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GRAMMAR AND WRITING

I N

E N G L I S H

teacher edition


CONTENTS

Introduction

Welcome to Voyages in English

OV-1

Program Overview How to Use This Program

OV-2 OV-24

PA R T

1 GRAMMAR Sentences Teacher Preparation

Section 1

Sentences

Sentences Declarative and Interrogative Sentences Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences Complete Subjects and Predicates Simple Subjects and Predicates Compound Subjects Compound Predicates Direct Objects Subject Complements Compound Sentences Run-on Sentences Sentence Review Sentence Challenge

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11

1

Nouns Teacher Preparation

Section 2

Nouns

Nouns Common and Proper Nouns Singular and Plural Nouns Irregular Plural Nouns Singular Possessive Nouns Plural Possessive Nouns Collective Nouns Nouns as Subjects Nouns as Direct Objects Nouns as Subject Complements Words Used as Nouns and as Verbs Noun Review Noun Challenge

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11

1a–1b

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 27a–27b

27 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52

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Pronouns Teacher Preparation

Section 3

Pronouns

Personal Pronouns: Part I Personal Pronouns: Part II Singular and Plural Pronouns Subject Pronouns Pronouns in Compound Subjects Object Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Possessive Adjectives Pronouns and Antecedents I, Me, We, and Us Pronouns and Contractions Pronoun Review Pronoun Challenge

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11

Adjectives Teacher Preparation

53a–53b

53 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 79a–79b

Section 4

Adjectives

79

Descriptive Adjectives Proper Adjectives Articles Demonstrative Adjectives Adjectives That Tell How Many Adjectives as Subject Complements Adjectives That Compare Irregular Adjectives That Compare More, Most Fewer, Fewest and Less, Least Position of Adjectives Adjective Review Adjective Challenge

80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11

Verbs Teacher Preparation

Section 5

Verbs

Action Verbs Being Verbs Linking Verbs Helping Verbs Verb Phrases Principal Parts of Verbs Irregular Verbs More Irregular Verbs Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense Future Tenses Progressive Tenses Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14

105a–105b

105 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132

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5.15 5.16 5.17

Future Perfect Tense Subject-Verb Agreement There Is and There Are Verb Review Verb Challenge

134 136 138 140 142

Adverbs and Conjunctions Teacher Preparation

Section 6

Adverbs and Conjunctions

Adverbs of Time and Place Adverbs of Manner Adverbs That Compare More Adverbs That Compare Good and Well; Negative Words Coordination Conjunctions Adverb and Conjunction Review Adverb and Conjunction Challenge

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

143a–143b

143 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158

Punctuation and Capitalization Teacher Preparation 159a–159b

Section 7

Punctuation and Capitalization

End Punctuation Capitalization Titles of Works Abbreviations Personal Titles Commas: Part I Commas: Part II Apostrophes Addresses Direct Quotations Punctuation and Capitalization Review Punctuation and Capitalization Challenge

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10

Diagramming Teacher Preparation

Diagramming

Subjects and Verbs Direct Objects Possessives and Adjectives Subject Complements Adverbs Compound Subjects and Predicates Compound Direct Objects Nouns as Compound Subject Complements Adjectives as Compound Subject Complements Compound Sentences Diagramming Practice Diagramming Review Diagramming Challenge

160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 183a–183b

Section 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11

159

183 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208

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PA R T

Written and Oral 2 Communication Personal Narratives Teacher Preparation

Chapter 1 Personal Narratives

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

210

What Makes a Good Personal Narrative? Introduction, Body, and Conclusion Study Skills: Time Lines Writing Skills: Exact Words Word Study: Contractions with Pronouns Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Personal Narratives Writer’s Workshop: Personal Narratives Rubrics

212 216 220 224 228 232 236 247y–247z

Formal Letters Teacher Preparation

248a–248b

Chapter 2 Formal Letters

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

248

What Makes a Good Formal Letter? 250 Types of Formal Letters 254 Writing Skills: Compound Sentences 258 Literacy Skills: Mailing a Formal Letter 262 Word Study: Antonyms 266 Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Complaints and Conflicts 270 Writer’s Workshop: Letters of Complaint 274 Rubrics 285y–285z Descriptions Teacher Preparation

286a–286b

Chapter 3 Descriptions

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

286

What Makes a Good Description? Sensory Language Word Study: Suffixes Writing Skills: Similes and Metaphors Study Skills: Graphic Organizers Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Descriptions Writer’s Workshop: Descriptions Rubrics

288 292 296 300 304 308 312 323y–323z

How-to Articles Teacher Preparation

324a–324b

Chapter 4 How-to Articles

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

210a–210b

324

What Makes a Good How-to Article? Important Details Word Study: Prefixes Study Skills: Dictionary Writing Skills: Time Words Speaking and Listening Skills: How-to Talks Writer’s Workshop: How-to Articles Rubrics

326 330 334 338 342 346 350 361y–361z

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Persuasive Writing Teacher Preparation

Chapter 5 Persuasive Writing

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

362

What Makes Good Persuasive Writing? Facts and Opinions Word Study: Synonyms Study Skills: Dictionary Writing Skills: Compound Subjects and Predicates Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Persuasion Writer’s Workshop: Persuasive Writing Rubrics

364 368 372 376 380 384 388 399y–399z

Creative Writing: Fables Teacher Preparation

400a–400b

Chapter 6 Creative Writing: Fables

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

400

What Makes a Good Fable? Beginning, Middle, and Ending Word Study: Homophones Writing Skills: Expanding Sentences Poetry: Haiku Speaking and Listening Skills: Telling a Fable Writer’s Workshop: Fables Rubrics

402 406 410 414 418 422 426 437y–437z

Expository Writing Teacher Preparation

438a–438b

Chapter 7 Expository Writing

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

438

What Makes a Good Expository Article? Gathering Information Word Study: Negative Words Writing Skills: Rambling Sentences Study Skills: Library Catalogs Speaking and Listening Skills: News Reports Writer’s Workshop: Expository Writing Rubrics

440 444 448 452 456 460 464 475y–475z

Research Reports Teacher Preparation

476a–476b

Chapter 8 Research Reports

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

362a–362b

476

What Makes a Good Research Report? Researching Study Skills: Reference Sources Word Study: Compound Words Writing Skills: Outlines Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral History Report Writer’s Workshop: Research Reports Rubrics

Common Proofreading Marks

478 482 486 490 494 498 502 513y–513z

514

Contents   •   vii

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PA R T

3 Bonus Chapters Consumer Reviews Teacher Preparation

516a–516b

Chapter 9 Consumer Reviews

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

516

What Makes a Good Consumer Review? Linking Words and Phrases Literacy Skills: Progressive Verb Tenses Word Study: Domain-Specific Words Writing Skills: Multiple Adjectives Speaking and Listening Skills: Testimonial Writer’s Workshop: Consumer Reviews Rubrics

518 522 526 530 534 538 542 553y–553z

Literary Reflection Teacher Preparation

554a–554b

Chapter 10 Literary Reflection

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

554

What Makes a Good Literary Reflection? Summarizing and Drawing Conclusions Writing Skills: Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs Word Study: Clues About Word Meaning Study Skills: Recognizing Idioms, Adages, and Proverbs Speaking and Listening Skills: Giving a Book Talk Writer’s Workshop: Literary Reflection Rubrics

556 560 564 568 572 576 580 591y–591z

Poetry Teacher Preparation

592a–592b

Chapter 11 Poetry

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 2 3 4 5 6

592

What Is Poetry? Appealing to the Senses Writing Skills: Prepositional Phrases Word Study: Word Parts Study Skills: Print and Digital References Speaking and Listening Skills: Poetry Reading Writer’s Workshop: Poetry Rubrics

594 598 602 606 610 614 618 629y–629z

Writing Traits

630

Grammar and Mechanics Handbook

631

Index

655

Acknowledgments

662

Scope and Sequence

T-665

Common Core State Standards Correlations

T-678

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SECTION PLANNER

1

Sentences SECTION FOCUS • Sentences • Subjects and predicates

GRAMMAR FOR GROWN-UPS

• Compound subjects • Compound predicates

Understanding Sentences

• Direct objects

A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence begins with a capital letter. Most sentences end with periods.

• Subject complements • Compound sentences • Run-on sentences

A sentence has a subject and a predicate. The complete subject names the person, place, or thing talked about in a sentence and all the words that go with it. The complete predicate is the verb and the words relating to it.

SUPPORT MATERIALS

COMPLETE SUBJECT

COMPLETE PREDICATE

Practice Book Daily Maintenance, pages 1–4 Grammar, pages 5–16

The baby

cried.

The swimmer

swam two lengths.

The noun is the simple subject. The verb is the simple predicate.

Assessment Book Section 1 Assessment, pages 1–4

SIMPLE SUBJECT

SIMPLE PREDICATE

Loyola Press Online Assessment System

The baby

cried.

The swimmer

swam two lengths.

Writing Chapter 1, Personal Narratives

A compound subject has two or more simple subjects connected by and or or. (Jim and Juan sit together.) A compound predicate has two or more simple predicates connected with and, but, or or. (Lisa hopped and jumped.)

Customizable Lesson Plans www.voyagesinenglish.com

A compound sentence is two short sentences related to each other and joined by and, but, or or. (His mother trained horses, but she also owned a store.)

CONNECT WITH LITERATURE Consider using the following titles throughout the section to illustrate the grammar concept:

My Book of Sentences by Eno Sarris and Masaaki Aihara A Sentence a Day: Short, Playful Proofreading Exercises to Help Students Avoid Tripping Up When They Write by Samantha Prust

TYPE OF SENTENCE

FUNCTION

EXAMPLE

Declarative

Makes a statement

The egg hatched today.

Interrogative

Asks a question

Did you play baseball?

Imperative

Gives a command

Take my turn.

Exclamatory

Expresses strong emotion

How happy I am!

A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb. To find the direct object of a sentence, ask whom or what after the verb. Juanita threw the ball. (What did Juanita throw? She threw the ball.) A subject complement is usually a noun or an adjective that follows a linking verb and tells more about the subject. The movie was exciting. (Exciting follows the linking verb was and tells more about the movie.)

 Correct English is the logic of speech, even as logic is the grammar of reason. 

—Richard C. Trench

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SECTION PLANNER

Sentences

1

COMMON ERRORS

ASK AN EXPERT

Fixing Run-on Sentences

Real Situations, Real Solutions

Students often make the mistake of putting two separate thoughts into one sentence. To correct the problem, a student can write two separate sentences or leave the comma and add or, and, or but between the two thoughts. ERROR: I played football, my mom went to

the pharmacy. CORRECT: I played football. My mom went to the pharmacy. CORRECT: I played football, and my mom went to the pharmacy. TIP: When students revise their writing, remind them to read aloud each sentence, checking that it expresses only one complete thought. Guide students to change run-on sentences into two or more sentences or into a compound sentence.

Grammar Geek Imperative Subjects Dear Grammar Geek, What do I tell my students when they ask what the subject of an imperative sentence is? I’m not sure myself. Command Performer, Ms. B

Ms. B Re: Imperative Subjects Dear Command Performer, Tell students that sentences that give commands often have the implied subject you. To provide examples, have students revise sentences by adding you. For example: Tie your shoes, please. (You) tie your shoes, please. (You) write me any time, Grammar Geek

SENTENCE DIAGRAMMING You may wish to teach sentences in the context of diagramming. Review these examples. Then refer to the Diagramming section.

Grammar Geezer Finding Direct Objects Dear Grammar Geezer,

Children play.

Is there a visual way to show my students how to find the direct object in a sentence?

Children

play

subject

verb

Graphic Geezer, Stan

Stan Re: Finding Direct Objects

Children play games.

Children

subject

1b  •  Section 1

play

verb

games

direct object

Dear Stan, Provide students with a sentence containing a direct object. Then have students follow the steps in the visual below to find the simple predicate first, the simple subject next, and finally the direct object. Give students plenty of practice using the visual, and they will soon understand direct objects and their function. STEP 1

STEP 2

STEP 3

Read the sentence. Find the action verb by asking yourself: What is happening? What action is taking place?

Find the subject by asking yourself: Who or what is doing the action?

Look at the words that follow the action verb. Find the direct object by asking yourself: Who or what completes the action of the verb?

From one geezer to another, Grammar Geezer


PART

1

GRAMMAR SE

CTION

1 Sentences 1.1

Sentences 2

1.2

Declarative and Interrogative Sentences 4

1.3

Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences

1.4

Complete Subjects and Predicates

1.5

Simple Subjects and Predicates

1.6

Compound Subjects 12

1.7

Compound Predicates 14

1.8

Direct Objects 16

1.9

Subject Complements 18

1.10

Compound Sentences 20

1.11

Run-on Sentences 22

6

8

10

Sentence Review 24 Sentence Challenge 26

1


1.1

Sentences

OBJECTIVE • To identify a sentence as a group of words that expresses a complete thought

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 1, Section 1.1. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

WARM-UP Display an interesting poster or photo. Encourage students to describe what they see. Write students’ ideas, including words, phrases, and complete sentences on the board. Then read aloud a complete sentence and a phrase. Challenge students to explain how the two are different.

students work with partners to match the subjects and predicates to make complete sentences. Have students write the completed sentences. Then challenge students to write two additional complete sentences. EXERCISE 2 Complete this exercise as a class. Invite volunteers to read aloud each group of words and determine whether they express a complete thought or an incomplete thought. Have students explain their responses and point out the subject and predicate in each complete sentence. Challenge

1.1

students to make three incomplete sentences into complete sentences by adding either a subject or a predicate. EXERCISE 3 Have students complete this exercise independently. Tell students to determine whether each group of words is a subject or a predicate before deciding how to complete each sentence. Invite volunteers to write their sentences on the board. Have students identify the subject and predicate in each sentence.

Sentences A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence begins with a capital letter. Most sentences end with periods.

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the complete sentences.

A sentence has a subject and a predicate. The subject tells who or what the sentence is about. The predicate tells what the subject is or does. It expresses an action or a state of being.

TEACH Read aloud the first paragraph. Ask volunteers to identify the complete sentences from the Warm-Up. Then invite a volunteer to read aloud the next paragraph, the chart, and the question. Have students identify the groups of words that are complete sentences and explain why. Ask a volunteer to finish reading the text aloud. Challenge students to give a few additional examples of complete sentences.

C O M P L E T E S U B J EC T

C O M P L E T E P R E D I C AT E

Eric

played cymbals.

The cymbals

were gold and shiny.

The crowd

enjoyed the concert.

All the children

were happy.

Which of these word groups are sentences? A

The drums are loud

B

A brass tuba

C

Maggie likes the trumpet

D

Listens to the music

You are right if you said that A and C are sentences. Each one expresses a complete thought. Each one has a subject and a predicate, and each should have a period at the end. B and D are not sentences. They do not express complete thoughts. B doesn’t have a predicate, and D doesn’t have a subject. EXERCISE 1 Match a group of words in Column A with a

group of words in Column B to make a sentence. Add a period to the end of each sentence. Column A

Column B

PRACTICE

1. During the parade, bands 2. The floats

a. sounded their sirens b. played music

EXERCISE 1 Discuss the difference between the words in Column A and the words in Column B. Ask students which column has subjects and which column has predicates. Have

3. The clowns 4. Fire engines

c. made the crowd laugh d. moved down the street

2  •  Section 1.1

2

Section 1.1


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

APPLY IT NOW When students have finished the exercise, ask partners to exchange their work and to determine whether each sentence is complete and if the subject and predicate have been identified correctly. Students should demonstrate an understanding of identifying a sentence as a group of words that expresses a complete thought.

Note which students had difficulty identifying sentences as a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Assign Practice Book page 5 for further practice.

Reteach

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 210–211 of the Writing portion of the book. Be sure to point out sentences and parts of sentences in the literature excerpt and the student model.

Explain that newspaper articles are written in complete sentences but that headlines and some advertising slogans often are not. Ask partners to search through newspapers for both complete and incomplete sentences. Have students cut out examples of both. Instruct students to label each complete sentence with an S and each incomplete thought with an I. Help students recognize what is missing from the incomplete sentences.

Meeting Individual Needs Challenge  Make several enlarged copies of a magazine article written at the appropriate level for your class. On one version, block out some words so sentences are incomplete. Have students read this version. Ask students to explain why these phrases are not complete sentences. Encourage students to complete each incomplete sentence. Have students read aloud the original article with all the text intact to compare sentences.

EXERCISE 2 Tell which of these word groups are sentences.

Tell which are not sentences. 1. The band marched in the parade 2. The band members have nice uniforms 3. Marching to the music 4. All the drumsticks 5. The drum major leads the band 6. That tuba looks heavy 7. Carrying their instruments 8. We clapped for the band 9. The music was very loud 10. A group of talented jugglers 11. Entertained the crowd 12. Dancers with colorful uniforms 13. The dancers carried red pom-poms 14. The skill of the dancers amazed the crowd

Diagram It! To practice these concepts in the context of diagramming, turn to Section 8.1.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

EXERCISE 3 The following groups of words are

not sentences. Add a subject or a predicate to make each word group a sentence. 1. like parades very much 2. waited for the beginning of the parade 3. the floats in the parade 4. waved to the people in the crowd 5. the people along the street 6. some acrobats on the floats 7. sang popular songs from the floats 8. carried colorful flags 9. rode horses APPLY 10. at the end of the parade, the crowds

IT NOW

Write four sentences about what you did during your last school break. Circle the subjects and underline the predicates. Sentences

3

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1.2

Declarative and Interrogative Sentences

OBJECTIVES • To distinguish between declarative and interrogative sentences • To identify and write declarative sentences, or statements • To identify and write interrogative sentences, or questions

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 1, Section 1.2. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

WARM-UP Encourage students to think about people who work in schools, such as a principal, reading specialist, custodian, or cafeteria worker. Have partners write five questions they might ask one of these school employees. Then have students formulate their own imagined answers to the questions. Encourage students to tell the differences between the sentences (questions and statements) and to notice the different end marks (periods and question marks).

(they make a statement) and which sentences are interrogative (they ask a question). Ask how all the sentences are the same (they all begin with a capital letter) and how they are different (declarative sentences end with periods, and interrogative sentences end with question marks).

EXERCISE 2 Explain that students will be matching groups of words to make declarative or interrogative sentences. Have students complete the exercise independently. Then invite volunteers to write on the board their completed sentences. Make corrections as necessary.

PRACTICE

EXERCISE 3 Go over the example to be sure students understand how to write their questions. After students have completed the exercise, ask volunteers to read aloud their questions.

EXERCISE 1 Remind students to think about whether each statement is asking something or telling something. After students have finished, have partners exchange their sentences and check each other’s work.

1.2

A declarative sentence makes a statement. It ends with a period. There are many creatures in the sea. Ocean water is salty.

An interrogative sentence asks a question. It begins with a question word or with a verb. It ends with a question mark. What kind of fish is it? Is that fresh water? How can I conserve water?

Which of these sentences is declarative?

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the declarative and interrogative sentences.

4  •  Section 1.2

A

How can I protect the oceans?

B

What happens when the oceans are polluted?

C

Trash can hurt sea animals.

You are right if you said sentence C. It makes a statement and ends with a period. A and B are interrogative sentences. They ask questions and end with question marks. EXERCISE 1 Rewrite these sentences. Add periods at the

end of declarative sentences. Add question marks at the end of interrogative sentences. 1. How much of the earth’s water is salty 2. Only three percent of the earth’s water is fresh 3. Is lake water salty or fresh 4. Water is found in oceans, lakes, and rivers 5. Where else is water found 6. Some water is frozen as ice caps and glaciers 7. All of us can conserve water 8. Do you always turn the faucet completely off

TEACH Have volunteers read aloud the text about declarative and interrogative sentences. Ask students to identify the sentences they wrote for the Warm-Up as either declarative or interrogative. Discuss how students can tell which sentences are declarative

Declarative and Interrogative Sentences

4

Section 1.2


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

APPLY IT NOW Ask students to write their interview questions and to leave room to record their classmates’ answers. Encourage students to write specific questions that will elicit interesting answers. Students should demonstrate an understanding of writing declarative and interrogative sentences.

Note which students had difficulty distinguishing between and writing declarative and interrogative sentences. Assign Practice Book page 6 for further practice.

Reteach

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 212–213 of the Writing portion of the book.

After students have recorded their interviews, invite volunteers to show their recordings to the class. Encourage students to evaluate the interviews based on the questions asked and the responses given.

the word groups in Column A with the ones in Column B. Column A

Column B

Do people

a. b. c. d. e.

Oil tankers Sometimes oil Is garbage from cities Are you

often dumped into oceans? cross the oceans. concerned about the oceans? spills from tankers. care about pollution?

EXERCISE 3 Write a question for each statement. Begin

with the word or words in parentheses. EXAMPLE

Water doesn’t have any calories. (How many) How many calories does water have?

Cooperative Learning

1. A healthy person needs about eight cups of water a day. (How many) 2. 3. 4. 5.

Have an even number of small groups work together. Give pairs of groups the same magazine article to read. Have one group ask questions about the article. Have the other group respond to the questions in complete declarative sentences. Then ask groups to switch roles and repeat the activity.

About 60 percent of your body is water. (How much) People get water from liquids and solid foods. (How do) A person can live about a week without water. (How long) People use 80 to 100 gallons of water a day. (How many)

6. People get thirsty when they lose one percent of the water in their bodies. (When do) 7. Milk and juice are good sources of water. (What) 8. You can save water by turning off the faucet when you brush your teeth. (How can) 9. You use two gallons of water when you brush your teeth. (How many) 10. Humans cannot survive on saltwater. (Can)

APPLY IT NOW Imagine you are a reporter.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f CCSS.ELA.L.4.3b CCSS.ELA.SL.4.1c

Interview a classmate. Write a question for each of these topics: recycling, saving water, pollution. Write your classmate’s answers. Example: What do you recycle? I recycle plastic.

Make a video of your interview.

English-Language Learners Write on two sheets of poster board a large period and a large question mark. Read aloud a declarative sentence. Ask a volunteer to choose either the period or the question mark to end the sentence. Reinforce the correct answer by saying: Sentences that make a statement end with a period. Read aloud an interrogative sentence and have a volunteer choose either the period or the question mark to end the sentence. Reinforce the correct answer by saying: Sentences that ask a question end with a question mark. Repeat the activity with different declarative and interrogative sentences.

EXERCISE 2 Make statements and questions by matching

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Write on sentence strips declarative and interrogative sentences, omitting the end punctuation. Write a period and a question mark on two separate strips. Place all the strips on a table. Invite volunteers to choose a strip, read it aloud, and place the correct end punctuation at the end of the sentence. Encourage students to explain how they decided which end mark to use.

Sentences

5

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1.3

Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences

OBJECTIVES • To distinguish between imperative and exclamatory sentences • To identify and write imperative sentences, or commands • To identify and write exclamatory sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 1, Section 1.3. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer.

Help students recognize the special features of each type of sentence. Have volunteers read aloud about imperative and exclamatory sentences. Direct students to compare the sentences on the board with the example sentences in the text. Encourage students to describe each type of sentence. Emphasize that in imperative sentences the subject you is almost always omitted but understood. Point out that exclamatory sentences express strong emotions, such as fear, excitement, joy, and surprise.

Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

WARM-UP Have students imagine they are training a new puppy. Ask students to say things they would tell the puppy to do, such as sit, stay, and come. Write their suggestions on the board. Then ask students to tell what they might say when they see a new puppy. (He’s so tiny! Her fur is so soft!) Write these suggestions on the board and ask students to tell what punctuation to use at the end of each sentence. Discuss what each group of sentences has in common.

1.3

PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 After students have completed the exercise, ask volunteers to read aloud their completed sentences. Challenge students to identify each sentence as imperative or exclamatory. EXERCISE 2 Have partners work together to complete the exercise. Encourage students to take turns reading aloud each sentence before deciding whether to add an exclamation point or a period at the end. Have volunteers explain their choices.

Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. It usually ends with a period. The subject of an imperative sentence is generally you, which is often not stated. Tell me about spiders. Please handle the spider with care.

An exclamatory sentence expresses strong or sudden emotion. It ends with an exclamation point. That is one ugly spider! That spider web is beautiful!

Which of these are imperative sentences?

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the imperative and exclamatory sentences.

A

That spider is gross!

B

Stay calm.

C

Don’t harm the spider, please.

D

Do you see the spider web?

You are right if you said that B and C are imperative sentences. They give commands. Each ends with a period. Sentence A is an exclamatory sentence. It expresses strong or sudden emotion and ends with an exclamation point. Sentence D is an interrogative sentence. It asks a question and ends with a question mark. EXERCISE 1 Match a group of words in Column A with a

group of words in Column B to make an imperative sentence or an exclamatory sentence.

TEACH

Column A

Write the following sentences on the board: Take out your pencils for a pop quiz. Oh, I’m in trouble!

1. Read this article

Column B a. very scary!

2. Some spiders 3. That is 4. Do not

b. about amazing spider facts. c. can be poisonous. d. more about spiders.

5. Tell me

e. touch spiders unless you know they are harmless.

Gather your books to read outside. Hooray, we love going outside! 6

6  •  Section 1.3

Section 1.3


EXERCISE 3 After students have completed the exercise, invite volunteers to read aloud the sentences. Ask students to tell which end mark is used in each sentence.

APPLY APPLY IT NOW Encourage students to think about how to play a game they enjoy or how to describe a hobby. When students have finished, ask volunteers to share their sentences with the class. Students should demonstrate an understanding

of distinguishing between and writing imperative and exclamatory sentences.

TEACHING OPTIONS Reteach

Note which students had difficulty distinguishing between and writing imperative and exclamatory sentences. Assign Practice Book page 7 for further practice.

Create a two-column chart on the board with the headings Exclamatory and Imperative. Have students find examples of each type of sentence in books, magazines, and online. Ask students to write on sentence strips the sentences they find. Invite volunteers to tape their strips under the correct headings on the board.

WRITING CONNECTION

Meeting Individual Needs

ASSESS

Use pages 214–215 of the Writing portion of the book.

Challenge  Ask students to think of an activity they find fun or interesting, such as a sport or an art or volunteer project. Have one partner use imperative sentences to tell the other partner how to do his or her favorite activity. Encourage the other student to respond with exclamatory sentences. Then have students switch roles.

EXERCISE 2 Rewrite these sentences.

Add periods at the end of imperative sentences. Add exclamation points at the end of exclamatory sentences. 1. Oh, that’s a big spider 2. Look at its web 3. Gross! That spider has eight eyes 4. Hold out your hand 5. Please be gentle with the baby spider 6. Watch it closely 7. Oh, it’s tickling my hand 8. Oh, no, it’s running away 9. Don’t step on it 10. Pick up the spider carefully 11. How lovely that spider web is 12. Look at the drops of rain in the web 13. Don’t touch that spider web 14. How interesting spiders are

Curriculum Connection Discuss science topics students have explored. Have students choose a favorite topic and write about it, using imperative and exclamatory sentences. Suggest that students write imperative sentences to give directions for an experiment and exclamatory sentences to express reactions to the experiment.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f CCSS.ELA.L.4.3b

EXERCISE 3 Rewrite the sentences. Add a period, a

question mark, or an exclamation point at the end of each sentence. 1. Stella, John, and Matthew went to the beach one hot Saturday morning

2. Wow, it sure was hot 3. John dropped the towel and sand toys he was carrying 4. Did you bring the new toy Mom bought for us 5. John nodded and began to unpack the toys from the bag 6. Bring the towels closer to the tree for shade 7. Where is the sunscreen

APPLY IT NOW Think of a hobby or game you enjoy. Describe it by writing four or five imperative sentences and ending with one exclamatory sentence. Example: Be sure to keep stirring the pudding. Enjoy your dessert! Sentences

7

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1.4

Complete Subjects and Predicates

OBJECTIVES • To identify and use complete subjects in sentences • To identify and use complete predicates in sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 2, Section 1.4. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

PRACTICE

of these words. Confirm that the second part of each sentence is the complete predicate. Invite students to read aloud about complete subjects and predicates. Discuss why each group of words is the complete subject or complete predicate. Suggest that to locate a subject, students should ask questions such as Who or what is this sentence about? Who or what is doing something or being something? Suggest that to find a predicate, students should ask questions such as What is the subject doing? What is the subject feeling or thinking?

EXERCISE 1 Ask students to rewrite each sentence and to underline the complete subject. Have volunteers write their answers on the board. EXERCISE 2 Have partners work together to find and underline the complete predicates. EXERCISE 3 Have the same partners continue to work together. Ask students to write each sentence and take turns drawing a line between each complete subject and complete predicate.

WARM-UP Write on separate note cards eight complete subjects and eight complete predicates that can be matched to make complete sentences. Tape the note cards facedown on the board. Then ask a volunteer to turn over two cards at a time until he or she forms a complete sentence that makes sense. Remove from the board the complete sentence. Have students continue playing until all the subjects and predicates have been matched correctly.

1.4

Every sentence must have a subject and a predicate. The subject names the person, place, or thing talked about in a sentence. A complete subject includes the specific person, place, or thing and all the words that go with it. A complete predicate is the verb and the words relating to it. It describes the action or state of being of the subject.

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the complete subjects and complete predicates.

8  •  Section 1.4

C O M P L E T E S U B J EC T

C O M P L E T E P R E D I C AT E

The class

studies geography.

All the students

like to learn new things.

Jamie and Marie

are excited about the class.

What is the complete subject of the following sentence? What is its complete predicate? The teacher listed the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

If you said the complete subject is The teacher, you are right. The teacher names the person the sentence is about. The complete predicate is listed the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It tells what the teacher did.

TEACH Write on the board several sentences from the Warm-Up. Circle the subjects and ask students to determine what these words have in common. Help students recognize that all the circled words are subjects of the sentences. Ask students to tell what a subject is (the person, place, or thing talked about in a sentence). Call attention to the rest of each sentence. Invite students to explain the function

Complete Subjects and Predicates

EXERCISE 1 Find the complete subject in each sentence.

1. Our class learned about the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. 2. An ancient Greek writer created the list. 3. An Egyptian pyramid is on the list. 4. The list contains a temple, statues, tombs, a lighthouse, and a garden. 5. All the structures were built thousands of years ago. 6. Engineers of the ancient world designed the amazing structures. 7. My partner and I are researching the Colossus of Rhodes. 8. The pyramid and a lighthouse were built in Egypt.

Egyptian pyramid

8

Section 1.4

Zeus shown on an ancient coin


EXERCISE 4 Have students complete this exercise independently. Ask partners to compare their answers.

Have students use a government site to research their country. You may wish to provide appropriate sites for students to use.

APPLY

Reteach Write the following on the board:

What happens at school? As students answer the question, write their sentences on the board:

ASSESS

APPLY IT NOW After students have completed the exercise, invite volunteers to write their sentences on the board. Ask students to identify the complete subjects and complete predicates. Students should demonstrate an understanding of identifying and using complete subjects and complete predicates in sentences.

TEACHING OPTIONS

Note which students had difficulty identifying and using complete subjects and complete predicates in sentences. Assign Practice Book page 8 for further practice.

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 216–217 of the Writing portion of the book.

The students play at recess. The teacher reads aloud a mystery. The principal visits our classroom. Invite volunteers to underline the complete subject with a single line and the complete predicate with a double line. Ask the rest of the class if they agree. Discuss why each complete subject and complete predicate has been properly identified.

Meeting Individual Needs Auditory  Read aloud some short sentences. Have students repeat the sentences. Say each sentence again more slowly. Tell students to raise one hand when they hear the subject of the sentence and to raise both hands when they hear the predicate. Once students have mastered the activity, vary it by saying some incomplete sentences.

EXERCISE 2 Find the complete predicate in each sentence.

1. Now the students know the names of all the Seven Wonders. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The Egyptians built the Great Pyramid at Giza for a Pharaoh’s tomb. A 40-foot statue of Zeus stood in a temple in Greece. Only images on coins depict that statue. An ancient statue on the island of Rhodes dominated the harbor. The Statue of Liberty looks a little like that statue. The Pharos of Alexandria guided sailors. The word pharos was the Greek word for “lighthouse.” The Hanging Gardens of Babylon grew on terraces.

10. Drawings show archaeologists’ ideas about the gardens. EXERCISE 3 Find the complete subject and the complete predicate in each sentence. 1. The Lighthouse of Alexandria was on a Greek island. 2. Ships used it as a guide to the harbor entrance for

Meeting Individual Needs

nearly 1,500 years.

3. An earthquake toppled the lighthouse in 14 A.D. 4. Archaeologists do not know any details about the lighthouse. EXERCISE 4 Use a complete subject or a

complete predicate from the list below to finish each sentence.

1.

The Great Pyramid

are triangles

is 449 feet high

The Egyptians

The Maya people

is the only ancient wonder that still stands.

2. The Great Pyramid

.

used two million blocks of stone

3. to build it.

4. also built pyramids. 5. The sides of the pyramids

Write four sentences about a country that interests you.

Common Core Standards

Underline each complete subject once. Underline each

.

CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f CCSS.ELA.W.4.7

complete predicate twice. Example: Australia is a country and also a continent.

With an adult, research the country online.

APPLY IT NOW

Challenge  Have students write a noun about a favorite vacation spot for each of the following three categories: a person, a place, and a thing. Then have students write a verb they could pair with each noun. Encourage students to use the noun and verb pairs to write sentences about the spot they chose. Ask students to underline in their sentences the complete subject once and the complete predicate twice.

Sentences

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1.5

Simple Subjects and Predicates

OBJECTIVES • To recognize the simple subject in a sentence • To recognize the simple predicate in a sentence

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 2, Section 1.5. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

WARM-UP Have students sit in a circle. Say a simple subject, such as children, Ms. Baker, or computers. Ask the student next to you to add a oneword predicate to complete the sentence. Invite another student to begin a new sentence with a different simple subject. Students may continue the activity as a story or offer any other simple subjects and simple predicates. Continue around the circle until every student has had a turn.

EXERCISE 2 Have partners complete this exercise. Then ask volunteers to explain how they identified the simple predicates in each sentence.

Ask volunteers to read aloud the text about simple subjects and simple predicates. Review the example sentences. Then have students identify the simple subjects and simple predicates for the sentences on the board. (Flocks fly. Schools swim.)

EXERCISE 3 Have students write a two-column chart with the headings Simple Subject and Simple Predicate. Duplicate the chart on the board. Tell students to write their answers in the correct column. After students have finished the exercise, invite volunteers to read aloud a sentence and fill in the chart on the board. Ask students to compare their charts to the one on the board.

PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Have students read aloud each sentence and identify the simple subject. Ask students to explain how they determined the simple subject for each sentence.

1.5

Simple Subjects and Predicates The subject names the person, place, or thing talked about. The most important word in the subject is usually a noun. The noun is the simple subject. Asking who or what before the predicate reveals the subject. The predicate describes what the subject is or does and contains a verb. The verb is called the simple predicate.

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the simple subjects and simple predicates.

The

The

SIMPLE S U B J EC T

SIMPLE P R E D I C AT E

flag

waved

SIMPLE S U B J EC T

SIMPLE P R E D I C AT E

principal

raised

in the wind.

the flag.

What is the simple subject in this sentence? What is the simple predicate?

TEACH

Every new country needs a flag.

If you named country as the simple subject, you are correct. Country is the noun. It is the most important part of the subject. If you named needs as the simple predicate, you are correct. Needs is the verb. It is the most important part of the predicate.

Write on the board the following sentences: Flocks of birds fly south every winter.

EXERCISE 1 Find the simple subject in

Schools of fish swim in the world’s oceans.

each sentence. 1. Students say the Pledge of Allegiance every day at school. 2. The pledge honors the American flag. 3. A writer wrote the pledge in 1892.

Have students identify the complete subjects (flocks of birds, schools of fish) and the complete predicates (fly south every winter, swim in the world’s oceans).

4. Francis Bellamy intended the pledge for schools. 5. People said the pledge during flag-raising ceremonies. 6. Its words have changed slightly over the years. 7. Today classes say the pledge at the start of a school day. 8. Two ideas in the pledge are liberty and justice. 10

10  •  Section 1.5

Section 1.5


EXERCISE 4 Suggest that students first read the list and identify which are simple subjects and which are simple predicates. After students have finished the exercise, ask volunteers to share their completed sentences with the class.

demonstrate an understanding of recognizing simple subjects and simple predicates.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty identifying the simple subject and the simple predicate of a sentence. Assign Practice Book page 9 for further practice.

APPLY APPLY IT NOW You might provide resources for students to gather their facts or suggest an online resource. Have partners share and correct each other’s sentences. Students should

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 218–219 of the Writing portion of the book.

Reteach Write on poster board six to eight sentences about a high-interest topic. Display the poster board and invite students to read the sentences aloud. Then invite students to use large sticky notes to cover up all the words in each sentence except the simple subject and simple predicate. Ask volunteers to read aloud the revised sentences. Discuss how the sentences are different.

Meeting Individual Needs Visual  Ask students to copy a paragraph from a favorite book. Have students use one color highlighter to circle the simple subjects and use a different color highlighter to underline the simple predicates. Display the paragraphs and discuss the simple subjects and simple predicates with the class.

EXERCISE 2 Find the simple predicate in each sentence.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

TEACHING OPTIONS

People call the U.S. flag by several names. The name “Star-Spangled Banner” comes from the national anthem. The poem honored a flag in Baltimore Harbor.

English-Language Learners

According to legend, a ship’s captain coined the name Old Glory.

Read aloud the following sentence.

Francis Scott Key used the phrase in a poem in 1814.

Someone gave the captain a large 24-star flag for his ship.

Children laugh at the movie.

He saw the flag flying at the start of a voyage in 1831.

8. He excitedly said “Old Glory.”

Repeat the sentence, and have students draw a picture of whom or what the sentence is about. Reinforce that what they drew is the simple subject of the sentence. Repeat the sentence again, and have students act out what is being done in the sentence. Reinforce that this is the simple predicate of the sentence.

EXERCISE 3 Find the simple subject and the

simple predicate in each sentence. 1. The original U.S. colonies used many different flags. 2. Some flags resembled the British flag. 3. The country’s leaders wanted a different flag. 4. Betsy Ross tailored clothes for George Washington. 5. Washington recognized Betsy’s remarkable sewing skills. 6. This talented tailor produced the first American flag. 7. The 13 stars on Betsy’s flag were in a circle. 8. The nation added stars for new states. EXERCISE 4 Use a simple subject or a simple predicate from the list below to complete each sentence. calls

citizens

stars

says

stands

1. Many decorate the U.S. flag. 2. U.S. respect the American flag. 3. The American flag in the room. 4. My grandfather 5. The class

Common Core Standards Betsy Ross sews the first American flag.

the flag Old Glory. the Pledge of Allegiance.

CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

APPLY IT NOW Write four sentences containing facts about the state in which you live. Underline each simple subject once. Underline each simple predicate twice. Example: The largest state is Alaska. Sentences

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1.6

Compound Subjects

OBJECTIVES • To identify compound subjects • To combine two subjects to form a compound subject

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 2, Section 1.6. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

WARM-UP Write on strips of paper compound sentences and cut the strips between the subject words and the connecting words. Place the puzzle pieces for each sentence in separate bags. Invite students to put the sentences together. Ask volunteers to read aloud the sentences and identify the subjects.

Have a volunteer combine the two subjects to form a compound subject, and write the new sentence on the board: Leslie and I went in-line skating.

Point out that combining subjects can make writing read more smoothly.

PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 After students have completed the exercise, have volunteers share their answers with the class. Ask students to identify which item uses a word other than and to connect the compound subjects.

1.6

EXERCISE 2 Have students explain the difference between a simple subject and a compound subject. After students have completed the exercise, ask volunteers to read aloud their sentences and to identify the simple and compound subjects. EXERCISE 3 Point out that this exercise has no right or wrong answers, but that the subjects must make sense and be formed correctly. Have partners exchange sentences and check each other’s work.

Compound Subjects Every sentence has a subject. The subject is who or what the sentence is about. Usually, the simple subject is a noun. A compound subject has two or more simple subjects connected by and or or.

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the compound subjects.

S I M P L E S U B J EC T

Cats

are curious.

C O M P O U N D S U B J EC T

TEACH

Cats and kittens

are curious.

Cats or kittens

make good pets.

Notice that the compound subjects include two simple subjects: cats and kittens.

Ask students to talk about things they like to do with friends or family. As students speak, write on the board the sentences with compound subjects. Ask volunteers to identify the subjects and circle them. Explain that each sentence has a compound subject, or two subjects, combined with the word and or or. Have students read aloud the text about compound subjects. Point out that the words or and and connect compound subjects. Write these sentences on the board:

Which of these sentences have compound subjects? A

Katie helps at an animal shelter.

B

Max and Mandy do volunteer work there too.

C

The animals are happy in their new homes.

D

Veterinarians or volunteers play with the animals every day.

You are right if you said that sentences B and D have compound subjects. Max and Mandy are two simple subjects joined by the word and. Veterinarians and volunteers are two simple subjects joined by the word or. EXERCISE 1 Find the compound subjects in

these sentences. Then find the simple subjects. 1. Dogs and cats are in the animal shelter. 2. Volunteers and visitors play with the animals. 3. My mom and I sometimes volunteer at a shelter. 4. A black cat and a calico cat were playing together. 5. Both a lively collie and a friendly boxer were available for adoption.

6. A worker or a volunteer will show you the animals.

Leslie went in-line skating. I went in-line skating. 12

12  •  Section 1.6

Discuss the function of that connecting word.

Section 1.6


EXERCISE 4 Remind students to add the connecting word and or or when combining subjects. Ask volunteers to read aloud their combined sentences.

APPLY APPLY IT NOW Review students’ work to make sure the compound subjects have been formed correctly. Students should be able to identify compound subjects and combine two subjects to form a compound subject.

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Note which students had difficulty identifying compound subjects and combining two subjects to form a compound subject. Assign Practice Book page 10 for further practice.

Reteach

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 220–221 of the Writing portion of the book.

Ask students to suggest subjects for sentences. Distribute two note cards to each student. Have students write one subject on each card. Collect the cards and place them in a box. Mix up the cards. Direct students to each take two cards from the box. Encourage students to write three sentences—one for each subject and one for the subjects combined. Have students read their sentences aloud. Encourage other students to raise their hands when they hear the compound subjects.

Meeting Individual Needs Intrapersonal  Invite students to begin keeping a writing portfolio for all of their writing. Explain to students that having a writing portfolio will help them keep track of the progress they make in their writing throughout the year. You may wish to have students decorate a hardcopy folder, or save their portfolios electronically.

EXERCISE 2 Tell whether each sentence has a simple or a

compound subject. Name the subject. 1. Many animals need a good home. 2. Amy and Ryan wanted a dog. 3. Riley and Bogie are two Labradors. 4. A car hit Riley. 5. Riley’s leg was broken. 6. A cast and medicine helped Riley. 7. The children’s family adopted him. 8. Bones or rawhide treats would make Riley very happy.

Cooperative Learning Have small groups brainstorm ideas for a community service project and choose one idea to write about. Ask students to write a plan for implementing their project by assigning jobs to partners. Have partners write their plans, using sentences with compound subjects. (Billy and Nikko will make flyers. Jim and Maria will sign up volunteers.) Invite students to share their plans with the class.

EXERCISE 3 Rewrite the sentences. Use a compound

subject to complete each sentence. Remember to use and or or. 1. are small dogs. 2. are bigger dogs. 3. make strange pets. 4. are good names for pets. 5. are not good pets. 6. are my favorite breeds. 7. are popular breeds. EXERCISE 4 Combine each pair of sentences into

one sentence with a compound subject. 1. My brother has a dog. I have a dog. 2. Jason feeds Belford every day. I feed Belford every day. 3. Because we both have homework, Jason takes Belford for a walk after school. Because we both have homework, I take Belford for a walk after school.

4. Holly is a friend of Belford’s. Mac is a friend of Belford’s.

Diagram It!

APPLY IT NOW

To practice these concepts in the context of diagramming, turn to Section 8.6.

Write four sentences about pets that you have or a friend

Common Core Standards

has. Use a compound subject in at least two sentences.

CCSS.ELA.L.4.1 CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

Example: A dog and two cats live in my grandmother’s house. Sentences

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1.7

Compound Predicates

OBJECTIVES • To identify compound predicates • To combine two predicates to form a compound predicate

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 3, Section 1.7. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

WARM-UP Ask students to think of two actions that go together, such as cook and eat, but not to mention them. Have a volunteer pantomime the actions he or she thought of. Challenge the rest of the class to guess the actions, the predicates in a sentence, that are being acted out.

PRACTICE

EXERCISE 2 After students have completed the exercise, ask volunteers to write on the board the combined sentences and to underline the simple predicates.

EXERCISE 1 Remind students that predicates are words that convey action or a state of being. Complete the exercise as a class. Ask volunteers to read aloud each sentence and to identify the predicates. Have

EXERCISE 3 After students have completed the exercise, challenge volunteers to revise item 1 to include a compound predicate and item 6 to include a compound subject.

1.7

Compound Predicates Every sentence has a predicate. The simple predicate is the verb that tells what the subject is or does. A compound predicate has two or more simple predicates connected with and, but, or or. S I M P L E P R E D I C AT E

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the compound predicates.

Tourists

visit

different cities.

Tourists

sightsee and shop.

Tourists

get tired but feel happy.

C O M P O U N D P R E D I C AT E

TEACH

Sightsee and shop are simple predicates joined by and to make a compound predicate. Get and feel are simple predicates joined by but to make a compound predicate.

Write the following sentences on the board:

Which of these sentences have compound predicates?

The baseball player hit the ball. The baseball player ran around the bases.

Have students identify the complete subjects (The baseball player) and the complete predicates (hit the ball, ran around the bases). Ask students how the two sentences can be combined to make a single sentence. (The baseball player hit the ball and ran around the bases.) Point out that since the subject of both sentences is the same, it is easy to combine the sentences to

A

Janine walks to the museum.

B

Candace drives a red car.

C

Jeff takes the bus or rides the subway.

D

Tito visits the aquarium and watches the fish.

You are right if you said sentences C and D have compound predicates. Takes and rides are two simple predicates joined by the word or. Visits and watches are two simple predicates joined by the word and. EXERCISE 1 Tell whether each sentence has a simple or a

compound predicate. Name the verbs in the predicates. 1. My family hiked last weekend. 2. We climbed and scrambled up the steep mountain. 3. The weather started out nice but turned bad. 4. The hikers shivered and shook in the rain. 5. I found my rain poncho and put it around me. 6. The rain stopped suddenly.

14

14  •  Section 1.7

other volunteers tell whether the predicates are simple or compound and identify each verb.

make one sentence with two, or compound, predicates. Invite volunteers to read aloud about compound predicates. Encourage students to explain the difference between a simple and a compound predicate.

Section 1.7


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

APPLY IT NOW Remind students that the predicates can be combined using the words and, but, or or. After students have finished, ask volunteers to read aloud their sentences. Students should demonstrate an understanding of identifying compound predicates and combining two predicates to form a compound predicate.

Note which students had difficulty identifying compound predicates and combining two predicates to form a compound predicate. Assign Practice Book page 11 for further practice.

Reteach

7. 8. 9. 10.

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 222–223 of the Writing portion of the book.

English-Language Learners To help students understand compound predicates, write on the board a student’s name. Ask the student to stand. Then say aloud an action verb (jump) and have the student act out the verb. Write on the board the verb next to the student’s name (Mario jumps). Repeat the activity, using a different action verb (skip). Say aloud the word and have the student act it out. Write on the board the verb after the conjunction and. (Mario jumps and skips.) Repeat with different students and different compound predicates.

The afternoon was bright and sunny. I removed my poncho and folded it. We hiked to the top of the mountain and stopped for a while. The sun turned orange and set behind the mountain.

EXERCISE 2 Combine each pair of sentences into one

sentence with a compound predicate. EXAMPLE

Invite students to name sets of two actions that go together, such as sings and dances. Write on the board the word sets. Have partners use four sets of action words in complete sentences. Ask students to share their sentences with the class.

Curriculum Connection

Tourists buy souvenirs. They take photos. Tourists buy souvenirs and take photos.

Encourage students to choose a single topic from another class that they enjoy reading about, such as an animal from science, a place from social studies, or a person from history. Ask students to write sentences about the single topic that include compound predicates:

1. Jerome and his family went to Boston. They saw the sights. 2. They could not decide if they should take the subway. They could not decide if they should take the bus. 3. The guide led them along the Freedom Trail. He told them about the history of the places. 4. People at the Boston Common sat on benches. People ate lunch. 5. The family visited a market. They did not eat there. 6. The family went to a park. They saw a baseball game. 7. Jerome talked to a baseball player. He got an autograph.

People in Mexico can go to the beach or visit the Mayan pyramids.

8. Jerome brought a camera. He took a lot of photos. EXERCISE 3 Tell whether each

sentence has a compound subject or a compound predicate. 1. My sister and I went to the museum. 2. We waited in line and bought tickets. 3. Some people walked around the dinosaur skeleton and took pictures of it.

4. Visitors either explored the exhibit on their own or took a tour. 5. The guides and the guards at the museum were helpful. 6. I know a lot about dinosaurs but learned more at the museum.

Diagram It!

APPLY IT NOW Write four sentences about something you have done with your family or friends. Use a compound predicate in at

To practice these concepts in the context of diagramming, turn to Section 8.6.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

least two sentences. Example: My family swam and water-skied. Sentences

15

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1.8

Direct Objects

OBJECTIVES • To understand the function of a direct object in a sentence • To identify the direct object in a sentence

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 3, Section 1.8. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

WARM-UP Write on note cards sentence starters that need direct objects, such as Jan built and The boy found. Choose a card and model completing one sentence. (The boy found a frog.) Then ask a volunteer to choose a card, read it aloud, and complete the sentence. Encourage students to identify the word or words that answer the question whom or what after the verb. (What did the boy find? He found a frog.) Write on the board the completed sentences.

Ask students to suggest sentences that include direct objects. Point out that a sentence can have a compound direct object. (Fred sent letters and packages to all his friends.) Write on the board students’ sentences. Encourage volunteers to identify the predicate and the direct object or objects in each sentence.

PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Ask students where the direct object usually occurs in a sentence (after the verb). Have

1.8

EXERCISE 2 Complete item 1 as a class. Ask students to identify the topic of the sentence (the Mississippi River). Then discuss which word best fits as the direct object (water). Have students complete the exercise independently. Invite volunteers to read aloud their sentences and to explain how the direct object receives the action of each verb.

Direct Objects The direct object is the noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb. Many sentences need a direct object to complete their meaning. To find the direct object of a sentence, ask whom or what after the verb. D I R EC T O B J EC T

The Mississippi River

divides the

country.

The Mississippi River divides what? Country is the direct object. It tells what the Mississippi River divides.

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the direct objects.

D I R EC T O B J EC T

The river provides a

route

for transportation.

The river provides what? Route is the direct object. It tells what the river provides.

TEACH

What is the direct object in this sentence? The Ojibwa Indians named the river.

Have volunteers read aloud about direct objects. Point out that direct objects are part of the predicate. Review that to find the direct object, students should ask whom or what after the verb. Challenge students to identify the direct objects in the Warm-Up sentences on the board. Reinforce that the direct object is the noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb.

The direct object in this sentence is river. The Ojibwa Indians named what? The answer is river. This sentence has a compound direct object. A shipping channel moves goods and people up and down the river.

The compound direct object in the sentence is goods and people. Goods and people are two simple direct objects joined by the word and. EXERCISE 1 Find the direct object or compound

direct objects in each sentence. Read carefully. 1. The ice age changed the earth. 2. Melting water from glaciers formed valleys. 3. The flowing water carved the Mississippi River and the Grand Canyon.

16

16  •  Section 1.8

students complete the exercise independently. Point out that there may be some compound direct objects. Have partners exchange papers and compare answers.

Section 1.8


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

APPLY IT NOW After students have completed their sentences, ask partners to exchange papers and review each other’s work, making sure that the direct objects in each sentence are circled. Students should demonstrate an understanding of the function of a direct object in a sentence and how to identify a direct object in a sentence.

Note which students had difficulty understanding the function of a direct object in a sentence and identifying the direct object in a sentence. Assign Practice Book page 12 for further practice.

Reteach

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 224–225 of the Writing portion of the book.

Students should identify the word bricks as the third direct object in the excerpt.

Cooperative Learning Arrange the class into groups of three. Have one student in each group write a subject. Have a second student write a verb. Have a third student write a direct object. (You may wish to write a list of transitive verbs on the board for students to use, such as found, lost, hit, threw, and carried.) Mention that the sentences can be silly or realistic. After students have written their sentences, have them switch roles for a second and third sentence. Allow time for groups to share their sentences with the class. Ask students to identify the direct objects.

10. The Mississippi meets the Ohio River at Cairo, Illinois. 11. In the 1660s Europeans explored the Mississippi. 12. Mark Twain wrote books about life on the Mississippi in the 1800s. 13. Boats on the Mississippi provide transportation and entertainment. 14. Some boats ship wheat and soybeans. 15. Many boats end their journeys near ports like New Orleans. 16. The Mississippi provides water to people near the river. 17. More than 260 kinds of fish inhabit the river’s waters. EXERCISE 2 Use a direct object from the list below to

complete each sentence.

color

Gulf of Mexico

1. The Mississippi River carries from the area between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. 2. The Mississippi forms the several states.

of

3. The southern part of the river has a muddy . 4. There the Mississippi leaves along its banks. 5. The river enters the channels.

Direct Object

subject + verb + direct object

8. This mighty river carries water from many other rivers. 9. The long Missouri River joins the Mississippi at St. Louis.

water

Simple Predicate explains waved dropped

Write on large note cards a complete subject (The boy), an action verb (drew), and a direct object (a cat). Give three volunteers one card each and arrange the students in correct sentence order. (The boy drew a cat.) Repeat the activity with other volunteers and different cards. Write on the board the following formula:

6. Barges on the river still carry many products. 7. The Mississippi River divides the United States into east and west.

soil

Subject teacher umpire waiter

English-Language Learners

4. Europeans like Louis Joliet led voyages of exploration. 5. Henry Schoolcraft discovered the river’s source.

boundaries

Create on the board a chart like the one below. Fill in the first two columns and have students fill in the third column with direct objects. Then have students write complete sentences using the words from the chart.

in small

Find the third direct object used in the excerpt on page 226.

APPLY IT NOW Using another textbook, find four sentences that contain direct objects. Write the sentences and circle the direct objects. Be sure to include the name of the textbook you used. Sentences

Diagram It! To practice these concepts in the context of diagramming, turn to Section 8.2.

Common Core Standards 17

CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f

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1.9

Subject Complements

OBJECTIVES • To understand the function of a subject complement • To identify the subject complement in a sentence

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 3, Section 1.9. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

WARM-UP Write on sentence strips sentence starters with subjects and linking verbs. On separate sentence strips, write subject complements that help complete the sentence starters. Place the sentence starters in a stack. Spread the subject complements faceup on a table. Have students choose a sentence starter and a subject complement to make a complete sentence. Ask students to read aloud their completed sentence.

Ask volunteers to read aloud about subject complements. Have students compare their WarmUp sentences with those in the text. Point out how students can identify subject complements. (Subject complements are usually nouns or adjectives that follow a linking verb and that tell more about the subject of the sentence.)

PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Encourage students to identify the subject of each sentence before identifying the subject complement. Have volunteers identify the compound subject complements.

1.9

EXERCISE 3 Have partners complete the exercise. Challenge students to identify the linking verb and subject of each sentence. Have partners exchange their papers with another pair to check their work.

Subject Complements A subject complement follows a linking verb. It is usually a noun or an adjective that tells more about the subject. The most common linking verb is be and its various forms (am, are, is, was, were). LINKING VERB

S U B J EC T COMPLEMENT

The storm

was

a tornado.

The winds

are

strong.

S U B J EC T

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the subject complements.

Tornado and strong are subject complements. Each follows a form of the linking verb be. Each tells more about the subject of the sentence. Tornado is a noun that renames the subject storm. Strong is an adjective that describes winds. What is the subject complement in this sentence?

TEACH

The storm was fierce.

The subject complement is fierce. It is an adjective that follows the linking verb was. It tells more about the subject storm.

Ask volunteers to write on the board their sentences from the Warm-Up. Have a student circle the verb in each sentence. Explain that these verbs are called linking verbs because they link the subject of the sentence to another part of the sentence called the subject complement. Underline each subject complement. Ask students to explain how the subject complements function. Confirm that a subject complement renames or tells more about the subject.

This sentence has a compound subject complement. Many people were safe but homeless after the hurricane.

The compound subject complement is safe but homeless. Safe and homeless are two simple subject complements joined by the word but. EXERCISE 1 Find the simple or compound subject

complement in each sentence. 1. Powerful storms in the Pacific are typhoons and cyclones. 2. Similar storms in the Atlantic are hurricanes. 3. Some hurricanes are strong and destructive.

18

18  •  Section 1.9

EXERCISE 2 After students have completed the exercise, challenge them to explain the clues they used to help choose the correct word for the sentence. Have volunteers share their answers with the class.

Section 1.9


APPLY APPLY IT NOW Review that subject complements are either adjectives or nouns. After students have finished, have partners exchange their sentences and identify each underlined subject complement as either an adjective or a noun. Challenge students to write a sentence using either two adjectives or two nouns as a compound subject complement. Students should be able to use subject complements in a sentence.

Students should identify the word college as the subject complement.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty understanding the function of a subject complement and how to identify the subject complement in a sentence. Assign Practice Book page 13 for further practice.

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 226–227 of the Writing portion of the book.

TEACHING OPTIONS Reteach Ask each student to write a sentence that has a subject complement. Explain that the sentence can be about any topic, but that it must have a linking verb and a noun or an adjective that tells about the subject. Invite students to write their sentences on the board. Ask other students to underline the subject complements and to circle the linking verbs. Reinforce that the subject complement follows a linking verb and gives more information about the subject.

Meeting Individual Needs Extra Support  Briefly review the difference between nouns and adjectives. Have students recall that nouns name people, places, or things and that adjectives are words that describe people, places, or things. Write on separate note cards several nouns and several adjectives. Mix up the cards. Ask students to read the cards and to sort them into two piles—nouns and adjectives.

4. Flooding from hurricanes is also the cause of damage. 5. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was a disaster. 6. Its damage was severe. 7. New Orleans was a city in its path. EXERCISE 2 Use a subject complement

from the list below to complete each sentence. common

Florida

straight

fearful

Observe and Apply Display an illustration, a photo, or a poster. Encourage students to share their ideas about it. Suggest that students include subject complements in their descriptive sentences. As you write on the board students’ sentences, have students identify the subjects, the linking verbs, and the subject complements. Ask students to tell whether each subject complement is a noun or an adjective.

month

1. Hurricanes in the Atlantic are most in the fall. 2. September is the usual for these storms. 3. A state with many hurricanes is

.

4. The path of a hurricane is not . 5. Many people on the Atlantic coast and Gulf Coast are of hurricanes. EXERCISE 3 Tell whether each underlined subject

complement is a noun or an adjective. 1. The hurricane season is late summer and fall. 2. The path of a hurricane is changeable. 3. The center, or eye, of a hurricane is calm. 4. The causes of a hurricane’s damage are its wind and rain.

5. A result of a hurricane can be flooding. 6. Another result of a hurricane is destruction of houses. 7. The tracking of a hurricane’s path is the job of meteorologists. 8. Satellites are tools for the tracking of hurricanes. 9. Hurricanes are common in Florida. What is the subject complement in the last sentence in the excerpt on page 210?

Diagram It! APPLY IT NOW Write four sentences describing your family members or friends. Use a noun or an adjective as a subject complement in each

Common Core Standards

sentence. Underline each subject complement.

CCSS.ELA.L.4.1 CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

Example: My grandmother is a librarian. Sentences

To practice these concepts in the context of diagramming, turn to Sections 8.3 and 8.4.

19

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1.10

Compound Sentences

OBJECTIVES • To recognize compound sentences • To understand how to form compound sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 4, Section 1.10. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer. Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

tell the difference between the two paragraphs. (The second paragraph sounds smoother because the sentences were combined to make them longer.) Invite volunteers to read aloud about compound sentences. Examine the example sentences and help students see how they are related and how the combined sentences sound better than the short sentences. Point out that to combine two sentences, students should add a comma at the end of the first sentence, followed by the words and, but, or or and the second sentence.

WARM-UP Write on chart paper pairs of sentences to combine for an activity called Sentence Relay. Arrange the class into two teams. Tell students they will come to the board, two at a time, to combine two sentences into one. Reveal the first pair of sentences. Instruct students that the first one who writes a complete and correct sentence wins a point. Tally the points at the end of the game.

1.10

PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Have a volunteer explain the difference between a simple sentence and a compound sentence. Tell students to think about the meaning of the words and, but, and or as they combine the sentences from Column A with the ones from Column B. Ask volunteers to read aloud their completed sentences. EXERCISE 2 Remind students that a compound sentence must have both a comma and a connecting word. After students have finished, ask partners to compare their answers.

Compound Sentences When two short sentences are related to each other, they can be combined into a compound sentence. To combine two short sentences into one longer sentence, add a comma followed by and, but, or or. The first word in the second part of the compound does not start with a capital letter unless it is I or the name of a person or place. Two sentences that are related: Lightning flashed. Thunder boomed.

Compound sentence:

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the compound sentences.

Lightning flashed, and thunder boomed.

Two sentences that are related: The lights flickered. They did not go out.

Compound sentence: The lights flickered, but they did not go out.

TEACH

Two sentences that are related: We will play a game. We will watch TV.

Write the following paragraph on the board and read it aloud:

Compound sentence: We will play a game, or we will watch TV.

The puppy ran down the street. I chased it. It ran fast. I caught it.

What two sentences were combined to make this compound sentence?

Point out that these sentences are very short and choppy. Ask students how to make the paragraph sound better. Then rewrite the paragraph:

The sun came out, and it was warm.

You were right if you said: The sun came out. It was warm. EXERCISE 1 Match each sentence in Column A with a

related sentence in Column B to make a compound sentence.

The puppy ran down the street, and I chased it. It ran fast, but I caught it.

Have a volunteer read aloud the new paragraph. Ask students to 20  •  Section 1.10

20

Column A 1. The snow fell all night, but

Column B a. I put a hat on him.

2. Mom made breakfast, and 3. We can go sledding, or

b. we can build a snow fort. c. it had stopped by morning.

4. Mom made a snowman, and 5. We were tired and cold, and

d. we went back in the house. e. we ate in a hurry.


EXERCISE 3 Explain that the connecting word and joins ideas that are alike, the word but joins ideas that are different, and the word or connects choices. Have partners combine the sentences. Invite students to share their compound sentences with the class.

APPLY APPLY IT NOW Remind students that a compound sentence must have two complete sentences joined by a comma and and, but, or or. Students should

demonstrate an understanding of recognizing and forming compound sentences.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing and forming compound sentences. Assign Practice Book pages 14–15 for further practice.

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 228–229 of the Writing portion of the book.

TEACHING OPTIONS Reteach Work with students to create labels that describe the placement of objects around the classroom. (The book is on the shelf.) Tell students to write the sentences on sticky notes and place them near each object. Ask students to find related sentences to combine into compound sentences. Have students place the two related sticky notes together and then rewrite on another sticky note the sentences as a compound sentence.

The pencil sharpener is on the table, and the calculators are in the drawer. The flag is rectangular, but the globe is round.

Cooperative Learning Arrange the class into groups of three. Instruct one student in each group to write a sentence and to pass the paper to the student on his or her left. Instruct that person to add a second sentence to make a compound sentence and then pass the paper to the third student. Have that student check that the comma and the connecting word are used correctly. Tell students to switch roles to write and check two more compound sentences. Invite groups to share their sentences with the rest of the class.

EXERCISE 2 Tell which sentences are compound sentences.

1. Sledding and ice-skating are popular winter sports. 2. My friends and I go sledding in the park. 3. We go ice-skating outdoors at the park, or we go ice-skating indoors at the rink. 4. We spin and twirl on our ice skates. 5. Ice hockey is a team sport, and it requires ice-skating ability. 6. I am not a very good ice-skater, but I can ski well. 7. 8. 9. 10.

My sister likes ice hockey and skating as well. My brother plays ice-hockey and lacrosse. I wear heavy boots and gloves in the winter. Winter sports are fun, but I like summer sports better.

EXERCISE 3 Combine each pair of short

sentences into a compound sentence. Use a comma and and, but, or or. 1. Winter in Wisconsin is cold. It snows a lot. 2. Ice fishing is popular. Jean doesn’t like to sit out in

Diagram It!

the cold.

To practice these concepts in the context of diagramming, turn to Section 8.10.

3. Danny likes to ski. He doesn’t know how to ice-skate. 4. He wants to learn. His brother will give him lessons. 5. We went to the rink. We watched his brother do tricks.

Common Core Standards

6. Danny put on his skates. He wobbled onto the ice.

CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f CCSS.ELA.L.4.2c CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

7. He tried to stay on his feet. He kept falling down. 8. He’ll keep trying. I know he will succeed. 9. Cross-country skiing is on flat land. Alpine skiing is on mountains. 10. Rachel goes cross-country skiing. She doesn’t go Alpine skiing.

APPLY IT NOW Write at least five compound sentences about sports that you and your friends like to do. Each sentence should have a comma and and, but, or or. Sentences

21

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1.11

Run-on Sentences

OBJECTIVES • To understand what makes a sentence a run-on • To recognize how to correct a run-on sentence by adding and or but or by dividing it into separate sentences.

DAILY MAINTENANCE Assign Practice Book page 4, Section 1.11. After students finish, 1. Give immediate feedback. 2. Review concepts as needed. 3. Model the correct answer.

Invite volunteers to read aloud about run-on sentences. Ask students why run-on sentences are hard to read. (Too many ideas are put together without correct punctuation.) Ask students to review the example sentences. Discuss how adding words or punctuation can fix the run-on sentences. Review that a run-on sentence can be corrected by adding a comma and the words and or but. Remind students that another way to fix a run-on sentence is to divide it into two separate sentences.

Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Have volunteers read aloud the sentences. Ask students to tell whether the sentences are run-ons or correct compound sentences. EXERCISE 2 Point out that listening to sentences may help students decide whether a sentence is a run-on. Complete this exercise as a class. Ask volunteers to write on the board the corrected sentences and explain how each run-on was corrected.

WARM-UP Write on the board the first sentence of a story: You won’t believe what happened at the mall yesterday.

1.11

Run-on Sentences A run-on sentence results when two sentences are combined but not connected properly. A run-on sentence occurs when two sentences are separated by only a comma or by no connectors at all.

Have students continue the story aloud. Write on the board their phrases or sentences, placing commas between each one. After a few minutes, ask students if the story is written correctly. Discuss why the story is incorrect as written. Have volunteers make corrections to the story, explaining any changes they make.

A run-on sentence is easily fixed by making a compound sentence with a comma and the word and or but. Another way to fix a runon sentence, particularly a long run-on, is to divide it into two or more separate sentences. Run-on sentence:

I went to the store, I bought milk.

Correction:

I went to the store, and I bought milk.

Run-on sentence:

I needed milk the store did not have any.

Correction:

I needed milk, but the store did not have any.

Which of these sentences is a run-on?

Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize any run-on sentences that may exist.

Sam drank the milk. It tasted good.

B

My friend lives on a farm, and I went to visit her.

C

Cows produce milk, many people drink it.

You are right if you said C. It has two sentences run together with only a comma—without the word and. A is correct because there are two separate sentences that have proper punctuation at the end of each. B is a correctly combined sentence. It links two sentences with a comma and the word and.

TEACH Explain that the story you wrote in the Warm-Up was one long run-on sentence. Confirm that several ideas were strung together and made the writing confusing. Have students review the corrections and how those corrections fixed the sentences.

EXERCISE 1 Tell whether each sentence is a

run-on sentence or a correct compound sentence. 1. Jeff likes cows, he wants to live on a farm. 2. Frank owns a farm, and he has many cows. 3. Jeff visits the farm, he helps Frank. 4. Frank knows about cows, and he teaches Jeff. 5. Holsteins have black spots, the spot pattern on each cow is different.

22

22  •  Section 1.11

A

Section 1.11


EXERCISE 3 Review that the words and or but can be used to correct run-on sentences. After students have finished, ask volunteers to read aloud their corrected sentences.

APPLY APPLY IT NOW Invite volunteers to write on the board their compound sentences. Students should demonstrate an understanding of run-on sentences and how to correct run-ons by adding and or but or by dividing them into two sentences.

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Note which students had difficulty understanding what makes a sentence a run-on and how to correct a run-on sentence by adding and or but or by dividing it into two sentences. Assign Practice Book page 16 for further practice.

Reteach

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 230–231 of the Writing portion of the book.

There are many child-friendly websites about animals. List some on the board for students.

Write run-on sentences on sentence strips. Write and and but on two smaller strips. Ask students to choose a sentence strip and read it aloud. Encourage students to tell whether the sentence is a run-on and to explain how they know. Have volunteers offer suggestions to correct the run-on. Then ask a student to cut the sentence strip where the connecting word should go. Ask the student to add a strip with the connecting word and or but to make the sentence correct. Read aloud the corrected sentence. Continue the activity until all the run-on sentences have been corrected.

Meeting Individual Needs Challenge  Write run-on sentences on note cards. Direct students to choose a card and to devise two different ways to fix the run-on sentence. Have students write their corrected sentences and share them with a partner. Encourage students to discuss why the sentence reads more smoothly after the run-on has been corrected.

6. Holsteins are good dairy cows, they can each produce about 21,000 gallons of milk a year. 7. Jersey cows produce less milk, but it is richer. 8. Cows have one stomach, it has four compartments. 9. They eat for 8 hours a day, and they lie down for 13 hours. 10. Cows need a lot of water, they drink a bathtub full every day.

Meeting Individual Needs

11. They turn grass into energy, and their special stomach does the task.

Intrapersonal  Ask students to look through their writing portfolios to correct any run-on sentences. Have students write the run-on sentences, adding the corrected sentence below for each the incorrect sentence. Check students’ sentences to make sure the run-ons have been rewritten correctly.

Holstein

EXERCISE 2 Correct the run-on

sentences. Add and or but. 1. I drink a glass of milk every day, I put some on my cereal. 2. I like milk, my brother doesn’t like it very much. 3. My brother likes chocolate milk, he drinks hot chocolate. 4. My uncle has cows on his farm, he also has pigs. 5. I tried to milk a cow, it was hard. 6. I would like to visit a farm, I don’t want to live on one.

EXERCISE 3 Rewrite these run-on sentences as

compound sentences. 1. A cow can give about 8 gallons of milk each day, it drinks 16 gallons

Common Core Standards

of water.

2. A heifer is a cow that is only one year old, it weighs between 450 and 500 pounds. 3. Cows produce milk every day farmers need to milk them every day.

What is your favorite animal? Is there an endangered species that interests you?

4. Calcium is found in milk people need calcium to be healthy.

Write information about this animal, using four compound

5. Calcium can also be found in broccoli, I don’t like broccoli.

sentences. Be sure to use correct punctuation.

With an adult, research your animal online.

APPLY IT NOW

CCSS.ELA.L.4.1f CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

Sentences

23

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1

Sentence Review

ASSESS Use the Sentence Review as homework, as a practice test, or as an informal assessment.

Homework

Practice Test

You may wish to assign one group the odd items and another group the even items. When you next meet, review the correct answers as a group. Be sure to model how to arrive at the correct answer.

Use the Sentence Review as a diagnostic tool. Assign the entire review or just specific sections. After students have finished, identify which concepts require more attention. Reteach concepts as necessary.

1

Sentence Review 1.1 Tell which of these word groups are sentences. Tell which are not sentences.

1. The granola bar tastes good 2. Crumbs on the table 3. Picking the fruit and nuts out of the granola bar 4. Granola bars and milk go well together

17. Each student added something special.

5. Indian food is delicious

1.5 Find the simple subject and the simple predicate in each sentence.

7. Is it spicy food

19. People wash clothes at the laundromat.

8. Some dishes are mildly seasoned

20. Clothes spin in both washing machines and dryers.

9. Samosas are made with potatoes and chickpeas

21. The detergent smells nice and fresh.

1.3 Complete each sentence with a period or an exclamation point.

22. Sometimes socks disappear in the dryer.

10. My goodness, what a tall building this is

1.6 Tell whether each sentence has a simple or a compound subject.

11. Please follow the guide to the observation deck

23. Cashews and pecans are nuts.

12. Wow, it’s a magnificent view

24. Walnuts or almonds are sometimes sprinkled on salads.

13. Step away from the window 14. Yikes, looking down makes me dizzy

24  •  Sentence Review

16. Schoolchildren buried it in 1973.

18. The two boys read a newspaper from the capsule.

6. Have you tried it

15. Jack and Rory found a time capsule.

1.2

Complete each sentence with a period or a question mark.

24

1.4 Find the complete subject and the complete predicate in each sentence.

Sentence Review

25. Muffins and breads sometimes have walnuts as an ingredient.


Informal Assessment

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 232–233 of the Writing portion of the book.

Use the review as preparation for the formal assessment. Count the review as a portion of the grade. Have students work to find the correct answers and use their corrected review as a study guide for the formal assessment.

TEACHING OPTIONS Reteach Tell students they will be playing Sentence Scavenger Hunt. Have students read a print or an online story or magazine article. Tell students they have 10 minutes to find different sentence types. Have students keep a tally of declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory, and compound sentences. At the end of the scavenger hunt, encourage students to share and identify the sentences they found. As an extension, you may wish to have students find direct objects, subject complements, and compound subjects and predicates.

Meeting Individual Needs 26. The bowl of nuts was almost empty.

Tell whether each sentence has a simple or a compound predicate. 1.7

27. The paint on the walls cracked and peeled. 28. The painter scraped the walls. 29. Then she mixed and applied the paint. 30. She examined the walls and fixed some spots.

Find the simple or compound direct objects in each sentence. 1.8

31. The girl made a decorative mosaic. 32. She collected old plates. 33. She found old tiles at garage sales. 34. Later she broke the plates and a few tiles with a hammer. 35. Then she arranged the pieces attractively. 36. She created a colorful pattern.

Find the simple or compound subject complement in each sentence. 1.9

37. Amusement parks are my favorite places. 38. The roller-coaster ride was exciting and fun.

Challenge  Have small groups choose a topic to write about. Ask students to write a story using a variety of declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory, and compound sentences. Encourage students to include sentences with direct objects and subject complements. Allow time for students to revise their stories. Then have volunteers from each group read aloud their story. Invite the class to identify the different types of sentences and the direct objects and subject complements. Discuss any needed corrections.

39. The drop was scary. 40. All the horses on the carousel were colorful. 41. My favorite ride is the carousel. 1.10 Tell which sentences are compound sentences.

42. In science class we studied cockroaches and beetles. 43. Beetles can be many different colors, but ants are usually black. 44. Butterfly wings are thin and fragile. 45. Bees pollinate flowers, and worms enrich the soil. 46. Insects can be helpful, or they can be harmful.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.4.1 CCSS.ELA.L.4.2c

1.11 Tell whether each sentence is a run-on sentence or a correct compound sentence. Rewrite the runon sentences as compound sentences with and or but.

47. The children went bowling, and they had fun. 48. Tom rolled the ball, he knocked down four pins. 49. Lucy tried for a strike, the ball went in the gutter. 50. Sonia is a good bowler, and she teaches her friends.

Go to www.voyagesinenglish.com for more activities. Sentences

Encourage students to further review sentences, using the additional practice and games at www.voyagesinenglish.com.

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1

Sentence Challenge

ASSESS EXERCISE 1 For Exercise 1 have volunteers read aloud the directions and the paragraph. If students have difficulty with any question, remind them that they should refer to the section in their book that teaches the skill. Have students follow the same directions for Exercise 2. Both activities can be completed by individuals, small groups, or the whole class.

EXERCISE 2 For Exercise 2 have students read the paragraph silently and answer the questions. Refer students to the section in their book that teaches the skill if they have difficulty answering any question. After you have reviewed sentences, administer the Section 1 Assessment on pages 1–4 in the Assessment Book, or create a customized test with the optional Loyola Press Online Assessment System.

1

WRITING CONNECTION

Use pages 234–235 of the Writing portion of the book. Students can complete a formal personal narrative using the Writer’s Workshop on pages 236–247.

Sentence Challenge EXERCISE 1 Read the paragraph and answer the questions. 1. Do you like pandas? 2. Pandas are endangered. 3. That means there aren’t many of them left. 4. That’s a shame! 5. Giant pandas are fussy eaters. 6. Pandas eat only bamboo. 7. There is not enough bamboo anymore. 8. People cleared land and eliminated bamboo plants. 9. China has created refuges for pandas. 10. Scientists and other people help pandas stay alive.

1. What kind of sentence is sentence 1? 2. In sentence 1 what word is the direct object? 3. In sentence 2 what is the complete predicate? 4. Is sentence 4 a declarative sentence or an exclamatory sentence? 5. In sentence 5 what is the complete subject? 6. In sentence 5 what is the subject complement? 7. In sentence 6 what is the simple subject? 8. In sentence 6 what is the simple predicate? 9. In sentence 9 how is refuges used? 10. In sentence 10 what is the complete subject? What is the complete predicate? 11. Which sentence has a compound predicate? 12. Which sentence has a compound subject? EXERCISE 2 Read the paragraph and

answer the questions.

1. Pandas are in danger, koalas are in danger too. 2. Pandas live in China, but koalas live in Australia. 3. Pandas eat only bamboo, and koalas eat only eucalyptus leaves. 4. Eucalyptus trees are disappearing, koalas don’t have enough food anymore. 5. Koalas are called bears, but they are marsupials, like kangaroos.

1. Identify the correct compound sentences. 2. Which sentences are run-on sentences? 3. Rewrite the run-on sentences.

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26  •  Sentence Challenge

Sentence Challenge


PART

WRITTEN AND ORAL COMMUNICATION

2

Chapters 1

Personal Narratives 210

2

Formal Letters 248

3

Descriptions 286

4

How-to Articles 324

5

Persuasive Writing 362

6

Creative Writing: Fable 400

7

Expository Writing 438

8

Research Reports 476

209


Personal Narratives CHAPTER FOCUS LESSON 1: What Makes a Good Personal Narrative? LESSON 2: Introduction, Body, and Conclusion • GRAMMAR: Sentences • STUDY SKILLS: Time Lines • WRITING SKILLS: Exact Words • WORD STUDY: Contractions with Pronouns • SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS: Oral Personal Narratives • WRITER’S WORKSHOP: Personal Narratives

SUPPORT MATERIALS Practice Book Writing, pages 132–136 Assessment Book Chapter 1 Writing Skills, pages 39–40 Personal Narrative Writing Prompt, pages 41–42

WHAT IS A PERSONAL NARRATIVE? Personal narratives are written to share significant events in writers’ lives. At their best, personal narratives are revealing and relevant to an intended audience. A good personal narrative includes the following:

■■ A suitable topic about a real event ■■ A first-person point of view ■■ A structure that includes an introduction that grabs the reader’s attention, a detailed body with events told in time order, and a conclusion that often tells what the writer learned or how he or she felt

■■ A coherent organization that uses chronological order and excludes unnecessary details

■■ Prose that includes strong verbs and colorful adjectives Use the following titles to offer your students examples of well-crafted personal narratives:

The Boys’ War: Confederate and Union Soldiers Talk About the Civil War by Jim Murphy Tapenum’s Day: A Wampanoag Indian Boy in Pilgrim Times by Kate Waters Through My Eyes by Ruby Bridges

Rubrics Student, page 247y Teacher, page 247z Loyola Press Online Assessment System Grammar Section 1, pages 1–26 Customizable Lesson Plans www.voyagesinenglish.com

 There is no longer any such thing as fiction or nonfiction; there’s only narrative. 

210a  •  Chapter 1

—E.L. Doctorow


CHAPTER PLANNER

Personal Narratives

1

WRITER’S WORKSHOP TIPS

SCORING RUBRIC

Follow these ideas and tips to help you and your class get the most out of the Writer’s Workshop:

Personal Narrative

• Review the traits of good writing. Use the chart on the inside back cover of the student and teacher editions. • Encourage students to keep a photo journal that visually records important or interesting personal experiences. • Invite students to display and talk about mementos from favorite experiences. • Fill your classroom library with autobiographies and novels written in the first person. • Invite local personalities, such as the mayor, a star athlete, or an accomplished business leader, to share an important event from their childhood or teen years. • Discuss why it is important for the following professionals to become good writers of personal narratives: a motivational speaker, a songwriter writing a ballad, a traveler writing a letter to his or her family, or a professional athlete writing a memoir.

Point Values 0 = not evident 1 = minimal evidence of mastery 2 = evidence of development toward mastery 3 = strong evidence of mastery 4 = outstanding evidence of mastery

Ideas

POINTS

topic relates to a real event in student’s life ideas shared in chronological order

Organization a time line for planning an introduction that engages the readers’ attention a detailed body with details in chronological order a conclusion that tells what the writer learned or felt

Voice a first-person point of view

Word Choice

CONNECT WITH GRAMMAR Throughout the Writer’s Workshop, look for opportunities to integrate an understanding of sentence structure with writing personal narratives.

■■ Discuss how using a variety of sentence types (declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory) can make writing more interesting.

■■ Talk about how the use of compound sentences can vary the rhythm of writing and make it sound better.

■■ Ask students to look through examples of personal narratives and find strong verbs and colorful adjectives.

exact words no unnecessary details

Sentence Fluency contractions with pronouns

Conventions correct grammar and usage correct spelling correct punctuation and capitalization

Presentation easy to read, typed or neatly handwritten a title page

Additional Items

■■ Have students discuss run-on sentences and write some examples. Then ask volunteers to correct the run-on sentences by either making two simple sentences or by adding a conjunction and making a compound sentence.

Total Full-sized, reproducible rubrics can be found at the end of this chapter.

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1

Personal Narratives

INTRODUCING THE GENRE

Have students talk about times they have told family members about something that happened at school. Ask students to name other times when people retell events from their own lives. Explain that stories that tell of real events that happened in people’s lives are called personal narratives. Point out that personal narratives have specific characteristics.

Through My Eyes The excerpts in Chapter 1 introduce students to relevant, published examples of personal narratives. Through My Eyes is a strong example of a personal narrative because it does the following: • Tells a true story that happened to the writer

• A personal narrative tells about

an experience that actually happened to the writer. • The writer uses the first-person point of view. • The introduction gets readers’ attention. • In the body the events are told in time order. • The conclusion often tells what the writer learned from the experience or how he or she felt. • The details are described using exact words to draw readers into the story. • The narrative is appropriate for the audience.

Have volunteers read aloud the literature excerpt. Explain that the author shares her personal experience of what it was like to be one of the first African American students to attend an all-white school. Ask students to point out reasons why this piece is a good example of a personal narrative. Guide students to note the author’s use of the personal pronoun I. Have students describe some of the details that capture their interest,

Personal Narratives LiNK

Through My Eyes by Ruby Bridges

When we were near the school, my mother said, “Ruby, I want you to behave yourself today and do what the marshals say.” . . . As we walked through the crowd, I didn’t see any faces. I guess that’s because I wasn’t very tall and I was surrounded by the marshals. People yelled and threw things. I could see the school building, and it looked bigger and nicer than my old school. When we climbed the high steps to the front door, there were policemen in uniforms at the top. The policemen at the door and the crowd behind us made me think this was an important place. It must be college, I thought to myself.

• Is written in the first person • Moves in chronological order • Includes exact words As students encounter the different examples throughout the chapter, be sure to point out the characteristics they share. Also take this opportunity to point out the grammar skills that students have been learning, such as complete sentences, kinds of sentences, compound subjects, compound predicates, and direct objects.

> Ruby Bridges shares her personal experience of what it was like attending an all-white school in 1960. The story is shared from her own point of view.

210

210  •  Chapter 1

READING THE LITERATURE EXCERPT


such as the marshals, the people yelling and throwing things, and the policemen in uniforms. Point out exact words, such as yelled, threw, and high steps that draw readers into the story.

READING THE STUDENT MODEL Tell students that they are going to read a personal narrative written by a student. Then have volunteers read aloud the model. Ask students to find examples of how they know the writer is

describing an event that happened in her life. (She uses I, my, and we.) Point out how the introduction gets the reader’s attention. Guide students to see how the events are told in time order. Have students discuss details that are described using exact words, such as yellowhaired dog, playful, roly-poly puppies, and giant smile. Discuss how the writer felt after being told she and her family would have to wait another two weeks before they could take the puppy home.

TEACHING OPTIONS Scavenger Hunt Ask students to find examples of personal narratives in the classroom and around the school. Point out that a personal narrative is not fiction, but a retelling of something that really happened to the writer.

For Tomorrow Ask students to bring an example of a personal narrative to class. Bring your own example of a personal narrative to share as well.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.4.3

CHAPTER

1

Claire J. Room 206

Welcome Hom e,

Holly

The ad in the pa per said “free pu called the num ppies to a good ber to ask a few home.” We questions. My I had always im brother and si agined getting ster and a yellow-haired “yellow ish.” W dog. The ow ne hen we pulled rs said into the drivew surprised to se ay, my family an e brow n dogs. d I were Since we drove out of the car an so far, we deci d take a look at ded to get the puppies. I the pen when wasn’t even ha I made my deci lfway to sion–we had to get one. My mom and m y brother and sister were pick roly-poly pupp ies. There were ing up the play 10 in all. But I ful, particular. She held on to one was brow n an in d soft and sleep y. I was in love As I looked arou . nd to show my pick up two pu m om , I saw my sister ppies, but one Katie tr ying to slid through he Katie panicked r arms onto th , but the puppy e wet grass. got up and ran to its mother. Max walked ar ound w ith a gi ant smile on hi after another an s face, pick ing d brushing his one up cheek against laughing at th their floppy ea em falling over rs. He was themselves, ch over whelmed asing one anot w ith the pupp her. He was ies’ sweetness. A fter an hour of play ing w ith all the puppies, one we should choose. Max, K my mom asked atie, and I all ha which tried to help us d an opinion, so out w ith the de Mom cision. She coul how precious th dn’t stop gush ey all were. We ing about finally decided that I still held to get the sleep in my arms sinc y one e the moment said we had to we arrived. Th wait another tw e ow ner o weeks before home. We pulle we could take d slowly out of Holly that long drivew the puppies pl ay, keeping ou ay ing in the gr r eyes on ass until we w ent around the bend.

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1.1

What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?

OBJECTIVES • To understand the characteristics of a personal narrative • To understand and use time order in a personal narrative

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share with students the personal narrative you found from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Discuss with students how the narrative uses the characteristics of a good personal narrative. Have small groups share the personal narratives they found. Have students discuss how the narratives use the characteristics of a good personal narrative.

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

Take this opportunity to talk about the difference between a declarative sentence and an interrogative sentence. You may wish to have students point out any declarative and interrogative sentences in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

TEACH Have a volunteer read aloud the first paragraph. Reinforce that a personal narrative is a true story, not fiction. Read aloud the section Topic. Ask students to name some topics that would make good personal narratives, such as a day at a museum, a family canoe trip, or a championship soccer game. Have a volunteer read aloud the section Audience. Ask students to name other ways that personal narratives might change, depending on the audience.

Invite a volunteer to read aloud the section Point of View. Explain that all types of writing use a point of view. Ask volunteers to say a sentence using the first-person point of view. (I spent the summer in Maine. My dog won first prize in the dog show.)

PRACTICE

Have a volunteer read aloud the excerpt from Through My Eyes. Ask students to identify the topic (starting at a new school). Guide students to discuss how the author feels about starting at a new school and why. (She was unhappy because she wouldn’t be going to school with her friends.)

ACTIVITY B After students have completed the activity, have volunteers change items 3 and 13 to make them good personal narratives. Challenge students to list additional topics that would not make good personal narratives and explain why.

LESSON

1

Personal Narratives

What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?

Through My Eyes

LiNK

On Sunday, November 13, my mother told me I would start at a new school the next day. She hinted there could be something unusual about it, but she didn’t explain. . . . All I remember thinking that night was that I wouldn’t be going to school with my friends anymore, and I wasn’t happy about that. Ruby Bridges

A narrative is a story. A personal narrative is a true story about something that happened to the writer. It could be a journal entry about the first day of school. It could be a letter describing an exciting trip. Ruby Bridges wrote her personal narrative Through My Eyes, sharing her experience in Louisiana in the 1960s. Here are some ideas for what makes a good personal narrative.

Topic Anything that really happened to you can be a good topic for a personal narrative. It should be something you remember clearly. The topic might be something funny, exciting, or unusual.

Audience The people who will read your story are your audience. Think of them when you choose your topic. Your friends might want to hear how you beat the newest video game. Your grandparents might be more interested in hearing about a family trip.

212

212  •  Chapter 1

ACTIVITY A Have partners complete this activity. When they have finished, invite volunteers to share their answers with the class.

Chapter 1


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Writer’s Corner

Note which students had difficulty understanding the characteristics of a personal narrative. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.

Reteach

Suggest that students list as topics exciting or interesting things that they have done recently. Ask students to identify the audience that might be appropriate for each topic. When students have finished, ask volunteers to share their work with the class. Students should demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of a personal narrative.

Ask students to draw a picture of an important or exciting event in their lives. Have volunteers share their stories with the class. As each student tells his or her story, write on the board the main events. Then ask students to retell their personal narratives.

Narrative Notions Have small groups use a classroom or an online encyclopedia or other references to research events in the lives of famous people. Tell students to write short summaries of personal narratives that each famous person might write. Offer examples such as the following:

George Washington: We were all very cold at Valley Forge. Sandra Day O’Connor: I was the first female Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Point of View Point of view shows who is telling the story. In your personal narrative, you are telling the story. This is called the first-person point of view. Use words such as I, me, my, we, and our.

Nelson Mandela: I was in the sunlight for the first time in 27 years.

ACTIVITY A Read the personal narrative on page 211 and answer these questions.

1. How can you tell that this is a personal narrative? 2. Why do you think the writer chose this topic?

For Tomorrow

3. Who is the audience of this narrative? 4. What is the point of view of this narrative? 5. Which words are used to show the point of view?

Have students write a four-sentence personal narrative about a recent family celebration. Be prepared to share your own narrative with the class.

6. What are the main events in the narrative? 7. What are the most interesting details? ACTIVITY B Decide which topics would make good personal narratives.

1. the day I found a $20 bill 2. my first piano recital 3. my brother’s trip to the zoo

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.4.3

4. a train ride I’ll never forget 5. the day I was born 6. what I’d do if I were an astronaut 7. my unlucky day at the beach 8. a boring afternoon 9. my summer vacation to the Grand Canyon 10. when I broke my arm 11. my first trip in an airplane 12. the day of the big snowstorm 13. how to build a bird house 14. my plans for college 15. the most helpful person I know

Writer’s Corner Write three things that happened to you that would make good personal narratives. Personal Narratives

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1.1

What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share with students your personal narrative from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Point out to students how the narrative uses the characteristics of a good personal narrative. Have small groups share their personal narratives with one another. Have students point out how each other’s narratives use the characteristics of a good personal narrative.

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

PRACTICE ACTIVITY C Have small groups complete this activity. Suggest that students read aloud all the sentences before arranging them in time order. When students have finished, ask volunteers to read aloud their paragraphs. ACTIVITY D Have students complete this activity independently. Encourage students to review the section Time Order if they need help. When students have finished, invite volunteers to share their answers with the class.

Take this opportunity to talk about the difference between an imperative and an exclamatory sentence. You may wish to have students point out any imperative and exclamatory sentences in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

Time Order The events in a personal narrative are told in the order that they happened. Tell what happened first near the beginning and what happened last, near the ending. Use time words such as first, next, after, then, finally, and last to show the order of the events. Here is an example.

TEACH Remind students that the main purpose of a personal narrative is to tell the reader why the event is important. Discuss how personal narratives can tell stories that may be funny, happy, sad, or scary. Point out that the story is told in the first-person point of view, grabs the readers’ attention, and lets readers know how the writer felt in that particular situation. Have a volunteer read aloud the section Time Order. Ask a volunteer to explain why time order might work best for personal narratives. (Telling events in time order helps readers picture how the events actually happened.) Ask students to name additional time words, such as second, later, and before. Have students reread the literature excerpt on page 210 and identify what took place first and last in that personal narrative.

First, I got out of bed. Then I got dressed. After getting dressed, I ate breakfast. Next, I waited on the corner for the bus. Finally, the bus arrived.

ACTIVITY C Below is a personal narrative about a trip to school in the morning. The first two sentences are given in correct time order, but the other sentences are in the wrong order. Rewrite the sentences as a paragraph, using correct time order. I woke up late this morning. I should have just stayed in bed. 1. After breakfast I headed for the bus. 2. When I looked in my closet, I found that all my favorite shirts were in the laundry.

3. I finally picked out a shirt, but I spilled juice on it at breakfast. 4. Next, I missed my bus by a few seconds. 5. It was too late to finish eating. 6. When I got to school, I remembered that my homework was back at home. 7. I had to leave the bus stop when I realized I’d forgotten my lunch. 8. I begged my brother to drive me to school.

214

214  •  Chapter 1

ACTIVITY E Ask partners to complete this activity. Have students determine the correct way to order the sentences. Allow time for students to rewrite their paragraphs. When students have finished, have two sets of partners compare their revised paragraphs. Challenge students to identify the time words and to add at least one more.

Chapter 1


APPLY Writer’s Corner

Tell students to gather their thoughts before they write and organize their sentences in time order. After students have finished, ask volunteers to share their paragraphs with the class. Encourage students to identify the time words and to determine if they were used correctly. Students should demonstrate an understanding of time words and how to use them in a personal narrative.

Review compound sentences in Section 1.10. Encourage students to use compound sentences in their personal narratives.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty understanding and using time order in a personal narrative. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 132 provides additional work with time order in personal narratives.

TEACHING OPTIONS Reteach Have students continue a story using time words. Give students the first sentence and encourage them to continue by adding a time word to begin each new sentence. (First, I put on my shoe. Then I felt something tickling my foot.) Encourage students to add to the story as many sentences as possible that begin with time words. When a student decides to end the story, be sure that he or she uses an appropriate word or phrase such as finally or in the end.

Order, Please! Ask students to choose a game or sport in which they have recently participated. Have students write each step of the activity on a separate note card, using the first-person point of view. Tell students to shuffle the cards and to ask a partner to arrange the cards correctly by putting the steps in time order. Have partners talk about the card arrangement and whether they had difficulty correctly placing the cards in time order.

ACTIVITY D Here are two paragraphs that fourth graders wrote. The first paragraph is about planting a garden. The second paragraph is about a snowstorm. Choose from the time words in the list to help show the order in which things happened. Finally

First

Next

Then

A.

I was excited about planting a garden. , I chose a nice sunny spot. , I dug up the soil. , I fertilized it. , I planted the seeds and watered them. I can’t wait for the flowers to grow.

B.

The weather report was for a big snowstorm for the next day, and school was canceled. We woke up early that day. The snow was coming down quickly in huge, fluffy flakes. Dad wanted to go to the garage and try to take out the car. , we shoveled the area in front of our door. , we started to shovel the walk to the garage. , we looked back, and we couldn’t see the walk. What we had just shoveled was a blanket of snow. , we decided to go back into the house to have hot chocolate.

For Tomorrow Have students bring to class a newspaper or magazine article that uses time words. Tell students to be prepared to share their articles with the class. Be sure to bring your own article to share with students.

Common Core Standards

ACTIVITY E Revise the paragraph. Put the sentences in time order. Add at least two time words to show the order.

CCSS.ELA.L.4.3a

My brothers and I were stuck inside for yet another rainy day. She made an announcement. My mother was getting tired of our yelling. We spent the morning chasing one another around the house. “It’s Mud Day!” she called out. We spent the next hour rolling in the mud and getting as dirty as we could. She told us to run upstairs and find our oldest clothes. When we Choose one of your personal finally came inside and changed our clothes, narrative ideas from the we were ready for a nap. She sent us to the backyard, where the rain had turned our lawn into Writer’s Corner on page 213. a mud puddle.

Writer’s Corner

Write five sentences about it, using time words to show the

Add sentence variety by using compound sentences. See Section 1.10.

order of events. Personal Narratives

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1.2

Introduction, Body, and Conclusion

OBJECTIVES • To understand the purpose of the introduction, the body, and the conclusion in a personal narrative • To understand the use of details in a personal narrative

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Read aloud the article that you brought in from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Then ask students to listen as you read the article again and to raise their hands when they hear a time word. Have small groups read aloud excerpts of the articles they found. Ask students to identify the time words in each excerpt. Then ask students to retell the order of events in each excerpt, using different time words.

Have a volunteer read aloud the section Body. Ask a volunteer to explain time order. Tell students that the body of a personal narrative includes everything necessary to help readers understand what happened to the writer. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the section Conclusion. Then have students identify the conclusion in the model on page 211. Point out that the conclusion of Claire’s personal narrative tells the end of the story. Discuss the last sentence and how Claire felt about leaving the puppies behind. Have a volunteer read aloud the excerpt from Through

TEACH Invite a volunteer to read aloud the first paragraph and the section Introduction. Have students look back at the student model on page 211. Ask a volunteer to identify the introduction in Claire’s personal narrative. Guide students to see that the last sentence in Claire’s introduction tells readers that she and her family had to get a puppy but does not explain why. Explain that readers will want to read on to find out more.

2

ACTIVITY A Have partners work together to complete the activity. When students have finished, discuss why some introductions are better than others.

Introduction, Body, and Conclusion

Through My Eyes

LiNK

When I was six years old, the civil rights movement came knocking at the door. It was 1960, and history pushed in and swept me up in a whirlwind. At the time, I knew little about the racial fears and hatred in Louisiana, where I was growing up. Ruby Bridges

A personal narrative has three main parts: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. These are the beginning, middle, and ending of your story. Here are some tips for writing each part of a personal narrative.

Introduction The introduction of your personal narrative is your chance to grab your reader’s attention. The introduction should make the reader want to know more. You might want to ask a question, or you might make an interesting statement that will make the reader want to read the rest of your story. Does the introduction to Through My Eyes grab your attention?

Body The body, or middle, of your personal narrative tells what happened. It describes the events in time order, including everything important that happened. It should not include details that are not related to your personal narrative. It should contain interesting details.

Conclusion The conclusion of your personal narrative should tell how the story ended. You might tell something you learned or explain how you felt.

216

216  •  Chapter 1

PRACTICE

Personal Narratives

LESSON

GRAMMAR CONNECTION Take this opportunity to talk about complete subjects and complete predicates. You may wish to have students point out complete subjects and complete predicates in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

My Eyes. Guide students to see how the excerpt is a good example of an introduction. Point out how the excerpt grabs the reader’s attention and makes the reader want to know more. (The reader wants to know in what ways the civil rights movement came knocking at the writer’s door and how history pushed the author and swept her up in a whirlwind.)

Chapter 1


ACTIVITY B Have students complete the activity independently. Ask volunteers to share their answers with the class. Encourage students to explain their answers.

APPLY Writer’s Corner

Encourage students to write an introductory sentence that grabs the reader’s attention by using either a question or an interesting statement. Students should

demonstrate an understanding of the purpose of the introduction, the body, and the conclusion in a personal narrative.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty understanding the purpose of the introduction, the body, and the conclusion of a personal narrative. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.

TEACHING OPTIONS Reteach Have partners retell an enjoyable family event. After sharing their stories, have students work together to develop attention-grabbing introductions for the stories. Then have students take turns retelling their stories. Ask the listeners to write notes for each detail that the storyteller includes in his or her story. Allow time for partners to share their notes. Then have partners work together to write story conclusions that express how students felt about the family event.

Start Strong Briefly summarize the story “Jack and the Beanstalk” or another well-known fairy tale. Ask students to write an introduction for the story that grabs the reader’s attention. Have small groups share their introductions and decide which introductions make students want to read more, even if they already are familiar with the story.

ACTIVITY A Choose the most effective introduction for each personal narrative.

1. I was doing well until I found myself at the top of a hill. Before I could stop, I was flying down the slope. Then my wheel hit a rock. Bam! Down I went! I bruised my leg and scraped my elbow, but luckily I wasn’t hurt badly. Now I know why I should always wear a helmet.

For Tomorrow

a. I was riding my skateboard down Acorn Street. b. I had never tried to skateboard before.

Have students write an introduction for a personal narrative about a time they received a gift from a friend. Tell students to be prepared to share their stories during the next class. Write your own introduction to share with the class.

c. I was zooming along on my skateboard and

feeling confident—maybe too confident!

2. My class went on a sleepover at the Museum of Natural History. First, we explored an ancient Egyptian tomb by flashlight. It was really eerie! Next, a troupe of African dancers performed. Then we curled up in our sleeping bags next to the skeleton of a real dinosaur. I was fascinated by its sharp teeth. I decided then and there that I want to study dinosaurs when I grow up. a. I had an exciting weekend. b. Have you ever slept near a dinosaur? I have.

Common Core Standards

c. Here’s how I decided what I want to be when I grow up.

CCSS.ELA.L.4.3a

ACTIVITY B For each group, choose the sentence that is part of the introduction, the sentence that is part of the body, and the sentence that is part of the conclusion.

1. I caught three big fish in just one hour. I never thought I would like fishing. After that experience, I can’t wait to go fishing again. 2. By the time it was over, I realized it was the best Saturday of my life. We played in the fountains and went down the water slide. I got a big surprise from my parents last weekend.

Writer’s Corner Write a one-sentence introduction to the personal narrative you wrote for the Writer’s Corner on page 215. Remember to grab the reader’s attention. Personal Narratives

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1.2

Introduction, Body, and Conclusion

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share the introduction to your personal narrative from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Read the introduction aloud and have students point out reasons they would like to read the rest of the narrative. Have small groups take turns reading aloud their introductions. Discuss which word choices and sentences really grabbed students’ attention.

PRACTICE ACTIVITY C Have partners work together to complete this activity. Ask students to write the unrelated details for each group of details. When students have finished, review the answers with the class. Then challenge students to replace the unrelated details with details that support the subject of the personal narrative.

ACTIVITY D Have students complete this activity independently. Tell students to read the three personal narratives completely before choosing one and finding the unrelated detail. Encourage students to include something that the writer learned or felt in their conclusion. When students have finished, invite volunteers to identify the unrelated detail and to read aloud their conclusions. Discuss which conclusions work best and why.

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

Take this opportunity to talk about simple subjects and simple predicates. You may wish to have students point out simple subjects and simple predicates in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

Details The body of a personal narrative should be filled with details. Good details make a personal narrative clearer and more real to the reader. However, details unrelated to the story can distract the reader. Make sure all your details add something to your personal narrative.

TEACH Invite a student to read aloud the section Details. Then ask students to reread the body of Claire’s personal narrative on page 211 and to find the details she used. Have volunteers list the details in time order and write them on the board. Encourage volunteers to explain how the details of Claire’s personal narrative make the story clearer and more realistic. Have students give examples of details that would not belong in Claire’s narrative.

ACTIVITY C Which two details in each group are not related to the same topic as the rest?

1. My parents said we could get a dog. My sister once had a goldfish. We went to the animal shelter. Our neighbor is allergic to cats. There were a lot of dogs waiting to be adopted. There were some cats waiting to be adopted too. A little black and white dog was wagging her tail. We all fell in love with that dog on the spot. We bought her a new red leash and took her home.

2. I went into the submarine. We went below the surface of the water. I like to water-ski. There were many tropical fish. I could see oyster beds. I could see sea urchins and sea horses. I have a poster of sea horses on my bedroom wall. Some of the sea urchins were brightly colored. The moray eel was strange-looking.

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Chapter 1


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Writer’s Corner

Note which students had difficulty understanding the use of details in personal narratives. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 133 provides additional work with the introduction, the body, the conclusion, and the details in a personal narrative.

Reteach

Remind partners to focus on the details. After students have reviewed their partners’ comments, ask them to add more relevant details and possibly to delete unrelated details. Students should demonstrate an understanding of the use of details in personal narratives.

Have students describe a recent school event. Ask students to brainstorm details about the event and list on the board their responses. Help students decide which details add clarity to help a reader picture the event and which are unrelated to the event. As students decide a detail is unrelated, cross it off the list.

It’s All in the Details Have small groups choose an ordinary object, such as a shoe, a pen, or a book. Have students brainstorm a list of details about the object. Encourage students to list not only details about what they see, such as how the object looks and the materials from which it is made, but also details that describe its usual use, other possible uses, and what it resembles.

ACTIVITY D Choose one personal narrative and find the unrelated detail. Then write a conclusion that explains how things ended.

A.

B.

C.

For Tomorrow

The day after we moved to Minnesota was the most surprising day of my life. Until that day I had never seen snow. As soon as I woke up, I put on my warmest clothes, ran outside, and jumped into a drift. I couldn’t believe how wet and cold it was! My brother and I played in the snow all morning. He’s two years older than I am. Mom gave us socks to put on our hands so we could make a snowman. We used an old cardboard box to slide down a hill.

Ask students to bring to class either an online or newspaper article that includes clear details. Tell students to be prepared to explain how the details add information to the article. Bring in an article with clear details to share with students.

Dad has told me a million times to close the door of the hamster cage, and I usually remember to do it. Last Tuesday I forgot. The first thing Dad does when he comes home from work is change his clothes and shoes. On Tuesday when he picked up his shoe, he saw a ball of fluff curled up inside. It was Magpie, my hamster! Dad was so startled that he dropped the shoe. Magpie woke up and scooted under the bed. The bed was covered with my favorite blanket. I had to crawl under it and pull him out. Sometimes after a disappointment, things do work out. I really wanted tickets to the kids’ concert in the park. My favorite band was going to play. My dad was going to go online early and get tickets before he left for work. That day the weather was beautiful. When he got up, the computer connection was down. When he tried later at work, all the tickets were gone. I was so disappointed. Later, my dad told the story to someone at work. The person had gotten some extra tickets, and he offered them to my dad.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.4.3d

Writer’s Corner Exchange with a partner the sentences you wrote for the Writer’s Corner on page 215. Read your partner’s sentences, offering suggestions where details would be helpful. Review your partner’s comments. Personal Narratives

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1.3

STUDY SKILLS  Time Lines

OBJECTIVES • To use a time line to organize ideas • To revise a time line

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Read aloud the article you found from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Discuss the most important details. Explain that the writer included those particular details to provide a clear picture of the events. Model finding time words that help the reader better understand the story. Have small groups take turns reading aloud their articles. Encourage students to identify details and time words. Ask students to tell if the stories are personal narratives.

Ask students why some time lines might be divided by days while other time lines might be divided by minutes. (The times on a time line depend on the event being described.) Suggest that an event such as a winning drive in a football game would be plotted using minutes on a time line. Then point out that the exploration of the American West would be plotted using years. Explain that the times on a time line are guides. Emphasize that there does not have to be an exact corresponding written time for each event. Reinforce that time lines are a good way to organize information before writing a personal narrative.

3

ACTIVITY B Encourage students to review time words. When students have finished the activity, invite volunteers to share their sentences with the class. Challenge students to substitute different time words that still make sense.

Time Lines A time line is one tool that writers use to organize their ideas. It can help you think of all the important events in a personal narrative. A time line can also help you put your ideas in time order. A time line is created by drawing a long line on a sheet of paper. The line can be drawn either up and down, diagonally, or across the paper. On one side the line is divided into equal periods of time. On the other side, important events are listed in time order. Here is a time line one student, Ernesto, made for his personal narrative about tubing on the Delaware River.

Take this opportunity to talk about compound subjects. You may wish to have students point out any compound subjects in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

TEACH Draw on the board a time line of things that you did yesterday. Then read aloud the first paragraph. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the second paragraph. Tell students that the time line on the board shows things you did yesterday. Then point out the main features of your time line (times and events). Explain that time lines can be made in a variety of ways. Have a volunteer read aloud the next paragraph and the times and events on Ernesto’s time line. Ask students to describe the type of information that is included (times and events on Ernesto’s tubing trip). Invite volunteers to read aloud the last two paragraphs.

1:00

biked to East Grove rented tubes and life preservers

2:00

began floating lazily down the river tried to push away hit a sunken log, got stuck called for help another tuber pulled me loose

3:00

landed at campground found Dad waiting in van drove back to pick up bikes 4:00

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ACTIVITY A Ask students to complete this activity independently. When students have finished, have volunteers draw their time lines on the board. Challenge students to write a brief introduction for a personal narrative based on their time lines.

Study Skills

LESSON

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

PRACTICE

Chapter 1

biked home


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Writer’s Corner

Note which students had difficulty using a time line to organize ideas. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.

Reteach

When students have finished, have small groups share their time lines. Students should demonstrate an understanding of using a time line to organize ideas.

Encourage students to use the keywords “time line generator” to find websites to help create a time line.

Have students draw a time line of what they think would be a perfect day. Suggest that they start their time lines at 9:00 a.m. with “awoke rested and ready for the day.” Encourage students to use their imaginations to think of a day of fun for all their senses, including time alone and time with family and friends. As students work, help them place the times evenly and the events at appropriate points along the time line. Ask volunteers to share their time lines with the class.

Time Change Ask students to choose an event that, if the time order were changed, would have greatly affected their lives. Some examples are their date of birth, a sibling’s date of birth, or a move from one city to another. Have students draw a time line showing the actual beginning date of the event and important events from that date until the present day. Then have students draw a second time line that begins with the changed date and includes imaginary events that may have taken place from that date until today. Allow time for students to share both their actual and changed time lines in small groups.

Look at Ernesto’s time line. On the left side, he divided it by hours, listing each hour at an even distance. On the right side, he listed all the important events where they belonged on the line. Do the same thing when you create your time line. On one side divide the line into equal periods of time, such as by minutes, hours, or days. On the other side, put the events where they belong in time order. For example, if an event happened at 1:20, put it closer to 1:00 than to 2:00. ACTIVITY A Copy and complete the following time line about what you did one recent evening. Add more times if necessary. Add events on the other side.

For Tomorrow

5:00

Have students create a time line about their after-school routine. Have students use the time lines to write four sentences about what they do after school. Be prepared to share your time line and sentences with the class.

6:00

7:00

ACTIVITY B Imagine you are Ernesto, and are writing a personal narrative. Using the time line on page 220, write two sentences about each part of your tubing adventure: starting the trip, getting stuck on the log, and ending the trip. Use time words to connect your ideas.

Common Core Standards

Writer’s Corner Make a time line of the

CCSS.ELA.W.4.3a CCSS.ELA.W.4.3c

classes that you have today. Make the opening bell your first event and the closing

Use an online tool to create your time line.

bell your last event. Personal Narratives

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1.3

STUDY SKILLS  Time Lines

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share with students your time line and sentences from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Discuss how you could use the sentences in an introduction, body, or conclusion of a personal narrative. Have small groups read aloud their sentences. Have students talk about how the sentences might be used in the introduction, body, or conclusion of a personal narrative.

Then have volunteers suggest the days in which each event took place (Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday) and include those days on the time line.

PRACTICE ACTIVITY C Provide large sheets of butcher paper and have small groups complete this activity. Remind students that although they will assign a time for each event, not every time will be written on the time line. Encourage students to add a title and illustrations if time permits.

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

Take this opportunity to talk about compound predicates. You may wish to have students point out any compound predicates in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

TEACH Invite volunteers to read aloud the section Revising a Time Line. Ask students to explain why writers revise their work. Then ask volunteers to point out what changes Ernesto made to his time line. (He added that he tried to push away from the log and that he called for help.) Have students choose a time line they made on page 221. Tell students to use the questions in the section Revising a Time Line to revise their own time lines. Encourage students to adjust their time lines by adding needed details, deleting unnecessary details, realigning information with the time, or rearranging the order of information. Then invite partners to check each other’s time lines.

Through My Eyes

I spent the whole first day with Mrs. Henry in the classroom. . . . My mother sat in the classroom that day, but not the next. When the marshals came to the house on Wednesday morning, my mother said, “Ruby, I can’t go to school with you today, but don’t be afraid. The marshals will take care of you. Be good now, and don’t cry.” Ruby Bridges

ACTIVITY E Have students complete this activity independently. Tell students to make a list of the events before beginning their time lines. When students have finished, ask them to tell how they revised their time lines.

Revising a Time Line Once you finish a time line, it is a good idea to go back over it. Ask yourself the following questions: Did each event occur at the time shown on the time line? Should I rearrange any events? Have I included all the important details? Are there missing details I should add or unneeded details I should take out? Make any changes to the time line that you think are necessary. Notice the order of events in the excerpt on the left. Look at Ernesto’s time line on page 220. What details do you think Ernesto added after making the time line?

ACTIVITY C Here are Jessica’s notes about a trip to Philadelphia. Draw a time line on a sheet of paper. Put Jessica’s notes on the time line, showing what she did with her family. Make up times for events if they are not included. Do not include unneeded details. At 2:00 p.m. we each had a giant hot pretzel. At 10:30 p.m. we saw a tremendous light show. Next year we’re going to Boston. After breakfast we took a bus tour. After lunch we went to the Benjamin Franklin Memorial. Betsy Ross lived in Philadelphia. When the tour was over, we went to Independence Hall. At 9:00 a.m. we ate breakfast at a coffee shop. We didn’t have time to see the Liberty Bell. For lunch we had Philly cheese steaks. We went back to our hotel for dinner.

Have a volunteer read aloud the excerpt from Through My Eyes. Ask students to list the events described in the excerpt and write on the board the events in a time line.

Philadelphia is called the “City of Brotherly Love.”

Ruby Bridges, age 6

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222  •  Chapter 1

LiNK

ACTIVITY D Ask students to complete this activity independently. Suggest that students begin by drawing the time line and writing the first and last steps and the three given times. When students write their paragraphs, remind them to use time words. Ask small groups to share their time lines and paragraphs.

Chapter 1


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Writer’s Corner

Note which students had difficulty revising a time line. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 134 provides additional work with timelines.

Reteach

When students have finished, invite volunteers to share both their time lines and body paragraphs with the class. Encourage students to suggest ways the time lines might be revised to make them more clear or more detailed. Students should demonstrate an understanding of how to revise a time line.

Ask students to make a checklist such as the one below. Have students gather the time lines they have made throughout this lesson. Show students how to use the checklist to review their time lines for order and important details. Ask students to use the checklist to revise one of their time lines. Suggest that students keep the checklist to use whenever they make a time line to organize ideas.

Time-Line Checklist • Are the events in the right order ? • Did each event occur when shown? • Did I include all important details? ACTIVITY D Put these steps for making muffins into the time line. Leave out any unneeded details. Then write the steps in paragraph form, using time words.

• Did I leave out unneeded details?

6:10 I put the muffins into a 350° oven. 6:05 I stirred until the batter was smooth.

Rewinding Time

6:25 I checked on the muffins as they baked. 6:03 I added the milk and eggs.

Discuss how certain life events might be different if they happened in reverse. Have partners make a backward time line in which people grow younger and things get undone. When students have finished, have them write a fictitious personal narrative about a pair of students living in a world where time travels backward. Invite volunteers to share their stories.

6:08 I poured the batter into the muffin tins. 6:20 My brother came home.

I poured the muffin mix into a bowl.

6:00

6:15

6:30

ACTIVITY E What did you do last Sunday? Make a time line. Start with waking up in the morning. End with going to bed. Read over your time line. Add any missing details. Take out any unneeded details.

I pulled the muffins out of the oven.

For Tomorrow

Writer’s Corner Use the time line you made in Activity E to write four or

Ask students to make a time line of what they might do to get ready for a party. Have students use the time line to write four sentences about how they would prepare for a party. Be prepared to share your own time line and sentences with the class.

five sentences for the body of a personal narrative about what you did last Sunday. Use time words to connect the details. Personal Narratives

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.4.3a CCSS.ELA.W.4.5

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1.4

WRITING SKILLS  Exact Words

OBJECTIVES • To identify and use strong verbs • To identify and use colorful adjectives

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share with students your time line and sentences from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Discuss how the time line helped you include in your sentences all of the important steps for getting ready for a party. Have small groups share their time lines and sentences. Invite students to revise their time lines if they have left out an important step for getting ready for a party.

the original sentence. Encourage students to use an online or print thesaurus to find additional strong verbs.

PRACTICE ACTIVITY A Have students complete this activity independently. After they have finished, invite small groups to share their sentences. Have students tell how the stronger verbs have slightly different meanings from the original words and the words that other students chose.

LESSON

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

Take this opportunity to talk about direct objects. You may wish to have students point out any direct objects in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

4

Writing Skills

Exact Words A writer paints a picture with words. If you use exact words, such as strong verbs and colorful adjectives, you will paint a clearer picture. When you use exact words, readers will enjoy your writing more.

Strong Verbs

TEACH

A strong verb is a verb that shows the action of a sentence in an exact way. Read the following sentences:

Ask students what it means to be exact. Encourage students to offer synonyms for the word exact, such as precise, correct, and accurate. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the first paragraph. Point out that strong verbs and colorful adjectives make any type of writing more interesting. Have a volunteer read aloud the first paragraph of the section Strong Verbs and the example sentences. Ask students why the second sentence in each pair is stronger than the first. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the rest of the section. Invite volunteers to suggest other strong verbs that could be used in place of the verbs in each example sentence. Discuss how each verb slightly changes the meaning of

My friend and I walked up the hill. My friend and I marched up the hill. I ate my dinner and went outside. I devoured my dinner and darted outside.

Notice how the verbs in red make each sentence more interesting. They paint a clearer picture of the action in the sentence. When you revise your writing, look for any verbs that are too general or dull. Replace them with strong verbs. ACTIVITY A Think of a strong verb to replace each verb below. Using three of the verbs you thought of, write a sentence using each one.

1. said 2. break 3. go

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ACTIVITY B Have students complete this activity independently. When students have finished, invite volunteers to read aloud the sentences. Discuss the slight differences in meaning when students have chosen different replacements for the same sentence. Challenge students to write two original sentences, each with a verb that shows action. Then have students replace the action verbs with stronger verbs.

Chapter 1

4. cry 5. get 6. ran


ACTIVITY C Suggest that partners read aloud the paragraph before replacing any verbs. Tell students to choose strong verbs without changing the meaning of the sentence. When students have finished, ask small groups to compare their revisions. Suggest that students choose the revised paragraph that includes the strongest verbs.

APPLY

TEACHING OPTIONS

Writer’s Corner

Reteach

After students have finished, ask partners to decide whether to use the suggested verbs or to use other stronger verbs. Students should be able to identify and use strong verbs.

Column A

Column B

make discover find scribble laugh attempt

ASSESS

ACTIVITY D Ask students to complete this activity independently. Encourage students to use an online or print thesaurus to find strong verbs. When students have finished, invite volunteers to share their sentences with the class.

Write on the board these two columns of verbs:

write create

Note which students had difficulty identifying and using strong verbs. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.

try soar fly

giggle

Have students match the verbs in Column A to the corresponding stronger verbs in Column B. Have volunteers offer another strong verb for each verb pair.

Verbs in Action On separate slips of paper, write the following verbs: stride, limp, creep, stroll, seize, steal, capture, grab, mutter, announce, whine, and growl. Place the slips in a box. List on the board the same words under the headings walk, take, and say, respectively. Invite one student at a time to draw a slip from the box and act out the verb. Have students use the list on the board to guess which verb the student is acting out.

An otter family

ACTIVITY B Replace the italicized verb in each sentence with a strong verb from the list. bragged

rattled

slid

grumbled

scooted

demanded

1. The train moved along the track. 2. The playful otters went down the muddy riverbank. 3. Sean said, “I can’t move this box.” 4. I ran around the corner to hide from him. 5. “I scored the winning run!” said Mia. 6. The coach asked that the players try harder.

For Tomorrow

ACTIVITY C Revise the paragraph. Change at least four verbs to strong verbs.

Have students bring to class six sentences from any source—three with strong verbs and three with general or dull verbs. Bring in six sentences of your own to share with the class.

The engine sounded, and the boat went. I held on to the rope and went across the water on my water skis. “Look at me!” I said. My heart was beating fast. A spray of water hit my face. Then, as the boat turned, I lost my balance and went through the air. I hit the water and let go of the rope. As the boat came around to pick me up, I said, “May I go again?” ACTIVITY D Complete the sentences with strong verbs.

1. Jane across the park to catch up to her friends. 2. The puppy

his food quickly.

3. A fuzzy caterpillar the grass. 4. The kite

slowly through

Write four sentences

in the wind and then to the ground.

5. At the playground Connor with his brother.

Writer’s Corner

and

describing what you did this

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.L.4.3a CCSS.ELA.W.4.3d

past weekend or after school. Then exchange papers with a partner and suggest strong verbs to replace each verb that was used. Personal Narratives

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1.4

WRITING SKILLS  Exact Words

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share the sentences you found from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. First, read aloud the sentences with strong verbs. Then read aloud the sentences with weak verbs. Model for students how you might replace the weak verbs with stronger verbs. Have small groups share their sentences, following your model. Encourage students to read aloud the strong-verb sentences, then the sentences with weak verbs. Ask students to replace the weak verbs with stronger verbs. Invite students to share their revised sentences with the class.

PRACTICE ACTIVITY E Have students complete this activity independently. When students have finished, ask them to write additional replacement adjectives for a few sentences. Have volunteers share their work with the class. ACTIVITY F Have small groups complete this activity. Encourage students to use their imaginations to picture what is happening in each sentence as they consider adjectives. When students have finished, ask volunteers to share their work with the class.

ACTIVITY G Tell students to complete this activity independently. Encourage students to use an online or print thesaurus for help finding strong verbs and colorful adjectives. When students have finished, have partners read aloud their paragraphs. Challenge students to find two more strong verbs and two more colorful adjectives. ACTIVITY H Remind students that strong verbs and colorful adjectives paint a clear picture of what is being described. After students have completed the activity, ask volunteers to read aloud their

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

Take this opportunity to talk about subject complements. You may wish to have students point out any subject complements in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

Colorful Adjectives Just like strong verbs, colorful adjectives can bring your writing to life. Colorful adjectives describe something in an exact way. Colorful adjectives paint a clear picture of what is being described. The mean dog jumped at the gate.

TEACH Have a volunteer read aloud the first paragraph of the section Colorful Adjectives. Explain that the term colorful is used for adjectives that are vivid and lively. Then have a volunteer read aloud the example sentences. Ask students to offer other colorful adjectives that might be used to replace mean, such as fierce, vicious, and growling. Have a volunteer read aloud the excerpt from Through My Eyes. Ask students to list the adjectives (passing, flaming) and discuss how each adjective makes the description more interesting. Have volunteers suggest other adjectives to describe the cars and the bottles of gasoline.

The snarling dog jumped at the gate.

Notice how the colorful adjective snarling makes the second sentence more interesting. When you revise your writing, look for places to add colorful adjectives. ACTIVITY E Replace the adjective in italics in each sentence with a colorful adjective from the list. jagged

blinding

thrilling

rundown

charming

silent

booming

Through My Eyes

LiNK

As I sat quietly huddled with Mrs. Henry, mobs of protesters roamed the streets. People threw rocks and bricks at passing cars. Some even tossed flaming bottles of gasoline. Ruby Bridges

velvety

1. Suddenly, the call of a crow echoed through the quiet forest. 2. The campers listened to the good story. 3. I tried to take a bite of the big sandwich. 4. He stroked the kitten’s soft fur. 5. The forest ranger had a nice smile. 6. We tiptoed past the old shed. 7. The loud thunder scared everyone. 8. She tripped on the rough rock. 9. I had to squint in the bright sun.

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enormous

Chapter 1


revised sentences. Encourage students to evaluate the replaced words and to offer alternative suggestions.

APPLY Writer’s Corner

Remind students to use time order and to write in the first-person point of view. When students have finished, allow partners to share their work. Students should demonstrate an understanding of identifying and using strong verbs and colorful adjectives.

Review compound sentences in Section 1.10. Encourage students to use at least one compound sentence in their short paragraphs about something that happened last week.

TEACHING OPTIONS

ASSESS

English-Language Learners

Note which students had difficulty identifying and using strong verbs and colorful adjectives. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 135 provides additional work with strong verbs and colorful adjectives.

ACTIVITY F Complete the sentences with colorful adjectives. Be as creative as you can.

1. The 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A Charlie’s

sailboat glided on the

blue water.

squirrel darted behind a

tree.

pet scared his neighbors.

The

boys marched up the

Her

baby waved her

The

smell of popcorn made me hungry.

One by one we dove into the The

Reteach Display three common objects, such as a pen, a ruler, and a towel. Ask students to use exact and descriptive words to describe each object.

Write on separate note cards the following adjectives: satiny, scratchy, velvety, stony, unbending, vivid, faded, pastel, colorless, dazzling, brilliant, enormous, gigantic, miniscule, teeny, extensive, and slender. Place the note cards facedown in a pile. Ask a student to draw a card. Say the word and have students repeat the word after you. Explain what the word means and ask students to name an object that might be described by that adjective. Each time have students say the adjective and the object they name, such as satiny pillow or gigantic monster. Repeat the activity with each word card.

hill.

For Tomorrow

hands in the air. water of the

girls were lost in the

Have students describe in a short paragraph one of their favorite memories. Encourage students to use as many colorful adjectives as possible to describe the memory. Be prepared to share your own paragraph with the class.

lake.

fog.

ACTIVITY G Complete the paragraph by using exact words. The word in parentheses tells whether to use a strong verb or a colorful adjective. The air grew thinner as we (verb) up the mountain. (Adjective) trees gave way to smaller plants. The (adjective) wind was cold, and we (verb) in our thin cotton jackets. (Adjective)

Common Core Standards

clouds threatened overhead. In the distance we could hear an eagle (verb) . Suddenly, there was a (adjective) clap of thunder, and lightning (verb) the sky. Because of the (adjective) storm, we (verb) for shelter.

CCSS.ELA.L.4.3a CCSS.ELA.W.4.3d

ACTIVITY H Paint a clearer picture for each sentence by replacing each italicized word.

1. I went down the ramp on my new skateboard. 2. The tasty dessert was eaten after school. 3. We had a nice time playing at the Fun Fair. 4. Spencer and Alonzo walked up the big mountain.

Writer’s Corner Write a short paragraph about something that happened to you last week. Use strong verbs and colorful adjectives to form a

To add variety to your paragraph, use at least one compound sentence. See Section 1.10.

clear picture. Personal Narratives

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1.5

WORD STUDY  Contractions with Pronouns

OBJECTIVES • To identify contractions formed with pronouns • To recognize formal language and informal language

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Read aloud your paragraph from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Challenge students to identify all of the colorful adjectives in the paragraph. Have small groups share their paragraphs. Invite students to make a collective list of all of the colorful adjectives that are used in the paragraphs.

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

Take this opportunity to talk about compound sentences. You may wish to have students point out any compound sentences in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

You may wish to explain that contractions are used in dialogue and in informal writing. Point out that contractions are not often used in more formal writing. Have volunteers read aloud the list of contractions. Then ask volunteers to write on the board sentences that use some of the contractions. Have students read aloud their sentence, identify the contraction they used, and say the two words that make up the contraction.

LESSON

5

TEACH

ACTIVITY A Have students complete this activity independently. Ask partners to check each other’s work. Then encourage students to work together to write a conversation between two people that includes several contractions. ACTIVITY B Have students complete this activity independently. When students have finished, ask volunteers to read aloud their answers. Challenge students to name the letter or letters missing in each contraction.

Word Study

Contractions with Pronouns Sometimes two words can be combined to make one word called a contraction. The contraction is shorter than the two words because one or more letters are left out. An apostrophe takes the place of the missing letter or letters. Some contractions are formed by joining a pronoun and a verb. Study this list of contractions. Name the missing letter or letters in each contraction.

Discuss what students know about contractions. Have students name contractions and list them on the board. Make sure students identify the two words that are used to form the contraction. Then ask students why contractions are used in writing. (Contractions are the way that people actually speak. Contractions are shorter and quicker to write.) Have a volunteer read aloud the first two paragraphs. Ask students to name pronouns such as I, he, she, you, they, we, and it. Ask students to explain how pronouns are used in sentences. (Pronouns are words used in place of nouns.)

I am he is she is it is we are you are they are I will he will she will it will we will you will they will

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PRACTICE

Chapter 1

I’m he’s she’s it’s we’re you’re they’re I’ll he’ll she’ll it’ll we’ll you’ll they’ll

I have you have we have they have he has she has it has I would you would we would they would he would she would

I’ve you’ve we’ve they’ve he’s she’s it’s I’d you’d we’d they’d he’d she’d


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Writer’s Corner

Note which students had difficulty identifying contractions formed with pronouns. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.

Reteach

When students have finished, ask partners to exchange papers and read each other’s work. Then have students identify the contractions in their partner’s work. Students should demonstrate an understanding of contractions formed with pronouns.

Ask students to write on the board five sentences using one of the following phrases in each: you are, we would, he will, I have, and it is. Ask students to circle the two words in each sentence that could be made into a contraction. Then ask students to write above each sentence the contraction that can be made. Have students read aloud the sentences twice, once using the two words that make up the contraction and once using the contraction. Have volunteers discuss the difference between the sentences with contractions and the sentences without contractions.

Tic-Tac-Toe Ask partners to draw on a sheet of paper a tic-tac-toe grid. Tell the first player to fill a square by writing a contraction. Ask the second player to say the two words that make up the contraction. Explain that if the second player responds correctly, he or she can then write on the grid another contraction, and the roles reverse. If the second player responds incorrectly, the first player takes another turn. The winner is the first student who has three boxes in a row.

ACTIVITY A Match each pair of words in Column A with their contraction in Column B. Column A Column B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

they have I would we will she is I have I am it is

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

I’ll we’ll I’m they’ve we’re you’ve she’s

8. I will

h. I’ve

9. we are

i. it’s

10. you have

j. I’d

For Tomorrow

ACTIVITY B Use a contraction in place of the words in italics in each sentence.

Have students spend five minutes freewriting about what they plan to do over the weekend. Remind students to write using the first-person point of view. Be prepared to share your own freewriting with the class.

1. I have never seen a pink flamingo. 2. She is going to eat split pea soup. 3. In the play, I am a talking rabbit. 4. We are playing on the trampoline. 5. I would rather meet a cat than a tiger. 6. If you start to walk, they will follow you. 7. I think it is the same color as mine. 8. If we can, we will be there. 9. They are making a dragon kite. 10. He has learned his lines in the play.

Common Core Standards

Writer’s Corner

11. They would like to go to the art fair.

Think of a movie you have

12. You will be late if you don’t get up now. 13. I will take a pound of red cherries.

seen or a book you have

CCSS.ELA.L.4.3c

read recently. Write three sentences using different pronouns and describe the characters. Use a contraction in each sentence. Personal Narratives

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1.5

WORD STUDY  Contractions with Pronouns

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Read aloud your freewriting from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Point out any contractions you used. Challenge students to identify the words that make up the contractions. Have small groups read aloud their freewriting. Ask students to point out any contractions they hear, and to identify the words that make up the contractions.

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

Take this opportunity to talk about run-on sentences. You may wish to have students point out any run-on sentences in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

PRACTICE ACTIVITY C Ask students to complete this activity independently. When they have finished, invite volunteers to read aloud their revised sentences.

work. Challenge students to write a third paragraph to add to the thank- you letter. Remind students to use contractions in their paragraphs.

ACTIVITY D Ask partners to complete this activity. When students have finished, ask volunteers to share their answers with the class.

ACTIVITY F Suggest that students first decide whether each sentence is formal or informal before identifying which item in parentheses would be more effective. After students have finished the activity, ask volunteers to explain their answers.

ACTIVITY E Have students complete this activity independently. When students have finished, ask partners to check each other’s

TEACH

Formal and Informal Language Sometimes writing should be formal. You use formal writing when you write a letter to a business or a report for school. At other times your writing can be informal, such as in an e-mail to a friend. Make your writing formal by avoiding contractions. Informal writing often uses contractions, but formal writing does not. Think of your audience and your purpose before you write. If you are writing something formal, do not use contractions.

Have students name occasions for which they have had to dress nicely, such as a wedding or a holiday party. Ask students to tell whether those occasions were formal or informal. Then ask students to explain what makes an occasion formal or informal. Point out that there are also times when writing is formal and other times when it is informal. Ask volunteers to read aloud the section Formal and Informal Language. Have students explain why a letter to a business might be considered formal. (Often the writer doesn’t know the person to whom he or she is writing.) Ask students to suggest additional situations in which writing is formal and contractions should be avoided.

ACTIVITY C Make each sentence more formal by taking out the contraction.

1. You said you’d help me. 2. She’ll be there right after school. 3. I’d like more information about your book club. 4. We’ve never done this before. 5. I think it’s going to rain. 6. She’s requesting a refund. 7. I thought they’d be here by now. 8. They’re not going to accept the offer. 9. It’s been sunny all week. 10. He’s going to finish the project by Friday. 11. I’m not going to be at the meeting. 12. You’ll need permission from your teacher to attend. 13. They’ll call the airline to make the reservation. 14. We’re going to make the changes. 15. It’s been a long time since I talked to them.

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Chapter 1


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Writer’s Corner

Note which students had difficulty recognizing formal and informal language. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. Practice Book page 136 provides additional work with formal and informal language.

Reteach

When students have finished, invite volunteers to post on a class bulletin board their formal notes. Students should be able to recognize formal and informal language.

Have students brainstorm a list of slang terms that are popular among their peers. Explain that both slang and contractions are used only in informal writing. Ask students to write a paragraph about something that happened yesterday that uses both slang and contractions. When students have finished, have them revise their informal paragraph into formal writing by replacing the slang terms and the contractions.

English-Language Learners In many languages formal and informal relationships are expressed using different words for the pronoun you. In English the pronoun you is used to refer to individuals and groups no matter their age or status. Point to a student and say you and write you on the board. Point to a photo of an adult and say you. Keep repeating the activity, using different students, adults, and children to show that in English you is used to express relationships that are both formal and informal.

ACTIVITY D These paragraphs are from a friendly letter. Make them less formal by adding contractions. Words used to make contractions with pronouns are underlined. We are having a great time here in North Conway. I am so excited! Today we will be going on the water slides. I have also gone swimming in the lake, and we have all had fun playing mini golf. You will wish that you had come. Don’t worry. I will be sure to bring home pictures. Tomorrow we will go hiking in the morning, and I will go water-skiing in the afternoon. I have only been water-skiing once, but I want to try it again. The next day we are going horseback riding. I have never been horseback riding before. It is going to be scary, but I will try to do my best. Maybe I will like it. ACTIVITY E These paragraphs are from a thank-you letter. Make it more formal by taking out the contractions.

For Tomorrow Have students find in a book or magazine three sentences that have word pairs that could be made into contractions. Have students write the sentences, replacing the word pairs with the correct contractions. Be prepared to share your own rewritten sentences with the class.

I’m writing to thank you for visiting our class last week. It’s always a pleasure to talk to a real firefighter. I’m sure you’re a busy person, and we’re honored that you decided to visit our class. You’re always welcome in our classroom. You’ve inspired many of us to become firefighters when we grow up. If possible, we’d like to visit you at the fire station. It would be interesting to see the fire trucks and other equipment up close. ACTIVITY F Complete each sentence with the words in parentheses that would be more appropriate.

1. (You’d You would) enjoy visiting our town, Mr. President. 2. My sister says (she’ll she will) go bananas at the dance party. 3. I (can’t cannot) wait until summer break. 4. If (you’re you are) practicing soccer after school today, can you come over tomorrow? 5. (I’d I would) like to inform you that your payment is late and (you’ll you will) have to pay a fine.

Common Core Standards

Writer’s Corner

CCSS.ELA.L.4.3c

Write a four- or fivesentence formal note requesting something from your teacher or principal. Use formal language and avoid contractions. Personal Narratives

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1.6

SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS  Oral Personal Narratives

OBJECTIVES • To recognize the characteristics of an oral personal narrative, including organization and voice • To write and present an effective oral presentation • To practice active listening

WARM-UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Read aloud your sentences from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Point out the contractions, and identify the word pairs you replaced. Review when you would use informal sentences that contain contractions and when you would use formal sentences that do not contain contractions. Have small groups read aloud their sentences. Ask students to determine if the correct contractions have been used to replace the original word pairs.

information they know about the introduction, body, or conclusion of a personal narrative. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the section Voice. Invite volunteers to say sentences using sad, excited, angry, and spooky tones of voice. Discuss why tone of voice is important when telling an oral personal narrative.

PRACTICE ACTIVITY A Have students complete this activity independently. Tell students to write a first sentence that captures listeners’ attention.

LESSON

6

ACTIVITY B Suggest that students listen carefully to guess the emotion that their partner is trying to express. Invite volunteers to read aloud the sentences, showing an emotion that is not listed. ACTIVITY C Have partners take turns reading aloud the student model. Then have students evaluate each other’s reading.

Speaking and Listening Skills

Oral Personal Narratives When you get home from school, do you tell your family what happened during the day? At school do you tell your friends what you did over the weekend? When you do, you are giving an oral personal narrative. An oral personal narrative has the same parts as a written personal narrative. Keep the same tips in mind.

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

Take this opportunity to review sentences and sentence parts. You may wish to have students point out the various types of sentences and sentence parts in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

Introduction Your opening should grab your listeners’ attention. You might start with a question or a sentence that hints at what your personal narrative is about.

TEACH

Body Tell the main part of your personal narrative in time order so your listeners can follow it easily. Add enough details to make your story interesting, but do not include things that aren’t important. Details that are not important to the story will distract your listeners.

Have volunteers read aloud the first two paragraphs. Review the characteristics of a written personal narrative. Then invite volunteers to offer a brief story about something they did last night or this morning before coming to school. Encourage students to listen carefully. Have volunteers read aloud the sections Introduction, Body, and Conclusion. Point out that these parts make up a written personal narrative. Encourage students to offer any additional

Conclusion Be sure to let your listeners know that the story is finished. Tell them how the experience ended and how you felt about what happened.

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After students have written and practiced their sentences, ask students to share their sentences in small groups.

Chapter 1


ACTIVITY D After students have reread the personal narrative, encourage them to discuss how reading the excerpt aloud is different from reading it silently.

help make parts of the personal narrative sound exciting or important. Students should demonstrate an understanding of organization and voice in oral personal narratives.

APPLY

ASSESS

Speaker’s Corner

Note which students had difficulty understanding organization and voice in oral personal narratives. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.

Tell students to listen carefully to their partners’ oral personal narratives. Encourage students to point out any unnecessary details. Ask students to suggest when time words would be helpful. Have students discuss whether changes in the tone of voice

Change your tone of voice to make parts of your personal narrative sound exciting or important. You might speak faster or louder at an exciting part. You might speak slower or softer at a scary part. Remember that this is your own story. Let your personality shine through. ACTIVITY A Think of something good that happened to you at school recently. Write an interesting opening sentence for an oral personal narrative about the event. Practice saying the sentence in different tones of voice.

It’s just around the corner. I didn’t expect that. Is that really for me? I think it’s going to be here soon.

5. I don’t think you should do that.

ACTIVITY D Reread the personal narrative on page 210. Practice reading the narrative aloud. What emotions does the narrative bring up?

Discuss stories that are handed down from one generation to another, such as folktales, family stories, and fairy tales. Have students choose a favorite story to retell to the class. After they share their stories, invite students to offer suggestions to improve the way the person presented his or her story. Remind students to offer only constructive criticism.

Sound Off

For Tomorrow

ACTIVITY B Read each sentence aloud twice with a partner. Show a different emotion each time. You might read it as if you were happy, surprised, frightened, angry, or sad.

ACTIVITY C Read aloud the personal narrative on page 211. Use your voice, face, and body movements to show the feelings of the person who wrote the narrative.

Reteach

Provide students with books that are age-appropriate and told in the first person, such as My Side of the Mountain by Jean Craighead George. Have partners choose a brief excerpt from the book and practice reading it with two different tones of voice. Explain that one partner might read the excerpt with a light and breezy tone, while the other might read it with a sad and depressed tone. Encourage students to choose their two tones based on the excerpt that they have selected. When partners have had a chance to practice, have them present their dramatic readings to the class.

Voice

1. 2. 3. 4.

TEACHING OPTIONS

Speaker’s Corner Tell a partner about the experience you chose for Activity A. Include all the

Ask students to pay special attention to TV commercials, listening to each announcer’s tone of voice. Ask students to write their observations about how the tone changes based on the product being advertised. Bring your own written observations about the announcer’s tone of voice in different TV commercials to share with students.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.SL.4.4

details that you think are important. Ask your partner which details he or she thinks are the most interesting. Do the same for your partner’s experience. Personal Narratives

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1.6

SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS  Oral Personal Narratives

WARM UP READ, LISTEN, SPEAK Share the observations you made about the tone of voice announcers use in TV commercials from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model how you determined the way the tone of voice changed depending upon the product being advertised. For example, you might say that when a sporting event is being advertised, the announcer speaks quickly and excitedly. Have small groups read aloud their observations. Ask students to use their observations to decide which tone of voice would be best when advertising products such as a car or truck, a video game, a trip to an amusement park, and a vacuum cleaner.

PRACTICE ACTIVITY E Ask students to complete this activity independently. Encourage students to choose an event that they would enjoy telling others about. When they have finished, ask students to save their note cards for the next activity.

Practice

TEACH

Speaking in front of the whole class can be scary. One way to calm your nerves is to practice ahead of time. The better you know your story, the calmer you will feel. Write your introduction and conclusion on note cards. Write each detail of your personal narrative on a separate card. Use keywords and phrases to help you remember the details. Put the cards in time order. Read them over carefully to make sure all the details are important. Practice telling your story several times. You might stand in front of a mirror, or you might ask a friend or family member to listen to you. Look at your note cards to help you remember what you want to say, but don’t just read them aloud. Use a tone of voice that shows how you felt about the experience.

Invite volunteers to read aloud the section Practice. Ask students to explain why effective speakers use note cards rather than writing their entire oral personal narrative on a sheet of paper. (Note cards allow the person to make eye contact with the audience and speak more naturally.) Suggest that students number their note cards to make it easier to keep the cards in order. Then discuss the importance of practicing an oral presentation. Encourage students to talk about their experiences with past oral presentations and the benefits of practice. Ask volunteers to read aloud the section Listening Tips for active listening guidelines. Invite students to share any other listening tips for active listening, such as don’t laugh at mistakes, don’t talk to other people, and sit quietly. Explain that positive feedback could be clapping or telling the speaker that you enjoyed his or her personal narrative.

Listening Tips In an oral personal narrative, the listener is as important as the speaker. Follow these tips when you listen to another student’s personal narrative:

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ACTIVITY F Reinforce that the better students know their story, the calmer they will feel when they share their oral presentation. Tell students that listening actively helps their partner improve his or her presentation. After each personal narrative is presented, ask students to tell their partner which tone of voice they think worked best.

Look at the speaker so he or she knows you are paying attention.

Listen to the introduction and try to guess what the narrative will be about.

Picture the story in your mind as the speaker talks.

Listen for the speaker’s tone of voice to know how he or she felt about the experience.

Give the speaker some positive feedback at the end of his or her presentation.

Chapter 1


APPLY

ASSESS

TEACHING OPTIONS

Speaker’s Corner

Note which students had difficulty writing and presenting an effective oral presentation and listening actively. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement. After you have reviewed Lessons 3–5, administer the Writing Skills Assessment on pages 39–40 in the Assessment Book. This test is also available on the optional Loyola Press Online Assessment System.

Reteach

Encourage students to practice their oral personal narratives several times. Have students provide feedback after each presentation. Students should demonstrate an understanding of how to write and present an effective oral presentation and how to listen actively.

Encourage students to watch their presentations and to decide what can be done to make them more effective.

Use a light-hearted rhyming book such as Chick-a, Chick-a, Boom, Boom by Bill Martin or Custard the Dragon by Ogden Nash. Have partners read the book together. Ask one partner to listen carefully as the other partner reads with expression the first page of the book. Then ask the listening partner to repeat back what he or she has just heard, using the same expression. For the second page, have partners switch roles. Encourage students to continue in this manner through the entire book.

Listen and Learn Find some monologues in well-known children’s books, such as Charlotte’s Web or The Velveteen Rabbit. Have students choose a monologue to read. Allow time for students to practice their monologues. Then have students take turns reading their monologues to the class. Encourage the class to practice the Listening Tips on page 234. After each student reads, allow time for students to discuss who the character is and what might happen next in the story.

ACTIVITY E Choose one of these ideas. Think of a good introduction that would grab the attention of your audience. Think of a conclusion that tells how the experience ended. Write the introduction and conclusion on note cards. Then think of important details for the body and write them on separate note cards.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

a time you surprised your family something exciting that happened on vacation making something with a friend or your family something that didn’t turn out as you expected a funny thing a pet did some unusual weather you experienced a time you were lost or lost something

Common Core Standards

a contest when you won something

CCSS.ELA.SL.4.4 CCSS.ELA.SL.4.5

ACTIVITY F Work with a partner. Take turns telling each other about the experience you chose in Activity E. When it is your turn to talk, practice using your voice in different ways to show different emotions. When it is your turn to listen, help your partner decide which tone of voice worked best to tell his or her story.

Speaker’s Corner Prepare to tell about the event you chose in Activity E. Be sure your notes are in time order. Practice using your voice to make the story interesting. Finally, present your personal narrative to

Practice by making a video of your presentation.

the class. Personal Narratives

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1

WRITER’S WORKSHOP  Personal Narratives

OBJECTIVES • To brainstorm and freewrite for a personal narrative • To make a time line for a personal narrative

PREWRITING AND DRAFTING Ask a student to read aloud the opening paragraph. Review the characteristics of a personal narrative, such as real events that happened to the writer; first-person point of view; time order; and writing that has an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Tell students that today they are going to begin writing their own personal narratives. Have students turn to the inside back cover of their books. Review the traits of good writing. Refer to this chart as needed. The chart is also printed on the inside back cover of your edition.

Prewriting

Invite a volunteer to read aloud this section. Explain that writers explore and plan before they write because they know that having a writing plan makes their work better. Ask students to name the ways that Will decided to prewrite before he began his personal narrative. Explain that ideas

Ideas are the foundation

of writing. Point out that strong ideas supported by interesting and relevant facts help make strong personal narratives. Brainstorming Have a volunteer read aloud the first paragraph and Will’s list. Then ask another volunteer to read aloud the next paragraph. Ask students to tell the three things that Will wanted his narrative to have (a beginning that gets readers’ attention, a clear ending, and a story that would be interesting to Will’s audience). 236  •  Chapter 1

Ask a volunteer to read aloud this section. Tell students that brainstorming is a time to write many ideas. Encourage students not to edit or choose some ideas as better than others during brainstorming. When students finish their list, have them choose a topic for their personal narrative. Tell students to choose a true story they will enjoy retelling.

Freewriting Invite a volunteer to read aloud this section. Tell students you are going to freewrite on the board the topic “My Language Arts Class Today.” Then begin freewriting phrases that will catch students’

attention, such as starting the writer’s workshop, exciting, explore and plan, brainstorm, reading about Will, making time lines, can’t wait to start. Explain that in freewriting, as in brainstorming, the purpose is to write ideas quickly and to sort out the ideas later. Have a volunteer read aloud this section. Allow time for students to freewrite. Encourage them to write in as few words as they need to get their ideas down. Suggest that students use small drawings or symbols if they can quickly capture details they want to remember about their topics.

Writer’s Workshop Prewriting and Drafting What funny, exciting, or strange things have happened to you? What stories from your life do you like to tell? One way to share these stories is to write a personal narrative.

Prewriting Prewriting is the time a writer spends exploring ideas and planning. Will, a fourth grader, spent time prewriting before writing a Ideas personal narrative. He brainstormed to help himself choose a topic, freewrote, and then made a time line.

Brainstorming Brainstorming is listing ideas quickly. Will began choosing a topic by brainstorming a list of things that had happened to him. Here is his list.

getting lost on the way home from school getting an A on my math test hanging out with my friends over the summer making a bird sanctuary with my mom going to the beach

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Chapter 1

After Will had completed his list, he thought about each topic. He wanted to write a narrative with a beginning that gets readers’ attention and a clear ending. He also wanted a story that would be interesting to his audience, his classmates. He decided to write about making a bird sanctuary with his mother. Since some of his friends had seen his sanctuary and asked him about it, he thought they would be interested in reading about it.

Your Turn Brainstorm a list of interesting things that have happened to you. Did you go on an exciting trip? Did you do something you are proud of? When you have completed your list, choose a topic that you will enjoy writing about. Your topic should also be interesting to your audience, your classmates.


Making a Time Line Invite a volunteer to read aloud the section Making a Time Line. Ask students why they think Will chose to use a time line to organize his ideas (because personal narratives are told in time order). Invite volunteers to tell what things Will put on his time line, such as times and events.

Tell students

Organization that

organization is the way writers put their ideas together. Explain that in personal narratives, a time line helps organize events in the order in which they happened.

Have a volunteer read aloud this section. Suggest that students draw a time line, deciding on the times they will use before they start adding information. Point out that students should also check to be sure that the line is long enough for the information they need to fit. Tell students to write their items in phrases and to include all parts of the event that they will write about. Explain that the time line will be their writing plan for the body of their personal narrative.

TEACHING OPTIONS Bulleted Bulletin Board Have students design a bulletin board that features the characteristics of a personal narrative. You might provide students with a copy of the characteristics listed on page 210 or have them develop their own list from Lessons 1 and 2. Encourage students to interview the school librarian to compile a reading list of personal narratives that fourth graders might enjoy. You might also plan to use this display as a gallery for the personal narratives the class publishes at the end of this workshop.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.4.4 CCSS.ELA.W.4.5

Personal Narratives

Proofreading

After freewriting, Will decided to organize his ideas with a time line. He Organization drew his time line across a sheet of paper. On one side he divided his line into hours.

Copyediting

Making a Time Line

Your Turn Make a time line to organize your notes. What happened first? What happened next? How did the experience end? Put your notes in order on the time line. Read your time line. Can you think of any important details you forgot? Are there any details that are not related to your topic? Revise your time line if necessary.

Revising

Spend some time freewriting. List all the ideas and details about your experience you can think of. Write quickly. Pay attention to your ideas.

Content Editing

Your Turn

On the other side, he filled in the important events in the narrative from his freewriting. When he was finished, he reviewed his time line. He added a detail that seemed important and crossed out one detail that did not seem important. The time line he made is below.

Drafting

After choosing a topic, Will spent five minutes freewriting. He wrote all the ideas and details he remembered about his topic. He wrote in words and phrases.

Prewriting

Freewriting

Publishing

10:00

went to garden center, picked out birdbath and two bird feeders, looked at plants and flowers

12:00

put birdbath under tree put bird feeders in tree filled birdbath with water

2:00

added seeds, nuts, fruit

ate peanut butter sandwiches for lunch birds came to eat and drink

Personal Narratives

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1

WRITER’S WORKSHOP  Personal Narratives

OBJECTIVE • To draft a personal narrative

Drafting Tell students that during drafting, they will have a chance to use their time line to write their personal narratives. Have a volunteer read aloud the opening paragraph. Ask students why Will used his time line while he was writing his draft. (His time line was his writing plan.) Then ask why Will added details that weren’t on the time line and whether students think that was a good idea. Ask students to read silently Will’s draft. Then ask volunteers to point out the introduction, the body, and the conclusion of the draft. Encourage students to identify in Will’s draft other characteristics of a personal narrative. Explain that voice is

Invite volunteers to read aloud this section. Tell students that reviewing their notes and time lines before they begin writing can help them decide what to say before starting to write. Suggest that students who have difficulty getting started begin writing the body and return later to write the introduction and conclusion. Explain that writing a draft is a time for students to write their ideas on paper. Tell students they will be able to return later to revise their drafts.

Writer’s Tip  Remind students they will make many changes in their personal narratives before publishing them. Have students write their drafts on every other line or double-space if they are using a computer.

Drafting Will was ready to write the first draft of his narrative. He used his time line to guide his writing. As he typed, he thought of more details to add. He used time words to help his readers

understand his narrative. Will wanted his readers to know how much he enjoyed working on his bird sanctuary.

Voice

Voice what gives writing

personality and style. Remind students that in personal narratives, writers use their own voice to express their thoughts, feelings, and experiences.

My Bird Sanctuary This sumer my mom and I made a bird sanctuary in our backyard. First, we went to the garden center. We picked out a nice birdbath. We bought two bird feeders too. We looked at a lot of plants and flowers, but we didn’t buy any. When we got home, we put the birdbath under a tree by the hedge the birds can hide in the hedge. Next, I put the bird feeders in the tree. I put seeds, nuts, and fruit in the feeders. Then my mom got the hose and filled the birdbath with water. The sanctuary was ready Later that afternoon my mom called me to the window. There were birds eating at the feeders. A bluebird was taking a drink from the birdbath. I was happy that w’ed made the sanctuary. The birds seemed happy too.

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Chapter 1


Writing a Title Have a volunteer read aloud this section. Discuss the purpose of a title. Point out that though the title is usually the first thing that readers read, it is often the last part that writers write. Ask students why they think this might be so. (The writer may need to know what the final work turns out to be before naming it.) Explain that an effective title gives a hint of what the personal narrative will be about, so writers need to choose their titles carefully.

Review run-on sentences in Section 1.11. Then have students identify the first sentence of the second paragraph as a run-on sentence.

Personal Narratives

Provide small groups with a sheet of notebook paper and a large sheet of butcher paper. Ask each group to brainstorm a list of 10 personal narrative topics and to think of a title for each topic. Have students record the topics and titles on the notebook paper. Have students record only the 10 titles on the butcher paper. When groups have finished, have them exchange their butcher paper title lists only. Have students write next to each title what they predict that personal narrative will be about. When students have finished, invite the class to go through each list by having a volunteer read the title, allowing the group that predicted the topic to offer their prediction of what the personal narrative will be about. Then have the group who wrote the title reveal their plan for the personal narrative topic.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.4.4 CCSS.ELA.W.4.5 CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

Find the run-on sentence in Will’s draft. See Section 1.11 for more information.

Copyediting Proofreading

Writer’s Tip Double-space your narrative so you will have room to edit and make changes later.

Title Testing

Revising

Have you ever read a book or an article because the title caught your attention? A good title catches a reader’s attention and gives a hint about the topic. A good title should be short but interesting. Use strong and colorful words that make a reader want to know more. Try using words that start with the same sound to give your title punch. For example, “Bobby’s Birthday Blast” sounds better than “Bobby’s Party.”

Content Editing

Look over your notes and your time line. Then begin writing your draft. • Write an introduction that grabs your reader’s attention. • In the body give details in time order about what happened. • Write a conclusion that tells what you learned from your experience or how you felt about it. As you write, add details to make your narrative more interesting. Do not include any details that do not relate to your topic.

Drafting

Writing a Title

Prewriting

Your Turn

TEACHING OPTIONS

Publishing

Personal Narratives

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EDITOR’S WORKSHOP  Personal Narratives

OBJECTIVE • To content edit a personal narrative

CONTENT EDITING Have students discuss their experience with drafting their personal narratives. Tell students that drafting was the first chance to get their ideas on paper. Explain that now they will make sure that the ideas are complete, that they are in the right order, and that they make sense. Have a volunteer read aloud the first two paragraphs. Invite students to name some types of mistakes that they might find while content editing, such as missing information, unnecessary details, and mistakes in time order. Invite a volunteer to read aloud the next paragraph. Then ask why Kaitlin was a good choice to read Will’s draft. (Kaitlin didn’t know anything about his bird sanctuary, so she would notice if information was missing or confusing.) Turn

students’ attention to the Content Editor’s Checklist. Ask volunteers to read aloud the questions. Pause after each question to make sure students understand what it means. Have a volunteer read aloud the next paragraph. Point out that Kaitlin began by reading Will’s draft all the way through and then read it again one time for each item on the checklist. Ask students to explain why this was a good way to content edit. (Kaitlin got to know what the draft was about and whether readers would understand it. Then she could concentrate on each point on the checklist.)

Have volunteers read aloud the next paragraph and each of Kaitlin’s suggestions in the bulleted list. Allow students to comment on the feedback Kaitlin gave and the way she gave it. Point out that Kaitlin first told what she thought Will had done well. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the last paragraph. Ask students whether they think Will will use every suggestion that Kaitlin gave him and how he should decide which of Kaitlin’s suggestions to use.

Editor’s Workshop Content Editing Will enjoyed writing his first draft, but he knew he could make it better. First, he checked the ideas and details in his draft by content editing. Content editors read a draft to make sure that all the important ideas are included. They also make sure there are no unnecessary details. Will made his corrections with a red pencil so that the changes would be easy to see.

After looking over his draft, Will asked his friend Kaitlin to read it. Because Kaitlin had not heard about his bird sanctuary, she would notice if any important details were missing. Kaitlin used this Content Editor’s Checklist to help her.

Content Editor’s Checklist Does the introduction grab the reader’s attention? Are the details told clearly and in time order? Are all the important details included in the body? Have unnecessary details been left out? Does the conclusion tell what the writer learned or how the writer felt?

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240  •  Chapter 1

Chapter 1


Ask a volunteer to read aloud this section. Encourage students to content edit their own drafts before exchanging papers with partners. Ask students to use a different pencil color for marking their changes. When partners have finished, observe as they make suggestions. Guide students to give positive feedback as well as suggestions for improvements.

Writer’s Tip  Point out that it is tempting to content edit all the different items from the Content Editor’s Checklist during one reading. Suggest that successful editors focus on one per reading.

Personal Narratives

Invite several students who are particularly good at understanding how to give and receive feedback to role-play a peer conference for content editing. Suggest that partners work together to prepare short pieces of writing that have errors that fit the questions on the Content Editor’s Checklist. When the drafts are ready, have students write them on chart paper so that the class can see the drafts as they are discussed during the role-play. Have partners decide who will play the roles of writer and editor. Then have students begin with positive feedback, continue with constructive suggestions for improvement, and end with the writer discussing which suggested changes he or she might make. After students have finished their role-play peer conferences, ask the class to evaluate how well the writers and editors did.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.4.4 CCSS.ELA.W.4.5 CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

Copyediting Proofreading Publishing

• It might be interesting to know what kind of tree you put the bird feeders in.

Read your draft, looking carefully at the Content Editor’s Checklist. Then take the following actions. • Write your ideas on your draft. Then work with a partner and read each other’s narratives. • Take notes on a separate sheet of paper. • Meet with your partner and respectfully make suggestions for improvement. Remember to share what you like about your partner’s work. After hearing your partner’s suggestions, decide which ones you want to use in your revision.

Peer Conference Plays

Revising

• Maybe you could tell why you put different kinds of food in the bird feeders. I thought all birds eat seeds or insects.

Your Turn

Content Editing

• I don’t think you need to tell that you didn’t buy any plants or flowers.

Drafting

• The introduction tells what your topic is, but it didn’t really grab my attention.

Will thanked Kaitlin for her suggestions. He liked most of them and knew that he would use her ideas when he revised his draft.

Prewriting

Kaitlin read the draft once all the way through. Then she read it more carefully, checking each item on the checklist. She read the introduction to see if it grabbed the reader’s attention. As she read the body, she looked for details that were unnecessary or out of order. She checked the conclusion to see if it was effective. Kaitlin shared her suggestions with Will. Kaitlin first told Will what she liked about his personal narrative. She found the topic very interesting. She liked the conclusion and found that all the details were in time order. Then she gave Will these suggestions:

TEACHING OPTIONS

Writer’s Tip Check one item from the Content Editor’s Checklist at a time.

Personal Narratives

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WRITER’S WORKSHOP  Personal Narratives

OBJECTIVE • To revise a personal narrative

REVISING Have a volunteer read aloud the opening sentence. Ask other volunteers to read aloud Will’s revised draft. Invite a volunteer to read aloud the sentence following Will’s draft and the bulleted items. Have students answer the questions, based on the revisions Will made.

• Will fixed the introduction

by adding a question that did a better job of grabbing the reader’s attention. • Will decided to take out the sentence about the plants and flowers because it wasn’t necessary in his narrative. • Will added a detail about why he put the feeder under a tree by the hedge—birds can hide from other animals.

• By adding a question, Will

hoped the new introduction would grab readers’ attention. • Will explained the reason for putting out different foods because different kinds of birds eat different kinds of food. • Will made his narrative more detailed by adding the kinds of birds that were eating from the feeders.

Writer’s Workshop Revising This is how Will used Kaitlin’s suggestions and his own ideas to revise his narrative.

Backyard

My Bird Sanctuary

Watching birds in the wild can be fun, but why not make the birds come to you?

This sumer my mom and I made a bird sanctuary in our backyard. First, we

went to the garden center. We picked out a nice birdbath. We bought two bird feeders too. We looked at a lot of plants and flowers, but we didn’t buy any. When we got home, we put the birdbath under a tree by the hedge the birds Different kinds of birds eat different kinds of food, so can hide in the hedge. Next, I put the bird feeders in the tree. I put seeds, nuts, and from other animals

fruit in the feeders. Then my mom got the hose and filled the birdbath with water. The sanctuary was ready

some chickadees and a cardinal Later that afternoon my mom called me to the window. There were birds eating

at the feeders. A bluebird was taking a drink from the birdbath. I was happy that w’ed made the sanctuary. The birds seemed happy too.

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242  •  Chapter 1

Chapter 1


Have a volunteer read aloud the rest of the section. Then ask students why Will changed his title. (Will thought that a title with two b sounds would catch his readers’ attention.)

Have a volunteer read aloud this section. Allow time for students to revise their drafts. Remind students to write changes on the draft, using a different pencil color. Suggest that students write longer revisions on a separate sheet of paper. Encourage students to ask their content editor for clarification and to allow him or her to help them with any suggested improvements.

TEACHING OPTIONS Aren’t We Done Yet? Students unfamiliar with the writing process might feel frustrated by having to revise a piece of work they feel is finished. Explain that the best writing is constantly being revised. Discuss how prewriting and drafting are times when students express ideas. Explain that in content editing students make sure that the ideas are strong and clear. Remind students that in revising, they get the chance to polish their ideas to make their personal narratives better.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.4.4 CCSS.ELA.W.4.5 CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

Personal Narratives

• What sentence did he remove because it wasn’t necessary in his narrative?

• How did Will change the last paragraph? Why do you think he made the change?

Copyediting

• Kaitlin at first wondered why Will put different kinds of food in the bird feeders. What did Will add in the second paragraph?

Your Turn Use your partner’s suggestions and your own ideas to revise your narrative. When you have finished, go over the Content Editor’s Checklist again. Be sure you can answer yes to all the questions.

Revising

• Kaitlin wrote that the introduction didn’t grab her attention. How did Will fix this? Did the new introduction grab your attention?

Content Editing

• Will didn’t think that telling the kind of tree was important. Instead, what did he decide to add about his feeder?

Drafting

• He took Kaitlin’s suggestion about his introduction. What did he add?

Will looked over his draft again. He decided to add the phrase from other animals to explain why the birds would want to hide. The last thing Will did was to improve his title. He thought the two b sounds gave it real punch.

Prewriting

Look at what Will did to improve his personal narrative.

Proofreading Publishing

Personal Narratives

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EDITOR’S WORKSHOP  Personal Narratives

OBJECTIVE • To copyedit and proofread a personal narrative

COPYEDITING AND PROOFREADING Copyediting Invite a volunteer to read aloud the first paragraph. Have students describe differences between copyediting and content editing. (Content editors check that ideas and information are complete and in the right order. Copyeditors check that every sentence is clear and makes sense and that words are used correctly.) Invite volunteers to read aloud the next two paragraphs and the Copyeditor’s Checklist. Pause after each question to ask students what it means. Have volunteers read aloud the rest of the section. Ask students why Will decided to change the words nice and put. Explain that

Word Choice word choice

is the use of words in a way that supports the purpose and tone of the writing. Point out that in a personal narrative, the use of colorful adjectives helps the writer paint a clearer picture and makes the writing more enjoyable. Have students find the run-on sentence that Will noticed (the first sentence in the second paragraph). Ask students to explain how the run-on sentence interrupts the sound of the writing and confuses the reader.

Have a volunteer read aloud this section. Ask students to copyedit their drafts. Tell students to make sure that the language in their personal narratives sounds like they are telling the story and makes sense to their readers. Encourage students to use exact words, such as strong verbs and colorful adjectives. Have students reread their drafts and make sure that each question on the Copyeditor’s Checklist has been addressed.

Copyediting and Proofreading Copyediting When you copyedit, you check every sentence to make sure it is clear and makes sense. Copyeditors also check that all the words have been used correctly. Will knew that his revisions had improved his writing. His new introduction would interest readers, and the body included all the important details. He knew, however, that he could make his draft better by copyediting. As Will copyedited his draft, he used this Copyeditor’s Checklist.

Copyeditor’s Checklist Are all the sentences complete sentences?

Will found some changes he wanted to make. He noticed that he had used the word nice to describe the birdbath. He decided to use colorful adjectives to help Word Choice the reader picture the birdbath. He also noticed that he had used the verb put three times in the second paragraph. He changed one of them to hung, which was a stronger verb. Will also noticed a run-on sentence and corrected it by Sentence Fluency turning it into two separate sentences. Can you find the run-on sentence in his narrative?

Your Turn Read your personal narrative again and copyedit it, using the Copyeditor’s Checklist.

Are there any run-on sentences? Have exact words been used to paint a picture in the reader’s mind? Are time words used to show the sequence of events?

Explain that

244  •  Chapter 1

Have volunteers read aloud the first paragraph and the Proofreader’s Checklist. Make sure that students understand the questions on the checklist. Ask students to read aloud the Common Proofreading Marks. Invite students to ask any questions they have about the marks. Have a volunteer read aloud the last paragraph. Ask students whether they noticed the misspelled words that Santiago had found. Then ask students to look at the revised draft on page 242 to find the missing period and the misplaced apostrophe.

Editor’s Workshop

 entence sentence fluency S Fluency is the way writing

sounds. Suggest that students always read their writing aloud to hear where the writing might be choppy or awkward.

Proofreading

Have any words been repeated too often?

244

Chapter 1

Proofreading After copyediting, Will asked his classmate Santiago to proofread his draft. Proofreading is checking a draft for mistakes in grammar, spelling, capitalization, or punctuation. Writers always ask someone else to proofread their work. Santiago used the Proofreader’s Checklist as he read Will’s draft.


(The missing period is in the last sentence of the second paragraph. The misplaced apostrophe is in the word we’d in the second to last sentence of the last paragraph.) Remind

Conventions students

that conventions are the spelling, grammar, punctuation, and capitalization in a piece of writing. Emphasize the importance of proofreading drafts to find and correct mistakes.

Read aloud this section and allow time for partners to proofread their own and each other’s drafts and to talk about what students found. Have students look at the proofreading marks at the bottom of the page. Encourage students to use these marks while proofreading. Remind students to use a dictionary if they are unsure how to spell a word. When they have finished, allow time for students to make the corrections to their own drafts.

TEACHING OPTIONS Proofreading Two Explain that sometimes when a proofreader catches one mistake, he or she misses another mistake nearby. Point out that sometimes when proofreading corrections are being made, new mistakes are accidentally introduced. Suggest that after students make proofreading corrections, it is a good idea to proofread the work again. Tell students to check first to see that all the changes asked for were made. Then have students read the work again to be sure that there are no mistakes.

Common Core Standards CCSS.ELA.W.4.4 CCSS.ELA.W.4.5 CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

Personal Narratives

Have any words been misspelled?

Are capitalization and punctuation correct?

Symbol

Meaning

Proofreading

COMMON PROOFREADING MARKS Example over. Begin a new

close up space

close u p space

insert

students think

delete, omit

that the the book

make lowercase

Mathematics

reverse letters

revesre letters

capitalize

washington

add quotation marks

I am, I said

add period

Marta drank tea

Personal Narratives

Publishing

begin new paragraph

Copyediting

Read your draft carefully, using the Proofreader’s Checklist. Continue question by question through the list. Use proofreading marks to make changes. When you have finished proofreading your own narrative, trade papers with a partner. Go over your partner’s paper in the same way.

Revising

Were any new mistakes added during editing?

Your Turn

Content Editing

Is the grammar correct?

Drafting

Are the paragraphs indented?

Prewriting

Proofreader’s Checklist

Santiago was happy to proofread Will’s narrative. He realized the word summer was misspelled. He also found Conventions a missing period and a misplaced apostrophe. Can you find them?

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WRITER’S WORKSHOP  Personal Narratives Explain

OBJECTIVE • To publish a personal narrative

PUBLISHING Invite volunteers to read aloud the first paragraph and the published version of Will’s personal narrative. Have students compare Will’s published personal narrative with his first draft. Ask volunteers to describe ways that Will improved his draft during the Writer’s Workshop. Encourage students to use what they know about a personal narrative to evaluate Will’s final draft.

Presentation that no

matter how students decide to publish their writing, presentation matters. Presentation is the look of a piece of writing. It includes neatness as well as consistent margins and spacing. It also includes visuals, such as photos or illustrations. Read the different ways that students can publish their personal narratives. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each publication option. Explain that even if students decide to film their personal narrative, they still must also print it on a computer or write it neatly on a sheet of paper.

Ask a volunteer to read aloud the first paragraph and the bulleted list. Allow time for students to put the final touches on their personal narratives. When students have finished, tell them to proofread their personal narratives one more time. Have a volunteer read aloud the last two paragraphs. Encourage students to add illustrations, photographs, or other things that relate to their personal narratives. Discuss ways for students to display their personal narratives.

Writer’s Workshop Publishing Will was almost ready to share his personal narrative with his audience. He checked it over once more before printing out his personal narrative. He put the title in the top center of

the paper with his name below it. After printing it out, he posted it on a bulletin board for his classmates to read.

My Backyard Bird Sanctuary by Will Jazinski Watching birds in the wild can be fun, but why not make the birds come to you? This summer my mom and I made a bird sanctuary in our backyard. First, we went to the garden center. We picked out a shallow stone birdbath. We bought two bird feeders too. When we got home, we put the birdbath under a tree by the hedge. The birds can hide from other animals in the hedge. Next, I hung the bird feeders in the tree. Different kinds of birds eat different kinds of food, so I put seeds, nuts, and fruit in the feeders. Then my mom got the hose and filled the birdbath with water. The sanctuary was ready. Later that afternoon my mom called me to the window. There were some chickadees and a cardinal eating at the feeders. A bluebird was taking a drink from the birdbath. I was happy that we’d made the sanctuary. The birds seemed happy too.

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246  •  Chapter 1

Chapter 1


ASSESS Have students assess their finished personal narratives using the reproducible Student Self-Assessment on page 247y. A separate Personal Narrative Scoring Rubric can be found on page 247z for you to use to evaluate their work.

TEACHING OPTIONS Plan to spend tomorrow doing a formal assessment. Then administer the Personal Narrative Writing Prompt on Assessment Book page 41–42.

Other Publishing Ideas If your school has a website, ask volunteers to create a web page for students’ work. Encourage students to inform their families that their work will be available online. An alternative is to produce a class newspaper of personal narratives.

Portfolio Opportunity Remind students to add a copy of their finished personal narratives to their writing portfolios. Point out that having a portfolio will help students keep track of the progress they are making with their writing.

Common Core Standards

Personal Narratives

Revising Copyediting Proofreading Publishing

Post your personal narrative to a website that publishes student writing. Work with an adult to find an appropriate site.

Content Editing

Film your personal narrative. Present it by using a video of each student reading his or her narrative aloud and showing it at Parents’ Night to an even larger audience.

Print out or neatly handwrite your final copy. Then, along with your teacher and classmates, choose one of the publishing options. • Place the title in the top center of the paper and put your name under the title. • Check over your personal narrative one final time. Make sure that all your mistakes have been corrected and that no new mistakes have been made. If you are creating a book, add visuals to draw readers into your narrative and to help them picture in their minds what happened. Reading your classmates’ personal narratives may teach you some surprising things about your classmates. When your classmates read your personal narrative, they may learn something surprising about you.

Drafting

Create a class book or scrapbook. Put together all the personal narratives from your class. Use a digital camera to add photos. You might also include original illustrations or souvenirs.

Your Turn

Prewriting

A publisher prints a written work and then sells or distributes it to the public. Completing the final version of something Presentation that will be published is a writer’s last step in the writing process. This is your opportunity to share your work with your classmates, friends, and family. There are many ways you can publish your personal narrative.

CCSS.ELA.W.4.4 CCSS.ELA.W.4.5 CCSS.ELA.W.4.10

Make a pop-up book. Add illustrations by drawing them yourself or using a digital camera.

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STUDENT SELF-ASSESSMENT

Name                            Date 

Personal Narrative Ideas Do I write about a real event in my life?

YES

NO

Do I share my ideas in chronological order? Organization Do I use a time line for planning? Does the narrative have an engaging introduction? Does the body have details in chronological order? Does the conclusion tell what I learned or how I felt? Voice Do I write in the first-person point of view? Word Choice Do I use exact words to make my sentences interesting? Do I leave out details that aren’t important? Sentence Fluency Do I use contractions with pronouns? Conventions Do I use correct grammar? Do I use correct spelling? Do I use correct punctuation and capitalization? Presentation Is my narrative easy to read, either typed or neatly handwritten? Do I have a title page? Additional Items

© 

Voyages in English Grade 4

247y  •  Chapter 1

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TEACHER’S SCORING RUBRIC POINT VALUES

Name 

0 1 2 3 4

Date                Score 

= = = = =

not evident minimal evidence of mastery evidence of development toward mastery strong evidence of mastery outstanding evidence of mastery

Personal Narrative Ideas topic relates to a real event in student’s life

POINTS

ideas shared in chronological order Organization a time line for planning an introduction that engages the readers’ attention a detailed body with details in chronological order a conclusion that tells what the writer learned or felt Voice a first-person point of view Word Choice exact words no unnecessary details Sentence Fluency contractions with pronouns Conventions correct grammar and usage correct spelling correct punctuation and capitalization Presentation easy to read, typed or neatly handwritten a title page Additional Items

© 

Total

Voyages in English Grade 4

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www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Personal Narratives  •  247z

Voyages in English 2018, Teacher Edition, Grade 4  

The Voyages in English Teacher Edition offers unparalleled support in an easy-to-use, step-by-step format that can be adapted for students’...

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