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me da „deda ena “ erT wels davibadeT, iqneb amitomac miyvars qarTuli sityviereba ase gagiJebiT. bevri mizezi gvaqvs, Cemi azriT, „deda enas” satrfod rom gavuxdeT, is xom azris amokiTxvis pirveli bednierebis momniWebelia. msmenia, rogor xvewda iakob gogebaSvili TiToeul moTxrobas Tu leqss patara qarTvelebisTvis, rom martividan rTul sakiTxze gadasvla saxaliso yofiliyo ymawvilTaTvis. yovelives ki, uZveles qarTul mwignobrul gamocdilebaze amyarebda

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s a g a n m a n a T l e b l o - s a z o g a d o e b r i v i

J u r n a l i

sarCevi / CONTENTS nikoloz baraTaSvilis konteqsti

2

NIKOLOZ BARATASHVILI'S BACKGROUND

Tbilisis universitetis gerbi

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TBILISI UNIVERSITY'S COAT OF ARMS

tradicia da informacia

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TRADITION AND INFORMATION

saocari greisi

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AMAZING GRACE

ucnobi dokumentebis Sesaxeb

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ABOUT PREVIOUSLY UNKNOWN DOCUMENTS

am samyaroSi Cvenc varT...

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WE’RE ONLY A PART OF THIS WORLD…

qarTuli Teatri damoukidebeli saqarTvelos periodSi

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GEORGIAN THEATER IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA

mama

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FATHER

istoriuli Senoba da muzeumi

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HISTORIC BUILDINGS AND MUSEUMS

maisis Tbili sio

80

A WARM MAY BREEZE

samni da...

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MANY MORE TO COME

mTavari redaqtori EDITOR-IN-CHIEF revaz iukuriZe REVAZ IUKURIDZE saredaqcio jgufi EDITORIAL STAFF ramaz Wilaia RAMAZ CHILAIA xaTuna kereseliZe KHATUNA KERESELIDZE aleqsandre ServaSiZe ALEKSANDRE SHERVASHIDZE qeiTi ruTi deivisi KATIE RUTH DAVIES dizaineri DESIGNER nikoloz bagrationi NIKOLOZ BAGRATIONI

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gamodis kvartalSi erTxel JurnalSi ganTavsebuli masalis gamoyeneba SeiZleba mxolod redaqciis TanxmobiT

Issued quarterly The materials published in this magazine cannot be used without the authorization of the editorial staff

ISSN 2346-8165 beWdva: Sps „sezani“ / Print: LTD Cezanne

fotomasalis mowodebisTvis madlobas vuxdiT: saqarTvelos erovnul arqivs, saqarTvelos parlamentis erovnul biblioTekas, saqarTvelos kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvis erovnul saagentos, saqarTvelos Teatris, musikis, kinosa da qoreografiis saxelmwifo muzeums, Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeums garekanze: saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis gerbi; mxatvrebi: ioseb Sarlemani, dimitri SevardnaZe, daviT kakabaZe Cover: Coat of arms of the Democratif Republic of Georgia; artists: Joseph Charlemagne, Dimitri Shevardnadze, David Kakabadze

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2 (12) 2018

nikoloz baraTaSvilis konteqsti (qarTuli ganmanaTleblobis saTaveebTan) „qveynis daarsebiTgan mamulsa Cvensa aqvnda Tavisi sakuTari mdgomareoba, aqvnda Tavisni rjulni, Tavisni sarwmunoeba, Tavisi ena da Tavisi Cveuleba, hyvanda yovelsa drosa sakuTari Tavisi xelmwife da arasodes ar iyo mokidebuli sxvasa zeda da arca mona, viTarcaa aq ars mamuli ese Cveni. da Cveni xma, saxeli da mamacoba winaparTa CvenTa yovelTvis hquxda da aRavsebda msofliosa. mteri maradis mowylul iyo da damxobil maTgan. xolo aw xedavTa damxobasa da araraobasa mamulisa Cvenisasa? hgrZnobTa Seiwroebasa yovlisa kacisasa?! raisTvis ars ese esreT? nu ukve Cven ara varT Svili mama-papaTa CvenTana?! nu ukve Cven ara ZalgviZs Senaxva sakuTarisa mamulisa Cvenisa?! nu ukve Cven ara gvaqvs simxne da Zali eseoden, raodenic Cvens mamaTa anu sxvaTa msgavsTa kacTa?! maS raisTvis vcocxlobT!“ solomon dodaSvili `esrec ras argebs kacsa dideba / Tu moakldeba Tavisufleba?~ nikoloz baraTaSvili, `bedi qarTlisa~

NIKOLOZ BARATASHVILI'S BACKGROUND (AT THE SOURCE OF GEORGIAN ENLIGHTENMENT)

“From the very creation of our country, our homeland had its own territory, its own traditions, its own faith, its own language and its own customs; it had its own rulers at all times, and was never dependent on others, nor was it someone’s slave, like it is today. And our say, our reputation and the bravery of our ancestors always resounded around the world. They always managed to defeat their enemies. But do you see the current state of decay and the terrible situation of our motherland? Can you feel the oppression exerted on each individual?! Why do we let this happen? Aren’t we the sons of our fathers and grandfathers anymore?! Have we lost the courage to protect our own homeland?! Have we lost the vigor and strength of our fathers and other men of the like?! Then why do we even live?!” Solomon Dodashvili “Of what good is greatness / To someone who lacks freedom?” Nikoloz Baratashvili, ‘The Fate of Kartli’

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roca qarTuli ganmanaTleblobis Sesaxeb vsaubrobT, pirvel rigSi, da samarTlianadac, TergdaleulTa Taoba gvaxsendeba. saqarTveloSi progresuli ideebis popularizeba-gavrcelebisTvis dimitri yifianma, ilia WavWavaZem, iakob gogebaSvilma, vaJa-fSavelam da sxvebma titanuri Sroma gaswies. qarTuli enis reforma, maTi publicisturi da literaturuli moRvaweoba, werakiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis mier gaweuli Sroma da am xalxis politikuri saqmianoba swored rom ganmanaTleblobisa da Tavisuflebis suliT iyo ganmsWvaluli. gavrcelebuli mosazrebaa, rom es ideebi Tergdaleulebma rusi inteleqtualebisgan Seisisxlxorces da rom ara ruseTis mier saqarTvelos aneqsia, saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebisTvis ar gaiWreboda gza evropisken da dRemde, aRmosavluri kulturis tyveobaSi davrCebodiT. SesaZloa, es Sexeduleba nawilobriv sworic iyos, magram Tu saqmis arsSi garkveva gvsurs, istoriis im monakveTebzec unda davfiqrdeT, romelebic CvenTvis bolomde naTeli araa da qarTul istoriografias bolomde jer ar gamoukvlevia. dRes erT-erT aseT gamoukvlevel sakiTxad nikoloz baraTaSvilis pirovneba rCeba. raze unda yofiliyo dafuZnebuli misi msoflmxedveloba, romelic ase kardinalurad gansxvavdeboda imdroindeli sxva qarTveli poetebis, zogadad sazogadoebis Sexedulebebisgan. sainteresoa, rom TanamedroveTa mxridan, baraTaSvilis „vergageba“ da „verdafaseba“, qarTvelT arxeinobas, daudevrobas Tu Surs miewereba xolme. aseve, xSirad mohyavT argumenti baraTaSvilis mier `drois gaswrebis~

When we talk about Georgian Enlightenment, in the first place, and rightfully so, we think of the Tergdaleulebi generation (literally, “Those who have drunk the water from the river Terek, this river being seen as a boundary between Georgia and Russia). Dimitri Kipiani, Ilia Chavchavadze, Iakob Gogebashvili, Vazha-Pshavela and others did a titanic job for the popularization and spreading of progressive ideas in Georgia. The reform of the Georgian language, their activities as publicists and literary figures, the efforts of the Society for the Spreading of Literacy among Georgians and the political activities of these individuals were inspired precisely by a spirit of enlightenment and freedom. There is quite a widespread opinion stating that these ideas were absorbed by the Tergdaleulebi from Russian intellectuals; that if Russia hadn’t annexed Georgia, there wouldn’t have been any way for Georgia and Georgians to get closer to Europe – and this country would have remained captive of the eastern culture to this day. This opinion might be partly true, but if we want to get to the bottom of this subject, we should also inspect the portions of history that are less known to us, and that haven’t been fully researched by Georgian historiography. As of today, Nikoloz Baratashvili remains one of the lesser studied figures of Georgian history. On what did he base his worldview, which was so cardinally different from that of other Georgian poets, and more generally, of the society of the time? Interestingly enough, the “misunderstanding” and the “underappreciation” of Baratashvili by his contemporaries is attributed to either the lightheartedness of Georgians, their negligence, or jealousy. They also often bring up the argument of Baratashvili being “ahead of his time”, which would be the reason why the poet’s talent couldn’t be properly acknowledged by his contemporaries according to the supporters of this idea. The

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Sesaxeb, rac am mosazrebis momxreTagan poetis talantis saTanadod `verdafasebis~ mizezad saxeldeba. SesaZloa `drois gaswrebis~ argumenti sainteresoc iyos, magram is an metaforad unda CavTvaloT _ SevecadoT siRrmiseulad avxsnaT, ras vgulisxmobT ama Tu im pirovnebis mier `drois gaswrebaSi~, andac Cveni azrovnebisTvis yovlad usargeblo informaciad miviRoT. magaliTad, xSirad gvesmis, rom nikoloz baraTaSvili TviTnabadi geniosi iyo da mis `amqveynad dabadebas~ arc socialuri da arc saazrovno winapiroba hqonia. marTlac, ucilobelia, rom baraTaSvili udidesi niWiT dajildoebuli poetia, magram mxolod am utyuari WeSmaritebiT, rTulia im mizezebis dadgena, Tu ris safuZvelze Camoyalibda misi msoflmxedveloba da azrovneba iseTad, ra saxiTac Cvenamde movida. baraTaSvilis poezia revoluciuri da zogadsakacobrio ideebiTaa savse da, rac mTavria, imdroindeli evropuli poeziis, azrovnebis Tanadroulia. sagulisxmoa, rom es ideebi ucxoa misi Tanamedrove sxva qarTveli poetebisTvis; Tanac, baraTaSvilis uSualo literaturuli winapris aRmoCena imdroindel an odnav ufro adreul qarTul poeziasa Tu prozaSi praqtikulad SeuZlebelia. im epoqaSi, yvelaze dasavlur yaidaze moleqse qarTveli poetebi _ aleqsandre WavWavaZe da grigol orbeliani (romlebic romantizmis (am wmindad

imanuel kanti / IMMANUEL KANT

4

solomon dodaSvili / SOLOMON DODASHVILI

“ahead of his time” argument could actually be an interesting one, but we should either see it as a metaphor and try to explain in depth what we mean by saying that someone is “ahead of his time”, or take it as a completely useless information for our inquiry. For instance, there is a popular idea stating that Nikoloz Baratashvili was a born genius, and that his “coming to this world” didn’t have any social or intellectual preconditions. It is indeed undisputable that Baratashvili was a poet endowed with great talent, but with this sole hard truth, it is difficult to define the reasons behind the formation of his worldview and reasoning as they have reached us. Baratashvili’s poetry is full of revolutionary and universal ideas, and most importantly, it converges with the European poetry and thoughts of the time. It is worth noting that these ideas are not to be found in other Georgian poets from that period; moreover, it is practically impossible to find a literary antecedent to Baratashvili in the Georgian poetry or prose of the time, and even in the period directly preceding him. In that epoch, the Georgian poets who had the most western style were Aleksandre Chavchavadze and Grigol Orbeliani (who are considered to be the founders of romanticism, this purely European phenomenon, in Georgia), and they fundamentally differ from their “heir” Baratashvili. Therefore, it would perhaps be appropriate to ask the following question – who was the person who introduced him to these kinds of ideas? If we manage to answer this question, we will also understand why Baratashvili’s value was finally properly appreciated by the “new generation” of the 1860s, under the guidance of Ilia Chavchavadze, and not by his own contemporaries. If we take a look at Nikoloz Baratashvili’s biography, we will discover that the only one who could have introduced him to the universal ideas found in 'Merani' or 'The Fate of Kartli' was Solomon Dodashvili.


2 (12) 2018

evropuli movlenis) qarTuli skolis fuZemdeblebad iTvlebian), arsobrivad gansxvavdebian maTi formaluri memkvidre baraTaSvilisgan. amitom, albaT, sjobs davsvaT kiTxva _ vin SeiZleba yofiliyo is adamiani, romelsac SeeZlo amgvari ideebisTvis eziarebina igi? Sesabamisad Tu am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas movaxerxebT, imasac gavigebT Tu ratom daafasa nikoloz baraTaSvili samocianelTa `axalma Taobam~, ilia WavWavaZis TaosnobiT da ara misma Tanamedroveobam. Tu nikoloz baraTaSvilis biografias gadavxedavT, aRmovaCenT, rom erTaderTi visac SeeZlo igi „meranisa“ Tu „bedi qarTlisas“ zogadsakacobrio idealebisTvis eziarebina, solomon dodaSvili iyo. poetis saaxlobloSi ar iZebneba kaci, romelic solomon dodaSvilis darad, sicxadiT da siRrmiT gaacnobda evropuli ganmanaTleblobisa da germanuli idealizmis ideebs. roca solomoni Tbilisis klasikur gimnaziaSi aswavlida, moswavle da maswavlebeli imdenad daaxloebulan, rom `keTilismyofelebi~ nikolozs xSirad afrTxilebdnen _`dodaSvils Tavi daanebe, Torem gagTokaveno“. mainc ra iyo dodaSvilis moZRvrebis Ziri, raze dafuZnda misi msoflmxedveloba? Salva nucubiZis mosazrebiT, imanuel kantisa da iohan gotlib fixtes ideebi iyo is saazrovno sivrce,

iohan gotlib fixte / JOHANN GOTTLIEB FICHTE

There was no other person in the poet’s close circle of acquaintances who could have familiarized him with the ideas of European enlightenment and German idealism with as much clarity and depth as he. When Solomon was teaching at the Tbilisi Classical Gymnasium, the pupil and the professor got so close that “good-willed” people were often warning Nikoloz – “Stop frequenting Dodashvili, or they’ll arrest you”. So what were the fundamentals of Dodashvili’s doctrine and on what did he base his worldview? According to Shalva Nutsubidze, Solomon Dodashvili’s principles derived from the ideas of Immanuel Kant and Johann Gottlieb Fichte. There were thus two main sources to his philosophic-political worldview – Kant’s, the peak of German enlightenment’s, philosophy of pure reason, and Fichte’s doctrine about action, the main thesis of which can be considered to be his rewriting of the first words of John’s Gospel: “In the beginning was the action”. Fichte is also one of the first philosophers who contributed to the awakening of a feeling of national belonging among Germans, with his work “Addresses to the German Nation”, which was published during Napoleon’s German campaign. Solomon Dodashvili’s philosophy was founded, on the one hand on enlightenment, and on the other hand on a national feeling. And his destiny would actually be sealed by his faithfulness to these ideas… Dodashvili is one of the most tragic figures in the history of Georgian philosophy from the modern era1: Napoleon is said to By the modern era, we mean the period of history that researchers put between the Middle Ages and the contemporary period. “New times” refers to historical and cultural periods such as the Renaissance, the Reformation, Humanism, important geographic discoveries, and so on.

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nikoloz baraTaSvili / NIKOLOZ BARATASHVILI

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rasac daeyrdno solomon dodaSvili. misi filosofiurpolitikuri msoflmxedvelobisTvis ori mTavari wyaro arsebobda _kantis, germanuli ganmanaTleblobis mwvervalis, axali, wminda gonebis filosofia da fixtes moZRvreba qmedebis Sesaxeb, romlis mTavar Tezad ioanes saxarebis citatis originaluri perifrazi _ `pirvelad iyo saqme~ _ gvevlineba. fixte, aseve erT-erTi pirveli germaneli filosofosia, romelmac napoleonis germanuli laSqrobebisas, naSromiT „sityvebi germaneli eris mimarT“, xeli Seuwyo germanelebSi erovnuli suliskveTebis gaRviZebas. solomon dodaSvilis azrovneba erTis mxriv dafuZnebuli iyo ganmanaTleblobaze, meores mxriv ki erovnul suliskveTebaze. swored am ideebisadmi erTgulebam ganapiroba misi bedic... dodaSvili qarTuli filosofiis istoriaSi erT-erTi yvelaze tragikuli figuraa `axali drois~1 gagebiT: napoleons erTxel goeTesTvis uTqvams _ `axali tragedia~ Zvelisgan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom Cvens warmodgenaSi bediswera aRar arsebobs da misi adgili politikas uWiravso. solomon dodaSvilis biografiac am WrilSi SeiZleba gaviazroT: rogorc pirovneba, romelsac ubedureba bedisweris ukuRmarTobiT ki ar daatyda Tavs, aramed politikuri Sexedulebebis, viTarebisa da movlenebis gamo. solomon dodaSvils, gansakuTrebuli niWis adamians, mravali Tanamemamulis msgavsad, SeeZlo ruseTis imperiaSi warmatebuli kariera hqonoda; Tumca, Zalian axalgazrdam, Segnebulad miiRo gadawyvetileba da 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis erT-erTi sulisCamdgmeli gaxda. mas swamda, rom saqarTvelos Tavisuflebisken svla da ganviTareba mxolod damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg iyo SesaZlebeli. 1832 wlis SeTqmuleba iase falavandiSvilma gasca... SeTqmulebis monawileTa umetesoba daapatimres da ruseTis sxvadasxva guberniaSi gadaasaxles. Tumca, SeTqmulTa absoluturma umravlesobam moaxerxa da male saqarTveloSi Sewyalebis `furcliT~ Camovida; paradoqsia, magram gadasaxlebisas, zogierTma karieruladac ki waiwia win _ aleqsandre WavWavaZe sulac Cinmomatebuli, epoletebiT Semkuli daubrunda samSoblos. erTaderTi, romlis Sewyalebac imperatorma ar ineba, solomon dodaSvili iyo. igi 1836 wels, rusul, miyruebul-gadakargul viatkaSi gardaicvala ocdaTerTmeti wlis... 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis monawileTagan mxolod mas hqonda gaTviTcnobierebuli damoukideblobis da Tavisuflebis idea, naTlad xedavda axali qarTuli Tavisufali saxelmwifos politikur da socialur konturebs... da swored amitom daisaja igi. `axali dro~ _ igulisxmeba istoriis is periodi, romelsac mkvlevarebi Sua saukuneebsa da uaxles dros Soris aTavseben. `axli dro~ ukavSirdeba iseT istoriul da kulturul movlenebs, rogoric aris renesansi, reformacia, humanizmi, didi geografiuli aRmoCenebi da a.S.

have told Goethe – “The “new tragedy” differs from the old in that there’s no fate in them anymore, it was replaced by politics.” Solomon Dodashvili’s biography can also be seen from that perspective, as he is a person who wasn’t struck by disaster because of a twist of fate, but because of his political views, as well as the political situation and developments of the time. Like many of his compatriots, Solomon Dodashvili, a person of unusual talent, could have had a successful career in the Russian empire; but when he was still in his youth, he deliberately took part in the 1832 conspiracy. He strongly believed that the development of Georgia and its progress towards freedom could only take place after the restoration of its independence. The 1832 conspiracy was revealed to the authorities by Iase Palavandishvili… They arrested most of the conspirators, and deported them to various Russian provinces. But the large majority of the conspirators somehow managed to soon return to Georgia with an amnesty document; it is quite paradoxical, but during their time in Russia, some even moved forward in their careers – Aleksandre Chavchavadze even returned with new epaulettes of a higher rank. The only one who was not amnestied by the Emperor was Solomon Dodashvili – he died in Russia in 1836, in the remote region of Vyatka... Among the conspirators, he was the only one who had truly comprehended the idea of independence and freedom, and who could clearly see the political and social contours of independent Georgia… And that is precisely why he was punished. If he had returned to Georgia after his deportation, he would never have been in line with absolute monarchy, which other conspirators suited perfectly. Dodashvili was also deemed inappropriate for the monarchy because of his social

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ilia WavWavaZe / ILIA CHAVCHAVADZE


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gadasaxlebidan dabrunebis SemTxvevaSi is verafriT Caewereboda im absoluturi monarqiis suraTSi, romlisTvisac sxva SeTqmulebi zedgamoWrilni iyvnen. dodaSvili, monarqiisTvis socialuri warmomavlobiTac Seusabamo iyo. igi warmoSobiT glexi gaxldaT. misi mama ivane dodaSvili, daviT garejisa da bodbis samonastro skolaSi ganaTlebis miRebis Semdeg, sofel maRaroSi ganaweses mRvdlad, sadac aRizarda solomonic. amitomac _ Quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi (laT. rac epatieba iupiters, ar epatieba xars). L’ACADÉMIE DES SCIENCES safrangeTis mecnierebaTa akademiis (sadac pirvalad ganviTarda ganmanaTlebluri ideebi) graviura miuxedavad imisa, rom ENGRAVING OF THE FRENCH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, WHERE THE IDEAS OF ENLIGHTENMENT WERE FIRST DEVELOPED solomon dodaSvilis filosofiuri memkvidreoba origins: he came from a peasant family. His father Ivane Dodashvili had raodenobrivad mcirea, misi Rvawlis mxolod received his education at the schools of the Davit Gareja and the Bodbe gamoqveynebul filosofiur nawarmoebebze dayvana Monasteries, after which he was appointed as a priest in the village arasworia. rogorc vaxtang orbeliani ambobs _ rom Magharo, where Solomon grew up. Quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi (Latin ara dodaSvili, arc nikoloz baraTaSvili iqneboda. for “What is permissible for Jupiter is not permissible for cattle”). amiT, arc mas, da arc Cven, baraTaSvilis, rogorc Despite the fact that Solomon Dodashvili’s philosophical heritage is moazrovnis, mniSvnelobis daknineba srulebiTac ar quite small, it would be wrong to measure his merits on his published gvinda, ubralod yvela mweralsa da poets aqvs sakuTari philosophical works alone. As Vakhtang Orbeliani puts it – “Without konteqsti, romlis gareSec is ver moaxerxebda imad Dodashvili, we wouldn’t have Baratashvili”. With this, we obviously don’t qcevas, radac iqca. nikoloz baraTaSvilis `konteqsti~ want to diminish Baratashvili’s importance as a thinker, but to underline misi maswavlebeli solomon dodaSvilia. gana SemTxveviTia that each writer and poet have their own background, without which baraTaSvilis striqonebi: „da gza uvali, Sengan Telili, they simply wouldn’t have been what they were. Nikoloz Baratashvili’s merano Cemo, mainc darCeba...“ romelic, Tu davakvirdebiT, “background” is his teacher Solomon Dodashvili. These verses were not `ganmanaTleblurad~ JRers; aseve `bedi qarTlisaSic~ written by chance: “And the untrodden road, paved by you, my Merani, aSkarad igrZnoba dodaSvilis gavlena poetis will remain...”. If we pay attention, it sounds quite “enlightenmental”. In monarqiisadmi skeptikur damokidebulebaSi _ „didixania ‘The Fate of Kartli’ too, we can clearly feel Dodashvili’s influence on the guls iraklisa / gaduwyvetia bedi qarTlisa!“ es xom mefe poet’s skeptical attitude towards the monarchy – “It’s been a long time erekles erTpirovnuli, guliswadilze dayrdnobili since Erekle’s heart / decided of the fate of Kartli!” is obviously a critique gadawyvetilebis kritikaa. of Erekle II’s unilateral, impetuous decision to ally with Russia. statiis dasawyisSi mwerlis mier `drois gaswrebis~ At the beginning of this article, we talked about the possibility for SesaZleblobaze vsaubrobdiT; arc dodaSvils da arc a writer to be ahead of his time. Neither Dodashvili nor Baratashvili baraTaSvils droisTvis ar gauswriaT, maT TavianTi were ahead of their time; during their short lives (and unlike their xanmokle cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi (gansxvavebiT contemporaries, who were actually lagging behind their time), TanamedroveTagan, romlebmac moaxerxes da dros they managed to capture the soul of their epoch. This is precisely CamorCnen), SeZles da epoqis suli amoicnes. swored the reason why Baratashvili wasn’t properly appreciated in Georgia esaa mizezi imisa, rom baraTaSvili manamde ar dafasda until Ilia Chavchavadze, one of the figures behind the revival of the saqarTveloSi, sanam Tanamedrove qarTuli saxelmwifos modern Georgian state, made us read the poet. sulisCamdgmelma, ilia WavWavaZem ar wagvakiTxa igi. levan SatberaSvili

Levan Shatberashvili

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saqarTveloSi evrokavSiris programa `SemoqmedebiTi evropa~ evropuli kulturis, SemoqmedebiTi da audiovizualuri seqtorebis mxardasaWerad Seiqmna. is miznad isaxavs evropuli kulturis popularizaciasa da internacionalizacias. evropis socialur-ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi kulturis, SemoqmedebiTi da audiovizualuri seqtorebis rolis gaZlierebas, samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas xelovanTaTvis, maT profesionalizmze zrunvas da instituciur ganviTarebas.

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Svidwliani programa (2014-2020), romlis biujeti 1, 46 miliardi evroa, mxars uWers aTasobiT xelovans _ kulturis, audiovizualuri, saSemsruleblo Tu saxviTi xelovnebis, sagamomcemlo, kino, musikis, kulturuli memkvidreobisa da arqiteqturis industriis warmomadgenels. `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ mizania, gaafarToos evrokavSiris saerTaSoriso TanamSromloba kulturis, SemoqmedebiT da audiovizualur


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seqtorebSi; Sesabamisad, aRniSnuli programis farglebSi gaTvaliswinebulia arawevr qveynebis kulturis organizaciebTan TanamSromloba da maTTan erTad programaSi monawileoba. `SemoqmedebiT evropaSi~ gaerTianebulia 40, maT Soris evrokavSiris wevri 28 qveyana. 2015 wels saqarTvelo, `aRmosavleT partniorebis~ qveynebs Soris pirveli gaxda, romelic oficialurad gawevrianda programaSi. `SemoqmedebiTi evropa~ mxars uWers evropuli kulturis popularizacias da konkurentunarianobis zrdas. programis ZiriTadi prioritetebia: xelovnebis mobiloba, auditoriis ganviTareba, digitalizacia da axali biznes modelebis Seqmna. programaSi ganacxadis wardgenis erT-erTi piroba sxvadasxva qveynis organizaciebTan TanamSromloba da erToblivi proeqtebis ganxorcielebaa. evrokavSiris mier dafinansebuli proeqtebis umetesoba urTierTTanamSromlobiTi (kolaboraciuli) tipisaa. aRniSnuli gulisxmobs konsorcium(eb)is Seqmnas, romelic Sedgeba evrokavSiris qveynebsa da `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ programasTan asocirebul qveynebSi dafuZnebuli sul mcire sami organizaciisgan. aRsaniSnavia, rom `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba (SemdgomSi deski) gexmarebaT partniorebis moZiebaSic. mniSvnelovani faqtoria isic, rom `SemoqmedebiTi evropa~ proeqtis Rirebulebis mxolod 50-80 % faravs da ara mTlian biujets. es imas niSnavs, rom proeqtSi monawileebma biujetisTvis saWiro Sesavsebi Tanxa Tavad unda moiZion. Tumca, proeqtis Setanis dros ganmcxadeblisgan aravin iTxovs, rom es Tanxa winaswar idos mis sabanko angariSze. ganmcxadebeli mxolod valdebulebas iRebs, proeqtis dasrulebamde moipovos Tanxis is nawili, romelic mis ganxorcielebas sWirdeba. amasTan, adviladaa SesaZlebeli proeqtis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciis yoveldRiuri saqmianobis integrireba proeqtSi. `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ programaSi qarTuli organizaciebis ukeT integrirebis mizniT Seiqmna `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ deski. evropuli qveynebis gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT 2017 wlidan kulturis da mediis ofisebi gaerTiandnen, ramac kulturis da mediis qveprogramebis saerTo aqtivobebis zrdas Seuwyo xeli. `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ deski organizaciebs programaSi monawileobasTan dakavSirebiT saWiro

rCevebs aZlevs. programiT dainteresebuli organizaciebisa da pirebisTvis atarebs sxvadasxva saxis sainformacio Sexvedras, trenings, sajaro da individualur konsultacias. programis qarTveli beneficiarebi arian: •

`evropuli Teatris laboratoria: drama cifruli xdeba~. organizacia _ kote marjaniSvilis saxelmwifo dramatuli Teatri;

CineDoc _ Tbilisis saerTaSoriso dokumenturi kinos festivali (2016-2018). organizacia _ fondi `noosfera NNLE~;

`evropuli kinoklubebi _ skolebis licenzireba~. organizacia _ erovnuli kinocentri;

`kino agentebis skola SOFA (2016-2017)~. organizacia _ demokratiuli cvlilebebis instituti;

`evropuli literaturis mozaika~. organizacia _ gamomcemloba `agora~;

`pirvelad saqarTveloSi: 10 evropuli literaturis priziT dajildoebuli avtori~. organizacia _ gamomcemloba `elfi~;

`Brave Kids _ xelovnebis instruqtorebis treningebi da proeqtis praqtikuli gavrceleba~. organizacia _ samcxe javaxeTis regioni, fondi Caritas Georgia;

`jadosnuri xaliCa~. organizacia _ Tanamedrove xelovnebis centri.

programa `SemoqmedebiTi evropa~ ama Tu im proeqtis dafinansebaze wlis ganmavlobaSi ramdenjerme acxadebs konkurss. Tvali adevneT Cvens vebgverds creativeeurope.ge

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Tbilisis universitetis gerbi TBILISI UNIVERSITY'S COAT OF ARMS

XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi, rodesac saqarTvelom samiode wliT moipova damoukidebloba, qarTul emblematikaSi ramdenime saintereso artefaqti Seiqmna. maT Soris gamorCeulia axlad daarsebuli pirveli qarTuli universitetis gerbi.

In the 1920s, when Georgia enjoyed independence for three measly years, several interesting Georgian emblems were created. One of them stands out in particular: the coat of arms of the newly-founded, first Georgian university.

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universitetis daarsebiT, ivane javaxiSvili, mcirericxovan TanamoazreebTan erTad, didi qarTuli kulturis Cawyvetili xidebis aRdgenas da Tanamedrove evropuli saganmanaTleblo tradiciebis danergvas cdilobda. bunebrivia, pirveli qarTuli universitetis am koncefcias vizualuri gansxeulebac sWirdeboda, rac axlad Seqmnil universitetis emblemas unda etvirTa. 1918 wlis 5 Tebervals Tbilisis universitetis profesorTa sabWos meoTxe sxdomam, romelsac petre meliqiSvili (sxdomis Tavmjdomare), ivane javaxiSvili, eqvTime TayaiSvili, korneli kekeliZe, iustine abulaZe, akaki SaniZe, giorgi axvlediani, ioseb yifSiZe (sxdomis mdivani) eswrebodnen, mxatvar dimitri SevardnaZis mier Seqmnili universitetis beWdis sami nimuSidan erT-erTi daamtkica.

By founding a university, together with a number of like-minded people, Ivane Javakhishvili was attempting to restore the broken bridges of Georgian culture, and to introduce European practices in education to our country. Naturally, the conception of the first Georgian university also needed a visual rendering, which had to start with the main emblem of the university. On the 5th of February 1918, at the fourth Council of Professors of the Tbilisi State University, attendees Petre Melikishvili (Head of the Assembly), Ivane Javakhishvili, Ekvtime Takaishvili, Korneli Kekelidze, Iustine Abuladze, Akaki Shanidze, Giorgi Akhvlediani, and Ioseb Kipshidze (secretary of the Assembly), approved one of the three sketches designed by Dimitri Shevardnadze for the official seal of the university. Dimitri Shevardnadze, one of the most remarkable figures in Georgian culture during the 1920-30s, graduated from school in Kutaisi. He first studied painting in Petersburg, then in Munich’s

dimitri SevardnaZe DIMITRI SHEVARDNADZE

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dimitri SevardnaZem, XX saukunis 20-30-ian wlebSi qarTuli kulturis erT-erTma TvalsaCino figuram, saSualo ganaTleba quTaisis realur saswavlebelSi miiRo; samxatvro codnas jer peterburgSi, Semdeg ki miunxenis samxatvro akademiaSi daeufla. saqarTveloSi dabrunebisTanave safuZveli Cauyara `qarTvel xelovanTa sazogadoebas~, romelmac didi muSaoba gaswia qarTuli kulturis Zeglebis movlisa da mecnieruli Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT. ivane javaxiSvili am sazogadoebas sistematurad exmareboda da rCeva-darigebas aZlevda Zeglebis fiqsaciisa da Seswavlis saqmeSi. mxatvarma Tavdapirvelad Seqmna universitetis beWdis eskizebi, romlebic saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi, ivane javaxiSvilis arqivSi inaxeba; xolo TviT liTonSi Camosxmuli sabeWdavi Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis muzeumSia daculi.

beWedi warmoadgens mrgval, 4,7 sm. diametris farze gamosaxul irems, romelic ZuZus awovebs nukrs. beWdis eskizis Seqmnisas mxatvarma gamoiyena antikuri epoqis brinjaos Wviruli balTebis kompoziciis mTavari detali. am balTebis ZiriTadi koleqciebi daculia Tbilisisa da saqarTvelos sxvadasxva muzeumSi, aseve moskovSi, peterburgSi, niu-iorksa da londonSi. gvianantikuri xanis imdroindeli erovnuli kulturis Tavisebureba mkveTrad gamovlinda im epoqis SesaniSnav ZeglebSi, brinjaos Wvirulgamosaxulebian balTebSi, romlebic warmogvidgenen winaqristianuli xanis qarTuli mxatvruli meliToneobis ukanasknel etaps da agvirgvineben am dargis brwyinvale tradiciebs. brinjaos balTebze meore figuras nukris gamosaxuleba ar aqvs, balTebis kompoziciisTvis dedaSvilobis motivi ucxoa. SevardnaZem universitetis beWdis centraluri

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Academy of Arts. Upon his return to Georgia, he founded the Association of Georgian Artists, which was very active in protecting and scientifically studying monuments and artifacts of Georgian culture. Ivane Javakhishvili systematically helped this association, and advised them regarding the indexing and study of the monuments. Shevardnadze first created sketches for the university’s seal, which are now kept at the Ivane Javakhishvili archive of the Georgian National Center of Manuscripts. The actual seal in metal is preserved in the Tbilisi State University Museum. The seal consists of a round escutsheon of 4.7 cm in diameter and portrays a hind suckling a fawn. When creating the sketch of the seal, the painter used the main detail of a composition found on antique openwork bronze buckles. The main collections of these buckles are kept in various museums throughout Tbilisi and Georgia, as well as in Moscow, Petersburg, New York and London. The distinct characteristics of the local culture from the times of late anquity can be found in the wonderful artifacts and monuments of the time, and especially in the openwork bronze buckles, which represent the last stage of pre-Christian Georgian metallurgic art, and crown the brilliant historical traditions in the field. Shevardnadze created the hind, the central figure of the university’s seal, as a reference to the bronze buckles, but gave the


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figura _ iremi brinjaos balTebis mixedviT Seqmna, kompoziciis meore elements ki nukris grafikuli saxe misca da nawarmoebis ideas zusti forma mouZebna. ufrosis mier umcrosisTvis codnis, sibrZnis gadacemis aqts mianiWa martivi, poeturi da, amave dros, zogad planSi moazrebuli TaobaTa erTianobis simboluri saxe. beWdis faris sivrces avsebs vazis dekori, igi Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebis aJurul samkaulebs mogvagonebs. erTmaneTSi faqizad CaxlarTuli yvavilwnulebi da yurZnis mtevnebi lirizmiT avseben nawarmoebs. fars gars uvlis 31 spiralisebri ornamentisgan Sedgenili CarCo da wriuli warwera qarTuli da laTinuri mTavruli SriftiT: `tfilisis:universiteti UNIVERSITAS:TPHILISENSIS~. sityvebi erTmaneTisgan gayofilia orwertiliT, xolo qarTuli da laTinuri warwera erTmaneTisgan oTxi wertiliTaa gamijnuli.

mogvianebiT beWdis safuZvelze Seiqmna universitetis gerbi, magram, beWdisgan gansxvavebiT, normatiuli saxis dokumenti am gerbis damtkicebis Taobaze ar Semonaxula. mis pirvelwyarod warmogvidgeba universitetis gamocemul wignebze dabeWdili gerbis gamosaxulebebi warweriT: `tfilisis universitetis Rerbi~. universitetis gerbi warmoadgenda mrgval (aRmosavlur) fars (Tu gliptikaSi es yvelaze gavrcelebuli formaa, heraldikaSi mas naklebad iyeneben). beWdis emblema, iremi da nukri, gerbze TiTqmis ucvlelad iyo gadatanili, Tumca gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxi ufro mkacri da gamartivebuli iyo. irmebis ukan moCanda mSvenieri dekoratiuli elementi vazis, igive sicocxlis xis grafikuli siluetis saxiT, romelsac marcxnidan da marjvnidan vazis stiliseburi rqebi eyrebian. gerbis centraluri elementis irgvliv, beWdisgan

second element the traits of a fawn, and found a new, clear form for the composition. He gave a plain, poetic symbol of the union of generations to the transfer of knowledge and wisdom from the older generation to the younger. The remainder of the seal is filled with decorative vines, remindful of the delicate ornaments found in old Georgian manuscripts. The neatly combined garlands and bunches of grape complete the composition with a touch of lyricism. The seal is encircled by a frame consisting of 31 spiral ornaments, and a round inscription in Georgian and Latin scripts: “Tfilisis: universiteti UNIVERSITAS:TPHILISENSIS”. The words are separated from each other by a colon, and the two languages are separated by four points. The university’s coat of arms would later be created on the basis of the seal, but unlike the latter, there is no official document to be found about its approval. The oldest instances of the coat of arms are the ones printed on books published by the university, with the inscription: “Coat of Arms of the University of Tbilisi”. The University’s coat of arms consisted of a round (eastern) shield; where this is a common form for engravings, they use it much less in heraldry. The emblem found on the seal, the hind and its fawn, were transferred onto the coat of arms almost identically, though the style

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gansxvavebiT, aRar Canda warwera qarTul da laTinur enaze. samagierod, S-seburi ornamentebisgan Seqmnil moCarCoebas, gars ertymoda 24 figurisgan Semdgari CarCo. figurebi moTavsebuli iyo kuTxovan wnul ornamentSi, romlis texili stili da gerbis farze gamosaxuli CuqurTmebis xveuli formebis kontrasti mTel nawarmoebs dinamikas aniWebda. figurebi realistur Tu fantastikur cxovelebsa da frinvelebs ganasaxierebdnen, romlebic simetriulad mihyvebodnen erTmaneTs da mowesrigebul ornamentul sistemas qmnidnen, mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, harmoniulad erTiandebodnen da gerbs monumentur gancdas aniWebdnen. kuTxovan-wnul CarCoSi Casmuli es figurebi dimitri SevardnaZem iSxnis mcire eklesiis xuroTmoZRvruli morTulobis mixedviT Seqmna. rogorc cnobilia, man 1917 wels samxreT saqarTveloSi mowyobil mesame arqeologiur eqspediciaSi miiRo monawileoba da, sxva xuroTmoZRvrul ZeglebTan erTad, Seiswavla iSxnis mcire eklesiac romelic 1006 wels auSenebia mefe gurgens (994-1008 ww), qarTvel bagrationTgan mefeTmefis titulis pirvel mflobels. sxvadasxva

iSxani VII s. ISHKHANI VIITH C.

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of the drawing was more straightforward. Behind the hind, there was a beautiful decorative vine symbolizing a tree of life, with stylized vine tendrils on both sides. Around the central element of the coat of arms, there was no inscription in Georgian and in Latin as the one on the seal. However, a frame made of 24 figures circled the hind. The figures were enclosed in square-shaped, plaited ornaments, the fractured style of which contrasts with the rounded ornamental forms of the tree of life in the center of the coat of arms, thus adding an interesting dynamic to the piece as a whole. The figures represented realistic or fantastic land animals and birds, which moved behind each other in a symmetrical manner, creating a neat ornamental system; despite their miscellany, they combined harmoniously, giving a monumental feel to the coat of arms. These figures enclosed in square and plaited forms were created by Dimitri Shevardnadze according to the architectural ornaments found on the oratory chapel of Ishkhani. As we know, he took part in the third archaeological expedition arranged in southern Georgia, and together with other architectural monuments, he studied the Ishkhani chapel, which was built in 1006 by King Gurgen (reign 9941008), first King of Kings among the Georgian Bagratids. This church


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feris qviT naSen RvTismSoblis saxelobis eklesiis kars amSvenebs mdidruli skulpturuli Tamasa. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia cxovelTa ornamentebi. aqve moTavsebulia asomTavruli warwera da TariRebi qarTuli da somxuri welTaRricxvis mixedviT. warweris kamaradSemovlebuli Tamasa qarTuli skulpturuli ornamentis TvalsaCino nimuSia. misi gamoyeneba Tbilisis universitetis gerbSi aixsneba rogorc wminda mxatvruli, aseve azrobrivi mniSvnelobiTac. dimitri SevardnaZem iSxnis mcire eklesiis morTulobis cxrameti figura ocdaoTxamde ise Seavso, rom stiluri mTlianoba ar daurRvevia. gerbis am wnuli moCarCoebiT erTmaneTisgan gamoyofili da amave dros gaerTianebuli es nawili samyaros simboloa. amrigad, pirveli qarTuli universitetis gerbis avtorma zustad gadmosca universitetis damaarsebelTa idea: axaldaarsebuli universiteti qarTuli istoriulkulturuli tradiciebis saZirkvelze dafuZnebuliyo da momavali TaobisTvis gadaeca kacobriobis mier saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi dagrovili sibrZne. dimitri SevardnaZis mier Seqmnili gerbi qarTuli heraldikuri memkvidreobis saintereso nimuSia. Tu beWdis damtkicebis Sesaxeb arsebobs uflebamosili organos _ universitetis profesorTa sabWos dadgenileba (1918 w.), samwuxarod, arqivebma ar Semogvinaxes aseTive iuridiuli sabuTi gerbis damtkicebis Taobaze. eWvs ar iwvevs, is faqti, rom universitetis gerbi aris gamosaxuleba, romelic Sedgeba deda-Svili irmebis, sicocxlis xiTa da cxovelTa da frinvelTa gvirgvinisgan, radgan igi gamoisaxeboda universitetis gamocemebze da iqve miTiTebuli iyo, rom es aris „universitetis Rerbi~. Tumca, rogorc vTqviT, normatiuli dokumenti gerbis aRwerilobisa da misi damtkicebis Taobaze, ar aris

of the Virgin Mary is built in stones of various color, and its door is decorated by a rich sculptural tympanum. The animal ornaments are particularly noteworthy. It also contains an inscription in the Asomtavruli (Georgian) script, and dates according to both the Georgian and Armenian calendars. The arch above the Asomtavruli inscription is a remarkable example of Georgian sculptural ornaments. Its use in the coat of arms of the Tbilisi State University was motivated in both artistic and intellectual reasons. Dimitri Shevardnadze added five figures to the 19 found on the tympanum of the Ishkhani chapel, in a way that didn’t interfere with the style of the original ornament as a whole. This plaited frame both separates and unites the animal figures on the coat of arms, and is a symbol of this world. We can say that the author of the coat of arms of the first Georgian university managed to accurately convey the idea of its founders: the new university was founded on Georgian historic and cultural traditions, and its objective was to transmit the wisdom accumulated over centuries by humanity to the next generations. The coat of arms

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mikvleuli. arada, es gerbis arsebobis, e.w. „kanonierebis~ aucilebeli pirobaa. 2014 wlis 29 dekembris sxdomaze universitetis warmomadgenlobiTma sabWom daamtkica universitetis gerbi da droSa. gerbi, faqtobrivad, ucvlelad imeorebs dimitri SevardnaZis kompozicias. gerbis blazoni aseTia: universitetis gerbi warmoadgens heraldikur mrgval fars, romlis lurj fonze gamosaxulia vercxlis furiremi, romelic ZuZus awovebs vercxlis nukrs. irmebis ukan oqros sicocxlis xea. fars garSemoevleba vercxlis kuTxovani wnuli ornamenti, romelic Sedgeba 24 vercxlis figurisgan (dasanania, rom am figurebis dasaxeleba normatiul dokumentSi ar aris dazustebuli, es samomavlod aucileblad gasakeTebelia). faris lurj arSiaze gamosaxulia vercxlis warwera qarTul da laTinur enebze „tfilisis universiteti“ da „UNIVERSITAS TPHILISENSIS.“ warwerebi erTmaneTisgan gamoyofilia universitetis daarsebis TariRiT 1918 da dekoratiuli wertilebiT. imis gamo, rom SevardnaZiseuli eskizis dedani ar mogvepoveba, xolo nabeWdi arcTu mkafio gamosaxulebebi SemogvrCa, mxatvar mixeil darjaniasTan erTad, CavatareT kvleva da SevadareT iSxnis mcire eklesiis bareliefebi universitetis gerbis gasuli saukunis 20-iani wlebis nabeWd gamosaxulebebs. aRmoCnda, rom figurebis didi umravlesoba (12 figura) dimitri SevardnaZem gadmoiRo timpanis morTulobidan, 9 figura aiRo sarkmlis morTulobidan, 3 ki (marjvniv Sebrunebuli frTosani lomi, monocerosi da bu) ar moiZebna iSxnis eklesiis reliefebze. dakanonda, rom gerbze sami feria warmodgenili: lurjia foni da CuqurTmebis xazebi, vercxlia (TeTri) mTavari da garemo CarCoebis figurebi, agreTve warwera, xolo oqro _ sicocxlis xe. dimitri SevardnaZiseuli naxati ar Secvlila, gerbs daemata warwera (heraldikuri devizis saxecvlileba) qarTul da laTinur enebze: „tfilisis universiteti: UNIVERSITAS TPHILISENSIS, anu warwera, romelic hqonda universitetis pirvel beWeds. Tavisi arsidan gamomdinare, heraldikas Zvelis, tradiciulisadmi gansakuTrebuli erTguleba axasiaTebs, gerbi xom warsulis feradovani matianea! amitom „tfilisis“ Semotana universitetis gerbSi ramdenime mosazrebis gamo iyo sagulisxmo: jer erTi, rogorc iTqva, igi im epoqas mianiSnebs, rodesac universiteti daarsda (ase ewodeboda Cvens dedaqalaqs im dros), meorec, is warsulisadmi pativiscemas gamoxatavs. amas garda, rac Zalian mniSvnelovania, es dasaxeleba imeorebs universitetis pirvel beWedze amotvifrul warweras.

created by Shevardnadze is also an interesting specimen of Georgian heritage in the field of heraldry. While there is a resolution issued by the Council of Professors about the approval of the seal, unfortunately, there is no legal document to be found about the official approval for the use of the coat of arms. There is no doubt that the University’s coat of arms depicts a hind and its fawn, a tree of life, and a circle of land animals and birds, because it was used on publications of the university, and because it was specified in writing that it was the “University’s coat of arms”. But as we said, there is no official document about the description of the coat of arms and its approval, even though it is a necessary condition for its “legal” existence. The administration of the university therefore officially approved its coat of arms and flag during an assembly held on the 29th of December 2014. The coat of arms is practically the same as Dimitri Shevardnadze’s composition. The blazon of the coat of arms is the following: the university’s coat of arms is a heraldic round shield, on the blue background of which there is a silver hind suckling a silver fawn. Behind the deer, there’s a golden tree of life. The shield is encircled by silver, square-shaped plaited ornaments, which contain 24 figures (unfortunately, these figures are not described in the normative document, which definitely needs to be done in the future). The blue border of the shield contains inscriptions in Georgian and Latin languages: “Tfilisis universiteti” and “UNIVERSITAS TPHILISENSIS”. The inscriptions are separated by the year the university was created (1918), and by decorative dots. Because we are not in possession of the original sketch by Shevardnadze and because the printed versions are not in good quality, we did some research with the help of painter Mikheil Darjania, and compared the bas-reliefs of the Ishkhani chapel to the university’s coat of arms printed in the 1920s. We discovered that half of the figures (12 of them) were copied from the chapel’s tympanum. He took nine from the window ornaments, but three (the griffon looking on the right, the unicorn and the owl) cannot be found in the bas-reliefs of the Ishkhani church. It was decided that the coat of arms would be in three colors: blue for the background and the lines of ornaments, silver (white) for the main elements, the animal figures and the inscriptions, and gold for the tree of life. Dimitri Shevardnadze’s sketch didn’t change; an inscription in Georgian and Latin, “Tfilisis universiteti UNIVERSITAS TPHILISENSIS”, was added to the coat of arms – the same as the one found on the first seal of the university. Because of its essence, heraldry is particularly faithful to what is ancient and traditional, and coats of arms are a colorful record of the past. Therefore, introducing the word “Tphilisi” in the university’s coat of arms was significant in several regards: first of all, as we mentioned above, it refers to the epoch when the university was founded (that’s how our capital city was called at the time); secondly, it shows respect towards the past. Apart from that, and this is very important, this appellation echoes the inscription found on the first seal of the university.

z. g.

Z. G.

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tradicia da informacia daviT kakabaZe

TRADITION AND INFORMATION DAVID KAKABADZE

XX saukunis avangardulma xelovnebam gadaudeblad warmoSva xelovnebis namuSevris materialuri bunebis kvlevis saWiroeba. es ki, ori mTavari kiTxviT iyo ganpirobebuli: rogori unda yofiliyo Tavisufali xelovneba da rogori urTierToba unda hqonoda mxatvars ukve arsebul memkvidreobasTan? am kiTxvebs win uZRoda, zogadad xelovnebaSi ierarqiebis CamoSla. germaneli kritikosis, valter beniaminis SeniSvniT, aseT dros xelovnebis namuSevari kargavda auras, rac misi reproduqciiT da funqciuri moxmarebiT iyo gamowveuli. swored xelovnebis namuSevris funqciis garSemo

imereTi; tilo, zeTi. 1934 w. / IMERETI; OIL ON CANVAS. 1934

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The avant-garde art of the 20th century created an urgent need to study the material nature of artworks. There were two main questions at the source of this inquiry: what should new, free art be like, and what kind of relationship should artists have with the existing heritage? These questions appeared after the demolition of the hierarchies prevailing in art. According to German critic Walter Benjamin, artworks were losing their aura in those times because art had become reproducible and had gained entirely new functions. A great number of avant-garde practices started focusing precisely on the function of artworks. Artists became social figures. Everything depended on them – on which ideology they were following, on


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imereTi; tilo, zeTi. 1918 w. / IMERETI; OIL ON CANVAS. 1918

koncentrirda avangarduli praqtikis didi nawili. mxatvari socialur figurad iqca. yvelaferi imaze iyo damokidebuli, Tu rogor ideologias miemxroboda igi, rogor xedvas ganaviTarebda samyaroze, formisa da ideis warmomavlobaze da a.S. am movlenebis kvaldakval, gaCnda qarTuli avangardic. Cvenive kulturuli geografiidan gamomdinare, qarTuli avangardis gaCenam uamravi kiTxva da kvleva-Ziebis saWiroeba warmoSva. pirvel rigSi, sakmaod rTuli da zogjer SeuZlebelic aRmoCnda tradiciuli garemos gadaazreba. Cvens problemas, yovelTvis warmoadgenda mexsiereba, arasruli informacia im kulturuli memkvidreobis Sesaxeb romelic gvqonda, rac xSirad fsevdo-nacionaluri moZraobebis amosavali xdeboda. isini Tavisuflad arqmevdnen ama Tu im formas qarTuls, maSin, rodesac qarTuli kultura uamravi dasesxebuli, Tu gadamuSavebuli formisgan Sedgeboda. am rTuli

which vision of the world they would develop, on the origin of the form and idea, and so on... The Georgian avant-garde took form in parallel to these events. Because of our cultural geography, the appearance of the Georgian avant-garde led to countless interrogations and created the need to study the field. First of all, it was quite difficult –and sometimes impossible– to change the well-established traditional ways. Our problem was always the lack of memory, or in other words, incomplete information about our cultural heritage, which often became the starting point of pseudo-nationalist movements. The latter used to freely name this or that form “Georgian”, while Georgian culture was actually made of countless forms that were either borrowed or remodeled. In the 1920s, young artist David Kakabadze decided to tackle these difficult and complex questions. He had done his studies in Russia, where he got acquainted with both classical and avant-garde artworks. The Zdanevich brothers, and more generally the Russian avant-garde, played a great role in shaping his vision.

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bretani; qaRaldi, akvareli. 1921 w. / BRETAGNE; WATERCOLOR ON PAPER. 1921

da kompleqsuri sakiTxebis gadaWras Seudga gasuli saukunis 20-ian wlebSi axalgazrda daviT kakabaZe. man maleve gaagrZela swavla ruseTSi, sadac gaecno rogorc klasikur, ise avangarduli xelovnebis nimuSebs. Zmebma zdaneviCebma da zogadad, rusulma avangardma misi xelovnebis CamoyalibebaSi didi roli iTamaSes. swored am periodSi, zdaneviCebis uSualo ZalisxmeviT aRmoaCines firosmani. kakabaZisTvis, romelic ukve didi xani eZebda erovnulobis gamomxatvel formas, firosmani amgvar niSnad iqca. masSi gaerTianebuli iyo ori Zireuli komponenti, TeTris (sinaTle) da Savis (sibnele) asaxvis dualuri principebi. erovnuli formis ideac am aRmoCeniT iwyeba da qarTuli bunebis ferebiT grZeldeba. 10-iani wlebis bolos Sesrulebul imereTis peizaJebSi, kakabaZe ukve safuZvlianad swavlobs qarTul bunebas da qarTvelebis mgrZnobelobas. imereTis peizaJebs ori paradigma kravs. pirveli uSualod aRmosavluri formebis da avangarduli xedvis sinTezs ukavSirdeba. meore paradigma, geografiuli identobis, rogorc kulturuli informaciis aRmoCenaa. miwa Zlieri qarTuli niSania, romelic Sromisa da nayofierebis garda, Cveni yofierebis uamrav aspeqts moicavs. aq yvelaferi mniSvnelovania (klimati, landSafti, koloriti da a.S.), rac warmosaxvas aRZravs da Semdeg qseluri principiT iqsoveba mexsierebaSi, rogorc simbolo da kodi. am garemoebas zustad exmianeba imereTis peizaJebi. kakabaZis mxatvrobis es nawili, qarTul bunebaSi arsebuli informaciis moZieba da imavdroulad am informaciis asaxvisTvis saWiro formebis Seqmnaa. mzes aq umaRlesi pozicia ukavia. rogorc Cans, kakabaZis xelovneba, ocxelis xelovnebis msgavsad heliotropuli da mzisgan esTetizirebulia, rac am ori mxatvris xelovnebas sabediswero niSniT gansazRvravs. imereTis peizaJebi sinaTlis xelovnebaa, gajerebuli energiiT, romelic axali qarTuli

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It is precisely during that period that thanks to the efforts of the Zdanevich brothers, Pirosmani was discovered. For Kakabadze, Pirosmani became the symbol of the national form of expression for which he had been searching for so long. Two fundamental components were unified in his works: the dual principles of white (light) and black (darkness). The concept of a national form started with this discovery, and continued with the colors of Georgian nature. In the Imeretian landscapes he painted at the end of the 1910s, Kakabadze was already closely studying Georgian nature and the sensitivity of Georgians. Two paradigms bind his Imeretian landscapes. The first is directly linked to a synthesis of eastern forms and an avant-garde vision. The second paradigm is the discovery of geographic identity as cultural information. The soil is a strong Georgian symbol; apart from labor and fertility, it incorporates numerous aspects of our daily lives. Everything that stimulates the imagination and then slips into the memory as a symbol or code is important here, be it the climate, the weather, the landscape, the color... Imereti’s landscapes perfectly reflect these circumstances. This part of Kakabadze’s art consisted of the search for information existing in Georgian nature, and at the same time, the creation of the necessary forms for their representation. The highest position is held by the Sun. It seems that like Otskheli’s art, Kakabadze’s is heliotropic and aestheticized by the Sun, a momentous symbol in the art of both painters. Imereti’s landscapes show an art of light, they are full of energy, binding the concept of Georgian art and portraying its essence – an inevitable ascension towards the Sun. We know Van Gogh for his vibrant symphonies of light. French philosopher George Bataille underlines this point, writing that Van Gogh’s madness doesn’t end at his experimentations with forms, and carries a much more mystical essence. Namely, it is ritualistic and sacral in nature. Here, light is not only a means to build a form, but an ineluctable vitality, a live symbol of life, of change, of dynamics. In this regard, Kakabadze has achieved absolute balance, which was attained after the discovery

bretani; qaRaldi, akvareli. 1921 w. / BRETAGNE; WATERCOLOR ON PAPER. 1921


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bretani; qaRaldi, akvareli. 1921 w. / BRETAGNE; WATERCOLOR ON PAPER. 1921

xelovnebis koncefcias kravs da mis bunebasac amJRavnebs _ gardauval aRmasvlas mzisken. CvenTvis cnobilia van gogi, rogorc sinaTlis xelovnebis avtori. am garemoebas xazs usvams, frangi filosofosi, JorJ bataic. is wers, rom van gogis sigiJe ar isazRvreba formaluri ZiebebiT da bevrad mistiuri Sinaarsis matarebelia. kerZod, is ritualuri da sakraluria. sinaTle, aq ara mxolod formis agebis saSualeba, aramed gardauvali vitalobaa, cxovrebis, cvlilebis, dinamikis cxoveli simbolo. am mxriv, kakabaZesTan miRweulia absoluturi wonasworoba, rac sinaTlis xelovnebis, rogorc qarTuli movlenis aRmoCeniTaa ganpirobebuli. kakabaZe am movlenas mecnieruli TvaliT akvirdeba. es yvelaferi misTvis bunebis kvlevas ukavSirdeba. qarTuli forma ki am movlenis nawilia. swored aseTi mignebebi aZleven mas

of the art of light as a Georgian phenomenon. Kakabadze studied this phenomenon with a scientific approach. To him, all this was related to studying nature – and the Georgian form was part of this nature. These kinds of discoveries allowed him to determine that art is the most modern form of research. Moreover, he regarded religion as dated, and therefore wrote: “Concerning religion as a way of studying nature, we would like to note that where it used to be important for humanity in that aspect, religion is gradually losing this importance in our time. It should be obvious for all that we should reduce the impact of religious injunctions. People's lives are transformed to a degree that makes it impossible for religious precepts to explain them. We know that little by little, religion is becoming a personal human matter in place of a societal phenomenon; because of this, the Church is gradually separating from statehood, and it won’t be long before religion becomes a mere tool to study and research human history.” (D. Kakabadze, Seven Luminaries, Modern Artistic ways, October 1919, p. 108).

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In that same letter, Kakabadze continues: “The second way to get to know nature – the science that we have inherited since ancient times, cannot fully explain the existence of humanity. Science’s description of nature has not yet reached its final form. It has only found a method with which it is trying to get to know nature […] Therefore, there is only one way to explain humanity’s existence. And it is art. Art is what justifies our existence […]” (Ibidem, pp. 109-110). The knowledge and experience he acquired in France corroborated his vision even more. He actively worked on both artistic and scientific research. It is during that period that he created his “Bretagne” series – it started as realist paintings, then became cubist,

opera `amirani~, kostiumis eskizi; qaRaldi, akvareli; 1927 w. OPERA 'AMIRAN'; COSTUME SKETCH; WATERCOLOR ON PAPER. 1927

saSualebas daaskvnas, rom xelovneba uaxlesi Semecnebis formaa. am kuTxiT, is religias moZvelebulad Tvlis da wers: „rac Seexeba religias, rogorc saSualebas bunebis Semecnebisa, aRvniSnavT, rom Tu mas hqonda am mxriv mniSvneloba kacobriobis warsul cxovrebaSi, Tanamedrove Cvens cxovrebaSi mas es mniSvneloba TandaTan ekargeba. religiuri mcnebis gavlenis Semcireba Cvens droSi yvelasTvis cxadi unda iyos. axla adamianis cneba imdenad Secvlilia, rom religiur formas ukve ar SeuZlia gaamarTlos Cveni cxovreba. Cven viciT, Tu

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opera `amirani~, kostiumis eskizi; qaRaldi, akvareli; 1927 w. OPERA 'AMIRAN'; COSTUME SKETCH; WATERCOLOR ON PAPER. 1927


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and finally biomorphic abstractions. Together with clearly western forms, Kakabadze often uses oriental ones. As he explains himself, this is due to the fact that in the East, art was on the same level as religion. Indeed, Chinese or Japanese art is very close to Zen practices. What’s more, art and religion have been intricately connected to each other since ancient times. In eastern art, depicting the outside world is not only a research of the proper form, but also of the meaning. Taking into account this information and the fact that we were influenced by eastern art, Kakabadze says: “We don’t divide the world into two– East and West, instead, we are standing at the center of world

opera `amirani~, kostiumis eskizi; qaRaldi, akvareli; 1927 w. OPERA 'AMIRAN'; COSTUME SKETCH; WATERCOLOR ON PAPER. 1927

rogor TandaTanobiT religia sazogado saqmis magier Rebulobs adamianis kerZo saqmis saxes, da am mizezis gamo eklesia TandaTanobiT Sordeba saxelmwifoebriobas da Sors ar aris is dro, rodesac religia mxolod adamianis saistorio kvleva-Ziebis sagnad gaxdeba.“ (d. kakabaZe, `Svidi mnaTobi~, Tanamedrove mxatvruli gzebi, 1919 w.). imave werilSi kakabaZe msjelobas agrZelebs: „bunebis Segnebis meore saSualeba, _ mecniereba uZveles xanidan dawyebuli Cven dromde, savsebiT ver amarTlebs kacobriobis cxovrebas. mecnierebis mier bunebis Segneba jerjerobiT ar aris srul formamde miRweuli. mas aqvs SemuSavebuli mxolod meTodi, romlis saSualebiT is cdilobs Seignos buneba [...] maSasadame, darCa erTi saSualeba adamianis cxovrebis gamarTlebisa. es aris xelovneba. Cveni cxovrebis gamarTleba swored xelovnebaSia [...]“ safrangeTSi miRebuli codna da gamocdileba, kidev ufro amtkicebs mis xedvebs. is aqtiurad muSaobs saxelovnebo da samecniero kvlevebze. swored am periodSi qmnis is bretanis seriebs, jer realisturs, Semdeg kubisturs da bolos biomorful abstraqciebs. aSkara dasavlur formebTan erTad, kakabaZe xSirad mimarTavs aRmosavlur mxatvrobas. es ki, misive ganmartebiT im garemoebas ukavSirdeba, rom aRmosavleTSi xelovneba

opera `amirani~, kostiumis eskizi; qaRaldi, akvareli; 1927 w. OPERA 'AMIRAN'; COSTUME SKETCH; WATERCOLOR ON PAPER. 1927

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abstraqcia navebis formebiT; qaRaldi, akvareli, fanqari; 1921 w. ABSTRACTION WITH BOAT SHAPES; WATERCOLOR AND PENCIL ON PAPER. 1921

religiis doneze iyo ayvanili. marTlac, Cinuri an iaponuri xelovneba Zalian axlos dgas Zenis praqtikasTan. ufro metic, adreuli wlebidan moyolebuli, es ori gaerTianebulia. garesamyaros asaxva, aRmosavlur xelovnebaSi, ara mxolod formis, aramed sazrisis Ziebis procesia. am garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT da CvenSi aRmosavluri xelovnebis gavleniT kakabaZe ambobs: „Cven ar vyofT qveyanas or nawilad _ aRmosavleTi da dasavleTi, aramed Cven vdgavarT msoflio xelovnebis centrSi, xelovnebis muSakTa patara wreSi, romlis mizania xatulobis da naxazobis Segneba.“

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art, in a small circle of art workers, whose objective is to understand decorations and drawing patterns.” (Ibid, p. 114). A whole, undivided perception of our world is the main determinant factor of our cultural geography. The progress of western civilization is just as important for us as oriental traditions and forms of expression. This reality created the unique heritage that we still boast today. And this reality is what developed the sensitivity that Kakabadze displayed in one of his last and most complex abstract series. These works describe the microbiological world, and at the same time, they make us witnesses of a new cosmology. It is out of the question that in the 1930s, David Kakabadze had information


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samyaros daunawilebeli, mTliani aRqma, Cveni kulturuli geografiis ZiriTadi msazRvrelia. CvenTvis dasavluri civilizaciis progresi imdenad mniSvnelovania, ramdenadac aRmosavluri tradiciebi da gamoxatvis saSualebebi. am garemoebam Seqmna is unikaluri memkvidreoba, romelic dRemde savizito baraTad gvaqvs samyaroSi. am garemoebiT aris ganviTarebuli is mgrZnobelobac, romelic kakabaZis erT-erT bolo da yvelaze kompleqsur abstraqtul seriebSi aisaxa. es namuSevrebi erTbaSad aRweren mikrobiologiur samyaros,

about research on living cells, so his series must have come directly from his artistic sensitivity. In this series, we can see the infinite and unknown dimension that appeared to artists after Malevich’s famous black square, and in this dimension, an attempt to rethink space and territory. This series simultaneously reminds us of medieval Chinese abstractions and Hans Arp’s works. This is the vision of a person from the industrial era – on the one hand, biomorphic and genetic formations, and on the other hand, the complex synthesis of their arrangement. The series was preceded by collages, in which Kakabadze mixes metal parts, lenses, mirrors and wood. Here too, one

abstraqcia navebis formebiT; qaRaldi, akvareli, fanqari; 1921 w. ABSTRACTION WITH BOAT SHAPES; WATERCOLOR AND PENCIL ON PAPER. 1921

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kompozicia; qaRaldi, pasta, guaSi; 1926 w. / COMPOSITION; PEN AND GOUACHE ON PAPER. 1926

da imavdroulad, axali kosmologiis Semswreebs gvxdian. aseve, gamoricxulia, rom daviT kakabaZes 30-ian wlebSi hqonoda informacia cocxali organizmebis ujredebis kvlevebis Sesaxeb, es movlena mTlianad misi mxatvruli mgrZnobelobiT unda iyos ganpirobebuli. aq Cans is usasrulo da gamoucnobi dimensiac, romelic maleviCis cnobili `Savi kvadratis~ Semdeg dgeba xelovnebisTvis da am dimensiaSi sivrcis da teritoriis xelaxali gadaazrebis mcdelobac. es seria erTdroulad gvagonebs Sua saukuneebis Cinur abstraqcias da hans arpis namuSevrebs. es industriuli epoqis adamianis xedvaa, erTi mxriv biomorfuli da genetikuri formaciebi, meore mxriv ki, maTi ganlagebis sakmaod kompleqsuri sinTezi. am serias win uZRvis kolaJebi, romelSic kakabaZe erTdroulad iyenebs liTonis nawilebs, linzebs, sarkeebs da xis masalas, aqac erTbaSad igrZnoba mis xelovnebaSi mniSvnelovani, Tematuri cvlileba, romelic mecnierebis da xelovnebis, rogorc Semecnebis instrumentebis kvlevas ukavSirdeba.

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can feel an important thematic change in his art, which is linked to the study of science and art as instruments of knowledge. Kakabadze’s development of 3D imagery is also a result of this research process. He developed a stereoscopic cinema device in France, which was never completed because of Soviet censorship. His 3D portrait of Stalin was also censored; for that time, it was more than an innovative artwork – it was a revolutionary one. Naturally, he made a portrait of Stalin only as an attempt to save his new 3D concept, but unfortunately, even that effort turned out unsuccessful. Despite all this, the following question remains topical: what makes David Kakabadze’s art so unique to this day? At first glance, his achievement is the acceptance and adaptation of ideas existing in modernist art, which are enough to put him on the map of art history. But what makes Kakabadze modern even today is not any specific artistic concept, nor is it the idea of a national art, or the synthesis of western and eastern forms, but all of these together. In cosmometry, our universe is depicted as a hologram, the wholeness of which is represented in each of its details. According to this logic, the whole


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am kvleva-Ziebebis Sedegia 3D gamosaxulebis koncefciebis ganviTarebac. kakabaZe safrangeTSi qmnis kinosaproeqcio stereoaparats, romelic sabWoTa cenzuris gamo ganuxorcielebeli rCeba. aseve cenzuraSi moyva mis mier Seqmnili 3D gamosaxulebis stalinis portreti, romelic im droisTvis ara Tu inovaciuri, aramed revoluciuri namuSevaria. ra Tqma unda, stalinis

universe is much more than the sum of its parts. Kakabadze’s works are much more than the information contained in each of their details (be it in his avant-gardist practices, eastern art, or Russian cubo-futurism). This cosmological vision is precisely what makes Kakabadze’s art unique. This is a process of transforming tradition into information, and filling this information with vitality, which represents one of the fundamental matters of our Information Age.

konstruqciul-dekoratiuli kompozicia; liToni, mina, xe, kilita; 1924 w. CONSTRUCTIVE-DECORATIVE COMPOSITION; METAL, GLASS, WOOD, FOIL. 1924

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konstruqciul-dekoratiuli kompozicia; liToni, mina, xe, kilita; 1924 w. CONSTRUCTIVE-DECORATIVE COMPOSITION; METAL, GLASS, WOOD, FOIL. 1924

portreti, mxolod mcdeloba iyo namuSevris ideis gadarCenis, Tumca namuSevari cenzuras verc aseTi spekulaciiT gadaurCa. am yvelafris miuxedavad, kvlavac ismis kiTxva, ra aris is, rac daviT kakabaZis Semoqmedebas dResac aseT ganumeorebels xdis? erTi SexedviT, misi miRweva modernistul xelovnebaSi arsebuli ideebis miReba da gadamuSavebaa, rac srulfasovnad aTavsebs mas xelovnebis istoriaSi. Tumca is, rac kakabaZes dResac Tanamedroves xdis, ara romelime konkretuli samxatvro koncefcia, arc erovnuli xelovnebis idea da arc dasavluri da aRmosavluri formebis sinTezi, aramed yvelaferi es erTadaa. kosmometriaSi samyaro hologramis saxiTaa

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Today, thanks to technological progress, we have managed to preserve light and transform it into information. Our world is a digital one, in which light and information fully merge with each other. We could easily call our modern times the Age of Light, in which the energy of light penetrates the most intricate details of our everyday lives. What attracts us in Kakabadze’s art to this day is precisely the vitality of light – the fact that light not only radiates information, but also life. Despite the tragic history of the Georgian avant-garde, it is still shining from the past, because the quest for light inevitably becomes a source of light itself. Dato Koroshinadze, art historian


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kafe `qimerionis~ moxatulobis eskizi; qaRaldi, akvareli; 1919 w. SKETCH OF A FRESCO FOR THE CAFE 'CHIMERIONI'; WATERCOLOR ON PAPER. 1919

warmodgenili, romlis mTlianobac yvela mis detalSi aisaxeba. am logikiT samyaros mTlianoba gacilebiT metia, vidre misi Semadgeneli nawilebis erTianoba. kakabaZis namuSevrebi missave detalebSi moTavsebul informacias (iqneba es avangarduli praqtika, aRmosavluri xelovneba, Tu rusuli kubo-futurizmi) bevrad aRematebian. swored aseTi kosmologiuri xedva aniWebs mas unikalurobas. es aris tradiciis informaciad gardaqmnis da informaciis vitalobiT avsebis procesi, romelic informaciul epoqaSi erT-erT Zireul sakiTxs warmoadgens. dRes, teqnologiuri progresis saSualebiT, Cven SevZeliT sinaTlis Senaxva da misi informaciad qceva. Cveni samyaro cifrulia, romelSic sinaTle da informacia

srulad erwymian erTmaneTs. Tanamedrove epoqas, igive warmatebiT sinaTlis epoqa SeiZleba vuwodoT, romelSic sinaTlis energia adamianis yvela cxovrebiseul detalSi aRwevs. is, rac kakabaZis xelovnebaSi dRemde gvizidavs, swored sinaTlis vitalobaa, sadac sinaTle ara mxolod informacias, aramed sicocxles asxivebs. qarTuli avangardis tragikuli istoriis miuxedavad, is dResac anaTebs warsulidan, radgan svla sinaTlisken, yovelTvis Tavad aris sinaTlis wyaro. daTo koroSinaZe, xelovnebaTmcodne

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saocari greisi Amazing Grace 30


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maisSi Tbiliss msoflio saopero legenda greis bambri ewvia. amerikeli meco-soprano da dramatuli soprano Tbilisis vokalistTa pirveli saerTaSoriso konkursis Opera Crown-is Jiuris wevrad mogvevlina. bambri momReralTa im Taobas miekuTvneba, vinc tradiciuli evropuli skolis gamowvevas Rirseulad gaarTva Tavi da amerikuli vokaluri skola umaRles safexurze aiyvana. amerikel legendaTagan, bambri yvelaze `evropelia~. SesaZloa imitom, rom iRbalma is evropidan gadaxvewil legendarul lote lemans Seaxvedra, visTanac germanuli operisa Tu lidis saidumloebebs daeufla. pirveli didi aRiarebac bambris evropam moutana _ kerZod, bairoiTSi veneras rolis Sesrulebam vagneris `tanhoizerSi~. ocdaoTxi wlis bambri, parizuli warmatebis Semdeg, festivalze kompozitoris SvilisSvilis viland vagneris miwveviT Cavida da kritikuli msmenelisTvis moulodneli triumfuli SesrulebiT samudamod daimkvidra Die Schwarze Venus _ `Savi veneras~ saxeli. speqtaklis miwuruls ovaciebi naxevar saaTs gagrZelda da bambri scenaze ormocdaorjer gamoixmes... bambris legendis nawilia dilemac misi xmis bunebis Sesaxeb. Tu mis vokalis pedagogs armand tokatians is sopranod miaCnda, lemani masSi meco-sopranos xedavda. vin icis, iqneb swored am dilemis gadawyveta Tu gadauwyvetloba iqca cdunebad didi diapazonis mqone bambrisTvis, rom orive xmis repertuari emRera, maT Soris dapirispirebuli rolebisa erTsa da imave operaSi da amiT erT-erTi yvelaze datvirTuli kariera hqonoda saopero xelovnebis istoriaSi. vrcelia bambris studiuri Tu cocxali Canawerebis CamonaTvalic. is italiur, germanul, frangul da amerikul saopero da kamerul repertuars moicavs barokodan XX saukunis CaTvliT. maT Sorisaa herbert fon karaianis mier 1969 wels ganxorcielebuli bizes `karmenis~ ekranizacia. simReris garda, bambri Tavis umaRles movaleobad codnis gadacemis uwyvetobis SenarCunebaze zrunvas miiCnevs. berlinSi saopero akademia daaarsa, mTel msoflioSi atarebs masterklasebs. TbilisSi stumrobisas ki Tavad moisurva studentebTan Sexvedra konservatoriis did darbazSi. oTxmocs gadacilebuli, axlac Zveleburad momxibvleli da artistulia. saubrisas mudmivad cvlis intonaciebs, iRebs pauzebs, giqmnis moulodnelobis gancdas... amdenad, SevecadeT, qvemoTmoyvanil patara interviuSi bambriseuli Txrobis stili maqsimalurad dagvecva, Tumca SeuZlebelia im intonaciebisa da pauzebis srulyofili gadmocema, rac masTan xanmokle saubars axlda Tan...

Opera legend Grace Bumbry visited Tbilisi in May. The American mezzo-soprano and dramatic soprano performer came here as a jury member at the Opera Crown, the first international competition for vocalists held in Tbilisi. Bumbry belongs to the generation of American singers who have successfully overcome the challenges put forward by the traditional European school and have raised the American vocal school to unprecedented heights. Bumbry is the most “European” singer among American opera legends, perhaps because fate made her cross paths with the legendary European Lotte Lehmann, with whom she mastered the secrets of German opera and lieder. Bumbry’s first triumph also took place in Europe – namely at the Bayreuth Festival Theater, where she performed Venus’ role in Wagner’s ‘Tannhäuser’. After her success in Paris, the 24-year-old Bumbry was invited to the Bayreuth Festival by Wieland Wagner, grandson of the renowned composer. Her triumphant performance surprised the critical audience and established her nickname for good – “Die Schwarze Venus”, German for “The Black Venus.” Loud applause greeted her for 30 minutes, and she was called back on stage 42 times… An important part of Bumbry’s legend stems from the dilemma concerning the nature of her voice. Where her vocal instructor Armand Tokatyan thought of her as a soprano, Lehmann regarded her as a mezzo-soprano. Who knows, perhaps it was her decision (or more precisely, lack thereof ) about this dilemma that led her to sing both repertoires, including opposing roles in the same opera, which provided her with one of the busiest careers in the history of opera. The list of Bumbry’s studio and live recordings is quite long and covers Italian, German, French and American pieces from opera and chamber repertoires, from the baroque era until the 20th century, and includes Herbert von Karajan’s interpretation for screen of Bizet’s ‘Carmen’.

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Aside from singing, Bumbry feels that her foremost responsibility is to keep on transmitting knowledge. In 2009, she established the Vocal and Opera Academy in Berlin, and she leads masterclasses all around the world. While she was in Tbilisi, she also asked to meet opera students in the main hall of the Conservatoire. Even though she’s over 80, Bumbry has remained as attractive and artistic as ever. When talking, she always changes intonations, pauses, and gives you a feeling of surprise. Therefore, we tried to maximally preserve Bumbry’s speech in writing, but it is impossible to wholly transmit the intonations and pauses she produced during our short discussion.

greis bambri, romelsac mogvianebiT quCebSi forToxlisferi lamborginiT cnobdnen, musikas pirvelad mSobliuri qalaqis eklesiis gundSi eziara. magram ratom aRmoCnda misTvis saopero momReralis kariera ase mimzidveli? simReriT pirveli STagoneba bavSvobaSi, aTi-TerTmeti wlisam eklesiis gundSi miviRe, sadac Cemi Zmebi axalgazrdul, xolo deda da mama ufrosebis gundSi mRerodnen. gundSi samRerad greisi jer Zalian patara iyo, magram mas didi xma hqonda... simRera rom SemeZlo, Cems garda arc aravin icoda. vmRerodi yvelafers. Zmebs da mSoblebs repeticiebze davyvebodi. maxsovs, dedaCemis lamazi, Tbili Sokoladisebri tembri. gundSi erTi Zalian maRali da gamxdari qalbatonic hyavdaT maRali eTeruli xmiT. yovelTvis vcdilobdi sarepeticio oTaxSi maT gverdiT vmjdariyavi, rom orive maTganisTvis momesmina. am dros bgerebs mSobliuri qalaqidan sadRac Sors, TiTqos sxva samyaroSi gadavyavdi. eklesiaSi didi organic gvqonda, romlis mosmenas kviraobiT, dilis wirvaze sulmouTqmelad velodi. kvira gansakuTrebuli dRe iyo CemTvis, mivdiodi eklesiaSi, vusmendi organs, agreTve dedaCemisa da im qalis simReras _ es Zalian Tbili da uCveulo dReebi iyo. yvelanairad vcdilobdi, eklesiaSi ar damegviana da Cemi adgili damekavebina, raTa wirvis dros maTi Semosvla kargad damenaxa da maTTvis momesmina, momesmina, Tu rogor JRers adamianis xma. axlac maxsovs, rogor vusmendi samzareuloSi mofusfuse dedis simReras da rogor vcdilobdi mosmenilis gameorebas. swored ase iwyeb swavlas _ mibaZviT.

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Grace Bumbry, who could later be recognized on the streets thanks to the orange Lamborghini she drove, first experienced music at the church choir of her home city of Saint Louis. But why did she become so attracted by a career as an opera singer? My first inspiration to become a singer happened when I was a child of ten or eleven years of age, in the church choir. I myself was too young to be in the choir, but my brothers were in the youth choir and my mother and father were in the adults’ choir. I was too young but I had this deep voice – nobody knew I could sing except me. I sang everything. I went with my brothers to rehearsals just a little child, listening, and to my mother and father’s rehearsals too. I had an instinctive love for the human sound and voice. I remember my mother had a very beautiful, very warm, chocolaty sound. There was another lady in the choir, a very tall, thin lady, who had a very high voice, very ethereal. I always wanted to be seated next to them, so I could hear both of their voices. It was like being in another world – you were no longer in the hometown where you lived; you were transported into another world. And there was also a huge pipe organ


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adreul asakSi gaimarjveT saopero simReris konkursze. ase daiwyo Tqvens cxovrebaSi konkursebi... raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos, sul pirvel konkursze davmarcxdi, magram gavimarjve momdevnoze. SemomTavazes stipendia sent luisis musikis institutSi saswavleblad da kidev ramdenime ram _ sul oTxi prizi. Tumca Cemi rasisa da kanis feris gamo, institutma ar mimiRo. Cvens Soris darCes, sinamdvileSi sulac ar mindoda iq wasvla. RmerTmac Seismina Cemi da rodesac mSoblebTan da maswavlebelTan erTad wavediT stipendiis miRebaarmiRebaze dasalaparakeblad, kvlav uari miviReT. swavla mxolod gadasaxadis gadaxdis SemTxvevaSi SemeZlo. dedam SemoTavazeba Tavazianad uaryo. aliluia, aliluia! amis Semdeg bostonis universitetis stipendia miviRe, magram bostonidan norsvesternis universitetSi gadavedi, sadac did lote lemans Sevxvdi. es Sexvedra CemTvis gardamtexi aRmoCnda da vgrZnobdi, rom raRac mniSvnelovani unda momxdariyo. Cveulebriv, aseTi donis universitetidan, rogoric bostonisaa, sxvagan ar gadadian. magram, swored

which I was always waiting for on Sunday mornings. For me, Sunday was a special day; I went to the church, I could hear the organ, I could hear the lady singing, my mother singing, and it was a very warm and extraordinary day. I was always sitting, waiting, making sure I would get to church on time so I could get to my seat in order to be able to see them coming in, in the procession, and hear them, hear how human voices could sound – it was a wonderful time. To this day, I can remember my mother in the kitchen doing her cooking or whatever, and she would be singing and I would hear this wonderful sound and try to imitate it. That is how you learn – from copying. And then you won an opera competition at a very early age. This is when competitions started in your life… Crazily enough, I lost my very first competition… I lost! But it was okay. I won the next competition and was offered a scholarship to the St. Louis Institute of Music, a trip to New York, a war bond and other things. I wasn’t allowed to have that scholarship because of my race, my color. Between us, I really didn’t want to go to that school anyway. So, God said, okay, I’ll fix it for you, you don’t have to go. My mother, my father, my teacher and I went to the institute to speak about

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the scholarship and they said, no, we can’t accept her, if she comes she can only come as a private student. My mother said: “No, sorry, that’s very nice of you, but no, no”. Hallelujah, Hallelujah! Then I got a scholarship at Boston University and I transferred from Boston to Northwestern University, where I met the great Lotte Lehmann. That was really the beginning – my stroke of luck, when I knew something was supposed to happen. I mean, you don’t get a scholarship to a university of the standing of Boston University to then transfer to another university. But it was at the Northwestern where I met Lotte Lehmann. It was in the stratosphere: God intended it. So I went to Northwestern, I met her and then she made sure that I became a student at the Music Academy of the West in Santa Barbara, California. I studied lieder and opera with Lehman for three and a half years. I didn’t study voice with her, though; I studied voice from Armand Tokatyan, who was a wonderful Armenian tenor. He and my first teacher were the best. They understood my voice, they understood what I needed as a singer, and how each voice is different. They made me understand that too. I remember Tokatyan said to me once, “Grace, you have a beautiful voice and it has been wonderfully placed, God has already seen to that, and your first teacher has seen to that, but you need to know what you are doing, because when you get to thirty-forty years of age, you have to know what to do when you get a problem, when the voice starts to change”. I appreciated that very much. I went to his classes for three and a half years; we had to go every Monday from Santa Barbara to Pasadena, where he lived. That

am gadasvlis Sedegad Sevxvdi lote lemans. es RvTis neba iyo, wavedi norsvesternSi, gavicani lemani da misi xelSewyobiT Caviricxe santa barbaras dasavleTis musikalur akademiaSi. samnaxevari wlis ganmavlobaSi lemanTan lidsa da operas vswavlobdi. xmaze ki SesaniSnavi somexi tenori armand tokatiani mamuSavebda. mas, iseve rogorc Cems pirvel maswavlebels, saukeTesod esmoda Cemi xmis. maT esmodaT Tu ra mWirdeboda rogorc momRerals. esmodaT, rom yvela xma erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebulia da es mec gamagebines. maxsovs, erTxel tokatianma miTxra: greis, Sen SesaniSnavad dayenebuli ulamazesi xma gaqvs, RmerTma es uwyis, da es Senma pirvelma maswavlebelmac SeamCnia. magram, unda icode, rogor moepyra xmas, rodesac ocdaaTi-ormoci wlis asakSi is Secvlas iwyebs da SeiZleba rame problema gagiCndes. maSin es sityvebi davafase da yurad viRe. tokatianis gakveTilebic samweliwadnaxevari grZeldeboda. yovel orSabaTs santa barbaradan pasadenaSi unda wavsuliyaviT, sadac is cxovrobda, es daaxloebiT samasi milia, me ki erTi orSabaTic ar gamicdenia. mogvianebiT, roca

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ukve mzad viyavi amerika dametovebina da evropaSi wamovsuliyavi, man miTxra: `Seni gaSveba ar msurs, magram lotes unda, radgan is fiqrobs, rom Sen meco-soprano xar, axla giSveb, Tumca mas ar veTanxmebi, da mainc soprano mgonixar~. Tqven axla maswavlebeli xarT. Tu aswavliT Tqvens mowafeebs imas, rac Tqveni maswavleblebisgan SeiZineT? sxvagvarad SeuZlebelia. magram brmad ar mivyvebi. imisTvis ar swavlob, rom Semdeg daiviwyo. mTavaria gamoarCio is, rasac ufro mniSvnelovnad miiCnev. tokatianTan swavlisas is momwonda, rom mis gakveTilebze oTxni davdiodiT santa barbaradan da me oTxive CvenTaganis mecadineobas veswrebodi, radgan yvelafris mosmena msurda. SemeZlo maRaziebSi mevlo, magram ara, mindoda menaxa, TiToeulTan ramdenad gansxvavebulad muSaobda. maxsovs, erT-erT sopranos misca rCeva, rac vifiqre, mec gamomadgeboda _ megona, pasuxi vipove da roca ukve Cems gakveTilze tokatians vkiTxe amis Sesaxeb, man mipasuxa, rom es me ar mexeboda da im konkretuli mowafis problemas warmoadgenda, maSin mivxvdi, rom yvelaferi, rac vokalur instrumentTanaa dakavSirebuli,

was about 300 miles, and I did not miss even one Monday. And then, when I got ready to leave and to come to Europe, he said, “I don’t really want you to go now, but Lotte Lehman wants you to, she thinks that you are a mezzo-soprano. So I will let you go, but I don’t agree with her.” Now you are a teacher. Did you take anything from your teachers that you now use with your own students? You have to. You can’t just go blindly. You don’t study something and leave it behind. But what you do is you pick and choose those things which you think are really pertinent. What I liked about studying with Tokatyan was that when I went to class, there were four of us who came from Santa Barbara, and I always stayed for all four lessons, because I wanted to hear everything. I could have gone shopping or whatever, but no, I wanted to hear what he did differently in each one. I remember once there was a singer, a soprano, he had told her something which I thought was similar to what I was needing. So I thought, that’s the answer. When it was my lesson, I asked him about the different things he told the other student. He answered that it did not concern me, it was only the other student’s problem, because it was individual. So, I learned at that point that everything about the vocal instrument is really individual. We all have the same body parts, but they are slightly different. The

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individualuria. Cven yvelas sxeulis erTnairi nawilebi gvaqvs, magram erTmaneTisgan odnav gansxvavebuli. adamianis xma kidev ufro faqizia, gvaqvs yeli, iogebi, xaxa, sasunTqi gzebi magram rogorebi arian isini? Rrma, wvrili Tu sqeli? unda gavigoT, rogor muSaobs xma, xmis SecnobasTan erTad, saocari mogzauroba iwyeba. am dros xvdebi, rom RmerTi guluxvi bevri adamianis mimarT iyo, da ara mxolod erTis an oris. giTqvamT, rom Tqveni sayvareli partia normaa. diax, `norma~ Cemi sayvareli operaa. SesaZloa, Cemi sayvareli partiac, Tumca sakmarisad ar mimReria. damwyebi momRerali normas unda moeridos. rodesac am rols mivadeqi, sadRac ormocdaaTi wlis viyavi, zustad ar maxsovs, maTematikaSi movikoWleb... magram cota dagvianebuli iyo. is saocrad dawerili, sulierebiT savse opera, adamianur bunebazea _ or qalze, romlebic kacis gamo ibrZvian. erT ambavs mogiyvebiT: diliT sauzmisas, oTaxSi feradkaniani Txeli gogona Semovida, Cems students vuTxari, es aidaa. Semdeg ki simpatiuri, aTleturi biWi _ es radamesia, ramdenime wuTSi ki sxva feradkaniani gogoc gamoCnda, es ki amnerisia. xedavT, yvelani aq arian. ase esadageba opera cxovrebas da piriqiT. es kompozitorebi absoluturi geniosebi

human voice is even more delicate because the throat is the same; you have vocal cords inside, you have a pharynx, larynx, you have all the passages, but how are they? Are they deep, are they thin, are they fat? So, we have to understand how that voice works and it’s a wonderful journey that you are on when you start to understand voice, because you understand that God was generous to many of us, not just one or two. You mentioned once that your favorite part was Norma… Yes, my favorite opera. Probably my favorite part also, however I did not sing enough of them. You don’t sing Norma as a beginner, and when I came to the role I was about fifty, I don’t remember now, I’m bad at mathematics… but it was a bit late. It is such a wonderfully written opera, it has so much soul to it, and there is human nature in it – you have two women fighting over a man. I will tell you a story: I was at the breakfast room that morning, and in came a very slender looking black woman, young woman, and I said to my student, “that’s Aida”. Then came this nice guy with athletic trousers and I said, “that’s Radames”. And then, ten minutes later, came another black woman, and I said, “that’s Amneris. They’re all here”. That’s what it’s about: understanding how opera fits into life. These composers were absolute geniuses. It’s a wonderful job we have, the possibility to imagine what the composer has written, see it on the page, but it is not just written notes; the indications are written as well, how did he want the passage to be sung, heroically or with delicacy? That is our

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iyvnen. saocaria Cveni saqmianoba; Cven SesaZlebloba gvaqvs, warmovidginoT, ra dawera kompozitorma, amas furcelze vxedavT, magram es ar aris mxolod notebi, iq miniSnebebicaa, Tu rogor surda kompozitors, esa Tu is monakveTi Sesrulebuliyo, heroizmiT Tu sifaqiziT. es aris Cveni, momRerlebis movaleoba, rom gvesmodes ra aris furcelze da Semdeg Cveni warmosaxva gamoviyenoT publikisTvis. Tqven gimReriaT sopranoc da meco-sopranoc _ aida da amnerisi, norma da adaljiza. ramdenadaa SesaZlebeli dapirispirebuli personaJebis wyvilebis SeTavseba? warmosaxviT. magram mxolod es araa sakmarisi. Sen ici rac xdeba erTis Tavs da moqmedeb im codnis mixedviT, rac ici meoreze. xSirad mekiTxebian, Tavs sopranod vgrZnob Tu mecod. Tavs pirvel rigSi momRerlad vgrZnob da Semdeg virgeb erTs an meores. ubralod, iseT rolebs virCevdi, romlebic Cems mentalobas, Cems samsaxiobo da vokalur

job as singers, to understand what is on the page and then use our imagination for the sake of the public. You sang both soprano and mezzo-soprano as Amneris and Aida, Norma and Adalgisa. How is it possible to contain those couples of opposing characters? With imagination. But it’s more than that, because you understand what has gone on with one and you are now reacting from what you know of the other one. I am often asked what I consider myself as being – soprano or mezzo-soprano. My answer is that I felt like a singer in the first place, and then took one or the other. I just looked for roles that fit and suited me and my mentality, my acting and vocal abilities. It all depended on that. You said at the masterclass in Tbilisi that singers must first think, and then sing. Oh yes.

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monacemebs Seesabameboda. yvelaferi amazea damokidebuli. TbilisSi masterklasze aRniSneT, rom momReralma jer unda ifiqros da Semdeg imReros. ra Tqma unda. es sakiTxi axla dadga, Tu yovelTvis iyo? xSirad minaxavs, winaswar rom ar fiqroben. jer sakuTari xmis gagoneba undaT, es SeuZlebelia. Sen unda ifiqro notze, unda xedavde mas sanam gaaJRereb, sanam yelidan amouSveb. sxva SemTxvevaSi iwyeb Ziebas, maSin roca, vizualurad unda warmoidgino is noti da is pasaJi,

Is that a more modern problem, or has it always existed? There are many cases when they don’t think first: they want to hear the sound first, but it’s impossible. You have to think the note, you have to see the note before you sing it, before it comes out of your throat. Otherwise, you are only searching, but you should visualize that note and that passage, that phrase, and then it is much easier to sing. You see the phrase, you see how long the phrase is, what kind of breath you are taking – a short breath, fast breath, nasal breath, a breath through the mouth; those things have to be worked up.

fraza da Semdeg bevrad ufro iolia simRera. xedav frazas, frazis xangrZlivobas; rogori sunTqvis aRebas moiTxovs is, mokle, swrafi, cxviriT Tu piriT sunTqvis. am yvelaferze saWiroa muSaoba. axseneT Tqveni wigni, romelic male unda daibeWdos. ris Sesaxebaa is? es avtobiografiaa _ Cemi cxovrebis Sesaxeb.

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da Tqveni gamocdilebis? Cemi cxovrebis! dasrulebuli Tua da rodis gamoqveyndeba? TiTqmis dasrulebulia da axla redaqtirebas gadis. studentebi Tu gamoiyeneben simReris saxelmZRvanelod? ara. erTi-ori fraza SeiZleba iyos SigniT, magram simRerisTvis araa.

You mentioned your book, which will be published soon. What is it about? It’s an autobiography, it’s about my life. And your experience? My life! Is it fully written already? When is it going to be published? It is basically fully written; it’s being edited right now. Can students use it as a handbook for singing? No. There may be some phrases in there, but it is not for singing.

magram masterklasze wakiTxuli amonaridi sakmaod Rirebuli rCeva iyo. is Cems vokalur gamocdilebebs exeboda, Tu ratom gavxdi mecodan soprano. es arCevani ar yofila, es gardauvali iyo. SesaZloa xalxma ifiqros, radgan bambri mecodan soprano gaxda, amas isinic SeZleben, radgan maTac surT iyvnen sopranoebi, magram ara, es ase araa. Sen Tavad unda gesmodes Seni xmis. mniSvneloba ar aqvs, Tu ras getyvian Seni megobrebi da kolegebi, es Seni xmaa da mas eqimebis rCevebis mixedviT unda moepyra. Sen ver gadawyvet, rom xvalidan soprano gaxde. ara, ara... es ase ioli ar aris.

But the passage you read at the masterclass was quite valuable advice. That was about my experiences, my vocal experiences, why I changed from mezzo to soprano. It was not a choice; it was something that had to be. People possibly think that because I went from mezzo to soprano, they can do that too, because they want to be a soprano, but it’s not like that. You have to understand your voice. No matter what your friends and your colleagues say, it’s your voice and you have to abide by what medical people think – you have to find a way to sing as they advise you. You cannot just say, oh, I am going to be a soprano tomorrow. No, no, no… It’s not that easy.

esaubrnen maia sigua da Salva cxovrebaZe

Interview by Maia Sigua and Shalva Tskhovrebadze

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ucnobi dokumentebis Sesaxeb ABOUT PREVIOUSLY UNKNOWN DOCUMENTS Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetma saqarTvelos eklesiasTan erTad daicva da ganadgurebisgan ixsna araerTi Zvirfasi eqsponati Tu xelnaweri, romelTa yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi dadga mas Semdeg, rac 1921 wlis TebervalSi gamZafrda brZolebi saqarTvelos sazRvrebTan ruseTis me-11 armiasa da qarTul divizias Soris. elvis uswrafesad icvleboda viTareba frontze, amis Sesabamisad tardeboda mTeli rigi RonisZiebebi Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi...

eqvTime TayaiSvili / EKVTIME TAKAISHVILI

Together with the Georgian Church, the Tbilisi State University has preserved many precious exhibits and manuscripts, and protected them from destruction. Their future was put into question when in February of 1921, the battles at the Georgian border between Russia’s 11th army and the Georgian division intensified. The situation was changing faster than light on the front line, and in response to that, the Tbilisi State University was in much ado.

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1921 wlis 16 Tebervals sagangebod mowveulma profesorTa sabWom da universitetis reqtorma ivane javaxiSvilma werilobiT mimarTa damfuZnebeli krebis prezidiumTan arsebul Tavdacvis komitets: `a) Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis profesorebi, docentebi, leqtorebi, asistentebi da sazogadod samecnierosaswavlo nawilis piradi Semadgenlobis wevrebi mzad arian yvelani, mTeli Tavisi codna, gamocdileba da sicocxle Seswiron safrTxeSi myofis Zvirfasi samSoblos Tavisuflebis dacvis saqmes da sTxovon komitets, raTa maTi gonebrivi Tu fizikuri Zala gamoiyenos ise, rogorc mas saumjobesod miaCnia samSoblos dacvis miznebisaTvis. b) universitetis samaTematiko-sabunebismetyvelo fakultetis laboratoriebisa da samkurnalo fakultetis klinikebis karebi Riaa omis saWiroebisaTvis~. qarTvelma iunkrebma Tavganwiruli winaaRmdegoba gauwies mters kojris misadgomebTan. qarTuli jari sisxlisgan icleboda. frontze Seqmnili mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, universitetis gamgeobam gamosca brZaneba: `qarTuli ganZis, romelic saistorio-saeTnografio sazogadoebis gankargulebaSi imyofeboda, misi Cabargebis

dekanoz kalistrate cincaZis werili mose janaSvils saeklesio siZveleTa gatanis Taobaze LETTER BY CALLISTRATE TSINTADZE (THEN ARCHPRIEST) TO MOSE JANASHVILI ABOUT THE TRANSFER OF PRECIOUS RELIGIOUS RELICS

kaTalikos patriarqi kalistrate cincaZe CATHOLICOS-PATRIARCH CALLISTRATUS TSINTSADZE

On the 16th of February 1921, a specially summoned professors’ union and the University’s Rector, Ivane Javakhishvili, addressed the Security Committee of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia in writing: “A) The professors, assistants, lecturers, and members of the scientific and academic circle of the Tbilisi State University are all ready to sacrifice their whole knowledge, experience, and life in defense of the endangered freedom of our precious country, and to ask the Committee to use their mental and physical capabilities the way they deem best appropriate for the purpose of defending our country. B) The doors of the laboratory of the University’s Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, as well as the doors of the clinics of the Faculty of Medicine, are open for the needs of the war.” Georgian cadets faced the enemy in a sacrificial battle on the heights of Kojori. The Georgian army was losing a lot of soldiers.

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Because of the situation on the front line, the University’s administration issued an order on “the loading of the Georgian treasure kept by the History and Ethnography Society for its transfer abroad.” The following can be read in a letter sent by Levan Paghava to Dali Gersamia, and kept at the Tbilisi State University Museum; it sheds light on some prevalent myths that are found in historiography – “Ekvtime Takaishvili recollected: When, without declaring war, Soviet Russia attacked us, and we saw signs of defeat… My friend Ivane contacted me and told me that a soviet army of Russians drenched with Bolshevik propaganda was coming, that they felt utmost hatred towards us; that they were hungry and thirsty, that they would ravage us, loot us, and steal our historic treasures (traitors Orjonikidze and Makharadze would be the first to do so), which is why we needed to hurry and collect them, catalog them, and send them abroad under the authority of Noe Zhordania’s government in order to save them; we won’t be able to hide these treasures in Georgia, he said… If Ivane hadn’t thought about this, I’m certain that those insensible Russian soldiers would have stolen them, and particularly religious items, and would have traded them for vodka and wine in some tavern…

Sesaxeb sazRvargareT gasatanad~. ai, ras vkiTxulobT Seqmnili mdgomareobis Sesaxeb Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis muzeumSi dacul levan faRavas mier dali gersamiasadmi moweril erT-erT werilSi, romelic zustad asaxavs da naTels hfens istoriografiaSi gabatonebul zogierT mosazrebas _ eqvTime TayaiSvili igonebda: `rodesac sabWoTa ruseTi omis gamoucxadeblad Tavs dagvesxa da Cveni damarcxebis aCrdili gamoCnda... mixmo Cemma megobarma ivanem da miTxra: modis bolSevikuri propagandiT gaJRenTili sabWoTa ruseTis rusis jari, Cvendami uaRresad siZulviliT gamsWvaluli, mSieri da mwyurvali, isini Cven dagvarbeven, gagvZarcvaven, daitaceben Cvens istoriul ganZeulobas moRalate orjonikiZe-maxaraZeebis meTaurobiT, saWiroa misi droze Segroveba, aRricxva da ucxoeTSid gatana noe Jordanias mTavrobis mier mis gadasarCenaT, saqarTveloSid Cven am ganZeulobis gadamalvas ver SevZlebTo... es azri, rom ivanes ar mosvloda, SeiZleba ki ara, darwmunebuli var, rusis brma jari mas, gansakuTrebiT saeklesio nivTebs miiTvisebda da sadRac samikitnoSi arayze da Rvinoze gadacvlidao... ivane javaxiSvils unda vumadlodeT Cven istoriul saunje-ganZeulobis gadarCenaso~. qarTuli saunjis gaxizvna metad daZabul atmosferoSi mimdinareobda. eqvTime TayaiSvils mouwvevia Tbilisis muzeumis gamgeebi da maTi mrCevlebi. saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis arqivSi aRmoCnda metad saintereso

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kaTalikos patriarqi leonide CATHOLICOS-PATRIARCH LEONID


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We have to thank Ivane Javakhishvili for the rescue of our historic treasures.” The extraction of Georgian treasures took place during a very tense period. Ekvtime Takaishvili invited the directors of Tbilisi’s museums and their advisors. A very interesting letter dated the 17th of February 1921 addressed to the Ministry of Internal Affairs was discovered in the archive material of the Georgian National Museum. It is published for the first time: “Ekvtime Takaishvili, Chairman of the Society of History and Ethnography of Georgia, Kalistrate Tsintsadze, Chairman of the Church’s Museum, and Noe Kopiani, Chairman of the Museum of Georgia, taking into account the situation at the frontline, have decided to transfer the most precious objects found in the collections of the museums under their supervision to Kutaisi’s Treasury. Because of the abovementioned reasons, we ask you to address Kutaisi’s Treasury in writing. Two guards from the museums will be accompanying the precious objects.” It is precisely from the third floor of the University building that during the whole night of the 16th of February, Georgian museum exhibits were put in boxes and indexed. A letter dated the 17th of February 1921 is particularly worth noting;

mose janaSvili universitetis siZveleTa muzeumSi MOSE JANASHVILI IN THE MUSEUM OF TBILISI'S UNIVERSITY

1921 wlis 17 TebervliT daTariRebuli Sinagan saqmeTa saministrosadmi miwerili werili, romelic pirvelad qveyndeba: `saqarTvelos saeTnografio sazogadoebis muzeumis gamgem eqvTime TayaiSvilma, saeklesio muzeumis gamgem kalistrate cincaZem da saqarTvelos muzeumis gamgem noe yifianma iqonies ra mxedvelobaSi frontze Seqmnili mdgomareoba daadgines, rom maTdami rwmunebul muzeumTa uZvirfasesi sagnebi Caabaron quTaisis xazinas. aRniSnulis gamo, gTxovT gviboZoT saTanado moweriloba quTaisis xazinisadmi. muzeumis mxriv aRniSnul sagnebs gahyveba 2 mcveli~. swored universitetis Senobis mesame sarTulze 16 Tebervals mTeli Ramis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobda qarTuli samuzeumo eqsponatebis yuTebSi Calageba da siebis Sedgena. gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa 1921 wlis 17 TebervliT daTariRebuli werili, romliTac aqamde sruliad ucnobi faqti dgindeba, kerZod, ganZis sazRvargareT gatanis saqmeSi kaTalikospatriarqis leonides monawileobis Sesaxeb _ `batono mose (mxedvelobaSi hyavs mose janaSvili _ m. l.), rac Zvirfasi oqro-vercxlis nivTebia CaalageT yuTSi da gagzavneT wera-kiTxvisa da saistorio muzeumebis nivTebTan erTad.

sia Cabarebuli nivTebisa, 1921 wlis 17 Tebervali LIST OF RECEIVED OBJECTS, 17TH OF FEBRUARY 1921

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it establishes a fact that was unknown until now, namely the involvement of Leonid, Catholicos-Patriarch of all Georgia, in the transfer of Georgian treasures abroad – “Mr. Mose (he’s addressing Mose Janashvili – M. L.), please put all the precious gold and silver objects in boxes and send them together with the exhibits of the Literacy and History Museums. Hand the box that is preserved in Sioni to Mate; these are the directions of his Holiness.” The letter is signed by Kalistrate Tsintsadze. The letter comes with a small commentary: “I was handed these objects by Mose Janashvili, as the directions of the Catholicos-Patriarch suggested, in order to transfer our treasures together.” It is signed by Sergi Gorgadze. “We packed one box and stamped it on the 18th of February 1921.” Therefore, according to this archive material, the transfer of a number of the religious items kept at the museum of the Tbilisi State University abroad has to be attributed to directives given by Patriarch Leonid. Unfortunately, no official normative paper could be found about the extraction of the national treasure in the governmental documents kept in the National Archive of Georgia. In 2016, our compatriot Thierry Berishvili, who lives in France, supplied Tbilisi State University’s library with his father, Mamia Berishvili’s private archive material, in which a very interesting document was discovered – it

oqmi ganZis gatanaze / PROTOCOL OF THE TREASURE'S TRANSFER

maTes CaabareT is yuTi, romelic sionSi aris daculi, es gankargulebaa misi uwmindesobis.~ baraTs xels dekanozi kalistrate cincaZe awers. werils Tan erTvis patara minaweri: `es nivTebi Cavibare mose janaSvilisagan, Tanaxmad kaTalikos-patriarqis gankargulebisa Cvens nivTebTan erTad gasagzavnad.~ xels awers sergi gorgaZe. `CavawyveT erT yuTSi da beWdiTa da luqiT davbeWdeT 1921 w. 18 Tebervals~. amrigad, saarqivo Canawerebis Tanaxmad Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli saeklesio samuzeumo nivTebis nawilis gatana sazRvargareT swored patriarq leonides gankargulebiT gadawyda. samwuxarod, saqarTvelos erovnul arqivSi dacul samTavrobo dokumentebSi ar moiZebna oficialuri normatiuli dokumenti ganZis gatanis Taobaze. 2016 wels Tsu-is biblioTekas safrangeTSi mcxovrebma Cvenma Tanamemamulem, tieri beriSvilma gadmosca mamis, mamia beriSvilis piradi arqivi, sadac aRmoCnda CvenTvis metad saintereso dokumenti, romelic aseve pirvelad qveyndeba. rogorc irkveva 1921 wlis 27 Tebervals eqstremalur

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ivane javaxiSvili / IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI

viTarebaSi, quTaisSi mTavrobis Tavmjdomaris moadgilis grigol lorTqifaniZis xelmZRvanelobiT Catarda mTavrobis komisiis sxdoma, romelic Seexeboda erovnuli ganZeulobis sazRvargareT gatanas (oqmi nabeWdi saxiTaa daculi, xolo aRniSnuli punqti xeliTaa miwerili). gTavazobT amonawers: `respublikis ganZeuloba gatanili iqnas sazRvargareT. igi unda inaxebodes saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis saxelze mTavrobis gankargulebiT. mTavrobis mxriv ganZeuls unda gahyves finansTa ministris amxanagi ioseb eligulaSvili. sasurvelia erTi warmomadgeneli damfuZnebeli krebidan“. amrigad, saqarTveloSi datrialebul ganukiTxaobas ganarides saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Seqmnili qarTuli saunje. rogorc irkveva, misi gatanis momxre iyo rogorc qarTuli universitetis profesor-maswavleblebi, aseve mTavrobac da sakaTalikoso sabWoc da... oTx aTeul welze meti dasWirda mraval Wir-varam gamovlil erovnul saunjes, sanam igi samSoblos daubrundeboda. manana liluaSvili

is also published for the first time. It appears that a meeting of the administration’s commission was held on the 27th of February 1921, in extreme conditions, under the leadership of Grigol Lortkipanidze, deputy head of Kutaisi’s administration, and discussed the transportation of the national treasure abroad (the protocol itself is printed, while the section in question is added in handwriting). We offer you an excerpt: “The precious items of the Republic have to be transported abroad. It has to be kept on behalf of the Democratic Republic and under the instructions of its government. From the governmental side, the items should be accompanied by Ioseb Eligulashvili, friend of the Minister of Finances. It would be good if there is also a representative from the Constituent Assembly of Georgia.” Thus, they managed to save the Georgian treasure, which had been accumulated over centuries, keeping it safe from the chaos prevalent in the country. Thanks to this new archive material, we now know that professors and lecturers from the University, the government, and the Church were all for its extraction out of the country, and… …More than four decades later, after many difficulties, it finally returned to its homeland. Manana Liluashvili

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WE’RE ONLY A PART OF THIS WORLD…

mzis aTinaTebia magidaze. iqve yava da xaWos namcxvari. Wiqebi ki Zveli, ai bebia, rom gadmomiRebda ganjinidan, iseTi. mqrqali vardebiT. vardebs Turme Wirveuli xasiaTi aqvT. yvelafers Cagraven irgvliv. veravis ver itanen. zustad ise, oskar uaildis zRaparSi roa. ca nawvimariT garecxilia da iseTi lurji, rom Tvalebs gWris. simxurvale nel-nela edeba kafes vitrinebs, bayayebi gauTaveblad yiyineben da irgvliv yvelaferi pirvelqmniliviTaa. ucnauri kaci, farTofarflebiani qudiT, mizis win da miyveba ambavs. ambavs bebiis saxlze guriaSi, sadac gaizarda. albaT, mTeli misi cxovreba, am saxlSi dabrunebisken swrafvaa. _ ratom yvavilebi? _ vekiTxebi da Tvals, iatakze iribad mcocav Crdils vayoleb.

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Sunrays illuminate the table. On it, a cup of coffee and a cake. Old glasses, like the ones that my grandmother would take from the cupboard. Pale roses. Roses are stubborn. They oppress everything around them. They can’t stand anybody. Just like in Oscar Wilde’s tale. The sky has been cleared by the rain and is so blue that it hurts the eyes. Heat slowly covers the windows of the café, frogs croak endlessly, and everything around us is remindful of the harmony of primeval times. A strange man wearing a wide-brimmed hat is seated in front of me and is telling me a story. The story is about his grandmother’s house in the region of Guria. His whole life seems to revolve around the idea of returning to this house. “Why flowers?” I ask him, looking at the slant shadow crawling on the ground. “Why flowers? I can’t answer you… You make me think… I wanted


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_ ratom yvavilebi? ver gpasuxobT... ai, axla davfiqrdi... _ iwyebs moyolas. _ mebaReoba ukve maSin mindoda, rodesac jer kidev ar vicodi, rom aseTi profesia arsebobs _ mebaRe. xuTi wlis asakSi ukve vamynobdi yvavilebs. skolis periodSi sul mqonda patara baRi. arc erTi dRe ar iyo, me rom mcenareebTan ar vyofiliyavi _ ucnaurad mizidavdnen, momwondnen. Cveulebriv gurul ojaxSi davibade. bebia da babua qarTveli glexebi iyvnen. gavizarde iseT silaReSi, romelic mgoni davkargeT. axla, dReSi aTamde saskolo jgufs vmaspinZlobT „mwvane gakveTilebze“ da zustad es akliaT bavSvebs _ soflis simwvane da Tavisufleba. es saubari `gardeniaSia~, zura SevardnaZesTan. iqaa Tbilisis betonis urCxulebSi Separuli silaRis patara kunZuli, zRaprebidan gadmoxatuli saxli-kafeTi da simwvaniT, simwvaniT, simwvaniT... kunZul-kunZul Semoskupebuli yvavilebiT gadaxlarTuli buCqebiT da mokirwyluli bilikebiT. xeebiT da kaWkaWebiT totebze. _ erTi xe gavyideT da ver gavataneT patrons, Citis bude iyo zed. sanam bartyebi ar daafrTianes, velodebodiT. erTxel TviTmfrinavidan davxede aqaurobas da marTla kunZuliviT Cans usaxurobaSi. hoda

to become a gardener even before I knew the profession actually existed. I’ve been grafting flowers since I was five years old. I always had a small garden during my school years. Not a day passed without me being close to plants – I had a strange attraction towards them, I was very much fond of them. “I was born in a regular Gurian family. My grandmother and grandfather were Georgian countrymen. I was raised in a carefree environment, one that I think doesn’t exist anymore. Right now, we receive up to ten groups of schoolchildren daily at our ‘Green Lessons’, and that’s precisely what children lack nowadays – the greenery and freedom of villages.” This talk is taking place with Zura Shevardnadze at Gardenia, a place that acts as a small island of peacefulness among Tbilisi’s monsters of concrete, with a fairytale-like house-café and lots of greenery, greenery, and more greenery… With beautiful spots of flowers here and there, sophisticated bushes, and paved pathways. With trees and magpies on their branches. “We sold a tree and couldn’t give it to the buyer because it had a bird’s nest on it. We were waiting for the chicks to fledge. I once saw this place from a plane, and it really looks like an island in this ugliness. So, it shouldn’t be surprising that the surrounding birds want to live here.”

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ra gasakviria, rom Semogarenis Citebs aq undaT saxloba? gasakviri namdvilad ar aris. neba rom momcen, samudamod aq davrCebodi. batoni zurac ase xsnis mis mdgomareobas _ kargad yofnis moyvaruli kaci varo. da kargad is mxolod mcenareebTan erTad aris. _ irgvliv silamaze Tu ar maqvs, Tavs cudad vgrZnob. cota siZvele unda iyos... CemTvis Tanamedrove steriluri „hai teki“ miuRebelia. simyudrovis moyvaruli kaci var. amitom me aq vcxovrob. Svils aq vzrdi. es yvelaferi Cemia _ ganwyobiT, xasiaTiT. es finjani, yvavilebi, es aris Cemi samyaro. ho, vfiqrob me, ra bednierebaa, rodesac Seni Sinagani samyaro asaxvas Sens garemoSi poulobs. is rac gareTaa aris SenSi da piriqiT. mxolod erTeulebi aRweven aseT Tanxvedras da raoden iSviaTobaa is, rom xvdebi amas da akeTeb amas. _ rodis daiwyeT es yovelive? _ vekiTxebi im susti imediT rom CemTvisac ar aris gviani vipovo Cemi samyaro, romlis konturebic oden moniSnuli maqvs. _ sul. dRe ar yofila mcenareebis gareSe. _ biznesad rodis iqca? _ arc axlaa es biznesi. am samyaros biznesad qcevas sastikad vewinaaRmdegebi. ubralod saSualebas maZlevs vicxovro ise rogorc msurs. saSualebaa da ara mizani. albaT, imitom aris cocxali da aqvs suli am „gardenias“. _ erTxelac SemovRobe erT heqtaramde miwa, davarqvi `gardenia~ da vTqvi rom es iqneba adgili sadac gavaxareb mcenareebs da stumrebs miviReb. jer mxolod Cemi axloblebi modiodnen da maswavleblebi. _ maswavleblebze rom SevCerdeT, mixeil mamulaSvilis saqmes agrZelebT? _ getyviT... miSa mamulaSvili iyo didi xelovani. Seswavlili myavs arqivebiT, werilebiT. davadgine da

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And I can say it really isn’t surprising. If I could, I would stay here forever. “I like feeling comfortable”, Mr. Zura explains. And he only feels comfortable among plants. “If there’s no beauty around me, I feel bad. There needs to be some old things too… I can’t stand modern, sterile ‘high-tech:’ I’m a man of tranquility. That’s why I live here. I raise my child here. All of this is mine, with its atmosphere, with its character. This cup, these flowers, this is my world.” Yes, I think to myself, it’s such a joy when your inner world finds a reflection in your environment. What’s outside is inside of you, and vice-versa. Very few people manage to make this happen, and it’s very rare to be able to discover what you love and do it. "When did you start all this?” I ask him, with the faint hope that it’s not too late for me to find my own world, the outlines of which I have merely thought of… “All the time. Not a day passed by without plants.” “And when did it become a business?” “It’s still not a business. I’m fiercely against this world becoming a business. It just gives me the possibility to live as I wish. It’s a medium, not an end.” That’s probably why Gardenia feels so alive, and seems to have a soul. “One day, I put a fence around about one hectare of land, I called it ‘Gardenia’, and said that it would be a place where I would grow plants and receive guests. At first, it was only my relatives, close friends, and teachers.” “Let’s stop a minute on your teachers. Are you continuing Mikheil Mamulashvili’s work?”


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gamovikvlie, rom is iyo TviTmyofi da RvTisgan boZebuli niWiT. ra Tqma unda bevri viswavle. ai, vnaxoT misi werili, ras wers is lado gudiaSvils: „Zvirfaso lado, aladasturis mtevnebi wiTlad Seifera. iqneb Camoxvide da daxato, sanam SaSvebs gauzidavT“, mere ki agrZelebs imiT, saidanac me vswavlob _ bilikebi ise davaviwrove, ori kaci gverds ver auvliso. hoda gamgrZelebeli ver viqnebi. mxolod vswavlob. _ mebaRis tradicia ar arsebobda CvenSi? _ mixeil mamulaSvili iyo pirveli vinc Tavis saqmianobas, profesias uwoda mebaReoba. es skola aq ar arsebobda. Cven viciT winandlis baRi, magram iq mowveuli ostatebi muSaobdnen. ilia winamZRvriSvilic ar daviviwyoT. is agronomi da miSas maswavlebeli iyo. Tumca pirveli mebaRe iyo mixeil mamulaSvili. _ da ras gulisxmobs mebaRis profesiuli codna? _ pirveli mokle ganmarteba aseTia: mcenarea Seni ufrosi. is gkarnaxobs ra da rodis sWirdeba. ai, am enis flobas hqvia mebaReoba. sul mekiTxebian, elaparakebi mcenareebs? ara, isini melaparakebian. isini meubnebian, rodis mze undaT, rodis wyali da rodis Crdili. me

“I’ll tell you… Misha Mamulashvili was a great artist. I studied his archives and letters. I researched and found out that he was independent, and that he was endowed with a superior, godly talent. Naturally, learned a lot from him. Let’s see what he once wrote to Lado Gudiashvili: “Dear Lado, the Aladasturi grapes have become ripe. Perhaps you could come and paint them before blackbirds take care of them”. Then he continues with subjects of more interest to me – for instance, he writes that he narrowed the pathways in a way that makes it impossible for two men to walk side by side… I don’t think that I’m continuing his work. I’m just learning.” “Was there ever a tradition of gardening in Georgia?” “Mikheil Mamulashvili was the first to call his job, his profession, ‘gardening.’ There wasn't any real tradition of gardening before that. We all know the Tsinandali Park, but it was made by foreign specialists. Also, we shouldn’t forget Ilia Tsinamdzghvrishvili. He was an agronomist who taught agriculture. But the first gardener was Mikheil Mamulashvili.” “What does professional gardening knowledge mean?” “The most important thing to know is that the plants are the ones in command. They are the ones telling you what they need, and when. Understanding that language, that’s what gardening actually is. People

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mxolod vusmen maT da survilebs vusruleb. _ albaT, yvelas Tavisi xasiaTi aqvs _ celqi, Tavneba, amayi, mxiaruli... _ ra Tqma unda! hoda, zustad am xasiaTis mixvedra da ganwyobis daWeraa mebaReoba. unda usmino, rom elaparako ra azri aqvs? is unda dagelaparakos, gendos, giTxras ra sWirdeba. da me gamaxsenda, rom mcenareebs ver vaxareb. _ arauSavs, etyoba dros ver uTmobT, ar akvirdebiT maT _ manugeSebs mebaRe farTofarflebian qudSi. _ SeiZleba iswavlo maTi mosmena? _ survili unda gqondes da varjiSis ambavia eg. rac met mcenares mousmen, miT ufro mets gaugeb. me wignebidan swavla ar miyvars. wignisTvis ganwyoba mWirdeba da eg dro noemberSi modis _ maSin, roca baRi iZinebs, mec gadavdivar energiis dazogvaze da wignebis furcvlas viwyeb. Tumca, klasikuri codnac aucilebelia. me gamimarTla, saucxoo pedagogebi myavda jer aq, universtetSi, botanikis fakultetze da mere germaniaSi. magram esec adamianebisgan swavleba iyo. maTTan kontaqtisas gavacnobiere, rom am samyaroSi Sen-c xar da ara piriqiT. Sen am samyaros rigiTi nawili xar da sxvebze ufro gvian mosuli. me vicnob SesaniSnav mevardes JuJuna avaliSvils. is

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often ask me if I talk to plants. I don’t, they’re the ones who talk to me. They tell me when they want more sunrays, when they want water, and when they want shade… I only listen to them and fulfill their wishes.” “Each of them must have its own character – mischievous, capricious, proud, joyful…” “Of course! And gardening is exactly about discovering that character and grasping the plants’ mood. You have to listen to them, it doesn’t make any sense talking to them. They’re the ones who have to talk to you, to trust you, to tell you what they need.” And suddenly, I remembered that I’m really bad at growing plants. “That’s alright, it seems you don’t have enough time for them, and you don’t pay enough attention,” the gardener comforts me in his wide-brimmed hat. “Can you learn to listen to them?” “If you have the wish to do so; it’s only a matter of practice. The more plants you listen to, the more you will understand them. I don’t like learning from books. I need to be in the mood to read books, and that time comes in November – when the garden falls asleep, I also enter an ‘energy-saving’ mode and start to leaf through books. You definitely need to have a classical knowledge too, though. I was lucky to have wonderful pedagogues, first here, at the University’s Faculty of Botany, and then in Germany. But still, I was only learning from humans. When in contact with other specialists of the field, I realized that I was also part of this world, and that it wasn’t the other way around. You’re only another component


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praqtikosi mebaRea. misgan pirveli samebaReo gamocdileba miviRe. yvelafers ki Teoriam unda gaumagros zurgi. ekologiac unda icode. me gamimarTla da volfram lobinTan, bonis botanikur baRSi viswavle mebaReoba. Tumca, maTi dogmatebi maRizianebs kidec. me Semoqmedebis kaci var, magram codna zurgs mimagrebs da maZlierebs. _ rogor unda gaaSeno baRi? _ velur bunebas daakvirdi da naxe ra kombinaciebia iq _ ra rasTan izrdeba, romeli mcenare romels exameba. axals verafers Seqmni Tu buneba ar ici. mibaZe bunebas da gaimarjveb. _ yvavilebis xasiaTebze ras mogviyvebiT? _ konkurenciaze unda visaubroT. mcenareebs Soris Sejibria. erTi meores Crdilavs, Tumca adamianebiviT ara. mcenareebi erTmaneTs sasikvdilod ar imeteben. mainc gaunawilebs cota wyals da mzis sxivsac dauTmobs. minda Cvenc davindoT erTmaneTi. TiToeul mcenares Tavisi moTxovna aqvs. Tu swored SeurCie adgili da kombinacia, usaxuric ki axali ferebiT

of this world, and you came later than the nature surrounding you. “I know a fantastic rose specialist, Zhuzhuna Avalishvili. She’s a hands-on gardener, and she’s the one from whom I received my first experience as a gardener. But everything still needs to be backed by theory. You also need to know ecology. I had the opportunity to learn gardening with Wolfram Lobin at Bonn’s Botanical Garden. But I have to say that some of their dogmas irritated me. I’m a man of creativity, but theoretical knowledge supports me and makes me stronger.” “How should you build a garden?” “You should observe wild nature, and see the combinations that you find there – what is growing with what, which plant follows which … You won’t be able to create anything new if you don’t know nature. Copy nature, and you will be successful.” “What can you tell us about the character of plants?” “It’s a question of competition. There’s a contest between plants. One overshadows the other, but it’s not like with humans – plants don’t fight each other till death. They will always deliver each other some water, and let some sunrays reach the other plants. I would like us humans to be as merciful towards each other.

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akiafdeba. magaliTad JunJrukos miSa mamulaSvili iseTTan wamoaskupebda, rom orive gamSvenierdeboda. es iyo misi genialuroba. magaliTad, kesanes vercxlisfer cinerarias Tu miurgav, erTis sicisfre da meoris vercxlisferoba ufro mkafiod gamoCndeba. _ klasikuri kombinacia romelia? _ vardi da lavanda. TiTqos orives mZafri surneli aqvs, magram orive erTmaneTs aZlierebs. _ Tanasworebi arian? _ araviTar SemTxvevaSi. vardTan aravinaa Tanaswori. vardi Wirveulia, Tavs arafers uyadrebs. yvelaferi, rac vardTan aris mxolod misi silamazis xazgamsmelia. _ yvelaze pretenziuli yvavili? _ pionebs veraferi gavuge. _ biWia pioni Tu gogo? _ biWia. jiutia, ubedurebis erTia. ra ar gavukeTe da mainc ver movige maTi guli! ar laRdebian da ar masaCuqreben yvavilobiT ise, rogorc minda. _ da... Tavneba mcenare gyavT? _ sedumis erTi jiSi maqvs, xaverdiviTaa, dabali, mokrZalebuli, magram xan sad amoxteba da xan sad dasaxldeba _ kramitze, qvaze, xandaxan vbrazdebi kidec.

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Each plant has its own demands. If you choose the right place and combination for it, even the most unappealing ones will twinkle with new colors. For instance, Misha Mamulashvili would combine chickweed with plants that would make both of them much more beautiful. That’s why he was a genius. For instance, if you put some silver cineraria next to forget-me-nots, the azure color of the first and the silver color of the second will both stand out more clearly.” “What is the most classic combination?” “Roses and lavenders. You would think they both have a strong fragrance, but they make each other’s scents even stronger.” “Are they equals?" “Not in a hundred years. Nobody is equal to roses. Roses are stubborn, they’ll never allow another plant to be their equal. Everything that is put near a rose becomes a way of underlining their beauty.” “Which one is the most pretentious flower?” “I never understood peonies.” “Are peonies male or female?” “They’re male. They’re stubborn and wicked. I did everything I could, but still, I wasn’t able to win their heart! They're not relaxed, and they don’t offer me the flowering that pleases me.” “Do you also have capricious plants?” “I have a species of sedum, it’s like a moss; short, modest, but it


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amasobaSi stumrebi modian. zogs mcenareebis yidva surs, zogs yavis daleva. moswavleebi baRSi daabijeben. _ warmoidgineT, _ agrZelebs batoni zura _ ucxo qveynebidan Camodian da CemTan modian. am siSoreze amodian Tbiliselebic. sul mainteresebda ratom da aseTi axsna movuZebne _ Cven adamianebs, samoTxe gvqonda saxlad da davkargeT. hoda, mTeli Cveni cxovreba am baRs veZebT da iq dabrunebas vnatrobT. amitom gvizidavs miwieri baRebi. Cven simyudroves veZebT. baRi ki saukeTeso adgilia. amitom gavakeTeT „mwvane gakveTilebi~. Tu bavSvi telefonis ekranidan Tavs awevs, silamazes dainaxavs da aqedan emociurad damuxtuli wava, Cveni misia Sesrulebulia. da me vgrZnob rom zustad asea. Cven gvWirdeba is informacia, romelsac aswlovani xeebi inaxaven. Cven ukve ar gvesmis yvavilebis da ver vigonebT foTlebis CurCuls, magram, Cven viciT rom odesRac, roca bunebis nawili viyaviT, misgan gamijvna gadavwyviteT, saxlidan gavediT da ngreviT warmatebiT davkavdiT. magram dgeba saaTi, rodesac TiToeuls, dabruneba swyurdeba da am survils `gardeniaSi~ stumrobiT viklavT. irine WeliZe

can pop up and choose to settle anywhere – on roof tiles, on stones... They sometimes even manage to make me angry.” In the meantime, guests have arrived. Some to buy plants, others to drink coffee. Schoolchildren are strolling in the garden. “Imagine,” Zura continues, “people come from foreign countries to visit my place. Tbilisians also travel all the way to Gardenia. I always wanted to understand why they would do this, and I found this answer – we humans used to have a paradise for home, and we lost it. Therefore, we’ve been looking for this garden our whole lives, and we long to return there. That’s why earthly gardens attract us. We’re looking for tranquility. And gardens are the best place for that. That’s why we created the ‘Green Lessons’. If children raise their faces and look above their phone screens, if they see beauty and leave this place recharged with emotions – then our mission is accomplished.” And I feel that it’s exactly like that. We need the information kept by century-old trees. We don’t understand flowers anymore, and we can’t remember the sound of rustling leaves, but we know that once, we were an integral part of nature, and we decided to part ways with it; leaving our home and starting to destroy it, and quite successfully by the way. But there is a time for each of us to become thirsty for this life again, and you can quench this thirst by visiting Gardenia. Irine Chelidze

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qarTuli Teatri damoukidebeli saqarTvelos periodSi GEORGIAN THEATER IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA

qarTuli saTeatro SemoqmedebiT-politikuri cxovreba damoukidebeli saqarTvelos periodSi bevr sagulisxmo istorias da mniSvnelovan faqts inaxavs, romelic Tavisi TvisobriobiT arc dRes kargavs aqtualobas. XX saukunis dasawyisis movlenebis analogebs vpoulobT imave saukunis 90-ian wlebSic, maSin, roca saqarTvelom kvlav aRidgina saxelmwifoebrioba.

aleqsandre wuwunava

mixeil qoreli

ALEKSANDRE TSUTSUNAVA

MIKHEIL KORELI

1918 wels daiwyo „mudmivi Teatris~ istoriis axali etapi, romelsac qarTuli dramis Teatri ewoda. procesebi, romelic imJamad mimdinareobda uaRresad winaaRmdegobrivi da mravalferovani iyo. politikurma qaosma da mravalpartiulma dapirispirebam xeli SeuSala erovnuli cnobierebis gamTlianebas. eri gadasCveoda damoukideblobas da amitom uWirda am axal pirobebTan Segueba. damoukideblobis gamocxadebamde qarTul TeatrSi reformistul muSaobas eweodnen pirveli qarTveli profesionali reJisorebi: aleqsandre wuwunava, mixieil qoreli, valerian SalikaSvili, akaki faRava da sxvebi. 1918 wlidan afiSebze gaCnda aleqsandre axmetelis saxelic. eqsperimentuli Ziebebi, romelic pirvelma profesionalma

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The theatrical creative-political life of Georgian theater in the Democratic Republic of Georgia is full of interesting stories and significant facts that are still topical today. Analogies to processes that were at hand at the beginning of the 20th century can be found in the 1990s, when Georgia recovered its statehood once again. In 1918, a new phase started in the history of Georgian theater, and it would

be called the Georgian Drama Theater. The processes at hand during that period were extremely varied, and in many cases, contradictory. Political chaos and disagreements between parties hindered the unification of national consciousness. The nation had just attained independence, and was therefore struggling to adapt to this new situation. Before the declaration of independence, the first professional Georgian stage directors, such as Aleksandre Tsurtsumia, Mikheil Koreli, Valerial Shalikashvili, and Akaki Pagava, carried out reforms in the Georgian theater. From 1918, Aleksandre Akhmeteli’s name also began appearing on posters. The experiments started by the first professional stage directors continued in the years 1918-21, but the culmination of this development was reached a bit later… and this would be particularly obvious in the works of Kote Marjanishvili and Sandro Akhmeteli. The experimentations valerian SalikaSvili VALERIAN SHALIKASHVILI


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reJisorebma daiwyes, 1918-1921 wlebSic gagrZelda, Tumca ganviTarebis kulminacias odnav mogvianebiT miaRwia... da es, gansakuTrebiT, kote marjaniSvilisa da sandro axmetelis SemoqmedebaSi gamovlinda. sabolood, reJisorTa Ziebebi, politikuri procesebis _ represiebis dawyebis Sedegad, 1933 wels dasrulda. 1917 wlis 30 aprils profesiuli kavSiris dasaarseblad msaxiobTa yriloba gaimarTa. yrilobas aleqsandre wuwunava uZRveboda, Tavmjdomared ki kote

sandro axmeteli SANDRO AKHMETELI

lado mesxiSvili LADO MESKHISHVILI

of the stage directors ended in 1933 as a result of the political situation – the beginning of the repressions. On the 30th of April 1917, an actors’ congress took place to found a professional union. The congress was led by Aleksandre Tsurtsumia and Kote Andronikashvili was chosen as the head of the union. The congress also produced a work plan for the years 1917-18, and stage director Valerian Shalikashvili was invited. The season was opened by his play ‘Felled Oak’.

andronikaSvili airCies. yrilobaze Sedga 1917-1918 wlebis samuSao gegma da reJisorad valerian SalikaSvili moiwvies. sezoni misive piesiT _ „gadaWrili muxa~ gaixsna. 1918 wels aleqsandre wuwunavam Sekriba saxelmwifo dasi, romelsac yovelTviuri xelfasic daeniSna. am faqts manamde mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi uZRoda win. ori wlis Semdeg, 1920 wlis 4 ivliss Seikriba dramatuli sazogadoebis reJisorTa kolegia, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen: lado mesxiSvili, aleqsandre wuwunava, akaki faRava, mixeil qoreli da aleqsandre axmeteli.

kote marjaniSvili KOTE MARJANISHVILI

akaki faRava AKAKI PAGHAVA

In 1918, after some preparatory works, Tsurtsumia created a state company that benefited from a monthly salary. Two years later, on the 4th of July 1920, the College of Stage Directors was founded, among the members of which one could find Lado Meskhishvili, Aleksandre Tsurtsumia, Akaki Paghava, Mikheil Koreli, and Aleksandre Akhmeteli. Theater historian Vasil Kiknadze would later write: “The college selected about 40 plays. The repertoire was extremely eclectic; all kinds of different plays were put together. This is a good illustration of the situation of theater at that time.”

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valerian sidamon-erisTavi, `berdo zmania~, dekoraciis eskizi / VALERIAN SIDAMON-ERISTAVI, 'BERDO ZMANIA', SKETCH OF THE STAGE DESIGN

mogvianebiT, Teatris istorikosi, vasil kiknaZe wers: „kolegiaze daasaxeles 40-mde piesa. saocrad ekleqturi iyo es repertuari, yvelaferi erTad iyo Cayrili. es ki im suraTs xatavda Tu ra mdgomareobaSi iyo maSindeli Teatri~. 1917 wels vaxtang garikis gamoqveynebuli werili _ „xelovneba Tavisufal saqarTveloSi~ _ erTgvari programuli xasiaTis kvlevaa im periodis qarTul xelovnebaSi mimdinare procesebisa. Teatrze is wers: „es iyo erTgvari saxli, sadac qarTvel adamians esmoda qarTuli ena, xedavda Tavis winaparTa gmirul saqmes da naTlad grZnobda samSoblos suliskveTebas...~ („saqarTvelo~ #4, 1917 w.). damoukidebelma saqarTvelom memkvidreobad miiRo iseTi Teatri, romelic ibrZoda ganaxlebisTvis. eZebda krizisuli movlenebidan Tavis daRwevis gzas... da qarTul TeatrSi daiwyo brZolis axali talRa _ reJisuris damkvidrebisTvis. am periods daemTxva pirveli profesionali reJisorebis gamoCena, romlebic cdilobdnen axali esTetikis damkvidrebas, rac Janrobriv mravalferovnebasTan erTad, meTodologiur

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Written in 1917, Vakhtang Gariki’s letter – “Art in independent Georgia” – is a sort of programmatic study about the processes at hand in Georgian art at that time. About theater, he wrote: “This was a kind of house where Georgian individuals could listen to the Georgian language, see their ancestors’ heroic deeds, and feel the national spirit…” (‘Georgia’ #4, 1917). Independent Georgia inherited a theater that was striving for renewal, that was looking for a way to escape the critical times… And a new period appeared in Georgian theater – that of the establishment of stage directors. This time coincided with the appearance of the first professional stage directors, who aimed to establish new aesthetics, which, together with a variety of genres, also meant methodological reforms. The art of directing had to replace the overly important acting aspect, which was not an easy task. Every actor had a backer in governmental circles, while stage directors also had their favorites among politicians, and their political sympathies differed from each other. The difference between these views and sympathies created a lot of problems in the theater sphere – the only thing about which the directors of the new generation agreed was that the role of the stage directors should replace that of the actors in terms of importance. That is why theater failed to become a unified,


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reformebsac gulisxmobda. reJisuris xelovnebas unda Caenacvlebina TeatrSi gamefebuli msaxiobis instituti, rac ar iyo ioli saqme. yvela msaxiobs Tavisi mxardamWeri hyavda saxelisuflo wreebSi, reJisorebsac TavianTi favoritebi politikosTa Soris da maTi politikuri simpaTiebic erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeboda. am `gemovnebisa~ da `simpaTiebis~ gansxvavebulobam bevri problema Seqmna saTeatro sazogadoebaSi. erTaderTi razec axali Taobis reJisorebi Tanxmdebodnen _ reJisuris institutis dominantoba iyo. amitomac Teatrs ar hqonda erTiani, sistemuri, Tanmimdevruli mxatvruli saxe. „am did moZraobaSi istoriam reJisors daavala garTulebuli Teatraluri cxovrebis meTauroba. qarTvelma reJisorebma uyoymanod miiRes es istoriuli misia. saqmis warmatebas mravali faqtori uSlida xels: mZime materialuri pirobebi, ubinaoba, saxelmwifosgan gulgriloba, gadasawyveti iyo mravali SemoqmedebiTi, organizaciuli da administraciuli problema...~ 1917-1918 wlebis sezonSi daidga SiukaSvilis „suleli~, cagarlis `rac ginaxavs veRar naxav~, Seqspiris „Wirveuli colis morjuleba~, hauptmanis „meetle henSeli~, andreevis „dReni Cveni cxovrebisa~, gunias „aRlumi~ da „da-Zma~, sundukianis „pepo~, yazbegis „qeTevan wamebuli~. momdevno sezonebze repertuarSi gaCnda tolstois „cocxali leSi~, heirmansis „imedis daRupva~, sofokles „oidipos mefe~ da `antigone~, gedevaniSvilis „msxverpli~, dadianis „guSindelni~, lavrenievis „rRveva~, kirSonis „puri~, Seqspiris „makbeTi~, toleris `kaci-masa~, ibsenis „nora~, hauptmanis „hanele~, SanSiaSvilis „berdo zmania~ da sxv. 1918-1921 wlebis qarTuli Teatris repertuari politikuri cxovrebis erTgvari anareklia. mas aklia erTiani koncefcia, gamokveTili Tematika, erTi ideis garSemo gaerTianeba. esa Tu is reJisori sxvadasxva problemebze svams aqcents. samagierod, inergeba axali xedva Teatris ganviTarebisa, romelic Semdgom periodSic gagrZelda.

valerian sidamon-erisTavi, `berdo zmania~, dekoraciis eskizi VALERIAN SIDAMON-ERISTAVI, 'BERDO ZMANIA', SKETCH OF THE STAGE DESIGN

valerian sidamon-erisTavi, `berdo zmania~ dekoraciis eskizi VALERIAN SIDAMON-ERISTAVI, 'BERDO ZMANIA', SKETCH OF THE STAGE DESIGN

systemic, consistent artistic whole. “During this great movement, history bestowed stage directors with the role of governing a theater realm in difficulty. Georgian stage directors accepted this historical mission without hesitation. Many things impeded the success of their undertaking: harsh material conditions, homelessness, neglect from the state; they had to find solutions to many creative, organizational and administrative issues...” Among others, the following plays were staged in the theater seasons of the years 1917-1918: Shiukashvili’s ‘Fool’, Tsagareli’s ‘Other Times now’, Shakespeare’s ‘The Taming of the Shrew’, Hauptmann’s ‘Drayman Henschel’, Andreyev’s ‘The Days of our Life’, Gunia’s ‘Parade’ and ‘Brother and Sister’, Sundukyan’s ‘Pepo’, Kazbegi’s ‘Ketevan the Martyr’. In the ensuing seasons, the repertoire was enriched with Lev Tolstoy’s ‘The Living Corpse’, Heijermans’ ‘Hoping for the Best’, Sophocles’ ‘Oedipus Rex’ and ‘Antigone’, Gedevanishvili’s ‘Offering’, Dadiani’s ‘Of Yesterday’, Lavreniev’s ‘Fracture’, Kirshon’s ‘Bread’, Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’, Toller’s ‘Masses Man’, Ibsen’s ‘A Doll’s House’, Hauptmann’s ‘The Ascension of Hanele’, and Shanshiashvili’s ‘Berdo Zmania’. The repertoire of Georgian theater in the years 1918-1921 was a kind of reflection of the political life of the time. It lacked a unified conception, a clear theme, one idea around which to gather. This or that stage director underlined this or that issue. Nevertheless, a new vision for the development of theater appeared, and it continued in the subsequent period. The theater repertoire in the Democratic Republic of Georgia was very varied, not only in terms of dramaturgy, but also in terms of genre. We come across Georgian, western European and Russian plays, both modern and classical. Concerning genres, there were tragedies, dramas, social comedies, vaudevilles and farces. Many of them weren’t plays of high artistic value, but significant plays by outstanding authors were also staged. It is worth noting that the modernist style appeared in theater in the years 1918-1921. In this regard, Gedevanishvili’s play ‘Light’,

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marjaniSvili, simoniSvili, axmeteli, CxeiZe, anTaZe, qoreli, gvelesiani, sidamon-erisTavi. borjomi, 1923 weli MARJANISHVILI, SIMONISHVILI, AKHMETELI, CHKHEIDZE, ANTADZE, KORELI, GVELESIANI, SIDAMON-ERISTAVI. BORJOMI, 1923

damoukidebeli saqarTvelos Teatris repertuari mravalferovan-gansxvavebuli iyo, ara mxolod dramaturgTa TvalsazrisiT, aramed Janrobrivadac. am periodSi vxvdebiT qarTul, dasavleT evropul da rusul Tanamedrove da klasikur piesebs. Janrobrivad ki: tragediebs, yofiT dramebs, socialur komediebs, vodevilebsa da farsebs. maTgan bevri saeWvo mxatvruli Rirsebis nawarmoebic iyo, Tumca idgmeboda gamorCeuli avtorebis mniSvnelovani piesebic. sagulisxmoa, rom 1918-21 wlebSi TeatrSi SemoiWra modernistuli stili. am mxriv, gamorCeulia 1919 wels dadgmuli gedevaniSvilis „sinaTle~, romelsac farTo gamoxmaureba moyva im droindel presaSi. sazogadoebaSi speqtaklze araerTgvarovani azri Camoyalibda, rac gamowveuli iyo axali, uCveulo Teatraluri stilistikiT, axleburi ganaTebiT, scenografiiTa da musikaluri gaformebiT. da mTavari: speqtakli gamoxatavda damoukidebel saqarTveloSi arsebul politikur da SemoqmedebiT qaoss. 1920-1921 wlebis saTeatro sezonSi mniSvnelovan movlenad iqca mixeil qorelis mier Salva dadianis „guSindelnis~ dadgma. es am piesis pirveli scenuri

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staged in 1919, is of particular importance. It was widely relayed by the press of the time and there were divergent views about the play among society, the main reason being its singular theatrical style, as well as new forms of lighting, scenography and music. And most importantly: the play depicted the political and creative chaos of the time in the Democratic Republic of Georgia. In the 1920-1921 season, Mikheil Koreli’s staging of Shalva Dadiani’s ‘Of Yesterday’ became a significant event, being the first scenic interpretation of the play, and it was very successful. Dodo Antadze, who would then become a famous stage director, wrote the following of it: “Our best professionals participated, and managed to perform this wonderful play extremely well. The actors played with diligence, and in unison. The wholeness of this play was perfectly conveyed. The characters represented on the stage were both funny and sad; the life in this world and its troubles and woes were depicted in an extremely realistic way; the action was developing deftly, the dialogues were authentic, each actor conveyed their feelings and thoughts in their own way. You could feel the hand of a masterful stage director behind the play. Mikheil Koreli’s attentive, tasteful directing style could be seen not only in the performance of actors and their interactions, but also in many details; the style of the staging was harmoniously combined with the nature of the play itself – it was light and simple,


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interpretacia iyo, romelic warmatebuli aRmoCnda. speqtaklis Sesaxeb dodo anTaZe (SemdgomSi cnobili reJisori) wers: „speqtaklSi monawileobdnen Cveni saukeTeso Zalebi, romlebmac SesaniSnavad gaiTamaSes es niWieri komedia. msaxiobebi TamaSobdnen mondomebiT, Sewyobilad. ansambluroba am speqtaklSi savsebiT iyo miRweuli. sasaciloni iyvnen da Tan gulistkivils iwvevdnen scenaze gansaxierebuli personaJebi, zedmiwevniT realisturad ixateboda mayureblis win Cveni soflis yofa-cxovreba, misi Wir-varami, moqmedeba mkvircxlad viTardeboda, gaismoda moxdenili dialogi, yoveli moqmedi piri misTvis damaxasiaTebeli eniT gadmogvcemda Tavis gancdebs da fiqrebs. speqtakls etyoboda mcodne reJisoris xeli. ara marto msaxiobTa SesrulebaSi, maT cxovel urTierTobaSi, aramed mraval wvrilmanSic igrZnoboda mixeil qorelis dakvirvebuli, gemovnebiT aRsavse reJisoruli manera, dadgmis stili harmoniulad Sewyobili iyo TviT piesis bunebasTan, mas axasiaTebda simsubuqe da sisadave, simkvircxle da Tbili, odnav sevdiani iumori. msaxiobebi SesaniSnavad TamaSobdnen...~

lively and warm, and had a slightly sad humor. The actors played wonderfully…” Sandro Akhmeteli’s staging of the symbolist-expressionist play ‘Berdo Zmania’ also became very popular and successful. The play was written by Aleksandre (Sandro) Shanshiashvili in 1916, and it was staged in 1920. It sparked many discussions, and for various reasons. ‘Berdo Zmania’ offered a completely new, different staging style to Georgian theater. Later, Akhmeteli would create the so-called ‘Heroic-Romantic’ Theater, about which we can say without hesitation that it was political in conception, and national (Georgian) in form. Akhmeteli’s play reflected political processes and portrayed the reality of the Democratic Republic of Georgia. With this play, the stage director also demolished the usual scenographic model – taking away the footlights in order to merge the stage and the parterre, and lit the stage not from below, but from above. According to literary critic Shalva Apkhazi, “this was completely new in the realm of Georgian theater. It was the first time that the stage sang with music, the first time that artists felt their bodies as creative material. With this play, Akhmeteli laid the foundations for the creation of our Synthetic Theater. He established himself as a visionary of monumental theater, as opposed to individual theater.” Naturally, the play generated

scena operidan `abesalom da eTeri~ / SCENE FROM THE OPERA 'ABESALOM AND ETERI'

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a variety of impressions, pulling apart the clichés of theater and creating a new, different theater, and what’s more, the symbolist genre was also a new thing. Actor Ushang Chkheidze would write the following about the play: “It’s different from every Georgian theater

zaqaria faliaSvili / ZAKARIA PALIASHVILI

aranaklebi gamoxmaureba da warmateba xvda wilad sandro axmetelis mier dadgmul simbolistureqspresionistul piesas „berdo zmania~. piesa aleqsandre (sandro) SanSiaSvilma 1916 wels dawera da is 1920 wels daidga. speqtaklma didi rezonansi gamoiwvia, rac mravali faqtoriT iyo ganpirobebuli. `berdo zmaniaSi~ qarTuli TeatrisTvis sruliad axali, dadgmis gansxvavebuli stilistika gamoikveTa. mogvianebiT axmetelma e.w. „gmirul-romantikul” Teatri Seqmna, romelic, Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom koncefciiT politikuri, formiT ki nacionaluri (qarTuli) Teatri iyo. axmetelis speqtakli politikur procesebs exmianeboda da damoukidebeli saqarTvelos realobas asaxavda. reJisorma am speqtaklSi daarRvia scenografiuli Sablonic _ rampa ise moSala, rom scena da parteri gaaerTiana da scena ara rampidan, aramed maRlidan gaanaTa. literaturis kritikos Salva afxaiZis azriT `es iyo srulaid axali sityva Cvens saTeatro xelovnebaSi. scena pirvelad amRerda musikiT, artistma pirvelad igrZno Tavisi sxeuli, rogorc SemoqmedebiTi masala. am speqtaklSi axmetelma pirvelad Seamzada niadagi CvenSi sinTezuri Teatris SeqmnisTvis. igi gamoCnda, rogorc monumenturi Teatris ansamblis da ara individualuri

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valerian sidamon-erisTavi, `abesalom da eTeri~, kostiumis eskizi VALERIAN SIDAMON-ERISTAVI, 'ABESALOM AND ETERI', COSTUME SKETCH


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valerian sidamon-erisTavi, `Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~, dekoraciis eskizi VALERIAN SIDAMON-ERISTAVI, 'THE LEGEND OF SHOTA RUSTAVELI', SKETCH OF THE STAGE DESIGN

Teatris vizioneri~. speqtaklze azrTa sxvadasxvaoba, bunebrivic iyo. is angrevda Teatralur Stampebs, qmnida axal, gansxvavebul Teatrs da ucxo iyo Tavad Janric _ simbolizmi. imave speqtaklze msaxiobi uSangi CxeiZe wers: „gansxvavdeboda imJamindeli mTeli qarTuli Teatrisgan, kargad organizebuli da gamarTuli masiuri scenebiT, msaxiobebis TamaSSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba hqonda miqceuli maTi moZraobis plastikurobas, Jests da saerTod maTi TamaSis garegnul formas, rac Tu ar vcdebi ufro pirobiTi iyo, vidre sxva dadgmebSi. speqtaklSi Setanili iyo agreTve cekvebi. es speqtakli axal elfers atarebda. es iyo mkveTri Suqi siaxlis~. azrTa sxvadasxvaobis mizezi sainteresod axsna msaxiobma da reJisorma akaki vasaZem, romelic Tavis mogonebebSi wers: „es piesa, maSin, uCveulo formiT dawerili mogveCvena. ver mivxvdiT rom saqme gvqonda eqspresionistul dramasTan qarTul literaturaSi. sandro axmeteli am dadgmiT cdilobda CvenTvis eCvenebina da raRac warmodgena mainc gvqonoda msoflios Teatralur mowinave mimdinareobebze.” aranaklebi cvlilebebi ganxorcielda saopero reJisuraSic, romelsac saTaveSi igive sandro axmeteli edga. misi reformatoruli xedva gamovlinda dimitri arayiSvilis operis „Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~ dadgmaSi. maSindeli presa werda, rom axmetelma „sruliad axali mizanscenebi Semoitana, gundis Cacmulobac sxvagvari iyo, ufro daaxloebuli qarTul yaidasTan. saqebaria axmetelis dakvirvebuli muSaoba da sasceno gemo...~ („Teatri da cxovreba”, 1920). XX saukunis dasawyisidan axal qarTul, sabWoTa Teatramde periodi rTulia ara marto politikuri da Rrma socialuri ZvrebiT, winaaRmdegobebiT, sxvadasxva socialuri fenis dapirispirebiT, aramed daZabuli kulturuli cxovrebiTac. am periodSi gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia reJisuris warmoCena da misi brZola Teatraluri azrovnebis axli formebis damkivdrebisTvis.

of the time, with well-organized and coherent crowded scenes; the importance of body movement, gesture, and more generally, the outward appearance of their actions was particularly underlined in the actors’ performances, being less sophisticated than in other interpretations, if I’m not mistaken. The performance also included dances. It had a new, different tone. It illuminated like the sharp light of novelty.” The divergence in thoughts about the performance was explained by actor and stage director Akaki Vasadze in an interesting way. In his memoirs, he wrote: “Back then, we thought the play was written in a singular way. We didn’t understand that we were standing before an expressionist drama in Georgian literature. With this staging, Sandro Akhmeteli tried to show us this modernist movement in theater, so that we could have an idea of it.” There were also many changes in the field of opera direction, in which the main figure was also Sandro Akhmeteli. His reformative vision could be felt in his interpretation of Dimitri Arakishvili’s opera ‘The Legend of Shota Rustaveli’. The press of that time wrote that “Akhmeteli brought completely new mises en scène. The costumes of the company were also different, closer to Georgian customs. Akhmeteli’s diligent work and taste are definitely praiseworthy…” (‘Theater and Life’, 1920).

valerian sidamon-erisTavi, `Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~, dekoraciis eskizi VALERIAN SIDAMON-ERISTAVI, 'THE LEGEND OF SHOTA RUSTAVELI', SKETCH OF THE STAGE DESIGN

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The period from the beginning of the 20th century to the new Soviet Georgian theater was a very difficult one, not only in terms of political and deep social transformations, disparities, and conflicts between various social classes, but also in terms of a tense cultural life. It is particularly worth noting that the role of stage directors became much more important, and that the latter started striving for the establishment of new forms of theatrical thinking. An example of this struggle is the archive material of the 50th session of the Georgian Popular Assembly in 1918, in which they discussed questions related to theater (the assembly debated about theater genres). One of the members of the popular assembly was stage director Sandro Akhmeteli. In these recordings, we can see that his “colleague” Aleksandre Lomtatidze was against the creation of the Tbilisi Operetta Theater, and that Akhmeteli opposed him: “Why don’t you want democracy to get to know songs? I can listen to farces, I can listen to drama, and at the same time, operetta, which is a comical thing. Why do you think that operetta is a debauched genre? Why can dramas be free of charge, and not operettas? As to the question of putting a price on ballets: it’s even more surprising to me, even more so because ballets are just as necessary for our upbringing as drama and opera. Are ballets unacceptable for you because they consist of choreographic acts, and that in dramas and operettas, they speak and sing?” Akhmeteli won that debate, and as a result of the vote of the assembly, they removed the word “debauched” that referred to operettas. Ballets and operettas were also both made free of charge. In parallel to the political and creative chaos that was taking place

swored am brZolis magaliTia 1918 wlis saqarTvelos saxalxo krebis 50-e sxdomis gamosvlis Canaweri, sadc saTeatro sakiTxebi ixileboda (sxdoma Janrebze kamaTs mieZRvna). saxalxo krebis wevri gaxldaT reJisori sandro axmeteli. am Canaweridan irkveva, rom misi `kolega~, xmosani aleqsandre lomTaTiZe winaaRmdegi iyo TbilisSi operetis Teatris gaxsnis, romelsac axmetelma winaaRmdegoba gauwia: „ratom ar gindaT, rom demokratiam simRera gaicnos? me SemiZlia vismino farsi, vismino drama da amave dros opereta, komikuri ram. ratom ggoniaT, rom opereta garyvnilia? ratom SeiZleba drama iyos Tavisufali gadasaxadidan da opereta ara? rac Seexeba imas, rom balets daedos gadasaxdi: es ufro gasakviria CemTvis, miT ufro, rom baleti iseTive saWiroa Cveni aRzrdisTvis, rogorc drama da opera. baleti imitom xom araa miuRebeli TqvenTvis, rom igi qoreografiuli moqmedebaa, xolo dramasa da operetaSi laparakoben da mRerian? “. maSin am brZolaSi sandro axmetelma gaimarjva, kenWisyris Sedegad operetis ganmartebaSi amoiSala sityva `garyvnili~. aseve baleti da opereta gaTavisuflebuli iqna gadasaxadidan. dimitri arayiSvili / DIMITRI ARAKISHVILI

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in the context of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, the following positive events happened in Georgian Theater: the creation of the State Georgian Company (1918); the first generation of professional stage directors in Georgian Theater (1917); the creation a scenic arts studio aimed at educating future professionals (1918); the creation and staging of the first Georgian operas, which laid the foundations of the tradition of operas being staged by stage directors (1918-1920); several creative experimentations‌

vano sarajiSvili / VANO SARAJISHVILI

damoukidebeli saqarTvelos pirobebSi politikurSemoqmedebiTi qaosis paralelurad, qarTul TeatrSi ganxorcielda Semdegi pozitiuri movlenebi: Camoyalibda saxelmwifo qarTuli dasi (1918 w.); TeatrSi movida profesional reJisorTa pirveli Taoba (1917 w.); momavali profesionaluri kadrebis aRzrdisTvis Seiqmna sasceno xelovnebis studia da Catarda pirveli misaRebi gamocdebi (1918 w.); Seiqmna da scenaze daidga pirveli qarTuli operebi, romelmac tradicia daudo reJisorulad gaazrebuli saopero dadgmebis tradicias (1918-1920 ww.); ganxorcielda araerTi SemoqmedebiTi eqsperimenti da mravali sxv. damoukidebelma saqarTvelom memkvidreobad miiRo iseTi Teatri, romelic ibrZoda ganaxlebisTvis, eZebda krizisuli movlenebidan Tavis daRwevis gzebs. samwuxaroa realobaa, rom istoria ganmeorda _ 1991 wels, roca saqarTvelom kvlav moipova damoukidebloba da gaxda Tavisufali, suveneruli saxelmwifo, qarTuli Teatri kvlavac inerciiT agrZelebda metaforis eniT diqtaturaze saubars. laSa CxartiSvili

The Democratic Republic of Georgia inherited a theater that was striving for renewal; that was looking for ways to overcome critical times. It is regrettable that history repeated itself – when Georgia regained its independence and became a sovereign state again in 1991, by inertia, Georgian theater continued to depict dictatorship through metaphors. Lasha Chkhartishvili

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mama Svilebis mogonebebi ivane javaxiSvilze

FATHER IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI'S CHILDREN REMEMBER HIM ivane, aleqsandre, kaxa javaxiSvilebi, anastasia jambakur-orbeliani-javaxiSvilisa IVANE, ALEKSANDRE, KAKHA JAVAKHISHVILI, ANASTASIA JAMBAKUR-ORBELIANI-JAVAKHISHVILI

bevri dawerila ivane javaxiSvilis Sesaxeb, uamravi gamokvleva miuZRvniaT misi cxovrebisa da mecnieruli moRvaweobisTvis, mravali saintereso faqti Tu movlenac Semounaxavs mis namowafarTa Tu kolegaTa mogonebebs am uaRresad saintereso pirovnebis, moRvawisa da mecnieris cxovrebidan. magram, bunebrivia, yvelaze gamorCeulad mainc ivane javaxiSvili misma Svilebma daimaxsovres. male Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba gamoscems krebuls „mama“, romelSic Tavs moiyris sxvadasxva periodul gamocemaSi, saqarTvelos radiosa Tu xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi batoni ivanes Svilebis mogonebebi. studentobis Semdgom wilad mxvda bedniereba, sxvadasxva xelnawerze memuSava, maT Soris, am didi mamuliSvilis saarqivo masalebze; vkiTxulobdi gacrecil qaRaldebs da yoveli wakiTxvis Semdeg sul sxvadasxva gancda meufleboda. sxvadasxvanairad aRviqvamdi maT, Tumca pirveli STabeWdileba ganumeorebeli iyo... yuradReba, Tavidanve, ivanes ufrosi qaliSvilis, naTelas, mogonebebma miipyro, romelTa gamoqveyneba man sicocxleSi ver moaxerxa; 1943 wels saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumSi ivane javaxiSvilis kabineti Seiqmna da naTela javaxiSvilma, rogorc kabinetis gamgem, mamis arqivis damuSavebas mohkida xeli. amasTan dakavSirebiT igi mogvianebiT igonebda: „rodesac mis arqivze daviwye muSaoba, imedi momeca... raki sul mis naazrevTan, mis yovel gancdasTan dakavSirebul sabuTebTan mixdeboda yoveldRiuri siaxlove, rom mogonebebs ufro myari saZirkveli eyreboda... yoveli cda raRac metismetad emociur-paTetiur samoselSi gaxveuli meCveneboda; ra xerxs ar mivmarTe, rom ubralo Txrobis, faqtebis fiqsirebis saxe mimeca Cemi mogonebebisaTvis,

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Much has been written about Ivane Javakhishvili; many studies have been dedicated to his life and work, and many interesting facts and events have been preserved in the reminiscences of the former students and companions about the life of this remarkable person, public figure and scientist. It is only natural though, that his children are the ones who hold the most valuable memories. The Tbilisi State University will soon publish a collection entitled ‘Mama’ (“Father”), which will bring together the memories of Ivane Javakhishvili’s children found in periodicals, Georgian radio and television channels archives, and the Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts. After graduating, I had the honor to work on several manuscripts, including archived materials, related to our renowned public figure. I was filled with a different emotion after reading through each worn paper. My impressions varied, but the first one was unique... My attention was drawn by the recollections of Natela, Ivane’s eldest daughter, which she could not publish during her lifetime. In 1943, the Ivane Javakhishvili Department was set up in the National Museum of Georgia, and as its head, Natela Javakhishvili, began working on her father’s archives. She would later remember: “When I began to work on the archives, I hoped that because I was in close, daily contact with documents connected with his thoughts and emotions, my recollections would acquire a more substantial base. But all the efforts I made seemed to be wrapped in an extremely emotional and pathetic cloak; I tried several ways to shape my memories into a simple story, into a means for describing simple facts, but I failed to find a form to my liking.” On the advice of her friend Rusudan Nikoladze, Natela started writing her recollections. Unfortunately, despite the fact that she worked on it for a long period of time (1965 – 1978), Natela could not complete the work, and it was left unpublished. We only have drafts and layouts (about ten documents) in our possession. The notes are written on papers of different size, with various inks and pencils, and are kept in the Tbilisi


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vera da ver movnaxe CemTvis sasurveli forma“. qalbaton naTelas, mogonebebis wera, megobris, rusudan nikolaZis rCeviT dauwyia. miuxedavad imisa, rom igi Canawerebze xangrZlivad (1965-78 wlebSi) muSaobda, samwuxarod, verc daasrula da gamouqveynebelic darCa. SemogvrCa mxolod samuSao gegma-monaxazebi (sul aTiode dokumenti). Canawerebi Sesrulebulia sxvadasxva zomis qaRaldze, melniT da fanqriT da inaxeba Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis muzeumSi. rodesac es mogonebebi pirvelad wavikiTxe, survili gamiCnda, misi wakiTxvis SesaZlebloba sxvebsac SesZleboda, amitom ivane javaxiSvilis SviliSvilTan, dali gersamiasTan, erTad movamzadeT publikacia da calke broSurad gamoveciT (Jurnali „nekeri“, #2-3, 1990 w.). swored maSin dagvebada azri, kargi iqneboda, rom samomavlod ufro gafarToebuli gamocema mogvemzadebina, sadac naTela javaxiSvilis garda, batoni ivanes vaJebis mogonebebic Sevidoda. ivane javaxiSvilsa da anastasia jambakur-orbelians sami Svili hyavdaT _ naTela, kaxa da aleqsandre. did da xmaurian saxlSi baton ivanes sakuTari samuSao oTaxi ar hqonda, Tumca bavSvebis xmauri muSaobaSi xels ar uSlida. mas, didi Sromisa da sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis miuxedavad, ar dauklia zrunva da siyvaruli SvilebisTvis... naTela javaxiSvilma

anastasia jambakur-orbeliani-javaxiSvilisa ANASTASIA JAMBAKUR-ORBELIANI-JAVAKHISHVILI

ivane javaxiSvili sankt-peterburgSi qarTvel studentebTan erTad IVANE JAVAKHISVHILI WITH GEORGIAN STUDENTS IN SAINT PETERSBURG

State University Museum. When I first read these reminiscences, I had the strong wish to give others the opportunity to discover them too, and therefore, together with Dali Gersamia, Ivane Javakhishvili’s granddaughter, we prepared and published it as a separate brochure (magazine ‘Nekeri’ #2-3, 1990). We also agreed that it would be a good idea to prepare an extended publication in the future, which would include not only Natela’s memories, but also those of Ivane Javakhishvili’s sons. Ivane Javakhishvili and Anastasia Jambakur-Orbeliani had three children – Natela, Kakha and Aleksandre. Ivane did not have a personal study in his large, lively house, but the noise of the children never interfered with his work. Despite his scientific activities and enormous workload, he never deprived his children of care and love. Natela Javakhishvili graduated from the Tbilisi State Conservatoire, then continued studying at the University’s Faculty of History, though she quit her studies due to an illness. She worked in the State Museum of Georgia and the Institute of Manuscripts. Kakha Javakhishvili (19151987) was an honored architect of Georgia. In 1935, he graduated from the Industrial Institute of Transcaucasia. In 1945-54, he worked as the head of the Architectural Office at the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara. In his final years, he was the head of

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mariam jambakur-orbeliani naTesavebTan erTad MARIAM JAMBAKUR-ORBELIANI WITH RELATIVES

jer Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoria daamTavra, Semdeg universitetSi, istoriis fakultetzec gaagrZela swavla, romelic avadmyofobis gamo Sewyvita. muSaobda saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumsa da xelnawerTa institutSi. kaxa javaxiSvili iyo saqarTvelos damsaxurebuli arqiteqtori. daamTavra amierkavkasiis industriuli instituti. muSaobda aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis ministrTa sabWosTan arsebuli arqiteqturis sammarTvelos ufrosad. bolos mSeneblobisa da arqiteqturis komitetSi sammarTvelos ufrosis Tanamdeboba ekava. umcrosi vaJi aleqsandre (lali) javaxiSvili, arqeologi da xelovnebaTmcodne, 1973 wlidan saqarTvelos istoriis saxelmwifo muzeumis samecniero mimarTulebas xelmZRvanelobda. mis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis sayovelTaod cnobili gamofenebi. iyo istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis wevrkorespondenti. axal gamocemaSi mkiTxveli gaecnoba naTelasa da aleqsandres emociur da dauviwyar mogonebebs mamaze _ ivane javaxiSvilze. aqvea naTelas bavSvobis droindeli werilebi, romlebsac mamas ugzavnida. Canawerebi sakmaod mravalferovania da moicavs Cveni istoriis gamorCeuli pirovnebis ojaxuri cxovrebis iseT saintereso faqtebs, romlebic sazogadoebisaTvis sruliad ucnobia. bevri ram siaxle iqneba im mkiTxvelisTvisac ki, vinc kargad icnobs ivane javaxiSvilis cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebas. mogonebebis wigns uamravi personaJi hyavs, romelTa garemoSic gaatares ivanes Svilebma bavSvoba da axalgazrdobis wlebi, bevri maTgani saqveynod cnobili sazogado moRvawea, Tumca am wignis mTavari personaJi mainc batoni ivane javaxiSvilia. zurab gaiparaSvili, wignis Semdgenel-redaqtori

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administration in the Committee of Constructions and Architecture. Ivane’s youngest son, Aleksandre (Lali) Javakhishvili (1917-1997), was an archaeologist and art historian, and headed the Scientific Department of the Georgian State Museum of History from 1973. Famous exhibitions held by the Georgian Historical Museum are connected with his name, and he was a Doctor of History and an associate member of the Academy of Sciences of Georgia. In the new publication, readers will get acquainted with Natela and Aleksandre’s emotional, unforgettable remembrances about their father, Ivane Javakhishvili. It will also present the childhood letters that Natela sent her father. The archive material is diverse and includes interesting facts about the family life of this distinguished public figure of our country, which are unknown to the general public. There will be many new discoveries, even for those who know the life and works of Ivane Javakhishvili very well. This book of recollections includes quite a number of people with whom Ivane Javakhishvili’s children spent their childhood and youth, most of them renowned public figures, although the main character of this narrative remains Ivane Javakhishvili himself. Zurab Gaiparashvili Author and editor of the book

mariam jambakur-orbeliani da naTela javaxiSvili MARIAM JAMBAKUR ORBELIANI AND NATELA JAVAKHISHVILI


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mkiTxvels vTavazobT nawyvets krebulidan „mama“.

We offer an excerpt of the book to our readers.

„1924 wlis gazafxulidan mTeli ojaxi dagvpatiJa profesorma aleqsandre didebuliZem (imJamad Tbilisis observatoriis direqtorma) karsanSi, sadac eleqtromagnituri seismuri sadguri iyo da TanamSromelTaTvis orsarTuliani, keTilmowyobili ramdenime biniani saxli idga. maxsovs, im xans manqana iSviaTi iyo. amitom mcxeTamde matarebliT CavediT. mcxeTaSi dagvixvda cxenis urika, romelzedac bargi davalageT da bebia davsviT. danarCenebi fexiT avediT. adgili Zalian lamazi, myudro da wynari aRmoCnda. axalgazrda nekerCxlis tye mwvane arSias mogagonebdaT, Tan daburuli, Tan gamWvirvale. saxli cota momaRlod idga, mis zeviT, uzarmazari kaklebis xeivanSi civi, ankara wyaro moCuxCuxebda. saxlis marcxena frTis meore sarTulis sami oTaxi Cven dagveTmo. mama saSineli gadaRlili da didi xnis dausvenebeli iyo da amitom gansakuTrebiT esiamovna da moewona es garemo. ramdenime dRis Semdeg daiwyo seirnoba da TandaTan ufro afarToebda Tavisi marSrutebis ares. karsani arqeologiis TvalsazrisiTac ainteresebda mamas (termini karsani erTgvar jaWvis perangs ewodeba da mama am saxelwodebis mixedviT aseTi perangebis damzadebis adgilad miiCnevda). masTan mohqondaT SemTxveviT aRmoCenili keramikis natexebi... rogorc prof. mixeil nodia (im dros magnit. sadguris direqtori), romelic mamas Tan dayveboda seirnobisas, igonebs _ karsanis mxridan mcxeTas rom gadmovyurebdiT, batoni ivane mimiTiTebda xolme im adgilebs: TviT mcxeTas, armazis xevsa da bagineTs, romelTa gaTxra mas aucileblad miaCnda...

“In spring of 1924 we, the whole family, were invited by professor Didebulidze (Head of Tbilisi’s Observatory at the time) to Karsani, where one could find an electric-magnetic seismic station, together with a two-story house with several comfortable apartments for the staff. Cars were rare at the time, so we traveled by train until Mtskheta, where a cart pulled by a horse awaited us. We placed our luggage inside and seated grandma on the cart, and the rest of us walked to the house. The place was charming, comfortable and quiet. It was surrounded by a young maple grove that looked like lace – it was both shady and transparent. The house stood on an elevation, and above it, there was an ice-cold spring amid a walnut lane. We were given the three rooms on the second floor of the left wing. Father was exhausted and had not had a rest for quite a long time, and therefore, he liked the situation a great deal. A couple of days later, he began taking walks, gradually expanding his strolling area. Karsani interested father from an archaeological point of view (the term “karsani” means chain mail, and father believed that it used to be a location were armor mails were made). Accidentally uncovered pieces of ceramics were brought to him... As professor Mikheil Nodia (he was the head of the magnetic station at the time), who accompanied father during his walks, remembers: “From the location overlooking Mtskheta, Mr. Ivane pointed at the places he believed were of importance in terms of archaeology, and urgently needed to be dug: Mtskheta itself, the Armazi Valley and Bagineti.”

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mama Zalian kmayofili iyo karsanSi yofniT, iqauri binis pirobebiT; mSvidad muSaobda, cota garTulebuli iyo sanovagis sakiTxi. iq axlo-maxlo araferi iZebneboda, yvela TanamSromlisaTvis mcxeTidan amohqondaT mxolod puri, danarCeni sanovagis amotana ki dedasa da me gvixdeboda mcxeTidan kviraSi 2-3-jer. amisaTvis Cven gadavdiodiT karsanis mTis uReltexilze da iqidan Zlier daRmarTze, qalTa rusuli monastris gavliT, CavdiodiT mcxeTis sadgurze da Semdeg karga moSorebiT mdebare mcxeTis bazarze (samTavros win). iqidan datvirTulebi movZvrebodiT am saSinel aRmarTze ukan _ es ki sakmaod Zneli iyo, gansakuTrebiT, mcxeTis Takara mzis dros. dadga agvisto. erT Rames mogvesma srolis xma SiomRvimis monastris mxridan. diliT ambavi movida, rom matareblis mimosvla Sewyvetilia da rom raRaca kontrrevoluciuri avantiuraa mowyobili ucxoeTidan menSevikebis mier. Tbilisidan (aRar maxsovs, visi xeliT) Cemma deidebma acnobes mamas, rom pirvelive Rames Cekistebma miakiTxes mas. quCaSi Ramis moriges, Cvens moxuc meezoves SeekiTxnen, saxlSia Tu ara mama? imas epasuxa, rom mama dasasvenebladaa ojaxTan erTad wasuli. maSin gaufrTxilebiaT dapatimrebis daqadnebiT, rom aravisTan gaemxila maTi mosvla. amis miuxedavad, wasulan Tu ara isini, moxucs ucnobebia Cemi deidebisaTvis es ambavi. werilis miRebisTanave mama fexiT wamovida TbilisSi da TviTonve gamocxadda „CekaSi“, sadac igi daapatimres da daayovnes 48 saaTiT. Cven es ar vicodiT, magram, cxadia, Zalian vRelavdiT, saSineli xmebi modioda Cvenamde da sinamdvileSic saSineli ambavi datrialda saqarTveloSi. aRar maxsovs, ramdeni dRis Semdeg amovida mama (rodesac samatareblo mimosvla aRdga) da aba, raRa gagvaCerebda karsanSi! mTeli ojaxiT davbrundiT TbilisSi. aq saSineli suraTi dagvxvda! Cemi ufrosi deidaSvili, gia abaSiZe, romelic manamde, ramdenime Tvis win iyo dapatimrebuli, rogorc federalistTa partiis axalgazrdobis frTis lideri da metexis cixeSi ijda ramdenime amxanagTan erTad, daxvrites 25 wlis, SesaniSnavi, niWieri da didi momavlis mqone... imave dros, sofel kisisxevSi, mokles

Father was enjoying his stay in Karsani, he liked the accommodation very much, and he could work in peace. There were complications about food, though. There was nothing in the immediate neighborhood; bread was the only thing that was brought from Mtskheta for the personnel, and mother and I had to carry everything else from Mtskheta two to three times a week. To achieve this, we would walk over the Karsani Pass, and then down the steep valley, walking through the premises of the Russian convent, after which we would reach Mtskheta’s train station, and finally Mtskheta’s market, which was located quite far from there (in front of the Samtavro Monastery). On our way back home, we had to walk up this horrible ascent – and it was all the more difficult in Mtskheta’s characteristic heat. August arrived, and one night, we heard shots coming from the side of the Shio Mghvime Monastery. In the morning, news came that all railways were blocked, and that some kind of counterrevolutionary venture was being carried out by Mensheviks from abroad. My aunts sent a notice from Tbilisi to father (I can’t remember who brought it), saying that the Chekists had come for father on the very first night. They had asked his whereabouts of our old yard keeper. He told them that father was on vacation with his family, and then they warned him not to talk about their inquiries, even threatening him with arrest. Nevertheless, the very moment they left, he notified my aunts. As soon as he received the letter, father went to Tbilisi on foot and showed up at the “Cheka” himself, where he was arrested immediately and held in custody for 48 hours. We knew nothing about that, but we were worried. Horrible news was being spread, and what was actually happening in Georgia was also terrible. I can’t remember when father came back (it was when the railway was restored), but we found it impossible to stay in Karsani, so the whole family went back to Tbilisi. A horrible piece of news was waiting for us there! My eldest cousin Gia Abashidze, who had been arrested several months ago as the leader of Federalist Youth Party and

ivane javaxiSvili universitetelebTan erTad / IVANE JAVAKHISVHILI WITH UNIVERSITY COLLEAGUES AND STUDENTS

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ivane javaxiSvili kolegebTan erTad / IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI WITH COLLEAGUES

mamaCemis biZa kiko vaxvaxiSvili (kompozitor Tamar vaxvaxiSvilis mama, 83 wlis); daxvrites makrine TarxniSvilwereTlis ori Svili, romlebic WiaTuraSi, mamis, rostom wereTlis sanaxavad iyvnen Casulni. amas yvelafers imitom vixseneb, rom advili warmosadgenia, Tu ra mZime gancdebi unda hqonoda mamaCems am saSinel situaciaSi, gansakuTrebiT, saxlSi Seqmnili garemoebisgan; Cemi orive deida loginad Cavarda. Tamarma leTargiuli ZiliT daiZina im ambis gagonebis Semdeg, romelic mas metexis cixis karTan pirdapir miaxales. iqve grZnoba dakarga, saxlSi rom moiyvanes, gons aRarc mosula da aseT mdgomareobaSi iyo sami kviris ganmavlobaSi. kitas meuRle naxevrad ugono mdgomareobaSi Cavarda. Cems or umcros deidaSvils Tamarsa da erekles procesi gaexsnaT, mTeli simZime dedaCems da mamaCems daawvaT. eniT auwereli ambavi trialebda Cvens ojaxSi... cxadia, Zlivs odnav kalapotSi Camdgari cxovreba, kvlav aiwewa, amave dros reaqciulma Zalebma universitetSi moaxerxes `mavnebluri politikis~ CaTesvla da mamas misi reqtorobis meSvide wels sazizRari obstruqciebi mouwyves. bolos ukve sakiTxi ise dadga, rom mamas wasvlis aucilebloba realuri gaxda. cxadia, am gancdebs mxolod is ki ar amZimebda, rom piradad misi wasvla iyo saWiro, amaSi igi universitetis momavali bedis Semotrialebasac xedavda... da, rasakvirvelia, arc uimisoba iyo, rom pirmSo universitetidan gaZeveba misTvis advilad Sesarigebeli yofiliyo.“

served time in the Metekhi jail together with several of his friends, had been shot – he was a wonderful 25-year-old of great talent with a bright future. Father’s uncle Kiko Vakhvakhishvili (83-yearold father of composer Tamar Vakhvakhishvili) had been killed in Kisiskhevi village; two sons of Makrine Tarkhnishvili-Tsereteli, who had gone to Chiatura to visit their father Rostom Tsereteli, had been shot. I’ve remembered all these events to make it clear what my father was feeling in a situation like that in general, and particularly the situation that took place at home. Both my aunts were left bed-ridden. Tamar fell into a state of lethargy after being told the brutal truth at the jail. She fainted there, and after they brought her home, she did not regain consciousness for three weeks. Kita’s wife was in a semi-conscious condition. Two of my younger cousins, Tamar and Erekle, developed tuberculosis. Father and mother carried the whole burden on their shoulders. What was happening in our family could hardly be described in words... Our life, which had shown some signs of stability, had fallen into turmoil again. At the same time, the reactionary forces in the university managed to conduct a subversive policy, sabotaging father’s seven years of work as the Rector there. Finally, the situation became so tense that father’s resignation became necessary. Father’s emotions were aggravated not only by the fact that he was compelled to resign, but by the fate of the university, which also looked grave. Besides, the prospect of being driven out of his own creation had to be truly hard to for him to accept.”

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istoriuli Senoba da muzeumi HISTORIC BUILDINGS AND MUSEUMS istoriuli mniSvnelobis Senobebi qveynis warsulisa da kulturis vizualur dokumentebs warmoadgenen. cxadia, rom maTi mdgomareoba droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleba, rac sxvadasxva mizeziTaa gamowveuli _ asaki, funqciuri datvirTva, amindis cvalebadoba, SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebi, bunebrivi katastrofebi, vandaluri qmedebebi da sxv; zogjer, araswori reabilitaciis drosac ikargeba Zeglis faseuloba. maTi Senaxva/SenarCunebisTvis da gaqrobis saSiSroebis safrTxidan gamomdinare, istoriuli mniSvnelobis nagebobebis konservacia Tanamedroveobis erT-erT mTavari sazrunavia. Monuments of historic significance constitute visual documents of our country’s past and culture. Obviously, their condition changes through time, which can happen for several reasons – age, function, weather, armed conflicts, natural disasters, vandalism… Sometimes, these monuments can also lose their value due to an inappropriate rehabilitation process. In order to safeguard and preserve them, and because of the risk of losing them, the conservation of monuments of historic significance represents one of the most important matters of our time.

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dRes, kulturuli memkvidreobis gadarCenisTvis yvelaze gavrcelebul praqtikas im tipis reabilitacia warmoadgens, romelic istoriuli nagebobebisTvis axali daniSnulebis miniWebas gulisxmobs. am dros dgeba pirveli mniSvnelovani sakiTxi _ rogor SevinarCunoT Senobis avTentikuroba maSin, roca misi Tavdapirveli daniSnuleba icvleba. upirveles yovlisa, istoriuli Senobebis adaptaciisas umTavres mizans nagebobis konservaciis, restavraciisa da dacvis SemuSavebuli saerTaSoriso moTxovnebis ganxorcieleba unda warmoadgendes. aqedan gamomdinare Zeglis adaptaciisas umniSvnelovanesia funqciis sworad SerCeva, radgan mxolod arqiteqturul formasa da Sinaarss Soris Tavsebadobis dros aqvs Senobas perspeqtiva gaxdes sicocxlisunariani da sasargeblo. saqarTveloSi sxvadasxva epoqis amsaxveli bevri istoriuli qalaqi, Senoba arsebobs. maT Soris borjomi erT-erTi saintereso magaliTia, gamorCeuli arqiteqturiTa da saintereso istoriiT. am qalaqis arqiteqturis mniSvnelovani nawili mefis ruseTis epoqas ukavSirdeba. borjomis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumis,

When it comes to safeguarding monuments of cultural heritage, the most widespread practice today is to rehabilitate historic buildings by giving them a new function. This is where the first important question appears – how to preserve the authenticity of a building when its original function changes. First of all, during the adaptation of historic buildings, the main goal must always remain their conservation, restoration, and the observance of international standards regarding monument protection. As a result, it is of utmost importance to choose the right new function for the rehabilitation of each concerned building, because it is only when the architectural form and function of a building are in harmony that it can become viable and useful. One can find many historic cities and monuments from various epochs in Georgia. Among them, Borjomi is an interesting example, with its distinctive architecture and rich history. An important part of this city’s architecture dates back to the Russian Empire. Borjomi’s Museum of Local Lore, the ‘New Cavalry Building’ and the Likani Palace are great architectural specimens of this epoch, and are not only linked to this specific period, but also directly connected to the life of the imperial court.

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`axali kavaleriis korpusisa~ da likanis sasaxlis Senobebi am periodis mniSvnelovani arqiteqturuli nimuSebia da aramxolod konkretul epoqas asaxavs, aramed pirdapir saimperatoro karis cxovrebasTan arian dakavSirebulni. borjomis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumis Senobis proeqti vladimer Sveiers ekuTvnis, romelic mixeil romanovma sammarTvelos kancelariis gansaTavseblad daukveTa. misi mSenebloba 1890 wels dasrulda. ramdenime wliT adrea aSenebuli (daaxl.1880 w.) e.w. `axali kavaleriis korpusi~, romelic `remertis parkSi~ mdebareobs. is mixeil romanovis Tanmxlebi pirebis sazafxulo rezidencias warmoadgenda. xolo likanis sasaxle, romelic, nikoloz mixeilis Ze romanovs ekuTvnoda, 1892-1895 wlebSia agebuli. dRes am Senobebis mdgomareoba erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebulia. borjomis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumi funqcionirebs, Tumca saWiroebs rogorc saeqspozicio sivrceebis, ise fondsacavisa da administraciuli nawilis reabilitaciasa da Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso samuzeumo standartebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanas.

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The building of Borjomi’s Museum of Local Lore was designed by Vladimer Schweier, and it was ordered by Mikheil Romanov for the purpose of housing the local administration’s office. Construction was finished in 1890. The so-called ‘New Cavalry Building’ was built several years before (around 1880), and is located in the Remmert Park. It used to act as the residency of the people accompanying Mikheil Romanov. As for the Likani Palace, which belonged to Nikoloz Romanov, son of Mikheil, it was constructed in the years 1892-1895. Today, the condition of these buildings differs. Borjomi’s Museum of Local Lore is functioning, but its exhibition spaces as well as its reserve and administrative space need rehabilitation, and it also needs to be adjusted to modern international museum standards. The ‘New Cavalry Building’ is in a deplorable condition, part of it is in ruins and needs restoration works. The National Agency for Cultural Preservation in Georgia and various specialists of the field are currently preparing a rehabilitation plan as well as a conception to adapt it as a museum. The Likani Palace is larger than both the ‘New Cavalry Building’ and the Museum in terms of scale. The palace is surrounded by a park


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`axali kavaleriis korpusis~ Senobis mdgomareoba sadReisod savalaloa, nagebobis nawili Camongreulia da saWiroebs restavracias. amJamad, saqarTvelos kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvis erovnul saagentosa da samuzeumo dargis sxvadasxva specialistis mier, sruldeba sareabilitacio proeqtisa da samuzeumo adaptaciis koncefciis SemuSaveba. rac Seexeba likanis sasaxles, is Tavisi masStabiT aRemateba, rogorc `kavaleriis korpuss~, ise muzeumis Senobas. sasaxles gars artyia tye-parki, romelic moicavs damxmare nagebobebs _ Sadrevnebs, qandakebebs, oranJereas da sxv. sasaxlis mniSvnelovani nawilis avTentikuri ier-saxe SenarCunebulia da mis samuzeumo adaptaciis procesSic saagentoa CarTuli. istoriuli Senobebis samuzeumo modernizaciis magaliTebi msoflios bevr qalaqSi iZebneba. aseTi nagebobebi samuzeumo saqmianobis ganxorcielebis process arTulebs, radgan dRes arsebul saerTaSoriso samuzeumo standartebs ver pasuxoben. axlad daproeqtebul, Tanamedrove SenobebSi, yvela saWiroebaa gaTvaliswinebuli, rac koleqciebis saTanado dacvasa da sainteresod warmoCenas uzrunvelyofs. Tumca, aqve ikveTeba Semdegi mniSvnelovani sakiTxic _ ra TvalsazrisiTaa mniSvnelovani istoriuli Senobebis TanamedroveobaSi gamoyeneba? XX saukunis yvelaze gavleniani italieli arqiteqtori aldo rosi aRniSnavs _ „istoria arsebobs imdenad didxans, ramdenadac is iyenebs obieqts, anu imdenad didxans, ramdenadac forma asrulebs Tavis funqcias. amdenad, rodesac forma da funqcia erTmaneTs dacilebulia da mxolod formaa sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani, istoria gadadis mogonebebis samflobeloSi. sadac istoria mTavrdeba, iwyeba mogoneba. mxolod formis gansakuTrebuloba ar gamoxatavs individualobas, amave dros saWiroa movlenebi, romelic nawilia koleqtiuri mexsierebis. istoria iqmneba movlenebis koleqtiuri mexsierebiT, adgilis gansakuTrebulobiTa da niSniT, romelic formaSia gamoxatuli.“ borjomis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumi Tavisi koleqciebiT, borjomis mxaris istorias warmoaCens. muzeumi mdidaria bunebis istoriis ZeglebiT, arqeologiuri da eTnografiuli koleqciebiT, adgilobrivi industriis amsaxveli nimuSebiTa da sxv. `kavaleriis korpusisa~ da likanis sasaxlis samuzeumo koncefciis umTavresi RerZi ki samomavlod warmodgenili eqsponatebisa da Tavad Senobebis saerTo istoriaa. unda iTqvas, rom aseT dros Tavad Senoba warmoadgens muzeumis mTavar eqsponats. Senobebi Tavisi mniSvnelobiT, xasiaTiT, vizualiTa da warmodgenili koleqciebiT erTi mTlianobaa, gamomdinare maTi Tavdapirveli da samomavlo

borjomis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumi CONSTRUCTIVE-DECORATIVE COMPOSITION; METAL, GLASS, WOOD, FOIL. 1924

and a forest that include other structures such as fountains, statues, and an orangery. The original appearance of the palace has been preserved for the most part, and the Agency for Cultural Preservation is involved in adapting it as a museum. Instances of historic monuments being modernized into museums can be found in many cities around the world. These kinds of buildings make it more difficult to carry out the activities of a museum because they cannot satisfy the existing international museum standards. In new, modern buildings, all the means that are necessary for the proper protection and presentation of collections are taken into account. But another essential question arises here – in what regard is it important to use historic monuments in modern times? Aldo Rossi, the most influential Italian architect of the 20th century, notes – “History exists so long as an object is in use; that is, so long as a form relates to its original function. However, when form and function are severed, and only form remains vital, history shifts into the realm of memory. When history ends, memory begins. The singular form of split now not only signifies its own individuality, but at the same time, it is also a sign; a record of events that are part of

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likanis sasaxle / LIKANI PALACE

daniSnulebisa. `axali kavaleriis korpusisa~ da likanis sasaxlis samuzeumo koncefciis mTavari mimarTuleba msgavsia, orive SenobaSi moazrebulia saimperatoro koleqciebis _ piradi nivTebis gamofena da maTi sacxovrebeli garemos rekonstruqcia-interpretacia. muzeumebis modifikaciam da evoluciam, rac samuzeumo misiebis gafarToebam ganapiroba, Zveli funqciebis farglebs miRma gasvla gamoiwvia. samrewvelo da teqnologiurma miRwevebma gavlena iqonies muzeumis Senobebis struqturasa da arqiteqturul Taviseburebebze. gansxvavebiT XIX saukunis samuzeumo Senobebis arqiteqturisgan (sadac xSirad gamoyenebulia Zvel berZnuli detalebi, rogoricaa magaliTad, berlinis altesa da miunxenis gliptotekis muzeumebi),

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a collective –that is, urban– memory. History comes to be known through the relationship between a collective memory of events, the singularity of place (locus solus), and the sign of the place as expressed in form.” The collections of Borjomi’s Museum of Local Lore present the history of the region. The museum is rich in monuments of natural history, archaeological and ethnographic collections, artifacts depicting the local industry, and many more interesting exhibits. The main axis of the projects of adapting the ‘New Cavalry Building’ and the Likani Palace into museums is the common history shared by the future exhibits and the buildings themselves. It has to be said that in these cases, the building itself acts as the main exhibit of the museum. With their significance, character, visual aspect and collections, these buildings are a whole that includes both past and


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XX saukuneSi ukve iqmneba axali xedviT Seqmnili samuzeumo Senobebi. 1959 wels niu iorkSi dasrulda frenk loid raitis gugenhaimis muzeumis mSenebloba. Senoba Tavisi aRmavali spiraluri moxazulobiT arRvevs aqamde arsebul da damkvidrebul formebs. raitma qalaqis urbanul qsovilSi Casva Senoba, romelic miuxedavad misi arcTu ise didi zomebisa, Signidan grandiozulobisa da `afeTqebis~ efeqts iZleva. gugenhaimis SenobiT man Camoayaliba samuzeumo dizainis gansxvavebuli midgoma, sadac sivrciTi parametrebi gavlenas axdens gamofenaze da mayurebels eqsponatis aRqmis axlebur SesaZleblobas aZlevs. raitma sivrceebis danawevrebis nacvlad, msgavsad XIX saukunis samuzeumo Senobebisa, Seqmna sivrce, sadac sicariele gardaqmna umTavres saxasiaTo niSnad. man Secvala diskursi _ muzeumSi ukve sivrcem SeiZina TviTmyofadi mniSvneloba. zemoTxsenebuli funqciebidan Tu Tanamedrove moTxovnebidan gamomdinare SeiZleba iTqvas, rom srulyofili, Tanamedrove muzeumis Senoba unda warmoadgendes mravalfunqciur nagebobas, romelic moicavs sxvadasxva zomisa da moculobis sivrceebs, droebiTi da mudmivi eqspoziciebisTvis, sacavebisa

future functions. The main aspects of the adaptation projects of the ‘New Cavalry Building’ and the Likani Palace are similar: both will display personal belongings from the Russian imperial court, and will offer a reconstruction-interpretation of their way of life and their environment. The modification and evolution of museums, a result of the broadening of their missions, has created the need to go beyond their old functions. Advancements in manufacture and technology have had an influence on the structure and architectural properties of museum buildings. Unlike the architecture of museums from the 19th century (in which they often used details from ancient Greece, for instance in Berlin’s Alte Museum and the Glyptothek Museum in Munich), the 20th century saw the appearance of museums created with a new vision. The construction of the Frank Lloyd Wright building – home to the Guggenheim museum – was finished in 1959. With its ascending spiral design, the building breaks with existing and established forms. Wright put a new kind of building in the urban landscape, and despite its relatively small size, it manages to create a feeling of grandiosity and awe in its visitors. With the Guggenheim Museum, Wright established a new approach to museum designs, in which spatial parameters influence the exhibition and offer visitors new

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Tu sajaro sivrceebisTvis (gare da Sida), aseve administraciuli da damatebiTi servisebisTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom muzeumis Senoba moiTxovs sakmaod did sivrces. Sesabamisad, am yvelafris uzrunvelyofa istoriuli mniSvnelobis nagebobebSi sakmaod did sirTulesTanaa dakavSirebuli. amdenad, am saxis adaptacia individualur midgomas da sxvadasxva mimarTulebis specialistebis _ arqiteqtorebis, konstruqtorebis, konservatorebis, dizainerebis, samuzeumo dargis specialistebis, istorikosebisa Tu xelovnebaTmcodneebis CarTulobas moiTxovs. istoriuli Senobebis

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ways to experience the exhibits. Instead of fragmenting spaces as in museums from the 19th century, Wright created a space in which emptiness became the most distinctive feature. He turned the tables, and provided museum spaces with a significance of their own. Based on the abovementioned functions and modern requirements, we can say that an ideal modern museum building should present a multifunctional structure that includes spaces of various sizes and volumes for temporary and permanent exhibitions, reserves or public spaces (both outdoor and indoor), as well as for administrative and other services. We can thus deduct that a museum building requires quite a large space. Accordingly, satisfying all these standards in historical buildings is linked to difficulties, and this kind of adaptation requires an individual approach and the involvement of specialists from various fields – architects, constructors, conservators, designers, museum specialists, historians and art historians. Aside from the distribution of spaces, the adaptation of historical buildings into museums has to take into account the climate, the lighting system, an evacuation plan, risk prevention measures, and other important aspects. For instance, how well does the adaptation project fit the historical importance of the place? Is the significance of the monument underlined well enough; will the public understand its importance?


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samuzeumo adaptaciisas garda sivrceebis ganawilebis, klimaturi pirobebis, ganaTebis sistemebis, saevakuacio gegmis da riskis prevenciisa, gasaTvaliswinebelia sxva mniSvnelovani sakiTxebic. magaliTad, ramdenad pasuxobs adaptaciis proeqti adgilis istoriul mniSvnelobas? gamovlenilia saTanadod Zeglis mniSvneloba da esmis is sazogadoebas? uzrunvelyofs proeqti Zeglis mniSvnelovani qsovilis minimalur cvlilebas? gaTvaliswinebulia proeqtSi Zeglis dacvis mniSvnelovani garemoebebi? uzrunvelyofs proeqti memkvidreobis grZelvadian marTvasa da sicocxlisunarianobas? am tipis muzeumebis mowyoba moiTxovs Tanamedrove sazogadoebis saWiroebebis gaTvaliswinebas. muzeumis srulfasovani funqcionireba (kvleva, saganmanaTleblo RonisZiebebi, sagamofeno sivrceebis organizeba Tu xelovnebis nimuSebis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrceleba) damokidebulia mis zustad gansazRvrul misiaze da instituciis saTanado menejmentze, radgan sazogadoebisTvis informaciisa da codnis gadacemis xarisxs swored es gansazRvravs. Tumca unda iTqvas isic, rom samuzeumo adaptacia mxolod sworad gansazRvrul misiaze ar aris damokidebuli, istoriuli Senoba unda iZleodes muzeumis ganTavsebis SesaZleblobasac.

Does the project strive to exert minimal transformations on the structure of the monument? Does the project take into account monument protection standards? Does it satisfy the norms of long-term viability and sustainability in the field of cultural heritage? Arranging such a museum must also take into account the needs of our modern society. The ideal functioning of a museum (research, educational activities, arrangement of exhibition spaces or spreading information about artworks) depends on rightly defining its mission and on the proper management of the institution, because this is precisely what determines the quality of the transmission of information and knowledge to society. But we also need to say that adapting a building into a museum doesn’t only depend on rightly defining the mission – the historical

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italieli arqiteqtoris karlo skarpes (1906-78) veronas kastelvekios (Castelvecchio) proeqti erT-erTi saukeTeso samuzeumo adaptaciis proeqtia. XIV saukunis cixesimagris samuzeumo modernizaciis procesSi arqiteqtori erTmaneTs uTavsebs Zvel da axal elementebs. iyenebs manamde uCveulo masalaTa palitras, maT Soris: betons, qvas, folads, brinjaos, xes da TabaSirs. skarpe saeqspozicio sivrceebSi bunebrivi ganaTebis sistemas rTavs, rac mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs samuzeumo nivTebis saTanadod warmoCenaSi. saintereso proeqtia londonis Tate Modern, romelic erT dros eleqtrosadguri iyo. dRes is muzeumadaa adaptirebuli, sadac britanuli xelovnebis nawarmoebebia daculi. Senobas SenarCunebuli aqvs originaluri formebis ZiriTadi nawili da saerTo xasiaTi. magaliTad, turbina, romelic Senobis wamyvan TvalsaCinoebas warmoadgens nagebobis avTentikuri nawilia. aseve, dominikanuri taZari qalaq maastrixtSi, romelic wlebis ganmavlobaSi ufunqcio iyo wignis maRaziad iqca. interierSi gamoyenebulia Weramde aziduli Savi rkinis Taroebi da Tanamedrove aveji. taZris bunebrivi ganaTebac miznobrivadaa gamoyenebuli, romelic sanTlis susti ganaTebis elfers qmnis.

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monument should also provide the possibility of being transformed into one. Italian architect Carlo Scarpa’s (1906-78) Castelvecchio project in Verona is one of the best examples of a historical building being adapted into a museum. The architect mixed old and new elements in the modernization and transformation process of this 14th century medieval castle. He used a number of materials that were unusual for the time: concrete, stone, steel, bronze, wood and gypsum. Scarpa arranged a natural lighting system in the exhibition spaces, which plays an important role in the proper display of the museum’s exhibits. The Tate Modern in London is also an interesting project. Its building once housed a power station. Today, it has been adapted into a museum that shelters British artworks. The building preserves most of its original forms, as well as its general character. For instance, the turbine, which is the main visual feature of the building, has been there since its foundation. The Dominican Church in Maastricht, which had no function for several years, has now been transformed into a bookstore. Its interior is covered with black metallic shelves that go up to the ceiling and offers modern furniture. The natural lighting entering the old church is used purposefully, and creates the effect of faint candle light.


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`axali kavaleriis korpusi~ 'NEW CAVALRY BUILDING'

aTaswleulebis ganmavlobaSi arqiteqtura mudmivad ganicdida cvlilebebs, ris gamoc is mravali civilizaciis istoriasa da mexsierebas inaxavs. da amitomac, borjomis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumis, `axali kavaleriis korpusisa~ da likanis sasaxlis samuzeumo adaptacia-ganviTareba mniSvnelovania, rogorc istoriuli Senobebis gadarCena-SenarCunebis TvalsazrisiT, ise am ulamazesi qalaqis da zogadad qveynis kulturuli Tu ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvisac. qalaqis arqiteqturis, rogorc cocxali organizmisa da istoriis asaxvis saSualebis mTavari Sinaarsi da idea, misi mudmivi warmoCenaa. Zeglebis adaptaciiT, warsulis asaxvasTan erTad viRebT cocxal, funqciurad datvirTul istoriul nagebobebsa da qalaqebs.

Architecture has been changing for millennia, and because of this, it preserves the history and memory of many civilizations. Therefore, the adaptation of Borjomi’s Museum of Local Lore, the ‘New Cavalry Building’ and the Likani Palace into museums is important both in terms of saving and maintaining these historical buildings, and for the cultural and economic development of this beautiful city and more generally, our country. The main essence and idea behind a city’s architecture, the latter being taken as a live organism and a means to reflect history, is for it to be constantly displayed and seen. Through the adaptation of monuments, together with a representation of the past, we will achieve functionally charged historic buildings and cities.

ani Serozia

Ani Sherozia

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„maisis Tbili sio“ _ ori xelovanis, rati da kaxi eraZeebis namuSevrebis gamofena TbilisSi, veris ubanSi, or sivrceSi ganTavsda _ interieri 18-20 maiss sastumro „rumsis“ sagamofeno darbazSi da eqsterieri _ 18-24 maiss istoriuli Rvinis qarxana #1-is ezoSi mdebare kafe „Tbili sios“ baRSi. eqspoziciaSi warmodgenili iyo Tanamedrove saavtoro dizainis interier-eqsterieris aveji, nivTebi, obieqtebi, qandakebebi da instalaciebi. gamofena saqarTvelos kulturisa da sportis saministros mxardaWeriT Sedga, xolo partniorebi iyvnen sastumro `rumsi~, kafe `Tbili sio~ da `anTaZeebis marani~.

A WARM MAY BREEZE

‘A Warm May Breeze’ – an exhibition of works by Rati Eradze and Kakhi Eradze, was arranged in two spaces in Tbilisi’s Vera neighborhood: indoors from the 18-20th of May in the Exhibition Hall of the Rooms Hotel, and outdoors from the 18-24th of May in the gardens of the Tbili Sio Café, located in the yard of the historical Winery #1. The exhibition presented exclusive indoor and outdoor furniture designs, accessories, items, statues and installations. It was arranged with the support of the Ministry of Culture and Sport of Georgia, and its partners included Rooms Hotel, Tbili Sio Café, and the Antadze Winery.

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Rati Eradze has been designing furniture, interior and exterior items and accessories for over 20 years. For the most part, his works are handmade, and stand out for the diversity of the materials he uses: metal, wood, leather, glass, stone, and various synthetic materials. His collages boast unconventional forms and appearances, and assume unusual, interesting and enticing functional roles in the artist’s pieces. “As a child, I would draw, draw constantly, everything I heard or read. I was into technologies, too. My technical background in mechanical engineering plays a significant part in discovering technologies for designing and creating my works. To me, mechanisms and engines are living things: I long to touch and work out how they were built, how their details interconnect. It is a working process in which items are gradually created to acquire distinct lineaments. I think of those who will own my works, those who will touch or use them, what they will like or dislike about them, which color, form, or proportion. The appearance of the works is determined by their function; I don’t use

rati eraZe oc welze metia avejis, interiereqsterieris nivTebis da obieqtebis dizainis Seqmnaze muSaobs. misi namuSevrebi ZiriTadad xelnakeTia da gamoirCeva masalis mravalferovnebiT: liToni, xe, tyavi, mina, qva, sxvadasxva sinTeturi masala. ukve arsebuli detalebisgan Seqmnili kolaJebi ki, romlebic araordinarul formebs, iers iZens, uCveulo, saintereso da Sesabamis garemoSi funqcionaluri xdeba. _ bavSvobaSi vxatavdi, rasac vismendi an vkiTxulobdi imas. me politeqnikuri instituti davamTavre da es codna, teqnikuri ganaTleba, nivTebis dizainis gaazrebisas da maTi Sesrulebis teqnologiebis SerCevisas mniSvnelovnad mexmareba. meqanizmebi da Zravebi CemTvis

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cocxali nivTebia, romlebsac minda Sevexo, amovicno, gavigo Tu rogor arian Seqmnilni, rogoraa detalebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli. es samuSao procesia... da am dros nivTebi TandaTan iqmneba da maTeul iers iZenen. vfiqrob imaTzec, visic Cemi naxelavi unda gaxdes, vin Seexeba, rogor gamoiyenebs, ra moewoneba _ feri, forma, proporcia. nivTebis iersaxe maTi daniSnulebidanaa gamomdinare; zedmets arafers viyeneb, mxolod imas, rac maT sWirdebaT, zedmeti gaformebis gareSe. mxatvruli sagani CemTvis mTlianobaSi aRiqmeba da ara danawevrebuli, detalizebuli; detals funqcia, datvirTva unda hqondes; dizainis mofiqreba/daxvewisas ferebs da maT raodenobasac didi mniSvneloba aqvs _ erTiT zedmetma an naklebma SesaZloa CemTvis mTlianad Secvalos nivTi _ ambobs rati. kaxi eraZis mier wlebis ganmavlobaSi Seqmnil qandakebebs da obieqtebs mraval qveyanaSi icnoben. gamofenaze warmodgenili axali koleqcia gajerebuli iyo modernistuli elementebiT, Tanamedrove xasiaTiTa da axali formebis ZiebiT. rkinis bade erTgvari ornamentia transformirebuli drosa da sivrceSi. gamWvirvale qandakebebi adamianSi sivrcis SegrZnebas aRviZebs da imavdroulad paralelur, metafizikur samyarosTan

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igivdeba. skulptura am masalaSi cocxalia da sunTqavs. am teqnikiT Sesrulebuli gamWvirvale qandakebebi asociaciur warmodgenas iwvevs mnaxvelSi. amas yvelafers, pirobiTad „komunikaciuri telepatia“ davarqvi _ ambobs kaxi _ ar miyvars saTaurebi, CarCoSi msvams. ise, ubralod, CemTvis ase hqvia _ `komunikaciuri telepatia~. es inspiraciacaa da cda-koncefciac... minda rom skulpturebma Tavisi cxovreba daiwyon da Tanamedrove stilis da teqnikis popularizacias Seuwyon xeli.

anything superficial, only what they need, without any unnecessary styling. To me, artworks should be seen as wholes, and not as a sum of fragments or details; and each detail needs to have a function, a meaning; when thinking about or changing a design, colors and their diversity are also very important – one too many or one too few can change the piece completely,” Rati reveals. Created over many years, Kakhi Eradze’s sculptures and objects are featured in many different countries and collections. His latest works are imbued with modernist elements, progressive traits, and unorthodox forms. “The iron wire mesh is a modern ornament transformed through time and space. Translucent sculptures arouse a sense of space, being at the same time associated with the parallel metaphysical universe. A sculpture made with this material is alive and breathing. Translucent sculptures made with this technique bring about imaginative associations in the minds of their onlookers. I named all this “Communicative Telepathy”. I do not like titles, because they put me in a frame. I just came up with this name for myself. It is both an inspiration and a concept… I want these sculptures to start their own life, and to help popularize contemporary styles and techniques,” – Kakhi says.

foto: fedon papamaixaeli, TaTia gvetaZe

Photograph: Phedon Papamichael, Tatia Gvetadze

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MANY MORE TO COME

samni da...

irakli fxakaZe, elCi ekaterine siraZe-delone, ilia lomTaTiZe da barbare TaTaraZe IRAKLI PKHAKADZE, AMBASSADOR EKATERINE SIRADZE-DELAUNAY, ILIA LOMTATIDZE AND BARBARE TATARADZE

`RvTisa da sakuTari sindisis winaSe getyviT, rom Tqveni Svili udidesia im kompozitorTa Soris, visac piradad vicnob an visi saxelic msmenia~ _ am sityvebiT mimarTa leopold mocarts venuri klasikis mamam iozef haidnma, rodesac venaSi umcrosi mocartis xma gaisma. mas Semdeg or saukuneze metma ganvlo. musikaluri samyaro gadasxvaferda da konkursebisa da musikaluri menejmentis rTul xanaSi, miuxedavad maTi adreuli warmatebebisa, bavSvebisa da mozardebis xma TiTqos mikargulia. dasavluri musikaluri aRzrdis sistemas yovelTvis Tan sdevda vunderkindebis sindromi _ imave mocartidan dRemde, aziuri pianizmis eqspansiamde. gasul wels Tel-avivis artur rubinStainis saxelobis pianistTa saerTaSoriso konkurss axalgazrda Jiuri Seemata, romlis erT-erTi wevri daviT xrikulic gaxldaT. ar vici, maTi Sefaseba ramdenad moqmedebs konkursis saboloo Sedegebze, magram is, rom mozardebis azri, mozardebis xma gasaTvaliswinebeli gaxda, TavisTavad ukve Zalian mniSvnelovania, radgan maT asakSi miRebuli STabeWdileba SeiZleba bevrad wrfeli da utyuaric ki iyos. xSirad xom swored pirvel STabeWdilebebs ubrundebian xolme cxovrebis miwuruls. qarTuli safortepiano skolisTvis niWieri axalgazrda

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“I can tell you before God and on my honor that your child is the greatest among all the composers that I have known personally or whose names I’ve heard” – these were the words told by Joseph Haydn, master of the Viennese Classic, to Leopold Mozart, after he listened to the young Wolfgang Amadeus play. Two centuries have passed since then. The musical world has completely changed, and in these difficult times of competitions and music management, despite their early success, the voices of children and teenagers seem to be lost. The western educational system in music was always accompanied by the wunderkind syndrome – from Mozart until today and the expansion of Asian pianism. Last year, a Youth Jury was added to the Artur Rubinstein International Piano Competition in Tel-Aviv, and one of its members was Georgian pianist David Khrikuli. I don’t know to what extent their opinion influences the final results of the competition, but the fact that teenagers’ thoughts and say are taken into account is already an important achievement in itself, because the impressions they get at their age can be much more authentic. Don’t they say that people turn back to their earliest memories at the end of their lives? A talented generation isn’t an unusual thing for the Georgian piano school. Teens are the most complex age in musical education, and it is impossible to fully comprehend teenagers’ psychology, or to guess and follow the stream and logic of their thought processes. Many


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eliso bolqvaZe / ELISSO BOLKVAZE

might actually not even choose music as their future profession – at that age, they get carried away more easily. A young pianists’ life and calendar is an extremely unusual one, not at all like those of their “non-musician” peers. Finding spare time, which teenagers need for their mental development, becomes even more difficult for them. Among other talented pianists, we chose three young people: Irakli Pkhakadze from the Zakaria Paliashvili Central Music School, and Barbare Tataradze and Ilia Lomtatidze, two students of the Evgeni Mikeladze Music School and beneficiaries of the SOS Talent Foundation. BARBARE TATARADZE

Taoba ucxo araa. musikaluri Camoyalibebis am yvelaze rTul periodSi, SeuZlebelia bolomde Cawvde mozardis fsiqologias, an amoicno da gahyve maTi fiqrebis mdinarebas da logikas. bevrs SeiZleba sabolood arc hqondes gadawyvetili musikis profesiad arCeva, maT asakSi xom xSiria gatacebebi. pianistis samyaro da kalendari ukiduresad Taviseburia da sulac ar hgavs maTive Tanatolebisas da Tavisufali drois gamonaxva, romelic mozards saazrovno sivrcisTvis sWirdeba, kidev ufro did Zalisxmevad ujdebaT. sxva niWier pianistebs Soris, Cven sami SevarCieT: niWierTa aTwledis moswavle irakli fxakaZe da evgeni miqelaZis samusiko saswavleblis mowafeebi, fondis SOS Talent-is stipendiantebi barbare TaTaraZe da ilia lomTaTiZe.

How did your musical life begin? We had a Petrof piano at home, and I was trying to play it from my early childhood. That’s why they brought me to Nana Chkhonia at the 16th Musical School. When I was six years old, I took part in the International F. Chopin Competition for Young Pianists in Tbilisi; Elisso Bolkvadze was in the jury, and she awarded me a special prize. This is how I met Ms. Elisso. How did you become a beneficiary of the SOS Talent foundation? There was an audition at the Ministry of Culture, in which they chose me as one of the beneficiaries. Since then, I’ve traveled several times a year to various European countries for both masterclasses and competitions. Who gives you masterclasses? Michel Sogny, whom I first met in Switzerland.

barbare TaTaraZe rogor daiwyo Seni musikaluri cxovreba? saxlSi pianino `petrofi~ gvqonda da pataraobidanve vcdilobdi damekra, amitom Semiyvanes me-16 musikalur skolaSi nana WyoniasTan. eqvsi wlisam monawileoba miviRe Sopenis axalgazrda musikosTa konkursze, JiuriSi eliso bolqvaZe ijda da man specialuri priziT damajildova. ase gavicani qalbatoni eliso. rogor gaxdi fondis Sos Talent-is stipendianti? kulturis saministroSi Catarda mosmena, sadac amirCies fondis stependiantad. amis Semdeg weliwadSi radmenjerme Cavdivar evropis sxvadasxva qveyanSi masterklasebze da konkursebze. masterklasebs vin gitarebs? miSel soni, romelsac pirvelad SveicariaSi Sevxvdi. masTan urTierTobam Tu imoqmeda Sens repertuarze? tradiciuli programis garda, gavdivar sonis prolegomenebs da etiudebs, romlebic Zalian mexmareba

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sxva nawarmoebebis ukeT SesrulebaSi, teqnikurad Tu musikalurad. aseve vgrZnob, rom bevrad swrafad ganmiviTara teqnika. programas Cems pedagogTan natalia nacvliSvilTan erTad varCev, ra Tqma unda fondTan SeTanxmebiT, Semdeg Cavdivar sonisTan, romelic mismens da maZlevs konsultaciebs. romel kompozitorebs moicavs Seni repertuari da romeli maTganis dakvra ufro giyvars? erTi gamorCeuli kompozitori ar myavs, yvela Taviseburad miyvars. CemTan yvelaze axlos mainc romantikosebi arian. ise, vukrav baxs, mocarts, beThovens; haidnis naklebad. romantikosebidan _ Sopens da lists, Sumansac vukrav; meoce saukunidan ki prokofievs, axal mis meore sonatas vamzadeb. orkestrTan ukrav? diax. dakruli maqvs mocartis da mendelsonis koncertebi, listis meore; moskovSi Caikovskis darbazSi davukari Sopenis meore koncerti peterburgis marias Teatris orkestrTan erTad. 2012 wels ki kaunasis festivalze solo programasTan erTad, haidnis koncerti davukari. konkursebSi monawileob? 2015 wels holandiaSi pirvel saerTaSoriso konkursze aviRe pirveli premia. SarSan noemberSi vaimaris listis mexuTe saerTaSoriso konkursze gavxdi laureati da damajildoves listis saukeTeso SesrulebisTvis. Semodgomaze vaimarSi solo koncerts gavmarTav. bolos, rva bavSvTan erTad, romlebic mTeli msofliodan agvarCies, viyavi epanis axalgazrdul akademiaSi masterklasebze da konkursze. aviRe pirveli/ specialuri prizi. gaxsnaze davukariT arturo benedeti mikelanjelis kuTvnil roialze, masze dakvrisas gansakuTrebuli gancda mqonda, radgan is Zalian Zveli iyo da bgerac Zalian gansxvavebuli hqonda.

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Did your repertoire change after you met him? Apart from the traditional program, I study Sogny’s prolegomena and etudes, which help me a lot in better performing other pieces, both from a technical and a musical point of view. I also feel that my technique has developed much faster. I choose my program together with my instructor Natalia Natsvlishvili, in agreement with the foundation, of course, and then I visit Sogny, who listens to me and gives me consultations. Which composers can we find in your repertoire, and which one of them is your favorite? I don’t have one favorite composer, I love each of them in a different way. I feel the romanticists are the ones that come closest to me. But in general, I play Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, a little less Haydn; from the romanticists, Chopin and Liszt, and now also Schumann; and from the 20th century, Prokofiev – I’m currently preparing his Sonata No. 2. Do you play with an orchestra? I do. I have played Mozart and Mendelssohn’s concertos, and Liszt’s Concerto No. 2. I played Chopin’s Concerto No. 2 in the Tchaikovsky Hall with the orchestra of Petersburg’s Mariinsky’s theater. In 2012, together with the solo program, I played Haydn’s Concerto at the Kaunas Festival. Do you take part in competitions? In 2015, in Holland, I took first place in my first international competition. Last year, I was a laureate at the 5th Weimar International Franz Liszt Competition for Young Pianists, and I received a prize for the best interpretation of Liszt. This autumn, I will perform a solo concert in Weimar. Finally, together with eight children selected from around the world, I took part in masterclasses and the competition at the Eppan Piano Academy. I got the first/special prize. At the inauguration, we played on Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli’s grand piano, and it was a very singular feeling for me to play on it, because it was very old, and also had a different sound. How do you choose the pieces you play? I choose them together with my instructor and the foundation. If they think that it’s too early for me, they sometimes decline my choices… Do the pieces you choose and those that are selected by the teacher sometimes match? We all have our fantasies and vision, sometimes they match, sometimes they don’t. My instructor tries to develop my musical thinking, and she usually gives me the freedom to do what I feel and think. Can your vision change while you’re working on a piece? Yes, of course. I sometimes play a piece and have a particular, casual vision; but if I put it aside for a time and return to it, it’s possible that I approach it completely differently. That’s how I usually work, because I work on various pieces at the same time. The more you learn, the more knowledge you accumulate, and the faster you can assimilate new pieces.


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nawarmoebebs rogor irCev? Cemi surviliT da maswavlebelsa da fonds vuTanxmeb. Tu CaTvlian, rom CemTvis jer adrea, SeiZleba uaric miTxran... arCeuli nawarmoebSi Seni da maswavleblis xedva emTxveva xolme? yvelas Tavisi fantazia da xedva aqvs, xan emTxveva, xan _ ara. maswavlebeli cdilobs ganmiviTaros musikaluri azrovneba da ZiriTadad Tavisuflebas maZlevs, rom gavakeTo is, rasac vgrZnob da vfiqrob. SeiZleba, rom nawarmoebze muSaobisas xedva Segecvalos? ki, rogor ara. SeiZleba Tavdapirveli xedviT vukravde, mere raRac droiT gadavdo da mibrunebisas sul sxvanairad mivudge. ZiriTadad asec miwevs, paralelurad sxva nawarmoebebzec xom vmuSaob. rac ufro mets swavlob, codna gigrovdeba da yovel axal nawarmoebs bevrad swrafad iTviseb. aris nawarmoebi, romlis dakvrac Zalian ginda? raxmaninovis mesame koncerti. magram, manamde mirCevnia sxva rameebi davukra, rom Semdeg raxmaninovis dakvra gamiadvildes. gyavs sayvareli pianistebi? Zalian miyvars alfred korto, vladimir horovici, marta argerixi... Zvel pianistebs didi cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba aqvT da es aisaxeba maT dakrulzec. maT gavlenas grZnob, an xom ar cdilob maTsaviT daukra? ara. ar vcdilob rom mivbaZo. Sedegis miRweva swrafad giyvars? ki, da viqrob, rom amis SesaZlebloba maqvs. minda, rom rac SeiZleba male bevri nawarmoebi davukra da didi programebi gavakeTo. vaimarSi samturiani programa davukari, finalSi grigis koncertiT. momavalSi ucxoeTSi swavlis gagrZelebas fiqrob? diax, magram jer ar mifiqria sad. visTan iswavlidi? albaT, kortosTan, radgan misi masterklasebis Canawerebs vusmen xolme da iseT SeniSvnebs aZlevs da ise esmis musika, rom masTan swavla Zalian saintereso iqneboda... cocxali rom yofiliyo. roialebidan romels irCev? `stenveis~, `faciolic~ Zalian momwons. saukeTeso auditoria sad gyolia? moskovSi Grand Piano Competition-ze. TbilisSi konservatoriis did darbazSi. kargi iqneboda aq koncertebi ufro xSirad tardebodes da SesaZlebloba mqondes, ufro xSirad davukra xolme. saSualod dReSi ramdens ukrav? xuT saaTs, sajaro skolaSic xom davdivar da miuxedavad am reJimisa, vcdilob mainc damrCes dro garTobisTvis. mecadineobis procesi gsiamovnebs? Zalian. imitom, rom vcdilob axali raRaceebi gavakeTo.

Are there pieces that you would really like to play? Rachmaninoff’s Concerto No. 3. But before that, I prefer to play other pieces, so that I can play Rachmaninoff with more ease afterwards. Do you have favorite pianists? I’m very fond of Alfred Cortot, Vladimir Horowitz, Martha Argerich… Old pianists have a lifelong experience, and it can be felt when they play. Do you feel any influence from them? Or do you try to play like them? No. I don’t try to copy them. Do you like to reach your goals quickly? Yes, and I think that I have the resources to do so. I want to play as many pieces as I can as soon as possible, and to do big programs. In Weimar, I played a three-act program, with Grieg’s Concerto as a finale. Do you think about continuing your education abroad? Yes, but I haven’t thought about the place yet. With whom would you like to study if you could choose anyone? Perhaps Cortot, because I sometimes listen to recordings of his masterclasses, and he gives such observations and he understands music so well, that it would be very interesting to work with him… If he were alive. Which grand piano would you pick out? I like Steinways, and also Faziolis. Where was your best experience with an audience? At Moscow’s Grand Piano Competition. In the large hall of Tbilisi’s Conservatoire. It would be good to hold concerts more often here, and if I could have the opportunity to play more often. How many hours on average do you play each day? Five hours. I also go to a public school, but despite all this, I always try to find some free time. Do you like the process of studying? A lot. Because I try to do new things.

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ilia lomTaTiZe rodis daiwye musikis swavla? TbilisSi 69-e skolis gverdiT xelovnebis skolaSi mindoda vokalze Sesvla. roca xmas misinjavdnen, skolis direqtorma fortepianoze Sesvla gvirCia, radgan xeli da smena moewona; bevri fiqris Semdeg fortepianoze Sevedi. pirvel klasSi vswavlobdi, rodesac eliso bolqvaZem Caatara mosmena SOS Talent-isTvis, sadac mec amirCies. misive rCeviT, swavla jer levan inaSvilTan, xolo Semdeg natalia nacvliSvilTan gavagrZele. rogor iwyeb nawarmoebze muSaobas? nawarmoebis SerCeva sakmaod rTuli procesia, mec unda momwondes, maswavlebelsac da sirTulec Sesabamisi unda hqondes. radgan bevri nawarmoebia, romelic momwons, magram jer adrea an piriqiT, ukve dagvianebulia. vcdilob repertuarSi mqondes barokos musika _ axla ramos vukrav; aseve venis klasicizmi. axal beThovenis meTeqvsmete sonatas vukrav. beThovenis bolo sonatebi xom ar gicdia? ara, jer ara.

ILIA LOMTATIDZE When did you start learning music? I wanted to enroll for singing lessons in the Art School next to the Public School No. 69. When they were trying out my voice, the director of the school advised me to enter grand piano lessons, because he liked my hands and my ear for music, and after much thinking, I decided to learn the grand piano. I was in the first grade when Elisso Bolkvadze carried out an audition for SOS Talents, in which they selected me. On her advice, I continued studying, first with Levan Inashvili, and then with Natalia Natsvlishvili. How do you start studying a piece? Selecting a piece is quite a difficult process. Both myself and the instructor need to like it, and it has to be of a suitable difficulty. Because there are many pieces I like, but that are still too difficult for me to play, or on the contrary, too easy. I try to have baroque music in my repertoire – right now, I’m playing Rameau, as well as Viennese classicism. I’m also playing Beethoven’s Sonata No. 16. Did you already try Beethoven’s last sonatas? No, not yet. Do you also play other music than that of your program? I sometimes play Chopin’s mazurka’s, Brahms’ intermezzos and jazz for my own pleasure. How many hours a day do you usually play? If I’m home for the whole day, at least five hours. Do you have time left to interact with your friends? I often can’t go out, but I don’t have the feeling that my friends miss me because of music. I don’t have friends that aren’t interested in my music. Did you ever think about another profession? Yes, about many things. I’m interested in astronomy, I draw, I read, I write stories. I’m also fond of football and basketball – I even (almost) broke my finger recently. Who reads your stories? My friends. Which is the pianist to whom you listen the most? Richter. His performances have a singular emotional charge, and you can feel a firm character behind them, especially in his studio recordings. In my childhood, I often listened to Kissin. It also depends on the composer – I have one or several favorite pianists for each of them: Gould’s Bach, Sokolov’s baroque, Cziffra and Volodos’ Liszt, Rubinstein’s Chopin. What about Horowitz’ Chopin? Yes, of course. What new pieces do you play? Ligeti’s 13th etude. I prepared it for a competition, but I didn’t actually play it there.

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Do you participate in competitions? Yes, ever since I started playing. In November, I’ll be going to a competition in Spain, where they mainly play Spanish composers; it’s divided into four stages and the last one is played with an orchestra. Apart from that, I’ve been to Astana and at the Golden Key International Music Festival for Young Pianists in Frankfurt, where I won the Grand Prix. Is it possible to play in the same way in class and on the stage? In most cases, I play completely differently. On stage, I’m more nervous and need more concentration. Audiences help me, so I usually play much better in large halls. In which concert hall did you feel most comfortable? The Conservatoire’s grand hall in Moscow’s Crescendo Festival. garda imisa, rac programaSi gaqvs, Tu ukrav sxva musikas? Cemi siamovnebisTvis vukrav xolme Sopenis mazurkebs, bramsis intermecoebs da jazs. dReSi daaxloebiT ramden saaTs ukrav? Tu mTeli dRe saxlSi var, minimum xuT saaTs. megobrebTan urTierTobisTvis dro grCeba? xSirad ver gavdivar, magram arc imis SegrZneba maqvs, rom musikis gamo megobrebs vakldebi. Tavis mxriv, maTac ainteresebT Cemi musika, sxvanairi megobrebi ar myavs. sxva profesiaze gifiqria? ki, bevr rameze. astronomia mainteresebs, vxatav, vkiTxulob, vwer moTxrobebs. aseve miyvars fexburTi da kalaTburTi, amas winaT TiTic (kinaRam) movitexe. moTxrobebs vis akiTxeb? megobrebs. yvelaze xSirad romel pianists usmen? rixters, gansakuTrebuli muxti aqvs mis dakvras da mtkice xasiaTi igrZnoba, gansakuTrebiT studiur Canawerebs. bavSvobaSi xSirad vusmendi kisins. kompozitorsac gaaCnia, TiToeul maTganze erTi an ramdenime gamorCeuli pianisti myavs: guldis _ baxi, sokolovis _ baroko, cifras da volodosis _ listi, rubinStainis _ Sopeni. horovicis Sopeni? ki, ra Tqma unda. axali musikidan ras ukrav? ligetis mecamete etiuds, konkursisTvis movamzade, magram mere aRar damikravs konkursze. konkursebSi monawileob? mas Semdeg, rac dakvra daviwye. noemberSi espaneTSi mivdivar konkursze, sadac ZiriTadad espanel kompozitorebs ukraven da oTx turad iyofa da bolo turi orkestrTan erTadaa. manamde viyavi astanaSi, frankfurtSi festivalze Golde Key, sadac gran-pri aviRe. klasSi da scenaze erTnairad dakvra SesaZlebelia? xSir SemTxvevaSi sul sxvadasxvanairad vukrav. scenaze Relva metia da meti koncentracia mWirdeba, auditoriac

Which grand piano is your favorite? That would depend on the concert hall. If the hall is small and has good acoustics, a Steinway. If it’s a large hall and the acoustics aren’t good – a Yamaha. The best grand piano on which I played was a Steinway in Amsterdam’s Concertgebouw.

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mexmareba, amitom did darbazebSi bevrad ukeT vukrav xolme. romeli auditoria iyo SenTvis yvelaze sasiamovno? moskovSi `kreSendos~ festivalze konservatoriis did darbazSi. romeli roiali girCevnia? darbazs gaaCnia. Tu darbazi pataraa da akustika kargia, `stenvei~. Tu didi darbazia da akustika iseTi kargi araa _ `iamaha~. saukeTeso roiali, romelzec damikravs amsterdamis `koncertgebaus~ `stenvei~ iyo. meoce saukunis kompozitorebidan vis aniWeb upiratesobas? prokofievs, da ara mxolod meoce saukunis kompozitorebidan. axla meSvide sonatas vukrav. damikravs misi pirveli koncertic. garda prokofievisa, vukrav raxmaninovis etiud-suraTebs da skriabinis preludiebsa da etiudebs. magram Cems Tavs prokofievSi ufro vxedav, vidre raxmaninovsa an skriabinSi. fortepianos garda, romeli instrumentebi gainteresebs? violinoze dakvris didi survili mqonda. vcade kidec, magram kraxiT damTavrda da survilad darCa, es ufro gataceba iyo. violinosTvis ukve didi xelic maqvs, aseve mainteresebs Celo da Casaberebidan klarneti. transkripciebs an improvizaciebs akeTeb? horovicis `karmenis variaciebi~ gadavakeTe Cemeburad: ufro meti variacia CavrTe. Tavad horovicis

miSel sonisTan erTad / WITH MICHEL SOGNY

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Who’s your favorite composer from the 20th century? Prokofiev, and not only from the composers of the 20th century. I’m currently playing his Sonata No. 7. I’ve also played his Concerto No. 1. Apart from Prokofiev, I play Rachmaninoff’s etude-tableaus and Scriabin’s preludes and etudes. But I recognize myself more in Prokofiev than in Rachmaninoff or Scriabin. Apart from the grand piano, which instrument interests you? I really wanted to play the violin. I even tried, but it didn’t end well, and it remained as a wish. It was more a fascination than anything. My hands are already too big for the violin. I’m also interested in the cello, and from the wind instruments, the clarinet. Do you do transcriptions or improvisations? I adapted Horowitz’s Carmen Variations: I inserted even more variations. I’ve been playing Horowitz’s version for quite a long time. After some years, I’ll probably include my transcriptions in my programs. I also play jazz improvisations. Do you like jazz? Yes, in particular John Coltrane and Oscar Peterson. Where do you think you will continue your education? Abroad, where I will find a good instructor. I would gladly live and study in London, Amsterdam, and in any city in Denmark. What difference do you see between your Georgian and foreign peers?


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Foreigners are more mobilized – not only musicians, but also the organizers; they do everything with more consideration. Will you be able to adapt your rhythm of life to the European one? I don’t think I’m lagging behind Europeans in terms of rhythm, because I already need to manage many things together – learning languages, mathematics, physics, other subjects at school… Do you consider pianists of your age to be your competitors? I don’t look at them in this way yet. I don’t have this feeling at competitions either, because I approach competitions more musically than as a sport. What’s more important for playing the piano: knowledge or intuition? You cannot play with your intuition alone. So it’s more about knowledge.

versias didi xania vukrav. wlebis mere, albaT, Cems transkripciebsac CavrTav programebSi. vukrav jazur improvizaciebsac. giyvars jazi? ki, gansakuTrebiT jon koltreini da oskar petersoni. momavalSi swavlis gagrZelebas sad fiqrob? ucxoeTSi, sadac kargi pedagogi gamoCndeba. siamovnebiT vicxovrebdi da viswavlidi londonSi, amsterdamSi, daniis nebismier qalaqSi. ra sxvaobas xedav Sens qarTvel da ucxoel Tanatolebs Soris? isini ufro mobilizebulebi arian, ara marto musikosebi, organizatorebic, yvelafers meti yuradRebiT udgebian. Seni cxovrebis ritms auwyob evropulisas? ara mgonia cxovrebis ritmiT evropelebs CamovrCebode, radgan Zalian bevri ramis moswreba miwevs _ enis swavla, maTematika, fizika, skolis sxva sagnebi... Seni Taobis pianistebs konkurentebad aRiqvam? jer ase ar vuyureb. es gancda arc konkursebze maqvs xolme, radgan konkursebs ufro musikalurad vudgebi, vidre sportulad. dakvraSi codna ufro gexmareba Tu intuicia? ufro codna, mxolod intuiciiT ver daukrav.

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irakli fxakaZe gaxsovs Seni pirveli nabijebi musikaSi? patara rom viyavi, mivdiodi da vukravdi pianinoze, romelic Cemi disTvis iyides. mere mominda swavla da amitom, bebiaCemma wamiyvana pianist nuca WiraqaZesTan, romelmac Semimowma smena, ritmis grZnoba da gviTxra, rom aucileblad unda Sevsuliyavi musikaze... Tan maswavleblad gvirCia nato maRalaSvili, Tavisive mowafe. ase movxvdi aTwledSi. Sens repertuarze ras ityvi... vukrav baxs, beThovens, Caikovskis, raxmaninovs, prokofievs; Sopenis, mendelsonis da moSkovskis etiudebs. nawarmoebebs ZiriTadad maswavlebeli mirCevs, magram wels rac mindoda is vTxove da gaiTvaliswina. Tu im nawarmoebs mogcems, romelic ar mogwons?.. vTxov, rom ar davukra da ar vukrav xolme. maswavlebels ujereb xolme interpretaciaze? ki, jerjerobiT vujereb da Tavisuflebasac maZlevs. did scenaze pirvelad rodis daukari? mgoni konservatoriis mcireSi davukari baxis `kapriCo Zmis gamgzavrebaze~ da mere Caikovski did darbazSi. rusTavelis Teatris mcire darbazSi maqvs baxis koncerti dakruli mesame klasSi.

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IRAKLI PKHAKADZE Do you remember your first steps in music? When I was small, I would go to the piano and play it – they had bought it for my sister. Then I had the wish to learn it, to see how I would evolve. My grandmother took me to pianist Nutsa Tsirakadze, who checked the musicality of my ear and my sense of rhythm. She told us that I definitely needed to study music, and advised us to go to her pupil Nato Maghalashvili. That’s how I found myself at the Central Music School. Tell us about your repertoire. I play Bach, Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev, Chopin, Mendelssohn, and Moszkowski’s etudes. The pieces are mainly selected for me by my instructor, but this year, I told her what I wanted, and she took it into account. What if they give you pieces that you don’t like? I usually ask her not to play them, and I don’t play them. Do you follow your instructor’s advice on interpretation? Yes, I trust her, and she also gives me freedom. When did you play on a big stage for the first time? I think it was when I played Bach’s ‘Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother’ in the Conservatoire’s small concert hall, and then Tchaikovsky in the large concert hall. I also played Bach’s Concerto in the Rustaveli Theater’s small concert hall when I was in third grade.


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konkursebze... respublikur konkursze viyavi konkursgareSe monawileebSi. davukari baxis `italiuri koncerti~, beThovenis `rondo~, mendelsonis `usityvo simRera~ da listis `nugeSi~. aTi wlisa vmonawileobdi marmarisSi saerTaSoriso konkursze `momavlis varskvlavebi~, sadac gran-pri aviRe. Seni megobrebi ar brazoben, roca bevrs mecadineob? ara, piriqiT _ mgulSematkivroben, magram didxans Tu ver vnaxulob, mere ukve brazoben. gavagrZeloT saubari konkursebze... bulgareTSi meTormete saerTaSoriso konkursze `axalgazrda virtuozebi~ aseve pirveli adgili aviRe. JiuriSi cnobili israeleli pianisti ari vardi ijda, romelsac moewona Cemi dakvra. samwuxarod, konkursis daxurvaze rom davukari, is ukve wasuli iyo. axla gvaqvs masTan mimowera, rekomendaciebs gvaZlevs. masterklasebze yofilxar? diax, masterklasebi mqonia aqac da safrangeTSic, sadac pier fiurnelis xelSewyobiT movxvdi. fiurneli maSin respublikur konkurss eswreboda, romelzec Temur axobaZis saxelobis premia gadmomces. pieri Temuris megobari iyo da Cafiqrebuli hqonda, is, vinc am premias daimsaxurebda safrangeTSi waeyvana. is musikosi araa, mecenatia da Tavis did SatoSi awyobs festivalebs, masterklasebs da koncertebs, sadac mas Semdeg TiTqmis yovel wels Cavdivar. iq kargi samecadino pirobebia? ki, rva roialia, maT Soris, `stenvei~, `bioznderferi~ _ yvela instrumenti istoriulia. aqvs pianoforte, klavesini, klavikordi da iqve eklesiaSi misive SeZenili organia, romelzec aseve davukari. astanaSi amis Semdeg waxvedi? zustad erTi wlis Semdeg. im wels astanaSi mxolod me viyavi saqarTvelodan. da?.. Cavflavdi. naxevarfinalisti gavxdi, mgoni imis brali iyo, rom 48 saaTi ar miZinia. TviTmfrinavidan gamouZinebeli pirdapir sarepeticiod gamiSves. pianistebs usmen? ki, raxmaninovs, rixters, gulds, horovics, rubinStains. Tanamedroveebidan pletniovs, kisins, berezovskis. kisini gavicani kidec aq rom iyo. sxvaTa Soris... mesic gavicani da xeli CamovarTvi, barsa-seviliis TamaSze rom iyo Camosuli. momavalSi pianistobas apireb? jer ar vici. arc sxva profesiaze mifiqria. eqstremaluri sporti miyvars, magram es profesia araa. ise, minda rom viyo pianisti da... mqondes rame biznesic. koncertebze nerviulob xolme? Tavidan cotas ki da pirvelive nots rom aviReb, mere aRar.

What about competitions? I was an out-of-competition participant at the Tbilisi International Piano Competition. I played Bach’s ‘Italian Concerto’, a rondo by Beethoven, one of Mendelssohn’s ‘Songs Without Words’, and one of Liszt’s ‘Consolations’. When I was 10, I took part in the international competition ‘Future Stars’ in Marmaris, where I was awarded the Grand Prize. Do your friends sometimes get angry that you study a lot? No, on the contrary – they support me, but if I don’t see them for a long period of time, then they get angry. Let’s continue on your competitions… I also took the first prize in Bulgaria, at the 12th International Competition “Young Virtuosos”. Famous Israeli pianist Arie Vardi was in the jury, and he liked my performance very much. Unfortunately, when I played at the closing ceremony of the competition, he was already gone. We are now in contact with him, and he gives me advice. Have you ever attended masterclasses? Yes, I had masterclasses both here and in France, where I traveled, thanks to Pierre Fournel. At that time, Fournel was attending the Tbilisi International Piano Competition, in which I was awarded the Temur Akhobadze award. Pierre was a friend of Temur, and he had decided that the winner of this prize would go to France. He’s not a musician, he’s a patron who organizes festivals, masterclasses and concerts in his big castle, where I’ve been going almost every year since then. Are there good conditions for studying there? Yes, there are eight grand pianos, including a Steinway, a Bösendorfer – each instrument is a historic one. He also has a fortepiano, a harpsichord, a clavichord, and he also purchased the organ of the nearby church, on which I also played.

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msmeneli gexmareba, Tu xels giSlis? didad ar vfiqrob xolme da dakvrisas vcdilob `ar davinaxo~ xalxi. momavalSi sad ginda swavlis gagrZeleba? amerikaSi. saerTod, amerikaSi minda Casvla, rom vnaxo iqauri cxovreba. ise, albaT juliardSi viswavlidi. realuri SemoTavazeba jerjerobiT pierisgan maqvs, safrangeTSi, parizis konservatoriaSi Tu Cavabareb, mis binaSi vicxovreb. Tumca, SarSan parizSi konservatoriis profesorma loren kabasom momismina da mirCia, jer skola davamTavro, rom xelSi diplomi meWiros. eqstremalur sportSi siswrafe mogwons? diax. Cemi `siyvaruli~, hobi Txilamurebia, mere `samakatka~ da velosipedi. magram velosipedi gavyide. aTwledidan saxlisken veSvebodi daRmarTze da tvinis Seryevac miviRe, maSin roca beThovenis pirveli koncerti unda damekra. kidev romeli koncertebi dagikrvs? baxis fa minoruli, haidnis re maJoruli, momavalSi vapireb raxmaninovis pirvelis dakvras. yvelaze metad romeli kompozitoris dakvra giyvars? Sopenis da raxmaninovis. jazs Tu ukrav an usmen? ki, magram ufro momRerlebs _ areta franklins, sxvebsac... bluzic miyvars; Zalian miyvars roki, xandaxan gitarazec vukrav, vmReri kidec... adre meeqvse skolis gundSi vmRerodi, magram dakvris gamo Tavi gavanebe. ramden saaTs ukrav dReSi? maqsimum oTxs, ufro sams... S. c.

96

You went to Astana after visiting France? Exactly one year later. I was the only one from Georgia in Astana that year. And? It was a disaster. I only reached the semi-finals. I think it was because I hadn’t slept for 48 hours. I went to rehearsals sleepless, straight from the airplane. Do you listen to pianists? Yes, to Rachmaninoff, Richter, Gould, Horowitz, Rubinstein. From the modern ones, Pletinov, Kissin, and Berezovsky. I even met Kissin when he was here. By the way… I also met Lionel Messi and I shook his hand when he visited Tbilisi for Barcelona-Sevilla. Do you see yourself as a pianist in the future? I don’t know yet. I’m not thinking about another profession either. I like extreme sports, but that’s not a profession. Anyway, I can imagine myself being a pianist and having some business too. Are you nervous during your performances? In the beginning, yes, a little bit, but as soon as I play a note, it goes away. Does the audience help you, or do they hinder your performance? I don’t really think when I’m playing, and I try to not see the people. Where do you want to continue your education in the future? In America. In general, I want to go to there, to see what American life is like. I would be very happy to study at Juilliard. For now, I have a serious offer from Pierre in France: I can live in his apartment if I study at the Conservatoire in Paris. But last year, Laurent Cabasso, professor at the Conservatoire in Paris, listened to me and advised me to finish school first, so that I have a diploma. Is it speed that you like in extreme sports? Yes. My favorite hobby is skiing, then doing kick scooter and riding a bicycle. But I sold my bicycle. I used to go downhill from the Central Music School, and I even got a concussion once, when I had to play Beethoven’s Concerto No. 1. What other concertos have you played? Bach in F minor, Haydn’s Concerto in D major, and I plan on playing Rachmaninoff’s Concerto No. 1 in the near future. Which composer do you like playing most? Chopin and Rachmaninoff. Do you play or listen to jazz? Yes, but mainly to singers – Aretha Franklin, and others… I like blues too, I’m very fond of rock, and I sometimes play on the guitar, I even sing – I used to sing in the band of the School No. 6, but I had to stop because of my piano lessons. How many hours do you play in a day? Maximum four. It’s more like three...

Sh. Ts.


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