SCUOLA DI ARCHITETTURA URBANISTICA INGEGNERIA DELLE COSTRUZIONI
PRISON BREAK Architectural transformation of a former prison into a productive affordable housing complex
Authors: Carlo Giovanni Bernyak, Victoria Michela Braile, Dario Michencigh Supervisors: Prof. Fabio Lepratto, Prof. Elena Fontanella
Today, in the full maturation of the post-industrial era, we are experiencing a great revolution in the link between work and private life, which is reflected in social, cultural and urban dynamics. Cities and societies grow through new technologies, markets and a more heterogeneous population, and we observe the birth of professions that differentiate and displace new production in an increasingly globalized and decentralized system. In Italy this entails, especially for the population made up of young people and foreigners who are the last to enter the world of work, an economic and social vulnerability that affects socio-cultural marginalization, also due to urban policies sensitive only to market interests. This thesis therefore aims at the search for new spaces that combine life and work, creating opportunities and limiting the fragility of their inhabitants. The architectural response to research is summarized in Productive Affordable Housing, an environment designed for the profiles of the most vulnerable people, which offers them the possibility of obtaining an economically accessible living space and multifunctional, flexible and innovative workspaces. The “Prison Break” project in the city of Monza aims to revitalize a morphologically central context of the city, but characterized by the characteristics of the suburbs. The architectural transformation of the former Monza prison, a public building that has been abandoned for over twenty years, is intended to present itself as an opportunity in terms of economic sustainability, but it is also a design choice that reintegrates and regenerates a public space, introducing a new centrality in the urban fabric that can represent a reference for the local community. This intervention, which combines public, private and working dimensions, is confronted with an abandoned structure, whose memory we want to enhance. The project intends to overcome the previous functional constraint to adhere to contemporary architectural thinking that “pursues new goals and values through a metamorphosis of existing structures” (Zucchi C., 2014)
Oggi, nella piena maturazione dell’era post-industriale, viviamo una grande rivoluzione nel legame tra lavoro e vita privata, che si riflette nelle dinamiche sociali, culturali e urbane. Città e società crescono attraverso nuove tecnologie, mercati e una popolazione più eterogenea, e osserviamo la nascita di professioni che differenziano, dislocano e capillarizzano la nuova produzione in un sistema sempre più globalizzato e decentralizzato. In Italia questo comporta, soprattutto nella fascia di popolazione composta da giovani e stranieri che per ultimi si affacciano al mondo del lavoro, una vulnerabilità economico-sociale che si ripercuote sull’emarginazione socio-culturale, anche a causa di politiche urbane sensibili ai soli interessi di mercato. Questa tesi mira quindi alla ricerca di nuovi spazi che uniscano vita e lavoro, creando opportunità e limitando la fragilità dei loro abitanti. La risposta architettonica alla ricerca viene sintetizzata nel Productive Affordable Housing, un ambiente pensato per profili di persone più fragili, che offre loro la possibilità di ottenere una spazio abitativo economicamente accessibile e degli spazi di lavoro multifunzionali, flessibili e innovativi. Il progetto “Prison Break” nella città di Monza mira a rivitalizzare un contesto morfologicamente centrale della città, ma connotato da caratteristiche proprie delle periferie. La trasformazione architettonica dell’ex carcere di Monza, edificio pubblico dismesso da oltre vent’anni, vuole porsi come un’opportunità sul piano della sostenibilità economica, ma è anche una scelta progettuale che reintegra e rigenera uno spazio pubblico, introducendo una nuova centralità nel tessuto urbano che possa rappresentare un riferimento per la comunità locale. Questo intervento, che unisce dimensione pubblica, privata e lavorativa, si confronta con una struttura in abbandono, di cui si vuole valorizzare la memoria. Il progetto intende superare il vincolo funzionale precedente per aderire al pensiero architettonico contemporaneo che “persegue nuovi fini e valori attraverso una metamorfosi delle strutture esistenti”. (Zucchi C., 2014)
Index CHAP 1. * PRODUCTIVE AFFORDABLE HOUSING 1.1 What 1.2 Why 1.3 Who Interviewes
p. 10 p. 15 p. 20 p. 22
CHAP 2. * CASE STUDIES 2.1 Contemporary case Studies 2.2 Historical case Studies 2.3 Current debate
p. 33 p. 34 p. 46 p. 50
CHAP 3. * WHY REUSE? Dismissed in Italy Prisons cases
p. 55 p. 57 p. 58
CHAP 4. WHY IN MONZA? Monza History framework and stats Morphology of the job specialization Morphology of the education level Morpholohy of the foreign population Housing market Social and Temporary housing system Dismissed areas Infrastructure, connection and relevant social point
p. 63 p. 64 p. 66 p. 68 p. 70 p. 72 p. 74 p. 76 p. 78
CHAP 5. FORMER PRISON Potential and disvantage State of fact Structure diagram and distribution diagram Original functional diagram
p. 81 p. 84 p. 89 p. 92 p. 94
CHAP 6 p. 97
p. 98 p. 100 p. 102 p. 108 p. 110 p. 114
6.1 PROGRAMS AND STRATEGIES How it works Interested profile Program for dwellers Housing typology Working tipology: interview Functions concept
p. 117 p. 118 p. 122 p. 162
6.2 DESIGN Design strategy process Project Drawings Render CHAP 7
p. 174 p. 178
Iconographic index Bibliography
* Final Thesis studio Group Research “Affordable Housing: Domesticity Reloaded. Form, Uses, Spaces, Practices and Policy for Contemporary Dwelling”. Politecnico di Milano, School of Architecture Urban Planning Construction Engineering, Master of Science in Architecture - Built Environment Interiors . Professors: Massimo Bricocoli, Gennaro Postiglione, Stefania Sabatinelli. In collaboration with the Research Team “ForDwell-DASTU Dipartimento d’Eccellenza”: Gaia Caramellino, Stefano Guidarini, Fabio Lepratto, Simona Pierini, Roberto Rizzi; and with AIUC School scholars: Barbara Brollo, Antonio Carvalho, Lorenzo Consalez, Elena Fontanella, Francesca Gotti, Marco Jacomella, Massimiliano Nastri, Ingrid Paoletti; in cooperation with Double Degree program TU Graz prof. Andreas Lichtbau. Students: Amirhossein Adelfa, Carlo G. Bernyak, Victoria Braile, Jiarui Cui, Vanessa Falcone, Anamari Giraldo, Gaia Grassano, Gerardo Mendoza, Dario Michencigh, Matej Paladin
In the full maturation of the post-industrial era that unhinged the western world and the certainties of the Fordist system, we experience a profound revolution in the world of work and private life. A disturbance that is reflected in social, cultural, and consequently urban dynamics, in search of a resolutive response. At the same time, todayâ€™s cities and societies are being shaped through new technologies, new markets, new realities, and new inhabitants. The work system, therefore, sees the incessant growth of new realities and professions that differentiate, dislocate, and capillaryize production in an increasingly physically decentralized system. A system that is growing supported by the important globalization that distinguishes this century and that is a further cause of an exponentially more heterogeneous population. Change, as every revolution has historically demonstrated, brings opportunities, but also risks dictated by uncertainty and the impossibility of defining the certain boundaries of a new reality. Therefore, the world of work, carrying the stigmata of the crisis of the beginning of the millennium, lives a situation of total indeterminacy. In the same way, a large part of the population, mostly the last to enter the world of work, that of young people and foreigners, is placed in a condition of great economic and social vulnerability. A criticality that, ignored by new urban and architectural solutions sensitive to market interests, would create or even amplify social and cultural marginalization. On the urban and architectural level, the answer
translates into new spaces that combine those of living and work, thus expanding opportunities and limiting the fragility of their inhabitants. Productive affordable housingâ€? therefore arises in the architectural debate as a unified solution to the growing demand for workspaces on the one hand and the poor accessibility of the real estate market on the other. In fact, the architectural response is in multifunctional spaces, flexible and suitable for the changing and heterogeneous society. Architecturally speaking, Prison Breakâ€™s project aims to revitalize an urban context that reflects the fragility of the profiles and realities it addresses. To this end, the reuse of a disused public building, such as the former Monza prison, is an opportunity in terms of economic sustainability but becomes an important design choice for the reintegration and regeneration of public space in an urban fabric that is morphologically central but characterized by characteristics typical of the suburbs. The morphology of the area is strongly anthropized and characterized by a large industrial archaeological heritage, abandoned and in a state of abandonment, housing the 900th-century building of the former prison. The intervention of urban regeneration, proposed through a project that combines the public dimension with the private and working dimension, is confronted with a territory whose traces and memory are to be enhanced. A graft that formally stands in open contrast with the existing one, enhancing the concept of the building as part of a process of urban metamorphosis and not as an autonomous object. 9
1. Productive Affordable Housing 1.1 What ?
The typology affordable housing including productive environment is a very broad concept since it is a set of terms and there is no specific definition when merged together. It is necessary to begin with the definition of what it entails this typology, that is, to break down the interior of the concept in parts in order to analyze and thus understand the correct meaning. However, a definition is not enough to develop a correct criterion of this typology since each term of this concept implies factors that define its integrity that at the time of working together yield a positive but complex result to cite in a single definition.
Although it is important to have an specific definition of what the concept is, the term is still quite broad and full of sub-terms that should be analyzed in particular, however, doing so could divert attention from the direct relationship between the two main terms of this typology: “housing” + “productiveness”. Therefore it is relevant to understand the general evolution of this connection between these two daily activities and how they have been implemented throughout history, thus throwing different models that show in general context the various spatial relationships in the architecture of this type of housing.
(Adjective) /prəˈdʌk.tɪv/ Resulting in or providing a large amount or supply of something.
(Adjective) /prəˈdʌk.tɪv/ producing a large number of goods, crops, profit, etc. or doing a lot of work.
(adjective) /əˈfɔːr.də.bəl/Not expensive.
(adjective) /əˈfɔːr.də.bəl/ Able to be bought or rented by people who do not earn a lot of money.
Housing (noun) /ˈhɑʊ·zɪŋ/ Buildings that people live in, or the providing of places for people to live
(noun) /ˈhɑʊ·zɪŋ/ Buildings for people to live in, used especially when talking about their price or condition
Productive and Housing through history Community One of the clearest examples of productive-living is the monasteries. Its main feature is the creation of a central hub that contains the community itself, in this case, the monks who live in different â€œcellsâ€? of 3 rooms with their respective services. Each of these cells surround a central courtyard that contains a living common space for all users. The workspaces are located on the periphery of the building and in some cases within the central courtyard, destined to the production of raw material and food for the communityâ€™s own consumption, thus generating the self-maintenance of the mona-stery itself.
Farm-House This typology of Productive environment is located outside the cities. Its main feature is to generate within the same area, a food production system that can supply families that belong to the community while being sold to outsiders. The workspace and housing have a direct relationship since the pro-duction area is within the same site.
Company Town This typology of Productive Environment is the predecessor of the Work model. Its main characte-ristic is based on the fact that the source of work catalyzes the urban development around it. The first urban models of this typology developed housing in the immediate vicinity of the company and from there, the models of cities that we know today were developed. The separation between work and housing was total but unlike the more recent urban models, the transfer distances were smaller.
Productive Hub One of the clearest examples of productive-living is the monasteries. Its main feature is the creation of a central hub that contains the community itself, in this case, the monks who live in different “cells” of 3 rooms with their respective services. Each of these cells surround a central courtyard that contains a living common space for all users. The workspaces are located on the periphery of the building and in some cases within the central courtyard, destined to the production of raw material and food for the community’s own consumption, thus generating the self-maintenance of the mona-stery itself.
House-work block This is one of the most common typologies within the Productive Environments. It is characterized by having a total spatial separttion of work and housing spaces. In this typology, the user moves from the place where he lives to the place where he works, a phenomenon that generates a more extensive and centralized city scale where these work centers are really dense. This separation and centralization of typologies stimulates the sense of community through the “neighborhood”, where the user finds people who carry out the same activity of transfer to their workspaces. This typology of Productive Environment is in the process of being obsolete as the new emerging models of work and housing.
Coliving Block This typology has the purpose of creating a community that is characterized by sharing housing and work. Unlike other typologies, the work and housing spaces are mixed together within the buildings and the relationship between public and private becomes diffuse, this means that the house keeps the character private while the work has a public/ semi-public character. This phenomenon generates a wide diversity of spaces to work and live. This typology is very attractive for young peo-ple and students looking for an active and versatile model of workspaces and housing due to its affordable cost. Despite being a very attractive space model, it can generate an isolation of the city since the building itself is transformed into a “mini city”. *
Productive and Housing nowdays Home-studio This typology of Productive Environment is one of the smallest in the market but at the same time, it can be very versatile. The user has at his disposal the complete adaptability of his space to be able to work within it. The spatial relationship between living space and working space is direct since the user performs both activities within the same space. This model has become very profitable in large cities where the demand for work is higher and conventional work models are supersaturated. This typology is becoming more common among the young population due to a new emerging work models where conventional work spaces become obsolete.
Co-living The user moves along the building interacting through working defined spaces (public/semipublic) and their private housing units. Physical elements create the separation of working and housing areas. Could be partition walls or division through different levels. The functions are equilibrated along the interior of the hosting building.
Home and Work The user is forced to move in eather the working space or the housing space thenaks to a separation between activities. The spaces are fixed by levels. The ground floor is active with commerce, retail and working activities. Upper levels are defined as housing. Housing is the dominant function because normaly occupies the upper levels while the working space only occupies the ground floor or first few levels but the activity of this creates the union of the city with the inhabitants of the building.
1.2 Why Housing price Thinking on working and living include many assets in within, some of this statements come separated by each of them but at the end they merge as a response of shared commons creating a new typology of living. In order to understand the development of this mix of activities is important to analyze the main reasons leaded by two concepts: economy and society. The economic ambit goes in direct relation with the labor activity which is the detonator in order to survive in the globalized world. Talking about society comes in relation to the way and development of living of society in daily life. At the end this two main concepts merge to create the working environment coexisting with the housing determined by some aspects as it follows. On the economic level, the real estate market is
characterized by a great instability that has seen it growing on average in recent years until a recent setback. The most evident problems are defined by the incessant increase of the market price in the face of the wide demand in large European cities. In Italy, where this case is mainly represented by Milan, it can be seen from the following data how much the main housing solution is represented by the house owned and how the same is an elitist investment that does not meet the needs of a large and new slice of the population represented by a globalized society.
1â€™945 eur/sqm After the average housing pice in Italy as been constantly dropped since 2015 based on the last update data. The price of the dwelling in Italy is 1945 euro/ sqm.
9,72 eur/sqm The average rental price in Italy is 9,72 euro/sqm per month.
3,7 % In Italy only the 3,7 % of the dwelling in the real estate market are dedicated to the rental business.
72,4% In Italy, the percentage of the householder ownership is 72,4 %, which has been decreased since 2015, as it reached the highest point as 74,2%.
Job condition in Italy The Italian working condition, in line with other European countries, has undergone a strong change in recent decades, due to the financial crisis of 2009 and progressive technological development. The result has been an increase in instability in the working world, but the number of new areas of work created has been equally large. The most important negative data to highlight within the Italian labor market is certainly unemployment.
According to the data in 2019, the unemployment rate in Italy reached 9,9%, magnificently higher than the european avarage, which is 6,3%. For the past 5 years, the unemployment rate has been decreased, from the peak 13,1% in the end of 2014, but still remains high. As the Eurostat released the data in July,2019, the unemployment rate in Italy ranks the third highest in Europe, only after Greece and Spain, following by France and Sweden.
Evolution of unemplyment situation in Italy and Europe. 20%
10% 9% 8% 7% 6%
The most relevant change in the last twenty years is closely related to the working condition. Some data certify the great instability of work and how much this has affected the change of the working system in Italy. From the comaprision of the data in 2002 and 2018, it can be easily observed that with temporary or permanent job contract, part-time job has increased its share, while the full-time job has decreased, and also among the selp-employed job, big increase in without employees and decrease in family workers and with employees. We can easily conclude that the the job market tent to develope towards part-time, or single employment, related to the economical and political situation. From the comaprision of the data in 2002 and 2018, it can be easily observed that with tempo-
rary or permanent job contract, part-time job has increased its share, while the full-time job has decreased, and also among the selp-employed job, big increase in wi-thout employees and decrease in family workers and with employees. We can easily conclude that the the job market tent to develope towards part-time, or single employment, related to the economical and political situation. As all the analysis above, we can also conclude that big amount of people, especially young people who just get out of the school, are having a real hard time entering the job market, to have a stable and sufficient income, which means they will find it hard to become independent. Most of them will still depend on their family and with an unstable job and low income after years of graduation.
Change of employment relationship in Italy
Without employees With employees Family workers
Until the end of 2016, there are 5,5 million freelancers in Italy
Which takes up to 22% of the whole job market, which means every one in 5 people is freelancer
Italy is the second biggest country in Europe with freelancers
Milan, Rome, Naples and Turin are the top cities in Italy for presence of freelancers
There is a huge amount of freelancers are not registered
1.3 Who? The search for the reasons that gave rise to the need for a new living and working model led to the definition of some profiles.
These six identities gather different profiles from different socio-cultural backgrounds and with different working conditions.
People that has no problem of affording a house and ha-ving job with high income. Willing to have productive activities for the communi-ty and for oneself, willing to share the skills and infor-mation.
People have sufficient in-come, have a stable job or self-employed, slightly stug-gle for the housing. With skills and experience that willing to share, also donâ€™t mind being trained with new skills.
Usually self-employed, with unique and high demand skills, usually need special spaces for the productive activities, sufficient of high income, flexible schedule, usually family based.
Each of them is associated with a degree of vulnerability. This corresponds to the difficulty in accessing the labor market and consequently the housing market, with the subsequent risk of social marginalization.
In order to evaluate the real possibilities that a new project of affordable-productive-housing can guarantee to the different profiles, the data analysis was followed by interviews with subjects who identifyt them.
Newly graduated, just step in the society, with skills but no experience, strug-gling for job and housing. Low income or no income, highly based on family sup-port and suffer from being independence.
Migrants from different country or city, new to everything, urgent needs for skills and connections, struggling to settle down with housing and bussiness with income.
Pensioner, or former pri-soner, being away from the society for a while and now willing to rejoin, with skills and urgent needs for oppor-tunaties to start over with a new life and new career.
Interview Name: Alice Redaelli Age: 28 Nationality: Italy Profession: Photographer & retoucher Who are you and what do you do? I’m Alice, I’m a photographer and a post-producer, I also do photo editing. I deal with reportages, documen-tary projects, so long term projects that have to do with social issues or ethical, environmental issues, etc., and are projects that often last more than a few months up to a few years.
both in their work but also to teach it to others. There are also more and more months of the year in which I work at the post-production pc, both for these photographic projects and for the fashion photo retou-ching I was talking about before and I think that it is important for me to have a place that is easily reachable from the place where I live so as close as possible, but that is always more and more a place separate from my living environment. Your ideal space for working + housing? The ideal would be to have a de-dicated space, easily reachable, but where I can concentrate solely on work without the distractions of home and vice versa, to have a home without the distractions of work.
Explain your job and what does it consist in your home sapce? Basically I work on my computer, so my laptop follows me wherever I want to go and so I often find myself working at home or in sha-red spaces like a bar co-working where there are other professio-nals like me. I often like to work in places like the bar essentially, because even though I have the possibility to work from home, sometimes it’s a bit alienating. So working in bars like this or others is also a way to have a con-frontation, or to have a chat, but also networking possibilities be-cause smart working is now quite widespread, so it’s also easy to find people you can maybe establish other working relationships with. Why do you need a space like this? Would you like to work in a common space? from which you can learn and be trained? Surely in my work there are some techniques and skills that can be taught or at least introduced to those who are complete novices, first of all, photoshop even if they are required skills quite varied, so even the video editing rather than layout. So there are always lots of software from which one can le-arn and then can be useful *
Interview Name: Claudio Beretta Age: 24 Nationality: Italy Profession: Hairdresser Who are you and what do you do? I’m Claudio, I’m a hairdresser and I work with men and women. For women, I mainly cut, colour and crease and for men, I cut and fix the beard.
more or less experience than I could certainly help me grow in this job. Your ideal space for working + housing? My ideal space corresponds to what it is a bit now, with the house above and the shop below, also for convenience. Of course, this is a tavern arranged for my needs, if I could choose, I would like to have a space under my house where various beauty care professionals share a common space in order to get to know other professions and exchange customers.”
Explain your job and what does it consist in your home sapce? I don’t work in an actual shop, but I work in the tavern of the house where I live and this is mainly because well, this space was ori-ginally cut out by my sister after she had a career as an employee anyway. After becoming a mother she decided to open her own space so that she could work where and when she wanted, later I joined her, doing the same job anyway we both decided to share this space in a more appropriate period. We chose this space precisely because maintaining a real physical store is much more complicated in terms of time, management, but also money. Why do you need a space like this? Would you like to work in a common space? from which you can learn and be trained? I have always shared this space with my sister since I arrived la-ter anyway and we never had problems with overlap because she works in the morning when her son is in kindergarten, and I tend to work in the afternoon following training courses in the morning, so in reality, we never had any problems. I also like to know that this space is used to its best advantage. It’s a job that you learn in a profes-sional school, a school where they give you all the basics, of course, the most experience is done in the shop and working and above all finding a person who is next to you and helps you and makes you understand how to do the job in the best way. In my case, working with other people who have *
Interview Name: Gabriele Di Nallo Age: 64 Nationality: Italy Profession: Piano tuner Who are you and what do you do? My name is Gabriele di Nallo. I’m a piano tuner. My job consists of tuning and repairing pianos which are very complex because they consist of about 12-13 thousand components so the repair of these things is very important because it concerns the component parts of the instrument. Explain your job and what does it consist in your home sapce? My work in the garage or the la-boratory better still, consists of re-pairing the components of the in-strument, you cannot do this work at the customer’s home because there are no technical conditions to do it, so you need to have an environment that is suitable for this type of work. There are a mechanical part and a keyboard part of the instrument that is easily removable and can be taken to the laboratory for processing. Why do you need a space like this? I need an equipped space to be able to carry out my work and it doesn’t have to be very far from home, on the contrary, it has to be as close as possible to home in order to amortize transport costs and travel time. So the ideal thing is to have space where I can or-ganize myself to move the piano components and work with di-screet comfort. The most immediate solution was to transform this garage into a working environment.
ring perso-nal experiences is important. You help each other among colleagues, you come against each other and you can solve technical and not only technical problems, which otherwise would be very difficult to face and carry out. As far as the proximity to their respective homes is concerned, this could be a problem because it could also involve third parties who do not like to have a stranger near their home. However, this can be remedied by partially closing access to private homes while maintaining common access to the technical part. Unfortunately, our profession without teaching, without an ap-prenticeship, without a youth tur-nover, is going to die and this is really something to avoid. So it is absolutely desirable to tea-ch the new generations. Teaching is rather difficult because our pro-fession is not so easy to transmit, it is necessary that on the other hand there is great passion and enthusiasm and that there is the possibility of understanding each other. Your ideal space for working + housing? What can come to me in this re-gard is certainly the ease of get-ting to the workplace compared to housing. Also from the family’s point of view, getting away from home as little as possible and pos-sibly being available without too many problems is very important. The workspace related to the hou-se ... is that I do not see them to-gether because I see the workspa-ce well separated from the house. we have some noises very often that we have to make, so it must not be intrusive this noise towards the house, it must be far away but easily reachable we also have some dust that sometimes we have to do, so if they fly only inside the workplace and can be sucked at the moment so much earned. We must have equipment that is up to standard and we must have electrical installations that are ab-solutely separate in terms of ma-nagement and administration.
Would you like to work in a common space? from which you can learn and be trained? Actually I share a laboratory with a colleague of mine, a very well equipped laboratory with pro-cessing machines and this kind of experience is extremely im-portant because sha*
Interview Name: Giulia Clemente
Your ideal space for working + housing?
As far as I’m concerned there’s a need to detach and then detach just materially, and therefore have a house not so far from the studio, but that gives this idea of detachment in every sense. So what I imagine is to have a studio so that in 15 minutes I can get home and vice versa.
Nationality: Italy Profession: Product designer Who are you and what do you do? Hi, I’m Giulia, I’ve been studying in Milan for a year and I’ve been working for a year. I work in a design studio that deals with pro-ducts and I am part of a team that works from morning to night. Explain your job and what does it consist in your home sapce? You often bring work home to fi-nish it on time. But often, being a joint job, my colleagues come here. So we find ourselves in the kitchen, being a bigger space, but the problem here is that, yes, it doesn’t bother, in some ways, but maybe some roommates cook, etc and so it’s not the most suitable place. There are 13 of us and often there is this way where you can’t get much privacy. Why do you need a space like this? I’d like to have a different space to finish the work, so maybe a collective space that maybe is designed to have its privacy, each group its privacy, to be able to be together, but also divided. Would you like to work in a common space? from which you can learn and be trained? I think that my work, in general, can be explained and made so that those who do not know it can le-arn more about the programs I use. In this way, in this space, you could have an exchange of ideas.do not like to have a stranger near their home. However, this can be remedied by partially closing access to private homes while maintaining common access to the technical part.
Interview Name: Carlo Agnesi Age: 45 Nationality:Italy Profession: Commercial consultant Who are you and what do you do? My name is Carlo, I’m 45 years old and I was in a convent for 7 years. I was a Franciscan friar, then I went out and threw myself into the world of work. I changed several jobs and today I am a com-mercial consultant for a company that deals with the removal of architectural barriers, especially for the elderly and disabled. My job consists of going to visit customers who require an inspection to verify the feasibility of a stairlift system, also recommend the most suitable type of aid and then also make an estimate and sell a product. So my job all day long consists of going around, going to people’s homes. I don’t have an office. My office, in theory, is the car, but then in fact when I get home I have work to do. I have to sort out the paperwork, the quotes, ap-prove the plans and so every time I come home this (in fact) is my office. Why do you need a space like this? Would you like to work in a common space? Getting into the world of work was not easy because 7 years in a convent [...] In 7 years I studied and yes, I also worked, but I did more, let’s say, socially useful jobs. I studied for many years, but when I decided to go home and leave the convent I didn’t have a piece of pa-per in my hand with a degree. In fact, I wasn’t capable of doing a specific job, so I had an interesting resume there were a lot of talks, but in the end, the talk was, what do I make you do? so I did clerical, data entry, call-center jobs. For several years then I got a job in a finance company, which was the exact opposite of what I wanted to do in life, but there was a ne-cessary salary to take home, until, let’s say a stroke of luck, I discovered that this company I work for now was looking for a salesman, a consultant, and beyond sales skills, it was interesting for this company to have someone
who had no difficulty in approaching the wor-ld of disability or illness. Because selling a stairlift means entering the homes of people who tend to live in complex situations, sometimes suffering, sometimes pain, in short, very delicate. I’ve been lucky and I’ve been doing this job for 10 years now. Every work I think is made up of a part of the knowledge you acqui-re while studying and a good part of experience, notions you learn while working with others. This means that there is a good deal of work that I have learned in the field and for what has been passed on to me by my colleagues in training. So I think the possibility of exchanges is important, maybe even in the work that I do where there is a need to talk to the customer and therefore there are also sales strategies, even if said so sounds bad. These things are not easy to learn on your own if someone doesn’t explain them to you. I believe that for every job there is a good amount of material that one can only collect in a verbal exchange. Your ideal space for working + housing? When I think about my job now, I don’t mind moving around and not having a permanent office. I’ve been doing office life for ye-ars and being able to have more flexible hours and be able to move around and not being in a room with other people all the time is a good thing. On the other hand, I would like to have maybe a day two a week where I can sit in a fixed place with other people in-stead. Because of the comparison, contact with others, is something I miss anyway. I kind of feel a little weird doing everything in this room (livable kitchen), because I’d like to separate my private life from my work. If only it were a different room to distinguish the areas.
Today more than ever, production transcends the boundaries that, since modernity, separated the domestic space from the workplace. New forms of production imply the overlap between work and life, to the point that they become indistinguishable. This condition clashes with the very purpose of the domestic interior, which, since its invention in the eighteenth century, supposedly existed in compensatory opposition to the work sphere. There is, therefore, a gradual return of the home/ work typology and more and more contemporary cases are witnessing this union between domestic life and working life. At the same time historical cases, starting from roman or medieval model that has constituted a global phenomenon of development of the building fabric of the cities, become an important term of comparison and a tool for the growth of a new model. The continuous growth of new forms of activity and the increasing spread of smart-working increases the need for minimal workspace, but in close
relation to living space. The principles of affordable-housing based on a productive environment become part of an important architectural debate today. This has given rise to a commitment expressed through research by architectural firms such as Dogma or concepts such as Agora Wohnen of Hutten und Palaste Architekkten, up to the involvement of organizations such as Europan, which in the 14th edition of the competition promotes a mixed city based on the interrelationships between life, work, and common spaces. The debate stems from the need to adapt cities and architecture to the social and economic conditions shown above. Research that therefore arises from the models and through the experimentation of the present seeks a place in the city of the future. In this way, our design research also draws on historical and current models to define an architectural response to new housing and work requirements. 33
P A RO RE D A UC S TI V
Location, Years: Vienna, Austria, 2013 C TI S ES E M AC O SP
Author: Gaupenraub +/Original function: Old Biedermeier building
Actual program: Student and tmporary housing IL EM D P IN T G Y S BU
Type of production: Open
Y IT N U M M ES CO LAC P
Target: Students + homeless
Temporality: Long term / short term
VinziRast-mittendrin is an experimental housing project located in the middle of Vienna and it could be seen as an ambassador against monoculture, that encourages diversity in the city and offers a different perspective to society. The project is a result of the Audimax Occupation by students in 2009 and during these protests, homeless people joined the occupied auditorium of the University and, together with all the stu-dents, made it their home. Since the opening in spring of 2013, students live together with formerly homeless persons in 10 living com-munities of 3 people under one roof. Besides common rooms, the restaurant “mittendrin” as well as two event venues, the room outlay also includes several workshops, which give residents the op-portunity to work together, thereby cre-ating an extra source of income. The living communities and commu-nal areas are for students and formerly homeless persons only; the restaurant is open for all guests with no pressure to consume and the top floor can be rent by everybody. 34
The Gaupenraub+/– architecture stu-dio carefully examined how and where people find shelter to escape the open sky and planned communal apartments for groups of three residents. Each floor has three living units, which are equipped with 3 rooms, bathroom, toilet and a small tea kitchen. A striking design element in the interior as well as in the outer space are the light brown Heraklith plates. They are one of the numerous donations from the construction industry that made the project possible. In the shared rooms, the panels form a niche that can serve as a pin board and at the same time has a sound-reducing effect. The architects wanted to use these retreat niches to compensate for the diverse communal areas. Moreover each three shared apart-ments share a communal kitchen. This is where the common life takes place and here it can sometimes be tight physically as well as psychologically; for this reason the communal kitchens therefore have three access options. In addition, the building houses also offic-
_Home + work (Reuse)
es, consultation rooms, as well as a library. In the basement a large event space was constructed, while the ground floor contains the Mittendrin restaurant and several workshops. From the restaurant you can reach the courtyardside Vereinsgastgarten and the inhouse workshops (carpentry workshop, tailorâ€™s workshop, bicycle workshop). The spacious roof terrace offers space for raised beds, where vegetables are grown, as well as plenty of seating. This free space on the roof as a degree of freedom and option forms an important element in the overall concept. Adjacent to the roof terrace is the Dachatelier. This fully glazed space offers a privileged view of the city center due to the projecting construction line and, as well as the event room in the basement, it can be booked by external people for conferences, lectures, but also birthday parties and much more. In this project, access routes as well as entrances and exits assume a key func-tion. The shared apartments are accessed via a portico; on the one hand, outdoor access saves valuable floor space inside the building and on the other hand, the atmosphere on an outdoor walk is incomparably more relaxed compared to a dark corridor in the building. Important is the angular shape of this portico that creates visual relationships and supports communication over sev-eral floors. With this project, the architects that took care of it, wanted to achieve the purpose to break down
the threshold that everyone experiences in the city in encounters with homeless people and, in this sense, the alley â€œin the middleâ€? fulfills a key function. Here former homeless people work. These spaces are charac-terized by room-high glazing that reveals a view of the interior and cozy seating niches invite guests to watch the action on the street. Lastly, as regards the structure, the original roof was taken down and its materials used in fitting out the interior. A third living floor + a roof studio with a large roof garden replaces the old top. All the construction was carried out with donated money. Donated materi-als, voluntary work, freely contributed time and expertise helped to hold the building costs low. Everything, in this project, is made with recycled materials that otherwise would end up in the garbage. For instance, hundreds of fruit and vegetable boxes were neatly disassembled for the wall and ceiling paneling and then arranged graphically appealing, cushions made from recycled coffee sacks, door handles that serve as pocket hooks along the bar and so on. Income through catering services, lending the top floor to different events, the rent from the apartments and donations pay back the monthly costs and credit interests. The concept defines this communal housing project as a joint act, and so it can be said that architecture can make a difference.
Plan and section diagram
Ground floor plan
1. Workshop space 2. Laundry 3. Refuse room 4. Staff room 5. Kitchen
6. Restaurant 7. Residences 8. Common kitchen 9. Common living room
Contemporary: Olwen House
C TI S ES E M AC O SP
Author: D1 Architectural Studio Original function: /
P A RO RE D A UC S TI
Location, Years: Da Nang, Vietnam, 2017-2018
Actual program: Private house with workplace IL EM D P IN T G Y S BU
Type of production: Open
Y IT N U M M ES CO LAC P
Target: Private owners
Temporality: Long term
The Olwen House has been designed by the D1 Architectural Studio in 2018 and it is an innovative project, placed in Da Nang, Vietnam, that merge together business and living. The firm’s approach enables local specialists and craftsmen to create architecture and interiors, using locally produced materials, in this way managing to create low-cost architecture. This project is located in a 75 sqm plot in a residential area of few floors surrounded by “forts” and accessible through a narrow alley of 2.5 meters. Inspired from the lifestyle and traditional structure of ancient house in Central Vietnam, the architects, who have been entrusted with the task of creating a hybrid building characterized by a work and a living area for the family, proposed a vertically stacked, multi-floors for multi-functions structure. his results in a uniquely holistic solution that invites and allows for seamless integration between multi-generational family members, between concrete and nature, and between the building’s past life and its more lively present. Each floor has its own function: the ground and first floor are for workspace combined with a bou38
tique wedding studio, while the second and third floor is a gathering space for the whole family. D1 arch managed to create a house that encourages connection between people, and between the building’s past life and its more lively present. The house was divided into public areas and working spaces, against the more private and intimate living areas for the family. All these parts of the building are connected by a bold, red spiral staircase, that changes the classic closed facade of Vietnamese houses. This element makes the structure a little more contemporary and makes it possible to distinguish it from the dense low residences. This staircase, placed on the terrace outside and creating a disruption of movement, also functions as a transitional space where house guests and the studio’s employees can enjoy a breath of fresh air. The architects located the reception, showroom, makeup area and changing rooms on the first and second floor, while the third floor hosts private space for the whole family. Inside the working area is designed as an open space in a minimalist style yet with tropical accents. Moreover the interior of the private space, characterized by bright colors and rich wood textures,
_Home + work (New Building)
allows an abundance of fresh air and light to circulate, a necessary aspect in the often oppressive Vietnamese heat. Transformed but not excessive, the development naturally adapts to the surrounding buildings while it stands out boldly thanks to the flashes of bright colors and the verdant garden on the facade. Furthermore, elements of nature are added to ensure the display of trees, listening to the chirping of birds and sunlight and the feeling of fresh air every morning. Combining old and new, profession and leisure, Olwen House is an example of renewal around the world. Rustic materials such as raw concrete and natural wood create a warm and welcoming atmosphere for customers entering the studio. Instead of using space-blocking, rigid partition walls to separate the different areas, the architects employed glass curtain walls as dividers. These transparent elements divide the spaces yet still maintain a visual connection between them and this evokes a feeling of openness among the sur-
rounding rigid box-buildings. The architects used mainly local materials, such as wood, bricks and tiles, in order to realize a low-cost architecture accessibible to a wider range of people. D1 architects wanted a home that was a warm and intimate space for family members to gather and relax after a long day, and that had the possibility to become a playful area for future children. Space is designed to avoid feeling cramped while guaranteeing privacy. Their main purpuse was to raise awareness on a new philosophical approach to modern dayâ€™s dwelling in Vietnam for contemporary investors: an approach that adapts creatively to our highly-urbanized cities with lessons learnt from our rich past. Furthermore, another important aspect for the architects of the studio is to use local and artisanal materials in order to make the house more affordable.
Plan and section diagram
First floor plan
Second floor plan
2 1 3 Section AA
1. Boutique wedding studio
2. Housing 3. Photography studio
Contemporary: Neu Leopoldau
C TI S ES E M AC O SP
P A RO RE D A UC S TI
Location, Years: Vienna, Austria, 2015-ongoing
Original function: Old Biedermeier building Actual program: Residence and youth residence IL EM D P IN T G Y S BU
Type of production: Open
Y IT N U M M ES CO LAC P
Target: Students/young people
Temporality: Long term
Neu Leopoldau is a Youth Living residential complex in Leopoldau, a post-industrial area on the outskirts of Vienna and the building is located in the south corner of the quarter. Based on the idea of creating community, the project utilizes overlaying, staggered, and connected spaces and communication areas to facilitate the feeling of a village. Spaces throughout the building vary in use from a range of public to private and are flexible in their uses. The project offers social housing with 65 apartments, distributed over 8 levels. The ground floor of the building is essentially transparent, with outdoor trails leading into a large entrance, which opens up on the opposite side into community areas, including a kitchen. Each floor is organised to an onion ring principle; starting from the outside there are all the bedrooms and living rooms, then the kitchen and the bathrooms, followed by the +zones and, to end up, in 42
the central core there is the access with the common rooms. The +zone is the distinctive feature of the building that forms a transition between the staircase and the apartments. This area provides space for yet to be defined self-realisation and connects the private with the (semi-)public areas. These +zones are very flexible spaces within which any type of activity can take place; from the tattoo studio, to the exhibition space, to the startup room, so as to leave free rein to the imagination of the residents. Moreover the entrances of these places are in glass, in order to support the communication between people living in the building. Neu Leopoldau is made by a smart system of prefabricated concrete sandwich elements which allow the construction of a new finished floor every two weeks.
_Home + work (New Building)
Plan and section diagram
3 Typical floor plan
1. Apartments 2. +zone
3. Common spaces
Contemporary: Coop Housing at River Spreefeld
P A RO RE D A UC S TI
IL EM D P IN T G Y S
Y IT N U M M ES CO LAC P
Author: Carpaneto + Fatkoehl + BAR architekten
C TI S ES E M AC O SP
Location, Years: Berlin, Germany, 2013
Original function: / Actual program: Mixed Use building Target: Mixed dwellers
Type of production: Open Temporality: Long term
Coop Housing, in downtown Berlin, is a jointly developed and administered project building upon experience gained from many previous self-made projects and its main mission is to harness its location’s unique potential to create a socially just, economically stable, and environmentally responsible urban building block. This project is characterized by three buildings that form a confident and distinct unity in their design and position in the urban space. Open to the river and the neighbors, they do not set themselves off like blocks. The individual and communal terraces have become a distinguishing feature; they offer a much-used compensation for the “loss” of open spaces to the public. The building design consists of predominantly simple support and construction systems that enable a rich variety of options for the organization of various uses. In this way, no two of the 64 apartment dwellings 44
are alike, although they all follow the same principles. In addition to conventional units there are six cluster apartments that provide a communal living structure for groups of 4 to 21 people. The residential population is quite diverse. It is multigenerational and multicultural, made possible by people both with and without money. Apartments are barrier-free and there is communal use of laundry rooms, fitness rooms, guest rooms, rooftop terraces, and the music and youth room. The ground floor is largely open to the public, reflecting its attitude to the urban environment. It includes a carpentry workshop, catering kitchen, studios, daycare center, and a co-working space. Available to non-residents are Option Rooms that maintain the project’s open character at the juncture of living and urban development.
_Home + work (New building)
Plan and section diagram
1 2 3
2 Ground floor plan
4 1 Section AA
1. Option space 2. Communal space 3. Working area
4. Cluster units 5. Single units
P AR ROD EA U S C
TIC E S ES M AC DO S P
Location, Years: China, XVII Century
Actual program: Home + work spaces + common facilities Target: Hakka families BU IL EM DI PT NG Y S
Temporality: Long term
Tuloui are a series of giant multistoried homes built with wood and fortified with mud walls. Constructed between the 15th and 20th centuries, these massive communal homes were sited with feng shui principles and are purposefully nestled amidst tea, tobacco, and rice fields and bountiful forests of pine and bamboo. These 46 structures are known as the Fujian Tulou. Throughout history, their residents have mostly been migrants in southern China who originated from lands adjacent to the Yellow River. Population pressures created conflict between them and their neighbors, so they built their homes to double as fortification structures. Each structure essentially doubles as a self-contained village. Communal living is integral to these villages, as well as equality. Each of the rooms is identical in design. The closed-wall design fosters social interaction. Although individual families have their own sections, residents congregate in the courtyard for ceremonies such as ancestor worship and weddings. The need to remain united as a clan to protect themselves from incursions meant that the simple houses on the ground were adapted to the sur46
Y IT UN M M ES CO LAC P
Type of production: Open, based on craftwork
rounding environment. Thus the Tulou were born, real collective peasant dwellings developed vertically; mini-villages capable of holding about 80 families for a maximum capacity of 600 people. There are those who consider tulou a prime example of self-sufficient cohousing and a social model based on democracy. They also hosted extended clans, all in equal housing units without any distinction of rank among families, thus increasing the sense of community. The spaces in the tulou even today are vertically organized and each family, depending on the size, occupies one or more rooms, while corridors and stairs are in common. The Buildings are imposing, massive, mostly circular, but also square. A round, circular, or square construction with a double-pitched roof and rainwater management systems; spaces intended for common life and others reserved for the family, places of prayer and school, kitchens on the ground floor and rooms on the highest floors.
_Home + work
Plan and section diagram
1. Entrance 2. Domestic units 3. Work-shop spaces
4. Facilities 5. Cerimonies spaces
Actual program: Home + workshop
P AR ROD EA U S C
Type of production: Open, based on craftwork Temporality: Long term (craftman) Short term (apprendist)
BU IL EM DI PT NG Y S
Target: Artisans and Merchanta
After the year 1000, the world of medieval craftsmanship undergoes profound growth and transformation. The affirmation of the city economy and of regular market relations between rural cities and ensure development, within the city walls and in the villages, of a very high concentration of productive catego-ries and of a strong division and special-ization of work. In the urban artisan world the shop-house is the most typical production unit, combining at the same time a training space. Medieval merchantsâ€™ and craft-workersâ€™ workhomes had a shop or workshop onto the street where goods were made and sold. The shop-houses are generally located on the ground floor of a building, directly overlooking the public road, often under the arcades, which constitute the front part and repair the benches on which the goods are exposed. Bargaining also takes place outside. The only internal space is used simultaneously as a storage and manufacturing laboratory, where goods were made and sold. Trading and family life, public and private, were combined in a few multipurpose spaces. Customers ate and drank with 48
Y IT UN M M ES CO LAC P
Location, Years: Europe, middle ages TIC E S ES M AC DO S P
family members in a central, double-height hall; important deals were made in a small rear room. The family, apprentices and servants slept in the hall, shop/workshop or in the rooms on the upper floors. Often shops that sell the same type of goods are concentrated in specific areas and in the same street, giving rise to aggregations of which traces remain in the current toponymy. Whether it is carried out independently or employed, the knowledge and technical skills necessary for the exercise of art lie at the basis of craftsmanship. These technical and professional skills are so essential in the production process that the methods of acquisition are defined from the beginning. These can be extremely variable depending on the trades, times and places, but always and everywhere they require a training course (apprenticeship) of several years, which the young apprentice must carry out in the workshop, under the guidance of a master craftsman. At the same time, the workshop become a place of production and learning.
_Home + work
Plan and section diagram
1 Section AA
Ground floor plan
First floor plan
1. Workshop space 2. Storage 3. Living room
4. Bedroom 5. Kitchen 6. Loggia
Research and exhibition: AgoraWohnen
C TI S ES E M AC O SP
Author: Hutten und Palaste Architekkten
P A RO RE D A UC S TI
Location, Years: Berlin, Germany, 2015
Original function: Warehouse Actual program: Co-living and workshop IL EM D P IN T G Y S BU
Type of production: Co-working, Atelier, Gastronomie
Y IT N U M M ES CO LAC P
Target: Mixed dwellers
Temporality: Long term OTHERS
Built on a historical former warehouse, this project try to create a new way of living creating a productive environment caracteried by a strong relationship between the residential part and the productive one. Residential and commercial units are connected in manifold ways by means of cycle processes. The building is divided in two parts according to the two function, housing and productive space. The residential part of the project is located on the roof of the former warehous, built over 3 floors. The structure of it is made in prefabricated boards of engineered wood in order to make construction cost lower and serial, while also it allows an easy variatio according to inhabitants needs. The plan of every residential units is very flexible and allows to create appartments for one single person up to seven person appartment. The project converts the old warehouse into a 50
Circular Economy Lab with different function such as Co-Working, event spaces, restaurants and other activities linked to the idea of circular economy and reuse of the materials. Everythinghs that is produced in the Lab is created arround the themes of collaboration, localproduction systems and the cyclical use of resorces. The real innovation of the project is the interdependence between appartments and productive spaces. Inhabitants of the building can shop in the lower part buying what is produced, while the lower part can reuse what inhabitants donâ€™t use more in order to recombine material and have new products. This process creates a circle within the building itself reducing costs of production, they donâ€™t need new row material, and reducing the creation of waste thanks the rycicling circle.
_Home + work (Project)
Research and exhibition: Communal Villa
P A RO RE D A UC S TI
IL EM D P IN T G Y S
Y IT N U M M ES CO LAC P
Author: Pier Vittorio Aureli_Studio Dogma
C TI S ES E M AC O SP
Location, Years: Berlin, Germany, 2015
Original function: / Actual program: House and atelier for artist Target: Artist
Type of production: Co-working, Atelier Temporality: Long term
The Realism Working Group and the architecture firm Dogma – in consultation with Florian Schmidt, Studio Commissioner of the Kulturwerk bbk berlin – developed the concept of new living and working spaces for artists that challenge traditional designs and their underlying economic frameworks. The Communal Villa questions the very idea of the house as a private sphere, separated from the world of production. While in the last century the industrial loft has been imagined as the ideal space for artists, Studio Dogma and the artists’ collective Realism Working Group have proposed a housing prototype that sets focus on the villa, usually seen as one of the most emblematic representations of the private domain. Emphasizing the increasing domesticity of cultural production, Communal Villa argues that it is no longer possible to reduce work to the studio space. With Communal Villa, Dogma and Realism Working Group propose a realist model in which artists take the housing question into their own hands, articulating radical relations between solitude and communality, developing socio-economic structures removed from the logics of the real estate market. The design of Communal Villa has a almost cubic shape built over a rigid grid of pillars 52
that divide the space in different parts, public or private. Rooms are located close the four facade with a corridor that cover the space between rooms and glassed facade. Each room is for one artist and it hosts both homes and private working space that can be used only by the artist. In order to leave as much space as possible to the working space, all the functions connected with living are positioned one on top of the other creating an equipped wall that has in one timber structure the bathroom, the kitchen and the bed. Rooms, and expecially the equipped walls, are positioned following a mill scheme that create a ring of private spaces that surround the common one. In the middle of the building, between a rigid grid of pillars that divide the space, are located the common ateliers. Using the pillars, the architects create a flexible space, divided by moving walls that can create more private spaces following artists needs. This area is used to shelter communitarian activities that aim to foster the relation between the
_Home + work (Research and project)
Plan and section diagram
3 3 1
1. Working private 2. Communal working space 3. Living spaces
3. Why reuse? Research on abandoned buildings, public and private, in Europe and Italy shows how large and relevant their presence in the territory is. The abandonment of buildings has been made essential and relevant by radical changes in society and consequently in the urban fabric. The technological revolution and the change in peopleâ€™s working life have made it necessary, as previously mentioned, an architectural revolution of spaces and a consequent abandonment of specific building typologies. The lack of cohesion between the function and space
made the original purpose of the building useless. This same change has recently opened up new possibilities for the heritage of disused buildings. Spaces and structures that have become obsolete for their original function can regain economic, spatial, and cultural value through unconventional reuse of architecture and at an affordable price compared to real estate heritage. The heritage is mainly made up of typologies that guarantee symmetrical structures, serial spaces, and large volumes that meet the needs of combining work life and public space typical of todayâ€™s society.
Why a public building?
Minimized cost of the land
The cost of the land or building belonging to the State is reduced. Itâ€™s not subject to the rules of the real estate market
Reduced cost of construction
Parts of the building in question are in good condition and only to be adapted to the new residential function and not. The construction costs of the structures are greatly reduced since they are existing.
The rehabilitation of a dismissedbuilding generates new earning possibilities
Creationof a new revenue
Affordable housing with minimal private accommodation and common areas that maximize income 55
Dismissed in Italy Number of dismissed buildings by region in Italy
Emilia - Romagna
Friuli Venezia Giulia
Trentino Alto Adige
Most common dismissed building typology in Italy (excluded residential building)
Prison: Panacticon It was a typology made for exercising power and control over prison inmates. The prison featured a central surveillance tower from which the guards could see evey inmate at once. The cells were lo-
cated around it, always open to let the light get inside, blinding the inmates so they could not see the guards watching them, therefore they needed to assume they were being constantly watched.
Fixed areas, lack of flexibility. Reduce blind areas. Cells Reduced areas. Lack of sunlight. Good ventilation, each cell has a window. Multiple entrances Building well connected. Clear external circulation. Courtyards Improve quality of the space thanks to the creation of common spaces and the double facade.
Prison: Radial design The prisoners would be located in cells in long galleries, radiating from a central point. Each cell had a small window providing natural light and ventilation. The heating and cross ventilation were given thanks to the presence of the ducts throughout the cells, improving prisioners health, increasing quality of life and lowering risk of diseases.
Itâ€™s also important to highlight the advantages related with the security, thanks to the possibility to observe 180 degrees at the same time, such that incidents could be identified and re-ached quickly, providing a secure environment for the prisoners and staff.
Cells Good ventilation thanks to the ducts Courtyards Provide the possibility to increase the area of the building Good ventilation and illumination thanks to its existence. Flexibility Lack of flexibility of the building due to the fact of the composition and shape Circulation Reduced paths and convergence of all prisoners in a single space
Prison: Wing type Keeping the idea of the central core that works as a main point for control and observation of the staff, this type of prison has a t-shaped cell blocks arranged around a central common service block. The cells are smaller than the previous ones due to
the fact that the prisoners would spend less time in them and they would take part in different work activities related with their rehabilitation. The disadvantages of this typology are the lack of air and light in the corridors.
Cells Reduced areas. Circulation Corridor, residual areas, narrow with lack of light and air Common spaces Generous area, well-connected and close to the cells.
Prison: New generation The main idea was to give adequate human living conditions in order to impact the mental health and physical well-being of the prisoners, as well as the introduction of theraphy and rehabilitation to incentive the prisoners to improve its quality and purposes in life. This typology followed the idea to encourage clo-
ser prisoners and staff relations. The cells were arranged around multiuse communal areas, avoiding the use of long corridors. Each cell had good ventilation and light conditions, thanks to the presence of a window on each one of them; suitable acoustics and materials were included to reduce noise levels.
Circulation Short and wide, good ventilation and illumination Common areas Large open area dedicated to communal spaces, were used for therapy and rehabilitation sessions Division of Units The prison is divided in different buildings and spread over the area according with the services and the separation of the prisioners depending on the crimes they committed, their current risk assessment, and their behavior. This configuration allows the complex to be flexible to host different activities and new uses, thanks also to the circulation that links all the components.
4. Why in Monza?
Cultural, social and economical frameworks The choice of the project site fell on the former Monza prison for architectural reasons combined with the social, economic, and cultural characteristics of the city and the surrounding environment. Geographically, Monza is located a few kilometers from Milan and the relationship between the two municipalities is very strong, especially in terms of work. Statistics indicate that 77% of the population of the province of Monza regularly moves to Milan for work reasons. The proximity to the capital is therefore not only physical but also evident with a large infrastructural system that connects the two cities. This makes the two centers mutually reachable in 20 minutes.
This figure should be considered in parallel with that of the Real Estate market. While the value per square meter in Milan is three times higher than the national one and constantly growing, in Monza the price is about the Italian average and shows slight immobility. Putting the two themes in relation, it emerges that Monza, and even more so the area of the former prison, is an ideal solution for the creation of affordable residences while guaranteeing easy connection with the metropolis. On the labor front, the productive environment refers to a large sector that requires both skilled and unskilled labor, but with the possibility of being so in the future.
Economical data Productive fields Monza Brianza 16.039
Economic growth per field Crescita fatturato 4 3,4
-2 Monza Brianza
Historically Monza has been an important manufacturing pole at the European level and despite the evolution of the market and the changing production goods, the sector remains a driving force for the local economy. Since the 1960s Monza and the province have specialized in carpentry and furniture production, mostly for niche markets. Hybrid manufacture between craftsmanship and industrial production that is not subject to the logic of the large-scale market and is fragile when continuity, dictated by labor and its cost, becomes critical. For characteristics that can be identified in the scale of production, in the possibility of teaching, and in the workforce, this sector has consequently
been identified as suitable for the needs of the productive environment and the profiles to which it is addressed. To the aspects that make Monza an advantageous city for the project are added critical characteristics for which ‘Prison Break’, on the contrary, would be favorable for overcoming or attenuating some problems. As demonstrated by the research and mapping of the municipal territory that follows, the urban fabric of Monza is characterized by strong cultural, economic, and social differences. A division that amplifies the problems of the most fragile areas of the city on which ‘Prison Break’ focuses its attention.
Manifactural production data Revenue data of the industrial production Industria manufatturiera ( in milon of € )
3,2 3,1 3,6
Revenue data of the crafts production Artigianato manufatturiero ( in milon of € )
1 Total orders
1,7 2 Revenue
Morphology of the job specialization and unemployment Starting from the collection of statistical data that gives back the characteristics of the Monza territory, we continued with an analysis of the following, applied to the urban fabric. The research, specifically, investigated socio-economic and cultural issues that are at the basis of a â€œproductive environment and affordable housingâ€? project. An urban study that allows to find and analyze on a large scale the fragilities and potential of the territory, to direct the choices of the subsequent architectural design process. The first macro-theme addressed is that of work. Specifically, the following analysis shows the division of the population by type of work and unemployment index and, in this case, the divisions by zones coincide. The south-east half of Monza, where the project
Unemployed distribution: Low specialization worker: 66
area is located, shows a higher unemployment rate, which is above the national average and is in sharp contrast with the opposite portion of the municipal territory. The reasons, as noted in the following pages, are mainly to be found in the characteristics of the residents and the real estate market data. At the same time, the same areas are characterized by a population mainly employed in non-specialized professional areas. A reality determined also by historical-cultural characteristics. The areas to the south-east of the center, given their proximity to the cityâ€™s infrastructure, have historically been characterized by the presence of small industrial and craft businesses. Some of them are dislocated but still active today and have contributed to directing the resident population towards a specific professional typology.
Morphology of the education level In parallel to the previous one, this map looked at the age group of the population entering the world of work, examining, by area, the percentage level of young graduates. The map shows how the division is complementary to the previous analysis. The relevance of this data is given by the restricted segment of the population surveyed. It is evident that the majority of residents between 25 and 35 years old with university education are residents in the north-western districts of the municipality. Compared with the data concerning the degree of
Young with universitary education (25-35 y) 68
specialization of the work, this result shows how the deep professional distinction that characterizes Monza is a situation that does not seem to change in the next generation. A constant gap that keeps the risk of spatial and cultural segregation high. In this context, the consequent design intent is to favor a greater mix among younger residents. The objective of a more homogeneous population can be pursued by creating new opportunities and centrality for those entering the world of work. These can be translated into projects that aim to implement them in areas where the population is less specialized.
Morpholohy of the foreign population An important variable to the previous results is defined by the distribution of the foreign population. Monza is affected by a large migration flow that started in the 90s. The main cause of this relevant phenomenon over the years has been the presence of an important manufacturing sector. So much so that Monza is a municipality whose rate of foreigners is 4% higher than the national average. Recently the number of migrants has increased exponentially creating a second great flow marked by the reunification of families coming from their country of origin. The second generation of foreigners of working age has therefore settled in the territory of Monza against a decrease in manufacturing production caused by recent market crises. The presence of a large slice of the foreign population has proved important for the cityâ€™s economy
Foreign population distribution: 70
> 17 %
and has compensated for an average aging population. To date, however, new problems have emerged, such as unemployment even among the foreign population, which is about the city average, and a progressive ghettoization of foreign communities, sometimes defined by the poor economic accessibility of many urban areas. In the following map, it is recognized, once again, that the distribution of the foreign population on the territory is also an indication of a strong difference between urban areas. The aim of a â€˜productive affordable housingâ€™ project is, among others, to guarantee living and working spaces and opportunities that are a limit to the ghettoization of communities and favor social and professional integration.
Housing market Just as surveys on the cultural and social levels have revealed a strong distance between two macro-zones of the municipality, so the same is reflected drastically on the economic level, affecting the real estate market. This generates a mutual cause-effect relationship that is difficult to reverse as long as real estate investments are not cohesive with urban interventions that strengthen the social fabric. In addition to the proven split, this analysis shows how the northern part of the municipal territory joins the central areas defining the areas with the highest real estate value. If for most of Monza the price is in fact on the provincial and regional averages (1700-1800 €/sqm), the two districts mentioned raise the average up to 2400 €/sqm. Despite the relatively affordable price of the property, the capital of Brianza suffers partial immobility of trade. The causes can be traced back to two major shortcomings in the real estate scene, such as the low rent and a type that does not meet
Average housing price:
Housing SAS/SAP 1700 - 1800 €/sqm
the new market demands. The first, although the price (11 €/sqm) is below the regional averages, covers only 22% of the 6864 ads available. The second, represented mostly by large-sized premises, does not satisfy an increasing demand for 2-room apartments Despite its proximity and accessibility to Milan, the average price per sqm in Monza is almost halved compared to that of the Lombard capital, making it a potential alternative for less well-off profiles, without however guaranteeing the same typological availability. The chosen project area, located in the middle of the most fragile area, becomes an opportunity to experience a residential intervention that goes against the market trend. A project which, in terms of architectural, social, and functional policies, is in open contrast with the characteristics of the Monza residential area.
1900 - 2000 €/sqm
1600 - 1700 €/sqm
1800 - 1900 €/sqm 1500 - 1600 €/sqm
Social and Temporary housing system Special attention in the analysis of the real estate market is paid to residential units intended for public social housing. In 2020, the number of homes for less well-off families is 2652 of which 200 are available. Focusing on their mapping, it can be seen that even public housing, although located throughout the urban fabric, remains on the edge of the municipal territory, often in large complexes, with the risk of a consequent ghettoization of the resident population. In addition to the public residential patrimony, Monza hosts a network of private Onlus that is
dedicated, on the contrary, to the distribution of temporary housing. Unlike social housing, these offer temporary solutions not for the less well-off, but for a segment of the population, sometimes characterized by an emergency housing, health, or work situation, whose degree of social fragility is sometimes even higher. In order to overcome these criticalities, the non-profit model offers, in addition to housing, spaces, and productive activities for the social rehabilitation of particular cases, following the principle of a functional mix of ‘Productive Affordable Housing’.
Divorced father Single mother with sons Homeless Family member of long-term patient in health facilities Fixed-term worker
Evaluation of requests and redirection to private associations Social Services
No profit associations
Private non-profit foundations in assistance to specific social categories guarantee food and / or accommodation at reduced rates sometimes supported by municipal funds and the commitment to reintegrate fragile profiles and families into society. 400 € - 800 € per month
Families with an ISEE declaration of less than € 15,000
Disbursement of an annual tender for the custody of social housing
with contribution to the rent: ISEE < 3’000 € = Entrust to social services and full contribution ISEE < 7’000 € = 2’500 € 7’000 € < ISEE < 9’000 € = 2’000 € 9’000 € < ISEE < 15’000 € = 1’500 €
Dismissed areas Following the analysis of the socio-cultural and economic aspects of the territory, the study of the urban fabric of Monza has been declined to a narrower scale, close to the more central and neighbouring areas of the project site of the former prison. The following map investigates the design theme of architectural reuse and urban regeneration intending to map the buildings and abandoned areas. What emerges is a strong presence of divestments right in the area where the former prison is located, defining a macro-area characterised by several industrial buildings and a large lot occupied by the former â€˜Macello comunaleâ€™. This is a consequence of the progressive displacement of the high production areas concerning the city centre, mainly generated by a road system that has replaced the railway system in terms of importance and development, making road transport
more functional to the needs of industry. This progressive abandonment of the area, which began in the second half of the 20th century, allows us to give an explanation of the research carried out previously. At the basis of the strong socio-cultural and economic differences between the centre and the neighbouring area of the former prison is the significant state of abandonment, and consequent degradation, of the district, amplified by the split dictated by the railway track. The recent history of abandonment of this vast industrial heritage represents today an open wound in the urban fabric. On the other hand the architecture characterised by large spaces and its location in relation to the old town centre make the area an opportunity for large-scale interventions on an urban scale, as designated by the current PGT, including Prison Break, designed through the reuse of the former prison.
Infrastructure, connection and relevant social point After introducing the opportunities offered by the area under consideration, the research on an urban scale ended with a framework on it, highlighting more specifically the potential and needs of the neighborhood. The former prison is located in an area which, although characterized by evident deterioration, is very well connected in terms of infrastructure. The street on which the northern front of the building faces is the spinal column of the neighborhood, which also acts as a watershed between a very dense fabric in the north and the more porous one in the south, connecting them. The former prison is therefore well connected to the city center and to the station, which although it marks the important gap between the urban fabric,
places the site in an absolutely accessible position, also to/from Milan ( 25 minutes to Milan Porta Garibaldi ). The same urban service makes the area widely connected thanks to the public road network and a nearby cycle path that connects it to the more peripheral areas. The map, on a cultural and attractive level, highlights a generic absence of cultural spaces and places of aggregation, defined only by primary commercial services and places of worship. In this regard â€˜Prison Breakâ€™ aims to unite the living and working space with different public spaces in order to generate a new aggregation center. A core within the neighbourhood that is an intervention not only for the regeneration of the urban fabric but also for a social and cultural one.
5. Former prison Frameworks
The Monza Prison Project dates back to 1889, but only after sixteen years the construction was completed. Formally the prison, in spite of its particular function, reflects the architecture of nineteenth-century public buildings with a courtyard layout over two floors and a noble façade characterized by a greater stylistic detail. The façade of the north wing, which houses the areas not dedicated to inmates, is in fact enhanced by the presence of rusticated ashlars and molded stringcourses to enhance its appearance. The façade is noble, as an image of the institution and a reflection of the importance of the public building. Extremely attached to the hosted function, internally the prison is characterized by narrow spaces intended to house the cells, located on both floors, except for the north wing. In the same way, the perimeter walls have amplified the already claustrophobic condition of the spaces. These constitute the entire load-bearing structure of the building and as such are made of brick, 60 cm thick. In terms of distribution, the prison reflects the circulation of the buildings in the courtyard with a gallery corridor connecting the cells, running along the entire ring of the courtyard, and favoring control of the spaces through its double-height. In the following years, the same particular characteristics dictated by the prison function have become binding for the needs of the building. The
demographic increase and the consequent increase in the number of prisoners led to the construction of new accessory elements of low architectural value. Spaces such as the canteen and services have been added as superfetations to the facades of the internal courtyard, drastically conditioning the space and its quality. Consequently, on the outer perimeter of the the outer perimeter of the courtyard, some spaces have been fenced off to redefine the open space dedicated to prisoners. Of the 3900 sqm of the lot, the prison is located centrally occupying an area of 1436 sqm. The remaining part of the lot is in fact a filter area between the building and the boundary wall. The latter is still today the element that most characterizes the building and drastically connotes the external space. With a height of 4.60 meters, the boundary wall is an impassable constraint for prisoners yesterday, but for the population itself today. A boundary that not only sets itself as a physical limit but also as a visual border for the context. The wall as a symbol of the unknown, of concealment of what is happening inside it, a condition of limitation, a marginalization of the architecture itself for public space. A condition that ‘Prison Break’ aims to overturn, in terms of meaning and function, without affecting the memory of history. 81
Lots Total surface: Lot 1, former prison : Lot 2, public green area:
7’516 sm 3’925 sm 3’070 sm
Building forecourt area: courtyard area: total gross floor area:
1’436 sm 290 sm 2’520 sm
Potential and disadvantage
Connection and accessibility
Low natural lighting
Low quality extentions
South-East angle of the former prison. Via Pisacane, Via Procaccini
North front. Entrance gate of the former prison, Via Mentana
North-East angle of the former prison. Via Mentana, Via Procaccini
South front wall of the former prison. Via Pisacane
East front wall of the former prison. Via Procaccini
South-West angle of the former prison. Via Pisacane, Via Beccaria
South wing interior, P1 of the former prison
North wing interior, Ground floor of the former prison
South wing interior, Ground floor of the former prison
Prisoner toilet. Former prison
Judge office detail. Former prison
State of fact: Planivolumetric view
State of fact: Plans
State of fact: Elevations
Structural diagram The structure of the prison coincides with the perimeter brick walls, 60 cm thick. The north wing alone stands out because it is divided into three bays, the central one of which supports a barrel
vault on the second floor. The building is completed with a pitched roof supported by wooden trusses, at different heights per wing.
Distribution diagram The distribution of the former prison follows the layout given by the court model, running in a loop through the entire building. The distribution structure is replicated on both floors, but on the upper floor,
it uses some walkways to facilitate prisoner control. Again motivated by its previous function, the vertical distribution system is almost entirely located in the north wing, the only one not dedicated to detention.
Reception 1 Dormitory
2 Warden services
3 Warden canteen
4 Warden infirmary
Prisoner’s 5 services
Prisoner’s 6 canteen
Prisoner’s 7 infirmary
Female Prisoner’s 8 sacresty 9 Male courtyard 10 courtyard
6. Project 6.1 Program and strategies
The project is based on a strong functional mix defined by private and non-private living spaces, workspaces, and public spaces. The aim of ‘Prison Break’ is to overcome the multifunctional building characterized by a systematic division of areas, proposing a strong relationship between the different environments achieved through the development of distributive, visual, and spatial relations, both horizontal and vertical. The spatial relationships architecturally reflect the idea of a building based on the principle of sharing space, in which each environment belongs to the life of its occupants. Prison Break’ is conceptually a city within a city, in which spaces are articulated between connections and functional mixes, as in the urban fabric, wi-
thout interruption. A complete environment for those who inhabit it and live in it, being able not to depend on the outside. The sought functional independence of ‘Prison Break’ is reflected in its sustainability, which adopts the ‘circular economy’ principles. The project is designed to enjoy economic autonomy, dictated by a system that sees the income from productive and residential spaces allocated to the expenses of public and communal spaces. At the same time, on a social and architectural level, the important link between the building and the city is strong and made necessary by the mutual essentiality of the one for the other, intending to create a new centrality, an opportunity for the urban context, born of its criticalities.
How it works? The strategy of regeneration of the former prison into a productive affordable housing through a functional and residential mix, and an economic sustainability system that guarantees affordability.
Productive affordable housing
Affordable living spaces Cooperative system (no profit ass. - municipality) 98
Urban green area
Generate new centrality in the neighbothood
Courtyard Workspaces Shops and restaurant Panoramic views
Needs of found
Generate new job opportunity
Furniture workshop Bar Restaurant
Generate new living opportunity
Social housing Existenzminimus Minxed typology Flexibility use
Interested profile and Program for dwellers
Freeman Type of Accomodation No needs of accomodation
Needs House Workspace
Self-Sufficient Type of Accomodation Home workshop Soho
Needs House Workspace
Craftsman Type of Accomodation Home workshop Soho
Rookie Type of Accomodation Soho Dense-Co-Living
Needs House Workspace
New Comer Type of Accomodation Dense-Co-Living
Rejoiner Type of Accomodation Dense-Co-Living
Freeman Valerio Age: 58 Job: Design studio director Status: married with two children. Consultant management of the furniture workshop
No needs of home or job
Take part to the working program as supervisor and tutor: Furniture workshop Restaurant Bar
Needs of job, no housing needs
Age: 42 Job: Chef Status: married with on children, recently fired and struggling for a new job Monica
Take part to the working program as skilled worker: Furniture workshop Restaurant Bar Production
Age: 31 Job: Part time Yoga tacher Status: Single mother. Need of taking care of her 7 y. son
Reintegration in the Job market
Needs of home and a place for work, not for a job
Access to the SOHO or Home-workshop
Self-employed Free workers, working from home
Craftman Giacomo Age: 47 Job: Carpenter Status: In a relationship. Struggling to find a new job after his own business has stopped
Needs for a job
Gabriele Age: 64 Job: Musical instrument tuner Status: married, living with Miriana and two sons. In search for a shop and workshop close to his house and family
Take part to the working program as supervisor and tutor: Furniture workshop
Shares skills Production
Needs for a job and a low cost place for work
Acces to an Home-workshop Free workers
Needs for house and job
Age: 25 Job: Product designer Status: Single , in search of a new oppurtunity of live and work after graduation Venkatram and Shaila
Access to the Dense-living
Age: 29 and 27 Job: Ecommerce start-up Status: Indian couple in searching for low cost place to colive and start their new business
Take part to the working program as skilled worker: Furniture workshop
Needs for a job and a place for work
Access to SOHO / sharing SOHO
Self-employed for new activities or Start-up Free workers, working from home
New Comer Abdul Age: 49 Job: Unemployed Status: Arrived from Senegal without family. In searching for a place and a first work opporunity.
Needs for home and a job
Bilal Age: 32 Job: Former carpenter Status: Single with 10 y.o. son. Struggling for a new job and place
Acces to the Dense-living
Take part to the working program as no skilled worker: Furniture workshop Restaurant Bar
Needs for home and a job
Acces to the Dense-living
Take part to the working program as skilled worker: Furniture workshop Restaurant Bar Integration in the Job market 106
Needs for home and a job
Age: 35 Job: Unemployed Status: Former drug-addicted. Single, looking for home and job after being in community for 3 years Clara
Acces to the Dense-living
Take part to the working program as no skilled worker:
Age: 37 Job: Former Nun Status: Single . In search for a low cost accomodation and a new job opportunity to rejoin society
Furniture workshop Restaurant Bar Production
Integration in the Job market
Needs for home and a job
Acces to the Dense-living
Take part to the working program as skilled worker: Furniture workshop Restaurant-Bar Nursery Integration in the Job market
Dense co-living 25 - 32 sqm ( plus 2 - 9 sqm mezzanin) Dwellers: 1-2 Number of Apartments: 16
SOHO 58 - 66 sqm (plus zone for live,work and self realization) Dwellers: 2-4 Number of Apartments: 11
Home Work-shop 73 + 31 sqm; 80 + 27 sqm ( two levels) Dwellers: 2-4 Number of Apartments: 3
Dense-living is the unit conceived on the model of existence-minimum. It takes advantage of the height of the spaces to accommodate a mezzanine and sometimes habitable sleeping area. Below it is a living area separated from the kitchen by a bathroom. These units are adjacent and closely connected with common areas that provide tenants with additional functional spaces, such as study/work areas, common rooms, a large kitchen, and terraces.
Small-office-home-office is a type of living space that guarantees flexibility and versatility. Designed primarily as a temporal residence without being bound to certain profiles. The living and sleeping areas occupy a single open space divided by equipped or mobile walls, sometimes developing as a loft. Each apartment has a Plus-zone, shared, or private, overlooking the common space. A room dedicated to the needs of the tenant, whether living, working, or self-realization.
The home-workshop is a model that recent work-economic criticalities have made contemporary again. It responds to the precise need to live and work in the same place but in necessarily separate spaces. The workshop floor is designed to be on the lowest level, remaining separate from the living area and overlooking the internal courtyard. The rest of the accommodation is on two floors, the raised one dedicated to the day and the upper one to the night. In contrast to the other types, the shophouse enjoys a high degree of privacy and the only space connected to the public is the shop. 109
Working typology The production component is an integral part of a project that sees it as a protagonist for the sustainability of the project and for the needs of those who live. Although ‘Prison Break’ proposes a wide functional mix of different work possibilities, from private activity to services for the public, the main production area is a carpentry and furniture design workshop. The activity, chosen on the basis of the results of research in the area, is located in a productive area that has distinguished the Monza’s handcraft sector, representing a direct professional school although the sector suffers a progressive lack of labor. The workshop is an opportunity, linked to tradition, for those profiles who find themselves in work and social difficulties and the same for those
who are professionals with work and space needs and are willing to pass on their background. The workshop hosted inside ‘Prison Break’ is made up of a portion dedicated to processing, one to assembly, one to design, and finally an exhibition space that connects, horizontally and vertically, the production space with the public space. In order to research for design purposes what are the working dynamics and spatial needs of a production environment like this one, we have pursued research on similar realities. Among them, we contacted the ‘Studio GiacomoMoor’, which is more in line with the functional needs of the project, with whom we realized an interview to finalize the design of the furniture workshop.
Productive Spaces Furniture Workshop: 669 sqm Carpentry: 335 sqm Assembly: 266 sqm Design: 68 sqm Workers: 35-40 Public services Showroom: 105 sqm Restaurant: 218 sqm Bar: 110 sqm Nursery: 296 sqm
Bar and restaurant
Interview: “Studio Giacomo Moor”_ Aurelie Callegari So you only process wood from raw material to form? Yes. We get the panel we order according to the work, which can be of different types, depending on the customer’s budget. C: What kind of employees are there in the studio and how many are there? There are about 15 people, but they are equally divided into production and design. The only people employed are carpenters and fitters. Apart from me, Giacomo and our partner, the people who do the design are in the VAT game and those who produce and assemble are hired. Still speaking from the functional point of view of the workshop, how is the workshop structured in terms of spaces? What kind of environment do you need?
What is your production process for the furniture element, from when is the raw material purchased until the idea is created and sold? First of all we don’t have serial production, we don’t have a warehouse; and so the material has no warehouse either. We order the material according to the work, even if we happen to have surplus material, especially for large flats. That’s as far as wood is concerned because we only work with wood. We have traditional classic carpentry machines (from the drill to the machine that planes the solid wood, to the circular saw that cuts the panels). We do not have numerical control machines and we do not paint. So within the production of our furniture, we cover a portion that remains quite large when it comes to wooden furniture. We do not varnish or even veneer. We have a network of suppliers that accompanies us or in any case, cover the other phases of production.
First of all, the production of wooden furniture requires a very large space, because we receive the panels with very large dimensions. There must be a very large entrance. There must be parking facilities to accommodate the suppliers’ trucks. Inside there must be a large enough space to store the panels, and then there are certain machines such as circular machines that require space around them. So certainly a very large space; and then it is necessary to give each guy a workbench with tools on a wall. We have reserved another fairly large space, also in height, for assembly tests. You do retail. So isn’t there some sort of collection showroom? No, it is our internal policy that the things we design and produce are not given to retailers and do not participate in trade fairs. If anything, there are products designed for companies or galleries. But the products are only ours, if you want to see them you can come to us, otherwise, you have to go to the customer’s home. No other of our products has ever been replicated in more than two copies. The customer wants something designed for him.
So what you call collections on the catalog are collections for a specific customer? No, the collections in the limited area are galleries. If you go to our catalog you see three areas: 1- development of collections for design galleries: we design these collections for a gallery, we keep the copyrights and we surrender the commercial rights. Almost always we also take care of the realization of these collections through our network of suppliers; we cannot sell them. It is as if we were the craftsmen of the gallery. 2- then we have a section called ‘industrial’, where we design products for design brands, where we sell the project. 3- and finally we have the ‘Spock’ section where our carpentry is active for the private. Having a design part, are there spaces in the workshop dedicated to this? Yes. Upstairs we have a sort of closed loft made of glass in which we have the studio with the designers and us. What is the size of the laboratory? 250 sqm is the surface of the whole shed, and then we have the studio which is half of it. For about a year now we have bought a new adjoining space of 250 square meters which we are using as a warehouse, but where before the pandemic we had started renovation work to create a loft. Is this also thought about the idea of having new employees and new designers? Yes, absolutely. We are in a phase of growth where all the profits are continuously being reinvested. Is the idea of living in the same building as the studio something that can have advantages? Surely there are advantages, especially for the person who bears the studio’s name, for the boss. Because for those who are in charge of a studio in a structure where its presence is high, having the possibility to leave and enter at any time has its merits, because it saves a lot of time. So you are a much more detailed studio. But are jobs like the fixer, for example, jobs that can also 112
be taught to those who do not have a study base? Well, our production manager, who later also became a partner, has a degree in economics and was previously in charge of the finances of the municipalities in his area. Our chief editor has a degree in agriculture and used to be an agronomist. So in reality, without being too general, if you want you can. The percentage of people who can is lowered, in the sense that each of us can get where we want to go, and then tenacity, willpower takes over. In Italy, we have a shortage of schools that prepare for the profession of carpenter. So the school is the shop? Absolutely yes.
NURSER Y H O
O H E M S R E O S O T A P U H R O A S H NT G S COM WORK N W MO I V I OR N A L SH K R E S OW SHEAS EN R RO OP D A OM B 114
6.2 Design Strategy
Prison Break, through the reuse of a historic building, tackles a key architectural theme in the Italian panorama. The project acts in an existing urban context, dense and characterized by an architectural stratification that reflects the strong economic and social changes of the area. From a formal point of view, the project is therefore intended to be a graft that contrasts with the existing one, identifying a new type of building resulting from a major change in society. But just as change is a historical fact closely linked to the dynamics that preceded it, so ‘Prison Break’ was born with the intention of being an evolution of the building, establishing a dialogue between the parts that reciprocally restore an identity to each one. Re-use is not limited to the reuse of urban and architectural space. Re-use presupposes a genetic continuity between forms, which goes beyond form and considers symbolic and identity aspects proper to the building of which it becomes an integral part. The building of the former Monza prison is preserved almost in its entirety, with only the pitched roof being removed because of its extensive state of decay. On the contrary, the boundary wall, which for years was the boundary between the building and public space, but also the boundary between a past building and its future, becomes a fundamental element in the dialectic of the intervention. Its partial removal preserves its historical and mnemonic value while its function is reversed. The exclusive and radically introspective prison
enclosure becomes inclusive, sometimes inhabited. The wall of ‘Prison Break’ is the threshold that integrates a new public space and puts it in close relation with the residential and productive spaces of the project. In parallel with the saturation of the space between the wall and the building, an asymmetrical pitched volume leans on the existing one, hosting the second floor which, like the first, is dedicated to the different residential types. In the south-west corner of the prison, a second volume is extruded to become a tower. A space designated to be the public component of the project, guaranteeing vertical distribution on each floor of the new and the existing and acting as a landmark for ‘Prison Break’. The grafts are placed as a single large volume in connection with the existing one, maintaining the solid character of the twentieth-century prison structure and, in contrast, relating through the lightness of the materials with the urban context in which it is inserted. In the additional volume, the interior spaces, which relate like a city within a city, are reflected on the exterior surface, generating full and empty spaces that animate, articulate, and lighten the connection. Prison Break’ thus stands as an architectural metamorphosis of a building of historical and social value which, through its regeneration, contributes to the cohesion of the urban fabric. 117
Design strategy process
Design strategy process
Axonometry in the contest
Ground floor and environmental section north-south
Strutural diagram The â€˜Prison Breakâ€™ intervention on the existing building is defined by the raised volume added to the building of the former prison and the tower that completes the graft in the south-west corner. The two volumes are different in function, type, and characteristics, and this difference is made explicit on a structural level. The second floor rests on the existing structure, sometimes reinforced at the emptying points, thanks to a 15 cm xlam plate that frees the loads on 20 cm wooden beams connected to the existing one. The
entire new volume is then supported by a hybrid system of structural xlam for the partitions and 35 cm wooden beams to support the staggering pitched roof. The tower, on the other hand, hosting public spaces not intended for living and requiring large spans to illuminate them, has a steel structure. Formed by a structural grid that unloads onto three pillars on the ground floor. To support an asymmetrical structure and the large volumes, it was consequently necessary to use a grid ring to distribute the loads.
Distribution diagram The â€˜Prison Breakâ€™ distribution exploits the layout of the original system to guarantee a ring solution that connects all the spaces on different floors horizontally. Unlike the previous one, which did not meet certain functional requirements, on three of the four internal fronts, the distribution develops on external balconies. The drastic revolution in the distribution structure
is given by the vertical connections between floors. Designed with the intention of putting every space in the building, whether public or private, in easy and close relation. In fact, in addition to stairs and lifts dedicated exclusively to residential spaces, a distribution column runs through the entire tower, connecting each floor of the renovated prison through stairs and walkways.
Ground floor plan + 0.30 m
Ground one plan + 4.30 m
Ground 2 plan + 9.30 m
Functions Pf Main entrance north Furniture workshop - Cutting Furniture workshop - Assembly Exhibition space Reception furniture workshop Storage Bar Cafeteria Internal courtyard Restaurant Home-workshop - Living area Home-workshop - Workshop Main entrance south Reception library Nursery Public urban park
Functions G1 Furniture workshop - Design Dense living apartment Laundry Common space - Kitchen Common space - Terrace Common space - Study hall Home-workshop - Sleeping area SOHO - Living zone SOHO - + zone Distribution balcony Local facilities
Functions G2 Dense living apartment SOHO - Living zone SOHO - + zone Common space - Living room Common space - Terrace Distribution balcony Service stairs
Tower ground floor and ground 1
+ 0.30 m
+ 4.30 m
Tower floor 2 and floor 3
+ 6.80 m
+ 9.30 m
Tower floor 4 and floor 5
+ 11.75 m
+ 16.50 m
Tower floor 6 and floor 7
+ 23.65 m
+ 28.40 m
Space ratio: Public, working, living
Tower floor 3
Tower floor 4
Tower floor 5
Tower floor 6
Open public area
Tower floor 7
812 sqm - 19%
1’470 sqm - 34%
2’053 sqm - 47 %
Space ratio: common living and private living
Unfolded courtyard elevation trasformation
North and South elevation
East and West elevation
+ 15.95 m
+ 9.30 m
+ 4.30 m
+ 0.30 m + 0.00 m
+ 30,80 m
+ 28,40 m
+ 23,65 m
+ 16,50 m
+ 14,00 m
+ 11,75 m
+ 9,30 m
+ 6,80 m
+ 4,30 m
+ 0,30 m + 0,00 m
North elevation, material and detail
North elevation section detail
Tower elevation, material and detail
Building xyz Material and technological detail of the tower elevation scale 1:50
Bracing with C-section 200 mm
Metal junction plate
Beam HEA 220 Struts
Perforated aluminium panel
Pillar HEA 220
Tower elevation section detail
Exploded axonometric view of the towerâ€™s structure The structure of the tower body, a new element connected to the existing one, consists of a grid of steel beams and pillars to better respond to the stresses to which it is subjected. Due to the desire to create a corner entrance, we decided to base the structure on a ring of 5 m high reticular beams that run along the 4 sides (13m x 11.3m) and in turn discharge on 3 cross-shaped corner pillars formed by 2 HEA 220 profiles to leave the fourth corner free, supported by the two lateral reticular beams that, acting as cantilevers, have each otherâ€™s structural function. The truss beams are made up of an upper current and uprights created with HEA 220 beams and pillars, while the lower current is made up of an IPE 600 beam as it is the point subjected to the highest moment. The bracing of the lattice girders consists of steel cables to respond to tensile and compressive stress, a choice dictated by the need to allow the
space between the horizontal beams and the vertical uprights to be as wide as possible, guaranteeing maximum brightness. In correspondence with the uprights, the pillars of the 4 upper floors are positioned, creating a body 31 meters (30.8) high. The floors are created with a plate of HEA 220 steel beams to stiffen the structure and create a single independent and open space on each floor of the tower. The bracing of the entire structure is given by the staircase and lift body located in the north-west corner. Placed following the mesh of the main structure and reinforced by thicker steel diagonals to prevent the building from slipping. Finally, the structure is enveloped by a double glazed skin to allow light to enter, filtered by a covering of perforated aluminum panels that continues on the volume grafted onto the existing building, giving uniformity to the intervention.
Perspective section of the furniture workshop
Perspective plan of Home-workshop living typology GF
152 I'M GABRIELE AND AT MY AGE I
Perspective plan of home-workshop living typology 1Â° floor
Perspective plan of Dense living typology 1Â° floor
I AM CARLO, I LIVED IN A CO WITHDRAWED FACE SO MANY THE WORLD O "PRISON BREA TO REINTEGRA WORK HERE AS I CO-LIVE WITH TOGETHER WI
Perspective plan of a SOHO living typology 1Â° floor
I AM ARTIS OPEN BUT M I HAV DIFF ALLO HERE DREA AND BETT
Perspective plan of Dense living typology 2.1Â° floor
De Baed De
WE ARE ELENA AND GIOR WE ARE 25 YEARS OLD AN LOVE EACH MUCH, BUT WORKING AS FREELANC DESIGNERS WE WERE NO
Perspective plan of home-workshop living typology 2.2Â° floor
De Baed De
De Baed De
WE ARE ELENA AND GIORGIO, WE ARE 25 YEARS OLD AND WE LOVE EACH MUCH, BUT WORKING AS FREELANCE DESIGNERS WE WERE NOT ABLE
Perspective plan of SOHO living typology 2.1Â° floor
I'M ALICE, I WORK AS A PHOTOGRAPHER AND IN "PRISON BREAK" I HAVE FOUND THE PERFECT COMBINATION
Perspective plan of SOHO living typology 2.2Â° floor
Perspective section North-South
Views of the project
View of the south front and urban park
Views of the project
View of the North-West corner from Via Mentana
View of the vertical garden
View from the tower rooftop
Interior of the furniture workshop
Interior of the bar and the connected exibition space
Interior of the double high common space
Dense -living interior
7. Conclusion Productive affordable housing is a principle born and built on the needs and diversity of a population, the result of a technological, working, and economic revolution that profoundly changes its habits. The productive affordable housing, as a principle, therefore defines rules that allow its reproduction.‘Prison Break’ embraces this concept and demonstrates how, based on fundamental and repeatable criteria, architectural and functional design is on the contrary a unique and unrepeatable result. Design research begins from afar, from an investigation that, step by step, reaches the urban scale and focuses on specific problems and fragility, translated into form. ‘Prison Break’, as a project of productive affordable housing, works on a well-defined social context, but which has not found a full and concrete answer in the urban and architectural fabric. By setting itself the goal of operating in a socio-cultural framework and a well-defined spatial context marked by two different speeds, ‘Prison Break’ becomes the glue between two realities that do not speak the same language. The result is a project that is extremely contextualized out of necessity, an intervention of urban regeneration through the reuse of the existing and the abandoned. An operation that treats the symbolic memory of the image of the prison, but also a formal memory that lies in the perception of space and the existing urban fabric. A plot characterized by a past time but closely linked to the cultural context of the po-
pulation living the present revolution. The research that makes ‘Prison Break’ a unique example of a replicable principle is the need to propose a regeneration that is not only spatial but even more social. The project deals with specific and multidisciplinary themes of the city of Monza so that they can provide opportunities for new housing, work, and even more cultural needs.Historical, economic, and social processes of the territory become the key to revolutionize, through ‘Prison Break’, the life-work relationship on a spatial and architectural level, aligning it with the revolution on a global scale. Architectural regeneration, as well as the existing fabric, therefore passes through interventions on the morphology of the internal and external spaces, aimed at guaranteeing a strong porosity of the spaces. Consequently, the functional mix between life and work, and equally between public and private, is defined by a strong vertical and horizontal connection between spaces and their different destinations. At the same time, certain technological choices and designed housing solutions pursue the desire to make ‘Prison Break’ a project for everyone, both in terms of space and affordability. ‘Prison Break’ proves how productive affordable housing, in all its refined declination, is an intervention that responds to defined socio-economic dynamics today. Resulting in an equally valuable contribution to the formation of new centralities at different urban scales.
Iconographic Index 1. Alice Redaelli portait. Photographer and retoucher inviewed as Self-Sufficient. Milano-Gennaio 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
2. Claudio Beretta portrait. Hairdresser interviewed as Freeman. Monza-Gennaio 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
3. Gabriele di Nallo portrait. Piano tuner interviewed as Craftman. Monza-Dicembre 2019 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
4. Giulia Clemente portrait. Interior designer intern interviewed as Rookie. Milano-Gennaio 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
5. Carlo Agnesi portrait. Commercial consulter and former monch interviewed as Re-Joiner. Milano-Gennaio 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
6. Vinzirast-Mittendrin, Gaupenraub +/-. 2013. Vienna, Austria. Overview of the north-west corner Courated by Vinzirast
7. Vinzirast-Mittendrin, Gaupenraub +/-. 2013. Vienna, Austria. Private Kitchen for a multiple rooms apartment. Courated by Vinzirast
8. Vinzirast-Mittendrin, Gaupenraub +/-. 2013. Vienna, Austria. Worker in the carpentry area. Courated by of Vinzirast
9. Vinzirast-Mittendrin, Gaupenraub +/-. 2013. Vienna, Austria. Common Kitchen for common living. Courated by Vinzirast. 10. Vinzirast-Mittendrin, Gaupenraub +/-. 2013. Vienna, Austria. Bar and restaurant, open to the public. Courated by Vinzirast. 11. Olwen House, Da Nang, Vietnam. D1 Architectural studio. 2017-2018. Overview of the main facade from the city context. Courated by Paula Pintos
12. Olwen House, D1 Architectural studio. Da Nang, Vietnam. D1 Architectural studio. 2017-2018. View of the setting studio. Courated by Paula Pintos
13. Olwen House, D1 Architectural studio. Da Nang, Vietnam. 2017-2018. View of the kitchen. Courated by Paula Pintos
14. Olwen House, D1 Architectural studio. Da Nang, Vietnam. 2017-2018. Frontside of the house with the spiral outdoor stairs. Courated by Paula Pintos
15. Olwen House, D1 Architectural studio. Da Nang, Vietnam. 2017-2018. Axonometry sketch section. Courated by D1 Architectural studio.
16. Neu leopoldau, Feld 72. Vienna, Austria. 2015- .Sketch of the plus zone used as sturt-up studio. Courated by Feld 72
17. Neu leopoldau, Feld 72. Vienna, Austria. 2015- . Sketch of the plus zone used as tattoo studio Courated by Feld 72
18. Neu leopoldau, Feld 72. Vienna, Austria. 2015- . Sketch of the plus zone used as Atelier and exhibition place Courated by Feld 72
19. Neu leopoldau, Feld 72. Vienna, Austria. 2015- . Sketch of an aparment Courated by Feld 72
20. Coop Housing at River Spreefeld, Carpaneto + Fatkoehl + BAR architekten. Berlin, Germany. 2013. View of the common carpentry Courated by Michael Matuschka
21. Coop Housing at River Spreefeld, Carpaneto + Fatkoehl + BAR architekten. Berlin, Germany. 2013. View of an apartment Courated by Michael Matuschka
22. Coop Housing at River Spreefeld, Carpaneto + Fatkoehl + BAR architekten. Berlin, Germany. 2013. Overview of the housing complex Courated by Michael Matuschka
23. Tulou, China. Interior view of Chengqi Lou Tulou From Chinatourguide.com
24. Tulou, China. Ground corridors view of Chengqi Lou Tulou From Chinatourguide.com
25. Tulou, China. Topview of Chengqi Lou Tulou Courated by Carmen Phang
26. Medioeval Shop House. Botteghe artigiane. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Effetti del buon governo nella cittĂ Palazzo Pubblico, Siena 27. Medioeval Shop House. Axonometry of a typical shop-house From: Alamy Stock Photo
28. Medioeval Shop House. Ground floor entrance of a shop House From: coculloproloco.it
29. Agorawohnen, Berlin, Germany. Hutten und Palaste Architekkten. 2015. Model of the project section Courated by Hutten and Palaste
30. Agorawohnen, Berlin, Germany. Hutten und Palaste Architekkten. 2015. Model of the project elevatio Courated by Hutten and Palaste
31. Agorawohnen, Berlin, Germany. Hutten und Palaste Architekkten. 2015. Exploded axonometry Courated by Hutten and Palaste
32. Communal Villa, Studio DOGMA-Vittorio Aureli. Berlin, Germany. 2015. Workshop space Courated by Studio Dogma
33. Communal Villa, Studio DOGMA-Vittorio Aureli. Berlin, Germany. 2015. Project section Courated by Studio Dogma
34. Communal Villa, Studio DOGMA-Vittorio Aureli. Berlin, Germany. 2015. View of the realized equipped wall for living Courated by Studio Dogma
35. Panopticon type, Milback prison plan. London. England. 1821 From: The Funambolist mag.com
36. Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon prison, Willey Reveley. England. 1791. Plan, Section and elevation From: Wikipedia.org
37. First western penitentiary, Pittsburgh, U.S.A. 1820. Plan From: Archiveofaffinities.com
38. Eastern penitentiary of Pensylvania. U.S.A. 1836. Plan. From: presidentsmedals.com
39. Halden prison, Arkitektur-n. Halden, Norway. 2010. Plan Courated by Arkitektur-n
40. New Correctional Facility, Schmidt Hammer Lassen. Nuuk, Greenland. 2020. Partial Plan Courated by SHL studio.
41. Satellite view of the former prison and the surrounding urban tissue of Monza. Google earth
42. Former Monza prison. South-East angle. Via Pisacane, Via Procaccini. 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
43. Former Monza prison. North front. Entrance gate, Via Mentana. 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
44. Former Monza prison. North-East angle. Via Mentana, Via Procaccini. 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
45. Former Monza prison. South front wall. Via Pisacane. 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
46. Former Monza Prison. East front wall. Via Procaccini. 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
47. Former Monza Prison. South-West angle. Via Pisacane, Via Beccaria. 2020 Courated by Carlo G. Bernyak
48.Former Monza prison. South wing interior, first floor. 2018 Courated by Fabrizio Radaelli_Il Cittadino
49. Former Monza prison. North wing interior, Ground floor. 2018 Courated by Fabrizio Radaelli_Il Cittadino
50. Former Monza prison. South wing interior, Ground floor. 2018 Courated by Fabrizio Radaelli_Il Cittadino
51. Former Monza prison. Prisoner toilet. From: Storie dimenticate-Ex carcere di monza
52. Former Monza prison. Judge office detail, Ground floor. From: Storie dimenticate_Ex carcere di monza
53. ‘Giacomo Moor Studio’. The chief-designer Giacomo working on wood. Courated by Tommaso Bovo_Frizzifrizzi
54. ‘Giacomo Moor Studio’. View of a bench model Courated by Delfino Sisto Lignani
55. ‘Giacomo Moor Studio’. View of the studio. From Archiexpo.it
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Supervisors: Prof. Fabio Lepreatto, Prof. Elena Fontanella Guest Professor Prof. Deborah Briccola, Prof. Pierre Alain Croset, Prof. Stefano Guidarini, Final Thesis studio Group Research â€œAffordable Housing and Productive environmentâ€?: Amirhossein Adelfa, Jiarui Cui, Vanessa Falcone, Anamari Giraldo, Gaia Grassano, Gerardo Mendoza, Matej Paladin Interviewed profiles Carlo Agnesi, Claudio Beretta, Aurelie Callegari, Giulia Clemente, Gabriele Di Nallo, Alice Redaelli
Scuola di Architettura Urbanistica Ingegneria delle costruzioni Masterâ€™s Degree Thesis Architecture - Built Environment - Interiors A.Y. 2019 - 2020
In Italy this entails, especially for the population made up of young people and foreigners who are the last to enter the world of work, an...
Published on Dec 14, 2020
In Italy this entails, especially for the population made up of young people and foreigners who are the last to enter the world of work, an...