Page 1

SWEE YEW YONG M.ARCH THESIS

RESEARCH & DESIGN

A0137211W

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR A PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURAL MOVEMENT TOWARDS NUCLEAR FREE IN JAPAN

HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

浜岡原子力発電所


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR A PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURAL MOVEMENT TOWARDS NUCLEAR FREE IN JAPAN

THESIS SUPERVISOR: TSUTO SAKAMOTO

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE SWEE YEW YONG


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

4

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

0 PREFACE “W

E BEGAN WITH SOMETHING EXCITING. SOON THE MISTAKES

HAPPENED AND THEN WE START TO COMPROMISE. WE CREATE OUR

SHOULD

BE

INVENTION

HANDLED

IN

THE

HAS

1940S.

BECOME

UNTIL

A

MAJOR

TODAY,

IT

IS

CONCERN

STILL

SINCE

UNCLEAR

ON

ITS THE

PROPER WAY TO HANDLE A NUCLEAR DISASTER, AND THIS HAS RESULTED OWN DEMONS.” 1 IN A PERCEIVED FEAR IN ADOPTING NUCLEAR AS AN ENERGY SOURCE.

NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION, ONE OF THE GREATEST INVENTIONS TO

SECURE

FUTURE

ENERGY

HAS

BECOME

AN

ISSUE

THAT

HOWEVER, POOR ONE

NUCLEAR

JAPAN. THAT

IS

REACTIVATION

JAPAN

CAN

UPGRADE

SAFER,

BUT

THE

IS

INEVITABLE

THEIR

PUBLIC

FOR

NUCLEAR

SENTIMENT

RESOURCE-

TECHNOLOGY

TOWARDS

TO

NUCLEAR

THREATENS US. WE HOPE TO LIVE WITHOUT PUTTING OUR LIVES, POWER GENERATION IN JAPAN REMAINS CHALLENGING TO OVERCOME. THE OUR LOVED ONES AND OUR FUTURE UNDER RISK, IN THE NAME OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT. BUT SOMETIMES RISK HAS BECOME A

NECESSITY

FOR

HUMAN

CIVILIZATION.

HISTORICALLY

MANKIND

BALANCE BETWEEN THE CONTINUATION OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION AND THE NEGATIVE PUBLIC SENTIMENT TOWARDS IT NEEDS TO BE WORKED OUT IN A TACTFUL APPROACH.

HAS MADE HIGH-RISK DECISIONS IN ORDER TO MOVE THE SOCIETY BY FORWARD, TRAUMA

AND

AND

AT

TIME

IT

MAY

POST-TRAUMATIC

RESULT

STRESS

IN

SACRIFICE,

LIKE

FEAR

HORROR,

AND

ANXIETY.

AN EXAMPLE OF SUCH RISK IS THE USAGE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY

TAKING

CHERNOBYL

PRECEDENT

STUDY

-

NEW

THE

SAFETY

PROCESS

CONFINEMENT OF

(NSC)

ENTOMBING

THE

AS

THE

DAMAGED

NUCLEAR REACTOR HAS INSPIRED THE THESIS TO EXPLORE THE IDEA OF ENTOMBMENT AS A SOLUTION TO STRIVE THE BALANCE BETWEEN PUBLIC SENTIMENT

AND

NUCLEAR

POWER

GENERATION.

THE

ENTOMBING

OF

IN JAPAN. NUCLEAR PLANTS SENDS THE MESSAGE THAT NUCLEAR ENERGY IS BEING PHASED OUT AND THE ENTOMBMENT ALSO PROVIDES A SENSE OF SAFETY UNFORTUNATELY, UNDERSEA

FUKUSHIMA

EARTHQUAKE

AND

TRIGGERED

TSUNAMI

IN

THE

2011

TOHOKU

THAT

FOR THE PEOPLE OF JAPAN.

BROUGHT THIS

DEVASTATION

TO

THE

REGION

WHERE

THE

FUKUSHIMA

THESIS,

THEREFORE,

ASPIRES

TO

PROPOSE

ENTOMBMENT

FOR

DAIICHI HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN OMAEZAKI DUE TO THE REGION IS

NUCLEAR CAUSED

POWER

PLANTS

NUCLEAR

IS

REACTOR

LOCATED. MELTDOWN

THIS

DEATHLY

AND

EVENT

CREATED

AN

IRREVERSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AT A GLOBAL SCALE. THIS

ANTICIPATING A SIGNIFICANT EARTHQUAKE WITHIN THE NEXT 30 YEARS. TAKING

INTO

ACCOUNT

THE

FEAR

AND

ANXIETY

CAUSED

BY

PREVIOUS

NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS, THE ENTOMBMENT DESIGN AIMS TO PROVOKE FEAR AND RAISES THE AWARENESS ABOUT THE LIMITATION OF TECHNOLOGY. IN

UNPRECEDENTED DISASTER LED THE JAPAN GOVERNMENT TO READDITION, IT ALSO DEMONSTRATES THE NATION’S STRONG DETERMINATION EXAMINE NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION IN HIGH SEISMIC ZONES AND SUBSEQUENTLY THE SUSPENSION OF ALL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS’

TO PHASE OUT NUCLEAR POWER USAGE THROUGH ENTOMBMENT BUILD-UP FOR HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS.

OPERATIONS ACROSS THE NATION. ULTIMATELY, HAMAOKA THE PROPOSED ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEM THROUGH NUCLEAR FISSION

IS

CONDITION,

SUPPOSED BUT

TO

PERFORM

CONTINGENCIES

FLAWLESSLY

ALWAYS

OCCUR

IN IN

AN

IDEAL

REALITY.

THE

THESIS

NUCLEAR

ENVISAGES

POWER

PLANTS

THAT IN

THROUGH

OMAEZAKI,

IT

ENTOMBING WILL

AID

IN

THE THE

PROGRESSIVE PHASING OUT OF NUCLEAR ENERGY WHILE PROVIDING THE ENERGY

NEEDED

UNTIL

JAPAN

HAS

ADOPTED

AN

ALTERNATIVE

ENERGY

OPTION IN THE NEAR FUTURE.

CONSEQUENTLY, THE QUESTION OF HOW SUCH CONTINGENCY

KEYWORDS: HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS, SECOND FUKUSHIMA, NUCLEAR REACTIVATION, FEAR & ANXIETY, NUCLEAR-FREE, ENTOMBMENT, MONUMENT, DARK TOURISM.

1. QUOTED FROM <IRON MAN 3>, BY MARVEL STUDIO. 2.http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-g-n/japan-nuclear-power.aspx

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

5


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

6

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


CONTENT C H A P T E R

1 :

B A C K G R O U N D

A N D

I S S U E S

TRAUMA: FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT THE VULNERABLE OMAEZAKI AND HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS REACTIVATION: NUCLEAR RESTART PROGRAMME REJECTION: OBJECTION OF RESTART PROTECTION: THE WALL AS METAPHOR OF FEAR AND ANXIETY RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF RESEARCH SITE INFORMATION

C H A P T E R

2 :

R E S E A R C H

S T U D I E S

CHERNOBYL NEW SAFETY CONFINEMENT (NSC) CONCRETE SARCOPHAGUS: THE EMERGENCY MEASURE ENTOMBMENT EXPRESSION & MONUMENTALITY: SHRINE ARCHITECTURE IN JAPAN FORM: ADOPTION FROM THE TRADITION STRUCTURAL HONESTY: GOTHIC REVIVALISM & BRUTALISM ARCHITECTURE ALTERNATIVE TOURISMS: KOJO-MOE AND DARK TOURISM

C H A P T E R

3 :

D E S I G N

PROCESS AS NEW FORM OF MONUMENTALITY ENTOMBMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DESIGN PHASES AND NARRATIVE

A P P E N D I X

DESIGN PROCESS TECHNICAL RESEARCH & STUDIES

I N T E R V E N T I O N

&

S T R A T E G Y


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

1/3 background & issues

BOTTOM: SCENE OF TSUNAMI INVADING FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AFTER TOHOKU UNDERSEA EARTHQUAKE IMAGE REF: https://www.kcet.org/shows/nhk-special/episodes/88-hours-the-fukushima-nuclear-meltdown-part-2

8

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


9


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

trauma F

WAS

9.1-MAGNITUDE

TOHOKU

UKUSHIMA

UNLEASHED

A

STRUCK

BY

THE

EARTHQUAKE

DEVASTATING

TSUNAMI

AND ON

11

MARCH 2011. THE TSUNAMI WAVES OVERFLEW AND DAMAGED THE PROTECTIVE SEAWALLS AT SEVERAL LOCATIONS AND CAUSED WATER TO SURGE INTO INHABITED REGIONS.

THE

DEATHLY

INHABITED

TSUNAMI

AREA

DID

BUT

INVADE

ALSO

THE

NOT

ONLY

FUKUSHIMA

DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. THE INCOMING SEAWATER

CAUSED

PLANTS’

REACTOR

TO

MELTDOWN

THE

THE

REACTOR

THE

FAILURE

COOLING OF

ALSO

SYSTEM

THE

OF

REACTOR

EXPLODED

THE

AND

LED

CORE.

FOLLOWING

THE

SUBSEQUENT LEAKAGE OF HYDROGEN GAS FROM PRIMARY CONTAINMENT VESSEL.1 THE

NUCLEAR

LARGE

POWER

AMOUNT

(RADIOACTIVE

OF

PLANTS

RADIOACTIVE

ISOTOPES:

CESIUM-137)

INTO

ATMOSPHERE

AND

AS A RESULT, DISCHARGED

THE

CESIUM-134 PACIFIC

RESULTED

IN

A

A

SUBSTANCES

OCEAN

AND AND

DEVASTATING

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AT GLOBAL SCALE.

TOP & RIGHT: MELTDOWN AT FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AFTER TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI IMAGE REF: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/a19871/fukushimafive-years-later/

1) DAVE, “FUKUSHIMA MYTHS.”

10

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

THE UNPRECEDENTED CATASTROPHE

THE DAMAGED FUKISHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS UNIT 3 & 4, AERIAL VIEW. IMAGE REF: WWW.POPULARMECHANICS.COM/SCIENCE/ENERGY/A19871/FUKUSHIMA-FIVE-YEARS-LATER/

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

11


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

t

HE

ATMOSPHERIC

RECORDED INSIDE

AS

THE

REACTOR

HIGH

RADIATION AS

CONTAINMENT

NO.

2

AT

530

READING

SIEVERT

VESSEL

FUKUSHIMA

OF

DAIICHI

AN

WAS HOUR

DAMAGED NUCLEAR

POWER PLANTS, WHICH IS MUCH HIGHER THAN THE AVERAGE

LETHAL

EXTRAORDINARY AT

RISKS

WHILE

AMOUNT

RADIATION

OF

ONE

READING

DECOMMISSIONING

SIEVERT. PUT THE

THIS

WORKERS PLANTS,

A

PROCESS WHICH IS EXPECTED TO TAKE ABOUT FOUR DECADES TO COMPLETE.2

TOP: CONTAMINATION RANGE OF RADIOACTIVITY FROM FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

IMAGE REF: ens-newswire.com/2012/03/12/japan-stands-still-on-fukushima-disaster-anniversary/

2) JUSTIN, “FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR REACTOR.”

12

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

13


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

the vulnerable omaezaki & hamaoka T

HE GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF JAPAN’S Omaezaki & Hamaoka nuclear power plants EAST

COASTLINE

REVEALS

THAT

OMAEZAKI

CITY HAS A SIMILAR GEOLOGICAL FORMATION AS

FUKUSHIMA

HIT

BY

WITH (FIG

AND

ANOTHER

TSUNAMI 1).

IS

FORECASTED

EARTHQUAKE

WITHIN

THE

UNFORTUNATELY,

NEXT

THE

TO

BE

ALONGSIDE 30

CITY

YEARS

IS

ALSO

THE LOCATION OF HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS,

AN

DESIGNED

TO

ENERGY SERVE

FACILITY

THAT

SHIZUOKA

WAS

PREFECTURE

AND TOKYO.

HAMAOKA 1

WAS

NUCLEAR

BUILT

IN

POWER

1974,

PLANTS

AND

THE

UNIT

LATEST

UNIT 5 WAS BUILT IN 2000. BUT AFTER THE FUKUSHIMA POWER BUILDING AND

NUCLEAR

PLANTS SEISMIC

UPGRADE.

VULNERABILITY HAMAOKA TITLED POWER

SHUT

BECAUSE TO

POWER

THE

FOR

SITE’S

DISASTER, PLANTS

DAIICHI

THE

ENTIRE

INSPECTION

NATURAL

FUKUSHIMA

PLANTS,

OF

THE

DOWN

REQUIREMENT

NUCLEAR

AFTER

ACCIDENT,

WERE

WORLD

ARE

NUCLEAR MOST

DANGEROUS NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN THE WORLD.3

MEGAQUAKE FOCAL REGIONS & NHK BROADCAST, SOURCE: JAPAN NHK

TOP: NHK BROADCAST: NAOTO KAN URGED TO SHUTDOWN HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IMAGE REF: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/worlds-most-dangerous-nuclear-power-plant-is-closed-down-2280356. html

3) DAVID, “WORLD MOST DANGEROUS.”

14

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

Omaezaki

JAPAN SEISMIC LEVEL INDICATION MAP: POSSIBILITY OF HAVING MAGNITUDE 6 EARTHQUAKE OR ABOVE IN THE NEXT 30 YEARS. IMAGE REF:

HTTP://GAKURAN.COM/GREAT-TOHOKU-EARTHQUAKE/

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

15


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

reactivation: nuclear restart programme j

APAN’S

BIGGEST

PROBLEMS

AGING

POPULATION,

TSUNAMI

DEVASTATION

MAJOR

ACTION

INSTANTLY

IMAGINATION.4 FUKUSHIMA JAPANESE

ON

SEIZE

TODAY

ECONOMIC AND

ANY

THE

OF

THE

NUCLEAR

THESE

PUBLIC’S

SINCE

TOHOKU

NUCLEAR

POWER

GOVERNMENT,

ARE

THE

STAGNATION,

ISSUES

THE

OUSTING

MINISTER

IS

A

JAPANESE

LESSON

IN

PRIME

CROSSING

THE INFLUENTIAL PLAYERS WHO CONTROL JAPAN’S ENERGY

POLICY.6

AND

NUCLEAR

EARTHQUAKE

AND

CHALLENGING

PLANTS

FORMER

KAN

WOULD

ATTENTION

ACCIDENT,

NUCLEAR

OF

NAOTO

CRISIS.

REGULATION

UP

TAKE

YEARS

UP

TO

ECONOMICS (IEEJ) HAVE DECIDED TO SHUT DOWN ALL

ENERGY.

SAY

THE

RENEWABLE

JAPAN

AND

GENERATION

OVER

RAMPING

AUTHORITY (NRA) AND JAPAN INSTITUTE OF ENERGY

SAFETY

POWER

AND IS

SO

NECESSITY ARE

YEARS.

ENERGY IT

PHASING

IS OUT

MEANWHILE

CAPACITY FAR

OF

ALWAYS

TOO

FROM

WILL EARLY

NUCLEAR

THE NUCLEAR REACTORS ACROSS THE NATION FOR TECHNICAL

INSPECTION

AND

UPGRADE,

AND

EVEN

HAMAOKA

NUCLEAR

PLANTS

WERE

REQUESTED BY NAOTO KAN TO BE CLOSED UNTIL

UNDER

THE

CONSTRUCTION.

PLANTS

WILL

MOST

ANY

REACTIVATION

LIKELY

TRIGGER

OF

THE

ANTI-NUCLEAR

PETITION, PROTEST OR DEMONSTRATION.

STRUCTURE

RESIST

AGAINST

MAGNITUDE KATSUHIKO

RENEWABLE AMONG

ENERGY

JAPANESE.

TOPIC

HOWEVER,

MIGHT

REVERBERATE

UNLESS

PEOPLE

ARE

IS

REINFORCED

EARTHQUAKE

AND

OTHER

ISHIBASHI,

A

TO

BE

WITH

NATURAL

ABLE A

TO

HIGHER

DISASTERS.

SEISMOLOGIST

AT

KOBE

UNIVERSITY, WHO ARGUED FOR A MORE STRINGENT SEISMIC

STANDARD

FOR

JAPAN

NUCLEAR

POWER

WILLING TO TAKE UP HIGHER ELECTRICITY COST, THE

PLANTS, HE SAID THE HALTING OPERATION AT THE

RESPONSIBILITY

STRESS

HAMAOKA WAS NOT ENOUGH, AND THE REACTORS

TEST FROM CONVERSATION OR DISCOURSE AS WELL

WOULD REMAIN VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES AND

AS

TSUNAMIS.7

OF

RISING

COUNTERATTACK

MONOPOLIES,

BY

OTHERWISE

C02

THE

EMISSION,

POWERFUL

NUCLEAR

POWER

ENERGY PLANTS

SUSPENSION WOULD ONLY REMAIN AS A TEMPORARY SOLUTION.5

ABOVE: COMPARED WITH THE FAMOUS CHERNOBYL AND THREE MILES ISLAND NUCLEAR ACCIDENT, FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT HAS RESULTED IN THE HIGHEST NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS SHUT DOWN RATE. IT IS ALSO REFLECTING THE FEAR OF JAPANESE GOVERNMENT TOWARDS THE NUCLEAR ACCIDENT.

IMAGE REF: www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2016/03/daily-chart-5

4) 5) 6) 7)

16

POWER

SUSPENDED NUCLEAR PLANTS WHICH ARE CURRENTLY

JEFF, “OUSTING.” JEFF, “OUSTING.” JEFF, “OUSTING.” HIROKO, “JAPAN ASKS.”

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

www.world-nuclear-news.org

“O

UR RESOURCE-POOR COUNTRY CANNOT DO WITHOUT NUCLEAR POWER TO SECURE THE STABILITY OF ENERGY SUPPLY WHILE CONSIDERING WHAT MAKES ECONOMISENSE AND THE ISSUE OF CLIMATE CHANGE.

- SHINZO ABE, JAPAN PRIME MINISTER. (5TH ANNIVERSARY FUKUSHIMA DISASTER PRESS CONFERENCE, 2016)

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

17


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

rejection: objection from local C

ELECTRIC

AGREED

TO

HUBU

OLDEST

REACTORS

CONSIDERING EXCEEDED

POWER

COMPANY

DECOMMISSION

ITS

OF

THE

USAGE

AVERAGE

PLANTS

LIFESPAN.

COMPANY

STILL

TWO

SITE

HAD

AFTER

ALREADY

NUCLEAR

POWER

HOWEVER,

INSISTS

THE

THE

REMAINING

THREE REACTORS (UNIT 3, 4 AND 5) AT THE SITE A

ARE

SAFE

MAJOR

ENOUGH

EARTHQUAKE

TO AND

WITHSTAND COULD

BE

REACTIVATED IN THE FUTURE.8

INTERESTINGLY, INTERVIEW OF OMAEZAKI’S RESIDENT

REGARDING

REACTIVATION THAT

THERE

REACTION

ARE

THE

NUCLEAR

PROGRAMME TWO

OVER

TYPES

THE

REVEALS OF

ISSUE.9

PUBLIC THE

MAJORITY OF RESIDENTS STILL CONSIDER THAT NUCLEAR

DECOMMISSIONING POWER

PLANTS

HAMAOKA IS

THE

BEST

WAY TO KEEP OMAEZAKI SAFE. HOWEVER, SOME MINORITIES SUPPORT THE NUCLEAR ACTIVATION

PROGRAMME

AS

THEY

THINK

NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION IS THE ONLY WAY TO REINVIGORATE LOCAL ECONOMY.

LEFT: REACTIVATION OF HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IMAGE REF: www.world-nuclear-news.org

8) JUSTIN, “AVOIDED.” 9) KYODO, “CROSSROADS.”

18

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

INFORMATION SOURCE: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2011/07/14/national/hamaoka-host-city-at-crossroads/#.Wb4KQbIjGxD

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

19


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

PROTECTION: WALL AS METAPHOR OF FEAR AND ANXIETY “WHEN IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO LEAVE A HOUSE UNPROTECTED FROM EXTERNAL FACTORS AND ONE HAS TO EMPLOY AN ENCLOSURE OF THIS TYPE…”

- TADAO ANDO

A

NDO

STATED

THAT

ONE

MUST

EMPLOY

A

TYPE

OF

ENCLOSURE TO PROTECT THE UNPROTECTED ZONE FROM THE EXTERNAL FACTORS. BY ENGAGING THE WALL, IT WILL, THEREFORE,

BECOME

A

DELINEATION

OF

SPACE

THAT

IS

PHYSICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY ISOLATED FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD.10

AND THE MATERIAL HE USED FOR HIS

WALL IS PURE, AND IT WAS MEANT TO PROVOKE THE SENSE OF AWARENESS WITH NATURAL ELEMENTS. THE WALL ITSELF DOES NOT APPEAR TO BE PURELY FUNCTIONAL BUT ALSO BEING ABLE TO EXPRESS COMPLEX EMOTIONAL INFLUENCES, THE QUALITY OF SENSIBILITY.

LOOKING SITE,

BACK

CHUBU

TO

HAMAOKA

ELECTRIC

NUCLEAR

POWER

POWER

COMPANY

PLANTS

STARTED

THE

CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE SEAWALL TO PROTECT THE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS FROM THE TSUNAMI IN 2011, AND IT HAS COMPLETED THE MAIN PART UNTIL 2014 (SEE FIG. 3).

THE

1.6KM

IN

SEAWALL LENGTH.

FEATURED HOWEVER,

18M

ABOVE

SEA

18M

HEIGHT

THIS

LEVEL

AND

SEAWALL

IS PREDICTED TO BE OVERTOPPED BY THE TSUNAMI THAT WILL

COME

EARTHQUAKE.

AFTER THUS,

THE THE

ANTICIPATED SEAWALL

NANKAI

HEIGHT

WAS

TROUGH TOPPED

BY ADDITIONAL 4 METERS IN ORDER TO MEET THE SAFETY REQUIREMENT.11

10) FRANCESCO, TADAO ANDO COMPLETE WORKS, 444-445. 11) MOCHIZUKI, “TIDE EMBANKMENT.”

LEFT: SEA WALL STRUCTURAL AXO IMAGE REF: HAMAOKA.CHUDEN.JP/ENGLISH/PROVISION/TATEYANAI.HTML

20

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

URGENCY: EXCLUSION OF SITE FROM THREAT

HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS SEA WALL, TOP VIEW. THE ADDITIONAL 4M WAS CONSTRUCTED IN STEEL STRUCTURE TO AMEND THE INSUFFICIENT HEIGHT OF PROTECTION SEAWALL. IMAGE REF:

HTTP://WWW.JSCE-INT.ORG/A_T/ACHIEVEMENT/CIVIL/2014

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

21


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

“THE WALL WAS AN EDIFICE OF FEAR....” 12

T

HE 1.6KM LONG CONCRETE SEAWALL AT HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

IS BUILT MAINLY AS A PROTECTION AGAINST NATURAL DISASTER. YET, THE WALL ALSO PROVOKED A SENSE OF FEAR AND ANXIETY TOWARDS THE UNCERTAINTY OF

NATURAL

EXAMPLE, ACT

AS

A

THE

DISASTER. 30

FEET

PHYSICAL

SIMILARLY, TALL

REFERENCING

AND

2000

MILES

FOR

THE

ILLEGAL

BARRIER

THE

LONG

TRUMP

WALL

STRUCTURE

IMMIGRANT

AS

NOT

ISSUE,

BUT

AN

JUST THE

STRUCTURE ALSO REPRESENTS A STRONG SENSE OF ANXIETY AND FEAR OF PRESIDENT TRUMP TOWARDS THE IMMIGRANTS.

THUS BUILDING A MASSIVE SEAWALL AT HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS FUNCTION

AS

A

WEDGE

THAT

PROTECT

AGAINST

NATURAL

DISASTER,

BUT

ITS EXISTENCE ON SITE ALSO HIGHLIGHTS THE FEAR AND THE LIMITATION OF CURRENT NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY IN THE FACE OF NATURAL DISASTER.

ABOVE & LEFT: TRUMP WALL PROPOSAL BY E.STUDIO 3.14 IMAGE REF: DEZEEN.com

12) http://molly-and-christina.tumblr.com/post/118088437655/the-wallwas-an-edifice-of-fear-on-the-november (QUOTED FROM HORST KÖHLER, FORMER PRESIDENT OF GERMANY, ACCESSED ON 20 SEPT 2017)

22

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

WALL & BULWARK AS ANXIETY METAPHOR

TRUMPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S WALL DESIGN BY MEXICAN ARCHITECTURE FIRM, E.STUDIO 3.14

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

23


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS S

HORTAGE OF ENERGY RESOURCES HAS CAUSED JAPAN TO RESTART THEIR

NUCLEAR ABOUT

POWER

THE

PLANTS

NUCLEAR

FROM

POWER

MAJOR

SHUT

GENERATION

DOWN

HAS

IN

BEEN

2011.

THE

CONCERN

REVERBERATED

AMONG

PEOPLE, AND THE FEAR AND ANXIETY HAVE STARTED TO PROLIFERATE.

THE

THESIS

ACCIDENTS

TAKES AND

FEAR

THE

AND

CURRENT

ANXIETY

CREATED

PHENOMENA

AT

BY

PREVIOUS

HAMAOKA

NUCLEAR

NUCLEAR

POWER

PLANTS AS STARTING POINT FOR THE OVERALL DESIGN. TWO QUESTIONS THAT THE

THESIS

SEEKS

TO

RAISE:

HOW

CAN

WE

PROVIDE

AN

INFRASTRUCTURAL

SOLUTION FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS TO MINIMIZE THE AFTERMATH IMPACT? SECONDLY, HOW CAN WE DESIGN THE EMERGENCY PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE AS SUCH THE BUILT FORM EXPRESSES THE FEAR AND ANXIETY?

THEREFORE, THE THESIS CONJECTURE IS TO DESIGN AN EMERGENCY PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE

FOR

WHERE

THE

DESIGN

RAISES

AWARENESS

THE

WILL OF

RESTARTING ALSO

HAMAOKA

EXPRESS

TECHNOLOGICAL

FEAR

NUCLEAR

AND

LIMITATION

POWER

ANXIETY TO

AND

PEOPLE

PLANTS THUS,

AND

IT

THE

CONSEQUENCES OF OUR ACTION TOWARDS THE FUTURE GENERATION.

SCOPE & LIMITATION T

HIS

THESIS

RESEARCH

UNDERSTANDS

THE

DIFFICULTIES

AND

LIMITATIONS

OF ACCESSING DOCUMENTS AND DRAWINGS FOR A CONTROVERSIAL PROJECT LIKE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. BY COMPENSATING THIS, THE RESEARCH REPORT WILL

TAKE

AN

EXTENSIVE

PRECEDENT

ANALYSIS

OF

CHERNOBYL

NUCLEAR

POWER PLANTS AND SUPPORTING LITERATURE TO SUBSTANTIATE THE RESEARCH FOR

THESIS

DESIGN.

GENERALLY,

THIS

REPORT

WILL

BE

INVESTIGATING

THE

MECHANISM OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS CONFINEMENT AS WELL AS THE ARCHITECTURAL FORM AND EXPRESSION THAT ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FEAR AND ANXIETY CAUSED BY THE FORMER NUCLEAR ACCIDENT.

RIGHT: AERIAL VIEW OF DAMAGED CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IMAGE REF: https://iconicphotos.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/igor_kostin_06-jpg.jpeg?w=809

24

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


25


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

SITE INFORMATION T

THESIS

POWER

PLANTS

HE

PROJECT CONSIST

SITE, OF

5

HAMAOKA

NUCLEAR

NUCLEAR

REACTOR

UNITS:13

UNIT 1 AND UNIT 2 WERE THE FIRST TWO NUCLEAR REACTORS

BEEN

BUILT

ON

HAMAOKA

SITE

IN

1974

AND 1978. BOTH REACTOR TYPES ARE BOILING WATER REACTOR (BWR), AND THE NET CAPACITY OF UNIT 1 AND 2 ARE 515MW AND 806MW RESPECTIVELY.

FOR UNIT 3 AND UNIT 4, THEY WERE BUILT IN 1987 AND

1993.

THEY

ARE

BOTH

GENERAL

ELECTRIC

BOILING WATER REACTOR (GE BWR OR BWR-5). THE PRINCIPLES AND MECHANISM OF GE BWR ARE SIMILAR TO

BWR,

BUT

IT

HAS

HIGHER

NET

CAPACITY

THAN

BWR UNIT. THE NET CAPACITY OF UNIT 3 AND 4 ARE 1056MW AND 1092MW RESPECTIVELY.

UNIT 5 IS THE LATEST NUCLEAR REACTOR ON HAMAOKA SITE AND WAS BUILT IN 2004. THE REACTOR IS USING ADVANCED BOILING WATER REACTOR (ABWR) WHICH THE

MECHANISM

IS

SAFER

AND

WITH

HIGHER

NET

CAPACITY. THE NET CAPACITY OF UNIT 5 IS 1212MW.

ALL NUCLEAR REACTORS UNITS ARE CURRENTLY SHUT DOWN SINCE 2011, AND THE DECOMMISSIONING WORK FOR UNIT 1 AND UNIT 2 WAS STARTING IN 2009 AND SCHEDULED

TO

BE

COMPLETED

ALL

DECOMMISSION

STAGES IN 2036.14

LEFT: 1) HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS UNIT INDICATION DIAGRAM. 2) DECOMMISSION STAGES FOR HAMAOKA UNIT 1. RIGHT: BIRD’S EYES VIEW OF OMAEZAKI

13) “HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT” ON REVOLVY.COM 14) WORLD NUCLEAR NEWS, “DISMANTLING.”

26

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

LOOKING TOWARD MT FUJI FROM HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

27


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

YAMANASHI

MT FUJI

AICHI

KYOTO

SHIZUOKA PREFECTURE

SURUGA BAY

MT ANAGI

SHIZUOKA

HAMAMATSU

OMAEZAKI (SITE)

EURASIAN PLATE

05 SITE: Context 01

PROXIMITY: CONTEXTUAL RELATIONSHIP

28

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

TOKYO

TOKYO BAY YOKOHAMA

KANAGAWA

CHIBA

IZU SAGAMI-NADA SEA

NANKAI TROUGH

0

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

40km

29


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

OMAEZAKI CITY

HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

OMAEZAKI BEACH LINE

OMAEZAKI TEA FIELDS

OMAEZAKI CENTRAL PARK

02 OMAEZAKI: BACKGROUND PREFECTURE: SHIZUOKA POPULATION: 32,433

0

30

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

2km


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

MAKINOHARA CITY

MAIN EXPRESSWAY 150

OMAEZAKI COMMUNITY CENTER

MARINE PARK OMAEZAKI

OMAEZAKI LIGHT HOUSE

GEOGRAPHY: OMAEZAKI CITY LIES APPROXIMATELY 80 MILES SOUTH OF SHIZUOKA AND AT THE TIP OF A PENINSULA. LIKE MUCH OF JAPAN, SHIZUOKA PREFECTURE IS AN EARTHQUAKE ZONE (IN BETWEEN EURASIAN PLATE AND NANKAI TROUGH AND IN AN AREA AT RISK FROM TSUNAMI.

ECONOMY: OMAEZAKI HAS A LONG HISTORY OF COMMERCIAL FISHING AND GREEN TEA CULTIVATION AND THESE CONTINUE TO PLAY CENTRAL ROLE FOR THE LOCAL ECONOMY. AFTER THE HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS WERE CONSTRUCTED, IT ALSO BRINGS INVESTMENT TO THE CITY. WATER SPORTS ACCOUNT FOR A LARGE NUMBER OF VISITORS DAILY TO THE CITY ESPECIALLY DURING SUMMER MONTHS, TOURISM ATTRACTED BY OMAEZAKIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S BEACHES IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE ECONOMY.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

31


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

5KM PRECAUTIONARY EVACAUTION ZONE

OMAEZAKI CITY

HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

OMAEZAKI BEACH LINE

OMAEZAKI CENTRAL PARK

03 OMAEZAKI: EVACUATION RADIUS GUIDELINE PROVIDED BY SHIZUOKA PREFECTURE

0

32

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

2km


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

MAKINOHARA CITY

10KM

OMAEZAKI COMMUNITY CENTER

OMAEZAKI LIGHT HOUSE

EMERGENCY EVACUATION PLAN SHIZUOKA PREFECTURE HAS MADE AN EMERGENCY EVACUATION PLAN TO EVACUATE THE RESIDENTS FROM OMAEZAKI WHEN DISASTER LIKE TSUNAMI, EARTHQUAKE OR NUCLEAR PLANTS MELTDOWN HAPPENED. A 5KM RADIUS IS A PRECAUTIONARY DISTANCE FROM HAMAOKA POWER PLANTS AS IMMEDIATE EVACUATION AREA. 10KM IS FUKUSHIMA EVACUATION DISTANCE, BUT THE COUNCIL HAS EXTENDED OMAEZAKI EVACUATION DISTANCE TO 20- 30KM TO ENSURE A HIGHER LEVEL OF SAFETY.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

33


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

8

6

1

5 2

3

TSUNAMI PROTECTION WALL

3

NUCLEAR REACTOR UNIT 1 & 2

5

NUCLEAR REACTOR UNIT 3 & 4

NUCLEAR REACTOR UNIT 5

04 SITE: HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

DISTRICT: OMAEZAKI STATUS: UNIT 1 & 2 CURRENTLY DECOMMISSIONING, UNIT 3-5 SHUT DOWN (UNIT 3-4 ARE PLANNING TO BE RESTARTED IN THE NEAR FUTURE) REACTOR TYPE: MARK 2 BWR & ABWR

34

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

0


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

4 1

7

3

6

5

Legend 1. Switching station 2. Sand dune embankment 3. Water intake pond and overflow protection wall 4. Emergency electric generator & water tank 5. Drainage outlet 6. Cement-mix-soil embankment structure 7. Solid waste storage 8. Nuclear training center

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

35


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

36

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

37


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

38

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

39


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

BELOW: PHOTO: HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS UNIT 5, VIEW FROM SAND DUNE. THE SAND DUNE IS USUALLY TO CATER WIND SURFER OR FISHERMEN.

40

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

41


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

2/3 research studies

42

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


C H E R N O B Y L C O N C R E T E

N E W

S A F E T Y

C O N F I N E M E N T

S A R C O P H A G U S :

T H E

( N S C )

E M E R G E N C Y

M E A S U R E

E N T O M B M E N T E X P R E S S I O N F O R M :

&

M O N U M E N T A L I T Y :

A D O P T I O N

S T R U C T U R A L

F R O M

H O N E S T Y :

T H E

S H R I N E

A R C H I T E C T U R E

I N

J A P A N

T R A D I T I O N

G O T H I C

R E V I V A L I S M

&

B R U T A L I S M

A R C H I T E C T U R E


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

CHERNOBYL NEW SAFETY CONFINEMENT N

UCLEAR

ACCIDENTS

MARKED

A

DISGRACE

TO

HUMAN CIVILIZATION. NOT TO MENTION THE FAMOUS CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS MELTDOWN IN 1986.

THE

DAMAGED

KILLED

30

ACUTE

RADIATION

NUCLEAR

OPERATORS

ENVIRONMENTAL

15

POWER

DUE

TO

AND

CAUSED

IMPACT

PLANTS

HAD

OVEREXPOSURE

TO

TO

IRREVERSIBLE

THE

SURROUNDING

REGIONS. CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT HAPPENED 31

YEARS

AGO,

BUT

NOW

PEOPLE

STILL

REMEMBER

THE HORROR BROUGHT BY THIS CATASTROPHIC, MANMADE DISASTER. UNTIL THE NEW SAFETY CONFINEMENT HAS

BEEN

CONSTRUCTED

AND

COVERS

UP

THE

CONTAMINATED SITE, AND THEN IT SEEMS TO ENTOMB THE ASSOCIATED MEMORIES FROM 1986 AS WELL.

THE

CALLED-UP

PROPOSAL

CONFINEMENT

PROJECT

CONFINEMENT

(SEE

THE TO

NEXT 20-

YEARS

FOR

DUE

LIFESPAN

AFTER

A

THIS

TO

CONCRETE

CHAPTER)

30

IS

THE

NEW FORMER

SARCOPHAGUS HAS

BEEN

IN

REDUCED

REASSESSMENT

OF

THE

STRUCTURE. IT IS THE WORLD LARGEST LAND-BASED MOVING

STRUCTURE

THAT

HAS

BEEN

CONSTRUCTED

TO COVER UP THE DAMAGED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN 1986. ALTHOUGH THE FORMER CONFINEMENT HAD ENCASED A

THE

DAMAGED

POSSIBILITY

WHERE

REACTOR, THE

THERE

RADIATION

IS

ALSO

WILL

LEAK

OUT, OR THE CONCRETE BUILDING WOULD COLLAPSE AFTER THE

THE

NEW

ESTIMATED

SAFETY

STRUCTURE

CONFINEMENT

IS

LIFESPAN.16

TO

ENSURE

THE

SITUATIONS AS MENTIONED EARLIER WILL NOT HAPPEN AND TO CREATE A LEAK TIGHT PROTECTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT.

THIS

UNPRECEDENTED

ENGINEERED

CONFINEMENT

STRUCTURE COST 1.5 BILLION EUROS TO BUILD, AND IT

IS

THE

GOING

TO

ENTIRE

WEIGHED 108M

IN

LAST

FOR

STRUCTURE

AROUND HEIGHT,

OF

36,000

162M

IN

AT

LEAST

MASSIVE TONS

A

AND

LENGTH

CENTURY.

ARCHED

AND

DOME

MEASURED SPAN

OVER

257M. IT WAS BUILT 300M AWAY FROM THE DAMAGED UNIT 4 REACTOR (SEE FIG. 6) AND WILL BE SHIFTED THROUGH HYDRAULIC JACKS UPON THE CONFINEMENT COMPLETION. FROM

THE

NOTHING

DAMAGED

WILL

REACTOR

BE

LEAKING

WITH

THE

OUT

LATEST

CONSTRUCTED CONFINEMENT, AND EVERYTHING WILL BE

SEALED

LEAK-TIGHT

WITHIN

THE

PROTECTION

STRUCTURE.

RIGHT: COMPLETION OF CHERNOBYL NEW SAFETY CONFINEMENT.

15) WORLD NUCLEAR NEWS, “CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT.” 16) NICK, “DOME.”

44

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

COMPLETION OF NEW SAFETY CONFINEMENT

- DARK TOURISM CHERNOBYL DAMAGED REACTOR CONFINEMENT AS MONUMENT TO COMMEMORATE THE ACCIDENT.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

45


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR THIS

UNPRECEDENTED

STRUCTURE

COST

1.5

ENGINEERED

BILLION

EUROS

CONFINEMENT TO

BUILD,

AND

IT IS GOING TO LAST FOR AT LEAST A CENTURY. THE ENTIRE STRUCTURE OF MASSIVE ARCHED DOME WEIGHED AROUND 36,000 TONS AND MEASURED 108M IN HEIGHT, 162M IN LENGTH AND SPAN OVER 257M. IT WAS BUILT 300M AWAY FROM THE DAMAGED UNIT 4 REACTOR AND WILL

BE

THE

CONFINEMENT

SHIFTED

THROUGH

HYDRAULIC

COMPLETION.

JACKS

NOTHING

UPON

WILL

BE

LEAKING OUT FROM THE DAMAGED REACTOR WITH THE LATEST CONSTRUCTED CONFINEMENT, AND EVERYTHING WILL

BE

SEALED

LEAK-TIGHT

WITHIN

THE

PROTECTION

STRUCTURE.

IMAGE REF: www.bouygues-construction.com/sites/default/files/styles/b_visuel_petit/public/novarka-31_0.jpg?itok=MyTaoA48

N S C

46

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

S I T E

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

47


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

THE

NEW

AND

HUMONGOUS

SAFETY

STRUCTURE GRADUAL

ONTO

SHIFTING

CONFINEMENT EFFORT THE

TO

REQUIRES

SHIFT

THE

CONTAMINATED

PROCESS

(NEXT

TIME

GIGANTIC SITE.

PAGE)

CAN

THE BE

SEEN AS A PROCESS OR A RITUAL OF “ENTOMBMENT”, A PROCESS OF PLACING A DEAD BODY IN A TOMB.

IMAGE REF: sputniknews.com/europe/201509081026750059/

48

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

49


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

IMAGE: THE NEW SAFETY CONFINEMENT WAS BEING SHIFTED TOWARD TO DAMAGED NUCLEAR REACTOR HALL. IMAGE REF: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7aMcKinrWY

50

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

51


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

52

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

s

ENSIBILITY

CONFINEMENT

OF (NSC)

DESIGN

FOR

INCLUDING

THE THE

NEW

SAFETY

MAINTENANCE

OF ROOF AS WELL AS VENTILATION SYSTEM THAT TO REGULATE THE INTERNAL WORKING ENVIRONMENT.

LEFT: MAINTENANCE WORK ON NSC ROOF. TOP & RIGHT: INSTALLATION OF VENTILATION STACK FOR NSC

IMAGE REF: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1534048&page=29

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

53


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

CATWALK FOR MAINTENANCE SERVICES IS INSERTED IN BETWEEN THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF CHERNOBYL NEW SAFETY CONFINEMENT TO MAXIMIZE THE USABLE AREA FOR DECOMMISSIONING WORKS.

IMAGE REF: http://www.materialsperformance.com/articles/material-selection-design/2017/02/ new-safe-containment-project-cuts-corrosion-risk-at-chernobyl

54

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

55


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

concrete saRcophagus: T H E

E M E R G E N C Y

T

HE

CONCRETE

IMMEDIATELY

AS

CHERNOBYL EXPLOSION CONCRETE TO

M E A S U R E

200

SARCOPHAGUS

AN

EMERGENCY

NUCLEAR IN

POWER

1986.

AND

THE

STEEL

TONS

OF

WAS

CONSTRUCTED

MEASURE

PLANTS

AFTER

THE

MELTDOWN

AND

STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE

CORIN,

WAS

AND

URANIUM,

TO

MADE

OF

COVER

UP

PLUTONIUM

AND

CONTAMINATED DEBRIS.

THE

CONSTRUCTION

TOOK

ABOUT

206

CONSTRUCTION

OF

DAYS

TO

PROCESS

CONCRETE COMPLETE,

WAS

EXPOSED

SARCOPHAGUS AND TO

THE

ENTIRE

DANGEROUS

CONDITIONS WITH HIGH RADIATION ATMOSPHERIC READING.

AS

A

RESULT

OF

HIGHLY

DANGEROUS

WORKING

ENVIRONMENT, THE CONSTRUCTION WAS USING ROBOTS TO ASSIST IT

HAD

MAKES

STRUCTURAL REDUCED IMPOSSIBLE

WELDING

THE TO

AND

JOINING.

QUALITY

OF

SEAL

THE

UP

DAMAGED

COMPLETELY.

ABOVE: DAMAGED CHERNOBYL UNIT 4 REACTOR BELOW: THE EMERGENCY MEASUREMENT FOR THE DAMAGED REACTOR.

IMAGE REF: http://chernobylgallery.com/chernobyl-disaster/sarcophagus/

56

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

THEREFORE,

CONSTRUCTION

AND

REACTOR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

57


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

58

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

t

HE CONCRETE SARCOPHAGUS WAS TAKEN AS AN EMERGENCY MEASURE FOR CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS ACCIDENT. THE CONSTRUCTION TOOK 86 DAYS TO COMPLETE AND MORE THAN 400,000M3 OF CONCRETE AND STEEL WERE USED TO ENCLOSE THE CONTAMINATED SITE.

LEFT: IMMEDIATE CONSTRUCTION OF SARCOPHAGUS AFTER THE INCIDENT. TOP: COMPLETION OF STEEL BUTRESS TO STABLIZE THE 60M CONCRETE WALL. BOTTOM: THE “LIQUIDATORS” FOR SARCOPHAGUS CONSTRUCTION.

IMAGE REF: http://chernobylgallery.com/chernobyl-disaster/sarcophagus/

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

59


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

T

HERE ARE ABOUT 60 BOREHOLES ON THE CONCRETE

SARCOPHAGUS

SURFACE

AND

EXAMINATION

THE

EXTERIOR

ASSESSMENT. SHAFTS

AND

BOREHOLES WITHOUT

OF

FOR

TO THE

ALLOW

OBSERVATION

INTERIOR

STRUCTURAL

CORE

AND

BESIDES, THERE ARE ALSO VENTILATION FILTRATION TO

LEAKING

SYSTEM

VENTILATE ANY

THE

INSTALLED INTERNAL

RADIOACTIVE

ABOVE: SECTION: THE CONCRETE SARCOPHAGUS. IMAGE REF: http://chernobylgallery.com/chernobyl-disaster/sarcophagus/

17) WISE INTERNATIONAL, “DESIGN STABILIZATION.”

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ON

THE

SPACE

MATERIAL

THE ATMOSPHERE.

60

FROM

CONDITION

INTO


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

TRANSFERING & ASSEMBLING THE PREFAB HIGH RISE BUTRESS WALL MODULES TO CONTAMINATED SITE THROUGH CRANE.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

61


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

THE

“LIQUIDATOR”

WAS

INSPECTING

HIGHLY CONTAMINATED REACTOR HALL.

IMAGE REF: chernobylgallery.com/chernobyl-disaster/sarcophagus/

62

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

WITHIN

THE


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

63


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

THE

IMMEDIATELY

SARCOPHAGUS ENVIRONMENTAL TO

THE

AS

ONLY

FOR

LAST

20

TO

REQUIRED

STRUCTURE

STABILIZATION

WAS

MENTIONED

ANNOUNCED

THE

FURTHER

CONTAMINATION.

SCIENTIST

BE

CONCRETE

STOPPED

CONSTRUCTION

EXECUTED

WILL

CONSTRUCTED HAD

NOT

STABLE.

BEING

PREVIOUSLY, THE

30

THE

YEARS

IN

SOVIET

THEREFORE,

STRUCTURE

COULD

1988,

WORKS A

(DSSS)

DUE WELL

STRUCTURE

RESTORATIVE

STEEL

HOWEVER,

AND

TO

IT

KEEP

DESIGNED HAD

BEEN

INTRODUCED TO PREVENT CONCRETE ROOF AND WEST WALL COLLAPSE.17

AS THE DSSS WAS ONLY TREATED

AS

SOLUTION,

A

TEMPORAL

GOVERNMENT

HAD

LAUNCHED

THUS AN

THE

UKRAINE

INTERNATIONAL

COMPETITION FOR A NEW CONFINEMENT DESIGN. IMAGE REF: sputniknews.com/europe/201509081026750059/

17) WISE INTERNATIONAL, “DESIGN STABILIZATION.”

64

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

65


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT

“W

RITING SOMETHING DOWN,” HE SAID, “MEANS I KNOW

I WON’T HAVE TO REMEMBER IT.” 18 - ADRIAN FORTY

IN

HIS

BOOK

MATERIALIZING

CULTURE:

THE

ART

OF

FORGETTING, ADRIAN FORTY TOOK A STEP BACK TO OBSERVE HOW

PEOPLE

BEHAVE

ON

REMEMBERING

AND

FORGETTING.

AS HE INTERPRETS, WHEN YOU ARE BEING MANIPULATED TO REMEMBER

SOMETHING

YOU

DO

NOT

WANT

TO

FORGET,

IT

WILL ALSO ALLOW YOU TO FORGET SOMETHING YOU DO NOT WANT TO REMEMBER.19 A

TOMBSTONE

THE METHODOLOGY IS SAME AS HOW

FUNCTIONS,

THE

OBJECT

REMINDS

PEOPLE

THE EXISTENCE OF DECEASE, THE MEMORY ASSOCIATED WITH THEIR LOVED ONE. HOWEVER, TRAUMA AND PAIN OF LOSING THE LOVED ONE CANNOT BE COMPLETELY ERASED.

FROM AN ARCHITECTURAL POINT OF VIEW, REPRESENTATION AND EXPRESSION OF TOMB PLAY THE KEY ROLE IN DELIVERING THE IN

MESSAGE

TO

OMAEZAKI

(THE

NUCLEAR

AND

REJECTION

CONGRUOUS

PEOPLE.

AND

BASED

HAMAOKA

REACTIVATION, FROM

LOCAL

EXPRESSION

ON

THE

NUCLEAR SEAWALL

PLANTS

CONSTRUCTION

RESIDENTS),

FOR

PHENOMENA

POWER

NUCLEAR

WHAT POWER

IS

THE

PLANTS

ENTOMBMENT TO DELIVER THE ONTOLOGICAL MESSAGE- THE FEAR AND AWARENESS TO PEOPLE?

THE

CHERNOBYL

INSPIRATION ENTOMBMENT DISASTER THE

CONFINEMENT

FOR

THE

THESIS

PROVIDES

CONTAINMENT.

PRECEDENT

A

STUDIES

SAFE

AS

THE

THE

A

SOURCE

AS

SOLUTION

HOWEVER,

APPROACH

IS

PROJECT

THE FOR

THESIS

ACT

OF OF

NUCLEAR CRITIQUES

ENTOMBMENT

IS

ONLY

EXECUTED AFTER THE CONTINGENCY HAPPENED. THEREFORE, THE

THESIS

WILL

ENTOMBMENT

BE

EVEN

INVESTIGATING BEFORE

THE

CONTINGENCY

POSSIBILITY

OF

HAPPENS

TO

ALLOW ITS OPERATION TO CONTINUE WHILE PROVIDING THE NECESSARY

SAFETY

PRECAUTION

ON

THE

OFF

CHANCE

OF

NUCLEAR DISASTER.

RIGHT: PAINTING: “ENTOMBMENT OF CHRIST” BY MICHELANGELO MERISI DA CARRAVAGGIO IMAGE REF: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Entombment_of_Christ_(Caravaggio)

18) ADRIAN, SUSAN, MATERIALIZING CULTURE: THE ART OF FORGETTING, 1. 19) ADRIAN, SUSAN, MATERIALIZING CULTURE: THE ART OF FORGETTING, 1. 20) IT IS ALSO CALLED COUNTER-REFORMATION OR CATHOLIC REFORMATION. IT IS CONSIDERED AS A BAROQUE STYLE ART AND IT HAD INFLUENCED CATHOLIC CHURCH ESPECIALLY IN THE ROME OF BERNINI TO CONVEY THE THEOLOGY OF CATHOLIC. 21) ART AND HISTORIOGRAPHY, “THE ENTOMBMENT OF CHRIST.”

66

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

T

HE

CATHOLIC

REVIVAL

20

PAINTING:

THE

ENTOMBMENT

OF

CHRIST

BY

MICHELANGELO MERISI DA CARRAVAGGIO COMPOSED THE CHARACTERS IN SEQUENCE AS SUCH IT BECOMES QUIETER WHEN WE READ THE PICTURE FROM TOP TO BOTTOM. SO

THAT

BEHOLDERS

WILL

INTERPRET

THE

SCENE

AS

AN

ALLEGORY

(A

HIDDEN

STORY OR POEM ABOUT MOURNING) INSTEAD OF A MOMENT OF TRANSFIGURATION.21 THE

IMPORTANCE

OF

MOURNING

IS

RATHER

A

PROCESS

THAN

A

MOMENT,

AND

PROCESS TAKES TIME TO PROCEED AND TO COMPLETE. IN THE CASE OF NUCLEAR POWER

PLANTS,

PROCESS

CAN

POTENTIALLY

BECOME

THE

EXPRESSION

OF

THE

ENTOMBMENT AS IT TAKES TIME TO TAME AND DOMESTICATE DUE TO ITS HARDLY DESTRUCTIBLE NATURE.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

67


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

EXPRESSION & MONUMENTALITY “T

RUTH CANNOT BE PERSISTED IN WITHOUT PAINS;

BUT IT IS WORTH THEM.” 22 - JOHN RUSKIN, CHAPTER 2, THE TRUTH OF LAMP, APHORISM 8.

NUCLEAR

POWER

IRREVERSIBLE WITHOUT THE

PLANTS

DAMAGE

THE

AND

ACCIDENT,

CONSEQUENCE

ACCIDENT PAIN

TO

PEOPLE

PRODUCED

WILL

BY

BRINGS

PEOPLE.

ISE

SHRINE

JAPAN

REPRESENTS

ARCHITECTURE.

THE

YET,

MONUMENTALITY THE

OF

MONUMENTALITY

KNOW

OF ISE SHRINE DOES NOT NECESSARILY COME FROM

POWER

THE BIGNESS OF STRUCTURE, BUT ITS NEVER-ENDING

NOT

NUCLEAR

BUT

PLANTS AND NOW WE UNDERSTAND THE PAIN, WHAT

RENEWAL

CAN WE DO IS TO ENTOMB IT. THUS, THE EXPRESSION

MONUMENTALITY FROM A SPIRITUAL PERSPECTIVE.

PROCESS

PORTRAYS

ANOTHER

FORM

OF

OF TOMB WILL BE THE MONUMENT THAT IS NARRATING THE STORIES BENEATH THE TOMB. IN THE CONTEXT OF

INDEED,

JAPAN,

PLANTS IS DIFFERENT FROM THE TOMB FOR A PERSON

HOW

PLANTS’

CAN

TOMB,

WE

SO

IT

DESIGN

THE

IS

ONLY

NOT

NUCLEAR

POWER

EXPRESSING

ITS

OR

A

THE

PLACE

ENTOMBMENT

TO

WORSHIP.

FOR

TO

NUCLEAR

ENTOMB

A

POWER

HIGHLY

MONUMENTALITY BUT ALSO INHERITS THE TRADITION OF

RADIOACTIVE BUILDING, BESIDES CONSIDERING FROM

JAPAN ARCHITECTURE?

THE ONTOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW, WE ALSO NEED TO SCRUTINIZE THE FORM, THE USE OF THE MATERIAL AS

TALKING

ABOUT

SANCTUARY

JAPAN

TRADITIONAL

ARCHITECTURE,

IT

IS

A

SHRINE

AND

STRUCTURE

FOR

JAPANESE TO WORSHIP THE GOD WHERE THEY BELIEVE THEIR GOD (KAMI) WILL INHABIT IN THE SHRINE BUILDING. AMONG THE

ALL

ISE

SHRINES WITH

THE

SHRINE THAT

TRADITIONAL IS

ONE

OF

FEATURING

SIMPLISTIC

TIMBER

A

SHRINES

THE

MOST

SYMBOLIC

STRUCTURE

IN

JAPAN,

SIGNIFICANT GABLE

AND

A

ROOF

UNIQUE

FEATURE –THE PERIODIC RENEWAL WHICH MAKES IT AS THE BEST-KNOWN ARCHITECTURE MONUMENT IN JAPAN.

“…SHINTO IF

THE

BELIEF

SHRINE

OF IS

IMPERMANENCY, NEVER

FINISH,

IT

BELIEVES WILL

THAT

PERSIST

FOREVER. I WILL CONSIDER THE WAYS IN WHICH THIS LONGSTANDING A

TRUE

SENSE

PROCESS OF

OF

REBUILDING

MONUMENTALITY

BY

ATTAINS UNIFYING

ELEMENTS OF PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE THROUGH ITS HANDLING OF FORM, MATERIALS AND TRADITIONS.” 23

RIGHT: COLLAGE: “ENTOMBING THE REACTIVATED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS THROUGH CONCRETE POURING.”

22) RUSKIN, “THE SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE.” 23) DANNY, “ISE GRAND SHRINE.”

68

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

WELL AS STRUCTURAL TECHNIQUE.


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

Alternative site of Ise Shrine for periodic renewal. Fig source: www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/ap/article-3608781/Linked-emperor-Ise-Shrine-no-ordinary-shrine.html

T

HE

ALTERNATIVE

SITE

IS

FOR

THE

SYMBOLIC

PERIODIC

RENEWAL

OF

SHRINE

IN

ORDER

TO

KEEP

THE

SHRINEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S APPEARANCE AS NEW AS IT FIRST CONSTRUCTED.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

69


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

THE

WALLED-UP

SHIRNE

SUGGESTS A SENSE OF

ARCHITECTURE

IN

JAPAN

DISTANCING OR DISSOCIATE

FROM THE PUBLIC REALM. IN CONTRARY, THE GABLE FORM

OF

SHRINE

IS

SUREPTITIOUSLY

HINTING

THE

SHIRNE ARCHITECTURE ITSELF BEYOND THE WALL AND GATE

WHICH

IT

ELEVATES

THE

SENSE

OF

MYSTERY

TOWARDS THE FORBIDDEN LAND.

IMAGE REF: ivesep-krsk.ru/2017/03/04/ise-grand-shrine-THE-SACRED-TEMPLE/

70

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

71


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

form: A D O P T I O N

F R O M

J

APAN

T H E

T R A D I T I O N

POST-WAR

ADOPTING

THE

MODERN

ARCHITECTURE

DESPITE

THE

PREDICTED

VANISH

AFTER

DUE

TO

TO

THE

ARCHITECTURE

APPEARANCE

OF

CONCEPT

OF

SECOND

ARCHITECTURAL

WAS

SEEMED

TRADITIONAL

WORLD

INTEREST

SHRINE

NATIONALISM

OF

WAS

WAR.24

ISE

BUT

SHRINE,

THE

SIMPLE FORM AND STRUCTURE, AND RITUALISTIC SENSIBILITIES, IT INSPIRES AND APPEALS JAPAN MODERNIST ARCHITECT LIKE KENZO

TANGE

TO

ARCHITECTURE

PRESERVE

WITH

THE

MODERNISM

ESSENCE DESIGN

OF

TRADITIONAL

APPROACH

DURING

THE 1950S. ALTHOUGH THERE IS ALSO A DISCOURSE REGARDING ON

THE

IS

TRADITION

BECAUSE

THE

ADOPTION

IN

MODERN

REAFFIRMATION

OF

THE

ARCHITECTURE IMPORTANCE

OF

TRADITION WILL ALLOW MODERNISTS TO SHIELD THEIR DESIGN FROM BEING UN-JAPAN-NESS.25 INTO

MODERN

THE ADOPTION OF TRADITION

ARCHITECTURE

HAS

NOW

BECOME

A

NEW

APPROACH TO REINTERPRET MONUMENTALITY.

FROM

KENZO

SPHERE SCHEME

TANGE

MEMORIAL

GREATER

DESIGN

SYMBOLIZED

IN

THE

EAST

1942

ASIA

CO-PROSPERITY

(UNBUILT

PROJECT),

THE

ARCHITECTURAL

TRADITION

OF

JAPAN WITH HIS UNIQUE INTERPRETATION OF MONUMENTALITY. BESIDES

ALL

THE

PHYSICAL

ELEMENTS

THAT

DEFINE

THE

MONUMENTALITY OF THE PROJECT, WHAT HAS BEEN OBSCURED BEHIND

THE

PROJECT

IS

THE

INTENTION

ORIGINAL FORM OF THE SHRINE.26 THE

SYMBOLIC

GABLE

ROOF

OF

TO

EXPLORE

THE

BESIDES MERELY IMITATING ISE

SHRINE,

THE

DESIGN

IS

SOMEWHAT LOOKING AT THE DEMARCATION OF GROUND, THE SACRED CLAY FIGURE (HANIWA) IN KOFUN PERIOD THAT USED FOR FUNERARY RITUALS. IN WHICH THE MATERIAL THAT USED FOR THE HANIWA HAD BEEN CROSS-REFERENCED TO TANGE’S MEMORIAL FOR GREATER EAST ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE, THE CONCRETE MONOLITH SURFACE.27

FURTHERMORE,

I

ALSO

SUGGEST

THAT

THE

SIMPLISTIC

FORM OF MEMORIAL WAS ALSO REFERENCED TO ISE SHRINE. IT

IS

TYPICALLY

SUPERFLUOUS DECORATIONS

BEING

VIEWED

DECORATION AND

28

AS

AN

DUE

ORNAMENTATION

ATTEMPT TO

WHICH

TO

LACKS

WAS

REFLECTED

ON TANGE’S MEMORIAL DESIGN.

RIGHT: ABOVE: GREATER EAST ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE MEMORIAL HALL MASTER PLANNING BELOW: GREATER EAST ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE MEMORIAL HALL BIRD’S EYES VIEW

IMAGE REF: https://modernismmodernity.org/sites/default/files/Fig-10.jpg

24) 25) 26) 27) 28)

72

DANNY, “ISE GRAND SHRINE.” WEIMING, “TRADITION IN METABOLISM.” TSUTO, “EXPRESSION.” 70. TSUTO, “EXPRESSION.” 70. DANNY, “ISE GRAND SHRINE.”

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

AVOID

THE

OF


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

T

HE JUXTAPOSITION OF MT.FUJI AND LOW RISE MEMORIAL IS

TO EMPHASIZE ITS MONUMENTAL CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE AND THE MEMORIAL ARCHITECTURE IS SYMBOLICALLY REFERENCE TO ISE SHRINEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S FORM.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

73


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

74

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

STRUCTURAL HONESTY Y

BUILDINGS

PRESENT

THEMSELVES.

OUR

SHOULD NO

BE

HONEST

FANCY

IN

FACADES

HOW

THEY

HIDING

POOR

CONSTRUCTION. NO WOOD PRETENDING TO BE STONE.”29

- JOHN RUSKIN, THE SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE.

IN HIS WRITING ABOUT GOTHIC REVIVALISM, JOHN RUSKIN CONCERNED

ABOUT

AND

STRUCTURAL

ALSO

THE

IMPORTANCE

OF

CRAFTSMANSHIP

COMMUNICATION

FROM

VISUAL

APPEARANCE. THE EXPRESSION OF THE BUILDING SHOULD BE

REPRESENTING

MATERIAL,

BUT

THE

NOT

ORNAMENTATION.30 GOTHIC

HONESTY

WITH ART

ARCHITECTURE,

OF

STRUCTURE

EXCESSIVE

AND

AND

CRAFT

THE

AND

DECORATION ARE

PROCESS

OR

ESSENTIAL OF

IN

CREATING

IS USUALLY PAINSTAKING- DRAWING, MEASURING, MOLDING, CASTING AND BUILDING TO MAKE THE FANTASY BECOME THE CONCRETE REALITY.

RUSKIN ALSO CHALLENGED THE IDEA OF PRIMITIVISM- THE STYLISTIC

BORROWING

IN

EUROPE

IN

THE

19

CENTURY

CONSTITUTE

GOTHIC,

WHICH HE STATED IN HIS WRITING:

“…POINTED NOR

ARCHES

VAULTED

GROTESQUE

ROOFS,

DO

NOT

NOR

SCULPTURES;

FLYING

BUT

ALL

BUTTRESSES,

OR

SOME

OF

NOR THESE

THINGS, AND MANY OTHER THINGS WITH THEM, WHEN THEY COME TOGETHER SO AS TO HAVE LIFE... AND UNLESS BOTH THE ELEMENTS AND THE FORMS ARE THERE, WE HAVE NO RIGHT TO CALL THE STYLE GOTHIC. IT IS NOT ENOUGH THAT IT HAS THE FORM, IF IT HAVE NOT ALSO THE POWER AND LIFE”.31

MERE IMITATION OF FORM DOES NOT TAKE OVER THE IDEA OF ORIGIN AND ONLY WHEN YOU UNDERSTAND THE POWER AND LIFE OF THE STRUCTURE, AND THEN YOU WILL BE ABLE TO OWN THE FORM, EXPRESSION OR THE STYLE. FROM THE QUOTE, THE POWER AND LIFE MEAN THE STRUCTURE ITSELF ALSO

REQUIRES

POLITICAL

UNDERSTANDING

QUESTIONS

AS

AND

WELL

AS

RESPONDS

TO

THE

SOCIO-ECONOMICAL

NEEDS. 32

LEFT: INTERIOR OF ROUEN CATHEDRAL, GOTHIC REVIVALISM. RIGHT: JOHN RUSKIN’S DRAWING OF GOTHIC WINDOWS IMAGE REF: http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/gothic/ruskin/cinterior/ index.html

29) 30) 31) 32)

RUSKIN, “THE SEVEN LAMP OF ARCHITECTURE.” JOHN, “HISTORY.” 267 FRANCES, “JOHN RUSKIN.” 7. FRANCES, “JOHN RUSKIN.” 16.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

75


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

B

RUTALISM

SHARED

CHARACTERISTIC

A

COMPARED

SIMILAR TO

EXPRESSIONAL

GOTHIC

ARCHITECTURE-

THE EXPOSED STRUCTURE WITH THE CONCRETE SURFACE. AND THE WORD “BRUTALISM” IS REFERENCED TO THE FRENCH WORDS- BETON BRUT (RAW CONCRETE), WHICH SIMPLIFIED BRUTALISM ARCHITECTURE IS A MERE USE OF CONCRETE AS CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL. AS REYNER BANHAM STATED, THE ETHICS OF BRUTALISM ARCHITECTURE ARE MONUMENTALITY, STRUCTURALLY

HONEST

AND

MATERIAL

“AS

FOUND”

(RAWNESS). 33

AGAIN, BACK TO TANGE’S MEMORIAL SCHEME FOR GREATER EAST

ASIA

CONCRETE

CO-PROSPERITY SURFACE

CORBUSIER’S

WAS

MODERNISM

SPHERE,

SOMEHOW AND

THE

MEMORIAL

INFLUENCED

BRUTALISM

BY

LE

IDEOLOGY

IN

RIGHT: ABOVE: NICHINAN CULTURAL CENTRE, 1993, KENZO TANGE BELOW: GREATER EAST ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE MEMORIAL HALL, 1942, KENZO TANGE FIG SOURCE: WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/ELLENAMONICA/UNDERSTANDING-THE-NEED-TO-UNDERSTAND-INDONESIAN-TRADITIONAL-ARCHITECTURE-A-BIBLIOGRAPHY

33) OLI, “BRUTALISM.”

76

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

COMPARISON OF KENZO TANGEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S WORKS AND ISE SHRINE:

THE GABLE FORM, CONCRETE SURFACE AND SYMBOLIC FENESTRATION THAT REPRESENTS ISE SHRINE ROOF BRIDGE BILLET (KATSUOGI)

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

77


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

alternative tourism 1/2 K O J O - M O E

I

(

工廠萌え

) :

NFRASTRUCTURE

N I G H T

T O U R

TOURISM

A T

OR

K A W A S A K I

I N D U S T R I A L

INFRA-TOURISM

IS

B E L T

SPEARHEADED

IN

THE

MIDST

OF

TOURISM BOOM FOR THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED IN VISITING AMBITIOUS INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING PROJECT LIKE BRIDGE, DAM OR POWER PLANTS.34 PARTICULARLY IN JAPAN, INFRA-TOURS SCENERY.

ARE

PLANNED

FOR

TOURIST

TO

SIGHTSEE

THEIR

INCREDIBLE

INDUSTRIAL

JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHER ISHII TETSU PUBLISHED A PHOTOBOOK: KOJO-MOE,

WHERE HE CAPTURED THE BEAUTY OF INDUSTRIAL NIGHT SCENES AROUND JAPAN AREAS. THE PHOTOS SHOW THE APPRECIATION TOWARDS THE INDUSTRY’S AESTHETIC AND HOW PEOPLE GET THRILLED BY THE FASCINATION OF INDUSTRIAL SCENERY.

ABOVE: KOJO-MOE TOUR IN KAWASAKI INDUSTRIAL AREA

RIGHT & PG 86-89: KAWASAKI INDUSTRIAL AREA AT NIGHT. (KOJO-YAKEI)

IMAGE REF http://www.unmissablejapan.com/industry/kojo-yakei

34) KEN, “IS INFRA-TOURISM THE NEXT BIG THING?”, ACCESSED ON 21/4/2018 WWW.LONELYPLANET.COM/NEWS/2016/07/29/INFRA-TOURISM-JAPAN/

78

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

79


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

80

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

81


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

alternative tourism 2/2 D A R K

T O U R I S M :

P

LACE

T O U R I N G

WHERE

A T

PEOPLE

A B A N D O N E D

VISIT

THAT

S T A T E S -

P Y P R I A T

ASSOCIATED

TO DEATH, HORROR OR ALIENATED BY REASONS IS OFTEN DESCRIBED AS DARK TOURISM SITE. LIKE THE EXCLUSION THE

ZONE

FAMOUS

HASHIMA WW

II

WAS

IN

ISLAND, IN

PRIPYAT,

NUCLEAR THE

JAPAN,

FLOURISHING

COAL

THESE AT

CHERNOBYL

ACCIDENT

IN

MINING

ARE

PAST

THE

BUT

AFTER

1986

SPOT

PLACES

NOW

AND

DURING

HAS

THAT BEEN

FORGOTTEN DUE TO UNPLEASANT EVENT.

PEOPLE

WHO

ARE

CURIOUS

ABOUT

THE

SITE

LIKE

PRIPYAT OR HASHIMA ISLAND WILL MAKE THEIR TRIP INTO THESE FORBIDDEN ZONES TO HEIGHTEN THEIR UNDERSTANDING OF PLACE OR PURELY TO INDULGE THEIR CURIOSITY. SURREALISTIC PHOTOS FROM THESE FORBIDDEN SITES HAVE BEEN UPLOADED TO SOCIAL MEDIA BY VISITORS BECOME A MODERN PHENOMENON THAT ATTRACTED AND STIMULATED MORE PEOPLE TO PAY THEIR VISIT.

ALTHOUGH BEEN BY

THESE

RECENTLY

ORGANIZATION

WHAT ARE

WE THE

DARK

MARKETED

NEED

TO

TO

ANTHROPOCENTRIC US

WHAT

WAS

AND

EARN

KNOW

PHYSICAL

TOURISM

PROFIT.

IS

RECORDER ACTIVITIES

DONE

SITES

HAVE

COMMERCIALIZED

THAT

HOWEVER,

THESE

OR THAT

ERRONEOUSLY

SITES

MARKER

AND

GIVING

MESSAGE TO WARN OUR FUTURE GENERATION.

RIGHT: THE ICONIC FLYER IN ABANDONED ZONE OF PRITYAT, CHERNOBYL IMAGE REF: www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/features/is-dark-tourism-ok-chernobyl-pripyat-disaster-sites/

82

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

OF

REMINDING A

A N D

H A S H I M A

I S L A N D


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

83


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

84

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

85


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

THE FROZEN SCENE OF WORKER HOSTEL INTERIOR SHOWS THE PAST YEAR ACTIVITIES OF THE HASHIMA ISLAND DURING WW2.

IMAGE REF: architizer.com/blog/inspiration/collections/visit-hashima-an-abandoned-japanese-island/

86

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

87


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

88

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


3/3 thesis design proposition PROCESS AS NEW FORM OF MONUMENTALITY

ENTOMBMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

DESIGN PHASES & NARRATIVE - 2018: DECOMMISSION PREQUEL- CONFRONTING THE FEAR - 2036: DEHUMANIZATION OF SPACE - 2042: THE ACT OF GOD AND THE ENTOMBMENT - 2043: POST-DISASTER MEASURE - 2059 SEQUEL: RUIN AS VISUAL PALIMPSEST OF PLACE, A REMINDER OF FEAR

LEFT: COLLAGE: “ENTOMBING THE REACTIVATED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS THROUGH CONCRETE POURING.”

89


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

process as new form of monumentality: C O N C R E T E

H

M O L D I N G

AMAOKA

THROUGH

NUCLEAR

DIFFERENT

INFRASTRUCTURE SHOWED

A N D

IN

THE

C A S T I N G .

POWER

PHASES

UPGRADE

PLANT OF

COMPLEX

THROUGHOUT

MORPHOLOGY

WENT

CONSTRUCTION

TIMELINE

AND

DECADES

DIAGRAM.

AS

FROM

BUILDING, DEACTIVATING, UPGRADING AND NOW RESTARTING, IT SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUCLEAR POWER

PLANTS

ITSELF

AND

THE

ISSUES

RELATED

TO

POLITICS, ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMY IN BOTH DOMESTICS AND GLOBAL SCALE. AS NOW THE STATE IS RESTARTING THE POWER PLANTS IN ORDER TO REINVIGORATE ITS ECONOMY. HENCE, THE THESIS PROPOSES TO DESIGN THE NEXT PHASE FOR

HAMAOKA

NUCLEAR

POWER

PLANTS:

AN

ENTOMBING

PROCESS, DUE TO THE PROLIFERATED FEAR AND ANXIETY CREATED BY THE NUCLEAR REACTIVATION.

IN ORDER TO ENTOMB THE HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE NUCLEAR POWER

PLANT,

THE

CHOICE

OF

CONSTRUCTION

MATERIAL

IS CRUCIAL. BASED ON THE SUGGESTION FROM PRECEDENT STUDY AND LITERATURE REVIEW, CONCRETE HAS EXCELLENT DURABILITY

AND

GOOD

IN

RADIATION

SHIELDING

DUE

TO

THE HIGH DENSITY OF THE MATERIAL. FURTHERMORE, THE PROCESS OF FORMWORK MAKING AND CONCRETE CASTING WILL ALSO MANIFEST THE SPIRIT OF CRAFTSMANSHIP.

THE

CONCRETE MAKING PROCESS WILL REFLECT NOT ONLY THE PHYSICAL

REQUIREMENT

OF

ENTOMBMENT

BUT

ALSO

THE

ONTOLOGICAL MEANING OF STRUCTURE.

ULTIMATELY, THE LONG-DURATION OF ENTOMBING PROCESS EXPRESSES AS A NEW FORM OF MONUMENTALITY OF PLACE, A

NEVER-ENDING-PROCESS

AND

DETERMINATION

OF

THAT PEOPLE

SYMBOLIZES THAT

NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION.

RIGHT: INFRASTRUCTURE MORPHOLOGY TIMELINE OF HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS, AXONOMETRIC DRAWING.

90

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

THE

STAND

SPIRIT

AGAINST


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

91


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

entombment of nuclear power plants t

HE

THESIS

DESIGN

TAKES

NUCLEAR

POWER

PLANTS’

ENTOMBMENT, AND INTERIM SPENT FUEL FACILITIES

AS A

COMPULSORY TERM AND CONDITION FOR THE REACTIVATION OF

HAMAOKA

NUCLEAR

“ENTOMBMENT”

IS

POWER

SUGGESTING

PLANTS. AN

END

THE

OR

TERM

OF

TERMINATION

OF LIFE. HOWEVER, THE ENTOMBMENT WILL NOT TERMINATE THE

OPERATION

OF

HAMAOKA

NUCLEAR

POWER

PLANTS

PROMPTLY. IT WILL ONLY BE ENTOMBED AND ANNIHILATED ENTIRELY WHEN

THE

THROUGH

AUTOMATED

EMERGENCY

CONCRETE

SITUATION

(NATURAL

POURING DISASTERS

OR MELTDOWN) OCCURRED, OR AN ALTERNATE RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTION HAS BEEN INVENTED TO REPLACE NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION.

THERE

ARE

2

SCENARIOS

THAT

THE

THESIS

DESIGN

IS

SPECULATING:

1) CONTINGENCY HAPPENED AND THE MECHANISM OF TOMB WILL BE ACTIVATED TO MINIMIZE THE AFTERMATH IMPACT FROM MELTDOWN.

2) A PEACEFUL PHASE OUT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN JAPAN BEFORE THE CONTINGENCY HAPPENED.

LEFT: THE DIAGRAM SHOWS THE MECHANISM OF ENTOMBMENT OF HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS.

RIGHT: COLLAGE: “ENCOUNTERING” PROCESS OF ENTOMBMENT CONSTRUCTION BEING SEEN AS THE FEAR AND ANXIETY TOWARD NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION.

92

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

93


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

2018: decommission prequel T

HE

BY

NUCLEAR

SHIZUOKA

COMPANY BE

THE

FROM

HAS

NEXT

REACTIVATION

PREFECTURE SCHEDULED RESTARTING

HAMAOKA

COMPLEX.

AND UNIT

PLAN

INITIATED

CHUBU

ELECTRIC

3

AND

NUCLEAR THUS,

UNIT

POWER

THE

3

TO

PLANTS

ENTOMBMENT

CONSTRUCTION WILL BE COMMENCED ALONG WITH THE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT REACTIVATION AS A PART OF DISASTER PREVENTION AND EMERGENCY MEASURE FOR FUTURE THREATS.

ALTHOUGH IMMINENT, CAN

BE

THE THE

THREAT

IS

RAGING

CONSTRUCTION

GRADUALLY

BUILDING

OF UP

BUT

TOMB

IT

IS

NOT

THEREFORE

ACROSS

YEARS.

HENCE, THE PROCESS OF TOMB CONSTRUCTION WILL BE SEEN AS A NEW PHENOMENON ON SITE- A POWER PLANTSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

ENTOMBING

PROCESS,

UNTIL

THE

DAY

ALL

THE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT UNITS ARE COMPLETELY ENTOMBED AND DECOMMISSIONED SAFELY.

RIGHT: MASSING DIAGRAM SHOWING THE INFRASTRUCTURE TIMELINE OF HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS COMPLEX

94

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

95


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: CONSTRUCTION SCENE OF ENTOMBMENT FOR HAMAOKA UNIT 3..

THE GRADUAL CONSTRUCTION OF TOMB HAS BECOME A NEW PHENOMENON OF HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS COMPLEX TO AGAINST THE ANTICIPATED EARTHQUAKE WITHIN THE NEXT 30 YEARS.

96

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

97


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

98

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

99


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

2036: dehumanization of space T

HE DESIGN OF HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS’

ENTOMBMENT SYSTEM

FOR

IS

LARGELY

CRANE,

BASED

CONCRETE

ON

AUTOMATED

BATCHING

AND

POURING, FAÇADE MAINTENANCE AND ETC TO REDUCE THE

NEED

OF

MANPOWER

IN

HIGH

SIEVERT

LEVEL

ENVIRONMENT.

AS THE CONSTRUCTION OF TOMB HAS BEEN CARRYING OUT

FOR

NUCLEAR

DECADES POWER

FOLLOWING

PLANTS,

THUS

UP

THE

BEFORE

RESTARTING 2040,

THE

THREE ENTOMBMENTS FOR HAMAOKA UNIT 3, 4 AND 5 WILL BE SCHEDULED FOR COMPLETION AND READY TO FACE THE IMMINENT AND CATASTROPHIC DISASTER IN THE NEAR FUTURE.

ABOVE: FROZEN RODS DIAGRAM, IT IS A PREVENTION SYSTEM FOR RADIATION WATER LEAKAGE AT UNDERGROUND. RIGHT: ENTOMBMENT AERIAL VIEW

100

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

UNIT. 3 ENTOMBMENT

UNIT. 4 ENTOMBMENT

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

101


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

102

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

103


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

104

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

105


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

106

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

107


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

2042: the act of god & the entombment o

N

THE

DAY

WHEN

THE

ANTICIPATED

DISASTER

ARRIVES, THE TOMB WILL BE IMMEDIATELY CONCEALED BY

CONCRETE

THROUGH

AUTOMATED

CONCRETE

BATCHING AND POURING SYSTEM.

THE

MOMENT

WHEN

TSUNAMI

INVADES

THE

NUCLEAR

POWER PLANTS COMPLEX WILL BE A TESTIMONIAL OF HOW MANKIND GOES AGAINST THE POWER OF MOTHER NATURE. IN JAPANESE WORD (想定外 SOU-TE-GAI), WHICH MEANS BEYOND THE EXPECTATION, PREPARATION FOR THE

UNKNOWN

THERE WE

ARE

CAN

THREAT

IS

CONTINGENCY

ONLY

TECHNOLOGY

WE

BASE HAVE

ALWAYS AND

INSUFFICIENT

UNEXPECTED

ON

THE

ON

HAND

INFORMATION AND

DO

AS

AS

EVENT. AND MUCH

AS WE CAN TO PROTECT THE VULNERABLE HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS, ONCE AND FOR ALL.

RIGHT: NHK NEWS BROADCASTING THE OUTBREAK OF DISASTER.

108

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

109


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

110

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

111


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

112

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

113


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

2043: post-DISASTER measure r

IGHT

AFTER

THE

OUTBREAK

OF

NATURAL

DISASTER, THE ENTOMBMENT IS DESIGNED TO REPAIR THE DAMAGED STRUCTURE IN ORDER TO PREVENT ANY POTENTIAL RADIATION LEAKAGE.

ON

THE

LOWER

PART

OF

ENTOMBMENT

WALL,

THE

STEEL STRUCTURE IS DESIGNED TO SUPPORT THE MAIN WALL AND TO ALLOW SCAFFOLDING TO BE SET UP ON SITE FOR STRUCTURAL AMENDMENT WORKS.

THE

REPAIRING

WORKS

HAVE

TO

BE

COMPLETED

WITHIN A TIGHT FRAME OF TIME IN ORDER TO PREVENT ANY IN

FAILURE

OF

SIGNIFICANT

STRUCTURE

THAT

CONSEQUENCES.

WOULD

RESULT

THEREFORE,

THE

ORIGINAL TOMB SURFACE CANNOT BE FULLY RESTORED DUE TO THE LOWER QUALITY OF WORKMANSHIP. THE UNEVENNESS OF CONCRETE SURFACE WILL REPRESENT A VISUAL LAYER OF CONTINGENCY. LIKE A SCAR ON THE

SKIN,

ALTHOUGH

IT

IS

HEALED,

HOWEVER,

IT

CANNOT BE COMPLETELY RECOVERED FROM PAST YEAR INCIDENT THAT CAUSED THE WOUND.

RIGHT: SECTIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF UNIT 3 ENTOMBMENT. THE SCENE SHOWS THE EMERGENCY MEASURE BEGINS PROMPTLY AFTER THE DISASTER.

114

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

115


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: SCENE OF AMENDMENT WORKS ON THE ENTOMBMENT CONCRETE FACADE AFTER DISASTER.

116

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

117


ABOVE: ENTOMBMENT WALL ZOOM IN DETAILED PLAN

118

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


119


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

120

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

121


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

122

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

123


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

2059 sequel: RUIN A S

A

R E M I N D E R

F

ROM

O F

A

V I S U A L

P A L I M P S E S T

O F

P L A C E ,

F E A R

THE

PREDICTED

SCENARIOS,

HAMAOKA

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS ARE EXPECTED TO BE FULLY DECOMMISSIONED ALTERNATIVE

ONCE

ENERGY

JAPAN

OPTION

HAS

OR

ADOPTED

ONCE

AFTER

AN THE

ANTICIPATED DISASTER.

THE

ABANDONED

WILL

BE

PEOPLE BE

ABLE

SOON

NUCLEAR COVERED

CHOOSE TO

TO

POWER BY

BELIEVE

DETOXIFY

THE

PLANT

SUNFLOWER THE

SITE

COMPLEX FIELD

FLOWER

FROM

AS

MIGHT

RADIOACTIVE

SUBSTANCES. EVENTUALLY, THE LANDSCAPE ON SITE WILL BECOME A SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION OF SPIRIT OF PEOPLE THAT TRY TO RECOVER FROM TRAUMA, A HOPE

FOR

PEOPLE

WHO

HAVE

SUFFERED

FROM

THE

PAIN.

RIGHT: ATOMIC CLOUD OVER HIROSHIMA IMAGE REF: https://i1.wp.com/geekdad.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Atomic_ cloud_over_Hiroshima_from_Matsuyama.jpg?resize=2000%2C1125&ssl=1 NEXT: RUIN STATE OF GENBAKU DOME IN HIROSHIMA IMAGE REF: https://medium.com/@australianredcross/for-the-worlds-safety-we-mustban-nuclear-weapons-now-1fd7082f9209

124

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

125


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

126

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

127


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

128

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

129


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

I OF A

N THE LATER YEARS AFTER DECOMMISSIONING, A SERIES ADDITIONAL

ROUTE

FOR

WORK

WILL

TOURIST

TO

BE

ADDING

VISIT.

ALL

ON THE

TO

CREATE

STRUCTURES

WILL BE INTEGRATING WITH THE EXISTING STRUCTURES IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE IMPACT ON THE ORIGINAL FABRIC. THE ELEVATED WALKWAY ON SITE MARKS AS A DEMARCATION THAT

DETACHES

FROM

THE

CONTAMINATED

GROUND

AND

REPRESENTING ANOTHER LAYER OF CIRCULATION FOR NEW PROGRAMME.

AT THE END OF THE LINE, THE COMPLEX WILL BE OVERTURNED FROM A DEHUMANIZED SPACE INTO A PLACE RECLAIMED BY NATURE. NONETHELESS, THE MYSTIC OF PLACE IS NOT FULLY REVEALED AS THE TOMB IS STILL REMAINING CONCEALED AND DISTANCE AWAY FROM HUMAN BEING WITH ITS MONOLITHIC AND MIND

MONUMENTAL IS

THE

FEAR

EXPRESSION. FROM

THE

WHAT

HAS

LEFT

ANTHROPOCENTRIC

IN

OUR

OBJECT

WE CREATED WHICH GOES AGAINST THE RULE OF NATURE.

TOP: DISMANTLING WORK TO START AT HAMAOKA UNIT 1 AND 2 IMAGE REF: www.world-nuclear-news.org RIGHT: CONCEPT COLLAGE RENDER: ACTIVITIES SUGGESTION ON THE AFTERLIFE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS SITE.

130

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

131


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

132

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

133


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: RENDERED PERSPECTIVE OF HAMAOKA COMPLEX IN RUIN STATE.

THE SEA OF SUNFLOWER REPRESENTS THE HOPE AND SPIRIT OF PEOPLE IN DETOXIFICATION OF THE CONTAMINATED SITE IN A SYMBOLIC MANNER, LIKE A GHOSTED EXISTENCE THAT STAND AGAINST NUCLEAR POWER.

134

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

135


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

136

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

137


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

138

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

139


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

140

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

141


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: AFTERLIFE OF STRUCTURE FOR FACADE MAINTENANCE.

THE DEMARCATION FROM GROUND CAN BE SEEN AS A DETACHMENT FROM POTENTIAL CONTAMINATED SURFACE AND A NEW PARADIGM FOR FUTURE VISITORS TO CIRCULATE.

142

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

143


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

AFTERLIFE OF INFRASTRUCTURE AXONOMETRIC

VISITOR CIRCULATION VIA SCAFFOLDING THE MODIFICATION OF SCAFFOLDING FOR FACADE AMENDMENT WORKS IS CURATED IS SUCH WAY THE VISITOR CAN UNDERSTAND THE COMPLEX IN A MORE INTIMATE EXPERIENCE THROUGH NARROW PATHWAYS AND TOUCH ELEMENTS.

144

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

VIEW FROM SEAWALL

ARTICULATION BETWEEN ENTOMBMENT AND SEAWALL THE CONNECTION BETWEEN TWO WALLS IS CONNECTED BY SCAFFOLDING AND PROVIDES A SEAMLESS PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY FOR VISITOR.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

145


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

146

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

147


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

148

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

149


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: AERIAL VIEW OF HAMAOKA COMPLEX IN RUIN STATE.

THE ORIGINAL CIRCULATION OF COMPLEX IS NOW COVERED BY LANDSCAPE AND THE ELEVATED WALKWAY IS REPRESENTING THE CIRCULATION OF FUTURE USE.

150

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

151


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

OBSERVATION PLATFORM AXONOMETRIC

VIEWING AS STRATEGY THE 12M TALL OBSERVATION PLATFORM PROVIDED VISITOR A VISUAL NAVIGATION WHEN THEY ARE PHYSICALLY BOUNDED BY THE STRUCTURE WITHIN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS COMPLEX.

152

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

VIEW FROM OBSERVATION PLATFORM

LAYERING OF WEDGE ALTHOUGH THE PLATFORM ALLOWS VISITOR TO NAVIGATE THEIR POSITION WITHIN THE COMPLEX, HOWEVER, THE OVERALL SIGHT LINE IS STILL RESTRICTED WITHIN THE COMPLEX DUE TO HIERARCHY OF STRUCTUREâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S HEIGHT DIFFERENT

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

153


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: RENDERED PERSPECTIVE OF HAMAOKA COMPLEX IN RUIN STATE

THE ELEVATED WALKWAY CAN BE SEEN AS A DEMARCATION FROM THE ORIGINAL GROUND COVERED BY LANDSCAPE, A DETACHMENT FROM POTENTIAL CONTAMINATED SURFACE AND A NEW ROUTE FOR FUTURE VISITORS TO CIRCULATE.

154

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

155


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

FINAL PRESENTATION PANELS

156

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

157


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR, FINAL PRESENTATION BOARD. PANEL 1, OVERVIEW AND PHASE 1

158

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

159


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR, FINAL PRESENTATION BOARD PANEL 2, PHASE 2 AND 3

160

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

161


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR, FINAL PRESENTATION BOARD PANEL 3, PHASE 4

162

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

163


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR, FINAL PRESENTATION BOARD PANEL 4, PHASE 5.

164

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

165


APPENDIX: design process documentation


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

1 )

V I S U A L

-

T H E S I S -

D R A F T

D E S I G N

W O R K S

P H Y S I C A L

2 )

M O D E L

T E C H N I C A L

P R O C E S S

F R O M

I N T E R I M

S T U D I E S

R E S E A R C H

-

R A D I A T I O N

-

C O M M O N

-

I N T E R I M

-

S P E N T

R E A C T O R S P E N T

F U E L

R E V I E W S

&

S T UD I E S

T Y P O L O G Y

F U E L

F A C I L I T I E S

R E P O S I T O R Y

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

167


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

168

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

169


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

01

structural simulation V I S U A L

D R A F T

INITIAL DESIGN INTERATION

DESIGN INTERATION 2

FINAL DESIGN INTERATION

TOP & RIGHT: STRUCTURAL SIMULATION DIAGRAMS FROM RHINO SCAN & SOLVE

INTERIM 4 DRAFT

170

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

171


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

02

concrete pouring mechanism V I S U A L

D R A F T

RIGHT: INTERIOR RENDER OF TOMB: CONCRETE CASTING MECHANISM AND PROCESS

INTERIM 5 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 594 X 841 MM

172

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

173


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

174

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

175


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

176

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

177


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

178

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

179


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

03

decommission scene V I S U A L

D R A F T

RIGHT: INTERIOR RENDER OF TOMB: BROADCASTING OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS

INTERIM 3 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 594 X 841 MM

180

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

181


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

182

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

183


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

184

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

185


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

RIGHT: INTERIOR RENDER OF TOMB: BROADCASTING OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS

INTERIM 5 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 594 X 841 MM

186

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

187


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

04

overall system integration V I S U A L

D R A F T

RIGHT: TOMB EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM: MECHANISM AND COMPONENT OF TOMB.

INTERIM 4 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 594 X 841 MM

188

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

189


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: AXONOMETRIC SECTION MECHANISM OF TOMB

INTERIM 3 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 1189 X 841 MM

190

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

191


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: AXONOMETRIC SECTION MECHANISM OF TOMB

INTERIM 5 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 1189 X 841 MM

192

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

193


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

05

facade maintenance V I S U A L

D R A F T

RIGHT: FACADE FOOTING COMPONENT AXONOMETRIC: FACADE MAINTENAINCE METHOD AND TECTONIC SYSTEM.

INTERIM 4 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 594 X 841 MM

194

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

195


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: CART EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM

RIGHT: FACADE SECTIONAL PERSPECTIVE: FACADE MAINTENAINCE METHOD AND TECTONIC SYSTEM.

INTERIM 5 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 594 X 841 MM

196

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

197


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: FACADE MAINTENAINCE METHOD AND TECTONIC SYSTEM.

INTERIM 5 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 1189 X 594 MM

198

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

199


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

RIGHT: FACADE FOOTING COMPONENT AXONOMETRIC: FACADE MAINTENAINCE METHOD AND TECTONIC SYSTEM.

INTERIM 5 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 594 X 841 MM

200

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

201


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

06

ruin & re-landscape V I S U A L

D R A F T

RIGHT: DECAY: ENTOMBED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AS MONUMENT.

INTERIM 3 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 594 X 841 MM

202

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

203


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

204

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

205


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: RUIN SCENERY: AFTERLIFE OF INFRASTRUCTURE AS VISUAL PALIMPSEST..

INTERIM 5 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 1189 X 594 MM

206

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

207


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

RIGHT: RUIN SCENERY: AMENDED CONCRETE SURFACE AS TOUCH ELEMENT.

CONSULTATION DRAFT

208

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

209


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

07

210

physical model making process

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

211


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

212

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

213


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

FACADE DESIGN 3 D

214

P R O T O T Y P I N G

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

P R O C E S S


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

FINAL MODEL MAKING PROCESS

3D PRINTED MODEL FACADE AND LASER CUT STRUCTURE. THE COMBINATION OF 3D PRINTED MODEL AND LASER CUT MODEL PIECE. THE ABOVE MODEL SHOWS HOW THE TWO PIECES SUPPORTING EACH OTHER WITHOUT ANY ADHESIVE.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

215


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ABOVE: RUIN SCENERY: AFTERLIFE OF INFRASTRUCTURE AS VISUAL PALIMPSEST..

INTERIM 5 DRAFT ORIGINAL: 1189 X 594 MM

216

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

217


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

FINAL MODEL

ALL IMAGES: 1: 2500 SCALE MODEL SHOWS THE ENTIRE HAMAOKA COMPLEX AND THE ENTOMBMENT IN RUIN CONDITION.

218

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

219


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

FINAL MODEL 1: 500

INTERIOR OF TOMB. THE MODEL SHOW THE INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF TOMB.

220

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

FINAL MODEL 1: 500

3D PRINTED MODEL FACADE. THE CASCADING CONCRETE FACADE TEXTURE IS EXPRESSED BY THE 3D PRINTING RESULT, THE UNEVEN SURFACE REFLECTS CONTINGENCY AND ROUGHNESS OF WORKMANSHIP IN EMERGENCY SITUATION.

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

221


222


223


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

224

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

technical INFORMATION

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

225


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

BOILING WATER REACTOR (BWR) C O M M O N

R E A C T O R

T Y P E S

H

AMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AND CHERNOBYL

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS ARE BOTH BELONG TO BWR REACTOR TYPE POWER PLANTS WHERE THE SYSTEM IS NOT REQUIRED COOLING TOWER.

BOTTOM: BOILING WATER REACTOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AERIAL VIEW. (FUKUSHIMA NPP)

RIGHT: BOILING WATER REACTOR INFOGRAPHIC. IMAGE REF: https://www.thenation.com/article/seven-years-on-sailors-exposed-to-fukushima-radiationseek-their-day-in-court/

226

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

227


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR) C O M M O N

R E A C T O R

T Y P E S

TOP: PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR INFOGRAPHIC.

RIGHT: PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AERIAL VIEW.

IMAGE REF: http://finalyearthermalengineeringprojects.blogspot.sg/

228

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

229


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

interim SPENT FUEL facilities S P E N T

N U C L E A R

F U E L

S T O R A G E

A N D

I T S

M E T H O D O L O G Y .

i

NTERIM SPENT FUEL FACILITIES ARE DESIGNED TO POST

PROCESS

SPEND

FUEL

ROD

FROM

DECOMMISSIONED

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS INTO DRY CASK IN ORDER TO STORE WITH EASE.

THERE IS ONLY ONE INTERIM SPENT FUEL FACILITY IN JAPAN AND

AND

IT

IS

LOCATED

CONSIDERING

THE

IN

AOMORI

PREFECTURE.

TRANSPORTATION

OF

HIGHLY

RADIOACTIVE SPENT FUEL ROD TO AOMORI IS RISKY, THUS

SHIZUOKA

PREFECTURE

GOVERNMENT

URGES

CHUBU ELECTRIC POWER CO. TO BUILD INTERIM SPENT FUEL

FACILITIES

PLANTS

SITE

IN

WITHIN THE

HAMAOKA CASE

OF

NUCLEAR

POWER

REACTIVATION

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

TOP: INFOGRAPHIC OF NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE RIGHT: INTERIM SPENT FUEL FACILITIES IN AOMORI PREFECTURE, JAPAN.

IMAGE REF: http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-wastes/storage-and-disposal-of-radioactive-waste.aspx

230

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

OF


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

231


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

SPENT FUEL repository S P E N T

T

H E

S T O R E D S A F E T Y

N U C L E A R

P O S T

F U E L

S T O R A G E

P R O C E S S E D

W I T H I N

A N D

D R Y

C O N C R E T E

I T S

C A S K

M E T H O D O L O G Y .

W I L L

E N C A S E M E N T

B E F O R

M E A S U R E M E N T .

TOP: BURYING THE POST PROCESSED CONCRETE DRY CASK INTO UNDERGROUND. RIGHT: SPENT FUEL DRY CASK INFOGRAPHIC DIAGRAM. IMAGE REF: https://holtecinternational.com/2015/04/30/holtec-partners-with-elea-llc-in-new-mexico-to-build-consolidated-interim-storage-facility/

232

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

233


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

TOP: COMPLETION IMAGE OF CONCRETE DRY CASK REPOSITORY

IMAGE REF: https://holtecinternational.com/2015/04/30/holtec-partners-with-elea-llc-in-new-mexico-to-build-consolidated-interim-storage-facility/

234

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

235


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS AND JOURNAL ARTICLES: ADRIAN, F, SUSAN, K (EDS). MATERIALIZING CULTURE: THE ART OF FORGETTING. UK, HACKMAN PRINT GROUP, 2001.

FRAMPTON, K. MODERN ARCHITECTURE: A CRITICAL HISTORY. LONDON, THAMES AND HUDSON, 1980.

FRANCESCO, D, C. TADAO ANDO COMPLETE WORKS. LONDON. PHAIDON PRESS LIMITED, 1995.

ISOZAKI, A. JAPAN-NESS IN ARCHITECTURE. CAMBRIDGE, THE MIT PRESS, 2006.

OLI, M. BRUTALISM REDUX: RELATIONAL MONUMENTALITY AND THE URBAN POLITICS OF BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE. ANTIPODE FOUNDATION LTD, 2016.

TSUTO, S. EXPRESSION 1: INVESTIGATING ARCHITECTURE. NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE, DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, 2010.

ZHONGJIE, L. KENZO TANGE AND THE METABOLIST MOVEMENT: URBAN UTOPIA OF MODERN JAPAN. USA, ROUTLEDGE, 2010.

DISSERTATION REFERENCES: WEIMING, T, T. “TRADITION IN METABOLISM: THE VARIED APPROACHES OF KENZŌ TANGE AND KISHO KUROKAWA IN THEIR UTILIZATION OF TRADITION IN ARCHITECTURE.” MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE DISS., NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE, 2013.

JORDAN, S. “JAPAN’S MONUMENT PROBLEM: ISE SHRINE AS METAPHOR.” WASHINGTON, D.C, GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, 2015.

ONLINE BOOK & PDF: HTTP://WWW.BCF.USC.EDU/~KCOLEMAN/PRECEDENTS/ALL%20PDFS/TEMMU_ISESHRINE.PDF

(ACCESSED

ON

27

OCT 2017)

RUSKIN, J. THE SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE, (SMITH, ELDER & CO., 1849) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/Ruskin,%20John%20The%20Seven%20Lamps%20of%20 Architecture%201849.pdf

FRANCES S, C. JOHN RUSKIN & THE SAVAGE GOTHIC. (JOURNAL OF ART AND HISTORIOGRAPHY, 2015) https://arthistoriography.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/connelly.pdf

JOHN, F, P. A HISTORY OF INTERIOR DESIGN. (LAURENCE KING PUBLISHING,2005)

236

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

TECHNICAL HANDBOOK REFERENCES (ONLINE & PDF): ENHANCED SAFETY MEASUREMENT AT HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS UNIT 4, CHUDEN ELECTRIC. http://www.chuden.co.jp/english/corporate/ecor_releases/erel_pressreleases/__icsFiles/ afieldfile/2016/08/18/0729.pdf

HAMAOKA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS GENERAL INFORMATION, CHUDEN ELECTRIC. http://hamaoka.chuden.jp/english/provision/tateyanai.html

NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION DIAGRAMS http://www.ene100.jp/map_5_en

THE ABWR PLANTS GENERAL DESCRIPTION, GE HITACHI. https://nuclear.gepower.com/content/dam/gepower-nuclear/global/en_US/documents/ABWR%20General%20 Description%20Book.pdf

MASANORI, H, MICHIYA, H. EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING FOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES https://link-springer-com.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-981-10-2516-7.pdf

ONLINE NEWS AND WEBSITE: FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT: BECKY, OSKIN. “JAPAN EARTHQUAKE & TSUNAMI OF 2011: FACTS AND INFORMATION.” LIVESCIENCE, SEPTEMBER 13, 2017, https://www.livescience.com/39110-japan-2011-earthquake-tsunami-facts.html

JUSTIN, MCCURRY. “FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR REACTOR RADIATION AT HIGHEST LEVEL SINCE 2011 MELTDOWN.” THEGUARDIAN, FEBRUARY 3, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/feb/03/fukushima-daiichi-radiation-levels-highest-since-2011meltdown

JUSTIN, MCCURRY, “FUKUSHIMA DISASTER COULD HAVE BEEN AVOIDED, NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATOR ADMITS.” THEGUARDIAN, OCTOBER 15, 2012, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/oct/15/fukushima-disaster-avoided-nuclear-plant

CNN LIBRARY, “2011 JAPAN EARTHQUAKE- TSUNAMI FAST FACTS.” CNN, MARCH 5, 2017, http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/17/world/asia/japan-earthquake---tsunami-fast-facts/index.html

DAVE, BURKE, “RETURN TO FUKUSHIMA.” MAILONLINE, APRIL 12, 2017, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4404386/Return-Fukushima-Eerie-pictures-aftermath.html

ANDREW, KARAM, “FIVE YEARS LATER, CUTTING THROUGH THE FUKUSHIMA MYTHS.” POPULAR MECHANICS, MARCH 11, 2016, http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/a19871/fukushima-five-years-later/

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

237


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

acknowledgement

I WANT TO EXPRESS MY GRATITUDE TOWARDS MY THESIS SUPERVISOR- PROF. TSUTO SAKAMOTO WITH HIS SINCERE GUIDANCE FOR MY THESIS PROJECT.

AND ALSO THANK YOU,

MR.

ALAN

TAY

&

FORMWERKZ

ARCHITECTS,

FOR

THE

MASTER PROGRAMME SCHOLARSHIP.

MY

PARENTS,

FOR

THEIR

SUPPORT

THROUGHOUT

MY

6

YEARS OF TERTIARY EDUCATION.

YAP’S FAMILY, FOR THE FINANCIAL AND MENTAL SUPPORT ON MY BACHELOR STUDIES IN UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA.

STEPHAN SHEN YIZHE, JASON WONG LEE KWAN & DANG BAO

BAO,

THANKS

FOR

BEING

MY

BUDDIES

AND

THE

MENTAL SUPPORT DURING THOSE DIFFICULT TIMES.

LAST BUT NOT LEAST, THANKS TO THOSE WHO ALWAYS BELIEVE

IN

ME,

SO

I

AM

ABLE

TO

PULL

OFF

ALL

THE

HARDSHIPS THROUGHOUT MY STUDIES IN THE UNIVERISTY.

SPECIAL THANKS TO JASON WONG LEE KWAN FOR THE 3D PRINTING SERVICE AND ASSISTANCE IN THE MIDST OF HIS INTENSE THESIS YEAR SCHEDULE.

RIGHT: ENDING SCENE: IT ISN’T AN END BUT A BEGINNING OF JOURNEY.

INTERIM 5 CRIT PHOTO CREDIT: SZE WEE NG

238

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

239


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

COPYRIGHT

Š

2018 BY SWEE YEW YONG

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher. This Thesis design & research is under the supervision of Prof. Tsuto Sakamoto at National University of Singapore, School of Design & Environment, Department of Architecture. DIsclaimer: Some of the photos and images were downloaded from online sources for the purpose to construe and construct the idea of thesis research. Therefore, this publication does not own the credit of the materials and its owner remained their full credit with citation.

240

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR


ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE SCHOOL OF DESIGN & ENVIRONMENT | DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

242

ENTOMBMENT OF FEAR

Architecture Design thesis 2017-18_Entombment of Fear  

Thesis works from National University of Singapore (NUS), School of Design & Environment. Instagram: @kyra.arch

Architecture Design thesis 2017-18_Entombment of Fear  

Thesis works from National University of Singapore (NUS), School of Design & Environment. Instagram: @kyra.arch

Advertisement