Page 1

MASTER THESIS OF THE DEGREE COURSE OF ARCHITECTURE AND CULTURES OF THE PROJECT

Lorenzo Abate SIRIA DOPO IL CONFLITTO RICOSTRUZIONE PER VILLAGGI: PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE A WESTERN GHERBAN

Syria after war, reconstruction by villages: SUSTAINABLE dESIGN FOR western gherban


Lorenzo Abate SYRIA AFTER THE WAR. RECONSTRUCTION OF VILLAGES. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FOR

western gherban 36°41’59”N 41°06’00”E


SYRIA AFTER THE WAR. RECONSTRUCTION OF VILLAGES. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FOR WESTERN GHERBAN MASTER THESIS TEAM Lorenzo Abate ,Stefano Bortolato, Leonardo Brancaloni, Michele Brusutti, Stefano Busetto, Davide Cargnin, Susanna De Vido, Pietropaolo Cristini, Martina Fadanelli, Martina GermanĂ , Eugenio Gervasio, Maria Guerra, Irene Guizzo, Alessia Iannoli, Vartivar Jaklian, Michele Maniero, Maddalena Meneghello, Silvia Pellizzon, Camilla Pettinelli, Mariagiulia Pistonese, Giacomo Raffaelli, Elena Salvador, Antonio Signori, Sonia Zucchelli Supervisor: Benno Albrecht Coordinatiion: Jacopo Galli, Marco Marino Thanks to: MariaAntonia Barucco, Enrico Guastaroba, Massimiliano Scarpa


CONTENTS

4

Tema / Aim

7

Premesse / Backg roun d

34

Metod o/ Strateg y

56

Risul tati / Desig n

80

Concl usi oni / Final conc l u si on s

82

Bi bli og raphy and sitogra p h y


fonte: CNN

— 4 —

S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES


L orenzo Ab ate

Il 15 marzo 2011 ha inizio la guerra civile siriana, o come viene definita la “crisi siriana” con le prime dimostrazioni pubbliche contro il governo centrale, fino alle vere rivolte e agli scontri in tutto il paese sull’onda degli eventi della “Primavera araba”. Il conflitto tuttora in corso ha causato sino ad oggi (secondo l’ultimo rapporto UNICEF del 2018) 6,5 milioni di sfollati interni, 5 milioni di rifugiati all’estero, e oltre 300 000 morti. Fatto ancor più inquietante rimane il non sapere quando questa crisi cesserà. Se il presente per la Siria rimane ancora denso di conflitti e desolazione (ma in via di risoluzione) il futuro risulta incerto e preoccupante per quanto riguarda una possibile ricostruzione. La Banca Mondiale ha infatti stimato che per rigenerare nuovamente “solo” l’infrastruttura materiale del Paese (scuole e ospedali, industrie e ferrovie, oleodotti e reti viarie, e così via) servirà un esborso di circa 250 miliardi di

On March 15, 2011 the Syrian civil war begins, or how the “Syrian crisis” is defined with the first public demonstrations against the central government, up to the real riots and clashes throughout the country, taking the name of “Arab Spring”. The ongoing conflict has caused up to now (according to the latest UNICEF report of 2018) 6.5 million internally displaced persons, 5 million refugees abroad, and over 300 000 deaths. Even more disturbing remains the not knowing when this crisis will cease. If the present for Syria still remains dense with conflict and desolation (but in the process of being resolved), the future is uncertain and worrisome as regards a possible reconstruction. The World Bank has in fact estimated that to re-generate “only” the country’s material infrastructure (schools and hospitals, industries and railways, oil pipelines and road networks, and so on) will require an outlay of about 250 billion dollars, which corresponds to over four

— 5 —

western gherban

- S i ri a d opo il conflitto / S yria af ter the war -


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

dollari, che corrisponde ad oltre quattro volte il PIL del paese prima della guerra civile. Una cifra che ha portato le attuali figure politiche del paese a chiedere aiuto a diversi alleati storici stringendo accordi per le opere di ricostruzione: Russia, Cina, Iran prima fra tutti. Tuttavia la ricostruzione avrà bisogno non solo di un aiuto sostanziale economico, ma anche di operatori , gestori, pianificatori con una chiara strategia per recuperare un patrimonio perduto e per salvaguardare un territorio sia socialmente che economicamente E’ importante capire quindi chi saranno gli attori protagonisti? Quante persone vorranno ritornare in Siria? Da quali cose potranno derivare stabilità e sicurezza per il futuro paese? Quali sono i bisogni e le azioni di prima necessità?

times the GDP of the country before the civil war. A figure that has led the current political figures in the country to seek help from various historical allies by making agreements for reconstruction works: Russia, China, Iran first of all. However, the reconstruction will need not only substantial economic help, but also operators, managers, planners with a clear strategy to recover a lost heritage and to safeguard a territory both socially and economically. It is therefore important to understand who will be the main actors? How many people will want to return to Syria? From what things can derive stability and security for the future country? What are the basic needs and actions?

— 6 —


western gherban

L orenzo Ab ate

fonte: CNN

— 7 —


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

- M a p p a d ei con flitt i / Ma p of m a p of war c las hes -

ALEPPO

IDLEB

RAQQA

LATAKIA

DEIR EZ ZOR

HAMA

TARTUS HOMS

DAMASCUS

AS-SWAYDA

— 8 —


L orenzo Ab ate

western gherban

- M a ppa degli IDP / Ma p of ID P -

— 9 —


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

- M a p p a d el l e in fra st rut t ure / Ma p of I nf ras truc ture -

— 10 —


L orenzo Ab ate

western gherban

- M a p p a del u so del su olo / Map of landus e -

— 11 —


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

- M a p pa dell’ irra ggia m ento e dei venti / M a p of sola r irra dia n ce and winds -

— 12 —


L orenzo Ab ate

western gherban

- Ma ppa delle precipitaz ioni / Ma p of a nnua l ra inf all -

PRECIPITAZIONI (mm)

0-100 100-200 200-300 300-400

400-500

500-700

700-800

800-1100

1100-1400

— 13 —


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

- M a p pa dei villa ggi / Ma p of v illages -

La crescita dei centri urbani e l’esodo della popolazione dalle campagne alle grandi città sono probabilmente gli aspetti maggiormente visibili dei cambiamenti ambientali (territoriali) e climatici del XX° secolo. L’abbandono delle campagne è stato tutt’altro che una trasformazione semplice. Le fasi salienti secondo la ricercatrice Stefania Barca possono essere riassunte così: “Industrializzazione e meccanizzazione dell’agricoltura; rottura del cerchio organico tra città e campagna; ampliamento dell’impronta ecologica della città; spopolamento e dissesto; inglobamento di aree ex rurali dentro la città e suburbanizzazione.” In particolare quest’ultimo era un fenomeno assai visibile nella Siria prima della crisi in città come Aleppo e Damasco. Nel periodo iniziale della ricostruzione sarà quindi fondamentale porre le basi di una strategia per cambiare l’andamento precedente e per garantire un sistema sostenibile e di maggior equilibrio sociale ed urbano. I villaggi nelle

The growth of urban centers and the exodus of the population from the countryside to large cities are probably the most visible aspects of the environmental (territorial) and climate changes of the 20th century. The abandonment of the campaigns was anything but a simple transformation. The salient phases according to the researcher Stefania Barca can be summarized as follows: “Industrialization and mechanization of agriculture; breaking the organic circle between city and countryside; enlargement of the city’s ecological footprint; depopulation and failure; incorporation of former rural areas within the city and suburbanization. “In particular, this was a very visible phenomenon in Syria before the crisis in cities like Aleppo and Damascus. In the initial period of reconstruction it will therefore be fundamental to lay the foundations of a strategy to change the previous trend and to guarantee a sustainable and greater social and urban balance. Villages in rural areas could therefore play

— 14 —


L orenzo Ab ate

ALEPPO

IDLEB

RAQQA

LATAKIA

DEIR EZ ZOR

western gherban

HAMA

TARTUS HOMS

DAMASCUS

AS-SWAYDA

— 15 —


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

A'rima Aabel Abar Beit Seif Abed Abin Samaan Ablin Absirin Abtin Abu Hardoub Abu Jabbar Abu Jrin Al-Safira Abu Qalqal Abu Rasin Abzemo Adleiyeh Adnaniyeh Afs Ahras Akeirshi Akhtrein Al-Haffa Al-Hama Al-Khafsa Al-Qardaha Ali Allani Alma Amin Anaza Anjara Aqareb Aqrab Aqraba Aqraba Ar-Ra'ee Areesheh Arida Ariqa Arkis Arman Arran Arwad Ash-Shajara Asharneh Ashrafiet Elwadi Assadiya Atil Atman Ayyash Azmarin Babilla Bada Badama Bahloliyeh Bahnine Bait Jan Baka Baksa Balaliyeh Balyun Banan Banes Baramanet Elmashayekh Barin Bariqiyeh Barqum Barraq Basa Basira Basqala Batbu Bawabiyeh Bayada Beida Beisine Beit Adin Beit Nayem Beit Saber Beit Sawa Beit Yshut - Ein Qayta

Berjal Berna Betima Big Arab Hasan Big Hayyeh Big Hmeimeh Big Jeb Faraj Big Orm Big Sweidiyeh Bir Elhilu Elatshaneh Birein Bisaysin Bitariyeh Bludan Breiha Bsames Bsanqul Bubadran Burj Elqasab Burj Islam Bustan Elhamam Buwayda Bweidet Sweiqat Byanun Dabaa Dabeq Dablan Dadikh Dahiet Elasad Dahiet Elmajd Dahleh Dakhireh Dalyeh Dana Dar Kabira Darbasiyah Darghamo Darkosh Darnaj Darwasheh Debsi Afnan Deir Ali Deir Eladas Deir Elasafir Deir Elbakht Deir Elfardis Deir Elsalib Deir Jmal Deir Maker Deir Mama Deir Maqran Deir Qanun Deir Salman Deir Shmil Dweir Dweir Baabda Dweir Elsheikh Saed Dweir Raslan Eastern Bari Eastern Buwayda Eastern Deir Eastern Henna Eastern Jarda Eastern Jdideh Eastern Khayala Eastern Kwaires Eastern Marj Akhdar Ehsem Ehteimlat Ein Eldananir Ein Elfijeh Ein Elkorum Ein Elsoda Ein Elsoda Ein Elzarqa - Mintar Ein Et-Teeneh Ein Hfad Ein Issa Ein Laruz

Ein Shaqaq Ennab Esal El-Ward Eskat Ez Eldin Fadghami Fafin Fah Fahel Falyun Faraa Farqalas Fayruza Fedyo Firazdaq - Arsalan Tash Frikeh Ftireh Ghabra Ghadqa Ghanto Gharibeh Gharyeh Ghasm Ghassaniyeh Ghassuleh Grandad Habran Hadar Hadher Hadideh Hafasraja Halbun Hamama - Kafr Debbin Hameidiyyeh Hanadi Hanjur Haranbush Harasta Elqantara Harbal Hardan Harf Elmseitra Harisun - Qamue Harmushiyeh Has Hasrat Hasyaa Hawash Hawash Hawayej Hawayej Bumasaa Hawi Thibyan Hawir Elis Hayajneh Haydariyeh - Estarka Hayyan Hazano Hazimeh Hdadiyeh Heish Hejiyeh Helleh Himar Labda Hisn Hit Hiyalin Hjeireh Hmeimim Hmeiri Hole Hosh Eldawahreh Hoya Hreiji Hreijiyeh Hsein Elbahr Hseniyeh Hteitet Elturkman Hur Hura Hurat Ammurin Hurriyeh

— 16 —

Hweijet Shnan Idiyeh Iss Jaba Jabaadin Jaberiyeh Jajiyeh Jalaa Jalma Jalma Jamasa Odayat - Alshareeah Jandal Castle Jandar Janudiyeh Jarajir Jarjisa Jawadiyah Jazaret Elbuhmeid Jazaret Milaj Jazraya Jbab Jbata Elkhashab Jbine Jdidet Bikara Jdidet Elkhas Jdidet Elwadi Jdidet Kahit Jdidet Khabur Jeb Elsafa Jeb Ramleh Jeidine Jeineh Jinan Jirbeen Jisrein Jlein Jneineh Jneinet Raslan Jobbeh Jober Joseph Josiyet Elemar Jurneyyeh Kafir Elzeit Kafir Yabus Kafr Kafr - Kafrehmul Kafr Aaya Kafr Abed Kafr Aleppo Kafr Battikh Kafr Deryan Kafr Eltoon Kafr Hoor Kafr Hud Kafr Jales Kafr Kamra Kafr Karmin Kafr Naha Kafr Omeim Kafr Oweid Kafraa Kafraya Kafrein Kafrlata Kafrnan Kafrnaya Kafrsajna Kahil Kalidiyeh Kaljibrin Kalta Kansafra Karama Karama Kareemeh Karim Karsana Kasra Katuniyeh


Kdeiran Kelly Khan Arnaba Khan Elsobol Khan tuman Kharibeh Kharita Khasham Khebab Kherbet Elhamam Kherbet Elma'aza Kherbet Elsheyab Kherbet Ghazi Kherbet Tin Noor Khneifis Khneizir Kisret Elsheikh Jomaa Kom Elwisseh - Marj Barghut Korin Leksun Little Kafr Little Maghalla Lower Amiqa Lower Baqras Lower Hfeir Lower Makhram Lower Safira Lower Shateha Lower Shyookh Ma'arrat An Nu'man Ma'loula Maadan Maalaqa - Bishlamon Maar Dibsi Maar Dis Maar Shamarin Maar Shamsheh Maar Shohur Maar Shurin Maar Tahroma Maaret Atarib Maaret Elartiq Maaret Elnaasan - Maaret Elhaski Maaret Sednaya Maarin Maarzaf Maarzita Mabruka Mabuja Madaya Mafaala Mahjeh Mahmudli Mahruseh Maisheh Majdal Makrumiyeh Maland Manzul Marashdeh Maratet Um Hosh Mardak Mardikh Markada Marqab Masad Mashara Mashnaf Mashrafet Falita Mashuk Masjid Maskana Masrab Mastumeh Matab Elburashed Mataeiyeh Mayamas Mayer Mazraet Beit Jin

Meidaa Mhambal Miar Shaker Milh Milis Misraba Mizyeneh Mjeimer Mlihet Elatash Moah Modira Moraba Mozra Mqeilibeh Mran Mrat Mreimin Mreiyeh Muhasan Mujamaa Hettin Nabe Elsakher Nafeaa Nahliya Nahr Elbared Nahta Najiyeh Namar Namer Namisa Nasib Nasra Nasriyeh Nayrab Neimeh Nemreh New Dahiet Qdosiya Elsakina Nisaf Nizariyeh Obada Oj Old Maadan Oqaiba Oqeirbat Ora Orm Eljoz Otaya Qabtan Eljabal Qabu Qadmous Qaldun Elmarah Qallue Qamin Qanawat Qanaya Qanjara Qanniyeh Qarfa Qarmas Qarras Qasabi Qasemiyeh Qastal Qastun Qataa Qayta Qisa Qleiah Qminas Qotniyeh Qotniyeh Qteilbiyyeh Rabiah Rableh Rabwa Rabyeh Raeqqet Samra Ragib Raha Raju Ramadi

Rami Ramilet Elhenno Rankus Raqama Ras El Ein Ras El Ein - Jiwar Elbaqar Ras El Ein - Yabrud Ras El Ein Bumane Ras El Ein Qabli Ras El-Khashufeh Ras Elmaarra Rasm Haram El-Imam Rassas Rawda Rawda Batroneh Rawda Benjaro Rayyan Rihan Sa'sa' Sabha Saboura Sadad Safya Sahara Sahl Sahl Sahwa Sahwet Balata Sahwet Elkhodar Salhiyeh Salib Elturkman Salkhad Samlin Samriyan Sanjar Sankari Sarghaya Sarin Sarja Sarmiyeh Sawa Sawda Sawran Sefsafa Selwa Sfuhen Shabtaliyeh Shafuniyeh Shamra Shaqa Sharan Sheikh Ali Sheikh Badr Sheikh El-Hadid Sheikh Idris Sheikh Issa Sheikh Saed Sheikh Saed Sheikh Yousef Shezer Shihet Hamah Shinshar Sibbeh Sidnaya Sifsafiyeh Sisniyyeh Smad Smeiriyeh Snobar Sosa Sreihin Suluk Suq Wadi Barada Sur Sur - Bsorm Sura Suran Sweida Sweidan Jazira Sweiri

— 17 —

Sweiyeh Syano Tabaqa Tabni Tah Tal Ayub Tal Elkaramej Tal Elsamen Dahham Tal Elshur Tal Halaf Tal Hasel Tal Heddiyeh Tal Hmis Tal Jbine Tal Maaruf Tal Rahhal Tal Shgheib Tal Shihab Tal Tamer Tal Tufan Talaf Taldara Taleen Talfita Talhiyeh Talhuthan Tamanaah Tamanet Elghab Tanita Tanuriyeh Taqsis Tarif Tarnabet Elrafee Tayyana Teftnaz Teizine Terkeb Tesnine Thaala Thiban Thibeen Tiba Tiba Tiba Tiha Tilaada Tir Maallah Tishrin Tishrine Toob Tothiyeh Toum Tqad Treismeh Tromba Tweineh Um Elamad Um Elmayathen Um Eltoyur Um Jalal Um Walad Upper Baqras Upper Hfeir Upper Makhrim Upper Safira Upper Shyookh Upper Sweidiyeh Wadi El-Oyoun Wdeihi Western Buwayda - Aqrabiya Western Ghariyeh Western Gherban Western Ghor - Ghor Samaalil Western Maliha Western Marj Akhdar Western Sahlabiyeh Western Tiba Western Zeita Ya'robiyah Yadudeh

western gherban

L orenzo Ab ate


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

zone rurali potrebbero giocare quindi un ruolo fondamentale per una miglior distribuzione territoriale della popolazione e delle risorse del paese garantendo un adeguato equilibrio tra città e paesaggio. La mappa mostra una selezione di 645 villaggi con una popolazione compresa tra i 2000 e i 10000 abitanti ed una forma urbana diversificata a seconda del luogo, come analizzato nel libro “Les grands types de structures agraires dans le monde” di R. Lebeau.

a fundamental role for a better territorial distribution of the population and the resources of the country, guaranteeing an adequate balance between city and landscape. The map shows a selection of 645 villages with a population between 2000 and 10000 inhabitants and a different urban form depending on the place, as analyzed in the book “Les grands types de structures agraires dans le monde” by R. Lebeau.

— 18 —


western gherban

L orenzo Ab ate

fonte: Syria Djezireh Al-Hasakah French Militairy Mandate House Old Amateur Photo 1929

— 19 —


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

fonte: Wilkinson Tony J., Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East

fonte: Wilkinson Tony J., Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East

— 20 —


L orenzo Ab ate

In particolare vi sono aree dove la forma urbana del villaggio nasce dalle necessità di sopravvivenza o di approvvigionamento del cibo. E’ il caso forse dei villaggi situati in quella che viene chiamata Jazirah, che in arabo significa “Isola”. Quest’ area, segnata a ovest dal fiume Eufrate, a est al fiume Tigri e delimitata dalla catena montuosa del Tauro Meridionale al confine con la Turchia e irrorata dal bacino del fiume Khabur, è stata la zona ideale per lo sviluppo del “paesaggio dei tumuli”. Nel libro di Wilkinson-Tony J., “Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East”, l’autore compie un accurata indagine sulla formazione della civiltà di quest’area e sullo stretto rapporto dello sviluppo agricolo, favorito dall’approvvigionamento idrico che sfrutta l’altezza di colline artificiali. I primi insediamenti risalgono all’età del bronzo, tra i 3000 e il 1800 a.C., e attraverso i rilevamenti archeologici si è scoperta la loro conformazione urbana molto densa e compatta.

In particular, there are areas where the urban form of the village arises from the need for survival or food supply. It is perhaps the case of the villages located in what is called Jazirah, which in Arabic means “Island”. This area, marked to the west by the Euphrates River, east of the Tigris River and bounded by the Southern Taurus mountain range on the border with Turkey and sprayed by the Khabur river basin, was the ideal area for the development of the “mound landscape” “. In the book by Wilkinson-Tony J., “Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East”, the author makes a careful survey on the formation of the civilization of this area and on the close relationship of agricultural development, favored by the water supply that exploits the height of artificial hills. The first settlements date back to the Bronze Age, between 3000 and 1800 BC, and through the archaeological surveys we discovered their very dense and compact urban structure. This particular condition is still

— 21 —

western gherban

- C o m p l esso della J a zira h / Complex of Jaz irah-


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

fonte: Reuters Syria

fonte: Wilkinson Tony J., Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East

— 22 —


Questa particolare condizione è ancora visibile alla forma originale e l’espansione di questi nuclei insediativi non sempre ha rispettato le caratteristiche iniziali. Infatti, come si può osservare dalle immagini ricavate dal satellite CORONA, i vari villaggi di questa zona hanno avuto diversi modi di espansione: verso i campi agricoli, occupando suolo produttivo; alcuni hanno raggiunto altri villaggi accorpandosi tra loro e creando una macchia indefinita; altri invece hanno avuto uno sviluppo tentacolare verso la linea della strada o dei corsi d’acqua. Il villaggio analizzato parte da una serie di nuclei visibili nel 1958 che si trasformano negli anni fino ad oggi lungo la linea della strada e verso il terreno agricolo. Da questa osservazione si è elaborato un sistema semplice che tenga conto sia della ricostruzione delle parti danneggiate, sia della possibile espansione del villaggio.

visible to the original form and the expansion of these settlements has not always respected the initial characteristics. In fact, as can be seen from the images taken from the CORONA satellite, the various villages in this area have had different ways of expansion: towards the agricultural fields, occupying productive land; some have reached other villages merging with each other and creating an indefinite stain; others instead have had a sprawling development towards the road or waterways. The analyzed village starts from a series of nuclei visible in 1958 that are transformed in the years up to today along the road line and towards the agricultural land. From this observation a simple system has been developed that takes into account both the reconstruction of the damaged parts and the possible expansion of the village.

— 23 —

western gherban

L orenzo Ab ate


Western Gherban 1958 fonte: CORONA satellite

— 24 —

S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES


western gherban

L orenzo Ab ate

Western Gherban 2018 fonte: CORONA satellite

— 25 —


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

CASE S TUDIE S VILLAGES —

SHERAN

ZARDANA

AIN ISAA

ADNANIYEH TELL MARDIKH

SAHL

AL SAHHARAH

FAHEL AL MUKHARRAM ALTEHTANEY AL JALAA JRAJEER BEIRUT AL JOBEH

AMMAN

— 26 —


L orenzo Ab ate

- WESTERN GHERBAN

- EASTERN HENNA

- SAHL

- TELL MARDIKH

Stefano Bortolato, Michele Maniero

WESTERN GHERBAN

EASTERN HENNA

- SHERAN

MOSUL

Leonardo Brancaleoni

- AL JALAA

Michele Brusutti, Maria Guerra Martina Germanà, Camilla Pettinelli

- AL SAHHARAH Stefano Busetto

- AL MUKHARRAM ALTEHTANEY Susanna De Vido, Martina Fadanelli

- ZARDANA BAGHDAD

Pietropaolo Cristini, Giacomo Raffaelli

— 27 —

Eugenio Gervasio

Irene Guizzo, Silvia Pellizzon

- AL JOBEH - JRAJEER

Maddalena Meneghello, Antonio Signori, Sonia Zucchelli

- AIN ISAA Vartivar Jaklian

- ADNANIYEH

Mariagiulia Pistonese

- FAHEL

Elena Salvador

western gherban

Lorenzo Abate


fonte: Wilkipedia

— 28 —

S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES


L orenzo Ab ate

WESTERN GHERBAN

Population Governatorate

3032 Al-Hasakah

Wind Distance from Sea Distance from Water source Landuse

440 km 6.5 - 7.5 m/s 44 - fiume Khabur Predominanlty rainfed winter/spring field crops , with important proportion of summer-irrigated crops, on darkcoloured soils. 2100 Kwh/m2 0,3 0,5 1 (%) - 68%

Solar Radiation Destruction Infantry Destruxtion Artillery Destruction Aereal Destruction Total (%)

— 29 —

western gherban

-

36°41′59″N 41°06′00″E


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

WESTERN GHERBAN

— 30 —

0

5 km


western gherban

L orenzo Ab ate

— 31 —


S YR I A AF TER TH E WA R RECONS TRUCTION OF V ILL AGES

WESTERN GHERBAN

— 32 —

0

1 km


western gherban

L orenzo Ab ate

— 33 —

MASTER THESIS PART 1  

Syria dopo il conflitto, ricostruzione sostenibile per villaggi: progetto sostenibile a Western Gherban Syria after war, re-construction by...

MASTER THESIS PART 1  

Syria dopo il conflitto, ricostruzione sostenibile per villaggi: progetto sostenibile a Western Gherban Syria after war, re-construction by...

Advertisement