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150. AUKTION RUSSLAND EINE BEDEUTENDE MÜNZEN- UND MEDAILLENSAMMLUNG 10. - 11. März 2009 Steigenberger Hotel Remarque Osnabrück Natruper-Tor-Wall 1 Hotel-Telefon +49 (0)5 41-60 96 633 Hotel-Fax +49 (0)5 41-60 96 634 (nur während der Auktion/only during the auction/ uniquement pendant la vente/solamente durante l'asta/solamente durante la subasta/только во время аукциона)

ZEITPLAN AUKTIONEN 149 - 153 AUKTION 149 DEUTSCHE MÜNZEN AB 1871 AUKTION 150 RUSSLAND – EINE BEDEUTENDE MÜNZEN- UND MEDAILLENSAMMLUNG

Montag, den 9. März 2009 13.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 1285 Dienstag, den 10. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 2001 bis Nr. 2419 14.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 2420 bis Nr. 3086

AUKTION 151 1000 GOLDPRÄGUNGEN

AUKTION 152 MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN AUS MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT

Mittwoch, den 11. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 3087 bis Nr. 3490 14.00 Uhr - 16.00 Uhr Nr. 3491 bis Nr. 3723 16.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 4001 bis Nr. 4472 Donnerstag, den 12. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 4473 bis Nr. 5000 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 5001 bis Nr. 5770 Freitag, den 13. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 5771 bis Nr. 6364 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 6365 bis Nr. 7230

AUKTION 153 MÜNZEN AUS DER ANTIKEN WELT

Detaillierter Zeitplan siehe Seite 5 Besichtigungen siehe Seite 10 Horaire détaillé voir page 5 Exposition des monnaies voir page 10

Samstag, den 14. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 8001 bis Nr. 8638 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 8639 bis Nr. 9231 Detailed timetable view page 5 Viewing of auction good view page 10 Calendario dettagliato veda pagina 5 Esposizione veda pagina 10


Sehr geehrte Kundin, sehr geehrter Kunde und Münzfreund, ich freue mich, daß Sie bereits heute, 4 Wochen vor unserer nächsten Auktion, die neuen Kataloge erhalten haben und wünsche Ihnen viel Freude bei der Lektüre unseres Auktionsangebotes. Wir wurden oft gebeten, den Ablauf einer Auktion etwas näher zu beschreiben, diesem Wunsch kommen wir gerne nach. Am Ende dieses Kataloges finden Sie die Rubrik: “Wie biete ich richtig“, die Ihnen als Ratgeber zur erfolgreichen Teilnahme an unseren Auktionen dienen soll. Sollten Sie darüber hinaus Fragen zum Auktionsablauf haben, helfen wir Ihnen auch gerne persönlich weiter. Die Mitarbeiterinnen unserer Kundenbetreuung stellen wir Ihnen auf der nächsten Seite vor. Mit herzlichen Grüßen aus Osnabrück

Ihr Fritz Rudolf Künker UNSERE ADRESSE OUR ADDRESS

Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Gutenbergstr. 23 · 49076 Osnabrück Ust.-Id.-Nr.: DE 256 270 181 Telefon/Phone: Fax: Gebührenfrei: E-Mail: Internet:

+49 (0)5 41-96 20 20 +49 (0)5 41-96 20 222 08 00-58 36 537 service@kuenker.de www.kuenker.de

Montag-Donnerstag Freitag Sonnabend

9.00 - 17.00 Uhr 9.00 - 15.30 Uhr nach Vereinbarung

Außerhalb unserer Geschäftszeit steht unseren Kunden ein automatischer Anrufbeantworter zur Verfügung. Monday-Thursday 9.00 a. m. to 5.00 p. m. Friday 9.00 a. m. to 3.30 p. m. Saturday by prior appointment Answering machine available after opening hours. WWW.KUENKER.DE WWW.KUENKER.COM

Auf unserer Internetseite haben Sie die Möglichkeit • die Abbildungen zu vergrößern • Ihre Gebote direkt abzugeben • die Ergebnisse der Auktionen abzurufen On our website you have the possibility • to zoom all images • to place your bids • to view all auction results

AUKTIONSHOTEL AUCTION LOCATION

Steigenberger Hotel Remarque, Natruper-Tor-Wall 1, 49076 Osnabrück Telefon/Phone: Fax:

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+49 (0)5 41-60 96 633 +49 (0)5 41-60 96 634

Mitglied im Verband der Deutschen Münzenhändler e. V. Associaton Internationale des Numismates Professionnels (AINP)


UNSERE KUNDENBETREUUNG STEHT IHNEN GERNE ZUR VERFÜGUNG Die Maxime unseres Teams lautet: Nur wenn Sie als Kunde zufrieden sind, sind wir es auch! Geben Sie uns Ihre Auktionsgebote zu treuen Händen, wir sorgen dafür, daß sie korrekt ausgeführt werden. Auch wenn Sie sich von Teilen oder Ihrer gesamten Sammlung trennen möchten, sind wir Ihre ersten Ansprechpartner. Beachten Sie dazu bitte auch die Hinweise für Einlieferer auf der folgenden Seite bzw. im hinteren Teil des Kataloges.

WIR FREUEN UNS AUF IHRE AUKTIONSGEBOTE UND EINLIEFERUNGEN!

Ulrich Künker Leitung Kundenbetreuung ulrich.kuenker@kuenker.de

Marion Künker Deutsch, English marion.kuenker@kuenker.de

Alexandra Elflein English, Français, Italiano alexandra.elflein@kuenker.de

Anastasija Koepsell Russian, Deutsch anastasija.koepsell@kuenker.de

Nadine Zuber Deutsch, English nadine.zuber@kuenker.de

Barbara Westmeyer Deutschsprachige Kundenbetreuung barbara.westmeyer@kuenker.de

Cristina Welzel Italiano, Deutsch, English, Français cristina.welzel@kuenker.de

SO ERREICHEN SIE UNS GEBÜHRENFREI (AUS DEUTSCHLAND) TELEFON FAX INTERNET EMAIL

0800 / 5836537 (0800 / KUENKER) +49 (0) 541/ 96 20 20 +49 (0) 541/ 96 20 222 www.kuenker.de service@kuenker.de

WAS IST ZUR ERFOLGREICHEN AUKTIONSTEILNAHME BESONDERS WICHTIG? • • • • •

Ihr schriftlicher Auftrag sollte möglichst frühzeitig eintreffen, spätestens einen Tag vor der Auktion. Wenn Sie telefonisch an der Auktion teilnehmen möchten, bedarf das unserer vorherigen Genehmigung. Bitte teilen Sie uns diesen Wunsch daher mindestens 48 Stunden vor der Versteigerung mit. Nähere Informationen zum telefonischen Bieten finden Sie auf den folgenden Seiten. Beachten Sie bitte auch die Hinweise „Wie biete ich richtig“ im hinteren Teil des Kataloges. Gerne können Sie Ihre Gebote auch online abgeben. Unter www.kuenker.de bieten wir den gesamten Auktionskatalog online an. Bei Fragen rufen Sie uns an, unsere Kundenbetreuung freut sich auf Ihren Anruf!

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WICHTIGE HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE EINLIEFERER 1.

Unser Expertenteam garantiert Ihnen eine fachgerechte Bearbeitung der von Ihnen eingelieferten Stücke. 2. Die Schätzpreise werden von uns aufgrund unserer hervorragenden Marktkenntnisse sorgfältig festgelegt. Die Stücke werden zu 80% der im Katalog angegebenen Schätzpreise ausgerufen. Durch diese Regelung werden Sie als Einlieferer geschützt. Für nicht verkaufte Objekte werden keine Gebühren erhoben. 3. Der Standard unserer Kataloge ist von hoher Qualität und findet internationale Anerkennung. Wir haben eine der besten Kundendateien, die es weltweit gibt. 4, Von der individuellen Betreuung unserer Kunden profitieren auch Sie als Einlieferer. 5. Als Einlieferer erhalten Sie Ihren Auktionserlös innerhalb von 45 Tagen nach der Auktion. Sonderregelungen sind nach Absprache möglich. 6. Auf Wunsch kann Ihre Einlieferung bei Ihnen zuhause abgeholt werden. Ab € 2.500,-- Einlieferungssumme übernehmen wir die Kosten, ab € 25.000,-können wir Ihre Einlieferungen unter Umständen und nach Absprache auch an einem vereinbarten Ort persönlich entgegennehmen. Selbstverständlich ist Ihr Versteigerungsgut durch uns versichert. 7. Nicht alle Münzen eignen sich, als Einzelstücke aufgenommen zu werden. Vertrauen Sie auf die Erfahrung unserer Experten, die niedrigpreisige Münzen liebevoll zu interessanten Lots zusammenstellen. 8. Der Schätzwert Ihrer Einlieferung sollte mindestens € 1.000,-- betragen. 9. Ihre Einlieferung wird Ihnen sofort bei Übernahme durch ein Protokoll quittiert. Spätestens fünf Wochen vor der Auktion erhalten Sie eine genaue Auflistung Ihrer Objekte mit den dazugehörenden Katalognummern. 10. Innerhalb einer Woche nach der Auktion erhalten Sie bereits die Ergebnisliste und können alle erzielten Preise feststellen. 11. Profitieren Sie von der Anziehungskraft eines führenden Unternehmens. Bitte wenden Sie sich bei Fragen an unseren Kundenservice unter 05 41 – 96 20 20 oder gebührenfrei unter 08 00-58 36 537. 12. Unsere Verträge für Einlieferungen können Sie unverbindlich anfordern. Haben Sie noch Fragen? Wir freuen uns auf Ihren Anruf. Telefon: 05 41 – 96 20 20 oder gebührenfrei unter 08 00-58 36 537.

RENSEIGNEMENTS IMPORTANTS A L'ATTENTION DES VENDEURS 1.

Notre équipe d’experts garantit une prise en charge compétente des pièces que vous nous confiez. 2. Notre excellente connaissance du marché nous permet de fixer soigneusement les prix estimés. Les pièces seront mises aux enchères à un prix représentant 80% du prix estimé indiqué dans le catalogue. Cette réglementation vous protège en tant que vendeur. Aucuns frais ne seront prélevés sur les pièces invendues. 3. Nos catalogues ont un niveau qualitatif élevé, reconnu au plan international. Nous disposons d’un des meilleurs fichiers clients du monde. 4. En tant que vendeur, vous profiterez vous aussi du suivi personnalisé que nous offrons à nos clients. 5. Le vendeur recevra le produit de la vente dans les 45 jours qui suivront les enchères. Des dispositions spéciales pourront être prises sur accord préalable. 6. Nous prendrons en charge les frais d´expédition des pièces dont le montant sera supérieur à € 2.500,--: Si leur montant est supérieur à € 25.000,--, l´un de nos employés pourra se charger de prendre la livraison à un lieu convenu. A votre demande notre assurance couvrira tous les risques. 7. Les pièces de monnaie ne se prêtent pas toutes à une vente individuelle. Faites confiance à l’expérience de nos spécialistes qui se chargeront avec plaisir de rassembler les pièces bon marché de manière à constituer des lots intéressants. 8. La valeur estimée des pièces fournies devra s’élever à un minimum de € 1.000,--. 9. Au moment de la prise en charge, vous recevrez un détail des pièces fournies. Au plus tard cinq semaines avant la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez une liste exacte de vos pièces avec les numéros de catalogue correspondants. 10. Dans la semaine qui suivra la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez déjà la liste de ses résultats et pourrez prendre connaissance des prix obtenus. 11. Profitez de l’attrait du leader du marché. Pour tout renseignement, veuillez-vous adresser à notre service clientèle: +49 (0)5 41-96 20 20. 12. Vous pouvez demander sans engagement de votre part nos contrats de dépôt de pièces? Vous avez d’autres questions? Nous serons heureux de vous répondre au +49 (0)5 41-96 20 20.

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IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR OUR CONSIGNERS 1.

Our team of specialists guarantees an expert treatment of the consigned items. 2. The estimates are carefully established by us due to our excellent knowledge of the market. Bidding for the items is then started at 80 % of the estimate price stated in the catalogue. This arrangement protects you as a consigner. Unsold items incur no fees. 3. The standard offered in our catalogue is of the highest quality, and is recognised internationally. We have one of the best clientele lists worldwide. 4. You as a consigner also profit from the individual consultation offered to our customers. 5. As a consigner, you receive the auction proceeds within 45 days of the close of auction. Special arrangements can be made following discussion. 6. For consignments with a value over € 2.500,-- we may bear the transportation costs. For deliveries over € 25.000,-- we may personally collect the items at an arranged place after prior consultation. Upon consultation, the shipping of your goods could be covered by our insurance. 7. Not all coins are suited to be registered as individual items. Trust in our expert´s experience as they carefully combine less-valuable coins into interesting lots. 8. The valuation price of your delivery should be at least € 1.000,--. 9. Your delivery is confirmed in writing immediately on receipt. At least five weeks before the auction, you receive an exact list of your objects with the relevant catalogue numbers. 10. Within a week of the close of auction, you receive a list with the results in order to see what prices were reached for each individual lot. 11. Profit from our position as a leading coin dealer. If you have any questions, please contact our customer service team on +49 (0)5 41-96 20 20. 12. Would you like to receive copies of our contracts for consigner, without making any commitment? Do you have any other questions? Our customer service team will be pleased to help you – please call on +49 (0)5 41-96 20 20.

INFORMAZIONI PER I NOSTRI DEPOSITANTI 1.

Il nostro team di esperti assicura un trattamento accurato dei pezzi che ci avete inviato. 2. Eseguiamo valutazioni finalizzate alla vendita. I prezzi di stima sono frutto della nostra eccezionale conoscenza del mercato e della nostra attenta valutazione. La base d´asta ammonta all´80% del prezzo di stima indicato sul catalogo. Non si addebitano spese per gli oggetti invenduti. 3. I nostri cataloghi sono di alta qualità e sono riconosciuti a livello internazionale. I nostri clienti sono fra i migliori al mondo. 4. Come depositanti potete beneficiare dell’assistenza riservata a ciascuno dei nostri clienti. 5. Come depositanti riceverete gli importi realizzati all’asta entro 45 giorni dal termine della stessa. Si possono concordare condizioni particolari. 6. A partire da un controvalore degli oggetti di € 2.500,--i costi del trasporto sono a nostro carico, mentre a partire da un controvalore di € 25.000 gli oggetti possono essere ritirati personalmente da un nostro incaricato ad un posto concordato. Naturalmente il trasporto dei vostri oggetti puó essere assicurato tramite la nostra assicurazione. 7. Non tutte le monete possono essere negoziate singolarmente. Fidatevi dell´esperienza dei nostri esperti, che raggruppano le monete non molto preziose in lotti di sicuro interesse. 8. Il valore stimato degli oggetti depositati deve ammontare ad almeno € 1.000,--. 9. Nel momento in cui gli oggetti sono presi in consegna, viene rilasciata una ricevuta numerata. Riceverete un elenco preciso degli oggetti che avete depositato con i relativi numeri di catalogo al massimo cinque settimane prima dell’asta. 10. Riceverete l’elenco degli oggetti aggiudicati entro una settimana dalla chiusura dell’asta. Potrete cosi verificare i prezzi realizzati. 11. Approfittate della capacità di un leader di mercato per aumentare il valore dei vostri oggetti. Se avete delle domande, rimaniamo a vostra disposizione per qualsiasi necessità. Rivolgetevi alla nostra consulenza ai clienti diretta al numero +49 (0)5 41-91 20 20. 12. Volete ricevere i nostri contratti senza impegno? Avete altre domande? Potete contattarci al numero +49 (0)5 41-96 20 20.


DETAILLIERTER ZEITPLAN AUKTIONEN 149-153 AUKTION 149 DEUTSCHE MÜNZEN AB 1871 AUKTION 150 RUSSLAND - EINE BEDEUTENDE MÜNZEN- UND MEDAILLENSAMMLUNG

AUKTION 151 1000 GOLDPRÄGUNGEN AUS MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT

Montag, den 9. März 2009 13.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 1285 Dienstag, den 10. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 2001 bis Nr. 2419 Iwan IV. Wasiliewitsch - Elisabeth 14.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 2420 bis Nr. 3086 Peter III. - Nikolaus I. Mittwoch, den 11. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 3087 bis Nr. 3490 Alexander II. - Nikolaus II. 14.00 Uhr - 16.00 Uhr Nr. 3491 bis Nr. 3723 Sowjetunion, Russische Republik, Lots, Belarus, Kaukasus, Krim, Nowgorod, Papiergeld, Tabaksdose, Schiffsmodell 16.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 4001 - Nr. 4472 Goldprägungen: Europa Donnerstag, den 12. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 4473 bis Nr. 5000 Goldprägungen: Übersee, Habsburgische Erblande, Deutschland, Medaillen, Münzschmuck, Lots

AUKTION 152 MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN AUS MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT NUMISMATISCHE LITERATUR

14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 5001 bis Nr. 5770 Silberprägungen: Europa, Übersee, Habsburgische Erblande Freitag, den 13. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 5771 bis Nr. 6364 Silberprägungen Deutschland: Aachen - Nürnberg 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 6365 - 7230 Silberprägungen Deutschland: Öttingen - Würzburg, Spezialsammlungen, Medaillen, Papiergeld, Münzgefäße, Lots, Siegel, Numismatische Literatur

AUKTION 153 MÜNZEN AUS DER WELT DER ANTIKE

Samstag, den 14. März 2009 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 8001 bis Nr. 8638 Kelten, Griechen, Römer Teil 1 14.00 - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 8639 bis Nr. 9231 Römer Teil 2, Völkerwanderung, Byzanz, Kreuzfahrer, Orientalen 5


INHALT AUKTION 150 Nr. RUSSLAND - EINE BEDEUTENDE MÜNZEN- UND MEDAILLENSAMMLUNG

2001

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Tropfkopeken des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts Großfürst Iwan IV. Wasiliewitsch, 1533-1547 Eine halbe Denga des Großfürsten Iwan IV. Wasiliewitsch Kaiserreich

2003

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Zar Boris Godunow, 1598-1605 Eine Tropfkopeke des Zaren Boris Godunow Zar Wasili Iwanowitsch, 1606-1610 Eine Gold-Denga des Zaren Wasili Iwanowitsch

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Zar Michail Fedorowitsch, 1613-1645 Drei goldene Novodels des Zaren Michail Fedorowitsch

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Zar Alexei Michailowitsch, 1645-1676 Ein Novodel des Rubels von Zar Alexei Michailowitsch Ein Viertelrubel des Zaren Alexei Michailowitsch Ein Novodel des Viertelrubels von Zar Alexei Michailowitsch Ein russischer Gegenstempel von 1655 (Jefimok) auf einem Patagon von Brabant

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Zar Feodor Alexiewitsch, 1676-1682 Goldmünzen des Zaren Feodor Alexiewitsch

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Nr. Prägungen für Livand und Estland Prägungen für Ostpreußen Medaillen der Zarin Elisabeth Zar Peter III., 1762 Ein 5 Rubel-Stück des Zaren Peter III. Silbermünzen der Münzstätte St. Petersburg Kupfermünzen des Zaren Peter III. Ein Novodel des Probe-Rubels von 1762 Zwei Albertustaler aus der Zeit Peters III. als Herzog von Gottorp Zarin Katharina II., 1762-1796 Goldmünzen der Münzstätte St. Petersburg Silbermünzen des Roten Münzhofes in Moskau Silbermünzen der Münzstätte St. Petersburg Kupfermünzen des Roten Münzhofes in Moskau Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte St. Petersburg Ein 5 Kopeken-Stück der Münzstätte Sestroretsk Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Ekaterinburg Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Suzun Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Feodosia Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Anninskoye Kupferprägungen für Sibirien Prägungen für Moldavien und Wallachei 5 Kopeken-Stücke aus der schwedischen Münzstätte Avesta Medaillen der Zarin Katharina II. Zar Paul I., 1796-1801 Ein 5 Rubel-Stück des Zaren Paul I. Silbermünzen des Zaren Paul I. Die Rücküberprägungen von Kupfermünzen im Jahr 1797 Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Ekaterinburg Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Anninskoye Kupfermünzen ohne Münzzeichen Medaillen des Zaren Paul I. Zar Alexander I., 1801-1825 Ein 5 Rubel-Stück des Zaren Alexander I. Silbermünzen des Zaren Alexander I. Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Ekaterinburg Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Suzun Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte St. Petersburg Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Izhora Eine Kupferprobe von 1810 Eine Kupfermünze für Georgien 8

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85 86 90 95 91 92 94 95 95

145 147 147 147 149 167 149 153 157 158 158 158 159 159


Nr. Prägungen für Polen Private Probeprägungen der Werkstatt Boulton in Birmimgham Medaillen des Zaren Alexander I. Zar Nikolaus I., 1825-1855 Goldmünzen des Zaren Nikolaus I. Platinmünzen des Zaren Nikolaus I. Silbermünzen des Zaren Nikolaus I. Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Ekaterinburg Ein veprägtes 2 Kopeken-Stück der Münzstätte St. Petersburg Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Izhora Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Warschau Gedenkmünzen des Zaren Nikolaus I. Probemünzen des Zaren Nikolaus I. Prägungen für Polen Medaillen des Zaren Nikolaus I.

Seite

2799

-

2803

2804 2810 2836 2836 2854 2863 2969

-

2809 2835 3086 2853 2862 2968 2993

2995 2997 3002 3017 3025 3052

-

2994 2996 3001 3016 3024 3051 3086

Zar Alexander II., 1855-1881 Goldmünzen des Zaren Alexander II. Silbermünzen des Zaren Alexander II. Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Ekaterinburg Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte Warschau Kupfermünzen der Münzstätte St. Petersburg Gedenkmünzen des Zaren Alexander II. Probemünzen der Münzstätte Brüssel Prägungen für Finnland Medaillen des Zaren Alexander II.

3087 3087 3117 3202 3212

-

3267 3116 3201 3211 3216

3217 3225 3230 3234 3244

-

3224 3229 3233 3243 3267

Alexander III., 1881-1894 Goldmünzen des Zaren Alexander III. Silbermünzen des Zaren Alexander III. Gedenkmünzen des Zaren Alexander III. Eine Probe für ein 3 Kopeken-Stück von 1882 Medaillen des Zaren Alexander III.

3268 3268 3302 3329

-

3351 3301 3328 3334

3336

-

3335 3351

233

-

233 238

Nikolaus II., 1894-1917 Goldmünzen des Zaren Nikolaus II. Silbermünzen des Zaren Nikolaus II. Das 37 1/2 Rubel Stück von 1902 nach dem Münzstandard der Lateinischen Münzunion Gedenkmünzen des Zaren Nikolaus II. Probemünzen des Zaren Nikolaus II. Prägungen für Finnland Ein silberner Münzhumpen aus der Zeit des Zaren Nikolaus II. Medaillen des Zaren Nikolaus II. Eine russische Imitation eines niederländischen Dukaten von 1839

3352 3352 3378

-

3490 3377 3434

238 238 240

-

259 239 246

3436 3457 3462

-

3435 3456 3461 3465

247 250

-

247 250 251 251

-

3466 3489

3467

3490

159 160 161 167 167 169 170 180

-

161 167 202 168 170 180 183

185 188 189 192

-

184 184 184 187 189 192 202

202 202 205 213

-

215

-

217 218

-

226 226 229

-

253

-

226 204 213 214 214 215 216 216 218 226 238 229 232 232

252 259 259 9


Nr.

Seite

Sowjetunion, 1917-1991

3491

-

3569

260

-

267

Russische Republik seit 1992

3570

-

3591

267

-

269

Lots und Sammlungen russischer Münzen

3592

-

3641

270

-

272

Belarus (Weißrußland)

3642

273

3645

273

Krim

3646

273

Nowgorod

3647

273

Kaukasus

3643

Russisches Papiergeld Kaiserreich Finnland unter russischer Herrschaft Deutsche Besatzungsausgaben in Rußland 1916-1918 Weißrußland Sammlung Papiernotgeld der baltischen Staaten Estland, Lettland und Litauen Estland Lettland Litauen

3648 3648 3650

-

-

3679 3649 3677

274

-

274

-

3678 3679 3680 3680 3689 3711

-

3720 3688 3710 3720

280 274 279 280 280

281 281 285 292

-

296 284 292 296

Eine preußische Tabaksdose auf die Schlachten bei Zorndorf und Liegnitz

3722

297

Ein russisches Schiffsmodell aus der Zeit Katharinas II.

3723

298

Ein Stichwortverzeichnis finden Sie am Ende des Auktionskataloges 151. ___________________________

BESICHTIGUNG Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes in unseren Geschäftsräumen, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, ab dem 16. Februar 2009, nach vorheriger telefonischer Vereinbarung unter +49 (0)5 41 96 20 20.

EXPOSITION Les monnaies seront visibles à partir du 16 février 2009, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, sur rendez-vous téléphonique +49 (0)541 96 20 20.

EXPOSICIÓN Con cita previa +49 (0)541 96 20 20 podrá ver todos los lotes a partir del 16 de febrero del 2009 en nuestras oficinas en 49076 Osnabrück, Gutenbergstr. 23. 10

ON VIEW The coins are on view at our premises in 49076 Osnabrueck, Gutenbergstr. 23, from February 16, 2009 by prior appointment: +49 (0)541 96 20 20.

ESPOSIZIONE Tutti i lotti sono visionabili a partire dal 16 febbraio 2009 presso la nostra sede, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück previo appuntamento telefonico +49 (0)541 96 20 20.

ПРОСМОТР АУКЦИОННЫХ ЛОТОВ Просмотр аукционных лотов проходит с 16 февраля 2009 года года в нашем офисе по телефонной договоренности +49 (0)541 96 20 20 по адресу: Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück.


WICHTIGE HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE TELEFONBIETER

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON TELEPHONE BIDDING

Wenn Sie telefonisch mitbieten möchten, bitten wir Sie aus organisatorischen Gründen, uns diesen Wunsch bis spätestens 48 Stunden vor der Versteigerung schriftlich mitzuteilen. Voraussetzung für ein telefonisches Mitbieten ist, daß Sie mindestens den Schätzpreis bieten. Telefonisches Bieten ist erst ab einem Schätzpreis von ca. 500 Euro pro Los möglich.

If you wish to participate in the auction as a telephone bidder, please inform us at least 48 hours in advance as we have to approve and schedule all calls. To register for telephone bidding, we require that you submit at least the estimate as written bid in addition to being called. Telephone bidding is accepted on lot numbers with estimates starting at 500 Euro.

Bitte beachten Sie, daß wir keinerlei Haftung übernehmen, falls die telefonische Verbindung während der Auktion nicht zustande kommt.

We do not assume liability should the telephone line be interrupted or not be achieved.

Sollten Sie Fragen zu der telefonischen Teilnahme an unseren Auktionen haben, können Sie uns vor der Auktion unter +49 (0)5 41-96 20 20 oder 08 00-58 36 537 (gebührenfrei) anrufen. Während der Auktion erreichen Sie uns unter der auf der ersten Seite angegebenen Telefonnummer.

INFORMATIONS POUR LA PARTICIPATION PAR TELEPHONE

Please call +49 (0)5 41-96 20 20 for more information or to register for telephone bidding. During the auction you will be able to reach us at the telephone number indicated on page 1.

INFORMAZIONI PER LA PARTECIPAZIONE TELEFONICA

Si vous désirez participer par téléphone à nos ventes aux enchères, veuillez vous mettre en relation avec Alexandra Elflein au moins 48 heures avant la vente au numéro +49 (0)5 41-96 20 233. Pendant la vente aux enchères nous vous prions d'appeler le numéro indiqué sur page no. 1 de ce catalogue.

Se desiderate la partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante l´asta, siete pregati di chiamare la Signora Cristina Welzel al numero diretto +49 (0)5 41-96 20 250 come minimo 48 ore prima dell´asta e di inviarci la vostra offerta, la quale deve ammontare come minimo al prezzo di stima anche per iscritto.

Une participation téléphonique à la vente sera possible à la condition que vous nous fassiez parvenir aussi votre ordre par écrit. Cet ordre devra être au moins égal au minimum au prix d’estimation et concerner un lot estimé au moins 500 Euros.

Accettiamo una partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante l´asta per oggetti il cui prezzo di stima ammonta come minimo ai 500 Euro. Non assumeremo nessuna responsabilità se la linea telefonica è occupata o se non siete raggiungibili.

Nous déclinons toute responsabilité dans le cas où la communication téléphonique serait interrompue, ou bien ne pourrait être établie.

INFORMACIONES DE COMO PARTICIPAR POR TELÉFONO Si quiere participar por teléfono en la subasta por favor se ponga en contacto anteriormente con la señora Cristina Welzel +49 (0)5 41-96 20 250 y envienos las pujas tambien por escrito por lo menos 48 oras antes de la subasta. Autorizamos una participación por teléfono solamente para lotes cuyos precio de estima es por lo menos 500 Euro. No asumimos la responsabilidad si la conexión telefónica se interumpa sin previsión o si está comunicando.

ВАЖНАЯ ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ДЛЯ УЧАСТИЯ ПО ТЕЛЕФОНУ Для участия в торгах по телефону просим Вас связаться с нами не позднее 48 часов до начала аукциона. Условием проведения телефонных торгов является письменное подтверждение ставки, равной как минимум стартовой цене. Участие в телефонных торгах возможно только для лотов со стартовой ценой свыше 500 евро. Для получения дополнительной информации и регистрации на аукционе звоните Анастасии Кепселль до аукциона по телефону +49 (0)5 41-96 20 268 и во время аукциона по телефону, указанному на первой странице каталога.

11


MICHAIL FEDOROWITSCH

4755+5%*'/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0

ex 2001

6412(-12'-'0&'570&,#*4*70&'465 

)GRHNGIVG 5COONWPI TWUUKUEJGT 6TQRHMQRGMGP FGT )TQ­HÒTUVGP D\Y <CTGP +XCP +8 9CUKNKGYKVUEJ  

  $QTKU )QFWPQY   &KOKVTK +YCPQYKVUEJ   9CUKNK +YCPQYKVUEJ  

 9NCFKUNCY5KIKUOQPFQYKVUEJ  WPF/KEJCGN(GFQTQYKVUEJ  CWUFGP /ÒP\UV·VVGP/QUMCW0QYIQTQFWPF2UMQXFCTWPVGT\CJNTGKEJGDGUUGTG5VÒEMG  5VÒEM<WO6GKNUGNVGP/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP

2002



2003

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

)4155(ª456+9#0+89#5+.+'9+65%* 'KPGJCNDG&GPICFGU)TQ­HÒTUVGP+YCP+89CUKNKGYKVUEJ 

&GPICQ,/QUMCWI-CKO5RCUUMK

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



<#4$14+5)1&7019 'KPG6TQRHMQRGMGFGU<CTGP$QTKU)QFWPQY 

-QRGMG 6TQRHMQRGMG Q,/QUMCWI-CKO5RCUUMK5

1,5:1

2004

5GJTUEJÌP



1,5:1

<#49#5+.++9#019+65%* 'KPG)QNF&GPICFGU<CTGP9CUKNK+YCPQYKVUEJ 

-QRGMG &GPIC KP)QNFQ,I&GTIGMTÌPVG<CTTGKVGVTOKVIG\QIGPGO5·DGN(ÒPH<GKNGP 5EJTKHV(D-CKO )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV1TKIKPCN5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

1,5:1

2005 1,5:1

<#4/+%*#+.('&1419+65%* &TGKIQNFGPG0QXQFGNUFGU<CTGP/KEJCKN(GFQTQYKVUEJ 

6UEJGTYQPG\Q,0QXQFGNI$GKFGTUGKVUIGMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIU 5EJKNFQDGP-TQPG(D FQTVCNU&WMCVDG\GKEJPGV -CKO )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

12


ALEXEI MICHAILOWITSCH

1,5:1



2006

1,5:1

6UEJGTYQPG\Q,0QXQFGNI(D FQTVCNU&WMCVDG\GKEJPGV -CKO#PO  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

1,5:1



2007



1,5:1

6UEJGTYQPG\Q,0QXQFGNI(D FQTVCNU&WMCVDG\GKEJPGV -CKO#PO  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



2008

<#4#.':'+/+%*#+.19+65%* 'KP0QXQFGNFGU4WDGNUXQP<CT#NGZGK/KEJCKNQYKVUEJ 

4WDGN0QXQFGNÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO4GCNGU5VÒEMXQP5RCPKGPI&GTIGMTÌPVG<CTTGKVGV T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FCU <GRVGT UEJWNVGTPF)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT WOJGT   XGT\KGTVGT4CJOGPOKV1TPCOGPVGP-CKO 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

2009

2010

'KP8KGTVGNTWDGNFGU<CTGP#NGZGK/KEJCKNQYKVUEJ 

4WDGNI&GTIGMTÌPVG<CTTGKVGVTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNOKVFGT4GEJVGPFCU<GRVGT UEJWNVGTPF5EJTKHV-CKO (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



'KP0QXQFGNFGU8KGTVGNTWDGNUXQP<CT#NGZGK/KEJCKNQYKVUEJ

4WDGN0QXQFGNI-CKO

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 13


FEODOR ALEXIEWITSCH

2011

'KPTWUUKUEJGT)GIGPUVGORGNXQP ,GHKOQM CWHGKPGO2CVCIQPXQP$TCDCPV 

,GHKOQMÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO2CVCIQPXQP$TCDCPV#NDGTVWPF+UCDGNNCI /KV \YGK )GIGPUVGORGNP CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG   5V )GQTI KO -CORH OKV FGO &TCEJGP   ,CJTGU\CJN   &CXp \W &GNOp \W  5GJTUEJÌP



,GHKOQM 2NWTCN ,GHKOKMK  YCT FGT CWU FGT RQNPKUEJGP 5RTCEJG ,QCEJKOKM  CDIGNGKVGVG TWUUKUEJG #WUFTWEM HÒT   6CNGT &GT 0COG UVCOOV XQP FGP )WNFGPITQUEJGP FKG FKG )TCHGP XQP 5EJNKEM KP FGT DÌJOKUEJGP $GTIUVCFV 5V   ,QCEJKOUVCN JGTIGUVGNNV JCVVGP /CP XGTYGPFGVG KP FGP DGKFGP UNCYKUEJGP 5RTCEJGP CNUQ FGP GTUVGP 6GKN FGT WT   URTÒPINKEJGP 0QOKPCNDG\GKEJPWPI ,QCEJKOUVCNGT Y·JTGPF KO &GWVUEJGP WPF 'PINKUEJGP 6CNGT &QNNCT  FGT   \YGKVG6GKNIGY·JNVYWTFG+O,CJTYWTFGPKP4W­NCPFXGTUEJKGFGPGXQTCNNGOFGWVUEJGWPFPKGFGTN·PFKUEJG 6CNGT OKV GKPGO )GIGPUVGORGN XGTUGJGP &KGUG 5VÒEMG YWTFGP ,GHKOQM U RTK\PCMQO IG\GKEJPGVGT ,GHKOQM  QFGT   GKPHCEJMWT\,GHKOQMIGPCPPV&KGIGIGPIGUVGORGNVGP6CNGTMQPPVGPUKEJLGFQEJPKEJVKO<CJNWPIUXGTMGJTFWTEJUGV \GPWPFYWTFGPHÒTWPIÒNVKIGTMN·TV&CFKGOGKUVGP5VÒEMGYQJNGKPIGUEJOQN\GPYWTFGPUKPF,GHKOKMKJGWVG TGEJVUGNVGPWPF\·JNGP\WFGPDGIGJTVGUVGP/ÒP\GP4W­NCPFU

2012

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#4('1&14#.':+'9+65%* )QNFOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP(GQFQT#NGZKGYKVUEJ 

HCEJGT 6UEJGTYQPG\ Q ,  I $GKFGTUGKVU IGMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF   QDGP-TQPG(D FQTVCNU&WMCVGPDG\GKEJPGV -CKO  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

2013

2014



HCEJGT 6UEJGTYQPG\ Q ,0QXQFGNI$GKFGTUGKVUIGMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTCWHFGT$TWUV5V)G QTIUUEJKNFQDGP-TQPG(D FQTVCNU&WMCVGPDG\GKEJPGV -CKO  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 



HCEJGT 6UEJGTYQPG\ Q ,0QXQFGNI$GKFGTUGKVUIGMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTCWHFGT$TWUV5V)G QTIUUEJKNFQDGP-TQPG(D FQTVCNU&WMCVGPDG\GKEJPGV -CKO  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

14


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2015 1,5:1

2016 1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#4+8#08)'/'+05#//+62'6'4+ <YGKIQNFGPG0QXQFGNUFGT<CTGPDTÒFGT+XCP8WPF2GVGT+ 

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-QRGMG &GPIC KP)QNFQ,0QXQFGNI(D FQTVCNU)QNFMQRGMGDG\GKEJPGV -CKOXCT )1.&'VYCUXGTRT·IVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2017

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#42'6'4+&'4)4155' 'KP&QRRGNFWMCVFGU<CTGP2GVGT+ 

 &WMCVGP  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF   WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV   5V)GQTIUUEJKNFQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX5(D  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  9KTINCWDGPFC­FKGUG/ÒP\GGKPG1TKIKPCNRT·IWPIWPFMGKP0QXQFGNKUV&KG#TVFGT2T·IWPIWPFFKG6CVUCEJG FC­FKG5VGORGNPKEJVPCEJVT·INKEJÒDGTCTDGKVGVYWTFGPURTGEJGPHÒTGKP1TKIKPCN

2018

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU/QUMCWGT/ÒP\JQHGU-CFCUJGXUM[ 

4WDGN  M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T)G   MTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX &KCMQX 45GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

15


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2019



2020

2021

4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTKO(GNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 45GJTUEJÌP 



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

2022

2023



2024



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP  #WH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG FGU XQTNKGIGPFGP 5VÒEMGU UKPF KPMWUG 4GUVG FGU 4ÒEMUGKVGPUVGORGNU GTMGPPDCT YGKN QHHGP   UKEJVNKEJGKPXQTJGTIGRT·IVGU5VÒEMCO5VGORGNJ·PIGPIGDNKGDGPKUVWPFFKGPGWG/ÒP\GOKVIGRT·IVJCV

 16

4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP




PETER I. DER GROSSE

2025

2026

2027



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT6ÌPWPI 



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2028

2029

2029



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

17


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2030

2031

2032



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I5RGEKCN'CING/KVITQ­GT-TQPG CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2033

2034

2035



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNG IGUVQRHVGU.QEJ! UGJTUEJÌP



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 49KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP 



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 'VYCUTQUVKIGT5VGORGN(GNFGTNGKEJVDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP

18






PETER I. DER GROSSE

2036

2037

2038



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN  M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[  I $KVMKP  XCT 4  &CX    &KCMQXXCT 5GJTUEJÌP



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



2039

2040

2041



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



4WDGN  M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[  I /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP - CWH FGO *CT   PKUEJWPFOKVITQ­GT4QUGVVGÒDGTFGO-QRH)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIG NGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP &CX&KCMQX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCUGJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP



 19


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2043

2042

2042



4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP   FGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 44#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 



4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP   FGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2044

2044 1,5:1



4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP   FGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2045

2046



4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

20


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2047

2047 1,5:1



 4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM   M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[ 0QXQFGN  I /KV   INCVVGO 4CPF )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QR   RGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP* 4 &KCMQX50 44(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2048

2050

2049



 4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM   M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU   $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF   4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GPMGNURWTNGKEJVG)N·VVWPIUURWTGPUEJÌP 



 4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM   M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[ 0QXQFGN  I $KVMKP   * 4 &KCMQX50 44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 



 4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM   M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[  I $KVMKP  4    &KCMQX 44)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2052

2051



2051

 -QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM   M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[ 0QXQFGN  I $KVMKP   * 4 &KCMQX50 44)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



&GPICU -QRGMGP  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGN CFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP5EJTKHV KP .QTDGGTMTCP\ $KVMKP  4  &KCMQX    44)GUVQRHVGU.QEJDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

21


PETER I. DER GROSSE

1,5:1



2053

1,5:1

&GPICU -QRGMGP  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[0QXQFGNI$KVMKP* &KCMQX50 48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2054

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW 

4WDGN  M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI 

2055

2056

2057



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP QDGP   -TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 45GJTUEJÌP 



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQH0QXQFGN<YKVVGTRT·IWPIXQP\YGK4ÒEMUGKVGP UVGORGNPI/KV4CPFUEJTKHV)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP QDGP-TQPG 5VGORGNCWUFGO/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[ 8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNV \WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN 5VGORGNCWUFGO4QVGP/ÒP\JQH $KVMKP4ÒEMUGKVG WPF4ÒEMUGKVG&CX4ÒEMUGKVGWPF4ÒEMUGKVG&KCMQX4ÒEMUGKVGWPF4ÒEMUGKVG 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGI VGO /CPVGN WPF 1TFGPUMGVVG OKV MNGKPGO #PFTGCUMTGW\8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IG   UVGNNVKPFGT/KVVGFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

22


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2058

2059

2060



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPHH&CX&KCMQXHH  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTMN6KPVGPUEJTKHVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2061



2062

2063

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  .GKEJVG5EJCDURWTKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 23


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2064

2065

2066



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  .GKEJVIGTGKPKIVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT&CX&KCMQXNGKEJVXCT #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2067





2068

2069

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIG NGIVGO/CPVGN8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVGFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN $KVMKPXCT 4 &CX&KCMQXXCT 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

 24

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




PETER I. DER GROSSE

2070



2070

1,5:1

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIG NGIVGO/CPVGN8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVGFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN $KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÒEM5VGORGNINCP\

2071



2072



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  <CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



2073

2075

2074



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  &WPMNG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPXCT 4 &CX&KCMQX  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

25


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2077

2076

2078



4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  4-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  445GJTUEJÌP



2080

2081

2082

2079



2079

)TKXPC M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP #NV[P  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP #NV[P  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  *GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-QRGMG/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQH0QXQFGNI$KVMKPp \W* &KCMQXp \W50  8QT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2083



2084

1,5:1

1,5:1



-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPHH&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



26


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2085

<YGK5QPPGPTWDGNFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI 5QPPGPTWDGN  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF   WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG 5QPPG WPF FKG IG   VGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 45GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2086



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI 5QPPGPTWDGN  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF   WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG 5QPPG WPF FKG IG   VGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  449KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP 

2087

2088

2089

2090

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGU/QUMCWGT/ÒP\JQHGU0CDGTG\JP[ 

-W&GPIC  -QRGMG   M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH 0CDGTG\JP[  I $KVMKP  4    &KCMQX 45EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH0CDGTG\JP[I$KVMKPXCT 4 &KCMQX 45GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH0CDGTG\JP[I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  445GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH0CDGTG\JP[I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP

 27


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2092

2091



-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH0CDGTG\JP[I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH0CDGTG\JP[I$KVMKPXCT&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJ



2093 2095

2094



-W&GPIC -QRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH0CDGTG\JP[I$KVMKP&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP





-W&GPIC -QRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH0CDGTG\JP[I$KVMKP&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



-W&GPIC -QRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH0CDGTG\JP[I$KVMKP&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



2096

2097

2098

2099

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGU/QUMCWGT/ÒP\JQHGU-CFCUJGXUM[ 

-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

 28


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2100

2101

2102

2103



-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  48QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌP





-W&GPIC -QRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KC MQX (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



2104

2105

2106



-W2QNWUEJMC M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQX  445GJTUEJÌP





-W2QNWUEJMC/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&KCMQXXCT  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



-W2QNWUEJMC/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQXHH





5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2107

2108

2108



-W-QRGMGP/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQX  ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP5GJTUEJÌP



-W -QRGMGP  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[ 0QXQFGN  I 4CPF OKV 4CWVGPOWUVGT   $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX50 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

29


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2109

'KP0QXQFGNFGT2TQDG\WGKPGO4WDGN5VÒEMXQP 

4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[0QXQFGNI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG FKG   IGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &CXC&KCMQX50  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2110

'KP6[ORHXQP 

6[ORH  -QRGMGP   /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP   (·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 445GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2111

2112

2113

2114

-WRHGTPG$CTVMQRGMGP 

-W-QRGMG $CTVMQRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I/KV)GIGPUVGORGN CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGT$KVMKP 4 &KCMQXp  441TKIKPCNRT·IWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMG $CTVMQRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I/KV)GIGPUVGORGN CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGT$KVMKP 4 &KCMQXp  441TKIKPCNRT·IWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMG $CTVMQRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I/KV)GIGPUVGORGN CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGT$KVMKP 4 &KCMQXp  448GTIQNFGVUGJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMG $CTVMQRGMG   M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[ 0QXQFGN  I $KVMKP    4 &KCMQXp 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KG­GPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T







'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

30


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2115



-NKRRGPHÌTOKIG -W/CTMG $CTVMQRGMG   /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[ 0QXQFGN  I   $KVMKP 4 &KCMQXp 445GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2116

/GFCKNNGPFGU<CTGP2GVGT+ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP IGRT·IVWO CWHFKG7PVGTFTÒEMWPIFGU5VTGNKV\GPCWHUVCPFGU KP /QUMCW )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP*GTMWNGU OKV   .ÌYGPHGNNUVGJVXXFKG-GWNGCWHFKGNKPMG5EJWNVGTIGNGIVKPFGT4GEJVGP(CEMGNOKVFGTGTFKGCO $QFGPNKGIGPFGPCDIGUEJNCIGPGP-ÌRHGFGT*[FTCXGTDTGPPVOOI&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG 5VTGNKV\GPICTFG YWTFG  XQP +XCP FGO 5EJTGEMNKEJGP CNU RGTUÌPNKEJG )CTFG IGITÒPFGV &GT 0COG DG\KGJV   UKEJCWHFCUTWUUKUEJG9QTVUVTGN\[WPFDGFGWVGV5EJÒV\G&KG5VTGNKV\GPDGOCPPVGPFKG)CTPKUQPKP/QUMCW5KG NGDVGP KP GKIGPGP 5VCFVVGKNGP HÒJTVGP KJTGP GKIGPGP *CPFGN WPF -QOOGT\ 'KPG MNGKPG )TWRRG TGXQNVKGTVG IGIGP   2GVGTFGP)TQ­GPGTUVKO,CJTGWPFGKP\YGKVGU/CN&CTCWHJKPNKG­GT)CTFKUVGPCWHITCWUCOUVG 9GKUGJKPTKEJVGPWPFNÌUVGFKG'KPJGKVHÒTKOOGTCWH

2117



<KPPOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV XQP , % *GFNKPIGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU    ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH )TCH (GQFQT #NGZGLYKVUEJ )QNQXKP TWUUKUEJGT )GUCPFVGT KP %JKPC WPF )QWXGTPGWT   XQP 5KDKTKGP $TWUVDKNF )QNQXKPU N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN.ÌYG UVGJV N OKV GTJQDGPGO 5EJYGTV   FCTÒDGT-TQPGWOJGT.QTDGGT\YGKIGOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 31


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2118



<KPPOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVXQP,%*GFNKPIGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWP FGTVU CWH)TCH(GQFQT#NGZGLYKVUEJ)QNQXKPTWUUKUEJGT)GUCPFVGTKP%JKPCWPF)QWXGTPGWTXQP5KDK TKGP $TWUVDKNF )QNQXKPU N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN.ÌYG UVGJV N OKV GTJQDGPGO 5EJYGTV FCTÒDGT   -TQPGWOJGT.QTDGGT\YGKIGOOI&KCMQX 48QT\ÒINKEJ



2119



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2*/ÒNNGTCWHFGPUEJYGFKUEJGP5KGIÒDGTFKG4WUUGPDGK0CTXCCO 0QXGODGT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIU-CTN:++TOKV2GTÒEMGWPFWOIG NGIVGO /CPVGN8KMVQTKC OKV \YGK .QTDGGTMT·P\GP WPF 2CNO\YGKI UKV\V N CWH IGHCNNGPGP 4WUUGP WPF   TWUUKUEJGP9CHHGPFCJKPVGT-CPQPGPKO*KPVGTIWPFFKG5VCFV0CTXCUQYKGFKG(GUVWPI+YCPIQTQF/KV 4CPFUEJTKHV r # &1/+01 (#%68/ '56 +568& '6 '56 /+4#$+.' +0 1%8.+5 01564+5 Û   OOI&KCMQXp(QTUVGT*KNFGDTCPF+5  4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPC4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG 4ÒEMUGKVGPNGIGPFG FKGUGT WPF FGT HQNIGPFGP /GFCKNNG GTN·WVGTV FKG &CTUVGNNWPI 6#0&'/ $10# %#85#   64+8/2*#61$485515(8)#615'60#48#/.+$'4#6 'PFNKEJUKGIVGFKGIWVG5CEJGCNUFKG 4WUUGPKO,CJTKPFKG(NWEJVIGUEJNCIGPYWTFGPWPF0CTXCDGHTGKVYWTFG   0CEJ CPUVTGPIGPFGP /·TUEJGP ÒDGT UEJNGEJVG 9GIG WPF DGK YKPVGTNKEJGO 9GVVGT GTTGKEJVG -CTN :++ OKV UGKPGO   EC  /CPP UVCTMGP *GGT FCU DGK 0CTXC GTTKEJVGVG .CIGT FGT \CJNGPO·­KI YGKVCWU ÒDGTNGIGPGP OGJT CNU   /CPPWOHCUUGPFGPTWUUKUEJGP6TWRRGP<CT2GVGT+FGTFCU.CIGTMWT\\WXQTXGTNCUUGPJCVVGÒDGTNKG­FGO *GT\QIXQP%TQ[FGP$GHGJNÒDGTFKGTWUUKUEJGP5QNFCVGP#NUCO0QXGODGTFKG5EJNCEJVDGICPPYCTFKG 5KEJV FGT 4WUUGP FWTEJ JGHVKIGP 5EJPGGHCNN GKPIGUEJT·PMV WPF CW­GTFGO YCTGP UKG UVCTMGO )GIGPYKPF CWUIGUGV\V   &KG5EJYGFGPGTM·ORHVGPIGIGPFKGÒDGT\·JNKIGPTWUUKUEJGP)GIPGTGKPGPIN·P\GPFGP5KGIWPFMQPPVGPGKPGITQ­G #P\CJNXQP)GHCPIGPGPPGJOGP#W­GTFGOGTDGWVGVGPUKGFKGTWUUKUEJG-TKGIUMCUUGUQYKGGKPGDGFGWVGPFG/GPIG 9CHHGPWPF-CPQPGP&GT5KGIDGK0CTXCCO0QXGODGTYCTFGT*ÌJGRWPMVFGT/CEJV5EJYGFGPUWPFUGKPGU CODKVKQPKGTVGP-ÌPKIU-CTN:++FGTFKGUVCTMG5VGNNWPIUGKPGU8CVGTNCPFGUKPFGPHQNIGPFGP,CJTGPXGTURKGNGPUQNNVG

2120



32

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)*CWVUEJWPF2*/ÒNNGTCWHFGPUEJYGFKUEJGP5KGIÒDGTFKG4WUUGPDGK 0CTXCCO0QXGODGT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIU-CTN:++TOKVWOIGNGI VGO/CPVGN8KMVQTKCOKV\YGK.QTDGGTMT·P\GPWPF2CNO\YGKIUKV\VNCWHIGHCNNGPGP4WUUGPWPFTWUUK UEJGP 9CHHGP FCJKPVGT -CPQPGP KO *KPVGTIWPF FKG 5VCFV 0CTXC UQYKG FKG (GUVWPI +YCPIQTQF /KV   4CPFUEJTKHV r # &1/+01 (#%68/ '56 +568& '6 '56 /+4#$+.' +0 1%8.+5 01564+5 Û   OOI&KCMQXp(QTUVGTp*KNFGDTCPF+5C  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2121



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP/$TWPPGTWPF)(0ÒTPDGTIGTCWHFGPUEJYGFKUEJGP5KGIÒDGTFKG4WU UGP DGK 0CTXC CO  0QXGODGT )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIU -CTN :++ T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP&GT UEJYGFKUEJG .ÌYG VTCORGNV FGP TWUUKUEJGP &TCEJGP   PKGFGT FCJKPVGT -CPQPGP KO *KPVGTITWPF FKG 5VCFV 0CTXC UQYKG FKG (GUVWPI +YCPIQTQF /KV 4CPF   UEJTKHV 0+. 5+$+ 2'4+848/ 5'05+6 241&'55' (8414'/ Ü %.#8& Ü  OO  I   &KCMQXp*KNFGDTCPF+55NI'TNCPIGTp 4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2122



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'TQDGTWPI XQP 5EJNÒUUGNDWTI UEJYGFKUEJ 0ÌVGDQTI  CO  1MVQDGT  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QT   DGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP&KG CWH GKPGT +PUGN KP FGT 0GYC IGNGIGPG DTGPPGPFG (GUVWPI   5EJNÒUUGNDWTI WPVGT $GUEJW­FGTKO8QTFGTITWPFCWHGKPGO7HGTUVTGKHGPDGHKPFNKEJGPTWUUKUEJGP/ÌT UGTWPF-CPQPGPDCVVGTKGPCWHFGO9CUUGT\CJNTGKEJG$QQVGOOI&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2123



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'TQDG TWPI XQP 5EJNÒUUGNDWTI UEJYGFKUEJ 0ÌVGDQTI  CO  1MVQDGT  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP&KGCWHGKPGT+PUGNKPFGT0GYCIGNGIGPGDTGPPGPFG(GUVWPI 5EJNÒUUGNDWTI WPVGT $GUEJW­FGTKO8QTFGTITWPFCWHGKPGO7HGTUVTGKHGPDGHKPFNKEJGPTWUUKUEJGP/ÌT UGTWPF-CPQPGPDCVVGTKGPCWHFGO9CUUGT\CJNTGKEJG$QQVGOOI&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 33


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2124



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FGP 5GGUKGI   4W­NCPFUÒDGT5EJYGFGPKO/ÒPFWPIUDGDKGVFGT0GYCKPFKG1UVUGGCO/CK)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUV DKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP<YGK UEJYGFKUEJG (TGICVVGP DGUEJKG­GP GKPG   /GPIG TWUUKUEJGT 4WFGTDQQVG QDGP J·NV GKPG CWU 9QNMGP MQOOGPFG *CPF \YGK .QTDGGT\YGKIG ÒDGT   GKPG-TQPGOOI&KCMQX 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

7OFKGUEJYGFKUEJG(GUVWPI0[GPUMCPUXQPFGTTWUUKUEJGP$GNCIGTWPI\WGPVUGV\GPUGV\VGPUKEJPGWPUEJYGFKUEJG 5EJKHHG XQP 8KDQTI CWU KP $GYGIWPI &TGK NGKEJVGTG -TKGIUUEJKHHG UGIGNVGP KP FCU /ÒPFWPIUIGDKGV FGT 0GYC WPF   YWTFGP KP FGT 0CEJV \WO  /CK  XQP OGJT CNU JWPFGTV TWUUKUEJGP 4WFGTDQQVGP OKV LG  /CPP $GUCV\WPI   QJPG -CPQPGP  WO\KPIGNV 9·JTGPF GKPGU FGT UEJYGFKUEJGP 5EJKHHG UCPM WPF GKP YGKVGTGU XQP FGT GKIGPGP $GUCV   \WPIKPFKG.WHVIGURTGPIVYWTFGHKGNFCUFTKVVG5EJKHHFGP4WUUGPKPFKG*·PFG1DYQJNFGT5KGIMGKPGCWUUEJNCI IGDGPFG$GFGWVWPIJCVVGYCTGUFQEJFGTGTUVG5GGUKGI2GVGTUIGIGPFKG5EJYGFGP&GT<CTGORHKPIFGPXQPKJO UGNDUVIGUVKHVGVGP5V#PFTGCUQTFGPWPFNKG­UR·VGTKP'TKPPGTWPICPFGP5KGIKP5V2GVGTUDWTIFCU5EJNQ­-CVJCTK PGPJQH GTDCWGP #WH FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /GFCKNNG JCV OCP FKG UEJYGFKUEJGP -TKGIUUEJKHHG KP IKICPVKUEJG (TGICVVGP   XGTITÌ­GTV



2125



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHWPF#/WUJPKMQY UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG )TÒPFWPIXQP5V2GVGTUDWTICO/CK)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWO IGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP0GRVWP OKV &TGK\CEM UVGJV PCEJ TCWHGKPGT/WUEJGNFKGXQPFTGK2HGTFGPFWTEJ FCU /GGT IG\QIGP YKTF QDGP 5EJTKHV OKV FGT ,CJTGU\CJN CNU %JTQPQITCOO  OO  I   &KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2126



34

<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP0CTXC CO  #WIWUV )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP#PUKEJV FGT   DGUEJQUUGPGP5VCFV0CTXCXQPFGTIGIGPÒDGTNKGIGPFGP5GKVGFGU(NWUUGU0CTXCNFKG(GUVWPI+YCPIQ TQFOOI&KCMQXXCT 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




PETER I. DER GROSSE

2127



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG   XQP 0CTXC CO  #WIWUV )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   #PUKEJVFGTDGUEJQUUGPGP5VCFV0CTXCXQPFGTIGIGPÒDGTNKGIGPFGP5GKVGFGU(NWUUGU0CTXCNFKG(G UVWPI+YCPIQTQFOOI&KCMQX\W 5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2128



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'KPPCJOG XQP 0CTXC CO  #WIWUV )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   #PUKEJVFGTDGUEJQUUGPGP5VCFV0CTXCXQPFGTIGIGPÒDGTNKGIGPFGP5GKVGFGU(NWUUGU0CTXCNFKG(G UVWPI+YCPIQTQFOOI&KCMQX\W 5VGORGNDTWEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



2129



1XCNG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP 6 +YCPQHH 6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNG HÒT FKG 6GKN   PGJOGTFGT5EJNCEJVDGK-CNKUEJCO1MVQDGT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&GT IGJCTPKUEJVG <CT CWH GKPGO PCEJ XQTP URTKPIGPFGP 4Q­ QDGP J·NV GKP CWU   9QNMGP MQOOGPFGT #TO GKPGP -TCP\ ÒDGT UGKP *CWRV KO *KPVGTITWPF 5EJNCEJVU\GPG Z OOI&KCMQX 4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1DYQJN #WIWUV FGT 5VCTMG CO  5GRVGODGT  KO (TKGFGP XQP #NVTCPUV·FV CWH FKG RQNPKUEJG -TQPG XGT\KEJVGV   WPFFKG#NNKCP\OKV4W­NCPFCWHIGNÌUVJCVVGUVGNNVGGTUKEJCPFKG5RKV\GGKPGUU·EJUKUEJRQNPKUEJTWUUKUEJGP*GGTGU WPF DGUKGIVG CO  1MVQDGT PCEJ FGO ITGIQTKCPKUEJGP -CNGPFGT CO  1MVQDGT   DGK -CNKUEJ UEJYGFKUEJG   6TWRRGP WPVGT FGO )GPGTCN /CTFGHGNFV &KG TWUUKUEJG -CXCNNGTKG JCVVG FGP 5KGI DGK FGT \YKUEJGP $TGUNCW 2QUGP   WPF .QF\ IGNGIGPGP 5VCFV RQNPKUEJ -CNKU\  OC­IGDNKEJ JGTDGKIGHÒJTV (ÒT #WIWUV FGP 5VCTMGP JCV FGT 5KGI MGKPG   9KTMWPIIGJCDVGTOW­VGFGPXQOUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKI-CTN:++FKMVKGTVGP8GTVTCIXQP#NVTCPUV·FVKO&G\GODGT TCVKHK\KGTGP<CT2GVGT+MQPPVGCDGTPCEJFKGUGO5KGIÒDGTFGPKP2QNGPDKUFCJKPUVGVUÒDGTNGIGPGP-CTN:++ OKV ITÌ­GTGO 5GNDUVXGTVTCWGP KP FKG DGXQTUVGJGPFG #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPI OKV FGO 5EJYGFGPMÌPKI DNKEMGP 'T NKG­   RT·EJVKIGQXCNG2T·IWPIGPCNU6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNGP FKGGTUVGPKP4W­NCPF CPFKG1HHK\KGTGFGT5EJNCEJVXGTVGKNGP

35


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2130



1XCNG<KPPOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP6+YCPQHH UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU  6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNG HÒT FKG 6GKNPGJOGT FGT 5EJNCEJV DGK -CNKUEJ CO  1MVQDGT  )GJCTPKUEJVGU   $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&GT IGJCTPKUEJVG <CT CWH GKPGO PCEJ XQTP   URTKPIGPFGP4Q­QDGPJ·NVGKPCWU9QNMGPMQOOGPFGT#TOGKPGP-TCP\ÒDGTUGKP*CWRVKO*KPVGT ITWPF5EJNCEJVU\GPGZOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2131 1,5:1



1,5:1

)QNFOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNG   HÒTFKG6GKNPGJOGTFGT5EJNCEJVDGK.GUPCLCCO5GRVGODGT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP&GTIGJCTPKUEJVG<CTCWHGKPGOPCEJXQTPURTKPIGPFGP4Q­QDGP\W FGP5GKVGP\YGK'PIGNFKGGKPG-TQPGÒDGTUGKP*CWRVJCNVGPWOJGT5EJNCEJVU\GPGOOI &KCMQX )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  #PHCPI,WPKGTJKGNVFGTUEJYGFKUEJG)GPGTCN#FCO.WFYKI.GYGPJCWRVXQP-CTN:++FGP#WHVTCIOKVUGKPGP 6TWRRGP XQP .KXNCPF CWU \WO UEJYGFKUEJGP *CWRVJGGT \W UVQ­GP FCU OKV FGO -ÌPKI  XQP 5CEJUGP MQOOGPF    4KEJVWPI4W­NCPFIGIGP2GVGTFGP)TQ­GP\QI&KG8QTDGTGKVWPIGPHÒTFKGUG*KNHUVTWRRGP\QIGPUKEJLGFQEJKPFKG .·PIG WPF CNU UKEJ 'PFG ,WPK  GPFNKEJ EC  /CPP OKV DGFGWVGPFGO 2TQXKCPV WPF 8QTT·VGP HÒT FCU   *CWRVJGGTCWHFGP9GIOCEJVGPIKPIFGT/CTUEJPWTNCPIUCOXQTCP2GVGTFGT)TQ­GYQNNVGFKG8GTGKPKIWPIFGT HGKPFNKEJGP6TWRRGPVGKNGWPFFGP0CEJUEJWDHÒTFKGUEJYGFKUEJG*CWRVCTOGGWOLGFGP2TGKUXGTJKPFGTPWPFUVGNNVG UKEJ )GPGTCN .GYGPJCWRV GPVIGIGP #O  5GRVGODGT CWH FGT /GFCKNNG KUV  PCEJ FGT TWUUKUEJGP 8CTKCPVG FGU   LWNKCPKUEJGP-CNGPFGTUMQTTGMVFGT5GRVGODGTCPIGIGDGP MCOGUKORQNPKUEJGP&QTH.GUPCLC JGWVG9GK­TW­ NCPF \WT5EJNCEJVKPFGTTWPF5EJYGFGPHKGNGPQFGTIGHCPIGPIGPQOOGPYWTFGP&GT4GUVXQP.GYGPJCWRVU 6TWRRGP EC/CPP GTTGKEJVGFCUUEJYGFKUEJG*CWRVJGGTCO1MVQDGT&KG5EJNCEJVDGK.GUPCLCYCT GKPMCVCUVTQRJCNGT4ÒEMUEJNCIHÒT-CTN:++YGKNUGKPG#TOGGFGPHÒTFGP#PITKHHCWH<CT2GVGTFTKPIGPFDGPÌVKI VGP 0CEJUEJWD PKEJV GTJKGNV (ÒT 2GVGT FGP )TQ­GP YCT FKG .GYGPJCWRV UEJG 5EJNCEJV FGT )TWPFUVGKP HÒT UGKPGP   5KGIÒDGTFGP4KXCNGP-CTN:++

2132



36

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5)QWKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGPTWUUK UEJGP#FOKTCN(GQFQT#RTCZKP)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU#FOKTCNUTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN8KGT 5GIGNUEJKHHG CWH 5GG KO *KPVGTITWPF T 5EJNCEJVU\GPG CP .CPF  OO  I &KCMQX    XCTXCT 8QT\ÒINKEJ




PETER I. DER GROSSE

2133



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5)QWKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGPTWUUK UEJGP#FOKTCN(GQFQT#RTCZKP)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU#FOKTCNUTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN8KGT 5GIGNUEJKHHG CWH 5GG KO *KPVGTITWPF T 5EJNCEJVU\GPG CP .CPF  OO  I &KCMQX    XCTXCT 8QT\ÒINKEJ

2134







2135



2136

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5)QWKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGPTWUUK UEJGP#FOKTCN(GQFQT#RTCZKP)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU#FOKTCNUTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN8KGT 5GIGNUEJKHHG CWH 5GG KO *KPVGTITWPF T 5EJNCEJVU\GPG CP .CPF  OO  I &KCMQX    XCTXCT -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGPTWUUKUEJGP #FOKTCN (GQFQT #RTCZKP )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU #FOKTCNU T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT 5G   IGNUEJKHHGCWH5GGKO*KPVGTITWPFT5EJNCEJVU\GPGCP.CPFOOI&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 5 ,WFKP WPF $ 5EQVV XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU    6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNGHÒT1HHK\KGTGKPFGT5EJNCEJVDGK2QNVCYCCO,WPK PCEJITGIQTKCPKUEJGO -CNGPFGT CO  ,WNK   )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   #PUKEJVFGT5EJNCEJVKO*KPVGTITWPFTFKGDGHGUVKIVG5VCFV2QNVCYCOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 37


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2138

2137

2139



4WDGNHÌTOKIG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP5)QWKPWPF)*CWRV6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNGHÒT5QNFCVGPKPFGT 5EJNCEJVDGK2QNVCYCCO,WPK PCEJITGIQTKCPKUEJGO-CNGPFGTCO,WNK )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN#PUKEJV FGT 5EJNCEJV KO *KPVGTITWPF T FKG   DGHGUVKIVG5VCFV2QNVCYCOOI$KVMKP/ 4 &KCMQX 4 1UUDCJT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV *GPMGNURWTFWTEJ'PVHGTPGPFGU1TKIKPCNJGPMGNU5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP 



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHUGKPGP5KGI ÒDGTFKG5EJYGFGPDGK2QNVCYCCO,WPK PCEJITGIQTKCPKUEJGO-CNGPFGTCO,WNK &GT <CTTGKVGVKPXQNNGT4ÒUVWPIPCEJNÒDGTGKPGPCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGP)GHCPIGPGPJKPYGIKO*KPVGTITWPF 5EJNCEJVFCTUVGNNWPI WPF FKG DGHGUVKIVG 5VCFV*GTMWNGU OKV .ÌYGPHGNN WPF -GWNG UVGJV HCUV X X CWH   -TKGIUVTQRJ·GP WPF FGWVGV OKV FGT .KPMGP CWH FCU 5EJNCEJVHGNF FCU KP 8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG \YKUEJGP FGT   5VCFV 2QNVCYC FGO (NW­ 9QTUMNC WPF FGO TWUUKUEJGP .CIGT FCTIGUVGNNV KUV QDGP 5EJTKHV OKV FGT   ,CJTGU\CJNCNU%JTQPQITCOOOOI&KCMQX 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG 8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV *+% *1014 +0 01$+5 +08+&+1585 '4+6  UVCOOV CWU FGP 6GZVGP 1XKFU WPF DG   FGWVGVUKPPIGO·­&KGUGT5KGIYKTF0GKFIGIGPWPUGT\GWIGP



38

<KPPOGFCKNNG  XQP 5 ,WFKP UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH UGKPGP 5KGI ÒDGT FKG   5EJYGFGPDGK2QNVCYCCO,WPK PCEJITGIQTKCPKUEJGO-CNGPFGTCO,WNK &GT<CTKP XQNNGT 4ÒUVWPI TGKVGV PCEJ N ÒDGT GKPGP CO $QFGP NKGIGPFGP )GHCPIGPGP JKPYGI KO *KPVGTITWPF   5EJNCEJVFCTUVGNNWPI WPF FKG DGHGUVKIVG 5VCFV*GTMWNGU OKV .ÌYGPHGNN WPF -GWNG UVGJV HCUV X X CWH   -TKGIUVTQRJ·GP WPF FGWVGV OKV FGT .KPMGP CWH FCU 5EJNCEJVHGNF FCU KP 8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG \YKUEJGP FGT   5VCFV2QNVCYCFGO(NW­9QTUMNCWPFFGOTWUUKUEJGP.CIGTFCTIGUVGNNVKUVQDGP5EJTKHVOKVFGT,CJTGU \CJNCNU%JTQPQITCOOOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




PETER I. DER GROSSE

2140







2141

2142

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG-CRKVWNCVKQPFGT UEJYGFKUEJGP 6TWRRGP DGK 2GTGXQNQVLPC JGWVG 7MTCKPG  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP/KPGTXC OKV *GNO .CP\G WPF 5EJKNF UKV\V CWH -TKGIUVTQRJ·GP N NCIGTV   FGT (NW­IQVV &PLGRT FGP TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG CWUUVTÌOGPFG 3WGNNWTPG IGNGIV  OO  I   &KCMQX -N5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG-CRK VWNCVKQP FGT UEJYGFKUEJGP 6TWRRGP DGK 2GTGXQNQVLPC JGWVG 7MTCKPG  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP/KPGTXCOKV*GNO.CP\GWPF5EJKNFUKV\VCWH-TKGIUVTQRJ·GP N NCIGTV FGT (NW­IQVV &PLGRT FGP TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG CWUUVTÌOGPFG 3WGNNWTPG IGNGIV  OO   I&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG-CRKVWNCVKQPFGT UEJYGFKUEJGP 6TWRRGP DGK 2GTGXQNQVLPC JGWVG 7MTCKPG  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP/KPGTXC OKV *GNO .CP\G WPF 5EJKNF UKV\V CWH -TKGIUVTQRJ·GP N NCIGTV   FGT (NW­IQVV &PLGRT FGP TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG CWUUVTÌOGPFG 3WGNNWTPG IGNGIV  OO  I   &KCMQX -N5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



2143



<KPPOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FKG -CRKVWNCVKQP FGT   UEJYGFKUEJGP 6TWRRGP DGK 2GTGXQNQVLPC JGWVG 7MTCKPG  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP/KPGTXC OKV *GNO .CP\G WPF 5EJKNF UKV\V CWH -TKGIUVTQRJ·GP N NCIGTV   FGT (NW­IQVV &PLGRT FGP TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG CWUUVTÌOGPFG 3WGNNWTPG IGNGIV  OO  I   &KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 39


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2144



6TCIDCTGQXCNGXGTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGOKV5KIPCVWT+Û2 M[TKNNKUEJ CWHFKG'TDCWWPIWPF FKG$GHGUVKIWPIFGU*CHGPUXQP6CICPTQIFWTEJ-CRKV·P/CVYG[5KOQPVQHH)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFT OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN6QRQITCRJKUEJGT 2NCP FGU *CHGP ÒDGT FGO QHHGPGO /GGT   ZOOI&KCMQX 448QT\ÒINKEJ



2145



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH UR·VGTG2T·IWPI#PHCPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'KPPCJOG XQP'NDKPIFWTEJFKGTWUUKUEJG#TOGGCO,CPWCT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF WOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP2NCPFGT5VCFV'NDKPICWUFGT8QIGNRGTURGMVKXGKO8QTFGTITWPFNFGT(NW­IQVV 'NDKPI OKV 3WGNNWTPG FGT GTUEJTQEMGP GKPGP TÌOKUEJGP 5QNFCVGP DGVTCEJVGV FGT GKPG $QODG WPF GKPG   5VWTONGKVGTVT·IVQDGP5EJTKHVOKVFGT,CJTGU\CJNCNU%JTQPQITCOOOOI&KCMQX &WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM .GKEJVG1Z[FCVKQPXQT\ÒINKEJ

&KG5VCFV'NDKPI RQNPKUEJ'NDN±I YCTUGKVFGORQNPKUEJGP(GNF\WI-CTNU:++'PFGUEJYGFKUEJDGUGV\V+O ,CPWCT  YWTFG FKG 5VCFV XQP TWUUKUEJGP 6TWRRGP WO\KPIGNV WPFCO,CPWCTMCRKVWNKGTVGFGTUEJYGFK UEJG -QOOCPFCPV &COKV YCT FKG NGV\VG UEJYGFKUEJG $CUVKQP CWH RQNPKUEJGO $QFGP IGDTQEJGP&CU &CVWO FGT   -CRKVWNCVKQP KUV CWH FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP 2T·IWPI  CNNGTFKPIU WPMQTTGMV  PCEJ FGO ITGIQTKCPKUEJGP -CNGPFGT CPIGIG   DGPMQTTGMVOÒ­VGGUFGT(GDTWCTUGKP



2146



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG-CRKVWNC VKQPXQP8KDQTICO,WPK)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN #PUKEJV FGT DGUEJQUUGPGP 5VCFV 8KDQTI CWU FGT 8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG FCTÒDGT UVÒT\V UKEJ GKP #FNGT CWH   GKPGP-TCPKEJQDGP5EJTKHVOKVFGT,CJTGU\CJNCNU%JTQPQITCOOOOI&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJ

+O /·T\  UEJKEMVG <CT 2GVGT + 6TWRRGP ÒDGT FKG \WIGHTQTGPG HKPPKUEJG 1UVUGG WO FKG UVTCVGIKUEJ HÒT FKG   5KEJGTJGKV XQP 5V 2GVGTUDWTI YKEJVKIG (GUVWPI 8KDQTI JGWVG TWUUKUEJG )TGP\UVCFV \W (KPPNCPF  \W GTQDGTP 5GKV   'PFG/·T\DGNCIGTVGPTWUUKUEJG6TWRRGPFKG(GUVWPIXGTURÒTVGPLGFQEJJGHVKIG)GIGPYGJTXQPFGTUEJYGFK UEJGP)CTPKUQP#PUVCVVFGTGTJQHHVGPUEJYGFKUEJGP(NQVVGUCJUKEJFKGUEJYGFKUEJG)CTPKUQPOKV6GKNGPFGTTWUUK UEJGP(NQVVGMQPHTQPVKGTVFKGUKEJKJTGP9GIFWTEJFCUUEJOGN\GPFG'KUIGDCJPVJCVVG#O,WPKGTMN·TVG FGTUEJYGFKUEJG-QOOCPFCPVUEJNKG­NKEJFKG-CRKVWNCVKQPFCYGKVGTGT9KFGTUVCPFIGIGPFKGÒDGTNGIGPGPTWUUKUEJGP -T·HVG\YGEMNQUIGYGUGPY·TG#O,WPK FKGUGU&CVWOKUVCWHFGT/GFCKNNGCPIGIGDGP \QIFGT<CTHGKGT NKEJKPFKG5VCFVGKP

40




PETER I. DER GROSSE

2147







2148

2149

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG-CRK VWNCVKQPXQP2GTPCWCO#WIWUV)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP2CNNCU #VJGPG OKV 5EJYGTV UVGJV T WPF J·NV OKV FGT .KPMGP .QTDGGT\YGKI WPF 5VCFVMTQPG   ÒDGTGKP2QFGUVOKVFGO(GUVWPIURNCPXQP2GTPCWQDGP5EJTKHVOKVFGT,CJTGU\CJNCNU%JTQPQITCOO OOI&KCMQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'KP PCJOGXQP#TGPUDWTIWPFFKG$GUGV\WPIFGT+PUGN¤UGNFWTEJFKG4WUUGPCO5GRVGODGT)G JCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP.KXQPKC MPKGV PCEJ N WPF ÒDGT   TGKEJV FGO XQT KJT UVGJGPFGP <CTGP KP TÌOKUEJGT 6TCEJV FKG 5VCFVMTQPG WPF FGP (GUVWPIURNCP XQP   #TGPUDWTIOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



<KPPOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKGTWUUKUEJGP'TQDG TWPIGPKO,CJT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP*GTMWNGU OKV.ÌYGPHGNNMPKGVXXWPFJ·NV)NQDWUOKVFGT.CPFMCTVGXQP.KXNCPFCWHUGKPGP5EJWNVGTPKPFGTFKG 1TVG0CTXC4GXCN&QTRCV2GTPCW4KICWPF#TGPUDWTIGKPIG\GKEJPGVUKPFOOI&KC MQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2150



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG8GTO·JNWPIUGKPGU5QJPGU<CTGYKVUEJ#NGZGL2GVTQYKVUEJOKV %JCTNQVVG%JTKUVKPG5QRJKG6QEJVGT.WFYKI4WFQNHUXQP$TCWPUEJYGKI9QNHGPDÒVVGN$GKFGT$TWUVDKNFGT PGDGPGKPCPFGTT(GWGTCNVCTFGTOKVFGP9CRRGPUEJKNFGPXQP4W­NCPFWPF$TCWPUEJYGKIIGUEJOÒEMV KUVFCTÒDGT\YGKKPGKPCPFGTITGKHGPFG*·PFGOOI$TQEMOCPP&KCMQX 4   44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 41


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2151



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGT-KTEJGKP5VKGIGDGK$TCWPUEJYGKIY·JTGPFFGT #PYGUGPJGKV UGKPGU 5QJPGU <CTGYKVUEJ #NGZGL 2GVTQYKVUEJ WPF FGUUGP )GOCJNKP %JCTNQVVG %JTKUVKPG   5QRJKG6QEJVGT.WFYKI4WFQNHUXQP$TCWPUEJYGKI9QNHGPDÒVVGN,CMQDUKV\VXXCPGKPGP$CWOIG NGJPVWPFVT·WOVXQPFGT*KOOGNUNGKVGTKO*KPVGTITWPFN#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGQDGPUVTCJNGPFGT0COG ,GJQXCU<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI$TQEMOCPP&KCMQX 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP  #WHFKGUGT·W­GTUVUGNVGPGP/GFCKNNGYKTFGKPU[ODQNKUEJGT<WUCOOGPJCPI\YKUEJGPFGO1TVUPCOGP5VKGIGWPF FGT*KOOGNUUVKGIGJGTIGUVGNNV

2152



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 1 -CNCUJPKMQX XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FKG   TWUUKUEJG (NQVVGPGZRGFKVKQP KP FGP (KPPKUEJGP /GGTDWUGP KO ,WNK  )GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP&KG CWUNCWHGPFG (NQVVG KO 8QTFGTITWPF T GKP (GNUXQT   URTWPI0QXQFGNOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2153



42

<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFCU-QOOCPFQFGU<CTGP ÒDGTFCU/CPÌXGTFGTXKGTCNNKKGTVGP(NQVVGP 4W­NCPF&·PGOCTM'PINCPF*QNNCPF DGKFGTF·PKUEJGP +PUGN$QTPJQNOXQODKU#WIWUV)GJCTPKUEJVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN CWH GKPGO 2QUVCOGPV FCJKPVGT 9CHHGP FGT -TKGIUOCTKPG0GRVWP OKV &TGK\CEM CP FGO FKG   TWUUKUEJG(CJPGDGHGUVKIVKUVYKTFKPGKPGT-WVUEJGXQP\YGK2HGTFGPPCEJTFWTEJFCUVQUGPFG/GGT IG\QIGP CP FGT -WVUEJG UKPF FKG (CJPGP XQP &·PGOCTM 'PINCPF WPF *QNNCPF DGHGUVKIV  OO   I&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




PETER I. DER GROSSE

2154



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'KP TKEJVWPIFGT-QNNGIKGP)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP#FNGT KO*QTUVOKVUGKPGP,WPIGPUVTGEMVUKEJFGT5QPPGGPVIGIGPNKPMUXGTFQTTVGTTGEJVUDNÒJGPFGT$CWO OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2155



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'KP TKEJVWPIFGT-QNNGIKGP)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP#FNGT KO*QTUVOKVUGKPGP,WPIGPUVTGEMVUKEJFGT5QPPGGPVIGIGPNKPMUXGTFQTTVGTTGEJVUDNÒJGPFGT$CWO OOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



2156



5GVXQPUKNDGTPGP<YKVVGTOGFCKNNGPWPF XQP,&WXKXKGTCWHFGP$GUWEJFGU <CTGP 2GVGT + KP 2CTKU CO  #RTKN  WPF CWH FGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP /KEJGCNQTFGP  &GT LWPIG   -ÌPKI .QWKU :8 GORH·PIV FGP KP CPVKM IGMNGKFGVGP <CTGP&GT *GKNKIG /KEJCGN GTUEJN·IV FGP 6GWHGN   WOJGT1TFGPUMGVVGOOI&KCMQX 4ÒEMUGKVG /¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU 4ÒEMUGKVG5      XQP , &WXKXKGT WPF ( /CTVGCW CWH FGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP /KEJGCNQTFGP  WPF CWH FGP   HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP5KGIÒDGT¤UVGTTGKEJWPFUGKPG8GTDÒPFGVGPKPFGT5EJNCEJVDGK.CWHGNF&GT*GKNKIG /KEJCGNGTUEJN·IVFGP6GWHGNWOJGT1TFGPUMGVVG8KMVQTKCOKV-TCP\WPF5RGGTUEJTGKVGVTÒDGT6TQ RJ·GPWPF9CRRGPUEJKNFGFGT$GUKGIVGPOOI/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU55  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP  43


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2157



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV 6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNG HÒT 6GKNPGJOGT FGT 5GGUEJNCEJV DGK .GFUWPF  

TWUUKUEJ)TGPICO CWHFGP’NCPF+PUGNPCO,WNK)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP&CTUVGNNWPIFGT5GGUEJNCEJVOOI&KCMQX\W  5R·VGTGT)W­UGJTUEJÌP



2158



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP/-WEJMKP 2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU 6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNGHÒT6GKNPGJ OGT FGT 5GGUEJNCEJV DGK .GFUWPF TWUUKUEJ )TGPICO  CWH FGP ’NCPF+PUGNP CO  ,WNK  )GJCT   PKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP&CTUVGNNWPI FGT 5GGUEJNCEJV    OOI&KCMQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2159



44

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP 0[UVCF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­NCPFXQO#WIWUV&KG#TEJG0QCJCWH5GGFCTÒDGTHNKGIV GKPG6CWDGNOKV¤N\YGKIKO5EJPCDGNKO*KPVGTITWPFXGTDKPFGVGKP4GIGPDQIGPFKG5V·FVG5V2GVGTU DWTIWPF5VQEMJQNO<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ




PETER I. DER GROSSE

2160



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP 0[UVCF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­NCPFXQO#WIWUV&KG#TEJG0QCJCWH5GGFCTÃ&#x2019;DGTHNKGIV GKPG6CWDGNOKV¤N\YGKIKO5EJPCDGNKO*KPVGTITWPFXGTDKPFGVGKP4GIGPDQIGPFKG5V·FVG5V2GVGTU DWTIWPF5VQEMJQNO<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2161



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP 0[UVCF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­NCPFXQO#WIWUV&KG#TEJG0QCJCWH5GGFCTÃ&#x2019;DGTHNKGIV GKPG6CWDGNOKV¤N\YGKIKO5EJPCDGNKO*KPVGTITWPFXGTDKPFGVGKP4GIGPDQIGPFKG5V·FVG5V2GVGTU DWTIWPF5VQEMJQNO<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

&KG 5EJTKHV KO #DUEJPKVV FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG FKGUGU WPF FGT HQNIGPFGP DGKFGP 5VÃ&#x2019;EMG GPVJ·NV KTTVÃ&#x2019;ONKEJ FKG ,CJTGU\CJN   CPUVCVVCNU%JTQPQITCOO



2162



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP 0[UVCF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­NCPFXQO#WIWUV&KG#TEJG0QCJCWH5GGFCTÃ&#x2019;DGTHNKGIV GKPG6CWDGNOKV¤N\YGKIKO5EJPCDGNKO*KPVGTITWPFXGTDKPFGVGKP4GIGPDQIGPFKG5V·FVG5V2GVGTU DWTIWPF5VQEMJQNO<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

 45


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2163



<KPPOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FGP (TKGFGP XQP 0[UVCF   \YKUEJGP 5EJYGFGP WPF 4W­NCPF XQO  #WIWUV  &KG #TEJG 0QCJ CWH 5GGFCTÃ&#x2019;DGTHNKGIVGKPG 6CWDGNOKV¤N\YGKIKO5EJPCDGNKO*KPVGTITWPFXGTDKPFGVGKP4GIGPDQIGPFKG5V·FVG5V2GVGTUDWTI WPF5VQEMJQNO<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

2164

2165



2166



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#5EJWNV\CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP0[UVCF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­NCPFXQO  #WIWUV  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP <GKNGP   5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 4  448QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ 



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNGXQP#5EJWNV\CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP0[UVCF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGP WPF4W­NCPFXQO#WIWUV)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GT OGNKP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8GTIQNFGVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#5EJWNV\CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP0[UVCF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF 4W­NCPFXQO#WIWUV)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP <GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8GTIQNFGVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP#5EJWNV\CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP0[UVCF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­NCPFXQO  #WIWUV  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP <GKNGP   5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX -N.QEJHCUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ







46


PETER I. DER GROSSE

2168



8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ( )CUU WPF , ) 9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI PCEJ     CWH FKG -TÌPWPI UGKPGT  )GOCJNKP -CVJCTKPC $GKFGT $TWUVDKNFGT PGDGPGKPCPFGT T+PPGPCP   UKEJV GKPGT -KTEJG FCTKP UVGJV FGT <CT PCEJ T XQT GKPGO 6JTQPUGUUGN WPF UGV\V UGKPGT )GOCJNKP FKG   -TQPGCWHOOI&KCMQX 8GTIQNFGVUGJTUEJÌP



1,5:1

2169



)QNFOGFCKNNG \W  &WMCVGP  XQP 8 -NKOQX WPF + -Q\OKP UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWP   FGTVU  CWH FKG -TÌPWPI UGKPGT  )GOCJNKP -CVJCTKPC $GKFGT $TWUVDKNFGT PGDGPGKPCPFGT T+PPGPCP   UKEJV GKPGT -KTEJG FCTKP UVGJV FGT <CT PCEJ T XQT GKPGO 6JTQPUGUUGN WPF UGV\V UGKPGT )GOCJNKP FKG   -TQPGCWHOOI&KCMQX )1.&44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 



$TQP\GPG 5WKVGPOGFCKNNG Q , WO   XQP , $ )CUU CWH <CT 2GVGT+)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFT OKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN#EJV<GKNGP5EJTKHVFCTÒDGT-TQPG/KV5GTKGPPWOOGT KP-NCOOGTPOOI5OKTPQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 47


KATHARINA I.

2171

2:1

2:1

<#4+0-#6*#4+0#+ <YGKUGNVGPG)QNFOÒP\GPFGT<CTKP-CVJCTKPC+ 

 4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN   5V#PFTGCUUVGJVXXOKV*GKNKIGPUEJGKPFCU-TGW\JKPVGTUKEJJCNVGPF$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX(D )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT)QNFVÌPWPI 

2172

2:1



2:1

 4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN   5V#PFTGCUUVGJVXXOKV*GKNKIGPUEJGKPFCU-TGW\JKPVGTUKEJJCNVGPF$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX(D )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGNGKEJVÒDGTCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2173

2173 1,5:1



48

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW

4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF N OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGT5VGORGNINCP\ 


KATHARINA I.

2174

2175

2176



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  (CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2178

2177

2177



4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF N OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP QDGP -TQPG $KVMKP  XCT   &CX&KCMQX -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT  4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

49


KATHARINA I.

2179

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI/KP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGT5VGORGNINCP\ 

2180

2181

2182



4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 



4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

50

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFNOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT&QR RGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVUGJTUEJÌP




KATHARINA I.

2184

2183

2183



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

2186

2185

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



2187



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QR   RGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\5VGORGNINCP\ 



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  4-N-TCV\GTUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  4-N-TCV\GTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 51


PETER II.

2188

2:1

2:1

<#42'6'4++ 'KP&WMCVFGU<CTGP2GVGT++ 

&WMCV/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIG NGIVGO *GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V )GQTIUUEJKNFQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&KCMQX(D )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ 

2189

2190

2191

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW 

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2192

 52

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXHHXCT  9KP\*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




PETER II.

2193

2194

2195

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU/QUMCWGT/ÒP\JQHGU-CFCUJGXUM[ 

4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU   \CJN$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ 



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

2196



2197





2198

4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  'VYCUHNGEMKIG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG 2WPMV WPF FKG IG   VGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



53


PETER II.

2199

2201

2200



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT  'VYCUTCWJGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌP



2203

2202



2202

4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT 45GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

 54

4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP




PETER II.

2204

2205

2205

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT <CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP



2206

2208

2207

2209

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGU/QUMCWGT/ÒP\JQHGU-CFCUJGXUM[ 

-W-QRGMG  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[ 0QXQFGN OKV -GVVGPTCPF  I $KVMKP *   

4 &KCMQX50 448QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMG/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&KCMQXXCT 8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMG/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMG/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[0QXQFGNOKV-GVVGPTCPFI$KVMKPp \W* XCT4 &KCMQXp \W50  8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

1,5:1



2210

1,5:1

-W-QRGMG/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[0QXQFGNI$KVMKPp \W*4 &KCMQXp

\W50  448QT\ÒINKEJ

 55


PETER II.

2211

/GFCKNNGPFGU<CTGP2GVGT++ 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP # 5EJWNV\ CWH UGKPG -TÌPWPI KP /QUMCW )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\WPF#PFTGCUQTFGP#NVCTOKV-TÌPWPIUKPUKIPKGPQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOO I&KCMQX 4  44'PVHGTPVGT*GPMGNMN4CPFHGJNGTWPF-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2212



<KPPOGFCKNNG XQP#5EJWNV\ XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHUGKPG-TÌ PWPI KP /QUMCW )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF #PFTGCUQTFGP#NVCT OKV -TÌ   PWPIUKPUKIPKGPQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2213



56

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 1 -CNCUJPKMQX WPF ' / XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWP   FGTVU CWHUGKPG-TÌPWPIKP/QUMCW)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF#PFTGCUQTFGP #NVCTOKV-TÌPWPIUKPUKIPKGPQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJ




ANNA

2214

2216

2215

<#4+0#00# 5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU/QUMCWGT/ÒP\JQHGU-CFCUJGXUM[ 

4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[)TQ­GT-QRHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 45GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  *GPMGNURWTLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



2217

2218

2219



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT

 5GJTUEJÌP

 57


ANNA

2220

2221

2222



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPG8CTKCPVG5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT  -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$LCTPG#JNUVTÌO5VQEMJQNO0T

2223

2224

2225



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT  5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN  /QUMCW /ÒP\JQH -CFCUJGXUM[  I $KVMKP  NGKEJV XCT &CX  &KCMQX    NGKEJVXCT 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌP



58


ANNA

2226

2227

2228



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT 4 &CX&KCMQX NGKEJVXCT -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



2229

2230



2231



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  49KP\4CPFHGJNGTMN-TCV\GTKO(GNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXHHXCT  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 59


ANNA

2234

2232

2233



4WDGN/QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQXXCT  5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP&KCMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUpWPF4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2236

2235

2235



4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKPXCT&KCMQXXCT  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW/ÒP\JQH-CFCUJGXUM[I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2237

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW  60

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT&CX&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFNGKEJVLWUVKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




ANNA

2238

2239

2240



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  /KP<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP



4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWO JGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

2241

2242

 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





2241



4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  4(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GPMGNURWTUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



2243

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT 4 &CX&KCMQXNGKEJVXCT  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

 61


ANNA

2244



2245

2246

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 9KP\-TCV\GTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  45VCTMGT5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP



2247

2248

2249



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 8CTKCPVG OKV JQJGP 2WPMVGP \YKUEJGP FGP $WEJUVCDGP CWH FGT   8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKPXCT 4 &CX&KCMQXXCT 45GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 8CTKCPVG OKV &QRRGNRWPMV CO 'PFG FGT 8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV   $KVMKPXCT 4 &CX&KCMQX 4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT6ÌPWPI





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  9KP\-TCV\GTMN<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP



62


ANNA

2251

2250

2252



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT  9KP\4CPFHGJNGTYKP\-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX



5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT&CX&KCMQXNGKEJVXCT  5GJTUEJÌP



2254

2253



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2255

2256

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW 

-W&GPIC/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGT-W-QRGMGXQP2GVGT+ $KVMKP&KCMQXHH ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W&GPIC/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGT-W-QRGMGXQP2GVGT+ $KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP

 63


ANNA

2257

/GFCKNNGPFGT<CTKP#PPC 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q , XQP 6 +YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV \W   'JTGP FGT <CTKP )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP/KPGTXC OKV *GNO 5RGGT   WPF 5EJKNF UKV\V X X CWH 9QNMGP T CWH FGO $QFGP NKGIGP #VVTKDWVG XQP -WPUV WPF 9KUUGPUEJCHV   OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2258

1,5:1

1,5:1



)QNFOGFCKNNGXQP229GTPGTCWHFGP5KGIÒDGTFKG6ÒTMGPDGK#UQY)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFT OKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN2QFGUVFCTCWHFGTIGMTÌPVGTWUUKUEJG&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF N UVGJV FKG <CTKP OKV 2HGTF T FGT VÒTMKUEJG 5WNVCP   OKV-COGNOOI&KCMQX )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

2259





64

2260

5KNDGTLGVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP (TKGFGP OKV FGT 6ÒTMGK )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN#FNGT OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ KO 5EJPCDGN CWH #TOCVWTGP  OO  I $KVMKP    &KCMQX 4  4&WPMNG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTLGVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH KJTGP 6QF )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN#EJV   <GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI$KVMKP&KCMQX 4   4&WPMNG2CVKPCMN<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ




IVAN III.

2261





2263

2262

$TQP\GPG5WKVGPOGFCKNNGQ, WO XQP,$)CUUCWH<CTKP#PPC)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV WOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGP-TQPG/KV5GTKGPPWOOGTKP-NCOOGTP OOI5OKTPQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GPG5WKVGPOGFCKNNGQ, WO XQP,$)CUUCWH<CTKP#PPC)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV WOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGP-TQPG/KV5GTKGPPWOOGTKP-NCOOGTP OOI5OKTPQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



<#4+8#0+++ 

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW

4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX

1,5:1



2264

445EJÌP



1,5:1

 -QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM   /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WO   IGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF #PFTGCUQTFGP)GMTÌPVG OKV .QTDGGT\YGKIGP XGT\KGTVG -CTVWUEJG FCTKP \YGK   <GKNGP5EJTKHVÒDGT,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 448QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2265

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF#PFTGCU QTFGP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIU   UEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  45EJÒTHURWTGPKO(GNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGGVYCUDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  65


IVAN III.

2266

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF#PFTGCU QTFGP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIU   UEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  445GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPC 

2268

2267

2267



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF#PFTGCU QTFGP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIU   UEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  44(GKPG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF#PFTGCU QTFGP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIU   UEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  44/KPRQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP 

66


ELISABETH

2269

1,5:1



1,5:1

 4WDGN 2QNVKPC   5V2GVGTUDWTII$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN WPF #PFTGCUQTFGP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV   5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  448QT\ÒINKEJ 

2270

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#4+0'.+5#$'6* )QNFOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW 

 4WDGN  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP   8KGTIGMTÌPVG9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU \CJN$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&442TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

2271

2272

2273



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

 67


ELISABETH

2275

2274

2276

2277

2278



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&-TCV\GTUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



2280

2281

2279

2282



4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPXCT 4 &KCMQXXCT 4  (D )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



2283

1,5:1

1,5:1

)QNFOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

68

 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP8KGT IG   MTÌPVG9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D+NLKP 4WDGN 2GVTQX 4WDGN   )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 


ELISABETH

2284

1,5:1

1,5:1



 4WDGN  ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV  5V 2GVGTUDWTI 5QIGPCPPVGT 5EQVV+ORG   TKCN  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP8KGT IGMTÌPVG 9CRRGP KPU -TGW\   IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4  &KCMQX 4 (D )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2285

2286

2287

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW 

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4   44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4   44ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

69


ELISABETH

2288

2289

2290



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT&CX&KCMQXNGKEJVXCT *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX



2291

5GJTUEJÌP

2292

2293



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  45EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX



5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

 70

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT

5GJTUEJÌP




ELISABETH

2294

2295

2296



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



2297

2298

2299



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 71


ELISABETH

2300

2302

2301



4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPXCT 4 &KCMQXXCT  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI'VYCUTCWJGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



2303

2303 1,5:1



4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV#PFTGCUQTFGP )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGT FKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKPXCT 4 &KCMQXXCT 4   44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2304

2305



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX



72

5GJTUEJÌP


ELISABETH

2306

1,5:1



1,5:1

 4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM   /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVG FGU#PFTGCUQTFGPU$KVMKP&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

2308

2307



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQXXCT  5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQXXCT  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



2310 2311

2309



-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX  -N<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





 -QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM   ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH   I$KVMKP&KCMQXXCT 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1,5:1



2312

1,5:1

-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQH2TQDGFGU)TKXGPPKM0QXQFGNUKP-WRHGTI )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVG OKV .QTDGGT\YGKIGP XGT\KGTVG -CTVWUEJG   FCTKP\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVÒDGT,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP*&KCMQX0  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

73


ELISABETH

2314

2313

2316

2315

2318

2317



-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  -N(NGEMHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT 4 &KCMQX *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX



2319

2320

8QT\ÒINKEJ

2321

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF#PFTGCUQTFGPU )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF   WOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4   44(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4 

44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPHHXCT&CX&KCMQX  9KP\2TQDKGTURWTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



74


ELISABETH

2322

2323

2324



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2325

2326

2327



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX



5GJTUEJÌP

75


ELISABETH

2328

2329

2330



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2331

2332

2333



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



76


ELISABETH

2334

2335

2336



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2337

2338

2339



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 77


ELISABETH

2340

2341



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX -N)TCHHKVKKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2342

2343



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX /KPRQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT 2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2344

2345



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2346

2347



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT *GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIOKPRQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



78


ELISABETH

2348

2349



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTYKP\-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



2350



2351

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI5QIGPCPPVGT5EQVV4WDGNI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI 5QIGPCPPVGT 5EQVV4WDGN  I $KVMKP  4  &CX    &KCMQX 4  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



2352

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 2QTVT·V XQP , &CUUKGT )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIU   UEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4  44#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  79


ELISABETH

2354

2353



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2355

2355 1,5:1



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOIGDGPXQP FGT-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

2357

2356



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   49KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2358

2359

2360



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII)TQ­GT5EJTÌVNKPI$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII)TQ­GT5EJTÌVNKPI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII-NGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPI$KVMKP&KCMQX

80

5GJTUEJÌP




ELISABETH

2361



2362

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII-NGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2363

2364

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW 

-W-QRGMGP/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





-W-QRGMGP/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHIªDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGT-W-QRGMG$KVMKP &KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2365

2366

2367

2368

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG'MCVGTKPDWTI 

-W&GPIC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX

 4-N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTIIªDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP2GVGT++ QFGT-CVJCTKPC+$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTIIªDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP2GVGT++ QFGT-CVJCTKPC+$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 81


ELISABETH

2370



2369

2371

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI0QXQFGNI4CPFOKV4CWVGPOWUVGT$KVMKP 4 &KC MQX50 4  48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTIQFGT5GUVTQTGVUMI$KVMKPQFGT&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX



2372

2374

-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

2373



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGT-W-QRGMG$KVMKP &KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  'MCVGTKPDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP   2GVGT++QFGT-CVJCTKPC+$KVMKP&KCMQX 4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 82

-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTIQFGT5GUVTQTGVUMI$KVMKPQFGT&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP




ELISABETH

2376

2375



2375

-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTI0QXQFGNI/KVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF$KVMKP*&KCMQX5 0 48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-W2QNWUEJMC  'MCVGTKPDWTI 0QXQFGN  I /KV IGTKHHGNVGO 4CPF $KVMKP *  4    &KCMQX0 4  448QT\ÒINKEJ

2377

2378



2379

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

-W-QRGMG  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM    XQP2GVGT++$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM    XQP2GVGT++QFGT-CVJCTKPC+$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP   2GVGT++QFGT-CVJCTKPC+$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2380

2381



-W-QRGMG  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP   2GVGT++QFGT-CVJCTKPC+$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGT -W-QRGMG  5V 2GVGTUDWTI   $KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP

 83


ELISABETH

1,5:1

2382

1,5:1

'KP0QXQFGNFGT-QRGMGP2TQDGXQP 

 -QRGMGP  /QUMCW 0QXQFGN FGT 2TQDG  I /KV IGTKHHGNVGO 4CPF $KVMKP *  4    &KCMQX50 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



2383

2T·IWPIGPHÒT.KXNCPFWPF'UVNCPF 

.KXQPCKUG 4WDGN \W  -QRGMGP   /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF    I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF   4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUVFKG5EJKNFGXQP4KICWPF4GXCNQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4  &CX&KCMQX 4  445GJTUEJÌP 

 DGVGKNKIVG UKEJ <CTKP 'NKUCDGVJ CP GKPGT IGUCOVGWTQR·KUEJGP -QCNKVKQP IGIGP (TKGFTKEJ ++ XQP 2TGW­GP 5KG   UEJKEMVG 6TWRRGP KP FKG DCNVKUEJGP 2TQXKP\GP FGTGP JGTTUEJGPFG 1DGTUEJKEJV ITÌ­VGPVGKNU FGWVUEJ YCT /KV FGO   XQTNKGIGPFGP.KXQPCKUGYQNNVG'NKUCDGVJFKGKPFGP2TQXKP\GPI·PIKIGP/ÒP\GPGTUGV\GP

2384

2385

2385



.KXQPCKUG 4WDGN \W  -QRGMGP   /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF    I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF   4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUVFKG5EJKNFGXQP4KICWPF4GXCNQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4  &CX&KCMQX 4  44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 



.KXQPCKUG 4WDGN \W  -QRGMGP   /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF   I$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4  44*GPMGNURWT(GNFGTIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP 

84


ELISABETH

2386



.KXQPCKUG 4WDGN\W-QRGMGP /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHIGRT·IVHÒT.KXNCPFWPF'UV NCPFI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  4(CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2387

2388

2389

2390

2391



 -QRGMGP  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I $KVMKP    &KCMQX 4  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





 -QRGMGP  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I $KVMKP    &KCMQX 4  9KP\-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





 -QRGMGP  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I $KVMKP    &KCMQX 4  5GJTUEJÌP





 -QRGMGP  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I $KVMKP    &KCMQX 4  5GJTUEJÌP





 -QRGMGP  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I $KVMKP    &KCMQX 4  5GJTUEJÌP



2392

2393

2T·IWPIGPHÒT1UVRTGW­GP 

6CNGT-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKP 4  &KCMQX1NFC 4,WUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



6CNGT-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKP 4  &KCMQX1NFC 9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

2394



2395

6CNGT-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKP 4  &KCMQX1NFC 45GJTUEJÌP



)TÌUEJGT-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKP &KCMQX1NFC (CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T





85


ELISABETH

2396

2397

2398

2399



)TÌUEJGT  -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI  I $KVMKP    NGKEJVXCT&KCMQXNGKEJVXCT1NFC 5GJTUEJÌP





)TÌUEJGT  -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI  I $KVMKP    NGKEJVXCT&KCMQXNGKEJVXCT1NFC .GKEJVRQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP





)TÌUEJGT-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKPXCT &KCMQXXCT1NFC (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



)TÌUEJGT-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKPXCT &KCMQXXCT1NFC (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2402

2401

2400

2403



)TÌUEJGT-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKP &KCMQX1NFC 5GJTUEJÌP





)TÌUEJGT  -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI  I $KVMKP    NGKEJVXCT&KCMQXNGKEJVXCT1NFC 5GJTUEJÌP





)TÌUEJGT-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKP &KCMQX1NFC 5GJTUEJÌP





5EJKNNKPI-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII$KVMKP 4  &KCMQX1NF (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2404



2405

2404

 6CNGT  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI  I   $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 1NF 5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

 86

)TÌUEJGT/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW��GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPII $KVMKPNGKEJVXCT 4 &KCMQXNGKEJVXCT1NFC (CUVUGJTUEJÌP




ELISABETH

2406

/GFCKNNGPFGT<CTKP'NKUCDGVJ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH KJTG   6JTQPDGUVGKIWPI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&KG<CTKPOKV-TGW\KPFGT4GEJVGP HÒJTV6TWRRGPFWTEJGKPG5VTC­GWPFFGWVGVOKVFGT.KPMGPCWHGKP)GD·WFGOOI&KC MQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2407



)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPXQP8-NKOQXCWHKJTG-TÌPWPI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIG NGIVGO*GTOGNKP&KG<CTKPUVGJVXXOKV<GRVGTKPFGT4GEJVGPQDGPGKP'PIGNOKV5EJKNFKP9QN MGPFGTGKPG-TQPGÒDGTKJT*CWRVJ·NVTPGDGPKJTMPKGPFG4WUUKCOKV#FNGTUEJKNFOOI &KCMQXXCT )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2408



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'TÌHH PWPI FGT /CTKPGYGTHV KP -TQPUVCFV )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN'KP KO $CW DG   HKPFNKEJGU 5EJKHH FCJKPVGT -CPCN OKV $TÒEMG KO *KPVGTITWPF *CHGPCPUKEJV XQP -TQPUVCFV  OO   I&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 87


ELISABETH

2409



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHCWHFGP'TNC­XQP5VGWGTP)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV OKV (ÒNNJQTP KO NKPMGP #TO ÌHHPGV FCU 6QT \W GKPGT $TÒEMG HÒT 2HGTF WPF   9CIGP KO 8QTFGTITWPF T WOIGHCNNGPGU 5EJKNFGTJCWU  OO  I &KCMQX  XCT 4   QJPG5KIPCVWTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG  8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

2410



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP'TNC­ XQP5VGWGTP)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV(ÒNNJQTPKONKPMGP #TO ÌHHPGV FCU 6QT \W GKPGT $TÒEMG HÒT2HGTFWPF9CIGPKO8QTFGTITWPFTWOIGHCNNGPGU5EJKNFGT JCWUOOI&KCMQXXCT QJPG5KIPCVWTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2411



88

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKGHKPCP \KGNNG9KGFGTJGTUVGNNWPIFGT5VCCVUMCUUG)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&CUCNNGIQTK UEJG9QJNYQNNGPCNUYGKDNKEJG)GUVCNVFCTIGUVGNNV\ÒPFGVOKVGKPGT(CEMGN$ÒEJGTWPF2CRKGTGCPWPF TGKEJVGKPGOMPKGPFGP$CWGTP(TÒEJVGOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ




ELISABETH

2412



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG)TGP\ TGIWNKGTWPI )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG )GTGEJVKIMGKV XGTUGV\V   FGTCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGPRGTUQPKHK\KGTVGP<YKGVTCEJVGKPGP6TKVVN/G­VKUEJT)TGP\U·WNGKO*KPVGT ITWPFN\YGK.CPFXGTOGUUGTOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

2414

2413



2415



4WDGNHÌTOKIG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHCWHFGP5KGIDGK-WPGTUFQTH)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFT OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP-TKGIGT KP CPVKMGT 4ÒUVWPI UVGJV PCEJ T CWH 5EJNCEJVHGNF FGP NKPMGP (W­   CWHGKPG3WGNNWTPGIGUVGNNVKPDGKFGP*·PFGPJ·NVGTGKPGP5RGGTWOJGT-TKGIUVTQRJ·GPWPF)GHCNNGPG OOI$KVMKP/ 4 &KCMQX 4  4'PVHGTPVGT*GPMGNUGJTUEJÌP 



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP5KGI DGK-WPGTUFQTH)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP-TKGIGTKPCPVKMGT4ÒUVWPIUVGJVPCEJ T CWH 5EJNCEJVHGNF FGP NKPMGP (W­ CWH GKPG 3WGNNWTPG IGUVGNNV KP DGKFGP *·PFGP J·NV GT GKPGP 5RGGT   WOJGT-TKGIUVTQRJ·GPWPF)GHCNNGPGOOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP5KGI DGK-WPGTUFQTH)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP-TKGIGTKPCPVKMGT4ÒUVWPIUVGJVPCEJ T CWH 5EJNCEJVHGNF FGP NKPMGP (W­ CWH GKPG 3WGNNWTPG IGUVGNNV KP DGKFGP *·PFGP J·NV GT GKPGP 5RGGT   WOJGT-TKGIUVTQRJ·GPWPF)GHCNNGPGOOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ





89


ELISABETH

2416







2417

2418

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP5KGI DGK-WPGTUFQTH)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP-TKGIGTKPCPVKMGT4ÒUVWPIUVGJVPCEJ T CWH 5EJNCEJVHGNF FGP NKPMGP (W­ CWH GKPG 3WGNNWTPG IGUVGNNV KP DGKFGP *·PFGP J·NV GT GKPGP 5RGGT   WOJGT-TKGIUVTQRJ·GPWPF)GHCNNGPGOOI&KCMQX 4   /KP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHKJTGP6QFCO  &G\GODGT )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP&KG <CTKP UEJYGDV CWH 9QNMGP WPF   FGWVGVOKVFGT4GEJVGPCWHGKP2QUVCOGPVCWHFGOGKP<GRVGTWPFGKPIGMTÌPVGT5EJKNFOKVFGO/QPQ ITCOOKJTGU0CEJHQNIGTU<CT2GVGT+++NKGIGPÒDGTFGO*CWRVFGT<CTKPUVTCJNGPFGT5VGTPGPMTCP\KO 8QTFGTITWPFTUVGJGP\YGK)GPKGPOKVFGOTWUUKUEJGP9CRRGPOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP$5EQVVCWHKJTGP6QFCO&G\GODGT)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIG NGIVGO *GTOGNKP&KG <CTKP UEJYGDV CWH 9QNMGP WPF FGWVGV OKV FGT 4GEJVGP CWH GKP 2QUVCOGPV CWH   FGOGKP<GRVGTWPFGKPIGMTÌPVGT5EJKNFOKVFGO/QPQITCOOKJTGU0CEJHQNIGTU<CT2GVGT+++NKGIGP ÒDGT FGO *CWRV FGT <CTKP UVTCJNGPFGT 5VGTPGPMTCP\ KO 8QTFGTITWPF T UVGJGP \YGK )GPKGP OKV FGO   TWUUKUEJGP9CRRGPOOI&KCMQX 44(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP 

2419



90

$TQP\GPG5WKVGPOGFCKNNGQ, WO XQP,$)CUUCWH<CTKP'NKUCDGVJ)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFT OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP#EJV <GKNGP 5EJTKHV QDGP -TQPG /KV 5GTKGPPWOOGT  KP -NCOOGTP   OOI5OKTPQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ




PETER III.

2420

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#42'6'4+++ 'KP4WDGN5VÒEMFGU<CTGP2GVGT+++ 

 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP8KGT   IGMTÌPVG 9CRRGP KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG #FNGTUEJKNF KP FGP 9KPMGNP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN   $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D  )1.&445GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2421

2422

2423

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVG FGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUVFGT5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG -GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUVFGT5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG -GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4  445GJTUEJÌP  91


PETER III.

2424



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4 

2425

2426

445GJTUEJÌP



2427



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4 

445GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   44(GNFGTIGIN·VVGVFGPPQEJCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4 



445EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

2428

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF   WOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

92


PETER III.

2429

2430

2431

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP2GVGT+++ 

-W-QRGMGPWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQXXCT 4   5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-N5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGPWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   45GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGPWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2433

2432

2432



-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

 93


PETER III. 

-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKPXCT 4 &KCMQXXCT 4   ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPMN<CKPGPFGHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

2438



2437



2439

-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#W­GTIGYÌJPNKEJDTGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

2440



2441



-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP   'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP   'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGPWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP&KCMQX&C\W-W-QRGMGP WPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP&KCMQX 4  5VÒEM4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



94


PETER III.

2443

1,5:1

1,5:1

'KP0QXQFGNFGU2TQDG4WDGNUXQP 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI0QXQFGNÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO4WDGNXQP-CVJCTKPC++I/KVIGTKH HGNVGO 4CPF )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP WPF 1TFGPUDCPF8KGT IGMTÌPVG   /QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVGFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP* 4 &CX &KCMQX0 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

2444

2445

2445

<YGK#NDGTVWUVCNGTCWUFGT<GKV2GVGTU+++CNU*GT\QIXQP)QVVQTR 

#NDGTVWUVCNGT/CPPJGKO2T·IWPIHÒT5EJNGUYKI*QNUVGKP)QVVQTRCNU*GT\QI-CTN2GVGT7NTKEJ I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKPWPF1TFGPUDCPF)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGTOKVFGP5EJKNFGPXQP4W­NCPFWPF*QNUVGKP)QVVQTRCWHFGT$TWUVWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVG FGU#PFTGCUQTFGPU/KV4CPFUEJTKHVÉ0#%*É&'/É(75É&'4É#.$'4675É6*#.'4É $KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4 *CCUNGKEJVXCT.CPIGNGKEJVXCT  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 



#NDGTVWUVCNGT/CPPJGKO2T·IWPIHÒT5EJNGUYKI*QNUVGKP)QVVQTRCNU*GT\QI-CTN2GVGT7NTKEJ I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKPWPF1TFGPUDCPF)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGTOKVFGP5EJKNFGPXQP4W­NCPFWPF*QNUVGKP)QVVQTRCWHFGT$TWUVWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVG FGU#PFTGCUQTFGPU/KV4CPFUEJTKHVÉ0#%*É&'/É(75É&'4É#.$'4675É6*#.'4É $KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4 *CCUNGKEJVXCT.CPIGNGKEJVXCT  44(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ  95


KATHARINA II.

2446

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#4+0-#6*#4+0#++ )QNFOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP8KGT IG   MTÌPVG 9CRRGP KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG #FNGTUEJKNF KP FGP 9KPMGNP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN   $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (DC  )1.&45GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

2447

1,5:1



1,5:1

 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP8KGT IG   MTÌPVG 9CRRGP KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG #FNGTUEJKNF KP FGP 9KPMGNP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN   $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (DC )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

2448

2449

2448



 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN8KGTIGMTÌPVG9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX(DD )1.&4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP8KGTIGMTÌPVG 9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (DC )1.&44#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

96




KATHARINA II.

2450



2452

2451

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP8KGTIGMTÌPVG 9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (DC )1.&44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN8KGTIGMTÌPVG9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (DD )1.&4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN8KGTIGMTÌPVG9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (DD  )1.&44-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP 

2453

2454



 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN8KGTIGMTÌPVG9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (DD )1.&4$GTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP 



 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN8KGTIGMTÌPVG9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVG#FNGTUEJKNFKPFGP9KPMGNPFKGIGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (DD )1.&44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP 

2455

2456

2457

2458



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX(D  )1.&9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX(D

)1.&5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX(D  )1.&.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX(D  )1.&5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP

 97


KATHARINA II.

2459

2461

2460

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW 

4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   4-N*GPMGNURWTUEJÌPUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



2462



2463

4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2464

2465



2465

4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI$KVMKP&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI  98

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT




KATHARINA II.

2466

2467



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  /KP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2468

2469

2470



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2471

2472



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVG FGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 



99


KATHARINA II.

2473

2474



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2475

2476



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2477

2478



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX



5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV)GTKPIGTJCNVGPpUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX



2479

100

2480

5GJTUEJÌP


KATHARINA II.

2482

2481



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

2483







2484

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT &CX&KCMQXNGKEJVXCT 5GJTUEJÌP



2485



5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2486

2487

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTUKIPCVWTÛ6Û+CO#TOCDUEJPKVV$KVMKP

4 &CX&KCMQX 4  44-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP$LCTPG#JNUVTÌO5VQEMJQNO0T



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVG FGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\5VGORGNINCP\ 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ

 101


KATHARINA II.

2488

2489



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  -N$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2490

2491



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



2492

2493



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  9KP\-TCV\GTKO(GNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX



2494

(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

2495



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



102


KATHARINA II.

2496

2497

2498



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ



2499

2500

2501



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI&WPMNG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 103


KATHARINA II.

2502

2503

2503



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF   WOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJ 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF   WOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 4   445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2504

2505



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   45EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTKO(GNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4   42CVKPCGVYCURQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP



2506

2507



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 

4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 

4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



104


KATHARINA II.

2509

2508



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4   (GKPG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 



45GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2511

2510



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 

5EJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   44/KPDGTKGDGP-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 

2513

2512

ex 2514

2515

 45EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

2516



2517



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTIIWPFI$KVMKP&KCMQX

4  4  5VÒEM(CUVUGJTUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 

45GJTUEJÌP



(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

105


KATHARINA II.

2518

2519

1,5:1

1,5:1



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2522

2521

2520



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ



 

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2523

2524

2525

2526

2527



-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 



-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX



-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 

5GJTUEJÌP



5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2528

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGU4QVGP/ÒP\JQHGUKP/QUMCW  106

-W-QRGMGP/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHI5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP 5VÒEMXQP2GVGT+++$KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP




KATHARINA II.

2531 2530

2530



-W-QRGMGP/QUMCW4QVGT/ÒP\JQHIªDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP 'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  /QUMCW 4QVGT /ÒP\JQH  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP2GVGT+++$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   44ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPNGKEJVG-QTTQUKQPUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMGP/QUMCWI5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP 2GVGT+++WPFGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





1,5:1

2532



-W-QRGMGP/QUMCWI5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP 2GVGT +++ GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM  XQP 'NKUCDGVJ UQYKG GKPGO -W-QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  44ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGPªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP





&KGUG JQEJKPVGTGUUCPVG -WRHGTOÒP\G JCV KJTGP 9GTV KO .CWHG FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU OKPFGUVGPU FTGKOCN IG·PFGTV   &GWVNKEJUKEJVDCTKUVFKG,CJTGU\CJNFKGFCU5VÒEMCNUGJGOCNKIG$CTQEMMQRGMGFGT<CTKP'NKUCDGVJCWUYGKUV 1DFCU5VÒEMOKVGKPGOPGWGP5EJTÌVNKPIJGTIGUVGNNVQFGTCWHGKPGO-QRGMGP5VÒEMFGT<CTGP2GVGT+2GVGT ++QFGT#PPCÒDGTRT·IVYWTFGKUVPKEJVGTMGPPDCT5·OVNKEJG-QRGMGP5VÒEMGFGT<CTKP'NKUCDGVJYWTFGP\W  -QRGMGP5VÒEMGP CDIGYGTVGV XQP FKGUGT &GXCNWCVKQP UKPF PQEJ 4GUVG FGU /QPQITCOOGU FGT <CTKP 'NKUCDGVJ   UKEJVDCT )WV GTMGPPDCT KUV FKG ,CJTGU\CJN  WPF FCU PGWG -WRHGTOÒP\DKNF FGU <CTGP 2GVGT +++ FGT FKG    -QRGMGP5VÒEMG PQEJOCNU WO  \W  -QRGMGP5VÒEMGP CDIGYGTVGV JCVVG <CTKP -CVJCTKPC ++ MGJTVG YKGFGT \W   FGO /ÒP\UVCPFCTF XQP  \WTÒEM FWTEJ FGP FCU XQTNKGIGPFG 5VÒEM KO ,CJT  YKGFGT \W GKPGO    -W-QRGMGP5VÒEMYWTFG&KG-WRHGTOÒP\G\GKEJPGVKPDGGKPFTWEMGPFGT9GKUGFKGPFGTWPIGPFGUTWUUKUEJGP -WRHGTOÒP\HW­GUPCEJFCU5VÒEMJCVVGHQNIGPFGP9GTV  

 XQT OÌINKEJGTYGKUG -QRGMGP  CD-QRGMG  CD-QRGMGP  CD-QRGMGP  CD-QRGMGP 

    

9·JTGPFGUTGNCVKXJ·WHKIXQTMQOOVFC­UKEJ\YGK2T·IG\WUV·PFGGKPFGWVKIGTMGPPGPNCUUGPOW­OCPDGKFTGKGPUEJQP UGJTNCPIGUWEJGPDKUOCPCWHGKPGUQNEJG/ÒP\GUVÌ­V8KGTGTMGPPDCTG2T·IG\WUV·PFGJKPIGIGPUKPFFGHKPKVKXUGJT UGNVGP&CU5VÒEMMQUVGVGKPFGPGT,CJTGPDGTGKVUFCU(ÒPHHCEJGGKPGTGPVURTGEJGPFGPPQTOCNGP2T·IWPI 

107


KATHARINA II.

2534

2533

2535

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

-W -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP2GVGT+++WPFGKPGO-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP2GVGT+++$KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP2GVGT+++$KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



2536

2537



 108

2537

-W -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP2GVGT+++WPFGKPGO-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



-W -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 5KEJVDCT ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   XQP2GVGT+++$KVMKP&KCMQX ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP




KATHARINA II.

2538

2539

2540



-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP2GVGT+++WPFGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP2GVGT+++WPFGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX  ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGPªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII5KEJVDCTÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP2GVGT+++WPFGKPGO-W-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP'NKUCDGVJ$KVMKP&KCMQX  ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



2541

2542

2543

'KP-QRGMGP5VÒEMFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5GUVTQTGVUM 

-W-QRGMGP5GUVTQTGVUMI$KVMKP&KCMQX

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   4'VYCUFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKPC&KCMQX  ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG'MCVGTKPDWTI

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

109


KATHARINA II.

2544

2545



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

 

8QT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKPXCT&KCMQX

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2547



2546

2548

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

2549

8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



110


KATHARINA II.

2550



2552

2551

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  5GNVGPGTNGV\VGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2553

2554



-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX#



-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

2555

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2556

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2557

2558



-W&GPIC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W&GPIC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W2QNWUEJMC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP&KCMQX





-W2QNWUEJMC  ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV  'MCVGTKPDWTI &KEMCDUEJNCI  I   $KVMKP\W&KCMQX\W 448QT\ÒINKEJ

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 111


KATHARINA II.

2559

2560

2561

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5W\WP 

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 

445GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ



2562

 

2563

2564

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP&KCMQX

48QT\ÒINKEJ



8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 112

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP&KCMQX


KATHARINA II.

2566

2565

 

2565

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP&KCMQX -W&GPIC5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 45GJTUEJÌP

 

445GJTUEJÌP



2567

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG(GQFQUKC 

-W-QRGMGP(GQFQUKC -TKO I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 

2569



2568

2570

-W-QRGMGP(GQFQUKC -TKO I$KVMKP 4 &KCMQXp \WLGFQEJ4CPFOKV 4CWVGPOWUVGT  445EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG#PPKPUMQ[G 

-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX  'VYCU)TÒPURCPXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX  'VYCU)TÒPURCPXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 113


KATHARINA II.

2571

2572

2573



-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX  -N<CKPGPFGXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2574

2575

2576



-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



114


KATHARINA II.

2577



2578

-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX

2579

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP&KCMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ



1,5:1

2580



-W -QRGMGP  WPDGUVKOOVG /ÒP\UV·VVG  I ªDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO -W -QRGMGP5VÒEM   )GMTÌPVGU/QPQITCOOWOJGT-WIGNP9GTVCPICDGKO#DUEJPKVVFKG,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4  &KCMQX 4  44ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ  115


KATHARINA II.

2581

2582

2583

-WRHGTRT·IWPIGPHÒT5KDKTKGP 

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  9KP\&QRRGNUEJNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ



2585

2584

2584



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX



116

5GJTUEJÌP


KATHARINA II.

2586

2587

2588



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  -N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2590

2589

2591



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX  45GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 117


KATHARINA II.

2593

2592



2592

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP&KCMQX  (GKPG6ÌPWPIGVYCU&QRRGNUEJNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W2QNWUEJMC  5W\WP -QN[XCP  HÒT 5KDKTKGP 0QXQFGN  I $KVMKP *  4  &KCMQX   0 4  48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KG­GPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI)OD*/ÒPEJGP0T

2594

2595

2596

2T·IWPIGPHÒT/QNFCXKGPWPFFKG9CNNCEJGK 

-W2CTC  &GPICU   5CFQIWTC IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT TWUUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI /QNFCXKGPU WPF FGT   9CNNCEJGK Y·JTGPF FGU VÒTMKUEJTWUUKUEJGP -TKGIGU JGTIGUVGNNV CWU -CPQPGPDTQP\G  I $KVMKP   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



9·JTGPF FGU TWUUKUEJVÒTMKUEJGP -TKGIGU  XGTFT·PIVGP FKG TWUUKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVG FKG 6ÒTMGP CWU FGO   OQNFCYKUEJGP)GDKGVWPFFGT9CNCEJGK(ÒTFKGPWPGTHQTFGTNKEJG/ÒP\RT·IWPIXGTYGPFGVGOCPFCU/GVCNNGTDGW VGVGTVÒTMKUEJGT)GUEJÒV\G





-W2CTC  &GPICU   5CFQIWTC IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT TWUUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI /QNFCXKGPU WPF FGT   9CNNCEJGKY·JTGPFFGUVÒTMKUEJTWUUKUEJGP-TKGIGUJGTIGUVGNNVCWU-CPQPGPDTQP\GI$KVMKP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&KCMQX -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



-W2CTC  &GPICU   5CFQIWTC IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT TWUUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI /QNFCXKGPU WPF FGT   9CNNCEJGK Y·JTGPF FGU VÒTMKUEJTWUUKUEJGP -TKGIGU JGTIGUVGNNV CWU -CPQPGPDTQP\G  I $KVMKP    4 $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&KCMQX 4  445GJTUEJÌP



2597

2598



-W2CTC  &GPICU   5CFQIWTC IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT TWUUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI /QNFCXKGPU WPF FGT   9CNNCEJGK Y·JTGPF FGU VÒTMKUEJTWUUKUEJGP -TKGIGU JGTIGUVGNNV CWU -CPQPGPDTQP\G  I $KVMKP    4 $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&KCMQX 4  44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



-W2CTC  &GPICU   5CFQIWTC IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT TWUUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI /QNFCXKGPU WPF FGT   9CNNCEJGK Y·JTGPF FGU VÒTMKUEJTWUUKUEJGP -TKGIGU JGTIGUVGNNV CWU -CPQPGPDTQP\G  I $KVMKP    4 $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&KCMQX 4  4)GTKPIGTJCNVGPpUEJÌP

118




KATHARINA II.

2599



-W2CTC  &GPICU   5CFQIWTC IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT TWUUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI /QNFCXKGPU WPF FGT   9CNNCEJGK Y·JTGPF FGU VÒTMKUEJTWUUKUEJGP -TKGIGU JGTIGUVGNNV CWU -CPQPGPDTQP\G  I $KVMKP    4 $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&KCMQX 4  445EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



2600

1,5:1



1,5:1

 2CTC  -QRGMGP   5CFQIWTC IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT TWUUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI /QNFCXKGPU WPF FGT   9CNNCEJGKY·JTGPFFGUVÒTMKUEJTWUUKUEJGP-TKGIGU2TQDGKP5KNDGTI&KGCPGKPCPFGTIGNGJPVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNFGXQP/QNFCXKGPWPFFGT9CNNCEJGKXQP)KTNCPFGWOIGDGPFCTÒDGT(ÒTUVGPJWVWPVGPFKG ,CJTGU\CJN5EJTKHVVCHGNFCTKP9GTVCPICDG$KVMKP 4 $TCWUG/CPUHGNFp \W6H &KCMQX  4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

2601

-QRGMGP5VÒEMGCWUFGTUEJYGFKUEJGP/ÒP\UV·VVG#XGUVC 

-W -QRGMGP  5EJYGFKUEJG 2T·IWPI CWU FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG #XGUVC  I )GMTÌPVGU /QPQ   ITCOO \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN    WOJGT .QTDGGT WPF 2CNO\YGKI)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU WPVGP /ÒP\\GKEJGP '  / WPF 5EJTKHVDCPF QDGP -TQPG #JNUVTÌO  C $KVMKP    4 &KCMQX 4 5/* 445EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP  $GK FGO XQTNKGIGPFGP UGJT UGNVGPGP -WRHGTUVÒEM JCPFGNV GU UKEJ WO GKPG UEJYGFKUEJG -TKGIURT·IWPI CWU FGO   TWUUKUEJUEJYGFKUEJGP -TKGI XQP  )WUVCX +++ NKG­ KP UGKPGT /ÒP\UV·VVG #XGUVC -QRGMGP5VÒEMG JGT   UVGNNGPOKVFGPGPUGKPG6TWRRGPKPFGP)TGP\TGIKQPGPTWUUKUEJG#TDGKVGTDG\CJNGPMQPPVGP&CDGKDGJCWRVGVGPFKG 5EJYGFGPFCUUUKGFKG-WRHGTOÒP\GPXQPTWUUKUEJGP5EJKHHGPGTDGWVGVJ·VVGP6CVU·EJNKEJYCTGPFKGUEJYGFKUEJGP -QRGMGP5VÒEMG HÒT FCU CNNIGOGKPG 2WDNKMWO MCWO XQP FGP TWUUKUEJGP \W WPVGTUEJGKFGP 8GTINGKEJV OCP FKG   TWUUKUEJGP OKV FGP UEJYGFKUEJGP 2T·IWPIGP UQ H·NNV LGFQEJ UQHQTV FGT IGTCFG CWHTGEJVG 5VKN FGT <KHHGTP DGK FGP   2T·IWPIGP CWU #XGUVC CWH #NNG UEJYGFKUEJGP -QRGMGP5VÒEMG YWTFGP  KP #XGUVC JGTIGUVGNNV &COKV UKG KO   TWUUKUEJGP <CJNWPIUXGTMGJT PKEJV UQHQTV CWHHKGNGP RT·IVG OCP FKG 5VÒEMG OKV XGTUEJKGFGPGP ,CJTGU\CJNGP     &KG-TKGIURT·IWPIIGJÌTV\WFGPIGNFIGUEJKEJVNKEJDGUQPFGTUKPVGTGUUCPVGP'TUEJGKPWPIGPWPF\WFGP IGUWEJVGP5GNVGPJGKVGPFGTTWUUKUEJGPWPFUEJYGFKUEJGP0WOKUOCVKM

119


KATHARINA II.

2602



2603

2604

-W -QRGMGP  5EJYGFKUEJG 2T·IWPI CWU FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG #XGUVC  I )GMTÌPVGU /QPQ   ITCOO \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN    WOJGT .QTDGGT WPF 2CNO\YGKI)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU WPVGP /ÒP\\GKEJGP '  / WPF 5EJTKHVDCPF QDGP -TQPG #JNUVTÌO  C $KVMKP    4 &KCMQX 4 5/* 445EJÌP





-W-QRGMGP ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5EJYGFKUEJG2T·IWPICWUFGT/ÒP\ UV·VVG #XGUVC  I )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN    WOJGT   .QTDGGT WPF 2CNO\YGKI)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT   $TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUWPVGP/ÒP\\GKEJGP'/WPF5EJTKHVDCPF QDGP-TQPG#JNUVTÌOC$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 5/*  44/GJTGTGMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 



-W-QRGMGP ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5EJYGFKUEJG2T·IWPICWUFGT/ÒP\ UV·VVG #XGUVC  I )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN    WOJGT   .QTDGGT WPF 2CNO\YGKI)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (��PIGP CWH FGT   $TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUWPVGP/ÒP\\GKEJGP'/WPF5EJTKHVDCPF QDGP-TQPG#JNUVTÌOC$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 5/*  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5CWDGTCWUIGRT·IVGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌP 

2605

/GFCKNNGPFGT<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++ 

120

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,)9CGEJVGTCWHFKG'TPGPPWPIFGU)TCHGP#NGZGL$GUVWUEJGH4KWOKP\WO (GNFOCTUEJCNN )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU )TCHGP N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN FCTWPVGT 5EJTKHV<YGK   (GNUGPKO/GGTQDGP9QNMGPOKV5QPPG$NKV\GPWPF4GIGPOOI&KCMQX 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP 


KATHARINA II.

2607

2606





2606

8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,)9CGEJVGTCWHFKG'TPGPPWPIFGU)TCHGP#NGZGL$GUVWUEJGH 4KWOKP \WO (GNFOCTUEJCNN )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU )TCHGP N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN FCTWPVGT   5EJTKHV<YGK (GNUGP KO /GGT QDGP 9QNMGP OKV 5QPPG $NKV\GP WPF 4GIGP  OO  I   &KCMQX 8GTIQNFGVXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,%),CGIGTCWHFKG'TPGPPWPIFGU)TCHGP#NGZGL$GUVWUEJGH4KWOKP\WO (GNFOCTUEJCNN )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU )TCHGP N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN FCTWPVGT 5EJTKHV<YGK   (GNUGPKO/GGTQDGP9QNMGPOKV5QPPG$NKV\GPWPF4GIGPOOI&KCMQX 4  445EJÌPG2CVKPCOKP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2608



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHWPF,)9CGEJVGTCWHFKG)TÒPFWPIFGU*CWUGUHÒT'T\KGJWPI WPF$KNFWPI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV-TGW\UVGJVPGDGP GKPGT5·WNGTMPKGPFG(TCWOKVPGWIGDQTGPGO-KPFKO*KPVGTITWPF)GD·WFGCPUKEJVOOI &KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



2609



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHWPF,)9CGEJVGTCWHFKG)TÒPFWPIFGU*CWUGUHÒT'T\KGJWPI WPF$KNFWPI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV-TGW\UVGJVPGDGP GKPGT5·WNGTMPKGPFG(TCWOKVPGWIGDQTGPGO-KPFKO*KPVGTITWPF)GD·WFGCPUKEJVOOI &KCMQX -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

 121


KATHARINA II.

2611







2610

2612

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 4QGVVKGTU LWP CWH FGP 6QF FGU TWUUKUEJGP #FOKTCNU )GJGKOTCVU WPF 2T·UK   FGPVGP FGU #FOKTCNKV·VUMQNNGIKWOU 2TKP\ /KMJCGN )CNKVUKP CO  /CK  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF   FGU#FOKTCNUNOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKPWPFFGT-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPU5'26+/157$,18' /'4+6#%1410#8+6OOI&KCMQX 4  44-N-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1XCNG $TQP\G8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU    XGTNKGJGP CP FKG #DIGQTFPGVGP FGU -QNNGIKWOU \WT 'PVYKEMNWPI FGU PGWGP <KXKNTGEJVU /QPQITCOO   -TQPGCWH2[TCOKFGZOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1XCNG $TQP\G8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU    XGTNKGJGP CP FKG #DIGQTFPGVGP FGU -QNNGIKWOU \WT 'PVYKEMNWPI FGU PGWGP <KXKNTGEJVU /QPQITCOO   -TQPGCWH2[TCOKFGZOOI&KCMQX  -N(NGEMYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2613



122

<KPPOGFCKNNG Q , XQP 6 +YCPQHH WPF ) % 9CGEJVGT CWH FKG #WHJGDWPI FGU 'KPHWJT\QNNGU HÒT   $TQVKORQTVG CWU .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP/GTMWT OKV   %CFWEGWU WPF %GTGU OKV 5KEJGN WPF GKPGO $ÒPFGN 9GK\GP WPVGT FGO NKPMGP #TO UVGJGP PCEJ N WPF   JCNVGPUKEJCPFGP*·PFGPKO*KPVGTITWPF/GGTGUWHGTOKV5EJKHHOOI&KCMQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




KATHARINA II.

2614



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP4QGVVKGTULWPCWHFGP6QFFGUTWUUKUEJGP5GPCVQTUWPF)GJGKOTCVU*GT\QI #NGMUGK )CNKVUKP CO(GDTWCT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU5GPCVQTUNOKV#PFTGCUQTFGP$GVV NGT OKV -TÒEMUVQEM NGJPV OKV FGO TGEJVGP #TO CWH 2QUVCOGPV FCTCWH )TCDWTPG N UVGJV ,WUVKVKC OKV   9CCIGWPF5EJYGTVOOI&KCMQX 4  -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2615



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'KP HÒJTWPIFGT2QEMGPUEJWV\KORHWPIKP4W­NCPF)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF#P FTGCUQTFGP4WUUKC UVGJV PCEJ T OKV \YGK -KPFGTP XQP FGPGP GKPGU FKG *·PFG FGT XQT KJT UVGJGPFGP   <CTKPGPVIGIGPUVTGEMVFKGFGPLWPIGP)TQ­HÒTUVGP2CWNCPFGT*CPFJ·NVKO*KPVGTITWPF)GD·WFGWPF VQVGT&TCEJGOOI&KCMQX $GTKGDGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2616



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTWPFGTVU  CWH FKG 'KP   HÒJTWPI FGT 2QEMGPUEJWV\KORHWPI KP 4W­NCPF )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF   #PFTGCUQTFGP4WUUKCUVGJVPCEJTOKV\YGK-KPFGTPXQPFGPGPGKPGUFKG*·PFGFGTXQTKJTUVGJGPFGP <CTKPGPVIGIGPUVTGEMVFKGFGPLWPIGP)TQ­HÒTUVGP2CWNCPFGT*CPFJ·NVKO*KPVGTITWPF)GD·WFGWPF VQVGT&TCEJGOOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

 123


KATHARINA II.

2617



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q , WO   XQP . .[CNKP XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU    2T·OKG FGT .KDGTCNGP ¤MQPQOKUEJGP )GUGNNUEJCHV XGTNKGJGP HÒT 8GTFKGPUVG WO FKG .CPFYKTVUEJCHV   )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN%GTGU UKV\V X X CWH )GVTGKFGICTDGP XQT GKPGO 2CNO   DCWOKPFGTGTJQDGP4GEJVGP-TCP\KONKPMGP#TO%CFWEGWUKO*KPVGTITWPFNGKPRHNÒIGPFGT$CWGT OOI&KCMQX 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2619

2618







'KPUGKVKIG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTV UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU XGTNKGJGPCP FKG 6GKNPGJOGT FGT #EJKRGNCIQ 'ZRGFKVKQP #PUKEJV FGT *CIKC 5QRJKC KP -QPUVCPVKPQRGN KO 8QTFGT   ITWPFUVÒTOKUEJG5GGFCTÒDGT9QNMGPWPF$NKV\GFKGFCU)GD·WFG\GTUVÌTGPQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU-TGW\ OOI&KCMQXXIN 8QT\ÒINKEJ



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHWPF5,WFKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWH FKG <GTUVÌTWPI FGT 6ÒTMKUEJGP (NQVVG KO I·KUEJGP /GGT DGK 6UEJGUOG FWTEJ )TCH #NGZGKL )TGIQTKG   YKVUEJ 1TNQHH )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT TWUUKUEJG 5EJKHHG KO *KPVGTITWPF   FKGDTGPPGPFGVÒTMKUEJG(NQVVGKO*CHGPXQP6UEJGUOGOOI&KCMQX  44'VYCUHNGEMKIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2620



124

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,%),CGIGTCWHFGP6TCPURQTVFGU)TCPKVHGNUGPUHÒTFCU/QPWOGPV2GVGTU+ $TWUVDKNF N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP WPF #PFTGCUQTFGP#PUKEJV FGU (GNUGPU FGT   XQPXKGNGP2GTUQPGPDGCTDGKVGVYKTFOOI&KCMQX 4   444CPFWPF(GNFGTÒDGTCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP




KATHARINA II.

2621



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,%),CGIGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP 6TCPURQTVFGU)TCPKVHGNUGPUHÒTFCU/QPWOGPV2GVGTU+$TWUVDKNFNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKPWPF#PFTGCUQTFGP#PUKEJVFGU(GNUGPUFGTXQPXKGNGP2GTUQPGPDGCTDGKVGVYKTFOO I&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2622



<KPPOGFCKNNQPXQP,$)CUUCWHFKG<GTUVÌTWPIFGT6ÒTMKUEJGP(NQVVGKOI·KUEJGP/GGTDGK 6UEJGUOGFWTEJ)TCH#NGZGKL)TGIQTKGYKVUEJ1TNQHH7PKHQTOKGTVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU)TCHGPTFGP-QRH PCEJXQTPIGYCPFVOKVHGFGTIGUEJOÒEMVGP*GNOFGTOKVFGOTWUUKUEJGP&QRRGNCFNGTXGT\KGTVKUVKP FGT 4GEJVGP -QOOCPFQUVCD5VTCVGIKUEJGT WPF VQRQITCRJKUEJGT 2NCP FGT 5GGUEJNCEJV  OO   I&KCMQX 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



125


KATHARINA II.

2623



<KPPOGFCKNNQPXQP)%WPF,)9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FGP TWUUKUEJGP )TCHGP )TGIQT )TGIQTKGYKVUEJ 1TNQHH IGUVKHVGV XQO 5GPCV HÃ&#x2019;T FKG $GM·ORHWPI FGT   $GWNGPRGUVKP/QUMCW$TWUVDKNFFGU)TCHGPNOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFFGO/GFCKNNQPDKNFFGT<CTKP &GT )TCH TGKVGV PCEJ N CWH GKPGP (NCOOGPCDITWPF \W KO *KPVGTITWPF 5VCFVCPUKEJV XQP /QUMCW   OOI&KCMQX5NI$TGVVCWGT FQTVKP$TQP\G  448QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2624



126

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,%),CGIGTWPF,$)CUU XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWP FGTVU CWHFGP)GJGKOTCV+YCP+YCPQYKVUEJ$LGVUMQKXGTNKGJGPXQO5GPCV$Ã&#x2019;UVGFGU)GJGKOTCVUTOKV WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF1TFGP&CURGTUQPKHK\KGTVG4W­NCPFUKV\VTOKV\YGK-KPFGTPXQT1DGNKUMOKV \YGK 2WVVGP FKG GKPGP 5EJKNF OKV FGO /QPQITCOO FGU )GJGKOTCVU JCNVGP N 'NGHCPV WPF 5VQTEJ KO   *KPVGTITWPFFCU+PUVKVWVFGT'T\KGJWPIKP/QUMCWOOI&KCMQX 4   8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ




KATHARINA II.

2625



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP % .GDGTGEJV XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FGP   )GJGKOTCV +YCP +YCPQYKVUEJ $LGVUMQK XGTNKGJGP XQO 5GPCV $ÒUVG FGU )GJGKOTCVU TOKVWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGNWPF1TFGP&CURGTUQPKHK\KGTVG4W­NCPFUKV\VTOKV\YGK-KPFGTPXQT1DGNKUMOKV\YGK2WVVGP FKGGKPGP5EJKNFOKVFGO/QPQITCOOFGU)GJGKOTCVUJCNVGPN'NGHCPVWPF5VQTEJKO*KPVGTITWPFFCU +PUVKVWVFGT'T\KGJWPIKP/QUMCWOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2626



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP , % ) ,CGIGT WPF 2 $QDTQXUEJKMQX XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU    ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FGP TWUUKUEJGP (GNFOCTUEJCNN )TCH 2GVGT #NGZCPFTQYKVUEJ 4WOLCP\QY   )GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU(GNFOCTUEJCNNUTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO.ÌYGPHGNN4ÌOKUEJGT -TKGIGT UVGJV X X OKV .QTDGGT\YGKI 5EJKNF <YGKI WPF .CP\G KO *KPVGTITWPF T -TKGIUVTQRJ·G   OOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ



127


KATHARINA II.

2627



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNQP  XQP , % ) ,CGIGT WPF 2 $QDTQXUEJKMQX XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTGT )W­ FGU    ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FGP TWUUKUEJGP (GNFOCTUEJCNN )TCH 2GVGT #NGZCPFTQYKVUEJ 4WOLCP\QY   )GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU(GNFOCTUEJCNNUTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO.ÌYGPHGNN4ÌOKUEJGT -TKGIGTUVGJVXXOKV5EJKNF<YGKIWPF.CP\GKO*KPVGTITWPFT-TKGIUVTQRJ·GOOI &KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ



2628





128

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKPWPF,%),CGIGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWP FGTVU  CWH FCU L·JTKIG ,WDKN·WO FGT #MCFGOKG FGT 9KUUGPUEJCHVGP )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QT   DGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN'PIGN UEJYGDV X X CWH 9QNMGP WPF DGMT·P\V GKPGP 5EJKNF OKV   FGO/QPQITCOO-CVJCTKPCU++FGTCPGKPGT5·WNGNGJPVCPFGTGP5QEMGNKUVFCU/QPQITCOO2GVGTU+ CPIGDTCEJV T UVGJGP FTGK -KPFGT FKG FGO 'PIGN YGKVGTG$NWOGPHÒTFGP-TCP\CPTGKEJGPXQTKJPGP DGHKPFGPUKEJ#VVTKDWVGFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGPOOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKPWPF,%),CGIGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWP FGTVU CWHFCUL·JTKIG,WDKN·WOFGT#MCFGOKGFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGP)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN'PIGN UEJYGDV X X CWH 9QNMGP WPF DGMT·P\V GKPGP 5EJKNF OKV FGO   /QPQITCOO -CVJCTKPCU ++ FGT CP GKPGT 5·WNG NGJPV CP FGTGP 5QEMGN KUV FCU /QPQITCOO 2GVGTU +   CPIGDTCEJV T UVGJGP FTGK -KPFGT FKG FGO 'PIGN YGKVGTG$NWOGPHÒTFGP-TCP\CPTGKEJGPXQTKJPGP DGHKPFGPUKEJ#VVTKDWVGFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGPOOI&KCMQX 4   )GNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ




KATHARINA II.

2630



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP29)CUUCWHFCUL·JTKIG,WDKN·WOFGT#MCFGOKGFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGP $ÒUVG N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\$ÒUVG 2GVGTU + FGU )TQ­GP )TÒPFGT FGT #MCFGOKG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2631



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,)*QNV\JG[#OUVGTFCOCWHFKG-QPXGPVKQPÒDGTDGYCHHPGVG5GGPGWVTCNKV·V \YKUEJGP4W­NCPF5EJYGFGP&·PGOCTMWPFFGP0KGFGTNCPFGP\WO5EJWV\FGU5GGJCPFGNUKO5QOOGT  )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ 9KVYGPUEJNGKGT WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP0GRVWP   UVGJVOKVGKPGO&TGK\CEMCWHGKPGT/WUEJGNOKVFGP5EJKNFGPFGTXKGT8GTVTCIURCTVPGTNUKV\V/GTMWT CWH GKPGO NGGTGP (ÒNNJQTP WPF FGWVGVCWHGKPJGTWONKGIGPFGU4WFGTWPFGKPG(CJPGFKGXQPGKPGOT UVGJGPFGP CTDGKVUNQUGP 5GGOCPP OKV XGTUEJT·PMVGP #TOGP UQTIGPXQNN DGVTCEJVGV YGTFGP  OO   I&KCMQX 4 *KNFGDTCPF++5  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\  &GT5GGJCPFGNKP0QTFWPF1UVUGGYCTUVCTMFWTEJFGPPQTFCOGTKMCPKUEJGP7PCDJ·PIKIMGKVUMTKGIDGGKPVT·EJVKIVKP FGO XQT CNNGO FKG GPINKUEJG -TKGIUHNQVVG CWUY·TVKIG *CPFGNUUEJKHHG DGUEJNCIPCJOVG #WH UEJYGFKUEJGP WPF TWUUK   UEJGP 8QTUEJNCI YWTFG \YKUEJGP FGP PGWVTCNGP 5VCCVGP GKPG #NNKCP\ FGT DGYCHHPGVGP 5GGPGWVTCNKV·V IGDKNFGV FKG   -QPXGPVKQP \YKUEJGP 4W­NCPF WPF &·PGOCTM YWTFG CO  ,WNK  KP -QRGPJCIGP FKGLGPKIG \YKUEJGP 4W­NCPF   WPF5EJYGFGPCO#WIWUVKP5V2GVGTUDWTIWPVGT\GKEJPGV&KG4WUUGPMQPVTQNNKGTVGPOKV5EJYGFGPWPF &·PGOCTM OKV \WUCOOGP  -TKGIUUEJKHHGP FKG 5KEJGTJGKV FGT CNNKKGTVGP *CPFGNUHNQVVGP *QNNCPF UEJNQ­ UKEJ    FKGUGO$WPFCPUR·VGTCWEJ2QTVWICNWPF0GCRGN

2632



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJVCWHFGP$GUWEJ,QUGHU++XQP¤UVGTTGKEJKP4W­NCPFWPVGTFGO 2UGWFQP[O )TCH (CNMGPUVGKP $TWUVDKNF ,QUGHU ++ T&TGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV  OO  I   &KCMQX 4 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 5VGORGNDTWEJUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 129


KATHARINA II.

2633



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP % .GDGTGEJV XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FKG   'TTKEJVWPIFGT4GKVGTUVCVWG2GVGTU+CWHFGO5V2GVGTUDWTIGT&GMCDTKUVGPRNCV\CO#WIWUV$TWUVDKNF N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP WPF #PFTGCUQTFGP#PUKEJV FGT 4GKVGTUVCVWG CWH GKPGO   (GNUGPOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



,CJTGPCEJUGKPGT6JTQPDGUVGKIWPINKG­<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++HÒT<CT2GVGT+FGP)TQ­GPCWHFGO5V2GVGTUDWT IGT &GMCDTKUVGPRNCV\ GKP  6QPPGP UEJYGTGU &GPMOCN CWH GKPGO (GNUDNQEM GTTKEJVGP HÒT FCU FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJG   $KNFJCWGT 'VKGPPG/CWTKEG (CNEQPGV \YÌNH ,CJTG DGPÌVKIVG &CU /QPWOGPV \GKIV FGP <CTGP \W 2HGTF FCU OKV FGP   *KPVGTJWHGP GKPG 5EJNCPIG FKG (GKPFG FGU <CTGP KPUDGUQPFGTG 5EJYGFGP  \GTVTKVV *GWVG \·JNV FCU &GPMOCN FCU   #NGZCPFGT 2WUEJMKP CNU 'JGTPGT 4GKVGT FWTEJ FCU ÒDGTHNWVGVG 5V 2GVGTUDWTI TGKVGP NKG­ \W FGP DGFGWVGPFGP 5G   JGPUYÒTFKIMGKVGPFGT5VCFV

2634



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,$)CUUCWHFKG'TTKEJVWPIFGT4GKVGTUVCVWG2GVGTU+CWHFGO5V2GVGTUDWT IGT&GMCDTKUVGPRNCV\CO#WIWUV$TWUVDKNFNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKPWPF#PFTGCU QTFGP#PUKEJVFGT4GKVGTUVCVWGCWHGKPGO(GNUGPOOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ

2635





130



2636

5KNDGTLGVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 'TTKEJVWPI FGT 4GKVGTUVCVWG 2GVGTU + CWH FGO 5V 2GVGTUDWTIGT   &GMCDTKUVGPRNCV\ CO #WIWUV$ÒUVGNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#PUKEJVFGT4GKVGTUVCVWGCWHGKPGO(GNUGP OOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTLGVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 'TTKEJVWPI FGT 4GKVGTUVCVWG 2GVGTU + CWH FGO 5V 2GVGTUDWTIGT   &GMCDTKUVGPRNCV\ CO #WIWUV$ÒUVGNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#PUKEJVFGT4GKVGTUVCVWGCWHGKPGO(GNUGP OOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX /GJTGTG-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP




KATHARINA II.

2637

2638

2638



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 8 $G\TQFPQ[ WPF ) % 9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU    ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FKG #PPGMVKGTWPI FGT -TKO WPF XQP 6COCP )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU   TWUUKUEJGP (GNFOCTUEJCNNU 2TKP\ )TGIQT #NGZCPFTQYKVUEJ 2QVGOMKP T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN    .CPFMCTVGOKVFGPGKPIGPQOOGPGP)GDKGVGPOOI&KCMQX 4  48QT\ÒINKEJ 



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHWPF,$)CUU XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH KJTG 4GKUG CWH FKG -TKO WPF CWH KJT L·JTKIGU 4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP.CPFMCTVGOKVFGT4GKUGTQWVGXQP5V2GVGTUDWTI\WT*CNDKPUGN -TKOOOI&KCMQX 4  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 131


KATHARINA II.

2639



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP % .GDGTGEJV CWH FGP 6QF FGU TWUUKUEJGP #FOKTCNU 5COWKN %CTNQYKVUEJ   )TGKIJ $ÒUVG FGU #FOKTCNU N OKV (NCIIG)GMTÌPVG YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV DGHGUVKIV GKPG -GVVG CP GKPGO   1DGNKUMFGTOKVGKPGO5EJKHHUOQFGNNIGUEJOÒEMVKUVCWHFGO$QFGPNKGIGPUEJYGFKUEJGWPFVÒTMKUEJG 6TQRJ·GPKO*KPVGTITWPF(NQVVGPXGTDCPFOOI&KCMQX 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

2640

2641

2641



6TCIDCTG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH (ÒT 6CRHGTMGKV KP HKPPKUEJGP )GY·UUGTP )GMTÌPVGU   $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV  OO  I $KVMKP /  4    &KCMQX 4  44(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH (ÒT 6CRHGTMGKV KP HKPPKUEJGP )GY·UUGTP )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T   OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV  OO  I $KVMKP /  4  &KCMQX   

4  44'PVHGTPVGT*GPMGNUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

132


KATHARINA II.

2642



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH WPF 2 9 )CUU XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWP   FGTVU  CWH FGP 5GGUKGI ÒDGT FKG 5EJYGFGP KO HKPPKUEJGP 5XGPUMUWPF DGK -QVMC  CO  #WIWUV   )GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP#PUKEJVFGT#WHUVGNNWPIXQPTWUUK UEJGPWPFUEJYGFKUEJGP(NQVVGP\YKUEJGPFGP+PUGNPOOI&KCMQX 4   448QT\ÒINKEJ



2643



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH WPF 2 9 )CUU XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWP   FGTVU  CWH FGP 5GGUKGI ÒDGT FKG 5EJYGFGP KO HKPPKUEJGP 5XGPUMUWPF DGK -QVMC  CO  #WIWUV   )GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP#PUKEJVFGT#WHUVGNNWPIXQPTWUUK UEJGPWPFUEJYGFKUEJGP(NQVVGP\YKUEJGPFGP+PUGNPOOI&KCMQX 4   448QT\ÒINKEJ



133


KATHARINA II.

2644



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHWPF29)CUU XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FGP 5GGUKGI ÒDGT FKG 5EJYGFGP KO HKPPKUEJGP 5XGPUMUWPF DGK -QVMC  CO  #WIWUV )GMTÌPVGU   $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP#PUKEJV FGT #WHUVGNNWPI XQP TWUUKUEJGP WPF   UEJYGFKUEJGP(NQVVGP\YKUEJGPFGP+PUGNPOOI&KCMQX 48QT\ÒINKEJ



2645



134

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG8GT UV·TMWPIFGTTWUUKUEJGP/CTKPGKO,CJT)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP$QQVCWH5GGOKVGKPGTIGMTÌPVGP-GWNGCNU/CUVFCTCPDGHGUVKIVUKPFXKGT4WFGTWPF\YGK (NCIIGPOOI&KCMQX 4  48QT\ÒINKEJ




KATHARINA II.

2646



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHHWPF2$QDTQXUEJKMQXCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP8·T·N· 5ÒFQUVHKPPNCPF  \YKUEJGP 5EJYGFGP WPF 4W­NCPF CO  #WIWUV PCEJ ITGIQTKCPKUEJGO -CNGPFGT CO  #WIWUV    )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP1NKXGP\YGKI KP .QTDGGTMTCP\   OOI&KCMQX 4  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2647









2648

5KNDGTLGVQPWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP8·T·N· 5ÒFQUVHKPPNCPF \YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­ NCPF CO  #WIWUV PCEJ ITGIQTKCPKUEJGO -CNGPFGT CO  #WIWUV  1NKXGP\YGKI KP .QTDGGTMTCP\   (ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 *KNFGDTCPF++5 4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTLGVQPWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP8·T·N· 5ÒFQUVHKPPNCPF \YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­ NCPF CO  #WIWUV PCEJ ITGIQTKCPKUEJGO -CNGPFGT CO  #WIWUV  1NKXGP\YGKI KP .QTDGGTMTCP\   (ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 *KNFGDTCPF++5 45GJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTLGVQPWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP8·T·N· 5ÒFQUVHKPPNCPF \YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4W­ NCPF CO  #WIWUV PCEJ ITGIQTKCPKUEJGO -CNGPFGT CO  #WIWUV  1NKXGP\YGKI KP .QTDGGTMTCP\   (ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 *KNFGDTCPF++5 45GJTUEJÌP



2651

2650

2652

2650



6TCIDCTGCEJVGEMKIG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJVCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP8·T·N· 5ÒFQUVHKPPNCPF  \YKUEJGP 5EJYGFGP WPF 4W­NCPF CO  #WIWUV PCEJ ITGIQTKCPKUEJGO -CNGPFGT CO  #WIWUV    4WUUKUEJG 6CRHGTMGKVUOGFCKNNG HÒT -TKGIUVGKNPGJOGT +P GKPGO /GFCKNNQP FKG $ÒUVG FGT -CKUGTKP OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\ T FCTWPVGT .QTDGGT WPF 'KEJGP\YGKI&TGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV KP -TCP\ KO #DUEJPKVV FTGK   <GKNGP5EJTKHVZZOOI&KCMQX 4   44#WUIGDTQEJGPGT*GPMGNUGJTUEJÌP 



5KNDGTLGVQPWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP(TKGFGPOKVFGT6ÒTMGK)GMTÌPVGU/QPQITCOOKP.QTDGGTMTCP\ 8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTLGVQPWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP(TKGFGPOKVFGT6ÒTMGK)GMTÌPVGU/QPQITCOOKP.QTDGGTMTCP\ 8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4  45GJTUEJÌP

 135


KATHARINA II.

2653



$TQP\GPG5WKVGPOGFCKNNGQ, ,CJTJWPFGTV XQP,$)CUUWPF2$TWUPKVU[P\WT'TKPPGTWPICP FGP 6QF FGU 9CT·IGTMÌPKIU 5KPGWU CO 9GK­GP 5GG WPF CWH UGKPGP $TWFGT FGP )TQ­HÒTUVGP 4WTKM  

WO  ÓWO   )GJCTPKUEJVGU WPF WPKHQTOKGTVGU *ÒHVDKNF FGU )TQ­HÒTUVGP T OKV *GNO   WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN5EJKNFWPF$GKN)TCDJÒIGNKP.CPFUEJCHVOKV$·WOGPKO*KPVGTITWPFFGT9GK­G 5GG/KV5GTKGPPWOOGTOOI5OKTPQX 5GJTUEJÌP



2654



136

$TQP\GPG 5WKVGPOGFCKNNG Q ,  ,CJTJWPFGTV  XQP , $ )CUU WPF 5 ,WFKP \WT 'TKPPGTWPI CP FKG   8GTGKPKIWPI XQP $KGNQQ\KGTQ WPF +\DQTUM OKV 0QYIQTQF WPF CWH FGP )TQ­HÒTUVGP 4WTKM

WO    ÓWO )GJCTPKUEJVGUWPFWPKHQTOKGTVGU*ÒHVDKNFFGU)TQ­HÒTUVGPTOKV*GNOWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN 5EJKNFWPF$GKN&GT)TQ­HÒTUVNGJPVCPGKPGO(GNUGPCWHFGO-ÌEJGTWPFGKP5EJKNFNKGIGPTGTI·P\V GKP,ÒPINKPICWHGKPGO5VGKPDNQEMFKG9CRRGPUEJKNFGXQP$KGNQQ\KGTQWPF+\DQTUMOKVFGO5EJKNFXQP 0QYIQTQFFCJKPVGT2CNOG/KV5GTKGPPWOOGTOOI5OKTPQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




KATHARINA II.

2655



$TQP\GPG 5WKVGPOGFCKNNG Q ,  ,CJTJWPFGTV  XQP , $ )CUU WPF 5 ,WFKP CWH FKG 5EJCHHWPI XQP   (TKGFGPDGKFGP0QYIQTQFGTPWPFCWHFGP)TQ­HÃ&#x2019;TUVGP4WTKM

WOÃ&#x201C;WO )GJCTPKUEJVGUWPF WPKHQTOKGTVGU *Ã&#x2019;HVDKNF FGU )TQ­HÃ&#x2019;TUVGP T OKV *GNO WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN 5EJKNF WPF $GKN&GT )TQ­   HÃ&#x2019;TUV UVGJV X X OKV GTJQDGPGO 5EJYGTV WPF 5EJKNF XQT KJO NKGIV FKGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG7PUKEJGTJGKVCO $QFGPWPFJ·NVGKPG5EJNCPIGKPFGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGPWOJGT.CPFUEJCHV/KV5GTKGPPWOOGTOO I5OKTPQX 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2656



$TQP\GPG 5WKVGPOGFCKNNG Q ,  ,CJTJWPFGTV  XQP 5 ,WFKP WPF , 2 $ CWHFGP<WIFGU(Ã&#x2019;TUVGP 1NGI PCEJ )TKGEJGPNCPF KO ,CJTG  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU )TQ­HÃ&#x2019;TUVGP +IQT   T OKV   *GNO WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP<WI FGT -CXCNNGTKG KP ITKGEJKUEJGT -Ã&#x2019;UVGPNCPFUEJCHV /KV 5GTKGP   PWOOGTOOI5OKTPQX 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



137


KATHARINA II.

2657



$TQP\GPG 5WKVGPOGFCKNNG Q ,  ,CJTJWPFGTV  XQP 6 +YCPQHH WPF 5 ,WFKP CWH FGP 'ORHCPI FGT   $QVUEJCHVGTFGT&TGXNKCPGPFWTEJFGP2TKP\GP5XKCVQUNCY+XQP-KGYWPFUGKPGT/WVVGT)TQ­RTKP\GUUKP 1NIC$TWUVDKNF5XKCVQUNCYUTOKV*GNO5EJKNFWPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&GT)TQ­HÒTUVUVGJVPCEJN PGDGPKJOUKV\VFKG)TQ­RTKP\GUUKPCWHGKPGO5VWJNFCJKPVGTUVGJGPFTGK#DIGQTFPGVGXQTKJPGPMPKGP \YGK$QVUEJCHVGTFKGXQPGKPGO-TKGIGTDGINGKVGVYGTFGPOOI5OKTPQX  8QT\ÒINKEJ



2658



138

$TQP\GPG5WKVGPOGFCKNNGQ, ,CJTJWPFGTV XQP6+YCPQHHWPF,$)CUU\WT'TKPPGTWPICPFGP $GUWEJFGUR·RUVNKEJGP$QVUEJCHVGTUDGKO2TKP\GP,CTQRQNM+

WOÓ )GJCTPKUEJVGU*ÒHVDKNF FGU )TQ­HÒTUVGP T OKV *GNO WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP+PPGPCPUKEJV FGU 2TKP\GPRCNCKU T UKV\V ,CTQ   RQNMCPGKPGO6KUEJWPFGORH·PIVFKGR·RUVNKEJGP$QVUEJCHVGTKO*KPVGTITWPF\YGK&QNOGVUEJGTWPF FKG.GKDICTFGFGU2TKP\GP/KV5GTKGPPWOOGTOOI5OKTPQX 5GJTUEJÌP




PAUL I.

2659

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#42#7.+ 'KP4WDGN5VÒEMFGU<CTGP2CWN+ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGP9KPMGNPLG GKPG8GT\KGTVG6CHGNOKVXKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHV$KVMKP 4 (D  )1.&49KP\&TWEMUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2660



2660 1,5:1

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP2CWN+ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG -GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU QDGP -TQPG8GT\KGTVG 6CHGN OKV   XKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHV$KVMKP 4 &CX  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

2661

2661 1,5:1



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG -GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU QDGP -TQPG8GT\KGTVG 6CHGN OKV   XKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHV$KVMKP 4 &CX  44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

139


PAUL I.

2662

2662 1,5:1



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVGTÌOK UEJG<KHHGT+8GT\KGTVG6CHGNOKVXKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHV$KVMKP 4 &CX  442TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2664

2663



2663

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVGTÌOK UEJG<KHHGT+8GT\KGTVG6CHGNOKVXKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHV$KVMKP 4 &CX  44/KPLWUVKGTVMN-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

45GJTUEJÌP

 

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2665



 140

2666

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGT/KVVGTÌOK UEJG<KHHGT+8GT\KGTVG6CHGNOKVXKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHV$KVMKP&CX  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

 


PAUL I.

2667



2668

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2669

#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2670

2671



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

'VYCU$GNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



2672



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2673

5GJTUEJÌP



#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

 141


PAUL I.

2674

2675



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  (GKPG2CVKPCOKP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



2676

5GJTUEJÌP

2677

2678



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2680

2679



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOGKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNV KPFGT/KVVGTÌOKUEJG<KHHGT+8GT\KGTVG6CHGNOKVXKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHV$KVMKP 4  45GJTUEJÌP 

1,5:1



142

9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2681 1,5:1

4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTI2TQDGKP-WRHGTI8KGTIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG TÌOKUEJG <KHHGT +8GT\KGTVG 6CHGN OKV XKGT <GKNGP 5EJTKHV $KVMKP   * 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


PAUL I.

2684

2683

2682



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2685

2686

2686



-QRGMGP ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI5V2GVGTUDWTI/QUMCW 4QVGT/ÒP\JQH QFGT0K\JPK0QXIQ TQFIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+8CTKCPVGOKVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF$KVMKP p \W &KCMQXp XINFQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKVªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



&KG4ÒEMÒDGTRT·IWPIXQP-WRHGTOÒP\GPKO,CJT

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP





-CVJCTKPC ++ DGUEJNQ­ KP KJTGO NGV\VGP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT  GKPG IGYCNVKIG /ÒP\TGHQTO &KG -WRHGTOÒP\GP \W    -QRGMGP YWTFGP WO   CDIGYGTVGV KPFGO UKG OKV PGWGP 5VGORGNP OKV FGO 9GTV  -QRGMGP WPF FGT   ,CJTGU\CJN  ÒDGTRT·IV YWTFGP 0CEJ FGO 6QF -CVJCTKPCU CO  0QXGODGT  UVQRRVG <CT 2CWN + FKGUG   #MVKQP WPXGT\ÒINKEJ WPF NKG­ FKG ÒDGTRT·IVGP /ÒP\GP KO ,CJT  YKGFGTWO OKV FGP CNVGP 5VGORGNP WPF FGT   WTURTÒPINKEJGP ,CJTGU\CJN ÒDGTRT·IGP &CU  -QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP  FCU KO ,CJT  HÒT GKPKIG /QPCVG \W   GKPGO  -QRGMGP5VÒEM IGYQTFGP YCT IGJÌTV UQOKV \W FGP PWOKUOCVKUEJ DGUQPFGTU KPVGTGUUCPVGP 'TUEJGKPWPIGP   FGTTWUUKUEJGP/ÒP\IGUEJKEJVG 

2687



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI5V2GVGTUDWTI/QUMCW 4QVGT/ÒP\JQH QFGT0K\JPK0QXIQ TQFOOIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+$KVMKP&KCMQX

FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI #W­GTIGYÌJPNKEJDTGKVGT5EJTÌVNKPIªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP





&CU XQTNKGIGPFG  -QRGMGP5VÒEM KUV KPUQHGTP ICP\ WPIGYÌJPNKEJ CNU GU OKV GKPGO &WTEJOGUUGT XQP  OO   GZVTGO ITQ­ KUV 'U KUV HCUV GKPGP <GPVKOGVGT ITÌ­GT CNU XGTINGKEJDCTG /ÒP\GP YKG \ $ FKG HQNIGPFGP DGKFGP   5VÒEMGFKGXQPICP\·JPNKEJGP5VGORGNPIGRT·IVYQTFGPUKPF'UFÒTHVGUKEJWOGKPGUFGTDTGKVGUVGP/ÒP\GPFKGUGU 6[RU JCPFGNP FKG CWIGPDNKEMNKEJ PQEJ GZKUVKGTGP &KG 5VÒEMG FGT 5COONWPI FGU 5RG\KCNKUVGP TWUUKUEJGT   -WRHGTOÒP\GP $GTPJCTF $TGMMG XIN ,COGU ( 'NOGP 6JG $GTPJCTF ( $TGMMG %QNNGEVKQP 6JG %QRRGT %QKPCIG   QH+ORGTKCN4WUUKC2CTV++2GVGT+++%CVJGTKPG++CPF2CWN+#WMVKQPFGT(KTOC9QTNF9KFG%QKPUQH %CNKHQTPKCXQO0QXGODGT0TP JCVVGPPKEJVFKGUGGPQTOG)TÌ­G1DFGT&WTEJOGUUGTFWTEJ FKGUG ªDGTRT·IWPI UGNDUV \WUVCPFG MCO D\Y QD FKG \WITWPFG NKGIGPFGP  -QRGMGP5VÒEMG XQP  QFGT FGTGP   -QRGMGP8QTI·PIGTGDGPHCNNUDGTGKVUUQITQ­YCTGPN·­VUKEJJGWV\WVCIGPKEJVOGJTQJPGYGKVGTGUHGUVUVGNNGP 

143


PAUL I.

2688



2689

2690

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI5V2GVGTUDWTI/QUMCW 4QVGT/ÒP\JQH QFGT0K\JPK0QXIQ TQFIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+$KVMKP&KCMQX FQTVWPVGT -CVJCTKPC++  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPIªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI5V2GVGTUDWTI/QUMCW 4QVGT/ÒP\JQH QFGT0K\JPK0QXIQ TQFIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+$KVMKP&KCMQX FQTVWPVGT -CVJCTKPC++  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTIIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+ $KVMKP&KCMQX 4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2691

2692



2692

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTIIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+ $KVMKP&KCMQX 4FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++  4ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



144

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTIIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+ $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++  +PFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI·W­GTUVUGNVGP ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT6ÌPWPI 


PAUL I.

2693

2694

2695



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTIIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+ $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++  44ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTIIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+ $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++  44ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTIIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+ $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++  44ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2696

2697

2698

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG'MCVGTKPDWTI 

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 145


PAUL I.

2699

 

2700

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

2701

 

2702

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

 

2703

 



2704

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

2705

 

2706

2707

2708

-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



  

-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 8QT\ÒINKEJ -W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ -W&GPIC -QRGMG 'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 4  4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

  

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

146


PAUL I.

2710

2711

 

-W&GPIC -QRGMG 'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

 

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG#PPKPUMQ[G

-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GIªDGTRT·IVKO,CJTKO#WHVTCIXQP<CT2CWN+ $KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKVªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP 

2713



2711

2712

-W&GPIC -QRGMG #PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP 4 

2714

4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



5GJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMGPWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP 4   ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



-WRHGTOÒP\GPQJPG/ÒP\\GKEJGP

-W-QRGMGPWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP 4 

2716

/GFCKNNGPFGU<CTGP2CWN+ 

5KNDGTLGVQP Q , WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG -TÌPWPI )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO-TGW\  OO  I   $KVMKP&KCMQX\W 5GJTUEJÌP





5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP%.GDGTGEJVCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPIKP/QUMCW7PKHQTOKGTVGU$TWUVDKNFT OKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP-TGW\OOI&KCMQX 4   4GUVGCNVGT8GTIQNFWPIUGJTUEJÌP

 147


PAUL I.

2717



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%*-WJNGTCWHFGPTWUUKUEJGP(GNFJGTTP)TCH#NGZCPFGT9CU UKNLGYKVUEJ 5WYQTQY WPF UGKPG 5KGIG ÒDGT FKG (TCP\QUGP KP 0QTFKVCNKGP )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU   )TCHGP T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN-TKGIGT KP CPVKMGT 4ÒUVWPI UVGJV X X OKV .CP\G FCTCP XKGT -TQ   PGP T UKV\V +VCNKC FKG KJO FKG *CPF TGKEJV N MPKGV GKPXGTYWPFGVGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGT5QNFCVOO I&KCMQX 4  49KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

2718







148

2719



2720

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP TWUUKUEJGP (GNFJGTTP )TCH #NGZCPFGT 9CUUKNLGYKVUEJ 5WYQ   TQYWPFUGKPG5KGIGÒDGTFKG(TCP\QUGPKP0QTFKVCNKGPWPFFGPªDGTICPIÒDGTFGP(NW­#FFC$TWUVDKNF FGU )TCHGP X X OKV -QUCMGPJWV WPF WOIGNGIVGO 2GN\OCPVGN8KMVQTKC UKV\V HCUV X X CWH 2QFGUV OKV   9CRRGPUEJKNFWPF2QUCWPGWOJGT6TQRJ·GPOOI&KCMQX 4  48QT\ÒINKEJ



5CVKTKUEJG<KPPOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGPTWUUKUEJGP(GNFJGTTP)TCH#NGZCPFGT9CUUKNLGYKVUEJ 5WYQTQYWPFUGKPG5KGIGÒDGTFKG(TCP\QUGPKP0QTFKVCNKGP$TWUVDKNFFGU)TCHGPTKPTÌOKUEJGT-NGK FWPI4KVVGTTGKVGVNWPFVÌVGVGKPGP.ÌYGPOKVFGO5EJYGTVOOI%QNN(KGYGIGT

FQTVKP/GUUKPI &KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ) )WKNNGOCTF WPF ( 5VWEMJCTFV CWH FKG ,CJTJWPFGTVYGPFG &TGK MNGGDNCVV   HÌTOKICPIGQTFPGVG/GFCKNNQPUOKVFGP$TWUVDKNFGTPXQP-CVJCTKPC++XQP4W­NCPF(TKGFTKEJ++XQP 2TGW­GPWPF,QUGRJ++XQP¤UVGTTGKEJ)GPKWUUVGJVPCEJTWPFGPV\ÒPFGVOKVGKPGT(CEMGNGKP(GWGT CWH GKPGO #NVCT KO #DUEJPKVV FTGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV WPF ,CJTGU\CJN  OO  I &KCMQX   

4 5VTQVJQVVGp 448QT\ÒINKEJ




ALEXANDER I.

2721



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP%.GDGTGEJVWPF8#NGZGGX5EJWNRT·OKG7PKHQTOKGTVGU$TWUVDKNFT OKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP#EJV9GKPTGDGPFKGXQPFGT5QPPGDGUVTCJNVYGTFGPKO#DUEJPKVV5EJTKHV \GKNGFCTWPVGTFKGITCXKGTVG,CJTGU\CJNOOI&KCMQX \WFQTVOKV\WU·V\NK EJGT5KIPCVWT#NGZGGXUCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGCPUVCVVCWHFGT4Ã&#x2019;EMUGKVG   8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC 

2722



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, WO WPUKIPKGTVPCEJFGO1TKIKPCNXQP,)9CGEJVGT2T·OKGFGU $GTIMQNNGIKWOU/GTMWT\GKIVGKPGO-PCDGPFCUUVTCJNGPFG/QPQITCOOFGT<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++WOJGT IGQF·VKUEJG +PUVTWOGPVG9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV \GKIV GKPGO -PCDGP FGT GKPG /Ã&#x2019;P\G KP FGT *CPF J·NV   'T\UVÃ&#x2019;EMGFKGGKP$GTIOCPPCWUGKPGO5VQNNGPJGTCWUTGKEJVOOI&KCMQX 4   48QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2723

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#4#.':#0&'4+ 'KP4WDGN5VÃ&#x2019;EMFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT+ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

149


ALEXANDER I.

2724

2725

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT+ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

4(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2727

2726



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2729

2728



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   4(GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   4$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



2730

2731

2732



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

2732

48QT\ÒINKEJ



4&WPMNG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

150


ALEXANDER I.

2733

2734



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI#7$KVMKP&CX *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 

2736

2735



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2737

2738



2738

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   4#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2739



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

2740

8QT\ÒINKEJ



8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

151


ALEXANDER I.

2741

 

2742

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2743

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

2744



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2745

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2747

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2749

  152

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2746

8QT\ÒINKEJ 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2748

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2750

8QT\ÒINKEJ -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 


ALEXANDER I.

2751

2752

2753

2754



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



2755

2756

2757

2758

2760



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

5GJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &C\W-QRGMGPI$KVMKP 5VÒEM(CUVUGJTUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2761

2762

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

2763

2764

2765



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPXIN  45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

45EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

 153


ALEXANDER I.

2766

2767

2768

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG'MCVGTKPDWTI 

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2769

2770

2771



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

 -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



154




ALEXANDER I.

2772

2773

2774



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2776

2775

2775



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

5GNVGPGTNGV\VGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

5GNVGPGTNGV\VGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

155


ALEXANDER I.

2777

1,5:1



1,5:1

-W-QRGMGP'/'MCVGTKPDWTI2TQDGOKVWPXQNNUV·PFKIGT,CJTGU\CJNI)GMTÌPVGT&QR RGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU #PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG5EJTKHVOKV9GTV,CJTGUWPF/ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG$KVMKP  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ

2778

  

 156

2780

2779

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 4 

2781



(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 49GTV\CJNIGVKNIVUGJTUEJÌP

1,5:1

  

2781

-W&GPIC -QRGMG 'MCVGTKPDWTI0QXQFGNI/KVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF$KVMKP*  448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




ALEXANDER I.

2783

2782

 

2784

2785

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP



(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-W-QRGMGP ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



2786

2787

2788

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5W\WP 

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP 4   44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 157


ALEXANDER I.

2790

2789



2789

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP 4   5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI 2GVGT %JTKUVGPUGP&CU XQTNKGIGPFG  -QRGMGP5VÒEM XQP  KUV GKPFGWVKI FCU UGNVGPUVG   CNNGT5VÒEMGFKGUGU0QOKPCNUFKG<CT#NGZCPFGT+KP5W\WP -QN[XCP CWURT·IGPNKG­



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



2792

2793

2791

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W&GPIC -QRGMG 5V2GVGTUDWTI0QXQFGNI$KVMKP*  448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG+\JQTC 

-W-QRGMGP+\JQTCI1JPG/ÒP\OGKUVGTUKIPCVWT$KVMKP 4 

4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



2796

2794



-W-QRGMG+\JQTCI$KVMKP 4 

2795

448QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



8QT\ÒINKEJ



5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-W-QRGMG+\JQTCI$KVMKP



-W&GPIC -QRGMG +\JQTCI$KVMKP

158


ALEXANDER I.

2797

1,5:1

1,5:1

'KPG-WRHGTRTQDGXQP 

-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTI2TQDGI/KVUEJOCNGT4·PFGNWPI7PKHQTOKGTVGU$TWUVDKNF T)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF   WOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2798

2799

 

2799

'KPG-WRHGTOÒP\GHÒT)GQTIKGP

-W2WNK $KUVK 6KHNKUHÒT)GQTIKGPI$KVMKP 4 

2T·IWPIGPHÒT2QNGP

<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

2800

2801

445GJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



ex 2802

2803

 

<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP <NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP -N5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 



<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPIWPFI$KVMKP  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

 159


ALEXANDER I.

2804

2805

2TKXCVG2TQDGRT·IWPIGPFGT9GTMUVCVV$QWNVQPKP$KTOKPIJCO 

2TQDGOÒP\G Q , WO   WPUKIPKGTV XQP % -WGEJNGT 9GTMUVCVV /CVVJGY $QWNVQP $KTOKPIJCO   CWHFGP6QFFGT<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++KO,CJT2TKXCVG2TQDGRT·IWPIKP5KNDGT)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNF -CVJCTKPCU++TOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV4GKEJUCRHGNWPF<GRVGTKPFGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPGOO I$KVMKP&KCMQX FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++4  448QT\ÒINKEJ 



2TQDGOÒP\G Q , WO   WPUKIPKGTV XQP % -WGEJNGT 9GTMUVCVV /CVVJGY $QWNVQP $KTOKPIJCO   CWHFGP6QFFGT<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++KO,CJT2TKXCVG2TQDGRT·IWPIKP-WRHGT)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNF -CVJCTKPCU++TOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV4GKEJUCRHGNWPF<GRVGTKPFGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPGOO I$KVMKP&KCMQX FQTVWPVGT-CVJCTKPC++4  4-N-TCV\GTRQNKGTVG2NCVVG

2806







2807

2TQDGOÒP\G Q , WO   WPUKIPKGTV XQP % * -WGEJNGT 9GTMUVCVV /CVVJGY $QWNVQP $KTOKPI   JCO 2TKXCVG 2TQDGRT·IWPI KP 5KNDGT )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV4GKEJUCRHGNWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVG FGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPGOOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   44(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



2TQDGOÒP\G Q , WO   WPUKIPKGTV XQP % * -WGEJNGT 9GTMUVCVV /CVVJGY $QWNVQP $KTOKPI   JCO 2TKXCVG 2TQDGRT·IWPI KP -WRHGT<KPP !  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN   )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV4GKEJUCRHGNWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWO JGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUQDGP-TQPGOOI$KVMKP\W&KCMQX  48QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2808

2808 1,5:1



160

2TQDGOÒP\G  WPUKIPKGTV XQP % * -WGEJNGT 9GTMUVCVV /CVVJGY $QWNVQP $KTOKPIJCO 2TKXCVG   2TQDGRT·IWPI KP 5KNDGT )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN-TGW\ WPVGP \W FGP 5GK   VGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNOOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI5VGORGNINCP\ 


ALEXANDER I.

2809



2TQDGOÒP\G  WPUKIPKGTV XQP % * -WGEJNGT 9GTMUVCVV /CVVJGY $QWNVQP $KTOKPIJCO 2TKXCVG   2TQDGRT·IWPI KP -WRHGT )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN-TGW\ WPVGP \W FGP   5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNOOI$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4   448QT\ÒINKEJCWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2810

2811

2812

/GFCKNNGPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT+ 





5KNDGTLGVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG -TÌPWPI KP /QUMCW )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO FCTWPVGT 2CNO   WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI IGMTGW\V8KGT <GKNGP 5EJTKHV QDGP -TQPG  OO  I $KVMKP  4    &KCMQX 4  4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTLGVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG -TÌPWPI KP /QUMCW )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO FCTWPVGT 2CNO    WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI IGMTGW\V8KGT <GKNGP 5EJTKHV QDGP -TQPG  OO  I $KVMKP  4    &KCMQX 4  49KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTLGVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG -TÌPWPI KP /QUMCW )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO FCTWPVGT 2CNO   WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI IGMTGW\V8KGT <GKNGP 5EJTKHV QDGP -TQPG  OO  I $KVMKP  4    &KCMQX 4  49KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



2813



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJVWPF%/GKUPGTCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPIKP/QUMCWCO5GRVGO DGT $ÒUVG T-TQPG NKGIV CWH GKPGT 5·WNG CP FGT GKPG 6CHGN OKV TWUUKUEJGT +PUEJTKHV &CU )GUGV\    CPIGDTCEJVKUVOOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ

 161


ALEXANDER I.

2814



2816

2815

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP % .GDGTGEJV 4ÒEMUGKVG WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG -TÌPWPI KP /QUMCW CO    5GRVGODGT $ÒUVG T-TQPG NKGIV CWH GKPGT 5·WNGCPFGTGKPG6CHGNOKVTWUUKUEJGT+PUEJTKHV &CU)G UGV\ CPIGDTCEJVKUVOOI&KCMQXXCT 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJVCWHFKG)TÒPFWPIFGT0GWGP$ÌTUGKP5V2GVGTUDWTI7PKHQT OKGTVGU $TWUVDKNF T#PUKEJV FGT PGW GTDCWVGP $ÌTUG OKV FGO (NW­ 0GYC KO 8QTFGTITWPF KO #D   UEJPKVV\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJVWPF+5JKNQXCWHFGP)TCHGP#NGZCPFGT5GTIGKGYKVUEJ5VTQIC PQHH IGYKFOGV XQP FGT #MCFGOKG FGT UEJÌPGP -ÒPUVG KP 5V 2GVGTUDWTI $TWUVDKNF FGU )TCHGP T OKV   WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF #PFTGCUQTFGP5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT #DUEJPKVVUNKPKG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN   OOI&KCMQX 4  49KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2817



162

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP , 2 &TQ\ CWH FKG 'TTGVVWPI FGU 2TKP\GP #NGZCPFGT $QTKUQYKVUEJ -WTCMKP   CWU FGO (GWGT FCU Y·JTGPF GKPGU $CNNGU KP 2CTKU CWUDTCEJ 7PKHQTOKGTVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU 2TKP\GP N   #EJV<GKNGP5EJTKHV\YKUEJGP.QTDGGTWPF'KEJGP\YGKIOOI&KCMQX 4   48QT\ÒINKEJ




ALEXANDER I.

2818



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJV#WU\GKEJPWPIFGTGJGOCNUHKPPKUEJGP#TOGGHÒTKJTG-TKGIGT $ÒUVG T9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV OKV ¤N\YGKI UVGJV HCUV X X WPF DGMT·P\V GKPGP XQT KJT UVGJGPFGP IGHNÒ   IGNVGP )GPKWU FGT KP FGT 4GEJVGP GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI WPF OKV FGT .KPMGP GKPGP 5EJKNF J·NV  OO   I&KCMQX 4  8QTFGTUGKVGXGTMTCV\VUQPUVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2820

2819



2821



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJVCWHFKGªDGTVTCIWPIXQP2TKXKNGIKGPCPFKGHKPPKUEJG7PKXGTUK V·V’DQ 6WTMW #.':#0&'4+Ü4755Ü+/2'4#614/#)07524+0%'25(+0.#0&+“Ü$ÒUVG T WPVGP /GFCKNNGWTUUKIPCVWT8'6#6 /14+ Ü 9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UKV\V PCEJ T WPF URKGNV .[TC FGP   TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG 9CUUGTWTPG IGNGJPV KO *KPVGTITWPF CWHIGJGPFG 5QPPG T )GD·WFGCPUKEJV FGT   7PKXGTUKV·V XQP ’DQ FCTWPVGT /GFCKNNGWTUUKIPCVWT KO #DUEJPKVV #%#&'/+# ('00147/ #&   #74#/  018+5 +0%4'/'06+5 #7%6#  # Ü /&%%%:+ Ü  OO  I &KCMQX   

4  8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP$#PFTKGWWPF48,GWHHTQ[CWHFKG5EJNCEJVCPFGT/QUMYCDGK$QTQ FKPQ$ÒUVG0CRQNGQPU+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\(TCP\ÌUKUEJGT*WUCTOKV&GIGPKPFGTGTJQDGPGP4GEJ VGP TGKVGV T ÒDGT GKPGP CO $QFGP NKGIGPFGP )GHCNNGPGP JKPYGI KO *KPVGTITWPF T HNKGJGPFGT 5QNFCV   OOI5NI,WNKWU 1TKIKPCNRT·IWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP $ #PFTKGW WPF ( $TGPGV CWH FGP 'KP\WI 0CRQNGQPU + KP /QUMCW $ÒUVG   0CRQNGQPU + T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#PUKEJV FGU -TGONU OKV HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT /KNKV·TUVCPFCTVG  OO   I5NI,WNKWU<GKV\ +P5KNDGTUGJTUGNVGP1TKIKPCNRT·IWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ  163


ALEXANDER I.

2822







2824

2823

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 9[QP CWH FGP <CTGP CNU 4GVVGT 'WTQRCU 7PKHQTOKGTVGU $TWUVDKNF T   8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT2CNOWPF.QTDGGT\YGKIOOI&KCMQX 4   44-N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP - .GUUGT CWH FCU $ÒPFPKU \YKUEJGP 2TGW­GP ¤UVGTTGKEJ WPF 4W­NCPF KO   -CORHIGIGP(TCPMTGKEJ&KGDGNQTDGGTVGP$ÒUVGPXQP(TCP\+XQP¤UVGTTGKEJ#NGZCPFGT+XQP4W­ NCPFWPF(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++XQP2TGW­GPPGDGPGKPCPFGTT/KPGTXCUVGJVNOKV5RGGTWPF5EJKNF OOI&KCMQX 4  -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



<KPPOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP,%4GKEJCWHFKG8ÌNMGTUEJNCEJVDGK.GKR\KICO 1MVQDGT(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNOXQP2TGW­GP-CKUGTU(TCP\+XQP¤UVGTTGKEJWPF#NGZCPFGT+MPKGPPG DGPGKPCPFGTXXCWH5EJNCEJVHGNFXQTKJPGPNKGIGPKJTG5EJYGTVGTIGMTGW\V2[TCOKFGPHÌTOKIGT(GUVCN VCTOKV(GWGTYGTMOOI&KCMQXp5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQp  44+P\GKVIGPÌUUKUEJGO'VWK8QT\ÒINKEJ



2825



164

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6*CNNKFC[CWH/+)QNGPKUEJGX-WVW\QX(ÒTUVXQP5OQNGPUM$GHGJNUJC DGTFGTTWUUKUEJGP6TWRRGPKPFGP$GHTGKWPIUMTKGIGP$ÒUVGFGU(ÒTUVGPN<YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT .QDGGTMTCP\OOI&KCMQX 4  448QT\ÒINKEJ




ALEXANDER I.

2826





2827 2826

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP$#PFTKGWCWHFKG#PYGUGPJGKVFGU<CTGPKP2CTKU$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\8KMVQTKCUKV\VPCEJNXQTGKPGO.QTDGGTDCWOWPFUEJTGKDVCWHGKPG6CHGNOOI &KCMQX5NI,WNKWU 8QT\ÒINKEJ



8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 9[QP CWH FKG 4GKUG UGKPGT 5EJYGUVGT -CVJCTKPC 2CYNQYPC   PCEJ 'PINCPF $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\$TKVCPPKC UKV\V PCEJNPGDGPFGOGPINKUEJGP9CRRGPUEJKNF KPFGT4GEJVGP.QTDGGT\YGKIKPFGT.KPMGP&TGK\CEMOOI&KCMQX 4   448GTIQNFGVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2829

2830

2828







6TCIDCTGGKPUGKVKIIGIQUUGPG/GUUKPIOGFCKNNGQ, WO XQP.*GWDGTIGTCWHFKGXGTDÒPFGVGP /QPCTEJGP &KG $TWUVDKNFGT XQP (TCP\ + XQP ¤UVGTTGKEJ <CT #NGZCPFGT + WPF -ÌPKI (TKGFTKEJ 9KN   JGNO+++XQP2TGW­GPPGDGPGKPCPFGTTOOI$TCOUGP&KCMQXp5NI,WNKWU 5GJTUEJÌPGT)W­



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP*($TCPFVCWHFKG)TWPFUVGKPNGIWPIFGU5KGIGUFGPMOCNUCWHFGO-TGW\ DGTIKP$GTNKPIGOGKPUCOOKV-ÌPKI(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++XQP2TGW­GP\WT'TKPPGTWPICPFKG5KGIG ÒDGT0CRQNGQP$ÒUVGPXQP#NGZCPFGTWPF(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++PGDGPGKPCPFGTNWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\ #PUKEJVFGU5KGIGUFGPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX 4 .GJPGTV/CTKGPD  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP*($TCPFVCWHFKG)TWPFUVGKPNGIWPIFGU5KGIGUFGPMOCNUCWHFGO-TGW\ DGTIKP$GTNKPIGOGKPUCOOKV-ÌPKI(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++XQP2TGW­GP\WT'TKPPGTWPICPFKG5KGIG ÒDGT0CRQNGQP$ÒUVGPXQP#NGZCPFGTWPF(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++PGDGPGKPCPFGTNWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\ #PUKEJVFGU5KGIGUFGPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX 4 .GJPGTV/CTKGPD  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 165


ALEXANDER I.

2831



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP*($TCPFVCWHFKG)TWPFUVGKPNGIWPIFGU5KGIGUFGPMOCNUCWHFGO-TGW\ DGTIKP$GTNKPIGOGKPUCOOKV-ÌPKI(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++XQP2TGW­GP\WT'TKPPGTWPICPFKG5KGIG ÒDGT0CRQNGQP$ÒUVGPXQP#NGZCPFGTWPF(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++PGDGPGKPCPFGTNWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\ #PUKEJVFGU5KGIGUFGPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX 4 .GJPGTV/CTKGPD  8QT\ÒINKEJ



2832



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP(#PFTKGWCWHFGP#DUEJKGFFGUTWUUKUEJGP)GPGTCNU)TCH/KMJCKN5GO[Q PQYKVUEJ 9QTQPUQHH CWU (TCPMTGKEJ $ÒUVG FGU -ÌPKIU .QWKU :8+++ XQP(TCPMTGKEJT5KGDGP<GKNGP 5EJTKHVWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI&KCMQXp5NI,WNKWUp 48QT\ÒINKEJ



2833

 166

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#-NGRKMQYCWHUGKPGP6QF$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOJGT5EJNCPIGP TKPI5VTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT




NIKOLAUS I.

2834



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#-NGRKMQYCWHUGKPGP6QF$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOJGT5EJNCPIGP TKPI5VTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2835



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP*($TCPFVCWHUGKPGP6QFKO,CJTGIGHGTVKIVKO#WHVTCIFGU -ÌPKIU(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++XQP2TGW­GP$ÒUVGN5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVFCTWPVGT,CJTGU\CJNWOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\OOI&KCMQX 4 .GJPGTV 44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

2836

2837

2838



2839

<#40+-1.#75+ )QNFOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP0KMQNCWU+ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&-N-TCV\GTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

 )1.&4CPFHGJNGTUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP

 167


NIKOLAUS I.

2840

2841

2843

2842

2844



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&.GKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP FQTVKTTVÒONKEJOKVHCNUEJGO/ÒP\\GKEJGP (D 5EJN )1.&9KP\-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2845

2846

)1.&5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

2847



2848



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  )1.&49KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2849

2850

2851

2852

2853



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&2TQDKGTURWTGPCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN



168

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP


NIKOLAUS I.

2854 Pt

1,5:1

1,5:1

2NCVKPOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP0KMQNCWU+ 

4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG -GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU CWH FGP (NÒIGNP LG FTGK   YGKVGTG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG QDGP -TQPG5EJTKHV OKV 9GTV WPF ,CJTGUCPICDG $KVMKP  4  (D    5EJN 2.#6+08QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ 

2855 Pt

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG -GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU CWH FGP CWUIGDTGKVGVGP   (NÒIGNPLGFTGK9CRRGPUEJKNFG5EJTKHVOKV9GTVWPF,CJTGUCPICDG$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN 2.#6+0440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

2856 Pt 1,5:1



1,5:1

 4WDGN 2NCVKP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT9GTVCPICDG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN KP   XKGT<GKNGP$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN 2.#6+0449KP\KIG-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  169


NIKOLAUS I.

2857 Pt

1,5:1

1,5:1



4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG -GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU CWH FGP (NÒIGNP LG FTGK   YGKVGTG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG QDGP -TQPG5EJTKHV OKV 9GTV WPF ,CJTGUCPICDG $KVMKP  4  (D    5EJN 2.#6+0440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ 

2859 Pt

2858 Pt

2860 Pt

2862 Pt

2861 Pt



4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  2.#6+0(CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  2.#6+0(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  2.#6+05GNVGPGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  2.#6+05GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  2.#6+09KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2863 2864

2864

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP0KMQNCWU+ 

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



4WDGN ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP\W&CX 5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG5GJTUEJÌP

170

48QT\ÒINKEJ

 


NIKOLAUS I.

2865

2866



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCMN2TQDKGTURWTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2867

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2869

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2871

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2873

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2868

8QT\ÒINKEJ (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2870

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2872

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2874

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  171


NIKOLAUS I.

2876

2875



2877

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KVQHHGPGTKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPKPUEJTKHV$KVMKP 4 &CX 5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KVQHHGPGTKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPKPUEJTKHV$KVMKP 4 &CX 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2879

2878



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII5GNVGPG8CTKCPVGOKVPKEJVDKU\WT-TQPGTGKEJGPFGO 9CRRGP$KVMKPp XIN  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



2880

 

2881

4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2882

2883

5GJTUEJÌP



*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ



172

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP


NIKOLAUS I.

2885

2884

2886



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2888

2887

2889

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

2890



2891



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

2892

2893

2894



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNPYKP\2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  'TUVCDUEJNCIHGKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII&C\W4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP &CX 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





173


NIKOLAUS I.

2896

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2898

2897

8QT\ÒINKEJ (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2899



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX .GKEJVG-QTTQUKQPUURWTGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX 5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌP

 

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2900

 

2902

2901

2903



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  -CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP



8QT\ÒINKEJ (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2904

  174

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2905


NIKOLAUS I.

2906



2907

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



2908

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2910



5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2909

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

 

2911

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNPHGKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2912

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2914

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ



(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2913

2915

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  175


NIKOLAUS I.

2916

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2918

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2920

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2924

  176

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 

2919

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2921

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

2922

 

2917

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

8QT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2923

2925

8QT\ÒINKEJ (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

 


NIKOLAUS I.

2927

2926



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI/5$KVMKP&CX (CUV5VGORGNINCP\

2928

-N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2929



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

-T·HVKIG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



2930



2931

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2932

2933



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2934

2935



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 177


NIKOLAUS I.

2936



2937

4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPI 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2938

2939

8QT\ÒINKEJ

2940

 

2941



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2942



2943

8QT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2944

 

2945

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\CWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



  

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



2946

 178

2947

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




NIKOLAUS I.

2948

2949

2950

2951

2952



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



2953

2954

2955

2956

2957



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2958

2959

2960

8QT\ÒINKEJ



8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2961

2962



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

179


NIKOLAUS I.

2963

2964



4WDGN9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP&CX

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP&CX

48QT\ÒINKEJ



2966

2965



4WDGN9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP&CX

#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP&CX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2967

2968



4WDGN9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP&CX

9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2970

2969

2971

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG'MCVGTKPDWTI 

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

  180

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ




NIKOLAUS I.

2972

2973

2974



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2976

2975

2977



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 181


NIKOLAUS I.

2979

2978



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



2980

2982

2981

2983



-W-QRGMGP'MVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2984

2985

2986



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

182


NIKOLAUS I.

2988 2987

 

2987

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2990

2989

 

2989

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 4 

44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

 

2991

1,5:1

1,5:1



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI0QXQFGNI$KVMKP* 4 

2992

 

-W&GPG\JMC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -W&GPG\JMC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

44(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



2993

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  183


NIKOLAUS I.

2994

'KPXGTRT·IVGU-QRGMGP5VÒEMFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI 

-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII8GTRT·IWPI&GTQDGTG6GKNFGU8QTFGTD\Y4ÒEMUGK VGPUVGORGNUKUVKPFGT·W­GTGPWPVGTGP*·NHVGDGKFGT5GKVGP\WGTMGPPGP$KVMKP  +PVGTGUUCPVG8GTRT·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

2995

 

  

2996

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG+\JQTC

-W-QRGMG+\JQTCI$KVMKP -W-QRGMG+\JQTCI$KVMKP

2997



8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

2998

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG9CTUEJCW

-W-QRGMGP9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP 4  -W-QRGMGP9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP 4  -W-QRGMGP9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP 4 

 

2999

445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

  

3001

3000

  184

-W-QRGMGP9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP 4  -W2QNWUEJMC9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP 4 

3000

45GJTUEJÌP 48QT\ÒINKEJ

 


NIKOLAUS I.

3002

1,5:1

1,5:1

)GFGPMOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP0KMQNCWU+ 

4WDGN <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTI(COKNKGPTWDGN0QXQFGNI/KV4KHHGNTCPF$ÒUVGT /GFCKNNQPDKNF UGKPGT )GOCJNKP #NGZCPFTC (GQFQTQYPC (TKGFGTKMG .WKUG %JCTNQVVG 9KNJGNOKPG   6QEJVGT (TKGFTKEJ 9KNJGNOU +++ XQP 2TGW­GP  T OKV &KCFGO WOIGDGP XQP FGP $ÒUVGP FGT -KPFGT   #NGZCPFGT UR·VGT <CT #NGZCPFGT ++  /CTKC 1NIC #NGZCPFTC -QPUVCPVKP 0KMQNCK WPF /KEJCGN   $KVMKP* 4 &CXp \W  448QT\ÒINKEJ 

3003

3004



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP 4 &CX  2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP 4 &CX  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP



3005

3006



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP 4 &CX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP 4 &CX  (GKPG6ÌPWPIMN-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 185


NIKOLAUS I.

3007

3008

3009



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP 4 &CX  9KP\-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP 4 &CX  (GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP 4 &CX  $TQUEJKGTURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



3010

3011



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU$QTQFKPQ&GPMOCNUI$KVMKP 4 &CX 2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU$QTQFKPQ&GPMOCNUI$KVMKP 4 &CX &WPMNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



3012

3013



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU$QTQFKPQ&GPMOCNUI$KVMKP 4 &CX (GKPG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU$QTQFKPQ&GPMOCNUI$KVMKP 4 &CX 5GJTUEJÌP



186


NIKOLAUS I.

1,5:1

3014



3014

4WDGN  XQP * )WDG CWH FKG 8GTO·JNWPI UGKPGU 5QJPGU )TQ­HÒTUV #NGZCPFGT 0KMQNCLGYKVUEJ   UR·VGT<CT#NGZCPFGT++OKV/CTKCXQP*GUUGP&CTOUVCFV6QEJVGT.WFYKIU++I$GKFGT$ÒUVGP PGDGPGKPCPFGT N#OQT WPF 2U[EJG NGJPGP CP GKPGT IGMTÌPVGP -CTVWUEJG FCTKP /QPQITCOO #/   $KVMKP 4 &CX# 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3015

1,5:1



4WDGN  XQP * )WDG CWH FKG 8GTO·JNWPI UGKPGU 5QJPGU )TQ­HÒTUV #NGZCPFGT 0KMQNCLGYKVUEJ   UR·VGT<CT#NGZCPFGT++OKV/CTKCXQP*GUUGP&CTOUVCFV6QEJVGT.WFYKIU++I$GKFGT$ÒUVGP PGDGPGKPCPFGT N#OQT WPF 2U[EJG NGJPGP CP GKPGT IGMTÌPVGP -CTVWUEJG FCTKP /QPQITCOO #/   $KVMKP 4 &CX# 442TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

3016



1,5:1

1,5:1

3016

4WDGN  XQP * )WDG CWH FKG 8GTO·JNWPI UGKPGU 5QJPGU )TQ­HÒTUV #NGZCPFGT 0KMQNCLGYKVUEJ   UR·VGT<CT#NGZCPFGT++OKV/CTKCXQP*GUUGP&CTOUVCFV6QEJVGT.WFYKIU++I$GKFGT$ÒUVGP PGDGPGKPCPFGT N#OQT WPF 2U[EJG NGJPGP CP GKPGT IGMTÌPVGP -CTVWUEJG FCTKP /QPQITCOO #/   $KVMKP 4 &CX#XCT 44&WPMNG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ  187


NIKOLAUS I.

3017 1,5:1

1,5:1

2TQDGOÃ&#x2019;P\GPFGU<CTGP0KMQNCWU+ 

-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTI2TQDGOKVINCVVGO4CPF+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$G YGTVWPI2(4$$KVMKP 4  44'TUVCDUEJNCI5VGORGNINCP\ 

3019

3018

3018



-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTI2TQDGI/KVINCVVGO4CPF$KVMKP* 4   448QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTI0QXQFGNFGT2TQDGI$KVMKP* 4   442QNKGTVG2NCVVG



3022

3020

3021



-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTI2TQDGI$KVMKP 4 

448QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTI0QXQFGNFGT2TQDGI$KVMKP*  442TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTI0QXQFGNFGT2TQDGI$KVMKP* 4   442TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



188


NIKOLAUS I.

3024

3023



-W&GPG\JMC5V2GVGTUDWTI2TQDGI$KVMKP

44(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W2QNWUEJMC5V2GVGTUDWTI2TQDGI$KVMKP

445VGORGNINCP\



3025

1,5:1

1,5:1

2T·IWPIGPHÒT2QNGP 

 <NQV[  9CTUEJCW HÒT 2QNGP  I $ÒUVG FGU <CTGP #NGZCPFGT + T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGT5EJYGTVWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV#FNGTUEJKNF CWHIGMTÌPVGO*GTOGNKPQDGP-TQPG$KVMKP 4 &CX FQTVWPVGT2QNGP   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

3026

3027

3028

3029



<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\5VGORGNTK­XQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

189


NIKOLAUS I.

3031

3030



<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP



<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



3032

3033

3033



<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTHGKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\,WUVKGTURWTGPCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTIHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP&CX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ



3034

3035

3036



4WDGN <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTIHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP&CX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIMN5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTIHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP&CX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI9KP\-TCV\GTRQNKGTVG2NCVVG



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 190


NIKOLAUS I.

3038 3037

3037



4WDGN <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTIHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP 4 &CX  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌP



-QRGMGP <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTIHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP 4 



48QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTIHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP 4   49KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN <NQV[ 9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



3039 3040

3040

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3042

3041



3043

3044

-QRGMGP <NQV[ 9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP  8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



-QRGMGP <NQV[ 9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP -QRGMGP <NQV[ 9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP -QRGMGP <NQV[ 9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

  

-QRGMGP <NQV[ 9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ



)TQU\[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

  

3045



3046

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

8QT\ÒINKEJ

191


NIKOLAUS I.

3047

3048

3049

3050



)TQU\[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





)TQU\[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-QRGMGP )TQU\[ 9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP



-QRGMGP )TQU\[ 9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3051



 4WDGN 2QNVKPC   9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP -WRHGT  I -TQPG<YGK (ÒNNJÌTPGT ÒDGT &QRRGN   CFNGT/KV4CPFUEJTKHV$KVMKP 4  445GJTUEJÌP



3052

/GFCKNNGPFGU<CTGP0KMQNCWU+ 

192

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP8#NGZGGXWPF+.CXTGVUQXCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPIKP/QUMCWCO#WIWUV $ÒUVG T-TQPG NKGIV CWH GKPGT 5·WNG CP FGT GKPG 6CHGN OKV TWUUKUEJGT +PUEJTKHV &CU )GUGV\  CPIG   DTCEJVKUVQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




NIKOLAUS I.

3053



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ( 6QNUVQK CWH FCU L·JTKIG 'JGLWDKN·WO UGKPGT 'NVGTP FGT <CTKP /CTKC   (GQFQTQYPC 5QRJKG&QTQVJGC#WIWUVGXQP9ÒTVVGODGTI WPFFGUDGTGKVUXGTUVQTDGPGP<CTGP2CWN+ $ÒUVG /CTKC (GQFQTQYPCU T OKV 'KEJGPMTCP\'KP $NWOGP WPF GKP .QTDGGTMTCP\ KPGKPCPFGT XGT   UEJNWPIGPFCTKPFKG,CJTGU\CJNGPWPFOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



&KGXQTNKGIGPFG/GFCKNNGYWTFGXQPFGT#MCFGOKGFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGPKP5V2GVGTUDWTIIGUVKHVGV-NGKP4CHHHÒJTV FCU5VÒEMWPVGTDCWH

3054

3055





3055

$TQP\G8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG Q , XQP # .[CNKP XGTNKGJGP HÒT DGUQPFGTG .GKUVWPIGP KO *CPFGN WPF KP   FGT.CPFYKTUEJCHV$ÒUVGT.GGTGU(GNFHÒT)TCXWTGPKP-QTFGNTKPIWOJGT5EJTKHVOOI &KCMQX 4  4'PVHGTPVG6TCIGÌUGXQT\ÒINKEJ 6TCIDCTG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,WPUKIPKGTV/KNKV·T8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNGXGTNKGJGPHÒT6CRHGTMGKV$ÒUVGT <YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX\W FQTVQJPG5KIPCVWT4  448QT\ÒINKEJ





3056



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP*)WDGCWHFKG-TKGIUGTMN·TWPICPFKG6ÒTMGKCO#RTKN$ÒUVGT&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG4GNKIKQPÒDGTTGKEJVFGO<CTGPGKP5EJYGTVWPFGKP-TGW\\YKUEJGPKJPGPCWHFGO$Q FGPGKP*GNOOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

193


NIKOLAUS I.

3057



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP # #NGZGGX CWH FGP (TKGFGP OKV 2GTUKGP &GT $GTI #TCTCV OKV FGT #TEJG   0QCJCWHFGO)KRHGNKO8QTFGTITWPF9GNNGPWPF(GNUGPKO*KPVGTITWPFNUVTCJNGPFG5QPPGQDGPFKG ,CJTGU\CJN  #PUKEJV GKPGT RGTUKUEJGP 5VCFV XQT FGO $GTI #TCTCV QDGP -TGW\ \YKUEJGP FGT   IGVGKNVGP,CJTGU\CJNWOJGT5VTCJNGPOOI&KCMQX  449KP\4CPFHGJNGTMN5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

3058



3059



3060

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV 9GTMUVCVV ) .QQU CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT VÃ&#x2019;TMKUEJGP 5VCFV 'T\WTWO   WPFFKGªDGTUEJTGKVWPIFGU$CNMCPU$Ã&#x2019;UVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT.QTDGGT MTCP\OOI&KCMQX -N-TCV\GTXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP %JT 2HGWHHGT CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP #FTKCPQRGN VÃ&#x2019;TM 'FKTPG  FWTEJ FGP   )GPGTCN,QJCPP)TCH&KGDKVUEJ5CDCNMCPUMK

Ã&#x201C; 4KVVGTOKVYGJGPFGT(CJPGKPFGTGTJQDG PGP .KPMGP UVGJV X X KO *KPVGTITWPF 5VCFVOCWGT5GEJU <GKNGP5EJTKHVKP.QTDGGTMTCP\OO I&KCMQX5QOOGT2 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



194

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV 9GTMUVCVV ) .QQU CWH FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK FGT VÃ&#x2019;TMKUEJGP (GUVWPI   5EJWONC JGWVG $WNICTKGP  $Ã&#x2019;UVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\<GJP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV WOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\   OOI&KCMQX 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ




NIKOLAUS I.

3061



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP*)WDGCWHFGP(TKGFGPOKVFGT6Ã&#x2019;TMGK$Ã&#x2019;UVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\4WUUK UEJGT1HHK\KGTÃ&#x2019;DGTTGKEJVGKPGO6Ã&#x2019;TMGPGKPGP.QTDGGT\YGKI\WFGP5GKVGPUVGJGPFKG9CRRGPUEJKNFGFGT DGKFGP0CVKQPGPCWHFGO$QFGPKO*KPVGTITWPF5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP-QPUVCPVKPQRGNOOI &KCMQX 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3062



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP*)WDG2TGKUOGFCKNNGFGTMCKUGTNKEJGP/KNKV·TCMCFGOKGCWUIGIGDGP CP1HHK\KGTGHÃ&#x2019;T.GKUVWPIGPKPFGT9KUUGPUEJCHV$Ã&#x2019;UVGN/KPGTXCOKV5RGGTWPF5EJKNFUVGJVPCEJT WPF DGMT·P\V GKPGP XQT KJT MPKGPFGP -TKGIGT KO *KPVGTITWPF #VVTKDWVG FGT 9KUUGPUEJCHV  OO   I&KCMQX 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



3063



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP)GDWTVUVCIXQP,QJCPP2JKNKRR9GKUUG&KTGMVQTFGTFGWV UEJGP5EJWNGKP5V2GVGTUDWTIIGYKFOGVXQP(TGWPFGPWPF5EJÃ&#x2019;NGTP5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVCWH6CHGN WOJGT'KEJGPMTCP\5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

 195


NIKOLAUS I.

3065 3064

3064



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 2 7VMKP CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGU &GPMOCNU HÒT #NGZCPFGT + $ÒUVG T   #PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX (CUV5VGORGNINCP\





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 8 #NGZGGX 2T·OKG HÒT 'T\KGJGT WPF .GJTGT $ÒUVG T,CJTGU\CJN ÒDGT   5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 9KP\-TCV\GTRQNKGTVG2NCVVG



3066







196

3067

3068

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV 2T·OKG HÒT GTHQNITGKEJG 5VWFKGP )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV   <GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVGFGU#P FTGCUQTFGPU CWH FGP (NÒIGNP LG FTGK YGKVGTG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG QDGP -TQPG/KPGTXC OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   KPFGT4GEJVGPWPF¤NNCORGKPFGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGPUVGJVXXWOIGDGPXQP#VVTKDWVGPFGT9KUUGP UEJCHVGPFKGCWHFGO$QFGPNKGIGPOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV 2T·OKG HÒT GTHQNITGKEJG 5VWFKGP )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV   <GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVGFGU#P FTGCUQTFGPU CWH FGP (NÒIGNP LG FTGK YGKVGTG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG QDGP -TQPG/KPGTXC OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   KPFGT4GEJVGPWPF¤NNCORGKPFGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGPUVGJVXXWOIGDGPXQP#VVTKDWVGPFGT9KUUGP UEJCHVGPFKGCWHFGO$QFGPNKGIGPOOI&KCMQX  5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



6TCIDCTG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTV2T·OKGHÒTGTHQNITGKEJG5VWFKGP)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCF NGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU CWH FGP (NÒIGNP LG FTGK YGKVGTG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG QDGP -TQPG/KPGTXC OKV .QT   DGGTMTCP\KPFGT4GEJVGPWPF¤NNCORGKPFGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGPUVGJVXXWOIGDGPXQP#VVTKDWVGPFGT 9KUUGPUEJCHVGPFKGCWHFGO$QFGPNKGIGPOOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP




NIKOLAUS I.

3069





3070

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#.*GNFCWHFKG6TWRRGPUEJCWDGK-CNKUEJ&KG$Ã&#x2019;UVGPXQP0KMQNCWU+WPF (TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+++XQP2TGW­GPPGDGPGKPCPFGTN2TGW­KUEJGTWPFTWUUKUEJGT5QNFCVUVGJGPUKEJKO <GNVNCIGTIGIGPÃ&#x2019;DGTOOI&KCMQX 4 /CTKGPD 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#.*GNFCWHFKG6TWRRGPUEJCWDGK-CNKUEJ&KG$Ã&#x2019;UVGPXQP0KMQNCWU+WPF (TKGFTKEJ 9KNJGNO +++ XQP 2TGW­GP PGDGPGKPCPFGT N'KP TWUUKUEJGT WPF GKP RTGW­KUEJGT 5QNFCV OKV   KJTGP(CJPGPUVGJGPPGDGPGKPCPFGTKO*KPVGTITWPF<GNVNCIGTOOI&KCMQX 4  /CTKGPD (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



3071



$TQP\GPG5WKVGPOGFCKNNGXQP#-NGRKMQYWPF#.[CNKPCWHFKG0CRQNGQPKUEJGP-TKGIGWPFFKG 5EJNCEJV CP FGT -CV\DCEJ  $TWUVDKNF #NGZCPFGTU + N KP CPVKMGT 4Ã&#x2019;UVWPI OKV *GNO 5RGGT WPF   5EJKNF<YGK CPVKMG -TKGIGT UVÃ&#x2019;TOGP PCEJ T Ã&#x2019;DGT )GHCNNGPGJKPYGIOOI5NI,WNKWU 5OKTPQX (CUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



3072



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   9GTMUVCVV $TCUUGWZ CWH UGKPG GTHQNITGKEJG 4GIKGTWPI $Ã&#x2019;UVG T8KGT   IGVGKNVGU/GFCKNNQPFCTKPJCNVGPKPFGPQDGTGP#DUEJPKVVGP\YGK#RQUVGNGKPCWHIGUEJNCIGPGU$WEJKP FGP WPVGTGP #DUEJPKVVGP UKPF GKP 2TKGUVGT WPF 5V )GQTI FCTIGUVGNNV WOJGT OKNKV·TKUEJG WPF PCWVKUEJG   5[ODQNGOOI&KCMQX 444CPFHGJNGTXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

 197


NIKOLAUS I.

3073



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP*)WDGCWHFKG'TÌHHPWPIFGU1DUGTXCVQTKWOUKP2WNMQYQDGK5V2GVGTU DWTI $ÒUVG T#PUKEJV FGU 1DUGTXCVQTKWOU WOJGT 6KGTMTGKU\GKEJGP FC\YKUEJGP 5VGTPG  OO   I&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

3074





3075



3074

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 0 )GTDCTC CWH FGP $GUWEJ UGKPGU 5QJPGU )TQ­HÒTUV #NGZCPFGT   0KMQNCLGYKVUEJ UR·VGT <CT #NGZCPFGT ++ KP 4QO -QRH FGU 6JTQPHQNIGTU N*KNCTKVCU )ÌVVKP FGT   *GKVGTMGKV  UVGJV JCNDN OKV 2CNO\YGKI WPF (ÒNNJQTP WPVGP \W FGP 5GKVGP )GVTGKFG WPF -TCP\ /KV   4CPFRWP\GOOI&KCMQX 4  448QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP , 2 5EJQWDGTI CWH FGP $GUWEJ UGKPGU 5QJPGU )TQ­HÒTUV #NGZCPFGT   0KMQNCLGYKVUEJUR·VGT<CT#NGZCPFGT++KO*CWUFGU<CTGP2GVGT+KP5CCTFCO#PUKEJVFGU*CWUGU 2GVGTU+KP5CCTFCO)GMTÌPVGT.ÌYGOKV5EJYGTVWPF5EJKNFÒDGTUKGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT-TCP\ OOI&KCMQX 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



3076



198

$TQP\GPG5WKVGPOGFCKNNGXQP#-NGRKMQYCWHFGP4WUUKUEJ6ÒTMKUEJGP-TKGIWPFFKG 'KPPCJOGFGT(GUVWPI'TKYCP)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG -GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU QDGP -TQPG4WUUKUEJGT -TKGIGT   OKV/KNKV·TUVCPFCTVGWPF5EJKNFUVGJVXXCWHFGT4WKPGFGT(GUVWPITPGDGPKJONKGIVGKP)GHCNNGPGT WOJGT#TOCVWTGPOOI5OKTPQX 448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




NIKOLAUS I.

3077

1,5:1



1,5:1

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG \W GKPGO 4WDGN  XQP * )WDG CWH FKG 8GTO·JNWPI UGKPGU 5QJPGU )TQ­HÒTUV   #NGZCPFGT0KMQNCLGYKVUEJUR·VGT<CT#NGZCPFGT++OKV/CTKCXQP*GUUGP&CTOUVCFV6QEJVGT.WFYKIU ++ $GKFGT $ÒUVGP PGDGPGKPCPFGT N#OQT WPF 2U[EJG NGJPGP CP GKPGT IGMTÌPVGP -CTVWUEJG FCTKP   /QPQITCOO #/  OO  I $KVMKP /  4  &CX XIN  # &KCMQX  4    5EJÒV\ 48QT\ÒINKEJCWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3078







3079

3080

$TQP\G8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP#.[CNKP2T·OKGFGTJÌJGTGP*CPFGNUUEJWNGKP5V2GVGTU DWTI )GHNÒIGNVGT )GPKWU UKV\V PCEJ N CWH GKPGO 9CTGPDCNNGP OKV FGO NKPMGP #TO CWH GKPGP #PMGT   IGNGJPVKPFGT4GEJVGP5VCDFCTCP\YGK.QTDGGTMT·P\GXQTKJONKGIGP-KUVGPFCTCWHGKP$WEJ.CPF MCTVGWPF/GTMWTJGNO8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP.9[QPCWHUGKPG4GKUGPCEJ'PINCPF$ÒUVGTGEJVU5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT,CJTGU\CJNOOI&KCMQX 4 'KOGT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#PIGDNKEJPWT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ



6TCIDCTG UKNDGTPG 8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTNKGJGP CP 1HHK\KGTG FKG CP FGT 0KGFGTUEJNC   IWPIFGT#WHUV·PFGKP7PICTPWPF5KGDGPDÒTIGPVGKNIGPQOOGPJCDGP)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GR VGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT 1TFGPUMGVVG QDGP -TQPG   FCTÒDGT UVTCJNGPFGU )QVVGUCWIG(ÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT ,CJTGU\CJN  OO  I   &KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

 199


NIKOLAUS I.

3081



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#-NGRKMQYWPF#.[CNKPCWHFGP$CWFGT$NCIQYGUEJGPUMDTÒEMGÒDGTFKG 0GYC #PUKEJV FGT $TÒEMG FCTÒDGT IGMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV $NKV\ WPF -TCP\ KP FGP (·PIGP&KG   (NW­IÌVVKP0GYCNCIGTVPCEJNOKV4WFGTFGPNKPMGP#TOCWHGKPG3WGNNWTPGIGNGJPVKO8QTFGTITWPF *GTMWNGUWPF/KPGTXCOOI&KCMQX 4   44(GKPG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

3082



200

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP + /KPJG[OGT CWH FCU L·JTKIG &KGPUVLWDKN·WO FGU TWUUKUEJGP )GPGTCNHGNF   OCTUEJCNNU )TCH +YCP (LQFQTQYKVUEJ 2CUMGYKVUEJ'TKYCPUMK (ÒTUV XQP 9CTUEJCW $ÒUVG FGU )GPGTCN   HGNFOCTUEJCNNUN0GWP<GKNGP\WO6GKNIGDQIGPG5EJTKHVWOJGT-TCP\CWU.QTDGGTWPF'KEJGP\YGK IGPOOI&KCMQX 4  44(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 


NIKOLAUS I.

3083



5GTKG XQP  <KPPOGFCKNNGP  XQP , 2KPEJGU CWH FGP -TKOMTKGI #WH FGP 8QTFGTUGKVGP UKPF FKG   5EJNCEJVGP XQP #NOC $CNCMNCXC D\Y +PMGTOCPP FCTIGUVGNNV CWH FGP 4Ã&#x2019;EMUGKVGP UKPF FKG DGVGKNKIVGP   &KXKUKQPGPCWHIGNKUVGV,GYGKNUECOOI&KCMQXp'KOGT  5VÃ&#x2019;EM+P1TKIKPCNGVWK8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



3084



)QNFOGFCKNNG  XQP # .[CNKP CWH UGKPGP 6QF $Ã&#x2019;UVG T QDGP UVTCJNGPFGU )QVVGUCWIG5VTCJNGP   FGUTWUUKUEJQTVJQFQZGU-TGW\CWH/QPFUKEJGNWPVGP.GDGPUFCVGPOOI&KCMQX

4  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP (CUV5VGORGNINCP\  201


ALEXANDER II.

3085



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP # .[CNKP CWH UGKPGP 6QF $ÒUVG T QDGP UVTCJNGPFGU )QVVGUCWIG5VTCJNGP   FGUTWUUKUEJQTVJQFQZGU-TGW\CWH/QPFUKEJGNWPVGP.GDGPUFCVGPOOI&KCMQX

4  442TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP5VGORGNINCP\ 

3086



6TCIDCTG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTV2TGKUOGFCKNNG\WO#PFGPMGPCPUGKPGP)GDWTVU VCI$ÒUVGT5GKPG4GIKGTWPIUFCVGPOOI&KCMQX 4   45GJTUEJÌP

3087

3088



3090

3089

<#4#.':#0&'4++ )QNFOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT++ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN



202

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ


ALEXANDER II.

3091

3092

3093

3095

3094



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



3096

3097

3098

3099

3100



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

 )1.&9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



3101

3102

3103

3104

3105



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 203


ALEXANDER II.

3106

3107

3108

3109



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&-N(NGEMHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN



3110

3111

3112

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

3114

3113



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP



1,5:1



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN

1,5:1

 204

3115

3116

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN

1,5:1

)1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ



1,5:1

)1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ




ALEXANDER II.

3118

3117

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT++ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX FQTVWPVGT0KMQNCWU+   8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP 'Z2TQQH





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX FQTVWPVGT0KMQNCWU+   -N-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



3119

3120



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX FQTVWPVGT0KMQNCWU+   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX FQTVWPVGT0KMQNCWU+   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3121

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT $TWUV 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF WOJGT FKG -GVVG FGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU CWH FGP (NÒIGNP LG FTGK YGKVGTG 9CRRGP   UEJKNFG QDGP -TQPG5EJTKHV OKV 9GTV WPF ,CJTGUCPICDG \YKUEJGP .QTDGGT WPF 'KEJGP\YGKI +P 75   2NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI2(7.64#%#/'1$KVMKP 4 &CX  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPIKPCW­GTIGYÌJPNKEJGT'TJCNVWPI2QNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÒJTV  205


ALEXANDER II.

3123

3122



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX FQTVWPVGT0KMQNCWU+   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI-TCV\GTMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



3125

3124

8QT\ÒINKEJ

3126

3127



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



3128

3129

3130

3131

3132



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTI+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI/5$KVMKP 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

206


ALEXANDER II.

3133

3134

3135



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



3136

3136 1,5:1



 -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I 8CTKCPVG QJPG /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG   $KVMKP 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

3137



3139

3138

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



3140

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\CWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



3141

3142

3143



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 207


ALEXANDER II.

3144

3146

3145

3147



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



3148

3149

3150



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\XQT\ÒINKEJ

3151



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



3152

4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 208

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX


ALEXANDER II.

3153



3154

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

 

 *GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 5GJTUEJÌP 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTIIWPFI$KVMKP&CX Z   5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

3158





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



3160

8QT\ÒINKEJ

3162

3160

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\CWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNPHGKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

3161

 



3159

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP





3157

3156

 



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJCWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG

   209


ALEXANDER II.

3163



3164

3165

4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

3166

-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



3167

3168



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

3169

3170

4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNPYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3171

3172



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   42TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   42TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

210


ALEXANDER II.

3173



3174

3175

4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII&C\W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

3177

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3178



3179

44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

3180

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

 

3181

5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI-N-TCV\GTYKP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

 

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3182

   

3183

5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

3184

3185

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ 4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

  

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

211


ALEXANDER II.

3188

3186

 

3187

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3189

3190

1,5:1

1,5:1



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII8CTKCPVGQJPG/ÒP\OGKUVGTKPKVKCNGP$KVMKP 4   48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3191

3192



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

3193

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

1,5:1



3194

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

1,5:1

48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3195



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

1,5:1

3196

1,5:1

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

212


ALEXANDER II.

3197

1,5:1



1,5:1

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3199

3198



3200

3201

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

3203

3202

-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG'MCVGTKPDWTI 

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



3205

3204

 

3204

3206

-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTIIECXGTRT·IV$KVMKP -W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP



*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-W&GPG\JMC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

213


ALEXANDER II.

3208

3207

3209

3209



-W2QNWUEJMC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W2QNWUEJMC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGPQ,WPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI(GJNRT·IWPI4ÒEMUGKVGKPMWUG8QTFGTUGKVG $KVMKPp \WHH  5GJTUEJÌP



/ÌINKEJGTYGKUG KUV FKG XQTNKGIGPFG (GJNRT·IWPI CWEJ KP FGT 4GIKGTWPIU\GKV XQP #NGZCPFGT +++ QFGT 0KMQNCWU ++   GPVUVCPFGP

3211

3212

3210



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP



-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



5VGORGNINCP\



45GJTUEJÌP



-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG9CTUEJCW 

-W-QRGMGP9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP 4 

3213

3214



-W-QRGMGP9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP 4 



3215

3216

49KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMGP9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG9CTUEJCWI$KVMKP

<CRQPKGTVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



214


ALEXANDER II.

3217

3218

3219

3220

-WRHGTOÃ&#x2019;P\GPFGT/Ã&#x2019;P\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI  

-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\



-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3223

3224 3222

3221



-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\CWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG





-W-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

3225

4(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



3226

)GFGPMOÃ&#x2019;P\GPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT++ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÃ&#x2019;T0KMQNCWU+I$KVMKP&CX  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÃ&#x2019;T0KMQNCWU+I$KVMKP&CX  *Ã&#x2019;DUEJG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

 215


ALEXANDER II.

3227

3228

3229



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT0KMQNCWU+I$KVMKP&CX  (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT0KMQNCWU+I$KVMKP&CX  (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT0KMQNCWU+I$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP



-QRGMGP'/$TÒUUGN2TQDGKP-WRHGT0KEMGNI/KVINCVVGO4CPF$KVMKP 4   448QT\ÒINKEJXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP



-QRGMGP'/$TÒUUGN2TQDGKP-WRHGT0KEMGNI/KVINCVVGO4CPF$KVMKP 4   448QT\ÒINKEJ



-QRGMGP'/$TÒUUGN2TQDGKP-WRHGTI/KVINCVVGO4CPF$KVMKP 4   448QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



3230

3231

3232

2TQDGOÒP\GPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG$TÒUUGN 

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3233



-QRGMGP$TÒUUGN0QXQFGNFGT2TQDGKP-WRHGT0KEMGN<KPPI$KVMKP*  442QNKGTVG2NCVVG 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

216




ALEXANDER II.

3234

3235

2T·IWPIGPHÒT(KPPNCPF 

/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP 4 (D FQTVWPVGT(KPPNCPF 5EJN

FQTVWPVGT(KPPNCPF  )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ





/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP(D FQTVWPVGT(KPPNCPF 5EJN FQTV WPVGT(KPPNCPF  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



3237

3236

3236



/CTMMC*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





2GPPK·*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP 4 

5GJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3238

1,5:1



1,5:1

-W2GPPK·*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

3240

3239



3241

3239



-W2GPPK·*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\





-W2GPPK·*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT'TUVCDUEJNCI5VGORGNINCP\





-W2GPPK·*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI9KP\-QPVCMVUVGNNGRQNKGTVG2NCVVG

 217


ALEXANDER II.

3242

3243



-W2GPPK*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT'TUVCDUEJNCI5VGORGNINCP\





-W2GPPK*GNUKPMKHÒT(KPPNCPFI$KVMKP  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



3244

1,5:1

1,5:1

/GFCKNNGPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT++ 

6TCIDCTG IQNFGPG 8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG Q , WPUKIPKGTV XGTNKGJGP HÒT DGUQPFGTG .GKUVWPIGP KO *CPFGN   WPF KP FGT .CPFYKTVUEJCHV $ÒUVG T5EJPWTMTGKU FCTKP NGGTGU (GNF WOJGT 5EJTKHVMTGKU OKV ·W­GTGO   <KGTMTGKUOOI&KCMQX 4  )1.&8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ 

3245

3246

3246



6TCIDCTG UKNDGTPG 8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG Q , WPUKIPKGTV XGTNKGJGP HÒT DGUQPFGTG .GKUVWPIGP KO *CPFGN   WPF FGT .CPFYKTVUEJCHV $ÒUVG T5EJPWTMTGKU FCTKP NGGTGU (GNF WOJGT 5EJTKHVMTGKU OKV ·W­GTGO   <KGTMTGKUOOI&KCMQX 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP # .[CNKP WPF / -WEJMKP CWH UGKPG -TÌPWPI KP /QUMCW $ÒUVG T)G   MTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV FGT 5V )GQTIUUEJKNF   WOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU#PFTGCUQTFGPUCWHFGP(NÒIGNPLGXKGTYGKVGTG9CRRGPUEJKNFGOOI &KCMQX 9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

218




ALEXANDER II.

3247



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP##NGZGGXWPF4)CPPGOCPCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPI$ÒUVGT)GMTÌPVGT&QR RGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV5V)GQTIUUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU #PFTGCUQTFGPU CWH FGP (NÒIGNP LG XKGT YGKVGTG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG QDGP -TQPG  OO  I   &KCMQX 4  448QT\ÒINKEJ 

3248



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP,1VVNG[CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP2CTKU\YKUEJGP4W­NCPFWPFFGO1UOCPKUEJGP 4GKEJ)TQ­DTKVCPPKGP5CTFKPKGPWPF(TCPMTGKEJPCEJ$GGPFKIWPIFGU-TKOMTKGIGU$TKVCPPKCOKV.QT DGGT\YGKIKPFGT.KPMGPUVGJVXXWOJGT#VVTKDWVGFGU*CPFGNUKO*KPVGTITWPF'KUGPDCJPWPFOGJ TGTG5EJKHHGOOI&KCMQXp'KOGTp2CZKP0WOOKUXIN 4ÒEMUGKVG   8QT\ÒINKEJ



3249



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,XQP2$TWUPKVU[P2T·OKGFGT/·FEJGPUEJWNGHÒTIWVGU$GPGJOGPWPFUEJWNKUEJGP (QTVUEJTKVV $ÒUVG FGT <CTKP /CTKC #NGZCPFTQYPC T5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV CWH 5VTCJNGP WOJGT -TCP\   CWU9GKPTGDGPOOI&KCMQX 4  4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 219


ALEXANDER II.

3250



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,XQP2/GUEJGT[CMQXWPF80KMQPQX2T·OKGFGT/·FEJGPUEJWNGHÒTIWVGU$G PGJOGP WPF UEJWNKUEJGP (QTVUEJTKVV $TWUVDKNF FGT <CTKP /CTKC #NGZCPFTQYPC T/KPGTXC OKV .QT   DGGTMTCP\KPFGT4GEJVGPWPF¤NNCORGKPFGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGPUVGJVXXWOIGDGPXQP#VVTKDWVGPFGT 9KUUGPUEJCHVGPFKGCWHFGO$QFGPNKGIGPOOI&KCMQX 4   4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



3251



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#.[CNKPWPF8#NGZGGXCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGT5V+UCCMU-CVJGFTCNGKP 5V2GVGTUDWTI/GFCKNNQPFCTKPFCUIGJCTPKUEJVG$TWUVDKNF2GVGTU+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGI VGO/CPVGNWOJGTHÒPHYGKVGTG/GFCKNNQPUOKVFGP$TWUVDKNFGTPD\Y$ÒUVGPXQP-CVJCTKPC++2CWN+ #NGZCPFGT + 0KMQNCWU + WPF #NGZCPFGT ++ FC\YKUEJGP .QTDGGT WPF 'KEJGP\YGKIG#PUKEJV FGT   -CVJGFTCNGOOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



3252



220

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#.[CNKPWPF8#NGZGGXCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGT5V+UCCMU-CVJGFTCNGKP 5V2GVGTUDWTI/GFCKNNQPFCTKPFCUIGJCTPKUEJVG$TWUVDKNF2GVGTU+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGI VGO/CPVGNWOJGTHÒPHYGKVGTG/GFCKNNQPUOKVFGP$TWUVDKNFGTPD\Y$ÒUVGPXQP-CVJCTKPC++2CWN+ #NGZCPFGT + 0KMQNCWU + WPF #NGZCPFGT ++ FC\YKUEJGP .QTDGGT WPF 'KEJGP\YGKIG#PUKEJV FGT   -CVJGFTCNGOOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP




ALEXANDER II.

3254

3253





3253

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP8#NGZGGXCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT#MCFGOKGHÒT*CPFGNUYKUUGPUEJCHVGPKP /QUMCW $ÒUVG T QDGP -TQPG WOJGT -TCP\ WPVGP #PMGT (C­ 9CTGPDCNNGP WPF /GTMWTUVCD#P   UKEJVFGU)GD·WFGUOOI&KCMQX -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 2 $TWUPKVU[P CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGU &GPMOCNU \WT ,CJTHGKGT FGU   TWUUKUEJGP4GKEJGU$ÒUVGT#PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX  9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 221


ALEXANDER II.

3255



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 2 $TWUPKVU[P CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGU &GPMOCNU \WT ,CJTHGKGT FGU   TWUUKUEJGP4GKEJGU$ÒUVGT#PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



3256

3257

3257



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  M[TKNNKUEJ  XQP 2 $TWUPKVU[P CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGU &GPMOCNU \WT    ,CJTHGKGT FGU TWUUKUEJGP 4GKEJGU <YGK /GFCKNNQPU OKV FGP $TWUVDKNFGTP XQP 4WTKM WPF #NGZCPFGT ++   GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT QDGP UVTCJNGPFGT 5VGTP WPVGP IGMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT#PUKEJV FGU &GPMOCNU   OOI&KCMQX -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%9KGPGTCWHFCUL·JTKIG,WDKN·WOFGT(TGKGP4WUUKUEJGP2TGUUGKP.QP FQP -QRH FGU 8GTNGIGTU #NGZCPFGT +YCPQYKVUEJ *GT\GP T)NQEMG \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG ,WDKN·WOUFC   VGPOOI&KCMQX 4 'KOGT 44(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



#NGZCPFGT+YCPQYKVUEJ*GT\GP KP/QUMCWYCTFGT5QJPFGTCWU5VWVVICTVUVCOOGPFGP.WKUG*CCIWPFFGU TWUUKUEJGP#FNKIGP+YCP#NGZGLGYKVUEJ,CMQYNGY5GKPG'NVGTPUEJNQUUGPMGKPGTGEJVUIÒNVKIG'JGWPFUQGTJKGNVKJT 5QJPFGP0COGP*GT\GPYGKNGTGKP-KPFFGU*GT\GPUUGK)GIGPFGP9KNNGPUGKPGU8CVGTUFGTKJP\WP·EJUVKO 5VCCVUFKGPUV WPVGTDTKPIGP YQNNVG VTCV GT  KP FKG RJ[UKMCNKUEJOCVJGOCVKUEJG (CMWNV·V FGT 7PKXGTUKV·V /QUMCW   GKP*GTCWUTCIGPFG'TGKIPKUUGUGKPGT5VWFKGP\GKVYCTGPFGT#WUDTWEJFGT%JQNGTCKP/QUMCWWPFFGT$GUWEJ#NGZ CPFGT XQP *WODQNFVU CP FGT /QUMCWGT 7PKXGTUKV·V *GT\GP UEJNQUU UGKPG 5VWFKGP  OKV GKPGT CUVTQPQOKUEJGP   &KUUGTVCVKQPCD5GKVFGO#WIWUVJKGNV*GT\GPUKEJKP.QPFQPCWHYQGT8GTVTGVGTFGTRQNKVKUEJGP'OKITCVKQP YKG.QWKU$NCPE)QVVHTKGF-KPMGN.CLQU-QUUWVJWPF)KWUGRRG/C\\KPKMGPPGPNGTPVG*GT\GPYWTFGPWPXGTUV·TMV RQNKVKUEJ CMVKX GPICIKGTVG UKEJ HÒT FKG 8GTUV·PFKIWPI FGT FGOQMTCVKUEJGP $GYGIWPIGP 4W­NCPFU WPF2QNGPUITÒP FGVGFKG(TGKG4WUUKUEJG2TGUUGYQ5EJTKHVGPCWHTWUUKUEJQJPG<GPUWTIGFTWEMVYWTFGP#DICDGTFGP #NOCPCEJ 2QNLCTPCLC <XG\FC ō&GT 2QNCTUVGTPŋ  JGTCWU \YGK ,CJTG FCPCEJ ITÒPFGVG GT FKG <GKVUEJTKHV -QNQMQN  

ō&KG )NQEMGŋ  FKG \YKUEJGP  WPF  GTUEJKGP WPFCWHFKGUKEJFKG4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPIFGTXQTNKGIGPFGP /GFCKNNGDG\KGJV#NGZCPFGT+YCPQYKVUEJ*GT\GPUVCTDCO,CPWCTY·JTGPFGKPGU#WHGPVJCNVGUKP2CTKU

222


ALEXANDER II.

3258



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 2 $TWUPKVU[P \WT 'TKPPGTWPI CP FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGU \YGKVGP -CPCNU XQP   .CFQIC$ÒUVGN$ÒUVG2GVGTU+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



3259 3260





3260

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP0-Q\KPCWHFGP$CWGTP1UKR+YCPQYKVUEJ-QOOKUCTQYFGTFCU#VVGPVCV FGU 4GXQNWVKQP·TGP &KOKVTKL -CTCMCUQY CWH FGP <CTGP XGTJKPFGTVG $TWUVDKNF -QOOKUUCTQYU X X   4WUUKUEJQTVJQFQZGU-TGW\WOJGT5VTCJNGPMTCP\OOI&KCMQX  (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%9KGPGTCWHFKG2CPTWUUKUEJG)GYGTDGCWUUVGNNWPIKP5V2G VGTUDWTI<YGK)GPKGPJCNVGPGKP5EJTKHVDCPFOKV'KEJGPWPF.QTDGGT\YGKI\YKUEJGPKJPGP/GFCKNNQP OKV FTGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT IGMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF WPVGP \YGK KPGKPCPFGTITGKHGPFG *·PFG   9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UKV\V PCEJ N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ KP FGT CWUIGUVTGEMVGP 4GEJVGP WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI KO   NKPMGP#TOWOJGT#VVTKDWVGFGU)GYGTDGUOOI&KCMQX 48QT\ÒINKEJ



3261



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP8$CTCPQXCWHFGP)GDWTVUVCI2GVGTU+$ÒUVG2GVGTU+NOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\WOJGT5VGTPGPMTGKU5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

 223


ALEXANDER II.

3262



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP2/GUEJGT[[CMQXWPF#5GOGPQXCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU&GPMOCNUHÒT -CVJCTKPC++KP5V2GVGTUDWTI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNF-CVJCTKPCU++TOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKPWOJGT .QTDGGTWPF'KEJGP\YGKI#PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



3263



224

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP8#NGZGGXWPF#)TKNKEJGUCWHFCUL·JTKIG,WDKN·WOFGU$GTIDCWKPUVK VWVU/GFCKNNQPUOKVFGP$ÒUVGP-CVJCTKPCU++WPF#NGZCPFGTU++GKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTFC\YKUEJGPGKPG IGHNÒIGNVG YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV FKG LG GKPGP .QTDGGTMTCP\ ÒDGT FKG /GFCKNNQPU J·NV WPVGP /CWGTMTQPG   ÒDGT 5EJKNF FCTKP 5EJN·IGN WPF 'KUGP IGMTGW\V)GD·WFGCPUKEJV FGU $GTIDCWKPUVKVWVU  OO   I&KCMQX/ÒUGNGTC 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




ALEXANDER II.

3264



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP58C\JGPKPCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGTMCKUGTNKEJGP.CPFYKTVUEJCHVUIGUGNNUEJCHV XQP 5Ã&#x2019;FTW­NCPF $Ã&#x2019;UVGP XQP 0KMQNCWU + WPF #NGZCPFGT ++ PGDGPGKPCPFGT N2HNÃ&#x2019;IGPFGT $CWGT KP   .CPFUEJCHVKO*KPVGTITWPFCWHIGJGPFG5QPPGOOI&KCMQX 4   (CUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



3266

3265





3265

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG #TDGKV WPF FGP 'THQNI DGK FGT 'TUEJNKG­WPI XQP 5WORHNCPF   #TDGKVGTDGKFGT6TQEMGPNGIWPIXQP5WORHNCPF<YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT(TÃ&#x2019;EJVGMTCP\OO I&KCMQX 4FQTVHCNUEJG#DDKNFWPIUKGJG  48QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 8 #NGZGGX WPF # )TKNKEJGU CWH FKG MCKUGTNKEJG )GUGNNUEJCHV \WT 7PVGTUVÃ&#x2019;V   \WPI FGT *CPFGNUUEJKHHCJTV -QRH T WOJGT 'KEJGP WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI#PMGT WPF 5GIGN  OO   I&KCMQX 4  44*Ã&#x2019;DUEJG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ  225


ALEXANDER III.

3267



)QNFOGFCKNNQP Q ,   XQP # )TKNKEJGU WPF 5 8C\JGPKP CWH FGP 6QF UGKPGT )GOCJNKP /CTKC   #NGZCPFTQYPC /CTKCXQP*GUUGP&CTOUVCFV6QEJVGT.WFYKIU++ KO,CJT$ÒUVGFGT<CTKPNOKV &KCFGO6TCWGTPFGT 'PIGN MPKGV PCEJ N KO *KPVGTITWPF 2QUVCOGPV OKV -TQPG FCJKPVGT -TGW\ WPF   (CJPGOOI&KCMQX 4   )1.&8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPUEJÌPUVGT'TJCNVWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

3268

1,5:1

1,5:1

<#4#.':#0&'4+++ )QNFOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT+++ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



3269

1,5:1

 226

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN

1,5:1

)1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG




ALEXANDER III.

3271

3270



3272

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  )1.&449KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  )1.&440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3273

3274

3275

3276



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&/KP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



3277

3278

3279

3280



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&-N4CPFHGJNGTYKP\&TWEMUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌP

 227


ALEXANDER III.

3281

3282

3283

3284

3285



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN



3286

3287

3288

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

3290

3289



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP



3291

3292

3293

3294

3295



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&-N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



228


ALEXANDER III.

3296

3297

3298

3299



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



3300

3301



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



3303

3302

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT+++ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX FQTVWPVGT#NGZCPFGT++ 

45GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3304



3305

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

229


ALEXANDER III.

3307

3306



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  4GUVGGKPGT6WUEJG\KHHGTXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3309

3308



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



3310

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPIKPCW­GTIGYÌJPNKEJGT3WCNKV·V*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCRQNKGTVG2NCVVGNGKEJVDGTKGDGP

3311

3312



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

230



48QT\ÒINKEJ

 


ALEXANDER III.

3313

3315

3314



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  40WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   40WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



3316

1,5:1



1,5:1

3317

 

3318

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

45GJTUEJÌP



8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3319

3320

3321

3322



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 231


ALEXANDER III.

3323

3324

3325

3326

3327

3328



-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

448QT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



3329

3330

)GFGPMOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT+++ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3331

 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

3332



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ



3333

3334



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX



232

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ


ALEXANDER III.

1,5:1

3335

1,5:1

'KPG2TQDGHÒTGKP-QRGMGP5VÒEMXQP 

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTI2TQDGKP0KEMGNI$KVMKP

448QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3336

/GFCKNNGPFGU<CTGP#NGZCPFGT+++ 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , WPUKIPKGTV 2T·OKG FGT /·FEJGPUEJWNG HÒT FGP GTHQNITGKEJGP #DUEJNW­ $TWUVDKNF   FGT <CTKP /CTKC (GQFQTQYPC T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV XQT 5QPPGPUVTCJNGP   WOJGT(TÒEJVGMTCP\OOI&KCMQX# 4  442QNKGTVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI#PVQPKP2TQMQR6GKN#WMVKQP#WTGC0WOKUOCVKMC2TCI0T

3337

3338





3338

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , XQP # )TKNKEJGU 2T·OKG FGT /·FEJGPUEJWNG HÒT FGP GTHQNITGKEJGP #DUEJNW­   $TWUVDKNF FGT <CTKP /CTKC (GQFQTQYPC T/KPGTXC OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ KP FGT 4GEJVGP WPF ¤NNCORG KP   FGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGPUVGJVXXWOIGDGPXQP#VVTKDWVGPFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGPFKGCWHFGO$QFGPNKG IGPOOI&KCMQX -N-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , XQP # )TKNKEJGU 2T·OKG FGT /·FEJGPUEJWNG HÒT FGP GTHQNITGKEJGP #DUEJNW­   $TWUVDKNF FGT <CTKP /CTKC (GQFQTQYPC T/KPGTXC OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ KP FGT 4GEJVGP WPF ¤NNCORG KP   FGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGPUVGJVXXWOIGDGPXQP#VVTKDWVGPFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGPFKGCWHFGO$QFGPNKG IGPOOI&KCMQX *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 233


ALEXANDER III.

3339



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP.5VGKPOCPPWPF58C\JGPKPCWHFKGRCPTWUUKUEJG#WUUVGNNWPI KP /QUMCW 7PKHQTOKGTVGU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGMTÌPVGO /GFCKNNQP9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UKV\V PCEJ T FGP   TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPGP )NQDWU IGNGJPV WOJGT 5[ODQNG FGT  .CPFYKTVUEJCHV FGT +PFWUVTKG FGT   9KUUGPUEJCHVWPFFGT-ÒPUVGOOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



3340



/GUUKPIOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPIKP/QUMCW/QPQITCOOCWHIGMTÌPVGO*GTOGNKP 5EJTKHV QDGP -TQPG OKV $CPF WPVGP \YGK IGMTGW\VG 'KEJGP\YGKIG  OO  I &KCMQX p   5OKTPQXp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



3341



8GTUKNDGTVGT /GUUKPILGVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG -TÌPWPI KP /QUMCW )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO   WOJGT.QTDGGTWPF'KEJGP\YGKI5EJTKHVQDGP-TQPGWOJGT.QTDGGTWPF'KEJGP\YGKIOO I&KCMQXp5OKTPQXp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



3342



234

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV 2T·OKG FGT #MCFGOKG HÒT -WPUV WPF #TEJKVGMVWT KP /QUMCW   XGTNKGJGPXQPFGT/QUMCWGT-WPUVIGUGNNUEJCHV)GHNÒIGNVGT)GPKWUUVGJVXXOKV-T·P\GPKPFGP*·P FGPWOIGDGPXQP#VVTKDWVGPFGT-WPUVWPF#TEJKVGMVWTFKGCWHFGO$QFGPNKGIGPQDGP5VGTP5EJTKHV KP.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI&KCMQX 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV/KVITCXKGTVGO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




ALEXANDER III.

3343



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'TÌHHPWPIFGU-CPCNU\WT8GTDKPFWPIFGT(NÒUUG8[VGITCWPF -QX\JC&CU/GFCKNNQPDKNFPKUXQP#NGZCPFGT+++TWOIGDGPXQPFGPGP2GVGTU+2CWNU+#NGZCPFGTU ++ WPF /CTKC (GQFQTQXPCU KP FGP 9KPMGNP IGMTÌPVG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG CWH 'KEJGPNCWD6QRQITCHKUEJG   -CTVGFGT-CPCNTGIKQPFCTWPVGTFKGFC\WIGJÌTKIGP2CTCOGVGTOOI&KCMQX  48QT\ÒINKEJ



3344



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP # )TKNKEJGU LT CWH FKG 4GVVWPI FGT <CTGPHCOKNKG DGKO <WIWPINÒEM XQO   1MVQDGT&KG<CTGPHCOKNKGKP4GKUGMNGKFWPI'PIGNJ·NV*CPFÒDGTMPKGPFG(TCWGPIGUVCNVCWH FGO $QFGP NKGIGP -TÌPWPIUKPUKIPKGP WPVGP #PUKEJV FGU <WIWPINÒEMU  OO  I   &KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



235


ALEXANDER III.

3345



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP # )TKNKEJGU LT WPF # )TKNKEJGU UT CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT TWUUKUEJGP   #TVKNNGTKG$ÒUVGNWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\5GEJU<GKNGP\WO6GKNIGDQIGPG5EJTKHVWOJGT'KEJGPD\Y .QTDGGT\YGKIFCTCWH\CJNTGKEJG-CPQPGPOOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ



3346

3347





236

3347

6TCIDCTG <KPPOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FCU L·JTKIG $GUVGJGP FGT -KTEJG 5V 8CUUKNKL )QVVGU   OWVVGTOKV-KPFÒDGT*ÒIGNOKV(W­CDFTWEM-KTEJGPIGD·WFGQDGP$KNFPKUFGT*GKNKIGP/CTKC\WFGP 5GKVGPFKG*GKNKIGP5VGRJCPWPF9NCFKOKTOOI 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



8GTUKNDGTVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP , % %JCRNCKP CWH FGP $GUWEJ FGT TWUUKUEJGP (NQVVG KP 6QW   NQP(TCPMTGKEJ&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVGPYGKDNKEJGP$TWUVDKNFGTXQP4W­NCPFWPF(TCPMTGKEJPGDGPGKPCPFGT NFCTWPVGT\YGKKPGKPCPFGTITGKHGPFG*·PFG9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVKPCPVKMGO)GYCPFUVGJVCP/GGTGUWHGT OKV GTJQDGPGP *·PFGP WPF DGITÒ­V FKG TWUUKUEJG (NQVVG T HÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV WPF FCU TWUUKUEJG   9CRRGP/KV4CPFRWP\G$410<'OOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ




ALEXANDER III.

3348



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP25VCFPKVUM[CWHUGKPGP6QF7PKHQTOKGTVGU$TWUVDKNFT\WFGP5GKVGPUGKP )GDWTVU D\Y -TÌPWPIUFCVWO WOJGT 5EJNCPIGPTKPI5CTMQRJCI FCTCWH -TQPG FCXQT MPKGV GKPG   VTCWGTPFG YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV N UVGJV GKP 'PIGN OKV GTJQDGPGT 4GEJVGP WOJGT .QTDGGT WPF 'KEJGP   \YGKIGOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



3349



6TCIDCTG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP#)TKNKEJGUCWHUGKPGP6QF-QRHTN.QTDGGT\YGKI -TQPGFCTWPVGTFKG4GIKGTWPIUFCVGPWPVGP-TGW\OOI&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJ



3350



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#)TKNKEJGUCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU&GPMOCNUHÒT#NGZCPFGT++KP*GNUKPMK $ÒUVG#NGZCPFGTU++T#PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 237


NIKOLAUS II.

3351



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#)TKNKEJGUCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU&GPMOCNUHÒT#NGZCPFGT++KP*GNUKPMK $ÒUVG#NGZCPFGTU++T#PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

3352

3353

3354



3355

<#40+-1.#75++ )QNFOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP0KMQNCWU++ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPXCT(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPXCT(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPXCT(D5EJN  )1.&9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



3356

3359



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTIIWPFI$KVMKPXCT(D Z 5EJN  5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



238


NIKOLAUS II.

3360

3361

3362

3363

3367



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&C\W4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTIIWPFI$KVMKP (D5EJN 5VÒEM)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\WPFUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&C\W4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTIIWPFI$KVMKP (D5EJN 5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTIIWPFI$KVMKP(D Z 5EJN  5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN



3369

3368

3370



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

3372

3371

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



)1.&4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN



3375

3376

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP

3377



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI+PUIGUCOVI$KVMKP(D5EJN  5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN

)1.&48QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

239


NIKOLAUS II.

3378

3379

5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU<CTGP0KMQNCWU++ 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

48QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KVINCVVGO4CPF$KVMKP 4 &CX  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



3380

3382



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTIIWPFI$KVMKP&CX Z   5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

3383

8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI

3384



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI#7$KVMKP&CX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

3385



8QT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

3386



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CXp \W   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJCWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CXp \W   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



240


NIKOLAUS II.

3387

3388



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CXp \W   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CXp \W 

3389



3390

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP

 

3391

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ



3392

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPIKPCW­GTIGYÌJPNKEJGT3WCNKV·V2TCEJVGZGORNCT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTRQNKGTVG2NCVVG

 241


NIKOLAUS II.

3394

3393



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX

$GUUGTGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  $GUUGTGT,CJTICPI/KP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



3395

3396



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  $GUUGTGT,CJTICPI(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX



$GUUGTGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌP

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3398

3397



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  $GUUGTGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX



3400

3399



$GUUGTGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌP

3401

3399

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX  $GUUGTGT,CJTICPI-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

242

8QT\ÒINKEJ



(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




NIKOLAUS II.

3403

3402

 

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

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3404

1,5:1

 

1,5:1

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  W­GTUVUGNVGPGT,CJTICPI2QNKGTVG2NCVVG -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

3406

1,5:1



1,5:1

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   W­GTUVUGNVGPGT,CJTICPI8GTOWVNKEJPWT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



3407

1,5:1



1,5:1

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCRQNKGTVG2NCVVG



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

243


NIKOLAUS II.

3408

3409

3410

3411



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

44-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4   5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3413

3414

3412

  

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

3415

3416

 

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

 

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

244

'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 'VYCUDGTKGDGPXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

3417

  

3418

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 


NIKOLAUS II.

3419

1,5:1



1,5:1

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTI+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI2($KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCRQNKGTVG2NCVVG

3420



3420 1,5:1



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG6ÌPWPI5VGORGNINCP\



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2GVGT%JTKUVGPUGP

3422

3421



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



3423

3424

8QT\ÒINKEJ

3425

3426



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDW