Skills: Placing Modifiers Correctly 576 Word Study: Context Clues 580 Study Skills: Figures of Speech 584 Speaking and Listening Skills: Listen and Respond to an Author Talk 588 Writer’s Workshop: Literary Analysis 592 Rubrics 603y–603z Poetry Teacher Preparation
Chapter 11 Poetry
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
1 2 3 4 5 6
What Makes a Good Sonnet? How to Write a Sonnet Writing Skills: Using Commas Correctly Word Study: Idioms Study Skills: Annotating Poetry Speaking and Listening Skills: Poetry Discussion Writer’s Workshop: Poetry Rubrics
606 610 614 618 622 626 630 641y–641z
Grammar and Mechanics Handbook
Scope and Sequence
Common Core State Standards Correlations
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Nouns SECTION FOCUS • Singular and plural nouns • Nouns as subjects and subject complements
GRAMMAR FOR GROWN-UPS
• Nouns as objects and object complements
• Appositives • Possessive nouns
SUPPORT MATERIALS Practice Book Daily Maintenance, pages 1–2 Grammar, pages 3–12 Assessment Book Section 1 Assessment, pages 1–2 Loyola Press Online Assessment System Writing Chapter 1, Personal Narratives Customizable Lesson Plans www.voyagesinenglish.com
CONNECT WITH LITERATURE Consider using the following titles throughout the section to illustrate the grammar concept:
Here in Harlem: Poems in Many Voices by Walter Dean Myers The Maze Runner by James Dashner Petey by Ben Mikaelsen
The word noun comes from the Latin word nomen, meaning “name.” A noun is a word that names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea. A plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea. writer writers
A noun can be the subject of a sentence. The subject tells what the sentence is about. Yogurt is my favorite snack. A noun can be a subject complement. A subject complement renames the subject and follows a linking verb. My favorite snack is yogurt. A noun can be used as a direct object. The direct object tells whom or what after the verb. Her friends played field hockey. A noun can also be used as an indirect object. An indirect object tells to whom or for whom or to what or for what the action is done. The trombonist played the audience her favorite song. A noun can function as an object of a preposition. The audience talked about the trombonist’s song. A noun can be an object complement. An object complement renames the direct object. The teacher appointed Mary class secretary. An appositive is a word that follows a noun and helps identify it or adds more information about it. Sid’s brother, Sam, made the varsity team.
I find it quite interesting. A noun’s a person, place, or thing.
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Nouns • 1a
ASK AN EXPERT
Misplaced Apostrophes When Showing Possession
Real Situations, Real Solutions
Apostrophes are often misused or misplaced when showing possession. To form the possessive of plural nouns ending in -s, add the apostrophe only. To form the plural possessive of a proper name, add the apostrophe to the plural of the name.
Grammar Geek Anxious Over Abstract Nouns Dear Grammar Geek, My students need help identifying abstract nouns. How can I define the intangible? Sincerely, Full of Angst (angst being an abstract noun, of course)
ERROR: cowboys’s hats CORRECT: cowboys’ hats ERROR: the Adams’es dog
Full of Angst Re: Anxious Over Abstract Nouns
CORRECT: the Adamses’ dog
TIP: A trick for remembering that the apostrophe signifies the plural is that possessive means “having,” and the possessive form of the word “has” an apostrophe.
SENTENCE DIAGRAMMING You may wish to teach nouns in the context of diagramming. Review these examples. Then refer to the Diagramming section. Birds like nuts.
Dear Angst, Draw a two-column chart with the following headings: Character Traits, Feelings. Have students brainstorm both positive and negative words that fall into these categories, such as self-confidence, greed, love, and hate. Explain that although these things cannot be touched, the words are nouns because they name things that are real. Abstractly concrete, Grammar Geek
Grammar Geezer In Need of Direction
nuts direct object
Dear Grammar Geezer, My students sometimes have trouble differentiating between direct and indirect objects. Can you help? Directly yours, Jenny Sparks
Jenny Sparks Re: In Need of Direction
Sara plays violin, and Dave plays flute.
1b • Section 1
Dear Jenny, Try using the following chart to help students tell the difference between direct and indirect objects. Does the word answer the question whom or what after the verb?
Smooth Sailing, Grammar Geezer
If it does, then it is a direct object.
Does the word tell to whom or for whom or to what or for what the action is done?
If it does, then it is an indirect object.
1 Nouns 1.1
Singular and Plural Nouns
More Singular and Plural Nouns
Nouns as Subjects and Subject Complements 6
Nouns as Objects and Object Complements 8
Possessive Nouns 12
Noun Review 14 Noun Challenge 16
Singular and Plural Nouns
OBJECTIVES • To identify and use singular nouns and plural nouns • To form the plurals of regular nouns and irregular nouns
DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 1, Section 1.1. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.
WARM-UP On separate note cards, list the following: Grocery store, Toy store, Department store, Sporting goods store, Hobby shop
Remind students that some words ending in -y require the -y to be changed to -i before adding -s. Read aloud the final rule for forming plurals. Remind students to use a dictionary when they are unsure of a word’s plural form.
PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Ask volunteers to read the first two sentences. After each sentence has been read, have students identify all the nouns that appear. As each noun is cited, ask whether it is singular or plural. Have students complete the exercise on their own.
Divide students into five groups and give each group a card. Have students work together to list as many things as they can that they might find in the store on their note card. Ask them to circle all the words that name one person, place, or thing. Have them rewrite those words to refer to more than one person, place, or thing.
Singular and Plural Nouns A noun is a name word. A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea. A plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea. Add -s to most nouns to form the plurals. SINGULAR
Add -es to form the plurals of nouns ending in -s, -x, -z, -ch, and -sh. SINGULAR
dress church princess
dresses churches princesses
box flash march
boxes flashes marches
Form the plurals of nouns ending in -y preceded by a vowel by adding -s.
Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the singular and plural nouns.
Form the plurals of nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant by changing the -y to -i and adding -es.
TEACH Read aloud the definition of a noun. Discuss the difference between a singular noun and a plural noun. Recall the Warm-Up activity and remind students of the singular nouns and plurals nouns they listed. Invite volunteers to read aloud the first four ways of forming plurals. Ask students to provide additional examples.
Some plural nouns are not formed by adding -s or -es. Check a dictionary to find the correct plural form.
2 • Section 1.1
EXERCISE 2 Have students work with a partner to complete the exercise. Ask students to discuss and decide the plural of each noun and then look it up in a dictionary to confirm the answer. Advise students to use a dictionary whenever they are in doubt about the spelling of a plural noun. Recommend that students keep a list of troublesome plural nouns for future reference.
woman ox tooth mouse congressman
women oxen teeth mice congressmen
trout swine Chinese corps moose
trout swine Chinese corps moose
APPLY IT NOW As students work, remind them that they can check a dictionary if they are uncertain of a word’s plural form. After students finish, ask volunteers to read their notes. Students should be able to identify singular nouns and plural nouns and to form the plurals of regular nouns and irregular nouns.
Note which students had difficulty with singular nouns and plural nouns. Assign Practice Book page 3 for further practice.
Use pages 222–223 of the Writing portion of the book. Be sure to point out nouns in the literature excerpt and the student model.
Encourage students to use either a classroom, library, or home computer to send the note they wrote as an e-mail.
The primary language spoken by some English-language learners may have rules for forming plurals that differ from English. You may want to ask these students to give the class examples of plural forms in their primary language. For Englishlanguage learners who find the English plural forms confusing, reassure these students that they may consult a dictionary to find the correct forms of irregular plurals.
Soccer is a popular sport in many countries. Soccer is called football outside of the United States. The sport was invented in England. The World Cup is enjoyed by many all over the world. There are 11 players on a team. To play the sport, teams need two nets and a ball.
Meeting Individual Needs
The goalkeeper tries to keep the ball from entering the net. A player moves the ball primarily with his or her feet or head.
Challenge Distribute to each student one note card. Have students write on their note card an example of each of the five kinds of singular nouns described on page 2. Collect the cards and place them in a container. Then have each student select a card and write a paragraph that uses the plural forms of all the words on the card. Encourage students to share their paragraphs with the class.
Many children play soccer at their schools or in parks. Many young enthusiasts practice with just a ball in a yard.
EXERCISE 2 Complete each sentence with the plural form of the noun or nouns in parentheses. 1. Our school has (team) in several (sport). 2. Every year, (child) sign up for their favorite sporting (activity).
3. Many (boy) and (girl) play on the teams. 4. (Teammate) become (friend) in and out of school. 5. The (coach) are (teacher) and parents. 6. The school’s soccer team practices on (Wednesday) and (Friday) for 50
7. The team has won several local have any
(championship), and it doesn’t
(loss) so far this year.
(Bus) take other schools.
Have students search through magazines for a large, colorful photo that shows an active scene and then cut it out and glue it to the top of a half sheet of poster board. Instruct students to write three sentences under the picture that are related to the scene. Each sentence should contain at least two plural nouns. Have students underline all the plural nouns in the sentences.
EXERCISE 1 Identify each noun. Tell whether it is singular or plural.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
(series) of important (match) are starting next week.
10. All our are for many
APPLY IT NOW
(hope) and (wish) (victory) for the team.
You can send this note as an e-mail.
Common Core Standards
(child) to games at
Write a three-sentence note to a friend, describing a recent school activity. Include a singular noun in the first sentence and a plural noun in the second sentence. Use both singular and plural nouns in the third sentence.
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Nouns • 3
More Singular and Plural Nouns
OBJECTIVES • To form the plurals of nouns ending in -o, -f or -fe, and -ful and of compound nouns • To understand that some nouns are used only in the plural and that some nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning and use
DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 1, Section 1.2. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer.
hyphenated compound nouns, nouns ending in -ful, and nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning and use. Discuss the words used in the Warm-Up activity. Have students form the plural of each word.
PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Invite four volunteers to choose a number between 1 and 20. Have each volunteer write the plural of the word whose number in the exercise corresponds to the number chosen. Challenge
students to identify the rule that applies to the formation of each plural. Have students complete the exercise independently. Advise students to keep a list of irregular plurals for future reference. EXERCISE 2 After students complete the exercise, have volunteers explain why bison, Iroquois, salmon, and series appear in both columns. (Some irregular nouns have the same plural and singular form.) Remind students to use a dictionary to find the plurals of unfamiliar nouns.
Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.
WARM-UP Write the following words on the board:
radio, patio, tomato, safe, chief, knife, T-shirt, drive-in, e-mail
More Singular and Plural Nouns If a noun ends in -o preceded by a vowel, form the plural by adding -s.
Make note cards with the endings: -s, -es, and –ves. Ask volunteers to come up to the board and make the words plural by holding up the card with the correct ending next to each word.
If a noun ends in -o preceded by a consonant, form the plural by adding -es. There are some exceptions to this rule. Check a dictionary. SINGULAR
E XC E P TI O N S:
piano zero alto
Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the singular and plural nouns.
burro solo soprano
burros solos sopranos
For most nouns ending in -f or -fe, form the plurals by adding -s. For some nouns, however, you must change the -f or -fe to -ves. Always check a dictionary.
TEACH Review the definitions of singular nouns and plural nouns. Then invite volunteers to read aloud the rules for forming plurals and the examples for each. Point out the exceptions to the rules for forming plurals of nouns ending in -o, -f, or -fe. Discuss other plurals that can be troublesome, such as
Form the plurals of most compound nouns by adding -s. SINGULAR
Form the plurals of some compounds by adding -s to the principal word. Use a dictionary to be sure.
4 • Section 1.2
E XC E P TI O N S:
pianos zeros or zeroes altos
APPLY IT NOW Encourage volunteers to share with the class their rewritten sentences. Students should demonstrate an understanding of irregular plurals and nouns that use the same plural and singular form.
Note which students had difficulty with singular nouns and plural nouns. Assign Practice Book pages 4–5 for further practice.
Use pages 224–225 of the Writing portion of the book.
Students should find and underline forces, dead, and tombs. Discuss that dead is plural because it refers to more than one dead person.
Reteach Have students work together in groups to create posters that illustrate five of the rules for forming plurals of nouns. Instruct students to agree first on which five rules to include. Then have students explore ways to format the poster after sketching or outlining their ideas on drawing paper. When students have chosen a format, ask them to write the rules on the poster, including several examples for each rule. Encourage students to decorate their posters. You may wish to display completed posters in the classroom.
Meeting Individual Needs Auditory Remind students to note the differences in pronunciation between the singular form and plural form of certain nouns, such as hoof and hooves and woman and women. Encourage students to picture the spellings of the words as they say them and to practice using the words in everyday conversation.
Form the plural of compounds ending in -ful by adding -s. SINGULAR
Some nouns are used only in the plural form. pajamas
Some nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning and use. civics
EXERCISE 1 Write the plural of each item listed below. Use a dictionary when necessary. 1. bicycle 6. tree 11. Portuguese 16. corps 2. spoonful 7. point of view 12. trumpet 17. trout 3. deer 8. mousetrap 13. gentleman 18. oasis 4. moose 9. candy 14. baby 19. kimono 5. soprano 10. knife 15. chief 20. eyetooth EXERCISE 2 Put the singular nouns in one column and the plural nouns in another column. Some words will go in both columns. Use a dictionary when necessary. shelf
treasure crises Chinese
Find three plural nouns used in the p. 222 excerpt.
APPLY IT NOW Find the mistakes in the use of plural nouns in the paragraph below and rewrite the nouns correctly. It was a cold winter night, and my dad was getting ready to build a fire. He needed help hauling in lumber from the woodes behind our house. First, we inspected the wood for tickes, since the deers that roam our yard often carry them. We found none, so we each carried several log into the house. Then my dad put the wood in the fireplace and took out a book of matchs to light the fire. In no time, sparkes flew and heat from the fire warmed the room.
Have students write 10 singular nouns for which they feel that forming the plural is tricky. Encourage students to review the words they have learned so far and to check a dictionary for ideas. When students have finished their lists, have them exchange lists with partners. Tell students to fill in the plural forms on the lists they receive. Then have partners decide together whether all the plurals have been written correctly.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.7.1 CCSS.ELA.W.7.5
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Nouns • 5
Nouns as Subjects and Subject Complements
OBJECTIVE • To distinguish between nouns used as subjects and nouns used as subject complements
DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 1, Section 1.3. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.
in each sentence and draw a line connecting the two nouns. Emphasize that a noun used as a subject complement renames the subject of the sentence. Have volunteers point out the linking verbs in the sentences.
PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Have students complete the exercise as a class. Remind students to ask who or what the sentence is about.
EXERCISE 2 Have volunteers identify the subjects and subject complements in the first three sentences. Have students complete the remainder of the exercise independently. EXERCISE 3 Have students complete the sentences independently. When students have finished working, have volunteers explain their answers.
WARM-UP Distribute three sets of cards on which are written a noun and a phrase as shown below. Ask pairs of students to make up sentences using the words on both cards. Track Ray Fans
his favorite sport the star the cheerleaders
A noun can be the subject of a sentence. The subject tells what the sentence is about. In this sentence, Canada is the subject.
Ask students to think about what role the phrase plays in each sentence.
Canada borders the United States on the north.
A noun can be a subject complement. A subject complement renames the subject; it refers to the same person, place, thing, or idea. A subject complement follows a linking verb such as the forms of be (am, is, are, was, and so on).
Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the nouns used as subjects and the nouns used as subject complements.
In this sentence, capital is the subject, and Ottawa is the subject complement. The capital of Canada is Ottawa.
What are the subject and subject complement of this sentence? Toronto is Canada’s most populous city.
To find the subject, ask yourself who or what the sentence is about (Toronto). Then see if there is a linking verb such as am, is, are, was, or were. Is the linking verb followed by a noun that renames the subject? That noun is the subject complement (city).
TEACH Have a volunteer read aloud the information about nouns used as subjects of sentences. Ask students to suggest additional examples of nouns used as subjects of sentences. Have a volunteer read aloud the information about nouns used as subject complements. On the board, write the two example sentences given in the lesson. Underline the subject and the subject complement
EXERCISE 1 Identify the subject of each sentence. 1. Quebec is a province in Canada. 2. Many Canadians speak French. 3. The largest French-speaking city in Canada is Montreal. 4. The Great Lakes form part of the border between the United States and Canada.
5. The tallest freestanding structure in the world is the CN Tower in Toronto. 6. Vancouver has been a popular location for filming movies and television shows.
7. Canada’s geographic coordinates are 60° 00" N 95° 00" W. 8. The Canadian forests are home to a variety of wildlife. 9. Niagara Falls can be explored on both the Canadian and New York sides of the falls.
10. The weather in Vancouver is often mild as in nearby Seattle, Washington.
6 • Section 1.3
Nouns as Subjects and Subject Complements
APPLY IT NOW Have volunteers read their sentences, pausing after each sentence so that their classmates can identify the subject and the subject complement, if used. Students should demonstrate an understanding of subjects and subject complements.
Note which students had difficulty with subjects and subject complements. Assign Practice Book page 6 for further practice.
Use pages 226–227 of the Writing portion of the book.
Use .gov or .org websites that often contain helpful travel information.
Reteach Provide students with magazines and newspapers. Ask each student to choose a short article or section of text on which to focus. Have students underline the subjects in the text once and the subject complements twice. Have volunteers read sentences from their articles and identify the subjects and subject complements.
Curriculum Connection Have volunteers suggest examples of nouns connected to social studies, such as names of mountains, rivers, countries, landmarks, and oceans. Invite other volunteers to write sentences on the board, using the social-studies nouns as subjects and then adding the necessary subject complements.
The Amazon is the world’s secondlongest river.
EXERCISE 2 Identify the subject of each sentence. Name the subject complement if there is one. 1. Newfoundland is a province in Canada. 2. This province is an island off the east coast of Canada. 3. The island has miles of rugged coastline with high cliffs. 4. Cape St. Mary’s, on the island’s south coast, is home
Meeting Individual Needs Extra Support Ask students to give examples of nouns and list them on the board. Ask volunteers to make up sentences using each noun twice, first as the subject of a sentence and then as the subject complement.
to a seabird sanctuary.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
Countless seabirds build their nests along the shoreline. No person may legally harm the birds or take their eggs. This place has been a sanctuary for wildlife for decades. The cold wind off the Atlantic carries the birds’ shrill cries. Wheeling above the rocky cliffs, the birds are an amazing sight. The cliffs are an attraction for bird watchers.
My rabbit is named Miss Emily.
Summer is the best time for bird-watching. Masses of birds cover the cliffs then.
My favorite pet is my rabbit.
EXERCISE 3 Complete each sentence. Then tell whether the word you added is a subject or a subject complement. 1. One of the most beautiful sights I have ever seen was . 2. is a typical neighborhood in my area. 3. An interesting thing to see in this locale is . 4. If I could visit any park, is the park I would choose. 5. A place I didn’t like was . 6. The is the perfect place for camping.
7. When we take our vacation,
first sight I want to explore.
8. An animal often seen in that national park is .
is the most exciting place to
10. The body of water that I would most like to sail on is
With an adult, research a tourist attraction online.
Common Core Standards CCSS. ELA.L.7.1 CCSS. ELA.W.7.4
APPLY IT NOW In Exercise 3 you completed some sentences that tell about places you have visited or would like to visit. Choose one place and write five or six sentences about it. Include subjects and subject complements in at least two of your sentences. When you have finished writing, identify the subject complements.
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Nouns • 7
Nouns as Objects and Object Complements
OBJECTIVE • To differentiate between nouns used as direct objects, indirect objects, object complements, and objects of prepositions
DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 1, Section 1.4. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.
several examples of prepositions and use them in sentences. Have a volunteer read aloud the definition of an object complement. Offer a sentence with an object complement and have students identify the direct object and the object complement.
PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Complete this exercise with the class. Ask volunteers to identify the direct object in each sentence. Have students also identify the verb that precedes each direct object.
Write these sentences on the board. Ask students how they differ. Billy Jo threw. Billy Jo threw a pail.
Have partners take a classroom object, such as a book or an eraser, and together do some action with it. Have each student narrate his or her actions in a different way. Give an example such as “I am giving this book to Hector” and “I am giving Hector this book.”
EXERCISE 3 After students complete the exercise, have volunteers identify the objects of prepositions in each sentence. EXERCISES 4 & 5 After students have completed the exercises independently, have students share their answers with a partner. Encourage students to discuss any confusion.
Nouns as Objects and Object Complements A noun can be used as a direct object. The direct object tells whom or what after the verb. In this sentence the direct object is club. It answers the question What did the students join? Many students joined the drama club.
A noun can be used as an indirect object. An indirect object tells to whom or for whom, or to what or for what, the action is done. In this sentence the indirect object is students. It answers the question To whom did the drama teacher teach acting basics? The drama teacher taught the students acting basics.
Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize nouns used as objects and object complements.
A noun can be the object of a preposition such as in, into, on, to, by, for, from, with, or without. In this sentence the object of the preposition about is play. It answers the question What were the students talking about? The students were talking about their next play.
A noun can be an object complement. Just as a subject complement renames the subject, an object complement renames the direct object. In this sentence Brigitte is the direct object. The noun designer is an object complement that renames Brigitte.
TEACH Have a volunteer read aloud the definition of a direct object. Discuss the example sentence. Use the definition and example sentence of an indirect object to show how asking to whom or for whom the action is performed identifies the indirect object. Ask a student to read aloud the definition of an object of a preposition and the example sentence. Have students give
The drama teacher appointed Brigitte costume designer.
EXERCISE 1 Identify the direct object in each sentence. 1. The drama club performed a play at the local theater. 2. The group chose a comedy. 3. Before deciding, the actors read and studied several scripts. 4. The wardrobe designers chose appropriate period costumes. EXERCISE 2 Identify the indirect object in each sentence. 1. A local actress gave the cast free coaching. 2. Ms. Stanton offered the actors costumes. 3. A local shop loaned the stagehands saws, hammers, and nails.
4. The casting director assigned Claire the lead role.
8 • Section 1.4
EXERCISE 2 Write the sentences on the board and invite volunteers to label each direct object and indirect object.
APPLY IT NOW Offer students the option of writing about another event, such as a school carnival or classroom activity. Have students highlight or circle the direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions in their writing. Students should demonstrate an understanding of nouns as objects and object complements.
Note which students had difficulty with nouns as objects and object complements. Assign Practice Book pages 7–8 for further practice.
Use pages 228–229 of the Writing portion of the book.
There are several movie review websites. Find one or more to recommend. Suggest that students work with an adult and post an opinion on one of the sites.
Reteach Review the different ways nouns are used as objects. Arrange students in groups of four and give each student in the group a note card on which is written direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, or object complement. Have each student in turn make up a sentence that illustrates the use of a noun as indicated on his or her card. Ask students to trade cards and repeat the activity. Continue until students have had every card.
Meeting Individual Needs Intrapersonal Have students add to their journals by writing two or three sentences about friends or family members. Instruct students to include one of the following in each sentence: a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, or an object complement.
EXERCISE 3 Identify the objects of prepositions in these sentences. A sentence may have more than one preposition and one object. 1. The play was the best thing I’ve ever seen on a stage. 2. It was excellent from beginning to end. 3. All the students acted with enthusiasm. 4. There was a huge round of applause for the actors. 5. All the people in the audience were on their feet at the end. 6. Stage acting combines imagination with hard work and confidence.
Sharing and Caring As students work in small groups or with partners, remind them to be respectful of other students’ ideas and to listen with courteous attention. Remind students that no matter how different individual abilities may be, each student has something valuable to offer to the group.
EXERCISE 4 Identify the object complement in each sentence. 1. The town paper named Emma the best actress of the year. 2. The school newspaper declared the play a great success. 3. Ms. Stanton appointed Charles director of the next play. 4. We chose Pilar president of the drama club. 5. We made Mickey Mouse our unofficial mascot. 6. We practiced the play Our Town.
Common Core Standards
EXERCISE 5 Tell whether each underlined noun is a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, or an object complement. 1. People still consider ancient Greek plays masterpieces. 2. Greek dramas are performed on stages around the world
3. 4. 5. 6.
The actors in ancient Greek drama wore masks. The masks expressed the nature of their characters. A festival in Athens offered winners prizes for acting. In my opinion, we should perform more Shakespearean plays.
7. The theater committee pronounced Hamlet the next performance.
8. The director first read the actors the unabridged version.
9. We are planning a trip to the theater. 10. Our teacher gave us a play to read.
With an adult, send an opinion to a movie website.
APPLY IT NOW Write five or six sentences about a movie you have recently seen. In your sentences, use each of the following at least once: direct object, indirect object, object complement, and object of a preposition.
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Nouns • 9
OBJECTIVES • To identify appositives in sentences • To distinguish between restrictive and nonrestrictive appositives
DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 2, Section 1.5. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.
WARM-UP To help define and appositive, invite one student to choose another student and walk to his or her desk. Have both students stand. Tell the pair that you will ask a question. (Questions may include saying two sentences, one sentence with an appositive and one sentence without and appositive, and asking how the sentences differ.) Explain that the first student to answer the question correctly wins the round and chooses the next player. The other student sits down. Repeat the sequence. Explain that the last student standing is the winner.
Review noun usages and ask students to identify subjects, subject complements, and objects of prepositions in the example sentences. Write on the board additional examples of restrictive and nonrestrictive appositives. Ask volunteers to draw lines from the appositives to the nouns they explain.
PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Work on the first two sentences as a class, identifying the appositives and the nouns they explain. Have students complete the exercise by
In the sentence below, the noun Louis Armstrong is an appositive that explains the noun musician. It is not set off by commas because it is restrictive. The restrictive appositive is necessary in order to know which musician is meant. The phrase a jazz band is an appositive phrase that explains the noun Hot Fives. The appositive phrase is set off by a comma because it is nonrestrictive. The nonrestrictive appositive is not necessary in order to understand the sentence; it just gives extra information. The famous musician Louis Armstrong was the leader of the Hot Fives, a jazz band.
An appositive that follows a common noun can be restrictive or nonrestrictive, depending on the circumstances. An appositive that directly follows a proper noun is almost always nonrestrictive. In the first example below, the appositive David is nonrestrictive because Carl has only one brother. In the second example, the appositive Miguel is restrictive because it is necessary in order to know which of Maria’s brothers is meant. Carl’s brother, David, is a good trumpet player. (Carl has one brother whose name is David.) Maria’s brother Miguel is an excellent violinist. (Maria has three brothers—Julio, Miguel, and Roberto.)
10 • Section 1.5
EXERCISE 2 Have volunteers describe the difference between a restrictive appositive and a nonrestrictive appositive. Write the first two sentences on the board. Invite volunteers to point out the appositives, identify them as restrictive or nonrestrictive, and add commas if needed.
An appositive is a word that follows a noun and helps identify it or adds more information about it. An appositive names the same person, place, thing, or idea as the noun it explains. An appositive phrase is an appositive and its modifiers.
Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the appositives.
Have volunteers read aloud the explanation of appositives and appositive phrases. Pause between paragraphs to discuss the information. To highlight the relationship between appositives and the nouns they explain, write equations on the board to illustrate the example sentence (musician = Louis Armstrong and Hot Fives = band).
making two columns on a sheet of paper and writing the appositive in one column and its corresponding noun in the other.
EXERCISE 1 Identify the appositive in each sentence. Tell which noun it explains.
1. Jazz, an American invention, is a popular type of music today. 2. One important quality of jazz is improvisation, the creation of new music on the spot.
3. 4. 5. 6.
Syncopation, changes in regular musical patterns, is an important quality. Often jazz is performed by a combo, a small group of musicians. The trumpet, a brass instrument, is associated with jazz. Saxophones and clarinets, the traditional reed instruments of jazz, help give the music its particular quality.
APPLY IT NOW Encourage students to use encyclopedias or the Internet to confirm the information they use in their paragraphs. Have students create a chart on the board where they can list the nouns and appositives used in the sentences. Students should demonstrate an understanding of restrictive and nonrestrictive appositives.
Note which students had difficulty with appositives. Assign Practice Book pages 9–10 for further practice.
Use pages 230–231 of the Writing portion of the book.
Reteach Divide the class into groups of 10 and provide each group with 10 sentences that contain appositives. Ask each student to read aloud one sentence to the rest of the group. After each sentence is read aloud, have students identify the appositive and the noun it explains. Then ask students to read the sentence again, this time omitting the appositive and its modifiers. Have students discuss whether the appositive was necessary for understanding the meaning of the sentence.
Meeting Individual Needs Visual Begin a chart on the board, such as the one below. In the first column, write sentences that do not contain appositives. In the second column, have students work together to rewrite the sentences to include appositives. Help students compose sentences that use nouns in both restrictive and nonrestrictive appositive phrases.
7. Blues, music with sad sounds, had an important influence on jazz. 8. Another influence on jazz was ragtime, an energetic musical form popular in the 1890s.
9. The trumpet player Louis Armstrong was important in the development and popularization of jazz.
10. New Orleans, the home of jazz, holds an annual jazz festival. 11. Bebop, an art form of jazz, has an unpredictable style. 12. Herbie Hancock, a well-known jazz fusion performer, uses
Column 1 Fluffy loves to climb trees.
electric instruments and complex harmonies.
EXERCISE 2 Identify the appositive in each sentence and decide if it is restrictive or nonrestrictive. Rewrite those sentences with nonrestrictive appositives, adding commas where necessary. 1. The jazz musician Wynton Marsalis was born in New Orleans. 2. New Orleans a city in Louisiana is known for its jazz music. 3. He attended Juilliard a prestigious music school in New York City. 4. Marsalis a member of a large family has several brothers in the music
Dr. Chin hosts a radio program. The movie is exciting. Column 2 Fluffy, my neighbor’s cat, loves to climb trees. Dr. Chin, a local physician, hosts a radio program.
5. 6. 7. 8.
In 1982 Wynton started a jazz combo with his brother Branford.
The movie Star Wars is exciting.
The record producer Delfeayo Marsalis is their brother. Their father Ellis Marsalis is a noted jazz pianist and teacher. The trumpet Wynton’s primary instrument is featured on many of his jazz recordings.
9. The bass trumpet the type of trombone most often used by trombone
To practice these concepts in the context of diagramming, turn to Section 11.2.
players is played with a special mouthpiece.
10. Wynton has also won Grammy Awards the most prestigious prizes given to musicians.
11. Wynton’s musical composition Blood in the Fields deals with slavery and race relations.
12. His classical album Trumpet Concertos won a Grammy Award in 1983 the same year that his jazz album Think of One won.
APPLY IT NOW What kind of music do you like to listen to? What are your favorite singers and songs? Write five or six sentences about this topic and use appositives to explain some of the nouns in your paragraph.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.7.1a CCSS.ELA.L.7.2 CCSS.ELA.W.7.4
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Nouns • 11
OBJECTIVES • To use possessive nouns correctly • To learn how to write the possessive form of singular nouns, plural nouns, proper names ending in -s, and compound nouns • To understand the difference between separate possession and joint possession, using possessive nouns
DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 2, Section 1.6. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.
Ask volunteers to read silently the paragraph on separate and joint possession. Then have students dictate sentences that include examples of either. Write the sentences on the board, leaving blanks for the possessive nouns. Have volunteers fill in the blanks with the correct possessive forms.
PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 For review, have volunteers describe the different ways of forming possessive nouns. Remind students to pay careful attention to the verb form and the
That girl’s skill at drawing is impressive. (The girl possesses skill.) The Wilsons’ home has many paintings on the walls. (The Wilsons own the home.)
To form the singular possessive, add -’s to the singular form of the noun. student Madeline
To form the possessive of plural nouns ending in s, add the apostrophe only. If the plural form of a noun does not end in s, add -’s. cowboys children
The singular possessive of proper names ending in s is usually formed by adding -’s. James Mrs. Williams
Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the possessive nouns.
James’s Mrs. Williams’s
The plural possessive of a proper name is formed by adding an apostrophe to the plural of the name. the Adamses
The possessive of compound nouns is formed by adding -’s to the end of the word.
12 • Section 1.6
EXERCISE 2 Point out that -’s is used after each noun to show separate possession and that if -’s is used after the last noun only, it shows joint possession. When students have completed the exercise, invite volunteers to identify the clues in each sentence that indicate separate or joint possession.
A possessive noun expresses possession or ownership.
Ask students to walk around the room and choose an object. Have students return to their desks and write two different ways to show that the object belongs to them (John’s globe, my globe, the globe that belongs to John). Have students share their answers. If the answer includes an apostrophe, ask students to write the word or words on the board. Discuss the role of the apostrophe.
Have volunteers read aloud the definition of a possessive noun and the different ways to form possessives. Write some singular and plural possessives on the board, such as man’s, monkey’s, teachers’, and ladies’. Have students identify the words as singular possessives or plural possessives.
context of each sentence to help them decide whether the word in parentheses should be used in its singular possessive or plural possessive form.
commander in chief sister-in-law
commander in chief’s sister-in-law’s
If two or more nouns are used together to indicate separate possession—that is, that each person owns something independently— the -’s is used after each noun. If two or more nouns are used together to indicate joint possession—that is, to show that one thing is owned together—the -’s is used only after the last noun. Owen’s and Charlotte’s murals are colorful. (separate possession) Finn and Otto’s mural is colorful. (joint possession)
APPLY IT NOW While sentences will vary, make sure that one sentence includes a noun that shows separate possession and the other sentence includes a noun that shows joint possession. Students should demonstrate an understanding of possessive nouns.
Note which students had difficulty with possessive nouns. Assign Practice Book pages 11–12 for further practice.
Use pages 232–233 of the Writing portion of the book.
Have students read the student model on page 223 to find the three possessive nouns: driver’s, girl’s, girl’s. Discuss why Name’s is a contraction, not a possessive noun.
Many languages do not have possessive forms that are made by adding -’s but instead use prepositional phrases to show ownership. Demonstrate for Englishlanguage learners that the possessive form in English means the same as a prepositional phrase, as in Selena’s bike and the bike of Selena. Work with students to change prepositional phrases that show ownership to possessive forms of nouns.
(family) vacation included a stop at a museum in Chicago.
2. The Art Institute is one of that (city) treasures. 3. (Georges Seurat) Sunday Afternoon on the
Meeting Individual Needs
Island of La Grande Jatte is one of the most famous paintings in the museum.
Extra Support Review with students nouns whose spellings change in the plural form, such as child, mouse, woman, man, wolf, and goose. Help students write the possessive plurals of these words on the board: children’s, mice’s, women’s, men’s, wolves’, geese’s. Remind students that certain nouns, such as deer and sheep, are spelled the same in the singular and plural form. Emphasize that with nouns of this type, the singular possessive and the plural possessive are the same.
5. My sister
(Iris) favorite painting is American Gothic, which shows a man and a woman outside a farmhouse.
(man) and the expressions are somber and stern.
7. The old suits of armor in a large gallery were my (brother) favorite objects, and they took many pictures of them.
8. At the special exhibit of miniature homes, we felt like giants looking through the
Distribute newspapers or magazines to students and have them find articles that contain possessive nouns. Have students highlight or circle these words. Invite volunteers to come to the board and write a list of the possessive nouns they found. Have other volunteers note whether the nouns listed are singular or plural.
EXERCISE 1 Complete each sentence, using the singular possessive or plural possessive form of the noun in parentheses.
4. Tiny dots of paint cover the
EXERCISE 2 Use the information in the items below to write sentences showing either separate or joint possession. 1. Anna and Charles started an art club together. It meets monthly. 2. Mr. Saunders offered to help. Mrs. Jackson also offered to help. The members accepted both offers.
3. David and Jenna worked together on the first project. Their first art project was a colorful mural.
4. Lilly and Brandon each did a painting for their first
Common Core Standards
project. Their paintings were in watercolors.
5. Jason and Sophia worked together on a sculpture. Their sculpture won first prize at the local fair.
6. Miguel and Connor had ideas about what to paint. Their ideas were different.
7. Experienced artists exhibit their work at this gallery. Novice artists exhibit their work at this gallery too. Find the three possessive nouns on p. 223.
APPLY IT NOW
What are your family’s favorite museums or attractions that you enjoy visiting? Do some of your family members enjoy different ones? Write one sentence using joint possession and one sentence using separate possession.
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Nouns • 13
ASSESS Use the Noun Review as homework, as a practice test, or as an informal assessment. Following are some options for use.
You may wish to assign one group the odd items and another group the even items. When you next meet, review the correct answers as a group. Be sure to model how to arrive at the correct answer.
Use the Noun Review as a diagnostic tool. Assign the entire review or just specific sections. After students have finished, identify which concepts require more attention. Reteach concepts as necessary.
Noun Review 1.1 Write the correct plural of the nouns in parentheses. 1. (Attorney) by day, my mom
and dad pursue different (hobby) after work.
2. Mom fishes for all kinds of (trout).
3. In our basement there are (box) of (fly) she has tied.
4. She also collects old (reel) and (tackle box).
5. Dad likes to eat (fish), but he would rather tend to his (lily) than fish.
6. He posts (story) and (essay) on his gardening blog.
7. Many (woman) and (man) work. 8. My (parent) share their (vocation), but not their (hobby).
1.2 Change each sentence by making the underlined word plural. Write the new sentence, adjusting any additional words so that it is grammatically correct. Some sentences are correct. 9. We will celebrate his birthday. 10. The cowboy helped the calf
out of the water.
11. The policewoman guarded the safe.
12. The tourist wanted to climb the volcano.
13. My mom put a potato into the soup.
14. I need water for the lily of the valley in my vase.
14 • Noun Review
15. I had an armful of newspapers that had to be delivered.
16. Hannah brought her portfolio to the meeting.
17. My dad adjusted the shelf in my bedroom.
18. Mrs. Vicente put the scissors away.
19. The hikers saw the fox in the woods.
20. The deer ate all the pumpkins in the garden.
1.3 Identify each underlined word as a subject or subject complement. 21. One of the most exciting
sports is soccer.
22. Soccer players are treated as royalty in some countries.
23. My uncle belongs to a soccer club in this country.
24. The men are all accomplished athletes.
25. If I could meet any soccer
player in the world, David Beckham is the one I would choose.
26. Although I practice every day during the week, Saturday is game day.
Use pages 234–235 of the Writing portion of the book.
Use the review as preparation for the formal assessment. Count the review as a portion of the grade. Have students work to find the correct answers and use their corrected review as a study guide for the formal assessment.
TEACHING OPTIONS Meeting Individual Needs Challenge Have students choose and then copy a section from their favorite book or magazine. Ask students to use double-spacing if they are typing on a computer or to write on every other line if writing by hand. Write the following directions on the board:
• Circle all nouns. • Underline with one line all nouns used as subjects. • Underline with two lines all nouns used as noun complements. • Write DO above all direct objects, and write IO above all indirect objects.
1.4 Identify each of the underlined words as a direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, or object complement. 27. The seventh grade performed
41. George Crain a marine
Have students exchange their sections with a partner and discuss the choices they made and why.
42. He is asking for help from
Common Core Standards
28. High school actors gave the
43. His daughter Elizabeth can
Our Town last spring. cast helpful tips.
29. Parents, teachers, and friends filled the theater for every performance.
30. The cast voted Marny best actress.
31. Ms. Scott appointed me director.
biologist will be arriving in Valdez to explore and search for any remains. volunteers people who can donate their time. come, but his daughter Lilly cannot leave her job.
1.6 Correct the possessive nouns. 44. The teens projects failed.
45. The sisters-in-law potluck was a success. (plural)
32. She named Carl manager. 33. The award winners received
46. The men book clubs were
34. Tears of happiness rolled
47. Carlos dog ran home.
new trophies for their efforts. down their faces.
1.5 Identify the appositives and punctuate them if needed. 35. Ten to fifteen thousand sea
otters cuddly and playful mammals once lived in Prince William Sound.
36. A tragic event occurred in
Valdez a small Alaskan town on the Sound.
postponed. (plural) (singular)
48. My brother scout group had a fair. (singular)
49. Mr. Saunders car was stuck in the snow. (singular)
50. The puppies food is in the basement. (plural)
51. The children job is to shovel the snow. (plural)
52. Put it on the desk in the boss office. (singular)
37. The supertanker Exxon Valdez left port.
38. Supertankers huge oceangoing vessels are hard to steer.
39. The supertanker hit Bligh Reef a mass of rock.
40. An oil slick a large gooey
puddle of oil spread across the water.
Go to www.voyagesinenglish.com for more activities. Nouns
Encourage students to further review nouns, using the additional practice and games at www.voyagesinenglish.com.
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Nouns • 15
ASSESS Have volunteers read aloud the directions and the paragraph. If students have difficulty with any question, remind them that they should refer to the section that teaches the skill. This activity can be completed by individuals, small groups, or the whole class.
Have students read the paragraph in Exercise 2 and then write two paragraphs of their own. Make sure students answer the questions in their first paragraph and use nouns as required in their second paragraph.
After you have reviewed nouns, administer the Section 1 Assessment on pages 1–2 in the Assessment Book, or create a customized test with the optional Loyola Press Online Assessment System.
Noun Challenge EXERCISE 1 Read the selection and then answer the questions. 1. Paris, the capital of France, is regarded by many travelers as the most beautiful city in the world. 2. Its tree-lined boulevards and gracious buildings attract many visitors each year. 3. Some of the internationally famous monuments of Paris are the Arc de Triomphe, the Cathedral of Notre Dame, and the Eiffel Tower. 4. The beauty of this capital offers tourists a delight for the eyes. 5. Paris is a chic city, and many fashion designers call Paris home. 6. If the opportunity to visit France’s most elegant city presents itself, be sure to go.
1. What is the subject of sentence 1? 2. What is the direct object of sentence 2? 3. What are the subjects of sentence 2? 4. What is the indirect object of sentence 4? 5. Name the appositive in sentence 1. 6. Name the subject complements in sentence 3. 7. Name the two subjects in sentence 5. 8. Name the objects of prepositions in sentence 4. 9. What is the object complement in sentence 5? 10. Name a possessive noun in sentence 6. EXERCISE 2 Read the following and respond. Paris is home to many tourist attractions. Besides the monuments mentioned in the above paragraph, other attractions include the Louvre, the largest and most famous museum, and Disneyland Paris.
1. Write a paragraph identifying one tourist attraction near your home and why it is a tourist attraction. Answer the following questions in your paragraph: have you read about it, or have you been there yourself? If your family had out-of-town guests, would you recommend that they visit this attraction, or would you suggest they skip the attraction?
2. In your paragraph, use one of each of the following: a direct object or an indirect object, a subject complement or an object complement, an object of a preposition, a possessive noun, and an appositive.
16 • Noun Challenge
WRITTEN AND ORAL COMMUNICATION
Book Reviews 374
Creative Writing: Fantasy Fiction
Expository Writing 450
Research Reports 488
Personal Narratives CHAPTER FOCUS LESSON 1: What Makes a Good Personal Narrative? LESSON 2: Introduction, Body, and Conclusion
WHAT IS A PERSONAL NARRATIVE? A personal narrative is a true story written about a particular event by the person who experienced it, using the personal pronouns I and me. At its best, a personal narrative is revealing and relevant to others.
• GRAMMAR: Nouns and Adjectives
A good personal narrative includes the following:
• WRITING SKILLS: Revising Sentences
■■ A suitable topic with a clear focus ■■ A structure that includes an engaging introduction, a cohesive body in
• WORD STUDY: Exact Words • STUDY SKILLS: Graphic Organizers
chronological order, and a conclusion that leaves a sense of resolution
• SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS: Oral Personal Narratives • WRITER’S WORKSHOP: Personal Narratives
■■ An authentic voice that shows the writer’s personality and provides a sense of authority
■■ A tone geared toward the intended audience ■■ Exact words and natural language ■■ A variety of sentence styles and lengths that avoids run-on and rambling sentences
Use the following titles to offer your students examples of well-crafted personal narratives:
Practice Book Writing, pages 130–134
The Land I Lost: Adventures of a Boy in Vietnam by Quang Nhuong Huynh
Assessment Book Chapter 1 Writing Skills, pages 45–46 Personal Narrative Writing Prompt, pages 47–48
No Summit Out of Sight: The True Story of the Youngest Person to Climb the Seven Summits by Jordon Romero and Linda LeBlanc I Am Malala: How One Girl Stood Up for Education and Changed the World by Malala Yousafzai
Rubrics Student, page 259y Teacher, page 259z Loyola Press Online Assessment System Grammar Sections 1 and 2, pages 1–30 Customizable Lesson Plans www.voyagesinenglish.com
222a • Chapter 1
There is no longer any such thing as fiction or nonfiction; there’s only narrative.
WRITER’S WORKSHOP TIPS
Follow these ideas and tips to help you and your class get the most out of the Writer’s Workshop:
• Review the traits of good writing. Use the chart on the inside back cover of the student and teacher editions. • Explore many different forms of personal narratives, including autobiographies, magazine or newspaper personal essays, and journals. • Encourage students to keep a journal to record important or interesting personal experiences. • Invite students to bring in photo albums, scrapbooks, or other memorabilia to share information about their lives. • Locate a guest speaker who has experienced a significant event. Have the speaker come to class to tell about his or her experience. Encourage students to listen for clarity, tone, word choice, and vivid descriptions. Invite students to ask the guest speaker questions. After the speaker has left, discuss which questions might have been addressed by the speaker but were not. • Discuss how the following people relate personal narratives: songwriters, comedians, and job applicants.
Point Values 0 = not evident 1 = minimal evidence of mastery 2 = evidence of development toward mastery 3 = strong evidence of mastery 4 = outstanding evidence of mastery
a suitable topic a clear focus
Organization an introduction that engages the reader a graphic organizer for planning chronological order a sense of resolution in the conclusion
Voice identifiable writer’s personality a sense of authenticity an appropriate tone
Word Choice exact words no redundant words natural language
CONNECT WITH GRAMMAR Throughout the Writer’s Workshop, look for opportunities to integrate nouns and adjectives with writing personal narratives.
■■ Discuss how choosing precise nouns can help students write more engaging personal narratives.
■■ Have students use both a dictionary and a thesaurus to find more precise nouns.
■■ Review the definition of an appositive. Provide three sentences without appositives. Then ask students to revise the sentences by adding appositives.
Sentence Fluency a variety of sentence lengths a variety of sentence types no run-on and rambling sentences
Conventions correct grammar and usage correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization
Presentation easy to read, typed or neatly handwritten a title page
■■ Ask students to explain how the choice of adjectives can affect a personal narrative.
■■ Discuss the differences between adjective phrases and clauses. Invite volunteers to give examples.
■■ Encourage students to use a variety of adjective
Total Full-sized, reproducible rubrics can be found at the end of this chapter.
phrases and clauses in their personal narratives.
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INTRODUCING THE GENRE
Ask students to tell what they know about personal narratives. Discuss personal narratives that students encounter in their lives, such as telling a parent about a day at school. Emphasize that students may need to write personal narratives in the future, whether in school, at work, or in their private lives. Explain that the word personal means “relating to someone’s life.”
The Land I Lost The excerpts in Chapter 1 introduce students to relevant, real, published examples of personal narratives. The Land I Lost is a strong example of a personal narrative because it does the following:
Tell students that personal narratives contain specific elements and characteristics.
• The personal narrative is
written in the first person.
• The events are told in chronological order.
• There is an engaging
introduction, a detailed body, and a satisfying conclusion. • The events are related in exact words to help the reader have a clear idea of the experience of the writer.
READING THE LITERATURE EXCERPT Have volunteers read aloud the literature excerpt. Ask students to point out reasons why this piece would be considered a good example of a personal narrative. Ask students to name similar books or articles they have read. Discuss what makes this writing a personal narrative. Ask students to find examples of how they know the writer is describing an event that happened in his life.
Personal Narratives LiNK
The Land I Lost by Huynh Quang Nhuong
• Tells a true story that happened
One day when I was in the field with the herd, fierce fighting between the French forces and the Resistance led by Ho Chi Minh erupted in our hamlet. The battle was so close that I tried to run away and find shelter in the river. I led Tank and the rest of the herd toward the river, but suddenly I noticed that Tank was lagging behind and limping. He had been hit by a stray bullet which had passed through his chest. With my urging, Tank made it to the river, but he looked very weak when he lay down. I tapped Tank’s neck slightly to let him know I was still with him, and I also tried to tell him that he would be okay. . . . When the battle was over, Tank could not get up. He died about an hour later. We buried Tank in the graveyard where we buried all the dead in our family, and every Lunar New Year my father burned incense in front of all those tombs, including Tank’s.
to the writer
• Moves in chronological order • Is written in the first person As students encounter the different examples throughout the chapter, be sure to point out the characteristics they share. Also take this opportunity to point out the grammar skills that students have been learning, such as writing correct plural nouns and possessive nouns and identifying different kinds adjectives.
> Published in 1982, The Land I Lost tells of the splendor, heartache, and danger in Huynh Quang Nhuong’s youth, growing up in the highlands of Vietnam.
222 • Chapter 1
READING THE STUDENT MODEL Tell students that they are going to read an actual student personal narrative about meeting a new friend. Then have volunteers read aloud the model. Ask students to find examples of how they know the writer is describing an event that happened in her life. (She uses I, our, and my.) Point out that the introduction of “Meeting Becca” states the purpose and catches the reader’s attention. Be sure that students understand that the personal narrative is arranged in
chronological order, taking the reader step-by-step through the events leading up to Becca setting a time to meet Ellie again. Explain that because the class assignment was intended for a teacher and other students, it was written in a specific way (casual language used, personal details included, the writer’s feelings expressed). Ask how the writing might have been different had it been intended for a different audience such as parents (more formal language used, focused on more information for adults).
CHAPTER Ellie Magnuson, Ro om
We pulled into the driveway of our ne w house. At the hous next door, a girl wa e s on her bike, riding up and down the str was shy, six years old eet. I , and had only three playmates. Mom tu around from the dr rned iver’s seat. “Ellie, ho w ab out you go see what that girl’s name is? ” I looked out the wi ndow, then shook my Mom stopped the ca head. r, a signal that if I did not get out, I was de meat. Reluctantly, ad I did as I was told. I stood in front of the girl’s path and waite d for her to stop. Mom was watching me. I stuck out my ha nd . “Hi,” I said. She frowned, but sh ook my hand. “Hi,” she said back. “Name’s Ellie.” “Becca.” “OK.” “I’m free tomorrow .” “OK.” “Bye.” “Bye.” Nothing like a perfe ct conversation to get a friendship sta rted.
TEACHING OPTIONS Scavenger Hunt Challenge students to look through the written material in the classroom to find examples of personal narratives. Be sure that students understand that a personal narrative is not fiction but an account of something that actually happened to the writer.
For Tomorrow Have students find e-mails or letters that include short personal narratives. Tell students to be prepared to share these e-mails or letters with the class and discuss why they are personal narratives. Bring in your own e-mails or letters that include personal narratives to share with the class.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.9
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What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?
OBJECTIVES • To understand the characteristics of a personal narrative • To arrange personal narratives in chronological order • To identify appropriate topics for personal narratives
WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share your examples of e-mails or letters from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model for students by saying “These are examples of personal narratives because they tell a true story that happened to me, are written in the first person, and are in chronological order.” Invite students to point out the characteristics of a personal narrative in their examples.
PRACTICE ACTIVITY A To introduce the activity, suggest that students identify the introduction and conclusion before they order the remaining sentences. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the rewritten personal narrative and explain his or her decisions for ordering the sentences.
Take this opportunity to talk about singular and plural nouns. You may wish to have students point out singular and plural nouns in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
What Makes a Good Personal Narrative? The excerpt from The Land I Lost on page 222 shares a tense and emotional time in Huynh’s childhood. The personal narrative on page 223 was written to share the story of how Ellie, the author, had a funny experience when she moved to a new neighborhood years ago. These stories are written from the authors’ point of view, which makes them personal narratives. Another type is an informal business report, such as when you share a “story” of what happened when you met with the school green committee about starting a special recycling project. A personal narrative is a true story written about a particular event by the person who experienced it. Personal narratives are written in the first person, using the personal pronouns I and me. Here are some things to keep in mind when writing a personal narrative.
TEACH Ask a volunteer to read “Meeting Becca.” Explain that school essays can be one type of personal narrative. Ask students to name some others (telephone conversations, journal entries, and e-mails). Have volunteers read aloud the section. Explain that writers consider the audience before beginning a narrative and choose details of interest to the reader. Remind students that good writers list events in order, which helps the narrative flow logically and read more easily.
Audience Ask yourself, Who is my audience? and What will my readers want to know or understand about this? Think of your audience and these questions as you write.
Structure Attract your audience’s attention with an opening sentence that gives the reader an idea of the topic of your narrative. Then relate the events of your experience in chronological order. Maintain your audience’s attention by staying focused on your topic and not giving any irrelevant information. Conclude with a sentence that completes, sums up, or expands on the narrative.
Flow Focus on the fluidity of your sentences and thoughts. Does your narrative move smoothly from one fact to the next? Does it flow from the beginning to the middle to the end?
224 • Chapter 1
ACTIVITY B Ask partners to review the personal narrative on page 222 and use it as a model. As partners select details to include, encourage them to consider their audience. Remind students to begin with an introduction, end with a conclusion, and explain what happened in chronological order.
Note which students had difficulty understanding the characteristics of a personal narrative. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.
Ask students to select a topic and choose an audience. Then ask students to list in chronological order possible events for that topic. Encourage students to eliminate any events that do not move the narrative forward. Students should demonstrate an understanding of topic, audience, and chronological order.
Read the following passages to students. Have them explain whether each passage might be from a personal narrative. A. I never thought I’d see a movie star in my hometown! There he sat, at a corner booth in Burger World, munching on french fries and reading a newspaper. B. The abacus is an ancient counting device. Some consider it to be the first computer. The abacus uses beads, coins, or pebbles as placeholders. C. My day was off to a terrible start. First, I slept through my alarm. Then I saw that my dog had chewed my shoes during the night. Guide students to understand why A and C could be personal narratives. (The writer tells a story about himself or herself. The events happened to him or her. The excerpts are written from the writer’s point of view. The passages are organized in chronological order.)
ACTIVITY A Below are sentences taken from an e-mail about a meeting. They are listed out of order. Rewrite the personal narrative by listing the sentences in chronological order and then writing them in paragraph form.
1. First, I presented my idea on making a section of the school grounds a native flower preserve.
2. I met with the head of the committee, Ms. Borowski. 3. I ended the meeting by saying I would be happy to outline our meeting for her so that she can present the ideas to the rest of the committee to be discussed at their next meeting. She was thrilled.
4. She was particularly interested in recycling used cell phones, batteries, and printer cartridges.
5. Mom, before you come home from work, I wanted to let you know about the exciting meeting I had with the school green committee today after classes.
6. Before I prepare the outline, I will send her a quick e-mail thanking her for her time and for considering my ideas. Thanks, Mom, for helping me practice this meeting with you.
7. I then presented to her three additional ideas on how to help our school be more energy efficient and environmentally friendly.
ACTIVITY B Reread the organized e-mail from Activity A. Imagine that you are the head of the school green committee, Ms. Borowski. Write a note to the principal, explaining what was discussed at the meeting with the student. Be sure to tell whether or not you will be using these suggestions.
Writer’s Corner Reread the excerpts on pages 222 and 223. Choose a topic below or
Challenge students to find a piece of writing in which the writer tailors the writing to a particular audience. Have students bring the piece to class. Ask students to be prepared to tell who the intended audience is and how they know. Bring in your own example to share with students.
think of something you experienced that would make an interesting personal
Common Core Standards
narrative. Write whom
the audience would be and then list the events in chronological order. A. a severe storm in your neighborhood B. volunteering at an event C. a family road trip D. a day at an amusement park or water park E. a sporting event Personal Narratives
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What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?
WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share your examples of writing tailored to a particular audience from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model for the students by telling who the audience is and how you know. Have small groups take turns reading the audience-focused writing examples they found as homework. Ask students what clues about the audience are present in each example.
Take this opportunity to talk about nouns as subjects and subject complements. You may wish to have students point out nouns as subjects and subject complements in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
long time . . . her face always appeared clearly to me . . .) Have students explain what tone is being conveyed (sadness, mourning).
PRACTICE ACTIVITY C Review with students the way language in a personal narrative helps set the tone. After students have completed the activity, ask them to explain their answers and identify the words or phrases that helped them determine tone. ACTIVITY D After students have completed the activity, ask them to explain
why each potential topic would or would not be appropriate for a personal narrative. Ask them to change inappropriate topics to appropriate ones. (How our neighbor’s house was built might be changed to watching my neighbor’s house being built.) ACTIVITY E Explain to students that the appropriate link of tone to audience reinforces the writer’s message and shows respect for the reader. When students have finished the activity, have volunteers share their new e-mails. Point out the formal tone used with the teacher and the informal tone used with the friend.
Choosing Your Topic Before you can write a personal narrative, you need to decide which life experience you want to write about. Think about experiences that have caused you to feel a strong emotion. Some of your memorable experiences might make you laugh or smile, while others might make you feel sad or angry. One way to choose a topic for your personal narrative is to brainstorm a list of memorable experiences. Then narrow down the list by choosing the ones you like the best. Here are a few questions to ask yourself when choosing an experience to write about.
TEACH Ask a volunteer to read aloud the section Choosing Your Topic. Remind students that during brainstorming they should write every idea that occurs to them. Help students understand that the narrowing process is not limited to a specific number of ideas. Ask students to brainstorm possible topics for a personal narrative. Invite students to talk about their experience using brainstorming. Have a volunteer read the Tone section. Explain that writers decide the tone they will use by considering their audience. Ask students when a humorous tone might be inappropriate in a narrative. Challenge students to support their responses with examples. Invite volunteers to suggest appropriate and inappropriate tones for specific audiences.
• • •
Do I have enough to write about this experience in the form of a personal narrative? Do I have strong feelings about this particular experience? Who is my audience? Will the topic be interesting to my audience?
Tone When selecting an idea to write about, think about your tone, how you as the writer feel about your subject. You will convey that tone to your audience through your language. For example, look at the line on page 223 that says “dead meat.” How does this exaggeration connect the writer to her audience? Can you find another line where the writer’s exaggeration clearly reveals her tone?
The Land I Lost
It took me a long time to get used to the reality that my grandmother had passed away. Wherever I was, in the house, in the garden, out on the fields, her face always appeared so clearly to me. Huynh Quang Nhuong
Point out words or sentences in the The Land I Lost excerpt that help set the tone. (It took me a 226
226 • Chapter 1
ACTIVITY C Read the following lines from a variety of narratives and decide what tone is being conveyed.
1. She thought the bell would never ring. 2. As the sun set, John wondered if he’d ever see Lucky again.
3. Nicole walked by the old house, and something caught her eye in the window.
4. Again my parents thought that I had made the mess.
Note which students had difficulty identifying suitable personal narrative topics. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 130 provides additional practice with understanding of audience and tone in a personal narrative.
To emphasize the importance of tone, point out that in the personal narrative on page 223, the writer was remembering an event that occurred when she was six. Encourage students to use language more appropriate for a seventh grader as they revise several sentences. Ask volunteers to share and explain their revisions. Students should demonstrate an understanding of audience and tone.
How to organize a school dance Learning to ride my bike How to get to school My father’s childhood The day I lost my dog My science-fair disaster Good science-fair projects
Discuss that students can express tone in an e-mail by using all capital letters (HELP), exclamation points (Yikes!), emotional graphics, such as the smiley face symbol or the sleepy face, and emoticons.
ACTIVITY D Using what you have learned about choosing a topic, decide whether the following ideas would be appropriate topics for a personal narrative.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Write these topics on the board:
Remind the students that a personal narrative should be about a single event experienced by the writer. Invite volunteers to circle clues, such as the use of the first-person pronouns I and my in the topic list. Have volunteers mark which topics involve a single event. Then ask students to decide whether each topic is appropriate for a personal narrative and have students defend their positions.
my sister’s bike trip
losing and then finding my new puppy making friends with a new neighbor babysitting for the first time how our neighbor’s house was built
Other languages have special words to convey formality or informality. Invite students whose primary language is other than English to share these words.
my frustrating math problem a friend’s family history great places to ski techniques for playing the violin finding a mysterious backpack
ACTIVITY E This writer ran into trouble while she was writing e-mails to her art teacher and her friend. Her sentences got mixed into one e-mail. Read her e-mail and decide which sentences were meant for her teacher and which sentences were meant for her friend. Rewrite the e-mail below to make two separate e-mails—one for the art teacher and one for the friend. You always encouraged me to be as creative as I could with my art, so I wanted to share my good news with you. You won’t believe what happened! Remember that crazy painting I did with those funky colors? Thanks to your inspiration, I entered my Joy painting in the art contest at the library and won a first-place ribbon for my age group. Well, the judges at the library must think those colors are cool because I got first prize—a blue ribbon and 25 bucks! Thanks again for teaching me how to paint and having confidence in my abilities. I can’t wait to use my prize money to treat us to a movie and some ice cream.
Writer’s Corner Look at the story on
Write this sentence on the board: Today I was tested. Have students copy the sentence. For tomorrow, have students use the sentence in two short paragraphs, one that has an excited tone and one that has a worried or nervous tone. Write your own two paragraphs to share with students.
page 223. How might the language be different
Common Core Standards
between two seventh
graders meeting for the first time? Rewrite a few of the sentences to show the difference in tone for your
How can you express tone in an e-mail?
new audience. Personal Narratives
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 227
Introduction, Body, and Conclusion
OBJECTIVES • To understand the function of the introduction, body, and conclusion of a personal narrative • To eliminate unimportant details in personal narratives
WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share your two paragraphs about a time when you were tested from yesterday’s homework. Model for students by discussing the tone of each and the ways in which you created tone. Have students in small groups to take turns reading the two paragraphs they composed that incorporate the sentence Today I was tested. Invite the rest of the group to guess which paragraph conveys an excited tone and which conveys a worried or nervous tone. Have students explain their choices.
Ask a volunteer to read the introduction from The Land I Lost. Ask students to put the sentence in their own words. Discuss how the author’s choice of language and sentence structure sets the scene and captures the reader’s attention (the use of soft spot when talking about horse snakes that are strong and venomous). Read the Body section.
Review the importance of using chronological order and leaving out irrelevant details. Discuss how these choices help the reader. Ask a volunteer to read the Conclusion section. Explain that conclusions also may be one sentence or multiple sentences.
Take this opportunity to talk about nouns as objects and object complements. You may wish to have students point out nouns as objects and object complements in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
PRACTICE ACTIVITY A Have students independently read the narrative and follow the directions. Then ask students to explain how the opening sentence fits the criteria for a good introduction. Have students tell why the last sentence makes a good conclusion. Ask students to explain why the detail about the color of Susan’s swimsuit is unimportant to the story. Ask volunteers to suggest instances in which the color detail might be important.
Introduction, Body, and Conclusion A good personal narrative has an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. While they may be identified as distinct parts of the story, they should flow into one another seamlessly.
The Land I Lost
Horse snakes, despite their strength and venom, have one soft spot. Huynh Quang Nhuong
Have a volunteer read aloud the first paragraph and the Introduction section. Explain to students that an introduction can be one sentence or multiple sentences. Tell students that the length is not as important as leading the reader into the narrative.
The introduction sets the scene for the narrative. It can be as short as one sentence or as long as a paragraph. The introduction should be engaging and lead the reader into the body of the narrative. Read a chapter’s introductory sentence from The Land I Lost on your left. How does that catch your attention and make you wonder where this story is going?
Body The body is the main part of the narrative. It tells the story of what happened during the experience. The body should tell the facts one by one, in chronological order. It should include only the thoughts and details that relate to the topic of the narrative.
Conclusion The conclusion is the end of the writer’s story. The conclusion should do one of the following: • • •
emphasize one last fact or detail to leave a lasting impression on the reader summarize or make a statement that draws together the information from the body make a personal comment or a reflection that imparts the writer’s reactions or feelings toward the narrative’s topic
A good conclusion leaves the reader with a feeling of satisfaction and sometimes prompts him or her to think about what the writer has written.
228 • Chapter 1
ACTIVITY B Have students explain why the sentences they chose are more effective. Remind students that a good introduction should capture the reader’s attention, encourage the reader to keep reading, and hint at the topic of the narrative
There are many online sites that allow you to create a free blog, or wiki. Try searching under “classroom blog” or “classroom wiki” for sites that show you how to set up and use these resources. Encourage students to post their classroom work.
APPLY Writer’s Corner
Invite volunteers to share their work. Ask students to discuss if the new sentences improved on the originals. Students should demonstrate an understanding of introductions and conclusions.
TEACHING OPTIONS Reteach Write the following topics on the board:
The best day ever I got in trouble, but I deserved it My big game My greatest accomplishment
ASSESS Note which students had difficulty identifying strong introductions and conclusions. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.
Ask students to select two topics that they would like to explore. For each topic have students create two introductory sentences and two concluding sentences. Invite volunteers to share what they have written. Ask students which sentence is more effective for the introduction and conclusion. Have students explain their reasoning.
Meeting Individual Needs Interpersonal Select an introductory sentence from Activity B and write it on the board. Have students work as a class, taking turns writing the next sentence, and then the next sentence, until an entire story has been written. Encourage students to complete the narrative with a strong conclusion.
ACTIVITY A Identify the introduction and conclusion in this narrative. Discuss whether or not they are effective. Then find one detail that is not necessary to the story. Have you ever had an ordinary day turn out to be quite memorable? That’s what happened to me one summer day, when several of my friends decided to go swimming in the river. I went along to watch because I cannot swim very well. As I sat on the bank, I dangled my feet in the water and waved at my friends who were wading in it. Suddenly, I realized that my bracelet had slipped from my arm and fallen into the water. I bent over to grab it and immediately fell headfirst into the river. I panicked until my friend Susan pulled me to safety. She was wearing a crimson red swimsuit. That experience convinced me to start swimming lessons the next day.
For Tomorrow Have students find a story or an essay that has an effective introduction—an introduction that especially grabs them. Tell students that they will share their selections with the class tomorrow. Bring your own example of an effective introduction to discuss with students.
ACTIVITY B Read each pair of sentences. Which sentence would make a better introduction for a personal narrative? 1. a. I grabbed my suitcase, and I was ready to pack for the trip. b. I’ll never forget my family road trip to the Florida
2. a. I’ve been on long, hot parade routes before, but the Fourth of July parade topped them all. b. I marched with the band in the Fourth of July parade.
3. a. My cousin and I enjoy riding roller coasters. b. My cousin and I have never been on a roller
coaster we didn’t like.
Common Core Standards
4. a. Have you ever had a tomato juice shower? b. There was this one time when I had to take a
tomato juice shower one night.
5. a. I enjoy riding bikes, but I don’t like repairing them. b. If you ever need a bike mechanic, don’t call me.
6. a. All week I heard that noise while trying to fall asleep.
Write a new introductory sentence and concluding
b. I grabbed my flashlight and decided that this
was the night I would find out what was making that noise.
sentence for the paragraph in Activity A. Did your new sentences improve
Post work on a classroom blog or wiki for peer review.
the original? Personal Narratives
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 229
Introduction, Body, and Conclusion
READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share your example of a story or an essay with an effective introduction from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model for students by discussing how the introduction engages the reader and leads into the body of the personal narrative. Ask small groups to take turns reading the effective introductions they found for homework. Have each student then explain why the introduction he or she found works well. Encourage the rest of the group to guess what each piece of writing might be about, based on its introduction.
ACTIVITY C After students have finished the activity, ask volunteers to share their responses. Have students explain how the sentences they selected fit the requirements of a conclusion.
ACTIVITY E Have each student read aloud his or her concluding sentence. Have the rest of the class decide whether the conclusion is a last detail, a summary, or a personal comment.
ACTIVITY D Assign small groups one of the sentences. Ask each group to present its assigned sentence to the class and explain what kind of conclusion each sentence represents.
GRAMMAR CONNECTION Take this opportunity to talk about appositives. You may wish to have students point out appositives in the Read, Listen, Speak examples.
ACTIVITY C Which sentence in each pair would make a better conclusion for a personal narrative? Keep in mind the characteristics of a good conclusion.
1. a. Learning how to play the piano takes a great deal of practice. b. After a great deal of practice and determination, I had the satisfaction
of finally knowing how to play the piano.
2. a. Once we tasted the yummy blackberry sundaes, we completely forgot about our scratches and itchy mosquito bites. b. Picking blackberries wasn’t as much fun as we thought it would be.
Make three columns on the board and label them Introduction, Body, and Conclusion. Refer students to page 228 and have volunteers list the qualities of each narrative part. Ask students to define and describe the qualities of a conclusion. (A conclusion lets a reader know that a passage is ending. Sometimes a conclusion causes the reader to think about what the writer has written.)
3. a. I was totally exhausted after the whole cookie sale experience. b. After hearing that I had sold the most boxes of cookies in the group,
I knew I had finally conquered my fear of selling.
ACTIVITY D Carefully read the following concluding sentences. Which kind of conclusion does each sentence represent: a last detail, a summary, or a personal comment?
1. This first acting experience made me determined to try again and to overcome my stage fright.
2. Now that I know what to look for, I can check my houseplants for signs of these pests.
3. No doubt about it, this was the sport for me. 4. I finished the race in first place, surprising everyone who was there.
5. When I am as old as she is, I hope to be as full of joy. 6. It was the many late practices and self-discipline that enabled me to win the most coveted prize.
7. That was the funniest movie I had ever seen. 8. The words “consider all the avenues of life” were the last words he said to me as I left the room.
9. I had walked four adventure-filled miles in the pouring rain, rode the train to the end of the line, and took a crowded bus before reaching my final destination.
10. Finally, the customer agreed to buy the books from me after I promised a 40 percent discount on all of them.
11. After all the training, the marathon was canceled due to the severe heat.
230 • Chapter 1
Note which students had difficulty understanding what makes a good personal-narrative conclusion. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 131 provides additional practice with the function of the introduction, body, and conclusion in a personal narrative.
Invite volunteers to share their work with the class, explaining why their revised introductory sentence is more engaging or why their revised concluding sentence is more satisfying. Students should demonstrate an understanding of the introduction and conclusion of a personal narrative.
To prepare for this activity, ask volunteers in your class to compose short personal narratives without endings. Read the narratives aloud and have students suggest concluding sentences for each. Then ask students whether their suggestions let the listener know that the story is finished. Encourage students to focus their suggestions toward forming concluding sentences that add a final detail, a personal comment, or a summary of the narrative.
Meeting Individual Needs Challenge Have students find three examples of these kinds of conclusions: • a conclusion that recounts one last fact or detail
ACTIVITY E Read the personal narratives and then write a concluding sentence for each one. 1. A Green Centerpiece
• a conclusion that summarizes or makes a statement, drawing together the information from the body
Rush hour is a dangerous time for carrying something as delicate as a bouquet of flowers on the subway. I learned this lesson the hard way the evening I brought home a centerpiece for my mother’s book club. By the time I finally made it onto a crowded train, my huge bouquet had shed its wrappings. As people squeezed by me getting on and off the train, my colorful bundle gradually lost its brightness. Flowers took root in umbrella spokes, shopping bags were transformed into floral baskets, and suited executives acquired decorations in their lapels. When the train finally reached my stop and I emerged into the open spaces, my hands clutched a bunch of blossomless stems.
• a conclusion that makes a personal comment or incorporates the writer’s feelings toward the topic Have students explain how their selections satisfy each category.
2. What a Ride! Fear and excitement clashed in my stomach when I stepped on to the roller coaster. As the little car chugged confidently up the first steep incline, my timidity increased. I peeped over the edge of the miniature train to look down on the park, and I realized that we had reached the top. With mounting terror, I prepared to fly into space. Down rushed the car to the accompaniment of my frantic screams. Hardly had I regained my breath when the chariot again ascended, intent on dropping me once more into the yawning abyss. Whoosh! Abruptly the ride ended.
3. Cooling Off at the River On one particularly hot day, Jake and I went to the river to swim. On the way, we passed Max and asked him to join us. He went along to watch because he couldn’t swim very well. When we got there, Jake and I ran into the water and yelled in shock at the cold temperature. But soon enough we adjusted to the cold and had a great time. Max was throwing rocks in the shallow end, but suddenly he walked into an area with a deep drop-off. He became panicky and started bobbing up and down. Jake quickly swam toward Max and pulled him to safety.
Writer’s Corner Look back at the topic you chose for the Writer’s
Have students bring in examples of good conclusions. Tell students to be prepared to read the examples and explain how their selections effectively end the story. Find your own examples of good conclusions to share with students.
Corner on page 225. Write an introductory and a concluding sentence for a personal narrative on that
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.3e
topic. Ask yourself, Do these sentences follow the suggestions on page 228? How could I improve or change these sentences? Then rewrite one of the sentences. Personal Narratives
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 231
WRITING SKILLS Revising Sentences
OBJECTIVES • To recognize rambling sentences and shorten them • To identify run-on sentences and revise them correctly • To remove redundant words from sentences
WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share your example of a good conclusion from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model for students by discussing how the conclusion effectively ends the selection. Have students in small groups take turns reading and summarizing the example conclusions they found and why they effectively end the story.
Take this opportunity to talk about possessive nouns in writing. You may wish to have students point out possessive nouns in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
are incorrect because they lack the proper conjunction or punctuation.) Explain to students that professional writers sometimes use run-on sentences intentionally as part of their style. Have a student read the The Land I Lost excerpt. Ask students how the run-on sentences create a sense of ongoing mourning and prayer. Have students mentally put a period at the end of each sentence. Explain that a conjunction such as and may need to be removed and that a pronoun such as They may need to be added. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the revised excerpt and have students discuss how the changes affected the sense of ongoing mourning and prayer.
ACTIVITY B Reinforce that run-on sentences are grammatically incorrect. Explain that long run-on sentences usually can be broken into two sentences and that shorter runon sentences can be corrected
Revising Sentences Rambling Sentences Sometimes sentences ramble and lose their focus. This can happen when a number of short sentences are strung together with conjunctions such as and and but. Here is an example of a rambling sentence. A group of beautiful spruce trees adorns the lawn outside our home, and last Tuesday a swarm of bees selected one of these trees and built a hive in it, but my mom had to have the troublemakers removed.
To avoid rambling sentences, create shorter sentences and combine ideas where possible. A group of beautiful spruce trees adorns the lawn outside our house. Last Tuesday a swarm of bees selected one of these trees for a new hive, but my mom had to have the troublemakers removed.
The Land I Lost
Run-on Sentences LiNK
So the people of our hamlet built a little altar on the side of the road leading to the graves of the son and mother and father, and during the holidays someone always burned incense at their altar, and from time to time travelers stopped by and prayed at the roadside altar, hoping their prayer would make their long journey less hazardous. Quang Nhuong Huynh
232 • Chapter 1
ACTIVITY A Invite volunteers to share their answers and justify their decisions. Point out that a writer has many options for rewriting sentences. Accept any responses that are grammatically correct. Remind students that not all conjunctions need to be eliminated.
TEACH Have a student read aloud the Rambling Sentences section. Explain that long sentences can be difficult to read and often present too much information for the reader to understand. Have students point out the conjunctions in the example sentence (and, and, but). Invite students to name additional conjunctions (or, nor, yet, so). Explain that by varying sentence structure, students can create rhythm and add interest. Ask students to read silently the Run-on Sentences section. Help students distinguish between rambling sentences and run-on sentences. (Rambling sentences are grammatically correct, but difficult to follow. Run-on sentences
Sometimes sentences are too long because two or more sentences run together without the proper punctuation or with no punctuation between them. They should actually be two or three separate sentences. Here is an example of a run-on sentence. Tigers inhabit the forests of Asia, some kinds of tigers are actually larger than their cousins, the lions.
To avoid run-on sentences, decide where each complete thought should stop. Put a period at the end and begin the next word with a capital letter. Tigers inhabit the forests of Asia. Some kinds of tigers are actually larger than their cousins, the lions.
by adding a conjunction or appropriate punctuation.
APPLY Writer’s Corner
After students have completed the activity, have volunteers read any of their original run-on or rambling sentences, followed by their revised sentences. Invite the class to suggest additional ways to revise the run-on or rambling sentences. Students should demonstrate an ability to recognize run-on and rambling sentences and how to revise them.
Students should identify the fourth noun in the excerpt on page 232 as side. This may be tricky for some students. Help them understand how side fits the definition of a noun.
ASSESS Note which students had difficulty identifying and correcting rambling or run-on sentences. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.
TEACHING OPTIONS Reteach Have students take turns recording their voices as they talk about their day. Listen to the recordings as a group. Invite volunteers to identify runon or rambling sentences. Discuss how these sentences could be corrected.
Varying Sentences Have each student choose one sentence from Activity A and one sentence from Activity B. Challenge students to think of at least two correct ways to rewrite the selected sentences.
English-Language Learners Have a proficient reader read aloud the run-on sentences from Activity B, pausing after each complete thought. Ask English-language learners to read along silently and listen for clues where sentences should be separated. Ask students to copy one sentence from the activity and break it into two separate sentences.
ACTIVITY A Revise these rambling sentences. 1. After we went through the park, we went across Pleasant Street, and then we walked for five blocks to where the Ketters live.
2. I had a large part in the school play last year, and this year I will have only a minor part, but next year I hope to be the lead singer in a musical.
3. Last night as we were having dinner we heard fire engines, and we ran to the window and saw the house across the street on fire.
4. The bus I was on was going too fast, and it was packed to capacity, and when it reached a traffic light, it stopped so suddenly that people lurched forward.
5. The music teacher told us to stand up straight and breathe deeply, and she wanted us to look forward, not down, when we sang.
6. We were excited to take the ferry across the lake to the island but as we neared the port we couldn’t find the ferry crossing signs and we had were afraid we had missed the last ferry for the day.
ACTIVITY B Correct the following run-on sentences by breaking them into separate sentences. 1. I shelve books at the library every Tuesday after school then I babysit a two-year-old boy.
2. We organized a club and called it Northeastern Athletic Society its purposes are to uphold the ideals of honorable sports conduct and to arrange games between schools
3. Yolanda and I practiced our violin duet every day after school for a whole semester, her suggestions helped me improve
4. My mother does volunteer work on Wednesdays she works at a food pantry in the morning and tutors students in the evening
Writer’s Corner Using the topic chosen for the Writer’s Corner on page 225, write a short body paragraph about
Have students find a piece of writing that contains a particularly long sentence. Tell students to be prepared to read the sentence tomorrow. Point out that they will need to explain whether they think the sentence is a run-on sentence, a rambling sentence, or a particularly long sentence that is grammatically correct and easy to read. Bring in your own piece of writing with an example sentence to share with the class.
it. Use conjunctions to connect sentences. Then find a partner and take
5. Ice-skating is no longer a sport limited to colder
turns reading each other’s
climates, now I can go to an indoor rink with artificial ice here in Florida
paragraphs aloud. Listen
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.5 CCSS.ELA.W.7.3
for rambling or run-on sentences. Make changes to your sentences and then read
Find the fourth noun used in the p. 232 excerpt.
them aloud again. Personal Narratives
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 233
WRITING SKILLS Revising Sentences
READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share your example of a particularly long sentence from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model how to decide whether it is a run-on sentence, a rambling sentence, or a long sentence that is grammatically correct. Have students in small groups take turns reading their long sentences aloud. Ask students to tell whether the sentence is a rambling sentence, a run-on sentence, or a long sentence that is grammatically correct. Have students explain whether they would change the sentence and, if so, how.
ACTIVITY C Review the answers with students. Where appropriate, ask volunteers to suggest words that can replace the redundant words to add meaning to the sentence. ACTIVITY D Ask a volunteer to complete the first item. Allow time for students to finish the activity. Invite volunteers to share their rewritten sentences and explain the problems that were corrected.
ACTIVITY E Have students first work independently to rewrite the paragraph. Then have students work with partners to compare paragraphs. Ask partners to discuss how their paragraphs are alike and how they are different. Encourage partners to explain the reasons for their changes and why the changes and the differences in their work are appropriate.
Take this opportunity to review nouns. You may wish to have students point out nouns in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
Redundant Words Another way to trim a sentence is to remove words that repeat ideas already stated. Redundant words lengthen a sentence and do not add to its meaning. Which word is redundant in the following sentence?
When we looked out at the Caribbean Sea, we were impressed with the blue, azure water.
Ask a volunteer to read the first paragraph. Invite volunteers to say which words are redundant in the example sentence. Then ask a volunteer to read the next paragraph. Invite students to discuss how the second example sentence is more effective than the first. Then ask a volunteer to read the next paragraph. Invite volunteers to decide which clause is redundant. Remind students to check their writing to make certain that every word adds new and relevant information. Explain that at times using fewer words can paint a clearer picture or tell a livelier story than using many words can.
The words blue and azure have similar meanings. In revising the sentence, you might substitute a word that describes another quality of the water, such as sparkling. When we looked out at the Caribbean Sea, we were impressed with the sparkling, azure water.
Some sentences have a redundant clause that is near a word with the same meaning. What clause is redundant in the following sentence? The book’s unique plot, which was unlike any other I had ever read, made me want to keep reading the book without stopping.
You are correct if you said unlike any other I had ever read. The clause is redundant because it restates the meaning of the adjective unique. ACTIVITY C Remove the redundant words from the following sentences.
1. The two of us shared the huge, enormous submarine sandwich. 2. That was the most boring and dull program I’ve seen all year. 3. I’m writing a short one-page biography about the life of the baseball player Roberto Clemente.
4. After reading the chapter for history class once, I reread it again. 5. The cheerful, upbeat music made me want to dance. 6. My friend Jenna lay and reclined on the sandy beach, watching her brothers build sand castles.
7. A drowsy Christopher, who was quite sleepy, had to pull the car over and ask my dad to drive.
8. Our chess team has won 10 consecutive tournaments in a row.
9. Alex’s victory in the essay contest was astonishing news that surprised everyone.
10. The wet weather, which was very rainy, kept us from going outside to play soccer.
234 • Chapter 1
Note which students had difficulty eliminating redundant words. Use the Reteach option with those students who need reinforcement. Practice Book page 132 provides additional practice with rambling and run-on sentences and redundant words.
Have partners trade papers and rewrite the sentences. If students need revision suggestions, have them ask their partners. Ask volunteers to share their finished sentences, explain what was changed, and tell how they know the revision is correct. Invite volunteers to share any redundant words they eliminated. Students should be able to identify and revise rambling sentences and eliminate redundant words.
Have groups of students select either rambling sentences, run-on sentences, or redundant words and create a “Wanted” poster for them. Encourage students to clearly state a description of the “outlaws,” what they are guilty of, and some “sightings” (examples).
Meeting Individual Needs Extra Support Write the following sentences on the board.
Spencer kept repeating his sentence over and over again. Let’s meet at 4:30 p.m. this afternoon. A huge, gigantic shadow appeared! The ancient manuscript, which was written hundreds of years ago, was discovered yesterday.
ACTIVITY D Identify the error or errors in each sentence. Is it a rambling sentence, run-on sentence, or sentence with redundant words? Rewrite each sentence so it is clear and focused. 1. I went snow skiing down a hill, and two other kids were there, and they
Have students identify the repeated idea in each. Then have students rewrite the sentences correctly by removing the unnecessary words. Invite volunteers to share their revisions with the class.
were skiing fast.
2. We thought the football game would never end the other team’s score kept increasing while our team’s score never changed.
3. As our plane ascended upward, I began to feel sad about leaving my grandparents’ house.
4. Isabelle and I tiptoed down the hall and picked up the cake and then tiptoed to Mom’s room and said, “Surprise!”
5. The movie actors kept my attention all the time
throughout the whole movie.
6. I was approached by an aggressive salesperson who
Have students look through their own writing for a sentence that can be enhanced by correcting a rambling or run-on sentence or by eliminating redundant words. Tell students to be prepared to share the sentence and offer suggestions for improvement. Bring your own sentence to share with the class.
was very pushy trying to sell me a new MP3 player.
7. After Mason came home from school, he took his dog for a walk and threw the ball to it in the backyard and then filled its bowls with dog food and fresh water.
8. To study for her Spanish class, Krista reread her vocabulary list again. 9. Daniella wore her favorite T-shirt three consecutive days in a row. 10. The East Indies lie between southern Asia and Australia this chain of beautiful green islands is rich in natural resources.
ACTIVITY E The following paragraph contains redundant words and rambling sentences. Rewrite the paragraph by dividing and revising sentences as necessary. With the first spring thunderstorm of rain, the water made the grass begin to spring up from under the ground. The earth felt soft, mushy, and wet underfoot as we walked across the swampy baseball diamond. Before too long the glaring light of the sun would be beating down on the dry and dusty earth, and we would hear the sound of bats and balls and tramping feet on solid, hard, dry, dusty ground, but for a while, a few months anyway, we and the birds and mosquitoes would have this lagoon all to ourselves alone.
Writer’s Corner Look back at the sentences you revised in the Writer’s
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.5 CCSS.ELA.L.7.3
Corner on page 233. Work with a partner to find a new way to revise the sentences, such as combining short, choppy sentences or eliminating redundant words. Personal Narratives
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 235
WORD STUDY Exact Words
OBJECTIVES • To use exact words to add meaning to a sentence • To identify and distinguish between homophones • To identify descriptive adjectives and their position
WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share your example from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model how to enhance the sentence by correcting it if it is a rambling or run-on sentence or by eliminating redundant words. Have students work in groups to share the rambling sentences, run-on sentences, or redundant words they found. Ask students to take turns explaining why their sentences need work and how to improve them. Then invite volunteers to share their sentences with the class.
Take this opportunity to talk about descriptive adjectives and their positions. You may wish to have students point out descriptive adjectives and their positions in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
Have volunteers take turns reading aloud the Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs sections. After each example sentence is read, invite volunteers to suggest additional exact-word replacements. Have students listen as you read the The Land I Lost excerpt. Ask students to raise their hands and then identify the exact words that help create visual images. Discuss words such as mischievous, malicious, and unpredictable. Remind students that adjectives usually come before the word they modify, but they can also come after the word they modify.
Exact Words LiNK
My good friend, you should not only chain your monkey to a tree but also inspect the chain every day. You came to live in our hamlet only a short while ago and you may not know how mischievous, malicious, and unpredictable these monkeys can be. Quang Nhuong Huynh
Good writers know the importance of word choice when trying to convey a specific, intended meaning to their readers. Exact words also help create visual images for the reader.
Nouns General nouns, such as fruit and clothes, often produce an incomplete picture for the reader. More specific nouns, such as blueberries and raincoat, create a detailed picture. Compare the nouns in the following sentences: We ate vegetables for a snack. We ate carrot sticks and green pepper strips for a snack.
Verbs Choosing an exact verb can intensify an action and make your sentences come alive. Instead of using a common verb, such as run, consider using more specific verbs, such as sprinted, raced, and jogged. Which sentence creates the more vivid picture?
Have students listen as you read the following: After my walk, I was happy to be finally sitting down to a dinner of meat and vegetables.
Henry walked slowly across the gym. Henry lumbered across the gym.
Ask students to listen again:
Adjectives are modifiers that can make the nouns they accompany clearer. However, some adjectives are so common that they add little meaning to a sentence, for example, big, small, and good. Examples of colorful adjectives include gigantic, miniscule, and breathtaking. Read the following example sentences:
After my five-mile hike, I was grateful to be finally sitting down to a dinner of steak, carrots, and mashed potatoes.
Ask students to explain which account is more vivid and why.
We entered the attic, hoping to find Grandma’s lamp. We entered the musty attic, hoping to find Grandma’s antique lamp.
236 • Chapter 1
ACTIVITY A Suggest that students use a dictionary or thesaurus for help completing the activity. When students have finished, ask volunteers to write their sentences on the board. Then invite students to select an ordinary object in the room such as a piece of furniture or a writing tool. Challenge students to choose exact words that describe the object and then write a short newspaper advertisement for the object.
The Land I Lost
ACTIVITY B Have students work in groups to rewrite the paragraph. Encourage students to share ideas with one another. Offer assistance where needed. Then have groups share their rewritten paragraphs and explain their changes.
APPLY Writer’s Corner
After students have finished, ask volunteers to share their sentences. Have volunteers explain which words are exact and what effect their word selection had on the sentence. Invite students to
discuss how these exact words helped re-create either a funny or scary experience. Students should demonstrate an understanding of using exact words to add meaning to a sentence. Make sure that students identify the three adjectives that describe monkeys as mischievous, malicious, and unpredictable.
ASSESS Note which students had difficulty using exact words. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.
Adverbs Adverbs give more specific meaning to the verbs they modify. Use adverbs when you think they can add detail or color to the action. Mia placed the figurines on the shelf.
1. Think of one vivid verb that could replace walk. Use this verb in a sentence. 2. Write a sentence to describe a mountain or a park you have seen. Use adjectives that paint a picture.
3. Use an adverb to describe an activity that you do, such as playing soccer or painting a picture.
4. Think of a specific noun that could replace toy. Use this noun in a sentence.
5. Write a sentence using the sound a machine makes as a verb. 6. Rewrite the sentence in number 5 by adding an adverb to describe
English-Language Learners In many languages, adjectives follow the nouns they modify and change form to agree with plural nouns or gendered nouns. For example, the Spanish adjective alto, meaning “tall,” becomes altas in the phrase dos casas altas (two tall houses). Point out that, in English, the adjectives usually come before the noun and do not change form to show number or gender. Provide English-language learners with additional practice in identifying and writing adjectives that come before nouns.
Common Core Standards
7. Use an adjective in a sentence to describe your favorite animal. 8. What adjectives would you use to describe your family?
Provide small groups with a word such as happy, pretty, machine, or furniture. Set a time limit and challenge groups to brainstorm words that are more exact than the word they were assigned. When time is up, have a volunteer from each group share the word list.
Have students search the library or Internet for a well-known children’s story. Ask students to select five sentences from the story that contain specific nouns, exact verbs, colorful adjectives, and adverbs that add detail. Follow the same directions and bring your own examples to share with students.
ACTIVITY A Complete the following exercises to practice choosing more effective and specific words.
My first plane trip was very fun. The engines made a lot of noise, and the plane shook as it prepared for takeoff. The ground went by quickly as the plane went down the runway. It was a nice moment when the plane rose from the ground.
Mia delicately placed the figurines on the shelf.
ACTIVITY B Rewrite the personal narrative Taking Off using exact words to make the images more vivid.
Writer’s Corner Think of a funny or scary experience and write five sentences about it. Practice using exact words in your description of
What adjectives describe monkeys on p. 236?
the experience. Personal Narratives
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 237
WORD STUDY Exact Words
WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share the five sentences you chose from a well-known children’s story as yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model how to discuss the author’s use of descriptive language and the ways in which the language adds meaning to the writing. Have students in small groups take turns reading the sentences they selected from well-known children’s stories. Have the listeners note specific nouns, exact verbs, and colorful adjectives and adverbs that add detail.
without an apostrophe. Encourage students to use these steps with other contractions that are homophones.
PRACTICE ACTIVITY C Remind students that when they encounter contractions, they should expand the contractions to two words and reread the sentence, saying both words. Have volunteers write their answers on the board.
ACTIVITY D Have students work in small groups, using a dictionary. When students have finished, discuss the answers. Then challenge students to use the homophones in new sentences. ACTIVITY E When students have finished this activity, have volunteers write their answers on the board so that other students can check the spelling of the homophones.
Take this opportunity to talk about demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite adjectives. You may wish to have students point out demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite adjectives in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
Homophones Sometimes writers confuse words that sound alike but have different meanings. These words are called homophones. Notice the differences in meaning and spelling in the following examples of homophones:
Did you hear a strange noise? I saw a raccoon here yesterday.
Say the sentence, Two of us went to the movies and ate too much popcorn. Ask students to name three words in that sentence that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Explain that the word homophone is made up of the roots homo-, which means “same,” and -phone, which means “sound.” Then have a volunteer read aloud the Homophones section. Ask volunteers to name other homophones. Clarify that contractions such as it’s and who’s can also have homophones. Explain that to determine whether to use it’s or its, students should expand the contraction to it is and reread the sentence, saying both words. Point out that because its is a possessive, it is used in the same way that his or my is used—
Do you know the man wearing the black shirt? No, I don’t know him, and he has no name tag.
Sometimes contractions that are homophones cause difficulty in writing too. The following examples can be particularly tricky: it’s–its you’re–your
ACTIVITY C Select the homophone that correctly completes each sentence.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
(Who’s Whose) responsible for knocking over the dog’s water bowl? (Who’s Whose) skateboard is by that tree? (It’s Its) important for you to proofread your writing. Could I please borrow (you’re your) dictionary? The dog was running in circles, trying to catch (it’s its) tail. (They’re There Their) is a fancy restaurant on the corner of Oakley and Waveland streets.
7. (You’re Your) going to sing a song, aren’t you? 8. The Martins are trying to sell (they’re their there) house to the highest bidder.
9. (They’re Their There) waiting patiently for the hamburgers to be ready. 10. Denzig, (who’s whose) father is a teacher, has decided that he would like to be a teacher someday too.
11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
238 • Chapter 1
Are you going to (there their) house after school today? I see that you remembered to bring (you’re your) book to the book club. Jake kicked the soccer ball over (their there). Sophia can’t remember (who’s whose) coming to her birthday party. Do you think the orphaned rabbit will eat (its it’s) food?
Note which students had difficulty identifying homophones. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 133 provides additional practice with homophones.
Ask for volunteers to write their extra challenge sentences on the board. Have these students define the pair of homophones. Discuss whether or not the two words were used correctly. Invite students to correct any errors. Students should demonstrate an understanding of homophones.
There are many online dictionaries for students. Find one(s) that you like and encourage students to use the online dictionary to look up words for spelling and meaning.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
I am a basic rule or truth. I am a way to get around in the snow.
I am what a hamburger is usually made of. I am made into toast. I am another name for corn. I am money in your pocket. I am a confusing path. I am what happens when people get together.
ACTIVITY E Complete each sentence with the correct homophone from the list in Activity D. 1. The knight grabbed his sword to the dragon.
2. Algernon, the mouse, had to find his way through a
to be rewarded.
3. The canoe was carried along by a swift-moving .
4. Our neighbor us karate. 5. The hospital is staffed by a doctors and nurses. .
7. The explorer prepared a
of food to use when he returned from his journey.
temperature was low.
Have each student come up with two pairs of homophones that were not mentioned in class. Tell students to compose two sentences, each sentence containing both words from a homophone pair. (I read the book with the dusty red cover.) Follow the same assignment to share with the class.
Choose four pairs of words
using each word, or use the pair in one sentence, such as
6. The mountain climber tugged on the rope so that it was
Writer’s Corner below and write a sentence
Homophone Challenge Ask three volunteers to be contestants on the game show Homophone Challenge. Invite a fourth volunteer to be the game show moderator. Using the note cards created in the Reteach option (and additional ones, if needed), ask the moderator to hold up the first flash card. The first contestant to raise his or her hand gets to spell the illustrated homophone. If correct, he or she gets a point. The first contestant to reach five points is declared the winner.
ACTIVITY D Use the following list of homophones to name what each numbered statement is describing. Use your dictionary if necessary. Define the remaining homophones. slay–sleigh
Have individuals or pairs of students select three homophones from page 238. Ask students to draw pictures on note cards illustrating the words. Provide dictionaries as necessary. Then have students write the appropriate word under the illustration. Instruct students to use the cards as flash cards to help them remember the meanings and spellings of homophones.
I did not tie the knot.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.4 CCSS.ELA.L.7.4
bough–bow coarse–course knot–not patience–patients piece–peace stationery–stationary sum–some
With an adult, look up a word in an online dictionary.
through–threw Personal Narratives
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 239
STUDY SKILLS Graphic Organizers
OBJECTIVES • To understand how to use graphic organizers • To create time lines and word webs • To use time lines and word webs to create a narrative
WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share the two sentences you wrote for yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Discuss the homophone pair in each sentence and the difference in meaning between the words. Have students in small groups take turns reading their homophone sentences. Have the group spell the homophones used in the sentence. Encourage students to write the correct spelling on the board.
Ask students to discuss what they know about time lines and word webs. Remind students that different writers use different kinds of graphic organizers. Explain that one writer might make a word web and that another writer might make a time line to put ideas in chronological order. Have a volunteer read aloud the Time Lines and Word Webs sections. Point out that students may find that different graphic organizers work better for different genres of writing. Encourage students to test a variety of graphic organizers to find the ones that work best.
ACTIVITY A Have students generate sentences for the subtopics provided. Encourage students to plan their sentences before writing to be sure that the information is in a logical order. Point out that in the first example, reading about the trail comes before buying supplies. When students have finished, have them take turns sharing sentences.
Graphic Organizers Time Lines
Take this opportunity to talk about comparative and superlative adjectives. You may wish to have students point out comparative and superlative adjectives in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
A time line is a graphic organizer that writers use to arrange the events of a story or an experience. Time lines are constructed by listing events in chronological order on a vertical, horizontal, or diagonal line. Suppose the writer chose “my first hiking experience” as the topic for a personal narrative. Here’s an example of the writer’s time line.
studied articles about trail bought hiking gear
Day 1 evening
Day 2 morning
arrived at trailhead hiked 6 miles to top felt tired but excited
Day 2 afternoon
slipped going down drove home drank hot chocolate
Word Webs A word web is a type of graphic organizer that helps writers map out the subtopics and details related to their chosen topic. It also keeps writers from introducing unnecessary details. The following three steps are examples of how a writer might construct a word web to organize the topic “my first hiking experience”: Write your topic idea and draw a box around it. Around the box, name things that are related to the topic “my first hiking experience.” These ideas are called subtopics. Draw lines connecting each subtopic to the topic in the center. 3. Around each subtopic, write any details relating to that subtopic.
240 • Chapter 1
Note which students had difficulty understanding the function of graphic organizers. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.
Allow students to work in pairs to plan a time line. Ask partners to make their time line large enough to share with the class. Allow time for partners to present their work methods and time lines. Encourage the class to offer feedback on each presentation. Students should demonstrate an understanding of time lines.
There are several free online sites that allow students to create time lines. Find a suitable site and suggest that students use it to create the time line for the topic in the Writer’s Corner.
A word web may appear disorganized to students who prefer to see information presented in a linear fashion. Have students write their topic idea, subtopics, and details on separate note cards. Then have students arrange their note cards in a chart similar to the one below, which you may wish to put on poster board. Invite students to rearrange the details until they achieve a logical order.
Topic Subtopics Details
Meeting Individual Needs
Visual Have students select a section from their social studies textbook and create a word web for that section. Then invite a few students to share their word webs. Encourage students to discuss how they might use word webs as a study guide to help them sort and learn new information.
bought gear Preparation
slipped going down
at trail by 8 a. m. Hiking back
My first hiking experience
For Tomorrow Have students select one of their ideas for a personal narrative and create a time line for it. Tell students to be prepared to share their time lines with the class. Prepare your own time line to show to students.
Hiking to Eagle Ridge tired but excited
hiked 6 miles
ACTIVITY A Refer to the graphic organizers to write one or two sentences for each of the subtopics below. Include the details connected to the subtopics in the word web. Feel free to add your own details for creativity. The first one has been done as an example.
1. Preparation—A day before the hike we read an article about the trail and
Common Core Standards
then bought backpacks, hiking boots, and trail mix.
2. Hiking to Eagle Ridge— 3. Hiking back—
Writer’s Corner Create a time line for the topic “my last day of summer vacation,” or choose a topic
Use a computer to create your time line.
of your own. Personal Narratives
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STUDY SKILLS Graphic Organizers
READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share the time line you created for yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. You may want to use an online program and show a printed copy of the time line to the class. Discuss how the events in your time line are arranged in chronological order. This may also be a good time to remind students that a time line is a visual graphic of an outline. Have students share their time lines in small groups. Ask students to explain how they organized their time lines. Have students work within their groups to modify their graphic organizers as needed.
ACTIVITY B Allow time for students to review their time lines and write their narratives. Review their writing in a small-group setting. ACTIVITY C Read the directions aloud. Ask students to write possible subtopics and details. Then ask volunteers to draw their word webs on the board. Invite students to discuss the similarities and differences in their responses.
ACTIVITY D Read the directions aloud. Review with students the characteristics of a good personal-narrative topic (is a true story, relays a single experience, happened to the writer, written in the first person). As they work, encourage students to allow plenty of space on the page to organize their time lines or word webs. When students have finished, ask volunteers to share their graphic organizers and explain why they chose to use the graphic organizers they did.
Take this opportunity to talk about the use of few and little. You may wish to have students point out few and little with concrete and abstract nouns in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
Using Your Graphic Organizer Now that the subtopics and details of the experience have been organized, here’s an example of how one writer chose to write a draft of the body of a personal narrative, based on a graphic organizer.
The day before the hike my brother and I read an intriguing article about Eagle Ridge. Then we eagerly shopped for backpacks, hiking shoes, and trail mix. We could
Ask two volunteers to review with the class the types of graphic organizers they have learned about: time lines and word webs. Encourage the volunteers to draw examples of graphic organizers on the board. Invite a volunteer to read aloud the draft narrative. Point out that the narrative was written from the graphic organizers on pages 240–241. Discuss how the information from the graphic organizers was used to add order and detail to the draft.
hardly wait until our hike would begin. The next morning when the alarm clock went off, I excitedly jumped out of bed and woke up my brother. We were at the trail to begin our hiking adventure by 8:00 a.m. on a cool, sunny day. The sign at the beginning of the trail said Eagle Ridge was six miles to the west. We had read that this trail was one of the easiest trails to hike in the area. However, we found the slippery rocks and steep climbs to be difficult. When we finally climbed to the top of Eagle Ridge, we felt fatigued but also satisfied about reaching our goal. Coming down Eagle Ridge was no easier than ascending it. On the steepest part of the trail, I took a wrong step and fell to my knees. I don’t have to tell you how thrilled we were to see our car and later sip hot chocolate while we rested our sore muscles.
ACTIVITY B Choose three or four points from the time line you made in the Writer’s Corner on page 241. Use the information to write a body paragraph for a personal narrative.
242 • Chapter 1
Note which students had difficulty creating time lines and word webs. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 134 provides additional practice with graphic organizers.
Explain to students that they do not need to write an introduction or conclusion at this point. When students have finished writing, have them discuss with a partner their personal-narrative body in relation to their graphic organizer. Remind partners to answer the questions in the Writer’s Corner. Students should demonstrate an understanding of time lines and word webs and how to use graphic organizers to write a personal narrative.
Give students three colors of construction paper. Ask them to choose one color to represent the topic idea, one color to represent the subtopics, and one color to represent the details. Have students then select shapes to signify each and cut the shapes out of the proper color. Instruct students to label each shape as topic idea, subtopic, or detail and glue them to another sheet of paper in the form of a word web
Re-create the Web Have students select a word web that they created and write the topic idea, the subtopics, and the details in random order on a sheet of paper. Then have students exchange papers with a partner and reconstruct the word webs. When students have finished, have them return the papers. Ask students to talk about the differences.
ACTIVITY C Below is a word web that needs subtopics and details added, relating to the topic “a day at the beach.” Use what’s already been written and extend and develop the partial word web.
Ask students to select a short article from a magazine or newspaper. Have them create a time line in order to help them remember the article’s details. Bring in your own time line created from a short magazine or newspaper article to show to the class.
A day at the beach
ACTIVITY D Choose one of the personal narrative topics below or choose a topic of your own. Use either a time line or a word web to help you organize the events. 1. a holiday 2. game day 3. my birthday 4. Saturday morning 5. a busy afternoon after school
Common Core Standards
Use the graphic organizer you created in Activity D to write a short body paragraph of a personal narrative. Ask yourself the following questions: Do all the subtopics relate to the topic? Are any of the details irrelevant to the topic? Does the writing flow in chronological order? Personal Narratives
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SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS Oral Personal Narratives
OBJECTIVE • To prepare, present, and listen to an oral personal narrative
WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share the time line you created from a short magazine or newspaper article for yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Show how the time line captures important details visually and helps you remember those details. Ask students to share their magazine or newspaper articles in small groups. Then have students explain the corresponding time lines they created. Challenge students to discuss whether any other subtopics could have been added or arranged differently.
Ask volunteers to name someone who is a good storyteller and explain what makes listening to a story a fun experience. Read aloud the first paragraph. Then have volunteers take turns reading aloud each following section. Review any points with which students have difficulty. Read aloud the Preparing an Oral Personal Narrative section. Emphasize that note cards are for brief, occasional reference. Lead students to understand that an oral personal narrative should be told, not read, to an audience.
ACTIVITY A Encourage students to note only the key information to help them remember what they would say when presenting the narrative. Then ask volunteers to share their keywords or phrases.
Take this opportunity to talk about adjective phrases and clauses. You may wish to have students point out adjective phrases and clauses in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.
Speaking and Listening Skills
Oral Personal Narratives Have you ever told a friend about a funny or scary experience you had? If your answer is yes, then you have delivered an oral personal narrative. Telling a personal narrative to a larger group of people is similar. Think of these things when you prepare an oral personal narrative.
Audience You want your audience to relate to the experience you tell them about. Choose words that help your audience see what you saw and feel what you felt.
Structure Capture your audience’s attention with an intriguing introductory sentence. Then give interesting details that tell what happened in chronological order. Be sure that all the details relate to the topic of the narrative. Conclude your narrative by giving one last detail, summarizing the narrative, or stating your own reaction to the experience described.
Expression When you speak, it is important to engage the audience by changing the expression in your voice to convey the appropriate emotions. It also helps to use gestures that correspond to what you are saying. Always make eye contact with your audience.
Visual Aid Whenever possible, present a visual aid related to the topic of your personal narrative. A visual aid could be a photograph, an illustration, a map, charts, graphs, or an object. Before you give your oral personal narrative, decide when you want to show the visual aid.
244 • Chapter 1
demonstrate an understanding of using note cards and graphic organizers to help them prepare an oral personal narrative.
Distribute several note cards to each student. Have students write each subtopic from their graphic organizer on a separate note card. Encourage students to remove unnecessary details. Emphasize how visual aids such as photos, illustrations, objects, charts, graphs, and maps make oral personal narratives more interesting. Have students think about which visual aids they may want to use and when to show them. Students should
ASSESS Note which students had difficulty planning an oral personal narrative. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.
• Were the notes detailed enough? • How did speaking from brief notes, rather than reading word for word, enhance the presentation?
Write the introductory sentence on the first card. Write each event or subtopic on a separate card along with keywords that will help you remember details. 3. Write your concluding sentence on the last card. 4. Plan when you will show your visual aids.
Have students find a visual aid that would be useful in presenting the oral personal narrative prepared in the Speaker’s Corner. Tell students to bring the visual aid for the next class and to be prepared to explain how they might use it. Have your own visual aid to share with students.
ACTIVITY A These are examples of note cards for an oral presentation based on the personal narrative from page 242. Complete the note cards by adding more details and subtopics to each one. Write a colorful introduction and conclusion on separate cards.
Have the class make brief notes about something that happened to them. When students have finished making notes, ask pairs to tell their stories to their partners. When everyone has finished, have volunteers answer these questions:
Auditory Remind students of the effect that their voice has on a story. Have students brainstorm a list of ways to tell a story, such as cheerful, sad, spooky, frightened, angry, excited, or tired. Ask volunteers to read aloud the introductory sentence from Activity A in one of those voices. Be sure to point out how much information students can convey through their voices, expression, and gestures.
Writing your notes on note cards will help you organize the important details you wish to speak about. You should not read your notes word for word. Instead, write keywords or phrases that will help you remember your main points. Below are ways to prepare your oral personal narrative.
4. - thrilled to see car - sore muscles
Meeting Individual Needs
Preparing an Oral Personal Narrative
2. Preparations - backpacks -
3. 8:00 a.m. - start time - cool, sunny -
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.3 CCSS.ELA.W.7.4 CCSS.ELA.SL.7.5 Speaker’s Corner Use the graphic organizer you made for one of the topics in Activity D on page 243. Write note cards for an oral personal narrative on the topic. Brainstorm possible visual aids that you’d like to use for your presentation. Personal Narratives
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SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS Oral Personal Narratives
READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share the visual aid you chose for yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Discuss how, when, and why you would use the visual aid in your oral personal narrative. Ask students if there are other visual aids they think might enhance the presentation. Have small groups share the visual aids they brought. Ask each student to describe the item and explain how it relates to the personal-narrative topic.
ACTIVITY B Give students time to think of a topic or to find a previous word web or time line to use. Distribute note cards. Check to make sure students are following the preparation techniques on page 245. When students have finished, ask volunteers to share their topic and a few details.
TEACH Have volunteers read aloud the first two paragraphs of the Practice section. Then read the questions to students, pausing briefly to discuss each question and share examples. For the first question, suggest that a speaker might say something surprising or ask a question of the audience. Explain that when using a visual aid, students should determine in advance the best time to show it. Invite students to read silently and try to remember the Listening Tips section. Remind students that active listening is a sign of respect.
ACTIVITY C Ask students to work in small groups to look over their notes for items that are referred to or ideas that could be described visually. Then ask volunteers to share the
type of visual aid they might use and explain how and when they would use it during the presentation. ACTIVITY D Have students work in pairs, taking turns reading their narratives to each other. Remind students that listening well is as important as speaking well. Encourage the listeners to provide feedback or ask questions about parts of the narrative they did not understand. When students have finished, ask the speakers to share how they could tell if their partner was listening.
Practice You’ll feel confident when giving an oral personal narrative if you practice with your notes and visual aids ahead of time. Try practicing your presentation in front of a family member, a friend, or even a mirror. Here are some questions that you and those watching you should consider as you practice: • • • • • • •
Does my introduction get the audience’s attention? Do I present the events of my narrative in the order in which they happened? Do I speak clearly? Do I speak with feeling? Do I use exact words? Is my visual aid appropriate? Do I share it at the correct time? Does my conclusion provide an ending that ties the rest of the narrative together?
Listening Tips When someone else is giving an oral personal narrative, it is important to be a good listener. Here are some tips to follow: • • • • •
246 • Chapter 1
Be respectful of the speaker and show that you are listening by looking at him or her. Do not interrupt the speaker. Write down any questions you may want to ask at the end of the speech. Listen for the speaker’s subtopics and details. If a visual aid is displayed, think about how it connects to what the speaker is talking about. When the speaker has finished speaking, provide feedback on the content of the narrative. Say things such as, “I’ve never been on a hike, but now you’ve given me an idea of what to expect.”
Note which students had difficulty presenting oral personal narratives. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. After you have reviewed Lessons 3–5, administer the Writing Skills Assessment on pages 45–46 in the Assessment Book. This test is also available on the optional Loyola Press Online Assessment System.
Before students present their narratives, make sure that they have their visual aid on hand. Remind speakers to speak loudly and clearly. Remind the audience to listen actively and be prepared to provide feedback at the conclusion of the narrative. Students should demonstrate effective preparation, practice, presentation, and listening skills.
Find an online site that details how to create a podcast. Involve students in the process. Then have students record their oral personal narratives. Encourage students to give their best performance and critique their presentations.
English-Language Learners Have English-language learners discuss skills they have developed to help them better understand spoken English (asking speakers to speak more slowly, asking speakers to define certain words). Point out that staying calm and concentrating might help students better understand what a speaker is saying.
ACTIVITY B Follow the tips in this lesson to prepare note cards for your own oral personal narrative. You may choose a topic of your own or refer back to the note cards you started writing in the Speaker’s Corner on page 245. Whether you’re building on your notes from the Speaker’s Corner or beginning something new, keep in mind that your classmates will be your audience.
ACTIVITY C Look over your completed note cards from Activity B as well as the visual-aid suggestions given below. Which visual aid or aids do you think would make your oral personal narrative more interesting? When would be the appropriate time to show the visual aids during your presentation?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Have each student select two narratives he or she has written. Ask students to practice reading each narrative quietly, using two different voices, basing each voice on the subject. Then ask students to read their narratives to a small group, using the two voices they practiced. After each student has read, ask the rest of the group to guess what voice was being used and explain what clues helped identify the voice.
Speaker’s Corner Use the note cards that you made in Activity B and the
visual aids that you selected
charts or graphs
in Activity C to continue
a few objects
preparing for your own
newspapers or magazines
Common Core Standards
oral personal narrative.
ACTIVITY D Practice using the note cards you prepared for Activity A on page 245. With a partner, take turns giving the oral presentation as well as listening to your partner’s presentation. When you are the listener, follow the Listening Tips on page 246, including follow-up questions or comments.
Have students form small groups. Invite one student from each group to leave the classroom while the other members of the groups hide preselected objects somewhere in the room. When the student from each group returns, have his or her group members take turns explaining how to find the object. Challenge students to give the directions one step at a time without including the names of any classroom objects.
Practice your presentation with a friend or a family
member. Then present the oral personal narrative to your classmates. Remember to follow the Listening Tips when it is your turn to listen to another classmate’s oral
Record a podcast of yourself and critique it.
personal narrative. Personal Narratives
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WRITER’S WORKSHOP Personal Narratives
OBJECTIVES • To use brainstorming and freewriting to select a personal-narrative topic • To create word webs and time lines to organize information
PREWRITING AND DRAFTING Read the opening paragraph to the class. Engage students in a discussion about the range of ideas they have had for personal narratives and about the topics they chose to write about and present orally. Have students turn to the inside back covers of their books. Review the traits of good writing and refer to this chart, as needed. The chart is also printed on the inside back cover of your edition.
Guide students to understand that freewriting is different from brainstorming because freewriting focuses on one topic. Tell students that when freewriting, they should write anything that pertains to the topic. Read aloud the last two paragraphs and Jason’s notes. Point out that Jason wrote down things that happened, his feelings, a specific smell, and even a common saying about lemonade.
Writer’s Tip Remind students that brainstorming is the time to let their imaginations fly with all the ideas that come to mind. Explain that freewriting involves taking the best idea as a topic and writing
Brainstorming Read this section aloud. Explain that brainstorming is one tool a writer can use while prewriting. To demonstrate brainstorming, choose one emotion—for example, pride— and have students list the times that they have felt proud. Encourage students to share examples. Have a volunteer write the ideas on the board as students name them.
Explain that ideas Ideas are the foundation of writing. Point out that strong ideas supported by interesting details help make personal narratives come alive. Freewriting Ask a volunteer to read aloud the paragraph on freewriting. 248 • Chapter 1
Read the first paragraph and the list. Ask students to use one of the suggestions to brainstorm ideas. When students have finished, ask a volunteer to read aloud the last paragraph. Then have students take a minute to review their brainstormed ideas and select one topic that would make a good personal narrative. Have students write their topic on another sheet of paper and freewrite. Encourage students to
Prewriting Invite a volunteer to read aloud this section. Remind students that prewriting means “before writing.” Tell students that the purpose of prewriting is to choose a suitable topic, determine supporting facts, and organize ideas.
everything they can remember about an event. Emphasize that the more details students have, the better.
Prewriting and Drafting Have you ever had an experience that was so funny or unusual that you couldn’t wait to tell your friends or family about it? Has anyone ever asked you to tell the story of an experience you have had? Experiences such as these are great topics for personal narratives.
Prewriting To begin the writing process, writers will use prewriting techniques to brainstorm topics, freewrite ideas, and organize and structure their writing.
Brainstorming For a personal narrative, brainstorming helps the writer remember and list personal experiences he or she has had. After brainstorming, the writer looks over the list and chooses the topic that will probably be most appealing to his or her audience.
Writer’s Tip Brainstorming means listing all the ideas that come to mind. Freewriting means exploring and expanding on your selected topic.
Freewriting After choosing a topic, begin freewriting. When freewriting for a personal narrative, record everything that you can remember about an event, including how you felt. The more ideas you have, the more you have to choose from when writing your first draft. Here’s an example of freewriting notes written by Jason, a seventh grader. He writes about a frustrating day. Notice that Jason wrote in phrases to capture his ideas quickly. Jason knew that he could organize his thoughts later in the writing process.
I felt frustrated at neighborhood fair popcorn stand. Dog knocked over bags—big mess. Popcorn burned when I answered the phone. Smelled bad. Made more popcorn. Friend poured too much salt. We made pink lemonade. When life gives you lemons, make lemonade. Made $86.00 for family with kid in hospital.
write everything they can think of that relates to the topic, including actions, sights, sounds, smells, or feelings.
Organizing Your Ideas Organization is the way writers put their Organization ideas together. In a personal narrative, the ideas are written in chronological order. Tell students that transferring information from freewriting to a time line is a process of organization. Invite students to read aloud the two paragraphs and the example time line to see how Jason organized his freewriting notes.
Read this section aloud. Have students use the notes they created during freewriting to organize their thoughts. Ask students to use time lines to arrange their drafts in chronological order. If some details do not conform to a time line (for example, a general observation), have students note those details in a corner of the draft so they are not forgotten. Later, encourage students to consider whether those details might fit in the introduction or the conclusion of their personal narrative, or whether the details should be eliminated.
Online Time Lines
Content Editing Revising
Look at your freewriting notes. Make a time line to show what happened in chronological order.
Organizing Your Ideas Proofreading Publishing
Once a writer has chosen a topic and recalled several details about the topic, he or she can use a graphic organizer Organization to organize thoughts and possibly add more details. Earlier in this chapter, you learned to organize events by using word webs and time lines.
made popcorn at fair dog knocked over bags started making more popcorn answered phone popcorn burned 2:00 p.m. made more popcorn friend put in too much salt people threw out popcorn got lemonade mix from home made lemonade 3:00 p.m. sold popcorn and lemonade raised $86.00 1:00 p.m.
Select a topic that will appeal to both you and your audience. Next, use freewriting to help you recall details about your topic. Write as much as you can in five minutes.
Have students select five of their favorite ideas from their brainstorming session and write the ideas on a sheet of paper. Ask students to trade papers with a partner. Have each student rank the five ideas from 1 to 5 to show which idea he or she would most like to read about. When students have finished, have them return the paper to their owners and discuss why they ranked the ideas as they did.
Today, you will begin to write a personal narrative and your classmates will be your audience. To select a topic for your personal narrative, practice brainstorming by completing one or two of the following sentences: I was quite surprised/scared when . . . I felt proud/brave/frustrated when . . . The best/worst day of my life was . . . My most embarrassing moment was . . .
Because the events of a narrative often appear in chronological order, creating a time line is a great way to organize details. Look at Jason’s time line. Notice that he expanded on his ideas more here than in the freewriting exercises.
Choosing a Topic
Group students whose primary language is the same. Invite the groups to complete the prewriting activities in their primary language. Then have students translate their brainstorming and freewriting activities into English, using bilingual dictionaries or one another’s help.
Personal Narratives Your Turn
Have students use a free online timeline program. After they have arranged their drafts in chronological order, ask students to transfer the details online. Have students print their time lines and exchange them with partners. Encourage students to point out potential problems in chronological order and ask questions to help fill in details. Invite students to revise their time line online.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.3 CCSS.ELA.W.7.4 CCSS.ELA.W.7.5
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WRITER’S WORKSHOP Personal Narratives
OBJECTIVE • To write a first draft of a personal narrative
Drafting Ask students what draft means when it is part of the writing process (a preliminary version of a piece of writing). Have a volunteer read the paragraph. Tell students that the draft is the first time in the writing process to put their ideas into the form of a cohesive narrative. Ask students what they think should be included in their draft (an introduction that presents the topic and engages readers so they want to continue reading, a body with the details of the experience in chronological order, and a conclusion that provides the reader with a sense of closure). Then have students read Jason’s first draft. Discuss Jason’s first draft. Encourage students to name what is effective about it and what could be improved.
Invite a volunteer to read this section aloud. Suggest to students that they review their time line before beginning to write. Review with students the importance of an engaging introduction and a satisfying conclusion.
Writer’s Tip As students begin
work on their first drafts, suggest that they double-space between lines, either writing on paper or typing on a computer. The extra space will give them room to add revisions.
Drafting A draft is a writer’s first chance to develop and organize his or her prewriting notes into a coherent narrative. After Jason reviewed his time line, he wrote his first draft. In addition to putting his thoughts into paragraph form, Jason added an introduction and a conclusion.
Writer’s Tip As he wrote, Jason kept in mind that he wanted his narrative to appeal to his peers, so he wrote using an informal tone.
d Rewarding Day
Writer’s Tip Remind students that
A Frustrating an
they should consider their audience when they begin to write a personal narrative. Tell students that the audience determines the tone they will use and the details they will include.
in July when our It was a hot day medical big nu
ld a fare to raise
child who was treatments for a
o came to eat mber of people wh
Ask students to look through Lesson 1 to remind themselves of the characteristics of a personal narrative. Encourage students to explain how Jason did or did not incorporate these characteristics. Emphasize that the drafting stage is a time to record ideas quickly on paper and that changes and improvements can be made later.
250 • Chapter 1
Remind students to refer back to the skills they learned in this chapter. Have students continue referring to their time lines to be sure that they are not forgetting any relevant details and are writing their narratives in chronological order. Emphasize that students are in the draft stage and that they should make changes simply by marking them and continuing writing rather than starting over.
tal. We were sur
sick in the hospi
money for prised at the lloon toss.
mes like water ba
food and play ga
n came. from across tow it, however, Even my cousins and to sell a lot of a popcorn popper in orn pc po ke My job was to ma t so interested lden retriever, go Bailey, who is a go g, do my st, Fir luck. sniff them. I had a lot of bad ground so he could ked them onto the oc kn he t tha pcorn in the bags of po It smelled so bad rn the popcorn. , he made me bu do car Ri s wa It rang. Then the phone popcorn. t and made more put too that I threw it ou of popcorn but she t on the new batch sal t pu to eta Gr d I asked my frien away. Suddenly, bite and threw it ht it ate just one ug bo o wh le op d pe much salt on it an ons, make life gives you lem en says: “W hen oft a dm an Gr at my I remembered wh le sister’s birthday cups from my litt lot of pink paper a nd fou d an home lemonade. I ran it to the popcorn onade and took ly made the lem ick qu I x. mi e onad and some pink lem ething to drink, and needed som the salty popcorn ted tas le op pe when stand. This time e. ution—lemonad I had just the sol ily with the together, the fam monade stand. Al /le orn pc po my I made $86.00 at es and donations. er $4,000.00 in sal sick child got ov
Writing with a “Voice” Explain that voice is Voice the “writer coming through the words.” Tell students that it is the language that helps readers hear and feel the personality of the writer. Point out that everyone has a unique voice. Explain that the challenge is to use words and details to express voice.
writing a personal narrative. (The writing will engage the reader. The writing will express the experience more accurately.) Inform students that one way to test the voice in their writing is to read their draft aloud. If parts sound dull or clumsy, they will know where the voice of the narrative needs to be improved.
Invite a volunteer to read the section. Ask students the benefits of developing a strong voice when
TEACHING OPTIONS English-Language Learners Invite students to write their drafts in their primary language. Pair students who share the same primary language and encourage them to translate their drafts into English, using bilingual dictionaries or other resources.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.3 CCSS.ELA.W.7.4 CCSS.ELA.W.7.5
How does a writer use expression? In writing, voice is heard through your choice of words and in the way you compose your sentences. Writers who write with a strong voice use specific words to express their thoughts. Their paragraphs are not lists of Voice sentences. Instead, their paragraphs engage the reader with clear sentences of varying lengths and types. How strong is the voice in your writing? It takes effort on your part to produce a strong, effective voice. As you keep writing, your voice will become stronger.
Jason’s draft pulls together the ideas he wrote during his prewriting exercises. He also added a few other details, an introduction, and a conclusion. Now it’s your turn to look at your prewriting exercises and write your first draft. Make sure that you have included all the relevant details about your chosen experience, as well as any new details that come to mind before you begin writing. When you add an introduction and a conclusion, remember what you have learned about the purpose of each in a personal narrative.
Writing with a “Voice”
Have students choose a section from their favorite book. The section should be an example of a writer’s unique voice. Ask students to practice reading their sections aloud. Invite them to record their sections and then play them for the class. Encourage students to discuss the voice of the various writers. Invite students to consider word choice, sentence length and variety, and the overall tone. For extra credit, students can choose their favorite section and write a paragraph in the style of the writer.
Writer’s Tip When you write, double-space
between lines so that you have room to add revisions.
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EDITOR’S WORKSHOP Personal Narratives
OBJECTIVE • To edit a first draft for content
CONTENT EDITING Discuss with students what content editing means. (Content editing involves looking closely at bigger issues—the flow and the structure of a piece of writing and the ideas behind it.) Emphasize that content editing is done first because it is important to get ideas expressed correctly before adding the final touches that are part of copyediting and proofreading. Read aloud the section and checklist that follows. Explain that students should keep these questions in mind as they edit their own and other students’ papers. Encourage students to copy the checklist so that they can refer to it easily. When students have finished copying the checklist, discuss each item with them. Stress that they should be reading for clarity. Tell students that reading for each word’s support of the purpose and tone of the narrative means that no words seem to break its focus and flow.
Writer’s Tip Explain that the goal of a content editor is to improve a draft and to make the writing as clear and strong as possible.
Encourage students to use the checklist whenever they edit a personal narrative for content. Have volunteers take turns reading page 253. Ask students why they think it is so important to have someone else read their first draft (to find out whether the intended message is understood by the reader).
Discuss the importance of being sensitive when giving feedback. Ask students to think about how a writer being critiqued might feel if the feedback is harsh or not constructive. Consider having volunteers role-play an effective peer-writing conference. Lead students to understand that getting others’ input can be helpful in the writing process. Challenge students to match Olivia’s comments with the questions in the Content Editor’s Checklist. Ask students to determine whether Olivia forgot to address any of the questions in the Content Editor’s Checklist. (Olivia forgot to check if there were any
Editor’s Workshop Content Editing Good writers know that their first drafts are not perfect. Drafts need to be edited for content and revised to make them better. A content editor notices how well the ideas of a piece are expressed. Is all the necessary information included? Do the ideas flow clearly and logically? Jason tried to edit his own writing with the help of the Content Editor’s Checklist. However, he knew that some things in the story that appeared clear to him might not be as clear to the reader. Jason decided to find a fresh pair of eyes to read his draft. His classmate, Olivia, agreed to have a peer conference with him. She would give him feedback on the content of his draft in a kind and respectful way. Jason said he would do the same for Olivia’s personal narrative. First, Olivia carefully read Jason’s narrative. Then she checked it against the Content Editor’s Checklist and read it a second time.
Writer’s Tip As content editors find things they can improve, they carefully mark them on the draft, as near as possible to the location of the error. Editing with a colored pencil will help the writer note the needed revisions.
252 • Chapter 1
unnecessary details.) Allow time for students to read Jason’s draft again to answer this question. Then invite volunteers to identify the unnecessary details. (Jason’s cousins came from across town to the fair. Jason’s dog is a golden retriever.) Discuss with students how Olivia worded her comments to Jason. Point out that Olivia used detailed comments and specific questions. Ask students to compare Olivia’s first comment to a remark such as “Your conclusion is really dull.”
Content Editor’s Checklist Does the introduction make the reader want to read more? Does the body of the narrative tell the events in a logical order? Are additional details needed for clarity? Are there unnecessary details that keep the narrative from flowing? Does the choice of words support the tone and purpose of the narrative? Are there rambling sentences? Are the words exact and do they convey their intended meaning? Is there a variety in sentence length? Does the conclusion leave the audience with something to remember?
Read this section aloud. Have students check their own drafts against the Content Editor’s Checklist and make the changes they feel necessary. Then have students trade drafts with partners. Ask students to check these drafts against the Content Editor’s Checklist and make notes as appropriate. After students have checked their partners’ drafts, use a student as your partner to demonstrate how to begin a conference with positive comments about the writing.
Writer’s Tip Explain to students
that beginning a conference with a positive comment “breaks the ice.” Remind students to be sensitive and courteous in giving constructive criticism. Then ask students to begin their conference with their partners.
Emphasize to students that their partners are offering them suggestions on ways to improve their writing. Explain that these suggestions are valuable, but that the writer should make the final decision about what to include or not include in his or her writing.
Writer’s Tip After you finish reading your partner’s first draft, tell them the good things that you read. Then, give your opinion of how you think the narrative could be improved. Your partner will do the same for you.
Jason valued Olivia’s feedback, so he decided to work on fixing the things she mentioned. He clarified the sentences about the phone call and the burnt popcorn. He also worked on improving the introduction and conclusion.
• There are a few missing details that I’d like to know. What was the child’s illness? How did Ricardo cause you to burn the popcorn? • You might want to replace words like food, threw away, ran, and took with more precise words that interest your audience.
Trade personal narratives with a classmate. Read your classmate’s narrative several times and go over the Content Editor’s Checklist.
• The same is true of the introduction. Your first sentence sets the scene, but it also needs to make me want to read more. Perhaps you could add a catchy introductory sentence.
Look for ways to improve your first draft. • Will your introduction make readers want to keep reading? • Do you have enough details to make the story clear for all classmates reading the story? • Are only the essential details in the body? • Is your conclusion strong enough so that your readers will know it’s the end of the narrative?
• I like the expression you wrote in the body of the narrative: “If life gives you lemons, make lemonade.” I wonder if that could become the conclusion. If not, you need a more memorable conclusion because the one you wrote seems a little dull.
Olivia then shared with Jason the things in the narrative she thought could be improved. Here are her comments.
TEACHING OPTIONS Meeting Individual Needs Visual Post an example of a studentwritten personal narrative on the classroom blog. Ask students to use the Content Editor’s Checklist and edit the narrative online. Students may want to use the track changes tool, if available, to write their comments. When students have finished, ask them to review the suggestions of their classmates, make a list of those they think are important, and revise the narrative.
If You Don’t Have Something Nice to Say . . . Have students work in groups and challenge them to turn criticism into constructive criticism. Have students rephrase these comments into helpful advice:
“I don’t like this introduction.” (Possible response: “The body of the narrative is so interesting. Maybe you could write a catchier introduction.”) “This detail doesn’t make sense.” (Possible response: “For me, this detail detracts from the rest of the story.”) “Your sentences are all the same.” (Possible response: “I’d like to see more sentences like this.”) Ask students to discuss how the revised comments made them feel and whether or not they felt more or less receptive to listening to the comments being made.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.5 CCSS.ELA.W.7.4
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WRITER’S WORKSHOP Personal Narratives Explain that
OBJECTIVE • To revise a personal narrative
REVISING Invite students to describe a time they changed something to make it better. Then ask, What word describes the process of changing or improving writing? Explain that the procedure is called revising and that students will learn ways to revise a first draft. Ask students to look at Jason’s draft. Explain that Jason’s draft is marked to show how he incorporated comments from the conference he had with Olivia. Point out that Jason crossed out sentences and added new ones. Have students follow along as a volunteer reads Jason’s revised draft. Ask volunteers to point out parts of the draft that were revised and tell whether the changes improve the draft. Read the section that follows Jason’s draft. Invite students to point out changes that Jason made in the revision process. Ask students to answer the questions in each bulleted item.
Word Choice word choice
is the use of everyday words in a way that supports the purpose and tone of the writing. In a personal narrative written for friends and family, the choice of exact words helps the reader have a clear idea of the writer’s personal experience. Have students read the next section. Make sure that students see where Jason replaced words for big number, threw away, and ran home. Invite students to discuss how these changes improved Jason’s draft. Be sure that students realize that while reading his draft, Jason discovered that there were
unnecessary details. Tell students that, like Jason, they can make changes while revising that were not made while content editing. Review the definition of an appositive as a word that follows a noun and identifies it or adds more information about it. Remind students that a restrictive appositive is necessary to understanding the sentence and is not set off by commas. Review that a nonrestrictive appositive is not necessary to understanding the sentence and is set off by commas. On page 254, students should identify Bailey as a nonrestrictive appositive.
Writer’s Workshop Revising Here are the revisions Jason made to his draft after he met with Olivia about content editing.
A Frustrating and Rewarding Day
Have you ever had a day that was really frustrating. I have, but fortunately everything turned out OK in the end.
It was a hot day in July when our neighborhood held a fare to raise money for for a girl who was ill with leukemia. medical treatments for a child who was sick in the hospital. We were surprised at the the concession stand to hundreds big number of people who came to eat food and play games like water balloon toss.
• Jason focused on the statement
about lemons and lemonade and came up with a new concluding sentence. • Jason revised the introduction as Olivia had suggested so that it better captured the attention of his readers. • Jason added more information about the girl’s illness in the first paragraph; in the second paragraph, Jason explained why he burned the popcorn. • Jason reworded the first sentence in which he used the phrase a lot of and changed it to read as much as I could.
Even my cousins from across town came.
as much as I could
My job was to make popcorn in a popcorn popper and to sell a lot of it, however, I had a lot of bad luck. First, my dog, Bailey, who is a golden retriever, got so interested in the bags of popcorn that he knocked them onto the ground so he could sniff them.
Then I got a call from Ricardo. While we were talking, the popcorn burned.
Then the phone rang. It was Ricardo, he made me burn the popcorn. It smelled so bad that I threw it out and made more popcorn. I asked my friend Greta to put salt on the new batch of popcorn but she put too tossed it in the garbage after eating just one bite. much salt on it and people who bought it ate just one bite and threw it away. Suddenly, I remebered what my Grandma often says: “When life gives you lemons, make dashed lemonade. I ran home and found a lot of pink paper cups from my little sister’s birthday lugged it over and some pink lemonade mix. I quickly made the lemonade and took it to the popcorn stand. This time when people tasted the salty popcorn and needed something to drink, I had just the solution—lemonade. I made $86.00 at my popcorn/lemonade stand. Altogether, the family with the
sick child got over $4,000.00 in sales and donations. In the end I could finally laugh at my frustrating popcorn episode and find joy in “making lemonade out of lemons.” 254
254 • Chapter 1
Have a volunteer read this section. Introduce the acronym CARS and write it vertically on the board. Remind students that remembering CARS can help them revise their personal narratives. C–Change sentences around A–Add sentences R–Remove sentences
Instruct students not to copyedit or proofread yet, as these steps will be discussed in the next lesson. As students revise their drafts, suggest that they use colored pens or pencils to make their changes. Encourage students to consult their editor partner for clarification or advice. Remind students to refer to the Content Editor’s Checklist while revising.
S–Substitute new sentences
TEACHING OPTIONS Meeting Individual Needs Auditory Have partners read aloud each other’s personal narratives. Encourage students to listen for whether each narrative is in chronological order, the details given are necessary, and any additional details are needed to better convey the story. Tell students that by hearing their work read aloud, they may discover errors that they, or their content editors, did not discover while reading silently.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.4 CCSS.ELA.W.7.5
Identify the appositive in the second paragraph in Jason’s draft on page 254. Is it restrictive or nonrestrictive? See Section 1.5.
Use your ideas about the content and the ideas you got from your classmate to revise your personal narrative. Write your changes as neatly as you can next to the text you are changing. That will make it easier to read the edited parts when you rewrite your story. When you have finished making revisions, use the Content Editor’s Checklist again.
Then he realized that several common words could be replaced with more exact words, such as hundreds for big number, Word Choice tossed in the garbage for threw away, and dashed home for ran home. After Jason incorporated Olivia’s suggestions, he read his revised draft again. He made additional changes when he noticed some details that did not support the purpose of the narrative. Were the references to his cousins and to the breed of his dog, Bailey, necessary to the story?
• Olivia’s comments helped Jason see that there were a few missing details in his narrative. What were the missing details and where should he place them in his story? • Jason also noticed that he had used the phrase “a lot of” twice in consecutive sentences. Should he reword one of the sentences? Which one?
• What should he revise to better capture the attention of his readers?
• Jason agreed with Olivia that he needed a conclusion that would pull together ideas from the body. He just had to think about it for a while. What could he focus on to help him come up with a new concluding sentence?
Look at the revisions Jason made to his draft. He used some of Olivia’s suggestions and found more ways to improve his narrative.
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EDITOR’S WORKSHOP Personal Narratives
OBJECTIVE • To copyedit and proofread a personal-narrative draft
COPYEDITING AND PROOFREADING Copyediting Ask volunteers to list on the board the steps they have taken thus far in writing a personal narrative (brainstorming, freewriting, organizing, drafting, content editing, revising). Explain that the next step, copyediting, is about looking more closely at the writing. Clarify that content editing involves looking at ideas, structure, and flow, while copyediting involves looking carefully at individual sentences and words—the copy. Invite a volunteer to read Copyediting aloud. Instruct students to examine the two new sentences by Jason and ask students to refer back to his narrative on page 254. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the Copyeditor’s Checklist. Then encourage students to copy the checklist from their books so that they have it for future reference. Remind students that, in content editing, they determined if all the words served the tone and the purpose of the piece. In copyediting they will check to see if the words they used are exact and convey their intended meaning. Then ask students to check Jason’s narrative on page 254 against the checklist. Invite volunteers to discuss any problems they find with Jason’s narrative. Tell students that Sentence sentence fluency Fluency is the sound of the writing. Suggest that they always read their writing aloud to hear where the writing might be choppy or awkward. 256 • Chapter 1
Have a volunteer read this section. Ask students to work independently first and then with a partner to copyedit their writing. Instruct students to refer to the checklist while reading the narratives. Encourage students to check for one error at a time. Then remind students about the proper way to evaluate someone else’s writing. Tell them that they should be as specific as possible when giving feedback.
Proofreading Ask students whether they have ever found a misspelled word or other error in a published piece of writing. Lead students to understand that careful proofreading is an important part of the writing process and an essential writing skill. Tell students that any writing that will be read by another person—a teacher, a coworker, a publisher, or anyone else—should be proofread thoroughly. Have a volunteer read aloud the first paragraph of Proofreading. Ask students how new errors could
Editor’s Workshop Copyediting and Proofreading Copyediting The day after Jason revised his draft for content, he read the revised draft again. He knew that the content was greatly improved, but he wanted to make the draft even better. He decided to copyedit his draft and pay closer attention to his choice of words and sentence structure. When you copyedit, you look for accuracy in word meaning, word choice, sentence structure, and the overall logic of Sentence Fluency the piece. Check for any overused words that could be replaced with more precise words that better convey your intended meaning. Remembering the lesson on run-on and rambling sentences, Jason decided to see if his draft had any of those kinds of errors. Jason thought the sentence about the dog in the third paragraph was too long and awkward, so he changed it to read like this:
First, my dog, Bailey, became so interested in sniffing the bags of popcorn that he knocked them onto the ground. Jason found another sentence that looked too long at the beginning of the second paragraph. He realized it was a run-on sentence. Separating the ideas into two sentences seemed to help.
Your Turn Look over your revised draft and use the Copyeditor’s Checklist. A good way to catch sentence construction mistakes is to read the narrative aloud. You might ask someone else to read your draft aloud to let you know if any sentences sound awkward.
Proofreading Before writing the final copy of a personal narrative, a good writer proofreads the draft for mistakes in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and grammar. He or she also checks to make sure that no new errors have been introduced during the revising steps. Good writers also ask someone else to Conventions proofread their draft because another proofreader may catch errors that the writer missed. Jason asked another classmate, William, to proofread his personal narrative. William followed the Proofreader’s Checklist and found a spelling error, one homophone error, one word that should be capitalized, a missing question mark, a missing
My job was to make popcorn in a popcorn popper and to sell as much as I could. However, I had a lot of bad luck. Jason used the checklist at the bottom of the page to copyedit his draft.
sentences? n or rambling Are there run-o or phrases? ndant words Are there redu s logical and e of sentence Is the structur correct? grammatically
have been introduced during revising. (The revised words or sentences may have been written or typed incorrectly. While changing one error, the writer may have created a new error accidentally.) Then ask students why it is a good idea to have another person proofread the narrative. (The writer and the copyeditor may have missed an error.) Ask a volunteer to read aloud the Proofreader’s Checklist. Encourage students to copy the checklist for future reference. Then review the proofreading marks with students. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the last paragraph in this section.
understand that conventions are the spelling, grammar, punctuation, and capitalization of a piece of writing. Emphasize the importance of proofreading drafts to find and correct errors. Have a volunteer read this section. As students check their drafts, remind them that they will be more successful if they search for only one type of error at a time. When students have finished checking their draft and their partner’s draft, allow them time to incorporate the suggestions.
Are the paragraphs indented? Are all words spelled correctly?
Is the grammar correct?
Are capitalization and punctuation correct? Are you sure no new errors were introduced during the editing step?
Read your revised draft carefully against the Proofreader’s Checklist. When you have gone through the list, trade papers with a partner. Check your partner’s paper in the same way. Be sure to use a dictionary if you are unsure of a word’s definition or correct spelling.
COMMON PROOFREADING MARKS Example over. Begin a new
close up space
close u p space
that the the book
add quotation marks
I am, I said
Marta drank tea
begin new paragraph
Discuss these points with students: • Why is it good to put writing aside for a time before making changes? (Sometimes taking a break makes a person more observant and objective. Errors can be spotted more easily.) • Some computer programs have a thesaurus. Why must words still be selected carefully? (A thesaurus offers words that have similar but not necessarily appropriate meanings.) • Spell-checkers are helpful, but what are some things that spell-checkers might not catch? (misused homophones, misspelled proper nouns) Ask students to share with the class any tips and tricks of their own.
quotation mark, and a paragraph that was not indented. He also found a redundant word, finally, just after the phrase In the end.
Tips and Tricks
English-Language Learners Be aware that students may transfer the grammar, punctuation, and capitalization rules of their primary language to their written English. In Spanish a comma is not used to separate the last two items in a series joined by a conjunction: blanco, negro y rojo (white, black and red). Also, questions written in Spanish begin with an inverted question mark and end with a regular question mark.
Proofreader’s Challenge Have students rewrite a short article from a newspaper or magazine, incorporating errors in spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Photocopy the incorrect articles and have other students use proofreading symbols to indicate necessary corrections. Students can use the original article to check their answers.
Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.7.4 CCSS.ELA.W.7.5
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WRITER’S WORKSHOP Personal Narratives
OBJECTIVE • To publish a personal narrative
PUBLISHING Ask students to name the steps in the writing process they have learned thus far. Then have students predict what step will be next. Ask, How might the publishing step affect the other steps in the writing process? Explain to students that to publish means to make a neat, final copy of a piece of writing and share it with an audience. Invite a volunteer to read the section on publishing. Remind students that Jason was going to publish his writing in the form of a booklet.
Discuss with students the many ways they might publish their writing.
Ask a volunteer to read aloud Jason’s finished personal narrative. Tell students that they can see the copyediting and proofreading changes that Jason made by comparing this version of the narrative with the original one on page 250.
Invite a volunteer to read the paragraph. Explain to students that whatever option they choose, they must still submit a written personal narrative. When students have finished their personal narratives, consider setting aside an area in the classroom to be a personal-narrative library. Provide time for students to read or watch one another’s personal narratives and encourage students to discuss them.
Presentation that no
matter how students decide to publish their personal narratives, presentation matters. Presentation is the look of a piece of writing. It includes neatness as well as consistent margins and spacing. Remind students to include a title at the top of the first page.
Writer’s Workshop Publishing Publishing is the moment when you decide to share your finished work. You know it is your best work, and you are ready to share it with your audience. As Jason prepared to publish his personal narrative, he read his draft again to make sure he had written all the necessary revisions and corrections. Since his narrative was
to be published in the form of a booklet, Jason wanted to make it look as polished as he could. Jason used a large font to type the narrative’s title at the top of the first page. Jason then created a booklet by placing his finished piece between a front and back cover and stapling the pages together along the left side.
A Frustrating but Rewarding Day by Jason Brady
Have you ever had a day that was really frustrating? I have, but fortunately everything turned out OK in the end. It was a hot day in July when our neighborhood held a fair to raise money for medical treatments for a girl who was ill with leukemia. We were surprised at the hundreds of people who came to the concession stand to eat food and play games like water balloon toss. My job was to make popcorn in a popcorn popper and to sell as much as I could. However, I had a lot of bad luck. First, my dog, Bailey, became so interested in sniffing the bags of popcorn that he knocked them onto the ground. Then I got a call from Ricardo. While we were talking, the popcorn burned. It smelled so bad that I threw it out and made more popcorn. I asked my friend Greta to put salt on the newest batch of popcorn, but she used too much salt. The people who bought the popcorn tossed it in the garbage after eating just one bite. Suddenly, I remembered what my grandma often says: “When life gives you lemons, make lemonade.” I dashed home and found a lot of pink paper cups from my little sister’s birthday and some pink lemonade mix. I quickly made the lemonade and lugged it over to the popcorn stand. This time when people tasted the salty popcorn and needed something to drink, I had the perfect solution— lemonade. I made $86.00 at my popcorn/lemonade stand. Altogether, the family with the sick child received over $4,000.00 in sales and donations. In the end, I could laugh at my frustrating popcorn episode and find joy in “making lemonade out of lemons.” 258
258 • Chapter 1
Writer’s Tip Remind students to check their spelling. If they are working on a computer, they can use spell-check. Otherwise, they should use a dictionary. Students should be reminded that neither source checks for homophones.
Have students assess their finished personal narrative using the reproducible Student Self-Assessment on page 259y. A separate Personal Narrative Scoring Rubric can be found on page 259z for you to use to evaluate their work. Plan to spend tomorrow doing a formal assessment. Administer the Personal Narrative Writing Prompt on Assessment Book pages 47–48.
That’s a Wrap Have partners create a flowchart to illustrate the steps involved in the writing process. Tell students to discuss each step as they work together to make the chart. Then invite the class to discuss their experiences during the Writer’s Workshop. Encourage students to share opinions about the process. Ask students to name other parts of their lives in which they will use these writing skills.
Portfolio Opportunity After the personal narratives have been shared and displayed for a time, suggest that students place their finished personal narratives in their portfolios.
Choose one of the publishing options. Carefully type your narrative on a computer or write it using your neatest handwriting to make a final copy of your revised draft. Proofread your final copy one more time.
Writer’s Tip Your computer’s spell checker can help you find spelling errors, but remember that it won’t find incorrect homophones.
CCSS.ELA.W.7.4 CCSS.ELA.W.7.5 CCSS.ELA.W.7.6
Film your personal narrative. Present it using a video of each student reading his or her narrative aloud and show it at Parents’ Night to an even larger audience.
Create a class newsletter. Use a digital camera or a scanner to add your photo to your piece.
Post your personal narrative to a website that publishes student writing. Work with an adult to find an appropriate site. Make a pop-up book. Add illustrations by drawing them yourself or using a digital camera.
Common Core Standards
Create a class book or scrapbook. Put together all the personal narratives from your class. Use a digital camera to add photos. You might also include original illustrations or souvenirs.
A publisher prints a written work and then sells or distributes it to the public. Completing the final version of something Presentation that will be published is a writer’s last step in the writing process. There are many ways you can publish your personal narrative.
g but ratin y t s u r Da AF rding Re w a y so n by J a
B ra d
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 259
Personal Narrative Ideas Do I have a suitable topic?
Do I maintain a clear focus? Organization Do I engage the reader in the introduction? Do I use a graphic organizer for planning? Do I use chronological order? Do I leave the reader with something to remember in the conclusion? Voice Does my piece show my personality? Do I provide a sense of authenticity? Do I use an appropriate tone? Word Choice Do I use exact words and avoid redundant words? Do I use natural language? Sentence Fluency Do I use a variety of sentence lengths and sentence types? Do I avoid the use of run-on and rambling sentences? Conventions Do I use correct grammar? Do I use correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization? Presentation Is my narrative easy to read, either typed or neatly handwritten? Do I have a title page? Additional Items
Voyages in English Grade 7
259y • Chapter 1
TEACHER’S SCORING RUBRIC POINT VALUES
0 1 2 3 4
= = = = =
not evident minimal evidence of mastery evidence of development toward mastery strong evidence of mastery outstanding evidence of mastery
Personal Narrative Ideas a suitable topic
a clear focus Organization an introduction that engages the reader a graphic organizer for planning chronological order a sense of resolution in the conclusion Voice an identifiable writer’s personality a sense of authenticity an appropriate tone Word Choice exact words no redundant words natural language Sentence Fluency a variety of sentence lengths a variety of sentence types no run-on and rambling sentences Conventions correct grammar and usage correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization Presentation easy to read, typed or neatly handwritten a title page Additional Items ©
Total Voyages in English Grade 7
www.voyagesinenglish.com • Personal Narratives • 259z