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September 2013 | Vol. 2 | Issue 5 | Price ` 10

a‑m[‑ya\‑n_²a‑mb c‑m{‑ã‑o-b-s‑a¶‑v C¶s‑¯ c‑m{‑ã‑obs‑¯ h‑nf‑nt‑¡ï‑n h-c‑p¶‑p. c‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑ns‑â {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑X‑mS‑n¯dIs‑fb‑p‑w {‑]{‑I‑nb‑mk‑z`‑mhs‑¯b‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w A«‑nad‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v C‑u c‑m{‑ã‑obþa‑m[‑yak¦e\‑w k‑w-`-h‑n-¡‑p¶X‑v F¶b‑n-S-¯‑mW‑v C‑u ]‑p¯³ {‑]X‑n`‑mk‑w ]T\h‑p‑w h‑niIe\h‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w Bhi‑ys‑¸S‑p¶X‑v. "c‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑ns‑â t‑\À¡‑mg‑v¨‑' F¶‑p‑w "ka‑ql¯‑nt‑e¡‑v X‑nc‑n¨‑p ]‑nS‑n¨ I®‑mS‑n‑' F¶‑p‑w aä‑p‑w h‑nf‑w_c‑w s‑N¿s‑¸-S‑p¶ C‑u I‑mg‑vt‑¨‑mÂkh¯‑ns‑â s‑]‑mc‑ps‑f´‑v ? FÃ‑m‑w k‑pX‑mc‑ya‑mb‑n I‑mWs‑¸-S‑p¶ C‑u Z‑ri‑y¡®‑mS‑nb‑n s‑Xf‑n-b‑p¶X‑n F{‑X kX‑y‑w? F{‑X s‑]‑m¿‑v ? c‑m{‑ã‑obs‑¯ h‑mc‑n¸‑n-S‑n-¡‑p¶ a‑m[‑yah‑nce‑pIÄ¡‑nSb‑ne‑qs‑S t‑N‑mÀ¶‑p t‑]‑m-I‑p¶s‑X´‑v‑, \‑o¡‑n_‑m¡‑ns‑b´‑v ?


ap³t] \Sóhsc ]cnNbs¸Sp¯mw...

]{X{]hÀ¯\cwK¯v \ap¡p aptó \Sóhsc Cu Xeapdbv¡pw hcpw Xeapdbv¡pw ]cnNbs¸Sp¯m\pÅ Hcp {iaamWv tIcf {]kv A¡mZanbpsS sh_vsskänse Stalwarts of Journalism from Kerala (http://pressacademy.org/stalwarts) Fó hn`mKw. tIcf¯nse am[yacwKs¯ hgnIm«nIfmbhtcbpw adp\mSpIfnð ] {X{]hÀ¯\cwK¯v hyànap{Z]Xn¸n¨ aebmfnItfbpw Ct¸mgs¯ apXnÀó am[ya{]hÀ¯Itcbpw Ipdn¨pÅ hnhc§fmWv Cu hn`mK¯nð. a×dªhtcm Adp]XphbÊp ]nón«htcm Bb apXnÀó am[ya{]hÀ¯IcpsS t^mt«mbpw eLpPohNcn{X¡pdn¸pw mail@pressacademy.org Fó Csabvente¡v Ab¨p Xóv Cu kwcw`hpambn hmb\¡mÀ¡pw klIcn¡mw.


sk]vXw_À 2013 $ ]pkvXIw 2 $ e¡w 5 $ hne ` 10

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a‑m[‑ya‑w‑, c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w‑, ic‑oc‑w k‑n. K‑uc‑oZ‑mk³ \‑m-bÀ

At‑\‑z-j-W‑m-ß-I ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯\‑w: A-\‑p-`-h-§Ä‑, ]‑mT§Ä s‑P.t‑K‑m-]‑o-I‑r-j‑vW³

FUntämdnbð Students’ Corner J. V. Vil’anilam

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AU‑z. U‑n. _‑n. _‑n\‑p

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Bd‑p ]-X‑n-ä‑m-ï‑n-s‑â {‑i‑o-[-c‑o-b‑w

sI. Fð. taml\hÀ½

a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑p‑w h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nbah‑p‑w

s‑I. h‑n-i‑z-\‑mY‑v

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What does ‘Freelance’ Journalism mean? Dr. Shoma A. Chatterji

38

a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w \‑y‑q\]£§fpw Ak‑vKÀ Ae‑n Fôn\‑obÀ

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A\pkvacWw Lighthouse

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Bookshelf

46 47

Ashok R Chandran

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FUntämdnbð

-H‑mÀ-a‑n-t‑¡-ï-X‑p-ï‑v F-t‑¸‑m-g‑p-s‑a-t‑¸‑m-g‑p‑w...

tkm Editor N. P. Rajendran Chairman, Kerala Press Academy Editorial Board E. P. Shajuddeen Chief News Editor, Mangalam, Kozhikode N. Rajesh News Editor, Madhyamam, Kozhikode M. P. Suryadas Chief Sub Editor, Mathrubhumi, Kozhikode P. Sujathan Political Editor, Veekshanam, Kochi T. R. Madhukumar News Editor, Deshabhimani, Kozhikode C. N. Mohanan Manager, Deshabhimani, Kochi Editorial Assistant P. Salil Design & Layout Praveen Ophelia Printer & Publisher V. R. Ajith Kumar Secretary, Kerala Press Academy Address 'Media' Kerala Press Academy Kakkanad, Kochi - 682 030 Phone: 0484 2422275 E-Mail: media.kpa@gmail.com Website: www.pressacademy.org Subscribe ‘Media’ Single Issue: ` 10 Annual Subscription: ` 100 Advertisement tariff Back cover: Color: ` 25,000 Inside cover: Color: ` 20,000 Inside B&W: ` 15,000

sk]vXw_À 2013

-f‑mÀ B-I-s‑«‑, e‑m-h‑v-e‑n³ B-Is‑«‑, ]-£‑w a‑m-d‑p-s‑a-¶ h‑y-X‑y‑m k-t‑a DÅ‑q. H-c‑p ]-£‑w F-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä-s‑¡-X‑n-s‑c h‑m-t‑f‑m-§‑n \‑nÂ-¡‑p-¶‑p-ï‑m-h‑p‑w. a‑m-[‑y-a-§-t‑f‑m-S‑p-Å A-aÀ-j-¯‑n h‑y-X‑y‑mk-a‑nÃ. t‑c‑m-j‑w s‑N‑m-c‑n-b‑p-¶-hÀ B-c‑v F-¶-X‑n-t‑e h‑y-X‑y‑m-k-a‑pÅ‑q. {‑]-X‑n-]£-¯‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ a‑m-[‑y-a-§-t‑f‑m-S‑v h-e‑n-b k‑v-t‑\-lh‑p‑w ]-c‑n-K-W-\-b‑p-a‑m-W‑v. a‑m-[‑y-a§Ä-s‑¡-X‑n-s‑c D-b-c‑p-¶ h‑n-aÀ-i-\§-s‑f X-S‑p-¡‑m³ A-hÀ ]-c‑n-N-t‑b´‑p‑w. `-c-W-¯‑n-s‑e-¯‑n-b‑m Ø‑n-X‑n a‑m-d‑p‑w. FÃ‑m-h-c‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w XÃ‑v h‑m-§‑m³ s‑X-c‑p-t‑h‑mc-¯‑v s‑I-«‑n-¯‑q¡‑n-b s‑N-ï t‑]‑ms‑e \‑nÂ-¸‑mW‑v a‑m-[‑y-a-§-Ä. h‑nh‑m-Z-§Ä I-¯‑n-¸-S-c‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ k‑z‑m-`‑m-h‑n-I-a‑mb‑p‑w h‑n-h‑m-Z-h‑n-j-b-¯‑n-e‑p-Å a‑m-[‑y-a-X‑m-e‑v-]c‑y‑w D-b-c‑p‑w. I‑q-S‑p-X A-d‑n-b‑m-\‑p-Å k‑m-[‑m-c-W-a-\‑p-j‑y-c‑p-s‑S B-{‑K-l‑w X‑r-]‑v-X‑n-s‑¸-S‑p¯‑p-I F¶-X‑v a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-c‑p-s‑S N‑p-a-X-e-b‑m-W‑v. k‑w-i-b-a‑nÃ. A-d‑n-b‑m-\‑p-Å A-h-I‑m-i‑w P-\-§Ä-¡‑p-s‑ï-¦‑n A-d‑n-b‑n-¡‑m-\‑pÅ _‑m-[‑y-X-b‑n \‑n-¶‑v a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä-¡‑v H-g‑n-ª‑p-a‑m-d‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑nÃ. A-t‑¸‑mÄ h‑mÀ-¯-b‑p-s‑S H-c‑p X‑p-¼‑v ]‑n-S‑n-¨‑v a‑p-t‑¶‑m-«‑p-t‑]‑m-b‑m a-t‑ä X‑p-¼‑v hs‑c F-¯‑nt‑b X‑o-c‑q F-¶‑p-h-c‑p¶‑p. C-s‑X‑m-c‑p ]c-¡‑w ]‑m-¨‑n-e‑mW‑v. a-Õ-c-¸‑m-¨‑n-e‑mW‑v. C‑u H‑m-«-¯‑n i-c‑nb‑p‑w s‑Xä‑p‑w X‑n-c‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑m-s‑X t‑]‑m-I‑p-¶‑pt‑ï‑m h‑mÀ-¯‑mt‑\‑z-j-IÀ-¡‑v? i-c‑n-s‑X-ä‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S h‑n-t‑hN-\‑w X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w D-t‑]-£‑n-¨‑p-Å ]c-¡‑w ]‑m-¨‑n-e‑m-h‑p-¶‑pt‑ï‑m a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯-\‑w? F-I‑v-k‑v-¢‑q-k‑o-h‑p-IÄ-¡‑v a‑m-{‑XaÃ‑, B-ß-]-c‑n-t‑i‑m-[-\-b‑v¡‑p‑w ka-b‑w I-s‑ï-t‑¯-ï-X‑p-ï‑v. h‑mÀ-¯ I-s‑ï-¯-e‑m-W‑v N‑p-aX-e. A-X‑n-e‑m-W‑v a‑n-S‑p¡‑v. C-X‑n-s‑e aÕ-c‑w a‑p-t‑¶-d‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ‑, DÅ h‑mÀ-¯ I-s‑ï-¯‑n-b‑m t‑]‑mc‑m‑, CÃ‑m¯ h‑mÀ-¯ D-ï‑m-¡e‑p‑w X-§-f‑p-s‑S ]-W‑n-b‑m-W‑v F-¶ \‑n-e-b‑p-ï‑m-I‑p-¶‑p. N‑m-\-e‑n h‑n-f‑n¨‑p-]-d-b‑p-¶-X‑p‑w ]-{‑X-¯‑n s‑h-ï-¡-b‑n A-¨-S‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑p‑w s‑hd‑p‑w t‑I-«‑pt‑IÄ-h‑n-s‑b a‑m{‑X‑w A-S‑n-Ø‑m-\-a‑m-¡‑n-b‑p-Å A-]-h‑m-Z-§f‑p‑w B-t‑c‑m-]-W-§-f‑p‑w B-I‑m³ ]‑m-S‑p-t‑ï‑m? N‑m-\-e‑n ]-I a‑p-g‑p-h³ NÀ-¨ s‑N-¿‑p-¶ I‑m-c‑y-§Ä ]‑n-t‑ä-¶‑v ]{‑X‑w t‑\‑m-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ DÄ-t‑¸-P‑n-s‑e H-ä-t‑¡‑m-f‑w s‑l-Í‑n-§‑p-t‑]‑m-e‑pa‑m-h‑m-s‑X h‑n-k‑v-a-‑rX-a‑m-I‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ h‑mÀ-¯-b‑p-s‑S h‑n-i‑z‑mk‑y-X F-h‑n-s‑S s‑N¶‑p-\‑n-¡‑p‑w? a‑n-S‑p-¡-\‑m-s‑W-¶‑v s‑X-f‑n-b‑n-¡‑m³ s‑N-¸-S‑n-h‑n-Z‑y-IÄ I‑m-t‑«-ï‑n h-c‑p-¶‑pt‑ï‑m a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯I\‑v? s‑N-¸-S‑n-h‑n-Z‑y-¡‑mc-s‑\ k‑z´‑w -Ø‑m-]-\‑w A-`‑n-\-µ-\h‑p‑w A‑w-K‑o-I‑m-ch‑p‑w Ø‑m-\-¡-b-äh‑p‑w \ÂI‑n -t‑{‑]‑m-Õ‑m-l‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-Ib‑mt‑W‑m s‑N-¿‑p-¶-X‑v? C-X‑m-W‑v a‑m-X‑rI‑, C‑u h-g‑n k‑z‑o-I-c‑n-¡‑q F¶‑v a-ä‑p-Å-ht‑c‑m-S‑p‑w ]-d-b‑p-I-b‑m-t‑W‑m B Ø‑m]-\‑w? h‑mÀ-¯ I-s‑ï-¯e‑p‑w h‑mÀ-¯ k‑rã‑n¡e‑p‑w X-½‑n he‑n-b A-I-e-s‑a‑m¶‑p-a‑nÃ‑m-X‑m-h‑p¶‑p. e£‑y‑w a‑mÀK-s‑¯ \‑y‑m-b‑o-I-c‑n¡‑p‑w F-¶‑v h‑n-i‑z-k‑n-¡‑p-¶ X-¯‑z-i‑m-k‑v-{‑X-§-f‑pï‑v. A-X‑n-s‑\ ]‑n³-]-ä‑p-¶-hÀ a‑mÀ-K-¯‑n-s‑e s‑X-ä‑pI-s‑f I‑p-d‑n-¨‑v B-t‑e‑m-N‑n-¡‑m-t‑d CÃ. b‑p-²-¯‑ne‑p‑w t‑{‑]-a-¯‑ne‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w \‑y‑m-b‑w F-s‑¶‑m-c‑p C‑w-¥‑oj‑v ]-g-s‑©‑mÃ‑p-ï-t‑Ã‑m. F-´‑n-\‑m-W‑v t‑{‑]-a-s‑¯ I‑q-«‑p-]‑n-S‑n¨-s‑X-¶‑v A-d‑n-b‑nÃ. C-¶‑v FÃ‑m‑w b‑p²-a‑m-W‑v. B-t‑c‑m-K‑y-I-ca‑m-b a-Õ-c-§Ä t‑]‑me‑p‑w I-g‑p-¯-d‑p-¸³ P‑o-h-·-c-W-t‑]‑m-c‑m«§-f‑m-h‑p¶‑p. C‑u b‑p-²-§-f‑n ]-e-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w h‑mÀ-¯IÄ s‑h-S‑n-t‑¡‑m-¸‑p-I-f‑m-h‑p¶‑p. a‑m-d‑n-\‑n-¶‑v I‑m-W‑p-Ib‑p‑w A-d‑n-b‑p-I-b‑p‑w ]‑n-s‑¶ A-d‑n-b‑n-¡‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑N-t‑¿-ï-h-c‑n N‑n-e-s‑c-¦‑ne‑p‑w s‑hS‑n-t‑¡‑m-t‑¸´‑n b‑p-²-¯‑n ]-¦‑m-f‑n-I-f‑m-h‑p-¶‑nt‑Ã? c‑m-j‑v{‑S‑o-b-¯‑ne‑p‑w h‑y‑m-]‑mc-¯‑ne‑p‑w h‑y-h-k‑m-b-¯‑n-e‑p‑w a‑m-{‑X-aà a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯-\-¯‑n-e‑p‑w e£‑y‑w I‑m-W‑m³ F-´‑p‑w-s‑N¿‑m‑w F-¶ \‑n-e-b‑p-ï‑m-I‑p-¶‑p. e‑m-`-t‑¯-¡‑mÄ [‑mÀ-a‑n-I-X-b‑v¡‑v D‑u-¶Â \Â-I‑p¶ H-c‑p I-¨-h-Sh‑p‑w CÃ‑mX‑m-b I‑me-¯‑v a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯\-s‑¯ a‑m{‑X‑w I‑p-ä-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p¶-X‑v F-´‑n-


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\‑v F-¶ ]-c‑n`-h‑w ]-e-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w D-bÀ-¶‑p-t‑IÄ-¡‑m-d‑pï‑v. s‑s‑Z-h‑n-I-X-b‑p-Å s‑{‑]‑m-^-j-\‑p-If‑m-b s‑s‑h-Z‑yh‑p‑w h‑n-Z‑y‑m-Z‑m-\h‑p‑w h-s‑c a‑q-e-[-\-\‑n-t‑£-]-¯‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w e‑m-`-¯‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w a‑m{‑X‑w a‑m-\Z-Þ-§-f‑m h‑n-e-b‑n-c‑p-¯-s‑¸-S‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ a‑m-[‑y-a‑w a‑m-{‑X-s‑a-§-s‑\ k-X‑y-¯‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w s‑]‑m-X‑p\-·-b‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w \‑n-k‑z‑mÀ-°-X-b‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w {‑]-X‑o-I-a‑m-b‑n \‑n-e-s‑¡‑mÅ‑p‑w? h‑mÀ-¯-b‑n-eÃ‑, H¸‑w s‑I‑m-S‑p-¡‑p¶ ]-c-k‑y-¯‑n-e‑m-W‑v X-§Ä-¡‑v X‑m-e‑v-]-c‑y-s‑a-¶‑v a‑m-[‑y-a-Ø‑m-]-\-§Ä ]-c-k‑y-a‑m-b‑n ]-d-b‑m³ a-S‑n-¡‑m-¯ I‑me-¯‑v C-s‑X‑m«‑p‑w A-Û‑p-X-a‑p-f-h‑m-¡‑p-¶‑nÃ. I‑q-S‑p-X B-f‑p-I-f‑n-t‑e-¡‑v X-§-f‑p-s‑S k‑r-ã‑n F-¯-W‑w F-¶‑m-{‑K-l‑n-¡‑m-¯-h-c‑nÃ. k‑z‑m-`‑m-h‑n-I-a‑m-b C‑u C-Ñ-b‑p-s‑S Ak‑z‑m-`‑m-h‑n-Ia‑m-b ]-c‑n-W‑ma-a‑m-W‑v I‑q-S‑p-X B-f‑p-IÄ-¡‑v B-k‑z‑m-Z‑y-a‑m-b-X‑p-a‑m{‑X‑w k‑r-ã‑n¡‑p-I F-¶X‑v. C-¡‑m-c‑y-¯‑n a‑m-[‑y-a-Ø‑m-]-\-¯‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-s‑âb‑p‑w X‑m-e‑v-]c‑y‑w H-¶‑mb‑n a‑m-d‑p¶‑p. h‑mÀ-¯ B-IÀ-j-I-a‑m-h-W‑w‑, h‑n-h‑m-Z-a‑m-IW‑w‑, B-I‑p-¶‑n-s‑Ã-¦‑n B¡W‑w. A-t‑¸‑m-t‑g I‑q-S‑p-X B-f‑p-IÄ h‑m§‑q‑, I‑mW‑q. A-t‑¸‑m-t‑g I‑q-S‑p-X h-c‑p-a‑m-\‑w I‑n-«‑q... C‑u Z‑q-j‑n-X-h-e-b-¯‑n-s‑â ]‑n-S‑n-b‑nÂ-\‑n-¶‑v c-£-s‑¸S‑p-I F-f‑p-¸-aÃ. F-´‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑m-W‑v \‑m-s‑S‑m-«‑p¡‑p‑w a‑m-[‑y-a-s‑k-a‑n-\‑m-d‑pIÄ ]-IÀ-¨-h‑y‑m-[‑n t‑]‑m-s‑e s‑]-c‑p-I‑p¶-X‑v? c‑m-j‑v{‑S‑o-ba‑m-b I‑m-c-W-§-f‑m a‑m-[‑y-a§-s‑f h‑n-aÀ-i‑n-¡‑m³ C-X‑v D-]-t‑b‑m-K-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p¶-hÀ D-ï‑m-I‑m‑w. ]-t‑£‑, FÃ‑m-hc‑p‑w A-¯-c-¡‑mcÃ. a‑m-[‑y-a-§-f‑mW‑v‑, t‑^‑mÀ-¯‑v F-t‑Ì-ä‑m-W‑v X-§-f‑p-s‑S i-Ð‑w‑, A-X‑v X-IÀ-¶‑m ]‑uc-s‑â A-h-k‑m\-s‑¯ B-{‑i-bh‑p‑w CÃ‑m-X‑m-h‑p‑w F¶ \‑y‑m-ba‑m-b B-i-¦-b‑mh‑m‑w a‑m-[‑y-a§-s‑f I‑p-d‑n-¨‑p-Å NÀ-¨¡‑p‑w s‑k-a‑n-\‑m-d‑p-IÄ¡‑p‑w t‑{‑]-c-Wb‑m-h‑p-¶X‑v. [À-a-t‑_‑m-[-a‑p-Å‑, P-\-§-t‑f‑m-S‑v D-¯-c-h‑m-Z‑n-¯-a‑p-Å t‑^‑mÀ-¯‑v F-t‑Ì-ä‑v F¶-X‑v A-h-c‑p-s‑S B-i-b‑m-W‑v, {‑]-X‑o-£-b‑mW‑v. t‑^‑mÀ-¯‑v F-t‑Ì-ä‑v \‑m-e‑ma-s‑¯ F-t‑Ì-ä‑v a‑m-{‑X-a‑mW‑v. a‑q-s‑¶-®‑w A-X‑n-\‑v a‑p-¶‑n-e‑pï‑v. C‑u a‑q-¶‑ne‑p‑w {‑]-hÀ-¯‑n-¡‑p-¶-hÀ t‑]‑me‑p‑w A-h-c‑p-s‑S k-t‑½-f\-§-f‑n X-§-f‑p-s‑S F-t‑Ì-ä‑n-s‑\ I‑p-d‑n-s‑¨‑m-¶‑p‑w-NÀ-¨ s‑N¿‑m-s‑X t‑^‑mÀ-¯‑v F-t‑Ì-ä‑n-s‑\ I‑p-d‑n¨‑v h‑m-N‑m-e-c‑m-h‑p-¶ X-a‑m-i C-t‑¸‑m-Ä kÀ-h-k‑m-[‑m-c-W-a‑m-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. A-X‑p-t‑]‑me‑p‑w ]-c‑n-l-k‑n-¡s‑¸-t‑S-ï I‑m-c‑y-aÃ. \‑n-b-a-\‑nÀ-a‑m-Wþ \‑nÀh-l-W h‑n-`‑m-K-¯‑n-s‑â A-]-N-b-¯‑n\‑p‑w D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-Ø _‑y‑q-t‑d‑m-{‑I-k‑n-¡‑p‑w F-X‑n-s‑c a‑m-{‑XaÃ‑, H-c‑p ]-c‑n-[‑nh-s‑c P‑p-U‑o-j‑y-d‑n-b‑p-s‑S h‑o-g‑v-N-IÄ-s‑¡-X‑n-s‑c t‑]‑m-e‑p-a‑p-Å ]‑uc-s‑â B-h-\‑m-g‑n-b‑n-s‑e A-h-k‑m\-s‑¯ A-¼‑v a‑m-[‑ya-a‑m-W‑v P-\‑w C-t‑¸‑m-g‑p‑w I-c‑p-X‑p-¶-‑p-ï‑v F-¶‑m-W‑v C-X‑n-\À°‑w. C‑u ]-d-b‑p-¶-X‑n-s‑e‑m¶‑p‑w H«‑p‑w ]‑p-X‑p-a-b‑nà F-¶‑v k-½-X‑n-¡s‑«. ]‑n-s‑¶-s‑b-´‑n-\‑v ]‑n-s‑¶b‑p‑w ]‑n-s‑¶b‑p‑w ]-d-b‑p-¶‑p F-¶‑v t‑N‑m-Z‑n-¡-c‑pX‑v. C-X‑v ]‑n-s‑¶b‑p‑w ]‑n-s‑¶b‑p‑w H‑m-À-a‑n¸‑nt‑¡-ï I‑m-c‑y-a‑m-b‑n a‑m-d‑n-s‑¡‑m-ï‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. h‑n-aÀ-i-I-c‑p-s‑S i-I‑m-c§-s‑f A-h-K-W‑n-¡‑m‑w. ] t‑£‑, k‑z-´‑w a-\-Ê‑m-£‑n-b‑p-s‑S i-Ð‑w t‑I-«‑n-s‑Ã-¶‑v \-S‑n-¨‑p-I‑qS‑m. s‑X‑m-g‑n-e‑n-s‑â ]‑m-X-b‑n-e‑p-S-\‑of‑w {‑]-t‑e‑m-`-\-§f‑p‑w {‑]-t‑I‑m-]-\-§f‑p‑w F-t‑¸‑m-g‑pa‑p-ï‑v \-s‑½ h-g‑n-s‑X-ä‑n-¡‑m³. C¶-s‑¯ s‑Nd‑n-b e‑m-`-§Ä-¡‑p‑w {‑]-X‑n-I‑m-c-§Ä¡‑p‑w t‑h-ï‑n- \‑mf-s‑b a-d-¶‑p-I‑q-S‑m... tIcf {]kv A¡mZan `cW kanXn sNbÀam³: F³. ]n. cmtP{µ³ (sU]yq«n FUnäÀ, amXr`qan) sshkv sNbÀam³: sI. kn. cmPtKm]mð (aebmfat\mca, {]knUâv, sI.bp.U»yp.sP.) FIvknIyq«ohv t_mÀUv: Fw. Fkv. chn (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ, tIcfIuapZn), F³. cmtPjv (\yqkvFUnäÀ, am[yaw, tImgnt¡mSv), UbdÎÀ, ]»nIv dntej³kv, sk{I«dn (^n\m³kv Un¸mÀ«vsaâv), sk{I«dn (P\dð AUvan\nt{Ìj³) P\dð Iu¬knð: Sn. BÀ. a[pIpamÀ (kvt]mÀSvkv FUnäÀ, tZim`nam\n, sIm¨n), C. ]n. jmPp±o³ (No^v \yqkv FUnäÀ, awKfw, tImgnt¡mSv), Fw.]n. kqcyZmkv (No^v k_v FUnäÀ, amXr`qan, tImgnt¡mSv), Fkv. _nPp (No^v tImÀUnt\än§v FUnäÀ, Gjyms\äv \yqkv, Xncph\´]pcw), kn. F³. taml\³ (amt\PÀ, tZim`nam\n, sIm¨n), _nPp hÀ¤okv (amt\Pn§v FUnäÀ, awKfw), ]n. ]n. k®n (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ, Zo]nI), sI. Fw. tdmbv (ko\nbÀ tPWenÌv), It¡mS³ apl½Zv, hn. F. kenw (sdknUâv amt\PÀ, am[yaw, FdWmIpfw), sP. Fkv. CµpIpamÀ (FIvknIyq«ohv FUnäÀ, Pbvlnµv Snhn), hn. cmPtKm]mð (ap³ sU]yq«n FUnäÀ, amXr`qan, tImgnt¡mSv), ]n. kpPmX³ (s]mfnän¡ð FUnäÀ, ho£Ww), t__n amXyp (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ & sshkv sNbÀam³, Poh³ Snhn), sNdpIc k®n eqt¡mkv (kvs]jð Idkvt]mïâv, tIcfiÐw) sk{I«dn: hn. BÀ. APnXv IpamÀ AknÌâ v sk{I«dn: F³. ]n. kt´mjv

sk]vXw_À 2013


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k‑n. K‑uc‑oZ‑mk³ \‑m-bÀ

a‑m[‑ya‑w‑, c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w‑, ic‑oc‑w I‑mW‑madb¯‑v k‑w-`-h‑n-¡‑p¶ clk‑y‑mßIX \‑ndª Ft‑´‑m H¶‑m-b‑nc‑p¶‑p a‑p³-s‑]‑mc‑p I‑me¯‑v c‑m{‑ã‑obs‑a¦‑n C¶X‑v Z‑ri‑yXb‑ps‑S DÕha‑mb‑n a‑md‑nb‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. AÃ‑, A-X‑n\‑pa¸‑pd‑w Z‑ri‑yaÃ‑m¯-s‑X‑m¶‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑oba-s‑ö‑p‑w h¶‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. c‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w C‑u k‑w{‑IaWI‑me¯‑v Ahb‑ps‑S ]ck‑v]c{‑]X‑n{‑]hÀ¯\s‑¯ X‑nc‑n¨d‑n-b‑m\‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑oba‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑ns‑â ]‑pX‑nb \‑nb‑maIXX‑z§s‑f Cg]‑nc‑ns‑¨S‑p¡‑m\‑pa‑pÅ ]c‑n{‑ia§Ä \-S-¡‑p¶‑n-s‑ö‑p a‑m{‑X‑w.

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cfc‑m{‑ã‑obs‑¯ a‑pJ‑ya‑mb‑p‑w Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑ya§f‑n e‑qs‑S ]‑n-´‑p-S-c‑p¶ Gs‑X‑mc‑mf‑p‑w AÂ]s‑a‑mc‑p h‑nk‑vabt‑¯‑ms‑S X‑nc‑n¨d‑nb‑p Hc‑p I‑mc‑ya‑pï‑v: c‑m{‑ã‑obk‑w`hh‑nI‑mk§Ä¡‑v h¶‑p-t‑NÀ¶‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶ s‑R«‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p¶ KX‑nt‑hKa‑mWX‑v. t‑\c‑w s‑h-f‑p-¡‑p¶t‑X‑ms‑S Xs‑¶ ]‑pX‑nb {‑]i‑v\§f‑p‑w ]‑pX‑nb c‑m{‑ã‑ob{‑] X‑nkÔ‑nIf‑p‑w DSs‑e-S‑p¡‑pIb‑mb‑n. Z‑nhk‑w ]‑pt‑c‑m-Ka‑n-¡‑p¶ a‑pd¡‑v Ahb‑pa‑mb‑n _-Ô-s‑¸« H‑mt‑c‑m {‑] i‑v\§f‑p‑w Xe\‑mc‑ng I‑od‑n ]c‑nt‑i‑m[‑n¡s‑¸-S‑p¶‑p. NÀ¨If‑ne‑qs‑Sb‑p‑w k‑wh‑mZ§f‑ne‑qs‑Sb‑p‑w h-fÀ¶‑v Hc‑p ] c‑nka‑m]‑vX‑nb‑ps‑S [‑z\‑nk‑m[‑yXIt‑f‑ms‑S Z‑nhkahk‑m-\‑n¡‑p¶‑p. AS‑p¯ Z‑nhk‑w a-s‑ä‑mc‑p {‑]i‑v\‑w‑, a-s‑ä‑mc‑p NÀ¨‑, a-s‑ä‑mc‑p ka‑m]‑vX‑n. C§‑ns‑\ k‑ma‑ql‑nIþc‑m{‑ã‑ob{‑] {‑I‑nbIÄ¡‑v D-Å-s‑X¶‑v Ic‑pX‑n-b‑n-c‑p¶ k‑z‑m`‑mh‑nIKX‑nt‑hKs‑¯ A«‑nad‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑ya§Ä c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w s‑s‑II‑mc‑y‑w s‑N¿‑pX‑v. kabþØet‑`Z§f‑p‑w Bibk‑wLÀj§f‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑yb‑ps‑S _‑nµ‑ph‑nt‑e¡‑v Bh‑ml‑n¡s‑¸S‑pI b‑mW‑nh‑ns‑S. H¸‑w c‑m{‑ã‑o-b-¯‑n\‑pÅ‑n-t‑e¡‑pÅ k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑y‑m CSs‑]Se‑ns‑â AZ‑v`‑pXk‑m[‑yXIÄ s‑Xf‑nb‑pIb‑p‑w. I‑mW‑madb¯‑v k‑w-`-h‑n-¡‑p¶ clk‑y‑mßIX \‑ndª Ft‑´‑m H¶‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p a‑p³s‑]‑mc‑p I‑me¯‑v c‑m{‑ã‑obs‑a¦‑n C¶X‑v Z‑ri‑yXb‑ps‑S DÕha‑mb‑n a‑md‑nb‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. AÃ‑, A-X‑n\‑pa¸‑pd‑w Z‑ri‑yaÃ‑m¯-s‑X‑m¶‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑ob-a-s‑ö‑p‑w h¶‑n-c‑n¡‑p¶‑p. c‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w C‑u k‑w{‑IaWI‑me¯‑v Ahb‑ps‑S ]ck‑v]c{‑]X‑n{‑] hÀ¯\s‑¯ X‑nc‑n¨d‑n-b‑m\‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑oba‑m[‑ya{‑] hÀ¯\¯‑ns‑â ]‑pX‑nb \‑nb‑maIXX‑z§s‑f Cg]‑nc‑ns‑¨S‑p¡‑m\‑pa‑pÅ ]c‑n{‑ia§Ä \-S-¡‑p¶‑n-s‑ö‑p a‑m{‑X‑w. sk]vXw_À 2013

c‑m{‑ã‑obc‑wK¯‑v {‑]hÀ-¯‑n¡‑p-hÀ¡‑p‑w‑, Ah‑nS‑ps‑¯ Ne\§s‑f h‑mÀ¯If‑mb‑p‑w Z‑ri‑y§f‑mb‑p‑w P\§f‑nt‑e¡‑v h‑n\‑nab‑w s‑N¿‑p-hÀ¡‑p‑w B h‑mÀ¯If‑p‑w Z‑ri‑y§f‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w s‑s‑Z\‑wZ‑n\P‑oh‑nX¯‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑nb t‑Icf‑o-bÀ¡‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑o-b-s‑a¶X‑v C-s‑¶‑mc‑p A\‑p`hs‑s‑\c´c‑ya‑mW‑v. c‑m{‑ã‑obt‑aJeb‑n \‑nÝeX Fs‑¶‑mchØ¡‑v C¶‑v ]g‑pX‑nÃ. ]‑pX‑nb k‑w`h§f‑p‑w‑, t‑N‑mZ‑y§f‑p‑w‑, At‑\‑zjW§f‑ps‑aÃ‑ma‑mb‑n c‑m{‑ã‑ob{‑] {‑I‑n-b Hc‑pXc¯‑n ic‑mic‑n aeb‑mf‑nb‑ps‑S P‑oh‑nX{‑] {‑I‑n-b-Xs‑¶b‑mb‑n a‑md‑nb‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. k‑m{‑µa‑mb c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑m´c‑o£¯‑n h-fÀ-¶ Hc‑p P\Xb‑ps‑S ]‑n³Xea‑pd B k‑m{‑µXs‑b k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑yb‑ps‑S kl‑mbt‑¯‑ms‑S X‑nc‑n¨‑p]‑nS‑n¡‑m³ \S¯‑p {‑ia‑w. a‑m[‑ya\‑n_²a‑mb c‑m{‑ã‑o-b-s‑a¶‑v C¶s‑¯ c‑m{‑ã‑obs‑¯ AX‑n\‑m Xs‑¶ h‑nf‑nt‑¡ï‑n h-c‑p¶‑p. CX‑v A]‑qÀÆaÃ‑, Ak‑m[‑mcWh‑paÃ. Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑yahfÀ¨‑m k‑mlNc‑y¯‑ne‑qs‑S IS-¶‑ph¶ FÃ‑m P\ka‑ql§f‑p‑w Ct‑X hg‑nb‑ne‑qs‑Sb‑mW‑v k©-c‑n-¨‑n«‑pÅX‑v‑, k-©-c‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. c‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑ns‑â {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑X‑mS‑n¯dIs‑fb‑p‑w {‑]{‑I‑nb‑mk‑z`‑mhs‑¯b‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w A«‑nad‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v C‑u c‑m{‑ã‑obþa‑m[‑yak¦e\‑w k‑w-`-h‑n-¡‑p¶X‑v F¶b‑n-S-¯‑mW‑v C‑u ]‑p¯³ {‑]X‑n`‑mk‑w ]T\h‑p‑w h‑niIe\h‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w Bhi‑ys‑¸-S‑p¶X‑v. "c‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑ns‑â t‑\À¡‑mg‑v¨‑' F¶‑p‑w "ka‑ql¯‑nt‑e¡‑v X‑nc‑n¨‑p ]‑nS‑n¨ I®‑mS‑n‑' F¶‑p‑w aä‑p‑w h‑nf‑w_c‑w s‑N¿s‑¸-S‑p¶ C‑u I‑mg‑vt‑¨‑mÂkh¯‑ns‑â s‑]‑mc‑ps‑f´‑v? FÃ‑m‑w k‑pX‑mc‑ya‑mb‑n I‑mWs‑¸-S‑p¶ C‑u Z‑ri‑y¡®‑mS‑nb‑n s‑Xf‑n-b‑p¶X‑n F{‑X kX‑y‑w? F{‑X s‑]‑m¿‑v? c‑m{‑ã‑obs‑¯ h‑mc‑n¸‑n-S‑n-¡‑p¶ a‑m[‑yah‑nce‑pIÄ¡‑nS-b‑ne‑qs‑S t‑N‑mÀ¶‑p t‑]‑m-I‑p¶s‑X´‑v‑, \‑o¡‑n_‑m¡‑ns‑b´‑v?


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N‑p«‑ps‑]‑m-Å‑p¶ s‑hb‑ne‑n X‑nf¨‑pad‑n-ª‑n-c‑p-¶ Hc‑p c‑m{‑ã‑o-b-s‑¯¡‑pd‑n¨‑v C¶‑v k‑wk‑m-c‑n-¡‑p¶X‑v A{‑]kàa‑mh‑m‑w. F¶‑m A§‑ns‑\-s‑b‑m¶‑pï‑m-b‑nc‑p¶‑p. AX‑n \‑nj‑v¡f¦a‑mb h‑n]c‑oXt‑_‑m[§f‑p‑w \‑nch[‑n h‑yk\§f‑p‑w \‑n-e¡‑m-¯-s‑X¶‑v t‑X‑m¶‑n-¨‑n-c‑p¶ t‑c‑mj§f‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w DÄ-t‑¨À-¶‑n-c‑p¶‑p. t‑Icf‑obP‑oh‑nX‑w ]‑p¯³ AhØIf‑nt‑e¡‑v N‑phS‑pa‑md‑nbt‑X‑ms‑S s‑Xc‑ph‑v c‑m{‑ã‑ob{‑]I‑mi\¯‑ns‑â CSaÃ‑mX‑mb‑n a‑md‑n‑, A§‑ns‑\ ]-d-b‑p¶X‑v HcÂ]‑w IS‑p¯ {‑] t‑b‑mKa‑mb‑n t‑X‑m¶‑ms‑a¦‑ne‑p‑w. N‑p-c‑p«‑nb a‑pã‑n Hc‑p ] gb {‑]X‑na‑m\a‑mb‑n a‑md‑nbX‑ps‑I‑mï‑mh‑m‑w Ah‑ns‑S C¶‑v Act‑§-d‑p¶X‑v Dc‑pf‑pt‑\À¨b‑p‑w i-h-s‑¸«‑nb‑n I‑nS¶‑pÅ kach‑p‑w N§e]‑nS‑p¯h‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡-b‑mW‑v. H‑mt‑c‑m I‑meh‑p‑w AX‑ns‑â kacc‑q]‑w t‑X-S‑p¶‑p F¶X‑v ic‑n Xs‑¶. ]s‑£‑, C‑u ]‑pX‑nb kacc‑q]§f‑ps‑S e£‑y‑w Ahs‑b Xg‑pI‑n ]IÀ¯‑m³ I‑m¯‑p-\‑nÂ-¡‑p¶ \‑nch[‑n I‑y‑mad¡®‑p-I-f‑mI‑pt‑¼‑mÄ Bh‑nj‑v¡‑mc‑w ] et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w Bibs‑¯ t‑X‑mÂ-¸‑n-¡‑p¶X‑mb‑n t‑X‑m-¶‑p¶‑p. s‑Xc‑ph‑ns‑e Z‑ri‑yh¡c‑n¡s‑¸-S‑p¶ k‑wLÀj§Ä ] X‑ns‑b Bs‑cb‑p‑w At‑e‑mkcs‑¸S‑p¯‑ms‑X IS¶‑p t‑]‑m-I‑p¶ t‑L‑mjb‑m{‑X-b‑m-I‑p¶‑p. P\{‑i²b‑ps‑S a‑m]‑n\‑n AÂ]s‑a¦‑ne‑p-s‑a‑m¶‑v N-e‑n¡‑p¶X‑v k‑wLÀj§Ä DSs‑e-S‑p¡‑pt‑¼‑mg‑mW‑v. "k‑uï‑v s‑s‑_ä‑p'If‑ne‑qs‑S c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w "]db‑p‑'hc‑mW‑nh‑ns‑S c‑mP‑m¡·‑mÀ. I‑p-d‑n¡‑ps‑I‑m-Å‑p¶ h‑mNI§f‑ne‑qs‑S AhÀ H‑mt‑c‑m Z‑nhks‑¯b‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑obNÀ¨b‑ps‑S KX‑n \‑nÀ®-b‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. c‑m{‑ã‑ob A-X‑nc‑pIÄ ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w Ch‑ns‑S A{‑]k-à-a‑m-I‑p¶‑p. C§‑ns‑\ NÀ¨IÄ¡‑v X‑pS¡a‑nS‑p¶hÀ c‑m{‑ã‑ob{‑]Ø‑m-\-§Ä¡‑p‑w a‑p¶W‑n-IÄ¡‑p‑w ]‑pd¯‑pÅhc‑m-s‑W¶X‑v a‑m[‑ya§Ä a‑p-t‑¶‑m«‑v h-b‑v-¡‑p¶

]‑pX‑nb c‑m{‑ã‑obk‑m[‑yXIf‑ps‑S s‑Xf‑nh‑mb‑p‑w I‑mW‑m‑w. S‑nh‑n k‑oc‑nbe‑pIs‑f A\‑pk‑vac‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p¶ Xc¯‑ne‑pÅ k‑wLÀj§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w ka‑oIcW§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w Bt‑c‑ml W‑mht‑c‑mlW§f‑ne‑qs‑Sb‑pÅ k©‑mca‑mW‑nX‑v. Ch‑ns‑S `‑qI¼§f‑nÃ‑, s‑Nd‑nb s‑]‑m«‑ns‑¯d‑nIÄ a‑m{‑X‑w. Ah¡‑v C-¼-aW¡‑m³ Hc‑p k‑v{‑X‑o-k‑m¶‑n[‑y‑w I‑qs‑S H-¯‑ph¶‑m ]‑ns‑¶ a-s‑ä‑m¶‑p‑w t‑\‑m¡‑pIb‑p‑w t‑hï. t‑k‑mf‑mÀ h‑nh‑mZ‑w t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya§Ä¡‑v‑, {‑] t‑X‑yI‑n¨‑v Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑ya§Ä¡‑v‑, Cãh‑njba‑mbX‑v AX‑ns‑e s‑]¬-k‑m¶‑n[‑y‑w s‑I‑mï‑pI‑qS‑nb‑m-s‑W¶‑v I‑mW‑m³ he‑nb {‑]b‑mka‑nÃ. ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w k‑v{‑X‑o-h‑nc‑p²Xb‑ps‑S AX‑nc‑pIf‑n s‑N¶‑v s‑X‑m«‑v aS§‑nb-hb‑mW‑v C‑u h‑nh‑mZ‑w k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑p-Å Hc‑p]‑nS‑n Z‑ri‑yþA¨S‑na‑m[‑ya h‑mÀ¯If‑p‑w h‑niIe\§f‑p‑w I‑mÀ-«‑qW‑pIf‑p‑w. kÀ¡‑mc‑ns‑\ C‑u h‑njb¯‑n s‑h-Å‑w I‑pS‑n¸‑n¨ ]‑n.k‑n.t‑P‑mÀP‑v t‑]‑me‑p‑w ]-d-b‑p¶X‑v ]X‑n\‑mb‑nc¡-W-¡‑n\‑p t‑I‑mS‑n c‑q]b‑p-s‑S X«‑n¸‑n\‑pÅ K‑qV‑mt‑e‑mN\ \-Ss‑¶¦‑ne‑p‑w t‑k‑mf‑mÀ X«‑n¸‑v 16 t‑I‑mS‑n c‑q]b‑p-t‑SX‑m-s‑W¶‑mW‑v. GX‑mï‑v Ct‑X I‑me¯‑v X‑nc‑ph\´]‑pc‑w‑, t‑I‑m«b‑w‑, X‑ri‑qÀ X‑pS§‑nb \Kc§Ä t‑I{‑µ‑oIc‑n¨‑v \S¶ GIt‑Zi‑w Bb‑nc‑w t‑I‑mS‑nt‑b‑mf‑w c‑q] b‑ps‑S X«‑n¸‑p-I-s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑pÅ h‑mÀ¯If‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya§f‑n CS¡‑p‑w Xe¡‑p‑w h-c‑p¶‑pï‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. Ah-s‑b‑m¶‑p‑w he‑nb a‑m[‑ya{‑i² t‑\S‑ms‑X t‑]‑m-b-X‑n\‑pÅ I‑mcW§f‑n {‑] [‑m\‑w Ahb‑n-s‑e‑mc‑p kc‑nX‑m \‑mbt‑c‑m i‑me‑p t‑at‑\‑mt‑\‑m CÃ‑m¯X‑p‑w ic‑och‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑obh‑pa‑mb‑pÅ CWt‑Nce‑ns‑â k‑v\‑nK‑v²k‑m[‑yXIÄ Ahb‑n-s‑e‑m¶‑p‑w s‑Xf‑nª‑p Iï‑nà F¶X‑pat‑Ã? c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w ic‑oc¯‑nt‑e¡‑v N‑pc‑p-§‑p¶X‑ns‑â k‑qN\ IÄ t‑Icfc‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑n Iï‑pX‑pS§‑n-b‑n«‑v hÀj§Ä ]eX‑mb‑n. ic‑och‑p‑w iÐh‑p‑w h‑mNILS\b‑p‑w sk]vXw_À 2013


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t‑Icf‑obP‑oh‑nX‑w ]‑p¯³ AhØIf‑nt‑e¡‑v N‑phS‑pa‑md‑nbt‑X‑ms‑S s‑Xc‑ph‑v c‑m{‑ã‑ob{‑]I‑mi\¯‑ns‑â CSaÃ‑mX‑mb‑n a‑md‑n‑, A§‑ns‑\ ]-d-b‑p¶X‑v HcÂ]‑w IS‑p¯ {‑]t‑b‑mKa‑mb‑n t‑X‑m¶‑ms‑a¦‑ne‑p‑w. N‑p-c‑p«‑nb a‑pã‑n Hc‑p ]gb {‑]X‑na‑m\a‑mb‑n a‑md‑nbX‑ps‑I‑mï‑mh‑m‑w Ah‑ns‑S C¶‑v Act‑§-d‑p¶X‑v Dc‑pf‑pt‑\À¨b‑p‑w i-h-s‑¸«‑nb‑n I‑nS¶‑pÅ kach‑p‑w N§e]‑nS‑p¯h‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡-b‑mW‑v. H‑mt‑c‑m I‑meh‑p‑w AX‑ns‑â kacc‑q]‑w t‑X-S‑p¶‑p F¶X‑v ic‑n Xs‑¶. ]s‑£‑, C‑u ]‑pX‑nb kacc‑q]§f‑ps‑S e£‑y‑w Ahs‑b Xg‑pI‑n ]IÀ¯‑m³ I‑m¯‑p-\‑nÂ-¡‑p¶ \‑nch[‑n I‑y‑mad¡®‑p-I-f‑mI‑pt‑¼‑mÄ Bh‑nj‑v¡‑mc‑w ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w Bibs‑¯ t‑X‑mÂ-¸‑n-¡‑p¶X‑mb‑n t‑X‑m-¶‑p¶‑p. A‑wKh‑nt‑£]h‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w AX‑nka‑o]Z‑ri‑y§f‑mb‑n Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑ya§Ä k‑z‑oIcWa‑pd‑nIf‑nt‑es‑¡¯‑n¨‑p X‑pS§‑nbt‑X‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑v C‑u a‑mä‑w BZ‑y‑w P\I‑ob‑m\‑p`ha‑mb‑p‑w ]‑n¶‑oS‑v l‑m-k‑y‑m\‑pIcWIe‑mI‑mc-·‑mc‑ps‑S hbä‑p]‑n-g-¸‑n\‑pÅ a‑pJ‑y D]‑m[‑nb‑mb‑p‑w a‑md‑nbX‑v. I‑y‑madb‑ps‑S s‑{‑^b‑na‑n s‑Xf‑n-b‑p¶ h‑yà‑nN‑n{‑Xs‑¯ F{‑X AIe¯‑n \‑n¶‑p I‑mW-Ws‑a¶ ]c¼c‑mKXk¦Â]¯‑n\‑mW‑v BZ‑y‑w a‑pd‑nt‑häX‑v. Gäh‑p‑w F-g‑p¶‑p-\‑nÂ-¡‑p¶ a‑pS‑nb‑ngIÄ a‑pX s‑\©‑n\‑v I‑os‑ghs‑c I‑m-W‑p-¶ Hc‑p he‑nb "]‑mk‑vt‑]‑mÀ«‑v‑' N‑n{‑Xka‑m\a‑m-b a\‑pj‑yZ‑ri‑y§f‑n \‑n¶‑v a‑pJs‑¯ hS‑p¡f‑n-t‑e¡‑p‑w‑, t‑\‑m«¯‑ns‑â X‑oj‑vWXb‑n-t‑e¡‑p‑w‑, h‑mb‑ph‑n N‑n{‑X‑w h-c¡‑pIt‑b‑m Ak‑zØXb‑ps‑S k‑qN\s‑bt‑¶‑mW‑w N‑pc‑pf‑pIt‑b‑m \‑nhc‑pIt‑b‑m Hs‑¡ s‑N-¿‑p¶ s‑s‑Ih‑nce‑pIf‑n-t‑e¡‑p‑w‑, AÇ‑oeh‑y‑mJ‑y‑m\k‑m[‑yXb‑pÅ I‑mÂ]‑mZ§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w X‑pSIf‑ps‑Sb‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ Ne\§f‑nt‑e¡‑p‑w ]X‑ns‑b I‑y‑mad X‑nc‑nªX‑v ]ec‑p‑w {‑i²‑n¨‑nÃ. ]‑n¶‑oSX‑v DSegI‑ns‑â a‑ng‑nh‑pIÄ t‑XS‑nbt‑¸‑mt‑g¡‑v As‑XÃ‑m‑w c‑m{‑ã‑obNÀ¨b‑ps‑S Hg‑nh‑m¡‑m\‑mI‑m¯ t‑Nc‑phIf‑mb‑n¡g‑n-ª‑n-c‑p¶‑p X‑m\‑p‑w. ic‑o-c¯‑n\‑v c‑m{‑ã‑oba‑pï‑v. F¶‑m c‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑ns‑â N‑pc‑ps‑¡g‑p¯‑nSaà ic‑oc‑w. ]s‑£‑, t‑N‑mZ‑yIÀ¯‑m¡f‑mb‑p‑w "D¯c‑'h‑mZ‑nIf‑mb‑p‑w‑, CcIf‑mb‑p‑w t‑h«¡‑mc‑mb‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w c‑m{‑ã‑ob{‑]I‑mi\t‑hZ‑nb‑n {‑]X‑y£s‑¸S‑phÀ C¶‑v ]s‑¦S‑p-¡‑p¶X‑v Hc‑p ic‑ock‑uµc‑yaÂkc¯‑ne‑mW‑v. I‑qS‑pX sk]vXw_À 2013

k‑pµc·‑mÀ (k‑pµc‑n-a‑mc‑p‑w‑)‑, a‑ng‑nt‑h‑ms‑S s‑a‑mg‑nb‑p¶hÀ‑, N‑n´s‑b "k‑uï‑v s‑s‑_ä‑n‑'s‑\‑m¸‑w c‑mI‑n a‑p\I‑qÀ¸‑n s‑¨S‑p¯hÀ‑, A§‑ns‑\ t‑]‑m-I‑p¶‑p Ah‑nS‑ps‑¯ X‑mc\‑nc. CX‑n\‑nSb‑n k‑zI‑mc‑yXb‑ps‑S A´‑y‑w k‑w-`-h‑n-¡‑p¶‑pï‑v‑, s‑]‑mX‑pP‑oh‑nX¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w s‑]‑mX‑p{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w A-X‑nc‑pIÄ ]‑p\À\‑nÀ®b‑n¡s‑¸S‑pIb‑p‑w. Hc‑p t‑b‑mKh‑p‑w Hc‑p NÀ¨b‑p‑w Hc‑p kµÀi\h‑p‑w k‑zI‑mc‑yaÃ‑m-X‑mI‑p¶X‑v A§‑ns‑\b‑mW‑v. X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w k‑zI‑mc‑y-s‑a¶‑v ] db‑m-h‑p-¶ I‑pS‑p‑w_k‑wLÀj§Ä s‑]‑mX‑pP‑oh‑nX¯‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑mb‑n NÀ¨ s‑N¿s‑¸-S‑p¶X‑p‑w AX‑n\‑m Xs‑¶. s‑]‑mX‑pk‑z`‑mha‑p-Å Hc‑p t‑hZ‑nb‑ne‑p‑w clk‑y§f‑n-s‑ö‑p‑w s‑]‑mX‑pk‑z‑oI‑mc‑yX¡‑mb‑n s‑]‑mX‑pt‑hZ‑nb‑n ]dbs‑¸S‑p¶ I‑mc‑y§Ä s‑]‑mX‑ph‑yà‑nb‑ps‑S ic‑oc`‑mjb‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w a‑pJ`‑wK‑nb‑ps‑Sb‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ {‑]i‑v\a‑m-s‑W¶‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ h-c‑p¶X‑p‑w AX‑ps‑I‑ms‑ï‑ms‑¡-¯s‑¶. bY‑m{‑Iaas‑æ‑ne‑p‑w ]‑n.s‑I. I‑pª‑m-e‑n-¡‑p«‑n-b‑p‑w‑, s‑I. _‑n. Kt‑W-j‑v I‑pa‑md‑p‑w‑, F‑w. F‑w. aW‑nb‑p‑w‑, ]‑nWd‑mb‑n h‑n-Pb\‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w ]e kµÀ` §f‑ne‑mb‑n IS¶‑pt‑]‑mb hg‑nIf‑mW‑ns‑XÃ‑m‑w. kc‑nX‑m \‑mbc‑ne‑p‑w i‑me‑p t‑at‑\‑m\‑ne‑ps‑a¯‑pt‑¼‑mt‑g¡‑v FÃ‑m-hÀ ¡‑p‑w h-g-§‑p¶ ic‑oc\‑n_²a‑m-b Hc‑p a‑m[‑ya`‑mj (k‑rã‑n ¨‑p‑w k‑z‑oIc‑n¨‑p‑w‑) \‑m‑w Xs‑¶ bY‑mÀ°‑ya‑m¡‑n¡g‑n-ª‑n-c‑n¡‑p-¶‑p F¶‑p a‑m{‑Xt‑a \‑mad‑nb‑ms‑X t‑]‑m-I‑p¶‑pÅ‑q. teJI³ Zn lnµp Zn\]{X¯nsâ No^v Hm^v _yqtdmkv BWv. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: gouridasan@gmail.com


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s‑P.t‑K‑m-]‑o-I‑r-j‑vW³

At‑\‑z-j-W‑m-ß-I ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯\‑w: A-\‑p-`-h-§Ä‑, ]‑mT§Ä -\‑n§Ä¡‑v Fs‑¶¦‑ne‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑nI-- c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob aÞe§s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑v aS‑p¸‑v t‑X‑m¶‑p¶‑ps‑h¦‑nÂ‑, A¶‑v \‑n§f‑ns‑e t‑PWe‑nÌ‑v ac‑n¨X‑mb‑n I‑q«‑ns‑¡‑mÅW‑w

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³s‑h-Ì‑n-t‑K-ä‑o-h‑v t‑P-W-e‑n-k-a‑m-Is‑«‑, a-s‑ä-´‑p-a‑mI-s‑«‑, H-c‑p I‑mc‑y‑w BZ‑y‑w ]-d-b-s‑«‑, Hc‑p t‑PWe‑nÌ‑n\‑v BZ‑y‑w t‑hïX‑v `‑mjb‑mW‑v. s‑Se‑n-h‑n-j-\‑m-b‑me‑p‑w H‑m¬-s‑s‑e\‑m-b‑m-e‑p‑w `‑m-j {‑]-[‑m-\-a‑mW‑v. AX‑n\‑mb‑n \‑nÀ_Ô]‑qÀÆ‑w h‑mb‑nt‑¡ï N‑ne ]‑pk‑vXI§f‑pï‑v. Ahb‑nð {‑][‑m\‑w‑, lt‑c‑mÄU‑v Ch‑m³k‑ns‑â `‑mjs‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑pÅ ]‑pk‑vXIa‑mW‑v. Ct‑¸‑mgs‑¯ t‑]c‑v ‑"Fs‑ʳj‑y C‑w¥‑oj'. BZ‑ys‑¯ t‑]c‑v "\‑y‑qk‑va‑m³k‑v C‑w¥‑oj‑v‑' F¶‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. s‑P³UÀ {‑]i‑v\‑w ]c‑nlc‑n¡‑m³ lt‑c‑mÄU‑v Ch‑m³k‑v t‑] c‑v ‑Essential English for Journalists, Editors and Writers F¶‑m¡‑n. At‑±l¯‑ns‑â ]gb ‑"s‑lU‑vs‑s‑e³ s‑s‑d��‑n‑wK‑v‑' F¶ ]‑pk‑vXI‑w aeb‑mf‑w t‑PÀWe‑nk¯‑n {‑]hÀ-¯‑n¡‑p-¶-hc‑p‑w h‑mb‑n¨‑nc‑n¡W‑w. AX‑n Hc‑p]‑mS‑v I‑mc‑y§Ä Dï‑v ]T‑n¡‑m³. F§s‑\ h‑m¡‑pIÄ N‑pc‑p¡‑ns‑bg‑pX‑m‑w Fs‑ó‑ms‑¡b‑pÅ I‑mc‑y§Ä. F§s‑\ H‑m^‑oÊ‑n k‑wLÀja‑nÃ‑mX‑m¡‑m‑w X‑pS-§‑n-b I‑m-c‑y-§Ä t‑]‑me‑p‑w C-X‑ne‑pï‑v. F¶‑n«‑v lt‑c‑mÄU‑v Ch‑m³k‑v ]db‑p¶X‑v‑, \‑n§Ä¡‑v Fs‑¶¦‑ne‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑nI-- c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob aÞe§s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑v aS‑p¸‑v t‑X‑m¶‑p¶‑ps‑h¦‑nÂ‑, A¶‑v \‑n§f‑ns‑e t‑PWe‑nÌ‑v ac‑n¨X‑mb‑n I‑q«‑ns‑¡‑mÅW‑w Fó‑mW‑v. C§s‑\b‑pÅ Hc‑p]‑mS‑v D]t‑Zi§Ä B ]‑pk‑vXI¯‑nÂ-\‑n-¶‑v I‑n-«‑p‑w.

"Ab‑m‑w Z‑v U‑o¸‑v t‑{‑X‑m«‑v‑' C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑n-h‑v t‑P-W-e‑nk-s‑¯ I‑p-d‑n-¨‑v ]-d-b‑pt‑¼‑mÄ h‑m-«À-t‑K-ä‑n-s‑\ I‑p-d‑n-¨‑v ]-d-b‑m-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑m³ \‑n-h‑r-¯‑nb‑nÃ. h‑m«À-t‑K-ä‑v A-]-h‑mZ‑w ]‑pd¯‑p s‑I‑mï‑p hc‑p¶X‑v t‑_‑m_‑v h‑pU‑vh‑mU‑v‑, I‑mÄ s‑_³Ì‑o¬ F¶‑o d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«À-a‑m-c‑mW‑v. t‑_‑m_‑v h‑pU‑vh‑mU‑v P‑q\‑nbÀ ]{‑X {‑] hÀ¯I\‑mb‑n h‑mj‑n‑wK‑vS¬ s‑s‑S‑wk‑n Cc‑n¡‑p¶ k-ab-¯‑m-W‑v C-X‑p-ï‑m-I‑p-¶X‑v. \‑n§f‑ps‑S Ic‑nbd‑n CX‑v k‑w`-h‑n-¡‑m‑w. Ah‑ns‑Sb‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w \‑n§s‑f t‑\‑m¡‑n N‑net‑¸‑mÄ s‑s‑Zh‑w N‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. t‑K‑mU‑v k‑vs‑s‑ae‑n‑wK‑v t‑]‑mb‑nâ‑v F¶‑v ]db‑p‑w. At‑±l‑w ]‑pX‑nb Bf‑mbX‑p s‑I‑mï‑v t‑e‑m¡Â k‑nä‑n Uk‑vI‑n s‑s‑{‑I‑w _‑oä‑v t‑\‑m¡‑p¶ Bf‑mb‑n s‑h¨‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v. s‑s‑\ä‑vh‑m¨‑va‑ms‑â ]W‑n.

Bs‑cs‑b‑ms‑¡ hï‑nb‑nS‑n¨‑p‑, t‑]‑me‑ok‑v ]‑nS‑n¨‑p‑, Gs‑X‑ms‑¡ t‑hi‑y‑meb¯‑n s‑db‑vU‑v \S¶‑p C§s‑\b‑pÅs‑X‑m-s‑¡ F-g‑p-X‑p¶ ]W‑n. s‑s‑\ä‑v h‑m¨‑va‑m³ U‑y‑q«‑nb‑ne‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶ kab¯‑v At‑±lh‑p‑w t‑]‑me‑ok‑v t‑Ìj\‑n h‑nf‑n¨‑v C¶‑v F´‑mW‑v k‑w`h‑n¨‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v F¶‑v t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p. h‑m«Àt‑Kä‑v _‑nÂU‑n‑wK‑n s‑Ut‑a‑m{‑Iä‑nI‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n H‑m^‑ok‑n Ių Ibd‑n. A{‑X a‑m{‑X‑w. At‑±l‑w h‑mÀ¯bS‑n¨‑p. H‑m^‑ok‑v I‑p¯‑n¯‑pd¶‑p ^ï‑v t‑a‑mj‑vS‑n¡‑m\‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w h¶s‑X¶ t‑]‑me‑oÊ‑ns‑â t‑Ìä‑vs‑as‑â t‑NÀ¯‑v h‑mÀ-¯-s‑b-g‑pX‑n. k‑m[‑mcW Ah‑ns‑S FÃ‑m h‑mÀ¯If‑p‑w Ahk‑m\‑n¡‑p¶‑p. ]t‑£ At‑±l¯‑n\‑v k‑wib§Ä X‑pS§‑n. F´‑ns‑\‑mc‑p Ių c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob]‑mÀ«‑n H‑m^‑oÊ‑n IbdW‑w? Iff³a‑mc‑ps‑S e‑nÌ‑v ]c‑nt‑i‑m[‑n¨t‑¸‑mg‑mW‑v a\Ê‑ne‑mbX‑v Chc‑mc‑p‑w Iųa‑mcà F¶‑v. ]‑ns‑¶ F´‑n\hÀ ]‑mÀ«‑n H‑m^‑ok‑n Ibd‑n? At‑\‑zjW¯‑ns‑\‑mS‑ph‑n iàa‑ms‑b‑mc‑p t‑k‑mg‑vk‑ns‑\ At‑±l¯‑n\‑v e`‑n¨‑p. I‑n«‑nb h‑nhc‑w s‑R«‑n¡‑póX‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p. {‑]k‑nUï‑v \‑nI‑vks‑â d‑n¸»‑nI‑v ]‑mÀ«‑nb‑mW‑v `c‑n¡‑p¶X‑v‑, s‑Ut‑a‑m{‑I‑mä‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n A¶‑v {‑]X‑n]£¯‑p‑w. s‑Ut‑a‑m{‑Iä‑nI‑v ]‑mÀ«‑nb‑ps‑S H‑m^‑oÊ‑n S‑m¸‑n‑wK‑v‑, _¤‑n‑wK‑v D]I-c-W§Ä s‑h¡‑m³ h¶ Bf‑pIf‑mW‑v AhÀ. s‑Ut‑a‑m{‑Iä‑nI‑v H‑m^‑oÊ‑n F´‑p NÀ¨ \S¡‑p¶‑p F¶‑v {‑]k‑nUï‑n\d‑nb‑m³ t‑hï‑n‑, h‑nh-c-§Ä `cWI£‑nb‑ps‑S H‑m^‑oÊ‑n t‑\c‑ns‑«¯‑m\‑pÅ CeI‑vt‑{‑S‑mW‑nI‑v k‑wh‑n[‑m\-§Ä s‑h¡‑m³ h-¶-h-s‑cb‑m-W‑v I-Å-·‑m-s‑c-¶‑v I-c‑p-X‑n ]‑n-S‑n-I‑q-S‑n-bX‑v. I‑qS‑p-X At‑\‑z-j‑n-¨-t‑¸‑m-g‑m-W‑v A-d‑n-b‑p-¶X‑v‑, t‑]‑m-e‑o-k‑v ]‑n-S‑n-¨ I-Å-·‑m-s‑c k-l‑m-b‑n-¡‑m\‑p‑w P‑m-a‑y-¯‑n-e‑n-d-¡‑m\‑p‑w h¶X‑v d‑n¸»‑n¡³ ]‑mÀ«‑nb‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸«h-c‑m-W‑v F¶‑v. Ah‑ns‑S \‑n¶‑m-c‑w-`‑n-¡‑p¶‑p‑, cï‑pcïc hÀj‑w \‑oï‑p \‑n¶‑v {‑]k‑n-U-ï‑ns‑â c‑m-P‑n-b‑n A-h-k‑m-\‑n-¨ h‑m«Àt‑Kä‑v k‑w`h‑w. \‑nI‑vk¬ Xs‑¶ t‑\c‑n«‑v s‑Ut‑a‑m{‑I‑mä‑nI‑v ]‑mÀ«‑nb‑ps‑S H‑m^‑oÊ‑n \S¯‑nb X«‑n¸‑mWX‑v. C‑u h‑mÀ¯ ]‑pd¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑phc‑póX‑n\‑v kl‑mb‑n¨X‑v A¶‑v F^‑v._‑n.s‑F.b‑ps‑S \¼À S‑p Bb‑nc‑p¶ a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑^«¬ BW‑v. h‑mÀ¯ s‑I‑mS‑p¯ a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑^«\‑v h‑mj‑n‑wK‑vS¬ sk]vXw_À 2013


(10) t‑]‑mÌ‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¯ clk‑y-t‑¸c‑v "U‑o¸‑v t‑{‑X‑m«‑v‑' F¶‑mW‑v. s‑kI‑vk‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« t‑I‑mU‑mWX‑v. "Ab‑m‑w Z‑v U‑o¸‑v t‑{‑X‑m«‑v‑' F¶‑v 2 hÀj‑w a‑p³]‑mW‑v a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑^«¬ ]‑pd¯‑p ]dªX‑v. d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«Àa‑mÀ ic‑ns‑h¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. At‑±l‑w F´‑p s‑I‑mï‑v h‑mÀ¯ ]‑pd¯‑ps‑I‑mS‑p¡‑m³ X¿‑md‑mb‑n? ]T‑n-t‑¡-ï h‑n-j-b-a‑m-WX‑v. \‑n§Ä GX‑v Øe¯‑v h‑mÀ¯¡‑v s‑NÃ‑pt‑¼‑mg‑p‑w Ah‑ns‑S Hc‑p Ak‑wX‑r]‑v-X h‑y-à‑n I‑mW‑p‑w. Fs‑´-¦‑ne‑p‑w {‑]i‑v\§Ä I‑mcW‑w B k‑nÌh‑pa‑mb‑n s‑Xä‑nb Hc‑mf‑pï‑mI‑p‑w. a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑^«³ Bb‑nc‑p¶‑p F^‑v _‑n s‑F b‑ps‑S N‑o^‑v Bt‑Iï‑nb‑nc‑p¶X‑v. Ct‑±ls‑¯ \‑nI‑vkW‑v Cj‑vSaÃ‑m¯X‑ps‑I‑mï‑v Xc‑wX‑mg‑v¯‑n; \¼À 2 Bb‑n d‑n«bÀ s‑Nt‑¿ï‑n h¶‑p. At‑±l¯‑ns‑â Dff‑n I‑nS¶ B h‑mi‑nb‑mW‑v C‑u h‑mÀ¯ ]‑pd¯‑p s‑I‑mï‑p hc‑m³ I‑mcWa‑mbX‑v. Ct‑±l‑w C‑u cï‑p d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«Àa‑mc‑ps‑S AS‑pt‑¯¡‑v hc‑nIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. Ahs‑cg‑pX‑nb ]‑pk‑vXIa‑mW‑v "H‑mÄ Z‑v {‑]k‑nU³k ‑v s‑a³'. ChÀ t‑I‑mï‑mI‑vS‑v s‑Nb‑vXX‑n\‑p t‑ij‑w h‑pU‑vh‑mÀU‑v F¶ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«t‑d‑mS‑v a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑^«¬ ]dª‑p‑, ‑"t‑^‑mW‑n h‑nf‑n¡c‑pX‑v‑, I‑mcW‑w S‑m¸‑ps‑N¿‑m³ CSb‑pï‑v. I‑mt‑Wï kab‑w c‑m{‑X‑n cïc¡‑p t‑ij‑w. C‑u Øe¯‑v hc‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ BZ‑y‑w FX‑nÀ Z‑nib‑nt‑e¡‑v S‑mI‑vk‑n h‑nf‑n¨‑v t‑]‑mIW‑w. If‑n¡‑p¶Xt‑ac‑n¡³ {‑]k‑nUâ‑nt‑\‑mS‑mW‑v. FX‑nÀ Z‑nib‑nt‑eb‑v¡‑v S‑mI‑vk‑n h‑nf‑n¨‑v t‑]‑mb‑n«‑v B S‑mI‑vk‑n Ah‑ns‑S h‑n«‑v I‑pd¨‑v Z‑qc‑w \S¶‑v t‑hs‑d‑mc‑p Øe¯‑v t‑]‑mb‑n S‑mI‑vk‑n ]‑nS‑n¨‑pt‑hW‑w Øes‑¯¯‑m³. AX‑n\‑v cï‑pI‑nt‑e‑ma‑oäÀ‑v Z‑qs‑c s‑h¨‑v S‑mI‑vk‑n h‑n«‑n«‑v \S¶‑p t‑hW‑w hc‑m³. At‑¸‑mÄ cïc aW‑n¡‑v ]‑me¯‑n\S‑nb‑n R‑m\‑pï‑mI‑p‑w'. A§s‑\b‑mW‑v At‑±l‑w ChÀ¡‑v t‑U‑mI‑y‑ps‑aâ‑vk‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑p¶X‑v. d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ-«À-a‑m-s‑c I‑m-t‑W-ï-X‑p-ï‑v F-¶‑v F-§-s‑\b‑m-W‑v A-d‑n-b‑n-¨‑n-c‑p-¶X‑v? A-X‑m-W‑v c-k-Ic‑w. "F\‑n¡‑p \‑n§s‑f I‑mWWs‑a¶‑p t‑X‑m¶‑p¶ Z‑nhk‑w \‑n§f‑p-s‑S h‑o-«‑n I‑n-«‑p-¶ \‑y‑qt‑b‑mÀ¡‑v s‑s‑S‑wk‑ns‑â (AX‑mbX‑v Chc‑ps‑S ]{‑X¯‑ns‑â‑) t‑]P‑v \¼À F«‑n t‑]\ s‑I‑mï‑v h«a‑n«‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. C\‑n \‑n§Ä¡‑v Fs‑¶ I‑mWWs‑a¶‑ps‑ï¦‑n \‑n§Ä X‑mak‑n¡‑p¶ ^‑vf‑mä‑ns‑â _‑m¡W‑nb‑ns‑e s‑NS‑n¨«‑nb‑n ]¯‑paW‑n¡‑p a‑p³]‑mb‑n Hc‑p N‑ph¶ X‑qh‑me C«‑m aX‑n. At‑¸‑mÄ c‑m{‑X‑n cïc¡‑v R‑m³ Ah‑ns‑Ss‑b¯‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w‑' FóX‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p a‑mÀ¡‑v \ðI‑nb \‑nÀt‑±i‑w. c‑mh‑ns‑e Fg‑pt‑¶ä‑m d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«À-a‑m-c‑p-s‑S BZ‑ys‑¯ ]W‑n \‑y‑qt‑b‑mÀ¡‑v s‑s‑S‑wk‑ns‑â F«‑m‑w t‑]P‑v t‑\‑m¡e‑mW‑v. AX‑n h«a‑n«‑n«‑ps‑ï¦‑n A¶‑v c‑m{‑X‑n cïc¡‑v AhÀ I‑mW‑p‑w. Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w \‑y‑qk‑vt‑]¸À t‑_‑mb‑v Câe‑ns‑P³k‑ns‑â Bf‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑m‑w. X‑qh‑meb‑nS‑p¶X‑v Cb‑ms‑f§s‑\ I‑mW‑p¶‑p F¶X‑mW‑v he‑nb k‑wib‑w. At‑¸‑mÄ FÃ‑mZ‑nhkh‑p‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ-«À-a‑m-s‑c C-b‑mf‑p‑w t‑^‑mt‑f‑m s‑N-¿‑p-¶‑p-ï‑v F-¶À°‑w. C{‑Xa‑m{‑X‑w h‑nN‑n{‑Xa‑mW‑v C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑nh‑v t‑PÀWe‑nk‑w c‑wKs‑¯ I‑mc‑y§Ä.

t‑Uh‑nU‑v s‑jb‑ved‑ps‑S IY \‑n§Ä \‑ms‑f C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑nh‑v t‑PÀWe‑nk¯‑neÃ‑, ^‑o¨d‑nt‑e¡‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑m‑w hc‑p¶X‑v. t‑a-J-e G-X‑p-a‑mIs‑«‑, t‑PWe‑n-k-¯‑n-s‑e \‑n-ch-[‑n ¢‑mk‑nI‑v ]‑pk‑vX-I§-f‑p-Å-X‑n N‑n-e-s‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w h‑m-b‑n-¨‑n-c‑n-¡‑p‑w. ]«‑n-I \‑n-c-¯‑p-¶‑nÃ. s‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑ne‑mb‑me‑p‑w {‑]‑nâ‑ne‑mb‑me‑p‑w h‑mb‑n¡W‑w. AX‑v I‑pt‑d I‑mc‑y§Ä a\Ê‑ne‑m¡‑n¯c‑p‑w. \½f‑mc‑p‑w s‑Pb‑n‑wk‑vt‑_‑mïÃ. h‑mÀ¯IÄ \s‑½ t‑XS‑n hc‑nIb‑mW.‑v As‑ Ã-¦ Â‑, Fh‑ns‑Ss‑b¦‑ne‑p‑w s‑h¨‑v ]ä‑nb https: \\‑ngraphicanthropology.wordpress.com sk]vXw_À 2013

a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑^«¬

Bf‑pIs‑f Is‑ï¯‑pIb‑mW‑v. ‑"h‑nk‑n t‑»‑mbÀ'F¶‑v ]db‑p¶b‑mÄ \½s‑f I-s‑ï-¯‑p¶‑p. R‑m³ Ig‑nª hÀj‑w Hc‑p t‑PWe‑nÌ‑v t‑I‑m¬^d³k‑v CâÀ\‑mjWe‑n t‑]‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. t‑\‑mÀt‑Æb‑n s‑h¨‑v hÀj§f‑mb‑n \S¡‑p¶ t‑I‑m¬^d³k‑mW‑v. t‑I‑m¬^d³k‑v Ig‑nª‑v s‑s‑hI‑pt‑¶c‑w h‑nk‑n _‑vt‑f‑mt‑hg‑vk‑v t‑I‑m¬^d³k‑v Dï‑v. (][‑m-\ Ø‑m-\-§-f‑n C-c‑p-¶‑v c-l-k‑y-a‑m-b‑n d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ-«Àa‑mÀ-¡‑v h‑n-h-c-§Ä \Â-I‑p-¶ B-f‑m-W‑v h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑mhÀ‑) h‑n¡‑ne‑oI‑vk‑ns‑â Ak‑mM‑v Hs‑¡b‑pÅ H¶‑m‑wI‑nS h‑nk‑n _‑vt‑f‑mt‑hg‑vk‑ns‑â t‑I‑m¬^d³k‑mW‑v. h‑nk‑n _‑vt‑f‑mt‑hg‑vk‑v NÀ¨ s‑N-¿‑p¶X‑v F§s‑\ X§Ä¡‑v ] ä‑nb t‑PWe‑nÌ‑pIs‑f Iï‑p]‑nS‑n¡‑m‑w F¶X‑mW‑v. Ah‑ns‑S R§f‑ps‑S ¢‑mk‑n h¶ Hc‑mÄ F‑w.s‑F.5 s‑â H‑m^‑okd‑mb‑nc‑pó B\‑n at‑¡‑m¬ BW‑v. {‑_‑n«s‑â clk‑y‑mt‑\‑zjW GP³k‑nb‑mW‑v F‑w.s‑F.5. {‑_‑n«\‑v cï‑v clk‑y‑mt‑\‑zjW h‑n`‑mK§Ä Dï‑v. F‑w.s‑F.5 D‑w‑, F‑w.s‑F.6 D‑w. F‑w.s‑F.6 h‑nt‑Zi X‑mX‑v]c‑y§Ä t‑\‑m¡‑p¶X‑p‑w F‑w.s‑F.5 {‑_‑n«s‑â B`‑y-´-c- X‑mÂ] c‑y§Ä t‑\‑m¡‑p¶X‑pa‑mb GP³k‑nb‑mW‑v. B\‑n at‑¡‑m¬ F‑w.s‑F.5s‑â H‑m^‑okd‑mb‑nc‑p¶ kab¯‑v Chc‑ps‑S `À¯‑ms‑ht‑¶‑m ]‑mÀS‑v\À Ft‑¶‑m h‑nf‑n¡‑mh‑p¶ t‑Uh‑nU‑v s‑jb‑veÀ e‑n_‑nbb‑ns‑e F‑w.s‑F.5 s‑â N‑o^‑v Bb‑nc‑p¶‑p. At‑±l‑w Hc‑pZ‑nhk‑w H‑m^‑ok‑n ]W‑ns‑b‑m¶‑p‑w CÃ‑mX‑nc‑ns‑¡ Ab‑mf‑ps‑S I‑uïÀ ]‑mÀS‑v F‑w.s‑F.6 N‑o^‑ns‑â a‑pd‑nb‑nt‑e¡‑v Ibd‑nbt‑¸‑mÄ Ab‑mÄ s‑]«‑nb‑n ]W‑w \‑nd¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C{‑Xb‑p‑w ]W‑w F´‑ns‑\¶‑p t‑N‑mZ‑n¨t‑¸‑mÄ H‑m^‑okÀ ]dª‑p‑, "`b¦c


(11) t‑I‑ms‑f‑m¯X‑mW‑v. K±‑m^‑n \‑ms‑f t‑ÌU‑nb¯‑n {‑] k‑wK‑n¡‑m³ hc‑p¶‑pï‑v. X«‑m³ Bs‑f I‑n«‑n¡g‑nª‑p. AX‑n\‑pÅ BÄI‑q«s‑¯b‑p‑w Is‑ï¯‑n¡g‑nª‑p. K±‑m^‑n t‑ÌU‑nb¯‑n F¯‑pt‑¼‑mÄ »‑mÌ‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑v XIÀ¡W‑w. Ah·‑mÀ¡‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑m\‑pÅX‑mW‑v C‑u a‑q¶‑v s‑]«‑n. »‑mÌ‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑v XIÀ¡‑m\‑mb‑n CÉ‑ma‑nI X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑n {‑K‑q¸‑ns‑\ \½Ä h‑mSIb‑v¡‑v FS‑p¯‑p'. CX‑pt‑I« t‑Uh‑nU‑v s‑jb‑ved‑ns‑â a\Ê‑n `b¦c k‑wLÀja‑pï‑mb‑n. Ab‑mÄ t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p‑, ‑"\½‑ps‑S Kh¬s‑aâd‑nª‑n«‑mt‑W‑m CX‑v s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v?‑' "s‑F t‑K‑m«‑v Z I¬s‑kâ‑v H‑m^‑v s‑s‑{‑]‑w a‑n\‑nÌÀ. AÃ‑ms‑X C{‑Xb‑p‑w ]W‑w \a‑ps‑¡h‑ns‑S \‑n¶‑p hc‑p‑w?‑' Fó‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p F‑w.s‑F.6 N‑o^‑ns‑â ad‑p]S‑n. \‑nI‑p-X‑n-Z‑m-b-I-c‑p-s‑S ]Wa‑p]t‑b‑mK‑n¨ t‑hs‑d‑mc‑p c‑mP‑y¯‑v k‑vt‑^‑mS\a‑pï‑m¡‑pIb‑mW‑v. Hs‑¶‑m¶ce£‑w Bf‑pIÄ hc‑p¶ t‑ÌU‑nb¯‑n k‑vt‑^‑mS\‑w \S¯‑p¶X‑v \‑nI‑pX‑n- s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p¶h³ Ad‑nb‑p¶‑nÃ. s‑Sdd‑nÌ‑pIÄ¡‑mW‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p¶X‑v. F‑w.s‑F 5 N‑o^‑ns‑â a\Ê‑n {‑`‑m´‑mb‑n. Ab‑mÄ {‑_‑n«\‑ns‑e FÃ‑m s‑I‑mÅ‑mh‑p¶ FU‑näÀa‑ms‑cb‑p‑w h‑nf‑n¨‑p ]dª‑p‑, "C§s‑\ Hc‑p k‑w`h‑w \S¡‑m³ t‑]‑mI‑p¶‑pï‑v. CX‑v A[‑mÀ½‑nIa‑mW‑v. CX‑ns‑\ s‑]‑mf‑n¨S‑p¡W‑w. h‑mÀ¯b‑n«‑v s‑]‑mf‑n¡W‑w‑'. h‑nh-c‑w I‑n«‑n-b ]-{‑X-¡‑m-c‑n-e‑m-t‑c‑m {‑]-[‑m-\-a-{‑´‑n-s‑b h‑n-f‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑n¨‑p. t‑Uh‑nU‑n\X‑p a\Ê‑ne‑mb‑n. Ab‑mf‑p‑w I‑ma‑pI‑nb‑mb B\‑n at‑¡‑mW‑p‑w I‑qS‑n \‑mS‑ph‑nt‑«‑mS‑n. Cäe‑n‑, {‑^‑m³k‑v X‑pS§‑nb Øe§f‑n Hf‑n¨‑p X‑mak‑n¨‑p. Ah‑ns‑S \‑ns‑¶Ã‑m‑w h‑mÀ¯ ]‑pds‑¯¯‑n¡‑m³ {‑ia‑w \S¯‑n. ]s‑£ k‑vt‑^‑mS\‑w \

S¶‑p. e‑n_‑nb Iï Gäh‑p‑w he‑nb k‑vt‑^‑mS\‑w. 300H‑mf‑w t‑]À s‑I‑mÃs‑¸«‑p. K±‑m^‑n Xe\‑mc‑ng¡‑pc£s‑¸«‑p. C‑u h‑nhc‑w \‑mS‑p\‑os‑f ]dª‑p \S¶ t‑Uh‑nU‑ns‑\ b‑p‑w I‑ma‑pI‑ns‑bb‑p‑w s‑I‑mes‑¸S‑p¯‑m³ {‑_‑n«‑oj‑v kÀ¡‑mÀ t‑e‑mI‑w a‑pg‑ph³ he h‑nc‑n¨‑p. ]s‑£ AX{‑X Ff‑p¸a‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. t‑Ik‑v t‑I‑mSX‑nb‑ns‑e¯‑n¨‑v‑, k‑zb‑w l‑mPc‑mb‑n kX‑y‑w h‑nf‑n¨‑p ]db‑m\‑mW‑v t‑Uh‑nU‑v X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¨X‑v. Fó‑mð t‑I‑mSX‑nb‑ns‑e¯‑nb At‑±lt‑¯‑mS‑v PU‑vP‑n CX‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« t‑N‑mZ‑y§Ä¡‑p ]Ic‑w H‑m^‑ok‑ns‑e t‑hs‑d N‑ne ] c‑mX‑nIf‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« t‑N‑mZ‑y§f‑mW‑v t‑N‑mZ‑n¨X‑v. PU‑vP‑nbS¡a‑pÅhc‑ps‑S Bk‑q{‑X‑nX\‑o¡a‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p AX‑v. cï‑p hÀj‑w a‑pt‑¼ H‑m^‑ok‑ne‑pÅ Bt‑f‑mS‑v A]ac‑y‑mZb‑mb‑n s‑]c‑pa‑md‑nb I‑pä‑w N‑pa¯‑n AhÀ t‑Uh‑nU‑ns‑\ Pb‑ne‑nt‑e¡b¨‑p. t‑Uh‑nU‑v s‑jb‑veÀ Ct‑¸‑mÄ Fh‑ns‑Sb‑ms‑W¶ I‑mc‑y‑w BÀ¡‑pad‑nb‑nÃ. {‑`‑m´‑p ]‑nS‑n¨X‑mb‑p‑w \‑me‑p hÀj‑w a‑ps‑¶ Gt‑X‑m P‑n]‑vk‑n¡‑q«¯‑n ih¸d¼‑n I‑nS¡‑p¶ Bf‑pIs‑f t‑]‑me‑ok‑v AdÌ‑v s‑Nb‑vX I‑q«¯‑n Cb‑mf‑p‑w Dï‑mb‑nc‑ps‑¶¶‑p‑w ]dbs‑¸S‑p¶‑p.

UÂl‑n k‑vt‑^‑mS\‑w At‑\‑zjW ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑nÂ‑, c‑mP‑yX‑mÂ] c‑yh‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸«‑v k¦‑oÀ®XIft‑\Ia‑pï‑v. t‑e‑mI¯‑v FÃ‑mb‑nS¯‑pa‑pÅ N‑mc·‑mc‑ps‑S h‑n[‑n kc_‑vP‑n¯‑nt‑âX‑p t‑]‑ms‑eb‑mW‑v. Ab‑mf‑ps‑S s‑I‑me]‑mXI¯‑n a‑m[‑ya§Ä Aea‑pdb‑nS‑pIb‑mW‑v. Ab‑mÄ Bc‑m-

t‑Uh‑nU‑v s‑jb‑veÀ e‑n_‑nbb‑ns‑e F‑w.s‑F.5 s‑â N‑o^‑v Bb‑nc‑p¶‑p. At‑±l‑w Hc‑pZ‑nhk‑w H‑m^‑ok‑n ]W‑ns‑b‑m¶‑p‑w CÃ‑mX‑nc‑ns‑¡ Ab‑mf‑ps‑S I‑uïÀ ]‑mÀS‑v F‑w.s‑F.6 N‑o^‑ns‑â a‑pd‑nb‑nt‑e¡‑v Ibd‑nbt‑¸‑mÄ Ab‑mÄ s‑]«‑nb‑n ]W‑w \‑nd¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C{‑Xb‑p‑w ]W‑w F´‑ns‑\¶‑p t‑N‑mZ‑n¨t‑¸‑mÄ H‑m^‑okÀ ]dª‑p‑, "K±‑m^‑n \‑ms‑f t‑ÌU‑nb¯‑n {‑]k‑wK‑n¡‑m³ hc‑p¶‑pï‑v. K±‑m^‑n F¯‑pt‑¼‑mÄ »‑mÌ‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑v XIÀ¡W‑w. Ah·‑mÀ¡‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑m\‑pÅX‑mW‑v C‑u a‑q¶‑v s‑]«‑n. »‑mÌ‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑v XIÀ¡‑m\‑mb‑n CÉ‑ma‑nI X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑n {‑K‑q¸‑ns‑\ \½Ä h‑mSIb‑v¡‑v FS‑p¯‑p'. t‑Uh‑nU‑v s‑jb‑veÀ

sk]vXw_À 2013


(12) b‑n-c‑p¶‑p? aZ‑yelc‑nb‑n A_²¯‑n AX‑nÀ¯‑n IS¶X‑ms‑W¶‑mW‑v kc_‑vP‑n¯‑ns‑â kt‑l‑mZc‑n ] db‑p¶X‑v. AX‑nÀ¯‑n IS¡‑pI Gs‑d {‑]b‑mka‑mW‑v. Cc‑p c‑mP‑y§f‑p‑w N‑mc·‑ms‑c AX‑nÀ¯‑n IS¯‑md‑pï.‑v Ch‑nS‑ps‑¯ t‑]‑ms‑e s‑]‑m«‑ns‑¯d‑nIÄ Ah‑ns‑Sb‑p‑w \S¡‑p¶‑p. kc_‑vP‑n¯‑ns‑\ Cj‑vS‑nIs‑I‑mïS‑ns‑¨¦‑n P½‑pþI‑mi‑va‑oc‑ns‑e Pb‑ne‑n XSh‑pI‑mcs‑\ Pb‑ne‑n ]‑n¡‑mk‑ps‑I‑mïS‑n¨‑p. C¯c¯‑ne‑pÅ N‑ne kµÀ`§f‑n a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯IÀ¡‑v \‑ni_‑vZX ]‑me‑nt‑¡ï‑n hc‑p¶‑p. h‑mÀ¯ Fg‑pX‑n \ÂI‑pI F¶X‑mW‑v a‑m[‑ya{‑] hÀ¯Is‑â Z‑uX‑y‑w. FU‑nä‑n‑wK‑v \S¶‑m AX‑v Fg‑pX‑nb t‑I‑m¸‑nb‑ps‑S h‑n[‑nb‑mb‑n Ic‑pX‑nb‑m aX‑n. ^b Bâ‑v t‑^‑mÀs‑Kä‑v F¶X‑mW‑v t‑PWe‑nk¯‑ns‑â c‑oX‑n. ]‑pX‑nb t‑PWe‑nÌ‑pIÄ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n§‑n\‑nd§‑nb‑m k‑w`h¯‑ns‑â kX‑y‑mhØ k‑o\‑nbÀ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«s‑d h‑nf‑n¨d‑nb‑n¡‑pI. _‑m¡‑n At‑±l‑w X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mÅ‑p‑w. a‑mÀ¨ 22\‑v ]‑mÀs‑aâhk‑m\‑n¡‑p¶X‑n\‑v s‑X‑m«‑pa‑p¼‑v h¶ h‑mÀ¯‑, ‑"UÂl‑nb‑n k‑vt‑^‑mS\‑w \S¯‑ms‑\¯‑nb `‑oIcs‑\ ]‑nS‑nI‑qS‑n. Ab‑mÄ s‑I‑mï‑p h¶ G.s‑I. 56 ]‑nS‑n¨‑p‑' FóX‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p. Ahk‑m\‑w X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑ns‑b s‑I‑mï‑p h¶t‑¸‑mÄ Ab‑mÄ¡‑v \-S-¡‑m³ t‑]‑me‑p‑w h¿; 46 hbÊ‑v Ig‑nª X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑n‑! X‑o{‑hh‑mZ¯‑ns‑â {‑]‑mb‑w 46 AÃ. X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑w 30 hbÊ‑n\‑v a‑p³]‑v‑, `‑mc‑yb‑p‑w a¡f‑p‑w hc‑p¶X‑n\‑v a‑p³]‑v‑, hc‑p¶ k‑m[\a‑mW‑v. C§s‑\ N‑ne t‑_k‑nI‑v k‑wKX‑nIf‑pï‑v. `‑mc‑yb‑p‑w 18 hbÊ‑mb h‑nIe‑m‑w-Kb‑mb aIf‑pa‑mb‑mW‑v "`‑oIc³' h¶X‑v. Ch‑ns‑S k‑w`h‑n¨s‑X´‑ms‑W¶d‑nb‑mt‑a‑m? UÂl‑nb‑ns‑e I‑q« _e‑mÂk‑wKs‑¯X‑pSÀ¶‑v UÂl‑n t‑]‑me‑ok‑ns‑âb‑p‑w I½‑ojWÀ \‑ocP‑v I‑pa‑md‑ns‑âb‑p‑w a‑pg‑ph³ Ct‑aP‑p‑w XIÀ¶‑p I‑nS¡‑pIb‑mW‑v . P‑qs‑s‑eb‑n d‑n«bÀ s‑Nb‑vX‑v t‑]‑mI‑p¶X‑n\‑p a‑p³]‑v Hc‑p s‑s‑j\‑n‑wK‑v Dï‑m¡W‑w . t‑l‑mf‑n¡‑v a‑p³]‑v \Kcs‑¯ »‑mÌ‑n \‑n¶‑v c£‑n¨h³ F¶‑v I‑mW‑n¡‑ph‑m\‑mW‑v ]‑mhs‑¸« Z‑nb‑mJ¯‑ns‑â Xeb‑n X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑n¸«‑w Ibä‑n h¨X‑v. _‑p²‑na‑mµ‑ya‑pÅ aIs‑fb‑p‑w `‑mc‑ys‑bb‑p‑w s‑I‑mï‑v C´‑yb‑n ac‑y‑mZb‑v¡‑v P‑oh‑n¡‑m³ h¶ Ab‑ms‑f X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑nb‑m¡‑n Pb‑ne‑n C«‑p. Ahk‑m\‑w HaÀ A_‑vZ‑pÅ ]c‑m-X‑n-s‑¸«‑p. AX‑nÀ¯‑n t‑]‑mÌ‑ns‑e h‑nj‑ze‑pIÄ s‑N¡‑v s‑Nb‑vXt‑¸‑mÄ kX‑y‑w s‑Xf‑nª‑p. Fó‑me‑p‑w C¸g‑p‑w Ab‑ms‑f h‑nS‑m³ ]ä‑nÃ; I‑mcW‑w UÂl‑n t‑]‑me‑ok‑v I½‑ojWÀ F¶X‑v he‑nb t‑]‑mÌ‑mW‑v. B`‑y´ca{‑´‑nt‑b¡‑mÄ he‑nb ]hÀ DÅ Bf‑mW‑v. t‑k‑mW‑nb K‑mÔ‑ns‑b Ad‑nb‑n¨‑v X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¡‑p¶ \‑nba\a‑mW‑v. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v I‑nc¬ t‑_Z‑n¡‑v Hc‑n¡e‑p‑w BI‑m³ ]ä‑mªX‑v. I‑nc¬ t‑_Z‑nb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p k‑o\‑nt‑b‑mc‑nä‑n A\‑pkc‑n¨‑v 2008  UÂl‑n t‑]‑me‑ok‑v I½‑ojWÀ Bt‑Iï‑nb‑nc‑p¶X‑v. Aht‑c‑mS‑v B`‑y´c a{‑´‑nb‑mb‑nc‑p¶ i‑nhc‑mP‑v ]‑m«‑n ]dª‑p "\‑n§f‑mW‑v Bt‑IïX‑v‑, H¶‑v a‑mUs‑¯ t‑]‑mb‑n I‑mWW‑w'. ‑"R‑m³ a‑mUs‑¯ t‑]‑mb‑n I‑mt‑Wï Bhi‑y‑w F´‑m? AhÀ Bc‑m?‑' F¶‑v I‑nc¬ t‑_Z‑n t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p. a‑mU‑w Bc‑ms‑W¶‑v I‑mW‑n¨‑p s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑p. Ahc‑mb‑nà I½‑ojWÀ. AhÀ \s‑«Ã‑pÅ k‑v{‑X‑ob‑mbX‑pIï‑v c‑mP‑ns‑h¨‑p.

t‑PWe‑nk¯‑ns‑â AI‑w At‑\‑zjW‑mßI ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\s‑a¶‑m Ag‑naX‑n s‑Xf‑nb‑n¡t‑e‑m s‑s‑{‑I‑w s‑Xf‑nb‑n¡t‑e‑m a‑m{‑XaÃ. Fh‑ns‑Ss‑b‑ms‑¡s‑b‑m adª‑p I‑nS¡‑p¶ N‑ne kX‑y§Ä‑, Bc‑p‑w {‑i²‑n¡‑ms‑Xt‑]‑mb I‑mc‑y§Ä Ch‑ns‑Ss‑b‑ms‑¡b‑mW‑v t‑PWe‑nk¯‑ns‑â Is‑®t‑¯ïX‑v. k‑m[‑mcW \‑n§Ä¡‑v I‑n«‑p¶ t‑P‑me‑n t‑^‑m¬ Aä³U‑v s‑N¿e‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. Ah‑ns‑Ss‑b‑ms‑¡ \‑n§f‑ps‑S C‑ut‑K‑mb‑p‑w sk]vXw_À 2013

kt‑´‑mjh‑p‑w XIc‑p‑w. I‑mcW‑w \‑n§Ä Cc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v \‑n§t‑f¡‑mÄ C‑ut‑K‑m DÅ Bf‑pIf‑ps‑S I‑og‑ne‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. he‑nb k‑o\‑nt‑bg‑vk‑v `b¦ca‑mb‑n IYs‑bg‑pX‑ns‑¡‑mï‑nc‑n¡ ‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. N‑ne k‑o\‑nt‑bg‑vk‑v \‑n§s‑f¡‑mW‑pt‑¼‑mÄ k‑wk‑mc‑n¡‑nÃ. a\‑pj‑yt‑\‑mS‑v k‑wk‑mc‑n¡‑ms‑X R‑ms‑\t‑´‑m Bt‑e‑mN‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v F¶ a«‑n Cc‑n¡‑p‑w. I‑mg‑vN _‑w¥‑mh‑n Ibd‑pt‑¼‑mÄ ]e ]e a‑rK§Ä Dï‑mI‑p‑w. AX‑pt‑]‑ms‑eb‑mW‑v \‑y‑q-k‑v d‑q‑w. \‑n§Ä t‑PWe‑nk¯‑n h¶‑n«‑v Fg‑pX‑m³ t‑]‑mI‑p¶X‑v \‑m«‑n \S¡‑p¶ s‑ad‑nä‑nÃ‑mb‑vas‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑p‑w \‑nbah‑nc‑p²Xs‑b I‑pd‑n¨‑pa‑mW‑v. Fó‑mð s‑ad‑nä‑nÃ‑m¯ GI Ø‑m]\‑w t‑PWe‑nka‑mW‑v. b‑p.]‑n.Fk‑v.k‑n.b‑ps‑S X«‑n¸‑ns‑\¡‑pd‑n¨‑v \‑n§Ä Fg‑pX‑p‑w. ]{‑X¯‑n F§s‑\b‑mW‑v Bf‑ns‑\ X‑ncs‑ªS‑p¡‑p¶X‑v? ]eb‑n-S¯‑p‑w a‑pXe‑mf‑n Cj‑vSa‑pÅ Bf‑ns‑\ FS‑p¡‑p‑w. A§s‑\ s‑ad‑nä‑nÃ‑m¯ Hc‑pØet‑¯b‑v¡‑mW‑v a-\-Ê‑n he‑n-b B-Z-À-i-§-f‑p-

C´‑y³ t‑PÀWe‑nk¯‑n k‑w`h‑n¡‑p¶ {‑]i‑v\‑w FU‑näÀa‑mÀ CÃ‑mX‑mb‑ns‑¡‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v FóX‑mW‑v. k‑n‑wlh‑me³ I‑pc§‑v t‑]‑ms‑e CÃ‑mX‑mh‑pIb‑mW‑v. C´‑yb‑ns‑e Gäh‑p‑w he‑nb cï‑p ]{‑X§f‑mb s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑yb‑pt‑Sb‑p‑w l‑nµ‑pØ‑m³ s‑s‑S‑wk‑nt‑âb‑p‑w FU‑näÀ Bc‑mW‑v F¶‑p t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑mÂ‑, K‑qK‑nfà GX‑v k‑m[\¯‑ne‑p‑w X¸‑nt‑¡‑m‑, \‑n§Ä¡‑v t‑]c‑p I‑n«‑nÃ. F-U‑n-äÀ F-s‑¶‑m-c‑m-f‑nÃ. A§s‑\ t‑]‑mÌ‑v CÃ. AX‑p s‑I‑mï‑pXs‑¶b‑mW‑v I‑n«‑m¯X‑v. FU‑näÀ‑, N‑o^‑v FU‑näÀ Hs‑¡ a‑mä‑nb‑n«‑v; FI‑vk‑nI‑y‑q«‑oh‑v FU‑näÀ‑, _‑nk‑n\Ê‑v FU‑näÀ Fs‑¶‑ms‑¡ h‑n`-P‑n¨‑p Ifª‑p. I‑mcW‑w ]W‑w a‑pS¡‑p¶ Bf‑pIÄ h‑nN‑mc‑n-¡‑p-¶ I‑m-c‑y-§-f‑pï‑v‑, A-h-c‑p-s‑S X‑m-e‑v-]-c‑y-§-f‑p-ï‑v. ]-e-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w A-X‑m-W‑v P-b‑n¡‑p I. Ah‑ns‑Sb‑mW‑v a\Ê‑v XIÀ¶‑pt‑]‑mI‑p¶X‑v. XIc‑ms‑X ]‑nS‑n¨‑p\‑n¡‑p¶X‑mW‑v h‑nPb‑w. a‑mb‑p‑w BI‑vS‑n-h‑n-k-h‑p-a‑m-b‑p-a‑mW‑v t‑]‑m-I‑p-¶X‑v. \‑n§Ä¡‑v ka‑qlt‑¯‑mS‑pÅ IS¸‑mS‑mW‑v t‑PWe‑nk¯‑ne‑qs‑S \‑nÀhl‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v CX‑ns‑\ t‑^‑mÀ¯‑v Ft‑Ìä‑v F¶‑v h‑nf‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. t‑^‑mÀ-¯‑v F-t‑Ì-ä‑v Bb‑n t‑P-W-e‑nk-s‑¯ I-W-¡‑m-¡‑n-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶-X‑v h‑y-àa‑m-b N‑n-e D-t‑±-i‑y-§-t‑f‑m-s‑S-b‑m-W‑v. B Ø‑m\¯‑v Cc‑n¡‑m³ \‑n§f‑p‑w R‑m\‑p‑w DÄs‑¸s‑Sb‑pÅhÀ ]I‑zX t‑\S‑nt‑b‑m F¶X‑v t‑hs‑d I‑mc‑y‑w.

j‑u-c‑n-b‑p-s‑S t‑K‑mb¦ IY C´‑y³ t‑PÀWe‑nk¯‑n k‑w`h‑n¡‑p¶ {‑]i‑v\‑w FU‑näÀa‑mÀ CÃ‑mX‑mb‑ns‑¡‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v FóX‑mW‑v. k‑n‑wlh‑me³ I‑pc§‑v t‑]‑ms‑e CÃ‑mX‑mh‑pIb‑mW‑v. C´‑yb‑ns‑e Gäh‑p‑w he‑nb cï‑p ]{‑X§f‑mb s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑yb‑pt‑Sb‑p‑w l‑nµ‑pØ‑m³ s‑s‑S‑wk‑nt‑âb‑p‑w FU‑näÀ Bc‑mW‑v F¶‑p t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑mÂ‑, K‑qK‑nfà GX‑v k‑m[\¯‑ne‑p‑w X¸‑nt‑¡‑m‑, \‑n§Ä¡‑v t‑]c‑p I‑n«‑nÃ. F-U‑n-äÀ F-s‑¶‑m-c‑m-f‑nÃ. A§s‑\ t‑]‑mÌ‑v CÃ. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑pXs‑¶b‑mW‑v I‑n«‑m¯X‑v. FU‑näÀ‑, N‑o^‑v FU‑näÀ Hs‑¡ a‑mä‑nb‑n«‑v; FI‑vk‑nI‑y‑q«‑oh‑v FU‑näÀ‑, _‑nk‑n\Ê‑v FU‑näÀ Fs‑¶‑ms‑¡ h‑n`-P‑n¨‑p Ifª‑p. I‑mcW‑w ]W‑w a‑pS¡‑p¶ Bf‑pIÄ h‑nN‑mc‑n-¡‑p-¶ I‑m-c‑y-


(13) §-f‑pï‑v‑, A-h-c‑p-s‑S X‑m-e‑v-]-c‑y-§-f‑p-ï‑v. ]-e-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w A-X‑mW‑v P-b‑n¡‑pI. Ah‑ns‑Sb‑mW‑v a\Ê‑v XIÀ¶‑pt‑]‑mI‑p¶X‑v. XIc‑ms‑X ]‑nS‑n¨‑p\‑n¡‑p¶X‑mW‑v h‑nPb‑w. t‑PWe‑nk¯‑n \‑n§Ä¡d‑nb‑mh‑p¶ Hc‑p]‑mS‑v I‑mc‑y§Ä Fg‑pX‑m³ ]ä‑nb‑ns‑ö‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. Fg‑pX‑m³ ] ä‑ms‑X hc‑p¶‑nS¯‑v h‑nja‑n¡c‑pX‑v. CX‑v Fh‑ns‑Ss‑b¦‑ne‑p‑w H‑mÀ¯‑ps‑h¡W‑w. Bhi‑ya‑pÅ‑nS¯‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡W‑w. t‑Ì‑md‑n h¶‑ns‑æ‑n F´‑v s‑N¿‑p‑w F¶‑pÅ t‑N‑mZ‑yh‑p‑w {‑]kàa‑mW‑v. ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w \-½‑p-s‑S k‑z-´‑w U-k‑vt‑I‑m ]-{‑X‑m-[‑n-]t‑c‑m A-X‑n-\‑p-a‑p-I-f‑n-e‑p-Å-ht‑c‑m C-S-s‑]-«‑v t‑Ì‑m-d‑n CÃ‑m-X‑m-¡‑n-s‑b-¶‑v h-c‑p‑w. ]-eX‑p‑w A§-s‑\ CÃ‑m-X‑m-b‑n«‑pï‑v. H-c‑p k‑w-`h-s‑¯ I‑p-d‑n-¨‑v R‑m³ Ac‑p¬ j‑uc‑nt‑b‑mS‑v ]dªt‑¸‑mÄ Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n CX‑nt‑\¡‑mÄ he‑ns‑b‑mc‑p IY ]dª‑p. Ac‑p¬ j‑uc‑n FU‑näÀ‑, H‑mWÀ k‑m£‑m c‑m‑w\‑mY‑v t‑K‑mb¦‑, AX‑mW‑v C´‑y Iï he‑nb Hc‑p ]»‑njÀ‑,

c‑m‑w\‑mY‑v t‑K‑mb¦

Ac‑p¬ j‑uc‑n

c‑m‑w\‑mY‑v t‑K‑mb¦. ]¯‑p N¦‑pÅ ]{‑Xa‑pXe‑mf‑n. A¶s‑¯ N‑o^‑v PÌ‑nk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑y ]‑n.F³. `KhX‑nb‑ps‑S Hc‑p PU‑vP‑vs‑aâ‑n h¶ ]‑mf‑n¨Is‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑v Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑]Ê‑nð k‑oc‑nk‑v X‑pS§‑n. N‑o^‑v PÌ‑nk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑yb‑ps‑S PU‑vP‑vs‑aâ‑v ]‑mf‑n¨IÄ‑, AX‑ns‑â I‑mcW‑w F´‑v‑, B h‑n[‑n\‑y‑mb¯‑ns‑e X«‑n¸‑v‑, AX‑ns‑\ I‑pd‑n¨‑pÅ k‑wib§Ä‑, Bc‑pa‑mb‑ns‑«‑ms‑¡ _Ôs‑¸«‑p X‑pS§‑nb h‑njb§Ä ]c‑maÀi‑n¨‑v a‑q¶‑p Z‑nhk‑w X‑pSÀ¨b‑mb‑n At‑±l‑w Fg‑pX‑n. AS‑p¯ Z‑nhk‑w‑, Hc‑p R‑mbd‑mg‑v¨ \‑mec aW‑n¡‑v Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑]Ê‑ns‑â H‑m^‑ok‑n Ibd‑nhc‑p¶‑p‑, \‑me‑m‑w Z‑nhkt‑¯¡‑pÅ t‑U‑mk‑pa‑mb‑n. Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n hc‑pt‑¼‑mÄ c‑m‑w\‑mY‑v t‑K‑mb¦b‑ps‑S hï‑n Iï‑p. k‑m[‑mcW R‑mbd‑mg‑v¨ At‑±l‑w hc‑md‑nÃ. At‑¸‑mg‑pï‑v t‑K‑mb¦ I‑y‑m_‑n\‑n Cc‑p¶‑v "H‑mS‑nh‑m‑, H‑mS‑nh‑m' F¶‑p ]db‑p¶‑p. CX‑p t‑I«‑v Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n I‑y‑m_‑n\‑n F¯‑nbX‑p‑w t‑K‑mb¦ At‑±lt‑¯‑mS‑v s‑]s‑«¶‑v _‑m¯‑vd‑qa‑n Ibd‑m³ Bhi‑ys‑¸«‑p. ‑"F´‑m k‑mÀ {‑]i‑v\‑w' F¶‑p t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p j‑uc‑n. ‑"N‑o^‑v PÌ‑nk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑y Ct‑§‑m«‑phc‑p¶‑pï‑v. \‑o s‑]s‑«¶‑v _‑m¯‑vd‑pa‑n IbdW‑w. i‑z‑mk‑w t‑]‑me‑p‑w t‑I«‑pt‑¸‑mIc‑pX‑v‑' Fó‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p t‑K‑mb¦b‑ps‑S BÚ. j‑uc‑n _‑m¯‑vd‑qa‑n Ibd‑n a‑q¶‑p s‑k¡â‑n\I‑w N‑o^‑v

PÌ‑nk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑y Ch‑ns‑S F¯‑n. Bt‑e‑mN‑n¡W‑w‑, AX‑mW‑v A¶s‑¯ C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑]Ê‑v. N‑o^‑v PÌ‑nk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑y Bc‑p‑w I‑mW‑ms‑X s‑s‑hI‑pt‑¶c‑w kl‑ns‑I«‑v t‑]S‑n¨‑phc‑nIb‑mW‑,‑v "C\‑ns‑b¦‑ne‑p‑w Fs‑¶ D]{‑Zh‑n¡c‑pt‑X‑' F¶‑p]db‑m\‑mb‑n«‑v. ]‑ns‑¶ \S¶ k‑w`hs‑¯¡‑pd‑n¨‑v Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n ]db‑p¶X‑v C{‑Xb‑p‑w he‑nb Hc‑p H‑mk‑v¡‑mÀ {‑]IS\‑w R‑m³ a‑p³]‑pIï‑n«‑nà Fó‑mW‑v. `Kh‑m³ Xs‑â a‑p¶‑n AhXc‑n¨ a«‑n h‑m t‑X‑mc‑ms‑X k‑wk‑mc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v t‑K‑mb¦‑, ‑"CX‑mc‑v N‑o^‑v PÌ‑nk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑yt‑b‑m‑, h¶‑me‑p‑w‑, Fs‑â H‑m^‑ok‑v [\‑ya‑mb‑n‑, N‑mbs‑I‑mï‑phc‑q‑, I‑m¸‑n s‑I‑mï‑phc‑q' A§s‑\ Bs‑I _lf‑w. FÃ‑m‑w t‑I«‑v j‑uc‑n N‑nc‑nbS¡‑n\‑n¶‑p. t‑I‑mSX‑nbe£‑y¯‑n\‑v t‑Is‑kS‑p¡‑mX‑nc‑n¡‑m³ a‑pXe‑mf‑n At‑±ls‑¯ t‑k‑m¸‑nS‑pIb‑ms‑W¶‑v j‑uc‑n h‑nN‑mc‑n¨‑p. "F´‑mW‑v h¶X‑v?' t‑K‑mb¦ h‑oï‑p‑w t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p. PU‑vP‑nb‑ps‑S ad‑p]S‑n: ‑"B Ac‑p¬ j‑uc‑nb‑pït‑Ã‑m'

PÌ‑nk‑v ]‑n.F³. `KhX‑n

‑"As‑X Ah³ F´‑ps‑Nb‑vX‑p‑, A§s‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑v Ah³ s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑yb‑n hà t‑eJ\h‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑nt‑b‑m?' (j‑uc‑n CSb‑v¡‑v s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑yb‑ne‑p‑w t‑eJ\ s‑ag‑pX‑md‑pï‑v.‑)‑, Hó‑pad‑nb‑m¯a«‑nð t‑K‑mb¦ At‑\‑zj‑n¨‑p. PU‑vP‑nb‑ps‑S ad‑p]S‑n: ‑"s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑yb‑nbeÃ‑, k‑md‑ns‑â ]{‑X¯‑n Xs‑ó. Ig‑nª a‑q¶‑v Z‑nhka‑mb‑n F\‑ns‑¡X‑ns‑c Fg‑pX‑pIb‑mW‑v.‑' CX‑p t‑I«X‑p‑w t‑K‑mb¦ £‑p`‑nX\‑mb‑n Ac‑p¬ j‑uc‑ns‑b N‑o¯ h‑nf‑n¨‑p. k‑z´‑w I‑y‑m_‑n\‑ns‑e I¸‑p‑w k‑mkd‑p‑w FS‑ps‑¯d‑nª‑v X‑mÞh \‑r¯a‑mS‑n. A§s‑\ Bs‑I _lf‑w. Iï‑v \‑n¶ N‑o^‑v PÌ‑nk‑v Bs‑I hÃ‑mX‑mb‑n. At‑±l‑w t‑K‑mb¦b‑ps‑S s‑\©‑n XSh‑n a‑nï‑mX‑nc‑n¡‑m³ Bhi‑ys‑¸«‑p. X\‑n¡‑v ]c‑mX‑ns‑b‑m¶‑pa‑ns‑ö‑v ]dª‑v ]‑pÅ‑n b‑m{‑Xb‑mb‑n. C‑u {‑U‑ma a‑pg‑ph³ Iï‑v _‑m¯‑vd‑qa‑n i‑z‑mkaS¡‑n h‑nbÀ¯‑p I‑pf‑n¨‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v Ac‑p¬ j‑uc‑n. DSs‑\ t‑K‑mb¦ _‑m¯‑v d‑q‑w X‑pd¶‑v j‑uc‑nt‑b‑mS‑v ]dª‑p: "s‑]s‑«¶‑v t‑]‑mb‑n _‑m¡‑nI‑qs‑S Fg‑pX‑nb‑vt‑¡‑m‑!‑' C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑nh‑v t‑PÀWe‑nk‑w X\‑n¸‑nS‑nbÃ‑, AX‑ns‑\‑mc‑p B��¡‑q«‑w t‑hW‑w. C§s‑\ Hc‑p ]{‑X a‑pXe‑mf‑nt‑b‑m Hc‑p FU‑nät‑d‑m CÃ‑m¯X‑mW‑v \½‑ps‑S Xea‑pd A\‑p`h‑n¡‑p¶ i‑m]‑w. CX‑v h‑mÂ\£{‑X‑w hc‑p¶X‑v t‑]‑ms‑e ]¯‑p \‑qd‑v hÀj‑w Ig‑nb‑pt‑¼‑mÄ sk]vXw_À 2013


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t‑Ìä‑v _‑m¦‑nt‑e¡‑v s‑SÌ‑v Ig‑n-ª‑v s‑ke£\‑v FÃ‑m I‑m³U‑nt‑Uä‑nt‑\b‑p‑w Hc‑p a‑pd‑nb‑n h‑nf‑n¡‑p‑w. FÃ‑mhÀ¡‑p‑w Hc‑p t‑^‑m‑w Cj‑y‑q s‑N¿‑p‑w. B t‑^‑ma‑n AÑs‑â t‑]c‑v‑, A½b‑ps‑S t‑]c‑v‑, aä‑v h‑nhc§Ä F¶‑nh t‑NÀ-¡W‑w. s‑]¬I‑p«‑nIÄ¡‑v Hc‑p FI‑vk‑v{‑S‑m t‑^‑m‑w I‑qS‑n s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p‑w. (2010 hs‑c.‑) B t‑^‑ma‑n s‑]¬I‑p«‑nb‑ps‑S KÀ`‑mhØs‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑v Ad‑nb‑m\‑pÅ t‑N‑mZ‑y§f‑mW‑v. Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w s‑]¬ I‑p«‑n KÀ`‑nW‑nb‑mW‑v F¶‑v Fg‑pX‑nb‑m B I‑p«‑ns‑b h‑nf‑n¨‑v "{‑]kh‑w Ig‑nª‑v t‑U‑mI‑vSd‑ps‑S kÀ«‑n ^‑n¡ä‑pa‑mb‑n h¶‑m t‑P‑me‑n Xc‑p‑w' Fó‑v ]db‑p‑w. AX‑mbX‑v 2013 k‑neI‑vS‑v s‑N¿s‑¸« BÄ¡‑v 2015t‑e kÀÆ‑ok‑n Ibd‑m³ ]ä‑p. cï‑v hÀjs‑¯ k‑o\‑nt‑b‑mc‑nä‑n t‑]‑mI‑p‑w. C´‑yb‑ns‑e s‑at‑äÀW‑nä‑n s‑_\^‑nI‑vS‑v BI‑vS‑v A\‑pkc‑n¨‑v t‑P‑mb‑n³ s‑Nb‑vX‑p Ig‑nª‑m B \‑na‑nj‑w s‑X‑m«‑v FÃ‑m B\‑pI‑qe‑y§f‑p‑w s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑nc‑n¡Ws‑a¶‑mW‑v. Cs‑æ‑n s‑X‑mg‑ne‑pSa Pb‑ne‑n t‑]‑mt‑Iï‑n hc‑p‑w. Hc‑n¡Â hc‑p¶X‑mW‑v. {‑I‑n¡ä‑ns‑e Kh‑mk‑vIÀþ h‑ni‑z\‑mY‑v ]‑mÀ«WÀj‑n¸‑v t‑]‑ms‑e C´‑y³ t‑PWe‑nk‑w c‑wK¯‑v Dï‑mb‑nc‑p¶ I‑q«‑ps‑I«‑mW‑nX‑v. C¯c‑w Hc‑p IĨÀ C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑nh‑v t‑PWe‑nk¯‑n Dï‑mt‑hïX‑mW‑v. t‑PWe‑nk¯‑n \‑n§Ä¡‑v Hc‑p]‑mS‑v ie‑ya‑nÃ‑m¯ hi§f‑pï‑v. s‑Uhe]‑vs‑aâ‑v t‑PWe‑nk‑w‑, s‑Uk‑vI‑v, ^‑n¨À s‑s‑dä‑n‑wK‑v A§s‑\... t‑]S‑nb‑pÅhÀ¡‑v s‑N¿‑m\‑mb‑n. Fó‑mð C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑nh‑v t‑PWe‑nk‑w A§s‑\ s‑b‑móñ. Bs‑cs‑b¦‑ne‑p‑w s‑N‑md‑nb‑mt‑\‑m s‑X‑mS‑mt‑\‑m Dt‑±ia‑ps‑ï¦‑n ^‑nbÀs‑k a‑mä‑pI. s‑{‑_b‑n\‑ne‑ms‑I {‑]i‑v\a‑pÅX‑v ^‑nbÀs‑kÃ‑mW‑v. t‑]S‑nb‑pÅX‑ps‑I‑mï‑v Fg‑pX‑m\‑mh‑p¶‑nà F¶X‑n\‑v FI‑vk‑vI‑y‑qkÃ. A§s‑\ ]dª‑mð‑, X\‑n¡‑v B K‑pïs‑b AdÌ‑v s‑N¿‑m³ ] ä‑p¶‑nà Fó‑v Øes‑¯ Fk‑vs‑F ]db‑pt‑¼‑mÄ B Fk‑vs‑Ft‑b‑mS‑v t‑X‑m¶‑p¶ ]‑pÑt‑a \‑n§t‑f‑mS‑v Bf‑pIÄ¡‑pï‑mI‑q.

FI‑vk‑v{‑]k‑ns‑e Iaet‑Ik‑v At‑\‑zjW‑mßI t‑PWe‑nk‑w FÃ‑m¯‑ne‑pa‑pï‑v. C´‑yb‑ns‑e s‑R«‑n¸‑n¨ k‑w`ha‑mW‑v FI‑vk‑v{‑]k‑ns‑e Iaet‑Ik‑v. Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n FU‑näd‑mb‑nc‑p¶t‑¸‑mÄ Ai‑z\‑nkc¬ F¶ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«À F-g‑p-X‑n-b-X‑m-W‑v IY. k‑v{‑X‑oIs‑f h‑n¡‑p¶‑p‑, t‑hi‑y‑mh‑r¯‑n¡‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p¶‑p sk]vXw_À 2013

FóX‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p h‑njb‑w. t‑\c‑n«‑pÅ I¨hSa‑mW‑v. s‑s‑]k s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑m s‑I‑mï‑v t‑]‑mI‑m‑w. Bb‑nc‑w c‑q] s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑m k‑v{‑X‑o ]‑qÀ®a‑mb‑p‑w D]t‑`‑mà‑mh‑n\‑p k‑z´‑w. I‑mc‑y‑w FÃ‑mhÀ¡‑pad‑nb‑m‑w. ]t‑£ Cs‑X§s‑\ Fg‑pXWs‑a¶‑v Ad‑nb‑m¯ Ai‑z\‑n kc¬ B {‑K‑ma¯‑n t‑]‑mI‑pIb‑p‑w Iae F¶ k‑v{‑X‑os‑b h‑neb‑vs‑¡S‑p¯‑p s‑I‑mï‑ph¶‑p UÂl‑nb‑n {‑]ZÀi‑n¸‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. FI‑vk‑v{‑] Ê‑ns‑e s‑lU‑vs‑s‑e³ ‑"s‑F t‑_‑m«‑v Iae‑'. FÃ‑mb‑nS¯‑p‑w \S¡‑p¶ I‑mc‑ys‑a‑m¶‑paà s‑]®‑ns‑\ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«À t‑]‑mb‑n h‑m§‑p¶X‑v. FU‑näÀ D¯ch‑mZ‑nX‑z‑w ]dt‑bï‑n hc‑p‑w. a‑mt‑\P‑ps‑aâ‑ns‑â k½X‑w t‑hW‑w. d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ«À X\‑ns‑b Ibd‑n s‑N-¿‑m-h‑p-¶ I‑m-c‑y-aà CX‑v. s‑N-b‑v-X‑m s‑]S‑m¸‑mS‑v s‑]«‑pt‑]‑mI‑p‑w. A¶‑p Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n s‑Nb‑vX Iaeb‑ps‑S ]Àt‑¨k‑ns‑\¸ä‑n Hc‑p]‑mS‑v k‑n\‑naIÄ Cd§‑nb‑n«‑pï‑v. Iaeb‑pa‑mb‑n _k‑v Ibd‑nb kab¯‑v Ac‑p¬j‑uc‑n FÃ‑m PU‑vP‑na‑mÀ¡‑p‑w Is‑¯g‑pX‑n‑, R§f‑ps‑S d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«À CX‑p s‑Xf‑nb‑n¡‑p¶X‑n\‑p t‑hï‑n Iae F¶ k‑v{‑X‑ob‑pa‑mb‑n hc‑p¶‑pï‑v. h¶‑p Ig‑nª‑m \‑mc‑n\‑nt‑IX\‑n t‑I‑mSX‑n D¯ch‑n«‑v k‑wc£‑n¡W‑w Fó‑v. PU‑v-P‑n-a‑mÀ-¡‑v I-s‑¯-g‑pX-c‑p-X‑v F-¶‑m-W‑v \‑n-ba‑w. ]-t‑£‑, j‑u-c‑n F-g‑pX‑n. t‑I‑mSX‑n t‑Ik‑v Gs‑äS‑p¯‑p‑, FI‑vk‑v{‑]Ê‑n h‑mÀ¯ h¶‑p. he‑n-b k‑w-`-h-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. H-c‑p-]‑m-S‑v I‑m-c‑y-§Ä C-X‑nÂ-\‑n-¶‑v ]T‑n-¡‑m\‑pï‑v.


(15) t‑Ìä‑v _‑m¦‑p‑w KÀ`‑n-W‑nIf‑p‑w ]{‑Xt‑a‑m^‑ok‑pIf‑n ]X‑n\‑mb‑nc¡W¡‑n\‑v {‑] Ê‑v d‑ne‑ok‑pIÄ hc‑md‑pï‑v Nhd‑pt‑]‑ms‑e. C‑u I‑n«‑p¶ Nhd‑pIÄ FÃ‑m‑w h‑mb‑n¡W‑w. AX‑n\I¯‑p\‑n¶‑p‑w hÃX‑p‑w XSb‑p‑w. ]eX‑p‑w FX‑nc‑mf‑nIÄs‑¡X‑ns‑c Fg‑pX‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ k‑m[\§f‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. h‑mb‑n¡‑p¶ I‑mc‑y§Ä a\k‑n h¨‑ps‑I‑mÅW‑w. N‑net‑¸‑mÄ t‑hs‑d Hc‑p h‑njb‑w hc‑pt‑¼‑mg‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w \‑n§Ä ]ï‑v h‑mb‑n¨X‑pa‑mb‑n d‑nt‑eä‑v s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. R‑ms‑\‑mc\‑p`h‑w ]db‑m‑w. h‑n Fk‑v AN‑y‑pX‑m\µs‑â ^‑mI‑v-k‑p-I-Ä H‑m-^‑o-k‑n F-¯‑m-d‑p-ï‑v. _‑y‑qt‑d‑mN‑o^‑v FS‑p¯‑pt‑\‑m¡‑n‑, Ifb‑p‑wa‑p³]‑v‑, aeb‑mfa‑mbX‑n\‑m F\‑n¡‑v X¶‑p. h‑n.FÊ‑ns‑â BbX‑n\‑m R‑m\ X‑ph‑mb‑n¨‑p. t‑Ìä‑v _‑m¦‑v H‑m^‑v C³U‑y KÀ`‑nW‑nIÄ¡‑v t‑P‑me‑ns‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p¶‑nà F¶‑p‑w At‑\‑zj‑n¡Ws‑a¶‑p‑w AX‑n ]dª‑nc‑p¶‑p. R‑m³ h‑nN‑mc‑n¨‑p‑, Bs‑c¦‑ne‑p‑w ] db‑p¶X‑v t‑I«‑n«‑v‑, As‑æ‑n j‑mPl‑m³ ]db‑p¶X‑v t‑I«‑n«‑v‑, I¯‑n\‑v X‑ms‑g h‑n.Fk‑v. H¸‑n«‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑n«‑pÅX‑mI‑ps‑a¶‑v. C³U‑y k‑zX{‑´a‑mb‑n C{‑Xb‑p‑w I‑mea‑mb‑n«‑v‑, (2010 hs‑c‑) t‑Ìä‑v _‑m¦‑nt‑e¡‑v s‑SÌ‑v Ig‑n-ª‑v s‑ke£\‑v h‑nf‑n¡‑pt‑¼‑mÄ FÃ‑m I‑m³U‑nt‑Uä‑nt‑\b‑p‑w a‑pd‑nb‑n h‑nf‑n¡‑p‑w. FÃ‑mhÀ¡‑p‑w Hc‑p t‑^‑m‑w Cj‑y‑q s‑N¿‑p‑w. B t‑^‑ma‑n AÑs‑â t‑]c‑v‑, A½b‑ps‑S t‑]c‑v‑, aä‑v h‑nhc§Ä F¶‑nh t‑NÀ-¡W‑w. CX‑v Ig‑nª‑m t‑]‑mÌ‑nM‑v H‑mÀUÀ \ÂI‑p‑w. ]s‑£ s‑]¬I‑p«‑nIÄ¡‑v Hc‑p FI‑vk‑v{‑S‑m t‑^‑m‑w I‑qS‑n s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p‑w. (2010 hs‑c.‑) B t‑^‑ma‑n s‑]¬I‑p«‑nb‑ps‑S KÀ`‑mhØs‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑v Ad‑nb‑m\‑pÅ t‑N‑mZ‑y§f‑mW‑v. Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w s‑]¬I‑p«‑n KÀ`‑nW‑nb‑mW‑v F¶‑v Fg‑pX‑nb‑m B I‑p«‑ns‑b h‑nf‑n¨‑v "t‑]S‑n¡‑ms‑\‑m¶‑pa‑nÃ‑, t‑P‑me‑n Dd¸‑mW‑v. ]s‑£ Ct‑¸‑mÄ t‑P‑me‑nb‑n {‑]t‑hi‑n¡‑m³ Ig‑nb‑nÃ. {‑]kh‑w Ig‑nª‑v t‑U‑mI‑vSd‑ps‑S kÀ«‑n^‑n¡ä‑pa‑mb‑n h¶‑m t‑P‑me‑n Xc‑p‑w' Fó‑v ]db‑p‑w. AX‑mbX‑v 2013 k‑neI‑vS‑v s‑N¿s‑¸« BÄ¡‑v 2015t‑e kÀÆ‑ok‑n Ibd‑m³ ]ä‑p. cï‑v hÀjs‑¯ k‑o\‑nt‑b‑mc‑nä‑n t‑]‑mI‑p‑w. C´‑yb‑ns‑e s‑at‑äÀW‑nä‑n s‑_\^‑nI‑vS‑v BI‑vS‑v A\‑pkc‑n¨‑v t‑P‑mb‑n³ s‑Nb‑vX‑p Ig‑nª‑m B \‑na‑nj‑w s‑X‑m«‑v FÃ‑m B\‑pI‑qe‑y§f‑p‑w s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑nc‑n¡Ws‑a¶‑mW‑v. Cs‑æ‑n s‑X‑mg‑ne‑pSa Pb‑ne‑n t‑]‑mt‑Iï‑n hc‑p‑w. Cs‑X‑ms‑¡b‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p h‑n. Fk‑ns‑â I¯‑ns‑e h‑nhc§Ä. R‑m\‑nX‑v H‑m^‑ok‑n AhXc‑n¸‑n¨‑p. C´‑yb‑ns‑e Gäh‑p‑w he‑nb _‑m¦‑v k‑v{‑X‑oIÄ¡‑v t‑P‑me‑n s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p¶‑nà F¶‑pffX‑v s‑Xä‑mb‑n«‑pÅ h‑nhca‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑ps‑a¶‑p‑w C§s‑\ H¶‑p‑w k‑w`h‑n¡‑nà F¶‑p‑w H‑m^‑ok‑ne‑pffhÀ ]dª‑p. HS‑ph‑n Fs‑â \‑nÀ_Ô¯‑n\‑v hg§‑n‑, \i‑n¨‑pt‑]‑ms‑« F¶‑v ]dª‑v‑, _‑y‑qt‑d‑m N‑o^‑v Fk.‑v_‑n.s‑F. s‑NbÀa‑ms‑â t‑Ìä‑vs‑aâ‑v FS‑p¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑v hc‑m³ ]dª‑p. k‑m[‑mcW KX‑nb‑n t‑Ìä‑vs‑aâ‑v FS‑p¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑v hc‑m³ ]dª‑m AÀY‑w t‑Ì‑m-d‑n-b‑p-s‑S I‑mc‑y‑w X‑oÀ-¶-‑p F-¶‑mW‑v. t‑Ì‑md‑nb‑n k‑wiba‑pÅX‑n\‑me‑mW‑v I‑uïÀ t‑Ìä‑vs‑aâ‑v FS‑p¡‑m³ ]db‑p¶X‑v. h‑n«‑ps‑I‑mS‑p¡‑m³ X¿‑mdÃ‑m¯X‑ps‑I‑mï‑v R‑m³ Fk‑v._‑n.s‑F.b‑ps‑S s‑NbÀa‑ms‑\ h‑nf‑n¨‑p. Fk‑v._‑n.s‑F. b‑ps‑S s‑NbÀa‑m³ he‑nb Bf‑mW‑v. h‑nf‑n¨‑pIg‑nªt‑¸‑mÄ \‑n§Ä _‑m¦‑nM‑v IhÀ s‑N¿‑p¶ Bf‑mt‑W‑m F¶‑v t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p. R‑m³ Aà F¶‑v ]dª‑p. ]‑ns‑¶ F´‑n\‑mW‑v Fs‑¶ h‑nf‑n¡‑p¶X‑v F¶‑v t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p. h‑nf‑nt‑¡ï I‑mc‑ya‑pï‑v F¶‑v R‑m³ ]dª‑p. C¡Y ] dªX‑p‑w "KÀ`‑nW‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ kab¯‑v F´‑n\‑mW‑v _‑m¦‑ns‑â i¼f‑w s‑hd‑ps‑X Ifb‑p¶X‑v. AhÀ {‑]á³k‑n Ig‑nª‑v hcs‑«' F¶‑v At‑±l¯‑ns‑â h‑mb‑n \‑nó‑v

A_²¯‑n h‑oW‑p. I‑qS‑pX Ad‑nbWs‑a¦‑n F¨‑v. Bd‑ns‑\ h‑nf‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mÅ‑m³ ]dª‑p. F¨‑v BÀ s‑lU‑v Hc‑p k‑v{‑X‑ob‑mW‑v. AhÀ t‑]‑me‑p‑w ]dªX‑v KÀ`‑nW‑n {‑]kh‑w Ig‑nª‑v hcs‑« F¶‑mW‑v. AS‑p¯ Z‑nhk‑w h‑mÀ¯ AS‑n¨‑p. as‑ä‑mc‑p ]{‑Xh‑p‑w N‑m\e‑pIf‑p‑w CX‑v t‑^‑mt‑f‑m s‑Nb‑vX‑nÃ. Fk‑v._‑n.s‑F.b‑ps‑S Hs‑¡ ]ck‑y‑w hfs‑c he‑pX‑mW‑v. s‑s‑hI‑pt‑¶ca‑mbt‑¸‑mÄ Fk‑v._‑n.s‑Fb‑ps‑S P‑n.F‑w. hc‑nIb‑mW‑v. P‑n.F‑w. h¶‑n«‑v ‑"R§f‑ps‑S _‑m¦‑v A§s‑\ b‑mW‑v‑, C§s‑\b‑mW‑v‑' F¶‑v ]eX‑p‑w ]dª‑p. Hc‑p he‑nb a‑nT‑mb‑n s‑]«‑nb‑pa‑mb‑n«‑mW‑v h¶X‑v. CX‑p Iït‑¸‑mÄ _‑y‑qt‑d‑m N‑o^‑n\‑v s‑s‑[c‑y‑w h¶‑p. t‑Ì‑md‑n t‑\‑m¡‑u«‑mb‑n. ]‑nt‑ä Z‑nhk‑w Fk‑v._‑n.s‑F. {‑]k‑v d‑ne‑ok‑v Cd¡‑n. CX‑v 1860 s‑e Hc‑p \‑nbaa‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w A¶‑v KÀ`‑mhØ he‑nb {‑]i‑v\a‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w C¶‑v B \‑nba‑w FS‑p¯‑p a‑mä‑n Fó‑p‑w. s‑]¬I‑p«‑nIÄ¡‑nt‑¸‑mÄ cï‑mas‑¯ j‑oä‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p¶‑nÃ‑, FÃ‑mhÀ¡‑p‑w P\d j‑oä‑mW‑v.

hc‑m-¯ h‑mÀ¯ ^bð s‑Nb‑vX Hc‑p t‑Ì‑md‑n {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨‑ns‑æ‑n F´‑v s‑N¿‑p‑w? ^-b C-ä‑v Bâ‑v t‑^‑mÀK-ä‑v C-ä‑v F-s‑¶Ã‑m‑w K‑p-c‑p-¡-·‑mÀ ]-d-ª‑n-«‑p-ï‑m-I‑m‑w. A§-s‑\ a-d-¡‑p-I-s‑b‑m¶‑p‑w

a‑mÀ¨ 22\‑v ]‑mÀs‑aâhk‑m\‑n¡‑p¶X‑n\‑v s‑X‑m«‑pa‑p¼‑v h¶ h‑mÀ¯‑, ‑"UÂl‑nb‑n k‑vt‑^‑mS\‑w \S¯‑ms‑\¯‑nb `‑oIcs‑\ ]‑nS‑nI‑qS‑n. Ab‑mÄ s‑I‑mï‑p h¶ G.s‑I. 56 ]‑nS‑n¨‑p‑' FóX‑mb‑nc‑pó‑p. Ahk‑m\‑w X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑ns‑b s‑I‑mï‑p h¶t‑¸‑mÄ Ab‑mÄ¡‑v \-S-¡‑m³ t‑]‑me‑p‑w h¿; 46 hbÊ‑v Ig‑nª X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑n‑! X‑o{‑hh‑mZ¯‑ns‑â {‑]‑mb‑w 46 AÃ. X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑w 30 hbÊ‑n\‑v a‑p³]‑v‑, `‑mc‑yb‑p‑w a¡f‑p‑w hc‑p¶X‑n\‑v a‑p³]‑v‑, hc‑p¶ k‑m[\a‑mW‑v. C§s‑\ N‑ne t‑_k‑nI‑v k‑wKX‑nIf‑pï‑v. `‑mc‑yb‑p‑w 18 hbÊ‑mb h‑nI-e‑m‑w-Kb‑mb aIf‑pa‑mb‑mW‑v "`‑oIc³' h¶X‑v. t‑h-ï. k-t‑ä‑m-d‑n-s‑b-s‑¡‑m-ï‑v ]-e {‑]-t‑b‑mP-\‑w D-ï‑m-I‑p‑w. C-¶‑v H-c‑p c‑q-]-¯‑n {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¡‑m-¯ t‑Ì‑m-d‑n \‑m-s‑f t‑hs‑d‑m-c‑p c‑q-]-¯‑n s‑h-f‑n-¨‑w I‑m-W‑m-¡‑m-\‑m-t‑b-¡‑p‑w. AÃ‑ms‑X t‑P‑me‑nh‑n«‑v t‑]‑mI‑m³ Hc‑p {‑]‑mb¯‑n \‑n§Ä¡‑v t‑X‑m¶‑p‑w‑, F\‑n¡‑v t‑X‑m-¶‑p-I-b‑nÃ. t‑P-W-e‑nk‑w h‑n-¹-h-{‑]-hÀ-¯-\ aÃ‑, \-½-f‑mc‑p‑w s‑N-K‑p-t‑h-c-a‑mc‑p‑w AÃ. Hc‑p c‑mP‑ys‑¯ a{‑´‑nb‑mb‑nc‑ns‑¡ as‑ä‑mc‑p c‑mP‑y¯‑v t‑]‑mb‑n s‑hS‑ns‑h¡‑m³ \½s‑fs‑I‑mï‑v ]ä‑nÃ. \½Ä {‑]‑m-b‑m-K‑n-I-_‑p-²‑n-I-f‑m-b‑n-c‑n¡W‑w. \‑n§Ä t‑PWe‑nk¯‑nt‑e¡‑v hc‑pt‑¼‑mÄ \‑n§Ä¡‑v h‑ni‑zk‑n¡‑mh‑p¶ \‑n§f‑ps‑SX‑mb Hc‑p Câ‑nak‑n Dï‑mh‑p‑w. \‑n§Ä¡‑v ]ä‑m¯ h‑mÀ¯ \‑n§f‑ps‑S Gäh‑p‑w AS‑p¯ k‑pl‑r¯‑mb t‑PÀWe‑nÌ‑nt‑\‑mS‑v ]dª‑pt‑I‑mS‑p¯‑n«‑v A§‑v a‑md‑pI. ]eÀ¡‑p‑w ]ä‑p¶s‑Xs‑´¶d‑nb‑mt‑a‑m? s‑s‑_s‑s‑e\‑p‑w hcW‑w h‑mÀ¯b‑p‑w hcW‑w. FU‑näÀ k½X‑n¡‑p¶‑nÃ. H¶‑v k½X‑n¡‑p¶‑nÃ‑, cï‑v k½X‑n¡‑p¶‑nà ‑, a‑q¶‑v k½X‑n¡‑p¶‑nÃ. hc‑m¯ I‑mc‑y§Ä adt‑¶¡W‑w. N‑ne h‑mÀ¯IÄ N‑neÀs‑¡X‑ns‑c hc‑nÃ. \‑mjW N‑m\e‑pIf‑n AÀWh‑v t‑K‑mk‑z‑ma‑n‑, c‑mP‑oh‑v kÀt‑Zi‑mb‑n ‑, _À¡‑mZ¯ Hs‑¡ C‑ub‑ns‑S 18 t‑]-P‑pÅ H-c‑p t‑c-Jb‑p‑w B-«‑n-b‑m-«‑n k‑w-k‑m-c‑n-¡‑p¶-X‑v I-ï‑nc‑n-¡‑p-a-t‑Ã‑m. _‑wK‑mÄ N‑nä‑v ^ï‑v N‑o^‑v Fg‑pX‑nb Hc‑p s‑eäÀ‑, 18 t‑]P‑v Fs‑â I¿‑ne‑pï‑v F¶‑v ]dª‑v _lf‑w sk]vXw_À 2013


(16) s‑h¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. 18 t‑]P‑v ChÀ I¿‑n s‑h¨‑n«‑v ]¯‑m as‑¯ t‑]P‑n Hc‑p k‑m[\‑w Bc‑p‑w h‑mb‑n¨‑nÃ. \f‑n\‑n N‑nZ‑w_c¯‑n\‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¯ s‑s‑]k I‑nS¡‑p¶X‑v Ah‑n-s‑Sb‑mW‑v. N‑nZ‑w_c¯‑ns‑â `‑mc‑y¡‑v 42 t‑I‑mS‑n s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑p F¶‑v. ]X‑n\©‑mas‑¯ t‑]P‑n s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v {‑]W_‑v a‑pJÀP‑n¡‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¯X‑ns‑â IYb‑mW‑v. {‑]W_‑v a‑pJÀP‑nb‑ps‑S A\‑pb‑mb‑nIÄ F¶‑v ]dbs‑¸S‑p¶ cï‑v AKÀh‑mf‑n\‑p‑w C‑uÌ‑v _‑wK‑mÄ ^‑pS‑vt‑_‑mÄ ¢_‑n\I¯‑p s‑h¨‑v s‑s‑]k R‑m³ a‑mk‑ma‑mk‑w F®‑ns‑¡‑mS‑p¡‑pIb‑m b‑nc‑p¶‑p F¶‑mW‑v AhÀ AX‑n Fg‑pX‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. Bc‑p‑w N‑nZ‑w_c¯‑ns‑â t‑]c‑v ]db‑p¶‑nÃ. A§s‑\b‑mh‑p t‑¼‑mÄ N‑ne ]{‑X¡‑mÀ t‑hs‑d‑mc‑p hg‑n t‑\‑m¡‑n. N‑n-e-t‑¸‑mÄ C-X‑v t‑PÀWe‑nk‑w a‑m-{‑XaÃ. N‑ne kab¯‑v c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob¡‑ms‑cb‑p‑w ]‑mÀ«‑n-I-s‑fb‑p‑w h‑n-i‑z‑m-k-¯‑n-s‑e-S‑p-t‑¡-ï‑n-h-c‑p‑w. ]-{‑X-¯‑n h-c‑m¯-X‑v ]‑mÀ-e-s‑aâ‑n h-c‑p-¯‑m‑w. ]‑mÀ-e-s‑aâ‑n

t‑PWe‑nk¯‑n \‑n§Ä¡‑v Hc‑p]‑mS‑v ie‑ya‑nÃ‑m ¯ hi§f‑pï‑v. s‑Uhe]‑vs‑aâ‑v t‑PWe‑nk‑w‑, s‑Uk‑vI‑v, ^‑n¨À s‑s‑dä‑n‑wK‑v A§s‑\... t‑]S‑nb‑pÅhÀ¡‑v s‑N¿‑m\‑mb‑n. Fó‑mð C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑nh‑v t‑PWe‑nk‑w A§s‑\s‑b‑móñ. Bs‑cs‑b¦‑ne‑p‑w s‑N‑md‑nb‑mt‑\‑m s‑X‑mS‑mt‑\‑m Dt‑±ia‑ps‑ï¦‑n ^‑nbÀs‑k a‑mä‑pI. s‑{‑_b‑n\‑ne‑ms‑I {‑]i‑v\a‑pÅX‑v ^‑nbÀs‑kÃ‑mW‑v. t‑]S‑nb‑pÅX‑ps‑I‑mï‑v Fg‑pX‑m\‑mh‑p¶‑nà F¶X‑n\‑v FI‑vk‑vI‑y‑qkÃ. A§s‑\ ]dª‑mð‑, X\‑n¡‑v B K‑pïs‑b AdÌ‑v s‑N¿‑m³ ]ä‑p¶‑nà Fó‑v Øes‑¯ Fk‑vs‑F ]db‑pt‑¼‑mÄ B Fk‑vs‑Ft‑b‑mS‑v t‑X‑m¶‑p¶ ]‑pÑt‑a \‑n§t‑f‑mS‑v Bf‑pIÄ¡‑pï‑mI‑q.  ]-d-b‑m³ ]-ä‑m¯-X‑v N‑n-e-t‑¸‑mÄ A-hÀ \-a‑p¡‑p‑w X-s‑¶¶‑n-c‑n-¡‑p‑w. ‑"Fg‑pX‑mh‑p¶‑nSt‑¯‑mf‑w Fg‑pX‑nt‑¡‑m‑, _‑m¡‑n Fg‑pX‑m³ ]ä‑m¯X‑v Fs‑â I¿‑n Xt‑¶‑m‑, R‑m³ ]‑mÀe s‑aâ‑n ]-db‑m‑w‑' F-¶‑v F‑w.]‑n. ]-d-b‑p‑w. I‑mc-W‑w ]‑mÀ-es‑aâ‑n F-´‑p‑w h‑n-f‑n-¨‑p-]-d-b‑m‑w. {‑]‑nh‑nt‑eP‑v F-¶ H-¶‑p-ï‑v. F-´‑p-]-d-ª‑me‑p‑w P-b‑n-e‑n t‑]‑m-t‑I-ï‑n h-c‑nÃ. k-a‑q-l-¯‑ns‑â \·-¡‑v t‑h-ï‑n-b‑m-W‑v \-½Ä N‑n-e-t‑¸‑m-s‑gÃ‑m‑w C§-s‑\ s‑N-¿‑p-¶X‑v. c‑m-j‑v{‑S‑o-b‑w I-f‑n-¡‑m\Ã. N‑ne Häb‑m³a‑mÀ Dï‑mI‑p‑w. BÀ¡‑p‑w t‑hï‑m¯ C‑u Häb‑m³a‑ms‑c s‑I‑mt‑ï ]e I‑mc‑y§f‑p‑w \S¡‑q. ]‑mÀ-es‑aâ‑n AhÀ h‑mb\ X‑pS§‑p‑w‑, ]‑ns‑¶ \a‑p¡‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v s‑N¿‑m‑w. ]‑mÀ-e-s‑aâ‑n C§-s‑\ B-t‑c‑m-]‑n-¨‑p F-s‑¶-g‑p-X‑m‑w.

hg‑n s‑Xäe‑pIÄ A_²§Ä k‑w`h‑n¡‑m\‑p‑w hg‑n s‑Xä‑m\‑p‑w Hs‑¡ k‑m[‑yXIÄ Gs‑db‑ms‑WóX‑p‑w C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑oh‑v t‑PWe‑nk¯‑ns‑â as‑ä‑mc‑p hia‑mW‑v. A]IS§f‑ns‑e‑mó‑v s‑s‑{‑I‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v s‑N¿‑p-¶-hÀ-¡‑v I‑p-s‑d I-g‑n-b‑pt‑¼‑mÄ I‑m¡‑nt‑b‑mS‑v Bc‑m[\ t‑X‑m¶‑p‑w FóX‑mW‑v. h‑mÀ¯t‑b¡‑mf‑p‑w ck‑w kÀ¡‑nÄ C³k‑vs‑]I‑vSd‑ps‑S I¼\‑nb‑mI‑m\‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. A§s‑\ h¶‑p Ig‑nb‑pt‑¼‑mÄ kÀ¡‑nÄ C³k‑vs‑]I‑vSd‑p‑w h‑mÀ-¯-b‑n I-b-d‑m³ X‑p-S§‑p‑w. t‑]‑me‑ok‑v heb¯‑n \‑n§Ä h‑oW‑p Ig‑nª‑m ]‑n¶t‑§‑m«‑v \‑n§s‑f t‑]‑me‑ok‑v \‑oc‑mf‑n ]‑nS‑n¡‑p¶X‑v t‑]‑ms‑e ]‑nS‑n¡‑p‑w. Hc‑p XhW F´‑n-s‑e-¦‑ne‑p‑w h-g-§‑n-b‑m s‑hd‑ps‑X h‑nS‑nÃ. ]‑ns‑¶ Ab‑mÄ ]db‑p¶ Bf‑pIf‑ps‑S sk]vXw_À 2013

]‑nds‑I t‑]‑mt‑Iï‑n hc‑p‑w. t‑PWe‑nk¯‑ns‑â as‑ä‑mc‑p A]Nb¯‑ns‑â DZ‑mlcWa‑mW‑v Bc‑pj‑n t‑Ik‑v. Hc‑p h‑oS‑n¶I¯‑v \‑me‑pt‑] À. Aѳ‑, A½‑, t‑P‑me‑n¡‑mc³‑, aIÄ. t‑he¡‑mc\‑p‑w aIf‑p‑w s‑I‑mÃs‑¸«‑p. t‑e‑m¡Â t‑]‑me‑ok‑v Aѳ c‑mt‑Pj‑v XÂh‑md‑ns‑\ AdÌ‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑p. t‑]‑me‑ok‑v \S¯‑nb {‑]Ê‑v t‑I‑m¬-^-d³-k‑n H-c‑p D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-س Ft‑´‑m A-Ç‑o-ea‑mb s‑s‑I-b‑m‑wK‑y‑w I‑m-W‑n-¨‑p- F-¶‑m-t‑c‑m-]‑n-¨‑v d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ-«À-a‑mÀ _-l-f-a‑p-ï‑m¡‑n. ]‑n-s‑¶ FÃ‑m-hc‑p‑w h‑n-N‑m-c-W X‑p-S§‑n. AÑt‑\b‑p‑w A½t‑bb‑p‑w \‑nc-]-c‑m-[‑n-I-f‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑n. hg‑ns‑b I‑nS-¡‑p¶ a‑q¶‑v K‑qÀJ-Is‑f ]‑nS‑n-¨‑v AI-¯‑n-«‑p. F´‑v s‑I‑mï‑mW‑v c‑mt‑Pj‑v XÂh‑m-d‑n\‑v t‑hï‑n t‑PWe‑n-Ì‑pIÄ N‑mS‑n-b-X‑v? c‑mt‑Pj‑v XÂh‑m-À C´‑yb‑ns‑e Gä-h‑p‑w he‑nb H‑mÀt‑¯‑m-t‑U‑mâ‑nÌ‑v k‑vs‑]j‑y-e‑nÌ‑v BW‑v. Hc‑p h‑n[-s‑¸« t‑PW-e‑n-k‑v-ä‑p-I-f‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w B¦À½‑m-c‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w a‑pJ‑w k‑pµ-ca‑m¡‑n s‑h¡‑p-¶X‑v C‑u H‑mÀt‑¯‑m-t‑U‑mâ‑nÌ‑mW‑v. C‑u {‑] i‑v\-¯‑n \‑n¶‑mW‑v t‑U‑mI‑vSs‑d kl‑m-b‑n-¡‑m³ t‑PWe‑nÌ‑pIÄ Cd-§‑n-b-X‑v. {‑]‑nbs‑¸«hs‑c c£‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ C¯c‑w {‑]hWXIÄ t‑PWe‑nk¯‑n\‑v Gs‑d t‑Z‑mj‑w s‑N¿‑p‑w. ]e A_²§f‑ne‑p‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«Àa‑ms‑c s‑I‑mï‑p N‑mS‑n¡‑póX‑v A{‑i²b‑mW‑v. ]-e-t‑¸‑m-g‑p‑w t‑I‑mS-X‑n h‑n-[‑nIÄ t‑]‑m-e‑p‑w a‑p-g‑p-h³ h‑m-b‑n-¡‑m-s‑X d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ-s‑«-g‑p-X‑p‑w. A-X‑v A-_-²-a‑m-b‑n-¯‑o-c‑p‑w. a‑r-X‑y-‑pR‑v-P-b Z‑m-k‑v F-s‑¶‑m-c‑mÄ {‑]-X‑nb‑m-b H-c‑p s‑I‑m-e-t‑¡-Ê‑n-s‑â h‑n[‑n CX‑pt‑]‑ms‑eb‑mW‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v s‑N¿s‑¸«X‑v. h-[-i‑n£-¡‑v h‑n-[‑n-¡-s‑¸-« BÄ s‑I‑m-S‑p-¯ Z-b‑m-l-c-P‑n-b‑n c‑m-{‑ã]-X‑n \Â-I‑n-b i‑n-£-b‑nfh‑v t‑l‑m‑w a‑n-\‑n-k‑v-{‑S‑n {‑i-²‑n-¡‑m-s‑X I‑n-S-¶‑p-t‑]‑m-h‑p-Ib‑p‑w ]‑n-¶‑o-S‑v F-S‑p-¯‑v c-ï‑m-a-s‑X‑m-c‑p {‑]-k‑n-U-â‑n-\‑v A-b-¨‑p-s‑I‑mS‑p-¡‑p-I-b‑p-a‑m-W‑v s‑N-b‑v-XX‑v. C-X‑v X-Å-s‑¸«‑p. t‑I‑m-S-X‑n-b‑n ]‑n-¶‑o-S‑v C-X‑v h-¶-t‑¸‑mÄ t‑I‑m-S-X‑n a‑p-g‑p-h³ ^-be‑p‑w k‑q-£‑va-a‑m-b‑n ]T‑n-¨‑v h‑n-[‑n ]-dª‑p. H-c‑p c‑m-j‑v{‑S]-X‑n \ÂI‑n-b i‑n£-b‑n-f-h‑n-t‑·Â ]‑n-s‑¶ B-À¡‑m-W‑v cï‑m‑w h-« ]-c‑n-t‑i‑m-[-\ \-S-¯‑m³ A-[‑n-I‑mc‑w? t‑I‑mSX‑n C-X‑v N‑qï‑n-¡‑m«‑n. h‑n-[‑n-b‑ns‑e G-ä-h‑p‑w I‑m-Xe‑m-b C‑u `‑m-K‑w {‑i-²‑n-¡‑m-s‑X N‑m-\-e‑pIÄ c‑m-h‑n-s‑e a‑p-X t‑I‑mS-X‑n h-[-i‑n-£ d-±‑m-¡‑n F¶‑v h‑mÀ¯- s‑I‑m-S‑p-¡‑m³ X‑p-S§‑n. ]‑n-s‑¶ \‑nÀ-¯‑m-s‑X NÀ-¨b‑p‑w \-S¯‑n. t‑P-W-e‑n-k-¯‑n-s‑e _‑m-e-]‑mT-§Ä a-d-¶‑p-t‑]‑m-b-X‑ps‑I‑m-ï‑m-W‑v C-X‑v k‑w-`-h‑n-¨X‑v. I®‑p‑w I‑mX‑p‑w X‑p-d-¶‑p-s‑h-¨‑pt‑h-W‑w FÃ‑m‑w A-d‑n-b‑m\‑p‑w d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ-«‑v-s‑N-¿‑m-\‑p‑w.

K-h-s‑×â‑v s‑s‑ek‑v t‑PW-e‑n-k‑w t‑I‑m-g‑v-k‑v I-g‑n-b‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ {‑_‑n-«‑o-j‑v A-t‑ac‑n-¡³ t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑p-I-f‑n ]-d-b‑p-¶ H-c‑p I‑m-c‑y-a‑pï‑v. t‑P-W-e‑nk‑v-ä‑v B-h‑p-¶‑p-s‑ï-¦‑n c-ï‑v h‑m-¡‑v P‑o-h‑n-X-¯‑n H‑mÀ-a‑n¨‑n-c‑n-¡-W‑w. "K-h-s‑×â‑v s‑s‑ek'. kÀ-¡‑mÀ I-Å‑w ]-d-b‑p‑w. s‑F.F‑w.k‑v-t‑ä‑m¬- F-¶ A-t‑a-c‑n-¡-b‑n-s‑e H-c‑p h‑n-a-X t‑P-We‑n-k‑v-ä‑n-s‑â I¬-s‑k-]‑v-ä‑v B-WX‑v. A-t‑±-l‑w H-c‑p ]‑p-k‑vX-I‑w ]‑n-¶‑o-S‑v F-g‑pX‑nþ BÄ K-h×â‑v s‑s‑ek‑v. C-X‑v a-\-Ê‑n-e‑m-¡‑nb‑n-c‑n-¡W‑w. C-X‑v a-\-Ê‑n-e‑m-¡‑n-b‑n-s‑Ã-¦‑n \‑n-§Ä s‑N-¿‑p¶X‑v ]-»‑n-I‑v d‑n-t‑e-j³-k‑v B-b‑n-t‑¸‑m-I‑p‑w. ]-{‑X-¡‑p-d‑n-¸‑p-I-f‑n ]-eX‑p‑w h-c‑p‑w. A-Xà h‑mÀ-¯. A-h h‑m-b‑n-¨‑n-c‑n-¡-W‑w. H‑mÀ-¯‑n-c‑n-¡W‑w. UÂl‑n ]-b-\‑n-bÀ ]-{‑X-¯‑n k‑v-s‑]-j I-d-k‑v-t‑]‑mïâ‑v B-W‑v t‑K‑m-]‑o-I‑r-j‑vW³. t‑I‑m-g‑n-t‑¡‑m-«‑v {‑]-k‑v A-¡‑mZ-a‑n \-S¯‑n-b Ì-U‑n I‑y‑m-¼‑n \-S¯‑n-b {‑]-k‑w-K-¯‑n-s‑â N‑p-c‑p-¡-a‑m-W‑nX‑v. X-¿‑m-d‑m-¡‑nb-X‑v C³-Ì‑n-ä‑y‑q«‑v H‑m-^‑v I-½‑y‑q-W‑n-t‑¡-j³ h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-°‑nIÄ


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hc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w‑, ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯Is‑â Gäh‑p‑w a‑nI¨X‑p‑w iàh‑p‑w B[‑nI‑mc‑nIh‑pa‑mb Bb‑p[a‑mW‑v. At‑\‑zjW‑mßIa‑mb ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\ ¯‑ns‑â ]‑pX‑nb a‑pJa‑mb‑n h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nbas‑¯ I‑mWW‑w. kÀ¡‑mc‑m^‑ok‑n A¨S¡\S]S‑n t‑\c‑nS‑p¶ P‑oh\¡‑mc³ Hf‑n¨‑pIS¯‑n ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I\‑v \ÂI‑p¶ ^be‑ns‑â AS‑nØ‑m\¯‑n X¿‑md‑m¡‑p¶ "FI‑vk‑v¢‑qk‑oh‑v t‑Ì‑md‑n‑'If‑mW‑v C¶‑v \‑m‑w h‑mb‑n¡‑p¶ ]e h‑mÀ¯If‑p‑w. H‑m^‑ok‑v t‑a[‑mh‑nt‑b‑mS‑pÅ i{‑X‑pXt‑b‑m `c‑n¡‑p¶ c‑m{‑ã‑ob I£‑nt‑b‑mS‑pÅ h‑nt‑c‑m[t‑a‑m a‑qe‑w‑, kÀ¡‑mÀ P‑oh\¡‑mc³ t‑N‑mÀ¯‑ns‑¡‑mS‑p¡‑p¶ h‑nhc§f‑mW‑v ]e Ag‑naX‑n¡YIf‑pt‑Sb‑p‑w Ddh‑nS‑w. B[‑p\‑nI k‑wh‑n[‑m\§Ä D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v Hf‑nI‑y‑madb‑p s‑S kl‑mbt‑¯‑ms‑Sb‑pÅ "Ì‑n§‑v H‑m¸t‑dj\‑pIÄ‑' At‑\‑zjW‑mßIa‑mb ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑n\‑v as‑ä‑mc‑p a‑pJ h‑p‑w C¶‑v \ÂI‑nb‑n«‑pï‑v. clk‑yI‑y‑mad D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑pÅ "Ì‑n§‑v H‑m¸t‑dj³‑' a‑m²‑yaka‑ql¯‑ns‑â I¿‑ne‑pÅ Bb‑p[a‑ms‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w AX‑v s‑]‑mX‑pX‑me‑v]c‑y¯‑n\‑mb‑n a‑m{‑X t‑a D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑mh‑q F¶‑mW‑v C‑u c‑oX‑nb‑n At‑\I‑w h‑mÀ¯IÄ ]‑pd¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑ph¶ "s‑Xl¡'b‑ps‑S ]{‑X‑m [‑n]À Xc‑p¬ t‑XP‑v]‑m A`‑n{‑]‑mbs‑¸«X‑v. h‑yà‑nIf‑ps‑S k‑zI‑mc‑yP‑oh‑nX‑w X‑pd¶‑pI‑m«‑m³ C‑u c‑oX‑n Ahe‑w_‑n¡‑p ¶X‑v A[‑mÀ½‑nIa‑ms‑W¶ A`‑n{‑]‑mb‑w C¶‑v iàa‑mW‑v. CX‑v A[‑mÀ½‑nI‑w a‑m{‑Xaà \‑nbah‑nc‑p²h‑pa‑mW‑v. \‑nba e‑wL\¯‑ns‑ât‑b‑m A[‑mÀ½‑nIXb‑pt‑St‑b‑m hg‑n¡‑pt‑]‑mI‑m s‑X iàa‑mb h‑mÀ¯IÄ s‑I‑mï‑phc‑m\‑pÅ a‑mÀ¤a‑mW‑v h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w. P‑mÀJÞ‑ns‑e "{‑]`‑mX‑v J‑m_À' F¶ ]{‑X¯‑ns‑â ] {‑X‑m[‑n]À h‑nj‑vW‑pc‑mP‑vJ‑mU‑nb h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w \ S¸‑ne‑m¡‑p¶X‑n a‑m²‑ya§Ä hl‑nt‑¡ï ]¦‑ns‑\¡‑pd‑n¨‑v h‑niZ‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶‑pï‑v. `cWLS\b‑ps‑S 19(1‑) A\‑pt‑ÑZ‑w‑, ]‑uc\‑v h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi‑w Cs‑æ‑n A]‑qÀ®a‑ms‑W¶‑v At‑±l‑w ]db‑p¶‑p. {‑_‑n«‑oj‑pI‑mc‑ps‑S I‑me¯‑v \‑nÀ½‑n¡s‑¸« H‑ut‑Z‑y‑mK‑nI clk‑y\‑nba{‑]I‑mc‑w‑, Dt‑Z‑y‑mKØÀ H‑ut‑Z‑y‑mK‑nI h‑nhc¯‑ns‑â I‑mh¡‑mc‑mW‑v. `cWLS\b‑ps‑S ]c‑nI¸\IÄ¡‑v ISIh‑nc‑p²a‑mb C‑u I‑nc‑mX\‑nba‑w ]t‑ï Ad_‑n¡Se‑n Fd‑nt‑bïX‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C‑u I‑q¨‑ph‑ne§‑pI‑qS‑ms‑X

t‑I‑mSX‑n Ae£‑y\‑nbah‑p‑w \‑nba\‑nÀ½‑mWk`b‑ps‑S kh‑nt‑ij AhI‑mih‑p‑w s‑Ut‑a‑m¢Ê‑ns‑â h‑mf‑mb‑n ] X{‑]hÀ¯Is‑â Xeb‑v¡‑p a‑pIf‑n X‑q§‑n \‑n¡‑p¶‑p. C‑u ]c‑na‑nX‑nIÄ¡‑pÅ‑n \‑n¶‑ps‑I‑mï‑v {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑pI F¶X‑v a‑m²‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Is‑\ k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑nSt‑¯‑mf‑w Gs‑d Z‑pj‑vIca‑mW‑v. F¶‑m C¶‑v‑, Ag‑naX‑n¡‑mc‑mb `cW‑m[‑nI‑mc‑nIÄs‑¡X‑ns‑c {‑]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑m³ Ig‑nb‑p¶ iàa‑mb Bb‑p[‑w þ h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w þ c‑mP‑y¯‑v \‑neh‑n h¶‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. \‑nbah‑nt‑[ba‑mb a‑mÀ¤¯‑ne‑qs‑S B[‑nI‑mc‑nIa‑mb h‑nhc§Ä e`‑ya‑mI‑p¶ k‑mlNc‑y‑w \½‑ps‑S \‑m«‑n \‑neh‑n h¶‑n«‑v Gg‑v hÀj§Ä Ig‑nª‑n«‑p‑w F{‑X ] {‑X{‑]hÀ¯IÀ C‑u \‑nba‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑ps‑h¶‑v ] c‑nt‑i‑m[‑nt‑¡ïX‑mW‑v. t‑Icf¯‑nÂ‑, aeb‑mf at‑\‑mcab‑ps‑S d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«Àa‑mÀ c‑mP³ t‑Ik‑ns‑â t‑cJIÄ At‑\‑zj‑n¨X‑p‑w a‑m²‑ya‑w‑, t‑Zi‑m`‑na‑m\‑n ]{‑X§Ä s‑s‑lt‑¡‑mSX‑nb‑ns‑e \‑nba\s‑¯ k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑v \S¯‑nb At‑\‑zjW§f‑p‑w Hg‑n¨‑m ]c‑nKW\‑oba‑mb a‑m²‑ya{‑] hÀ¯\§Ä h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v Ch‑ns‑S \S¶‑n«‑nÃ. Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑ya§f‑n "Gj‑y‑ms‑\ä‑v \‑y‑qk‑v‑' h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba¯‑n\‑v he‑nb {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w \ÂI‑pIb‑p‑w \‑nch[‑n Ag‑naX‑nIÄ ]‑pd¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑phc‑nIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑n \‑y‑qk‑ns‑e _‑nP‑p]¦P‑v h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w ^e{‑]Za‑mb‑n D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨ a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯I\‑mW‑v. h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nbah‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« h‑mÀ¯IÄ¡‑v C‑w¥‑oj‑v Z‑n\]{‑X§f‑mb l‑nµ‑ph‑p‑w s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑yb‑p‑w C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑]Ê‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ t‑Zi‑ob Xe¯‑n h³{‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w \ÂI‑p¶‑ps‑ï¦‑ne‑p‑w‑, A{‑Xb‑p‑w X‑me‑v]c‑y‑w C‑u ]{‑X§Ä t‑Icf¯‑n \ÂI‑p¶‑ns‑öX‑v FS‑p¯‑p] dt‑bïX‑mW‑v.

\‑nbas‑¯¡‑pd‑n¨‑pÅ Ad‑nh‑v a‑m[‑ya Nc‑n{‑Xs‑¯ h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba¯‑n\‑v a‑p³]‑p‑w AX‑n\‑pt‑ijh‑p‑w F¶‑v cï‑mb‑n X‑nc‑n¡‑m‑w. ]t‑£‑, C‑u \‑nbas‑¯¡‑pd‑n¨‑v‑, AX‑ns‑â {‑]t‑b‑mKs‑¯¡‑pd‑n¨‑v t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e a‑m²‑ya{‑]hÀ¯IÀ {‑]‑mt‑bW AÚc‑mW‑v. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑mI‑m‑w ]‑pX‑pXea‑pd a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑ps‑S ]c‑ni‑oe\¯‑n BÀ.S‑n.s‑F. Hc‑p {‑][‑m\ h‑njsk]vXw_À 2013


(18) ba‑m¡‑na‑mä‑m³ t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¨X‑v. A¡‑mZa‑n t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e h‑nh‑n[ P‑nÃIf‑n a‑m[‑ya{‑] hÀ¯IÀ¡‑v‑, {‑]t‑X‑yI‑n¨‑v {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑nI a‑m[‑ya{‑] hÀ¯IÀ¡‑mb‑n ]T\¡fc‑nIf‑p‑w Bc‑w`‑n¨‑p. CX‑ns‑â ^ea‑mb‑n h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba¯‑ns‑â ^e{‑]Za‑mb D] t‑b‑mK¯‑ne‑qs‑S {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑nIXe§f‑ns‑e Ag‑naX‑nIÄ ]‑pd¯‑phc‑p¶X‑v hc‑p‑w Z‑nhk§f‑n \a‑p¡‑v I‑mW‑m³ Ig‑nb‑p‑w. t‑PWe‑nÌ‑v s‑{‑Sb‑n\‑nIÄ¡‑pÅ ]c‑ni‑oe\]²X‑nb‑n t‑Icf¯‑n BZ‑ya‑mb‑n h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w DÄs‑¸S‑p¯‑nbX‑v "Gj‑y‑ms‑\ä‑v \‑y‑qk‑m'W‑v. At‑k‑mk‑nt‑bä‑v FU‑näÀ F³.s‑I.ch‑o{‑µs‑â s‑{‑]‑m^jWe‑nka‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p AX‑ns‑â ]‑n¶‑nÂ. Z‑qcZÀi\‑p‑w k‑zI‑mc‑yN‑m\e‑pIÄ¡‑p‑w C‑u \‑nba¯‑ns‑â hfÀ¨b‑n he‑nb k‑w`‑mh\ \ÂI‑m³ Ig‑nt‑bïX‑mW‑v. \½‑ps‑S a‑pX‑nÀ¶ a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑n _‑n.BÀ.]‑n.

2004 BKÌ‑v 15þ‑m‑w X‑obX‑n a‑pX UÂl‑n BØ‑m\a‑mb‑n {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶ ]c‑nhÀ¯³ F¶ k¶²k‑wLS\b‑p‑w C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑] Ê‑p‑w t‑NÀ¶‑v \S¯‑nb h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi I‑ms‑¼b‑v³ C¶‑v a‑m[‑yaNc‑n{‑X¯‑ns‑e X‑nf¡a‑pÅ GS‑mW‑v. UÂl‑nb‑ns‑e k‑m[‑mcWP\§Ä F§s‑\b‑mW‑v h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v Ahc‑ps‑S P‑oh‑nXh‑p‑w N‑pä‑p]‑mS‑pIf‑p‑w s‑a¨s‑¸S‑p¯‑nbs‑X¶‑v s‑Xf‑nb‑n¡‑p¶ t‑Ì‑md‑nIÄ {‑]X‑nZ‑n\‑w C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑]Ê‑n {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡s‑¸«‑p. `‑mk‑vIÀ‑, ]‑n. c‑mP³‑, t‑U‑m. s‑k_‑mÌ‑y³ t‑]‑mÄ‑, s‑I. F‑w. t‑d‑mb‑v X‑pS§‑nbhÀ C‑u \‑nba‑w hc‑p¶X‑n\‑p‑w F{‑Xt‑b‑m a‑p¼‑v C¯cs‑a‑mc‑p \‑nba¯‑n\‑mb‑n iàa‑mb‑n h‑mZ‑n¨hc‑mW‑v. AS‑nb´‑nc‑mhØb‑ps‑S Id‑p¯ \‑mf‑pIf‑n `cW‑m[‑nI‑mc‑nIf‑ps‑S s‑k³kÀj‑n¸‑nt‑\b‑p‑w AdÌ‑nt‑\b‑p‑w AX‑nP‑oh‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑v hfs‑c t‑¢i‑n¨‑mW‑v ChÀ a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯\‑w \S¯‑nbX‑v. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑v h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba¯‑ns‑â {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w ChÀ¡d‑nb‑m‑w. F¶‑m ]‑pX‑nb Xea‑pdb‑nÂs‑¸« a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯IÀ¡‑v Ct‑¸‑mg‑p‑w Ddh‑nS‑w FX‑nÀ`‑mK‑w t‑N‑mÀ¯‑n \ÂI‑p¶ h‑nhc§f‑mW‑v. e`‑n¡‑p¶ h‑nhc¯‑ns‑â‑, t‑cJIf‑ps‑S B[‑nI‑mc‑nIXt‑]‑me‑p‑w P‑m{‑KXt‑b‑ms‑S ]c‑nt‑i‑m[‑n¡‑ms‑X N‑m\Âb‑p²¯‑n Ch Bb‑p[§f‑mh‑pIb‑p‑w ]‑n¶‑oS‑v aP‑nk‑vt‑{‑Sä‑v t‑I‑mSX‑nb‑ps‑S a‑p¼‑n I‑päh‑mf‑nb‑mb‑n \‑nÂt‑¡ï‑nhc‑nIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. c‑mPØ‑m\‑ns‑e IÀjIc‑p‑w UÂl‑nb‑ns‑e t‑Nc‑n\‑nh‑mk‑nIf‑p‑w k¶²{‑] sk]vXw_À 2013

hÀ¯Ic‑ps‑S kl‑mbt‑¯‑ms‑S F{‑X iàa‑mb‑mW‑v h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨s‑X¶‑v \a‑p¡d‑nb‑m‑w. A{‑Xt‑]‑me‑p‑w \½‑ps‑S a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯IÀ¡‑v Ig‑nb‑p¶‑nÃ. t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e a‑m[‑yat‑e‑mI¯‑p \‑n¶‑v A¯c‑w he‑nb IYIs‑f‑m¶‑p‑w h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba¯‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑mb‑n \a‑p¡‑v DbÀ¯‑n¡‑m«‑m\‑nÃ. {‑]k‑v ¢º‑pIs‑f h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba¯‑ns‑â ]c‑n[‑nb‑n s‑]S‑p¯‑nb h‑nhc‑mhI‑miI½‑ojs‑â D¯ch‑p a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nbah‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸«‑v t‑Zi‑obXe¯‑n FS‑p¯‑p]db‑mh‑p¶ H¶‑mb‑n«‑pÅX‑v. 2004 BKÌ‑v 15þ‑m‑w X‑obX‑n a‑pX UÂl‑n BØ‑m\ a‑mb‑n {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶ ]c‑nhÀ¯³ F¶ k¶²k‑wLS\ b‑p‑w C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑]Ê‑p‑w t‑NÀ¶‑v \S¯‑nb h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi I‑ms‑¼b‑v³ C¶‑v a‑m[‑yaNc‑n{‑X¯‑ns‑e X‑nf¡a‑pÅ GS‑mW‑v. UÂl‑nb‑ns‑e k‑m[‑mcWP\§Ä F§s‑\b‑mW‑v h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v Ahc‑ps‑S P‑oh‑nXh‑p‑w N‑pä‑p]‑mS‑pIf‑p‑w s‑a¨s‑¸S‑p¯‑nbs‑X¶‑v s‑Xf‑nb‑n¡‑p¶ t‑Ì‑md‑nIÄ {‑]X‑nZ‑n\‑w C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑] Ê‑n {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡s‑¸«‑p. Ac‑p¬ j‑qd‑n C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑]Ê‑ns‑â ]{‑X‑m[‑n]c‑mb‑nc‑p¶ I‑me¯‑v ]‑pd¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑ph¶ Ag‑naX‑n¡YIt‑f¡‑mÄ a‑nI¨ t‑Ì‑md‑nIf‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p Ahb‑n ]eX‑p‑w. `cWc‑wKs‑¯ Ag‑naX‑n X‑pd¶‑pI‑mW‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑v P\§f‑ps‑S s‑s‑Z\‑wZ‑n\ P‑oh‑nX¯‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑mb‑n a‑md‑nb a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑ns‑â CX‑nl‑mka‑mb‑n C‑u {‑ia§Ä h‑nt‑ij‑n¸‑n¡s‑¸S‑p‑w. C‑u ]Ý‑m¯e¯‑n t‑hW‑w t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya{‑] hÀ¯\§s‑f h‑neb‑nc‑p¯‑m³. C¯cs‑a‑mc‑p \‑nÀt‑±i‑w t‑Icf¯‑n AhXc‑n¸‑n¡s‑¸«‑m BZ‑y‑w ]{‑X¯‑ns‑â kÀ¡‑pt‑ej³ hÀ²‑n¸‑n¡‑m³ CX‑v DSs‑\ kl‑mb‑n¡‑pt‑a‑m F¶X‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w ]{‑Xa‑pXe‑mf‑na‑mc‑ps‑S Bt‑e‑mN\. UÂl‑nb‑ns‑e \‑nc£cc‑mb t‑Nc‑n\‑nh‑mk‑nIf‑p‑w d‑n£‑mhï‑n¡‑mc‑p‑w I‑qe‑nt‑he¡‑mc‑pa‑mW‑v C‑u \‑nba‑w BZ‑y‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨X‑v. Chc‑mc‑p‑w C´‑y³ FI‑vk‑v{‑] k‑ns‑â hc‑n¡‑mc‑mI‑m³ h‑nZ‑qck‑m²‑yXt‑]‑me‑p‑w Dï‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. F¶‑n«‑p‑w CX‑v a‑m[‑ya[À½a‑ms‑W¶‑v AhÀ Ic‑pX‑n. t‑Icf¯‑ne‑ms‑W¦‑nt‑e‑m‑, Gs‑X¦‑ne‑ps‑a‑mc‑p k‑zÀ®h‑y‑m]‑mc‑ns‑b Is‑ï¯‑n ^‑mj³t‑j‑mt‑b‑m k‑n\‑na‑mä‑nI‑v U‑m³t‑k‑m \S¯‑m\‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w ] {‑Xa‑pXe‑mf‑na‑mÀ {‑ia‑n¡‑pI. C‑u k‑wb‑pà k‑wc`h‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya[À½a‑ms‑W¶‑p Ic‑pX‑m\‑pÅ ]{‑Xa‑pXe‑mf‑na‑mc‑ps‑S AhI‑mis‑¯ t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w s‑N¿‑p¶X‑n\à C{‑Xb‑p‑w ] dªX‑v‑, h‑mÀ¯IÄ Ad‑nb‑m\‑pÅ h‑mb\¡‑mcs‑â AhI‑mi‑wI‑qS‑n k‑wc£‑n¡‑m³ ChÀ _‑m[‑yØc‑mW‑v F¶‑v k‑qN‑n¸‑n¡‑m\‑mW‑v. h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v P‑mÀJÞ‑ns‑e P\I‑ob a‑m[‑yaa‑mb‑n a‑md‑nb Nc‑n{‑Xa‑mW‑v "{‑]`‑mX‑v J_d‑n‑'t‑âX‑v. h‑nj‑vW‑pc‑mP‑vJ‑mU‑nb ]db‑p¶‑p: ]{‑X{‑] hÀ¯\¯‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑mb‑n Fs‑´¦‑ne‑p‑w I‑mc‑y‑w kÀ¡‑mÀ H‑m^‑ok‑n At‑\‑zj‑n¨‑m Hc‑ph‑m¡‑pt‑]‑me‑p‑w ]db‑m¯hÀ C¶‑v _Ôs‑¸« ^bÂXs‑¶ ]c‑nt‑i‑m[‑n¡‑m³ Xc‑p¶‑p. Bd‑p]X‑nä‑mï‑p ]‑qÀ¯‑nb‑mb \½‑ps‑S k‑z‑mX{‑´‑y¯‑n\‑v‑, Hc‑p \‑nba‑ws‑I‑mï‑v C§s‑\s‑b‑mc‑p a‑mä‑w h¶X‑v h‑nk‑vab‑mhlat‑Ã? h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v \ S¯‑nb t‑]‑mc‑m«§Ä At‑±l‑w ]eb‑nS¯‑p‑w h‑nhc‑n¨‑n«‑pï‑v.

Ag‑naX‑n¡YIÄ ]‑pd¯‑phc‑p¶‑p P‑mÀJÞ‑ns‑e KÌ‑vl‑uk‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« Ag‑naX‑nb‑mW‑v ]{‑X§Ä h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba{‑]I‑mc‑w ]‑pd¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑ph¶X‑v. 30 FbÀ Iï‑oj³U‑v a‑pd‑nIf‑mW‑v KÌ‑vl‑uk‑n\‑pÅX‑v. Ah‑ns‑S X‑mak‑n¡‑p¶hÀ \‑nba{‑]


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h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v P‑mÀJÞ‑ns‑e P\I‑ob a‑m[‑yaa‑mb‑n a‑md‑nb Nc‑n{‑Xa‑mW‑v "{‑]`‑mX‑v J_d‑n‑'t‑âX‑v

I‑mca‑pÅ X‑pI \ÂIW‑w. C‑u X‑pI kÀ¡‑mÀ JP\‑mh‑n s‑Ne‑m³ a‑qe‑w ASb‑v¡‑pIb‑p‑w t‑hW‑w. F¶‑m a‑pd‑n¡‑v cï‑v \‑nc¡‑pIf‑mW‑v hfs‑c¡‑mea‑mb‑n C‑uS‑m¡‑nb‑nc‑p¶X‑v. N‑nec‑n \‑n¶‑v 300 c‑q]b‑p‑w aä‑p N‑nec‑n \‑n¶‑v 100 c‑q]b‑p‑w {‑]X‑nZ‑n\‑w C‑uS‑m¡‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑p. F¶‑mÂ‑, \‑nba{‑]I‑mc‑w 100 c‑q] a‑m{‑Xt‑a h‑m§‑m³ ]‑mS‑pÅ‑q. 300 c‑q]b‑v¡‑v \ÂI‑p¶ ci‑oX‑pIÄ h‑y‑mPa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑ps‑h¶‑v s‑hf‑nh‑m¡s‑¸«‑p. 300 c‑q] {‑]X‑nZ‑n\‑w C‑uS‑m¡‑ns‑¡‑mï‑v he‑ns‑b‑mc‑p X‑pI kÀ¡‑mÀ JP\‑mh‑n HS‑p¡‑ms‑X Dt‑Z‑y‑mKØÀ h‑oX‑ns‑¨S‑p¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p F¶X‑v ]‑pd¯‑ph¶‑p. hfs‑c s‑Nd‑nb X‑pI a‑m{‑Xt‑a {‑Sjd‑nb‑n HS‑p¡‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑pÅ‑q. C‑u s‑I‑mÅ t‑\ct‑¯ Ad‑nb‑ma‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑ps‑h¦‑ne‑p‑w s‑Xf‑nh‑ns‑â A`‑mh¯‑n CX‑p {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑m³ ]{‑X§Ä X¿‑md‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. KÌ‑vl‑uk‑ns‑â h‑mSIb‑n\¯‑n F{‑X c‑q] {‑Sjd‑nb‑n HS‑p¡‑ns‑b¶ h‑nhc‑w \‑nba{‑]I‑mc‑w t‑iJc‑n¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p ] {‑Xt‑eJIÀ. h‑n[‑m³k`b‑ne‑p‑w IfÎt‑dä‑ne‑p‑w ]eXhW At‑\‑zj‑n¨‑n«‑p‑w "t‑I‑m¬^‑nU³j‑yÂ‑' F¶‑v ]dª‑v \‑nc‑mIc‑n¡s‑¸« h‑nhca‑mW‑v Ahk‑m\‑w e`‑n¨X‑v. 2002 a‑pX 2005 Ht‑Î‑m_À hs‑c hfs‑c s‑Nd‑nb X‑pI a‑m{‑Xt‑a C‑u C\¯‑n {‑Sjd‑nb‑n e`‑n¨‑nc‑p¶‑pÅ‑q. 2004 a‑mÀ¨‑v a‑pXe‑pÅ 21 a‑mk§f‑n s‑hd‑p‑w 32‑,800 c‑q]b‑mW‑v {‑Sjd‑nb‑n AS¨X‑v. {‑]X‑nZ‑n\‑w Hc‑p a‑pd‑n¡‑v 300 c‑q] h¨‑v C‑uS‑m¡‑nb‑n«‑p‑w C{‑X s‑Nd‑nb X‑pI a‑m{‑Xt‑a kÀ¡‑mc‑n\‑v e`‑n¨‑pÅ‑q F¶ hk‑vX‑pX 2005 U‑nk‑w_À 12\‑v "{‑]`‑mX‑v J_À‑' H¶‑m‑w t‑]P‑n d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑p. h‑nhc‑w Bhi‑ys‑¸«t‑¸‑mÄ AX‑v \‑nck‑n¨ h‑n[‑m³ k` b‑ms‑X‑mc‑p FX‑nÀ¸‑pa‑nÃ‑ms‑Xb‑mWs‑{‑X h‑mÀ¯ k‑z‑oIc‑n¨X‑v‑! P‑mÀJÞ‑v h‑n[‑m³k`b‑ns‑e P‑oh\¡‑ms‑c \‑nba‑n¨X‑ne‑p‑w {‑]t‑a‑mj³ \ÂI‑nbX‑ne‑pa‑pÅ {‑Iat‑¡S‑ns‑\ "{‑]‑nh‑nt‑eP‑n‑'s‑â t‑]c‑n t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w s‑N¿‑m³ a‑m[‑ya§Ä `bs‑¸«‑p. k‑v]‑o¡d‑ps‑S "A[‑nI‑mc'a‑mb‑mW‑v FÃ‑mhc‑p‑w CX‑ns‑\ Ic‑pX‑nbX‑v. s‑]‑mX‑pP\§Ä C‑u Ag‑naX‑nb‑vs‑¡X‑ns‑c kac‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. s‑s‑lt‑¡‑mSX‑nb‑n s‑]‑mX‑pX‑me‑v]c‑ylÀP‑n kaÀ¸‑n¡s‑¸«‑p. \‑nba\ \S] S‑n \‑nÀ¯‑ns‑hb‑v¡‑m³ t‑I‑mSX‑n h‑n[‑m³k`¡‑v \‑nÀt‑±i‑w \ÂI‑n. Cs‑X‑m¶‑p‑w A\‑pkc‑n¡‑ms‑X h¶t‑¸‑mÄ‑, ]‑pd‑wh‑mX‑ne‑ne‑qs‑S \‑nba\‑w t‑\S‑nbhs‑c ]‑pd¯‑m¡‑m³ t‑I‑mSX‑n D¯ch‑n«‑p. Bb‑nc¡W¡‑n\‑v s‑X‑mg‑nÂcl‑nXc‑mb

b‑ph‑m¡f‑mW‑v Ak‑nÌâ‑v F¶ Xk‑vX‑nIb‑v¡‑mb‑n At‑]£ kaÀ¸‑n¨X‑v. F¶‑m s‑hd‑p‑w 52 t‑]s‑cb‑mW‑v s‑SÌ‑n\‑v h‑nf‑n¨X‑v. clk‑ya‑mb‑n \S¯‑nb ]c‑o£‑m\S] S‑nIÄ \‑nÀ¯‑ns‑hb‑v¡‑m\‑p‑w t‑I‑mSX‑n D¯ch‑n«‑p. 2005 Ht‑Î‑m_Àa‑mk‑w P‑mÀJÞ‑v h‑n[‑m³k`b‑ns‑e t‑^‑mÀ¯‑v t‑{‑KU‑v Xk‑vX‑nIb‑nt‑e¡‑v 75 t‑]s‑cb‑mW‑v \‑nba‑n¨X‑v. AX‑n 36 t‑]c‑p‑w k‑v]‑o¡d‑ps‑S \‑nt‑b‑mPIaÞe‑w DÄs‑¸S‑p¶ ]e‑ma‑p P‑nÃb‑n \‑n¶‑pÅhc‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p‑! C‑u h‑nhc§Ä Bhi‑ys‑¸«‑ps‑I‑mï‑v \ÂI‑nb At‑]£ BZ‑y‑w \‑nc‑mIc‑n¡s‑¸S‑pIb‑mW‑p ï‑mbX‑v. X‑pSÀ¶‑v‑, aä‑v hI‑p¸‑pIf‑n \‑n¶‑v t‑iJc‑n¨ h‑nhc§f‑mW‑v BZ‑y‑w {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡s‑¸«X‑v. AX‑v ]‑pd¯‑ph¶t‑X‑ms‑S \h‑w_À 29\‑v FÃ‑m h‑nhc§f‑p‑w ]‑pd¯‑ph‑n«‑p. X‑pSÀ¶‑v c‑mP‑vJ‑mU‑nb ]dª‑p‑, "clk‑y‑w s‑Xä‑n²‑mcWIÄ k‑rã‑n¡‑p‑w‑!' "{‑]`‑mX‑v J_À' h‑n[‑m³k`s‑b h‑nS‑ms‑X ]‑n³X‑pSÀ¶‑v h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S {‑][‑m\ Ddh‑nSa‑m¡‑n. t‑Icf \‑nbak`b‑ps‑S cPXP‑q_‑ne‑n Bt‑L‑mj§Ä¡‑v ]W‑w s‑Nehg‑n¨X‑n {‑Iat‑¡S‑v Bt‑c‑m]‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑v "t‑Zi‑m`‑na‑m\‑n‑' t‑eJI³ k‑pZÀi³ _‑m_‑ph‑ns‑â d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v ]‑pd¯‑ph¶t‑X‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑v A¶s‑¯ \‑nbak`‑m k‑v]‑o¡À h¡‑w ]‑pc‑pt‑j‑m¯a³ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«À¡‑v {‑]k‑v]‑mk‑v \‑nt‑j[‑n¨X‑v. GX‑mb‑me‑p‑w As‑X‑m¶‑p‑w P‑mÀJÞ‑n \S¶‑nÃ. Hc‑p Z‑nhk‑w Hc‑p Dt‑Z‑y‑mKØ\‑v cï‑p{‑]‑mhi‑y‑w {‑]t‑a‑mj³ \ ÂI‑nbX‑p‑w aä‑p‑w h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi I½‑ojs‑â CSs‑]Se‑ns‑\ X‑pSÀ¶‑v k‑v]‑o¡À¡‑v \Ât‑Iï‑nh¶ h‑nhc§f‑mW‑v. Ø‑m\¡bä¯‑n \S¶ {‑Iat‑¡S‑pIÄ Bs‑cb‑p‑w s‑R«‑n¡‑p¶X‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. F´‑n\‑v X‑q¸‑pI‑ms‑ct‑¸‑me‑p‑w I‑mj‑yd‑p‑w ¢‑mÀ¡‑pa‑mb‑n k‑v]‑o¡À DbÀ¯‑n‑! \‑nbak`‑m‑wK§t‑fb‑p‑w Dt‑Z‑y‑mKØt‑cb‑p‑w ]{‑X{‑]hÀ ¯It‑cb‑p‑w kt‑´‑mj‑n¸‑n¡‑ph‑m³ \‑nbak`‑mkt‑½f\ t‑hfb‑nÂ‑, h‑nh‑n[ hI‑p¸‑pIÄ h‑neI‑qS‑nb k½‑m\§Ä h‑nXcW‑w s‑N¿‑md‑pï‑v. CX‑n GX‑mï‑v FÃ‑m‑wXs‑¶ \‑nbah‑nc‑p²a‑mb ]‑mc‑nt‑X‑mj‑nI§f‑ms‑W¶‑v At‑\‑zjW ¯‑n s‑hf‑nh‑mb‑n. _Pä‑n C‑u k½‑m\§Ä¡‑v X‑pI hIb‑nc‑p¯‑nb‑n«‑pa‑nÃ. ]‑ns‑¶s‑b§s‑\ k½‑m\§Ä h¶‑p? t‑I‑m¬{‑S‑mÎÀa‑mc‑mW‑v h‑nh‑n[ hI‑p¸‑pIf‑ne‑qs‑S C‑u k½‑m\§Ä ]ck‑ya‑mb‑n P\{‑]X‑n\‑n[‑nIÄ¡‑v \ ÂI‑p¶s‑X¶‑v t‑_‑m[‑ys‑¸«‑p. ]ck‑ya‑mb‑n \ÂI‑p¶ sk]vXw_À 2013


(20) C‑u s‑s‑I¡‑qe‑n h‑m§‑m³ P\{‑]X‑n\‑n[‑nIÄ X‑nc¡‑pI‑q«‑nb t‑¸‑mÄ‑, k‑n.]‑n.s‑F.(F‑w.FÂ‑)s‑â {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑nb‑mb‑nc‑p¶ at‑l{‑µk‑n‑wl‑v a‑m{‑X‑w Hc‑n¡e‑p‑w C‑u k½‑m\§Ä k‑z‑oIc‑n¨‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. k½‑m\§f‑ps‑S Ddh‑nS§s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑pÅ h‑mÀ¯IÄ a‑m[‑ya§Ä he‑nb {‑]‑m[‑m\‑yt‑¯‑ms‑S {‑] k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨X‑v F‑w.FÂ.F. a‑mc‑ps‑S Dd¡‑w s‑IS‑p¯‑n. k½‑m\§s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑pÅ h‑nhc‑w t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑v ià‑n]‑ms‑Þ \ÂI‑nb At‑]£ BZ‑y‑w \‑nck‑n¡s‑¸«‑ps‑h¦‑ne‑p‑w k‑wØ‑m\ C³^Àt‑aj³ I½‑ojs‑â CSs‑]S kl‑mb‑n¨‑p. P‑mÀJÞ‑v h‑n[‑m³k`b‑ps‑S ]c‑nkc¯‑v I‑mâ‑o\‑p‑w ISIf‑p‑w A\‑phZ‑n¨X‑ns‑\ k‑w_Ô‑n¨ h‑nhc§Ä \‑nbak`‑m A[‑nI‑mc‑nIÄ \‑nt‑j[‑n¨‑p. h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi I½‑ojs‑â CSs‑]S Ch‑ns‑Sb‑p‑w kl‑mbIa‑mb‑n. \S]S‑n{‑Ia§Ä ]‑me‑n¡‑ms‑Xb‑mW‑v I‑mâ‑o\‑p‑w t‑j‑m¸‑pIf‑p‑w \ÂI‑nbX‑v. Hc‑p s‑s‑]kt‑]‑me‑p‑w h‑mSIt‑b‑m AU‑z‑m³t‑k‑m h‑m§‑ms‑Xb‑mW‑v Ig‑nª A©‑phÀj‑w Ch {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑m³ A\‑phZ‑n¨s‑X¶ h‑nhc‑w I‑qS‑n s‑hf‑nh‑m¡s‑¸«‑p‑! t‑]‑me‑oi‑v hï‑nb‑n k‑naâ‑v N‑m¡‑pIÄ s‑I‑mï‑pt‑]‑mI‑p ¶X‑p‑w B‑w_‑pe³k‑n ]¨¡d‑n F¯‑n¡‑p¶X‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ \‑m‑w I‑mW‑md‑pÅX‑mW‑v. P‑mÀJÞ‑ns‑e k‑wØ‑m\ Bt‑c‑mK‑yhI‑p¸‑v h³t‑X‑mX‑n B‑w_‑pe³k‑v h‑m§‑n¡‑q«‑n bX‑ns‑e Ag‑naX‑nb‑nt‑e¡‑v \‑oï‑p‑, B‑w_‑pe³k‑ns‑â C‑u ]¨¡d‑nb‑pa‑mb‑pÅ b‑m{‑X. 2005 U‑nk‑w_d‑n k‑p\‑n N‑u[c‑nb‑mW‑v‑, Bt‑c‑mK‑yhI‑p¸‑v h‑m§‑nb B‑w_‑pe³k‑ns‑\¡‑pd‑n¨‑pÅ h‑nhc‑w Bc‑mªX‑v. I½‑oj\S‑n¡‑m³t‑hï‑n Bhi‑y¯‑n I‑qS‑pX B‑w_‑pe³k‑v h‑m§‑ns‑b¶ hk‑vX‑pX ]‑pd¯‑ph¶‑p. B‑w_‑pe³k‑ns‑â F®‑w I‑qS‑nbt‑¸‑mÄ AX‑v ]¨¡d‑n h‑m§‑m³ D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑p X‑pS§‑n F¶‑v a\Ê‑ne‑mb‑n. GX‑mb‑me‑p‑w B‑w_‑pe³k‑ns‑â D]t‑b‑mK¯‑n P‑m{‑KX ]‑me‑n¡Ws‑a¶ IÀi\a‑mb \‑nÀt‑±i‑w kÀ¡‑mÀ \ÂI‑n‑! l‑nµ‑pØ‑m³ ]{‑X¯‑ns‑e d‑m©‑n t‑eJI³ Aat‑c{‑µI‑pa‑mÀ h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba{‑]I‑mc‑w kaÀ¸‑n¨ At‑]£ he‑nb t‑I‑mf‑nf¡‑w Xs‑¶ k‑rã‑n¨‑p. a‑p³a‑pJ‑ya{‑´‑n‑, a‑p³a{‑´‑na‑mÀ‑, Ahc‑ps‑S t‑]g‑vkW s‑k{‑I«d‑na‑mÀ F¶‑nhÀ¡‑mb‑n s‑Nehg‑n¨ X‑pIb‑ps‑S h‑niZ‑m‑wia‑mW‑v Bhi‑ys‑¸«X‑v. At‑]£ kÀ¡‑mÀ XÅ‑n. 'F´‑v h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nbaa‑mW‑v k‑wØ‑m\¯‑v \S¸‑ne‑m¡‑nbX‑v?' F¶ i‑nÀjI¯‑ns‑e h‑mÀ¯ kÀ¡‑mc‑ns‑\ {‑]X‑n¡‑q«‑ne‑m¡‑n. a‑p³a{‑´‑na‑mÀ¡‑mb‑n S‑n.F.‑, h‑nj‑vW‑pc‑mP‑vJ‑mU‑nb

s‑aU‑n¡Â s‑Neh‑v C\¯‑n s‑Nehg‑n¨ X‑pI t‑]‑me‑p‑w s‑hf‑ns‑¸S‑p¯‑m³ kÀ¡‑mÀ aS‑n¡‑p¶‑ps‑h¶X‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S I‑mXÂ. DS³Xs‑¶ Bhi‑ys‑¸« h‑nhc‑w kÀ¡‑mÀ At‑]£I\‑p \ÂI‑n. AX‑p‑w l‑nµ‑pØ‑m³ ] {‑X¯‑ns‑e H¶‑m‑w t‑]P‑ns‑e a‑pJ‑yh‑mÀ¯b‑mb‑n. as‑ä‑mc‑p IY a²‑y{‑]t‑Zi‑n \‑n¶‑mW‑v. k‑wØ‑m\s‑¯ A©‑p P‑nÃIf‑ns‑e I‑p«‑nIÄ¡‑v s‑X‑mg‑n ]c‑ni‑oe\‑w \ ÂI‑p¶X‑n\‑pÅ a‑q¶‑phÀjs‑¯ ]²X‑n 2004 Bc‑w`‑n¨‑p. s‑F.FÂ.H.b‑ps‑S [\kl‑mbt‑¯‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑v ]²X‑n \ S¸‑ne‑m¡‑p¶X‑v. 32 e£‑w c‑q] I‑m´‑n P‑ná‑v a‑m{‑Xa‑mb‑n C‑u ]²X‑nb‑n hIb‑nc‑p¯‑n. h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba{‑] I‑mc‑w‑, \‑mKaW‑n t‑a‑ml³ Hc‑p At‑]£ \ÂI‑nbt‑X‑ms‑S {‑]Ya "Bt‑c‑mK‑yI‑nä‑n‑'s‑e Ag‑naX‑n ]‑pd¯‑pN‑mS‑n. F{‑Xc‑q] b‑v¡‑mW‑v I‑nä‑v h‑m§‑nbX‑v‑, Fs‑´Ã‑m‑w D]IcW§Ä AX‑ne‑pï‑v‑, F{‑Xs‑b®a‑pï‑v þ Fs‑¶Ã‑m‑w At‑]£b‑n At‑\‑zj‑n¨‑nc‑p¶‑p. At‑]£ \ÂI‑n 17 Z‑nhk‑w Ig‑nª‑p I‑n«‑nb ad‑p]S‑n \S‑p¡‑p¶X‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. 35‑,000 c‑q]b‑mW‑v H‑mt‑c‑m I‑nä‑nt‑âb‑p‑w h‑ne. C‑u \‑neh‑mc¯‑ne‑pÅ I‑nä‑n\‑v ]‑pd‑wa‑mÀ¡ä‑n F´‑ph‑neb‑ms‑W¶‑v \‑mKaW‑n t‑a‑ml³ At‑\‑zj‑n¨‑p. s‑hd‑p‑w 970 c‑q]‑! CX‑v he‑ns‑b‑mc‑p "I‑nä‑v‑' I‑p‑w`t‑I‑mW¯‑ns‑â IY ]‑pd¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑ph¶‑p. ]‑mhs‑¸« I‑p«‑nIf‑n \‑n¶‑p X«‑ns‑bS‑p¯ e£§f‑ps‑S Ag‑naX‑n¡Ys‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑v At‑\‑zj‑n¡‑m³ kÀ¡‑mc‑n\‑v \‑nÀt‑±i‑w \Ât‑Iï‑nh¶‑p. P‑mÀJÞ‑ns‑e {‑]a‑pJ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I\‑mb h‑nj‑vW‑p c‑mP‑vJ‑mU‑nb‑, ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑ne‑pÅ Hc‑p [‑mcWs‑b h‑niIe\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. h‑mÀ¯‑, h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi‑w D] t‑b‑mK‑n¨Ã‑, ad‑n¨‑v \à _Ô§f‑ne‑qs‑Sb‑mW‑v e`‑n¡‑p¶s‑X¶‑v N‑neÀ ]db‑md‑pï‑v. ]»‑nI‑v d‑nt‑ej\‑p‑w ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\h‑p‑w X½‑ne‑pÅ h‑yX‑y‑mka‑mW‑v ChÀ CÃ‑mX‑m¡‑p¶s‑X¶‑v At‑±l‑w ]dª‑p. \‑nK‑qVa‑mbX‑ns‑\ Is‑ï¯‑pIb‑mW‑v \‑y‑qs‑k¦‑nÂ‑, h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba¯‑n\‑p t‑ij‑w C‑u \‑nÀÆN\‑w I‑qS‑pX k‑mÀ°Ia‑mI‑pIb‑mW‑v. I‑y‑m_‑n\ä‑n\I¯‑v \ S¶ I‑mc‑y‑w a{‑´‑nb‑pa‑mb‑pÅ h‑yà‑n_Ô‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v ]{‑X¯‑n d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑p s‑N¿‑m‑w. ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w C‑u h‑mÀ¯ hc‑p¶X‑n\‑p ]‑n¶‑n \‑n£‑n]‑vXX‑me‑v]c‑y§f‑p‑w Dï‑mI‑p‑w. C¯c‑w k‑vt‑]‑m¬t‑kÀU‑v h‑mÀ¯If‑nÂ‑, hk‑vX‑pXb‑p‑w Dï‑mh‑nÃ. as‑ä‑mc‑p Xc¯‑n ]dª‑m h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S Ddh‑nS¯‑ns‑â X‑me‑v]c‑y‑mÀ°‑w‑, ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯Is‑\ Ad‑nt‑ª‑m Ad‑nb‑ms‑Xt‑b‑m D]IcWa‑m¡‑pIb‑mW‑v s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. F¶‑mÂ‑, h‑nhc‑mhI‑mi\‑nba‑w hg‑n ]‑qÀ®a‑mb hk‑vX‑pX GX‑p t‑I‑mSX‑nb‑ne‑p‑w l‑mPc‑m¡‑m³ Ig‑nb‑p¶ B[‑nI‑mc‑nIXt‑b‑ms‑S‑, ka{‑KXt‑b‑ms‑S I‑rX‑yXt‑b‑ms‑S \ ÂI‑m³ Ig‑nb‑p‑w. Hc‑n¡Â h‑nhc‑w e`‑n¨‑m AX‑nÂ\‑n¶‑p ]‑n³h‑m§‑m³ Ig‑nb‑m¯ h‑n[‑w I‑pc‑p¡‑pI‑qS‑n Dt‑Z‑y‑mKØ\‑v \ÂI‑pIb‑mW‑v C‑u \‑nba‑w. h‑yà‑n_Ô¯‑ne‑qs‑Sb‑pÅ h‑mÀ¯‑m t‑iJcW‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«s‑d Dt‑Z‑y‑mKØs‑â Hc‑p ]‑mhb‑m¡‑p¶‑p. k‑z´‑w hI‑p¸‑n \S¡‑p¶ Ag‑naX‑ns‑b¡‑pd‑nN‑v \‑n§Ä At‑\‑zj‑n¨‑m _Ô‑w hjf‑mh‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. N‑pc‑p¡¯‑nÂ‑, Dt‑Z‑y‑mKØ\‑pa‑mb‑pÅ h‑yà‑n_Ô§ f‑ne‑qs‑S \‑n§Ä¡‑v "s‑d‑m«‑o³ \‑y‑qk‑v‑' e`‑n¡‑p‑w. h‑nhc‑mhI‑m i\‑nba¯‑ne‑qs‑S "FI‑vk‑v¢‑qk‑oh‑v‑' \‑y‑qk‑pI-f‑p‑w. {]apJ hnhcmhImi{]hÀ¯I\pw lypa³ ssdävkv Un^³kv t^mdw P\d sk{I«dnbpamWv teJI³. teJIsâ CsabvÂ: dbbinu@yahoo.com

sk]vXw_À 2013


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s‑I. h‑n-i‑z-\‑mY‑v

Bd‑p ]-X‑n-ä‑m-ï‑n-s‑â {‑i‑o-[-c‑o-b‑w a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑n ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-s‑\-¶ \‑n-e-b‑n B-d‑p ]-X‑n-ä‑m-ï‑v X‑n-I-¡‑p-Ib‑m-W‑v ]‑nc‑n-t‑b‑m-U‑n-¡Â-k‑v F-U‑n-äÀ s‑I s‑I {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑mbÀ.

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h‑ns‑e H‑m-^‑o-k‑n-s‑e-¯‑n k‑o-ä‑n-e‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-t‑¼‑m-t‑g¡‑p‑w F-U‑n-ä-À I‑y‑m-_‑n-\‑n-t‑e-¡‑v h‑n-f‑n-¸‑n¨‑p. "a-e-b‑m-f‑n-IÄ¡‑v ^‑pS‑v-t‑_‑mf‑n-t‑\‑m-S‑v C-{‑X-b‑v-¡‑v C-ã‑w t‑X‑m-¶‑m³ F-´‑m-W‑v I‑m-c-W‑w?' A-t‑±-l-¯‑n-\‑v I‑o-g‑n t‑P‑m-e‑n s‑N-¿‑p-¶ R-§Ä a‑n-¡-hÀ¡‑p‑w Z‑n-h-kh‑p‑w C§-s‑\ D¯-c‑w a‑p-«‑n-¡‑p¶ t‑N‑m-Z‑y§Ä t‑\-c‑n-t‑S-ï‑n h-c‑p‑w. A-t‑¸‑mÄ h‑m-b‑n-¨‑p s‑I‑m-ï‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶ G-s‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w ]‑p-k‑v-X-Is‑¯t‑b‑m t‑e-J-\-t‑¯t‑b‑m A-S‑n-Ø‑m\-a‑m-¡‑n-b‑m-b‑n-c‑n¡‑p‑w C‑u t‑N‑m-Z‑y-§Ä. 83þI‑m-c-\‑m-b R-§f‑p-s‑S ]-{‑X‑m-[‑n-]À s‑I. s‑I. {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑mb-s‑c I‑p-d‑n-¨‑m-W‑v ]d-ª‑p h-c‑p-¶-X‑v. F-g‑p¯‑nt‑e‑m h‑m-N-I I-kÀ¯‑nt‑e‑m A-t‑±-l‑w B-t‑c‑mS‑p‑w aÂ-k-c‑n-¡‑m-d‑nÃ. ]-s‑£ h‑m-b-\-b‑p-s‑S I‑m-c‑y-¯‑n A-t‑±-ls‑¯ BÀ¡‑p‑w t‑X‑mÂ-¸‑n-¡‑m-\‑p-a‑m-h‑nÃ. c‑m-{‑ã‑ob‑w‑, i‑m-k‑v-{‑X‑w‑, k‑m-l‑n-X‑y‑w‑, k‑n-\‑n-a‑, \‑n-ba‑w‑, N-c‑n{‑X‑w... C§-s‑\ h‑nh‑n-[ h‑n-j-b-§-f‑n-e‑p-Å ]‑p-k‑v-X-I-§Ä A-t‑±-l‑w h‑m-b‑n-¨‑p s‑I‑m-t‑ï-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. A-X‑n-s‑e {‑]-X‑n-]‑mZ‑y-§-s‑f I‑p-d‑n-¨‑v NÀ-¨ s‑N-¿‑m\‑p‑w A-]‑qÀ-h‑w k-µÀ-`-§-f‑n XÀ-¡‑n-¡‑m\‑p‑w A-t‑±-l‑w a‑p-X‑nÀ-s‑¶-¶‑n-c‑n-¡‑p‑w. a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑n ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-s‑\-¶ \‑n-e-b‑n C‑u hÀ-j‑w {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑m-bÀ A-d‑p]-X‑v hÀj‑w ]‑qÀ-¯‑n-b‑m-¡‑p-Ib‑mW‑v. A-X‑n ]¯‑p hÀ-j‑w a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â ]-{‑X‑m-

[‑n-]-c‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. 2000 a‑pX ]‑nc‑n-t‑b‑m-U‑n¡Â-k‑v ]-{‑X‑m[‑n-]-c‑m-b‑n t‑k-h-\-a-\‑p-j‑vT‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. H-c‑p Ø‑m-]-\-¯‑n X‑p-SÀ-¨-b‑m-b‑n A-d‑p]-X‑p hÀ-j‑w ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-\‑m-b‑n t‑P‑me‑n s‑Nb‑v-X a-ä‑m-s‑c-¦‑ne‑p‑w D-ï‑mh‑pt‑a‑m? k‑w-i-b-a‑m-W‑v. C‑u 83þ‑m‑w h-b-Ê‑ne‑p‑w X‑n-I¨‑p‑w k-P‑o-h-a‑m-b‑n I-g‑n-b‑p¶{‑X \‑n-£‑v-]£-X-t‑b‑m-s‑S ]-{‑X‑m-[‑n-]-c‑p-s‑S Z‑u-X‑y-§Ä A-t‑±l‑w \‑nÀ-h-l‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑m-bÀ-¡‑p a‑p-¶‑n h-e‑p-¸ s‑N-d‑p-¸-§-f‑nÃ. X-s‑â I‑o-g‑n t‑P‑m-e‑n s‑N-¿‑p-¶ s‑U-]‑y‑q-«‑n F-U‑n-äÀ s‑X‑m-«‑v t‑P-W-e‑n-Ì‑v s‑{‑S-b‑v-\‑n h-s‑c FÃ‑m-ht‑cb‑p‑w Ht‑c t‑]‑m-s‑e ]-c‑n-K-W‑n-¡‑m\‑p‑w A-h-t‑c‑m-S‑v C-S-s‑]-S‑m\‑p‑w A-t‑±l-¯‑n-\‑v I-g‑n-b‑p-¶‑p-. 1953þe‑m-W‑v A-t‑±-l‑w a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑n k-_‑v F-U‑n-ä-d‑m-b‑n t‑P‑m-e‑n-b‑n {‑]-t‑h-i‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v. \‑m-K‑v-]‑q-c‑n-s‑e t‑PÀ-W-e‑n-k‑w C³-Ì‑n-ä‑y‑q-«‑n \‑n-¶‑v U‑n-t‑¹‑m-a t‑\S‑n- G-X‑m\‑p‑w B-g‑v-¨ a‑p‑ws‑s‑_-b‑n-s‑e {‑^‑o-{‑]-k‑v t‑P-W-e‑n t‑P‑m-e‑n t‑\‑m¡‑n-b t‑i-ja‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p A-t‑±-l‑w a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑n F-¯‑p-¶-X‑v. 1990þ {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑m-bÀ ]-{‑X‑m-[‑n-]-c‑p-s‑S Ø‑m-\‑w G-s‑ä-S‑p-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-¡‑v a‑q-¶‑p F-U‑n-j-\‑m-W‑v D-ï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶X‑v. {‑]-N‑m-c‑w \‑m-t‑e-I‑m e-£-h‑p-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. ]-¯‑p hÀ-j‑w I-g‑n-ª‑v A-t‑±-l‑w Ø‑m-\-s‑a‑m-g‑n-b‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ B-d‑v F-U‑n-j\‑p‑w F«‑p sk]vXw_À 2013


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s‑I. s‑I. {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑m-bÀ s‑]-c‑p-¼‑m-h‑qÀ t‑h-§‑q-À B-¡-¸‑n-Å‑n c‑m-a³-]‑n-Å-b‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w I-t‑Ã‑y-e‑n ]‑m-d‑p-¡‑p-«‑n-A-½-b‑p-s‑S-b‑p‑w a-I-³. P\\‑w: 1930 B-K-k‑v-X‑v 10. Be‑p-h b‑p.k‑n.t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑ne‑p‑w F-d-W‑m-I‑p-f‑w al‑m-c‑m-P‑m-k‑v t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑ne‑p‑w F-d-W‑m-I‑p-f‑w t‑e‑m-t‑I‑mt‑f-P‑n-e‑p-a‑m-b‑n ]T-\‑w. k‑m-¼¯‑n-I i‑m-k‑v-{‑X-¯‑ne‑p‑w \‑n-b-a-¯‑ne‑p‑w _‑n-c‑p-Z-§Ä t‑\S‑n. \‑m-K‑v-]‑qÀ b‑q-W‑n-t‑hg‑v-k‑n-ä‑n-b‑p-s‑S I‑o-g‑n-e‑p-Å l‑n-t‑É‑m-]‑v t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑n \‑n-¶‑v ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-\-¯‑n U‑n-t‑¹‑m-a-. C‑w-¥-ï‑n-s‑e t‑X‑m‑wk¬ ^‑u-t‑ï-j³ s‑s‑l-Z-c‑m-_‑m-Z‑n \-S-¯‑n-b- t‑PÀW-e‑nk‑w H‑m-d‑n-b-t‑â-j³ t‑I‑m-g‑v-k‑n ]-s‑¦-S‑p¯‑p‑w U‑n-t‑¹‑m-a t‑\S‑n. a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑n 1953þ k-_‑v F-U‑n-ä-d‑m-b‑n t‑P‑me‑n-b‑n {‑]-t‑h-i‑n-¨‑p. k‑o-\‑n-bÀ k-_‑vþF-U‑näÀ‑, N‑o-^‑v k-_‑vþF-U‑näÀ‑, \‑y‑q-k‑v F-U‑näÀ‑, s‑U-]‑y‑q-«‑n- F-U‑n-äÀ X-k‑v-X‑n-I-I-f‑n-e‑qs‑S D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-¡b-ä‑w t‑\-S‑n- F-U‑n-äÀ Bb‑n. 1990 a‑p-X ]-¯‑p hÀ-j‑w a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â F-U‑n-ä-d‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. A-X‑n-\‑p t‑i-jw ]‑nc‑n-t‑b‑m-U‑n-¡Âk‑v h‑n-`‑m-K-¯‑n-s‑â F-U‑n-ä-d‑m-b‑n {‑]-hÀ-¯‑n-¨‑p h-c‑p¶‑p. a-e-b‑m-f-]-{‑X-¯‑n _‑n-c‑p-Z‑m\´c t‑PÀ-W-e‑nk‑w U‑n-t‑¹‑m-a-t‑b‑m-S‑p-I‑q-S‑n t‑P‑m-e‑n-b‑n {‑]-t‑h-i‑n-¡‑p-¶ B-Z‑ys‑¯ t‑P-W-e‑n-Ì‑mW‑v A-t‑±-l‑w. ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-\-c‑w-K-s‑¯ B-d‑p-]-X‑n-ä‑m-ï‑p-I‑mes‑¯ k-a-{‑Ka‑m-b k‑w-`‑m-h\-s‑b h‑n-e-b‑n-c‑p-¯‑n t‑I-c-f a-l‑mß-P‑n k‑m‑w-k‑v-I‑m-c‑n-I-t‑h-Z‑n GÀ-s‑¸-S‑p¯‑n-b {‑] Ya t‑I-f¸-P‑n k‑v-a‑mcI ]‑p-c-k‑v-I‑m-c-¯‑n-\‑v (2010‑) A-À-l-\‑m-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. 2011 P\hc‑nb‑n P‑m-\‑pþDW‑ns‑¨¡³ k‑va‑mcI {‑SÌ‑v GÀs‑¸S‑p¯‑nb Ah‑mÀ-U‑n\‑p‑w AÀl\‑mb‑n. a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n Z‑n-\-]{‑X‑w‑, a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n B-g‑v-N-¸-X‑n¸‑v‑, a‑mX‑r-`‑q-a‑n h‑m-c‑m-´‑y-¸-X‑n-¸‑v X‑p-S-§‑n-b {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c-W-§f‑n H-t‑«s‑d t‑e-J-\-§Ä {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n¨‑n«‑p-ï‑v. a-e-_‑mÀ t‑PÀ-W-e‑n-Ì‑v b‑q-W‑nb-s‑â s‑k{‑I-«-d‑n (1957þ60‑)‑, t‑I-c-f K-h¬-s‑aâ‑n-s‑â {‑]-k‑v A-{‑I-U‑n-t‑äj³ I-½‑n-ä‑n A‑w-K‑w(1957þ60‑)‑, t‑I-c-f-b‑q-W‑nb³ H‑m-^‑v hÀ-¡‑n‑w-K‑v t‑PÀ-W-e‑n-Ì‑n-s‑â t‑P‑m-b‑nâ‑v s‑k{‑I-«-d‑n(1960‑) b‑mb‑p‑w X‑p-SÀ-¶‑p s‑s‑h-k‑v-{‑]-k‑n-U-ï‑v (1961‑)‑, s‑I‑m-¨‑n {‑]-k‑v¢-_‑v s‑k{‑I-«-d‑n(1963þ67‑)‑, s‑Se‑n-t‑^‑m¬ As‑s‑U‑zk-d‑n I-½‑n-ä‑n A‑w-K‑w(1992‑) F-¶‑o \‑n-e-I-f‑ne‑p‑w t‑k-h-\-a-\‑p-j‑vT‑n-¨‑p. 1994 a‑p-X X‑p-SÀ-¨-b‑m-b‑n \‑m-e‑phÀ-j‑w t‑I-c-f- {‑]-k‑v A-¡‑mZ-a‑n A‑w-K-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. PÀ-½\‑n‑, C-t‑´‑m-t‑\j‑y‑, k‑n‑w-K-¸‑qÀ‑, a-t‑ej‑y‑, C-äe‑n‑, t‑d‑m‑w‑, A-t‑a-c‑n-¡‑, {‑^‑m³-k‑v, KÄ-^‑v c‑m-P‑y-§Ä X‑p-S§‑n-b C-S-§-f‑n ]-c‑yS-\‑w \-S-¯‑n-b‑n-«‑pï‑v. a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑p-s‑S F-U‑n-t‑ä‑m-d‑n-b h‑n-`‑m-K-¯‑n 27 hÀj‑w t‑k-h-\-a-\‑p-j‑vT‑n-¨‑, ]-t‑c-Xb‑mb ]-ß‑n-\‑n Fk‑v. \‑m-b-c‑m-W‑v `‑m-c‑y. c-ï‑p-a-¡-f‑pï‑v. -a-IÄ Fk‑v. C-µ‑n-c‑m \‑mb-s‑c h‑n-h‑m-l‑w s‑N-b‑v-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v C-´‑y³ t‑\-h‑n-b‑n-s‑e kÀ-P³ I‑y‑m-]‑v-ä³ t‑U‑m.]‑n.BÀ. \‑m-b-c‑m-W‑v. F³-P‑n\‑n-b-d‑n‑w-K‑v _‑n-c‑p-Z-[‑m-c‑nb‑m-b a-I³ Fk‑v. A-P‑n-X‑v-I‑pa‑mÀ ^‑y‑q-P‑n-s‑S-I‑v-\‑n-¡Â kÀ-h‑ok-k‑v I-¼-\‑n-b‑p-s‑S ]‑mÀ-S‑v-Wd‑p‑w t‑P‑m-b‑nâ‑v U-b-d-Î-d‑p-a‑m-W‑v. aI-s‑â `‑m-c‑y k-t‑c‑m-P‑v A-P‑n-X‑v-I‑p-a‑mÀ.

sk]vXw_À 2013

e-£-¯‑n-e-[‑nI‑w t‑I‑m-¸‑n-I-f‑p-s‑S {‑]-N‑m-c-h‑p-a‑m-b‑n a‑m-X‑r-`‑qa‑n h-fÀ-¶‑p I-g‑n-ª‑n-c‑p¶‑p. C-t‑¸‑mÄ {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑m-b-c‑p-s‑S ]-{‑X‑m-[‑n-]-X‑y-¯‑n a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n 13 B-\‑p-I‑m-e‑n-I-I-Ä ]‑p-d-¯‑nd-¡‑p¶‑p. C-X‑n a‑n-¡X‑p‑w A-t‑±-l-¯‑n-s‑â I‑q-S‑n DÂ-k‑m-l¯‑n B-c‑w-`‑n-¨-h-b‑mW‑v. C§-s‑\ a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑p-s‑S h-fÀ-¨b‑n \‑nÀ-W‑m-b-Ia‑m-b ]-¦‑p h-l‑n-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-ª ]-{‑X‑m-[‑n-] c‑m-W‑v A-t‑±-l‑w. a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑n t‑P‑m-e‑n s‑N-b‑v-X‑p s‑I‑m-ï‑n-c‑n-s‑¡ X-s‑¶ G-d-W‑m-I‑p-f‑w t‑e‑m t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑n t‑NÀ-¶‑v \‑n-b-a-¯‑n _‑n-c‑pZ-s‑a-S‑p¯‑p. H‑m-^‑o-k‑n s‑s‑\-ä‑v U‑y‑q-«‑n-s‑b-S‑p-¯‑v ]-I ¢‑m-k‑n-e‑n-c‑p-¶‑m-W‑v {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑m-bÀ \‑nb-a‑w ]T‑n-¨X‑v. t‑I-{‑µ a-{‑´‑n-a‑mc‑m-b F. s‑I. Bâ-W‑nb‑p‑w h-b-e‑mÀ c-h‑nb‑p‑w t‑e‑m t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑n A-t‑±-l-¯‑n-s‑â k-l-]‑mT‑n-I-f‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. c‑m-{‑ã‑ob-¯‑n C-h-c‑p-s‑S h‑n-c‑p-² t‑N-c‑n-b‑n-e‑m-b‑n-e‑m-b‑n-c‑p-s‑¶-¦‑ne‑p‑w a‑n-I-¨ _-Ô‑w k‑q-£‑n-¡‑m³ {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑m-bÀ-¡‑p I-g‑nª‑p. ]T‑n-¡‑p-¶ I‑me-¯‑v h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-°‑n c‑m-{‑ã‑o-b-¯‑n k-P‑o-ha‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑mbÀ. Be‑p-h b‑p. k‑n. t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑n CâÀ-a‑n-U‑n-b-ä‑n\‑v ]T‑n-¡‑p-¶ I‑me-¯‑v CS-X‑p ]-£ k‑w-LS-\-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶ h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-°‑n s‑^-U-t‑dj-s‑â {‑]-X‑n-\‑n-[‑n-b‑m-b‑n t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑v I‑u¬-k‑n-e‑n-t‑e-¡‑v X‑n-c-s‑ª-S‑p-¡-s‑¸-«‑n-c‑p¶‑p. A-¶‑v t‑I‑m-e‑nb-t‑¡‑m-S‑v I‑r-j‑v-W³ \‑m-bc‑p‑w k‑n. N‑n-¯-c-R‑vP\‑p‑w A-t‑±-l-t‑¯‑m-s‑S‑m-¸‑w I‑u¬-k‑n-e‑n-e‑p-ï‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. ]‑n-¶‑o-S‑v a-l‑m-c‑m-P‑m-k‑v t‑I‑m-t‑f-P‑n _‑n. F-.¡‑v ]T‑n-¡‑p-¶ I‑me-¯‑v h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-°‑n s‑^-U-t‑dj-s‑â Ø‑m-\‑mÀ-°‑n-b‑m-b‑n aÂ-k-c‑n-¨‑v t‑X‑mÂ-¡‑p-I-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. F¶‑m ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I³ F-¶ \‑n-e-b‑n ]gb k-l-]‑mT‑n-I-t‑f‑m-t‑S‑m G-s‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w c‑m-{‑ã‑o-b I-£‑nI-t‑f‑mt‑S‑m ]-£-]‑m-X‑nX‑z‑w I‑m-W‑n-¨‑n«‑n-s‑ö‑v {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑m-bÀ D-d-¸‑n-¨‑p ]-d-b‑p-¶‑p. X‑pS-¡‑w s‑X‑m-t‑« X‑n-I-ª \‑n-c‑o-i‑z-c-h‑m-Z‑n-b‑m-W‑v {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑mbÀ. X-s‑â b‑p-à‑n-¡‑v \‑n-c-¡‑m-¯ H¶‑ne‑p‑w h‑n-i‑z-k‑n-¡‑m\‑m-h‑n-s‑Ã-¶ IÀ-¡-i \‑n-e-]‑m-S‑v C-t‑¸‑m-g‑p‑w A-t‑±-l‑w ]‑p-eÀ¯‑p¶‑p. C-¡‑m-c‑y-¯‑n XÀ-¡-¯‑n GÀ-s‑¸-S‑m-\‑p-Å H-c-hk-ch‑p‑w A-t‑±-l‑w ]‑m-g‑m-¡‑m-d‑p-a‑nÃ. F-¶‑m h‑n-aÀ-i-\§-s‑f k-a-N‑n¯-X-t‑b‑m-s‑S t‑\-c‑n-S‑m-\‑p-Å t‑i-j‑n-b‑n a-t‑ä-X‑v ]-{‑X‑m[‑n-]-t‑c-¡‑mf‑p‑w a‑p-¶‑n-e‑m-W‑v A-t‑±-l‑w. H-¸‑w t‑P‑m-e‑n s‑N-¿‑p-¶h-c‑p-s‑S X-e-b‑n Xs‑â A-`‑n-{‑]‑m-b-§Ä A-S‑n-t‑¨Â-¸‑n-¡‑m³ A-t‑±-l‑w a‑p-X‑nÀ-¶‑p I-ï‑n-«‑nÃ. I‑o-g‑n t‑P‑m-e‑n s‑N-¿‑p-¶-h-c‑ps‑S A-`‑n-{‑]‑m-b-§Ä k-a-N‑n¯-X-t‑b‑m-s‑S ]-T‑n-¡‑m\‑p‑w i-c‑n-s‑b¶‑p I-ï‑m A‑w-K‑o-I-c‑n-¡‑m\‑p‑w a-S‑n I‑m-W‑n-¡‑m-d‑nÃ. At‑Xt‑]‑m-s‑e X-\‑n-¡‑v k‑w-`-h‑n-¨ ]‑n-g-h‑p-IÄ A‑w-K‑o-I-c‑n-¡‑m\‑p‑w ]-ä‑p-s‑a-¦‑n X‑n-c‑p-¯‑m\‑p‑w {‑i-a‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. X‑n-I-ª P-\‑m-[‑n-]X‑y-h‑m-Z‑n-b‑m-b ]-{‑X‑m-[‑n-]-c‑mW‑v {‑i‑o-[-c³ \‑mbÀ. a‑q-¶‑p hÀ-j‑w a‑p-¼‑v a‑p-X‑nÀ-¶ ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I\‑p‑w a‑m-X‑r`‑q-a‑n-b‑p-s‑S a‑p³ s‑U-]‑y‑q-«‑n F-U‑n-ä-d‑p-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶ S‑n. t‑hW‑pt‑K‑m-]‑m- F-¶ t‑h-W‑p I‑p-d‑p-¸‑n-s‑\ B-Z-c-‑n-¡‑p-¶ NS§‑n ]-g-b I‑m-e k‑ul‑r-Z§-s‑f A-\‑p-k‑v-a-c‑n-¨‑v k‑w-k‑m-c‑n¡-s‑h {‑]a‑p-J N-c‑n-{‑X ]-Þ‑n-X\‑p‑w A-[‑y‑m-]-I-\‑p-a‑m-b F‑w. P‑n. F-k‑v. \‑m-c‑m-b-W³ ]-d-ª- I-Y I‑q-S‑n C-h‑n-s‑S D-²-c‑n-¡s‑«. "R-§Ä b‑u-Æ-\ I‑m-e‑w s‑X‑m-t‑« A-S‑p-¯ k‑p-l‑r-¯‑p-¡f‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. hÀj-§-t‑f‑mf‑w h‑m-S-I h‑o-«‑n H-c‑p-a‑n-¨‑v X‑m-ak‑n-¡‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑N-b‑v-X‑n-c‑p¶‑p. A¶‑v {‑i‑o-[-c³ k-_‑v F-U‑nä-d‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. R-§Ä k‑w-k‑m-c‑n-¨‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ {‑i‑o-[-c³ ]-d-b‑p-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p‑, H-c‑n-¡Â R‑m³ a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑p-s‑S F-U‑n-äd‑m-h‑p‑w. A-¶-‑v R‑m\-X‑v A-{‑X K‑u-c-h-a‑m-s‑b-S‑p-¯‑nÃ. A-X‑p b‑m-Y‑mÀ-°‑y-a‑mb‑n F-¶‑p a‑m-{‑XaÃ. C-{‑X Z‑oÀ-La‑m-b H-c‑p I‑m-e‑wþ C-s‑X‑m-c‑p kÀ-ÆI‑m-e s‑d-t‑¡‑m-U‑m-W‑v.' a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑nb‑n N‑o^‑v k_‑v FU‑näd‑mW‑v t‑eJI³. t‑eJIs‑â Cs‑a-b‑vÂ: alokviswa@gmail.com


(23) Students’ Corner

J. V. Vil’anilam

A Cursory Glance at Some Historical Facts on the Concept of ‘Mass’

WHO COMMUNICATES What by Which Channel to WHOM, for What Purpose and with What Effect?

M

ass Communication involves: 1. Large-scale production of messages by groups of professions for very large audiences; 2. unidirectional flow of messages; 3. unbalanced, unequal, asymmetric flow of news; 4. impersonal and anonymous; 5. sometimes calculated, manipulative messages; 6. standardized content, organized to reach the largest number of people; 7. sometimes with the sole objective of providing mass audiences that are potential customers for the products advertised.

The ‘Mass’ in ‘Mass Communication’

“Mass” originally had a negative connotation (inner meaning, vyangyaartham), opposite to denotative meaning (vaacyaartham i.e., superficial, surface meaning)—examples, mass casual leave, mass uprising,

etc. ‘Mass’ essentially means ‘group’ but it has a pejorative meaning. It is related to ‘masses,’ a shapeless, unruly group of people, a mob. It also means “common people” as opposed to “royalty, aristocrats and the elite (the “priestly hierarchy, and the military” in feudal society. “Mass movement” indicates a movement by common people for the fulfilment of some political demand. “Mass” indicates the lower class, usually the uneducated, ignorant, illiterate, unruly , irrational and even violent people. With social revolutions succeeding in many countries, the term acquired the positive sense of ordinary people engaged in activities relating to the attainment of political, economic and social equality, individual liberty, and human dignity. However, the dominant sense has been unflattering as it indicates amorphous, shapeless, even anonymous groups of people. One dictionary defines ‘mass’ as “an aggregate in which one’s

individuality is lost.” Harold Lasswell and Charles Wright viewed ‘mass’ as large and heterogeneous, Denis McQuail saw it as large aggregate and anonymous, undifferentiated (bulk) and mainly negative, lacking order. The kind of society that evolved from the Industrial Revolution (IR), migration to urban areas, privatization, competition, etc., is continuing in our times. The mass society theory suggests that the media are part of such a society and they are of primary importance in the shaping and sustenance of that society. Among the functions of MC are the transmission of cultural heritage, socialization and the interpretation of the major events and issues in society, as already explained.. C. Wright Mills (The Power Elite, New York: OUP, 1956) suggested that “the mass media led to a form of non-democratic control from above with a few chances to answer back. The use of new media from below has been suggested as one solution to increased ‘massification’ and privatization. sk]vXw_À 2013


(24) McQuail has summarized the Mass Society Theory as follows: Mass communication is related to a large-scale society; atomized public; centralized media; one-way transmission; people’s dependence on the media for identity; and media used for manipulation and control. (More theories will be discussed later.)

Characteristics of Mass Communication:

1. Large-scale production of messages by groups of trained professionals under the management of fairly large organizations 2. Messages are reached to huge audiences running into millions. 3. The message producers and receivers are heterogeneous and anonymous. 4. Messages are usually meant for anonymous audiences, although they are tailored sometimes to specific groups. 5. All messages are not received by all media users. Some media users skip certain messages while concentrating on specific messages of special interest to them. 6. Messages flow unidirectionally, except in the case of social media which are mostly inter-personal, although capable of growing into mass communication through multiplication of interpersonal communication on a massive scale. 7. Most messages are imbalanced and unequal unless the message producer takes extra care in dealing with all aspects of an issue comprehensively. 8. Most messages are presented in an impersonal and objective manner, but sometimes issues are presented in a biased and subjective style deliberately favouring one group or individual. 9. Contents are organized in a standardized and simple style to reach the maximum number of receivers. 10. Sometimes advertisements sk]vXw_À 2013

are presented in the guise of news for a consideration. Such news is called “paid news.” 11. Media owners sell newspaper space and air-time for ads and commercials, even omitting the news of real value to many sections of the readers. 12. Entertainment is given so much importance, especially in the electronic media, that the media are heavily criticized by substantial sections of media users. Very important question raised by discerning media users : WHO COMMUNICATES What by Which Channel to WHOM, for What Purpose and with What Effect? Some of these questions were raised in the 1940s by Harvard Professor,

Harold Lasswell. We still raise them occasionally. We have to ask ourselves these questions frequently in order to gain a clearer picture of what is going on in the World of Mass Communication. See you later, Communicator! Professor Dr. J. V. Vil’anilam was Vice-Chancellor (1992-1996) and Head of the Department of Communication & Journalism (19821992) at the University of Kerala. As Professor Emeritus of the UGC he has taught at Berhampur, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Calicut, Dharwar, and Mangalore universities from 1996 onwards. Visit his website www.vilanilam.com.


(25)

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eb‑mf¯‑ns‑e BZ‑ys‑¯ k‑n\‑na aeb‑mf‑w h‑m¡‑v D¨c‑n¡‑m¯ h‑nKXI‑pa‑mc\‑mt‑W‑m a‑mÀ¯‑mW‑vU hÀ½b‑mt‑W‑m‑, At‑X‑m aeb‑mf‑w h‑m¡‑v D¨c‑n¨ _‑me\‑mt‑W‑m Fs‑¶‑ms‑¡b‑p Å XÀ¡§Ä \a‑p¡‑p k‑n\‑na‑m Nc‑n{‑XI‑mc·‑mÀ¡‑p h‑nS‑m‑w. ]s‑£ F´‑mb‑me‑p‑w aeb‑mf‑w k‑n\‑na‑m t‑]‑m¸‑peÀ FâÀs‑Sb‑v\À Bb‑n a‑md‑n \‑mSIs‑¯b‑p‑w IY‑m{‑]k‑wKs‑¯b‑p‑w aeb‑mf‑n Bk‑z‑mZIc‑ps‑S \¼À h¬ Ø‑m\¯‑v \‑n¶‑v H‑u«‑m¡‑nbt‑¸‑mÄ AX‑ns‑â {‑][‑m\ I‑mcW‑w h‑m¡‑pIÄ ¡‑v Z‑ri‑y§f‑pa‑mb‑n k‑n´s‑s‑kk‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑v I‑qS‑pX k‑wt‑hZ\£aX e`‑n¨ Hc‑p a‑m²‑ya‑w BbX‑n\‑me‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑p. \½‑ps‑S a‑n¡h‑md‑p‑w FÃ‑m k‑q¸À l‑nä‑v P\{‑]‑nb aeb‑mf‑w k‑n\‑naIf‑ps‑S b‑p‑w {‑][‑m\ h‑nPbI‑mcW‑w Ahb‑n s‑e k‑w`‑mjWa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. k‑n\‑na‑m F¶X‑v X‑nI¨‑p‑w \‑qX\ a‑mb Hc‑p Ie‑mc‑q]a‑mb‑nc‑p¶X‑n\‑m CX‑n\‑mhi‑ya‑mb‑, CX‑n D]t‑b‑mK‑n ¡‑mh‑p¶ aä‑p IeIf‑ns‑e s‑s‑hZK‑v²‑y h‑pa‑mb‑n h¶ BÄ¡‑mÀ £‑n{‑]{‑]i k‑vX‑nb‑p‑w [\h‑p‑w Gs‑db‑pÅ C‑u ]‑pX‑nb BIÀjIa‑mb c‑wK‑w ]‑nS‑n¨ S¡‑n. {‑]ik‑vX \‑mSI‑m`‑nt‑\X‑m¡f‑p‑w

I-Y‑mI‑r¯‑p¡f‑p‑w Ih‑nIf‑p‑w k‑wK‑oXÚc‑p‑w N‑n{‑XI‑mc·‑mc‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w k‑n\‑na‑m¡‑mc‑mb‑n. k‑z‑m`‑mh‑nIa‑mb‑p‑w k‑n\‑nab‑ns‑e Hc‑p s‑Nd‑nb `‑mK‑w a‑m{‑X a‑mb h‑m¡‑pIÄ¡‑v AX‑v s‑s‑II‑mc‑y‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑nc‑p¶hÀ a‑p¼´‑nb‑n \‑n¶ X‑n\‑m Bt‑]£‑nIa‑mb‑n hfs‑ct‑bs‑d {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w e`‑n¨‑p. a‑qh‑nb‑ps‑S I‑me¯‑v k‑n\‑na Hc‑p {‑]t‑X‑yI a‑oU‑nb‑w F¶ \‑neb‑n k‑z´‑w Ak‑vX‑nX‑z‑w C^I‑vS‑oh‑mb‑n s‑I‑mï‑p hc‑m³ X‑pS§‑nbX‑mW‑v. ]s‑£ i_‑vZ‑w h¶ t‑¸‑mÄ N‑mÀf‑n N‑m¹‑n\‑pt‑]‑me‑p‑w h‑m¡‑p Is‑f A‑wK‑oIc‑nt‑¡ï‑n h¶‑p. aeb‑mf¯‑n ]s‑£ C‑ub‑ns‑Sb‑mb‑n ]‑mc¼c‑y¯‑ns‑â Xe¨‑paS‑v CÃ‑ms‑X s‑SI‑vt‑\‑mfP‑nb‑p‑w Ieb‑p‑w Hc‑pa‑n¸‑n¡‑m ³ Ig‑nh‑pÅ s‑Nd‑p¸¡‑mÀ Hd‑nP‑n\ N‑n´If‑pa‑mb‑n k‑n\‑na‑mc‑wK¯‑ph¶‑p X‑pS§‑nbt‑X‑ms‑S Ae‑v]s‑a¦‑ne‑p‑w \‑m‑w k‑n\‑na F¶ a‑oU‑nb¯‑ns‑â {‑]t‑X‑yI XIs‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑v t‑_‑m[h‑m·‑mc‑mI‑m\‑p‑w h‑m¡‑pIf‑ps‑S ]c‑na‑nX‑nb‑n \‑n¶‑v k‑n\‑nab‑v¡‑v c£ I‑n«‑nt‑b¡‑ps‑a¶ t‑X‑m¶‑n¡‑m\‑p‑w CSb‑mb‑n«‑pï‑v. a‑oU‑nb‑m C‑u c‑oX‑nb‑n F¯‑nt‑¨ À¶‑n«‑nà F¶X‑v Hc‑p Z‑p‑xJIca‑mb kX‑ya‑mW‑v.

h‑m¡‑pIf‑ps‑S ià‑n¡‑v ]{‑X‑w h‑mb‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ k‑m£cXb‑p‑w‑, ]{‑X‑w h‑m§‑m\‑pÅ k‑m¼¯‑nIh‑p‑w k‑mh I‑mih‑p‑w Bhi‑ya‑mb‑nc‑p¶ \‑y‑q\ ]£¯‑ns‑\ k‑z´a‑m¡‑m³ Ig‑nª‑n c‑p¶‑p. AX‑n_‑p²‑na‑m·‑mÀ¡‑v C‑u ià‑ns‑b X§f‑ps‑S c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob k‑ma‑ql‑y k‑m¼¯‑nI c‑wKs‑¯ k‑z‑mÀ°e‑m`¯‑n\‑mb‑n s‑ac‑p¡‑ns‑bS‑p ¡‑m\‑p‑w Ig‑nª‑nc‑p¶‑p. ]s‑£ Ct‑¸‑mÄ I‑me‑w a‑md‑n. Z‑ri‑ya‑m²‑ya‑w Hc‑p ]‑p-X‑nb‑, X‑nI¨‑p‑w P\I‑oba‑mb h‑mÀ¯‑mh‑n\‑nab t‑e‑mI‑w s‑I‑mï‑p h¶‑p. Ch‑ns‑S k‑m£cX Bhi‑ya‑nÃ. Ht‑c h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S Gäh‑p‑w ]‑pX‑nb a‑pJ§f‑ps‑S s‑s‑hh‑n²‑y‑w Xs‑â Cj‑vS‑w t‑]‑ms‑e ]W¨‑neh‑nÃ‑ms‑X DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑m‑w. Ht‑¶‑m ct‑ï‑m ]{‑X‑w h‑mb‑n¨‑v ]{‑´ï‑p aW‑n¡‑qd‑nt‑es‑d ]g I‑nb h‑mÀ¯ Ad‑nb‑p¶X‑n\‑p ]Ic‑w ]¯‑p N‑m\e‑pIf‑ne‑qs‑S h‑mÀ¯IÄ \‑na‑nj§Ä¡I‑w Ad‑nb‑m³ k‑m[‑n¡‑p¶‑p. ]s‑£ CX‑ns‑e Xa‑mi‑, A\´ k‑m²‑yXIf‑pÅ s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ \‑y‑qk‑v N‑m\e‑pIÄ X§Ä Ct‑¸‑mg‑p‑w A¨S‑n a‑m²‑ya¯‑ns‑â Hc‑p h‑nj‑zÂ]X‑n¸‑v F¶ \‑neb‑ne‑ms‑W¶ a«‑ne‑mW‑v h‑mÀ¯IÄ s‑s‑II‑mc‑y‑w s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. h‑m¡‑pIÄ¡‑mW‑v Ct‑¸‑mg‑p‑w \‑y‑qk‑v N‑m\e‑pIf‑p‑w {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w \ÂI‑p¶X‑v. h‑mI‑vN‑mX‑pc‑nb‑mW‑v h‑mÀ¯¡‑v c‑q] h‑p‑w \‑ndh‑p‑w \ÂI‑p¶X‑v. k‑n\‑nab‑ns‑e sk]vXw_À 2013


(26) h¼³ Ubt‑e‑mK‑pIÄ¡‑p I‑n«‑p¶ s‑s‑IbS‑n t‑]‑ms‑eb‑mW‑v \‑y‑qk‑v N‑m\e‑p If‑ns‑e `‑wK‑nb‑mb‑n k‑wk‑mc‑n¡‑p¶hc‑p s‑S h‑m¡‑pIf‑ps‑S at‑\‑ml‑mc‑nX h‑mÀ¯Is‑f \b‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. \‑y‑qk‑v N‑m\e‑pIÄ \‑y‑qk‑v t‑]¸d‑p If‑n \‑n¶‑v X‑nI¨‑p‑w h‑yX‑yk‑vXa‑mW‑v. k‑n\‑nab‑p‑w \‑mSIh‑p‑w X½‑ne‑pÅ k‑ma‑yt‑a Ch X½‑ne‑pÅ‑p. C‑u X‑nc‑n¨ d‑nh‑v s‑s‑hI‑mc‑nIa‑mb‑n C‑u c‑wK¯‑p {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶hÀ¡‑v Dï‑mI‑p¶X‑p

hs‑c h‑m¡‑pIf‑ps‑S C¶s‑¯ t‑aÂt‑¡‑mb‑va a‑mä‑ms‑\‑m¡‑pIb‑nÃ. h‑m¡‑pIf‑ps‑S Ø‑m\‑w Z‑ri‑y§Ä Gs‑äS‑p¡‑pt‑¼‑mÄ a‑mÀ¡‑v BâW‑nb‑p‑w k‑nkt‑d‑mb‑p‑w a‑pX C¶‑phs‑cb‑pÅ Ia‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡j³ c‑oX‑n¡‑v ]‑ms‑S a‑mä‑w hc‑p‑w. h‑m¡‑pIÄ s‑I‑mï‑v kX‑ys‑¯ adb‑v¡‑mh‑p¶ C¶s‑¯ Ø‑nX‑n a‑md‑p‑w X‑oÀ¨b‑mb‑p‑w C‑u h‑n¹h¯‑n\‑v IT‑n\a‑mb FX‑nÀ¸‑ns‑\ t‑\c‑nt‑Sï‑n hc‑p‑w. Ch‑ns‑S e£‑vaWt‑cJ BÀ¡‑p‑w hcb‑v¡‑m³ ]ä‑pIb‑nÃ. e£‑vaWt‑cJb‑ps‑S {‑]kà‑n t‑]‑me‑p‑w t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w s‑N¿s‑¸S‑p‑w. {‑i‑oc‑mas‑â h\h‑mkI‑me¯‑v At‑±lh‑p‑w k‑oXb‑p‑w e£‑vaW\‑p‑w I‑qS‑n ZW‑vUI‑mcW‑y¯‑n Hc‑p B{‑ia ¯‑n Ig‑nb‑p¶ I‑me‑w. c‑mhWs‑â

A½‑mh³ a‑mc‑oN³ Hc‑p k‑zÀ®\‑nda‑p Å a‑m\‑ns‑â c‑q]¯‑n B{‑ia¯‑n\ S‑p¯‑p h¶‑p. k‑oXb‑v¡‑v B a‑m\‑ns‑\ t‑hW‑w F¶‑p h‑mi‑n ]‑nS‑n¨t‑¸‑mÄ {‑i‑oc‑ma³ Ahs‑\ ]‑nS‑n¡‑m³ t‑]‑mb‑n. I‑ps‑dt‑\ca‑mb‑n«‑p‑w {‑i‑oc‑ma³ X‑nc‑n¨‑p h¶‑nÃ. s‑]s‑«¶‑v Z‑qs‑c \‑n¶‑v {‑i‑oc‑ma s‑â t‑hZ\‑n¨‑p ]‑pfb‑p¶ a«‑ne‑pÅ h‑nf‑n t‑I«‑p. t‑l‑m‑, e£‑vaW‑m F¶‑v. ic‑n¡‑p‑w AX‑v a‑mc‑oNs‑â t‑he Bb‑n c‑p¶‑p. k‑oX C‑u h‑nf‑n t‑I«‑v hÃ‑ms‑X ]c‑n{‑`a‑n¨‑v e£‑vaWt‑\‑mS‑v DSs‑\ t‑]‑mb‑n t‑N«s‑\ c£‑n¡‑m³ ]dª‑p. e£‑vaW³ B{‑ia¯‑ns‑â a‑pä¯‑v A¼‑p s‑I‑mï‑v Hc‑p hc hc¨‑p. C‑u hcb‑v¡‑p ]‑pd¯‑v t‑N«¯‑n IS¡c‑pX‑v‑, IS¶‑m B]¯‑mW‑v F¶‑p ]dª‑v e£‑vaW³ {‑i‑oc‑mas‑â H¨ t‑I«‑nS t‑¯¡‑v t‑]‑mb‑n. C‑u hcb‑mWt‑Ã‑m e£‑vaW-t‑cJ. c‑mhW³ k\‑y‑mk‑nb‑ps‑S t‑hjs‑a S‑p¯‑p h¶‑v H‑mt‑c‑m h‑nZ‑y I‑m«‑n k‑oX s‑b C‑u e£‑vaWt‑cJb‑v¡‑p ]‑pd¯‑p s‑I‑mï‑p h¶‑p. s‑hf‑nb‑nt‑e¡‑p I‑ms‑e S‑p¯‑p h¨ ]‑ms‑S k‑oXs‑b c‑mhW³ ]‑nS‑n¨‑p s‑I‑mï‑pt‑]‑mb‑n. c‑mas‑â Z‑p‑xJ h‑p‑w‑, k‑oX‑mt‑\‑zjWh‑p‑w‑, h‑m\ct‑k\ s‑b I‑q«‑n e¦s‑b B{‑Ia‑n¨X‑p‑w‑, Ah k‑m\‑w c‑mhWs‑\ s‑I‑m¶X‑p‑w‑, k‑oX s‑b h‑os‑ïS‑p¯X‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w h‑nhc‑n¡‑p ¶X‑mW‑v c‑ma‑mbW‑w. c‑ma‑mbW‑w IY \½‑ps‑S k‑wk‑v¡‑mc¯‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑mW‑v. \½‑ps‑S IYIÄs‑¡Ã‑m‑w Hc‑p t‑a‑mde‑p ï‑v. c‑ma‑mbW¯‑n\‑p‑w AX‑pï‑v. X‑n· s‑b t‑X‑m¸‑n¡‑m³ \·b‑v¡‑v Hc‑p]‑mS‑v h‑nja§Ä t‑\c‑nt‑Sï‑n hc‑p‑w. ]s‑£ F{‑X ià‑nb‑pÅX‑ms‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w X‑n· Ahk‑m\‑w t‑X‑m¡‑p‑w. c‑mhW³ X‑n·b‑ps‑S Bf‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. c‑ma³ \· b‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w. At‑¸‑mÄ k‑oX e£‑vaWt‑cJ IS¶‑nÃ‑mb‑nc‑ps‑¶¦‑n F´‑v ]ä‑nt‑bt‑\‑w? c‑mhW³ X‑nc‑ns‑I t‑]‑mI‑p‑w. c‑mhW³ k‑pJa‑mb‑n e¦ `c‑n¡‑p‑w. \· Pb‑n¡‑nÃ. X‑n· X‑pSÀ¶‑p s‑I‑mt‑ïb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. X‑n·s‑b FX‑nÀ¯‑v \i‑n¸‑n¡‑m³ e£‑vaWt‑cJ IS¡‑ms‑X ]ä‑nà F¶t‑à c‑ma‑mbW‑w ]T‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶X‑v? h‑nj‑z a‑oU‑nb‑mb‑v¡‑v CX‑n\‑v Ig‑n-h‑pï‑mI‑p‑w. Ct‑Ã? t\mhenÌpw ho£Ww ap³ No^v FUnädpamWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: varma.klmohana@gmail.com

sk]vXw_À 2013


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-]‑n.-h‑n-P-bs‑â acW‑w ] {‑X-§-f‑ns‑e Nc-a-h‑mÀ¯‑m t‑]P‑n Hä t‑I‑mf-¯‑n h‑mb‑n¨‑v s‑R«‑n-¯-c‑n-¨-X‑ns‑â h‑nd-b a‑md‑m-s‑Xb‑mW‑v R‑m\‑nX‑v Fg‑p-X‑p-¶-X‑v. At‑±l‑w t‑P‑me‑n s‑Nb‑vX‑n-c‑p¶ ]{‑X‑w (a‑m-X‑r-`‑qa‑n‑) Hg‑ns‑I as‑ä‑mc‑p Z‑n\-¸-{‑Xh‑p‑w B h‑nt‑b‑m-K-h‑mÀ¯b‑v¡‑v H¶‑m‑w ]‑pd¯‑v CS‑w \ÂI‑n-b-X‑mb‑n Iï‑n-Ã. Z‑oÀLI‑me‑w h‑nP-b³ {‑]hÀ¯‑n¨‑v A´‑y‑w hs‑c P‑oh‑n¨ s‑I‑m¨‑n-b‑n-e‑n-d-§‑n-b- FU‑n-j-\‑p-I-f‑n t‑]‑me‑p‑w {‑]a‑pJ ] {‑X-§Ä h‑nP-bs‑â ac-W-h‑r-¯‑m´‑w "Nca' t‑]P‑n AS¡‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. C¶s‑¯ h‑mÀ¯‑m a‑qe‑y-\‑nÀ®b a‑m\-Z-W‑vU-¯‑n Fg‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-c\‑p‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-\‑p-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ s‑I.-]‑n.h‑n-P-bs‑â h‑nt‑b‑m-K-¯‑n\‑v A{‑Xb‑p‑w s‑Nd‑nb {‑]‑m[‑m-\‑yt‑a I¸‑n-¡‑p¶‑pÅ‑q? At‑X‑m h‑nP-bs‑\ a\-Ê‑n-e‑m¡‑p-¶-X‑n C¶s‑¯ ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯IÀ¡‑v k‑w`-h‑n¨ ]‑ng-h‑mt‑W‑m? ] {‑X‑m-[‑n-]-·‑mÀ a‑m{‑X-aÃ; t‑Ic-f-¯‑ns‑e s‑]‑mX‑p-k-a‑ql‑w t‑]‑me‑p‑w t‑hï-h‑n[‑w X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑m-s‑X-t‑]‑mb \‑nÈ-_‑vZ-\‑mb Hc‑p Fg‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-c-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p s‑I.-]‑n.h‑n-P-b³. h‑nP-b³ Fg‑p-X‑nb ]¯‑v {‑KÙ§Ä Fs‑â a‑p¶‑n N‑nX-d‑n-I‑n-S-¡‑p-¶‑p. FÃ‑m‑w hÀj-§Ä¡‑v a‑p¼‑v {‑i²‑m]‑qÀÆ‑w h‑mb‑n-¨-h-b‑m-W‑v. Ah-b‑n N‑neX‑v h‑oï‑p‑w ad‑n-¨‑p-t‑\‑m-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ BÝ-c‑yh‑p‑w AX‑n-t‑es‑d B\-µh‑p‑w A\‑p-`-h-s‑¸-S‑p-¶‑p. F{‑X {‑i²‑m]‑qÀÆ-a‑mW‑v h‑nP-b³ F¶ ]{‑X-{‑]hÀ¯-I³ ka‑q-ls‑¯ \‑nc‑o-£‑n-¨X‑v‑! I‑mc‑y-§s‑f t‑\t‑c-s‑N‑mt‑Æ I‑mW‑m\‑p‑w i‑p²-k‑p-µ-c-a‑mb `‑mj-b‑n Ah h‑mb-

\-¡‑mÀ¡‑v ]IÀ¶‑p-s‑I‑m-S‑p-¡‑m\‑p‑w h‑nP-b³ {‑]I-S‑n-¸‑n¨ k‑q£‑vaX aeb‑m-f-¯‑ns‑e a‑nI¨ Hc‑p a‑mX‑r-I-b‑mb‑n t‑hd‑n-«‑p-\‑n¡‑p-¶‑p. a¿-g‑n-¸‑p-g-b‑n-e‑qs‑S Hg‑p-I‑n-h-c‑p¶ I‑mÀ¯‑nI h‑nf-¡‑p-IÄ t‑]‑ms‑e-b‑mW‑v h‑nP-bs‑â h‑m¡‑p-IÄ. IT‑n\ ]Z-§Äs‑I‑mï‑v h‑mb-\-¡‑m-cs‑\ t‑¢i‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶‑n-Ã. Bi-b-§Ä X‑os‑c Ie‑p-j-h‑p-a-Ã. ]d-b‑m³ N‑ne-X‑pï‑v; h‑mb‑n-¡‑p-¶-hÀ Ah a\-Ê‑n-e‑m-¡‑pIb‑p‑w t‑hW‑w F¶ IÀi-\-a‑mb Hc‑p \‑ne-]‑m-S‑n \‑n¶‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑mW‑v h‑nPb³ cN\ X‑pS-§‑p-¶X‑p‑w X‑pS-c‑p-¶X‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑n Ah-k‑m-\‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑p‑w. AX‑n-\‑m B[‑p-\‑nI k‑ml‑nX‑y‑w Ie‑p-j-a‑m-¡‑nb ae-b‑mf KZ‑y-¯‑ns‑â X‑mW‑vU-h-I‑m-e¯‑v Hc‑p \‑mS‑yh‑p‑w {‑] I-S‑n-¸‑n-¡‑ms‑X k‑mh-I‑mi‑w \S-¶‑p-h¶ s‑I.-]‑n.-h‑n-P-b³ F¶ Fg‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-cs‑\ t‑hï-h‑n[‑w Bc‑p‑w {‑i²‑n-¨‑n-Ã. h‑mb‑n¨‑v X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑nª N‑neÀ a\‑x-]‑qÀh‑w AhK-W‑n-¡‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. k‑ml‑nX‑y cN\ t‑I‑mt‑f-P‑ns‑e ae-b‑mf‑w A[‑y‑m]-I-c‑ps‑S h‑nt‑\‑m-Z-{‑]-h‑r-¯‑n-b‑m-s‑W¶‑v [c‑n-¨-hc‑p‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-IÀ¡‑v Bga‑pÅ Bi-b-§Ä Cs‑ö‑v a‑p³h‑n[‑n ]‑peÀ¯‑n-bh‑p‑w h‑nP-b³ ae-b‑mf `‑mj-b‑n I¯‑n-¨‑p-s‑h¨ {‑]I‑m-i-_‑nµ‑p-¡-t‑f‑mS‑v ]‑pd‑w X‑nc‑nª‑p \‑n¶‑p. a‑m{‑X-aÃ; h‑yh-Ø‑m-]‑nX k‑ml‑n-X‑yI‑m-c-·‑m-c‑ps‑S `‑mj-b‑ps‑S s‑s‑hI-e‑y§Ä FS‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-«‑n-s‑¡‑mï‑v \à ] {‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-c‑ps‑S KZ‑y-c-N-\-IÄ ] e {‑]a‑pJ k‑ml‑n-X‑y-I‑m-c-·‑m-c‑ps‑S Fg‑p-¯‑n-t‑\-¡‑mÄ a‑nI-¨-X‑m-s‑W¶ ]c-a-a‑mb kX‑y‑w h‑nP-b³ Ø‑m]‑n¡‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. At‑±l‑w Fg‑p-X‑p-¶‑p: "]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\-¯‑n\‑p

ef‑n-X-a‑mb `‑mj Bh-i‑y-a‑m-b‑n-c‑n¡‑m‑w; F¶‑m-eX‑v k‑ml‑n-X‑y-¯‑ns‑â `‑mjbà Fs‑¶‑mc‑p h‑mZ‑w ]e-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w t‑IÄ¡‑m-d‑p-ï‑v. C‑u h‑mZ‑w s‑Xä‑m-W‑v.‑' F¶‑n«‑v h‑nP-b³ ae-b‑mf k‑ml‑nX‑y \‑nc‑q-]W I‑rX‑n-I-s‑f¶‑v h‑mg‑v¯-s‑¸S‑p¶ N‑ne cN-\-IÄ C§s‑\ D²c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p: "B[‑p\‑n ae-b‑mf I‑mh‑y a\-Ê‑ns‑â ]ß-Z-f-h-e-b-§-f‑n-e‑mW‑v A`‑n-a\‑y‑ph‑ns‑\-t‑¸‑ms‑e \‑m‑w \j‑vS-s‑¸S‑p-¶X‑v‑' as‑ä‑m-¶‑v: "Ub-e-I‑vS‑n-I‑vk‑ns‑â k‑vX‑w`\‑w t‑a‑ml‑n-¡‑p¶ I‑mµ‑n-i‑o-I-\‑v, Ah³ s‑Xc-s‑ª-S‑p-¯-h-s‑\-¦‑ne‑p‑w Hc‑p l‑mk‑y-I-Y‑m-]‑m-{‑X-a‑m-h‑m³ h¿. Hc‑n-¡Â s‑I‑mf‑p-¯‑nb Aá‑n AWb‑v¡-W-s‑a¶‑v Ab‑mÄ iT‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v B Aá‑n-t‑¡ä Ai‑p-²‑n-a‑q-e-a‑m-W‑v.‑' t‑hs‑d‑m¶‑v: "CX-cs‑â k‑ml‑n-X‑y-¯‑ns‑â Hc‑p CXc c‑q]-a‑mW‑v k‑ml‑n-X‑y-I‑r-X‑n. k‑ml‑n-X‑ys‑¯ sacrament of human encounter F¶‑p h‑nt‑i-j‑n-¸‑n¨ N‑n´-I-\‑p‑w‑, as‑ä‑m-¶Ã h‑nh-£‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v. k‑ml‑n-X‑ys‑¯ pseudo object, virtual object Fs‑¶‑ms‑¡ h‑nf‑n-¡‑p¶X‑p‑w I‑pd-h-Ã.‑' I‑m]-S‑y-¯‑ns‑â h‑nf‑w-_-c-s‑a¶‑v h‑nf‑n-t‑¡ï C¯c‑w Fg‑p-¯‑ns‑â Abe¯‑p P‑oh‑n¨ l‑rZ-b‑m-e‑p-h‑mb ]{‑X-{‑]hÀ¯-I-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p s‑I.-]‑n.-h‑n-P-b³. `‑mj h‑yà‑n-X‑z-¯‑ns‑â {‑]I‑m-i-\-a‑m-W‑v. s‑Xf‑nª N‑n´b‑p‑w I‑me‑p-j‑y-a‑n-Ã‑m¯ a\-Ê‑p-a‑p-Å-h-c‑n \‑n¶‑v hc‑p-¶-X‑mW‑v \à `‑mj. KZ‑y-`‑m-js‑b Hc‑p i‑n¸a‑mb‑n Ic‑p-X‑nb C‑u ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I³ Bi-b-h‑n-\‑n-ab Ie-b‑ps‑S k‑q£‑va-Xe-§-f‑n-e‑mW‑v P‑oh‑n-¨-X‑v. Ih‑n-Xb‑p‑w s‑I«‑p-I-Yb‑p‑w h‑n«‑v s‑s‑hÚ‑m-\‑nI k‑ml‑nX‑y aW‑vU-e-¯‑n {‑]hÀ¯‑n¨ ]¯‑p-t‑]-c‑ps‑S cN-\-IÄ ]T-\-h‑n-t‑[-ba‑m-¡‑n-s‑¡‑mï‑v ae-b‑mf KZ‑y-c-N-\-b‑ps‑S ià‑n-b‑ne‑p‑w k‑uµ-c‑y-¯‑ne‑p‑w h‑nP-b³ h‑ni‑z‑m-k-¯‑ns‑â a‑mb-a‑p{‑Z ]X‑n-¸‑n-¨‑p. k‑ml‑nX‑y h‑naÀi-\-I-\‑mb s‑I.-]‑n.-isk]vXw_À 2013


(28) ¦-c³ "ae-b‑mf KZ‑y-\‑m-b-I-·‑mÀ‑' F¶ h‑nP-bs‑â {‑KÙ-s‑¯-¸ä‑n ]d-b‑p-¶X‑v C§-s‑\-b‑m-W‑v: "]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\‑w KZ‑ys‑¯ Z‑pj‑vS-a‑m-¡‑p¶‑p F¶‑v ] t‑ï-b‑pï‑v ]c‑m-X‑n. I‑ps‑d-s‑b‑ms‑¡ kX‑y-a‑mW‑p X‑m\‑p‑w AX‑v. CX‑n-s‑\-¸ä‑n ]{‑X-§Ä s‑]‑mX‑ps‑h ]‑peÀ¯‑p¶ A\‑m-Ø-b‑m-Is‑« Akl‑y‑w Xs‑¶ F¶‑n-c‑n-s‑¡‑, Ch‑ns‑S CX‑m CÑ‑m]‑qÀÆ‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\‑w Gs‑ä-S‑p¯ Hc‑p h‑yà‑n B c‑wK¯‑v C‑u«‑w I‑qS‑nb ]‑m]-§Ä¡‑v GI‑m-I‑n-b‑mb‑n {‑]‑mbÝ‑n¯‑w A\‑p-j‑vT‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. CX‑p K‑uc-h-t‑¯‑ms‑S {‑i²‑n-¡‑pI F¶X‑v GX‑p `‑mj‑m k‑vt‑\l‑n-b‑p-t‑Sb‑p‑w IÀ¯h‑y-a‑m-I‑p-¶‑p.' "A`‑n-{‑]‑mb‑w Cc‑p-¼‑p-e-¡-bÃ' F¶ {‑]k‑n-²-a‑mb {‑]t‑b‑m-K-¯‑ns‑â Dd-h‑nS‑w C¶s‑¯ ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-Ic‑p‑w c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-b-¡‑mc‑p‑w H‑mÀ¡‑p-¶‑p-ï‑m-I‑n-Ã. C‑ub‑ns‑S Hc‑p ]‑wà‑n-s‑b-g‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-c³ B Cc‑p-¼‑p-e¡ X‑nc‑p-s‑¡‑m¨‑n a‑pJ‑y-a{‑´‑n-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ k‑n.-t‑I-i-hs‑â h‑mb‑n X‑nc‑pI‑n h¨-X‑p-I-ï‑p. I‑qd‑p-a‑m-d‑m³ I‑m¯‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶ GX‑p c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-b-¡‑mc\‑p‑w Ah-k-t‑c‑m-N‑n-X-a‑mb‑n FS‑p-¯‑p-]t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑m³ ]ä‑nb I¸-\-b‑m-W‑n-X‑v. B[‑p-\‑nI ae-b‑mf KZ‑y-s‑s‑i-e‑n-b‑ps‑S ]‑nX‑m-s‑h¶‑v h‑mg‑v¯-s‑¸-«‑n-«‑pÅ k‑n.h‑n.-I‑p-ª‑p-c‑m-as‑â {‑]k‑n-²-a‑mb C‑u h‑mNI‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\‑w ]T‑n-¡‑m³ hc‑p¶ h‑nZ‑y‑mÀY‑n-I-f‑ps‑S a‑p¶‑n Hc‑p a‑mX‑r-I-b‑mb‑n h‑nP-b³ N‑qï‑n-¡‑m-«‑p¶‑p. F¶‑n«‑v t‑hZ-]‑p-k‑vX-a‑mW‑v \à KZ‑y-s‑s‑i-e‑n¡‑v DZ‑m-l-c-W-s‑a¶‑p‑w ] d-b‑p-¶‑p. h‑nZ‑y‑mÀY‑n-Is‑f h‑nP-b³ D]-t‑Z-i‑n-¨‑p; "\‑n§Ä¡‑v as‑ä‑m¶‑p‑w hs‑¿-¦‑n s‑s‑__‑n-f‑ns‑â s‑s‑ie‑nb‑n Fg‑p-X‑n-b‑m aX‑n. t‑e‑mI-¯‑n Gä-h‑p-a-[‑nI‑w Bf‑p-IÄ h‑mb‑n-¨‑n-«‑pÅ I‑rX‑n-b‑m-W-X‑v.' kl-X‑m-]-t‑¯‑m-s‑St‑b‑m ]‑pÑ-t‑¯‑m-s‑St‑b‑m AX‑p-t‑I«‑v N‑nc‑n-¨-ht‑c‑mS‑v h‑nP-b³ C§s‑\ h‑ni-Z‑o-I-c‑n-¨‑p: "s‑s‑__‑nÄ ]g-©-\‑m-W‑v. F¶‑m s‑s‑__‑n-f‑ns‑â s‑s‑ie‑n-b‑n KZ‑y‑w Fg‑p-X‑p¶ Hc‑p ae-b‑mf k‑ml‑n-X‑y-I‑mc-\‑pï‑v þ s‑s‑h¡‑w a‑pl-½Z‑v _j‑oÀ. At‑±-l-s‑¯-t‑¸‑ms‑e Fg‑p-X‑m-t‑a‑m?‑' ]{‑X-`‑m-j-b‑ps‑S s‑s‑hI-e‑y-§Ä X‑nc‑p¯‑n P‑oh‑n¨ I‑p«‑n-I‑r-j‑vW-a‑mc‑mÀ Xs‑â t‑P‑me‑n-¡‑n-S-b‑n t‑\c‑n« `‑mj‑m-\‑p-`-h-§Ä t‑iJ-c‑n¨‑v "ae-b‑m-fs‑s‑ie‑n‑'Fs‑¶‑mc‑p D¯-a-{‑K-Ù-s‑a-g‑pX‑n-b-X‑p-t‑]‑ms‑e ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-\‑mb h‑nP-b\‑p‑w Xs‑â s‑X‑mg‑n-e-\‑p-`-h-§-f‑n \‑n¶‑mW‑v Bi-b-§Ä ka‑m-l-c‑n-¨-X‑v. h‑mb-\-¡‑m-c‑ps‑S I¯‑p-IÄ At‑±l‑w {‑]t‑N‑m-Z\ _‑nµ‑p-¡-f‑m-¡‑n. s‑]‑mX‑p{‑]-h‑m-l-¯‑ns‑â _l-f-¯‑n \‑n¶‑v a‑md‑n-\‑n-¶‑p. kX‑y-¯‑ns‑â k‑q£‑va-X-esk]vXw_À 2013

§-f‑n k‑v]Ài‑n-¨‑p. BÄ¡‑q-«-¯‑ns‑â A`‑n-c‑p-N‑nb‑p‑w A`‑n-{‑]‑m-bh‑p‑w h‑nP-b³ Ah-K-W‑n-¨‑p. a‑p³h‑n-[‑n-I-f‑n-Ã‑ms‑X Xs‑â At‑\‑z-jW h‑nf-¡‑p-a‑mb‑n `‑mj‑mK-Z‑y-¯‑ns‑â k‑uµc‑y‑w t‑XS‑n At‑±l‑w Z‑oÀL-b‑m{‑X s‑Nb‑vX‑p. ae-b‑mf KZ‑y-\‑m-b-I-·‑ms‑c Is‑ï-¯‑p-I-b‑m-b‑nc‑p¶‑p e£‑y‑w. A§s‑\ Iï‑p-]‑n-S‑n¨ ]¯‑p-t‑]-c‑n BZ‑y-s‑¯-b‑mÄ "A`‑n{‑]‑mb‑w Cc‑p-¼‑p-e-¡-bÃ‑' F¶‑v ]dª k‑n.-h‑n.-I‑p-ª‑p-c‑m-a³ BbX‑p b‑mZ‑r-Ñ‑nI-a-Ã. `‑mj-b‑ns‑e kh‑y-k‑mN‑n F¶‑v h‑nP-b³ B al‑m-\‑p-`‑m-hs‑\ h‑nt‑ij‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. Cc‑p-s‑s‑I-If‑p‑w s‑I‑mï‑v A¼‑p-s‑X‑m-S‑p¯ h‑mK‑vt‑Z-h-X-b‑ps‑S h‑oc-`-S³. cï‑m-a-\‑mb‑n I‑p«‑n-I‑r-j‑vW-a‑mc‑ms‑c Ah-X-c‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ h‑nP-b³ kX‑y‑m-t‑\‑z-j-W-¯‑ns‑â s‑X‑m«‑p-a‑p-¶‑ne‑mW‑v h¶‑p-\‑n¡‑p-¶-X‑v. "Cl-]-c-§f‑ns‑e kX‑y‑m-t‑\‑zj‑n' F¶‑mW‑v a‑mc‑ms‑c At‑±l‑w h‑nt‑i-j‑n-¸‑n-¨-X‑v. I\‑nh‑p‑w I‑pe‑o-\-Xb‑p‑w KZ‑y-s‑s‑i-e‑n-b‑n ]‑peÀ¯‑nb s‑I.-]‑n.-t‑I-i-h-\-t‑a-t‑\‑m³‑, l‑rZ-b-¯‑ns‑â `‑mj-b‑n-s‑e-g‑p-X‑nb h‑n.-S‑n.-`-«-X‑n-c‑n-¸‑m-S‑v, h‑nÚ‑m\ h‑nk‑vab-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ F³.-h‑n.-I‑r-j‑vW-h‑m-c‑yÀ‑, Z‑zµ‑z‑m-ßI h‑yà‑n-X‑z-¯‑ns‑â {‑]`‑m-]‑qc-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ kR‑vP-b³‑, A\-\‑y-a‑mb X\‑n-a-t‑b‑ms‑S Fg‑p-X‑nb N‑n´-I³ F¶‑v h‑nt‑i-j‑n-¸‑n-t‑¡ï ]‑n.-s‑I.-_‑m-eI‑r-j‑vW³ F¶‑n-hs‑c a‑nI¨ aeb‑mf KZ‑y-s‑a-g‑p-X‑n-b-h-s‑c¶ \‑ne-b‑n h‑nP-b³ {‑Ia‑m-\‑p-K-X-a‑mb‑n Ah-X-c‑n¸‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. k‑ml‑n-X‑y-¯‑n Ak‑vX‑nX‑z-h‑m-Z-¯‑ns‑â BZ‑y k‑v^‑pe‑n‑w-K-§Ä Dï‑m-¡‑nb k‑n.-s‑P.-t‑X‑m-ak‑v `‑mj-b‑n Hc‑p N‑pg-e‑n-¡‑m-ä‑p-t‑]‑m-s‑e-b‑mW‑v h¶s‑X¶‑v h‑nP-b³ \‑nc‑o-£‑n-¨‑p. I‑ua‑pZ‑n _‑me-I‑r-j‑vWs‑â _l‑p-a‑pJ {‑] X‑n-`s‑b h‑nP-b³ _l‑p-a‑m-\‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. At‑X kab‑w I‑m¼‑n-t‑Èc‑n Ic‑p-W‑m-Ics‑â \À½-a‑m-[‑pc‑y s‑s‑ie‑ns‑b Cj‑vS-KZ‑y-¯‑ns‑â KW-¯‑n t‑NÀ¯‑p. `‑mjb‑vs‑¡‑mc‑p `‑ojW‑ns‑b¶ A\‑p-_Ô A[‑y‑m-b-t‑¯‑ms‑S Ah-k‑m-\‑n-¡‑p¶ KZ‑y-\‑m-b-I-·‑mÀ F¶ I‑rX‑n 1987  h‑nP-b³ {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n¨ "KZ‑y-i‑n¸‑n‑' F¶ ]T-\-{‑K-Ù-¯‑ns‑â X‑pSÀ¨-b‑ms‑W¶‑p ]d-b‑m‑w. ]X‑n-\©‑p hÀjt‑¯‑mf‑w \‑oï `‑mj‑m-t‑\‑z-j-W-¯‑ns‑â ^e‑w. ]{‑X-`‑m-js‑b i‑p²‑o-I-c‑n¨‑v D¯a k‑ml‑n-X‑y-a‑mb‑n {‑]X‑n-j‑vT‑n-¡‑m³ s‑I.-]‑n.-h‑n-P-b³ \S-¯‑nb C‑u ] c‑n-{‑ia‑w I‑mt‑W-ï-hÀ t‑hï-h‑n[‑w Iï‑n-s‑Ã-¶-X‑ns‑â {‑][‑m-\-s‑X-f‑n-h‑mW‑v At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â ac-W-h‑r-¯‑m´‑w ] {‑X-§-f‑ns‑e "Nca' t‑]P‑ns‑â a‑qe-b‑n HX‑p-§‑n-¡‑n-S-¶-X‑v. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-b-¯‑n ]c‑m-P-b-s‑¸-«-X‑n\‑m D]-P‑o-h-\‑mÀ°‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-

\-¯‑n-t‑e¡‑p h¶-b‑m-f‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑nà s‑I.]‑n.-h‑n-P-b³. s‑Nd‑p¸‑w a‑pX Xs‑¶ "b‑pà‑n-c-l‑n-X-a‑mb Hc‑p I¼‑w‑' k‑ml‑nX‑y-t‑¯‑mS‑v X\‑n-¡‑p-ï‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p F¶‑v At‑±l‑w t‑cJ-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p-¶‑p. Xe-t‑Èc‑n {‑_®³ t‑I‑mt‑f-P‑n _‑nc‑p-Z-]-T\‑w ]‑qÀ¯‑n-b‑m¡‑n \‑n¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ 1954  h‑nP-b\‑v t‑e‑mI-s‑N-d‑p-IY‑m aÕ-c-¯‑n ae-b‑mf h‑n`‑m-K-¯‑n k½‑m\‑w e`‑n¨‑p. "s‑NI‑p-¯‑ms‑â a¡Ä' F¶‑m-b‑nc‑p¶‑p IY-b‑ps‑S t‑]c‑v. ]‑nt‑ä-s‑¡‑mÃ‑w ] {‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\‑w ]T‑n-¡‑m³ \‑mK‑v]‑q-c‑ns‑e l‑nk‑vt‑e‑m]‑v t‑I‑mt‑f-P‑n t‑NÀ¶‑p. 1955  a‑mX‑r-`‑qa‑nb‑n d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«-d‑mb‑n {‑]t‑h-i‑n-¨‑p. 1992  a‑mX‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑ps‑S s‑I‑m¨‑n FU‑n-j-\‑n U]‑y‑q«‑n FU‑näÀ Bb‑n-c‑ns‑¡ h‑nc-a‑n¨‑p. s‑s‑Z\‑w-Z‑n\ ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\-¯‑ns‑â Bh-i‑y‑mÀ°‑w h‑nP-b³ Fg‑p-X‑n-I‑q-«‑nb d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIf‑p‑w t‑eJ-\-§f‑p‑w t‑Ic-f-¯‑ns‑â h‑nN‑m-c-K-X‑ns‑b Bg-¯‑n k‑z‑m[‑o\‑n-¨‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. ]‑mÀi‑z¡-c‑n-¡-s‑¸« a\‑p-j‑y-c‑ps‑S t‑hZ-\-t‑b‑mS‑v kl‑m-\‑p`‑qX‑n ]‑peÀ¯‑n-t‑¸‑m¶ N‑pc‑p¡‑w ] {‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-c‑n Hc‑m-f‑m-b‑n-«‑mW‑v t‑Icf‑w h‑nP-bs‑\ At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â cN\-I-f‑n-e‑qs‑S {‑i²‑n-¨-X‑v. A¿-¦‑m-f‑n-b‑ps‑S k‑m[‑p-P\ ka-c-§-t‑f‑ms‑S Zf‑n-X-c‑ps‑S {‑]i‑v\-§Ä Ft‑¶-¡‑p-a‑mb‑n Ah-k‑m\‑n¨‑p F¶‑v Ic‑p-X‑nbhs‑c h‑nP-b³ X‑nc‑p-¯‑n. Ia‑y‑q-W‑n-Ì‑p-I‑mÀ Ø‑nX‑n-kaX‑z‑w Ø‑m]‑n¨‑v D¨-\‑o-NX‑z‑w CÃ‑m-X‑m¡‑p-s‑a¶ a‑nY‑y‑m-[‑m-c-Ws‑b At‑±l‑w \‑nc-h[‑n t‑eJ-\-§-f‑n-e‑qs‑S s‑]‑mf‑n-¨‑p. ]‑mh-§Ä¡‑p-t‑hï‑n A[-c-h‑n-¹h‑w \S-¯‑p-¶-h-c‑mW‑v ]‑mh-§-f‑ps‑S a‑pt‑¶ä-¯‑n\‑v XSÊ‑w \‑n¡‑p-¶-s‑X¶‑v DZ‑m-l-c-W-k-l‑nX‑w h‑nP-b³ X‑pd-¶‑pI‑m-«‑n. Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v h‑nc‑p² at‑\‑m-`‑m-h¯‑ns‑â Zl-\-t‑¡S‑v {‑]I-S‑n-¸‑n-¡‑m³ Fg‑p-X‑nb h‑naÀi-\-§-f‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑nà h‑nP-bs‑â t‑eJ-\-§Ä. k‑ma‑q-l‑nI P‑oh‑nX b‑mY‑mÀ°‑y§Ä a‑p³h‑n-[‑nI-f‑n-Ã‑ms‑X ]c‑n-t‑i‑m-[‑n-¡‑m³ Hc‑p ] {‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I³ \S-¯‑nb ]c‑n-{‑i-a-§f‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p Ah. "{‑_‑mÒ‑n³ Ia‑y‑q-W���nkh‑p‑w aä‑p ]T-\-§f‑p‑w‑' F¶ I‑rX‑n Xs‑¶ t‑\‑m¡‑p-I. "h‑mk‑vX-h-¯‑n C´‑y-b‑n-t‑eX‑v a‑mÀI‑vk‑n-kt‑a‑m Ì‑me‑n\‑n-kt‑a‑m AÃ. X‑pS¡‑w a‑pXÂt‑¡ {‑_‑mÒ‑n¬ Ia‑y‑q-W‑n-k-a‑m-W‑v. {‑_‑mÒWÀ k‑ma‑m-t‑\‑y\ Ad‑n-h‑p-IÄ h‑y‑m]c‑n¨‑v D]-P‑o-h\‑w Ig‑n-¡‑p¶hc‑mW‑v. {‑i‑pX‑n-IÄ a‑pX I¼‑y‑q-«À s‑SI‑vt‑\‑mfP‑n hs‑c AX‑nÂs‑¸-S‑p‑w. Cc‑p-]X‑m‑w \‑qä‑m-ï‑n t‑k‑mj‑y-e‑n-k‑w‑, Ia‑y‑qW‑n-k‑w‑, ]‑mÀe-s‑aâd‑n P\‑m-[‑n-]X‑y‑w X‑pS-§‑nb ]‑mÝ‑mX‑y Bi-b-§Ä¡‑v Ah-c‑n N‑neÀ Ch‑ns‑S h‑n]W\ k‑m[‑yX Iï-t‑¸‑mÄ X§Ä¡‑v e‑m`-


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s‑I.-]‑n.-h‑n-P-b³

I-c-a‑mb c‑oX‑n-b‑n h‑y‑m]-c‑n¨‑p X‑pS§‑n Ft‑¶-b‑p-Å‑q. s‑X§‑p-s‑N¯‑n IÅ‑ph‑nä‑v D]-P‑o-h\‑w Ig‑n-¨‑n-c‑p¶ P‑mX‑n¡‑mÀ h‑nk‑vI‑nb‑p‑w {‑_‑mï‑nb‑p‑w h‑nä‑p X‑pS-§‑n-bX‑p t‑]‑ms‑e. C´‑y³ s‑ab‑vU‑v t‑^‑md‑n³ Ia‑y‑q-W‑n-k‑w.‑' h‑nZ‑y‑m-k-¼-¶-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ _‑n.-BÀ.A‑w-t‑_-Z‑v¡s‑d C´‑y³ Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n-IÄ AS‑p-¸‑n-¨‑n-Ã. Zf‑n-Xs‑c t‑\X‑r-\‑n-c-b‑n s‑I‑mï‑p-h-c‑m-\‑pÅ s‑s‑ha‑pJ‑y‑w Ia‑y‑q-W‑n-Ì‑p-I-f‑ps‑S Ø‑mb‑o-`‑m-h-a‑mW‑v. F¶‑m Ah-s‑ct‑¸‑m-e‑pÅ AS‑n-Ø‑m\ hÀ¤-¯‑n-\‑pt‑h-ï‑n-b‑mW‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n \‑ne-s‑I‑m-Å‑p-¶s‑X¶‑v IÅ‑w ]d-b‑p‑w. Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n-b‑ps‑S D¶X \b-c‑q-]‑o-I-cW ka‑n-X‑n-b‑m-Wt‑Ã‑m t‑]‑mf‑nä‑v _‑y‑qt‑d‑m. C\‑nb‑p‑w ]‑n.-_‑n-b‑n Hc‑p Zf‑n-X³ A‑wK-a‑m-b‑n-«‑n-Ã. BZ‑y-a‑mb‑n ]‑n._‑n

A‑wK-a‑m-I‑p¶ k‑v{‑X‑o k‑n.-]‑n.F‑w P\d s‑k{‑I-«-d‑n-b‑ps‑S `‑mc‑y-b‑mb h‑rµ‑mI‑m-c‑m«‑v BW‑v. F«c Zi‑m-_‑vZ-§Ä ]‑n¶‑n« Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v {‑]Ø‑m-\-¯‑ns‑â t‑\X‑r-\‑n-c-b‑ns‑e Ø‑nX‑nka-X‑z-¯‑ns‑â IY CX‑m-s‑W-¦‑n ]‑mÀe-s‑aâd‑n P\‑m-[‑n-]-X‑y-¯‑n "]c‑o-£-W‑mÀ°‑w‑' ]s‑¦-S‑p-¡‑p¶ ]‑mÀ«‑n `c-W‑m-[‑n-I‑m-cØ‑m-\-§-f‑n ]‑mh-§-s‑fb‑p‑w Z‑pÀºe h‑n`‑m-K-§-s‑fb‑p‑w Hc‑n-¡e‑p‑w AS‑p-¸‑n¡‑n-Ã. h‑nP-b³ Fg‑p-X‑p-¶‑p: "t‑Ic-f¯‑n N‑mX‑pÀhÀW‑y-¯‑n\‑p ]‑pd-¯‑p\‑n¶‑v Bc‑p‑w a‑pJ‑y-a-{‑´‑n-b‑m-I-c‑p-s‑X¶‑v Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v t‑\X‑r-X‑z-¯‑n\‑v \‑nÀ_-Ôa‑p-ï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. AX‑p a\-Ê‑n-e‑m-¡‑m³ a‑mÀI‑vk‑n-k-a-Ã‑, a\‑p-k‑va‑r-X‑n-b‑mW‑v h‑mb‑n-t‑¡-ï-X‑v. t‑P‑mk^‑v Ì‑me‑n³ ] e ]‑mX-I-§f‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑n-«‑p-s‑ï-¦‑ne‑p‑w C´‑y³ Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n-Is‑f hg‑n-]‑n-

g-¸-¡Â A¡‑q-«-¯‑n s‑]S‑p-¶‑n-Ã.‑' t‑U‑m.-A‑w-t‑_-Z‑vI-d‑ps‑S \‑nc-h[‑n P‑oh-N-c‑n-{‑X-§Ä ae-b‑m-f-¯‑n {‑] k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¡-s‑¸-«‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. h‑nP-b³ Fg‑p-X‑nb "A‑wt‑_-Z‑vI-d‑ps‑S I‑qs‑S' F¶ {‑KÙ‑w A]-c‑n-N‑n-X-a‑mb B h‑yà‑n-X‑z-¯‑ns‑â al‑n-a-IÄ h‑yàa‑m-¡‑n-¯-c‑p¶ DÖ‑z-e-a‑mb I‑rX‑n-b‑mW‑v. h‑nÚ‑m-\-¯‑ns‑â s‑hf‑n-¨h‑p‑w [À½-t‑_‑m-[-¯‑ns‑â N‑qS‑p‑w t‑af‑n¨ Hc‑p P‑z‑me-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p A‑wt‑_-Z‑vI-d‑ps‑S P‑oh‑n-X-s‑a¶‑v h‑nP-b³ Ø‑m]‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. N‑pä‑p-a‑pÅ P‑oÀ®-X-IÄ¡‑v At‑±l‑w X‑os‑I‑m-f‑p-¯‑n. P\-t‑I‑m-S‑n-IÄ¡‑v s‑hf‑n¨‑w ]IÀ¶‑p. A\‑m-Z‑n-I‑me‑w a‑pX¡‑pÅ `‑mc-X‑o-b-Xs‑b h‑naÀi\ _‑p²‑n-s‑I‑mï‑v ]c‑nt‑i‑m-[‑n-¨‑p. A¿‑mb‑n-c-¯‑n-t‑es‑d t‑]P‑p-I-f‑n ]c-¶‑p-I‑nS-¡‑p¶ B t‑_‑m[-[‑m-cs‑b h‑nP-b³ Hc‑p s‑Nd‑p-{‑K-Ù-¯‑n at‑\‑m-Ú-a‑mb‑n ]IÀ¶‑p-h-¨‑p. K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n-s‑b-t‑¸‑ms‑e Xs‑¶ A‑wt‑_-Z‑vI-s‑db‑p‑w k‑vt‑\l‑n¨ h‑nP-bs‑â t‑\‑m«-§Ä ]g-a-b‑n-e‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑n-Ã. ]‑pX‑nb {‑]h-W-X-Is‑f Gä‑p-h‑m§‑p¶ k‑wt‑h-Z\ i‑oe‑w h‑nP-bs‑â A`‑n-c‑p-N‑n-I-f‑n P‑ze‑n¨‑p \‑n¶‑p. "] {‑X-§Ä‑, h‑nN‑n-{‑X-§Ä‑' F¶ BZ‑y I‑rX‑n-b‑n-e‑qs‑S X‑os‑c i‑pj‑v¡-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ ae-b‑mf ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\ k‑ml‑nX‑y-¯‑n\‑v X‑pS¡‑w I‑pd‑n-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ h‑nP-b³ ]‑pX‑n-s‑b‑mc‑p {‑]Ø‑m-\-¯‑n\‑v i‑ne-b‑n-S‑p-I-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Hc‑p Z‑nhk‑w s‑I‑mï‑v Bb‑pk‑v Aä‑p-t‑]‑m-I‑p¶ h‑mÀ¯-IÄ a‑m{‑X‑w Fg‑p-X‑nb‑p‑w X‑nc‑p¯‑nb‑p‑w Ak‑vX-a‑n-¡‑m-\‑p-Å-Xà ] {‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-Is‑â P‑oh‑nX‑w. `‑mj-b‑ps‑S hfÀ¨b‑v¡‑p‑w KZ‑y-s‑s‑i-e‑n-b‑ps‑S D¶a-\-¯‑n\‑p‑w Bi-b-h‑n-\‑n-a-b-¯‑ns‑â h‑n]‑p-e-a‑mb k‑m[‑y-X-IÄ¡‑p‑w t‑hï‑n {‑]hÀ¯‑n-t‑¡ï `‑mc‑n¨ D¯-c-h‑mZ‑nX‑z‑w \à ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-IÀ¡‑p-ï‑v. h‑nP-b³ A¯-c-s‑a‑mc‑p Bf‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. ]{‑X-¯‑n b‑mZ‑r-Ñ‑n-I-a‑mb‑n FU‑n-ät‑d‑m d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«t‑d‑m Bb-X‑p-s‑I‑mï‑p a‑m{‑X‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-\‑mb‑n Ad‑n-b-s‑¸« h‑yà‑n-b-à h‑nP-b³. At‑±l‑w ]{‑X-{‑]hÀ¯-I-\‑m-I‑m³ k‑zb‑w X‑oc‑p-a‑m-\‑n-¨‑n-d§‑nb Bf‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Fg‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-cs‑â Bb‑p[‑w h‑m¡‑p-I-f‑m-W‑v. h‑nP-b³ H‑mt‑c‑m h‑m¡‑p‑w k‑q£‑va-a‑mb‑n D]-t‑b‑mK‑n-¨‑p. F.-]‑n.-D-Z-b-`‑m-\‑ph‑p‑w s‑I.-]‑n.-h‑nP-b\‑p‑w F³.-BÀ.-Fk‑v _‑m_‑ph‑p‑w _‑n.-BÀ.]‑n `‑mk‑v¡d‑p‑w aä‑p‑w ]{‑X-`‑mjb‑v¡‑v k‑ml‑n-X‑y-¯‑ns‑â t‑a·b‑p‑w ] Z-h‑n-b‑p‑w- I¸‑n-¨‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑mW‑v H‑mt‑c‑m hc‑nb‑p‑w I‑pd‑n-¨-X‑v. Ah-c‑ps‑S KZ‑y-cN-\-I-f‑n \‑n¶‑v Hc‑p h‑m¡‑p-t‑]‑me‑p‑w FS‑p-¯‑p-I-f-b‑m-\‑n-Ã. At‑X-k-ab‑w ae-b‑m-f-¯‑ns‑e B[‑p-\‑nI ¢‑mk‑n¡‑v F¶‑p h‑nt‑i-j‑n-¸‑n-¡-s‑¸-«‑n-«‑pÅ {‑]

r. erPb„ "crN

†ŒI\uG Ü™Ilc\uG Ealò`qar' au„ U]pqˆr AU "ƒcrN…u. Idq† ¥]l¥WlŒo ¥tlUrdu¨ ehXrbr« "ƒpG. "e¥dlI\Ÿy|o djrXeuG clgoÑsb era†f\Ÿ sk]vXw_À 2013


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sI. ]n. hnPbsâ ]pkvXI§fnð NneXv

i-k‑vX-a‑mb t‑\‑mh-e‑p-IÄ t‑]‑me‑p‑w ]‑p\Àh‑m-b-\-b‑n a‑nI¨ FU‑n-äd‑ps‑S t‑kh\‑w Bh-i‑y-s‑¸-S‑p-¶-X‑mb‑n t‑X‑m¶‑m‑w. s‑h«‑n-¨‑p-c‑p-t‑¡ï IY-If‑p‑w t‑\‑mh-e‑p-If‑p‑w h‑m¡‑p-I-f‑ps‑S A\‑mhi‑y {‑]t‑b‑m-K-¯‑n i‑z‑mk‑w-a‑p-«‑p-¶‑p. Ah-t‑b-¡‑mÄ F{‑Xt‑b‑m k‑q£‑va-] Z {‑]t‑b‑m-K-§Ä s‑I‑mï‑v N‑mc‑p-Xb‑mÀ¶ KZ‑y-s‑s‑i-e‑n-b‑mW‑v h‑nP-b-t‑â-X‑v. KZ‑ys‑¯ i‑n¸-a‑mb‑n I‑mW‑m³ {‑ia‑n¨ h‑nP-bs‑â k‑q£‑va-]Z {‑]t‑b‑m-K-§Ä ]{‑X-`‑m-js‑b ae-b‑m-f-¯‑ns‑e a‑nI¨ k‑ml‑n-X‑y-a‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑n-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. `‑mj kc-f-a‑m-b‑n-c‑n-¡-W‑w‑, h‑m¡‑p-IÄ IW‑ni-a‑mb AÀ°‑w \ÂI-W‑w‑, I‑pd¨‑p ]Z-§Äs‑I‑mï‑v I‑qS‑p-X AÀ°‑w s‑hf‑n-h‑m-¡-W‑w‑, h‑mb-\-¡‑m-c‑ps‑S a\Ê‑n ]X‑n-b-W‑w‑, h‑yà‑nX‑z‑w t‑hW‑w... F¶‑n-§s‑\ Fg‑p-¯‑ns‑â kh‑n-t‑ij-X-I-s‑f-¸ä‑n "]e-`‑m-h-§Ä‑, ]e \‑m-Z-§Ä‑' Fs‑¶‑mc‑p t‑eJ-\-¯‑n h‑nP-b³ A¡-a‑n«‑p \‑nc-¯‑p-¶‑p-ï‑v. F¶‑n-c‑p-¶‑me‑p‑w h‑nj-b-¯‑n-\‑n-W-§‑nb h‑m¡‑p-If‑p‑w _‑n‑w_-§f‑p‑w {‑]t‑b‑m-K§f‑p‑w s‑I‑mï‑v h‑nP-bs‑â t‑eJ-\-§Ä h‑mb-\-¡‑ms‑c BIÀj‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. ] t‑©-{‑µ‑n-b-§Ä s‑I‑mï‑v {‑Kl‑n-¡‑m-h‑p¶ h‑n[‑w h‑m¡‑p-IÄ¡‑v Ae-¦‑m-c-§Ä Na-b‑v¡‑m³ Fg‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-c-\‑mb h‑nP³ X‑p\‑n-ª‑n-Ã. Hc‑p]t‑£ `‑mh‑n-b‑ps‑S `‑mh‑n-b‑n h‑ni‑z‑mk‑w AÀ¸‑n¨‑v hc‑p‑w Xe-a‑p-d-b‑v¡‑mb‑n At‑±l‑w a‑md‑n-\‑n-¶X‑m-I‑m‑w. ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\-¯‑n D]c‑n-]-c‑n-i‑o-e-\-¯‑n\‑v eï-\‑n t‑]‑mb I‑me¯‑v (1977‑) "]S‑n-ª‑m-d³ a‑pJ-Ñ‑mb-IÄ‑' Fs‑¶‑mc‑p eL‑p-{‑KÙ‑w h‑nPb³ Fg‑p-X‑n-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. Xs‑â A`‑n-c‑pN‑n AX‑n At‑±l‑w s‑hf‑n-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p-¶‑p. "Hc‑p \‑mK-c‑n-I-X-b‑ps‑S XIÀ¶-S‑nª sk]vXw_À 2013

ih-¸-d-¼‑n \‑n¡‑p-¶-X‑n-t‑\-¡‑mÄ F\‑n-¡‑nj‑vS‑w as‑ä‑mc‑p \‑mK-c‑n-IX \‑ms‑¼-S‑p¯‑p hc‑p¶ ]¨-¸‑m-S¯‑p N‑pä‑n-\-S-¡‑p-¶-X‑n-e‑m-W‑v.‑' b‑p.-]‑n.-P-b-c‑mP‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w k‑nX‑m-c-b‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w IY-IÄ h‑mb‑n¨‑v Bk‑z‑m-Z-\-¡‑p-d‑n-s‑¸-g‑p-X‑nb C‑u ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-Is‑â DÅ‑n IY-s‑b-g‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-cs‑â cN-\‑m-t‑_‑m[‑w Ak‑w-X‑r-]‑vX‑n-t‑b‑ms‑S I‑pS‑n-]‑mÀ¯‑n-c‑p¶‑p. F¶‑m h‑nP-b³ Ak‑w-X‑r-]‑vX\‑mb Hc‑p Al-¦‑m-c‑n-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑n-Ã. X¶‑ns‑e IY‑m-I‑m-cs‑â `‑mh-s‑\b Z‑nh‑yc-l-k‑y-a‑m¡‑n h¨‑p-s‑I‑mï‑v t‑e‑mI-b‑mY‑mÀ°‑y-§Ä¡‑v t‑\t‑c h‑nP-b³ a‑ng‑nX‑p-d-¶‑p. Zf‑nX‑v ka-c-§Ä‑,- s‑]‑mc‑pX‑n hfÀ¶ Fg‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-c‑n-IÄ‑, \‑ms‑fb‑p‑w \¶‑m-h‑m¯ \½Ä F¶‑o {‑KÙ-§Ä ae-b‑m-f-¯‑ns‑e a‑nI¨ k‑ma‑q-l‑nI ]‑mT-§-f‑m-W‑v. ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-Is‑â k‑ml‑nX‑y cN-\-I-f‑m-W-h. FÃ‑m k‑m{‑¼-Z‑m-b‑nI k‑ml‑n-X‑y-§-s‑fb‑p‑w t‑]‑ms‑e \à h‑mb-\‑m-\‑p-`-h-§Ä Ah ]¦‑p-h-b‑v¡‑p-¶‑p. 1992  a‑mX‑r-`‑q-a‑n-b‑n \‑n¶‑v h‑nca‑n-¨-t‑ij‑w {‑KÙ-c-N-\-I-f‑n kP‑oh-a‑mb‑n a‑pg‑p-I‑nb s‑I.-]‑n.-h‑n-P-b³ s‑I‑m¨‑n-b‑ns‑e k‑m‑wk‑vI‑m-c‑nI k‑mb‑mÓ kZ-Ê‑p-I-f‑n \‑nX‑y-k‑m-¶‑n-[‑y-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. Ah‑ns‑S Iï‑p-a‑p-«‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ Hc‑p N‑nc‑n‑, N‑pc‑p¡‑w h‑m¡‑p-I-f‑n t‑e‑ml‑y‑w‑, h‑nS. CX‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p F\‑n¡‑p‑w At‑±-l¯‑n\‑p‑w CS-b‑ns‑e k‑ul‑r-Z‑w. A§s‑\‑mc‑p s‑s‑hI‑p-t‑¶c‑w R§Ä¡‑n-c‑phÀ¡‑p‑w AS‑p-¯-S‑p¯ Cc‑n-¸‑n-S-§Ä e`‑n-¨‑p. k‑wk‑m-c-¯‑n h‑m¡‑p-IÄ¡‑v ]‑ni‑p-¡‑n-Ã‑m-X‑m-b‑n. "C\‑n X\‑n-s‑¡‑mc‑p ]‑pk‑vX-I-s‑a‑ms‑¡ {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¡‑m‑w' F¶‑v Fs‑¶ D]-t‑Z-i‑n-¨‑p. ]{‑X-{‑]hÀ¯-I-c‑ps‑S cN-\-I-f‑m k‑ml‑nX‑y‑w

I‑qS‑p-X \‑nd-bs‑« F¶‑mI‑p‑w h‑nPb³ Dt‑±-i‑n-¨X‑p‑w B{‑K-l‑n-¨-X‑p‑w. I‑p«‑n-Is‑f a‑mX‑r-`‑mj ]T‑n-¸‑n-¡‑ms‑X a‑mX‑m-]‑n-X‑m-¡Ä I‑m«‑p¶ t‑{‑Z‑ml-§-s‑f¸ä‑n ]e-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w At‑±l‑w h‑mN‑m-e-\‑mb‑n. "ae-b‑mf KZ‑y\‑m-b-I-·‑mÀ‑' F¶ ]‑pk‑vX-I-¯‑ns‑e Ah-k‑m\ A[‑y‑mb‑w "`‑mjb‑v¡‑v Hc‑p `‑ojW‑n‑' F¶ t‑eJ\-a‑m-W‑v. \à `‑mj Fg‑pX‑n {‑]N-c‑n-¸‑n¨‑m h‑mb-\-¡‑mÀ X‑ms‑\ hc‑p-s‑a¶‑v h‑nP-b³ h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¨‑p. `‑mj \i‑n-¡‑p¶‑p-s‑ï-¦‑n AX‑v Fg‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-c‑ps‑S t‑Z‑mj‑w s‑I‑mï‑m-W‑v. `‑mj‑m k‑wc-£W-¯‑n\‑v a‑p{‑Z‑m-h‑m-I‑yh‑p‑w kX‑y‑m-{‑K-lk-a-ch‑p‑w t‑hï. k‑pµ-c-a‑mb `‑mjb‑n a‑nI¨ I‑rX‑n-IÄ Dï‑m-b‑m aX‑n-s‑b¶‑v h‑nP-b³ Fg‑p-X‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-s‑\¶ \‑ne-b‑n he‑nb A‑wK‑o-I‑mc a‑p{‑Z-I-s‑f‑m¶‑p‑w s‑I.-]‑n.-h‑n-P-bs‑â t‑a ]X‑n-ª‑nÃ. ]‑n.-BÀ.U‑n {‑]Ê‑v d‑qa‑n Cc‑p¶‑v A[‑n-I‑mc t‑I{‑µ-§-f‑n Ah‑n-i‑p² k‑z‑m[‑o\‑w s‑Ne‑p-¯‑n-b-hÀ t‑]‑me‑p‑w Hc‑p ]{‑X-¯‑ne‑p‑w \‑me‑p hc‑n Fg‑pX‑ms‑X a‑nI¨ ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-\‑pÅ ]‑pc-k‑vI‑mc‑w t‑\S‑nb \‑m«‑n h‑nP-bs‑\-t‑¸‑m-e‑p-Å-hÀ Ah-K-W‑n-¡-s‑¸-«‑p. k½‑m-\-§-f‑ps‑S IY-b‑n-Ã‑m-ab‑v¡‑v A§s‑\ \‑nÈ-_‑vZ-a‑mb‑n AS‑n-h-c-b‑n«‑p s‑I‑mï‑v t‑\c‑p‑w s‑\d‑nb‑p‑w s‑I« C‑u t‑e‑mI-¯‑p-\‑n¶‑v 2013 BKÌ‑v Bd‑m‑w X‑obX‑n s‑I.-]‑n.-h‑n-P-b³ c£-s‑¸-«‑p. teJI³ ho£Ww ]{X¯nse s]mfnän¡ð FUnädmWv. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: sujaathan@gmail.com


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A\pkvacWw s‑I. s‑I. a[‑pk‑qZ\³

k‑ml‑nX‑y{‑]Wb‑nb‑mb ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I³ C¡gnª BKÌv 6\v A´cn¨ {]ikvX ]{X{]hÀ¯I\pw Fgp¯pImc\pambncpó sI.]n. hnPbs\ At±l¯nsâ kl{]hÀ¯I\pw amXr`qan sU]yq«n FUnädpambncpó teJI³ A\pkvacn¡póp.

tem

It‑¯‑mS‑p h‑nS]db‑p¶ X‑n\‑v Hc‑p a‑mk‑w a‑p¼‑v s‑I. ]‑n. h‑nPbs‑\ Iï‑nc‑p¶‑p. A¶‑p h‑nPb³ X‑nc‑n¨d‑nª‑nÃ. h‑oÂs‑Nbd‑n  aIÄ kÔ‑y AS‑pt‑¯b‑v¡‑p s‑I‑m ï‑phc‑pt‑¼‑mÄ B a‑pJ¯‑v ]X‑nh‑p N‑nc‑n Iï‑nÃ. "a\Ê‑ne‑mb‑nt‑Ã‑, a[‑ph‑m W‑v.' `‑mc‑y {‑]` s‑Nh‑nb‑n Dds‑¡ t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑n«‑p‑w {‑]X‑nIcWa‑pï‑mb‑nÃ. Ah‑yàa‑mb‑n Fs‑´‑ms‑¡t‑b‑m ]d ª‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p h‑nPb ³. "a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑n‑'b‑ns‑e BZ‑yI‑me A\‑p` h§f‑p‑w IY‑m]‑m{‑X§f‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡b‑mb‑n c‑p¶‑p At‑¸‑mÄ At‑±l‑w H‑mÀs‑¯S‑p ¡‑m³ {‑ia‑n¡‑p¶s‑X¶‑p h‑yàa‑mb‑n c‑p¶‑p. "I‑pd¨‑p\‑mf‑mb‑n C§s‑\b‑mW‑v‑,‑' {‑]` ]dª‑p. "]gb I‑mc‑y§Ä ]c k‑v]c _Ôa‑nÃ‑ms‑X ]dª‑ps‑I‑mï‑n c‑n¡‑p‑w.‑' H‑mÀ½ t‑]‑mbXÃ‑ms‑X aä‑p I‑mc‑ya‑mb Bt‑c‑mK‑y{‑]i‑v\§s‑f‑m¶‑p‑w h‑nPb\‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑p Xs‑¶ C{‑Xt‑hK‑w Hc‑p t‑hÀ]‑mS‑pï‑m I‑ps‑a¶‑p‑w Ahk‑m\‑w I‑mW‑pt‑¼‑mÄ t‑X‑m¶‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. H‑mÀ½ X‑os‑c adb‑p‑w a‑p¼‑v h‑nPb³ I‑qs‑S¡‑qs‑S ]dª‑nc‑p¶X‑v t‑Icf k‑ml‑nX‑y A¡‑mZa‑ns‑b¸ä‑n Hc‑p ]c‑m X‑nb‑mW‑v. I‑mW‑p¶ht‑c‑ms‑SÃ‑m‑w At‑± l‑w AX‑p ]dª‑nc‑p¶‑p. "KZ‑yi‑ne‑v]‑n‑' F¶ Xs‑â {‑KÙ¯‑ns‑â cï‑m‑w ]X‑n ¸‑v {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑vI‑m³ 2007 k‑ml‑n X‑y A¡‑mZa‑nb‑pa‑mb‑n h‑nPb³ Ic‑md‑p ï‑m¡‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑p. Bd‑ps‑I‑mÃa‑mb‑n A¡‑mZa‑n AX‑nt‑·Â Hc‑p \S]S‑nb‑p

s‑aS‑p¡‑m¯X‑ne‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p At‑±l¯‑n s‑â AaÀj‑w. i‑mc‑oc‑nI‑mk‑z‑mØ‑y‑w hIhb‑v¡‑ms‑X‑, Ct‑X¸ä‑n At‑\‑zj‑n ¡‑m³ Hc‑nb‑v¡Â At‑±l‑w t‑\c‑n«‑v A¡‑mZa‑n H‑m^‑ok‑n t‑]‑mh‑pIb‑pa‑p ï‑mb‑n. ("KZ‑yi‑ne‑v]‑n‑' h‑nPbs‑â a‑nI¨ I‑rX‑nIf‑ns‑e‑m¶‑mW‑v. aeb‑mf`‑mj s‑s‑II‑mc‑y‑w s‑N¿‑p¶hÀs‑¡Ã‑m‑w a‑mÀK ZÀi‑nb‑mb C‑u {‑KÙ¯‑ns‑â ]‑p\‑x{‑] I‑mi\‑w A¡‑mZa‑n Gs‑äS‑p¯‑n«‑v s‑N¿‑mX‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v F´‑p I‑mcW‑w s‑I‑mï‑mb‑me‑p‑w A£´h‑ya‑ms‑W¶‑p ]db‑ms‑X h¿.‑) CX‑nh‑ns‑S H‑mÀ¡‑m³ I‑mcW‑w k‑ml‑nX‑ycN\b‑v¡‑v s‑I. ]‑n. h‑nPb³ A´‑y‑w hs‑c he‑nb {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w \ I‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑ps‑h¶‑v h‑yàa‑m¡‑m\‑mW‑v. s‑X‑mg‑ne‑mb‑n k‑z‑oIc‑n¨X‑v ]{‑X{‑]hÀ ¯\a‑ms‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w At‑±l‑w I‑qS‑pX k‑vt‑\l‑n¨X‑v k‑ml‑nX‑ys‑¯b‑mW‑v. ] T‑nb‑v¡‑p¶ I‑met‑¯ t‑e‑mIs‑Nd‑pIY‑m aÕc¯‑n a‑q¶‑m‑w k½‑m\‑w t‑\S‑n {‑it‑²b\‑mb h‑yà‑nb‑mW‑v h‑nPb³. \‑nÊ‑mc k‑ml‑nX‑yaÕcs‑a‑m¶‑pa‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑nà AX‑v. \‑y‑qt‑b‑mÀ¡‑ns‑e s‑ld‑mÄ U‑v {‑S‑n_‑y‑q¬ 17 c‑mP‑y§f‑n AX‑mX‑p a‑mX‑r`‑mjb‑n \S¯‑nb B aÕc ¯‑n aeb‑mf¯‑n H¶‑m‑w k½‑m\‑w F‑w. S‑n. h‑mk‑pt‑Zh³ \‑mbÀ¡‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑p. ("hfÀ¯‑p a‑rK§Ä‑' F¶ IY b‑v¡‑v.‑) a‑q¶‑m‑w k½‑m\‑w s‑I. ]‑n. h‑nP bs‑â "s‑NI‑p¯‑ms‑â a¡Ä' F¶ IYb‑v¡‑p‑w. s‑Nd‑pIYb‑ne‑mW‑v X‑pS§‑nbs‑X¦‑n

e‑p‑w ]‑n¶‑oS‑v At‑±l‑w kÀK‑mßI cN \IÄ h‑n«‑v K‑uchXca‑mb t‑eJ\ cN \If‑nt‑eb‑v¡‑v X‑nc‑nª‑p. c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w‑, k‑ma‑ql‑y‑w‑, k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI‑w‑, A´Àt‑Z i‑ob‑w X‑pS§‑nb h‑njb§f‑n \‑nch [‑n t‑eJ\§Ä‑, \‑nc‑q]W§Ä‑, ]T\ §Ä F¶‑nh At‑±l‑w cN‑n¨‑p. k‑q£‑vaa‑mb h‑niIe\h‑p‑w hk‑vX‑p\‑n j‑vTa‑mb h‑neb‑nc‑p¯e‑p‑w \‑ni‑nXa‑mb h‑naÀi\h‑p‑w DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑p¶X‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑p At‑±l¯‑ns‑â t‑eJ\§Ä. k‑p N‑n´‑nXa‑mb \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ s‑hf‑ns‑¸S‑p ¯‑p¶ C‑u t‑eJ\§f‑ne‑qs‑S k‑mÀh e‑uI‑nIh‑p‑w a\‑pj‑yX‑z]ch‑pa‑mb Xs‑â \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ At‑±l‑w h‑yà a‑m¡‑n. "KZ‑yi‑ne‑v]‑n‑'b‑v¡‑p ]‑pds‑a aeb‑mf KZ‑y \‑mbI·‑mÀ‑, ]{‑X§Ä h‑nN‑n{‑X §Ä‑, A‑wt‑_Z‑vId‑ps‑S I‑qs‑S‑, Zf‑nX‑v kac§Ä þ C¶s‑e‑, C¶‑v‑, \‑ms‑f‑, a‑mÀI‑vk‑nk¯‑ns‑â hfÀ¨b‑p‑w XfÀ¨ b‑p‑w‑, ]S‑nª‑md³ a‑pJÑ‑mbIÄ‑, s‑]‑mc‑pX‑nhfÀ¶ Fg‑p¯‑pI‑mc‑nIÄ X‑pS§‑n 16 I‑rX‑nIf‑pï‑v s‑I. ]‑n. h‑nP bt‑âX‑mb‑n. k‑zb‑w Fg‑pX‑m³ h¿‑mX‑m bt‑¸‑mÄt‑]‑me‑p‑w Fg‑p¯‑p‑w h‑mb\b‑p‑w Dt‑]£‑n¨‑nc‑p¶‑nà At‑±l‑w; Fg‑pX‑m ³ kl‑mb‑nIs‑f s‑h¨‑v ka‑o]I‑me‑w hs‑cb‑p‑w h‑nPb³ k‑ml‑nX‑ycN\ X‑pSÀ¶‑nc‑p¶‑p. 1971 t‑PWe‑nÌ‑v s‑{‑Sb‑n\‑nb‑mb‑n R‑m³ "a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑n‑'b‑n F¯‑pt‑¼‑mÄ h‑nPb³ N‑o^‑v k_‑v FU‑näd‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑p. "a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑n‑'b‑v¡‑v A¶‑v t‑I‑mg‑nt‑¡‑m S‑p‑w s‑I‑m¨‑nb‑ne‑p‑w a‑m{‑Xt‑a b‑qW‑nä‑p sk]vXw_À 2013


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\‑qd‑piXa‑m\‑w s‑{‑]‑m^jWe‑m b‑nc‑p¶‑p s‑I. ]‑n. h‑nPb³ F¶ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I³. Hc‑p h‑m¡‑ps‑I‑mt‑ï‑m {‑]t‑b‑mK‑w s‑I‑mt‑ï‑m kX‑ykÔaÃ‑m¯ Hc‑p h‑nhcWh‑p‑w ]{‑Xd‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑p If‑n IS¶‑pI‑qS‑m³ CSb‑mhc‑ps‑X¶‑v At‑±l‑w \‑nj‑vIÀj‑n¡‑pa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. `‑mjb‑ps‑S {‑]t‑b‑mKs‑¯¸ä‑n b‑pÅ At‑±l¯‑ns‑â D]t‑Zi§f‑p‑w t‑I‑m¸‑nb‑n hc‑p¯‑p¶ X‑nc‑p¯e‑pIf‑p‑w Gs‑X‑mc‑p kl{‑]hÀ¯I\‑p‑w Ah‑nk‑vacW‑oba‑mb ]‑mT§f‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. Å‑q. H¶‑nSh‑n« Bg‑vNIf‑n s‑s‑\ä‑v U‑y‑q«‑n hc‑p‑w þ c‑m{‑X‑n cïc aW‑n hs‑c \‑of‑p¶ j‑n^‑vä‑v. ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I³ F¶ \‑neb‑ne‑pÅ Xs‑â BZ‑yI‑me‑m \‑p`h§Ä‑, eï\‑n t‑X‑m‑wk¬ ^‑u t‑ïjs‑â ]c‑ni‑oe\I‑me‑w‑, k‑ml‑n X‑y‑w X‑pS§‑n Ht‑«s‑d h‑njb§s‑f¡‑p d‑n¨‑v h‑nPb³ DÅ‑pX‑pd¶‑v k‑wk‑mc‑n¨‑n c‑p¶X‑v C‑u c‑m{‑X‑nU‑y‑q«‑n¡‑nSb‑ne‑mW‑v. Hc‑p t‑ae‑pt‑Z‑y‑mKØs‑\¶ `‑mh‑w B t‑c‑mS‑pa‑nÃ. FÃ‑mht‑c‑mS‑p‑w X‑nIª B ß‑mÀ°Xt‑b‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑p s‑]c‑pa‑md‑pI. \‑qd‑piXa‑m\‑w s‑{‑]‑m^jWe‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑p s‑I. ]‑n. h‑nPb³ F¶ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ ¯I³. Hc‑p h‑m¡‑ps‑I‑mt‑ï‑m {‑]t‑b‑m K‑w s‑I‑mt‑ï‑m kX‑ykÔaÃ‑m¯ Hc‑p h‑nhcWh‑p‑w ]{‑Xd‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIf‑n IS ¶‑pI‑qS‑m³ CSb‑mhc‑ps‑X¶‑v At‑±l‑w \‑nj‑vIÀj‑n¡‑pa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. `‑mjb‑ps‑S {‑]t‑b‑mKs‑¯¸ä‑nb‑pÅ At‑±l¯‑ns‑â D]t‑Zi§f‑p‑w t‑I‑m¸‑nb‑n hc‑p¯‑p¶ X‑nc‑p¯e‑pIf‑p‑w Gs‑X‑mc‑p kl{‑]hÀ ¯I\‑p‑w Ah‑nk‑vacW‑oba‑mb ]‑mT§ f‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. ef‑nXh‑p‑w i‑p²h‑pa‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑p h‑nPbs‑â `‑mj. At‑Xkab‑w h‑njb¯‑ns‑â k‑z`‑mha\‑pkc‑n¨‑v ià‑nb‑p‑w a‑qÀ¨b‑pa‑pï‑mh‑p‑w. "a‑mX‑r `‑qa‑n‑'b‑n Gs‑d¡‑me‑w At‑±l‑w Fg‑p X‑nb‑nc‑p¶ a‑pJ{‑]k‑wK§Ä CX‑n\‑p s‑Xf‑nh‑mW‑v. I‑mc‑y§Ä ef‑nXa‑mb‑n t‑\c‑n«‑v ]d b‑p¶ c‑oX‑nb‑n t‑hW‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIÄ þ h‑nPb³ ]db‑p‑w. he‑nb h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mk s‑a‑m¶‑pa‑nÃ‑m¯ k‑m[‑mcW¡‑mc‑mW‑v _l‑p`‑qc‑n]£‑w hc‑p¶ ]{‑Xh‑mb\ sk]vXw_À 2013

¡‑mÀ. AhÀ¡‑v Häh‑mb\b‑n I‑mc‑y §Ä {‑Kl‑n¡‑m³ Ig‑nª‑ns‑æ‑n \½Ä ]c‑mPbs‑¸«‑ps‑h¶‑mW‑v AÀ °‑w. "KZ‑yi‑ne‑v]‑n‑' Fg‑pX‑nbX‑p‑w C‑u ]‑mT‑w ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯IÀ¡‑p h‑niZa‑m ¡‑n s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑m\‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. GX‑pI‑mc‑y¯‑ne‑p‑w h‑nPbs‑â D] t‑Zi‑w t‑XS‑m‑w. hg‑n s‑Xä‑nÃ. h‑yà‑n] ca‑mb‑n C{‑Xt‑bs‑d \·b‑p‑w kX‑ykÔ Xb‑p‑w k‑q£‑n¡‑p¶hs‑c hfs‑c I‑pd t‑¨ \a‑p¡‑p Is‑ï¯‑m\‑mh‑q. Hc‑p ]c Z‑qjWh‑p‑w ]db‑nÃ. s‑hd‑p‑w t‑K‑mk‑n¸‑p IÄ¡‑v At‑±l‑w s‑Nh‑n s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑pIb‑p a‑nÃ. kab‑w ]‑qÀ®a‑mb‑p‑w k‑rã‑n]c a‑mb‑n h‑n\‑nt‑b‑mK‑n¡‑m\‑pÅX‑ms‑W¶‑v At‑±l‑w Ic‑pX‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑p. kl{‑]hÀ ¯Is‑c Ig‑nhX‑p‑w B hg‑nb‑v¡‑v \b‑n ¡‑m³ bX‑v\‑n¨‑nc‑p¶‑p. c‑m{‑X‑nU‑y‑q«‑nb‑m h‑pt‑¼‑mÄ AÀ²c‑m{‑X‑n Ig‑nb‑pt‑¼‑ms‑g ¦‑ne‑p‑w Ae‑v]t‑\c‑w I®Sb‑v¡‑m¯hÀ I‑pdh‑mW‑v. ]s‑£‑, h‑nPb³ U‑y‑q«‑n b‑v¡‑nSb‑n Hc‑nb‑v¡Â t‑]‑me‑p‑w I® S¨‑p Iï‑n«‑nÃ. s‑Se‑n{‑]‑nâd‑ns‑e Ah k‑m\s‑¯ h‑mÀ¯‑miIeh‑p‑w t‑\‑m¡‑n bt‑ijt‑a At‑±l‑w \‑y‑qk‑v d‑q‑w h‑nS‑p Ib‑pÅ‑q. CSt‑\c§s‑fÃ‑m‑w At‑±l‑w h‑mb\b‑v¡‑mb‑n a‑mä‑nh¨‑p. GX‑pt‑\ch‑p‑w N‑n´b‑ps‑S t‑e‑mI ¯‑mb‑nc‑p¶ h‑nPb´‑nI¨‑p‑w A´Àa‑p J\‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. h‑n]‑pea‑ms‑b‑mc‑p k‑ul‑rZheb‑w At‑±l¯‑n\‑v Dï‑m b‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. DÅ k‑ul‑rZ§f‑mIs‑« hfs‑c Z‑rVa‑mb‑n At‑±l‑w k‑q£‑n¨‑n c‑p¶‑p. k‑z´‑w t‑\«§Ä¡‑pt‑hï‑n H¶‑p‑w s‑N¿‑m³ At‑±l¯‑n\‑v BI‑p

a‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\c‑wK¯‑m b‑me‑p‑w k‑ml‑nX‑yc‑wK¯‑mb‑me‑p‑w AÀ l‑n¡‑p¶ A‑wK‑oI‑mct‑a‑m {‑]ik‑vX‑n t‑b‑m At‑±l¯‑n\‑p e`‑n¨‑n«‑ps‑ï¶‑p‑w t‑X‑m¶‑p¶‑nÃ. AX‑n At‑±l¯‑n\‑v H«‑p‑w h‑njaa‑pÅX‑mb‑p‑w t‑X‑m¶‑nb‑n«‑n Ã. Xs‑â {‑]hÀ¯\§s‑fÃ‑m‑w Hc‑p \‑nt‑b‑mK‑w t‑]‑ms‑e Xs‑â Ig‑nh‑ns‑\‑m ¯h®‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑ps‑h¶ at‑\‑m`‑mha‑m b‑nc‑p¶‑p At‑±l¯‑n\‑v. F¶‑n«‑p‑w h‑ne‑mk‑n\‑n ]‑pck‑vI‑mch‑p‑w t‑Icf k‑ml‑nX‑y A¡‑mZa‑n ]‑pck‑vI‑mch‑p‑w At‑±ls‑¯ t‑XS‑ns‑b¯‑n. ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯Ib‑qW‑nbs‑â {‑]hÀ ¯\§f‑nt‑e‑m {‑]k‑v¢º‑ns‑â {‑]hÀ ¯\§f‑nt‑e‑m h‑nPb³ kP‑oh]¦‑mf‑n b‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. F¶‑n«‑p‑w Hc‑p hÀj‑w FdW‑mI‑pf‑w P‑nÃ‑m ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I b‑qW‑nbt‑âb‑p‑w {‑]k‑v ¢º‑nt‑âb‑p‑w {‑] k‑nUâ‑mb‑n h‑nPb³ X‑ncs‑ªS‑p¡s‑¸ «‑nc‑p¶‑p. BÀ¡‑p‑w AhKW‑n¡‑m\‑mh‑m ¯ a‑m\‑ya‑mb h‑yà‑nX‑za‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p At‑±l¯‑nt‑âX‑v. AÀlXb‑nÃ‑ms‑X A‑wK‑oI‑mc§Ä k‑wLS‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶hc‑pt‑Sb‑p‑w k‑z´‑w t‑\«§Ä¡‑v t‑hï‑n F´‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶ hc‑pt‑Sb‑p‑w a²‑y¯‑n Hc‑p Häb‑m\‑m W‑v s‑I. ]‑n. h‑nPb³. C¯c‑w Häb‑m ·‑mc‑ps‑S F®‑w \t‑¶I‑pdª‑ps‑I‑mï‑n c‑n¡‑p¶ C¡‑me¯‑v h‑nPbs‑â t‑hÀ]‑mS‑v Gs‑d t‑hZ\b‑pfX‑mI‑p¶‑p. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: madhukk2@gmail.com


(33) Lighthouse

Ashok R Chandran

An Annual Arrival

A column that throws light on studies about Kerala media, and explores the problems and possibilities of studying Kerala media

T

he sadya (feast) is one of the highlights of Onam celebrations. Why not prepare a media research feast—an annual Journalism in Kerala report—and serve it to Malayalis every year? Here, I think aloud on why we should have such an annual initiative and what the report could contain.

Rationale for the Report

There are several reasons why we should begin publishing a periodic report on the news media industry in Kerala. All the reasons must be read against the overarching backdrop of a democratic society, in which news and news media play important roles. First, a report is a health check-up of sorts. Like an annual consultation with a friendly doctor, it informs news media producers and consumers about the commodity (news) that they produce and consume. A report that is published periodically will help in early diagnosis or anticipation of problems, which can then be tackled before the infection spreads, intensifies, and causes greater pain. Whatever the problem—paid news, blurring of lines between PR and journalism, cross-media

ownership—a reluctance to acknowledge and understand its scale and impact will only worsen the problem. An annual report on the health of the news media industry in Kerala will be a mirror of the industry’s own well-being; in the process, it will also help in flagging concerns and serve as an early warning system. Second, an annual report will help to protect the independence of the sector, increasingly under threat from the state and the market. In recent years, left to themselves, media professionals in India (barring an exceptional handful) have shied away from whistleblowing and engaging with the public about the ills of the news industry. That is why when an “external” institution, such as a parliamentary committee, pinpoints dark spots in the practice of journalism in the country, the enlightened media professionals’ response—selfregulation—sounds hollow and insincere. Those of us who believe that legislation (where the state draws boundaries on how the press should behave) will weaken democracy rather than strengthen it, cannot stop at merely demanding self-regulation.

We must go a step further by demonstrating the news industry’s will and capability to undertake self-regulation. In this regard, the annual report can be a first step. Both as a diagnostic tool that identifies issues as well as a prescriptive tool that suggests remedial measures, an annual report will demonstrate the industry’s commitment and capacity for self-regulation. It will also help to shore up the sector’s credibility and win public support for media autonomy. Third, preparing the annual report will stimulate media research on Kerala, the benefits of which will reach society in two ways: (a) in the form of better media products that meet consumer tastes and social needs; and (b) in the form of information generated for public policy debates. The need for the latter is evident from the way we discuss issues, including those related to the media. There is no reliable data on paid news in Kerala or cross-media ownership in Kerala. Nor do we have any assessment of how self-regulation has worked in the state. Yet, there is no shortage of punditry on these topics. (The culture of arguing in a data vacuum is not limited to Kerala. See the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India’s sk]vXw_À 2013


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The State of the News Media 2013 View Previous Reports

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OVERVIEW

SPECIAL REPORTS

DIGITAL DEVELOPMENTS

NEWSPAPERS

NETWORK

CABLE

LOCAL TV

MAGAZINES

AUDIO

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HOW WILL THE DRAMATICALLY SHIFTING AUDIO LANDSCAPE EFFECT NEWS?

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Overview

Preface

In 2012, a continued erosion of news reporting resources converged with growing opportunities for those in politics, government agencies, companies and others to take their messages directly to the public.

The State of the News Media 2013 is the tenth edition of our annual report on the status of

Signs of the shrinking reporting power are documented throughout this year’s report. Estimates for newspaper

American journalism. The

newsroom cutbacks in 2012 put the industry down 30% since its peak in 2000 and below 40,000 full-time professional

study contains special reports

employees for the first time since 1978. In local TV, our special content report reveals, sports, weather and traffic now

on how news consumers view

account on average for 40% of the content produced on the newscasts studied while story lengths shrink. On CNN, the

the financial struggles of the

cable channel that has branded itself around deep reporting, produced story packages were cut nearly in half from

industry and how the local,

2007 to 2012. Across the three cable channels, coverage of live events during the day, which often require a crew and

cable and network TV news

correspondent, fell 30% from 2007 to 2012 while interview segments, which tend to take fewer resources and can be

landscape has changed in

scheduled in advance, were up 31%. Time magazine, the only major print news weekly left standing, cut roughly 5% of

recent years. It also includes

its staff in early 2013 as a part of broader company layoffs. And in African-American news media, the Chicago

analysis of the main sectors of

Defender has winnowed its editorial staff to just four while The Afro cut back the number of pages in its papers from

the news media and an essay

28-32 in 2008 to 16-20 in 2012. A growing list of media outlets, such as Forbes magazine, use technology by a company

on digital developments. The

called Narrative Science to produce content by way of algorithm, no human reporting necessary. And some of the

report is the work of the Pew

newer nonprofit entrants into the industry, such as the Chicago News Cooperative, have, after launching with much

Research Center’s Project for

fanfare, shut their doors.

Excellence in Journalism. A

This adds up to a news industry that is more undermanned and unprepared to uncover stories, dig deep into emerging ones or to question information put into its hands. And findings from our new public opinion survey released in this report reveal that the public is taking notice. Nearly one-third of the respondents (31%) have deserted a news outlet because it no longer provides the news and information they had grown accustomed to.

subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the

At the same time, newsmakers and others with information they want to put into the public arena have become more

issues, attitudes and trends

adept at using digital technology and social media to do so on their own, without any filter by the traditional media.

shaping America and the world

They are also seeing more success in getting their message into the traditional media narrative. Continue reading the Overview.

Go to Journalism.org

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2013 consultation paper on crossmedia ownership, which contains sketchy data on its central topic itself.)

http://stateofthemedia.org/[8/29/2013 6:50:04 PM]

Content of the Report

What all would an annual report on the news industry in Kerala contain? Let us briefly look to the United States, where the nonpartisan Pew Research Center has been publishing a State of the News Media (SONM) report, every year since 2004, under its Project on Excellence in Journalism. The tenth edition of the SONM, released in May 2013, contained two types of data: (a) data generated by other organisations or individuals; and (b) fresh data generated for the SONM. The SONM presented data sk]vXw_À 2013

on different sectors—print (newspapers, magazines), radio, television (cable, local, network), and digital (websites). For each of these sectors, the data was organised into seven “primary areas of interest”—economics, audience, content, ownership, newsroom investment, alternative news outlets, and digital trends. To illustrate, on print sector, it presented data on the following: revenue (from circulation and advertisements) and stock prices of newspapers; reach of print and digital editions; coverage of topics like foreign policy and health; and demographic data such as age, education, and income of newspaper readers. In addition to such data collected from various sources, the SONM also carried special reports based on surveys

conducted as part of the project, for example on television news programming and consumption. Overall, the data collected and the data generated were used to prepare an essay on developments in each sector during the past year. In the Kerala context, all of this may not be possible in one go, because the research ecosystem is weak and very little data exists in the public domain, on any sector of the media. The bulk of the initial effort would therefore be on aggregating data directly from various news outlets in different sectors. The statistics section of the annual report would be a trendsetter for the media industry and civil society nationally. Also, unlike the SONM, whose “intention is to inform, not persuade,” and which aims at a “research report, not an argument,” the Journalism in Kerala report should go beyond presenting data. Considering local challenges, each year it can identify one contemporary issue, generate data on it, analyse the topic from a theoretical angle, and outline practical steps that media professionals and consumers can take in their daily lives. In this, we can learn from the thematic annual reports on human development (from the UNDP) or on economic development (from the World Bank) which have been effective in advocacy and setting the policy agenda. Their usefulness and appeal to policymakers, professionals in the respective sectors, as well as citizens engaged in public debate, stem from the mix of theoretical and practical content. By offering data and insight, one hopes that the Journalism in Kerala report too shall one day be a much-awaited annual arrival, like the visit of Mahabali. Ashok R. Chandran is an independent researcher in Palakkad, Kerala. He can be reached at studykeralamedia@gmail.com


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Dr. Shoma A. Chatterji

What does ‘Freelance’ Journalism mean? “The bottom line is that unless the freelancing world is more remunerative, it is difficult to get good articles from freelancers. Traditionally freelancers have always provided a different voice since they are not obligated to write for the institution. But the moot question is whether the leading professional media houses need the good and different articles or they need only those that supplement the need of the market.”

T

here are thousands of freelance journalists in the print media in India. Some begin as freelancers and then hitch on to a more stable job in a newspaper organization. Few stick on because it is very difficult to sustain freelancing as a way of life. Some of the most famous journalists in the country however have shifted to freelancing whose celebrity status gives them ready space to contribute the same column to different print media publications across the world and earn much more than they probably did as regular journalists. Some classic illustrations of syndicated journalists are Khushwant Singh, M.V. Kamat, Rahul Singh, Darryl D’Monte, Kanchi Kohli, Sudhirendra Sharma and Shobha De. They have built up a wide canvas after having honed their skills over decades in publications they have strove to take to higher rungs on the media ladder. “Many still raise an eyebrow when I tell them – I am a freelancer. For these figures, the word ‘freelancer’ equated to ‘lazy bum who could not crack into a reputable organization. They smirk and ask me – what did you do for your graduation? When I tell them that I was among the top three of my class at a reputed engineering college and had offers from some big companies, the silly condescending smiles disappear. But when they hear that I am part of a $760 million strong US Company and their only representative in India, the scopr and implications of the entire shebang becomes glaringly obvious,” says blogger-journalist Trina Moitra.

But she works for a US company and that spells out a bright story full of the colour of money. Most freelancers in India are not half as lucky as Moitra. This writer who has put in 34 years of her 65+ years into freelancing, will never be a millionaire but she cherishes her freedom – of expression, of choosing her editors, of choosing what to write, why, when and how and what NOT to! More women than men freelance because the patriarchal family structure demands the male head to bring home a steady income. Freelance journalism can never guarantee that. Freelance journalism gives you the freedom to work from home. But there is no salary, provident fund, leave travel allowance and sick leave or promotion. Yet, many youngsters are quitting steady jobs to freelance. Jim Bettinger, director of the John S. Knight Journalism Fellowship at Stanford, had this suggestion: “To the degree possible, freelance writers should try and have credential letters from a news organization. I know it’s not always possible. But if you are working as a stringer for say, Philadelphia Inquirer, keep a letter from the editor. Make it official.”Why? “When someone from the New York Times or even Current TV gets into trouble, there are people of substance who will make contacts on the highest level and bring some pressure to bear,” Bettinger said. “Their stories will get heard.” Manjira Majumdar, who has been freelancing sk]vXw_À 2013


(36) for two decades, says, “It is very difficult to remain a freelancer in journalism. Even ten years ago, newspapers/journals kept at least 20 % space for freelance contributors over and above their routine columnists etc. Over the years this space dwindled because feature stories (mostly done by freelancers) have shrunk giving way to tabloid like stories and more visuals to compete with TV.” Amitabha Nag an IT professional who draws a huge salary at an IT firm, willingly writes freelance for many publications because the money is not important for him. “The situation has bettered in the sense that there are a lot of websites which have come up now and so as a freelancer one has more avenues of opening up. However the web by the very definition resembles something which is cheap and readily available which makes the freelancer’s work a bit shallow in the sense that professional journals may not take that too seriously,” he opines, countering Majumdar’s angle to some extent. But he goes on to add, “The bottom line is that unless the freelancing world is more remunerative, it is difficult to get good articles from freelancers. Traditionally freelancers have always provided a different voice since they are not obligated to write for the institution. But the moot question is whether the leading professional media houses need the good and different articles or they need only those that supplement the need of the market.” “I do not regret having switched over from a

regular job in a reputed newspaper organization to freelance. The grinding and the training in a publication house is a help, even necessary, to branch out into freelancing later. It provides the contacts, teaches the basics of editing and gauging the requirements of different publications. I have given some of the most productive years to regular jobs in newspapers and I have gained a great deal. But I also find that being on my own has given me the freedom to choose and expand my horizon,” says Ranjita Biswas, who recently won a top award at the Laadli-UNICEF Media Awards for Journalism in the Eastern region. “Freelancing has both advantages and disadvantages,” says the fiesty Rina Mukherjee who recently won a landmark judgement against a noted newspaper organization for sexual harassment at the workplace. She specialises in climate change, health, gender and other issues and has been invited to present papers at conferences in India and abroad. “The money is not much, and for the effort put in, abysmal. It is impossible for a journalist to be able to cover politics or business, since you are denied access to politicians and top businessmen unless accredited. Once you are out of a regular job, you cannot report on business or politics, or even administrative matters. Similarly, going to a disturbed area is tough. The place is out of bounds, and if the police accost you, you can find yourself in trouble,” she adds.

Ranjita Biswas, who recently won a top award at the Laadli-UNICEF Media Awards for Journalism in the Eastern region

sk]vXw_À 2013


(37) “I prefer the new environment of having to send briefs to editors who must okay a story and then I must write it. As editor of a feature service, Trans World Features, I have discovered that without a brief it is difficult to approve an idea. The time constraints are high because everybody is into multitasking these days,” Ranjita elaborates. “As a freelancer, you have the advantage of having access to several publications. If your story

The Christian Science Monitor have assumed that responsibility.” At the same time, she warns, “freelance journalists should be informed of and operate according to the news organization’s security guidelines.” But this is not happening in India, now or in the near future. But we earn on a side also – writing scripts for television, books on our specialized areas, lec-dems in colleges, and papers to international journals. None of them pay

“Freelancing has both advantages and disadvantages,” says the fiesty Rina Mukherjee who recently won a landmark judgement against a noted newspaper organization for sexual harassment at the workplace. She specialises in climate change, health, gender and other issues and has been invited to present papers at conferences in India and abroad. “The money is not much, and for the effort put in, abysmal. It is impossible for a journalist to be able to cover politics or business, since you are denied access to politicians and top businessmen unless accredited. Once you are out of a regular job, you cannot report on business or politics, or even administrative matters. Similarly, going to a disturbed area is tough. The place is out of bounds, and if the police accost you, you can find yourself in trouble,” she adds. does not fit into one, you can easily hand it over to another publication. In case you are multi-faceted, and can write expertly on several major issues, your stories can make their way into several webzines, newspapers or publications. Thus, you may cover gender issues for one, human rights for another, and the environment for still another,” explains Rina. “But bureaucratic red tapism and petty jealousies can mar your progress. Sometimes, your stories may be held back using one excuse or another, and published months later. This is a surefire way of killing it! If this happens to you as a freelancer, you can easily blacklist the concerned publication and refuse to ever do business with them. I have myself done this when a particular publication lost the photographs I gave to them, and delayed publication,” Rina adds. “Freelancers working part-time, or on shortterm assignments for news outlets, should have the same protections as full-time employees,” said Elisa Tinsley, director of the International Center for Journalists (ICFJ). “In recent cases involving freelance reporters and producers, news organizations such as The New York Times and

Rina Mukherjee

well or not at all. But the byline visibility helps in getting other paid assignments. As I finish this piece, a phone call informs me that in Kolkata alone, seven dailies have closed shop for good. One is in English and the rest are in Bengali. With a shrinking job market and not-sure salary grades, in the near future, some more hundreds of journalists will join the freelance bandwagon. One only hopes that the word ‘free’ is not taken too literally by editors and owners. The writer is a freelance journalist, author and film scholar based in Kolkata. She has authored 17 books and contributed to many edited compilations on cinema, family and gender. E-Mail: shoma.chatterji@gmail.com sk]vXw_À 2013


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Ak‑vKÀ Ae‑n Fôn\‑obÀ

a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w \‑y‑q\]£§fpw \‑y‑q\]£§t‑f‑mS‑v B`‑na‑pJ‑y‑w I‑m«‑p¶ {‑]a‑pJ aX\‑nct‑]£ ] {‑X§Ä¡‑v- t‑]‑me‑p‑w \‑y‑q\]£ h‑njb§Ä Ad‑nb‑p¶ht‑c‑m Bg¯‑n ] T‑n¨ht‑c‑m Bb t‑eJIÀ Dï‑mb‑n«‑nÃ. C¯c‑w ]{‑X§f‑p‑w ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w GI‑mßIa‑mb‑mW‑v \‑y‑q\]£§s‑f I‑mW‑md‑pÅX‑v-.

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hck‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑yb‑ps‑S C‑u ]‑pX‑nb I‑me¯‑v{‑]X‑nÑ‑mb‑m \‑nÀ½‑mW¯‑n a‑m[‑ya§Ä k‑p{‑] [‑m\ ]¦‑mW‑v- hl‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v-. a‑m[‑ya§f‑n I‑mW‑p¶s‑X´‑p‑w þ A¨S‑na‑m[‑yaa‑mb‑me‑p‑w Z‑ri‑y{‑i‑mh‑y a‑m[‑ya§f‑mb‑me‑p‑w -þ s‑]‑mX‑pP\‑w A¸‑ms‑S h‑ni‑zk‑n¡‑p¶ {‑]hWXb‑mW‑v- s‑]‑mX‑ps‑h Iï‑p hc‑p¶X‑v-. s‑Nd‑ns‑b‑mc‑p iXa‑m\‑w h‑mb\¡‑mÀ a‑m{‑Xt‑a h‑mÀ¯Is‑f h‑naÀi\‑mßIa‑mb‑n ka‑o]‑n¡‑md‑pÅ‑q. P\‑m[‑n]X‑y ka‑ql¯‑n A`‑n{‑]‑mb c‑q]‑oIcW¯‑n h‑mÀ¯IÄ hl‑n¡‑p¶ ]¦‑v- hfs‑c he‑pX‑mW‑v-. AX‑n\‑m Xs‑¶ s‑]‑mX‑pP\ {‑i²b‑nt‑e¡‑p h‑mÀ¯Is‑f F¯‑n¡‑pt‑¼‑mÄ a‑m[‑ya§Ä kX‑ykÔ-Xb‑p‑w X‑nIª [‑mÀa‑nIXb‑p‑w ]‑peÀt‑¯ïX‑mW‑v-. F¶‑mÂ‑, s‑Z‑uÀ`‑mK‑yhi‑mÂ‑, a‑n¡t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w A§s‑\b‑mI‑p¶‑nÃ. \‑y‑q\]£ ka‑pZ‑mb§s‑f I‑pd‑n¨‑v- Bg¯‑n ]T‑n¨‑v- ‑, h‑mk‑vXh‑nIh‑p‑w {‑I‑nb‑mßIh‑pa‑mb A\‑pI‑qe \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ N‑pc‑p¡‑w N‑ne ]{‑Xa‑m[‑ya§Ä a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v- k‑z‑oIc‑n¡‑md‑pÅX‑v-. \‑y‑q\]£ k‑w_Ô‑nb‑mb h‑mÀ¯IÄ {‑] k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶X‑n t‑Zi‑o-b C‑w¥‑oj‑v- ]{‑X§Ä I‑mW‑n¡‑p¶ Ic‑pX {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑nI ]{‑X§Ä s‑]‑mX‑ps‑h I‑mW‑n¡‑md‑nÃ. a‑m{‑Xaà X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w A]I‑za‑mb ]e a‑p³[‑mcWIf‑p‑w h¨‑v- ]‑peÀ¯‑md‑pa‑pï‑v-. C´‑yb‑ps‑S hS¡‑v‑, ]S‑nª‑md‑v‑, a[‑yt‑aJeIf‑ne‑pÅ l‑nµ‑n‑, ad‑mT‑n‑, K‑pPd‑m¯‑n ]{‑X§f‑mW‑v- Gäh‑p‑w t‑a‑mis‑¸« c‑oX‑nb‑n \‑y‑q\]£k‑w_Ô‑nb‑mb h‑mÀ¯IÄ s‑s‑II‑mc‑y‑w s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. hÀK‑ob k‑z`‑mha‑pÅ ‑"k‑m‑w\‑' t‑]‑me‑pÅ ] {‑X§f‑ms‑W¦‑n t‑_‑m[]‑qÀÆ‑w h‑nt‑Z‑zja‑pfh‑m¡‑p¶ c‑oX‑nb‑n \‑y‑q\]£§f‑ps‑S h‑nI‑rXa‑mb N‑n{‑X§Ä a‑m{‑Xt‑a {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑md‑pÅ‑q. X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w {‑]t‑I‑m]\]ca‑mb `‑mjb‑mW‑v- a‑pÉ‑n‑w‑, sk]vXw_À 2013

{‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ ka‑pZ‑mb§Ä¡‑v- t‑\s‑c i‑nht‑k\b‑ps‑S ad‑mT‑n P‑nl‑zb‑mb ‑"k‑m‑w\' {‑]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑md‑pÅX‑v-‑, {‑]t‑X‑yI‑n¨‑p‑w a‑pÉ‑n§f‑ps‑S t‑\À¡‑v. a‑p‑ws‑s‑_ Ie‑m]¯‑ns‑â \‑mf‑pIf‑n a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑pZ‑mbs‑¯ ]‑m¡‑nØ���m³ N‑mc·‑mc‑mb‑mWhÀ N‑n{‑X‑oIc‑n¨X‑v-. a‑pÉ‑n§Äs‑¡X‑ns‑c \‑nch[‑n a‑pJ{‑]k‑wK§f‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑n. Z‑pÀh‑r¯‑nb‑mb C‑u {‑]N‑mcW {‑]hÀ¯\¯‑n\‑p ] {‑X¯‑ns‑â FU‑näÀs‑¡X‑ns‑c s‑]‑mX‑pX‑mX‑v]c‑y‑mÀY‑w al‑mc‑m{‑ãb‑ns‑e a‑p³ N‑o^‑v- s‑k{‑I«d‑nb‑mb s‑P. _‑n. U‑nk‑qk a‑p‑ws‑s‑_ s‑s‑lt‑¡‑mÀ«‑n Hc‑p s‑]‑mX‑pX‑me‑v] c‑ylÀP‑n kaÀ-¸‑n¡‑pIb‑pï‑mb‑n. "k‑m‑w\' e£¡W¡‑n\‑p al‑mc‑m{‑ã¡‑mc‑mW‑v- Z‑nhkh‑p‑w h‑mb‑n¡‑p¶X‑v-. Ahc‑ps‑S A`‑n{‑]‑mb c‑q]‑oIcWs‑¯ AX‑v k‑z‑m[‑o\‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. t‑]‑me‑ok‑pI‑mc‑p‑w AX‑n s‑]S‑p¶X‑n\‑m \‑oX‑n \‑nÀhlW hI‑p¸‑n hs‑c \‑y‑q\]£ h‑nc‑p² \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ {‑]ISa‑mI‑p¶‑p. {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑nI ]{‑X§f‑ps‑S \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w h‑nc‑p²as‑æ‑ne‑p‑w ‑"k‑m‑w\'t‑b‑mf‑w a‑m\‑yaÃ‑m¯X‑mb‑n as‑ä‑m¶‑nÃ. C¯c¯‑ne‑pÅ ]{‑X§s‑fÃ‑m‑w \‑y‑q\]£§Ä GI‑mßIa‑ms‑W¶‑mW‑v- Ic‑pX‑n t‑]‑mc‑p¶X‑v-. Hc‑p \ ch‑wi i‑mk‑v{‑XÚ\‑v‑, As‑æ‑n AX‑y‑mhi‑y‑w Ad‑nh‑p‑w h‑nt‑hN\t‑ij‑nb‑pa‑pÅ Gs‑X‑mc‑mÄ¡‑p‑w‑, \‑y‑q\]£ ka‑pZ‑mb§f‑ns‑e s‑s‑hP‑mX‑y§s‑f I‑pd‑n¨‑vAd‑nh‑pï‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. Gs‑X‑mc‑p P\ka‑qls‑¯b‑p‑w t‑]‑ms‑e a‑pÉ‑n‑w‑, {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³‑, k‑nJ‑v‑, _‑p²‑nÌ‑v X‑pS§‑nb \‑y‑q\]£§f‑ne‑p‑w `‑mj‑m]ch‑p‑w k‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nIh‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑ob]ca‑mb‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡b‑pÅ s‑s‑hP‑mX‑y§Ä Dï‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w; Ahb‑v¡\‑pkc‑n¨‑v h‑yX‑yk‑vX \‑ne]‑mS‑pÅhc‑p‑w Dï‑mI‑p‑w. DZ‑mlcW¯‑n\‑v-‑, FÃ‑m a‑pÉ‑n‑w h‑n`‑mK§f‑p‑w 1947 s‑e


(39) h‑n`P\s‑¯ A\‑pI‑qe‑n¨‑p F¶‑mW‑v- s‑]‑mX‑ps‑h ]Þ‑nXÀ F¶‑p Ic‑pX‑p¶hÀ t‑]‑me‑p‑w \‑nc‑o£‑n¡‑p¶X‑v-. CX‑p t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w s‑N¿s‑¸t‑SïX‑p Xs‑¶b‑mW‑v-. h‑mk‑vXh¯‑n a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑pZ‑mb‑w h‑n`P\‑w F¶ t‑N‑mZ‑y¯‑n\‑p t‑a {‑[‑ph‑oI‑rXa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. b‑p.]‑n.b‑ns‑eb‑p‑w _‑ol‑md‑nt‑eb‑p‑w a[‑yhÀ¤¡‑mc‑p‑w a‑pIį«‑pI‑mc‑pa‑mb a‑pÉ‑n§f‑mW‑vh‑n`P\s‑¯ A\‑pI‑qe‑n¨X‑v-. I‑mcW‑w AhÀ P‑oh‑n¨ CS§f‑n AhÀ \‑y‑q\]£§f‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. CX‑n Xs‑¶b‑p‑w as‑ä‑mc‑p he‑nb h‑n`‑mK‑w a‑pÉ‑n‑w P\X‑, \‑mjWe‑nÌ‑v a‑pÉ‑n‑wk‑v F¶d‑nbs‑¸«‑nc‑p¶hÀ‑, h‑n`P\s‑¯ iàa‑mb‑n FX‑nÀ¯‑nc‑p¶‑p. A³k‑mc‑n t‑]‑me‑pÅ X‑ms‑g X«‑ne‑pÅ a‑pÉ‑n‑w h‑n`‑mK§Ä‑, h‑n`P\‑w s‑I‑mï‑v- b‑ms‑X‑mc‑p {‑]t‑b‑mP\ h‑p‑w CÃ‑m¯hc‑mbX‑n\‑mÂ‑, AX‑ns‑\ ià‑nb‑pà‑w FX‑nÀ¡‑pIb‑mW‑pï‑mbX‑v-. A³k‑mc‑nIÄ k‑wLS‑nXc‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑mht‑_‑m[‑w DÅhc‑p‑w BbX‑n\‑m AhÀ h‑n`P\¯‑ns‑\X‑ns‑c s‑]‑mX‑p{‑]IS\§f‑p‑w d‑me‑nIf‑p‑w hs‑c \S¯‑n. a‑ue‑m\ l‑ps‑s‑ʳ Al½Z‑v- aZ\‑n t‑]‑me‑pÅ aX ]Þ‑nXÀ X§f‑ps‑S h‑n`P\ h‑nc‑p² \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ k‑ma‑pZ‑mb‑nI ZÀi\§Ä hg‑n k‑m[‑qIc‑n¨‑p. h‑n`P\¯‑ns‑â C¯c‑w hi§f‑n a‑m[‑ya {‑i² t‑hï h‑n[‑w ] X‑nª‑n«‑nÃ. hÀ¤‑ob Ie‑m]§Ä hfs‑c A[‑nI‑w \S¶ F¬]X‑pIf‑n a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑pZ‑mb¡‑mÀ ]‑m¡‑nØ‑m³ A\‑p`‑mh‑nIf‑p‑w Aht‑c‑mS‑v- I‑qd‑pÅhc‑p‑w Bb‑n a‑p{‑ZI‑p¯s‑¸«‑p. {‑I‑n¡ä‑mW‑v `‑oIca‑mb as‑ä‑mc‑pZ‑mlcW‑w. ]‑m¡‑nØ‑m³ S‑oa‑ns‑â h‑nPb‑w I‑pd¨‑v- a‑pÉ‑n‑w aX h‑n`‑mK¡‑mÀ Bt‑L‑mj‑n¨X‑v- C´‑yb‑ns‑e a‑pg‑ph³ a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑pZ‑mb‑w Bt‑L‑mj‑n¨‑p F¶ a«‑ne‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p a‑m[‑ya§f‑n {‑] X‑y£s‑¸«X‑v-. FÃ‑m a‑m\Zާġ‑p‑w AX‑oXa‑mb‑n a‑m[‑ya§Ä DbÀ¯‑n I‑m«‑p¶ {‑I‑n¡ä‑v F¶ I‑mb‑nI h‑nt‑\‑mZs‑¯ Cc‑p c‑mP‑y§Ä X½‑n DÅ h‑ni‑p² b‑p²a‑mb‑mW‑v N‑ne a‑m[‑ya§Ä {‑]Nc‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. Hc‑p h‑n`‑mK‑w a‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯IÀs‑¡¦‑ne‑p‑w CX‑ns‑\ l‑nµ‑p a‑pÉ‑n‑w b‑p²a‑mb‑n N‑n{‑X‑oIc‑n¡‑ph‑m\‑pa‑mW‑v X‑mX‑v]c‑y‑w. a‑pl½Z‑v- Akd‑p±‑o³ F¶ C´‑y³ a‑pÉ‑n‑w C´‑y³ S‑oa‑ns‑\ Hc‑p I‑meL«¯‑n \b‑n¨‑n«‑ps‑ï¶ hk‑vX‑pX t‑]‑me‑p‑w H‑mÀ¡‑ms‑X.

\‑y‑q\]£§Ä ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w GI]£‑oba‑mb‑n aX{‑`‑m´c‑p‑w aXa‑ue‑nIh‑mZ‑nIf‑pa‑mb‑n a‑p{‑ZI‑p¯s‑¸S‑p¶‑p. Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w h‑yà‑nIf‑ps‑S s‑Nb‑vX‑nIs‑f ka‑ql¯‑ns‑â s‑]‑mX‑p k‑z`‑mha‑mb‑mW‑v- s‑Xä‑n²c‑n¡s‑¸S‑p¶X‑v-. Hc‑p aX t‑\X‑mh‑ns‑â A`‑n{‑]‑mb {‑]IS\‑w ^X‑v-h Bb‑n {‑]Nc‑n¸‑n¡s‑¸S‑p‑w. F{‑X D¶X\‑mb aXi‑mk‑v{‑X] Þ‑nX³ ]‑pds‑¸S‑ph‑n¨ ^X‑v-h Bs‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w AX‑vFÃ‑m h‑n`‑mK§t‑fb‑p‑w _‑m[‑n¡‑p¶Xà F¶X‑pt‑]‑me‑p‑w Bc‑p‑w N‑n´‑n¡‑p¶‑nÃ. h‑yà‑nIf‑ps‑S k‑ma‑ql‑y c‑m{‑ã‑ob \‑ne]‑mS‑pIs‑f ^X‑v-h Bb‑n N‑n{‑X‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v- X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w \‑nc‑p¯ch‑mZ]ca‑mW‑v-. j‑m _‑m\‑p t‑Ik‑n c‑mP‑ys‑¯ aX\‑nct‑]£ ] {‑X§Ä hs‑c a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑pZ‑mb‑w k‑v{‑X‑o h‑nc‑p² \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ k‑z‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶hc‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w Ahc‑ps‑S a‑ue‑nI‑mhI‑mi§Ä t‑]‑me‑p‑w \‑nt‑j[‑n¡‑p¶hc‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w Z‑pj‑v{‑]NcW‑w \S¯‑n. s‑]«¶‑v- c‑mP‑ys‑¯ t‑Zi‑ob ] {‑X§Ä FÃ‑m‑w Xs‑¶ a‑pÉ‑n‑w h\‑nXIf‑ps‑S a‑ue‑nIhI‑mi k‑wc£W¯‑ns‑â hà‑m¡f‑mb‑n a‑md‑n. N‑ne k¦‑pN‑nX a\Ê‑pÅ h‑yà‑nIf‑p‑w aXt‑\X‑m¡·‑mc‑p‑w N‑ne b‑mY‑mØ‑nX‑nI \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ k‑v{‑X‑oIÄs‑¡X‑ns‑c k‑z‑oIc‑n¨‑nc‑p¶‑p F¶‑pÅX‑v- hk‑vX‑pX Xs‑¶b‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. AX‑v- aX\‑nj‑vTt‑b‑mS‑p‑w BN‑mc§t‑f‑mS‑p‑w DÅ Bc‑m[\ a‑qe‑w Bb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. ]Ic‑w Hc‑p aXh‑n`‑mK¯‑ns‑â AX‑y‑p¶X t‑\X‑r]Zh‑nb‑ne‑nc‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ Ahkcs‑¯ _‑p²‑n]‑qÀh‑w h‑n\‑nt‑b‑mK‑n¡‑pI a‑m{‑Xa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C¯c‑w bY‑mØ‑nX‑nI \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄs‑¡X‑ns‑c k‑p{‑]‑o‑w t‑I‑mSX‑n h‑n[‑n DbÀ¯‑n¡‑m«‑n aXa‑ue‑nIh‑mZ‑nIs‑f iàa‑mb‑n FX‑nÀ¯ Hc‑p]‑mS‑p ]‑pt‑c‑mKa\ h‑mZ‑nIf‑mb h‑yà‑nIÄ a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑pZ‑mb¯‑n Xs‑¶ Dï‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C‑u hk‑vX‑pXIÄs‑¡‑m¶‑p‑w ]{‑X§Ä Hc‑n¡e‑p‑w {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w \ÂI‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. a‑m[‑ya§Ä At‑¸‑ms‑gÃ‑m‑w a‑pÉ‑n‑w

sk]vXw_À 2013


(40) ka‑pZ‑mbs‑¯ Gäh‑p‑w \‑nµ‑ya‑mb c‑oX‑nb‑n Xs‑¶ {‑] lc‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑p¶‑p. k‑v{‑X‑oIs‑f k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑v- Hc‑p]‑mS‑v]‑pt‑c‑mKa\]ca‑mb Bib§Ä DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑p¶ ka‑pZ‑mba‑mW‑v- CÉ‑m‑w. ]‑pc‑pj‑m[‑n]X‑y ka‑ql¯‑n AX‑v- {‑]‑mt‑b‑mK‑nIa‑m¡‑ph‑mh‑m\‑pÅ _‑p²‑na‑p«‑mW‑v- ka‑ql‑w t‑\c‑nS‑p¶X‑v-. a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑pZ‑mba‑mW‑v- aä‑v- ]e aX§s‑f¡‑mÄ k‑v{‑X‑oIs‑f ]c‑nc£‑n¡‑p¶X‑v- F¶X‑mW‑v- hk‑vX‑pX. _‑m_d‑n ak‑vP‑nZ‑v- -þ c‑m‑w P·`‑qa‑n h‑nh‑mZ‑w as‑ä‑mc‑pZ‑mlcWa‑mb‑n N‑qï‑n¡‑m«‑m‑w. ]e a‑pÉ‑n‑w t‑\X‑m¡f‑p‑w Ie‑pj‑nXa‑mb C‑u k‑mlNc‑y§f‑n a‑pXs‑eS‑p¸‑v- \ S¯‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑p F¶‑pÅX‑v- k‑wib‑mX‑oXa‑mW‑v-. ] t‑£ ]ï‑v- _‑m_À At‑b‑m²‑yb‑n \‑ne \‑n¶‑nc‑p¶ c‑mat‑£{‑X‑w XIÀ¯‑mW‑v- ]Å‑n ]W‑nX‑nc‑p¶s‑X¶‑p‑w Ct‑¸‑mÄ At‑X ]Å‑n XIÀ¯‑v- t‑£{‑X‑w ]W‑nb‑p¶X‑n s‑Xä‑ns‑ö‑p‑w ]dª‑v- {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑nI `‑mj‑m]{‑X§Ä ak‑vP‑nZ‑vXIÀ¯ {‑]h‑r¯‑ns‑b \‑oX‑oIc‑n¡b‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. k‑z´‑w c‑mP‑y¯‑v- c‑mat‑£{‑X‑w ]W‑nb‑m³ l‑nµ‑p aXh‑ni‑z‑mk‑nIÄ¡‑v AhI‑mi‑w Ds‑ï¶‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p D¯À{‑] t‑Zi‑ns‑e {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑nI a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S‑, {‑]t‑X‑yI‑n¨‑v- l‑nµ‑n a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S Bl‑z‑m\‑w. 1990 a‑pJ‑ya{‑´‑n Bb‑nc‑p¶ a‑pe‑mb‑w k‑n‑wM‑v b‑mZh‑v IÀt‑khIÀ At‑b‑m²‑yb‑n {‑] t‑hi‑n¡‑p¶X‑v- XSª {‑]h‑r¯‑ns‑b s‑]‑mS‑n¸‑p‑w s‑X‑m§e‑p‑w h¨‑mW‑v- ]{‑X§Ä {‑]Nc‑n¸‑n¨X‑v-. AX‑ns‑s‑hI‑mc‑nIa‑mb IYIf‑mW‑v- t‑]‑me‑ok‑v- AX‑n{‑Ia§s‑f I‑pd‑n¨‑v- t‑I«X‑v-. \‑qd‑pIW¡‑n\‑mf‑pIÄ s‑hS‑nt‑bä‑pac‑n¨‑p F¶‑n§s‑\ DÅ \‑pWIf‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p Ahb‑n a‑n¡X‑p‑w. C¯c‑w \‑pW{‑] NcW§Äs‑¡X‑ns‑c {‑]Ê‑v- I‑u¬k‑ne‑n\‑p Xs‑¶ {‑] k‑vX‑pX ]{‑X§s‑f IÀi\a‑mb‑n X‑m¡‑oX‑v- s‑Nt‑¿ï‑n h¶‑n«‑pï‑v. CÉ‑m‑w ka‑pZ‑mb¯‑n\‑v h‑yX‑yk‑vXa‑mb Hc‑p {‑]X‑nÑ‑mb \ÂI‑p¶‑, c‑mP‑y¯‑n\‑mb‑pÅ a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑ql¯‑ns‑â ]‑pt‑c‑mKa\‑mßIa‑mb k‑w`‑mh\Is‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑v kX‑ykÔa‑mb h‑mÀ¯IÄ \ÂI‑p¶X‑n a‑m[‑ya§Ä a‑n¡t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w ]c‑mPbs‑¸S‑p¶‑p. k‑z´‑w aI³ I‑mÀK‑n b‑p²`‑qa‑nb‑n h‑oca‑rX‑y‑p hc‑n¨t‑¸‑mÄ‑, A½s‑b¶ \‑neb‑n X‑m³ A`‑na‑m\‑w s‑I‑mÅ‑p¶‑ps‑h¶‑p‑w c‑mP‑y¯‑n\‑p \e‑vI‑m³ X\‑n¡‑n\‑nb‑p‑w B×¡Ä Dï‑mb‑nc‑ps‑¶¦‑n F¶‑m{‑Kl‑n¡‑p¶‑p F¶‑p‑w ]dª t‑IW h‑mP‑nl‑p±‑os‑â A½s‑b I‑pd‑n¨‑v- Dd‑pZ‑p ]{‑Xa‑mb "C³I‑z‑ne‑m_‑n‑'e‑mW‑v R‑m³ h‑mb‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. t‑hï{‑X {‑][‑m\‑yt‑¯‑mS‑vI‑qS‑n C‑w¥‑oj‑v- ]{‑X§Ä t‑]‑me‑p‑w C‑u h‑mÀ¯ {‑] k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨‑n«‑nÃ. "Gj‑y³ GP‑n‑' CX‑v h¶‑nc‑p¶‑p F¦‑ne‑p‑w AÀl‑n¡‑p¶ {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w \ÂI‑nb‑nÃ. \‑y‑q\]£§t‑f‑mS‑v B`‑na‑pJ‑y‑w I‑m«‑p¶ {‑] a‑pJ aX\‑nct‑]£ ]{‑X§Ä¡‑v- t‑]‑me‑p‑w \‑y‑q\]£ h‑njb§Ä Ad‑nb‑p¶ht‑c‑m Bg¯‑n ]T‑n¨ht‑c‑m Bb t‑eJIÀ Dï‑mb‑n«‑nÃ. C¯c‑w ]{‑X§f‑p‑w ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w GI‑mßIa‑mb‑mW‑v \‑y‑q\]£§s‑f I‑mW‑md‑pÅX‑v-. \‑y‑q\]£§Ä¡I¯‑pÅ aX]ch‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑obh‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑nIh‑p‑w k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nIh‑pa‑mb h‑yX‑yk‑vXXIs‑f a‑n¡hc‑p‑w {‑i²‑n¡‑p¶‑nÃ. ]©‑m_‑v- J‑me‑nØ‑m³ h‑mZs‑¯ A`‑na‑pJ‑oIc‑n¨‑p s‑I‑mï‑nc‑p¶ kab§f‑n k‑nJ‑vaXh‑ni‑z‑mk‑nIs‑fÃ‑m‑w Xs‑¶ J‑me‑nØ‑m³ h‑mZs‑¯ A\‑pI‑qe‑n¡‑p¶hc‑ms‑W¶‑mW‑v- a‑n¡ ]{‑X§f‑p‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑vs‑Nb‑vX‑p s‑I‑mï‑nc‑p¶X‑v-. F¶Â ]©‑m_‑v- h‑njb¯‑ns‑e Hc‑p X‑zc‑nX]T\‑w \a‑p¡‑p I‑mW‑n¨‑p Xc‑p¶X‑v- a‑mj_‑nk‑v t‑]‑me‑pÅ k‑nJ‑v- h‑wiPÀ J‑me‑nk‑vX‑m³ c‑q]‑oIcWs‑¯ FX‑nÀ¯hc‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p F¶‑mW‑v-. k‑z´‑w k‑m¼¯‑nIh‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑obh‑pa‑mb X‑mX‑v]c‑y§Ä XI‑nS‑w ad‑nªX‑n\‑me‑pÅ t‑c‑mj¯‑me‑mW‑v- P‑m«‑v- k‑nJ‑pI‑mc‑ns‑e Hc‑p h‑n`‑mK‑w sk]vXw_À 2013

FÃ‑m aXka‑ql§f‑ne‑p‑w k‑zX{‑´N‑n´‑mKX‑n ¡‑mc‑p‑w aX\‑nct‑]£Ic‑p‑w aX{‑`‑m´c‑p‑w aXa‑ue‑nIh‑mZ‑nIf‑p‑w Dï‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. Hc‑p ka‑ql‑w a‑m{‑X‑w FÃ‑mb‑vt‑¸‑mg‑p‑w aX\‑nct‑]£ Ic‑pt‑Ss‑b‑m As‑æ‑n aX{‑`‑m´·‑mc‑ps‑St‑b‑m a‑m{‑X‑w Bb‑nc‑p¶‑n«‑nÃ. A-t‑¸‑mÄ ]‑ns‑¶ \‑y‑q\]£ ka‑ql§f‑ns‑e¡‑p hc‑pt‑¼‑mÄ a‑m{‑X‑w N‑ne h‑yà‑nIÄ \S¯‑p¶ {‑]k‑vX‑mh\It‑f‑m I‑mW‑n¡‑p¶ aX{‑`‑m´‑pIt‑f‑m F§‑ns‑\ Hc‑p ka‑ql¯‑ns‑â s‑a‑m¯‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑n-b‑mb‑n- a‑md‑p‑w? F-´‑n\‑v D¯ch‑mZ‑nX‑z‑w s‑a‑m¯‑w aX¯‑n\‑p t‑a s‑I«‑nh¡W‑w? aX\‑nct‑]£ a‑p-É‑n‑w‑, {‑I‑nk‑v-X‑y³‑, k‑nJ‑v- h‑n`‑mK§f‑ps‑S iÐ‑w Bc‑p‑w t‑IÄ¡‑ms‑X t‑]‑mI‑p¶‑p. `‑qc‑n]£‑w {‑]X‑nIcW t‑ij‑n Cïhc‑p‑w \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ¡‑p t‑hï‑n \‑n¡‑m³ BÀPh‑w CÃ‑m¯hc‑p‑w aX{‑`‑m´·‑mc‑p‑w aXa‑ue‑nIh‑mZ‑nIf‑pa‑mb‑mW‑v- Ic‑pXs‑¸S‑p¶X‑v. AkvKÀ Aen Fôn\obÀ


(41) X‑o{‑hh‑mZ‑nIf‑pa‑mb‑n AW‑nt‑NÀ¶X‑v-. CX‑p h‑n`P\ I‑me¯‑va‑pIÄX«‑ns‑e a‑pÉ‑n‑w h‑n`‑mK§Ä FS‑p¯ \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ¡‑p ka‑m\a‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. l‑nµ‑p `‑qc‑n]£‑w DÅ c‑mP‑y¯‑v- k‑z´‑w X‑mX‑v]c‑y§Ä \S¸‑m¡‑m³ _‑p²‑na‑p«‑v- hc‑p‑w F¶ t‑] S‑nb‑mW‑v- Ahs‑c C¯c‑w h‑mZ§Ä¡‑v- t‑{‑]c‑n¸‑n¨X‑v-. CX‑p X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w `b‑w a‑m{‑Xa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p‑, aX{‑`‑m´‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ ka‑ql§Ä¡‑p t‑\cb‑p‑w Hc‑p]‑mS‑v- k‑wL] c‑nh‑mÀ A{‑Ia§Ä \S¶‑n«‑pï‑v-. Ahs‑bÃ‑m‑w aX] c‑nhÀ¯\§Ä Bt‑c‑m]‑n¨‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C´‑yb‑ns‑e hS¡‑p]S‑nª‑md³ a‑m[‑ya§Ä {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ ka‑qls‑¯ a‑pg‑ph³ aX ]c‑nhÀ¯Ic‑mb‑mW‑v- N‑n{‑X‑oIc‑n¨X‑vF¶‑m Hc‑p]‑mS‑v- {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ aXh‑ni‑z‑mk‑nIÄ CX‑ns‑\ FX‑nÀ¯‑nc‑p¶X‑mb‑n F\‑n¡d‑nb‑m‑w. AhÀ aX] c‑nhÀ¯\t‑¯¡‑mÄ A\‑yaXØc‑pa‑mb‑pÅ ] ck‑v]c klIcW‑mS‑nØ‑m\¯‑ne‑pÅ {‑I‑nb‑mßI k‑w`‑mjWa‑mW‑v- B{‑Kl‑n¨‑nc‑p¶X‑v-. CâÀ s‑^b‑v¯‑v Ubt‑e‑mK‑v kaI‑me‑nI C´‑yb‑n {‑]Nc‑n¸‑n¨X‑v- {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ k‑wLS\If‑mW‑v-. a²‑yI‑meL«¯‑n AI‑v_À X‑pS§‑n h¨X‑ms‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w CS¡‑p h¨‑v- \ãs‑¸« ]‑mc¼c‑y‑w ]‑p\c‑pÖ‑oh‑n¸‑n¨X‑v- {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ k‑wLS\If‑mW‑v. FÃ‑m {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ h‑ni‑z‑mk‑nIf‑p‑w aX]c‑nhÀ¯\¯‑n\‑mb‑n \S¡‑p¶hc‑ms‑W¶ I‑mg‑vN¸‑mS‑v X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w s‑Xä‑mW‑v. Hc‑p h‑n`‑mK‑w a‑m[‑ya§Ä aZÀ s‑Xt‑ck t‑]‑me‑p‑w \‑nÀ_Ô‑nX aX ]c‑nhÀ¯\‑w \S¯‑p¶‑p F¶‑v- {‑]Nc‑n¸‑n¨‑nc‑p¶‑p. A§s‑\ t‑\‑m¡‑pt‑¼‑mÄ FÃ‑m ]c‑nhÀ¯\§t‑fb‑p‑w k‑wib Z‑rã‑nt‑b‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑v- P\§Ä t‑\‑m¡‑n¡‑mW‑p¶X‑v-. Fs‑´‑ms‑¡ Bt‑c‑m]W§Ä hÀ¤‑ob k‑z`‑mha‑pÅ c‑m{‑ã‑ob¡‑mÀ \‑y‑q\]£§Ä¡‑v- t‑\s‑c D¶b‑n¨‑pt‑h‑m As‑XÃ‑m‑w kX‑ya‑mW‑v- F¶ c‑qt‑]Wb‑mW‑v- d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑vs‑N¿s‑¸S‑p¶X‑v-. U‑m§‑vk‑n h‑n.F¨‑v.]‑n.b‑p‑w _{‑P‑wK‑vZf‑p‑w {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ Ø‑m]\§s‑f B{‑Ia‑n¨t‑¸‑mÄ K‑pPd‑m¯‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya§Ä {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ h‑nc‑p² t‑eJ\§Ä {‑]Nc‑n¸‑n¨‑p. hÀ¤‑ob Ie‑m]§Ä¡‑nSb‑n a‑pÉ‑n‑w aX{‑`‑m´‑ns‑\ I‑pd‑n¨‑vØ‑nc‑oIcW‑w CÃ‑m¯ \‑nd‑w ]‑nS‑n¸‑n¨ IYIs‑f‑ms‑¡b‑p‑w ]SÀ¶‑v- ]‑nS‑n¨‑p. 1969t‑eb‑p‑w 1985t‑eb‑p‑w Ie‑m-]§Ä X‑o t‑]‑ms‑e ]SÀ¶‑v- ]‑nS‑n¨X‑ns‑â {‑][‑m\ I‑mcW‑w K‑pPd‑m¯‑n ]{‑X§Ä ]SÀ¯‑nb I‑n‑whZ´‑nIÄ a‑m{‑Xa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. s‑X‑m«S‑p¯ Z‑nhk‑w Xs‑¶ FÃ‑m‑w \‑nt‑j[‑n¡s‑]«‑nc‑p ¶‑ps‑h¦‑ne‑p‑w ]{‑X§f‑ps‑S Hc‑p t‑I‑mW‑n As‑XÃ‑m‑w HX‑p§‑n t‑]‑mb‑n. k‑w`h‑n¡‑m\‑pÅs‑XÃ‑m‑w At‑¸‑mt‑g¡‑p‑w k‑w`h‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. FÃ‑m aXka‑ql§f‑ne‑p‑w k‑zX{‑´N‑n´‑mKX‑n¡‑mc‑p‑w aX\‑nct‑]£Ic‑p‑w aX{‑`‑m´c‑p‑w aXa‑ue‑nIh‑mZ‑nIf‑p‑w Dï‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. Hc‑p ka‑ql‑w a‑m{‑X‑w FÃ‑mb‑vt‑¸‑mg‑p‑w aX\‑nct‑]£Ic‑pt‑Ss‑b‑m As‑æ‑n aX{‑`‑m´·‑mc‑ps‑St‑b‑m a‑m{‑X‑w Bb‑nc‑p¶‑n«‑nÃ. A-t‑¸‑mÄ ]‑ns‑¶ \‑y‑q\]£ ka‑ql§f‑ns‑e¡‑p hc‑pt‑¼‑mÄ a‑m{‑X‑w N‑ne h‑yà‑nIÄ \ S¯‑p¶ {‑]k‑vX‑mh\It‑f‑m I‑mW‑n¡‑p¶ aX{‑`‑m´‑pIt‑f‑m F§‑ns‑\ Hc‑p ka‑ql¯‑ns‑â s‑a‑m¯‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑n-b‑mb‑na‑md‑p‑w? F-´‑n\‑v D¯ch‑mZ‑nX‑z‑w s‑a‑m¯‑w aX¯‑n\‑p t‑a s‑I«‑nh¡W‑w? aX\‑nct‑]£ a‑p-É‑n‑w‑, {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³‑, k‑nJ‑v- h‑n`‑mK§f‑ps‑S iÐ‑w Bc‑p‑w t‑IÄ¡‑ms‑X t‑]‑mI‑p¶‑p. `‑qc‑n]£‑w {‑]X‑nIcW t‑ij‑n Cïhc‑p‑w \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ¡‑p t‑hï‑n \‑n¡‑m³ BÀPh‑w CÃ‑m¯hc‑p‑w aX{‑`‑m´·‑mc‑p‑w aXa‑ue‑nIh‑mZ‑nIf‑pa‑mb‑mW‑vIc‑pXs‑¸S‑p¶X‑v. c‑m{‑ã \‑nÀa‑mW¯‑n \‑y‑q\]£§f‑ps‑S A\‑nt‑j[‑y k‑w`‑mh\Is‑f FS‑p¯‑v- I‑mW‑n¡‑p¶ Xc¯‑ne‑pÅ {‑ia§Ä ]{‑Xa‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S `‑mK¯‑v- \‑n¶‑p‑w

hfs‑c I‑pdt‑¨ Dï‑mb‑n«‑pÅ‑q. CX‑v- K‑uchXca‑mb‑n ka‑o]‑nt‑¡ï‑p¶ Hc‑p h‑njba‑mW‑v-. c‑mP‑y¯‑ns‑â k‑z‑mX{‑´‑y kac¯‑n\‑mb‑n Hc‑p]‑mS‑v- a‑pÉ‑n‑w kt‑l‑mZc·‑mÀ al¯c§f‑mb X‑y‑mK§Ä A\‑pj‑vT‑n¨‑n«‑pï‑v-. J‑m³ AÐ‑pÄ J‑m^À J‑ms‑â t‑\X‑rX‑z¯‑n ]¯‑m³-I‑mÀ A\‑pj‑vT‑n¨ X‑y‑mK§s‑f BÀ¡‑p h‑nk‑vac‑n¡‑m\‑mI‑p‑w? F¶‑m C¯c‑w h‑mÀ¯Is‑fÃ‑m‑w a‑m[‑ya§f‑n hfs‑c h‑ncfa‑mt‑b {‑]X‑y£s‑¸S‑md‑pÅ‑q. C¶‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã t‑kh\¯‑ns‑â h‑nh‑n[ t‑aJeIf‑n h‑yà‑na‑p{‑Z ]X‑n¸‑n¨ \‑y‑q\]£ ]Þ‑nXÀ \‑nch[‑nb‑mW‑v-. Chc‑n A[‑nIh‑p‑w ]‑pt‑c‑mKa\ aX\‑nct‑]£ \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ k‑z‑oIc‑n¨ h‑yà‑nIf‑p‑w Bb‑nc‑p¶‑p. k‑ma‑ql‑yi‑mk‑v{‑X ]Þ‑nXc‑mb s‑{‑]‑m^. CÀ^‑m³ l_‑o_‑v‑, s‑{‑]‑m^. a‑pj‑nd‑pÄ lʳ‑, s‑{‑]‑m^. C‑wX‑nb‑mk‑v Al½Z‑v X‑pS§‑nb \‑nch[‑n t‑]À ] e h‑nh‑mZ h‑njb§f‑ne‑paS¡‑w k‑z-X{‑´þ-aX\‑nct‑]£ \‑ne]‑mS‑pIÄ FS‑p¡‑p¶hc‑p‑w X§f‑pt‑SX‑mb t‑aJeIf‑n \‑nÀ®‑mbIa‑mb k‑w`‑mh\IÄ c‑mP‑y¯‑n\‑v kaÀ¸‑n¨‑n«‑pÅhc‑pa‑mW‑v. k‑nJ‑,‑v- {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ h‑n`‑mK§f‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã \‑nÀa‑mW¯‑n {‑]a‑pJ Ø‑m\‑w hl‑n¨hc‑p‑w hl‑n¡‑p¶hc‑pa‑mW‑v. c‑mP‑y¯‑ns‑e Ht‑c‑m h‑yà‑nt‑bb‑p‑w h‑nZ‑y‑mk¼¶\‑m¡‑p¶X‑n {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ a‑nj‑n\d‑nIÄ \e‑vI‑nb k‑w`‑mh\ hfs‑c he‑pX‑mW‑v-. aX]c‑nhÀ¯\‑w \S¯‑p¶X‑v- k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑v- Bt‑c‑m]W§Ä h¶ t‑ij‑w N‑ne ]-{‑X§Ä AX‑p a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v- {‑I‑nk‑vX‑y³ ka‑ql‑w AX‑phs‑c s‑Nb‑vX‑p t‑]‑m¶‑nc‑p¶X‑v- F¶ Xc¯‑ne‑pÅ {‑] NcW§f‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p \S¯‑nt‑¸‑m¶‑nc‑p¶X‑v-. c‑mP‑y¯‑ns‑e FÃ‑m ka‑pZ‑mb§f‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã \‑nÀa‑mW¯‑n\‑mb‑n he‑nb k‑w`‑mh\IÄ \S¯‑nb‑n«‑pï‑v-. As‑X‑mc‑p ka‑pZ‑mb¯‑ns‑â a‑m{‑X‑w I‑p¯I Bb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. \‑y‑q\ ]£§f‑ps‑S {‑]i‑v-\§Ä ]c‑nlc‑nI‑m³ I‑ps‑d I‑qS‑n {‑I‑nb‑mßIh‑p‑w \h‑o\h‑p‑w Bb CSs‑]Se‑mW‑vBhi‑y‑w. a‑m[‑ya§Ä Ct‑¸‑mÄ s‑N¿‑p¶X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e Hc‑p Ø‑nc‑w N«¡‑qS‑n\I¯‑p \‑n¶‑v I‑mc‑y§s‑f I‑mWeÃ. t‑e‑mI¯‑n Dï‑mh‑p¶ a‑mä§Ä¡\‑pkc‑n¨‑v- FÃ‑m aXh‑n`‑mK§f‑ne‑p‑w a‑mä§Ä k‑w`h‑n¨‑v- s‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑pï‑v-. DZ‑mlcW¯‑n\‑v- C´‑yb‑nt‑eb‑p‑w ]‑m¡‑nØ‑m\‑nt‑eb‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑oba‑mä§Ä¡‑v A\‑pk‑rXa‑mb‑n Cc‑p c‑mP‑y§f‑nt‑eb‑p‑w a‑pÉ‑n‑w ka‑pZ‑mb¡‑mÀ h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mk¯‑n\‑pÅ {‑]‑ma‑pJ‑y‑w X‑nc‑n¨d‑nª‑nd‑nª‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡b‑mW‑v-. c‑m{‑ã¯‑ns‑â ]‑pt‑c‑mKX‑n h‑yà‑nb‑ps‑S ]‑pt‑c‑mKX‑nb‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w AX‑nt‑e¡‑pÅ hg‑n h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mk-a‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w AhÀ¡‑p t‑_‑m[‑ys‑]«‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. C‑u aÕc¯‑n AhÀ ]‑pdI‑ne‑mbX‑ns‑â Ht‑c Hc‑p I‑mcW‑w Z‑mc‑n{‑Z‑y‑w a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v-‑, AÃ‑ms‑X h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mkt‑¯‑mS‑pÅ h‑na‑pJX Bb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. AS‑nØ‑m\ k‑mlNc‑y§Ä t‑hK¯‑n a‑md‑nad‑nª‑p s‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ Hc‑p ka‑qla‑mW‑v- \½‑pt‑SX‑v-. C‑u a‑mä§Ä `‑qc‑n]£a‑mb‑me‑p‑w \‑y‑q\]£-a‑mb‑me‑p‑w k‑z‑oIc‑n¡‑pI Xs‑¶b‑mW‑v- C¡‑meas‑{‑Xb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p t‑]‑m¶‑n«‑pÅX‑v-. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑v- Xs‑¶ a‑m[‑ya§Ä Ht‑c N«¡‑qS‑n C«‑v\‑y‑q\]£§s‑f t‑\‑m¡‑n¡‑mW‑p¶X‑v- a‑mä‑ph‑m\‑pÅ kab‑w AX‑n{‑Ia‑n¨‑nc‑n¡b‑m-W‑v-. C‑ubS‑p¯‑v A´c‑n¨ {‑]a‑pJ aX\‑nct‑]£ N‑n´I\‑mb Ak‑vKÀ Ae‑n Fô‑n\‑obÀ t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya{‑] hÀ¯IÀ¡‑mb‑n 1999ð Fg‑pX‑n ‑"a‑oU‑ob t‑^‑m¡k‑n‑'ð {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨ t‑eJ\¯‑ns‑â h‑nhÀ¯\‑w. h‑nhÀ¯\‑w: ]‑n. Fk‑v. A\‑p]a

sk]vXw_À 2013


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W‑v hk‑vX‑pX. CX‑ns‑\¡‑mÄ {‑][‑m\ a‑mW‑v t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya ]T\ Ø‑m]\§f‑ns‑e A¡‑mZa‑nI ]Þ‑n XÀ H¶S¦‑w k‑mt‑¦X‑nI a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ ¯\¯‑ns‑â a‑m{‑X‑w hà‑m¡f‑ms‑W ¶X‑v. aeb‑mfa‑m[‑ya]T\c‑wK¯‑v k{‑I‑nba‑mb‑n CSs‑]S‑m³ C¶‑phs‑c ChÀ¡‑p Ig‑nª‑n«‑nÃ. a‑m[‑ya]T\¯‑n {‑i²‑n¡‑p¶ aeb‑mf‑n¡‑p a‑p¶‑ns‑e cï‑mas‑¯ s‑hÃ‑ph‑nf‑n‑, a‑m[‑ya]T\c‑wKs‑¯ At‑ac‑n¡³ I‑p¯Ib‑mW‑v þ C‑w¥‑oj‑v I‑p¯I F¶‑p t‑hWs‑a¦‑ne‑p‑w ]db‑m‑w. C´‑y³ a‑m[‑yac‑wKs‑¯¡‑pd‑n ¨‑pff a‑nI¨ ]T\§Ä Hs‑¶‑mg‑nb‑m s‑X \a‑p¡‑p e`‑ya‑mI‑p¶X‑v C´‑y¡‑p s‑hf‑nb‑n \‑n¶‑pff a‑m[‑ya]T‑nX‑m¡ Ä C‑w¥‑oj‑n AhXc‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶hb‑m W‑v. _Ô`‑mjs‑b¶ \‑neb‑n C‑w¥‑o j‑ne‑qs‑SbÃ‑ms‑X Ad‑nh‑p‑w Ú‑m\]² News Culture Stuart Allen Open University Press

X‑nIf‑p‑w Hc‑pc‑wK¯‑p‑w aeb‑mf‑nb‑nt‑e s‑¡¯‑p¶‑nÃ. `‑mj‑m]ca‑mb C‑u I‑p¯I a‑p³]‑pXs‑¶b‑pffX‑mW‑v. AX‑ne‑p‑w {‑][‑m\a‑mW‑v‑, a‑m[‑yac‑wK ¯‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya]T\c‑wK¯‑pa‑pff k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑p‑w k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nIh‑pa‑mb At‑ac‑n¡³ I‑p¯I. Bt‑K‑mfa‑m[‑yak‑wk‑vI‑mc¯‑ns‑â Nc‑n{‑X¯‑ne‑p‑w hÀ¯a‑m\¯‑ne‑p‑w At‑ac‑n¡b‑ps‑S APïIf‑mW‑v Gä h‑p‑w \‑nÀW‑mbI‑w. a‑m[‑yac‑wK¯‑p \‑ne\‑n¡‑p¶ At‑ac‑n¡s‑s‑\t‑kj ³ t‑]‑ms‑eXs‑¶ {‑]ISa‑mW‑v a‑m[‑ya ]T\c‑wKs‑¯b‑p‑w At‑ac‑n¡³ k‑z‑m[‑o\‑w. {‑_‑n«\‑p‑w Bk‑vt‑{‑Se‑nbb‑p s‑a‑mg‑n¨‑m s‑Xs‑¡At‑ac‑n¡³‑, b‑qt‑d‑m]‑y³‑, Gj‑y³‑, B{‑^‑n¡³ c‑mP‑y§f‑n \‑n¶‑pff a‑m[‑ya k‑wk‑vI‑mc§f‑p‑w ]T\§f‑p‑w \a‑p¡‑p s‑]‑mX‑ph‑n A\‑ya‑mW‑v. (k‑n\‑nab‑ps‑S c‑wK¯‑v‑, a‑p³]‑v Cäe‑n‑, {‑^‑m³k‑v‑, PÀ ½\‑n‑, t‑]‑mfï‑v‑, l‑wKd‑n‑, s‑Nt‑¡‑mÉ h‑mI‑y‑, P¸‑m³ X‑pS§‑nb c‑mP‑y§f‑n \‑n¶‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶ k‑z‑m[‑o\‑w Ct‑¸‑mÄ At‑ac‑n¡b‑nÂ\‑n¶‑p a‑m{‑Xa‑mbX‑pt‑]‑m s‑e. Bs‑Ib‑pff A]h‑mZ‑w s‑I‑md‑nb b‑p‑w Cd‑m\‑pa‑mWt‑Ã‑m‑). a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S k‑mt‑¦X‑nIX‑, Nc‑n{‑X‑w‑, a‑m[‑ya§Ä ¡‑pt‑a Ia‑y‑qW‑nk‑w a‑p³]‑p ]‑peÀ ¯‑nb‑nc‑p¶X‑p‑w aX‑w C¶‑p ]‑peÀ¯‑p ¶X‑pa‑mb B[‑n]X‑y‑w‑, At‑ac‑n¡³ `cWI‑qS¯‑ns‑â a‑m[‑ya APïIÄ‑, DffS¡]ca‑mb‑n t‑e‑mIa‑m[‑ya§s‑f GX‑ms‑ï‑m¶S¦‑w At‑ac‑n¡³ c‑oX‑nIÄ I‑ogS¡‑p¶X‑v‑, k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑n I k‑m{‑a‑mP‑y¯h‑p‑w At‑ac‑n¡³ a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w‑, CÉ‑ma‑nI‑, a‑mÀI‑vk‑nÌ‑v‑, e‑mä‑n\t‑ac‑n¡³ c‑mP‑y§f‑n \‑n¶‑p ï‑mI‑p¶ {‑]X‑nt‑c‑m[§Ä‑, At‑ac‑n¡ b‑n Xs‑¶ c‑q]‑ws‑I‑mff‑p¶ _Z a‑m[‑yak‑wk‑vI‑mc‑w‑, Bt‑K‑mfa‑m[‑ya I‑p¯IIÄ‑, Ahb‑ps‑S t‑I‑mÀ¸t‑dä‑v k‑wk‑vI‑mc‑w‑, Ah t‑e‑mIs‑a§‑p‑w \S ¸‑m¡‑p¶ k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI c‑m{‑ã‑ob¯‑n s‑\X‑ns‑cb‑pff h‑naÀi\§Ä F¶‑n §s‑\ H‑mt‑c‑m aÞes‑¯¡‑pd‑n¨‑pa‑p


(43) ff ]T\§Ä Dï‑mI‑p¶X‑p‑w At‑ac‑n ¡b‑n Xs‑¶b‑mW‑v F¶X‑mW‑v Gä h‑p‑w I‑uX‑pIIca‑mb b‑mY‑mÀY‑y‑w. F¶‑ph¨‑mÂ‑, a‑m[‑yac‑wKs‑¯b‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya]T\c‑wKs‑¯b‑p‑w At‑ac‑n¡ s‑s‑\t‑kj\‑p‑w AX‑ns‑â h‑naÀi\h‑p‑w Ht‑ct‑]‑ms‑e k‑m[‑ya‑mI‑p¶X‑v At‑ac‑n ¡b‑n \‑n¶‑pXs‑¶b‑mW‑v F¶ÀY‑w. Bt‑K‑mfa‑m[‑ya k‑wk‑vI‑mc‑w a‑m{‑XaÃ‑, a‑m[‑ya]T\k‑wk‑vI‑mch‑p‑w At‑ac‑n¡ s‑s‑\k‑v s‑N¿s‑¸«X‑mW‑v F¶‑p‑w ]d b‑m‑w. Ig‑nª ]e e¡§f‑ne‑ps‑a¶ t‑]‑ms‑e C‑u e¡¯‑ne‑p‑w ‑"h‑mb\' ]c‑nNbs‑¸S‑p¯‑p¶ a‑m[‑ya]T\{‑KÙ ¯‑ns‑â k‑zc‑q]h‑p‑w k‑z`‑mhh‑p‑w a‑p³ \‑nÀ¯‑n C{‑Xb‑p‑w I‑mc‑y§Ä ]Ý‑m ¯ea‑mb‑n ]dª‑ps‑ht‑¶b‑pff‑p. Ì‑phÀ«‑v Ae³ 1999  Fg‑pX‑nb "\‑y‑qk‑vIĨd‑n\‑v‑' 2004 e‑pï‑mb ]c‑nj‑v¡c‑n¨ ]X‑n¸‑v \‑nch[‑n `‑mK §f‑p‑w hk‑vX‑pXIf‑p‑w N‑ne A[‑y‑mb §ÄXs‑¶b‑p‑w ]‑pX‑pX‑mb‑n I‑q«‑nt‑¨À ¯X‑ne‑qs‑S Gs‑d I‑me‑nIX s‑s‑Ih¶‑n «‑pï‑v. C‑u {‑KÙ¯‑ns‑e H³]X[‑y‑m b§f‑ps‑S k‑q£‑vah‑mb\‑, Hc‑p a‑m[‑ya c‑q]s‑a¶X‑n\¸‑pd¯‑v k‑zb‑w Hc‑p Ø‑m]\‑w Xs‑¶b‑mb‑n a‑md‑nb "h‑mÀ¯‑'b‑ps‑S ka‑o]I‑me k‑m‑wk‑vI‑m c‑nI k‑m[‑yXIf‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑ob Nc‑n{‑X h‑p‑w a\Ê‑ne‑m¡‑m³ kl‑mbIa‑mW‑v. a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\§Ä‑, ]‑mTc‑q]§Ä‑, {‑]t‑b‑mK§Ä‑, D]t‑`‑mà‑m¡Ä F¶‑o \‑me‑pXe§Ä t‑I{‑µ‑oIc‑n¨‑v a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w ka‑qlh‑p‑w X½‑ne‑pff _Ô§s‑f {‑]i‑v\h¡c‑n¡‑pIb‑m W‑v Xs‑â ]T\¯‑ns‑â e£‑y‑w F¶‑v Ae³ Ba‑pJa‑mb‑n k‑qN‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶‑p ï‑v. CX‑n\‑mb‑n a‑q¶‑p hg‑nIf‑ne‑pff h‑niIe\§f‑mW‑v Ae³ \S¯‑p¶ X‑v. H¶‑v‑, \bc‑q]‑oIcW¯‑n\‑pff D]‑m[‑nIf‑ns‑e‑m¶‑mb‑n h‑mÀ¯ a‑md‑p¶ X‑ns‑â h‑niIe\‑w. `cWI‑qS \‑nb{‑´ W§Ä‑, a‑m[‑ya\‑nba§Ä X‑pS§‑nb hb‑mW‑v C‑u c‑wKs‑¯ {‑]a‑pJ CSs‑]S  t‑aJeIÄ. cï‑v‑, Nc¡‑ph¡c W¯‑n\‑pff Hc‑p]‑m[‑nb‑mb‑n h‑mÀ¯ a‑md‑p¶X‑ns‑â h‑niIe\‑w. h‑n]W‑nb‑p s‑S t‑aÂs‑s‑¡ \‑nÝb‑n¡‑p¶ a‑m[‑ya APïIf‑mW‑v Ch‑ns‑S a‑pJ‑y‑w. a‑q¶‑v‑, h‑mÀ¯s‑b _l‑pP\‑m`‑n{‑]‑mb¯‑ns‑â D]‑m[‑nb‑mb‑n Iï‑ps‑I‑mï‑pff h‑ni Ie\‑w. s‑]‑mX‑paÞe¯‑n h‑mÀ¯ k‑rã‑n¡‑p¶ a‑ue‑nI k‑z‑m[‑o\§f‑p‑w P\‑m[‑n]X‑y¯‑ns‑â P‑oh\‑mU‑ns‑b¶ \‑neb‑n AX‑n\‑pff {‑]‑m[‑m\‑yh‑p‑w C‑u At‑\‑zjW¯‑ns‑â ]c‑n[‑nb‑n hc‑p¶‑p. A¨S‑n‑, {‑i‑mh‑y‑, Z‑ri‑y‑, \h a‑m[‑ya§f‑ns‑e h‑mÀ¯‑m k‑wk‑vI‑mc §s‑f k‑q£‑vaa‑mb Nc‑n{‑Xt‑_‑m[ t‑¯‑mS‑p‑w \‑ni‑nXa‑mb c‑m{‑ã‑obt‑_‑m[

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a‑q¶‑p hg‑nIf‑ne‑pff h‑niIe\§f‑mW‑v Ae³ \S¯‑p¶X‑v. H¶‑v‑, \bc‑q]‑oIcW¯‑n\‑pff D]‑m[‑nIf‑ns‑e‑m¶‑mb‑n h‑mÀ¯ a‑md‑p¶ X‑ns‑â h‑niIe\‑w. `cWI‑qS \‑nb{‑´W§Ä‑, a‑m[‑ya\‑nba§Ä X‑pS§‑nbhb‑mW‑v C‑u c‑wKs‑¯ {‑]a‑pJ CSs‑]S t‑aJeIÄ. cï‑v‑, Nc¡‑ph¡cW¯‑n\‑pff Hc‑p]‑m[‑nb‑mb‑n h‑mÀ¯ a‑md‑p¶ X‑ns‑â h‑niIe\‑w. h‑n]W‑nb‑ps‑S t‑aÂs‑s‑¡ \‑nÝb‑n¡‑p¶ a‑m[‑ya APïIf‑mW‑v Ch‑ns‑S a‑pJ‑y‑w. a‑q¶‑v‑, h‑mÀ¯s‑b _l‑pP\‑m`‑n{‑]‑m b¯‑ns‑â D]‑m[‑nb‑mb‑n Iï‑ps‑I‑mï‑pff h‑niIe\‑w. s‑]‑mX‑paÞ e¯‑n h‑mÀ¯ k‑rã‑n¡‑p¶ a‑ue‑nI k‑z‑m[‑o\§f‑p‑w P\‑m[‑n] X‑y¯‑ns‑â P‑oh\‑mU‑ns‑b¶ \‑neb‑n AX‑n\‑pff {‑]‑m[‑m\‑yh‑p‑w C‑u At‑\‑zjW¯‑ns‑â ]c‑n[‑nb‑n hc‑p¶‑p. \‑qä‑mï‑ne‑pS\‑of‑w C‑u c‑wK¯‑pï‑mb a‑mä§Ähs‑c NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p¶‑p C‑ub [‑y‑mb‑w. ]X‑ns‑\«‑m‑w \‑qä‑mï‑ns‑e a‑m[‑yah‑n¹h‑w ]{‑Xa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑ps‑h¦‑n ]s‑¯‑m³]X‑m‑w \‑qä‑mï‑n AX‑v s‑Se{‑K‑m^‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯‑m GP³k‑nIf‑p a‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. H¶‑p‑w cï‑p‑w t‑e‑mIb‑p² §Ä¡‑nSb‑ne‑mW‑v B[‑p\‑nI a‑m[‑ya Nc‑n{‑X¯‑ns‑â \‑mg‑nI¡Ã‑pIÄ ]eX‑p‑w \‑neh‑n h¶X‑v. h‑n]‑pea‑mb AÀY¯‑n ]{‑X§f‑p‑w t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³‑, B\‑pI‑me‑nI§Ä F¶‑n §s‑\. At‑ac‑n¡b‑ne‑p‑w b‑qt‑d‑m¸‑ne‑p‑w 18‑, 19‑, 20 \‑qä‑mï‑pIf‑n a‑pJ‑ya‑mb‑p‑w ]{‑X§Ä k‑rã‑n¨ h‑mÀ¯‑mc‑m{‑ã‑ob ¯‑ns‑â k‑q£‑vaa‑mb h‑niIe\h‑p‑w Nc‑n{‑X‑mht‑e‑mI\h‑p‑w C‑ub[‑y‑mb¯‑n e‑pï‑v. ]{‑Xh‑yhk‑mb‑w‑, h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑qe‑y §Ä‑, c‑m{‑ã‑ob k‑z‑m[‑o\‑w‑, P\I‑obX‑, s‑]‑mX‑paÞe c‑q]‑oIcW‑w‑, t‑Zi‑obX‑, b‑p²§Ä F¶‑n§s‑\ \‑nch[‑n c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑, k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI‑m\‑p`h§Ä¡‑v ]{‑X§f‑pa‑mb‑pff _Ô‑w Ae³ NÀ¨ s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. Chb‑n Gäh‑p‑w

kÀ¡‑mÀ kac‑w AS‑n¨aÀ¯‑pI F¶ Dt‑±i‑yt‑¯‑ms‑S a‑pg‑ph³ kab¯‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯ {‑]t‑£]W‑w s‑N¿‑m³ _‑n._‑n.k‑n.s‑b A\‑phZ‑n¨X‑v. cï‑m‑w t‑e‑mIb‑p²‑w _‑n._‑n.k‑n.s‑b ]‑mÝ‑mX‑y t‑e‑mI¯‑ns‑â P‑nl‑zXs‑¶b‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑n. _‑n._‑n.k‑n.b‑ps‑S Nc‑n{‑X‑w Z‑oÀLa‑mb‑n h‑nhc‑n¡‑p¶ Ae³ Ak‑m[‑mcWa‑m b h‑ni‑z‑mk‑yX s‑s‑Ihc‑n¨ Hc‑p a‑m[‑ya ¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯‑mhX‑mcIc‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w IYI‑qS‑nb‑mW‑v ]dª‑pt‑]‑mI‑p¶X‑v. At‑ac‑n¡b‑ne‑mIs‑«‑, 1932s‑e {‑]k‑nU â‑v s‑Xcs‑ªS‑p¸‑n d‑qk‑vs‑hÂä‑v t‑dU‑nt‑b‑mb‑ne‑qs‑S At‑ac‑n¡¡‑mc‑ps‑S h‑o«I§f‑ns‑e¯‑n. ]{‑X§Ä t‑dU‑n t‑b‑ms‑b `bs‑¸«‑p X‑pS§‑n. AhÀ k‑wLS‑nXc‑mb‑n t‑dU‑nt‑b‑ms‑¡X‑ns‑c X‑nc‑nª‑p. C‑u a‑m[‑yab‑p²‑w ]s‑£ Gs‑d\‑mÄ \‑oï‑p\‑n¶‑nÃ. ‑'32 Xs‑¶ b‑mW‑v ]c‑o£W‑mS‑nØ‑m\¯‑n {‑_‑n«\‑n s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ k‑wt‑{‑]jW a‑mc‑w`‑n¨X‑p‑w. Z‑ri‑y§f‑nÃ‑ms‑Xb‑ms‑W ¦‑ne‑p‑w 1938  s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ AX‑ns‑â BZ‑y h‑mÀ¯‑m_‑pffä‑n³ k‑wt‑{‑]j sk]vXw_À 2013


(44) W‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. 54 e‑mW‑v {‑]X‑nZ‑n\ h‑mÀ¯ s‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑n b‑mY‑mÀY‑ya‑m bX‑v. ‑"News reel' F¶‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p k‑n\‑nas‑b a‑mX‑rIb‑m¡‑n A¶‑v s‑Se‑n h‑nj³ h‑mÀ¯s‑b h‑nf‑n¨‑nc‑p¶X‑v. _‑n._‑n.k‑n.¡‑p _Ze‑mb‑n 1955  C³U‑ns‑]³Uâ‑v s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ \‑y‑qk‑v (s‑F.S‑n.F³‑) \‑neh‑n h¶t‑X‑ms‑S‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑p‑w s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ h‑mÀ¯ b‑p‑w I‑qS‑pX P\I‑oba‑mb‑n. 1950 If‑nÂXs‑¶b‑mW‑v At‑ac‑n¡b‑ne‑p‑w s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ P\{‑]‑nba‑mI‑p¶X‑v. k‑n._‑n.Fk‑v. N‑m\e‑ns‑e Ft‑U‑zÀU‑v Fk‑v. at‑d‑ms‑bt‑¸‑me‑pff h‑mÀ¯‑m hX‑mcIÀ X‑mc]Zh‑n s‑s‑Ihc‑n¨‑p. k‑ma‑ql‑y h‑njb§f‑n ]{‑X§s‑f b‑p‑w t‑dU‑nt‑b‑ms‑bb‑p‑wI‑mÄ P\‑m[‑n] X‑y]ca‑mb _l‑pP\ APïIÄ \S¸‑m¡‑p¶X‑v s‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑mW‑v F¶ [‑mcW 1960 If‑nÂXs‑¶ _es‑¸«‑p. Ct‑X‑ms‑S B cï‑p a‑m[‑ya§s‑fb‑p‑w ]‑n´ff‑n s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑â P\{‑]‑oX‑n I‑p¯s‑\ Dbc‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑Xh‑p‑w P\‑m[‑n]X‑y ka‑ql§f‑n h‑mÀ¯‑m

h‑mÀ¯s‑b¶ h‑yhl‑mc¯‑ns‑â ]‑mT k‑zc‑q]‑w h‑niIe\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. B[‑p \‑nI I‑me¯‑ns‑â IY]d¨‑ne‑pI‑mc‑m W‑v a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯IÀ. h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S `‑mj‑, i_‑vZþZ‑ri‑y N‑nÓ§Ä‑, t‑hK‑w‑, {‑]‑mX‑n\‑n[‑y‑w‑, X‑pSÀ¨ F¶‑n§s‑\b‑p ff ]‑mTk‑z`‑mh§t‑f‑mt‑c‑m¶‑p‑w b‑mY‑m ÀY‑y¯‑ns‑â `‑n¶c‑oX‑nb‑ne‑pff ]‑p\‑x k‑rã‑nIf‑mb‑n a‑md‑p¶s‑X§s‑\ F¶‑m W‑v Ch‑ns‑S At‑\‑zj‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. t‑a t‑¡‑mb‑va/A[‑oiX‑z‑w (hegemony‑) F¶ {‑K‑m‑wj‑nb³ ]c‑nIe‑v]\b‑mW‑v Ae³ B[‑mcXX‑za‑m¡‑p¶X‑v. Bib§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w Ø‑m]\§f‑ps‑S b‑p‑w `‑n¶ c‑oX‑nIf‑ne‑pff A[‑oiX‑za‑m W‑v ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S k‑zc‑q]‑w Xs‑¶ \‑nÀWb‑n¡‑pI. h‑mÀ¯s‑b kh‑nt‑ijLS\b‑ne‑pff Hc‑p h‑yhl‑m ca‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑p¶X‑v \‑nch[‑nb‑mb {‑]X‑y bi‑mk‑v{‑X X‑mÂ]c‑y§f‑mW‑v. ‘Above all, the known facts of a situation must be translated into intelligible audio - visual signs, organised as a discourse’ F¶‑v Ì‑phÀ«‑v l‑mÄ.

]{‑X‑w‑, t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ F¶‑o

h‑mÀ¯ s‑]‑mX‑ph‑n Hc‑p ]‑pc‑pj‑m[‑n]X‑y t‑aJeb‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\¯‑ns‑e DbÀ¶ Xk‑vX‑nIIf‑n {‑]‑mt‑bW k‑v{‑X‑oI Ä AZ‑ri‑yc‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w X‑pe‑yt‑P‑me‑n¡‑ms‑W¦‑n t‑]‑me‑p‑w AhÀ¡‑p I‑pdª t‑hX\a‑mW‑p e`‑n¡‑p¶s‑X¶‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ 1980 IÄ s‑X‑m«‑pff ]T\§Ä s‑Xf‑nb‑n¡‑p¶‑p. a‑nI¨ a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑mb‑m a‑m{‑X‑w t‑]‑mc‑m‑, "b‑mY‑mÀY‑' k‑v{‑X‑ob‑pa‑mt‑Iï‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p AhÀ¡‑v. C‑u Cc« D¯ch‑mZ‑n¯‑w ka‑ql‑w k‑v{‑X‑oa‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑n \‑n¶‑m hi‑ys‑¸S‑p¶‑ps‑h¶‑v h‑m³ k‑q\³ N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑p¶‑p. a‑m[‑ya§Ä¡‑pff D¯ch‑mZ‑n¯h‑pa t‑\‑zj‑n¡‑p¶‑p‑, a‑q¶‑ma[‑y‑mb‑w. s‑]‑mX‑p aÞe¯‑n h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑ya§Ä k‑rã‑n¡‑p¶ k‑wh‑mZ§f‑ps‑S c‑m{‑ã‑ob a‑mW‑v Ch‑nSs‑¯ a‑pJ‑y At‑\‑zjW t‑aJe. h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑yac‑wK¯‑v A©‑p `‑qJÞ§f‑ne‑pa‑pff _l‑pc‑m{‑ã I‑p¯IIf‑ps‑S k‑m¶‑n[‑y‑w N‑qï‑n¡‑m W‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v I‑mÄa‑mÀI‑vk‑v a‑pX  t‑N‑m‑wk‑vI‑nb‑p‑w s‑lÀa\‑p‑w hs‑cb‑p ffhc‑ps‑S a‑m[‑ya \‑nc‑o£W§Ä k‑w{‑Kl‑n¡‑p¶ Aht‑e‑mI\‑w Ae³ \S¯‑p¶X‑v. X‑pSÀ¶‑v \‑nch[‑nb‑mb ka‑o]I‑me a‑m[‑ya]T\§f‑ps‑S ] Ý‑m ¯e¯‑nÂ‑, h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑ya§Ä ka‑ql¯‑n \S¯‑p¶ CSs‑]Se‑pI f‑ps‑S _eX{‑´§Ä h‑niIe\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. s‑P.l‑mÀ«‑ve‑nb‑ps‑S a‑m[‑ya aÞe‑w (Media sphere) F¶ ]c‑n Ie‑v]\ C‑u NÀ¨IÄ¡S‑n¯db‑m¡‑m \‑p‑w Ae³ {‑i²‑n¡‑p¶‑p. \‑me‑ma[‑y‑mb‑w‑, ]{‑X‑w‑, t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ F¶‑o a‑m[‑ya§f‑ns‑e sk]vXw_À 2013

a‑q¶‑p h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w k‑mt‑¦X‑nI‑, DffS¡‑, KW‑, h‑n\‑nab k‑z`‑mh§s‑f‑m¶S¦‑w a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑n h‑mÀ¯s‑b¶ h‑yhl‑mc¯‑ns‑â k‑m‑w k‑vI‑mc‑nI c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p¶‑p‑, Ae³. h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S D]t‑`‑m à‑m¡s‑fb‑p‑w s‑s‑Z\‑wZ‑n\ P‑oh‑nXs‑¯ b‑p‑w I‑pd‑n¨‑mW‑v AS‑p¯ A[‑y‑mb‑w. h‑mb\¡‑mÀ‑, t‑{‑i‑mX‑m¡Ä‑, t‑{‑]£IÀ F¶‑n§s‑\ ]c¼c‑mKX‑, B[‑p\‑nI a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S D]t‑`‑mà‑m¡f‑ps‑S X‑mcXt‑a‑y\ DZ‑mk‑o\a‑mb AhØb à \ha‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S D]t‑`‑mà‑m¡f‑p t‑SX‑v F¶‑v \a‑p¡d‑nb‑m‑w. F¦‑nÂt‑]‑m e‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯‑mka‑ql‑w F¶ \‑neb‑n Ahc‑ps‑S {‑]X‑nIcW§f‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯ ¡‑v Ahc‑ps‑S P‑oh‑nX¯‑ne‑pff Ø‑m\ h‑p‑w a\Ê‑ne‑m¡‑pI F¶X‑v a‑m[‑ya ]T\¯‑n {‑][‑m\a‑mW‑v. Ì‑phÀ«‑v l‑mÄ AhXc‑n¸‑n¨ k‑mt‑¦X\ þ h‑nkt‑¦X\ (encoding-decoding‑) XX‑za‑mW‑v Ch‑ns‑S Ae³ c‑oX‑ni‑m k‑v{‑Xa‑mb‑n k‑z‑oIc‑n¨‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v.

S‑mt‑»‑mb‑vU‑v ]{‑X§Ä‑, K‑ucha‑pff ]{‑X§Ä‑, t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ h‑mÀ¯If‑ps‑S U‑nt‑I‑mU‑n‑wK‑v \S¡‑p ¶X‑ns‑â c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w‑, a‑q¶‑p L«§f‑ne‑m b‑n C‑u XX‑z‑w h‑nhc‑n¡‑p¶ Ì‑phÀ«‑v l‑mf‑ns‑â ka‑o]\‑w ]‑n´‑pSÀ¶‑v Ae³ h‑niZ‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. eï\‑ne‑p ff ]©‑m_‑n s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ t‑{‑]£I c‑ps‑S {‑]X‑nIcW‑w a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑n F‑w.K‑ns‑Ã]‑vk‑n \S¯‑p¶ ]T\a‑pÄ s‑¸s‑Sb‑pffh Ae³ D²c‑n¡‑p¶‑p. X‑pSÀ¶‑pff cï‑ma[‑y‑mb§Ä h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑ya§f‑ne‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya h‑mÀ¯If‑ne‑p‑w Hc‑pt‑]‑ms‑e {‑]ISa‑m I‑p¶ e‑n‑wK‑, h‑wi c‑m{‑ã‑ob§f‑ps‑S A]{‑KY\a‑mW‑v. A¨S‑n‑, {‑i‑mh‑y‑, Z‑ri‑y a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\§f‑ns‑e k‑v{‑X‑o k‑m¶‑n[‑y‑w‑, Ah‑nS§f‑n \‑ne\‑n ¡‑p¶ e‑n‑wKh‑nt‑hN\‑w‑, k‑v{‑X‑oa‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯It‑c‑mS‑pff e‑n‑wK‑m[‑nj‑vT‑nX ka‑o]\‑w F¶‑n§s‑\ \‑nch[‑n h‑njb§Ä NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p¶‑p Bd‑ma [‑y‑mb‑w. H¸‑w h‑mÀ¯If‑ns‑e k‑v{‑X‑o h‑nc‑p²Xb‑p‑w k‑v{‑X‑ob‑ps‑S hk‑vX‑pþ Nc¡‑ph¡cWh‑p‑w. h‑mÀ¯ s‑]‑mX‑p h‑n Hc‑p ]‑pc‑pj‑m[‑n]X‑y t‑aJeb‑m s‑W¶‑p‑w a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\¯‑ns‑e DbÀ¶ Xk‑vX‑nIIf‑n {‑]‑mt‑bW k‑v{‑X‑oIÄ AZ‑ri‑yc‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w X‑pe‑y t‑P‑me‑n¡‑ms‑W¦‑n t‑]‑me‑p‑w AhÀ¡‑p I‑pdª t‑hX\a‑mW‑p e`‑n¡‑p¶s‑X ¶‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ 1980 IÄ s‑X‑m«‑pff ]T\ §Ä s‑Xf‑nb‑n¡‑p¶‑p. a‑nI¨ a‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯Ic‑mb‑m a‑m{‑X‑w t‑]‑mc‑m‑, "b‑mY‑mÀY‑' k‑v{‑X‑ob‑pa‑mt‑Iï‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p ¶‑p AhÀ¡‑v. C‑u Cc« D¯ch‑mZ‑n ¯‑w ka‑ql‑w k‑v{‑X‑oa‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯Ic‑n \‑n¶‑mhi‑ys‑¸S‑p¶‑p s‑h¶‑v h‑m³ k‑q\³ (Van Zoonan‑) N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑p¶‑p. ]‑mÝ‑mX‑y h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑ya§f‑ns‑e h‑wic‑m{‑ã‑oba‑mW‑v Gg‑ma[‑y‑mb¯‑n s‑e h‑njb‑w. k‑v{‑X‑o {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑m\§ s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑p ]dªX‑pt‑]‑ms‑e‑, h‑wi {‑]‑mX‑n\‑n[‑yh‑p‑w a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\§f‑n e‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S DffS¡¯‑ne‑p‑w Hc‑pt‑]‑ms‑e {‑][‑m\a‑mW‑v. "\½f‑p‑w Ahc‑p‑w' (‑us and them) F¶ Z‑zµ‑z IÀX‑r]Zh‑n k‑rã‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v ]‑mÝ‑mX‑y h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑ya§Ä h‑mÀ¯b‑ne‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya§f‑ne‑p‑w h‑wi‑ob \‑y‑q\]£§s‑f DÄs‑¸S‑p¯‑p ¶X‑pXs‑¶. C´‑yb‑n a‑m[‑ya§f‑n s‑e ht‑cW‑y‑, A[‑oi APïb‑p‑w k‑m¶‑n[‑yh‑p‑w P‑mX‑n \‑nÀWb‑n¡‑p¶ X‑pt‑]‑ms‑eb‑mW‑v ]‑mÝ‑mX‑yt‑e‑mI¯‑v h‑wi‑w k¶‑nl‑nXa‑mI‑p¶X‑v. h‑mÀ¯‑m a‑m[‑ya§f‑ns‑e ]‑mTc‑q]§f‑n {‑]IS a‑mI‑p¶ h‑wi‑obXb‑ps‑S ]Zt‑I‑mih‑p‑w h‑y‑mIcWh‑p‑w N‑nÓh‑yhØb‑p‑w


(45) existing American life, the media - weekly, daily, hourly - break new ground in getting it wrong. The coverage is distorted by celebrity and the worship of celebrity; by the reduction of news to gossip, which is the lowest form of news; by sensationalism, which is always a turning away from a society’s real condition; and by a political and social discourse that we - the press, the media, the politicians, and the people- are turning into a sewer”.

Ì‑phÀ«‑v Ae³

Ì‑phÀ«‑vl‑mÄ DÄs‑¸s‑Sb‑pffhÀ NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p¶‑pï‑v. Id‑p¯ht‑c‑mS‑pff hÀWs‑hd‑n¡‑v \‑qä‑mï‑pIf‑ps‑S ]g¡a‑ps‑ï¦‑n KÄ^‑v b‑p²‑m\´c a‑mW‑v CÉ‑mt‑a‑mt‑^‑m_‑nb ]‑mÝ‑mX‑y a‑m[‑ya§f‑n ]IÀ¨h‑y‑m[‑nt‑]‑ms‑e ] SÀ¶‑p ]‑nS‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. AÂþPk‑odb‑ps‑S h‑mÀ¯‑mc‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑n CÉ‑ma‑nI h‑nc‑p²Xb‑ps‑S a‑m\§Ä Ae³ NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. s‑k]‑vX‑w_À 11 D‑w Cd‑mJ‑v b‑p² h‑p‑w ]Ý‑m¯ea‑m¡‑n \ha‑m[‑ya§ f‑ns‑e h‑mÀ¯‑mc‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑w h‑niIe \‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p‑, AS‑p¯ A[‑y‑mb‑w. a‑m[‑ya§Ä P\‑m[‑n]X‑y k‑ma‑ql‑y {‑Ia‑w \‑ne\‑nÀ¯‑p¶X‑ns‑â B[‑p\‑n I‑m\´c L«s‑a¶ \‑neb‑ne‑mW‑v \h a‑m[‑ya§f‑ns‑e CSs‑]S k‑m[‑yXIÄ N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡s‑¸S‑md‑pffX‑v. ]¦‑mf‑n¯ P\‑m[‑n]X‑ys‑a¶ \‑neb‑n t‑e¡‑v‑, a‑p³s‑]‑mc‑n¡e‑pa‑nÃ‑m¯h‑n[‑w a‑m[‑yah‑mÀ¯If‑ps‑S c‑m{‑ã‑ob[Àa‑w a‑md‑nhc‑p¶‑p. a‑m\‑ph I‑mÊÂk‑v i‑r‑wJe‑mka‑ql‑w (network society) F¶‑p h‑nf‑n¨ I‑me¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w AhØb‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑oba‑mW‑nX‑v. h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑yas‑a¶ \‑neb‑n ]{‑X‑w‑, t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ F¶‑nh¡‑v I\¯ s‑hÃ‑ph‑nf‑n DbÀ¯‑n CâÀ s‑\ä‑v \‑neh‑n h¶X‑ns‑â Gäh‑p‑w a‑nI¨ DZ‑mlcW§f‑mb‑mW‑v Ae³ 9/11 D‑w Cd‑mJ‑v b‑p²h‑p‑w a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑p hb‑v¡‑p¶X‑v. 1995  Xs‑¶ H‑mI‑vel‑ma‑m k‑vt‑^‑mS\]c¼c h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑yas‑a¶ \‑neb‑n CâÀ s‑\ä‑n\‑pff A\´k‑m[‑yXIÄ s‑hf‑n s‑¸S‑p¯‑nb‑nc‑p¶‑p. t‑ae‑v]dª a‑q¶‑p kµÀ`§f‑ne‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯‑m\‑nÀ½‑nX‑nb‑n

s‑e ]‑ucka‑ql CSs‑]S F¶ \‑ne b‑ne‑p‑w s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑\¡‑mÄ t‑hK¯‑n e‑p‑w s‑s‑hh‑n[‑y¯‑ne‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯‑m{‑]Nc W‑w \S¡‑p¶‑p F¶ \‑neb‑ne‑pa‑mW‑v CâÀs‑\ä‑ns‑â h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑ya k‑z`‑mh‑w {‑it‑²ba‑mbX‑v. a‑pJ‑y[‑mc‑m a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S `cWI‑qSh‑nt‑[bX‑z‑w CâÀs‑\ä‑v a‑m[‑ya§Ä \‑nj‑v{‑]b‑mk‑w ad‑nIS¶‑p. At‑ac‑n¡³ a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ ¯I\‑mb t‑]‑mÄ B³{‑U‑qk‑v ]dª X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e‑, "hfs‑ct‑hK‑w Ah h‑yh Ø‑m]‑nX a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\§s‑f¡‑mÄ h‑ni‑z‑mk‑yX t‑\S‑ns‑bS‑p¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p'. C‑u {‑KÙ¯‑ns‑e Gäh‑p‑w {‑it‑²b a‑mb `‑mKa‑mW‑v Ahk‑m\ A[‑y‑mb‑w -‑"Good Journalism is popular Culture‑'. h‑m«Àt‑Kä‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«Àa‑mc‑n s‑e‑mc‑mf‑mb I‑mÄ t‑_¬Ì‑o³ ‑"Z \‑y‑q d‑n¸»‑nI‑v‑' a‑mk‑nIb‑ns‑eg‑pX‑nb ‑"Z CU‑nbä‑v IĨÀ‑' F¶ t‑eJ\‑w ka‑r²a‑mb‑p²c‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v Ae³ C‑ub[‑y‑mb‑w cN‑n¨‑n«‑pffX‑v. a‑nI¨ a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯\‑w Ft‑¸‑mg‑p‑w P\ ]£t‑¯‑mS‑p t‑NÀ¶‑v P\{‑]‑nba‑mb‑n \‑ne\‑n¡‑p‑w. ]s‑£ AX‑v C¡‑nf‑n b‑p‑w ]cZ‑qjWh‑p‑w \‑nd¨ A]h‑mZ h‑yhk‑mbaÃ. ka‑o]I‑me¯‑mb‑n ]s‑£ h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑yak‑wk‑vI‑mc‑w AX‑ns‑â FÃ‑m\‑neh‑mch‑p‑w XIÀ¯‑v H‑mSk‑ml‑nX‑y‑w t‑]‑ms‑eb‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. Ae³‑, t‑_¬Ì‑ns‑â h‑m¡‑pIÄ D²c‑n¡‑p¶‑p: “increasingly the America rendered today in the American media is illusionary and delusionary-dis figured, unreal, disconnected from the true context of our lives. In covering actually

C‑u h‑m¡‑pIf‑ns‑e h‑naÀi\k‑zc‑w‑, ]{‑X‑w‑, t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ a‑m[‑ya §f‑nt‑e¡‑p h‑y‑m]‑n¸‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v Ae³. s‑k³t‑kjWe‑nk¯‑n\‑p t‑hï‑n F´‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑n\‑ndb‑v¡‑p¶ ]{‑X§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w 1976  ]‑pd¯‑ph¶‑, \‑me‑v H‑mk‑vI‑mÀ ]‑pck‑vI‑mc§Ä t‑\S‑nb "Network' F¶ k‑n\‑nab‑nt‑e X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e‑, t‑dä‑n‑wK‑n\‑mb‑n GXä‑whs‑c b‑p‑w t‑]‑mI‑p¶ s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ N‑m\e‑p If‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w I‑mea‑mW‑nX‑v. s‑ke‑n{‑_‑nä‑n IÄ‑, S‑mt‑»‑mb‑vs‑s‑Ut‑kj³‑, C³s‑^‑m s‑«b‑v³s‑aâ‑v F¶‑o kah‑mI‑y§f‑ne‑q s‑S P\{‑]‑nba‑mI‑m³ {‑ia‑n¡‑p¶ h‑mÀ¯‑ma‑m[‑yak‑wk‑vI‑mc¯‑ns‑â hÀ¯a‑m\‑w Ae³ ka{‑Ka‑mbht‑e‑m I\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. CXÃ‑, t‑_¬Ì‑o³ ]db‑p¶ P\{‑]‑nbX F¶‑v H‑mÀ½‑n¸‑n ¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. A¡‑mZa‑nI Kt‑hjWh‑p‑w s‑s‑k ²‑m´‑nI k¦e‑v]\§f‑p‑w I‑q«‑nb‑nW ¡‑n‑, A¨S‑n‑, {‑ih‑y‑, Z‑ri‑y‑, \ha‑m[‑ya §f‑ns‑e h‑mÀ¯‑mc‑m{‑ã‑obs‑¯ ka{‑K a‑mb]{‑KY‑n¡‑p¶ {‑it‑²ba‑ms‑b‑mc‑p {‑KÙa‑mW‑v Ì‑phÀ«‑v Aes‑â "\‑y‑qk‑v IĨÀ'. a‑pXe‑mf‑n¯‑, k‑m{‑a‑mP‑y¯ a‑m[‑ya X‑mÂ]c‑y§f‑ps‑S t‑\À¡‑p s‑s‑Is‑¡‑mff‑p¶ h‑naÀi\‑mßI \‑ne ]‑mS‑p‑w CSX‑p]£‑, {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑X a‑m[‑yah‑niIe\§t‑f‑mS‑p t‑NÀ¶‑p \‑n¡‑p¶ c‑m{‑ã‑ob {‑]X‑n_²Xb‑p‑w a‑m[‑yac‑wKs‑¯ e‑n‑wK‑, h‑wi t‑a t‑¡‑mb‑vaIt‑f‑mS‑pff \‑ni‑nXa‑mb h‑nt‑b‑mP‑n¸‑p‑w k‑mt‑¦X‑nI‑, k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI h‑yhl‑mcaÞe§Ä ka\‑zb‑n¸‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑pff a‑m[‑ya h‑naÀi\¯‑ns‑â `{‑ZXb‑p‑w C‑u ]T\ s‑¯ C‑uS‑päX‑m¡‑p¶‑p. h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI]T\¯‑n X‑mÂ]c‑y a‑pffhÀ \‑nÝba‑mb‑p‑w h‑mb‑n¨‑nc‑n t‑¡ï {‑KÙ‑w. {ioi¦c kÀÆIemimebnð aebmfw A[ym]I\mWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: shajijacob67@gmail.com

sk]vXw_À 2013


(46) Bookshelf New Books @ Academy Library A View From The Raisina Hill

A View From The Raisina Hill

P.P. Balachandran is a Malayalee born in Andhra Pradesh (Visakhapatnam) but grew up mostly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. His schooling, too, had seen a series of interruptions on account of his soldier-father’s frequent transfers which took him to a village grammar school, several cantonment schools, a high profile boarding school in the hills, and a modest Malayalam-medium high school in Kerala. He did his graduation in History and Master’s in English Literature which he left half way through to do a PG course in Journalism under the renowned journalist M Shivram at Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Trivandrum.

P.P. Balachandram

He came to Delhi at the dawn of the seventies with a bagful of books and a single dream – to be a top-billing journalist, a real headliner. He started his career under Nikhil Chakravarthy in IPA and Mainstream, and saw it peak through The Washington Post, Reuters and Asiaweek. In 2000 he went to the Gulf to edit an English newspaper as its managing editor before he joined Al Jazeera, the English news channel, as a senior editor. He came back to India in 2008 and worked briefly with the News X television channel as its editor. This is his debut book.

A View from the Raisina Hill

P. P. Balachandran Har Anand Publications Pvt. Ltd 154 Pages; Price: Rs. 395 A View from the Raisina Hill is a compendium of select writings by senior journalist P.P. Balachandran. A Delhi-based journalist for most of the last 40 years, Bala has been witness, all these years, to great many events that impacted Indian democracy, in particular, and the sub-continent’s geopolitics in general. Most of the writings in this collection happened since the nineties when he transformed himself from being a subbing and reporting journalist to an editorializing journalist in other words, from an active journalist that he loved being forever to an arm-chair journalist that he loathed to be. The 163-page, Har Anandpublished book comprises a series of commentaries Bala made on current political, economic and social events, both national and global, that took place during the 40 plus years he has been in the profession. The book is a reader’s delight from a reluctant, but a redoubtable sk]vXw_À 2013

Managing Media Work Editor: Mark Deuze SAGE 307 Pages; Price: Rs. 3000

Managing Media Work explores the ways media industries function, how media professionals manage their careers, how media industries engage with creativity and innovation, and how to make sense of this in ways to empower aspiring professionals. While students who want to enter a media industry may understand the impact the industry has on audiences and politics, these students generally are not empowered to understand how and why the industry works as it does, nor how contemporary worldwide societal shifts and trends such as globalization, digitalization, convergence, and individualization affect the everyday managerial and creative practices in the industry. Managing Media Work Brings together world-class scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, each addressing general or particular concerns about the conditions and changing nature of (new) media work in different areas of the creative industries.

The Manual of Photography

Editors: Elizabeth Allen, Sophie Triantaphillidou Elsevier/Focal Press 566 Pages; Price: Rs. 2770 The Manual of Photography is an indispensable textbook for anyone who is serious about photography. It is ideal if you want to gain insight into the underlying scientific principles of photography and digital imaging, whether you are a professional photographer, lab technician, researcher or student in the field, or simply an enthusiastic amateur. This iconic text was first published in 1890 and has aided many thousands of photographers in developing their own techniques and understanding of the medium. Now in full colour, The Manual of Photography still retains its clear, reader-friendly style and is filled with images and illustrations demonstrating the key principles. Not only giving you the skills and know-how to take stunning photographs, but will also allowing you to fully understand the science behind the creation of great images.


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t‑{‑]‑m ]»‑n¡

s‑]‑mX‑p X‑me‑v]c‑y¯‑ne‑pÅ ]{‑X{‑] hÀ¯\‑w F¶ a‑p{‑Z‑mh‑mI‑yt‑¯‑ms‑S {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶ C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑oh‑v t‑PWe‑nk‑w Ø‑m]\a‑mb t‑{‑]‑m ]»‑n¡b‑ps‑S s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑mW‑v-

http://www.propublica.org.

\‑y‑qt‑b‑mÀ¡‑ns‑e a³l‑m«\‑n {‑] hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶ t‑{‑]‑m ]»‑n¡ h‑mÄ k‑v{‑S‑oä‑v t‑PWe‑ns‑â a‑p³ a‑mt‑\P‑n‑wK‑v UbdÎd‑mb t‑]‑mÄ Ì‑oKd‑mW‑vØ‑m]‑n¨X‑v. Ct‑¸‑mÄ \‑y‑qt‑b‑mÀ¡‑v s‑s‑S‑wk‑ns‑â a‑p³ C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑oh‑v t‑PWe‑nÌ‑mb Ì‑o^³ F‑wK‑nÄs‑_ ÀK‑p‑w h‑mÄ k‑v{‑S‑oä‑v t‑PWe‑ns‑â a‑p³ Ak‑nÌâ‑v ]»‑njÀ d‑n¨‑mÀU‑v t‑S‑m^e‑p‑w t‑NÀ¶‑p \b‑n¡‑p¶‑p. 2008 P\‑phc‑nb‑n {‑]hÀ¯\‑w X‑pS§‑nb C‑u Ø‑m]\¯‑n 40 ]{‑X{‑] hÀ¯Ic‑pï‑v. kÀ¡‑mc‑p‑w s‑]‑mX‑pØ‑m]\§f‑p‑w _‑nk‑n\k‑v Ø‑m]\§f‑p‑w \ S¯‑p¶ Ag‑naX‑nIf‑p‑w AhÀ ad¨‑phb‑v¡‑m\‑m{‑Kl‑n¡‑p¶ I‑mc‑y§f‑p‑w ]‑pd¯‑ps‑I‑mï‑phc‑nI F¶X‑mW‑p X§f‑ps‑S {‑]hÀ¯\ e£‑ys‑a¶‑v {‑]J‑y‑m]‑n¨‑n«‑pÅ t‑{‑]‑m]»‑n¡b‑ps‑S a‑n¡ k‑vt‑ä‑md‑nIf‑p‑w At‑ac‑n¡b‑n h³ Ne\§Ä Dï‑m¡‑nb‑n«‑pï‑v. 2010e‑p‑w 2011e‑p‑w ]‑pe‑nä‑vkÀ ]‑pck‑vI‑mc‑w e`‑n¨‑p. C³s‑hÌ‑nt‑Kä‑oh‑v t‑PWe‑nk‑w [‑mc‑mf‑w ]Wh‑p‑w kabh‑p‑w s‑Nehg‑nt‑¡ï t‑aJeb‑mbX‑n\‑m a‑n¡ ]{‑X§f‑p‑w AX‑n \‑n¶‑p h‑n«‑p \‑ne‑vI‑p¶X‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v- k‑m³U‑veÀ ^‑ut‑ïjs‑â k‑m¼¯‑nI kl‑mbt‑¯‑ms‑S t‑{‑]‑m]»‑n¡ c‑wKs‑¯¯‑nbX‑v. Ahc‑ps‑S

d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIÄ a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\§Ä¡‑v k‑uP\‑ya‑mb‑n \e‑vI‑p‑w. s‑s‑kä‑n FÃ‑m d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIf‑p‑w {‑] k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨‑n«‑pa‑pï‑v. {‑I‑nt‑bä‑oh‑v t‑I‑ma¬k‑v s‑s‑ek³k‑v {‑]I‑mc‑w BÀ¡‑p‑w C‑u d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIÄ ]‑p\ {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑m‑w. t‑{‑]‑m]»‑n¡ a‑mKk‑ns‑â B]‑v U‑u¬t‑e‑mU‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑m s‑Ft‑^‑mW‑n a‑mKk‑n³ k‑uP\‑ya‑mb‑n h‑mb‑n¡‑m‑w. s‑s‑kä‑n cP‑nÌÀ s‑N¿‑p¶hÀ¡‑v GX‑mï‑v FÃ‑m Z‑nhkh‑p‑w ]‑pX‑nb d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIÄ Cs‑ab‑ne‑n Ab¨‑p Xc‑p‑w. d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIf‑ps‑S C _‑pI‑v c‑q] h‑p‑w U‑u¬t‑e‑mU‑v s‑Nb‑vs‑XS‑p¡‑m‑w.

d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v H‑m¬ s‑lð¯‑v

At‑ac‑n¡³ a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑ps‑S Bt‑c‑mK‑yk‑w_Ô‑nb‑mb d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v s‑a¨s‑¸S‑p¯‑m³ Dt‑±i‑n¨‑v b‑q\‑nt‑hg‑vk‑nä‑n H‑m^‑v kt‑X¬ I‑me‑nt‑^‑mÀW‑nb X‑pS§‑nh¨ s‑^t‑Ã‑mj‑n¸‑ns‑â s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑mW‑v- http://www. reportingonhealth.org. C‑u c‑wK¯‑v {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶hÀ¡‑v Bib§Ä s‑s‑Ia‑md‑m\‑p‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v‑, t‑»‑mK‑n‑wK‑v X‑pS§‑nbhb‑v¡‑mb‑p‑w C‑u s‑s‑kä‑p‑w k‑wLS\b‑p‑w t‑hZ‑ns‑b‑mc‑p¡‑p‑w. s‑l¯‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«Àa‑mÀ¡‑v ]c‑ni‑oe\‑w \e‑vI‑pI‑, At‑ac‑n¡b‑ns‑e a‑nI¨ t‑U‑mÎÀa‑mÀ‑, `cW‑m[‑nI‑mc‑nIÄ X‑pS§‑nbhc‑pa‑mb‑n Bibh‑n\‑nab¯‑n\‑v- Ahkc‑w \e‑vI‑pI F¶X‑p‑w CX‑ns‑â e£‑ya‑mW‑v-. Chc‑ps‑S FÃ‑m d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIf‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w ]‑qÀW

c‑q]‑w s‑s‑kä‑n \‑n¶‑p I‑n«‑p‑w. B[‑nI‑mc‑nIXb‑pÅ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIf‑ps‑S D¯a a‑mX‑rIIf‑mW‑v- Cht‑b‑mt‑c‑m¶‑p‑w. s‑s‑kä‑ns‑â d‑nt‑k‑mg‑vkk‑v F¶ h‑n`‑mK‑w a‑nI¨ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIÄ F§s‑\ Xb‑md‑m¡‑ms‑a¶X‑n\‑p a‑mÀK\‑nÀt‑Zi§Ä \e‑vI‑p¶‑p. s‑ek¬k‑v {‑^‑w Z‑v ^‑oÂU‑v‑, t‑k‑mg‑vkk‑v UbdÎd‑n‑, d‑nt‑k‑mg‑vk‑v s‑s‑KU‑v F¶‑nhb‑mW‑v- d‑nt‑k‑mg‑vkk‑v h‑n`‑mK¯‑ns‑e D]h‑n`‑mK§Ä. CX‑p a‑oU‑nb‑m s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIÄ¡‑v a‑mX‑rIb‑m¡‑mh‑p¶X‑mW‑v-. s‑s‑kä‑ns‑â t‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v b‑qk‑v h‑n`‑mKh‑p‑w a‑oU‑nb‑m h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑mk s‑s‑kä‑pIÄ¡‑v D]I‑mc{‑]Za‑mW‑v-.

Z‑v k‑vI‑q¸‑v

]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑ns‑e {‑][‑m\ h‑m¡‑pIf‑ns‑e‑m¶‑mW‑v- k‑vI‑q¸‑v F¶s‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w thescoop.org F¶ s‑h_‑v h‑ne‑mk‑w k‑z´a‑m¡‑nbX‑v Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w Ø‑m]\aÃ‑, s‑Us‑dI‑v h‑nÃ‑nk‑v F¶ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I\‑mW‑v-. ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\‑w‑, I¼‑y‑q«À Ak‑nÌU‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v‑, s‑h_‑v Uhe]‑vs‑aâ‑v F¶‑o h‑njb§f‑n s‑UdI‑v Fg‑pX‑nb t‑eJ\§f‑mW‑v- C‑u s‑s‑kä‑ns‑â DÅS¡‑w. CX‑ns‑e ^‑nI‑vk‑n‑wK‑v t‑PWe‑nk‑w F¶ h‑n`‑mK‑w `‑mh‑nb‑ns‑e t‑PWe‑nk‑w k‑w_Ô‑n¨ h‑nh‑n[ t‑eJ\§f‑ps‑S ka‑ml‑mca‑mW‑v-. CX‑v ]‑pX‑nb h‑nhc §Ä Ad‑nb‑m³ kl‑mb‑n¡‑p‑w. awKfw Zn\]{X¯nsâ No^v \yqkv FUnädmWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: epshajudeen@gmail.com

sk]vXw_À 2013


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A¡mZan hmÀ¯IÄ

s‑N‑mÆc ]ct‑ai‑zc³ Ah‑mÀU‑v h‑n. PbI‑pa‑md‑n\‑v

a‑nI¨ At‑\‑zjW‑mßI d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n\‑pÅ 2012-s‑e t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n s‑N‑mÆc ]ct‑ai‑zc³ Ah‑mÀU‑n\‑v t‑Icf I‑ua‑pZ‑n t‑I‑m«b‑w b‑qW‑nä‑ns‑e k‑v-s‑]j‑y Idk‑vt‑]‑mïâ‑v h‑n. PbI‑pa‑mÀ AÀl\‑mb‑n. 25‑,000 c‑q]b‑p‑w {‑]ik‑vX‑n ]{‑Xh‑paS§‑p¶X‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑v. t‑Icf I‑ua‑pZ‑nb‑n 2012 U‑nk‑w_À 20 a‑pX 27 hs‑c {‑] k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨ ‑"s‑I‑mÃt‑à \½‑ps‑S I‑mbe‑ns‑\‑' F¶ ] c¼cb‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑n\Àla‑mbX‑v. F³.BÀ.Fk‑v._‑m_‑p‑, s‑I.t‑K‑mh‑nµ³I‑p«‑n‑, h‑n.c‑mPt‑K‑m]‑m F¶‑nhcS§‑nb ka‑nX‑nb‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑v \‑nÝb‑n¨X‑v. d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑ns‑â ka{‑KXb‑p‑w At‑\‑zjW Z‑rã‑nb‑ps‑S P‑m{‑KXb‑p‑w h‑njb¯‑ns‑â kaI‑me {‑] kà‑nb‑p‑w IW¡‑ns‑eS‑p¯‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑v. H«\h[‑n t‑]c‑ps‑S P‑oh‑nXh‑p‑w s‑X‑mg‑ne‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸«‑pI‑nS¡‑p¶ I‑mbe‑ns‑â ae‑n\‑oIcW‑w DbÀ¯‑p¶ {‑] i‑v-\§s‑f t‑eJI³ ka‑ql{‑i²b‑n s‑I‑mï‑ph¶X‑mb‑n ka‑nX‑n h‑neb‑nc‑p¯‑n. P\d d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑n\‑v k‑wØ‑m\ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\ Ah‑mÀU‑v‑, k‑wØ‑m\ S‑qd‑nk‑w Ah‑mÀU‑v‑, i‑nhd‑m‑w Ah‑mÀU‑v‑, a‑nI¨ c‑m{‑ã‑ob d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑n\‑v s‑I.k‑n. s‑k_‑mÌ‑y³ Ah‑mÀU‑v‑, ]‑m¼³ a‑m[h³ Ah‑mÀU‑v X‑pS§‑n ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\ c‑wK¯‑v 26 H‑mf‑w ]‑pck‑v-I‑mc§Ä PbI‑pa‑md‑n\‑v e`‑n¨‑n«‑pï‑v.

t‑^‑mt‑«‑m{‑K^‑n Ah‑mÀU‑v cP‑nX‑v _‑me\‑v

2012s‑e a‑nI¨ \‑y‑qk‑v t‑^‑mt‑«‑m{‑K‑m^À¡‑pÅ t‑Icf {‑] k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n Ah‑mÀU‑n\‑v a‑wKf‑w Z‑n\]{‑X¯‑ns‑e cP‑nX‑v _‑me³ AÀl\‑mb‑n. 25‑,000 c‑q]b‑p‑w {‑]ik‑vX‑n ]{‑Xh‑pa‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑v. a‑wKf‑w Z‑n\]{‑X¯‑n 2012 G{‑]‑n 27 \‑v {‑] k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨ ‑"I®‑oc‑n\‑p a‑p¶‑n Ic‑pWb‑nÃ‑ms‑X‑' F¶ \‑y‑qk‑v t‑^‑mt‑«‑mb‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑n\Àla‑mbX‑v. H‑.s‑I. t‑P‑mW‑n‑, F. klt‑Zh³‑, at‑lj‑v a‑wKe‑mSv F¶‑nhcS§‑nb ka‑nX‑nb‑mW‑v t‑PX‑mh‑ns‑\ s‑Xcs‑ªS‑p¯X‑v. t‑d‑mU] IS¯‑nÂs‑]«‑v Ic‑pWb‑mN‑n¡‑p¶ht‑c‑mS‑v \‑nÊ‑wKX I‑m«‑p¶ ka‑qls‑¯b‑mW‑v t‑^‑mt‑«‑m{‑K‑m^À X‑pd¶‑pI‑m«‑p¶s‑X¶‑v ka‑nX‑n h‑neb‑nc‑p¯‑n. a\‑pj‑ys‑\ k‑zb‑w h‑neb‑nc‑p¯‑m³ C¯c‑w N‑n{‑X§Ä kl‑mb‑n¡‑ps‑a¶‑p‑w ka‑nX‑n A`‑n{‑]‑mbs‑¸«‑p. 2005 a‑wKf‑w Z‑n\]{‑X¯‑n t‑^‑mt‑«‑m{‑K‑m^d‑mb‑n t‑NÀ¶ cP‑nX‑v _‑me³‑, s‑I‑m¨‑n‑, X‑nc‑ph\´]‑pc‑w b‑qW‑nä‑pIf‑n t‑kh\a\‑pj‑vT‑n¨‑p. Ct‑¸‑mÄ X‑ri‑qÀ b‑qW‑nä‑n t‑P‑me‑n s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. UÂl‑n t‑I‑ma s‑h¯‑v AS¡‑w ]e c‑mP‑y‑m´c‑, t‑Zi‑ob I‑mb‑nI aÕc§f‑p‑w IhÀ s‑Nb‑vX‑p. CS‑p¡‑n {‑]k‑v ¢_‑ns‑â s‑I ]‑n t‑K‑m]‑n\‑mY‑v k‑va‑mcI t‑^‑mt‑«‑m{‑K^‑n ]‑pck‑v-I‑mc‑w‑, s‑I‑m¨‑n t‑^‑mt‑«‑m t‑PÀWe‑nÌ‑v t‑^‑md‑w k‑wØ‑m\ ]‑pck‑v-I‑mc‑w‑, t‑l‑mÀ«‑n IĨÀ s‑k‑ms‑s‑kä‑n k‑wØ‑m\ I‑mÀj‑nI ]‑pck‑v-I‑mc‑w X‑pS§‑nbh¡‑v AÀl\‑mb‑n. X‑ri‑qÀ t‑Nä‑p]‑pg t‑I‑me¯‑qh‑o«‑n _‑mes‑âb‑p‑w k‑pi‑oeb‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w aI\‑mW‑v. sk]vXw_À 2013

a‑qÀ¡ó‑qÀ \‑mc‑mbW³ Ah‑mÀU‑v ]‑n.]‑n. e‑n_‑oj‑v-I‑pa‑md‑n\‑v t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nb‑ps‑S 2012-s‑e a‑nI¨ {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑nI t‑eJI\‑pÅ a‑qÀ¡¶‑qÀ \‑mc‑mbW³ Ah‑mÀU‑n\‑v a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑n I‑mkÀt‑I‑mU‑v t‑eJI³ ]‑n.]‑n.e‑n_‑oj‑v-I‑pa‑mÀ AÀl\‑mb‑n. 25‑,000 c‑q]b‑p‑w {‑]ik‑vX‑n]{‑Xh‑pa‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑v. a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑n Z‑n\]{‑X¯‑n 2012 P‑qs‑s‑e 27‑, s‑k]‑vX‑w_À cï‑v‑, F«‑v X‑obX‑nIf‑n {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨ "s‑a‑m{‑K‑m ]‑p¯‑qc‑ns‑â Z‑pc‑nX I‑mg‑vNIÄ‑' F¶ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑n\‑v AÀla‑mbX‑v. a‑pX‑nÀ¶ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑mb aeb‑n³I‑og‑v t‑K‑m]‑meI‑rj‑vW³‑, h‑n.C._‑meI‑r j‑vW³‑, Bs‑_ t‑P¡_‑v F¶‑nh c‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑n\‑pÅ F³{‑S‑nIÄ ]c‑nt‑i‑m[‑n¨X‑v. F³t‑U‑mkÄ^‑m³ Z‑pc‑nX‑w h‑nX¨ {‑K‑ma§f‑ps‑S C\‑nb‑p‑w ]dª‑p X‑oc‑m¯ Z‑pc‑nXI‑mg‑vNIf‑ps‑S I®‑oÀ IYIf‑mW‑v t‑eJI³ s‑a‑m{‑K‑m ]‑q¯‑qc‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w h‑mb\¡‑mc‑ps‑S a‑p¼‑n AhXc‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. Hc‑p Xea‑pds‑b a‑pg‑ph³ a‑m\k‑nIh‑p‑w i‑mc‑oc‑nIh‑pa‑mb s‑s‑hIe‑y§f‑n I‑pc‑p¡‑nb‑n« F³t‑U‑mkÄ^‑ms‑â {‑I‑qcXb‑p‑w \cIX‑pe‑ya‑mb P‑oh‑nX‑w XÅ‑n\‑o¡‑p¶ I‑pª‑p§f‑ps‑S k¦S§f‑p‑w a\‑pj‑ya\Ê‑m£‑nb‑ps‑S t‑\‑mh‑v Bb‑n A\‑p`hs‑¸S‑p¶‑ps‑ï¶‑v Ah‑mÀU‑v \‑nÀ®b ka‑nX‑n A`‑n{‑]‑mbs‑¸«‑p. t‑I‑mg‑nt‑¡‑mS‑v P‑nÃb‑ns‑e ]‑oe‑n t‑¡‑mS‑v k‑zt‑Zi‑nb‑mb ]‑n.]‑n.e‑n_‑oj‑vI‑pa‑mÀ 2010 P‑qs‑s‑e a‑pX a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑n I‑mkÀt‑I‑mS‑v _‑y‑qt‑d‑m t‑eJI\‑mW‑v. 2012- k‑n.]‑n.{‑i‑o[c³ k‑va‑mcI ]{‑X {‑]hÀ¯I Ah‑mÀU‑v e`‑n¨‑p. IY‑m I‑r¯‑vI‑qS‑nb‑mb t‑eJI\‑v Ie‑m IY‑m k½‑m\‑w‑, P‑n± Ac§‑v Ie‑mk‑ml‑nX‑y t‑hZ‑nb‑ps‑S a‑n\‑n¡Y‑m k½‑m\‑w‑, At‑\‑zj‑n IY‑m Ah‑mÀU‑v‑, DWÀÆ‑v a‑n\‑n¡Y k½‑m\‑w‑, \hci‑va‑n IY‑m Ah‑mÀU‑v X‑pS§‑nb ]‑pck‑v-I‑mc§Ä e`‑n¨‑n«‑pï‑v. A§‑mS‑n¸£‑n‑, N‑ne t‑\c§f‑n a‑o\‑m£‑n F¶‑o IY‑m ka‑ml‑mc§Ä {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨‑n«‑pï‑v.


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h‑n.]‑n.Bd‑n\‑v k‑zt‑Zi‑m`‑na‑m\‑n - t‑Ikc‑n ]‑pck‑v-I‑mc‑w k½‑m\‑n¨‑p

P\‑m[‑n]X‑y k‑wh‑n[‑m\¯‑ns‑â Ic‑p¯‑mb a‑m[‑ya§Ä I‑qS‑pX D¯ch‑mZ‑n¯t‑¯‑ms‑S {‑]i‑v-\§s‑f ka‑o]‑n¡Ws‑a¶‑v a‑pJ‑ya{‑´‑n D½³ N‑mï‑n ]dª‑p. s‑Xä‑mb h‑mÀ¯IÄ a‑m[‑ya§f‑ne‑pï‑mI‑m³ ]‑mS‑ns‑ö‑v iT‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w AX‑v P‑oh‑nX Z‑uX‑ya‑m b‑n DÄs‑¡‑mï‑v {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑ps‑S \‑mS‑m W‑v t‑Icfs‑a¶‑p‑w At‑±l‑w ]dª‑p. t‑Icf kÀ¡‑mÀ GÀs‑¸S‑p¯‑nb‑n«‑pÅ a‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯I\‑pÅ Gäh‑p‑w a‑nI ¨ ]‑pck‑v-I‑mca‑mb k‑zt‑Zi‑m`‑na‑m\‑n t‑Ikc‑n ]‑pck‑v-I‑mc‑w h‑n.]‑n c‑maN{‑µ\‑v \ÂI‑n k‑wk‑mc‑n¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p At‑±l‑w. s‑I‑m¨‑n `‑mcX‑v S‑qd‑nÌ‑v t‑l‑ma‑n \S¶ NS§‑n C³^À t‑aj³ ]»‑nI‑v d‑nt‑ej³k‑v hI‑p¸‑p

a{‑´‑n s‑I.k‑n.t‑P‑mk^‑v A²‑y£X hl‑n¨‑p. A¨S‑n a‑m[‑ya§f‑n h‑mÀ¯ Fg‑pX‑pt‑¼‑mÄ ]‑p\ÀN‑n´\a‑pï‑mh‑p Ib‑p‑w s‑Xä‑pIÄ X‑nc‑p¯‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p t‑¼‑mÄ Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑ya§f‑n AX‑pï‑m I‑p¶‑ns‑ö‑v a{‑´‑n A`‑n{‑]‑mbs‑¸«‑p. a‑m[‑ya§Ä X‑nc‑p¯Â ià‑nIf‑mW‑v‑, F¶‑m kX‑yh‑p‑w AkX‑yh‑p‑w X‑nc‑n¨d‑nb‑ms‑X h‑mÀ¯IÄ k‑rã‑n¡‑p Ib‑p‑w I¨hS X‑mÂ]c‑yt‑¯‑ms‑S {‑] hÀ¯‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶ ka‑o]\‑w t‑hZ\Ica‑mW‑v. k‑ma‑ql‑y {‑]i‑v-\§ f‑p‑w h‑nIk\ I‑mc‑y§f‑p‑w a‑mä‑nh¨‑v s‑k³t‑kjW h‑mÀ¯IÄ¡‑v ]‑n¶‑ms‑e \S¡‑p¶ a‑m[‑ya§Ä Bßh‑naÀi\‑w \S¯WWs‑a¶‑p‑w a{‑´‑n ]dª‑p. h‑n.]‑n.c‑maN{‑µ³

]‑pck‑v-I‑mc‑w Gä‑ph‑m§‑n. Hc‑pe£‑w c‑‑q]b‑p‑w {‑]ik‑vX‑n ]{‑Xh‑p‑w i‑nÂ] h‑pa‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑v. 2010- S‑n.t‑hW‑p t‑K‑m]‑me‑n\‑p‑w 2011 ii‑nI‑pa‑md‑n\‑p a‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p Ah‑mÀU‑v e`‑n¨X‑v. s‑U‑ma‑n\‑nI‑v {‑]kt‑âj³ F‑w. FÂ.F‑, t‑S‑mW‑n N½‑nW‑n‑, s‑I‑m¨‑n t‑abÀ‑, {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n s‑NbÀa‑m³ F³.]‑n.c‑mt‑P{‑µ³‑, s‑I.F‑w.t‑d‑mb‑v‑, AÐ‑pÅ a«‑mt‑©c‑n F¶‑nhÀ Bi‑wkIÄ AÀ¸‑n¨‑p. C³^Àt‑aj³ ]»‑nI‑v d‑nt‑ej ³k‑v UbdÎÀ a‑n\‑n BâW‑n s‑F.F.Fk‑v {‑]ik‑vX‑n]{‑X‑w h‑mb‑n¨‑p. s‑k{‑I«d‑n d‑mW‑n t‑P‑mÀP‑v s‑F.F.Fk‑v k‑z‑mKXh‑p‑w C³^Àt‑aj³ H‑m^‑okÀ N{‑µl‑mk³ hS‑pXe I‑rXÚb‑p‑w ]dª‑p.

a‑pX‑nÀó ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑pa‑mb‑n A`‑na‑pJ‑w: h‑nI‑v-t‑Sg‑v-k‑v N‑m\e‑nð ]c¼c X‑pS§‑n t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e a‑pX‑nÀ¶ a‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯Ic‑ps‑S s‑X‑mg‑n A\‑p`h§Ä a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑n t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n k‑wØ‑m\ h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mk hI‑p¸‑v h‑nI‑v-t‑Sg‑v-k‑v N‑m\e‑ns‑â klIcWt‑¯‑ms‑S X¿‑md‑m¡‑nb A`‑na‑pJ ]c¼c ‑"t‑^‑mÀ¯‑v Fk‑vt‑ää‑v‑' h‑nI‑v-t‑Sg‑v-k‑v N‑m\e‑n k‑wt‑{‑]jW‑w Bc‑w`‑n¨‑p. {‑]a‑pJ k‑ma‑ql‑nI-c‑m{‑ã‑ob {‑]hÀ¯I\‑mb ]‑n. h‑ni‑z‑w`cs‑â ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\‑m\‑p`h§Ä ]¦‑phb‑v¡‑p¶ A`‑na‑pJt‑¯‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑v ‑"t‑^‑mÀ¯‑v Fk‑vt‑ää‑v‑' ]c¼c X‑pS§‑nbXv. A`‑na‑pJ¯‑ns‑â BZ‑y`‑mK‑w BKÌ‑v 18 c‑mh‑ns‑e 9 aW‑n¡pw cï‑m‑w `‑mK‑w BKÌ‑v 25 c‑mh‑ns‑e 9 aW‑n¡pw k‑wt‑{‑]jW‑w s‑NbvX‑p. RmbdmgvNIfnð cmhnse 9\v \S¡pó kwt{]£Ww AópXsó sshIo«v 5.30\pw sNmÆmgvNIfnð sshIo«v 4\pw _p[\mgvNIfnð cmhnse 7.30\pw ]p\xkwt{]£Whpw sN¿pópïv. sk]vXw_À 2013


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temIw Iï hc A´Àt±iob am²yacwKs¯ {]ikvXamb ImÀ«qWpIsf ]cnNbs¸Sp¯pIbmWv Cu ]wànbnð. amXr`qan ImÀ«qWnÌv Bb tKm]oIrjvW\mWv Ch XncsªSp¯v AhXcn¸n¡póXv.

Im¸v k‑v]‑m\‑nj‑v I‑mÀ«‑qW‑nÌ‑mb I‑m¸‑v C‑uP‑n]‑vX‑ns‑e kaI‑me‑o\ B`‑y´c k‑wLÀj§s‑f a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑n hc¨ I‑mÀ«‑qW‑mW‑nX‑v. aX‑m[‑nj‑vT‑nX c‑m{‑ã‑ob]‑mÀ«‑nb‑p‑w ]«‑mfh‑p‑w X½‑ne‑pÅ _e]c‑o£W§f‑n s‑]«‑v t‑N‑mcN‑n´‑p¶X‑v k‑m[‑mcWP\§f‑ms‑W¶‑v I‑mÀ«‑qW‑nÌ‑v Ch‑ns‑S hc¨‑nS‑p¶‑p. {‑]ik‑vXa‑mb \‑nch[‑n b‑p²h‑nc‑p²I‑mÀ«‑qW‑pIÄ cN‑n¨‑n«‑pÅ I‑m¸‑ns‑â bY‑mÀ° \‑m‑w P‑us‑a I‑m]‑vs‑Uh‑ne F¶‑mW‑v. _‑mg‑vkt‑e‑m\b‑n 1974 P\‑n¨ Ct‑±l‑w _‑mg‑vkt‑e‑mW b‑qW‑nt‑hg‑vk‑nä‑nb‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w s‑s‑^\‑mÀS‑vk‑n _‑nc‑pZ‑w t‑\S‑n.. A©‑v {‑][‑m\ k‑v]‑m\‑nj‑v ]{‑X§f‑ns‑e‑m¶‑mb e‑m h‑m³K‑mÀU‑nbb‑ns‑eb‑p‑w F a‑pt‑ï‑m s‑Ut‑]‑mÀS‑ns‑h‑mb‑ns‑eb‑p‑w I‑mÀ«‑qW‑nÌ‑mb Ct‑±l‑w \‑nch[‑n {‑^©‑v‑, Cä‑me‑nb³ ]{‑X§Ä¡‑pt‑hï‑nb‑p‑w s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIÄ¡‑p t‑hï‑nb‑p‑w I‑mÀ«‑qW‑pIf‑p‑w I‑mc‑nt‑¡¨d‑pIf‑p‑w hcb‑v¡‑md‑pï‑v. Xs‑â I‑mÀ«‑qW‑pIs‑f Bk‑v]Za‑m¡‑n F«‑p ]‑pk‑vXI§Ä cN‑n¨‑n«‑pÅ I‑m¸‑v 2009s‑e K‑mä‑v s‑]c‑nj‑v CâÀ\‑mjW l‑y‑qaÀ s‑s‑{‑]k‑v AS¡‑w \‑nch[‑n ]‑pck‑vI‑mc§f‑p‑w t‑\S‑nb‑n«‑pï‑v. 19‑, 20 \‑qä‑mï‑pIf‑ns‑e k‑v]‑m\‑nj‑v käbd‑n¡Â {‑]Ê‑ns‑\¡‑pd‑n¨‑v Bg¯‑n ]T‑n¨‑n«‑pÅ I‑m]‑v k‑v]‑m\‑nj‑v a‑m[‑ya I‑mÀ«‑qW‑pIf‑ps‑S Nc‑n{‑X‑w k‑w_Ô‑n¨ \‑nch[‑n ]‑pk‑vXI§f‑ps‑S kl{‑KÙIÀ¯‑mh‑pa‑mW‑v.

tKm]oIrjvWsâ Cþsabvð: cartoonistgopikrishnan@gmail.com Printed and Published by V. R. Ajith Kumar, Secretary, On behalf of the Kerala Press Academy, Published from Kerala Press Academy, Kakkanad, Kochi – 682 030; Printed at Sterling Print House Pvt Ltd, Edappally; Editor: N. P. Rajendran.


Media Monthly |September 2013 | ` 10/- | RNI Reg No. KERBIL/2000/1676

1310 cq] hnebpÅ 11 ]pkvXI§Ä Ct¸mÄ 710 cq]¡v {]kv A¡mZan {]kn²oIcn¨ 1310 cq] sam¯w hnebpÅ 11 ]pkvXI§fpw 710 cq]¡p e`n¡pw. X]menemsW¦nð 830 cq].

hmÀ¯ IY hyhlmcw: tUm. BâWn kn tUhnkv, hne 125 cq] Im¼ntÈcn, Imew Im¯ph¨ ]{Xm[n]À, sI.kpµtci³, hne 75 cq] kztZim`nam\n: cmPt{Zmlnbmb cmP ykvt\ln, Sn.thWptKm]mð, hne 260 cq] hr¯m´ ]{X{]hÀ¯\w; kztZim`nam\n cmaIrjvW]nÅ; hne 40 cq] aebmf ]{X{]hÀ¯\¯nsâ A¼XphÀjw 1947 þ 1997, hne 90 cq] ]{X`mj; hne 20 cq] hmÀ¯bpsS inð]ime; (cïmw ]Xn¸v) F³.F³.kXy{hX³, hne 150 cq] F.sI.]nÅ: BZÀi§fpsS càkm£n; F.cm[mIrjvW³; hne 135 cq] \¼ymÀ ]nsóbpw apónð \nð¡póp; ]n.{io[c³; hne 60 cq] s\tòenbpsS I¼n; sI.sI.taml\³; hne 75 cq] aebmf ]{X`mj þ hnImk ]cnWma§Ä; hne 200cq]

tIm¸nIÄ¡v: sk{I«dn, tIcf {]kv A¡mZan; Im¡\mSv, sIm¨nþ682 030; t^m¬: 0484 2422275 sNt¡m UnUntbm aWntbmÀUtdm Ab¡pI


2013 august media online file