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Titelfoto (Nr. 1021) TÜRKEI Mahmûd I. 1143-1168 H./1730-1754 AD. 5 Altin (cedid Istanbul beshlik) 1143 H., Islâmbûl (Istanbul). Artuk 1779, Pere 543; YKB 596; KM 242.


AUKTION 210 THE SULTAN COLLECTION An Old Private Collection of Ottoman Coins, Part 2 Münzen des Ottomanischen Reiches, Teil 2 ZEIT

Montag, 18. Juni 2012 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr: Nr. 909 - Nr. 1582 14.00 Uhr - 15.30 Uhr: Nr. 1583 - Nr. 1970

ORT

Steigenberger Hotel Remarque Osnabrück, Natruper-Tor-Wall 1

AUKTIONS-TELEFON

+49 (0)541 60 96 633

AUKTIONS-FAX

+49 (0)541 60 96 634 in Zusammenarbeit mit:

NUMISART Roland Michel 18, place du Manoir CH - 1223 Cologny - Genève Schweiz Telefon +41 (0)22 73 67 593 Fax +41 (0)22 73 50 210 numisart@bluewin.ch www.numisart.ch

Auktionen 210-215, Juni 2012 18. JUNI 2012 18./19. JUNI 2012 19. JUNI 2012

Auktion 210 The Sultan Collection, Part 2 Auktion 211 Münzen und Medaillen aus Mittelalter und Neuzeit Auktion 212 Die Haussammlung der Fürsten zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich

20./21. JUNI 2012

Auktion 213 Sammlung Vogel, Hamburg, Teil 2

21./22. JUNI 2012

Auktion 214 Geprägtes Gold aus Mittelalter und Neuzeit Russische Münzen und Medaillen

22. JUNI 2012

Auktion 215 Orden und Ehrenzeichen


Zeitplan/Timetable Auktion 210 The Sultan Collection Münzen des Ottomanischen Reiches, Teil 2

Montag, 18. Juni 2012 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 909 bis Nr. 1582 Sulaymân II. ibn Ibrâhîm - Selîm III. 14.00 Uhr - 15.30 Uhr Nr. 1583 bis Nr. 1970 Mustafâ IV. - Mahmûd II.

Auktion 211 Münzen und Medaillen aus Mittelalter und Neuzeit

15.30 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 2001 bis Nr. 2587

Europa, Übersee Dienstag, 19. Juni 2012 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 2588 bis Nr. 3197 Habsburg, Deutschland: Anhalt - Jülich-Kleve-Berg 14.00 Uhr - 16.30 Uhr Nr. 3198 bis Nr. 3656 Deutschland: Kempten - Würzburg, Spezialsammlungen, Medaillen, Papiergeld, Münzenlots, Literatur

Auktion 212 Die Haussammlung der Fürsten zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich

Auktion 213 Sammlung Vogel, Hamburg, Teil 2 Die Goldmünzen der deutschen Staaten ab 1800

16.30 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 4001 bis Nr. 4328

Mittwoch, 20. Juni 2012 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 4501 bis Nr. 4931 Deutsche Staaten: Anhalt - Hannover 14.00 Uhr - 17.30 Uhr Nr. 4932 bis Nr. 5357 Deutsche Staaten: Hessen - Wuppertal

Sammlung Vogel, Hamburg, Teil 2 Deutsche Münzen ab 1871 - mit einer kompletten Typensammlung Kaiserreich in Gold und Silber

Donnerstag, 21. Juni 2012 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 5358 bis Nr. 6077 Deutsche Münzen ab 1871: Reichsgoldmünzen, Reichskleinmünzen, Reichssilbermünzen: Anhalt - Sachsen 14.00 Uhr - 15.00 Uhr Nr. 6078 bis Nr. 6359 Reichssilbermünzen: Sachsen-Altenburg - Württemberg, Weltkrieg und Inflation, Weimarer Republik, Drittes Reich, BRD, DDR, Kolonien, Notmünzen, Danzig, Litzmannstadt, Proben, Lots

Auktion 214 Geprägtes Gold aus Mittelalter und Neuzeit Russische Münzen und Medaillen

15.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 7001 bis Nr. 7764

Freitag, 22. Juni 2012 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 8001 bis Nr. 8368

Auktion 215 Orden und Ehrenzeichen 2

14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 9001 bis Nr. 9761


Sehr geehrte Münzfreunde/Dear Coin Collectors, Ich wünsche Ihnen viel Freude mit unseren neuen Auktionskatalogen und hoffe, Sie finden einige schöne Stücke für Ihre Sammlung. Als Europas führendes Auktionshaus für Münzen, Medaillen und Orden hat sich unser Dienstleistungsspektrum für Sie als unsere Kunden stetig verbessert und erweitert. Einen kleinen Überblick über unsere Angebote finden Sie hier. I wish you a lot of pleasure with our new auction catalogues and I hope you will find a few additonal items for your collection. As Europe´s leading auction company for coins, medals and decorations our range of services for our customers has been steadily improving and expanding. Following is a short overview of our offers. Mit herzlichen Grüßen/With warm regards

Friti z Ru Frit Fr Rudo dolflff K do Kün ünke ün ker ke ker

AUKTIONEN/AUCTIONS Besuchen Sie unsere international bedeutenden Auktionen, die Ihnen viermal jährlich zahlreiche Raritäten bieten. Profitieren Sie als Bieter oder Einlieferer von unserer Erfahrung und Kompetenz. Visit our internationally recognized auctions which take place four times a year and offer many rarities. Benefit from our experience and competence while being a bidder or consigner. GOLDHANDEL/GOLD COIN TRADING Wir bieten Ihnen ein ständiges Angebot sowie den Ankauf von Anlagemünzen aus Deutschland, Europa und aller Welt zu fairen tagesaktuellen Preisen. We are constantly offering as well as purchasing a vast range of German, European and World bullion coins. We buy and sell gold assets at a fair, daily updated market price. ONLINE-SHOP Wir bieten Ihnen in unserem Online-Shop auf www.kuenker.de ein täglich aktualisiertes Münz-Angebot von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit. Kaufen Sie hier unkompliziert zum Festpreis und ohne Risiko. We offer you an exclusive daily updated selection of coins from ancient to modern times. You can order at www.kuenker.com without hassle or risk. eLIVE AUCTION Mit unseren eLive Auctions können Sie über das Internet an regelmäßigen Auktionen mit einem virtuellen Auktionator teilnehmen. Sie können Vorgebote bequem online abgeben und abschließend die Auktion live am Bildschirm für sich entscheiden. With our eLive Auctions, we offer you an opportunity to participate in regular auctions live over the Internet. You can submit preliminary bids online, and up to the last moment of the sale you can win auctions live on your computer screen. ORDEN UND EHRENZEICHEN/ORDERS AND DECORATIONS Einmal im Jahr findet unsere besondere Ordensauktion statt, die sich ganz den dekorativen Ehrenzeichen widmet. Profitieren Sie als Bieter oder Einlieferer von unserer Erfahrung und Kompetenz im Bereich Phaleristik. Once a year there is a special auction dedicated to medals and decorations. Benefit from our experience in the field of phaleristik becoming our bidder or consigner.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Besichtigung/On View Die Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes kann nach vorheriger telefonischer Absprache erfolgen. Auction lots may be viewed by appointment only.

Online-Katalog/Online Catalogue

KUENKER.DE

Betrachten Sie unsere Auktionskataloge im Internet! Unter www.kuenker.de und www.sixbid.com haben Sie die Möglichkeit, Abbildungen zu vergrößern, Ihre Gebote direkt abzugeben und die Ergebnisse der Auktionen abzurufen. Please browse our auction catalogues at www.kuenker.com or at www.sixbid.com! You will have the possibility to zoom all images, to place your bids and to view all auction results online.

Künker-Service Wir sind mittlerweile mit neun eigenen Standorten in Deutschland und Europa vertreten. So können wir Ihnen unseren beliebten Künker-Service auch in Ihrer Nähe anbieten. Unsere Leistungen vor Ort: • Persönliche Beratung und Betreuung in Ihrer Nähe. • Sie können Ihre Münzen direkt einliefern oder verkaufen, ersteigerte Münzen abholen und sich nach Vereinbarung Einlieferungen auszahlen lassen. • Sie können sich von unserem Kooperationspartner auf den Künker-Auktionen vertreten lassen. We are now represented with nine locations in Germany and Europe so that we can also provide you the best service in your vicinity. Our local services: • You always have a point of contact nearby. • You can directly consign or sell your coins, collect purchases and receive by appointment payment for consignments. • You can have our cooperation partner represent you at our auctions. OSNABRÜCK Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Gutenbergstraße 23, 49076 Osnabrück Tel. +49 (0)541 96 20 20, E-Mail: service@kuenker.de USt-IdNr./VAT-No: DE256270181 Haupptstsititz Ha ititz in in Osn s abbrüückk

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TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Standorte/Locations

Drrr. H D Huube bert rt R Ruß uß

Fraannk Ri Fr Rich chharrds dsen en en

MÜNCHEN Künker Numismatik AG Löwengrube 12, 80333 München Dr. Hubert Ruß Tel. +49 (0)89 242 198 38, service@kuenker-numismatik.de Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Maximiliansplatz 12a, 80333 München Frank Richardsen Tel. +49 (0)89 242 16 990, frank.richardsen@kuenker.de BERLIN Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Poststraße 22, 10178 Berlin-Mitte Wollankstraße 117, 13187 Berlin-Pankow Michael Otto Tel. +49 (0)30 247 248 91, michael.otto@kuenker.de

M ch Mi chae aell Ot Otto tttoo

Rolaand nd Trraam mppe

HAMBURG Künker Hamburg, c/o Roland Trampe Roland Trampe Tel. +49 (0)541 96 20 20, roland.trampe@kuenker.de KONSTANZ Künker Konstanz, c/o Michael Autengruber Schulthaißstraße 10, 78462 Konstanz Michael Autengruber Tel. +49 (0)7531 28 44 69, michael.autengruber@kuenker.de

Michaeel Autengruubeer

Petr Kov Pe ovaljo jov

ZNOJMO Künker Znojmo, c/o Petr Kovaljov 17. Listopadu 18, 66902 Znojmo, Tschechische Republik Petr Kovaljov Tel. +42 (0)603 81 10 31, petr.kovaljov@kuenker.de ZÜRICH Künker Zürich, c/o Hess-Divo AG Löwenstraße 55, 8001 Zürich, Schweiz Ulf Künker Tel. +41 (0)44 225 40 90, zuerich@kuenker.de

Alleekksesey On Oncchhuk ukoovv ukov

MOSKAU Künker Moskau, c/o Russian Coin Co. Ltd. Lyalin pereulok dom 9, str. 1, of. 3, 105062 Moskau, Russland Aleksey Onchukov Tel. +7 (495) 589 56 10, aleksey.onchukov@kuenker.de

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Was ist für Ihre schriftliche Auktionsteilnahme besonders wichtig?

DEUTSCH

• Bitte senden Sie uns Ihre Aufträge möglichst frühzeitig zu. Wenn uns Ihr Auftrag erst kurz vor der Auktion erreicht, können sich bei der Bearbeitung Fehler einschleichen. Das beiliegende Formular erleichtert Ihnen die Abgabe eines schriftlichen Gebots. Gerne nehmen wir Ihre Gebote per Post, Fax oder Email entgegen. • Wenn Sie noch nicht bei uns gekauft haben, bitten wir Sie, uns als Referenz eine Münzhandlung anzugeben, mit der Sie bereits in Geschäftsverbindung stehen. • Wir gewährleisten die Echtheit aller verkauften Objekte auch über die gesetzliche Frist hinaus.

Sie möchten telefonisch an der Auktion teilnehmen? Die telefonische Teilnahme an der Auktion ist bei uns selbstverständlich möglich. Wir rufen Sie während der Auktion gerne an und helfen Ihnen, die gewünschten Stücke zu ersteigern. Aus organisatorischen Gründen bitten wir Sie, die folgenden Punkte zu beachten:

Ulrich Künker Leiter Kundenbetreuung

• Telefonisches Bieten ist nur bei Losen mit einer Taxe von mind. € 500,– möglich. • Bitte teilen Sie uns mindestens 48 Stunden vor der Auktion mit, zu welchen Stücken Sie angerufen werden möchten. • Bitte achten Sie darauf, dass Sie erreichbar sind, wenn Ihre Stücke versteigert werden. Der Zeitplan in diesem Katalog hilft Ihnen dabei, den Zeitpunkt der Versteigerung abzuschätzen. • Wir empfehlen, zusätzlich zu Ihrem Anrufwunsch auch ein Gebotslimit abzugeben, damit wir für Sie auch dann bieten können, falls die Verbindung nicht zustande kommt. • Bitte beachten Sie, dass telefonisches Bieten eine unsichere Variante der Auktionsteilnahme sein kann. Wir können keine Garantie für das Zustandekommen der telefonischen Verbindung übernehmen. Wenn Sie sicher gehen wollen, besuchen Sie bitte unsere Auktion persönlich oder geben Sie uns ein schriftliches Gebot.

Was passiert nach der Auktion? Barbara Westmeyer deutschsprachige Kundenbetreuung

Telefon: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 Gebührenfrei: 0800 58 36 537 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Internet: www.kuenker.de Montag – Donnerstag 8.30 – 17.00 Uhr Freitag 8.00 – 15.30 Uhr

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• Der Versand der Auktionsware startet sofort nach Beendigung der Auktion und dauert in der Regel 8 Tage. • Alle Kunden, die an unserer Auktion schriftlich teilgenommen haben, erhalten innerhalb von 2 Wochen nach der Auktion unsere Ergebnisliste gratis. • Alle Ergebnisse sind spätestens einen Tag nach Auktionsende auf unserer Internetseite verfügbar.

Sie möchten Ihre Münzen in unsere Auktion einliefern? Sollten Sie sich zum Verkauf Ihrer Münzen entschlossen haben, kommen Sie zu uns. Seit 1985 beweisen wir mit derzeit 4 Auktionsterminen und ca. 15 Katalogen pro Jahr unsere Kompetenz und Zuverlässigkeit. Wichtige Informationen für Sie im Überblick: • Ihre Münzen werden von unseren Experten nach neuestem numismatischem Standard bestimmt und in hochwertigen Farbkatalogen präsentiert. • Wir verfügen mit mehr als 10.000 Kunden über eine der besten Kundendateien weltweit. Im Durchschnitt verkaufen wir mehr als 95 % der Stücke einer Auktion, nicht selten erzielen wir dabei Rekordzuschläge. Für nicht verkaufte Objekte werden keine Gebühren erhoben. • Ab der Übergabe an uns sind Ihre Münzen mit dem doppelten Schätzwert versichert. Unsere Kundenbetreuung bespricht gerne mit Ihnen wie Ihre Stücke sicher zu uns gelangen können. • Ihre Einlieferung wird Ihnen sofort nach der Übernahme quittiert. Spätestens 5 Wochen vor der Auktion erhalten Sie eine Auflistung Ihrer Stücke inkl. Katalognummern und Schätzpreisen. • Unmittelbar nach der Auktion erhalten Sie die Ergebnisliste und können dann alle erzielten Preise feststellen. Den Auktionserlös erhalten Sie innerhalb von 45 Tagen nach der Auktion.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Important facts for a written participation in the auction • Please send us your instructions as early as possible. The likelihood of errors occurring increases if we receive your instructions only shortly before the auction. The enclosed form should make it simple for you to submit a written bid, you may send your bids by mail, fax or e-mail. • If you are a new customer who has not yet purchased from us, we do request references. Please name a coin dealer with whom you have already done business. • The genuineness of all objects sold is warranted beyond the statutory length of time.

ENGLISH

Do you wish to participate by telephone? You are welcome to participate in our auction by telephone. We are glad to call you during the auction and to assist you in bidding for your items. Please take notice of the following conditions: • Telephone bidding is accepted exclusively on lot numbers with estimates at 500 Euro or above. • Please inform us at least 48 hours in advance if you wish to register for telephone bidding, even for single lots. We do need 48 hours to schedule all incoming requests. • Please be available, when your lots will be sold. The time schedule in the catalogue will help you to estimate the approximate time when your items are going to be sold. • When you register for telephone bidding, we recommend to leave a written bid in addition. This bid will only be executed, should the telephone bidding be interrupted or not be achieved. • Please be aware that telephone bidding is a risky way of participation in our auction. We do not assume liability should the telephone line be interrupted or not be achieved. We advise you to attend the auction in person or to send written bids.

Nadine Zuber English, Deutsch

What occurs after the auction? • The shipment of all auction goods starts immediately after the completion of the entire auction week and it usually takes 8 days to be completed. • All auction results are available on our website one day after the end of the auction week. • All clients who submitted bids for the auction will automatically receive the list of auction results free of charge within two weeks after the end of auction.

Do you wish to consign your coins to our auction? Should you decide to sell your coins, we are ready to assist you. Since 1985 we have earned our bona fides in conducting over 4 auctions and in publishing 15 catalogues per year. In the following you will find the most important information on consigning: • We guarantee the professional handling of your consignment following the latest numismatic level of expertise including its presentation in colour catalogues of outstanding quality. • We possess one of the best customer lists worldwide. On average we sell more than 95 % of all items in our auction, and it is not unusual for us to achieve record hammer prices for lots submitted. Unsold items incur no fees. • Once the coins are consigned they are covered by our insurance at double the estimate. Upon consultation with our customer service we try to advise you on the safest way of shipping for your coins. • Your delivery will be confirmed in writing immediately on receipt. At least five weeks before the auction, you will receive an exact list of your objects with the relevant catalogue numbers and descriptions. • Within a week of the end of auction, you will receive a list of auction results in order to see what prices were reached for each individual lot. As a consignor, you will receive the auction proceeds within 45 days after the end of auction.

Marion Künker English, Deutsch

Phone: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Website: www.kuenker.com Monday –Thursday 8.30 AM – 5 PM Friday 8 AM – 3.30 PM

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Votre participation par écrit – Les points essentiels

FRANCAIS

• Veuillez nous faire parvenir vos ordres le plus tôt possible. Si vos ordres nous parviennent juste avant la vente aux enchères, des erreurs risquent d’être commises lors de leur traitement. Le formulaire ci-joint vous aidera à rédiger facilement votre offre. Vous pouvez nous envoyer vos ordres par la poste, par fax ou par e-mail. • Si vous n’avez encore fait aucune acquisition chez nous, nous vous prions de nous indiquer une ou deux références d’autres maisons numismatiques où vous avez déjà acheté. • L’authenticité des pièces vendues est garantie même au-delà des délais légaux.

Vous voulez participer par téléphone? La participation par téléphone est bien sûr possible. Nous vous appelons volontiers pour vous aider à acquérir les pièces voulues. Pour des raisons d´organisation veuillez noter les points suivants:

Alexandra Elflein, M. A. Français, Deutsch, English, Italiano

• La participation par téléphone est possible seulement pour les lots estimé à plus de 500 Euros chacun. • Veuillez nous informer au moins 48 heures avant la vente de la liste des pièces pour lesquelles vous voudriez être appelé. • Veuillez prendre soin d´être joignable quand vos pièces seront mises en vente. L’ordre de vente dans ce catalogue vous aidera à estimer l´heure de la vente. • Vue les risques de la participation téléphonique, nous vous recommandons néanmoins d’indiquer une limite maximale pour chaque lot, pour que nous puissions enchérir pour vous, même si la communication téléphonique serait interrompue ou ne pourrait pas être établie. • La participation par téléphone présente des risques, et nous déclinons toute responsabilité dans le cas où la communication téléphonique serait interrompue, ou bien ne pourrait être établie.

Ce qui se passe après la vente Kmar Chachoua Français, Deutsch, English, Arabic

Tél. +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Facs. +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Site: www.kuenker.de Lundi à Jeudi de 8h30 à 17h00 Vendredi de 8h00 à 15h30

• L´expédition des biens va commencer immédiatement après la fin de la vente complète, et prend généralement 8 jours. • Tous les clients qui ont participé à l’une de nos ventes aux enchères recevront gratuitement une liste de résultats dans les deux semaines qui suivent. • Les résultats seront disponibles sur notre site internet, au plus tard un jour après la fin de la vente.

Vous voulez confier vos monnaies pour nos ventes aux enchères? Contactez nous si vous envisagez de vendre vos pièces. Notre compétence et fiabilité est prouvée depuis 1985 par actuellement 4 ventes aux enchères et environ 15 catalogues par an. Le plus important pour vous est que: • Vos pièces seront décrites par notre équipe d’experts selon les standards numismatiques les plus récents, et elles seront présentées dans des catalogues de haute qualité en couleurs. • Nous avons un des meilleurs fichiers-clientèle du monde avec plus de 10.000 clients. Nous vendons en moyenne plus de 95% de la vente aux enchères, et obtenons souvent des prix records. Les monnaies invendues n’encourent aucun frais. • Notre service clientèle est disponible pour vous conseiller pour l’envoi de vos pièces, et dès leur réception vos pièces seront assurées pour le double de la valeur d´estimation. • Vous recevrez une liste détaillée des pièces fournies au moment de la prise en charge puis, au plus tard cinq semaines avant la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez leur liste exacte avec les numéros de catalogue correspondants. • Immédiatement après la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez la liste des résultats et pourrez prendre connaissance des prix obtenus. Vous recevrez le produit de la vente dans les 45 jours après les enchères.

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TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


I punti piú importanti per la Sua partecipazione per iscritto • La preghiamo di farci pervenire i Suoi ordini al piú presto possibile. Se i Suoi ordini ci arrivano poco prima dell´inizio dell´asta possono verificarsi errori. Il formulario allegato Le faciliterá l´invio dei Suoi ordini per iscritto. Ci puó far pervenire i Suoi ordini per posta, per fax o per email. • Se non ha mai acquistato presso di noi, La preghiamo di volerci indicare a titolo di referenza il nome di uno o due commercianti numismatici presso i quali è giá cliente. • L’autenticità di tutti gli oggetti venduti viene garantita anche oltre i termini previsti dalla legge.

ITALIANO

Desidera partecipare telefonicamente alla nostra asta? La partecipazione telefonica è naturalmente da noi possibile. La chiameremo durante l´asta e La assisteremo volentieri per ottenere l´aggiudicazione dei pezzi desiderati. Per motivi di organizzazione La preghiamo di voler tenere conto dei seguenti punti: • La partecipazione telefonica è possibile solo per lotti stimati con almeno 500,– € l´uno. • La preghiamo di volerci comunicare almeno 48 ore prima dell´inizio dell´asta per quali pezzi desidera essere chiamato. • La preghiamo di aver cura di essere raggiungibile telefonicamente al momento in cui vengono messi all´asta i pezzi che Le interessano. Lo schema orario in catalogo La aiuterá a stimare a che ora verranno messi all´asta i pezzi che Le interessano. • Consigliamo di indicare sempre assieme alla richiesta di partecipazione telefonica anche un´ importo massimo, per permetterci di fare per Lei l´offerta anche nel caso in cui la telefonata non fosse possibile. • La partecipazione telefonica è un modo incerto di partecipare alle aste. Non assumiamo nessuna responsabilità se per esempio la linea telefonica è occupata o interrotta o se Lei non sará raggiungibile per altri motivi.

Sonia Russo, M. A. Italiano, Deutsch, English, Español

Cosa succede dopo l´asta? • La spedizione del materiale d´asta comincia subito dopo la fine dell´intera asta e termina normalmente entro 8 giorni. • Tutti i clienti che hanno partecipato all´asta ricevono entro 2 settimane dopo l´asta la lista dei prezzi di realizzo. • I prezzi di realizzo sono visionabili sul nostro sito internet al piú tardi un giorno dopo la fine dell´intera asta.

Vuole consegnarci le Sue monete per una nostra asta? Ci contatti se ha deciso di vendere le Sue monete. Dal 1985 la nostra competenza ed affidabilità è dimostrata da attualmente 4 aste e circa 15 cataloghi all´anno. Quali sono i punti di maggior importanza per Lei:

Cristina Welzel Italiano, Deutsch, English, Français

Tel.: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Internet: www.kuenker.de Lunedì a giovedì dalle 8.30 alle 17.00 Venerdì dalle 8.00 alle 15.30

• Le Sue monete vengono valutate dal nostro staff di esperti secondo i piú attuali standard numismatici e vengono presentati in cataloghi di alto valore a colori. • Con piú di 10.000 clienti disponiamo di una delle migliori banca dati clienti del mondo. In media vendiamo oltre il 95% del materiale d´asta realizzando spesso prezzi da record. Per i pezzi invenduti non ci sono nessune spese da pagare. • Dal momento della consegna le Sue monete sono assicurate per il doppio del valore di stima. Il nostro servizio clientela Le consiglierá volentieri come farci avere le Sue monete nel modo piú sicuro. • La Sua consegna Le verrá immediatamente quietanzata al momento della resa dei pezzi. Al piú tardi 5 settimane prima dell´asta riceverá una lista dettagliata dei Suoi pezzi con i numeri di catalogo ed i prezzi di stima. • Subito dopo l´asta riceverá la lista con i risultati d´asta dalla quale potrá subito controllare i prezzi realizzati. Riceverá l´importo di realizzo entro 45 giorni dopo la fine dell´asta.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Что особенно важно при заочном участии на аукционе?

RUSSKIJ

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Vortrag von Michael Autengruber anlässlich unserer Sommer-Auktionen 210 – 215

Das Mysterium um die Beute von Waterloo – Die verschlungenen Pfade der Orden Napoléons von Belle-Alliance bis Paris Napoléon I., Kaiser der Franzosen (1769 – 1821), war Inhaber der höchsten Orden der meisten europäischen Staaten seiner Zeit. Am Abend der Schlacht von Belle-Alliance/Waterloo, am 18. Juni 1815, fiel preußischen Soldaten die gesamte Equipage des Korsen in die Hände, und mit ihr unzählige Juwelen, Gold- und Silbermünzen, silberne Tafelservice, Kleider und Gebrauchsgegenstände, darunter auch seine persönlichen Ordensinsignien. Teile davon gelangten durch Feldmarschall Gebhard Leberecht Fürst Blücher in die Königlichen Kunstsammlungen in Berlin und schließlich ins Zeughaus, aus dessen Beständen sie zu Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges verschwanden und erst wieder in den 1990er Jahren im Historischen Museum in Moskau wieder auftauchten. Derzeit sind sie (bis zum 8. Juli 2012) als Leihgabe der Russischen Föderation im Museum der Ehrenlegion und der Ritterorden in Paris zusammen mit weiteren Ordensinsignien und Preziosen aus der »Waterloo-Beute« zu sehen. Der Vortragende beabsichtigt, anhand von zahlreichen Bildern, zeitgenössischen Berichten und Darstellungen die verschlungenen und spannenden Pfade der »Waterloo-Beute« wie auch dieser wohl einzigartigen »Sammlung« von Ordensinsignien nachzuzeichnen.

Donnerstag, 21. Juni 2012 um 19:00 Uhr, Steigenberger Hotel Remarque, Osnabrück


INHALT AUKTION 210 Nr. THE SULTAN COLLECTION, PART 2

909

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1970

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183

Sulaymân II. ibn Ibrâhîm, 1099-1102 H. (1687-1691 AD.)

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Türkei, Silberprägungen Türkei und Bosnien, Kupfermünzen Ägypten, Goldprägungen Libyen, Goldprägung Osmanische Gegenstempel auf venezianischen Zecchini und deren Imitationen Ahmad II. ibn Ibrâhîm, 1102-1106 H. (1691-1695 AD.) Türkei, Silberprägungen Türkei, Kupfermünzen Ägypten, Goldmünze Ägypten, Silbermünze Mustafâ II. ibn Muhammad, 1106-1115 H. (1695-1703 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silbermünzen Ägypten, Goldmünzen Libyen, Silbermünzen Tunesien, Kupfermünze Ahmad III. ibn Muhammad, 1115-1143 H. (1703-1730 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silbermünzen Türkei, Kupfermünzen Armenien, Silbermünzen Azerbaidschan, Iran, Goldmünze Azerbaidschan, Iran, Silbermünzen Azerbaischan, Silbermünze Georgien, Goldmünzen Georgien, Silbermünzen Ägypten, Goldmünzen Ägypten, Silbermünze Ägypten, Kupfermünze Libyen, Kupfermünze Tunesien, Silbermünzen Mahmûd I. 1143-1168 H. (1730-1754 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silbermünzen Türkei, Kupfermünze Iraq, Silbermünze

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Nr. Azerbaidschan, Silbermünzen Georgien, Silbermünzen Ägypten, Goldmünzen Ägypten, Silbermünzen Tunesien, Goldmünze Tunesien, Silbermünzen Algerien, Goldmünzen 'Uthmân III., 1168-1171 H. (1754-1757 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silbermünzen Saudi Arabien (Ostarabien), Kupfermünzen Ägypten, Goldmünzen Ägypten, Silbermünzen Algerien, Goldmünzen Mustafâ III., 1171-1187 H. (1757-1774 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silbermünzen Irak, Kupfermünze Saudi Arabien, Kupfermünzen Syrien, Kupfermünze Ägypten, Goldmünzen Ägypten, Silbermünzen Tunesien, Goldmünzen Tunesien, Silber- und Kupfermünzen Algerien, Goldmünzen Algerien, Silbermünzen 'Abd al-Hamîd I., 1187-1203 H. (1774-1789 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silber- und Kupfermünzen Ägypten, Goldmünzen Ägypten, Silbermünzen Libyen, Goldmünzen Libyen, Silber- und Kupfermünzen Tunesien, Goldmünze Tunesien, Silber- und Kupfermünzen Algerien, Goldmünzen Algerien, Silbermünzen Selîm III., 1203-1222 H. (1789-1807 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silbermünzen Türkei, Kupfermünzen Ägypten, Goldmünzen Ägypten, Silbermünzen

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Nr. Libyen, Goldmünze Libyen, Silbermünzen Tunesien, Silbermünzen Algerien, Goldmünzen Algerien, Silbermünzen Mustafâ IV., 1222-1223 H. (1807-1808 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silber- und Kupfermünzen Ägypten, Goldmünzen Ägypten, Silbermünze Libyen, Silbermünze Tunesien, Silbermünze Algerien, Goldmünze Algerien, Silbermünze Mahmûd II., 1223-1255 H. (1808-1839 AD.) Türkei, Goldmünzen Türkei, Silbermünzen Cihadiye-Ausgaben, Jahre 3-11 IV. und V. Serie VI.-VII. Serie VIII.-IX. Serie Paraprägungen Irak, Goldmünze Irak, Silber- und Kupfermünzen Saudi Arabien, Kupfermünze Ägypten, Goldmünzen Ägypten, Silber- und Kupfermünzen Libyen, Silber- und Billonmünzen Libyen, Kupfermünzen Tunesien, Silber- und Billonmünzen Algerien, Goldmünzen Algerien, Silbermünzen Türkei, Lot

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1969 1674 1684 1700 1716 1721 1740 1752 1753 1769 1770 1800 1840 1865 1884 1907 1923 1969 1970

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183 142 143 146 148 149 152 153 154 156 156 160 165 169 171 174 176 183 183

Ein Stichwortverzeichnis finden Sie am Ende des Auktionskataloges 214.

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VORWORT

Allgemeines Vorwort zur Sammlung Die hier zur Versteigerung kommende Sammlung osmanischer Münzen kann ohne Übertreibung als die umfassendste gegenwärtig existierende Sammlung ihrer Art bezeichnet werden. Sie ist das Ergebnis von über dreißig Jahren hingabevoller Sammeltätigkeit, tiefen Verständnisses der Materie, sowie eines Netzwerks von befreundeten Händlern und Sammlern, die mit Hinweisen, Diskussionen und guten Diensten den Aufbau dieser einzigartigen Sammlung beförderten. Allen voran ist hier der im Jahr 2004 verstorbene Nestor der osmanischen Numismatik, Kenneth MacKenzie, zu nennen. Dieser hat auch nicht wenige bedeutende und bis dahin unbekannte ältere Münzen der vorliegenden Sammlung in Aufsätzen in türkischen, amerikanischen und britischen Zeitschriften veröffentlicht. Die Anfänge der Sammlung lagen in einer Gruppe wenig attraktiver, doch stets in Ehren gehaltener osmanischer Münzen des 19. Jahrhunderts, welche sich in der Familie des Sammlers vererbt hatten. Als Ende der 1970er Jahre das Auktionshaus Sotheby's begann, regelmäßig Auktionen mit islamischen Münzen zu veranstalten, erwachte das persönliche Interesse des Sammlers und von nun an erwarb er durch die Firma Spinck's regelmäßig einige Goldstücke der Osmanen. Mächtigen Schub bekam das Interesse, als er zu Beginn des Jahres 1990 die Gelegenheit bekam und wahrnahm, Teile einer bedeutenden älteren Sammlung mit weitgehend vollständigen Jahrgangs- und Münzzeichenreihen von Kleinmünzen in überdurchschnittlichen Erhaltungen zu kaufen. Gegen Ende der 90er Jahre zählte der Bestand mit damals etwas über 3000 Stücken bereits zu den großen Sammlungen osmanischer Münzen. Doch das war nur der Ansporn durch das folgende Jahrzehnt, nochmals eine Verdoppelung der Zahl bei qualitativer Vervielfachung zu erreichen. An einem Punkt größter Vollständigkeit angelangt, an dem weitere Ergänzungen zu einem seltenen Ereignis werden, hat sich der Sammler entschlossen, diesen Schatz unter Dokumentation eines detaillierten Kataloges wieder anderen Sammlern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Er folgt damit vielen großen Sammler des 19. Jahrhunderts, die mehr als eine Sammlung aufbauten. Der zweite hier vorliegende Teil dieser Sammlung umfasst einen klar umrissenen Zeitraum der osmanischen Münzgeschichte vom Beginn der Großsilberprägung und zugleich der technischen Innovation auf gängige europäische Standards bis zum Ende der Regierungszeit des Mahmûd II., der die fundamentale Modernisierung des osmanischen Staatsapparates vorbereitete, der dann nach seinem Tod der Anschluss an die wichtigsten europäischen Währungssysteme folgte, an das britische Pfund Sterling im Feingehalt des Goldes und an den Konventionstaler für das Silber. Diese Periode ist in politischer Hinsicht geprägt durch die defensive Abwehr seiner recht aggressiven christlichen europäischen Nachbarstaaten. Auf der einen Seite ist hier das Deutsche Reich zu nennen, das die Türkenkriege als Reichskrieg institutionalisiert hat. In der osmanistischen Geschichtsliteratur wird hier sehr häufig indifferent Österreich oder das Haus Habsburg als Kriegsgegner, seltener als Bündnispartner, der Osmanen angesprochen. Das ist verständlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, in welch hohem Maße bis heute die Kenntnis der osmanischen Geschichte auf Joseph von Hammer-Purgstalls Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches, 10 Bände, Pest 1827-1833, basiert, verfasst von einem orientalistisch ausgebildeten österreichischen Diplomaten, der die neue Eigenständigkeit seines Landes ebenso zu begründen hatte wie die historische Legitimität der habsburgischen Donaumonarchie, die sich weitgehend außerhalb des Deutschen Reiches etabliert hatte. Tatsächlich wurden aber die Türkenkriege bis weit in das 18. Jahrhundert hinein als Reichskriege geführt mit militärischen wie finanziellen Ressourcen aus dem ganzen Reich, die in Frankfurt zusammenliefen und über die nicht in Wien, sondern in Regensburg auf dem Reichstag entschieden wurde. Auf der anderen Seite ist der Gang der osmanischen Geschichte von Auseinandersetzungen mit dem Russischen Reich bestimmt. Im Russischen Reich wächst in diesem Zeitraum zunehmend das Selbstverständnis als Nachfolger des Byzantinischen Reiches. Anders als Deutsche und Österreicher, die Territorialgewinne oder sichere Grenzen suchen, haben die Russen ein großes Interesse, im Inneren des Osmanischen Reiches Einfluss auf die Führung der Orthodoxen Kirche zu nehmen. Auf der anderen Seite stellt Frankreich einen fast konstanten Bündnispartner in der großen Politik, in der Militärentwicklung, in allen technischen und kulturellen Bereichen, das aber seine angestrebte Vormacht im Außenhandel des Osmanischen Reiches mit England, den Niederlanden und der Republik Venedig zu teilen hat. Die Zeit um das 18. Jahrhundert ist oft als Periode des staatlichen Niedergangs und der Auflösung beschrieben worden. Darin spiegeln sich grundlegende Vorstellungen des simplen Modells von Aufstieg, Blüte, Stagnation und Fall von Dynastien, die unter Orientalisten mit Bezug auf die theoretischen Ausführungen eines Ibn Khaldun weit verbreitet waren, andererseits aber auch die Propaganda der europäischen Kriegsgegner des 18. Jahrhunderts. Gerne wird dabei auf den Einfluss des Harîm auf den Sultan, das hohe Ausmaß der Korruption und Vetternwirtschaft in osmanischen Verwaltungen wie auch auf die Inflation der osmanischen Währung verwiesen. Vergleicht man aber das Osmanische Reich mit Frankreich im 18. Jahrhundert, so finden wir auch dort Maitressenwesen, massive Klagen über Korruption und einen gleich zweifachen Zusammenbruch der Währung. Auch Deutschland konnte zwischen dem Ende des 30jährigen Krieges und der Durchsetzung der Aufklärung mit dem internationalen Korruptionsniveau und in anderen Hinsichten mithalten. Die Gesamtentwertung der osmanischen Währung von 1687 bis 1800 lag bei zwei Dritteln, was auf die Dauer der Zeit bezogen nicht dramatisch ist. Unter heutigen Osmanisten ist daher weitgehend anerkannt, dass das Osmanische Reich in der fraglichen Zeit als durchaus vitaler Staat gelten darf, der seine größeren Krisen in der Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts meistern und sein Territorium im Großen und Ganzen halten konnte. Politiker, Militärs und Rechtsgelehrsamkeit verschlossen ihre Augen nicht vor den sich stellenden Problemen. In Kunst, Architektur und traditionellen Wissenschaften wurden immer wieder neue Leistungen erbracht, welche heute hochgeschätzt sind. Lediglich die Frage, ob man so weit gehen kann, von einer osmanischen Aufklärung zu sprechen, ist kontrovers. Die vielfältigen Formen der Modernisierung können wir auch im osmanischen Münzwesen verfolgen. Sie betreffen keineswegs nur die rein technischen Aspekte der Münzprägung, welche von der reinen Handprägung, zur Benutzung von Spindelpressen, vom Ausschneiden oder Ausschmieden der Schrötlinge über Ausstanzen zur Rändelung zeitgemäß vorangetrieben wurde. Auch die Entwicklung eines differenzierten Nominalsystems zählt zu den grundlegenden Neuerungen 15


VORWORT im Osmanischen Reich. Die Einführung von Jahresdatierungen und von Münzzeichen, welche die Verantwortlichkeit für angehaltene schlechte Münzen nachvollziehen lassen, stellen systematische Verbesserungen dar. Der Vergleich mit dem Münzwesen des zeitgenössischen Iran oder dem indischen Moghulreich in diesen Hinsichten zeigt schnell, dass die Münzprägung des Osmanischen Reichs sich an gesamteuropäischen Normen orientiert, während der Iran ganz andere eigene Traditionen verfolgt, in der es das differenzierte Nominalsystem und Jahresdatierungen seit der Mongolenzeit schon gibt, während die Tradition der Münzzeichen offenbar aufgegeben wird und eine technische Entwicklung nicht stattfindet. Es ist eine der besonderen Meriten der hier vorliegenden Sammlung, dass die Verschiedenheit der Münzzeichen des 18. Jahrhunderts im Aufbau der Sammlung gleichrangig berücksichtigt worden ist mit der Verschiedenheit der Regierungsjahre auf den späteren Münzen. Über Kurz oder Lang wird der Code entschlüsselt sein und es steht zu hoffen, dass dieser Katalog, wie schon der der Jem-Sultan-Sammlung, seinen Beitrag dazu leisten kann. Noch eine abschließende Bemerkung zu den Eigenheiten des osmanischen Münzwesens im 18. Jahrhundert, nämlich zur Frage der Entwicklung von Zentralität und Dezentralität. Hier geht die am Anfang unserer Periode stehende Münzreform unter Sulaymân II. einher mit verstärkter Zentralisierung. Für Rumelien , Anatolien, Nordmesopotamien und Syrien bleibt Konstantinopel die einzige zentrale Münzstätte. Zeitweilige Zusatzmünzstätten sind pragmatisch mit der Ausmünzung von Bergbauausbeute und Residenzverlagerung des Sultans begründet. Nur die weit entfernten Provinzen, die auch zumeist ein abweichendes Nominalsystem fortsetzen, verfügen über eigene Münzstätten. Vergleichbare zentrale Strukturen der Münzprägung sind in Europa nur im zeitgenössischen Russland, Skandinavien, England und Spanien zu finden, nicht aber in den wirtschaftlich benachbarten Regionen, wie Frankreich, die Niederlande, Italien oder dem Deutschen Reich. Auch die zeitgenössischen islamischen Großreiche in Iran und Indien kennen keine solche Zentralität. Bevor man sich hier für Beziehungen zwischen nordeuropäischen und osmanischen Modellen entscheidet, fällt innerhalb der historischen Dimension jedoch die große Ähnlichkeit der Münzstätten und der Währungsstruktur des 18. Jahrhunderts mit den Gegebenheiten des Byzantinischen Reiches im 6. und 7. Jahrhundert auf. Da hier absolut keine Kontinuität besteht und die theoretische Möglichkeit wiederbelebbarer Verwaltungstraditionen aus Handbüchern ebenso unwahrscheinlich ist, mag eher eine innerhalb der naturräumlichen und logistischen Bedingungen zu findende Idealstruktur mehrfach realisiert worden sein. Auch diese Interpretation spricht für einen vitalen osmanischen Staat.

General Introduction to the Collection The collection of Ottoman coins coming here to be auctioned can, without exaggeration, be called the most comprehensive of its type currently in existence. It is the product of thirty years of devoted, discriminating collecting, a deep understanding of the subject matter, as well as a network of associated dealers and collectors who supported the building of this unique collection with advice, discussion and invaluable assistance. Especially noteworthy among them is the late “Nestor” of Ottoman numismatics, Kenneth MacKenzie, who died in 2004. Mr. MacKenzie published a number of articles on important, and previously unknown, older coins from the present collection in Turkish, American and British journals. The origin of the collection is to be found with a group of - if not particularly attractive - still treasured Ottoman coins of the 19th century, which had become heirlooms in the collector’s family. When the auction house Sotheby’s began in the late 1970s to hold regular auctions of Islamic coins, the collector’s interest was aroused, and from then on he began to acquire Ottoman gold pieces regularly through the firm Spinck’s. This growing interest received a powerful boost when, in early 1990, he saw and seized the opportunity to buy parts of an important older collection, with largely complete year- and mint mark series of small coins in unusually good states of preservation. By the late 1990s, with over 3000 pieces, the portfolio could be counted among the largest collections of Ottoman coins. But even that growth was just an incentive leading to a further doubling of the number, with an exponential increase in quality and value, over the next decade. Having reached a level of satisfying wholeness at which further additions become rarities, the collector has decided to make this treasure, documented in a detailed catalogue, available once again to other collectors. In doing so he follows the example of many great collectors of the 19th century who built more than a single collection. The second part of the present collection represents a clearly defined period of Ottoman coin history from the beginning of major silver embossing, and concurrent technical innovations reaching the contemporary European standard, up to the end of the rule of Mahmûd II who engineered the fundamental modernization of the Ottoman machinery of state, which then pursued a policy of affiliation with the leading European monetary systems following his death: with the British pound sterling in the alloy of gold and with the Konventionstaler in that of silver. In political retrospect this period is characterized by the empire’s defensive struggle with its aggressive Christian European neighboring states. In particular the German Empire must be cited, which institutionalized the wars with the Turks as imperial war. Ottoman historians refer often with an unfortunate inexactitude to Austria or the House of Habsburg as the enemy in war; the Austrians are referred to less often as an Ottoman ally. That is understandable when one considers the extent to which our knowledge of Ottoman history is based upon Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall’s ten-volume history of the Ottoman empire (Pest, 1827-1833), the work of an orient-educated Austrian diplomat who sought to justify both the new autonomy of his country and the historic legitimacy of the Habsburg Donau monarchy - which had established itself largely outside the German Empire. 16


VORWORT In point of fact the Turkish wars were fought well into the 18th century as imperial wars with military and financial resources from the entire empire, resources which were amassed in Frankfurt based on decisions made not in Vienna but in the Reichstag in Regensburg.

On another frontier, Ottoman history is defined by conflict with the Russian empire, an empire motivated in this period by a growing perception of itself as the successor to the Byzantine empire. Unlike the Germans and Austrians who seek territorial gains or secure borders, the Russians have a strong interest in exerting influence on the leadership of the Orthodox Church within the boundaries of the Ottoman sphere. France on the other hand plays the role of an almost constant ally on the world stage, in military matters and in all technical and cultural areas, but must compete, for its sought-after leadership in foreign trade with the Ottoman empire, among the likes of England, the Netherlands and the Republic of Venice. The larger epoch of which the 18th century is the center has often been described as a period of national deterioration and dissolution. This reflects fundamental ideas of a simple model of the rise, flowering, stagnation and decline of dynasties: ideas which enjoyed wide acceptance under the orientalists in connection with the theoretical deliberations of the Ibn Khaldun school, but ironically also in the propaganda of the 18th-century European wartime enemies. The influence of the harem on the Sultan, the high level of corruption and nepotism in the Ottoman bureaucracy, and the inflation of the Ottoman currency are repeatedly cited. However when one draws the comparison with France in the 18th century we find there as well an establishment of mistresses, widespread complaints regarding corruption and a currency collapse of nearly twice the magnitude. Germany was also well in the running as regards the level of corruption, and in other respects, between the end of the Thirty Years’ War and the onset of the Enlightenment. The total devaluation of the Ottoman currency from 1687 to 1800 amounted to two-thirds, not a dramatic fall in the context of the time-frame involved. It is widely accepted among contemporary scholars that during the period in question the Ottoman Empire can be considered a quite valid and vital state, which succeeded in mastering its major crises around the middle of the 17th century and was able, on the whole, to preserve its territorial integrity. Politicians, the military and the judiciary did not avert their eyes from the approaching problems. In the arts, architecture and the traditional sciences new achievements were produced regularly that are accorded great respect today. Controversy is limited to the question of whether it is going too far to speak of an Ottoman “enlightenment”. These diverse forms of modernization can be traced in Ottoman coinage. This is by no means limited to the purely technical aspects of coin embossing, which progressed over time from hand embossing, to the use of screw presses, from cutting out or forging the blanks, to punching them out, to knurling. The development of a differentiated nominal system too can be counted among the fundamental innovations in the Ottoman empire. The introduction of annual dating and of mint marks, which point to responsibility assumed for discontinued bad coins, represent systematic improvements. A comparison with the coinage of contemporary Iran or the Indian Moghul empire in this area quickly shows that coin embossing in the Ottoman Empire is oriented to Europe-wide norms, while Iran follows quite a different tradition of its own in which a differentiated nominal system and annual dating have existed since the time of the Mongols—whereby the mint mark tradition has apparently been abandoned and no technical development takes place. It is one of the hallmarks of the present collection that the diversity of mint marks in the 18th century has been given careful attention, equal to the attention shown to diversity in the range of regnal years on the later coins, as considerations in the building of the collection. Sooner or later the code will be deciphered and it is to be hoped that this catalogue, like that of the Jem-Sultan Collection before it, can make an important contribution toward that end. Some final remarks on the idiosyncrasies of Ottoman coinage in the 18th century, in particular the development of centralization and decentralization. In this connection the coinage reform already in place under Sulâyman II at the beginning of the period progresses in tandem with growing centralization. For Rumelia, Anatolia, northern Mesopotamia and Syria, Constantinople remains the lone and central mint. Temporary auxiliary mints are justified in practical terms with the coining of mined wealth and with residential migration by the sultan. Only the most distant provinces, which also generally continue a divergent nominal system, have their own mints. Comparable centrally structured minting in this period can only be found in Russia, Scandinavia, England and Spain: not in economically neighboring regions, such as France, the Netherlands, Italy or the German Empire. Nor do the contemporary great Islamic powers in Iran and India know any such centrality. Before one opts too decisively for a correspondence between northern European and Ottoman models, it is worth taking note of the great similarity between mints and currency structures in the 18th century, and the related circumstances in 6th- and 7th-century Byzantium. Since there is an absence of historical continuity, and hypotheses regarding revivable administrative traditions from manuals have an equally improbable ring, it may be that an ideal structure dictated by logic and natural factors was simply arrived at repeatedly. This interpretation too supports the notion of a vital Ottoman state.

17


VORWORT

Koleksiyon ile ilgili Önsöz Müzayedede yer alacak Osmanlı sikkeleri koleksiyonu türünün günümüzdeki en kapsamlı koleksiyonlarındandır. 30 yılı aşkın bir sürede büyük bir gayretle bir araya getirilen bu koleksiyon, gerçek bir uzmanlık çalışmasının ve samimi dostluk ilişkileri içinde bulunan tüccarların ve koleksiyonerlerin desteği, yorumları, öneri ve yardımları sonucunda tamamlanabilmiştir. Bu vesileyle de, özellikle Osmanlı Nümismatiğinin rahmetli duayeni Sayın Kenneth MacKenzie’yi anmak gerekir. MacKenzie bu koleksiyona ait ve camiada daha önce bilinmeyen parçalar ile ilgili Türk, Amerikan ve İngiliz dergilerinde çok sayıda makale yayınlamıştır. Koleksiyonerin ailesinden kalan ve nesilden nesile geçen, çok dikkat çekici olmasalar da her zaman büyük bir özenle saklanan 19. Yüzyıl Osmanlı sikkeleri bu nadide koleksiyonun ilk parçaları olmuştur. 70li yılların sonunda, Sotheby’s Müzayede Evi’nde İslam Dünyası Sikkeleri müzayedeleri yapılmaya başlamasından sonra koleksiyonerin de ilgisi bu konuya karşı artmıştır ve Spinck’s şirketi aracılığıyla Osmanlı dönemi altın paralar satın almaya başlamıştır. 1990 senesinin ilk aylarında çok daha eski ve neredeyse eksiksiz yıllık sikkeler ve sikke serilerini satınalma fırsatı bulduğunda ilgisi ve merakı daha da artmıştır. 90lı yılların sonunda ise koleksiyondaki parça sayısı 3000i aşmıştı ve artık camiadaki büyük Osmanlı Sikkeleri koleksiyonlarından sayılıyordu. Ancak, bu sadece bir başlangıçtı. Daha sonraki yıllar boyunca çok daha kıymetli parçaların da dahil edilmesiyle bu sayı ikiyi katlamıştır. Artık neredeyse eksiği kalmayan bu koleksiyona yeni parçalar katmak pek mümkün olmadığından, koleksiyoner bu hazineyi detaylı bir katalog ile belgeleyerek diğer koleksiyonlara dahil etmeye karar vermiştir. Bu kararıyla birden fazla koleksiyon oluşturan 19. Yüzyılın büyük koleksiyonerlerinin izinden gitmiştir. Kolleksiyonun burada gördüğümüz ikinci yarısı ise Osmanlı Sikkecilik tarihinin büyük gümüş sikke basımı ve dolayısıyla yeni teknolojilerin ve Avrupa standartlarında çalışmaların başladığı zamandan II. Mahmud döneminin sonuna kadar uzanan bir dönemi yansıtmaktadır. II. Mahmud Osmanlı Devlet yönetim şeklini temelden modernize etmeye çalışmıştır ve ölümünden sonra Osmanlı’nın birim ölçüleri Avrupa birimlerine, altın saflık dereceleri İngiliz Pound Sterling’e ve gümüş standart Taler’e adapte edilmiştir. Siyasi açıdan bu yıllara sert tutumlu hıristiyan komşu ülkelerinin savunmacı mesafeli tutumu damgasını vurmuştur. Diğer taraftan ise Türk-Savaşları’nı bir devlet meselesi haline getiren Alman İmparatorluğu’nu unutmamak gerekir. Osmanlı tarih literatüründe yer yer Avusturya ve Habsburg Hanedanı ayırdedilmeksizin müttefik değil de düşman olarak gösterilmektedir. Osmanlı tarihi bilgisinin büyük ölçüde Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall’in 10 ciltlik Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Tarihi isimli eserine (Peşte 1827-183) dayandığı düşünülürse bu bakış açısı daha iyi anlaşılmaktadır. Oriyentalizm eğitimi alan Avusturya’lı bir diplomat olan bu yazar bir yandan kendi ülkesinin yeni bağımsızlığını savunması gerekirken Alman İmparatorluğu’nun dışında gelişen Habsburg Avusturya-Macaristan İmparatorluğu’nun tarih içindeki haklılığını da göstermesi gerekmekteydi. Gerçekten de Türk Savaşları, 18. yüzyıla kadar İmparatorluk savaşları olarak sürdürülmekteydi ve tüm İmparatorlukta toplanıp Frankfurt’ta biriken paralar ile finanse edilmekteydi, savaş kararları da Viyana’da değil, Regensburg’da İmparatorluk Meclisinde alınırdı. Diğer yandan Osmanlı tarihi, Rus İmparatorluğu ile olan çekişmelerden de çok etkilenmiştir. Rus İmparatorluğu’nda o dönemlerde Bizans İmparatorluğu’nun bir çeşit devamı oldukları algısı yaygındı. Topraklarını genişletme veya kesin devlet sınırları çizme derdinde olan Alman ve Avusturyalılardan farklı olarak Ruslar Osmanlı İmparatorluğu bünyesindeki Ortodoks Kilisesi Yönetimi’nde söz sahibi olmaya çalışıyorlardı. Bir diğer yandan ise Fransa, büyük politika, askeri, teknik ve kültürel konularda sabit bir müttefik haline gelmişti. Dış ticaret konusunda ise önderliğini İngiltere, Hollanda ve Venedig Cumhuriyeti ile paylaşmaktaydı. 18. yüzyıl çoğu zaman Imparatorluğun gerileme ve dağılma dönemi olarak tanımlanırdı. O yıllarda İmparatorlukların kuruluş, yükselme, duraklama, gerileme, dağılma dönemlerinden oluşan basit bir modele göre geliştikleri düşüncesi Ibn Khaldun’un teorik çalışmalarından da etkilenen oriyentalistler arasında çok yaygındı. Öte taraftan da 18. yüzyıldaki düşmanların yürüttükleri karşıt propaganda da etkilerini gösteriyordu. Çalışmalarda özellikle de Sultan’ın dış etkilerden etkilendiği, devlet yönetimindeki rüşvetçilik ve akraba kayırıcılığı ve Osmanlı parasının enflasyon nedeniyle erimesine değinilmiştir. Osmanlı İmparatorluğu 18. yüzyılın Fransası ile kıyaslandığında her iki devlette metres alışkanlığı, rüşvetçilik nedeniyle yoğun şikayetler ve paranın değer kaybetmesi izlenmekte. Aynı şekilde Almanya’da da 30-yıl-savaşları ve Aydınlanma dönemi arasındaki yıllarda diğer ülkeler gibi rüşvetçilik çok yaygın olduğu görülmektedir. 1687 ve 1800 yılları arasında Osmanlı parasının toplam değer kaybı üçte iki oranındaydı. Değer kaybının yüz yılı aşkın bir dönemde oluştuğu düşünülürse değer kaybının çok da fazla olmadığı denilebilir. Günümüz Osmanizmciler arasında Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun o dönemde çok sağlıklı ve güçlü bir Devlet olduğu ve 17. yüzyıl ortasında yaşanan büyük krizleri atlattıkları ve topraklarını büyük ölçüde korumayı başardıkları şeklinde yorumlanmaktadır. Devlet adamları, askerler ve hukukçular gözlerini oluşan sorunlar karşısında kapatmamıştır. Sanat, mimarlık ve geleneksel bilim konularında yenilikler devam etmekteydi. Ancak bir Osmanlı Aydınlanma Dönemi’nden bahsetmek tartışılabilir bir konudur. Çok çeşitli modernizasyon şekillerini Osmanlı sikkeciliğinde de gözlemlemek mümkündür. Bu yenilikler sadece sikke basımı, kullanılan aletler, pulların kesimi, kenarlarının işlenmesi gibi işlemleri etkilememiştir. Aynı zamanda detaylı bir nominal sisteme geçilmesini de Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda yaşanan yenilenme hareketleri arasında saymak mümkün. 18


VORWORT Sikkelere yıl yazılması ve sikke işaretlerinin kullanılması yeniliklerin ve iyileştirmelerin belli bir sistematik içinde yapıldığını gösterir. Aynı dönemde İran veya Hint Moğol İmparatorluğu ile kıyaslandığında Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun sikke basımında Avrupa normları örnek alındığı görülür. Buna karşılık İran’da Moğol zamanlarından kalma detaylı nominal sisteminin ve yıl tarihlendirmesinin zaten kullanıldığı çok farklı bir gelenek sürdürülmekteydi. Ancak İran’da sikkelerin işaretlenmesinden vazgeçildiği ve teknik bir gelişmenin olmadığı da bilinmektedir. Buradaki koleksiyonun göze çarpan özelliklerinden en önemlisi ise 18. yüzyılda kullanılan sikke işaretlerinin çeşitliliğini yansıtmasıdır ve daha geç tarihli sikkelerde hükümdarlık yıllarının bulunmasıdır. Uzun vadede şiftrenin çözüleceğine inanılıp daha önce Cem-Sultan-Koleksiyonu’nun yaptığı gibi bu koleksiyonun da bu konuya ışık tutacağı umulmaktadır. Son olarak Osmanlı Sikkeciliği özelliklerinin önemli bir konusuna değinmek gerekir; Merkezi yönetim ve merkezi olmayan yönetim şekli. II Süleyman dönemindeki para reformu ve yönetimin daha da merkezileşmesi konusu bu açıdan büyük önem kazanmaktadır. Rumeli, Anadolu, Kuzey Mezopotamya ve Suriye için Konstantinopolis’in tek merkezi darphane olmaya devam etmekteydi. Bunun dışında dönem dönem devreye giren bazı yardımcı darphaneler sultanın farklı şehirlerdeki saraylarda kalması sırasında meydana gelen ihtiyaç ve maden ocaklarından çıkarılan madenlerin işlenmesi için kurulmuştu. Sadece uzak vilayetler kendi darphanelerini işletir ve farklı nominal sistemlerini kullanırlardı. Sikke basımı ve darphanelerde benzer bir merkezi yapıya Avrupa’da sadece Rusya, İskandinav ülkelerinde, İngiltere ve İspanya’da rastlanılmaktaydı. Fransa, Hollanda, İtalya veya Alman İmparatorluğu’nda bu merkezi darphane sistemi görülmemiştir. O dönemlerde İran veya Hindistan İmparatorlukları gibi diğer islam devletler de merkezi bir darphane kullanmamışlardır. Kuzey Avrupa ve Osmanlı modeli arasındaki benzerlikleri incelemeden önce 18. yüzyıldaki sikke basımı, darphane ve para yapısı ile 6. ve 7. yüzyıllarda Bizans İmparatorluğu’ndaki olgular arasındaki yakın benzerlikler dikkati çekmektedir. Herhangi bir devamlılık söz konusu olmadığı için ve eski el kitaplarındaki yönetim geleneklerini tekrar canlandırma imkanı da bulunmadığına göre yöresel ve lojistik imkanlar çerçevesinde ideal bir yapı oluştuğu tahmin edilmektedir. Bu yorum da Osmanlı Devleti’nin ne kadar canlı, güçlü ve yapıcı olduğunun bir işareti olarak kabul edilmektedir.

19


SULAYMÂN II. IBN IBRÂHÎM

6ª4-'+ 5WNC[O³P++KDP+DT³JÄO*#&

#NUKO,CJTFGT5WNVCP/WJCOOCF+8PCEJFGTXGTIGDNKEJGP\YGKVGP$GNCIGTWPI9KGPUWPF FGOMQQTFKPKGTVGP#PITKHHFGTXQO2CRUVIGUEJOKGFGVGPō*GKNKIGP#NNKCP\ŋXQP2QNGPFGO&GWVUEJGP 4GKEJWPF8GPGFKICWHFKG/QNFCW7PICTPWPFFGPITKGEJKUEJGP2GNQRQPPGUHÒTFKG(NWEJVUGKPGUOWU NKOKUEJGP $GXÌNMGTWPIUCPVGKNU XGTCPVYQTVNKEJ IGOCEJV WPF GKPIGMGTMGTV YWTFG VTCV UGKP DKU FCJKP KP   )GHCPIGPUEJCHVNGDGPFGT$TWFGT5WNC[O³PKDP+DT³JÄO IGD#RTKN CPUGKPG5VGNNG  5WNC[O³PYKTFCNNIGOGKPCNUUEJYCEJGT*GTTUEJGTFCTIGUVGNNVFGTQJPGLGFG*GTTUEJCHVUGTHCJTWPICPFKG 4GIKGTWPI IGNCPIVG &QEJ KUV PKEJV \W ÒDGTUGJGP FCUU FKG KJO DGUEJKGFGPG MWT\G 4GIKGTWPIU\GKV XQP   4GHQTOGP IGMGPP\GKEJPGV YCT FKG FGP 1UOCPGPUVCCV YKGFGT CWH -WTU DTCEJVGP <WP·EJUV YCT FKG KP   VGTPG .CIG EJCQVKUEJ WPF FKG OKNKV·TKUEJG .CIG DNKGD HCVCN FC FKG /QUMQYKVGT FCU -TKOMJCPCV KP $G   FT·PIPKUDTCEJVGPWPFFKGQUOCPKUEJG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIHÒTFKGUGP8CUCNNGPUVCCVCWHFGO$CNMCPFGP4GKEJ UVTWRRGP )GNGIGPJGKV ICD ITQ­G 6GKNG 5GTDKGPU GKP\WPGJOGP 8GTDGUUGTWPIGP KO +PPGTP MQPPVGP FC   FWTEJ KP )CPI IGUGV\V YGTFGP FCUU FCU )TQ­YGUKTCV CP (³FKN /WUVCH³ CWU FGT (COKNKG FGT -ÌRTÒNÒ   ÒDGTVTCIGPYWTFG&KGUGTJCPFGNVGPCEJFGO8QTDKNFUGKPGU8CVGTUWPF$TWFGTUYGNEJGKPFKGUGO#OV CW­GPRQNKVKUEJG WPF OKNKV·TKUEJG 5EJYKGTKIMGKVGP FWTEJ -QPUQNKFKGTWPI KO +PPGTGP JCVVGP CWUINGKEJGP   MÌPPGP'KPGTUGKVUUQTIVGGTFCHÒTFCUUFKG/KNKV·TNGJGPYKGFGTFGP5QNFCVGP\WIWVGMCOGPWPFGTI·P\VG FKG#TOGGFWTEJCPIGYQTDGPG(TGKYKNNKIG#PFGTGTUGKVUHÒJTVGGT(KPCP\TGHQTOGPFWTEJ&CDGKDTCEJVG FKGHQTVCPXQPCNNGPGTYGTDUV·VKIGP%JTKUVGPWPF,WFGPGKP\W\KGJGPFG,K\[C -QRHUVGWGT FKG\WXQTPWT XQPFGP*CWUJCNVUXQTUV·PFGPGTJQDGPYQTFGPYCTGTJGDNKEJG/GJTGKPPCJOGPHÒTFGP5VCCV  #PFGTGTUGKVUIGJÌTVGCWEJGKPGXGT·PFGTVG/ÒP\RQNKVKM\WT(KPCP\TGHQTO*KGTJCVVG5WNC[O³P\WP·EJUV GKPG GDGPUQ PÒV\NKEJG YKG IGH·JTNKEJG 0GWGTWPI XQP UGKPGO $TWFGT IGGTDV P·ONKEJ FKG 'KPTKEJVWPI   GKPGUPGWCTVKIGP/ÒP\UV·VVGPDGVTKGDUGWTQR·KUEJGP5VCPFCTFUKP-QPUVCPVKPQRGNWPF5CTCKGXQFGTHÒTFKG OCUUGPJCHVG #WURT·IWPI XQP MWRHGTPGP 0QVOÒP\GP FGU #MEGPQOKPCNU GKPIGTKEJVGV YCT &KGUG KP 4KG   UGPOGPIGPRTQFW\KGTVGP-WRHGTOÒP\GPJ·VVGPÒDGTMWT\QFGTNCPI\WKPHNCVKQP·TGT#DYGTVWPIIGHÒJTV YGPP (³FKN /WUVCHC PKEJV CWEJ FKG 'FGNOGVCNNRT·IWPI OKV FGO $GIKPP FGT QUOCPKUEJGP )TQ­UKNDGT   OÒP\RT·IWPIKP)CPIIGUGV\VJ·VVG&GPPFCOKVYWTFGFCU8GTVTCWGPFGTQUOCPKUEJGP$GXÌNMGTWPIKP FGP 9GTV FGU -WRHGTU FCU PWP GKPFGWVKI GKPG WPVGTIGQTFPGVG UWRRNGOGPV·TG 4QNNG \WIGYKGUGP DGMCO   IGUV·TMV#NUUKNDGTPG.GKVY·JTWPIHÒJTVGGTKP'PVURTGEJWPI\WOUÒFFGWVUEJGP)WNFGPFGP<QNQVC\W #MEG IGTGEJPGV GKP #NU IGUEJKEMVGT 8GTYCNVGT YWUUVG GT FKG 4GHQTO FCFWTEJ CP\WUEJKGDGP FCUU GT   PKEJVPWTCWHFKG'KPNKGHGTWPIXQP5KNDGTKPFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGXQPRTKXCVGT5GKVGUGV\VGUQPFGTPGTDGVGKNKIVG UKEJ OKV GKIGPGP /KVVGNP GDGPUQ CP FGT 7OUGV\WPI FGT 4GHQTO YKG GT FGP 5WNVCP FC\W XGTRHNKEJVGVG   5KNDGT CWU FGO UWNVCPKUEJGP *CWUJCNV DGK\WUVGWGTP 5Q IGNCPI GU VCVU·EJNKEJ FKG -WRHGTOÒP\GP \WO   FGMTGVKGTVGP9GTVKO7ONCWH\WJCNVGPWPFKP6GKNGPFGU4GKEJGUUEJGKPGPUKGDKUÒDGTFKG/KVVGFGU ,CJTJWPFGTVU HQTVIGUGV\V WOIGNCWHGP \W UGKP +JT ÒDGTJÌJVGT 9GTV OCEJVG UKG HTGKNKEJ \WO NQJPGPFGP   (·NUEJWPIUQDLGMV  #WEJKO7ONCWHFGT)QNFOÒP\GPICDGU4GHQTODGFCTH&KG·I[RVKUEJG/ÒP\UV·VVGRT·IVGFGPIQNFGPGP 5WNVCPK PKEJV OGJT XQO HGKPGP -QPUVCPVKPQRNGT 5VCPFCTF UQPFGTP OKV GTJGDNKEJGT 5KNDGTNGIKGTWPI WPF   PGDGPFGPXGPG\KCPKUEJGP&WMCVGPFKGFGP)QNFOÒP\WONCWHFQOKPKGTVGPICDGUMCWOKFGPVKHK\KGTDCTG +OKVCVKQPGP XQP GPVURTGEJGPF XGTTKPIGTVGO (GKPIGJCNV 1D FKGUG CWU QUOCPKUEJGP /ÒP\UV·VVGP MCOGP   QFGTCWURTKXCVGPGVYC$GKTWVGT*CPFGNUJ·WUGTMQPPVGDKUNCPIOCPIGNU&QMWOGPVCVKQPPKEJVGTHQTUEJV YGTFGP#WEJJKGTUEJWHGP4GHQTOGP5KEJGTJGKVKPFGOPCEJ2TÒHWPIFWTEJGKPOCNKIGQFGT\YGKOCNKIG )GIGPUVGORGNWPI OKV FGO 9QTV UCJJ  TKEJVKI  FKG 9GTVXGTJ·NVPKUUG HÒT FKG <GKVIGPQUUGP IGMN·TV   YWTFGP  20


SULAYMÂN II. IBN IBRÂHÎM (³FKN/WUVCH³UGV\VGFGP'THQNIUGKPGT4GHQTOGPKO'KPXGTPGJOGPOKV(TCPMTGKEJCWEJOKNKV·TKUEJWO FGPPCNU*GGTHÒJTGTIGNCPIGUKJOFKGFGWVUEJGP6TWRRGPYKGFGTCWU5GTDKGP\WFT·PIGPY·JTGPF FKGXGTDÒPFGVGP(TCP\QUGPXQP9GUVGPJGTCPITKHHGP,GFQEJYCTFGPQUOCPKUEJGP6TWRRGPMGKPFCWGT JCHVGT'THQNIDGUEJKGFGPYKGCWEJFKGIGUCOVG$ÒPFPKURQNKVKM.WFYKIU:+8IGIGPFCU4GKEJFGPOGKUV PWTMWT\HTKUVKIWPVGTUVÒV\VGP8GTDÒPFGVGPGJGT0CEJVGKNGCNU0WV\GPDTCEJVG\WOCNPWP'PINCPFWPFFKG PÌTFNKEJGP0KGFGTNCPFGFKG#WUDTGKVWPIFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP'KPHNWUUGU\WXGTJKPFGTPUWEJVGP  5QUGV\VGXQTCNNGOFKG/ÒP\IGUEJKEJVGFKGUGO5WNC[O³P++GKPMNGKPGU&GPMOCNUQFCUUOCPKJPPKEJV GKPHCEJ OKV FGO #FLGMVKX ōWPDGFGWVGPFŋ CDVWP MCPP 7PINÒEMNKEJGTYGKUG UVCTD GT UEJQP PCEJ MWT\GT   4GIKGTWPIU\GKVCO,WPK

909

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTRT·IWPIGP 

<QNQVC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P YCMJ³S³PCNDCJTC[PCU UWNV³PKDPCUUWNV³PI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  )WVGINGKEJO·­KIG#WURT·IWPIGVYCUHNGEMKIUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&CU0QOKPCNFGTGTUVGPQUOCPKUEJGPVCNGTCTVKIGP2T·IWPIFKGKO,CJT*#&GKPIGHÒJTVYQTFGPYCT GTUEJGKPVKPFGT·NVGTGP.KVGTCVWTCNU-WTWUJ5CJKNNKQINWJCVVGUEJQPIG\GKIVFCUUGUUKEJWOFGP<QNQVCWPF PKEJV FGP -WTWUJ JCPFGNVG YCU CDGT GTUV KPHQNIG XQP 2COWMU /QPGVCT[ *KUVQT[ %CODTKFIG  5  KP FGT   PWOKUOCVKUEJGP.KVGTCVWT\WT-GPPVPKUIGPQOOGPYWTFG2COWMYKTFCDGTFWTEJFGPRQNPKUEJGP0COGPFGU0QOK PCNU KTTGIGNGKVGV WPF INCWDVG FCUU GUGKPG'PVURTGEJWPIRQNPKUEJGT/ÒP\GPUGK4KEJVKIKUVFCUU<QNQVCCNU<NQV[ FKGRQNPKUEJG$G\GKEJPWPIFGU)WNFGPUPKEJVCWHFKGRQNPKUEJGP)WNFGPYGNEJGPWT6CNGTICNVGPUQPFGTPCWH FGPFGWVUEJGP)WNFGP\W6CNGT\WDG\KGJGPKUV&CIGIGPYWTFGFGT$GITKHH-WTWUJYQJNUEJQPKO,CJTJWP FGTVXQO)WNFGPITQUEJGPÒDGTPQOOGPWPFDG\GKEJPGVGFCPPCNNIGOGKP6CNGT&KG4KEJVKIMGKVFGT\GKVIGPÌUUKUEJGP 0QOKPCNDG\GKEJPWPIGPYKTFFWTEJGKP&QMWOGPVXQO,CJT* 'PFGT50T MNCTIGUVGNNVKPFGO XQP5WNC[OCPKUEJGP<QNQVCWPF&TKVVGN-WTWUJFKG4GFGKUV+UVFGT<QNQVC-WTWUJUQKUVGKP&TKVVGN-WTWUJGKP JCNDGT<QNQVC 

910



<QNQVC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P YCMJ³S³PCNDCJTC[PCU UWNV³PKDPCUUWNV³PI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  ªDNKEJGMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGWPFMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­HCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



911

1,5:1



1,5:1

#MEG  *  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN WPF 0COG 4X 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\   UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP5TGEMQXKE5-/  442T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 21


SULAYMÂN II. IBN IBRÂHÎM

ex 914

913

ex 912

ex 915

6ÒTMGKWPF$QUPKGP-WRHGTOÒP\GP 







-WRHGT0QV#MEG*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUIWPFI2GTG-CDCMNCTNK3QU-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



-WRHGT0QV#MEG*$ÑUPC $QUPKGPHÒT5CTCKGXQ 6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI2GTG-CDCMNCTNK$U-/  5VÒEM445EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



-WRHGT 0QV#MEG  * 5CT³[ 5CTCKGXQ  6WIJTC 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT XKGT 8CTKCPVGP   IWPFI2GTG-CDCMNCTNK3QU5T[-/  5VÒEM4#NNGUGJTUEJÌPWPFÒDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP



-WRHGT0QV#MEG*9³P 8CP 6KVGNWPF0COG4X5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG-CDCMNCTNK9P-/ 445EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



916

917

I[RVGP)QNFRT·IWPIGP 



5WNVCPK#NVKP*/KUT -CKTQ /\\FQRRGNVGT-PQVGPKPFGT#X<GKNG6KVGN0COG5GIGPU YWPUEJWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PYCMJ³S³PCNDCJTC[PCUUWNV³P KDPCUUWNV³PI#TVWMXCT2GTG¤N¼GT#XTWRC/Ò\GNGTK2 )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



5WNVCPK#NVKP  */KUT -CKTQ /\\FQRRGNVGT-PQVGPKPFGT#X<GKNG6KVGN0COG5GIGPU YWPUEJWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PYCMJ³S³PCNDCJTC[PCUUWNV³P KDPCUUWNV³PI#TVWMXCT2GTG¤N¼GT#XTWRC/Ò\GNGTK2  )1.&2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



918

1,5:1

1,5:1

.KD[GP)QNFRT·IWPI 

5WNVCPK#NVKP*6CTCDNÑU)JCTD 6TKRQNKU /\\FQRRGNVGT-PQVGPKPFGT/KVVGFGU#XGTUHGNFGU 6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN F³TKD CPPCFT    U³JKDCN K\\YCPPCUTHÄNDCTTYCNDCJTI#TVWM2GTG  )1.&5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI)NGKEJO·­KIG#WURT·IWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ+#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T

22




SULAYMÂN II. IBN IBRÂHÎM 1UOCPKUEJG)GIGPUVGORGNCWHXGPG\KCPKUEJGP<GEEJKPKWPFFGTGP+OKVCVKQPGP

Typ 1

Typ 3

Typ 2

+PFGTQUOCPKUEJGP%JTQPKMFGU5KNCJFCT(KPFKMNK/GJOGFCIC  HKPFGVUKEJFGT*KPYGKUFCUU KO ,CJT  * FGT $GHGJN GTIKPI FKG XGPG\KCPKUEJGP )QNFOÒP\GP [CNFK\ #NVKP  \W RTÒHGP WO FKG   )QNFOÒP\GP FGU +DTCJKO %GNGDK5VCPFCTFU WPF FGU 3GTKHK5VCPFCTFU \W FKHHGTGP\KGTGP 'TUVGTG UQNNVGP   OKV GKPGO GKPHCEJGP )GIGPUVGORGN UCJJ OCTMKGTV YGTFGP YQHÒT CNU )GDÒJT LGYGKNU GKP #MEG \W   GPVTKEJVGPYCT&KG2T·IWPIGPXQOQHHGPDCTIGTKPIGTGP3GTKHK5VCPFCTFYCTGPFCIGIGPOKV\YGKHCEJGO 5VGORGNUCJJ\WMGPP\GKEJPGPYQHÒT\YGK#MEGH·NNKIYCTGP#D,WO³F³++*/·T\ UQNNVGPPWTPQEJIGUVGORGNVG)QNFUVÒEMGMWTUH·JKIUGKP&CGPVURTGEJGPFG)GIGPUVGORGNPWTCWHXGPG\K CPKUEJGP<GEJKPGPWPFFGTGP+OKVCVKQPGPCPIGVTQHHGPYQTFGPUKPFOWUUGUFCTWOIGICPIGPUGKPNGKEJV IGTKPIYGTVKIG +OKVCVKQPGP XQP FGP 1TKIKPCNGP QFGT FGTGP (GKPIGJCNV GPVURTGEJGPFGP +OKVCVKQPGP WPVGT   UEJGKFDCT\WOCEJGP+PFGT6CVKUVGKPGFGTJGWVGUGNVGPGPFQRRGNVGP)GIGPUVGORGNWPIGPKPFGT6ÒDKP IGT7PKXGTUKV·VUUCOONWPICWHGKPGMCWOWPVGTUEJGKFDCTG+OKVCVKQPGKPGU&WMCVGPFGU&QOGPKEQ%QPVC TKPKIGUEJNCIGP*CPU9KNUMKJCVUKEJKPGKPGOURG\KGNNGP#WHUCV\ )GNFIGUEJKEJVNKEJG0CEJTKEJVGP 5   CWUHÒJTNKEJ OKV FKGUGO 2J·PQOGP DGHCUUV UKEJ FCDGK LGFQEJ PKEJV GPVUEJNKG­GP MÌPPGP FKG   6GZVSWGNNG CWH FKG &WMCVGPUVGORGNWPI \W DG\KGJGP WPF CWEJ KP UGKPGT WOHCUUGPFGP &CTUVGNNWPI FGT   QUOCPKUEJGP )GIGPUVGORGN XQP  GTMN·TV GT CWH 5  FKG %JTQPKM FGU 5KNCJFCT \WT 3WGNNG XQP   \YGKHGNJCHVGT <WXGTN·UUKIMGKV  &CIGIGP JCVVG 5COWGN .CEJOCP DGTGKVU KP UGKPGO #WHUCV\ 6JG +DTC   JKOK0WOKUOCVKE%KTEWNCT,WN[5IGMN·TVFCUUFGT+DTCJKOKKO,CJTJWPFGTVGKP6ÒTMK UEJGT0COGFGUXGPG\KCPKUEJGP&WMCVGPYCTYQDGKGTCNNGTFKPIUPKEJVCWHFKG)GIGPUVGORGNWPIGKPIG ICPIGP YCT  &GT )GIGPUVGORGN MQOOV KP FTGK XQP 9KNUMK PKEJV FKHHGTGP\KGTVGP 8CTKCPVGP XQT FKG   OÌINKEJGTYGKUG CWH XGTUEJKGFGPG )GIGPUVGORGNWPIUQTVG \W DG\KGJGP UKPF WPF \YCT QJPG (ÒNNWPI FGU   $WEJUVCDGPJ³ 6[R OKVGKPGO2WPMVFCTKP 6[R WPFOKVGKPGTRHGKNCTVKIGP8GT\KGTWPI 6[R 

919



4GRWDNKM8GPGFKI(TCPEGUEQ'TK\\Q<GEEJKPQQ,OKV)GIGPUVGORGNUCJJ TKEJVKI 6[R PGDGPFGO-QRHFGU&QIGPI(D9KNUMK6CHGN QJPG0CEJYGKUXQP<GEEJKPGPFKGUGU &QIGP  )1.&/ÒP\GWPF)GIGPUVGORGN5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP4CWEJ9KGP0T

920



921



922



923

4GRWDNKM8GPGFKI(TCPEGUEQ/QNKP<GEEJKPQQ,OKV)GIGPUVGORGNUCJJ TKEJVKI 6[R PGDGPFGO-QRHFGU&QIGPI(D9KNUMK6CHGN  )1.&-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­/ÒP\GWPF)GIGPUVGORGN8QT\ÒINKEJ



4GRWDNKM8GPGFKI%CTNQ%QPVCTKPK<GEEJKPQQ,OKV)GIGPUVGORGNUCJJ TKEJVKI 6[R PGDGPFGO-QRHFGU&QIGPI(D9KNUMK6CHGN  )1.&4/ÒP\GWPF)GIGPUVGORGN5GJTUEJÌP





4GRWDNKM8GPGFKI$GTVWEEK8CNKGT<GEEJKPQQ,OKV)GIGPUVGORGNUCJJ TKEJVKI 6[R PGDGPFGO-QRHFGU&QIGPI(D9KNUMK6CHGN  )1.&/ÒP\GWPF)GIGPUVGORGNXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GRWDNKM 8GPGFKI &QOGPKEQ %QPVCTKPK <GEEJKPQQ,OKV)GIGPUVGORGNUCJJ TKEJVKI  6[RPGDGPFGO-QRHFGU&QIGPI(D9KNUMK6CHGN  )1.&5GNVGPG8CTKCPVGFGU)GIGPUVGORGNU)GNQEJVNGKEJVIGYGNNV UGJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGN8QT\ÒINKEJ





23


AHMAD II. IBN IBRÂHÎM

924







925

926

4GRWDNKM8GPGFKI#NXKUG%QPVCTKPK<GEEJKPQQ,OKV)GIGPUVGORGNUCJJ TKEJVKI 6[R PGDGPFGO-QRHFGU&QIGPI(D9KNUMK6CHGN  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGN8QT\ÒINKEJ



4GRWDNKM 8GPGFKI /CTECPVQPKQ )KWUVKPKCPK  <GEEJKPQ Q, OKV )GIGPUVGORGN UCJJ  

TKEJVKI 6[RPGDGPFGO-QRHFGU&QIGPI(D9KNUMK6CHGN  )1.&/ÒP\G5GJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGN8QT\ÒINKEJ



4GRWDNKM8GPGFKI+OKVCVKQPGKPGU<GEEJKPQQ,FGU$GTVWEEK8CNKGTOKV)GIGPUVGORGNUCJJ

TKEJVKI 6[RPGDGPFGO-QRHFGU&QIGPI\W(D9KNUMK6CHGN QJPG0CEJYGKUCWH KOKVCVKXGP<GEEJKPK  )1.&44)GNQEJV/ÒP\G5GJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGN8QT\ÒINKEJ



#JOCF++KDP+DT³JÄO*#&

5WNC[O³PU$TWFGT#JOCFYCTFGTIGDQTGPGFTKVVG5QJP+DT³JÄOUWPFPQEJYGPKIGTCNU5WNC[O³P CWHGKP4GIKGTWPIUCOVXQTDGTGKVGV+OOGTJKPUVCPFKJOCNU)TQ­YGUKTCPHCPIU(³FKN/WUVCH³\WT8GTHÒ IWPI FGT LGFQEJ DGKO 4GIKGTWPIUCPVTKVV IGTCFG\WGKPGO\YGKVGP(GNF\WIIGIGPFKG-CKUGTNKEJGPCWH DTCEJ$GKO8GTUWEJXQP$GNITCFCWUFCUMCKUGTNKEJG*GGTPQEJXQTFGTGTYCTVGVGP#PMWPHVMTKOVCVCTK UEJGT 6TWRRGP \W ÒDGTTCUEJGP IGTKGV GT UGNDUV OKV UGKPGO *GGT DGK 5NCPMCOGP KP GKPG (CNNG FGU CNU   ō6ÒTMGPNQWKUŋ DGMCPPVGP /CTMITCH .WFYKI XQP $CFGP WPF FGT GTHQNITGKEJG +PPGPRQNKVKMGT XGTNQT   FWTEJGKPGP5EJWUUKPFKG5VKTPIGVTQHHGPUGKP.GDGPKO(GNFG&GT(GNF\WIYCTIGUEJGKVGTVQJPGFCUU FGT 6ÒTMGPNQWKU FGT IGUEJNCIGPGP 1UOCPGPCTOGG J·VVG PCEJUGV\GP MÌPPGP &KG &QPCW DNKGD GKPG XQP   FCWGTPFGP5EJCTOÒV\GNPXQPDGKFGP5GKVGPDGFTQJVG)TGP\G  +O +PPGTP FGU 4GKEJGU HGJNVG FGT FWTEJITGKHGPFG )TQ­YGUKT WPF #JOCF YCT CPFGTU CNU UGKP $TWFGT   5WNC[OCPMGKP5WNVCPFGTCPUGKPGP#WHICDGPYWEJU&KG\GPVTCNGP.GKVWPIUHWPMVKQPGP\GTHKGNGP\WUG JGPFUCPCWVQPQOCIKGTGPFGTGIKQPCNG(ÒTUVGPKPUDGUQPFGTGKOCTCDKUEJGP4CWO+PFGT#W­GPRQNKVKM JCVVG #JOCF DGUVGPHCNNU )NÒEM 5Q MQPPVGP FKG 8GPG\KCPGT FGP 1UOCPGP YQJN %JKQUCDPGJOGPFQEJ UEJGKVGTVGPFKG'TQDGTGTCPFGT+PUGNDGXÌNMGTWPIYGNEJGFKG8GPG\KCPGTYKGFGTXGTVTKGDGPWO\WTCNVGP *GTTUEJCHV\WTÒEM\WMGJTGP#WHFKRNQOCVKUEJGO)GDKGVIGNCPIMGKPG#PP·JGTWPICPFGT&QPCWFCFGT 5WNVCPPKEJVDGTGKVYCTCWH7PICTP\WXGT\KEJVGP&GTCNUFGRTGUUKXWPFEJQNGTKUEJDGUEJTKGDGPG5WNVCP UVCTDPCEJMWT\GT4GIKGTWPIU\GKVCO(GDTWCT 24


AHMAD II. IBN IBRÂHÎM

929

928

927

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTRT·IWPIGP 

<QNQVC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ OÄO 6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 5G   IGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  YC MJ³S³P CN   DCJTC[PCUUWNV³PKDPCUUWNV³POKVFGO/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPVGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGPI#TVWM 2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM<ÒTKEJ0T









<QNQVC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ OÄO 6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 5G   IGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  YC MJ³S³P CN   DCJTC[PCUUWNV³PKDPCUUWNV³POKVFGO/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPVGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGP5VGORGNXCTKCPVG \WOXQTKIGP5VÒEMOKVGVYCUITÌ­GTGO/ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGPI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP -/ 5GJTUEJÌP



<QNQVC*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\OÄO6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPU YWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  YC MJ³S³P CN   DCJTC[P  CUUWNV³P KDP  CUUWNV³P OKV FGO /ÒP\\GKEJGP WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP 'KPG YGKVGTG   5VGORGNXCTKCPVG \W FGP DGKFGP XQTKIGP 5VÒEMGP OKV YKGFGTWO MNGKPGTGO /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGP  I   #TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG



930



*CNDGT<QNQVCQFGT&TKVVGNMWTWUJ*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\OÄO6KVGNWPF 0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCT TC[PYCMJ³S³PCNDCJTC[PCUUWNV³PKDPCUUWNV³POKVFGO/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPVGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJ UVCDGPI2GTG5WNVCPXCT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



ex 931



1,5:1

#MEG*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6KVGNWPF0COG4X5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI#TVWM+UOC KN)JCNKD2GTG5WNVCP 5TGEMQXKE:::-/  &TGKUKEJGTI·P\GPFG5VÒEMG44&CUGTUVGUVCTMFG\GPVTKGTVOKVUKEJVDCTGO,CJT FCU\YGKVGWPFFTKVVGQJPGUKEJVDCTGU,CJTUGJTUEJÌP

 25


MUSTAFÂ II. IBN MUHAMMAD

ex 932

933

6ÒTMGK-WRHGTOÒP\GP 



-WRHGT0QV#MEG*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU\YGK8CTKCPVGPWPFI2GTG-CDCMNCTNK3QU-/  5VÒEM44<CKPGPFGWPF\YGK-QTTQUKQPUXGTNGV\WPIGPKO#XGTUHGNFUGJTUEJÌP FCU\YGKVG5VÒEMKPHQNIGUEJYCEJGT#WURT·IWPIUEJÌP



-WRHGT0QV#MEG*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG-CDCMNCTNK3QU-/ 445GJTUEJÌP



935 934

934

I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\G 

5WNVCPK#NVKP  */KUT -CKTQ /\\FQRRGNVGT-PQVGPKPFGT#X<GKNG6KVGN0COG5GIGPU YWPUEJWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PYCMJ³S³PCNDCJTC[PCUUWNV³P KDPCUUWNV³PI#TVWMXCT2GTG¤N¼GT#XTWRC/Ò\GNGTK2  )1.&4'VYCUIGYGNNVWPF2T·IGUEJY·EJGKO4CPFDGTGKEJUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T





I[RVGP5KNDGTOÒP\G 

#MEG  * /KUT -CKTQ  (GJNRT·IWPI 4GXGTUKPEWUWO /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPVTKVVUI-/ 445EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP

/WUVCH³++KDP/WJCOOCF*#&

&GT  IGDQTGPG /WUVCH³ YCT CNU 5QJP GKPGU 1PMGNU UGKPGT WPOKVVGNDCTGP 8QTI·PIGT HTGKGT CWHIG   YCEJUGPCNUFKGUG5GKP.GJTGTWPFYKEJVKIUVGT$GTCVGTYCTFGT5C[[KF(C[FCNN³JGKP#PIGJÌTKIGTFGT 2TQRJGVGPHCOKNKG WPF QTVJQFQZGT /WUNKO FGP GT \WO 5JC[MJ CN+UN³O OCEJVG WPF FGTUGKPGTUGKVUCNNG 5EJNÒUUGNRQUKVKQPGP OKV UGKPGP (COKNKGPCPIGJÌTKIGP DGUGV\VG /WUVCH³ NKGDVG 4GKVGTURKGNG WPF FKG ,CIF   WPFYCTFCJGTNGKEJVHÒTFCU/KNKV·T\WDGIGKUVGTP6CVU·EJNKEJNGKVGVGGTRGTUÌPNKEJOKVITQ­GO'KPUCV\ KP UGKPGP GTUVGP FTGK 4GIKGTWPIULCJTGP FTGK (GNF\ÒIG IGIGP FKG 6TWRRGP FGU &GWVUEJGP 4GKEJU IGTKGV   JKGTDGKCDGTUEJNKG­NKEJCPFGP2TKP\GP'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GPWPVGTFGUUGP$GHGJN/WUVCHCU6TWRRGPCO 5GRVGODGTDGK<GPVCGKPGYGKVGTGXGTPKEJVGPFG0KGFGTNCIGJKPPGJOGPOWUUVGP  +PFKGUGTRTGM·TGP5KVWCVKQPHCPF/WUVCHCYKGFGTWOIWVG*GNHGTP·ONKEJFGP)TQ­YGUKT*WUC[P #OEC \³FG*ÒUG[KP CWUFGO*CWUG-ÌRTÒNÒWPFFGP4C KUCNMWVV³D4³OÄFGTKP2CFWCUVWFKGTVWPFRTQOQ XKGTV JCVVG &KGUG DGUVKOOVGP PWP FKG #W­GPRQNKVKM WPF 8GTYCNVWPI UQYGKV 5C[[KF (C[FCNN³J FKGU   \WNKG­  26




MUSTAFÂ II. IBN MUHAMMAD 7PCDJ·PIKIXQP5KGIGPWPF0KGFGTNCIGPYCTGP(TCPMTGKEJWPFFCU&GWVUEJGYKGFCU1UOCPKUEJG 4GKEJINGKEJGTOC­GPOKNKV·TKUEJXQTCNNGOCDGTYKTVUEJCHVNKEJGTUEJÌRHV5QUEJNWIFKG5VWPFGFGT&K RNQOCVKGKP4KLUYKEMGDGPUQYKGKP-CTNQYKV\  &GT (TKGFG XQP -CTNQYKV\ UCJ FKG 'KPUGV\WPI XQP -QOOKUUKQPGP HÒTFKG)TGP\\KGJWPIIGIGPÒDGTFGP MCKUGTNKEJGPXGPG\KCPKUEJGPWPFRQNPKUEJGP)GDKGVGP\WO1UOCPKUEJGP4GKEJJKPXQTFKGKPHÒPHL·JTK IGT#TDGKVGKPGPXQTÒDGTIGJGPFGP(TKGFGPUKEJGTVGP  'UHQNIVGKO,CJTFGT#WUVCWUEJXQP$QVUEJCHVGTPOKVFGO-CKUGTFGORQNPKUEJGP-ÌPKIWPFFGO 4WUUKUEJGP 4GKEJ #WEJ HTCP\ÌUKUEJG WPF DTKVKUEJG$QVUEJCHVGTUQYKGUCHCYKFKUEJGWPFL³PKFKUEJG)G UCPFVGUWEJVGPFGP5WNVCPCWH  &GTPCEJCW­GPJKPIGHGUVKIVG(TKGFGYWTFGPWP\WT&WTEJUGV\WPIQUOCPKUEJGT*GTTUEJCHVKOCTCDKUEJGP $GTGKEJ FGU )QNHGU IGPWV\V  * #& HÒJTVG FGT 9³NÄ XQP $CIFCF GKPGP CNNG 4GUUQWTEGP FGU   1UVGPUPWV\GPFGP(GNF\WIIGIGPFKGDGFWKPKUEJGP$CPÑ/WPVCHKMWPFFGPUCHCYKFKUEJGP5VCVVJCNVGTXQP $CUTC&KG$GFWKPGPYWTFGPIGUEJNCIGPWPF$CUTCQJPGYGKVGTG$GNCIGTWPIÒDGTIGDGP+O+PPGTPFGU 4GKEJGU YWTFGP 5VGWGTTGHQTOGP FWTEJIGHÒJTV KP FGTGP <WUCOOGPJCPI FKG 5KNDGTOKPGP XQP   )ÒOÒUJJCPGDGK'T\WTWOWPFXQP5KFTG3CRU³DGK5CNQPKMKWPVGTUV·TMGTGUVCCVNKEJG-QPVTQNNGIGTKGVGP &KG#WUDGWVGFGU5KNDGTUXQP)ÒOÒUJJCPGYWTFGCWUUEJNKG­NKEJHÒTFKGFGUJCNDPGWGKPIGTKEJVGVG/ÒP\ UV·VVG'T\WTWOD\YFCU-WRHGTHÒTFKG)GUEJÒV\IKG­GTGKXGTYGPFGV&CUUFCPGDGPCWEJ'FKTPGYKGFGT GKPGCMVKXG/ÒP\UV·VVGGTJKGNVNCICO9WPUEJFGU5WNVCPUJKGTUGKPGP*QH\WJCNVGP  *WUC[P-ÌRTÒNÒIGNCPIGUPQEJFKGQUOCPKUEJG(NQVVGKO5EJKHHDCWXQP)CNGGTGPCWHOQFGTPGWPFFGT <GKV IGO·­G 5GIGNUEJKHHG WO\WTÒUVGP WPF KJTGP KPPGTGP RGTUQPGNNGP #WHDCW GHHK\KGPV \W UVTWMVWTKGTGP   LGFQEJ YWTFGP XKGNG UGKPGT +PKVKCVKXGP XQP FGO 5JC[MJ CN+UN³O VQTRGFKGTV $GXQT  * #&   *WUC[P -ÌRTÒNÒ UVCTD YWTFG PCEJ GKPGO MWT\GP +PVGTOG\\Q FGU OKNKV·TKUEJ CWUIGYKGUGPGP 9³NÄ XQP   $CIFCF PWPOGJT 4³OÄ \W UGKPGO 0CEJHQNIGT DGUVKOOV &GT YCT \YCT GKP IWVGT <KXKNXGTYCNVGT JCVVG   CDGTYGPKI4ÒEMJCNVKPFGT#TOGG5EJNKG­NKEJMCOGU\WGKPGT/KNKV·TTGDGNNKQPKP-QPUVCPVKPQRGN&KG 4GDGNNGPOCTUEJKGTVGPPCEJ'FKTPGYQFKGUWNVCPKUEJG#TOGG\WKJPGPÒDGTNKGH&GT)TQ­YGUKTGTITKHH FKG(NWEJVWPFFGT5WNVCPFCPMVG\WIWPUVGPUGKPGU$TWFGTU#JOCFCD/WUVCHCYKTFCNUJQEJIGDKNFGVGT WPF \WINGKEJ IÒVKIGT /CPP DGUEJTKGDGP OKV FGP VTCFKVKQPGNN IGUEJ·V\VGP 3WCNKV·VGP GKPGU KUNCOKUEJGP   5QWXGT·PU CNU 2CVTQP XQP &KEJVGTP WPF )GNGJTVGP IGNQDV &GO GPVURTKEJV FKG #WUYCJN ÒDGTYKGIGPF   IWVGT2QNKVKMGTUGKPGU5VCCVGU#NNGPVJCNDGPUGKPHÒTUVNKEJGP'KIGPUEJCHVGPIGO·­GT*CPI\WT,CIFWPF \WO,CTÄFURKGNHKPFGP-TKVKM'TUVCTDCO5JC D³P*&G\GODGT#&

1,5:1

936

1,5:1

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 

0GWGT #UJTCHK  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ KPKVKCNGU U³F WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP   $WEJUVCDGP KO 4GX 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5EJKOMC#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T





938 937





0GWGT #UJTCHK  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ KPKVKCNGU U³F ÒDGT FGO NGV\VGP   $WEJUVCDGP KO 4GX 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



0GWGT #UJTCHK  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ KUQNKGTVGU UÄP WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP   $WEJUVCDGP KO 4GX 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



0GWGT#UJTCHK*+\OKTQJPG/\\6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P   I #TVWM  XCT <K[PGVRT·IWPI OKV /\\   OKOF³N 2GTG )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T



939



27


MUSTAFÂ II. IBN MUHAMMAD

940



0GWGT #UJTCHK  * +\OKT <K[PGVRT·IWPI XQP 5VGORGNP HÒT GKPGP FQRRGNVGP #UJTCHK QJPG /\\   6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CN   DCTTC[P   I +UOCKN )JCNKD  XIN ;-$ H WPF #TVWM  XCT CNNG OKV /\\ OKOF³N    2GTG-/XCT )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV9KGKOOGTIGNQEJVWPFIGJGPMGNVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

1,5:1



941





1,5:1

0GWGT#UJTCHK*'FKTPG/\\D³J³ÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP4X<GKNG6WIJTC ÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P I#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



942



0GWGT #UJTCHK  * 'FKTPG QJPG /\\ 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT   FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1,5:1





943



1,5:1

0GWGT#UJTCHK*1TFÑ[KJQO³[ÑP FKG*GGTGUOÒP\UV·VVG /\\KPKVKCNGUOÄOWPVGTFGONGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP KO 4X 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[BU.QPFQP0T



ex 944

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

28

<QNQVC*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\KPKVKCNGU C[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT4X <GKNGWPFF³NWPVGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGPFGU4X6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\ UV·VVG WPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PYCMJ³S³PCNDCJTC[PCUUWNV³P KDP  CUUWNV³P  2WPMVXCTKCPVGP DGKFG XQP MNGKPGO &WTEJOGUUGT  WPF  I #TVWM    2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM&CU\YGKVGOKV4CPFHGJNGTUQPUVDGKFGUGJTUEJÌP




MUSTAFÂ II. IBN MUHAMMAD

945







946

947

<QNQVC*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\KPKVKCNGU C[PKP-CTVWUEJGÒDGTFGO'PFG FGT  4X<GKNG WPF UÄP WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP FGU 4X 6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 5GIGPU   YWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PMNGKPGT&WTEJOGU UGTI#TVWM2GTGXCT5WNVCP-/ 2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



<QNQVC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ PKEJVU ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT  4X<GKNG   WPF OÄOJC WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGPD\Y8ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFT³WPVGTFGO NGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGPFGU4X6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P2WPMVXCTKCPVGPDGKFGXQPITQ­GO&WTEJOGUUGT WPFI#TVWM2GTGXCT5WNVCPWPF-/  5VÒEM-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT <QNQVC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  QJPG /\\ WPF  'ZGORNCT OKV /\\   KPKVKCNGUOÄOÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT4X<GKNGWPFF³NXQTFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGFGU4X6KVGNWPF0COGFGU 5WNVCPU 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  YC   MJ³S³P CNDCJTC[P  CUUWNV³P KDP  CUUWNV³P OKV FGO /ÒP\\GKEJGP WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP    2WPMVXCTKCPVGP DGKFG XQP MNGKPGO &WTEJOGUUGT  WPF  I #TVWM  2GTG  5WNVCP   

OCTM -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



948

948 1,5:1



 2CTC*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP-PQVGPÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGWPFOÄOJ³WPVGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGP6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPVTKVVU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PªDGTRT·IWPICWHGKPGPRQNPKUEJGP1TVUVCNGTCWU FGP GTP FGU -ÌPKIU 5KIKUOWPF +++  CO 4CPFG PQEJ GTMGPPDCT 6GKNG FGT 4GXGTUWO   UEJTKHVOKVFGTUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIUVKVWNCVWT58 -CTVWUEJGOKV$NÒVGÒDGT*CNDOQPFCNU/\\ )16 I+UOC KN)JCNKD&CTRJCPG/Ò\GUKUQPUVWPRWDNK\KGTVCWEJ-/  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV-NGKPGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[BU.QPFQP0T  &GTKPFKGUGT5COONWPIPKEJVDGNGIVG-WTWUJ.ÌYGPVCNGTYKGCWEJFKGUG2CTCUVÒEMG8KGTVGNVCNGTUEJGKPGP TGIGNO·­KI CWH GPVURTGEJGPFG YGUVNKEJG /ÒP\GP ÒDGTRT·IV YQTFGP \W UGKP &KG RQNPKUEJGP 8KGTVGNVCNGT   KPUDGUQPFGTGCWU&CP\KICDGTCWEJRTGWUUKUEJG1TVGFGTGTYCTGPWPVGTFGOJQNN·PFKUEJGP0COGP+UGNQVVGPKP ITQ­GP3WCPVKV·VGPKPFCU1UOCPKUEJG4GKEJKORQTVKGTVYQTFGPWPF\KTMWNKGTVGPFQTVDKUKPFKG<GKVWO 



29


MUSTAFÂ II. IBN MUHAMMAD

ex 950 949





949

<QNQVC*'FKTPG/\\KPKVKCNGUDCJ³ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT4X<GKNGFGU4X6KVGNWPF0COG FGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P ITQ­GT&WTEJOGUUGTI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT<QNQVC*'FKTPG/\\KPKVKCNGUDCJ³ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT4X<GKNGFGU4XGKPOCN MNGKPGKPOCNITQ­6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PMNGKPGTWPFITQ­GT&WTEJOGUUGTFGT5VGORGNWPFI #TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



952 951

951





<QNQVC  * #TF4ÑO 'T\WTWO  QJPG /\\ 6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\   UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  ITQ­GT &WTEJOGUUGTI #TVWM2GTG#POGTMWPI5WNVCP-/  49KGÒDNKEJOKV2T·IGUEJY·EJGPUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT <QNQVC  * #TF4ÑO 'T\WTWO  QJPG /\\ 6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG 5WNVCP-/ 44-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



954

953





30

953

<QNQVC*+\OKTQJPG/\\6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P   ITQ­GT &WTEJOGUUGT  I#TVWM2GTG #POGTMWPI5WNVCP-/ 4)NGKEJO·­KIG#WURT·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP



<QNQVC  * +\OKT /\\ OÄOF³N WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP KO 4X 6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WN   VCPU 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P    MNGKPGTGT&WTEJOGUUGTI#TVWM2GTG#POGTMWPIXIN5WNVCP MGPPVFCU/\\ PKEJV -/ 45GJTUEJÌP




MUSTAFÂ II. IBN MUHAMMAD

955





956

*CNDGT<QNQVC*+\OKTQJPG/\\6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P   I #TVWM  2GTG  #POGT   MWPI5WNVCP-/ 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



*CNDGT<QNQVC*+\OKT/\\OÄOF³NWPVGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGPKO4X6KVGNWPF0COGFGU 5WNVCPU 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P    I#TVWM2GTG#POGTMWPIXIN5WNVCP MGPPVFCU/\\PKEJV -/  4'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



958

957 1,5:1

I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

5WNVCPK #NVKP  * IGRT·IV  *  /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG /\\ 6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   WPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PYCMJ³S³PCNDCJTC[PCUUWNV³PKDP CUUWNV³PI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&(CUVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQPGZ0T







0GWGT#UJTCHK KPI[RVGPLCFÄF6WIJTCNÄIGPCPPV * IGRT·IV* /KUT -CKTQ /\\ OÄOÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP4X<GKNG6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



961 959

ex 960

.KD[GP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

 2CTC  * 6CTCDNÄU IJCTD UKE 6TKRQNKU  UWNV³P  /WUVCH³  KDP /WJCOOCF  MJ³P 4X FCTD    6CTCDNÄUIJCTDUCPCI-/ $TGKVGU'ZGORNCTOKVXQNNGT2T·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP





 2CTC  * 6CTCDNÄU IJCTD UKE 6TKRQNKU  .QV XQP  'ZGORNCTGP OGKUV YKG XQTJGT 6KVGN WPF   0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWO Z WPF I-/ 5VÒEM4)TQDG2T·IWPIGPVGKNUFG\GPVTKGTVUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



6WPGUKGPGKPG-WRHGTOÒP\G 

(CNU * 6ÑPKU6KVGNWPF0COG4X5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI-/ 5EJÌP

 31


AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

#JOCF+++KDP/WJCOOCF*#&

#JOCFYCT,CJTGCNVCNUKJOXQPFGT#TOGGIGJWNFKIVYWTFG/KVUGKPGO\WTÒEMIGVTGVGPGP$TWFGT /WUVCH³XGTDCPFKJPFKGIGOGKPUCOGTGNCVKXHTGKG2TKP\GPGT\KGJWPIKO*CTÄOWPFKO2CNCUVUQFCUUGT UKEJGT PKEJV HÒT FGP DCNFKIGP 6QF FGU CDIGUGV\VGP ·NVGTGP $TWFGTU XGTCPVYQTVNKEJ \W OCEJGP KUV <W   P·EJUVDGUV·VKIVGGTCNNGXQPFGP-QPUVCPVKPQRNGT4GDGNNGPGKPIGUGV\VGP9ÒTFGPVT·IGTKO#OV&KGOKNK V·TKUEJGP #PHÒJTGT FGT 4GDGNNGP YWTFGP CDGT PCEJ YGPKIGP /QPCVGP FWTEJ FKG 'WPWEJGP WPF FKG 2C   NCUVYCEJG FGU 6QRMCRý 5CTCK WOIGDTCEJV #WH FKG &CWGT YWTFGP CNNG 4GDGNNGP CWU FGO ,CJT    *#&CWUKJTGP(WPMVKQPGPDGUGKVKIV  #JOCF UEJGKPV ÒDGT UGJT MNCTG RQNKVKUEJUVTCVGIKUEJG 8QTUVGNNWPIGP WPF ÒDGT &WTEJUGV\WPIUYKNNGP XGT   HÒIV\WJCDGPMGKPGUYGIUPWT\WOGKIGPGP/CEJVGTJCNVUQPFGTPWOFCU4GHQTORTQITCOOFGTNGV\VGP -ÌRTÒNÒ)TQ­YGUKTG HÒT GKPGP NGDGPUH·JKIGP UVCTMGP 5VCCV \W XGTYKTMNKEJGP 5Q GPVGKIPGVG GT RTKXCVK   UKGTVGU .GJGPUNCPF WO GU CNU 5VCCVURCEJVNCPF HKUMCNKUEJ IGYKPPDTKPIGPF \W PWV\GP #WEJ UGV\VG GT FKG   (NQVVGPTGHQTOHQTV&CU5GNDUVXGTVTCWGPFGTQUOCPKUEJGP'NKVGPYWEJUOKVFGOYKTVUEJCHVNKEJGP'THQNI WPF OCP UWEJVG FCPCEJ CP YGNEJGT 5VGNNG FKG )GDKGVUXGTNWUVG FGU 8GTVTCIU XQP -CTNQYKV\ GTHQNITGKEJ   \WTÒEMIGYQPPGPYGTFGPMQPPVGP  &GT0QTFKUEJG-TKGIOKVFGT(NWEJVFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIU-CTNU:++PCEJ-QPUVCPVKPQRGNYKGUFKG 4KEJVWPI IGIGP 4WUUNCPF #WEJ <CT 2GVGT FGT )TQ­G RNCPVG YGIGP FGT HQTVIGUGV\VGP #WHPCJOG FGU   5EJYGFGPMÌPKIUGKPGPTWUUKUEJGP8QTUVQ­KP4KEJVWPICWH-QPUVCPVKPQRGNFGT\WGKPGT'KPMGUUG NWPI FGT TWUUKUEJGP #TOGG OKV KJTGO -CKUGT CP FGT 2TWVJ HÒJTVG FKG FWTEJ GKPGP (TKGFGPUUEJNWUU OKV   FGO CWU FGT 2QUKVKQP FGT 5V·TMG XGTJCPFNWPIUDGTGKVGP )TQ­YGUKT IGNÌUV YWTFG &KGUGT 'THQNI UV·TMVG   FKGLGPKIGPYGNEJGYGKVGTG4ÒEMGTQDGTWPIGPYQNNVGPWPFUQYWTFGPCEJªDGTITKHHGP8GPGFKIUCWH\KXKNG QUOCPKUEJG 5EJKHHG KO /KVVGNOGGT FKG /QTGC KP )TKGEJGPNCPF UEJPGNN GKPIGPQOOGP &CFWTEJ IGYCPP   FKG -TKGIURCTVGK CP &[PCOKM \WO #PITKHH CWH 7PICTP YQ CO  #WIWUV  DGK 2GVGTYCTFGKP FCU   QUOCPKUEJG*CWRVJGGTGTPGWVFWTEJFKG-CKUGTNKEJGPWPVGTFGO2TKP\GP'WIGPIGUEJNCIGPYWTFGYQT CWH$GNITCFXGTNQTGPIKPI  'KPG(QTVUGV\WPIFGU-TKGIGUYCTHÒTFKGQUOCPKUEJG5GKVGWPOÌINKEJ/KV&CO³F+DT³JÄO2³UJ³GTJKGNV FCU 4GKEJ  GKPGP PGWGP )TQ­YGUKTWPVGTFGOGKPG,CJTGY·JTGPFG(TKGFGPURGTKQFG\WT#PGKI PWPIFGTVGEJPKUEJGPWPFYKUUGPUEJCHVNKEJGP'TTWPIGPUEJCHVGPFGUÒDTKIGP'WTQRCWPF\WPGWGTMWNVW TGNNGT$NÒVGHÒJTVG&GT$CTQEMJKGNV'KP\WIKO1UOCPKUEJGP4GKEJOKVFGT6WNRGP\GKVWPFGWTQR·KUEJGP /CNGTP+DTCJKO/ÒVGHGTTKMCITÒPFGVGFKGGTUVG WPFHÒTNCPIG<GKVGKP\KIG $WEJFTWEMGTGKKP-QPUVCP VKPQRGNFKGFGO$KDNKQVJGMUYGUGPFGT$KNFWPIUGNKVGGKPGPYGUGPVNKEJGP5EJWDXGTUGV\VG&GT0WV\GPUQNN XQTCNNGOFGO*QHFGU5WNVCPUWPFGKPGTMNGKPGP'NKVG\WIGHNQUUGPUGKPY·JTGPFFKGOKV'HHK\KGP\GTJQ DGPGP 5VGWGTP DTGKVGP $GXÌNMGTWPIUUEJKEJVGP /ÒJG OCEJVG &KGU KUV CDGT CWEJ GKP )GOGKPRNCV\ FGU   UR·VDCTQEMGP/KVVGNGWTQRCUQFCUUUQNEJG#PCN[UGPOKV8QTUKEJV\WDGVTCEJVGPUKPF  &KG NCPIG (TKGFGPURJCUG MCO FWTEJ KPVGTPG 8QTI·PIG KO ÌUVNKEJGP 0CEJDCTNCPF \WO 'PFG FGPP FGT   <WUCOOGPDTWEJFGUUEJKKVKUEJGP5CHCYKFGPUVCCVGUFWTEJFKG/CEJVÒDGTPCJOGCHIJCPKUEJGT5ÌNFPGTHÒJ TGT NKG­GP &CO³F +DT³JÄO 2³UJ³  FKG UKEJ DKGVGPFGP %JCPEGPKOVWTMURTCEJKIGP#\GTDCKLCP #TOGPKGPWPF)GQTIKGPGTITGKHGPPCEJFGO4WUUNCPFDGTGKVU&GTDCPFWPF$CMWDGUGV\VJCVVG  &KG#DYGUGPJGKVITQ­GT6TWRRGPXGTD·PFGCWU-QPUVCPVKPQRGNKP#\GTDCKLCPGTOÌINKEJVGPCEJ0KGFGTNC IGPCPFGTKTCPKUEJGP(TQPVFGP'THQNIGKPGT)TWRRG#NDCPKUEJGT,CPKVUEJCTGPWPVGT2CVTQPC*CNÄN DGKFGT(QTFGTWPIPCEJ#DUGV\WPIWPF6QFFGU)TQ­YGUKTUFGOXQTIGYQTHGPYWTFGGTJCDGOKV&GT DGPF WPF $CMW KUNCOKUEJG )GDKGVG CP FCU EJTKUVNKEJG 4WUUNCPF CDIGVTGVGP VCVU·EJNKEJ CDGT FWTEJUGKPG *GGTGUWPF(NQVVGPTGHQTOFGP'KPHNWUUFGT,CPKVUEJCTGPDGITGP\VJCVVG#JOCF+++ICDFGP#WHUV·PFK UEJGP \WP·EJUV PCEJ WPF NKG­ &CO³F +DT³JÄO 2³UJ³ GTYÒTIGP MQPPVG UKEJ UGNDGT CDGT PKEJV JCNVGP   UQPFGTP VTCV \WIWPUVGP FGU ·NVGUVGP 1UOCPGP CO *QHG \WTÒEM /CJOWF + #JOCF UVCTD CO  5CHCT   *,WPK#&\WGKPGO<GKVRWPMVCPFGOUQYQJNIGIGPFGP+TCPCNUCWEJ4WUUNCPF-TKGI IGHÒJTVYWTFGPYCU\WYGPKIYCJTUEJGKPNKEJGP5RGMWNCVKQPGPÒDGTGKPGOÌINKEJG8GTIKHVWPI#PNCUUICD 32


AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

962

963

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 



<GTK +UVCPDÑN*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\Y³YQFGTS³HKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF ,CJTFCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



<GTK +UVCPDÑN  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ Y³Y QFGT S³H WOIGUEJPKVVGP \W [³ KP -CTVWUEJG   6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FCTÒDGT FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP )GT·PFGNV  I #TVWM  2GTG    -/ )1.&-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

964



966

965

967



<GTK+UVCPDÑN*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\[³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTFCTÒDGT FCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP





<GTK+UVCPDÑN*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\[³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTFCTÒDGT FCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&6TGOQNKGTUVKEJKO#XUGJTUEJÌP



<GTK+UVCPDÑN*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\PÑPKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTFCT ÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



<GTK +UVCPDÑN  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ UÄP KP -CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTFCT ÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ







1,5:1





1,5:1

<GTK+UVCPDÑN*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\OÄOKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTFCT ÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

969



968



970

<GTK +UVCPDÑN  *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\OÄOF³NKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT FCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



<GTK +UVCPDÑN  *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\OÄOF³NKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT FCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 33


AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

971



<GTK +UVCPDÑN  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ HKPCNGU C[P KP -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF   ,CJTFCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1



972



1,5:1

*CNDGT <GTK +UVCPDÑN  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ OÄO KP -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF   ,CJTFCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTG-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



973



*CNDGT <GTK +UVCPDÑN  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ -PQVGP QJPG -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC 4X /\UV   WPF,CJTFCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T





974



(ÒPHHCEJGT #UJTCHK  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ [³ KP -CTVWUEJG ÒDGT FGO   'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG WPF D³ WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP KO 4GX 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P    I 8IN   #TVWMWPF2GTG /\\KPKVKCNGUJC -/ MGPPVFKGUGU/\\PKEJV   )1.&W­GTUVUGNVGPG8CTKCPVGFKGUGUUGJTUGNVGPGP/ÒP\V[RU &TGKUCWDGTIGUVQRHVG.ÌEJGTUGJTUEJÌP 

976



975

#UJTCHK  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  <K[PGV#DUEJNCI CWH ITQ­GO DTGKVGP 5EJTÌV   NKPI /\\ J³ WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP KO 4GX 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG   WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P   I #TVWM  /\\ Y³Y QFGT   S³H 2GTG-/ )1.&44<YGKOCNIGNQEJVCO4CPFUEJYCEJCWUIGRT·IVUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T



34

976



#UJTCHK  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ KPKVKCNGU C[P KP -CTVWUEJG ÒDGT FGO   'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG WPF F³N WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP KO 4GX 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PI8IN#TVWM WPF2GTG DGKFG/\\UÄP -/ )1.&-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ




AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

ex 977

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

-WTWUJ*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\OÄOF³NKP-CTVWUEJG 5VGORGNXCTKCP VGP  *CNDMWTWUJ QFGT ;KTOKNKM OKV FGOUGNDGP /ÒP\\GKEJGP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP   WPFI#TVWMXCTWPF2GTGWPF5WNVCPWPF -/WPF 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 978

ex 979

ex 979





1PNWM*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\OGFKCNGU C[PKP-CTVWUEJGD\YOÄOKP -CTVWUEJG$GUJNKMOKV/\\OÄOF³NKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPFI #TVWMXCTWPF2GTGWPF5WNVCPXCTWPF-/WPF  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



<QNQVC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  FTGK 8CTKCPVGP CNNG OKV /\\ -PQVGP OKV WP   FGWVNKEJGO /QPQITCOO OÄOF³N!  ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT  4X<GKNG WPF C[P WPF JC \W #PHCPI WPF   'PFG FGT NGV\VGP <GKNG D\Y KPKVKCNGU UCF WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP D\Y PÑP WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP   $WEJUVCDGPFGU4X6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PWPFI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT5WNVCP WPF OCTMU -/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJUGJTUEJÌPWPFWP\KTMWNKGTV



ex 980





ex 981 ex 980

<QNQVC*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN \YGK8CTKCPVGPDGKFGOKV/\\D³J³KP&TGK RCUU ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT  4X<GKNG WPF F³N D\Y KPKVKCNGU J³ WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP KO 4X   6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN   UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P   WPF  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG  XCT 5WNVCP  WPF    -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



*CNDG<QNQVC*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN XKGT8CTKCPVGPCNNGOKV/\\-PQVGPOKV WPFGWVNKEJGO/QPQITCOOÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT4X<GKNGWPFKPKVKCNGUJC C[PF³ND³J³D\YF³N WPVGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGPFGU4X6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PWPFI#TVWM2GTG XCT5WNVCPXCTXCTWPF-/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFWP\KTMWNKGTV

 35


AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

ex 982



2CTC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  )TQ­GT 6[R OKV $GK\GKEJGP -PQVGP D\Y    2WPMVGQDGPKO4XWPFGKPCWH#MEGITÌ­GDGUEJPKVVGPGT2CTCOKV/\\OÄONKPMUPGDGPFGT,CJTGU\CJN UQYKG2CTCMNGKPGP6[RUOKV/ÒP\UV·VVGPDG\GKEJPWPI+UN³ODÑNOKV/\\KPKVKCNGU C[PT³D\Y[³NKPMU PGDGPFGT,CJTGU\CJNWPFI#TVWMWPF2GTGWPF XCT5WNVCPWPF-/WPF  5VÒEM4/KV#WUPCJOGFGUDGUEJPKVVGPGP5VÒEMUXQT\ÒINKEJWPFWP\KTMWNKGTV

ex 983

1,5:1







ex 984

1,5:1

2:1

2:1

#MEG*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU/\\PGDGPFGO,CJTOÄOOÄOT³ XCT PÑPV³WPFT³ PKEJVIGYQIGPWPFI#TVWMXCT2GTG5WNVCPWPFXCT-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWP\KTMWNKGTV



#MEG*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QJPG /\\  8CTKCPVGP    WPF I2GTG5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌPWP\KTMWNKGTV



985

986

6ÒTMGK-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

4GEJVGEMKIGT/CPIKT::*$KVNÄUI-CDCMNCTNK$VN



4GEJVGEMKIGT/CPIKT*9³P 8CP 6KVGNWPF0COG4X5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IG LCJTI-CDCMNCTNK9P 445GJTUEJÌP

987

ex 988

445GJTUEJÌP

 

989

#TOGPKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 





36

#DDCUK 1PNWM * IGRT·IV* 4GY³P ;GTGXCP /\\-PQVGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN UWNVCP CNDCTTC[P  ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP  I   #TVWM2GTG-/ #TOGPKC  45GJTUEJÌP



#DDCUK 1PNWM * IGRT·IV* 4GY³P ;GTGXCP /\\-PQVGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UV WPF,CJT4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP&TGKUVGO RGNINGKEJG5VÒEMG2WPMVXCTKCPVGPKO8GTJ·NVPKU\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEMWPFI#TVWM 2GTG-/ #TOGPKC  5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP



#DDCUK 1PNWM * IGRT·IV* 4GY³P ;GTGXCP /\\-PQVGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN UWNVCP CNDCTTC[P  ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP -NGKPGT   4GXGTUUVGORGNI#TVWM2GTG-/ #TOGPKC  45GJTUEJÌP




AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

990

1,5:1

1,5:1

#\GTDCKFUEJCP+TCP)QNFOÒP\G 

0GWGT<KPLKTNK#NVKP* IGRT·IV* 6CDTÄ\/\\[³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UV WPF,CJTFCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&444)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

991





992

#\GTDCKFUEJCP+TCP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 



#DDCUK 1PNWM * IGRT·IV* 6CDTÄ\/\\F³N ! KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTCÒDGT/\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN UWNVCP CNDCTTC[P  ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP  I   #TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 4(NGEMKIUGJTUEJÌP



#DDCUK 1PNWM * IGRT·IV* 6CDTÄ\/\\F³N ! KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTCÒDGT/\UV WPF,CJT4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPªDGTRT· IWPICWHGKPGP#DDCUKFGU5CHCYKFGP*WUC[PCWU0CMJLKY³PI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  4(NGEMKIUGJTUEJÌP



993





#DDCUKXQPTGFW\KGTVGO)GYKEJV 1PNWM * IGRT·IV* 6CDTÄ\/\\[³ ! KP-CT VWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTQDGPFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPªDGTRT·IWPICWHGKPGP#DDCUKFGU*QVCMK #HIJCPGP#UJTCH * CWU+UHCJ³PXQO6[R%I#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP -/ 45GJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT#DDCUK $GUJNKM * IGRT·IV* 6CDTÄ\/\\[³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X /\UVWPF,CJTQDGPFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  4-QTTQFKGTVWPFCO4CPFDGUVQ­GPUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



995



994

996

*CNDGT#DDCUK $GUJNKM * IGRT·IV* 6CDTÄ\/\\[³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X /\UVWPF,CJTQDGPFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  44CPFHGJNGT *GPMGNURWT! UGJTUEJÌP



#\GTDCKFUEJCP5KNDGTOÒP\G 

#DDCUK 1PNWM * IGRT·IV* )CPLC/\\J³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF ,CJTQDGPFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ #\GTDCKLCP  445GJTUEJÌP

 37


AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

1,5:1

997

1,5:1

)GQTIKGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

0GWGT<KPLKTNK#NVKP* IGRT·IV* 6KHNÄU 6DKNKUK /\\OGFKCNGU C[PKP-CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTFCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG -/ )GQTIKC  )1.&4445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI)CTTGVV#WMVKQP0WOKUOCVKE(KPG#TVU$CPM.GW$GXGTN[*KNNU/CK0T 

1,5:1



998

1,5:1

0GWGT<KPLKTNK#NVKP* IGRT·IV* 6KHNÄU 6DKNKUK /\\KPKVKCNGUOÄOKP-CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTFCTÒDGTFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM2GTG -/ )GQTIKC  )1.&4445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T  &KG+FGPVKHK\KGTWPIFGU/ÒP\\GKEJGPUKUVPKEJVGKPFGWVKIFCFGT$WEJUVCDGUGJTGPIKPFKG-CTVWUEJGGKPIG\Y·PIV KUVYCUFKG-QPVWTWPFGWVNKEJOCEJV#WHFGPGTUVGP$NKEM·JPGNVFGT$WEJUVCDGUGJTFGOLGPKIGPCWHFGOXQTJGT IGJGPFGP5VÒEM#WEJGKPKPKVKCNGUJ³Y·TGNGUDCTWPFKUVOKVFGOCWH2GTG J³IGNGUGP UKEJGTKFGPVKUEJ&GT $WEJUVCDGJCVCDGTKO7PVGTUEJKGF\WO/ÒP\\GKEJGPFGUXQTKIGP5VÒEMUFGWVNKEJMGKPG8GTDKPFWPIPCEJTGEJVU

ex 999

ex 1000

)GQTIKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 



#DDCUK 1PNWM * IGRT·IV* 6KHNÄU 6DKNKUK /\\J³KPDNÒVGPHÌTOKIGT-CTVWUEJG 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\ \GKEJGP &TGK 8CTKCPVGP OKV WPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGO #TTCPIGOGPV FGT $GK\GKEJGP TGEJVU FGT 6WIJTC    WPFI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM&CUNGV\VG5VÒEMHNGEMKIWPFOKVXGTUWEJVGT.QEJWPIUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



#DDCUK 1PNWM   * IGRT·IV  *  6KHNÄU 6DKNKUK  /\\ J³ KP FTGKGEMKIKIGT -CTVWUEJG   6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\ \GKEJGP GKP \YGKVGU 5VÒEM OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP KP DNÒVGPHÌTOKIGT -CTVWUEJG OKV MNGKPGO 4GXGTUUVGORGN   GKP FTKVVGU OKV INGKEJGO /ÒP\\GKEJGP DGKFGTUGKVU ITQ­GP 5VGORGNP LGFQEJ MNGKPGO 5EJTÌVNKPI    WPFI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM&CU\YGKVG5VÒEMOKV&QRRGNUEJNCIUQPUVCNNGUGJTUEJÌP



I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

38

1001

#UJTCHK  * /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG 9CNK\GKEJGPKO4GXWPFCPFGTG/ÒP\\GKEJGP6WIJTCÒDGT5G IGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P0KEJV IGT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWMXIN2GTG 9CNK\GKEJGPGKPHCEJGT-PQVGP -/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP




AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

1002



1003

#UJTCHK  * /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG 9CNK\GKEJGP KO 4GX WPF CNKH ÒDGT FGO NGV\VGP $WEJUVCDGP FGU   /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGPUKO#X6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P0KEJVIGT·PFGNVI#TVWMXIN2GTG 9CNK\GKEJGP GKPHCEJGT-PQVGP -/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



&KG2T·IWPIFGTJKGTCNU#UJTCHKDG\GKEJPGVGP)QNFOÒP\GPH·NNVQHHGPDCTKP\YGKIGVTGPPVG2GTKQFGPCO#PHCPIWPF CO'PFGFGT4GIKGTWPIU\GKVFGU5WNVCPU#JOCF+++&KGHGJNGPFG4·PFGNWPIFKGUGT5VÒEMGFCTHCNU*KPYGKUFCTCWH IGFGWVGVYGTFGPFCUUGUUKEJWOHTÒJG5VÒEMGXQTFGT'KPHÒJTWPIFGU<KPLKTNKJCPFGNV&CU(GJNGPXQP9CNK\GKEJGP OCIFCTCPNKGIGPFCUUGUUKEJJKGTWO/WUVGTUVGORGNJCPFGNVFKGCWU-QPUVCPVKPQRGNIGUEJKEMVYQTFGPYCTGP&GT \GKVIGPÌUUKUEJG0COGFKGUGT·NVGTGP/ÒP\GPYCTKPI[RVGPYKG\WXQT6WIJTCNÄQFGT#DÑ6WTC5R·VGUVGPUCD *WPFDKU*YWTFGPFCPPPWTPQEJ<KPLKTNK)QNFOÒP\GPXQPPGWGO6[ROKVFGT6WIJTCKO-TGKUWPFJÌJG TGO(GKPIGJCNVIGRT·IV&KGPCEJHQNIGPFGPIGT·PFGNVGP#UJTCHKIGJÌTGPFCPPKPFKG2GTKQFGPCEJ*KPFGT PCEJ FGT TGNCVKX IWVGP ·I[RVKUEJGP 3WGNNGPÒDGTNKGHGTWPI (KPFKSNK)QNFOÒP\GP IGRT·IV YWTFGP &GT PGWG 0COG   GTMN·TVUKEJCODGUVGPTÒEMY·TVUDGVTCEJVGVFCGUUKEJPWPYKGFGTWO/ÒP\GPXQO6[RFGTUR·VGTGP<GTKOCJDWF JCPFGNVGLGFQEJKOYGUGPVNKEJJÌJGTGP)GYKEJVFGT8GPG\KCPKUEJGP&WMCVGP 



#UJTCHK*/KUT -CKTQ 9CNK\GKEJGP C[PKP-CTVWUEJGÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGKO4GX 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CN   DCTTC[P)GT·PFGNVI8IN#TVWM 9CNK\GKEJGPUCF[³ XIN2GTG 9CNK\GKEJGPGKPHC EJGT-PQVGP -/ )1.&'VYCU$GNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T  &CU 9CNK\GKEJGP KUVGPVYGFGTFGO3CKOCSCO #NK/QTCN[\W\WQTFPGPFGTFGPITÌ­GTGP6GKNFGU,CJTGU* FKG *GTTUEJCHV \YKUEJGP #DUGV\WPI WPF 9KGFGTGKPUGV\WPI FGU 0KUJCPLK /WJCOOCF CNU 9CNK XQP I[RVGP XGTVTCV   QFGTFGO #DFÄFGT*\WO\YGKVGP/CNFCU9CNKCOVDGMNGKFGVG 

1004 1,5:1



1,5:1

#UJTCHK  * /KUT -CKTQ  9CNK\GKEJGP U³F[³ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGKO4GXWPF F³N ÒDGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGPFGU/ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGPUKO#X6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGP CPICDGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM XIN2GTG 9CNK\GKEJGPGKPHCEJGT-PQVGP -/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



&CU\YGKVG/ÒP\\GKEJGPF³NCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGMCPPOKVFGO5³JKDCN K[³TFGT/ÒP\UV·VVGCN/W CNNKO&³ ÑFKP 8GTDKPFWPIIGDTCEJVYGTFGP&GTNKG­KO,CJT*HÒTFKG'KPHÒJTWPIFGT(KPFKSNK)QNFOÒP\GPGKPGP0GWDCW FGT/ÒP\UV·VVGCWHFGT<KVCFGNNGGTTKEJVGP'PVIGIGPFGT#PYGKUWPIGPCWU-QPUVCPVKPQRGNXGTNCPIVGPFKG)QNFNKGHG TCPVGPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVGCDGTYGKVGTJKPFKGUGKV*IGRT·IVGP<KPLKTNK)QNFOÒP\GP\W-CTCV0CEJFGT#DDGTW HWPIFGU9CNK0KUJCPLK/WJCOOCF*NKG­&C WFGKPG\YGKVG/ÒP\UV·VVGHÒTFKG<KPLKTNK2T·IWPIKPUGKPGO *CWUGKP)K\GGKPTKEJVGPKPFGTKO8GTNCWHXQP\YGK/QPCVGP5JCTÄHÄ<KPLKTNKIGRT·IVYWTFGPYGNEJG PWT  -CTCV )QNF JKGNVGP WPF UR·VGTJKP CNU 2T·IWPIGP XQP )K\G DGMCPPV YCTGP WPF  0KUHHKFFC 2CTC  IGTKPIGT   VCTKHKGTVYWTFGUCU5³YÄ5&KGXQTJGTIGPCPPVGP(KPFKSNK)QNFOÒP\GPUKPFQHHGPDCTKFGPVKUEJOKVFGPJKGT #UJTCHKIGPCPPVGP2T·IWPIGP 

1,5:1



1005

1,5:1

#UJTCHK*/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGKO 4GX6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³P CNDCTTC[P)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXIN2GTG 9CNK\GKEJGPGKPHCEJGT-PQVGP -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



&C FGT FQRRGNVG -PQVGP CWEJ CWH GPVURTGEJGPFGP /ÒP\GP FGU 0CEJHQNIGTU /CJOWF + \W HKPFGP KUV YKTF FKGUGU   9CNK\GKEJGP FGO WPVGT #JOCF +++ WPF /CJOÑF + COVKGTGPFGP -ÌRTÒNÒ\CFG #DFCNN³J 9CNK  *    \W\WQTFPGPUGKP&KGXQTNKGIGPFG/ÒP\GKUVFGOPCEJ*\WFCVKGTGP 

39


AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

1007

1006





<KPLKTNK #NVKP  * IGRT·IV* CWHITQ­GO5EJTÌVNKPI/KUT -CKTQ OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP XGTFQRRGNVGU OÄO 6WIJTC KP -TGKU WPF 2GTNMTGKU 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   )GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



<KPLKTNK#NVKP*/KUT -CKTQ CWHMNGKPGO5EJTÌVNKPIOKV/ÒP\\GKEJGPXGTFQRRGNVGUOÄO6WIJTC KP-TGKUWPF2GTNMTGKU4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4WFKOGPV·TG4·PFGNWPII #TVWM2GTG )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



1008

1,5:1



1,5:1

<KPLKTNK #NVKP  * IGRT·IV* CWHITQ­GO5EJTÌVNKPI/KUT -CKTQ OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP XGTFQRRGNVGUOÄO\WGKPGO-PQVGPWOIGUEJPKVVGP6WIJTCKP-TGKUWPF2GTNMTGKU4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



1009



*CNDGT<KPLKTNK#NVKP* IGRT·IV* CWHITQ­GO5EJTÌVNKPI/KUT -CKTQ OKV/ÒP\ \GKEJGPXGTFQRRGNVGUOÄO\WGKPGP-PQVGPGTYGKVGTV6WIJTCKP-TGKUWPF2GTNMTGKU4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&4-N&TWEMUVGNNGPUGJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG0T



ex 1010



1011 ex 1012

I[RVGP5KNDGTOÒP\G 

/C[FKP  * /KUT -CKTQ  XQP VTCFKVKQPGNNGT 2T·IWPI 6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU 4X 5GIGPU   YWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF'OKUUKQPULCJT8CTKCPVGP+UOC KN)JCNKD2GTG5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM5EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



I[RVGP-WRHGTOÒP\G 

(CNU  *  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  I   -CDCMNCTNK/UT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



.KD[GP-WRHGTOÒP\G 

40

(CNU  * 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6KVGN WPF 0COG 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU    8CTKCPVGP (CNU  * 6CTCDNÑU 6KVGN WPF 0COG 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG KO &TGKRCUU   WPF   I-CDCMNCTNK6TDIWPF6TDI-/WPF 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFUEJÌP




AHMAD III. IBN MUHAMMAD

1013

1014

1015

6WPGUKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

1PNWM  * 6ÑPKU   UWNV³P  CNDCTTC[P YC MJ³S³P  CNDCJTC[P CUUWNV³P  #JOCF 4X KDP   /WJCOOCFMJ³P C\\CPCUTCJWFWTKDCHÄ6ÑPKU\WFGP5GKVGPFGU0COGPU#JOCFLGGKP5VGTPI #TVWM * 2GTG * 5WNVCP * -/  5GJTUGNVGPGUGTUVGU,CJT5GJTIWVCWUIGRT·IVGUUVGORGNIN·P\GPFGU'ZGORNCTOKVNGKEJVGT6ÌPWPI



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI8KMVQT5EJKOMC#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T  

$GKFGO5VÒEMMCPPGUUKEJCWEJWOGKPGP2TQDGCDUEJNCIJCPFGNP





1PNWM  * 6ÑPKU UWNV³P  CNDCTTC[P YC MJ³S³P  CNDCJTC[P CUUWNV³P   #JOCF 4X KDP   /WJCOOCF MJ³P C\\C PCUTCJW  FWTKDC HÄ  6ÑPKU    I #TVWM   *  2GTG    5WNVCP * -/ 5GJTUEJÌP



1PNWM  * 6ÑPKU UWNV³P  CNDCTTC[P YC MJ³S³P  CNDCJTC[P CUUWNV³P#JOCF4XKDP /WJCOOCFMJ³P C\\CPCUTCJWFWTKDCHÄ6ÑPKU\WFGP5GKVGPFGU0COGPU#JOCFLGGKP5VGTPI #TVWM * 2GTG5WNVCP * -/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1016





3WCFTCVKUEJGT0CUTKQ,6ÑPKU[³S³FÄNJ³L³V[³M³HÄNOWJKOO³V4X6KVGN0COGWPF/ÒP\UV·VVG 8CTKCPVGPWPFI#TVWM ,CJT -/ CNNGOKV&CVWO   5VÒEM'KP5VÒEMIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



3WCFTCVKUEJGT 0CUTK     8CT    WPF   * 6ÑPKU [³ S³FÄ NJ³L³V  [³ M³HÄ N   OWJKOO³V 4X 6KVGN 0COG WPF /ÒP\UV·VVG  8CTKCPVGP     WPF  I #TVWM    ,CJT -/ 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



ex 1018





ex 1017

ex 1019

3WCFTCVKUEJGT0CUTK   8CT WPF  *6ÑPKU[³S³FÄNJ³L³V[³M³HÄNOWJKOO³V 4X6KVGN0COGWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT -/ CNNG OKV&CVWO  5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



3WCFTCVKUEJGT 0CUTK    8CT     WPF   * 6ÑPKU [³ S³FÄ NJ³L³V  [³ M³HÄ N   OWJKOO³V4X6KVGN0COGWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT  -/ CNNGOKV&CVWO  5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



41


MAHMÛD I.

/CJOÑF+*#&

/CJOÑFIGDQTGPYCTCPHCPIUGKP)GUEJÌRHFGT2CVTQPC4GDGNNKQPWPFFGT,CPKVUEJCTGP&CJGT OWUUVGGT\WP·EJUVFGTGP(QTFGTWPIPCEJ<GTUVÌTWPIFGTCPIGDNKEJDCTQEMGP2CTMWPF-ÌUEJMCPNC IGPKPFGT7OIGDWPI-QPUVCPVKPQRGNUPCEJMQOOGP#WEJRGTUQPGNNICDGUGKPōTQNNDCEMŋKPFGOFKG WPVGT#JOCF+++KP8GTDCPPWPINGDGPFG(COKNKG(C[FCNN³JUGTPGWVFKGYKEJVKIUVGPOVGTHÒT4GEJVU IGNGJTVGGKPPCJO&GP4GDGNNGPGTYWEJUCDGTKPFGT2CNCUVICTFGGKPGUVCTMG-QPMWTTGP\0CEJYGPKIGT CNU\YGK/QPCVGPYWTFGPFKG2N·PGFGUUEJYCT\GP-K\NCT#IJC$CUJÄTWPFFGU)TQ­YGUKTUOKV*KNHGFGU -JCPUFGT-TKOCWUIGHÒJTV$GKGKPGO'ORHCPIKO6QRMCRK5CTCKUQNNVGFGO2CVTQPC-JCNÄNWPFUGKPGP (ÒJTGTPXQTIGDNKEJPGWGOVGTXGTNKGJGPYGTFGPVCVU·EJNKEJYWTFGPFKGUGCDGTGKPGTPCEJFGOCPFGTGP GTOQTFGV  &GT-K\NCT#IJCYWTFGPWPFGTUVCTMG/CPPCO*QHG/CJOÑFUFGTFKG$GUGV\WPIGPFGU)TQ­YGUKTCVU QTICPKUKGTVG &KG DNWVKIG 8GTHQNIWPI FGT #NDCPGT WPF CPFGTGT 4GDGNNGP JKGNV YGKVGT CP 5Q JCVVG FGT   #WHUVCPFVTQV\FGT#WUYGEJUGNWPIFGU5WNVCPUMGKPGFCWGTJCHVGP#WUYKTMWPIGPCWHFGP)CPIFGTQUOC PKUEJGP)GUEJKEJVG&KGMQPUGSWGPVG#PGKIPWPIYGUVNKEJGT/KNKV·TVGEJPQNQIKGVTWIKPFGPUR·VGPGT ,CJTGP (TÒEJVG KP YGKVGTGP #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGP OKV FGO &GWVUEJGP 4GKEJ 8GTUWEJG FKG /QNFCW   WPVGTJCDUDWTIKUEJG-QPVTQNNG\WDTKPIGPUEJGKVGTVGPWPF0QTFUGTDKGPOKV$GNITCFYWTFGGTPGWVQUOC PKUEJ  #PFGTGTUGKVU IKPIGP #\GTDC[LCP WPF FKG 0CEJDCTTGIKQPGP  * #& CP FGP #HIJCPGP 0CFKT   5JCJ XGTNQTGP )NGKEJ\GKVKI YWTFG FKG JKUVQTKUEJG %JCPEG FKG GT 5JK C WPF FGP UWPPKVKUEJGP +UNCO   FWTEJ GKP $ÒPFPKU \YKUEJGP FGP +TCP DGJGTTUEJGPFGP UWPPKVKUEJGP #HIJCPGP WPF FGO 1UOCPKUEJGP   4GKEJ CWU\WUÌJPGP XGTRCUUV &KG -QPUQNKFKGTWPI QUOCPKUEJGT *GTTUEJCHV KO 1UVGP FGT #TCDKUEJGP   *CNDKPUGNKUVFWTEJFKGGTUVLÒPIUVDGMCPPVIGYQTFGPGP/ÒP\GPIWVDGNGIV  &KG\YGKVG*·NHVGFGT4GIKGTWPIU\GKV/CJOÑFUYCTXQP(TKGFGPOKVFGP0CEJDCTUVCCVGPIGRT·IV-WNVW TGNNYKGJGTTUEJCHVUIGUEJKEJVNKEJMQPPVGPKPFGT4GIKGTWPIU\GKV/CJOWFU+FKGGTHQNITGKEJGP'PVYKEM NWPIGP #JOCFU +++ HQTVIGUGV\V YGTFGP &KG &TWEMGTGK /ÒVGHGTTKMCU WPF FKG $KDNKQVJGMGP -QPUVCP   VKPQRGNU HNQTKGTVGP FKG 9CUUGTXGTUQTIWPI FGT 5VCFV YWTFG GTPGWGTV /CJOÑF + UVCTD  #& PCEJ   GKPGO KPUIGUCOV GTHQNITGKEJGP 5WNVCPCV 'KPG JGWVG QHHGPG (TCIG KUV KPYKGYGKV FKG #WHMN·TWPI KO   EJTKUVNKEJGP'WTQRCCWEJFCUQUOCPKUEJG4GKEJGTHCUUVG5KEJGTKUVFCIGIGPFCUUFKGCWUFGT#WHMN·TWPI KO EJTKUVNKEJGP 'WTQRC HQNIGPFG (TGKJGKV \W TGNKIKÌUGT 'PVUEJGKFWPI OGJTGTGP OKNKV·TKUEJ DGFGWVUCOGP   4GPGICVGP FGP ªDGTVTKVV \WO +UNCO GTNGKEJVGTVG YKG FGO HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP )TCHGP WPF )GPGTCN %NCWFG   #NGZCPFTGFG$QPPGXCNCNKCU*WODCTCLÄ#JOCF2³UJ³

42


MAHMÛD I.

1020

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 

 #NVKP EGFKF +UVCPDWN DGUJNKM   * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ OÄOOÄO KP -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC KP   XKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIWCHNQTCN4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI(GKPG4·PFGNWPII #TVWM2GTG;-$-/ )1.&4/KPKOCNG(CUUWPIUURWTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T





1021



#NVKP EGFKF+UVCPDWNDGUJNKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\OÄOOÄO 0C\KTFGT/\UV/GJOGF 'OKPK WO   KP -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI WC HNQTCN 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP   INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI)TQDG4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG;-$-/  )1.&41JPG5RWTGPXQP*GPMGNWPI.QEJWPIQFGT(CUUWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1022



#NVKP ÒECNVKPNKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\KPKVKCNGUyCKPKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPIWC#TCDGUMGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM2GTG 8CT;-$8CT-/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1023



#NVKP ÒECNVKPNKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\yCKPD³KP-CTVWUEJG y#DFCNNCJ'HGPFK0C\KT FGT /\UV WO  *!  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI WC #TCDGUMGP 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP   INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII+UOC KN)JCNKD#TVWM2GTG;-$-/  )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

 43


MAHMÛD I.

1024



#NVKP ÒECNVKPNKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\yCKPD³KP-CTVWUEJG y#DFCNNCJ'HGPFK0C\KT FGT/\UVWO*! 6WIJTCKPUGEJUHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIFC\YKUEJGPGKPDTGKVGTHTGKGT4CWO4X /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII+UOC KN)JCNKD#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&4)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP

1026

1025



„#NVKP DKTDWEWMCNVKPNKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\KPKVKCNGUyCKPKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTCKP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI WC )CDGNDNCVVTCPMGP 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I   #TVWMXCT2GTG-/ )1.&(CUUWPIUURWTGPIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T









„#NVKP DKTDWEWMCNVKPNKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\OÄO!KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC\YKUEJGP $NÒVGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTI#TVWMXCT2GTG;-$-/  )1.&)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



1028

ex 1027





 #NVKP VGM CNVKP   * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ U³F KP -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC \YKUEJGP $NÒVGP 4X   /\UVWPF,CJT8CTKCPVGPFGT+PVGTRWPMVKQPKO4GXGTU)GT·PFGNVWPFI#TVWM2GTG -/ 5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



#NVKP VGMCNVKP *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\ OÄOKP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTC\YKUEJGP$NÒVGP4X /\UVWPF,CJT)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/  )1.&'VYCU$GNCIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQPGZ0T



1029 1030







44

1031

„ #NVKP PKUHK[G[CTKO CNVKP   * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ OÄO KP -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC \YKUEJGP   $NÒVGP4X/\UVWPF,CJT)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ yC[P 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT WPVGP TGEJVU   PGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPMNGKPGT-PQVGP4X6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ yC[P 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT WPVGP TGEJVU   PGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPG4QUGÒDGTGKPGOWPFGWVNKEJGPCTCD/QPQITCOO4X6KVGNI#TVWM 2GTG-/ )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




MAHMÛD I.

1032









1033









 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ yCKP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT WPVGP TGEJVU   PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG 4QUG KP ITÌ­GTGO #X5VGORGN 4X 6KVGN  I #TVWM  2GTG    -/ )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ yCKP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT MGKP <GKEJGP   WPVGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCITQ­GT#X5VGORGN4X6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ yCKP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT MGKP <GKEJGP   WPVGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCMNGKPGT#X5VGORGN4X6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



1037

1038



 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ OÄO KP -CTVWUEJG KP (QTO GKPGU ÒDGTFCEJVGP 9   6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTMGKP<GKEJGPWPVGPTGEJVUWPFNKPMUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X6KVGNI #TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN/\\OÄOKP-CTVWUEJGKP(QTOGKPGUÒDGTFCEJVGP96WIJTCÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT MGKP <GKEJGP WPVGP TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC FCIGIGP NKPMU GKP 8 4X 6KVGN I #TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ OÄO KP -CTVWUEJG KP (QTO \YGKGT GKP 1XCN GTIG   DGPFG<YGKIG6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTGKPG4QUGVVGWPVGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X6KVGNI #TVWMXCT2GTG-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



1041

<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\OÄOKP-CTVWUEJGKPWOIGMGJTVGT*GT\HQTO6WIJTC ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTGKPG4QUGVVGWPVGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X6KVGNI#TVWMXCT 2GTG-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\U³F6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTGKPG4QUGVVGWPVGP TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC MNGKPGT #X5VGORGN 4X 6KVGN  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG  XCT   -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP



1039

 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ yC[P 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT MGKP <GKEJGP   WPVGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCPQEJMNGKPGTGT#X5VGORGN4X6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

1040



1035

 <GTK OCJDÑD  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  /\\ yCKP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT WPVGP TGEJVU   PGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPG4QUGKPMNGKPGO#X5VGORGN4X6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP

1036



1034



45


MAHMÛD I.

1043

1044 1042







<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\±[PD³6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTQJPG<GKEJGP WPVGPTGEJVUWPFNKPMUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCITQ­GT#X5VGORGN4X6KVGNI#TVWMXCT2GTG XCT-/ )1.&'VYCU$GNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ



„<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\yC[P6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTQJPG<GKEJGP WPVGPTGEJVUWPFNKPMUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCMNGKPGT#X5VGORGN4X6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG -/ )1.&4-NGKPG2TÒHURWTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



„<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\yC[P6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTQJPG<GKEJGP WPVGPTGEJVUWPFNKPMUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCITQ­GT#X5VGORGN4X6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG -/ )1.&4)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1045

ex 1046

ex 1047

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

-WTWUJ  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ OÄO KP -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC OKV ITQ­GT   $NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP <GKNG FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP  8CTKCPVGP OKV WPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGP $GK\GKEJGP ÒDGT FGT 6WIJTC    WPFI#TVWMXCT2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KGGTUVGPDGKFGP5VÒEMG'ZGORNCTGFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0TFCUFTKVVG 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5EJKOMC#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T 





46

-WTWUJ  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ U³F KP -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC OKV ITQ­GT   $NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPUQYKG\YGK-WTWUJQJPG$NÒVGPGDGPFGT6WIJTCOKVFGO/ÒP\\GKEJGP C[PD³ KP -CTVWUEJG WPF QJPG -CTVWUEJG  PKEJV IGYQIGP WPF  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG   XCTWPF5WNVCP-/WPF  5VÒEM&CUGTUVG5VÒEMOKV2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVCNNGUGJTUEJÌP



-WTWUJ  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ C[PCNKH D\Y S³H 6WIJTC OKV ITQ­GT   $NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPFI#TVWM2GTGWPFXIN5WNVCPWPF -/ 5VÒEM$GKFGUGJTUEJÌP




MAHMÛD I.

ex 1049

ex 1048





*CNDG-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\OÄOKP-CTVWUEJG C[P CNKH 8CTKCPVGP D\YS³H6WIJTCOKVITQ­GT$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPF I#TVWMWPFXCT2GTG5WNVCPWPFXCT-/  5VÒEM#NNGUGJTUEJÌP



1PNWM*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\ C[PCNKH6WIJTCOKVITQ­GT$NÒVG/\\ C[PD³ 8CTKCPVGPOKVWPFQJPG-CTVWUEJG 6WIJTCQJPG$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP WPFI#TVWMWPFXCT2GTGXCT-/ 5VÒEM-TCV\GTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



ex 1051

ex 1050







ex 1052

$GUJNKM  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ U³F KP -CTVWUEJG WPF U³FF³N 6WIJTC   OKVITQ­GT$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPFI#TVWM2GTG-/  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP



2CTC  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  (WPFDGUVCPF XQP  VGKNU OGJTHCEJ IGNQEJVGP   5VÒEMGPOKV/\\ C[PCNKH C[PD³F³N C[PUQYKG\YGK2CTCCWUCNVGO5COONWPIUDGUVCPFOKV/\\ C[PCNKH WPF PÑP 6WIJTC OKV ITQ­GT $NÒVG 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU #TVWM    2GTG-/WPF  5VÒEM<YGK5VÒEMUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJFGT4GUVIGNQEJVWPFIGTKPIGTJCNVGP



#MEG  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ C[PCNKH C[PD³ WPF S³H 6WIJTC 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCPGDGPFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPFI#TVWM 2GTG-/ 5VÒEM5EJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



1053

1053 1,5:1



-WTWUJ*)ÒOÒqJ³PG/\\V³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTCOKVITQ­GT$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP I#TVWMXCT /\\ C[P 2GTG5WNVCP-/ 445GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM<ÒTKEJ0T





47


MAHMÛD I.



1057

1056

1054

1055

-WTWUJ  * )ÒOÒqJ³PG /\\ C[P QJPG -CTVWUEJG /QPQITCOO FGU 0COGPU 7OCT! 6WIJTC OKVITQ­GT$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPI#TVWM2GTGXCT5WNVCP-/  442T·IGUEJY·EJGWPFNGKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCI<CKPGPFGWPF4CPFHGJNGTUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



&CU/ÒP\\GKEJGP\GKIVFGPWPVGTGP$QIGPFGU$WEJUVCDGP C[PUVGVUWPVGT$GTÒJTWPIFGU\WO$WEJUVCDGPPÑPXQP KDP IGJÌTKIGP FKEMGP 2WPMVGUKPGKPG5EJNGKHGHQTVIGUGV\V&CUMCPPCNUOÄOT³TGCNKUKGTVYGTFGPWPFGTI·DGFCPP FGP0COGP 7OCT 





-WTWUJ  * )ÒOÒqJ³PG /\\ C[P QJPG -CTVWUEJG /QPQITCOO FGU 0COGPU 7OCT! 6WIJTC OKVITQ­GT$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUXCTKKGTGPFG$GK\GKEJGP\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEM 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP  I #TVWM   2GTGXCT5WNVCP-/ 445EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *)ÒOÒqJ³PG/\\ C[PQJPG-CTVWUEJG /QPQITCOOFGU0COGPU 7OCT! 6WIJTCOKVITQ­GT$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCT TC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPI#TVWMXCT /\\U³F 2GTG XCT /\\V³ 5WNVCP-/ 45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T





*CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *)ÒOÒqJ³PG/\\ C[PQJPG-CTVWUEJG /QPQITCOOFGU0COGPU 7OCT! 6WIJTCOKVITQ­GT$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCT TC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP5VGORGNXCTKCPVG\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEMI #TVWMXCT /\\U³F 2GTGXCT /\\V³ 5WNVCP-/ 4)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1058

1,5:1



48

1,5:1

8KGTVGN -WTWUJ 1PNWM   * )ÒOÒqJ³PG /\\ C[P QJPG -CTVWUEJG /QPQITCOO FGU 0COGPU   7OCT! 6WIJTCOKVITQ­GT$NÒVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCT TC[PÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGPI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ W­GTUVUGNVGPGU0QOKPCN5GJTUEJÌP 


MAHMÛD I.

1060

1059





6ÒTMGK-WRHGTOÒP\G

/CPIKT    * $KVNÄU 6KVGN WPF 0COG 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT KO #X )GIGPUVGORGN OKV   6WIJTCFGUUGNDGP5WNVCPUI-CDCMNCTNK$VN  44/ÒP\GUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGNGVYCUWPINGKEJO·­KIWPFUGJTUEJÌP



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1061



1,5:1

1,5:1

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1063

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1064

1065

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1,5:1

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49


MAHMÛD I.

1067

1066

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1069

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50

1,5:1

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1073



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1073

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MAHMÛD I.

1074









1076

1077

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1078



1075

1079

1080

1081

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 51


MAHMÛD I.

1083

1082



1084

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1086

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1087

1088

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1089

1,5:1



52

1,5:1

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MAHMÛD I.

1090









1092

1091

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1094







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1096

1,5:1

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1095

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1093

1097



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 53


MAHMÛD I.

1098



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1099

1,5:1



1,5:1

<K[PGV#DUEJNCI KP )GYKEJV WPF)TÌ­GGKPGUFQRRGNVGP<GTKOCJDÑDOKVLGYGKNU\YGKPGDGPGKPCPFGT NKGIGPFGP 2T·IWPIGP XQP FGP 5VGORGNP FGU XQTJGTIGJGPFGP *CNDGP <GTK OCJDÑD  * /KUT  

-CKTQ  QJPG /\\ PGDGP HÄ WPF OKV 9GTVDG\GKEJPWPI PKUHÄ[C PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC KO #X <GKEJGP FGU   9CNK KO 4GX T³IJKD HÒT 4CIJKD /WJCOOCF 9CNK  *  ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP 6WIJTC ÒDGT   /\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN)GT·PFGNV6JQOCU0WOKUOCVKE%KTEWNCT#RTKNWPF5GXIK)ÌPÒN*CVKTC 5C[iUi 5  LGYGKNU FKGUGU 'ZGORNCT   I #TVWM  \W )JCNKD  XCT 2GTG  XCT   -/ )1.&444#O4CPFGGVYCUIGYGNNVIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP  <K[PGVRT·IWPIGP YWTFGP KO QUOCPKUEJGP I[RVGP KO  ,CJTJWPFGTV UVGVU CWH ÒDGTITQ­GP 5EJTÌVNKPIGP OKV PQT   OCNGP /ÒP\UVGORGNP IGRT·IV KO )GIGPUCV\ \W -QPUVCPVKPQRGN YQ JKGTHÒT DGUQPFGTG 5VGORGN XGTYGPFGV YWTFGP   'KPYGKVGTGUINGKEJCTVKIGU'ZGORNCTFGTUGNDGP5VGORGNDGHCPFUKEJKPFGTDGK5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCOXGTUVGK IGTVGP5COONWPI.QTF)TCPVNG[0T'UYWTFGFQTVCNU2TQDGRT·IWPIHÒTFGPPGWGP5VCPFCTFFGU<GTKOCJ DÑDDG\GKEJPGVYCUYQJNMCWOTKEJVKIUGKPMCPP\WOCNFKGINGKEJCTVKIG.QEJWPIFKG<K[PGVXGTYGPFWPIPCEJYGKUV

1100



ex 1101

*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  * /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG /\\ PGDGP HÄ WPF OKV 9GTVDG\GKEJPWPI PKUHÄ[C   PGDGPFGT6WIJTCKO#X<GKEJGPFGU9CNKKO4GX C[PKP-CTVWUEJGÒDGTFGO9QTVKDP6WIJTCÒDGT /\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKDXCT2GTGXCT-/  )1.&45GJTUEJÌP



.QVXQP/C[FKP*/KUT -CKTQ CNNGOKV#WUPCJOGXQP\YGKDGUUGTGP5VÒEMGPIGNQEJVQHV OGJTHCEJ'KPUFGTDGKFGPDGUUGTGP5VÒEMGCWH#MEGIGYKEJVDGUEJPKVVGP  5VÒEM)GTKPIGTJCNVGPDKUUGJTUEJÌP



I[RVGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP



54




MAHMÛD I.

1102

1,5:1

1,5:1

6WPGUKGP)QNFOÒP\G 

*CNDGT5WNVCPK*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI +UOC ÄN)J³NKD2GTG-/ )1.&44'VYCUIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ+#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP

1104





ex 1105

ex 1103

ex 1103

6WPGUKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

1PNWM 4K[³N  8CTKCPVGP WPF*6ÑPKUUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PYCMJ³S³P CNDCJTC[PCUUWNV³P/CJOÑFKDP4X/WUVCH³MJ³P C\\CPCUTCJWFWTKDCHÄ 2T·IGLCJT 6ÑPKU\W FGP5GKVGPFGU0COGPU#JOCFLGGKP5VGTPWPFI#TVWM2GTG

* 5WNVCP WPF* (GPKPC-/ 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP





 4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU UWNV³P  /CJOÑF 4U 2T·IGLCJT WPF /ÒP\UV·VVG  I #TVWM 2GTG    (GPKPC-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ





4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKUUWNV³P/CJOÑF4U2T·IGLCJTWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFI #TVWM2GTG(GPKPCWPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



ex 1108

ex 1107

ex 1106



-JCTTÑDC 8CTKCPVGP WPF6ÑPKUUWNV³P/CJOÑF4U2T·IGLCJTWPF/ÒP\UV·VVG WPFI#TVWM2GTG(GPKPCWPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





-JCTTÑDC 8CTKCPVGP WPF6ÑPKUUWNV³P/CJOÑF4U2T·IGLCJTWPF/ÒP\ UV·VVG FCU2T·IGLCJTWPVGP WPFI#TVWM2GTG(GPKPC -/WPF 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



-JCTTÑDC 8CTKCPVGP 6ÑPKUUWNV³P/CJOÑF4U/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT WPFI#TVWM2GTG(GPKPC-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





1109

1,5:1

1110

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1



-JCTTÑDC*6ÑPKUUWNV³P/CJOÑF4U/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI#TVWM2GTG (GPKPC-/# W­GTUVUGNVGP5GJTUEJÌP



-WRHGT$WTDKP 3CHUÄ *6ÑPKUFCTDUCPC4XHÄ6ÑPKUI(GPKPC-/  4&TKVVGNUEJNGEJVCWUIGRT·IVUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP

  55


MAHMÛD I.

1111

1113

1112

1,5:1

1,5:1

#NIGTKGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X (QTVUGV\WPI FGU   5GIGPUYWPUEJGU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOÒDGTFGO9QTVHÄGKPGKPHCEJGT-PQVGPI2GTGXCT -/ )1.&4<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVDTGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T





*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X (QTVUGV\WPI FGU   5GIGPUYWPUEJGU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOÒDGTFGO9QTVHÄGKPGKPHCEJGT-PQVGPI2GTGXCT -/ )1.&5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUQJPG.QEJWPIUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X (QTVUGV\WPI FGU   5GIGPUYWPUEJGU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOÒDGTFGO9QTVHÄGKPGKPHCEJGT-PQVGPI2GTGXCT -/ )1.&5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUQJPG.QEJWPIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

1114





1116

1115

*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X (QTVUGV\WPI FGU   5GIGPUYWPUEJGU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOÒDGTFGO9QTVHÄGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI+UOC ÄN)J³NKD 2GTGXCT-/ )1.&4)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T



*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X (QTVUGV\WPI FGU   5GIGPUYWPUEJGU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOÒDGTFGO9QTVHÄGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI+UOC ÄN)J³NKD #TVWM2GTGXCT-/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP *CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X (QTVUGV\WPI FGU   5GIGPUYWPUEJGU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOÒDGTFGO9QTVHÄGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI2GTGXCT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

56

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

8KGTVGN 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO  I   +UOC ÄN)J³NKD2GTGXCT-/  )1.&44)GNQEJVRCTVKGNNG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO  I   2GTGXCT-/ )1.&44<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1,5:1





1118

1,5:1







1117







'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T







1119

1,5:1

8KGTVGN 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO  I   2GTGXCT-/ )1.&44)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ




UTHMÂN III.

7VJO³P+++*#&

&GTCWHITWPFFGT#PEKGPPVK·VPCEJ/CJOÑF+OKV,CJTGPFCU5WNVCPCVGTNCPIGPFG$TWFGT 7VJO³P +++YCTKO7PVGTUEJKGF\WUGKPGP8QTI·PIGTPCPFGT&WTEJUGV\WPIGKPGUQTVJQFQZGP+UNCOUKPVGTGUUKGTV KP FGO FKG VTCFKVKQPGNN UVCTMGP 4GEJVG FGT #PIGJÌTKIGP XQP 5EJWV\TGNKIKQPGP \WTÒEMIGUVGNNV YWTFGP   0CEJFGO8QTDKNFFGU#DDCUKFGPMCNKHGPCN/WVCYCMMKNQFGTFGU(CVKOKFGPCN*CMKOXGTUWEJVGGTPKEJV PWTGKPG-NGKFGTQTFPWPIHÒT%JTKUVGPWPF,WFGPFWTEJ\WUGV\GPUQPFGTPXGTDQVCWEJFGP9GKPCWUUEJCPM KP6CXGTPGPWPFGTNCWDVGFCU#WHVTGVGPXQP(TCWGPKPFGT¤HHGPVNKEJMGKVPWTKPXÌNNKIGT8GTOWOOWPI +OªDTKIGPVTCVGTRGTUÌPNKEJYGPKIKPFGTRQNKVKUEJGP¤HHGPVNKEJMGKVJGTXQTUQPFGTPNGDVGYKGKPUGKPGT 2TKP\GP\GKVTGEJV\WTÒEMIG\QIGPKO*CTGO&QEJOKVGKPGTYGUGPVNKEJGP'PVUEJGKFWPIGTJCPFGNVGUKEJ FGT5WNVCPFCUWPGKPIGUEJT·PMVG.QDFGT*KUVQTKMGTPCEJHQNIGPFGT,CJTJWPFGTVGP·ONKEJOKVFGT'TPGP PWPIFGU4³IJKD/WJCOOCF\WO)TQ­YGUKTKONGV\VGP,CJTUGKPGTPWTMWT\GPFTGKL·JTKIGP4GIKGTWPIU \GKV&GTJQEJIGDKNFGVGWPFFGO5VCCVIGIGPÒDGTNQ[CNG4³IJKD/WJCOOCFJCVVG\WP·EJUVCNUō1TKGPV WPF (KPCP\URG\KCNKUVŋKPFGP8GTYCNVWPIGP$CIJFCFU#\GTDC[LCPUWPF#NGRRQU'THCJTWPIGPUCOOGNP MÌPPGPWPFYCTFCPPCNU9³NÄXQP#NGRRQWPF-CKTQFCFWTEJCWHIGHCNNGPFCUUGTUKEJDGKGTHQNITGKEJGT 8GTYCNVWPIMGKPG(GKPFGUQPFGTPPWT(TGWPFGOCEJVG  ªDGTKJPYKTFDGTKEJVGVFCUUGTIGTPGKP-CKTQIGDNKGDGPY·TGYGPPPKEJVFKG0QVYGPFKIMGKVFKGUGP KOOGT O·EJVKIGT YGTFGPFGP /CPP \W MQPVTQNNKGTGPKJOFGP$GHGJNCWHFCUJÌEJUVG#OVFGT8GTYCN VWPIGKPIGDTCEJVJ·VVG&KGQUOCPKUEJG0WOKUOCVKMXGTFCPMVFGO)TQ­YGUKTFKG'KPHÒJTWPIFGT,CJTGU FCVKGTWPIFGTQUOCPKUEJGP/ÒP\GPYGNEJGKP-TCHVVTCVCNU 7VJO³P+++CO1MVQDGTUVCTD

1120

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 

#NVKP DGqCNVKPNKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\KPKVKCNGUJ³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI WC #TCDGUMGP 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I #TVWM    2GTG-/ )1.&44)GJGPMGNVWPFIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP  57


UTHMÂN III.

1121



NVGTG$CUCTQFGT5COONGTKOKVCVKQPFGU#NVKP ÒECNVKPNKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\KPKVKC NGUJ³KP-CTVWUEJG6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIWC#TCDGUMGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPII<W#TVWM\W2GTG;-$-/  )1.&1JPG.QEJWPI*GPMGNURWTQFGT(CUUWPIUURWTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1DYQJN FKG 2T·IWPI WPF 4·PFGNWPI VGEJPKUEJ FGP 1TKIKPCNGP GPVURTKEJV YGKUV FKG 6WIJTC KP FGT 9KGFGTICDG FGU   8CVGTUPCOGPU/WUVCHCGKPGCWH7PXGTUV·PFPKUDCUKGTGPFG(GFGTHÒJTWPICWH5QYKTFFKGUGU5VÒEMJKGTVTQV\UGKPGT 2TQXGPKGP\PKEJVCNU1TKIKPCNCPIGDQVGP 

1,5:1



1122

1,5:1

<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\D³CNKH6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGNI #TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGU/ÒP\\GKEJGPHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

1123



1124



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\J³KPKUQNKGTVGT(QTO6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT 4X6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&45VGORGNINCP\





*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\J³KPKUQNKGTVGT(QTO6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF ,CJT4X6KVGNI+UOC KN)J³NKD#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&44<YGKOCNIGNQEJVNGKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

1125



1,5:1

1125

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

-WTWUJ  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ KUQNKGTVGU J³ QJPG -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC   ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU/\\ÒDGTFGO'PFG FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 4448QT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[.QPFQP0T

58




UTHMÂN III.

1126

1,5:1

1,5:1



*CNDMWTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\KUQNKGTVGUJ³QJPG-CTVW UEJG6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU/\\ÒDGT FGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 4448QT\ÒINKEJ

1127











1129

8KGTVGNMWTWUJ 1PNWM *3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\KUQNKGTVGUJ³QJPG-CTVW UEJG6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU/\\ÒDGT FGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT /\\D³ 5WNVCP-/ 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGNMWTWUJ 1PNWM *3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\KUQNKGTVGUD³QJPG-CTVW UEJG6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU/\\ÒDGT FGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWMXCT2GTG5WNVCPXCT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGNMWTWUJ 1PNWM   * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ D³CNKH QJPG -CTVWUEJG   6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU/\\ÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWMXCT2GTG5WNVCP-/  -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



1130



1128



ex 1131

ex 1132

$GUJNKM  * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  /\\ KUQNKGTVGU J³ QJPG -CTVWUEJG 6WIJTC   ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU/\\ÒDGTFGO'PFG FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTGXCT /\\D³ 5WNVCP-/  5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\KUQNKGTVGUJ³D³D³CNKHU³F6WIJTC4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU FCU /\\ NKPMU PGDGP FGO ,CJT    WPF  I   #TVWM2GTG /\\D³CNKH 5WNVCPHH-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



#MEG*3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN /\\KUQNKGTVGUJ³D³WPFD³CNKH6WIJTC4X /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCU/\\NKPMUPGDGPFGO,CJTWPFI#TVWM 2GTG /\\D³ 5WNVCPWPF-/ 5VÒEM'KPOCNIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

 59


UTHMÂN III.

1133

1134

2:1

2:1

2:1

2:1

5CWFK#TCDKGP 1UVCTCDKGP -WRHGTOÒP\GP 

(CNU* #T CTCUUWNV³P WVJO³PXQPWPVGPPCEJQDGP\WNGUGP4X C\\C PCUTCJW!  CT CT I7PRWDNK\KGTV 4445GJTUEJÌP





(CNU* #T CTCUUWNV³P WVJO³PXQPWPVGPPCEJQDGP\WNGUGP4X C\\C PCUTCJW!  CT CTI7PRWDNK\KGTV 4445GJTUEJÌP



1135

1,5:1

1,5:1

I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ QJPG/\\KO#X<GKEJGPFGU9CNKKO4GXUÄPÒDGTFGO9QTV KDP'XGPVWGNNHÒTFGP/CONWMGPDGI*WUCKP$GICU5³DÑPLÄWPVGT #NÄ2³UJ³*CMÄO\³FG* 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN )GT·PFGNV  I )JCNKD  XCT 2GTG  XCT -/    )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGU/ÒP\\GKEJGP8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[.QPFQP0T





1136

1,5:1



1,5:1

<GTK OCJDÑD  * /KUT -CKTQ  OKV /\\ C[P \YKUEJGP FGO 9QTV HÄ WPF FGT 6WIJTC KO #X   <GKEJGPFGU9CNKKO4GXUCFÒDGTFGO9QTVKDP(ÒT/WUVCH³2³UJ³*6WIJTCÒDGT/\UV WPF,CJT4X6KVGN)GT·PFGNVI)JCNKD2GTG#TVWM-/  )1.&45VGORGNINCP\



<WT#WHNÌUWPIFGU9CNK\GKEJGPUUKGJGFKGCWUHÒJTNKEJG&KUMWUUKQPFGT<GKEJGPWPVGT 7VJO³P+++DGKCU5CYK5H 

1,5:1

1137

1,5:1

I[RVGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

60

2CTC!QFGT\GKVIGP(·NUEJWPIGKPGUJCNDGP<GTKOCJDÑD*KP5KNDGT/KUT -CKTQ <GKEJGPFGU 9CNKKO4GXU³FÒDGTFGO9QTVKDP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGNI  #NU5KNDGTOÒP\GWPGFKGTV&QRRGNVIGNQEJVUEJÌP




UTHMÂN III.

ex 1138



2CTC*/KUT -CKTQ /\\ C[P VGKNUXCTKKGTGPFG'ZGORNCTG 6WIJTC4X/\\/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI 2GTG5WNVCP-/FC\W\YGK2CTCFGT/\UV3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C  5VÒEM/GKUVIGNQEJVUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



1139

#NIGTKGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 5WNVCPUVKVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOPCEJFGO 0COGPCNU/ÒP\\GKEJGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGP4X6KVGN/ÒP\\GKEJGPGKPHCEJGT-PQVGPI2GTG XCT;-$ * -/ )1.&4)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



1140

1,5:1

1,5:1



5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 5WNVCPUVKVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOPCEJFGO 0COGPCNU/ÒP\\GKEJGPGKP5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKU4X6KVGN/ÒP\\GKEJGPYKGKO#XI2GTG XCT#TVWM-/ )1.&4<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T





1141



*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X (QTVUGV\WPI FGU 5G   IGPUYWPUEJGU /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO /ÒP\\GKEJGP 5KIKNNWO 5CNQOQPKU  I +UOC KN )JCNKD    2GTG * -/ )1.&45GJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



1142



1,5:1

*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X (QTVUGV\WPI FGU 5G   IGPUYWPUEJGU /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO /ÒP\\GKEJGP 5KIKNNWO 5CNQOQPKUI2GTG *  -/ )1.&44<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

 61


MUSTAFÂ III.

/WUVCH³+++*#&

#NU /WUVCH³ +++ \WT 4GIKGTWPI MCO DNKGDGP FKG $GFKPIWPIGP Y·JTGPF FGU GTUVGP ,CJT\GJPVU IÒPUVKI   &KG CWH -QPHNKMVXGTOGKFWPI WPF KPPGTG 'PVYKEMNWPI \KGNGPFG 8GTYCNVWPI /WJCOOCF 4³IJKDU MQPPVG   DKU\WFGUUGP6QFHQTVIGUGV\VYGTFGP+PUDGUQPFGTGIGNCPIGUKJOUKEJCWUFGOGTUVGPKPVGTMQPVK PGPVCNKP-CPCFC+PFKGPWPF&GWVUEJNCPFCWUIGVTCIGPGP-QPHNKMVFGT9GNVIGUEJKEJVGFGO5KGDGPL·JTK IGP-TKGIJGTCWU\WJCNVGPQDYQJN'PINCPFWPFFCUCWHUVTGDGPFG2TGW­GPFCU1UOCPKUEJG4GKEJIGTPG CP KJTGT 5GKVG IGIGP FKG *CDUDWTIGT WPF (TCPMTGKEJ IGUGJGP J·VVGP 'KP 'TIGDPKU FKGUGU -TKGIGU CDGT   MQPPVGFCU1UOCPKUEJG4GKEJPKEJVWPDGVTQHHGPNCUUGP&KGRQNKVKUEJG#PP·JGTWPI2TGW­GPUWPF4WUU NCPFUYGNEJGFKG9CJNGKPGU)GNKGDVGPFGTTWUUKUEJGP<CTKP-CVJCTKPC5VCPKUNCWU#WIWUV2QPKC VQYUMK \WO -ÌPKI KP 2QNGP GTOÌINKEJVG &CFWTEJ YWTFG 4WUUNCPFU 2QUKVKQP IGIGPÒDGT FGO 1UOCPK   UEJGP4GKEJOCUUKXIGUV·TMV  )NGKEJ\GKVKIUWEJVGP8GTVTGVGTFGURQNPKUEJGP#FGNUWOQUOCPKUEJG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIWPF)TGP\\YKUEJGP H·NNG HÒJTVGP  \WT -TKGIUGTMN·TWPI IGIGP 4WUUNCPF &GP 4WUUGP IGNCPI GU XKGT UGRCTCVG (TQPVGP   CWH\WDCWGP +O -CWMCUWU CWH FGT -TKO CP FGT /QNFCW WPF FGT 9CNCEJGK UQYKG GTUVOCNU FWTEJ FKG   8GTNGIWPIGKPGT(NQVVGWPVGTFGO#FOKTCN1TNQHHXQPFGT1UVUGGKPU/KVVGNOGGT&GTCWHQUOCPKUEJGT 5GKVGFKNGVVCPVKUEJIGHÒJTVG(GNF\WIGTYKGUUKEJCNUTGKPGU&GUCUVGT&CUTWUUKUEJG8QTIGJGPYCT\WFGO CP CNNGP (TQPVGP XQP IGUEJKEMVGP FKRNQOCVKUEJGP $GOÒJWPIGP DGINGKVGV KP FGP TGIKQPCNGP *GTT   UEJCHVUUVTWMVWTGP8GTDÒPFGVG\WHKPFGP5QUCJUKEJFGTQUOCPKUEJGMTKOVCVCTKUEJG8CUCNN-CRN³P)KT³[ RNÌV\NKEJ GKPGO (COKNKGPOKVINKGF 5³JKD )KT³[ IGIGPÒDGT FGT OKV TWUUKUEJGT *KNHG FKG IGUCOVG -TKO   MQPVTQNNKGTVG &KG (NQVVG KO /KVVGNOGGT JCVVG KP FGO CDVTÒPPKIGP VUEJGTMGUUKUEJGP /CONWMGPGOKT #NÄ   $GI GKPGP 8GTDÒPFGVGP KP I[RVGP WPF 2CN·UVKPC 1TNQHH IGNCPI GU \YCT FKG QUOCPKUEJG /KVVGNOGGT   HNQVVGKP$TCPF\WUEJKG­GPFQEJVGTTKVQTKCNG'THQNIGYCTGPHÒT4WUUNCPFKPFGTI·KUGDGPUQYGPKI\W GTTGKEJGP YKG GKP 8QTUVQ­ ÒDGT FKG &CTFCPGNNGP IGIGP -QPUVCPVKPQRGN 5Q YWTFG FKG TWUUKUEJG (NQVVG   UEJNKG­NKEJFWTEJFKGKPVCMVGP(NQVVGPFGTQUOCPKUEJGP/CIJTGDN·PFGTCWUFGO/KVVGNOGGTXGTVTKGDGP &KG 'THQNIG 4WUUNCPFU IGH·JTFGVGP CDGT FCU GWTQR·KUEJG )NGKEJIGYKEJV FGT /·EJVG UQ FCUU YKT    GTUVOCNUJCDUDWTIKUEJG6TWRRGPCNU8GTDÒPFGVGFGU1UOCPKUEJGP4GKEJUHKPFGPY·JTGPF2TGW­GP WPF *CDUDWTI OKV FGT GTUVGP 6GKNWPI 2QNGPU 8GTUWEJG \WT 9KGFGTJGTUVGNNWPI FGU )NGKEJIGYKEJVU CWH   -QUVGP2QNGPUOCEJVGP4WUUNCPFXGTUWEJVGWPVGTFKGUGP7OUV·PFGPPKEJVYGKVGTIGIGPFCU<GPVTWOFGU 1UOCPKUEJGP 4GKEJGU XQT\WFTKPIGP 'TUV  ICD GU YGKVGTG TWUUKUEJG 8QTUVÌ­G KO -CWMCUWU WPF   /WUVCH³ +++ UQNN UGNDGT FKG #DUKEJV IGJCDV JCDGP GKPGP (GNF\WI \W HÒJTGP 'T YWTFG CDGT MTCPM WPF   UVCTDGPVYGFGTCO&G\GODGTQFGT,CPWCT 62


MUSTAFÂ III.

1143

1144

1145

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 





#NVKP Ò¼(KPFKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKUHCU UWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  -/    )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT-CWOUKEJVDCTGUIGUVQRHVGU.QEJ(CUUWPIUURWTGPCO·W­GTGP4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



#NVKP Ò¼(KPFKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKUHCU UWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  -/    )1.&$GUEJPKVVGPIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



#NVKP Ò¼(KPFKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKUHCU UWPI/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT)GNQEJVWPF4CPFUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP



1146







1148

1147

#NVKP Ò¼(KPFKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKUHCU UWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  -/    )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT)GNQEJVWPF*GPMGNURWTNGKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



#NVKP Ò¼(KPFKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKUHCU UWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I +UOC KN )JCNKD  #TVWM  2GTG    -/ )1.&-CWOUKEJVDCTGUIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



  #NVKP DKTDW¼WM (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT .KPKGP WPF   2GTNMTGKUHCUUWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG -/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

 63


MUSTAFÂ III.

1149





1150

  #NVKP DKTDW¼WM (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT .KPKGP WPF   2GTNMTGKUHCUUWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG -/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



  #NVKP DKTDW¼WM (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT .KPKGP WPF   2GTNMTGKUHCUUWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG -/ )1.&)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

1,5:1

1151





1151

  #NVKP DKTDW¼WM (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT .KPKGP WPF   2GTNMTGKUHCUUWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG -/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

1153

1152





  #NVKP DKTDW¼WM (KPFKM  QFGT FQRRGNVGT #NVKP  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP   XKGNHCEJGT .KPKGP WPF 2GTNMTGKUHCUUWPI 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I +UOC KN   )JCNKD#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/ )1.&4)GNQEJVWPFIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



&CU0QOKPCNFKGUGU5VÒEMUKUVCPIGUKEJVUFGT6[RGPINGKEJJGKVFGTXGTUEJKGFGPGP0QOKPCNGUEJYGT\WDGUVKOOGPFC FCU )GYKEJV \YKUEJGPFGOFGUHCEJGPWPFFQRRGNVGP#NVKPNKGIV&GT&WTEJOGUUGTNKGIVOKVOOFGWVNKEJ ÒDGTFGOFGTHCEJGP5VÒEMGXQPOO,GFQEJYGTFGPCWEJ&QRRGNCNVKPUXQPIDGK+UOC KN)JCNKD WPFXQP0WTK2GTGOKVOOCPIGIGDGP&CHÒTFCUXQTNKGIGPFG5VÒEMYGFGTGKP)GYKEJVUXGTNWUVFWTEJFKG .QEJWPI VCVU·EJNKEJ &WTEJDQJTWPI  CP\WPGJOGP KUV PQEJ GKPG )GYKEJVU\WPCJOG FKG GVYC FWTEJ .QV DGK (CU   UWPIUURWTGP HGUVIGUVGNNV YGTFGP MCPP WPF CWEJ MGKPG +TTGIWNCTKV·V FGT *GTMWPHV FWTEJ UVKNKUVKUEJG #DYGKEJWPI   DGITÒPFDCT Y·TG MCPP FCU PWT DGFGWVGP FCUU FKGUG /GJTHCEJCNVKPU CNU <K[PGVOÒP\GP PCEJ )GYKEJV IGPQOOGP   YWTFGP$GNKGDKIG<YKUEJGPUVWHGPFGUÒDGTYKGIGPFMNCTPQTOKGTVGP)GYKEJVUY·TGPFCPPFGPMDCT 



#NVKP DKTDW¼WM(KPFKM *+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU HCUUWPI4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



64

1154



1,5:1

 #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ




MUSTAFÂ III.

1155



1157

1156

1158

 #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP8QT\ÒINKEJ



 #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&)GUVQRHVGU.QEJ!DGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP



 #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[.QPFQP0T









'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[.QPFQP0T

1159





1160

1161

 #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



 #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM<ÒTKEJ0T





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T



 #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

1,5:1





1162



1,5:1

 #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGUWPFDKUNCPIWPDGNGIVGU,CJT )GUVQRHVGU.QEJWPF(GNFGVYCUDGCTDGKVGVUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 65


MUSTAFÂ III.

1163

1,5:1

1,5:1





1164

1,5:1

*CNDGT #NVKP 0KUHK[G   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU   4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&44)GUVQRHVGU.QEJWPFGVYCUDGTKGDGPUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT #NVKP 0KUHK[G   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU   4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  )1.&445GJTUEJÌP



1165



1,5:1

1166

1167

 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKG   TWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG  XCT   -/ )1.&4'VYCUHNCWUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKG   TWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG  XCT   -/ )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T







1169



1171



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKG   TWPIULCJTCO#PHCPIFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGI#TVWMXCT2GTG;-$-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

66

1170



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKG   TWPIULCJTCO#PHCPIFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGI#TVWMXCT2GTG-/  )1.&$TGKVGU'ZGORNCTXQPINGKEJO·­KIGT#WURT·IWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG5VGRJGP#NDWO5CPVC4QUC0T







 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKG   TWPIULCJTCO#PHCPIFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGI#TVWMXCT2GTG-/  )1.&/KPKOCNIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1168










MUSTAFÂ III.

1172









1173

1174

1175

<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&*GPMGNURWTIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&)GNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG5VGRJGP#NDWO5CPVC4QUC0T

1176







1177

1,5:1

<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1178









1179

1180

*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

 67


MUSTAFÂ III.

1181







1183

*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



1184



1182

1186

1185

*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGNXGTMÒT\VGU2T·IGLCJTCO#PHCPIFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&$TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIOKVMN4CPFHGJNGT5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T







*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGNXGTMÒT\VGU2T·IGLCJTCO#PHCPIFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&$TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPI5VGORGNINCP\





*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGNXGTMÒT\VGU2T·IGLCJTCO#PHCPIFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1188

ex 1187

ex 1187

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTOÒP\GP 



68

&QRRGNVGT <QNQVC  *,CJTG     WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPU   YWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG     WPF  I #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG  ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP,CJTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&QRRGNVGT <QNQVC  *,CJTG   8CTKCPVGP    8CTKCPVGP  WPF =? * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN    6KVGN5WNVCPUPCOG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P OKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




MUSTAFÂ III.

ex 1190







ex 1189

ex 1191

&QRRGNVGT <QNQVC  *,CJTG =?    8CTKCPVGP  * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPU   PCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGT   OKPFGTGP ,CJTGU\CJN ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG    WPF  I #TVWM   

,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM#NNGIWVCWUIGRT·IVXQT\ÒINKEJWPFDGUUGT



<QNQVC  *,CJTG   WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF   ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM  2GTG  5WNVCP ,CJT -/  5VÒEM&KGGTUVGPDGKFGPXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\FCUFTKVVG5VÒEMUGJTUEJÌP



<QNQVC*,CJTG=? 8CTKCPVGPKPFGT(QTOFGT WPF*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKV FGTOKPFGTGP,CJTGU\CJNÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM 2GTG5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJFCUGTUVG5VÒEMFGU,CJTGUXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



1192

ex 1193





ex 1193

*CNDGT<QNQVC*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6KVGN5WNVCPUPCOG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKV VGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 44*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



-WTWUJ*,CJTWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPGTUVGT<GKEJPWPIOKVMNGKPGO5VGTPCPFGT TGEJVGP5GKVGKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIUKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPIWPFI#TVWMXCT2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCPWPF -/ 5VÒEM&CUGTUVGOKV2T·IGUEJY·EJGWPFUGJTUEJÌP FCU\YGKVGXQPUEJCTHGT#WURT·IWPIWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\

 69


MUSTAFÂ III.

ex 1194





ex 1195

-WTWUJ*,CJT 8CTKCPVGP +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT<GKEJPWPIKP\YGK8CTKCP VGP QJPG $GK\GKEJGP KP .KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIU LG GKPOCN ÒDGTITQ­ WPFPQTOCN KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPIWPFI#TVWM XCT2GTGXCT ,CJT 5WNVCP OKVITQ­GT,CJTGU\CJN -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



-WTWUJ*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIKP.KPKGP2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI      WPF  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG  ,CJT   5WNVCP    WPF   -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1196





-WTWUJ*,CJTG=? 5VGORGNXCTKCPVGP WPF UVGORGNINGKEJG5VÒEMGKPWPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGT )TÌ­G +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X4GIKG TWPIULCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPIWPFI #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCPWPF-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WTWUJ *,CJTG=? <GKEJPWPIUXCTKCPVGPFGT6WIJTC WPF 8CTKCPVGPOKVITQ­GT WPFMNGKPGT4X#WHUEJTKHV +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPK GPMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI    WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCPWPF -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1198





1199 ex 1198

-WTWUJ  *,CJTG =?  5VGORGNXCTKCPVGP    5VGORGNXCTKCPVGP  WPF   5VGORGNXCTKCP   VGP  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT <GKEJPWPI KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X 4GIKG   TWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI       WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM#NNGIWVCWUIGRT·IVWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



*CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIQJPG$GK\GK EJGP KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  445EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG

70

ex 1197




MUSTAFÂ III.

1200





1201

*CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIQJPG$GK\GK EJGP KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  442T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFHNGEMKIUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIQJPG$GK\GK EJGP KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  44)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5NI/CE-GP\KG



1202



1,5:1

1202

*CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIQJPG$GK\GK EJGP KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG  XCT ,CJT   5WNVCP  -/  ,CJT PKEJV   PCEJIGYKGUGP  445GJTUEJÌP

1203



1204

1,5:1



*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT =? * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT <GKEJPWPI   QJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTGXCT ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ ,CJT PKEJVPCEJIGYKGUGP  445GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5EJKOMC#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH/ÒPEJGP0T







*CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM *,CJT=?*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIKP \YGK 8CTKCPVGP QJPG $GK\GKEJGP KP .KPKGP 2GTN WPF .KPKGPMTGKU 4X 2T·IGLCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  5WNVCP    -/ 45GJTUEJÌP

 71


MUSTAFÂ III.

1206

1205







1207

1208

*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT =? * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT <GKEJPWPI   QJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  4-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT =? * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT <GKEJPWPI   QJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  4-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT =? * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT <GKEJPWPI   QJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  45GJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT =? * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT <GKEJPWPI   QJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG





'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG



1210

1209





*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT =? * +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT <GKEJPWPI   QJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGP2GTNWPF.KPKGPMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  45GJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN-WTWUJ 1PNWM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPGTUVGT<GKEJPWPIQJPG$GK\GKEJGP KP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJGT'KPHCU UWPII#TVWMXCT ,CJT 2GTGXCT ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5GNVGPGTGTUVGT6[R)GNQEJVUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG

72

1209




MUSTAFÂ III.

ex 1211







8KGTVGN-WTWUJ 1PNWM *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPGTUVGT<GKEJPWPIOKV $GK\GKEJGP KP .KPKGP WPF 2GTNMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPIWPFI#TVWMXCT ,CJT 2GTGXCT ,CJT 5WNVCP WPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN-WTWUJ 1PNWM *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPI QJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPIWPFI#TVWMXCT ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN -WTWUJ 1PNWM   *,CJTG =?   WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT   <GKEJPWPIQJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIUKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPIWPFI#TVWM Z WPFXCT Z 2GTGXCT

,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM6GKNYGKUGGVYCUDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP



ex 1214





ex 1213

ex 1212

ex 1215

ex 1214

8KGTVGN -WTWUJ 1PNWM   *,CJTG =?   WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT   <GKEJPWPIQJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIU KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI    WPF  I #TVWM  XCT ,CJT   2GTG  XCT  

,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM&CU<YGKVGXQT\ÒINKEJFKGCPFGTGPIGNQEJVQFGT*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



$GUJNKM  *,CJTG   WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP FTKVVGT <GKEJPWPI DGKO ,CJT  OKV   -PQVGPWPVGPNKPMUKPFGT6WIJTC QJPG$GK\GKEJGPKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPIWPFI#TVWMXCT ,CJT  2GTGXCT ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM4&KGGTUVGPDGKFGPUGJTUEJÌPFCDGKFCUGTUVGIGNQEJVFCUFTKVVGXQT\ÒINKEJ



&CUGTUVGWPFFTKVVG5VÒEM'ZGORNCTGFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG

ex 1216





ex 1217



ex 1216

$GUJNKM*,CJTG=?WPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPFTKVVGT<GKEJPWPIQJPG$GK\GKEJGP KP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC  *,CJTG   8CTKCPVGP   =?WPF+UN³ODÑN

+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT D\Y 2T·IGLCJT ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCP   HCPIUIGNQEJVIGNQEJVIGNQEJVIGNQEJV WPFI2GTG5WNVCP-/WPF  5VÒEM'KPKIG5VÒEMGIGNQEJVOGKUVUGJTUEJÌP

 73


MUSTAFÂ III.

1218

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1



1219

#MEG*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\D³CNKHUWNV³P/WUVCH³KDP#JOCFMJ³P D³CNKH QFGT! 4X C\\C PCUTCJW  FWTKDC HÄ  +UN³ODÑN    I +UO³ ÄN )JCNKD  2GTG  5WNVCP    -/ 45VGORGNINCP\



#MEG*+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN /\\D³CNKHUWNV³P/WUVCH³KDP#JOCFMJ³P D³CNKH QFGT! 4X C\\C PCUTCJW  FWTKDC HÄ  +UN³ODÑN    I +UOC KN )JCNKD  2GTG  5WNVCP    -/ 45VGORGNINCP\



$GK-TCWUG/KUJNGTYKTFFKGUGTUGNVGPG#MEGV[RCNUOKVFGP,CJTGPWPFXQTMQOOGPFIGHÒJTV+UO³ ÄN)JCNKD NCU,CJTYQIGIGP0WTK2GTGMGKP4GIKGTWPIUQFGT2T·IGLCJTCPICD&CUUFKG&CVKGTWPIKPFCU,CJTGKPGV[RQNQ IKUEJG7PVGTDTGEJWPIFGU6WIJTCV[RUKPFGT#MEGRT·IWPIFCTUVGNNGPYÒTFGYCT)JCNKDPQEJPKEJVDGYWUUVFCGT FKG#MEGOKVFGT6WIJTCGTUVCD,CJTPCEJYGKUGPMQPPVG#WEJYGPPCWHFGOQDKIGP5VÒEMVCVU·EJNKEJWPVGPKO #XGTUGKPFGT<KHHGTUGJTPCJGMQOOGPFGU<GKEJGP\WHKPFGPKUVUQJCNVGKEJGUHÒTYCJTUEJGKPNKEJGTFCUUFKGUGU <GKEJGPCNUD³CNKH\WNGUGPKUVLGPGU/ÒP\\GKEJGPFCUCWEJCO'PFGFGT4GIKGTWPIU\GKVFGU 7VJO³P+++KP-QP UVCPVKPQRGN8GTYGPFWPIHCPF5QOKVY·TGPFKGUG#MEGCPFGP#PHCPIFGT4GIKGTWPI/WUVCHCU\WFCVKGTGP6CVU·EJ NKEJ ·JPGNV FCU <GKEJGP CWH FGO PCEJHQNIGPFGP 'ZGORNCT CWEJ OGJT FGP DGKFGP IGPCPPVGP $WEJUVCDGP CNU GKPGT   <KHHGT  1D FKG <CJN  VCVU·EJNKEJ GZKUVKGTV GTUEJGKPV \YGKHGNJCHV WPF UQNEJG /ÒP\GP UKPF QHHGPDCT DKUNCPI PKEJV   CDIGDKNFGVYQTFGP 



ex 1220





ex 1221

1222

#MEG  *,CJTG    'Z    =?       WPF   'Z  +UN³ODÑN  

+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT HÄ+UN³ODÑN       WPF  I UQYKG DGUEJPKVVGPG 2CTC    I 2GTG   

,CJT -/UQYKGCWH#MEGIGYKEJVDGUEJPKVVGPG2CTC,CJTG !  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP



1XCNGT/CPIKT*8CPGKPITQ­GUWPFGKPMNGKPGU'ZGORNCTUWNV³P/WUVCH³4XFWTKDC HÄ9³PWPFI2GTG FQTVKTTVÒONKEJCNU/\UV-JK\³P -CDCMNCTNK9P-/  5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌPWPFUEJÌP



+TCM-WRHGTOÒP\G 

(CNUQ,$CIJFCF6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGI-CDCMNCTNK$ IF-/5GJTUEJÌP

1223 1,5:1

1224 1,5:1

1,5:1



1225 1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

5CWFK#TCDKGP-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

4GEJVGEMKIGT(CNU!* #T CT C\\CPCUTCJWKP2GTNMTGKU4X #T CTWPF,CJTKP2GTNMTGKUI 7PRWDNK\KGTV !  445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GEJVGEMKIGT(CNU* #T CT C\\CPCUTCJWKP2GTNMTGKU4X #T CTWPF,CJTKP2GTNMTGKUI 7PRWDNK\KGTV !  445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GEJVGEMKIGT(CNU* #T CT C\\CPCUTCJWKP2GTNMTGKU4X #T CTWPF,CJTKP2GTNMTGKUI 7PRWDNK\KGTV !  445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1226

5[TKGP-WRHGTOÒP\G  74

(CNU /CPIKT **CNCD6WIJTC4XFWTKDCHÄ*CNCDI2GTG5WNVCPH -CDCMNCTNK*ND-/ 42T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP




MUSTAFÂ III.

1227

1228

I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\GP 



<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXUÄPÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK/WJCOOCF 5C ÄF*6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKD #TVWM\W2GTG <K[PGV2T·IWPIFKGUGU6[RU -/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXUÄPÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK/WJCOOCF 5C ÄF  * 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ OKV HGJNGPFGO JW KO 9QTV PCUTCJW /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X   6KVGN )GT·PFGNV  I +UOC KN )JCNKD  #TVWM  \W 2GTG  <K[PGV2T·IWPI FKGUGU 6[RU    -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



1230

1231

1229





1229

<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ IGPCWYKGXQTJGTLGFQEJCPFGTG5VGORGNQJPG/\\KO#XKO 4GX UÄP ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CNU <GKEJGP FGU 9CNK /WJCOOCF 5C ÄF  * 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPU   YWPUEJ OKV HGJNGPFGO JW KO 9QTV PCUTCJW /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN  I +UOC KN )JCNKD    #TVWM2GTGXCT-/  )1.&4<K[PGVRT·IWPIOKVDTGKVGO4CPFYKGKOOGTIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOÄOUCFÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK$³JKT -ÌUG/WUVCH³*6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN)GT·PFGNVI +UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWM2GTGXCT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOÄOUCFÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK$³JKT -ÌUG/WUVCH³*6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN)GT·PFGNVI +UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWM2GTGXCT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T



1233

1232





1234

1232

<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOÄOUCFÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK$³JKT -ÌUG/WUVCH³*6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN)GT·PFGNVI +UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWM2GTGXCT-/  )1.&4<K[PGVRT·IWPIOKVDTGKVGO4CPFYKGKOOGTIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOÄOUCFÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK$³JKT -ÌUG /WUVCH³  * WPF \WU·V\NKEJGU /ÒP\\GKEJGP UÄPOÄOCNKH CWEJ CNU D³OÄOCNKH NGUDCT    CO#PHCPIFGTXKGTVGP<GKNG6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN)GT·PFGNVI +UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWM2GTGXCT-/ )1.&7P\KTMWNKGTV





<GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  KO 4GX PWT 4GIKGTWPIULCJT WPF MGKP <GKEJGP FGU 9CNK   6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGNWPF4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCO'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG )GT·PFGNV  I +UOC KN )JCNKD  XCT PWT OKV  ,CJT  #TVWM  XCT   2GTGXCT-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 75


MUSTAFÂ III.

1235





1236

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOKV4GIKGTWPIULCJTWPFCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNKUÄP OÄOCNKH 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN WPF 4GIKGTWPIULCJT OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP   ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG )GT·PFGNV  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG  XCT   -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOKV4GIKGTWPIULCJTWPFCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNKUÄP OÄOCNKH 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN WPF 4GIKGTWPIULCJT OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP   ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG )GT·PFGNV  I #TVWM  XCT 2GTG  XCT   -/ )1.&4<K[PGVRT·IWPIOKVDTGKVGO4CPFYKGKOOGTIGNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1238

1237







<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ KO#X/ÒP\\GKEJGPD³WPVGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCWPF 4GXOKV4GIKGTWPIULCJTWPFCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNKUÄPOÄOCNKH6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN WPF 4GIKGTWPIULCJT OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG   )GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOÄOUCFÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK $³JKT -ÌUG /WUVCH³  * 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN OKV   9CNK\GKEJGP WPF 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG N )GT·PFGNV  I   #TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&*GPMGNURWTXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T



1240 1239



1241

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOÄOF³NÒDGTFGO9QTVKDPCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK #JOCF 2³UJ³ -³OKN  * 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN OKV 9CNK   \GKEJGP WPF 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG N )GT·PFGNV  I   #TVWMXCT2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



&KG +FGPVKHKMCVKQP FGU 9CNK\GKEJGPU HKPFGV UKEJ UQ KP FGT PGWGP 5VWFKG XQP #JOCF CU5CYK 5  YQDGK GT FKG   .GUWPI FGU 4GIKGTWPIULCJTGU CNU CNKH CPPCJO CNUQ CNKHOÄOF³N CNU -ÒT\GN HÒT #JOCFPWV\VG'TFCVKGTVGFKG2T· IWPIKPFCU,CJTFC#JOCF2³UJ³IGIGP'PFGFGU,CJTGUGTPCPPVYQTFGPYCTWPFUEJQPDCNFFCTCWHYKGFGT CDIGUGV\VYWTFG<CODCWTFCVKGTV#JOCFFCIGIGPKPFCU,CJT* 



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ KO4GXOÄOUCFCNU<GKEJGPFGU9CNK$³JKT-ÌUG /WUVCH³  * 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP WPF   4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG N )GT·PFGNV  I #TVWM  2GTG   XCT QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT -/  )1.&4&QRRGNVIGNQEJVMWT\GT5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



<GTK OCJDÑD  /KUT -CKTQ  KO 4GX OÄOUCF ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CNU <GKEJGP FGU 9CNK $³JKT   -ÌUG /WUVCH³  * 6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGNOKV9CNK\GKEJGP ÒDGT FGO 9QTV KDP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG WPF FGO XGTMÒT\VGP 2T·IGLCJT CO #PHCPI FGT XKGTVGP   <GKNG)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&-NGKPGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP &CU 2T·IGLCJT KUV KP CWHH·NNKI DTGKVGT .KPKGPHÒJTWPI IGUEJPKVVGP WPF FÒTHVG CWH GKPGO 7OUEJPKVV FGU YQJN ·NVGTGP   5VGORGNUDCUKGTGP1DFCU9CNK\GKEJGPPQEJQFGTYKGFGT)ÒNVKIMGKVJCVVGOWUUPQEJP·JGTWPVGTUWEJVYGTFGP 

76








MUSTAFÂ III.

1242



1244

1243

<GTK OCJDÑD PGWGP 6[RU  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP 5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNF³TKDCPPCFTGVEFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFG )GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKD#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



<GTK OCJDÑD PGWGP 6[RU  * /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP  5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG  /\UV   WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X  6KVGN  F³TKD CPPCFT GVE  FCU XGTMÒT\VG 2T·IGLCJT CO 'PFG   )GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT  )1.&$TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPI5VGORGNINCP\



<GTK OCJDÑD PGWGP 6[RU  * /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP  5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG  /\UV   WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X  6KVGN  F³TKD CPPCFT GVE FCU XGTMÒT\VG 2T·IGLCJT CO 'PFG   5VGORGNINGKEJOKVFGOXQTKIGP5VÒEM)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWMXCT2GTG XCT-/ PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT  )1.&-NGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPI5VGORGNINCP\



&KG <GTK OCJDÑD5VGORGN FGU PGWGP 6[RU YGKUGP GKPG UGJT XKGN XCTKCDNGTG 5EJTKHVUV·TMG CWU FKG FGWVNKEJ GKPG   *GTMWPHVCWU-QPUVCPVKPQRGNXGTT·V 





1,5:1



1245

1,5:1

<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*/KUT -CKTQ OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP CKPCNKHFGU9CNK #NÄ$GI5WNVCP UVKVGNWPF0COG/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNF³TKDCPPCFTGVEFCUXGTMÒT\VG 2T·IGLCJTCO'PFG)GT·PFGNVOKVXÌNNKICDIGPWV\VGP'KUGPI+UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWM XCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGU,CJT-PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG5VGRJGP#NDWO0T







&CU/ÒP\\GKEJGPKUVJKGTUKEJGTGTUVPCEJVT·INKEJKPFGPXGTOWVNKEJCWU-QPUVCPVKPQRGNIGNKGHGTVGP5VGORGNITCXKGTV QDYQJNFCHÒTMGKPCWUTGKEJGPFGT4CWO\WT8GTHÒIWPIUVCPFCU5CYKMQOOGPVKGTVCWH5FKGUGUHTÒJG8QTMQO OGPFGU/ÒP\\GKEJGPUFGU #NÄ$GICNU5VGNNXGTVTGVWPIFGU9CNKFWTEJKJP #NÄYCTFCOCNU3³ KOCS³OKP-CKTQ CNU FGT 9CNK/WJCOOCF2³UJ³'PFG5JC D³P*CDIGUGV\VYWTFGWPFFKG2HQTVGHÒTFKGP·EJUVGPXKGT,CJTG MGKPGP0CEJHQNIGTDGPCPPVG #NÄ$GIHÒJTVG\WP·EJUVFGP6KVGN/KTK.KYCWPF3³ KOCS³OXQPI[RVGP 

1247 1246



1248

<GTK OCJDÑD PGWGP 6[RU  * /KUT -CKTQ  OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP C[PCNKH FGU #NÄ $GI *GTT XQP   I[RVGP  *  5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG  /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X  6KVGN   F³TKDCPPCFTGVEFCUXGTMÒT\VG2T·IGLCJTCO'PFGWPVGTFGONGV\VGP9QTVCNDCJTGKP2WPMVWPF GKP-PQVGP)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKD#TVWMXCT2GTG-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





<GTK OCJDÑD PGWGP 6[RU  * /KUT -CKTQ  OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP C[PCNKH FGU #NÄ $GI *GTT XQP   I[RVGP*5WNVCPUVKVGNWPF0COG/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNF³TKD CPPCFT GVE FCU XGTMÒT\VG 2T·IGLCJT CO 'PFG WPVGT FGO NGV\VGP 9QTV CNDCJTGKP-PQVGPWPFTGEJVU GKP2WPMV$GKFGTUGKVU5VGORGNXCTKCPVG\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEM)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKD#TVWM XCT2GTG-/ )1.&-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUXQT\ÒINKEJ





<GTK OCJDÑD PGWGP 6[RU  * /KUT -CKTQ  OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP C[PCNKH FGU #NÄ $GI *GTT XQP   I[RVGP  *  5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG  /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X  6KVGN   F³TKDCPPCFTGVEFCUXGTMÒT\VG2T·IGLCJTCO'PFGWPVGTFGONGV\VGP9QTVCNDCJTGKP<YGKIOKV\YGK $N·VVGTP)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKD#TVWMXCT2GTG-/  )1.&5VGORGNINCP\

 77


MUSTAFÂ III.

1250

1249

1,5:1



1,5:1

<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*/KUT -CKTQ QJPG/ÒP\\GKEJGPGKPGU9CNK5WNVCPUVKVGNWPF0COG /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNF³TKDCPPCFTGVEFCUXGTMÒT\VG2T·IGLCJTCO'PFG WPVGTFGONGV\VGP9QTVCNDCJTGKP*CNDMTGKU)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWM XCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&4-NGKPGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



&CMGKPG·I[RVKUEJGP)QNFOÒP\GPOKVFGP&CVGPWPF*DGMCPPVUKPFFCTHCPIGPQOOGPYGTFGPFCUU FKG ,CJTGU\CJN  Y·JTGPF FGU -TKGIGU FGU #NK $GI CNU#NNKKGTVGO4WUUNCPFUIGIGPFCU4GKEJOKVWPXGT·PFGTVGO &CVWO KP FGP DGKFGP 0CEJHQNIGLCJTGP YGKVGTIGRT·IV YWTFG 1D FCU <GKEJGP FGU #NÄ $GIJKGTHQTVIGNCUUGPYWTFG YGKNFGT#WHUV·PFKUEJGYGIGPFGT-TKGIHÒJTWPIKP2CN·UVKPCPKEJVOGJTFKG#WHUKEJVÒDGTFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGKP-CKTQ HÒJTGPMQPPVGQFGTYGKNUGKPG*GTTUEJCHVKPI[RVGPFWTEJUGKPGP5EJYCIGT/WJCOOCF#DÑ&JCJCDPKEJV OGJTCPGTMCPPVYWTFGKUVGKPGQHHGPG(TCIG+PLGFGO(CNNKUV*CNUVCVU·EJNKEJGU2T·IGLCJTYCJTUEJGKPNKEJ 



<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*/KUT -CKTQ QJPG/ÒP\\GKEJGPGKPGU9CNK5WNVCPUVKVGNWPF0COG /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X  6KVGN  F³TKD CPPCF T GVE FCU XGTMÒT\VG 2T·IGLCJT CO   'PFGWPVGTFGONGV\VGP9QTVCNDCJTGKPMNGKPGU)CDGNDNCVV)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKDXCT #TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T





1251

1,5:1



1,5:1

<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*/KUT -CKTQ QJPG/ÒP\\GKEJGPGKPGU9CNK5WNVCPUVKVGNWPF0COG /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNF³TKDCPPCFTGVEFCUXGTMÒT\VG2T·IGLCJTCO'PFG WPVGTFGONGV\VGP9QTVCNDCJTGKPMNGKPGU)CDGNDNCVV)GT·PFGNVI+UOC KN)JCNKDXCT#TVWM XCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGU,CJT5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1,5:1



1,5:1

*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*/KUT -CKTQ OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP C[PCNKHFGU #NÄ$GI*GTT XQP I[RVGP  * 5WNVCPUVKVGN WPF 0COG /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN   F³TKDCPPCFTGVEFCUXGTMÒT\VG2T·IGLCJTCO'PFGWPVGTFGONGV\VGP9QTVCNDCJTGKP2WPMVWPFGKP -PQVGP)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[.QPFQP0T

78

1252










MUSTAFÂ III.

1253

I[RVGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

-WTWUJ*/KUT -CKTQ OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP C[PCNKHFGU #NÄ$GI*GTTXQPI[RVGP * 6WIJTC OKV 5VGTP 4X  /ÒP\\GKEJGP FCPGDGP GKP -PQVGP /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF FCU ,CJT FGT 7PCDJ·P   IKIMGKVFGU #NÄ$GII#TVWM2GTG-/ 4445GJTUEJÌP 

1254



-WTWUJ*=?/KUT -CKTQ OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP C[PCNKHFGU #NÄ$GI*GTTXQPI[RVGP  * 6WIJTC QJPG 5VGTP 4X  /ÒP\\GKEJGP FCPGDGP FCU 2T·IGLCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF FCU ,CJT FGT   7PCDJ·PIKIMGKVFGU #NÄ$GII#TVWM2GTG-/ 4445EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP 

ex 1255



2CTC 0KUH HKFFC QFGT /C[FKP   * /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP J³CNKH !  CNKH WPF C[PCNKH   6WIJTCCWHFGPGTUVGPDGKFGP5VÒEMGPOKV5VGTP4X/\\/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU IWPFWPIGYQIGP2GTG5WNVCPWPF 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP

1,5:1

1256



1,5:1

6WPGUKGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

5WNVCPK*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGNFCDGKFGT6KVGNCUUWNV³PHGJNGTJCHVCNUCU UWV³P YKGFGTIGIGDGP 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO  I +UOC KN )JCNKD  #TVWM   *    2GTG-/ )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ

1257

1258



1259



*CNDGT5WNVCPK*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI #TVWM * 2GTG-/ )1.&44)GNQEJVWPFRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT5WNVCPK*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI #TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





*CNDGT5WNVCPK*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI +UOC KN)JCNKD#TVWM * 2GTG-/XCT  )1.&44-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP

 79


MUSTAFÂ III.

1260

1,5:1



1,5:1

*CNDGT5WNVCPK*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI +UOC KN)JCNKD#TVWM * 2GTG-/XCT  )1.&44)GNQEJVWPFRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP

1261



1263

ex 1262

6WPGUKGP5KNDGTWPF-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI2GTG (GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





4K[³N  WPF  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO   WPFI2GTG * (GPKPCWPF-/ 5VÒEM2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP





4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI2GTG (GPKPC-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP,GCP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T

ex 1264

ex 1266



ex 1265

ex 1266



-JCTTÑDC    WPF  * 6ÑPKU UWNV³P  /WUVCH³ 4X FWTKDC HÄ  6ÑPKU  2T·IGLCJT   WPFI2GTG(GPKPCWPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





-JCTTÑDC 8CTKCPVGP WPF*6ÑPKUUWNV³P/WUVCH³4XFWTKDCHÄ6ÑPKU2T·IGLCJT WPFI2GTG(GPKPCWPF-/  5VÒEM&KGGTUVGPDGKFGPUGJTUEJÌPFCU5VÒEMXQP5VGORGNINCP\



(CNU $WTDG  8CTKCPVGP WPF*6ÑPKU UWNV³P/WUVCH³MJ³P4XFWTKDCHÄ6ÑPKU2T·IGLCJTFCTWPVGTQFGTFCTÒDGT WPFI2GTG(GPKPC WPF-/WPF 5VÒEM5EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP





80


MUSTAFÂ III.

1267

1,5:1

1,5:1

#NIGTKGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWO4X6KVGN UWNVCP CNDCTTC[PGVE I+UOC KN)JCNKD * #TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&445GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM<ÒTKEJ0T





1268

1,5:1

1,5:1



*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &C   VWOI2GTG * -/ )1.&445GJTUEJÌP 

1269

2:1



2:1

8KGTVGN5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTI2GTGXIN-/

6KVGNWPF0COGCPUVGNNGFGT6WIJTC  )1.&444<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1,5:1



1270





1,5:1

8KGTVGN 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN WPF 0COG 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT  I +UOC KN   )JCNKD2GTG-/ )1.&4<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

 81


MUSTAFÂ III.

1271

#NIGTKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG-/ $GUEJPKVVGP ! UGJTUEJÌP

1272

1,5:1





1,5:1

8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG-/ FKGUGU,CJTPKEJVPCEJIGYKGUGP  45GJTUEJÌP



1274 1273

1275



8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG-/ $GUEJPKVVGP ! UGJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG-/ $GUEJPKVVGP ! UGJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG-/ $GUEJPKVVGP ! UGJTUEJÌP



1276

1278

1277

1279



8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGNWPF0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI2GTG -/ 5GJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGNWPF0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI2GTG -/ 5GJTUEJÌP



82


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

#DFCN*COÄF+*#&

#NU2TKP\UQNNFGTIGDQTGPG #DFCN*COÄF+YGPKIXQORQNKVKUEJGP.GDGPUGKPGT<GKVOKVGTNGDV JCDGP &QEJ CNU 5WNVCP GTYKGU GT UKEJ ÒDGTTCUEJGPF UEJPGNN KP FGT .CIG CWH FKG *GTCWUHQTFGTWPIGP   UGKPGT<GKVCPIGOGUUGP\WTGCIKGTGP#WUFGTHCUVXQNNUV·PFKIGP0KGFGTNCIGIGIGP4WUUNCPFGTYWEJUFGT (TKGFGPUXGTVTCIXQP-Ò¼ÒM-C[PCTECYGNEJGTWPVGTFGPIGIGDGPGP7OUV·PFGPFGO1UOCPKUEJGP4GKEJ FGPHCMVKUEJGP8GTNWUVFGT*QJGKVÒDGTFCU-TKOMJCPCVCNU7PCDJ·PIKIMGKVFGU-JCPCVUDGKHQTVFCWGTP FGTMCNKHKUEJGT*QJGKVKP4GNKIKQPUHTCIGPXGTUÒ­VGY·JTGPF4WUUNCPFUKEJGKP2TQVGMVKQPUXGTJ·NVPKUÒDGT FKGQTVJQFQZGPEJTKUVNKEJGP7PVGTVCPGPFGUQUOCPKUEJGP4GKEJGUCWUJCPFGNVG&CUJCVVGHÒTOGJTCNUGKP ,CJTJWPFGTVYGKVTGKEJGPFG(QNIGP  &KG MTKOVCVCTKUEJG 4GKVGTGK JCVVG KP CNNGP QUOCPKUEJGP (GNF\ÒIGP KP 'WTQRC GKPG IGYKEJVKIG 4QNNG IG   URKGNVUQFCUUFGTGP9GIHCNNGKPG5VTWMVWTTGHQTOFGTQUOCPKUEJGP5VTGKVMT·HVGPQVYGPFKIOCEJVG&KGUG UEJNQUU CWEJ FGP 9KGFGTCWHDCW GKPGT GKIGPGP CWH 5GIGNUEJKHHG IGUVÒV\VGP /CTKPG GKP FKG PWPOGJT KP   UV·TMGTGO 7OHCPI MNGKPGTG 5EJKHHG XQP IGTKPIGTGO 6KGHICPI WPF DGUUGTGT 9GPFKIMGKV GKPUEJNQUU FKG   DGUUGTHÒTFKG$GFÒTHPKUUGFGTCPCVQNKUEJGP-ÒUVGPFGU/KVVGNOGGTGUIGGKIPGVYCTGP  9·JTGPF FGT -GTP FGT #TOGG CWH ,CPKVUEJCTGP WPF 5KRCJK DCUKGTVG YWTFG OKV PQEJ UV·TMGTGT *KNHG   HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT WPF DTKVKUEJGT 2NCPGT WPF #WUDKNFGT FKG #TVKNNGTKG CWUIGDCWV WPF GPVURTGEJGPFG #WUDKN   FWPIUUV·VVGPGKPIGTKEJVGVªDGTGKPGTGNCVKXNCPIG(TKGFGPURJCUGJKPYGIMQPPVGPFKG4GHQTOGPFWTEJIG HÒJTVYGTFGP'KPITWPFNGIGPFGU2TQDNGODNKGDCDGTFCTKPDGUVGJGPFCUUUEJQPWPVGT/WUVCH³+++CWH FGTCUKCVKUEJGPWPFPQTFCHTKMCPKUEJGP5GKVGFGU4GKEJGUFKGTGIKQPCNG*GTTUEJCHVHCUVÒDGTCNNCPOKNKV·TC TKUVQMTCVKUEJG/CONWMGPÒDGTIGICPIGPYCTYGNEJGFGT<GPVTCNGPWTPQEJ\GKEJGPJCHV6GKNGFGU5VGWG TGTVTCIU\WMQOOGPNKG­GP  &CUJQJG#WUOC­CP#WVQPQOKGFGT2TQXKP\GPXQP#NIKGTDKU$CIFCFN·­VUKEJCWEJCPFGT\WPGJOGP FGP4GIKQPCNKUKGTWPIFGT9·JTWPIGPIWVCDNGUGP5QICNVCO'PFGFGT4GIKGTWPIU\GKV #DFCN*COÄF+ FGTIQNFGPG<GTKOCJDÑDCWU+UVCPDWNFQTV-WTWUJFGTCWU-CKTQUVCOOGPFGLGFQEJKPHQNIGIGTKP IGTGP(GKPIGJCNVUPWT-WTWUJ&KG9³NÄUXQP$CIFCFTGIGNVGPYGKVIGJGPFUGNDUV·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ÒNVKIG 'KPINKGFGTWPI FGT -TKO KP FGP   TWUUKUEJGP5VCCVWPFFKG#DUEJCHHWPIFGU-JCPCVUYWTFGPWPVGTFGOXQTCNNGOCPKPPGTGP4GHQT OGP KPVGTGUUKGTVGP )TQ­YGUKT -JCNÄN *COÄF JKPIGPQOOGP FQEJ HKGN FKGUGT KO (QNIGLCJT FGP +PVTKIGP   UGKPGT)GIPGT\WO1RHGT&KG2CTVGKFGT-TKGIUDGHÒTYQTVGTYWTFGCOQUOCPKUEJGP*QHGKOOGTUV·TMGT DKU/KVVG#WIWUVGKP7NVKOCVWOCP4WUUNCPFIGUVGNNVYWTFGUKEJCWUFGT-TKOWPFFGO-CWMCUWU \WTÒEM\W\KGJGPQFGTUKEJKO-TKGIOKVFGO1UOCPKUEJGP4GKEJ\WUGJGP6CVU·EJNKEJDGICPPFGT-TKGI GTUVKO(TÒJLCJTOKVGKPGTÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP$GUGV\WPI$QUPKGPUY·JTGPFFGT)TQ­YGUKTCNU(ÒJTGT FGT QUOCPKUEJGP 6TWRRGP WPIGJKPFGTV KP 5KGDGPDÒTIGP GKPOCTUEJKGTGP MQPPVG &QTV GTTGKEJVG KJP FKG   0CEJTKEJVXQO6QF #DFCN*COKFU+&CUHÒJTVG\WO<WUCOOGPDTWEJFGUQUOCPKUEJGP8QTUVQ­GUWPF FGT8GTVGKFKIWPIKP$QUPKGP 83


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1281

1280

1280

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 

 #NVKP $GqNKM #NVKP (KPFKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI   W C HNQTCN 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI (GKPG 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM  2GTG   -/ )1.&)GNQEJVWPFGKPYGKVGTGUIGUVQRHVGU.QEJHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



 #NVKP ÒE CNVKPNKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI WC #TC   DGUMGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM2GTG;-$-/ )1.&)GNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1282





1283



1284

  #NVKP KMKDWEWM CNVKPNKM   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI   FC\YKUEJGP HNQTCNGU )GDKPFG 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM   2GTG-/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



#NVKP KMKDWEWMCNVKPNKM *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPI FC\YKUEJGPHNQTCNGU)GDKPFG4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM 2GTG-/ FQTV(KPFKM  )1.&)GNQEJVWPF(CUUWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG 7PVGTUEJGKFWPI XQP   WPF  (KPFKM KUV CPIGUKEJVU MNGKPGT )GYKEJVUWPVGTUEJKGFG DGK 6[RGPINGKEJJGKV WPF   INGKEJGT)TÌ­GRTQDNGOCVKUEJ+PFGT2TCZKUYCTGPUQNEJG/ÒP\GPPWTOKVFGT9CCIGXGTJCPFGNDCTWPFFKG0QOK PCNDG\GKEJPWPIUVGNNVDGKFKGUGP<K[PGVOÒP\GPOKVVNGTGT)TÌ­GPWTGKPG)GYKEJVUTKEJVNKPKGFCT 



84

  #NVKP KMKDWEWM CNVKPNKM  XQP IGPCWGO )GYKEJV  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP   XKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIFC\YKUEJGPHNQTCNGU)GDKPFG4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI4·P FGNWPII#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&1DGPWPFWPVGPLGYGKNUGKPIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP




ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1285

1,5:1

1,5:1



(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPI4X/\UVWPF,CJT KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&-CDKPGVVUVÒEM5VGORGNINCP\

1286





1287

1288

(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIOKVFC\YKUEJGPIG NGIVGO $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIOKVFC\YKUEJGPIG NGIVGO $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVGVYCUDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ







(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIOKVFC\YKUEJGPIG NGIVGO $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ





1289



(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIOKVFC\YKUEJGPIG NGIVGO $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP1MVQDGT0T





85


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1291

1290



(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIOKVFC\YKUEJGPIG NGIVGO $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/  )1.&)GUVQRHVGU.QEJWPFNGKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T



  (KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI OKV FC\YKUEJGP   IGNGIVGO$NÒVGPMTCP\4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ





1293

1292







  (KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI OKV FC\YKUEJGP   IGNGIVGO$NÒVGPMTCP\4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/  )1.&)GNQEJVWPFIGUVQRHVGU.QEJNGKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



  (KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP XKGNHCEJGT -TGKUHCUUWPI OKV FC\YKUEJGP   IGNGIVGO$NÒVGPMTCP\4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&)GUVQRHVGU.QEJRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



1294

1,5:1



1,5:1

(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 7ONCWHOÒP\G!6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTOKVFGP 5VGORGNP GKPGU (KPFKM5VÒEMU CWH MNGKPGTGO 5EJTÌVNKPI IGRT·IV 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM  2GTG    -/ )1.&4445GJTUEJÌP

1295









(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTGVYCUITÌ­GTGT4X5VGORGN 4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T

86

1296

(KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM   2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T








ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1298



1299

1297

(KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM    ,CJT 2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[.QPFQP0T







*CNDGT(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT4·PFGNWPIPKEJVOGJT UKEJVDCTI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&44)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT (KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT 4·PFGNWPI  I   #TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&445GJTUEJÌP



1300

2:1



#EJVGN !  (KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT  I #TVWM   2GTG-/ )1.&445GJTUEJÌP



1,5:1

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO #DFCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG -/ )1.&444)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 

1302



1303



1304

1305

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG   

,CJT -/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG  ,CJT -/ )1.&)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGTORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T





1301

1,5:1



2:1



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG  ,CJT -/ )1.&)GYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG  ,CJT -/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

 87


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1306



1307

1308

1309

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP+UNCOKE%QKP#WEVKQP.QPFQP0T









<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG-/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&9KP\(CUUWPIUURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1311

1312



1313







1315





*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG  ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT!  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG  ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT!  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG  ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT!  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG  ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT!  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGU,CJT+PFGT/KVVGHNCWXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

88

1314

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGU,CJT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T







'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T



1310




ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1316

1317

ex 1318

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTWPF-WRHGTOÒP\GP 





&QRRGNVGT-WTWUJ*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCTGEJVUWPFNKPMULG GKP -PQVGP 4X /\UV FCTÒDGT 4GIKGTWPIULCJT FCTWPVGT ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU I#TVWM 2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&QRRGNVGT-WTWUJ*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCTGEJVUWPFNKPMULG GKP -PQVGP 4X /\UV FCTÒDGT 4GIKGTWPIULCJT FCTWPVGT ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU I#TVWM 2GTG5WNVCP-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



&QRRGNVGT<QNQVC*,CJTG 8CTKCPVGP WPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG      WPF   I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM#NNGIWVCWUIGRT·IVWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ,CJTOKV5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTP



ex 1319





ex 1320

&QRRGNVGT <QNQVC  * ,CJTG   8CTKCPVGP  WPF   8CTKCPVGP  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN    +UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG OKV -PQVGP ÒDGT FGO 9QTV CDF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNG    WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   5WNVCP    -/ 5VÒEM#NNGIWVCWUIGRT·IVOGKUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&QRRGNVGT<QNQVC*,CJT 8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6KVGN5WNVCPU PCOGOKV-PQVGPÒDGTFGO9QTV CDFDGKGKPGO5VÒEMJKPVGTFGO9QTVOWNMCJWKPFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKG TWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG  ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP

 89


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1323

ex 1321







&QRRGNVGT <QNQVC  * ,CJT   8CTKCPVGP   WPF   8CTKCPVGP OKV ITQ­GO WPF MNGKPGO   &WTEJOGUUGT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF   ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU-PQVGPJKPVGTFGO9QTVOWNMCJWKPFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGDGKGKPGO5VÒEMFGU ,CJTGÒDGTFGO9QTV CDF4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG     WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT     5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



&QRRGNVGT <QNQVC  * ,CJT    8CTKCPVGP  WPF   8CTKCPVGP  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCP   VKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU -PQVGP   JKPVGTFGO9QTVOWNMCJWKPFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG     WPF  I #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG  ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WTWUJ*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPGTUVGT(QTOFCU9QTV CDF \WWPVGTUV TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC -PQVGP \YKUEJGP \YGK 2HGKNGP FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 48QT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1324





90

ex 1322

ex 1325

-WTWUJ*,CJTWPF 8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGK VGT (QTO FCU 9QTV MJ³P \WWPVGTUV TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC -PQVGP \YKUEJGP \YGK 2HGKNGP FCTWPVGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP



-WTWUJ  *,CJT    WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT (QTO   TGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC-PQVGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2HGKNGPFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG WPFI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP




ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

ex 1326







1328

ex 1327

-WTWUJ TGFW\KGTVGP )GYKEJVU  *,CJT     8CTKCPVGP  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCP   VKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT (QTO TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG $NWOG FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVG   WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFG FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGPKEJVIGYQIGPWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG5WNVCP -/ OKVHCNUEJGT0QOKPCNDG\GKEJPWPI  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP



-WTWUJTGFW\KGTVGP)GYKEJVU*,CJTWPF 8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTOTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPG$NWOGFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT   FTKVVGP <GKNG    WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  5WNVCP -/  OKVHCNUEJGT0QOKPCNDG\GKEJPWPI  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP



-WTWUJTGFW\KGTVGP)GYKEJVU*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGK VGT (QTO TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG $NWOG FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I   #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG5WNVCP-/ OKVHCNUEJGT0QOKPCNDG\GKEJPWPI   5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG1MVQDGT

1329







ex 1330

-WTWUJTGFW\KGTVGP)GYKEJVU*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGK VGT (QTO TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG $NWOG FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM  ,CJT 2GTG5WNVCP-/ OKVHCNUEJGT0QOKPCNDG\GKEJPWPI   5GNVGPGU,CJT5GJTUEJÌP



<QNQVC*,CJTG 8CTKCPVGPOKVITQ­GOWPFMNGKPGO4GIKGTWPIULCJT WPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C

-QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6KVGN5WNVCPUPCOG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG     WPFI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ

 91


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1331



1332

1333

<QNQVC  * ,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ FKGUGU,CJTTGRQTVGF PQVEQPHKTOGF  5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP.QV0T



<QNQVC  * ,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ FKGUGU,CJTPKEJV  5GNVGPGU,CJT2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP.QV0T











<QNQVC  * ,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ FKGUGU,CJTPKEJV  5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJUVGORGNIN·P\GPFGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI-GPPGVJ/CE-GP\KG1MVQDGT





ex 1335

1334





92

1334

<QNQVC  * ,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  ,CJT   5WNVCP  -/  FKGUGU ,CJT   PKEJV  5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ



*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP   \YGKVGT(QTOFCU9QTVMJ³P\WWPVGTUVTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC-PQVGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2HGKNGPFCTWP VGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP




ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1336

1337



*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT   (QTOTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC-PQVGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2HGKNGPFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 44)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT   (QTOTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC-PQVGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2HGKNGPFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI-GPPGVJ/CE-GP\KG1MVQDGT

ex 1339

1338





*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT   (QTOTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC-PQVGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2HGKNGPFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 445GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI-GPPGVJ/CE-GP\KG1MVQDGT



*CNDGT -WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM  TGFW\KGTVGP )GYKEJVU  *,CJTG  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN    +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTOTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPG$NWOGFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT   FTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP ,CJT -/ 5VÒEM4$GKFGIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

ex 1340











1341

*CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM TGFW\KGTVGP)GYKEJVU*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTOTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPG$NWOGFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT   FTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP ,CJT -/ 5VÒEM4&CUGTUVG5VÒEMIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP *CNDGT-WTWUJ ;KTOKNKM TGFW\KGTVGP)GYKEJVU*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT (QTO TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG $NWOG FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   5WNVCP  -/  FKGUGU ,CJT TGRQTVGF PQV   EQPHKTOGF  448QT\ÒINKEJ





1342



1PNWM*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPGTUVGT(QTOFCU9QTV CDF\W WPVGTUVTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC-PQVGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2HGKNGPFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG I8IN#TVWM ,CJTOKV6WIJTC XIN2GTG5WNVCP-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG1MVQDGT



 93


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

ex 1344

ex 1343







ex 1345

ex 1346

1PNWM*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTOFCU 9QTVMJ³P\WWPVGTUVTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC-PQVGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2HGKNGPFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



1PNWM  *,CJT    WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT (QTO   TGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC-PQVGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2HGKNGPFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP<GKNG   I WPF ,CJT  PKEJV IGYQIGP #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   5WNVCP      -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



1PNWM  *,CJT   WPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTO TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG $NÒVG FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN   UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG    WPF   I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



1PNWM  *,CJT     WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT   (QTO TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG $NÒVG FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X   6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGPKEJV IGYQIGPWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM,CJTIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&GT 9GEJUGN FGT $GK\GKEJGP PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC KO  4GIKGTWPIULCJT YCT PCEJ )GYKEJVU WPH (GKPIGJCNVUWPVGTUW   EJWPIGP XQP 2CP\CE 2COWM 5   OKV GKPGT 4GFWMVKQP FGU 5KNDGTHGKPIGYKEJVU WO   XGTDWPFGP &C KP FGT   1PNWMRT·IWPI \WINGKEJ CPHCPIU GKPG 'TJÌJWPI FGU 4CWJIGYKEJVU \W MQPUVCVKGTGP KUV UVGJV \W GTYCTVGP FCUU JKGT   GKPGUV·TMGTG8GTTKPIGTWPIFGU(GKPIGJCNVUCNUDGKFGPITQDGP5QTVGPGKPUGV\VG 



1347 1,5:1



1,5:1

$GUJNKM*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPGTUVGT(QTOQJPG$GK\GKEJGP 4X /\UV FCTÒDGT 4GIKGTWPIULCJT FCTWPVGT ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   I #TVWM  2GTG    5WNVCP-/ 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG1MVQDGT



ex 1348



94

$GUJNKM*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTOFCU 9QTVMJ³P\WWPVGTUVTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPMNGKPGT-PQVGP ,CJTGWPF FCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG   WPF  I 8IN #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   5WNVCP    -/ 5VÒEM&CUGTUVG5VÒEMIGNQEJVFCU\YGKVGOKV*GPMGNURWT FKGUGDGKFGPUGJTUEJÌPFCUFTKVVGWP\KTMWNKGTV




ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

ex 1350

ex 1349





$GUJNKM*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTOFCU9QTVMJ³P \WWPVGTUVTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPG$NÒVGKP\YGK8CTKCPVGPFGT<GKEJPWPIFCTWPVGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT XIN2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM5GNVGPGU,CJT$GKFGXQT\ÒINKEJ



$GUJNKM*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT (QTOFCU9QTVMJ³P\WWPVGTUVTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPG$NÒVGKP\YGK8CTKCPVGPFGT<GKEJPWPI FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKG   TWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG     WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT     XIN2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



1351

ex 1352

1,5:1

ex 1353

1,5:1



2CTC  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP GTUVGT (QTO QJPG $GK\GKEJGP   4X /\UV FCTÒDGT 4GIKGTWPIULCJT FCTWPVGT ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  I #TVWM ! 2GTG   XCT5WNVCP-/ 4<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC  *,CJTG     8CTKCPVGP      WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN    6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTOOKVMNGKPGO-PQVGPTGEJVU4X/\UVFCTÒDGT4GIKGTWPIULCJTFCTWPVGT,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI#TVWM!2GTG  ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5VÒEMGFGT,CJTGWPFIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





2CTC  *,CJTG          8CTKCPVGP  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN   +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP\YGKVGT(QTOOKV$NWOGTGEJVU4X/\UVFCTÒDGT4GIKGTWPIULCJTFCTWPVGT,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU          WPF  I #TVWM    XCT ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



ex 1354





ex 1355

#MEG  *,CJTG     WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP \YGKVGT (QTO   QJPG$GK\GKEJGP4X/\UVFCTÒDGT4GIKGTWPIULCJTFCTWPVGT,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFC\WGKPCWH #MEGIGYKEJV DGUEJPKVVGPGT 2CTC ,CJT       WPF  I #TVWM  2GTG    5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



/CPIKT*8CPUKEJGTI·P\GPFG'ZGORNCTG6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTWPF I-CDCMNCTNK9P-/ 5VÒEM445EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



1356 1,5:1

1,5:1

I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCKP(QTO #DFCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&44-WT\GT6TGOQNKGTUVKEJPGDGPFGT6WIJTCUGJTUEJÌP  #DIGUGJGPXQPFGTITQ­GP5GNVGPJGKVKUVFKGUGU5VÒEM\WUCOOGPOKVFGOHQNIGPFGPCW­GTQTFGPVNKEJYKEJVKIHÒTFGP 0CEJYGKU FCUU FKG DGK -TCWUG WPF /KUJNGT XQTIGPQOOGPG )NGKEJUGV\WPI FGT 4GIKGTWPIULCJTG OKV XGTMÒT\VGP   'PFLCJTGPFGTGTPKEJVVT·IV 

95


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1357

 

1358

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UV WPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT  -/ PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT  )1.&4.GKEJVG2TÒHURWTGPCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UV WPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG

,CJTYQJN(GJNNGUWPIHÒT -/ )1.&-WT\GT5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUXQT\ÒINKEJ



1,5:1

1359



1359

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UV WPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG

,CJT -/ PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT   )1.&<K[PGVRT·IWPICWHDTGKVGO5EJTÌVNKPIYKGKOOGTIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1360

1,5:1



1,5:1

<K[PGVCDUEJNCI\W<GTKOCJDÑDXQO5VGORGNFGUGKPHCEJGP<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT

-CKTQ 6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWMXIN2GTG FQRRGNIGYKEJVKI WPF-/  )1.&4<K[PGVRT·IWPICWHDTGKVGO5EJTÌVNKPIYKGKOOGTIGNQEJV COHNCEJGP4CPFGVYCUIGYGNNVKPFGT2T·IWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1361



1362



<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGP[³M³HPÑP GKPFGWVKIOKV &KCMTKVKMC HÒT;GICP2³UJ³CPUVGNNGFGU4GIKGTWPIULCJTGU6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG  ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT 4X 6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG    XCT-/XIN )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\





<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGP #DFQFGT ÄFCPUVGNNGFGU 4GIKGTWPIULCJTGU6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN9CNK\GK EJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN#TVWM <GTKOCJDÑDOKVFKGUGO9CNK\GKEJGP  2GTGXCT-/XIN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



96


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1364

1363





<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGP #DFQFGT ÄFCPUVGNNGFGU 4GIKGTWPIULCJTGU6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN9CNK\GK EJGP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG 5VGORGNXCTKCPVG FGU XQTKIGP OKV NCPIGT &GJPWPI FGU9QTVGUUCPCKO #XGTUI8IN#TVWM <GTKOCJDÑDOKVFKGUGO9CNK\GKEJGP 2GTGXCT-/ )1.&4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



<GTKOCJDÑD* ! /KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGP #DFQFGT ÄFQFGT ÄN HÒT+UO³ ÄN2³UJ³  ÒDGTFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJT6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGP ÒDGT FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I 8IN #TVWM  2GTG    XCT-/ )1.&5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUUGJTUEJÌP



&CUJKGTYKGCWEJDGK-TCWUG/KUJNGTCNU4GIKGTWPIULCJTIGFGWVGVG<GKEJGPGPVURTKEJVFGP<KHHGTPWPFKUVCDGT FWTEJ GKPG 8GTDKPFWPIUNKPKG OKVGKPCPFGT XGTDWPFGP YCU FKG .GUWPI WPUKEJGT OCEJV (ÒT GKPG &CVKGTWPI KP FCU   'PFGFGT4GIKGTWPIU\GKVFGU #DFCN*COÄF+URTKEJVCWEJFKG6CVUCEJGFCUU\W$GIKPPFGT4GIKGTWPIU\GKV5GNKOU +++ CD  * PWT )QNFOÒP\GP FGU VTCFKVKQPGNNGP 6[RU FGT  <GTK OCJDÑD IGRT·IV YGTFGP WPF PKEJV FGT PGWG   6[R $GK FGT .GUWPI CNU  Y·TG FCU 9CNK\GKEJGP CNU FKG FTGK 'PFDWEJUVCDGP FGU 0COGPU FGU +UO³ ÄN 2³UJ³ \W   KPVGTRTGVKGTGPYGNEJGTCO,WO³F³+*FCU#OVGTJKGNV&CUHKPCNGN³OMCPPFWTEJCWUCWHFGT)TWPFNKPKG GPFGPWPFKUVFCPPNGKEJVXGTYGEJUGNDCTOKVFGOF³N&CU9CNK\GKEJGPYKTFDGK-TCWUG/KUJNGTCNU #DFOKVFGO FKCMTKVKUEJGP2WPMVYKGFGTIGIGDGP&CUKUVCDGTHCNUEJ&CU<GKEJGPUGNDUVKUVUVGVUWPRWPMVKGTVWPFFGT\WO$WEJ UVCDGP PÑP KO 9QTV KDP IGJÌTKIG 2WPMV TÒEMV IGNGIGPVNKEJ WPVGT FKG /KVVG FGU 9CNK\GKEJGPU YQFWTEJ UKEJ FCU   /KUUXGTUV·PFPKUGTMN·TV 

1,5:1



1365

<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMGKP9CNK\GKEJGP4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNF PKEJVFWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/  )1.&5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG5VGORGNINCP\





ex 1367

1366



1,5:1

<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMGKP9CNK\GKEJGP4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNF FWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



.QVXQP<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMGKP9CNK\GKEJGPWPVGTUEJKGFNKEJG$GK\GKEJGPÒDGTFGO9QTV #DFKO 5WNVCPUPCOGP WPF WPVGTUEJKGFNKEJG 2QUKVKQPGP FGT ,CJTGU\CJN 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT   FTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNFFWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVWPFI#TVWMXCT2GTG XCT-/ 5VÒEM)1.&'KP5VÒEMIGNQEJVWPFUGJTUEJÌPFKGCPFGTGPFTGKXQT\ÒINKEJ



1368



<K[PGVCDUEJNCI FGU <GTK OCJDÑD PGWGP 6[RU  *,CJT  CWH DTGKVGO 5EJTÌVNKPI /KUT -CKTQ    6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU MGKP 9CNK\GKEJGP 4X 6KVGN 4G   IKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNFFWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVI#TVWM2GTG XCT-/ )1.&9KGKOOGTIGNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 97


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1370

1369





<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUOKV9CNK\GKEJGPF³NÒDGTFGO9QTV#JOCFKO5WNVCPUCOGP4X6KVGN4GIKG TWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNFFWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVI#TVWMXCT2GTG

CNU<K[PGVCDUEJNCIOKVFGOUGNDGP<GKEJGP -/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMGKP9CNK\GKEJGP4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNF FWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVMNGKPGTG5VGORGNI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/  )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT5VGORGNINCP\



1372

1371



1374

1373

<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMGKP9CNK\GKEJGP4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNF FWTEJ .KPKGPIGVTGPPVDGKFGTUGKVUITÌ­GTG5VGORGNI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5VGRJGP#NDWO&G\GODGT0T







<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMGKP9CNK\GKEJGP4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNF FWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMGKP9CNK\GKEJGP4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNF FWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMGKP9CNK\GKEJGP4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNF FWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/ FCU,CJTPKEJVDGNGIV   )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGU,CJT-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­HCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1375





1376

<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*  /KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU MGKP 9CNK\GKEJGP 4X 6KVGN XGTMÒT\VGU 2T·IGLCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG   FCU(GNFFWTEJ.KPKGPIGVTGPPVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/  )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



 <GTK OCJDÑD PGWGP 6[RU  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT WPF QJPG 9CNK\GKEJGP /KUT -CKTQ  6KVGN   0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN FCU (GNF FWTEJ .KPKGP IG   VTGPPVI#TVWMXCT2GTGXCT-/  )1.&447PGFKGTV-NGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP+UNCOKE%QKP#WEVKQP.QPFQP0T

98








ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1,5:1



1377

1,5:1

*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP #DF QFGT ÄN CP   UVGNNGFGU4GIKGTWPIULCJTGU6WIJTCKP(QTO -J³PCNUWPVGTUVG<GKNG ÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJT4X6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&7P\KTMWNKGTV 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

ex 1380

1378









1379

*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNFFWTEJ.KPKGP IGVTGPPVI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&7PTGIGNO·­KIGT4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑDPGWGP6[RU*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGFCU(GNFFWTEJ.KPKGP IGVTGPPVI#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



I[RVGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

2CTC*,CJTG    *LGYGKNUXKGNG5VÒEMG/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTC 4X,CJTWPF/ÒP\UV·VVG5WNVCPHH EC5VÒEM8KGNGIGNQEJVOGKUVUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1

1381



1,5:1

.KD[GP)QNFOÒP\GP 

<GTK OCJDÑD  * 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN  

UWNVCPCNDCTTC[P OKVFGT<KHHGTXQTFGO$GIKPPFGTWPVGTUVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG -/ )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ &KG$GFGWVWPIFGT<KHHGTKO4GXGTUKPGKPGT2QUKVKQPYGNEJGKP-QPUVCPVKPQRGNHÒT2T·IGLCJTGXGTYGPFGVYWTFG KUVJKGTWPIGYKUUFCUKGCWEJCWHFGTHQNIGPFGP/ÒP\GOKVFGT&CVKGTWPI*XQTMQOOV#NU#NVGTPCVKXG\WT &CVKGTWPIMCPPCWEJGKPG(GKPIGJCNVUCPICDGGTYQIGPYGTFGP+PFGT·I[RVKUEJGP/ÒP\RT·IWPIUCPMFGT(GKPIGJCNV FGU<GTKOCJDWDWPVGT #DFCN*COÄF+XQPCWH UCU5CYK5 WPFFKG#PICDGPXQP(GKPIG JCNVGPKP<GJPVGNPWPF$TÒEJGPYCT\WOKPFGUVKOKUNCOKUEJGP/KVVGNCNVGTIGDT·WEJNKEJ 



1382 1383



1383

<GTK OCJDÑD  * 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN  

UWNVCP CNDCTTC[P   OKV FGT <KHHGT  XQT FGO $GIKPP FGT WPVGTUVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG   -/ )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ



.KD[GP5KNDGTWPF-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

-WTWUJ  * 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   4X6KVGN UWNVCPCNDCTTC[P QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJTI#TVWM2GTG-/  44<CKPGPFGWPFMNGKPG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP

 99


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1384



1386

1385

$GUJNKM OKV 6WIJTC  * 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUQJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJTI#TVWM2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5EJKOMC#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T







$GUJNKMQJPG6WIJTC*6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI#TVWM2GTG-/ &TWEMUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌP





/CPIKT*6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGNWPF5WNVCPUPCOGKP3WCFTCV4X/ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGKP &TGKGEMKP&TGKRCUUFKG<KHHGTPFGU2T·IGLCJTGUKPFGP$ÒIGPFGU&TGKRCUUI2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



1387

1,5:1

1,5:1

6WPGUKGP)QNFOÒP\G 

*CNDGT5WNVCPK*6ÑPKU6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF2T·IGLCJT I#TVWM2GTG-/ FKGUGU,CJTPKEJV  )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1388





1389

6WPGUKGP5KNDGTWPF-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI2GTG (GPKPC-/ 5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP





4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI2GTG 5WNVCP(GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T

1390



1391



4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI2GTG (GPKPC-/ #O4CPFHNCWUGJTUEJÌP





4K[³N  WPF  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO   WPFI2GTG(GPKPCWPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



100


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1393

1392



1394

1395

4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI2GTG (GPKPC-/ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T







4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI2GTG (GPKPC-/ 2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP





4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOI2GTG (GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT 4K[³N ;KTOKNKM   * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   &CVWOI2GTG(GPKPC-/ )GRWV\VUGJTUEJÌP



1396



1397

*CNDGT 4K[³N ;KTOKNKM   * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   &CVWOI2GTG(GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T



*CNDGT 4K[³N ;KTOKNKM   * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   &CVWOI2GTG5WNVCP(GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP

1398









1399

*CNDGT 4K[³N ;KTOKNKM   * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   &CVWOI2GTG5WNVCP(GPKPC-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



%GO5WNVCP $KNN*QNDGTVQP J·NVUGKP'ZGORNCTXQOKFGPVKUEJGP#XGTUUVGORGNDGKCDYGKEJGPFGO4GXGTUUVGORGNHÒT GKPG\GKVIGPÌUUKUEJG(·NUEJWPICWHITWPFFGUWPIGYÌJPNKEJHGKPGPWPFUEJYWPINQUGP5VGORGNUEJPKVVU(GPKPCCM\GR VKGTV FCU 5VÒEM CDGT QJPG DGUQPFGTG 'KPUEJT·PMWPIGP XGTOWVNKEJ YGKN GU MGKPG 5VÒEMG FGU HTÒJGT WPF UR·VGT IG   DT·WEJNKEJGP5VKNUIKDV 



*CNDGT 4K[³N ;KTOKNKM   * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   &CVWOI2GTG(GPKPC-/ 5GJTUGNVGPGU,CJT5GJTUEJÌP

 101


ABD AL-HAMÎD I.

1401 1400





1400

1,5:1

1,5:1

(CNU $WTDG WPF::*6ÑPKUUWNVCP CDFCNJCOÄFMJ³P4X2T·IGLCJT WPF /ÒP\UV·VVG      I 2GTG   *  (GPKPC       -/ 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP 3CHUÄ $WTDKP *6ÑPKU&WTKDC4XHÄ6ÑPKUI(GPKPCXIN-/  44FCU,CJTQHHGPDCTWPRWDNK\KGTV5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T

#NIGTKGP)QNFOÒP\GP 



5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF2T·IGLCJT4X 6KVGNOKV/ÒP\\GKEJGPUKIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO9QTVCUUWNV³PKPFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM  * 2GTG * -/ )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ 



1404

1403





1402

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/CKUQP2CNQODQ/CTUGKNNG/CK0T





5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF2T·IGLCJT4X 6KVGNOKV/ÒP\\GKEJGPUKIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO9QTVCUUWNV³PKPFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM  * 2GTG * -/ )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF2T·IGLCJT4X 6KVGNOKV/ÒP\\GKEJGPUKIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO9QTVCUUWNV³PKPFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM  * 2GTG * -/ )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1405

1406

1407

1408

1409

#NIGTKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I#TVWM * 2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I#TVWM * 2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I#TVWM * 2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I#TVWM * 2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I#TVWM * 2GTG-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T

102




SELÎM III.

1411

1410

1412



8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I#TVWM * -/ 5GJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG * -/ 5GJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG * -/ 5GJTUEJÌP



5GNÄO+++*#&

&GTOKVVGPKO-TKGI\WT0CEJHQNIGMQOOGPFGLWPIG5WNVCP5GNÄO+++IGDQTGPCO&G\GODGT YCTTGHQTOQTKGPVKGTVUCJUKEJCDGTIGPÌVKIVFGPWPIÒPUVKIXGTNCWHGPFGP-TKGIHQTV\WUGV\GP6CVU·EJNKEJ MCOKJOFKG(TCP\ÌUKUEJG4GXQNWVKQP\W*KNHGFCFGT#WHUVCPFFGTUÒFNKEJGP0KGFGTNCPFGFCUJCDUDWT IKUEJG+PVGTGUUGKO0QTFGPDCPFWPFGKP5GRCTCVHTKGFG\WUVCPFGMCOFGTFKGJCDUDWTIKUEJGP'T QDGTWPIGPCWHFGO$CNMCPCWHICD&GTIGIGP4WUUNCPFHQTVIGUGV\VG-TKGIYWTFGGTUV#PHCPIOKV FGO (TKGFGP XQP ,CUU[ DGGPFGV FWTEJ FGP FGT &PLGUVT CNU )TGP\G HGUVIGNGIV YWTFG &GT 4GHQTOGKHGT   5GNÄOUDG\QIUKEJKPGTUVGT.KPKGCWHFKGHQTVIGUGV\VG/QFGTPKUKGTWPIFGT#TOGGWPFFGT(NQVVGWPFCWH FKG8GTDGUUGTWPIKJTGT#MCFGOKGP+PFGT<KXKNXGTYCNVWPIICDGUYGPKIGTUVTWMVWTGNNG8GT·PFGTWPIGP CNUXKGNOGJTGKPGGHHGMVKXG$GM·ORHWPIFGT-QTTWRVKQPWPF4GFWMVKQPFGU7OHCPIUFGT8GTYCNVWPICWH FCU0ÌVKIUVG&GOUQ\KCNGP'NGPFWPFFGT\WPGJOGPFGP.CPFHNWEJVJCVVGGTCNNGTFKPIUYGPKIGPVIGIGP \WUGV\GP&GT-TKGIXQPJCVVGFKG4GEJVGFGT4GIKQPCNHÒTUVGPIGIGPÒDGTFGT<GPVTCNGYGKVGT IGUV·TMV #WH MWNVWTGNNGO )GDKGV YCT FKG ¤HHPWPI HÒT GWTQR·KUEJG -WPUV #TEJKVGMVWT WPF /WUKM CNU   (QTVUGV\WPIFGT6WNRGP\GKVÒDGTCNNURÒTDCT  &KGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG$GUGV\WPII[RVGPUHÒJTVGGKPGTUGKVU\WGKPGOXÌNNKIGP$TWEJFGTLCJTJWPFGTVG CNVGP -QQRGTCVKQP \YKUEJGP FGP DGKFGP 5VCCVGP #PFGTGTUGKVU JKPVGTNKG­ FKG 0KGFGTNCIG FGT (TCP\QUGP   FGO1UOCPKUEJGP4GKEJGKPG2TQXKP\FGTGP(KPCP\XGTYCNVWPIOQFGTPGTCNUFKGCPFGTGT2TQXKP\GP YCT <WFGO YCT FGT RQNKVKUEJG 'KPHNWUU FGT ·I[RVKUEJGP /CONWMGP FWTEJ FKG (TCP\QUGP\GKV OCUUKX   IGUEJY·EJV UQ FCUU FGT8GTVTGVGTFGT<GPVTCNTGIKGTWPIFGT#NDCPGT/WJCOOCF #NÄFKGUGRJ[ UKUEJCWUFGO9GIGUEJCHHGPMQPPVGCNUUKGFTQJVGPOKVDTKVKUEJGT*KNHGYKGFGTCPFKG/CEJV\WMQO OGP #PFGTG 2TQXKP\GP GPVINKVVGP FGT <GPVTCNXGTYCNVWPI LGFQEJ XQNNGPFU WPF \YCT UQYQJN CWH FGO   $CNMCPCNUCWEJKPFGPCTCDKUEJGP4GKEJUVGKNGP  &GT4GHQTORQNKVKM5GNÄOUGTYWEJUGPYKGDGKHTÒJGTGP5WNVCPGPKPFGT<GPVTCNG(GKPFGKPFGPOKNKV·TKUEJ \WPGJOGPFCPFGP4CPFIGFT·PIVGP,CPKVUEJCTGPYGNEJGKPFGTGKPGMWNVWTGNNGªDGTHTGOFWPIHÒTEJVGP FGP4GEJVUIGNGJTUCOMGKV8GTDÒPFGVGHCPFGP+O/CKHQTOKGTVGPFKGUG-T·HVGUKEJ\WGKPGOQHHGPGP #WHUVCPF5GNÄOXGTUWEJVGGTUV\WXGTJCPFGNPVTCVFCPPCDGTCNU5WNVCP\WTÒEM&GT)TQ­YGUKT5GNÄOU YWTFGXQPFGP,CPKVUEJCTGPGTOQTFGV5GKPTGCMVKQP·TGT0CEJHQNIGT/WUVCH³+8UGV\VGFKG8GTHQNIWPI FGT#PJ·PIGT5GNÄOUHQTVFKGUKEJPWPWO$C[TCSF³T/WUVCH³ITWRRKGTVGPFGTKPFGTUÒFNKEJGP/QNFCW FGP9KFGTUVCPFIGIGPFKG4WUUGPHQTVIGUGV\VJCVVG#NUFKGUGUKEJPCEJGVYCUOGJTCNUGKPGO,CJTIGIGP /WUVCH³ +8 KP -QPUVCPVKPQRGN FWTEJUGV\GP MQPPVGP WPF FKG 4GEJVUIGNGJTVGP DGTGKVU FKG 4ÒEMICDG FGU   5WNVCPCVUCPFGP8QTI·PIGTIWVIGJGK­GPJCVVGPYWTFG5GNKO+++CO,WNKGTOQTFGVY·JTGPF FGO2TKP\GP/CJOÑFFKG(NWEJVÒDGTFKG&·EJGTFGU2CNCUVGU\W$C[TCSF³T/WUVCHCIGNCPI 103


SELÎM III.

1413

1,5:1

1,5:1

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 

(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPXKGNHCEJGT-TGKUHCUUWPIOKVFC\YKUEJGPIG NGIVGO $N·VVGTMTCP\ 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP INGKEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI 4·PFGNWPI  I #TVWM    2GTG-/  )1.&5GNVGPWPFWPIGYÌJPNKEJKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CWOUKEJVDCTG*GPMGNURWTXQT\ÒINKEJ

1414



1415

1416



1417

(KPFKM*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPTWPFGT<KGTHCUUWPI4X/\UVWPF,CJTKP INGKEJGT(CUUWPI4·PFGNWPIWPFI#TVWM2GTG-/  5VÒEM)1.&-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPTWPFGT<KGTHCUUWPI4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGK EJGT(CUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPTWPFGT<KGTHCUUWPI4X/\UVWPF,CJTKPINGK EJGT(CUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/  )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT5VGORGNINCP\



(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X/\UVWPF,CJTOKV ITQ­GO4GIKGTWPIULCJTKPINGKEJGT(CUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP7$5<ÒTKEJ0T

1418





1419

1420

(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X/\UVWPF,CJTOKV MNGKPGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTKPINGKEJGT(CUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





(KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP WPF 2GTNMTGKU 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP   INGKEJGT(CUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





(KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP .KPKGP WPF 2GTNMTGKU 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT KP   INGKEJGT(CUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTCWUFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

104




SELÎM III.

1421

1,5:1



1,5:1

*CNDGT(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPTWPFGT<KGTHCUUWPI4X/\UVWPF,CJTKP INGKEJGT(CUUWPI4·PFGNWPII#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&4448QT\ÒINKEJ

1423

1422



1425

1424



8KGTVGN(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT)GT·PFGNVI2GTG  ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





8KGTVGN(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT)GT·PFGNVI2GTG  ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





8KGTVGN (KPFKM  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT  I 2GTG    -/ )1.&)GYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ





8KGTVGN(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT)GT·PFGNVI2GTG  ,CJT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T



ex 1427 ex 1428

1426



8KGTVGN(KPFKM*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT)GT·PFGNVI2GTG  ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





8KGTVGN(KPFKM*,CJTWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT)GT·PFGNV WPFI2GTG ,CJT -/ 5VÒEM)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





8KGTVGN(KPFKM*,CJTWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT)GT·PFGNV WPFI2GTG ,CJT -/ 5VÒEM)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

1,5:1



1429



1,5:1

 (KPFKM !   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT  I 6JQOCU   5RKPM U 0WOKUOCVKE %KTEWNCT #RTKN  WPF 5GXIK )ÌPÒN *CVKTC 5C[KUK 5  LGYGKNU FKGUGU 'ZGO   RNCT UQPUVWPRWDNK\KGTV )1.&4448QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T  &CU 0QOKPCN FKGUGT MNGKPGP /ÒP\G KUV WPMNCT 'XGPVWGNN JCPFGNV GU UKEJ WO GKPGP 2TQDGCDUEJNCI KP )QNF XQP   #MEGUVGORGNP KO )GYKEJV GKPGU 8KGTVGN <GTK OCJDÑD YGNEJG LGFQEJ GTUV XQO  4GIKGTWPIULCJT CP \WT   #WURT·IWPIMCOGP&KG)TÌ­GGPVURTKEJVIGPCWFGPUKNDGTPGP#MEGXQPI)GYKEJVFQEJWPVGTUEJGKFGVUKEJFCU XQTNKGIGPFG5VÒEMFWTEJFCU(GJNGPGKPGU7OHCUUWPIUMTGKUGU&CU)GYKEJVUEJNKG­VCWEJFKG/ÌINKEJMGKVCWUFCUU GU UKEJ JKGT WO GKPGP XGTIQNFGVGP #MEG JCPFGNP MÌPPVG 'U KUV CDGT RNCWUKDGN FCUU GKPG UQNEJG 2TQDG PKEJV \WT   #WUHÒJTWPIMQOOGPMQPPVGYGKNFKG#WUICDGUQNEJGT/ÒP\GPGKPG'KPNCFWPICP$GVTÒIGTFCTIGUVGNNVJ·VVGFWTEJ FCU8GTIQNFGPXQP#MEGOKVIGTKPIGO#WHYCPFHCNUEJG)QNFOÒP\GP\WRTQFW\KGTGP 



105


SELÎM III.

ex 1431

1430





 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJTWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUHQTOGN/\UVWPF,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  WPF  I #TVWM    ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/  5VÒEM)1.&&CUGTUVG5VÒEMDGUEJPKVVGPFCU\YGKVGOKVIGUVQRHVGO.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



1432



1433

1435

1434

 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&'VYCUDGTKGDGPXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T





106





ex 1437

 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM1MVQDGT0T





 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

1436





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T











<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJTWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUHQTOGN/\UVWPF,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  WPF  I #TVWM    ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/  5VÒEM)1.&&CUGTUVG5VÒEMOKVIGUVQRHVGO.QEJUGJTUEJÌPFCU\YGKVGIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ




SELÎM III.

1438





 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1440









1439

1441

1442

1443

 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&)GRT·IVOKVIGDTCWEJVGP5VGORGNPXQT\ÒINKEJ



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG5VGORGNXCTKCPVG\WOXQTKIGP 5VÒEMI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ



1445 1444







1446

*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT   FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPF5VGORGNINCP\



*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT   FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&-NGKPGT4CPFHGJNGTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT   FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG-/)TÌ­GTGT&WTEJOGUUGT OO   )1.&)TÌ­GTGT&WTEJOGUUGT OO HCUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T



107


SELÎM III.

1447







1448

1449

*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT   FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG-/-NGKPGTGT&WTEJOGUUGT OO   )1.&-NGKPGTGT&WTEJOGUUGT OO HCUV5VGORGNINCP\



*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUHQTOGN /\UV WPF ,CJT   FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG  ,CJT -/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUHQTOGN/\UVWPF,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM   

,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T

ex 1451

1450





*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUHQTOGN/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T



*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJTG  WPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUHQTOGN/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/  5VÒEM)1.&4&CUGTUVGIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌPFCU\YGKVGXQT\ÒINKEJ

ex 1452





1453





ex 1454



ex 1455

8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTWPF I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/  5VÒEM)1.&&CUGTUVG5VÒEMIGNQEJVDGKFGXQT\ÒINKEJ



<YGK8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJTWPF I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/5VÒEMGXQPWPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGP5VGORGNPKO #XGTUWPFINGKEJGO5VGORGNKO4GXGTUFCU\YGKVG'ZGORNCTCWHVGEJPKUEJWPIGYÌJPNKEJGO5EJTÌVNKPI CWU\YGK)QNFNCOGNNGPIGRT·IV 5VÒEM)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



&CU \YGKVG 5VÒEM CWU #WMVKQP )QTP[  /QUEJ   1MVQDGT  .QV  FQTV H·NUEJNKEJ CNU  (KPFKM    6TQV\FGTWPIGYQJPNKEJGP2TQFWMVKQPUVGEJPKMFGU5EJTÌVNKPIUFGU\YGKVGP5VÒEMUYKTFFKGUGUPKEJVCNU\GKVIGPÌUUK UEJG (·NUEJWPI \W DG\GKEJPGP UGKP UQPFGTP GTYGKUV UKEJ CWHITWPF FGT 5VGORGNINGKEJMGKV OKV FGO GTUVGP5VÒEMCNU \YGKHGNUHTGK CWU FGT -QPUVCPVKPQRNGT /ÒP\UV·VVG UVCOOGPFG 2T·IWPI &KG <WUCOOGPHÒIWPI XQP \YGK UGRCTCV IG   RT·IVGP)QNFDNGEJGPYCTGKPGPQTOCNG6GEJPKMDGKFGT2TQFWMVKQPXQPTGNKIKÒUGP/GFCKNNGPQFGT#OWNGVVGPFKGUGT <GKV8KGNNGKEJVYCTFGT5EJTÌVNKPICWUUQNEJGO/CVGTKCNCWUIGUEJPKVVGPYQTFGP$GKFKGUGO5VÒEMYCTGPCDGTDGKFG 5GKVGPKPGKPGO2T·IGXQTICPIIGRT·IVYKGCWUFGPPWTUQGPVUVGJGPFGPDNKPFGP(NGEMGPDGKJQJGO4GNKGHFGT)G IGPUGKVGIGUEJINQUUGPYGTFGPMCPP 



 108

8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/  5VÒEM)1.&&CUGTUVGXQT\ÒINKEJFCU\YGKVGIGNQEJVWPFUGJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X/\UVWPF,CJT WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG-/ 5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ




SELÎM III.

ex 1456

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

;Ò\NÒM   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  WPFGKPGKOKVCVKXG2T·IWPIOKV&CVWO UKE *,CJT+U N³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



&CFCU5KNDGTKO1UOCPKUEJGP4GKEJKO8GTJ·NVPKU\WO)QNFOKVGVYCJÌJGTDGYGTVGVYWTFGCNUKO&GWV UEJGP4GKEJ  WPFKP(TCPMTGKEJ  YQKPHQNIGFGT4GXQNWVKQPUMTKGIGCO4JGKPITQ­G/GPIGPXQP -KTEJGPUKNDGTXGTOÒP\VYWTFGPPWV\VGFGTKPVGTPCVKQPCNG*CPFGNFKG)GYKPPOÌINKEJMGKVFWTEJFKG2CEJVXQP/ÒP\ UV·VVGP KP FGPGP QUOCPKUEJG 5KNDGTOÒP\GP PCEJIGRT·IV YWTFGP FKG FCPP KO 1UOCPKUEJGP 4GKEJ KP )QNF QFGT   'ZRQTVYCTGP HÒT 'WTQRC IGYGEJUGNV YWTFGP #O DGUVGP FQMWOGPVKGTV KUV FGT XQP (TKGFTKEJ 9KGNCPFV WPVGTUWEJVG   (CNN FGT OCTMIT·HNKEJ DCFKUEJGP /ÒP\UV·VVG &WTNCEJ YQ FCU ITKGEJKUEJG *CPFGNJCWU &QO\Q KP FGP ,CJTGP    ;Ò\NÒMOKVFGOGTUVGPWPFFTKVVGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT5GNKOU+++WPF-WTWUJOKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTHÒT /CTM5KNDGTRT·IGPNKG­&KGJKGTXQTNKGIGPFG+OKVCVKQPUVCOOVYQJNPKEJVCWU&WTNCEJYQFGT5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT $ÒEMNG JGWVG PKEJV WPVGTUEJGKFDCTG VGEJPKUEJ RGTHGMVG +OKVCVKQPGP RTQFW\KGTVG &QEJ CWEJ CPFGTG /ÒP\UV·VVGP KP   +VCNKGPWPFOÌINKEJGTYGKUG9KGPJCVVGP#PVGKNCPFKGUGO)GUEJ·HV 

ex 1457



ex 1458

ex 1459

;Ò\NÒM -WTWUJ *,CJTG 8CTKCPVGP WPF 8CTKCPVGP +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC ÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIU LCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP





;Ò\NÒM   -WTWUJ *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP <GKNG    WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  5WNVCP    -/ 5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJOKVMNGKPGTGP2T·IGUEJY·EJGP





;Ò\NÒM -WTWUJ *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP <GKNG    WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  5WNVCP    -/ 5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJOKVMNGKPGTGP2T·IGUEJY·EJGP

 109


SELÎM III.

ex 1460







ex 1461

ex 1462

;Ò\NÒM -WTWUJ *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFG FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJOKVMNGKPGTGP2T·IGUEJY·EJGP



;Ò\NÒM -WTWUJ *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFG FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTGXIN5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJOKVMNGKPGTGP2T·IGUEJY·EJGP



+MKNKM -WTWUJ *,CJT 8CTKCPVGP +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YKUEJGPGKPGO8HÌTOKIGP WPF GKPGO NKNKGPHÌTOKIGP <GKEJGP 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJOKVMNGKPGTGP2T·IGUEJY·EJGP



&KGUEJYGTGP+MKNKMOÒUUGPXQTFGT'KPHÒJTWPIFGU;Ò\NÒMCO/WJCTTCO*IGRT·IVYQTFGPUGKPFCUKG OKVFKGUGOCPP·JGTPFIGYKEJVUINGKEJUKPF 

ex 1463





110

ex 1464

+MKNKM  -WTWUJ  XQP TGFW\KGTVGO )GYKEJV  *,CJT   8CTKCPVGP  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC   \YKUEJGP\YGKNKNKGPHÌTOKIGP<GKEJGP4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU     WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   5WNVCP    -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJOKVMNGKPGTGP2T·IGUEJY·EJGP



+MKNKM -WTWUJ XQPTGFW\KGTVGO)GYKEJV*,CJTG 8CTKCPVGP WPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP \YGK NKNKGPHÌTOKIGP <GKEJGP 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ




SELÎM III.

ex 1465







ex 1466

+MKNKM  -WTWUJ  XQP TGFW\KGTVGO )GYKEJV  *,CJTG    WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC   \YKUEJGP\YGKNKNKGPHÌTOKIGP<GKEJGP4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM<YGK5VÒEMGXGTH·TDVUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



+MKNKM -WTWUJ XQPTGFW\KGTVGO)GYKEJV*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC \YKUEJGP\YGKNKNKGPHÌTOKIGP<GKEJGP4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM6GKNUHNGEMKIUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



+MKNKM  -WTWUJ  XQP TGFW\KGTVGO )GYKEJV  *,CJTG    8CTKCPVGP  WPF  +UN³ODÑN  

+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YKUEJGP\YGKNKNKGPHÌTOKIGP<GKEJGP4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM6GKNUHNGEMKIGKPOCN<CKPGPFGUQPUVOGKUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1468





ex 1467

1469

+MKNKM -WTWUJ XQPTGFW\KGTVGO)GYKEJV*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YK UEJGP \YGK NKNKGPHÌTOKIGP <GKEJGP 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM5GNVGPGTG,CJTG$GKOGTUVGP5VÒEMGKP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFDGKFGUGJTUEJÌP



+MKNKM -WTWUJ XQPTGFW\KGTVGO)GYKEJV*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YKUEJGP\YGK NKNKGPHÌTOKIGP <GKEJGP 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  I   #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT XIN5WNVCP ,CJT -/  5GNVGPGU,CJT5GJTUEJÌP

 111


SELÎM III.

1470



5EJYGTGT FQRRGNVGT <QNQVC  * ,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN#TVWM ,CJTTGFW\KGTVGU)GYKEJV XIN2GTG ,CJT  XIN5WNVCP TGFW\KGTVGU)GYKEJV -/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T

1471



1472



112

1473

5EJYGTGTFQRRGNVGT<QNQVC*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 'KP\YGKVGUUVGORGNINGKEJGU'ZGORNCT 6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P OKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN#TVWM ,CJTTGFW \KGTVGU)GYKEJV XIN2GTG ,CJT XIN5WNVCP TGFW\KGTVGU)GYKEJV -/  44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4GFW\KGTVGT FQRRGNVGT <QNQVC  * ,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM5WNVCP 4<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ



4GFW\KGTVGT FQRRGNVGT <QNQVC  * ,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG5WNVCP-/  4<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT6WTCVJ5COONWPI#WMVKQP5RKPM,CPWCTGZ0T








SELÎM III.

1474

1,5:1



1,5:1

5EJYGTGT-WTWUJ*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPHTÒJGT(QTOOKVFGO9QTVMJ³PWPVGP TGEJVU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  I .CEJOCPP 0WOKU   OCVKE%KTEWNCT/C[0T-/ 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

1475

ex 1476



5EJYGTGT -WTWUJ  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP UR·VGTGT (QTO OKV FGO 9QTV UGNÄO   WPVGPTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM2GTG 5WNVCP-/ 445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 



4GFW\KGTVGT-WTWUJ*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YKUEJGPGKPGONKNKGPHÌTOKIGP <GKEJGPNKPMUWPFGKPGT$NWOGTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT XIN5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP

ex 1477







ex 1478

4GFW\KGTVGT-WTWUJ*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YKUEJGPGKPGONKNKGPHÌTOKIGP <GKEJGPNKPMUWPFGKPGT$NWOGTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ



4GFW\KGTVGT-WTWUJ*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YKUEJGPGKPGONKNKGPHÌT OKIGP<GKEJGPNKPMUWPFGKPGT$NWOGTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU   WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   5WNVCP    -/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ

 113


SELÎM III.

1480







ex 1479

4GFW\KGTVGT-WTWUJ*,CJTG! IGNQEJV WPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YKUEJGP GKPGO NKNKGPHÌTOKIGP <GKEJGP NKPMU WPF GKPGT $NWOG TGEJVU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT   FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUPKEJVIGYQIGPWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5EJÌP ,CJT UGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



4GFW\KGTVGT -WTWUJ  *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP GKPGO NKNKGPHÌTOKIGP <GK   EJGP NKPMU WPF GKPGT $NWOG TGEJVU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5GNVGPGU,CJT5GJTUEJÌP



;KTOKNKM  2CTC  *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCTNKNKGPHÌTOKIGU<GKEJGP4X4GIKG TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  -/ 4'VYCUHNGEMKIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1482







114

1483

;KTOKNKM  2CTC  *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCTNKNKGPHÌTOKIGU<GKEJGP4X4GIKG TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  5WNVCP-/ 42T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



;KTOKNKM  2CTC  *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCTNKNKGPHÌTOKIGU<GKEJGP4X4GIKG TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  5WNVCP-/ 4)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1484



1481

1485

;KTOKNKM 2CTC *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCTNKNKGPHÌTOKIGU<GKEJGP4X4GIKG TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  XIN5WNVCP-/ 45GJTUEJÌP



;KTOKNKM 2CTC *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCTNKNKGPHÌTOKIGU<GKEJGP4X4GIKG TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  XIN5WNVCP-/ 45GJTUEJÌP




SELÎM III.

1486 1,5:1



1,5:1

5EJYGTGT 1PNWM  2CTC   *,CJT  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP HTÒJGT (QTO OKVFGO9QTV MJ³PWPVGPTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI8IN5WNVCP  6WIJTC -/XIN5WNVCP 6WIJTC -/  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-NGKPG#PDQJTWPIUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ U.QPFQP0T

1487



ex 1488

5EJYGTGT1PNWM 2CTC *,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPUR·VGTGT(QTOOKVFGO9QTV UGNÄOWPVGPTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI8IN2GTG  TGFW\KGTVGU)GYKEJV -/ 45GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP.QV









ex 1490

4GFW\KGTVGT 1PNWM  2CTC   *,CJTG     WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP UR·VGTGT   (QTO OKV .KNKG QDGP TGEJVU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU    WPFI2GTG5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM&CUXKGTVGIGNQEJVFCU\YGKVGOKV*GPMGNURWTFKGUGUGJTUEJÌPFKGCPFGTGPFTGKXQT\ÒINKEJ



4GFW\KGTVGT1PNWM 2CTC *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPUR·VG TGT (QTO OKV .KNKG CWH FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCP   HCPIUWPFI2GTG5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM/KV#WUPCJOGXQP,CJTCNNGOKV*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1491







4GFW\KGTVGT 1PNWM  2CTC *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPUR·VGTGT(QTO OKV.KNKGQDGPTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPF I2GTG5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM&CUGTUVGIGNQEJVFCUFTKVVGOKV*GPMGNURWTUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP

ex 1489





ex 1492

4GFW\KGTVGT1PNWM 2CTC *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPUR·VG TGT(QTOOKV.KNKGQDGPTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI2GTG5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM&CUNGV\VG,CJTUGNVGP&CUGTUVGOKV*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG,CJTGCWU5COONWPI5EJKOMC#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T 



4GFW\KGTVGT$GUJNKM 2CTC *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPUR·VGTGT(QTO OKVMNGKPGO-PQVGPQDGPTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM,CJTOKVIGUVQRHVGO.QEJWPFUEJÌPUQPUVUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ

 115


SELÎM III.

1493





1494

4GFW\KGTVGT $GUJNKM  2CTC   *,CJTG    WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP UR·VGTGT   (QTOOKVMNGKPGO-PQVGPQDGPTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4GFW\KGTVGT$GUJNKM 2CTC *,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPUR·VGTGT(QTO OKVMNGKPGO-PQVGPQDGPTGEJVU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCPWPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



1496

1495





2CTC*,CJTG 8CT  8CT         WPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTCKPUR·VGTGT(QTO4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU PKEJVIGYQIGP WPFI2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/  5VÒEM'KP5VÒEMXQO,CJTIGNQEJVOGKUVUGJTUEJÌPGKPKIGXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*,CJTG+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPUR·VGTGT(QTO4X4GIKG TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI2GTG  ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



1,5:1





1,5:1

#MEG*,CJT+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPGTUVGT(QTO4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI8IN2GTG 6WIJTC -/ 445GJTUEJÌP

ex 1498



1497



ex 1499

1500

#MEG*,CJTGWPF+UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCKPUR·VGTGT(QTO4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI2GTG-/  5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



#MEG  *,CJTG   WPF  +UN³ODÑN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC KP UR·VGTGT (QTO 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFC\WGKPGCWH#MEGITÌ­GDGUEJPKVVGPGT2CTC,CJT WPFI2GTG-/ 5VÒEM&KGGTUVGPFTGKUGNVGP5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



6ÒTMGK-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

/CPIKT*$KVNÄU6WIJTC4X,CJTWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGI#TVWM FQTVFGT4GDGNNKQPFGU %CPDWNCV2CUJCWPFFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG$GNGP\WIGUEJTKGDGP  45GJTUEJÌP

1,5:1

 116

1501



1,5:1

/CPIKT*9³P 8CP 6WIJTC/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI-CDCMNCTNK 4445GJTUEJÌP




SELÎM III.

1503

1502

I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\GP 



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  !  /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP UÄP HÒT +UO³ ÄN 2³UJ³  JKPVGT FGO   4GIKGTWPIULCJT6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUGKPJCNDKGTVGT-PQVGPTGEJVUPGDGP FGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPPGDGPFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN #TVWM <K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/$TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPI  )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  !  /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP UÄP HÒT +UO³ ÄN 2³UJ³  JKPVGT FGO   4GIKGTWPIULCJT6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUGKPJCNDKGTVGT-PQVGPTGEJVUPGDGP FGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPPGDGPFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN #TVWM <K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/  )1.&-NGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPICWUJGNNGTGO)QNFUGJTUEJÌP



1505

1504





 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  !  /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP UÄP HÒT +UO³ ÄN 2³UJ³  JKPVGT FGO   4GIKGTWPIULCJT6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUGKPICP\GT-PQVGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT 6WIJTC4X6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPPGDGPFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN#TVWM  <K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/  )1.&)TQDG2T·IWPIOKVMNGKPGO5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4G IKGTWPIUCPHCPIUGKPJCNDKGTVGT-PQVGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I 8IN #TVWM  <K[PGVRT·IWPI \W   <GTK OCJDÑD  2GTG  -/    )1.&44(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1506

1507

1508



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP OÄO HÒT /WJCOOCF   2³UJ³* 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQJPG<GKEJGPTGEJVUPGDGP FGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN#TVWM <K[PGVRT·IWPI \W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/ )1.&4(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





 <GTK OCJDÑD  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP OÄO HÒT /WJCOOCF   2³UJ³  *  6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU GKPG MNGKPG MTGW\HÌTOKIG   $NÒVG TGEJVU PGDGP FGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN#TVWM  <K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/  )1.&4'VYCUFG\GPVTKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP OÄO HÒT /WJCOOCF   2³UJ³* QFGTLÄO6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMNGKPGTHÒPH\CEMK IGT5VGTPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI8IN#TVWM  <K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/ )1.&4(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





&CU9CNK\GKEJGPKUVTGEJVUUQURKV\FCUUFKG$WEJUVCDGPLÄOJ³WPFMJ³NGUDCTY·TGP&QEJCWEJFCUKUQNKGTVGOÄO UQNNVGGVYCUURKV\UGKPUQFCUUGUUKEJYCJTUEJGKPNKEJPWTWOGKPG<GKEJPWPIUXCTKCPVGFGUXQTKIGP<GKEJGPUJCPFGNV 

117


SELÎM III.

1509





 <GTK OCJDÑD  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP U³F HÒT 5³NKJ 2³UJ³    *  6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU MNGKPGT HÒPH\CEMKIGT 5VGTP TGEJVU   PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC 4X 6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM  2GTG    -/ )1.&4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /KUT -CKTQ  OKV 9CNK\GKEJGP U³F HÒT 5³NKJ 2³UJ³   * 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU.KNKGPCEJ#TVFGT$QWTDQPGPNKNKG TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC 4X 6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I #TVWM    2GTG-/ )1.&4-NGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



1511







1512



118

1513

<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV8HÌTOKIGO5[ODQNCNU9CNK\GKEJGP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU XKGN\CEMKIGT 5VGTP TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC 4X   6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG-NGKPGT5VGORGNI8IN#TVWM <K[PGVRT·IWPI \W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/  )1.&-NGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUU2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV8HÌTOKIGO5[ODQNCNU9CNK\GKEJGP 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMNGKPGTUGEJU\CEMKIGT5VGTPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WI JTC 4X 6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG )TQ­GT 5VGORGN  I 8IN #TVWM   

<K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/  )1.&2T·IGUEJY·EJGKPFGT/KVVGUGJTUEJÌP



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /KUT -CKTQ  OKV NKNKGPHÌTOKIGO 5[ODQN CNU 9CNK\GK   EJGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU2WPMV XGTOWVNKEJÒDGT5VGTPITCXKGTV TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC 4X 6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I 8IN #TVWM   

<K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/ )1.&-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ



1514



1510

1515

 <GTK OCJDÑD  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /KUT -CKTQ  OKV NKNKGPHÌTOKIGO 5[ODQN CNU 9CNK\GK   EJGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU2WPMV XGTOWVNKEJÒDGT5VGTPITCXKGTV TGEJVU PGDGPFGT6WIJTC#XUVGORGNINGKEJOKVFGOXQTKIGP5VÒEM4X6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKV VGP<GKNGI8IN#TVWM <K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKVWPFGWVNKEJGOGVYCWHÌTOKIGO5[O DQN CNU 9CNK\GKEJGP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU UGEJU\CEMKIGT 5VGTP TGEJVU   PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC 4X 6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I 8IN #TVWM   

<K[PGVRT·IWPI\W<GTKOCJDÑD 2GTG-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP




SELÎM III.

1516

1,5:1



1,5:1

<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGPD³HÒT$QPCRCTVGIGRT·IV \W $GIKPP FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI I[RVGPU  #& 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUMNGKPGT2WPMVTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGIFG/G[2QKPFGUUCWNV2GTG-/  )1.&44-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ



1HHGPDCTYCTGUPCEJFGT'TQDGTWPII[RVGPUFWTEJ0CRQNGQPCPHCPIUPKEJVOÌINKEJGKPGPSWCNKHK\KGTVGP5VGORGN UEJPGKFGT\WHKPFGPFGPPUQYQJNFCUJCPFYGTMNKEJG)GUEJKEMCNUCWEJFKGMCNNKITCRJKUEJGP(·JKIMGKVGPNCUUGPCWH FGP4GXGTUUVGORGNP\WYÒPUEJGPÒDTKI$GKOXQTNKGIGPFGP5VGORGNDNGKDGPFKGKUQNKGTVGPCNKHQJPG5GTKHGWPFFCU VCUJFÄFCWHFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPUKGJVCWUYKGGKP7(ÒTFGP#XGTUOKVFGTMQORNK\KGTVGTGP6WIJTCITKHHOCPQHHGP DCTCWHCNVG5VGORGN\WTÒEMYCUDKUNCPI\YCTPKEJVFWTEJ5VGORGNXGTINGKEJPCEJIGYKGUGPKUVFQEJCWHITWPFFGWVNK EJGT4QUVOCTMGPCWHFGT5VGORGNQDGTHN·EJGGTUEJNQUUGPYGTFGPMCPP 

1518

1517 1,5:1





<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGPD³HÒT$QPCRCTVGIGRT·IV \W $GIKPP FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI I[RVGPU  #& 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU GKP \W GKPGO MNGKPGP 3WCFTCV WOIGUEJPKVVGPGT5VGTPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X 6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGUVKNKUVKUEJKO8GTJ·NVPKU\WOXQTKIGPGVYCUDGUUGTGT4G XGTUUVGORGNIFG/G[2QKPFGUUCWNV2GTG-/ )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGPD³HÒT$QPCRCTVGIGRT·IV \W $GIKPP FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI I[RVGPU  #& 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUGKP\WFGKPGOMNGKPGP3WCFTCVWOIGUEJPKVVGPGT5VGTPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X 6KVGN9CNK\GKEJGPCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGDGKFGTUGKVUUVGORGNINGKEJOKVFGOXQTJGTIGJGPFGP5VÒEM IFG/G[2QKPFGUUCWNV2GTG-/  )1.&44#XGTUFG\GPVTKGTVOKVTQUVKIGP5VGORGNPIGRT·IVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1519





1520

 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  KO 5VGORGN WOIGUEJPKVVGP CWU  /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG 9CNK\GKEJGP   IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI I[RVGPU  #& WPVGT -NGDGT PCEJ FGT   #DTGKUG 0CRQNGQPU 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU GKP MNGKPGU &TGKGEM TGEJVU   PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I FG /G[2QKPFGUUCWNV   2GTG-/  )1.&445EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUIWVG#WURT·IWPICWHDTGKVGO5EJTÌVNKPIWPF5VGORGNINCP\



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGPIGRT·IVY·JTGPFFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPII[RVGPU#&WPVGT-NGDGTPCEJFGT#DTGKUG0CRQNGQPU6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU GKP MNGKPGU CNKH TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO   'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGIFG/G[2QKPFGUUCWNV2GTG-/  )1.&49KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUMCWO7ONCWHURWTGPWPFIWVG#WURT·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP

 119


SELÎM III.

1521



1522

*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGPU³F HÒT5³NKJ2³UJ³ * 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU5VGTPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X 6KVGN 9CNK\GKEJGP CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG DGKFGTUGKVU ITQDGT 5VGORGNUEJPKVV  I #TVWM    -/ )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGPIGRT·IVY·JTGPFFGTHTCP\ÌUK UEJGP $GUGV\WPI I[RVGPU  #& WPVGT -NGDGT PCEJ FGT #DTGKUG 0CRQNGQPU 6WIJTC ÒDGT   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUGKPMNGKPGUMNGKPGU&TGKGEMTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGIFG/G[2QKPFGUUCWNV-/  )1.&442T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

1,5:1



1523





1,5:1

*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGPIGRT·IVY·JTGPFFGTHTCP\ÌUK UEJGP $GUGV\WPI I[RVGPU  #& WPVGT -NGDGT PCEJ FGT #DTGKUG 0CRQNGQPU 6WIJTC ÒDGT   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUGKPMNGKPGUMNGKPGU6TCRG\ XGTOWVNKEJ5VGORGNXGT·PFGTWPIÒDGT 5VGTP TGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTC4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGIFG/G[ 2QKPFGUUCWNV-/  )1.&44$GUUGTG#WURT·IWPICWHDTGKVGO5EJTÌVNKPICO4CPFGKPMN#WUDTWEJ TQUVKIG5VGORGNUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

1524









1525

*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU $GK\GKEJGP TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC PKEJV UKEJVDCT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO   'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI-/  )1.&#WHFCU)GYKEJVGKPGU(KPFKMDGUEJPKVVGP5GJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU $GK\GKEJGP TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC PKEJV UKEJVDCT 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO   'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI-/ )1.&4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUGCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



1526

I[RVGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

)GTKPIJCNVKIGT 3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP    $GUGV\WPII[RVGPU#&6WIJTC\YKUEJGP.KNKGWPF$NWOG4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWMFG/G[2QKPFGUUCWNV-/  442T·IGUEJY·EJGKPFGT/KVVGUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

120




SELÎM III.

1527





1529

1528

3KTUJ -WTWUJ *,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTC\YKUEJGP5VGTPKO-TGKUNKPMUWPF.KNKGTGEJVU 4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG5WNVCP-/  5GJTUEJÌP



3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP 5VGTP KO -TGKU NKPMU WPF UEJYGTV   HÌTOKIGT.KNKGTGEJVU4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG5WNVCP -/ $TGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP 5VGTP KO -TGKU NKPMU WPF .KNKG XQP   CDYGKEJGPFGT <GKEJPWPI \YKUEJGP 2WPMVGP TGEJVU 4X 2T·IGLCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIU   CPHCPIUI2GTG5WNVCP-/ 'VYCU)TÒPURCPUGJTUEJÌP

1530









1531

*CNDGT3KTUJ 2CTC *,CJT/KUT -CKTQ IGRT·IVY·JTGPFFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP$GUGV\WPI I[RVGPU#&6WIJTCOKV-PQVGPCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUIFG/G[2QKPFGUUCWNV-/ 44-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT3KTUJ 2CTC *,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV5VGTPKO-TGKUCPFGTNKPMGP5GKVG 4X2T·IGLCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI+UO³ ÄN)JCNKD2GTG-/  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUNQEJUQPUVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

1532

1533



ex 1534



2CTC  * ,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC XQO  6[R 4X ,CJT WPF /ÒP\UV·VVG  I 2GTG    XCT5WNVCPXCT-/# 45GJTUEJÌP





.QV XQP 2CTC/ÒP\GP  *,CJTG           * LGYGKNU XKGNG 5VÒEMG /KUT  

-CKTQ 6WIJTC4X,CJTWPF/ÒP\UV·VVG5WNVCPHH 5VÒEM9GPKIGIGNQEJVOGKUVUGJTUEJÌP





2CTC  *,CJTG  WPF  /KUT -CKTQ  IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI I[R   VGPU  #& 6WIJTC XQO  6[R 4X ,CJT WPF /ÒP\UV·VVG  WPF  I FG   /G[2QKPFGUUCWNV-/ 5VÒEM445GJTUEJÌP

 121


SELÎM III.

1535 1,5:1

1,5:1

.KD[GP)QNFOÒP\G 

5WNVCPK  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIULCJT 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP   <GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/ PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT  )1.&445GJTUEJÌP 

1536

1537

1538

.KD[GP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 





;Ò\NÒM -WTWUJ * QHHGPDCT2T·IGLCJT 6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTC\YKUEJGP\YGK .KNKGPWPFFTGK8HÌTOKIGP<GKEJGPÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³P CNDCTTC[P\YGK.KNKGPÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI2GTG UVGORGNINGKEJ -/

MGPPVFKGUGU,CJTPKEJV  445GJTUEJÌP



;Ò\NÒM -WTWUJ * QHHGPDCT2T·IGLCJT 6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTC\YKUEJGP\YGK .KNKGPWPFGKPGO8HÌTOKIGP<GKEJGPÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³P CNDCTTC[P\YGK.KNKGPÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG4XUVGORGNINGKEJOKVFGOXQTJGTIGJGP FGP5VÒEMI2GTG 4GXUVGORGNINGKEJ -/ MGPPVFKGUGU,CJTPKEJV   442T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFOKV,WUVKGTURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



;Ò\NÒM   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP \YGK .KNKGP WPF   \YGK8HÌTOKIGP<GKEJGPÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[P   4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I 2GTG   *  -/  MGPPV   FKGUGU,CJTPKEJV  4445GJTUEJÌP  <WFGP&CVGPFGT6TKRQNKVCPKUEJGP;Ò\NÒMWPFURG\KGNN\WFKGUGO5VÒ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

122


SELÎM III.

ex 1540



1539

ex 1540

1PNWM *6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGN5WNVCPUPCOGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTI#TVWM-/ *GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP <WT2T·IGJQJGKVUKGJGFKG#POGTMWPI\WTXQTKIGP/ÒP\G





6WPGUKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

4K[³N  WPF  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO   -TGKU  D\YKO8KGTRCUU  WPFI(GPKPCWPF-/WPF  5VÒEM2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP

ex 1541



1542



4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWO KO8KGTRCUUWPFI(GPKPCWPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU   QDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI(GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1543







ex 1544

4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU   QDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI8IN(GPKPC PKEJVPCEJIGYKGUGP -/  5GNVGPGU,CJT2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWO KO8KGTRCUUQDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPWPFI(GPKPC-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



ex 1545





ex 1546

4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWO KO8KGTRCUUQDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPWPFI(GPKPC-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWO KO8KGTRCUUQDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPWPFI(GPKPC-/  5VÒEM2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP

 123


SELÎM III.

ex 1548

1547

1547



*CNDGT 4K[³N  -JCTTÑDC   *6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF &CVWOKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGI(GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT4K[³N -JCTTÑDC WPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF&CVWOKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGWPFI(GPKPCWPF-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN 4K[³N -JCTTÑDC *6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF &CVWOKP5GEJURCUUI(GPKPC-/ 44-TCV\GTIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP





#NIGTKGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/  )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

1551







124

1550

1552



1553

5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/  )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/  )1.&&TGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/  )1.&<YGKHCEJITQDIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP




SELÎM III.

1555

1554

1,5:1





5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/  )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/QTVQP'FGP.QPFQP0T

1556









1557

1558

5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/  )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJV*GPMGNURWTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/  )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[PQJPG/ÒP\\GKEJGPI8IN#TVWM FKGUGU,CJTLGFQEJOKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP  2GTG * -/ )1.&44<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1559

1560



5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT 4X 6KVGN   UWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPI FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/  )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





5WNVCPK ! *,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKPUVGTPHÌT OKIGT'KPHCUUWPI4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVC DGPUÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPIFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM * 2GTG-/  )1.&4<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUEJÌP

 125


SELÎM III.

1562

1561





1561

5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKPUVGTPHÌTOK IGT'KPHCUUWPI4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGP UÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPIFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&4<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN WPF 0COG QJPG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   2T·IGLCJT  I 8IN #TVWM   * OKV 5GIGPUYWPUEJ KO #XGTU  2GTG  OKV 5GIGPU   YWPUEJ ;-$ OKV5GIGPUYWPUEJ -/XCT )1.&445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTCWUFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T

1563



1564

1565



8KGTVGN5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGNWPF0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI#TVWM 2GTG-/ )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGNWPF0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKPUVGTPHÌTOK IGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN5WNVCPKXQO5VGORGNFGT8KGTVGN*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGNWPF0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTKPUVGTPHÌTOKIGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM2GTG-/ YKG   )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1567

1566

1568

1569

#NIGTKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

*CNDGT $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  UWNVCP  UGNÄO MJ³P 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT  I   -/ -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  UWNVCP  UGNÄO MJ³P 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT  I   -/ -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  UWNVCP  UGNÄO MJ³P 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT  I   -/ 5GJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  UWNVCP  UGNÄO MJ³P 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT  I   -/ -NGKPG#PDQJTWPIKO#XGTUHGNFUGJTUEJÌP



1570

1571



*CNDGT $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  UWNVCP  UGNÄO MJ³P 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT  I   -/ ªDNKEJG2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ





*CNDGT$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT UWNVCPUGNÄOMJ³P4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI#TVWM 5WNVCP-/ ªDNKEJG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



126


SELÎM III.

1573

1572



*CNDGT $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  UWNVCP  UGNÄO MJ³P 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT  I   -/ 5GJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  UWNVCP  UGNÄO MJ³P 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT  I   -/ 5GJTUEJÌP



ex 1576

ex 1575

ex 1574

ex 1577



8KGTVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJT,GYGKNUI#TVWM * 5WNVCP * -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





8KGTVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTWPFI#TVWM * 5WNVCP * -/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ





8KGTVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTWPFI#TVWM * 5WNVCP * -/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTWPFI#TVWM * 5WNVCP * -/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





1578

1579

ex 1580

ex 1581

ex 1582



8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP CEJV\CEMKIGO5VGTPI-/ 45GJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT I2GTG5WNVCP * -/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ





#EJVGN $WLW  WPF  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTWPFI2GTG * 5WNVCP * WPF-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN $WLW  WPF  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTWPFI2GTG * 5WNVCP * -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN $WLW  *  8CTKCPVGP OKV ITQ­GO WPF MNGKPGO 4GXGTUUVGORGN  ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN   0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTWPFI2GTG * 5WNVCP -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP

 127


MUSTAFÂ IV.

/WUVCH³+8*#&

/KV /WUVCH³ +8 UQNNVGP CNNG 4GHQTOGP 5GNÄOU +++ TÒEMI·PIKI IGOCEJVFGUUGPPGWG5VGWGTPYKGCWEJ FKG PGWGP /KNKV·TMQTRU CDIGUEJCHHV YWTFGP &CUU FKG 5QNFCVGP FGT PGWGP -QTRU PKEJV PWT GPVNCUUGP   UQPFGTPCWEJRGTUÌPNKEJXGTHQNIVYWTFGPUQFCUUUKGUKEJUQYGKVGUKJPGPOÌINKEJYCTDGK)GIPGTPFGU PGWGP5WNVCPUUCOOGNVGPHÒJTVGNGV\VNKEJFGP7PVGTICPIFGTMQPUGTXCVKXGP4GCMVKQPJGTDGK5EJQPDCNF JCVVGPUKEJFGT5JC[MJCN+UN³OWPFFKG8GTYCNVWPIUURKV\GGPV\YGKV  #WEJCW­GPRQNKVKUEJICDGUMGKPG'THQNIGDTCEJ0CRQNGQPKO(TKGFGPXQP6KNUKVGKPGXQTÒDGTIG JGPFG#NNKCP\\YKUEJGPFGO1UOCPKUEJGP4GKEJWPF4WUUNCPFCWH-QUVGPFGT*QJGP2HQTVGQJPGFKGUG ÒDGTJCWRV KP FKG 8GTJCPFNWPIGP GKPDG\QIGP \W JCDGP &KRNQOCVKUEJG 4GVVWPIUXGTUWEJG DNKGDGP GTHQNI   NQU  0CEJ FGT 'TOQTFWPI FGU )TQ­YGUKTU YCT $C[TCSF³T /WUVCH³ \WT 4GQTICPKUCVKQP FGT #TOGG XQP FGT   TWUUKUEJGP )TGP\GIGMQOOGP5GKPG'TYCTVWPIGPCWHFCU)TQ­YGUKTCVYWTFGPCDGTPKEJVGTHÒNNVYGU JCNDGTUKEJKPUGKPGP5VÒV\RWPMV4WUVUEJWM\WTÒEM\QIWPFFQTVFKG#PJ·PIGT5GNÄOUHQTOKGTVG&CDGK YCT $C[TCSF³T /WUVCH³ MGKP 8GTVTGVGT FGT 4GHQTORQNKVKM UQPFGTP FGT CWVQPQOGP 4GIKQPCNJGTTUEJCHV   FKGWPVGT5GNÄO+++IGUV·TMVYQTFGPYCT&KG(ÒJTGTFGU9KFGTUVCPFGUKP4WUVUEJWMXGTUEJYQTGPUKEJKP FGT9GKUGFCUUUKGKJTG#NNKCP\PCEJCW­GPJKP\GTDTGEJGPNKG­GPUQFCUUGKPKIGXQPKJPGPKP-QPUVCP VKPQRGN#WHPCJOGKO*GTTUEJCHVUCRRCTCVHKPFGPMQPPVGPWOFGPIGHCPIGPGP5GNÄO+++WPFFGP2TKP\GP /CJOÑFUEJÒV\GP\WMÌPPGP'UIGNCPIKJPGP/WUVCH³+8FCXQP\WÒDGT\GWIGPFCUU$C[TCSF³T/W UVCH³PWTFCTCPIGNGIGPUGKFKG/CEJVFGT,CPKVUEJCTGPFGPGPUKEJCWEJFGTPGWG5WNVCPCWUIGUGV\VUCJ \WDTGEJGP5QICDGUGKPIGJGKOGU'KPXGTUV·PFPKU\YKUEJGP/WUVCH³+8UGKPGO)TQ­YGUKTWPF$C[ TCSF³T /WUVCH³ NGV\VGTGP OKV UGKPGT #TOGG PCEJ -QPUVCPVKPQRGN GKP\WNCFGP QHHK\KGNN WO FGO PGWGP   5WNVCP \W JWNFKIGP KPQHHK\KGNN WO FKG ,CPKVUEJCTGP CWU\WUEJCNVGP WPF FGP 5JC[MJ CN+UN³OFWTEJGKPGP CPFGTGP \W GTUGV\GP &GT 2NCP IGNCPI PWT KP UGKPGO GTUVGP 6GKN FCPP GTHWJT FGT )TQ­YGUKT XQP FGP   YCJTGP2N·PGP$C[TCSF³T/WUVCH³UWPFXGTUV·PFKIVGFGP5WNVCP+PHQNIGFGUUGPDNKGDFGP8GTUEJYÌTGTP PWT FKG 9CJN KP QHHGPGT 4GDGNNKQP XQT FGP 2CNCUV \W\KGJGPWPFFWTEJFKG4GEJVUIGNGJTVGPFKG#DFCP MWPI /WUVCH³U WPF 9KGFGTGKPUGV\WPI 5GNÂOU HQTFGTP \WNCUUGPYQOKV\WXKGN<GKVXGTUVTKEJFKG5GNÄO FCU.GDGPMQUVGVG/WUVCH³+8YWTFGCWH$GHGJNUGKPGULÒPIGTGP$TWFGTU/CJOÑFCO0QXGODGT KO<WUCOOGPJCPIOKVGKPGOGTPGWVGP,CPKVUEJCTGPCWHUVCPFWOIGDTCEJV

1583

1584

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 



128

(KPFKM*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN )TQ­G6WIJTCKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU 4X/\UVWPF#PHCPIULCJTFGT4GIKGTWPIQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT5RWTGPGKPGTKPGHHGMVKXGP4·PFGNWPI I#TVWM2GTG-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



(KPFKM*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN -NGKPG6WIJTCKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU 4X /\UV WPF #PHCPIULCJT FGT 4GIKGTWPI QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT  I #TVWM  2GTG    -/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\




MUSTAFÂ IV.

1586

1585





1,5:1

(KPFKM*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN -NGKPG6WIJTCKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU 4X/\UVWPF#PHCPIULCJTFGT4GIKGTWPIQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG

,CJT -/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT-TCV\GTKO#XGTUHGNFXQT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGN(KPFKM*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN )TQ­G6WIJTCOKVMNGKPGO5VGTP KP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X/\UVWPF#PHCPIULCJTFGT4GIKGTWPIQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI#TVWM XCT2GTGXCT-/XCT  )1.&5GJTUGNVGPG8CTKCPVGQJPG$NWOGKO#XGTU.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1587





1588

8KGTVGN (KPFKM  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  )TQ­G 6WIJTC OKV $WOG KP   .KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X/\UVWPF#PHCPIULCJTFGT4GIKGTWPIQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI#TVWM  ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUXQT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGN (KPFKM  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  )TQ­G 6WIJTC OKV $WOG KP   .KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X/\UVWPF#PHCPIULCJTFGT4GIKGTWPIQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI#TVWM 2GTG-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



1589





1585

1,5:1

1590

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG -/ )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT -/ )1.&4)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1591

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTWPF-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

;Ò\NÒM -WTWUJ *,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.CP\/ÒPEJGP0T





129


MUSTAFÂ IV.

1592



+MKNKM -WTWUJ *,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC\YKUEJGP\YGK-PQVGP 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT KP -CTVWUEJG /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP -CTVWUEJG  I   #TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  W­GTUVUGNVGP-N-TCV\GTWPF5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 

1593

1594

1595



#NVOKUJNKM  <QNQVC   * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTKP -CTVWUEJGÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/  445VGORGNINCP\ 



#NVOKUJNKM  <QNQVC   * 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   \YKUEJGPU[OOGVTKUEJGP5HÌTOKIGP1TPCOGPVGPÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM 2GTG-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM<ÒTKEJ0T





-WTWUJ  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 48QT\ÒINKEJ



1596



130

-WTWUJ  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  5VGORGNXCTKCPVG \WO XQTKIGP 5VÒEM   6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO   4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/ 45VGORGNINCP\




MUSTAFÂ IV.

1598

1597



-WTWUJ  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  GKPG YGKVGTG 5VGORGNXCTKCPVG 6WIJTC   ÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIU LCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG5WNVCP-/  48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCT FGT #WMVKQP /ÒP\GP WPF /GFCKNNGP #) $CUGN  $CUGN  0T  'ZGORNCT FGT .KUVG 5VGRJGP   #NDWO5CPVC4QUC0T 



-WTWUJ  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP ,CJT -/ 47P\KTMWNKGTV  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T

1599











1PNWM  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG5WNVCP-/ 'VYCUHNGEMKIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1603

1601

$GUJNKM  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



2CTC  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG   WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG5WNVCP-/  )NGKEJO·­KIG#WURT·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP



2CTC  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG   WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1,5:1



1600

1PNWM  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT 5WNVCP-/ 5GJTUEJÌP

1602





1604

1,5:1

/CPIKT  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\   UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG5WNVCP-/  444)TÒPURCPHNGEMUGJTUEJÌP

 131


MUSTAFÂ IV.

1605

1606 1,5:1

I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ OKV9CNK\GKEJGP ! 8XQTFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJT6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU GKPG $NCVVTCPMG TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC   4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I 8IN #TVWM  2GTG  -/    )1.&442T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 



<K[PGVRT·IWPIFGU<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGPXQTFGO4GIKGTWPIU LCJT 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU GKP 2WPMV TGEJVU PGDGP FGT   6WIJTC 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I 8IN #TVWM  2GTG    -/ )1.&449KGKOOGTIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ1MVQDGT0T



1607

1609

1608

I[RVGP5KNDGTOÒP\G 

2CTC 0KUHHKFFC/C[FKP */KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTC4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG5WNVCP-/ 5EJÌP



<QNQVC*6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTKP-CTVWUEJGÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGI-/ FKGUGU5VÒEMCDIGDKNFGV  4445VGORGNINCP\



.KD[GP5KNDGTOÒP\G 

6WPGUKGP5KNDGTOÒP\G 

4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU   QDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI8IN(GPKPC-/ 44)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



1611

1610 1,5:1

#NIGTKGP)QNFOÒP\G 

5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKPUVGTPHÌTOK IGT'KPHCUUWPI4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[POKVFGO/\\5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUÒDGTFGO$WEJUVCDGP UÄPKPCU5WNV³PCO#PHCPIFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM2GTG-/  )1.&44<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



#NIGTKGP5KNDGTOÒP\G 

8KGTVGN $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT KP   UVGTPHÌTOKIGT'KPHCUUWPII#TVWM2GTG-/ 445GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T

132






MAHMÛD II.

/CJOÑF++*#&

/KV/CJOÑF++YWTFGGKP1UOCPG5WNVCPFGTCPFGTUCNUUGKPG8QTI·PIGTFCU4GHQTORTQLGMVPKEJVKO 4CJOGPFGT6TCFKVKQPFGUQUOCPKUEJGP5VCCVGUCPIKPIUQPFGTPFCU(WPFCOGPVFGU5VCCVGUOQFGTPKUKG TGP YQNNVG WO UGKP ªDGTNGDGP \W UKEJGTP &CUU GT $C[TCSF³T /WUVCH³ \W UGKPGO GTUVGP )TQ­YGUKT   OCEJVG YCT PKEJV PWT RGTUÌPNKEJGT &CPMDCTMGKV UGKPGO 4GVVGT IGIGPÒDGT IGUEJWNFGVUQPFGTPFKGUDQV CWEJ FKG /ÌINKEJMGKV FCU 8GTJ·NVPKU FGT PGWGP 2TQXKP\HÒTUVGPMNCUUG C [³P  \WO 5VCCV \W TGIGNP &KG   TWOGNKUEJGP WPF CPCVQNKUEJGP #PIGJÌTKIGP FKGUGU 5VCPFGU YWTFGP WOIGJGPF \W GKPGT 4GKEJUXGTUCOO   NWPI GKPIGNCFGP KP FGT KJPGP FKG 'TDNKEJMGKV KJTGT 4GEJVG DGUV·VKIV YWTFG Y·JTGPF KO )GIGP\WI FGT   QUOCPKUEJG5VCCVYKGFGT<WITKHHCWHHKUMCNKUEJG.GKUVWPIGPWPFFKG1DGTJQJGKVÒDGTKJTGRTKXCVGP6TWR RGP YKG CWEJ FKG <WUVKOOWPI \WT 4GQTICPKUCVKQP FGT ,CPKVUEJCTGP GTJKGNV <WT WPOKVVGNDCTGP 7OUGV   \WPIMCOGUPKEJVFCFKG,CPKVUEJCTGPYKGFGTWOTGXQNVKGTVGPWPF$C[TCSF³T/WUVCH³WODTCEJVGPYCU FKG 6ÌVWPI /WUVCHCU +8 CWH $GHGJN /CJOÑFU \WT (QNIG JCVVG 9KEJVKI YCT FKG KP FGO $GUEJNWUU FGT   4GKEJUXGTUCOONWPI \WO #WUFTWEM MQOOGPFG UVTWMVWTGNNG #NVGTPCVKXG FKG CNNGPVJCNDGP CWHIGUEJQDGP   YCT  &GTUGKVDGUVGJGPFG-TKGIU\WUVCPFOKV4WUUNCPFYWTFGGTUVFWTEJGKPGP\W$WMCTGUVIGUEJNQU UGPGP(TKGFGPDGGPFGVKPFGO4WUUNCPF$GUUCTCDKGPFCU.CPF\YKUEJGP&PLGUVTWPF2TWVJ\WIGUVCPFGP YWTFG &GP GZVGTPGP (TKGFGP DGPWV\VG /CJOÑF ++ WO YKEJVKIG C [³P FKG FGO <GPVTCNUVCCV PKEJV FKG   IGDÒJTGPFGP<WITKHHUTGEJVGICDGPOKNKV·TKUEJCWU\WUEJCNVGP9GPKIGTNGKEJV\WNÌUGPYCTFCU2TQDNGO FGUCWHMQOOGPFGP0CVKQPCNKUOWUFGT)TKGEJGPFCUOKVFGOCNVGPYKGPGWGP5VCCVUMQP\GRVFGU1UOCPK UEJGP 4GKEJGU KPMQORCVKDGN YCT &KGXQP4WUUNCPFWPFGWTQR·KUEJGPRJKNJGNNGPKUEJGP(TGWPFGUMTGKUGP IGUEJÒTVGP#WHUV·PFGFGT)TKGEJGPGZRQTVKGTVGPGKP'NGOGPVFGUCPVKPCRQNGQPKUEJGPō(TGKJGKVUMCORHGUŋ CWU/KVVGNWPF0QTFGWTQRCKPGKPG4GIKQPKPFGTFCUHTKGFNKEJG0GDGPGKPCPFGTXKGNGT0CVKQPCNKV·VGPKO UQIGPCPPVGP/KNNGV5[UVGOGKPJCNDGU,CJTVCWUGPFNCPIHÒTGKPJCNDYGIUHTKGFNKEJGU#WUMQOOGPWPFHÒT FCU ªDGTNGDGP XQP /KPFGTJGKVGP IGUQTIV JCVVG &KG )TKGEJGP DGMCOGP PCEJ GKPKIGO OKNKV·TKUEJGP JKP   WPFJGTKJTGPGKIGPGP5VCCVCDGTFGT+PHGMVUQNNVGCWH6ÒTMGP-WTFGP#TCDGT#TOGPKGT5GTDGPWPF $WNICTGPÒDGTIGJGP  +O -CORH IGIGP FKG )TKGEJGP \GKIVG UKEJ FCUU FCU PCEJ FGT #WUUEJCNVWPI FGT /CONWMGP KP I[RVGP   XQP /WJCOOCF #NK CWHIGDCWVG /KNKV·T GHHK\KGPVGT YCT CNU FCU FGT QUOCPKUEJGP 5WNVCPUTGIKGTWPI   /CJOÑFRTGUUVGFKG,CPKVUEJCTGPKPGKPG4GQTICPKUCVKQPYGNEJG\WO#WHUVCPFHÒJTVGFGPGTPWPUQYKG /WJCOOCF #NÄ OKV FGP /CONWMGP FWTEJ RJ[UKUEJG 8GTPKEJVWPI FGT ,CPKVUEJCTGP WPF FWTEJ 8GTHQN   IWPI KJTGU TGNKIKÌUGP 4ÒEMJCNVU FGU UÑHKUEJGP $GMVCUEJÄ1TFGPU KO ,CJT  NÌUVG &CU OCEJVG FGP   9GIHÒTITWPFNGIGPFG4GHQTOGPFGT/KNKV·TQTICPKUCVKQPHTGK&QEJMWT\HTKUVKIHGJNVGFCOKVGKPYKEJVKIGU 'NGOGPVFGTQUOCPKUEJGP9GJTH·JKIMGKV&KGGWTQR·KUEJGP/·EJVGPWV\VGPFKGUG5EJY·EJGUQHQTV XGTPKEJVGVGPUKGGKPOCNOGJTFKGQUOCPKUEJG(NQVVGWOUQFGPITKGEJKUEJGP#WHUVCPF\WTGVVGPWPFKO HQNIGPFGP ,CJT UVKG­GP FKG 4WUUGP DKU PCEJ 'FKTPG XQT 9·JTGPF 4WUUNCPF UKEJ OKV TGNCVKX MNGKPGP   )GDKGVUIGYKPPGP DGIPÒIVG YCT  FKG 5GNDUV·PFKIMGKV )TKGEJGPNCPFU HQTOCN CP\WGTMGPPGP WPF KO   INGKEJGP ,CJT QMMWRKGTVG (TCPMTGKEJ #NIKGT (TCPMTGKEJ JCVVG \W FKGUGT <GKV KP /WJCOOCF #NÄ KP   I[RVGP GKPGP YKEJVKIGTGP 8GTDÒPFGVGP IGHWPFGP WPF WPVGTUVÒV\VG FKGUGP KP UGKPGO 8QTIGJGP UKEJ   GKPGPKOOGTITÌ­GTGP6GKNFGU1UOCPKUEJGP5VCCVGU\WUKEJGTPDGUGV\VGPFKGI[RVGT5[TKGPWPF FTCPIGPDKUPCEJ0QTFOGUQRQVCOKGPXQTY·JTGPFFKGQUOCPKUEJG#DYGJTXGTUCIVG  133


MAHMÛD II. $GK CNNGFGO XGTNQT /CJOÑF ++UGKP4GHQTORTQITCOOPKEJVCWUFGP#WIGP'THÒJTVGGKPG<GPVTCNDG JÌTFG HÒT FKG TGNKIKÌUGP 5VKHVWPIGP CYS³H  GKP UQ FCUU FGTGP 'KPPCJOGP HQTVCPPKEJVFGTUVGWGTHTGKGP 0WV\WPIFWTEJFKG5VKHVGTHCOKNKGPUQPFGTPFGTTGNKIKÌUGP5VKHVWPIUCDUKEJV\WIWVGMCOGP#WEJFKGNGV\V NKEJ KP D[\CPVKPKUEJG 5VCCVUQTICPKUCVKQP\WTÒEMTGKEJGPFGP/KNKV·TNGJGPFGTUKRCJK6TWRRGPYWTFGPMQP UGSWGPV GKPIG\QIGP &CFWTEJ GTICDGP UKEJ GPQTOG UVCCVNKEJG #ITCTHN·EJGP FKG YKGFGTWO KP 2CEJVNCPF   XGTYCPFGNV YWTFGP Y·JTGPF CPFGTG .GJGP KP FCU RTKXCVG 'KIGPVWO FGT PGWGP #ICMNCUUG ÒDGTIKPIGP   (ÒT FKG 5KEJGTUVGNNWPI GKPGT DGUUGTGP 5VCCVUXGTYCNVWPI YWTFGP \YGK 9GIG DGUEJTKVVGP GKPGTUGKVU FGT   #WUDCW XQP *QEJUEJWNGP PCEJ FGO /WUVGT FGT UEJQP KO  ,CJTJWPFGTV IGITÒPFGVGP OKNKV·TKUEJGP   *QEJUEJWNGPCPFGTGTUGKVUFKG#WUDKNFWPIXQP5RG\KCNKUVGPKOGWTQR·KUEJGP#WUNCPF  #NU-TÌPWPIFGU4GHQTOYGTMGUYCTGKPGMQPUVKVWVKQPGNNG4GHQTOIGRNCPVKPFGTFKG5VCCVUDÒTIGTUEJCHV WPFFGT5VCCVUCWHDCWTCFKMCNPGWIGTGIGNVYGTFGPUQNNVGFKG6CP\KO³VYGNEJGFWTEJGKPG-QOOKUUKQP WPVGT FGO 5RKV\GPFKRNQOCVGP WPF FCPP #W­GPOKPKUVGT /WUVCH³ 4CUJÄF 2³UJ³ CD  CWUIGCTDGKVGV   YWTFGP $GK CNN FKGUGP (QTVUEJTKVVGP \WT 4GQTICPKUCVKQP FGU 5VCCVGU DNKGD FKG OKNKV·TKUEJG .CIG PCEJ   CW­GP RTGM·T  UKGIVGP FKG I[RVGT ÒDGT FCU QUOCPKUEJG *GGT DGK 0KUKD CO 'WRJTCV Y·JTGPF   /CJOÑF ++ CO  ,WNK  KP -QPUVCPVKPQRGN UVCTD &QEJ UGKP 4GHQTORTQITCOO YWTFG XQP UGKPGO   5QJP #DFCN/CLÄFHQTVIGUGV\V

1612 1,5:1

1,5:1

6ÒTMGK)QNFOÒP\GP 

 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV -PQVGP CP FGT   TGEJVGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGI#TVWM2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&45VGORGNINCP\

1613









134

1614

1615



1616

<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV<YGKICPFGTTGEJ VGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCTWOGKP<KGTMTGKU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGCWH<YGKIGP)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV<YGKICPFGTTGEJ VGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCTWOGKP<KGTMTGKU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTG ,CJT ;-$¤N¼GT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV <YGKI CP FGT   TGEJVGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCTWOGKP<KGTMTGKU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIU LCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT -/ )1.&-NGKPG2T·IGUEJY·EJGKPFGT/KVVGUGJTUEJÌP



 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV <YGKI CP FGT   TGEJVGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCTWOGKP<KGTMTGKU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIU LCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT -/ ,CJTCNUTGRQTVGFPQVEQPHKTOGF   )1.&444GIKGTWPIULCJTFGWVNKEJNGUDCT5VGORGNINCP\




MAHMÛD II.

1617

1,5:1



1,5:1

 <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV <YGKI CP FGT   TGEJVGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCTWOGKP<KGTMTGKU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIU LCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG)GT·PFGNVI#TVWMXCT2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT -/ ,CJTCNUTGRQTVGFPQVEQPHKTOGF  )1.&445VGORGNINCP\



&KG DGKFGP XQTJGTIGJGPFGP /ÒP\GP UKPF UVGORGNINGKEJ ,GFQEJ YCTGP FKG 5VGORGN FGU UR·VGT IGRT·IVGP \YGKVGP   5VÒEMU FWTEJ NGKEJVGP 4QUV DGGKPVT·EJVKIV &KGU YKTMVG UKEJ DGKO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT FGTCTV CWU FCUU FKG <KHHGT  YKG   GKPGCWUUKGJV9CJTUEJGKPNKEJGTMN·TVUKEJFCFWTEJFKG6CVUCEJGFCUUPWT2T·IWPIGPXQPICP\HTKUEJGP5VGORGNP FCU ,CJT GKPFGWVKIGTMGPPGPNCUUGPYGUJCND2T·IWPIGPFKGUGU,CJTGUHÒTFKG$GCTDGKVWPIFGU-/-CVCNQIU CNUPKEJVPCEJIGYKGUGPICNVGP 

1618

1,5:1



*CNDGT<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV-PQVGPCPFGT TGEJVGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNGI#TVWMXCT2GTG¤N¼GTXIN-/ )1.&445VGORGNINCP\

ex 1619









1,5:1

ex 1620

ex 1621



ex 1622

8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOG CPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWPFI 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/ 5VÒEM)1.&5VGORGNINCP\



8KGTVGN <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJTG   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV   $NWOGCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWPF I2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/ 5VÒEM)1.&5VGORGNINCP\



8KGTVGN <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJTG  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  -NGKPGTG 6WIJTC   OKV$NWOGCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT WPFI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/ 5VÒEM)1.&5VGORGNINCP\



8KGTVGN <GTK OCJDÑD  *,CJTG   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  -NGKPGTG   6WIJTCOKV$NWOGCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIU LCJTWPFI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ

 135


MAHMÃ&#x203A;D II.

ex 1623





ex 1624

8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÃ&#x2018;D*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN -NGKPGTG6WIJTC OKV$NWOGCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT WPFI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJWPF5VGORGNINCP\



8KGTVGN#NVKP*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGCP FGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X5GIGPUHQTOGN/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT WPFI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/ 5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1625





1626

&QRRGNVGT 4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KO   <KGTTCPF4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XI 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



&QRRGNVGT 4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KO   <KGTTCPF4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XI 2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG5VGRJGP#NDWO5CPVC4QUC0T



1627





1628

&QRRGNVGT 4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KO   <KGTTCPF4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XI 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



&QRRGNVGT 4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KO   <KGTTCPF4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XI 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP0T



1630 1629



*CNDGT 4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KO   <KGTTCPF4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XI 2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&/KPKOCNIGYGNNVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



*CNDGT 4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KO   <KGTTCPF4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XI 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



*CNDGT 4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KO   <KGTTCPF4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XI 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP0T



136

1631






MAHMÃ&#x203A;D II.

1633

1632



&QRRGNVGTPGWGT4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOG WOIGDGP XQP 5EJTKHVDCPF OKV 6KVWNCVWT 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP4GIKGTWPIU LCJT WOIGDGP XQP 5EJTKHVDCPF OKV 6KVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



&QRRGNVGTPGWGT4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOG WOIGDGP XQP 5EJTKHVDCPF OKV 6KVWNCVWT 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP4GIKGTWPIU LCJT WOIGDGP XQP 5EJTKHVDCPF OKV 6KVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ  I #TVWM  ,CJT     2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&7P\KTMWNKGTV



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP0T





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP0T

1634





1635

0GWGT4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGWOIGDGP XQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWOIG DGPXQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT -/ )1.&.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



0GWGT4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGWOIGDGP XQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWOIG DGPXQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

1636







1637

0GWGT4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGWOIGDGP XQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWOIG DGPXQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG¤N¼GT -/ )1.&.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



0GWGT4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGWOIGDGP XQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWOIG DGPXQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1638



1639

0GWGT4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGWOIGDGP XQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWOIG DGPXQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



0GWGT4Ã&#x2018;OÃ&#x201E;#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGWOIGDGP XQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWOIG DGPXQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJ)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG  ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/Ã&#x2019;P\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#)$CUGN0T







137


MAHMÛD II.

1640









1642

1641

1643

#NVGT #FNÄ#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKVOQPQITCOOKGT VGO5EJTKHV\WI CFNÄCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCTWOGKP<KGT MTGKU4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG  ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&4)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT #NVGT #FNÄ #NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV OQPQ   ITCOOKGTVGO5EJTKHV\WI CFNÄCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVGÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCTWO GKP <KGTMTGKU 4X 6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG )GT·PFGNV  I #TVWM   2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



5ÒTTG #NVKP  *,CJT  &³T CNMJKN³HC CN CNÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV  CFNÄ CP   FGTTGEJVGP5GKVGWOIGDGPXQP5VTGWDNWOGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGPFCU4G IKGTWPIULCJT)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



5ÒTTG #NVKP  *,CJT  &³T CNMJKN³HC CN CNÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV  CFNÄ CP   FGTTGEJVGP5GKVGWOIGDGPXQP5VTGWDNWOGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGPFCU4G IKGTWPIULCJT )GT·PFGNV  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   ¤N¼GT  -/    )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T

1,5:1







138

1,5:1

5ÒTTG#NVKP*,CJTOKVCDYGKEJGPFGO/ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGP&³TCNMJKN³HCCNUCPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKP QRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVGWOIGDGPXQP5VTGWDNWOGP4X/\UVWPF,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG¤N¼GT -/ )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ

1645



1644



1646



1647

*CNDGT 5ÒTTG #NVKP  *,CJT  &³T CNMJKN³HC CN CNÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV    CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG WOIGDGP XQP 5VTGWDNWOGP 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   QDGP FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT )GT·PFGNV I#TVWM2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGN 5ÒTTG #NVKP  *,CJT  &³T CNMJKN³HC CN CNÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV    CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG WOIGDGP XQP 5VTGWDNWOGP 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   QDGP FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT )GT·PFGNV  I #TVWM  ,CJT  2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGN 5ÒTTG #NVKP  *,CJT  &³T CNMJKN³HC CN CNÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV    CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG WOIGDGP XQP 5VTGWDNWOGP 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   QDGPFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTFKGFKCMTKVKUEJGP2WPMVGÒDGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGPKPCNMJKN³HCJQTK\QPVCN )GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ




MAHMÛD II.

1648 ex 1649



1650

8KGTVGN5ÒTTG#NVKP*,CJT&³TCNMJKN³HCCN CNÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG WOIGDGP XQP 5VTGWDNWOGP 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU   4GIKGTWPIULCJT FKG FKCMTKVKUEJGP2WPMVGÒDGTFGONGV\VGP$WEJUVCDGPKPCNMJKN³HCXGTVKMCNWPFCPFGTG #DYGKEJWPIGPDGKFGP$NWOGPKO4GXGTU)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM2GTG¤N¼GTXCT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



0GWGT #FNÄ #NVKP  *,CJT  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV OQPQ   ITCOOKGTVGO5EJTKHV\WI CFNÄCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVGFCTWO7OUEJTKHVOKV0COGWPF6KVGN4X/\UV OKV 5GIGPUYWPUEJ CNOCJTÑUC HÒT FKG 5VCFV ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   FCTWOGKP-TGKUWPF7OUEJTKHVOKVCWUHÒJTNKEJGO5GIGPUYWPUEJHÒTFGP*GTTUEJGT)GT·PFGNVWPF I#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



0GWGT #FNÄ#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKVOQPQITCOOKGT VGO 5EJTKHV\WI  CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG FCTWO 7OUEJTKHV OKV 0COG WPF6KVGN4X/\UVOKV5G IGPUYWPUEJCNOCJTÑUCHÒTFKG5VCFV,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGPFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTFCTWOGKP -TGKUWPF7OUEJTKHVOKVCWUHÒJTNKEJGO5GIGPUYWPUEJHÒTFGP*GTTUEJGT)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM

,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T







'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T

1652

1651







0GWGT #FNÄ#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKVOQPQITCOOKGT VGO 5EJTKHV\WI  CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG FCTWO 7OUEJTKHV OKV 0COG WPF6KVGN4X/\UVOKV5G IGPUYWPUEJCNOCJTÑUCHÒTFKG5VCFV,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGPFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTFCTWOGKP -TGKUWPF7OUEJTKHVOKVCWUHÒJTNKEJGO5GIGPUYWPUEJHÒTFGP*GTTUEJGT)GT·PFGNVI#TVWM

,CJT 2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



0GWGT #FNÄ#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKVOQPQITCOOKGT VGO 5EJTKHV\WI  CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG FCTWO 7OUEJTKHV OKV 0COG WPF6KVGN4X/\UVOKV5G IGPUYWPUEJCNOCJTÑUCHÒTFKG5VCFV,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGPFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTFCTWOGKP -TGKU WPF 7OUEJTKHV OKV CWUHÒJTNKEJGO 5GIGPUYWPUEJ HÒT FGP *GTTUEJGT )GT·PFGNV  I #TVWM   2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



ex 1653

ex 1654

ex 1655



*CNDGTPGWGT #FNÄ#NVKP*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV OQPQITCOOKGTVGO 5EJTKHV\WI  CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG FCTWO 7OUEJTKHV OKV 0COG WPF 6KVGN4X /\UV OKV 5GIGPUYWPUEJ CNOCJTÑUC HÒT FKG 5VCFV ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU 4GIKGTWPIU   LCJT FCTWO GKP -TGKU WPF 7OUEJTKHV OKV CWUHÒJTNKEJGO 5GIGPUYWPUEJ HÒT FGP *GTTUEJGT )GT·PFGNV   WPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&&CU\YGKVG5VÒEMNGKEJVIGYGNNVDGKFGXQT\ÒINKEJ





8KGTVGNPGWGT #FNÄ#NVKP*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC OKV OQPQITCOOKGTVGO 5EJTKHV\WI  CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG FCTWO 7OUEJTKHV OKV 0COG WPF 6KVGN   4X /\UV OKV 5GIGPUYWPUEJ CNOCJTÑUC HÒT FKG 5VCFV ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU 4GIKG   TWPIULCJTFCTWOGKP-TGKUWPF7OUEJTKHVOKVCWUHÒJTNKEJGO5GIGPUYWPUEJHÒTFGP*GTTUEJGT)GT·P FGNV   WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   ¤N¼GT   WPF    -/ 5VÒEM)1.&&CU\YGKVG5VÒEMOKV*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





8KGTVGNPGWGT #FNÄ#NVKP*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC OKV OQPQITCOOKGTVGO 5EJTKHV\WI  CFNÄ CP FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG FCTWO 7OUEJTKHV OKV 0COG WPF 6KVGN   4X /\UV OKV 5GIGPUYWPUEJ CNOCJTÑUC HÒT FKG 5VCFV ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU 4GIKG   TWPIULCJTFCTWOGKP-TGKUWPF7OUEJTKHVOKVCWUHÒJTNKEJGO5GIGPUYWPUEJHÒTFGP*GTTUEJGT)GT·P FGNV   WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   ¤N¼GT   WPF    -/ 5VÒEM)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

 139


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1657

ex 1656







0GWGT 4WD Ä[C #NVKP  *,CJT   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV   OQPQITCOOKGTVGO5EJTKHV\WI CFNÄCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVGKPFQRRGNVGT<KEM\CEMHCUUWPI4X/\UV,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT FCTWO FQRRGNVGT <KEM\CEMGKPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU   )GT·PFGNVWPFI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



0GWGT 4WD Ä[C #NVKP  *,CJT    WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC   OKVOQPQITCOOKGTVGO5EJTKHV\WI CFNÄCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVGKPFQRRGNVGT<KEM\CEMHCUUWPI4X/\UV ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT FCTWO FQRRGNVGT <KEM\CEMGKPHCUUWPI YKG KO   #XGTU )GT·PFGNV    WPF  I 2GTG  ,CJT  ¤N¼GTWPF -/ 5VÒEM)1.&'KPKIGNGKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



0GWGT4WD Ä[C#NVKP*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKVOQPQ ITCOOKGTVGO5EJTKHV\WI CFNÄCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVGKPFQRRGNVGT<KEM\CEMHCUUWPI4X/\UV,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT FCTWO FQRRGNVGT <KEM\CEMGKPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU   )GT·PFGNVWPFI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1660

1659





ex 1658

&QRRGNVGT *C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP   -TGKUFCTWOCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO4CPFCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNI#TVWM 2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&/KPIGYGNNVHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



*C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP   -TGKUFCTWOCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 4CPF CNVGTPKGTGPF <YGKIG WPF 1XCNG OKV 0COG WPF 6KVGN  WPF  I   #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&5VGORGNINCP\WPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1663 ex 1661







140

1662

*C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP   -TGKUFCTWOCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 4CPF CNVGTPKGTGPF <YGKIG WPF 1XCNG OKV 0COG WPF 6KVGN  WPF  I   #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&5VGORGNINCP\WPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



*C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP -TGKU   FCTWO CNVGTPKGTGPF <YGKIG WPF 1XCNG OKV 6KVWNCVWT 4X /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO4CPFCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG  ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&-NGKPGT4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



*CNDGT *C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄKP-TGKUFCTWOCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 4CPF CNVGTPKGTGPF <YGKIG WPF 1XCNG OKV 0COG WPF 6KVGN  I  

\GKVIGPÌUUKEJG (·NUEJWPI!   WPF  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   ¤N¼GT    WPF-/ 5VÒEM)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJWPF5VGORGNINCP\




MAHMÃ&#x203A;D II.

ex 1664









ex 1665

ex 1667

ex 1666

1668

*CNDGT*C[TÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÃ&#x201E; KP -TGKU FCTWO CNVGTPKGTGPF <YGKIG WPF 1XCNG OKV 6KVWNCVWT 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCP   HCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO4CPFCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNWPFI #TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/ 5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



0GWGT /CJOÃ&#x2018;FÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP  *,CJT  WPF  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV   CFNÃ&#x201E;WPF5VTGWDNWOGPKP$N·VVGTMTGKU4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT OKV5VTGWDNWOGPKO$N·VVGTMTGKUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT WPF-/ 5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&5VGORGNINCP\



0GWGT /CJOÃ&#x2018;FÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP  *,CJT  WPF  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV   CFNÃ&#x201E;WPF5VTGWDNWOGPKP$N·VVGTMTGKU4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT OKV5VTGWDNWOGPKO$N·VVGTMTGKUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT WPF-/ 5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&5VGORGNINCP\



0GWGT /CJOÃ&#x2018;FÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP  *,CJT  WPF  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV   CFNÃ&#x201E;WPF5VTGWDNWOGPKP$N·VVGTMTGKU4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT OKV5VTGWDNWOGPKO$N·VVGTMTGKUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT WPF-/ 5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&5VGORGNINCP\



&CUGTUVG5VÃ&#x2019;EM'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÃ&#x2019;UUGN0TFCU\YGKVG'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[ /QUEJ/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP0T 



0GWGT/CJOÃ&#x2018;FÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP*,CJT3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÃ&#x201E;WPF 5VTGWDNWOGPKP$N·VVGTMTGKU4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTOKV5VTGW DNWOGP KO $N·VVGTMTGKU  I #TVWM  ,CJT   2GTG  ,CJT   ¤N¼GT  -/    )1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP0T

ex 1669









ex 1670





ex 1671

1672

*CNDGT PGWGT /CJOÃ&#x2018;FÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP  *,CJTG   WPF  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN    6WIJTC OKV CFNÃ&#x201E; WPF 5VTGWDNWOGP KP $N·VVGTMTGKU 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP   4GIKGTWPIULCJTOKV5VTGWDNWOGPKO$N·VVGTMTGKUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG

,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&&CUGTUVGOKV$KGIGURWTCO4CPFUQPUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJWPFWP\KTMWNKGTV



*CNDGT PGWGT /CJOÃ&#x2018;FÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP  *,CJTG  WPF  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN    6WIJTC OKV CFNÃ&#x201E; WPF 5VTGWDNWOGP KP $N·VVGTMTGKU 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP   4GIKGTWPIULCJTOKV5VTGWDNWOGPKO$N·VVGTMTGKUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  ¤N¼GTWPF-/ 5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&&CUGTUVGNGKEJVIGYGNNVUQPUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



8KGTVGN PGWGT /CJOÃ&#x2018;FÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP  *,CJTG    8CTKCPVGP  WPF  3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKP   QRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÃ&#x201E; KP $N·VVGTMTGKU 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP   4GIKGTWPIULCJTKO$N·VVGTMTGKUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&<WO6GKNNGKEJVIGYGNNVUQPUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJQFGTDGUUGT



8KGTVGNPGWGT/CJOÃ&#x2018;FÃ&#x201E;[C#NVKP*,CJTG 8CTKCPVGPOKVITQ­GTWPFMNGKPGT6WIJTC  WPF 3WUVCPVÃ&#x201E;PÃ&#x201E;[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÃ&#x201E;KP$N·VVGTMTGKU4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTKO$N·VVGTMTGKUWPFI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG  ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/ 5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

 141


MAHMÛD II.

1673 1,5:1



&QRRGNVGT*C[TÄ[C#NVKP*,CJT'FKTPG6WIJTCOKV CFNÄKP-TGKUFCTWOCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIG WPF 1XCNG OKV 6KVWNCVWT 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 4CPF   CNVGTPKGTGPF <YGKIG WPF 1XCNG OKV 0COG WPF 6KVGN  I #TVWM  2GTG  ¤N¼GT  #   -/ )1.&445VGORGNINCP\

1,5:1



1,5:1

1674

1,5:1

*C[TÄ[C#NVKP*,CJT'FKTPG6WIJTCOKV CFNÄKP-TGKUFCTWOCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNG OKV 6KVWNCVWT 4X /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT CO 4CPF CNVGTPKGTGPF   <YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNI2GTG¤N¼GT$-/  )1.&45VGORGNIN·P\GPFGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT

1675

1676





1677

6ÒTMGK5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

-WTWUJ*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG





-WTWUJ*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



-WTWUJ  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  5VGORGNXCTKCPVG CWH DTGKVGTGO 5EJTÌV   NKPI 6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P    OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I ¤N¼GT  -/    8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

142








MAHMÛD II.

ex 1678

ex 1679



-WTWUJ  *,CJTG   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





-WTWUJ*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1680







ex 1681

ex 1682

-WTWUJ  *,CJTG   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WTWUJ  *,CJTG   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM&CUFTKVVG5VÒEMUGJTUEJÌPFKGDGKFGPGTUVGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WTWUJ  *,CJTG   5VGORGNXCTKCPVGP  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV   $NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKG TWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ



1683

ex 1684



-WTWUJ  *,CJTG  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG   WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFG FGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ





-WTWUJ*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG 4·PFGT DGKFGTUGKVU OKV $NÒVGP IG\KGTV  WPF  I ¤N¼GT    -/ 5VÒEM$GKFGXQT\ÒINKEJ

 143


MAHMÛD II.

1685

1686

1687

%+*#&+;'#75)#$'0,#*4' 





-WTWUJ*,CJT6WIJTCOKVITQ­GO)NÒEMUMPQVGPKPGPIGO+PPGPMTGKUFCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGT TCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO #XI¤N¼GT-/ 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WTWUJ*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKVMNGKPGO)NÒEMUMPQVGPKP GPIGO+PPGPMTGKUFCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



-WTWUJ*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKVITQ­GO)NÒEMUMPQVGPKP DTGKVGO+PPGPMTGKUFCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1688



 -WTWUJ  *,CJTG  WPF   8CTKCPVGP CWH ITQ­GO WPF MNGKPGO 5EJTÌVNKPI  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C  

-QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV)NÒEMUMPQVGPKPYGKVGO ,CJT D\YGPIGO ,CJT +PPGPMTGKU FCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVK IGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM2T·IGUEJY·EJGPKP4CPFRCTVKGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1689



144

 -WTWUJ  *,CJTG  WPF   8CTKCPVGP CWH ITQ­GO WPF MNGKPGO 5EJTÌVNKPI  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C  

-QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV)NÒEMUMPQVGPKPYGKVGO+PPGPMTGKUFCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#X WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM2T·IGUEJY·EJGPKP4CPFRCTVKGPXQT\ÒINKEJ




MAHMÛD II.

ex 1690







1692

-WTWUJ*,CJT 8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV)NÒEMUMPQ VGP KP YGKVGO D\Y GPIGO +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJCTVKIGT (CUUWPI YKG KO #X  WPF  I ¤N¼GT    -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



 -WTWUJ  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV )NÒEMUMPQVGP KP +PPGP   MTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   INGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTKO#XGTUUGJTUEJÌP



 -WTWUJ  *,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV)NÒEMUMPQVGPKP+PPGP MTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   INGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/  5GNVGPGU,CJT-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ



1693



1691

1694

1695

 2CTC   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV )NÒEMU   MPQVGP KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





 2CTC   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV )NÒEMU   MPQVGP KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ )GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





 2CTC   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV )NÒEMU   MPQVGP KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/  -TCV\GTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP

 145


MAHMÛD II.

1696







1697

1698

 2CTC   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV )NÒEMU   MPQVGP KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/  *GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



 2CTC   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV )NÒEMU   MPQVGP KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/  4)GNQEJVUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



 2CTC   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV )NÒEMU   MPQVGP KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/  4NGKEJVIGDQIGPUGJTUEJÌP



1699



 2CTC   -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV )NÒEMU   MPQVGP KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/  445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1700 1,5:1



1,5:1

2CTC -WTWUJ *,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV)NÒEMUMPQ VGPKP+PPGPMTGKUFCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5EJKOMC#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

146






MAHMÛD II.

1701

1702

1703

+8WPF85GTKG 

+MKNKM  -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP -PQVGP   4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT KP -CTVWUEJG ÒDGT FGT /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF FGO ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   -CTVWUEJGI¤N¼GT-/ 48QT\ÒINKEJ





+MKNKM  -WTWUJ   *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP -PQVGP   4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT KP -CTVWUEJG ÒDGT FGT /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF FGO ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   -CTVWUEJGI¤N¼GT-/ 45GJTUEJÌP





+MKNKM -WTWUJ *,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKP+PPGP MTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP   INGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ (NGEMKIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1705 ex 1704





ex 1704

+MKNKM  -WTWUJ   *,CJT   8CTKCPVGP OKVITQ­GOWPFMNGKPGO4GIKGTWPIULCJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C

-QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWO HNQTCNGT <KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIU   LCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#XWPFI ¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1706

ex 1707



2CTC*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 5VGORGNINCP\





2CTC*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ

 147


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1708









ex 1709

ex 1710

1711

 2CTC  *,CJTG      WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV   $NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKG TWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJWPFDGUUGT



 2CTC  *,CJTG  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPF5VGORGNINCP\



 2CTC  *,CJTG   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GTCWPF-/  5VÒEM,CJT5VGORGNINCP\FKGCPFGTGPUGJTUEJÌP



2CTC*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5EJKOMC#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

1712











148

ex 1713

ex 1714

ex 1715



ex 1716

2CTC*,CJT3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGT FTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 5VGORGNINCP\



 2CTC  *,CJTG    WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM,CJTGWPFUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



 2CTC  *,CJTG    WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM,CJTIGNQEJVWPFUGJTUEJÌPFKGCPFGTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM,CJTOKV*GPMGNURWTWPFUGJTUEJÌPFKGCPFGTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



 2CTC  *,CJTG   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG 4X   4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI¤N¼GT WPF-/WPF# 5VÒEM,CJT44UGJTUEJÌPFKGCPFGTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ




MAHMÛD II.

ex 1718

ex 1717

8+8++5GTKG 



2CTC FQRRGNVGT<QNQVC *,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPUCPHCPIU KP <KGTTCPF 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CN   DCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT -/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPF5VGORGNINCP\



2CTC FQRRGNVGT<QNQVC *,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPUCPHCPIU KP <KGTTCPF 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CN   DCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI¤N¼GT -/ 5VÒEM5VGORGNINCP\



ex 1721 1720

ex 1719



 2CTC <QNQVC   * ,CJTG     WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6KVGN   5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPUCPHCPIU KP <KGTTCPF 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CN   DCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGWPFI ¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPF5VGORGNINCP\





-WTWUJ  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KP OKV 4QUGVVGP   DGNGIVGO (NGEJVDCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4CPF\KGT YKG   #XGTUI¤N¼GT-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKPOKV4Q UGVVGPDGNGIVGO(NGEJVDCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4CPF\KGT YKG#XGTUWPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM&CU,CJTUGNVGPUGJTUEJÌP





8++++:5GTKG 

1722

0GWGT $GUJNKM  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ CWH 'KEJGP   WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI FCTWO GKP $N·VVGT WPF $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUCWH'KEJGPWPF.QTDGGT\YGKIFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\I¤N¼GT -/ 4442GTHGMVGINGKEJO·­KIG#WURT·IWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ  &KGUG DKUNCPI WPRWDNK\KGTVG 8CTKCPVG UVGJV QHHGPUKEJVNKEJ CO #PHCPI FGT 2T·IWPI FGU J·WHKIGP %GFKF $GUJNKM &KG   OKV GKPGT5EJNGKHGXGTDWPFGPGP<YGKIGWO6WIJTCWPF#WHUEJTKHVXGTTCVGPUEJQPFGWVNKEJOKVVGNGWTQR·KUEJGP'KP HNWUUFGTMWT\G<GKVFCTCWHFWTEJ/QPFUKEJGNPQUOCPKUKGTVYWTFG'KEJGWPF.QTDGGTHKPFGPUKEJGTUVOCNUCWHFGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP5KNDGTOÒP\GPWPVGT.WFYKI:8'TUVHÒPH\GJP,CJTGPCEJFKGUGOªDGTPCJOGXGTUWEJKO1UOCPKUEJGP 4GKEJ MCO GU OKV FGP 4GHQTOOÒP\GP #DF CN/GLÄFU \WT &WTEJUGV\WPI FGT KP 'WTQRC CNNIGOGKP XGTDTGKVGVGP   <YGKIGOKV5EJNGKHGPLGFQEJCWEJFCMGKPGT'KEJGPUQPFGTPPWT.QTDGGT\YGKIG#WEJYGPPFCUXQTNKGIGPFG5VÒEM MGKPG FGWVNKEJGP 7ONCWHURWTGP \GKIV UQ FGWVGV FGT NGKEJVG #DTKGD FGU 5KNDGTUWFUCWHJQEJIGNGIGPGP(N·EJGPFQEJ CPFCUUFKGUGU5VÒEMPKEJVCNU2TQDGUQPFGTPCWUFGO7ONCWHKPGKPGHTÒJG5COONWPIIGNCPIVUGKPFÒTHVG 

149


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1724

ex 1723





0GWGT$GUJNKM*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄ CWH \YGK CWU -GVVGPINKGFGTP IGDKNFGVGP /QPFUKEJGNP OKV 5EJNGKHG FCTWO GKP $N·VVGT WPF $NÒVGPMTCP\   4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU    WPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM,CJTUGJTUEJÌPFKGCPFGTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



0GWGT$GUJNKMOKV2WPMV*,CJTWPF 8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ CWH \YGK CWU -GVVGPINKGFGTP IGDKNFGVGP /QPFUKEJGNP OKV 5EJNGKHG FCTWO GKP $N·VVGT   WPF $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO   #XGTU DGKFGTUGKVU GKP 5VGTP WPVGT FGP 5EJNGKHGP FGT /QPFG   WPF  I ¤N¼GT    -/ 5VÒEM&KGGTUVGPDGKFGP5VÒEMGUGJTUEJÌPFCUFTKVVGXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1725





ex 1726

;Ò\NÒM  *,CJT    WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ CWH   \YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNPOKV5EJNGKHGFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XGTU WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM,CJTUGJTUEJÌPFKGCPFGTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



;Ò\NÒMOKV2WPMV*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄCWH \YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNPOKV5EJNGKHGFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU DGKFGTUGKVU LG   YGKNUGKP5VGTPWPVGTFGP5EJNGKHGPWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



1727

1,5:1



150

1,5:1

-WTWUJ  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ CWH 'KEJGP WPF   .QTDGGT\YGKIFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIU CWH 'KEJGP WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI FCTWO GKP $N·VVGT WPF $NÒVGPMTCP\  I ¤N¼GT    C-/ 4445VGORGNINCP\ 


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1728





ex 1729

-WTWUJ  *,CJT    WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ CWH   \YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNPOKV5EJNGKHGFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XGTU WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WTWUJOKV2WPMV*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄCWH \YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNPOKV5EJNGKHGFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU DGKFGTUGKVU   LGYGKNUGKP5VGTPWPVGTFGP5EJNGKHGPWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



1730

ex 1731

ex 1732



 -WRHGT2CTC  *,CJT  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  XGTOWVNKEJ GKPG \GKVIGPÌUUK   UEJG (·NUEJWPI 6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ CWH \YGK CWU -GVVGPINKGFGTP IGDKNFGVGP /QPFUKEJGNP OKV 5EJNGKHG   FCTWO GKP $N·VVGT WPF $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU DGKFGTUGKVU LGYGKNU GKP 5VGTP WPVGT FGP 5EJNGKHGP  I \W ¤N¼GT    -/ 5GJTUEJÌP





2CTC*,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄCWH \YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNPOKV5EJNGKHGFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU DGKFGTUGKVU LG   YGKNUGKP5VGTPWPVGTFGP5EJNGKHGPWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ



 2CTC OKV 2WPMV  *,CJT        8CT   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C  

-QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ CWH \YGK CWU -GVVGPINKGFGTP IGDKNFGVGP /QPFUKEJGNP OKV   5EJNGKHGFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU DGKFGTUGKVU LGYGKNU GKP 5VGTP WPVGT FGP 5EJNGKHGP      WPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM,CJTGWPFUGJTUEJÌPFKGCPFGTGPXQT\ÒINKEJQFGTDGUUGT





ex 1733

ex 1734

ex 1735



 2CTC  *,CJT    WPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄCWH \YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNPOKV5EJNGKHGFCTWOGKP$N·VVGTWPF$NÒVGPMTCP\4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU DGKFGTUGKVU LG   YGKNUGKP5VGTPWPVGTFGP5EJNGKHGPWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ





 2CTC OKV 2WPMV  *,CJT        WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN   +UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄCWH\YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNPOKV5EJNGKHGFCTWOGKP $N·VVGT WPF $NÒVGPMTCP\ 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 'KPHCUUWPI   YKGKO#XGTUDGKFGTUGKVULGYGKNUGKP5VGTPWPVGTFGP5EJNGKHGPPKEJVIGYQIGP WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





#NVKNKM -WTWUJ *,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄWOIGDGPXQP5VTGWDNWOGPKP2GTNWPF$NÒVGPMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU    WPF  I ¤N¼GT    -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP

 151


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1737







ex 1736

#NVKNKM -WTWUJ *,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄ WOIGDGPXQP5VTGWDNWOGPKP2GTNWPF$NÒVGPMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIUKP'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XGTUWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM&CUGTUVG5VGORGNINCP\FKGCPFGTGPUGJTUEJÌP



ª¼NÒM -WTWUJ *,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄWOIGDGPXQP5VTGWDNWOGPKP2GTNWPF$NÒVGPMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP 'KPHCUUWPI YKG KO #XGTU    WPF  I ¤N¼GT    -/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ



ª¼NÒM -WTWUJ *,CJTWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄ WOIGDGPXQP5VTGWDNWOGPKP2GTNWPF$NÒVGPMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIUKP'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XGTUWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM&KGGTUVGPDGKFGPXQT\ÒINKEJFCUFTKVVGUGJTUEJÌPOKV)TÒPURCPHNGEM



ex 1739





ex 1738

ex 1740

#NVOiqNiM  2CTC    -WTWUJ   *,CJT    WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN   +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ WOIGDGP XQP 5VTGWDNWOGP KP 2GTN WPF $NÒVGPMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XGTUWPFI ¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ



#NVOiqNiM  2CTC    -WTWUJ   *,CJT   WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN   +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ WOIGDGP XQP 5VTGWDNWOGP KP 2GTN WPF $NÒVGPMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP'KPHCUUWPIYKGKO#XGTUWPFI¤N¼GT -/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFWP\KTMWNKGTV



ex 1741

ex 1742

2CTCRT·IWPIGP 

2CTC*,CJTG 8CTKCPVGP  8CTKCPVGP WPF 8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKP QRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU     WPFI¤N¼GT-/WPF  5VÒEM9GPKIGUGJTUEJÌPOGKUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC  *,CJTG    8CTKCPVGP   8CTKCPVGP  8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKP QRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU     WPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



152


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1743



ex 1745

ex 1744

ex 1746

ex 1747

2CTC  *,CJTG    8CTKCPVGP    8CTKCPVGP  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN    6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  PKEJV IGYQIGP    WPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC  *,CJTG   8CTKCPVGP    8CTKCPVGP    8CTKCPVGP  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C  

-QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU    WPFI¤N¼GT -/WPF 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC  *,CJTG   8CTKCPVGP    8CTKCPVGP    8CTKCPVGP    8CTKCPVGP  WPF     8CTKCPVGP  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT   FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU                WPFI¤N¼GT-/WPF  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC*,CJTG 8CTKCPVGP  5VÒEM WPF 8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN +UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU                         WPFI¤N¼GT-/WPF 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*,CJTG 8CTKCPVGP  8CTKCPVGP WPF 8CTKCPVGP 3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKP QRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU                WPF  I ¤N¼GT    -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ







ex 1748

1750

ex 1749

ex 1751

1,5:1

1,5:1



2CTC  *,CJTG   8CTKCPVGP    8CTKCPVGP  WPF   8CTKCPVGP  UQYKG \YGK 5VÒEMG OKV   WPUKEJGTGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJTGP  WPF  3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKG   TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





#M¼G*,CJTGWPF3WUVCPVÄPÄ[C -QPUVCPVKPQRGN+UVCPDWN 6WIJTC4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI¤N¼GT WPVGT2CTC -/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





4WPFGT-WRHGT#M¼G*9³P 8CP 6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI-/ 445GJTUEJÌP





4WPFGT-WRHGT#M¼G  *9³P 8CP 6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTWPFI -/ 5VÒEM445GJTUEJÌP



1,5:1



1752

1,5:1

1XCNGT-WRHGT#M¼G*9³P 8CP 6WIJTC4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI8IN-/

MGPPVFKGUGU,CJTPKEJV  447PINGKEJO·­KIG#WURT·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP

 153


MAHMÛD II.

1,5:1

1753

1,5:1

+TCM)QNFOÒP\G 

*C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  $CIJFCF 6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP -TGKU FCTWO CNVGTPKGTGPF <YGKIG WPF   1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO4CPFCNVGTPKG TGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT  MGPPVPKEJVFKGUGU,CJT -/ )1.&5GJTUGNVGPGU,CJT)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



&KG0QOKPCNGFGT$CIJFCFGT/ÒP\RT·IWPIUKPFKPFGTI·PIKIGP$GUVKOOWPIUNKVGTCVWTWPUKEJGTWPFKPFGT4GIGNCWU ªDGTVTCIWPIGP CWU FGT LGYGKNU \GKVIGPÌUUKUEJGP /ÒP\RT·IWPI -QPUVCPVKPQRGNU GTUEJNQUUGP XQP FGT UKG UKEJ CDGT   FGWVNKEJWPVGTUEJGKFGP 

1754

1755

1756

+TCM5KNDGTWPF-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

,CFKF $GUJNKM  *,CJT  $CIJFCF 6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJCTVKIGT (CUUWPI YKG KO #X   6[RGPÒDGTPCJOG XQO -QPUVCPVKPQRNGT +MKNKM FGT ,CJTG   I (QPTQDGTV  CNU ;Ò\NÒM    2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





,CFKF $GUJNKM  *,CJT  $CIJFCF 6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KP +PPGPMTGKU FCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJCTVKIGT (CUUWPI YKG KO #X   6[RGPÒDGTPCJOGXQO-QPUVCPVKPQRNGT+MKNKMFGT,CJTGI2GTG¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





,CFKF$GUJNKM*,CJT!$CIJFCF6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKP+PPGPMTGKUFCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP INGKEJCTVKIGT (CUUWPI YKG KO #X   6[RGPÒDGTPCJOGXQO-QPUVCPVKPQRNGT+MKNKMFGT,CJTGI2GTG¤N¼GT-/ .GKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCIKO4XFCFWTEJ4GIKGTWPIULCJTWPMNCTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1757



154

-WTWUJ  *,CJT  $CIJFCF 6WIJTC OKV $NWOG WOIGDGP XQP 5EJTKHVDCPF OKV 6KVWNCVWT 4X   /\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTWOIGDGPXQP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV6KVGN0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 6[RGPÒDGTPCJOG XQO -QPUVCPVKPQRNGT 4WOK #NVKP  I 2GTG  ¤N¼GT    -/ 6GKNUUEJYCEJCWUIGRT·IVUGJTUEJÌP




MAHMÛD II.

1758

1,5:1

1,5:1



-WTWUJ !   *,CJT  $CIJFCF 6WIJTC OKV -PQVGP KP OGJTHCEJGO <KGTMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIU   LCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJGT7OTCPFWPIIWPRWDNK\KGTV!  4445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

1759







1760

4GFW\KGTVGT-WTWUJ ! *,CJT$CIJFCF6WIJTCOKV-PQVGPKPGKPHCEJGO2GTNMTGKU\YKUEJGP (CFGPMTGKUGP4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJGT7OTCPFWPI I-/ FKGUGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV  445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



 2CTC <QNQVC   * ,CJTG  $CIJFCF 6KVGN 5WNVCPUPCOG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPUCPHCPIU 4X 6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  OKV FGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP   <GKNGI2GTG¤N¼GT-/ 445GJTUEJÌP



1761





ex 1762

 2CTC !   *,CJT  $CIJFCF 6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KP OKV 2WPMVGP DGNGIVGO (NGEJVDCPF 4X   4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4CPF\KGTYKG#XGTUI¤N¼GT -/ 5GJTUEJÌP



 2CTC !   *,CJT  $CIJFCF6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIU   CPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[POKVFGO4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG<YGK 8CTKCPVGPWPFI¤N¼GTD-/ CNU-WTWUJ   5VÒEM$GKOGTUVGP5VÒEMUGJTUEJÌPFCU\YGKVGUEJÌPQJPGGTMGPPDCTGU4GIKGTWPIULCJT



1763

1764



2CTC ! *,CJT$CIJFCF6WIJTCOKV$NWOG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ CNU2CTC  )GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP





2CTC ! *,CJT$CIJFCF6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKP+PPGPMTGKUFCTWOHNQTCNGT<KGTTCPF4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPINGKEJCTVKIGT(CUUWPIYKGKO#X6[RGP ÒDGTPCJOGXQO-QPUVCPVKPQRNGT+MKNKMFGT,CJTGI¤N¼GT-/ 5EJÌP

 155


MAHMÛD II.

1766

1765



 2CTC  * $CIJFCF +O 0COGP FGU 9CNK 5C ÄF 2³UJ³ UC ÄF  R³UJ³ KP CEJVURKVKIGO 5VGTP 4X   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI¤N¼GT-/ 42T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T







&KGKPFGPNGV\VGP,CJT\GJPVGPOGJTHCEJDKU\WT#WHPCJOGKPFGP-TCWUG/KUJNGT-CVCNQIYKGFGTJQNVG)GUEJKEJVG FCUUFKG'KIGPO·EJVKIMGKVFGU5C KF2³UJ³-WRHGTOÒP\GPKOGKIGPGP0COGP\WRT·IGPFKGUGPFCU.GDGPIGMQUVGV JCDG IGJÌTV KP FGP $GTGKEJ OQFGTPGT .GIGPFGPDKNFWPI &KG 2T·IWPI GTHQNIVG OKV $KNNKIWPI FGT QUOCPKUEJGP   <GPVTCNTGIKGTWPI 



2CTC*$CIJFCF/KV-PQVGPCPUVGNNGFGU0COGPUFGU9CNK5C ÄF2³UJ³KPCEJVURKVKIGO5VGTP 4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP+UNCOKE%QKPU#WEVKKQP.QPFQP0T





ex 1768

1767



2CTC*$CIJFCF*CNDOQPFOKV5VGTPKP5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKU4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTI ¤N¼GTDXCT-/XCT 5EJYCEJCWUIGRT·IVUGJTUEJÌP





2CTC*,CJT$CIJFCF6WIJTCKPGKPGOCWTEJGKPG9GNNGPNKPKGOKV2WPMVGPIGDKNFGVGP<KGT TCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  8CTKCPVGP  WPF  I   ¤N¼GTC-/ 5VÒEM5EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



1769



1770

2CTC!*$CIJFCF6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKP<KGTTCPF4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI¤N¼GT -/ -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI*WUPK





5CWFK#TCDKGP-WRHGTOÒP\G 

(CNUQFGT*CNDOCJOWFK*/CMMC /GMMC /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPCICDGKP\YGK<GKNGPFC\YKUEJGPGKP 8QIGN NKPMUJKP 4X &QRRGNVGU XGTYKNFGTVGU &CVWO FC\YKUEJGP GKP (KUEJ (QPTQDGTV  ¤N¼GT   C-/



1771

1,5:1

1,5:1

I[RVGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGP6WIJTCÒDGT5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU$GK\GKEJGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKP2WPMVNKPMUWPVGPGKP2WPMV4X6KVGN 4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG¤N¼GT -/ )1.&445EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

156






MAHMÛD II.

1772

1,5:1

1,5:1



<GTKOCJDÑD*/KUT -CKTQ QJPG9CNK\GKEJGP6WIJTCÒDGT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU $GK\GKEJGP TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKP -PQVGP NKPMU WPVGP FTGK 2WPMVG 4X 6KVGN 4GIKG   TWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG  I 2GTG  ,CJT   ¤N¼GT  -/    )1.&445GJTUEJÌP8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVOGDGT0T

1773

1,5:1





1,5:1

<GTK OCJDÑD  * /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG 9CNK\GKEJGP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIU $GK\GKEJGP TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG $NWOG NKPMU WPVGP XKGT 2WPMVG 4X 6KVGN   4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/

LGFQEJQJPG C\\CPCUTCJW  )1.&44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

1775

1774





<GTK OCJDÑD  * /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG 9CNK\GKEJGP 6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKG   TWPIUCPHCPIU $GK\GKEJGP TGEJVU PGDGP FGT 6WIJTC GKPG -PQVGP NKPMU WPVGP \YGK 2WPMVG 4X 6KVGN   4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/

LGFQEJQJPG C\\CPCUTCJW  )1.&4)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T







*CNDGT <GTK OCJDÑD  * /KUT -CKTQ  QJPG 9CNK\GKEJGP 6WIJTC ÒDGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ /\UV   WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU$GK\GKEJGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKP2WPMVNKPMUWPVGPGKP2WPMV 4X6KVGN4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI5NI(QPTQDGTV#TVWM!

,CJT  FQTV CNU OKV C\\C PCUTCJW DGUEJTKGDGP  2GTG  XCT ¤N¼GT  -/  LGFQEJ OKV   C\\CPCUTCJW  )1.&445VCTMG-PKEMURWTUQPUVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ1MVQDGT0T







&KG(QTVNCUUWPIFGU5GIGPUYWPUEJGU C\\CPCUTCJWWPVGTFGT6WIJTCKPFGT)QNFRT·IWPIGTHQNIVGQHHGPDCT\YKUEJGP FGO FTKVVGP WPF HÒPHVGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJTFCWGTJCHVWPFPKEJVYKGDGK-TCWUG/KUJNGTCPIGPQOOGPPWTKUQNKGTVKO HÒPHVGP,CJT7TUCEJGYCTFGTCPJCNVGPFG-TKGIU\WUVCPF\YKUEJGPFGO-JGFKXGP/WJCOOCF #NKWPFFGT2HQTVGKP FGT GKP 5KGIGUYWPUEJ HÒT FGP -TKGIUIGIPGT WPRCUUGPF UGKP OWUUVG &CUU FGT JCNDG <GTK OCJDWD XQO  4GIKG   TWPIULCJT KO #TMGQNQLK /Ò\G FKGUGP 5GIGPUYWPUEJ VTCIGP UQNNVG DGFCTH FGT ªDGTRTÒHWPI \WOCN FCU *CNDUVÒEM KP   FGT5COONWPIFGT;CRK-TGFK$CPM2GTGXQOUGNDGP,CJTFGP5GIGPUYWPUEJPKEJV\GKIV 

1,5:1



1776

1,5:1

8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÑD*QJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT YQJN,CJT /KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOG CPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X5GIGPUYWPUEJ/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKPFGT/KVVGÒDGTFGO $WEJUVCDGPDCXQPFWTKDCGKP5VGTPI2GTG¤N¼GT-/  )1.&44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5QVJGD[YQJNCWU0T FQTVPKEJVTKEJVKIDGUEJTKGDGP 





157


MAHMÛD II.

1777









ex 1779

ex 1780

8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT ! /KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X

QJPG5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI2GTG¤N¼GT -/ )1.&4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUWPFFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN<GTKOCJDÑD*,CJT 8CTKCPVGP WPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGCP FGTTGEJVGP5GKVGKPFQRRGNVGO-TGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&&CU\YGKVG5VÒEMIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGN4ÑOÄ#NVKP*,CJT 8CTKCPVGP WPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGCPFGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG KP <KGTMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP <KGTMTGKU   WPFI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGN4ÑOÄ#NVKP*,CJTWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGCPFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG KP <KGTMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU KP <KGTMTGKU   WPF   I2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM)1.&&CUFTKVVG5VÒEMOKVUVCTMGT-PKEMURWTUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1781



ex 1778

1782

1783

1784

*CNDGT *C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP -TGKU FCTWO CNVGTPKGTGPF   <YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO 4CPFCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNI#TVWM2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT -/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



&CU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT UKGJV YKG  CWU YCU CPIGUKEJVU FGU 5VÒEMGU FGT ;CRK -TGFK $CPM 2GTG  CWH FGO FCU   ,CJTIGNGUGPYWTFGUKPPXQNNGTUEJGKPV&KG#DDKNFWPIDGK2GTGOCEJVFKG.GUWPILGFQEJWPUKEJGTWPFKOXQTNKG IGPFGP(CNNUEJGKPVGUCWEJOÌINKEJ\WUGKPFCUU4QUVHTC­KO5VGORGNFKG<KHHGTFGU<GJPGTUKPGKPGXGTYCP FGNVG 



*CNDGT *C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP -TGKU FCTWO CNVGTPKGTGPF   <YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO 4CPFCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&'VYCUIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T





*CNDGT *C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP -TGKU FCTWO CNVGTPKGTGPF   <YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO 4CPFCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



*CNDGT *C[TÄ[C#NVKP  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ KP -TGKU FCTWO CNVGTPKGTGPF   <YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV6KVWNCVWT4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO 4CPFCNVGTPKGTGPF<YGKIGWPF1XCNGOKV0COGWPF6KVGNI#TVWM ,CJT 2GTG ,CJT  ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

158








MAHMÛD II.

1,5:1

1,5:1





1787

1786

1785

/CJOÑFÄ[C1PNWMQFGTJCNDGTPGWGT/CJOÑFÄ[C#NVKP*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄ KP9GNNGPDCPFOKV8HÌTOKIGP(ÒNNQTPCOGPVGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKG TWPIULCJTKO9GNNGPDCPFYKGKO#XGTUI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/  )1.&5VGORGNINCP\



/CJOÑFÄ[C1PNWMQFGTJCNDGTPGWGT/CJOÑFÄ[C#NVKP*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄ KP9GNNGPDCPFOKV2WPMVGPCNU(ÒNNQTPCOGPVGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKG TWPIULCJTKO9GNNGPDCPFYKGKO#XGTUI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/  )1.&445VGORGNINCP\



/CJOÑFÄ[C1PNWMQFGTJCNDGTPGWGT/CJOÑFÄ[C#NVKP*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄ KP9GNNGPDCPFOKVIGUVKGNVGP$N·VVGTP4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJT KO9GNNGPDCPFYKGKO#XGTUI2GTG¤N¼GT-/  )1.&8QPNGKEJVMQTTQFKGTVGP5VGORGNP5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



1,5:1



1,5:1

4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG¤N¼GT-/  )1.&44.GKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP

1,5:1



1788



1789

1,5:1

4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG¤N¼GT-/  )1.&445GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP7$5<ÒTKEJ0T

1790











1791

4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT  I 2GTG  ,CJT   ¤N¼GT    -/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT  I 2GTG  ,CJT   XIN ¤N¼GT   

PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT -/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



159


MAHMÛD II.

1793

1792



4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG ,CJT ¤N¼GT PKEJV FKGUGU,CJT -/ )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU QDGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT  I 2GTG  ,CJT   ¤N¼GT    -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG5VGRJGP#NDWO5CPVC4QUC0T



1,5:1

4GHQTOKGTVGT  3WTÑUJ  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ ÒDGT 9GTVCPICDG CO 4CPF   5VTGWDNWOGP4X/\UVWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTCO4CPF5VTGWDNWOGP I2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

1796

4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJTG/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG¤N¼GT-/  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJTG/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG¤N¼GT FKGUGU,CJTPKEJV  -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T





'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T

1797

1,5:1



1798

4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJTG/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄKPFQRRGNVGO-TGKU4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG¤N¼GT-/   )1.&4.GKEJVYGNNKIXQT\ÒINKEJ







4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJTG/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG¤N¼GT-/  )1.&-CWOUKEJVDCTG(CUUWPIUURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJTG/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG¤N¼GT-/  )1.&4.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T

160

1800



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



1799

4GHQTOKGTVGT3WTÑUJ*,CJTG/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄKPFQRRGNVGO-TGKU4X/\UV WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUQDGP4GIKGTWPIULCJTI2GTG¤N¼GT XIN -/ )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T





1,5:1

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI6WTCVJ++#WMVKQP5RKPM.QPFQP0T







1795







1794

1,5:1










MAHMÛD II.

1801

I[RVGP5KNDGTWPF-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC ÒDGT /\UV WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   $GK\GKEJGPTGEJVUPGDGPFGT6WIJTCGKPGFTGKDN·VVTKIG$NWOGNKPMUWPVGPFTGK2WPMVG4X6KVGNUWNV³P CNDCTTC[P4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GTC-/  45GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG

1802





1803



3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV GKPGO &TGKDNCVV CWH FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG 4X   4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT!-/  445EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP





3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV GKPGO &TGKDNCVV CWH FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG 4X   4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT!-/  45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP5RKPM<ÒTKEJ0T

1804







3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 8CTKCPVG\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEM6WIJTCOKVGKPGO-PQVGP CWH FGT TGEJVGP WPF GKPGO 5VGTP CWH FGT NKPMGP 5GKVG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ 42T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



ex 1807

3KTUJ -WTWUJ *,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKVGKPGO-PQVGPCWHFGTTGEJVGPWPFGKPGO5VGTP CWHFGTNKPMGP5GKVG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT -/ 5GJTUEJÌP



3KTUJ -WTWUJ *,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTC 8CTKCPVGP OKVGKPGO-PQVGPCWHFGTTGEJVGP WPFGKPGO5VGTPCWHFGTNKPMGP5GKVG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM)TQDG2T·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG



1805

3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV GKPGO -PQVGP CWH FGT TGEJVGP WPF GKPGO   MCWOUKEJVDCTGP5VGTPCWHFGTNKPMGP5GKVG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ 45EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP

1806







161


MAHMÛD II.

1808

1809

1810

ex 1811



2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKVGKPGTFTGKDN·VVTKIGP$NWOGCWHFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/  5GJTUEJÌP





 2CTC  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV GKPGO -PQVGP CWH FGT TGEJVGP WPF 5VGTP CWH FGT   NKPMGP!  5GKVG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  I ¤N¼GT    !-/ 5EJÌP



2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKVGKPGTFTGKDN·VVTKIGP$NWOGCWHFGTTGEJVGPWPFGKPGO 5VGTP CWH FGT NKPMGP 5GKVG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  I   ¤N¼GT-/ 5EJÌP



2CTC*,CJTWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKVGKPGTFTGKDN·VVTKIGP$NWOGKO,CJTWPFGKPGO -PQVGP KO ,CJT  CWH FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCP   HCPIUWPFI¤N¼GTWPF-/ 5VÒEM5EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP







1812

ex 1813



2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKVGKPGTFTGKDN·VVTKIGP$NWOGCWHFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





 2CTC  *,CJTG  WPF  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG CWH FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG KP DTGKVGO   <KGTTCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI¤N¼GT WPF-/ 5VÒEM,CJTOKVIGUVQRHVGO.QEJUGJTITQDG2T·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP



ex 1815 ex 1814



 2CTC  *,CJTG   WPF  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV GKPGT $NWOG CWH FGT TGEJVGP 5GKVG 4X   4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM)TQDG2T·IWPIGPOKV2T·IGUEJY·EJGPUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



162





2CTC*,CJTGWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKVGKPGT$NWOGCWHFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X4G IKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  WPF  I ¤N¼GT  WPF    -/ 5VÒEM$GKOGTUVGP5VÒEM<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌPFCU\YGKVGUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



ex 1816





2CTC*,CJTGWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKVGKPGT$NWOGCWHFGTTGEJVGP5GKVG4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUDGKO,CJTOKVDTGKVGO<KGTTCPF WPFI¤N¼GTWPF-/WPF#  5VÒEM&CUGTUVG5VÒEMXQT\ÒINKEJFCU\YGKVGUEJÌPFCUFTKVVG<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP




MAHMÛD II.

ex 1818

ex 1817





2CTC  *,CJTG         WPF  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  WPF I¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM'KP5VÒEMIGNQEJVUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



2CTC*,CJTG 8CTKCPVGPGKPOCN,CJTWPUKEJGT  5VÒEM  8CTKCPVGP WPF   5VÒEM  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   WPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP



&KG DGK -TCWUG/KUJNGT WPVGT FGT 0T # KP 'PVURTGEJWPI \W ¤N¼GT  CWU FGT 2CTC4GKJG CWUIGINKGFGTVGP   #M¼GCD,CJTFÒTHVGPOKVITQ­GT9CJTUEJGKPNKEJMGKVGDGPHCNNU2CTCQFGT0KUHHKFFCIGYGUGPUGKP 

ex 1820

ex 1819





0GWGT3KTUJ -WTWUJ *,CJTG 8CTKCPVGP WPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKP OKV 4QUGVVGP DGNGIVGO (NGEJVDCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   4CPF\KGTYKG#XGTUWPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



0GWGT 3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJTG  WPF  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKPOKV4QUGVVGPDG NGIVGO (NGEJVDCPF 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4CPF\KGT YKG   #XGTUWPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPF5VGORGNINCP\



ex 1821

ex 1822



0GWGT2CTC*,CJTGWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKPOKV4QUGVVGPDGNGIVGO (NGEJVDCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4CPF\KGTYKG#XGTU WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





0GWGT  2CTC  *,CJTG  WPF  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG KP OKV 4QUGVVGP DGNGIVGO   (NGEJVDCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4CPF\KGTYKG#XGTU WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1823



ex 1824

ex 1825

1826

0GWGT2CTC*,CJTGWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKPOKV4QUGVVGPDGNGIVGO (NGEJVDCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4CPF\KGTYKG#XGTU WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM&CUGTUVGXQT\ÒINKEJFKGCPFGTGPUGJTUEJÌP





0GWGT2CTC*,CJTGWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKPOKV4QUGVVGPDGNGIVGO (NGEJVDCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4CPF\KGTYKG#XGTU WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM,CJTXQT\ÒINKEJFKGCPFGTGPUGJTUEJÌP





2CTC*,CJTGWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF ,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV$NWOG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ 48QT\ÒINKEJ





163


MAHMÛD II.

1828

1827



4GHQTO3KTUJ -WTWUJ *,CJT 8CTKCPVGPOKVWPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGT<GKEJPWPIFGT-T·P\G WPF /KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄKO$NÒVGPMTCP\4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIUKO$NÒVGPMTCP\WPFI¤N¼GTWPF-/  5VÒEM,CJT5VGORGNINCP\FKGCPFGTGPUGJTUEJÌP ,CJT'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP U+UNCOKE%QKPU#WEVKQP.QPFQP0T







4GHQTO2CTC*,CJTGWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄKO$NÒVGPMTCP\4X4GIKG TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKO$NÒVGPMTCP\WPFI¤N¼GT WPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJWPF5VGORGNINCP\ ,CJT'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI/CE-GP\KG





1829



 -WTWUJ  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ ÒDGT 9GTVCPICDG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM# ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/ 44.GKEJVG-TCV\GTUQPUVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJOKVEJCTCMVGTKUVKUEJGTITQDGT1DGTHN·EJGFGU5EJTÌVNKPIU 

1830



 -WTWUJ  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ ÒDGT 9GTVCPICDG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM#¤N¼GT-/  448QT\ÒINKEJ 

1833 1831







164

1832

 -WTWUJ  *,CJT  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ ÒDGT 9GTVCPICDG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI#TVWM$ ,CJT ¤N¼GT-/  45GJTUEJÌP



3KTUJ -WTWUJ   *,CJTG     8CTKCPVGP  WPF  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC OKV CFNÄ ÒDGT   9GTVCPICDG 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU       WPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM,CJTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\FKGCPFGTGPUGJTUEJÌP



2CTC*,CJTWPF/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X4GIKGTWPIU LCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI¤N¼GTWPF -/ 5VÒEM,CJTUGJTUEJÌP,CJTUEJÌP,CJTXQT\ÒINKEJ




MAHMÛD II.

1834

1835

1836

1,5:1

1,5:1



2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ 5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP,GCP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T



2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ W­GTUVUGNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



1838





2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄÒDGT9GTVCPICDG4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP

1837





1839



ex 1840



-WRHGT  2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCKPYGNNGPHÌTOKIGT'KPHCUUWPI4X4GIKGTWPIU LCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





-WRHGT2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCKPYGNNGPHÌTOKIGT'KPHCUUWPI4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/ 5VGORGNINCP\



9KEJVKIGGTUVG2T·IWPIFGTPGWGP/ÒP\UV·VVG'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP*GTKVCIG5GRVGODGT0T



-WRHGT2CTC*,CJT/KUT -CKTQ 6WIJTCKPYGNNGPHÌTOKIGT'KPHCUUWPI4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GT-/  -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP+UNCOKE%QKP#WEVKQP.QPFQP0T







-WRHGT2CTC*,CJT 8CTKCPVGPOKVWPFQJPG4CPFMTGKU  8CTKCPVGP 2CTC  *,CJTG  WPF  /KUT -CKTQ  6WIJTC ÒDGT 9GTV 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT   FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI¤N¼GT#WPF$ C-/ 5VÒEM5EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



1841

.KD[GP5KNDGTWPF$KNNQPOÒP\GP 

 2CTC  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV 5HÌTOKIGT $NWOG KP-TGKUWPF<KGT TCPF4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP<KGTTCPFYKGKO#XI ¤N¼GT-/ 445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP,GCP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T





165


MAHMÛD II.

1842



 2CTC  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV 5HÌTOKIGT $NWOG KP <KGTTCPF 4X   4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP<KGTTCPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT -/ 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

1843



1844



-WTWUJ  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG I¤N¼GT-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ





-WTWUJ  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV $NWOG ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG   WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  CPUVGNNG GKPGU 4GIKGTWPIULCJTGU GKP   -PQVGPÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1845



1846

1847

-WTWUJ  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV FTGKDN·VVTKIGT $NÒVG WPF \YGK 5VGTPGP   ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 445GJTUEJÌP





-WTWUJ  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV-PQVGPWPF\YGK5VGTPGPÒDGT/ÒP\ UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO   'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG LG GKP 5VGTP KP FGT /KVVG FGT GTHUVGP FTGK <GKNGP  I ¤N¼GT    -/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ 



-WTWUJ  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV -PQVGP WPF FTGK 8HÌTOKIGP <GKEJGP   ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI2GTG¤N¼GT-/  445VCTMG,WUVKGTURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI5EJKOMC#WMVKQP2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

166






MAHMÛD II.

1848





1849

-WTWUJ  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV 5HÒTOKIGT $NWOG WPF \YGK 5VGTPGP   ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4X6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT   ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI¤N¼GT-/ 445GJTUEJÌP



-WTWUJ*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GTC-/ 445GJTUEJÌP



1850

1,5:1



1,5:1

-WTWUJ*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV*CNDOQPFÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP-TGKUFCTWOHTGKGT4CWOWPF·W­GTGT-TGKU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG 4CPF YKG KO #X  I ¤N¼GT E -/ 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJOKVXQNNGO5KNDGTUWF

1851







1852

-WTWUJ*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV*CNDOQPFÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP-TGKUFCTWOHTGKGT4CWOWPF·W­GTGT-TGKU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG4CPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/  5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WTWUJ*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV*CNDOQPFÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUFCTWOHTGKGT4CWOWPFGKP-TGKU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG4CPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP

 167


MAHMÛD II.

1853







1854

1855

<QNQVC*,CJT HÒT 6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGN0COG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIUKO<KGTTCPF4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNG4CPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



<QNQVC*,CJT HÒT 6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGN0COG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKG TWPIUCPHCPIUKO<KGTTCPF4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP <GKNG4CPFYKGKO#X5VGORGNXCTKCPVG\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEMI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



<QNQVC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGN0COG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCP HCPIUKO<KGTTCPF4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG 4CPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



1856

1,5:1

1,5:1



2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKP-TGKUFCTWOHTGKGT4CWOWPF GKP<KGTMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4CPFYKGKO#XI ¤N¼GT-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\

1857



1858



 2CTC *,CJT!6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKP-TGKUFCTWOHTGKGT4CWO WPF GKP <KGTMTGKU 4X 4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU 4CPF YKG KO #X   I¤N¼GT!-/ 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





 2CTC  *QJPG 4GIKGTWPIULCJT 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV 5HÒTOKIGT $NWOG WPF   \YGK 5VGTPGP ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PCPUVGNNG GKPGU 4GIKGTWPIULCJTGU ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG FGT $WEJUVCDG PÑP  I ¤N¼GT C   -/ 44)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



168


MAHMÛD II.

1859





1860

2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6KVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJFCTWPVGTFCU4G IKGTWPIULCJT4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GTC-/  4)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV*CNDOQPFÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG4CPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP,GCP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T

1861





1862

1863

2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV2WPMVKP-TGKUFCTWOHTGKGT4CWOWPF GKP<KGTMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU4CPFYKGKO#XI ¤N¼GT-/ 445VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T



 2CTC  *,CJT 6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV-PQVGPÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG4CPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP,GCP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T











 2CTC  *,CJT 6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV-PQVGPÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG4CPFYKGKO#X8CTKCPVG\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEMOKVCPFGTGT#WHVGKNWPIFGU4GIKG TWPIULCJTGUI¤N¼GT-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ

1864







1865

2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV*CNDOQPFÒDGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG4CPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 44)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



2CTC !QFGT2CTC *,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKVTWFKOGPV·TGT$NWOGKP -TGKUFCTWOHTGKGT4CWOWPFGKP<KGTMTGKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4CPFYKGKO#XI¤N¼GT-/ 44)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP

 169


MAHMÛD II.

1866

1867

.KD[GP-WRHGTOÒP\GP 

 2CTC  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV -PQVGP ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU   4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP.KPKGPWPF2GTNMTGKU4X6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PFCU4GIKGTWPIULCJTÒDGTFGO 'PFGFGTFTKVVGP<GKNGI-/ CNU$KNNQP  -PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKO8KGTRCUU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI(QPTQDGTV-/ 45GJTUEJÌP



1868





ex 1869

 2CTC  *,CJT ! 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  6WIJTC OKV FTGKDM·VVTKIGT $NÒVG KO 8KGTRCUU 4X   WPMNCTGU4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI8IN(QPTQDGTV-/  45GJTUEJÌP



2CTCQJPG,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU UWNV³POCJOÑFMJ³P4X/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG8CTKCP VGPWPFI¤N¼GTCXCT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1870

ex 1871



2CTC*WPFQJPG4GIKGTWPIULCJT 8CTKCPVGP 6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU UWNV³POCJOÑF MJ³P 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU   WPF  I ¤N¼GT C WPF E   -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





2CTCQJPG,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU &WTKDC4XHÄVCT³DNWU8CTKCPVGPWPFI ¤N¼GTDXCT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFDGUUGT



ex 1872





2CTC*6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCQJPG$GK\GKEJGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU  8CTKCPVGP FCXQP GKP 5VÒEM OKV FGWVNKEJGP ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGP CWH FGP 6[R    ¤N¼GTCFKG,CJTGU\CJNVGKNYGKUGKTTVÒONKEJIGUEJTKGDGPWPFI ¤N¼GTF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*6CT³DNWUIJCTD6WIJTCVGKNUOKV$GK\GKEJGP2WPMVGWPF$NWOG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU8CTKCPVGPWPFI¤N¼GTF-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1874





170

ex 1873

1875

2CTC ! *6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCQJPG$GK\GKEJGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJT FGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU8CTKCPVGP6[RYKGXQTJGTLGFQEJFGWVNKEJMNGKPGTGT&WTEJOGUUGTWPFIGTKP IGTGU)GYKEJVFC\WGKPIGTKPIGTJCNVGPGT2CTCOKV8KGTRCUUGKPHCUUWPIDGKFGTUGKVUWPF I¤N¼GTDWPFF-/WPF 5VÒEM5EJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP



2CTC  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  UWNV³P  OCJOÑF MJ³P  C\\C PCUTCJW 4X 4GIKG   TWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GTC-/  5GJTUEJÌP




MAHMÛD II.

ex 1876





1877

2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU FWTKDCHÄ6CT³DNWU4XIJCTD8CTKCP VGPOKVXGTUEJKGFGPGP2WPMVKGTWPIGPFGU9QTVGUIJCTDWPFI¤N¼GTC-/  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU +P5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKUFWTKDCHÄ6CT³DNWU4X KPINGKEJGT'KPHCUUWPIIJCTDI¤N¼GTC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



1878

1879

1880

1881

ex 1882



2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 5VGTPFWTKDCHÄ4X6CT³DNWUHÄI ¤N¼GTD-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC*,CJT  =6CT³DNWUIJCTD? 6TKRQNKU UWNV³P4XOCJOÑFI¤N¼GT C-/ 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC  *,CJT 6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 5KIKNNWO5CNQOQPKU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUI¤N¼GTG-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU -PQVGPFCTWO6KVGN0COGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJTWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGI¤N¼GTCXCT-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU -PQVGPFCTWO6KVGN0COGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIU CPHCPIU4X4GIKGTWPIULCJTWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFI¤N¼GTCXCT-/  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP



ex 1883

ex 1884



2CTC*,CJT6CT³DNWUIJCTD 6TKRQNKU 6WIJTCOKV CFNÄ!TGEJVUWPFNKPMUKO-TCP\4X /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKO-TCP\WPFI¤N¼GTD-/  5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP





2CTC  *,CJT WPDGMCPPV 6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6TKRQNKU  5KIKNNWO 5CNQOQPKU OKV XKGT 2WPMVGP KP FGT   /KVVG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUWPFI¤N¼GTC-/  5VÒEM5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



1885

6WPGUKGP5KNDGTWPF$KNNQPOÒP\GP 

&QRRGNVGT4K[CN*6ÑPKU#WHWONCWHGPFGO$CPF6KVGN5WNVCPUPCOGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGT /KVVG#PICDGFGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT4XCWHWONCWHGPFGO$CPF6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PKP FGT/KVVGGKP)NÒEMUMPQVGPKO9QTVMJ³PFCTWPVGT5GIGPUYWPUEJI2GTG¤N¼GT (GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌPQJPGGTJCNVGPGO5KNDGTUWF

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0WOKUOCVKEC)GPGXGPUKU)GPH0T



 171


MAHMÛD II.

1886







1887

1888

&QRRGNVGT4K[CN*6ÑPKU#WHWONCWHGPFGO$CPF6KVGN5WNVCPUPCOGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGT /KVVG#PICDGFGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT4XCWHWONCWHGPFGO$CPF6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PKP FGT /KVVG GKP )NÒEMUMPQVGP KO 9QTV MJ³P FCTWPVGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ  I¤N¼GT(GPKPC -/ 8QT\ÒINKEJOKVYGKVIGJGPFGTJCNVGPGO5KNDGTUWF



&QRRGNVGT4K[CN*6ÑPKU#WHWONCWHGPFGO$CPF6KVGN5WNVCPUPCOGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGT /KVVG#PICDGFGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT4XCWHWONCWHGPFGO$CPF6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PKP FGT /KVVG GKP )NÒEMUMPQVGP KO 9QTV MJ³P FCTWPVGT 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 8CTKCPVG \WO XQTKIGP 5VÒEM WC   OKVITÌ­GTGT,CJTGU\CJNCWHMNGKPGTGO5EJTÌVNKPII¤N¼GT(GPKPC-/  5GJTUEJÌPOKVYGKVIGJGPFGTJCNVGPGO5KNDGTUWF



&QRRGNVGT4K[³N*6ÑPKU#WHWONCWHGPFGO$CPF6KVGN5WNVCPUPCOGWPF5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGT /KVVG#PICDGFGT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT4XCWHWONCWHGPFGO$CPF6KVGNUWNV³PCNDCTTC[PKP FGT/KVVGGKP)NÒEMUMPQVGPKO9QTVMJ³PFCTWPVGT5GIGPUYWPUEJI¤N¼GT(GPKPC -/ 44<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌPQJPG5KNDGTUWF



1889

1890

1891



4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU   QDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI¤N¼GT(GPKPC-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ





4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU   QDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI(GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP





4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU   QDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI¤N¼GT(GPKPC-/ 5GJTUEJÌP



172


MAHMÛD II.

1892

1893

ex 1894



4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU   QDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI¤N¼GT(GPKPC-/ -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ





4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU   QDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI¤N¼GT(GPKPC-/  5GJTUGNVGPGU,CJT-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWO KO8KGTRCUUQDGPGKPKPGKPGP4JQODWUGKPIGUEJTKGDGPGT-PQVGPWPFI¤N¼GT (GPKPC-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





ex 1895





4K[³N  WPF  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO   8KGTRCUUQDGPGKPQTPCOGPVKGTVGT-PQVGPWPFI¤N¼GTWPF(GPKPC -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU QDGP GKP &TGK\CEM    WPF  I ¤N¼GT  (GPKPC   -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1897





ex 1896

ex 1898

4K[³N     WPF  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUHQTOGN 4X /ÒP\   UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KO 8KGTRCUU QDGP GKP &TGK\CEM     WPF  I ¤N¼GT    (GPKPCWPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



4K[³N 8CTKCPVGP WPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF&CVWOKO8KGTRCUUQDGPGKP&TGK\CEMWPFI¤N¼GT (GPKPC-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 173


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1900

ex 1899





4K[³N 5VÒEM WPF 8CTKCPVGP *6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOKO8KGTRCUUQDGPGKP&TGK\CEMWPFI¤N¼GT(GPKPC WPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF &CVWOKPGKPGO-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGQDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPWPFI¤N¼GT WPF(GPKPC-/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP



ex 1901





ex 1902

*CNDGT4K[³N 8CTKCPVGP WPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\ UV·VVG WPF &CVWO KP GKPGO -TGKU KP UGEJUDN·VVTKIGT $NÒVG QDGP GKP HNQTCN XGT\KGTVGT GKPHCEJGT -PQVGP   WPFI¤N¼GTWPF(GPKPC-/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP



*CNDGT4K[³NWPF*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF &CVWOKPGKPGO-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGQDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPWPFI¤N¼GT (GPKPCWPF-/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP



1904

1903





8KGTVGN4K[³N*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWOKP5GEJ URCUUQDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI¤N¼GT(GPKPCXIN-/ PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV*GPMGNURWT<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN 4K[³N  * 6ÑPKU 5WNVCPUVKVGN0COGWPF5GIGPUHQTOGN4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF&CVWO5GEJ URCUUQDGPGKPFQRRGNVGT-PQVGPI¤N¼GT(GPKPC-/ 44(NGEMXQT\ÒINKEJ



1906

ex 1905 1,5:1



1907 1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

-JCTTÑDC        5VÒEM  WPF  * 6ÑPKU UWNV³P OCJOÑF 4X   2T·IGLCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPFI¤N¼GT (GPKPC-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPYGPKIGDGUUGT





3WCFTCVKUEJGT0³UKTÄ*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGNUWNV³POCJOÑF4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI ¤N¼GT(GPKPC-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ





3WCFTCVKUEJGT0³UKTÄ*6ÑPKU5WNVCPUVKVGNUWNV³POCJOÑF4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI XIN¤N¼GT MGPPVFKGUGU,CJTPKEJV (GPKPCXIN-/ PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT   4448QT\ÒINKEJ



174


MAHMÛD II.

1909

1908

#NIGTKGP)QNFOÒP\GP 

5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTOKVFQRRGNVGO -PQVGP \YKUEJGP FGP 9ÌTVGTP /CJOÑF WPF -J³P 4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM

* 2GTG * -/ PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT   )1.&5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ KP FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   2T·IGLCJT4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



&KG,CJTGU\CJNRCUUVPKEJV\WO6[ROKV-PQVGPWPF,CJTGU\CJNKPFGTFTKVVGP<GKNG#WEJCO'PFGFGTGT,CJTG UQNNVG FGT -PQVGP HGJNGP WPF FKG &CVKGTWPI CO 'PFG FGT XKGTVGP <GKNG \W HKPFGP UGKP #WEJ FCU NGKEJVG )GYKEJV   URTKEJVGJGTHÒTGKPGUR·VGTG2T·IWPI8KGNNGKEJVJCPFGNVGUUKEJWOGKPG2T·IWPIXQP*DGKFGTFGT5VGORGN UEJPGKFGTHÒTFKG<KHHGTFKG(QTOFGT·I[RVKUEJGP4WS C5EJTKHVY·JNVGYGNEJGFGTFGT&TWEMV[RGPGPVURTKEJV 



1911

1910





5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFKP FGTFTKVVGPFCU2T·IGLCJTOKVFQRRGNVGO-PQVGP\YKUEJGPFGP9ÌTVGTP/CJOÑFWPF-J³PKPFGT\YGK VGP<GKNG4X6KVGN UWNVCPCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM * 2GTG * -/ )1.&'VYCUDGTKGDGPMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ



5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFKP FGTFTKVVGPFCU2T·IGLCJTOKVFQRRGNVGO-PQVGP\YKUEJGPFGP9ÌTVGTP/CJOÑFWPF-J³PKPFGT\YGK VGP<GKNG4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG * ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP7$5<ÒTKEJ0T

1912





1913

5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFKP FGTFTKVVGPFCU2T·IGLCJTOKVFQRRGNVGO-PQVGP\YKUEJGPFGP9ÌTVGTP/CJOÑFWPF-J³PKPFGT\YGK VGP<GKNG4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM * 2GTG * ¤N¼GT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFKP FGTFTKVVGPFCU2T·IGLCJTOKVFQRRGNVGO-PQVGP\YKUEJGPFGP9ÌTVGTP/CJOÑFWPF-J³PKPFGT\YGK VGP<GKNG4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM * 2GTG * ¤N¼GT -/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFKP FGTFTKVVGPFCU2T·IGLCJTOKVFQRRGNVGO-PQVGP\YKUEJGPFGP9ÌTVGTP/CJOÑFWPF-J³PKPFGT\YGK VGP<GKNG4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[PI#TVWM2GTG * ¤N¼GT#-/ )1.&)GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/CKUQP2CNQODQ/CTUGKNNG0T





1914

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)QTP[/QUEJ/ÒPEJGP0T





175


MAHMÛD II.

1915



1916

5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFKP FGTFTKVVGPFCU2T·IGLCJTOKVFQRRGNVGO-PQVGP\YKUEJGPFGP9ÌTVGTP/CJOÑFWPF-J³PKPFGT\YGK VGP<GKNG4X6KVGNUWNVCPCNDCTTC[P2WPVXCTKCPVGKO4GX\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEMI#TVWM 2GTG * ¤N¼GT#-/ )1.&<YGKHCEJIGNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T



5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFGTXKGTVGP<GKNGFKG/ÒP\UV·VVGWPFKP FGTFTKVVGPFCU2T·IGLCJTOKVFQRRGNVGO-PQVGP\YKUEJGPFGP9ÌTVGTP/CJOÑFWPF-J³PKPFGT\YGK VGP <GKNG 4X 6KVGN UWNVCP CNDCTTC[P   I #TVWM  2GTG   *  XIN ¤N¼GT   

FKGUGU,CJTPKEJV -/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG5VGRJGP#NDWO5CPVC4QUC0T

1917

1918









1919

1920



*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT   I#TVWM * 2GTG * ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT   I#TVWM * 2GTG * ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT   I#TVWM * 2GTG¤N¼GT-/ )1.&5GJTUEJÌP





*CNDGT 5WNVCPK  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT   I#TVWM * 2GTG * ¤N¼GT-/ )1.&4·PFGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1922 1921



8KGTVGN5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGNWPF0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI#TVWM  * 2GTG * XIN¤N¼GT PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT -/  )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ



8KGTVGN5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGNWPF0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI#TVWM 2GTG * XIN¤N¼GT-/ )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT.KUVG5VGRJGP#NDWO5CPVC4QUC0T



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$CNFYKP.QPFQP0T



176

1923





8KGTVGN5WNVCPK*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGNWPF0COG4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTI#TVWM  * 2GTG * XIN¤N¼GT PKEJVFKGUGU,CJT -/  )1.&5GNVGPGU,CJT8QT\ÒINKEJ




MAHMÛD II.

ex 1924

#NIGTKGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP 

&QRRGNVGT$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGWPFI#TVWM * 2GTG  * ¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP

ex 1925









1927

1926

&QRRGNVGT $WLW  WPF  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGWPFI#TVWM * 2GTG  * ¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM&CU\YGKVG5VÒEMOKV4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



&QRRGNVGT$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP -TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGI#TVWM * 2GTG * XIN¤N¼GT

MGPPVFKGUGU,CJTPKEJV -/ 5VGORGNINCP\



&QRRGNVGT$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP -TGKU KP UGEJUDN·VVTKIGT $NÒVG   WPF  I #TVWM   *  2GTG  *  ¤N¼GT-/ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



ex 1928





ex 1929

$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 8CTKCPVGPOKVMNGKPGOWPFITQ­GO/ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGP6KVGN0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGWPFI2GTG  * ¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP



$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGWPFI2GTG * ¤N¼GT -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ

 177


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1930





$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJ4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T· IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGWPFI2GTG * ¤N¼GT -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6WIJTCKP\YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNP4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGI(QPTQDGTV2GTG¤N¼GT-/ 445VGORGNINCP\



ex 1932



1931

ex 1934

ex 1933

1935

&TKVVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPCEJV\CEMKIGO5VGTPWPFI¤N¼GT QJPG0CEJYGKUHÒT FCU,CJT* -/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP



&TKVVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\ UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT KP -TGKU  WPF  I ¤N¼GT  WPF  YQJN KTTVÒONKEJ FGO 5VGTPV[R   \WIGQTFPGV -/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP





&TKVVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\ UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT KP -TGKU  WPF  I ¤N¼GT  WPF  YQJN KTTVÒONKEJ FGO 5VGTPV[R   \WIGQTFPGV -/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





&TKVVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUI¤N¼GT-/ 45GJTUEJÌP





'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP'NUGP$TÒUUGN0T



ex 1936



1937

&TKVVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUWPFI¤N¼GT *PKEJVPCEJIGYKGUGP -/  5VÒEM48QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP



&TKVVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUI¤N¼GT-/ 45GJTUEJÌP



$GKFG'ZGORNCTGFGT5COONWPI*WUPK





'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI*WUPK



1938



178

&TKVVGN $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOG KP MWTUKXGO &WMVWU 6WIJTC WOIGDGP XQP   -PQVGP WPF <YGKI WPVGP 8 WPF $NÒVG QDGP FCTWO \YGK CWU -GVVGPINKGFGTP IGDKNFGVGP /QPFUKEJGNP   4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGI(QPTQDGTV2GTG¤N¼GT -/ 44(CUV5VGORGNINCP\




MAHMÛD II.

1939









&TKVVGN $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOG KP 0CUMJ 6WIJTC WOIGDGP XQP -PQVGP WPF   <YGKIWPVGP8WPF$NÒVGQDGPLGYGKNUXQPXCTKKGTGPFGT<GKEJPWPI\WOXQTKIGP5VÒEMFCTWO\YGKCWU -GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVG I(QPTQDGTV2GTG¤N¼GT-/ 448QT\ÒINKEJ



&TKVVGN $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGKP0CUMJ6WIJTCWOIGDGPXQP\YGK-PQVGP WPVGP \YGK $NÒVGP QDGP FCTWO \YGK CWU -GVVGPINKGFGTP IGDKNFGVGP /QPFUKEJGNP 4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGI(QPTQDGTV2GTG¤N¼GT-/  445VGORGNINCP\







1942

1,5:1

&TKVVGN $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  CWH FCU )GYKEJV GKPGU 8KGTVGN $WLW DGUEJPKVVGP 6KVGN 0COG   5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUI¤N¼GT-/  44-NGKPG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP

ex 1943



1941

&TKVVGN $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOG KP 0CUMJ 6WIJTC WOIGDGP XQP -PQVGP WPF   <YGKIWPVGP8WPF$NÒVGQDGPFCTWO\YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNP4X/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGI(QPTQDGTV2GTG¤N¼GT-/ 445VGORGNINCP\

1,5:1



1940

ex 1944



ex 1945

8KGTVGN $WLW    8CTKCPVGP OKV WPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGO &WMVWU KO /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGP   *   ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG 5GIGPUYWPUEJ KP FTGK <GKNGP 4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT KP -TGKU   WPFI2GTG * ¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GK NGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUWPFI2GTG * ¤N¼GT -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



8KGTVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF 2T·IGLCJT KP -TGKU   WPF  I 2GTG   *  ¤N¼GT    -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ

 179


MAHMÛD II.

1946

1,5:1

ex 1947

1,5:1



#EJVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPCEJV\CEMKIGO5VGTPI8IN6[R¤N¼GT-/# 445GJTUEJÌP





#EJVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUWPFI¤N¼GT DGKFG -/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP



1948

ex 1949

ex 1950

1,5:1

1,5:1



#EJVGN$WLW*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUI¤N¼GT-/ 445VGORGNINCP\





#EJVGN$WLWWPF*,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUWPFI¤N¼GT PKEJVPCEJIGYKGUGP -/  5VÒEM445GJTUEJÌP



#EJVGN $WLW      WPF  * OKV  8CTKCPVGP FGU ,CJTGU  OKV WPVGT   UEJKGFNKEJGO&WMVWUFGU/ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGPU,C\³ KT #NIKGT 6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GK NGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUWPFI¤N¼GT WPF-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





1,5:1



1,5:1

5GEJUVGN $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOG KP MWTUKXGO &WMVWU 6WIJTC WOIGDGP XQP   FTGK8HÌTOKIGP<GKEJGPFCTWO\YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUKPUGEJUDN·VVTKIGT$NÒVGI(QPTQDGTV2GTG¤N¼GT-/  48QT\ÒINKEJ

ex 1952



1951

ex 1953



ex 1954

5GEJUVGN $WLW  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOG KP MWTUKXGO &WMVWU 6WIJTC WOIGDGP XQP   FTGK8HÌTOKIGP<GKEJGPFCTWO\YGKCWU-GVVGPINKGFGTPIGDKNFGVGP/QPFUKEJGNP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF 2T·IGLCJT KP -TGKU KP UGEJUDN·VVTKIGT $NÒVG5VGORGNXCTKCPVGPXQPNGKEJVWPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGT<GKEJPWPI WPFI(QPTQDGTV2GTG¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM45GJTUEJÌP





-JCTTÑDC    WPF  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  UWNV³P  OCJOÑF 4X FWTKDC HÄ  ,C\³ KT   FCTWPVGTFCU2T·IGLCJTWPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





-WRHGT  #URGT   8CTKCPVGP FGU /ÒP\UV·VVGPPCOGPU   WPF*6KVGN0COG5GIGPU YWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUWPFI¤N¼GT -/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



180


MAHMÛD II.

ex 1957 1956

ex 1955

 

-WRHGT#URGT 8CTKCPVGP WPF*6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\ UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP-TGKUWPFI¤N¼GT-/  5VÒEM&CUGTUVGXQT\ÒINKEJFKGCPFGTGPUGJTUEJÌP -WRHGT#URGT*6KVGN0COG5GIGPUYWPUEJKPFTGK<GKNGP4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP -TGKUI 'VYCU&QRRGNUEJNCIKO#XGTUXQPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKVUGJTUEJÌP 7PKMWO ! 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI*WUPK &CU5VÒEMGPURTKEJVKPUVKNKUVKUEJGT*KPUKEJVFGP\GKVIGPÌUUKUEJGP2T·IWPIGPFGU #DFCN3³FKTCWU6CSKFCOV



 

 

-WRHGT#URGT 8CTKCPVGP WPF*UWNV³POCJOÑF4XFWTKDCHÄ,C\³ KTFCTWPVGTFCU 2T·IGLCJTWPFI¤N¼GT-/ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



1958

1,5:1



1,5:1

4K[CN $WLW  * 3WUCPVÄPC %QPUVCPVKPG  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP GKPGT .KNKG NKPMU WPF GKPGT $NWOG OKV   MPQVGPHÌTOKIGT$NÒVGTGEJVUÒDGTGKPGT#TCDGUMGKPXKGNHCEJGO-TGKU4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP <KGTMTGKUGPYKGKO#XGTUI(QPTQDGTVXIN¤N¼GTE MGPPVFCU,CJT*PKEJV -/  MGPPVFCU,CJT*PKEJV  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5EJYCEJGCDGTMNCTG2T·IWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI*WUPK







0CEJFGO FKG (TCP\QUGP  FGP &CK XQP #NIKGT CDIGUGV\V JCVVGP WPF FGT )GPGTCN %NCWUGN OKV GKPGT #TOGG XQP   /CPPFCPCEJVTCEJVGVGICP\#NIGTKGPWPVGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJG-QPVTQNNG\WDTKPIGPJCVVGGT\WP·EJUVPWTGKPGXQP XKGT2TQXKP\GPKPUGKPGT)GYCNV+PFGP2TQXKP\GP1TCPOKVFGTYKEJVKIGP5VCFV/GFGCKO9GUVGPKPFGT2TQXKP\ 6KVGT[ 6CJGTV KO5ÒFGPWPFKPFGT2TQXKP\%QPUVCPVKPGKO1UVGPÒDGTPCJOGPNQMCNG-T·HVGFKG*GTTUEJCHV+PFGT (GUVWPIUUVCFV %QPUVCPVKPG YWTFGP FKGUG XQP *CLK #JOCF IGHÒJTV &GT DKUNCPI WPRWDNK\KGTVG 4K[CN XQP  *   DGNGIVPGDGPUEJQPN·PIGTDGMCPPVGP6GKNUVÒEMGPFCUUFKG/ÒP\UV·VVG#NIKGTKPPGTJCNDFGU,CJTGU* ,WPK ,WPK XQP#NIKGT\WP·EJUVPCEJ/GFGCWPFFCPPYGKVGTPCEJ3WUCPVÄPC%QPUVCPVKPGXGTNGIVYWTFG *CLK#JOCFFGTFGP8QT\WIFGTNQIKUVKUEJGP7PVGTUVÒV\WPIXQP6WPKUJGTJCVVGYWTFGXQPFGPNCPIHTKUVKIRNCPGP FGP (TCP\QUGP \WP·EJUV KP 4WJG IGNCUUGP CWEJ YGPP  FGT -CORH WO FKG -QPVTQNNG FGT *CHGPUVCFV $QPG WPF   CPUEJNKG­GPFWO/GFGCFKTGMVGOKNKV·TKUEJG#WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGPDTCEJVGYGNEJGFKG(TCP\QUGPHÒTUKEJGPVUEJGK FGP MQPPVGP +O 0QXGODGT  ICD GU FCPP GKPGP TGIWN·TGP (GNF\WI WPF $GNCIGTWPI XQP %QPVCPVKPG FGT PCEJ   GKPKIGP /QPCVGP GTHQNINQU CDIGDTQEJGPYGTFGPOWUUVG'TUVDGKGKPGTPGWGTNKEJGP$GNCIGTWPIHKGN%QPUVCPVKPGCO 1MVQDGT*CLK#JOCFUGV\VGFGP9KFGTUVCPFKPFGT4GIKQPDKUHQTV 

1959



4K[CN $WLW  * 3WUCPVÄPC %QPUVCPVKPG  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP GKPGT .KNKG NKPMU WPF GKPGT $NWOG OKV   MPQVGPHÌTOKIGT$NÒVGTGEJVUÒDGTGKPGT#TCDGUMGKPXKGNHCEJGO-TGKU4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP <KGTMTGKUGPYKGKO#XGTUI(QPTQDGTVXIN¤N¼GTE MGPPVCWEJFCU,CJT*PKEJV  -/ 442T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP

 181


MAHMÛD II.

1960

1,5:1

1,5:1



4K[CN $WLW  * 3WUCPVÄPC %QPUVCPVKPG  6WIJTC \YKUEJGP GKPGT .KNKG NKPMU WPF GKPGT $NWOG OKV   MPQVGPHÌTOKIGT$NÒVGTGEJVUÒDGTGKPGT#TCDGUMGKPXKGNHCEJGO-TGKU4X/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJTKP <KGTMTGKUGPYKGKO#XGTUI(QPTQDGTV¤N¼GTE-/  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI*WUPK

1961







1962

182

1963

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 183


LITERATURVERZEICHNIS Artuk IAM as-Sâwî BMC Cag. Ender Fb. Fenina

= = = = = = =

Ismâ'îl Ghâlib Jem Sultan

= =

Kabaklarlı

=

KM. Nicol e.a.

= =

Ölcer

=

Pamuk Pere Slg. Fonrobert

= = = =

Wilski

= =

Wilski, New Table Yapı Kredi

184

= =

Artuk, I. und C.: Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri teşhirdeki Islâmî sikkeler kataloğu, Bd. II. Istanbul 1974. Ahmad as-Sayyid as-Sâwî: an-Nuqûd al-mutadâwala fî Misr al-'uthmânîya, Kairo 2001 Catalogue of Oriental Coins in the British Museum. London 1875 ff. ÇAĞLAR, O. N. Son 7 Padişah zamanında basılan bütün Osmanlı madeni paraları. (İzmir 1983). Celil Ender: Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Osmanlı Arşivi'ndeki nümismatik ile ilgili belgeler kataloğu, Istanbul 1996 Friedberg, R.: Gold Coins of the World. 7. Auflage. U.S.A. 2003. Fenina, A. Les monnaies de la régence de Tunis sous les H'usaynides: études de numismatique et d’histoire monétaire (1705-1891). Tunis 2003. Ismâ'îl Ghâlib Edhem, Taqvîm-i maskûkât-i 'Uthmânîye, Qustantînîya 1307 H. Jem Sultan (i.e. William Holberton), Coins of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic, a detailed catalogue of the Jem Sultan collection. 2 Bde., Thousand Oaks 1977 Necdet Kabaklarlı: "Mangır" Osmanli Imperatorluğu bakır paraları / Copper Coins of the Ottoman Empire, 1299-1808, Istanbul 1998 Krause, C. L./Mishler, C.: Standard Catalogue of World Coins. Aktuelle Auflage. Norman D. Nicol, Raafat el-Nabarawy, Jere L. Bacharach: Catalog of the Islamic Coins, Glass Weights, Dies and Medals in the Egyptian National Library, Cairo, Malibu 1982 Ölcer, C.: Sultan Mahmud II Zamaninda Darp Edilen Osmanli Madeni Paralari, Istanbul 1970. Ders.: Sovyet Rusya Müzelerindeki (Moskva ve Leningrad) Nâdir Osmanlı Madeni Paraları / Rare Ottoman Coins at Sovyet Russian Museums (Moscow and Leningrad), Istanbul 1972 Ders.: Sultan Abdülmecid devri Osmanlı madenî paraları, Istanbul 1978. Ders.: Sultan Abdülaziz Han devri Osmanlı madenî paraları. Istanbul 1979. Ders.: Sultan Murad V ve Sultan Abdülhamid II dönemi Osmanlı madeni paraları. Istanbul 1986. Ders.: Sultan Mehmed Reşad ve Sultan Mehmed Vahdettin Dönemi Osmanlımadeni paraları. Istanbul 1987. Pamuk, Ş.: A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge 2000. Pere, N. (und Tözen, I.): Osmanlı Madeni Paraları. Istanbul 1968. Verzeichnis der Münzen und Denkmünzen der Erdtheile Australien, Asien, Afrika der Jules Fonrobert'schen Sammlung, Auktion A. Weyl. Berlin 1878. Wilski, H.: Gegenstempel auf Münzen des Osmanischen Reiches, in Geldgeschichtliche Nachrichten 54, Juni 1976, S. 195-209 Ders.: Der Osmanische Gegenstempel "sahh" auf venezianischen Dukaten, in Geldgeschichtliche Nachrichten 100, S. 71-74 Ders.: Countermarks on Ottoman Coins. Gütersloh 1995. Ders.: A New Table of Countermarks on Ottoman Coins. Mainz 200X. Şentürk, Ş. und Özpalabıyıklar, S. (Hrsg.): Power of Gold, Golds (sic) of Power: Yapı Kredi Gold Coins Collection. Istanbul o.J. (1994).


Auktion 215 Baden, Markgrafschaft (bis 1803), Kurfürstentum (1803 – 1806) und Großherzogtum (1806 – 1918) Großherzoglicher Hausorden der Treue. Juweliers-Anfertigung des Bruststerns von Biennais in Paris, 86,3 x 87,4 mm, 49,2 g, Silber, Auflagen Gold graviert, emailliert, Emaillemalerei, kleine Bläschen-Abplatzungen in der weißen Emaille der Buchstaben des Medaillons, ohne sichtbare Punzierungen, auf der Rückseite grünes Lederetikett mit gold-farbener Aufschrift »BIENNAI(S ORF)ÉVRE_/DE L'EMP(EREUR) ET ROI/A (PAR)IS«, mit eisernem Broschierungssystem, die Nadel fehlt. II-. RRRR. Abbildung vergrößert

Schätzung: € 10.000,–

Wir versteigern auch Orden und Ehrenzeichen! Selbstverständlich sind für uns: • • • • • •

Jährlich ein bis zwei Auktionen von Orden und Ehrenzeichen Versierte Beschreibung und Bewertung der eingelieferten Objekte durch unsere Experten Farbige Abbildung der Lose in unseren Auktionskatalogen Weltweite Werbung für unsere Auktionen Auktionen in angenehmer und kundenfreundlicher Atmosphäre Kompetente Betreuung von Verkäufern, Käufern und Interessenten durch unseren Kundenservice • Schneller, sachgerechter und versicherter Versand der ersteigerten Objekte • Garantiert pünktliche und unkomplizierte Abrechnung innerhalb von 42 Tagen nach der Auktion

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Leitfaden zur erfolgreichen schriftlichen Auktionsteilnahme • • • • •

Studieren Sie den Katalog sorgfältig und notieren Sie alle Lose, die interessant für Sie sind. Legen Sie für jedes Los Ihr persönliches Limit fest, das Sie maximal zu zahlen bereit sind. Füllen Sie das beiliegende Formular aus (siehe unten) und tragen Sie für jedes Los Ihr Höchstgebot ein. Schicken Sie uns Ihren Auftrag frühzeitig. Bei gleich hohen Geboten erhält das zuerst eingegangene Gebot den Zuschlag. Sie haben interessante Lose für insgesamt € 10.000,– gefunden, möchten jedoch nur € 2.000,– ausgeben. Kein Problem: Sie geben als Gesamtlimit (ohne Aufgeld) € 2.000,– an. • Wenn Sie Fragen haben: Die MitarbeiterInnen unserer Kundenbetreuung sind für Sie da: Telefon 0800 583 65 37 (gebührenfrei). • Wenn Sie telefonisch an unseren Auktionen teilnehmen möchten, ist das ab einer Schätzung von € 500,– pro Los möglich. Bitte teilen Sie uns diesen Wunsch mindestens einen Werktag vor Beginn der Versteigerung schriftlich mit.

Musterauftrag für schriftliche Gebote Name, Adresse, Telefon Ihre vollständige Anschrift ist wichtig, damit wir Ihren Auktionsauftrag annehmen und bearbeiten können. Ihre Telefonnummer brauchen wir, um Sie bei Rückfragen zu Ihren Geboten schnell erreichen zu können.

Ihre Kundennummer Die Angabe Ihrer Kundennummer unterstützt uns bei der Bearbeitung Ihres Auktionsauftrages. Viele Vorarbeiten für die Auktion werden dadurch einfacher und es werden Fehler vermieden.

Losnummern und Gebote Listen Sie alle Lose, für die Sie sich interessieren, mit ihrer Katalognummer auf und legen Sie für sich selbst fest, wie viel Sie bereit sind, für jedes einzelne Los zu bieten.

Ihr Limit pro Einzellos An dieser Stelle geben Sie an, was Sie für jedes einzelne Stück maximal bereit sind auszugeben.

„Oder“-Gebote Wenn Sie sich für mehrere Münzen interessieren, aber nur ein Stück davon erwerben wollen, können Sie Ihre Gebote einfach mit einem „Oder“ verbinden. Wichtig: bei den „Oder“Geboten können Sie nicht auf frühere Katalognummern zurückgreifen (z. B. 2890 oder 1558), da die Nr. 1558 dann bereits versteigert ist. Unterschreiben Sie Ihren Auktionsauftrag ... ... nachdem Sie Ihre Angaben noch einmal überprüft haben. Ihre Unterschrift ist wichtig, denn damit bestätigen Sie uns, dass sie tatsächlich teilnehmen wollen.

Überschreitung Ihrer Limits pro Einzellos In der Praxis zeigt sich, dass oft mehrere Bieter mit ihren Geboten dicht beieinander liegen. Deshalb empfiehlt es sich, an dieser Stelle einer geringfügigen Überschreitung Ihrer Gebote zuzustimmen. Dadurch erhöhen sich Ihre Chancen, im Wettbewerb mit anderen den Zuschlag zu erhalten.

Begrenzung Ihres Gesamtlimits Hier können sie die Gesamtsumme Ihrer Gebote begrenzen und festlegen, was Sie insgesamt maximal bereit sind auszugeben. Aufgeld und Mehrwertsteuer kommen später noch hinzu.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Wie entsteht der Preis einer Auktion? Der im Auktionskatalog angegebene Preis ist ein Schätzpreis, der durch unsere Experten festgelegt wurde. Das Mindestgebot liegt bei 80 % dieses Wertes. Die Zuschlagpreise sind oft deutlich höher als die Schätzpreise. Als Auktionshaus müssen wir bereits vor der Auktion alle schriftlichen Gebote koordinieren. Folgende Beispiele sind im Bietverfahren möglich: Beispiel 1 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt kein schriftlicher Auftrag vor: Der Auktionator ruft das Los in der Auktion mit € 800,– aus. Wenn im Saal nur ein Bieter darauf ein Gebot abgibt, erhält der Saalbieter den Zuschlag für € 800,–.

Beispiel 3 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt dem Auktionator nur ein schriftliches Gebot von € 850,– vor: Das Los wird in der Auktion mit € 800,– ausgerufen. Falls kein Bieter im Saal ein Gegenangebot abgibt, erhält der schriftliche Bieter den Zuschlag bei € 800,–.

Beispiel 2 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegen dem Auktionator drei schriftliche Gebote vor:

Beispiel 4 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt dem Auktionator nur ein schriftliches Gebot von € 1.200,– vor: Der Auktionator ruft das Los mit € 800,– aus. Gibt es im Saal keinen Gegenbieter, erhält der schriftliche Bieter den Zuschlag bei € 800,–. Falls es im Saal Gegenbieter gibt, bietet der Auktionator für seinen schriftlichen Bieter bis maximal € 1.200,– und erteilt einem Gegenbieter im Saal erst bei mehr als € 1.200,– den Zuschlag.

Bieter 1: Limit € 2.900,– Bieter 2: Limit € 1.800,– Bieter 3: Limit € 800,– Nach der Versteigerungsordnung muss der Auktionator im Interesse von Bieter 1 und 2 angemessen überbieten (um ca. 5 bis 10 %). Der Ausrufpreis in der Auktion beträgt daher im Interesse von Bieter 1 € 1.900,– (obwohl die Schätzung € 1.000,– beträgt). Falls keine höheren Gebote aus dem Saal erfolgen, erhält Bieter 1 den Zuschlag für € 1.900,–. Das Höchstangebot von € 2.900,– musste nicht ausgeschöpft werden.

Beispiel 5 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegen drei Gebote von je € 975,– vor: Um Missverständnisse zu vermeiden, überzieht der Auktionator das zuerst eingegangene Gebot geringfügig und erteilt den Zuschlag bei € 1.000,–.

Antworten auf Fragen, die uns oft gestellt werden • Zuschlagpreis/Aufgeld: Wir berechnen als Auktionshaus ein Aufgeld von 15 % auf den Zuschlagpreis, dazu kommt die gesetzliche Mehrwertsteuer. Beispiel 1

Zuschlagpreis Aufgeld 15 % Versandkosten, z. B. * MwSt. 7 % Rechnungs-Betrag

€ € € € €

100,00 15,00 5,90 8,46 129,36

Beispiel 2

Zuschlagpreis Aufgeld 15 % Versandkosten, z. B. * MwSt. 7 % Rechnungs-Betrag

€ 1.000,00 € 150,00 € 5,90 € 80,91 € 1.236,81

• Mehrwertsteuer: üblicherweise in Deutschland 7 %, seit dem 01.01.2000 sind viele Goldmünzen, die nach 1800 geprägt wurden, steuerfrei. Bei Fragen zu der MwSt.-Berechnung rufen Sie uns an, gebührenfrei unter: 0800 583 65 37. • Rücklosverkauf: Alle Lose, die in der Auktion nicht verkauft wurden, können Sie innerhalb von vier Wochen nach der Versteigerung zu 80 % des Schätzpreises (zzgl. Aufgeld und Mehrwertsteuer) erwerben. Achtung: Viele Rücklose sind schnell vergriffen. • Unser Spezialservice: Alle Bieter erhalten gratis die Ergebnisliste innerhalb von zwei Wochen nach der Auktion. Im Internet können Sie die Ergebnisliste der Auktion sofort nach der Auktion unter www.kuenker.de einsehen. * Die Kosten für Versand und Versicherung werden nach Aufwand berechnet.

Besuchen Sie uns doch einmal persönlich auf der Auktion! • Wir freuen uns sehr, wenn Sie persönlich nach Osnabrück kommen möchten. Das Flair einer Auktion und die Stimmung im Auktionssaal sind ein besonderes Erlebnis für Sie als Sammler. Osnabrück ist außerdem immer eine Reise wert und die persönliche Betreuung durch unsere Mitarbeiter wissen immer mehr Kunden zu schätzen. • Bitte rufen Sie uns rechtzeitig an, damit wir Ihnen Tipps für die Anreise geben und Ihnen ein Hotelzimmer reservieren können. Sie erreichen uns gebührenfrei unter: 0800 583 65 37. • Als erfolgreicher Bieter können Sie Ihre neu erworbenen Stücke gleich persönlich mit nach Hause nehmen. Als guter Kunde unseres Hauses haben Sie 20 Tage Zahlungsziel nach der Auktion.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Важная информация об участии на аукционе • Наши аукционные правила и условия Вы можете найти в конце каталога. • Мы просим Вас присылать Ваши ставки заранее. В противном случае вероятность ошибки при обработке заказа, присланного перед самым аукционом, возрастает. • Приложенный образец заполнения письменного заказа поможет Вам при отправлении Ваших письменных ставок. Ставки можно отправить как по почте, так и по факсу : +49 (0)541–96 20 222 круглосуточно. • Успешные заказы будут обрабатываться в порядке их поступления к нам. Все участники, которым не удалось что-либо купить на аукционе, будут также проинформированы после аукциона. • Если Вы впервые принимаете участие в нашем аукционе, то мы рекомендуем Вам сообщить нам Ваш референц – аукционные дома, с которыми Вы уже сотрудничали. Или свяжитесь с нами по телефону. • Мы гарантируем подлинность всех предметов, проданных на нашем аукционе, в течении неограниченного времени. • Все участники нашего аукциона получают в течении 2-ух недель результаты торгов бесплатно. • У Вас есть вопросы по определенной монете? Вы хотели бы лично принять участие в аукционе? У Вас возникли другие вопросы? Звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268, и мы будем рады Вам помочь.

Мое заочное участие на аукционе • • • •

Тщательно изучите наш каталог и запишите те лоты, которые Вас заинтересовали. Определите для Себя ту максимальную сумму, которую Вы готовы заплатить за каждый лот. Заполните приложенный формуляр. Отправьте нам Ваш заказ заранее. При 2-ух и более равных ставок на один и тот же лот преимущество получает ставка, пришедшая к нам первой ( ранее других ). • Если стоимость выбранных Вами лотов составляет например 10.000 евро, а Вы могли бы потратить только 2.000 евро, то в этом случае укажите Ваш общий лимит в размере 2.000 евро. • Если у Вас возникли вопросы по заполнению формуляра, звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268. Наши сотрудники будут рады Вам помочь.

Мое личное участие в Оснабрюке • Мы будем рады Вашему личному присутствию в Оснабрюке. Атмосфера, которая стоит во время аукционных торгов в зале, особенная и непередаваемая. • Для получения более подробной информации по Вашей поездке в Оснабрюк, в частности, бронирования номеров в гостинице, мы просим Вас заранее связаться с нами по телефону: +49 (0)541-96 20 268. • Приобретенные на аукционе лоты Вы можете лично забрать после окончания торгов. Наши постоянные клиенты осуществляют оплату в течение 20 дней после получения счета. Участвующие в аукционе впервые осуществляют 100%-ую предоплату.

Участие по интернету Все каталоги доступны для просмотра на нашем сайте в интернете по адресу www.kuenker.de. На сайте Вы можете выбрать интересующие Вас лоты и отправить Ваши ставки на нашу электронную почту service@kuenker.de. Если у Вас возникнут дополнительные вопросы, мы просим Вас связаться с нами по телефону +49 (0)5 41-96 20 268.

Участие по телефону Для участия в торгах по телефону просим Вас связаться с нами не позднее 48 часов до начала аукциона. Условием проведения телефонных торгов является письменное подтверждение ставки, равной как минимум стартовой цене. Участие в телефонных торгах возможно только для лотов со стартовой ценой свыше 500 евро. Для получения дополнительной информации и регистрации на аукционе звоните Анастасии Кепселль до аукциона по телефону +49 (0)5 41-96 20 268 и во время аукциона по телефону, указанному на первой странице каталога.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Как образовывается цена на аукционе? • Все лоты в нашем каталоге были предварительно оценены нашими экпертами. Минимальная ставка составляет 80 % от оценочной стоимости лота. Конечные цены зачастую намного превышают оценочные. • Ваши письменные ( заочные ) ставки должны быть обязательно обработаны нашими сотрудниками до начала аукциона. Рассмотрим несколько возможных примеров: Пример 1 ( Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) Заочных ставок нет. Аукционатор начинает торги с € 800,–. Если в зале только один человек, желающий приобрести этот лот, то соответственно он получит его за € 800,–. Пример 2 ( Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеются 3 заочные ставки: Заочный участник 1 : Лимит € 2.900,– Заочный участник 2 : Лимит € 1.800,– Заочный участник 3 : Лимит € 800,– По правилам аукциона аукционатор в интересах заочного участника 1 и 2 должен повышать ставку равномерно ( приблизительно на 5 – 10 % ). Поэтому в нашем случае в интересах заочного участника 1 аукционатор начнет торги с € 1.900,– ( хотя оценочная стоимость составляет € 1.000,–). Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник 1 получит этот лот за € 1.900,–. Его лимит в € 2.900,– ни в коем случае не будет исчерпан.

Пример 4 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеется только 1 заочная ставка в размере € 1.200,–. Аукционатор начнет торги с € 800,–. Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник получит этот лот за € 800,–. Если же в зале очный участник согласен на более высокую ставку ( больше € 800,– ), то в этом случае аукционатор в интересах заочного участника имеет право тоговаться до € 1.200,–. Следовательно только при ставке, превышающей € 1.200,–, данный лот получит очный участник в зале. Пример 5 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеются 3 заочные ставки, каждая в размере € 975,–. Среди очных участников интереса к лоту не имеется. В этом случае чтобы избежать недоразумений, аукционатор имеет право ненамного повысить лимит и сделать ставку равной € 1.000,–. Данный лот за € 1.000,– получит тот заочный участник, чей письменный формуляр мы получили раньше всего.

Пример 3 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеется только 1 заочная ставка в размере € 850,–. Аукционатор начнет торги с € 800,–. Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник получит этот лот за € 800,–.

Как я могу получить приобретенные лоты? Вывоз приобретенных на аукционе предметов осуществляется одним из следующих способов по Вашему выбору: • Вы можете лично забрать Ваши лоты. По окончании торгов мы готовим все необходимые документы на вывоз из Германии. При вывозе за пределы Евросоюза, НДС Вам возвращается. • Почтовые отправки в Россию ( Беларусь, Украину ) приобретенных Вами лотов осуществляются по предварительной договоренности. Для связи с нами звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268. С 1971 года имя Кюнкер является гарантией надежности и компетентности. Мы не станем изменять нашим принципам и в будущем. Спасибо Вам за Ваше доверие, которое является не только самым сильным стимулом в нашей работе, но и наилучшей ее оценкой. Я желаю Вам успехов на нашем аукционе!

Фриц-Рудольф Кюнкер

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Versteigerungsbedingungen Die Versteigerung erfolgt im Auftrag und für Rechnung der Eigentümer unter Einhaltung der sich aus der Versteigerungsordnung (BGB1 I 1976, 1346) ergebenden und für Kommissionäre geltenden gesetzlichen Bestimmungen des BGB und HGB gegen Barzahlung des Kaufpreises in €-Währung. Durch Abgabe eines Gebotes werden die Versteigerungsbedingungen anerkannt, dies gilt auch für die schriftlichen Gebote. Der Zuschlagpreis ist Nettopreis im Sinne des Umsatzsteuergesetzes und bildet die Berechnungsgrundlage für das vom Käufer zu zahlende Aufgeld in Höhe von 15 %. Auf den daraus entstehenden Gesamtpreis (Zuschlag + Aufgeld) wird die jeweils gültige Umsatzsteuer erhoben, soweit dies gesetzlich vorgeschrieben ist. Ausländischen Käufern aus Ländern der europäischen Gemeinschaft wird die in Deutschland gültige Umsatzsteuer berechnet. Anderen ausländischen Käufern (aus Drittländern) wird, sofern die Münzen durch uns exportiert werden, ein Aufgeld von 15 % netto auf den Zuschlagpreis berechnet; sie erhalten die Lieferung nur gegen Zahlung des Kaufpreises in €-Währung, bankspesenfrei. Ausländischen Münzhändlern aus Ländern der europäischen Gemeinschaft wird bei Nachweis der Umsatzsteuer-Identifi kationsnummer (§ 27 a USTG) und der sonstigen Voraussetzungen gemäß § 4 Nr. 1 b USTG in Verbindung mit § 6 a USTG die Lieferung ohne Umsatzsteuer berechnet. Sofern nichts anderes vereinbart wird, ist die Zahlung der Auktionsrechnung bei anwesenden Käufern sofort, bei schriftlichen Bietern spätestens 20 Tage nach Erhalt fällig. Bei Zahlungsverzug werden Zinsen von 1 % pro Monat berechnet. Wird die Zahlung nicht sofort an den Versteigerer geleistet oder die Abnahme der zugeschlagenen Sache verweigert, so findet die Übergabe der Sache an den Ersteigerer nicht statt. Der Ersteigerer verliert vielmehr seine Rechte aus dem Zuschlag, und die Sache kann auf seine Kosten erneut versteigert werden. In diesem Fall haftet der Ersteigerer für den Ausfall, dagegen hat er auf den Mehrerlös keinen Anspruch. Der Zuschlag erfolgt nach dreimaligem Ausruf des höchsten Gebotes und verpflichtet zur Abnahme und Zahlung. Bei Meinungsverschiedenheiten über den Zuschlag wird die Nummer noch einmal ausgerufen. Der Versteigerer ist berechtigt, Nummern zu vereinigen oder zu trennen. Eine Vorausnahme von Nummern erfolgt nicht. Der Zutritt zur Versteigerung ist nur Interessenten gestattet, die einen Katalog besitzen. Die Mindeststeigerungsstufen für das Bietungsverfahren betragen: Gebote

Mindeststeigerungsstufe

Schriftliche Aufträge werden von uns ohne Auftragsprovision gewissenhaft ausgeführt. Aufträge von uns unbekannten Sammlern können nur ausgeführt werden, wenn ein Depot hinterlegt wird oder Referenzen benannt werden. Schriftliche Gebote können nur bis 24 Stunden vor Auktionsbeginn verbindlich berücksichtigt werden. Im Bedarfsfall ist der Auktionator berechtigt, die Limits um 3 – 5 % zu überschreiten. Bei mehreren gleichhohen Geboten erhält das zuerst eingegangene den Zuschlag. Unlimitierte Aufträge haben keinen Anspruch auf unbedingte Ausführung. Telefonisches Bieten ist nur in Ausnahmefällen möglich. Telefonische Bieter müssen sich mindestens einen Werktag vor der Auktion voranmelden. Der Versand geht zu Lasten und auf Risiko des Ersteigerers bzw. Empfängers. Das Auktionsgut bleibt bis zur vollständigen Bezahlung aller Forderungen aus Anlass der Versteigerung Eigentum des Verkäufers. Ist der Käufer Vollkaufmann, so ist Osnabrück als Gerichtsstand vereinbart. Für das Mahnverfahren gilt die Zuständigkeit des Amtsgerichts Osnabrück auch in allen anderen Fällen als vereinbart. Ansonsten ist es Osnabrück nur, wenn nur die Firma Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG ihren allgemeinen Gerichtsstand in der BRD hat, oder wenn alle Ansprüche im Wege des Mahnverfahrens geltend gemacht werden, oder wenn die im Klageweg in Anspruch zu nehmende Vertragspartei nach Vertragsabschluss ihren gewöhnlichen Aufenthaltsort aus dem Geltungsbereich der BRD verlegt hat, oder ihr Wohnsitz oder gewöhnlicher Aufenthaltsort zum Zeitpunkt der Klage nicht bekannt ist. Die Beschreibung im Katalog ist gewissenhaft durchgeführt. Sie begründet jedoch keine Rechts- oder Sachmängelhaftung gemäß §§ 434, 459 ff BGB. Die Angabe der Erhaltung ist streng nach den im deutschen Münzhandel üblichen Erhaltungseinstufungen vorgenommen und gilt als persönliche Beurteilung. Bei der Auktion anwesende Käufer kaufen grundsätzlich „wie besehen“. Da durch Vorbesichtigung Gelegenheit gegeben ist, sich vom Erhaltungszustand des Versteigerungsgutes zu überzeugen, können nach erfolgtem Zuschlag Reklamationen nur bei irrtümlich übersehener Henkel- oder Fassungsspur oder gestopftem Loch berücksichtigt werden. Bei Losen mit mehreren Stücken sind die Stückzahlen nur Circa-Angaben, irrtümliche Zuschreibungen sind im Einzelfall nicht ausgeschlossen. Diese Lose sind nach erfolgtem Zuschlag von jeder Reklamation ausgeschlossen. Der Versteigerer kann bei eventuellen Meinungsverschiedenheiten bzw. Beanstandungen einen vereidigten Sachverständigen seiner Wahl (die Kosten trägt der unterliegende Teil) beauftragen. Eventuelle Beanstandungen können nur innerhalb von 8 Tagen nach der Auktion bzw. nach Erhalt der ersteigerten Stücke berücksichtigt werden. Die Echtheit der Stücke wird bis zur Höhe des Kaufpreises garantiert. Die beigedruckten Preise sind Schätzpreise, die unter- oder überschritten werden können. Aufträge, die unter 80 % des Schätzpreises liegen, können nicht bearbeitet werden.

bis zu

€ 100,–

€ 5,–

bis zu

€ 200,–

€ 10,–

bis zu

€ 500,–

€ 20,–

bis zu

€ 1.000,–

€ 50,–

bis zu

€ 2.000,–

€ 100,–

Soweit nicht anders vermerkt, gelten im übrigen die allgemeinen Versteigerungsbestimmungen und – auch im Verhältnis zu ausländischen Kunden – gilt Deutsches Recht.

bis zu

€ 5.000,–

€ 200,–

Die Ergebnisliste erscheint sofort nach der Auktion.

bis zu

€ 10.000,–

€ 500,–

bis zu

€ 20.000,–

€ 1.000,–

bis zu

€ 50.000,–

€ 2.000,–

bis zu

€ 100.000,–

€ 5.000,–

ab

€ 100.000,–

€ 10.000,–

Ausländische Kunden kaufen nach den Devisen-, Zoll- und Steuerbestimmungen ihres Landes. Versandformalitäten werden vom Versteigerer erledigt.

Die Versteigerer:

Fritz Rudolf Künker Dr. Andreas Kaiser Arne Kirsch Oliver Köpp

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Terms and Conditions of Auction The auction is conducted on behalf and for the account of the appropriate proprietors of the goods and is subject to the federal Auction Regulation (Versteigerungsordnung, BGB1 I 1976, 1346) published in the Federal Law Gazette Vol. I, 1976, 1346 and the relevant provisions for factors in accordance with the German Civil Code (BGB) and Commercial Code (HGB). Payment of the hammer-price has to be made in cash and in Euro. The submission of an offer implies the express acknowledgement of these Terms and Conditions of Auction; the same applies to the submission of an offer in writing. The hammer-price is exclusive of applicable German VAT according to the prevailing VAT-legislation and represents the basis for calculating the surcharge of 15 percent payable by the purchaser. The total price so calculated (hammer-price plus surcharge) is subject to the VAT (value added tax = Mehrwertsteuer), which is payable additionally. Purchasers from abroad will be charged a surcharge of 15 percent net on the hammerprice, provided the export of the coins is undertaken by the auctioneer. Buyers in European Community (EEC) countries (other than Germany) will be charged value added tax at the rates prevailing in Germany. Dealers from EEC countries (other than Germany) will receive goods free of tax upon presentation of their VAT ID number, and upon fulfillment of the other conditions set forth in Paragraph 4, Nr. 1 b, and Paragraph 6 a of the German Turnover Tax Law Buyers from other countries are not charged value added tax. Delivery will be made against payment in Euro with no bank charges to the auctioneer. Unless mutually agreed otherwise, payment of the auction bill from purchasers present at the auction is due immediately. From purchasers who have submitted a bid in writing, payment is due within 20 days after receipt of the goods. Defaulted payments shall bear an interest charge of 1 % per month in the amount in default. Should payment to the auctioneer not be made immediately or should the acceptance of the awarded item be refused, such item shall not be handed over to the purchaser. Instead the purchaser shall forfeit all right and title in and to such item from the award and the item may again be put to auction at this buyer’s cost. In this event the buyer shall be liable for any shortfall, while he shall have no right or claim towards any excess proceeds. An item will be knocked down after the highest bid has been called three times. The award shall be a binding commitment and liability on the part of the bidder to take acceptance and delivery of the item or items so awarded. In the event of any dispute with regard to the award the lot will be put up again for bidding. The auctioneer reserves the right to combine or to separate lots. Lots will not be called out of sequence. Access to the auction will only be permitted to interested persons who are in possession of the catalogue.

lot, the bid first received by the auctioneer shall be given the award. Unlimited bids shall not oblige the auctioneer to consider, accept or carry out such order. Telephone bidding is generally an option for lots of substantial value only. The registration is required at the latest a day before auction. Shipment (by mail or otherwise) of the goods shall be for the sole cost and risk of the purchaser or recipient, respectively. The auctioned goods remain the sole and exclusive property of the vendor until full payment and settlement of any and all dues and claims in connection with the auction. In the event the purchaser is a merchant (in the sense of the German commercial laws) Osnabrück shall be the agreed and exclusive place of jurisdiction. The competence of the District Court (Amtsgericht) of Osnabrück is agreed in respect of summary proceedings for the collection of defaulted payments (Mahnverfahren) as well as in any and all other cases. Should the purchaser not be a merchant Osnabrück shall be the place of jurisdiction with the District Court of Osnabrück’s competence, if only the auctioneer has his ordinary legal domicile in the Federal Republic of Germany or if claims are made by way of summary proceedings of collection (Mahnverfahren) or if the defendant has moved his ordinary legal domicile outside the jurisdiction of the Federal Republic of Germany or if the legal domicile of the defendant is unknown to the auctioneer at the time of filing a suit. To the exclusion of any other legislation German law, as in force at the time, shall be applied for the settlement of any and all legal or judicial matters. The specifications and descriptions in the catalogue have been prepared diligently and in good faith, however, do not constitute the acceptance by the auctioneer of any warranty or liability in respect of defect in material or title. The state of preservation of items is strictly assessed in accordance with the grades accepted by the German coin trade and only represents an individual and personal assessment. Purchasers present at the auction acquire items strictly on the basis of “as is where is” and “as inspected”. In view of the opportunity of prior inspection to ascertain the state and condition of the auction lots, complaints and objections made after the sale will only be considered, if by obvious error or mistake loop or traces or mountings, traces of trimmings or settings, or the plugging of a hole (eyelet) have remained unnoticed. If and when auctioned in lots, the quantities of individual pieces given, only represent an approximate figure. An error in the allocation of individual pieces to a certain lot cannot be excluded. Such lots are, therefore, excluded from any complaints or objections after the lot is knocked down. In the event of disputes or complaints as to the quality of an item the auctioneer may call upon a generally sworn expert of the trade, which the auctioneer may choose at his sole discretion, for assessment and the rendering of a decision as to the justification of such dispute or complaint. The costs of such expert shall be borne by the party loosing the dispute according to the expert’s decision. Complaints or objections, if justified, will only be considered if made and received by the auctioneer within 8 days after the auction or after receiving the lots, respectively.

The minimum rates of increase for the bidding procedure are: offers up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to above

€ 100.– € 200.– € 500.– € 1,000.– € 2,000.– € 5,000.– € 10,000.– € 20,000.– € 50,000.– € 100,000.– € 100,000.–

minimum increase rate € 5.– € 10.– € 20.– € 50.– € 100.– € 200.– € 500.– € 1,000.– € 2,000.– € 5,000.– € 10,000.–

Orders submitted in writing will be carried out diligently and without charge of an extra commission. Orders from collectors unknown to the auctioneer can only be accepted and carried out if a deposit or references to the satisfaction on the auctioneer are given. To be bindingly accepted, written bids need to be received at least 24 hours before auction. If necessary, the auctioneer is allowed to increase the bids by 3 – 5 %. Should several bids be obtained in writing bidding the same price or prices for a given

The authenticity of the coins is warranted up to the total purchase price. The prices set out in the catalogue are estimates only, which may be exceeded or undercut. Orders for less than 80 per cent of the estimated price cannot be accepted. Purchasers from abroad will have to observe all applicable laws and regulations in respect of foreign exchange, customs duties and taxation of their country. The auctioneer will only discharge such formalities, which have to be observed, in the Federal Republic of Germany in connection with the export of the purchased item(s). Unless stipulated otherwise herein, the general rules regulations for auctions applicable in Germany shall govern any transaction in respect of the auction; German Law shall also be applicable in relation to purchasers from abroad. Only the German text has legal force. The prices realized will be published in the form of a list immediately after the auction. The auctioneers:

Fritz Rudolf Künker Dr. Andreas Kaiser Arne Kirsch Oliver Köpp

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Numismatische Ausdrücke/Numismatic Terms/Expressions Numismatiques/ Termini di Numismatica/Нумизматические Термины DEUTSCH

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Abschlag Am Rand Berieben Blei Dezentriert Doppelschlag Einfassung Einseitig Emailliert Erhaltung Etwas Exemplar Fassungsspuren Fehlprägung

struck at the rim/border slightly polished lead uncentered double struck frame uniface enamelled condition/preservation slightly specimen, copy trace of mounting mis-strike

frappe en tranche frotté plomb décentré double frappe encadrement uniface émaillé conservation un peu exemplaire traces de monture défaut de frappe

coniazione al bordo trattato piombo non centrato ribattitura cornice uniface smaltato conservazione un poco esemplare tracce di montatura difetto di coniazione

Feld(er) Fundexemplar Gedenkmünze Geglättet Gelocht Geprägt Gewellt Goldpatina Henkelspur Hübsch Jahrh. = Jahrhundert Kl. = klein Korrosionsspuren Kratzer Kupfer Legierung Leicht(e) l. = links Min. = minimal Nachahmung Prachtexemplar Prägeschwäche Randdelle Randfehler Randschrift r. = rechts Rückseite

field(s) specimen from a hoard commemorative coin tooled holed minted bent golden patina mount mark attractive century small traces of corrosion scratch(es) copper alloy slightly left minimal imitation attractive, perfect piece weakly struck edge nick edge faults lettered edge to right reverse

champ exemplaire de trouvaille monnaie commémorative retouché troué frappé ondulé patine dorée trace de monture joli siècle petit traces de corrosion rayure cuivre alliage légèrement gauche minime imitation pièce magnifique de frappe faible défaut sur la tranche erreur sur la tranche tranche inscrite droite revers

campo da tesoretto moneta commemorativa liscio bucato coniato ondolato patina d´oro tracce di appicagnolo carino secolo piccolo segni di corrosione graffio(i) rame lega leggero sinistra minimamente contraffazione esemplare magnifico conio stanco ammaccatura al bordo errore nel bordo inscrizione sul bordo destra rovescio

оттиск на гурте потертая свинец ассиметричный двойной чекан кайма односторонняя эмалированная сохранность слегка экземпляр следы обработки ошибка в процессе чеканки поле экземпляр памятная монета отглаженная проколатая отчеканенная волнистая золотая патина следы от ушка красивая столетие маленький следы коррозии царапина медь сплав легкий слева минимальный имитация превосходный экземпляр издержкн при чеканкe вмятина на гурте ошибка на гурте гуртовая надпись справа реверс

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


DEUTSCH

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Schriftspuren

traces of inscription

traces de légende

tracce di leggenda

Schrötling Schrötlingsfehler Schwach ausgeprägt Selten in dieser Erhaltung

flan flan defect weakly struck rare in this condition

flan flan défectueux de frappe faible rare en cet état

tondello errore di tondello conio stanco conservazione rara

Seltener Jahrgang Stempel Stempelfehler Überdurchschnittlich erhalten Überprägt Unediert Unikum Vergoldet Von allergrößter Seltenheit Vorderseite Winz.= winzig Zain Zierrand Zinn ziseliert

rare year die(s) mistake in the die extraordinary condition

année rare coin erreur de frappe conservation extraordinaire

overstruck unpublished unique specimen gilt extremely rare averse tiny flan ornamental border tin chased

surfrappé inédit unique doré de toute rareté en face petit flan tranche ornée étain ciselé

annata rara conio errore di conio conservazione estraordinaria ribattuto inedito pezzo unico dorato di estrema raritá diritto veramente piccolo tondello taglio ornato stagno cesellato

следы предыдущей надписи заготовка брак заготовки слабо отчеканeна редкая в такой сохранности редкий год штамп ошибка штампа сохранность выше среднего перечекан неопубликованная монета уникальная позолоченная наиредчайшая аверс незначительный заготовка декоративный гурт цинк гравированный

Erhaltungsgrade/Grading Terms/Degrès de Conservation/Gradi di Conservazione/ Шкала сохранности DEUTSCH

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Polierte Platte Stempelglanz Vorzüglich Sehr schön Schön Gering erhalten

Proof Uncirculated Extremely fine Very fine Fine Very good

Flan bruni Fleur de coin Superbe Très beau Beau Très bien conservé

Fondo specchio Fior di conio Splendido Bellissimo Molto Bello Bello

полированная превосходная отличная очень хорошая хорошая удовлетворительная

Seltenheitsgrade/Rarity Terms/Degrés de Rareté/Grado di Raritá/ Шкала редкости DEUTSCH

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ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

R = Selten RR = Sehr selten Von großer Seltenheit Von größter Seltenheit Von allergrößter Seltenheit Uneditiert

R = Rare RR = Very rare Very rare Extremely rare Extremely rare Unpublished

Rare Très rare De grande rareté Extrêmement rare De la plus extrême rareté Inédit

raro molto raro di grande raritá di grandissima raritá di estrema raritá inedito

редкая очень редкая большой редкости наибольшей редкости наиредчайшая ранее не описанная

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Auktion 210  

The Sultan Collection, Münzen des Ottomanischen Reiches Teil 2