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GRIECHISCHE MÜNZEN SICILIA. PUNIER. Õ-Tetradrachme, 350/300 v. Chr., Rasch Melqart (= Kephaloidion?). 17,16 g. Jenkins I, 68.


AUKTION 236 Tetradrachmen des Hellenismus Die Sammlung Dieter Grunow, Berlin Münzen aus der Welt der Antike

ZEIT

Montag, 07. Oktober 2013 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr

ORT

Steigenberger Hotel Remarque Osnabrück, Natruper-Tor-Wall 1

AUKTIONS-TELEFON

+49 (0)541 60 96 633

AUKTIONS-FAX

+49 (0)541 60 96 634

Auktionen 236-239, Oktober 2013 07. OKTOBER 2013

08./09. OKTOBER 2013

09. OKTOBER 2013

10./11. OKTOBER 2013

Auktion 236 Tetradrachmen des Hellenismus Die Sammlung Dieter Grunow, Berlin Münzen aus der Welt der Antike Auktion 237 Gold- und Silbermünzen aus der Sammlung Friedrich Popken Münzen und Medaillen aus Mittelalter und Neuzeit Auktion 238 Die Münzen des Bistums und der Reichsstadt Regensburg Die Sammlung Dr. Karl Walter Bach, München Auktion 239 Goldprägungen Deutsche Münzen ab 1871 Russische Münzen und Medaillen


Zeitplan/Timetable Auktion 236 Tetradrachmen des Hellenismus Die Sammlung Dieter Grunow, Berlin Münzen aus der Welt der Antike

Montag, 07. Oktober 2013

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 616 Sammlung Tetradrachmen, Kelten, Griechen: Hispania - Caria 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 617 bis Nr. 1461 Griechen: Lydia - Numidia, Lots Griechen, Römische Republik, Imperatoren, Römische Kaiserzeit, Lots Römer, Völkerwanderung, Byzanz, Kreuzfahrer, Orientalen

Auktion 237 Gold- und Silbermünzen aus der Sammlung Friedrich Popken Münzen und Medaillen aus Mittelalter und Neuzeit

Dienstag, 08. Oktober 2013

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 2001 bis Nr. 2458 14.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 2459 bis Nr. 3360 Deutschland, Habsburgische Erblande Mittwoch, 09. Oktober 2013

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 3361 bis Nr. 3837 Europa: Baltikum - Schweden

Auktion 238 Die Münzen des Bistums und der Reichsstadt Regensburg Die Sammlung Dr. Karl Walter Bach, München

Auktion 239 Goldprägungen

14.00 Uhr - 15.30 Uhr Nr. 3838 bis Nr. 4079 Europa: Schweiz - Zypern, Übersee, Medaillen, Papiergeld, Vormünzliche Zahlungsmittel, Münzwaagen, Münzschale, Lots 15.30 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 4501 bis Nr. 4945 Donnerstag, 10. Oktober 2013

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 5001 bis Nr. 5638 Europa, Übersee 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 5639 bis Nr. 6318 Habsburgische Erblande, Altdeutschland, Lots

Deutsche Münzen ab 1871

Freitag, 11. Oktober 2013

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 6319 bis Nr. 6870 Russische Münzen und Medaillen

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14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 6871 bis Nr. 7406


Sehr geehrte Münzfreunde/Dear Coin Collectors, Ich wünsche Ihnen viel Freude mit unseren neuen Auktionskatalogen und hoffe, Sie finden einige schöne Stücke für Ihre Sammlung. Als Europas führendes Auktionshaus für Münzen, Medaillen und Orden hat sich unser Dienstleistungsspektrum für Sie als unsere Kunden stetig verbessert und erweitert. Einen kleinen Überblick über unsere Angebote finden Sie hier. I wish you a lot of pleasure with our new auction catalogues and I hope you will find a few additonal items for your collection. As Europe´s leading auction company for coins, medals and decorations our range of services for our customers has been steadily improving and expanding. Following is a short overview of our offers. Mit herzlichen Grüßen/With warm regards

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AUKTIONEN/AUCTIONS Besuchen Sie unsere international bedeutenden Auktionen, die Ihnen viermal jährlich zahlreiche Raritäten bieten. Profitieren Sie als Bieter oder Einlieferer von unserer Erfahrung und Kompetenz. Visit our internationally recognized auctions which take place four times a year and offer many rarities. Benefit from our experience and competence while being a bidder or consigner. GOLDHANDEL/GOLD COIN TRADING Wir bieten Ihnen ein ständiges Angebot sowie den Ankauf von Anlagemünzen aus Deutschland, Europa und aller Welt zu fairen tagesaktuellen Preisen. We are constantly offering as well as purchasing a vast range of German, European and World bullion coins. We buy and sell gold assets at a fair, daily updated market price. ONLINE-SHOP Wir bieten Ihnen in unserem Online-Shop auf www.kuenker.de ein täglich aktualisiertes Münz-Angebot von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit. Kaufen Sie hier unkompliziert zum Festpreis und ohne Risiko. We offer you an exclusive daily updated selection of coins from ancient to modern times. You can order at www.kuenker.com without hassle or risk. eLIVE AUCTION Mit unseren eLive Auctions können Sie über das Internet an regelmäßigen Auktionen mit einem virtuellen Auktionator teilnehmen. Sie können Vorgebote bequem online abgeben und abschließend die Auktion live am Bildschirm für sich entscheiden. With our eLive Auctions, we offer you an opportunity to participate in regular auctions live over the Internet. You can submit preliminary bids online, and up to the last moment of the sale you can win auctions live on your computer screen. ORDEN UND EHRENZEICHEN/ORDERS AND DECORATIONS Einmal im Jahr findet unsere besondere Ordensauktion statt, die sich ganz den dekorativen Ehrenzeichen widmet. Profitieren Sie als Bieter oder Einlieferer von unserer Erfahrung und Kompetenz im Bereich Phaleristik. Once a year there is a special auction dedicated to medals and decorations. Benefit from our experience in the field of phaleristik becoming our bidder or consigner.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Besichtigung/On View Die Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes kann nach vorheriger telefonischer Absprache erfolgen. Auction lots may be viewed by appointment only.

Online-Katalog/Online Catalogue Betrachten Sie unsere Auktionskataloge im Internet! Unter www.kuenker.de und www.sixbid.com haben Sie die Möglichkeit, Abbildungen zu vergrößern, Ihre Gebote direkt abzugeben und die Ergebnisse der Auktionen abzurufen.

KUENKER.DE

Please browse our auction catalogues at www.kuenker.com or at www.sixbid.com! You will have the possibility to zoom all images, to place your bids and to view all auction results online.

Künker-Service Wir sind mittlerweile mit neun eigenen Standorten in Deutschland und Europa vertreten. So können wir Ihnen unseren beliebten Künker-Service auch in Ihrer Nähe anbieten. Unsere Leistungen vor Ort: • Persönliche Beratung und Betreuung in Ihrer Nähe. • Sie können Ihre Münzen direkt einliefern oder verkaufen, ersteigerte Münzen abholen und sich nach Vereinbarung Einlieferungen auszahlen lassen. • Sie können sich von unserem Kooperationspartner auf den Künker-Auktionen vertreten lassen. We are now represented with nine locations in Germany and Europe so that we can also provide you the best service in your vicinity. Our local services: • You always have a point of contact nearby. • You can directly consign or sell your coins, collect purchases and receive by appointment payment for consignments. • You can have our cooperation partner represent you at our auctions.

OSNABRÜCK Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Gutenbergstraße 23, 49076 Osnabrück Tel. +49 (0)541 96 20 20, E-Mail: service@kuenker.de USt-IdNr./VAT-No: DE256270181

Haupptstsititz Ha ititz in in Osn s abbrüückk

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TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Standorte/Locations

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MÜNCHEN Künker Numismatik AG Löwengrube 12, 80333 München Dr. Hubert Ruß Tel. +49 (0)89 242 198 38, service@kuenker-numismatik.de Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Maximiliansplatz 12a, 80333 München Frank Richardsen Tel. +49 (0)89 242 16 990, frank.richardsen@kuenker.de BERLIN Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Poststraße 22, 10178 Berlin-Mitte Wollankstraße 117, 13187 Berlin-Pankow Michael Otto Tel. +49 (0)30 247 248 91, michael.otto@kuenker.de

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Rolaand nd Trraam mppe

HAMBURG Künker Hamburg, c/o Roland Trampe Roland Trampe Tel. +49 (0)541 96 20 20, roland.trampe@kuenker.de KONSTANZ Künker Konstanz, c/o Michael Autengruber Schulthaißstraße 10, 78462 Konstanz Michael Autengruber Tel. +49 (0)7531 28 44 69, michael.autengruber@kuenker.de

Michaeel Autengruubeer

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ZNOJMO Künker Znojmo, c/o Petr Kovaljov 17. Listopadu 18, 66902 Znojmo, Tschechische Republik Petr Kovaljov Tel. +42 (0)603 81 10 31, petr.kovaljov@kuenker.de ZÜRICH Künker Zürich, c/o Hess-Divo AG Löwenstraße 55, 8001 Zürich, Schweiz Ulf Künker Tel. +41 (0)44 225 40 90, zuerich@kuenker.de

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MOSKAU Künker Moskau, c/o Russian Coin Co. Ltd. Lyalin pereulok dom 9, str. 1, of. 3, 105062 Moskau, Russland Aleksey Onchukov Tel. +7 (495) 589 56 10, aleksey.onchukov@kuenker.de

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Was ist für Ihre schriftliche Auktionsteilnahme besonders wichtig?

DEUTSCH

• Bitte senden Sie uns Ihre Aufträge möglichst frühzeitig zu. Wenn uns Ihr Auftrag erst kurz vor der Auktion erreicht, können sich bei der Bearbeitung Fehler einschleichen. Das beiliegende Formular erleichtert Ihnen die Abgabe eines schriftlichen Gebots. Gerne nehmen wir Ihre Gebote per Post, Fax oder Email entgegen. • Wenn Sie noch nicht bei uns gekauft haben, bitten wir Sie, uns als Referenz eine Münzhandlung anzugeben, mit der Sie bereits in Geschäftsverbindung stehen. • Wir gewährleisten die Echtheit aller verkauften Objekte auch über die gesetzliche Frist hinaus.

Sie möchten telefonisch an der Auktion teilnehmen? Die telefonische Teilnahme an der Auktion ist bei uns selbstverständlich möglich. Wir rufen Sie während der Auktion gerne an und helfen Ihnen, die gewünschten Stücke zu ersteigern. Aus organisatorischen Gründen bitten wir Sie, die folgenden Punkte zu beachten:

Ulrich Künker Leiter Kundenbetreuung

• Telefonisches Bieten ist nur bei Losen mit einer Taxe von mind. € 500,– möglich. • Bitte teilen Sie uns mindestens 48 Stunden vor der Auktion mit, zu welchen Stücken Sie angerufen werden möchten. • Bitte achten Sie darauf, dass Sie erreichbar sind, wenn Ihre Stücke versteigert werden. Der Zeitplan in diesem Katalog hilft Ihnen dabei, den Zeitpunkt der Versteigerung abzuschätzen. • Wir empfehlen, zusätzlich zu Ihrem Anrufwunsch auch ein Gebotslimit abzugeben, damit wir für Sie auch dann bieten können, falls die Verbindung nicht zustande kommt. • Bitte beachten Sie, dass telefonisches Bieten eine unsichere Variante der Auktionsteilnahme sein kann. Wir können keine Garantie für das Zustandekommen der telefonischen Verbindung übernehmen. Wenn Sie sicher gehen wollen, besuchen Sie bitte unsere Auktion persönlich oder geben Sie uns ein schriftliches Gebot.

Was passiert nach der Auktion? Barbara Westmeyer deutschsprachige Kundenbetreuung

Telefon: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 Gebührenfrei: 0800 58 36 537 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Internet: www.kuenker.de Montag – Donnerstag 8.30 – 17.00 Uhr Freitag 8.00 – 15.30 Uhr

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• Der Versand der Auktionsware startet sofort nach Beendigung der Auktion und dauert in der Regel 8 Tage. • Alle Kunden, die an unserer Auktion schriftlich teilgenommen haben, erhalten innerhalb von 2 Wochen nach der Auktion unsere Ergebnisliste gratis. • Alle Ergebnisse sind spätestens einen Tag nach Auktionsende auf unserer Internetseite verfügbar.

Sie möchten Ihre Münzen in unsere Auktion einliefern? Sollten Sie sich zum Verkauf Ihrer Münzen entschlossen haben, kommen Sie zu uns. Seit 1985 beweisen wir mit derzeit 4 Auktionsterminen und ca. 15 Katalogen pro Jahr unsere Kompetenz und Zuverlässigkeit. Wichtige Informationen für Sie im Überblick: • Ihre Münzen werden von unseren Experten nach neuestem numismatischem Standard bestimmt und in hochwertigen Farbkatalogen präsentiert. • Wir verfügen mit mehr als 10.000 Kunden über eine der besten Kundendateien weltweit. Im Durchschnitt verkaufen wir mehr als 95 % der Stücke einer Auktion, nicht selten erzielen wir dabei Rekordzuschläge. Für nicht verkaufte Objekte werden keine Gebühren erhoben. • Ab der Übergabe an uns sind Ihre Münzen mit dem doppelten Schätzwert versichert. Unsere Kundenbetreuung bespricht gerne mit Ihnen wie Ihre Stücke sicher zu uns gelangen können. • Ihre Einlieferung wird Ihnen sofort nach der Übernahme quittiert. Spätestens 5 Wochen vor der Auktion erhalten Sie eine Auflistung Ihrer Stücke inkl. Katalognummern und Schätzpreisen. • Unmittelbar nach der Auktion erhalten Sie die Ergebnisliste und können dann alle erzielten Preise feststellen. Den Auktionserlös erhalten Sie innerhalb von 45 Tagen nach der Auktion.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Important facts for a written participation in the auction • Please send us your instructions as early as possible. The likelihood of errors occurring increases if we receive your instructions only shortly before the auction. The enclosed form should make it simple for you to submit a written bid, you may send your bids by mail, fax or e-mail. • If you are a new customer who has not yet purchased from us, we do request references. Please name a coin dealer with whom you have already done business. • The genuineness of all objects sold is warranted beyond the statutory length of time.

ENGLISH

Do you wish to participate by telephone? You are welcome to participate in our auction by telephone. We are glad to call you during the auction and to assist you in bidding for your items. Please take notice of the following conditions: • Telephone bidding is accepted exclusively on lot numbers with estimates at 500 Euro or above. • Please inform us at least 48 hours in advance if you wish to register for telephone bidding, even for single lots. We do need 48 hours to schedule all incoming requests. • Please be available, when your lots will be sold. The time schedule in the catalogue will help you to estimate the approximate time when your items are going to be sold. • When you register for telephone bidding, we recommend to leave a written bid in addition. This bid will only be executed, should the telephone bidding be interrupted or not be achieved. • Please be aware that telephone bidding is a risky way of participation in our auction. We do not assume liability should the telephone line be interrupted or not be achieved. We advise you to attend the auction in person or to send written bids.

Nadine Zuber English, Deutsch

What occurs after the auction? • The shipment of all auction goods starts immediately after the completion of the entire auction week and it usually takes 8 days to be completed. • All auction results are available on our website one day after the end of the auction week. • All clients who submitted bids for the auction will automatically receive the list of auction results free of charge within two weeks after the end of auction.

Do you wish to consign your coins to our auction? Should you decide to sell your coins, we are ready to assist you. Since 1985 we have earned our bona fides in conducting over 4 auctions and in publishing 15 catalogues per year. In the following you will find the most important information on consigning: • We guarantee the professional handling of your consignment following the latest numismatic level of expertise including its presentation in colour catalogues of outstanding quality. • We possess one of the best customer lists worldwide. On average we sell more than 95 % of all items in our auction, and it is not unusual for us to achieve record hammer prices for lots submitted. Unsold items incur no fees. • Once the coins are consigned they are covered by our insurance at double the estimate. Upon consultation with our customer service we try to advise you on the safest way of shipping for your coins. • Your delivery will be confirmed in writing immediately on receipt. At least five weeks before the auction, you will receive an exact list of your objects with the relevant catalogue numbers and descriptions. • Within a week of the end of auction, you will receive a list of auction results in order to see what prices were reached for each individual lot. As a consignor, you will receive the auction proceeds within 45 days after the end of auction.

Marion Künker English, Deutsch

Phone: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Website: www.kuenker.com Monday –Thursday 8.30 AM – 5 PM Friday 8 AM – 3.30 PM

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Votre participation par écrit – Les points essentiels

FRANCAIS

• Veuillez nous faire parvenir vos ordres le plus tôt possible. Si vos ordres nous parviennent juste avant la vente aux enchères, des erreurs risquent d’être commises lors de leur traitement. Le formulaire ci-joint vous aidera à rédiger facilement votre offre. Vous pouvez nous envoyer vos ordres par la poste, par fax ou par e-mail. • Si vous n’avez encore fait aucune acquisition chez nous, nous vous prions de nous indiquer une ou deux références d’autres maisons numismatiques où vous avez déjà acheté. • L’authenticité des pièces vendues est garantie même au-delà des délais légaux.

Vous voulez participer par téléphone? La participation par téléphone est bien sûr possible. Nous vous appelons volontiers pour vous aider à acquérir les pièces voulues. Pour des raisons d´organisation veuillez noter les points suivants:

Alexandra Elflein, M. A. Français, Deutsch, English, Italiano

• La participation par téléphone est possible seulement pour les lots estimé à plus de 500 Euros chacun. • Veuillez nous informer au moins 48 heures avant la vente de la liste des pièces pour lesquelles vous voudriez être appelé. • Veuillez prendre soin d´être joignable quand vos pièces seront mises en vente. L’ordre de vente dans ce catalogue vous aidera à estimer l´heure de la vente. • Vue les risques de la participation téléphonique, nous vous recommandons néanmoins d’indiquer une limite maximale pour chaque lot, pour que nous puissions enchérir pour vous, même si la communication téléphonique serait interrompue ou ne pourrait pas être établie. • La participation par téléphone présente des risques, et nous déclinons toute responsabilité dans le cas où la communication téléphonique serait interrompue, ou bien ne pourrait être établie.

Ce qui se passe après la vente Kmar Chachoua Français, Deutsch, English, Arabic

Tél. +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Facs. +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Site: www.kuenker.de Lundi à Jeudi de 8h30 à 17h00 Vendredi de 8h00 à 15h30

• L´expédition des biens va commencer immédiatement après la fin de la vente complète, et prend généralement 8 jours. • Tous les clients qui ont participé à l’une de nos ventes aux enchères recevront gratuitement une liste de résultats dans les deux semaines qui suivent. • Les résultats seront disponibles sur notre site internet, au plus tard un jour après la fin de la vente.

Vous voulez confier vos monnaies pour nos ventes aux enchères? Contactez nous si vous envisagez de vendre vos pièces. Notre compétence et fiabilité est prouvée depuis 1985 par actuellement 4 ventes aux enchères et environ 15 catalogues par an. Le plus important pour vous est que: • Vos pièces seront décrites par notre équipe d’experts selon les standards numismatiques les plus récents, et elles seront présentées dans des catalogues de haute qualité en couleurs. • Nous avons un des meilleurs fichiers-clientèle du monde avec plus de 10.000 clients. Nous vendons en moyenne plus de 95% de la vente aux enchères, et obtenons souvent des prix records. Les monnaies invendues n’encourent aucun frais. • Notre service clientèle est disponible pour vous conseiller pour l’envoi de vos pièces, et dès leur réception vos pièces seront assurées pour le double de la valeur d´estimation. • Vous recevrez une liste détaillée des pièces fournies au moment de la prise en charge puis, au plus tard cinq semaines avant la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez leur liste exacte avec les numéros de catalogue correspondants. • Immédiatement après la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez la liste des résultats et pourrez prendre connaissance des prix obtenus. Vous recevrez le produit de la vente dans les 45 jours après les enchères.

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TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


I punti piú importanti per la Sua partecipazione per iscritto • La preghiamo di farci pervenire i Suoi ordini al piú presto possibile. Se i Suoi ordini ci arrivano poco prima dell´inizio dell´asta possono verificarsi errori. Il formulario allegato Le faciliterá l´invio dei Suoi ordini per iscritto. Ci puó far pervenire i Suoi ordini per posta, per fax o per email. • Se non ha mai acquistato presso di noi, La preghiamo di volerci indicare a titolo di referenza il nome di uno o due commercianti numismatici presso i quali è giá cliente. • L’autenticità di tutti gli oggetti venduti viene garantita anche oltre i termini previsti dalla legge.

ITALIANO

Desidera partecipare telefonicamente alla nostra asta? La partecipazione telefonica è naturalmente da noi possibile. La chiameremo durante l´asta e La assisteremo volentieri per ottenere l´aggiudicazione dei pezzi desiderati. Per motivi di organizzazione La preghiamo di voler tenere conto dei seguenti punti: • La partecipazione telefonica è possibile solo per lotti stimati con almeno 500,– € l´uno. • La preghiamo di volerci comunicare almeno 48 ore prima dell´inizio dell´asta per quali pezzi desidera essere chiamato. • La preghiamo di aver cura di essere raggiungibile telefonicamente al momento in cui vengono messi all´asta i pezzi che Le interessano. Lo schema orario in catalogo La aiuterá a stimare a che ora verranno messi all´asta i pezzi che Le interessano. • Consigliamo di indicare sempre assieme alla richiesta di partecipazione telefonica anche un´ importo massimo, per permetterci di fare per Lei l´offerta anche nel caso in cui la telefonata non fosse possibile. • La partecipazione telefonica è un modo incerto di partecipare alle aste. Non assumiamo nessuna responsabilità se per esempio la linea telefonica è occupata o interrotta o se Lei non sará raggiungibile per altri motivi.

Sonia Russo, M. A. Italiano, Deutsch, English, Español

Cosa succede dopo l´asta? • La spedizione del materiale d´asta comincia subito dopo la fine dell´intera asta e termina normalmente entro 8 giorni. • Tutti i clienti che hanno partecipato all´asta ricevono entro 2 settimane dopo l´asta la lista dei prezzi di realizzo. • I prezzi di realizzo sono visionabili sul nostro sito internet al piú tardi un giorno dopo la fine dell´intera asta.

Vuole consegnarci le Sue monete per una nostra asta? Ci contatti se ha deciso di vendere le Sue monete. Dal 1985 la nostra competenza ed affidabilità è dimostrata da attualmente 4 aste e circa 15 cataloghi all´anno. Quali sono i punti di maggior importanza per Lei:

Cristina Welzel Italiano, Deutsch, English, Français

Tel.: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Internet: www.kuenker.de Lunedì a giovedì dalle 8.30 alle 17.00 Venerdì dalle 8.00 alle 15.30

• Le Sue monete vengono valutate dal nostro staff di esperti secondo i piú attuali standard numismatici e vengono presentati in cataloghi di alto valore a colori. • Con piú di 10.000 clienti disponiamo di una delle migliori banca dati clienti del mondo. In media vendiamo oltre il 95% del materiale d´asta realizzando spesso prezzi da record. Per i pezzi invenduti non ci sono nessune spese da pagare. • Dal momento della consegna le Sue monete sono assicurate per il doppio del valore di stima. Il nostro servizio clientela Le consiglierá volentieri come farci avere le Sue monete nel modo piú sicuro. • La Sua consegna Le verrá immediatamente quietanzata al momento della resa dei pezzi. Al piú tardi 5 settimane prima dell´asta riceverá una lista dettagliata dei Suoi pezzi con i numeri di catalogo ed i prezzi di stima. • Subito dopo l´asta riceverá la lista con i risultati d´asta dalla quale potrá subito controllare i prezzi realizzati. Riceverá l´importo di realizzo entro 45 giorni dopo la fine dell´asta.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Что особенно важно при заочном участии на аукционе?

RUSSKIJ

• Тщательно изучите наш каталог и запишите те лоты, которые Вас заинтересовали. Заполните приложенный формуляр и отправьте нам его заранее по почте, факсу или электронной почте. Мы обращаем внимание на то, что если Ваши ставки придут перед самым началом аукциона либо во время аукциона, то существует вероятность допуска ошибки в процессе обработки заказа. • Если Вы впервые принимаете участие в нашем аукционе, то мы рекомендуем Вам указать Ваш референц – аукционные дома, с которыми Вы уже сотрудничали. Или свяжитесь с нами по телефону +49(0)541 9620268. • Подлинность купленных на нашем аукционе лотов гарантируется нами на протяжении неограниченного времени.

Вы хотели бы принять участие на аукционе по телефону? У нас, конечно, есть возможность организовать Ваше телефонное участие на торгах, но мы бы хотели обратить внимание на следующие пункты: Anastasija Koepsell Russkij, Deutsch

Dzmitry Nikulin Russkij, Deutsch, English

Телефон: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Факс: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de интернет: www.kuenker.de понедельник – четверг 8.30 – 17.00 пятница 8 – 15.30

• Участие в телефонных торгах возможно только для лотов со стартовой ценой свыше 500 евро. • Для участия в торгах по телефону просим Вас связаться с нами не позднее 48 часов до начала аукциона. • Мы хотим подчеркнуть, что телефонное участие на аукционе – не самый безопасный способ: в случае плохой связи, недоступности клиента во время торгов либо других технических проблем мы не несем ответственности. • Мы рекомендуем Вам при участии в торгах по телефону  дополнительно сообщить нам о Вашем лимите на интересующие лоты в случае, если телефонная связь будет невозможна или по техническим причинам прервана.

Что происходит после окончания аукциона? • Результаты аукционов доступны на нашем сайте на следующий день после окончания торгов. • Вы можете лично забрать приобретенные лоты. По окончании торгов мы готовим все необходимые документы на вывоз из Евросоюза. • Почтовые отправки в Россию ( Беларусь, Украину ) осуществляются по предварительной договоренности. Для связи с нами звоните по телефону +49 (0)541 9620268.

Вы хотели бы выставить Ваши предметы на аукцион? Более 160-ти успешно проведенных аукционов, тысячи участников, 4 аукциона в год - эти и другие преимущества, которые говорят в пользу выставления Ваших коллекций на аукцион Кюнкер: • Ваши монеты будут оценены нашими экспертами по самым новым нумизматическим стандартам и представлены в высококачественном цветном каталоге. • Более 10000 клиентов со всего мира оказывают нам свое доверие. В среднем мы продаем более 95% всех выставляемых предметов, при этом зачастую достигая рекордных сумм. • Все Ваши предметы, после передачи их нам, хранятся у нас до начала аукциона застрахованными. Не позднее 5-ти недель до начала аукциона Вы получите по почте подробное описание Ваших лотов с указаннами номерами в каталоге, а также их оценочной стоимостью. • Результаты аукционов также будут высланы Вам по почте после окончания торгов. В течение 45 дней после аукциона Вам будет выплачено Ваше вознаграждение.

10

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


INHALT AUKTION 236 Nr. TETRADRACHMEN DES HELLENISMUS DIE SAMMLUNG DIETER GRUNOW, BERLIN

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7 1 7

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21 21 24 26

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53

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32

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59 61 63 70 78 83 87 96

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35 37 39

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42 44

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104 106

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112 160

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48 58

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166 168 183 185 197

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213 19 29 47 50 51 52 56 57 58 60 62 69 77 82 86 95 102 103 105 108 109 110 111 159 162 163 164 165 167 182 184 196 212 213

60 65 66 69

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MÜNZEN AUS DER WELT DER ANTIKE

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1461

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251

Keltische Münzen Britannia Gallia Belgica

214 214 219 223

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249 218 222 226

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Kelten Pannonia Dacia Griechen Sicilia Thracia Macedonia Paeonia Epirus Aitolia Attica Corinthia Peloponneus Kyladen Pontus Bithynia Mysia Troas Aeolis Ionia Caria Phrygia Lycia Pamphylia Cilicia Galatia Cappadocia Syria Phoenicia Babylonia Parthia Characene Persis Bactria Sogdiana India Aegyptus Cyrenaica

72 23 26 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 36 39 40 41 44 45 46 46 47 47 47 48 58 59 59 59 60 60 65 66 68 72 72

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Nr. Germania Bohemia Noricum Pannonia Dacia Thracia Lots keltischer Münzen Griechische Münzen Hispania Etruria Umbria Campania Calabria Lucania Bruttium Sicilia Moesia Scythia Thracia Macedonia Das goldene Münzcollier für die griechische Königin Elisabeth Paeonia Thessalia Epirus Acarnania Locris Boeotia Euboea Attica Aegina Corinthia Peloponnesus Creta Kykladen Pontus Paphlagonia Bithynia Mysia Troas Aeolis Lesbos Ionia Caria Lydia Lycia Pamphylia Pisidia Cilicia Cyprus 12

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466 507 515 516 517 519 523 524 538 545 549 551 554 555 557 558 559 565 566 569 581 602 616 628 629 630 631 642 644

75 75 75 76 77 77 77 148 78 78 78 79 81 86 88 102 102 103 106 117 111 117 118 119 119 119 119 120 121 122 123 123 124 124 125 125 125 126 127 127 128 131 133 134 135 135 135 137 137


Nr. Cappadocia Armenia Syria Phoenicia Iudaea Arabia Felix Babylonia Persia Bactria India Aegyptus Cyrenaica Zeugitania Numidia Lots und Sammlungen griechischer Münzen Literatur zur griechischen Numismatik

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709 725

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Römische Münzen Münzen der Römischen Republik Imperatorische Prägungen Münzen der Römischen Kaiserzeit Lots und Sammlungen römischer Münzen

727 727 845 893 1289

Völkerwanderung Vandalen Westgoten Ostgoten Langobarden Franken Anonym Sammlung ostgotischer Bronzemünzen

137 137 139 140 140 140 140 141 142 142 144 145 145 147

137 139

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140 141

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142 144

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145

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724 726

147

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148 148

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1307 844 892 1288 1307

148 148 163 170 231

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232 163 170 231 232

1308 1308 1310 1316

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1323 1309 1315 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323

233

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233

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235 233 234 234 234 235 235 235

Byzantinische Münzen Byzanz Lots byzantinischer Münzen

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1367 1364 1367

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Kreuzfahrer Jerusalem Chios Mytilene Foglia Vecchia (Phocaea) Armenien Johanniter auf Rhodos Zypern Unbestimmte genuesische Besitzung Levantinische Beischläge Ein Lot Münzen der Kreuzfahrer

1368

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241

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1370 1372

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1375 1393

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1396

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1399

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Orientalische Münzen Kushan Gupta in Indien Yadavas von Devagiri

1461 1399 1400 1401

251 245 245 245 13


Nr. Umayyaden, Kalifen in Damaskus Abassiden, Kalifen in Bagdad Banijuriden Fatimiden in Ägypten Rassiden im Yemen Buyiden Samaniden Sajiden Gross-Seldschuken in Afghanistan Danishmendiden in Sivas Mongolen in Mittelasien Zengiden in Sinjar Zengiden in Al-Jazira Begtimuriden in Ahlat Artuqiden in Hisn Kayfa und Amid Artuqiden in Mardin Lots orientalischer Münzen

1402 1404

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1427

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Anhang

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Liste der vollbesteuerten Münzen

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Leitfaden zur erfolgreichen schriftlichen Auktionsteilnahme/ Важная информация об участии на аукционе

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Versteigerungsbedingungen/Terms and Conditions of Auction

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Numismatische Ausdrücke/Numismatic Terms

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Impressum/Bankverbindungen

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HIGHLIGHTS DER AUKTION 236

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427 679

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&+'6'4)47019ņ214646'+0'507/+5/#6+-'45

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16


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17


HIGHLIGHT DER AUKTION 236

466

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19


SLG. GRUNOW / DACIA

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1,5:1





6

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG KO VJCUKUEJGP 5VKN  ,CJTJWPFGTV X%JTI&KQP[UQUMQRHT*GTCMNGUUVGJV NOKV-GWNGWPF.ÌYGPHGNN.WMCPEpXGTIN2NHH5NI(NGUEJGXGTIN )GYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



7



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG KO VJCUKUEJGP 5VKN  ,CJTJWPFGTV X%JTI&KQP[UQUMQRHT*GTCMNGUUVGJV NOKV-GWNGWPF.ÌYGPHGNN.WMCPEpXGTIN2NHH5NI(NGUEJGpXGTIN  )GYGNNVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI0T

20




SLG. GRUNOW / SICILIA

)4+'%*'0

8 1,5:1

1,5:1

5+%+.+# 

5;4#-75#ICVJQMNGUX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI#TGVJWUCMQRH NXQPFTGK&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP3WCFTKICNQDGP6TKUMGNKU+GTCTFK 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



9 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 2GTUGRJQPGMQRH T0KMG T GTTKEJVGV 6TQRJ·G WPVGP N   6TKUMGNKU+GTCTFK 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



10 1,5:1



1,5:1

270+'4Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT.CIGTOÒP\UV·VVGQFGT-CTVJCIQI2HGTFGRTQVQOG TXQP0KMGDGMT·P\VFCXQT)GTUVGPMQTP2CNOG,GPMKPU++ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI /ÒPEJGP0T



11 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT.CIGTOÒP\UV·VVGI-QTGMQRHTXQPFTGK&GNRJKPGPWOIG DGP2HGTFUVGJVTFCJKPVGT2CNOGFCXQT-GT[MGKQP,GPMKPU+++ 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM<ÒTKEJ0T

 21


SLG. GRUNOW / SICILIA

12 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG  I -QTGMQRH N2HGTF URTKPIV T FCJKPVGT   2CNOG,GPMKPU+++ 5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0TC

13 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG  I -QTGMQRH N2HGTF UVGJV N FCJKPVGT   2CNOG,GPMKPU+++ (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

14 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG  I -QTGMQRH T FCXQT 6J[OKCVGTKQP   2HGTFUVGJVTXQP0KMGDGMT·P\VFCJKPVGT2CNOGFCXQT-GT[MGKQP,GPMKPU+++ 8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI &G .C 6QWT #WMVKQP *GUU&KXQ  <ÒTKEJ  0T  \WXQT GTYQTDGP XQP $   8KIPG2CTKUKO#RTKN

15

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 4CUEJ /GNSCTV  -GRJCNQKFKQP !   I 3WCFTKIC T 0KMG   DGMT·P\V.GPMGT9GKDNKEJGT-QRHTXQPFTGK&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP,GPMKPU+  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GNKQU0WOKUOCVKM/ÒPEJGP0T  4CUEJ/GNSCTV *CWRVFGU*GTCMNGU IKNVHÒTIGYÌJPNKEJCNURWPKUEJG$G\GKEJPWPIGKPGT5VCFVCWH5K\KNKGP OÌI NKEJGTYGKUG -GRJCNQKFKQP FCU JGWVKIG %GHCNW  .GQ /KNFGPDGTI \YGKHGNV FKGU CP WPF J·NV 4CUEJ /GNSCTV HÒT FGP   0COGP GKPGT MCTVJCIKUEJGP +PUVKVWVKQP OÌINKEJGTYGKUG GKPGT /KNKV·TGKPJGKV  UKGJG /KNFGPDGTI 45/.346 KP   2TKEG$WTPGVV$NCPF'UUC[UKPJQPQWTQH4QDGTV%CTUQPCPF-GPPGVJ,GPMKPU.QPFQP5H

22


SLG. GRUNOW / SICILIA

16 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 4CUEJ /GNSCTV  -GRJCNQKFKQP !   I 3WCFTKIC T 0KMG   DGMT·P\V.GPMGT9GKDNKEJGT-QRHNXQPFTGK&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP,GPMKPU+ 8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T

17 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 4CUEJ /GNSCTV  -GRJCNQKFKQP !   I 3WCFTKIC N 0KMG   DGMT·P\V.GPMGT9GKDNKEJGT-QRHTXQP\YGK&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP,GPMKPU+ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

18

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT.CIGTOÒP\UV·VVGI-QTGMQRHNXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP 2HGTFGMQRHNFCJKPVGT2CNOG,GPMKPU+++ (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



19 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG WO  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T2HGTFG   MQRHNFCJKPVGT2CNOGFCXQT-GT[MGKQP,GPMKPU+8 (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GNKQU0WOKUOCVKM/ÒPEJGP0T  &GT 2HGTFGMQRH IGJÌTV \WT )TÒPFWPIUUCIGXQP-CTVJCIQUQUEJTGKDV8GTIKN&QTV\WGTUVXQP9GNNGPWPF9KPF CPU7HGTIGYQTHGPITWDGPGKP<GKEJGPFKG2WPKGTCWU&KG*GTTUEJGTKP,WPQ\GKIVGGUCPGKPGU5VTGKVTQUUGU*CWRV UQYGTFGFGPP-TKGIUTWJO\KGTGPFCU8QNMLCJTJWPFGTVGNCPIWPF(ÒNNGFGU.GDGPU

23


SLG. GRUNOW / THRACIA

20

6*4#%+# 

70$'56+//6'/ª0<5666'Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGFGUVJCUKUEJGP6[RUWOX%JTI &KQP[UQUMQRH T*GTCMNGU UVGJV N OKV -GWNG WPF .ÌYGPHGNN KO #DUEJPKVV QRAKWN 2TQMQRQX   5NI(NGUEJGpXGTIN 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  &CU 5VÒEM YWTFG Y·JTGPF FGT OKVJTCFCVKUEJGP -TKGIG IGRT·IV &GT 8QTFGTUGKVGPUVGORGN YWTFG CWEJ \WT 2T·IWPI   TGIWN·TGT2T·IWPIGPFGUVJCUKUEJGP6[RUXGTYGPFGVFKGKO#DUEJPKVVFGT4ÒEMUGKVGFKG#WHUEJTKHVQASIWNCWH YGKUGP UKGJG0T #NU5EJTÌVNKPIFKGPVGGKPGCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOGFGUPGWGP5VKNUYKGCWEJDGKFGO'ZGORNCT FGT5COONWPI(NGUEJG

21

1,5:1

1,5:1



$;<#06+10Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV5RJQFTKCUI&GOGVGTMQRHTOKV 5EJNGKGT2QUGKFQPUKV\VTOKV#RJNCUVQPWPF&TGK\CEM5EJÌPGTV)GKUU50)$/ 5GJTUEJÌP



22

1,5:1



/#410'+# Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT  I &KQP[UQUMQRH T&KQP[UQU UVGJV N OKV   5RGGTGP QFGT0CTVJGZ5VCPIGP WPF9GKPVTCWDGP5EJÌPGTV)GKUUHH  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

24

1,5:1




SLG. GRUNOW / THRACIA

23



24

1&'5515Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT X%JT ! I*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQTASWPF/QPQITCOOWPVGTFGO6JTQPS2TKEG6QRCNQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG <GKV /KVJTCFCVGU 8+  X %JT  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU   #GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQTLAKKO#DUEJPKVVODHFG%CNNCVC[)TWRRG&2TKEG6QRCNQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\JCPFNWPI  /ÒPEJGP  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP 5VWVVICTVGT   /ÒP\CWMVKQP5VWVVICTV0T

25 1,5:1

1,5:1



2#06+-#2#+10 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   2HGTFITCUVN/CE&QPCNF 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

26 1,5:1

1,5:1



-¤0+)4'+%* .[UKOCEJQU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 5GUVQU  I   #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\VNFCXQT$NWOG6JQORUQP KP'UUC[U4QDKPUQP 8QT\ÒINKEJ 

27 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  -QNQRJQP  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU #GVQRJQTQU   UKV\VNFCXQT.ÌYGPRTQVQOGNÒDGT/QPFUKEJGNWPVGTFGO6JTQP/QPQITCOO6JQORUQPKP'UUC[U 4QDKPUQP 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP+:0GY;QTM0T

 25


SLG. GRUNOW / MACEDONIA

28

1,5:1



1,5:1

5MQUVQMQUWOX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGXQTX%JTWPDGMCPPVGVJTCMKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVG  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT -WNV   RHGKNGTOKVMWIGNKIGO-QRHKO#DUEJPKVVSKOSTOKOU(KUEJGT$QUUGTVF FKGU'ZGORNCT   448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIWPFJQJGO4GNKGH  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  9KG 9QNHICPI (KUEJGT$QUUGTV IG\GKIV JCV UKPF FKG .[UKOCEJGKGT FGU 5MQUVQMQU YQJN \GKVINGKEJ OKV LGPGP CWU FGT   .GDGPU\GKVFGU.[UKOCEJQUGPVUVCPFGP5MQUVQMQUFÒTHVGCNUQYQJNKPGKPGO#DJ·PIKIMGKVUXGTJ·NVPKU\W.[UKOCEJQU IGUVCPFGP JCDGP &KG CNVG 8GTOWVWPI FKGUG 2T·IWPIGP UGKGP KP #KPQU GPUVCPFGP KUV YCJTUEJGKPNKEJ HCNUEJ 5KGJG   (KUEJGT$QUUGTV&KG.[UKOCEJGKGTFGU5MQUVQMQUKP4$0  5

29

1,5:1

1,5:1



-CXCTQU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG -CD[NG  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU   #GVQRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT #TVGOKU OKV \YGK (CEMGNP &TCICPQX & 6JG /KPVKPI QH 5KNXGT %QKPU QH   %CD[NG CPF QH -KPI %CXCTWU KP —VWFGU DCNMCPKSWGU    5  1DX 4GX  )GTCUUKOQX   6J4CTG%QKPUQH6JTCEKCKP0%HH 448QT\ÒINKEJ  -CXCTQU YCT FGT NGV\VG WPF GKPHNW­TGKEJUVG -ÌPKI FGU )CNCVGTTGKEJGU XQP 6[NKU 2QN[DKQU NQDV WPVGT CPFGTGO FKG   5KEJGTJGKVFKGGTFGP*CPFGNUVTGKDGPFGPKO2QPVQUIGY·JTVG

30

31

/#%'&10+# 

-¤0+)4'+%* #NGZCPFGT +++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT   #ORJKRQNKU  I*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQTJTG2TKEG 8QT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T   <GWU #GVQRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT L 6 WPF (CEMGN WPVGT FGO 6JTQP /QPQITCOO 2TKEG  XCT   8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP-ÌNPGT/ÒP\MCDKPGVV-ÌNP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

26


SLG. GRUNOW / MACEDONIA

33

32



2JKNKRRQU+++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT$CD[NQPI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU #GVQRJQTQU UKV\V N N *GNKQUMQRH X X WPVGT FGO 6JTQP -; 2TKEG 2    8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT $CD[NQP  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU #GVQRJQ   TQUUKV\VNN4CFWPF/QPQITCOOWPVGTFGO6JTQP/QPQITCOO2TKEG2  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



34 1,5:1

1,5:1



&GOGVTKQU 2QNKQTMGVGU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I   0KMG OKV 5CNRKPZ VTQORGVGP·JPNKEJGU +PUVTWOGPV  N CWH 2TQTC2QUGKFQP UVGJV N OKV &TGK\CEM FCXQT   &TGKHW­0GYGNN 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T &KG&CTUVGNNWPICWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGTKPPGTVCPFKG0KMGXQP5COQVJTCMGKO.QWXTG



35 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT WPDGUVKOOVG OCMGFQPKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T OKV   &KCFGOWPF5VKGTJQTP2QUGKFQPUKV\VNOKV#RJNCUVQPWPF&TGK\CEMFCXQT*GNO0GYGNN  8QT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T  &GOGVTKQU HÒJNVG UKEJ CNU 5QJP FGU 2QUGKFQP WPF VT·IV FCJGT CWH FKGUGT 6GVTCFTCEJOG FKG *ÌTPGT XQP 2QUGKFQPU   5VKGT

36 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT WPDGUVKOOVG OCMGFQPKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T OKV   &KCFGOWPF5VKGTJQTP2QUGKFQPUVGJVNOKV&TGK\CEM(W­CWH(GNUGPN2TQTCTF0GYGNN  5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



27


SLG. GRUNOW / MACEDONIA

37 1,5:1

1,5:1



#PVKIQPQU)QPCVCUX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGI-QRHFGU2CPNCWHOCMGFQPKUEJGO 5EJKNF#VJGPC #NMKFGOQU N OKV 5EJKNF WPF $NKV\ N OCMGFQPKUEJGT *GNO T -6 #/0) XGTIN    50)%QR -N-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

38 1,5:1

1,5:1



#PVKIQPQU&QUQPX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG2GNNC ! I2QUGKFQPMQRHT#RQNNQUKV\VN CWH2TQTCOKV$QIGP/GTMGTKP#05/0+:5 #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T





.CWV/GTMGTHGKGTVFKG4ÒEMUGKVGFGP5GGUKGIFGU&QUQPDGK#PFTQU

39

2:1



2JKNKRRQU 8  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#VJGPC #NMKFGOQU   IGJVNOKV5EJKNFWPF$NKV\#/0) 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T

28

2:1


SLG. GRUNOW / MACEDONIA

40

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGI-QRHFGU*GTQU2GTUGWUOKVIGHNÒIGNVGOITGKHGPDGYGJTVGP*GNOWPF*CTRC NCWHOCMGFQPKUEJGO5EJKNF+P-TCP\-GWNGN$NKV\#/0)5 2JKNKRRQU8+ $QGJTKPIGT <WT%JTQPQNQIKGOKVVGNJGNNGPKUVKUEJGT/ÒP\UGTKGP$GTNKP6H$WTTGTKP,0)  5GNVGP(GKPG6ÌPWPIIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T /KVFKEMGT-GWNGUGNVGP

41





42

2GTUGWU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#FNGT   UVGJVTCWH$NKV\/COTQVJD 8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  0CEJFGO$GIKPPFGU-TKGIGUIGIGP4QONKG­2GTUGWUFCU)GYKEJVFGT6GVTCFTCEJOGPWOGVYCJGTCDUGV\GP WO)GNF\WIGYKPPGP5QGTMN·TVUKEJFCU)GYKEJVFKGUGU5VÒEMGU



4¤/+5%*' 2418+0< Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG FGT GTUVGP 4GIKQP  X %JT  I &TCRKGTVG   #TVGOKUDÒUVGTOKV$QIGPWPF-ÌEJGTCWHOCMGFQPKUEJGO5EJKNF-GWNGKP-TCP\N$NKV\2TQMQRQXp XGTINHH 14p  8QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



43

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGFGT\YGKVGP4GIKQPX%JTI&TCRKGTVG#TVGOKUDÒUVGTOKV$QIGP WPF -ÌEJGT CWH OCMGFQPKUEJGO 5EJKNF-GWNG KP -TCP\ FCTÒDGT /QPQITCOO WPF MAKEDONWN   FCTWPVGTDEUTERASN$NKV\2TQMQRQX FKGU'ZGORNCTKTTVÒONKEJCWH2NCNUCDIGDKNFGV  5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+80GY;QTM0T

29


SLG. GRUNOW / MACEDONIA

44 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG#ORJKRQNKUI&TCRKGTVG#TVGOKUDÒUVGOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\$QIGPWPF -ÌEJGT CWH OCMGFQPKUEJGO 5EJKNF-GWNG KP -TCP\ FCTÒDGT *CPF OKV <YGKI N UQYKG .') FCTWPVGT   MAKEDONWN #/0)  /CEMC[ /CEGFQPKCP 6GVTCFTCEJOU QH  $ %  F FKGU   'ZGORNCT 2TQMQRQX FKGU'ZGORNCT  448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP-TKEJGNFQTH5VWVVICTV0T

45 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  #ORJKRQNKU  I &TCRKGTVG #TVGOKUDÒUVG OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ $QIGP WPF   -ÌEJGT CWH OCMGFQPKUEJGO 5EJKNF-GWNG KP -TCP\ FCTÒDGT /#-' WPF /QPQITCOO FCTWPVGT   DONWN. #/0)  FKGU 'ZGORNCT  /CEMC[ /CEGFQPKCP 6GVTCFTCEJOU QH  $ %  E  

FKGU'ZGORNCT 2TQMQRQXWPF FKGU'ZGORNCTKTTVÒONKEJFQRRGNVWPF\WUWPVGTCWHIG HÒJTV  448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP+:0GY;QTM 0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[9KNMKPUQP*QFIG.QPFQP/CK0T  

0CEJ FGO 5KGI ÒDGT FGP /CMGFQPGPMÌPKI 2GTUGWU KO ,CJT  X %JT DGK 2[FPC JCVVG 4QO XKGT UGNDUV·PFKIG   OCMGFQPKUEJG 4GRWDNKMGP GKPIGTKEJVGV #D  X %JT XGTUWEJVG GKP #DGPVGWTGT PCOGPU #PFTKUMQU FGT XQTICD   2JKNKRRQUGKP5QJPFGU2GTUGWU\WUGKP#PURTÒEJGCWH/CMGFQPKGP\WGTJGDGP+P/CMGFQPKGPUGNDUVHCPFGTMGKPG 7PVGTUVÒV\WPICWEJ&GOGVTKQU+XQP5[TKGPNGJPVGGUCDKJO\WJGNHGPCDGTUEJNKG­NKEJHCPFGTKP6JTCMKGP8GT DÒPFGVG WPF DGUKGIVG OKV VJTCMKUEJGP6TWRRGPFKGOCMGFQPKUEJGP4GRWDNKMGPX%JTIGNCPIGU3%CGEKNKWU /GVGNNWUFGP#WHUVCPFPKGFGT\WUEJNCIGP+OUGNDGP,CJTVTCHGKPGTÌOKUEJGT(TKGFGPUIGUCPFVGTKP/CMGFQPKGPGKP CWH FGP UKEJ FKG 2T·IWPIGP OKV .')MAKEDONWNDG\KGJGP0CEJFGT#DTGKUGFGU)GUCPFVGPKO,CJTX %JTYWTFGWPUGTCW­GTQTFGPVNKEJUGNVGPGU5VÒEMIGRT·IVFCUFKG#TVGOKUCWHFGO#XGTUOKVGKPGO-TCP\\GKIVFGT XGTOWVNKEJ FKG HTGKNKEJ HCMVKUEJ PKEJV XQTJCPFGPG  (TGKJGKV FKG TGRWDNKMCPKUEJG KO )GIGPUCV\ \WT 9KNNMÒT FGT   -ÌPKIG /CMGFQPKGPUHGKGTV

46 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGFGUVJCUKUEJGP6[RUX%JTI&KQP[UQUMQRHT*GTCMNGUUVGJVNOKV -GWNGWPF.ÌYGPHGNN2TQMQRQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T 



&KG 6GVTCFTCEJOGP FGU VJCUKUEJGP 6[RU YWTFGP KO #WHVTCI FGT TÌOKUEJGP #FOKPKUVTCVKQP KP /CMGFQPKGP HÒT FGP   *CPFGNOKV6JTCMKGPIGRT·IV

30




SLG. GRUNOW / PAEONIA

47 1,5:1

1,5:1



#GUKNNCU 3W·UVQT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT 6JGUUCNQPKEC  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T FC   JKPVGTQ+P-TCP\(KUEWU-GWNGWPF5VWJN$CWUNCWIJ)TWRRG8+ 1#4  8QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



48 1,5:1

1,5:1

2#'10+# 

-¤0+)4'+%*2CVTCQUX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ 4GKVGTTGTUVKEJVIGUVÒT\VGP)GIPGTN*GNO2CGQPKCP*QCTFHH50)#05p (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



49 1,5:1

1,5:1



#WFQNGQP  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG X%JT ! RCGQPKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI*GT CMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU #GVQRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT #WFQNGQP /QPQITCOO 2TKEG 2N %.8+++   )9CIIQPGT#WFQNGQPCPFJKU#NGZCPFGTOKPVKP4$0  2N8#  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GNKQU0WOKUOCVKM0T





0CPE[ / 9CIIQPGT FCVKGTV FKGUG CW­GTQTFGPVNKEJ UGNVGPGP 6GVTCFTCEJOGP KO #NGZCPFGTUVKN CDGT KO GKIGPGP   0COGPFGU#WFQNGQPKPFKG<GKVMWT\XQTFGUUGP6QFWPFUKGJVFKG2T·IWPIKO<WUCOOGPJCPIOKVFGT-QCNKVKQP IGIGP&GOGVTKQU2QNKQTMGVGUWPFFGT7PVGTUVÒV\WPI#VJGPUFWTEJ#WFQNGQP

50 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I #VJGPCMQRH HCUV X X OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO2HGTF T 50) #05    5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

31


SLG. GRUNOW / ATTICA

51 1,5:1

1,5:1

'2+475 

-¤0+)4'+%*2[TTJQUX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG.QMTQK'RK\GRJ[TKQKI <GWUMQRHNOKV'KEJGPMTCP\WPVGPQE&KQPGUKV\VNOKV<GRVGTKO#DUEJPKVV#(TCPEQKUFG%CNNC VC[ 7P QEVQDQNG FG 2[TTJWU UWTHTCRR¾ UWT WP UVCV½TG FG V[RG EQTKPVJKGP 4¾HNGZKQPU UWT NGU OCUUGU   OQPPC[¾GURCT2[TTJWUGPQTGVGPCTIGPVKP#PPCNK  5&4C FKGU'ZGORNCT  445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP .GW  <ÒTKEJ  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP *GUU.GW  .W\GTP  0T    (TCPEQKUFG%CNNCVC[MQPPVGPWTFKGUGUGKPGOKVFKGUGT5VGORGNMQODKPCVKQPIGRT·IVG5VÒEMPCEJYGKUGP

52

1,5:1

1,5:1

#+61.+# 

.KIC  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T   #KVQNKCUKV\VTOKV5RGGTWPF5EJYGTVCWH5EJKNFGP5NI$%& FKGU'ZGORNCT 6UCPICTKC FKGU 'ZGORNCT  5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI $%& #WMVKQP /ÒP\GP WPF /GFCKNNGP )OD*  5VWVVICTV  0T  FGT #WMVKQP   .GW<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP0WOKUOCVKE(KPG#TVU$GXGTN[*KNNU0T

53 1,5:1

1,5:1

#66+%# 

#6*'0 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO+P -TCP\   'WNGCWH#ORJQTGXX\YKUEJGP\YGK/QPQITCOOGPWPVGP5VGWGTTWFGT6JQORUQP:  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#TU%NCUUKEC3<ÒTKEJ0T &KG0GWUVKNVGVTCFTCEJOGPUKPFPCEJ%JT$QGJTKPIGTFCVKGTV

32






SLG. GRUNOW / PELOPONNESUS

54



56

55

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG/GVCIGKVPKQP #WIWUV5GRVGODGT X%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO *GNO+P-TCP\'WNGCWH#ORJQTGOKV$XXT.ÌYGPRTQVQOGT6JQORUQPC (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\JCPFNWPI  /ÒPEJGP  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP 5EJYGK\GTKUEJGT   $CPMXGTGKP<ÒTKEJ0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG /CKOCMVGTKQP  0QXGODGT&G\GODGT   X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV   CVVKUEJGO*GNO+P-TCP\'WNGCWH#ORJQTGOKV'XXT'NGHCPVT6JQORUQPM  9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP*CWEM#WHJ·WUGT/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG 'NCRJGDQNKQP  /·T\#RTKN   X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO   *GNO+P-TCP\'WNGCWH#ORJQTGOKV+XXT&GOGVGTTOKV\YGK(CEMGNP6JQORUQP  (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT0T



57 1,5:1

1,5:1

%14+06*+# 

-14+06*Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJCVVKUEJGO6[RX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO *GNO)TGKHWPF3WCFTKICCNU*GNO\KGT+P-TCP\'WNGCWH#ORJQTGXX6JQORUQP  445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2NWVCTEJGTY·JPVFKG2T·IWPIXQP0GWUVKNVGVTCFTCEJOGPFWTEJ..WEWNNWUKPFGT2GNQRQPPGU\WT(KPCP\KGTWPIFGU /KVJTCFCVKUEJGP-TKGIGU .WE++ 5QICTFKG6GORGNUEJ·V\GXQP'RKFCWTQU1N[ORKCWPF&GNRJKYWTFGPXGT OÒP\V&GTYCJTUEJGKPNKEJUVG1TVFGT2T·IWPIKUV#MTQMQTKPVJFKG$WTIXQP-QTKPVJUKGJG$QGJTKPIGT5

58 1,5:1



2'.12100'575

1,5:1

5+%;10+# 5+-;10 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT   X %JT  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO   .ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT-TCP\WPF,ÒPINKPIOKV6CGPKGWPVGTFGO6JTQP/QPQ ITCOO2TKEG 448QT\ÒINKEJ

 33


SLG. GRUNOW / PONTUS

59

1,5:1

1,5:1

-;-.#&'0 

5;415 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG WO  X %JT  I &GOGVGTMQRH T OKV JTGPMTCP\+P .QTDGGT   MTCP\FKG-CDKTGPUVGJGPXXOKV5RGGTGPÒDGTKJTGP-ÌRHGP5VGTPG0KEQNGV2KGTTG#OCPFT[5  FKGU'ZGORNCT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

60 1,5:1

1,5:1



6'015Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI-QRHFGU#RQNNQ-CTPGKQUT2QUGKFQPUKV\V NOKV&GNRJKPWPF&TGK\CEMFCXQT9GKPVTCWDGWPVGTFGO6JTQP/QPQITCOO—VKGPPG#TV¾OKU)[UG NGP*QQXGT FKGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T  &KGUG KO PGUKQVKUEJGP 5VCPFCTF IGRT·IVG 6GVTCFTCEJOG KUV GKPG FGT UGNVGPUVGP M[MNCFKUEJGP 2T·IWPIGP  4QNCPF   —VKGPPGWPF.#TV¾OKU)[UGNGPHÒJTGPNGFKINKEJUGEJU'ZGORNCTGCP

61

62

210675 

-¤0+)4'+%*/KVJTCFCVGU8+X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTDKVJ[PQRQPVKUEJGTTC

 X %JT   I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO2GICUWU YGKFGV N KP 'HGWMTCP\ FG %CNNCVC[ &    8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT  DKVJ[PQRQPVKUEJGT TC  X %JT   I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO   *KTUEJYGKFGVNKP'HGWMTCP\FG%CNNCVC[2N&p4C FKGU'ZGORNCT   (GKPG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP (TKV\ 4WFQNH -ÒPMGT  1UPCDTÒEM  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP -TKEJGNFQTH    5VWVVICTV0T  /KVJTCFCVGU8+FGTNGV\VGITQ­G)GIPGTFGT4ÌOGT\GKIVCWHUGKPGP/ÒP\GPGKP2QTVT·VOKVHNKGIGPFGP*CCTGPXQP HCUVDCTQEMGO5VKN

34


SLG. GRUNOW / BITHYNIA

63

63

1,5:1

$+6*;0+# 

-#.%*'&10 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG .[UKOCEJGKGT  PCEJ  /CIKUVTCV &KQP[    I #NGZCPF   GTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N N /QPQITCOO KO #DUEJPKVV   JTG #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\JCPFNWPI  /ÒPEJGP  0T  FKGU 'ZGORNCT  .GUEJJQTP   .GZKMQP FGT #WHUEJTKHVGP CWH ITKGEJKUEJGP /ÒP\GP $CPF ++  5G[TKI KP 'UUC[U 4QDKPUQP  XGTIN   2N 8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



64

1,5:1



1,5:1

-¤0+)4'+%* 2TWUKCU +  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU   5VTCVKQUUVGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF<GRVGTFCXQT$NKV\9CFFKPIVQP4GEIGP (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP+:0GY;QTM0T

65



2TWUKCU++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGI-QRHOKVIGHNÒIGNVGT6CGPKGT<GWU5VTCVKQU UVGJV N OKV <GRVGT WPF DGMT·P\V -ÌPKIUPCOGP FCXQT #FNGT CWH $NKV\ ÒDGT /QPQITCOO 9CFFKPIVQP   4GEIGP2N::: $TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  2TWUKCU ++ IGPCPPV -[PGIQU ,·IGT  YKTF XQP 2QN[DKQU CNU YGKPGTNKEJGT $CTDCT QJPG 5MTWRGN WPF )GYKUUGP   IGUEJKNFGTV  &GT-ÌPKIYCTOKV#RCOGXGTJGKTCVGVFGT5EJYGUVGTFGU-ÌPKIU2GTUGWUYCUKJPCDGTPKEJV JKPFGTVGUKEJKOTÌOKUEJOCMGFQPKUEJGP-TKGICWHFKG5GKVGFGT4ÌOGT\WUVGNNGPX%JTVTCVGTKO5GPCVKP (TGKIGNCUUGPGPVTCEJVCWHWPFTGFGVGFKG5GPCVQTGPOKV5EJÒV\GPFG)ÌVVGTCPYCUFGP*GTTGPFQEJGVYCU\WYGKV IKPI 2QN[DKQU    0CEJ ÒDGT  4GIKGTWPIULCJTGP XQNNGT 6GTTQT XGTUWEJVG GT UGKPGP GTUVIGDQTGPGP 5QJP   0KMQOGFGUWODTKPIGP\WNCUUGP&KGUGTTGDGNNKGTVGOKVRGTICOGPKUEJGT*KNHG&KG$ÒTIGTXQP0KMQOGFGKCNKGHGTVGP FGPXGTJC­VGP-ÌPKICWUWPF0KMQOGFGUNKG­KJPUVGKPKIGP #RRKCP/KVJTCFCVGUHH,WUVKPWU:::+8 

35


SLG. GRUNOW / BITHYNIA

66

1,5:1

1,5:1



0KMQOGFGU ++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU UVGJV N OKV   <GRVGTWPFDGMT·P\V-ÌPKIUPCOGPFCXQT#FNGTCWH$NKV\N9CFFKPIVQP4GEIGP  $TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T 'KPGUGNVGPGHTÒJG2T·IWPIQJPG,CJTGUCPICDG

68



67



69

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT    X %JT   I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU UVGJV N OKV   <GRVGT WPF DGMT·P\V -ÌPKIUPCOGP FCXQT #FNGT CWH $NKV\ N 9CFFKPIVQP 4GE IGP  2N :::++   

UVGORGNINGKEJ  $TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



0KMQOGFGU+++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT X%JT I-QRHTOKV &KCFGO<GWU UVGJV N OKV <GRVGT WPF DGMT·P\V -ÌPKIUPCOGP FCXQT #FNGT CWH $NKV\ N FG %CNNCVC[   &4C2N:: FKGU'ZGORNCT 9CFFKPIVQP4GEIGP 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.GQ*CODWTIGT(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP#FQNRJ'%CJP (TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



0KMQOGFGU +8  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT    X %JT   I -QRH T OKV   &KCFGO<GWU UVGJV N OKV <GRVGT WPF DGMT·P\V -ÌPKIUPCOGP FCXQT #FNGT CWH $NKV\ N FG %CNNCVC[   &4D FKGU'ZGORNCT 9CFFKPIVQP4GEIGP 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP 7$5  <ÒTKEJ  0T  FGT #WMVKQP 2GWU 0CEJH  (TCPMHWTV CO /CKP    0TFGT#WMVKQP#TU%NCUUKEC.W\GTP0TWPFFGT5COONWPI5KT*GTOCPP9GDGT0T

36




SLG. GRUNOW / MYSIA

70 1,5:1

1,5:1

/;5+# 

-;<+-15 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I -QRH FGT -QTG 5QVGKTC N OKV JTGP   MTCP\#RQNNQUKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV2CVGTCWPF-KVJCTCN9GKPVTCWDG50)X#WNQEM FKGU 'ZGORNCT X(TKV\G 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI*CPUXQP#WNQEMFGT#WMVKQP.*50WOKUOCVKM<ÒTKEJ0TFGT#WMVKQP *GUU.GW.W\GTP0TFGT#WMVKQP#TU%NCUUKEC.W\GTP0TWPFFGT5COONWPI2TQH5 2Q\\K#WMVKQP#TU%NCUUKEC.W\GTP0T

71



1,5:1

71

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT-QTG QFGT#RQNNQPKU TOKV 'KEJGPMTCP\+P'KEJGPMTCP\(CEMGNX(TKV\G 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5GOQP.KREGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+0GY;QTM0T

72

1,5:1



1,5:1

2#4+10 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#RQNNQ   #MVKQUUVGJVNOKV<YGKIWPF$QIGPFCXQT#NVCT/GCFQYUKP0%5  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0WOKUOCVKEC#TU%NCUUKEC<ÒTKEJ0T

37


SLG. GRUNOW / MYSIA

73

2:1



2:1

2'4)#/10 2JKNGVCKTQU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT  I -QRH FGU   5GNGWMQU+T#VJGPCUKV\VNOKV5EJKNFWPF5RGGTN'HGWDNCVVFCJKPVGT$QIGPWPF FILETAIROU KO#DUEJPKVV/QPQITCOO*QWIJVQP.QTDGTD+PIXCNFUGP0GYGNN  44*GTXQTTCIGPFGU2QTVT·VXQT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

74

74 1,5:1



'WOGPGU+X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGI-QRHFGU2JKNGVCKTQUTOKV&KCFGO#VJGPC UKV\VNOKV5EJKNFWPU5RGGTN'HGWDNCVVCWHFGO6JTQP#FCJKPVGT$QIGP9GUVGTOCTM8:+++4C

FKGU'ZGORNCT  5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP 6JG 0GY ;QTM 5CNG ::8++ 0GY ;QTM 0T  FGT 5COONWPI 4KEJCTF %[TKNN .QEMGVV   #WMVKQP)NGPFKPKPI%Q.QPFQP(GDTWCT0TWPFFGT5COONWPI2TQH52Q\\K#WMVKQP#TU %NCUUKEC.W\GTP0T

75

1,5:1



#VVCNQU +  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH FGU 2JKNGVCKTQU T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   #VJGPC 5VGRJCPQRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT 9GKPVTCWDG WPF # FCJKPVGT $QIGP 9GUVGTOCTM )TWRRG +8 $   5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

38

1,5:1


SLG. GRUNOW / TROAS

76



77

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH FGU 2JKNGVCKTQU T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#VJGPC 5VGRJCPQRJQTQU UKV\V N   FCXQT'HGWDNCVVWPF#FCJKPVGT$QIGP9GUVGTOCTM)TWRRG+8#8:. 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH FGU 2JKNGVCKTQU T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#VJGPC 5VGRJCPQRJQTQU UKV\V N   FCXQT$KGPGWPF/QPQITCOOFCJKPVGT$QIGP9GUVGTOCTM)TWRRG8+# 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)TÒP*GKFGNDGTI0T

78

641#5 

#$;&15 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG .[UKOCEJGKGT   ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV   &KCFGOWPF#OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT/QPQITCOOKO#DUEJPKVV'VJPKMQPWPF #FNGT/CVVKPIN[KP'UUC[U%CTUQP,GPMKPU5XCT 5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI0T

79 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG WO  X %JT /CIKUVTCV &KQP[UKQU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT #TVGOKU T   ÒDGT FGT 5EJWNVGT $QIGP WPF -ÌEJGT+P -TCP\ #FNGT UVGJV T FCXQT (CEMGN ( FG %CNNCVC[ #D[FQU   UWT#GUKNNCU5 5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GNKQU0WOKUOCVKM/ÒPEJGP0T

80



1,5:1

80

#.':#0&4+#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT X%JT I#RQNNQMQRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ #RQNNQ5OKPVJGWUUVGJVTOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGP$GNNKPIGT6TQ[p%QJGP&CVGF%QKPUQH#PVKSWKV[p  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI0T

 39


SLG. GRUNOW / TROAS

81

1,5:1



1,5:1

+.+10 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT /CIKUVTCV 2JQKPKZ  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV   CVVKUEJGO*GNO.QTDGGTCNU*GNO\KGT#VJGPC+NKCUUVGJVTOKV5RGGTWPF5RKPFGNN/QPQITCOOWPF 5VGTPFCXQT'WNG#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+0GY;QTM0T FKGU'ZGORNCT $GNNKPIGTKP#05/08+++p $GNNKPIGT6TQ[p 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  +NKQP YWTFG KO UKGDVGP XQTEJTKUVNKEJGP ,CJTJWPFGTV XQP #GQNGTP CP FGT 5VGNNG FGU CNVGP 6TQKC +NKQP IGITÒPFGV &KGXGTOWVNKEJKO#VJGPCVGORGNIGRT·IVGP6GVTCFTCEJOGPFGT5VCFVUKPFUGNVGPFCFKG2T·IWPIOKVUGJTJQJGP -QUVGP XGTDWPFGP YCT WPF MGKPGP )GYKPP DTCEJVG &KG 2T·IWPI HCPF XQT CNNGO CWU 2TGUVKIGITÒPFGP UVCVV &GT   $GCOVGPPCOGCWHFGO5VÒEMYKTFKO-CVCNQIFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+CNU0QOKPCVKXIGNGUGPFCCDGTFGT)GPKVKX\W GTYCTVGPKUVFÒTHVGFGT/CIKUVTCVPKEJV2JQKPKMQUUQPFGTP2JQKPKZIGJGK­GPJCDGP

82

1,5:1



1,5:1

6'0'&15 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT  I ,CPWUHÌTOKIGT -QRH (TCWGPMQRH OKV 5VG   RJCPG N D·TVKIGT /·PPGTMQRH OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ T &QRRGNCZV N /QPQITCOO WPF 9GKPVTCWDG T   #VJGPC2TQOCEJQUNFG%CNNCVCÕ FKGU'ZGORNCT  445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\JCPFNWPI  /ÒPEJGP  0T  FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\   JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T  

6GPGFQUUQNNUGKPGP0COGPXQP6GPGUJCDGPFGTKP6GPGFQUIÌVVNKEJG8GTGJTWPIIGPQ­ %KEGTQ&GPCVWTCFGQTWO +++ 5QUVGNNVFGT&QRRGNMQRHCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPCEJGKPGT&GWVWPI6GPGUWPFFGUUGP5EJYGUVGT*GOKVJGC FCT(ÒTFKG&QRRGNCZVCWHFGO4GXGTUIGDGPUEJQPFKGCPVKMGP#WVQTGPOGJTGTG'TMN·TWPIGP2CWUCPKCUDGTKEJVGV FC­6GPGUUKEJOKVUGKPGO8CVGT\GTUVTKVVGPJCVVG#NUFKGUGTOKVUGKPGO5EJKHHDGK6GPGFQUXQT#PMGTNCIWOUKEJ OKVFGO5QJP\WXGTUÌJPGPJCV6GPGUFKG6CWGOKVGKPGT&QRRGNCZVFWTEJUEJNCIGPWOFKG8GTUÌJPWPI\WXGTJKP FGTP#TKUVQVGNGUDTKPIVFKG#ZVOKVGKPGO)GUGV\GKPGU-ÌPKIUXQP6GPGFQUKP8GTDKPFWPIYGNEJGU'JGDTWEJOKV FGO6QFDGUVTCHVGWPFGKPGP5QJPFGU-ÌPKIUVTCH9CJTUEJGKPNKEJGTKUVCNNGTFKPIUFC­FKG&QRRGNCZVGKP5[ODQN FGU&KQP[UQU2GNGM[UKUVWPFCWHXQTITKGEJKUEJG<GKV\WTÒEMIGJV

40


SLG. GRUNOW / AEOLIS

83

1,5:1

1,5:1

#'1.+5 

#+)#+ Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ ÒDGT FGT   5EJWNVGT$QIGPWPF-ÌEJGT+P'KEJGPMTCP\<GWUUVGJVNOKV#FNGTWPF<GRVGT50)%QR50)X #WNQEM 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T





&KG UVGRJCPGRJQTGP  MTCP\VTCIGPFGP  6GVTCFTCEJOGP YWTFGP CD FGO  ,CJTJWPFGTV KP XKGNGP 5V·FVGP IGRT·IV   DGUQPFGTUCDGTKP#VJGP+JTIGOGKPUCOGU/GTMOCNFGT-TCP\CWHFGO4GXGTUYCTUKEJGTPKEJVDNQ­GKPG/QFGGT UEJGKPWPIUQPFGTPMGPP\GKEJPGVGGKPGKPJGKVNKEJGU9·JTWPIUIGDKGV

84



85

-;/'Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT/CIKUVTCV5VTCVQPI-QRHFGT#OC\QPG-[OGT OKV 6CGPKG+P .QTDGGTMTCP\ 2HGTF UVGJV T FCXQT 5M[RJQU 1CMNG[ KP #05/0      8QT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT   X %JT /CIKUVTCV 6JGQFQVQU  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO   .ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT5M[RJQUKP-TCP\2TKEG 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%NCUUKECN0WOKUOCVKE)TQWR.CPECUVGT0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+++0GY;QTM0T

86



1,5:1

86

/;4+0# Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T+P .QTDGGTMTCP\   #RQNNQXQP)T[PGKQPUVGJVTOKV2CVGTCWPF.QTDGGT\YGKIOKVJGTCDJ·PIGPFGP6CGPKGPFCXQT1ORJC NQUWPF-CPVJCTQU5CEMU 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP0QOKUOC5CP/CTKPQ0T





&GT#RQNNQXQP)T[PGKQPJCVYKG8GTIKNKPFGT#GPGKUCPIKDVFGO#GPGCUDGHQJNGPPCEJ+VCNKGP\WGKNGP

41


SLG. GRUNOW / IONIA

87 88

88

+10+# 

'4;6*4#+Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT'WNG-GWNG WPF$QIGPKP$QIGPVCUEJG50)%QR 5GNVGP'VYCUDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI0T



*'4#-.'+#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO +P -TCP\ -GWNG FCTWPVGT 'WNG \YKUEJGP \YGK /QPQITCOOGP 50) .QEMGVV p 50) X #WNQEM    (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



89

1,5:1



1,5:1

.'$'&15 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT /CIKUVTCV #RQNNQFQVQU  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV   CVVKUEJGO*GNO+P-TCP\'WNG\YKUEJGP\YGK(ÒNNJÌTPGTP#OCPFT[XGTINHH &4   5GNVGP-NGKPGT4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'TYQTDGPCWUFGO.CIGTFGT%0).CIGTPT'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5GOQP.KREGT

90

1,5:1



/#)0'5+# Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV 2KVVJKQP  I )GRCP\GTVGT 4GKVGT T   OKV.CP\G5VKGTUVÌ­VNWOJGT/·CPFGTMTGKU#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP 0TXGTIN-KPPU6YQ5VWFKGUKPVJG5KNXGT%QKPCIGQH/CIPGUKCQPVJG/CGCPFGT5#PO

FQTVOKVFKGUGO/CIKUVTCVGPPWTCNU&TCEJOGDGMCPPV   5GNVGP#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

42

1,5:1


SLG. GRUNOW / IONIA

91

92

1,5:1





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT   X %JT  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU   #GVQRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT /QPQITCOO KO #DUEJPKVV /·CPFGT *GTUJ #FFKVKQPU CPF %QTTGEVKQPU VQ   /CTVKP,2TKEG U 6JG%QKPCIGKPVJGPCOGQH#NGZCPFGTVJG)TGCVCPF2JKNKR#TTJKFCGWU 2TKEG XGTIN FQTVOKV\WU·V\NKEJGO$GK\GKEJGP2HGTF  445GJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT/CIKUVTCV2CWUCPKCU 5QJPFGU 2CWUCPKCUI#TVGOKUDÒUVGT OKV$QIGPWPF-ÌEJGT+P-TCP\0CEMVGT#RQNNQUVGJVNCWH/·CPFGTCP&TGKHW­IGNGJPVCWHFKGUGO -ÌEJGT$/%p50)%QR50)X#WNQEM 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  /ÌINKEJGTYGKUG YCTGP FKG CWH FGP OCIPGUKUEJGP /ÒP\GP IGPCPPVGP +PFKXKFWGP MGKPG #OVUVT·IGT UQPFGTP TGKEJG   /·PPGT FKG GKPG .GKVWTIGKC GKP 9GTM HÒT FGP 5VCCV KP FKGUGO (CNN GKPG 5RGPFG FKG FKG 2T·IWPI FGT /ÒP\GP   GTOÌINKEJVG XQNNDTCEJVGPWPFCWUFKGUGO)TWPFFWTEJFKG0GPPWPIKJTGU0COGPUCWHFGP/ÒP\GPIGGJTVYWTFGP 5KGJG,QPGU9TGCVJGF6GVTCFTCEJOGUQH/CIPGUKCKP#05/0  5HH

93 1,5:1

1,5:1



/+.'6Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV1WNKCFGUI#RQNNQMQRHNOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\.ÌYGUVGJVN\WTÒEMDNKEMGPFFCXQT5VGTP&GRRGTV.KRRKV\ 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%2<ÒTKEJ0T

94



1,5:1

94

5/;40#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JT/CIKUVTCV/GVTQFQTQU ! I6[EJGMQRHT OKV/CWGTMTQPG+P-TCP\'VJPKMQPFCTWPVGT/QPQITCOO/KNPGE 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

43


SLG. GRUNOW / CARIA

95

1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV*GTOKRRQU 5QJPFGU 5KR[NQUI6[EJGMQRHTOKV /CWGTMTQPG+P-TCP\.ÌYGT/KNPG FKGU'ZGORNCTGTY·JPV  5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP -ÌNPGT /ÒP\MCDKPGVV  -ÌNP  0T  WPF FGT 5COONWPI 4JQWUQRQWNQU #WMVKQP   ,CEQD*KTUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

96

97

%#4+# 

#.#$#0&# #.5 #06+1%*+# Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV /GPGMNGU  I   #RQNNQMQRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\2GICUQUT9CIIQPGTKP-TCC[/QTMQNO'UUC[U5GTKG  5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



#.#$#0&# Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\2GICUWU   HNKGIVT9CIIQPGTKP-TCC[/QTMQNO'UUC[U2N #XGTUUVGORGNINGKEJ  445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

98

1,5:1



44

1,5:1

-0+&15 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV 6KOCUKRJTQP  I -QRH FGT #RJTQFKVG   'WRNQKCT.ÌYGPRTQVQOGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:0GY;QTM0T FKGU'ZGORNCT UQPUVYQJN WPGFKGTV#UJVQPWC6JG*GECVQOPWU*QCTFC FKGU'ZGORNCT   8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


SLG. GRUNOW / CARIA

99

1,5:1

1,5:1



/;.#5#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JT/CIKUVTCV'KTGPCKQUI<GWU.CDTCWPFQU UVGJV T OKV &QRRGNCZVWPF<GRVGT<GWU1UQIQCUVGJVTOKV&TGK\CEMWPF#FNGT&GNTKGWZ.GU/QP PCKGUFG/[NCUCCWZ6[RGUFG<GWU1UQIQCGV<GWU.CDTCWPFGWUKP0%0T  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

100 1,5:1



1,5:1

-15Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV0KMCIQTCUI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT +P2GTNSWCFTCV-TGDUWPVGP$QIGPKP$QIGPVCUEJG4GSWKGT 445GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T



101 1,5:1

1,5:1



4*1&15Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV#TKUVQMTKVQUI*GNKQUMQRHHCUVXX 4QUGN#RJNCUVQP#UJVQP6JG%QKPCIGQH4JQFGU50)-GEMOCP 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



102



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT X%JTI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQ RJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT/QPQITCOOÒDGT4QUGWPVGTFGO5KV\RO2TKEG 448QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT 1UPCDTÒEM0T



45


SLG. GRUNOW / LYCIA

103 1,5:1

1,5:1

2*4;)+# 

-+$;4#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGU*GTQU-KD[TQU ! T OKV *GNO WPF IGUEJWNVGTVGT .CP\G4GKVGT T OKV *GNO 5EJKNF WPF 5RGGT FCJKPVGT 2CPVJGT N OKV   6J[TUQU50)%QRp50)X#WNQEM UVGORGNINGKEJ  44(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T

104

1,5:1

1,5:1

.;%+# 

2*#5'.+5Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT ,CJT X%JT I*GTCMNGUMQRHKO .ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQTKGFCTWPVGTPF2TKEG 8QT\ÒINKEJ



105

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV 'T[OPGWU  I #RQNNQMQRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   #VJGPCUVGJVNOKV0KMGWPF5RGGT*GKRR6COGT FKGU'ZGORNCT   5GNVGP'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI)CTVJ4&TGYT[#WMVKQP6TKVQP8+++0GY;QTM0TFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP++ 0GY ;QTM  0T  FGT #WMVKQP 5RKPM  .QPFQP  0T  FGT 5COONWPI 0GNUQP $WPMGT *WPV   #WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U0GY;QTM,WPK0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP.GW<ÒTKEJ0T

46


SLG. GRUNOW / GALATIA

106 1,5:1



2#/2*;.+#

1,5:1

2'4)'Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI#TVGOKUMQRHTÒDGTFGT5EJWNVGT-ÌEJGT #TVGOKU UVGJV N OKV <GRVGT WPF -TCP\ FCXQT *KTUEJ WPF I %QNKP 5GTKG  'OKUUKQP      5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌP 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

108

107



5+&'Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV&K  I#VJGPCMQRHTOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO0KMGIGJVNOKV-TCP\KO(GNFN)TCPCVCRHGNWPF$NKV\/GCFQYUXGTIN5  448QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T /KV$GK\GKEJGP$NKV\UGJTUGNVGP





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV -NGWEJCTGU ++   I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV MQTKPVJK   UEJGO*GNO0KMGIGJVNOKV-TCP\KO(GNFN)TCPCVCRHGN/GCFQYUXGTIN2N  (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTOKPMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





109 1,5:1

1,5:1

%+.+%+# 

#+)'#+ Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT    X %JT   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT 6[EJG T OKV   5EJNGKGT WPF /CWGTMTQPG#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UVGJV N N -GWNG #TPQNF$KWEEJK 7P VT¾UQT FG V¾VTCF   TCEJOGUJGNN¾PKUVKSWGUF &442% 445GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



110 1,5:1



1,5:1

)#.#6+#

-¤0+)4'+%*#O[PVCUX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG5KFG 2CORJ[NKC I#VJGPCMQRHT OKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO0KMGIGJVNOKVIGUEJOÒEMVGO<GRVGT42% 5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

 47


SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

111

1,5:1

1,5:1

%#22#&1%+# 

-¤0+)4'+%*#TKCTCVJGU8++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG'WUGDGKC6[CPCI-QRHT OKV &KCFGO+P -TCP\ #VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UVGJV N FG %CNNCVCÕ 2N :.+8 2 UVGORGNINGKEJ   1 /ÎTMJQNO 6JG %QKPCIGU QH #TKCTCVJGU 8+ CPF #TKCTCVJGU 8++ QH %CRRCFQEKC KP 504      2N UVGORGNINGKEJ 5KOQPGVVCw 448QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GNKQU0WOKUOCVKM/ÒPEJGP0T

112

1,5:1

1,5:1

5;4+# 

-¤0+)4'+%*5GNGWMQU+X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT5WUCI-QRH

FGU 5GNGWMQU #NGZCPFGT QFGT &KQP[UQU  T OKV GKPGO OKV 2CPVJGTHGNN ÒDGT\QIGPGP OKV 5VKGTQJTGP   WPF *ÌTPGTP IGUEJOÒEMVGP *GNO0KMG UVGJV T WPF DGMT·P\V 6TQRJ·G WPVGP *GNKQUMQRH X X   *QWIJVQP.QTDGT0GYGNN'5/50)5RCGTp 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+0GY;QTM0T

113 1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT 5GNGWMGKC CF 6KITKO  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T   <GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT01*QWIJVQP.QTDGTC0GYGNN'5/50)5RCGTp  48QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI0T

48

1,5:1




SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

114 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  5GNGWMGKC CF 6KITKO  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#VJGPC KP   'NGHCPVGPSWCFTKIC T OKV 5RGGT WPF 5EJKNF QDGP #PMGT KO #DUEJPKVV \YGK /QPQITCOOG *QWI   JVQP.QTDGT6[R0GYGNN'5/p50)5RCGTp 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\JCPFNWPI  /ÒPEJGP  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\   JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP

115



116

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT'MDCVCPCI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQRJQ TQU UKV\V N FCXQT $# #PMGT WPF 2HGTF N WPVGT FGO 6JTQP /QPQITCOO *QWIJVQP.QTDGT    0GYGNN'5/50)5RCGTp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



#PVKQEJQU +  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ5GNGWMGKCI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT WPF WPVGT FGO 6JTQP LG GKP /QPQITCOO *QWI   JVQP.QTDGT0GYGNN95/p50)5RCGTp (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI4QDGTV9GKOGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP+:0GY;QTM0T

117 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIPGUKC CF 5KR[NWO  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO*GTCMNGU   UKV\VNOKV-GWNGCWH(GNUGP*QWIJVQP.QTDGT0GYGNN95/XCT50)5RCGTp  445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

118



1,5:1

118

#PVKQEJQU++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT.[UKOCEJGKCI-QRH#PVK QEJQU + T OKV &KCFGO#RQNNQ UKV\V N CWH 1ORJCNQU OKV 2HGKN WPF $QIGP N .ÌYGPMQRH T KO #D   UEJPKVV/QPQITCOO*QWIJVQP.QTDGT0GYGNN95/50)5RCGTp (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)GOKPK80GY;QTM0T

49


SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

119

1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT5GNGWMGKCCF6KITKOI-QRH#PVKQEJQU+TOKV&KCFGO #RQNNQUKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGP*QWIJVQP.QTDGTE0GYGNN'5/50) 5RCGTp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

120



121

5GNGWMQU ++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I   -QRH#PVKQEJQU+TOKV&KCFGO#RQNNQUKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGP*QWIJVQP.QTDGT .G4KFGT#PVKQEJG#2 445GJTUEJÌP



&CU 5VÒEM YWTFG KP GKPGT RQNKVKUEJ WPF OKNKV·TKUEJ UEJYKGTKIGP 5KVWCVKQP KP FGP HTÒJGP ,CJTGP FGT 4GIKGTWPI FGU   5GNGWMQU++XQPMÌPKIUVTGWGP-T·HVGPIGRT·IV



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT#PVKQEJKC ! I-QRH#PVKQEJQU+TOKV&KCFGO#RQNNQ UVGJV N OKV 2HGKN CP &TGKHW­ IGNGJPV FCXQT \YGK /QPQITCOOG *QWIJVQP p 0GYGNN 95/ p 50)   5RCGTp 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%3<ÒTKEJ0T

122

1,5:1



#PVKQEJQU *KGTCZ  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTKC 6TQCU I-QRHTOKVIGHNÒ IGNVGO &KCFGO#RQNNQ UKV\V N CWH 1ORJCNQU OKV 2HGKN WPF $QIGP FCXQT \YGK /QPQITCOOG KO #D   UEJPKVVITCUV2HGTFN*QWIJVQP.QTDGT0GYGNN95/50)5RCGTp  5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

50

1,5:1


SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

124

123



5GNGWMQU +++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#RQNNQ   UKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGP*QWIJVQP.QTDGT0GYGNN95/50)5RCGT 8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:0GY;QTM0T



#PVKQEJQU+++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT/ÒP\UV·VVGKO5ÒFGPQFGT1UVGP 5[TKGPU  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO FCJKPVGT =D?+#RQNNQ UKV\V N CWH 1ORJCNQU OKV 2HGKN WPF   $QIGP \YGK -WIGNP CO )TKHH  KO #DUEJPKVV DI *QWIJVQP.QTDGT  0GYGNN '5/  z   50)5RCGTXCT 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN 0T  #PVKQEJQU+++YCTFGTNGV\VGDGFGWVGPFG5GNGWMKFG&WTEJUGKPG#PCDCUKUPCEJ1UVGPJCVVGGTHÒTMWT\G<GKVPQEJ GKPOCNFKG8QTJGTTUEJCHVDKU$CEVTKGPCWUIGFGJPV#WEJKO9GUVGPYCTGT\WP·EJUVGTHQNITGKEJ'TPCJOFGP2VQ NGO·GTP5ÒFU[TKGPCDWPFHGUVKIVGUGKPG5VGNNWPIKP-NGKPCUKGP'TÒDGTUEJTKVVUQICTFGP*GNNGURQPVWPFDCWVG.[ UKOCEJGKCYKGFGTCNU4GUKFGP\CWHGWTQR·KUEJGO$QFGPCWH&CUTKGHCDGTFKG4ÌOGTCWHFGP2NCP<WUCOOGPOKV 'WOGPGU ++ XQP 2GTICOQP UEJNWIGP UKG #PVKQEJQU +++  X %JT DGK /CIPGUKC XGTPKEJVGPF +O (TKGFGP XQP   #RCOGKCOW­VGGTCNNG)GDKGVGYGUVNKEJFGU6CWTQUCDVTGVGPFCKP\YKUEJGPCWEJYGKVG)GDKGVGKO1UVGPXGTNQTGP IGICPIGPYCTGPYWTFGFCU5GNGWMKFGPTGKEJCWHFKG)GDKGVG\YKUEJGP2JÌPK\KGPWPF$CD[NQPKGPDGUEJT·PMV

125

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG KO PÌTFNKEJGP /GUQRQVCOKGP  I   -QRHTOKV&KCFGO'NGHCPVTFCXQTES*QWIJVQP.QTDGT50)5RCGTp  44#XGTUFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT0T

126 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG6CTUQU ! I-QRHTOKV&KCFGO#RQNNQUKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV2HGKNWPF $QIGPNWPFTLGGKP/QPQITCOOKO#DUEJPKVV5VKGTN*QWIJVQP.QTDGT0GYGNN95/ 50)5RCGT 445GJTUEJÌP

 51


SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

127



1,5:1

127

5GNGWMQU +8  X %JT Ã&#x2022;6GVTCFTCEJOG #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#RQNNQ   UKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGPN-TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT 0GYGNN#PVKQEJKC50)5RCGT 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/Ã&#x2019;P\JCPFNWPI/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP0T

128



1,5:1



128

#PVKQEJQU +8  X %JT Ã&#x2022;6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #PVKQEJKCI<GWUMQRHTOKV .QTDGGTMTCP\<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT  /QTMJQNO  #  0GYGNN   #PVKQEJKC 44(CUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/Ã&#x2019;P\JCPFNWPI0T

129



1,5:1

129

Ã&#x2022;6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#PVKQEJKCI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO<GWU0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTD/QTMJQNO#0GYGNN#PVKQEJKC (CUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/Ã&#x2019;P\JCPFNWPI/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP0T

130



1,5:1

130

Ã&#x2022;6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#PVKQEJKCI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO<GWU0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTH/QTMJQNO#0GYGNN#PVKQEJKC 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<Ã&#x2019;TKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU$CUGN0T

52




SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

131



132

#PVKQEJQU 8  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU   0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGT  48QT\ÒINKEJ



&GOGVTKQU +  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT  UGNGWMKFKUEJGT TC   X %JT    #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO6[EJG UKV\V N OKV <GRVGT WPF (ÒNNJQTP *QWIJVQP.QTDGT    *QQXGTC0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGTp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

133

1,5:1

1,5:1



#NGZCPFGT +  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT  UGNGWMKFKUEJGT TC   X %JT    #PVKQEJKCI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO<GWU0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT\YGK/QPQITCOOG*QWIJVQP .QTDGT*QQXGTC0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGTp 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



134

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT  UGNGWMKFKUEJGT TC   X %JT  #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV   &KCFGO<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT \YGK /QPQITCOOG *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT  E   0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGTp 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%4<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T

53


SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

136

135



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X%JT 5KFQPI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO <GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N WPVGT FGO 6JTQP #RJNCUVQP *QWIJVQP  *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT    50)5RCGTp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ5EJGMGN,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X%JT 6[TQUI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV &KCFGO#FNGT OKV 2CNO\YGKI CWH 2TQTC N FCXQT -GWNG WPF /QPQITCOO *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT   D0GYGNN6[TG50)5RCGT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



137 1,5:1



1,5:1

#PVKQEJQU 8+X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X%JT  #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG&KG &KQUMWTGP TGKVGP N *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT   C0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGTp 8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T





6T[RJQPFGTCWHFGO4GXGTUFKGUGT6GVTCFTCEJOGGTY·JPVYKTFJCVVG#PVKQEJQU8+IGIGP&GOGVTKQU++CWHFGP 6JTQPIGDTCEJVNKG­KJPCDGTYGPKIG,CJTGUR·VGTGTOQTFGPWOUGNDUVFKG-ÌPKIUDKPFG\WVTCIGP

138



1,5:1

138

&GOGVTKWU ++  4GIKGTWPI  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT  UGNGWMKFKUEJGT TC  

X%JT #PVKQEJKCI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO#RQNNQUKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV2HGKNWPF $QIGP*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTE0GYGNN#PVKQEJp50)5RCGTp 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/CPJCVVCP5CNG0GY;QTM0T

139



54

1,5:1



139

6T[RJQP  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO+P 'KEJGP   MTCP\*GNOOKV*QTPN*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGTp  44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T


SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

140







141

142

#PVKQEJQU8++X%JTÕ5EJGMGN,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X%JT 6[TQU  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#FNGT OKV 2CNO\YGKI CWH 2TQTC N FCXQT -GWNG WPF /QPQITCOO   *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTD0GYGNN6[TGp50)5RCGTXCT 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  MCRRCFQMKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#VJGPC 0K   MGRJQTQU UVGJV N*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT*QWIJVQP.QTDGT8GUGN[+UUWG#XGTUUVGORGN# 0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



&GOGVTKQU++4GIKGTWPIX%JTÕ5EJGMGN,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X %JT  6[TQU  I-QRHTOKV&KCFGO#FNGTOKV2CNO\YGKICWH2TQTCNFCXQT-GWNGWPF/Q PQITCOO*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTE0GYGNN6[TG50)5RCGT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6MCNGE<ÒTKEJ#RTKN0T

143

1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG WO  X %JT 6CTUQU  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N   *QWIJVQP 6JG5GEQPF4GKIPQH&GOGVTKWU++QH5[TKCCV6CTUWUKP#05/05#2 *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT50)5RCGT 5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

144





145

#NGZCPFGT ++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU   0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTE0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGTp  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-NGQRCVTC6JGCWPF#PVKQEJQU8+++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#PVKQEJKC  I $GKFGT $ÒUVGP T<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT  F 0GYGNN   #PVKQEJ50)5RCGT 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  55


SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

146



147

148

#PVKQEJQU 8+++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  6CTUQU  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO   #NVCTFCTCWH$CNFCEJKPWPVGTFGOFGT)QVV5CPFCPCWHGKPGO(CDGNVKGTUVGJV*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT E50)5RCGTp 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP7$5<ÒTKEJ0T





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#MG2VQNGOCKUI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO+P-TCP\<GWU7TCPKQU UVGJV N OKV <GRVGT WPF 5VGTP *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT  0GYGNN .5/  50) 5RCGT    8QT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N   *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTE0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T

149

1,5:1

1,5:1



#PVKQEJQU +:  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #MG2VQNGOCKU  I -QRH T   OKV &KCFGO#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UVGJV N *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT  0GYGNN .5/    50)5RCGTp 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

150 1,5:1

 56

1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#PVKQEJKCI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO#VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUVGJV N*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTI0GYGNN#PVKQEJp50)5RCGTp 8QT\ÒINKEJ




SLG. GRUNOW / SYRIA

151 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N   *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTE0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGT 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0T

152







153

154

5GNGWMQU8+X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG5GNGWMGKCCF%CN[ECFPWOI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO #VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUVGJVN*QWIJVQP5GNGWEKC)TWRRG+85GTKG*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT 50)5RCGT 5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N   *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTG0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGT  4/KP)N·VVWPUURWTGPCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



#PVKQEJQU:X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#PVKQEJKCI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO<GWU 0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTC0GYGNN#PVKQEJXCT50)5RCGTXCT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP7$5<ÒTKEJ0T

155

1,5:1



1,5:1

&GOGVTKQU+++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X%JT &COCU MQU  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#TVCICVKU UVGJV X X *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT  QJPG FKGUG   $GK\GKEJGPMQODKPCVKQP 0GYGNN.5/p50)5RCGTp 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T

57


SLG. GRUNOW / PHOENICIA

156 1,5:1



1,5:1

6KITCPGU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #PVKQEJKC  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 6KCTC6[EJG   UKV\VTOKV<YGKICWH(GNUGPFCTWPVGTUEJYKOOV1TQPVGUT$GFQWMKCP5KNXGT%QKPCIGQHVJG#TVCZKCF &[PCUV[QH#TOGPKC#2 5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  &KG 4ÒEMUGKVG FKGUGU 5VÒEMGU \GKIV FKG DGTÒJOVG 5VCVWG FGT 6[EJG XQP #PVKQEJKC FKG 'WV[EJKFGU GKP5EJÒNGTFGU .[UKRRQUIGUEJCHHGPJCVVG

158

157



4ÌOKUEJG 2TQXKP\ PCEJ  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #PVKQEJKC #WNWU )CDKPKWU   I-QRHTOKV&KCFGO<GWU0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN/E#NGG42% (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





.#1&+-'+# #& /#4' Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT X%JT I6[EJGDÒUVGTOKV /CWGTMTQPG+P-TCP\<GWU0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN/ÎTMJQNOKP#05/0  XGTINC  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



159 1,5:1



1,5:1

5'.'7-'+#2+'4+#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT X%JT I6[EJGMQRHTOKV/CWGT MTQPG$NKV\CWH6JTQP%QJGP&CVGF%QKPUQH#PVKSWKV[ 5GJTUEJÌP



160 1,5:1

1,5:1

2*1'0+%+# 

#4#&15Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT X%JT I8GTUEJNGKGTVG6[EJGDÒUVGTOKV/CWGT MTQPG+P-TCP\0KMGUVGJVNOKV#RJNCUVQP&W[TCVHH 4ÒEMUGKVGNFG\GPVTKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

58




SLG. GRUNOW / PARTHIA

161 1,5:1

1,5:1



64+21.+5Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X%JT I$ÒUVGPFGT &KQUMWTGP T6[EJG UVGJV N OKV (ÒNNJQTP WPF 4WFGTRKPPG FG %CNNCVC[ & 4  C FKGU 'ZGORNCT    5GNVGP-NGKPGT4CPFTK­UGJTUEJÌP 

'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\JCPFNWPI  /ÒPEJGP  0T  FGT #WMVKQP &QTQVJGWO 9KGP   1MVQDGT0TFGT5COONWPI6JGQFQT2TQYG#WMVKQP'IIGT9KGP0TWPFFGT 5COONWPI6JGQFQT2TQYG#WMVKQP'IIGT9KGP0QXGODGT0T

162



6;415 Õ5EJGMGN ,CJT    X %JT   I /GNSCTVMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#FNGT   UVGJVNOKV2CNO\YGKIFCXQT-GWNG$/%pXGTIN50)%QRp (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG V[TKUEJGP 5EJGMGN YGTFGP KP FGT $KDGN OGJTHCEJ GTY·JPV 5Q DGVTWI FKG 6GORGNUVGWGT GKPGP JCNDGP V[TKUEJGP   5EJGMGN 'ZQFWU   ,GUWU YKGU 5KOQP 2GVTWU CP FKG 6GORGNUVGWGT OKV GKPGO 5VCVGT CNUQ GKPGO UEJYGTGP   V[TKUEJGP5EJGMGNYKGWPUGTGO5VÒEM \WDG\CJNGPFGPGTKO/CWNGKPGU(KUEJGUHKPFGPUQNNVG /CVVJ·WU FCU 7OUVQ­GP FGT 6KUEJG FGT )GNFYGEJUNGT KO 6GORGN /CVVJ·WU  /CTEWU    YCT UKEJGT CWEJ FWTEJ FKG   &CTUVGNNWPIFGUV[TKUEJGP)QVVGU*GTCMNGU/GNSCTVCWHFKGUGP/ÒP\GPOQVKXKGTV  #WEJFKG5KNDGTNKPIGFGU,WFCUYCTGPUKEJGTV[TKUEJG5EJGMGN

163 1,5:1



$#$;.10+#

1,5:1

$#$;.10Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI$CCNUKV\VNOKV<GRVGT.ÌYGN/KVEJKPGT +PFQITGGMC0KEQNGV2KGTTG FKGU'ZGORNCTGTY·JPV  8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH$CUGN0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T

164 1,5:1



2#46*+#

1,5:1

/KVJTCFCVGU++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT ! 5GNGWMGKCI&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG N OKV &KCFGO#TUCMGU UKV\V T OKV $QIGP FCXQT 2CNO\YGKI KO #DUEJPKVV 685GNNYQQF 5JQTG 8QT\ÒINKEJ  <WT4GIKGTWPIU\GKVFGU/KVJTCFCVGU++UKGJG#UUCT)JQNCOTG\C(#4GXKUGF2CTVJKCP%JTQPQNQI[QHVJG2GTKQF $%KP'NGEVTWO  5HH  <WT&CVKGTWPIFGU5VÒEMGUUKGJG1NDT[EJV/CTGM,CP6JGGCTN[4GKIPQH/KVJTCFCVGU++VJG)TGCVKP2CTVJKCKP #PCDCUKU  5

59


SLG. GRUNOW / BACTRIA

165 1,5:1



%*#4#%'0'

1,5:1

6KTCKQU++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X%JT I -QRHTOKV&KCFGO*GTCMNGUUKV\VNOKV-GWNGCWH(GNUGP.G4KFGT%JCTCEGPGH  5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP0#%$<ÒTKEJ0T

166 1,5:1



2'45+5

1,5:1

#TFCUEJKT+,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGI-QRHTOKV-[TDCUKC(GWGTVGORGN NUVGJV*GTTUEJGTTT5VCPFCTVG#NTCO 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

167 1,5:1

1,5:1



8CJDQT\ 1DQT\CU  EC  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH T OKV -[TDCUKC(GWGT   VGORGNNUVGJV*GTTUEJGTTT5VCPFCTVG#NTCO 5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

168 1,5:1



$#%64+#

&KQFQVQU++WOX%JTÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG$CNMJI-QRHFGU&KQFQVQU++TOKV &KCFGO<GWU UVGJV N WPF UEJNGWFGTV $NKV\ FCXQT /QPQITCOO WPF #FNGT $0 $CEV  ( /KVEJKPGT   +PFQITGGM6[R50)#05p 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+++0GY;QTM0T

60

1,5:1


SLG. GRUNOW / BACTRIA

169 1,5:1



1,5:1

'WVJ[FGOQU+WOX%JTÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG$CNMJI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO *GTCMNGUUKV\VNOKV-GWNGCWH(GNUGP$0$CEV#/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMD50)#05p  5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  'WVJ[FGOQU XGTVTKGD &KQFQVQU ++ WPF GTJQD UKEJ UGNDUV \WO -ÌPKI #NU FGT 5GNGWMKFG #PVKQEJQU +++  X   %JTXGTUWEJVGFKGÌUVNKEJGP5CVTCRKGP\WTÒEM\WGTQDGTPGTMN·TVG'WVJ[FGOQUGTUGKMGKP4GDGNNUQPFGTPGTJCDG FKG4GDGNNGPDGUGKVKIV'TDNKGD-ÌPKIKPUGKPGO4GKEJFC#PVKQEJQU+++XQT$CEVTCUEJGKVGTVG



170

1,5:1



1,5:1

&GOGVTKQU +  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG 2CPLJKT  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 'NGHCPVGP   UMCNR*GTCMNGU UVGJV X X OKV -GWNG WPF .ÌYGPHGNN WPF MTÌPV UKEJ UGNDUV $0 $CEV  & /KVEJKPGT   +PFQITGGMF50)#05 5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)GOKPK80GY;QTM0T  &GOGVTKQU+HQNIVGUGKPGO8CVGT'WVJ[FGOQU++JOIGNCPIGU#TCEJQUKCWPFFKG2CTQRCPKUCFGPYGNEJG5GNGWMQU+ CP%JCPFTCIWRVCCDIGVTGVGPJCVVGXQPFGP/CWT[C\WTÒEM\WGTQDGTP

171

1,5:1



1,5:1

'WVJ[FGOQU++X%JTÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG/GTXI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KC FGO*GTCMNGUUVGJVXXOKV-TCP\-GWNGWPF.ÌYGPHGNN$0$CEV&/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMD 50)#05 5GNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0QOQU#)<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T  1D'WVJ[FGOQU++GKP5QJPQFGTGKPLÒPIGTGT$TWFGTFGU&GOGVTKQU+YCTKUVDKUJGTPKEJVCDUEJNKG­GPFIGMN·TV

61


SLG. GRUNOW / BACTRIA

172



1,5:1

172

#ICVJQMNGUX%JTÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG/GTXI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO <GWUUVGJVXXOKV<GRVGTWPF*GMCVGFKGUGJ·NV\YGK(CEMGNP$0$CEV&/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGM C50)#05 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



#ICVJQMNGU KUV YQJN GKP LÒPIGTGT$TWFGTFGU'WVJ[FGOQU++5EJQPFKG2QTVT·V·JPNKEJMGKVKUVÒDGT\GWIGPF'TYCT XGTOWVNKEJ/KVTGIGPVUGKPGU$TWFGTU

173

1,5:1



1,5:1

 /GOQTKCNRT·IWPI HÒT &KQFQVQU + ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG /GTX  I DIODOTOU    SWTHROS-QRHFGU&KQFQVQU+TOKV&KCFGOBASILEUONTOSDIKAIOUAGAQOKLEOUS <GWU OKV #GIKU UEJNGWFGTV $NKV\ N \W UGKPGP (Ò­GP #FNGT FCTÒDGT -TCP\ FCJKPVGT /QPQITCOO   $0$CEV#/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMC50)#05 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  &KGUG/GOQTKCNRT·IWPIGPIGJGPDKUCWH2JKNKRR++WPF#NGZCPFGT+++\WTÒEM'UIKDVYGKVGTG2T·IWPIGPHÒT#PVKQ EJQU++DGKFG&KQFQVQK'WVJ[FGOQU+ UKGJG0T &GOGVTKQU+WPF2CPVCNGQP'UUKPF2GFKITGG/ÒP\GP KOYGKVGUVGP5KPPGQJPGFC­GKPGFKTGMVG#DUVCOOWPICWUIGFTÒEMVYGTFGPUQNNVG5KGMÌPPVGCDGTFKG.GIKVKOKV·V UGKPGT*GTTUEJCHVIGIGPFGP7UWTRCVQT'WMTCVKFGU\GKIGP&CUUGNDGIKNVHÒTFKGGPVURTGEJGPFGP/ÒP\GPFGU#PVKQ EJQU+&KG$G\GKEJPWPIBASILEUONTOSKUVCNUWPVGTFGT4GIKGTWPIFGU\WXGTUVGJGP

174



1,5:1

174

 /GOQTKCNRT·IWPI HÒT 'WVJ[FGOQU + ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG /GTX  I EUQUDHMO   =U? QEOU -QRH FGU 'WVJ[FGOQU + T OKV &KCFGOBASILEUONTOS=D? IKAIOUAGAQO    KLEOU*GTCMNGUUKV\VNCWH(GNUGPOKV-GWNG$0$CEV$/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMC50)#05 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI1UPCDTÒEM0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT 0T

62


SLG. GRUNOW / BACTRIA

175



175

1,5:1

#PVKOCEJQU +  X %JT ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG 2WUJMCNCXCVK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T   OKV -CWUKC2QUGKFQP UVGJV X X OKV &TGK\CEM WPF 2CNO\YGKI OKV 6CGPKG $0 $CEV  ' /KVEJKPGT   +PFQITGGMC50)#05p 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP %0)  .CPECUVGT  0T  FGT #WMVKQP 5RKPM  .QPFQP  0T  FGT   #WMVKQP.GW<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP2GWU(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

176

1,5:1



1,5:1

'WMTCVKFGU+X%JTÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT$CNMJI&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO&KQUMWTGP TGKVGP T $0$CEV'/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMF50)#05 8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6JG0GY;QTM5CNG0GY;QTM0T  0CEJFGO UKEJ &GOGVTKQU + +PFKGP \WIGYCPFV JCVVG ICD GU PÌTFNKEJ FGU *KPFWMWUJ GPVYGFGT GKP /CEJVXCMWWO   QFGTFKGFQTVKIGP)TKGEJGPHÒJNVGPUKEJXGTPCEJN·UUKIVLGFGPHCNNUICDGUX%JTGKPG4GDGNNKQPOKV'WMTCVKFGU CPFGT5RKV\G&KGUGTMQPPVGUKEJKP$CMVTKGPDKUXÌNNKIFWTEJUGV\GP5R·VGTITKHHGTCWEJPCEJ+PFKGPCWUWPF GPIVGFGP/CEJVDGTGKEJ/GPCPFGTUGKP'TUGNDUVYWTFGXQPGKPGO5QJPXGTOWVNKEJ2NCVQITCWUCOGTOQTFGV

177



1,5:1

177

ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG 2WUJMCNCXCVK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV *GNO&KQUMWTGP TGKVGP T   $0$CEV'/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMGG50)#05 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 63


SLG. GRUNOW / BACTRIA

178



1,5:1

178

ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG /GTX  I $ÒUVG N OKV *GNO WPF 5RGGT&KG &KQUMWTGP TGKVGP T $0   $CEV$/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMC50)#05 5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

179

1,5:1



1,5:1

/GOQTKCNRT·IWPIHÒT*GNKQMNGUWPF.CQFKMGÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG$CNMJI&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVGTOKV*GNO$ÒUVGPFGU*GNKQMNGUWPFFGT.CQFKMGT$0$CEVC/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMD 50)#05p 44'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

180

1,5:1



1,5:1

#RQNNQFQVQU +  X %JT ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG 2WUJMCNCXCVK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T   OKV-CWUKC#VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN$0$CEV#/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMp50)#05p  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU2QTVT·VOKPMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  &KGCVVKUEJGP6GVTCFTCEJOGPFGU#RQNNQFQVQU+FKGCNUGKP\KIGUGKP$KNFVTCIGPUKPFCW­GTQTFGPVNKEJUGNVGP8QP FGOGTUVUGKVDGMCPPVGP6[RUKPFDKUNCPIPWTYGPKIG'ZGORNCTG EC\GJP5VÒEM DGMCPPV

64


SLG. GRUNOW / BACTRIA

181 1,5:1

1,5:1



*GNKQMNGUX%JTÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG$COKCPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO <GWUUVGJVXXOKV$NKV\WPF<GRVGT$0$CEV-/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMNXCT50)#05 8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

182

1,5:1

1,5:1



'WMTCVKFGU ++  X %JT ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG $CNMJ  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   &KCFGO#RQNNQUVGJVNOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGP$0$CEV+/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMN50)#05 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GNKQU0WOKUOCVKM/ÒPEJGP0T

183

1,5:1

1,5:1

51)&+#0# 

5E[VJGPECX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJ6[R'WVJ[FGOQUI-QRHFGU'WVJ[FGOQUT *GTCMNGUUKV\VNCWH(GNUGPOKV-GWNG5GPKQT+PFQ5E[VJKCP%QKPUCPF*KUVQT[6[R#  5GNVGP*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT0T

 65


SLG. GRUNOW / INDIA

184



184

1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJ6[R'WMTCVKFGU++I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGU'WMTCVKFGU++TOKV&KCFGO #RQNNQUVGJVNOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGP5GPKQT+PFQ5E[VJKCP%QKPUCPF*KUVQT[p 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI0T

185 1,5:1



+0&+#

1,5:1

/GPCPFGT  X %JT ÕKPFKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG 2WUJMCNCXCVK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   &KCFGO#VJGPC #NMKFGOQU UVGJV N $0 $CEV  # /KVEJKPGT +PFQITGGM  E 50) #05  HH   8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  /GPCPFGTYCTFGTDGFGWVGPFUVGFGTITKGEJKUEJGP*GTTUEJGTKP+PFKGP<GKVYGKUGYWTFGGTKO0QTFGPXQP'WMTCVKFGU+ XGTFT·PIV 'T WPVGTPCJO GKPGP (GNF\WI DKU 2CVCNKRWVTC CO )CPIGU 'T KUV FGT GKP\KIG KPFQITKGEJKUEJG *GTTUEJGT   FGTKPFGTKPFKUEJGP.KVGTCVWTGTY·JPVYKTF



186 1,5:1

1,5:1



ÕKPFKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG2WUJMCNCXCVKI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV*GNO#VJGPC#NMKFGOQUUVGJVN $0$CEV$/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMH50)#05 5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



/GPCPFGTYCTFGTDGFGWVGPFUVGFGTITKGEJKUEJGP*GTTUEJGTKP+PFKGP<GKVYGKUGYWTFGGTKO0QTFGPXQP'WMTCVKFGU+ XGTFT·PIV 'T WPVGTPCJO GKPGP (GNF\WI DKU 2CVCNKRWVTC CO )CPIGU 'T KUV FGT GKP\KIG KPFQITKGEJKUEJG *GTTUEJGT   FGTKPFGTKPFKUEJGP.KVGTCVWTGTY·JPVYKTF

187 1,5:1



66

1,5:1

#PVKCNMKFCU  X %JT ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG 2WUJMCNCXCVK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   &KCFGO'NGRJCPVNCWHFGO-QRH0KMGFCXQTUVGJV<GWUOKV<GRVGT$0$CEV2N&/KVEJKPGT +PFQITGGMC50)#05 445GJTUEJÌP




SLG. GRUNOW / INDIA

188 1,5:1

1,5:1



#TEJGDKQU  X %JT ÕKPFKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG -QJCV  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV *GNO   <GWUUVGJVXXOKV$NKV\WPF<GRVGT$0$CEV'/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMF50)#05  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



189

1,5:1



1,5:1

*GTOCKQUX%JTWPF-CNNKQRGÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG-CRKUCI$GKFGT$ÒUVGPT -ÌPKITGKVGVT$0$CEV%/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMC50)#05 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

190 1,5:1



1,5:1

#RQNNQFQVQU++ECX%JTÕKPFKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG,COOWI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV &KCFGO#VJGPC2TQOCEJQUUVGJVN$0$CEV#/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGME50)#05p  $GCTDGKVGVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



191 1,5:1



1,5:1

*KRRQUVTCVQUX%JTÕKPFKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG*C\CTCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO -ÌPKITGKVGVT$0$CEV(/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGME50)#05 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

67


SLG. GRUNOW / INDIA

192

1,5:1



1,5:1

ÕKPFKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG*C\CTCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO-ÌPKITGKVGVT$0$CEV' /KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMC50)#05 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

194

193





5E[VJGP /CWGU  X %JT ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG  I <GWU UVGJV N OKV <GRVGT0KMG   UVGJVTOKV-TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI5GPKQT6 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



8QPQPGUX%JTOKV5RCNCJQTGUÕKPFKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI-ÌPKI TGKVGVTOKV.CP\G<GWUUVGJVXXOKV$NKV\WPF<GRVGT5GPKQT6 5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌP



195 1,5:1



1,5:1

#\GU +  X %JT ÕKPFKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG I<GWUUVGJVNOKV<GRVGT0KMGUVGJVTOKV -TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI5GPKQT6 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

196 1,5:1

 68

1,5:1

ÕKPFKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOGI-ÌPKITGKVGVT<GWUUVGJVXXOKV$NKV\WPF<GRVGT5GPKQT6[R 5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ




SLG. GRUNOW / AEGYPTUS

197

198

#');2675 

#NGZCPFGT+++X%JTÔ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/GORJKUI*GTCMNGUMQRH KO.ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT4QUGWPVGPDI12TKEG 5GJTUEJÌP



2VQNGOCKQU+X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI#NGZCPFGTMQRHTOKV 'NGHCPVGPUMCNR<GWU #GVQRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT $NKV\ WPVGT FGO 6JTQP /QPQITCOO 50) %QR    5XQTQPQU 44(CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP 



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T

199 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#NGZCPFTKCI#NGZCPFGTMQRHTOKV'NGHCPVGPUMCNR#VJGPC #NMKFGOQUIGJVTFCXQT*GNO/QPQITCOOWPF#FNGT50)%QR5XQTQPQU 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

200 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #NGZCPFTKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#FNGT CWH $NKV\ N   FCXQT2ÒDGT/QPQITCOO50)%QR5XQTQPQU 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

201 1,5:1



1,5:1

2VQNGOCKQU++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG#NGZCPFTKCI-QRH2VQNGOCKQU+TOKV&KCFGO #FNGTCWH$NKV\NFCXQTPT ÒDGT\YGK/QPQITCOOGPFCJKPVGT5EJKNF50)%QRp5XQTQPQU  8QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:0GY;QTM0T

 69


SLG. GRUNOW / AEGYPTUS

202 1,5:1

1,5:1



 HÒT #TUKPQë ++ Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #NGZCPFTKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF   5EJNGKGTFCJKPVGT##FNGTCWH$NKV\N50)%QR5XQTQPQU6TQZGNN2N 5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

203 1,5:1



1,5:1

2VQNGOCKQU+8X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG#NGZCPFTKC ! I-QRH2VQNGOCKQU+TOKV &KCFGO#FNGTCWH$NKV\NFCXQT/QPQITCOO50)%QRp5XQTQPQUp 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#) $CUGN0T  

+O -CVCNQI FGT #WMVKQP *GUU&KXQ  WPF KP FGT .CIGTNKUVG  FGT /ÒP\GP WPF /GFCKNNGP #) KUV DGK FKGUGO   5VÒEM5XQTQPQU\KVKGTV&KGUGU5VÒEM\GKIVKO(GNFFGU4GXGTUGU\YCTDIUVCVVFGU/QPQITCOOGUCWHWPUGTGO 5VÒEM FCUUKEJUQPUVPWTCWH5XQTQPQUGKPGTUVKNKUVKUEJUVCTMCDYGKEJGPFGP/ÒP\GHKPFGV FGT#XGTUKUVLGFQEJ UVGORGNINGKEJ9KTNGIGPFCU5VÒEMOKV5XQTQPQUKPFKG4GIKGTWPIU\GKVFGU2VQNGOCKQU+8JCNVGPLGFQEJCWEJGKPG <WYGKUWPICP2VQNGOCKQU+++HÒTOÌINKEJ

204 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG#NGZCPFTKCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGPFGU<GWU5CTCRKUOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF-TQPG FGU1UKTKUWPFFGT+UKUOKVJTGPMTCP\WPF-TQPGT#FNGTCWH$NKV\NFGP-QRH\WTÒEMIGYCPFVOKV (ÒNNJQTP(TCPMG*KTOGTXGTIN6H50)%QR5XQTQPQU  44-N-TCV\GTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

205 1,5:1



1,5:1

2VQNGOCKQU8X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG#NGZCPFTKCI-QRH2VQNGOCKQU+T#FNGT CWH$NKV\N50)%QR5XQTQPQU 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI&QPCNF*&QUYGNN#WMVKQP)GOKPK80GY;QTM0T

70




SLG. GRUNOW / AEGYPTUS

206 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGRJÌPK\KUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGU2VQNGOCKQU8TOKV&KCFGO #FNGTCWH$NKV\N/QTMJQNO:8++50)%QRp5XQTQPQU 48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

207 1,5:1

1,5:1



2VQNGOCKQU 8+  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #NGZCPFTKC  I -QRH FGU   2VQNGOCKQU+TOKV&KCFGO#FNGTCWH$NKV\N50)%QRHH5XQTQPQU  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI)WVGUXQT\ÒINKEJ



208 1,5:1



1,5:1

OKV2VQNGOCKQU8+++Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT X%JT 2CRJQU %[RTWU I-QRHFGU 2VQNGOCKQU+TOKV&KCFGO#FNGTCWHIGHNÒIGNVGO$NKV\N0KEQNCQW/QTMJQNO2CRJQU+2N:+8# 50)%QRp5XQTQPQU 448QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

209 1,5:1



1,5:1

2VQNGOCKQU8+++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT X%JT #NGZCPFTKCI -QRHFGU2VQNGOCKQU+TOKV&KCFGO#FNGTCWH$NKV\N50)%QR5XQTQPQU  5GNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T







2VQNGOCKQU 8+++ DGICPP FKG <·JNWPI UGKPGT 4GIKGTWPIULCJTG OKV UGKPGT 'TJGDWPI \WO /KVTGIGPVGP FWTEJ   2VQNGOCKQU8+KO,CJTX%JT

71


SLG. GRUNOW / CYRENAICA

210 1,5:1



1,5:1

2VQNGOCKQU+:X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT X%JT #NGZCPFTKCI -QRHFGU2VQNGOCKQU+T#FNGTCWH$NKV\N50)%QR5XQTQPQU 8QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T



211 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT X%JT #NGZCPFTKCI-QRHFGU2VQNGOCKQU+T#FNGT CWH$NKV\N50)%QRp5XQTQPQU 5GJTUEJÌP



212 1,5:1



1,5:1

2VQNGOCKQU :++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT    X %JT  #NGZCPFTKC  I   -QRH FGU 2VQNGOCKQU + T OKV &KCFGO#FNGT CWH $NKV\ N FCXQT -TQPG FGT +UKU 50) %QR    5XQTQPQU 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP 0T

213

1,5:1

1,5:1

%;4'0#+%# 

-;4'0' /CICU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -CTPGKQUMQRH T5KNRJKQPUVCWFG T   (ÒNNJQTP$/%50)%QRp 5GNVGP5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP*GUU.GW<ÒTKEJ 0T

72


BRITANNIA

/ª0<'0#75&'49'.6&'4#06+-' -'.6+5%*'/ª0<'0

214

215

$4+6#00+# 

$'.)#' Ô5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5VKNKUKGTVGT -QRH T5VKNKUKGTVGU 2HGTF N FCTWPVGT UVKNK   UKGTVGT-TGDU4WFF#PEKGPV$TKVKUJ%QKPUXCP#TUFGNNp 5GJTUEJÌP





%#678'..#70+%WPQDGNKPÔ5VCVGT%COWNQFWPWOIJTG2HGTFURTKPIVT FCTÒDGT <YGKI WPF 5VGTP FCTWPVGT -TGKU OKV /KVVGNRWPMV 4WFF #PEKGPV $TKVKUJ %QKPU    XCP#TUFGNNp 5GJTUEJÌP



%WPQDGNKPKUVFGTDGMCPPVGUVGMGNVKUEJG-ÌPKI$TKVCPPKGPUUGKP.GDGPFKGPVGCNU8QTNCIGHÒT5JCMGURGCTU%[ODGNKPG

216

217

218



Ô5VCVGT  %COWNQFWPWO  I JTG2HGTF URTKPIV T FCTÒDGT <YGKI WPF 5VGTP FCTWPVGT   -TGKUOKV/KVVGNRWPMV4WFF#PEKGPV$TKVKUJ%QKPUXCP#TUFGNNp 5GJTUEJÌP





%14+'.6#8+ Ô5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5VKNKUKGTVGT #RQNNQMQRH T5VKNKUKGTVGU 2HGTF N   FCTÒDGT#PMGTFCTWPVGT5VGTP4WFF#PEKGPV$TKVKUJ%QKPUXCP#TUFGNN  2T·IGUEJY·EJGPCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ



Ô5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5VKNKUKGTVGT #RQNNQMQRH T JKGT WPMGPPVNKEJ 5VKNKUKGTVGU 2HGTF N   FCTÒDGT#PMGTFCTWPVGT5VGTP4WFF#PEKGPV$TKVKUJ%QKPUXCP#TUFGNN  5VCTMCDIGPWV\VGT#XGTUUVGORGNXQT\ÒINKEJ





1,5:1

219 1,5:1

)#..+# 

#7.'4%+ %'01/#0+ Ô5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JTI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5VKNK UKGTVGT'KPUR·PPGTOKVCPFTQMGRJCNGO2HGTFTÒDGTNKGIGPFGT)GUVCNVT&GNGUVT¾G6CEJG  445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



220

1,5:1

%#4076'5 2KZVKNQU “U  X %JT  I -QRH N OKV *GNO.ÌYG N WPVGP WPF N   2+:6+.15&GNGUVT¾G6CEJG 48QT\ÒINKEJ  73


GERMANIA

222

221



0#/0'6'5 'N 5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I 5VKNKUKGTVGT -QRH T/CPP VT·IV   CPFTQMGRJCNGU2HGTFOKV.GPMGTT&GNGUVT¾G6CEJG 5GJTUEJÌP





5'010'5 Ô5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I -TGW\)NCVV &GNGUVT¾G6CEJG    5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO4GXGTUUGJTUEJÌP



&KG<WYGKUWPIKUVPKEJVIGUKEJGTV/ÌINKEJGTYGKUGYWTFGFCU5VÒEMCWEJXQPFGP%CTPWVGUIGRT·IV

223

1,5:1

1,5:1

$'.)+%# 

#010;/ Ô5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I -QRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\2HGTF N WPVGP   4QUGVVG&GNGUVT¾G6CEJG 45GJTUEJÌP 

224

225

226



#/$+#0+ Ô5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5VKNKUKGTVGT -QRH T5VKNKUKGTVGU 2HGTF T \YKUEJGP   2WPMVGPWPF*CNDOQPFGP&GNGUVT¾G6CEJG 5GJTUEJÌP





Ô5VCVGT  X %JT  I $WEMGN5VKNKUKGTVGU 2HGTF T \YKUEJGP 2WPMVGP WPF *CNDOQPFGP   &GNGUVT¾G6CEJGXGTINHH 5GJTUEJÌP





Ô5VCVGT  X %JT  I $WEMGN5VKNKUKGTVGU 2HGTF T \YKUEJGP 2WPMVGP WPF *CNDOQPFGP   &GNGUVT¾G6CEJGXGTIN 5GJTUEJÌP



227

228

229

)'4/#0+# 

#010;/ Õ3WKPCT  X %JT  I 6CP\GPFGU /·PPNGKP OKV 6QTSWGU WPF 5EJNCPIG   2HGTFT-QRH\WTÒEMIGYCPFV%CUVGNKP<ÒTKEJ&GODUMK5NI(NGUEJG  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ3WKPCT  X %JT  I 6CP\GPFGU /·PPNGKP OKV 6QTSWGU WPF 5EJNCPIG2HGTF T -QRH   \WTÒEMIGYCPFV%CUVGNKP<ÒTKEJ&GODUMK5NI(NGUEJG *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T  <WT&CVKGTWPIUKGJG0KEM/KEJCGN)CDG1RHGT<CJNWPIUOKVVGN5VTWMVWTGPMGNVKUEJGP/ÒP\IGDTCWEJUKOYGUVNK EJGP/KVVGNGWTQRC$CPF4CJFGP5



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



Õ3WKPCT  X %JT  I 6CP\GPFGU /·PPNGKP OKV 6QTSWGU WPF 5EJNCPIG2HGTF T -QRH   \WTÒEMIGYCPFV%CUVGNKP<ÒTKEJXGTINHH&GODUMKXGTIN5NI(NGUEJGXGTIN  5GJTUEJÌP 'TYQTDGPXQP&T*KNF

74




PANNONIA

230



231

8+0&'.+-'4 Ô5VCVGT 4GIGPDQIGPUEJÒUUGNEJGP   X %JT  I )NCVV)NCVV -GNNPGT   6[R8#5NI(NGUEJGHH 5GJTUEJÌP



&CVKGTWPI PCEJ 0KEM /KEJCGN )CDG 1RHGT <CJNWPIUOKVVGN 5VTWMVWTGP MGNVKUEJGP /ÒP\IGDTCWEJU KO YGUVNKEJGP   /KVVGNGWTQRC$CPF4CJFGP5



Ô5VCVGT 4GIGPDQIGPUEJÒUUGNEJGP   X %JT  I 4QNNVKGT5GEJU -WIGNP KP 6QTSWGU   -GNNPGT6[R+#5NI(NGUEJG 45GJTUEJÌP  &CVKGTWPI PCEJ 0KEM /KEJCGN )CDG 1RHGT <CJNWPIUOKVVGN 5VTWMVWTGP MGNVKUEJGP /ÒP\IGDTCWEJU KO YGUVNKEJGP   /KVVGNGWTQRC$CPF4CJFGP5

232

$1*'/+# 

$1+'4 Ô5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I $WEMGN FCTCWH TGEJVGEMKIG 8GTVKGHWPI*CND   OQPFHÌTOKIGT$WEMGN&GODUMKXGTINHH2CWNUGPHH5NI(NGUEJGp 45GJTUEJÌP

233 1,5:1





1,5:1

0QPPQUÕ*GZCFTCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO4GKVGTT)ÌDN:+8% 5NI(NGUEJGp 45GJTUEJÌP



234 1,5:1

1,5:1

014+%7/ 

#010;/Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\4GKVGTN )ÌDN2N-QUVKCN5NI(NGUEJG 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI -NGKPGT5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGFGPPQEJCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

235

2#0010+# 

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG 6[R 4GKVGTUVWORH-TQKUDCEJ 'PFG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I -QRH T OKV   FTGKHCEJGO2GTNFKCFGO4GKVGTCWHIGRWPMVGVGT$QFGPNKPKGN&GODUMKHH)ÌDN1UVMGNVGP -QUVKCN5NI(NGUEJG *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP  75


DACIA

237

238 1,5:1

1,5:1



236

1,5:1

1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG 6[R 4GKVGTUVWORH-TQKUDCEJ 'PFG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I -QRH T OKV   FTGKHCEJGO2GTNFKCFGO4GKVGTCWHIGRWPMVGVGT$QFGPNKPKGN&GODUMKHH)ÌDN1UVMGNVGP -QUVKCNXGTIN5NI(NGUEJGXGTINHH 8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ1DQN 6[R 8GNGO  I 5VKNKUKGTVGT -QRH T2HGTF N FCTÒDGT 4KPIGN )ÌDN 1UVMGNVGP    5NI(NGUEJG (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌP





Õ1DQN 6[R 2HGTF OKV &TGK\CEM  I /·PPGTMQRH N OKV *CCTGP KP <YKGDGNHQTO2HGTF N FCT   ÒDGT&TGK\CEM)ÌDN1UVMGNVGPp5NI(NGUEJG 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP



239







240

241

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG 6[R 2WRRGPTGKVGT OKV 6TKUMGNKU  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I -QRH T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\4GKVGT T WPVGP 6TKUMGNKU&GODUMKHH)ÌDN1UVMGNVGP6[R-QUVKCNHH 5NI(NGUEJG (CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG6[R$CTVMTCP\CXGTU,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ 2HGTFTOKV\YGK4GKVGTPFCTÒDGT8QIGN&GODUMKp)ÌDN1UVMGNVGP-QUVKCN5NI(NGUEJGp 4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG6[R$CWOTGKVGTOKV$CTVMTCP\CXGTU,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHTOKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4GKVGT N OKV $CWO FCXQT 8KGTDGKPGT WPVGP $NCVVQTPCOGPV &GODUMK  C )ÌDN   1UVMGNVGP-QUVKCN5NI(NGUEJG (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



242

1,5:1

1,5:1

&#%+# 

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG $CPCVGT 6[R  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   4GKVGTNWPVGP<YGKI&GODUMKp)ÌDN1UVMGNVGPXGTIN#-QUVKCNp5NI(NGUEJGp  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.*50WOKUOCVKM<ÒTKEJ0T

76


THRACIA

243

1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG $CPCVGT 6[R  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   4GKVGTN&GODUMKp)ÌDN1UVMGNVGPXGTIN#-QUVKCNp5NI(NGUEJGp 48QT\ÒINKEJ 

244

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG $CPCVGT 6[R  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   4GKVGTNT-TCP\&GODUMKp)ÌDN1UVMGNVGPXGTIN#-QUVKCNp5NI(NGUEJGp 48QT\ÒINKEJ 

245

6*4#%+# 

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT 6[NKU !   I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU   #GVQRJQTQUUKV\VN&GODUMKXGTINHH)ÌDN1UVMGNVGP-QUVKCNXGTINHH5NI(NGUEJGp XGTIN 45GJTUEJÌP



.165-'.6+5%*'4/ª0<'0 

5COONWPI MGNVKUEJGT /ÒP\GP&KG5COONWPIGPVJ·NV\YGK6GVTCFTCEJOGP 6[R5CVVGNMQRHRHGTF6[R 6JCUQU  \YGK $ÒUEJGNSWKPCTG GKPG *KURCPQMGNVKUEJG $TQP\GOÒP\G %CUVWNQ  HÒPH 2QVKPOÒP\GP \YGK   MGNVKUEJG5KNDGTOÒP\GP &WTQVTKIGU+EGPK GVE*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM'KP5VÒEMTGRCTKGTVOGKUVUGJTUEJÌP





-GNVKUEJG-NGKPUKNDGTOÒP\GP'PVJCNVGPKUVWC-CRQUVCNGT-NGKPIGNF





-GNVKUEJG -NGKPUKNDGTOÒP\GP 'PVJCNVGP UKPF UGEJU MGNVKUEJG -NGKPUKNDGTOÒP\GP FCTWPVGT W C GKPG   &TCEJOGXQO6[R-WIGNYCPIG 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP





-GNVKUEJG 5KNDGTOÒP\GP 'PVJCNVGP UKPF GKPG 6GVTCFTCEJOG 6[R 8GNGOGT QJPG )GUKEJVUTCPF  UQYKG   XKGT-NGKPUKNDGTOÒP\GP WC6[R5KOOGTKPIWPF4GVG  5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP

77


CAMPANIA

)4+'%*+5%*'/ª0<'0

251

250

*+52#0+# 

%#4/1 “U  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I +P -TCP\ /·PPGTMQRH T OKV *GNO<YGK JTGP   FC\YKUEJGP%#4/1$WTIQU50)$/HH )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO-ÌNP0T



%#567.1“#UUR·VGU,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHTOKV&KCFGOFCXQT*CPF5RJKPZ UVGJVT$WTIQU50)$/XGTINHH )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO-ÌNP0T

1,5:1

252

1,5:1

'6474+# 

70$'-#006'/ª0<5666'“<GJPGT,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI+P-TCP\-QRHTOKV .QTDGGTMTCP\FCJKPVGT:+PEWUGT(KUEJT4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO8GEEJK'VTWUECP%QKPCIG 445GJTUEJÌP

254

253



253

7/$4+# 

67&'4“3WCFTCPUX%JTI(TQUEJTFTGK9GTVMWIGNP#PMGT4WVVGT*KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO8GEEJK 5GJTUEJÌPUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

%#/2#0+# 

-;/'Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI9GKDNKEJGT-QRHT/WUEJGNFCTÒDGT-QTP4WVVGT %CORCPKCP%QKPCIGU4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

255





256

0'#21.+5Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV&KQRJCPGUI0[ORJGPMQRHTFCJKPVGT 9GKPVTCWDG#PFTQMGRJCNGT 5VKGT T XQP0KMGDGMT·P\V4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO5CODQP 50)#05p50)/ÒPEJGP 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#TU%NCUUKEC.W\GTP0T



78

Õ&KFTCEJOG WO X%JTI0[ORJGPMQRHTXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP#PFTQMGRJC NGT 5VKGT T XQP 0KMGDGMT·P\V4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO5CODQPD50)#0550) /ÒPEJGP (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP




CALABRIA

258



1,5:1

1,5:1

257

257

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI0[ORJGPMQRHT9GKPVTCWDGFCXQT/QPQITCOOWPVGPSTA #PFTQMGRJCNGT 5VKGT T XQP 0KMG DGMT·P\V FCTWPVGT - 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO  5CODQP    50)#0550)/ÒPEJGP 5GJTUEJÌP



2*+56'.+# Õ1DQN  X %JT  I 9GKDNKEJGT -QRH HCUV X X.ÌYG N WPVGP   5EJNCPIG4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO5CODQP 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



259

260

261

%#.#$4+# 

6#4'06 Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 6CTCU CWH &GNRJKP T WPVGP /WUEJGN1KMKUVGU   UKV\VNOKV5RKPFGNWPF<GRVGT(KUEJGT$QUUGTV4CXGN8NCUVQ4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 0CEMVGT 4GKVGT T XQP 0KMG DGMT·P\V6CTCU CWH &GNRJKP N   OKV -CPVJCTQU WPF &TGK\CEM (KUEJGT$QUUGTV  4CXGN 8NCUVQ  4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI0CEMVGT4GKVGTTOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNF6CTCUCWH&GNRJKP NOKV-CPVJCTQUWPF&TGK\CEMFCTWPVGT&GNRJKPN(KUEJGT$QUUGTV4CXGN8NCUVQHH4WVVGT *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



&KG 1KMKUVGU2T·IWPIGP UVGJGP XGTOWVNKEJ OKV GKPGT /CEJVGKPDW­G FGT #TKUVQMTCVKG PCEJ FGT 0KGFGTNCIG 6CTGPVU   IGIGPFKG/GUUCRKGTKO,CJTX%JTKP<WUCOOGPJCPI

262 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI0CEMVGT4GKVGTTOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNF6CTCUCWH&GNRJKPN OKV-CPVJCTQUWPF5VGWGTTWFGT(KUEJGT$QUUGTV4CXGN8NCUVQ4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

263



264



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 4GKVGT T UGKP 2HGTF DGMT·P\GPF6CTCU CWH &GNRJKP N OKV   9GKPVTCWDG4CXGN8NCUVQ4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI0CEMVGT4GKVGTTOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNF6CTCUCWH&GNRJKP NOKV5RKPFGNFCJKPVGT#FNGTWPVGP9GNNGP(KUEJGT$QUUGTV4CXGN8NCUVQ4WVVGT*KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

 79


CALABRIA

266

265





267

Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 5CV[TCMQRH N0CEMVGT 4GKVGT T UGKP 2HGTF DGMT·P\GPF   WPVGP&GNRJKP4CXGN8NCUVQXGTIN4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  (GKPG2CVKPCWPDGFGWVGPFGT2TÒHGKPJKGDCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI&KG&KQUMWTGPTGKVGPN6CTCUCWH&GNRJKPNOKVKJPDGMT·P \GPFGT0KMG\YGK5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNF4CXGN8NCUVQHH4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 0CEMVGT 4GKVGT N OKV *GNO 5RGGT WPF 5EJKNF6CTCU CWH   &GNRJKPNOKV9GKPVTCWDGWPF5RKPFGN4CXGN8NCUVQ4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  .GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPDGKFGT(KTOC2GWU0CEJHCO&G\GODGT



268





1,5:1

268

1,5:1

269

269

Õ&TCEJOGX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNOUVGKPUEJNGWFGTPFG5E[NNCCNU *GNO\KGT'WNGTT1NKXGP\YGKI4CXGN8NCUVQHH4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&TCEJOGX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHNOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO5E[NNCCNU*GNO\KGT'WNGT CWH$NKV\4CXGN8NCUVQHH4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 5GJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPCO&G\GODGTDGKFGT(KTOC2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP

270

271

1,5:1

1,5:1





2:1

2:1

Õ&KQDQN  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRHHCUVXXOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO5E[NNCCNU*GNO\KGT *GTCMNGU N KO -CORH OKV FGO PGOGKUEJGP .ÌYGP T &TGKHW­ 4CXGN 8NCUVQ  4WVVGT *KUVQTKC   0WOQTWO (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



Õ1DQNX%JTI-CPVJCTQUXQPFTGK2WPMVGPWOIGDGP-CPVJCTQUNWPFQDGPGKPG -WIGNT$NKV\4CXGN8NCUVQ4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KVVC-CUVPGT/ÒPEJGP0T

272





80

273

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI0CEMVGT4GKVGTTOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNF6CTCUCWH&GNRJKPN OKV-CPVJCTQUWPF&TGK\CEMFCJKPVGT0[ORJGPMQRH4CXGN8NCUVQHH4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI0CEMVGT4GKVGTTOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNF6CTCUCWH&GNRJKPN OKV-CPVJCTQUWPF&TGK\CEMFCJKPVGT0[ORJGPMQRH4CXGN8NCUVQHH4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




LUCANIA

275

274



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV :GPQMTCVGU  I 4GKVGT N OKV GTJQDGPGT 4GEJVGP WPF   5EJYGTV FCJKPVGT 2KNGWU6CTCU TGKVGV N CWH &GNRJKP OKV &TGK\CEM WPVGP 9GNNGP WPF 6KPVGPHKUEJ   4CXGN8NCUVQHH4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)GOKPK+++0GY;QTM0T



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV :GPQMTCVGU  I 4GKVGT N OKV GTJQDGPGT 4GEJVGP WPF   5EJYGTV FCJKPVGT 2KNGWU6CTCU TGKVGV N CWH &GNRJKP OKV &TGK\CEM WPVGP 9GNNGP WPF 6KPVGPHKUEJ   4CXGN8NCUVQHH4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



277

276

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

.7%#0+# 

*'4#-.'+# Õ&KQDQN  X %JT  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T.ÌYG T 4WVVGT   *KUVQTKC0WOQTWOXCP-GWTGP 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&KQDQN  X %JT  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN N.ÌYG N 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQ   TWOXCP-GWTGP 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



279

278 1,5:1



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO UVGKPUEJNGWFGTPFG   5E[NNC CNU *GNO\KGT N '*GTCMNGU UVGJV X X OKV -GWNG WPF .ÌYGPHGNN N 'WNG 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC   0WOQTWOXCP-GWTGP9QTM 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO*GTCMNGU UVGJV X X   OKV-GWNG2HGKN$QIGPWPF.ÌYGPHGNNN'WNG4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWOXCP-GWTGP  5GJTUEJÌP



280

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&TCEJOGX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHHCUVXXOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO'WNGUVGJVXXCWH 1NKXGP\YGKIT-GWNG4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWOXCP-GWTGP  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#TV%QKPU4QOC4QO0T  &CU 5VÒEM YWTFG IGRT·IV CNU 2[TTJWU XQP 'RKTWU KP 5ÒFKVCNKGP QRGTKGTVG WPF FKG DGTÒJOVG 5EJNCEJV DGK *GTCENGC  

X%JT IGUEJNCIGPJCVVG$GTGKVUKPFKGUGT5EJNCEJVUGV\VG2[TTJWU-TKGIUGNGHCPVGPCWHKVCNKUEJGO$QFGPGKP UKGYWTFGPCNNGTFKPIU\WT)GHCJTUGKPGTGKIGPGP6TWRRGPFCGKPXGTYWPFGVGU6KGTFKGCPFGTGPKP2CPKMXGTUGV\VG



81


LUCANIA

283 282

281



/'6#2106Õ5VCVGTX%JTIJTGJTGKPEWU0QëpXGTIN #XGTUUVGORGN INGKEJ 4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ5VCVGTX%JTIJTGJTGKPEWU0Që4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  5GJTUEJÌP



Õ&KQDQNX%JTIJTG)GTUVGPMQTPKPEWU0Që4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T*KNF-CTNUTWJG0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPM HWTVCO/CKP0T



284

1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT I.GWMKRRQUMQRHTOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNOFCJKPVGT(CEMGN JTG,QJPUVQP#4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP (TKV\ 4WFQNH -ÒPMGT  1UPCDTÒEM  0T  WPF FGT#WMVKQP,GCP8KPEJQP/QPVG %CTNQ0QXGODGT0T

285

286

287



Õ&KUVCVGT  X %JT  I .GWMKRRQUMQRH T OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO FCJKPVGT .ÌYGP   RTQVQOGTWPFAPHJTGN-GWNG,QJPUVQP$4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  -PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPI5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO4GXGTUHCUVUGJTUEJÌP 



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I .GWMKRRQUMQRH T OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO FCJKPVGT .ÌYGP   MQRHJTGN-GWNG,QJPUVQP$4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I .GWMKRRQUMQRH T OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO FCJKPVGT *WPF   JTGT8QIGN,QJPUVQP$4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (GKPG6ÌPWPIIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



288



289

Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I &GOGVGTMQRH NJTG N <CPIG ,QJPUVQP %  4WVVGT   *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (GKPG6ÌPWPIIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I &GOGVGTMQRH NJTG N *GWICDGN ,QJPUVQP %  4WVVGT   *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO -N-TCV\GTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

 82


LUCANIA

290



291

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI&GOGVGTMQRHNOKVJTGPMTCP\JTGN)TGKH,QJPUVQP% 4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI&GOGVGTMQRHNOKVJTGPMTCP\JTGN)TGKH,QJPUVQP%H

#XGTUUVGORGNINGKEJ 4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



292

293

294



Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI&GOGVGTMQRHNJTGN#ORJQTG,QJPUVQP%4WVVGT *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (GKPG6ÌPWPI2TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI&GOGVGTMQRHNJTGN#ORJQTG,QJPUVQP%4WVVGT *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I &GOGVGTMQRH NJTG T 5RKPFGN ,QJPUVQP &  4WVVGT   *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



295

2:1



2:1

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI*GTCMNGUMQRHTOKV&KCFGOÒDGTFGT5EJWNVGT-GWNGJTGT -CPVJCTQU,QJPUVQP&4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJQJGO4GNKGHWPFJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

296

2:1



2:1

Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I &GOGVGTMQRH T OKV JTGPMTCP\JTG T \YGK #ORJQTGP   ,QJPUVQP&4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'TYQTDGPDGKFGT0#%<ÒTKEJ

83


LUCANIA

297

2:1



Ô6GVTQDQNX%JTI.GWMKRRQUMQRHTOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO5M[NNCCNU*GNO\KGT <YGKJTGP,QJPUVQP)4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

298



2:1



298

1,5:1

5;$#4+5 Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5VKGT UVGJV N -QRH \WTÒEMIGYCPFV+PEWU 4WVVGT   *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO50)#05XGTINHH50)/ÒPEJGPXGTIN  &WPMNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#TV%QKPU4QOC4QO0T  )GO·­ FGT UEJTKHVNKEJGP ªDGTNKGHGTWPI YWTFG 5[DCTKU CNU ·NVGUVG ITKGEJKUEJG 2HNCP\UVCFV  X %JT IGITÒPFGV   8QPFGTJQJGP$NÒVG\WYGNEJGTFKGUG5VCCVGP /GVCRQPVWPF5[DCTKU KPWPINCWDNKEJMWT\GT<GKVIGFKGJGP\GWIGP CONGDGPFKIUVGPFKGGKP\KIGPCWHWPUIGMQOOGPGP-WPUVYGTMGFKGUGTKVCNKUEJGP#EJ·GTKJTG/ÒP\GPXQPUVTGPIGT CNVGTVÒONKEJ UEJÌPGT #TDGKV ÒDGTJCWRV FKG HTÒJGUVGP &GPMO·NGT XQP -WPUV WPF 5EJTKHV KP +VCNKGP FGTGP 2T·IWPI   GTYGKUNKEJKO,F5V 4QOX%JT DGTGKVUDGIQPPGPJCVVG&KGUG/ÒP\GP\GKIGPFC­FKG#EJ·GTFGU 9GUVGPUPKEJVDNQ­VGKNPCJOGPCPFGTGDGPWOFKGUG<GKVKO/WVVGTNCPFGJGTTNKEJUKEJGPVYKEMGNPFGP$KNFPGTMWPUV UQPFGTPKPFGT6GEJPKMFGOUGNDGPYQJNICTÒDGTNGIGPYCTGPFGPPUVCVVFGTFKEMGPQHVPWTGKPUGKVKIIGRT·IVGPWPF TGIGNO·­KIUEJTKHVNQUGP5KNDGTUVÒEMGYGNEJGWOFKGUG<GKVKPFGOGKIGPVNKEJGP)TKGEJGPNCPFYKGDGKFGPKVCNKUEJGP &QTGTPÒDNKEJYCTGPUEJNWIGPFKGKVCNKUEJGP#EJ·GTOKVITQ­GTWPFUGNDUV·PFKIGT)GUEJKEMNKEJMGKVCWU\YGKINGKEJ CTVKIGPVGKNUGTJCDGPWPFVGKNUXGTVKGHVIGUEJPKVVGPGP5VGORGNPITQ­GFÒPPGUVGVUOKV#WHUEJTKHVXGTUGJGPG5KNDGTOÒP \GPFGTGPUQTIH·NVKIXQTFGT(CNUEJOÒP\GTGKLGPGT<GKV2NCVVKGTWPIIGTKPIGP/CVGTKCNUOKVFÒPPGP5KNDGTDN·VVGTP UKEJUEJÒV\GPFG2T·IYGKUGFGPYQJNIGQTFPGVGP-WNVWTUVCCVXGTT·V /QOOUGP4ÌO)GUEJ+5 

300

299



Õ5VCVGTX%JTI5VKGTUVGJVN-QRH\WTÒEMIGYCPFV+PEWU4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQ TWO50)#0550)/ÒPEJGPXGTIN #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌP



Õ5VCVGTX%JTI5VKGTN-QRH\WTÒEMIGYCPFV+PEWU4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 50)#0550)/ÒPEJGP 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T 





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

301

302



Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT  I 5VKGT UVGJV N -QRH \WTÒEMIGYCPFV+PEWU 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC   0WOQTWO50)#0550)/ÒPEJGP *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





6*74+1+Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO.QTDGGTMTCP\ CNU*GNO\KGT5VKGTUVÌ­VTKO#DUEJPKVV6JWPHKUEJ4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO50)#05 50)/ÒPEJGP -TCHVXQNNG4GXGTUFCTUVGNNWPIUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



84


LUCANIA

304 303







305

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO.QTDGGTMTCP\CNU*GNO\KGT 5VKGTUVÌ­VTKO#DUEJPKVV6JWPHKUEJ4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO50)#0550)/ÒPEJGP *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT UKIPKGTV XQP /QNQUUQU  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO   5E[NNC CNU *GNO\KGT5VKGT UVÌ­V T KO #DUEJPKVV (KUEJ CWH FGT )TWPFNKPKG [MO]LOSSOS 4WVVGT   *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO50)#0550)/ÒPEJGPXGTIN 445GJTUEJÌP



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO 5M[NNC OKV &TGK\CEM CNU   *GNO\KGT5VKGTUVÌ­VTKO#DUEJPKVV(KUEJCWHFGT)TWPFNKPKGFM4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWOC 50)#05p50)/ÒPEJGPp 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

306

307

308



Õ&KUVCVGT  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO 5E[NNC CNU *GNO\KGT5VKGT   UVÌ­VTKO#DUEJPKVV\YGK(KUEJG0Që,4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 



Õ&KUVCVGT  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO 5E[NNC CNU *GNO\KGT5VKGT   UVÌ­VTKO#DUEJPKVV\YGK(KUEJG0Që04WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  )WVGUUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 



Õ&KUVCVGT  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO 5E[NNC CNU *GNO\KGT5VKGT   UVÌ­VTKO#DUEJPKVV\YGK(KUEJG0Qëp4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  2T·IGUEJY·EJGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

1,5:1



309 1,5:1

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO5E[NNCCNU*GNO\KGT5VKGT UVÌ­V T KO #DUEJPKVV \YGK (KUEJG IGIGPGKPCPFGT 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO  50) #05 p   50)/ÒPEJGPp  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP8+++0GY;QTM0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP4CWEJ9KGP0T

85


BRUTTIUM

311

310





Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO5E[NNCCNU*GNO\KGT5VKGT UVÌ­VTXQPTHNKGIGPFGT0KMGDGMT·P\V4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO50)#05p50)/ÒPEJGPp )WVGUUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 8'.+# *;'.'  Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH N OKV RJT[IKUEJGO *GNO   5E[NNC CNU *GNO\KGT.ÌYG N HTK­V CP 9KFFGTMQRH 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO  9KNNKCOU    .GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP

312







313

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO)TGKHCNU*GNO\KGT.ÌYG UVGJVTFCTÒDGT&GNRJKPT4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO9KNNKCOUC FKGU'ZGORNCT   (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#TU%NCUUKEC.W\GTP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP#TU%NCUUKEC.W\GTP0T



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO (NÒIGN WPF -TCP\ CNU   *GNO\KGT.ÌYGTFCTÒDGTJTG4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO9KNNKCOU  (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



315

314

$4766+7/ 



$4'66++ Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT 0KMG T OKV &KCFGO FCJKPVGT   5VGTP(NW­IQVV UVGJV X X OKV <GRVGT UKEJ UGNDUV DGMT·P\GPF T 6J[OKCVGTKQP WPF N \YKUEJGP FGP   $GKPGPFGU(NW­IQVVGUG4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO5EJGWp #XGTU54GXGTU5   #XGTUOKPFG\GPVTKGTVMN5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO4GXGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT  I -QRH FGT *GTC .CMKPKC T OKV 5EJNGKGT WPF 2QNQU ÒDGT FGT   5EJWNVGT<GRVGTFCJKPVGT(NKGIG<GWUUVGJVNOKV<GRVGT(W­CWHKQPKUEJGO5·WNGPMCRKVGNNN#FNGTN OKV-TCP\4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO5EJGW5 .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



316



1,5:1

316

-#7.10+#Õ5VCVGTX%JTI#RQNNQUVGJVTOKV<YGKIWPF&CKOQPFCXQTUVGJV *KTUEJ T -QRH \WTÒEMIGYCPFV+PEWU #RQNNQ UVGJV N OKV <YGKI WPF &CKOQP FCXQT UVGJV *KTUEJ N   \WTÒEMDNKEMGPF0Që4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  -CWNQPKC YCT GKPG -QNQPKG FGT #EJCKGT #P FKG -QNQPKGITÒPFWPI GTKPPGTV CWEJ FKG &CTUVGNNWPI FGU FGNRJKUEJGP   #RQNNQFGTGKPGP.QTDGGT\YGKIVT·IVWOFCOKVUGKP*GKNKIVWO\WTGKPKIGPUQYKGGKPGP&CKOQPWOUGKPG#PMWPHV \WXGTMÒPFGP8QTFGT)TÒPFWPIGKPGT-QNQPKGYWTFGFCU1TCMGNXQP&GNRJKCPIGTWHGPWOGKPGP-QNQPKGITÒPFGT

1KMKUVGU WPFFKGIGQITCRJKUEJG.CIGFGTPGWGP5KGFNWPI\WDGUVKOOGP

86


BRUTTIUM

317

318



319

Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT  I #RQNNQ UVGJV TOKV<YGKIWPF&CKOQPFCXQTUVGJV*KTUEJT -QRH \WTÒEMIGYCPFV+PEWU #RQNNQ UVGJV N OKV <YGKI WPF &CKOQP FCXQT UVGJV *KTUEJ N -QRH \W   TÒEMIGYCPFV0Që4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GT.WPFITGP#WMVKQP1UNQ/[PVJCPFGN1UNQ0T



Õ5VCVGTX%JTI#RQNNQUVGJVTOKV<YGKIWPF&CKOQPFCXQTUVGJV*KTUEJT-QRH \WTÒEMIGYCPFV*KTUEJUVGJVTFCXQT<YGKI0Që4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ5VCVGTX%JTI#RQNNQUVGJVTOKV<YGKIWPF&CKOQPFCXQTUVGJV*KTUEJT-QRH \WTÒEMIGYCPFV*KTUEJUVGJVTFCXQT<YGKI0Që4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO 5GJTUEJÌP



321

322

320



-41610 Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I &TGKHW­&TGKHW­ KPEWU 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO   XGTIN50)#05pXGTINHH50)/ÒPEJGPpXGTIN  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT6ÌPWPI



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ&KQDQN  X %JT  I &TGKHW­2GICUQURTQVQOG N 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO    50)#05p50)/ÒPEJGPp 8QT\ÒINKEJ





Õ5VCVGT WO  X %JT  I &TGKHW­ T 4GKJGT&TGKHW­ KPEWU 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO   XGTIN50)#05XGTIN50)/ÒPEJGPp 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T*KNF-CTNUTWJG0T  &KG5EJTÌVNKPIGFKGUGT5VÒEMGUKPFÒDNKEJGTYGKUGMNGKPGT&GT9GEJUGNXQPFGPITQ­GPDTGKVGP5EJTÌVNKPIGPCWHFKG 5EJTÌVNKPIGOKVVNGTGT)TÌ­GYWTFGWOX%JTXQNN\QIGPWPUGT5VÒEMOW­\WFKGUGT<GKVIGRT·IVYQTFGPUGKP

323

324

325

326

327



Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I &TGKHW­ N 4GKJGT&TGKHW­ KPEWU 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC 0WOQTWO   50)#05XGTINHH50)/ÒPEJGPXGTIN 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I #FNGT UVGJV N CWH .QTDGGT\YGKI&TGKHW­ T -TCPKEJ CWH D   4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO50)#05HH50)/ÒPEJGPp (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP





Õ5VCVGT'PFGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUX%JTI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&TGKHW­4WVVGT *KUVQTKC0WOQTWO50)#0550)/ÒPEJGP 5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





.1-41+ '2+<'2*;4+1+ Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   #FNGTNCWH*CUGP4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO50)#05XGTIN50)/ÒPEJGPXGTIN 4(GKPG2CVKPC4GXGTUNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I #FNGT N CWH *CUGP$NKV\ FCTWPVGT -GT[MGKQP 4WVVGT *KUVQTKC   0WOQTWO50)#0550)/ÒPEJGPp (GKPG2CVKPC5EJÒTHUVGNNGCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP





87


SICILIA

329

328





328

/'&/#Õ5VCVGTX%JTI2GICUWUHNKGIVN#VJGPCMQRHNOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO WPVGP/%CNEKCVK2GICUK4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWOXCT  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



4*')+10Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI.ÌYGPMQRHXXN.QTDGGT\YGKI+QMCUVQU UKV\VNOKV5VCDWPVGTFGO5KV\*WPFT*GT\HGNFGT4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T +QMCUVQU5QJPFGU#KQNQUYCT1KMKUVGUFGT)TÒPFWPIUJGTQUXQP4JGIKQP



330

1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I .ÌYGPOCUMG X X#RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKI*GT\HGNFGT4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  7O·PFGTVG4JGIKQPFKG&CTUVGNNWPICWHFGO4GXGTUUGKPGT/ÒP\GP\GKIVGPUKG\WXQT+QMCUVQUFGP5VCFVITÒP FGTUQKUVCDGKP#RQNNQMQRHFCTIGUVGNNVFGT\WFGPUEJÌPUVGP#RQNNQMÌRHGPFGTITKGEJKUEJGP/ÒP\MWPUV\·JNV 'KPG#DMGJTXQPFGT&CTUVGNNWPIFGUUKV\GPFGP1KMKUVGUN·­VUKEJWOCWEJKP6CTGPVHGUVUVGNNGP

332



331

332

“UX%JTI.ÌYGPOCUMGXX#RQNNQMQRHT4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  &WPMNG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



“UX%JTI#RQNNQMQRHT+P-TCP\*4WVVGT*KUVQTKC0WOQTWO  44&WPMGNITÒPG2CVKPCIGIN·VVGVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)GOKPK0GY;QTM0T



333

334

5+%+.+# 

#-4#)#5 Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #FNGT UVGJV T-TGDU 50) #05 XGTIN    50)/ÒPEJGP #XGTUOKPFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP-TKEJGNFQTH5VWVVICTV0T

 88

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #FNGT UVGJV N-TGDU 50) #05  50) /ÒPEJGP   XGTIN .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


SICILIA

335



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #FNGT UVGJV N-TGDU 50) #05  50) /ÒPEJGP   XGTIN -N4CPFHGJNGTNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



336

2:1



2:1

Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI#FNGTUVGJVNCWH-CRKVGNN-TGDU#WMVKQP6MCNGE<ÒTKEJ 0T FKGU'ZGORNCT 50)#05p50)/ÒPEJGPp  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVGTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



337 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ*CNDUEJGMGNX%JTI-QRHTOKVJTGPMTCP\+P-TCP\2HGTFURTKPIVT$WTPGVV 'PPC*QCTF2N8 *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  &KG<WYGKUWPIKUVPKEJVIGUKEJGTV

1,5:1



338

1,5:1

)'.# Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 4GKVGT T OKV .CP\G#PFTQMGRJCNG 5VKGTRTQVQOG T   ,GPMKPU 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-N5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

339



340

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 3WCFTKIC T 0KMG DGMT·P\V 2HGTFG#PFTQMGRJCNG 5VKGT   RTQVQOGT,GPMKPU 5GJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 3WCFTKIC T 0KMG DGMT·P\V 2HGTFG#PFTQMGRJCNG 5VKGT   RTQVQOGT,GPMKPU 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0T



89


SICILIA

341

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&KFTCEJOGWOX%JTI4GKVGTTGTUVKEJVIGUVÒT\VGP*QRNKVGP+P-TCP\-QRHFGU (NW­IQVVGU)GNCUN,GPMKPU 44(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&CU5VÒEMFÒTHVGGKPGP5KGIÒDGTGKPGFGTOKV#VJGPXGTDÒPFGVGPKQPKUEJGP5V·FVG5K\KNKGPUHGKGTP'UKUVWPYCJT UEJGKPNKEJFC­FGT6[RPCEJFGO-QPITG­XQP)GNCX%JTYGKVGTIGRT·IVYWTFGYCUFKG5GNVGPJGKVGTMN·TV

342

344

343

345



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 3WCFTKIC N 0KMG DGMT·P\V .GPMGT#PFTQMGRJCNG 5VKGT   RTQVQOGN,GPMKPU 8GTDTCWEJVGT#XGTUUVGORGNUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





*'00#“UX%JTI&GOGVGTMQRHT+P-TCP\<YGK)GTUVGPMÌTPGT%CNEKCVK  44)TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





*+/'4# Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT  I *CJP UVGJV T+P +PEWUWO *GPPG T -TCC[  C  

FKGU'ZGORNCT  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5EJNGUUKPIGT$GTNKP0T



“6GVTCUPCEJX%JTI)QTIQPGKQP+P+PEWUGO&TGKGEM6%CNEKCVK  44.GKEJVDGCTDGKVGVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



346

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTUKIPKGTVXQO/#+  I3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V.GPMGT WPF J·NV 6CHGN OKV /#+ KO #DUEJPKVV -GVQU N0[ORJG UVGJV X X WPF QRHGTV OKV FGT 4GEJVGP ÒDGT   #NVCT T UVGJV 5CV[T T XQT $TWPPGPDCUUKP OKV .ÌYGPMQRH CNU 9CUUGTURGKGT #TPQNF$KWEEJK    )WVOCPP5EJYCDCEJGT 4-PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5WRGTKQT)CNNGTKGU0GY;QTM0T  &GT4GXGTU\GKIVFKG5VCFVP[ORJGFKGCO#NVCTFGU*CWRVIQVVGUFGT5VCFV YQJNFGT*GKNIQVV#UMNGRKQU QRHGTVWPF GKPGPMNGKPGP5CV[TFGTKO9CUUGTFGTYCTOGP*GKNSWGNNGPXQP*KOGTCDCFGV

90


SICILIA

348

347



-#6#0' Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 3WCFTKIC T 0KMG DGMT·P\V 2HGTFG#RQNNQ   MQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\4K\\Q6CX:+50)#0550)/ÒPEJGPXGTIN  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTDGUUGTCNUUGJTUEJÌP 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)GOKPK0GY;QTM0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 3WCFTKIC T 0KMG DGMT·P\V 2HGTFG#RQNNQMQRH T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\4K\\Q6CX:+50)#0550)/ÒPEJGP 5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

349

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ*GOKNKVTCX%JTI5KNGPMQRHT)GHNÒIGNVGT$NKV\$QGJTKPIGT*N50)#05p 50)/ÒPEJGPp 445GJTUEJÌP



352

351

350

350



-'0614+2#+“.KVTCX%JTI2GTUGRJQPGMQRHNOKVJTGPMTCP\XQP&GNRJKPGP WOIGDGP2CPVJGTN%CNEKCVK 'TYCUIGIN·VVGVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





-'45+01+“UX%JTI$·TVKIGT-QRHT.[TC$WEGVK

44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





-410+#“UX%JT ! I-QTGMQRHT)GHNÒIGNVGT$NKV\%CNEKCVK  4)TÒPG2CVKPCMN1DGTHN·EJGPXGTNGV\WPICWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



353



354

355

.'106+01+ Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG WO  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\.ÌYGP   MQRHNXQPFTGK)GTUVGPMÌTPGTPWPFGKPGO$NCVVWOIGDGP4K\\Q6CX::+8 UVGORGNINGKEJ   (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&CVKGTWPIPCEJ%JT$QGJTKPIGT



/'55#0#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI/CWNVKGTDKICTKO#DUEJPKVV.QTDGGTDNCVV *CUGURTKPIVT%CNVCDKCPQ 5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI/CWNVKGTDKICTKO#DUEJPKVV.QTDGGTDNCVV*CUGURTKPIVT %CNVCDKCPQ  9QJNFCUDGUVGTJCNVGPG'ZGORNCTXQPFKGUGP5VGORGNP*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



%CNVCDKCPQMQPPVGPWTGKPFGWVNKEJUEJNGEJVGTGTJCNVGPGU'ZGORNCTKP0GCRGNPCEJYGKUGP

91


SICILIA

356



357

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I /CWNVKGTDKIC T KO #DUEJPKVV $NCVV*CUG URTKPIV T   %CNVCDKCPQ !  5GJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI/CWNVKGTDKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFGKO#DUEJPKVV$NCVV *CUGURTKPIVTWPVGP<YGKI%CNVCDKCPQ 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



358 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI/CWNVKGTDKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFGKO#DUEJPKVV.QT DGGTDNCVV*CUGURTKPIVTFCTWPVGT(NKGIG%CNVCDKCPQ  /KPMQTTQFKGTVNGKEJVG2T·IGUEJY·EJGCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG$QUVQP0T

361

359



360

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I /CWNVKGTDKIC T*CUG URTKPIV T FCTWPVGT &GNRJKP T   %CNVCDKCPQ 5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



/#/'46+01+ “3WCFTWRNC  X %JT /GUUCPC  I #TGUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   FCJKPVGT5RGGT#FNGTUVGJVNCWH$NKV\%CNEKCVK )TÒPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



“UWOX%JTI-QRHFGU#FTCPQUNOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO*WPFUVGJVT%CNEKCVK &WPMNG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)GOKPK0GY;QTM0T



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI(TKGFTKEJ2QRMGP#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T





#FTCPQUD\Y*CFTCPQUYCTGKPGKP6GKNGP5K\KNKGPUXGTGJTVG)QVVJGKVFKGXQPFGP)TKGEJGPOKV*GRJCKUVQUKFGPVK HK\KGTVYWTFG&GT*WPFYCTFCUJGKNKIG6KGTFGU#FTCPQU

362 1,5:1

 92

1,5:1

/16;#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI#TGVJWUCMQRHNXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP -TGDU,GPMKPU+ 445GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6JG0GY;QTM5CNG0GY;QTM0T




SICILIA

365

363

364



0#:15 “6TKCU  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-CPVJCTQU %CJP    44$TCWPG2CVKPCIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP





2#014/15“*GZCUX%JTI*CJPUVGJVT<YGK9GTVMWIGNP%CNEKCVKXGTIN .GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVWPFUVGNNGPYGKUGIGIN·VVGVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ.KVTC  X %JT  I 0[ORJGPMQRH T XQP XKGT &GNRJKPGP WOIGDGP2QUGKFQP UKV\V T   OKV&TGK\CEMWPF&GNRJKP,GPMKPU+2N 44(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

366

367

368



Õ.KVTCX%JTI#RQNNQMQRHT#PFTQMGRJCNGT5VKGTT,GPMKPU+2N  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





2+#-15 “1PMKC  X %JT  I ,ÒPINKPIUMQRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\*WPF T UEJN·IV   *KTUEJTT)GTUVGPMQTP%CNEKCVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





5')'56#Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI*WPFUVGJVTFCTÒDGT-QTP-QRHFGT0[ORJG #KIGUVGT*WTVGTp 84  4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

&GT*WPFXGTMÌTRGTVNCWV5KNXKC*WTVGTFGP(NW­IQVV-TKOKUQU JGWVG$GNKEG 

369



370

5'.+075 Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 'RRKEJDNCVV8KGNHCEJ IGVGKNVGU 3WCFTCVWO   +PEWUWO#TPQNF$KWEEJK%6JG$GIKPPKPIUQH%QKPCIGKPVJG9GUV#TEJCKE5GNKPWU550) #05 (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TWPFFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP #)$CUGN0T



Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 'RRKEJDNCVV8KGNHCEJ IGVGKNVGU 3WCFTCVWO +PEWUWO #TPQNF   $KWEEJK%6JG$GIKPPKPIUQH%QKPCIGKPVJG9GUV#TEJCKE5GNKPWUXGTIN550)#05XGTIN -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



371



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI#RQNNQWPF#TVGOKUKP3WCFTKICT#RQNNQOKVIGURCPP VGO $QIGP WPF CWHIGNGIVGO 2HGKN KO #DUEJPKVV .CPIWUVG0CEMVGT (NW­IQVV OKV <YGKI UVGJV N WPF   QRHGTVÒDGT#NVCTFCXQT*CJPNFCJKPVGT'RRKEJDNCVVÒDGT5VKGTNCWH2QFGUV5EJYCDCEJGTpXGTIN

4GXGTUUVGORGNINGKEJ 50)#05p 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG.QPI$GCEJ0T  #WH FKGUGT /ÒP\G XQP 5GNKPWPV GTUEJGKPGP #RQNNQP WPF #TVGOKU KP GKPGO8KGTIGURCPP#RQNNQPCNU$QIGPUEJÒV\G WPF #TVGOKU CNU 9CIGPNGPMGT $GKFG UKPF 5EJWV\IQVVJGKVGP XQP /GICTC FGT /WVVGTUVCFV XQP 5GNKPWPV +P FKGUGT   (WPMVKQPVTGVGPUKGCWEJKPFGT-QNQPKGCWH

93


SICILIA

372 1,5:1

1,5:1



5;4#-75 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT  I 3WCFTKIC T 0KMG DGMT·P\V 2HGTFG   #TGVJWUCMQRHTXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT0)5#)GPH0T  $GTGKVU CWH FGP HTÒJGUVGP U[TCMWUCPKUEJGP /ÒP\GP HKPFGV UKEJ FCU /QVKX FGU 9CIGPNGPMGTU KP GKPGT 3WCFTKIC   &KGUGU /QVKX YWTFG UQ DGNKGDV FC­ GU KP FGT (QNIG\GKV XQP XKGNGP CPFGTGP 2T·IGUV·VVGP KP KJT /ÒP\RTQITCOO   CWHIGPQOOGPYWTFG#PNKGIGPFGTJGTTUEJGPFGP6[TCPPGPYCTGUKJT+PVGTGUUGHÒTFGP2HGTFGURQTV\WRT·UGPVKGTGP &KG/ÒP\GPNKGHGTVGPCW­GTFGOGKPGP*KPYGKUCWHKJTG6GKNPCJOGCPFGP5RKGNGPKP&GNRJKWPF1N[ORKC

373

1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGTp 448QT\ÒINKEJ

374





375

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JTI3WCFTKICN0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT /KPMQTTQFKGTVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%JCRQPPK½TG*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0T

376



377

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT 5EJÒTHUVGNNGCWHFGO4GXGTUUQPUVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

94




SICILIA

379

378



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT )GTGKPKIVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP.CPECUVGT0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP

380





381

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V.GPMGTKO#DUEJPKVV-GVQU #TGVJWUCMQRHTXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFGKO#DUEJPKVV-GVQU #TGVJWUCMQRHTXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI4&(TGFGTKEM%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP.CPECUVGT0T

383 382



2:1

2:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFGKO#DUEJPKVV-GVQU #TGVJWUCMQRHTXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



Õ6GVTCUWOX%JTI#TGVJWUCMQRHT1MVQRWU$¾TGPF*KUVQKTGFG2QWNRGU2N8+ 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T

384



385

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFGKO#DUEJPKVV<YGKI #TGVJWUCMQRHTOKV/·CPFGTIGUEJOÒEMVGO5CMMQUXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT  5GJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFGKO#DUEJPKVV<YGKI #TGVJWUCMQRHTXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT -N-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI5VWVVICTV5VWVVICTV0T

95


SICILIA

387

386



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFG#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT -PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GP/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF)OD*5VWVVICTV0T

389

388



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V.GPMGT#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQP XKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI3WCFTKICT0KMGDGMT·P\V2HGTFGKO#DUEJPKVV.QTDGGT DNCVV#TGVJWUCMQRHTXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP$QGJTKPIGT 4'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T 



390 1,5:1

1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT DGKFUGKVKI UKIPKGTV XQP 'W OGPQU!   I 3WCFTKIC N 0KMG   DGMT·P\V.GPMGTKO#DUEJPKVV\YGK&GNRJKPG#TGVJWUCMQRHNXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP6WFGGT 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

391 1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT UKIPKGTV XQP 'WCKPGVQU WPF 'WOGPQU  I 3WCFTKIC T 0KMG   DGMT·P\V.GPMGTKO(GNFGKPG6CHGNOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV';#+0'61KO#DUEJPKVV\YGK&GNRJKPGGKP CPFGTIGIGPÒDGT#TGVJWUCMQRHNXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGPWPVGP';/'01;6WFGGT  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2QPVGTKQ#UUQEKCVGU.QU#PIGNGU0T

96

1,5:1


SICILIA

392

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&GMCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JTUKIPKGTVXQP'WCKPGVQUI3WCFTKICKO)CNQRRNFGT.GP MGT XQP HNKGIGPFGT 0KMG DGMT·P\V UVTGEMV FGP 6TGKDUVCD YGKV XQT KO #DUEJPKVV 9CHHGPITWRRG DGUVG   JGPF CWU 5EJKNF 2CP\GT $GKPUEJKGPGP WPF *GNO#TGVJWUCMQRH N XQP XKGT &GNRJKPGP WOIGDGP   )CNNCVKP%:848++ -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­IGRT·IVOKVTQUVKIGP5VGORGNPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  &KG \YGK DGTÒJOVGUVGP 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT CWU FGT <GKV WO  X %JT UKPF -KOQP WPF 'WCKPGVQU FGT FCU XQTNKG   IGPFG5VÒEMIGUVCNVGVJCV/CPMCPPUKEJFCTÒDGTUVTGKVGPYGNEJGTFKGUGTDGKFGPJQEJDGICDVGP-ÒPUVNGTFGTDGFGW VGPFGTGKUV)-,GPMKPU %QKPUQH)TGGM5KEKN[5 UEJ·V\VLGFGPHCNNUFKG9GTMGFGU'WCKPGVQUJÌJGTGKPCNUFKG FGU-KOQPWPFWPUGTJGTTNKEJGU5VÒEMURTKEJVHÒTUKEJ9CTGPCWHFGTGTUVGPU[TCMWUCPKUEJGP&GMCFTCEJOGFGO DGTÒJOVGP &GOCTGVGKQP FKG 2HGTFG FGT 3WCFTKIC PQEJ KP TWJKIGO 5EJTGKVGP FCTIGUVGNNV UQ D·WOGP UKG UKEJ CWH   WPUGTGO5VÒEMVGORGTCOGPVXQNNCWH&GP#TGVJWUCMQRHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGJCV'WCKPGVQUDKUKPUHGKPUVG&GVCKNIGUVCNVGV 5GNDUV FKG MQPXGPVKQPGNN FCTIGUVGNNVGP &GNRJKPG FKG FGP -QRH WOIGDGP YKTMGP JKGT FWTEJ KJTG CU[OOGVTKUEJG   #PQTFPWPI PGW DGNGDV WPF GTJÌJGP FKG NGDGPFKIG 5RCPPWPI FGU $KNFGU &KG 9CHHGP KP 8GTDKPFWPI OKV FGO 9QTV   aqla 2TGKUG KO#DUEJPKVVFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGKPKIGT&GMCFTCEJOGPUKPFXGTOWVNKEJGKP*KPYGKUCWHGKPGP5KGIFGT 5[TCMWUCPGT

2:1



393

2:1

Ô.KVTGPX%JTI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNN8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWOKO<GPV TWO#TGVJWUCMQRHN50)#05HH50)/ÒPEJGP .GKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T

1,5:1



394



1,5:1

Ô .KVTGP  X %JT  I #TGVJWUCMQRH N*CCTGKP5RJGPFQPGFCXQT-WIGNFCJKPVGT #*GTCMNGUTGTYÒTIVFGPPGOGKUEJGP.ÌYGP$¾TGPF 445GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

'TYQDGPKPFGPGT,CJTGPXQPFGT$CPM.GW#)/KV7PVGTNGI\GVVGNFGT$CPM.GW#)  &GT6[RUEJNKG­VUKEJFGTXQP-KOQPIGUEJCHHGPGP&CTUVGNNWPICP*GTCMNGUFGTFQTKUEJG*GTQU5[TCMWUYCTGKPG FQTKUEJG)TÒPFWPIDGUKGIVFGP.ÌYGPFGTJKGTYCJTUEJGKPNKEJ#HTKMCU[ODQNKUKGTV&CU5VÒEMDG\KGJVUKEJYQJN CWHFKG-·ORHG&KQP[UKQU+OKV-CTVJCIQ&KG#WUICDGFKGUGT/ÒP\GPGTHQNIVGRCTCNNGN\WFGP&GMCFTCEJOGPXQP -KOQPWPF'WCKPGVQU'KP.KVTGP5VÒEMKP)QNFGPVURTCEJ\YGK&GMCFTCEJOGP



395



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTUKIPKGTVXQP'WMNGKFCUI3WCFTKICN0KMGDGMT·P\V.GPMGT KO #DUEJPKVV &GNRJKP#TGVJWUCMQRH N XQP XKGT &GNRJKPGP WOIGDGP (TCPMG*KTOGT 6H    

UVGORGNINGKEJ 6WFGGT 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP*GUU.GW.W\GTP 0T

97


SICILIA

396

2:1



2:1

6KOQNGQPX%JTÔ.KVTGPX%JTI<GWUMQRHTN*GNO ! 2GICUQU HNKGIVT50)#05pXGTIN50)/ÒPEJGPp 445GJTUEJÌP



397 399

398



“.KVTCI<GWUMQRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCJKPVGT$NKV\5YCUVKMC%CNEKCVK  44)GIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP





4GRWDNKM  X %JT Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 2GICUWU HNKGIV N#VJGPCMQRH T OKV   MQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO%CNEKCVK2GICUK (GKPG2CVKPCNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



/ÌINKEJGTYGKUGYWTFGFCU5VÒEMCWEJWPVGT6KOQNGQPIGRT·IV



Õ5VCVGTX%JTI2GICUWUHNKGIVN#VJGPCMQRHTOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO%CNEKCVK 2GICUK (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)GOKPK+++0GY;QTM0T /ÌINKEJGTYGKUGYWTFGFCU5VÒEMCWEJWPVGT6KOQNGQPIGRT·IV



401

400

1,5:1

1,5:1

2:1

2:1



#ICVJQMNGU  X %JT Ô&GMCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH N OKV .QTDGGT   MTCP\$KICTFCTWPVGT6TKUMGNKU50)#05XGTINHH50)/ÒPEJGPXGTIN 45GJTUEJÌP 



Ô.KVTGPX%JTI0[ORJGPMQRHT1MVQRWU,GPMKPUKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQPED  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­IWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0T

402

1,5:1

403

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1



'N .KVTGP  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH N FCJKPVGT #NVCT&TGKHW­ ,GPMKPU KP 'UUC[U   4QDKPUQP14 8QT\ÒINKEJ 



'N .KVTGP  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH N FCJKPVGT .[TC&TGKHW­ ,GPMKPU KP 'UUC[U   4QDKPUQP1 )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T

98




SICILIA

404

1,5:1



'N .KVTGP  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH N FCJKPVGT .[TC&TGKHW­ ,GPMKPU KP 'UUC[U   4QDKPUQP1 )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



1,5:1

405



1,5:1

'N.KVTGPX%JTI#RQNNQMQRHN.[TC,GPMKPUKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQPHG  5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0TWPFFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKN NGP#)$CUGN0T

407

406



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI#TGVJWUCMQRHNXQPFTGK&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP3WCFTKICN QDGP6TKUMGNKU+GTCTFKp #4p  -N5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI#TGVJWUCMQRHNXQPFTGK&GNRJKPGPWOIGDGP3WCFTKICN QDGP6TKUMGNKU+GTCTFK 5GJTUEJÌP



409

408



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 2GTUGRJQPGMQRH T0KMG T GTTKEJVGV 6TQRJ·G WPVGP T   6TKUMGNKU+GTCTFK *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 2GTUGRJQPGMQRH T0KMG T GTTKEJVGV 6TQRJ·G WPVGP N   6TKUMGNKU+GTCTFK )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

1,5:1



410

1,5:1

Ô.KVTGPX%JTI2GTUGRJQPGMQRHNOKVJTGPMTCP\5VKGTUVÌ­VN50)#05 45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



411

1,5:1

*KMGVCU  X %JT Ô&GMCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 2GTUGRJQPGMQRH N OKV JTGP   MTCP\ FCJKPVGT (ÒNNJQTP0KMG KP $KIC T $WVVTG[ W C /QTICPVKPC 5VWFKGU  G 50) #05    50)/ÒPEJGP 8QT\ÒINKEJ  99


SICILIA

1,5:1



412

1,5:1

Ô&GMCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I 2GTUGRJQPGMQRH N OKV JTGPMTCP\ FCJKPVGT (CEMGN0KMG   KP$KICT$WVVTG[WC/QTICPVKPC5VWFKGUI50)#05p50)/ÒPEJGPp )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG&KGVGT)TWPQY$GTNKP0T

414

413



“UI-QRHFGU<GWU*GNNCPKQUTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#FNGTUVGJVNCWH$NKV\FCXQT#%CNEKCVK 5GJTUEJÌP





2[TTJQU  X %JT “U  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T#VJGPC 2TQOCEJQU UVGJV T   %CNEKCVK &WPMNG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



416

415

416



*KGTQP ++  X %JT Õ1MVQDQN  I #VJGPCMQRH N OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO FCJKPVGT   &GNRJKP2GICUQUHNKGIVTWPVGP$%CNEKCVKp 445EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ 



“UI-QRHNOKV&KCFGO4GKVGTTOKV5RGGT%CNEKCVK  &WPMGNITÒPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI*CPU*GTOCPP)WVMPGEJV#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP)OD*5VWVVICTV0T

417



418

 HÒT 2JKNKUVKU Õ .KVTGP  I 8GTUEJNGKGTVGT -QRH N FCJKPVGT 5VGTP0KMG KP 3WCFTKIC  T   QDGP5VGTPT-$WTPGVV'PPCJQCTFKP504HH50)#0550)/ÒPEJGP 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ .KVTGP  I 8GTUEJNGKGTVGT -QRH N0KMGKP3WCFTKICTWPVGP'$WTPGVV'PPCJQCTFKP 504XGTIN50)#05XGTINHH50)/ÒPEJGPHH 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5EJGPM$GJTGPU'UUGP0T



419



420

4GRWDNKM  X %JT Õ .KVTGP  I #VJGPCMQRH N OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO#TVGOKU   UVGJV DQIGPUEJKG­GPF N PGDGP KJT *WPF $WTPGVV 'PPC JQCTF KP 504   &  50) #05 p   50)/ÒPEJGPp *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ .KVTGP  I #VJGPCMQRH N OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO#TVGOKU UVGJV DQIGPUEJKG­GPF N PGDGP   KJT*WPF$WTPGVV'PPCJQCTFKP504&50)#0550)/ÒPEJGPp  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCGVYCUDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



100


SICILIA

421

422



6#741/'0+7/“UPCEJX%JTI#RQNNQMQRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCXQTARXAGETA 9GKPVTCWDG%CNEKCVKXGTIN .GKEJVIGIN·VVGVXQT\ÒINKEJ





6;0&#4+5 “U  X %JT  I 9GKDNKEJGT -QRH N&KG &KQUMWTGP TGKVGP N %CNEKCVK    44)TÒPG2CVKPCOKPMQTTQFKGTV4GXGTUNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



423



424

270+'4Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT4CUEJ/GNSCTV -GRJCNQKFKQP! I3WCFTKICT 0KMG DGMT·P\V .GPMGT N -GT[MGKQP9GKDNKEJGT -QRH T XQP FTGK &GNRJKPGP WOIGDGP ,GPMKPU +    5EJÌPG6ÌPWPIWPTGIGNO·­KIGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP  4CUEJ/GNSCTV *CWRVFGU*GTCMNGU IKNVHÒTIGYÌJPNKEJCNURWPKUEJG$G\GKEJPWPIGKPGT5VCFVCWH5K\KNKGP OÌI NKEJGTYGKUG-GRJCNQKFKQP .GQ/KNFGPDGTI\YGKHGNVFKGUCPWPFJ·NV4CUEJ/GNSCTVHÒTFGP0COGPGKPGTMCTVJCIK UEJGP +PUVKVWVKQP OÌINKEJGTYGKUG GKPGT /KNKV·TGKPJGKV  UKGJG /KNFGPDGTI 45/.346 KP 2TKEG$WTPGVV$NCPF   'UUC[UKPJQPQWTQH4QDGTV%CTUQPCPF-GPPGVJ,GPMKPU.QPFQP5H



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT.CIGTOÒP\UV·VVGI9GKDNKEJGT-QRHNXQPXKGT&GNRJKPGP WOIGDGP2HGTFGMQRHNFCJKPVGT2CNOG,GPMKPU+++p 1   (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

425





426

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG WO  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T2HGTFG   MQRHN,GPMKPU+8 (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  &GT 2HGTFGMQRH IGJÌTV \WT )TÒPFWPIUUCIGXQP-CTVJCIQUQUEJTGKDV8GTIKN&QTV\WGTUVXQP9GNNGPWPF9KPF CPU7HGTIGYQTHGPITWDGPGKP<GKEJGPFKG2WPKGTCWU&KG*GTTUEJGTKP,WPQ\GKIVGGUCPGKPGU5VTGKVTQUUGU*CWRV UQYGTFGFGPP-TKGIUTWJO\KGTGPFCU8QNMLCJTJWPFGTVGNCPIWPF(ÒNNGFGU.GDGPU



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG WO  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T2HGTFG   MQRHN,GPMKPU+8XGTINHH 1  (GKPG6ÌPWPIDTGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

427

2:1



2:1

Õ*CNDUEJGMGN  X %JT WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG #MTCICU!   I /·PPGTMQRH N OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\'NGHCPVTKO#DUEJPKVV#NGRJ%02  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  101


SCYTHIA

429

428



.+2#4# “6GVTCU WO  X %JT  I -QRH FGU #KQNQU T OKV 2KNGWU&TGK 9GTVMWIGNP   %CNEKCVK )TÒPG2CVKPCIGIN·VVGVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





“*GOKNKVTC  X %JT  I *GRJCKUVQU UKV\V T OKV #ORJQTG&GNRJKP N ÒDGT 9GNNGP   %CNEKCVK 4'VYCUIGIN·VVGVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



430

431

1,5:1

/1'5+# 

+56415 Õ&TCEJOG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I <YGK -ÌRHG X X IGIGPGKPCPFGT XGTUGV\V   5GGCFNGTCWH&GNRJKPNWPVGP/QPQITCOO#/0) 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  &KGDGKFGP-ÌRHGCWHFGO#XGTUUKPFWPVGTUEJKGFNKEJIGFGWVGVYQTFGPCNU-ÌRHGFGT&KQUMWTGPCNU5QPPGPCWHICPI WPF5QPPGPWPVGTICPIQFGTCNURGTUQPKHK\KGTVGT9KPF*KPF +UVTKCPHCEGUCPFVJGTKXGT&CPWDGKP0%5 H FGWVGVFKGDGKFGP-ÌRHGCNUGKPG&CTUVGNNWPIFGU(NWUUIQVVGU+UVTQUFCKPFGT#PVKMGVGKNYGKUGXQP\YGK/ÒPFWP IGPFGU+UVTQUP·ONKEJKPU5EJYCT\G/GGTWPFKPFKG#FTKCVKUEJG5GGCWUIGICPIGPYWTFG



61/+5 Ô5VCVGT  X %JT !   I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP   #VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VNFCTWPVGT&TGK\CEM#/0)FG%CNNCVC[&4C 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T  &GT -QRH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG \GKIV FKG <ÒIG /KVJTCFCVGU 8+ UQ YKG UKG XQP UGKPGP MNGKPCUKCVKUEJGP 6GVTCFTCEJOGP   DGMCPPV UKPF &KGUG )QNFRT·IWPI UVGJV KO <WUCOOGPJCPI OKV FGO $GHTGKWPIUMTKGI /KVJTCFCVGU 8+ IGIGP FKG   4ÌOGT

432

433

5%;6*+# 

-QUQPECX%JTÔ5VCVGTX%JT1NDKCI/CIKUVTCVUEJTGKVGVN\YKUEJGP\YGK .KMVQTGPFCXQT/QPQITCOO#FNGTNOKV-TCP\WPF<GRVGT42%#  8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



&KGUGKPVGTGUUCPVG)QNFOÒP\GKUVUGKVDGMCPPVCNU'TCUOWUXQP4QVVGTFCOUKG\WGTMN·TGPXGTUWEJVG'UH·NNV UQHQTV CWH FC­ FKGUGT /ÒP\V[R TÌOKUEJG &GPCTG FGT UR·VGP 4GRWDNKM PCEJCJOV &KG 8QTFGTUGKVG KUV PCEJ GKPGO   &GPCT IGUVCNVGV FGP / +WPKWU $TWVWU  X %JT \WT 'TKPPGTWPI CP FKG 8GTVTGKDWPI FGT 6CTSWKPKGT FWTEJ UGKPGP   8QTHCJTGP.+WPKWU$TWVWURT·IGPNKG­ %TCYHQTF &KG4ÒEMUGKVGJCVGKPGP&GPCTFGU32QORQPKWU4WHWU \WO8QTDKNFIGRT·IVX%JT %TCYHQTF &KGUG0CEJCJOWPITÌOKUEJTGRWDNKMCPKUEJGT/ÒP\GPIGUEJCJ PKEJV\WH·NNKI5QJCVOCPNCPIGCPIGPQOOGPFC­-QUQPGKP8GTDÒPFGVGTFGU%CGUCT/ÌTFGTU$TWVWUKO$ÒTIGT MTKGI IGIGP /CTE #PVQP WPF 1EVCXKCP #WIWUVWU  IGYGUGP KUV -QUQPFGTUGKPGP0COGPU\WICWHFKG8QTFGTUGKVG WPUGTGT /ÒP\G RT·IGP NKG­ YWTFG NCPIG CNU -ÌPKI FGT 6JTCMGT CPIGUGJGP /CZ XQP $CJTHGNFV URTCEJ XQP GKPGO   &CMGTMÌPKI-QUQP KP$GTNKPGT/ÒP\DN·VVGT -QUQPYWTFGCDGTCWEJHÒTFKG5E[VJGPKP#PURTWEJIGPQOOGP &KG8GTDKPFWPI\WFGP&CMGTP FGOJGWVKIGP4WO·PKGPIGPCWGT5KGDGPDÒTIGP JCV1+NKGUEWGTCTDGKVGV KP3WC FGTPK 6KEKPGUK   &CU CWH GKPKIGP 5VÒEMGP CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG \W HKPFGPFG /QPQITCOO NKGUV +NKGUEW WPUGTGT   /GKPWPIPCEJ\WVTGHHGPFCNU$#HÒTBASILEUS -ÌPKI Y·JTGPFCPFGTGGUCNU$4HÒT$TWVWU\WFGWVGPXGTUWEJV JCDGP &CU 0QOKPCN OKV GKPGO &WTEJUEJPKVVUIGYKEJV XQP  I KUV UKEJGT MGKP TÌOKUEJGT #WTGWU UQPFGTP GKP   ITKGEJKUEJGT)QNFUVCVGT&KG/ÒP\UV·VVG1NDKCXGTDKTIVUKEJYQJNPKEJVKPFGO/QPQITCOOYKG*GCFWPFCPFGTG INCWDVGPUQPFGTPUKGGTIKDVUKEJCWUFGO4ÒEMUGKVGPV[RFGTPKEJVPWTFGP4WHWU&GPCT\WO8QTDKNFJCVUQPFGTP CWEJ\W1NDKCRC­V

 102

Ô5VCVGT  X %JT 1NDKC  I /CIKUVTCV UEJTGKVGV N \YKUEJGP \YGK .KMVQTGP FCXQT /QPQ   ITCOO#FNGTNOKV-TCP\WPF<GRVGT42%# 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT




THRACIA

435

434



Ô5VCVGT  X %JT 1NDKC  I /CIKUVTCV UEJTGKVGV N \YKUEJGP \YGK .KMVQTGP FCXQT /QPQ   ITCOO#FNGTNOKV-TCP\WPF<GRVGT42%# 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



'TYQTDGPCO,WPKDGKFGT*CPUGCVKUEJGP/ÒP\GPJCPFNWPI$TGOGP



Ô5VCVGT  X %JT 1NDKC  I /CIKUVTCV UEJTGKVGV N \YKUEJGP \YGK .KMVQTGP FCXQT /QPQ   ITCOO#FNGTNOKV-TCP\WPF<GRVGT42%# *GTTNKEJG)QNFVÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF)OD*5VWVVICTV0T

437

436

6*4#%+# 

#$&'4# Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV &KQP[UCU  I )TGKH UKV\V T#RQNNQ   MQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\/C[ ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T &CVKGTWPIPCEJ%JT[UUCPVJCMK0CING







$'4)' Õ5VCVGT WO  X %JT  I 5CV[T T J·NV HNKGJGPFG 0[ORJG CO #TO \WTÒEM   +PEWUWO50)#05XGTIN /CEGFQPKC.GVG  4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  <WT<WYGKUWPIUKGJG2UQOC5GNGPG6JG.GVG%QKPCIG4GEQPUKFGTGFKPXCP#NHGP2) *TUI #IQTCPQOKC 5VWFKGUKP/QPG[CPF'ZEJCPIG2TGUGPVGFVQ,QJP*-TQNN0GY;QTM5  $GTIGKUVFCUJGWVKIG0GQU5MQRQU  

438



$;<#06+10 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG .[UKOCEJGKGT  PCEJ  X %JT  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV   &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT /QPQITCOO CWH FGO 6JTQP $; KO   #DUEJPKVV&TGK\CEM/ÒNNGT (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'ORQTKWO*CODWTI0T

439

2:1



2:1

/#410'+# Õ&KFTCEJOG X%JTI2HGTFGRTQVQOGN+P+PEWUWO.KPKGPSWCFTCV FWTEJ\YGKIGMTGW\VG.KPKGPIGVGKNVWOJGT'VJPKMQP  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0T

103


THRACIA

441

440





1,5:1

440

/'5'/$4+#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT X%JTI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNKO(GNFNMQTKPVJKUEJGT*GNOWPFDAWPVGTFGO6JTQP-12TKEG 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1&'5515 Ô5VCVGT .[UKOCEJGKGT   X %JT /CIKUVTCV -1+    I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T   OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT /QPQITCOO 6QRCNQX 5     #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPI(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

442



441

443

2#06+-#2#+10 “U  X %JT  I 2CPMQRH N OKV 'HGWMTCP\$QIGP WPF 2HGKN   /CE&QPCNF50)$/ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



“UX%JTI2CPMQRHNOKV'HGWMTCP\$QIGPWPF2HGKN/CE&QPCNF50)$/ $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

444





444

1,5:1

6*#515 Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5CV[T XGTUEJNGRRV 0[ORJG8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO   50)%QR  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP8+0GY;QTM0T

445



446

447

Õ5VCVGTX%JTI5CV[TXGTUEJNGRRV0[ORJG8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO50)%QR *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ5VCVGTX%JTI5CV[TXGTUEJNGRRV0[ORJG8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO50)%QR #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Õ5VCVGTX%JTI5CV[TXGTUEJNGRRV0[ORJG8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO50)%QR 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

104


THRACIA

448



449

Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5CV[T XGTUEJNGRRV 0[ORJG8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50) %QR   XGTINH 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5CV[T XGTUEJNGRRV 0[ORJG T S8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO $/% p   50)%QRp -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TWPFFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP #)$CUGN0T

451

450



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI&KQP[UQUMQRHT*GTCMNGUUVGJVNOKV-GWNGWPF.ÌYGP HGNN2TQMQRQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI&KQP[UQUMQRHT*GTCMNGUUVGJVNOKV-GWNGWPF.ÌYGP HGNN2TQMQRQX)TWRRG:8-C *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPKO,WNKDGKFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP

452



-¤0+)4'+%*.[UKOCEJQUX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT.CORUCMQUI #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT /QPQITCOO KO   #DUEJPKVV *CNDOQPF 6JQORUQP KP 'UUC[U 4QDKPUQP  &C\W 'KPG 6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFGTU FGU   )TQ­GP 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP

453









454

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT.CORUCMQUI#NGZCPFGTMQRHTOKV&KCFGOWPF#OOQPU JQTP#VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT/QPQITCOOWPF*CNDOQPF6JQORUQPKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQPp XGTIN #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIPGUKCI#NGZCPFGTMQRHTOKV&KCFGOWPF#OOQPUJQTP #VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT/QPQITCOOKP-TCP\6JQORUQPKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQP  5GJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #NGZCPFTKC 6TQCU  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF   #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT /QPQITCOO ÒDGT $KGPG KO #DUEJPKVV $NKV\   6JQORUQPKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQP 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

105


MACEDONIA

457

456





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#ORJKRQNKUI#NGZCPFGTMQRHTOKV&KCFGOWPF#OOQPU JQTP#VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT-GT[MGKQPT$KGPG6JQORUQPKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQP  (GKPG6ÌPWPIIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 2GNNC  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP   #VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN6JQORUQPKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQP 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T

459

458



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 2GNNC  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP   #VJGPC0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN6JQORUQPKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQP (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP.CPECUVGT0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGRQUVJWOPCEJX%JTWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI#NGZCPFGTMQRHTOKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT /QPQITCOO CWH FGO 6JTQP DW   /G[FCPEKMMCNG/ÒNNGTp6JQORUQPKP'UUC[U4QDKPUQPp 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'TYQTDGP

460

460

1,5:1

/#%'&10+# 

#-#06*15 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I .ÌYG T UEJN·IV 5VKGT N KO #DUEJPKVV   #MCPVJQU$NÒVG8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO&GUPGWZXGTINHH 5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T

461 1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I .ÌYG T UEJN·IV 5VKGT N QDGP 5YCUVKMC+PEWUWO FCTKP   XKGTIGVGKNVGU3WCFTCV&GUPGWZp &p4   5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUG&QRRGNUEJNCICWHFGO4GXGTUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

106

1,5:1




MACEDONIA

1,5:1

462



462

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV '7-    I 5VKGT N·WHV N CWH UGKPGO 4ÒEMGP   CVVCEMKGTVKJPGKP.ÌYG+PEWUWOFCTKPXKGTIGVGKNVGU3WCFTCV&GUPGWZpXGTIN  (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  &GT#XGTUFGU5VÒEMGU\GKIVFGP$GIKPPFGU-CORHGU\YKUEJGP5VKGTWPF.ÌYG&GT5VKGTKUVPQEJKO.CWHPCEJN FCTIGUVGNNVFGT.ÌYGKUVIGTCFGCWHUGKPGP4ÒEMGPIGURTWPIGP&KGUG&CTUVGNNWPIKUV·W­GTUVUGNVGP

463



0'#21.+5 Õ&TCEJOG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I )QTIQPGKQP9GKDNKEJGT -QRH T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\50)#05 *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

464

2:1



2:1

1.;06*15 %JCNMKFKUEJGT $WPF Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH N OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\-KVJCTC4QDKPUQP%NGOGPV)TWRRG* 48QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

465

2:1



2:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-KVJCTC 4QDKPUQP   %NGOGPV)TWRRG* 48QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT  107


GOLDENES MÜNZCOLLIER

&#5)1.&'0'/ª0<%1..+'4(ª4&+' )4+'%*+5%*'-¤0+)+0'.+5#$'6*

466



)QNFGPGU%QNNKGTCPIGHGTVKIVKPFGPGT,CJTGPHÒTFKG-ÌPKIKPXQP)TKGEJGPNCPFI  

'KPIGCTDGKVGVUKPFGNHCPVKMGITKGEJKUEJG)QNFOÒP\GP FCTWPVGTGKPG·W­GTUVUGNVGPG 'UJCPFGNVUKEJWO HQNIGPFG/ÒP\GP  

C )QNFUVCVGTGXQP2JKNKRR++-ÌPKIXQP/CMGFQPKGP X%JT FKGCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGFGP -QRHFGU)QVVGU#RQNNQOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGGKP)GURCPPOKV\YGK2HGTFGPWPF GKPGO 9CIGPNGPMGT \GKIGP #WH FGP HÒPH 5VÒEMGP DGHKPFGP UKEJ HQNIGPFG 5[ODQNG CNU $GK\GKEJGP    0KMG $NKV\ -CPVJCTQU $NKV\WPF -CPVJCTQU  

D )QNFUVCVGTGXQP#NGZCPFGT+++IGPCPPVFGT)TQ­G-ÌPKIXQP/CMGFQPKGP X%JT FKG CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGFGP-QRHFGT)ÌVVKP#VJGPCOKVGKPGOMQTKPVJKUEJGP*GNOWPFCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG FKG UVGJGPFG )ÌVVKP 0KMG OKV GKPGO -TCP\ \GKIGP #WH FGP HÒPH 5VÒEMGP DGHKPFGP UKEJ HQNIGPFG   5[ODQNG CNU $GK\GKEJGP   &QRRGNCZV WPF JTG   FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP XQP 5KFQP   &TGK\CEM    -CPVJCTQUWPF FCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPXQP5KFQP 108


GOLDENES MÜNZCOLLIER E &CU\GPVTCNG5VÒEMKUVGKPIQNFGPGT&KUVCVGT QFGT&QRRGNUVCVGT FGUOCMGFQPKUEJGP-ÌPKIU#NGZCPFGT+++ FGU )TQ­GP  X %JT  IGRT·IV KP FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG #KICK 2TKEG   &CU /ÒP\DKNF   GPVURTKEJV FGO FGT GKPHCEJGP 5VCVGTG FGU -ÌPKIU UKGJG D  +O (GNF FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG DGHKPFGV UKEJ CNU   $GK\GKEJGP GKPG PCEJ NKPMU UVGJGPFG (KIWT &KGUG /ÒP\G KUV UGJT UGNVGP XQP /·T\  DKU /·T\   UKPFNCWV%QKP#TEJKXGUPWT&KUVCVGTG#NGZCPFGTFGU)TQ­GPCPIGDQVGPYQTFGPIGIGPÒDGT 6GVTCFTCEJOGPFGUUGNDGP-ÌPKIU  8QT\ÒINKEJGU'PUGODNGKO1TKIKPCNGVWKFGU,WYGNKGTU2TKX[UCW.¾\CTF$QTFGCWZ   'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2NCVV2CTKU0QXGODGT0T 

&KGUGU JGTXQTTCIGPFG %QNNKGT UVCOOV CWU FGT #WMVKQP FGU /CKUQP 2NCVV CO  0QXGODGT  'U   YWTFG\YKUEJGPFGPDGKFGP9GNVMTKGIGPCPIGHGTVKIVWPFUQNNVGPCEJXGTVTCWNKEJGP#WUMÒPHVGPFGT-ÌPKIKP XQP )TKGEJGPNCPF IGUEJGPMV YGTFGP &C FKG 'ZKUVGP\ WPUGTGU %QNNKGTU UEJQP UGKV  IGUKEJGTV KUV   MCPPGUPWTHÒT-ÌPKIKP'NKUCDGVJCWUFGO*CWUG*QJGP\QNNGTP5KIOCTKPIGP WPFPKEJVHÒTKJTG0CEJ HQNIGTKP-ÌPKIKP(TKGFGTKMGCWUFGO*CWUG*CPPQXGT DGUVKOOVIGYGUGPUGKPFCFKGUGGTUV-ÌPKIKP YWTFG&GT)TWPFFCHÒTFCUUFKGJGTTNKEJG5EJOWEMCTDGKVPKEJVCPFKG-ÌPKIKPÒDGTTGKEJVYWTFGYCTGP PKEJV GVYC FKRNQOCVKUEJG 8GTYGTHWPIGP \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCCVGP UQPFGTP GKPHCEJ FKG 6CVUCEJG   FCUUUKGUKEJKO'ZKNDGHCPFWPFPKEJVOGJTKP)TKGEJGPNCPFTGIKGTVG'NKUCDGVJXQP4WO·PKGP CWUFGO *CWUG *QJGP\QNNGTP5KIOCTKPIGP  FKG CO  5GRVGODGT  -ÌPKIKP XQP )TKGEJGPNCPF IGYQTFGP   YCT XGTNKG­ OKV KJTGO )GOCJN -ÌPKI )GQTI ++ 'PFG  )TKGEJGPNCPF WPF IKPI KPU TWO·PKUEJG   'ZKN+P)TKGEJGPNCPFUVCPFFKG)TÒPFWPIFGT4GRWDNKMDGXQTFKGCO/·T\RTQMNCOKGTVWPF FWTEJ GKP 4GHGTGPFWO CO  #RTKN  DGUV·VKIV YWTFG .CWV #WUMÒPHVGPFGT8QTGKIGPVÒOGTYWTFG FCU %QNNKGT XQP UGKPGO GTUVGP $GUKV\GT KO,CJTCPGKPGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP5COONGTXGTMCWHVFGUUGP 'TDGPGUKO,CJT*GTTP-COROCPPXQO2CTKUGT/CKUQP2NCVV\WT8GTUVGKIGTWPICPXGTVTCWVJCDGP 

+O CPVKMGP )TKGEJGPNCPF YCTGP )QNFOÒP\GP  YGIGP FGT HGJNGPFGP )QNFXQTMQOOGP  RTKP\KRKGNN GKPG   #WUPCJOGGTUEJGKPWPI &KG OGKUVGP CPVKMGP ITKGEJKUEJGP /ÒP\GP DGUVCPFGP CWU 5KNDGT FCU JCWRVU·EJ   NKEJCWUFGP$GTIYGTMGPXQP.CWTKQPDGK#VJGPUVCOOVG,GFQEJGTNCPIVGPFKGOCMGFQPKUEJGP-ÌPKIG 2JKNKRR++WPFFGUUGP5QJP#NGZCPFGT+++FGT)TQ­GOKVFGPXQPKJPGPWPVGTYQTHGPGP)GDKGVGPCWEJ FKG -QPVTQNNG ÒDGT DGFGWVGPFG )QNFOKPGP &KGU GTOÌINKEJVG KJPGP FKG #WUICDG GKPGT DGFGWVGPFGP   /GPIGCP)QNFUVCVGTGPOKVKJTGP0COGPWPF6KVGNP#NGZCPFGTFGT)TQ­GNKG­PGDGPFGP5VCVGTGPCWEJ KPIGTKPIGT/GPIG&KUVCVGTG QFGT&QRRGNUVCVGTG RT·IGP 

466

109


GOLDENES MÜNZCOLLIER )QNFPGEMNCEGOCFGKPVJGVYGPVKGUHQTVJG3WGGPQH)TGGEGI  

'NGXGPCPEKGPV)TGGMIQNFEQKPUJCXGDGGPYQTMGFKP COQPIVJGOCXGT[TCTGQPG  

+VEQPEGTPUVJGHQNNQYKPIEQKPU

 



C IQNFUVCVGTUQH2JKNKRR++-KPIQH/CEGFQPKC $% UJQYKPIQPVJGQDXGTUGVJGJGCFQH VJG IQF #RQNNQ YKVJ C NCWTGN YTGCVJ CPF QP VJG TGXGTUG C JQTUG CPF ECTTKCIG YKVJ VYQ JQTUGU CPF   C EJCTKQVGGT 1P VJG HKXG RKGEGU VJGTG CTG VJG HQNNQYKPI U[ODQNU CU EQPVTQN OCTMU   0KMG    6JWPFGTDQNV -CPVJCTQU 6JWPFGTDQNVCPF -CPVJCTQU  

D IQNFUVCVGTUQH#NGZCPFGT+++MPQYPCU#NGZCPFGTVJG)TGCV-KPIQH/CEGFQPKC $%  UJQYKPIQPVJGQDXGTUGVJGJGCFQHVJGIQFFGUU#VJGPCYKVJC%QTKPVJKCPJGNOGVCPFQPVJGTGXGTUG VJG UVCPFKPI IQFFGUU 0KMG YKVJ C YTGCVJ 1P VJG RKGEGU VJGTG CTG VJG HQNNQYKPI U[ODQNU CU   EQPVTQNOCTMU FQWDNGCZGCPFGCT VJGOKPVOCTMQH5KFQP VTKFGPV MCPVJCTQUCPF VJG OKPVOCTMQH5KFQP  

E 6JG EGPVTCN RKGEG KU C IQNF FKUVCVGT QT FQWDNG UVCVGT  QH VJG /CEGFQPKCP -KPI #NGZCPFGT +++ VJG   )TGCV  $%  EQKPGF KP VJG OKPV QH #KICK 2TKEG   6JGEQKPFGUKIPEQTTGURQPFUVQVJG UKORNG UVCVGTU QH VJKU -KPI UGG D  +P VJG TGXGTUG HKGNF CU C UWRRNGOGPVCT[ UKIP VJGTG KU C HKIWTG   UVCPFKPI VQ VJG NGHV 6JKU KU C TCTG EQKP HTQO /CTEJ  VQ /CTEJ  QPN[  FKUVCVGTU QH   #NGZCPFGTVJG)TGCVJCXGDGGPQHHGTGFCEEQTFKPIVQ%QKP#TEJKXGUņKPEQPVTCUVVQVGVTCFTCEJOU QHVJGUCOG-KPI 'ZEGNNGPVOCUVGTRKGEGQHLGYGNNGT[ GZVTGOGN[HKPG  KPQTKIKPCNECUGHTQOVJGLGYGNNGT2TKX[UCW.¾\CTF$QTFGCWZ 

(TQOVJGCWEVKQPQH/CKUQP2NCVV2CTKU0QXGODGT0Q



 

6JKUGZEGRVKQPCNPGEMNCEGEQOGUHTQOVJGCWEVKQPD[/CKUQP2NCVVQP0QXGODGT+VYCUOCFG DGVYGGPVJGVYQ9QTNF9CTUCPFKVYCUOGCPVCUCRTGUGPVVQVJG3WGGPQH)TGGEGCEEQTFKPIVQEQPHK FGPVKCNKPHQTOCVKQP  

5KPEGVJGGZKUVGPEGQHQWTPGEMNCEGJCUDGGPXGTKHKGFUKPEGKVEQWNFJCXGQPN[DGGPOGCPVHQT3WGGP 'NK\CDGVJ HTQO VJG *QWUG QH *QJGP\QNNGTP5KIOCTKPIGP CPF PQV HQT JGT UWEEGUUQT 3WGGP (TKGFGTKMG   HTQOVJG*QWUGQH*CPQXGT DGECWUGVJGNCVVGTQPN[DGECOG3WGGPKP6JGTGCUQPHQTVJGHCEVVJCV VJG OCTXGNQWU YQTM QH LGYGNNGT[ YCU PQV JCPFGF QXGT VQ VJG 3WGGP YCU UWTGN[ PQV VQ DG HQWPF KP   FKRNQOCVKEFKUVWTDCPEGUDGVYGGPVYQEQWPVTKGUDWVUKORN[KPVJGHCEVVJCVUJGYCUKPGZKNGCPFJCFEGCUGF VQTWNG)TGGEG  

'NK\CDGVJQH4QOCPKC HTQOVJG*QWUGQH*QJGP\QNNGTP5KIOCTKPIGP YJQDGECOG3WGGPQH)TGGEGQP  5GRVGODGT  NGHV )TGGEG YKVJ JGT JWUDCPF -KPI )GQTIG ++ VQYCTFU VJG GPF QH CPFUJG YGPVKPVQGZKNGKP4QOCPKC+P)TGGEGVJGHQWPFCVKQPQHVJG4GRWDNKEYCUGOKPGPVRTQENCKOGFVJGPQP /CTEJCPFEQPHKTOGFD[CTGHGTGPFWOQP#RTKN  

#EEQTFKPIVQKPHQTOCVKQPHTQOVJGRTGXKQWUQYPGTUVJGPGEMNCEGYCUUQNFD[KVUHKTUVQYPGTVQC(TGPEJ EQNNGEVQTKPYJQUGJGKTUGPVTWUVGFKVVQ/T-COROCPPQHVJG2CTKUDCUGF/CKUQP2NCVVVQRWVKVWR HQTCWEVKQPKP  

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¾TKQFG RQWTNCTGKPGFG)T½EGIFCPUNGSWGN UQPV KPEQTRQT¾GU QP\G OQPPCKGU ITGESWGU CPVKSWGU GP QT FQPV WPG GZVT¿OGOGPV TCTG %GU OQPPCKGU UG   T¾RCTVKUUGPVCKPUK   C  UVCV½TGU F QT FG 2JKNKRRG ++ TQK FG /CE¾FQKPG  CXCPV ,%  TGRT¾UGPVCPV ¯ N CXGTU NC V¿VG   NCWT¾G F #RQNNQP GV CW TGXGTU WP DKIG FG EJGXCWZ ¯ FTQKVG EQPFWKV RCT WP CWTKIG .GU U[ODQNGU   TGRT¾UGPV¾UFCPUNGEJCORFWTGXGTUFGEGURK½EGUUQPVFCPUN QTFTGFGURK½EGUFGICWEJG¯FTQKVG XKEVQKTGHQWFTGECPVJCTGHQWFTGGVECPVJCTG   D UVCV½TGUF QTF #NGZCPFTG+++FKVNG)TCPF CXCPV,% TGRT¾UGPVCPV¯N CXGTUNCV¿VGFGNC F¾GUUG #VJ¾PC EQKHH¾G FW ECUSWG EQTKPVJKGP GV CW TGXGTU WPG 8KEVQKTG VGPCPV WPG EQWTQPPG .GU   U[ODQNGU TGRT¾UGPV¾U FCPU NG EJCOR FW TGXGTU UQPV FCPU N QTFTG FGU RK½EGU FG ICWEJG ¯ FTQKVG    DKRGPPG GV ¾RK UWT NC RTGOK½TG NC OCTSWG FG N CVGNKGT FG 5KFQP UWT NC UGEQPFG WP VTKFGPV UWT NC   VTQKUK½OGWPECPVJCTGUWTNCSWCVTK½OGGVNCOCTSWGFGN CVGNKGTFG5KFQPUWTNCEKPSWK½OG   E .CRK½EGEGPVTCNGGUVWPFKUVCV½TGF QTQWFQWDNGUVCV½TGFWO¿OGT½IPGF #NGZCPFTGNG)TCPF  CXCPV,% HTCRR¾¯#+)#+.GV[RGGUVNGO¿OGSWGUWTNGUUVCV½TGUFWO¿OGT½IPG&CPUNG EJCOR FW TGXGTU NG U[ODQNG GUV WP RGTUQPPCIG FGDQWV ¯ ICWEJG 4¾H¾TGPEG  24+%'  %GVVG   OQPPCKGGUVHQTVTCTGGVF CRT½U%1+0#4%*+8'KNP GPGUVRCUU¾GPXGPVGGPVTGOCTUGVOCTU SWGGZGORNCKTGUEQPVTGRNWUFGV¾VTCFTCEJOGUFWO¿OGT½IPG  5WRGTDGGPUGODNGFCPUUQPEQHHTGVF QTKIKPGFWLQCKNNKGT2TKX[UCW.¾\CTF$QTFGCWZ 110


GOLDENES MÜNZCOLLIER

466

%GUWRGTDGEQNNKGTRTQXKGPVFGNCXGPVG2.#66FWPQXGODTG¯N *ÊVGN&TQWQVFCPUNCSWGNNGKN ¾VCKVT¾RGTVQTK¾UQWUNGPWO¾TQFWECVCNQIWG  

+N C ¾V¾ EQORQU¾ GPVTG NGU FGWZ IWGTTGU OQPFKCNGU & CRT½U EGTVCKPU TGPUGKIPGOGPVU EQPHKFGPVKGNU KN   FGXCKV ¿VTG QHHGTV ¯ NC 4GKPG FG )T½EG —VCPV FQPP¾ SWG PQVTG EQNNKGT GUV T¾CRRCTW GP  KN UGODNG   ¾XKFGPV SW KN ¾VCKV FGUVKP¾ ¯ NC TGKPG 'NKUCDGVC FG 4QWOCPKG 2TKPEGUUG FG *QJGP\QNNGTP RNWVÊV SW ¯ NC   TGKPG(T¾F¾TKMCRTKPEGUUGFG*CPQXTGSWKPGHWVTGKPGFG)T½EGSW CRCTVKTFG%GPGUGTCKVFQPE RCUGPTCKUQPF WPGTWRVWTGFKRNQOCVKSWGGPVTGFGWZRC[UFQPVNC)T½EGSWGEGEQNNKGTPGHWVRCUQHHGTV¯ 'NKUCDGVCOCKURNWUUKORNGOGPVRCTEGSW ¾VCPVGPGZKNGNNGPGT¾IPCKVRNWUGP)T½EG'PGHHGV'NKUCDGVC FG4QWOCPKGSWKFGXKPVTGKPGFG)T½EGNGUGRVGODTGFWVU GZKNGTNCHKPFGN CPP¾GCXGE UQP OCTK GP 4QWOCPKG VCPFKU SWG UG RT¾RCTCKV GP )T½EG NC RTQENCOCVKQP FG NC +½TG 4¾RWDNKSWG NG    OCTUEQPHKTO¾GRCTNGT¾H¾TGPFWOFWCXTKN+NUGODNGF CRT½UNGUTGPUGKIPGOGPVUQDVGPWUSWG N QDLGVCKV¾V¾XGPFWGPRCTUQPRTGOKGTF¾VGPVGWT¯WPEQNNGEVKQPPGWTHTCP¼CKUFQPVNGUJ¾TKVKGTUQPV FW EQPHKGT NG EQNNKGT RQWT XGPVG ¯ /QPUKGWT -COROCPP FG NC OCKUQP 2.#66 GP  +N [ C NKGW FG   PQVGTSWGFCPUNGOQPFGITGECPVKSWGNGUOQPPCKGUF QT¾VCKGPVRGWHT¾SWGPVGUECTNC)T½EGP CXCKVRCU FG OKPGU FG EG O¾VCN .C RNWRCTV FGU OQPPCKGU WVKNKU¾GU GP )T½EG ¾VCKGPV FQPE FGU OQPPCKGU F CTIGPV   HCDTKSW¾GU¯RCTVKTFWO¾VCNRTQXGPCPVGUUGPVKGNNGOGPVFGUOKPGUFW.CWTKQPRT½UF #VJ½PGU'PTGXCP EJG NC RQNKVKSWG FG EQPSW¿VGU FG 2JKNKRRG ++ FG /CE¾FQKPG GV EGNNG FG UQP UWEEGUUGWT #NGZCPFTG NG   )TCPF QPV RGTOKU ¯ NC /CE¾FQKPG FG EQPVTÊNGT FCPU NGU VGTTKVQKTGU EQPSWKU FGU OKPGU F QT SWK NGWT   RGTOKTGPVFGHCKTGHTCRRGT¯NGWTVKVWNCVWTGFGUUVCV½TGUF QTGVGPEGSWKEQPEGTPG#NGZCPFTGNG)TCPF GPRNWUFGUUVCV½TGUWPRGVKVPQODTGFGFKUVCV½TGU QWFQWDNGUUVCV½TGU   111


MACEDONIA

467



-¤0+)4'+%*/#-'&10+'0#NGZCPFGT+X%JTÕ1MVQFTCEJOGX%JT  I *GTQU OKV 2GVCUQU WPF .CP\GP UVGJV JCNDT JKPVGT GKPGO 2HGTF8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO   4C[OQPF2N++50)#05XGTIN 4GXGTUUVGORGNINGKEJ   5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ 

468

1,5:1



467

1,5:1

1,5:1

2JKNKRRQU++X%JTÔ5VCVGTX%JT2GNNCI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\$KICTFCTWPVGT$NKV\.G4KFGT2N /KPRQNKGTVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WEVKQP8#WEVKQPU5GRVGODGT0T  2JKNKRR++FGT8CVGT#NGZCPFGTUFGU)TQ­GPIGNCPIVGX%JTCPFKG4GIKGTWPI$CNFPCEJUGKPGO4GIKGTWPIU CPVTKVVIGNCPIGUKJOFCUIQNFWPFUKNDGTTGKEJG2CPICKQPIGDKGVWPVGTUGKPG-QPVTQNNG\WDTKPIGPFGUUGP,CJTGUGT VTCI  6CNGPVG DGVTWI WPF KJO FKG #WURT·IWPI FGT UEJÌPGP )QNFUVCVGTG KP FGT #PVKMG 2JKNKRRGKQK IGPCPPV   GTOÌINKEJVG&KG8QTFGTUGKVGWPUGTGU5VÒEMGU\GKIVFGP-QRH#RQNNUFGUFGNRJKUEJGP)QVVGU\WFGO2JKNKRRQUGKPG DGUQPFGTG$G\KGJWPIJCVVG+O*GKNKIGP-TKGIJCVVG2JKNKRRUKEJIGIGPFKG2JQMGTIGYCPFVYGNEJGFKG6GORGN UEJ·V\G KP &GNRJK IGTCWDV JCVVGP &KG 4ÒEMUGKVG URKGNV CWH GKPGP 5KGI 2JKNKRRU  X %JT DGK FGP 1N[ORKUEJGP   5RKGNGPCP UKGJG2NWVCTEJ#NGZ +PFGO2JKNKRRQU++CWHFKGUGO5VÒEMUQYQJNGKPG8GTDKPFWPI\W&GNRJKCNU CWEJ \W 1N[ORKC UEJWH \YGK 1TVGP FKG CNNGP )TKGEJGP JGKNKI YCTGP DTCEJVG GT CWEJ UGKP RCPJGNNGPKUEJGU RQNKVK   UEJGU2TQITCOO\WO#WUFTWEM&GT2JKNKRRGKQUYCTGKPGFGT9GNVOÒP\GPFGT#PVKMG

469

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô5VCVGTX%JT2GNNCI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\$KICTFCTWPVGT&TGK\CEM .G4KFGT2N 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG&KGVGT)TWPQY$GTNKP0T

470

1,5:1



471

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

Ô 5VCVGT  X %JT 2GNNC  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T-GWNG FCTÒDGT $QIGP   WPF-CPVJCTQU.G4KFGT2N )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG&KGVGT)TWPQY$GTNKP0T



Ô5VCVGTX%JT2GNNCI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT&TGK\CEM.G4KFGT #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

112




MACEDONIA

472



473

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4GKVGT T   WPVGPLWPF2TQTC.G4KFGTXGTIN2NHH 2TÒHGKPJKGDCWHFGO4GXGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4GKVGT T   WPVGP*GEM.G4KFGT2N 8QT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



474

1,5:1

Ô5VCVGTRQUVJWOX%JT-QNQRJQPI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\0KMGKP$KICT WPVGP-GT[MGKQPWPF5VGTPKO#DUEJPKVV5RGGTURKV\G6JQORUQPKP5VWFKQ2CWNQ0CUVGT1DNCVC5 8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5EJGKPVWPGFKGTV9KP\2TÒHURWTCO4CPFMN-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KGUG 2T·IWPI UVGJV KO <WUCOOGPJCPI OKV FGO -CORH WO FKG 0CEJHQNIG KO #NGZCPFGTTGKEJ &KG RQUVJWOGP   2JKNKRRQU5VCVGTGYWTFGPKO'KPHNW­DGTGKEJFGU2JKNKRRQU+++#TTJKFCKQUIGRT·IVWOFKG6CVUCEJGJGTCWU\WUVGNNGP FC­CWEJGTGKP5QJP2JKNKRRU++OKVTGEJVO·­KIGO6JTQPCPURTWEJYCT

1,5:1

475



Ô5VCVGT RQUVJWO  X %JT .CORUCMQU  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\0KMG KP   $KICT$GK\*GNKQUMQRHWPFAP NKIKGTV 6JQORUQPKP5VWFKQ2CWNQ0CUVGT1DNCVC2N8++  445GJTUEJÌP 

476



475

477

478

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   4GKVGTTOKV<YGKIWPVGP<YGKIWPFP.G4KFGTXGTIN2N 2TÒHGKPJKGDUGJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPCO,WPKDGKFGT*CPUGCVKUEJGP/ÒP\GPJCPFNWPI$TGOGP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   4GKVGTTOKV<YGKIWPVGP&GNRJKPWPFP.G4KFGT2N 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'ORQTKWO*CODWTI0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   4GKVGTTOKV<YGKIWPVGP&GNRJKPWPFP.G4KFGT2N 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 113


MACEDONIA

480

479



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   4GKVGTTOKV<YGKIWPVGP&GNRJKPWPFP.G4KFGT2N  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPC2TÒHGKPJKGDCWHFGO4GXGTUCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'TYQTDGPKO1MVQDGTDGK)NGPFKPKPIU.QPFQP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I <GWUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   4GKVGTTOKV<YGKIWPVGPL$WMTCPKQPWPF/QPQITCOO.G4KFGT2N FKGU'ZGORNCT   (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP /ÒP\GP  /GFCKNNGP &GWVUEJNCPF )OD*  5VWVVICTV  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP 5CNN[   4QUGPDGTI(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

481





482

#NGZCPFGT +++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I *GTCMNGU   MQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNN5VGWGTTWFGT2TKEG  (GKPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 6CTUQU  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU #GVQRJQTQU   UKV\VNN2HNWIWPVGTFGO6JTQP2WPMVT2WPMV2TKEG )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDDTÒEM0T

484 483

483



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 6CTUQU  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU #GVQRJQTQU   UKV\VNFCXQT2HNWIWPVGTFGO6JTQPQ2TKEG .GKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCICWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&TCEJOGX%JT/KNGVI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT<GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VN FCXQT/QPQITCOOWPVGTFGO6JTQP5VGTP2TKEG -CDKPGVVUVÒEM(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



485



Ô5VCVGTRQUVJWOX%JT/KNGVI#VJGPCMQRHT0KMGUVGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF5V[NKU FCXQTJTGT&QRRGNCZV2TKEG 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG&KGVGT)TWPQY$GTNKP0T

486

487



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T   <GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNNRJT[IKUEJGT*GNO2TKEG (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T   <GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQTOCMGFQPKUEJGT*GNO2TKEG 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



114


MACEDONIA

488

489



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T   <GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNN-TCP\WPVGTFGO6JTQP2WPMVKPP2TKEG 8QT\ÒINKEJ





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT $CD[NQP  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU   #GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNN/CWHFGO6JTQPLU2TKEG (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



1,5:1



490

1,5:1

Ô5VCVGTRQUVJWOX%JT#ORJKRQNKUI#VJGPCMQRHTKPMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO0KMG UVGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF5V[NKUFCXQT&TGK\CEM2TKEG  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPI



<WT &CVKGTWPI UKGJG 6TQZGNN #PVU CPF 'CINGU 5QOG .CVG #NGZCPFGT 5VCVGTU HTQO #ORJKRQNKU KP $WTPGVV    9CTVGPDGTI9KVUEJQPMG *TUI  %QKPU QH /CEGFQPKC CPF 4QOG 'UUC[U KP *QPQWT QH %JCTNGU *GTUJ .QPFQP   5HH

491 493

492



Ô5VCVGTRQUVJWOX%JT#ORJKRQNKUI#VJGPCMQRHTKPMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO0KMG UVGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF5V[NKUFCXQT&TGK\CEM2TKEG 5GJTUEJÌP



<WT &CVKGTWPI UKGJG 6TQZGNN #PVU CPF 'CINGU 5QOG .CVG #NGZCPFGT 5VCVGTU HTQO #ORJKRQNKU KP $WTPGVV   9CTVGPDGTI9KVUEJQPMG *TUI %QKPUQH/CEGFQPKCCPF4QOG'UUC[UKP*QPQWTQH%JCTNGU*GTUJ.QPFQP 5HH



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T   <GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNNLWPF(CEMGNWPVGTFGO6JTQP&TGKHW­2TKEG )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO-ÌNP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT $CD[NQP  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU   #GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT/QPQITCOOKP-TCP\WPVGP/+2TKEG  (GKPG2CVKPCOKPMQTTQFKGTVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 'TYQTDGP

494

1,5:1



495



Õ&TCEJOG RQUVJWO  X %JT -QNQRJQP  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU   #GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT0WPVGTFGO6JTQP$2TKEG #XGTUNGKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2JKNKRRQU+++X%JTÔ5VCVGTX%JT$CD[NQPI#VJGPCMQRHTKPMQTKPVJK UEJGO*GNO0KMGUVGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF5V[NKU2TKEG2 #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

  115


MACEDONIA

496

1,5:1



1,5:1

&GOGVTKQU 2QNKQTMGVGU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #ORJKRQNKU  I   -QRHTOKV&KCFGOWPF5VKGTJQTP2QUGKFQPUKV\VNOKV#RJNCUVQPWPF&TGK\CEMFCXQT*GNO0GYGNN 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

497



498

499

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT2GNNCI-QRHTOKV&KCFGOWPF5VKGTJQTP2QUGKFQPUVGJVN OKV&TGK\CEM(W­CWH(GNUGP0GYGNN 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  &GOGVTKQU HÒJNVG UKEJ CNU 5QJP FGU 2QUGKFQP WPF VT·IV FCJGT CWH FKGUGT 6GVTCFTCEJOG FKG *ÌTPGT XQP 2QUGKFQPU   5VKGT



#PVKIQPQU&QUQPX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG2GNNC ! I2QUGKFQPMQRHT#RQNNQUKV\VN CWH2TQTCOKV$QIGP/GTMGTKP#05/0+:XGTIN\WO6[R5 5GJTUEJÌP



2GTUGWU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO#FNGT   UVGJVTCWH$NKV\/COTQVJ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T 'UJCPFGNVUKEJWOGKPGPKEJVP·JGT\W\WQTFPGPFGDCTDCTKUEJG+OKVCVKQP





'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T  0CEJFGO$GIKPPFGU-TKGIGUIGIGP4QONKG­2GTUGWUFCU)GYKEJVFGT6GVTCFTCEJOGPWOGVYCJGTCDUGV\GP WO)GNF\WIGYKPPGP5QGTMN·TVUKEJFCU)GYKEJVFKGUGU5VÒEMGU

500



116

4¤/+5%*' 2418+0< Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG FGT GTUVGP 4GIKQP  X %JT  I &TCRKGTVG   #TVGOKUDÒUVGTOKV$QIGPWPF-ÌEJGTCWHOCMGFQPKUEJGO5EJKNF-GWNGKP-TCP\N$NKV\2TQMQRQX (GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT




PAEONIA

501



503

502

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG FGT GTUVGP 4GIKQP  X %JT  I &TCRKGTVG #TVGOKUDÒUVG T OKV $QIGP   WPF-ÌEJGTCWHOCMGFQPKUEJGO5EJKNF-GWNGKP-TCP\N$NKV\2TQMQRQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGFGUVJCUKUEJGP6[RUX%JTI&KQP[UQUMQRHT*GTCMNGUUVGJVNOKV -GWNGWPF.ÌYGPHGNN2TQMQRQX)TWRRG:++8## 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  &KG 6GVTCFTCEJOGP FGU VJCUKUEJGP 6[RU YWTFGP KO #WHVTCI FGT TÌOKUEJGP #FOKPKUVTCVKQP KP /CMGFQPKGP HÒT FGP   *CPFGNOKV6JTCMKGPIGRT·IV



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGFGUVJCUKUEJGP6[RUX%JTI&KQP[UQUMQRHT*GTCMNGUUVGJVNOKV -GWNGWPF.ÌYGPHGNN2TQMQRQX)TWRRG:+:8)$ 8QT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌP

504





505

)CKWU 2WDNKNKWU 3W·UVQT “U  X %JT  I 4QOCMQRH T OKV *GNO+P -TCP\ &TGK   <GKNGP5EJTKHV/CEMC[#05/02N+++ )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T



#GUKNNCU 3W·UVQT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T+P -TCP\ (KUEWU   -GWNGWPF5VWJN$CWUNCWIJ)TWRRG+ 1   *GTTNKEJG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFFGPPQEJUGJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



507

506

2#'10+# 

-¤0+)4'+%* .[MMGKQU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I <GWUMQRH T*GTCMNGU   GTYÒTIVFGPPGOGKUEJGP.ÌYGP#/0)50)#05 (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





2CVTCQU  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4GKVGT T   GTUVKEJVIGUVÒT\VGP)GIPGT2CGQPKCP*QCTF50)#05XGTIN #XGTUUVGORGNINGKEJ   8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T

117


THESSALIA

508

2:1

2:1

6*'55#.+# 

.#4+55# Õ1DQN  X %JT  I -QRH FGU ,CUQP T OKV 2GVCUQU+P +PEWUWO 2GVCUQU   FCTWPVGT-GT[MGKQP5NI$%&  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV9QJNFCU\YGKVGDGMCPPVG'ZGORNCT(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T

511 509



510

Õ&TCEJOG WO  X %JT  I 0[ORJGPMQRH HCUV X X2HGTF ITCUV T .QTDGT5JCJCT   'CTN[HCEKPIJGCFU145NI$%&p (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ&TCEJOGX%JTI5\GPGCWUFGT6CWTQMCVJCRUKCUVKGTD·PFKIGPFGT,ÒPINKPI2HGTF URTKPIVT*GTTOCPP6H+++5NI$%& (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



&KG6CWTQMCVJCRUKGP5VKGTURKGNGVJGUUCNKUEJGP7TURTWPIUYCTGPUR·VGTÒDGTFKGICP\GITKGEJKUEJG9GNVXGTDTGKVGV 5KGIGJGPXGTOWVNKEJCWHOKPQKUEJG9WT\GNP\WTÒEM



Õ*GOKFTCEJOG WO  X %JT  I 6JGUUCNQU N D·PFKIV 5VKGTRTQVQOG2HGTFGRTQVQOG N   FCTWPVGT5CPFCNG*GTTOCPP6H++5NI$%& 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T

512



513

514

ex 515

Õ&TCEJOG WO  X %JT  I 0[ORJGPMQRH HCUV X X2HGTF ITCUV N WPVGP 2HNCP\G *GTT   OCPPXGTIN6H8.QTDGTKP5042JCUG.p+5NI$%&XGTIN 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



Õ&TCEJOGX%JTI0[ORJGPMQRHHCUVXX2HGTFITCUVT*GTTOCPPXGTIN6H8 .QTDGTKP5042JCUG.p+++5NI$%&HH 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPDGKFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP



2*#45#.15 Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT UKIPKGTV XQP 6GNGRJCPVQU  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV   CVVKUEJGO*GNO)TGKHCNU*GNO\KGT4GKVGTTOKV.CIQDQNQP.CXXC  44-N-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T FQTVKTTVÒONKEJ.CXXC\KVKGTV 



118

.+)#X%JTÕ&TCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCVG<1  WPF21.;  I#RQNNQ MQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#VJGPC+VQPKCUVGJVTOKV5RGGTWPF5EJKNF5NI$%&&C\W6JQWTKQK &KFTCEJOGWPFGKPG&TCEJOGFGT5JCJKUXQP-CDWNWPF)CPFJCTC5NI$%&  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP




BOEOTIA

516

517

517

'2+475 

-1+010Õ5VCVGTX%JTI$ÒUVGPFGU<GWUXQP&QFQPCWPFFGT&KQPGPGDGP GKPCPFGTT+P'KEJGPMTCP\$NKV\(TCPMGHH 4(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

#%#40#0+# 

.'7-#5Õ5VCVGTPCEJX%JT/CIKUVTCV0KMQOGFGUI+O-TCP\#TVGOKUUVCVWGTOKV #RJNCUVQPFCPGDGP*KTUEJN6CWDGP\GRVGT2TQTCT$/% .GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



518

.1%4+5 

.1-4+5 12706+# Õ5VCVGT WO  X %JT  I &GOGVGTMQRH N#LCZ IGJV T OKV   5EJYGTVWPF5EJKNFWPVGP5RGGTWPF*GNO$/%p5NI$%&50)%QRp 5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP.CPECUVGT,CPWCT0T

519



Õ1DQNX%JTI#ORJQTGUVTCJNKIGT5VGTP5NI$%&XCT 'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

520

522

521

5GJTUEJÌP



523

$1'16+# 

6#0#)4# Õ5VCVGT WO  X %JT  I $QGQVKUEJGT 5EJKNF2HGTFGRTQVQOG T OKV   -TCP\IGUEJOÒEMVWPVGP9GKPVTCWDG5NI$%& 4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  6CPCITC FKG DGFGWVGPFUVG 5VCFV KO UÒFÌUVNKEJGP $QKQVKGP YCT DGTÒJOV HÒT KJTG 6GTTCMQVVGP FKG DGTÒJOVGP   6CPCITCHKIWTGP KJTG-CORHJ·JPGWPFFGPDGUVGP9GKP$QKQVKGPU



6*'$'0 Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I $QGQVKUEJGT 5EJKNF&KQP[UQUMQRH T OKV 'HGWMTCP\   $/%5NI$%&XGTIN 4)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP 



Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I $QGQVKUEJGT 5EJKNF#ORJQTG \YKUEJGP TIMO $/%  5NI   $%& 9KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+++0GY;QTM0T +P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI%JQKEG:(







Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I $QGQVKUEJGT 5EJKNF#ORJQTG \YKUEJGP TIMO $/%  5NI   $%& 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI$%&#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T

119


ATTICA

524

'7$1'# 

.+)#Õ&TCEJOGX%JT'TGVTKC ! I-QRHFGT'WDQKCN5VKGTMQRHHCUVXXT &GNRJKP9CNNCEG #VVCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPDCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1

525

1,5:1

#66+%# 

#6*'09CRRGPOÒP\GPÕ1DQNX%JTI4CFOKVXKGT5RGKEJGP8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO5GNVOCP2N+8XGTINn5XQTQPQU2N+ 45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

527

526



#6*'0 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO+P   +PEWUWO'WNGUVGJVTFCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKI5GNVOCP)TWRRG( 445EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKI5GNVOCP)TWRRG/ 5EJÌP



'TYQTDGPXQPFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP

529

528 1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKIWPF/QPFUKEJGN(NCOGPV)TWRRG++ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKIWPF/QPFUKEJGN(NCOGPV)TWRRG++ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



530

531



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKIWPF/QPFUKEJGN(NCOGPV)TWRRG++ 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKIWPF/QPFUKEJGN(NCOGPV)TWRRG++ 5GJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGP

120


ATTICA

533

532



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKIWPF/QPFUKEJGN(NCOGPV)TWRRG+++ (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKIWPF/QPFUKEJGN(NCOGPV)TWRRG+++ (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



535

534



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKIWPF/QPFUKEJGN(NCOGPV)TWRRG+++  8QTFGTUGKVGOKPKOCNMQTTQFKGTVUGJTCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGWOX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO+P+PEWUWO'WNGT FCJKPVGT1NKXGP\YGKIWPF/QPFUKEJGN(NCOGPV)TWRRG+++ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT 1UPCDTÒEM0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0T

537

536



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO *GNO+P -TCP\ 'WNG CWH   #ORJQTGXXWPVGP4WFGT6JQORUQP 5GJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG /CKOCMVGTKQP  0QXGODGT&G\GODGT   X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV   CVVKUEJGO*GNO+P-TCP\'WNGCWH#ORJQTGOKVEXXN-GWNG.ÌYGPHGNNWPF$QIGPKP$QIGPVC UEJG6JQORUQPXCT )GTGKPKIVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T &KG0GWUVKNRT·IWPIGPUKPFPCEJ%JT$QGJTKPIGTFCVKGTV





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6TKVQP:+80GY;QTM,CPWCT0T &KG0GWUVKNRT·IWPIGPUKPFPCEJ%JT$QGJTKPIGTFCVKGTV



538

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #PVJGUVGTKQP  (GDTWCT/·T\   X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T OKV CVVKUEJGO   *GNO+P-TCP\'WNGCWH#ORJQTGOKVQXXTUVGJV6[EJGN6JQORUQPpXGTINC  -N-TCV\GTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

121


CORINTHIA

540

539

#')+0# 

#')+0# Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 5GGUEJKNFMTÌVG8KGNHCEJ IGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50)   &GNGRKGTTGXGTINHH 2TÒHRWP\GUGJTUEJÌP



Õ5VCVGTX%JTI5GGUEJKNFMTÌVGOKVFGWVNKEJGO#WIG(ÒPHHCEJIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO 50)&GNGRKGTTGXGTIN )GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP.CPECUVGT0T



541

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ1DQNX%JTI5GGUEJKNFMTÌVG(ÒPHHCEJIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO50)&GNGRKGTTGHH 45GJTUEJÌP 'TYQTDGPKO,WPKXQPFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP

542



1,5:1

542

Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I .CPFUEJKNFMTÌVG(ÒPHHCEJ IGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50) &GNGRKGTTG   XGTIN 4CPFOKPMQTTQFKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

543



544





545

Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I .CPFUEJKNFMTÌVG(ÒPHHCEJ IGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50) &GNGRKGTTG   XGTIN 2WP\GCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I .CPFUEJKNFMTÌVG(ÒPHHCEJ IGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50) &GNGRKGTTG   XGTINHH 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I .CPFUEJKNFMTÌVG(ÒPHHCEJ IGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50) &GNGRKGTTG   XGTINHH 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP.CPECUVGT0T

'TYQTDGPCO&G\GODGTDGKFGT(KTOC2GWU0CEJH



546

%14+06*+# 

-14+06* Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 2GICUWU HNKGIV T+P +PEWUWO #VJGPCMQRH T OKV   MQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO%CNEKCVK2GICUK4CXGN )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GP/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF)OD*5VWVVICTV0T

122




CRETA

547



548

549

Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 2GICUWU HNKGIV T+P +PEWUWO #VJGPCMQRH T OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO   *GNO%CNEKCVK2GICUK4CXGN 5GJTUEJÌP



Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 2GICUWU HNKGIV N#VJGPCMQRH T OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO FCXQT   $WMTCPKQPFCJKPVGT#TOOKV(CEMGN%CNEKCVK2GICUK4CXGN 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 2GICUWU HNKGIV N#VJGPCMQRH N OKV MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO FCXQT   &GNRJKPFCJKPVGT2CNOGVVG%CNEKCVK2GICUK4CXGN 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GP/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF)OD*5VWVVICTV0T



'TYQTDGPDGKFGT(KTOC2GWU0CEJHCO&G\GODGT



550

1,5:1

1,5:1

2'.12100'575 

'.+51.;/2+#Õ5VCVGTX%JT1N[ORKCFGX%JT*GTCVGORGNI*GTCMQRHT OKV5VGRJCPG+P1NKXGPMTCP\$NKV\5GNVOCP5NI$%& FKGU'ZGORNCT  4)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI$%&#WMVKQP.GW<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#) $CUGN0T

1,5:1

551



551

/'55'0+#/'55'0'“6TKEJCNMQPX%JTI/CIKUVTCV0KMCTEJQUI#UMNGRKQU MQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5EJNCPIGPUVCD$/%p5NI$%&#PO50)%QR  44)TÒPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI(TKGFTKEJ2QRMGP#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



552

%4'6# 

)146;0#Õ5VCVGTWOX%JTI'WTQRCUKV\VKPPCEJFGPMNKEJGT*CNVWPITCWHGKPGT 2NCVCPG+PXGTVKGHVGO4WPF5VKGTUVGJVT*KPVGTJWHCPIGJQDGP\WTÒEMDNKEMGPF.G4KFGT2N+8 5NI6TCGIGT5XQTQPQU 5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP /ÒP\GP  /GFCKNNGP &GWVUEJNCPF )OD*  5VWVVICTV  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP   5EJGPM$GJTGPU'UUGP0T



123


PONTUS

553

1,5:1



1,5:1

-015515 Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT  I *GTCMQRH N OKV 2QNQU.CD[TKPVJ \YKUEJGP #2   5NI6TCGIGTp5XQTQPQU 44.GKEJVG#WHNCIGPUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



'VYC-KNQOGVGTUÒFNKEJXQP*GTCMNKQPNKGIGPFKG4WKPGPXQP-PQUUQU-TGVCU\YGKHGNNQUITÌ­VGWPFDGTÒJOVGUVG 5VCFV FGT #PVKMG *CWRVUVCFV FGU O[VJKUEJGP -ÌPKIU /KPQU WPF XQTJGTTUEJGPFG 5VCFV FGT +PUGNY·JTGPFFGTÒDGT YKGIGPFGP<GKVFGTMNCUUKUEJGPWPFJGNNGPKUVKUEJGP'RQEJG-PQUUQUKUVGPIXGTDWPFGPOKVFGPO[VJKUEJGP'T\·J NWPIGPXQP&CKFCNQUWPF+MCTQU6JGUGWUWPF#TKCFPG/KPQUWPF2CUKRJCGUQYKGFGO/KPQVCWTWUWPFFGOMTGVK UEJGP.CD[TKPVJ&KG\W$GIKPPFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUXQP#TVJWT'XCPUCWUIGITCDGPG2CNCUVCPNCIGXQP-PQUUQUFKG XQPGKPKIGP9KUUGPUEJCHVNGTPOKVFGOMTGVKUEJGP.CD[TKPVJINGKEJIGUGV\VYKTFIKNVCNUDGFGWVGPFUVG5GJGPUYÒTFKI MGKV -TGVCU -PQUUQU \·JNVG \W FGP DGFGWVGPFUVGP /ÒP\UV·VVGP CWH-TGVCKPFGT/KVVGFGUXQTEJTKUVNKEJGP,CJT JWPFGTVUMWT\PCEJFGO2T·IGDGIKPPKP)QTV[PWPF2JCKUVQUOKVFGT#WUICDGXQP5KNDGTPQOKPCNGPDGIQPPGPYWTFG 8QO $GIKPP FGT 2T·IGV·VKIMGKV DKU KP FKG 4ÌOGT\GKV UVGNNVG FKG #DDKNFWPI GKPGU .CD[TKPVJGU CWH FGP /ÒP\GP XQP   -PQUUQU FCU *CWRVOQVKX FCT <WP·EJUV KP 8GTDKPFWPI OKV CPFGTGP &CTUVGNNWPIGP FGT MTGVKUEJGP /[VJQNQIKG OKV   FGPGP FKG 5VCFV KJTG 8GTICPIGPJGKV RTQRCIKGTVG WPF \WNGV\V CWH )GRT·IGP OKV FGT &CTUVGNNWPI TÌOKUEJGT -CKUGT   DGNGIVG FCU .CD[TKPVJ ÒDGT GKPGP <GKVTCWO XQP  ,CJTJWPFGTVGP UGKPG JGTCWUTCIGPFG $GFGWVWPI HÒT FCU CPVKMG   -PQUUQU'VYCWOX%JTUGV\VGKP-PQUUQUCNUGTUVG/ÒP\UV·VVGCWH-TGVCFKG2T·IWPIXQP$TQP\GOÒP\GPGKP CWHFGPGP\WP·EJUVCWUUEJNKG­NKEJ-ÌRHGXQP)ÌVVGTPYKG<GWU#RQNNQPQFGT#TVGOKUFCTIGUVGNNVYWTFGP#DX %JTHKPFGVUKEJFCPPCWEJCWHFGP$TQP\GOÒP\GPXQP-PQUUQUFKG&CTUVGNNWPIFGU.CD[TKPVJGU\WP·EJUVUYCUVKMC HÌTOKIMWT\FCTCWHGDGPHCNNUCNUSWCFTCVKUEJGU.CD[TKPVJCDIGDKNFGV

554



“UWOX%JTI+P5VTCJNGPMTCP\'WTQRCTGKVGVOKVYGJGPFGO5EJNGKGTCWHNUVÒTOGPFGO 5VKGTFCTWPVGT\YGK&GNRJKPG-0=W? SIWN3WCFTCVKUEJGU.CD[TKPVJFCTÒDGT5VGTP5NI6TCGIGT 5XQTQPQU 4)TÒPG2CVKPCIGNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T  $GK FKGUGT CW­GTIGYÌJPNKEJGP $TQP\GOÒP\G OKV FGT #DDKNFWPI FGT /ÒP\U[ODQNG XQP )QTV[P GKPGTUGKVU UQYKG   -PQUUQUCPFGTGTUGKVUJCPFGNVGUUKEJWOFGP0CEJYGKUGKPGU$ÒPFPKUUGU\YKUEJGPFKGUGPDGKFGPO·EJVKIUVGP2QNGKU -TGVCU FCU PCEJ  X %JT GKPIGICPIGP YWTFG WO KO N[VVKUEJGP -TKGI FKG DKU \W FKGUGO<GKVRWPMVO·EJVKIUVG 5VCFVKO<GPVTWO-TGVCU.[VVQU\W\GTUVÌTGP

1,5:1

555

1,5:1

-;-.#&'0 

6'015 “U  X %JT  I -QRH FGU #RQNNQ -CTPGKQU T9GKPVTCWDG N &TGK\CEM   —VKGPPG#TV¾OKU)[UGNGP*QQXGT 4$TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



556

210675 

#/+575Õ&TCEJOG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JT/CIKUVTCV#TKUVGWUI*GTCMQRHNOKV5VGRJCPG 'WNGCWH5EJKNFXX50)$/ 5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

124




BITHYNIA

557

2:1



2:1

-¤0+)4'+%* /KVJTCFCVGU 8+  X %JT Ô5VCVGT RGTICOGPKUEJGU ,CJT    X   %JT  2GTICOQP  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO*KTUEJ YGKFGV N KP 'HGWMTCP\FG%CNNCVC[&4D

FKGU'ZGORNCT   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKVDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#WMVKQP*GUU.GW.W\GTP0T

558

1,5:1

558

2#2*.#)10+# 

5+012'Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT X%JTI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT <GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNN#MTQUVQNKQP2TKEG 42TCEJVGZGORNCTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

559

1,5:1

1,5:1

$+6*;0+# 

-¤0+)4'+%*2TWUKCU++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGI-QRHOKVIGHNÒIGNVGT6CGPKG T<GWU 5VTCVKQU UVGJV N OKV <GRVGT WPF DGMT·P\V -ÌPKIUPCOGP FCXQT #FNGT CWH $NKV\ ÒDGT /QPQ   ITCOO9CFFKPIVQP4GEIGP2N::: (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  2TWUKCU ++ IGPCPPV -[PGIQU ,·IGT  YKTF XQP 2QN[DKQU CNU YGKPGTNKEJGT $CTDCT QJPG 5MTWRGN WPF )GYKUUGP   IGUEJKNFGTV  &GT-ÌPKIYCTOKV#RCOGXGTJGKTCVGVFGT5EJYGUVGTFGU-ÌPKIU2GTUGWUYCUKJPCDGTPKEJV JKPFGTVGUKEJKOTÌOKUEJOCMGFQPKUEJGP-TKGICWHFKG5GKVGFGT4ÌOGT\WUVGNNGPX%JTVTCVGTKO5GPCVKP (TGKIGNCUUGPGPVTCEJVCWHWPFTGFGVGFKG5GPCVQTGPOKV5EJÒV\GPFG)ÌVVGTCPYCUFGP*GTTGPFQEJGVYCU\WYGKV IKPI 2QN[DKQU    0CEJ ÒDGT  4GIKGTWPIULCJTGP XQNNGT 6GTTQT XGTUWEJVG GT UGKPGP GTUVIGDQTGPGP 5QJP   0KMQOGFGUWODTKPIGP\WNCUUGP&KGUGTTGDGNNKGTVGOKVRGTICOGPKUEJGT*KNHG&KG$ÒTIGTXQP0KMQOGFGKCNKGHGTVGP FGPXGTJC­VGP-ÌPKICWUWPF0KMQOGFGUNKG­KJPUVGKPKIGP #RRKCP/KVJTCFCVGUHH,WUVKPWU:::+8 

125


MYSIA

560

2:1

560

/;5+# 

-;<+-15'N5VCVGTX%JTI8GTGKPVGT.ÌYGPWPF9KFFGTMQRHWPVGP6JWPHKUEJ 8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO50)(TCPEGpXGTIN 5VCVGT X(TKV\G 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T  -[\KMQUDGJGTTUEJVG\WUCOOGPOKV.CORUCMQUFGP*CPFGNOKVFGP-ÒUVGPFGU5EJYCT\GP/GGTGU)NGKEJ\GKVKIYCT GU<GPVTWOFGU6JWPHKUEJ(CPIGUFGTGKPG·JPNKEJG$GFGWVWPIJCVVGYKGFGT*GTKPIUHCPIKO/KVVGNCNVGT&KG'NGMV TQPUVCVGTGYWTFGPXQODKU\WO,CJTJWPFGTVIGRT·IV-[\KMQUYCTFKGGKP\KIG5VCFVFGUCVVKUEJGP5GGDWPFGU FKGPGDGP#VJGPRT·IGPFWTHVG&GT'NGMVTQPUVCVGTGPVURTCEJ&TCEJOGPQFGTUGEJU6GVTCFTCEJOGP

563

562

561



2:1

2:1

2:1

'N*GMVG  X %JT  I .ÌYGPMQRH N FCJKPVGT 6JWPHKUEJ8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50)   (TCPEGX(TKV\G 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'TYQTDGPCO,WPKDGKFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP



'N*GMVG  X %JT  I .ÌYGPMQRH N FCJKPVGT 6JWPHKUEJ8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50)   (TCPEGX(TKV\G 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





'N 5VCVGT  X %JT  I *CTRK[G UVGJV N OKV 6JWPHKUEJ8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50)   (TCPEGXGTINH *GMVGP X(TKV\G6[R 45GJTUEJÌP



564



1,5:1

564

2'4)#/10 #VVCNQU +  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH FGU 2JKNGVCKTQU T OKV   &KCFGO#VJGPC 5VGRJCPQRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT 'HGWDNCVV WPF /QPQITCOO 9GUVGTOCTM )TWRRG +8 #  

8:.+++  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPKO1MVQDGTDGK)NGPFKPKPIU.QPFQP

565



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  I -QRH FGU 2JKNGVCKTQU T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#VJGPC 5VGRJCPQRJQTQU UKV\V N   FCXQT$KGPGWPF/QPQITCOOFCJKPVGT$QIGP9GUVGTOCTM)TWRRG8+#8%84p 5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

126




LESBOS

566

641#5 

6'0'&15Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI,CPWUHÌTOKIGT-QRH /·PPGTMQRHN(TCWGPMQRH T +P+PEWUWO&QRRGNCZV*QQXGT 445EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T

567

568

#'1.+5  

-;/'Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT/CIKUVTCV1N[ORKQUI-QRHFGT#OC\QPG-[OGT OKV6CGPKG+P.QTDGGTMTCP\2HGTFUVGJVTFCXQT5M[RJQU1CMNG[KP#05/0  5GJTUEJÌP /;4+0# Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T+P .QTDGGTMTCP\   #RQNNQXQP)T[PGKQPUVGJVTOKV2CVGTCWPF.QTDGGT\YGKIOKVJGTCDJ·PIGPFGP6CGPKGPFCXQT1ORJC NQUWPF-CPVJCTQU5CEMU 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'TYQTDGPXQP6COEQ5VQEMJQNO &GT#RQNNQXQP)T[PGKQPJCVYKG8GTIKNKPFGT#GPGKUCPIKDVFGO#GPGCUDGHQJNGPPCEJ+VCNKGP\WGKNGP







570

569 1,5:1

1,5:1



1,5:1

1,5:1

6'/015 “U  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I &KQP[UQUMQRH N OKV 'HGWMTCP\9GKPVTCWDG OKV   4CPMG50)%QRHH50)/ÒPEJGP &WPMNG2CVKPCHGKPGT5VKNUGJTUEJÌP



.'5$15 

/;6+.'0' 'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   9GKDNKEJGT-QRHTKO.KPKGPSWCFTCV$QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPCO(GDTWCTDGKFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP

572

571

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1



'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I -QRH FGT +Q T&KQP[UQUMQRH T OKV 'HGWMTCP\ KP   .KPKGPSWCFTCV$QFGPUVGFV (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I -QRH FGT +Q T&KQP[UQUMQRH T OKV 'HGWMTCP\ KP   .KPKGPSWCFTCV$QFGPUVGFV )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPCO(GDTWCTDGKFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP

1,5:1



573

1,5:1

'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI&KQP[UQUMQRHTOKV'HGWMTCP\-QRHGKPGU,ÒPINKPIUT OKV*CCTDCPFWPF*ÌTPEJGP$QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP

 127


LESBOS

574

1,5:1



575 1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I &GOGVGTMQRH T OKV JTG WPF 5EJNGKGT&TGKHW­   $QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'TYQTDGPCO(GDTWCTDGKFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP



'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-KVJCTC$QFGPUVGFV 8QT\ÒINKEJ

577

576 1,5:1



1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1



'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI-QRHGKPGU-CDKTGPTOKV2KNGWU\YKUEJGP\YGK5VGTPGP -QRHFGT2GTUGRJQPGQFGT*GMCVGTKP.KPKGPSWCFTCV$QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI-QRHGKPGU-CDKTGPTOKV2KNGWU\YKUEJGP\YGK5VGTPGP -QRHFGT2GTUGRJQPGQFGT*GMCVGTKP.KPKGPSWCFTCV$QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T

578

1,5:1

579

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1



'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI-QRHGKPGU-CDKTGPTOKV2KNGWU\YKUEJGP\YGK5VGTPGP -QRHFGT2GTUGRJQPGQFGT*GMCVGTKP.KPKGPSWCFTCV$QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP





'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\+P .KPKGPSWCFTCV   #TVGOKUMQRHT$QFGPUVGFV 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP.CPECUVGT0T

580

1,5:1



581

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I -QRH FGU <GWU /GKNKEJKQU T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\+P   .KPKGPSWCFTCV$ÒUVGFGT0KMGXX-QRHTQDGP\YGK5VGTPG$QFGPUVGFV  .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I ,ÒPINKPIUMQRH T OKV #OOQPUJQTP#FNGT UVGJV T   \WTÒEMDNKEMGPF$QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T



&GT,ÒPINKPIUMQRHOKVFGO#OOQPUJQTPKUVOKVIWVGP)TÒPFGPCWH#NGZCPFGTWPFFGP5RTWEJFGU#OOQPUQTCMGN KPFGT1CUG5KYCXQPX%JTDG\QIGPYQTFGP $QFGPUVGFV5 

128


IONIA

583

582

2:1

583

582

+10+# 

70$'56+//6' /ª0<5666' 'N 5VCVGT WO  X %JT  I )NCVV<YGK +PEWUC   FCTKPIGQOGVTKUEJG.KPKGP.KP\CNQPGXGTIN9GKFCWGTp 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGU5RKPM0WOKUOCVKE%KTEWNCT8QN%+80T.QPFQP0T



'N 5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I *KTUEJRTQVQOG N \WTÒEMDNKEMGPF N KO (GNF FTGK   -WIGNP+PEWUWO#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG /ÒP\G KUV GKP 6GKNUVÒEM FGU DGTÒJOVGP 2JCPGU5VCVGTU &GT 2JCPGU5VCVGT WPF UGKPG 6GKNUVÒEMG YGTFGP HÒT   IGYÌJPNKEJ'RJGUQU\WIGYKGUGPFCFGT KPUR·VGTGT<GKV HÒT'RJGUQUV[RKUEJG*KTUEJCDIGDKNFGVKUV&KGUG<WYGK UWPI KUV CNNGTFKPIU \YGKHGNJCHV FC FKG *KTUEJRTQVQOG KP FKGUGT HTÒJGP <GKV MGKPGUYGIU \YCPIUN·WHKI CWH 'RJGUQU  

QFGT MQTTGMVGT -QTGUUQU  XGTYGKUV UKGJG -CTYKGUG 5VGHCP 6JG #TVGOKUKWO %QKP *QCTF CPF VJG HKTUV %QKPU QH   'RJGUWUKP4$0  5 +O#TVGOKUKQPKP'RJGUQUKUVCWEJNGFKINKEJGKP6GKNUVÒEMFGU2JCPGU5VCVGTU IGHWPFGPYQTFGPYGKVCWUOGJT5VÒEMGHCPFGPUKEJ\$KP-QNQRJQP UKGJG50)X#WNQEM#PO\WCPFGTGP (WPFQTVGP UKGJG 4CFPQVK#NHÌNFK / <WT JKUVQTKUEJGP 'KPQTFPWPI FGU (TCPMHWTVGT 2JCPGU 5VCVGTU KP  ,CJTG   (TCPMHWTVGT0WOKUOCVKUEJG)GUGNNUEJCHV(TCPMHWTV5 &KG(TCIGFGT/ÒP\UV·VVGOW­FCJGTQHHGPDNGKDGP

585

584 1,5:1

1,5:1



2:1

2:1

'N*GMVG  5VCVGT  WO  X %JT  I 2HGTFGRTQVQOG N+PEWUWO 50) -C[JCP p   9GKFCWGTXGTIN 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP+VCNQ8GEEJK.QPFQP0T



5VTWVJCU 5CVTCR  X %JT Õ*GOKQDQN WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I .ÌYGPMQRH N   5CVTCRGPMQRHN9KP\GT 8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV9QJNFCU\YGKVGDGMCPPVG'ZGORNCT (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ &KG<WYGKUWPIKUVPKEJVIGUKEJGTV

586





587

'2*'515Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV6CWTGCUI$KGPG*KTUEJRTQVQOGT \WTÒEMDNKEMGPFFCJKPVGT2CNOG#UJVQPWC6JG2KZQFCTQU*QCTF%NCUU#  5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV 'QEJQTQUQU  I $KGPG*KTUEJRTQVQOG T\WTÒEM DNKEMGPFFCJKPVGT2CNOG#UJVQPWC6JG2KZQFCTQU*QCTF%NCUU*1 ! $/%  5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0T

588







589

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV .[MQOGFGU  I $KGPG*KTUEJRTQVQOG T \WTÒEM   DNKEMGPFFCJKPVGT2CNOG#UJVQPWC6JG2KZQFCTQU*QCTF%NCUU+$/%  #XGTUFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&TCEJOG WO  X %JT /CIKUVTCV 5QVCU  I $KGPG*KTUEJ UVGJV T FCJKPVGT 2CNOG   -KPPU6JG#VVKE9GKIJV&TCEJOUQH'RJGUWU#2TGNKOKPCT[5VWF[KPVJG.KIJVQH4GEGPV*QCTFUKP 0%5 *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCOKPMQTTQFKGTVUQPUVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPCO,WPKDGKFGT*CPUGCVKUEJGP/ÒP\GPJCPFNWPI$TGOGP

129


IONIA

2:1



590

2:1

-.#<1/'0#+ 'N 5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I 9KFFGTMQRH T+PEWUWO $CDGNQP   6TCKV¾ .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



&KG<WYGKUWPIKUVPKEJVIGUKEJGTV

591



591

1,5:1

/#)0'5+#Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT/CIKUVTCV2CWUCPKCU 5QJPFGU 2CWUCPKCUI #TVGOKUDÒUVG T OKV $QIGP WPF -ÌEJGT+P -TCP\ 0CEMVGT #RQNNQ UVGJV N CWH /·CPFGT CP &TGKHW­   IGNGJPVCWHFKGUGO-ÌEJGT$/%p50)%QR50)X#WNQEM *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T  /ÌINKEJGTYGKUG YCTGP FKG CWH FGP OCIPGUKUEJGP /ÒP\GP IGPCPPVGP +PFKXKFWGP MGKPG #OVUVT·IGT UQPFGTP TGKEJG   /·PPGT FKG GKPG .GKVWTIGKC GKP 9GTM HÒT FGP 5VCCV KP FKGUGO (CNN GKPG 5RGPFG FKG FKG 2T·IWPI FGT /ÒP\GP   GTOÌINKEJVG XQNNDTCEJVGPWPFCWUFKGUGO)TWPFFWTEJFKG0GPPWPIKJTGU0COGPUCWHFGP/ÒP\GPIGGJTVYWTFGP 5KGJG,QPGU9TGCVJGF6GVTCFTCEJOGUQH/CIPGUKCKP#05/0  5HH



592



/+.'6 Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTGKGT   X %JT  I *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T   <GWU#GVQRJQTQUUKV\VNFCXQT.ÌYG5VGTPWPF/QPQITCOOWPVGTFGO6JTQP/QPQITCOO2TKEG 2T·EJVKIG4GXGTUFCTUVGNNWPIUGJTUEJÌP

593

1,5:1

593

594

1,5:1



594



2*1-#+# 'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI#VJGPCMQRHNOKVCVVKUEJGO*GNO8KGT IGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO$QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP





'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI-QRHFGT#TVGOKUNÒDGTFGT5EJWNVGT-ÌEJGTWPVGP 4QDDG8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO$QFGPUVGFV (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



595



1,5:1

595

596

1,5:1

596

'N*GMVG  5VCVGT X%JTI(TCWGPMQRHN8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO$QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP



'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI&GOGVGTMQRHNOKVJTGPMTCP\8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO $QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP1UNQ/[PVJCPFGN1UNQ0T

 130


CARIA

597



598

597

1,5:1

1,5:1

598

'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI#VJGPCMQRHNOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNOFCTWPVGT4QDDG 8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO$QFGPUVGFV 5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­HCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T



'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI#VJGPCMQRHNOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNOFCTWPVGT4QDDG 8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO$QFGPUVGFV (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



600

599



6'15 Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I )TGKH UKV\V T FCXQT 9GKPVTCWDG WPF $NCVV8KGTIGVGKNVGU   +PEWUWO$CNEGTKP504 4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 



Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I )TGKH UKV\V T FCXQT 2CPVJGTMQRH8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO $CNEGT   KP504XGTIN 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 'TYQTDGPCO,WPKDGKFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP

602

601





%*+15 Õ&TCEJOG WO  X %JT  I 5RJKPZ UKV\V N FCXQT #ORJQTG8KGTIGVGKNVGU   +PEWUWO$CNFYKPHH/CXTQIQTFCVQHH &WPMNG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



&CVKGTWPIPCEJ0KEJQNCU*CTFYKEM



Õ&TCEJOG WO  X %JT  I 5RJKPZ UKV\V N FCXQT 9GKPVTCWDG WPF #ORJQTG8KGTIGVGKNVGU   ITCPWNKGTVGU+PEWUWO$CNFYKP/CXTQIQTFCVQC (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&CVKGTWPIPCEJ0KEJQNCU*CTFYKEM

603

3:1



%#4+#

3:1

2KZQFCTQU  X %JT 5CVTCR Ô 5VCVGT  X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH N&QRRGNCZV   50)X#WNQEM #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

604



605

604

Õ&KFTCEJOG  I #RQNNQMQRH HCUV X X<GWU .CDTCWPFQU UVGJV T OKV <GRVGT WPF &QRRGNCZV   #UJVQPWC6JG2KZQFCTQU*QCTFp #2p 50)X#WNQEM  4GXGTUNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌP



-#7015Õ&TCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV-VGVQUI<GWUMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\+P +PEWUWO)GHNÒIGNVGT$NKV\N-KVJCTC#UJVQPKP4$0%:.8  XGTIN5 QJPG$GK \GKEJGP-KVJCTC  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2KZQFCTQU YCT FGT LÒPIUVG 5QJP FGU *GMCVQOPQU PCEJ FGO 6QF UGKPGU $TWFGTU *KFTKGWU XGTFT·PIVG GT FGUUGP   )GOCJNKP#FCXQPFGT4GIKGTWPI&GT4GXGTUFGU5VÒEMGU\GKIVLGPGP)QVVFGUUGP-WNVUKEJFKG*GMCVQOPKFGP\W KJTGO (COKNKGPMWNV GTMQTGP JCVVGP <GWU .CDTCWPFQU &CU *GKNKIVWO FGU)QVVGUNCIKP.CDTCPFCD\Y.CDTCWPFC GKPGO5VCFKGPXQP/[NCUCGPVHGTPVGP1TV&CU&QRRGNDGKNUQNNFGT-WNVNGIGPFGPCEJLGPGUUGKPYGNEJGU*GTCMNGU FGT#OC\QPGPMÌPKIKP*KRRQN[VGCDIGTWPIGPWPFFGT1ORJCNGIGUEJGPMVJCVVGXQPFKGUGTUQNNGUCPFKGN[FKUEJGP -ÌPKIGÒDGTIGICPIGPUGKPUEJNKG­NKEJUQNNGUXQP)[IGUCNU8QVKXCPFCU*GKNKIVWOFGU<GWU.CDTCWPFQUÒDGTIGDGP YQTFGPUGKP



131


CARIA

607

606

607



-0+&15 Õ6TKJGOKQDQN  X %JT  I .ÌYGPMQRH T+P +PEWUWO #RJTQFKVGMQRH T   %CJP 445GJTUEJÌP





Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT  I .ÌYGPRTQVQOG T+P +PEWUWO #RJTQFKVGMQRH T %CJP    (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

608 1,5:1

1,5:1



-15Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV6JGQFQVQUI*GTCMNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNN +P 2GTNSWCFTCV -TGDU FCTWPVGT -GWNG #UJVQP W C 6JG 2KZQFCTWU *QCTF  E FKGU 'ZGORNCT    +PIXCNFUGP 5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI0GNUQP$WPMGT*WPV#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U0GY;QTM0T

609



610

611

4*1&15 Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV /PCUKOCEJQU  I *GNKQUMQRH HCUV X X   4QUGNUVGJV#VJGPC#UJVQP6JG%QKPCIGQH4JQFGU50)-GEMOCP 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP4QOC0WOKUOCVKEU.QPFQP0T



Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV/PCUKOCEJQUI*GNKQUMQRHHCUVXX4QUGNUVGJV #VJGPC#UJVQP6JG%QKPCIGQH4JQFGU50)-GEMOCP  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV/PCUKOCEJQUI*GNKQUMQRHHCUVXX4QUGNUVGJV #VJGPC#UJVQP6JG%QKPCIGQH4JQFGU50)-GEMOCP )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



612 1,5:1



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV #OGKPKCU  I *GNKQUMQRH HCUV X X4QUG N   2TQTC#UJVQP6JG%QKPCIGQH4JQFGU50)-GEMOCP  4(GKPG6ÌPWPICVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

132

1,5:1


LYDIA

613

614



615

Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV #TKUVQDQWNQU  I *GNKQUMQRH T+P +PEWUWO 4QUG N   -GWNG,GPMKPU4JQFKCP2NKPVJQRJQTQK)TQWR#50)-GEMOCP 5GJTUEJÌP



Õ&TCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV 0KMQRJQP  I *GNKQUMQRH HCUV X X4QUGPDNÒVG \YKUEJGP   21QDGP'WNG#UJVQP9GKUU6JG2QUV2NKPVJQRJQTKE5KNXGT&TCEJOUQH4JQFG  (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&TCEJOGX%JT/CIKUVTCV+CUQPI*GNKQUMQRHHCUVXX4QUGPDNÒVG\YKUEJGP21 QDGP(ÒNNJQTP#UJVQP9GKUU6JG2QUV2NKPVJQRJQTKE5KNXGT&TCEJOUQH4JQFG  (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\JCPFNWPI  /ÒPEJGP  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP )KGUUGPGT /ÒP\   JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

616



“U  X %JT /CIKUVTCV <GPQP  I *GNKQUMQRH HCUV X X+P 'KEJGPMTCP\ 4QUGPDNÒVG   #UJVQP9GKUU6JG2QUV2NKPVJQRJQTKE5KNXGT&TCEJOUQH4JQFG2:8+# FKGU'ZGORNCT   )TÒPG2CVKPCOKVNGKEJVGP#WHNCIGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T

617



1,5:1

617

618

.;&+#

1,5:1

618

#N[CVVGU  X %JT 'N 5VCVGT  X %JT 5CTFGKU  I .ÌYGPMQRH T+PEWUWO   50)X#WNQEM9CIIQPGT4QUGP%QNN9GKFCWGTXGTINHH 5GJTUEJÌP



'N*GMVG  5VCVGT  5CTFGKU  I .ÌYGPMQRH T<YGKIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO 50) X #WNQEM p   9CIIQPGT4QUGP%QNNp9GKFCWGTHH 44)GHÒVVGTVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



619



1,5:1

619

620

1,5:1

620

'N 5VCVGT  X %JT 5CTFGKU  I .ÌYGPMQRH T+PEWUWO 50) X #WNQEM    9CIIQPGT4QUGP%QNN9GKFCWGT 5GJTUEJÌP



&KG<WUEJTGKDWPI\W#N[CVVGUKUVFKGVTCFKVKQPGNNG&KGUGU5VÒEMUVCOOVUKEJGTCWU.[FKGPWPFIGJÌTVKPFKG<GKVXQT -TQKUQU



-TQKUQUX%JTÔ5VCVGT UEJYGTGT5VCPFCTF 5CTFGKUI.ÌYGPWPF5VKGTRTQVQOG GKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGT<YGK+PEWUC50)X#WNQEM  4-N5EJÒTHURWTCWHFGO#XGTUUQPUVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



-TQKUQU FGT 5QJP FGU #N[CVVGU CWU FGO )GUEJNGEJV FGT /GTOPCFGP YCT FGT NGV\VG -ÌPKI XQP .[FKGP 'U IGNCPI   -TQKUQU FCU YGUVNKEJG -NGKPCUKGP DKU CP FGP *CN[U \W WPVGTYGTHGP OKV #WUPCJOG XQP .[MKGP WPF -KNKMKGP &GT   4GKEJVWO FGU N[FKUEJGP -ÌPKIU YCT URTKEJYÌTVNKEJ -TQKUQU JCV GKP WOHCUUGPFGU DKOGVCNNKUEJGU /ÒP\U[UVGO GPV   YQTHGPFCUCWHGKPGOUEJYGTGP)QNFUVCVGTXQPIWPFGKPGONGKEJVGP)QNFUVCVGTXQPIUQYKGGKPGO5KNDGT UVCVGTXQPIDGKGKPGO8GTJ·NVPKUXQP)QNF\W5KNDGTXQPDGTWJVG'UICD5VÒEMGNWPIGPFGT5VCVGTG DKUJKPCD\WO5VCVGT&CUOGKUVGTJCHVG9·JTWPIUU[UVGOFGU-TQKUQUOKVXGTUEJKGFGPGP0QOKPCNGPHCPFKP FGT#PVKMGPKGYKGFGTUGKPGUINGKEJGP

133


LYDIA

621



Ô5VCVGT NGKEJVGT 5VCPFCTF  5CTFGKU  I .ÌYGP WPF 5VKGTRTQVQOG GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT<YGK   +PEWUC50)X#WNQEM 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

622



621

2:1

622

2:1

Ô5VCVGT NGKEJVGT 5VCPFCTF  5CTFGKU  I .ÌYGP WPF 5VKGTRTQVQOG GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT<YGK   +PEWUC50)X#WNQEM 445GJTUEJÌP  'TYQTDGPXQP*CTNCP,$GTM

623



623

2:1

Õ 5VCVGT 5CTFGKU  I .ÌYGP WPF 5VKGTRTQVQOG GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT<YGK +PEWUC 50) X   #WNQEMXGTINHH (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*KTUEJ0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0T

625

624



Õ 5VCVGT 5CTFGKU  I .ÌYGP WPF 5VKGTRTQVQOG GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT<YGK +PEWUC 50) X   #WNQEMXGTINHH (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP





Õ 5VCVGT 5CTFGKU  I .ÌYGP WPF 5VKGTRTQVQOG GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT<YGK +PEWUC 50) X   #WNQEMXGTINHH 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

626



2:1

626

Õ5VCVGT5CTFGKUI.ÌYGPWPF5VKGTRTQVQOGGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGT<YGK+PEWUC9CIIQPGT 4QUGP%QNN 5GJTUEJÌP

627



628



0;5# Õ%KUVQRJQT PCEJ  X %JT  I %KUVC O[UVKEC KP 'HGWMTCP\<YGK 5EJNCPIGP WO   -ÌEJGTT*GTOG4GINKPI0[UCXCT50)-C[JCPXCT 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌP





64#..'5 Õ%KUVQRJQT ,CJT    X %JT   I %KUVC O[UVKEC KP 'HGWMTCP\<YGK   5EJNCPIGPWO-ÌEJGTNWPFTRALQDGPPTOLT&KQP[UQUOKV5KNGPUOCUMG$/%50)%QR 50)X#WNQEM 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

134


CILICIA

629

630

631

.;%+# 

-JKPCMJC !  Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I 2GICUWU N CWH 4WPFUEJKNF FCTWPVGT -WIGN+P   +PEWUWO6TKUMGNKUKP2GTNMTGKU50)X#WNQEM8KUOCTC++XCT )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP

'TYQTDGPXQP#PFTG%KEJQU



2#/2*;.+# 

#52'0&15 Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I <YGK 4KPIGT5EJNGWFGTGT T FCXQT 6TKUMGNKU   50)%QRp50)(TCPEGp50)X#WNQEMp 5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

2+5+&+# 

5'.)'Õ5VCVGTX%JTI<YGK4KPIGTFC\YKUEJGPAL*GTCMNGUUVGJVTOKV-GWNG WPF .ÌYGPHGNN $/% p +OJQQH$NWOGT -NGKPCUKCVKUEJG /ÒP\GP ++ 5   QJPG FKGUG 8CTKCPVG   50)(TCPEGp 448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T

632 2:1

633 2:1

2:1

2:1

%+.+%+# 



70$'56+//6'/ª0<5666'Õ*GOKQDQN,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI$·TVKIGT-QRHXX OKV*GNO$·TVKIGT-QRHXXTCTCO·KUEJG.GIGPFG $GVJ.COGF! 6TQZGNN-CICP5  44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ6GVCTVGOQTKQP,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHXX5RJKPZUKV\VN6TQZGNN-CICP5 45GJTUEJÌP



634



+5515 5VCFV Õ5VCVGT  X %JT UKIPKGTV XQP #RCVQTKQU !   I #RQNNQ UVGJV N OKV   2JKCNGFKG.KPMGCP.QTDGGTDCWO*GTCMNGUUVGJVTOKV-GWNG$QIGPWPF.ÌYGPHGNNFCJKPVGT-TCP\ FCXQT/QPQITCOO$TKPFNG[KP0%5)TQWRC50)(TCPEGp50).GXCPVGpXGTIN 445GJTUEJÌP



&KG&GWVWPIFGU0COGPU#RCVQTKQUCWHFGO#XGTUKUVUGKVNCPIGOWOUVTKVVGPGUMCPPUKEJWOGKPG5VGORGNUEJPGK FGTUKIPCVWTGKPGP$GCOVGPPCOGPQFGTWOGKPG$G\GKEJPWPIFGUFCTIGUVGNNVGP)QVVGUJCPFGNP+PFGT50).GXCPVG YKTF YQJN 0GYGNNU #WUHÒJTWPIGP KO 0%  5  HQNIGPF #RCVQTKQU CNU $GKPCOG FGU )QVVGU IGFGWVGV   9QNHICPI.GUEJJQTPHÒJTVFGP0COGP CNNGTFKPIUKTTVÒONKEJAPATOURIOUUVCVVAPATORIOU KPUGKPGT.KUVG FGT$GCOVGPPCOGPCWH .GUEJJQTP.GZKMQPFGT#WHUEJTKHVGPCWHITKGEJKUEJGP/ÒP\GP$CPF++9KGP5  +P 5QNQK UKIPKGTV KP FGT GTUVGP *·NHVG FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU X %JT GKPFGWVKI GKP 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT #RCVQTKQU 50)   (TCPEG  &KGUGJTWPIGYÌJPNKEJG5EJTGKDYGKUGAPATORIOUCWHFGOXQTNKGIGPFGP5VÒEMFKGUEJQP0G YGNNCWHIGHCNNGPYCT FGOCNNGTFKPIUFKG/ÒP\GCWU5QNQKPKEJVDGMCPPVYCT NGIVFKG8GTOWVWPIPCJGFC­GUUKEJ DGKFGOCWHWPUGTGO5VÒEMGTY·JPVGP#RCVQTKQUWOFGPCWEJKP5QNQKUKIPKGTGPFGP5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTJCPFGNV5KGJG JKGT\W CWEJ 1NKXKGT /CUUQP .¾IGPFGU OQP¾VCKTGU ITGESWGU ++  5KIPCVWTGU F CTVKUVG UWT FGU OQPPCKGU FG %KNKEKG   -CFOQUR

135


CILICIA

635

636



-'.'0&'4+5Õ5VCVGTX%JTI4GKVGTNOKV2GKVUEJG<KGIGN\WTÒEMDNKEMGPF QDGP'HGWTCPMG50)(TCPEG50).GXCPVGp (NCWGT#XGTUUVGORGNUGJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





0#)+&15 Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I #RJTQFKVG UKV\V N OKV 2CVGTC FCJKPVGT 'TQU FCXQT   #NVCT&KQP[UQUUVGJVNOKV4GDGPWPF6J[TUQU.GFGTGT 5VGORGNDTWEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

638 637



1,5:1

1,5:1

Õ5VCVGT  X %JT  I #RJTQFKVG UKV\V N OKV 2CVGTC FCJKPVGT 'TQU FCXQT #NVCT&KQ   P[UQUUVGJVNOKV4GDGPWPF6J[TUQU.GFGTGT  -N5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO#XGTUMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'TYQTDGPKO/·T\XQP2QPVGTKQ#UUQEKCVGU5CP&KGIQ



51.1+Õ1DQNX%JTI#VJGPCMQRHTOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO9GKPVTCWDG50) (TCPEGp50).GXCPVGp50)X#WNQEMp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

639 1,5:1



1,5:1

6#4515 2JCTPCDC\QU  X %JT Õ5VCVGT  I $CCNVCTU UKV\V N OKV .QVQU\GRVGT-QRH   GKPGU-TKGIGTUNOKV*GNO50)(TCPEG50).GXCPVG  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QNFDGTI.QU#PIGNGU0T

640



641

/C\CKQU  X %JT 5CVTCRÕ5VCVGTI$CCNVCTUUKV\VNOKV#FNGTJTG9GKPVTCWDG WPF<GRVGT.ÌYGNUEJN·IV5VKGTN50).GXCPVG  #XGTUOKPFG\GPVTKGTVFGPPQEJXQT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5EJWNVGP %Q)OD*-ÌNP1MVQDGT0T  &CU$KNFFGU-CORHGU\YKUEJGP.ÌYGWPF5VKGTYCTKOCNVGP1TKGPVUGJTXGTDTGKVGVWPFU[ODQNKUKGTVGWTURTÒPINKEJ FGPJGNKCMNKUEJGP7PVGTICPIFGU5VGTPDKNFU6CWTWUFGT\WP·EJUVOKVFGO6GTOKPFGT(TÒJNKPIUCWUUCCVCWHITWPFFGT 2T·\GUUKQP \WT <GKV FGT #UU[TGT WPF FGT HTÒJGP #EJ·OGPKFGP LGFQEJ GVYC OKV FGO (TÒJNKPIURWPMV \WUCOOGPHKGN   &CXKF7NCPUG[N·­VFKG(TCIGQHHGPQDFCU5[ODQNFGU.ÌYG5VKGT-CORHGUCWHFGPVCTUKUEJGP/ÒP\GPKPFKGUGO 5KPPG GKPG CUVTQPQOKUEJG $GFGWVWPI JCVVG QFGT \W GKPGO JGTCNFKUEJGP 'ODNGO QJPG DGUQPFGTGP $G\WI IGYQTFGP   YCTIGJVLGFQEJFCXQPCWUFC­FKGUGU5VKGTVÌVWPIUDKNFGKP'NGOGPVKPFGO2TQ\GUUIGYGUGPKUVKPFGUUGP8GTNCWH FKG/KVJTCUXGTGJTGTFKG6CWTQMVQPKGU\GPGCNU5[ODQNHÒTFKG2T·\GUUKQPCWUY·JNVGP UKGJGJKGT\WWPF\WTWOUVTKVVG PGP&GWVWPIFGU/KVJTCUMWNVDKNFGUCNU5[ODQNFGTXQP*KRRCTEJGPVFGEMVGP2T·\GUUKQP7NCPUG[&KG7TURTÒPIGFGU /KVJTCUMWNVGU-QUOQNQIKGWPF'TNÌUWPIKPFGT#PVKMG5VWVVICTV 



Õ5VCVGT  I $CCNVCTU UKV\V N OKV #FNGT JTG 9GKPVTCWDG WPF <GRVGT.ÌYG N UEJN·IV 5VKGT N   50).GXCPVG 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

136




SYRIA

644

642



643

Õ5VCVGT  I $CCNVCTU UKV\V N OKV #FNGT JTG 9GKPVTCWDG WPF <GRVGT.ÌYG N UEJN·IV 5VKGT N   50).GXCPVG 8QT\ÒINKEJ



%;2475 

5#.#/+5 'WGNVJQP  X %JT Õ5VCVGT  I 9KFFGT NCIGTV N)NCVV $/%  HH   6\KCODC\KU 2TÒHGKPJKGDCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0TFGT0(#9KPVGT/CKN$KF5CNGXQO&G\GODGT 0TWPFFGT5COONWPI,QPCVJCP24QUGP 9CIIQPGT4QUGP%QNN 



'WCIQTCU+X%JTÕ6GVTQDQNI0CEMVGT*GTCMNGUUKV\VCWH(GNUGPTOKV*QTPWPF -GWNG<KGIGNKGIVT$/%HH6\KCODC\KU 5GJTUEJÌP



'KPG5COONWPI<[RGTPHKPFGP5KGWPVGT0T

646

645

647

%#22#&1%+# 

-¤0+)4'+%*#TKCTCVJGU+X%JTÕ&TCEJOG)C\KWTCI$CCNXQP)C\KWTCUKV\VN OKV#FNGTJTGWPF9GKPVTCWDG)TGKHNUEJN·IV*KTUEJN5KOQPGVVCwXGTINC  44(GKPG6ÌPWPIIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T



#4/'0+# 

6KITCPGU++X%JT“UI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV6KCTC&TGKHW­0GTEGUUKCP  45GJTUEJÌP



5;4+# 

-¤0+)4'+%*5GNGWMQU+X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT.CQFKMGKCI *GTCMNGUMQRH KO .ÌYGPHGNN T<GWU #GVQRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT &GNRJKP WPF /QPQITCOO WPVGT   FGO 6JTQP /QPQITCOO *QWIJVQP 6JG GCTN[ 5GNGWEKF /KPV QH .CQFKEGC CF OCTG # 2    *QWIJVQP.QTDGT 45GJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



648



1,5:1

#PVKQEJQU+X%JTÔ5VCVGT#K-JCPQWOI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO#RQNNQUKV\VN CWH1ORJCNQUOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGP*QWIJVQP.QTDGT0GYGNN'5/50)5RCGTp  44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



649



#PVKQEJQU ++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG PCEJ  X %JT 5GNGWMGKC CF 6KITKO  I   -QRH FGU #PVKQEJQU + T OKV &KCFGO#RQNNQ UKV\V N CWH 1ORJCNQU OKV 2HGKN WPF $QIGP *QWIJVQP    .QTDGTC0GYGNN'5/50)5RCGT 5GJTUEJÌP



'TYQTDGPKO&G\GODGTDGK)NGPFKPKPIU.QPFQP

137


SYRIA

650



651

652

Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJX%JT5GNGWMGKCCF6KITKOI-QRHFGU#PVKQEJQU+TOKV&KCFGO #RQNNQUKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGP*QWIJVQP.QTDGTE0GYGNN'5/50) 5RCGT 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG5GNGWMGKCCF6KITKOI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO#RQNNQUKV\VNCWH1ORJCNQUOKV 2HGKNWPF$QIGP*QWIJVQP.QTDGTC0GYGNN'5/50)5RCGT  5GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&GOGVTKQU +  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV   &KCFGO6[EJGUKV\VNOKV<GRVGTWPF(ÒNNJQTP*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTD0GYGNN#PVKQEJ 50)5RCGT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

653 1,5:1

1,5:1



#NGZCPFGT+X%JTÕ5EJGMGN,CJTUGNGWMKFKUEJGTTC X%JT 6[TQU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO#FNGT OKV 2CNO\YGKI CWH 2TQTC N FCXQT -GWNG WPF /QPQ   ITCOO*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTE0GYGNN6[TG50)5RCGTp  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

654



655

&GOGVTKWU ++  4GIKGTWPI  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT 5GNGWMGKC CF   6KITKOI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO6[EJGUKV\VNOKV<GRVGTWPF(ÒNNJQTP*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT 50)5RCGTHH #XGTUNGKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVOKPMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



#PVKQEJQU8++X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOG RQUVJWO MCRRCFQMKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI-QRHT OKV &KCFGO#VJGPC 0KMGRJQTQU UVGJV N *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT  *QWIJVQP.QTDGT8GUGN[   +UUWG#XGTUUVGORGN#0GYGNN#PVKQEJ50)5RCGT 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI5VWVVICTV5VWVVICTV0T

138




PHOENICIA

656



658

657

&GOGVTKQU++4GIKGTWPIX%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#PVKQEJKCI -QRHTOKV&KCFGO<GWU0KMGRJQTQUUKV\VN*QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGTE0GYGNN#PVKQEJ 50)5RCGT #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





-NGQRCVTC 6JGC WPF #PVKQEJQU 8+++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  X %JT #MG   2VQNGOCKU  I $GKFGT $ÒUVGP T<GWU 0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N *QWIJVQP.QTDGT*QQXGT    0GYGNN.5/50)5RCGT 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



5'.'7-'+# 2+'4+# Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT    QFGT  X %JT   I 6[EJG   MQRHTOKV/CWGTMTQPG$NKV\CWH6JTQP%QJGP&CVGF%QKPUQH#PVKSWKV[ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  &GT $GIKPP FGT 5VCFV·TC XQP 5GNGWMGKC 2KGTKC KUV WOUVTKVVGP  Y·JTGPF (TCPEQKU FG %CNNCVC[ .C RTQFWEVKQP FGU   V¾VTCFTCEJOGUEKXKSWGUFGNC%KNKEKGLWUSWG ¯NC2CNGUVKPG¯NCHKPFW++GGVFCPUNCRTGOK½TGOQKVK¾FW+GTUCX,% KP #WI¾&W[TCV *TUI  .G /QPPC[CIGU 5[TKGPU $G[TQWVJ  5    CNU GTUVGU ,CJT FGT 5VCFV·TC   CPHÒJTVURTKEJV'FYCTF'%QJGP 5 XQPX%JTCNU$GIKPPFGT5VCFV·TC

659

1,5:1

1,5:1

2*1'0+%+# 

#4#&15 Õ&TCEJOG ,CJT    X %JT   I $KGPG*KTUEJ UVGJV T XQT 2CNOG   &W[TCVHH (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN 0T

660





661

5+&10$CCNUJCNNKO++X%JTÕ&QRRGNUEJGMGNI)CNGGTGÒDGT9GNNGPN)TQ­ MÌPKIWPF.GPMGTKP6TKIC ! NFCJKPVGT-ÌPKIXQP5KFQPN'NC[K'NC[K  (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&QRRGNUEJGMGN  I )CNGGTG ÒDGT 9GNNGP N)TQ­MÌPKI WPF .GPMGT KP 6TKIC !  N FCJKPVGT   -ÌPKIXQP5KFQPN'NC[K'NC[Kp &4p  (GKPG6ÌPWPI2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 139


PERSIA

662

1,5:1

1,5:1



#DFB#UJVCTV+X%JTÕ&QRRGNUEJGMGN,CJT X%JT I)CNGGTGN )TQ­MÌPKIWPF9CIGPNGPMGTKP6TKICNFCJKPVGT#DFy#UJVCTV+KP·I[RVKUEJGT QFGTU[TKUEJGT 6TCEJV OKVMWNVKUEJGO<GRVGTWPF8QVKX8CUGN'NC[K'NC[KH &4   5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIDGUUGTCNUUGJTUEJÌP



664 665

ex 663

+7&#'# 

*GTQFGU FGT )TQ­G  X %JT “U  X %JT 5COCTKC  I &TGKHW­*GNO /GUJQTGT   6TGCUWT[&C\W*CUOQP·GT2TWVCJ8CNGTKWU)TCVWU“U/GUJQTGT6TGCUWT[  5VÒEM5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



#4#$+#('.+: 

5#$'4 Õ&TCEJOG  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I #VJGPCMQRH T CWH FGT 9CPIG 0'WNG T   /WPTQ*C[K 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



$#$;.10+# 

$#$;.10Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI$CCNUKV\VNOKV<GRVGT.ÌYGN/KVEJKPGT +PFQITGGML0KEQNGV2KGTTG (GKPG6ÌPWPIMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO4GXGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



666

2:1

2:1

2'45+#  140

#EJ·OGPKFGP Ô&CTGKMG WO  X %JT  I )TQ­MÌPKI KO -PKGNCWH T OKV $QIGP   +PEWUWO50)$GTT[5WPTKUG%QNNGEVKQP 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ 


BACTRIA

667



Ô&CTGKMG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI)TQ­MÌPKIKO-PKGNCWHTOKV$QIGPWPF5RGGT+PEWUWO 50)$GTT[ *GTXQTTCIGPF\GPVTKGTVGU'ZGORNCTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T  &KG RGTUKUEJG &CTGKMGKUVPCEJ&CTGKQU+FGO)TQ­GPDGPCPPVFGTFKGUG5VÒEMG\WGTUVRT·IVG'UYCTGPFKGDG MCPPVGUVGP )QNFOÒP\GP KJTGT <GKV DKU PCEJ FGT <GTUEJNCIWPI FGU 2GTUGTTGKEJGU FKG )QNFUVCVGTG #NGZCPFGTU FGU   )TQ­GP CP KJTG 5VGNNG VTCVGP /KV FGP &CTGKMGP YWTFG 9GNVIGUEJKEJVG IGUEJTKGDGP UQ DGTKEJVGV 2NWVCTEJ FC­ FGT   5RCTVCPGTMÌPKI#IGUKNCQUFGTUGKVX%JTKP-NGKPCUKGPUGJTGTHQNITGKEJ-TKGIIGIGPFKG2GTUGTHÒJTVGFWTEJ IQNFGPG &CTGKMGP OKV FGPGP UGKPG )GIPGT KP )TKGEJGPNCPF DGUVQEJGP YWTFGP IGIGP KJP -TKGI \W HÒJTGP \WO   #DDTWEJ FGU -TKGIGU KP -NGKPCUKGP IGPÌVKIV YWTFG #IGUKNCQU UQNN IGUCIV JCDGP FC­ KJP  RGTUKUEJG $QIGP   UEJÒV\GP CWU #UKGP XGTVTKGDGP J·VVGP &KG $QIGPUEJÒV\GP 6QZQVCK  UVGJGPHÒTFKG&CTGKMGP FKGLCCWHFGO#XGTU GKPGP $QIGPUEJÒV\GP \GKIGP  OKV FGPGP FKG 2QNKVKMGT KP #VJGP WPF 6JGDGP \WO -TKGI IGIGP 5RCTVC CPIGUVCEJGNV   YWTFGP

668



2:1

2:1

2:1

2:1



669

Õ 5KINQU  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I )TQ­MÌPKI KO -PKGNCWH T OKV $QIGP WPF 5RGGT   +PEWUWO-NGKPp5WPTKUG%QNNGEVKQPp9KP\GTp  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5EJGKPVWPGFKGTV8QT\ÒINKEJ



Õ5KINQU,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHFGU)TQ­MÌPKIUTOKV-TQPG+PEWUWO6TQZGNN -CICPXGTIN5 -QRHN  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌP



670

1,5:1

1,5:1

$#%64+# 

&KQFQVQU + WO  X %JT ÔCVVKUEJGT 5VCVGT OKV 6KVGN #PVKQEJQU ++ $CNMJ  I -QRH FGU   &KQFQVQU+TOKV&KCFGOBASILEWSANTIOXOU<GWUUVGJVNWPFUEJNGWFGTV$NKV\FCXQT-TCP\ WPF#FNGT$0$CEV#/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMC50)#05  42TÒHGKPJKGDCWHFGO#XGTUUQPUVCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  #NU&KQFQVQUUKEJXQP#PVKQEJQUNÌUVGRT·IVGGT\WP·EJUVPQEJ/ÒP\GPKO0COGPFGU5GNGWMKFGPUGV\VGCDGTUGKP GKIGPGU2QTVT·VCWHFKG/ÒP\GP

671



672

'WVJ[FGOQU+WOX%JTÕCVVKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOG$CEVTCI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO *GTCMNGU UKV\V N OKV -GWNG CWH (GNUGP $0 $CEV  # /KVEJKPGT +PFQITGGM  C 50) #05    #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



&GOGVTKQU+X%JT“6TKEJCNMQP/GTXI'NGHCPVGPMQRHT-GT[MGKQP$0$CEV' /KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMD50)#05 4(GNFGTIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP.CPECUVGT0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

141


AEGYPTUS

673



675

674

#PVKOCEJQU +  X %JT ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG $CEVTC  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   -CWUKC2QUGKFQP UVGJV X X OKV &TGK\CEM WPF 2CNO\YGKI OKV 6CGPKG $0 $CEV  & /KVEJKPGT   +PFQITGGMD50)#05 -NGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTWPFNGKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCICWHFGO#XGTU UQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC



'WMTCVKFGU +  X %JT ÕCVVKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG $CEVTC  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   *GNO&KQUMWTGPTGKVGPT$0$CEV9/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMH50)#05  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



+0&+# 

5E[VJGP#\GU+X%JTÕKPFKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOGI-ÌPKITGKVGVT#VJGPCIGJVTOKV 5RGGTWPF5EJKNF5GPKQT6 5GJTUEJÌP



677

676

#');2675 

2VQNGOCKQU+X%JTÕ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#NGZCPFTKCI#NGZCPF GTMQRH T OKV 'NGHCPVGPUMCNR#VJGPC #NMKFGOQU T FCJKPVGT /QPQITCOO FCXQT /QPQITCOO WPF   #FNGT50)%QR5XQTQPQU  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO#XGTUMN)TCHHKVQCWHFGO4GXGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JT#NGZCPFTKCI#NGZCPFGTMQRHTOKV'NGHCPVGPUMCNR#VJGPC #NMKFGOQUTFCXQT*GNO/QPQITCOOWPF#FNGT50)%QR5XQTQPQU  -N2WP\GP)TCHHKVQCWHFGO4GXGTUUGJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

678

2:1



2:1

Ô5VCVGT PCEJ  X %JT 'WJGURGTKFGU  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #GIKU#NGZCPFGT FGT   )TQ­GOKV$NKV\KP'NGHCPVGPSWCFTKICNKO#DUEJPKVV<YGKIOKV(TÒEJVGP0CXKNNG5XQTQPQU 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#WEVKQPGU#)$CUGN0T  <WT &CVKGTWPI UKGJG /QTMJQNO 1 'CTN[ *GNNGPKUVKE %QKPCIG HTQO VJG #EEGUUKQP QH #NGZCPFGT VQ VJG 2GCEG QH   #RCOGC $% %CODTKFIG5

142


AEGYPTUS

679

2:1

2:1



2VQNGOCKQU +++  X %JT HÒT $GTGPKMG ++ Ô2GPVCFTCEJOG #NGZCPFTKC I&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVGTOKV5EJNGKGT(ÒNNJQTP\YKUEJGP\YGK5VGTPGPN'5XQTQPQU  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ  $GTGPKMG++YWTFGWOX%JTCNU6QEJVGTFGU/CICUXQP-[TGPGWPFFGTU[TKUEJGP2TKP\GUUKP#RCOCIGDQTGP 7OX%JTYWTFGUKGXQP/CICUOKV2VQNGOCKQU+++XGTNQDVPCEJFGO6QFKJTGU8CVGTUYWTFGFKGUG8GTNQ DWPILGFQEJIGNÌUVWPFKJTG/WVVGTXGTJGKTCVGVG$GTGPKMGOKVGKPGO$TWFGTFGU#PVKIQPQU)QPCVCUFGTLGFQEJDCNF GTOQTFGV YWTFG $GTGPKMG JGKTCVGVG  X %JT 2VQNGOCKQU +++ FGT KP FGP &TKVVGP 5[TKUEJGP -TKGI \QI WPF FKG   4GIKGTWPIUIGUEJ·HVGKPFGT*GKOCVUGKPGT)GOCJNKPÒDGTNKG­#WUFKGUGT<GKVUVCOOVFKG)GUEJKEJVGXQPFGT.QEMG FGT $GTGPKMG &KG -ÌPKIKP IGNQDVG HÒT FKG INÒEMNKEJG *GKOMGJT KJTGU /CPPGU GKPG *CCTNQEMG \W QRHGTP FKG KP   FGP6GORGNFGT#TUKPQGIGDTCEJVYWTFGFQTVLGFQEJCOP·EJUVGP6CIXGTUEJYWPFGPYCT&GT/CVJGOCVKMGTWPF *QHCUVTQPQO -QPQP XQP 5COQU UQNN FKG .QEMG CNU 5VGTPDKNF CO *KOOGN YKGFGTGPVFGEMV JCDGP #WU FGT 'JG OKV   2VQNGOCKQU+++IKPIGPUGEJU-KPFGTJGTXQTWC2VQNGOCKQU+8FGTLGFQEJUGKPG/WVVGTDCNFPCEJFGO6QFFGU 2VQNGOCKQU +++ GTOQTFGP NKG­ $GTGPKMG YWTFG DGTGKVU \W .GD\GKVGP MWNVKUEJ XGTGJTV 2VQNGOCKQU +8 TKEJVGVG    X %JT CPN·­NKEJ FGT 2VQNGOCKC GKP 2TKGUVGTCOV FKG #VJNQRJQTG FGT $GTGPKMG 'WGTIGVKU GKP YGNEJG KO   4CPIPQEJXQTFGO2TKGUVGTCOVFGT#TUKPQG++TCPIKGTVG  

680 1,5:1

1,5:1



2VQNGOCKQU +8  X %JT Ô1MVQFTCEJOG  X %JT #NGZCPFTKC  I $ÒUVG   2VQNGOCKQU+++TOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG&TGK\CEMWPF#GIKU(ÒNNJQTPOKV&KCFGOWPF5VTCJNGPDKPFGWPVGP DI50)%QR5XQTQPQU  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  &GT XGTIÌVVNKEJVG2VQNGOCKQU+++VT·IVFKG#VVTKDWVGXQP*GNKQU0GRVWPWPF#VJGPCGKPGKO*GNNGPKUOWUDGNKGDVG -QODKPCVKQPXQP)ÌVVGTP

681 1,5:1



1,5:1

2VQNGOCKQU 8+++  X %JT HÒT #TUKPQG ++ Ô1MVQFTCEJOG /PCKQP  #NGZCPFTKC  I   -QRHTOKV&KCFGOWPF5EJNGKGTFCJKPVGT-&QRRGNHÒNNJQTPOKV6CGPKG50)%QR5XQTQPQU 9KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ  &KGUGUITQ­GCPVKMG)QNFPQOKPCNYWTFG\WGTUVWPVGT2VQNGOCKQU++ X%JT PCEJX%JTCWUIGRT·IV CNUGTUGKPG5EJYGUVGTIGOCJNKP#TUKPQG++PCEJKJTGO6QF\WIÌVVNKEJGP'JTGPCWHUVGKIGPNKG­&KGUGT6[RYWTFG KOOGTYKGFGTCWHIGITKHHGPUQCWEJWPVGT2VQNGOCKQU8+++0CEJ5XQTQPQUUQNNGPFKG)GUKEJVU\ÒIGFGTFCTIGUVGNNVGP 2GTUQPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG-NGQRCVTC+++YKGFGTIGDGP5KGYCTUGKPG5VKGHVQEJVGTFKGGTX%JTJGKTCVGVG

143


CYRENAICA

682



683

-NGQRCVTC 8++  X %JT Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT    X %JT  #NGZCPFTKC  I   -QRH2VQNGOCKQU+TOKV&KCFGO#FNGTUVGJVNOKV2CNO\YGKIFCXQT-TQPGFGT+UKU50)%QR 5XQTQPQU 5GJTUEJÌP



%;4'0#+%# 

-;4'0'Õ6GVTCFTCEJOGX%JTI/CIKUVTCVD[...]O[...]IOSI-QRHFGU <GWU#OOQPN5KNRJKWO$/%p50)%QRp  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GKPG6ÌPWPINGKEJVMQTTQFKGTV4CPFCWUDTÒEJGUGJTUEJÌP

684

2:1



2:1

Ô.KVTCX%JT/CIKUVTCV-[FKUI-CTPGKQUMQRHN-[TGPGMQRHT0CXKNNG  5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T

685

1,5:1







1,5:1

Ô&TCEJOG  X %JT /CIKUVTCV 2QNKCPVJGU  I 4GKVGT T5KNRJKWO 0CXKNNG  L FKGU   'ZGORNCT  44)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI.WEKGP0CXKNNGFGT#WMVKQP#TU%NCUUKEC+8)GPH0TWPFFGT5COONWPI5KT *GTOCPP9GDGT0T

687

686 2:1



2:1

2:1

2:1

Ô.KVTC  X %JT /CIKUVTCV 2QNKCPVJGU  I -QRH FGU <GWU #OOQP N-[TGPGMQRH T   0CXKNNGC FKGU'ZGORNCT  5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCT FGT .CIGTNKUVG /ÒP\GP WPF /GFCKNNGP #)  $CUGN  0T  FGT #WMVKQP *GUU.GW  .W\GTP   0TWPFFGT5COONWPI.WEKGP0CXKNNG



Ô.KVTCX%JT/CIKUVTCV2QNKCPVJGUI-QRHFGU<GWU#OOQPN-QRHFGT.KD[CT 0CXKNNG 4)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T

689

688 2:1



2:1

2:1

2:1

Ô'PFGMQPMKCX%JTI-CTPGKQUMQRHT9GKDNKEJGT-QRHTFCXQT-GWNG0CXKNNG

FKGU'ZGORNCT  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI &T 9CNVGT 5EJOKVV #WMVKQP (TKV\ 4WFQNH -ÒPMGT  1UPCDTÒEM  0T  WPF FGT   5COONWPI.WEKGP0CXKNNG



Ô1DQN  X %JT  I #OOQPMQRH T$NKV\ \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VGTPGP 0CXKNNG    8QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

144




ZEUGITANIA

690



691

Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT  I -CTPGKQUMQRH T5KNRJKWO T (ÒNNJQTP $/%  HH 50)   %QRH 5GJTUEJÌP  <WT<GKVFGT2T·IWPIFKGUGU5VÒEMGUYCT/CICUGKP*CNDDTWFGTFGU2VQNGOCKQU+)QWXGTPGWTXQP-[TGPG



Õ&KFTCEJOGX%JTI-CTPGKQUMQRHN5KNRJKWON&TGKHW­T/QPQITCOO$/% 50)%QRp 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T  &GT5KNRJKWOJCPFGNOCEJVG-[TGPGTGKEJKP4QOYWTFG5KNRJKWOOKV5KNDGTCWHIGYQIGP&KG2HNCP\GICNVNCPIG CNUCWUIGUVQTDGPUKGUQNNLGFQEJKP.KD[GPYKGFGTGPVFGEMVYQTFGPUGKP5KRJKWOYWTFGUQYQJNCNU)GYÒT\CNUCWEJ CNU*GKNOKVVGNXGTYGPFGVªDGTFKG8GTYGPFWPICNU)GYÒT\DGTKEJVGVWPUFGT/GKUVGTMQEJ#RKEKWUKPUGKPGO9GTM &GTGEQSWKPCTKC&CUIGIGPÒDGTFGOM[TGP·KUEJGPOKPFGTYGTVKIGTGRCTVJKUEJG5KNRJKWO (GTWNCCUCHQGVKFC YKTF JGWVGPQEJKPFGTKPFKUEJGP-ÒEJGGKPIGUGV\V WPVGTFGT$G\GKEJPWPI*KPIDGUQPFGTUDGK)GTKEJVGPOKV*ÒNUGP HTÒEJVGP   GU JCV GKPGP KPVGPUKXGP MPQDNCWEJCTVKIGP )GUEJOCEM &GT JQJG 2TGKU FGU 5KNRJKWOU GTMN·TV UKEJ CDGT   YQJN JCWRVU·EJNKEJ FWTEJ UGKPG 8GTYGPFWPI CNU 8GTJÒVWPIUOKVVGN UKGJG 4KFFNG %QKPU CPF %QPVTCEGRVKXGU 6JG   2NCPV VJCV OCFG -[TGPG (COQWU KP 6JG %GNCVQT 8QN     5  H  'KPG RKMCPVG #PURKGNWPI FCTCWH   HKPFGVUKEJDGK%CVWNN %CTOKPC   5CIGPUQNNKEJYKGXKGNGFGKPGT-ÒUUG  .KGDUVG.GUDKCOKTIGPWIUKPFWPF\WXKGNUKPF!  5QXKGN-ÌTPGT5CPFGUFKG.KD[UEJG9ÒUVG  +PFGO5KNRJKWOVTCIGPFGP%[TGPG  <YKUEJGP#OOQPU1TCMGNWPFFGUCNVGP  $CVVWUJQEJIGJGKNKIVGO)TCDOCNCWHYGKUV  

692

1,5:1

1,5:1

<'7)+6#0+# 

-#46*#)1 Ô5VCVGT  X %JT  I 6CPKVMQRH N OKV JTGPMTCP\2HGTF UVGJV T   ,GPMKPU.GYKU)TWRRG+++ 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



693

1,5:1

Ô 5VCVGT  X %JT  I 6CPKVMQRH N OKV JTGPMTCP\2HGTF UVGJV T \WTÒEMDNKEMGPF   ,GPMKPU.GYKU FKGU'ZGORNCT  )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP6JG0GY;QTM5CNG+0GY;QTM0TWPFFGT5COONWPI5KT*GTOCPP9GDGT0T 

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô5VCVGTX%JTI2CNOG2HGTFGMQRHT,GPMKU.GYKUXGTIN

5GJTUEJÌP



'N5VCVGTX%JTI6CPKVMQRHNOKVJTGPMTCP\2HGTFUVGJVT,GPMKPU.GYKU  -N-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI-NCWU/CTQYUM[#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

695



694

696

'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T KTTVÒONKEJCDIGDKNFGVCNU 



'N5VCVGT  X %JT  I 6CPKVMQRHNOKVJTGPMTCP\2HGTFUVGJVT,GPMKPU.GYKU)TWRRG 8+ (GKPGT5VKNUGJTUEJÌP

 145


NUMIDIA

697

699

698

07/+&+# 

,WDC +  X %JT Õ&GPCT  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV <GRVGT#EJVU·WNKIGT 6GORGN   /C\CTF50)%QR 4-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





Õ&GPCTI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV<GRVGT#EJVU·WNKIGT6GORGN/C\CTF50)%QR  4(GKPG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCTI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV<GRVGT#EJVU·WNKIGT6GORGN/C\CTF50)%QR  4(GKPG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGFGO#XGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

701

700



,WDC ++  X P %JT Õ&GPCT WO  P %JT  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO.ÌYG URTKPIV N   /C\CTF50)%QR 45GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT,CJT P%JT I-QRHTOKV.ÌYGPHGNNÒDGTFGT5EJWNVGT-GWNG%CRTKEQTPT OKV(ÒNNJQTPFCXQT)NQDWU/C\CTF50)%QR *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



1,5:1



702

1,5:1

Õ&GPCTWOP%JTI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO%CRTKEQTPTOKV(ÒNNJQTPWPF)NQDWU/C\CTF 50)%QR 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

703



704

1,5:1



Õ&GPCTWOP%JTI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO<YGK(ÒNNJÌTPGT/C\CTF50)%QR 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





,WDC++XP%JTWPF-NGQRCVTC5GNGPGÕ&GPCTWOX%JTI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO 5VGTPÒDGT/QPFUKEJGN/C\CTF50)%QR  (GKPG6ÌPWPIªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



-NGQRCVTC5GNGPGYCTFKG6QEJVGTFGU/CTEWU#PVQPKWUWPFFGT-NGQRCVTCWPFYWTFGXGTOWVNKEJX%JTIGDQ TGP#WIWUVWUFGTUKGKPUGKPGO6TKWORJX%JTOKVHÒJTVGXGTJGKTCVGVGUKGX%JTOKV,WDC++

705

706



Õ&GPCTWOP%JTI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO-TQPGFGT+UKUWPF5KUVTWO/C\CTFpXGTIN HH50)%QR 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT WO  X %JT  I -QRH FGU ,WDC ++ N-QRH FGT -NGQRCVTC 5GNGPG N /C\CTF    50)%QR 44(GKPG2CVKPCUEJÌP



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146


LOTS GRIECHISCHER MÜNZEN

707





708

,WDC++XP%JTWPF2VQNGOCKQUÕ&GPCTWOP%JTI-QRHFGU,WDC++TOKV &KCFGO&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGU2VQNGOCKQUNOKV&KCFGO/C\CTF50)%QR  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2VQNGOCKQUÕ&GPCTI-QRHTOKV&KCFGO2CNO\YGKI\YKUEJGP\YGKJTGP/C\CTF 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



.16570&5#//.70)'0)4+'%*+5%*'4/ª0<'0 

)GRHNGIVG5COONWPI/ÒP\GPXQP<[RGTPFGTMNCUUKUEJGPWPFJGNNGPKUVKUEJGP<GKV'PVJCNVGPUKPF  )GRT·IG FGT MNCUUKUEJGP <GKV 5CNCOKU 2CRJQU -KVKQP /CTKQP GVE   /ÒP\GP FGU -ÌPKITGKEJGU   /CMGFQPKGP IGRT·IV KP <[RGTP UQYKG  RVQNGO·KUEJG )GRT·IG XQP <[RGTP FCTWPVGT  6GVTCFTCEJ   OGP  &KG 5COONWPI YWTFG CNU YKUUGPUEJCHVNKEJG 5VWFKGPUCOONWPI MQP\KRKGTV GKPG $GUEJTGKDWPI FGU   1DLGMVGUNKGIVDGK*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP 



5COONWPI-NGKPCUKGP&KGKPVGTGUUCPVG5COONWPIGPVJ·NVWC5KNDGTOÒP\GP \$GKPG&KFTCEJOG FGU2KZQFCTQUGKPGP5VCVGTXQP#URGPFQUOGJTGTGTJQFKUEJG-NGKPUKNDGTOÒP\GPGVE UQYKG$TQP \GOÒP\GP XQP 2QPVWU DKU %KNKEKC &WTEJ \CJNTGKEJG XGTUEJKGFGPG 2QNGKU 0QOKPCNG WPF &CTUVGNNWPIGP   GKIPGV UKEJ FKG 5COONWPI JGTXQTTCIGPFCNU)TWPFUVQEMGKPGT5COONWPIMNGKPCUKCVKUEJGT/ÒP\GPCDGT CWEJ \WO #WUDCW GKPGT DGTGKVU DGUVGJGPFGP 5COONWPI *QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU 1DLGMV DKVVG WPDGFKPIV   DGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP 



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5COONWPI*GNNGPKUOWU'PVJCNVGPUKPF\YGKUGNGWMKFKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOGPCEJVFKXGTUG&TCEJOGP W C .[UKOCEJQU  GKPG OCMGFQPKUEJG -NGKPUKNDGTOÒP\G UQYKG \CJNTGKEJG VGKNU UGJT KPVGTGUUCPVG $TQP\G   OÒP\GP*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM'KP5VÒEMIGNQEJVUQPUVOGKUVUGJTUEJÌP 



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5COONWPIITKGEJKUEJGT/ÒP\GPXQP6JGUUCNKCDKU2GNQRQPPGUWU'PVJCNVGPUKPFHÒPH6GVTCFTCEJOGP

&COCUVKQP Z #VJGP  XKGT 5VCVGTG W C #PCMVQTKQP #GIKPC  UKGDGP -NGKPUKNDGTOÒP\GP W C Z   #VJGPZ5KM[QP UQYKGFTGK$TQP\GOÒP\GP+PVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌPVGKNUOKV2WP\GP2TÒHGKPJKGDGPGVE



.QVITKGEJKUEJGT/ÒP\GPKP5KNDGTWPF$TQP\G'PVJCNVGPUKPFWC\YGK6GVTCFTCEJOGP #NGZCPFGT +++ 2VQNGO·GT  5VCVGTG XQP -TQVQP WPF #GIKPC  -NGKPUKNDGTOÒP\GP XQP 7PVGTKVCNKGP DKU KP FGP   ITKGEJKUEJGP1UVGPUQYKGGKPKIGKPVGTGUUCPVG$TQP\GOÒP\GP+PVGTGUUCPVGU.QVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



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147


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK 

5COONWPI#TUCMKFGP5CUCPKFGP'PVJCNVGPUKPFGKPG6GVTCFTCEJOGFGU#TFCUEJKT+OGKUVXQT\ÒINK EJG CTUCMKFKUEJG &TCEJOGP \YGK UCUCPKFKUEJG &TCEJOGP W C *QTOK\F 8  UQYKG GKP XQT\ÒINKEJGT   6CDCTK&KTJCO 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





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-NGKPG5EJCWUCOONWPI5CUCPKFGPWPF0GDGPIGDKGVG&KGMNGKPG5COONWPIGPVJ·NVPGDGPXKGTUCUCPK FKUEJGP &TCEJOGP GKPG CTCDQUCUCPKFKUEJG &TCEJOG GKPGP 6CDCTK&KTJCO UQYKG GKPG MWUJCPQUCUCPK   FKUEJG$TQP\GOÒP\G 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



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$GK$CPFJCPFGNVGUUKEJWO'ZGORNCT0T$GK$CPFWO'ZGORNCT0T



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729

 148

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RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

730

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&KFTCEJOG  X %JT 4QO CPQP[O  I *GTEWNGUMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPVGP -GWNG   9ÌNHKPTOKV4QOWNWUWPF4GOWUKO#DUEJPKVV41/#01$/%%TCYH5[F  (GKPG6ÌPWPIJGTXQTTCIGPF\GPVTKGTVMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  &KG GTUVG KP 4QO IGRT·IVG /ÒP\G &KGU UVKOOV OKV FGT *CWRVSWGNNG ÒDGTGKP 2NKPKWU 0CV *KUV :::+++    UEJTGKDV #TIGPVWO UKIPCVWO CPPQ WTDKU %%%%.:::8 3 1IWNPKQ % (CDKQ EQUU SWKPSWG CPPKU CPVG RTKOWO   RWPKEWODGNNWO 5KNDGTYWTFGKO,CJTGFGT5VCFVWPVGTFGP-QPUWNP31IWNPKWUWPF%(CDKWU,CJTGXQT FGOGTUVGPRWPKUEJGP-TKGIIGRT·IV FJX%JT&KG8QTFGTUGKVGKUVPCEJU[TCMWUCPKUEJGO8QTDKNFIGUVCNVGV &KG4ÒEMUGKVGUVGNNVFCU5VCPFDKNFFGT9ÌNHKPOKV4QOWNWUWPF4GOWUFCTFCUX%JTXQP%PWPF31IWNPKWU CWHIGUVGNNVYWTFG'KP1IWNPKWUYCT%QPUWNKO,CJTX%JT

731

1,5:1

1,5:1



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733

732







734

732

“5GZVCPU  X %JT 4QO CPQP[O  I #W­GPUGKVG GKPGT /WUEJGN FCTWPVGT -GWNG \YK   UEJGP \YGK 9GTVMWIGNP+PPGPUGKVG GKPGT /WUEJGN FCTWPVGT -GWNG $/%  %TCYH  5[F    5GJTUEJÌP



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 149


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

735



“6TKGPU  X %JT 4QO CPQP[O  I /KPGTXCMQRH QFGT WPD·TVKIGT /CTUMQRH!  N OKV   MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO FCTWPVGT XKGT 9GTVMWIGNP2TQTC T FCTWPVGT XKGT 9GTVMWIGNP $/%  %TCYH   C5[F )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI&QWINCU#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T



736



“6TKGPU  X %JT 4QO CPQP[O  I /KPGTXCMQRH QFGT WPD·TVKIGT /CTUMQRH!  N OKV   MQTKPVJKUEJGO *GNO FCTWPVGT XKGT 9GTVMWIGNP2TQTC T FCTWPVGT XKGT 9GTVMWIGNP $/%  %TCYH   C5[F &WPMGNITÒPG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

738

737



739



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QOI%P%CNRWTPKWUI4QOCMQRHTOKVIGHNÒIGNVGO*GNO FCJKPVGT:&KG&KQUMWTGPTGKVGPT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO&GEKOKWU(NCXWUI4QOCMQRHTOKVIGHNÒIGNVGO*GNOFCJKPVGT: 8KEVQTKCKP$KICT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F 9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 6 8GVWTKWU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGU /CTU T FCJKPVGT :   5EJYWTU\GPG <YGK -TKGIGT UVGJGP GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT WPF DGTÒJTGP GKP XQP GKPGT MPKGGPFGP )GUVCNV   IGJCNVGPGU5EJYGKP$CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&KG4ÒEMUGKVGFÒTHVGGKP(GVKCNQRHGTCPN·­NKEJFGT4CVKHK\KGTWPIFGUHQGFWU0WOCPVKPWOFCTUVGNNGP

740



741

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO//CTEKWUI4QOCMQRHTOKVIGHNÒIGNVGO*GNOFCJKPVGT/QFKWU FCXQT5VGTP8KEVQTKCKP$KICTWPVGP\YGKJTGP$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO2%CNRWTPKWUI4QOCMQRHTOKVIGHNÒIGNVGO*GNOFCJKPVGT5VGTP )ÌVVKP KP $KIC T XQP 0KMG DGMT·P\V CWH FGT (NCPMG GKPGU 2HGTFGU 5VGTP $CD  $/%  %TCYH   5[F #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T  /QFKWUWPFJTGYGKUGPCWHFGP8CVGTFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTUJKPFGTX%JTCNUGKPGTFGTGTUVGP)GVTGKFGCPFGP RQRWNWUTQOCPWUXGTVGKNGPNKG­WPF\YCTFGP/QFKWU\WGKPGO#U 2NKPKWU0*:8+++ 



150


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

742



743

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/(WTKWU2JKNWUI,CPWUMQRH4QOCUVGJVNWPFDGMT·P\V6TQRJ·G $CD$/%%TCYH5[F *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T &KG4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPIDG\KGJVUKEJCWHFGP5KGIÒDGTFKG#NNQDTQIGTWPF#TXGTPGT



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/(WTKWU2JKNWUI,CPWUMQRH4QOCUVGJVNWPFDGMT·P\V6TQRJ·G $CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG6ÌPWPI&TWEMUVGNNGCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP

744









746

745



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO %P %QTPGNKWU $NCUKQ  I /CTUMQRH T OKV *GNO FCJKPVGT   %CFWEGWU FCTÒDGT 5VGTP,WRKVGT UVGJV X X \YKUEJGP ,WPQ WPF /KPGTXC $CD  $/%  %TCYH   C5[F *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO#R%NCWFKWU2WNEJGT6/CPNKWU/CPEKPWUWPF37TDKPKWU 4QOCMQRHTOKVIGHNÒIGNVGO*GNO8KEVQTKCKP6TKICT$CD$/%%TCYHD5[FC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



749

748

Õ&GPCT  X %JT4QO%%NCWFKWU2WNEJGTI4QOCMQRHTOKVIGHNÒIGNVGO*GNO 8KEVQTKCKP$KICT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  (GKPG6ÌPWPICVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . 8CNGTKWU (NCEEWUI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT8KEVQTKCT/CTU IGJVNOKV5RGGTWPF6TQRJ·GFCXQT#RGZFCJKPVGTJTG$CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T &KG4ÒEMUGKVGYGKUVFCTCWHJKPFC­FGT8CVGTFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTUFCU#OVGKPGU(NCOGP/CTVKCNKUKPPGJCVVG





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO./CTEKWU2JKNKRRWUI-QRH2JKNKRRU8XQP/CEGFQPKGPT OKV*GNOWPF&KCFGO4GKVGTUVCVWGT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP

747









Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO / *GTGPPKWU  I 2KGVCUMQRH T#ORJKPQOWU VT·IV UGKPGP   8CVGTT$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



#ORJKPQOWUWPF#PCRKCUYCTGP\YGK$TÒFGTCWU-CVCPKCFKGDGKGKPGO#GVPC#WUDTWEJKJTG'NVGTPTGVVGVGP*KGT UGJGPYKT2KGVCU FGT8QTFGTUGKVG KP#MVKQP

751



750

752

Õ3WKPCT  X %JT 4QO 2 5CDKPWU  I ,WRKVGTMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC UVGJV T   WPFDGMT·P\V6TQRJ·G$CD$/%XGTINHH%TCYH5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO#2QUVWOKWU#NDKPWU.%CGEKNKWU/GVGNNWUWPF%2QDNKEKWU/CNNGQNWU  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4QOC UKV\V N CWH 5EJKNFGP OKV 5RGGT WPF 2CTC\QPKWO WPF   YKTFXQP8KEVQTKCDGMT·P\V$CD$/%%TCYHD5[FC  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.%CNRWTPKWU2KUQ(TWIKI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\T( 4GKVGTTOKV2CNO\YGKIQDGP6TGPUG$CD$CPVK$/%p%TCYH5[FC  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 151


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

754

753





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.%CNRWTPKWU2KUQ(TWIKI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCJKP VGT*FCXQT(4GKVGTTOKV2CNO\YGKIQDGP)WPVGP*$CD$/%p%TCYH5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJ



Õ3WKPCT  X %JT 4QO 3 6KVKWU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT 8KEVQTKC T2GICUWU T $CD    $/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



1,5:1



755

1,5:1

Õ&GPCT WO  X %JT $QXKCPWO !  CPQP[O  I -QRH FGT +VCNKC N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ T   8+6'.+7 KPQUMKUEJGT5EJTKHV+VCNKC 5QNFCVUVGJVXXOKV5RGGT-QRHTFCPGDGPNCIGTV5VKGTXX %CORCPC5[F 448QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  X%JTITÒPFGVGPFKGKVCNKUEJGP$WPFGUIGPQUUGP4QOUFGPGPFCUTÌOKUEJG$ÒTIGTTGEJV\WP·EJUVXGTURTQEJGP FCPPCDGTXGTYGKIGTVYQTFGPYCTGKPGPGKIGPGP5VCCVPCOGPU+VCNKC FCJGTCWEJFGT+VCNKCMQRHCWHFGO#XGTUFGU 5VÒEMGU OKV%QTHKPKWOCNU*CWRVUVCFV0CEJFGO(CNN%QTHKPKWOUYWTFGHÒTMWT\G<GKV$QXKCPWO\WT*CWRVUVCFV +PGKPGOFTGKL·JTKIGPDNWVKIGP-TKGIIGNCPIGU4QO+VCNKGPYKGFGTXÌNNKI\WWPVGTYGTHGP

757 758

756





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO /P (QPVGKWU  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\.QTDGGTMTCP\   FCTKPIGHNÒIGNVGT)GPKWUCWH<KGIGPDQEMTFCTÒDGT\YGK2KNGKKO#DUEJPKVV6J[TUQU$CD$/% %TCYHE5[FC 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&GPCTX%JT.CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG.%QTPGNKWU5WNNCI.58..#8GPWUMQRHTFCXQT UVGJV %WRKFQ N OKV 2CNO\YGKI FGU 5KGIGU -CPPG WPF .KVWWU \YKUEJGP \YGK 6TQRJ·GP $CD    $/%%TCYH5[FC 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



5WNNC DGHCPF UKEJ KO -TKGI IGIGP /KVJTCFCVGU 8+ 0CEJ UGKPGO 5KGI DGK %JCKTQPGKC  X %JT FÒTHVG FKG GTUVG   KORGTCVQTKUEJG#MMNCOCVKQPGTHQNIVUGKPX%JTPCEJ1TEJQOGPQUFKG\YGKVG



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO2%TGRWUKWUI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF<GRVGTFCJKPVGT2 FCXQT1JT4GKVGTT$CD$/%p%TCYHE5[FC (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP

759





760

Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU   X %JT 4QO % /COKNKWU .KOGVCPWU  I /GTEWTDÒUVG T ÒDGT FGT   5EJWNVGT %CFWEGWU FCJKPVGT %1F[UUGWU IGJV T OKV 5VCD FCXQT UVGJV UGKP *WPF #TIWU N $CD    $/%%TCYH5[F 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&KG 4ÒEMUGKVG UVGNNV FGP #WIGPDNKEM FCT CNU 1F[UUGWU XQP UGKPGP +TTHCJTVGP PCEJ +VJCMC JGKOMGJTGPF XQP UGKPGO   CNVGP*WPF#TIWUGTMCPPVYKTF&KG(COKNKG/COKNKCDGJCWRVGVGXQP6GNGIQPWUFGO5QJPFGU1F[UUGWUWPFFGT %KTEGCD\WUVCOOGP



152

Õ&GPCT  X%JT4QO//GVGNNWU3HI#RQNNQMQRHT/CMGFQPKUEJGT5EJKNFOKV GKPGO'NGHCPVGPMQRHIGUEJOÒEMV$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  (GKPG6ÌPWPIIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP




RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK



763

762

761

Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU   X %JT 4QO # 2QUVWOKWU #NDKPWU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT &KCPC T   ÒDGT FGT 5EJWNVGT $QIGP WPF -ÌEJGT FCTÒDGT $WETCPKWO6QICVWU UVGJV N XQT #NVCT WPF J·NV #URGT   IKNNWOÒDGT4KPF$CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP -TKEJGNFQTH  5VWVVICTV  0T  WPF FGT #WMVKQP 2GWU 0CEJH  (TCPMHWTV CO   /CKP0T  ªDGTFKGCWHFGT/ÒP\GFCTIGUVGNNVG)GUEJKEJVGDGTKEJVGV.KXKWU + 'KP5CDKPGTDGUC­GKPG-WJXQPWPIGYÌJP NKEJGT )TÌ­G WPF 5EJÌPJGKV &KG 9CJTUCIGT RTQRJG\GKVGP FGT 5VCCV FGUUGP $ÒTIGT FCU 6KGT FGT &KCPC QRHGTVGP   YÒTFGFGT5KV\GKPGU+ORGTKWOUYGTFGP&GT5CDKPGTDTCEJVGFCU4KPF\WO&KCPCVGORGNKP4QOWOGU\WQRHGTP YWTFGCDGTWPVGTGKPGO8QTYCPFYGIIGUEJKEMVUQFC­GKP4ÌOGTFCU6KGTQRHGTPMQPPVG&KG*ÌTPGTYWTFGPKO &KCPCVGORGNKP4QOCWHDGYCJTV



Õ&GPCT  X %JT PQTFKVCNKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG 3 %CGEKNKWU /GVGNNWU 2KWU  I 2KGVCUMQRH T   FCXQT5VQTEJ'NGHCPVIGJVN$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&GP$GKPPCOGP2KWUWPFFCJGTFKG2KGVCUCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGTJKGNV/GVGNNWUYGKNGTFCUTÌOKUEJG8QNMÒDGT \GWIVGUGKPGP8CVGTCWUFGO'ZKN\WTÒEM\WTWHGP



Õ&GPCTX%JTWPDGUVKOOVGITKGEJKUEJGQFGTMNGKPCUKCVKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGCPQP[OI8GPWU MQRHT&QRRGNHÒNNJQTP$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  4(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



&CU5VÒEMYWTFGXQPGKPGO3W·UVQTWPVGT5WNNCIGRT·IV

765 764



766

Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU   X %JT 4QO % /CTKWU %CRKVQ  I %GTGUMQRH T2HNÒIGT OKV 1EJUGP   IGURCPPNQDGP::8++KO#DUEJPKVV(TQUEJ$CD$/%p%TCYHD5[FC  (GKPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU X%JT4QO%0CGXKWU$CNDWUI8GPWUMQRHT8KEVQTKCKP6TKICT $CD$/%p%TCYHD5[FD *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU   X %JT 4QO 6K %NCWFKWU  I &KCPCDÒUVG T ÒDGT FGT 5EJWNVGT $QIGP   WPF-ÌEJGT8KEVQTKCKP$KICTWPVGP#%::$CD$/%%TCYH5[FC  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



767



768

769

Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU   X %JT 4QO . 2CRKWU  I -QRH FGT ,WPQ 5QURKVC T KO <KGIGPHGNN   FCJKPVGT-CPFGNCDGT)TGKHURTKPIVTFCTWPVGT(GWGTDQEM$CD$/%%TCYH5[F 5GJTUEJÌP



&KG(COKNKGUVCOOVGCWU.CPWXKWOFCJGTKUVFKG,WPQ5QURKVCFCTIGUVGNNV



Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU   X %JT 4QO . 2CRKWU  I -QRH FGT ,WPQ 5QURKVC T KO <KGIGPHGNN   FCJKPVGT $GKPUEJKGPG)TGKH URTKPIV T FCTWPVGT 9GTM\GWI \WT /GVCNNDGCTDGKVWPI $CD  $/%    %TCYH5[F 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/8QNVGKWUI,WRKVGTMQRHT,WRKVGT6GORGN$CD$/% %TCYH5[F 4#XGTUOKPFG\GPVTKGTVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T &GT,WRKVGT6GORGNYCT\WT<GKVFGT#WUICDGFGT'OKUUKQP\GTUVÌTVWPFPQEJPKEJVYKGFGTCWHIGDCWV





153


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

771

770



772

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/8QNVGKWUI*GTEWNGUMQRHKO.ÌYGPHGNNT'T[OCPVJKUEJGT'DGTT $CD$/%%TCYH5[F 4(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T  &GTYKNFG'DGTNGDVGCO$GTI'T[OCPVJQUKP#TMCFKGP*GTEWNGUGTJKGNVFKG#WHICDGKJPGKP\WHCPIGP&KGUIGNCPI KJOUEJNKG­NKEJCNUFCU6KGTKO5EJPGGGTOÒFGVG'TDTCEJVGFGP'DGTNGDGPFUGKPGO#WHVTCIIGDGT'WT[UVJGWUFGT UKEJFCTCWHJKPCWU#PIUVKPGKPGOGKUGTPGP(C­XGTUVGEMVG



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/8QNVGKWUI.KDGTMQRHTOKV'HGWMTCP\%GTGUKP5EJNCPIGPDKIC TFCJKPVGT5MQTRKQP$CD$/%p%TCYH5[F -TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/8QNVGKWUI#VVKUDÒUVGOKV*GNOTFCJKPVGT&QRRGNCZV%[DGNG KP.ÌYGPDKICTFCTÒDGTIB$CD$/%p%TCYH5[F  (GKPG2CVKPC#XGTUNGKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

774

773





775

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.4WVKNKWU(NCEEWUI4QOCMQRHTOKVIGHNÒIGNVGO*GNO8KEVQTKC KP$KICT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO25CVTKGPWUI4QOCMQRHTOKV*GNO9ÌNHKPN$CD$/%p %TCYHD5[FC )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.4WUVKWUI/CTUMQRHTOKV*GNO9KFFGTT$CD$/% %TCYH5[F 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  <WT #XGTUFCTUVGNNWPI UKGJG *QNNUVGKP 9 &KG UVCFVTÌOKUEJG /ÒP\RT·IWPI FGT ,CJTG  \YKUEJGP RQNKVKUEJGT   #MVWCNKV·VWPF(COKNKGPVJGOCVKM/ÒPEJGP5

776



777

778

779

Õ&GPCTX%JTURCPKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVG ! %P%QTPGNKWU.GPVWNWUI-QRHFGU)GPKWU 2QRWNK 4QOCPK T)NQDWU \YKUEJGP DGMT·P\VGO <GRVGT WPF 5VGWGTTWFGT $CD  $/%  %TCYH   D5[FC (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



%P.GPVWNWUYCT%WTCVQTFGPCTKQTWOHNCPFQTWO



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.(CTUWNGKWU/GPUQTI.KDGTVCUDÒUVGT4QOCKP3WCFTKICTGKP 6QICVWUUVGKIV\W$CD$/%XGTIN%TCYHD5[F *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU X%JT4QO/P#SWKNNKWUI8KTVWUMQRHTOKV*GNO-TKGIGTGTJGDV 5KEKNKC$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&GT)TQ­XCVGTFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTU/P#SWKNNKWU-QPUWNX%JTJCVVGUKEJWO5K\KNKGPXGTFKGPVIGOCEJV



Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU X%JT4QO/P#SWKNNKWUI8KTVWUMQRHTOKV*GNO-TKGIGTGTJGDV 5KEKNKC$CD$/%%TCYH5[F (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

154




RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

780



781

1,5:1

Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU X%JT4QO/P#SWKNNKWUI8KTVWUMQRHTOKV*GNO-TKGIGTGTJGDV 5KEKNKC$CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%*QUKFKWU)GVCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT&KCPCTOKV&KCFGOÒDGT FGT 5EJWNVGT $QIGP WPF -ÌEJGT'DGT T XQP GKPGO 5RGGT XGTYWPFGV WPF XQP GKPGO *WPF CVVCEMKGTV   $CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG6ÌPWPICVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



783

782







Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%*QUKFKWU)GVCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT&KCPCTOKV&KCFGOÒDGT FGT 5EJWNVGT $QIGP WPF -ÌEJGT'DGT T XQP GKPGO 5RGGT XGTYWPFGV WPF XQP GKPGO *WPF CVVCEMKGTV   $CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%%CNRWTPKWU2KUQI#RQNNQMQRHN4GKVGTNOKV(CEMGN$CD $/%p%TCYHD*GTUJ5[FC *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



&GT/ÒP\OGKUVGTYCT%KEGTQU5EJYKGIGTUQJP

784



785

786

787

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO32QORQPKWU/WUCI#RQNNQMQRHTFCJKPVGT5VGTP7TCPKCUVGJVN WPF\GKIVOKVGKPGO5VCDCWHGKPGP)NQDWUFGTCWHGKPGO&TGKHW­TWJV$CD$/%%TCYH 5[F 42TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



7TCPKCYCTFKG5VGTP/WUGUQYQJNFKG#UVTQPQOKGYKGFKG#UVTQNQIKGUEJÒV\GPF



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 3 2QORQPKWU /WUC  I #RQNNQMQRH T FCJKPVGT 5CPFCNG6JCNKC   UVGJVNOKV/CUMG$CD$/%%TCYHD5[F 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



6JCNKCYCTFKG/WUGFGT-QOÌFKG



Õ&GPCT 5GTTCVWU X%JT4QO.4QUEKWU(CDCVWUI-QRHFGT,WPQ5QURKVCTKO<KGIGP HGNN FCJKPVGT 6KPVGPHCUU/·FEJGP UVGJV T FCXQT 5EJNCPIG FCJKPVGT 5EJTGKDTQJT $CD  $/% p   %TCYH5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T  #PN·­NKEJFGUL·JTNKEJYKGFGTMGJTGPFGP(GUVGUFGT,WPQ5QURKVCKP.CPWXKWOOW­VGGKPG,WPIHTCWFKGKO-GNNGTFGU 6GORGNUNGDGPFG5EJNCPIGHÒVVGTP9GPPFCU/·FEJGPMGWUEJYCTDNKGDGUFCDGKWPXGTUGJTVCPUQPUVGPYWTFGGU XQPFGT5EJNCPIGIGVÌVGV



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . (WTKWU $TQEEJWU  I %GTGUMQRH T \YKUEJGP JTG WPF -QTP   %WTWNKUEJGT5VWJN\WDGKFGP5GKVGP(CUEGU$CD$/%%TCYH5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T &GT6[RDG\KGJVUKEJCWHFKGEWTCCPPQPCGWOFKGUKEJFKGFKNG\WMÒOOGTPJCVVGP





155


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

788



789

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . #GOKNKWU .GRKFWU2CWNNWUI8GTUEJNGKGTVGT-QRHFGT%QPEQTFKC OKV &KCFGO T6TQRJ·G 2GTUGWU UVGJV OKV UGKPGP DGKFGP 5ÌJPGP T #GOKNKWU 2CWNNWU UVGJV N QDGP   6'4$CD$/%%TCYH5[F -N4CPFHGJNGTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  &KG/ÒP\GHGKGTVFGP6TKWORJFGTGKPGO8QTHCJTGPFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTU.#GOKNKWU2CWNNWU/CEGFQPKEWUKO,CJT X%JTPCEJFGO5KGIDGK2[FPCÒDGT2GTUGWUXQP/CMGFQPKGP\WVGKNYWTFG



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.5ETKDQPKWU.KDQI-QRHFGU$QPWU'XGPVWUT2WVGCN5ETKDQPK CPWO OKV )KTNCPFGP WPF \YGK .[TGP IGUEJOÒEMV CP FGT $CUKU *COOGT $CD  XCT $/%    %TCYHC5[F 2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T  &CU2WVGCNUVGJVCWHFGO(QTWO4QOCPWO  $QPWU'XGPVWUYCTWTURTÒPINKEJGKP)QVVFGU#EMGTDCWUYCPFGNVGUKEJLGFQEJ\WGKPGO)QVVFGUINÒEMNKEJGP#WU ICPIU+PIGPCWFKGUGT(WPMVKQPXGTYGKUVFGT)QVVCWHFKGUGO5VÒEMCWHGKPICP\CMVWGNNGU'TGKIPKU&CUGPFIÒNVKIG 'PFG FGT %CVKNKPCTKUEJGP 8GTUEJYÌTWPI %CVKNKPC YCT KO ,CPWCT  X %JT KP FGT 5EJNCEJV XQP 2KUVQTKC IGHCNNGP    5KGJGJKGT\W*QNNUVGKP9&KGUVCFVTÌOKUEJG/ÒP\RT·IWPIFGT,CJTGX%JT\YKUEJGPRQNKVKUEJGT#MVWCNKV·V WPF(COKNKGPVJGOCVKM/ÒPEJGP5H

790

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO / #GOKNKWU .GRKFWU  I (TCWGPMQRH T OKV &KCFGO N -TCP\ T   5KORWNWO4GKVGTOKV6TQRJ·GT$CD$/%%TCYHF5[F  448QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTCWHDTGKVGO5EJTÌVNKPIWPFOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T &KG4ÒEMUGKVG\GKIVFCU5VCPFDKNFFGU/#GOKNKWU.GRKFWU-QPUWNKO,CJTX%JT

791



792



793

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/0QPKWU5WHGPCUI-QRHFGU5CVWTPTFCJKPVGT*CTRCWPFMQPK UEJGU 1DLGMV4QOC UKV\V N OKV 5RGGT WPF 5EJYGTV XQP 8KEVQTKC DGMT·P\V $CD  $/%    %TCYH5[F (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG 4ÒEMUGKVGP7OUEJTKHV NCWVGV 5':VWU 010+WU 24CGVQT .WFQU 8KEVQTKCG 2TKOWU (GEKV WPF DG\KGJV UKEJ CWH FKG   'KPHÒJTWPIFGT.WFK8KEVQTKCGPCEJ5WNNCU5KGICO%QNKPKUEJGP6QTX%JT&GT5VGKPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGYCT XGTOWVNKEJFGTLGPKIGFGPOCP5CVWTPCP5VGNNGXQP<GWUWPVGTUEJQD'TYWTFGKP&GNRJKIG\GKIVWPFXGTGJTV





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/0QPKWU5WHGPCUI-QRHFGU5CVWTPTFCJKPVGT*CTRCWPFMQPK UEJGU 1DLGMV4QOC UKV\V N OKV 5RGGT WPF 5EJYGTV XQP 8KEVQTKC DGMT·P\V $CD  $/%    %TCYH5[F (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%5GTXGKNKWU%HI(NQTCMQRHTFCJKPVGT.KVWWU<YGK5QNFCVGP RCTCFKGTGPXQTGKPCPFGTOKVIG\QIGPGP5EJYGTVGTP$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



&GT/ÒP\OGKUVGTJCV(NQTCCDIGDKNFGVFCGKPGTUGKPGT#JPGPFGTGTUVG(NCOGP(NQTCNKUYCT

156


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

795

794



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO(CWUVWU%QTPGNKWU5WNNCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGU*GTEWNGUTOKV&KCFGO &KCPC KP $KIC T FCTÒDGT \YGK 5VGTPG FCTWPVGT \YGK 5VGTPG $CD  $/%  %TCYH    5[F 4(GKPG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



&GT/ÒP\OGKUVGTYCTFGT5QJPFGU&KMVCVQTU5WNNCWPFFGT5EJYKGIGTUQJPFGU2QORGKWU\WFGUUGP.GICVGPGTDGK UGKPGO (GNF\WI KO ÌUVNKEJGP /KVVGNOGGT IGJÌTVG &GT -QRH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG UKGJV PKEJV WPDGFKPIV FGP DGMCPPVGP   *GTEWNGUFCTUVGNNWPIGP·JPNKEJWPFGUJCDGPXGTUEJKGFGPG(QTUEJGTFCTCPIGFCEJVKPKJOFCU2QTVT·VFGU$QEEJWU \WUGJGPFGTUKEJFGO8CVGTFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTUCPUEJNQ­WPFKJO,WIJWTVCCWUNKGHGTVG#WEJCPFKGUGPJCVOCP UEJQP IGFCEJV DG\ÒINKEJ FGU &CTIGUVGNNVGP .[FKC * .GPCIJCP  KP #05/0 :+  R  HH URTKEJV UKEJ HÒT   *GTCMNGU/GNSCTVCWUXQPFGT'ZKUVGP\FKGUGU)QVVGUJCVVGFGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTCWHFGO(GNF\WIKO1UVGPX%JT GTHCJTGP



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO(CWUVWU%QTPGNKWU5WNNCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT8GPWUTOKV&KCFGO ÒDGT FGT 5EJWNVGT <GRVGT&TGK 6TQRJ·GP \YKUEJGP %CRKU WPF .KVWWU $CD  $/%  %TCYH   5[F (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&GT /ÒP\OGKUVGT YCT FGT 5QJP FGU &KMVCVQTU 5WNNC WPF FGT 5EJYKGIGTUQJP FGU 2QORGKWU \W FGUUGP .GICVGP GT   DGKO(GNF\WIKOÌUVNKEJGP/KVVGNOGGTIGJÌTVG&KGFTGK6TQRJ·GPCWHFGO4GXGTUGPVURTGEJGPFGT&CTUVGNNWPICWH FGO5KGIGNTKPIFGU2QORGKWU UKGJG&KQ:.+++ 



798

797

796

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % /GOOKWU  I %GTGUMQRH T)GHCPIGPGT MPKGV T FCJKPVGT 6TQ   RJ·G$CD$/%%TCYH5[F )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



&GT/ÒP\OGKUVGTYCTFGT5EJYKGIGTUQJP5WNNCUGTYCT2TQRT·VQTKP$KVJ[PKGP



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % /GOOKWU  I 3WKTKPWUMQRH T%GTGU UKV\V T OKV (CEMGN WPF   JTGPFCXQT5EJNCPIG$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5VCEM U4QUGOQPV#RTKN0T  &GT 3WKTKPWUMQRH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG MÌPPVG CWH GKPG UCDKPKUEJG *GTMWPHV FGU /ÒP\OGKUVGTU JKPYGKUGP %TCYHQTF 5     QFGT YGPP FKG 8QTFGTUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI FKGUGU 5VÒEMU OKV FGT 4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI FGU &GPCTU %TCYHQTF    KP <WUCOOGPJCPI UVGJV CWH FKG9GKJWPIGKPGU5KGIGU\GKEJGPUKO6GORGNFGU3WKTKPWUFGWVGP ##NHÌNFK -QORNGOGPV·TG&QRRGNV[RGPKPFGT&GPCTRT·IWPIFGTTÌOKUEJGP4GRWDNKMKP5EJYGK\GT/ÒP\DN·VVGT5  &KG4ÒEMUGKVGDG\KGJVUKEJCWHFKGGTUVG8GTCPUVCNVWPIGKPGUCNVGP%GTGU(GUVGUFWEJGKPGP/GOOKGT YQJNWO X%JT 



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 3 %CUUKWU .QPIKPWU  I 8GTUEJNGKGTVG 8GUVCDÒUVG T8GUVCVGORGN   FCTKPMWTWNKUEJGT5VWJN\YKUEJGP5VKOOWTPGWPF5VKOOVCHGNOKV#%$CD$/%%TCYH 5[F 42TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP-TKEJGNFQTH$GTNKP0T  #WHFGP5VKOOVCHGNPUVGJV# DUQNXQ WPF% QPFGOPQ &KGUDG\KGJVUKEJCWHFGP2TQ\G­KO,CJTX%JTIGIGP FKG8GUVCNKPPGPXQTFGO)GUEJYQTGPGPIGTKEJVWPVGT.GKVWPIFGU.%CUUKWU.QPIKPWU4CXKNNC5KGJG*QNNUVGKP9 &KG UVCFVTÌOKUEJG /ÒP\RT·IWPI FGT ,CJTG  X %JT \YKUEJGP RQNKVKUEJGT #MVWCNKV·V WPF (COKNKGPVJGOCVKM   /ÒPEJGP5H

799





800

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO3%CUUKWU.QPIKPWUI.KDGTVCUMQRHT8GUVCVGORGNFCTKPMWTWNK UEJGT5VWJN\YKUEJGP5VKOOWTPGWPF5VKOOVCHGNOKV#%$CD$/%%TCYH5[F 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO3%CUUKWU.QPIKPWUI-QRHFGU)GPKWU2QRWNK4QOCPKTFCJKPVGT <GRVGT#FNGT UVGJV T CWH $NKV\ N .KVWWU T -CPPG $CD  $/%  %TCYH  5[F    4GKPKIWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



#FNGT WPF $NKV\ CWH FGO 4GXGTU UKPF 5[ODQNG ,WRKVGTU FGU 6TKWORJ WPF 5KGIGUIQVVGU WPF TWHGP CNU UQNEJG FKG   OKNKV·TKUEJGP'THQNIGFGU2QORGKWUFGUCOVKGTGPFGP-QPUWNUKP'TKPPGTWPI5KGJG*QNNUVGKP9&KGUVCFVTÌOKUEJG /ÒP\RT·IWPIFGT,CJTG\YKUEJGPRQNKVKUEJGT#MVWCNKV·VWPF(COKNKGPVJGOCVKM/ÒPEJGP5H

157


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

801



802

803

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO2(QPVGKWU%CRKVQI/CTUDÒUVGTOKV*GNOWPF6TQRJ·G4GKVGTT M·ORHV )CNNKGT PKGFGT FGT KO $GITKHH KUV GKPGP TÌOKUEJGP 5QNFCVGP \W GTUEJNCIGP T *GNO WPF   5EJKNF$CD$/%%TCYH5[F 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



#WUFGOPWOKUOCVKUEJGP0CEJNCUU&T$WUUQ2GWU#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T &KG4ÒEMUGKVGUVGNNVGKPG*GNFGPVCVFGU/(QPVGKWUGKPGU8QTHCJTGPFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTUCNU5VCVVJCNVGTKPFGT)CNNKC 0CTDQPGPUKUFCT





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO2(QPVGKWU%CRKVQI/CTUDÒUVGTOKV*GNOWPF6TQRJ·G4GKVGTT M·ORHV )CNNKGT PKGFGT FGT KO $GITKHH KUV GKPGP TÌOKUEJGP 5QNFCVGP \W GTUEJNCIGP T *GNO WPF   5EJKNF$CD$/%%TCYH5[F 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO %P 2NCPEKWU  I $ÒUVG FGT /CEGFQPKC !  T OKV %CWUKC-TGVKUEJG   <KGIGTFCJKPVGT$QIGPWPF-ÌEJGT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  .GKEJVG2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T &GT/ÒP\OGKUVGTJCVVGUQYQJNKP/CMGFQPKGPCNUCWEJKP-TGVCIGFKGPV

1,5:1





804

1,5:1

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/,WPKWU$TWVWUI.KDGTVCUDÒUVGT&GT-QPUWN.,WPKWU$TWVWU IGJV\YKUEJGP\YGK.KMVQTGPNFCXQT#EEGPUWU$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVMN-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T







3%CGRKWU$TWVWUUGKVUGKPGT#FQRVKQP/,WPKWU$TWVWUYCTGKPGTFGTUR·VGTGP%CGUCTOÌTFGTWPFDGIGIPGV&CPVG CNUUQNEJGTCWHUGKPGO9GIFWTEJFKG*ÌNNG&KG4ÒEMUGKVG\GKIVFGP8QTHCJTGPFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTUFGTX%JT FGT6TCFKVKQPPCEJFGPNGV\VGP-ÌPKI6CTSWKPKWU5WRGTDWUCWU4QOXGTVTKGDWPFFCOKVFKG4GRWDNKMDGITÒPFGVG&KG 4ÒEMUGKVGKUVFCU8QTDKNFHÒTFKG)QNFUVCVGTGFGU-QUQP

805



806

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/,WPKWU$TWVWUI.KDGTVCUDÒUVGT&GT-QPUWN.,WPKWU$TWVWU IGJV \YKUEJGP \YGK .KMVQTGP N FCXQT #EEGPUWU $CD  $/%  %TCYH  5[F    *GTTNKEJG2CVKPC#XGTUOKPFG\GPVTKGTV4GXGTUNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'TYQTDGPKO0QXGODGTDGKFGT(KTOC5GPIGT$GTNKP



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/,WPKWU$TWVWUI.KDGTVCUDÒUVGT&GT-QPUWN.,WPKWU$TWVWU IGJV\YKUEJGP\YGK.KMVQTGPNFCXQT#EEGPUWU$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  -N-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

807 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO / ,WPKWU $TWVWU  I -QRH FGU . ,WPKWU $TWVWU T-QRH FGU %   5GTXKNKWU#JCNCT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC-N2TÒHRWP\GHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ &GT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKUVFGTUR·VGTG%CGUCTOÌTFGT'T\GKIVJKGTFWTEJFKG$KNFGT\YGKGT8QTHCJTGPUGKPGUVTGPITGRWD NKMCPKUEJG )GUKPPWPI \WO GKPGP . ,WPKWU $TWVWU FGT FKG VCTSWKPKUEJGP -ÌPKIG XGTVTKGD WPF \WO CPFGTGP %   5GTXKNKWU#JCNCFGTFGP5VCCVXQT5RWTKWU/CGNKWUTGVVGVG-QPMTGVTKEJVGVUKEJFKG/ÒP\RTQRCICPFCIGIGP2QORGKWU

158




RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

808



809

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO / ,WPKWU $TWVWU  I -QRH FGU . ,WPKWU $TWVWU T-QRH FGU %   5GTXKNKWU#JCNCT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  (GKPG2CVKPC8QTFGTUGKVGGVYCUFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO / ,WPKWU $TWVWU  I -QRH FGU . ,WPKWU $TWVWU T-QRH FGU %   5GTXKNKWU#JCNCT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CPMJCWU#WHJ·WUGT/ÒPEJGP0T



810

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 3 2QORGKWU 4WHWU  I -QRH 5WNNCU T-QRH  FGU 3 2QORGKWU   4WHWUT$CD$/%%TCYH5[F 4-QTTQUKQPUUVGNNGCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&CU 5VÒEM \GKIV FKGDGKFGP-QPUWNPFGU,CJTGUX%JTFGPDGTÒJOVGP&KEVCVQT5WNNC )TQ­XCVGTOÒVVGTNKEJGT UGKVUFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTU WPF32QORGKWU4WHWU )TQ­XCVGTX·VGTNKEJGTUGKVUFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTU 

811



812

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % %QGNKWU %CNFWU  I -QRH FGU -QPUWNU % %QGNKWU %CNFWU T   FCTWPVGT 4WPFUEJKNF FCJKPVGT .CPIUEJKNF5QNMQRH T $CD  $/%  %TCYH  D 5[F    *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%%QGNKWU%CNFWUI-QRHFGU-QPUWNU%%QGNKWU%CNFWUT\YKUEJGP 5RGGT WPF 5VCPFCTVG OKV *+5/CPP UKV\V N CWH .GEVKUVGTPKWO \YKUEJGP \YGK 6TQRJ·GP $CD    $/%R#PO%TCYHD5[F 445GJTUEJÌP



&KGDGKFGP5EJKNFG GKPICNNKUEJGTWPFGKPOCMGFQPKUEJGT \GKIGPCPFC­FGT8QTHCJTFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTUCWHDGKFGP -TKGIUUEJCWRN·V\GPGTHQNITGKEJIGM·ORHVJCV



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  #WH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG YKTF FGT %QPUWN FGU ,CJTGU  X %JT IGHGKGTV FGT CNU VTKDWPWU RNGDKU  X %JT FKG .GZ   %QGNKC6CDGNNCTKCFWTEJUGV\VG*+5 *KURCPKC DG\KGJVUKEJCWHUGKPG5KGIGKP5RCPKGP

814 813



815

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO /P #EKNKWU  I 5CNWUMQRH T8CNGVWFQ UVGJV N OKV 5EJNCPIG CWH   5·WNGIGUVÒV\V$CD$/%QFGT%TCYHCQFGTD5[F  (GKPG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.*QUVKNKWU5CUGTPCI8GPWUDÒUVGT8KEVQTKCIGJVTOKV6TQRJ·G WPF%CFWEGWU$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.*QUVKNKWU5CUGTPCI-QRHFGT)CNNKCTFCJKPVGT%CTP[Z#TVGOKU UVGJVXXOKV5RGGTNURTKPIV*KTUEJN$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  4(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



5CNWU WPF 8CNGVWFQ UVGJGP HÒT FKG IWVG )GUWPFJGKV &GT /ÒP\OGKUVGT YKNN FCOKV \WO #WUFTWEM DTKPIGP FC­ FGT   IGPU#EKNKCFGP8GTFKGPUVFGT'KPHÒJTWPICPUV·PFKIGTOGFK\KPKUEJGT8GTUQTIWPIKP4QO\WMQOOV+O,CJTGX %JTJCVVGFGTITKGEJKUEJG#T\V#TEJCICVJWUCPGKPGTPCEJFGTIGPU#EKNKCDGPCPPVGP5VTC­GPMTGW\WPIGKPG2TCZKU GKPIGTKEJVGV

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T 'UJCPFGNVUKEJOÌINKEJGTYGKUGWOGKPGP$GKUEJNCI



159


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

816



817

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % 8KDKWU 2CPUC  I 5KNGPUOCUMG T,WRKVGT #ZWTWU UKV\V N OKV   2CVGTCWPF<GRVGT$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG2CPOCUMGKUVGKPG#PURKGNWPICWHFGP$GKPCOGPFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTU



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % 8KDKWU 2CPUC  I 5KNGPUOCUMG T,WRKVGT #ZWTWU UKV\V N OKV   2CVGTCWPF<GRVGT$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F  (GKPG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTMN2TÒHUVGNNGCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

818





819

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % 8KDKWU 2CPUC  I 5KNGPUOCUMG T,WRKVGT #ZWTWU UKV\V N OKV   2CVGTCWPF<GRVGT$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP-TKEJGNFQTH5VWVVICTV0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%8KDKWU2CPUCI5KNGPUOCUMGTFCJKPVGT2GFWO,WRKVGT#ZWTWU UKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPF<GRVGT$CD$/%%TCYHD5[F  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



<WT&GWVWPIFGT#XGTUFCTUVGNNWPIUKGJG9Q[VGM$#TOCGV0WOOK9KGP5#PO

820





ex 821

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%8KDKWU2CPUCI5KNGPUOCUMGTFCJKPVGT2GFWO,WRKVGT#ZWTWU UKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPF<GRVGT$CD$/%%TCYHD5[F  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO &GEKOWU 2QUVWOKWU #NDKPWU $TWVK H  I 2KGVCUMQRH T<YGK *·PFG   JCNVGP%CFWEGWU$CD$/%%TCYH5[F&C\W'KP&GPCTFGU%8KDKWU2CPUC

%TCYH  5VÒEM*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



&GT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKUVGKPGTFGTUR·VGTGP%CGUCTOÌTFGT&KG4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPIFGUXQTNKGIGPFGP5VÒEMGUU[ODQNK UKGTVFKGENGOGPVKC%CGUCTKU

824 822

823



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO &GEKOWU 2QUVWOKWU #NDKPWU $TWVK H  I -QRH FGU %QPUWNU #WNWU   2QUVWOKWU#NDKPWUT5EJTKHVKP-TCP\$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F 45GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % 8KDKWU 2CPUC WPF &+WPKWU$TWVWU#NDKPWUI5KNGPUOCUMGT <YGK*·PFGJCNVGP%CFWEGWU$CD$/%%TCYH5[F -N#WHNCIGPXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . 2NCWVKWU 2NCPEWU   I /GFWUGPJCWRV X X#WTQTC HNKGIV T WPF   HÒJTVFKG2HGTFGFGU5QPPGPIQVVGU$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F  4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&CU$KNFFGU4GXGTUGUMQRKGTVGKP)GO·NFGFGU0KMQOCEJQUYGNEJGUUKEJ\WO<GKVRWPMVFGT2T·IWPIFGU5VÒEMGU KO $GUKV\ FGU /ÒP\OGKUVGTU DGHCPF &GT $TWFGT FGU /ÒP\OGKUVGTU /WPCVKWU 2NCPEWU IGNCPIVG PCEJ FGT 'TOQT   FWPIFGU2NCWVKWUX%JTKPFGP$GUKV\FGU)GO·NFGUWPFYGKJVGGUFGO,WRKVGT

160


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

826

825





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . 2NCWVKWU 2NCPEWU  I /GFWUGPJCWRV X X#WTQTC HNKGIV T WPF   HÒJTVFKG2HGTFGFGU5QPPGPIQVVGU$CD$/%%TCYHE5[FD  4(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\2TÒHUVGNNGCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . 2NCWVKWU 2NCPEWU  I /GFWUGPJCWRV X X#WTQTC HNKGIV T WPF   HÒJTVFKG2HGTFGFGU5QPPGPIQVVGU$CD$/%%TCYHE5[FD  4(GKPG2CVKPCMPCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



828

827





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . 2NCWVKWU 2NCPEWU  I /GFWUGPJCWRV X X#WTQTC HNKGIV T WPF   HÒJTVFKG2HGTFGFGU5QPPGPIQVVGU$CD$/%%TCYHE5[FD  4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . 2NCWVKWU 2NCPEWU  I /GFWUGPJCWRV X X#WTQTC HNKGIV T WPF   HÒJTVFKG2HGTFGFGU5QPPGPIQVVGU$CD$/%%TCYHE5[FD  4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



829





830

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO /P %QTFKWU 4WHWU  I -ÌRHG FGT &KQUMWTGP T OKV 2KNGK FCTÒDGT   5VGTPG8GPWU8GTVKEQTFKCUVGJVNOKV9CCIGWPF<GRVGTCWHFGT5EJWNVGT%WRKFQ$CD$/% %TCYHD5[FE (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/P%QTFKWU4WHWUI'WNGCWHMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNOT#GIKUOKV /GFWUGPJCWRVXGT\KGTV$CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



831



832

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/P%QTFKWU4WHWUI8GPWUMQRHTOKV&KCFGO%WRKFQCWH&GNRJKPT $CD$/%%TCYH5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJ



#WUFGO0CEJNCUU&T$WUUQ2GWU#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO/P%QTFKWU4WHWUI8GPWUMQRHTOKV&KCFGO%WRKFQCWH&GNRJKPT $CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG6ÌPWPIUVCTMG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

833

834



835



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 6 %CTKUKWU  I 4QOCMQRH T OKV *GNO(ÒNNJQTP CWH )NQDWU N   <GRVGTT5VGWGTTWFGT$CD$/%%TCYHC5[FC 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 6 %CTKUKWU  I 4QOCMQRH T OKV *GNO(ÒNNJQTP CWH )NQDWU N   <GRVGTT5VGWGTTWFGT$CD$/%%TCYHC5[FC 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO6%CTKUKWUI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT8KEVQTKCT8KEVQTKCKP3WCFTKICT $CD$/%%TCYH5[F (GKPG6ÌPWPIIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



&CU5VÒEMFÒTHVGUKEJCWH%CGUCTU5KGIDGK6JCRUWUDG\KGJGP

161


RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK

837 836







838

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % %QPUKFKWU 2CGVWU  I #RQNNQMQRH T FCJKPVGT #%WTWNKUEJGT   5VWJN$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO .QNNKWU 2CNKMCPWU  I *QPQUMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\%WTWNKUEJGT   5VWJNFCTCWH-TCP\NWPFTLGGKPGJTG$CD$/%p%TCYHD5[F  4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . 8CNGTKWU #EKUEWNWU  I #RQNNQMQRH T FCJKPVGT #EKUEWNWU 5VGKP   JCOOGT /GPUEJGPMÌRHKIG 'WNG IGJV T OKV *GNO 5EJKNF WPF \YGK 5RGGTGP $CD  $/%    %TCYHE5[FD 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T

839



840

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO % 0WOQPKWU 8CCNC  I -QRH FGU )CKWU %CUUKWU .QPIKPWU !  T   5QNFCVOKV5EJYGTVWPF5EJKNFNITGKHV\YGKJKPVGTGKPGT2CNKUCFGXGTUEJCP\VG)GIPGTCP$CDpXGTIN $CPVK$/%pXGTIN%TCYHpXGTIN5[FpXGTIN  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV-QTTQFKGTVUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



'UJCPFGNVUKEJDGKFGOXQTNKGIGPFGP'ZGORNCTWOGKPGJ[DTKFG2T·IWPIDGKFGTKTTVÒONKEJGKP#XGTUUVGORGNFGU &GPCTU%TCYHOKVGKPGO4GXGTUUVGORGNFGU#WTGWUMQODKPKGTVYQTFGPKUV#NDGTVQ$CPVKMCPPVGPWT FCU'ZGORNCTFGT$KDNKQVJGSWG0CVKQPCNG  <W&CVKGTWPIWPF#XGTUFCTUVGNNWPIUKGJG9Q[VGM$#TOCGV0WOOK9KGP5HH  'UKUVPKEJVIGUKEJGTVFC­CWHFGO#XGTUFGT%CGUCTOÌTFGT)CKWU%CUUKWU.QPIKPWUFCTIGUVGNNVKUV&CFKG2T·IWP IGP FGU ,CJTGU  X %JT CDGT CNNIGOGKP YKEJVKIG 5VÒV\GP FGT 4GRWDNKM CDDKNFGP KUV GU UGJTYCJTUEJGKPNKEJFC­ PGDGP $TWVWU %TCYH   CWEJ FGT \YGKVG 'T\TGRWDNKMCPGT %CUUKWU FCTIGUVGNNV KUV 5KGJG 9Q[VGM 5  H    &GT 4GXGTU FÒTHVG UKEJ CWH GKPG *GNFGPVCV GKPGU 8QTHCJTGP FGU /ÒP\OGKUVGTU DG\KGJGP FGT GKPUVGKPXCNNWOGKPG 2CNKUCFGDG\YWPIGPJCVVGWPFCWHFGPYQJNFCU%QIPQOGP8CCNCD\Y8CNC\WTÒEM\WHÒJTGPKUV'KPINGKEJPCOKIGT 5QJP FGU % 0WOQPKWU 8CCNCYCT.GICVFGU23WKPEVKNKWU8CTWUWPFOCEJVGKPFGT8CTWUUEJNCEJV -CNMTKGUGDGK 1UPCDTÒEM UGKPGO*GNFGPOWVXGTURTGEJGPFGP%QIPQOGPMGKPG'JTG 8GNN++ 0WOQPKWU8CNCCDGTGKP .GICVFGU8CTWUUQPUVGKPTWJKIGTWPFDGY·JTVGT/CPPICDGKPCDUEJTGEMGPFGU$GKURKGN'TDGTCWDVGFKG(W­UQN FCVGPKJTGU5EJWV\GUFWTEJFKG4GKVGTGKOCEJVGUKEJOKVUGKPGP5EJYCFTQPGPCWHFKG(NWEJVWPFUWEJVGFGP4JGKP\W GTTGKEJGP,GFQEJFCU5EJKEMUCNT·EJVGUGKPG5EJCPFVCV'TÒDGTNGDVGUGKPG-COGTCFGPPKEJVXQPFGPGPGTFGUGTVKGTV YCTUQPFGTPHCPFCNU&GUGTVGWTFGP6QF 



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO2%NQFKWU6WTTKPWUI#RQNNQMQRHTFCJKPVGT.[TC&KCPC.WEKHGTC OKV\YGK(CEMGNPUVGJVXX$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

841





842

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO..KXKPGKWU4GIWNWUI-QRHFGU2TCGVQTU..KXKPGKWU4GIWNWUT /QFKWU\YKUEJGP\YGKJTGP$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  44(GKPG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&CU2QTVT·V\GKIVFGP8CVGTFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTU&KG4ÒEMUGKVGDG\KGJVUKEJCWHFKG-QTPXGTVGKNWPIFKGFKGUGTFWTEJ \WHÒJTGPJCVVG



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%8KDKWU8CTWUI$CEEJWUMQRHTOKV'HGWMTCP\2CPVJGTURTKPIVN CP#NVCTCPFGO6J[TUWUNGJPV$CD$/%%TCYH5[F  4(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ &KGUG/ÒP\G\GKIVCWHDGKFGP5GKVGPFKQP[UKUEJG$G\ÒIGXGTOWVNKEJGKP*KPYGKUCWHFKG(COKNKGPVTCFKVKQP

162




IMPERATORISCHE PRÄGUNGEN

843





844

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . /WUUKFKWU .QPIWU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGU 5QN HCUV X X<YGK   5VCVWGPFGT8GPWU%NQCEKPCCWH2NCVVHQTO$CD$/%%TCYHC5[F  4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 2GVVKNKWU %CRKVQNKPWU  I #FNGT UVGJV T CWH $NKV\ OKV CWUIGDTGKVGVGP   5EJYKPIGP5GEJUU·WNKIGT6GORGN$CD$/%%TCYHE5[F 45GJTUEJÌP



<WT&CVKGTWPIUKGJG9Q[VGM$#TOCGV0WOOK9KGP5HH  #WH FGO 4GXGTU KUV FGT ,WRKVGTVGORGN CWH FGO %CRKVQN FCTIGUVGNNV 'U JCPFGNV UKEJ WO FGP  X %JT FWTEJ 3   .WVCVKWU %CUUKWU PGW GTTKEJVGVGP 6GORGN &CU CNVG XKGTU·WNKIG *GKNKIVWO YCT  X%JTGKPGO$TCPF\WO1RHGT IGHCNNGP

845

1,5:1

1,5:1

+/2'4#614+5%*'24)70)'0 

%P2QORGKWU/CIPWUOCKQTŎX%JTÕ&GPCTX%JTKNN[TKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVG.%QTPGNKWU .GPVWNWUWPF%%NCWFKWU/CTEGNNWUI6TKUMGNKUKO<GPVTWO/GFWUGPMQRH\YKUEJGPFGP$GKPGP JTGP,WRKVGTUVGJVXXOKV$NKV\WPF#FNGT$CD$/%%TCYHC5GCT5[F  4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TFGT#WMVKQP.GW0WOKUOCVKM<ÒTKEJ 0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T  &GT#XGTUV[RURKGNVCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP5[TCMWUFWTEJ/%NCWFKWU/CTEGNNWUKO,CJTX%JTCP

1,5:1



846

1,5:1

3 %CGEKNKWU /GVGNNWU 2KWU 5EKRKQ Ŏ  X %JT Õ&GPCT  X %JT 7VKEC %TCUUWU +WPKCPWU    I .ÌYGPMÌRHKIGT )GPKWUXQP#HTKEC 5GMJOGV UVGJVXXOKV#PMJ6CPKVUVGJVNOKVIGHNÒIGN VGO%CFWEGWUWPF5EJKNF$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  'UJCPFGNVUKEJWOFGPUGNVGPUVGP&GPCT5EKRKQU <WT$GPGPPWPIFGT)ÌVVKPCWHFGO4GXGTUUKGJG9Q[VGM$#TOCGV0WOOK9KGP5

1,5:1



847



1,5:1

Õ&GPCTX%JT.CIGTOÒP\UV·VVGKP#HTKMC/CTEWU'RRKWUI#HTKMCMQRHKO'NGHCPVGP UMCNRTFCXQTJTGFCTWPVGT2HNWI*GTEWNGUUVGJVXXOKV-GWNGWPF.ÌYGPHGNN$CD$/% %TCYH5GCT5[F (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  3 %CGEKNKWU /GVGNNWU 2KWU 5EKRKQ YCT FGT -QOOCPFGWT FGT 2QORGKCPGT KP #HTKMC 'T ÒDGTNGDVG FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK   6JCRUWUWPFY·JNVGDCNFFCTCWHKP*KRRQ4GIKWUFGP(TGKVQF

163


IMPERATORISCHE PRÄGUNGEN

849

848



% ,WNKWU %CGUCT Ŏ  X %JT Õ&GPCT  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG  I'NGHCPVT2TKGUVGT IGT·VG$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



<WT&CVKGTWPIUKGJG9Q[VGM$#TOCGV0WOOK9KGP5HH  &KG 4ÒEMUGKVG \GKIV %CGUCTU #OV CNU 2QPVKHGZ OCZKOWU CP FKG GKP\KIG QHHK\KGNNG 5VGNNWPI FKG GT \W $GIKPP FGU   $ÒTIGTMTKGIGUDGMNGKFGVG



Õ&GPCT  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG  I 'NGHCPV T2TKGUVGTIGT·VG $CD  $/%    %TCYH5GCT5[F 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

850



851

1,5:1

Õ&GPCT  X%JTKNN[TKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVG #RQNNQPKC! I-QRHFGT%NGOGPVKC ! T6TQRJ·G CWUICNNKUEJGP9CHHGPT#ZV$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



<W&CVKGTWPIWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGUKGJG9Q[VGM$#TOCGV0WOOK9KGP5HH



Õ&GPCT  X %JT MNGKPCUKCVKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I 8GPWUMQRH T#GPGCU N VT·IV UGKPGP   8CVGT#PEJKUGUWPFFCU2CNNCFKWO CWUFGODTGPPGPFGP6TQLC $CD$/%%TCYH5GCT 5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  <W&CVKGTWPIWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGUKGJG9Q[VGM$#TOCGV0WOOK9KGP5HH  %CGUCTUVGNNVGKPUGKPGT2TQRCICPFCKOOGTYKGFGTUGKPG#DUVCOOWPIXQPFGPCWHFKGUGT/ÒP\GFCTIGUVGNNVGPO[VJK UEJGP 8QTHCJTGP JGTCWU #UECPKWU+WNWU FGT 5QJP FGU #GPGCU IKNV CNU 5VCOOXCVGT FGT ,WNKGT #GPGCU YKGFGTWO   UVCOOVG XQP 8GPWU CD *KGT XGTDKPFGVUKEJFKG)TÒPFWPIUUCIG4QOUU[ODQNKUKGTVFWTEJFCU2CNNCFKWOOKVFGO 7TURTWPIFGTIGPU+WNKC

853

852





Õ&GPCT  X %JT MNGKPCUKCVKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I 8GPWUMQRH T#GPGCU N VT·IV UGKPGP   8CVGT#PEJKUGUWPFFCU2CNNCFKWO CWUFGODTGPPGPFGP6TQLC $CD$/%%TCYH5GCT 5[F (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCT  X %JT MNGKPCUKCVKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I 8GPWUMQRH T#GPGCU N VT·IV UGKPGP   8CVGT#PEJKUGUWPFFCU2CNNCFKWO CWUFGODTGPPGPFGP6TQLC $CD$/%%TCYH5GCT 5[F -TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

854

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  X %JT 4QO # *KTVKWU  I 8GUVCMQRH T OKV 5EJNGKGT2TKGUVGTIGT·VG $CD    $/%%CNKEQC%TCYH5GCT5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJ  *KTVKWUYCTGKP.GICV%CGUCTU0CEJFGUUGP'TOQTFWPIDGMNGKFGVGGTFCU-QPUWNCV'TXGTHC­VGCWEJFCU$WEJ FGUDGTÒJOVGP9GTMGUFGDGNNQICNNKEQ

164


IMPERATORISCHE PRÄGUNGEN

855



856

1,5:1

Õ&GPCTX%JTUK\KNKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI%GTGUMQRHT2TKGUVGTIGT·VGT&$CD$/% %TCYHC5GCT5[F (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



<WT/ÒP\UV·VVGUKGJG9Q[VGM$#TOCGV0WOOK9KGP5HH



Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.$WECI-QRH%CGUCTUTOKV-TCP\8GPWUUVGJVNOKV8KEVQTKC WPF<GRVGT$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  4-PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

857





858

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 2 5GRWNNKWU /CEGT  I -QRH %CGUCTU T OKV -TCP\ WPF 5EJNGKGT   8GPWU UVGJV N OKV 8KEVQTKC <GRVGT WPF 5EJKNF $CD  $/%  %TCYH  5GCT  F   5[F 44(GKPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP  &KGUG'OKUUKQPIGJÌTV\WFGPNGV\VGPXQTFGP+FGPFGU/·T\&GT5EJNGKGTKUVGKP*KPYGKUCWHFCU#OVFGU2QPVKHGZ /CZKOWU



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 2 5GRWNNKWU /CEGT  I -QRH %CGUCTU T OKV -TCP\ WPF 5EJNGKGT   8GPWU UVGJV N OKV 8KEVQTKC <GRVGT WPF 5EJKNF $CD  $/%  %TCYH  5GCT  F   5[F 44(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP1UNQ/[PVJCPFGN1UNQ0T





860

859





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 2 5GRWNNKWU /CEGT  I -QRH %CGUCTU T OKV -TCP\ WPF 5EJNGKGT   8GPWU UVGJV N OKV 8KEVQTKC <GRVGT WPF 5EJKNF $CD  $/%  %TCYH  5GCT  F   5[F 445EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 2 5GRWNNKWU /CEGT  I -QRH %CGUCTU T OKV -TCP\ WPF 5EJNGKGT   8GPWU UVGJV N OKV 8KEVQTKC <GRVGT WPF 5EJKNF $CD  $/%  %TCYH  5GCT  F   5[F 445EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



861

2:1



2:1

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%%QUUWVKWU/CTKFKCPWUI-QRH%CGUCTUTOKV-TCP\WPF5EJNGKGT FCJKPVGT #RGZ FCXQT .KVWWU% %15586+85 WPF /#4+&+#085 KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGP 9KPMGNP   ###(($CD$/%%TCYH5GCT  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ  165


IMPERATORISCHE PRÄGUNGEN

862



864

863

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . .KXKPGKWU 4GIWNWU  I -QRH %CGUCTU T OKV -TCP\ FCJKPVGT .QT   DGGT\YGKIFCXQT%CFWEGWU5VKGTT$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  &KG4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPIDG\KGJVUKEJOÌINKEJGTYGKUGCWHGKPG$GIGDGPJGKVXQT6JCRUWU'KP1RHGTUVKGTHNQJXQO #NVCT %CGUCT NKG­ UKEJ XQP FKGUGO UEJNGEJVGP 1OGP CDGT PKEJV UEJTGEMGP 5WGVQP &KXWU +WNKWU   &KGU YCT .   .KXKPGKWU4GIWNWUUKEJGTDGMCPPVFCGTWPVGT%CGUCTKP#HTKECIGFKGPVJCVVG



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . /WUUKFKWU .QPIWU  I -QRH %CGUCTU T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\(ÒNN   JQTP CWH )NQDWU \YKUEJGP 5VGWGTTWFGT %CFWEGWU WPF #RGZ $CD  $/%  %TCYH  C   5GCT5[FC 4(GKPG6ÌPWPIOKPFG\GPVTKGTV2TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2TQH.(QPVCPC%0)'NGEVTQPKE#WEVKQP0T  &KGUG 2TQRCICPFCRT·IWPI KP <WUCOOGPJCPI OKV FGT #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPI \YKUEJGP /CTE #PVQP WPF 1EVCXKCP   GKPGTUGKVUWPFFGP%CGUCTOÌTFGTPCPFGTGTUGKVUUVGNNV%CGUCTU'THQNIG\W.CPFWPF\WT5GG U[ODQNKUKGTVFWTEJFCU 5VGWGTTWFGT WPF FCU (ÒNNJQTP CWH FGO )NQDWU  JGTCWU WPF XGTYGKUV OKV FGO #RGZ FCTCWH FC­ %CGUCT 2QPVKHGZ   /CZKOWUYCTWPFFGOTÌOKUEJGP8QNM)NÒEM HGNKEKVCU IGDTCEJVJCV U[ODQNKUKGTVFWTEJFGP%CFWEGWU 



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO . /WUUKFKWU .QPIWU  I -QRH %CGUCTU T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\(ÒNN   JQTP CWH )NQDWU \YKUEJGP 5VGWGTTWFGT %CFWEGWU WPF #RGZ $CD  $/%  %TCYH  D   5GCT5[FE 4(GKPG2CVKPCUVCTMG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



865

2:1



2:1

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO.(NCOKPKWU%JKNQI-QRH%CGUCTUTOKV-TCP\8GPWU OKV(GNK EKVCUCURGMV UVGJVNOKV%CFWEGWUWPF<GRVGT$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  <W &CVKGTWPI WPF 4GXGTUFCTUVGNNWPI UKGJG 9Q[VGM $ #TOC GV 0WOOK 9KGP  5  HH &CU JGTTNKEJG   KFGCNKUKGTVG2QTVT·VCWHFGO#XGTUUQNNXGTOWVNKEJFKG)ÌVVNKEJMGKV%CGUCTUWPFFCOKVFGP*GTTUEJCHVUCPURTWEJUGKPGU #FQRVKXUQJPGU 1EVCXKCPWU WPVGTUVTGKEJGP Y·JTGPF FGT 4GXGTU OKV FGT &CTUVGNNWPI FGT 8GPWU CWH FKG IÌVVNKEJG   #DUVCOOWPIFGTIGPU+WNKCXGTYGKUV

866



867

868

/ +WPKWU $TWVWU Õ&GPCT  X %JT MNGKPCUKCVKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG . 5GUVKWU 3WKTKPCNKU  I   .KDGTVCUMQRH T OKV 5EJNGKGT&TGKHW­ \YKUEJGP #ZV WPF 5KORWNWO $CD  $/%  %TCYH    5GCT5[F 4.GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC  .5GUVKWU3WKTKPCNKUNKGHUR·VGT\W#WIWUVWUÒDGTWPFYWTFGX%JT%QPUWNUWHHGEVWU9·JTGPFUGKPGT<GKVKO *GGTFGU$TWVWUFÒTHVGGTUKEJOKV*QTC\CPIGHTGWPFGVJCDGPFGTKJOGKPGUGKPGT1FGP %CTOGP YKFOGVG



/CTEWU#PVQPKWUŎX%JTÕ&GPCTX%JTKVCNKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI-QRHTFCJKPVGT .KVWWU5QNMQRHT$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F 45GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCTX%JT.CIGTOÒP\UV·VVGKP)TKGEJGPNCPF./WPCVKWU2NCPEWUI.KVWWUWPF%CRKU -CPPG\YKUEJGPIGHNÒIGNVGO$NKV\WPFIGHNÒIGNVGO%CFWEGWU$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT 5[F 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV.GKEJVG#WHNCIGPUGJTUEJÌP



. /WPCVKWU 2NCPEWU GKPG FGT UEJKNNGTPFUVGP )GUVCNVGP CWU FGT 'PFRJCUG FGT 4GRWDNKM YCT \WP·EJUV GKP GPIGT   8GTVTCWVGT%CGUCTUFGTUGKPG-CTTKGTGHÌTFGTVGWPFKJOCWEJ\WO#OVFGU2TCGHGEVWUWTDKXGTJCNH0CEJFGO6QFG %CGUCTUUEJNWIUKEJ2NCPEWUCWHFKG5GKVGFGT/ÌTFGTUGKPGU9QJNV·VGTUYCPFVGUKEJCDGTKO,CJTGX%JTFGO #PVQPKWU\W&QEJCWEJFKGUGPXGTTKGVGTWPFUEJNWIUKEJCWHFKG5GKVGFGU1EVCXKCPWU'UYCT./WPCVKWU2NCPEWU FGTKO,CJTGX%JTKO5GPCVFKG8GTNGKJWPIFGU6KVGNU#WIWUVWUCP1EVCXKCPWUDGCPVTCIVG 

166


IMPERATORISCHE PRÄGUNGEN

869

870



Õ&GPCT  X %JT #VJGP  I /CTEWU #PVQPKWU UVGJV T CNU#WIWT5QNMQRHT$CD$/% %TCYH5GCT5[F 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  X %JT #VJGP / +WPKWU 5KNCPWU  I -QRH T5EJTKHV KP \YGK <GKNGP $CD    $/%%TCYH5GCT5[F *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCOKPMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



872

871



Õ&GPCTX%JT#VJGP/+WPKWU5KNCPWUI-QRHT$CTDCTKUKGTVG5EJTKHVKP\YGK<GKNGP $CD\W$/%\W%TCYH\W5GCT\W5[F\W  (GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ&GPCT  X %JT #VJGP  I -QRH T#0610+85#8) +/2 +++ $CD  $/%    %TCYH5GCT5[F #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T &KGFTKVVGKORGTCVQTKUEJG#MMNCOCVKQPGTHQNIVGPCEJFGO2CTVJGTMTKGIX%JT

873





874

Õ&GPCTX%JT2CVTCU ! I)CNGGTGT.')++.GIKQPUCFNGT\YKUEJGP\YGK5VCPFCT VGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  2TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') +++ .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCP   FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T  'UFÒTHVGFKG.GIKQ++#WIWUVCIGOGKPVUGKP5KGYCTUR·VGTKP/QIQPVKCEWO /CKP\ UVCVKQPKGTVCDKP)NQXGU

)NQWEGUVGT KP$TKVCPPKGP





'UJCPFGNVUKEJYQJNWOFKGNGIKQ+++)CNNKEC

875

876

877

878



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') +++ .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCP   FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  (GKPG2CVKPC2TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUMN-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') 8++ .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCP   FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG .GIKQ 8++ %NCWFKC YCT WPVGT %CGUCT KP )CNNKGP UVCVKQPKGTV WPF YWTFG PCEJ FGO $ÒTIGTMTKGI PCEJ /QGUKGP   XGTNGIVYQKJT#D\GKEJGPFGT5VKGTPQEJKO,CJTJWPFGTVCWH/ÒP\GPXQP8KOKPCEKWOGTUEJGKPV



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') 8+++ .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCP   FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') +: .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCP   FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  (GKPG2CVKPC2TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP

 167


IMPERATORISCHE PRÄGUNGEN

880

879



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') :++ .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCP   FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F 5GJTUEJÌP



&KG \YÌNHVG .GIKQP YCT KO 1UVGP UVCVKQPKGTV \WP·EJUV KP I[RVGP FCPP KP 5[TKGP CD FGO ,CJTG  P %JT KP   -CRRCFQMKGP ªDGT FKGUG .GIKQP DGTKEJVGV CWEJ FKG EJTKUVNKEJG .GIGPFG KO -TKGI FGU /CTEWU #WTGNKWU OKV FGP   3WCFGPIGTKGVFCUTÌOKUEJG*GGTKPGKPG0QVNCIGCNUDGKITQ­GT*KV\GFCU6TKPMYCUUGTMPCRRYWTFG&KG#TOGG YWTFG FWTEJ GKP RNÌV\NKEJGU )GYKVVGT IGTGVVGV WPF DGUKGIVG FKG (GKPFG XQNNUV·PFKI &CU )GYKVVGT UQNN FWTEJ FKG   )GDGVGFGTEJTKUVNKEJGP\YÌNHVGP.GIKQPJGTXQTIGTWHGPYQTFGPUGKP5QFGWVGV\WOKPFGUV'WUGDKWU JKUVGEEN8  FCU4GIGPYWPFGTFGT3WCFGPUEJNCEJV



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') :8 .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCP   FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



&KG.GIKQ:8XQP1EVCXKCPWUIGITÒPFGVYCTPCEJFGO$ÒTIGTMTKGIKP+NN[TKGPUVCVKQPKGTV

881



883

882

884

Õ&GPCTX%JT2CVTCU ! I)CNGGTGT.'):8++.GIKQPUCFNGT\YKUEJGP\YGK5VCP FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F 5GJTUEJÌP



&KG.GIKQ:8++YWTFGXQP1EVCXKCPCWHIGUVGNNVWPFX%JTCPFGP4JGKPXGTNGIV+O,CJTGP%JTIKPIUKGKP FGT8CTWUUEJNCEJVWPVGT



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') :8+++ .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK   5VCPFCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT 1UPCDTÒEM0T  &KG .GIKQ :8+++ IKPI KO ,CJTG  P %JT KP FGT 8CTWUUEJNCEJV KP -CNMTKGUG DGK 1UPCDTÒEM WPVGT &KGUG 5EJNCEJV   XGTNQT 2 3WKPEVKNKWU 8CTWU IGIGP GKPG -QCNKVKQP IGTOCPKUEJGT 5V·OOG WPVGT FGT (ÒJTWPI FGU %JGTWUMGTHÒTUVGP   #TOKPKWUGVYCTÌOKUEJG5QNFCVGPHCPFGPFGP6QF<WFGP6QVGPIGJÌTVGCWEJ/%CGNKWUGKP%GPVWTKQFGT .GIKQPFGUUGPKP:CPVGPIGHWPFGPGT)TCDUVGKPDKUJGWVGFGPGKP\KIGPGRKITCRJKUEJGP$GNGIHÒTFKG8CTWUMCVC UVTQRJGFCTUVGNNV  &GP#FNGTFGT.GIKQ:8+++MQPPVGPTÌOKUEJG6TWRRGPGKPKIG,CJTGUR·VGTGPVYGFGTXQPFGP/CTUGTP 6CE#PP++  QFGTFGP%JCWMGTP %CUU&KQ.: \WTÒEMIGYKPPGP  



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 2CVTCU !   I )CNGGTG T.') :: .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCP   FCTVGP$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  (GKPG2CVKPC2TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



&KG.GIKQ::YKTFXQP1EVCXKCPYKGFGTGTTKEJVGV0CEJFGT8CTWUUEJNCEJVYKTFUKG\WGTUVPCEJ1RRKFWO7DKQTWO FGOUR·VGTGP%QNQPKC#ITKRRKPC -ÌNP FCPPPCEJ0QXCGUKWO 0GW­ XGTNGIV#DP%JTKUVUKGKP$TKVCPPKGP \WHKPFGP



Õ&GPCTX%JT-[TGPG.2KPCTKWU5ECTRWUI-QRHFGU,WRKVGT#OOQPT8KEVQTKCIGJVT OKV-TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI$CD$/%%TCYH5GCT5[F  4(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\2WP\GPIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



885

168

1,5:1

WPF1EVCXKCPWUÕ&GPCTX%JT'RJGUWU/$CTDCVKWUI$GKFGTUGKVU-QRHT$CD $/%%TCYH5GCT5[F 8QT\ÒINKEJ &GT/ÒP\OGKUVGTVT·IVFGPWPIGYÌJPNKEJGP6KVGN32 SWCGUVQTRTQRTCGVQTG 






IMPERATORISCHE PRÄGUNGEN

888 887

886



Õ&GPCT  X %JT 'RJGUWU / $CTDCVKWU  I $GKFGTUGKVU -QRH T $CD  $/%    %TCYH5GCT5[F (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  X %JT .CIGTOÒP\UV·VVG KP 5[TKGP  I $GKFGTUGKVU -QRH T $CD  $/%    %TCYH5GCT5[F 444GXGTUNGKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ3WKPCT  X %JT ICNNKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I %QPEQTFKCMQRH T OKV 5EJNGKGT<YGK *·PFG   JCNVGP%CFWEGWU$CD$/%%TCYHD-KPI5GCT5[F  4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



889

2:1



2:1

1EVCXKCPWUÔ#WTGWUX%JT4QO.%GUVKWUWPF%0QTDCPWUI$ÒUVGFGT5[DKNNGT %[DGNGCWH6JTQPKP.ÌYGPDKICN$CD$/%%CNKEQD%TCYH5GCT5[F 448QT\ÒINKEJ  +PFGT/KVVGFGU,CJTGUX%JTJQHHVGFGT5GPCV4QOOKVFTGK.GIKQPGPIGIGP1EVCXKCPWUXGTVGKFKIGP\WMÌP PGP'UJCPFGNVGUKEJWOGKPGKVCNKUEJG.GIKQPFKG2CPUC\WT8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT5VCFVKP4QOIGNCUUGPJCVVGUQYKG \YGK.GIKQPGPFKGFGT5GPCVCWU#HTKEC\W*KNHGIGTWHGPJCVVG<YGKFGTOKVFGT8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT5VCFVDGCWHVTCI VGP 2TCGVQTGP . %GUVKWU WPF % 0QTDCPWU DGYGIVGP FKG .GIKQPGP FC\W \W 1EVCXKCP ÒDGT\WNCWHGP &CTCWHJKP   TÒEMVG 1EVCXKCP KP 4QO GKP DGO·EJVKIVG UKEJ FGU5VCCVUUEJCV\GUWPFNKG­KO#WIWUV5GRVGODGTX%JTKPFGT XQP%CGUCTPGWGKPIGTKEJVGVGP/ÒP\UV·VVGCO,CPKEWNWO PKEJVKPFGTCNVGPOQPGVC /ÒP\GPRT·IGPWOFKG\WKJO ÒDGTIGNCWHGPGP .GIKQPGP HÒT KJTGP 8GTTCV CO 5GPCV\WDGNQJPGP*KGTDGKDGTKGHGTUKEJUEJGKPJGKNKICWHGKPGP5G PCVUDGUEJNW­ FGT HTGKNKEJ XQP KJO GT\YWPIGP YQTFGP YCT 7PUGT 5VÒEM GJTV FKG KVCNKUEJG .GIKQP DGK FGT GU UKEJ   YQJNWOFKG.GIKQ8WTDCPCJCPFGNPFÒTHVG

890



Õ&GPCT  X %JT KVCNKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T-TCP\ CWH EWTWNKUEJGO 5VWJN $CD    $/%XGTIN%TCYHF5GCTC5[F 5GJTUEJÌP



891

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU  X %JT KVCNKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T1EVCXKCP \W 2HGTFG N $/%    %QJ4+%w5GCT 4)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  169


AUGUSTUS

892



WPF&KXWU,WNKWU%CGUCT“&WRQPFKWUWOX%JT8KGPPCI-QRH%CGUCTUNWPF-QRH 1EVCXKCPUT2TQTCT42%5GCT &WPMGNITÒPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

1,5:1

893



1,5:1

/ª0<'0&'44¤/+5%*'0-#+5'4<'+6 

#WIWUVWUXP%JTÕ&GPCTX%JTKVCNKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI-QRHT6TQRJ·G CWH2TQTC$/%%QJ4+%wC  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTCWHDTGKVGO5EJTÌVNKPI(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

<WT&CVKGTWPIUKGJG5GCT6JG%QKPCIGQHVJG4QOCP+ORGTCVQTU$%.QPFQP0T



895

894



Õ&GPCTX%JTKVCNKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI-QRHT6TQRJ·GCWH2TQTC$/%%QJ 4+%wC (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCTX%JTKVCNKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI-QRHT(TQPVCNCPUKEJVFGT%WTKC,WNKC$/% %QJ4+%w #XGTUNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



<WT &CVKGTWPI UKGJG 5GCT 6JG *KUVQT[ CPF %QKPCIG QH VJG 4QOCP +ORGTCVQTU  $% .QPFQP  0T    &KG %WTKC *QUVKNKC YCT  X %JT CDIGDTCPPV CNU FKG .GKEJG FGU 2 %NQFKWU 2WNEJGT XGTDTCPPV YWTFG %CGUCT   HKPCP\KGTVGFKGPGWG%WTKC,WNKCFKGX%JTFWTEJ#WIWUVWUGKPIGYGKJVYWTFG

896

897

898



Õ&GPCTX%JTKVCNKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI-QRHT(TQPVCNCPUKEJVFGT%WTKC,WNKC$/% %QJ4+%w (CUVUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  X %JT KVCNKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5VCPFDKNFCWH4QUV TCNU·WNG$/%%QJ4+%w (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



<WT&CVKGTWPIUKGJG5GCT6JG%QKPCIGQHVJG4QOCP+ORGTCVQTU$%.QPFQP0T  +O4+%YKTFFKG8QTFGTUGKVGCNU#RQNNQMQRHDGUEJTKGDGPCDGTFKGJPNKEJMGKVOKVFGOINGKEJ\GKVKIGP#WIWUVWURQTV T·VKUVUQITQ­FC­JÌEJUVGPU#WIWUVWUCNU#RQNNQFCTIGUVGNNVUGKPMCPP&CMGKPG7OUEJTKHVXQTJCPFGPKUVOW­FKG $GXÌNMGTWPIFCOCNUFGP-QRHCNUFGPFGU#WIWUVWUCPIGUGJGPJCDGP



Õ&GPCTX%JTKVCNKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5VCPFDKNFCWH4QUVTCN U·WNG$/%%QJ4+%w 8QTFGTUGKVGNGKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

170




AUGUSTUS

899 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&GPCT  X %JT KVCNKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T FCJKPVGT .KVWWU#');261%#26#   -TQMQFKNT$/%%QJ4+%wC  442TÒHRWP\GCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI  &CU5VÒEMHGKGTVFKG'TQDGTWPII[RVGPU

1,5:1



900

1,5:1

Õ&GPCT  X %JT 4QO 2 2GVTQPKWU 6WTRKNKCPWU  I (GTQPKCDÒUVG T-PKGPFGT 2CTVJGT T   RT·UGPVKGTV5VCPFCTVG$/%%QJ4+%w (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP4QOC0WOKUOCVKEU.QPFQP0T  &KGXQP%TCUUWUX%JTCPFKG2CTVJGTXGTNQTGPGP(GNF\GKEJGPJCDGPFKG4ÌOGTX%JTCWHFKRNQOCVKUEJGO 9GIG \WTÒEMIGYKPPGP MÌPPGP /KV FGO KJO GKIGPGP TQDWUVGP 5GNDUVDGYW­VUGKP UVGNNVG #WIWUVWU FKGU KP UGKPGO   6CVGPDGTKEJV   UQ FCT &KG 2CTVJGT JCDG KEJ IG\YWPIGP FKG $GWVG WPF (GNF\GKEJGP FTGKGT TÌOKUEJGT *GGTG   \WTÒEM\WIGDGPWPFFKG(TGWPFUEJCHVFGU4ÌOKUEJGP8QNMGU\WGTHNGJGP

901

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&GPCT  X %JT URCPKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T OKV 'KEJGPMTCP\<YGK .QTDGGT   D·WOG$/%p%QJ4+%wC 2TCEJVGZGORNCT-N5VGORGNDTWEJCWHFGO#XGTU5VGORGNINCP\  <W FGP .QTDGGTD·WOGP JGK­V GU KP FGP TGU IGUVCG (ÒT FKGUGU OGKP 8GTFKGPUV YWTFG KEJ FWTEJ 5GPCVUDGUEJNW­   #WIWUVWUIGPCPPVCPOGKPGP6ÒTRHQUVGPYWTFGPXQP5VCCVUYGIGP\YGK.QTDGGTD·WOGCPIGDTCEJV  

902 1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ&GPCTX%JTWPDGUVKOOVGURCPKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVG %QNQPKC%CGUCTCWIWUVC! I-QRHT 5234%.8CWH4WPFUEJKNF$/%%QJ4+%wC  9KP\5EJÒTHUVGNNGCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ  +O ,CJTG  X %JT YWTFG #WIWUVWU FGT ENKRGWU XKTVWVKU FGT CWH FGT /ÒP\G FCTIGUVGNNV KUV WPF CWEJ KP FGP TGU   IGUVCGGTY·JPVYKTF 8+ XGTNKGJGP+PFGPTGUIGUVCGJGK­VGU'KPIQNFGPGT5EJKNFYWTFGKPFGT%WTKC,WNKC CWHIGUVGNNV FGP OKT FGT 5GPCV WPF FCU TÌOKUEJG 8QNM IGYGKJV JCDGP YGIGP OGKPGT6CRHGTMGKVWPF/KNFGOGKPGT )GTGEJVKIMGKVWPF*KPICDGYKGGUFKG#WHUEJTKHVCWHFKGUGO5EJKNFDG\GWIV

171


AUGUSTUS

903



904

Õ&GPCT  X %JT WPDGUVKOOVG URCPKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG %QNQPKC 2CVTKEKC!   I -QRH T5EJKNF   OKV%.8\YKUEJGP.GIKQPUCFNGTWPF(GNF\GKEJGP$/%%QJ4+%wC  (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



+O ,CJTG  X %JT YWTFG #WIWUVWU FGT ENKRGWU XKTVWVKU FGT CWH FGT /ÒP\G FCTIGUVGNNV KUV WPF CWEJ KP FGP TGU   IGUVCGGTY·JPVYKTF 8+ XGTNKGJGPX%JTYWTFGPFKG(GNF\GKEJGPFKG%TCUUWUDGKUGKPGT0KGFGTNCIGDGK %CTTJCGX%JTXGTNQTGPJCVVGXQPFGP2CTVJGTP\WTÒEMIGIGDGP$GKFG'TGKIPKUUGYGTFGPCWHFGT/ÒP\GIGHGKGTV



Õ&GPCTX%JTWPDGUVKOOVGURCPKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVG %QNQPKC2CVTKEKC! I-QRHNOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\8KGTU·WNKIGT 6GORGN FGU /CTU 7NVQT FCTKP UVGJV /CTU N OKV .GIKQPUCFNGT WPF 6TQRJ·G   $/%%QJ4+%wD -N2WP\GCWHFGO#XGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP4CWEJ9KGP0T

905

1,5:1





1,5:1

Ô#WTGWUX%JT.WIFWPWOI#8)85685&+8+(-QRHT5VKGTUVÌ­VNKO#DUEJPKVV +/2:$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 449KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%+<ÒTKEJ0T







0CEJ--TCHV<WT/ÒP\RT·IWPIFGU#WIWUVWUUVGJVFGTUVQ­GPFG5VKGTHÒT/CTU7NVQTWPFUQOKVHÒTFGP5KGIDGK 2JKNKRRKX%JTFCUGPVURTKEJVCWEJFGPCPFGTGP4GXGTUGPFKGUGT'OKUUKQPFKGUKEJCWHFGP5KGIDGK0CWNQEJQU ÒDGT 5GZVWU 2QORGKWU &KCPC5+%+.  FGP 5KGI DGK #EVKWO ÒDGT / #PVQPKWU #RQNNQ#%6  WPF FKG 5KGIG FGU   &TWUWU WPF 6KDGTKWU KP 4·VKGP \YGK 2TKP\GP TGKEJGP #WIWUVWU .QTDGGT\YGKIG  DG\KGJGP &GT *KPYGKU CWH GKPGP   HTÒJGP$GKPCOGPFGU#WIWUVWUCNU6JWTKPWUOKVGKPGTCDYGTVGPFGP#PUKEJVUGKPGT*GTMWPHVOÒVVGTNKEJGTUGKVUFCGKP )TQ­XCVGTCWUMNGKPGP8GTJ·NVPKUUGPCWU6JWTKWOUVCOOGPUQNN FCJGTFGTUVQ­GPFG5VKGT KUVUKEJGTGKP-QPUVTWMV FGTOK­IÒPUVKIGP1RRQUKVKQP

906



Õ&GPCT  X %JT .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T#WIWUVWU UKV\V N CWH 2QFKWO WPF GORH·PIV   <YGKIGXQP\YGK5QNFCVGP$/%%QJ4+%wC 49KP\-CV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

907

1,5:1





1,5:1

Õ&GPCTX%JT.WIFWPWOI-QRHT5VKGTUVÌ­VT$/%%QJ4+%wC W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

908





909

Õ&GPCTX%JT4QO%5WNRKEKWU2NCVQTKPWUI-QRHT#WIWUVWUWPF#ITKRRCUKV\GPXX N5RGGT$/%%QJ4+%w  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPC2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

 172

Õ&GPCTX%JT.WIFWPWOI-QRHT5VKGTUVÌ­VN$/%%QJ4+%wC *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP




AUGUSTUS

910



912

911

Õ&GPCT  X %JT .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)CKWU %CGUCT TGKVGV T OKV   5EJYGTV WPF 5EJKNF FCJKPVGT .GIKQPUCFNGT \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VCPFCTVGP $/%  %QJ  4+%w    5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP-ÌNPGT/ÒP\MCDKPGVV-ÌNP0T





“#U  X %JT .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ FCTCWH TWPFGT )GIGPUVGORGN OKV   PGWP \WUCOOGPNCWHGPFGP .KPKGP#TC .WIFWPGPUKU FCTÒDGT TGEJVGEMKIGT )GIGPUVGORGN FGU 2WDNKWU   3WKPEVKNKWU8CTWU8#4 NKIKGTV $/%%QJ4+%w)GIGPUVGORGN5NI$GEJHHHH 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP\YGK'KPJKGDGCWHFGO4GXGTU)GIGPUVGORGNUGJTUEJÌP  2WDNKWU 3WKPEVKNKWU 8CTWU IKPI OKV FTGK .GIKQPGP KP FGT 5EJNCEJV CO 6GWVQDWTIGT 9CNF WPVGT 8CTWU MCPP UGKPG   )GIGPUVGORGNPWTKPFGT<GKV\YKUEJGPWPFP%JTCWHFKG/ÒP\GPIGDTCEJVJCDGPCNUGT.GICVFGU#WIWUVWU KP)GTOCPKGPYCT)GIGPUVGORGNFGU8CTWUCWH#TC.WIFWPGPUKU#UUGPUKPFCWEJKP-CNMTKGUGDGK1UPCDTÒEMFGO 1TVFGT8CTWUUEJNCEJVIGHWPFGPYQTFGP UKGJG\$$GTIGT5(0T   &GT )GIGPUVGORGN #8% KUV \YGKHGNUHTGK KP #8% WUVK  CWH\WNÌUGP &KG CDUVTWUGP 8GTUWEJG #8% KP #8 NWU    % CGEKPC CWH\WNÌUGPMQPPVGPFWTEJ7NTKEJ9GT\ÒDGT\GWIGPF\WTÒEMIGYKGUGPYGTFGP  #O#WIWUVLGFGP,CJTGUHGKGTVGPFKGEKXKVCVGUFGTFTGK)CNNKGPCPFGT#TC.WIFWPGPUKUGKP(GUVOKVFGOUKG KJTG4GKEJUVTGWGDGUV·VKIVGP&GT#NVCTYCTKO,CJTGX%JTXQP&TWUWUGTTKEJVGVYQTFGP



“3WCFTCPU  X %JT 4QO #RTQPKWU )CNWU /GUUCNC WPF 5KUGPPC  I #NVCT5% $/%    %QJ4+%w KTTVÒONKEJG$GUEJTGKDWPI  8QT\ÒINKEJHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



913

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  X %JT .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)CKWU WPF .WEKWU %CGUCTGU   UVGJGPXXOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNFGPFCTÒDGT5KORWNWOWPF.KVWWU$/%%CNKEQ%QJ 4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP  &GTXQTNKGIGPFG6[RMCPPPCEJPGWGTGT(QTUEJWPIGZCMVGTFCVKGTVYGTFGPCNUFKGUKO4+%IGOCEJVYWTFG X P%JT &KG5VÒEMGYWTFGPX%JTIGRT·IVYKGUKEJCWUFGT6CVUCEJGGTIKDVFC­)CKWU%CGUCTKO,CJTP %JTFGP-QPUWNCVKPPGJCVVGWPFUQOKVPKEJVOGJTFGUKIPKGTVGT-QPUWNYCT -GJPG<WT&CVKGTWPIFGT(WPFOÒP\GP CWU -CNMTKGUG KP 9KGIGNU 4CKPGT *TUI  &KG (WPFOÒP\GP XQP -CNMTKGUG WPF FKG HTÒJMCKUGT\GKVNKEJG /ÒP\RT·   IWPI/ÌJPGUGG5H 5KGJG\WT&CVKGTWPIWPF\WT&GWVWPIFGU4GXGTUGUCWEJ9QNVGTU)CKWUWPF.WEKWU %CGUCTGUCNUFGUKIPKGTVG-QPUWNPWPFRTKPEKRGUKWXGPVWVKU&KGNGZ8CNGTKC%QTPGNKCWPF4+%+wHHKP%JKTQP   5HH

914







915

916

Õ&GPCT  X %JT .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)CKWU WPF .WEKWU %CGUCTGU   UVGJGP X XOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNFGPFCTÒDGT5KORWNWOWPF.KVWWU$/%%QJ4+%w #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Õ&GPCT  X %JT .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)CKWU WPF .WEKWU %CGUCTGU   UVGJGP X XOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNFGPFCTÒDGT5KORWNWOWPF.KVWWU$/%%QJ4+%w /KPMQTTQFKGTVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCT  X %JT .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)CKWU WPF .WEKWU %CGUCTGU   UVGJGP X XOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNFGPFCTÒDGT.KVWWUWPF5KORWNWO$/%%QJ4+%w (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 173


TIBERIUS

917



918

Õ%KUVQRJQT X%JT'RJGUWU +QPKC I-QRHT$ÒPFGNXQPUGEJUJTGP42% )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ%KUVQRJQTX%JT'RJGUWU +QPKC I-QRHT)GUEJOÒEMVGT#NVCT42%  5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

919

920



Õ%KUVQRJQT  X %JT 'RJGUWU +QPKC   I -QRH T)GUEJOÒEMVGT #NVCT 42%    5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





Õ%KUVQRJQT  X %JT 2GTICOQP /[UKC   I -QRH T6TKWORJDQIGP FCTCWH 3WCFTKIC   KO$QIGP5245+)0+54'%'26+542% -QTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'ORQTKWO*CODWTI0T  &CU 5VÒEM HGKGTV FKG 4ÒEMICDG FGT  X%JTFWTEJ%TCUUWUWPFX%JTXQP/CTEWU#PVQPKWUCPFKG2CTVJGT XGTNQTGPGP(GNF\GKEJGP

ex 921





922

ex 921

“5GUVGT\ WO  X %JT MNGKPCUKCVKUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T%# KP 2GTN WPF .QTDGGT   MTCP\42%&C\W'KPG6GVTCFTCEJOGFGU#WIWUVWUCWU5GNGWMGKC2KGTKCWPFGKPG$TQP\GOÒP\G XQP#RCOGC &KQP[UQUMQRH6J[TUQU  5VÒEM4-QTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT  FGT 5KGIGU·TC XQP #EVKWO WPF ,CJT  FGT E·UCTKUEJGP TC   P %JT    #PVKQEJKC 5[TKC   I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\6[EJG XQP #PVKQEJKC UKV\V T OKV 2CNO\YGKI   WPVGPUEJYKOOGPFGT(NW­IQVV1TQPVGU/E#NGG2TKGWT42% (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



923

1,5:1

 174

1,5:1

6KDGTKWUÔ#WTGWU.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGTKP3WCFTKIC TOKV#FNGTU\GRVGTWPF<YGKI$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 45GJTUEJÌP




TIBERIUS

1,5:1



924

1,5:1

Ô3WKPCT  .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC UKV\V T CWH )NQDWU OKV   -TCP\$/%%QJ-KPI4+%w 4)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CPM.GW<ÒTKEJ0T

1,5:1



925

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\.KXKCCNU2CZUKV\VTOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  /ÒP\UVGORGN FKGUGU 6[RU OKV .KXKC CNU 2CZ CWH FGO 4GXGTU CNUQ FGO 6[R FGU DGTÒJOVGP 6TKDWVG 2GPP[U FGT   $KDGN YWTFGPMÒT\NKEJKO.GIKQPUNCIGT8KPFQPKUUC JGWVG9KPFKUEJ GPVFGEMV0CEJFGOCTEJ·QNQIKUEJGP$GHWPF KUV FCXQP CWU\WIGJGP FC­ KP 8KPFQPKUUC GKPG QHHK\KGNNG /ÒP\UV·VVG GZKUVKGTV JCV &KGUG UGPUCVKQPGNNG 'PVFGEMWPI   UVGNNV XKGNG /ÒP\UV·VVGP\WYGKUWPIGP FGT HTÒJGP -CKUGT\GKV KP (TCIG FGPP GU KUV FCXQP CWU\WIGJGP FC­ CWEJ KP   CPFGTGP.GIKQPUNCIGTP/ÒP\UV·VVGPGZKUVKGTVJCDGP

1,5:1



926

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\.KXKCCNU2CZUKV\VTOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w .GKEJVG$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



927

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\.KXKCCNU2CZUKV\VTOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 2TCEJVGZGORNCT)WVGUXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



928

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\.KXKCCNU2CZUKV\VTOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 175


GAIUS CALIGULA

929



930

931

Õ&GPCT.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\.KXKCCNU2CZUKV\VTOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT $/%%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T &GT5KNDGTNKPIFGT$KDGN 6TKDWVG2GPP[ 





Õ&GPCT.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\.KXKCCNU2CZUKV\VTOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT $/%%QJ4+%w -PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T &GT5KNDGTNKPIFGT$KDGN 6TKDWVG2GPP[ 









“#U  4QO  I -QRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\5VGWGTTWFGT XQT )NQDWU $/%  %QJ   XGTIN4+%w $TCWPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



932

WPF&KXWU#WIWUVWUÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHFGU6KDGTKWUTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-QRH FGU#WIWUVWUTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCTÒDGT5VGTP$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w  44'VYCUÒDGTCTDGKVGVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

933



1,5:1



934

HÒT.KXKC“&WRQPFKWU4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT.KXKC ! CNU+WUVKVKCTOKV&KCFGO 5%$/%%QJ4+%w $TCWPG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO4GXGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP (TKV\ 4WFQNH -ÒPMGT  1UPCDTÒEM  0T  WPF FGT .CIGTNKUVG /ÒP\GP WPF   /GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T



“&WRQPFKWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT .KXKC !  CNU +WUVKVKC T OKV &KCFGO5%   $/%%QJ4+%w 'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVUEJCTHIGTGKPKIVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

935



936

“&WRQPFKWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT .KXKC CNU 5CNWU T5% $/%  %QJ    4+%w $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



)CKWU %CNKIWNC  “#U  4QO  I -QRH N8GUVC UKV\V N OKV 2CVGTC WPF <GRVGT   $/%%QJ4+%w (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

176




CLAUDIUS

938

937





“5GUVGT\4QOI2KGVCUUKV\VNOKV2CVGTCFGPN'NNDQIGPCWH5VCVWGIGUVÒV\V5GEJU U·WNKIGT 6GORGN FGU &KXWU #WIWUVWU FCXQT QRHGTV FGT -CKUGT OKV \YGK )GJKNHGP $/%  %QJ    4+%w 4&WPMNG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



HÒT#ITKRRC“#U4QOI-QRHNOKV4QUVTCNMTQPG0GRVWPUVGJVNOKV&GNRJKPWPF&TGK \CEM$/% 6KDGTKWU %QJ #ITKRRC 4+%w )TÒPG2CVKPCNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

940

939



 HÒT )GTOCPKEWU “&WRQPFKWU 4QO  I )GTOCPKEWU OKV #FNGT\GRVGT KP 3WCFTKIC T   5+)0+54'%'26&'8+%6+5)'4/)GTOCPKEWUUVGJVNOKV.GIKQPUCFNGT$/%%QJ )GTOC PKEWU 4+%w )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&CU5VÒEMGTKPPGTVCPFGP6TKWORJFGU)GTOCPKEWUCO/CKFGTKJOHÒTUGKPG5KGIGÒDGTFKG)GTOCPGPWPF DGUQPFGTUHÒTFKGVGKNYGKUG4ÒEMIGYKPPWPIFGTKPFGT8CTWUUEJNCEJVXGTNQTGPGP.GIKQPUCFNGT\WVGKNIGYQTFGPYCT



“&WRQPFKWU 4QO  I )GTOCPKEWU OKV #FNGT\GRVGT KP 3WCFTKIC T5+)0+54'%'26    &'8+%6+5)'4/ )GTOCPKEWU UVGJV N OKV .GIKQPUCFNGT $/%  %QJ  )GTOCPKEWU  4+%w    $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

1,5:1



1,5:1

%NCWFKWU  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\%QPUVCPVKC UKV\V N OKV   GTJQDGPGT4GEJVGP$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w )WVGU2QTVT·VUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



941



942

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\%NCWFKWU UVGJV T WPF WPF TGKEJV GKPGO N   UVGJGPFGP5QNFCVGPOKV5VCPFCTVGFKG*CPF$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w  44)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  &KG4GXGTUNGIGPFG24#'6144'%'26UVGJVNCWV*CTQNF/CVVKPIN[ $/%5%.+++ HÒT2TCGVQTKCPWUTGEGRVWU

KPHKFGO WPFDG\KGJVUKEJCWH'TPGPPWPIFGU%NCWFKWU\WO-CKUGTFWTEJFKG2TCGVQTKCPGT0CEJFGT'TOQTFWPI FGU%CNKIWNCYWTFG%NCWFKWUXQO2TCGVQTKCPGT)TCVWUJKPVGTGKPGO8QTJCPIGPVFGEMVWPF\WO-CKUGTRTQMNCOKGTV #PUEJNKG­GPF YWTFG %NCWFKWU KO 2TCGVQTKCPGTNCIGT WPVGT FGP 5EJWV\ FGT 2TCGVQTKCPGT IGUVGNNV #P FKGUGU 'TGKIPKU   GTKPPGTVG%NCWFKWUKPOGJTGTGP/ÒP\GOKUUKQPGP

177


CLAUDIUS



945

944

943

Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\2CZ0GOGUKU IGJV T OKV %CFWEGWU FCXQT   5EJNCPIG$/%%QJ4+%w 4/KPMQTTQFKGTVCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5234221$%5KP'KEJGPMTCP\$/% %QJ4+%w 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌP





 HÒT #PVQPKC Õ&GPCT  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV JTGPMTCP\#PVQPKC UVGJV CNU   %QPUVCPVKCXXOKV(CEMGNWPF(ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+%w  4.GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  #PVQPKC FKG ,ÒPIGTG GKPG 6QEJVGT FGU /CTEWU #PVQPKWU WPF FGT 1EVCXKC YCT FKG /WVVGT FGU %NCWFKWU %CNKIWNC   JCVVGUKGKO,CJT\WO5GNDUVOQTFIG\YWPIGP

946

1,5:1

1,5:1



HÒT#ITKRRKPCOCVGT“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT5%$/%%QJ 4+%w 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGTHGKPGP'TJCNVWPI4QVDTCWPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI .GQ $GP\ #WMVKQP .CP\  /ÒPEJGP  0T  FGT 5COONWPI ,QJP 9 )CTTGV  

GTYQTDGPXQP5EJWNOCPCO#RTKN #WMVKQP0WOKUOCVKE(KPG#TVU$CPM.GW$GXGTN[*KNNU/CK 0TWPFCWUFGT5COONWPI$CTQP&GNDGMG  #ITKRRKPC OCVGT YCT FKG6QEJVGTFGU#ITKRRCWPFFGT,WNKCFGT6QEJVGTFGU#WIWUVWU5KGJGKTCVGVG)GTOCPKEWU 0CEJFGO6QFGKJTGU/CPPGUYWTFGUKGXQP6KDGTKWUPCEJ2CPFCVGTKCXGTDCPPVYQUKGCO1MVQDGTXGTJWP IGTVUGKPUQNN

947

948



“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT5%$/%%QJ4+%w  44QVDTCWPG2CVKPCIGIN·VVGVWPFOKPDGCTDGKVGVXQT\ÒINKEJ





“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT5%$/%%QJ4+%w  4&WPMNG2CVKPC(GNFGTOKPIGIN·VVGVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

178


NERO

949

950



950

“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT5%$/%%QJ4+%w  4'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



 WPF /GUUCNKPC $6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT     #NGZCPFTKC #GI[RVWU   I -QRH T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\/GUUCNKPCUVGJVNOKV\YGK(KIWTGPWPFJTGCP5·WNGIGNGJPV&CVVCTK)GKUUGP -COROCPP)CPUEJQY42% 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

951

1,5:1

1,5:1



0GTQ  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T'KEJGPMTCP\ FCTKP ': 5% WOJGT 5EJTKHV   $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHT'KEJGPMTCP\FCTKP':5%WOJGT5EJTKHV$/%%CNKEQ %QJ4+%w #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

1,5:1



952

953



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\0GTQUVGJVXXOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG<YGKI WPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 4-N4CPFHGJNGTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



&KGCW­GTIGYÌJPNKEJG4GXGTUFCTUVGNNWPIDG\KGJVUKEJCWHFKG'THQNIGFGU)PCGWU&QOKVKWU%QTDWNQKO2CTVJGTMTKGI +O ,CJT  JCVVG %QTDWNQ OKV GKPGO UVCTMGP *GGTFGP'WRJTCVÒDGTUEJTKVVGPWPF6KTKFCVGUUEJNQ­QJPGFC­GU\W GKPGT5EJNCEJVMCO(TKGFGP+P4JCPFGCNGIVGGTXQTGKPGT5VCVWG0GTQUUGKPG-TQPGCDWPFXGTURTCEJUKGPWTCWU FGT*CPFFGU-CKUGTUYKGFGTCP\WPGJOGPYCUKO,CJTKP4QOIGUEJCJ

179


NERO

954

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\%QPEQTFKCUKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPF(ÒNNJQTP $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w *GTTNKEJG)QNFRCVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



+O ,CJTG  YWTFG 4QO XQP FGO ITQ­GP $TCPF XGTYÒUVGV HÒT FGP 0GTQ UEJNKG­NKEJ FKG UVCFVTÌOKUEJGP %JTKUVGP   XGTCPVYQTVNKEJOCEJVGFQEJFKG)GTÒEJVGFC­0GTQUGNDUVFGP$TCPFNGIGPNKG­XGTUVWOOVGPPKG&KG%QPEQTFKC CNUQ'KPVTCEJVXQPFGTFKG4ÒEMUGKVGFGT/ÒP\GURTKEJVYCTKPFGT4GCNKV·VPKEJVIGIGDGP

1,5:1



955

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\,WRKVGTUKV\VNOKV$NKV\WPF<GRVGT$/% %CNKEQ%QJ4+%w -TCV\GTMN$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGPCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



&GO+WRRKVGT%WUVQUYCT0GTQPCEJFGT'PVFGEMWPIFGT8GTUEJYÌTWPIFGU2KUQKO#RTKN 6CEKVWU#PP:8 HH DGUQPFGTUXGTDWPFGP

956

957



957

Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\,WRKVGTUKV\VNOKV$NKV\WPF<GRVGT$/% %QJ4+%w *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCOKPMQTTQFKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



“5GUVGT\WO4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#GIKUN6TKWORJDQIGPFCTCWH3WCFTKIC $/%%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



958

959



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5CNWUUKV\VNOKV2CVGTC$/%%QJ 4+%w (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T





“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4QOC UKV\V N CWH 9CHHGP OKV 8KEVQTKC WPF   2CTC\QPKWO$/%%QJp4+%wXCT )TÒPG2CVKPCNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP4QOC0WOKUOCVKEU.QPFQP0T

180

959


NERO

960

961

962



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4QOC UKV\V N OKV 8KEVQTKC WPF 5RGGT   $/%5#PO%QJ4+%w  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI$TCWPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



“5GUVGT\.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPVGP)NQDWU6TKWORJDQIGP$/% %QJ4+%w /KPMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



“5GUVGT\  .WIFWPWO  I -QRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ ÒDGT MNGKPGO )NQDWU6TKWORJDQIGP   FCTCWH3WCFTKIC$/%%QJ4+%w $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

963



964



963

“#U  .WIFWPWO  I -QRH N8KEVQTKC IGJV N WPF J·NV 5EJKNF OKV FGT #WHUEJTKHV 5234   $/%#PO%QJ4+%w  5GJTUGNVGPG8CTKCPVG9KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO-ÌNP0T FQTVOKVKTTVÒONKEJGT$GUVKOOWPI   &CU5VÒEMKUVUGJTUGNVGP+O$/%YWTFGUQICTFKG'ZKUVGP\FKGUGT8CTKCPVGOKVCWH+/2GPFGPFGT#XGTUNGIGPFG DG\YGKHGNV



Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\+822+6'4%85615 ,WRKVGT UKV\V N OKV   $NKV\WPF<GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w .GKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGP ! UGJTUEJÌP  &GO+WRRKVGT%WUVQUYCT0GTQPCEJFGT'PVFGEMWPIFGT8GTUEJYÌTWPIFGU2KUQKO#RTKN 6CEKVWU#PP:8HH  DGUQPFGTUXGTDWPFGP

965

966

966



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5CNWUUKV\VNOKV2CVGTC$/%%QJ 4+%w -PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\,CPWUVGORGN OKV IGUEJNQUUGPGP 6ÒTGP   $/%%QJ4+%w  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVDTCWPGT2CVKPCMN-QTTQUKQPUUVGNNGIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 



181


VINDEX

1,5:1



967

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\+822+6'4%85615 ,WRKVGT UKV\V N OKV   $NKV\WPF<GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%wp 5GJTUEJÌP 

968 970

969



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\+WRKVGTUKV\VNOKV$NKV\WPF<GRVGT$/% %QJ4+%w #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





 WPF &KXWU %NCWFKWU Õ6GVTCFTCEJOG  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T OKV .QT   DGGTMTCP\-QRHFGU%NCWFKWUTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\/E#NGG2TKGWT42%  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



WPF2QRRCGC“U'RJGUQU +QPKC I2TQEQPUWN/#EKNKWU%H#XKQNCWPF/CIKUVTCV #KEJOQMNGU  I $GKFGT $ÒUVGP GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT4QOCMQRH T OKV /CWGTMTQPG WPVGP $KGPG   42% 45EJYCT\G2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP





971



972

$6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT    #NGZCPFTKC #GI[RVWU   I -QRH FGU 0GTQ T OKV 5VTCJNGP   DKPFG&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT 2QRRCGC T &CVVCTK  )GKUUGP  -COROCPP)CPUEJQY    42% 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



WPF/GUUCNKPC“U*[RCKRC .[FKC )TCOOCVGWU)CKQU+QWNKQU*GIGUKRRQUI$GKFGT $ÒUVGPGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGT-WNVUVCVWGFGT#TVGOKUXX42% 5GJTUEJÌPUEJÌP

1,5:1



182

1,5:1

8KPFGZ  Õ&GPCT 8KGPPC !   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGU /CTU T OKV *GNO.GIKQPUCFNGT T   \YKUEJGP\YGK5VCPFCTVGPT#NVCT$/%/CTVKP4+%w  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



973



974

1,5:1

Õ&GPCT 8KGPPC !   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGU /CTU T OKV *GNO.GIKQPUCFNGT T \YKUEJGP \YGK   5VCPFCTVGPT#NVCT$/%/CTVKP4+%w 4'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP 


OTHO

975 1,5:1

1,5:1



)CNDCÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\.KXKCUVGJVNOKV2CVGTCWPF<GRVGT $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 45EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



977

976



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHT52341$%5KP-TCP\$/%p%QJ4+%w  (GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





Õ&GPCT 4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC IGJV N OKV -TCP\ WPF 2CNO\YGKI   $/%5#PO%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP



978

979

979



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\.KDGTVCU UVGJV N OKV 2KNGWU WPF   <GRVGT$/%p%QJpXGTIN4+%wpXGTIN  44)TÒPG2CVKPC(GNFGTNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP 



“#U4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\2CZUVGJVNOKV<YGKIWPF%CFWEGWU$/%p %QJ4+%wp 4$TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

980

2:1



2:1

1VJQ  Ô#WTGWU 4QO  I -QRH T2CZ UVGJV N OKV 1NKXGP\YGKI WPF %CFWEGWU $/%    %CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 445GJTUEJÌP 

1,5:1



981

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHT5GEWTKVCUUVGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF<GRVGT$/%5#PO%CNKEQ %QJ4+%w 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

183


VESPASIANUS

983

982



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHT5GEWTKVCUUVGJVNOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT$/%%QJ4+%w 4(GKPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



&KG #XGTUNGIGPFG KUV CWHITWPF FGU MPCRRGP 5EJTÌVNKPIU PKEJV GKPFGWVKI NGUDCT GU MÌPPVG UKEJ CWEJ WO 4+%w    JCPFGNP



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHT5GEWTKVCUUVGJVNOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT$/%%QJ4+%w 4(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T  &KG #XGTUNGIGPFG KUV CWHITWPF FGU MPCRRGP 5EJTÌVNKPIU PKEJV GKPFGWVKI NGUDCT GU MÌPPVG UKEJ CWEJ WO 4+%w    JCPFGNP



984

2:1

2:1



8KVGNNKWU  Ô#WTGWU 4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&GNRJKP CWH &TGKHW­ WPVGP 4CDG   $/%p%CNKEQ FKGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV %QJ4+%w #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2CEKHKE%QCUV#WEVKQP)CNNGTKGU*QPI-QPI0T





&KG 4GXGTUNGIGPFG \GKIV FC­ 8KVGNNKWU /KVINKGF FGT 3WKPFGEKOXKTK UCETKU HCEKWPFKU YCT CNUQ GKPGO 2TKGUVGTMQNNG   IKWO CPIGJÌTVG FGUUGP *CWRVCWHICDG FKG 9CJTWPI WPF &GWVWPI FGT U[DKNNKPKUEJGP $ÒEJGT YCT &TGKHW­ WPF   &GNRJKPCNU5[ODQNGFGU2TKGUVGTVWOUFGT3WKPFGEKOXKTKGTUEJGKPGPCDFGO,CJTX%JTCNUPCEJFGO7PVGT ICPIFGTCNVGPGKPGPGWG5COONWPIU[DKNNKPKUEJGT$ÒEJGT\WUCOOGPIGUVGNNVYWTFG

985



986

Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKCUKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPF2CNO\YGKI$/% %QJ4+%w -PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\%QPEQTFKCUKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPF(ÒNNJQTP$/% %QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

987





988

Õ&GPCT 4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8GUVC UKV\V T OKV 2CVGTC WPF <GRVGT $/%    %QJ4+%w 8QT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T



8GURCUKCPWUÕ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\6TCWGTPFG,WF·CUKV\VT FCJKPVGT6TQRJ·G$/%%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T 



8GURCUKCP DGHCPF UKEJ KP #NGZCPFTKC CNU GT \WO -CKUGT CWUIGTWHGP YWTFG 'T YCT 1DGTMQOOCPFKGTGPFGT KO   LÒFKUEJGP-TKGIFGPUGKP5QJP6KVWUUKGITGKEJ\W'PFGHÒJTVG

184




VESPASIANUS

1,5:1



989

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\2CZUKV\VNOKV<YGKIWPF%CFWEGWU$/% %CNKEQ%QJp4+%w -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



990



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\(QTVWPCUVGJVNOKV(ÒNNJQTP*CPFCWH2TQTC $/%%QJ4+%w (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\(QTVWPC UVGJV N OKV )NQDWU WPF   %CFWEGWU$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w  )TCHHKVKCWHFGO4GXGTUMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



991



992

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  .WIFWPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#GSWKVCU UVGJV N OKV 9CCIG WPF 5VCD   $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

995

994

993



“5GUVGT\4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\/CTUIGJVTOKV5RGGTWPF6TQRJ·G$/% %QJXGTIN4+%w )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)GHNÒIGNVGT %CFWEGWU $/%  %QJ    4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC UVGJV N CWH 2TQTC OKV -TCP\ WPF   2CNO\YGKI$/%%QJ4+%w  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 185


VESPASIANUS

996

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\,WPIMWJFGU/[TQPUVGJVT$/%%CNKEQ %QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



#WH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG FGU 5VÒEMGU KUV FCU DGMCPPVGUVG -WPUVYGTM FGU /[TQP XQP 'NGWVJGTCK GKPGU 'T\IKG­GTU FGU    ,CJTJWPFGTVU X %JT FCTIGUVGNNV FKG ,WPIMWJ &KGUG JCV YKGYKTFWTEJ2TQRGTVKWUYKUUGP#WIWUVWUPCEJ4QO IGDTCEJV8GURCUKCPWUNKG­UKGKO6GORGNFGT2CZCWHUVGNNGP5EJNKG­NKEJIGNCPIVGFCU-WPUVYGTMPCEJ%QPUVCPVKPQ RQNKUYQUKEJUGKPG5RWTXGTNKGTV

997

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGTUVGJVNOKV<GRVGTWPF2CTC\QPKWO XQP8KEVQTKCDGMT·P\V$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w )WVGUUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#TEJGT/*WPVKPIVQP#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T

998 1,5:1

1,5:1



Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGTUVGJVNOKV<GRVGTWPF2CTC\QPKWO XQP8KEVQTKCDGMT·P\V$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



999 1,5:1



Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#PPQPC UKV\V N OKV JTGP $/%    %CNKEQ%QJ4+%w )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#TEJGT/*WPVKPIVQP#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T

186

1,5:1


VESPASIANUS

1000

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\%GTGUUVGJVNOKVJTGP/QJPMWIGNWPF <GRVGT$/%5#PO%CNKEQ%QJXCT4+%w  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

1001



1002

“&WRQPFKWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\(KFGUUVGJVNOKV2CVGTCWPF(ÒNNJQTP $/%%QJ4+%w *GNNDTCWPG2CVKPCGTJCDGPGU2QTVT·VIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



“#U4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#FNGTUVGJVCWH)NQDWUXX-QRHT$/% %QJ4+%w )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



1003

1,5:1

 HÒT 6KVWU Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\0GRVWP UVGJV NOKV#ETQUVQ NKWOWPF<GRVGT(W­CWH)NQDWU$/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w  )WVGU2QTVT·VYKP\2TQDKGTURWTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1004



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#FNGTUVGJVCWH#NVCTXX-QRHN$/% %QJp4+%w 9KP\-TCV\GTUQPUVHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

1,5:1



1005

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4QOC UKV\V T OKV 5RGGT \YKUEJGP \YGK   8ÌIGNPFCXQTFKG9ÌNHKPOKV4QOWNWUWPF4GOWU$/%%CNKEQD%QJ4+%w  9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  &GT4GXGTUITGKHVFGP6[RGKPGUTGRWDNKMCPKUEJGP&GPCTUYKGFGTCWH %TCYH 'T\GKIV4QOCFKGÒDGTFKG DGKFGPXQPGKPGT9ÌNHKPIGU·WIVGPO[VJKUEJGP5VCFVITÒPFGTYCEJVUQYKG\YGK8ÌIGN XGTOWVNKEJ4CDGP FKGIWVG 8QT\GKEJGPXGTMÒPFGP

187


TITUS

1006



 HÒT &QOKVKCPWU Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\2TKP\ TGKVGV N OKV   GTJQDGPGT4GEJVGPWPF<GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w (CUVUGJTUEJÌP 

1007

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\24+0%'25+88'0686 5RGU IGJV N OKV   $NWOG$/%%CNKEQC%QJ4+%w  49KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  &GT 4GXGTU \GKIV FGWVNKEJ FC­ 8GURCUKCP CWEJ &QOKVKCP CNU OÌINKEJGP 6JTQPHQNIGT DGVTCEJVGVYCUKPFGT'TPGP PWPI\WO2TKPEGRU+WXGPVWVKUWPFKPFGT(KIWTFGT5RGUMNCT\WO#WUFTWEMMQOOV

1008

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\(ÒNNJQTP$/%%CNKEQ%QJ 4+%w  -CDKPGVVUVÒEM5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*GTTNKEJG)QNFRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT  'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI #TEJGT / *WPVKPIVQP #WMVKQP 0#%  <ÒTKEJ  0T  WPF FGU (WPFGU XQP   $QUEQTGCNG    %¾UCT %CPGUUC XGT\GKEJPGV FGP 6[R .G 6T¾UQT OQP¾VCKTG FG $QUEQTGCNG KP .G /WU¾G    5   IKDV   CNNGTFKPIU KTTVÒONKEJ FKG 4GXGTUNGIGPFG OKV %15 +++ CP  FGT (GJNGT KUV HTGKNKEJ CWU FGO MQTTGMVGP <KVCV %QJ    GTUKEJVNKEJ

1009

2:1



2:1

6KVWU  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&TGK JTGP KP 3WCFTKIC N   $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  &GT4GXGTUFKGUGU5VÒEMGUKUVXQP#WIWUVWUÒDGTPQOOGP XGTIN4+%w 'TDG\KGJVUKEJCWHGKPG2TQ\GUUKQPKP FGTFGT-CNCVJQUFGT)ÌVVKPIG\GKIVYWTFGWPFFKGDGK%CNNKOCEJWUDGUEJTKGDGPKUV&GT6[RKUVCNGZCPFTKPKUEJWPF WPVGTUVTGKEJVFKG$GFGWVWPII[RVGPUCNU-QTPMCOOGT4QOU

188


TITUS

1010

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-TCP\ CWH EWTWNKUEJGO 5VWJN $/%    %CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP 

1011 1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\'NGHCPVGPMWJ  UVGJV N $/%  %CNKEQ    %QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP 

1012



Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\'NGHCPVGPMWJ  UVGJV N $/% p %CNKEQ    %QJp4+%wp 5EJÌP 

1013



1014

Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\$NKV\ CWH 6JTQP  RWNXKPCT FGU ,WRKVGT WPF   FGT,WPQ $/%%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP



&KGUGU5VÒEMKUVCPN·­NKEJFGTUWRRNKECVKQPGU $KVVHGUVG FGU,CJTGUIGRT·IVYQTFGPFKGPCEJFGO#WUDTWEJFGU 8GUWXU XQO 5GPCV CPIGQTFPGV YQTFGPYCTGP$GKFGPUWRRNKECVKQPGUD\YNGEVKUVGTPKCUVGNNVGOCPRWNXKPCTKC )ÌV VGTVJTQPG HÒTFKG)ÌVVGTCWHFKGOCPOKV#VVTKDWVGPFGT)ÌVVGTXGTUCJUQKUVFGT6JTQPCWHWPUGTGO5VÒEMOKVFGO $NKV\FGU,WRKVGTXGTUGJGP



HÒT&KXWU8GURCUKCPWUÕ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\<YGK%CRTKEQTPG FCTÒDGT5EJKNFOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV5%FCTWPVGT)NQDWU$/%%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP



&KG4GXGTUFCTUVGNNWPIKUVXQPGKPGO\W'JTGPFGU&KXWU#WIWUVWUWPVGT6KDGTKWUIGRT·IVGP5GUVGT\GPÒDGTPQOOGP /ÌINKEJGTYGKUGYCTFGT%CRTKEQTPCWEJFCU5VGTPDKNFFGU8GURCUKCPWU  &KG8QTUVGNNWPIUGKPGT-QPUGMTCVKQPFÒTHVG8GURCUKCPCOÒUCPVIGHWPFGPJCDGP5QUCIVFGT-CKUGTDGK5WGVQPCNUGT UVKTDV8CGRWVQFGWUHKQ 1YGJKEJINCWDGKEJYGTFGGKP)QVV 

1,5:1



1015

1,5:1

Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\3WCFTKICN$/%%QJ4+%w 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5VGORGNIN·P\GPFGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT

 189


DOMITIANUS

1016



1017

 HÒT ,WNKC 6KVK “&WRQPFKWU 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T8GUVC UKV\V N OKV 2CNNCFKWO WPF   <GRVGT$/%%QJ4+%w 4$TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



4GUVKVWVKQPHÒT.KXKC“&WRQPFKWU4QOI8GTUEJNGKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT.KXKCCNU2KGVCUT 5%$/%%QJp-QOPKEM0T FKGU'ZGORNCT 4+%w  4$TCWPG2CVKPCOKPMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GNDKPI0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0T

1018

1019



 4GUVKVWVKQP HÒT %NCWFKWU “5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\5RGU IGJV N   OKV$NWOG$/%%QJ-QOPKEM4+%w .GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP





&QOKVKCPWU“5GUVGT\4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#GIKUN)'4/#0+# %#26# )GHCPIGPG )GTOCPKP UKV\V N IGHCPIGPGT )GTOCPG UVGJV T FC\YKUEJGP 6TQRJ·G $/%    %QJXGTIN4+%w 44$TCWPG2CVKPCUEJÌP



1020

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\/KPGTXCUVGJVNOKV5RGGT$/%#PO %CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#TEJGT/*WPVKPIVQP#WMVKQP0#%<ÒTKEJ0T

1021

1,5:1

 190

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\6TCWGTPFG )GTOCPKC UKV\V T CWH 5EJKNF   WPVGP\GTDTQEJGPGT5RGGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 4)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP 


NERVA

1023 1022

1022



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ #GIKU N-CKUGT UVGJV N OKV $NKV\ WPF   <GRVGTXQP8KEVQTKCDGMT·P\V$/%%QJ4+%w .GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCT  4QO -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\5GEJUU·WNKIGT 6GORGN FGU ,WRKVGT %CRKVQNKPWU KO   +PPGTGP5VCVWGFGU,WRKVGT\YKUEJGP\YGKYGKVGTGP5VCVWGPCWHFGO#TEJKVTCX+/2%#'5#4$/% %QJXCT4+%w 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



&GT ,WRKVGTVGORGN YCT OGJTOCNU \GTUVÌTV WPF YKGFGTCWHIGTKEJVGV YQTFGP &KG 'TTKEJVWPI FGU XKGTVGP 6GORGNU   DGICPPWPVGT&QOKVKCPFGTFTKVVG6GORGNYCTDGKOITQ­GP$TCPFFGU,CJTGU\GTUVÌTVYQTFGP&CU)GD·WFGOW­ DGGKPFTWEMGPFIGYKTMVJCDGPCNNGKPHÒTFKGUEJYGTG8GTIQNFWPIFGT6ÒTGPWPFFGU&CEJGUJCV&QOKVKCPWPIGJGWTG 5WOOGPCWHIGYGPFGV

1024

1025

1026



1026

“3WCFTCPU4QOI4JKPQ\GTQUIGJVN1NKXGP\YGKI%QJ4+%w  $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





 WPF &QOKVKC “U  #PC\CTDQU %KNKEKC I-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGN 42%<KGINGT &WPMGNITÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





“U ,CJT     /QRUQU %KNKEKC   I -QRH FGU &QOKVKCPWU N&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT   &QOKVKCT42% 5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



1027

1,5:1

HÒT8GURCUKCPWUFGP,ÒPIGTGP“U5O[TPC +QPKC I-QRHT0KMGIGJVTOKV-TCP\ WPF2CNO\YGKI42%  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV&WPMGNITÒPG2CVKPCJÒDUEJGU2QTVT·VHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

&QOKVKCPWUJCVVGP%JT\YGK5ÌJPGUGKPGU8GVVGTU(NCXKWU%NGOGPU\WUGKPGP0CEJHQNIGTPDGUVKOOVWPFKJPGP FKG 0COGP 8GURCUKCPWU WPF &QOKVKCPWU IGIGDGP 0CEJ FGT *KPTKEJVWPI KJTGU 8CVGTU KO ,CJT  P %JT WPF FGT   INGKEJ\GKVKIGP8GTDCPPWPIKJTGT/WVVGT&QOKVKNNCMCOGPFKGDGKFGP-PCDGPLGFQEJPKEJVN·PIGTCNU6JTQPHQNIGTKP (TCIG&CUYGKVGTG5EJKEMUCNFGULÒPIGTGP8GURCUKCPWUWPFUGKPGU$TWFGTUKUVWPDGMCPPV



1028



0GTXC“&WRQPFKWU4QOI-QRHTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG.KDGTVCUUVGJVNOKV2KNGWU WPF<GRVGT$/%%QJ4+% .GKEJVG2T·IGUEJY·EJGCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ

 191


TRAIANUS

1030

1029

1029



6TCKCPWU  Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\2CZ UVGJV N OKV <YGKI   WPF(ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ/+4C4+% )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP





“#U4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKCGKNVNOKV5EJKNFFCTCWH5234$/% %QJ/+4C4+% &WPMNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1031

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#GIKUN*GTEWNGUUVGJVXXCWH#NVCT OKV-GWNGWPF.ÌYGPHGNN$/%%CNKEQ%QJ/+4E4+% 44)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



1032

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGT KP 3WCFTKIC N OKV .QT   DGGT\YGKIWPF6TKWORJCN\GRVGT$/%p%CNKEQC FKGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV %QJp/+4I

FKGU'ZGORNCTGTY·JPVWPFCDIGDKNFGVCWH6H  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T FQTVKTTVÒONKEJ%CNKEQ WPFFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT /ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  $GTPJCTF 9Q[VGM MQPPVG PGDGP FGO XQTNKGIGPFGP 'ZGORNCT PWT GKP YGKVGTGU UVGORGNINGKEJGU 'ZGORNCT FKGUGT   CW­GTQTFGPVNKEJUGNVGPGP6TKWORJCNRT·IWPI\WT(GKGTFGUGTUVGP&CMGTVTKWORJGUPCEJYGKUGP

1033



1034

“5GUVGT\4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#GIKUN6TCKCPTGKVGVTWPFUEJNGWFGTV 5RGGTCWHIGUVÒT\VGP&CMGT$/%%QJXCT/+4E4+%XCT  5EJYCT\G2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­CVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



192

“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ NFTCRKGTV#PPQPCUVGJVNOKVJTGP WPF(ÒNNJQTPFCXQT/QFKWUKO*KPVGTITWPF2TQTC$/%p%QJ/+4D4+%  $TCWPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP




TRAIANUS

1035

1036

1036



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ N FTCRKGTV&CEKC UKV\V VTCWGTPF N CWH   5EJKNFFCXQT6TQRJ·G$/%HH%QJ/+4D4+% $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





“#U4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\NFTCRKGTV$TÒEMGFCTWPVGTCPMGTPFGU$QQV $/%%QJ/+4D4+% .GKEJVIGIN·VVGVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU.GW.W\GTP0T

1037

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGT UVGJV N OKV 5EJTKHVTQNNG   WPF UVTGEMV FKG 4GEJVG \YGK -KPFGTP GPVIGIGP $/%  %CNKEQ  %QJ  /+4  H 4+%    5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T  &CU5VÒEMHGKGTVFKG#NKOGPVC+VCNKCG&KGUGU2TQITCOO\WT7PVGTUVÒV\WPICTOGT-KPFGTYCTXQP0GTXCGKPIGTKEJVGV YQTFGPWPFYWTFGXQP6TCKCPWUHQTVIGHÒJTV  &KG#NKOGPVCFKGPVGPGKPGTUGKVUFGT(ÌTFGTWPIFGU-KPFGTPCEJYWEJUGUCPFGTGTUGKVUCDGTCWEJGKPGT7PVGTUVÒV\WPI FGUMNGKPGPWPFOKVVNGTGP)TWPFDGUKV\GU&GPPFKG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIFGT-KPFGTYWTFGOKVVGNUFGT<KPUGPXQPIÒPUVKI CP.CPFDGUKV\GTXGTIGDGPGT-TGFKVGHKPCP\KGTV

1038

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\5CNWU UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC WPF   5VGWGTTWFGT FCXQT #NVCT $/%  %CNKEQ  %QJ  /+4  H FKGU 'ZGORNCT GTY·JPV WPF   CDIGDKNFGVCWH6H 4+%D (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP#TIGPQT2CTKU#RTKN0T

1040

1041

1039



1039

“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ N FTCRKGTV#TCDKC UVGJV N OKV <YGKI WPF   5V·DGPFCXQT-COGNN$/%%QJ/+4D4+% #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ N FTCRKGTV2KGVCU UVGJV N OKV <GRVGT WPF   QRHGTVÒDGT#NVCT$/%%QJXCT/+4D4+% 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\NFTCRKGTV8KC6TCKCPCNCIGTVNOKV4CF WPF<YGKI$/%%QJ/+4D4+% 5GJTUEJÌP



 YWTFG FCU 0CDCV·GTTGKEJ XQP 4QO CPPGMVKGTV 'U YKTF CWH FGT /ÒP\G CWUFTÒEMNKEJ FWTEJ #4#$ KC    #&38+5 KVC FCTCWHJKPIGYKGUGPFC­#TCDKGPGTYQTDGPPKEJVCDGTGTQDGTVYWTFG

&KG8KC6TCKCPCYCTGKPGXQP6TCKCPGTDCWVG5VTC­GXQP$GPGXGPVPCEJ$TWPFKUKWO

193


TRAIANUS

1042

1043



“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\(QTVWPCUKV\VNOKV(ÒNNJQTP 5VGWGTTWFGTWPF<GRVGT$/%%QJ/+4X4+%  $TCWPG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­OKPMQTTQFKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\(GNKEKVCU UVGJV N OKV   %CFWEGWUWPF(ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ/+4X4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ 

1044 1,5:1



Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGU 5QN T   OKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG$/%%CNKEQ%QJp/+4H4+% 44)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP 

1,5:1



1,5:1

1045

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGU 5QN T   OKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG$/%%CNKEQ%QJp/+4H4+% 445GJTUEJÌP 

1047

1046



1046

“5GUVGT\  4QO  I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\6TCKCPUKV\VNCWH2NCVVHQTO WPF DGMT·P\V 2CTVJCOCURCVGU FCXQT MPKGV 2CTVJKC FCJKPVGT UVGJV 5QNFCV $/%  %QJ    /+4X4+% 4)TÒPG2CVKPCNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  +O,CJTGIKPIGPFKG2CTVJGTKPFKG1HHGPUKXGIGIGP6TCKCPFGTKP$CD[NQPOKV8GTYCNVWPIUCWHICDGPDGHC­VYCT 0CEJ CPH·PINKEJGP RCTVJKUEJGP 'THQNIGP  UKG XGTPKEJVGVGP FCU *GGT FGU #RRKWU /CZKOWU 5CPVTC UKGJG *CTV   OCPP)GTJCTFV #D #TUCEG ECGUWU GUV 'KP RCTVJKUEJGT (GNFJGTT CWU FGT <GKV 6TCKCPU WPF *CFTKCPU KP )ÌVVKPIGT   (QTWOHÒT#NVGTVWOUYKUUGPUEJCHV  5HH IGNCPIGU6TCKCP2CTVJCOCURCVGU\WO8GTTCVCPFGTRCTVJK UEJGP5CEJG\WDGYGIGPWPFGTOCEJVGKJP\WT$GNQJPWPIKP-VGUKRJQP\WO-ÌPKIFGT2CTVJGT



194

Õ6TKFTCEJOG$QUVTC #TCDKC I-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\NFTCRKGTV#TCDKCUVGJV NOKV<YGKIWPF<KOVUVCPIG ! FCXQT-COGN/GVECNH6GNN-CNCM*QCTF  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




HADRIANUS

1048 1049





1050

Õ&KFTCEJOG  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG   FGT $CCNCV*GTC N OKV -CNCVJQU <GRVGT WPF 5EJTKHVTQNNG /E#NGG  /GVECNH  %CGUCTGC %CR   RCFQEKCG 5[F %CGUCTGC%CRRCFQEKCG  5GJTUEJÌP



“&KQDQN,CJT  #NGZCPFTKC #GI[RVWU I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ #ICVJQFCKOQP5EJNCPIG T CWHIGTKEJVGV WOUEJNKPIV N -GT[MGKQP T JTG &CVVCTK5CXKQ  FKGU   'ZGORNCT )GKUUGP-COROCPP)CPUEJQY 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI)KQXCPPK&CVVCTK



WPF/CTEKCPC“U,CJT  #PC\CTDQU %KNKEKC I-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ &TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT<KGINGT 45EJÌP

1,5:1



1051



1,5:1

*CFTKCPWUÔ#WTGWU4QOI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVGFGU5QNTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG$/%p%CNKEQ%QJ4+%D  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'UKUVWOUVTKVVGPQD1TKGPUCWHFGO4GXGTUIGQITCRJKUEJ\WFGWVGPKUVUKEJCNUQCWHFGP#WHGPVJCNVFGU-CKUGTUKO 1UVGPDG\KGJVQFGTCWHFGP4GIKGTWPIUCPVTKVVFGU-CKUGTUFGTOKVFGTCWHIGJGPFGP5QPPGINGKEJIGUGV\VYKTF.GV\ VGTGUUEJGKPVWPUYCJTUEJGKPNKEJGTUKGJGCWEJ$GTTGPU5VGRJCP5QPPGPMWNVWPF-CKUGTVWOXQPFGP5GXGTGTPDKU\W %QPUVCPVKP+ P%JT 5VWVVICTV5HH

1052

1053



1053

“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ N FTCRKGTV5GEWTKVCU UKV\V N OKV <GRVGT   $/%%QJ4+% )TÒPG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0QOQU#)<ÒTKEJ0TFGT#WMVKQP7$5<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT #WMVKQP/ÒP\JCPFNWPI$CUGN$CUGN0T



“&WRQPFKWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG N FTCRKGTV#GSWKVCU UVGJV N OKV   9CCIGWPF(ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+% /KPMQTTQFKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1



1054



1,5:1

Õ&GPCT  4QO  I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\+WUVKVKCUKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPF <GRVGT$/%XGTIN#PO%QJ4+% 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T &KGUGPWTFTCRKGTVGWPFPKEJVIGRCP\GTVG.KPMUDÒUVGKUVDKUJGTYQJNPWTKPFKGUGO'ZGORNCTDGMCPPV





195


HADRIANUS

1055

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T(QTVWPC UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC WPF (ÒNNJQTP   $/%#PO%CNKEQ FKGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV %QJ4+%  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

1056

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T-CKUGT UVGJV N WPF QRHGTV ÒDGT &TGKHW­ FCXQT UVGJGP   8KEVKOCTKWU OKV 1RHGTUVKGT (NÌVGPURKGNGT WPF \YGK YGKVGTG 2GTUQPGP $/%  %CNKEQ    %QJ4+% 44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP  +P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI%JQKEG(KPG 

1057

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T.KDGTCNKVCU UVGJV N OKV 6GUUGTC WPF (ÒNNJQTP   $/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+% 445GJTUEJÌP 

1058



1059

Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T#GI[RVQU NCIGTV N OKV 5KUVTWO FCXQT +DKU $/%    %QJ4+% )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



&KGUGU5VÒEMUVCOOVCWUFGT5GTKGFGT2T·IWPIGP\W*CFTKCPU\YGKVGTITQ­GT4GKUGFWTEJFKG2TQXKP\GP



196

“U,CJT  #WIWUVC %KNKEKC I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT.KXKCT6[EJGUKV\VTOKV JTGPWPVGP(W­IQVV-CTDCEJKP,0):.  5 FQTV,CJTPKEJVNGUDCT   445GJTUEJÌP




HADRIANUS

3:1

1060



HÒT&KXWU6TCKCPWUWPF&KXC2NQVKPCÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHFGU*CFTKCPWUTN FTCRKGTV&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGPFGU6TCKCPWUWPFFGT2NQVKPCGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTÒDGTKJTGP-ÌRHGP5VGTPG $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%$  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CPM.GW#)<ÒTKEJ0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP$CPM.GW#)<ÒTKEJ0T

1,5:1



1,5:1

 HÒT 5CDKPC Ô#WTGWU 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO8GUVC UKV\V N OKV 2CNNCFKWO   WPF<GRVGT$/%%CNKEQC%QJXCT4+%C 5GJTUEJÌP 

1,5:1



1061

1062

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO8GUVC UKV\V N OKV 2CNNCFKWO WPF <GRVGT   $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%D )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP 

1063

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO8GUVC UKV\V N OKV 2CNNCFKWO WPF   <GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%C 4*GPMGNURWTYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP  197


ANTONINUS I. PIUS

1,5:1



1064

1,5:1

 HÒT #GNKWU Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRHTNFTCRKGTV%QPEQTFKCUKV\VNOKV2CVGTCFGPN #TOCWH(ÒNNJQTPIGUVÒV\V$/%p%CNKEQXCT%QJp4+%XCT  $ÒUVGPXCTKCPVGXQPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ  *CFTKCPMGJTVGCWUFGOLÒFKUEJGP-TKGI\WTÒEM5GKPG)GUWPFJGKVYCTCPIGITKHHGPUQFC­FGT-CKUGTKOOGT JKP,CJTGCNVGKPG0CEJHQNIGTGIGNWPIVTGHHGPOW­VG*CFTKCPU9CJNHKGNCWH.%GKQPKWU%QOOQFWUFGPGTCNU .#GNKWU8GTWU\WO0CEJHQNIGTDGUVKOOVG#GNKWUYCT\WO<GKVRWPMVUGKPGT'TPGPPWPI%QPUWNQTFKPCTKWUJCVVG CDGTMGKPGTNGKOKNKV·TKUEJG'THCJTWPI'TUVCTDCO0GWLCJTUVCI

1066

1065



1065

#PVQPKPWU + 2KWU  “#U  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\/CTU OKV   5RGGTWPF5EJKNFUEJYGDV\WUEJNCHGPFGT4JGC5KNXKCJGTCD$/%%QJ4+%  44&WPMNG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



4JGC5KNXKCYCTFGT5CIGPCEJFKG6QEJVGTFGU-ÌPKIU0WOKVQT5KNXKWUXQP#NDC.QPIC&KGUGTYWTFGXQPUGKPGO $TWFGT CDIGUGV\V FGT UGKPG O·PPNKEJGP 0CEJMQOOGP VÌVGVG WPF 4JGC 5KNXKC \W GKPGT 8GUVCNKP OCEJVG &GT )QVV   /CTUXGTHÒJTVGLGFQEJ4JGC5KNXKCFKGFKG<YKNNKPIG4QOWNWUWPF4GOWUIGDCT



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC IGJV T OKV 6TQ   RJ·G$/%%QJ4+%D $TCWPG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP*GNKQU0WOKUOCVKM /ÒPEJGP0T

1067





1068

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGTUKV\VNCWH2NCVVHQTOFCXQTUVGJV .KDGTCNKVCUNOKV#DCEWUWPF(ÒNNJQTPN6QICVWU$/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+%E 4)GUVQRHVGU.QEJHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\<YGK*·PFGJCNVGP%CFWEGWUWPFJTGP $/%%QJ4+% (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KVVC-CUVPGT/ÒPEJGP0T

1069

1070



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\/KPGTXCIGJVTOKV5RGGTWPF5EJKNF $/%%QJ4+% )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP





“5GUVGT\  4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#PPQPCUVGJVNOKVJTGPWPF#PMGT FCXQT/QFKWU$/%%QJXGTIN4+% 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

198


ANTONINUS I. PIUS

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ N FTCRKGTV-CKUGT UVGJV N OKV )NQDWU   WPF5EJTKHVTQNNG$/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJp4+%E (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1072

1,5:1



1071

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC IGJV N OKV -TCP\ WPF 2CNO   \YGKI$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+% 9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1073

1,5:1

1,5:1



HÒT&KXC(CWUVKPCOCVGTÔ#WTGWUPCEJ4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT%GTGUUVGJVNOKV (CEMGNWPF<GRVGT$/%%CNKEQXCT%QJ4+%C  $TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT)QNFVÌPWPI

1074 1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWUPCEJ4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT(QTVWPCUVGJVNOKV2CVGTCWPF5VGWGTTWFGTCWH )NQDWU$/%%CNKEQ%QJp4+% #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

1075





1076



Õ&GPCTPCEJ4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT%GTGUUVGJVNOKVJTGPWPF(CEMGN$/% %QJ4+% (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCTPCEJ4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT2KGVCUQRHGTVNÒDGT#NVCT$/%%QJ 4+%C 2TCEJVGZGORNCT)WVGUXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO-ÌNP0T

199


ANTONINUS I. PIUS

1,5:1



1077

1,5:1

WPF/CTEWU#WTGNKWUÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-QRHT$/%#PO %CNKEQ%QJ4+%p 5GJTUEJÌP

1078



1078 1,5:1



 HÒT /CTEWU #WTGNKWU Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T*QPQU UVGJV N OKV <YGKI WPF   (ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+%C 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1079

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T4QOC UVGJV N OKV 5RGGT WPF 2CTC\QPKWO   $/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJp4+%p 9KP\-TCV\GTUQPUVCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

1080

1,5:1



Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T#RQNNQ UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC WPF .[TC $/%  #PO   %CNKEQ%QJ4+%C (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 

1,5:1

 200

1,5:1

1081

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T#RQNNQ UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC WPF .[TC $/%  #PO   %CNKEQ%QJ4+%D (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


ANTONINUS II. MARCUS AURELIUS

1082

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T/CTU IGJV T OKV 5RGGT WPF 6TQRJ·G $/% p   %CNKEQ FKGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV %QJp4+%p 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1084

1083



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T/CTU IGJV T OKV 5RGGT WPF 6TQRJ·G   $/%%QJ4+%#D )TÒPG2CVKPC(GNFGTNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP





“5GUVGT\4QOI-QRHT/CTUIGJVTOKV5RGGTCPF6TQRJ·G$/%%QJp4+%C )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1085

1,5:1



1,5:1

#PVQPKPWU ++ /CTEWU #WTGNKWU  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T/CTEWU #WTGNKWU   WPF.WEKWU8GTWUUVGJGPGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTWPFTGKEJGPUKEJFKG*CPF$/%%CNKEQ%QJ 4+% #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1087

1086

1087



“5GUVGT\4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\,WRKVGTUKV\VNOKV8KEVQTKCWPF<GRVGT $/%%QJ4+% )TÒPG2CVKPCNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&KFTCEJOG  %CGUCTGC %CRRCFQEKC   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-GWNG   /GVECNH5[FGPJCOXCT 45GJTUEJÌP



&KGUGUGNVGPGP2T·IWPIGPCWUFGP,CJTGPWPVGTUEJGKFGPUKEJUVKNKUVKUEJFGWVNKEJXQPFGP/CUUGPRT·IWPIGP HÒT/CTEWU#WTGNKWUWPF.WEKWU8GTWUCWUFGP,CJTGP

201


ANTONINUS II. MARCUS AURELIUS

1088



1088

1089

HÒT&KXWU#PVQPKPWUÕ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTNFTCRKGTV4QIWU$/%%QJ 4+% -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­HCUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO-ÌNP0T



“5GUVGT\ PCEJ4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\NFTCRKGTV#FNGTUVGJVNCWH)NQDWU -QRHT$/%pXGTIN%QJXGTIN4+%XCT 45GJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



1,5:1

 HÒT (CWUVKPC HKNKC Ô#WTGWU 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T5CNWU UKV\V N WPF HÒVVGTV 5EJNCPIG   $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+% 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



1090



1091

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO5CNWUUKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPFHÒVVGTVGKPGWO GKPGP#NVCTIGYWPFGPG5EJNCPIG$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



1093

1092



1094

“5GUVGT\ 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T(GNKEKVCU UVGJV N OKV \YGK -KPFGTP \W KJTGP 5GKVGP LG   \YGKYGKVGTG-KPFGT$/%%QJ4+% &WPMNG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



HÒT&KXC(CWUVKPCHKNKCÕ&GPCTPCEJ4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5EJNGKGT4QIWU FCTCWH3WCFTKICXX$/%%QJ4+% (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO-ÌNP0T



“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT2HCWUVGJVN$/%%QJ4+%  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­MN-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUHCUVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

202




LUCIUS VERUS

1095



HÒT%QOOQFWUÕ6TKFTCEJOG%CGUCTGC %CRRCFQEKC I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT#FNGTUVGJVXX CWH2QFGUV-QRHN/GVECNHXGTINC #FNGTCWH-GWNG 5[FGPJCO  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

1096

1,5:1





1,5:1

.WEKWU 8GTWU  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T.WEKWU 8GTWU WPF /CTEWU #WTGNKWU   TGKEJGPUKEJFKG*CPF$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%  44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPI 

1097



Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T2TQXKFGPVKC UVGJV N OKV )NQDWU WPF (ÒNNJQTP $/%    %QJ4+% *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

1098

1,5:1





1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT5CNWUUVGJVNOKV2CVGTCWPF<GRVGTFCXQTGKPG WOGKPGP#NVCTIGYWPFGPG5EJNCPIG$/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+%  449KP\$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ



 MCO GU KO <WUCOOGPJCPI OKV FGT 'KPUGV\WPI GKPGU RCVJKUEJGP -NKGPVGNMÌPKIU KP #TOGPKGP \W MTKGIGTKUEJGP   #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGP \YKUEJGP FGP 2CTVJGTP WPF 4QO  DTCEJ .WEKWU 8GTWU \W GKPGO 5VCHHGNF\WICWHYWTFG LGFQEJ FWTEJ GKPG 'TMTCPMWPI KP %CPWUKWO CWHIGJCNVGP /ÌINKEJGTYGKUG URKGNV FKG 5CNWUCWHFGO4GXGTUFKGFCU 9QJNGTIGJGPFGT-CKUGTDGUEJYÌTVCWHFKGUG-TCPMJGKVCP

1099

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKCUVGJVTWPFUEJTGKDV 8+%#8)CWH5EJKNF$/%p%CNKEQ%QJp4+%  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT)QNFVÌPWPI44(CUV5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CPM.GW#)<ÒTKEJ0T  &GT#WTGWUHGKGTVFGPKO8GTNCWHGFGU2GTUGTMTKGIGUGTTWPIGPGP5KGIKP#TOGPKGPYQ.WEKWU8GTWU5QJCGOWUCNU -ÌPKIGKPUGV\VG

203


PERTINAX

1100

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKCUVGJVTWPFUEJTGKDV 8+%#8)CWH5EJKNF$/%p%CNKEQ%QJp4+%  449KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



&GT#WTGWUHGKGTVFGPKO8GTNCWHGFGU2GTUGTMTKGIGUGTTWPIGPGP5KGIKP#TOGPKGPYQ.WEKWU8GTWU5QJCGOWUCNU -ÌPKIGKPUGV\VG

1101



1103

1102

 HÒT .WEKNNC “5GUVGT\ 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T%QPEQTFKC UKV\V N OKV 2CVGTC WPF (ÒNN   JQTP$/%%QJ4+% 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP4CWEJ9KGP0T



“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT2KGVCUUVGJVNWPFQRHGTVÒDGT#NVCT$/%%QJ 4+% )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP





“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT2KGVCUUVGJVNWPFQRHGTVÒDGT#NVCT$/%%QJ 4+% $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1104

1106

1105





1105

%QOOQFWU  Õ&KFTCEJOG  %CGUCTGC %CRRCFQEKC   I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGT   MTCP\-GWNG\YKUEJGP/QPFUKEJGNWPF5VGTP/GVECNHXGTIN5[FGPJCO  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP



 HÒT %TKURKPC “5GUVGT\  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T5CNWU UKV\V N OKV 2CVGTC WPF   HÒVVGTVGKPGWOGKPGP#NVCTIGYWPFGPG5EJNCPIG$/%%QJ4+%D  4&WPMGNDTCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2GTVKPCZ  Õ&GPCT 4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#GSWKVCU UVGJV N OKV 9CCIG WPF   (ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+%C 45GJTUEJÌPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

 204


DIDIUS JULIANUS

1107

1107 1,5:1



Õ&GPCT4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGTQRHGTVNÒDGT&TGKHW­$/%%QJ 4+%C 45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

1109

1108



&KFKWU ,WNKCPWU  “5GUVGT\ 4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\%QPEQTFKC UVGJV N OKV   \YGK(GNF\GKEJGP$/%%QJ4+% 45GJTUEJÌPUEJÌP





“5GUVGT\ 4QO  I-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\(QTVWPCUVGJVNOKV5VGWGTTWFGTCWH)NQDWUWPF (ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+% 4-PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP



1111

1110



“5GUVGT\ 4QO  I-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\(QTVWPCUVGJVNOKV5VGWGTTWFGTCWH)NQDWUWPF (ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+% 45GJTUEJÌPUEJÌP





“&WRQPFKWU 4QO  I -QRH T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG(QTVWPC UVGJV N OKV 5VGWGTTWFGT CWH )NQDWU   WPF(ÒNNJQTP$/%HH%QJ4+% 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1113

1112



 HÒT /CPNKC 5ECPVKNNC “5GUVGT\ 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T+WPQ UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC WPF   <GRVGTFCXQT2HCW$/%%QJ4+%C 44$TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPUEJÌP





“5GUVGT\ 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T+WPQ UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC WPF <GRVGT FCXQT 2HCW   $/%#PO%QJ4+%D 44)TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPUEJÌP



1114



HÒT&KFKC%NCTC“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT*KNCTKVCUUVGJVNOKV2CNO\YGKIWPF (ÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+% 44(GKPGU2QTVT·VIWVGUUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



&KG 4GXGTUFCTUVGNNWPI \GKIV FC­ PQEJ WPVGT &KFKWU ,WNKCPWU FCU CPVQPKPKUEJG 4GXGTURTQITCOO /C­UV·DG UGV\VG   #WEJ WPVGT #PVQPKPWU 2KWU YCT FKG &CTUVGNNWPI FGT *KNCTKVCU HÒT FKG 2T·IWPIGP KO 0COGP UGKPGT 6QEJVGT PKEJV   UGKPGT 'JGHTCW  TGUGTXKGTV UKGJG #NGZCPFTKFKU #PPGVVC &KG (TCWGP FGU TÌOKUEJGP -CKUGTJCWUGU /CKP\  5   

205


SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS

1116

1115



2GUEGPPKWU0KIGTÕ&GPCT#PVKQEJKCI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5RGUIGJVNOKV $NWOG$/%XGTIN%QJXGTINHH4+% 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\5RGU IGJV N OKV $NWOG $/% XGTIN    %QJXGTINHH4+% 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



1118

1117



%NQFKWU#NDKPWUÕ&GPCT4QOI-QRHT#GUEWNCRUVGJVNOKV5EJNCPIGP UVCD$/%%QJ4+% 5GJTUEJÌP





Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T/KPGTXC UVGJV N OKV 1NKXGP\YGKI 5RGGT WPF 5EJKNF   $/%%QJ4+% /KPMQTTQFKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

1119



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I -QRH T/KPGTXC UVGJV N OKV 1NKXGP\YGKI 5RGGT WPF 5EJKNF   $/%%QJ4+%C  44)TÒPG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­YKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGO4GXGTUIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP 

1120

2:1



2:1

5GRVKOKWU 5GXGTWU  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC   IGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI$/%%CNKEQ%QJXCT4+%  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

1121



“5GUVGT\4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\KO(GNFQXCNG5COONGTOCTMG#FNGT.') :++=++)'?//8.GIKQPUCFNGT\YKUEJGP\YGK5VCPFCTVGPKO#DUEJPKVV642%15KO(GNF5%$/% %QJ4+% 4+O(GNFFGU#XGTUGU5COONGTOCTMGFGT(COKNKG)QP\CICUGJTUEJÌP &KG5COONGTOCTMGYWTFGXGTOWVNKEJKO,CJTJWPFGTVCWHFGP/ÒP\GPFGT5COONWPIFGTKP/CPVWCTGIKGTGPFGP (COKNKG)QP\CICCPIGDTCEJV+O8GTNCWHFGU/CPVWCPKUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGIGUYWTFGFKG5COONWPI\GTUVTGWV5KGJG \WT<WYGKUWPIWPF&CVKGTWPIFGT5COONGTOCTMGCWEJ5KOQPGVVC4KXCKP3WCFGTPK6KEKPGUK8+++  5HH

206




ANTONINUS III. CARACALLA

1122

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\816#585%'26#::-CKUGTUVGJVTWPF QRHGTVÒDGT#NVCTFCXQTUVGJV%CTCECNNC ! NOKV5VCDFC\YKUEJGP(NÌVGPURKGNGT$/%%CNKEQ %QJ4+% 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1123



 HÒT ,WNKC &QOPC Õ&TCEJOG  %CGUCTGC %CRRCFQEKC   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T$GTI   #TICKQUFCTCWH5VGTP5[FGPJCO 44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



3:1

1124



OKV,WNKC&QOPC%CTCECNNCWPF)GVCÔ#WTGWU4QOI5'8'485#8)2/642 : %15 +++ &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\('.+%+6#5  5#'%8.+ &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT ,WNKC   &QOPC X X \YKUEJGP FGT FTCRKGTVGP $ÒUVG FGU %CTCECNNC  P T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF FGT FTCRKGTVGP   $ÒUVGFGU)GVCPN$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%E  445GJTCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPI 

1,5:1



1125

1,5:1

#PVQPKPWU +++ %CTCECNNC  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QT   DGGTMTCP\5QNUVGJVNOKV)NQDWUWPF5RGGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%C  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP  207


ANTONINUS III. CARACALLA

1126

2:1



2:1

Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8GPWU UVGJV N OKV 8KEVQTKC   <GRVGTWPF5EJKNF$/%5#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+%C  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

1128

1127



Õ#PVQPKPKCP  4QO  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG2NWVQ UKV\V N OKV <GRVGT   FCXQT%GTDGTWU$/%%QJp4+%E (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



Õ&GPCT  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#GUEWNCR UVGJV X X OKV 5EJNCPIGPUVCD \W   UGKPGP(Ò­GP)NQDWU$/%%QJXGTIN4+% 5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1129

1130



1130

Õ#PVQPKPKCP4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG5GTCRKUUVGJVNOKVJTGPWPF <GRVGT$/%p%QJ4+%F 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



“U ,CJT     #OCUGKC 2QPVWU   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T-CKUGT UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC   WPF<GRVGTFCXQT#NVCT&CNCKUQP 448QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*CWEM#WHJ·WUGT/ÒPEJGP0T

1131



1132

HÒT&KXWU5GRVKOKWU5GXGTWUÕ&GPCT4QOI-QRHT4QIWUFCTCWH3WCFTKIC$/% %QJ4+%( 4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUGIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



HÒT2NCWVKNNCÕ&GPCT4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT-CKUGTKPWPF-CKUGTTGKEJGPUKEJ FKG*CPF$/%%QJ4+% 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

208




MACRINUS

1133

2:1



2:1

 WPF )GVC Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGU %CTCECNNC T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   &TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGU)GVCT$/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+%  44#VVCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

1134



)GVC“5GUVGT\4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\(QTVWPCUKV\VNOKV5VGWGT TWFGTWPF&QRRGNHÒNNJQTP$/%%QJXCT4+%C 4)TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



1135 1,5:1

1,5:1



/CETKPWU  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\(GNKEKVCU   UVGJVNOKV%CFWEGWUWPF(ÒNNJQTP$/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+%  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

1136

1137



Õ&GPCT  4QO  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\(KFGUUVGJVXXOKV\YGK5VCP FCTVGP-QRHT$/%%QJ4+% 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­HCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCT4QOI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#GSWKVCUUVGJVNOKV9CCIGWPF(ÒNN JQTP$/%pXGTINH%QJ4+% 5VGORGNIN·P\GPFGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



1138





1139

Õ&GPCT 4QO  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\5CNWU UKV\V N OKV <GRVGT WPF HÒVVGTV   5EJNCPIG$/%%QJXGTIN4+%  2TCEJVGZGORNCT$TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIJGTXQTTCIGPFGU2QTVT·V5VGORGNINCP\



 HÒT &KCFWOGPKCPWU Õ&GPCT 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T2TKP\ UVGJV N OKV 5VCPFCTVG WPF   <GRVGTFCJKPVGT\YGK5VCPFCTVGP$/%%QJ4+%  8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC

 209


SEVERUS ALEXANDER

1141

1140



#PVQPKPWU +8 'NCICDCN  Õ#PVQPKPKCP  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   5VTCJNGPDKPFG/CTUIGJVTOKV5RGGTWPF6TQRJ·G$/%%QJ4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ





Õ&GPCT4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF*QTP-CKUGTUVGJVNOKV 2CVGTCWPF-GWNGFCXQT5VGTP#NVCTWPF5VKGT$/%%QJ4+% (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  $GKFGOUQIGPCPPVGP*QTPUQNNGUUKEJWOGKPG5VKGTRGPKUURKV\GJCPFGNP 'NMG-TGPIGNKP,D0WO5HH  'KPGCPFGTG#PUKEJVXGTVTKVV99GKUGT KP)0/·T\5HH 

1143

1142



 HÒT ,WNKC /CGUC Õ&GPCT 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T(GEWPFKVCU UVGJV N OKV (ÒNNJQTP WPF   J·NVFKG*CPFÒDGTGKP-KPF$/%%QJ4+% 5VGORGNIN·P\GPFGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT





 HÒT #SWKNKC 5GXGTC Õ&GPCT 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T%QPEQTFKC UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC WPF   &QRRGNHÒNNJQTPWPFQRHGTVÒDGT#NVCTT5VGTP$/%%QJ4+% 48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T FQTVKTTVÒONKEJCNU4+%DGUEJTKGDGP 

1144

1145

1146



5GXGTWU#NGZCPFGTÕ&GPCT4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ 5RGUIGJVNOKV$NWOG$/%%QJ4+% 5VGORGNIN·P\GPFGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT





HÒT,WNKC/COCGCÕ&GPCT4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO8GUVCUVGJVNOKV 2CNNCFKWOWPF<GRVGT$/%%QJ4+% )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP





 HÒT 1TDKCPC Õ&GPCT  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO%QPEQTFKC UKV\V N OKV   2CVGTCWPF&QRRGNHÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+% 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1147

1148



“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO%QPEQTFKCUKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPF&QR RGNHÒNNJQTP$/%%QJ4+% 44)TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





“U *KGTQMCKUCTGKC .[FKC   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VGRJCPG#TVGOKU KP *KTUEJDKIC T   50)%QR 1NKXITÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

210


BALBINUS

1149





1150

/CZKOKPWU+6JTCZ“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ +P-TCP\816+5&'%'00#.+$855%$/%%QJ4+%  4)TÒPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 HÒT &KXC 2CWNKPC “5GUVGT\ 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5EJNGKGT2CWNKPC HNKGIV T CWH   2HCW$/%%QJ4+% 4)TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1151

1152 1,5:1



 HÒT /CZKOWU Õ&GPCT  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T2TKP\ UVGJV N OKV 5VCD WPF   <GRVGTFCJKPVGT\YGK5VCPFCTVGP$/%%QJ4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



)QTFKCPWU+#HTKECPWU$6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT  #NGZCPFTKC #GI[RVWU I&TC RKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC UKV\V N OKV -TCP\ WPF 2CNO\YGKI &CVVCTK  -COR   OCPP)CPUEJQY)GKUUGP  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2T·EJVKIGU2QTVT·VIWVGUUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP 

1153

1154



)QTFKCPWU ++#HTKECPWU“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ 8KTVWUUVGJVNOKV5EJKNFWPF5RGGT$/%%QJ4+% 44$TCWPG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





$CNDKPWUÕ#PVQPKPKCP4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG*CPFUEJNCI$/% %QJ4+% )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1155

1156



“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\$CNDKPWU2WRKGPWUWPF)QTFKCPWU+++ UKV\GPNCWH2NCVVHQTOFCJKPVGT5QNFCVFCXQT.KDGTCNKVCUNOKV#DCEWUWPF(ÒNNJQTPUQYKGGKP6QICVWUT $/%%QJ4+% 44)TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 



“5GUVGT\4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGTUVGJVNOKV<YGKIWPF2CTC\Q PKWO$/%%QJ4+% )TÒPG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 211


PHILIPPUS I.

1158



1159

1157

2WRKGPWUÕ#PVQPKPKCP4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG*CPFUEJNCI$/% %QJ4+%C 5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T #/14/86885#8))DGUEJYÌTVFCUIGIGPUGKVKIG8GTVTCWGPFGTDGKFGP#WIWUVK







“5GUVGT\ 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC UVGJV X X -QRH N OKV   -TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI$/%%QJ4+%C (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



“5GUVGT\ 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKC UVGJV X X -QRH N OKV   -TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI$/%%QJ4+%C 5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP 

1160

1161

1161



$CNDKPWU WPF 2WRKGPWU  HÒT )QTFKCPWU +++ Õ&GPCT  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T   2TKGUVGTIGT·VG$/%%QJ4+% 45GJTUEJÌP





)QTFKCPWU +++  “U 5GNGWMGKC RTQU -CN[MCFPQP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGP   DKPFGFCTCWH)GIGPUVGORGN4KPIKP&TGKGEM0CEMVGU&KQP[UQUMKPFVJTQPV\YKUEJGPFTGK-QT[DCPVGP LGFGTOKV5EJKNFWPF5EJYGTV$/%2H·N\GT2TKXCVUCOONWPI50)%QR50)(TCPEG50) .GXCPVG50)X#WNQEM<KGINGT  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV&WPMGNITÒPG2CVKPCOKVNGKEJVGP#WHNCIGPUGJTUEJÌP



1162



1163

2JKNKRRWU +  Õ#PVQPKPKCP  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG   5#'%8.#4'5#8)).ÌYGT%QJ4+% 5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T







$GKFKGUGOWPFFGPHQNIGPFGP5VÒEMGPJCPFGNVGUUKEJWOGKPG2T·IWPICPN·­NKEJFGT6CWUGPFLCJTHGKGT4QOUCNUQ FGTNGV\VGPVCVU·EJNKEJIGHGKGTVGPTÌOKUEJGP5·MWNCTHGKGT&KGP·EJUVG5·MWNCTHGKGTJ·VVGPCEJGKPGTCPFGTGP<·JNWPI QFGTUVCVVHKPFGPOÒUUGPWPFY·TGFCPPKPFKG4GIKGTWPIU\GKV%QPUVCPVKPUFGU)TQ­GPIGHCNNGPHCPFLGFQEJ PKEJVUVCVV&KGUPCJO<QUKOQU\WO#PNC­%QPUVCPVKPHÒTFGP0KGFGTICPIFGU4GKEJGUXGTCPVYQTVNKEJ\WOCEJGP FGPPPCEJGKPGTCNVGP2TQRJG\GKWPIYCTFKG5KEJGTJGKVFGU4GKEJGUOKVFGTQTFPWPIUIGO·­GP&WTEJHÒJTWPIFKGUGT (GKGTPWPFFGO8QNN\WIFGTGPVURTGEJGPFGP-WNVGXGTMPÒRHV



Õ#PVQPKPKCP  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG5#'%8.#4'5 #8))   #PVKNQRGN%QJ4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

212




TRAIANUS DECIUS

1164

1165

1165



“5GUVGT\  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\/+.+#4+8/ 5#'%8.8/   5·WNGFCTCWH%15+++%QJ4+% (GNFGTNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP





 HÒT 1VCEKNKC 5GXGTC Õ#PVQPKPKCP  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO CWH /QPF   UKEJGN5#'%8.#4'5#8))0KNRHGTFT%QJ4+%D 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1167



1168

1166



1166

“U <GWIOC %QOOCIGPG   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO CWH /QPFUKEJGN8KGTU·WNKIGT   6GORGNCWHFGT#MTQRQNKUXQP<GWIOCKO#DUEJPKVV%CRTKEQTPT$/%  &WPMGNDTCWPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&GT%CRTKEQTPCWHFGO4GXGTUKUVFCU'ODNGOFGTKP<GWIOCUVCVKQPKGTVGP.GIKQ+85E[VJKEC



2JKNKRRWU ++  Õ#PVQPKPKCP  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG   5#'%8.#4'5#8))<KGIGUVGJVN%QJ4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ#PVQPKPKCP4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG<YGK-CKUGTUKV\GPNCWH EWTWNKUEJGP5VÒJNGP%QJ4+% 2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

1169



1,5:1

1169

6TCKCPWU&GEKWU“U#PVKQEJGKCCO/CGCPFGT %CTKC I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\5GEJUDQIKIG$TÒEMGÒDGTFGP/·CPFGTFCTCWHNCIGTV(NW­IQVVOKV5EJKNHTQJTWPF(ÒNNJQTPN JKPVGT KJO 6[EJG WPF #VJGPC , 0QNN¾ $GKVT·IG \WT MNGKPCUKCVKUEJGP /ÒP\MWPFG WPF )GUEJKEJVG    KP)GRJ[TC  5HH#DD5CE  445EJYCT\ITÒPG2CVKPCOKVNGKEJVGP#WHNCIGPUGJTUEJÌP

 213


AEMILIANUS

3:1

1170



HÒT*QUVKNKCPWUÔ#WTGWU4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT2TKP\UVGJVNOKV5VCPFCTVGWPF<GRVGT %CNKEQC%QJp4+%p  W­GTUVUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPI 9KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

1171



1171

1,5:1

*QUVKNKCPWUÕ#PVQPKPKCP/CK,WNK#PVKQEJKCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG 7DGTKVCUUVGJVNOKV$ÌTUGWPF(ÒNNJQTP4+%D 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJHCUVUVGORGNHTKUEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  *QUVKNKCPWUYCTKO/CKXQPUGKPGO8CVGT\WO#WIWUVWUGTPCPPVYQTFGPPCEJFGO*GNFGPVQFFGU&GEKWUKP FGT5EJNCEJVDGK#DTKVVWUKPFGT*·NHVGFGU,WPKXGTNQTGTMWT\FGP6KVGNDKU6TGDQPKCPWU)CNNWUKJPDCNFFCTCWH CFQRVKGTVGWPFYKGFGTWOKPFGP4CPIGKPGU#WIWUVWUGTJQD0QEJXQTFGOTCHHVGFKGKP4QOITCUUKGTGPFG 2GUV*QUVKNKCPWUJKPYGIGTYCTCNUQPWTGVYC\YGK/QPCVGOKVGKPGTMWT\GP7PVGTDTGEJWPI-CKUGT&KGUGTMN·TV FKGITQ­G5GNVGPJGKVFGT5VÒEMGFGU*QUVKNKCPWUCNU#WIWUVWU

1172



1173

6TGDQPKCPWU )CNNWU  Õ#PVQPKPKCP /GFKQNCPWO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGP   DKPFG.KDGTVCUUVGJVNOKV2KNGWUWPF<GRVGT%QJ4+%  2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\XQT\ÒINKEJ



Õ#PVQPKPKCP/GFKQNCPWOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG2CZUVGJVNOKV<YGKIWPF <GRVGT%QJ4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T





1174

1175



#GOKNKCPWU  Õ#PVQPKPKCP 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG#RQNNQ UVGJV N   OKV<YGKIWPF.[TCCWH(GNUGP%QJ4+% 4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP





Õ#PVQPKPKCP4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG8KTVWUUVGJVNOKV<YGKIWPF 5RGGT%QJ4+% 4/KPMQTTQFKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



214


LAELIANUS

1177

1176

1176



Õ#PVQPKPKCP 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG5RGU IGJV N OKV $NWOG %QJ    4+% 5GJTUEJÌP





“U#KIGCK %KNKEKC I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\*GTQU #NGZCPFGTFGT)TQ­G! UVGJVN OKV5RGGTWPF1RHGTUEJCNGFCXQT1RHGTUVKGTWPF6QTDQIGP50)(TCPEG50).GXCPVG 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV)TÒPDTCWPG2CVKPC#XGTUNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



1180

1179

1178

1178





8CNGTKCPWU“U5GNGWEKCCF%CN[ECFPWO %KNKEKC I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGP DKPFG$ÒUVGP FGU #RQNNQP WPF FGT #TVGOKU6[EJG GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT FC\YKUEJGP <YGKI 50)   (TCPEG50).GXCPVGXCT 42T·IGUEJY·EJGPIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



HÒT&KXC/CTKPKCPCÕ#PVQPKPKCP4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5EJNGKGTCWH/QPFUKEJGN 2HCW/+4D4+% 4)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T



Õ#PVQPKPKCP8KOKPCEKWOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5EJNGKGTCWH/QPFUKEJGN2HCWHNKGIVTOKV &KXC/+4D4+% (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

1181

1182



1183



)CNNKGPWU  “U #NGZCPFTKC 6TQCU 6TQCU   I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   2HGTFYGKFGVT$GNNKPIGT6TQ[# &WPMNG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





$6GVTCFTCEJOG ,CJT     #NGZCPFTKC #GI[RVWU I)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\#FNGT UVGJV N OKV -TCP\ KO 5EJPCDGN FCXQT 2CNO\YGKI &CVVCTK  )GKUUGP  -COR   OCPP)CPUEJQY #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



.CGNKCPWU“#PVQPKPKCP/QIQPVKCEWOI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGTOKV5VTCJNGPDKPFG8KEVQTKC IGJVTOKV-TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI'NOGT4+% 5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  )GQTI 'NOGT IGJV FCXQP CWU FC­ .CGNKCPWU FKG XQP 2QUVWOWU HTKUEJ GKPIGTKEJVGVG /ÒP\UV·VVG KP 6TKGT KP UGKPG   )GYCNV IGDTCEJV JCV WPF FQTV UGKPG /ÒP\GP RT·IGP NKG­ #WEJ %( <UEJWEMG PKOOV FKG /ÒP\UV·VVG KP 6TKGT CP  

&KGTÌOKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVG-ÌNP6TKGT5 &KGUYWTFGWCXQP+-ÌPKICPIG\YGKHGNVFGTFKG/ÒP\UV·VVG KP /CKP\ XGTOWVGV &KG ICNNKUEJGP 7UWTRCVQTGP XQP 2QUVWOWU DKU 6GVTKEWU /ÒPEJGP  5  UQ CWEJ   )KNNLCO#PVQPKPKCPKWPF#WTGKFGU7NRKWU%QTPGNKWU.CGNKCPWU-ÌNP5 0CEJGKPGTCPFGTGP#WHHCUUWPI JCV .CGNKCPWU MWT\HTKUVKI -ÌNP GKPIGPQOOGP WPF FKG /ÒP\UV·VVG PCEJ /CKP\ XGTNCIGTV $GUN[$NCPF 6JG %WPGVKQ   6TGCUWTG4QOCP%QKPCIGQHVJG6JKTF%GPVWT[#&.QPFQP5WPF &GOYKFGTURTKEJV$5EJWNVG FGTCPPKOOVFC­.CGNKCPWUUKEJKPFGP$GUKV\GKPGT/ÒP\UV·VVGFGU2QUVWOWUUGV\VGWPFFQTVUGKPG/ÒP\GPRT·IGP NKG­ FQTV MQPPVG GT UKEJ CDGT PWT MWT\ JCNVGP YCU FKG5GNVGPJGKVUGKPGT2T·IWPIGPGTMN·TV 5EJWNVG&KG)QNFRT· IWPIFGTICNNKUEJGP-CKUGTXQP2QUVWOWUDKU6GVTKEWU#CTCW5 9GKUGT/CKP\TÌOKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVG! KP&KG/ÒP\UV·VVGP/CKP\WPF9KGUDCFGP5RG[GTNGIVUKEJCWH/CKP\HGUV

215


QUIETUS

1184



/CTKWU  “#PVQPKPKCP 6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG8KEVQTKC IGJV T   OKV-TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI'NOGT4+%<UEJWEMG 48QT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

1185

1,5:1

1,5:1



4GICNKCPWU  Õ#PVQPKPKCP %CTPWPVWO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG2TQXKFGP   VKCUVGJVNOKVJTGPWPF(ÒNNJQTPFCXQT/QFKWU/+4w6H4p FKGU'ZGORNCT 4+% KTT VÒONKEJG4GXGTUNGIGPFGUKGJG6CHGN::   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP  &CU5VÒEMYWTFGCWHGKPGP&GPCTFGU2NCWVKNNC 4+% ÒDGTRT·IV  2WDNKWU %CUUKWU PKEJV %QTPGNKWU YKG XQP 4QDGTV )ÌDN XGTOWVGV  4GICNKCPWU YCT OKV JQJGT 9CJTUEJGKPNKEJMGKV   5VCVVJCNVGTFGT2TQXKP\2CPPQPKCUWRGTKQTCNUFKGIGUEJNCIGPGP6TWRRGPFGUIGVÌVGVGP7UWTRCVQTU+PIGPWWUKJPCWH KJTGO/CTUEJPCEJ0QTFYGUVGP\WO-CKUGTCWUTKGHGP5GKPG7UWTRCVKQPYCTPWTXQPMWT\GT&CWGTQD4GICNKCPWU XQP)CNNKGPWUDGUKGIVQFGTXQP$CTDCTGPIGVÌVGVYQTFGPKUVKUVGKPGQHHGPG(TCIG

1186

1,5:1



1,5:1

HÒT&T[CPVKNNCÕ#PVQPKPKCP%CTPWPVWOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGOCWH/QPFUKEJGN ,WPQUVGJVNOKV2CVGTCWPF<GRVGT/+4w&4+%  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKVªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP

1187



1188



3WKGVWU  $#PVQPKPKCP 5COQUCVC  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG+PFWNIGPVKC   UKV\VNOKV2CVGTCWPF<GRVGT/+4P4+% 5GJTUEJÌPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





$#PVQPKPKCP 5COQUCVC  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG5RGU IGJV N OKV $NWOG FCXQT   5VGTP/+4P4+% 5KNDGTUWFXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

216


CARINUS

1190

1189







%NCWFKWU++)QVJKEWU$6GVTCFTCEJOG,CJT  #NGZCPFTKC #GI[RVWU I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGU *GNKQU T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG &CVVCTK    )GKUUGP-COROCPP)CPUEJQY 4$TCWPITÒPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



#WTGNKCPWU“&GPCT4QO'OKUUKQPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ 8KEVQTKC GKNV N OKV -TCP\ WPF 2CNO\YGKI FCXQT UKV\V )GHCPIGPGT %$0  HH /+4 E4+% )TÒPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



“&GPCT4QO'OKUUKQPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKCGKNVNOKV -TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKIFCXQTUKV\V)GHCPIGPGT%$0/+4J4+% 5GJTUEJÌP



1192



1191

1193

 HÒT 5GXGTKPC “#PVQPKPKCP  4QO  'OKUUKQP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO CWH   /QPFUKEJGN-CKUGTWPF-CKUGTKPTGKEJGPUKEJFKG*CPF%$0/+44+%  2T·IGHTKUEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVXQNNGO5KNDGTUWF



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



(NQTKCPWU  $#PVQPKPKCP 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG,WRKVGT UVGJV X X   OKV<GRVGTWPF$NKV\KO#DUEJPKVV::+<%$04+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



1194

1,5:1

%CTWUÔ#WTGWU.WIFWPWOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\2CZIGJVNOKV <YGKIWPF<GRVGT%CNKEQ%QJ4+% 449KP\-TCV\GTOKPIGYGNNVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.*50WOKUOCVKM<ÒTKEJ0T

1195



%CTKPWU  $#PVQPKPKCP #PVKQEJKC  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG-CKUGT   GORH·PIV8KEVQTKCXQP,WRKVGT4+% 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1196 1,5:1



1,5:1

 HÒT &KXWU 0KITKPKCPWU “#PVQPKPKCP 4QO  I -QRH T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG#FNGT UVGJV X X   -QRHN%QJ4+% 44#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTXQTTCIGPFGO2QTVT·V  0KITKPKCPWU YCT JÌEJUVYCJTUEJGKPNKEJ FGT 5QJP FGU %CTKPWU WPF FGT /CIPKC7TDKEC'UKUVCNNGTFKPIUPKEJVXÌNNKI CWU\WUEJNKGUUGPFC­GTFGT5QJPFGT2CWNKPCFGT6QEJVGTFGU%CTWUYCT

217


MAXIMIANUS I.

1197



1198

 HÒT /CIPKC 7TDKEC “#PVQPKPKCP .WIFWPWO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO CWH /QPF   UKEJGN8GPWUUVGJVNOKV#RHGNWPF<GRVGT4+% 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



%CTCWUKWU  “#PVQPKPKCP %COWNQFWPWO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG   .CGVKVKCUVGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF#PMGT%QJ4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO-ÌNP0T

1,5:1



1199

1,5:1

&KQENGVKCPWU  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\,WRKVGT UVGJV N OKV   $NKV\WPF<GRVGT%CNKEQ%QJXGTIN4+%p 4)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



,WRKVGTYCTFGTRGTUÌPNKEJG)QVV&KQENGVKCPUFGT-CKUGTNKG­UKEJFGUJCNDCWEJCNU,QXKWUDG\GKEJPGP

1200



1201

Õ#TIGPVGWU  5KUEKC  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KGT -CKUGT QRHGTP XQT /CWGTTKPI   4+%C *GTTNKEJG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0TWPFFGT5COONWPI'IQP$GEMGPDCWGT



Õ#TIGPVGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KGT -CKUGT QRHGTP XQT /CWGTTKPI   4+%C 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9#)&QTVOWPF0T

1,5:1



1202

1,5:1

/CZKOKCPWU+Ô#WTGWU#PVKQEJKCI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ ,WRKVGTUVGJVNOKV$NKV\WPF<GRVGT%CNKEQ4+%XCT 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1

 218

1203

1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU%[\KEWUI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGTUVGJVNOKV)NQDWU%CNKEQ 4+% 448QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 


MAXIMIANUS II. GALERIUS

1204

2:1

2:1



Ô#WTGWU  #PVKQEJKC  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGT UVGJV N OKV )NQDWU WPF   5VCD%CNKEQ4+% 449KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1205



1206

/CZKOKCPWU++)CNGTKWU“(QNNKU.WIFWPWOI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\)GPKWUUVGJVNOKV2CVGTCWPF(ÒNNJQTP4+%D 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



“(QNNKU  6JGUUCNQPKEC  1HHK\KP  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)GPKWU UVGJV N OKV   2CVGTCWPF(ÒNNJQTP4+%D 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1208

1207



“(QNNKU  5KUEKC  1HHK\KP  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)GPKWU UVGJV N OKV 2CVGTC WPF   (ÒNNJQTP4+%D (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





“(QNNKU  5KUEKC  1HHK\KP  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\/QPGVC UVGJV N OKV 9CCIG WPF   (ÒNNJQTP4+%D 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1209

1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô#WTGWU  0KEQOGFKC  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\+P -TCP\ :/#:+/+#0+   #8)5/0%CNKEQ4+% 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  219


LICINIUS I.

1211

1210

1210



“(QNNKU%[\KEWU1HHK\KPI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\/CTUIGJVTOKV5RGGTWPF 6TQRJ·G4+% 9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ





HÒT)CNGTKC8CNGTKC Ô#WTGWU5KUEKCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGOCWH/QPF UKEJGN8GPWUUVGJVNOKV#RHGN%CNKEQ4+%  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV4CPFHGJNGT$TQUEJKGTURWTGPUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



1212

1213



“(QNNKU  %[\KEWU  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO8GPWU UVGJV N OKV #RHGN   4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





5GXGTWU ++  “(QNNKU  6KEKPWO  1HHK\KP  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   2TKP\TGKVGVTOKV5EJKNFWPF5RGGTFCTWPVGT\YGK(GKPFG4+%  #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKV5KNDGTUWF



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1214

1215



/CZKOKPWU++&CKC“(QNNKU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ 5QNUVGJVNOKV5CTCRKUMQRH4+%D (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





/CZGPVKWUHÒT&KXWU4QOWNWU“(QNNKU4QOI-QRHT)TCDOQPWOGPV 4+% 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



/ÌINKEJGTYGKUGKUVFCUCWHFKGUGTWPFFGTHQNIGPFGP/ÒP\GFCTIGUVGNNVGVGORNWOFKXK4QOWNKCNU8QTDCWFGT-KTEJG FGT*N-QUOCUWPF&COKCPWUGTJCNVGPIGDNKGDGP

1216

1217



.KEKPKWU+“(QNNKU5KUEKC1HHK\KPI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\)GPKWU UVGJVNOKV2CVGTCWPF(ÒNNJQTP4+%D 8QT\ÒINKEJ





“(QNNKU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\)NQDWU<GRVGT WPF/CRRC,WRKVGTUVGJVNOKV8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWUWPF<GRVGTFCXQT)GHCPIGPGT4+%  8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

220


CONSTANTINUS I.

3:1

1218



 HÒT .KEKPKWU ++ Ô#WTGWU  0KEQOGFKC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG X X,WRKVGT   UKV\VXXOKV8KEVQTKCWPF<GRVGTN#FNGTOKV-TCP\KO5EJPCDGN%CNKEQ4+%  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

1219

1,5:1



1,5:1

/CTVKPKCPWU  “(QNNKU 0KEQOGFKC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 5VTCJNGPDKPFG   ,WRKVGTUVGJVNOKV8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWUWPF<GRVGTFCXQT#FNGTFCJKPVGT)GHCPIGPGT4+%  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ  /CTVKPKCPWUYCT\WP·EJUVOCIKUVGTQHHKEKQTWOFGU.KEKPKWUFGTKJPPCEJFGT5EJNCEJVXQP#FTKCPQRGNKO,WNK \WO #WIWUVWU GTJQD 0CEJ FGT 0KGFGTNCIG FGU .KEKPKWU KP FGT 5EJNCEJV XQP %JT[UQRQNKU CO  5GRVGODGT    IGTKGVGP.KEKPKWUWPF/CTVKPKCPWUKPFKG)GHCPIGPUEJCHVFGU%QPUVCPVKPWU+FGTUKGYQJNJKPTKEJVGPNKG­

1221

1220

1222

1220



%QPUVCPVKPWU +  “(QNNKU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\4QOC UKV\V X X   OKV)NQDWUWPF<GRVGTKPUGEJUU·WNKIGO6GORGN4+% .GKEJVG2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ



Ô5QNKFWU  6KEKPWO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGT UKV\V N OKV )NQDWU WPF <GRVGT   4+% 44)GUVQRHVGU.QEJHCUVUGJTUEJÌP 



“(QNNKU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5QNUVGJVNOKVGTJQDGPGT4GEJVGPWPF8KEVQ TKCCWH)NQDWU4+% 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 221


CONSTANTINUS I.

1224

1,5:1

1223



1,5:1

1223

Â&#x201C;(QNNKU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I -QRH T OKV 4QUGVVGPFKCFGO8KEVQTKCUVGJVN CWH)CNGGTGOKV\YGK-T·P\GP4+% 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-Ã&#x2019;PMGT1UPCDTÃ&#x2019;EM0T



Ã&#x2022; 5KNKSWC  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I &TCRKGTVG (TCWGPDÃ&#x2019;UVG T OKV &KCFGO- $GPFCNN 5   5QOG EQOOGPVU QP VJG CPQP[OQWU 5KNXGT %QKPCIG QH VJG HQWTVJ VQ UKZVJ %GPVWTKGU #& KP 40   

 6[R 448QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

1226

1227

1225





1225

 HÃ&#x2019;T &KXWU %QPUVCPVKWU + Â&#x201C;(QNNKU  6TGXGTK  'OKUUKQP  I &TCRKGTVG $Ã&#x2019;UVG T OKV   5EJNGKGTWPF.QTDGGTMTCP\#NVCTHNCPMKGTVXQP\YGK#FNGTP4+% $TCWPG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-Ã&#x2019;PMGT1UPCDTÃ&#x2019;EM0T



HÃ&#x2019;T%TKURWUÂ&#x201C;(QNNKU6TGXGTKI)GRCP\GTVG$Ã&#x2019;UVGTOKV*GNO6TQRJ·GFCTWPVGT\YGK )GHCPIGPG4+% 48QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





Â&#x201C;(QNNKU  .QPFKPKWO  I )GRCP\GTVG $Ã&#x2019;UVG N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ 5EJKNF WPF 5RGGT   )NQDWUCWH#NVCTFCTÃ&#x2019;DGTFTGK5VGTPG4+% (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-Ã&#x2019;PMGT1UPCDTÃ&#x2019;EM0T

1228



1230

1229

 HÃ&#x2019;T &GNOCVKWU Â&#x201C;(QNNKU  5KUEKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$Ã&#x2019;UVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ <YGK5QNFCVGPUVGJGPXXOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNFGPFC\YKUEJGPGKPG5VCPFCTVG4+% 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-Ã&#x2019;PMGT1UPCDTÃ&#x2019;EM0T



 HÃ&#x2019;T *GNGPC Â&#x201C;(QNNKU  6TGXGTK  'OKUUKQP  I &TCRKGTVG $Ã&#x2019;UVG T OKV &KCFGO   5GEWTKVCUUVGJVNOKV<YGKI4+% 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





Â&#x201C;(QNNKU6KEKPWOI&TCRKGTVG$Ã&#x2019;UVGTOKV&KCFGO5GEWTKVCUUVGJVNOKV<YGKI4+% 5VGORGNHTKUEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-Ã&#x2019;PMGT1UPCDTÃ&#x2019;EM0T

1231



1232

Â&#x201C;(QNNKU  5KUEKC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $Ã&#x2019;UVG T OKV &KCFGO5GEWTKVCU UVGJV N OKV   <YGKI4+% 5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-Ã&#x2019;PMGT1UPCDTÃ&#x2019;EM0T



 HÃ&#x2019;T (CWUVC Â&#x201C;(QNNKU  5KUEKC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $Ã&#x2019;UVG T5RGU UVGJV X X OKV   \YGK-KPFGTP4+% 5VGORGNHTKUEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-Ã&#x2019;PMGT1UPCDTÃ&#x2019;EM0T

222




CONSTANTIUS II.

1233 1,5:1



1,5:1

%QPUVCPU  Ô5QNKFWU  6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 4QUGVVGPFKCFGO   <YGK8KEVQTKGPJCNVGP5EJKNFOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV816:/8.6:84+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ 

1234 1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô5QNKFWU6TGXGTKI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO<YGK8KEVQTKGPJCNVGP5EJKNF OKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV816:/8.6::4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1235

1,5:1

1,5:1



%QPUVCPVKWU ++  Ô5QNKFWU  #SWKNGKC  I +P -TCP\ &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   4QUGVVGPFKCFGO+P -TCP\ <YGK 8KEVQTKGP JCNVGP 5EJKNF OKV FGT #WHUEJTKHV 816::/8.6:::   2CQNWEEK<WD4+% 4(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

1236 1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô5QNKFWU  6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 4QUGVVGPFKCFGO8KEVQTKC IGJV N OKV   6TQRJ·GWPF2CNO\YGKI4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1237 1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô5QNKFWU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV4QUGVVGPFKCFGO4QOCWPF %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUUKV\GPUKEJIGIGPÒDGTWPFJCNVGP5EJKNFOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV816::/8.6:::4+% 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

223


MAGNENTIUS

1238



1240

1239

Ô5QNKFWU0KMQOGFKC1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF5EJKNF 4QOC WPF %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU UKV\GP UKEJ IGIGPÒDGT WPF JCNVGP 5EJKNF OKV FGT #WHUEJTKHV 816:::    /8.6::::4+% 45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ5KNKSWC  5KTOKWO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO816+5:::/8.6+5    ::::KP-TCP\4+% -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Ô5QNKFWU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF5EJKNF 4QOC WPF %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU UKV\GP UKEJ IGIGPÒDGT WPF JCNVGP 5EJKNF OKV FGT #WHUEJTKHV 816:::   /8.6::::4+% 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1241



1242

1243

HÒT%QPUVCPVKWU)CNNWU“%GPVGPKQPCNKU#NGZCPFTKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT 5QNFCVNGTUVKEJVIGUVÒT\VGP4GKVGT4+% &WPMNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



8GVTCPKQ  “/CKQTKPC  5KUEKC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   -CKUGTUVGJVXXOKV\YGK%JTKUVQITCOOUVCPFCTVGP4+% )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T  8GVTCPKQGKP1HHK\KGTFGU%QPUVCPVKWU++JCVVGUKEJKP2CPPQPKGP\WO#WIWUVWUCWUTWHGPNCUUGPWO\WXGTOGKFGP FC­ FKG $CNMCP2TQXKP\GP CP /CIPGPVKWU HKGNGP #NU %QPUVCPVKWU ++ XQO 2GTUGTHGNF\WI \WTÒEMMGJTVG VTCV GT CP   9GKJPCEJVGP\WTÒEMWPFUVCTDWPDGJGNNKIV



“/CKQTKPC  5KUEKC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\-CKUGT UVGJV N OKV   %JTKUVQITCOOUVCPFCTVGXQP8KEVQTKCDGMT·P\V4+% 2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG 4GXGTUNGIGPFG *1% 5+)01 8+%614 '4+5 DG\KGJV UKEJ CWH FKG CPIGDNKEJG %JTKUVWUGTUEJGKPWPI D\Y   -TGW\GUXKUKQP%QPUVCPVKPUXQTFGT5EJNCEJVCPFGT/KNXKUEJGP$TÒEMG

1244



1245

0GRQVKCPWU“/CKQTKPC4QO1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT4GKVGTUVWT\4+%  44.GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



0GRQVKCPYCTPWT6CIG-CKUGTYCUFKG5GNVGPJGKVUGKPGT2T·IWPIGPGTMN·TV



224

/CIPGPVKWU“/CKQTKPC#SWKNGKCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT-CKUGTTGKVGVTWPF GTUVKEJVIGUVÒT\VGP$CTDCTGP2CQNWEEK<WD4+%  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKV5KNDGTUWFXQT\ÒINKEJ




JOVIANUS

1246 1,5:1



1,5:1

Ô5QNKFWU  6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T8KEVQTKC WPF .KDGTVCU JCNVGP 6TQRJ·G 4+%    8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV(CUUWPIUURWTGPMN-TCV\GTUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  2KGTTG$CUVKGPMQPPVGPWT\YGK'ZGORNCTGFKGUGTUGNVGPGP2T·IWPI $CUVKGP PCEJYGKUGP'KP'ZGORNCTKO(WPF XQP 9GUVGTMCRRGNP $N·VVGT HÒT /ÒP\HTGWPFG    6H    UQYKG FCU 'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI (TCP\   6TCW#WMVKQP)KNJQHGT4CPUEJDWTI#FQNRJ*GUU#)9KGP/CK0T UVGORGNINGKEJOKVWPUGTGO 5VÒEM   2KGTTG $CUVKGP J·NV FKG DGKFGP KJO DGMCPPVGP 5VÒEMG HÒTJ[DTKFG2T·IWPIGPY·JTGPFFGT8GTHCUUGTFGU-CVCNQIGU FGT5COONWPI6TCWFCUFQTVDGUEJTKGDGPG'ZGORNCTHÒTGKPGDCTDCTKUEJG2T·IWPIJ·NV

1,5:1



1247 1,5:1

,WNKCPWU ++ #RQUVCVC  Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG   $ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO5QNFCVOKV6TQRJ·GTNGIV*CPFCWH)GHCPIGPGP4+%  44-N-TCV\GTWPF)TCHHKVKUGJTUEJÌP 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T

1250

1248



1249

“&QRRGNOCKQTKPC  %[\KEWU  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO5VKGT   UVGJVT4+% 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T  &CU/ÒP\DKNFTKGHWPVGTFGTEJTKUVNKEJGP$GXÌNMGTWPIXQP#PVKQEJKCITQ­GP#WHTWJTJGTXQT&KG#PVKQEJGPGTFGW VGVGPFGP5VKGTCNU1RHGTUVKGTUKGJG5\KFCV<WT9KTMWPIWPF#WHPCJOGFGT/ÒP\RTQRCICPFC +WN/KUQRF  KP/WUGWO*GNXGVKEWO  5&CKP#PVKQEJKCGKPG*WPIGTUPQVJGTTUEJVGWPFFGP%JTKUVGPFGT)GPW­ FGU1RHGTHNGKUEJGUFGTKPITQ­GT<CJNIGQRHGTVGP5VKGTGXGTDQVGPYCTKUVKJTGXQO-CKUGTKPUGKPGT5CVKTG/KUQRQ IQP $CTVJCUUGT IGUEJKNFGTVGURÌVVKUEJG4GCMVKQPCWHFKG/ÒP\GPKEJVXÌNNKIWPXGTUV·PFNKEJ&CFGT5VKGTCWEJXQP 5QETCVGU 5EJQNCUVKEWU CNU 1RHGTUVKGT DG\GKEJPGV YKTF JKUV GEEN    WPF FKG ÒDTKIGP &GWVWPIGP FGU 5VKGTGU  

#RKUUVKGT /KVJTCUUVKGT IQNFGPGU -CND RJKNQUQRJKUEJGU 5[ODQN HÒT GKPGP IWVGP -CKUGT WPF <QFKCMCNUVKGT  CWU   XKGNGTNGK)TÒPFGPCWUUEJGKFGPJCPFGNVGUUKEJDGKFGOCWHFGO4GXGTUCDIGDKNFGVGP5VKGTYCJTUEJGKPNKEJVCVU·EJNKEJ WOGKPGP1RHGTUVKGTUKGJG6JQTOCPP<WT&GWVWPIFGU5VKGTGUCWHFGP(QNNGU-CKUGT,WNKCPUKP$TGOGT$GKVT·IG \WT /ÒP\ WPF )GNFIGUEJKEJVG    &KG LÒPIUVG &GWVWPI FGU 5VKGTGU CNU -QP\GRVKQPU\GKEJGP -C[ 'JNKPI KP   ,0)  5   UVGJV KO 9KFGTURTWEJ \WT XQP ,WNKCP XGTVTGVGPGP 2JKNQUQRJKG FGU +CODNKEJQU WPF FGT   EJCNF·KUEJGP1TCMGN



“&QRRGNOCKQTKPC  5KTOKWO  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO5VKGT   UVGJVTFCTÒDGT\YGK5VGTPG4+% -N-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ





,QXKCPWU  Ô5QNKFWU #PVKQEJKC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO   4QOCWPF%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUUKV\GPHCUVXXWPFJCNVGP5EJKNFOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV8168/8.:4+% 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 225


VALENTINIANUS I.

1252

1251



“&QRRGNOCKQTKPC  6JGUUCNQPKEC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGT WPF   4QUGVVGPFKCFGO-CKUGTUVGJVTOKV5VCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU4+% 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





8CNGPVKPKCPWU+Ô5QNKFWU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV 4QUGVVGPFKCFGO-CKUGTUVGJVTOKV-TGW\UVCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWUN-TGW\4+%D  /KPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



1253 1,5:1



Ô5QNKFWU  6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGT UVGJV T OKV %JTKUVQ   ITCOOUVCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU&GRG[TQV4+%C 49KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



1,5:1

1254

1,5:1

Ô5QNKFWU6TGXGTKI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV4QUGVVGPFKCFGO<YGK-CKUGTUKV\GPXX OKV)NQDWUFCJKPVGT8KEVQTKC4+%D 8QT\ÒINKEJ 

1255



Ô5QNKFWU6TGXGTKI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV4QUGVVGPFKCFGO<YGK-CKUGTUKV\GPXX OKV)NQDWUFCJKPVGT8KEVQTKC4+%D 5GJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



1256



1,5:1

Ô5GOKUUKU  6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 4QUGVVGPFKCFGO8KEVQTKC UKV\V T CWH   2CP\GT WPF UEJTGKDV 816:/8.6:: CWH GKPGP XQP GKPGO )GPKWU IGJCNVGPGP 5EJKNF T %JTKUVQ   ITCOO4+%p 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

1257



Õ/KNKCTGPUG NGKEJV  6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG TOKV2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGTUVGJVXX -QRHNOKV5VCPFCTVGWPF5EJKNF4+%C 49KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T

226




GRATIANUS

1258

1,5:1



1,5:1

8CNGPUÔ5QNKFWU5KTOKWOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGTUVGJVXX OKV.CDCTWOWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU4+%D  44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT)QNFVÌPWPI

1259



1260



Ô5QNKFWU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGTUVGJVT OKV%JTKUVQITCOOUVCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU4+%E 9KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO#XGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô5QNKFWU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGTUVGJVT OKV%JTKUVQITCOOUVCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU4+%F 9KP\-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1262

1261





Ô5QNKFWU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGTUVGJVT OKV%JTKUVQITCOOUVCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWUN-TGW\4+%F  9KP\-TCV\GTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



Ô5QNKFWU  6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGT UVGJV T OKV %JTKUVQ   ITCOOUVCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU4+%D  49KP\5EJÒTHUVGNNGCWHFGO4GXGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1263



2TQEQRKWU  “%GPVGPKQPCNKU 0KEQOGFKC  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG N OKV 2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGT   UVGJV X X -QRH T OKV .CDCTWO WPF 5EJKNF QDGP %JTKUVQITCOO WPVGP PKEJV KFGPVKHK\KGTVGU 1DLGMV   4+% 48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\<GPVTWO5QNKPIGP1JNKIU0T

1264

2:1



2:1

)TCVKCPWU  Ô5QNKFWU  6TGXGTK  I & 0 )4#6+#085 2 ( #8) &TCRKGTVG   $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO5#.85  4'+ 2 -CKUGT UVGJV X X -QRH T OKV .CDCTWO WPF 8KEVQTKC CWH   )NQDWU(W­CWH)GHCPIGPGO&GRG[TQV4+%p  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5EJGKPVWPGFKGTV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  227


HONORIUS

1265

1,5:1



1,5:1

/CIPWU /CZKOWU  Ô5QNKFWU 6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 4QUGVVGPFKCFGO   <YGK-CKUGTUKV\GPXXOKV)NQDWUFCJKPVGT8KEVQTKC4+%D 445GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1267

1266



1268

Õ5KNKSWC 6TGXGTK  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO4QOC UKV\V X X OKV )NQDWU WPF   5RGGT4+%D -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



(NCXKWU 8KEVQT  “0WOOWU #SWKNGKC  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO.CIGTVQT \YKUEJGPFGP6ÒTOGP5VGTP4+%D 5GJTUEJÌP





'WIGPKWU  Õ5KNKSWC  /GFKQNCPWO  I  &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO   4QOCUKV\VNCWH2CP\GTOKV8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWUWPF5RGGT4+%E 4'VYCUDGUEJPKVVGPUGJTUEJÌP



0CEJ FGO 6QF FGU 8CNGPVKPKCP ++ GTJQD FGT OCIKUVGT OKNKVWO #TDQICUV 'WIGPKWU \WO #WIWUVWU 'WIGPKWU FGT   GKIGPVNKEJ GKP %JTKUV YCT YCPFVG UKEJ DCNF GKPGT TÌOGTHTGWPFNKEJGP 4GNKIKQPURQNKVKM \W FGT #NVCT FGT 8KEVQTKC   YWTFGKPFKG%WTKC\WTÒEMIGDTCEJV6GORGNYWTFGPYKGFGTIGÌHHPGVTGNKIKÌUG(GUVGIGHGKGTVWPF1RHGTFCTIGDTCEJV OCTUEJKGTVG6JGQFQUKWU+IGIGP'WIGPKWUWPFCO5GRVGODGTVTCHGPUKEJFKG*GGTGCO(TKIKFWU 9KRRCEJ  #TDQICUV NKG­ ,WRKVGTUVCVWGP CWHUVGNNGP FGTGP $NKV\G PCEJ 1UVGP IGTKEJVGV YCTGP CWH FGP 5VCPFCTVGP FGT 6TWRRGP   YWTFGP$KNFGTFGU*GTEWNGUCPIGDTCEJV&GT5EJNCEJVXGTNCWHYCTCOGTUVGP6CIGIÒPUVKIFKG6TWRRGPFGU6JGQFQ UKWUYWTFGPUVCTMFG\KOKGTV0CEJGKPGOXQTCNNGT#WIGPXQNN\QIGPGP)GDGVFGU6JGQFQUKWUDTCEJVGGKP9GVVGTWO UEJYWPI CO  5GRVGODGT FKG9GPFGFKG6TWRRGPFGU'WIGPKWUYWTFGPXGTPKEJVGVGTUGNDUVIGHCPIGPIGPQOOGP WPFIGVÌVGVFGTRTQOKPGPVG5GPCVQTWPF2T·VQTKCPGTRT·HGMV8KTKWU0KEQOCEJWU(NCXKCPWUFGTNKGDGTUVGTDGPYQNNVG CNUUGKPG4QOCPKVCUCWH\WIGDGPY·JNVGFGP(TGKVQF/KVFGO4KPIGPCO(TKIKFWUFCUFGP%JCTCMVGTGKPGU4GNKIK QPUMTKGIGUJCVVGUGV\VGUKEJFCU%JTKUVGPVWOKOTÌOKUEJGP4GKEJRQNKVKUEJGPFIÒNVKIFWTEJ

1269





1270

*QPQTKWUÔ5QNKFWU4CXGPPCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGT UVGJVTOKV5VCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU(W­CWH)GHCPIGPGO4+%  $TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



Ô5QNKFWU4CXGPPCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGTUVGJVTOKV5VCPFCTVG WPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU(W­CWH)GHCPIGPGO4+% -N)TCHHKVKCWHFGO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



228

1271

1,5:1

Õ/KNKCTGPUG NGKEJV  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG N OKV 2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGT   UVGJVXXOKVGTJQDGPGT4GEJVGPWPF)NQDWUN5VGTP4+%  4.GKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCIFGPPQEJUGJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


THEODOSIUS II.

1,5:1



1272 1,5:1

%QPUVCPVKPWU+++Ô5QNKFWU6TGXGTKI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO -CKUGTUVGJVTOKV5VCPFCTVGWPF8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU(W­CWH)GHCPIGPGO4+%  44-N-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



%QPUVCPVKPWU +++ YWTFG  KP $TKVCPPKGP \WO #WIWUVWU GTJQDGP 'T UGV\VG DCNF PCEJ )CNNKGP ÒDGT WPF FGJPVG   UGKPGP 'KPHNW­ CWEJ PCEJ 5RCPKGP CWUGTNCPIVG%QPUVCPVKPWU+++FKG#PGTMGPPWPIFGU*QPQTKWUXGTNQTCNNGT FKPIU $TKVCPPKGP WPF 5RCPKGP  MCO GU \WT #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPI OKV *QPQTKWU  YWTFG %QPUVCPVKPWU +++ KP   UGKPGO*CWRVSWCTVKGTKP#TGNCVGDGNCIGTVWPFHNQJPCEJFGOGKP'PVUCV\JGGTIGUEJNCIGPYQTFGPYCTKPGKPG-KTEJG WPFNGIVGFGP2WTRWTCD&GT'ZMCKUGTYWTFGIGHCPIGPIGPQOOGPWPFPCEJ+VCNKGPIGUCPFVCDGTGTOQTFGVDGXQTGT *QPQTKWUGTTGKEJVG5GKP-QRHYWTFGCDFGO5GRVGODGTKP4CXGPPC\WT5EJCWIGUVGNNV

1273



6JGQFQUKWU ++  Ô6TGOKUUKU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   2GTNFKCFGO8KEVQTKCOKV-TCP\WPF-TGW\INQDWUXXT5VGTP4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1274

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ/KNKCTGPUG NGKEJV   %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG N OKV 2GTNFKCFGO-CKUGT   UVGJVXXOKVGTJQDGPGT4GEJVGPWPF)NQDWUN5VGTP4+% 4#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

1275



1276

Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF 5EJKNF8KEVQTKCUVGJVNOKV-TGW\4+% .GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Ô5QNKFWU6JGUUCNQPKECI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF5EJKNF-CKUGT UVGJVXXOKV.CDCTWOWPF-TGW\INQDWUN5VGTP4+% 45GJTUEJÌP

1277





1278

Ô5QNKFWU6JGUUCNQPKECI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF5EJKNF-CKUGT UVGJVXXOKV.CDCTWOWPF-TGW\INQDWUN5VGTP4+% 45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF 5EJKNF%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUUKV\VNOKV-TGW\INQDWUWPF<GRVGTFCJKPVGT5VGTP4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 229


LEO I.

1279

1280



Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV *GNO 5EJKNF WPF 5RGGT   %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUUKV\VNOKV-TGW\INQDWUWPF<GRVGTN5VGTP4+% (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV *GNO 5RGGT WPF 5EJKNF   %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUUKV\VNOKV-TGW\INQDWUWPF<GRVGTN5VGTP4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1281

1,5:1



1,5:1

8CNGPVKPKCPWU+++HÒT)CNNC2NCEKFKCÔ5QNKFWU4CXGPPCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT OKV2GTNFKCFGOIGMTÌPVXQPFGT*CPF)QVVGU8KEVQTKCUVGJVNOKV.CPIMTGW\QDGP5VGTP4+% 448QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T  #GNKC )CNNC 2NCEKFKC GKPG6QEJVGTFGU6JGQFQUKWU+WPFFGT)CNNCGKPGT*CNDUEJYGUVGTFGT-CKUGT#TECFKWUWPF *QPQTKWUYWTFGWOIGDQTGP+O,CJTGYWTFGUKGXQPFGP)QVGPCNU)GKUGNIGPQOOGPJGKTCVGVG UKGFGP)QVGPMÌPKI#VCWNH0CEJFGUUGP6QF\WP·EJUVYKGFGTGKPG)GKUGNYWTFGUKGIGIGP/QFKK)GVTGKFG XQPFGP$CTDCTGPHTGKIGNCUUGPWPFJGKTCVGVGFGP)GPGTCN%QPUVCPVKWUFGTFGP2WTRWTCPUKEJTK­(ÒTKJTGP 5QJP8CNGPVKPKCPWU+++FGTCNU5GEJUL·JTKIGTFGP6JTQPDGUVKGIHÒJTVGUKG\YÌNH,CJTGNCPIFKG4GIKGTWPIUIG UEJ·HVG +P 4CXGPPC JCV )CNNC 2NCEKFKC XKGNG \WO 6GKN PQEJ JGWVG GTJCNVGPG UCMTCNG $CWVGP GTTKEJVGP NCUUGP 5KG   UVCTDCOKP4QO

1282

2:1



2:1

Ô6TGOKUUKU  !  4CXGPPC  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO%JTKUVQITCOO KP   -TCP\4+% 448QT\ÒINKEJ  &KG&CVKGTWPIFGU5VÒEMGUKUVWOUVTKVVGP9·JTGPFGUNCWV4+%OKVJQJGT9CJTUEJGKPNKEJMGKVWPVGT*QPQTKWUIGRT·IV YWTFGNGIV'IKFKQ4CPKGTKGUKPFKG4GIKGTWPIU\GKVFGU8CNGPVKPKCPWU+++

1283

1284



.GQ+Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV *GNO5RGGTWPF5EJKNF8KEVQTKCUVGJVNOKV.CPIMTGW\FCJKPVGT5VGTP4+% 5GJTUEJÌP





Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF 5EJKNF8KEVQTKCUVGJVNOKV.CPIMTGW\FCJKPVGT5VGTP4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'ORQTKWO*CODWTI0T

230


LOTS / SAMMLUNGEN RÖMISCHER MÜNZEN

1286

1285



Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF 5EJKNF8KEVQTKCUVGJVNOKV.CPIMTGW\FCJKPVGT5VGTP4+%  9KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'ORQTKWO*CODWTI0T





Ô5GOKUUKU %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO8KEVQTKC UKV\V T CWH 2CP\GT   WPFUEJTGKDV:8:::CWH5EJKNFKO(GNFN5VGTPKO(GNFT%JTKUVQITCOO4+% 48QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1,5:1



1287

1,5:1

/CKQTKCPWU  Ô6TGOKUUKU /GFKQNCPWO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV 2GTNFKCFGO-TGW\   KP-TCP\4+% 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

1,5:1



1288

1,5:1

Õ5KNKSWCWPDGUVKOOVGICNNKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV2GTNFKCFGO8KEVQTKC UVGJVNOKV.CPIMTGW\4+%XGTINHH W­GTUVUGNVGP5GJTUEJÌP



&KG2T·IWPIFGTUGNVGPGPICNNKUEJGP*CNDUKNKSWGPFGU/CKQTKCPWUGTHQNIVGOÌINKEJGTYGKUGKO#WHVTCIFGU/CIKUVGT /KNKVWORGT)CNNKCU#GIKFKWU XGTIN4+%:5 

.16570&5#//.70)'04¤/+5%*'4/ª0<'0 

5COONWPI TÌOKUEJGT /ÒP\GP XQP 5GRVKOKWU 5GXGTWU DKU \WO 'PFG FGU 4GKEJGU &KG IGRHNGIVG   5COONWPI GPVJ·NV W C  &GPCTG  #PVQPKPKCPG  5GUVGT\G FKXGTUG UR·VTÌOKUEJG $TQP\GOÒP\GP  

OGKUV (QNNGU GVE  5KNKSWCG GVE )GRHNGIVG 5COONWPI FKG UKEJ FWTEJ \CJNTGKEJG XGTVTGVGPG 4GIGPVGP   0QOKPCNG 4GXGTUOQVKXG GKPKIG XQT\ÒINKEJ GTJCNVGPG 5VÒEMG WPF XQTJCPFGPG $GUVKOOWPIGP FKG 7P   VGTNGI\GVVGN FGU 5COONGTU  OGKUV FKG 1TKIKPCNG FGT (KTOGP DGK FGPGP FKG1DLGMVGGTUVGKIGTVYWTFGP NKGIGPDGK JGTXQTTCIGPFCNU)TWPFUVQEMGKPGT5COONWPIFGTTÌOKUEJGP-CKUGT\GKVCDGTCWEJ\WO#WU DCW GKPGT DGTGKVU DGUVGJGPFGP 5COONWPI GKIPGV *QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU 1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



5COONWPI /ÒP\GP FGT TÌOKUEJGP 4GRWDNKM 'PVJCNVGP UKPF  &GPCTG GKPG &KFTCEJOG FKXGTUG   $TQP\GOÒP\GPGVE8GTVTGVGPUKPFWC%TCYH WPFXKGNGCPFGTGOGJT&WTEJ\CJNTGKEJGXGTVTGVGPG0QOKPCNG&CT UVGNNWPIGP WPF /ÒP\OGKUVGT GKIPGV UKEJ FCU 1DLGMV JGTXQTTCIGPF CNU )TWPFUVQEM GKPGT 5COONWPI XQP   /ÒP\GP FGT TÌOKUEJGP 4GRWDNKM KUV CDGT CWEJ \WO #WUDCW GKPGT DGTGKVU DGUVGJGPFGP 5COONWPI IWV   IGGKIPGV*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP 



5COONWPITÌOKUEJGT/ÒP\GP6GKN+8QPFGTLWNKUEJENCWFKUEJGPDKU\WTGTUVGPHNCXKUEJGP&[PCU VKG &KG 5COONWPI GPVJ·NV W C  &GPCTG W C Z #WIWUVWU 0GTQ OKV 4GXGTU 8GUVCVGORGN Z   8GURCUKCP OKV 4GXGTU +WFCGC GVE  FKXGTUG TGKEJU WPF RTQXKP\KCNTÌOKUEJG $TQP\GOÒP\GP W C GKP   %#5GUVGT\FGU#WIWUVWU\YGK5GUVGT\GPFGU0GTQGKPG2TQXKP\KCNRT·IWPIFGT&QOKVKCGVE *QEJ KPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVFCUFWTEJ\CJNTGKEJGXGTVTGVGPG4GIGPVGP0QOKPCNG/ÒP\UV·VVGPWPF4GXGTUOQ VKXG JGTXQTTCIGPF CNU )TWPFUVQEM GKPGT 5COONWPI XQP /ÒP\GP FGT HTÒJGP -CKUGT\GKV CDGT CWEJ \WO   #WUDCWGKPGTDGTGKVUDGUVGJGPFGP5COONWPIIGGKIPGVKUVWPFWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIVYGTFGPUQNNVG  5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP 



5COONWPI TÌOKUEJGT /ÒP\GP 6GKN ++ #FQRVKXMCKUGT#PVQPKPGP &KG 5COONWPI GPVJ·NV W C    &GPCTG FCTWPVGTCWEJKPVGTGUUCPVG5VÒEMG\$*CFTKCPOKV4GXGTU#GI[RVQU \CJNTGKEJGTGKEJUWPF RTQXKP\KCNTÌOKUEJG $TQP\GOÒP\GP UQYKG YGPKIG RTQXKP\KCNTÌOKUEJG 5KNDGT WPF $KNNQPOÒP\GP &WTEJ   \CJNTGKEJGXGTVTGVGPG4GIGPVGP0QOKPCNG/ÒP\UV·VVGPWPF4GXGTUV[RGPGKIPGVUKEJFCU1DLGMVJGTXQT TCIGPFCNU)TWPFUVQEMGKPGT5COONWPITÌOKUEJGT/ÒP\GPCDGTCWEJ\WO#WUDCWGKPGTDGTGKVUDGUVG JGPFGP5COONWPI*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP  231


LOTS / SAMMLUNGEN RÖMISCHER MÜNZEN 

5COONWPITÌOKUEJGT/ÒP\GP6GKN+++8QO\YGKVGP8KGTMCKUGTLCJTDKU\WO'PFGFGU9GUVTGKEJGU 'PVJCNVGPUKPFWC&GPCTG#PVQPKPKCPGUQYKG\CJNTGKEJGTGKEJUTÌOKUEJG$TQP\GOÒP\GP OGKUV (QNNGUWPF6GKNUVÒEMGCDGTCWEJ5GUVGT\GGVE HGTPGTRTQXKP\KCNTÌOKUEJG)GRT·IGKP5KNDGT$KNNQPWPF $TQP\G&KG5COONWPIDKGVGVGKPGPJGTXQTTCIGPFGPIGUEJKEJVNKEJGPWPFPWOKUOCVKUEJGPªDGTDNKEMÒDGT FKGTÌOKUEJG)GUEJKEJVGCDFGO'PFGFGU\YGKVGP,CJTJWPFGTVUP%JTWPFGKIPGVUKEJFWTEJ\CJNTGKEJG XGTVTGVGPG 4GIGPVGP 0QOKPCNG /ÒP\UV·VVGP WPF 4GXGTUOQVKXG JGTXQTTCIGPF CNU )TWPFUVQEM GKPGT   4ÌOGTUCOONWPI CDGT CWEJ \WO #WUDCW GKPGT DGTGKVU DGUVGJGPFGP 5COONWPI *QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU   1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP 



5COONWPI TGKEJUTÌOKUEJGT $TQP\GOÒP\GP &KG 5COONWPI GPVJ·NV ÒDGTYKGIGPF TGKEJUTÌOKUEJG )G   RT·IG 5GUVGTVKK &WRQPFKK #UUGU GVE  XQP FGT HTÒJGP -CKUGT\GKV DKU KP FCU  ,CJTJWPFGTV P %JT   FCTWPVGT\CJNTGKEJGKPVGTGUUCPVG4GXGTUGQFGTDGUUGTG-CKUGTUQKUV\$GKP5GUVGT\FGU0GTQOKVFGO 4GXGTU &GEWTUKQ GPVJCNVGP &KG JQEJKPVGTGUUCPVG 5COONWPI GKIPGV UKEJ FWTEJ \CJNTGKEJG XGTVTGVGPG   4GIGPVGPWPFGKPKIG5GNVGPJGKVGPJGTXQTTCIGPFCNU)TWPFUVQEMGKPGT5COONWPITÌOKUEJGT$TQP\GOÒP \GPCDGTCWEJ\WO#WUDCWGKPGTDGTGKVUDGUVGJGPFGP5COONWPI$KVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM'KP5VÒEMIGNQEJVUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP 



5COONWPI TÌOKUEJGT /ÒP\GP &KG 5COONWPI GPVJ·NV 2T·IWPIGP XQP FGT 4GRWDNKM DKU %QOOQFWU   GPVJCNVGP UKPF W C  &GPCTG VGKNUCVVTCMVKXGXQT\ÒINKEJG5VÒEMG FKXGTUG&WRQPFKK WC#PVQPKC  #UUGU GVE )GRHNGIVG 5COONWPI FKG UKEJ FWTEJ \CJNTGKEJG XGTVTGVGPG 4GIGPVGP 0QOKPCNG 4GXGTU   OQVKXGGKPKIGXQT\ÒINKEJGTJCNVGPG5VÒEMGWPFXQTJCPFGPG$GUVKOOWPIGP FKG7PVGTNGI\GVVGNFGU5COONGTU OGKUVFKG1TKIKPCNGFGT(KTOGPDGKFGPGPFKG1DLGMVGGTUVGKIGTVYWTFGPNKGIGPDGK JGTXQTTCIGPFCNU )TWPFUVQEMGKPGT5COONWPIFGTTÌOKUEJGP-CKUGT\GKVCDGTCWEJ\WO#WUDCWGKPGTDGTGKVUDGUVGJGPFGP 5COONWPIGKIPGV*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



5COONWPI TÌOKUEJGT &GPCTG FGT -CKUGT\GKV 'PVJCNVGP UKPF W C #WIWUVWU %NCWFKWU OKV#ITKRRKPC

UWDCGTCV  Z 6KDGTKWU 0GTQ )CNDC 1VJQ 8KVGNNKWU Z #GNKWU 2GTVKPCZ GVE *QEJKPVGTGUUCPVG   5COONWPI FKG UKEJ JGTXQTTCIGPF CNU )TWPFUVQEM GKPGT 5COONWPI TÌOKUEJGT &GPCTG CDGT CWEJ \WO   #WUDCWGKPGTDGTGKVUDGUVGJGPFGP5COONWPIGKIPGV$KVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP 



4ÌOKUEJG/ÒP\GPFGT-CKUGT\GKV'PVJCNVGPUKPFCEJV&GPCTG WC#WIWUVWU8KVGNNKWU 5GUVGT\G

WC0GTQ6TCKCP GVE+PVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM$TQP\GOÒP\GP\WO6GKNÒDGTCTDGKVGVOGKUVUGJTUEJÌP





5COONWPI&GPCTGFGTTÌOKUEJGP4GRWDNKM&KG5COONWPIGPVJ·NV&GPCTGFGTTÌOKUEJGP4GRWDNKM W C %TCYH          GVE 5GJT KPVGTGUUCPVGU   1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP 



4GRWDNKM.QVXQP&GPCTGPFGTTÌOKUEJGP4GRWDNKM+PVGTGUUCPVGU.QVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





5COONWPI TÌOKUEJGT /ÒP\GP 'PVJCNVGP UKPF  #PVQPKPKCPG FCWPVGT CWEJ UGNVGPGTG 4GIGPVGP  

/CTKPKCPC /CTKWU %CTCWUKWU #NNGEVWU /CIPKC 7TDKEC GVE  GKP (QNNKU FGT )CNGTKC 8CNGTKC GKPG   *GOKFTCEJOGFGU*CFTKCPGKPG5KNKSWCFGU%QPUVCPVKWU++UQYKGGKPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGT%GPVKOG  5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



)GOKUEJVGU.QVOGKUVTÌOKUEJGT/ÒP\GP'PVJCNVGPUKPFWC&GPCTGXQPFGT4GRWDNKMDKUKPFCU FTKVVG,CJTJWPFGTVP%JTGKP#TIGPVGWUFKXGTUGITKGEJKUEJGTÌOKUEJGD[\CPVKPKUEJGWPFQTKGPVCNKUEJG $TQP\GOÒP\GPGVE*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



5GUVGT\G6KVWUHÒT&QOKVKNNC GZ2GWU0CEJH0T &QOKVKCP#GNKWU GTYQTDGPDGKO'ORQ TKWO*CODWTIDGKFGUVCTMÒDGTCTDGKVGV   5VÒEMªDGTCTDGKVGV \WO6GKNUVCTM UQPUVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



.QVTÌOKUEJGT/ÒP\GP&CU.QVGPVJ·NVUGEJUVGKNUTGEJVJÒDUEJG&GPCTGFGTTÌOKUEJGP4GRWDNKMGKPG &TCEJOGFGU#WIWUVWU -TCIQU.[EKC GKPGCNGZCPFTKPKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOGUQYKGFKXGTUGUR·VTÌOKUEJG WPFD[\CPVKPKUEJG(QNNGU 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



5COONWPI TÌOKUEJGT /ÒP\GP &KG 5COONWPI GPVJ·NV W C  &GPCTG XQP FGT 4GRWDNKM DKU KP FCU   FTKVVG,CJTJWPFGTVP%JTXKGT#PVQPKPKCPGUQYKGXKGT$TQP\GOÒP\GP WC#UFGU0GTQ +PVGTGUUCPVGU 1DLGMVOKVSWCNKVCVKXCPURTGEJGPFGP5VÒEMGPDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



.QVTÌOKUEJGT/ÒP\GP'PVJCNVGPUKPFWC\YGK&GPCTG WC.WETGVKWU6TKQ%TCYH WPFGKPG $TQP\GOÒP\GFGTTÌOKUEJGP4GRWDNKMGKPGCNGZCPFTKPKUEJG6GVTCFTCEJOGFGU0GTQ 4GXGTU5EJKHH GKP #PVQPKPKCP WPF GKP &QRRGNUGUVGT\ FGU 2QUVWOWU DGKFG 4GXGTU 0CXKU .WUQTKC  GVE 5GJT KPVGTGUUCPVGU   1DLGMVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



.QV TÌOKUEJGT /ÒP\GP &CU KPVGTGUUCPVG .QV GPVJ·NV GKPGP &GPCT FGU /CTEWU #PVQPKWU GKPG 6GVTC   FTCEJOGFGU#WIWUVWUGKPGP&GPCTFGU6TCKCPWUGKPGP5GUVGT\FGU)QTFKCPWU+++WPFGKPGP-NGKPHQNNKU 5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



.QV TÌOKUEJGT /ÒP\GP 'PVJCNVGP UKPF \YGK &GPCTG 6TCKCP (CWUVKPC HKNKC  GKP 5GUVGT\ FGU 5GXGTWU   #NGZCPFGT GKP JÒDUEJGT #PVQPKPKCP FGU 2TQDWU GKPG CNGZCPFTKPKUEJG 6GVTCFTCEJOG FGU 2TQDWU UQYKG   GKPKPVGTGUUCPVGT-NGKPHQNNKU 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP

















232


WESTGOTEN

8¤.-'49#0&'470)

1308

1309

8#0&#.'0 

6JTCUCOWPF  Õ &GPCTKK %CTVJCIQ  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO-TCP\   FCTKP&0ÒDGT.*CJP/+$C 5GJTUEJÌP





*KNFGTKEJ  Õ &GPCTKK %CTVJCIQ  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO%CTVJCIQ UVGJV   XXOKVJTGP*CJP/+$ 44(GKPG2CVKPCOKPMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



1310

1,5:1

1,5:1

9'56)16'0 

#PQP[OÔ6TGOKUUKUKO0COGPFGU#PCUVCUKWU+0CTDQPPG ! I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KC FGO8KEVQTKCIGJVTOKV-TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKI6QOCUKPK)TWRRG#  )1.&#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

1,5:1



1311

1,5:1

.GQXKIKNF  Ô6TGOKUUKU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO8KEVQTKC IGJV T %08 p   /KNGUp2NKGIQp 8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\-TCV\GTUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1313

1312





5KUGPCPFWU  Ô6TGOKUUKU +URCNK I$GKFGTUGKVU$ÒUVGXX%08p 6[R /KNGUp

6[R 2NKGIQp 6[R  5GJTUGNVGPG8CTKCPVG8QT\ÒINKEJ



5GJTUGNVGPG8CTKCPVGOKV5+5'0#&854'CWHFGO#XGTU



Ô6TGOKUUKU'OGTKVCI$GKFGTUGKVU$ÒUVGXX%086[R/KNGU6[R2NKGIQ6[R .GKEJVGT5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ 8CTKCPVGOKV2WPMVCO#PHCPIFGT#XGTUNGIGPFG

1,5:1





1314 1,5:1

'IKEC  OKV 9KVK\\C 'N6TGOKUUKU #EEK  I $GKFGT $ÒUVGP GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT FC\YK   UEJGP-TGW\/QPQITCOO%08p/KNGUp2NKGIQp  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5EJGKPVWPGFKGTV-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ  233


LANGOBARDEN

1315

1,5:1

1,5:1



'N6TGOKUUKU %CGUCTCWIWUVC  I $GKFGT $ÒUVGP GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT FC\YKUEJGP -TGW\/QPQ   ITCOO%086[R/KNGU6[R2NKGIQ6[R 44-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1316

1318

1317

1317

156)16'0 

6JGQFGTKEJ  “ 0WOOK 4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT 4QOC T OKV *GNO#FNGT   UVGJVN-QRHT*CJP/+$D-TCWU SWCUKpCWVQPQO /GVNKEJC  &WPMGNITÒPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





“0WOOK4QO1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT4QOCTOKV*GNO#FNGTUVGJVN-QRHT *CJP/+$C-TCWU SWCUKpCWVQPQO /GVNKEJD #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





“0WOOK4QO1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT4QOCTOKV*GNO#FNGTUVGJVN-QRHT *CJP/+$C-TCWU SWCUKpCWVQPQO /GVNKEJD 5GJTUEJÌP



1,5:1



1319

1,5:1

#VJCNCTKEJ  Õ 5KNKSWC OKV 0COGP +WUVKPKCPWU +  4CXGPPC  I &TCRKGTVG   $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO+P -TCP\ & 0#6*#.#4+%854+: *CJP /+$  -TCWU  /GVNKEJ    8QT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1

1320



1,5:1

.#0)1$#4&'0 

$'0'8'06)KUWNHQ++'N5QNKFWUPCEJ6[RFGU#PCUVCUKWU++#TVGOKWUI$ÒUVGXX OKV -TQPG -TGW\INQDWU WPF #MCMKC-TGW\ CWH XKGT 5VWHGP N TGEJVG *CPF %0+ :8+++ 5    

FQTVWPVGT+PVGTTGIPQ )TKGTUQP$NCEMDWTPp 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0#%/KNCPQ0T  &KG·W­GTUVUGNVGPGP5VÒEMGOKVFGT*CPFCPUVGNNGFGUFGP0COGPFGU*GT\QIUCP\GKIGPFGP$WEJUVCDGPUUKPFVGKN YGKUGOKVFGT'KPUGV\WPI)KUWNHU++FWTEJ-ÌPKI.KWVRTCPFKO,CJTG %CIKCVK VGKNYGKUGOKVFGOMWT\GP+PVGT TGIPWO PCEJ FGT 0KGFGTUEJNCIWPI FGU #WHUVCPFGU XQP *GT\QI .KWVRTCPF KO ,CJTG  5CODQP %0+  KP 8GTDKP   FWPIIGDTCEJVYQTFGP9CTYKEM9TQVJJ·NVGUHÒTYCJTUEJGKPNKEJFC­FKGUG5VÒEMGXQTFGP2T·IWPIGP)KUWNHU++ OKV FGO IG·PFGTVGP #XGTUV[ROKVFGT#MCMKCKPFGTNKPMGP*CPFFGUD[\CPVKPKUEJGP-CKUGTUIGRT·IVYQTFGPUKPF 'PVUEJGKFGPFUKPFHÒT9TQVJGKPGTUGKVUFKG#XGTUNGIGPFGPFKGFGPGPCWHFGP5QNKFK)KUWNHU++·JPGNPUQYKGUVKNKUVK UEJG'TY·IWPIGP&KGUG#TIWOGPVGFGPGPCWEJ9#1FF[HQNIV #PCN[UKUQHVJG)QNF%QKPCIGQH$GPGXGPVWO KP0%5 UKPFÒDGT\GWIGPF

234


JUSTINUS II.

1,5:1

1321

1,5:1

(4#0-'0 

#PQP[O Õ 5KNKSWC KO 0COGP FGU 8CNGPVKPKCPWU +  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV &KCFGO   4QOCUKV\VNOKV8KEVQTKCWPF.CPIMTGW\<WT8QTNCIGUKGJG.CHCWTKGKP/GNCPIGU$CUVKGP2N 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV)GNQEJVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



1322

#010;/ 

Ô6TGOKUUKUKO0COGPFGU#PCUVCUKWU+I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO8KEVQTKCIGJVTOKV -TCP\WPF2CNO\YGKIFCJKPVGT/6QOCUKPK 44-N-TCV\GTOKPIGYGNNVUQPUVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



5#//.70)156)16+5%*'4$410<'/ª0<'0 

5COONWPI OGKUVQUVIQVKUEJGT$TQP\GOÒP\GP'PVJCNVGPUKPFWC/GVNKEJDGVE+PVGTGU UCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP'KP5VÒEMIGNQEJVUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



$;<#06+0+5%*'/ª0<'0

1324

1325

$;<#0< 



#PCUVCUKWUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXX OKV *GNO 5RGGT WPF 5EJKNF8KEVQTKC UVGJV N OKV %JTKUVQITCOOUVCD FCXQT 5VGTP &1%  L 5GCT    -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



+WUVKPKCPWU +  Ô5QNKFWU  4QO  1HHK\KP  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV   *GNO 5EJKNF WPF -TGW\INQDWU'PIGN UVGJV X X OKV %JTKUVQITCOOUVCD WPF -TGW\INQDWU T UGEJU   UVTCJNKIGT5VGTP&1% QJPGFKGUG1HHK\KP 5GCT 44)GYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



1326 1327

1328



Õ5KNKSWC4CXGPPCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO+P-TCP\-TGW\CWH)NQDWU&1% 5GCT 9KP\5EJÒTHURWTUGJTUEJÌP





+WUVKPWU ++  Ô5QNKFWU %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV   *GNO8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWUWPF5EJKNF%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUUKV\VXXOKV<GRVGTWPF-TGW\INQDWU&1%D 5GCT (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO8KEVQTKCCWH)NQDWU WPF5EJKNF%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUUKV\VXXOKV<GRVGTWPF-TGW\INQDWU&1%I5GCT 5GJTUEJÌP

 235


HERACLIUS UND HERACLIUS CONSTANTINUS

1329



1330

6KDGTKWU++%QPUVCPVKPWUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP \GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV -TQPG -TGW\INQDWU WPF 5EJKNF-TGW\ CWH XKGT 5VWHGP &1%  J 5GCT    8QT\ÒINKEJ



/CWTKEKWU 6KDGTKWU  Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I )GRCP\GTVG   $ÒUVG X X OKV *GNO WPF -TGW\INQDWU'PIGN UVGJV X X OKV %JTKUVQITCOOUVCD WPF -TGW\INQDWU   &1%K5GCT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



1331

1,5:1



1,5:1

Õ5KNKSWC%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV&KCFGO-TGW\&1%5GCT  442T·IGUEJY·EJGPUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



1332

1,5:1



1,5:1

2JQECUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI-QPUWNCTDÒUVGXXOKV/CRRC WPF -TGW\ CWH )NQDWU'PIGN UVGJV X X OKV %JTKUVQITCOOUVCD WPF -TGW\INQDWU &1%  QJPG FKGUG   1HHK\KP 5GCT 448QT\ÒINKEJ 

1333

1335

1334



1334

*GTCENKWU  WPF *GTCENKWU %QPUVCPVKPWU Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP   I$GKFGT$ÒUVGPXXOKVXGT\KGTVGP-TQPGP-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%G5GCT  -N)TCHHKVQCWHFGO4GXGTUXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



“(QNNKU  5GNGWEKC +UCWTKCG  1HHK\KP  I <YGK -CKUGTUVGJGPXX9GTV&1% 5GCT 445GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





OKV*GTCENKWU%QPUVCPVKPWUWPF*GTCENQPCUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI &TGK -CKUGT UVGJGP X X-TGW\ CWH FTGK 5VWHGP N *GTCENKWU/QPQITCOO &1%  F 5GCT    8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\GP/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF)OD*5VWVVICTV0T

236


CONSTANS II.

1336



1338

1337

1339

Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I &TGK -CKUGT UVGJGP X X-TGW\ CWH FTGK   5VWHGPN*GTCENKWU/QPQITCOO&1% QJPGFKGUG1HHK\KP 5GCT  /KPIGYGNNVMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I &TGK -CKUGT UVGJGP X X-TGW\ CWH FTGK   5VWHGP\YKUEJGP*GTCENKWU/QPQITCOOWPF'&1%D5GCT  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





%QPUVCPU++Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGXX OKV-TQPGWPF-TGW\INQDWU-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%H5GCT (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV-TQPGWPF-TGW\ INQDWU-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%p5GCT# QJPGFKGUG1HHK\KP  448QT\ÒINKEJ





1341

1340 1,5:1



Õ*GZCITCOO%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV-TQPGWPF-TGW\INQDWU -TGW\CWH)NQDWUÒDGTFTGK5VWHGP&1%5GCT 5GJTUEJÌP





Ô5QNKFWU \W  5KNKSWCG  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV   -TQPGWPF-TGW\INQDWU-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGPT5VGTP&1%C5GCT  44.GKEJVG2T·IGUEJY·EJGPCO4CPF5VGORGNINCP\



1343 1342



1344

WPF%QPUVCPVKPWU+8Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI$GKFGT$ÒUVGPXX FCTÒDGT-TGW\-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%H5GCT  )TCHHKVQCWHFGO4GXGTUMN2TÒHUVGNNGCO4CPFIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP%0).CPECUVGT0T



Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI$GKFGT$ÒUVGPXXFCTÒDGT-TGW\-TGW\ CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%L5GCT 5VGORGNINCP\





OKV%QPUVCPVKPWU+8*GTCENKWUWPF6KDGTKWUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KP I$GKFGT$ÒUVGPXXFCTÒDGT-TGW\-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2TKP\GP&1%K 5GCT 42T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T

237


LEONTIUS

1345

1,5:1



1,5:1

+WUVKPKCPWU ++  4GIKGTWPI  Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I   $ÒUVG%JTKUVKXX-CKUGTUVGJVXXOKV-TGW\CWH\YGK5VWHGPWPF#MCMKC&1%F5GCT  44.GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  &KGGTUVG%JTKUVWUFCTUVGNNWPICWHGKPGT/ÒP\G

1,5:1



1346

1,5:1

Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I $ÒUVG %JTKUVK X X-CKUGT UVGJV X X OKV   -TGW\CWH\YGK5VWHGPWPF#MCMKC&1%G5GCT 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1347



Ô5GOKUUKU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I $ÒUVG %JTKUVK X X-CKUGT UVGJV X X OKV -TGW\ CWH   )NQDWUWPF#MCMKC&1%5GCT 4.GKEJVG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1



1348



1,5:1

.GQPVKWUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI$ÒUVGXXOKV-TQPG#MCMKCWPF -TGW\INQDWU-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%G5GCT  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÒEM(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



&GT+UCWTKGT.GQPVKWUJCVVGWPVGTUGKPGP8QTI·PIGTPGKPGIN·P\GPFGOKNKV·TKUEJG-CTTKGTGIGOCEJVWPFKPUDGUQPFGTG FKG #TCDGT OGJTHCEJ IGUEJNCIGP  OCEJVG LGFQEJ +WUVKPKCPWU ++ .GQPVKWU HÒT FKG 0KGFGTNCIG DGK 5GDCUVQRQNKU   XGTCPVYQTVNKEJWPFNKG­KJPGKPMGTMGTP+PFGPHQNIGPFGP,CJTGPXGTUEJNGEJVGTVGUKEJFKGOKNKV·TKUEJG.CIGFGU4GK EJGUWPFYWTFG.GQPVKWUDGHTGKVWPF\WO5VTCVGIQUXQP*GNNCUGTPCPPV'TQTICPKUKGTVGOKVITQ­GT7PVGTUVÒV \WPIGKPG4GDGNNKQPIGIGP+WUVKPKCPWU++WPFUGV\VGKJPCD0CEJFGOFKG#TCDGT-CTVJCIQGKPPGJOGPMQPPVGP WPFFKGOKVFGT4ÒEMGTQDGTWPIDGVTCWVGP6TWRRGPGTHQNINQUDNKGDGPMCOGU\WGKPGT4GXQNVGFKG\WT#DUGV\WPI FGU.GQPVKWUHÒJTVG

1,5:1

 238

1349

1,5:1

Ô5QNKFWU %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I $ÒUVG X X OKV -TQPG #MCMKC WPF -TGW\INQDWU   -TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%G5GCT 4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 


CONSTANTINUS VII.

1,5:1



1350

1,5:1

Ô5GOKUUKU %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I $ÒUVG X X OKV -TQPG WPF -TGW\INQDWU-TGW\ CWH )NQDWU   &1%5GCT 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

1351



6KDGTKWU +++  Ô5QNKFWU %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV   -TQPG5RGGTWPF5EJKNF-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%I5GCT  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI9KP\5EJÒTHURWTGPUQPUVHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

1,5:1



1352



1,5:1

2JKNKRRKEWUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GMTÌPVG$ÒUVGXXKO.QTQU OKV-TGW\INQDWUWPF#FNGT\GRVGT-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%J5GCT  4-N2TÒHURWTCO4CPFUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



2JKNKRRKEWUYWTFGGKPKIG/QPCVGXQTFGT'TOQTFWPIFGU+WUVKPKCPWU++KP%JGTUQPGUUQU\WO-CKUGTCWUIGTWHGP'T YCT GKP #PJ·PIGT FGU /QPQVJGNGVKUOWU GKPGT EJTKUVQNQIKUEJGP .GJTG PCEJ FGT %JTKUVWU \YGK 0CVWTGP CDGT PWT   GKPGP9KNNGPJCV&KG2TQRCIKGTWPIFKGUGT.GJTGFKGCWHFGO-QP\KNXQP%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUCNU*·TGUKGXGT WTVGKNV YQTFGP YCT DGUEJYQT PGWGP TGNKIKÌUGP 7PHTKGFGP JGTCWH 2CRUV %QPUVCPVKP   YGKIGTVG UKEJ FGP   PGWGP-CKUGTCP\WGTMGPPGP#O,WPKYWTFG2JKNKRRKEWUCDIGUGV\VIGDNGPFGVWPFKPU'ZKNIGUEJKEMV#O ,CPWCTUVCTDFGT'ZMCKUGTUGKP)TCDHKPFGVUKEJKO-NQUVGT&CNOCVQK

1353



1354

.GQ+8OKV%QPUVCPVKPWU8+Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI$GKFG-CKUGT UKV\GP X X FCTÒDGT -TGW\$ÒUVGP .GQU +++ WPF %QPUVCPVKPU 8 X X FCTÒDGT -TGW\ &1%    5GCT 45GJTUEJÌP



$CUKNKWU+WPF%QPUVCPVKPWUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI%JTKUVWUVJTQPV XXFCTÒDGT-TGW\$GKFGT$ÒUVGPXXOKV2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\&1%5GCT  )TCHHKVQNGKEJVDGUEJPKVVGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GUU&KXQ<ÒTKEJ0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

1355

1356



%QPUVCPVKPWU 8++  WPF 4QOCPWU ++ Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I $ÒUVG   %JTKUVKXX$GKFGT$ÒUVGPXXOKV2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\&1%5GCT 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I $ÒUVG %JTKUVK X X$GKFGT $ÒUVGP X X OKV 2CVTKCT   EJGPMTGW\&1%5GCT 5GJTUEJÌP

 239


LOTS BYZANTINISCHER MÜNZEN

1357



1358

1360

1359

0KEGRJQTWU ++  Õ/KNKCTGUKQP %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I /GFCKNNQPDÒUVG X X CWH -TGW\   (ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHV&1%5GCT 5GJTUEJÌP



,QJCPPGU +  Ô*KUVCOGPQP  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I $ÒUVG %JTKUVK X X/CTKC   MTÌPVFGP-CKUGTFGTGKP2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\J·NVQDGPFKG*CPF)QVVGU&1%5GCT  4.GKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGP ! UGJTUEJÌP





Õ/KNKCTGUKQP%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI/GFCKNNQPDÒUVGXXCWH-TGW\(ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHV&1% 5GCT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCNGKEJVDGUEJPKVVGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Õ/KNKCTGUKQP%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI/GFCKNNQPDÒUVGXXCWH-TGW\(ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHV&1% 5GCT 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T  &CVKGTWPIPCEJ(ÒGI(TCP\%QTRWUQHVJG0QOKUOCVCHTQO#PCUVCUKWU++VQ,QJP+KP%QPUVCPVKPQRNG

1362

1361





1361

$CUKNKWU ++  WPF %QPUVCPVKPWU 8+++ Õ/KNKCTGUKQP  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I   $GKFGT $ÒUVGP X X FC\YKUEJGP -TGW\ CWH )NQDWU ÒDGT XKGT 5VWHGP(ÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV &1%    5GCT 4-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



4QOCPWU +++  Ô*KUVCOGPQP %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I %JTKUVWU VJTQPV X X/CTKC   MTÌPV-CKUGT&1%5GCT 45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT.CIGTNKUVG(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1363

1364



/KEJCGN8++WPF/CTKC'N6GVCTVGTQP%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI$ÒUVGFGT/WVVGTIQVVGU X X FCXQT FGT PKODKGTVG %JTKUVWU$ÒUVGP FGU -CKUGTU WPF FGT -CKUGTKP X X OKV -TGW\ &1%   5GCT 4GUVCWTKGTVGT5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP





Õ/KNKCTGUKQP %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I $GKFGT $ÒUVG X X FC\YKUEJGP -TGW\(ÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV   &1%5GCT $GUEJPKVVGPUGJTUEJÌP



.165$;<#06+0+5%*'4/ª0<'0 

5COONWPID[\CPVKPKUEJGT/ÒP\GP&KGKPVGTGUUCPVG5COONWPIGPVJ·NVD[\CPVKPKUEJG$TQP\GOÒP \GP OGKUV (QNNGU WPF 6GKNUVÒEMG  XQP #PCUVCUKWU + DKU \WO  ,CJTJWPFGTV P %JT GKP*[RGTR[TQP FGU /KEJCGN 8+++ UQYKG GKPG CTOGPKUEJG $TQP\GOÒP\G WPF \YGK &GPCTG FGU (ÒTUVGPVWOU #PVKQEJKC   *QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





.QV D[\CPVKPKUEJGT /ÒP\GP 'PVJCNVGP UKPF \YGK 5QNKFK +WUVKPKCPWU + (QECU  \YGK 6TGOKUUGU  

+WUVKPWU++WUVKPKCPWU+ FTGK(QNNGUWPFGKP&GMCPWOOKQP 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP





.QV OGKUV D[\CPVKPKUEJGT )QNFOÒP\GP &CU .QV GPVJ·NV PGDGP D[\CPVKPKUEJGP )GRT·IGP CWEJ GKPGP   5VCVGT #NGZCPFGTU FGU )TQ­GP YGPKIG 5R·VTÌOGT WPF XGPG\KCPKUEJG <GEEJKPGP <WUCOOGP  I   +PVGTGUUCPV\GU.QVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM/GKUVIGNQEJVQFGTOKVCPFGTGP/·PIGNPUQPUVOGKUVUGJTUEJÌP 

240


JOHANNITER AUF RHODOS

-4'7<(#*4'4

1369

1368

,'475#.'/-¤0+)4'+%* 

#PQP[O'N&KPCTPCEJHCVKOKFKUEJGO6[R#N#OKTU6[TQU ! I/CNNQ[XGTIN  .GKEJVGT$WIUGJTUEJÌP



%*+15 

(KNKRRQ/CTKC8KUEQPVKÔ<GEEJKPGPCEJXGPG\KCPKUEJGO6[RI(D )CODGTKPK.WPCTFK5/C\CTCMKU 42T·IGUEJY·EJGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1370



1371

/;6+.'0' 



&QOGPKEQ %CVVCPGQ  <GEEJKPG PCEJ XGPG\KCPKUEJGO 6[R  I DE%2 =? N 5 /   8'0'6+ WPVGT FGT (CJPG &8: &QOGPKEQ MPKGV N XQT *GKNKIGO OKV (CJPG%JTKUVWU KP /CPFQTNC   )CODGTKPKp.WPCTFKp5EJNWODGTIGTp 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV-PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP



)KCEQOQ )CVVKNWUKQ  <GEEJKPG PCEJ XGPG\KCPKUEJGO 6[R  I (D  )CODGTKPK    .WPCTFK)XCT 45GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1374 1372

1373

(1).+#8'%%*+# 2*1%#'#  

&QTKPQ)CVVKNWUKQÔ<GEEJKPGPCEJXGPG\KCPKUEJGO6[RI(D)CODGTKPK .WPCTFK&/GVECNHwXGTIN (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô<GEEJKPGPCEJXGPG\KCPKUEJGO6[RI(D)CODGTKPK.WPCTFK&/GVECNHwXGTIN (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



)QUFCPVKP +  -W-CTFG\ 5KU  I -ÌPKI UVGJV X X OKV 5EJYGTV WPF -TGW\-TGW\   $GFQWMKCPHH 44$TCWPITÒPG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



#4/'0+'0



1375

1376

,1*#00+6'4#7(4*1&15 

*GNKQP FG 8KNNGPGWXG  Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\   -TGW\/GVECNHwHH5EJNWODGTIGT2N+: 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\-TGW\ /GVECNHw  HH 5EJNWO   DGTIGT2N+: 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

241


JOHANNITER AUF RHODOS

1378

1377



Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\-TGW\ /GVECNHw  HH 5EJNWO   DGTIGT2N+: 4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPC



Õ#URGT  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\-TGW\ /GVECNHw  5EJNWODGTIGT   2N+: 44)GNQEJVUQPUVCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



1380

1379



&KGWFQPP¾ XQP )Q\Q  Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\   -TGW\/GVECNHw5EJNWODGTIGT2N+: 44-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\-TGW\ /GVECNHw  H 5EJNWO   DGTIGT2N+: 44-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5NIFG9KV#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1382

1381



2KGTTG FG %QTPGKNNCP  Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\   -TGW\/GVECNHw5EJNWODGTIGT2N+: 445GJTUEJÌP



4QIGT FG 2KPU  Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\-TGW\   $GEMGPDCWGTXGTIN/GVECNHwXGTIN -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5NIFG9KV#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



1383



1384

1385

Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\ FCJKPVGT 2[T-TGW\ /GVECNHw   p5EJNWODGTIGT2N+: 8QT\ÒINKEJ





Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\ FCJKPVGT 2[T-TGW\ /GVECNHw   p5EJNWODGTIGT2N+: -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4C[OQPF $¾TGPICT  Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\   -TGW\$GEMGPDCWGTpXGTINHH/GVECNHwHH 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5NIFG9KV#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

242


JOHANNITER AUF RHODOS

1386

1387

1387



Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\-TGW\ $GEMGPDCWGT p XGTIN    /GVECNHwHH 5GJTUEJÌP



2D5KGIGN Q , 4#+/80&85 %85615 *152+6#.' &' +'485#.' )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV T OKV   GTJQDGPGP *·PFGP XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\*1=52+6?#.' &' *+'485#.'/ -TCPMGT NKGIV WPVGT   .CVGTPGKP-KTEJGPIGD·WFG *QURKVCN OOI  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTIWVGTJCNVGPGUUR·VOKVVGNCNVGTNKEJGU5KGIGN 



&KG8QTFGTUGKVGFGUXQTNKGIGPFGP$NGKUKGIGNUPGPPVFGP0COGP4#+/8&85%85615KPFGT7OUEJTKHVHÒTFGPCNU )TQ­OGKUVGTFGU,QJCPPKVGTQTFGPUPWT4C[OQPF$¾TGPIGT  KP(TCIGMQOOV(TCVGT4C[OQPF$¾TGPIGT YCT FGT  )TQ­OGKUVGT FGU ,QJCPPKVGTQTFGPU CWH 4JQFQU 5GKPG IGPCWG *GTMWPHV WPF (COKNKGPCDUVCOOWPI UKPF   WPMNCT'TUVOCNUGTUEJGKPVGTWTMWPFNKEJCNU5VGNNXGTVTGVGTUGKPGU#OVUXQTI·PIGTU4QIGTFG2KPU  )TQ ­GP4WJOGTYCTDGTUKEJKO-CORHIGIGPFKG/WUNKOG-WT\PCEJUGKPGT+PXGUVKVWTFWTEJ2CRUV7TDCP8    UEJNQUU GT GKP $ÒPFPKU OKV -ÌPKI 2GVGT + XQP <[RGTP   IGIGP FKG /COGNWMGP /KV GKPGT (NQVVG   XQP  5EJKHHGP WPF OGJT CNU  5QNFCVGP GTQDGTVG -ÌPKI 2GVGT CO  1MVQDGT  #NGZCPFTKC Y·JTGPF   4C[OQPF$¾TGPIGT4JQFQUIGIGPGKPGP#PITKHHFGT6ÒTMGPXGTVGKFKIVG'UHQNIVGPYGKVGTG/KNKV·TGZRGFKVKQPGPPCEJ 6TKRQNKU WPF 6CTVWU 5[TKGP  DGXQT KJP 2CRUV )TGIQT :+   CNU 0WPVKWU PCEJ <[RGTP GPVUCPFVG WOFKG 0CEJHQNIGFGUGTOQTFGVGP-ÌPKIU2GVGT+\WTGIGNP0QEJKOJQJGP#NVGTUGV\VGUKEJ4C[OQPF$¾TGPIGTHÒTFGP -CORHIGIGPFKGXQTFTKPIGPFG6ÒTMGPIGHCJTGKP

1388





4QDGTV FG ,WKNNKCE  Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\ $GK\   $NÒVG-TGW\/GVECNHw5EJNWODGTIGTXGTIN2N: QJPG$GK\GKEJGP   49KP\2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



,GCP(GTFKPCPF Fy*¾T¾FKC  Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGP   MTGW\$GK\+-TGW\$GEMGPDCWGTXGTINHH/GVECNHwXGTINH  4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­WPF&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP



1390



1389

1391

2JKNKDGTVFG0CKNNCEÕ)KINKCVQI)TQ­OGKUVGTMPKGVNXQT2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\$GK\ #-TGW\/GVECNHw5EJNWODGTIGT2N:  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­WPFVGKNYGKUGUEJYCEJCWUIGRT·IVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5NIFG9KV#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T



Õ)KINKCVQ  I )TQ­OGKUVGT MPKGV N XQT 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\ $GK\ #-TGW\ $GEMGPDCWGT XGTIN   HH/GVECNHw 444CPFHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 243


LOT MÜNZEN DER KREUZFAHRER

1392

1,5:1



1,5:1

#PVQPKWU (NWXKCPWU  <GEEJKPG PCEJ XGPG\KCPKUEJGO 6[R  I (D  -CUFCINK p   /GVECNHwp5EJNWODGTIGTpXGTIN2N: )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1393

1394

<;2'40 



*GKPTKEJ++WPFÕ)TQUEJGPQ, 4GIKGTWPI I-ÌPKI VJTQPV X XOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGN-TGW\KPFGP9KPMGNPLGGKPMNGKPGU-TGW\/CNNQ[2TGUVQP 5GNVOCP/GVECNHwXGTIN 45GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



,CMQD ++  Õ)TQUEJGP  I -ÌPKI TGKVGV T-TGW\ KP FGP 9KPMGNP XKGT MNGKPG   -TGW\G%.%6[R'5VGORGN#G/CNNQ[2TGUVQP5GNVOCP/GVECNHw  44'VYCUIGYGNNVMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP 

1395

1,5:1

1,5:1

70$'56+//6')'07'5+5%*'$'5+6<70) 

6QOCUQFK%CORQHTGIQUQ<GEEJKPGPCEJXGPG\KCPKUEJGO6[RI  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ



$GKFGO$WEJUVCDGPWPVGPCWHFGO#XGTUMCPPGUUKEJWOGKPNCVGKPKUEJGU2QFGTWOGKPITKGEJKUEJGU4JQJCPFGNP #WH2T·IWPIGPXQP2GTCHKPFGVUKEJGKPIQVKUEJGU2FCUUVKNKUVKUEJUVCTMCDYGKEJV2GTCKUVCNU/ÒP\UV·VVGCNUQJÌEJUV WPYCJTUEJGKPNKEJ &KG (TCIG KP YGNEJGT FGTIGPWGUKUEJGP$GUKV\WPIGPKPFGT.GXCPVGFCUCW­GTQTFGPVNKEJUGNVGPG 5VÒEMIGRT·IVYQTFGPKUVDNGKDVQHHGP

1396

1397

.'8#06+0+5%*'$'+5%*.)' 

Ô<GEEJKPGPCEJXGPG\KCPKUEJGO6[RKO0COGPFGU#PFTGC&CPFQNQI)CODGTKPKXGTIN /GVECNHwXGTIN5NI5NQEWOXGTINHH 5GJTUEJÌP





Ô<GEEJKPG PCEJ XGPG\KCPKUEJGO 6[R KO 0COGP FGU #PVQPKQ 8GPGTKQ  I (D p XGTIN  E  

%JKQU )CODGTKPKpXGTIN %JKQU  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'+0.16/ª0<'0&'4-4'7<(#*4'4  244

.QV-TGW\HCJTGT'PVJCNVGPUKPFWC&GPCTG OGKUV#PVKQEJKC GKPGQTKGPVCNKUEJG$TQP\GOÒP\GGVE 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP




ABASSIDEN, KALIFEN IN BAGDAD

14+'06#.+5%*'/ª0<'0

1401

1400

1399

-75*#0 

*WXKUJMCÔ5VCVGTI$ÒUVGNOKV-TQPG0KODWU-GWNGWPF<GRVGT#TFQMUJQUVGJVN OKV-TCP\WPF(ÒNNJQTP)ÌDN 8QT\ÒINKEJ



)726#+0+0&+'0 

%JCPFTCIWRVC++Ô5VCVGTI-ÌPKIUVGJVNOKV2HGKNWPF$QIGPN)CTWFC5VCPFCTVG .CMUJOKVJTQPVXX#NVGMCTXGTIN2N+8HH/KVEJKPGTHH 5GJTUEJÌP



;#&#8#5810&'8#)+4+ 

4COCEJCPFTC  Ô5VCVGT  I 8KGT 2WP\GP WO .QVWU)NCVV /KVEJKPGT -CTPCVCMC   #PFJTC 5GJTUEJÌP

1402



1403

7/#;;#&'0-#.+('0+0&#/#5-75 

#N9CNKF+Ô&KPCT#*  I9CNMGT

48QT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I9CNMGT

48QT\ÒINKEJ



1404

#$#55+&'0-#.+('0+0$#)&#& 

#DDCUKFKUEJG 4GXQNVG IGIGP FKG 7OC[[CFGP #PQP[O  Õ&KTJGO  #*     /CTYI#NDWO%JGEMNKUV (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1405

1406

1407



1408



#N/CPUWTÔ&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN &QRRGNUEJNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN

8QT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 245


ABASSIDEN, KALIFEN IN BAGDAD

1409

1410

1411



Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





#DW #DFCNNCJ CN/CJFK  Ô&KPCT  #*     I #NDWO %JGEMNKUV    -C\CP%QNN 8QT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN



1412

1414

1413

)TCHHKVKXQT\ÒINKEJ

1415



Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN

8QT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN

8QT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN

8QT\ÒINKEJ



1416

1418

1417



Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN  2T·IGUEJY·EJGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





Ô&KPCT#*  I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN  9KP\-TCV\GTCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





*CTWPCN4CUEJKF  Ô&KPCT  #*     I #NDWO %JGEMNKUV    -C\CP%QNNp (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1420

ex 1421

1422

1419

1419



Õ&KTJGO#*  4C[[I



Ô&KPCT#*  )QWXGTPGWT,C HCTI#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN 5GJTUEJÌP





Ô&KPCT#*  )QWXGTPGWT,C HCTI#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN &C\W/CONWMGPCN#UJTCH$CTUDC[#UJTCHK#NDWO%JGEMNKUV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP %QNN 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



Ô&KPCT#*  )QWXGTPGWT,C HCTI#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNN 8QT\ÒINKEJ



 246

44.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP




BUYIDEN

1424

1423



Õ&KTJGO#*  #TTCPI

449KP\-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



#DW,CyHCT y#DFCNNCJ CN/COWP  Õ&KTJGO  #*    /CFKPCV CU5CNCO   I 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1426

1425





#DWyNy#DDCU#JOCFCN0CUKTNKFKP#NNCJÔ&KPCT#*  /CFKPCV CU5CNCOI#NDWO%JGEMNKUV-C\CP%QNNp 2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ



$#0+,74+&'0 

#JOCFDKP/WJCOOCFÕ&KTJGO#*  $CNMJ#NDWO%JGEMNKUV 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1427



1428

(#6+/+&'0+0);26'0 

#DW6COKO /C CFF CN/WUVCPUKT DKNNCJ  Ô&KPCT  #*    6CTCDNWU   I0KEQN )GYGNNVIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





#DW #NK CN/CPUWT CN#OKT DK#JMCO #NNCJ  Ô&KPCT  #*    CN   +UMCPFCTK[CJ ! I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV )WVGUUGJTUEJÌP



/ÌINKEJGTYGKUGJCPFGNVGUUKEJCWEJWOGKPGP$GKUEJNCIFGT-TGW\HCJTGT

1429

1430

1430

4#55+&'0+/;'/'0 

#N/CPUWT #DF#NNCJÕ&KTJGO#*  <WHCTI

5GJTUEJÌP



$7;+&'0 

#JOCF KDP $WYC[J  Õ&KTJGO  #*    6WUVCT OKP CN#JYC\  I #NDWO   %JGEMNKUV6TGCFYGNN6WD4GXGTUUVGORGNWPGFKGTV  #W­GTIGYÌJPNKEJG4GXGTUTCPF\KGT)WVGUUGJTUEJÌP

 247


GROSS-SELDSCHUKEN

1431



-CNKPLCT CN /CT\WDCP FGT UR·VGTG 5COUCP CF&CYNC  WPVGT #FWF CF&CYNC  Ô&KPCT   #*  5WSCN#JYC\I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV6TGCFYGNN5W)  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1432

1433



1432

5#/#0+&'0 

#N/CNKM CN5CKF 0CUT ++ KDP #JOCF  Ô&KPCT  #*    CN/WJCOOCFK[C   I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV /KPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP





#N/CNKM CN*COKF 0WJ + KDP 0CUT  Ô&KPCT  #*    0KUJCRWT  I   #NDWO%JGEMNKUV (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1435

1434



Ô&KPCT#*  0KUJCRWTI#NDWO%JGEMNKUV

8QT\ÒINKEJ





#DFCN/CNKM++Ô&KPCT#*  0KUJCRWTI

445GJTUEJÌP



1436

5#,+&'0 

;WUWHDKP&KYFCFÕ&KTJGO#*  $CTFJC CI#NDWO%JGEMNKUV 445GJTUEJÌP

1437



1438

)41555'.&5%*7-'0 

5CPLCT  Ô&KPCT 0C[UCDWT OKV 0COGP /WJCOOCF +   CNU 1DGTJGTTP   I#NDWO%JGEMNKUV 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP





Ô&KPCT0C[UCDWTOKV0COGP/WJCOOCF+  CNU1DGTJGTTPI#NDWO%JGEMNKUV 5GJTUEJÌP



248


ARTUQIDEN IN HISN KAYFA UND AMID

1440

1439

&#0+5*/'0&+&'0+05+8#5 

/CNKM /WJCOOCF  “&KTJGO Q ,  I / /'=L*?-+% P    . =%?    /#:#/#6*%#NDWO%JGEMNKUV 44.GKEJVIGYGNNV-TCV\GTWPF&TWEMUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌP



/10)1.'0+0/+66'.#5+'0 

6ÌTGIGPG-JCVWPÕ&KTJGO,CJTWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGWPNGUDCTI$QIGPUEJÒV\GTGKVGVN 5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV 45GJTUEJÌP



6ÌTGIGPG YCT \WP·EJUV FKG (TCW GKPGU #PHÒJTGTU FGT /GTMKVGP 0CEJ GKPGO -QPHNKMV OKV FGP /GTMKVGP ICD FGT   5KGIGT 6GOÒFUEJKP FGT UR·VGTG &UEJKPIKU -JCP 6ÌTGIGPG UGKPGO 5QJP ¤IGFGK CNU <YGKVHTCW 0CEJ FGO 6QF   ¤IGFGKU YWTFG 6ÌTGIGPG UEJPGNN \WT -JCVWP YGKDNKEJG (QTO XQP -JCP  5KG DTCEJVG CW­GTQTFGPVNKEJ GTHQNITGKEJ   KJTG 8GTVTCWVGP KP YKEJVKIG 2QUKVKQPGP WPF MQPPVG GPVIGIGP FGO 9KNNGP KJTGU XGTUVQTDGPGP /CPPGU ¤IGFGK KJTGP   5QJP)Ò[ÒMCNUPGWGP-JCPFWTEJUGV\GPFGTKJTPCEJHQNIVG

1441

1442

1442

<'0)+&'0+05+0,#4 

+OCFCN&KP<CPIK“&KTJGO5KPLCTI&QRRGNCFNGT5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV 55 $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



<'0)+&'0+0#.,#<+4# 

/W K\\ CN&KP 5CPLCT 5JCJ  “&KTJGO CN,C\KTC  I 6COIJC KP 8KGNRC­ \W FGP   5GKVGPLGGKPG-WIGN5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV#55 45GJTUEJÌP

1444

1443



1444

$')6+/74+&'0+0#*.#6 

5C[HCN&KP$GIVKOWT“U#JNCVI-WJNU·WIV-CND5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV 45GJTUEJÌP



#4673+&'0+0*+50-#;(#70&#/+& 

(CMJTCN&KP3CTC#TUNCP“&KTJGO#*  I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGXX 5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 4$TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

 249


ARTUQIDEN IN MARDIN

1445

1446



0WTCN&KP/WJCOOCF“&KTJGO#*  I'PIGNUVGJVXX 5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 45GJTUEJÌP





0CUKT CN&KP /CJOWF  “&KTJGO  #*    CN*KUP  I &QRRGN   MÌRHKIGT#FNGTXX5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 5GJTUEJÌP



'UJCPFGNVUKEJWOFKGHTÒJGUVGKUNCOKUEJG/ÒP\GOKVGKPGT,CJTGUCPICDGKP<KHHGTP

1447

1448

#4673+&'0+0/#4&+0 

0CLOGF&KP#NRK“&KTJGOQ,I<YGKFTCRKGTVG$ÒUVGPOKV&KCFGOGKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT/CTKCMTÌPVFGPD[\CPVKPKUEJGP-CKUGT#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 5GJTUEJÌP





3WVDCN&KP+N)JC\K++“&KTJGO#*  I<YGK$TWUVDKNFGT OKV&KCFGOXX5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 5GJTUEJÌP



1449



1450

1451

*WUCOCF&KP;WNWS#TUNCP“&KTJGO#*  I&TGKUVGJGPFGWPF GKPGMPKGGPFG(KIWT&TGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55  $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



#WH FGO #XGTU KUV FKG UQIGPCPPVG $GYGKPWPI 5CNCFKPUFCTIGUVGNNV'UKUVCNNGTFKPIUWOUVTKVVGPQDFKG&CTUVGNNWPI CWH FGP 6QF 5CNCFKPU CPURKGNV /ÌINKEJGTYGKUG KUV FKG )TQ­G -QPLWPMVKQP FGU ,CJTGU  CDIGDKNFGV KP FKGUGO   (CNNGY·TGFCU6KGTMTGKU\GKEJGP,WPIHTCWWOIGDGPXQP2NCPGVGPCDIGDKNFGV



“&KTJGO  #*     I &TGK UVGJGPFG WPF GKPG MPKGGPFG (KIWT(ÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV   #NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 &WPMNG2CVKPCIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP





“&KTJGO#*  I(KIWTKP4ÒUVWPIUKV\VXXKPFGT4GEJVGP5EJYGTVWPF KPFGT.KPMGPGKPCDIGUEJNCIGPGT-QRH5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55  &WPMGNDTCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



250


LOTS ORIENTALISCHER MÜNZEN

1452





1453

0CUKT CF&KP #TVWS #TUNCP  “&KTJGO  #*     I <GPVCWT OKV   $QIGPPCEJT\WTÒEMDNKEMGPF5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55  $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



“&KTJGO  #*     I <GPVCWT OKV $QIGP PCEJ T \WTÒEMDNKEMGPF5EJTKHV   #NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 &WPMNG2CVKPC



1455

1454



“&KTJGO  #*     I <GPVCWT OKV $QIGP PCEJ N \WTÒEMDNKEMGPF5EJTKHV   #NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 $TCWPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



“&KTJGO#*  I-QRHT5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55  5GJTUEJÌP

1456

 

1457



“&KTJGO#*  I&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGXX5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 5GJTUEJÌP





“&KTJGO #* I(KIWTUKV\VXXCWH6GRRKEJ\WFGP5GKVGPFGU-QRHGULGGKP 5VGTP5EJTKHV#NDWO%JGEMNKUV55 5GJTUEJÌP



.16514+'06#.+5%*'4/ª0<'0 

5COONWPI &KTJCOU 'PVJCNVGP UKPF XKGT WOC[[CFKUEJG )GRT·IG  #DDCUKFGP WPF  )C\PCYKFGP   'KPG.KUVGOKV$GUVKOOWPIGPNKGIVDGK*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVDKVVGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIGP  EC5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP 



)GOKUEJVGU .QV QTKGPVCNKUEJGT /ÒP\GP 'PVJCNVGP UKPF  FWTEJI·PIKIDGUVKOOVG5VÒEMGOKV7PVGT NGI\GVVGNP  QTKGPVCNKUEJG /ÒP\GP W C 7OC[[CFGP #DDCUKFGP 5GNFUEJWMGP 1UOCPGP #TVWSKFGP   +NMJCPG GVE &C\W GKP OKVVGNCNVGTNKEJGT 2HGPPKI WPF \YGK 2T·IWPIGP FGT &GWVUEJ 1UVCHTKMCPKUEJGP   )GUGNNUEJCHV 5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



)GOKUEJVGU.QVQTKGPVCNKUEJGT/ÒP\GP'PVJCNVGPUKPFQTKGPVCNKUEJG5KNDGTOÒP\GP *WPPGP#TCDQ 5CUCPKFGP6CDCTK&KTJCOUGVE UQYKG$TQP\GOÒP\GP Z5WTKUZ-JYCTG\OUJCJU +PVGTGUUCPVGU .QVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



.QV XQP FTGK QTKGPVCNKUEJGP 5KNDGTOÒP\GP WPF GKPGO ÒDGTRT·IVGP D[\CPVKPKUEJGP (QNNKU 'PVJCNVGP   UKPF FTGK 6CPMCU OKV )GIGPUVGORGNP $GPICNGP *WUC[P 5JCJ $GPICNGP 0WUTCV 5JCJ 5JKTYCPUJCJU   CPQP[OWO#*OKV)GIGPUVGORGNFGU3CTC3W[WPNW5WNVCP+UMCPFCT WPFGKPÒDGTRT·IVGTD[\CPVK PKUEJGT(QNNKU 5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP







251


DIE IN DIESEM KATALOG ANGEBOTENEN OBJEKTE UNTERLIEGEN DER DIFFERENZBESTEUERUNG MIT AUSNAHME DER NACHFOLGEND AUFGEFÜHRTEN LOSNUMMERN, DIE DER VOLLBESTEUERUNG UNTERLIEGEN:                                                 

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Bei uns sind Sie goldrichtig!

• Über 35 Jahre Erfahrung im Gold- und Münzenhandel • Faire und objektive Bewertung Ihrer Goldmünzen • Barankauf von Goldmünzen zu tagesaktuellen Preisen • Große Auswahl interessanter Goldmünzen • Vertrauen Sie Europas führendem Auktionshaus für Münzen und Medaillen

Sie möchten Ihre Münzen veräußern? 0800 5836537 (gebührenfrei) Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Gutenbergstraße 23 · 49076 Osnabrück · Germany Tel. +49 (0)541 96 20 20 · Fax +49 (0)541 96 20 222 www.kuenker.de · service@kuenker.de Osnabrück · Berlin · München · Zürich · Moskau

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eLive Auction NEU Mit unseren eLive Auctions bieten wir Ihnen die Möglichkeit, direkt und unkompliziert über das Internet an regelmäßigen Auktionen mit einem virtuellen Auktionator live teilzunehmen.

NEW With our eLive Auctions, we offer you a direct and easy opportunity to participate in regular auctions live over the Internet.

Bequem von zuhause oder unterwegs können Sie Vorgebote abgeben und abschließend – ganz wie in einer echten Auktion im Bieterwettstreit mit anderen – den Ausgang der Auktionen live am Bildschirm für sich entscheiden.

From the convenience of your own home or when travelling, you can submit preliminary bids, and up to the last moment of the sale – as in a real auction, vying with other bidders – you can win auctions live on your computer screen.

Weitere Informationen erhalten Sie unter www.elive-auction.de/hilfe

Additional information is available at www.elive-auction.com/help

Künker eLive Auction: live auf www.elive-auction.de

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Leitfaden zur erfolgreichen schriftlichen Auktionsteilnahme • • • • •

Studieren Sie den Katalog sorgfältig und notieren Sie alle Lose, die interessant für Sie sind. Legen Sie für jedes Los Ihr persönliches Limit fest, das Sie maximal zu zahlen bereit sind. Füllen Sie das beiliegende Formular aus (siehe unten) und tragen Sie für jedes Los Ihr Höchstgebot ein. Schicken Sie uns Ihren Auftrag frühzeitig. Bei gleich hohen Geboten erhält das zuerst eingegangene Gebot den Zuschlag. Sie haben interessante Lose für insgesamt € 10.000,– gefunden, möchten jedoch nur € 2.000,– ausgeben. Kein Problem: Sie geben als Gesamtlimit (ohne Aufgeld) € 2.000,– an. • Wenn Sie Fragen haben: Die MitarbeiterInnen unserer Kundenbetreuung sind für Sie da: Telefon 0800 583 65 37 (gebührenfrei). • Wenn Sie telefonisch an unseren Auktionen teilnehmen möchten, ist das ab einer Schätzung von € 500,– pro Los möglich. Bitte teilen Sie uns diesen Wunsch mindestens einen Werktag vor Beginn der Versteigerung schriftlich mit.

Musterauftrag für schriftliche Gebote Name, Adresse, Telefon Ihre vollständige Anschrift ist wichtig, damit wir Ihren Auktionsauftrag annehmen und bearbeiten können. Ihre Telefonnummer brauchen wir, um Sie bei Rückfragen zu Ihren Geboten schnell erreichen zu können.

Ihre Kundennummer Die Angabe Ihrer Kundennummer unterstützt uns bei der Bearbeitung Ihres Auktionsauftrages. Viele Vorarbeiten für die Auktion werden dadurch einfacher und es werden Fehler vermieden.

Losnummern und Gebote Listen Sie alle Lose, für die Sie sich interessieren, mit ihrer Katalognummer auf und legen Sie für sich selbst fest, wie viel Sie bereit sind, für jedes einzelne Los zu bieten.

Ihr Limit pro Einzellos An dieser Stelle geben Sie an, was Sie für jedes einzelne Stück maximal bereit sind auszugeben.

„Oder“-Gebote Wenn Sie sich für mehrere Münzen interessieren, aber nur ein Stück davon erwerben wollen, können Sie Ihre Gebote einfach mit einem „Oder“ verbinden. Wichtig: bei den „Oder“Geboten können Sie nicht auf frühere Katalognummern zurückgreifen (z. B. 2890 oder 1558), da die Nr. 1558 dann bereits versteigert ist. Unterschreiben Sie Ihren Auktionsauftrag ... ... nachdem Sie Ihre Angaben noch einmal überprüft haben. Ihre Unterschrift ist wichtig, denn damit bestätigen Sie uns, dass sie tatsächlich teilnehmen wollen.

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Überschreitung Ihrer Limits pro Einzellos In der Praxis zeigt sich, dass oft mehrere Bieter mit ihren Geboten dicht beieinander liegen. Deshalb empfiehlt es sich, an dieser Stelle einer geringfügigen Überschreitung Ihrer Gebote zuzustimmen. Dadurch erhöhen sich Ihre Chancen, im Wettbewerb mit anderen den Zuschlag zu erhalten.

Begrenzung Ihres Gesamtlimits Hier können sie die Gesamtsumme Ihrer Gebote begrenzen und festlegen, was Sie insgesamt maximal bereit sind auszugeben. Aufgeld und Mehrwertsteuer kommen später noch hinzu.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Wie entsteht der Preis einer Auktion? Der im Auktionskatalog angegebene Preis ist ein Schätzpreis, der durch unsere Experten festgelegt wurde. Das Mindestgebot liegt bei 80 % dieses Wertes. Die Zuschlagpreise sind oft deutlich höher als die Schätzpreise. Als Auktionshaus müssen wir bereits vor der Auktion alle schriftlichen Gebote koordinieren. Folgende Beispiele sind im Bietverfahren möglich: Beispiel 1 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt kein schriftlicher Auftrag vor: Der Auktionator ruft das Los in der Auktion mit € 800,– aus. Wenn im Saal nur ein Bieter darauf ein Gebot abgibt, erhält der Saalbieter den Zuschlag für € 800,–.

Beispiel 3 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt dem Auktionator nur ein schriftliches Gebot von € 850,– vor: Das Los wird in der Auktion mit € 800,– ausgerufen. Falls kein Bieter im Saal ein Gegenangebot abgibt, erhält der schriftliche Bieter den Zuschlag bei € 800,–.

Beispiel 2 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegen dem Auktionator drei schriftliche Gebote vor:

Beispiel 4 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt dem Auktionator nur ein schriftliches Gebot von € 1.200,– vor: Der Auktionator ruft das Los mit € 800,– aus. Gibt es im Saal keinen Gegenbieter, erhält der schriftliche Bieter den Zuschlag bei € 800,–. Falls es im Saal Gegenbieter gibt, bietet der Auktionator für seinen schriftlichen Bieter bis maximal € 1.200,– und erteilt einem Gegenbieter im Saal erst bei mehr als € 1.200,– den Zuschlag.

Bieter 1: Limit € 2.900,– Bieter 2: Limit € 1.800,– Bieter 3: Limit € 800,– Nach der Versteigerungsordnung muss der Auktionator im Interesse von Bieter 1 und 2 angemessen überbieten (um ca. 5 bis 10 %). Der Ausrufpreis in der Auktion beträgt daher im Interesse von Bieter 1 € 1.900,– (obwohl die Schätzung € 1.000,– beträgt). Falls keine höheren Gebote aus dem Saal erfolgen, erhält Bieter 1 den Zuschlag für € 1.900,–. Das Höchstangebot von € 2.900,– musste nicht ausgeschöpft werden.

Beispiel 5 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegen drei Gebote von je € 975,– vor: Um Missverständnisse zu vermeiden, überzieht der Auktionator das zuerst eingegangene Gebot geringfügig und erteilt den Zuschlag bei € 1.000,–.

Antworten auf Fragen, die uns oft gestellt werden • Zuschlagpreis/Aufgeld: Wir berechnen für Kunden in Deutschland und Ländern der Europäischen Union ein Aufgeld von 23 % auf den Zuschlagpreis, darin ist die gesetzliche Mehrwertsteuer enthalten. Wir berechnen Kunden in Drittländern, z. B. Norwegen, Russland, Schweiz, USA, ein Aufgeld von 20 %, wenn die Münzen durch uns exportiert werden. Beispiel 1, Kunde in Deutschland

Zuschlagpreis Aufgeld 23 % (inkl. MwSt) Versandkosten, z. B. * Rechnungs-Betrag

€ € € €

100,00 23,00 5,90 128,90

Beispiel 2, Kunde in Russland

Zuschlagpreis Aufgeld 20 % Versandkosten, z. B. * Rechnungs-Betrag

€ 1.000,00 € 200,00 € 15,00 € 1.215,00

• Mehrwertsteuer: In Deutschland und Ländern der Europäischen Union ist die Mehrwertsteuer im Rechnungsbetrag enthalten. In Ausnahmefällen unterliegen die Objekte der Vollbesteuerung. Das wird durch eine Liste im Auktionskatalog angezeigt. Seit dem 01.01.2000 sind viele Goldmünzen, die nach 1800 geprägt wurden, steuerfrei. In diesem Fall berechnen wir ein Aufgeld in Höhe von 15 %. Bei Fragen zu der MwSt.-Berechnung rufen Sie uns an, gebührenfrei unter: 0800 583 65 37. • Rücklosverkauf: Alle Lose, die in der Auktion nicht verkauft wurden, können Sie innerhalb von vier Wochen nach der Versteigerung zu 80 % des Schätzpreises (zzgl. 23 % Aufgeld inkl. Mehrwertsteuer) erwerben. Achtung: Viele Rücklose sind schnell vergriffen. • Unser Spezialservice: Alle Bieter erhalten gratis die Ergebnisliste innerhalb von zwei Wochen nach der Auktion. Im Internet können Sie die Ergebnisliste der Auktion sofort nach der Auktion unter www.kuenker.de einsehen. * Die Kosten für Versand und Versicherung werden nach Aufwand berechnet.

Besuchen Sie uns doch einmal persönlich auf der Auktion! • Wir freuen uns sehr, wenn Sie persönlich nach Osnabrück kommen möchten. Das Flair einer Auktion und die Stimmung im Auktionssaal sind ein besonderes Erlebnis für Sie als Sammler. Osnabrück ist außerdem immer eine Reise wert und die persönliche Betreuung durch unsere Mitarbeiter wissen immer mehr Kunden zu schätzen. • Bitte rufen Sie uns rechtzeitig an, damit wir Ihnen Tipps für die Anreise geben und Ihnen ein Hotelzimmer reservieren können. Sie erreichen uns gebührenfrei unter: 0800 583 65 37. • Als erfolgreicher Bieter können Sie Ihre neu erworbenen Stücke gleich persönlich mit nach Hause nehmen. Als guter Kunde unseres Hauses haben Sie 20 Tage Zahlungsziel nach der Auktion.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Важная информация об участии на аукционе • Наши аукционные правила и условия Вы можете найти в конце каталога. • Мы просим Вас присылать Ваши ставки заранее. В противном случае вероятность ошибки при обработке заказа, присланного перед самым аукционом, возрастает. • Приложенный образец заполнения письменного заказа поможет Вам при отправлении Ваших письменных ставок. Ставки можно отправить как по почте, так и по факсу : +49 (0)541–96 20 222 круглосуточно. • Успешные заказы будут обрабатываться в порядке их поступления к нам. Все участники, которым не удалось что-либо купить на аукционе, будут также проинформированы после аукциона. • Если Вы впервые принимаете участие в нашем аукционе, то мы рекомендуем Вам сообщить нам Ваш референц – аукционные дома, с которыми Вы уже сотрудничали. Или свяжитесь с нами по телефону. • Мы гарантируем подлинность всех предметов, проданных на нашем аукционе, в течении неограниченного времени. • Все участники нашего аукциона получают в течении 2-ух недель результаты торгов бесплатно. • У Вас есть вопросы по определенной монете? Вы хотели бы лично принять участие в аукционе? У Вас возникли другие вопросы? Звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268, и мы будем рады Вам помочь.

Мое заочное участие на аукционе • • • •

Тщательно изучите наш каталог и запишите те лоты, которые Вас заинтересовали. Определите для Себя ту максимальную сумму, которую Вы готовы заплатить за каждый лот. Заполните приложенный формуляр. Отправьте нам Ваш заказ заранее. При 2-ух и более равных ставок на один и тот же лот преимущество получает ставка, пришедшая к нам первой ( ранее других ). • Если стоимость выбранных Вами лотов составляет например 10.000 евро, а Вы могли бы потратить только 2.000 евро, то в этом случае укажите Ваш общий лимит в размере 2.000 евро. • Если у Вас возникли вопросы по заполнению формуляра, звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268. Наши сотрудники будут рады Вам помочь.

Мое личное участие в Оснабрюке • Мы будем рады Вашему личному присутствию в Оснабрюке. Атмосфера, которая стоит во время аукционных торгов в зале, особенная и непередаваемая. • Для получения более подробной информации по Вашей поездке в Оснабрюк, в частности, бронирования номеров в гостинице, мы просим Вас заранее связаться с нами по телефону: +49 (0)541-96 20 268. • Приобретенные на аукционе лоты Вы можете лично забрать после окончания торгов. Наши постоянные клиенты осуществляют оплату в течение 20 дней после получения счета. Участвующие в аукционе впервые осуществляют 100%-ую предоплату.

Участие по интернету Все каталоги доступны для просмотра на нашем сайте в интернете по адресу www.kuenker.de. На сайте Вы можете выбрать интересующие Вас лоты и отправить Ваши ставки на нашу электронную почту service@kuenker.de. Если у Вас возникнут дополнительные вопросы, мы просим Вас связаться с нами по телефону +49 (0)5 41-96 20 268.

Участие по телефону Для участия в торгах по телефону просим Вас связаться с нами не позднее 48 часов до начала аукциона. Условием проведения телефонных торгов является письменное подтверждение ставки, равной как минимум стартовой цене. Участие в телефонных торгах возможно только для лотов со стартовой ценой свыше 500 евро. Для получения дополнительной информации и регистрации на аукционе звоните Анастасии Кепселль до аукциона по телефону +49 (0)5 41-96 20 268 и во время аукциона по телефону, указанному на первой странице каталога.

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TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Как образовывается цена на аукционе? • Все лоты в нашем каталоге были предварительно оценены нашими экпертами. Минимальная ставка составляет 80 % от оценочной стоимости лота. Конечные цены зачастую намного превышают оценочные. • Ваши письменные ( заочные ) ставки должны быть обязательно обработаны нашими сотрудниками до начала аукциона. Рассмотрим несколько возможных примеров: Пример 1 ( Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) Заочных ставок нет. Аукционатор начинает торги с € 800,–. Если в зале только один человек, желающий приобрести этот лот, то соответственно он получит его за € 800,–. Пример 2 ( Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеются 3 заочные ставки: Заочный участник 1 : Лимит € 2.900,– Заочный участник 2 : Лимит € 1.800,– Заочный участник 3 : Лимит € 800,– По правилам аукциона аукционатор в интересах заочного участника 1 и 2 должен повышать ставку равномерно ( приблизительно на 5 – 10 % ). Поэтому в нашем случае в интересах заочного участника 1 аукционатор начнет торги с € 1.900,– ( хотя оценочная стоимость составляет € 1.000,–). Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник 1 получит этот лот за € 1.900,–. Его лимит в € 2.900,– ни в коем случае не будет исчерпан. Пример 3 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеется только 1 заочная ставка в размере € 850,–. Аукционатор начнет торги с € 800,–.

Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник получит этот лот за € 800,–. Пример 4 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеется только 1 заочная ставка в размере € 1.200,–. Аукционатор начнет торги с € 800,–. Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник получит этот лот за € 800,–. Если же в зале очный участник согласен на более высокую ставку ( больше € 800,– ), то в этом случае аукционатор в интересах заочного участника имеет право тоговаться до € 1.200,–. Следовательно только при ставке, превышающей € 1.200,–, данный лот получит очный участник в зале. Пример 5 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеются 3 заочные ставки, каждая в размере € 975,–. Среди очных участников интереса к лоту не имеется. В этом случае чтобы избежать недоразумений, аукционатор имеет право ненамного повысить лимит и сделать ставку равной € 1.000,–. Данный лот за € 1.000,– получит тот заочный участник, чей письменный формуляр мы получили раньше всего.

Ответы на часто задаваемые вопросы • Комиссионные для клиентов, проживающих в Евросоюзе составляют 23 % к удару молотка, эти проценты уже содержат НДС. Для наших клиентов, проживающих не в Евросоюзе ( например в Норвегии, России, Швейцарии, США ) комиссионные составляют 20 %, если экспорт будет осуществлен через фирму «Кюнкер». Пример 1, Удар молотка клиент из Комиссионные 23 % Евросоюза Почтовые расходы Rechnungs-Betrag

€ € € €

100,00 23,00 5,90 128,90

Пример 2, клиент из России

Удар молотка Комиссионные 20 % Почтовые расходы Rechnungs-Betrag

€ 1.000,00 € 200,00 € 15,00 € 1.215,00

• Непроданные на аукционе лоты Вы можете приобрести в течение 4 недель за 80 % от их оценочной стоимости, прибавив к ним комиссионные и почтовые расходы.

Как я могу получить приобретенные лоты? Вывоз приобретенных на аукционе предметов осуществляется одним из следующих способов по Вашему выбору: • Вы можете лично забрать Ваши лоты. По окончании торгов мы готовим все необходимые документы на вывоз из Германии. При вывозе за пределы Евросоюза, НДС Вам возвращается. • Почтовые отправки в Россию ( Беларусь, Украину ) приобретенных Вами лотов осуществляются по предварительной договоренности. Для связи с нами звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268. С 1971 года имя Кюнкер является гарантией надежности и компетентности. Мы не станем изменять нашим принципам и в будущем. Спасибо Вам за Ваше доверие, которое является не только самым сильным стимулом в нашей работе, но и наилучшей ее оценкой. Я желаю Вам успехов на нашем аукционе!

Фриц-Рудольф Кюнкер

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Versteigerungsbedingungen Wir versteigern als Kommissionär im eigenen Namen und für Rechnung der Einlieferer, die unbenannt bleiben. Durch die Teilnahme an der Versteigerung werden die Versteigerungsbedingungen anerkannt. Der Zuschlagpreis bildet die Berechnungsgrundlage für das vom Käufer zu zahlende Aufgeld. Für Käufer aus EU-Ländern gilt: Für Verbraucher wird einheitlich ein Aufgeld von 23 % (im Gesamtbetrag ist die gesetzliche Umsatzsteuer enthalten) erhoben. Für Unternehmer i. S. d. UStG wird bei differenzbesteuerter Ware ein Aufgeld von 23 % erhoben (im Gesamtbetrag ist die gesetzliche Umsatzsteuer bereits enthalten), bei regelbesteuerter Ware ein Aufgeld von 20 % (zzgl. gesetzlicher Umsatzsteuer auf Gesamtbetrag von Zuschlag und Aufgeld). Ausfuhrlieferungen in EU-Länder können bei Vorlage der gesetzlichen Voraussetzungen von der Umsatzsteuer befreit sein. Für Käufer mit Wohnsitz in Drittländern (außerhalb der EU) gilt: Das Aufgeld beträgt einheitlich 20 %. Wird die Ware vom Käufer selbst oder durch Dritte in Drittländer ausgeführt, wird die gesetzliche Umsatzsteuer berechnet, jedoch bei Vorlage der gesetzlich geforderten Ausfuhrnachweise erstattet. Führen wir diese Ware selbst in Drittländer aus, wird die gesetzliche Umsatzsteuer nicht berechnet. Für Goldmünzen, die von der gesetzlichen Umsatzsteuer befreit sind, wird ein Aufgeld von 15 % berechnet. Im Ausland anfallende (Einfuhr-)Umsatzsteuer und Zölle trägt in jedem Fall der Käufer. Die Versandkosten werden dem Käufer nach Aufwand berechnet. Der Zuschlag erfolgt nach dreimaligem Ausruf des höchsten Gebotes und verpflichtet zur unverzüglichen Abnahme der Ware. Bei Vorlage besonderer Gründe können wir den Zuschlag verweigern oder uns vorbehalten. Geben mehrere Bieter gleich hohe Gebote ab, können wir nach freiem Ermessen einem Bieter den Zuschlag erteilen, durch Los über den Zuschlag entscheiden oder die Nummer noch einmal ausrufen. Der Versteigerer ist berechtigt, aus wichtigem Grund Nummern zu vereinigen oder zu trennen, in einer anderen als der im Katalog vorgesehenen Reihenfolge aufzurufen oder zurückziehen. Erfolgt ein Zuschlag unter Vorbehalt, erlischt das Gebot mit Ablauf von 4 Wochen ab dem Tag des Zuschlags, es sei denn, wir haben dem Bieter innerhalb dieser Frist die vorbehaltlose Annahme des Gebotes mitgeteilt. Das Eigentum an der Ware geht erst mit vollständiger Bezahlung auf den Käufer über. Sofern nichts anderes vereinbart wird, ist der Kaufpreis von anwesenden Käufern sofort, bei schriftlichen bzw. telefonischen Bietern spätestens 20 Tage nach Erhalt der Rechnung zu zahlen. Bei Zahlungsverzug werden Zinsen i. H. v. 1 % pro Monat berechnet. Verweigert der Käufer ernsthaft und endgültig die Abnahme der Ware, können wir vom Kaufvertrag zurücktreten und Schadensersatz verlangen mit der Maßgabe, dass wir den Gegenstand nochmals versteigern und unseren Schaden in derselben Weise wie bei Zahlungsverzug des Käufers geltend machen können, ohne dass dem Käufer ein Mehrerlös aus der erneuten Versteigerung zusteht. Der Versand erfolgt auf Wunsch und nach den Anweisungen des Käufers und auf seine Kosten und Gefahr. Die Mindeststeigerungsstufen für das Bietungsverfahren betragen: bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu ab

€ 100,– € 200,– € 500,– € 1.000,– € 2.000,– € 5.000,– € 10.000,– € 20.000,– € 50.000,– € 50.000,–

€ 5,– € 10,– € 20,– € 50,– € 100,– € 200,– € 500,– € 1.000,– € 2.000,– € 5.000,– (bzw. 10 %)

Wir berücksichtigen bestmöglich schriftliche oder fernmündliche Angebote bzw. Angebote übers Internet und behandeln diese grundsätzlich gleich wie Angebote aus dem Versteigerungssaal. Aufträge von uns unbekannten Sammlern können wir nur ausführen, wenn ein Depot hinterlegt wird oder Referenzen benannt werden. Schriftliche Gebote können nur bis 24 Stunden vor Auktionsbeginn berücksichtigt werden, telefonische Bieter müssen sich mindestens zwei Werktage vor der Auktion voranmelden.

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Im Bedarfsfall sind wir berechtigt, die Limits um 3 – 5 % zu überschreiten. Gebote, die unter 80 % des Schätzpreises liegen, werden nicht berücksichtigt. Unlimitierte Aufträge haben keinen Anspruch auf unbedingte Ausführung. Schriftliche, fernmündliche und Internet-Gebote werden von uns ohne Auftragsprovision ausgeführt; sie müssen den Gegenstand mit Katalognummer und des gebotenen Preises, der sich als Zuschlagsumme ohne Aufgeld und Umsatzsteuer versteht, benennen und sind bindend. Unklarheiten oder Ungenauigkeiten gehen zu Lasten des Bieters. Wir übernehmen für diese Gebote jedoch keinerlei Haftung, insbesondere nicht für das Zustandekommen und die Aufrechterhaltung von Telekommunikationsverbindungen oder/und Übermittlungsfehlern, ebenso wenig für Ausfall- und Verzögerungszeiten, verursacht durch Wartungen und Wiederherstellungen des jeweiligen Servers, durch Störungen und Probleme im Internetverkehr, durch höhere Gewalt, sowie weitere Störungen, die durch Umstände begründet sind, die außerhalb unserer Verantwortung liegen. Dies gilt nicht für den Fall, dass uns hieran der Vorwurf grober Fahrlässigkeit oder Vorsatz trifft. Die Katalogbeschreibungen sind keine vertraglich vereinbarten Beschaffenheiten i. S. d. § 434 BGB, sondern dienen lediglich zur Information und zur Abgrenzung der Ware. Die Angabe der Erhaltung ist streng nach den im deutschen Münzhandel üblichen Erhaltungseinstufungen vorgenommen und eine persönliche Beurteilung. Die Echtheit der Stücke wird gewährleistet, sofern nichts Gegenteiliges im Katalog oder bei der Versteigerung angegeben wird; hier haften wir für einen insoweit entstandenen Schaden bis zur Höhe des Kaufpreises. Im Übrigen übernehmen wir keine Rechts- oder Sachmängel bezüglich der im Katalog aufgeführten Ware. Wir geben durch Vorbesichtigung Gelegenheit, sich vom Erhaltungszustand der Ware zu überzeugen. Fehler, die sich bereits aus den Abbildungen ergeben, berechtigen nicht zur Beanstandung. Bei der Auktion anwesende Käufer kaufen grundsätzlich »wie besehen«. Bei Losen mit mehreren Stücken sind die Stückzahlen nur ca.-Angaben. Gewährleistungsansprüche wegen Sach- und Rechtsmängeln oder irrtümlichen Zuschreibungen sind ausgeschlossen. Innerhalb der gesetzlichen Gewährleistungsfrist vorgetragene und begründete Mängelrügen des Käufers leiten wir jedoch unverzüglich an den Einlieferer der bemängelten Sache weiter. Nach unserer Wahl treten wir unsere gegen den Einlieferer aus der Verletzung des Kommissionsvertrages zustehenden Ansprüche an den Käufer ab bzw. stellen den Käufer durch Rückabwicklung des Kaufvertrages schadlos, wobei ein über die Erstattung des Kaufpreises darüber hinausgehender Anspruch des Käufers ausgeschlossen ist. Wenn Sie die von uns erworbene Ware einem Grading Service übergeben wollen, übernehmen wir keine Garantie, dass die Münzen dort angenommen oder entsprechend unserer Bewertung eingestuft werden. Schadensersatzansprüche des Käufers gegen uns sind – gleich aus welchem Rechtsgrund – ausgeschlossen. Dies gilt nicht für Schäden, die auf einem vorsätzlichen oder grob fahrlässigen Verhalten von uns, unseren gesetzlichen Vertretern oder Erfüllungsgehilfen beruhen bzw. ihre Ursache in der Verletzung von vertraglichen Kardinalpflichten haben; im letzteren Fall ist Haftung jedoch auf den vorhersehbaren, vertragstypischen Schaden beschränkt. Die Haftung für Schäden aus der Verletzung des Lebens, des Körpers oder der Gesundheit bleibt unberührt. Der Käufer kann nicht aufrechnen, es sei denn, seine Gegenansprüche sind rechtskräftig festgestellt, unbestritten oder von uns anerkannt. Zurückbehaltungsrechte des Käufers sind ebenfalls ausgeschlossen, es sei denn, er ist nicht Unternehmer i. S. d. § 14 BGB und sein Gegenanspruch beruht auf demselben Vertragsverhältnis. Es gilt ausschließlich das Recht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Das Übereinkommen der Vereinten Nationen über Verträge über den internationalen Warenkauf (CISG) findet keine Anwendung. Gegenüber Unternehmern i. S. d. § 14 BGB und Käufern ohne allgemeinen Gerichtsstand im Inland ist Erfüllungsort und ausschließlicher Gerichtsstand bei allen aus dem Vertragsverhältnis unmittelbar oder mittelbar sich ergebenden Streitigkeiten Osnabrück. Sollte eine der Bestimmungen ganz oder teilweise unwirksam sein oder werden, bleibt die Gültigkeit der übrigen davon unberührt. Die unwirksame ist durch eine wirksame zu ersetzen, die dem wirtschaftlichen Gehalt und Zweck der unwirksamen Bestimmung am nächsten kommt. Gleiches gilt für eine Lücke. Soweit die Versteigerungsbedingungen in mehreren Sprachen vorliegen, ist stets die deutsche Fassung maßgebend.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Terms and Conditions of Auction We auction goods as commission agent in our own name and for account of not named consignors. Participation in the auction shall be deemed express acknowledgement of these Terms and Conditions of Auction. The hammer price is the basis for the calculation of the buyer’s surcharge. For buyers from EEC countries the following applies: for consumers there is a standard surcharge of 23 % (relevant VAT already included). For traders according to the Value Added Tax Act the surcharge is 23 % (relevant VAT already included) for goods delivered by difference taxation; for goods delivered by standard taxation the surcharge is 20 % plus the relevant VAT on the entire amount of hammer price and surcharge. Export deliveries to EEC countries shall be free of VAT on existence of the respective legal requirements. For buyers from abroad (no EEC country) the following applies: there is a standard surcharge of 20 %. As far those buyers export the good in person or by third persons, the relevant VAT will be charged but refunded by presentation of the legal export certificate. In case we export these goods the relevant VAT will not be charged. For gold coins, which are not subject to the legal VAT, the surcharge is 15 % of the hammer price. Foreign taxes and custom duties shall be carried by buyer as well as shipping expenses charged according to effort. The hammer shall fall after the highest bid has been called out three times. The knockdown shall oblige to take immediately delivery of the goods. Upon good cause shown we can refuse or reserve the knock down. In the event of several equal bids we have the right to knock down at our own discretion, to decide by drawing lots or re-open the bidding. The auctioneer reserves the right to combine or to separate lots for good cause. In case of a reserved knock down the bid expires four weeks after the knock down unless we informed the bidder within this period of the unreserved acceptance. Ownership of the goods shall not pass until full payment. Unless mutually agreed otherwise, payment of the auction bill from buyers present at the auction is due immediately, for other buyers within 20 days after receipt of the bill. Defaulted payments shall bear an interest charge of 1 % per month in the amount in default. In case buyer is in default with the obligation and does not take over the goods in spite of a written deadline, or refuses to take over, we can withdraw from contract and claim damage provided that the item may be put again to auction at this buyer’s cost. In this event the buyer shall be liable for any shortfall, while he shall have no right or claim towards any excess proceeds. The shipment (by mail or otherwise) of the goods shall be for sole cost and risk of the purchaser or recipient, respectively. The minimum rates of increase for the bidding procedure are: up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to above

€ 100.– € 200.– € 500.– € 1,000.– € 2,000.– € 5,000.– € 10,000.– € 20,000.– € 50,000.– € 50,000.–

€ 5.– € 10.– € 20.– € 50.– € 100.– € 200.– € 500.– € 1,000.– € 2,000.– € 5,000.– (respectively 10 %)

If necessary, we are allowed to increase the bids by 3 – 5 %. Bids amounting to less than 80 % of the estimate shall not be executed. Unlimited bids shall not oblige us to consider, accept or carry out such order. Written orders or those via telephone or Internet will be carried out without charge of an extra commission; they shall name the item with catalog number and the bid price and are binding. Ambiguities shall be carried by the bidder. We do not assume any liability for such bids, especially not for connecting and keeping up telephone lines and/or transmission errors, as well as not for off times and lag times, caused by attendance and restore of the server, by errors and problems of the Internet, by force majeure or reason outside of our responsibility. This does not apply in case we are acting in intentional or grossly negligence. The descriptions of the goods in the catalog do not constitute any warranty or liability in the meaning of § 434 BGB but are provided as mere information. The state of preservation of items is strictly assessed in accordance with the grades accepted by the German coin trade and only represents an individual and personal assessment. The authenticity of the coins is warranted (up to the total purchase price) unless anything to the contrary is noted in the catalog or the auction. In other respects, any and all warranty claims based on material defects of quality and defects of title are excluded. In view of the opportunity of prior inspection to ascertain the state and condition of the auction lots, complaints of errors resulting of the images are excluded. Buyers present at the auction acquire items strictly on the basis of »as is where is« and »as inspected«. If and when auctioned in lots, the quantities of individual pieces given, only represent an approximate figure. Any and all warranty claims based on material defects of quality and defects of title or on an error in the allocation of individual pieces to a certain lot are excluded. We forward quality complaints to the deliverer claimed within the legal period of warranty. To our own choice we assign possible claims resulting out of the commission contract to buyer or compensate buyer by unwinding of contract, at which a claim of buyer exceeding the purchase price is excluded. In case buyer intends to deliver goods to a Grading Service, we do not guarantee the respective acceptance or the classifying according to our valuation. Damage claims of buyer – irrespective of legal basis – are excluded. This shall not apply for damages resulting out of our intentional or grossly negligent conduct of our legal representatives respectively are caused in the breach of contractual cardinal obligations; to this degree, liability is limited to damages that are foreseeable and typical for this type of contract. This shall not effect our liability for damages to life, limb, or health. Offsetting counterclaims of buyer are excluded, unless the claim is uncontested or has been declared legally valid by court. Retentions rights of buyer are excluded unless he is not a trader (§ 14 BGB) and his counterclaim results from the same contractual relationship. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Germany. The UN Convention (CISG) on the International Sale of Goods shall not apply. Against traders (§ 14 BGB) and purchasers from abroad the exclusive jurisdiction shall be the Court of Osnabrück in relation to any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with the purchase. The German version of these conditions shall be the legally binding. The invalidity or inefficiency of any provision shall not effect the validity of all other provisions. In lieu of the invalid or inefficient provision or for the purpose of closing the gap, a reasonable provision shall apply.

We carry out best possible written or orders via telephone or internet and treat them equal to orders to present bidders. Orders from collectors unknown to the auctioneer can only be accepted and carried out if a deposit or references to the satisfaction on the auctioneer are given. To be bindingly accepted, written bids need to be received at least 24 hours before auction, bidders via telephone need to be registered at the latest two work days before auction.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Numismatische Ausdrücke/Numismatic Terms/Expressions Numismatiques/ Termini di Numismatica/Нумизматические Термины DEUTSCH

ENGLISH

FRANCAIS

ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

Abschlag Am Rand Berieben Blei Dezentriert Doppelschlag Einfassung Einseitig Emailliert Erhaltung Etwas Exemplar Fassungsspuren Fehlprägung

struck at the rim/border slightly polished lead uncentered double struck frame uniface enamelled condition/preservation slightly specimen, copy trace of mounting mis-strike

frappe en tranche frotté plomb décentré double frappe encadrement uniface émaillé conservation un peu exemplaire traces de monture défaut de frappe

coniazione al bordo trattato piombo non centrato ribattitura cornice uniface smaltato conservazione un poco esemplare tracce di montatura difetto di coniazione

Feld(er) Gedenkmünze Geglättet Gelocht Geprägt Gewellt Goldpatina Henkelspur Hübsch Jahrh. = Jahrhundert Kl. = klein Korrosionsspuren Kratzer Kupfer Legierung Leicht(e) l. = links Min. = minimal Nachahmung Prachtexemplar Prägeschwäche Randdelle Randfehler Randschrift r. = rechts Rückseite

field(s) commemorative coin tooled holed minted bent golden patina mount mark attractive century small traces of corrosion scratch(es) copper alloy slightly left minimal imitation attractive, perfect piece weakly struck edge nick edge faults lettered edge to right reverse

champ monnaie commémorative retouché troué frappé ondulé patine dorée trace de monture joli siècle petit traces de corrosion rayure cuivre alliage légèrement gauche minime imitation pièce magnifique de frappe faible défaut sur la tranche défaut sur la tranche tranche inscrite droite revers

campo moneta commemorativa liscio bucato coniato ondolato patina d´oro tracce di appicagnolo carino secolo piccolo segni di corrosione graffio(i) rame lega leggero sinistra minimamente contraffazione esemplare magnifico conio stanco ammaccatura al bordo errore nel bordo inscrizione sul bordo destra rovescio

оттиск на гурте потертая свинец ассиметричный двойной чекан кайма односторонняя эмалированная сохранность слегка экземпляр следы обработки ошибка в процессе чеканки поле памятная монета отглаженная проколатая отчеканенная волнистая золотая патина следы от ушка красивая столетие маленький следы коррозии царапина медь сплав легкий слева минимальный имитация превосходный экземпляр издержкн при чеканкe вмятина на гурте ошибка на гурте гуртовая надпись справа реверс

262

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


DEUTSCH

ENGLISH

FRANCAIS

ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

Schriftspuren

traces of inscription

traces de légende

tracce di leggenda

Schrötling Schrötlingsfehler Schwach ausgeprägt Selten in dieser Erhaltung

flan flan defect weakly struck rare in this condition

flan flan défectueux de frappe faible rare en cet état

tondello errore di tondello conio stanco conservazione rara

Seltener Jahrgang Stempel Stempelfehler Überdurchschnittlich erhalten Überprägt Unediert Unikum Vergoldet Von allergrößter Seltenheit Vorderseite Winz.= winzig Zain Zierrand Zinn ziseliert

rare year die(s) mistake in the die extraordinary condition

année rare coin erreur de frappe conservation extraordinaire

overstruck unpublished unique specimen gilt extremely rare averse tiny flan ornamental border tin chased

surfrappé inédit unique doré de toute rareté en face petit flan tranche ornée étain ciselé

annata rara conio errore di conio conservazione estraordinaria ribattuto inedito pezzo unico dorato di estrema raritá diritto veramente piccolo tondello taglio ornato stagno cesellato

следы предыдущей надписи заготовка брак заготовки слабо отчеканeна редкая в такой сохранности редкий год штамп ошибка штампа сохранность выше среднего перечекан неопубликованная монета уникальная позолоченная наиредчайшая аверс незначительный заготовка декоративный гурт цинк гравированный

Erhaltungsgrade/Grading Terms/Degrès de Conservation/Gradi di Conservazione/ Шкала сохранности DEUTSCH

ENGLISH

FRANCAIS

ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

Polierte Platte Stempelglanz Vorzüglich Sehr schön Schön Gering erhalten

Proof Uncirculated Extremely fine Very fine Fine Very good

Flan bruni Fleur de coin Superbe Très beau Beau Très bien conservé

Fondo specchio Fior di conio Splendido Bellissimo Molto Bello Bello

полированная превосходная отличная очень хорошая хорошая удовлетворительная

Seltenheitsgrade/Rarity Terms/Degrés de Rareté/Grado di Raritá/ Шкала редкости DEUTSCH

ENGLISH

FRANCAIS

ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

R = Selten RR = Sehr selten Von großer Seltenheit Von größter Seltenheit Von allergrößter Seltenheit Unediert

R = Rare RR = Very rare Very rare Extremely rare Extremely rare Unpublished

Rare Très rare De grande rareté Extrêmement rare De la plus extrême rareté Inédit

raro molto raro di grande raritá di grandissima raritá di estrema raritá inedito

редкая очень редкая большой редкости наибольшей редкости наиредчайшая ранее не описанная

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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IMPRESSUM NUMISMATISCHE BEARBEITUNG FOTOS LAYOUT DRUCK

Alexandra Spreu, Dr. Sebastian Steinbach, Jens Ulrich Thormann M. A., Eva Weber, Manuela Weiß Lübke & Wiedemann, Stuttgart danner pc - gesteuerte systeme waiblingen meister print und media, Kassel, August 2013 Jeglicher Nachdruck, auch auszugsweise, bedarf der Genehmigung des Auktionshauses

ZAHLUNGEN AUS DEM INLAND Deutsche Bank Osnabrück

(BLZ 265 700 90) Konto-Nummer 0 177 006

Commerzbank Osnabrück

(BLZ 265 800 70) Konto-Nummer 780 520 200

Sparkasse Osnabrück

(BLZ 265 501 05) Konto-Nummer 247 320

Volksbank eG Bad Laer-Borgloh-Hilter-Melle

(BLZ 265 624 90) Konto-Nummer 1 200 222 400

Bankhaus Lampe KG, Bielefeld

(BLZ 480 201 51) Konto-Nummer 174 076

Postbank Hannover HypoVereinsbank München Oldenburgische Landesbank AG Oldenburg Paypal

(BLZ 250 100 30) Konto-Nummer 2900 60-308 (BLZ 700 202 70) Konto-Nummer 24 17 952 (BLZ 280 200 50) Konto-Nummer 508 50338 00 paypal@kuenker.de, Service charge: 3,5 %

ZAHLUNGEN AUS DEM AUSLAND FOREIGN PAYMENTS Deutsche Bank Osnabrück

IBAN: DE11 2657 0090 0017 7006 00 Swift-Code: DEUTDE3B265

Sparkasse Osnabrück

IBAN: DE50 2655 0105 0000 2473 20 Swift-Code: NOLADE22XXX

Postbank Hannover

IBAN: DE73 2501 0030 0290 0603 08 Swift-Code: PBNKDEFF

Credit Suisse

IBAN: CH43 0483 5177 3509 0200 0 Swift-Code: CRESCHZZ80A

Credit Cards

We do accept VISA and MASTERCARD, Service charge: 4,5 %

Paypal

264

paypal@kuenker.de, Service charge: 3,5 %

Auktion 236 Künker  

The Collection of Dieter Grunow: Hellenistic Tetradrachms Coins of the Ancient World

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