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Die Sammlung Peter Groch, Teil 3

Auszeichnungen militärischer Konflikte von 1899 bis 1918/1921

Der Nachlaß des Generalfeldmarschalls August von Mackensen (1849-1945) Bedeutende Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt

AUKTION 329 11. Oktober 2019 in Osnabrück


AUKTION 329 Die Sammlung Peter Groch - Teil 3 Auszeichnungen militärischer Konflikte von 1899 bis 1918/1921

Der Nachlaß des Generalfeldmarschalls August von Mackensen (1849-1945) Bedeutende Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt ZEIT

Freitag, 11. Oktober 2019 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr 14.00 Uhr - 16.00 Uhr

ORT

Steigenberger Hotel Remarque Osnabrück, Natruper-Tor-Wall 1

TELEFON FAX

+49 541 96 202 0 +49 541 96 202 22

Auktionen 326-329, Oktober 2019 07./08. OKTOBER 2019

Auktion 326 Nordgriechenland, Griechisches Mutterland, Kykladen, Kreta Die Sammlung Dr. W. R., Teil 3 Münzen der antiken Welt, u. a. aus der Sammlung Phoibos und der Sammlung eines norddeutschen Antikenfreundes

08.-10. OKTOBER 2019

Auktion 327 300 Raritäten des niedersächsischen Raumes aus der Sammlung Friedrich Popken Münzen und Medaillen des Königreichs Westphalen Die Sammlung Dr. Rolf Löns Münzen und Medaillen aus Mittelalter und Neuzeit, u. a. aus den Sammlungen Eberhard Link und Skyler Liechty

10. OKTOBER 2019

Auktion 328 Goldprägungen Deutsche Münzen ab 1871

11. OKTOBER 2019

Auktion 329 Bedeutende Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt, u. a. die Slg. Peter Groch, Teil 3 und der Nachlaß August von Mackensen Auktion 330: eLive Premium Auction

Am 16./17. Oktober 2019 findet unsere Auktion 330, Münzen und Medaillen zu Reformation und Protestantismus - Die Sammlung Dr. Rainer Opitz, Teil 4 (In Zusammenarbeit mit Dirk Löbbers, Wettringen) ab 18.00 Uhr auf unserer eLive Auction-Plattform (www.eLive-Auction.de) statt.


Zeitplan/Timetable Auktion 326 Nordgriechenland, Griechisches Mutterland, Kykladen, Kreta Die Sammlung Dr. W. R., Teil 3 Münzen der antiken Welt u. a. aus der Sammlung Phoibos und der Sammlung eines norddeutschen Antikenfreundes

Montag, 07. Oktober 2019 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 580 Die Sammlung Dr. W. R., Teil 3 Keltische Münzen, Griechische Münzen bis Bruttium 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 581 bis Nr. 1448 Griechische Münzen ab Sicilia, Römische Münzen bis Antoninus I. Pius

Dienstag, 08. Oktober 2019 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 1449 bis Nr. 1983 Römische Münzen ab Antoninus II. Marcus Aurelius, Völkerwanderung, Byzanz, Kreuzfahrer, Orientalen

Auktion 327 300 Raritäten des niedersächsischen Raumes aus der Sammlung Friedrich Popken Münzen und Medaillen des Königreichs Westphalen Die Sammlung Dr. Rolf Löns Münzen und Medaillen aus Mittelalter und Neuzeit u. a. aus den Sammlungen Eberhard Link und Skyler Liechty

14.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 2501 bis Nr. 3231 Sammlung Friedrich Popken, Sammlung Rolf Löns Deutschland: Aachen - Braunschweig-Lüneburg

Mittwoch, 09. Oktober 2019 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 3232 bis Nr. 3776 Deutschland: Bremen - Sachsen 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 3777 bis Nr. 4438 Deutschland: Sayn - Würzburg, Medaillen, Lots, Habsburg, Europa: Baltikum - Rumänien

Donnerstag, 10. Oktober 2019 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 4439 bis Nr. 4721 Europa: Rußland - Ungarn, Sammlung Skyler Liechty, Übersee

Auktion 328 Goldprägungen Deutsche Münzen ab 1871

Auktion 329 Die Sammlung Peter Groch, Teil 3 Der Nachlaß des Generalfeldmarschalls August von Mackensen (1849-1945) Bedeutende Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt



Nr. 5001 bis Nr. 5225 Europa: Albanien - Rumänien 14.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 5226 bis Nr. 6051 Europa: Rußland - Ungarn, Übersee, Habsburg, Altdeutschland, Medaillen, Münzschmuck, Lots Deutsche Münzen ab 1871

Freitag, 11. Oktober 2019 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 6501 bis Nr. 7155 Die Sammlung Peter Groch, Teil 3 14.00 Uhr - 16.00 Uhr Nr. 7156 bis Nr. 7544 Die Sammlung Peter Groch, Teil 3, Nachlaß August von Mackensen, Bedeutende Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt


Verehrte Kunden, wir freuen uns, Ihnen die neuen Kataloge zu unseren Herbst-Auktionen präsentieren zu dürfen. Wir wünschen Ihnen viel Vergnügen beim Studium und hoffen, Sie finden einige schöne Stücke für Ihre Sammlung. Wie gewohnt haben wir unsere Kataloge mit Sorgfalt und Präzision entstehen lassen. Diesen hohen Standard verdanken wir einem Team von numismatischen Experten, die auf jahrzehntelange Erfahrung in der Erstellung von Auktionskatalogen zurückblicken können. Bei Künker können Sie sich daher auf eine exakte Bewertung und Beschreibung der Auktionsobjekte verlassen. Wir gehen in unserem Qualitätsversprechen sogar noch einen Schritt weiter: Wenn Sie bei uns ein Stück erwerben, geben wir Ihnen eine Echtheitsgarantie – und diese gilt bei uns zeitlich unbegrenzt. Wir gewährleisten damit über die gesetzliche Frist hinaus, dass die von uns verkauften Objekte echt sind beziehungsweise exakt den Beschreibungen im Katalog entsprechen. Neben der fachlichen Kompetenz und unserem Qualitätsversprechen sehen wir den Kontakt zu Ihnen als unsere wichtigste Aufgabe. Es ist eine Freude für uns, die Begeisterung für die Numismatik mit Ihnen teilen zu dürfen. Ihre Zufriedenheit ist unser Bestreben. Wir stehen Ihnen stets bei allen Fragen mit Lösungsvorschlägen zur Verfügung. Für uns ist es wichtig, Sie bereits ab dem ersten Kontakt persönlich und kompetent beraten zu können. Deswegen sind wir stolz darauf, Sie in insgesamt sieben Sprachen (Deutsch/Englisch/Französisch/ Italienisch/Spanisch/Arabisch/Russisch) begrüßen zu dürfen.

Oli Oliver Köpp Leiter Auktionsabteilung Director Numismatic Department

Um stets für Sie persönlich da sein zu können und Sie beim Aufbau oder dem Verkauf Ihrer Sammlung optimal zu betreuen, haben wir über die letzten Jahre ein Netz an Dependancen und Partnern aufgebaut. Darüber hinaus können Sie uns auf vielen großen Münzbörsen und Messen persönlich antreffen. Wir wünschen Ihnen nun viel Freude mit den Katalogen und viel Erfolg beim Bieten!

Dear Customers, We are delighted to present you our new catalogues for the fall auction sales. We wish you much enjoyment in your perusal of the catalogues, and we hope you may find some nice items you wish to add to your collection.

Dr. A D Andreas d K Kaiser i Geschäftsführer/Managing Director

We have, as usual, created our catalogues with care and attention to detail. These high standards, which you as a customer have come to appreciate, come to you courtesy of our team of numismatic experts, who benefit from decades of experience to create the auction catalogues. Thus when you consign to Künker or place a bid, you may depend on a precise, professional assessment and description of the objects to be auctioned. At Künker we even go one step further with our assurance of quality: when you acquire an item from us, we give you a warranty of authenticity – with no time limit. This means we warrant, beyond the time period set by law that the objects bought from us are authentic and correspond to the descriptions in the catalogues, precisely. Along with expert competence and our assurance of quality, we consider good relations with you, our customers, to be our most important priority. It is a great pleasure for us to share your enthusiasm and passion for numismatics. Our object in view will be your satisfaction. Our Customer Service is always more than happy to answer your questions and gives proposals for solution. It is important to us to advise you personally and competently, from the very first time you contact us. Therefore we’re proud that we can greet you in a total of seven languages (German/English/French/Italian/Spanish/Arabic/Russian).

Ulrich Ul i h Künker K k Geschäftsführer/Managing Director

In order to be at your disposal constantly, and help you in building or selling your collection, we have developed a worldwide network of branches and partners in recent years which brings us even closer to you. In addition you can meet us personally at many major coin conventions and coin fairs around the world. And now, allow us to wish you a pleasant experience with the catalogues, and much success in your bidding! With Best Wishes,

Eike Müller Eik M ll Leiter Goldhandel Director Gold Coin Trading Oliver Köpp and Dr. Andreas Kaiser

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Besichtigung/On View Orden und Ehrenzeichen/Orders and Decorations KÜNKER OSNABRÜCK Nobbenburger Straße a (nach Terminabsprache/by prior appointment) • bis einschließlich . Oktober • up to and including October 9, 2019

STEIGENBERGER HOTEL REMARQUE OSNABRÜCK Steigenberger Hotel Remarque, Natruper-Tor-Wall

KUENKER.DE

. - . Oktober

ab :

Uhr

• October 10 - 11, 2019 from 9 am

-

Münzen/Coins

KÜNKER OSNABRÜCK Nobbenburger Straße a (nach Terminabsprache/by prior appointment) • bis einschließlich . Oktober • up to and including October 6, 2019

STEIGENBERGER HOTEL REMARQUE OSNABRÜCK Steigenberger Hotel Remarque, Natruper-Tor-Wall • . - . Oktober

ab :

Uhr

• October 7 - 10, 2019 from 9 am

Wichtige Information/Important Information Bitte melden Sie die Abholung Ihrer Auktionsware auf der Numismata in Berlin bis zum . Oktober an. If you would like to collect your auction lots at the Numismata in Berlin, please inform us until October 10, 2019.

Online-Katalog/Online Catalogue Betrachten Sie unsere Auktionskataloge im Internet! Unter www.kuenker.de und www.sixbid.com haben Sie die Möglichkeit, Abbildungen zu vergrößern, Ihre Gebote direkt abzugeben und die Ergebnisse der Auktionen abzurufen. Please browse our auction catalogues at www.kuenker.com or at www.sixbid.com! You will have the possibility to zoom all images, to place your bids and to view all auction results online.

Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG AUKTIONEN/AUCTIONS Besuchen Sie unsere international bedeutenden Auktionen, die Ihnen viermal jährlich zahlreiche Raritäten bieten. Profitieren Sie als Bieter oder Einlieferer von unserer Erfahrung und Kompetenz. Visit our internationally recognized auctions which take place four times a year and offer many rarities. Benefit from our experience and competence while being a bidder or consigner. 4

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GOLDHANDEL/GOLD COIN TRADING Wir bieten Ihnen ein ständiges Angebot sowie den Ankauf von Anlagemünzen aus Deutschland, Europa und aller Welt zu fairen tagesaktuellen Preisen. We are constantly offering as well as purchasing a vast range of German, European and World bullion coins. We buy and sell gold assets at a fair, daily updated market price.

ONLINE-SHOP Wir bieten Ihnen in unserem Online-Shop auf www.kuenker.de ein täglich aktualisiertes Münz-Angebot von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit. Kaufen Sie hier unkompliziert zum Festpreis und ohne Risiko. We offer you an exclusive daily updated selection of coins from ancient to modern times. You can order at www.kuenker.com without hassle or risk.

eLIVE AUCTION Mit unseren eLive Auctions können Sie über das Internet an regelmäßigen Auktionen mit einem virtuellen Auktionator teilnehmen. Sie können Vorgebote bequem online abgeben und abschließend die Auktion live am Bildschirm für sich entscheiden. With our eLive Auctions, we offer you an opportunity to participate in regular auctions live over the Internet. You can submit preliminary bids online, and up to the last moment of the sale you can win auctions live on your computer screen.

ORDEN UND EHRENZEICHEN/ORDERS AND DECORATIONS Einmal im Jahr findet unsere besondere Ordensauktion statt, die sich ganz den dekorativen Ehrenzeichen widmet. Profitieren Sie als Bieter oder Einlieferer von unserer Erfahrung und Kompetenz im Bereich Phaleristik. Once a year there is a special auction dedicated to medals and decorations. Benefit from our experience in the field of phaleristik becoming our bidder or consigner.

Künker-Service Wir sind mittlerweile mit neun eigenen Standorten in Deutschland und Europa vertreten. So können wir Ihnen unseren beliebten Künker-Service auch in Ihrer Nähe anbieten. Unsere Leistungen vor Ort: • Persönliche Beratung und Betreuung in Ihrer Nähe • Sie können Ihre Münzen nach Vereinbarung direkt einliefern oder verkaufen, ersteigerte Münzen abholen und sich Einlieferungen auszahlen lassen. • Sie können sich von unserem Kooperationspartner auf den Künker-Auktionen vertreten lassen. We are now represented with nine locations in Germany and Europe so that we can also provide you the best service in your vicinity. Our local services: • You always have a point of contact nearby • You can directly consign or sell your coins, collect purchases and receive payment for consignments. Please contact your local Künker team for an appointment. • You can have our cooperation partner represent you at our auctions.

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Standorte/Locations OSNABRÜCK Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Nobbenburger Straße a, Osnabrück Tel. +

, service@kuenker.de

MÜNCHEN MAXIMILIANSPLATZ Stammhaus Osnabrück

Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Maximiliansplatz a, München Frank Richardsen, Olaf Niebert, Tel. + , muenchen@kuenker.de

MÜNCHEN LÖWENGRUBE Künker Numismatik AG, Löwengrube , München Dr. Hubert Ruß, Tel. + Frank Richardsen

Dr. Hubert Ruß

, service@kuenker-numismatik.de

HAMBURG Künker Hamburg, c/o Roland Trampe Roland Trampe, Tel. +

, roland.trampe@kuenker.de

KONSTANZ Künker Konstanz, c/o Michael Autengruber, Schulthaißstraße , Konstanz Roland Trampe

Michael Autengruber

Michael Autengruber, Tel. + , michael.autengruber@kuenker.de

STRASSBURG Künker France Sarl, rue des Francs-Bourgeois,

Strasbourg, Frankreich

Régis Poinsignon, Tel. +

, contact@kuenker.fr

WIEN Künker Wien, c/o Numfil GmbH, Seidengasse , Wien, Österreich Régis Poinsignon

Petr Kovaljov, Tel. +

, kuenker@numfil.com

ZNOJMO Künker Znojmo, c/o Numfil s.r.o., . Listopadu , Znojmo, Tschechien Petr Kovaljov, Tel. +

, petr.kovaljov@kuenker.de

ZÜRICH Künker Zürich, c/o Hess-Divo AG, Löwenstraße , Zürich, Schweiz Petr Kovaljov

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TELEFON +

Ulf Künker

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Ulf Künker, Tel. +

, zuerich@kuenker.de

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Das „Haus für geprägte Geschichte“ Seit der Firmengründung im Jahre ist die Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG mit der Friedensstadt Osnabrück verbunden. Unser Firmensitz ist heute eines der größten Kompetenzzentren der Münzenkunde und beherbergt zudem eine der bedeutendsten Bibliotheken ihrer Art. Diese steht den numismatischen Experten zur Verfügung, um immer eine exakte Bewertung und Beschreibung sowie geschichtliche Hintergründe der Auktionsobjekte für unsere hochwertigen Auktionskataloge zu liefern. Im Stammhaus in Osnabrück berät und unterstützt Sie unser Kundenservice in allen Belangen rund um Münzen und Orden sowie zu den Saalauktionen und eLive Auctions. Um Sie auch in Ihrer Nähe betreuen zu können, haben wir ein internationales Netzwerk aufgebaut. Das zweite Standbein unseres Unternehmens ist der Handel mit Gold- und Anlagemünzen, der unseren Kunden eine interessante und reichhaltige Auswahl an numismatischen Objekten bietet.

The “House of Minted History” Since the company’s founding in , the Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG has been strongly associated with the “City of Peace” Osnabrück, Germany. Today, our central offices are home to one of the most important centers of competence in the worldwide coin sphere, and contain one of the most significant libraries in the field as well. Künker makes this library available to numismatic experts, in order to always be in a position to provide precise assessments and descriptions, and of course historic background, of the auction items for our highly-valued auction catalogues. From the company’s Osnabrück headquarters, the Customer Service team can advise and support you in all issues having to do with coins and medallions, and with matters related to the gallery auctions and eLive Auctions. In order to further serve you in your own region, we have built an international network. Our company’s second division, too, deals with minted history: the trading department offers customers a wide variety of outstanding gold bullion and collecting gold coins.

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Was ist für Ihre schriftliche Auktionsteilnahme besonders wichtig?

DEUTSCH

• Bitte senden Sie uns Ihre Aufträge möglichst frühzeitig zu. Wenn uns Ihr Auftrag erst kurz vor der Auktion erreicht, können sich bei der Bearbeitung Fehler einschleichen. Das beiliegende Formular erleichtert Ihnen die Abgabe eines schriftlichen Gebots. Gerne nehmen wir Ihre Gebote per Post, Fax oder Email entgegen. • Wenn Sie noch nicht bei uns gekauft haben, bitten wir Sie, uns als Referenz eine Münzhandlung anzugeben, mit der Sie bereits in Geschäftsverbindung stehen. • Wir gewährleisten die Echtheit aller verkauften Objekte auch über die gesetzliche Frist hinaus.

Sie möchten telefonisch an der Auktion teilnehmen? Die telefonische Teilnahme an der Auktion ist bei uns selbstverständlich möglich. Wir rufen Sie während der Auktion gerne an und helfen Ihnen, die gewünschten Stücke zu ersteigern. Aus organisatorischen Gründen bitten wir Sie, die folgenden Punkte zu beachten: • Telefonisches Bieten ist nur bei Losen mit einer Taxe von mind. € • Bitte teilen Sie uns mindestens angerufen werden möchten.

,– möglich.

Stunden vor der Auktion mit, zu welchen Stücken Sie

• Bitte achten Sie darauf, dass Sie erreichbar sind, wenn Ihre Stücke versteigert werden. Der Zeitplan in diesem Katalog hilft Ihnen dabei, den Zeitpunkt der Versteigerung abzuschätzen. Barbara Westmeyer, deutschsprachige Kundenbetreuung

• Wir empfehlen, zusätzlich zu Ihrem Anrufwunsch auch ein Gebotslimit abzugeben, damit wir für Sie auch dann bieten können, falls die Verbindung nicht zustande kommt. • Bitte beachten Sie, dass telefonisches Bieten eine unsichere Variante der Auktionsteilnahme sein kann. Wir können keine Garantie für das Zustandekommen der telefonischen Verbindung übernehmen. Wenn Sie sicher gehen wollen, besuchen Sie bitte unsere Auktion persönlich oder geben Sie uns ein schriftliches Gebot.

Telefon: + Fax: + Gebührenfrei: E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Internet: www.kuenker.de Montag - Donnerstag, . - . Freitag, . - .

Uhr Uhr

Was passiert nach der Auktion? • Der Versand der Auktionsware startet sofort nach Beendigung der Auktion und dauert in der Regel Tage. • Alle Kunden, die an unserer Auktion schriftlich teilgenommen haben, erhalten innerhalb von Wochen nach der Auktion unsere Ergebnisliste gratis. • Alle Ergebnisse sind spätestens einen Tag nach Auktionsende auf unserer Internetseite verfügbar.

Sie möchten Ihre Münzen in unsere Auktion einliefern? Sollten Sie sich zum Verkauf Ihrer Münzen entschlossen haben, kommen Sie zu uns. Seit beweisen wir mit derzeit Auktionsterminen und ca. Katalogen pro Jahr unsere Kompetenz und Zuverlässigkeit. Wichtige Informationen für Sie im Überblick: • Ihre Münzen werden von unseren Experten nach neuestem numismatischem Standard bestimmt und in hochwertigen Farbkatalogen präsentiert. • Wir verfügen mit mehr als . Kunden über eine der besten Kundendateien weltweit. Im Durchschnitt verkaufen wir mehr als % der Stücke einer Auktion, nicht selten erzielen wir dabei Rekordzuschläge. Für nicht verkaufte Objekte werden keine Gebühren erhoben. • Ab der Übergabe an uns sind Ihre Münzen mit dem doppelten Schätzwert versichert. Unsere Kundenbetreuung bespricht gerne mit Ihnen wie Ihre Stücke sicher zu uns gelangen können. • Ihre Einlieferung wird Ihnen sofort nach der Übernahme quittiert. Spätestens Wochen vor der Auktion erhalten Sie eine Auflistung Ihrer Stücke inkl. Katalognummern und Schätzpreisen. • Unmittelbar nach der Auktion erhalten Sie die Ergebnisliste und können dann alle erzielten Preise feststellen. Den Auktionserlös erhalten Sie innerhalb von Tagen nach der Auktion.

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Important facts for a written participation in the auction • Please send us your instructions as early as possible. The likelihood of errors occurring increases if we receive your instructions only shortly before the auction. The enclosed form should make it simple for you to submit a written bid, you may send your bids by mail, fax or e-mail.

ENGLISH

• If you are a new customer who has not yet purchased from us, we do request references. Please name a coin dealer with whom you have already done business. • The genuineness of all objects sold is warranted beyond the statutory length of time.

Do you wish to participate by telephone? You are welcome to participate in our auction by telephone. We are glad to call you during the auction and to assist you in bidding for your items. Please take notice of the following conditions: • Telephone bidding is accepted exclusively on lot numbers with estimates at above.

Euro or

• Please inform us at least hours in advance if you wish to register for telephone bidding, even for single lots. We do need hours to schedule all incoming requests. • Please be available, when your lots will be sold. The time schedule in the catalogue will help you to estimate the approximate time when your items are going to be sold.

Alexandra Elflein-Schwier, M. A. English, Français, Deutsch, Italiano

• When you register for telephone bidding, we recommend to leave a written bid in addition. This bid will only be executed, should the telephone bidding be interrupted or not be achieved. • Please be aware that telephone bidding is a risky way of participation in our auction. We do not assume liability should the telephone line be interrupted or not be achieved. We advise you to attend the auction in person or to send written bids.

What occurs after the auction? • The shipment of all auction goods starts immediately after the completion of the entire auction week and it usually takes days to be completed. • All auction results are available on our website one day after the end of the auction week.

Marion Künker English, Deutsch

• All clients who submitted bids for the auction will automatically receive the list of auction results free of charge within two weeks after the end of auction.

Do you wish to consign your coins to our auction? Should you decide to sell your coins, we are ready to assist you. Since we have earned our bona fides in conducting over auctions and in publishing catalogues per year. In the following you will find the most important information on consigning:

Phone: + Fax: + E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Website: www.kuenker.com

• We guarantee the professional handling of your consignment following the latest numismatic level of expertise including its presentation in colour catalogues of outstanding quality.

Monday - Thursday . Friday . am - pm

am - pm

• We possess one of the best customer lists worldwide. On average we sell more than % of all items in our auction, and it is not unusual for us to achieve record hammer prices for lots submitted. Unsold items incur no fees. • Once the coins are consigned they are covered by our insurance at double the estimate. Upon consultation with our customer service we try to advise you on the safest way of shipping for your coins. • Your delivery will be confirmed in writing immediately on receipt. At least five weeks before the auction, you will receive an exact list of your objects with the relevant catalogue numbers and descriptions. • Within a week of the end of auction, you will receive a list of auction results in order to see what prices were reached for each individual lot. As a consignor, you will receive the auction proceeds within days after the end of auction.

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Votre participation par écrit – Les points essentiels • Veuillez nous faire parvenir vos ordres le plus tôt possible. Si vos ordres nous parviennent juste avant la vente aux enchères, des erreurs risquent d’être commises lors de leur traitement. Le formulaire ci-joint vous aidera à rédiger facilement votre offre. Vous pouvez nous envoyer vos ordres par la poste, par fax ou par e-mail.

FRANÇAIS

• Si vous n’avez encore fait aucune acquisition chez nous, nous vous prions de nous indiquer une ou deux références d’autres maisons numismatiques où vous avez déjà acheté. • L’authenticité des pièces vendues est garantie même au-delà des délais légaux.

Vous voulez participer par téléphone? La participation par téléphone est bien sûr possible. Nous vous appelons volontiers pour vous aider à acquérir les pièces voulues. Pour des raisons d´organisation veuillez noter les points suivants: • La participation par téléphone est possible seulement pour les lots estimés plus de Euros chacun. • Veuillez nous informer au moins heures avant la vente de la liste des pièces pour lesquelles vous voudriez être appelé. • Veuillez prendre soin d´être joignable quand vos pièces seront mises en vente. L’ordre de vente dans ce catalogue vous aidera à estimer l´heure de la vente. Kmar Chachoua Français, Deutsch, English, Arabic Leiterin Kundenbetreuung Director Customer Service

• Vus les risques de la participation téléphonique, nous vous recommandons néanmoins d’indiquer une limite maximale pour chaque lot, pour que nous puissions enchérir pour vous, même si la communication téléphonique était interrompue ou ne pouvait pas être établie. • La participation par téléphone présentant des risques, nous déclinons toute responsabilité si la communication téléphonique est interrompue ou ne peut être établie.

Ce qui se passe après la vente Tél. + Facs. + E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Site: www.kuenker.de Lundi à Jeudi de h Vendredi de h

à à

• L´expédition des biens va commencer immédiatement après la fin de la vente complète, et prend généralement jours. • Tous les clients qui ont participé à l’une de nos ventes aux enchères recevront gratuitement une liste de résultats dans les deux semaines qui suivent. • Les résultats seront disponibles sur notre site internet, au plus tard un jour après la fin de la vente.

h h

Vous voulez confier vos monnaies pour nos ventes aux enchères? Contactez nous si vous envisagez de vendre vos pièces. Notre compétence et fiabilité est prouvée depuis par actuellement ventes aux enchères et environ catalogues par an. Le plus important pour vous est que: • Vos pièces seront décrites par notre équipe d’experts selon les standards numismatiques les plus récents, et elles seront présentées dans des catalogues de haute qualité en couleurs. • Nous avons un des meilleurs fichiers-clientèle du monde avec plus de . clients. Nous vendons en moyenne plus de % de la vente aux enchères, et obtenons souvent des prix records. Les monnaies invendues n’encourent aucun frais. • Notre service clientèle est disponible pour vous conseiller pour l’envoi de vos pièces, et dès leur réception vos pièces seront assurées pour le double de la valeur d´estimation. • Vous recevrez une liste détaillée des pièces fournies au moment de la prise en charge, puis, au plus tard cinq semaines avant la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez leur liste exacte avec les numéros de catalogue correspondants. • Immédiatement après la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez la liste des résultats et pourrez prendre connaissance des prix obtenus. Vous recevrez le produit de la vente dans les jours après les enchères.

10

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I punti piú importanti per la Sua partecipazione per iscritto • La preghiamo di farci pervenire i Suoi ordini al piú presto possibile. Se i Suoi ordini ci arrivano poco prima dell´inizio dell´asta possono verificarsi errori. Il formulario allegato Le faciliterá l´invio dei Suoi ordini per iscritto. Ci puó far pervenire i Suoi ordini per posta, per fax o per email.

ITALIANO

• Se non ha mai acquistato presso di noi, La preghiamo di volerci indicare a titolo di referenza il nome di uno o due commercianti numismatici presso i quali è giá cliente. • L’autenticità di tutti gli oggetti venduti viene garantita anche oltre i termini previsti dalla legge.

Desidera partecipare telefonicamente alla nostra asta? La partecipazione telefonica è naturalmente da noi possibile. La chiameremo durante l´asta e La assisteremo volentieri per ottenere l´aggiudicazione dei pezzi desiderati. Per motivi di organizzazione La preghiamo di voler tenere conto dei seguenti punti: • La partecipazione telefonica è possibile solo per lotti stimati con almeno • La preghiamo di volerci comunicare almeno pezzi desidera essere chiamato.

,– € l´uno.

ore prima dell´inizio dell´asta per quali

• La preghiamo di aver cura di essere raggiungibile telefonicamente al momento in cui vengono messi all´asta i pezzi che Le interessano. Lo schema orario in catalogo La aiuterá a stimare a che ora verranno messi all´asta i pezzi che Le interessano.

Cristina Welzel Italiano, Deutsch, English, Français

• Consigliamo di indicare sempre assieme alla richiesta di partecipazione telefonica anche un´ importo massimo, per permetterci di fare per Lei l´offerta anche nel caso in cui la telefonata non fosse possibile. • La partecipazione telefonica è un modo incerto di partecipare alle aste. Non assumiamo nessuna responsabilità se per esempio la linea telefonica è occupata o interrotta o se Lei non sará raggiungibile per altri motivi.

Cosa succede dopo l´asta? • La spedizione del materiale d´asta comincia subito dopo la fine dell´intera asta e termina normalmente entro giorni.

Sonia Russo, M. A. Italiano, Deutsch, English, Español

• Tutti i clienti che hanno partecipato all´asta ricevono entro settimane dopo l´asta la lista dei prezzi di realizzo. • I prezzi di realizzo sono visionabili sul nostro sito internet al piú tardi un giorno dopo la fine dell´intera asta.

Vuole consegnarci le Sue monete per una nostra asta? Ci contatti se ha deciso di vendere le Sue monete. Dal la nostra competenza ed affidabilità è dimostrata da attualmente aste e circa cataloghi all´anno. Quali sono i punti di maggior importanza per Lei: • Le Sue monete vengono valutate dal nostro staff di esperti secondo i piú attuali standard numismatici e vengono presentati in cataloghi di alto valore a colori.

Tel.: + Fax: + E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Internet: www.kuenker.de Lunedì a giovedì dalle . alle Venerdì dalle . alle .

.

• Con piú di . clienti disponiamo di una delle migliori banca dati clienti del mondo. In media vendiamo oltre il % del materiale d´asta realizzando spesso prezzi da record. Per i pezzi invenduti non ci sono nessune spese da pagare. • Dal momento della consegna le Sue monete sono assicurate per il doppio del valore di stima. Il nostro servizio clientela Le consiglierá volentieri come farci avere le Sue monete nel modo piú sicuro. • La Sua consegna Le verrá immediatamente quietanzata al momento della resa dei pezzi. Al piú tardi settimane prima dell´asta riceverá una lista dettagliata dei Suoi pezzi con i numeri di catalogo ed i prezzi di stima. • Subito dopo l´asta riceverá la lista con i risultati d´asta dalla quale potrá subito controllare i prezzi realizzati. Riceverá l´importo di realizzo entro giorni dopo la fine dell´asta.

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Что особенно важно при заочном участии на аукционе?

RUSSKIJ

• Тщательно изучите наш каталог и запишите те лоты, которые Вас заинтересовали. Заполните приложенный формуляр и отправьте нам его заранее по почте, факсу или электронной почте. Мы обращаем внимание на то, что если Ваши ставки придут перед самым началом аукциона либо во время аукциона, то существует вероятность допуска ошибки в процессе обработки заказа. • Если Вы впервые принимаете участие в нашем аукционе, то мы рекомендуем Вам указать Ваш референц – аукционные дома, с которыми Вы уже сотрудничали. Или свяжитесь с нами по телефону + или + . • Подлинность купленных на нашем аукционе лотов гарантируется нами на протяжении неограниченного времени.

Вы хотели бы принять участие на аукционе по телефону? • Участие в телефонных торгах возможно только для лотов со стартовой ценой свыше евро. • Для участия в торгах по телефону просим Вас связаться с нами не позднее до начала аукциона.

часов

• Мы хотим подчеркнуть, что телефонное участие на аукционе – не самый безопасный способ: в случае плохой связи, недоступности клиента во время торгов либо других технических проблем мы не несем ответственности. Larysa Bunina Russkij, Deutsch, English

• Мы рекомендуем Вам при участии в торгах по телефону дополнительно сообщить нам о Вашем лимите на интересующие лоты в случае, если телефонная связь будет невозможна или по техническим причинам прервана.

Что происходит после окончания аукциона? Телефон: + Факс: + E-Mail: service@kuenker.de интернет: www.kuenker.de понедельник - четверг . пятница .

- . - .

• Результаты аукционов доступны на нашем сайте на следующий день после окончания торгов. • Вы можете лично забрать приобретенные лоты. По окончании торгов мы готовим все необходимые документы на вывоз из Евросоюза. • Почтовые отправки в Россию ( Беларусь, Украину ) осуществляются по предварительной договоренности. Для связи с нами звоните по телефону + или + .

Вы хотели бы выставить Ваши предметы на аукцион? Более -ти успешно проведенных аукционов, тысячи участников, аукциона в год эти и другие преимущества, которые говорят в пользу выставления Ваших коллекций на аукцион Кюнкер: • Ваши монеты будут оценены нашими экспертами по самым новым нумизматическим стандартам и представлены в высококачественном цветном каталоге. • Более клиентов со всего мира оказывают нам свое доверие. В среднем мы продаем более % всех выставляемых предметов, при этом зачастую достигая рекордных сумм. • Все Ваши предметы, после передачи их нам, хранятся у нас до начала аукциона застрахованными. Не позднее -ти недель до начала аукциона Вы получите по почте подробное описание Ваших лотов с указанными номерами в каталоге, а также их оценочной стоимостью. • Результаты аукционов также будут высланы Вам по почте после окончания торгов. В течение дней после аукциона Вам будет выплачено Ваше вознаграждение.

12

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什么是书面竞价要注意的? • 请尽早将您的竞价单寄给我们。如果我们在拍卖前很短时间内才收到您 的竞价单,可能会产生工作上的失误。后面附加的竞价表会辅助您完成 您的书面竞价。我们很愿意通过邮件,传真及电子邮件的方式接受您的 竞价。

CHINESE

• 如果您以前从未参与过我们的拍卖,请将一个与您有过生意往来的钱币 公司作为介绍人告知我们。 • 我们承诺所有拍品为真品,即使过了法律追诉期。

您想通过电话竞拍吗? 您当然也可以参加电话竞价。我们会在拍卖进行时致电给您,并协助您拍得 拍品。我们请您注意以下几点: • 电话竞价只针对估价为500欧元以上的拍品。 • 请在至少拍卖48小时前告知我们您要电话竞价的拍品。 • 请您注意,在您的拍品进行竞拍时,我们能够与您联系上。拍卖目录中 所附的时间表能帮助您推测您的拍品竞拍时间。 • 如果我们不能与您联系上,我们会以您的名义出价到您书面竞价的最高 价,最低不低于我们的起拍价。

Petr Kovaljov Czech, Deutsch, English

• L请您注意,电话竞价是一种不保险的参拍方式。我们并不能保证电话线 路的畅通无阻。如果您想确保参拍,请亲临现场或书面竞价。

• 在拍卖结束后我们将立即开始寄出拍品,通常需要8个工作日。

Phone: + Fax: + E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Website: www.kuenker.com

• 所有参加书面竞价的顾客,将在拍卖结束的2周内免费收到我们的拍品成 交价目单。

Monday - Thursday . AM - PM Friday . AM - PM

拍卖售后服务

• 所有拍品成交价目单最晚在拍卖结束一天后登载在我们的主页上。

您想送拍您所收藏的钱币到我们的拍卖会? 如果您想出售您的钱币,请联系我们坤客拍卖公司。自1985年我们就通过一 年四拍和大约每年15本拍卖目录来证明了我们的专业技能和可信度。请过目 以下的重要信息: • 您的钱币将由我们的专家通过最新币识标准来鉴定并刊登到高品质的彩 色目录上。 • 我们拥有全球超过10000个顾客,平均在每场拍卖会上有95%的拍品成 交,并多次创造了新的成交记录。对于没有成交的拍品我们不收取任何 费用。 • 从我们收到您的钱币开始,拍品会以双倍起拍价保险,我们的客户服务 很愿意为您解说您的钱币如何能安全的递交于我们。 • 我们在收到您的钱币后会立即给您开具书面收据,最晚至拍卖开始前5星 期您会收到所送拍品明细清单及其目录号和起拍价。 • 拍卖结束后您会收到成交价目录单并从中确认您的送交拍品成交价。45 天后您会收到您的拍品拍卖所得款项。

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13


INHALT AUKTION 329 Los-Nr. DIE SAMMLUNG PETER GROCH - TEIL 3 DER NACHLASS DES GENERALFELDMARSCHALLS AUGUST VON MACKENSEN (1849-1945) BEDEUTENDE ORDEN UND EHRENZEICHEN AUS ALLER WELT

6501

-

7544

DIE SAMMLUNG PETER GROCH - TEIL 3

6501

-

7449

Der dritte Carlisten-Krieg (1872-1876)

6501

-

6503

Militärische Konflikte des 20. Jahrhunderts bis 1918/1921

6504

-

6673

6504 6517 6526 6548

-

6516 6525 6547 6566

6567 6581 6670

-

6580 6669 6673

Der Erste Weltkrieg 1914-1918

6674

-

7449

Deutschland

6674

-

7070

6674 6679 6687 6724

-

6732 6744 6747 6756 6760 6778 6787 6791 6842 6851 6862 6897 6912 6914 6932 6962 6979 6994 6998

-

6678 6686 6723 6730 6731 6743 6746 6755 6759 6777 6786 6790 6841 6850 6861 6896 6911 6913 6931 6961 6978 6993 6997 7003

Der Spanisch-Amerikanische Krieg von 1898 und der Philippinisch-Amerikanische Krieg von 1899 bis 1902 bzw. 1913 bzw. 1916 Der (Zweite) Burenkrieg von 1899 bis 1902 Die Niederschlagung des Boxer-Aufstandes in China 1900-1901 Der Russisch-Japanische Krieg 1904-1905 Die Niederschlagung des Herero-Aufstandes in Deutsch-Südwestafrika (1904-1908) Der Erste und Zweite Balkankrieg 1912-1913 Der Italienisch-Türkisch Krieg (1911/1912)

Anhalt Baden Bayern Braunschweig Freie Hansestädte gemeinsam Hessen (-Darmstadt) Hohenzollern Lippe Schaumburg-Lippe Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Preußen Preußen - Eisernes Kreuz Reuß gemeinsam Sachsen Sachsen (-Weimar) Sächsische Herzogtümer gemeinsam Sachsen-Altenburg Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha Sachsen-Meiningen Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Schwarzburg gemeinsam




Los-Nr. Waldeck Württemberg Deutsches Reich 1871-1918 Deutsches Reich 1919-1933, sogen. "Weimarer Republik" Deutsches Reich (1933-1938) bzw. Großdeutsches (1938-1945) Reich ("Drittes Reich")

7004 7011 7023 7061

-

7010 7022 7060 7067

7068

-

7070

7071

-

7449

7072 7105 7157 7164 7332 7352 7357 7386 7417

-

7071 7104 7156 7163 7331 7351 7356 7385 7416 7449

7450

-

7488

7453 7463 7478

-

7450 7451 7462 7477 7488

BEDEUTENDE ORDEN UND EHRENZEICHEN AUS ALLER WELT

7489

-

7544

Deutschland

7489

-

7532

7490

-

7499 7501

-

7505 7510 7513 7523 7526 7528

-

7530

-

7531 7532

7533

-

7543

7533

-

7535

Mittelmächte und Verbündete / Kontrollierte Territorien Albanien Finnland Bulgarien Georgien Österreich Polen Slowakei Türkei, Osmanisches Reich Ukraine Ungarn NACHLASS DES GENERALFELDMARSCHALLS AUGUST VON MACKENSEN (1849-1945) Eisernes Kreuz, Ausgabe 1914 Orden pour le mérite Ehrengeschenke und Erinnerungsobjekte Objekte aus Tafelsilber Sonstige Objekte

Baden Bayern Braunschweig Hamburg Frankfurt Fürstenberg Hannover Lippe Oldenburg Preußen Preußen - Eisernes Kreuz Sächsische Herzogtümer Deutsches Reich 1871 bis 1918 Deutsches (1933-1938) bzw. Großdeutsches (1938-1945) Reich ("Drittes Reich") Bundesrepublik Deutschland Europa Frankreich

7489 7497 7498 7500 7502 7503 7504 7509 7512 7522 7525 7527 7529




Los-Nr. Italien Souveräner Malteser Ritterorden Österreich Polen Russisches Reich Türkei, Osmanisches Reich



7540

-

7536 7537 7538 7539 7542 7543

Übersee

7544

Persien

7544


Sehr geehrte Sammler, verehrte Kunden! Ich freue mich, Ihnen einen neuen phaleristischen Auktionskatalog des Hauses Künker mit über 1.000 Auktionslosen vorlegen zu können. Zur Versteigerung angeboten werden darin: Orden, Ehren- und Abzeichen, Miniaturen, Ordensschnallen, Historica und Memorabilia aus Deutschland, Europa und der ganzen Welt, vom 18. Jahrhundert bis in die Gegenwart. Nach dem großen Erfolg von Teil I der Sammlung von Peter Groch in unserer Auktion 311 im vergangenen Jahr präsentieren wir Ihnen heute Teil III Militärische Konflikte des 20. Jahrhunderts bis 1918/1921. Teil II Deutsche Staaten von Anhalt bis Oldenburg haben wir im Mai dieses Jahres in unserer eLive Auction 55 ebenfalls mit großem Erfolg angeboten, von der ein PDF-Katalog angefertigt wurde, der auf unserer Homepage www.kuenker.de abgerufen werden kann. Die Präsentation der Auszeichnungen im historischen Sammlungskontext, und eben nicht in der in Deutschland üblichen Weise nach Ländern den Katalogen folgend durchdekliniert, hat ein sehr großes, überaus positives Echo unter Sammler- und Leserschaft des Kataloges zur 311. Auktion hervorgerufen, was uns darin bestärkt, diesen Weg bei der Sammlung von Peter Groch weiter zu verfolgen. Zunächst rufen wir einige Nachzügler zu Teil I auf, die den Dritten Carlisten-Krieg von 1872 bis 1876 in Spanien betreffen. Dann folgen Auszeichnungen des Spanisch-Amerikanischen Kriegs von 1898 und des PhilippinischAmerikanischen Kriegs von 1899 bis 1902, des Zweiten Burenkriegs von 1899 bis 1902, der Niederschlagung des Boxer-Aufstands in China von 1900 bis1901, des Russisch-Japanischen Kriegs von 1904 bis 1905, der Niederschlagung des Herero-Aufstandes in Deutsch-Südwestafrika von 1904 bis 1908 und des Ersten und Zweiten Balkankriegs von 1912 bis 1913. Aufgrund des enormen Umfangs des Bereichs Erster Weltkrieg ist es uns dieses Mal nur möglich, die Auszeichnungen der Mittelmächte (Deutsches Reich und deutsche Staaten, Österreich-Ungarn und Nachfolgestaaten, Osmanisches Reich und Bulgarien) und ihrer Verbündeten (Finnland) bzw. der von den Mittelmächten kontrollierten Territorien (Albanien, Georgien, Polen und Ukraine) anzubieten. Die Auszeichnungen der Alliierten müssen einer weiteren Auktion im kommenden Jahr vorbehalten bleiben. Insgesamt umfaßt Teil III der Sammlung Peter Groch nahezu 950 Auktionslose. Wir legen großen Wert darauf, zu betonen, dass diese Sammlung nicht aus militaristischen oder gar kriegsverherrlichenden Gründen zusammengetragen wurde. Als überzeugter Pazifist beschäftigte sich Peter Groch mit dem Zeitraum des Neunzehnten und Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts, in denen die Grundlagen für die politischen Entwicklungen gelegt wurden, die nach einer ganzen Reihe von Kriegen, Auseinandersetzungen und Feldzügen in der sog. „guten alten Zeit“ und schließlich nach zwei katastrophalen Weltkriegen zum heutigen Europa und zur Europäischen Union geführt haben. Die Betrachtung dieser Sammlung möge uns auch daran erinnern, trotz aller Probleme und politischer Konflikte das große Ganze, nämlich ein einiges Europa ohne innere Grenzen nicht aus dem Blick zu verlieren, ein Ergebnis harter politischer Arbeit aller politischen Richtungen in über 70 Jahren Frieden. Nach diesem ersten Hauptteil unserer Versteigerung folgen deutsche, europäische und außereuropäische Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus verschiedenem Besitz, worunter sich wieder eine ganze Reihe besonderer Objekte befinden: ein Kleinod des bayerischen Hausritterorden vom hl. Hubertus aus den 1820er/1830er Jahren am Schulterband und im Etui (Kat.-Nr. 7490), eine hannoversche Goldene Verdienstmedaille (Kat.-Nr. 7504), je eine oldenburgische Zivilverdienstmedaille von 1814 in Gold (Kat.-Nr. 7510) und in Silber (Kat.-Nr. 7511), ein preußischer Pour le mérite aus dem Zeitraum zwischen ca. 1787 bis ca. 1812 mit späterem Eichenlaub (Kat.-Nr. 7513), ein Kollanen-Set des sog. Verdienstordens des Malteserordens (Kat.-Nr. 7537), ein Kleinod des polnischen St. Stanislaus-Ordens aus dem 18. Jahrhundert (Kat.-Nr. 7539), ein Kollanen-Set des russischen St. Andreas-Ordens in einer späten Anfertigung von Eduard in St. Petersburg zwischen 1908 und 1916/17 (Kat.-Nr. 7540) und ein hübscher russischer Miniatur-St. GeorgsSäbel mit zehn anhängenden Auszeichnungsminiaturen (Kat.-Nr. 7542). Verstreut über den ganzen Katalog werden auch eine ganze Reihe von deutschen, österreichischen und osmanischen Flieger-Abzeichen angeboten. Eingebettet in diesen Bereich ist der umfangreiche Nachlaß (Kat.-Nr. 7450 - 7488) des legendären preußischen Generalfeldmarschalls August von Mackensen (1849-1945), der uns von seinen direkten Nachkommen zur Versteigerung überlassen worden ist. So sind wir sehr, sehr stolz darauf, Ihnen in dieser Auktion das zweifelsfrei




originale GroĂ&#x;kreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes 1914 (Kat.-Nr. 7450) anbieten zu kĂśnnen, das Mackensen am 9. Januar 1917 verliehen bekommen hat, meines Wissens das einzige von den insgesamt fĂźnf verliehenen bzw. getragenen Originalexemplaren, das bisher auf den Markt gelangt ist, sowie eine alte Zweitanfertigung von Mackensens Pour le mĂŠrite mit Eichenlaub (Kat.-Nr. 7451), die er nachweislich getragen hat. Weiter folgen Ehrengeschenke, z. B. ein Geschenk-Zigarettenetui Kaiser Wilhelms II. (Kat.-Nr. 7453), und mehre silberne Erinnerungs-Bilderrahmen, gefolgt von zahlreichen Objekten seines Tafelsilbers (Kat.-Nr. 7463 - 7476), nahezu alle mit dem gravierten Adlerkopf aus Mackensens Familienwappen, sowie weitere Memorabilia, u. a. das ihm am 6. Dezember 1944 Ăźberreichte Exemplar des sehr selten zu findenden Ă„rmelbandes Feldmarschall v. Mackensen des Kavallerie Regiments 5 (Kat.-Nr. 7483). Der gesamte Katalog wurde wieder unter langjährig bewährten wissenschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten nach bestem Gewissen des Autors erstellt. Sollten Sie dennoch einen Fehler entdecken oder Ăźber detailliertere Informationen zu einem Objekt verfĂźgen, wären wir Ihnen sehr dankbar fĂźr diesbezĂźgliche Hinweise an unsere Kundenbetreuung unter service@kuenker.de. Die Ausrufpreise, die hier wieder bei 80% des angegebenen Schätzpreises liegen, kĂśnnen nahezu durchweg als Ăźberaus vernĂźnftig und „Sammler-freundlich“ charakterisiert werden. Der Katalog ist umfangreich in Farbe bebildert; darĂźber hinaus sind weitere Aufnahmen der angebotenen Objekte auf unserer Homepage in unserem Online-Katalog (www.kuenker.de) unter den entsprechenden Katalognummern zu sehen. Dort haben Sie auch die MĂśglichkeit, die StĂźcke im Detail zu betrachten. Lassen Sie mich an dieser Stelle darauf hinweisen, daĂ&#x; ich stets sehr darum bemĂźht bin, Einschränkungen in der Erhaltung so weit wie mĂśglich zu benennen, daĂ&#x; aber dennoch der in rĂśmischen Ziffern angegebene Erhaltungsgrad bei der Bewertung der StĂźcke unbedingt miteinbezogen werden muĂ&#x;. Ich wĂźnsche Ihnen, sehr geehrter Sammler und Kunde, viel Freude beim Studium dieses Kataloges; und ich wĂźrde mich freuen, wenn eines oder gar mehrere der hier angebotenen Objekte den Weg auch in Ihre Sammlung finden wĂźrden. Konstanz, im August 2019

Michael Autengruber Ăœber den Autor: Jahrgang 1961; Studium der katholischen Theologie in Freiburg i. Br. und Rom mit den Schwerpunkten Kirchengeschichte und Antike Geschichte; Theologische HauptprĂźfung und Diplom; Ausbildung zum Bankkaufmann in Freiburg i. Br.; Tätigkeit als Bankkaufmann in Freiburg i. Br., Offenburg und Frankfurt a. M. Seit 1983 nebenberufliche, seit 2002 hauptberufliche Tätigkeit als Fachhändler von deutschen und ausländischen Orden und Ehrenzeichen; phaleristischer Experte und Sachverständiger fĂźr deutsche und ausländische Auktionshäuser, Museen sowie Ermittlungs- und JustizbehĂśrden; Autor zahlreicher im In- und Ausland erschienenen Fachartikel und sonstiger Publikationen; Verleger fĂźr phaleristische Fachliteratur; seit 1999 Hausexperte fĂźr Orden und Ehrenzeichen bei der Firma KĂźnker in OsnabrĂźck.




Erhaltungs- und Seltenheitsgrade Orden und Ehrenzeichen, Medaillen und Miniaturen, Urkunden, Dokumente und sonstige historische Sammlungsgegenstände sind Objekte, die zum Tragen bzw. zum täglichen Gebrauch bestimmt sind und somit einer naturgemäßen Abnutzung unterliegen. Besonders bei frühen Exemplaren berücksichtigt die Erhaltungseinstufung das Alter. Mängel oder Beschädigungen, die über das übliche Maß hinausgehen, werden in der Beschreibung ausdrücklich erwähnt. Wir weisen in diesem Zusammenhang ausdrücklich darauf hin, daß der Kunde die Möglichkeit zur Vorbesichtigung vor der Versteigerung hat. Erhaltungsangaben als Ergebnis subjektiver Betrachtung sind kein Bestandteil der Beschreibung. Der jeweilige Erhaltungszustand ist nach der Beschreibung wie folgt angegeben: I II III IV

= Prachtexemplar, neuwertig oder neu; = vorzüglich erhalten, mit kleinen Gebrauchsspuren; = gut erhalten, mit Gebrauchsspuren; = mit sehr deutlichen Gebrauchsspuren.

Auch Seltenheitsgrade als Ergebnis subjektiver langjähriger Marktbeobachtung sind kein Bestandteil der Beschreibung. Der jeweilige Seltenheitsgrad ist nach der Beschreibung wie folgt angegeben: R = selten; RR = sehr selten; RRR = von allergrößter Seltenheit; RRRR = extrem selten.

Die Abbildungen sind, sofern nicht anders angegeben, auf ¾-Größe verkleinert. Wir weisen an dieser Stelle darauf hin, daß im Onlinekatalog unserer Homepage (www.kuenker.de) weitaus mehr Bilder der einzelnen angebotenen Objekte zu sehen sind, als hier im Katalog abgebildet werden können Das Literaturverzeichnis zu dieser Auktion befindet sich am Ende des Kataloges. Indication of Condition and Rarity Orders and decorations, medals and miniatures, documents and other historical collectibles are objects originally intended for wearing resp. use and therefore they are subject to a certain wear and tear. Especially for early pieces the grade of condition is considering its age. Important defects or damages are mentioned in the description. The client herewith is informed that he has the possibility before the auction for a personal view and control of the objects he might be interested in. The degrees of condition as a result of subjective consideration are not part of the description. The relative condition is indicated after the description as follows: I II III IV

= extremely fine condition; = good very fine condition; = in fine condition; = in bad condition.

Also the indication of rarity as a result of a subjective observation of the market is not part of the description. The relative rarity is indicated after the description as follows: R RR RRR RRRR

= rare; = very rare; = of highest rarity; = extremely rare.

If not otherwise stated, images are reduced to ¾ of the original size. We would like to point out, that on the online-catalogue of our homepage (www.kuenker.de) much more pictures of the offered pieces can be seen than are shown in this printed catalogue. The bibliography for this auction is to be found at the end of the catalogue.




Begriffsabgrenzung Original - Fälschung von Michael Autengruber In der Phaleristik (Ordenskunde) ist das Spannungsfeld zwischen Original und Kopie allumfassend. Aufgrund des unterschiedlichen Gebrauchs von Orden, Ehrenzeichen und tragbaren Medaillen hat sich mit der Zeit eine Vielzahl von Kategorisierungen herausgebildet. Die Übergänge im Bereich der nicht originalen Anfertigungen sind fließend und manchmal nicht leicht voneinander abzugrenzen. Deshalb wird im Folgenden diesem Gutachten eine solche Begriffsabgrenzung vorangestellt, um vorab die verwendeten Begriffe generell zu erläutern. 1.

Gruppe 1 - Projekte 1.1. Projektiertes, Vorlage-/Muster-Exemplar: Ein projektiertes, Vorlage- oder Muster-Exemplar ist ein Objekt, das im Rahmen von Stiftungsvorbereitungen angefertigt wurde und das dem daraus entstandenen Originalobjekt nicht entspricht und/oder eine Kennzeichnung als Muster trägt. 1.2. Rekonstruktion: Eine Rekonstruktion ist ein Objekt, von dem keine Realien bekannt sind und das auf Basis erhaltener Statuten, Stiftungsurkunden oder Abbildungen deutlich nach der Verleihungszeit zu Dokumentationszwecken hergestellt wurde. 1.3. (Probe) Abschlag: Als (Probe-) Abschlag wird eine Medaille bezeichnet, die vor oder während der Verleihungszeit mit den originalen Prägewerkzeugen, jedoch in anderen Metallen als das originale Exemplar angefertigt wurde. Er kann optisch leicht von der endgültigen Ausgabe differieren.

2.

Gruppe 2 - Originale 2.1. Original: Als Original wird grundsätzlich ein verliehenes Objekt bezeichnet. Darüber hinaus wird so ein Objekt bezeichnet, das im Verleihungszeitraum im Auftrag von Berechtigten (z. B. der Ordenskanzlei oder des Beliehenen) hergestellt wurde oder wird und das die wesentlichen gestalterischen und materiellen Merkmale eines verliehenen Exemplars aufweist. 2.2. Reduziertes Exemplar: Ein reduziertes Exemplar ist ein Original, bei dem im Auftrag des Beliehenen Entfernungen von Teilen (z. B. politische Symbole gem. § 6 Abs. 1 Nr. 2, Satz 2 Deutsches OrdensG (Gesetz über Titel, Orden und Ehrenzeichen vom 26. Juli 1957) vorgenommen wurden. 2.3. Transformiertes Exemplar: Demgegenüber bezeichnet ein transformiertes Exemplar ein Original, an dem Veränderungen und/oder Hinzufügungen vorgenommen wurden, um politischen Veränderungen Rechnung zu tragen (z. B. durch Austausch der Medaillons bei den napoleonischen Dekorationen der Ehrenlegion während der Restauration).

3.

Gruppe 3 - Zweit- und Nachfertigungen 3.1. Ersatz-, Privat-, Trage- oder Schnallen-Anfertigung: Als Ersatz-, Privat-, Trage- oder Schnallen-Anfertigung wird ein Objekt bezeichnet, das nicht im Auftrag von Berechtigten als Ersatz angefertigt wurde (z. B. für die Trageweise an der großen Ordensschnalle). Es weist meist geringe gestalterische oder materielle Unterschiede zu einem Original auf (z. B. durch das Fehlen der Stempelschneider-Signatur bei Medaillen). 3.2. Zweitanfertigung: Als Zweitanfertigung (in der britischen Phaleristik wird hierfür der Begriff taylor’s copy verwendet) wird hierbei ein Objekt bezeichnet, das während der Verleihungszeit hergestellt wurde. 3.3. Nachfertigung oder Nachprägung Als Nachfertigung oder Nachprägung wird dem gegenüber ein Objekt bezeichnet, das nach der Verleihungszeit hergestellt wurde (z. B. ein Kreuz des Pour le mérite, das nach 1918 für Beliehene hergestellt wurde), worunter auch die gem. § 6 Abs. 1 Nr. 2, Satz 2 Deutsches OrdensG angefertigten sog. 1957er-Exemplare der Orden und Ehrenzeichen des Deutschen Reiches von 1933 bis 1945 fallen. 3.4. Juweliers-Anfertigung: Eine Juweliers-Anfertigung ist ein Objekt, das während der Verleihungszeit im Auftrag von Beliehenen hergestellt wurde, und das wesentliche gestalterische oder materielle Unterschiede zum zu diesem Zeitpunkt verliehenen Original aufweist (z. B. Bruststerne aus Metall in der Verleihungszeit von gestickten Bruststernen).

4. Gruppe 4 - Fälschungen 4.1. Fälschung: Eine Fälschung ist ein Objekt, das, in Täuschungsabsicht (zum Schaden der Sammler) hergestellt, vortäuscht, in allen Teilen ein Original zu sein, und/oder in dieser Absicht in Umlauf gebracht wurde oder wird.




4.2. Verfälschung: Eine Verfälschung ist ein ursprüngliches Original, das durch Zustands-Veränderung deutlich nach der Verleihungszeit in Täuschungsabsicht (zum Schaden der Sammler) manipuliert wurde, und vortäuscht, in allen Teilen ein Original zu sein (z. B. durch die Anbringung oder Entfernung von Schwertern). Eine ursprüngliche Fälschung oder Verfälschung, die mit einer eindeutig identifizierbaren und nicht revidierbaren Kennzeichnung (z. B. COPY) versehen ist, wodurch die Täuschungsabsicht (zum Schaden der Sammler) entfällt, kann als Sammleranfertigung bezeichnet werden. 5. Gruppe 5 - Kopien 5.1. Kopie, Replik, Reproduktion, Nachbildung, Sammler-, Museumsanfertigung Als Kopie, Replik, Reproduktion, Nachbildung, Sammler-, Museumsanfertigung oder Beleg-Exemplar wird ein Objekt bezeichnet, das in Gänze deutlich nach der Verleihungszeit ohne jegliche Täuschungsabsicht hergestellt und in Umlauf gebracht wurde und das aufgrund von gestalterischen und materiellen Unterschieden nicht vortäuscht, ein Original zu sein. (Hierunter fallen z. B. sowohl die sog. Göde-Exemplare als auch die Rothe-Anfertigungen nach 1918/1922, wobei bei letzteren der Übergang zu Nachfertigungen, was in den 1920er und 1930er Jahren angefertigte Exemplare betrifft, fließend ist.) 5.2. Gruftorden: Als Gruftorden werden solche Objekte bezeichnet, die in sehr einfacher Gestaltung und Fertigung Originale nachahmen, jedoch mit deutlichen gestalterischen und materiellen Unterschieden. Sie wurden wohl für Kostümierungszwecke hergestellt. Eine tatsächliche Verwendung solcher Objekte im Zusammenhang mit Trauerfeierlichkeiten konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden. 6. Gruppe 6 - Phantasieschöpfungen 6.1. Phantasieschöpfung: Als Phantasieschöpfung werden Objekte bezeichnet, deren Gestaltung auf reiner Erfindung beruht, die es so nie gegeben hat und deren Entstehung auch so nicht beabsichtigt war, und die meist in Täuschungsabsicht (zum Schaden der Sammler) hergestellt und/oder in Umlauf gebracht wurden oder werden und vortäuschen, ein besonders seltenes Original zu sein. 6.2 Theaterorden: Als Theaterorden bezeichnet man Objekte, deren Gestaltung ebenfalls auf reiner Erfindung beruht, die aber ohne Täuschungsabsicht zum Schaden der Sammler für Kostümierungszwecke hergestellt wurden und werden.

Rechtlicher Hinweis zu Objekten des Deutschen Reiches von 1933 bis 1945 (sogen.: „Drittes Reich“): Solange sich Kunde und Verkäufer nicht gegenteilig äußern, versichern sie, daß sie Gegenstände und Bücher aus der Zeit des Deutschen Reiches von 1933 bis 1945 nur zu Zwecken der staatsbürgerlichen Aufklärung, der Abwehr verfassungswidriger Bestrebungen, der Kunst oder der Wissenschaft, der Forschung oder der Lehre, der Berichterstattung über Vorgänge des Zeitgeschehens oder der Geschichte oder zu ähnlichen Zwecken erwerben. Diese Gegenstände und Bücher werden grundsätzlich nur unter diesen Voraussetzungen angeboten und abgegeben. Somit stellt der Erwerb von Gegenständen und Büchern aus dieser Zeit unter den oben aufgeführten Voraussetzungen gemäß der §§ 86a Abs. 3 bzw. 86 Abs. 3 StGB keinen Straftatbestand im Sinne des § 86a Abs. 1 StGB dar. Unter diesen Umständen ist es also grundsätzlich erlaubt, Orden und Ehrenzeichen, die in § 6 Abs. 1 Gesetz über Titel, Orden und Ehrenzeichen nicht aufgeführt sind, sowie Abzeichen mit nationalsozialistischen Emblemen zu verkaufen und zu erwerben, und dies entgegen den Bestimmungen des § 6 Abs. 2 Gesetz über Titel, Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Deshalb hat der Bundesminister der Justiz mit Schreiben 4021-2-2 II-23 584/81 vom 18.10.1981 dem seinerzeitigen Vorsitzenden des Bundes deutscher Ordenssammler e. V. ausdrücklich erklärt, daß der Erwerb von Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus der Zeit des sogenannten „Dritten Reiches“ durch ernsthafte und organisierte Sammler mit dem Ziel, diesen Gegenstand in eine Sammlung einzufügen, keinen Straftatbestand im Sinne des Gesetzes darstellt.

Rechtlicher Hinweis zu Objekten der Republik Finnland: Zur Staats-Symbolik der Republik Finnland gehört neben dem Löwen im finnischen Staatswappen auch ein als „Freiheitskreuz“ bezeichnetes Hakenkreuz. Dieses Freiheitskreuz wurde bereits während des Ersten Weltkriegs zum Symbol der finnischen Freiheitsbewegung gegen die zaristisch-russische Herrschaft und hat somit nichts gemein mit dem erst später entstandenen Symbol des Nationalsozialismus. Bis heute ist es auf dem höchsten finnischen Orden, dem Orden des Freiheitskreuzes zu sehen, und dient z. B. auch als Symbol für den finnischen Staatspräsidenten bzw. die Staatspräsidentin in dessen bzw. deren Standarte. Somit kann ausdrücklich festgestellt werden, daß dieses Freiheitskreuz als nicht dem Nationalsozialismus zugehöriges Symbol nicht unter die Bestimmungen der §§ 86a Abs. 3 bzw. 86 Abs. 3 StGB fällt.

Rechtlicher Hinweis zu mehrteiligen Konvoluten: An dieser Stelle wird noch einmal darauf hingewiesen, daß es sich gemäß unseren Versteigerungsbedingungen bei Stückzahlen in den Beschreibungen von Losen mit mehreren Stücken (z. B. „Konvolut“, „Sammlung“ oder „Bestand“) grundsätzlich nur um ca.-Angaben handelt. Gewährleistungsansprüche wegen Sach- und Rechtsmängeln (z. B. hinsichtlich Anzahl, Originalität der Stücke oder Erhaltungszustand) sind ausgeschlossen. Dies gilt auch dann, wenn ein Interessent aus Gefälligkeit vorab ein oder mehrere Bilder mit den Objekten eines solchen Loses mit mehreren Stücken erhalten hat. Solche Bilder dienen alleine einer allgemeinen Orientierung über den Inhalt und können nicht als Beleg für einen Gewährleistungsanspruch wegen eines Sach- und Rechtsmangels (z. B. hinsichtlich Anzahl, Originalität der Stücke oder Erhaltungszustand) herangezogen werden.







Die Sammlung Peter Groch, Teil 3


Sehr geehrte Sammler, verehrte Kunden! Vor Ihnen liegt nun Teil III der Sammlung Peter Groch mit den Auszeichnungen der militärischen Auseinandersetzungen des 20. Jahrhunderts bis 1918/1921, wobei aufgrund des sehr großen Volumens nur die Auszeichnungen der Mittelmächte, ihrer Verbündeten und der von ihnen kontrollierten Territorien berücksichtigt werden konnten. Die Auszeichnungen der Alliierten des Ersten Weltkriegs bleiben einer weiteren Auktion vorbehalten. Anke und Jörg Nimmergut schreiben im Rückblick auf Teil I der Sammlung Peter Groch, den wir in unserer Auktion 311 im Oktober des vergangenen Jahres angeboten haben, im Vorwort der 22. Ausgabe des Kataloges "Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen"(OEK22 S. 5): "Die im Sammlungskontext belassenen Orden & Ehrenzeichen gaben einen beeindruckenden Überblick der Ehrenzeichen zu den Koalitions-, Napoleonischen - und Befreiungskriegen 1792-1815." Und weiter (in OEK22 S. 8): "Das Material aus der I. Groch-Auktion hat ein bekanntes Phänomen bestätigt. Je besser ein Teil von seiner Provenienz abgesichert ist, generell auch durch die Reputation des Sammlers oder der Sammlung, desto leichter und höher verkäuflich ist es. [. . .] Die Zuschläge in der Auktion liegen deutlich über den OEK-Werten, bedingt durch die schon ausgesprochene Fachkompetenz des Anbieters (Fälschungssicherheit)." Darauf sind wir überaus stolz, und wir hoffen, auch in dieser Auktion an diesen großen Erfolg anknüpfen zu können. Vor über 25 Jahren lernte ich Peter Groch in Gunzenhausen im bayerischen Mittelfranken kennen, im Verlauf einer Sammlerbörse, an der wir beide als Händler teilnahmen. Ich erwarb damals von ihm ein ausländisches ordenskundliches Fachbuch, das er in seiner Auslage hatte, und wurde natürlich sofort in ein tiefgründiges Fachgespräch verwickelt. Über die Jahre entwickelte sich hieraus zunächst eine phaleristische Bekanntschaft, später dann eine Freundschaft. Trotz mehrerer Einladungen, seine Sammlung zu besichtigen, hatte mich mein Weg aber doch nie zu ihm nach Berlin geführt. Am Ende 2017 rief Peter mich an und bat mich, ihn doch baldmöglichst zu besuchen, weil er etwas Wichtiges mit mir zu besprechen hätte. Anfang Januar 2018 war ich dann in Berlin und habe mit ihm zusammen Teile seiner wahrhaft monumentalen Sammlung besichtigt. Und ich war überwältigt! Nicht nur von der schieren Menge der Auszeichnungen, sondern auch wegen des Aufbaus und der Strukturen seiner Sammlung(en). Er wußte zu vielen einzelnen Stücken nicht nur die Bezeichnung und historischen Hintergründe, sondern auch wann und wo er sie erworben hatte und zu welchem Preis, oder für was er sie eingetauscht hatte. Am Ende teilte er mir dann mit, daß er meine Auktionskataloge sehr schätzte und mir deshalb (zu meiner Überraschung) seine gesamte Sammlung anvertrauen wollte, damit ich sie über das Auktionshaus Künker auf den Markt bringen sollte. Die Ordens- und Ehrenzeichen-Sammlung Peter Grochs, oder besser gesagt seine Sammlungen können grob gesehen in mehrere große Hauptteile gegliedert werden: 1. 2.

Auszeichnungen militärischer Konflikte des 19. und des 20. Jahrhunderts. Auszeichnungen der deutschen Staaten bis 1918, des Deutschen Reichs von 1871 bis 1945, der Deutschen Demokratischen und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Auszeichnungen osteuropäischer Staaten und des Balkans. Auszeichnungen sozialistischer Staaten der ganzen Welt. Sondersammlungen sonstiger Bereiche. Deutsche Kleinabzeichen.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Es ist beabsichtigt, diese Sammlungen in den kommenden Jahren sukzessive anzubieten, wobei besonderer Wert darauf gelegt werden soll, die von Peter entwickelten Sammlungs-Strukturen soweit wie möglich zu erhalten und sie in den




Auktionskatalogen wiederzugeben. Auch der große Reichtum an Varianten soll besonders berücksichtigt werden, denn ich konnte wiederholt feststellen, daß es für das Vorhandensein von fünf nebeneinander liegenden identischen Stücken immer einen Grund gab - Dubletten wurden ja an anderer Stelle aufbewahrt. Man musste nur lange genug hinschauen, um Präge- oder Herstellungs-Unterschiede zu entdecken, wenn diese nicht auf einem beiliegenden Zettelchen erläutert waren. Und in der Tat konnte ich sehr viele neue Erkenntnisse über Varianten gewinnen. Ja - und jeder wird mir beipflichten, der jemals bei Peter zu Besuch war - ja, es ist ein wahres Mammut-Vorhaben, diese Sammlungen zu bearbeiten und aufzubereiten, um sie der interessierten Öffentlichkeit präsentieren zu können. Doch es ist eine Aufgabe, auf die ich mich sehr freue, die ich mit Freude und großem Interesse begonnen habe, und ich bin stolz darauf, der geneigten Leser- und Kundschaft die weiteren Ergebnisse in diesem Katalog vorlegen zu können. Peter Eberhard Groch wurde am 27. Oktober 1941 in Dresden geboren. Ab 1954 besuchte er in der Bundesrepublik ein Internat, wo er 1962 das Abitur machte. Danach studierte er ab 1962 in Göttingen Wirtschaftswissenschaften. Nach einem Auslandssemester 1964 in Portugal studierte er in Marburg weiter. 1968 zog er nach West-Berlin. Mit seiner Frau, von der er seit 1981 geschieden ist, hat Peter eine Tochter. Im Jahr 1967 begann er mit dem Sammeln von Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Seine sich rasch entwickelnde SammlerLeidenschaft führte ihn schon während des sog. "Kalten Krieges" mehrfach in alle Staaten des sog. "Ostblocks", wo er hervorragende Kontakte zu dortigen Sammlern aufbauen konnte - nur Albanien konnte er erst nach dem Fall des "Eisernen Vorhangs" besuchen, wo er sich mit einem Schild in albanischer Sprache "Kaufe Orden und Medaillen" auf die Marktplätze setzte und mit einer reichen Ausbeute der bis dahin in Westeuropa kaum bekannten albanischen Auszeichnungen zurück kam. Aber auch in Frankreich, Italien und Spanien war mit der jeweiligen Sammlerschaft sehr gut "vernetzt", wie man heute sagt. Dabei war ihm seine Begabung für fremde, auch für slawische Sprachen, von großem Nutzen, konnte er doch auf diese Weise im Laufe der Zeit ein ungeheuer großes Detailwissen erwerben. Peter betrieb seine Sammelleidenschaft geradezu als Beruf; mit Sammlern und Experten aus der ganzen Welt stand er dabei in regelmäßigem Kontakt, zunächst brieflich, später per E-Mail. So gelang es ihm auch, von unzähligen phaleristischen Büchern Kenntnis zu erhalten, von denen sonst nahezu niemand in Deutschland etwas wußte. Seine Forschungsergebnisse schrieb teils er mit der Schreibmaschine, teils in sehr feiner Handschrift auf unzähligen kleinen Zetteln und Etiketten nieder, die er den entsprechenden Stücken beifügte. Einige seiner Forschungsergebnisse veröffentlichte er auch in phaleristischen Zeitschriften wie dem Orden-Militaria-Magazin (OMM), INFO und Orden und Ehrenzeichen (OuE). Der phaleristischen Forschung und Publizistik stand Peter immer sehr aufgeschlossen gegenüber: Mit überwältigender Hilfsbereitschaft stellte er allen Autoren, die ihn darum baten, seine Sammlungen zur Verfügung, damit sie Fotos für ihre Arbeit anfertigen konnten. So stellte er u. a. auch Dr. Gerd Scharfenberg (Berlin) Objekte seiner Sammlung für unzählige Fotografien zur Verfügung, für dessen Neubearbeitung der 17. Auflage des von Jörg Nimmergut begründeten Kataloges "Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen 1800-1945" (OEK). Diese erschien 2008 erstmals bei Battenberg in der GietlVerlagsgruppe in Regenstauf, und auch die nunmehr 21. Auflage aus dem Jahr 2017 zeigt diese Aufnahmen. Ebenso stellte Peter Groch für das zweibändige Werk "Das Eiserne Kreuz - 1813 - 1870 - 1914 - Geschichte und Bedeutung einer Auszeichnung" von Frank Wernitz und Volker Simons, das 2013 im Verlag Militaria in Wien erschien, eine Reihe von Eisernen Kreuzen zur Verfügung. Auch für die Bereitstellung von Objekten für Ausstellungen im In- und Ausland war Peter immer zu haben; und gerne teilte er sein umfangreiches Wissen mit jedem, der ihn in Anspruch nahm. Peter, ich fühle mich sehr geehrt, daß Du der Firma Künker und mir Dein Lebenswerk anvertraut hast!

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ERSTER WELTKRIEG 1914-1918

6688 (1:1)





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ERSTER WELTKRIEG 1914-1918

6690

6690 (1:1)





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6691



6690 (1:1)

6691

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ERSTER WELTKRIEG 1914-1918

6692





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6693

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ERSTER WELTKRIEG 1914-1918

6696

6697



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6698











6699

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ERSTER WELTKRIEG 1914-1918

6701

6700



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6702



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ERSTER WELTKRIEG 1914-1918

6703

6704

6705



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6706



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ERSTER WELTKRIEG 1914-1918

6707





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NachlaĂ&#x; des Generalfeldmarschalls August von Mackensen (1849 - 1945)


NACHLASS AUGUST VON MACKENSEN

DER NACHLASS DES GENERALFELDMARSCHALLS AUGUST VON MACKENSEN (1849-1945) Anton Ludwig Friedrich August Mackensen wurde am 6. Dezember 1849 als Sohn des Gutsverwalters Ludwig Mackensen (1817-1890) und dessen Ehefrau Marie, geb. Rink (1824-1916) in Leipnitz in der damaligen preuĂ&#x;ischen Provinz Sachsen (heute ein Ortsteil der Gemeinde Trossin des Landkreises Nordsachsen im Freistaat Sachsen) geboren. Nach dem Besuch der Volksschule wechselte er auf das Gymnasium in Torgau, später nach Halle an der Saale. Auf Druck seines Vaters verlieĂ&#x; er 1868 das Gymnasium und ging bei seinem Vater in die Lehre, um den Beruf eines Landwirts zu erlernen. Aufgrund seiner schwachen Konstitution zunächst ausgemustert, konnte er am 1. Oktober 1869 doch als Einjährig-Freiwilliger in das 2. Leib-Husaren-Regiment "KĂśnigin Viktoria von PreuĂ&#x;en" Nr. 2 eintreten. Am Deutsch-FranzĂśsischen Krieg 1870/1871 nahm er als Vizewachtmeister (seit dem 20. September 1870) teil. FĂźr einen wagemutigen Erkundungsritt bei Toury in der Nähe von OrlĂŠans erhielt er im Oktober 1870 aus den Händen seines Divisionskommandeurs Prinz Albrecht von PreuĂ&#x;en (1809-1872) das Eiserne Kreuz II. Klasse. Am 3. Dezember 1870 erfolgte seine BefĂśrderung zum Sekondeleutnant der Reserve. Nach der RĂźckkehr aus dem Krieg nahm Mackensen auf Wunsch seines Vaters ab Oktober 1871 ein Studium der Agrarwissenschaft an der Martin-Luther-Universität in Halle an der Saale auf, der ersten in PreuĂ&#x;en, an der ein solches Studium mĂśglich war. PersĂśnliches Interesse leitete ihn jedoch nach den Kriegserfahrungen, sich mit Heereskunde zu befassen. So wandte er sich vom Beruf des Landwirtes ab, brach im FrĂźhjahr 1873 sein Studium ab und setzte seine Militärlaufbahn als Berufsoffizier fort. Als fĂśrderlich fĂźr sein berufliches Fortkommen erwiesen sich seine militärhistorischen Schriften. Sein 1877 verĂśffentlichtes Werk "Das 2. Leib-Husaren-Regiment Nr. 2 im Kriege gegen Frankreich" wurde positiv aufgenommen. 1877 wurde er zur Garnison nach KĂśnigsberg versetzt, wo er am 9. Juli 1878 zum Premierleutnant befĂśrdert wurde. Ohne die Kriegsakademie besucht zu haben, wurde Mackensen am 13. Mai 1880 zur Dienstleistung beim GroĂ&#x;en Generalstab nach Berlin kommandiert. Am 21. September 1882 erfolgte die BefĂśrderung zum Rittmeister. Am 19. Februar 1884 wurde er in den Generalstab des VI. Armeekorps versetzt. Am 15. Oktober 1888 zum Major befĂśrdert, stieg er am 21. Februar 1891 unter Stellung Ă la suite des Generalstabs der Armee zum Ersten Adjutanten des Chefs des Generalstabs General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (1833-1913) auf. Am 17. Juni 1893 wurde er mit der FĂźhrung des 1. Leib-Husaren-Regiments Nr. 1 beauftragt und ein halbes Jahr später am 27. Januar 1894 unter BefĂśrderung zum Oberstleutnant zum Kommandeur des Regiments ernannt. Am 12. September 1895 erfolgte seine Ernennung zum FlĂźgeladjutanten Kaiser und KĂśnig Wilhelms II. (1859-1941, reg. von 1888 bis 1918), am 22. März 1897 seine BefĂśrderung zum Oberst und am 27. Januar 1898 seine Ernennung zum diensttuenden FlĂźgeladjutanten Wilhelms II. Noch als Oberst erfolgte mit Adelsdiplom vom 27. Januar 1899 (40. Geburtstag Wilhelms II.) seine Erhebung in den preuĂ&#x;ischen erblichen Adelsstand mit dem Namen "von Mackensen". Am 17. April 1900 wurde er zum diensttuenden General Wilhelms II. ernannt, seine BefĂśrderung zum Generalmajor erfolgte jedoch erst einen Tag später am 18. April. Am 14. September 1901 wurde er als General Ă  la suite des Kaisers und KĂśnigs zum Kommandeur der neu errichteten LeibHusaren-Brigade in Danzig-Langfuhr ernannt. Am 11. September 1903 erfolgte seine BefĂśrderung zum Generalleutnant und seine Ernennung zum Generaladjutanten Wilhelms II. Am 27. Januar 1908 (49. Geburtstag Wilhelms II.) erfolgte die BefĂśrderung zum General der Kavallerie mit gleichzeitiger Ernennung zum kommandierenden General des XII. Armee-Korps. Mit Datum vom 27. Mai 1908 wurde er als General Ă  la suite des 1. Leib-Husaren-Regiments Nr. 1 gestellt. Im Jahre 1911 Ăźbergab Mackensen das Regiments-Kommando an Kronprinz Wilhelm von PreuĂ&#x;en (1882-1951), doch wurde es ihm auf Lebenszeit erlaubt, weiterhin die Uniform des 1. Leib-Husaren-Regiments Nr. 1 zu tragen. Als General der Kavallerie zog er in den Ersten Weltkrieg und wurde am 8. Oktober 1914 zum Oberbefehlshaber der Armee-Abteilung Mackensen ernannt und am 1. November zum Oberbefehlshaber der 9. Armee. Am 17. Dezember 1914 erfolgte seine BefĂśrderung zum Generaloberst, am 16. April 1915 seine Ernennung zum Oberbefehlshaber der 11. Armee, am 22. Juni 1915 seine BefĂśrderung zum Generalfeldmarschall und am 6. Juli 1915 auch zum Oberbefehlshaber der neu zu errichtenden Heeresgruppe Mackensen. Am 18. September 1915 gab er den Oberbefehl Ăźber die 11. Armee ab. Am 28. August 1916 erhielt er den Oberbefehl Ăźber die neue (deutsch-bulgarisch-Ăśsterreichisch-osmanische) Armeegruppe Mackensen. Nachdem ihm am 11. Mai 1918 auch der Oberbefehl Ăźber das Besatzungsheer in Rumänien Ăźbertragen worden war, wurde er am 16. Dezember 1918 im Verlauf der Räumung Rumäniens von der ungarischen Regierung unter Graf KarolyĂ­ (Nicholas Adam Gyorgy Grof [Graf] KarolyĂ­ - 1875-1955) auf dem Bahnhof in Budapest festgesetzt. Am 4. Januar 1919 erfolgte seine Auslieferung an die Franzosen und seine Internierung in Saloniki in Nordgriechenland. Am 17. November 1919 wurde seine Internierung aufgehoben, worauf er in das Deutsche Reich zurĂźckkehren durfte. Am 24. Januar 1920 schied er im Alter von 72 Jahren auf sein Gesuch hin aus dem aktiven Militärdienst aus. Als erklärter Monarchist engagierte er sich in der Folgezeit in verschiedenen Organisationen meist militärischer Ausrichtung. Obwohl er der Weimarer Republik Ăźberaus ablehnend gegenĂźberstand, hielt er sich weitgehend aus dem politischen Geschehen heraus, anders als andere bedeutende Protagonisten des Ersten Weltkriegs, wie z. B. Generalfeldmarschall Paul (von 


NACHLASS AUGUST VON MACKENSEN Beneckendorff und) von Hindenburg (1847- 1934, Reichspräsident seit 1925) oder General der Infanterie Erich Ludendorff (18651937, maĂ&#x;geblicher Beteiligter sowohl am Kapp-Putsch vom 13. März 1920 als auch am Hitler-Putsch am 8. und 9. November 1923). Im Januar 1945 floh August von Mackensen mit seiner Frau auf das Gut Burghorn in Habinghorst, heute ein Ortsteil der Gemeinde Eschede im Landkreis Celle im heutigen Bundesland Niedersachsen. Nachdem er dort am 8. November 1945 (einen Montat vor seinem 98. Geburtstag) im Alter von nahezu 97 Jahren gestorben war, wurde er auf dem Stadtfriedhof von Celle beigesetzt. Zur PersĂśnlichkeit von August von Mackensen Von Kindheit an bis an sein Lebensende war von Mackensen stark protestantisch-lutherisch geprägt; man kann zu Recht sagen, daĂ&#x; es sich bei ihm um einen frommen protestantischen Christen handelte. Weiter war er durch seinen militärischen Werdegang auch sehr traditionell-preuĂ&#x;isch-militärisch geprägt. PersĂśnlich selbst eher "preuĂ&#x;isch-bescheiden", war er ein Ăźberaus groĂ&#x;zĂźgiger Gastgeber und liebte es, groĂ&#x;e Bankette zu geben, wovon nicht zuletzt die hier im Folgenden angebotene umfangreiche herrschaftliche Tafel-Besteckgarnitur beredt Zeugnis gibt. Aufgrund seiner langjährigen Tätigkeit zunächst als FlĂźgel-, später als General-Adjutant war er der Person Wilhelms II. sein Leben lang verbunden. Nach dessen Tod am 7. Juni 1941 in Haus Dorn in den besetzten Niederlanden unternahm er als 91-jähriger noch die beschwerliche Reise von seinem Gut BrĂźssow (im damaligen Kreis Prenzlau, heute im Landkreis Uckermarck im Bundesland Brandenburg) nach Haus Dorn, um dort an der Beisetzung Wilhelms II. teilzunehmen. Hierin wird deutlich, wie sehr fĂźr ihn Treue und Pflicht von Bedeutung waren. Auch deshalb war er während der parlamentarische Demokratie der Weimarer Republik sehr deutlich monarchisch gesinnt. Auf der Basis dieser Anhaltspunkte lässt sich Mackensens Gesinnung relativ eindeutig dem deutschnationalen Lager zuordnen. Auch er schenkte der von der Obersten Heeresleitung vertretenen sog. "DolchstoĂ&#x;legende" Glauben, nach der vor allem die Sozialdemokratie, andere demokratische Politiker und das bolschewistische Judentum fĂźr die Niederlage des Deutschen Reiches verantwortlich waren. Nach der Ermordung Matthias Erzbergers (1875-1921), der von der Rechten fĂźr den sog. "Schandfrieden" oder "Diktatfrieden" von Versailles verantwortlich gemacht wurde, empfand er deutliche Genugtuung. August von Mackensen und der Nationalsozialismus Sein Verhältnis zum Nationalsozialismus kann als Ăźberaus ambivalent bezeichnet werden. Einerseits war ihm Adolf Hitler (18891945, seit 1933 Reichskanzler, seit 1934 "FĂźhrer" und Reichskanzler) als Person ausgesprochen sympathisch und er bewunderte dessen Erfolge ab 1935 bei der "Revision" des Vertrags von Versailles. Im August 1933 wurde von Mackensen vom preuĂ&#x;ischen Ministerpräsidenten Hermann GĂśring (1893-1946) zum PreuĂ&#x;ischen Staatsrat ernannt. Die nationalsozialistische Propaganda baute auf von Mackensens enorme Popularität in der BevĂślkerung und benutzte ihn symbolträchtig, um eine Kontinuität zwischen der Kaiserzeit und dem sog. "Dritten Reich" herzustellen. Am 22. Oktober 1935 erhielt von Mackensen die preuĂ&#x;ische Domäne BrĂźssow (im damaligen Kreis Prenzlau, heute im Landkreis Uckermarck im Bundesland Brandenburg) per Gesetz vom "FĂźhrer" und Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler als Dotation Ăźbereignet. Zudem erhielt er 350.000 Reichsmark als Bar-Dotation. DarĂźber hinaus wurde er 1936 zum Chef des in der Garnison von Stolp [heute SĹ&#x201A;upsk] in Pommern stationierten Kavallerie-Regiments 5 ernannt, das die Tradition des Pommerschen Husaren-Regiments "FĂźrst BlĂźcher von Wahlstatt" Nr. 5 fortfĂźhrte. Das Attentat vom 20. Juli 1944 auf Hitler durch Offiziere der Wehrmacht verurteilte er scharf als "fluchwĂźrdiges Attentat". Noch im November 1944 richtete Mackensen als bereits 95-Jähriger einen Aufruf an die Jugend, um sie im Tonfall nationalsozialistischer Durchhaltepropaganda zu "Opferbereitschaft und Fanatismus" zu ermahnen. An seiner Verehrung fĂźr Hitler änderte sich bis zu seinem Tode augenscheinlich nichts. Andererseits stand er der nationalsozialistischen Ideologie als frommer protestantischer Christ deutlich ablehnend gegenĂźber. Wie vielen traditionsbewuĂ&#x;ten Verfechtern der alten preuĂ&#x;ischen Kultur war ihm das Gebaren und Auftreten der NSDAP ausgesprochen suspekt. Schon am 21. März 1933 war er dem sog. "Tag von Potsdam", der feierlichen ErĂśffnung des Reichstags durch einen Staatsakt in der Potsdamer Garnisonskirche, ferngeblieben. Gegen die gewalttätigen Ă&#x153;bergriffe der SA protestierte er mehrfach; MiĂ&#x;stände, wie z. B. der Kirchenkampf, waren in seinen Augen ausschlieĂ&#x;lich die Schuld von Hitlers Gefolgsleuten. Im Juli 1934 hatte von Mackensen an der Synode der WartburgGemeinde teilgenommen und verfĂźgte seit dieser Zeit Ăźber Kontakte zur Bekennenden Kirche. Er intervenierte in einigen drastischen Fällen zugunsten von Pastoren. Er schrieb auch Ăśffentliche Protestbriefe gegen Kriegsgreuel der SS hinter den 


NACHLASS AUGUST VON MACKENSEN deutschen Linien in Polen. Anfangs der 1940er Jahre verdächtigten Hitler und Goebbels von Mackensen der Illoyalität, wollten aber nicht gegen ihn vorgehen. Seine innere Haltung gegenĂźber der Ideologie des Nationalsozialismus ist auch darin sehr deutlich zu erkennen, daĂ&#x; trotz intensiver Recherche nicht eine einzige Photographie gefunden werden konnte, auf der er mit erhobenem rechten Arm zum sog. "Deutschen GruĂ&#x;" zu sehen wäre. Entweder grĂźĂ&#x;te er zu offiziellen Anlässen durch Erheben seines Marschallstabes, oder jedoch, ohne Marschallstab mit der gleichen Geste. Es existieren Photographien, auf denen er neben Hitler steht, umringt von den sog. "GrĂśĂ&#x;en" der NSDAP und des Reiches, alle, auch die Nicht-Parteimitglieder, mit zum sog. "Deutsche GruĂ&#x;" erhobenen Armen, nur er, in erster Reihe, grĂźĂ&#x;t bzw. salutiert mit leicht erhobener Hand ohne Marschallstab, wie das hier zu sehende Photo zeigt. Das mag auch nicht zuletzt an seiner religiĂśsen Haltung gelegen haben, da fĂźr ihn ein "Heil Hitler" nicht akzeptabel sein konnte, da fĂźr ihn als glaubender protestantischer Christ das "Heil" alleine bei und in Jesus Christus liegen konnte. Zur Familie von August von Mackensen Nach seiner Versetzung nach KĂśnigsberg im Jahre 1877 lernte er dort Dorothea von Horn kennen, die er am 21. November 1879 heiratete. Sie war die zweite Tochter von Karl von Horn (1807-1889), der dort seit 1869 als einfluĂ&#x;reicher Oberpräsident der Provinz PreuĂ&#x;en amtierte, und dessen Ehefrau Dorothea (Doris), geb. Martens (1828-1889). Mit Dorothea hatte von Mackensen fĂźnf Kinder: Else (1881/2-1888), Hans Georg (1883-1947), später Staatssekretär, Manfred (1886-1945), später Regierungsrat, Eberhard (1889-1969), später Generaloberst, und Ruth (1897-1945). Zum Wappen von August von Mackensen und der Familie von Mackensen Das Wappen geht zurĂźck auf Joseph Theodor Freiherr von Ruesch (1709-1769), der von 1744 bis 1759/1762 Chef des "Regiments schwartze Husaren" war. Das Regiment wurde mit Kabinettsordre KĂśnig Friedrichs II. "in" PreuĂ&#x;en (1712-1786, reg. seit 1740) vom 9. August 1741 gestiftet. 1808 wurde es in "1. Leib-Husaren-Regiment Nr. 1" umbenannt. Da die Familie der Freiherren von Ruesch ausgestorben war, konnte deren Wappenschild mit dem (heraldisch) nach rechts blickenden "abgerissenen" bekrĂśnten Kopf eines schwarzen Adlers auf silbernem Feld neu vergeben werden. So erhielt der inzwischen zum Oberst und FlĂźgeladjutanten Wilhelms II. avancierte Mackensen mit seiner Erhebung in den erblichen preuĂ&#x;ischen Adelstand vom 27. Januar 1899 das folgende, so im Adelsbrief beschriebene Wappen zugeteilt: "Nämlich einen silbernen Schild, darin der golden gewehrte und rothbezungte, mit einer offenen KĂśniglichen Krone gekrĂśnte abgerissene Kopf und Hals eines schwarzen Adlers. Auf dem Schilde ruht ein rothgefĂźtterter, mit goldenen BĂźgeln und Einfassungen und anhangendem goldenen Kleinod geschmĂźckter und mit einer adligen Krone gekrĂśnter offener stählerner Turnierhelm mit schwarzsilbernen Helmdecken, dessen Krone mit drei StrauĂ&#x;enfedern, einer schwarzen zwischen zwei silbernen, besteckt ist." Dieses Wappen ist auch heute noch das Wappen der Mitglieder der Familie von Mackensen. U. v. a. nach Informationen von Hildebrand und Zweng (in ZW2-2 S.399 ff.) und von "Harmonica" u. a. auf de.wikipedia.org, Stichwort "August von Mackensen" und weitere.

Orden des Generalfeldmarschalls von Mackensen Neben weiteren erhielt August von Mackensen im Laufe seiner langen Militärkarriere fol-gende Orden und Ehrenzeichen: ??.10.1870 wohl 1871 ??.??.1895 ??.??.1895 ??.??.1897 24.06.1893 1898 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904



PreuĂ&#x;en: Eisernes Kreuz II. Klasse; PreuĂ&#x;en: KriegsdenkmĂźnze 1870/1871 fĂźr Kämpfer; PreuĂ&#x;en: Eichen-laub "25" zum Eisernen Kreuz II. Klasse; PreuĂ&#x;en/Deutsches Reich: Gefechtsspangen "WĂ&#x2013;RTH", LOIGNY-POUPRY", "LE MANS", "BEAUGENCY-CRAVANTâ&#x20AC;?, SEDANâ&#x20AC;?, "ORLĂ&#x2030;ANS", "BEAUMONT" zur preuĂ&#x;ischen KriegsdenkmĂźnze 1870/1871 fĂźr Kämpfer; PreuĂ&#x;en: Zentenarmedaille 1897; Sachsen: Albrechtsorden, Offizierskreuz; Deutsches Reich: Jerusalemkreuz; PreuĂ&#x;en: Kronen-Orden mit Stern; PreuĂ&#x;en: Roter Adler-Orden, II. Klasse mit Eichenlaub, Krone und Stern; PreuĂ&#x;en: KĂśniglicher Hausorden von Hohenzollern, Komtur; PreuĂ&#x;en: Offiziers-Dienstauszeichnung; Baden: Orden vom Zähringer LĂśwen, Kommandeurkreuz mit Eichenlaub; Bayern: Militär-Verdienstorden, Kreuz 2. Klasse mit Stern; Braunschweig: Hausorden Heinrichs des LĂśwen, Komturkreuz; Hessen: Orden Philipps des GroĂ&#x;mĂźthigen, Komturkreuz 2. Klasse; Lippe: Orden des Ehrenkreuzes, Ehrenkreuz 3. Klasse; Mecklenburg-Schwerin: Greifen-Orden, Komturkreuz mit Stern;


NACHLASS AUGUST VON MACKENSEN vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 vor 1904 1904-1908 1904-1908 ??.??.1906 1909-1913 1909-1913 1909-1913 1909-1913 1909-1913 28.08.1912 1912/1913 ??.??.???? ??.??.1914 ??.??.1914 27.11.1914 27.01.1915 27.01.1915 27.01.1915 30.03.1915 31.03.191 19.04.1915 06.05.1914 10.05.1915 04.06.1915 14.06.1915 28.08.1915 25.09.1915 28.11.1915 06.12.1915 06.12.1915 15.12.1915 22.11.1916 09.01.1917 26.04.1917 26.03.1918 ??.??.???? ??.??.???? ??.??.???? ??.??.???? ??.??.???? ??.??.???? ??.??.???? ??.??.???? 1916? 1916? 1916? 1934 ??.??.???? ??.??.???? ??.??.????

Sachsen: Albrechtsorden, Komturkreuz 1. Klasse; Sachsen(-Weimar): Hausorden der Wachsamkeit oder vom WeiĂ&#x;en Falken, Kommandeurkreuz mit Stern; Schaumburg-Lippe: Hausorden, Kreuz 1. Klasse; WĂźrttemberg: Orden der WĂźrttembergischen Krone, Komturkreuz; Ă&#x2013;sterreich: Franz Josephs-Orden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz; Osmanisches Reich: Mecidiye-Orden [NiĹ&#x;an-Äą Mecidi], 1. Klasse; Osmanisches Reich: Osmanje-Orden [NiĹ&#x;an-Äą Osmani], 2. Klasse; Russisches Reich: St. Stanislaus-Orden [Đ&#x17E;Ń&#x20AC;дон ХвŃ?Ń&#x201A;ОгО ĐĄŃ&#x201A;Đ°Đ˝Đ¸Ń ĐťĐ°Đ˛Đ°], 1. Klasse; Russisches Reich: St. Annen-Orden [Đ&#x17E;Ń&#x20AC;дон ХвŃ?Ń&#x201A;ОК Đ?ннŃ&#x2039;], 1. Klasse; PreuĂ&#x;en: Kronen-Orden, I. Klasse; PreuĂ&#x;en: Roter Adler-Orden, I. Klasse mit Eichenlaub und Krone; PreuĂ&#x;en: Erinnerungszeichen zur Silbernen Hochzeit Wilhelms II. und August Viktorias, auf dem Band des Roten Adler-Ordens. PreuĂ&#x;en: Roter Adler-Orden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Eichenlaub; PreuĂ&#x;en: KĂśniglicher Hausorden von Hohenzollern, Stern zum Komturkreuz; Bayern: Militär-Verdienstorden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz; Oldenburg: Haus- und Verdienstorden des Herzogs Peter Friedrich Ludwig, Ehren-GroĂ&#x;kreuz; WĂźrttemberg: Orden der WĂźrttembergischen Krone, GroĂ&#x;kreuz; Sachsen: Albrechts-Orden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit dem Goldenen Stern; PreuĂ&#x;en: Roter Adler-Orden, Krone zum GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Eichenlaub; Braunschweig: Hausorden Heinrichs des LĂśwen, GroĂ&#x;kreuz; PreuĂ&#x;en: Wiederholungsspange "1914" zum Eisernen Kreuz 1870 II. Klasse. PreuĂ&#x;en: Eisernes Kreuz I. Klasse; PreuĂ&#x;en: Orden pour le mĂŠrite; Sachsen(-Weimar): Hausorden der Wachsamkeit oder vom WeiĂ&#x;en Falken, GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Schwertern; Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha und Sachsen-Meiningen: Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Schwertern; Ă&#x2013;sterreich: Leopold Orden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Kriegsdekoration; Waldeck: Verdienstkreuz 1. Klasse mit Schwertern; 5Bayern: Militär-Verdienstorden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Schwertern; WĂźrttemberg: Orden der WĂźrttembergischen Krone, GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Schwertern; Ă&#x2013;sterreich-Ungarn: Militärverdienstkreuz 1. Klasse mit Kriegsdekoration. PreuĂ&#x;en: KĂśniglicher Hausorden von Hohenzollern, GroĂ&#x;komturkreuz mit Schwertern und Stern; Bayern: Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz; PreuĂ&#x;en: Eichenlaub zum Orden pour le mĂŠrite; PreuĂ&#x;en: Hoher Orden vom Schwarzen Adler; Ă&#x2013;sterreich-Ungarn: Sankt Stephans-Orden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz; Ă&#x2013;sterreich-Ungarn: Militärverdienstkreuz 1. Klasse mit Kriegsdekoration mit Brillanten; Sachsen: Militär-Sankt Heinrichs-Orden, Ritterkreuz; Sachsen: Militär-Sankt Heinrichs-Orden, Kommandeurkreuz 1. Klasse; Sachsen: Albrechts-Orden, Schwerter zum GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit dem Goldenen Stern; Hohenzollern: Hohenzollernsches Ehrenkreuz 1. Klasse mit Schwertern; PreuĂ&#x;en; GroĂ&#x;kreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes; Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha: Carl Eduards-Kriegskreuz; Ă&#x2013;sterreich-Ungarn: Militär-Maria Theresia-Orden, GroĂ&#x;kreuz; PreuĂ&#x;en: Roter Adlerorden, Schwerter zum GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Eichenlaub und Krone; Bremen: Hanseatenkreuz; Hamburg: Hanseatenkreuz; LĂźbeck: Hanseatenkreuz; Mecklenburg-Schwerin: Militärverdienstkreuz 1914 2. Klasse; Mecklenburg-Schwerin: Militärverdienstkreuz 1914 1. Klasse; Oldenburg: Haus- und Verdienstorden des Herzogs Peter Friedrich Ludwig, Ehren-GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Schwertern; ReuĂ&#x;: Ehrenkreuz 1. Klasse mit Schwertern; Bulgarien: Orden "FĂźr Tapferkeit" [Đ&#x17E;Ń&#x20AC;дон "Đ&#x2014;Đ° ĐĽŃ&#x20AC;Đ°ĐąŃ&#x20AC;ĐžŃ Ń&#x201A;"], 2. Klasse; Bulgarien: Ordens "St. Alexander" [Đ&#x17E;Ń&#x20AC;дон "Хв. Đ?ĐťĐľĐşŃ Đ°Đ˝Đ´Ń&#x160;Ń&#x20AC;"], GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Schwertern und Brillanten; Bulgarien: Orden "FĂźr Militär-Verdienst" [Đ&#x17E;Ń&#x20AC;дон "Đ&#x2014;a Đ&#x2019;Оонна Đ&#x2014;Đ°Ń ĐťŃ&#x192;га"], GroĂ&#x;kreuz mit Kriegsdekoration; Deutsches Reich: Ehrenkreuz des Weltkrieges 1914-1918 fĂźr Frontkämpfer; Ungarn: Ungarische Kriegserinnerungs-Medaille mit Schwertern und Helm; Ă&#x2013;sterreich: Erinnerungsmedaille fĂźr Weltkriegsteilnehmer; Bulgarien: Erinnerungsmedaille "FĂźr den Krieg 1915-1918". 


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LITERATURVERZEICHNIS

LITERATURVERZEICHNIS AA6

O‘Connor, Neal W.: Aviation Awards of Imperial Germany in World War I Vol. VI [Luftfahrtauszeichnungen des kaiserlichen Deutschland im Ersten Weltkrieg Band VI]. The Aviation Awards of the Grand Duchies of Baden and Oldenburg. Princeton 1999.

AB

Schloss- und Spielkartenmuseum Altenburg (Hg.): Ehrenzeichen des Herzogtums Sachsen-Altenburg - Dekorationen des Herzoglich Sachsen Ernestinischen Hausordens 1814-1918 - Katalog zur Ausstellung vom 8. September 2002 bis 2. Februar 2003. Altenburg 2002.

AC3

Acovic, Dragomir: Orders, Decorations and Medals of Bulgaria. Belgrad, 3. Auflage 1981.

ADO

Arnold, Udo (Redaktionsleitung): 800 Jahre Deutscher Orden - Ausstellung des Germanischen Nationalmuseums Nürnberg in Zusammenarbeit mit der Internationalen Historischen Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens. Gütersloh und München 1990.

BÄ3

Nimmergut, Jörg: Bänderkatalog - Orden & Ehrenzeichen Deutschland 1800-1945 (3. Auflage). Regenstauf, 3. erweiterte und aktualisierte Auflage 2008.

BA3/01

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band I. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band I: Staatliche Auszeichnungen. 3. Auflage Berlin 2003.

BA3/02

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band II. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band II: Auszeichnungen der bewaffneten Organe der DDR. Cottbus 3. Auflage 2009.

BA3/03

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band III. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band III: Auszeichnungen ziviler Ministerien und zentraler Staatsorgane der DDR. 3. Auflage Cottbus 2013.

BA3/04

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band IV. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band IV: Auszeichnungen des Gewerkschaftsbundes, der Parteien und der Nationalen Front der DDR. 3. Auflage Cottbus 2010.

BA3/05

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band V. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band V: Auszeichnungen der Freien Deutschen Jugend und der Pionierorganisation „Ernst Thälmann“. 3. Auflage Cottbus 2008.

BA3/06

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band VI. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band VI: Auszeichnungen der Sportorganisationen der DDR. 3. Auflage Cottbus 2007.

BA3/07

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band VII. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band VII: Auszeichnungen der Gesellschaft für Sport und Technik. 3. Auflage Cottbus 2006.

BA3/08

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949 - 1990 Band VIII. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band VIII: Auszeichnungen des Deutschen Roten Kreuzes der DDR. 3. Auflage Cottbus 2007.

BA3/09

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band IX. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band IX: Auszeichnungen des Verbandes der Kleingärtner, Siedler und Kleintierzüchter. 3. Auflage Cottbus 2012.

BA3/10

Bartel, Frank: DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band X. DDR Spezialkatalog 1949-1990 Band X: Auszeichnungen gesellschaftlicher Organisationen der DDR 1949-1990. 3. Auflage Cottbus 2011.

BA4/1

Bartel, Frank: Katalog der Auszeichnungen und Abzeichen der DDR - Band 1. Katalog der Auszeichnungen und Abzeichen der DDR - Band 1 - Freie Deutsche Jugend und Pionierorganisation „Ernst Thälmann“. Regenstauff 2015.

BA4/2

Bartel, Frank: Katalog der Auszeichnungen und Abzeichen der DDR - Band 2 - Sportgemeinschaften. Regenstauf 2016.

BA4/3

Bartel, Frank: Katalog der Auszeichnungen und Abzeichen der DDR - Band 3 - Sportorganisationen und ihre Meisterschaften. Regenstauf 2017.

BALD

Baldes, Carsten: Abzeichen und Ehrenpreise der Fliegertruppe von 1913 bis 1920. Neu-Ulm 2012.

BD91

Beldecos, George John: Ταγμάτα Αριστείας και στρατιωτιkα Μεταλλια τες Ελλαδος - Hellenic Orders, Decorations and Medals. Athen 1991.

BK1

Bretzendorfer, Uwe, und Kuhn, Thomas: Bulgarien - Militärorden für Tapferkeit von 1879 bis 1945 - Preiskatalog 2007 / 2008. Ludwigsburg 2007.

BK2b

Bretzendorfer, Uwe, und Kuhn, Thomas: Bulgarien - St. Alexander Orden von 1881 bis 1948 - Preiskatalog - Band 2. Ludwigsburg und Konstanz 2008.

BU

Stair Sainty, Guy und Heydel-Mankoo, Rafal, (Hg.): Burke‘s World Orders of Knighthood & Merit. Wilmington (Delaware/USA) 2006.

BWK1

Barac, Borna: Reference Catalogue - Orders, Medals and Decorations of the World Institutes until 1945 - Part I - Iron Book - A-D. Zagreb 2009.

BWK2

Barac, Borna: Reference Catalogue - Orders, Medals and Decorations of the World Institutes until 1945 - Part II - Bronze Book D-G. Zagreb 2010.

BWK3

Barac, Borna: Reference Catalogue - Orders, Medals and Decorations of the World Institutes until 1945 - Part III - Silver Book G-P. Zagreb 2013.

BWK4

Barac, Borna: Reference Catalogue - Orders, Medals and Decorations of the World Institutes until 1945 - Part IV - Gold Book - P-Z. Zagreb 2016.

BYO

Beyreiß, Friedhelm: Der Hausorden und die tragbaren Ehrenzeichen des Großherzogtums Oldenburg 1813-1918. E

CAM

Car, Pavel, und Muhić, Tomislav: Serbische und jugoslawische Orden und Ehrenzeichen von 1859 bis 1941. Wien 2009.


LITERATURVERZEICHNIS

CLL

Collignon, Jean-Pierre: Ordres de Chevalerie - Décorations et médailles de France (des origines à la fin du Second Empire). La Mothe-Archard 2004.

CMK

Car, Pavel, und Muhić, Tomislav: Preiskatalog für Serbische und Jugoslawische Orden, Medaille und Abzeichen 1858-1941 / Decorations and Badges of Serbia and Yugoslavia 1858-1941 - Price Guide 2008 / Katalog odlikovanja i znakovlja Srbije i Jugoslavije 1858.-1941. Ljubljana und Zagreb 2008.

CUF

Williamson, Gordon, und McGuirl, Thomas: German Military Ciffbands 1784-Present. San José CA (U.S.A.) 1998.

DE

Denkow, Veselin: Bulgariski Ordeni i Medali - Katalog. Sofia 2001.

DIA

Diakov, Mikhail E.: Medals of the Russian Empire. Ohne Ortsangabe, veröffentlicht in acht Bänden, 2004 bis 2008.

DO6

Laitenberger, Birgit, Bickenbach, Dorothea, und Bassier, Maria: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen - 6., neu bearbeitete und ergänzte Auflage. Köln - Berlin - München, 6. Auflage 2005.

DRV

Schultze, Dr. Walther: Deutschlands Ritter- und Verdienst-Orden der Gegenwart. Berlin 1898.

EF2

Efler, Gert: Deutsche Feuerwehr-Auszeichnungen. Schwalmstadt 2001.

EFW1

Efler, Gert: Aus „Geschichtsblätter für Waldeck“, 73. Band / 1985. Geschichte der Orden und Ehrenzeichen des Fürstentums Waldeck un Pyrmont. Bad Arolsen und Alsfeld 1985.

EFW2

Efler, Gert: Die Orden und Ehrenzeichen des Fürstentums Waldeck und Pyrmont. Schwalmstadt 2004.

EKG

Luftwaffenführungsstab Ic/VIII: Das Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes - Bilder aus dem Leben seiner Inhaber. Berlin ohne Jahresangabe.

EKO

Ohne Autor: Statuten für den Österreichisch-Kaiserlichen Orden der eisernen Krone. Wien 1884.

EL

Eldem, Edhem: Pride and Privilege - A History of Ottoman Orders, Medals and Decorations. Istanbul 2004.

EO2

Ohm-Hieronymussen, Paul: Handbuch europäischer Orden in Farbe. Berlin 2. Auflage 1975.

ER

Erüreten, Metin: Osmanlι Madalyalarι ve Nisanlarι - Belgelerle Tarihi / Ottoman Medals and Orders - Documented History. Istanbul 2001.

ERM

Erman, M. Demir: Harp Madalyası - The Turkish War Medal (Gallipoli Medal - Eiserner Halbmond). Ankara ohne Jahr.

FAM

Berger, Ralf: Freital 2010.

FB1

Furlan, Marjan: Bulgaria Imperial Orders and Medals 1887-1945. Toronto 1997.

FB3

Furlan, Marjan: Bulgaria Imperial and Socialist Army Insignia 1879-1990. Toronto 1997.

FJO01

Ohne Autor: Statuten für den Kaiserlich Österreichischen Franz Joseph-Orden. Wien Fassung von 1901.

FK

Hankimo, Olavi, Bergroth, Tom C., und andere: Vapaudenristin Ritarikunta. Porvoo 1997.

FRW2

Fritsche, Lutz: Die Orden und Ehrenzeichen des Großherzogtums Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach 1815-1918. 2. Auflage. Ilmenau, 2. wesentlich ergänzte und erweiterte Auflage 2015.

GB

Geile, Willi: Deutsches Bänderbuch - Handbuch für Ordenssammler - Farbausgabe. Offenbach 2001.

GB4

Gebauer, Wolfram: Dresdner Preisstudien - Heft 1. Die Orden und Ehrenzeichen von Sachsen einschließlich der sächsischen Verdienst-, Prämien-, Preis- und Auszeichnungsmedaillen. Dresden, 4. Auflage 2004.

GBH

Gebhardt, Klaus: Alois Börsch - Königlich Bayerischer Münz- und Hofmedailleur. München 1998.

GD

Gritzner, Maximilian: Klassiker der Phaleristik Band VII. Handbuch der im Deutschen Reiche, in Österreich-Ungarn, Dänemark, Schweden und den Russischen Ostseeprovinzen bestehenden Damenstifter und im Range gleichstehender Wohltätigkeitsanstalten nebst den Ordenszeichen der Ersteren. Frankfurt am Main 1888.

GEI2

Geißler, Harald: Das Eiserne Kreuz von seinem Ursprung bis zur Gegenwart. Zweibrücken 2011.

GK2

Klenau, Arnhard Graf: Orden in Deutschland und Österreich [Normalausgabe] - Band 2. Orden in Deutschland und Österreich (Normalausgabe) - Band 2 - Deutsche Staaten 1806 bis 1918, Teil 1 (Anhaltische Staaten - Baden - Bayern - Braunschweig - Frankfurt - Hannover). Offenbach 2008.

GPP

Geppert, Ernst-Günther: Die Mitglieder-Abzeichen der Freimaurer-Logen in Deutschland 1740 - 1972. Ohne Ort, 2. Auflage 1997.

GR

Gritzner, Maximilian: Handbuch der Ritter- und Verdienstorden aller Kulturstaaten der Welt innerhalb des XIX. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig 1893.

GT

Gattinger, Karl, und Stolzer, Johann: Klein, aber fein - Miniaturen und Reduktionen österreichischer Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Salzburg, 2004.

HD

Heyden, Hermann v.: Ehren-Zeichen (Kriegs-Denkzeichen, Verdienst- und Dienstalter-Zeichen) der erloschenen und blühenden Staaten Deutschlands und Österreich-Ungarns. Meiningen 1897. Nachträge Meiningen 1898, Frankfurt 1906 und Wiesbaden 1910.

HDL

Heidler, Michael: Deutsche Fertigungskennzeichen bis 1945. Bad Ems, 2. Auflage 2008.

HE5

Hüsken, André: Katalog der Abzeichen deutscher Organisationen 1871-1945 einschließlich auslandsdeutscher und ausländischer Organisationen. Hamburg 2010.

HFA

Heyde, Friedhelm: Preußen Sammlung Max Aurich - Das Eiserne Kreuz 1813-1870-1914. Osnabrück 1980.

HKK

Herfurth, Dietrich; Klauss, Jochen und Klee, Jürgen: Im Zeichen des Weissen Falken - Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach im Lichte seiner Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Weimar und Berlin 2012.


LITERATURVERZEICHNIS

HM1

Hamelman, William E., und Martin, Dennis: The History of the Prusian Pour le Merite Order Volume I [Die Geschichte des preußischen Ordens Pour le Mérite Band I]. The History of the Prussian Pour le Mérite Order 1740 - 1812. Hamburg 1982.

HM2

Hamelman, William E.: The History of the Prusian Pour le Merite Order Volume II [Die Geschichte des preußischen Ordens Pour le Mérite BandII]. The History of the Prussian Pour le Mérite Order 1813 - 1888. Dallas 1986.

HP1

Hüsken, André: Katalog der Orden, Ehrenzeichen und Auszeichnungen des Kurfürstentums Brandenburg, der Markgrafschaften Brandenburg-Ansbach und Brandenburg-Bayreuth, des Königreichs Preußen, der Republik Preußen unter Berücksichtigung des Deutschen Reiches - Band I. Kurfürstentum Brandenburg, Markgrafschaft Brandenburg-Ansbach, Markgrafschaft Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Orden des Königreichs Preußen. Bremen 2001.

HP2

Hüsken, André: Katalog der Orden, Ehrenzeichen und Auszeichnungen des Kurfürstentums Brandenburg, der Markgrafschaften Brandenburg-Ansbach und Brandenburg-Bayreuth, des Königreichs Preußen, der Republik Preußen unter Berücksichtigung des Deutschen Reiches - Band II. Ehrenzeichen, Auszeichnungen und Ehrengaben 1701-1888. Bremen 2001.

HP3

Hüsken, André: Katalog der Orden, Ehrenzeichen und Auszeichnungen des Kurfürstentums Brandenburg, der Markgrafschaften Brandenburg-Ansbach und Brandenburg-Bayreuth, des Königreichs Preußen, der Republik Preußen unter Berücksichtigung des Deutschen Reiches - Band III. Ehrenzeichen, Auszeichnungen und Ehrengaben 1888-1935. Bremen 2001.

HS

Hessenthal, Waldemar Edler von, und Schreiber, Georg: Die tragbaren Ehrenzeichen des Deutschen Reiches einschließlich der vormals selbständigen deutschen Staaten sowie des Kaisertums und des Bundesstaates Österreich, der Freien Stadt Danzig, des Großherzogtums Luxemburg, des Fürstentums Liechtenstein und der Ehrenzeichen des NSDAP. Originalgetreuer Nachdruck ohne Ort und ohne Jahr der Ausgabe Berlin 1940.

HÜ3

Hüsken, André: Katalog der Orden und Ehrenzeichen des Deutschen Reiches 1871-1945. Hamburg, 3. Auflage 2012.

HYF

Heyden, Hermann von: Der Concordien-Orden, die Ehren-Medaillen, sowie die Feldzugs- und Dienstalterszeichen des Großherzogtums, des General-Gouvernements und der Freien Stadt Frankfurt. In: Archiv für Frankfurt Geschichte und Kunst. Dritte Folge. S. 1 - 108. Frankfurt am Main 1891.

JC

Jacob, Jeffrey R.: Court Jewelers of the World. Cherry Hill 1978.

KAK

Karásek, Martin, und Kozák, Jaroslav Slovenské Vyznamenanina a Odznaky 1938 - 1945. Ohne Ort (wohl Bratislawa) 2012

KB1

Klingbeil, Karsten, und Thies, Andreas: Orden 1700-2000 - Band I. Orden 1700-2000 - Band I: Anhalt - Baden - Bayern - Brandenburg - Braunschweig - Frankfurt - Hannover - Hessen-Darmstadt - Hessen-Kassel - Hohenlohe. Nürtingen 2008.

KB2

Klingbeil, Karsten, und Thies, Andreas: Orden 1700-2000 - Band 2. Orden 1700-2000 - Band 2: Hohenzollern - Isenburg - Limburg - Lippe-Detmold - Schaumburg-Lippe - Mecklenburg-Schwerin - Mecklenburg-Strelitz - Nassau - Oldenburg - Ostfriesland - Reuss - Sachsen-Königreich - Sachsen-Weimar - Sächsische Herzogtümer. Nürtingen 2011.

KB3

Klingbeil, Karsten, und Thies, Andreas: Orden 1700-2000 - Band 3. Orden 1700-2000 - Band 3: Preussen. Nürtingen 2011.

KB4

Klingbeil, Karsten, und Thies, Andreas: Orden 1700-2000 - Band 4. Orden 1700-2000 - Band 4: Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld - Salm Schleswig-Holstein - Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt - Schwarzburg-Sondershausen - Thurn und Taxis - Waldeck - Westphalen - Württemberg - Würzburg - Deutsches Reich - Deutsche Demokratische Republik - Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Österreich. Nürtingen 2013.

KDO09

Nimmergut, Jörg, Feder, Klaus, und von der Heyde, Heiko: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen - Katalog - Drittes Reich, DDR und Bundesrepublik - 1933 bis heute - 9. Auflage. Regenstauf, 9. aktualisierte Auflage 2014.

KDO10

Nimmergut, Jörg; Feder, Klaus und Kasten, Uwe: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen - Katalog - Drittes Reich, DDR und Bundesrepublik - 1933 bis heute - 10. Auflage. Regenstauf, 10. aktualisierte Auflage 2017.

KL2

Klietmann, Dr. Kurt-Gerhard: Deutsche Auszeichnungen - 2. Band. Deutsches Reich 1871-1945. Berlin 1971.

KLE

Klenau, Arnhard Graf: Europäische Orden ab 1700 Katalog - ohne Deutschland. Rosenheim 1978.

KMVM

Kinast, Walter: Die Prägevarianten der königlich-bayerischen Militär-Verdienst-Medaille im Vergleich. Unveröffentlichtes Manuskript, Karlfeld 2018

KN

Knussert, Gustav: Orden, Ehren- und Verdienst-Zeichen, Denk- und Dienstalters-Zeichen in Bayern. München ohne Jahr.

KOW1

Klenau, Arnhard Graf: Orders of the World - Standard Catalogue - The Americas. Offenbach am Main, 2018.

KP06

Heyer von Rosenfeld, Friedrich: Klassiker der Phaleristik Band VI. Die Orden und Ehrenzeichen der K. und K. Oesterreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie. Nachdruck Offenbach 1997 der Ausgabe Wien 1888.

KP12

Michetschläger, Heinrich F.: Klassiker der Phaleristik Band XII. Das Ordensbuch der gewesenen Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie. Technisch überarbeitete und veränderte Neuausgabe Offenbach 1998 der Ausgabe Wien 1918/19.

KT

Kirchner, Heinz und Truszczynski, Georg von: Ordensinsignien und Auszeichnungen des Souveränen Malteser-Ritterordens. Köln 2. Auflage 1976.

KÜ103

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 103. Auktion der Münzenhandlung Fritz Rudolf Künker am 25. Juni 2005 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen - Eine Sammlung aus altem Adelsbesitz. Osnabrück 2005.

KÜ114

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 114. Auktion der Münzenhandlung Fritz Rudolf Künker am Auktion 22. Juni 2006 - Deutsche Münzen ab 1871 in Gold und Silber - Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Osnabrück 2006.

KÜ128

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 128. Auktion der Münzenhandlung Fritz Rudolf Künker am 22. Juni 2007 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Osnabrück 2007.

KÜ142

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 142. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 20. Juni 2008 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen - Eine nordamerikanische Privatsammlung u. a. Osnabrück 2008.


LITERATURVERZEICHNIS

KÜ162

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 162. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 2. Oktober 2009 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Osnabrück 2009.

KÜ173

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 173. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 27. Juni 2010 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus verschiedenem Besitz. Osnabrück 2010.

KÜ178

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 178. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 30. September und 1. Oktober 2010 - Russische Münzen und Medaillen - Russische Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus einer alten belgischen Sammlung. Osnabrück 2010.

KÜ192

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 192. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 23. und 24. Juni 2011 - Russische Münzen und Medaillen - Orden und Ehrenzeichen mit interessanten Serien aus europäischem Privatbesitz. Osnabrück 2011.

KÜ215

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 215. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 22. Juni 2012 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Osnabrück 2012.

KÜ235

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 235. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 21. Juni 2013 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt. Osnabrück 2013.

KÜ240

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 240. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 19. November 2012 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Der Nachlaß der Offiziersfamilie Balck, Osnabrück, u.a. Osnabrück 2013.

KÜ253

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 253. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 4. Oktober 2014 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen. 10. Ordensauktion des Hauses Künker - U. a. die Sammlung Friedhelm Beyreiß, Oldenburg, sowie bedeutende Sammlungen Italien, Rußland und Skandinavien. Osnabrück 2014.

KÜ259

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 259. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 9. März 2015 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt. Heiliger Stuhl und Vatikan - Die Sammlung Dr. Norbert Herkner, Berlin. Osnabrück 2015.

KÜ265

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 265. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 26. September 2015 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt. Sammlung Burger u. a. Osnabrück 2015.

KÜ284

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 284. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 30. September und 5./6. Oktober 2016 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt, u. a. bedeutende Sammlung Deutsche Bundesstaaten. Osnabrück 2016.

KÜ299

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 299. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 29. September 2017 - Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt - Das Osmanische Reich: The Ottoman Collection, Teil 2. Osnabrück 2017

KÜ311

Autengruber, Michael: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG - Münzenhandlung Katalog zur 311. Auktion der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & CO. KG am 5. Oktober 2018 - Die Sammlung Peter Groch, Teil I, Auszeichnungen militärischer Konflikte des 19. Jahrhunderts, Orden und Ehrenzeichen Bulgarien 1878-1991 - Die Lippe-Sammlung Gunther Wiegrebe - Bedeutende Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt. Osnabrück 2018

LAI

Lais, Dr. Friedrich: Der Köigl. Bayer. Hausritterorden vom Heiligen Hubertus. Bamberg 1892.

LEO

Ohne Autor: Statuten für den erhabenen Österreichisch-Kaiserlichen Leopold-Orden.

LNK

Link, Eva und Gauggel, Heinz: Fürstlich Hohenzollernsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Fridingen 1985.

LP

Stolzer, Dr. Johann, u. a.: 200 Jahre österreichisch-kaiserlicher Leopold-Orden. Wien 2008.

LS

Leser, Jacob und Oscar: Die Ritter- und Verdienstorden, Ehren-, Verdienst- und Denkzeichen sowie Dienstaltersauszeichnungen des Königreichs Bayern. Straubing 1910.

LTF

Ludwigstorff, Georg, Schwarz, Walter A., und Stolzer, Johann: Fortitudini - Der Tapferkeit - Der Militär-Maria Theresien-Orden und die Tapferkeitsmedaille. Deutsch-Wagram 1998.

LVA

Levin, Sergei S.: Орден святого апостола Андрея Первозванного - Кавалеры ордена (1699-1917). Unveröffnetlichtes Manuskript, Moskau 2014.

MA1

Zweng, Christian: Militaria Artefacts Band 1 Der Orden Pour le Mérite und sein Vorgänger Orden de la Générosité - Geschichte Träger - Hersteller der Originale - Fälschungen. Osnabrück 2014.

MC

Marcinko, Jan, und Jirousek, Alexander: Slovenské Rady Vyznamenania Čestné Odznaky. Kosice 2002.

MCÖ

Měřička, Vaclav: Orden und Ehrenzeichen der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie. Wien und München 1974.

MIS

Michetschläger, Heinrich F.: Das Ordensbuch der gewesenen Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie. Wien 1918/19.

MK

Marko, Alexander A.: Auszeichnungen der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie und der Zwischenkriegszeit - Preiskatalog 1997. Linz 1996.

MN

Meijer, H. G., Mulder, C. P., und Wagenaar, B. W.: Orders and Decorations of The Netherlands. Ohne Ort, 2. Auflage 1984.

MPM

Möller, Hanns: Geschichte der Ritter des Ordens „pour le mérite“ im Weltkrieg. Berlin Originalausgabe 1935.

MST

Ohm-Hieronymussen, Peter: Die Mecklenburg-Strelitzer Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Kopenhagen 2000.

MUA

Murphy, Paul L., und Ackley, Steven L.: In the Name of a Living God - The non-government badges and medals of Imperial Japan, including Police, Fire Brigade, Red Cross, Veteran and Patriotic Groups. Portland, OR (USA), 2005.

MVK

Patzwall, Klaus D. (Hg.): Das preußische Goldene Militärverdienstkreuz. Norderstedt 1986.

MY23

Mussell, John W. (Hg.): Medal Yearbook 2017. Honiton 23. Auflage 2016.


LITERATURVERZEICHNIS

NEK

Nimmergut, Jörg (Herausgeber): Edition Deutsches Ordensmuseum - Band 3. Das Eiserne Kreuz 1813-1957 - Geschichte des Auszeichnungswesens. Lüdenscheid 1. Auflage 1990.

NH02

Numismatischer Arbeitskreis Brandenburg-Preußen: Beiträge zur Brandenburgisch/Preußischen Numismatik Heft 2. Numismatisches Heft 2. Numismatisches Heft 2 Berlin 1995 132 Seiten, illustriert, kartoniert .

NI1

Nimmergut, Jörg: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945 (Band 1) Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945 (Band 1) Anhalt - Kurland. München 1997.

NI2

Nimmergut, Jörg: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945 (Band 2). Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945 (Band 2) Lippe - Reuss. München 1997.

NI3

Nimmergut, Jörg: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen (Band 3) Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen (Band 3) Sachsen - Württemberg I. München 1999.

NI4

Nimmergut, Jörg: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945 (Band 4). Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945 (Band 4) Württemberg II - Drittes Reich. München 2001.

NI5

Nimmergut, Jörg: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945 (Band 5) Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945 (Band 5) Nachtrag und Register. München 2004.

NIB

Nimmergut, Jörg: Bibliographie zur deutschen Phaleristik - Übersicht über das gesamte Schrifttum zu deutschen Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Regenstauf 2010.

NKV

Nimmergut, Jörg: Abzeichen und Auszeichnungen deutscher Kriegervereine 1800-1943. Regenstauf 2012.

NM3

Niemann, Detlev: Bewertungs-Katalog Deutschland - Price Guide Germany - Kaтaлoг - 1871-1945 / Orden, Ehrenzeichen, Verleihungs-Urkunden, Miniaturen und Etuis - Orders, Decorations, Award Documents, Miniatures and Cases of Issue - Oрдена, знaки oтличия, наградньіе документьі, миниатюрьі и футлярьі. Hamburg, 3. Auflage 2008.

OEK22

Nimmergut, Jörg und Anke: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen 1800-1945 (22. Ausgabe). Regenstauf, 22. komplett überarbeitete und aktualisierte Auflage 2019.

OG1

Spada, Antonio: Onori e Glorie [Ruhm und Ehre] Band 1. Onori e Glorie - Volume 1 - Regno d‘Italia e Antichi Stati Italiani. Mailand 1977.

OG2

Spada, Antonio: Onori e Glorie [Ruhm und Ehre] Band 2. Onori e Glorie - Volume 2 - Malta - Spagna - Gran Bretagna - Portogallo - Brasile. Brescia 1980.

OG3

Spada, Antonio: Onori e Glorie [Ruhm und Ehre] Band 3. Onori e Glorie - Volume 3 - Francia - Russia - Austria. Brescia 1983.

OMF04

Verein der Oldenburger Münzfreunde e. V., Oldenburg (Hg.): Schriftenreihe des Vereins Oldenburger Münzfreunde e. V. Band 4 Oldenburger Beiträge zur Münz- und Medaillenkunde - Jubiläumsschrift zum 40jährigen Bestehen des Vereins Oldenburger Münzfreunde e. V. Oldenburg . Oldenburg 1999.

ON2

Werlich, Robert: Orders and Decorations of all Nations - Ancient and Modern - Civil and Military. Washington 2. Auflage 1974, zweiter Druck 1990.

ÖOE1D

Ortner, Dr. M. Christian, und Ludwigstorff, Dr. Georg: Österreichs Orden und Ehrenzeichen - Teil I Österreichs Orden und Ehrenzeichen - Teil I: Die kaiserlich-königlichen Orden bis 1918. Wien 2017.

ÖOE1E

Ortner, Dr. M. Christian, und Ludwigstorff, Dr. Georg: Austrian Orders and Decorations [Österreichs Orden und Ehrenzeichen] Teil I Austrian Orders and Decorations - Part I: The Imperial-Royal Orders up to 1918. Wien 2017.

OP

Ophaus, Franz Joseph: Das Preußische Goldene Militär-Verdienst-Kreuz (Der pour le mérite des deutschen Unteroffiziers). Berlin 1936.

PA

Pavlov, Petko: Български Ордени и Медали - Bulgarian Orders and Medals. Sofia 2003.

PB1; PB2; PB3

Patrikeev, S. B., und Bojnovich, A. D.: Nagrudnie Snaki Rossii - Badges of Russia. Moskau und St. Petersburg 1