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CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL 2018


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Growing UP together My daughter recently told me that one of the things she misses most about being away at university is having a dog around. I guess I shouldn’t be all that surprised. My kids were born into a “dog family”. They’ve always had furry siblings to keep them company and to share in their joys and disappointments. Someone who would treat them like celebrities when they get home from school, and then patiently hang out with them on sick days. Those of you lucky enough to share your life with a dog know what I’m talking about. Whether you have memories of a furry friend from childhood or see a similar bond between your own child and dog, it’s an irreplaceable connection. It instills compassion and touches the natural gentleness inside all of us. But I think it teaches something else too. Somewhere along the way, I noticed a shift happen in our family. The kids actually started learning responsibility for another being. t ten years old, my daughter began training our ne poodle, uffie, to perform an assortment of tricks. Later she taught her how to do agility with a small portable course on our front lawn (the neighbourhood kids were suitably impressed but we went through a LOT of treats that summer). She attended dog shows and laid out her own money for fancy clips and a blingy new dog collar. She would even bathe her furry little “sister” and do some minor grooming. My son learned he could walk a dog on his own and that pic ing up dog poop is not that gross ore importantly, he figured out ho to comfort our more nervous dog during thunderstorms.

Wishing you a year of making great memories

DANA COX

Editor-in-chief

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I sometimes wonder if the animals notice that the kids have aged. Dr. Stanley Coren tells us in his article on p. 16 that dogs have the emotional IQ of a two-and-a-half-yearold. But as beings who really do “live in the moment”, how much do they notice? I got my answer last week. As I walked our poodle to work, she suddenly started tugging on the leash, frantically pulling me across the road. I stepped up my pace, wondering what was going on. Then I saw. A few metres ahead walked a girl with long dark hair. rom the bac , she loo ed very much li e my daughter ust before uffie reached her, the girl turned around uffie stopped in her trac s, obviously confused by this case of mistaken identity. She looked up at me and my heart went out to her. “She’s in Nova Scotia but she’ll be back for Christmas, sweetie,” I said. I know she didn’t understand my words. . . but I think it made us both feel better. I hope you enjoy this issue of Canadian Dogs Annual. If you’re thinking of adding a new dog to your family, you’re about to embark on an exciting journey (but make sure to do your research first If you already have a dog, you ll find these pages full of great information to help your dog live a long, healthy life.


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nce you have chosen your puppy based on your family, home and lifestyle, it’s time to think about visiting the veterinarian. Ensure that, whatever vet you choose, you’re comfortable discussing your dog’s health care options. You are your pup’s advocate and you should always feel like part of your dog’s caregiving team. Here are some other things to think about:

Vaccines for puppies Your puppy may already come with a first vaccine. Many experts now believe that a puppy under ten weeks is not mature enough, immunologically, to mount the appropriate response to a vaccine, so some pups are receiving their first shots a little later. If a puppy is vaccinated younger than ten weeks, parvovirus on its own would be the vaccine of choice, but since manufacturers don’t make single vaccines, parvo is combined with distemper.

Deworming Your puppy may already have been dewormed but it’s a good idea to bring a fecal (stool) sample to your first vet visit. Simply take a small piece of stool from two or three different days (you can seal and store in the refrigerator) just prior to your appointment. This can help increase the success of identifying any parasite eggs that may be present. Most, if not all puppies, should go on a deworm program that uses pyrantel pamoate products, which will safely eliminate the worms. 12

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The first vaccine should be given based on the risk of exposure for a puppy. I prefer a minimal approach, building upon the number of viruses vaccinated for based on the age of the puppy. Lifestyle also plays a role. A rural dog has clean open spaces to run and play in, while a puppy in a crowded downtown environment with limited green space is at a higher risk for exposure to viruses. Talk with your veterinarian to help determine what viral and bacterial risks may be present for your new puppy.

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The next vaccine booster, which includes distemper, parvovirus, parainfluenza and hepatitis, occurs around 16 to 20 weeks. Again, distemper and parvo should be the core vaccine, while the others can be given based on risk. As the puppy gets older, you can determine if he is still protected by these initial vaccines by getting a blood titer done. Finally, the rabies vaccine, which is mandatory, should be given at 20 weeks or older, and three or four weeks apart from other vaccines. Ask your veterinarian about the threeyear rabies vaccine.

Thinking about nutrition Roughly 50% to 70% of the immune system resides in the gut, so it’s important to feed your puppy the best quality diet you can. Incorporate lightly cooked or raw meats and veggies, along with wholesome treats, into your dog’s diet. Seek advice from a veterinarian who has knowledge in all forms of nutrition, and make the best decision for your puppy and family lifestyle on what to feed, and which supplements to use.

Oral care Home dental care makes a big difference to your puppy’s overall health. Start tooth brushing at an early age to get him used to it. Choose a dog toothbrush or a wearable toothbrush glove or finger, and use them with pastes and gels formulated for canines (xylitol, commonly found in human toothpaste, is toxic to dogs). Brush in a gentle circular motion, angling the bristles 45° to the gumline, a minimum of three times a week. Be extra gentle when your pup starts losing her teeth at three to four months of age. You can also try no-brush products that you add to your dog’s water, or spray directly in his mouth; they help break down tartar and control plaque.

Choose a reputable breeder

When looking for a puppy, purchase from a reputable breeder. The puppies should come from a female that is properly vaccinated, dewormed and not overbred, which reduces her stress and gives her puppies the best start in life. The puppies should be handled often and be well-socialized. The breeder can help you choose the best puppy for your future happiness together.

Take preventative steps

Ask your vet for advice on harm reduction, such as avoidance. For instance, if there is a known outbreak of leptospirosis in local ponds, avoid allowing your puppy to drink from them.

Dr. Cindy Kneebone received her DVM from the Ontario Veterinary College. She received diplomas in homeopathy from the British Institute of Homeopathy; in Chinese herbal medicine from Huang Di College of Traditional Chinese Medicine; and in veterinary acupuncture at the Michener Institute. She is certified with the IVAS. Dr. Kneebone practices at the East York Animal Clinic in Toronto.

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DO YOUR RESEARCH! BY STEPHANIE HORAN

Questions for the breeder When shopping for your new pup, ask the breeder questions about his/her breed involvement and experience. Find out how many years they have bred or owned the breed you are considering, and what dog activities they participate in. Ask if they belong to any breed clubs, since this can indicate a deep interest in the breed. Your prior research should have told you what health problems can surface in your chosen breed, so ask if the puppy’s parents have had the appropriate tests.

name. It may not be available at the time of sale, but should be sent to you within six months. It is an offence in Canada to sell a purebred puppy without a registration certificate. The litter should have been vet checked before you take your chosen puppy home, which should be no earlier than eight weeks of age. Beware of any breeder offering puppies younger than this.

Ask where the puppies are raised – ideally it’s in the breeder’s home where the puppies can experience the usual household sights and sounds, and have human contact. If puppies are raised in an outbuilding, ensure the breeder has been vigilant about exposing them to household activities and people. Usually, the dam (mother) will be available for you to see, but she may be quite protective about her puppies. She may look a little scruffy – raising puppies is hard work! – but she should appear healthy and bright-eyed. The sire may not be available if he lives elsewhere; if the litter was conceived using frozen semen he may even be in another country!

Remember,

a reputable breeder won’t mind answering any sensible questions and will likely ask you questions too, since she or he wants you to leave with just the right puppy for your home – one that will become a lifelong companion.

Details are important Is the puppy sold on a contract? This spells out the responsibilities of both buyer and seller, such as what the breeder will do if the puppy develops a debilitating hereditary condition, or if the buyer can no longer keep the dog. Read it carefully and be sure you are comfortable with the wording before you sign. The puppy should be registered; the certificate will tell you the puppy’s breed, colour, date of birth, sire and dam, and registered

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Stephanie Horan and her husband Terry got their first Puli in 1969 when they lived in England. They immigrated to Canada in 1974, bringing several Pulis with them. They have been breeding and showing ever since, competing in conformation in Canada and the US. Stephanie is an award-winning writer and lives in Nova Scotia.

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R-E-S-P-E-C-T – IT’S IMPORTANT FOR PUPPIES TOO! BY RENÉE LUCESCU

Bringing home your new puppy. . .what an exciting time! For the pup, however, this may be the first real stressful situation he experiences, so you need to make wise decisions right from the start. After all, it will impact what your puppy learns about his new home and life with you. To begin, you want your pup to relate to his new home as a very stable environment. There’s no need for outside visitors for the first week or two. Keep the energy in the home as quiet as possible. Let the puppy get to know his new environment and his new “pack”. If you want a stable dog, you want him to learn that home is a place of security and balance. When you do start to invite extended family members and friends to visit your new puppy, ask them to come in and watch quietly from a distance at first. Let the energy subside and become peaceful before allowing the puppy and person to physically connect. The visitor should remain fairly calm throughout the introduction. If you have people lining up and bursting through the door, making loud noises and treating the puppy like a celebrity, it will teach him to be excited when meeting new people. This heightened response may lead to unwanted behaviours, including

anxiety and fear, which in turn may trigger problems such as uncontrollable peeing and even aggression when the pup gets older. The same rule applies for family members who live in the house. They’ll all want to socialize the new puppy to new people, other animals and new environments, but if this is done without any respect for the pup, then the consequences become life events that often lead to behavioural issues.

Remember,

puppies start to collect information about you the moment they meet you. And, by the way, the same is true for any new dog coming into your home, regardless of his age or history.

Renée Lucescu specializes in behaviour modification in dogs, as well in as preventing unwanted behaviour, and has developed specialized training programs to help support the first year of a dog’s life. With over 30 years’ experience, Renée has been a contracted trainer for many law enforcement agencies in Canada and the US. She is also a breeder of European German Shepherd Dogs and has competed at the world level for the sport of Schutzhund/IPO. For more information, visit committedtocanine.com.

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DO DOGS HAVE THE SAME

emotions PEOPLE DO?

BY STANLEY COREN

BACK IN THE EARLY 1960S, WHEN I WAS AN UNDERGRADUATE, I FOUND MYSELF LISTENING TO A LECTURE GIVEN BY A WELL-KNOWN PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGIST, ELLIOTT STELLAR. I WAS PERPLEXED TO HEAR HIM TELL US: “Some of you may have pet dogs at home, and I’ll bet you think you know something about their behaviour. I’ll bet you have described some of their behaviours as reflecting their emotional state. So you think they are happy if they wag their tails. You think they are afraid if they cringe or run away. You think they are angry when they growl.

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“Well, you are wrong. Dogs don’t feel the emotion fear; they simply show avoidance behaviour. They don’t feel happiness; they simply become aroused and show approach behaviours. They don’t get angry, but simply engage in aggressive behaviour. Get it into your head that dogs don’t feel the same emotions that people do; they simply have motivated behaviours that we interpret as emotions.”


Stellar was expressing a belief common at the time – namely, that dogs (and other animals) don’t have emotions similar to our own. However, more than 50 years of research has been collected since then and it is now quite acceptable for psychologists to talk about the emotional lives of dogs. Why the change?

Dogs aren’t that different from humans

We now understand there are many similarities between dogs and people. Just consider: • Dogs have all the same brain structures that produce emotions in humans. • Dogs have the same hormones and undergo the same chemically driven changes that humans do during emotional states. They even have the hormone oxytocin, which in humans is involved with feeling love and affection. • When we measure stress levels in dogs, we look for the same corticosteroids in the blood that we look for in people. • Recent brain scans using fMRI technology have shown that the same regions of the brain in dogs and humans are activated for particular emotional states such as anger or affection. Since dogs have the same neurology and chemistry as people, it seems reasonable to suggest that they also have similar emotions.

I believe that the vast majority of scientists today are willing to accept the fact that dogs have emotions. However, it is important to not go overboard and immediately assume that the range of emotions felt by dogs and humans is exactly the same. To understand what dogs feel, we must turn to research that explores the emotions of humans. Not all people have the full scope of all possible emotions. In fact, at some points in your life, you did not have the full complement of emotions you feel and express today. Studies show that infants and very young children have a more limited range of emotions, but over time, children’s emotions begin to differentiate and they experience new and more complex emotional states.

A dog’s emotions are similar to a young child’s This data is important to our understanding of the emotional lives of dogs because researchers now believe that the mind of a dog is roughly equivalent to that of a 2½-year-old human. This conclusion holds for most mental abilities – including emotions. Thus we can look to human research to see what we might expect of our dogs. Like young children, dogs will clearly have emotions – but many fewer kinds of emotions than we find in adults. As you can see in the graph (next page) a human infant at birth has only an

emotion we might call excitement. This indicates how aroused he is, ranging from very calm up to a state of frenzy. Within the first weeks of life, the excitement state comes to take on a positive or negative flavour, so we can now detect general emotions of contentment and distress. In the next couple of months, disgust, fear, and anger become detectable in the infant. Joy often does not appear until the infant is nearly six months of age, and is followed by the emergence of shyness or suspicion. True affection (the sort we could label “love”) does not fully emerge until nine or ten months of age.

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Dog development stops about here

Contempt Guilt

Pride Shame Affection/Love Suspicion/Shyness Joy Anger Fear Disgust Contentment Distress Excitement/Arousal 1

2

3

4

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Age at which human emotions appear (years)

DARWIN’S VIEW ON ANIMAL EMOTIONS In 1872, Charles Darwin published a breakthrough book that set off a firestorm of controversy. The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals was the first scientific study of the similarities between the emotions of man and animals. Prior to then, those who wrote about emotions were mostly poets and novelists. Darwin’s book contained many examples of what clearly appeared to be emotional responses in various animal species. Some of the most compelling examples of animal emotion came from Darwin’s observation of his little white terrier, Polly.

Complex social emotions, which have elements that must be learned, don’t appear until years later. Shame and pride take more than three years to appear, while guilt appears around six months after these. A child must be nearly four years of age before she feels contempt.

So which emotions can a dog feel? This developmental sequence in young children is the golden key to understanding the emotions of dogs. Dogs go through their developmental stages much more quickly than humans, and possess all the emotional range they will ever achieve by the time they are around six months of age (depending on the rate of maturation within their breed). However, we know that the assortment of emotions available to the dog will not exceed that which is available to a 2½-year-old human. This means that a dog will have all the basic emotions – joy, fear, anger, disgust, and even love. However, he will not feel the more complex emotions such as guilt, pride and shame.

Now, many people might argue that they have seen evidence indicating their dogs are capable of feeling guilt. The typical situation is when you come home and your dog starts slinking around and showing disco fort then you find he has left a s elly rown deposit on your kitchen floor. t s natural to conclude that the dog was acting in a way that shows he is feeling guilty about his transgression. However, this is not guilt; it’s simply the more basic emotion of fear. The dog has learned that when you appear and his droppings are visi le on the floor, ad things happen. What you see is his fear of punishment – he will never feel guilt. So what does this mean for those of us who live and interact with dogs? The good news is that you can feel free to dress your dog in that silly party costume. He will not feel shame, regardless of how ridiculous he looks. He will also not feel pride at winning a prize at a dog show or obedience competition. But your dog can still feel love for you, and experience contentment when you are around – and aren’t these the emotions we truly value?

Stanley Coren is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology at the University of British Columbia. He is also an award winning behavioural researcher, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and was named as one of the 2,000 outstanding scientists of the 20th century. 18

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His many books on dog behaviour and human-canine interactions have been international bestsellers. His awards include the prestigious Maxwell Medal of Excellence from The Dog Writers Association of America for his book Born to Bark. Coren has been featured on Oprah, Larry King, and can be heard broadcasting a radio column on CBC. His newest book is Do Dogs Dream?


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BY ANN BRIGHTMAN

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5

PET FOOD INGREDIENTS TO

AVOID

From by-products to rendered fats – here’s what to steer clear of when buying food for your dog.

E

ducating yourself about healthy nutrition for your dog may seem daunting, but it doesn’t need to be. One of the best ways to begin is learning how to read pet food labels, so you can avoid the ingredients harmful to your dog’s health.

To help get you started, here’s a closer look at some of the worst offenders.

1 PET PRODUCTS By-products encompass the waste left over from the production of feed animals, and in many cases may not contain much actual meat. AAFCO (the Association of American Feed Control Officials), which sets the standards also recognized in Canada, defines unnamed by-products as “non-rendered, clean parts, other than meat, derived from slaughtered mammals. It includes, but is not limited to, lungs, spleen, kidneys, brain, livers, blood, bone, partially defatted low-temperature fatty tissue and stomachs and intestines freed of their contents.” At first glance, this might not sound too bad, since wild carnivores consume the organs of their prey along with the muscle meat. The problem is, the quality of these by-products may be questionable.

2 ARTIFICIAL PRESERVATIVES, COLOURS AND FLAVOURS In the preservative category, the three main culprits are BHA, BHT and ethoxyquin. They can cause or exacerbate allergies and may even be carcinogenic. Look for natural preservatives such as rosemary or mixed tocopherols (vitamin E). A lot of pet foods made from cheap ingredients contain artificial colours and flavours to make them look, smell and taste better. Blue 2, Red 40, and Yellows 5 and 6 are examples of artificial CDNdogs.ca

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colourings. You can also sometimes tell by looking at the food whether or not it has been artificially coloured, especially when it comes to kibble. Unrealistic pinks and reds are a sign that the food contains artificial colours, unless it specifically lists colours from vegetable sources. Also be sure to check labels for any artificial flavourings. Quality foods made from nutritious ingredients don’t need these additives because they’re already naturally palatable!

3 CORN AND SOY Corn and soy are often used as protein substitutes in commercial pet foods. However, they’re not an optimal source of protein for our carnivorous dogs. Corn provides more carbohydrates than anything else, and can contribute to a range of health issues, such as diabetes, weight gain and allergies, particulairly for inactive dogs. Soy is a common allergen in pet foods, so it’s also best avoided if your dog has food sensitivities.

4 RENDERED FAT AND MEAT MEALS It sounds innocuous, but rendered fat can contain a host of nasty substances. Rendering involves converting waste animal tissue into “value-added” materials. This tissue can include slaughterhouse waste such as fatty tissues and offal, restaurant grease, expired meat from grocery stores, meat from animals that have died on farms or in transit, and other questionable products. These materials are ground up and cooked for long periods so that the fat separates out from the solids. This fat is then added to commercial pet foods to help make them smell and taste better. The solids left over from the rendering process become generic “meat meals” that are used as cheap protein sources in low end pet foods. Unfortunately, meat meals usually only contain around 50% protein – the rest is made up of ash (which in itself is not good for your dog), fat and moisture. Protein-specific meals, such as chicken meal, produced by a company that controls its own rendering facility, may be a healthier option.

5 PROPYLENE GLYCOL Used to maintain moisture content and add flavour to low quality dog foods, propylene glycol is the chemical that’s also found in “pet-friendly” antifreeze. Though the FDA categorizes propylene glycol as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe), it’s not something you want your pet to be consuming on a regular basis through his food. In dogs, propylene glycol poisoning would typically be caused by the consumption of a large quantity of antifreeze. Quantities of this chemical in pet foods are not large enough to cause that level of toxicity, but the long-term consumption of small amounts of propylene glycol over time may be harmful, so it’s best avoided altogether. By becoming a savvy pet food label-reader, and avoiding these harmful, low-end ingredients, you’re taking a big step towards protecting your dog’s health and longevity. Ann Brightman is Managing Editor for Animal Wellness Magazine and Integrative Veterinary Care Journal. A lifelong animal lover, she has also been a writer and editor for over 25 years. Ann is a member of the Professional Writers Association of Canada and is also a Tai chi instructor. 22

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FOUR

TOP BEHAVIOURS

EVERY DOG

SHOULD KNOW TRAINING YOUR DOG STARTS WITH KNOWING THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS TO TEACH HIM. “STAY”, “COME”, “LEAVE IT”, AND “HEEL” TOP THE LIST OF BEHAVIOURS EVERY DOG SHOULD KNOW. BY PAUL OWENS

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WHY “BEHAVIOURS” AND NOT “COMMANDS”?

1 STAY Teaching a dog to stay in position is one of the most important behaviours to teach your dog. That being said, many trainers teach two similar concepts with slightly different meanings. One signal is “stay” and another is “wait”. The difference between the two often has to do with the degree of rigidity or formality. When “wait” is used, it’s kind of like saying “hold on a minute”. “Stay” really means “freeze in that particular position”. Some trainers use “wait” in situations involving boundaries, such as in the case of a dog waiting to get out of a car or go through a door. Other trainers use “wait” as a form of “leave it”. For example, if a dog is going for food on a table or running to greet someone at the door, the trainer might use “wait”, followed by a release or another signal to do something else instead. To add to the confusion, some trainers don’t use “stay” or “wait” at all. They teach that once a dog is asked to sit, lie down or stand still, there’s a strict implication that he is to stay in that position until released. There is no follow-up signal of “stay” or “wait”.

All these are perfectly fine as long as your communication to the dog is clear. It’s just a matter of starting at your dog’s learning baseline and progressing towards reliability, gradually adding the three D’s Duration, Distance and Distractions. Depending on a number of factors, reliability usually takes two to 12 months, and sometimes longer. For me, “stay” means to stay in position, whether the dog is standing, sitting or lying down. The critical thing to remember is that whatever you choose to do, there must be a beginning and an end. I tell clients: “If you ever say ‘stay’ you have to say ‘okay’.” In other words, no matter what word you use, you must remember to release your dog. Your release word(s) can be “okay”, “find it”, “come”, “you’re free”, or “that’ll do”. Just remember to always release.

Commands imply that if the edict isn’t followed, dire consequences will ensue! Forty years ago, that’s exactly what would happen, and the dire consequences would include the use of choke chains, pinning dogs to the ground, threatening them with yelled “NOs”, etc. But in positive, reward-based, force-free training, which many trainers switched to in the 1980s, there are no threats. Only signals.

Here’s a classic example of why dogs get confused. People don’t want their dogs following them when they leave the house, and often say “stay” so their dogs don’t run out the door. Once the door is shut, the dog looks around and essentially says to himself: “Well, there’s nobody around, so I’m getting up.” Then people don’t understand why their dogs won’t stay when asked.

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2 RECALL, AKA COME-WHEN-CALLED A reliable recall can be life-saving if your dog gets loose and starts running towards a skunk or the street. I have found that this “emergency recall” works 90% of the time if done correctly. Before you start, pick any word. I use “here” but you can use any word as long as it’s not something you use frequently: e.g. you might use “babaloo”, “bank”, “treat”, etc. Once you have your word, follow these steps: • Use $10,000 treats (chicken, turkey, hamburger, cheese, etc.). • Say “here” (or whatever your chosen word is) and immediately stick a treat in your dog’s mouth. It’s important you’re close enough to your dog that the treat is delivered within a half a second. Don’t ask him to come and get it at this point. Be sure to say “here” before moving your hands. • Repeat up to 50 times a day, spread throughout the day, in different areas of the house and yard, for three to five times per exercise. You’ll do this every day for the rest of your dog’s life. It’s like putting money in your savings account so it’s there for an emergency withdrawal. Note that I say “up to” 50 times a day. It’s only during the first two to three months that very frequent repetition is important; after that, it doesn’t have to mean giving your dog 50 treats every day forevermore. As time goes by, a few times a day is all that’s necessary. • Do not test this method for 60 days. At the 60-day mark, while your dog is in the midst of playing or eating, stand six to 20 feet away and say “here”. He should turn like a zombie and come running to you. If he doesn’t respond, do not repeat the word. It simply means those neural pathways haven’t “grown” enough. Keep training, and try again in another 30 days.

3

“LEAVE IT”

Teaching a rock-solid, bombproof “leave it” is one of the most important safety behaviours you can teach your dog. “Leave it” means “do not approach, touch or eat whatever it is you’re sniffing or looking at.” This includes everything from spilled medication to skunks, snakes, horse poop, and much more. A reliable “leave it” can be life-saving. There are several step-by-step methods you can use to shape a reliable “leave it”. Just as with other behaviours, you would start in a non-distracting environment and gradually progress, over time, to more and more reliability. Of course all methods are force-free and rewardbased. And there is no such thing as 100% reliability with any dog…or human! So the key to keeping everyone safe is always using good old common sense, a

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watchful eye and maintaining the safest environment possible with prevention and management. The methodology for teaching “leave it” is the same for all behaviours: • Teach the behaviour. • Label the behaviour. • Gradually add distractions including other objects and greater distances, and for longer periods of time. For example, first teach your dog to leave a stationary piece of chicken, then to leave a piece of chicken that you’ve dropped or thrown. Next teach your dog to walk around food without touching it, and then to leave other objects like glasses, the TV remote, a stuffed toy like a skunk, stuffed animals in motion (by tying a string to them and making them move), and so on until the behaviour becomes generalized.


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4 HEEL (AND LOOSE-LEASH WALKING) Loose-leash walking has two components: • Formal heeling, which means having your dog in a window of space by your side next to you. • Less formal loose-leash walking, where your dog can be in front of or behind you, but without a taut leash. Heeling is used in situations where more control is necessary and your dog knows to pay strict attention to you. This can include when you’re walking in public, like on city sidewalks, while walking across the street, while walking past a house where dogs are barking behind a fence, or at any time your dog seems nervous. I use two methods to teach a dog to heel.

METHOD 1: “There you are!” Sometimes also known as free or spontaneous heeling • To start, get a bunch of $10,000 treats like chicken, cheese, etc. • Practice in the house and/or a fenced-in yard. • Have your dog off leash or use a 20’ leash for added safety.

WHAT STIMULUS CONTROL MEANS For emergencies and safety, I suggest taking your dog to a PhD-like level of behavioural reliability, called stimulus control, for “stay” and “come-when-called”. Stimulus control means:

Simply start meandering around the yard (or your living room if it’s big enough) and pay no attention to your dog. To make it fun, I start singing while I meander. Your dog will eventually come up to you. The moment he is by your side, enthusiastically exclaim “there you are!” and quickly stick a treat in his mouth. If you’re using a clicker, you would click the moment he’s by your side, and treat. Then meander away and do the same thing. As soon as your dog catches up to you and is again by your side, repeat “there you are!” and treat. As you continue, you’ll see your dog hanging out by your side for longer periods. When this happens, continue to praise and treat, but gradually increase the intervals between treats. This is a great foundation for the next step, which is teaching and labeling the behaviour.

• The dog understands the cue and responds immediately. • The dog doesn’t do the behaviour in the absence of the cue. • The dog doesn’t do the behaviour in response to some other cue. • The dog doesn’t do some other behaviour in response to the cue.

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METHOD 2: Structured heeling Before we begin, I strongly recommend walking dogs on a harness rather than connecting the leash to the collar. For dogs who are really strong pullers, I recommend using an anti-pulling, front-ring harness, designed to give you more control and help avoid any unintentional jerks on your dog’s neck. That being said, it’s a good idea to attach a secondary clip that connects from the collar to the harness. This does two things: it keeps the harness in place on the chest and is an added protection in case the harness gets loose and the dog backs out of it.


Step 1 Have your dog by your side in a non-distracting environment. With your hands on your chest, say “heel”, and using the hand closest to your dog, stick a treat in her mouth. Do not walk forward while you do this. Stay in place and repeat five to ten times. Step 2 You’ll soon see your dog looking up at you, anticipating a treat. At this point, begin to walk and treat at the same time. As you walk, say “heel” and simultaneously put a treat in your dog’s mouth as before. Bring your hand back to your chest each time. Walk ten to 20 steps. Step 3 With your dog by your side, keep your hands on your chest, say “heel” once, and begin walking. Take four or five steps, continually praising your dog, then stop and say “sit”. When your dog sits, enthusiastically praise and treat her. Begin again, and each time gradually add more steps before stopping and asking your dog to sit. Remember, you’re not continuously saying “heel” and treating, you’re only using praise. If you practice this heeling exercise and add the distance of one house-length each day, you’ll be around the block in a month or two with your dog remaining in position. Then it’s just a matter of gradually adding more and more distractions, turns, changes in speed, and so on. But here’s the secret: the heeling exercise is just like the stay exercise in that it’s important to have a clear beginning and end to the behaviour. So you might start by saying “ready”, practice the heeling exercise for a few minutes, then release with “okay!” or “you’re free!” Then repeat later in the day. One of the easiest ways to wean your dog off training treats is to finish the exercise by giving your dog a “life reward”, like the freedom to go sniff a tree or, if you’re in a secure field, throwing a ball or allowing her to say hello to someone or another dog.

Paul Owens began training dogs in 1972. He is a professional member of the Association of Professional Dog Trainers and The Pet Professional Guild. He has long been a leading proponent of force-free, non-violent training. He authored the best-selling The Dog Whisperer and The Puppy Whisperer books and is featured on the new DVD, Welcome Home! Ultimate Guide for All Newly Adopted Puppies and Dogs. Paul is director of Raise with Praise Professional Dog Training, and founder/director of the children’s afterschool violence prevention program, Paws for Peace.

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www.petcurean.com

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st cks ?

Are

safe for dogs?

BY AUDREY WYSTRACH, DVM

What you should know before giving your dog a stick to chew or play with.

C

hances are, your dog has chewed, and even eaten, a fair number of sticks. Whether you’re playing fetch with your pup or just out on a walk, if he comes across an attractive piece of wood, he might lie down and start chomping away. But is it okay for him to chew sticks? The answer depends on what your dog does with the stick, and what kind of wood it is. While chewing wood can alleviate teething pain, eating or swallowing it can have dangerous consequences.

Chewing on a stick that splinters can result in sharp points lodging in your dog’s mouth or esophagus and causing tears or infections. Sticks that are too small or swallowed completely can get lodged in the throat and result in obstruction or infection of the respiratory tract. Sticks that make it past the respiratory tract into the stomach and bowels can result in irritation, bleeding or obstruction. Additionally, certain trees such as black walnut, black cherry, yew or red maple can be toxic to dogs.

Train him to leave sticks alone As with any other behaviour issue, stopping your dog from chewing and eating sticks involves patience, vigilance and positive reinforcement. • Dog-proof the yard: Remove sticks and cut foliage from the yard. This is especially crucial if you have tree species that might make your dog sick. • Replace sticks with a toy: When you see your dog about to chomp down on a stick, use her favourite toy as a distraction. • Come prepared with proper fetch toys: When taking your dog out for a walk or some exercise, bring along a fetch-appropriate toy so you aren’t tempted to pick up a stick to throw. Chewing is natural behaviour for dogs, and the occasional stick probably wouldn’t do him any harm. But it’s best to curb stick-chewing if you can, and replace sticks with appropriate toys or raw bones.

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Why dogs love sticks 1.

Dogs are foragers

Given that most of us treat our dogs like family, it can be difficult to remember that they descended from wild animals. Their ancestral instincts, whether out in the wild or at the dog park, draw them to forage through different environments to find suitable food. With no other food around (even though he may have had a good meal at home an hour beforehand), your dog may decide that a stick is a good enough substitute.

2. Why do dogs like to fetch sticks (or anything else)? Studies have revealed that many breeds of dog, not just hunting breeds, enjoy fetching because it releases pleasure endorphins similar to those in a human athlete achieving a “runner’s high”.

Canines are naturally curious creatures and explore the world primarily with their noses and mouths. When your dog comes across a foreign object, particularly in his own backyard, it’s natural for him to smell the item – and if it smells safe, to explore further by chomping down on it. While this sort of exploration is more common in puppies, older dogs also often rely on this one-two punch of sniffing and biting.

3.

Chewing alleviates teething in puppies

As puppies begin to sprout new teeth, they often turn to chewing to help alleviate the pain. Dogs are indiscriminate, however, so they’re likely to chew on anything that’s available, from your favourite pair of shoes to a couple of living room pillows – to a stick from the backyard.

4.

Dr. Audrey Wystrach has spent over 18 years in companion animal private practice, and several years in corporate veterinary practice. She has developed, administrated and owned veterinary hospitals, and is currently co-founder of ZippiVet animal hospital in Austin, Texas.

Dogs are curious

Sticks are nature’s chew toy

It can be hard for a dog to differentiate a stick he found from a bone or chew toy you’ve given him. After all, sticks are similar in shape and size to many chew toys, and dogs are drawn to the earthy, natural taste of the stick. Even more confusing for your dog is when you play fetch with a ball or toy one day and then use a stick the next.

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Pay close attention to how your dog stretches. Does he do both “upward dog” and “downward dog”? Is the depth of the stretch equal on both sides?

BY CRAIG LANDRY, DC

WHY DOGS All dogs have a stretch routine they instinctually perform every day. This is quite amazing as humans do not have this instinct. These “upward dog” and “downward dog” stretches are extremely important for maintaining balance between the ventral and dorsal (front and back) musculature, as well as for proper mobility in the low back and pelvis. Dogs that have stopped stretching often do so because of joint stiffness, pain, and muscle spasm. Chiropractic care and massage may help.

Dr. Craig Landry earned his Doctor of Chiropractic degree from the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. He decided to pursue his lifelong ambition to work with animals by becoming a Certified Animal Chiropractor. He graduated from the Veterinary Chiropractic Learning Centre – Canada’s sole Animal Chiropractic program approved by the American Veterinary Chiropractic Association. Dr. Landry practices at a well-established human/animal chiropractic practice in Toronto.

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HOW TO

CAR TRAIN YOUR

D G

As soon as you get ready to leave the house, your dog wants to tag along. Many of your trips together will include a ride in the car, so it’s important to familiarize your new buddy with car travel as soon as possible. BY JEFF ANDERSON

I

f you have a new puppy who’s comfortable with the car, lucky you! You can skip directly to “Add things he loves” (see next page). For pups or dogs who seem nervous of the car or suffer from car sickness, try Classic Conditioning to resolve their issues and turn them into road warriors.

CARSICK DOGS

Dogs experience car sickness for a number of reasons – stress, motion or unequal pressure in the car. There are a couple things you can try: CAR TRAINING THROUGH Looking out the side window could trigger a balance issue with CLASSIC CONDITIONING your dog when she sees everything rushing by at high speed. Try using a Conditioning works by stimulating the amygdala, the crate in the back seat and locate it on the floor so your dog can’t see outside the part of the brain that controls emotional reactions and car, or cover the crate with a light blanket (leaving the front uncovered) to limit what the memory of emotions, especially fear and pleasure. your dog can see. Try opening the front window (while your dog is in the back Through conditioning, we access a dog’s amygdala by seat) to equalize the pressure in the car. Have a vet check your dog’s ears stimulating the pleasure centre when he is in a situation for wax and keep them clear by using a canine ear wash. that would normally cause discomfort or fear. The fastest way If these solutions don’t help, try conditioning your dog to accomplish this is by using a high value treat. (If you are using kibble or treats for training, remember to decrease your dog’s meals to have a better experience over time. accordingly.) While many dogs respond to food, some may feel more This cannot be accomplished instantly pleasure from toys, balls or objects of comfort, though the conditioning and should be done at a rate process may take more time. that is pleasant for your dog. 34

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FINDING YOUR DOG’S THRESHOLD When you’ve established the food or item that will trigger your dog’s amygdala, you need to identify his threshold for the car. The threshold is the line between where your dog is okay with a situation, and where it is creating too much discomfort for him to handle. Every dog is different, and we determine a dog’s threshold through observation. Signs of discomfort and stress can include whining, barking, yawning, scratching himself, drooling or throwing up.

CREATE SOME MOVEMENT – While your dog is with you in the back seat of the car, have someone else push on the hood or trunk to simulate small movements. While your friend is doing this outside the car, you’ll be conditioning your dog by feeding him only when the car is moving. When the car stops moving, you stop feeding him. START ‘ER UP – For the next step, while you’re in the back seat conditioning your dog, have someone start the car and then push the hood or trunk up and down.

Once we find the threshold, we start the conditioning work in the DRIVEWAY JAUNTS – Bite-sized drives are best, once you get to timeframe just before the threshold. So if the threshold is getting this point. A short ride up and down the driveway is perfect. Have into the car, we would start the work outside the car. To begin, a friend drive while you’re in the back doing the conditioning. feed your dog outside the Eventually, you can switch car with the door closed. it up and have your friend Feed him for 40 seconds condition your dog while to two minutes while the you drive around the block. For your dog’s safety, it’s always a good idea to use a means of restraint in the car, and to prevent him from car door is in sight. Then stop Keep increasing the length of distracting you while driving. You can purchase a feeding and block your dog time in the moving car to get restraining harness (doggie seatbelt) or use a from seeing the car for an equal your dog slowly adjusted. crate that is secured inside the back of the length of time. vehicle. If you choose to use a crate, Every dog is different and will move please crate train your dog first so you don’t add stress to the ride. through this process at his own pace. Now back up a couple of feet so your (Check out Observe your dog closely and, if he starts dog is further away and sees more of the car CDNdogs.ca/crate-train) showing signs of stress at any point, go back door, and start feeding again. Next, change to the previous step, ensure he is comfortable position so you are closer again, and blocking with that, and then move forward again. your dog’s view. Eventually, you will cross the threshold, but if you go too fast or don’t move back and forth, your dog could have a setback and the process will take longer.

FOR SAFETY

Now open the car door and start the process from the beginning again. (If your dog is comfortable with the door open, you can start at this point.)

GETTING YOUR DOG INTO THE CAR – Once your dog is comfortable outside the car, you can start placing food on the floor in the back of the car and encourage him to take it from there. Don’t push your dog to do this by placing him in the car. Let him get in on his own so he’s comfortable with doing so. If your dog is small or can’t jump into the car, you can use a ramp or small stool to assist him. ADD THINGS HE LOVES – When your dog is okay with getting into the car, you can start doing other things with him in the car that he loves – feed him a meal in the car, give him a chew toy, have him jump into the car before his daily walk, etc. All these things will make the car a great place to spend time in, and reduce his discomfort.

Jeff Anderson is the founder and owner of Interactive Dog. His philosophy is based on a respectful, bonding relationship that goes from trainer-todog, and dog-to-trainer, and incorporates the teachings of Dr. Ian Dunbar, Karen Pryor and other leading behaviourists. He uses classical conditioning and clicker training, among other tools, to help dogs be the best they can be. Visit interactivedog.ca for more info.

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35


D

How dogs that detect disease can help humans

BY DANA COX

For years, dogs have used their amazing sense of smell to help with tasks ranging from bomb detection to rescue operations. But some researchers now believe dogs may save human lives in a much bigger way – by detecting disease and other medical conditions way before we do. Let’s take a closer look at some of the work currently underway.

Dogs detecting cancer

Early detection can mean the difference between life and death when it comes to cancer so it’s no surprise that the number of dogs being trained to detect this disease is growing. Canines can sniff out a variety of cancers, including breast, skin, lung and bladder cancer. While scientists haven’t quite figured out the details, dogs appear to be able to pick up very low concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that malignant tumors generate. Trainers teach the dogs how to tell the difference between tissue, urine or breath samples from cancer patients and those of healthy people. When dogs detect cancer in a random sample, they are rewarded with a treat or favourite toy. While some groups are still in the research and training stages, others are actually “on the job”. Quebec-based CancerDogs has been screening U.S. firefighters for lung cancer since 2011. They now work with 50 fire departments south of the border. Founder Glenn Ferguson says the dogs are more than 95% accurate at detecting cancer, and report less than 40% false positives. The experimental testing method is easy. After a firefighter breathes into a surgical mask for ten minutes, the mask is sent to staff at CancerDogs, who place it in a plastic vial. The dogs go to work from there, sniffing at the samples and raising a paw when they detect cancer. After that, a second sample is requested and, if it turns out positive, CancerDogs recommends setting up a doctor’s appointment. Of course, anecdotal evidence of dogs detecting cancer in their humans is all over the internet. Back in 1989, a woman claimed her dog paid constant attention to a mole on her leg while ignoring others, and even tried to bite it

36

CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL 2018


off one at one point. Doctors excised the mole which did indeed turn out to be a malignant melanoma. Actress Shannen Doherty (90210) claims her dog, Bowie, sniffed obsessively at her upper right side prior to her breast cancer diagnosis in 2015. Ultimately, researchers hope they will be able to reproduce the dogs’ ability to detect specific VOCs by using a device that detects the chemicals when a patient breathes into it. Right now, they’re hard at work trying to determine what those chemicals are.

Angus in training at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) in July,

he firefighter s mas s are placed in bottles, loaded on a rac and slid underneath the holes ere, cancer detection dog uster finds a cancer sample.

Sniffing out C. difficile

It’s hard to talk about a hospital stay without the topic of C. difficile coming up. The Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) bacteria remains the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitals and residential care facilities. Now a Vancouver hospital is addressing the issue in an unconventional way – by bringing in C. difficile-detection dogs to inspect rooms. BC health minister Terry Lake, a former veterinarian, recently awarded Springer Spaniel Angus his working dog badge, after he passed a probationary period that saw him discover the deadly bacteria on around 100 occasions since he started working at Vancouver General Hospital (VGF). The pilot program has been so successful that he is getting a working partner, another Springer Spaniel named Dodger.

Angus and trainer Teresa Zurberg at work at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) in 2016.

The two dogs use their superior noses to sniff out even the tiniest pockets of the bacteria in fecal matter, which may remain even in cleaned rooms. Once they identify the superbug, the hospital staff brings an ultraviolet light disinfection robot that can eradicate 99.9% of C. difficile spores. Lake said the program may some day expand to other hospitals. In the meantime, Angus’ work is helping to create awareness about hygiene and how to improve cleaning practices. The idea for C. difficile detection dogs came from Angus and Dodger’s trainer, Teresa Zurberg, who almost lost her life to C. difficile. Zurberg is a former Canadian Force’s medic while Zurberg’s husband, Markus, is a nurse who works in patient safety and quality care at VGH.

Early warning for Parkinson’s Scientists in the U.K. first got the idea to test out dogs for Parkinson’s after Scottish woman with a highly acute sense of smell claimed she detected an odour change in her husband six years before doctors diagnosed him with the disease. Now, Manchester University and research charity Medical Detection

Dogs are conducting a study funded by The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research and Parkinson’s UK, to determine if dogs can identify the VOCs associated with the condition. Since no test currently exists to definitively test for Parkinson’s and symptoms typically appear only after more than half the relevant nerve cells in the brain have been lost, this could help sufferers get treatment much earlier. The trial will include two Labrador retrievers and a cocker spaniel who have been trained to sniff the skin swabs of 700 people in a double blind setting. The team will also split up the molecules to identify which key chemical indicator is involved in Parkinson’s. CALL to see if any results.

MDD CEO and co-founder Claire Guest poses with a few canine members of the bio detection team. Jack (front) is a Parkinson’s detection dog.

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Thanks to his Diabetes Alert Dog, Carson is able to live a fuller life.

Help for diabetics

For diabetics with sudden drops in blood sugar, fear becomes a way of life. Sufferers can slip unnoticed into a coma and never recover. Diabetic alert dogs are changing all that. These specially trained dogs use their sense of smell to detect hypoglycemic episodes, and alert their handlers so they can avoid loss of consciousness and the life-threatening effects that follow. By paying attention to the dog’s warning, diabetics can correct the fluctuation. Dogs are also trained to notify parents of children as young as eight years old with Type 1 diabetes if an episode is about to occur. They will go get help or activate an alert system. There are several organizations in Canada training dogs for people with diabetes. One such organization, Sweet Charity Medical Assistance Dogs, based in Barrie, Ontario, was founded in 2013 by Lori Johnson, a teacher who also lives with Type 1 diabetes. Johnson had used therapy dogs in her classroom for years, and was inspired to do more after hearing Dr. Claire Guest,

Minimizing the effects of seizures

For people with epilepsy, seizure alert dogs help decrease the side effects of a seizure. The dogs are typically trained to activate an emergency call system, alert a caretaker, retrieve medications or a telephone, stay close to help prevent injury, and stimulate a person to regain full consciousness. It’s an incredible emotional support for those who can lose complete control at any given time. But some canines actually learn to go way beyond their training, and intuitively know when a seizure is about to take place. Service dog trainers say they can’t predict which dogs will develop this skill but for those people fortunate enough to experience this additional assistance, it can make a world of difference. Faye (not her real name) tells us that her Labrador Retriever can now predict a seizure several minutes before it happens. “He warned me so far in advance last time that I thought he had made a mistake,” explains Faye. “But then the seizure happened.” The warning gives her enough time to get to a safe place, on the ground, and call a friend who she has on speed dial to let her know what’s happening. Her dog remains with her throughout, ensuring she remains protected until she “wakes”. Scientists don’t know whether these dogs are noticing a change in breath, heart rate VOCs or something else. Research is ongoing.

CEO and Medical Director of Medical Detection Dogs in the UK speak in Toronto. Now the organization is helping kids like Carson, who was diagnosed with diabetes at age 3. Following his diagnosis, Carson required 24-hour monitoring. His parents became terrified that he would die during the night. When the Diabetes Education Centre introduced Carson and his family to Xena, a Diabetes Alert Dog trained by sweet charity, they experienced immediate relief and gratitude. Today, this black lab goes everywhere with Carson, who is able to live a fuller life with his four-legged guardian by his side.

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A DOG’S SENSE OF SMELL

A dog’s superior sense of smell lies in his physiology. A dog’s nose boasts 225 million olfactory cells, while a human nose contains only five million. Dogs, and some other mammals, also possess a Jacobson’s organ (also known as the vomeronasal organ), which acts as an extension of the olfactory system. Designed to sniff out pheromones (for reproductive purposes), the organ seems to pick up moistureborne scent particles such as chemical smells.


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what does your dog do when you’re “Ever wonder what pets do when we’re not home?” This tagline from the animated movie The Secret Life of Pets poses a question we probably all ask ourselves. It’s hard to leave our dogs alone when we go out, so it’s natural to wonder how they occupy themselves without us around. The answer is painfully obvious in the case of separation anxiety that manifests as destructive behavior. But what about the average dog? What does he do with himself when he’s alone? Several years ago, a team of Italian scientists made video recordings of 30 dogs who had each been left alone at home for 90 minutes (Scaglia et al, “Video analysis of dogs when left home alone”, Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 2013). They found that the dogs spent almost two-thirds of their time sleeping or lying down, not doing much of anything. On average, each dog 40

CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL 2018

BY MARIA TER-MIKAELIAN

spent less than two minutes moving around or exploring, about five minutes playing with toys, and around ten minutes making noise, like barking, howling or whining (lucky neighbors!). Other observed behaviors included lip-licking and yawning (which, incidentally, can be signs of anxiety). The disadvantage of this study is that 90 minutes isn’t really a very long time. What about dogs left alone for hours? A New Zealand study involved owners making audio recordings of 60 dogs left alone for eight hours every day for five days (Flint et al, “Barking in home alone suburban dogs (Canis familiaris) in New Zealand”, Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 2013). The results showed that the average dog barked for just over two minutes per day. Because this was an audio study, there was no record of what else the dogs did with their days, but if we go by the results from the


Italian study, it’s likely they spent a large portion of their time lying around and sleeping. As much as we might like to, we can’t be with our dogs 24/7. And while some people are investing in pet cams so they can keep an eye on their dogs while they’re out, that isn’t an option for everyone. However, as long as you have addressed any separation anxiety issues, and don’t leave your dog alone for long periods on a regular basis, you can rest assured that he probably does just fine when you’re out.

Maria Ter-Mikaelian is a freelance science writer and animal lover. She obtained her PhD at New York University, where she conducted research on neurophysiology and communication in animals, and she has taught Animal Behaviour at Columbia University.

How do dogs spend their

time?

60%

SLEEPING/LYING DOWN

5.5%

BARKING/ WHINING/ HOWLING

PLAYING WITH

TOYS

MOVING AROUND

2%

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7

WAYS TO KEEP

– for you and your dog! BY EMILY WATSON

Thanks to Environment Canada, most of us know to keep our dogs indoors on “bad air” days. But is your indoor environment also affecting his health? Dogs have lungs that are even more sensitive than ours. Let’s take a look at a few ways to keep your home as healthy as possible for all your family members, including the four-legged ones.

1 42

AIR OUT YOUR SPACE

Opening the windows may be a solution, but only if the air quality outside is okay. The government of Canada posts current outdoor air quality on a daily basis, so check it out before using “fresh” air to purify your indoor environment: weather. gc.ca/airquality/pages/index_e.html

CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL 2018

2

BUY AN AIR PURIFIER

If the outdoor air is unfit for purifying your home, an air purifier may be the next best step. These portable machines remove pollutants from the surrounding air and can be moved around to achieve filtration throughout different rooms. There are several types available, each designed to remove different toxins and impurities, so choose one best suited to your needs.


3 5

LIMIT CHEMICAL USE

Certain household products such as cleaners and air fresheners may contain harsh chemicals that negatively impact pets and humans hen inhaled in large uantities or over a long period of time. Limit your dog’s exposure to these chemicals by using more products that contain natural ingredients. Vinegar and baking soda are great cleaners you can find right in your cupboard. And rather than using paraffin (petroleum-based) candles, try soy or beeswax versions

STAY FUNGI-FREE

When it comes to fungi such as mould and mildew, prevention is ey a e every effort to eep your house free of e cessive moisture by installing an exhaust fan in your kitchen, repairing plumbing lea s, and purchasing a dehumidifier If you do notice signs of mould, immediate elimination is the ne t step If ignored, mould can spread uic ly, so clean your counters, ceilings, tiles and other contaminated surfaces at the first sign of this ha ard, using a damp cloth and ba ing soda If you suspect the problem is out of your hands, call a ualified professional. Visit canada.ca/en/health-canada and search “mould” for more information.

6

QUIT SMOKING

It goes ithout saying that tobacco smo e has a profoundly negative impact on dogs In the s, ohn eif of olorado tate niversity s eterinary eaching ospital conducted a study revealing that a dog exposed to second-hand smoke is times more li ely to develop cancer than one living in a smo e free household o prevent your dog from the effects of this toxin, the best thing you can do is make your home smoke-free. Asks guests to smoke outdoors, and ensure all cigarette butts and ashes are cleaned up.

4

KEEP THINGS CLEAN

Maintaining a regular cleaning schedule can make a big difference in the quality of your air. Particulate matter such as dust, smoke, mould, pollen and animal dander are a constant threat, especially in older homes ith more inefficient ventilation systems and inadequate structural elements (e.g. old chimneys and dated plumbing). Frequent dusting and vacuuming ill limit this risk (see below). When dusting, try using a damp cloth rather than a duster that simply brushes the dust into the air.

CHOOSING A VACUUM Different vacuum cleaners have different purposes, so make sure you invest in the right one! Generic vacuums will do the trick, but consider taking your cleaning efforts a step further by finding a model with a purifier or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter built right in. Designed with airtight technology, these handy machines trap microscopic allergens such as mould spores and pollen in their filtration systems, so they don’t

escape back into the air. Some companies offer vacuums specifically designed to remove pet hair and dander from carpeting and other tricky areas. CDNdogs.ca

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IS YOUR BREED MORE AT RISK?

lat-faced breeds such as oston Terriers, Pugs, Bulldogs and Shih Tzus have a higher risk of developing respiratory issues due to high levels of air contaminants. Be on the alert for signs such as laboured breathing, runny nose, loss of appetite and lethargy, and contact your veterinarian if cleaning the air fails to resolve the symptoms.

7

SEEK HELP FROM PLANTS!

With their ability to absorb harmful toxins – especially in enclosed spaces – plants are a cost-effective alternative to electronic purifiers hey might not be as po erful, but they’re certainly more therapeutic. Just ensure that the plants you choose are animal-friendly, and won’t harm your dog if he ingests them. Popular options are spider plants, Boston ferns, money trees and moth orchids. Don’t have a green thumb? Plant-based essential oils are another great way to keep your air clean. Eucalyptus, grapefruit, lemon, peppermint and tea tree are excellent options. Alternatively, doTerra Cleansing Blend is specially formulated to eliminate odours, protect against environmental toxins, and cleanse the air. Invest in a diffuser, or combine the oil with water in a spray bottle to sprit around the house.

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can dogs

read faces?

D

ogs can discern different facial expressions and

actually study faces much as we do, according to research published in Plos One.* Scientists used gaze-tracking technology to determine that dogs focus first on the eyes before considering the mid-face and then the mouth. Humans and other primates read faces in a similar fashion. In the study, 31 dogs from 13 different breeds were presented with digital colour photos of unfamiliar human and canine faces that demonstrated either threatening, pleasant or neutral expressions. Overall, the dogs avoided photos of angry humans, looking quickly away from the images. They stared longest at photos of dogs with threatening expressions.

*Somppi S, Törnqvist H, Kujala MV, Hänninen L, Krause CM, Vainio O. (2016) “Dogs Evaluate Threatening Facial Expressions by Their Biological Validity – Evidence from Gazing Patterns”. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0143047. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143047.

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Grooming How to make

A Positive Experience For Your

DOG W

BY BECKI SELBY

While we all love our dogs and want to treat them like furry children, we must remember that they are a different species and have different psychological needs than we do. Dogs look to their humans for guidance and leadership, so your reactions count. If you’re calm and collected, chances are good your dog will pick up on this and behave accordingly. Of course, this is just the first step to a positive grooming experience. Follow the tips below to ensure your dog’s visit is as stress-free as possible:

EXERCISE YOUR DOG BEFORE HIS APPOINTMENT If your dog is high energy, it is always a good idea to use up some of that energy before a grooming appointment. A structured walk allows the dog to eliminate as well as establish a positive state of mind before heading to the grooming table.

REMAIN CALM THROUGHOUT Dogs are very perceptive. If you are anxious when bringing your dog to the groomer, you will project those feelings to him. Walk confidentl , with ur ose, and limit our conversation with him.

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DON’T REWARD UNWANTED BEHAVIOURS If your dog starts to exhibit signs of stress or anxiety, don’t reinforce that elevated energy state with treats or physical rewards. Ignore any behaviour that is not contributing to the dogs’ well-being, and offer affection only when the dog is calm.

TRY ESSENTIAL OILS It is important to keep your dog from getting overexcited even before you arrive at the groomer’s. Using essential oils in the car on the way to the appointment can help keep him relaxed.

CHOOSE THE RIGHT GROOMER PRACTICE AT HOME Sometimes, dogs have an aversion to certain aspects of the grooming process – blow drying, bathing, nail clipping, brushing, etc. You can try desensitizing your dog at home by repeating the problem task in a comfortable environment. Just remember, the goal is to have your dog accept the process, so you must be diligent!

Is the salon cage-free, where dogs have access to each other, or are they kenneled for their safety? Does the groomer offer one-on-one appointments to limit time spent at the salon, or does she take more than one dog at a time? Once you’ve asked some preliminary questions, visit the groomer and check out the salon. Is the groomer receptive and informative? Is the salon clean and presentable?

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SCHEDULE REGULAR APPOINTMENTS Any groomer will tell you that dogs who visit the salon frequently are easier to work with. This is because the dog and groomer build trust, and the dog knows the routine and what to expect. Taking your dog to be groomed more often means he is less likely to become matted, have overgrown toenails, excessive ear hair etc., which means the process is not as invasive or unpleasant.

TALK TO YOUR GROOMER It is okay to express any concerns about your dog. Your groomer is the professional, and can often offer suggestions on what will help make your furry friend more comfortable.

Becki Selby owns a busy grooming salon in Peterborough, Ontario and serves as a sales consultant for an all natural pet health company. She has worked with animals since 2000 in a variety of capacities, including veterinary assistant, pet food retailer, and pet store manager. Becki has been involved with conformation dog shows and has worked with dog trainers. Her passion is advocating for animal health and welfare. 48

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Why does my dog dislike grooming? Many dogs LOVE the attention they receive at the grooming salon. But grooming is invasive, and some dogs can become overwhelmed by all the smells, sounds, sensations, unfamiliar people and other animals in the grooming environment. If your dog consistently reacts negatively to being brushed, combed, clipped or handled, he may never truly enjoy grooming. But don’t fret. If you have a professional groomer you trust, there’s no need to worry when you drop him off. As long as your dog is being cared for in a safe and loving manner, he’ll eventually learn to tolerate the process every six to eight weeks! Troubleshooting tip #1: If your dog is showing signs of aggression while being groomed, it is best to consult an experienced trainer or animal behaviourist before proceeding with a grooming program. Troubleshooting tip #2: Talk to your veterinarian if you are concerned about your dog’s health during the grooming process, so you can rule out any physical reasons for his objection to grooming.


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how to show your dog

Affection BY SUZANNE HETTS, PHD, CAAB, CVJ AND DANIEL ESTEP, PHD, CAAB

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It may seem natural to hug and kiss your dog, but these gestures may actually feel threatening to some canines. Learn how to read his response to your adoration, and show your love in a way he understands.

k

issing and hugging are important displays of affection among people, but they are not in a dog’s behavioural repertoire. Some dogs may e fine with this for of affection ut how do you really know?

Practically speaking, the best way to know how an animal feels is to observe her behaviour. When you’re showing her affection, she should remain relaxed. The ears should stay forward and the tail high. If a dog likes being kissed, for example, she shouldn’t move away and try to avoid you. If you stop kissing her and she wants you to continue, we would expect her to move toward you and show a behaviour that that has worked in other contexts to get what she wants, such as pawing at you or leaning against you. Our own dog rarely “asks” for more kisses. But she frequently asks for more petting by pawing at us, or just placing her paw on our arms if we stop stroking her. If we pair kissing the top of her head with massaging her ears, she will often move in closer, and position her head so we can more easily reach the back of her ears. n the other hand, if a dog finds affectionate displays annoying or frightening, we’d expect completely different behaviours in response. You’d likely see her tense up, her eyes widen, her tail go down, and her ears go back. Our own dog might also move or duck away from us, as she does when she’s too busy to stay still and be petted.

AFFILIATIVE BEHAVIOURS It’s natural for both people and dogs to display their affection for one another with behaviours that are typical for their own species. Behaviourists usually use the term “affiliative behaviours” to describe gestures among individuals with a social bond. Dogs will show canine-specific behaviours to demonstrate their affection, but these behaviours are different from the hugging, kissing and cuddling that people show to express love. • Many species of social animals – including dogs – lick other individuals they are attached to. This is called “allogrooming”. • Another very important affiliative behaviour in dogs is simply being close to each other. Think about how often your dogs sleep curled next to one another – or to you. Following each other from place to place is another sign of social attachment. • Play is another affiliative behaviour that is used to create and maintain social bonds.

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Hugs can seem threatening We have to admit that we also hug our dog. We do so gently, not tightly, so she is always free to escape from our arms if she wants to. Most dogs learn to accept or tolerate hugs from familiar individuals, but because they obviously don’t hug one another, it’s unlikely they recognize this as a sign of affection. In fact, just the opposite may be true. Dogs sometimes bite children who try to hug them – especially children they don’t know well. For a dog, a hug can resemble the social threat of having another dog place his paws on or drape his neck overtop her shoulders. Dogs usually tell us they don’t like being hugged by using the postures we’ve already described – lowering their tails, pulling their ears back, tensing up, or trying to move away. Being hugged is probably quite confusing for dogs. Why would their best friends all of a sudden attempt such a threatening gesture? When dogs are confused or uncertain in social situations, they display displacement behaviours. These are normal behaviours that are displaced from their usual contexts. The most common canine displacement behaviours are lip licking and yawning. If a dog shows any of these signs when being hugged or kissed, it’s a clear sign to stop.

Find a common ground So what are the best ways to let our dogs know we love them? Dogs, like people, enjoy being close to those they love. Sitting next to each other on the couch, or letting your dog sit in your lap or share your bed are meaningful to both species. Spending time together and engaging in activities you both like are also good. Play a game of fetch, go for a walk, or give your dog a gentle brushing. These are things most dogs enjoy -- and giving them the things they want is the best way to express our affection!

Dr. Suzanne Hetts and Dr. Dan Estep are Certified Applied Animal Behaviourists, and co-owners of Animal Behavior Associates, Inc. in Denver, Colorado. For behaviour assistance and education, visit AnimalBehaviorAssociates.com. 52

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TAKING CARE OF YOUR DOG

ears Given how common ear problems are in dogs, it pays to give regular attention to the state of your own pup’s ears, and to know how to keep them clean and healthy. BY PATRICK MAHANEY, VMD, CVA

Ear problems are among the most common reasons dogs visit the veterinarian. Yet many ear problems can be prevented through routine care. Dogs that swim or who are bathed frequently; who live in areas with dense environmental allergens; have open ear canals; or are prone to skin problems, should be given preventive treatment as often as deemed necessary by your veterinarian. CDNdogs.ca

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how can

I PREVENT EAR PROBLEMS IN MY PET?

If you aren’t comfortable with the process of cleaning your dog or cat’s ears, ask your veterinarian to give you a demonstration. Veterinary technicians and professional groomers are also adept at cleaning canine ears, and scheduling consistent technician appointments and grooming sessions can help you stay ahead of problems before clinical signs appear.

AREN’T DOG EARS JUST LIKE

human ears?

Canine ears have a different structure than human ears. Our ears have a “straight shot”, called the horizontal canal, which connects the t m anic membrane eardrum to the inna fla Dogs have a vertical canal that drops downward from the pinna. This then takes a nearly 90° bend to become a horizontal canal,

r a e

do g

huma n

r a e

which courses inward to the tympanic membrane. The longer ear canal helps make canine hearing sharper than ours, but it also means the dog’s ears can be more challenging to keep clean. It also makes them prone to an accumulation of debris as well as to infections, especially as the ear canal is also bent.

Vertical Canal

Cochlea Horizontal Canal

Horizontal Ear Canal

Tympanic Membrane (Ear Drum)

Tympanic Membrane (Ear Drum)

When the pinna points out or up, the ear canal is considered to be open. This permits air to enter the canal and minimizes the development of a moist environment that can support the proliferation of microorganisms (bacteria, mites, yeast, etc.). Yet an open ear canal permits allergens and moisture to enter the ear, which in turn can contribute to aural ailments. ets with innae ointing down i e flo eared dogs are considered to have a closed ear canal. This helps prevent water and irritants from entering the ear canal, but it also creates a dark, warm and potentially moist micro-environment, which supports microorganism growth and ear problems.

Eustachian Tube Middle Ear Cavity

Dogs have three parts to their ears: – outer, middle, and inner. Outer:

Made up of the ear canal and pinna.

Middle: Consists of the tympanic membrane, an

air filled chamber containing three tin bones (hammer, anvil and stirrup), along with the eustachian tube an air filled tube connecting to the junction of the nose and mouth).

Inner:

Includes the cochlea (hearing organ) and vestibular system (balance-permitting organ).

WHAT ELSE YOU CAN DO

In addition to performing weekly cleaning and inspections, feeding your dog a high quality diet can help maintain ear health. One of the first indications of health problems in dogs fed a low quality commercial diet is skin and ear discharge. These discharges are the body’s way of ridding itself of the chemicals and additives found in low-end food.

Dr. Patrick Mahaney is a veterinerian as well as a certified veterinary acupuncturist (from the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society). He writes a veterinary blog for patrickmahaney.com and is working on his first book, The Uncomfortable Vet. 54

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HOW TO CLEAN YOUR DOG’S FLOPPY EARS

BY SUSAN NEAL

It’s a good idea to perform preventative ear care and inspections every week. This entails nothing more than examining the ear for debris or damage, and gently cleaning the flap and the opening of the ear canal. Never probe deeply into the canal with your fingers, cotton swabs, or anything else, as this could damage the eardrum. And be gentle when cleaning the inside of the ear. A soft cloth or cotton ball moistened with lukewarm water and some apple cider vinegar can do a thorough cleaning for some dogs, or you can try one of the natural, non-irritating solutions made specifically for dogs. It’s not wise to squirt or force any liquid directly into the dog’s ear as this can damage the sensitive tissues of the inner ear. As well, an excess of fluid in the ear canal, even if it’s cleaning solution, can lead to infection by providing a medium for yeast and bacteria to grow in. By applying the solution to a cotton ball (don’t soak it), and then rubbing and squeezing some of this fluid into the ear, you will have more than enough to perform a satisfactory cleaning job.

WHAT ABOUT EAR HAIR? Don’t attempt to clip the hair inside your dog’s ears with clippers or scissors. It’s too dangerous! These stray hairs should be pulled instead. A groomer should do this, or you can ask her to teach you how to do it yourself.

CLINICAL SIGNS OF EAR PROBLEMS IN A DOG

• Scratching around the ears, face, or neck • Head shaking or tilt • Ear flap or canal redness, swelling, discharge or odor • Mass-like skin lesions (cancerous or non-cancerous masses) • Not wanting the head or ears touched • Lethargy • Decreased appetite • Vocalizing • Ataxia (loss of balance)

The hair outside the ear can be safely clipped but should only be done if the dog is naturally clipped anyway, or you are treating an ear infection and the hair is becoming an impediment (getting greasy and coated with solution). Many times, however, this outer hair actually protects the ear by preventing dirt and water from entering.

WHEN TO CALL THE VET Your veterinarian is the only person who can diagnose and treat medical ear problems. In addition to “flushing” seriously dirty ears and removing ticks from within the ear canal (both procedures may require anesthesia), only your vet can treat infections, allergies, parasitic infestations, remove foreign objects lodged in the ear, and address bite wounds or punctures of the ear flap. Susan Neal is a retired professional groomer and pet sitter. She has worked as a horse farm manager, professional dog breeder and exhibitor, veterinary technician, and 4-H leader. She has written for a number of pet, equine, and farm publications.

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BY SUZI BEBER

cancer fighting

FOODS for you and your dog

It’s generally accepted that diet and lifestyle can help prevent cancer – and that is true of our canine companions too. So along with healthy overall nutrition, what additional foods can you add to the mix? 56

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Here’s a list of foods that pack a powerful punch when it comes to cancer. They’re good for both you and your dog!

The medicinal power of mushrooms

There are about 100,000 varieties of mushroom – approximately 700 are used for food, and 50 have medicinal properties. Even common varieties contain naturally-occurring antioxidants. It has been discovered that common white button mushrooms contain as much free radical-scavenging power as medicinal mushrooms.

SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS have been used medicinally for over 6,000 years. hey are a rich source of protein, vita ins, enzy es and dietary fi re. One of the amazing things about Shiitake mushrooms is that they’re a natural source of interferon, a protein that appears to induce an immune response against cancer and viral diseases. They also contain germanium, which supports cellular oxygenation and the immune response. Beta-glucan, a form of natural sugar with powerful immune-boosting and anti-cancer properties, is also found in Shiitake mushrooms. Research going back to the 1940s has demonstrated that the beta-glucan in these mushrooms helps slow down tumour growth and decreases the side effects of traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy.

CARROT FLAN Ingredients 2 cups finely grated raw carrot

(can also be made with sweet potatoes or yams, or a combination that includes red apples) 6 raw egg yolks 6 tablespoons filtered water ½ teaspoon sea salt or kelp flakes ¼ teaspoon turmeric ¾ cup of a whole grain or pseudo grain like quinoa, teff or chia can also be added to this recipe

Instructions Beat the egg yolks, water, salt and turmeric. Combine the grated carrots with the egg mixture. Grease a casserole dish and pour in the mixture. Bake in a 350°F oven for 30 minutes. Cool, cut in strips and serve.

REISHI MUSHROOMS are used as a tonic to help increase energy, improve digestion, regulate the immune system, support the cardiovascular system, and help alleviate allergy symptoms. In traditional East Asian medicine, 1.5 to 9 grams of dried Reishi (1 level teaspoon is equal to approximately 2.75 grams), prepared as a tea, are recommended for humans each day. The daily amount is divided between the morning and evening. You can do the same for your dog. Small dogs can be given 1 gram of the fruiting body of Reishi, medium-sized dogs 2 grams, and large dogs 3 grams, divided between two meals.

Supplementing with kelp

- suggested dosages Small dogs:

MAITAKE MUSHROOMS have been used medicinally for 3,000 years in

1/8 teaspoon per day

China and Japan. The Maitake is often referred to as the “King of Mushrooms”. It has an incredible range of healing powers; referred to as an anti-cancer agent, it also helps regulate blood sugar levels and lower cholesterol.

Medium dogs: 1/4 teaspoon per day Large dogs: 1/2 teaspoon per day When purchasing a kelp supplement, check for a current laboratory assay and know the iodine content.

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SHIITAKE MUSHROOM

TEA

Ingredients 2 dried Shiitake mushrooms, broken into small pieces

1 cup filtered water Instructions

Place Shiitake pieces and filtered water in a small pot. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat to a simmer for 30 minutes. Strain mushroom bits and cool tea before serving to your dog. One cup of tea is equal to four doses, which can be added to food or drinking water. Shiitake pieces can also be added to your dog’s meals. Store unused tea in the refrigerator.

Turmeric

A powerful antioxidant Turmeric goes by many names, including Curcuma longa and Indian saffron, and it has many medicinal properties that arise from its deep yellow pigment. Turmeric contains a powerful active compound called curcumin, which has been found to be a more powerful antioxidant than vitamin E, providing essential disease fighting compounds that protect the body by neutralizing free radicals.

Preparing turmeric An infusion of turmeric is an easy way to make a revitalizing tonic. Simply take 1 teaspoon of turmeric powder, and place it in a strainer in a cup. Fill the cup with freshly oiled filtered water. Cover the cup with a plate and leave it to infuse steep for five to ten minutes. One human dose is 500 ml. A quarter of this dose can be used for a small dog; 250 ml is recommended for medium to large dogs, and a full dose for giant breeds. 58

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Fruits and vegetables – the brighter the better

APPLES are a very rich source of vitamin C. They also contain potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, vitamin A, folate and vitamin E. Red Delicious, Northern Spy, and da ed apples contain ore potent disease fighting antio idants than other red apples. BLUEBERRIES AND CRANBERRIES contain significant levels of resveratrol, a natural compound with anti-cancer properties. Blueberries are a very rich source of antioxidants that come from anthocyanins, the pigments that give the berries their deep blue colour. Try red raspberries and blackberries too.

BROCCOLI is a phytonutrient-dense member of the cruciferous family. It contains at least three cancer-protective biochemicals, including sulforaphane, which support the immune system. Broccoli contains lots of vitamin C and beta-carotene, as well as vitamins A and D. Other e ers of the cruciferous fa ily include russels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, rutabagas, kohlrabi, Bok Choy, kale, Swiss chard, collards and turnips. Cooking cruciferous vegetables releases indole, a cancerfighting enzy e.

CARROTS are a powerhouse of nutrients. They contain pro-vitamin A, also known as beta-carotene, vitamins B, C, D, E and K, as well as minerals. They support the immune system, aid digestion, and are also recognized as a glandular tonic.

GREEN BEANS are an excellent source of vitamin A because of their concentration of carotenoids, including beta-carotene.

MANGOS are a good source of fi re and contain a s all a ount of protein as well as potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, selenium, copper, zinc and manganese. They are also rich in vitamins A, C, folate and B6.

POMEGRANATES are a rich source of ellagic acid and also contain the flavonoids anthocyanidin and proanthocyanidin, which have demonstrated reduced tumour angiogenesis in a variety of studies.

SWEET POTATOES are a great source of vitamin E as well as betacarotene, which certain cancers.

ay

e a significant factor in reducing the risk of

TOMATOES have been shown to lower the risk of some kinds of cancer. The secret is lycopene, the chemical that gives tomatoes their bright red colour. Cooked tomatoes contain more lycopene, because cooking breaks down the cellular walls, allowing carotenoids to be more concentrated. o ake to atoes even ore eneficial, add a little fat, like cold-pressed virgin olive oil. This allows the lycopene to be even better absorbed into the body. WATERMELON contains 40% more lycopene than tomatoes!


Advertorial

Seaweed is a super food

Seaweeds are among the world’s super foods, and have been part of the human diet for thousands of years. It is estimated that our oceans are home to more than 8,000 species of seaweed. Kelp is the richest source of trace minerals. Pituitary, adrenal and thyroid glands enefit fro these trace minerals. Kelp supports the immune system, helps regulate blood sugar levels, soothes the gastrointestinal tract, and helps alleviate joint pain. Dried sea vegetables should be stored in dark glass jars or hung in dark dry rooms. Consider Acadian sea kelp, dulse, kombu, nori, wakame, and Irish moss. Look for sustainably-harvested sundried OCIA* standard sea vegetables that have been tested for heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides, PCBs, fuel oil and bacteriological contaminants.

*Organic Crop Improvement Association, ocia.org – the Canadian regional office is in St. Paul, Alberta. Suzi Beber has been successfully creating special needs diets for companion animals for nearly 20 years. She is the founder of the University of Guelph’s Smiling Blue Skies® Cancer Fund and Smiling Blue Skies® Fund for Innovative Research, and is the proud recipient of a variety of awards, including a Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal. She was honoured with a Doctor of Laws degree for her work in cancer from the University of Guelph.

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Supporting

senior dogs Fortunately for us, many dogs now live well into their teens. So what can you do to make his golden years his best years ever? BY LAURA DUCHARME

START WITH DIET A balanced nutritional plan is the number one factor in preventing and treating illnesses, improving overall health and ultimately increasing longevity in dogs. A balanced senior diet should start with high quality protein, and include fibre. Protein is good for maintaining muscles, organs and immunity. Sources of protein such as salmon and pork also have anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce pain and inflammation. Fibre-rich, low calorie foods such as dark leafy green vegetables, zucchini, pumpkin and other fruits and vegetables have many healthy benefits, including flushing out toxins. The older a dog gets, depending on genetics and health, the more you may need to adjust his diet. While some carbohydrates may be helpful for a younger dog with lots of energy, older dogs generally don’t need the calories. As a general rule of thumb, fresh is best. Whether the food is raw or home-cooked, this is where dogs can get the most bioavailable nutrition. Remember, seniors need to eat a bit less to keep their weight in check! Feed them well and they will live well.

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SERVE UP SUPPLEMENTS Supplements are a great way to support your senior dog’s health and may be necessary to maintain balanced nutrition. Older dogs benefit from a diet rich in antioxidants, essential fatty acids and probiotics.

1 Antioxidants prevent cells in the body from mutating, reducing

the risk of illness such as cancer. They can also help prevent vision and brain deterioration. Blueberries, cranberries and blackberries pack a lot of antioxidant punch. Other antioxidant-rich foods containing vitamin C, E, beta-carotene and selenium include carrots, green beans, broccoli, kale, spinach, pears, apples (no seeds), beets and coconut. Flavourful antioxidants like cinnamon, carob and honey make a yummy topping to your dog’s regular meals.

2 Essential fatty acids EFAs

are, as their name suggests,

REGULAR VET CHECKS ARE VITAL Catching health problems early can help prevent any issues from getting worse. It is recommended that senior dogs receive a veterinary checkup every six months. Talk to your vet about minimal vaccine protocols for seniors, and ask what you can do on a daily basis to improve his health and maximize his comfort. Massaging your dog, for example, is a great way to loosen up stiff joints and muscles while checking for lumps, bumps, pain, and other warning signs.

PROTECT HER IMMUNE SYSTEM

essential to your companion’s health. Dogs can’t produce EFAs

While a healthy diet and exercise are the foundation of a strong

naturally, so they need to get them from food or supplements.

immune system, there are other steps you can take to ensure your

The Omega 3-containing EPA and DHA from fish oil or other

dog stays as healthy as possible. Consider reducing exposure to

healthy oil sources such as hemp, coconut and sunflower help

environmental toxins and forgoing unnecessary vaccines (talk to

boost your dog’s metabolism, and improve his heart, brain, joints,

your vet about a titre test if there’s any question about whether or

vision, thyroid, skin and coat, and even

not your dog is still protected from previous vaccines). Look into

his mood. A higher intake of EFAs

natural products for maintaining your home and garden and avoid

can guard against diabetes,

conventional pest protection. Additionally, try to provide a low

Alzheimer’s and cancer.

stress lifestyle – it’s good for the whole family!

DIGESTIVE ENZYMES FOR BETTER DIGESTION As your dog ages, his digestive tract may not function as well as it once did. He may experience loose stools, for instance. Plant-based digestive enzymes are a great solution. Found in tropical fruits like pineapple and papaya, as well as grasses such as milk thistle and slippery elm bark, digestive enzymes break down difficult-todigest proteins, starches and fats and help support the stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and small intestine. They can improve the

3 Probiotics

absorption of vitamins and minerals in your dog’s food so he help address gastrointestinal issues (GI) in older

gets as much nutrition as possible from his meals.

dogs, which is quite common. They can strengthen your dog’s digestive and overall immune system, ease stress, and even help him recover from a course of antibiotics. Try adding plain yogurt to your dog’s food, or look for a scientifically developed strain supplement formulated for canines.

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GET HIM MOVING You may notice your older dog sleeps more. It s important to keep him moving to build muscle and get the blood flowing for health and vitality. Get him into a scheduled physical routine that s not too vigorous, such as swimming. Swimming puts less impact on a dog s joints, improves muscular function, and boosts his cardiovascular system. Leisurely walks on even terrain are also a good option. Before and after exercise, a gentle stretch and massage are beneficial to promote recovery and help your companion relax.

VISION CARE As with us, a dog’s eyesight starts to deteriorate as he ages. Keep

ramp can help him get in and out of the vehicle without putting

his vision good with antioxidant-rich foods such as blueberries and

unnecessary stress on his joints.

cranberries, or add carob or honey to his food. Orange vegetables like carrots and pumpkin contain carotenoids such as beta-carotene,

ORAL HEALTH

which promote eye health. For extra protection, you can add a

Taking care of your dog’s teeth and gums is just as important as

vision supplement.

providing exercise. The most noticeable sign of poor oral health is bad breath, but it can also affect your dog’s heart, kidneys and liver.

Despite popular belief, dogs are not colour blind. Although they

Stay on top of his dental hygiene by brushing his teeth regularly to

don’t see the colour spectrum as we do, they can detect contrast.

break down plaque and tartar. Look for a toothbrush and toothpaste

Therefore, using contrasting shades for items such as toys, bedding

designed specifically for canines and/or consider a tooth spray or

and feeding bowls will help your dog identify objects better and be

gel specifically formulated for dogs.

more engaged with his surroundings. A healthy diet will also help prevent the vision-related problems associated with diabetes.

KEEP HIM SHARP Stimulating a senior dog’s mind can add years to his life. Engage

WATCH THE THYROID

him through play, using soft toys to avoid harming his sensitive

The thyroid is a small gland in your dog’s neck. Its function is to

mouth, and consider investing in a puzzle toy to keep him occupied

produce hormones that regulate the whole body. In older dogs,

throughout the day. Simply hiding low-cal treats around the yard

hypothyroidsim is common. Symptoms of this thyroid hormone

and house gives your dog a job to do and keeps him mentally active.

deficiency include weight gain, dry skin, hair loss, lethargy, muscle

When walking, add a new route to his daily outing. New smells and

weakness and eye and ear infections. Kelp, a natural supplement

sights can stimulate his brain and ignite his senses.

high in iodine, can help regulate your dog’s thyroid and keep his hormones under control.

HELP FOR HIPS AND JOINTS Hip and joint problems tend to be the first visible signs of aging in dogs. But stiffness doesn’t have to mean a compromised quality of life. Help your dog feel better by supplementing his diet with specific ingredients such as fish or coconut oil that help build back cartilage and target fluid function. These natural lubricants can be

Tip:

When it comes to senior dogs new foods and supplements should be introduced gradually (unless otherwise noted on directions), to check for reactions.

used as a preventative measure, or to help improve mobility in dogs suffering from osteoarthritis. Take it a step further by investing in a supplement specifically formulated for hip and joint function. Once you’ve covered all the nutritional bases, make sure your lifestyle is suited to your senior dog’s needs. When it comes to exercise, refrain from high impact activities such as jumping and hiking. Keep his food, water and sleeping quarters on one level of the house to limit his use of stairs, and prevent falls by placing non-slip area rugs on hard flooring. When it comes to car rides, a 62

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Laura Ducharme, owner of dogsage.ca, is dedicated to educating pet parents about the health of senior dogs. Before DOGsAGE was born, she hosted the TV show Fido & Wine on The Pet Network. Today, her passion for helping senior dogs feel their best lives on through DOGsAGE – an online retail store specializing in health and wellness products for older dogs. Her ten-year-old Newfoundland, Sadie, is her daily inspiration.


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AND THEIR FAMOUS DADS

Take a look at a few famous Canadian hockey players who posed with their pups to help raise money for charity.

9

MATT DUCHENE & PAISLEY

BERNIE NICHOLLS & STANLEY CLAIMS TO FAME

Renowned for his fast reaction time, it only makes sense that Duchene shares his life with a Brittany Spaniel – a breed known for its quick feet. In the off-season, Matt and Paisley love spending time at the cottage.

Recognized as a top points scorer during his 18-year career in the NHL, Nicholls’ records have stood the test of time. No surprise, then, that he ended up with a hound – a category of dogs known for their stamina.

• Netted over 1200 career points in 1127 games. • One of only nine players who scored 70 goals or more in a season • Played in NHL All-Star Games in 1984, 1989 and 1990. • Won a silver medal in the 1985 World Ice Hockey Championships.

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CURRENT TEAM | Colorado Avalanche Canada on the World CLAIMS TO FAME • Represented Cup team three times, winning

CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL 2018

two gold medals and one silver. Duchene is also a forward on the 2017-18 World Cup team. • Became the youngest player in Avalanche history to reach 100 career points. • Won a gold medal with Canada at the 2014 Winter Olympics.

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Canadians love hockey – it’s our national winter sport! For those talented enough to make it to the NHL or world class competition, it demands dedication and focus. So how to players like to spend their downtime? Hanging out with family, of course, and that includes the furry, four-legged members. After a tough game, a busy season, or a stellar career (for those who are retired), the “hockey dogs” are there to provide companionship and support.

COREY PERRY, ACE & MAX

While his sturdy stature is certainly more similar to that of his Bulldog, Ace, seeing this 210-pound hockey great snuggle a toy breed is nothing short of adorable. Max originally belonged to Corey’s wife, Blakeny, but now the happy couple co-parents these loveable pups.

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CURRENT TEAM | Anaheim Ducks the Ducks’ win their first Stanley CLAIMS TO FAME • Helped Cup in franchise history in 2007. • Led the NHL with 50 goals in 2010-11, winning the Hart Trophy as the League’s MVP. • Member of Canada’s gold medal-winning Olympic teams in 2010 and 2014. • Member of the 2016 IIHF World Championships team and the 2016 Canadian World Cup team.

JOHNNY BOWER & JACKSON CLAIMS TO FAME • Won four Stanley Cup championships with the Toronto Maple Leafs, and became the oldest goaltender to play in a Stanley Cup playoff game at the age of 44. • Nicknamed “The China Wall” due to his outstanding skill as a goaltender. • Elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1976.

Much like the Long-Haired Daschund, this talented hockey legend was often described as warm and fun-loving by both his fans and teammates. In honour of this beloved sport icon, Johnny Bower Park was erected in Mississauga, Ontario and is now a popular recreational site for many other pet parents and their pups.

ONLY $20

1

The 2018 Shelter Shots calendar is produced by the Peterborough Humane Society to help offset the cost of caring for the increasing number of homeless animals. The calendar features many great NHL players with their dogs and cats, including hockey treasures such as Johnny Bower, Corey Perry, Matt Duchene, Bernie Nicholls, Walt McKechnie, Kurtis Foster, and more. Available online at: www.peterboroughhumanesociety.ca/shelter-shots-calendar

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pet-friendly ADVANCEMENTS IN

TRAVEL

PACK YOUR BAGS, PET PARENTS! WHETHER YOU’RE GOING BY CAR OR BY AIR, TRAVELING WITH YOUR DOG IS MORE ACCESSIBLE, SAFE AND CONVENIENT THAN EVER BEFORE. BY EMILY WATSON

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car travel

Most dogs love the car. Regardless of your destination, they’re happy to come along for the ride. And, luckily for you, road-tripping with dogs takes much less preparation than it once did. Here’s why:

RESTRAINT DEVICES THESE DAYS, THERE ARE VARIOUS SEATBELTS, HARNESSES, SEAT EXTENDERS AND CRATES THAT KEEP YOUR DOG SAFE AND SECURE IN THE CAR, SO YOU CAN FOCUS ON THE ROAD.

PORTABLE FOOD AND BOWLS

PET-FRIENDLY REST STOPS

Travel-sized food packages and collapsible bowls make feeding on the road mess-free, and prevent opened food from spoiling. Even raw food comes in dehydrated form and individualized portions, so you can grab a meal of healthy, bioavailable “fast food” for your pooch.

Parks and pull-off areas along the highway make it easy to give your dog bathroom breaks. Some even have designated fenced areas for off-leash exercise!

CALMING SUPPLEMENTS

PET-FRIENDLY ACCOMMODATION

If your dog dislikes the vehicle or is prone to car sickness, numerous treats, sprays and other products can soothe his nerves and settle his tummy. Look for a formula containing calming flower essences, or one with essential oils like lavender or lemon balm.

Many hotels, campgrounds, vacation rentals and B&Bs are easing up on their pet restrictions. Websites like petfriendly.ca and bringfido.com are great resources for finding a lace to sta with our ooch ra eling the trans-Canada highway? Check out dogfriendly. com for a list of pet-friendly accommodations en route!

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TIPS FOR TRAVELING WITH DOGS TO THE UNITED STATES Crossing the US border with your dog? Dogs coming into the United States are required to be healthy, immunized against

rabies, and have proof of rabies vaccination, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Think of your

pooch’s rabies vaccination certificate as his “passport” to enter the United States.

A valid rabies vaccination certificate has: • name and address of owner • breed, sex, age or date of birth (if known), colour, markings, and other identifying information for the dog • date of rabies vaccination and vaccine product information • expiration date of the vaccination certificate • name, license number, address, and signature of veterinarian.

air travel

Dogs make great travel buddies on the road. But what if you’re planning to fly to your destination? Airlines like Air Canada are making the entire process – from booking to landing – smooth and stress-free.

PLAN AHEAD s with all forms of tra el, the first ste is re aration ook into rules and regulations before you book,” says Claire Parsons, Air Canada Cargo Customer Service Agent. ind out what is in ol ed, and confirm that our et can indeed tra el before ou purchase your own ticket.” In order to ensure pet safety, some restrictions apply when it comes to fl ing with com anion animals see for ir anada s restrictions, for example). Do your research to avoid unexpected hiccups.

DID YOU KNOW? SOME AIRPORTS HAVE ONSITE VETERINARIANS IN CASE OF MEDICAL EMERGENCIES.

DECIDE ON THE BEST TRAVEL OPTION FOR YOUR DOG Service animals and dogs under ten pounds are usually allowed in the aircraft’s cabin. f our dog doesn t meet these criteria, ou ll need to determine whether he should fl as baggage or cargo. Either way, he’ll travel in the belly of the plane, which is temperaturecontrolled he difference is that animals fl ing as baggage sta on the same lane as ou at all times and arrive when you do. The perk of cargo, on the other hand, is that your pet can be sent ahead or after you, providing someone can drop him off and pick him up. Visit aircanada.com/ca/en/aco/home/plan/special-assistance/pets.html for more information.

DID YOU KNOW? IF YOU WANT YOUR DOG’S FOOD TO ARRIVE WITH HIM WHEN HE LANDS, AN UNOPENED PACKAGE CAN BE ATTACHED TO THE TOP OF HIS CRATE.

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PREPARE HIM FOR THE FLIGHT After you’ve crossed all your T’s, it’s time to prepare your pooch. If he’s a nervous traveler, medical sedation isn’t recommended. Instead, invest in a natural product to soothe his anxiety. Whether it’s a spray, supplement or mini essential oil diffuser for his collar, a calming aid will hel him rela ut kee in mind that training and beha iour modification are more effective than any remedy. “If you’ve never crate-trained your dog, do so,” says laire f he s familiar with his crate, he ll be much more comfortable fl ing If you’re buying a crate for travel purposes, make sure it meets the airlines’ requirements. ir anada follows standards to ensure e er animal fits comfortabl in his crate s a general rule of thumb, your animal should be able to stand up without hitting his head: iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/live-animals/Documents/pet-container-requirements.pdf


YOUR DOG CANNOT FLY WITH AIR CANADA IF:

• he doesn’t have up-to-date health certification stating his age and breed and/or vaccination certificate, if required for the destination. • he’s under 12 weeks old (16 weeks if flying to the US) • he’s a snub-nosed breed or mix • his crate doesn’t meet the guidelines specified by Air Canada for his age, size and breed • the temperature is 29.5°C or higher • you’re traveling between December 15 and January 13 within Canada or the US. Check to make sure the certificate is current for the duration of your trip. For more information, visit cdc.gov/Features/TravelWithPets.

DID YOU KNOW?

Photos courtesy of ©Brian Losito

A BOARDING FACILITY AT TORONTO PEARSON CALLED PETSTOP IS AVAILABLE FOR ANIMALS TRAVELLING IN CARGO IF THEY’RE EARLY FOR THEIR FLIGHT, IF LAST-MINUTE COMPLICATIONS PROHIBIT THEM FROM FLYING, OR IF THERE IS A CONNECTION AND THEY REQUIRE A COMFORT STOP BETWEEN FLIGHTS.

PACK HIS BAGS

WHAT ABOUT FOOD AND WATER?

It’s time to pack! Gather the necessary documentation and keep it in a safe place. Most airlines require an animal to ha e an u to date health certificate from a licensed veterinarian that states your pet is healthy and free of parasites, his age and breed, as well as any vaccinations he has received.

While you can’t put food items in your animal’s crate, water is essential. “We advise that people refrain from feeding their ets hours before the flight to reduce the risk of vomiting and bowel movements,” says Courtney Parent, an Air Canada Customer Service Agent. Courtney works at the live animal intake department at Toronto Pearson, and says they started selling water dishes due to the number of pet parents who forget them. “The water dish has to be secured to the crate to avoid spilling,” she adds. Courtney recommends fashioning your own travel dish out of Tupperware and zip ties, or purchasing one designed to hook onto crates. “Hamster-style” water bottles are not permitted.

While most of your dog’s belongings will be packed in your suitcase, a couple of things can go with him in his crate. His bed can go along for the ride, for instance, but leave toys and other loose objects out, as they present choking hazards.

Emily Watson is a staff writer for Animal Wellness Magazine and Canadian Dogs Annual. She is a certified yoga and medical Qi Gong instructor and has been writing – creatively and otherwise – for ten years. Off the mat and away from the keyboard, Emily can be found hiking, camping and travelling with her wife and fur babies.

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RECIPE

dental delights

These crunchy treats are a good workout for the chompers.

ingredients 2 cups cooked chicken giblets (hearts, livers, gizzards) 1 clove garlic (optional) 1 tablespoon dried oregano 1 tablespoon fresh parsley 1 tablespoon oil (e.g. olive, hemp) 1 egg cu s whole grain flour (e.g. oat, spelt, hemp or quinoa) cu dried cranberries, finel minced Topping: 1 egg white Parmesan cheese

The benefits of Parmesan cheese:

Parmesan cheese is a low-lactose food and is very versatile. It is a source of calcium and phosphorus, along with other vitamins and minerals, and is the perfect sprinkle when you have a picky eater.

*Recipe from The Animal Wellness Natural Cookbook for Dogs. Available at animalwellnessmarket.com/cookbook or on Amazon.ca

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instructions lace chicken giblets in a ot and co er with filtered water. Bring the water to a boil, then turn down to simmer for 20 minutes. Preheat oven to 350ºF. Cover two cookie sheets with parchment paper. In a food processor or blender, combine all ingredients except the flour, egg white and armesan lend until ou ha e a thick aste dd the flour slowl , so it’s well incorporated into the paste. Add a bit more oil or filtered water if our dough is too dr , or add a bit more flour if ou find it s too wet ust our hands with flour and s rinkle it on a board or counterto ou can use oatmeal in lace of flour nead the dough well, then roll it out to about ¼” in thickness. This part is particularly easy if you roll out the dough on a iece of floured wa a er or archment a er ut the dough into desired shapes and sizes, or take small pieces of dough, roll out to the thickness of a pencil, and cut into small treats, like biscotti. Bake for 30 minutes. Turn the oven down to 200ºF and remove the cookie sheets from the oven. Beat or whisk the egg white until soft peaks begin to form. Baste the biscuits with the egg white, then liberally sprinkle them with Parmesan cheese. Return the biscuits to the oven and bake for another 45 minutes. Turn the oven off and leave the biscuits until they are completely cooled. This recipe yields more than 50 medium sized biscuits. It can easily be doubled. The biscuits store well in the fridge and also freeze well.

note: for small dogs, roll the dough to 1/8”

thickness and cut baking time in half.

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TECHNOLOGY that goes to the dogs!

FROM STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS TO REMOTE-CONTROLLED AUTOMATIC FEEDERS, HIGH-TECH INNOVATIONS ARE MAKING LIFE BETTER AND SAFER FOR OUR CANINE COMPANIONS. BY ANN BRIGHTMAN

We live in a high-tech world. From Smartphones with apps that do everything under the sun to artificial intelligence, our lives just keep getting more streamlined. And the dog world isn’t being left behind! This article highlights some of the awesome technological advances specifically designed to make your dog safer and happier while giving your peace of mind and saving you time and energy.

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INVISIBLE FENCING THAT TALKS TO YOU Invisible or hidden fencing keeps dogs confined to the yard without having to put up a physical barrier and then worrying that the dog might dig under it or jump over it. Up till fairly recently, however, the only type of invisible fencing available was the electrified kind, which uses mild shocks to make dogs stay put. More recent canine confinement systems now use radio signals to ensure your dog stays where he’s supposed to. DogWatch is one company that specializes in hidden dog fences that use a radio signal. The signal is transmitted through an underground boundary wire, and is detected by a receiver collar worn by your dog, creating a sound that lets him know when he’s getting too close to a boundary. This cool technology gives your dog room to move outdoors while giving you peace of mind – and it doesn’t stop there. The latest innovation allows the system to “talk” to you. “The SmartFence uses our hidden fence technology paired with


“The SmartFence uses our hidden fence technology paired with new mobile connectivity features to keep you informed about your fence and your dog.”

new mobile connectivity features to keep you informed about your fence and your dog,” says Charlie King, DogWatch Product Manager. “You can receive customized emails or text messages to alert you if there is a problem with your fence and let you know if the collar battery is low. You can also track your pet’s activity from wherever you are. It lets you ‘know before your dog does’ if there is a problem with the fence.”

CRASH-TESTED CANINE TRAVEL ACCESSORIES If you travel with your dog, you need to take his safety into consideration. There are all kinds of crates, carriers and doggy restraints on the market – but how do you know they would they protect your best friend from injury or death if you got into a collision? Turns out there’s at least one company that crash-tests its canine carriers and restraint harnesses, using the standards set for child safety restraints, to ensure their products will protect your dog from harm in an accident.

“A good restraint system needs to be able to absorb kinetic energy while keeping the pet from accelerating forward and leaving the seat.”

Sleepypod uses high-tech canine crash-test dummies to ensure the safety of its carriers and harnesses. “DUKE 2.0, our newest crash test dog, debuted in 2017 and is used to crash test our safety harness designs,” says Jane Skuta, Media Relations. DUKE 2.0 weighs 75 pounds and can be compared to a large-sized dog. A camera mounted in the head records POV video footage of a crash, while the articulated joints allow the legs and waist to bend. A realistic neck and spinal structure flexes and compresses like the spine of a real dog, helping testers to assess whiplash, and load cells are integrated into the chest area to measure forces when moving forward in a collision. “A good restraint system needs to be able to absorb kinetic energy while keeping the pet from accelerating forward and leaving the seat,” says Michael Leung, company co-founder and lead product designer. “DUKE 2.0 enables us to measure the impact of a collision, thereby allowing us to design pet safety restraints that reduce injuries.”

KEEPING YOUR DOG CONNECTED WITH THE TOUCH OF A FINGER We all lead busy lives, so anything that helps us stay organized is a bonus. If you have a dog, you probably find yourself juggling appointments with your veterinarian, groomer, trainer or dog walker, not to mention fitting in runs to your favorite pet supply store to pick up food

“It’s a platform that connects dogs, pet parents, veterinarians, and pet businesses to ensure the happiness and health of each animal. We connect every aspect of his/her life with the people who matter.” CDNdogs.ca

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or treats. In the rush to get through your daily to-do list, things can sometimes get misplaced or disorganized, or fall through the cracks altogether. What if you could have all your dog’s information in one place, instantly available at the touch of a finger? A lot of apps are springing up that can help you do just that, but one app named BabelBark goes beyond that. “It’s more than just a collection of software applications,” says co-founder Bill Rebozo. “It’s a platform that connects dogs, pet parents, veterinarians, and pet businesses to ensure the happiness and health of each animal. We connect every aspect of his/her life with the people who matter.” The app allows you to schedule vet appointments, build a “pet mall” of local dog-related businesses, get health care recommendations based on your dog’s individual needs, and more. It can even be used to monitor your dog’s fitness by recording walks or using a fitness monitor that attaches to his collar.

REMOTE-CONTROLLED AUTOMATIC FEEDERS Automated dog feeders have been around for a while, and are a boon to those who work irregular hours. Most of these devices need to be programmed before you leave, but depending on your schedule, you may need more flexibility than that.

“It brings convenience to pet owners with WiFi-enabled scheduled and instant portion-controlled feeding.”

How about an automatic feeder you can connect to via your Smartphone? A product called the Instachew Smart Pet Feeder includes an app that allows you to remotely control and monitor the feeder no matter how far away you are. “It brings convenience to pet owners with WiFi-enabled scheduled and instant portioncontrolled feeding,” says founder Ramin Sadat. You can set up or change feedings via your phone. “With a camera built in, you can also see, listen, and talk to your pet at any time and from anywhere,” says Ramin. Editor’s note: If you need to work longer hours, ensure you have a dog walker or neighbour who can take your dog out when required. 74

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BY SHAWN MESSONNIER, DVM

TRANS•LATING VET JARGON Lab tests are an important part of your dog’s routine checkups. Let’s take a look at some of the most common blood tests, and what they can tell you about your best friend’s health.

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BUN/CREATININE/SDMA • BUN (blood urea nitrogen) is one of three blood tests for kidney function. It is a good screening test but not perfect, since 60% to 70% of kidney function has to be destroyed before it ele ates significantl is also affected by diet, exercise and muscle mass, so results can be skewed due to factors unrelated to the kidneys. • Creatinine refers to an amino acid constituent of muscle protein. Like BUN, this test also doesn t show a significant ele ation unless 60% to 70% of kidney function is gone, and it can also be affected by diet, exercise and muscle mass (but not as much as lood rofiles that incor orate only these two tests can accurately diagnose kidney disease once it has progressed to a later stage, but they are not so good for diagnosing very early disease.

CONSIDERING PET INSURANCE

If your dog appears healthy, consider getting pet insurance before his next checkup. In my practice, over 50% of the pets we test using the lab tests outlined in this article show abnormal findings – which are covered by pet insurance once the abnormality is noted. Don’t wait until a problem arises and then try to insure your dog. Play the odds that some test will come back abnormal at some point, and get coverage before problems arise. It will save you money in the long run.

• This is why a third test called SDMA (symmetric dimethylarginine), which tests for the amino acid arginine, is recommended. SDMA levels elevate very early in the course of kidney disease – anywhere from 12 to 36 months before BUN and creatinine le els ele ate reflecting onl of kidne damage ersus 60% to 70%. From a functional medicine perspective, adding the SDMA test to the blood rofile is e tremel beneficial as we can diagnose kidne disease at a very early stage (Note: many veterinarians do not routinely test for SDMA.) • Other tests that can help diagnose pets with kidney failure include blood levels of phosphorus and calcium. Phosphorus in particular reveals the severity of kidney issues because it elevates when the kidneys are seriously damaged. Pets with elevated blood phosphorus levels and elevated levels of the kidney enzymes mentioned above are much harder to treat and have a poorer prognosis.

A

A P-A

ALT stands for alanine aminotransferase, and ALP (also called SAP) for alkaline phosphatase. These two tests are useful for diagnosing problems of the liver, gallbladder and adrenal glands. ALT increases whenever there is any damage or insult to the liver or gallbladder. Unfortunately, while ALT is a good test, it cannot tell us why the liver is damaged; other tests such as radiographs, ultrasound, and liver biopsy are needed to reveal the cause of ALT increases. ALP can also increase when the liver or gallbladder are damaged; however, ALP most commonly increases when the adrenal glands are diseased, increasing their hormonal output, usually of cortisol. Dogs with ALP increases have adrenal disease that may progress to Cushing’s, a severe adrenal condition that at times requires chemotherapy (in addition to natural therapies) to be correctly treated. Sadly, I see many pets who have been misdiagnosed with liver disease based on increased blood levels of the ALP enzyme. These pets really have adrenal disease and must be treated correctly. Treating them for liver disease (including doing surgery for a liver biopsy) can further injure or even kill them.

T4/FT4 Because thyroid disease is so common in dogs, checking both Total T4 (TT4) and Free T4 (FT4) values is essential. Because hormonal testing costs more than a sim le chemistr rofile, man doctors lea e these tests out or onl include the less accurate T4 test). When this happens, it poses a potential problem to the dog because thyroid disease can be overlooked. Because thyroid disease resembles other conditions in clinical signs, I believe it’s always valuable to include thyroid testing for every dog.

Veterinarian Dr. Shawn Messonnier wrote The Natural Health Bible for Dogs and Cats, The Natural Vet’s Guide to Preventing and Treating Cancer in Dogs, and 8 Weeks to a Healthy Dog. He’s the pet care expert for Martha Stewart Living’s “Dr. Shawn – The Natural Vet” on Sirius Satellite Radio, and creator of Dr. Shawn’s Pet Organics. His practice, Paws & Claws Animal Hospital (petcarenaturally.com), is in Plano, Texas.

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DOES BREED SPECIFIC LEGISLATION

I

t’s been over a decade since the government of Ontario introduced Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) across the province. Because of that legislation, certain breeds, including Staffordshire Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, pit bulls and cross-breeds that resemble them, were “banned” from Ontario, a move that created a lot of public outcry. Many wondered how the legislation passed, since every recognized expert who appeared at the public hearings went on record as saying that banning dog breeds is not an effective solution to any perceived dog-biting problem.

BY KERRY VINSON

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Now, ten years later, Quebec is inching ever closer to adopting BSL, while other regions such as Calgary, and even some European countries, have rejected it outright or modified their legislation to shift responsibility to owners. So do breed bans work? To determine the efficacy of BSL, let’s take a closer look at what’s happened in Ontario:


THE PERSONAL ELEMENT

After reviewing comments from people on both sides of the argument for a “pit bull ban”, I have observed that many supporters of the legislation have a friend or relative who was injured, or worse, by dog bites. Of course, we empathize with these tragedies. But it’s also important to realize that in a study published in 2008 by The Canadian Veterinary Journal, which analyzed 28 fatal dog attacks in Canada between 1990 and 2007, only one of the dogs involved in these attacks was on the list of breeds banned in Ontario. In a recent tragic and fatal attack in Saskatchewan, the two dogs involved were not remotely similar to pit bull types. I won’t mention what breed they were, for the simple reason that banning that breed (or any other) is not the solution to the problem of canine aggression in Canada. *Read the full story at spca.com/?p=13169&lang=en.

common general phenotype”. So when people (even professionals) are tasked with identifying dogs as pit bull types under Breed Specific Legislation, they can easily make an error since visual identification is not reliable. In one follow-up study, identification errors were made in an astounding 75% of cases. In one case in Montreal in 2016, for instance, media outlets widely reported a story about a “pit bull” biting a woman on command from his owner. The SPCA conducted a DNA test on the dog, only to find it was a Rottweiler, Golden Retriever and Mastiff cross. Unfortunately, this documented misidentification of dogs by some authorities has resulted in abuses whereby completely innocent dogs have been seized and destroyed (or ordered to be destroyed).

DIGGING INTO THE FACTS As a court-designated expert on aggressive dog behaviour, I can tell you that any dog of any breed can become aggressive and bite someone if he/she is not trained, handled, and cared for appropriately. The number one cause of aggressive dog behaviour is irresponsible owner behaviour, not breed specific dog behaviour. It’s primarily a people problem, not a dog problem.

WORLD VIEW ON BSL This is a view shared by many organizations, including the National Canine Research Council, a non-profit that has chronicled the implementation of Breed Specific Bans in countries such as Great Britain, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, the United States, and Canada. Their findings indicate that, across the board, bans in the countries mentioned have not been effective in reducing the incidence of dog bites or overall serious dog attacks, since there is no scientific evidence that banning any specific breed of dog is a solution to the problem. A more positive model of an effective approach is practiced in Calgary, where the emphasis is placed on responsible ownership of dogs of all breeds (90% of all dogs in Calgary are reportedly licensed, fines are steep, and awareness

programs start in schools).

A BETTER APPROACH TO THE ISSUE OF DOG BITES • According to the best available statistics covering the period both before and after BSL (up to the present), the number of reported dog bites in Ontario has remained fairly constant. I emphasize the word “reported” since many bites go unreported; so the actual number is somewhat higher. • In biting incidents where a breed of dog has been identified, the culprits are currently spread over a spectrum of all breeds, very few of which can be identified as members of breeds that have been “banned”. Therefore, the problem with so-called pit bull-type dogs biting people has simply been transferred to other breeds (or mixed breeds). And here’s something else to think about: there is no such breed as a pit bull. According to the American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior, “most dogs referred to as ‘pit bulls’ are merely individuals with a

The Trempe Inquest in Ontario outlines 35 recommendations aimed at reducing serious or fatal dog attacks. They include focusing on education for dog owners, regulations on unlicensed and indiscriminate dog breeding, and minimum standards for dog training, among other things (read the full list at cdndogs.ca/ trempe-inquest). These recommendations were arrived at through a well thoughtout process and objective testimony before an impartial jury, but sadly they have been mostly ignored by the provincial government. In addition to adopting the Trempe Inquest recommendations, legislators can help reduce the incidence of dog bites by enforcing already existing laws aimed at eliminating unethical breeding operations that produce medically- and behaviourally-unsound animals.

Kerry Vinson, founder of Animal Behaviour Consultants, has a BA in Psychology and has extensively studied animal learning and behaviour modification. In addition to conducting seminars on canine behaviour at colleges and other venues throughout Southern Ontario, and assessing dogs with behavioural problems, he has been designated by the Provincial Courts as an Expert Witness in the area of canine aggression. As a result, Kerry has testified on behalf of the Ontario Coroner’s Office in the Trempe Inquest, and numerous other high-profile cases between 1999 and 2017 in both Ontario Provincial and Superior Court. He is regularly asked by the media to comment on dog bite cases.

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BY ANA RUIZ

ILLUSTRATIONS BY KATHRYN DURST

what does his horoscope reveal?

According to Chinese astrology, 2018 is the Year of the Dog. So we thought it would be fun to give you a look into your pup’s astrological profile and find out what the coming year may hold for him. You may even gain a deeper insight into your dog’s unique personality, behaviour and quirks!

The Adventurer Aries

(March 21-April 20)

Aries dogs gravitate towards adventures and exciting experiences. As natural born leaders, they are independent, brave, and self-confident. On the flip side, they can also be impatient and headstrong. Although charmingly impetuous by nature, this tendency increases during February. If you share your life with an Aries dog, expect him to meet new challenges head on, particularly during the spring months.

Health: Care should always be taken to prevent injuries to the head, especially from mid-August to mid-September, as Aries dogs can be somewhat fast and overly enthusiastic.

Compatibility: Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius.

The Peace lover Taurus

(April 21-May 21)

Dedicated and patient, the Taurus dog is also very loyal. She seeks stability and security, and prefers a routine environment since she strongly dislikes unpredictability, major changes and/or disruptions. Keep an eye out for her possessive, strong-willed side, which can be redirected with positive training. Dogs born under this sign thrive in peaceful environments where they can feel safe and protected.

Health: Taurus dogs thoroughly enjoy fine comforts and foods, but can be somewhat lethargic. Getting plenty of fresh air and exercise is especially beneficial to your dog’s health and happiness in June and July. Try not to overindulge her with rich treats that may bring on unwanted extra weight, especially until November.

Compatibility: Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn.

The Charmer

Gemini

(May 22-June 21)

Dogs born under this sign are highly intelligent, friendly, and energetic. They can be quite playful, active, and fun-loving, and possess a charming and curious disposition. Gemini dogs are able to handle change with ease as they thrive on spontaneity and variety. Try to be patient and keep training sessions short since these canines have a bit of a short attention span, especially during November and December when their minds will be easily distracted and happily wander. When it comes to expressing their needs, Gemini dogs can be quite vocal, particularly in February and June.

Health: Take extra care to prevent respiratory problems, especially in September and December. Compatibility: Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius. 80

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The Homebody Cancer

(June 22-July 22)

These loyal canines excel as watch dogs, since they’re naturally protective of their loved ones, home, and possessions. They’re highly sensitive in nature, so take care you don’t inadvertently hurt their feelings. Cancer dogs are least likely to stray, since they’re so busy making sure their home turf is safe. The best time to introduce a major change this year with minimal stress is in July. Ruled by the Moon, dogs born under this sign are most active during the full moon, and particularly the powerful Cancer Full Moon influence in July.

Health: Avoid rich foods in order to prevent stomach and digestive disorders, especially in August.

Compatibility: Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces.

The Entertainer Leo

(July 23-August 22)

Ruled by the sun, dogs born under this royal sign enjoy basking in warm sunlight. More than any other sign, Leo dogs thrive on praise, and are especially fond of attention, particularly during the summer months when they are extra active. These canines are energetic, extremely loyal, and affectionate, as well as confident, brave, strong, and protective. Charismatic and playful, Leo dogs know how to have fun as they are attracted to adventure, games, and the outdoors.

Health: It is important to maintain a healthy diet during the Leo Full Moon influence in

February, as it will be easy for her to gain extra weight. Care should always be taken to avoid back problems and heart disorders, especially from mid-September to mid-November.

Compatibility: Leo, Sagittarius and Aries.

The Observer

Virgo

(August 23-September 22)

Virgo dogs are highly intelligent, patient, and hard-working. For these reasons, they are easy to train, and excel as service dogs. They do prefer order, cleanliness, and a set routine. As acute observers, they tend to analyze every situation before taking action. Born under an earth sign, Virgo dogs enjoy spending time playing in gardens and in nature, especially from late August to late September. Come April, you will find your peaceful pet become increasingly outgoing and more assertive. Although they are somewhat shy, they will express their affection, needs, and communications better in July.

Health: A healthy diet is especially important to prevent digestive or liver disorders. Compatibility: Virgo, Capricorn, and Taurus

The People Pleaser

Libra

(September 23-October 22)

Libra dogs are highly sociable by nature and truly enjoy interacting with others. They derive satisfaction from pleasing their loved ones and dislike being ignored or left alone for too long. Dogs born under this sign tend to avoid stress, confrontations, loud noises, and any disharmony in general. When faced with a choice, these canines tend to experience indecision and hesitation, especially in April. Although your Libra dog can seem aloof at times, affection is increasingly expressed in August and November.

Health: Kidneys and the lower back can be sensitive areas. Avoid overindulging with extra treats in March when they can easily gain unwanted weight.

Compatibility: Libra, Aquarius, and Gemini.

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Dogs born under this sign are curious, secretive, determined, and strong-willed. They may demonstrate acute powers of observation as well as exceptional memories. Scorpio dogs enjoy investigating their surroundings and hiding toys or themselves in places no one would ever think to look. They can be possessive and fiercely protective of their loved ones, and may excel as watch dogs, guard dogs or hunters. However, due to a sensitive nature, they can easily be hurt when scolded or reprimanded, particularly in January and June. By November, your dog will have made a new furry friend.

Health: Avoid rich foods that can affect the lower digestive system and bladder, especially in October and December. Compatibility: Scorpio, Pisces, and Cancer.

The Private Investigator Scorpio

(October 23-November 21)

The Explorer Sagittarius (November 22-December 21) Sagittarius dogs thrive on adventure, freedom, open spaces, and outdoor activities. They love exploring their environment and can easily adapt to change. Playful, enthusiastic and friendly, these dogs want to be where the action is. They travel well and truly enjoy going on family outings and vacations, particularly in April and November. Their endless curiosity is at an all-time high from February to mid-March, as is the need to investigate and explore. As the fastest runners of the zodiac, these canines are most fond of the chase, especially in February when energy and vitality increase.

Health: Avoid a rich diet in order to prevent liver problems. Compatibility: Sagittarius, Aries, and Leo.

Capricorn

The Free Spirit

Aquarius

The Keener

(December 22-January 19)

Dogs born under this sign are dedicated, patient, and obedient. Capricorn dogs are not afraid of hard work and excel at jobs, being quick to sense danger and then taking the necessary precautions. Easy to train, they are calm, cautious, and can adapt well to cold climates or conditions. Although Capricorn dogs may be somewhat shy when meeting strangers, adjusting to a new family member or domestic situation will be handled with greater ease this year, especially during April and October. However, don’t be surprised if you find your otherwise quiet dog more vocal and expressive during the first half of the year.

Health: Care should be taken to maintain healthy skin, teeth, and strong bones. Compatibility: Capricorn, Taurus, and Virgo.

(January 20-February 19)

Aquarius dogs are highly intelligent and enjoy investigating new and unusual places or situations. They truly appreciate their freedom and independence, and dislike routine and monotony since they bore easily. Dogs born under this sign are friendly, playful, slightly quirky and a little unpredictable in nature. Just when you thought your dog couldn’t get any quirkier, he delightfully surprises you in November. If you find her somewhat restless or overactive during the summer, taking her outdoors to explore is the perfect remedy.

Health: Ankles may be sensitive and care should always be taken to maintain a healthy circulatory system. Compatibility: Every sign, especially Aquarius, Libra, and Gemini.

The Pacifist Pisces

(February 20-March 20)

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Dogs born under this sign are gentle, affectionate, and compassionate. Their easygoing natures may mean they’re not as active as others, since they seem perfectly content to relax and watch the world go by. Pisces dogs can be somewhat shy and introverted so it is important that these dogs get enough play and exercise. Due to their highly receptive and intuitive nature, they can be very susceptible to their surroundings and to the moods of loved ones, especially during the second half of February when they are most perceptive. Self-confidence, vitality, and energies are increased in December.

Health: Feet can be sensitive and care should always be taken to avoid bacterial or viral infections, particularly in September and December.

Compatibility: Pisces, Cancer, and Scorpio.

Ana Ruiz has contributed horoscope columns and astrological articles for nearly three decades to newspapers and magazines throughout Canada and the US. She is also the author of seven books, two of which are on the subject of astrology. You can visit her site at ana.astrology.angelfire.com


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Walk without pulling BY PAUL OWENS

W

alk without pulling means just what it says. While your dog is on a leash, he can go ahead of you, behind you, or to your side – but he should immediately return to you the instant he feels the

slightest tension on the leash. To teach your dog to walk without pulling, you can try this combination of three methods. They all work fine by themselves, but your progress can be greatly enhanced if you use all of them. They are all powerful communications that say to your dog: “Stay by my side (or close to it) without pulling, and you’ll be forever free to walk with me wherever I go.”

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The start/stop method Whenever your dog pulls, creating a taut leash, stop in your tracks. He will sniff for a while and eventually wonder what’s going on. When he turns his head to look at you, you’ll feel the leash slacken and the muscle tension decrease. Start walking forward again.

This gives him the freedom to explore again. Now your dog is learning that a taut leash (muscle tension) means stop and a loose leash (relaxed tension) means go. Note that there’s a critical juncture you must be aware of to make this method work. ithin the first ten minute session, our dog will figure it out and ou ha e to be aware of his recognition. Here’s what will happen. Let’s say you’ve done a dozen or so stopand-gos. There will now come a point where

your dog will back up or relax his shoulders as soon as he feels the leash go taut. This will happen so fast you won’t have a chance to come to a complete stop. This is the critical point at which you effusively praise and treat our dog h ecause he has ust figured out that he can keep you moving if he backs up a little, so his action stops the pressure. That’s the whole point of the method. He thinks it’s his idea. If you don’t acknowledge the split second this happens, he’ll say, “Well, now I’m confused,” and go back to pulling. This is a tactile, not a visual signal. Try closing your eyes and walk a few steps so you can feel the loosening tension rather than look for it.

The “wait for me” method sing the first method, ou continue to walk while the leash is loose ut ou ma find that your dog stays in place and waits for you to catch up. If that happens, you can give him an additional reward for being close to you. To explain, let’s say you are practicing the start/stop method. The leash goes taut, and you immediately stop. When the leash tension slackens, because your dog turns her head to look at you, you praise her and immediately start walking again. (Tight means stop; loose means go.)

The reversal method

But let’s say that instead of pulling again when you begin walking, your dog waits for you to catch up. Now she’s by your side. When that happens, you immediately praise and treat her for being in that position. She will quickly learn that she can not only keep you walking as long as she keeps the leash loose she will also figure out that if she’s by your side, she’ll get an additional bonus of food treats. It’s very similar to the spontaneous heeling method. To summarize, you’ll be practicing the start/ stop method – but adding rewards if your dog waits for you to catch up.

You’ll again practice the start/stop method but will add another twist. Say your dog stops to sniff something and you walk ahead. As he catches up to you, and before he can pass you, quickly lure him with a treat and turn around and walk the other way. Once again he’ll be by your side, so immediately release the treat. As you walk, if he stays in heel position, continue to praise and treat him. This method works because dogs really don’t like to retrace familiar ground as much as they like to explore new territory. Your dog learns he can keep you going forward if he doesn’t walk ahead of you. He also learns that he intermittently gets treats if he stays by your side.

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Sleeping

with your DOG

Many people love having their dogs sleep with them. But if your slumber is being disturbed by a noisy, restless or bed-hogging canine, it may be time to make some changes. BY DARLENE ARDEN

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| ILLUSTRATIONS BY MIKE CARLESS


M

ost of us allow our dogs to sleep on our beds. Children in particular like to curl up with their furry “siblings” because it gives them a feeling of

security. Many adults find the gentle breathing of a dog comforting and sleep-inducing. But if you (or anyone else in your family) find that your dog repeatedly wakes you up during the night, then you may have to look at making some changes.

Follow these tips for a better night’s slumber.

What type

of dog do

you have?

If any of these describe your dog, you may want to take action to get a better night’s sleep!

THE JUMPER

Get him his own BED. If your dog is disturbing your sleep but you still want him nearby, buy him a pet bed and put it on the floor near your own bed (but not where you’ll step on it if you get up in the night). Dogs are easily trained to use pet beds – just make sure the bed is comfortable and away from draughts. Use toys and treats to help him associate the bed with something positive.

These are the dogs that jump on and off the bed at night. It seems like they just can’t make up their minds. In reality, some dogs get hot sleeping next to you and seek out a cooler spot off the bed. Then they miss you and jump back up. And so the cycle begins again.

THE EARLY RISER Being woken too early by a wet nose or tongue is annoying, particularly if the dog doesn’t really need to go out. Perhaps he has a pre-dawn breakfast in mind, or is simply craving attention. In either case, you’re awake before you need to be.

THE NOISEMAKER Snoring, whining, licking and chewing – these are all noises you can do without while you’re trying to get some good zzzz’s in.

THE BED HOG If you wake up with your head on the nightstand, chances are your dog is a bit too pushy in bed. He probably just wants to cuddle or maybe he needs more space. You will unconsciously try to accommodate him, so your quality of sleep is probably suffering.

Tip:

If you have hardwood or laminate floors in your bedroom, consider placing a non-slip rug where your dog jumps up or down. It helps provide better footing and a safer landing zone.

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Sleep Study

In 2002, the Mayo Clinic did a study to see how many people experienced disturbances while sleeping with their dogs (and cats). They repeated the study 12 years later and compared the results. The 2014 study showed an increase in the number of people who reported disturbances while sleeping with their pets, compared with the initial study. In the first study, only 1% of patients reported any inconvenience, while in the later study, 10% reported having their sleep disturbed by their pets.

“While the majority of patients did not view their pets as intolerably disturbing their sleep, a higher percentage experienced irritation – this may be related to the larger number of households with multiple pets,” says Dr. Lois Krahn, author of the study. The disturbances that study participants reported include snoring, whimpering, wandering, the need to “go outside”, and medical needs.

Give him some evening EXERCISE. Being tired is a good way to get the night off to a good start. Take your dog for a walk in the evening and have a play session before bed. If the weather is bad, try a game of indoor fetch, tag or hide and seek with treats.

Put him OUT just before bedtime. Make sure your dog goes out to relieve himself right before you go to bed so he won’t wake you at 4AM wanting to pee. Even if he was out two hours earlier, that additional bathroom break could make all the difference. After, give your dog a small healthy snack to tide him over till morning.

The late Darlene Arden was a Certified Animal Behaviour Consultant, an author and speaker. Her books include the award-winning The Complete Cat’s Meow and Rover, Get Off Her Leg! Darlene was dedicated to the human-animal bond and enhancing the lives of animals and their people. 88

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Use this handy translator to determine some of the more common terms and acronyms:

Reg’d

Means a kennel name is registered with an accepted registry

Perm. Reg’d

Means a kennel is permanently registered

HEALTH-RELATED BAER

Brain Auditory Evoked Response. Measures the brain wave activity that occurs in response to clicks or certain tones. Certifies hearing.

CERF

Canine Eye Registration Foundation. Tracks and records ocular diseases in dogs and maintains databases on known conditions and pre-dispositions. Certifies vision.

Genotype

Refers to a dog in the sense of his genetic composition

HD

Hip dysplasia is affected by heredity and environmental factors. Sires and dams in breeds known for HD should be X-rayed clear

OFFA

Orthopedic Foundation for Animals. Tracks and records information pertaining to genetic and orthopedic diseases. www.offa.org

Phenotype

Refers to the collective appearance of a dog, based on physical and psychological traits

PennHlP

The University of Pennsylvania Hip Improvement Program. Performed by veterinarians specially trained in the procedure. This method determines hip joint laxity, which can then be used to predict the likelihood of an individual developing hip dysplasia. www.pennhip.org

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone – a test to determine hypothyroidism

vWD

von Willebrand’s disease – a bleeding disorder that affects some breeds

REGISTRIES AKC ARBA CBCA CKC CRBA FCI UKC

American Kennel Club (U.S.-based) American Rare Breeds Association: the American equivalent to CRBA Canadian Border Collie Association Canadian Kennel Club Canadian Rare Breeds Association Fédération Cynologique Internationale (Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia and Australia) United Kennel Club

TITLES BIF BIS BISS BPIS HIT

Best in Field – the top coursing hound at a trial Best in Show – the best dog at a conformation show Best in Specialty Show – the best dog at a specialty show Best Puppy in Show – the best puppy at a conformation show High in Trial – the best performer at an obedience trial

TEMPERAMENT CGC TT

Canine Good Citizen – determines if a dog is well trained and obedient in public Temperament Tested – shows if a dog has stable temperament

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WELCOME TO OUR BREED DIRECTORY This is a wonderful resource if you’re looking for a purebred dog or a rare dog. The breed summaries give you a brief but fascinating glimpse into the history, appearance and care of each breed. Please note we’ve rated exercise and grooming requirements based on the legend at right.

legend Very minimal Minimal Average

BEFORE YOU START HUNTING FOR YOUR NEW BEST FRIEND, we suggest reading through our “Advice from a breeder” on page 14. It’ll help ensure that you enjoy success with your new pup.

More than average Maximum

This is a paid advertising section and we’ve made every effort to ensure the information is presented accurately. The publisher cannot be held responsible for any claims made in the advertising listings, or any issues that arise as a result of errors or omissions.

Dogs have lived alongside humans for thousands of years. Over that time, they’ve been bred to serve many roles, from helping hunt game, to containing vermin, to snuggling. The Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) categorizes dogs based on seven different groups. Though the breeds in our Rare Breeds Directory are not yet recognized by the CKC, we’ve included them in their own section.

GROUP 1 - SPORTING DOGS Bred to assist hunters on land or in water

Barbet Griffon (Wire-Haired Pointing) Lagotto Romagnolo Pointer (German Long-Haired) Pointer (German Short-Haired) Pointer (German Wire-Haired) Retriever (Chesapeake Bay) Retriever (Curly-Coated) Retriever (Flat-Coated) Retriever (Golden) Retriever (Labrador) Retriever (Nova Scotia Duck Tolling) 90

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Setter (English) Setter (English) Setter (Gordon) Setter (Gordon) Setter (Irish) Setter (Irish) Setter (Irish Red and White) Setter (Irish Red and White) Spaniel (American Cocker) Spaniel (American Cocker) Spaniel (Brittany) Spaniel (Brittany) Spaniel (Clumber) Spaniel (Clumber) Spaniel (English Cocker) Spaniel (English Cocker) Spaniel (English Springer) Spaniel (English Springer) Spaniel (Irish Water) Spaniel (Irish Water) Spaniel (Welsh Springer) Spaniel (Welsh Springer) Spinone Italiano Spinone Italiano Vizsla (Smooth-Haired) Vizsla (Smooth-Haired) Vizsla (Wire-Haired) Vizsla (Wire-Haired) Weimaraner Weimaraner

GROUP 2 - HOUNDS

Bred to hunt by scent or sight Afghan Hound American Foxhound Basenji Basset Hound Beagle Black and Tan Coonhound Bloodhound Borzoi Dachshund (Miniature Long-Haired) Dachshund (Miniature Smooth-Haired) Dachshund (Miniature Wire-Haired) Dachshund (Standard Smooth) Dachshund (Standard Wire-Haired)


Deerhound (Scottish) Drever English Foxhound Finnish Spitz Greyhound Ibizan Hound Irish Wolfhound Norrbottenspets Norwegian Elkhound Norwegian Lundehund Otterhound Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen Pharaoh Hound Rhodesian Ridgeback Saluki Shikoku Whippet

GROUP 3 - WORKING DOGS Bred to guard, pull and rescue Akita Alaskan Malamute Bernese Mountain Dog Black Russian Terrier Boxer Bullmastiff Canaan Dog Canadian Eskimo Dog Cane Corso Doberman Pinscher Entlebucher Mountain Dog Eurasier Field Spaniel Great Dane Great Pyrenees Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Karelian Bear Dog Komondor Kuvasz Leonberger Mastiff Newfoundland Portuguese Water Dog Rottweiler Samoyed Schnauzer (Giant) Schnauzer (Standard) Siberian Husky St. Bernard Tibetan Mastiff

GROUP 4 - TERRIERS

Bred to hunt and kill vermin Airedale Terrier American Staffordshire Terrier

Australian Terrier Bedlington Terrier Border Terrier Bull Terrier Bull Terrier (Miniature) Cairn Terrier Cesky Terrier Dandie Dinmont Terrier Fox Terrier (Smooth) Fox Terrier (Wire) Irish Terrier Jack Russell Terrier Kerry Blue Terrier Lakeland Terrier Manchester Terrier Norfolk Terrier Norwich Terrier Parson Russell Terrier Schnauzer (Miniature) Scottish Terrier Sealyham Terrier Silky Terrier Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier Staffordshire Bull Terrier Welsh Terrier West Highland White Terrier

GROUP 5 - TOYS

Bred for companionship Affenpinscher Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Chihuahua (Long Coat) Chihuahua (Short Coat) Chinese Crested Coton de Tulear Griffon (Brussels) Havanese Italian Greyhound Japanese Chin King Charles Spaniel Maltese Papillon Pekingese Pomeranian Poodle (Toy) Pug Toy Fox Terrier Yorkshire Terrier

GROUP 6 - NON-SPORTING A diverse group of dogs that don t fit into other groups American Eskimo Dog Bichon Frise Boston Terrier

Bulldog Chinese Shar-Pei Chow Chow Dalmatian French Bulldog German Pinscher Keeshond Lhasa Apso Lowchen Poodle (Miniature) Poodle (Standard) Schipperke Shiba Inu Shih Tzu Tibetan Spaniel Tibetan Terrier

GROUP 7 - HERDING

Bred to manage the movements of other animals Australian Cattle Dog Australian Kelpie Australian Shepherd Bearded Collie Belgian Shepherd Dog Border Collie Bouviers des Flandres Briard Collie (Rough) Collie (Smooth) Dutch Shepherd Dog Finnish Lapphund German Shepherd Dog Iceland Sheepdog Mudi Norwegian Buhund Old English Sheepdog Polish Lowland Sheepdog Portuguese Sheepdog Puli Schapendoes (Dutch Sheepdog) Shetland Sheepdog Swedish Vallhund Welsh Corgi (Cardigan) Welsh Corgi (Pembroke)

RARE BREEDS

American Bulldog Bolognese Kleiner Mßnsterländer Miniature American Shepherd Miniature Australian Shepherd Pumi Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka Shiloh Shepherd White Shepherd CDNdogs.ca

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Affenpinscher

legend PUREBRED

Very minimal Minimal Average More than average Maximum

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American Eskimo Dog

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

TAKE A LOOK AT A FEW FAMOUS CANADIAN HOCKEY PLAYERS POSED WITH THEIR PUPS! P. 64 CDNdogs.ca

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• Contests • Money-saving coupons and more!

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

American Foxhound

PUREBRED

VISIT OUR WEBSITE AT CDNDOGS.CA FOR


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PUREBRED

Barbet


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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: GoldenAsset Reg’d

Barbet


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PUREBRED

Belgian Shepherd


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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Bernese Mountain Dog


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PUREBRED

Photo: Hollowshot Reg’d

Border Collie


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PUREBRED

Photo: Sassy Kennel Reg’

Border Collie


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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Briard


Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Briard

PUREBRED

legend Very minimal Minimal Average More than average Maximum

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PUREBRED

Photo: JayKay Canaan Dogs

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Canaan Dog


Canaan Dog

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Chihuahua (Long) a purebred dog is defined as a dog of proven lineage that is registered by an accepted registry.” If you’re buying a purebred dog, remember that, under the nimal edigree Act”, the dog must be entitled to registration papers. CDNdogs.ca

PUREBRED

Photo: Bloomsbury Perm. Reg’d. Photo: Alice Van Kempen

WHAT’S A PUREBRED DOG? In Canada,

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PUREBRED

Photo: Dragonsblood

Photo: Windwater Reg’d

Chihuahua (Short)


Collie (Rough) CDNdogs.ca

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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

DO DOGS HAVE THE SAME EMOTIONS AS PEOPLE? FIND OUT ON P. 16


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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Collie (Smooth)


Very minimal

Minimal

Average

More than average

PUREBRED

legend

Maximum

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Dachshund (Miniature Wire-Haired)

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Alice Van Kempen


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Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Dachshund (Standard Smooth)

PUREBRED

SOCIALIZE YOUR PUPPY FROM A YOUNG AGE BY INTRODUCING HIM TO NEW SIGHTS, SOUNDS AND SMELLS ON A DAILY BASIS.


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PUREBRED

Doberman Pinscher

Photo: Alice Van Kempen


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Photo: Westarr Perm. Reg’d

PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Doberman Pinscher


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PUREBRED

Field Spaniel


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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Finnish Lapphund


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PUREBRED

French Bulldog


German Pinscher

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PUREBRED

Photo: Quicksilver Reg’d

Great Pyrenees


PUREBRED

CONFUSED BY BREEDER LANGUAGE? SEE DOGSPEAK ON P. 89

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CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL 2018 Photo: Somershire’s Reg’d

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Greater Swiss Mountain Dog


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PUREBRED

Havanese


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PUREBRED

Photo: Windeire Reg’d

Havanese


Italian Greyhound Photo: Alice Van Kempen

PUREBRED

legend Very minimal Minimal Average More than average Maximum

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Photo: Viking Hunter Kennels

PUREBRED

Photo: Keesrich Perm Reg’d

Jack Russell Terrier


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Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Komondor


Photo: Lofranco Kennels Perm. Reg’d

Kuvasz

VISIT OUR WEBSITE AT

CDNDOGS.CA FOR

PUREBRED

• • • • •

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Breeder listings Health and lifestyle info Great products Contests Money-saving coupons AND MORE!


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PUREBRED

Can you unscramble all these dog-related words? P. 210

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Lhasa Apso

Photo: Lhasa Apso Club of Ontario

Photo: Disguise Reg’d

Photo: Alice Van Kempen


Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Chenoka Reg’d

Löwchen

PUREBRED

HOW ARE BREEDS CLASSIFIED? VISIT P. 90 126

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Mudi

PUREBRED

CAR TRAINING YOUR DOG? FLIP TO P. 34 FOR EXPERT ADVICE. CDNdogs.ca

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Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Newfoundland

PUREBRED

legend Very minimal Minimal Average More than average Maximum

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Norwegian Elkhound

PUREBRED

VISIT OUR RARE BREED DIRECTORY P. 158 Norwegian Elkhound continued on next page.

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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Norwegian Elkhound


Papillon Photo: Alice Van Kempen

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TRAIN YOUR PUPPY USING POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT BY OFFERING A REWARD WHEN HE DISPLAYS GOOD BEHAVIOUR!

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Photo: Osiris Pharaoh Hounds

CHECK OUT YOUR DOG’S 2018 HOROSCOPE P. 80

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Parson Russel Terrier


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PUREBRED

Pointer (German Wire-Haired)


Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Polish Lowland Sheepdog

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Poodle (Toy)


Poodle (Toy)

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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Retriever (Chesapeake Bay)


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Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Retriever (Chesapeake Bay)

PUREBRED

NOT SURE WHICH BREED IS RIGHT FOR YOU? VISIT CDNDOGS.CA/TOP-DOG-FOR-YOUR-LIFESTYLE


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PUREBRED

Retriever (Labrador)


Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Retriever (Labrador)

PUREBRED

GROOMING QUESTIONS? A QUALIFIED, REPUTABLE GROOMER WILL MAKE SURE YOUR CANINE COMPANION LOOKS HIS BEST, AND CAN ALSO ASSIST YOU WITH SUGGESTIONS AND TIPS FOR MAINTAINING THAT LOOK IN BETWEEN APPOINTMENTS.

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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Saluki


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PUREBRED

Photo: MessyHair Kennels Reg’d

Photo: Snowybear Kennels Perm. Reg’d

Saluki


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Schnauzer (Standard)


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PUREBRED

Photo: Classywags Reg’d

Schnauzer (Standard)


Setter (Irish)

Photo: Gordonstar Perm. Reg’d

PUREBRED

LOOKING FOR THE RIGHT FOOD FOR YOUR NEW PUPPY? AVOID THESE INGREDIENTS P. 20

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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Setter (Irish Red and White)


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PUREBRED

Siberian Husky


PUREBRED

Very minimal Minimal Average More than average

Maximum

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Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Silky Terrier

legend


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KEEP HIS BELLY FULL AND HIS TEETH CLEAN WITH THIS DROOL-WORTHY RECIPE P. 70

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Spaniel (Clumber)

Photo: Tricklecreek Clumber Spaniels Perm. Reg’d

Photo: Rivermist Brittanys


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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Narijay Perm

Photo: Nonnies Perm. Reg’d

Spaniel (English Cocker)


Spinone Italiano

PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

WHAT’S YOUR DOG DO WHEN YOU’RE OUT? P. 40

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St. Bernard

PUREBRED

legend Very minimal Minimal Average More than average Maximum

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Tibetan Terrier

PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

WHAT’S A PUREBRED DOG? IN CANADA, A PUREBRED DOG IS DEFINED AS “A DOG OF PROVEN LINEAGE THAT IS REGISTERED BY AN ACCEPTED REGISTRY.” IF YOU’RE BUYING A PUREBRED DOG, REMEMBER THAT, UNDER THE “ANIMAL PEDIGREE ACT”, THE DOG MUST BE ENTITLED TO REGISTRATION PAPERS. CDNdogs.ca

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PUREBRED

Photo: Dream Vizslas

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Photo: Loving Angels Reg’d

Toy Fox Terrier


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PUREBRED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

Welsh Corgi (Pembroke)

Photo: Alice Van Kempen


Welsh Terrier

PUREBRED

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Yorkshire Terrier

Photo: Yorkhaven Perm. Reg’d

DO YOU HAVE QUESTIONS?

CDNdogs.ca

PUREBRED

ualified, e perienced and reputa le reeders have heard it all so they re a great resource for your ueries. ecause they ai to find every puppy a forever ho e, you can count on the to e candid and honest. f you re serious a out uying one of their puppies, e pect the reeder to ask you so e uestions, too. After all, it s in everyone s est interest to ake sure you have the right puppy for your fa ily.

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RARE BREED

Photo: Alice Van Kempen

American Bulldog


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RARE BREED

Photo: English Farm Kennels

Photo: Follow Me Canine Companions

Pumi


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RARE BREED

Photo: Armstrong’s CKC reg’d White Shepherds

Photo: Bolobabies Reg’d

Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka


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SPOTLIGHT

INDEX


Barbet

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SPOTLIGHT

Barbet | Bolognese | Bull Terrier (Miniature)


Cairn Terrier

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Chinese Shar-Pei | Dalmatians

ECHO VIEW Dalmatians (Perm. Reg’d) established 1994

Bred For Beauty & Brains Puppies Occasionally * Adults Sometimes Information Always

Health and Temperament GUARANTEED!

Blacks and Livers And now in Canada….LUA Dalmatians

SPOTLIGHT

(low uric acid)

John & Bonnie Hetherington | Alberta, Canada

(403) 729.2227 | jbh@echoview.ca

www.echoview.ca CDNdogs.ca

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German Pinscher

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German Shepherd Dog


German Shepherd Dog

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SPOTLIGHT

German Shepherd Dog


German Shepherd Dog

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German Shepherd Dog


German Shepherd Dog

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Havanese


Havanese

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Havanese


Lagotto Romagnolo

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Mastiff


Mudi

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Poodle (Standard)

DAWIN POODLES Quality pups from genetically screened breeding stock. Health and temperament a priority.

SPOTLIGHT

Loving healthy quality pups from genetically screened breeding stock. Our dogs excel in the showring, in the obedience & agility rings and as loving pets! Home of some of the top Poodles in both the US and Canada over the last 25 years.

84 Woodlawn Ave W, Toronto, On, M4V 1G7 (416) 923-7930 | dawinpoodles@gmail.com

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Poodle (Standard)

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SPOTLIGHT

Portuguese Water Dog


Portuguese Water Dog | Retriever (golden)

Portuguese Water Dogs

Skipnstone Kennels Lawrie Eubank & Charlotte Etue

We are a family breeder and have been involved with raising, showing, working and breeding PWD’s over many years. At 7-8 weeks of age, we do temperament and conformation testing with the puppies to ensure that each of the puppy buyers receives the pup best suited to their family. Puppies are available to select homes. We initiate crate training, outside playtime, socializing with our adult dogs and lots of visitors of all ages! Lawrie always says that our best dogs are someone’s cherished pet. We are available to answer your questions about Portuguese Water Dogs and puppy rearing. 5th generation of championed, health tested puppies bred for excellence in health, temperament, and structure. 5249 Wales Cres Copenhagen RR2 Aylmer ON (519) 651-3441 | skipnstone@gmail.com

skipnstone.ca

SPOTLIGHT

www.

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SPOTLIGHT

Retriever (Golden) | Retriever (Labrador)


SPOTLIGHT

Reg’d

KJAQ ROTTWEILERS

Rottweiler

KJAQRottweilers.ca Judy.Maechtel@sympatico.ca (705) 737.0026 1361 Hendrie Rd. Minesing, ON L9X 0Y9

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SPOTLIGHT

Schnauzer (Giant)


Shetland Sheepdog

HERDABOUT SHELTIES PERM. REG’D Breeding structurally sound, well balanced dog for all venues. PEDIGREE indicates what the dog SHOULD be. CONFORMATION indicates what the dog APPEARS to be. PERFORMANCE indicates what the dog actually IS.

PUPPIES WITH POTENTIAL At Herdabout Perm. Reg’d our dogs are NOT just a hobby, but a lifetime commitment.

SPOTLIGHT

We are professional dog trainers who actively compete with our dogs in Conformation, Agility, Obedience, and Rally. Our puppies are raised in an enriched environment with an extensive

socialization and desensitivity program that begins with the “super puppy” program at just 3 days of age. We offer a lifetime guarantee against Hip Dysplasia, Degenerative Myelopathy, Collie Eye Anomoly, Chordial Hypoplasia, and VwD Affected.

All puppies are tested for general temperament and working potential at 7.5 weeks of age.

sheltieland@rogers.com

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SPOTLIGHT

Spaniel (Welsh Springer)


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SPOTLIGHT Spaniel (Welsh Springer) | White Shepherd | Wheaten Terrier (Soft-Coated)


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SPOTLIGHT

Yorkshire Terrier


Yorkshire Terrier)

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ALBERTA

Konfident Kanines

Dog Friendship Inc. – Helen Prinold

Does not dominate – We educate! We adhere to a balanced training approach focused on establishing a reliable partnership between you and your dog that is founded on the building blocks of trust, respect confidence and loyalty. KKI will guide you skillfully along a path that will lead to a lifelong partnership between you and your dog. (403) 651-7987; larry@konfidentkanines.com; www.konfidentkanines.com

Making a difference in the world…one dog at a time. Free puppy classes, basic obedience and family manners training, fun-agility, develop your own service dog and more! Certified trainers (CPDT-KA, M.Sc. Animal Behaviour) in an indoor, air-conditioned hall, rubber flooring, cleaned to veterinary standards. If you want to stop saying “no, no, bad dog” just give us a call! We also specialize in solving behaviour issues like jumping up, separation anxiety and aggression. (226) 500-3647; info@dogfriendship.com; www.dogfriendship.com

Pest 2 Pet, Inc. – Reanne Heuston

Odette’s K9 Solutions

Flexible Group Classes taught by a certified professional trainer. Empowering puppies and teaching appropriate social skills, while desensitizing them to a stimulating and safe environment. Adorning adolescent dogs with multiple skills including advanced play skills, target training, polite greetings and manners, recall and problem-solving. Adventure skills such as Hiking, Camping, Brain games and Holiday Skills are included in a class package. Private lessons available for advanced behaviour issues, aggression, reactivity, house training, recall, dog socials, separation anxiety, multiple species (cats, horses, rabbits, birds). Training and behaviour workshops available on multiple topics for rescues, 4H clubs, breed clubs, vet clinics, training clubs. (403) 669-2561; info@pest2pet.com; www.pest2pet.com

BRITISH COLUMBIA Canine Conduct Training Solutions – Janet Neve Teaching the Human End of the Leash. Jane will share with you over 30 years of training experience and on-going education. Teaching PK and Manners classes to any behavioural issue. Private or group lessons available. “My dog is perfect except for....” solutions available! A force-free, do no harm approach. (250) 898-3173; info@canineconduct.ca; www.canineconduct.ca

Go Dog Go! Dog Training – Lynne Fedorick, CPDT-KA An independently accredited CCPDT, CTDI dog trainer in Black Creek, BC. Lynne gets even the most unruly dogs paying attention using obedience training techniques that focus on humane, positive, gentle dog training that gets dogs on the fast track to good behaviour. Lynne has specialized in obedience, tricks, scent training, puppy training and rescue dog rehabilitation since 1995. Go Dog Go!’s own Super Puppy program produces problem free dogs that are at the top in any field. (250) 792-3515; forest-rider@hotmail.com; www.bcdogtrainer.com

MANITOBA

Prairieburn K9 Academy – Debbi McArthur Hands-on experience training over 600 dogs, many of which were aggressive and reactive. She has the ability to connect with dogs and teach owners how to understand dog communication to earn trust, respect and create a calm state of mind. (204) 856-9764; debbi@prairieburn.ca; www.prairieburn.ca

NOVA SCOTIA PAWS for Family and Friends – Susan Jordan (902) 499-7569; smjpaws@hotmail.com; www.pawsforfamilyandfriends.ca

ONTARIO Carolark: The Canine Learning Centre

Odette helps find creative solutions for training needs, using a balanced approach. From puppy issues to behavioral issues: proving ongoing support and the tools necessary to achieve your training goals. She is passionate, patient, motivational and dedicated to helping you succeed. (519) 321-1792; info@odettesk9solutions.com; www.odettesk9solutions.com

Pawsitive Spirit Training & Wellness – Debra Pearse

Our consistent, clear training based on TRUST, not FEAR helps you to better understand and communicate with your dog. We specialize in positive reinforcement training and are proudly Veterinarian Recommended! We teach puppy classes, obedience, agility, tricks, 4 Paw Fitness and behaviour modification - indoors, outdoors and in your own home! (705) 725-0665; pawsitivespirit@bell.net; www.PawsitiveSpirit.com

Regine’s Dog Training – Regine Manicom (519) 371-4785; reginewm@gmail.com; www.dogtrainingowensound.ca

Shake-a-Paw Dog Training – Paola Hoger (613) 989-3647; info@dogtraining.ca; www.dogtraining.ca

The Dog Nanny. “Causing PAIN is No Way to TRAIN”. Group & Private Classes: All Levels of Obedience, FUNgility, Rally-O, Scenting, CGN/Therapy Prep Course and Behavioural Modification (Privates). Marcia Murray-Stoof, Certified Canine Behaviourist (B. Sc), Certified Professional Dog Training Instructor (Over 30 years experience). (705) 436-4158; thedognanny@bell.net; www.dognanny.ca

True Instincts Dog Training – Holly Forrest, CPDT-KA (905) 741-5810; holly@trueinstincts.ca; www.trueinstincts.ca

SASKATCHEWAN Paws Republic trainers Offer a large variety of training options for all breeds and stages of life! Puppy training, obedience, agility, tracking, treibball, behaviour modification, therapy and service dog training and MORE! We help each client reach their goals using tools and techniques suited to each dog and handler team. Call us and let us help you and your dog reach full potential! (306) 934-PAWS/7297; pawsrepublic@gmail.com

(613) 591-3277; carolark@carolark.com; www.carolark.com

Dave McMahon’s Dog Training Academy – Dave McMahon All Breed Obedience Training for the family dog. We specialize in problem-solving & rehabilitating dogs. Professional Member of the IACP. Host of the Dog Talk Radio Show Mondays nights at 7:05 pm till 8:00 pm on 610am Radio CKTB & www.610cktb.com. The only radio talk show in Canada completely dedicated to dogs.(905) 358-4515; www.davemcmahon.ca

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ADVERTISE IN CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL OR ON CDNDOGS.CA CALL: (866) 764-1212 ext 315 EMAIL: ads@CDNdogs.ca

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C H E C K O U T T H E CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL W E B S IT E ! GREAT INFORMATION FANTASTIC CONTESTS AND MUCH MORE!

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SCRAMBLE urrepdbe ingrinta mcnanioop aioeuhbrv gominorg atli pypup ebltates otys lhsea esbt infder fehtc owfo ltirste Now unscramble the circled letters to reveal the mystery answer…

DOGS HAVE A HARD TIME WATCHING TV BECAUSE THEY ALWAYS HIT THIS:

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Profile for Redstone Media Group

Canadian Dogs Annual 2018  

5 Pet Food Ingredients to Avoid, The Truth About Canine emotions, Hockey Stars and their Dogs, 15 Cancer-Fighting Foods, How Dog's Detect Di...

Canadian Dogs Annual 2018  

5 Pet Food Ingredients to Avoid, The Truth About Canine emotions, Hockey Stars and their Dogs, 15 Cancer-Fighting Foods, How Dog's Detect Di...