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125. AUKTION GEPRÄGTES GOLD AUS DREI JAHRTAUSENDEN SAMMLUNG RUSSLAND 19. Juni 2007 Steigenberger Hotel Remarque Osnabrück Natruper-Tor-Wall 1 Hotel-Telefon (05 41) 60 96 633 Hotel-Fax (05 41) 60 96 634 (nur während der Auktion/only during the auction/ uniquement pendant la vente/solamente durante l'asta)

ZEITPLAN AUKTIONEN 125 - 128 AUKTION 125 GEPRÄGTES GOLD AUS DREI JAHRTAUSENDEN SAMMLUNG RUSSLAND

AUKTION 126 SAMMLUNG FRIEDRICH OTTO, PASSENDORF BRANDENBURG–PREUSSEN NUMISMATISCHE LITERATUR AUKTION 127 MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN AUS MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT

Dienstag, den 19. Juni 2007 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 654 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 655 bis Nr. 1605 Mittwoch, den 20. Juni 2007 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 2001 bis Nr. 2591 14.00 Uhr - 14.30 Uhr Nr. 2592 bis Nr. 2772 14.30 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 3001 bis Nr. 3834 Donnerstag, den 21. Juni 2007 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 3835 bis Nr. 4451 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 4452 bis Nr. 5527

AUKTION 128 ORDEN UND EHRENZEICHEN

Detaillierter Zeitplan siehe Seite 5 Besichtigungen siehe Seite 8 Horaire détaillé voir page 5 Exposition des monnaies voir page 8

Freitag, den 22. Juni 2007 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 6001 bis Nr. 6605 14.00 Uhr - 15.30 Uhr Nr. 6606 bis Nr. 6875

Detailed timetable view page 5 Viewing of auction good view page 8 Calendario dettagliato veda pagina 5 Esposizione veda pagina 8


UNSERE ADRESSE OUR ADDRESS

Fritz Rudolf Künker e. K. Münzenhandlung Gutenbergstr. 23 · 49076 Osnabrück Telefon: 05 41-96 20 20 Telefax: 05 41-96 20 222 Gebührenfreie Rufnummer: 08 00-58 36 537 International calls: International fax:

+49 (0)5 41-96 20 20 +49 (0)5 41-96 20 222

Während der Auktion/During the auction Steigenberger Hotel Remarque: Telefon: Fax:

+49 (0)5 41-60 96 633 +49 (0)5 41-60 96 634

Ust.-Id.-Nr.: DE 117 620 142 UNSERE GESCHÄFTSZEITEN OPENING HOURS

Montag-Donnerstag Freitag Sonnabend Saturday

9.00 - 17.00 Uhr 9.00 - 15.30 Uhr nach Vereinbarung by prior appointment

Außerhalb unserer Geschäftszeit steht unseren Kunden ein automatischer Anrufbeantworter zur Verfügung. Answering machine available after opening hours.

WWW.KUENKER.DE E-MAIL: SERVICE@KUENKER.DE

Auf unserer Internetseite haben Sie die Möglichkeit: • die Abbildungen zu vergrößern • Ihre Gebote direkt per Email abzugeben • die Ergebnisse der Auktionen abzurufen On our website you have the possibility: • to zoom all images • to place your bids • to view all auction results

IHRE ANSPRECHPARTNER CONTACT

Abwicklung der Aufträge und Einlieferungen

Gisela Thomas, Prokuristin Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 221 Annahme von Einlieferungen Staff members accepting consignments

Dr. Andreas Kaiser Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 254 Arne Kirsch, Prokurist Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 234 Oliver Köpp, Prokurist Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 229 Jens-Ulrich Thormann MA (Antike Münzen) Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 242 Mitglied Verband der Deutschen Münzenhändler e. V. Associaton Internationale des Numismates Professionnels (AINP) 2


HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE BIETENDEN AUKTIONSKUNDEN 1. 2.

Die Auktionsbedingungen finden Sie am Ende dieses Katalogs. Bitte senden Sie uns Ihre Aufträge möglichst frühzeitig zu. Wenn uns Ihr Auftrag erst kurz vor der Auktion erreicht, können sich bei der Bearbeitung Fehler einschleichen. 3. Das beiliegende Formular macht es Ihnen leicht, ein schriftliches Gebot abzugeben. Falls Sie Ihre Gebote faxen möchten: unser Telefax 0541 96 20 222 steht Ihnen Tag und Nacht zur Verfügung. 4. Die von Ihnen ersteigerten Objekte werden Ihnen innerhalb von acht Tagen nach Beendigung der Auktion zugeschickt. Die Aufträge werden in der Reihenfolge des Eingangs bearbeitet, d. h. die zuerst eingegangenen Aufträge werden auch zuerst bearbeitet. Auch alle Bieter, die keinen Zuschlag erhalten haben, werden von uns nach der Auktion benachrichtigt. 5. Wenn Sie telefonisch bieten möchten, rufen Sie bitte vor der Auktion unseren Kundenservice an. Frau Thomas freut sich auf Ihren Anruf entweder direkt unter 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37. 6. Wenn Sie als neuer Kunde noch nicht bei uns gekauft haben, ist es empfehlenswert, wenn Sie uns Referenzen angeben. Nennen Sie uns eine Münzhandlung, mit der Sie bereits in Geschäftsverbindung stehen. Oder rufen Sie unseren Kundenservice an. Telefon 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37. 7. Unsere Broschüre “DIE KÜNKER-AUKTIONEN: WIE BIETE ICH ERFOLGREICH?“ liegt in jedem Katalog und ist für Sie eine nützliche Hilfe. 8. Die Echtheit aller verkauften Objekte wird auch über die gesetzliche Frist hinaus gewährleistet. 9. Alle Kunden, die als Bieter an einer unserer Auktionen teilnehmen, erhalten innerhalb von zwei Wochen nach der Auktion unsere Ergebnisliste gratis. 10. Sie haben Fragen zu einer bestimmten Münze? Sie möchten persönlich an unserer Auktion teilnehmen? Sie haben andere Fragen? Unser Kundenservice freut sich auf Ihren Anruf, entweder direkt unter 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37.

RENSEIGNEMENTS A L'ATTENTION DE NOS CLIENTS DES VENTES AUX ENCHERES 1.

Vous trouverez les conditions générales de vente aux enchères à la fin de ce catalogue. 2. Veuillez nous faire parvenir vos ordres le plus tôt possible. Si vos ordres nous parviennent juste avant la vente aux enchères, des erreurs risquent d’être commises lors de leur traitement. 3. Le formulaire ci-joint vous aidera à rédiger facilement votre offre. Si vous souhaitez faxer votre offre, vous pourrez le faire 24 heures sur 24 au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 222. 4. Les objets dont vous serez adjudicataire vous seront envoyés dans les huit jours suivant la fin de la vente aux enchères. Les commandes seront prises en compte dans l’ordre de leur arrivée, c’est-à-dire que les commandes nous parvenant les premières seront d’abord traitées. Après la vente aux enchères, nous préviendrons tous les enchérisseurs n’ayant pas obtenu l’adjudication. 5. Si vous souhaitez faire des enchères par téléphone, veuillez appeler aupravant notre service clientèle. Madame Thomas sera heureuse de vous répondre directement au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 6. Si vous êtes un nouveau client et n’avez encore fait aucune acquisition chez nous, il serait conseillé de nous fournir quelques références. Indiquez nous si vous traitez déjà avec un professionnel du commerce des monnaies. Ou contactez notre service clientèle au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 7. Notre brochure intitulée : »DIE KÜNKER-AUKTIONEN : WIE BIETE ICH ERFOLGREICH?“ (»Les ventes aux enchères de Künker : comment faire une enchère réussie ? « ) jointe dans chaque catalogue vous sera très utile. 8. L’authenticité des pièces vendues sera garantie même au-delà des délais légaux. 9. Tous les clients participant à l’une de nos ventes aux enchères en tant qu’enchérisseurs recevront gratuitement une liste de résultats dans les deux semaines suivant la vente aux enchères. 10. Vous avez des questions concernant une pièce particulière ? Vous désirez prendre part personnellement à notre vente aux enchères ? Vous avez d’autres questions ? Notre service clientèle se fera un plaisir de vous répondre au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR PLACING BIDS 1.

The terms and conditions of the auction can be found at the end of this catalogue. 2. Please send us your instructions as early as possible. The likelihood of errors occurring increases if we do not receive your instructions until shortly before the auction. 3. The enclosed form makes it simple for you to submit a written bid. Our fax machine +49 (0)541 – 96 20 222 is on standby day and night in case you wish to fax your bids. 4. The objects which you purchase will be delivered to you within eight days of the close of auction. Instructions are processed in the same order as they were received – in other words, the first instructions to be received are the first to be processed. All unsuccessful bidders will be also informed after the auction. 5. If you would like to bid by telephone, please ring our customer service beforehand. Mrs. Thomas will be pleased to speak to you on +49 (0)541 96 20 221. 6. If you are a new customer who has not yet bought anything through us, we recommend that you give us references. Name a coin dealer with whom you have already done business. Or call our customer service on +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 7. Our brochure „DIE KÜNKER-AUKTIONEN: WIE BIETE ICH ERFOLGREICH?“ ("The Künker auctions: How to bid successfully?“) is enclosed in every catalogue and will prove useful to you. 8. The genuineness of all sold objects is also warranted beyond the statutory length of time. 9. All customers who participate as bidders in our auction receive our list of results free of charge within two weeks of the close of auction. 10. Do you have questions about a particular coin? Would you like to participate personally in our auction? Do you have any other questions? Our customer service team will be pleased to help you – call on +49 (0)541 96 20 221.

INFORMAZIONI PER GLI OFFERENTI DELLE NOSTRE ASTE 1. 2.

Le condizioni d’asta si trovano alla fine di questo catalogo. Siete pregati di inviarci i vostri ordini il più presto possibile. Se il vostro ordine ci perviene poco tempo prima dell’apertura dell’asta, si possono verificare errori nell’elaborazione dello stesso. 3. Per le vostre offerte scritte potete utilizzare il modulo allegato al catalogo. Nel caso voleste trasmettere le vostre offerte per fax, siete pregati di inviarle al seguente numero: +49 (0)541-96 20 222. 4. Gli oggetti che avete acquistato all’asta vi saranno spediti entro otto giorni dal termine della stessa. Gli ordini vengono evasi in base alla data di ricevimento, quindi hanno precedenza quelli pervenuti prima. Anche gli offerenti che non hanno avuta alcuna aggiudicazione riceveranno una nostra comunicazione al termine dell’asta. 5. Se desiderate la partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante l´asta, siete pregati di chiamare prima la consulenza ai clienti. La sig.ra Thomas, raggiungibile al numero diretto +49 (0)541- 96 20 221, sará a vostra disposizione. 6. Se siete clienti nuovi e non avete mai acquistato da noi, vi proponiamo di inviarci delle referenze. Dateci il nome di un negozio di monete presso il quale avete già fatto degli acquisti, oppure chiamate la nostra consulenza ai clienti al numero +49 (0)541 96 20 221. 7. Nel nostro opuscolo « DIE KÜNKER-AUKTIONEN : WIE BIETE ICH ERFOLGREICH?“ („Aste Künker: come avere successo nelle offerte?“), allegato ad ogni catalogo, troverete consigli utili. 8. Il certificato d’autenticità di tutti gli oggetti venduti viene rilasciato anche oltre i termini privisti per legge. 9. Tutti i clienti che hanno partecipato ad una nostra asta riceveranno gratuitamente l´elenco delle aggiudicazioni entro quindici giorni dal termine della stessa. 10. Avete delle domande su una moneta in particolare ? Desiderate partecipare personalmente ad una nostra asta? Avete altre domande? Rivolgetevi al nostro Servizio Clienti al numero +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221.

3


WICHTIGE HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE EINLIEFERER 1.

Unser Expertenteam garantiert Ihnen eine fachgerechte Bearbeitung der von Ihnen eingelieferten Stücke. 2. Die Schätzpreise werden von uns aufgrund unserer hervorragenden Marktkenntnisse sorgfältig festgelegt. Die Stücke werden zu 80% der im Katalog angegebenen Schätzpreise ausgerufen. Durch diese Regelung werden Sie als Einlieferer geschützt. Für nicht verkaufte Objekte werden keine Gebühren erhoben. 3. Der Standard unserer Kataloge ist von hoher Qualität und findet internationale Anerkennung. Wir haben eine der besten Kundendateien, die es weltweit gibt. 4, Von der individuellen Betreuung unserer Kunden profitieren auch Sie als Einlieferer. 5. Als Einlieferer erhalten Sie Ihren Auktionserlös innerhalb von 45 Tagen nach der Auktion. Sonderregelungen sind nach Absprache möglich. 6. Auf Wunsch kann Ihre Einlieferung bei Ihnen zuhause abgeholt werden. Ab € 2.500,-- Einlieferungssumme übernehmen wir die Kosten, ab € 25.000,-können wir unter Umständen an einem vereinbarten Ort Ihre Einlieferung nach Absprache gerne auch persönlich entgegennehmen. Selbstverständlich ist Ihr Versteigerungsgut durch uns versichert. 7. Nicht alle Münzen eignen sich, als Einzelstücke aufgenommen zu werden. Vertrauen Sie auf die Erfahrung unserer Experten, die niedrigpreisige Münzen liebevoll zu interessanten Lots zusammenstellen. 8. Der Schätzwert Ihrer Einlieferung sollte mindestens € 1.000,-- betragen. 9. Ihre Einlieferung wird Ihnen sofort bei Übernahme durch ein Protokoll quittiert. Spätestens fünf Wochen vor der Auktion erhalten Sie eine genaue Auflistung Ihrer Objekte mit den dazugehörenden Katalognummern. 10. Innerhalb einer Woche nach der Auktion erhalten Sie bereits die Ergebnisliste und können alle erzielten Preise feststellen. 11. Profitieren Sie von der Anziehungskraft eines führenden Unternehmens. Bitte wenden Sie sich bei Fragen an unseren Kundenservice unter Leitung von Frau Gisela Thomas direkt unter 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37. 12. Unsere Verträge für Einlieferungen können Sie unverbindlich anfordern. Haben Sie noch Fragen? Frau Thomas freut sich auf Ihren Anruf. Telefon: 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 5 83 65 37.

RENSEIGNEMENTS IMPORTANTS A L'ATTENTION DES VENDEURS 1.

Notre équipe d’experts garantit une prise en charge compétente des pièces que vous nous confiez. 2. Notre excellente connaissance du marché nous permet de fixer soigneusement les prix estimés. Les pièces seront mises aux enchères à un prix représentant 80% du prix estimé indiqué dans le catalogue. Cette réglementation vous protège en tant que vendeur. Aucuns frais ne seront prélevés sur les pièces invendues. 3. Nos catalogues ont un niveau qualitatif élevé, reconnu au plan international. Nous disposons d’un des meilleurs fichiers clients du monde. 4. En tant que vendeur, vous profiterez vous aussi du suivi personnalisé que nous offrons à nos clients. 5. Le vendeur recevra le produit de la vente dans les 45 jours qui suivront les enchères. Des dispositions spéciales pourront être prises sur accord préalable. 6. Nous prendrons en charge les frais d´expédition des pièces dont le montant sera supérieur à € 2.500,--: Si leur montant est supérieur à € 25.000,--, l´un de nos employés se poudra charger de prendre la livraison à un lieu concordée. En concertation, notre assurance couvrira tous les risques. 7. Les pièces de monnaie ne se prêtent pas toutes à une vente individuelle. Faites confiance à l’expérience de nos spécialistes qui se chargeront avec plaisir de rassembler les pièces bon marché de manière à constituer des lots intéressants. 8. La valeur estimée des pièces fournies devrait s’élever à un minimum de € 1.000,--. 9. Au moment de la prise en charge, vous recevrez un détail des pièces fournies. Au plus tard cinq semaines avant la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez une liste exacte de vos pièces avec les numéros de catalogue correspondants. 10. Dans la semaine qui suivra la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez déjà la liste de ses résultats et pourrez prendre connaissance des prix obtenus. 11. Profitez de l’attrait du leader du marché. Pour tout renseignement, veuillez-vous adresser à notre service clientèle sous la direction de madame Gisela Thomas : +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 12. Vous pouvez demander sans engagement de votre part nos contrats de dépôt de pièces? Vous avez d’autres questions? Madame Thomas sera heureuse de vous répondre au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221.

4

IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR OUR CONSIGNERS 1.

Our team of specialists guarantees an expert treatment of the consigned items. 2. The estimates are carefully established by us due to our excellent knowledge of the market. Bidding for the items is then started at 80 % of the estimate price stated in the catalogue. This arrangement protects you as a consigner. Unsold items incur no fees. 3. The standard offered in our catalogue is of the highest quality, and is recognised internationally. We have one of the best clientele lists worldwide. 4. You as a consigner also profit from the individual consultation offered to our customers. 5. As a consigner, you receive the auction proceeds within 45 days of the close of auction. Special arrangements can be made following discussion. 6. For consignments with a value over € 2.500,-- we may bear the transportation costs. For deliveries over € 25.000,-- we may personally collect the items at an arranged place after prior consultation. Upon consultation, the shipping of your goods could be covered by our insurance. 7. Not all coins are suited to be registered as individual items. Trust in our expert´s experience as they carefully combine less-valuable coins into interesting lots. 8. The valuation price of your delivery should be at least € 1.000,--. 9. Your delivery is confirmed in writing immediately on receipt. At least five weeks before the auction, you receive an exact list of your objects with the relevant catalogue numbers. 10. Within a week of the close of auction, you receive a list with the results in order to see what prices were reached for each individual lot. 11. Profit from our position as a leading coin dealer. If you have any questions, please contact our customer service team which is headed by Mrs. Gisela Thomas – directly on +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 12. Would you like to receive copies of our contracts for consigner, without making any commitment? Do you have any other questions? Mrs. Thomas will be pleased to help you – please call on +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221.

INFORMAZIONI PER I NOSTRI DEPOSITANTI 1.

Il nostro team di esperti assicura un trattamento accurato dei pezzi che ci avete inviato. 2. Eseguiamo valutazioni finalizzate alla vendita. I prezzi di stima sono frutto della nostra eccezionale conoscenza del mercato e della nostra attenta valutazione. La base d´asta ammonta all´80% del prezzo di stima indicato sul catalogo. Non si addebitano spese per gli oggetti invenduti. 3. I nostri cataloghi sono di alta qualità e sono riconosciuti a livello internazionale. I nostri clienti sono fra i migliori al mondo. 4. Come depositanti potete beneficiare dell’assistenza riservata a ciascuno dei nostri clienti. 5. Come depositanti riceverete gli importi realizzati all’asta entro 45 giorni dal termine della stessa. Si possono concordare condizioni particolari. 6. A partire da un controvalore degli oggetti di € 2.500,--i costi del trasporto sono a nostro carico, mentre a partire da un controvalore di € 25.000 gli oggetti possono essere ritirati personalmente da un nostro incaricato ad un posto concordato. Naturalmente il trasporto dei vostri oggetti puó essere assicurato tramite la nostra assicurazione. 7. Non tutte le monete possono essere negoziate singolarmente. Fidatevi dell´esperienza dei nostri esperti, che raggruppano le monete non molto preziose in lotti di sicuro interesse. 8. Il valore stimato degli oggetti depositati deve ammontare ad almeno € 1.000,--. 9. Nel momento in cui gli oggetti sono presi in consegna, viene rilasciata una ricevuta numerata. Riceverete un elenco preciso degli oggetti che avete depositato con i relativi numeri di catalogo al massimo cinque settimane prima dell’asta. 10. Riceverete l’elenco degli oggetti aggiudicati entro una settimana dalla chiusura dell’asta. Potrete cosi verificare i prezzi realizzati. 11. Approfittate della capacità di un leader di mercato per aumentare il valore dei vostri oggetti. Se avete delle domande, rimaniamo a vostra disposizione per qualsiasi necessità. Rivolgetevi alla nostra consulenza ai clienti diretta dalla sig.ra Gisela Thomas al numero +49 (0)541-91 20 221. 12. Volete ricevere i nostri contratti senza impegno? Avete altre domande? Potete contattare la sig.ra Gisela Thomas al numero +49 (0)541-96 20 221.


DETAILLIERTER ZEITPLAN AUKTIONEN 125-128 AUKTION 125 GEPRÄGTES GOLD AUS DREI JAHRTAUSENDEN SAMMLUNG RUSSLAND

Dienstag, den 19. Juni 2007 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 654 Goldprägungen: Antike, Europa, Übersee 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 655 bis Nr. 1605 Goldprägungen: Habsburgische Erblande-Österreich, Deutschland, Goldmedaillen, Goldmünzenlots; Sammlung Russland

AUKTION 126 DIE SAMMLUNG FRIEDRICH OTTO, PASSENDORF MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN VON BRANDENBURG-PREUSSEN NUMISMATISCHE LITERATUR AUKTION 127 MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN AUS MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT

AUKTION 127

Mittwoch, den 20. Juni 2007 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 2001 bis Nr. 2591 14.00 Uhr - 14.30 Uhr Nr. 2592 bis Nr. 2772 14.30 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 3001 bis Nr. 3834 Deutsche Silbermünzen und -medaillen: Aachen - Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha Donnerstag, den 21. Juni 2007 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 3835 bis Nr. 4451 Deutsche Silbermünzen und -medaillen: Salm - Würzburg, Sammlung Brettsteine, Medaillen, Notmünzen, Papiergeld, Münzbecher, Lots, Habsburgische Erblande - Österreich Teil I 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 4452 bis Nr. 5527 Habsburgische Erblande-Österreich Teil II, Europa, Übersee; Deutsche Münzen seit 1871

AUKTION 128 ORDEN UND EHRENZEICHEN

Freitag, den 22. Juni 2007 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 6001 bis Nr. 6605 Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation, Deutsche Staaten bis 1918, Weimarer Republik, Deutsches Reich, Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Freimaurer-Deutschland, deutsche und ausländische Gruppen, Spangen, Miniaturkettchen und -spangen, ausländische Konvolute, Ausländische Orden und Ehrenzeichen: Äthiopien - Spanien Teil I 14.00 Uhr - 15.30 Uhr Nr. 6606 bis Nr. 6875 Spanien Teil II - Venezuela

BESICHTIGUNGEN

Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes in unseren Geschäftsräumen, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, ab dem 21.05.2007, nach vorheriger telefonischer Vereinbarung unter Nr. 05 41 - 96 20 221. 5


INHALT AUKTION 125 Nr. GEPRÄGTES GOLD AUS DREI JAHRTAUSENDEN

1

-

1080

9

-

143

1 1 5 20 46 65

-

69 4 19 45 63 69

9

-

9 12 17

-

19 9 12 17 19 19

Europäische Goldmünzen und -medaillen Albanien Belgien Dänemark Finnland Frankreich Griechenland Großbritannien Italien Jugoslawien Malta Monaco Montenegro Niederlande Norwegen Polen Portugal Rumänien Schweden Schweiz Spanien Tschechien Türkei Ungarn

70 70 77 92 98 109 218 226 274 364 367 372 377 381 400 408 418 430 435 444 454 477 484 490

-

500 76 89 97 108 217 225 273 363 365 371 376 380 399 407 417 429 433 443 451 476 483 489 500

20

-

20

-

23 24 36 37 44

-

54

-

56

-

59 60

-

62 63 64 66

-

68

-

Goldmünzen und -medaillen aus Übersee Ägypten Australien Brasilien Chile China Costa Rica Gabun Indien Iran Japan Kolumbien Mexiko Peru Tschad Tunesien Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika / USA

501 501 515 517 521 527 531 533 536 542 545 549 558 562 565 574 576

-

654 512 516 520 526 530 532 535 541 544 546 556 561 563 573 575 652

70

-

71

-

73

-

76

-

78

-

85 70 71 71 72 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 85

Goldmünzen der Habsburgischen Erblande - Österreich Römisch-Deutsches Reich Kaiserreich Österreich Republik Österreich Geistlichkeit Habsburgische Städte

655

-

802

86

-

103

656 697 743 750 801

-

696 742 749 800 802

86 94 98 99

-

93 98 99 103 103

Goldmünzen aus der antiken Welt Keltische Goldmünzen Griechische Goldmünzen Römische Goldmünzen Byzantinische Goldmünzen Orientalische Goldmünzen

6

Seite

69 20 22 23 24 36 37 44 53 54 55 55 56 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 66 67 68 69


Nr.

Seite

Deutsche Goldmünzen und -medaillen Anhalt Augsburg Baden Bayern Brandenburg in Franken Brandenburg-Preußen Braunschweig und Lüneburg Breslau Emden Erfurt Frankfurt Hamburg Hessen Hohenlohe Jülich-Kleve-Berg Lübeck Mainz Mecklenburg Nürnberg Ostfriesland Pfalz Regensburg Rostock Sachsen, sächsische Herzogtümer Schaumburg-Lippe Schlesien Schleswig-Holstein Schwäbisch Hall Stolberg Trier Wallenstein Westfalen Württemberg Würzburg

803 803 806 808 810 838 842 880 911 913 917 919 924 942 946 948 953 957 960 965 985 994 996 998 1000 1029 1031 1043 1045 1047 1052 1055 1057 1063 1070

-

1072 805 807 809 837 841 879 909 912 916 918 922 939 945 947 950 954 959 963 983 992 995 997 999 1028 1030 1042 1044 1046 1050 1054 1056 1061 1069 1072

Goldmedaillen, Goldmünzenlots

1073

-

SAMMLUNG RUSSLAND

1081 1081 1085 1151 1165 1173 1206 1209 1272 1284 1359 1376 1406 1474 1504 1530 1565 1589 1592 1604

Alexei Michailowitsch, 1645-1676 Peter I., der Große, 1682-1725 Katharina I., 1725-1727 Peter II., 1727-1730 Anna, 1730-1740 Ivan III., 1740-1741 Elisabeth, 1741-1761 Peter III., 1762 Katharina II., 1762-1796 Paul I., 1796-1801 Alexander I., 1801-1825 Nikolaus I., 1825-1855 Alexander II., 1855-1881 Alexander III., 1881-1894 Nikolaus II., 1894-1917 Sowjetunion, 1917-1991 Republik seit 1992 Lots Rußland Georgien, Rjasan

104

-

142 104 105 105 109 109 115 118 118 119 120 120 122 123 124 124 125 125 126 128 130 131 131 131 134 135 137 137 137 138 138 139 140 141 142

104

-

105

-

110 115

-

118

-

120

-

123

-

126 129

-

131

-

135

-

137

-

139 140

-

1080

142

-

143

-

1605

144

-

221

-

1084 1150 1164 1172 1205 1208 1271 1283 1358 1375 1405 1473 1503 1529 1564 1588 1591 1603 1605

145 155 157 158

-

163 173 174 188 190 196 206 211 213 217

-

144 155 156 158 162 162 172 174 188 190 196 206 210 213 217 219 220 221 221

Ein Stichwortverzeichnis finden Sie am Ende dieses Auktionskataloges. 7


WICHTIGE HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE TELEFONBIETER Wenn Sie telefonisch bieten möchten, muß das vor der Auktion durch uns genehmigt werden. Voraussetzung für ein telefonisches Mitbieten ist, daß Sie mindestens den Schätzpreis schriftlich bieten. Telefonisches Bieten ist erst ab einem Schätzpreis von ca. 500 Euro pro Los möglich. Bitte rufen Sie Frau Thomas vor der Auktion an unter +49 (0)541 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 58 36 537. Wir übernehmen keinerlei Haftung, falls die telefonische Verbindung während der Auktion nicht zustande kommt.

INFORMATIONS POUR NOS CLIENTS PARTICIPANT A NOS VENTES AUX ENCHERES PAR TELEPHONE Si vous désirez participer par téléphone à nos ventes aux enchères, veuillez vous mettre en relation avec notre service clientèle quelques jours avant la vente en appelant le numéro +49 (0)541 96 20 233. Une participation téléphonique à la vente sera possible à la condition que vous nous fassiez parvenir aussi votre ordre par écrit. Cet ordre devra être au moins égal au minimum au prix d’estimation et concerner un lot estimé au moins 500 Euros. Nous déclinons toute responsabilité dans le cas où la communication téléphonique serait interrompue, ou bien ne pourrait être établie.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON TELEPHONE BIDDING If you wish to participate in the auction as a telephone bidder, please let us know several days in advance as we have to approve and schedule all calls. To register for telephone bidding, we require that you submit at least the estimate as a written bid in addition to being called. Telephone bidding is accepted on lot numbers with estimates above 500 Euro. Please call us at +49 (0)541 96 20 233 for more information or to register for telephone bidding. We do not assume liability for telephone bids, should the telephone line be interrupted.

INFORMAZIONI PER LA PARTECIPAZIONE TELEFONICA Se desiderate la partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante l´asta, siete pregati di chiamare la Signorina Sonia Russo al numero diretto +49 (0)541 96 20 245 qualche giorno prima dell´asta e di inviarci la vostra offerta, la quale deve ammontare come minimo al prezzo di stima anche per iscritto. Accettiamo una partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante l´asta per oggetti il cui prezzo di stima ammonta come minimo ai 500 Euro. Non assumeremo nessuna responsabilità se la linea telefonica è occupata o se non siete raggiungibili.

__________________________________________

BESICHTIGUNG Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes in unseren Geschäftsräumen, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, ab dem 21.05.2007, nach vorheriger telefonischer Vereinbarung unter +49 (0) 5 41 96 20 221.

EXPOSITION Les monnaies seront visibles à partir du 21 Mai 2007, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, sur rendez-vous téléphonique +49 (0)541 96 20 221.

8

ON VIEW The auction good can be viewed at our office from May, 21st 2007, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, by prior appointment. Please call +49 (0)541 96 20 221.

ESPOSIZIONE Tutti i lotti sono visionabili a partire dal 21 Maggio 2007 presso la nostra sede, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück previo appuntamento telefonico +49 (0)541 96 20 221.


ANTIKE • KELTEN

)1.&/ª0<'0&'4#06+-'09'.6 -'.6+5%*')1.&/ª0<'0

1

2

)#..+# 

#7.'4%+%'01/#0+Ô5VCVGT,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5VKNK UKGTVGT'KPUR·PPGTOKVCPFTQMGRJCNGO2HGTFTÒDGTNKGIGPFGT)GUVCNVT&GNGUVTG¾6CEJG&6  45GJTUEJÌP 



Ô5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I -QRH N5VKNKUKGTVGT 'KPUR·PPGT OKV CPFTQMGRJCNGO 2HGTFN ÒDGTNKGIGPFGT)GUVCNVN&GNGUVTG¾6CEJG&6 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

3 1,5:1



4

3



Ô 5VCVGT  ,CJTJWPFGTV X %JT  I -QRH T#PFTQMGRJCNGU 2HGTF T OKV .GPMGT &G   NGUVTG¾6CEJGXGTIN&6HH 45GJTUEJÌP 



8'0'6+Ô5VCVGT,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI-QRHTXQP2GTNUEJPÒTGPOKV-ÌRHGPWOIGDGP #PFTQMGRJCNGU2HGTFTOKV.GPMGTFCTWPVGTIGHNÒIGNVG)GUVCNVT&GNGUVTG¾6CEJG&6  -PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP



)4+'%*+5%*')1.&/ª0<'0

6

5

/1'5+# 

+56415 Ô5VCVGT  X %JT  I #NGZCPFGTMQRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF #OOQPUJQTP#VJGPC   0KMGRJQTQU UKV\V N FCXQT DI CWH FGO 6JTQP IS KO #DUEJPKVV &TGK\CEM #/0)  FG %CNNCVC[   &4 8QT\ÒINKEJ  &GT -QRH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG \GKIV FKG <ÒIG /KVJTCFCVGU 8+ UQ YKG UKG XQP UGKPGP MNGKPCUKCVKUEJGP 6GVTCFTCEJOGP   DGMCPPV UKPF &KGUG )QNFRT·IWPI UVGJV KO <WUCOOGPJCPI OKV FGO $GHTGKWPIUMTKGI /KVJTCFCVGU 8+ IGIGP FKG   4ÌOGT

5%;6*+# 

-QUQPECX%JTÔ5VCVGTX%JT1NDKCI/CIKUVTCVUEJTGKVGVN\YKUEJGP\YGK .KMVQTGP#FNGTNOKV-TCP\WPF<GRVGT42% .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



&KGUG KPVGTGUUCPVG)QNFOÒP\GKUVUGKVDGMCPPVCNU'TCUOWUXQP4QVVGTFCOUKG\WGTMN·TGPXGTUWEJVG'UH·NNV UQHQTV CWH FC­ FKGUGT /ÒP\V[R TÌOKUEJG &GPCTG FGT UR·VGP 4GRWDNKM PCEJCJOV &KG 8QTFGTUGKVG KUV PCEJ GKPGO   &GPCT IGUVCNVGV FGP / +WPKWU $TWVWU  X %JT \WT 'TKPPGTWPI CP FKG 8GTVTGKDWPI FGT 6CTSWKPKGT FWTEJ UGKPGP   8QTHCJTGP.+WPKWU$TWVWURT·IGPNKG­ %TCYHQTF &KG4ÒEMUGKVGJCVGKPGP&GPCTFGU32QORQPKWU4WHWU \WO 8QTDKNF IGRT·IV  X %JT %TCYHQTF &KGUG0CEJCJOWPITÌOKUEJTGRWDNKMCPKUEJGT/ÒP\GPIGUEJCJ PKEJV \WH·NNKI 5Q JCV OCP NCPIG CPIGPQOOGP FC­ -QUQP GKP 8GTDÒPFGVGT FGU %CGUCT/ÌTFGTU $TWVWU KO $ÒTIGT   MTKGI IGIGP /CTE #PVQP WPF 1EVCXKCP #WIWUVWU  IGYGUGP KUV -QUQP FGT UGKPGP 0COGPU\WI CWH FKG 8QTFGTUGKVG   WPUGTGT /ÒP\G RT·IGP NKG­ YWTFG NCPIG CNU -ÌPKI FGT 6JTCMGT CPIGUGJGP /CZ XQP $CJTHGNFV URTCEJ XQP GKPGO   &CMGTMÌPKI-QUQP KP$GTNKPGT/ÒP\DN·VVGT -QUQPYWTFGCDGTCWEJHÒTFKG5E[VJGPKP#PURTWEJIGPQOOGP &KG 8GTDKPFWPI \W FGP &CMGTP FGO JGWVKIGP 4WO·PKGP IGPCWGT 5KGDGPDÒTIGP  JCV1+NKGUEWGTCTDGKVGV KP3WC FGTPK 6KEKPGUK   &CU CWH GKPKIGP 5VÒEMGP CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG \W HKPFGPFG /QPQITCOO NKGUV +NKGUEW WPUGTGT   /GKPWPIPCEJ\WVTGHHGPFCNU$#HÒTBASILEUS -ÌPKI Y·JTGPFCPFGTGGUCNU$4HÒT$TWVWU\WFGWVGPXGTUWEJV JCDGP &CU 0QOKPCN OKV GKPGO &WTEJUEJPKVVUIGYKEJV XQP  I KUV UKEJGT MGKP TÌOKUEJGT #WTGWU UQPFGTP GKP   ITKGEJKUEJGT )QNFUVCVGT &KG /ÒP\UV·VVG 1NDKC XGTDKTIV UKEJ YQJN PKEJV KP FGO /QPQITCOO YKG *GCF WPF CPFGTG   INCWDVGPUQPFGTPUKGGTIKDVUKEJCWUFGO4ÒEMUGKVGPV[RFGTPKEJVPWTFGP4WHWU&GPCT\WO8QTDKNFJCVUQPFGTP CWEJ\W1NDKCRC­V

9


ANTIKE • GRIECHEN

7

7 1,5:1

/#%'&10+# 

-¤0+)4'+%*2JKNKRRQU+++X%JTÔ5VCVGTX%JT5CTFGKUI#VJGPC MQRHTKPMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNO0KMGUVGJVNOKV-TCP\WPF5V[NKUN#WPF(CEMGN2TKEG2  -N-TCV\GTCWHFGO4GXGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

8 1,5:1



9 1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

.'5$15 

/;6+.'0''N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI9KFFGTMQRHT+PEWU*GTCMNGUMQRHKO .ÌYGPHGNNTFCTWPVGT-GWNG$QFGPUVGFV8UC4U b 5GJTUEJÌP



&KGUG'OKUUKQPFKGPVG\WT&GEMWPIFGUGTJÌJVGP)GNFDGFCTHGUY·JTGPFFGUKQPKUEJGP#WHUVCPFGU



'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI#RQNNQMQRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\+P+PEWUWO-CNDUMQRHT $QFGPUVGFV8UD4U b (CUVUGJTUEJÌP

10

1,5:1





11 1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1

'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I #RQNNQMQRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\#TVGOKUMQRH T FC   JKPVGT5EJNCPIG$QFGPUVGFV# 5GJTUEJÌP



+10+# 

2*1-#+# 'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I 0[ORJGPMQRH N8KGTIGVGKNVGU +PEWUWO   $QFGPUVGFV 5GJTUEJÌP

12

1,5:1



13

1,5:1

1,5:1

1,5:1



'N*GMVG  5VCVGT   X %JT  I2CPMQRHNOKV'HGWMTCP\8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO$Q FGPUVGFV #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





'N*GMVG 5VCVGT X%JTI#VJGPCMQRHNOKVMQTKPVJKUEJGO*GNOFCTWPVGT4QDDG 8KGTIGVGKNVGU+PEWUWO$QFGPUVGFV )WVCWUIGRT·IVGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



10


ANTIKE • GRIECHEN

14

1,5:1

14

.;&+# 

-TQKUQUX%JTÔ5VCVGT NGKEJVGT5VCPFCTF 5CTFGKUI.ÌYGPWPF5VKGTRTQVQOGGKP CPFGTIGIGPÒDGT<YGK+PEWUC50)X#WNQEM 44#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



-TQKUQU FGT 5QJP FGU #N[CVVGU CWU FGO )GUEJNGEJV FGT /GTOPCFGP YCT FGT NGV\VG -ÌPKI XQP .[FKGP 'U IGNCPI   -TQKUQU FCU YGUVNKEJG -NGKPCUKGP DKU CP FGP *CN[U \W WPVGTYGTHGP OKV #WUPCJOG XQP .[MKGP WPF -KNKMKGP &GT   4GKEJVWOFGUN[FKUEJGP-ÌPKIUYCTURTKEJYÌTVNKEJ-TQKUQUJCVGKPWOHCUUGPFGUDKOGVCNNKUEJGU/ÒP\U[UVGOGPVYQT HGPFCUCWHGKPGOUEJYGTGP)QNFUVCVGTXQPIWPFGKPGONGKEJVGP)QNFUVCVGTXQPIUQYKGGKPGO5KNDGTUVCVGT XQP  I DGK GKPGO 8GTJ·NVPKU XQP )QNF \W 5KNDGT XQP     DGTWJVG 'U ICD 5VÒEMGNWPIGP FGT 5VCVGTG DKU   JKPCD\WO5VCVGT&CUOGKUVGTJCHVG9·JTWPIUU[UVGOFGU-TQKUQUOKVXGTUEJKGFGPGP0QOKPCNGPHCPFKPFGT #PVKMGPKGYKGFGTUGKPGUINGKEJGP

15

16

2'45+# 

#EJ·OGPKFGPÔ&CTGKMG,CJTJWPFGTVX%JTI)TQ­MÌPKIKO-PKGNCWHTOKV$QIGPWPF 5RGGT+PEWUWO50)$GTT[ 5GJTUEJÌP



&KG RGTUKUEJG &CTGKMG KUV PCEJ &CTGKQU + FGO )TQ­GP DGPCPPV FGT FKGUG 5VÒEMG \WGTUV RT·IVG 'U YCTGP FKG DG   MCPPVGUVGP )QNFOÒP\GP KJTGT <GKV DKU PCEJ FGT <GTUEJNCIWPI FGU 2GTUGTTGKEJGU FKG )QNFUVCVGTG #NGZCPFGTU FGU   )TQ­GPCPKJTG5VGNNGVTCVGP&CUJKGTCPIGDQVGPG5VÒEMGIGJÌTV\WFGPHTÒJGP&CTGKMGPWPFFÒTHVGPFGOPCEJY·J TGPF FGT 2GTUGTMTKGIG \WT $G\CJNWPI RGTUKUEJGT 5QNFCVGP IGFKGPV JCDGP /KV FGP &CTGKMGP YWTFG 9GNVIGUEJKEJVG   IGUEJTKGDGPUQDGTKEJVGV2NWVCTEJFC­FGT5RCTVCPGTMÌPKI#IGUKNCQUFGTUGKVX%JTKP-NGKPCUKGPUGJTGTHQNI TGKEJ -TKGI IGIGP FKG 2GTUGT HÒJTVG FWTEJ IQNFGPG &CTGKMGP OKV FGPGP UGKPG )GIPGT KP )TKGEJGPNCPF DGUVQEJGP   YWTFGP IGIGP KJP -TKGI \W HÒJTGP \WO #DDTWEJ FGU -TKGIGUKP-NGKPCUKGPIGPÌVKIVYWTFG#IGUKNCQUUQNNIGUCIV JCDGPFC­KJPRGTUKUEJG$QIGPUEJÒV\GPCWU#UKGPXGTVTKGDGPJ·VVGP&KG$QIGPUEJÒV\GP 6QZQVCK UVGJGPHÒT FKG&CTGKMGP FKGLCCWHFGO#XGTUGKPGP$QIGPUEJÒV\GP\GKIGP OKVFGPGPFKG2QNKVKMGTKP#VJGPWPF6JGDGP\WO -TKGIIGIGP5RCTVCCPIGUVCEJGNVYWTFGP

$#%64+# 

&KQFQVQU+WOX%JTÔCVVKUEJGT5VCVGTOKV6KVGN#PVKQEJQU++$CNMJI-QRHFGU&KQ FQVQU+TOKV&KCFGOBASILEWSANTIOXOU<GWUUVGJVNWPFUEJNGWFGTV$NKV\FCXQT-TCP\WPF #FNGT$0$CEV#/KVEJKPGT+PFQITGGMC50)#05  42TÒHGKPJKGDHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP

#NU&KQFQVQUUKEJXQP#PVKQEJQUNÌUVGRT·IVGGT\WP·EJUVPQEJ/ÒP\GPKO0COGPFGU5GNGWMKFGPUGV\VGCDGTUGKP GKIGPGU2QTVT·VCWHFKG/ÒP\GP



17

#');2675 

2VQNGOCKQU++X%JTHÒT#TUKPQë++Ô1MVQFTCEJOG /PCKQP X%JT#NGZCP FTKC  I -QRH T OKV &KCFGO WPF 5EJNGKGT FCJKPVGT L&QRRGNHÒNNJQTP OKV 6CGPKG   50)%QR5XQTQPQU6TQZGNN2N 5GJTUEJÌP  &KGUGUITQ­GCPVKMG)QNFPQOKPCNYWTFG\WGTUVWPVGT2VQNGOCKQU++ X%JT PCEJX%JTCWUIGRT·IV CNU GT UGKPG 5EJYGUVGTIGOCJNKP #TUKPQG ++ PCEJ KJTGO 6QF \W IÌVVNKEJGP 'JTGP CWHUVGKIGP NKG­ &KGUGT 6[R YWTFG   KOOGTYKGFGTCWHIGITKHHGPUQCWEJWPVGT2VQNGOCKQU8+++'KPG1MVQFTCEJOG &TCEJOGP YCTFGT)GIGPYGTVXQP GKPGT/KPGFJ&TCEJOGPKP5KNDGTFCJGTCWEJFGTCPVKMG0COG/PCKQPFGTKP2CR[TKOGJTHCEJXQTMQOOV +PFGT·I[RVKUEJGP-WRHGTY·JTWPIGPVURTCEJFCU5VÒEM6CNGPVGP-WRHGTQFGT-WRHGTFTCEJOGP

11


ANTIKE • RÖMER

18

19



19

2VQNGOCKQU+++X%JTÔ6GVTCFTCEJOG#NGZCPFTKCI$ÒUVGPFGU2VQNGOCKQU++WPF FGT #TUKPQG ++ T FCJKPVGT 5EJKNF$ÒUVGP FGU 2VQNGOCKQU + WPF FGT $GTGPKMG + T 50) %QR    5XQTQPQU 4(CUUWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP  &KGUGKPVGTGUUCPVGP6GVTCFTCEJOGPYWTFGPYCJTUEJGKPNKEJ\WOITÌ­VGP6GKNWPVGT2VQNGOCKQU+++IGRT·IVFGTFCOKV UGKPG8QTHCJTGPGJTV'KPMNGKPGT6GKNKUVCDGTOÌINKEJGTYGKUGDGTGKVUWPVGT2VQNGOCKQU++IGRT·IVYQTFGPFGOFKG 5VÒEMGCWEJDGK5XQTQPQU\WIGYKGUGPYGTFGP



2VQNGOCKQU8+++X%JTHÒT#TUKPQG++Ô1MVQFTCEJOG /PCKQP #NGZCPFTKCI -QRHTOKV&KCFGOWPF5EJNGKGTFCJKPVGT-&QRRGNHÒNNJQTPOKV6CGPKG50)%QR5XQTQPQU -N-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  &KGUGUITQ­GCPVKMG)QNFPQOKPCNYWTFG\WGTUVWPVGT2VQNGOCKQU++ X%JT PCEJX%JTCWUIGRT·IV CNU GT UGKPG 5EJYGUVGTIGOCJNKP #TUKPQG ++ PCEJ KJTGO 6QF \W IÌVVNKEJGP 'JTGP CWHUVGKIGP NKG­ &KGUGT 6[R YWTFG   KOOGTYKGFGTCWHIGITKHHGPUQCWEJWPVGT2VQNGOCKQU8+++0CEJ5XQTQPQUUQNNGPFKG)GUKEJVU\ÒIGFGTFCTIGUVGNNVGP 2GTUQPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG-NGQRCVTC+++YKGFGTIGDGP5KGYCTUGKPG5VKGHVQEJVGTFKGGTX%JTJGKTCVGVG

4¤/+5%*')1.&/ª0<'0

21

20

'+0'+/2'4#614+5%*'24)70) 

% ,WNKWU %CGUCT Ŏ  X %JT Ô#WTGWU  X %JT 4QO # *KTVKWU  I 8GUVCMQRH T OKV   5EJNGKGT2TKGUVGTIGT·VG$CD$/%%CNKEQC%TCYH5GCT5[F  5GJTUEJÌP  *KTVKWUYCTGKP.GICV%CGUCTU0CEJFGUUGP'TOQTFWPIDGMNGKFGVGGTFCU-QPUWNCV'TXGTHC­VGCWEJFCU$WEJFGU DGTÒJOVGP9GTMGUFGDGNNQICNNKEQ

/ª0<'0&'44¤/+5%*'0-#+5'4<'+6 

#WIWUVWUXP%JTÔ#WTGWUX%JT.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ )CKWUWPF.WEKWU%CGUCTGUUVGJGPXXOKV5RGGTGPWPF5EJKNFGPFCTÒDGT5KORWNWOWPF.KVWWU$/% %CNKEQD%QJ4+%w 5GJTUEJÌP  &KGU'ZGORNCTKUVDGK$CPVKCDIGDKNFGV 0T   &GT XQTNKGIGPFG 6[R MCPP PCEJ PGWGTGT (QTUEJWPI GZCMVGT FCVKGTV YGTFGP CNU FKGU KO 4+% IGOCEJV YWTFG  

XP%JT &KG5VÒEMGYWTFGPX%JTIGRT·IVYKGUKEJCWUFGT6CVUCEJGGTIKDVFC­)CKWU%CGUCTKO,CJT  P %JT FGP -QPUWNCV KPPGJCVVG WPF UQOKV PKEJV OGJT FGUKIPKGTVGT -QPUWN YCT -GJPG <WT &CVKGTWPI FGT (WPF   OÒP\GP CWU -CNMTKGUG KP 9KGIGNU 4CKPGT *TUI  &KG (WPFOÒP\GP XQP -CNMTKGUG WPF FKG HTÒJMCKUGT\GKVNKEJG   /ÒP\RT·IWPI/ÌJPGUGG5H 5KGJG\WT&CVKGTWPIWPF\WT&GWVWPIFGU4GXGTUGUCWEJ9QNVGTU)CKWU WPF.WEKWU%CGUCTGUCNUFGUKIPKGTVG-QPUWNPWPFRTKPEKRGUKWXGPVWVKU&KGNGZ8CNGTKC%QTPGNKCWPF4+%+wHH KP%JKTQP  5HH

1,5:1

 12

22

1,5:1

Ô3WKPCT.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\8KEVQTKCUKV\VTCWH)NQDWU$/%5 #PO%QJ4+%w 445GJTUEJÌP




ANTIKE • RÖMER

24

23



25

6KDGTKWUÔ#WTGWU.WIFWPWOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\.KXKCCNU2CZUKV\V TOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w  $GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFMN&TWEMUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



/ÒP\UVGORGN FKGUGU 6[RU OKV .KXKC CNU 2CZ CWH FGO 4GXGTU CNUQ FGO 6[R FGU DGTÒJOVGP 6TKDWVG 2GPP[U FGT   $KDGN  YWTFGP MÒT\NKEJ KO .GIKQPUNCIGT 8KPFQPKUUC JGWVG 9KPFKUEJ  GPVFGEMV 0CEJ FGO CTEJ·QNQIKUEJGP $GHWPF   KUVFCXQPCWU\WIGJGPFC­KP8KPFQPKUUCGKPGQHHK\KGNNG/ÒP\UV·VVGGZKUVKGTVJCV&KGUGUGPUCVKQPGNNG'PVFGEMWPIUVGNNV XKGNG /ÒP\UV·VVGP\WYGKUWPIGP FGT HTÒJGP -CKUGT\GKV KP (TCIG FGPP GU KUV FCXQP CWU\WIGJGP FC­ CWEJ KP CPFGTGP   .GIKQPUNCIGTP/ÒP\UV·VVGPGZKUVKGTVJCDGP



0GTQÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\,WRKVGTUKV\VNOKV$NKV\WPF <GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



&GO+WRRKVGT%WUVQUYCT0GTQPCEJFGT'PVFGEMWPIFGT8GTUEJYÌTWPIFGU2KUQKO#RTKN 6CEKVWU#PP:8 HH DGUQPFGTUXGTDWPFGP



8KVGNNKWU  Ô#WTGWU 4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&GNRJKP CWH &TGKHW­ WPVGP 4CDG   $/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%w (CUVUGJTUEJÌP  &KG4GXGTUNGIGPFG\GKIVFC­8KVGNNKWU/KVINKGFFGT3WKPFGEKOXKTKUCETKUHCEKWPFKUYCTCNUQGKPGO2TKGUVGTMQNNGIKWO CPIGJÌTVGFGUUGP*CWRVCWHICDGFKG9CJTWPIWPF&GWVWPIFGTU[DKNNKPKUEJGP$ÒEJGTYCT&TGKHW­WPF&GNRJKPCNU 5[ODQNGFGU2TKGUVGTVWOUFGT3WKPFGEKOXKTKGTUEJGKPGPCDFGO,CJTX%JTCNUPCEJFGO7PVGTICPIFGTCNVGP GKPGPGWG5COONWPIU[DKNNKPKUEJGT$ÒEJGT\WUCOOGPIGUVGNNVYWTFG

1,5:1



26

1,5:1

8GURCUKCPWUÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\2CZUKV\VNOKV<YGKI WPF<GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+% #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

27

28



29



 HÒT 6KVWU Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\2CZ UKV\V N OKV <YGKI WPF   <GRVGT$/%%CNKEQC%QJ4+% 44CPFDGCTDGKVGVUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP 



6KVWU  HÒT &KXWU 8GURCUKCPWU Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   7TPGCWH5·WNGTWPFN.QTDGGT\YGKIG$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+% 45GJTUEJÌP 



6TCKCPWU  Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ #GIKU N-CKUGT   TGKVGVTWPFUEJNGWFGTV5RGGTCWH&CMGT$/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+%  5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP  13


ANTIKE • RÖMER

30

1,5:1



1,5:1

*CFTKCPWUHÒT#GNKWUÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHN%QPEQTFKCUKV\VNOKV2CVGTC FGPN#TOCWH(ÒNNJQTPIGUVÒV\V$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%E  48QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT  *CFTKCPMGJTVGCWUFGOLÒFKUEJGP-TKGI\WTÒEM5GKPG)GUWPFJGKVYCTCPIGITKHHGPUQFC­FGT-CKUGTKOOGT JKP,CJTGCNVGKPG0CEJHQNIGTGIGNWPIVTGHHGPOW­VG*CFTKCPU9CJNHKGNCWH.%GKQPKWU%QOOQFWUFGPGTCNU . #GNKWU 8GTWU \WO 0CEJHQNIGT DGUVKOOVG #GNKWU YCT \WO <GKVRWPMV UGKPGT 'TPGPPWPI %QPUWN QTFKPCTKWU JCVVG   CDGTMGKPGTNGKOKNKV·TKUEJG'THCJTWPI'TUVCTDCO0GWLCJTUVCI

31

32

33



#PVQPKPWU+2KWUÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\NFTCRKGTV -CKUGTUVGJVNOKV)NQDWU$/%#PO%CNKEQ%QJ4+%E 5GJTUEJÌP





HÒT&KXC(CWUVKPCOCVGTÔ#WTGWUPCEJ4QOI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT%GTGUUVGJVNOKV (CEMGNWPF<GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%C 5GJTUEJÌP





#PVQPKPWU++/CTEWU#WTGNKWUÔ#WTGWU4QOI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ (GNKEKVCUUVGJVNOKV%CFWEGWUWPF(ÒNNJQTP$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



34

1,5:1



1,5:1

2GTVKPCZ  Ô#WTGWU 4QO  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\.CGVKVKC UVGJV N OKV -TCP\ WPF   <GRVGT$/%%CNKEQ%QJ4+%C 448QT\ÒINKEJ  2GTVKPCZIGDQTGPCO#WIWUVKP#NDC2QORGKCJCVVGGKPGIN·P\GPFG-CTTKGTGJKPVGTUKEJCNUGTKO,CJT PCEJFGT'TOQTFWPIFGU%QOOQFWU\WO-CKUGTRTQMNCOKGTVYWTFG'TYCTFGT5QJPGKPGU(TGKIGNCUUGPGPWPFYCT \WP·EJUVCNU.GJTGTV·VKIDGXQTGTGKPGOKNKV·TKUEJG-CTTKGTGDGICPP5GPCVQTWPFUEJNKG­NKEJEQPUWNUWHHGEVWUYWTFG %QOOQFWUGTPCPPVGKJP\WO2T·HGMVGPXQP4QO2GTVKPCZMQPPVGPCEJUGKPGT'TPGPPWPI\WO-CKUGTFGP5QNFCVGP CWHITWPFFGT\GTTÒVVGVGP5VCCVUHKPCP\GPMGKP&QPCVKXWOKPFGTGTYCTVGVGP*ÌJG\CJNGPUQMCOGUDCNF\WT'TOQT FWPIFGU2GTVKPCZ

14


ANTIKE • RÖMER

35

1,5:1



1,5:1

5GRVKOKWU5GXGTWUWPF%CTCECNNCÔ#WTGWU4QOI+/22+08+%6+2++ #8)) &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVGP FGU 5GRVKOKWU 5GXGTWU WPF FGU %CTCECNNC T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8+%614+#   2#46*+%# /#:+/# 8KEVQTKC IGJV N OKV -TCP\ WPF 2CNO\YGKI $/%  %CNKEQ  %QJ    4+% 44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT  8QTFGTUGKVGPNGIGPFG UQYKG 4GXGTUNGIGPFG WPF 4GXGTUFCTUVGNNWPI JGDGP FKG 5KGIJCHVKIMGKV FGT #WIWUVK JGTXQT MQP   MTGVYKTFFGT5KGIÒDGTFKG2CTVJGTIGHGKGTVJCVVG5GRVKOKWU5GXGTWUUGKPG1HHGPUKXGIGIGPFKG2CTVJGTDGIQP PGP&KGTÌOKUEJGP6TWRRGPPCJOGP5GNGWMKC$CD[NQPWPFFCUXQP8QNQICUGU8XGTNCUUGPG-VGUKRJQPGKP7PUGT 5VÒEMYWTFGPCEJFGT4ÒEMMGJTFGU-CKUGTUPCEJ4QOIGRT·IV

36

1,5:1



1,5:1

%CTWU  HÒT %CTKPWU Ô#WTGWU  4QO  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   2CZIGJVNOKV<YGKIWPF<GRVGT%CNKEQ%QJ4+% 448QT\ÒINKEJ 

37

1,5:1



1,5:1

0WOGTKCPWUÔ#WTGWU5KUEKCI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\5RGUIGJVN OKV$NWOG%CNKEQ%QJ4+% 448QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT  0WOGTKCPWUFGTPCEJFGO6QFGUGKPGU8CVGTUFKGUEJYKGTKIG#WHICDGJCVVGFCU*GGTCWU2GTUKGP\WTÒEM\WHÒJTGP UVCTD WPVGT O[UVGTKÌUGP 7OUV·PFGP &GT 6QF FGU 0WOGTKCPWU YWTFG FGP 5QNFCVGP \WP·EJUV XQO 2TCGVQTKCPGTRT·   HGMVGP #RGT XGTJGKONKEJV FGT FGP VQVGP -CKUGT WPVGT FGO 8QTYCPF FKGUGT NKVVG CP GKPGT #WIGPMTCPMJGKV KP GKPGT   XQPCW­GPPKEJVGKPUGJDCTGP-WVUEJGVTCPURQTVKGTGPNKG­0CEJFGTFWTEJFGP8GTYGUWPIUIGTWEJFGT.GKEJGJGTXQT IGTWHGPGP'PVFGEMWPIFGUVQVGP-CKUGTUDGUEJWNFKIVGFGT-QOOCPFGWTFGTMCKUGTNKEJGP.GKDYCEJG8CNGTKWU&KQENGU

FGTUR·VGTG-CKUGT&KQENGVKCP #RGTFGU/QTFGUWPFFWTEJDQJTVGKJPOKVUGKPGO5EJYGTV

15


ANTIKE • RÖMER

38 1,5:1



1,5:1

,WNKCPWU++#RQUVCVCÔ5QNKFWU#PVKQEJKC1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGT OKV2GTNFKCFGO5QNFCVOKV6TQRJ·GTNGIV*CPFCWH)GHCPIGPGP4+%  4*GTTNKEJGU2QTVT·VYKP\2TQDKGTURWTGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

40

41

39



,QXKCPWU  Ô5QNKFWU 0KEQOGFKC  1HHK\KP  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGT WPF   4QUGVVGPFKCFGO4QOC WPF %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU UKV\GP HCUV X X WPF JCNVGP 5EJKNF OKV FGT #WHUEJTKHV   8168/8.6:4+% 45GJTUEJÌP 



#TECFKWUÔ5ETKRWNC%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV4QUGVVGP FKCFGO8KEVQTKCUKV\VTWPFUEJTGKDV8168/8.:CWH5EJKNF4+%XGTINE  445GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



6JGQFQUKWU ++  Ô6TGOKUUKU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I &TCRKGTVG $ÒUVG T OKV   2GTNFKCFGO8KEVQTKCOKV-TCP\WPF-TGW\INQDWUXXT5VGTP4+% 5GJTUEJÌP





42





43

Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF 5EJKNF<YGK-CKUGTVJTQPGPXXOKV0KODWUFCTÒDGT5VGTP4+%  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV *GNO 5RGGT WPF   5EJKNF-CKUGTIGJVTOKV6TQRJ·GWPF\KGJVGKPGP)GHCPIGPGPJKPVGTUKEJJGTT5VGTP4+%  5GJTUEJÌP



44 1,5:1



1,5:1

HÒT#GNKC2WNEJGTKCÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGTOKV &KCFGOIGMTÌPVXQPFGT*CPF)QVVGU0KMGUVGJVNOKV-TGW\FCXQT5VGTP4+% 448QT\ÒINKEJ #GNKC2WNEJGTKCYCTFKG·NVGUVG5EJYGUVGTFGU-CKUGTU5KGÒDGTPCJOOKV,CJTGPFKG4GIGPVUEJCHVKP1UVTQO PCEJFGOFGT2T·VQTKCPGTRT·HGMV#PVJGOKWUWPFFGT'WPWEJ#PVKQEJWUGPVOCEJVGVYQTFGPYCTGP

16




ANTIKE • BYZANZ

45



46

48

47

.GQ+Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGXXOKV *GNO5RGGTWPF5EJKNF8KEVQTKCUVGJVNOKV.CPIMTGW\FCJKPVGT5VGTP4+% 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$;<#06+0+5%*')1.&/ª0<'0 

+WUVKPKCPWU+Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP\GTVG$ÒUVGX X OKV *GNO -TGW\INQDWU WPF 5EJKNF'PIGN UVGJV X X OKV %JTKUVQITCOOUVCD WPF -TGW\INQDWU T   5VGTP&1%I5GCT -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





6KDGTKWU++%QPUVCPVKPWUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI)GRCP \GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV -TQPG -TGW\INQDWU WPF 5EJKNF-TGW\ CWH XKGT 5VWHGP &1%  L 5GCT    8QT\ÒINKEJ



/CWTKEKWU 6KDGTKWU  Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I )GRCP\GTVG   $ÒUVGXXOKV*GNOWPF-TGW\INQDWU'PIGNUVGJVXXOKV%JTKUVQITCOOUVCDWPF-TGW\INQDWU&1%I 5GCT 8QT\ÒINKEJ





49





50

2JQECUÔ5QNKFWU FKEM +PFKEVKQP  %CTVJCIQI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGXX OKV -TQPG WPF -TGW\INQDWU8KEVQTKC UVGJV X X OKV %JTKUVQITCOOUVCD WPF -TGW\INQDWU &1%    XCT5GCT 45GJTUEJÌP



%QPUVCPU++Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI&TCRKGTVG$ÒUVGXX OKV-TQPGWPF-TGW\INQDWU-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%L5GCT 8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



51 52

53



WPF%QPUVCPVKPWU+8Ô5QNKFWU FKEM +PFKEVKQP  %CTVJCIQI$GKFGT$ÒUVGP XX-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1%XGTIN5GCT 5GJTUEJÌP





%QPUVCPVKPWU +8  OKV *GTCENKWU WPF 6KDGTKWU Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU    1HHK\KP  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV *GNO 5EJKNF WPF 5RGGT-TGW\ CWH FTGK 5VWHGP \YKUEJGP   \YGK2TKP\GP&1% QJPGFKGUG1HHK\KP 5GCT 2T·IGUEJY·EJGCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





+WUVKPKCPWU++4GIKGTWPIÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU1HHK\KPI$ÒUVG %JTKUVKXX-CKUGTUVGJVXXOKV-TGW\CWH\YGK5VWHGPWPF#MCMKC&1%DXCT5GCT  449KP\2TÒHUVGNNGCO4CPFIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP &KGGTUVG%JTKUVWUFCTUVGNNWPICWHGKPGT/ÒP\G

 17


ANTIKE • BYZANZ

1,5:1



54

1,5:1

Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I $ÒUVG %JTKUVK X X-CKUGT UVGJV X X OKV   -TGW\CWH\YGK5VWHGPWPF#MCMKC&1%XGTINGDKU5GCTXGTIN  442TCEJVGZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

&KGGTUVG%JTKUVWUFCTUVGNNWPICWHGKPGT/ÒP\G

55



56

6KDGTKWU +++  Ô5QNKFWU %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  1HHK\KP  I )GRCP\GTVG $ÒUVG X X OKV   -TQPG5RGGTWPF5EJKNF-TGW\CWHFTGK5VWHGP&1% QJPGFKGUG1HHK\KP 5GCT  49KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



 DGINGKVGVG #RUKOCTQU FGP 2CVTKMKQU,QJCPPGUFGTFCUXQO-CNKRJGP#DFCN/CNKMGTQDGTVG0QTFCHTKMC\WTÒEM IGYKPPGP UQNNVG 0CEJ FGT 'TOQTFWPI FGU ,QJCPPGU YWTFG #RUKOCTQU CNU 6KDGTKWU +++ \WO -CKUGT CWUIGTWHGP 'T   DTCEJFGP(GNF\WICDMGJTVGPCEJ%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU\WTÒEMDGNCIGTVGFKG*CWRUVCFVWPFMQPPVG.GQPVKWUCDUGV \GPMGJTVG+WUVKPKCPWU++CPFKG/CEJV\WTÒEMWPFNKG­.GQPVKWUWPF6KDGTKWU+++JKPTKEJVGP



+WUVKPKCPWU ++  WPF 6KDGTKWU Ô5QNKFWU %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I $ÒUVG %JTKUVK X X   $GKFGT$ÒUVGPXXOKV-TGW\CWH\YGK5VWHGP&1%C5GCT  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

58 57

59



Ô5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI$ÒUVG%JTKUVKXX$GKFGT$ÒUVGPXXOKV-TGW\CWH\YGK5VW HGP&1%C5GCT 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT





%QPUVCPVKPWU8WPF.GQ+8Ô6TGOKUUKU5[TCMWUI$ÒUVGXXOKV-TGW\$ÒUVG XXOKV-TGW\INQDWU&1%5GCT 8QT\ÒINKEJ





6JGQRJKNWU  OKV %QPUVCPVKPWU WPF /KEJCGN +++ Ô5QNKFWU  %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU   I$ÒUVGXXOKV2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\WPF#MCMKCN5VGTP<YGK$ÒUVGPXXQDGP-TGW\&1%F 5GCT 5GJTUEJÌP



60

61



$CUKNKWU+WPF%QPUVCPVKPWUÔ5QNKFWU%QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI%JTKUVWUVJTQPV XX$GKFGT$ÒUVGPXXOKV2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\&1%5GCT 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





0KEGRJQTWU ++  Ô*KUVCOGPQP %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKU  I $ÒUVG %JTKUVK X X$ÒUVGP FGT   /WVVGTIQVVGUWPFFGU-CKUGTUXXOKV2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\&1%5GCT  4$TGKVGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



18


ANTIKE • ORIENTALEN

62

63



%QPUVCPVKPWU:Ô*KUVCOGPQP 5E[RJCV %QPUVCPVKPQRQNKUI%JTKUVWUVJTQPVXX -CKUGTUVGJVXXOKV.CDCTWOWPF-TGW\INQDWU&1%5GCT 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



,QJCPPGU+++Ô*[RGTRGTQP 5E[RJCV /CIPGUKCI%JTKUVWUVJTQPVX X/CTKCMTÌPV-CKUGT&1%D5GCT -N-TCV\GTIWVGUUGJTUEJÌP



0+%#'#

64

65



66

-4'7<(#*4'4 ,1*#00+6'4#7(4*1&15 

(CDTKEGFGN%CTTGVVQ<GEEJKPGPCEJXGPG\KCPKUEJGO6[RI&GT)TQ­OGKUVGTMPKGV XQTFGOJGKNKIGP,QJCPPGU%JTKUVWUXQP5VGTPGPWOIGDGPUVGJVXXKP/CPFQTNC(D)CODGTKPK XCT5EJN2N:+XCT 45GJTUEJÌP



14+'06#.+5%*')1.&/ª0<'0 -75*#0 

8CUWFGXC++Ô5VCVGT-CDWNI-ÌPKIUVGJVN1GUJQUVGJVNXQT$WEMGNUVKGT)ÌDN 8QT\ÒINKEJ





Ô5VCVGT-CDWNI-ÌPKIUVGJVN1GUJQUVGJVNXQT$WEMGNUVKGT)ÌDN



68

67

8QT\ÒINKEJ

69

)726#+0+0&+'0 

5COWFTCIWRVC  Ô5VCVGT  I -WOCTCFGXK WPF %JCPFTCIWRVC +UVGJGPGKPCPFGTIGIGP ÒDGT.CMUJOKUKV\VXXCWH.ÌYGP#NVGMCT2N+HH/KVEJKPGT 5GJTUEJÌP



#NVGMCTYGKUVFKG/ÒP\G%JCPFTCIWRVC+\W

2#.#5810$'0)#.'0 

/CJKRCNCÔ5VCVGTI8KGTCTOKIG.CMUJOKUKV\VXX5EJTKHV/KVEJKPGT  5GJTUEJÌP



%*#7.7-;#5810#0#*+..#2#6#-# 

-WOCTCRCNCÔ5VCVGTI8KGTCTOKIG.CMUJOKUKV\VXX5EJTKHV/KVEJKPGTHH 5GJTUEJÌP

 19


EUROPA • ALBANIEN

'7412+5%*')1.&/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0

70

71

#.$#0+'0 

<QIW +   (TCPMGP  4 4QO 5MCPFGTDGI  I (GKPIQNF (D  5EJN    5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPMGP44QO5MCPFGTDGII(GKPIQNF(D5EJN



72

73

8QT\ÒINKEJ

74

 

(TCPMGP44QOI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN (TCPMGP44QO2TQDGI(GKPIQNF(D\W5EJN



(TCPMGP89KGP5MCPFGTDGII(GKPIQNF(D5EJN



75

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



(TCPMGP44QO,CJTG7PCDJ·PIKIMGKVI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ



76



(TCPMGP44QOCWHUGKP4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WOI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN  2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP5VGORGNINCP\

77

$4#$#06



78

$'.)+'0



-CTN8 -CTN+XQP5RCPKGP %QWTQPPGF QTCWUQNGKN#PVYGTRGPI&GNO (D 5GJTUEJÌP





#NDGTVWPF+UCDGNNC&QWDNG#NDGTVKP#PVYGTRGPI&GNO(D  9KP\4CPFCWUDTWEJHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



20


EUROPA • BELGIEN

79



80

&QWDNG#NDGTVKP#PVYGTRGPI&GNO(D

5GJTUEJÌP



.WFYKIXQP/CNG%CXCNKGTF QTQ,I&GNO 4 (D  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



(.#0&'40 

82

81



(TCPE ¯ RKGF Q ,  I &GT )TCH OKV -TQPG *GTOGNKPOCPVGN WPF 5EJYGTV UVGJV X X KP IQVKUEJGT   'KPHCUUWPIFKG.KPMGCWH.ÌYGPUEJKNFIGNGIV8KGTRC­FCTKP$NWOGPMTGW\KPFGP9KPMGNPFLAD &GNO 4 (D 48QT\ÒINKEJ 



%JCKUG F QT Q ,  I &GT )TCH OKV -TQPG WPF 5EJYGTV VJTQPV  X X KP IQVKUEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI FKG   .KPMGCWH.ÌYGPUEJKNFIGNGIV8KGTRC­FCTKP$NWOGPMTGW\KPFGP9KPMGNP4QUGVVGP&GNO(D 8QT\ÒINKEJ 

83

84



%JCKUG F QT Q ,  I &GT )TCH OKV -TQPG WPF 5EJYGTV VJTQPV  X X KP IQVKUEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI FKG   .KPMGCWH.ÌYGPUEJKNFIGNGIV8KGTRC­FCTKP$NWOGPMTGW\KPFGP9KPMGNP4QUGVVGP&GNO(D 8QT\ÒINKEJ 



%JCKUG F QT Q ,  I &GT )TCH OKV -TQPG WPF 5EJYGTV VJTQPV  X X KP IQVKUEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI FKG   .KPMGCWH.ÌYGPUEJKNFIGNGIV8KGTRC­FCTKP$NWOGPMTGW\KPFGP9KPMGNP4QUGVVGP&GNO(D 8QT\ÒINKEJ 

85

1,5:1

1,5:1

.ª66+%* 

'DGTJCTFXQPFGT/CTEM&QWDNG(NQTKPF QT'TCTFWU.ÒVVKEJI‰eRARD” De Ñ mARKA Ñ ePS Ñ LeODIenÆ 9CRRGPUEJKNF KP 8KGTRC­‰ Iy Ñ hOC Ñ SIgnO   Ñ VInCeS Ñ AnnO II$NWOGPMTGW\&GNO(D/KIPQNGV  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  21


EUROPA • BULGARIEN

86



87

/CZKOKNKCP *GKPTKEJ XQP $C[GTP   &WMCVGP Q , .ÒVVKEJ  I $TWUVDKNF T OKV   WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN/KV (ÒTUVGPJWV DGFGEMVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU XGT\KGTVGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF   &GNO 4 (D/KIPQNGV 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP 

0#/74 

2JKNKRRFGT5EJÌPG(NQTKPF QTCW5V2JKNKRRG0COWTI&GNO(D 445GJTUEJÌP



88

-¤0+)4'+%*$'.)+'0 

.GQRQNF +   (TCPEU  $TÒUUGN CWH FKG 8GTO·JNWPI FGU 6JTQPHQNIGTU .GQRQNF  

UR·VGT .GQRQNF ++  OKV 2TKP\GUUKP /CTKG *GPTKGVVG XQP ¤UVGTTGKEJ  I (GKPIQNF (D    /QTKP/5EJN 440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ 

89

1,5:1



1,5:1

.GQRQNF++(TCPEU7VTGEJV2TQDGRT·IWPII-QRHTFCTWPVGT.9+'0'4 $GNIKUEJGU9CRRGPCWHIGMTÌPVGO9CRRGPOCPVGNQDGP(4WPVGP(DUKGJG5/QTKP 5EJN 8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV0WTYGPKIG'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCT 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

90



91

$7.)#4+'0 



22

(GTFKPCPF.GYCCWHUGKPL·JTKIGU4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WOWPFCWHFKG7PCDJ·PIKI MGKVUGTMN·TWPICO1MVQDGT PCEJLWNKCPKUEJGO-CNGPFGT5GRVGODGT I(GKPIQNF (D5EJN -N4CPFHGJNGTWPF-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



 .GYC  CWH UGKP L·JTKIGU 4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO WPF CWH FKG 7PCDJ·PIKIMGKVUGTMN·TWPI CO   1MVQDGT PCEJLWNKCPKUEJGO-CNGPFGT5GRVGODGT I(GKPIQNF(D5EJN  /KP4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP




EUROPA • DÄNEMARK

1,5:1

1,5:1

&0'/#4-

-¤0+)4'+%* 

92

%JTKUVKCP 8   &WMCVGP Q , -QRGPJCIGP  I &GT -ÌPKI TGKVGV T KP FGT 4GEJVGP   -QOOCPFQUVCD)GMTÌPGU5RKGIGNOQPQITCOO(D*GFG 44-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 

94

93



&WMCV-QRGPJCIGPI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN &KG5EJKNFGXQP&·PGOCTM0QTYGIGPWPF5EJYGFGPCWHGKPGO.CPIMTGW\OKV-TQPG(D*GFG 44.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&WMCV  -QRGPJCIGP  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF 'NGHCPVGP   QTFGP&TGK IGMTÌPVG 5RKGIGNOQPQITCOOG KP FGT /KVVG UVTCJNGPFGU &TGKGEM OKV FGO 0COGP )QVVGU   (D*GFG 48QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

95

96



97



(TGFGTKM+8&WMCV-QRGPJCIGPI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGNWPF'NGHCPVGPQTFGP)GMTÌPVGU5RKGIGNOQPQITCOO(D*GFG 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&WMCV  -QRGPJCIGP  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF 'NGHCPVGP   QTFGP#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUXQP%JTKUVKCPUDQTIKO#DUEJPKVV+0)7+0'#(D*GFG#  45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



&0+5%*9'56+0&+'0 

%JTKUVKCP+:(TCPEU &CNGT -QRGPJCIGPI(GKPIQNF(D*GFG 5EJN (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

98



99

(+00.#0& 

#NGZCPFGT++XQP4W­NCPF/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN



8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

23


EUROPA • FINNLAND

100

102

101

103

104



#NGZCPFGT+++XQP4W­NCPF/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



 

/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN /CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN

 



0KMQNCWU++XQP4W­NCPF/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN /KP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN



105

   

106

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

107

/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN /CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN /CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN /CTMMCC*GNUKPMKI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN

109

-¤0+)4'+%* 



24

108

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

   

110

(4#0-4'+%*

2JKNKRRG8+'EWF QT¯NCEJCKUGQ,  'OKUUKQPI&GT-ÌPKIOKV-TQPG WPF 5EJYGTV VJTQPV  X X KP IQVKUEJGT 'KPHCUUWPI FKG .KPMG CWH .KNKGPUEJKNF IGNGIV8KGTRC­ FCTKP   $NWOGPMTGW\KPFGP9KPMGNPLGGKP&TGKDNCVV&WRNGUU[#(D 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



,GCP NG $QP  /QWVQP F QT Q ,    I 1UVGTNCOO N FGP -QRH \WTÒEMIGYCPFV   FCJKPVGT-TGW\HCJPGWPVGPIOhReX8KGTRC­FCTKPXGT\KGTVGU$NWOGPMTGW\KPFGP9KPMGNP.KNKGP &WRNGUU[#(D (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

112

111





111

/QWVQPF QTQ,  I1UVGTNCOONFGP-QRH\WTÒEMIGYCPFVFCJKPVGT-TGW\HCJPGWPVGP IOhReX8KGTRC­FCTKPXGT\KGTVGU$NWOGPMTGW\KPFGP9KPMGNP.KNKGP&WRNGUU[(D  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT (NQTKPF QTQ,  HÒTFCU.CPIWGFQEI&WRNGUU[(D)CODGTKPK  45GJTUEJÌP

113

 

114



*GPTK8+F #PINGVGTTG5CNWVF QTQ,  'OKUUKQP4QWGPI&WRNGUU[# (D 5GJTUEJÌP





.QWKU:++'EWF QTCWUQNGKNQ,  %J³NQPUUWT/CTPGI&WRNGUU[(D 5GJTUEJÌP



116

115

117



117

(TCP¼QKU +  'EW F QT CW UQNGKN Q ,    6[R  'OKUUKQP $C[QPPG  I   &WRNGUU[(D 45GJTUEJÌP





'EWF QTCWUQNGKNQ,  6[R'OKUUKQP.[QPI&WRNGUU[(D 5GJTUEJÌP





%JCTNGU +:  )QNFOGFCKNNG \W  &WMCVGP  WPUKIPKGTV )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF N OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\$TWUVDKNF UGKPGT )GOCJNKP 'NKUCDGVJ XQP ¤UVGTTGKEJ N  OO  I ,QPGU   

FQTVKP$TQP\G  44(CUUWPIUpWPF6TCIGURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP 

118

118 1,5:1



*GPTK+8'EWF QTCWUQNGKN56TQ[GUI)GMTÌPVGU9CRRGP-TGW\IGDKNFGV CWU XKGT OKV .KNKGP DGUVGEMVGP /QPITCOOGP KO <GPVTWO 8KGTRC­ FCTKP FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP &WRNGUU[   $(D W­GTUVUGNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  25


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

120

119



.QWKU:+++'EWF QTCWUQNGKN#2CTKUI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[ .GKEJVIGYGNNVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



.QWKU F QT  # 2CTKU  I $ÒUVG T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\8KGT IGMTÌPVG &QRRGNOQPQITCOOG KPU   -TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGP9KPMGNPLGGKPG.KNKG&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[ 5GJTUEJÌP 

121



122



.QWKU :+8  .QWKU F QT ¯ NC V¿VG PWG  # 2CTKU  I &WRNGUU[  (D    )CFQWT[ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



.QWKU:8.QWKUF QTFG0QCKNNGU#2CTKUI)GMTÌPVG$ÒUVGNOKVNCPIGO IGYGNNVGP*CCT8KGTIGMTÌPVG9CRRGPKPU-TGW\IGUVGNNVKPFGP9KPMGNPLGGKPG.KNKG&WRNGUU[ (D FQTVKTTVÒONKEJ.QWKUF QT )CFQWT[  48QTFGTUGKVGOKPDGTKGDGPWPFCO4CPFNGKEJVLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ

123

124

125



126



.QWKU F QT ¯ NC ETQKZFW5CKPV'URTKV54GKOUI$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\1TFGPUUVGTP &WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[ 48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

 

.QWKUF QTCWZNWPGVVGU#2CTKUI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[ .QWKUF QTCWZNWPGVVGU#2CTKUI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[

5GJTUEJÌP 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 



.QWKUF QTCWZNWPGVVGU#2CTKUI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[ 5GJTUEJÌP



127

128



&QWDNGNQWKUF QTCWDCPFGCW$$5VTC­DWTII&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





.QWKUF QTCWDCPFGCW#2CTKUI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[  8QTFGTUGKVGOKPLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



26


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

129

130



&QWDNGNQWKUF QTCWDCPFGCW-$QTFGCWZI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





&QWDNGNQWKUF QTCWDCPFGCW&.[QPI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[  8QT\ÒINKEJ



132

131





.QWKU:8+&QWDNGNQWKUF QTCWZNWPGVVGU-$QTFGCWZI$TWUVDKNFNOKVFGO 1TFGPUUVGTP5CKPV'URTKV<YGKCPGKPCPFGTIGNGJPVGQXCNG9CRRGPUEJKNFGFCTÒDGT-TQPG&WRNGUU[ (D)CFQWT[ 8QTFGTUGKVGGVYCULWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP .QWKUF QT¯NCV¿VGPWG-$QTFGCWZI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[



 5GJTUEJÌP





.QWKUF QT¯NCV¿VGPWG60CPVGUI&WRNGUU[(D)CFQWT[  2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\





%QPUWNCV(TCPEU#0:+  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTF5EJN ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



133

134

136 135

137



(TCPEU#0  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPEU#0  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI





(TCPEU#0  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#0  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP





(TCPEU#0  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP

 27


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

140 1,5:1

1,5:1



0CRQN¾QP +    (TCPEU #0    # 2CTKU  I (GKPIQNF (D    )CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPUEJÌPUVGT'TJCNVWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

141

142



(TCPEU#0  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP





(TCPEU#0  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP



143

144

145

146



(TCPEU#0  #2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(DC)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP



 

(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP (TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP

 



(TCPEU76WTKPI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



147

148



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[C/C\CTF5EJN  45GJTUEJÌP





(TCPEU*.C4QEJGNNGI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  47PTGIGNO·­KIGT4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



28


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

149

150



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ



151

153

152

154



.QWKU :8+++    (TCPEU  # 2CTKU  I (GKPIQNF (D  )CFQWT[    /C\CTF5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU4.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GJTUEJÌP





(TCPEU4.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GJTUEJÌP



155

156



(TCPEU.$C[QPPGI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  40WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN



 8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU9.KNNGI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





%JCTNGU:(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF 5EJN 5GJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



157

158

159

29


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

161

160



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN



.QWKU 2JKNKRRG   (TCPEU  $ 4QWGP  I (GKPIQNF (D  )CFQWT[    /C\CTFC5EJN 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

162

 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

163



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





0CRQN¾QP+++(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF 5EJN (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



164

165

166

167



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTF5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVINCVVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTF \W 5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTF5EJN (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVINCVVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTFC5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ



168

171

171



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVINCVVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTFC5EJN (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVINCVVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTFC5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVINCVVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTFC5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ



30


EUROPA â&#x20AC;¢ FRANKREICH

172

173

174

174



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTF5EJN 2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF-NGKPG#WUICDGOKVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF(D)CFQWT[ /C\CTF5EJN 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



175

176



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





(TCPEU$$5VTC­DWTII(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  /KP4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



177

178



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



179

180



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  (CUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

 31


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

181 182

182



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[XCT/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ



183

184

184



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ



185

186



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU$$5VTC­DWTII(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ



187

188



4GRWDNKM(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF 5EJN 448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  445EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCPFGT5EJTKHVU·WNGMN&TWEMUVGNNGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

32

 


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

189

190



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ



191

192

193

194



(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  5GNVGPGU,CJT5GJTUEJÌP





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[C/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU2CTKU$C\QTI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[/C\CTF5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



196

195

196



4GRWDNKMUGKV(TCPEU&KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV I5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWK2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





(TCPEU6QFGUVCIXQP/CTKG%WTKGI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 33


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

197

198



(TCPEU,CJTGUVCIFGT*GTCWUICDGFGU4QOCPU)GTOKPCNXQP'OKNG<QNCI(GKP IQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





 (TCPEU   ,CJTGUVCI FGT 'TTKEJVWPI FGT (TGKJGKVUUVCVWG KP 0GY ;QTM  I (GKPIQNF   (D)CFQWT[5EJN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



199 200



(TCPEU)GDWTVUVCIXQP4QDGTV5EJWOCPI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





(TCPEU/CTSWKUFGNC(C[GVVGI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN  2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



201

202



 (TCPEU   ,CJTGUVCI FGT -TÌPWPI XQP *WIQ %CRGV \WO -ÌPKI XQP (TCPMTGKEJ  I   (GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





(TCPEU$TÒFGTNKEJMGKVI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN



203

204

2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

205



(TCPEU)GDWTVUVCIXQP4QNCPF)CTTQUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





(TCPEU)GDWTVUVCIXQP4QNCPF)CTTQU .G)¾PKGFGNC$CUVKNNG 4KPIIDGUVGJGPF CWU)GNDIQNF5KNDGTWPF-WRHGT<GPVTWOIDGUVGJGPFCWU9GK­IQNF 5KNDGTWPF2CNNCFKWO(D)CFQWT[5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



(TCPE,CJTGUVCIFGT4GRWDNKMI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 

 34


EUROPA • FRANKREICH

208 207



 (TCPEU    Z  #DHCJTVUN·WHGT <YGKGTDQD WPF 4QFNGTKP 'KUJQEMG[URKGNGT 5MK   URTKPIGTWPF5MKURTKPIGTKP2KGTTGFG%QWDGTVKP+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(D )CFQWT[5EJN 5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG 



(TCPEU/GPUEJGPTGEJVGI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[5EJN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





 (TCPEU   )GDWTVUVCI XQP /QPVGUSWKGW 4KPI  I DGUVGJGPF CWU   )GNDIQNF     5KNDGTWPF-WRHGT<GPVTWOIDGUVGJGPFCWU9GK­IQNF5KNDGTWPF2CNNC FKWO(D)CFQWT[5EJN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



209

210



(TCPEU,CJTGUVCIFGT'TTKEJVWPIFGU'KHHGNVWTOUI(GKPIQNF(D)CFQWT[ 5EJN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





(TCPEU,CJTG/WUGWOFGU.QWXTG $KNFPKUFGT/QPC.KUC I(GKPIQNF(D )CFQWT[5EJN 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



211

212



 (TCPEU   ,CJTG /WUGWO FGU .QWXTG &KG (TGKJGKV HÒJTV FCU 8QNM CP   I (GKPIQNF   (D)CFQWT[5EJN 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





 (TCPEU   ,CJTG /WUGWOFGU.QWXTG 0KMGXQP5COQVJTCMG I(GKPIQNF(D )CFQWT[5EJN 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



213

*'4<1)67/ 

(4#0-4'+%*.16*4+0)'0

4GP¾ ++ XQP 8CWFGOQPV#PLQW  (NQTKP F QT CW 5CKPV 0KEQNCU Q , PCEJ   0CPE[    I 8KGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF5V 0KMQNCWU UVGJV X X OKV -TWOOUVCD WPF UGIPGPFGT   4GEJVGPWPVGPNGKP(C­OKVFTGK-KPFGTP(NQP(D  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP  /KV4GP¾++IGNCPIVGPFKG)TCHGPXQP8CWFGOQPVCPFKG4GIKGTWPIFGTGP5VCOOUKV\UÒFNKEJXQP0CPE[NCI&GT *GT\QI XGTGKPKIVG FKG *GT\QIVÒOGT .QVJTKPIGP $CT WPF FKG )TCHUEJCHV 8CWFGOQPV \W GKPGO )TQ­VGTTKVQTKWO WPF   MQPPVG FKGUGU OKV 7PVGTUVÒV\WPI FGT 'KFIGPQUUGP WPF GKPKIGT GNU·UUKUEJGT 4GKEJUUV·PFG IGIGP FGP DWTIWPFKUEJGP   *GT\QI -CTN FGP -ÒJPGP DGJCWRVGP &KG 'PVUEJGKFWPI HKGN KP FGT 5EJNCEJV XQP 0CPE[ CO  ,CPWCT  YGNEJG   FKG$WTIWPFGTMTKGIG  DGGPFGVGWPFKPFGT-CTNFGT-ÒJPGHKGN4GP¾++WPFUGKP5QJP#PVQPXGTITÌ­GT VGPFCU*GT\QIVWOCWH-QUVGPFGT$KUVÒOGT/GV\6QWNWPF8GTFWP

35


EUROPA • GRIECHENLAND

214

215



*GKPTKEJ++(NQTKPF QTCW5CKPV0KEQNCUQ,0CPE[I(NQP(D  -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP





(NQTKPF QTCW5CKPV0KEQNCUQ,0CPE[I(NQP(D  4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­WPF2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



218 216

217

/'6<56#&6  

)QNFIWNFGPQ,I(NQP(D )QNFIWNFGPQ,I(NQP(D

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 

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)4+'%*'0.#0& 

219 1,5:1



1,5:1

)GQTI +   &TCEJOGP  # 2CTKU  I GEWRGIOS AI BASILEUS TWN    ELLHNWN-QRHTFCTWPVGT$#22',CJTGU\CJNWPF/ÒP\\GKEJGPBASILEIONTHSELLADOS 9CRRGPCWHIGMTÌPVGO9CRRGPOCPVGNWPVGPDRAXMAI&KXQ(D5EJN  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

220

222



&TCEJOGP#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF&KXQ(D5EJN

5GJTUEJÌP





&TCEJOGP#2CTKU+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF&KXQ(D5EJN  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





&TCEJOGP#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF&KXQ(D5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



36


EUROPA • GROSSBRITANNIEN

225

223

ex 224



&TCEJOGP#2CTKUI(GKPIQNF&KXQ(D5EJN



%QPUVCPVKP++&TCEJOGP&TCEJOGP JGTCWUIGIGDGP .G.QENG IGRT·IV\WT'TKPPGTWPICPFKG0CVKQPCNG4GXQNWVKQPXQO#RTKN+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF (D5EJN 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 



&TCEJOGP JGTCWUIGIGDGP .G.QENGIGRT·IV\WT'TKPPGTWPICPFKG0CVKQPCNG4GXQNWVKQP XQO#RTKNI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ

227

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228

229

229



'NK\CDGVJ +   2QWPF Q ,   .QPFQP /ÒP\\GKEJGP 9KGFGTMTGW\  I   )GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFN)GMTÌPVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP\YKUEJGP'4(D5GCD[  44'VYCUDGTKGDGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



5QXGTGKIPQ, 'OKUUKQP .QPFQP/ÒP\\GKEJGPbI(D5GCD[  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV)GNQEJV*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



'U ÒDGTTCUEJV FC­ KP 'PINCPF \WT <GKV FGT 4GPCKUUCPEG PQEJ GKP UR·VIQVKUEJGU /ÒP\DKNF GTUEJGKPV -ÌPKIKP 'NKUC   DGVJKUVKP#PNGJPWPICP/CTKGPFCTUVGNNWPIGPFGU/KVVGNCNVGTUCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGXQPXQTPVJTQPGPFCDIGDKNFGV&GT *KPVGTITWPFKUVOKVGKPGO)KVVGTOWUVGTIGHÒNNVFGOJQTTQTXCEWK #DUEJGWXQTGKPGONGGTGP4CWO GPVURTGEJGPF

37


EUROPA • GROSSBRITANNIEN

231

230



230

2QWPFQ,  .QPFQP/ÒP\\GKEJGP9QNNDCNNGPI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFN)GMTÌP VGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP\YKUEJGP'4(D5GCD[  (CUUWPIUURWTGPKPFGP(GNFGTPGVYCUDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP 

8'4'+0+)6'5-¤0+)4'+%* 

,COGU+&QWDNG%TQYPQ,  /ÒP\\GKEJGP.KNKGI(D5GCD[ (CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



233

232



%JCTNGU+7PKVG 5JKNNKPIU Q,  .QPFQP/ÒP\\GKEJGP.KNKGI(D 5GCD[# 5GJTUEJÌP 



%JCTNGU++)WKPGCU.QPFQPI$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCTWPVGT/ÒP\ \GKEJGP 'NGHCPV8KGT IGMTÌPVG 9CRRGP KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGP 9KPMGNP LG GKP <GRVGT (D    5GCD[ 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  &GT'NGHCPVWPVGTFGO2QTVT·VKUVGKP*KPYGKUCWHFKG*GTMWPHVFGU/ÒP\IQNFGUFCUFWTEJFKG$TKVKUJ#HTKECP%QO RCP[CWU#HTKMCKORQTVKGTVYWTFG

236

237



#PPG)WKPGC.QPFQPI(D5GCD[

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



)GQTIG+)WKPGC.QPFQPI(D5GCD[  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



 

)WKPGC.QPFQPI(D5GCD[ )GQTIG+++)WKPGC.QPFQPI(D5GCD[

 

234

38

235

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




EUROPA • GROSSBRITANNIEN

239 240

238



)WKPGC.QPFQP5RCFG)WKPGC(ÒPHVGT6[RI(D5EJN5GCD[  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJ





)WKPGC.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[  9KP\4CPFUEJNGKHURWTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[



241

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

243

242

244

  

5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[ 5GJTUEJÌP 5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[ 5GJTUEJÌP 5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[ -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

  



)GQTIG+85QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[  4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



245

246



2QWPFU.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[

5GJTUEJÌP





2QWPFU.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ



248 247

249



5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[



5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[#  -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

5GJTUEJÌP





5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[



8QT\ÒINKEJ



39


EUROPA • GROSSBRITANNIEN

250

252

251



5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[#

5GJTUEJÌP





9KNNKCO+85QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[$  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP





5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[



(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

253



8KEVQTKC   2QWPFU  .QPFQP 7PC CPF VJG .KQP  I 8+%614+# & Ù ) Ù   $4+6#00+#47/ 4')+0# ( Ù & Ù -QRH FGT LWPIGP -ÌPKIKP N OKV *CCTDCPF KO *CNUCDUEJPKVV FKG   5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTUKIPCVWT 9 9;10 4 #&+4+)' &'75  )4'5575 /'15 Ü &KG -ÌPKIKP OKV   <GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNUEJTGKVGVNPGDGPFGODTKVKUEJGP.ÌYGPKO#DUEJPKVVFKGTÌOKUEJG,CJTGU\CJN WPF FKG 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTUKIPCVWT /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV &'%75 '6 676#/'0 É #001   4')0+6'46+1É(D5EJN5GCD[ 44-N-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  &GT 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT FKGUGT CW­GTIGYÌJPNKEJGP WPF CVVTCMVKXGP )QNFOÒP\G YCT 9KNNKCO 9[QP 'T UVCOOVG CWU   GKPGT(COKNKGDGMCPPVGT/GFCKNNGWTGFKGOGJTCNUJWPFGTV,CJTGFGODTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIUJCWUFKGPVGP#NU5QJPGKPGU 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTUWPF/GFCKNNGWTUGTNGTPVG9KNNKCOFKG(·JKIMGKVGPUEJQPKPUGKPGT,WIGPF#NUUGKP1PMGN6JQOCU 9[QP  \WO NGKVGPFGP 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT FGT DTKVKUEJGP /ÒP\G GTPCPPV YWTFG GTJKGNV FGT LWPIG 9KNNKCO CWH   'ORHGJNWPIXQP5KT6JQOCU.CYTGPEGFGP2QUVGPFGU5VGNNXGTVTGVGTUUGKPGU1PMGNU9KNNKCO9[QPUITÌ­VGTCTVKUVK UEJGT 6TKWORJ YKTF KOOGT OKV FGP /ÒP\GP WPF /GFCKNNGP XGTDWPFGP UGKP FKG GT PCEJ FGT 6JTQPDGUVGKIWPI FGT   LWPIGP L·JTKIGP 8KEVQTKC IGUEJCHHGP JCVVG -GKPGO CPFGTGP -ÒPUVNGT IGNCPI GU INGKEJGTOC­GP FGP LWIGPFNKEJGP   %JCTOG OKV GKPGO GZ\GNNGPVGP 5VGORGNUEJPKVV \W XGTGKPGP 5GKP 2QTVT·V FGT -ÌPKIKP OKV &KCFGO YGNEJGU GT HÒT   UGKPG)WKNFJCNN/GFCKNNGIGUEJPKVVGPJCVVGYCT8QTNCIGHÒTFKGGTUVGP$TKGHOCTMGP&KGCDGTYQJNDGMCPPVGUVG WPFGKPFTWEMXQNNUVG2TQFWMVKQPYCTFCU2QWPF5VÒEM7PCCPFVJG.KQPYGNEJGUPWTKPFGO,CJTOKVGKPGT #WHNCIGXQP'ZGORNCTGPIGRT·IVYWTFG5QDGICPPFCU8KEVQTKCPKUEJG<GKVCNVGTOKVFGOOCPHÒT)TQ­DTKVCP PKGP9QJNUVCPFWPFGKPG#WUFGJPWPIFGUDTKVKUEJGP'ORKTGUXGTDKPFGVOKVGKPGTGKPFTWEMUXQNNGP/ÒP\G

254

255

256

257



5QXGTGKIP.QPFQP;QWPIJGCFI(GKPIQNF(DG5EJN5GCD[  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





5QXGTGKIP.QPFQP;QWPIJGCFI(GKPIQNF(DG5EJN5GCD[%  8QT\ÒINKEJ





5QXGTGKIP.QPFQP;QWPIJGCFI(GKPIQNF(DG5EJN5GCD[%  5GJTUEJÌP





5QXGTGKIP.QPFQP;QWPIJGCFI(GKPIQNF(DH5EJN5GCD['  -N-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



40


EUROPA â&#x20AC;¢ GROSSBRITANNIEN

258

260

259



2QWPFU.QPFQP,WDKNGGJGCFI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[

 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





2QWPFU.QPFQP,WDKNGGJGCFI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





2QWPFU.QPFQP,WDKNGGJGCFI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



ex 261



2TQQH 5GV  ,WDKNGG %QKPCIG  2QWPFU  2QWPFU 5QXGTGKIP  5QXGTGKIP %TQYP X\5V    %TQYP(NQTKP(NQTKP5JKNNKPI2GPEG2GPEG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(DCC CC5EJN5GCD[25  5VÃ&#x2019;EMZ)1.&440WT5·V\GIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÃ&#x2019;JTV 



2TQQH5GV,WDKNGG%QKPCIG2QWPFU2QWPFU5QXGTGKIP5QXGTGKIP%TQYP%TQYP (NQTKP(NQTKP5JKNNKPI2GPEG2GPEG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(DCCCC 5EJN5GCD[25  5VÃ&#x2019;EMZ)1.&440WT5·V\GIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÃ&#x2019;JTV 



/Ã&#x2019;P\UCV\,WDKNGG%QKPCIG2QWPFU2QWPFU5QXGTGKIP5QXGTGKIP%TQYP%TQYP  (NQTKP (NQTKP 5JKNNKPI  2GPEG  2GPEG +PUIGUCOV  I (GKPIQNF (D       5EJN5GCD[25 FQTVCNU2TQQH   5VÃ&#x2019;EMZ)1.&+P5COVGVWK8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  41


EUROPA • GROSSBRITANNIEN

265

264

 

2QWPFU.QPFQP1NFJGCFI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[ 2QWPFU.QPFQP1NFJGCFI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

ex 266



2TQQH5GV1NFJGCF%QKPCIG2QWPFU2QWPFU5QXGTGKIP5QXGTGKIP%TQYP%TQYP (NQTKP 5JKNNKPI  2GPEG  2GPEG +PUIGUCOV  I (GKPIQNF (D  C  C  C  C   5EJN5GCD[25  5VÒEMZ)1.&440WT5·V\GIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÒJTV 

268

ex 267



 42

ex 267

)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPXQP)9FG5CWNNGUPCEJ6$TQEMCWHKJTL·JTKIGU4GIKGTWPIU LWDKN·WONVGTGU$TWUVDKNF8KEVQTKCUNOKV9KVYGPUEJNGKGT,WPIG$ÒUVG8KEVQTKCUN\YKUEJGP+PUEJTKHV FCTWPVGT.QTDGGT\YGKIGOOI&C\WLGGKPYGKVGTGU'ZGORNCTKP5KNDGTWPF$TQP\G&KG FTGK/GFCKNNGPDGHKPFGPUKEJLGYGKNUKPGKPGO1TKIKPCNGVWKHÒTFKG5KNDGTWPF$TQP\GOGFCKNNGKUVCW­GT FGOFKGQTKIKPCNG2CRKGTXGTRCEMWPIXQTJCPFGP'KOGTC Z   5VÒEMFCXQPZ)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



'FYCTF8++2QWPFU.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[ -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 


EUROPA • GROSSBRITANNIEN

ex 269



2TQQH 5GV   2QWPFU  2QWPFU 5QXGTGKIP  5QXGTGKIP %TQYP  %TQYP (NQTKP 5JKNNKPI   2GPEG2GPEG2GPEG2GPEG2GPP[+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(DCCCC 5EJN5GCD[25  5VÒEMZ)1.&+P1TKIKPCNGVWK/CVVKGTVRQNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÒJTV 

270

271

270



)GQTIG82QWPFU.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





5QXGTGKIP.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(DC5EJN5GCD[  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



ex 272



2TQQH5GV2QWPFU2QWPFU5QXGTGKIP5QXGTGKIP%TQYP(NQTKP5JKNNKPI2GPEG 2GPEG2GPEG2GPEG2GPP[+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(DCC5EJN 5GCD[25 5VÒEMZ)1.&+P1TKIKPCNGVWK2QNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÒJTV  43


EUROPA • ITALIEN

273



)GQTIG8+2QWPFU.QPFQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5GCD[  2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



274

1,5:1

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#PVQPKQ 2KIPCVGNNK  <GEEJKPQ  ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV   I   $ÒUVGTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN9CRRGPCWH*GTOGNKPOCPVGNFCTÒDGT(ÒTUVGPJWV%0+:8+++5 (D FQTVPWTFKG,CJTGU\CJN /QTQUKPK 4FQTVPWT8QTMQOOGPOKVFGT,CJTGU\CJN  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ 

275

276

(.14'0< 

4GRWDNKM(KQTKPQF QTQQ,  I.KNKG5V,QJCPPGUUVGJVXXCO'PFG FGT7OUEJTKHV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*COOGT$GTPQEEJK(D (CUUWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



)'07# 

)CDTKGNG#FQTPQ8)GPQXKPQQ,I/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPFGWVNKEJ(D.WPCTFK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

277



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.QWKU:++XQP(TCPMTGKEJ5KIPQTGXQP)GPWC4GIKGTWPI5EWFQF QTQFGNUQNGQ,

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4GRWDNKM &QIK$KGPPCNK 5EWFQF QTQFGNUQNGQ,  )GPWCI(D .WPCTFK -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



44


EUROPA • ITALIEN

280

279

279



.KTG)GPWCI(D.WPCTFK



.KIWTKUEJG4GRWDNKM.KTG#08+++I(GKPIQNF(D.WPCTFK5EJN -N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

282

281

.GKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 

284

283

-+4%*'056##6 

4ÌOKUEJGT5GPCV&WECVQQ,4QOI(D/WPVQPKHH

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2CWN++&WECVQRCRCNGQ,4QOI/KVTCWPFIGMTGW\VG5EJNÒUUGNÒDGT9CRRGP &KGJGKNKIG8GTQPKMCUVGJVXXWPFJ·NVFCU5EJYGK­VWEJ%JTKUVKOKVFGUUGP#DDKNF(D/WPVQPK 445GJTUEJÌP



#NGZCPFGT8+(KQTKPQFKECOGTCQ,4QOI(D/WPVQPKNGKEJVXCT  #VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





285

286



%NGOGPU8++5EWFQF QTQQ,$QNQIPCI(D/WPVQPK  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



2CWN+++5EWFQF QTQQ,2KCEGP\CI(D/WPVQPK

287



5GJTUEJÌP



288



5EWFQF QTQQ,4QOI(D/WPVQPK

5GJTUEJÌP





2CWN85EWFQF QTQ#:+  4QOI(D/WPVQPKC  4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 45


EUROPA • ITALIEN

289

290



%NGOGPU:++5EWFQF QTQ#84QOI(D/WPVQPK  'VYCUIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ





%NGOGPU:+8<GEEJKPQ#+++4QOI(D/WPVQPKD



291

292

8QT\ÒINKEJ

292



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295 293

  

294

.KTG#0::+44QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN .KTG#::++44QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN .KTG#::++44QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN

296

299

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP 45GJTUEJÌP

  

297

299



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1,5:1

1,5:1

4¤/+5%*&'765%*'54'+%* 

(GTFKPCPF+&WMCVGPMNKRRG9KGP)GRT·IVY·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFV 9KGP FWTEJ FKG 6ÒTMGP  I )GMTÌPVGU WPF IGJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T \W FGP 5GKVGP +  <   FCTWPVGT 684- Û $.'  )'46 Û 9+  Ù '0 Ù-TGW\ KP FGP 9KPMGNP FKG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG XQP    0KGFGTÌUVGTTGKEJ-CUVKNKGP7PICTPWPF$ÌJOGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CTMN/\#5 448QT\ÒINKEJ  &GT VÒTMKUEJG 5WNVCP 5WNGKOCP ++ \QI  XQP 7PICTP CWU OKV GKPGO  5QNFCVGP UVCTMGP *GGT WPF    -CPQPGPXQTFKG6QTG9KGPUWOFKG5VCFV\WGTQDGTP0CEJUEJWDRTQDNGOGWPFFKGXGJGOGPVG)GIGPYGJTFGTCWU  5QNFCVGP WPF  $ÒTIGTP DGUVGJGPFGP 8GTVGKFKIGTUEJCT WPVGT FGO -QOOCPFQ XQP 0KEQNCWU XQP 5CNO   DGYQIGP FGP 5WNVCP KPFGU PCEJ PWT  6CIGP CO  1MVQDGT UGKPG $GNCIGTWPI YKGFGT CWH\WJGDGP +P FGT 5VCFV   MCO $GNCIGTWPIUIGNF KP -NKRRGPHQTO KP 8GTMGJT FCU CWU GKPIGUEJOQN\GPGP IQNFGPGP WPF UKNDGTPGP )GT·VUEJCHVGP   IGHGTVKIVYQTFGPYCT

657

658

658



&WMCV9KGPI(D/CTMNXCT

8QT\ÒINKEJ





'T\JGT\QI/CZKOKNKCP&WMCVQ,*CNNI(D/6XCT  449KP\<CKPGPFGNGKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ



86


HABSBURG

659



/CVVJKCU&WMCVGP9KGPI#DUEJNCIXQPFGP5VGORGNPFGU6CNGTU r/#66*+#5&Ù)Ù4Ù+Ù5Ù#8)Ù)Ù*80Ù$1Ù4':)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGUWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHV /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP 5RKV\G /CVVJKCU (GNNPGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 9KGP  Ú #4%*+& Ù #856   Ù&8:ÛÛ$84Ù%1/Ù6;4Ù<EÛÚ)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGTKPFGP (·PIGP\YKUEJGPFGP-ÌRHGP4GKEJUCRHGNCWHFGT$TWUVOGJTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVG FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU WPVGP KP FGT 7OUEJTKHV MNGKPGT IGMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF (D    /\#5 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKVDGMCPPVGU'ZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJ  /CVVJKCU 9KGPÓ9KGPFT·PIVGPCEJCNUUKEJDGKUGKPGO$TWFGTFGOMKPFGTNQUGP-CKUGT4WFQNH ++ FKG <GKEJGP GKPGT )GKUVGUMTCPMJGKV OGJTVGP WPF FGT OÌINKEJG 0CEJHQNIGT 'T\JGT\QI 'TPUV IGUVQTDGP YCT CWH   FKG 4GIGNWPI FGT 5WM\GUUKQPUHTCIG YQFWTEJ GT UKEJ FKG (GKPFUEJCHV UGKPGU MTCPMGP $TWFGTU \W\QI  YWTFG   /CVVJKCU KP GKPGO )GJGKOXGTVTCI XQP FGP 'T\JGT\ÌIGP CNU (COKNKGPQDGTJCWRV CPGTMCPPV KO UGNDGP ,CJT YWTFG GT   5VCVVJCNVGT KP 7PICTP 'T HKGN \YGK ,CJTG UR·VGT KP $ÌJOGP GKP WO UGKPGP $TWFGT \WT #DFCPMWPI \W \YKPIGP +O   8GTVTCIXQP.KGDGPVTCVFGT-CKUGTUGKPGO$TWFGTFKG*GTTUEJCHVKP7PICTP/·JTGPWPF¤UVGTTGKEJCD'TUV PCEJFGO6QF4WFQNHU++YWTFG/CVVJKCUCO,WPK\WOFGWVUEJGP-CKUGTIGY·JNV

661

660



&WMCV-$-TGOPKV\2QUVJWOG2T·IWPII(D*WU\CT /KPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP





(GTFKPCPF++&WMCV-NCIGPHWTVI(D*GTKPGM  4'VYCUIGYGNNVYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



662



&WMCVGP2TCI/ÒP\OGKUVGT*CPU5WVVPGTI('4&+0#0&85++Û&)4Û+/Û5Û# Û)Û*Û$1Û4':&GTIGMTÌPVGWPFIGJCTPKUEJVG-ÌPKIUVGJVJCNDTOKVFGT4GEJVGPFCU<GRVGTUEJWN VGTPF KP FGT .KPMGP 4GKEJUCRHGN \W FGP 5GKVGP FGT IGMTÌPVG DÌJOKUEJG WPF FGT IGMTÌPVG WPICTKUEJG   9CRRGPUEJKNF#4%*+& Ú #856 Û &8:  $84) Û /#4 Û /1 Û  )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV   IGMTÌPVGOÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJDWTIWPFKUEJGP9CRRGPUEJKNFCWHFGT$TWUVWPVGP/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP)TGKHN

*CPU5WVVPGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP2TCI &KGVKMGT(D FQTVWPVGT$ÌJOGP *CNCEMC 48QT\ÒINKEJ  (GTFKPCPF ++ KP)TC\ÓKP9KGP5QJPFGU'T\JGT\QIU-CTNXQP-·TPVGPWPF5VGKGTOCTMWPF/CTKCU XQP$C[GTPYWTFGXQP,GUWKVGPGT\QIGP0CEJFGO6QFUGKPGU8CVGTUTQVVGVGGTKPUGKPGP'TDNCPFGP-·TPVGP 5VGKGTOCTMWPF-TCKPFGP2TQVGUVCPVKUOWUCWUWPFICDOKVFGOINGKEJGP8GTUWEJKP$ÌJOGPPCEJUGKPGT9CJN\WO -ÌPKI  FGP #PNC­ \WO DÌJOKUEJGP #WHUVCPF +P FGUUGP 8GTNCWH UGV\VG KJP FGT .CPFVCI CO  ,WNK  CNU   -ÌPKI YKGFGT CD 0CEJ FGO 6QF XQP -CKUGT /CVVJKCU CO  /·T\  YWTFG (GTFKPCPF \WO FGWVUEJGP -CKUGT   IGY·JNV0CEJFGT5EJNCEJVCOYGK­GP$GTIVTCVGTFKG*GTTUEJCHVKP$ÌJOGPYKGFGTCPWPFDGICPPKO.CPF UQHQTV TKIQTQU FKG )GIGPTGHQTOCVKQP +O L·JTKIGP -TKGI DGFGWVGVG FCU 4GUVKVWVKQPUGFKMV XQP  FGP*ÌJGRWPMV UGKPGT/CEJVKP&GWVUEJNCPFFGT2TCIGT(TKGFGPXQPYCTFGT$GYGKUHÒTFCU5EJGKVGTPUGKPGT2QNKVKM-WT\XQT UGKPGO6QFGTTGKEJVGGTFKG9CJNUGKPGU5QJPGU(GTFKPCPF +++ \WOTÌOKUEJGP-ÌPKI

87


HABSBURG

663



&WMCVGP9KGPI&GTIGMTÌPVGWPFIGJCTPKUEJVG-CKUGTUVGJVJCNDTOKVFGT4GEJVGPFCU <GRVGTUEJWNVGTPFKPFGT.KPMGP4GKEJUCRHGN\WFGP5GKVGPLGGKPIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFWPVGPKPFGT 7OUEJTKHV /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP 5RKV\G /CVVJKCU (GNNPGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 9KGP  )GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP FGP (·PIGP \YKUEJGP FGP -ÌRHGP 4GKEJUCRHGN CWH FGT $TWUV   OGJTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGUWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHV MNGKPGTIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF(D*GTKPGM 448QT\ÒINKEJ 

664



&WMCVGP9KGPI('4&+0#0&85Û++ÚÚ&Ú)Û41Û+Ú5Ú#Ú)Û*Û$Û4':Û )GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFG PGP8NKGUWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHV/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP5RKV\G /CVVJKCU(GNNPGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP9KGP  Û#4%*+&Ú#85Û&8:ÛÛ$84Ú%1Û6;4Ú%ÜÚ)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV 5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGP\YKUEJGPFGP-ÌRHGP4GKEJUCRHGNCWHFGT$TWUVOGJTHGNFKIGU9CR RGPWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGUWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHVMNGKPGTIGMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF(D*GTKPGM 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

665



&WMCVGP$TGUNCWI/ÒP\OGKUVGT,QJCPP<KGUNGT9CTFGKP*CPU4KGFGN  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ ITQ­GT *CNUMTCWUG WPF 5EJWNVGTCITCHHG WPVGT FGO   $TWUVDKNF 4CPMG)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV FGT   XKGTHGNFKIG 5EJKNF 7PICTP$ÌJOGP OKV IGVGKNVGO /KVVGNUEJKNF ¤UVGTTGKEJ$WTIWPF WOIGDGP XQP FGT   -GVVG FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU (D  ( W 5  / \ #  5NI .ÌHHNGT    5NI5VTKGDQNN 44#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFRCVKPC 

666

667



&WMCV)TC\I(D*GTKPGM



 &WMCVGP  9KGP  I &GT IGMTÌPVG WPF IGJCTPKUEJVG -CKUGT UVGJV JCNDT FKG 4GEJVG KP FKG   *ÒHVG IGUVGNNV KP FGT .KPMGP 4GKEJUCRHGN \W FGP 5GKVGP LG GKP IGMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 9CRRGPUEJKNF XQP 1TFGPUMGVVG   WOIGDGPWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHVMNGKPGTIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF(D*GTKPGM  442TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPHGKPGT'TJCNVWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

88

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




HABSBURG

668



(GTFKPCPF+++&WMCVGP9KGPIƒ('4&+0#0&85Ú+++Ú&Ú)Û 4Û+5Ú#Ú)Û*Û$Û4':Ù$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFFGT-GVVGFGU 1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGUWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHVFCU/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP8QIGN ,,GUUKPUM[/ÒP\ OGKUVGT KP 9KGP  Ú #4%*+& Ú #85 Ú &8: Û  $84 Ú %1 Ü 6;4 Ú %  Ú )GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP FGP (·PIGP \YKUEJGP FGP -ÌRHGP 4GKEJUCRHGN CWH FGT $TWUV   HGNFKIGU9CRRGPXQP1TFGPUMGVVGWOIGDGPWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHVMNGKPGTIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF (D*GTKPGM 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  (GTFKPCPF +++ 5QJP (GTFKPCPFU ++ WPF #PPC /CTKCU XQP $C[GTP  KP )TC\ Ó KP 9KGP YWTFG UEJQP    \WO -ÌPKI XQP 7PICTP WPF  \WO -ÌPKI XQP $ÌJOGP IGMTÌPV 5GKV FGT 'TOQTFWPI 9CNNGPUVGKPU    HÒJTVG GT FCU 1DGTMQOOCPFQ ÒDGT FKG MCKUGTNKEJGP *GGTG 0CEJ FGO 6QF UGKPGU 8CVGTU  HQNIVG GT KJO CNU   -CKUGT8QPFCCPCTDGKVGVGGTCWHFGP(TKGFGPUMQPITG­JKPFGTKP/ÒPUVGTWPF1UPCDTÒEMGTÌHHPGVYWTFGWPF  \WO 9GUVH·NKUEJGP (TKGFGP HÒJTVG #WH FGO 4GIGPUDWTIGT 4GKEJUVCI XQP  GTTGKEJVG GT FKG -ÌPKIUYCJN   UGKPGU 5QJPGU (GTFKPCPF FGT LGFQEJ XQT KJO UVCTD 0CEJ FGO (TKGFGPUUEJNW­ DGOÒJVG GT UKEJ DGUQPFGTU WO FGP   9KGFGTCWHDCWKP$ÌJOGPWPFUV·TMVGFCUFGWVUEJG'NGOGPVKPFGT$GXÌNMGTWPIKPFGOGT-QNQPKUVGPCWUFGOMCVJQ NKUEJGP5ÒFGP&GWVUEJNCPFUKPU.CPF\QI+PUDGUQPFGTGYWTFGFGT#FGNYGKVIGJGPFGTPGWGTVFKGUUGV\VGUKEJWPVGT UGKPGO0CEJHQNIGT.GQRQNF+HQTV

670

669



&WMCVGP/+$TGUNCWI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QR RGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUVIGMTÌPVGU9CRRGPWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVG FGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU(D(W5 (GNFGTNGKEJVÒDGTCTDGKVGVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



&WMCVGP-$-TGOPKV\I&GTIGMTÌPVGWPFIGJCTPKUEJVG-CKUGTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN UVGJV JCNDT OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FCU <GRVGT UEJWNVGTPF KP FGT .KPMGP 4GKEJUCRHGN \W FGP 5GKVGP FCU   /ÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGP -  $/CFQPPC OKV FGO -KPF CWH FGO #TO WPF <GRVGT KP FGT 4GEJVGP CWH   /QPFUKEJGNWOJGT5VTCJNGPMTCP\(D*GTKPGMCNGKEJVXCT  5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

671 1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCV$TÒPPI('4&+0#0Ù+++&) XGTDWPFGP Ù4Ù+Ù5Ù#Ù)Ù*Ù$Ù4Ùº )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF FGT -GVVG FGU 1TFGPU XQO   )QNFGPGP8NKGUWPVGPFCU/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP-TGKUCWH&TGKGEM ,%4KEJVJCWUGP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP $TÒPP #4%*+&Ù#Ù&8:$84Ù%Ù6;4Ù%Ù)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV FCU 9CRRGP FGU )GUCOVJCWUGU WOIGDGP XQP FGT -GVVG FGU   1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU QDGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN    WPVGP FGT MNGKPG O·JTKUEJG #FNGT   UEJKNF(D*GTKPGM/\#5 FQTVFCU'ZGORNCTFGU/ÒP\MCDKPGVVU9KGPCWHIGHÒJTV  5DQTPKM  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKVWPFDGUQPFGTGT$GFGWVWPIHÒTFKG/ÒP\IGUEJKEJVG/·JTGPU 9CJTUEJGKPNKEJFCUDGMCPPVG'ZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPI  89


HABSBURG

672

673



&WMCV  9KGP  I &GT IGMTÌPVG WPF IGJCTPKUEJVG -CKUGT UVGJV JCNDT OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FCU   <GRVGTUEJWNVGTPFKPFGT.KPMGP4GKEJUCRHGN\WFGP5GKVGPLGGKPIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV9CRRGPUEJKNFWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHV MNGKPGTIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF(D*GTKPGM \WFQTVQJPGFKGIGMTÌPVGP9CRRGPUEJKNFG PGDGPFGO-CKUGT  45GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 



&WMCV-$-TGOPKV\I(D*GTKPGM  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



674



&WMCVGP9KGPI)GRT·IVOKVFGP5VGORGNPFGU6CNGTUr('4&+0#0&85Û+++Û&Ù) Ú 41/  +/ Ù 5' Ù #8 Ù )' Ù *8 Ù $1 Ù 4': Û )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF FGT -GVVG FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU WPVGP FCU /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP    &TGKGEMKP-TGKU ,%4KEJVJCWUGP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP9KGP Ú#4%Ù&8:Û#856Ù&ÙÛ $84 Ù 5 Ù - Ù % Ù % Ù 6;41 Ù )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP FGP (·PIGP WPF   4GKEJUCRHGN\YKUEJGPFGP-ÌRHGPCWHFGT$TWUVFCU9CRRGPFGU)GUCOVJCWUGUWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVG FGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGUWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHVMNGKPGTIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGP\WFGP 5GKVGPFKGUEJT·IIGUEJTKGDGPGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNÛÛÛÛÛ(D*GTKPGMC  445GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPI 

675



.GQRQNF+&WMCVGP9KGPI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ WPFWOIGNGIVGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGT KPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUVFGT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGU)GUCOVJCWUGUWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU WPVGP /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP XGTUEJNWPIGPGU /QPQITCOO #% #PFTGC %GVVQ   /ÒP\OGKUVGTKP9KGP %0#8(D*GTKPGM/\#  44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  .GQRQNF \YGKVGT 5QJP XQP -CKUGT (GTFKPCPF +++ WPF /CTKC #PPC XQP 5RCPKGP  KP 9KGP Ó YCT \W   P·EJUVHÒTFGPIGKUVNKEJGP5VCPFDGUVKOOVYWTFGFCPPCDGT\WO-ÌPKIXQP$ÌJOGPWPF\WOFGWVUEJGP -CKUGTIGMTÌPV+PUGKPGTNCPIGP4GIKGTWPIU\GKVXGTHQNIVGUGKPG2QNKVKM\YGK<KGNG5RCPKGPFGPFGWVUEJGP*CDUDWT IGTP \W IGYKPPGP WPFCWEJ7PICTP\WTGMCVJQNKUKGTGP&CUGTUVGXGTYKEMGNVGKJPKPNCPIYKGTKIG-TKGIGOKV(TCPM TGKEJ&GT8GTUWEJ7PICTP\WTGMCVJQNKUKGTGPTKGHYKGFGTJQNV#WHUV·PFGJGTXQTFKG7PICTPUWEJVGP*KNHGDGKFGP 6ÒTMGP 5Q MCOGP FKG $ÒPFPKUUG .WFYKIU :+8 OKV FGP 6ÒTMGP IGIGP FCU 4GKEJ \WUVCPFG YCU FKG 6ÒTMGPMTKGIG   \WT(QNIGJCVVG<YCTGTHQEJVGP.GQRQNFUDGFGWVGPFG(GNFJGTTGP WC2TKP\'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GP.WFYKI9KNJGNO XQP$CFGPFGT6ÒTMGPNQWKU KOOGTYKGFGTIN·P\GPFG5KGIGFQEJ\GTTÒVVGVGFKGUG2QNKVKM9KTVUEJCHVWPF(KPCP \GP +P &GWVUEJNCPF NGIVG .GQRQNF + FCOKV FGP -GKO HÒT FGP YGKVGTGP <GTHCNN FGU 4GKEJGU KP FGO FKG ITÌ­GTGP   6GTTKVQTKCNUVCCVGPKPUDGUQPFGTG$TCPFGPDWTI2TGW­GPKOOGTUV·TMGTYWTFGP5QNGIVGFGT-CKUGTUGNDUVFGP)TWPF UVGKP HÒT FGP UR·VGTGP &WCNKUOWU FGT ¤UVGTTGKEJ KO  ,CJTJWPFGTV FGO GPIGTGP FGWVUEJGP 4CWO GPVHTGOFGP   UQNNVG

90


HABSBURG

676



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678

677

679

680



&WMCV ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV -$-TGOPKV\I(D*GTKPGM 8QT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCV-$-TGOPKV\I(D*GTKPGM

5GJTUEJÌP





&WMCV-$-TGOPKV\I(D*GTKPGM

8QT\ÒINKEJ





,QUGH+&WMCV9KGPI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\1TFGPU MGVVGWPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT $TWUVIGMTÌPVGT\YGKHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNF(D*GTKPGM 445GJTUEJÌP 

681

682

683



&WMCV  )' 2TCI /ÒP\OGKUVGT )TGIQT 'IGTGT  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGT   MTCP\)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 9CRRGPUEJKNF   &KGVKMGT(D*CNCEMC 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV/KPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP 



-CTN8+&WMCV-$-TGOPKV\I(D*GTKPGM



&WMCV-$-TGOPKV\I(D*GTKPGM

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8QT\ÒINKEJ

 91


HABSBURG

685

684

 

&WMCV-$-TGOPKV\I(D*GTKPGM &WMCV9KGPI(D*GTKPGM

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

686



/CTKC6JGTGUKC&WMCVGP9KGPI/Û6*'4'5+#Û&Ù)Û4Û+/2Ü)' Û *7 Û $1 Û 4') Û $TWUVDKNF T OKV &KCFGO WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN#4%*+& Û #756 Û &7: Û    $74)Û%1/Û6;4ÛÛ)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKVIGMTÌPVGOXKGTHGNFKIGP9CRRGPOKVIGMTÌP VGO/KVVGNUEJKNFCWHFGT$TWUVWPVGP-CTVWUEJGOKVFGT9GTV\CJN8+'[RGNVCWGTC(D  448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  /CTKC 6JGTGUKC  9KGP Ó 9KGP UGKV  OKV (TCP\ 5VGRJCP XQP .QVJTKPIGP XGTJGKTCVGV   OW­VGQJPGGKIGPVNKEJG8QTDGTGKVWPICWHKJT#OVPCEJFGO6QFKJTGU8CVGTU-CTN8+FGP-CORHWOKJT 'TDG CPVTGVGP +JTG )GIPGT KO ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGI   YCTGP -CTN #NDTGEJV XQP $C[GTP WPF   UGKPG8GTDÒPFGVGP XQTCNNGO(TCPMTGKEJWPF5RCPKGP FKGPKEJVFKG2TCIOCVKUEJG5CPMVKQPXQPCPGTMCPPVGP KPFGTFKGYGKDNKEJG'TDHQNIGFGU*CWUGU*CDUDWTIIGTGIGNVYQTFGPYCT0CEJFGO'PFGFKGUGU-TKGIGUXGTUWEJVG FKG-CKUGTKPKO5KGDGPL·JTKIGP-TKGIIGIGP(TKGFTKEJ++XQP2TGW­GP  GTHQNINQU5EJNGUKGP\WTÒEM\WIG YKPPGP +O +PPGTP HÒJTVG /CTKC 6JGTGUKC VKGHITGKHGPFG 4GHQTOGP FGT 8GTYCNVWPI WPF FGU 5EJWNYGUGPU FWTEJ WPF   TGFW\KGTVGFGP'KPHNW­FGT-KTEJGGTJGDNKEJ&KGEJCTKUOCVKUEJG2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVCNU(TCWWPF/WVVGTXQP-KPFGTP KJTG(·JKIMGKVKO7OICPIOKV/KVCTDGKVGTPWPFKJTG7OUKEJVKPFGT5VCCVUHÒJTWPIOCEJVGP/CTKC6JGTGUKC\WGKPGT FGTDGNKGDVGUVGPWPFDGFGWVGPFUVGP*GTTUEJGTHKIWTGPFGU#DUQNWVKUOWU

687



1,5:1

&WMCV-CTNUDWTII'[RGNVCWGTC(D

687

4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



688



(TCP\+5QWXGTCKPF QT#PVYGTRGPI(4#0%Û&Û)Û4Û+Û5Û#Û )'Û+'4Û4Û.1Û$Û/Û*Û&Û)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\,06'&1/+0'Û 52'4#8+ÛÛ *CPF )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV OGJTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPWOIGDGPXQPFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU&GNO'[RGNVCWGT (D 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  (TCP\ + 5VGRJCP  0CPE[Ó+PPUDTWEM5QJP*GT\QI.GQRQNFUXQP.QVJTKPIGPWPF'NKUC DGVJ %JCTNQVVGU XQP 1TN¾CPU MCO  CP FGP 9KGPGT *QH WPF YWTFG FQTV GT\QIGP  YWTFG GT *GT\QI XQP   .QVJTKPIGP  *GT\QI XQP $CT WPF  5VCVVJCNVGT KP 7PICTP 0CEJ UGKPGT 8GTO·JNWPI OKV /CTKC 6JGTGUKC    XGT\KEJVGVG GT \WIWPUVGP XQP 5VCPKUNCWU .GUE\[PUMK CWH .QVJTKPIGP WPF YWTFG FCHÒT  )TQ­JGT\QI XQP   6QUMCPC #O  1MVQDGT  \WO FGWVUEJGP -CKUGT IGMTÌPV YWTFG (TCP\ + XQP FGT 2QNKVKM HGTPIGJCNVGP WPF   YKFOGVG UKEJ UGKPGP PCVWTYKUUGPUEJCHVNKEJGP WPF UCOONGTKUEJGP +PVGTGUUGP  DGICPP GT GTHQNITGKEJ FKG 5CPKG   TWPIFGTÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP5VCCVUHKPCP\GPFKGLGFQEJFWTEJUGKPGPRNÌV\NKEJGP6QFWPVGTDTQEJGPYWTFG

92


HABSBURG

689

1,5:1

1,5:1



&WMCV  *# *CNN  I $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ 1TFGPUMGVVG WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN   )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF<GRVGTKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUVIGMTÌPVGU9CRRGPWPVGP \WFGP5GKVGP*#(D/6 448QT\ÒINKEJ  &GT&QRRGNCFNGTFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPIFKGUGUUGNVGPGP&WMCVGPVT·IVCNU/KVVGNUEJKNFFCUIGVGKNVG9CRRGP.QVJ TKPIGP6QUMCPC FCU (COKNKGPYCRRGP FGU -CKUGTU #WEJ \GKIV FKG 4ÒEMUGKVG FGP 9CJNURTWEJ 67 &1/+0' 52'5   /'# &W*GTTDKUVOGKPG*QHHPWPI #WHITÌ­GTGP0QOKPCNGP)QNFQFGT5KNDGTKUVFGT5RTWEJGVYCUCDIG ·PFGTV+06'&1/+0'52'4#8+ #WH&KEJ*GTTJCDGKEJIGJQHHV 

690 1,5:1

1,5:1



,QUGH++&WMCV9KGPI-ÌPKIUFWMCV)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\ 1TFGPUMGVVG WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGU 9CRRGP XQP \YGK )TGKHGP IGJCNVGP (D    *GTKPGM 448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

692

691

691



&WMCV)0CI[D±P[CI(D,

48QT\ÒINKEJ





5QXTCPQ//CKNCPFI(DC,  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



693

 

&WMCV(*CNNI(D, .GQRQNF++&WMCV-TGOPKV\I(D,

695

694

.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

696



(TCP\++5QWXGTCKPF QT$-TGOPKV\I(D,5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\



5QXTCPQ//CKNCPFI(GKPIQNF(DC,C5EJN

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

  93


HABSBURG • ÖSTERREICH

698

697

699

700

701

-#+5'44'+%*¤56'44'+%* 

(TCP\+&WMCV#9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCV#WUYWTHOÒP\GHÒTFKGWPICTKUEJG-TÌPWPIFGU-TQPRTKP\GP(GTFKPCPFCO5GRVGODGT KP2TG­DWTII&KG-ÌRHGXQP(TCP\+WPFUGKPGO5QJP(GTFKPCPFPGDGPGKPCPFGTT-TQPG KP5VTCJNGPMTCP\FCTWPVGTFTGK<GKNGP5EJTKHV(D5NI*QTUM[ 48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



 

&WMCV$-TGOPKV\I(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN &WMCV'-CTNUDWTII(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN

8QT\ÒINKEJ 48QT\ÒINKEJ

 



5QXTCPQ//CKNCPFI(GKPIQNF(DG,5EJN  9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



703

702



704

(GTFKPCPF+-NGKPG)QNFOGFCKNNG\WGKPGO&WMCVGPCWHUGKPGDÌJOKUEJG-TÌPWPIKP 2TCI-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\-TQPGÒDGTXKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





&WMCVCWHFKG*WNFKIWPIKP5KGDGPDÒTIGP-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&CUIGMTÌPVGUKGDGPDÒTIK UEJG9CRRGPOOI5NI/QPVGPWQXQ FQTVKP5KNDGT 4GUEJ 5VGORGNINCP\





&WMCV#9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN

8QT\ÒINKEJ



(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

 



5QXTCPQ//CKNCPFI(GKPIQNF(DI,5EJN  -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





5QXTCPQ88GPGFKII(GKPIQNF(D FQTVWPVGT+VCNKGP ,5EJN  45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



706

705

 

&WMCVGP#9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN &WMCV-TGOPKV\I(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN

707

94

705

708


HABSBURG • ÖSTERREICH

709

710



&WMCV-TGOPKV\I(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN



4GXQNWVKQPKP7PICTP&WMCV-TGOPKV\/KVOCI[CTKUEJGT7OUEJTKHVI(GKP IQNF(D,5EJN (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

712

711

8QT\ÒINKEJ

713

 

714



(TCP\,QUGH+&WMCV'-CTNUDWTII(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  8QT\ÒINKEJ





8GTGKPUMTQPG#9KGPI(GKPIQNF&KXQ5(D,5EJN  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ



 

&WMCV$-TGOPKV\I(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN &WMCV'-CTNUDWTII(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN

715

48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

716



8GTGKPUMTQPG#9KGPI(GKPIQNF&KXQ5(D,5EJN  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



&WMCV#9KGPCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPI\WO-ÌPKIXQP7PICTPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN5NI *QTUM[ 5VGORGNINCP\

717

718

   

 

 

719

718

&WMCV'-CTNUDWTII(GKPIQNF(D,C5EJN 4(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ &WMCVGP#9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,C5EJN 45GJTUEJÌP (TCPMGP (QTKPV -$-TGOPKV\I(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ (TCPMGP (QTKPV -$-TGOPKV\I(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP

    95


HABSBURG • ÖSTERREICH

721



&WMCVGP9KGPCWHFCU(GUVUEJKG­GPFGU9KGPGT5EJÒV\GPXGTGKPU\WOL·JTKIGP4GIKGTWPIULW DKN·WOFGU-CKUGTUI$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\\YKUEJGP'KEJGPWPF.QTDGGT\YGKIKO·W­GTGP -TGKUFKG9CRRGPUEJKNFGXQP$ÌJOGP)CNK\KGP0KGFGTÌUVGTTGKEJ5CN\DWTI-·TPVGP5VGKGTOCTM6KTQN /·JTGP5EJNGUKGP 5KGDGPDÒTIGP +NNKTKGP /CKNCPF 8GPGFKI WPF 7PICTP('56 (4'+ 5%*+'55'0   81/9+'0'45%*ª6<'08'4'+0)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKVFGO9KGPGT5VCFVYCRRGPCWH FGT$TWUVWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHV-CTVWUEJGOKVFGT9GTVCPICDG&%(D,5EJN  442TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

722

1,5:1

1,5:1



&WMCV-$-TGOPKV\I('4'0%<,¡<5'(+Û-Û#Û%5Û—5Û/Û*Û5Û&Û1Û#2 Û-+4Û-QRHTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCTWPVGTFCU/ÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGP-Û$Û -ÌTOÌE\$±P[C-TGO PKV\ /#);#4  -+4Š.;5Š) /KV FGT 5VGRJCPUMTQPG DGNGIVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP-TQCVKGP&CN OCVKGP5NQYGPKGPWPF5KGDGPDÒTIGPOKVFGO/KVVGNUEJKNFXQP7PICTPWPVGPKPFGT7OUEJTKHVFKG,CJ TGU\CJN\YKUEJGP\YGKUGEJUUVTCJNKIGP5VGTPGP(D,5EJN  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCT 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

723



)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPXQP#5EJCTHHWPF#$WUUQP5EJÒV\GPRTGKUFGU\YGKVGPÌUVGTTGKEJK UEJGP$WPFGUUEJKGUUGPUKP+PPUDTWEM7PKHQTOKGTVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFFGT-GVVG FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP   OOI5NI/QTQUKPK 448QT\ÒINKEJ 



)WNFGP (TCPMGP 9KGP+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(D Z , Z 5EJN  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



726

725

  96

&WMCVGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN -TQPGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN

725

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 


HABSBURG • ÖSTERREICH

727

728

 

728

-TQPGP-$-TGOPKV\I(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN (CUV5VGORGNINCP\ &WMCVGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

729

730

731

732

 

733



-TQPGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN



&WMCV  # 9KGP CWH FCU L·JTKIG 4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO  I (GKPIQNF (D  ,    5EJN 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



&WMCV  # 9KGP CWH FCU L·JTKIG 4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO  I (GKPIQNF (D  ,    5EJN 440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 



&WMCV  # 9KGP CWH FCU L·JTKIG 4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO  I (GKPIQNF (D  ,    5EJN 440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 



-TQPGP-$-TGOPKV\I(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN

734

737

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 



736

737



-TQPGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-TQPGP9KGP+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJWPFDGUUGT





-TQPGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





 -TQPGP  -$ -TGOPKV\ CWH FCU L·JTKIG -TÌPWPIULWDKN·WO CNU -ÌPKI XQP 7PICTP  I   (GKPIQNF(D,5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ  97


HABSBURG • ÖSTERREICH

739

738



&WMCVGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN



 -TQPGP  9KGP CWH UGKP L·JTKIGU 4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO  I (GKPIQNF (D  ,    5EJN (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



740

741

741



-TQPGP9KGP/CTUEJCNNV[RI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  42T·IGDGFKPIVG4CPFWPGDGPJGKVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-TQPGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



742



743

-TQPGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4GRWDNKM-TQPGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ



4'27$.+-¤56'44'+%* 

744

745

745



-TQPGP9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN

48QT\ÒINKEJ





5EJKNNKPI9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



98


HABSBURG • GEISTLICHKEIT

747

746

747



5EJKNNKPI9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV.GKEJVDGTKGDGPXQT\ÒINKEJ





5EJKNNKPI9KGPI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



748

749



5EJKNNKPI9KGP5V.GQRQNFI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





5EJKNNKPI9KGP5V.GQRQNFI(GKPIQNF(D,5EJN



8QT\ÒINKEJ

750

&+')'+56.+%*-'+6+0&'0*#$5$74)+5%*'0'4$.#0&'0 1./ª6<$+567/ 

-CTN ++ XQP .KGEJVGPUVGKP   &WMCVGP  ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV     I $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV/KV /KVTC WPF (ÒTUVGPJWV DGNGIVGU 9CRRGP FCJKPVGT   -TWOOUVCDWPF5EJYGTVIGMTGW\V(D5WEJQOGN8KFGOCP XINFQTV&WMCVGP   44-N-TCV\GTWPF\YGKHCEJGKPIGTKV\VG9GTV\CJNCWHFGT2QTVT·VUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP 

751

753

752



9QNHICPIXQP5EJTCVVGPDCEJ&WMCVQ,I(D5WEJQOGN8KFGOCP 8QT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCVQ,I(D5WEJQOGN8KFGOCP

8QT\ÒINKEJ



/CVVJ·WU.CPIXQP9GNNGPDWTI&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V 45GJTUEJÌP



5#.<$74)'4<$+567/ 

/CVVJ·WU .CPI XQP 9GNNGPDWTI  CNU 5QJP GKPGT #WIUDWTIGT $ÒTIGTHCOKNKG MCO CNU 5GMTGV·T WPF &KRNQOCV   -CKUGT/CZKOKNKCPU+DCNF\WJQJGP9ÒTFGP5GKPG8GTFKGPUVGWOFCU*CWU*CDUDWTIYWTFGPOKVTGKEJGP2HTÒPFGP DGNQJPV &QORTQRUVGKKP#WIUDWTI#DVGK8KMVTKPIFCU$KUVWO)WTMKP-·TPVGPWUY &CU5CN\DWTIGT&QOMCRKVGN FCPMVG KJO HÒT FKG 8GTOKVVNWPI DGK FGT $GHTGKWPI XQP FGP WPDGSWGOGP 1TFGPUIGNÒDFGP \WIWPUVGP FGU GKPHCEJGP   -NGTKMGTUVCPFGUKPFGOGUKJPIGIGPFGP9KNNGP.GQPJCTFUXQP-GWVUEJCEJ\WO-QCFLWVQTOKVFGO4GEJVFGT 0CEJHQNIG Y·JNVG #NU 5QJP FGT KP XQNNGT YKTVUEJCHVNKEJGT $NÒVG UVGJGPFGP 4GKEJUUVCFV #WIUDWTI HÒJNVG GT UKEJ CNU   *WOCPKUV WPF )TCPFUGKIPGWT DKU FGT $CWGTPMTKGI XQP  KJP \W GKPUEJPGKFGPFGT PFGTWPI UGKPGT .GDGPUYGKUG   \YCPI +P FGT *QJGPUCN\DWTI XQP FGP #WHUV·PFKUEJGP DGNCIGTV WPF GTUV XQO 5EJY·DKUEJGP $WPFDGHTGKVOW­VGGT DKU\WUGKPGO.GDGPUGPFGFKGGTNKVVGPGP5EJ·FGPWPF8GTNWUVGFWTEJ·W­GTUVG5RCTUCOMGKVYKGFGTGKPDTKPIGPYQDGK GTCWEJUGKPGGKIGPG2GTUQPFCXQPPKEJVCWUPCJO/CVVJ·WUUVCTDKO#NVGTXQP,CJTGP

99


HABSBURG • GEISTLICHKEIT

754

755



'TPUVXQP$C[GTP&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V  /KPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



,QJCPP,CMQD-JWGPXQP$GNCUK&WMCVGPOKV6KVGN4WFQNHU++I(D 2TQDU\V 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



757

756



9QNH&KGVTKEJXQP4CKVGPCW&WMCVGPI(D2TQDU\V  -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCVGPI(D2TQDU\V



5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

759

758

759



2CTKU XQP .QFTQP   &WMCVGP  CWH FKG &QOYGKJG  I 5V 4WFDGTVWU WPF 5V   8KTIKNKWU UKV\GP X X OKV -TWOOUV·DGP WPF JCNVGP GKP &QOOQFGNN WPVGP .GICVGPJWV ÒDGT 9CRRGP   8QPCEJV$KUEJÌHGPIGVTCIGPGT4GNKSWKGPUEJTGKPWPVGP\YGK'PIGNOKV4CWEJHC­(D2TQDU\VC 44-N-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 



&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

48QT\ÒINKEJ

761

760



762



&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

8QT\ÒINKEJ





)WKFQDCNFXQP6JWPWPF*QJGPUVGKP&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V  8QT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

8QT\ÒINKEJ



8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ (CUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

763

765

764

765

 

&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V &WMCVI(D2TQDU\V



/CZ )CPFQNRJ XQP -ÒGPDWTI   &WMCVGP   I 5GEJUHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP WPVGT   .GICVGPJWV&KG DGKFGP 5VKHVUJGKNKIGP 5V 4WFDGTVWU WPF 5V 8KTIKNKWU UKV\GP PGDGPGKPCPFGT X X OKV   -TWOOUV·DGPFKG-ÌRHGGKPCPFGT\WIGYCPFVFCXQT-KTEJGPOQFGNN(D2TQDU\V  449KP\*GPMGNURWTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

100


HABSBURG • GEISTLICHKEIT

766

768

767

 

&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V &WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 



&WMCVI(D FQTVKTTVÒONKEJCNU&WMCVDG\GKEJPGV 2TQDU\V  (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



770

771

769



,QJCPP'TPUVXQP6JWPWPF*QJGPUVGKP&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V  4/KPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 

&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V &WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

 

772

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

773

774

775

 

&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V &WMCVI(D2TQDU\V



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776

/KPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 48QT\ÒINKEJ

778

777

 

&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V &WMCVI(D2TQDU\V



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779

 

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780



&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

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  101


HABSBURG â&#x20AC;¢ GEISTLICHKEIT

781

782

782 1,5:1



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783

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



785

784



&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



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786

787





787

1,5:1



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788 789

790



5KIKUOWPF+++XQP5EJTCVVGPDCEJ&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



 

&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V &WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

 

791

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792



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*KGTQP[OWUXQP%QNNQTGFQ&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

102

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

 


HABSBURG • GEISTLICHKEIT

793

794

  

796

 

795

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797

798

 

800

799

&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V &WMCVI(D2TQDU\V



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48QT\ÒINKEJ



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5#.<$74)-74(ª456'067/ 

(GTFKPCPF&WMCVI(D2TQDU\V

5#.<$74)*'4<1)67/  

802

801

801

56&6'+0&'0*#$5$74)+5%*'0'4$.#0&'0 -4'/0+6< 

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9+'0  103


DEUTSCHLAND • ANHALT

&'765%*')1.&/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0

803

#0*#.6 #0*#.6$'40$74)(ª456'067/5'+6*'4<1)67/ 

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804

804 1,5:1



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805

805 1,5:1



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806

806 1,5:1

56#&6  104

#7)5$74)

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DEUTSCHLAND • BADEN

808 809

807



&WMCVOKV6KVGN,QUGHU++I(QTUVGT(D

8QT\ÒINKEJ



$GKFKGUGT/ÒP\GJCPFGNVGUUKEJWOFGPNGV\VGP&WMCVGPFGT4GKEJUUVCFV

$#&'0/#4-)4#(5%*#(6 

$#&'0

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$#&'0&74.#%*/#4-)4#(5%*#(65'+6-74(ª456'067/ 5'+6)4155*'4<1)67/ 

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810

811

$#;'40 *'4<1)67/5'+6-74(ª456'067/5'+6-¤0+)4'+%* 

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5GJTUEJÌP



 

/CZF QT/ÒPEJGPI(D*CJP -TCV\GTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP -CTN#NDGTV-CTQNKP/ÒPEJGPI(D*CJP 5GJTUEJÌP

 



/CZKOKNKCP +++ ,QUGRJ  &WMCV  /ÒPEJGP CWH UGKPG 8GTO·JNWPI OKV /CTKC #PPC   6QEJVGT XQP (TKGFTKEJ #WIWUV -ÌPKI XQP 2QNGP WPF -WTHÒTUV XQP 5CEJUGP 5VGORGN WPUKIPKGTV XQP   (#5EJGICI$GKFGT$TWUVDKNFGTPGDGPGKPCPFGTT$GTIKIG(NW­NCPFUEJCHVOKV5QPPGWPF\YGK 4GIGPDÌIGPKO#DUEJPKVVFTGK<GKNGP5EJTKHV(D)TQVGOG[GT5NI/GTUGD9KVV 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

814 812

813

105


DEUTSCHLAND • BAYERN

815

816



&WMCV  /ÒPEJGP )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKPOCPVGN 1TFGPUDCPF WPF   8NKGU<YGK .ÌYGP JCNVGP FCU OKV FGO -WTJWV DGFGEMVG XKGTHGNFKIG 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF FCTKP   4GKEJUCRHGNWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGUWPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN+P752NC UVKMJQNFGTFGT2%)5OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI/5(D*CJP 8QT\ÒINKEJ 



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817



8QT\ÒINKEJ



818

/CZKOKNKCP+ +8 ,QUGRJ)QNFIWNFGPQ,0GWLCJTUIQNFIWNFGP2T·UGPVFGT5VCFV 9ÒT\DWTII&KXQ5 FQTVWPVGT9ÒT\DWTI (D5EJN FQTVWPVGT9ÒT\DWTI   /KPLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



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&WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN

1,5:1



/KP-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



819 1,5:1

&WMCV  +UCTIQNF  I -QRH T(NW­IQVV NCIGTV PCEJ T WPF GPVNGGTV OKV DGKFGP *·PFGP GKPG   9CUUGTWTPGFCXQTFCUDC[GTKUEJG9CRRGPKO*KPVGTITWPFT5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP/ÒPEJGPOKVFGT(TCW GPMKTEJG&KXQ5(D5EJN 448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

821 820

822

 

&WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN &WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN

W­GTUVUGNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJ 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ



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106

 


DEUTSCHLAND • BAYERN

823

824



&WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN  40WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV9KP\-TCV\GT'TUVCDUEJNCIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





&WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN



40WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ

825

825 1,5:1



&WMCV&QPCWIQNFI-QRHT&GT(NW­IQVVFGT&QPCWNCIGTVPCEJNOKVFGOTGEJVGP#TO CWH GKPG 9CUUGTWTPG IGNGJPV FGT NKPMG #TO NKGIV CWH FGO DC[GTKUEJGP 9CRRGP PGDGP UGKPGP (Ò­GP   5EJKNH/KVNCVGKPKUEJGT.GIGPFGCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG&KXQ5(D5EJN 448QT\ÒINKEJ  &KG4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPIFKGUGU&WMCVGPKUVCWUFGO,CJTJWPFGTVÒDGTPQOOGPYQTFGP5KGNGJPVUKEJCPTÌOK UEJG8QTDKNFGTCP

826

826 1,5:1



&WMCV&QPCWIQNFI-QRHT&GT(NW­IQVVFGT&QPCWNCIGTVPCEJNOKVFGOTGEJVGP#TO CWH GKPG 9CUUGTWTPG IGNGJPV FGT NKPMG #TO NKGIV CWH FGO DC[GTKUEJGP 9CRRGP PGDGP UGKPGP (Ò­GP   5EJKNH/KVNCVGKPKUEJGT.GIGPFGCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG&KXQ5(D5EJN 448QT\ÒINKEJ 

827

827 1,5:1



&WMCV  +PPIQNF  I -QRH T&GT (NW­IQVV NCIGTV PCEJ T OKV FGO TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG   9CUUGTWTPGIGNGJPVOKVFGT.KPMGPJ·NVGTFCUDC[GTKUEJG9CRRGP&KXQ5(D5EJN  442TCEJVGZGORNCT/KPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

828

828 1,5:1



&WMCV  +UCTIQNF  I -QRH T(NW­IQVV NCIGTV PCEJ T WPF GPVNGGTV OKV DGKFGP *·PFGP GKPG   9CUUGTWTPGFCXQTFCUDC[GTKUEJG9CRRGPKO*KPVGTITWPFT5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP/ÒPEJGPOKVFGT(TCW GPMKTEJG&KXQ5(D5EJN 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  107


DEUTSCHLAND • BAYERN

830 829



831

&WMCV  4JGKPIQNF  I -QRH T4JGKPNCPFUEJCHV OKV 6GKNCPUKEJV FGT 5VCFV 5RG[GT WPF FGO   &QOCOTGEJVGP4JGKPWHGTGKP5EJKHH&KXQ5(D5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ  9·JTGPF CWH FGP PQTOCNGP &WMCVGP N·PIUV \WT FGWVUEJGP 6KVWNCVWT ÒDGTIGICPIGP YQTFGP YCT DGJKGNV $C[GTP DGK   FGP4JGKPIQNFFWMCVGPDKU\WO5EJNW­FGT2T·IWPIFKGNCVGKPKUEJG5EJTGKDYGKUGDGK



)QNFIWNFGP Q ,   0GWLCJTUIQNFIWNFGP 2T·UGPV FGT 5VCFV 9ÒT\DWTI I&KXQ5

FQTVWPVGT9ÒT\DWTI (D5EJN FQTVWPVGT9ÒT\DWTI  8QT\ÒINKEJ 



&WMCV  4JGKPIQNF  I -QRH T4JGKPNCPFUEJCHV OKV 6GKNCPUKEJV FGT 5VCFV 5RG[GT WPF FGO   &QOCOTGEJVGP4JGKPWHGTGKP5EJKHH&KXQ5(D5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ  9·JTGPF CWH FGP PQTOCNGP &WMCVGP N·PIUV \WT FGWVUEJGP 6KVWNCVWT ÒDGTIGICPIGP YQTFGP YCT DGJKGNV $C[GTP DGK   FGP4JGKPIQNFFWMCVGPDKU\WO5EJNW­FGT2T·IWPIFKGNCVGKPKUEJG5EJTGKDYGKUGDGK

1,5:1



832

1,5:1

/CZKOKNKCP++&WMCV<YKVVGTFWMCVI/#:+/+.+#0++$#8#4+#'4': -QRH T FCTWPVGT 5KIPCVWT % 8 %CTN (TKGFTKEJ 8QKIV /ÒP\OGKUVGT CD  KP /ÒPEJGP '+0   &7%#6'0<YGKPCEJCW­GPDNKEMGPFGIGMTÌPVGFQRRGNUEJY·P\KIG.ÌYGPJCNVGPFCUIGMTÌPVGDC[GTK UEJG 9CRRGP CWH 2QUVCOGPV FCTWPVGT FKG ,CJTGU\CJN  &KXQ5  (D  FQTV WPIGPCW    ,<5EJN  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\  &KG XQTNKGIGPFG /ÒP\G YKTF CNU <YKVVGTFWMCV DG\GKEJPGV FC FGT 8QTFGTUGKVGPUVGORGN XQO 4JGKPIQNFFWMCVGP  

&KXQ5 WPFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPUVGORGNXQO&WMCVGPV[R &KXQ5 XGTYGPFGVYWTFG

833

834

835



&WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





8GTGKPUMTQPGI&KXQ5(D5EJN  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





.WFYKI ++  )QNFIWNFGP Q ,   0GWLCJTUIQNFIWNFGP 2T·UGPV FGT 5VCFV 9ÒT\DWTI   I&KXQ5(D5EJN 48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

108


DEUTSCHLAND • BRANDENBURG

1,5:1



836

1,5:1

 &WMCVGP  CWH FCU L·JTKIG ,WDKN·WO FGT -ÌPKINKEJGP .GKDICTFG FGT *CTVUEJKGTG  I   &KXQ5(D5EJN 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT (CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

837



.WKVRQNF 2TKP\TGIGPV  )QNFOGFCKNNG \W  &WMCVGP  XQP # $ÌTUEJ 2TGKUOGFCKNNG   XGTNKGJGPDGKO$C[GTKUEJGP8GTGKPUWPF,WDKN·WOUUEJKG­GPKP/ÒPEJGP$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGT 1TFGPUMGVVG&CU /ÒPEJGPGT -KPFN OKV WOIGJ·PIVGO )GYGJT UVGJV CWH \YGK IGMTGW\VGP 'KEJGP\YGK   IGP FKG .KPMG CWH FGP 4CWVGPUEJKNF FKG 4GEJVG CWH GKPG <KGNUEJGKDG IGNGIV  OO  I   5NI2GNV\GT9KVV 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

838

839



840

$4#0&'0$74)+0(4#0-'0 $4#0&'0$74)+0(4#0-'0/#4-)4#(5%*#(6 

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$4#0&'0$74)$#;4'76*/#4-)4#(5%*#(6

1,5:1

841 1,5:1

$4#0&'0$74)#05$#%*/#4-)4#(5%*#(6 

-CTN9KNJGNO(TKGFTKEJ&WMCVI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMÌPVGT #FNGT ÒDGT <QNNGTPUEJKNF \W FGP 5GKVGP 2CNO WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI (D    5NI9KNO 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  109


DEUTSCHLAND • BRANDENBURG

1,5:1

842

1,5:1

$4#0&'0$74)24'755'0 $4#0&'0$74)/#4-)4#(5%*#(6 5'+6&'/,#*4*70&'46-74(ª456'067/ 

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844

843

844



)GQTI 9KNJGNO  &WMCV  &- -ÌPKIUDGTI  I $TWUVDKNF T KO -WTQTPCV WPF OKV   -WTJWV-WTJWV ÒDGT XKGTHGNFKIGO 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN WPF   FCU/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP&- &CXKF-QEJ/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP-ÌPKIUDGTIEC CO'PFG FGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHVFCU9CTFGKP\GKEJGP-TGW\ÒDGT*GT\ 'TPUV2HCJNGT9CTFGKPKP-ÌPKIUDGTI  (D/CTKGPD1NFC 44/KPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNOFGT)TQ­G-WTHÒTUV&WMCVGPQ,  -ÌPKIUDGTI5VGO RGNUEJPGKFGT0QCJ$TGVVUEJPGKFGTWPF/ÒP\OGKUVGT&CPKGN-QEJI&GT-WTHÒTUVKO-WTQTPCVWPF OKV <GRVGT KP FGT 4GEJVGP TGKVGV T'KPG XQP QDGP FCTIGUVGNNVG IGÌHHPGVG 4QUGPDNÒVG DGNGIV OKV FGO   -WTUEJKNFWOJGT9CRRGPUEJKNFGFGTDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP$GUKV\WPIGP(DX5EJTD  445GJTUEJÌP 

845

1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCVGP+*$GTNKPCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP5VGVVKPI$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCT WPVGTFCU/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP+ Û*Û ,QJCPP*ÌJP5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT 5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP5VGVVKPFCT ÒDGT #FNGT WPF )TGKH FKG IGOGKPUCO FCU -WT\GRVGT JCNVGP KO #DUEJPKVV FCU &CVWO FGT 'TQDGTWPI   $CJTH#PO5(D XIN X5EJT5NI*GPEMGN 448QT\ÒINKEJ  0CEJFGO 5VGVVKP KO 9GUVH·NKUEJGP (TKGFGP PGDUV 8QTRQOOGTP CP 5EJYGFGP CDIGVTGVGP YQTFGP YCT MQPPVG FGT   )TQ­G-WTHÒTUVFKG5VCFVPCEJJCTVP·EMKIGT8GTVGKFKIWPIUGKVGPUFGT5EJYGFGPWPFFGT$ÒTIGTUEJCHVCO&G\GO DGT  GKPPGJOGP &KG -CRKVWNCVKQP FGT 5VCFV MQPPVG JKPIGIGP GTUV CO  ,CPWCT  GT\YWPIGP YGTFGP &GT   5KGIYCTLGFQEJPWTXQPMWT\GT&CWGTDGTGKVUOW­VG5VGVVKPYKGFGTCP5EJYGFGP\WTÒEMIGIGDGPYGTFGP

110


DEUTSCHLAND • BRANDENBURG

846

1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCVGP%55VGVVKPCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP5VGVVKPI$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCT WPVGT FCU /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP %5Ő %JTKUVQRJ 5WETQ /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 5VGVVKP  5VCFVCPUKEJV   XQP 5VGVVKP T QDGP GKP WOUVTCJNVGU 5QPPGPIGUKEJV FCTÒDGT DQIKI .8%' 4'584)1 018# Û KO   #DUEJPKVVFCU&CVWOFGT'TQDGTWPI$CJTH(DX5EJT 448QT\ÒINKEJ 

847

847 1,5:1



&WMCV  .%5 $GTNKP )WKPGC&WMCV  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU *ÒHVDKNF T OKV -QOOCPFQUVCD&TGK   OCUVGT QDGP N 9KPF CWU 9QNMGP KO #DUEJPKVV FCU /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP .%5 .QTGP\ %JTKUVQRJ   5EJPGKFGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP$GTNKP (DX5EJT 44/KPIGYGNNVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  )WKPGC&WMCVGP 5EJKHHUFWMCVGP  UKPF &WMCVGP FKG CWU CHTKMCPKUEJGO )QNF IGRT·IV YWTFGP 0CEJFGO FGT )TQ­G   -WTHÒTUVFKG-QNQPKG)TQ­HTKGFTKEJUDWTICPFGT-ÒUVGXQP)WKPGCIGITÒPFGVJCVVGYWTFGPKP$GTNKPXQP DKU)WKPGCFWMCVGPIGUEJNCIGP&KG/ÒP\MQUVGPHÒTFKGUG5VÒEMGYCTGPUGJTJQEJGUHCPFGPUKEJLGFQEJXKGNG .KGDJCDGTFKGUGU9CJT\GKEJGPUGKPGTHTÒJGP-QNQPKUKGTWPIFWTEJGKPGPFGWVUEJGP(ÒTUVGP

848

849

849 1,5:1

850

850

24'755'0-¤0+)4'+%* 

(TKGFTKEJ +++ +&WMCV%5$GTNKPI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO WOJGT FKG -GVVG FGU 5EJYCT\GP #FNGTQTFGPU   (DX5EJT (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+FGT5QNFCVGPMÌPKI&WMCV*(*/CIFGDWTII)GJCT PKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGU HGNFKIGU 9CRRGP   (DX5EJT 8QT\ÒINKEJ 



&WMCV*(*/CIFGDWTII(DX5EJT

.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP

 111


DEUTSCHLAND • BRANDENBURG

851

1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCVGP')0$GTNKPI(4+&Û9+.*&Û)Û4':Û$14Û'.Û$4Û)GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO1TFGPUDCPFWPF<QRH)GMTÌPVGTQXCNGT9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGPFKGIGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJNWPVGPFCU/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP'Û)Û0f 'TPUV)GQTI0GWDCWGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP $GTNKP (D \W X5EJT \W   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV9QJNWPGFKGTV5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  $GKFGOXQTNKGIGPFGP5VÒEMJCPFGNVGUUKEJWOGKPGP&KEMCDUEJNCIXQPFGP5VGORGNPFGUGKPHCEJGP&WMCVGP $GTNKP &CU 5VÒEM KUV PCEJ WPUGTGP 7PVGTNCIGP WPGFKGTV &GTCTVKIG &QRRGNFWMCVGP CWU FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG $GTNKP UKPF   CW­GTQTFGPVNKEJUGNVGPWPFYCTGPDKUJGTPWTXQPWPFDGMCPPV

853 852

854

 

&WMCV')0$GTNKPI(DX5EJT &WMCV')0$GTNKPI(DX5EJT

#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 44.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ



)QNFOGFCKNNG\WGKPGO&WMCVGPQ,  CWHFKG#WHPCJOGFGT5CN\DWTIGT'OKITCPVGP9151.. +%*(.+'*'0*+0Ü8QIGNHNKGIVNKO)GYKVVGTÒDGT/GGT#..'+0<7&+4*'44+'57%*4+56 ,GUWUCO-TGW\CWH(GNUGPKO/GGTOOI(D4QNNXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT   445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 



4QNNDGOGTMV\WUGKPGT0WOOGT&KGUGDGKFGP5VÒEMGUKPFFGO-CVCNQIG,5EJWNOCPKP#OUVGTFCO,WNK 0T  YÌTVNKEJ GPVPQOOGP +O 1TKIKPCN UKPF UKG OKT PQEJ PKEJV XQTIGMQOOGP FCJGT MQPPVG KEJ FKG ÒDGTCWU   MPCRRG$GUEJTGKDWPIPKEJVXGTXQNNUV·PFKIGP

855

856



(TKGFTKEJ++FGT)TQ­G)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPQ, WO XQP,.1GZNGKP CWHFKG9CUUGTPQVKP5EJNGUKGP&KG#TEJG0QCJCWH5GGQDGPNJGTCPHNKGIGPFG6CWDGOKV¤N\YGKIKO 5EJPCDGN&CTUVGNNWPI XQP 0QCJU &CPMQRHGT  OO  I ( W 5  FQTV KP 5KNDGT    5NI$TGVVCWGT FQTVKP5KNDGT  W­GTUVUGNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



)QNFOGFCKNNG \W  &WMCVGP Q , WO   XGTOWVNKEJ XQP % ( .ÒFGTU CWH FKG 9CUUGTPQV KP   5EJNGUKGP&KG#TEJG0QCJCWH5GGQDGPNJGTCPHNKGIGPFG6CWDGOKV¤N\YGKIKO5EJPCDGN&CTUVGNNWPI XQP0QCJU&CPMQRHGTOOI(W5 FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI$TGVVCWGT FQTVKP 5KNDGT  W­GTUVUGNVGP.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

112


DEUTSCHLAND • BRANDENBURG

858

857



&WMCV$GTNKPCWHUGKPG*WNFKIWPIKP-ÌPKIUDGTII(D1NFX5EJT  48QT\ÒINKEJ



&WMCV')0$GTNKPI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV1TFGPUDCPFWPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP )GMTÌPVGT $CTQEMUEJKNF FCTKP FGT IGMTÌPVG #FNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT   $TWUVIGMTÌPVGU/QPQITCOOWPVGP.QTDGGTWPF2CNO\YGKI(D1NFX5EJTC  4#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

859

860



861

 

(TKGFTKEJUF QT#$GTNKPI(D1NFCX5EJT (TKGFTKEJUF QT#$GTNKPI(D1NFCX5EJT

5GJTUEJÌP 8QT\ÒINKEJ



(TKGFTKEJUF QT$$TGUNCWI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT #FNGTCWH#TOCVWTGP(D1NFCX5EJT  449KP\4·PFGNWPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

  

862

1,5:1



1,5:1

)QNFCDUEJNCIXQPFGP5VGORGNPFGU/CTKGPITQUEJGP&#WTKEJI)GMTÌPVGT#FNGTFGP -QRH PCEJ N IGYCPFV KP FGP (·PIGP <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN9GTV ,CJTGU WPF /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG   1NF#POX5EJT#POC W­GTUVUGNVGP5GJTUEJÌP 

863

864



(TKGFTKEJU F QT  # $GTNKP  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)GMTÌPVGT #FNGT CWH #TOCVWTGP   (D1NFX5EJT 5GJTUGNVGPGT,CJTICPI9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 



(TKGFTKEJU F QT  # $GTNKP  I -QRH T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\)GMTÌPVGT #FNGT CWH #TOCVWTGP   QDGP,CJTGU\CJNWPVGPFCU/ÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGP\YKUEJGP\YGK4QUGVVGP(D1NFX5EJT 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  113


DEUTSCHLAND • BRANDENBURG

865



866

867

(TKGFTKEJ 9KNJGNO ++  &WMCV  # $GTNKP *CPFGNUOÒP\G  I (D  ,    1DGTHN·EJG\6GVYCUTCWJUGJTUEJÌP



&KG QHHK\KGNNGP )QNFOÒP\GP 2TGW­GPU YCTGP FKG 2KUVQNGP (TKGFTKEJU F QT  \W  6CNGTP +P XKGNGP 6GKNGP 'WTQRCU  

PQTFFGWVUEJG -ÒUVGPN·PFGT 5ÒFFGWVUEJNCPF 0KGFGTNCPFG WPF 1UVGWTQRC  YCT LGFQEJ FGT &WMCV FKG I·PIKIG )QNF   OÒP\G&GT*CPFGNOKVFKGUGP.·PFGTPHÒJTVGFCJGT\WT#WURT·IWPIXQP&WMCVGP



(TKGFTKEJ 9KNJGNO +++  (TKGFTKEJU F QT  # (TKGFGPUV[R  I (D  ,    5EJN (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





(TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D5EJN



868

$GTKGDGPUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

869



(TKGFTKEJUF QT$I&KXQ5(D5EJN  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





(TKGFTKEJUF QT$I&KXQ5(D5EJN  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N2TQDKGTURWTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



870

1,5:1

1,5:1



(TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D5EJN  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

871

  114

(TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D5EJN (TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D5EJN



872

5GJTUEJÌP 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 


DEUTSCHLAND • BRAUNSCHWEIG

873

  

874

875

(TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D5EJN (TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D5EJN (TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D5EJN

876

877

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

878

  

879



(TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D5EJN



(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+8&QRRGNVGT(TKGFTKEJUF QT#I&KXQ5(D 5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 



9KNJGNO+8GTGKPUMTQPG#I&KXQ5(D5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



24'755'0*'4<1)67/ 15624'755'0  

)GQTI(TKGFTKEJ#FOKPKUVTCVQT&WMCV-ÌPKIUDGTII(D0GWOCPP X5EJT 5GJTUEJÌP

1,5:1

880



880

$4#705%*9'+)70&.ª0'$74) $4#705%*9'+)91.('0$ª66'.(ª456'067/ 

(TKGFTKEJ7NTKEJ&WMCV<GNNGTHGNFI&GTIGJCTPKUEJVG*GT\QIUVGJVHCUVXX FGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV KP FGT 4GEJVGP 5VTGKVMQNDGP FKG .KPMG NKGIV CWH FGO 5EJYGTVITKHH \W FGP   5GKVGP)GMTÌPVGUXGT\KGTVGUHGNFKIGU9CRRGP(D9GNVGT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

882

881



882



-CTN+&WMCV$TCWPUEJYGKII(D9GNVGT

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





 6CNGT  $TCWPUEJYGKI  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN4Q­ N   (D9GNVGT 8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT)QNFVÌPWPI  115


DEUTSCHLAND • BRAUNSCHWEIG

883

884

885

886



-CTN9KNJGNO(GTFKPCPF&WMCV$TCWPUEJYGKII(D9GNVGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ



  

6CNGT$TCWPUEJYGKII(D9GNVGT 6CNGT/%I&KXQ5(D5EJN 6CNGT/%I&KXQ5(D5EJN

  

887

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

889

888



-CTN++5GNDUV·PFKIG4GIKGTWPI6CNGT%X%I&KXQ5 (D5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





9KNJGNO6CNGT%X%I/KVTWPFGTKPFGT,CJTGU\CJNWPFITQ­GT5EJNGKHG CO-TCP\&KXQ5(D5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ





6CNGT$I&KXQ5(D5EJN

5GJTUEJÌP

890

891



892

$4#705%*9'+)%#.'0$'4)*#0018'4 #$-74(ª456'067/*#0018'4#$-¤0+)4'+%**#0018'4  

)GQTI++&WMCV*CPPQXGTI(D9GNVGT )QNFIWNFGP 6CNGT *CPPQXGTI(D9GNVGT



)GQTI+++&WMCV<GNNGTHGNF#WUDGWVGFGT*CT\GT)TWDGPI/ÒUGNGT (D9GNVGT 2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ

893

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

  

894



&WMCV<GNNGTHGNF#WUDGWVGFGT*CT\GT)TWDGPI)GMTÌPVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP4Q­N KO#DUEJPKVVFTGK<GKNGP5EJTKHV':#741*'4%Ù%Û'Û5Û %JTKUVQRJ'PIGNJCTF5GKFGP UVKEMGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP<GNNGTHGNF /ÒUGNGT(D9GNVGT  4.GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



2KUVQNG%I&KXQ5(D5EJN

116

8QT\ÒINKEJ




DEUTSCHLAND • BRAUNSCHWEIG

896

895

 

6CNGT%**I&KXQ5(D5EJN 6CNGT69I&KXQ5(D5EJN

897

898

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 4CPFWPGDGPJGKVGPXQT\ÒINKEJ

899

 

900



6CNGT%#WUDGWVGFGT*CT\GT)TWDGPI&KXQ5(D5EJN  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



 

6CNGT%**I&KXQ5(D5EJN 6CNGT69I&KXQ5(D5EJN

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 



&WMCV%#WUDGWVGFGT*CT\GT)TWDGPI&KXQ5(D5EJN  449KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



901

902

903

904



)GQTI +8  &WMCV  %  I #WUDGWVG FGT *CT\GT )TWDGP &KXQ5  (D    5EJN 440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ 



'TPUV#WIWUV6CNGT5I&KXQ5(D5EJN  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





6CNGT5I&KXQ5(D5EJN

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





6CNGT5I&KXQ5(D5EJN  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



905

 

906

6CNGT$I&KXQ5(D5EJN 6CNGT$I&KXQ5(D5EJN

905

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  117


DEUTSCHLAND • BREMEN

909 907

  

908

)GQTI86CNGT$I&KXQ5(D5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ 6CNGT$*CT\IQNFI&KXQ5(D5EJN 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 6CNGT$I&KXQ5(D5EJN 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

  

910

$4'/'0

56#&6 

&WMCV  OKV 6KVGN XQP (TCP\ +  I <YGK TÒEMY·TVU DNKEMGPFG .ÌYGP JCNVGP FCU $TGOGT   5VCFVYCRRGP FCTÒDGT -TQPG)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 5EJYGTV KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT   $TWUV4GKEJUCRHGN(D,WPIM 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

911

56#&6

912

$4'5.#7



&WMCVI5VCFVYCRRGP5V9GP\GNUVGJVXXOKV(CJPGWPF5EJYGTV(D(W5 (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCVI5VCFVYCRRGP5V9GP\GNUVGJVXXOKV(CJPGWPF5EJYGTV(D(W5 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT



913

56#&6 

118

'/&'0

)QNFGPG 8KGT\KIGT/GFCKNNG \W  &WMCVGP Q ,  ,CJTJWPFGTV WPUKIPKGTV i08/k:.k8+4k %+8+6#6+5k'/$&'05+5i)GMTÌPVGTWPFXGT\KGTVGT5VCFVUEJKNF%10%14&+#k4'5k2#48“ k%4'5%806k<YGKKPGKPCPFGTITGKHGPFG*·PFGCWU9QNMGPJCNVGP2HGKNDÒPFGNQDGP-TQPGWOJGT 8GT\KGTWPIOOI-P[RJ FQTVCNU&WMCVGP 5NI$QPKP#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU 0CEJH(TCPMHWTV0T FQTVCNU&WMCV 5NI4GKOOCPP FQTVCNU&WMCV  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 


DEUTSCHLAND • EMDEN

1,5:1 914



914

)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU8KGT\KIGT-QNNGIKWOU)GMTÌPVGT 5VCFVUEJKNF\YKUEJGP2CNO\YGKIGPÒDGT*CHGPWPF5VCFVCPUKEJV,GYGKNUUKGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVGKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGTIGUVGNNV  OO  I  -P[RJ  5NI $QPKP #WMVKQP &T $WUUQ 2GWU 0CEJH    (TCPMHWTV0T5NI4GKOOCPP FQTVCNU&WMCVGP   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

915

915 1,5:1



&WMCVGPI/10'6Ü018#Ü4'+2Ü'/$&Ü)GJCTPKUEJVGT4KVVGTUVGJVXXOKV*GNO KP FGT GTJQDGPGP 4GEJVGP 5EJYGTV KP FGT .KPMGP FGP 'OFGPGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF  &8%#685    8#.14+5*80)WPVGP/ÒP\\GKEJGP+Û8Û4 ,QJCPPXQP4KEMKPIGP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP'OFGP   WOJGT 8GT\KGTWPI (D  -P[RJ  5NI $QPKP #WMVKQP &T $WUUQ 2GWU 0CEJH    (TCPMHWTV0T FQTVCNU&WMCV 5NI4GKOOCPP  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV.GKEJVG$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP 

916

1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCV   I /10'6Ü 018#Ü 4'+2Ü '/$&Ü )GJCTPKUEJVGT 4KVVGT UVGJV X X OKV *GNO KP   FGT GTJQDGPGP 4GEJVGP 5EJYGTV KP FGT .KPMGP FGP 'OFGPGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF  &8%#685    8#.14+5*80)WPVGP/ÒP\\GKEJGP+Û8Û4 ,QJCPPXQP4KEMKPIGP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP'OFGP  WOJGT8GT\KGTWPI(D \W -P[RJ5NI$QPKP#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH (TCPMHWTV0T5NI4GKOOCPP  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  119


DEUTSCHLAND • ERFURT

917

'4(746

56#&6 

918

7PVGT5EJYGFGP)WUVCX++#FQNH&WMCVCWHUGKPGP6QF2QUVJWOG2T·IWPII #JNUVTÌOF(D.GKV\OCPPNGKEJVXCT .GKEJVIGYGNNVMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



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919



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921

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922

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924

923

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926

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928

927



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929



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930

931



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121


DEUTSCHLAND • HANAU

933

932



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934

935



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937

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939

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940

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DEUTSCHLAND • HANNOVER

941

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942 943

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123


DEUTSCHLAND • HOHENLOHE

947

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948

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951

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DEUTSCHLAND • KÖLN

953

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954

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 125


DEUTSCHLAND • MECKLENBURG

961

960

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963

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964

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965

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967

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968


DEUTSCHLAND • NÜRNBERG

969



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  127


DEUTSCHLAND • NÜRNBERG

977

976



&KEMG \YGKHCEJG &WMCVGPMNKRRG  IGRT·IV   .COORT·IWPI  I &TGK XGT\KGTVG   9CRRGPUEJKNFG FCTÒDGT 6CWDG WPVGP FCU /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP +/( ,QJCPP /CTVKP (ÌTUVGT /ÒP\   OGKUVGT KP 0ÒTPDGTI  .COO OKV (TKGFGPUHCJPG UVGJV CWH 'TFJCNDMWIGN (D  \W     -GNNPGT5NI'TNCPIGT 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 



&WMCVGPMNKRRG IGRT·IV .COORT·IWPII(D-GNNPGT

978

8QT\ÒINKEJ



979

980



&WMCV IGRT·IV .COORT·IWPII(D-GNNPGT  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





&WMCVGPMNKRRG.COORT·IWPII(D-GNNPGT

8QT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCVCWHFKG*WNFKIWPIFGT5VCFVHÒT-CKUGT-CTN8+I(D-GNNPGT  4/KPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



981

982



&WMCV  OKV 6KVGN XQP (TCP\ +  I )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP FGP   (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV FCU IGMTÌPVG 9CRRGP .QVJTKPIGP6QUMCPC QDGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN KO   #DUEJPKVV.')'8+0&+%'Û5Û5Û 5KIOWPF5EJQN\9CTFGKP  0 +Û/Û(Û ,QJCPP /CTVKP (ÌTUVGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ FCTWPVGT FKG   5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTKPKVKCNGP + Ü . Ü 1' Ü ,QJCPP .GQPJCTF 1GZNGKP 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT KP 0ÒTPDGTI    (D-GNNPGT5NI'TNCPIGT 448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 



&WMCVQ,  CWHFCU0GWG,CJTI5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP5ÒFQUVGP(D-GNNPGTC 5EJN .GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ



983

1,5:1



128

1,5:1

&WMCVGPCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP2TG­DWTII5VCFVCPUKEJVWPVGTUVTCJNGPFGO&TGKGEMWPVGP KO #DUEJPKVV 0ª40$'4)   \YKUEJGP FGP /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP '  4 'I[FKWU 4ÌUEJ /ÒP\   OGKUVGT KP 0ÒTPDGTI   WOJGT 2GTNMTGKU WPF .QTDGGTMTCP\6'/214# 01564# 2#6'4   &10#6#2#%'%1410#.COO)QVVGUOKV(CJPGYQTCWH2#:\WNGUGPKUVCWH'TFDCNN\YKUEJGP FGP (Ò­GP FGU .COOU FCU 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT\GKEJGP 56 Û 6JQOCU 5VGVVPGT 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT KP   0ÒTPDGTI WOJGTGDGPHCNNU2GTNMTGKUWPF.QTDGGTMTCP\&KXQ5(D5EJN 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 


DEUTSCHLAND • OLDENBURG

984

1.&'0$74) )4#(5%*#(65'+6*'4<1)67/#$)4155*'4<1)67/ 

0KEQNCWU (TKGFTKEJ 2GVGT  )QNFGPG 8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP 4 -ÌNDGN HÒT   9KUUGPUEJCHV WPF -WPUV $ÒUVG N8KGT <GKNGP 5EJTKHV KP 5VGTPGPMTCP\  OO  I -NKG KP   1NFGPDWTIGT/ÒP\HTGWPFG$CPF5 448QT\ÒINKEJ 

985 1,5:1

1,5:1

156(4+'5.#0&

156(4+'5.#0&$+5<74$')4ª0&70)&'44'+%*5)4#(5%*#(6 

7NTKEJ %KTMUGPC CNU *·WRVNKPI FGU 0QTFGTNCPFGU  )QNFIWNFGP Q , 0QTFGP  I   ‡MOn'iVLrICIiCAP'iIninOrDA*CTR[GPUEJKNFKP&TGKRC­SAnCTeiLVDerVS y ePIS &GT JGKNKIG .WFIGT UVGJV X X OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP WPF -TWOOUVCD (D  -CRRGNJQHH    6GTICUV 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP  'KP\KIGUPCEJFGO-TKGIGXQTIGMQOOGPGU'ZGORNCTCWUFGT5COONWPI#$WNNGT1UPCDTÒEM

986

987

156(4+'5.#0&)4#(5%*#(65'+6(ª456'067/ 

'PPQ+)QNFIWNFGPQ,'OFGPOKV6KVGN(TKGFTKEJU+++I8CTKCPVGOKV-TGW\KP FGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV(D-CRRGNJQHHNGKEJVXCT 445GJTUEJÌP





'F\CTF + FGT )TQ­G  )QNFIWNFGP Q ,   'OFGP OKV 6KVGN (TKGFTKEJU +++   I/KV5VTCJNGPMTCP\\YKUEJGP*CWRVWPF*GKNKIGPUEJGKPFGU5V,QJCPPGU(D-CRRGNJQHH -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP



1,5:1



988 1,5:1

'PPQ++)QNFIWNFGP'OFGPI/ÒP\OGKUVGT*KPTKEJp'001Ç%1'5Ç '6Ç&05Ç2*4+'Ç14$TWUVDKNFNOKV(GFGTDCTGVVp+0Ç&'1Ç524#Ç0Ç6+'$1Ç3Ç(#Ç /**CTR[KGPUEJKNFFCTÒDGTFKG,CJTGU\CJN(D FKGUGU'ZGORNCT -CRRGNJQHH  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV0CEJFGO-TKGIGKP\KIGUKO*CPFGNXQTIGMQOOGPGU'ZGORNCT5GJTUEJÌP  'TUVOCNKIGKP)TCHGPRQTVT·VCWHGKPGTQUVHTKGUKUEJGP/ÒP\G

129


DEUTSCHLAND • OSTFRIESLAND

989 1,5:1

1,5:1



'F\CTF++WPF,QJCPP)QNFIWNFGP'OFGPOKV6KVGNWPF*ÒHVDKNF/CZKOKNKCPU++ I/ÒP\OGKUVGT&KTM+FGP-TWKVMTGOGTÙ/1Ù01Ù#8Ù%1Ù'6Ù&1Ù2*4Ù14$GJGNOVGT *CTR[KGPUEJKNFÛ /#: Û ++ Ù 4 Ù +/ Ù 2 Ù(#Ù&'%4'61ÛÛ)GMTÌPVGUWPFIGJCTPKUEJVGU*ÒHV DKNF/CZKOKNKCPU++TOKVIGUEJWNVGTVGO<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGN\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN <(D-CRRGNJQHH 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

990

991



)QNFIWNFGP'OFGPOKV6KVGNWPF*ÒHVDKNF4WFQNHU++I/ÒP\OGKUVGT,QGUV,CPUUGP$GJGNOVGT *CTR[KGPUEJKNF)GMTÌPVGU WPF IGJCTPKUEJVGU *ÒHVDKNF 4WFQNHU ++ T OKV IGUEJWNVGTVGO <GRVGT WPF   4GKEJUCRHGN\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN<(D-CRRGNJQHH  44.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP 



'F\CTF ++ CNNGKP  )QNFIWNFGP  'OFGP OKV 6KVGN WPF *ÒHVDKNF 4WFQNHU ++  I   /ÒP\OGKUVGT,QGUV,CPUUGP$GJGNOVGT*CTR[KGPUEJKNF)GMTÌPVGUWPFIGJCTPKUEJVGU*ÒHVDKNF4WFQNHU++ T OKV IGUEJWNVGTVGO <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN    (D    -CRRGNJQHH 445GJTUEJÌP 

1,5:1



992 1,5:1

)GQTI#NDTGEJV&WMCV'UGPUI)'14)Û#.$Û24+0Û'6&1/Û(4+5Û 14+'06Ü)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTFCTWPVGTFKG5KIPCVWT-&1/+085'5'Û56'&Û'69+6/  /KVFGO(ÒTUVGPJWVDGFGEMVGUQXCNGUXGT\KGTVGUUGEJUHGNFKIGU9CRRGPQDGP\WFGP5GKVGPFCUIGVGKNVG /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP1# 1OOQ#NVGPC/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP'UGPU (D-P[RJ 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP  &KGUKUVFGTGTUVG&WMCVFGUQUVHTKGUKUEJGP(ÒTUVGP)GQTI#NDTGEJVFGTCW­GTFGOPWTPQEJKP\YGKYGKVGTGP,CJTGP

WPF &WMCVGPOKVGKPGOXGT·PFGTVGP/ÒP\DKNFRT·IGPNKG­9·JTGPFFKGDGKFGPUR·VGTGP,CJTI·PIG\W FGPDGIGJTVGP5GNVGPJGKVGPWPVGTFGPQUVHTKGUKUEJGP2T·IWPIGP\·JNGPKUVFGTXQTNKGIGPFGGTUVG&WMCVGPV[RXQP GZVTGOTCT

993

$+567/ 

130

2#&'4$140

9KNJGNO#PVQPXQPFGT#UUGDWTI6CNGT0GWJCWUI$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIG NGIVGO *GTOGNKP WPF 2GMVQTCNMTGW\8KGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF CWH IGMTÌPVGO *GTOGNKP   OCPVGNFCJKPVGT-TWOOUVCDWPF5EJYGTVIGMTGW\V\WFGP5GKVGPFGU9CRRGPUFCU/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP #Ü5Ü ,QJCPP#PVQP5EJTÌFGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP*CPPQXGTWPF0GWJCWU (D5EJYGFG 445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 


DEUTSCHLAND • PFALZ

994

995

1,5:1

2(#.<

2(#.<-74(ª456'067/ 

4WRTGEJV+)QNFIWNFGPQ,  $CEJCTCEJ(NQTGPVKPGT6[RI(D 5NI/GOOGUJ )GYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



2(#.<0'7$74)*'4<1)67/ 

1VVQ *GKPTKEJ WPF 2JKNKRR  )QNFIWNFGP  0GWDWTI  I 8KGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP KP   &TGKRC­ QDGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN/CFQPPC OKV FGO -KPF CWH FGO #TO WPF <GRVGT KP FGT .KPMGP CWH   /QPFUKEJGNWOJGT5VTCJNGPMTCP\(D5NI/GOOGUJ5NI0QUU++ 445GJTUEJÌP 

996

997

997

4')'05$74)

56#&6 

&WMCVGPQ,OKV6KVGNXQP(TCP\+I5VTCJNGPFGT)QVVGUPCOGÒDGT5VCFVCPUKEJV)GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF XQP (TCP\ + T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ CO #TOCDUEJPKVV FKG 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTKPKVKCNGP + . 1'  

,QJCPP.GQPJCTF1GZNGKP5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTKP4GIGPUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTI $GEMGPD++ (D /KPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



&WMCVQ,  OKV6KVGNXQP(TCP\++I$GEMGPD(D  /KPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ

998



999

41561%-

56#&6 

)QNFIWNFGPOKV6KVGNXQP/CVVJKCUI)TGKHN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV4GKEJUCRHGNCWH FGT$TWUV(D-WP\GN#CNGKEJVXCT 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCVOKV6KVGNXQP(TCP\++I(D-WP\GN#C



1000

5#%*5'0-74(ª456'067/

8QT\ÒINKEJ

1001

5#%*5'0



,QJCPP )GQTI +  &WMCV  5QRJKGPFWMCV 2T·IWPI CWU FGO  ,CJTJWPFGTV  I   (D\W5NI/GTUGD5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





&WMCV5QRJKGPFWMCV2T·IWPICWUFGO,CJTJWPFGTVI(D\W5NI/GTUGD 5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 131


DEUTSCHLAND • SACHSEN

1002

1003

1003



&WMCVGP&TGUFGPCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT4GHQTOCVKQPI$TWUVDKNF,QJCPP)GQTIU+ TKO-WTQTPCVOKVFGT4GEJVGPFCU5EJYGTVUEJWNVGTPFWPVGP9CRRGP$TWUVDKNF(TKGFTKEJFGU9GKUGP T KO -WTQTPCV OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FCU 5EJYGTV UEJWNVGTPF WPVGP 9CRRGP (D  5NI /GTUGD   

XIN 5NI9JKVKPI XIN  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV$TQUEJKGTURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP 



&WMCV  &TGUFGP CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT 4GHQTOCVKQP  I (D  5NI /GTUGD    5NI9JKVKPI .GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



1005

1004



&WMCVGP&TGUFGPCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGTªDGTICDGFGT#WIUDWTIGT-QPHGUUKQPI(D 5NI/GTUGD5NI9JKVKPI (CUUWPIUURWTGPNGKEJVÒDGTCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP





(TKGFTKEJ#WIWUV+ #WIWUVFGT5VCTMG &WMCVQ,%QUGNFWMCV5RKGNLGVQPCWUFGT<GKV FGT)T·HKP%QUGNI5NI/GTUGD FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1006 1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCVGP&TGUFGPI-WTHÒTUVUVGJVTPGDGPGKPGO6KUEJOKV+PUKIPKGP&KGXGTDWPFGPGP 9CRRGP FGU 'T\OCTUEJCNNCOVGU WPF 5CEJUGPU OKV .QTDGGT WPF 2CNO\YGKI XGT\KGTV QDGP -WTJWV   (D5NI/GTUGD 48QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT 

1008 1007

1009



(TKGFTKEJ #WIWUV ++  &WMCV  &TGUFGP CWH FCU 8KMCTKCV  I (D    5NI/GTUGD 8QT\ÒINKEJ



(TKGFTKEJ #WIWUV +++ +   &WMCV  &TGUFGP  I $WEM  F (D    8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 



&WMCV&TGUFGPI$WEMK(D

132

8QT\ÒINKEJ






DEUTSCHLAND • SACHSEN

1011

1010

 

&WMCV&TGUFGPCWHFCU8KMCTKCVI$WEM(D &WMCV&TGUFGPI$WEMF(D

1012

1013

8QT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1014



6CNGT #WIWUVF QT +'%I&KXQ5(D5EJN  2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPUEJÌPUVGT'TJCNVWPI5VGORGNINCP\





&WMCV5)*I&KXQ5(D5EJN



8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\

5#%*5'0-¤0+)4'+%* 

(TKGFTKEJ#WIWUV+&WMCV5)*I&KXQ5(D5EJN  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1015

1016



1016



6CNGT &QRRGNVGT#WIWUVF QT +)5I&KXQ5(D5EJN

8QT\ÒINKEJ





6CNGT #WIWUVF QT +)5I&KXQ5(D5EJN  45GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKPLWUVKGTVHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



1018

1017

1019

 

&WMCV+)5I&KXQ5(D5EJN 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ 6CNGT5I&KXQ5(D5EJN 448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

 



6CNGT5I&KXQ5(D5EJN  449KP\2TQDKGTURWTCO4CPFFGPPQEJUGJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

 133


DEUTSCHLAND • SACHSEN

1021

1020

1020



#PVQP&WMCV5I&KXQ5(D5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT





6CNGT5I&KXQ5(D5EJN



1022

1023

445GJTUEJÌP

1024

1025



(TKGFTKEJ#WIWUV++&WMCV)&KXQ5(D5EJN  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV/KPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ





6CNGT)I&KXQ5(D5EJN  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





6CNGT)I&KXQ5(D5EJN  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





6CNGT(I&KXQ5(D5EJN  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1027 1026



1028

,QJCPP8GTGKPUMTQPG$I&KXQ5(D5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJ



5#%*5'0%1$74)'+5'0#%**'4<1)67/ 

,QJCPP'TPUV&WMCV%QDWTII(D-Q\KPQYUMK1VVQ4W­  /KPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP



5#%*5'0/'+0+0)'0*'4<1)67/ 810$+55#%*5'0%1$74)/'+0+0)'0  134

-CTN  &WMCV  CWH UGKPG *QEJ\GKV OKV .WKUG XQP 5VQNDGTI)GFGTP  I (D    5NI/GTUGD 4.GKEJVIGYGNNVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


DEUTSCHLAND • SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE

1029

1030

1030

5%*#7/$74).+22' 5%*#7/$74).+22')4#(5%*#(65'+6(ª456'067/ 

9KNJGNO (TKGFTKEJ 'TPUV  &WMCV  $ÒEMGDWTI  I -QRH N$GJGNOVGU XKGT   HGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNFCWH\YGKIGMTGW\VGP/CTUEJCNNUV·DGP(D9GKPO  442T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



)QNFOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP6QFUGKPGT)GOCJNKP/CTKC$CTDCTC'NGQPQTG\WT.KRRG$GKFGT UGKVU5EJTKHVOOI9GKPO 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



+P FGT .KVGTCVWT KUV GKPG )QNFOGFCKNNG CWH FGP 6QF UGKPGT )GOCJNKP PKEJV XGT\GKEJPGV CWEJ KP FGT 5COONWPI   9GYGNGT ICD GU MGKP 8QTMQOOGP &KG XQO $KNF XGTINGKEJDCTGP 5KNDGT WPF $TQP\GOGFCKNNGP UKGJG 9GKPO    UQYKGWPUGTG#WMVKQP0T WPVGTUEJGKFGPUKEJFGWVNKEJFWTEJKJTG)TÌUUGXQPECOO

1032

1031

1033

5%*.'5+'0 .+')0+6<$4+')*'4<1)67/ 

,QJCPP%JTKUVKCPWPF)GQTI4WFQNH&WMCV4GKEJGPUVGKPI&KGIGJCTPKUEJVGP $TWUVDKNFGT GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT8KGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP FCTÒDGT (ÒTUVGPJWV (D  ( W 5    (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



)GQTI+++.WFYKIWPF%JTKUVKCP&WMCV ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV  $TKGII(D(W5 5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





&WMCV$TKGII(D(W5



1035





1034

8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT

1035

&WMCVGP$TKGII&TGKIGJCTPKUEJVG*ÒHVDKNFGTPGDGPGKPCPFGTXXKO#DUEJPKVV8GT\KG TWPIGP&TGKHCEJDGJGNOVGUQXCNGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP(D(W5  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ &WMCV$TKGII/KVQXCNGO9CRRGPUEJKNF(D(W5  9KP\.QEJGVYCUIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP

  135


DEUTSCHLAND • SCHLESIEN

1036

1037



%JTKUVKCP   &WMCVGP  $TKGI  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN#FNGTFCTÒDGT-WTJWV(D(W5  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUUWPIUURWTGP4CPFWPF(GNFGTÒDGTCTDGKVGVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP 



)GQTI 9KNJGNO  )QNFOGFCKNNG \W  &WMCVGP  XQP 5 -QNNGT CWH UGKPGP 6QF   )GJCTPKUEJVGU*ÒHVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNFCTWPVGT5- 5COWGN-QNNGT)QNFUEJOKGFKP$TKGI  <GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI(W5 44.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP 

1038

1039

1039

/ª056'4$'4)1'.5*'4<1)67/ 

,QCEJKO *GKPTKEJ ++ ,QJCPP WPF )GQTI  &WMCV  4GKEJGPUVGKP #WUDGWVG FGT   4GKEJGPUVGKPGT )TWDGP  I 8GT\KGTVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF QDGP FKG ,CJTGU   \CJN&GT JGKNKIG %JTKUVQRJGTWU OKV FGO,GUWUMKPFCWHFGO#TOUVGJVXX(D(W5 /ÒUGNGT .GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

,)'40&14(*'4<1)67/ 

,QJCPP)GQTI1XCNGTIQNFGPGT)PCFGPRHGPPKIWPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP/CVVJ·WU %CTN)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVITQ­GT*CNUMTCWUGWPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&GTIGMTÌPVGDTCPFGP DWTIKUEJG#FNGTUEJKNF\YKUEJGP.QTDGGTWPF2CNO\YGKIZOOI$TQEMOCPP (W5*CDKEJ++ 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV1TKIKPCNIW­UGJTUEJÌPG#TDGKV



,QJCPP)GQTI 9QNOKTUVGFVYCTFGT5QJPFGU-WTRTKP\GP,QCEJKO(TKGFTKEJWPFFGUUGP)GOCJNKP-CVJCTKPC XQP $TCPFGPDWTI-ÒUVTKP  YWTFG GT GXCPIGNKUEJGT &QOJGTT KP 5VTC­DWTI WPF  $KUEJQH 0CEJ UGKPGO   8GT\KEJVCWH$TCPFGPDWTIUVCVVGVGOCPKJPOKVFGO*GT\QIVWO,·IGTPFQTHWPFFGP*GTTUEJCHVGP1FGTDGTIWPF $GWVJGPCWU#O,WPKXGTO·JNVGGTUKEJOKV'XC%JTKUVKPG6QEJVGT,QJCPP(TKGFTKEJU+XQP9ÒTVVGODGTI ,QJCPP)GQTIUVCTDCO/·T\KO(GNFNCIGT.GWVUEJCWWPFYWTFGKP-CUEJCWDGKIGUGV\V

1040

1041

).#6<*'4<1)67/ 

'TPUV XQP $C[GTP  &WMCV  5CN\DWTI  I&GTIGMTÌPVGDÌJOKUEJG.ÌYGN&KG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG XQP 2HCN\ $C[GTP WPF )NCV\ WPVGP \W FGP 5GKVGP 8GT\KGTWPIGP QDGP ,CJTGU\CJN   (D(W5 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N-PKEMURWTUGJTUEJÌP 

5%*9'+&0+6<70&,#7'4(ª456'067/ 

$QNMQ++XQP/ÒPUVGTDGTI)QNFIWNFGPPCEJ(NQTGPVKPGT6[RQ,5EJYGKFPKV\I BOLCO ¤ DVX ¤ SWÓD.KNKGS IOHayyESBº5V,QJCPPGUUVGJVXXOKVUGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGPWPF-TGW\UVCD(D(TKGFGPUDWTI  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV/KPIGYGNNVMN(GJNUVGNNGPKO5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV0T

136


DEUTSCHLAND • STOLBERG

1042

/'&#+..'0 

)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPQ,  WPUKIPKGTVXQP,-KVVGNCWHFKG9CUUGTPQVKP5EJNGUKGP#TEJG CWH JQJGT 5GG FCTÒDGT 6CWDG OKV ¤N\YGKI1RHGTU\GPG FCTÒDGT 4GIGPDQIGP  OO  I   (W5 (CUV5VGORGNINCP\

1043



1044

5%*.'59+)*1.56'+0 -¤0+).+%*&0+5%*'4#06'+. 

(TKGFTKEJ 8+   (TKGFTKEJU F QT  #NVQPC  I (D  FQTV WPVGT &·PGOCTM    *GFG#.CPIG5EJN FQTVWPVGT&·PGOCTM  -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP 



%JTKUVKCP8+++%JTKUVKCPF QT#NVQPCI(D FQTVWPVGT&·PGOCTM  *GFGD.CPIG5EJN FQTVWPVGT&·PGOCTM  9KP\-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1045

1046

1045

5%*9$+5%**#..

56#&6 

&WMCVCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP$CFGPI(D2CZKP0WOOKU4CHH  448QT\ÒINKEJ





&WMCVOKV6KVGNXQP(TCP\+I(D4CHHC  2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1049 1048

1047

561.$'4) 561.$'4)9'40+)'41&')4#(5%*#(6 

%JTKUVKCP'TPUV&WMCV ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5VQNDGTII (D(TKGFGTKEJ .GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



*GKPTKEJ&WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



561.$'4)561.$'4)70&561.$'4)4155.#)4#(5%*#(6'0 

%JTKUVQH .WFYKI ++ KP 5VQNDGTI5VQNDGTI   &WMCV Q , 5VQNDGTI  I (D    (TKGFGTKEJ 48QT\ÒINKEJ

 137


DEUTSCHLAND • TRIER

1051

1050



%JTKUVQH .WFYKI ++ WPF (TKGFTKEJ $QVJQ  &WMCV  5VQNDGTI  I (D    (TKGFGTKEJ .GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

6*74070&6#:+5

(ª456'0 



#NDGTV&WMCVGPHÌTOKIG)QNFOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG*WNFKIWPIFGT5VCFV4GIGPU DWTI\WUGKPGT8QNNL·JTKIMGKV&CUOKVFGO(ÒTUVGPJWVDGNGIVG9CRRGP 5VGORGNFGU&WMCVGPXQP (D <YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVÒDGT5VGTPKP'KEJGPMTCP\WOJGT*1/#)+8/4#6+5$10'OO I5NI9WTUVGT 5VGORGNINCP\

1052

'4<$+567/



1053

64+'4



9GTPGTXQP(CNMGPUVGKP)QNFIWNFGPQ,  -QDNGP\I(D0QUU 5GJTUEJÌP





1VVQXQP<KGIGPJCKP)QNFIWNFGPQ,  -QDNGP\I(D0QUUFI 45GJTUEJÌP



1054

1,5:1



1,5:1

(TCP\ )GQTI XQP 5EJÌPDQTP2ÒEJJGKO9QNHUVJCN  &WMCV  -QDNGP\ 'JTGPDTGKV   UVGKP   I (4#0 Ü )'14) Ü & Ü ) Ü #  '2 Ü '6 '. Ü 64 Û '2 Ü 914 Û 2 Ü 24 Û '. Û   # Û 2 $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP FCTWPVGT 8 .10 (TCP\ #PVQP XCP .QP *QHITCXGWT   WPF-WRHGTUVGEJGTKP'JTGPDTGKVUVGKP$QPPWPF-ÌNP #852+%'&'1)GMTÌPVGU9CRRGP KP OWUEJGNCTVKIGT 'KPHCUUWPI XQP \YGK IGMTÌPVGP .ÌYGP IGJCNVGP FGT NKPMG .ÌYG J·NV GKP 5EJYGTV   FGT TGEJVG GKPGP -TWOOUVCD QDGP UVTCJNGPFGU )QVVGUCWIG WPVGP CWH GKPGO $CPF 241 .')'    241)4')'FCTWPVGT,CJTGU\CJNWPFFKG/ÒP\OGKUVGTDWEJUVCDGP&( &CPKGN(TKVUEJ/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP -QDNGP\ (DX5EJT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  0CEJFGO 2HCN\ITCH (TCP\ .WFYKI XQP 0GWDWTI  \WIWPUVGP FGU /CKP\GT 5VWJNGU TGUKIPKGTV JCVVG IGNCPIVG OKV   (TCP\ )GQTI XQP 5EJÌPDQTP2ÒEJJGKO9QNHUVJCN GKP TGEJV GPGTIKUEJGT 4GIGPV CWH FGP 6TKGTGT $KUEJQHUUVWJN &GT   0GHHGFGU/CKP\GT'T\DKUEJQHU.QVJCT(TCP\XQP5EJÌPDQTPDGGPFGVGFGPCNVGP5VTGKVOKVFGOPKGFGTGP#FGNKPFGO GTKJPHQTOGNNCWUFGT.CPFUVCPFUEJCHVKPFKG4GKEJUWPOKVVGNDCTMGKVGPVNKG­9KGFKGCPFGTGP/KVINKGFGTUGKPGT (COKNKGHÌTFGTVGFGT-WTHÒTUVFKG-ÒPUVGWPFFKG$CWV·VKIMGKV5GKPGTGKEJURCVTKQVKUEJG2QNKVKMDTCEJVGXKGN7PTWJGKP FGP-WTUVCCVWPFHÒJTVGCWEJ\WO#WUDCWXQP8GTVGKFKIWPIUYGTMGPYKGFGT(GUVWPI'JTGPDTGKVUVGKP  &GT 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT FGU XQTNKGIGPFGP UGNVGPGP &WMCVGP (TCP\ #PVQP XCP .QP CTDGKVGVG PCEJ #PUVGNNWPIGP KP   $QPPWPF-ÌNPXQPKPFGT-QDNGP\GT/ÒP\G

138


DEUTSCHLAND • WALLENSTEIN

1055

1,5:1

1055

9#..'056'+0 

#NDTGEJV  *GT\QI XQP (TKGFNCPF &WMCV  ,KVUEJKP  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF   HCUVXXOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPVGP/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP5QPPGKP-NCOOGTP )GQTI4GKEM/ÒP\ OGKUVGT KP ,KVUEJKP  )GMTÌPVGT 5EJKNF FCTKP IGMTÌPVGT #FNGT OKV XKGTHGNFKIGO 9CRRGP CWH   FGT$TWUV(D0QJGLNQX±2T±VQX± 445GJTUEJÌP  0CEJFGO#NDTGEJVXQP9CNNGPUVGKPDGTGKVU*GT\QIXQP(TKGFNCPFWPF*GT\QIXQP5CICPIGYQTFGPYCT HÒJTVGP UGKPG OKNKV·TKUEJGP 'THQNIG KO &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGI FC\W FC­ GT CO  ,WPK  FKG *GT\QIVÒOGT   /GEMNGPDWTI CNU MCKUGTNKEJGU .GJGP GTJKGNV 0CEJ FGT .CPFWPI FGU 5EJYGFGPMÌPKIU )WUVCX ++ #FQNH YWTFGP FKG   OGEMNGPDWTIKUEJGP *GT\ÌIG TGUVKVWKGTV &GT MCKUGTNKEJG (GNFJGTT 9CNNGPUVGKP FGT OKNKV·TKUEJGU )GUEJKEM WPF 9GKV   DNKEMYKGCWEJDNKPFGP5VQN\'JTIGK\WPF7PVTGWGXGTMÌTRGTVGJCVVGDGTGKVUFCU/ÒP\TGEJVGTJCNVGP'TYWTFG CO(GDTWCTCWHMCKUGTNKEJGP$GHGJNKP'IGTGTOQTFGVWPFFGTITÌ­VG6GKNUGKPGT2T·IWPIGPYWTFGMQPHKU \KGTVWPFGKPIGUEJOQN\GP

1056



&WMCVGP,KVUEJKPI#.$'46Û&Û)Û&8:Û/')#(4+&Û'6Û5#)Û24Û8#0 )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF KO /CPVGN HCUV X XQDGP5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT\GKEJGP4QUGVVG\YKUEJGP4CPMGP

-QPTCF (TGKDÌUGP 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT KP ,KVUEJKP   WPVGP /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP .ÌYG N KP   2GTNMTGKU 5GDCUVKCP5VGKPOÒNNGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP,KVUEJKP %1/Ù58'Û&1Ù415Ù'6 Û56#4)#4Ù/KV(ÒTUVGPJWVDGFGEMVGUFTGK\GJPHGNFKIGU9CRRGPWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU QDGP FCU 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT\GKEJGP XQP -QPTCF (TGKDÌUGP (D  0QJGLNQX±   2T±VQX± 44-N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

1057

-¤0+)4'+%*

1058

1059

9'56(#.'0



*KGTQP[OWU0CRQNGQP(TCPMGP%/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP#FNGTMQRHWPFOKV4CPFKP UEJTKHVI&KXQ5(D5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP





(TCPMGP%/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP#FNGTMQRHWPFOKV4CPFKPUEJTKHVI&KXQ5(D 5EJN 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





(TCPMGP%/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP#FNGTMQRHWPFOKV4CPFKPUEJTKHVI&KXQ5(D 5EJN 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 139


DEUTSCHLAND • WESTFALEN

1061 1060

1062



(TCPMGP%/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP#FNGTMQRHWPFOKV4CPFKPUEJTKHVI&KXQ5(D 5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP



6CNGT$I&KXQ5(D5EJN  2TCEJVGZGORNCT/KPLWUVKGTVHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



914/5

56#&6 



)QNFIWNFGPI(D,QUGRJ

1,5:1

5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP



1063 1,5:1

9ª466'/$'4) 9ª466'/$'4)*'4<1)67/5'+6-¤0+)4'+%* 

'DGTJCTF.WFYKI&WMCVQ, PCEJ 5VWVVICTVI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN(ÒPHHCEJDGJGNOVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNF(D-NGKP4CHH 448QT\ÒINKEJ



'DGTJCTF.WFYKIYWTFGKO,CJTKO#NVGTXQP,CJTGPXQP-CKUGT.GQRQNFHÒTXQNNL·JTKIGTMN·TVWPFÒDGT PCJO FKG 4GIKGTWPI XQP UGKPGO 1PMGN WPF 8QTOWPF (TKGFTKEJ -CTN &GT *GT\QI MQOOCPFKGTVG KO 5RCPKUEJGP   'TDHQNIGMTKGI \GKVYGKNKI FKG 4GKEJUVTWRRGP WPF \GKEJPGVG UKEJ DGUQPFGTU KP FGT 5EJNCEJV XQP *ÌEJUV·FV  CWU   5GKPG OKNKV·TKUEJGP 'THQNIG YWTFGP ÒDGTUEJCVVGV XQP FGT PGDGPGJGNKEJGP .KGDGUDG\KGJWPI \WT .CPFJQHOGKUVGTKP   9KNJGNOKPGXQP)TCGXGPKV\FKGGTKO,WNKQDYQJNOKVGKPGTDCFKUEJGP/CTMIT·HKPIGVTCWVUQICTJGKTCVGVG 7O UKEJ FGT UV·PFKIGP -QPVTQNNG FWTEJ FKG KP 5VWVVICTV VCIGPFGP 5V·PFG \W GPV\KGJGP XGTNGIVG GT UGKPG 4GUKFGP\   PCEJ.WFYKIUDWTIYQGTUGKVFCURT·EJVKIG5EJNQ­IGDCWVJCVVG

1,5:1



140

1064 1,5:1

-CTN'WIGP&WMCVQ, WO 5VWVVICTVI%#41.85&Ù)Ù&8:9746Ù  6 Ù )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF 1TFGPUDCPF2418+&' '6 Û    %1056#06'4 8KGTHGNFKIGU XGT\KGTVGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF WPVGT (ÒTUVGPJWV FCTWPVGT FCU   /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP Û 4 Û ,QJCPP 2GVGT 4CUR /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 5VWVVICTV   (D    -NGKP4CHH 8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV-CDKPGVVUVÒEM(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 


DEUTSCHLAND • WÜRTTEMBERG

1065

1,5:1



1,5:1

(TKGFTKEJ ++ +   &WMCV   I (4+&'4+%75 & Ü ) Ü 4': 9746'/$ Û   )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT .ÌYG WPF *KTUEJ JCNVGP FCU IGMTÌPVG   \YGKHGNFKIG 9CRRGP KO #DUEJPKVV ,CJTGU\CJN FCTWPVGT FCU /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP % Û * Û  ,QJCPP   %JTKUVKCP*GWINKP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP5VWVVICTV &KXQ5(D5EJN  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

1066

1,5:1



1,5:1

9KNJGNO+&WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN  42TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1067

1068

1068



&WMCVI&KXQ5(D5EJN

5GJTUEJÌP



&WMCVGPXQP8QKIVCWHUGKPL·JTKIGU4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WOI/KV4CPFUEJTKHV8+'4 &7%#6'0\YKUEJGP8GT\KGTWPIGP&KXQ5(D5EJN  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCT

 

1069



&WMCV   I /KV FGP 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTKPKVKCNGP #& #WIWUV &KGVGNDCEJ  CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG   &KXQ5(D5EJN 5GJTUEJÌP

 141


DEUTSCHLAND • WÜRZBURG

1070

1070 1,5:1

9ª4<$74)

$+567/ 

%JTKUVQRJ(TCP\XQP*WVVGP&WMCVGPQ,9ÒT\DWTIPCEJFGT9GKJGI$TWUV DKNFT5V%JTKUVQRJQTWUOKVFGO%JTKUVWUMKPFCWHFGT5EJWNVGT9CPFGTUVCDKPFGT.KPMGPUEJTGKVGVT KO*KPVGTITWPFT5VCFVCPUKEJV(D*GNOUEJTQVV (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1072

1071

1071



&WMCVQ,9ÒT\DWTIXQTFGT9GKJGI(D*GNOUEJTQVV

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



(TCP\ .WFYKI XQP 'TVJCN  )QNFIWNFGP  9ÒT\DWTI 0GWLCJTUIQNFIWNFGP  I   (D*GNOUEJTQVV -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

)1.&/'&#+..'0

1073

1074

/14#. 

1074

/+5%'..#0'#

)QNFOGFCKNNG\WGKPGO&WMCVGPQ,WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG/CEJVFGT)GYQJPJGKV)TCDGPFGT.CPFOCPP T<YGK -CXCNKGTG UKV\GP GKPCPFGT CO 5RKGNVKUEJ IGIGPÒDGT  OO  I 5NI )QRRGN   

FQTVKP5KNDGT  .GKEJVIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ



)1'6</'&#+..'0 

142

)QNFOGFCKNNG  & /ÒPEJGP CWH FGP  )GDWTVUVCI FGU 4GKEJURT·UKFGPVGP 2CWN XQP *KPFGPDWTI   -QRHXQP*KPFGPDWTIUTN/ÒP\\GKEJGP&<YGKHCEJDGJGNOVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU(COKNKGPYCRRGPFCTÒDGT #FNGTUEJKNF/KV4CPFITCXWT$#;'4*#726/ª0<#/6HOOI-KGPCUV 5EJN (CUV5VGORGNINCP\




DEUTSCHLAND • MEDAILLEN

1075



)QNFOGFCKNNG  & /ÒPEJGP CWH FGP  )GDWTVUVCI FGU 4GKEJURT·UKFGPVGP 2CWN XQP *KPFGPDWTI   -QRHXQP*KPFGPDWTIUTN/ÒP\\GKEJGP&<YGKHCEJDGJGNOVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU(COKNKGPYCRRGPFCTÒDGT #FNGTUEJKNF/KV4CPFITCXWT$#;'4*#726/ª0<#/6HOOI-KGPCUVXCT 5EJN (CUV5VGORGNINCP\

1076

1077



1078



)QNFOGFCKNNG  CWH GKP GKIGPUVCCVNKEJGU $C[GTP KO &GWVUEJGP4GKEJ)GMTÌPVGU9CRRGPXQP\YGK .ÌYGP IGJCNVGP/CFQPPC OKV -KPF CWH FGO #TO WPF <GRVGT KP FGT 4GEJVGP CWH 9QNMGP /KV 4CPF   RWP\G$#;'4*#726/ª0<#/6OOI-KGPCUV 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





)QNFOGFCKNNG  CWH FKG 6CWHG FGU .WHVUEJKHHGU .<  CO  )GDWTVUVCI FGU )TCHGP <GRRGNKP   $TWUVDKNFFGU)TCHGPJCNDT(COKNKGPYCRRGPFGU*CWUGU<GRRGNKPOKV'UGNMQRHFCTÒDGTFGT-QRHFGU 9CRRGPVKGTGUHNCPMKGTVXQP\YGK-KPFGTPOKV.WHVDCNNQPUKO*KPVGTITWPF.WHVUEJKHH/KV4CPFRWP\G $#;'4*#726/ª0<#/6(OOI-CKUGT-KGPCUV  (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



.7(6(#*46 

)QNFOGFCKNNG  XQP 1 )NÌEMNGT CWH FKG 9GNVTWPFHCJTV FGU .WHVUEJKHHU .< $ÒUVGPXQP)TCH <GRRGNKPFGO5EJÌRHGT'EMGPGTFGO(ÒJTGTWPF&ÒTTFGO'TDCWGTPGDGPGKPCPFGTN)NQDWUOKVFGP GKPIGVTCIGPGP 5VCVKQPGP WPF &CVGP FGT 4GKUGTQWVG /KV 4CPFRWP\G 24'755 56##65/7'0<' Û   )1.&('+0OOI-CKUGTXCT5EJN 8QT\ÒINKEJ



.165 

#WUNCPF+TCP0CUTGFKP  6QOCP&C\W\YGKQUOCPKUEJG)QNFOÒP\GP+PUIGUCOVI  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



-NGKPG5COONWPIXQPFKXGTUGP)QNFOÒP\GPOGKUVFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU+PVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMVFCUWPDG FKPIVDGUKEJVKIVYGTFGPUQNNVG%CI(GKPIQNF 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFDGUUGT

  143


RUSSLAND • A. MICHAILOWITSCH

4755+5%*'/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0

1081

-#+5'44'+%* 

4755.#0&

#NGZGK/KEJCKNQYKVUEJ4WDGN0QXQFGNI-CKO

5GJTUEJÌP



1082

1083

1083



4WDGNI-CKO



,GHKOQMÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGO4GKEJUVCNGTFGT5VCFV(TCPMHWTVOKV6KVGN(GTFKPCPFU+++I /KV\YGK)GIGPUVGORGNPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG 5V)GQTIKO-CORHOKVFGO&TCEJGP ,CJTGU\CJN &CX \W ,W( \WD 5RCUUMK 5GJTUEJÌP 

/KVGVYCU$GNCIUGJTUEJÌP



,GHKOQM 2NWTCN ,GHKOKMK  YCT FGT CWU FGT RQNPKUEJGP 5RTCEJG ,QCEJKOKM  CDIGNGKVGVG TWUUKUEJG #WUFTWEM HÒT   6CNGT &GT 0COG UVCOOV XQP FGP )WNFGPITQUEJGP FKG FKG )TCHGP XQP 5EJNKEM KP FGT DÌJOKUEJGP $GTIUVCFV   5V ,QCEJKOUVCN JGTIGUVGNNV JCVVGP /CP XGTYGPFGVG KP FGP DGKFGP UNCYKUEJGP 5RTCEJGP CNUQ FGP GTUVGP 6GKN FGT WT   URTÒPINKEJGP 0QOKPCNDG\GKEJPWPI ,QCEJKOUVCNGT Y·JTGPF KO &GWVUEJGP WPF 'PINKUEJGP 6CNGT &QNNCT  FGT   \YGKVG6GKNIGY·JNVYWTFG+O,CJTYWTFGPKP4W­NCPFXGTUEJKGFGPGXQTCNNGOFGWVUEJGWPFPKGFGTN·PFKUEJG 6CNGT OKV GKPGO )GIGPUVGORGN XGTUGJGP &KGUG 5VÒEMG YWTFGP ,GHKOQM U RTK\PCMQO IG\GKEJPGVGT ,GHKOQM  QFGT   GKPHCEJMWT\,GHKOQMIGPCPPV&KGIGIGPIGUVGORGNVGP6CNGTMQPPVGPUKEJLGFQEJPKEJVKO<CJNWPIUXGTMGJTFWTEJUGV \GPWPFYWTFGPHÒTWPIÒNVKIGTMN·TV&CFKGOGKUVGP5VÒEMGYQJNGKPIGUEJOQN\GPYWTFGPUKPF,GHKOKMKJGWVG TGEJVUGNVGPWPF\·JNGP\WFGPDGIGJTVGUVGP/ÒP\GP4W­NCPFU

1084



,GHKOQM  ÒDGTRT·IV CWH GKPGO 4GKEJUVCNGT  FGT 2TQXKP\ )GNFGTP  I /KV \YGK )GIGP   UVGORGNPCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG .ÌYGNOKV5EJYGTV ,CJTGU\CJN&CX \W &GNO \W  5RCUUMK 5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T

144


RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1086

1085

1085



2GVGT + FGT )TQ­G  4WDGNHÌTOKIG UKNDGTPG 8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG  (GDTWCT  M[TKN   NKUEJ /QUMCW)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGN CFNGT KP FGP (·PIGP <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN QDGP ITQ­G -TQPG  OO  I $KVMKP   

FQTVKP)QNF &KCMQX 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 



-W2QNWUEJMC M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 

1087



1089

5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



1088

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWH FKG 'TDCWWPI FGT (GUVWPI -TQPUEJNQ­ DGK -TQPUVCFV #PUKEJV FGU 5EJNQUUGU5QPPG WPF 9QNMGP ÒDGT   FGODCNVKUEJGP/GGTOKV\YGK5GIGNUEJKHHGPKO8QTFGTITWPF/KPGTXCFKGCWHGKPG/ÌYGKPKJTGO0GUV \GKIVOOI&KCMQX 48QT\ÒINKEJ



2GVGT+FGT)TQ­GNKG­CWHFGTKO(KPPKUEJGP/GGTDWUGPFKTGMVXQT5V2GVGTUDWTINKGIGPFGP+PUGN-QVNKPFKGIGYCN VKIG(GUVWPI-TQPUEJNQ­GTTKEJVGPWOUGKPG5VCFVXQT#PITKHHGPXQPFGT/GGTUGKVG\WUEJÒV\GP&GT<CTYQNNVGCWH FGT+PUGNGKPG8QT\GKIGUVCFVGKP\YGKVGU#OUVGTFCOGTTKEJVGP0CEJFGO6QFFGU<CTGPIGTKGVGPFKG$CWCTDGKVGP LGFQEJ\WP·EJUVKPU5VQEMGPWPFYWTFGPGTUVPCEJGKPGTUEJYGTGPªDGTUEJYGOOWPIHQTVIGUGV\V&KG(GUVWPI -TQPUVCFVJKPFGTVGPKEJVPWTFKG5EJYGFGPKO0QTFKUEJGP-TKGIUQPFGTPCWEJFKG&GWVUEJGPKO<YGKVGP9GNVMTKGI CO<WICPI\W5V2GVGTUDWTI



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFT)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GR VGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX2GVTQX 44WDGN 5GXG TKP 4 7\FGPKMQX 4  44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP)KGUUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI/ÒPEJGP0T



4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



 145


RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1090

1090 1,5:1



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP$KVMKP

4 &KCMQX2GVTQX 44WDGN 5GXGTKP 4 7\FGPKMQX 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI9(WEJU#WMVKQP5QVJGD[ UXQO0T

1092

1093

1091





1091

4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP ÌÄ CWH FGT   4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX 4  5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP #NV[P  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP #NV[P  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP



ex 1094

1096

5GJTUEJÌP

1097

1096



-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW$KVMKPXCTXCT  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFUEJÌP





-W&GPIC -QRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ  ZM[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW$KVMKP 4  Z  5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFT)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGT WPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP 4 7\FGPKMQX 5  44-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

 146

-W-QRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW  I /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP ÌÄ. $KVMKP  $TGMMG  5    &KCMQXXCT7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

 


RUSSLAND • PETER I.

ex 1099

1098



-W-QRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ  /QUMCW  I /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP ÌÄ $KVMKP  $TGMMG  5    &KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



-W&GPIC -QRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW$KVMKPHHHH  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 

1100



4WDGN/QUMCWI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN )GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 2GVTQX 44WDGN 5GXGTKP 4 7\FGPKMQX 4  44'VYCUÒDGTCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP 

1101



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP $KVMKP  &CX    &KCMQX2GVTQX 44WDGN 5GXGTKP 4 7\FGPKMQX 4   44*GPMGNURWTIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP 



-QRGMG 6TQRHMQRGMG  M[TKNNKUEJ  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW-CKO  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



1103 1104

1104



-W2QNWUEJMC M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKPHH



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK .GUPC[C CO  5GRVGODGT  )GJCTPKUEJVGU   $TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN2GVGT+HCUVXXCWHGKPGOURTKPIGPFGP2HGTF KPOKVVGP GKPGT 5EJNCEJVU\GPG QDGP \W FGP 5GKVGP \YGK 'PIGN FKG GKPG -TQPG ÒDGT UGKP *CWRV JCNVGP   OOI&KCMQX+XGTUGP::+++C  4/KP4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



 147


RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1105



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5)QWKP XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGPTWUUK UEJGP#FOKTCN(GQFQT#RTCZKP)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU#FOKTCNUTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN8KGT 5GIGNUEJKHHGCWH5GGKO*KPVGTITWPFT5EJNCEJVU\GPGCP.CPFOOI&KCMQX  48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1107

1106

 



-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKPHH )TKXPC M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP 5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP

 

1108



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'TQDG TWPIXQP'NDKPI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP(GUVWPIURNCP XQP'NDKPIKO8QTFGTITWPFN(NW­IQVVOKV3WGNNWTPGWPFTWUUKUEJGT5QNFCVOOI&WV MQYUMK5WEJCPGM&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1109



148

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'TQDG TWPIXQP.KXNCPF)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN*GTMWNGUMPKGV XXWPFVT·IVGKPGP)NQDWUCWHUGKPGP5EJWNVGTPCWHFGO)NQDWUUKPFFKG0COGPFGTGTQDGTVGP5V·FVG XGTOGTMVOOI&KCMQX -N5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1110

 

1111

-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKPHH -W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKPHH

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 

1112



4WDGN  /QUMCW  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN   FCTWPVGT FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP ))GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP   $KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX2GVTQX 44WDGN 5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX 4   449KP\4CPFHGJNGT5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGT-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP 

1114

1115

ex 1113

1116

ex 1113



-W-QRGMG M[TKNNKUEJ  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW$KVMKPHHHH  5VÒEM(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP1-CO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPF.CWHFGO$GKP FGU&QRRGNCFNGTU$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP7\FGPKMQX  44CPFHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP1-CO#TOCDUEJPKVV$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

149


RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1118

ex 1117



 -QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM   /QUMCW $KVMKP  HH &C\W GKP YGKVGTGU  -QRGMGP5VÒEM  

)TKXGPPKM ,CJTGU\CJNPKEJVNGUDCT 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPF5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUGUGJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP #NV[P  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKPHH

5GJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP #NV[P  M[TKNNKUEJ  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW$KVMKPHH  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



1121

1120



1122

4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI1JPG/ÒP\\GKEJGPWPFQJPG5RCPIGCWHFGO/CPVGN$KVMKP  4 &CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP7\FGPKMQX  45EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP1-CO#TOCDUEJPKVV$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX5GXGTKP7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP1-CO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPFFGT,CJTGU\CJN KPFGT4CPFUEJTKHV$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1125

1123

1124



4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 



4WDGN 2QNVKPC  M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV#.:+'8+%* FCU'HGJNV KPFGT8QT FGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX2GVTQX 44WDGN 5GXGTKP 4 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

 

-W2QNWUEJMC M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKPHH -W2QNWUEJMC/QUMCW$KVMKPHH

150

5GJTUEJÌP

5GJTUEJÌP 5VÒEM(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

   


RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1127



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGP/KV-TQPG\YKUEJGP2WPM VGPÒDGTFGO$TWUVDKNF$KVMKP&CX  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1128

1129

1130



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP1-CO#TOCDUEJPKVV$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI5RGEKCN'CING/KVITQ­GT-TQPGCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP &CX&KCMQX5GXGTKPC 4 7\FGPKMQX 49KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



1131



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCW/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP1-CO#TOCDUEJPKVVI$KVMKP&CX *GPMGNURWTWPF\WO6GKNPCEJITCXKGTVUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

 151


RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1132



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP(TKG FGPXQP0GWUVCFVOKVFGP5EJYGFGP#TEJGCWH5GGFCTÒDGT(TKGFGPUVCWDGOKV¤N\YGKIKO5EJPCDGNKO *KPVGTITWPFFKGFWTEJGKPGP4GIGPDQIGPOKVGKPCPFGTXGTDWPFGPGP5V·FVG5V2GVGTUDWTIWPF5VQEMJQNO <GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI&KCMQX*KNFGDTCPF++5 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1133

1134



1135



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP-CWHFGO*CTPKUEJWPFOKVMNGKPGT4QUGVVG ÒDGTFGO-QRH$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP7\FGPKMQX 45GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX  4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP-CWHFGO*CTPKUEJWPFOKVITQ­GT4QUGVVG ÒDGTFGO-QRH$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



1136

 152

4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP-CWHFGO*CTPKUEJWPFOKVITQ­GT4QUGVVG ÒDGTFGO-QRH$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX *GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP




RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1137

1138



4WDGN M[TKNNKUEJ /QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX2GVTQX 4WDGN 5G XGTKP7\FGPKMQX 4GUVGCNVGT8GTIQNFWPIUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 &CX



-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

1139

1140

1140



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 (D  )1.&(CUUWPIUURWTGPMN2TQDKGTURWTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKPHH&CX

1141

1142

5GJTUEJÌP

 

1143



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 &CX  )GUVQRHVGU.QEJ$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP

/GJTGTG5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX



5GJTUEJÌP



153


RUSSLAND • PETER I.

1144

1145

1146



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX  #O4CPFWPFKPFGP(GNFGTPUVCTMDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



 

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKPHH&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 &CX

 

1147

1148

5GJTUEJÌP -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

1149



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI 5QPPGPTWDGN  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF   WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG UVTCJNGPFG 5QPPG   \YKUEJGPFGTIGVGKNVGP,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX 4/KP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI 5QPPGPTWDGN  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF   WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG UVTCJNGPFG 5QPPG   \YKUEJGPFGTIGVGKNVGP,CJTGU\CJN/KVMNGKPGO-TGW\ÒDGTFGO-QRH$KVMKP 4 &CX&KC MQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP 



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN8KGT IGMTÌPVG /QPQITCOOG KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGT /KVVG UVTCJNGPFG 5QPPG \YKUEJGP FGT   IGVGKNVGP,CJTGU\CJN$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT&CX 49KP\&TWEMUVGNNGKO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP 

154


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA I.

1151

1150

1150



4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 



-CVJCTKPC+4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX5G XGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

1152

)GNQEJVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

1153

 

1154



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX  $GTKGDGPMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



1155



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

1156

5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

 155


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA I.

1157

1158



1158

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT 2QTVT·VXCTKCPVGYKG0T XQP 7\FGPKMQX 44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KGXQTNKGIGPFG2QTVT·VXCTKCPVGKUVKO$KVMKPPKEJVCWHIGHÒJTV



-W-QRGMGP/QUMCWI$KVMKPHH

1159

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1161

1160

 

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I $KVMKP  4  &CX  &KCMQX  2GVTQX  4WDGN    5GXGTKP7\FGPKMQX (CUVUGJTUEJÌP

1162

   156

-W-QRGMGP/QUMCWI$KVMKPHH -W-QRGMGP/QUMCWI$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP/QUMCWI$KVMKPHH

45GJTUEJÌP 4)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP

1163

  

1164

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA I.

1165

1166

1166



2GVGT++4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPK MQX 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP1-CNCUJPKMQXWPF$/CWHUGKPG-TÌPWPIKP/QUMCW)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUV DKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGT 1TFGPUMGVVG#NVCT OKV -TÌPWPIUKPUKIPKGP QDGP UVTCJNGPFGU   )QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1167

1168

1170

1169

1170



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

-TCV\GTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMG/QUMCWI$KVMKPHH

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 157


RUSSLAND • ANNA

1171

1173



4WDGN/QUMCWI2QTVT·VV[RXQP$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMG/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 



#PPC4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 8QTFGTUGKVG4ÒEMUGKVG4 &CX &KCMQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX 45EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP

1174



5GJTUEJÌP

  

1175

4WDGN/QUMCWI)TQ­GT-QRH$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX XCT 7\FGPK MQX 449KP\4CPFHGJNGTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



5GNVGPGWPFKPVGTGUUCPVG8CTKCPVGFKGKPXKGNGPITQ­GP5COONWPIGPHGJNV



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX /KP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

1176



1177



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN/QUMCW5VGTPGVGKNGPFKG7OUEJTKHVI$KVMKP&CX  5GJTUGNVGPG8CTKCPVG5GJTUEJÌP



1178

  158

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

1179

5GJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

 


RUSSLAND • ANNA

1181

1180

 

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

 



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKPXCT&CX&KCMQXXCT7\FGPKMQX  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGT)N·VVWPIUURWTGPKO(GNFUGJTUEJÌP



1184

1183



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN  /QUMCWI/KV$TQUEJGCWHFGT$TWUV$KVMKPXCT 4 &CX&KCMQX XCT5GXGTKP 4 QFGT 4 7\FGPKMQX 5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

1188

 

 

1186

1185

 

-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

1188

1187

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX -QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 

 

(CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  159


RUSSLAND • ANNA

1190

1189

 

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKPXCT&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKPXCT&CX

 

1192

1191

 

5GJTUEJÌP (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 

1194 1193

1193



4WDGN ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV /QUMCWI$KVMKPXCT&CX &KCMQXXCT2QNWKMQ0T  5GXGTKP 4 7\FGPKMQX (CUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN 2QNVKPC /QUMCWI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP



*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

 

1195

  160

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

1196


RUSSLAND • ANNA

1197



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1198

1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCV  /QUMCW 0QXQFGN  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV9CRRGPUEJKNF$KVMKP*(D )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJ 

1200

1199

1201



&WMCV  /QUMCW 0QXQFGN  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT   &QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV9CRRGPUEJKNF$KVMKP*(D )1.&449KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTWPF-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

 

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

  161


RUSSLAND • IVAN III.

1202



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII2QTVT·VV[RXQP$KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX 5GXGTKP7\FGPKMQX 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

1204

1203



1205



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII2QTVT·VV[RXQP$KVMKP&CX  -N4CPFHGJNGTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII2QTVT·VV[RXQP$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX5GXGTKP 7\FGPKMQX (CUVUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPXCT&CX



5GJTUEJÌP

1207

1206

1206



+XCP+++4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPHHXCT 4 &CX  (TKUWTPCEJITCXKGTVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCWI$KVMKP





-W&GPIC -QRGMG -W2QNWUEJMC$GKFG/ÒP\UV·VVG'MCVGTKPDWTI$KVMKP 4  NGKEJVXCT 4  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP

162

)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP




RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1209



'NKUCDGVJ  $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) % 9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU   ,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHKJTG6JTQPDGUVGKIWPI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&KG<CTKP OKV-TGW\KPFGT4GEJVGPHÒJTV#TOGGFWTEJ5VTC­GP\WIOOI&KCMQX  -N5VGORGNHGJNGTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



1210



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  ) % 9CGEJVGT WPF , ) 9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJT   JWPFGTVU  CWH FKG CNNIGOGKPG #OPGUVKG )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&KG RGTUQPK   HK\KGTVG)PCFGNÌUVFKG(GUUGNPXQPFTGK)GHCPIGPGPKO*KPVGTITWPF)GH·PIPKUIGD·WFGCWUFGOYGKVGTG )GHCPIGPGUVTÌOGPOOI&KCMQX (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1211



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKPWPF+- XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHKJTG -TÌPWPI )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP&KG <CTKP UVGJV X X OKV <GRVGT KP FGT   4GEJVGPQDGPGKP'PIGNOKV5EJKNFKP9QNMGPFGTGKPG-TQPGÒDGTKJT*CWRVJ·NVTPGDGPKJTMPKGPFG 4WUUKCOKV#FNGTUEJKNFOOI&KCMQX FQTVKTTVÒONKEJ5KIPCVWT$-CWHFGT4ÒEM UGKVGCPIGIGDGPUKGJG#DDKNFWPI  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 163


RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1213

1212

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 9KP\<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT&CX  .GKEJVG$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP

 

1214

1215

 

1215

-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCWI$KVMKPXCT 5GJTUEJÌP $TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQT #DQ OKV FGP 5EJYGFGP )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP.CPFUEJCHV OKV FGO (NW­   -KOKU\GFCTÒDGTJCNVGP\YGKCWU9QNMGPMQOOGPFG*·PFGGKPGP-TCP\FCTKPFGTIGMTÌPVGTWUUKUEJG &QRRGNCFNGTÒDGTFGP9CRRGPUEJKNFGPXQP5EJYGFGPWPF5EJNGUYKIOOI&KCMQX *KNFGDTCPF++5 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

1216

1217



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 6[R &CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX  5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG5GJTUEJÌP

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX -N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTFGPPQEJCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

164





1218

  


RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1219

  

1220

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX -QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM /QUMCWI$KVMKP 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

1221

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  

1222 1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCV/QUMCWI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFT)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGN KPFGP(·PIGPCWHFGT$TWUV9CRRGPUEJKNF$KVMKP 4 (D  )1.&44.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1223



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1224

 

4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCWI$KVMKP 4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCWI$KVMKP



1225

5GJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

  165


RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1226

 

1227

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1229

1228



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX&KCMQXXCT7\FGPKMQX  4CPFWPF(GNFGTNGKEJVDGCTDGKVGVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



1230



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP)%9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG 'TÌHHPWPI FGT /CTKPGYGTHV KP -TQPUVCFV )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN'KP KO $CW   DGHKPFNKEJGU5EJKHHFCJKPVGT-CPCNOKV$TÒEMGKO*KPVGTITWPF*CHGPCPUKEJVXQP-TQPUVCFVOO I&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1231

 166

4WDGN/QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP'CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP




RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1232



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP'TNC­ XQP5VGWGTP)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV(ÒNNJQTPKONKPMGP #TO ÌHHPGV FCU 6QT \W GKPGT $TÒEMG HÒT2HGTFWPF9CIGPKO8QTFGTITWPFTWOIGHCNNGPGU5EJKNFGT JCWUOOI&KCMQX (CUV5VGORGNINCP\

1233



1234



4WDGN  /QUMCW  I /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP ² - Ï CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG $KVMKP  &CX    &KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ² - / CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX7\FGPKMQX -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1235



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKGHKPCP \KGNNG9KGFGTJGTUVGNNWPIFGT5VCCVUMCUUG)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&CUCNNGIQTK UEJG 9QJNYQNNGP CNU YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV FCTIGUVGNNV \ÒPFGV OKV GKPGT (CEMGN $ÒEJGT WPF 2CRKGTG CP   WPFTGKEJVGKPGOMPKGPFGP$CWGTP(TÒEJVGOOI&KCMQX  9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 167


RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1236



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) % 9CGEJVGT WPF 5 ,WFKP XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJT   JWPFGTVU  CWH FKG )GDWTV FGU )TQ­HÒTUVGP WPF UR·VGTGP <CTGP 2CWN + )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG8QTUGJWPIKP9QNMGPÒDGTIKDVFGTXQTGKPGODTGPPGPFGP#NVCT MPKGPFGP4WUUKCFCU0GWIGDQTGPGOOI&KCMQX  -N5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1237



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP)%9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG )TÒPFWPI0GW5GTDKGPU)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN/KPGTXCOKV*GNO5RGGTWPF 5EJKNFUVGJVXXFKG4GEJVGGTJQDGPKO*KPVGTITWPFN5·WNGOKVFGO9CRRGP0GW5GTDKGPUWOJGT NKGIGP)GIGPUV·PFGFGU#EMGTDCWUCO$QFGPOOI&KCMQX (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1238



168

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP)%9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG )TGP\TGIWNKGTWPI )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG )GTGEJVKIMGKV   XGTUGV\VFGTCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGPRGTUQPKHK\KGTVGP<YKGVTCEJVGKPGP6TKVVN/G­VKUEJT)TGP\U·WNGKO *KPVGTITWPFN\YGK.CPFXGTOGUUGTOOI&KCMQX (CUV5VGORGNINCP\




RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1239

1240



4WDGN/QUMCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP'+CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX 7\FGPKMQX (NGEMKIG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 

5GJTUEJÌP



1242 1241

1241

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCWI$KVMKP

1244

1243



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN 5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ß - ² CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG2QTVT·VXQP$5EQVV $KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX (GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP



1247

1245

  

-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  -W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP(D

1246

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP )1.&*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP

   169


RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1249

1248

1248



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP+/CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG2QTVT·VXQP$5EQVV $KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

1250

5GJTUEJÌP

1252

 

1251

 

-W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  -W-QRGMG5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 

5GJTUEJÌP ,WUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



.KXQPCKUG 4WDGN\W-QRGMGP /QUMCWIGRT·IVHÒT.KXNCPFWPF'UVNCPFI)GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGP(·P IGPCWHFGT$TWUV\YGK9CRRGPUEJKNFGCP$·PFGTPFKGOKVFGP5EJP·DGNPIGJCNVGPYGTFGP$KVMKP

4 &CX&KCMQX 4 5GXGTKP 4 7\FGPKMQX 5   44/KPRQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP

 



 DGVGKNKIVG UKEJ <CTKP 'NKUCDGVJ CP GKPGT IGUCOVGWTQR·KUEJGP -QCNKVKQP IGIGP (TKGFTKEJ ++ XQP 2TGW­GP 5KG   UEJKEMVG 6TWRRGP KP FKG DCNVKUEJGP 2TQXKP\GP FGTGP JGTTUEJGPFG 1DGTUEJKEJV ITÌ­VGPVGKNU FGWVUEJ YCT /KV FGO   XQTNKGIGPFGP.KXQPCKUGYQNNVG'NKUCDGVJFKGKPFGP2TQXKP\GPI·PIKIGP/ÒP\GPGTUGV\GP

1253

1254



 .KXQPCKUG  4WDGN \W  -QRGMGP   /QUMCW IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I   $KVMKP 445GJTUEJÌP 



 .KXQPCKUG  4WDGN \W  -QRGMGP   /QUMCW IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I   $KVMKP 44-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 

170


RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1255

1256



 .KXQPCKUG  4WDGN \W  -QRGMGP   /QUMCW IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I   $KVMKP 45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



 .KXQPCKUG  4WDGN \W  -QRGMGP   /QUMCW IGRT·IV HÒT .KXNCPF WPF 'UVNCPF  I   $KVMKP 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

1259

1257



1258

  

-QRGMGP/QUMCWIGRT·IVHÒT.KXNCPFWPF'UVNCPFI$KVMKP -QRGMGP/QUMCWIGRT·IVHÒT.KXNCPFWPF'UVNCPFI$KVMKP -QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX  5VÒEM(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



1263

1262

1261

1264



)TQUEJGPQJPG/ÒP\\GKEJGP-ÌPKIUDGTIIGRT·IVHÒT1UVRTGW­GPWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT$GUCV\WPI I$KVMKPNGKEJVXCT 44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



 )TQUEJGP  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI   I$KVMKPHH 5GJTUEJÌP





5EJKNNKPI  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI    I $KVMKP  XCT 4  &KCMQX  XCT 1NF  2GVTQX 4   4WDGN  5GXGTKP  5    7\FGPKMQXX5EJT 'VYCU$GNCIUGJTUEJÌP



-W2QNWUEJMC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP 4 





5GJTUEJÌP

1265



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ß - ² CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG2QTVT·VXQP6+YCPQHH $KVMKP 4 &CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 5  4/KP4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 171


RUSSLAND • ELISABETH

1266



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP5,WFKP UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHKJTGP6QFCO&G\GODGT )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP&KG <CTKP UEJYGDV CWH 9QNMGP WPF FGWVGV OKV FGT   4GEJVGP CWH GKP 2QUVCOGPV CWH FGO GKP <GRVGT WPF GKP IGMTÌPVGT 5EJKNF OKV FGO /QPQITCOO KJTGU   0CEJHQNIGTU<CT2GVGT+++NKGIGPÒDGTFGO*CWRVFGT<CTKPUVTCJNGPFGT5VGTPGPMTCP\KO8QTFGTITWPF TUVGJGP\YGK)GPKGPOKVFGOTWUUKUEJGP9CRRGPOOI&KCMQX  (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1267



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &CX

1268

1269

5GJTUEJÌP

1270



1271



 6CNGT  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI   I$KVMKP #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





 6CNGT  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI   I$KVMKP -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTWPF-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





 6CNGT  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI   I$KVMKP 5GJTUEJÌP





)TÌUEJGT  QJPG /ÒP\\GKEJGP -ÌPKIUDGTI IGRT·IV HÒT 1UVRTGW­GP WPVGT TWUUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI   I$KVMKPXCT (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



172


RUSSLAND • PETER III.

1272

1,5:1



1,5:1

2GVGT+++4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP8KGT IGMTÌPVG 9CRRGP KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGP 9KPMGNP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN        KO   <GPVTWOIGMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGT$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX 4 (D2GVTQX 44WDGN 7\FGPK MQX 4  )1.&44-N<CKPGPFGYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP.GW<ÒTKEJ0T

1273

  

1274

4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 &CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 &CX 4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 &CX7\FGPKMQX 5 

1275

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



1276



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP 4 &CX

173


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1277

1278

1279



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I $KVMKP  &CX  &KCMQX  5GXGTKP  4    7\FGPKMQX 5  4/KPRQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

45GJTUEJÌP 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 

1280 1281

1281

  

4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  -W-QRGMGPWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP&C\W-W-QRGMGP$TGMMG

(GNFGTRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP

  



-W-QRGMGP-W-QRGMGP$GKFGWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVG$KVMKPHHHH  5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



1284



174

-CVJCTKPC ++  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , XQP 8 $CTCPQX WPF 5 ,WFKP 2T·OKG FGT .CPFYKTV   UEJCHVUIGUGNNUEJCHV)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP%GTGUOKV-TCP\WPF/GTMWTUVCD UKV\VCWH-QTPICTDGPCPGKPGP$CWOIGNGJPVKO*KPVGTITWPFNRHNÒIGPFGT$CWGTOOI &KCMQX 445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1285



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q , XQP , $ )CUU XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  2T·OKG FGT   .CPFYKTVUEJCHVUIGUGNNUEJCHV )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP%GTGU OKV -TCP\ WPF   /GTMWTUVCD UKV\V CWH -QTPICTDGP CP GKPGP $CWO IGNGJPV KO *KPVGTITWPF N RHNÒIGPFGT $CWGT   OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1286



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP , ) 9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FKG   'TPGPPWPIFGU)TCHGP#NGZGL$GUVWUEJGH4KWOKP\WO(GNFOCTUEJCNN)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU)TCHGP NOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN<YGK(GNUGPKO/GGTQDGP9QNMGPOKV5QPPG$NKV\GPWPF4GIGPOO I&KCMQX -N5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1287



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH WPF ) % 9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJT   JWPFGTVU CWHKJTG-TÌPWPI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP&KG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGPFGU )NCWDGPUWPF4W­NCPFUJCNVGPGKPGP-TCP\OKVFGO/QPQITCOO-CVJCTKPCU++ÒDGT#NVCTCWHFGOGKPG TCWEJGPFG1RHGTUEJCNGUVGJVQDGPFKGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG8QTUGJWPIOKV-TQPGWPF<GRVGTKP9QNMGPOO I&KCMQX 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

 175


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1288



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP6+CO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPF*-CWHFGT4ÒEM UGKVG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



1289



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG/ÒP\ XGTDGUUGTWPI )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP#PUKEJV GKPGT 5RKPFGNRTGUUG FCTÒDGT   #FNGTOKV4GKEJUCRHGNQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX  9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1291

1290

1290



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 +YCPQHH WPF , ) 9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJT   JWPFGTVU  CWH FKG )TÒPFWPI FGU *CWUGU HÒT 'T\KGJWPI WPF $KNFWPI )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV-TGW\UVGJVPGDGPGKPGT5·WNGTMPKGPFG(TCWOKVPGWIGDQ TGPGO-KPFKO*KPVGTITWPF)GD·WFGCPUKEJVOOI&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



176

'VYCURQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1292

  

1294

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN 2QNVKPC I5V2GVGTUDWTI$KVMKP

1297



1295

1293

5GJTUEJÌP *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

  

1297

4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP6+CO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPF ß - ² CWH FGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP&KCMQX 4 2GVTQX 4WDGN 5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9CTU\CYUMKG%GPVTWO0WOK\OCV[E\PG9CTUEJCW0T



-W -QRGMGP   'MCVGTKPDWTI $GKFG ÒDGTRT·IV CWH  -QRGMGP5VÒEMGP 2GVGTU +++   $KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX 5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP

 

1298



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP)%9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG )TÒPFWPIFGT#MCFGOKGFGTUEJÌPGP-ÒPUVGKP5V2GVGTUDWTI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP#WH GKPGO 3WCFGT FKG #VVTKDWVG FGT UEJÌPGP -ÒPUVG /CNGTGK $KNFJCWGTGK WPF#TEJKVGMVWT OOI&KCMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 177


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1300

1299



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

5GJTUEJÌP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP6+CO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPF ß - ² CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG $KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

 

1301



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'KP YGKJWPI FGU -CTWUUGNNU 5RQTVCTGPC  )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP#PUKEJVFGT #TGPCKO8QTFGTITWPFNNCIGTPFG(NW­IÌVVKP0GXCOKV4WFGT3WGNNWTPGWPFFGO9CRRGPUEJKNFXQP 5V2GVGTUDWTIQDGP#FNGTOKV-TCP\WPF$NKV\OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1303

1302



1303



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP6+CO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPF À - Ø CWHFGT4ÒEM UGKVG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM /QUMCWI$KVMKP



5GJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP



1304

 178

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1306

1305 1306



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 (DC  )1.&(CUUWPIUURWTGP(GNFGTUVCTMÒDGTCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



4WDGN/QUMCWI$KVMKP&CX

1307

5GJTUEJÌP

 

1308



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP6+CO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPF%#CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG $KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 9KP\<CKPGPFGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1309



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,%),CGIGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGP 6TCPURQTVFGU)TCPKVHGNUGPUHÒTFCU/QPWOGPV2GVGTU+$TWUVDKNFNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP#PUKEJV FGU (GNUGPU FGT XQP XKGNGP 2GTUQPGP DGCTDGKVGV YKTF  OO  I   &KCMQX -N5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1310

 

-QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -QRGMGP )TKXGPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



1311

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  179


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1312



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) % 9CGEJVGT WPF , ) 9CGEJVGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU   ,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFGPTWUUKUEJGP)TCHGP)TGIQT)TGIQTKGYKVUEJ1TNQYIGUVKHVGVXQO5GPCVHÒTFKG $GM·ORHWPI FGT $GWNGPRGUV KP /QUMCW $TWUVDKNF FGU )TCHGP N OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&GT )TCH\W 2HGTF TGKVGV N CWH GKPGP (NCOOGPCDITWPF \W KO *KPVGTITWPF 5VCFVCPUKEJV XQP /QUMCW  OO   I&KCMQX5NI$TGVVCWGT 8QT\ÒINKEJ

ex 1313

1315



1316



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGP$KVMKP  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



-W -QRGMGP  5W\WP -QN[XCP  HÒT 5KDKTKGP  I $KVMKP $TGMMG&KCMQX 7\FGPKMQX (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP6ÈCO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPFFLCWHFGT4ÒEM UGKVG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



180

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1317

1319

1318

 

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP6ÈCO#TOCDUEJPKVVWPFß×CWHFGT4ÒEM UGKVG$KVMKP&CX&KCMQX7\FGPKMQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJ

1320

  

1322

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  

1321

8QT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

   181


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1323



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP , $ )CUU WPF , % ) ,CGIGT XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJT   JWPFGTVU CWHFKG)GDWTVFGU)TQ­HÒTUVGP#NGZCPFGT2CYNQYKVUEJ UR·VGT<CT#NGZCPFGT+ )GMTÌPVG $ÒUVGTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVG9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKVFGO0GWIGDQTGPGPCWHFGO#TOUVGJV CP #NVCT CP FGO FGT TWUUKUEJG 5EJKNF NGJPV CWH FGO #NVCT UVGJV GKPG DTGPPGPFG 1RHGTUEJCNG QDGP N   5VTCJNGPOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1324



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGPFLCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

1325

   182

1326



1327

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$TGMMG 5GJTUEJÌP 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP(DD )1.&5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP -W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1328



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP HÒT5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1329



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP % .GDGTGEJV WPF , $ )CUU XGTOWVNKEJ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJT   JWPFGTVU CWHFKG)GDWTVFGU)TQ­HÒTUVGP-QPUVCPVKP2CYNQYKVUEJ)GMTÌPVG$ÒUVGTOKVWOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP&KG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGPXQP)NCWDG.KGDGWPF*QHHPWPIUVGJGPPGDGPGKPCPFGTXXOKVFGO 0GWIGDQTGPGP QDGP 5VTCJNGP KO *KPVGTITWPF #PUKEJV FGT -KTEJG 5V 5QRJKC KP -QPUVCPVKPQRGN   OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1330



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4 &KCMQX(D7\FGPKMQX  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ



1331



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, WO XQP)%9CGEJVGTWPF2.8GTPKGT XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU ,CJTJWPFGTVU 2TGKUOGFCKNNGFGT#MCFGOKGFGTUEJÌPGP-ÒPUVGKP5V2GVGTUDWTI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUV DKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GTOGNKP/·PPNKEJG)GUVCNVKPNCPIGT4QDGUVGJVXXFGP-QRHPCEJTIG YCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGP2CNOWPF.QTDGGT\YGKIKPFGT.KPMGP.QTDGGTMTCP\WPF)KTNCPFGWOJGTCO $QFGPNKGIGPFKG#VVTKDWVGFGTUEJÌPGP-ÒPUVG/CNGTGK$KNFJCWGTGKWPF#TEJKVGMVWTOOI &KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 183


RUSSLAND โ€ข KATHARINA II.

1333

 

1332

1333

 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGT IGMTรŒPVG 9CRRGP   KPU -TGW\ IGUVGNNV KP FGP 9KPMGNP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN KO <GPVTWO IGMTรŒPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT $KVMKP    (DD )1.&5GJTUEJรŒPpXQT\ร’INKEJ  4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ร’P\\GKEJGPรˆรงCWHFGT4ร’EMUGKVG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX

5GJTUEJรŒP

1334

1336



1335

 

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP Hร’T5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP 4  -W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP Hร’T5KDKTKGPI$KVMKP 4 

5GJTUEJรŒP 5GJTUEJรŒP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,$)CUU XGTOWVNKEJURยทVGTG2TยทIWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG'TTKEJ VWPI FGT 4GKVGTUVCVWG 2GVGTU + $TWUVDKNF N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP#PUKEJV FGT   4GKVGTUVCVWGCWHGKPGO(GNUGPOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ร’INKEJ

  

1337

 184

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX  -N5EJTรŒVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJรŒP




RUSSLAND â&#x20AC;¢ KATHARINA II.

1338



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP8$G\TQFPQ[WPF2$QDTQXUEJKMQX XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU ,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG)TÃ&#x2019;PFWPIFGT2TQXKP\GP'MCVGTKPQUNCXWPF6CWTKGP)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF FGUTWUUKUEJGP(GNFOCTUEJCNNU)TGIQT#NGZCPFTQYKVUEJ2QVGOMKPTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN.CPFMCTVG OKVFGPGKPIG\GKEJPGVGP2TQXKP\GPOOI&KCMQX 48QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1339



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP 8 $CTCPQX WPF 2 $QDTQXUEJKMQX UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJT   JWPFGTVU  CWH FKG )TÃ&#x2019;PFWPI FGT 2TQXKP\GP 'MCVGTKPQUNCX WPF 6CWTKGP )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU   TWUUKUEJGP (GNFOCTUEJCNNU )TGIQT #NGZCPFTQYKVUEJ 2QVGOMKP T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN.CPFMCTVG   OKVFGPGKPIG\GKEJPGVGP2TQXKP\GPOOI&KCMQX 448QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ 

185


RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1341



1342

1343

-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGPß#CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX 4 5GXGTKP 5 7\FGPKMQX *GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP



8QT\ÒINKEJ



1344

1345

1345



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGPß#CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP&CX &KCMQX 4 2GVTQX 4WDGN 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP,#DTCJCOCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP1VEJCMQX$TWUVDKNFFGUTWUUKUEJGP (GNFOCTUEJCNNU )TGIQT #NGZCPFTQYKVUEJ 2QVGOMKP T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN#P   UKEJVFGT(GUVWPIÒDGTFGOOKVVNGTGP6WTOYGJVFKG(CJPGOKVFGO/QPQITCOOFGT<CTKPOO I&KCMQX*QHHOCPP 8QT\ÒINKEJ  +O 8GTNCWH FGU TWUUKUEJVÒTMKUEJGP -TKGIGU  GTUVÒTOVG FKG TWUUKUEJG #TOGG WPVGT FGO 1DGTDGHGJN XQP   (ÒTUV)TGIQT#NGZCPFTQYKVUEJ2QVGOMKP  CO&G\GODGTFKGCPFGT/ÒPFWPIFGT(NÒUUG&PLGRT WPF$WIIGNGIGPG(GUVWPI1VEJCMQX&GTTWUUKUEJG(GNFOCTUEJCNNWPF)ÒPUVNKPIFGT<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++GTJKGNVCNU $GNQJPWPI HÒT UGKPG 8GTFKGPUVG FCU ITQ­G $CPF XQO 1TFGP FGU *GKNKIGP )GQTI &GT DGMCPPVG 4KVV FGU $CTQPU   /ÒPEJJCWUGPCWHFGT-CPQPGPMWIGNUQNNY·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGTQUOCPKUEJGP(GUVWPIUVCVVIGHWPFGPJCDGP

186




RUSSLAND • KATHARINA II.

1347 1346





1346

<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP6+YCPQHH(ÒT6CRHGTMGKVKPHKPPKUEJGP)GY·UUGTP)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI$KVMKP/&KCMQXXCT  5GJTUEJÌP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



1348

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1349

1350



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX





1XCNG IQNFGPG 8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV HÒT FKG 6GKNPGJOGT CO 4WUUKUEJ6ÒTMKUEJGP -TKGI    )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO5EJTKHV KP HÒPH <GKNGP (ÒT FGP 5KGIGT CO 6CI FGU (TKGFGPUXGT   VTCIUFGP&G\GODGT ZOOI&KCMQX  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV9KGÒDNKEJIGNQEJVYKP\$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ 

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1351 1352

1352



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP





-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

 187


RUSSLAND • PAUL I.

1355 1353

1353

 

-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX

8QT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

 



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP

 2CVKPC2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



1356



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP6+YCPQHH 8QTFGTUGKVG WPF,$)CUU 4ÒEMUGKVGXGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG 2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU CWHFKG6GKNWPIGP2QNGPUKPFGP,CJTGPWPF)GMTÌPVGU$TWUV DKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV WOIGJ·PIVGO   5V )GQTIUUEJKNF J·NV \YGK .CPFMCTVGP OKV FGP ,CJTGU\CJNGP  WPF   OO  I   &KCMQX 8QTFGTUGKVG  4ÒEMUGKVG  4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





.QVXQP-WRHGTOÒP\GPHÒT5KDKTKGP2QNWUEJMC&GPIC-QRGMG-QRGMGP  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





-W -QRGMGP  -W&GPIC   #NNG /ÒP\UV·VVG -QN[XCP 5W\WP  HÒT 5KDKTKGP   $KVMKP 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



1359

ex 1360



2CWN+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP%/GKUUPGTCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPIKP/QUMCW7PK HQTOKGTVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV 1TFGPUDCPF WPF WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKP-TGW\  OO  I   $KVMKP/ 4 &KCMQX 4 4GKEJGN 4 5GXGTKP5OKTPQXE  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI Z $KVMKP Z 

188

5VÒEM(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJWPFUGJTUEJÌP

 


RUSSLAND • PAUL I.

1361

  

1363

-W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP -W-QRGMGP#PPKPUMQ[GI$KVMKP 4  -W-QRGMGPWPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI$KVMKP

4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP 445EJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  

1365

1364



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



 4WDGN 2QNVKPC   ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I   /KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP /Á CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP7\FGPKMQX  .GKEJVG-QTTQUKQPUURWTGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1367 ex 1366

1368



-QRGMGP-QRGMGP$GKFG/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI$KVMKP

 

-W&GPIC -QRGMG 'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP -W2QNWUEJMC'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

1369

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



8QT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

 

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1370

189


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER I.

1371

1372

1371



4WDGN 2QNWRQNVKPPKM 5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP /Á CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP 7\FGPKMQX -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP 1/ CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG $KVMKP  &CX    7\FGPKMQX *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1373

 

1374

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

1375

-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP (CUVUGJTUEJÌP

1376

 

1375



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





#NGZCPFGT+-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1377



190

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT)TÒP FWPI5V2GVGTUDWTIUFWTEJ2GVGT+FGO)TQ­GP$ÒUVG2GVGTU+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCTÒDGT5VGTPGP TKPI*GTMWNGU OKV -GWNG 5EJKNF WPF .ÌYGPHGNN UKV\V CWH )NQDWU WPVGP KUV FGT (GUVWPIURNCP XQP   2GVTQRCXNQXUMGKPIG\GKEJPGVQDGP6GKNCPUKEJVFGU6KGTMTGKUGUOOI&KCMQX  48QT\ÒINKEJ




RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER I.

1378



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWHFGPTWUUKUEJGP9KUUGPUEJCHV NGT 2 ) &GOKFQX 7PKHQTOKGTVGU $TWUVDKNF &GOKFQXU N OKV WOIGNGIVGO 1TFGPUDCPF&TGK <GKNGP   5EJTKHV WPF ,CJTGU\CJN KP 1TFGPUDCPF 5V 8NCFKOKTU1TFGP  FGT XQP 'KEJGP\YGKIGP WOYWPFGP KUV   OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1379



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGPÀ - È CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX -N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



1380



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJV XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWHFGP)TCHGP025JGTGOG VGYIGUVKHVGVXQO5GPCVHÒTFKG'TTKEJVWPIGKPGU*QURKVCNUKP/QUMCW7PKHQTOKGTVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU)TC HGPNOKVWOIGNGIVGO1TFGPUDCPF&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG)PCFGOKV2CNO\YGKIUVGJVXXWPFÒDGTTGKEJV GKPGTNUKV\GPFGP/WVVGTFKGKJT-KPFUVKNNVGKPJTGPDÒPFGNTUKV\VGKP·NVGTGT/CPPOKV-TÒEMUVQEM FGO UKG GKPG 5EJCNG FKG XQP GKPGT 5EJNCPIG WOYWPFGP KUV GPVIGIGPJ·NVKO*KPVGTITWPF#PUKEJVFGU *QURKVCNUOOI&KCMQX5NI$TGVVCWGT 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 191


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER I.

1381

1382

 

1382

-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP 4  -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

1383 1384

1384



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGPΦΓCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

1386

1385

-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP

 

1387

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX -W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP  46WUEJG\CJNGVYCUMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



192


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER I.

1388







1389

1390

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJV#WU\GKEJPWPIFGTGJGOCNUHKPPKUEJGP#TOGGHÒTKJTG-TKGIGT $ÒUVGT9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV2CNO\YGKIUVGJVHCUVXXWPFMT·P\VGKPGPXQTKJTUVGJGPFGPIGHNÒIGNVGP )GPKWUOKV2CNO\YGKIWPF5EJKNFOOI&KCMQX 4  48QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP%.GDGTGEJVCWHFKG2TKXKNKIKGTWPIFGTHKPPKUEJGP7PKXGTUKV·V#DQ 6WTMW  $ÒUVG T9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UKV\V T WPF URKGNV .[TC FGP TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG 9CUUGTWTPG IGNGJPV T   CWHIGJGPFG 5QPPG JKPVGT FGT )GD·WFGCPUKEJV FGT 7PKXGTUKV·V XQP #DQ  OO  I &KCMQX    4  49KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%.GDGTGEJVCWHFKG2TKXKNKIKGTWPIFGTHKPPKUEJGP7PKXGTUKV·V#DQ 6WTMW  $ÒUVG T9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UKV\V T WPF URKGNV .[TC FGP TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG 9CUUGTWTPG IGNGJPV   T CWHIGJGPFG 5QPPG JKPVGT FGT )GD·WFGCPUKEJV FGT 7PKXGTUKV·V XQP #DQ  OO  I    &KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ 

1392

1391

1393



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTI$KVMKP

5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





-W&GPIC -QRGMG 'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP / - Ô CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 193


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER I.

1394



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP(6QNUVQK XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWH*GT\QI#NGZCPFGT(TKGFTKEJ-CTN

#NGZCPFGT+ XQP9ÒTVVGODGTICNU*GGTHÒJTGTFGT5V2GVGTUDWTIGT/KNK\#PVKMGT-TKGIGTTGKEJVGKPGT O·PPNKEJGP )GUVCNV KP 6QIC GKPGP .QTDGGT\YGKI N FCPGDGP MPKGPFG YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV<GJP <GKNGP   5EJTKHVKP.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI&KCMQX-NGKP4CHH 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1395



1396



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGPΠ%CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

 

9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

1399

1398



 194

1398

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP 0 $TGPGV WPF , &WXKXKGT CWH UGKPGP /ÒP\DGUWEJ KP 2CTKU -QRH   #NGZCPFGTU+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU<CTGP2GVGT+TOKVWOIGNGIVGO*GT OGNKPOOI&KCMQX5NI,WNKWU 8QT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP/ΦCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP




RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER I.

1400



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP(6QNUVQK XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI 2TGKUOGFCKNNGFGT#MCFGOKG FGTUEJÌPGP-ÒPUVGKP5V2GVGTUDWTI-QRHNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\'KPCNVGT/CPPOKVNCPIGT4QDGUKV\VN OKV 5VCD KP FGT .KPMGP WPF .QTDGGTMTCP\ KP FGT CWUIGUVTGEMVGP 4GEJVGP WOJGT CO $QFGP NKGIGP FKG   #VVTKDWVGFGTUEJÌPGP-ÒPUVG/CNGTGK$KNFJCWGTGKWPF#TEJKVGMVWTOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1402

1401





1401

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP(6QNUVQK XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT4GHQTOC VKQPKP(KPPNCPF9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV/CWGTMTQPGUKV\VXXFGPTGEJVGP#TOCWH9CRRGPUEJKNFIG NGIV FGT NKPMG #TO NKGIV CWH GKPGT 5·WNG QDGP /QPQITCOO #NGZCPFGTU + KP 5VTCJNGP4GNKIKQ OKV   -GNEJKPFGT4GEJVGPWPF$WEJWPVGTFGONKPMGP#TOUVGJVXXOOI&KCMQX 5NI9JKVKPI FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGPΠ%CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX /KP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1403 1,5:1

1,5:1



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



 4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI &C\W 0KMQNCWU ++  4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  4WDGN    5V2GVGTUDWTI+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  5VÒEM)1.&5EJÌPWPFDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP



 195


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1405

1406 1405



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ï - Ä CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP





0KMQNCWU+-W-QRGMGQ,WPDGUVKOOVG/ÒP\UV·VVGI(GJNRT·IWPI4ÒEMUGKVG KPEWUG8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP 5GJTUEJÌP



1407

1408





1408

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV JGTCWUIGIGDGP XQP FGT 5VCFV 9CTUEJCW \WT 'TKPPGTWPI CP FGP 6QF   #NGZCPFGTU+$ÒUVG#NGZCPFGTU+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\FCTÒDGT5VGTP8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVWPF,CJTGU \CJNKP.QTDGGMTCP\OOI&KCMQX 4 *%\4GKEJGN  -N4CPFHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP9#NGZGLGYWPF,.CYTGVUQX XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWHUGKPG-TÌ PWPI KP /QUMCW -QRH T-TQPG NKGIV CWH GKPGT 5·WNG FCTCP CPIGDTCEJV GKPG 6CHGN OKV TWUUKUEJGT +P   UEJTKHV &CU)GUGV\ QDGPUVTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1409



196

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP9#NGZGLGYWPF#.[CNKPCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPIKP/QUMCW-QRHT-TQPG NKGIVCWHGKPGT5·WNGFCTCPCPIGDTCEJVGKPG6CHGNOKVTWUUKUEJGT+PUEJTKHV &CU)GUGV\ QDGPUVTCJNGP FGU)QVVGUCWIGOOI&KCMQX4GKEJGN5OKTPQXD  -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ




RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1410



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP(6QNUVQK XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT#MCFGOKG FGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGPKP5V2GVGTUDWTI-QRHT/KPGTXCOKV5RGGTWPF5EJKNFVJTQPVXXWPFJ·NVGKPGP .QTDGGTMTCP\ÒDGTGKPG5·WNGOKV,CPWUMQRHFGTCWUFGP)GUKEJVGTPXQP2GVGT+WPF#NGZCPFGT+DG UVGJVT'WNGOOI&KCMQX 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

1411



1413

1412



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*ΓCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*ΓCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1414 1,5:1



1,5:1

<NQV[9CTUEJCWHÒT2QNGPI(GKPIQNF$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\9GTVWPF,CJTGU\CJNKP FTGK <GKNGP \YKUEJGP 'KEJGP\YGKIGP FCTWPVGT FCU /ÒP\\GKEJGP ( Û * Û $KVMKP  4  (D    5EJN7\FGPKMQX 4  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV -N4CPFHGJNGTYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ  197


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1416

1415

1415



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*ΓCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV 2T·OKG FGT HKPPKUEJGP )GUGNNUEJCHV HÒT .CPFYKTVUEJCHV   $ÒUVGT&TGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP$NWOGPMTCP\OOI&KCMQX  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





1418 Pt

1417 Pt



4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTII)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV9CRRGPWPF1TFGPUMGVVGCWH FGT$TWUVKPFGP(·PIGP<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNCWHFGPCWUIGDTGKVGVGP(NÒIGNPLGFTGK9CRRGPUEJKNFG 5EJTKHVOKV9GTVWPF,CJTGUCPICDG$KVMKP 4 (D5EJN 2.#6+048QT\ÒINKEJ 



4WDGN2NCVKP5V2GVGTUDWTI%CIHGKP$KVMKP(D5EJN  2.#6+05GJTUEJÌP

1419

1421



1420



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*ΓCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGWPFIGUEJNQUUGPGT CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG$KVMKP&CX7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*ΓCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP



198

5GJTUEJÌP




RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1422

1423

1424



4WDGN <NQV[ 5V2GVGTUDWTIHÒT2QNGPI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Í - Ã CWHFGT8QTFGT UGKVG$KVMKP&CX7\FGPKMQX -N4CPFHGJNGTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP 4 &CX7\FGPKMQX (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP&CX  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1425

1427

1426



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT+I$KVMKP&CX  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMGP5W\WP -QN[XCP I$KVMKP



)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPQ,  WPUKIPKGTV2T·OKGFGT,WPIGPUEJWNG)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGP (·PIGP CWH FGT $TWUV 9CRRGPUEJKNF FCTCWH 5V )GQTI FGP &TCEJGP   VÌVGPF UGKVNKEJ CWH FGP 5EJYKPIGP LG FTGK YGKVGTG MNGKPG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG/KPGTXC OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   WPF¤NNCORGUVGJVXXWOJGTCWHFGO$QFGP#VVTKDWVGFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVGPOOI&KC MQX 4 //5OKTPQXC )1.&9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

5GJTUEJÌP

 

 199


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1430

1428







1428

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#-NGRKMQYPCEJGKPGO'PVYWTH(6QNUVQKU XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI  \WT'TKPPGTWPICPFKG#NNKCP\\YKUEJGP¤UVGTTGKEJ4W­NCPFWPF2TGW­GP$TWUVDKNF#NGZCPFGTU+ KP CPVKMGT 4ÒUVWPI N OKV 5RGGT WPF 5EJKNF&TGK IGJCTPKUEJVG 4KVVGT XQP FGPGP FGT TGEJVG GKPGP   5EJKNFOKVFGOÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP9CRRGPVT·IVTGKEJGPUKEJFKG*·PFGOOI&KCMQX 5NI,WNKWU 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP*)WDGWPF27VMKPCWHFKG5V8NCFKOKT7PKXGTUKV·VKP-KGY-QRHT -TGW\ KP 5VTCJNGPMTCP\  OO &C\W $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  CWH $NÒEJGTU 5KGI CP FGT -CV\DCEJ   OO5NI,WNKWU 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJ



-W-QRGMG'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP



5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1431

2:1



2:1

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFCUL·JTKIG-TÌPWPIULWDKN·WOI&KG$ÒUVGPFGU<CTGPRCC TGUPGDGPGKPCPFGTNff / ÐÓÁΛÅÉ 8GT\KGTWPI WPVGP%.Ï.Ú. (MÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGPHÒT 5V 2GVGTUDWTI  WOJGT f ×ÈÑÒÀÃÎ ÇÎΛÎÒÀ 2 ÇÎΛÎÒÍÈÊÀ 78 ÄÎΛÅÈ$KVMKP* FQTVCNU 0QXQFGNDG\GKEJPGV (D5EJN )1.&0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV /KVFGTÒDNKEJGP,WUVKGTWPICO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  <CT0KMQNCWU+CWUFGO*CWU4QOCPQY*QNUVGKP)QVVQTRFTKVVGT5QJPFGU<CTGP2CWN+WPFUGKPGT\YGKVGP'JG HTCW/CTKC(LQFQTQYPCIGDQTGPG2TKP\GUUKP5QRJKC&QTQVJGCXQP9ÒTVVGODGTIYWTFGCO,WNKKP<CTUMQLG 5GNQDGK5V2GVGTUDWTIIGDQTGPWPFUVCTDCO/·T\KP5V2GVGTUDWTI0KMQNCWUDNKGDY·JTGPFFGT4GIKGTWPI UGKPGU·NVGTGP$TWFGTU#NGZCPFGT+CNNGP5VCCVUIGUEJ·HVGPHGTP+O,CJTGOCEJVGTGKPGITQ­G4GKUGFWTEJ OGJTGTG.·PFGT'WTQRCU#O,WNKJGKTCVGVGGT%JCTNQVVGXQP2TGW­GPFKG·NVGUVG6QEJVGT-ÌPKI(TKGFTKEJ 9KNJGNOU+++WPFNGDVGOKVUGKPGT(COKNKGKO#PKVUEJMQYUEJGP2CNCUVKP5V2GVGTUDWTI#WUFKGUGT'JGOKV%JCT NQVVGIKPIGPUKGDGP-KPFGTJGTXQT#NU#NGZCPFGT+CO&G\GODGTQJPGGKIGPG-KPFGTUVCTDUCJUKEJ0KMQ NCWUXÌNNKIWPGTYCTVGVUGNDUVOKVFGT4GIKGTWPUÒDGTPCJOGMQPHTQPVKGTVFCUGKP\YGKV·NVGUVGT$TWFGT-QPUVCPVKPUKEJ YGKIGTVG FGP <CTGPVJTQP \W DGUVGKIGP #O  &G\GODGT ÒDGTPCJO 0KMQNCWU HQTOGNN FKG 4GIKGTWPI WPF YWTFG   CO5GRVGODGTKP/QUMCWIGMTÌPV

200


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1433

1432



4WDGN <NQV[ HÒT2QNGP5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Í - Ã CWHFGT8QTFGT UGKVG$KVMKP&CX7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Í - Ã CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1434

1435

1435



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP*)WDG XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWHFKG'TÌHHPWPIFGU2WNMQXQ1DUGT XCVQTKWOUDGK5V2GVGTUDWTI-QRHT#PUKEJVFGU1DUGTXCVQTKWOUWOJGT-TCP\OKV6KGTMTGKU\GKEJGP OOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1436





(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





1437

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,25EJQWDGTICWHFGP$GUWEJFGU)TQ­HÒTUVGPWPFUR·VGTGP<CTGP#NGZCPFGT++ KO*CWUFGU<CTGP2GVGT+KP5CCTFCO#PUKEJVFGU*CWUGU2GVGTU+KP5CCTFCO)GMTÌPVGT.ÌYGOKV 5EJYGTVWPF5EJKNFÒDGTUKGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP-TCP\OOI&KCMQX 4   *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU$QTQFKPQ&GPMOCNUI$KVMKP 4 &CX 7\FGPKMQX 5  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 201


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1438



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP * )WDG CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT #NGZCPFGT7PKXGTUKV·V KP (KPPNCPF   $ÒUVGN5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI&KCMQX 4   9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1439



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP * )WDG CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT #NGZCPFGT7PKXGTUKV·V KP (KPPNCPF   $ÒUVGN5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1441

1440



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&9KP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1444 1442

1442



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Í - Ã CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Í - Ã CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX -N-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

202

  


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1445

1446

1446



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP À - × CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1447

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP

 

1448



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP À - × CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN9CTUEJCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP/9CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 4-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1449

1450

1450



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ê - Á CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

1452

1451

1451



4WDGN9CTUEJCWI/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP/9CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP FQTVKTTVÒONKEJOKVHCNUEJGO/ÒP\\GKEJGP  (D5EJN )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 203


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1453

 

1454

1453

4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP -N-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&5GJTUEJÌP

1455

 

1456



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ï - À CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1457

1458

1458



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP À - Ã CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP (D5EJN7\FGPKMQX 5  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ï - À CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1460

1459

1459 1461

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKPXCT



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*+CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP7\FG PKMQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

204

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS I.

1462



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#-NGRKMQYWPF8#NGZGLGY XGTOWVNKEJUR·VGTG2T·IWPI CWHFCUL·JTKIG ,WDKN·WO FGU )TQ­JGT\QIU /KEJCGN 2CYNQYKVUEJ CNU $GHGJNUJCDGT FGU /QUMCWGT 4GIKOGPVGU 7PKHQT   OKGTVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU )TQ­JGT\QIU N ÒDGT IGMTGW\VGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP QDGP IGMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT   5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVÒDGT#TOCVWTGPOOI&KCMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1463



1464



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNPMN-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ï - À CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1465

1466



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ï - À CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ï - À CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX /KP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI$KVMKP&CX Z   5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFHCUVUGJTUEJÌP





 -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP Ï - À CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG $KVMKP    7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP

 205


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER II.

1469



1470

1471

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ï - À CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*+CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*+CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

1472

1474

1474



.QV -W -QRGMGP   'MCVGTKPDWTI -W -QRGMGP  5W\WP -W -QRGMGP    'MCVGTKPDWTI$KVMKP 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





#NGZCPFGT ++  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , XQP 2 /GUEJGT[CMQX WPF 8 0KMQPQX 2T·OKG FGT   /·FEJGPUEJWNGHÒTIWVGU$GPGJOGPWPFUEJWNKUEJGP(QTVUEJTKVV$TWUVDKNFFGT<CTKP/CTKC(GQFQTQYPC T/KPGTXC OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF ¤NNCORG UVGJV X X WOJGT CWH FGO $QFGP #VVTKDWVG FGT 9KUUGP   UEJCHVGPOOI&KCMQXXCT 4 +XGTUGP:+++5OKTPQXCXCT  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



6TCIDCTG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,XQP0-Q\KPWPF+%JWMOCUQX2T·OKGFGTHKPPKUEJGP)GUGNNUEJCHVHÒT .CPFYKTVUEJCHV $ÒUVG T&TGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV KP $NWOGPMTCP\  OO &C\W #NGZCPFGT ++ 6TCI   DCTG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,XQP%,CJP2T·OKGFGTHKPPKUEJGP)GUGNNUEJCHVHÒT*CWUYKTVUEJCHV$ÒUVGT &TGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV KP $NWOGPMTCP\  OO 0KMQNCWU ++ 6TCIDCTG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , XQP %   ,CJP 2T·OKG FGT HKPPKUEJGP )GUGNNUEJCHV HÒT *CWUYKTVUEJCHV $ÒUVG N)GMTÌPVGU 9CRRGP CWH 'KEJGP   \YGKIGPOOI 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





206


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER II.

1477

1476





1476

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP#.[CNKPWPF/-WEJMKPCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT'KPHÒJTWPIFGU%JTK UVGPVWOUKP(KPPNCPF$ÒUVGT7PVGTGKPGOUVTCJNGPFGP-TGW\MPKGPGKPGO·PPNKEJGWPFGKPGYGKDNKEJG )GUVCNVFKGOKV(GNNDGMNGKFGVUKPFCWHGKPGO(GNUGPFCXQTNKGIGP-GWNG-ÌEJGT2HGKNGWPF$QIGPKO *KPVGTITWPF$GTIGWPF/GGTOOI&KCMQX 4  -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN 2QNVKPC 5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ô - Á CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP 7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1478 1479

1479

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT0KMQNCWU+I$KVMKP&CX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1480

1482

 

1481



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT0KMQNCWU+I$KVMKP&CX  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT0KMQNCWU+I$KVMKP&CX7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Ô - Á CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ





-QRGMGP OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGPÔ - Á  OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGPÔ - Á  OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP /È  OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*Ô CNNGCWUFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG5V2GVGTUDWTI$KVMKP 7\FGPKMQX 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFDGUUGT

 207


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER II.

1484



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG M[TKNNKUEJ WPUKIPKGTVXQP2$TWUPKVU[PCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU&GPMOCNU\WT ,CJTHGKGTFGUTWUUKUEJGP4GKEJGU<YGK/GFCKNNQPUOKVFGP$TWUVDKNFGTP4WTKMUWPF#NGZCPFGTU++ GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT QDGP UVTCJNGPFGT 5VGTP WPVGP IGMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 9CRRGP CWH FGT $TWUV   #PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI&KCMQX 4 +XGTUGP::8   -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1485



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP.GC#JNDQTPCWHFKG.Q[CNKV·VFGTHKPPKUEJGP$GXÌNMGTWPIPCEJFGTRQNPKUEJGP 4GXQNWVKQPWPFFKG8QNMUXGTUCOONWPIXQP2QTXQQ$ÒUVGT(ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP'KEJGPMTCP\OO I&KCMQX 4  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1488

1486



1486

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP .GC #JNDQTP CWH FKG .Q[CNKV·V FGT HKPPKUEJGP $GXÌNMGTWPI PCEJ FGT RQNPK   UEJGP4GXQNWVKQPWPFFKG8QNMUXGTUCOONWPIXQP2QTXQQ$ÒUVGT(ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP'KEJGPMTCP\ OOI&KCMQX (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP .GC #JNDQTP CWH FKG .Q[CNKV·V FGT HKPPKUEJGP $GXÌNMGTWPI PCEJ FGT RQNPK   UEJGP4GXQNWVKQPWPFFKG8QNMUXGTUCOONWPIXQP2QTXQQ$ÒUVGT(ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP'KEJGPMTCP\ OOI&KCMQX+XGTUGP:::8 'VYCUDGTKGDGP\CRQPKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

208

8QT\ÒINKEJCWURQNKGTVGT2NCVVG



 


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER II.

1490

1491

1489

1489



-W-QRGMGP'MCVGTKPDWTII$KVMKP$TGMMG7\FGPKMQX

5GJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&(CUUWPIUpWPF$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



1493

1492



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN



)1.&5GJTUEJÌP

1495 1494

1494



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*+CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN



)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

1496



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP .GC #JNDQTP CWH FKG HKPPKUEJG +PFWUVTKGCWUUVGNNWPI KP *GNUKPMK $ÒUVG   T9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UKV\V N OKV (CEMGN KP FGT 4GEJVGP FKG .KPMG CWH FGP HKPPKUEJGP 9CRRGP   UEJKNFIGNGIVWOJGT#VVTKDWVGFGT-WPUVWPF+PFWUVTKGKO*KPVGTITWPF5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP*GNUKPMKOO I&KCMQX 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 209


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER II.

1497



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%,CJPCWHFGPKO)TQ­JGT\QIVWO(KPPNCPFIGHGKGTVGP)GDWTVUVCIXQP #NGZCPFGT+$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\'KPGYGKDNKEJG)GUVCNVUVGJVXXOKV9CCIGKPFGT4GEJVGP\W KJTGP (Ò­GP FGT HKPPKUEJG 9CRRGPUEJKNF T FCPGDGP UKV\V FKG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG ,WIGPF OKV 5EJTKHVVCHGN   OOI&KCMQX 4  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1498 1499

1499



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&4CPFGVYCUDGCTDGKVGV(GJNGTKO(GNFUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*+CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1500

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

1502

1501

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1503



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Í - Ô CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Í - Ô CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



210


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER II.

1505 1504

1504





#NGZCPFGT +++  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , XQP %,CJP2T·OKGFGTHKPPKUEJGP)GUGNNUEJCHVHÒT .CPFYKTVUEJCHV$ÒUVGT&TGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP$NWOGPMTCP\OOI5OKTPQX  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP Í - Ô CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG$KVMKP&CX 7\FGPKMQX 48QT\ÒINKEJ



1506

1507

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX7\FGPKMQX  (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1509

1510

1511

1512

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

 



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1513

  

1514

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN

1515

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

   211


RUSSLAND • ALEXANDER II.

1516

1519

   

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&5GJTUEJÌP 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&5GJTUEJÌP 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&5GJTUEJÌP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ÀÃ CWHFGO4CPF$KVMKP&CX7\FGPK MQX (CUVUGJTUEJÌP

1521

    

1523



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ÀÃ CWHFGO4CPF$KVMKP&CX7\FGPK MQX (CUVUGJTUEJÌP

5GJTUEJÌP



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ

  

1524



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP # )TKNNKEJGU CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGU &GPMOCNU #NGZCPFGTU ++ $ÒUVG   #NGZCPFGTU++T#PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI5OKTPQX (CUV5VGORGNINCP\





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP # )TKNNKEJGU CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGU &GPMOCNU #NGZCPFGTU ++ $ÒUVG   #NGZCPFGTU++T#PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI5OKTPQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1526 1,5:1

 212

1,5:1

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS II.

1527

1530

1529

1528



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ÀÃ CWHFGO4CPF$KVMKP7\FGPKMQX 5GJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP'9KMUVTÌOWPF%,CJPCWHFCUL·JTKIG,WDKN·WOFGTHKPPKUEJGP)GUGNN UEJCHVHÒT-WPUV$ÒUVGFGU2TQVGMVQTUT)GHNÒIGNVGYGKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV*CTHGNGJTVGKPGP-PCDGPFCU <GKEJPGPKPGKPGT.CPFUEJCHVOOI$QUVTÌO++5 8QT\ÒINKEJ



0KMQNCWU ++  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , OKV TWUUKUEJGT 5KIPCVWT 25 'UVPKUEJG 2T·OKG HÒT   .CPFYKTVUEJCHV $·WGTKPOKV-WJWPF-CNDKO*KPVGTITWPFRHNÒIGPFGT$CWGTWPVGPFCU9CRRGPXQP 4GXCN 6CNNKPP 5EJOKGFDGKFGT#TDGKVOOI -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1532

1531

1533



6TCIDCTGUKNDGTPG8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNGQ,-NCUUG/KV)TCXWTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG0Q-QRH N&TGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI 8QT\ÒINKEJ



-QRGMGP5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP7\FGPKMQX



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG -TÌPWPI FGU <CTGPRCCTGU KP /QUMCW &KG /QPQITCOOG FGU   <CTGPRCCTGUFCTÒDGT-TQPG-TQPGÒDGT\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVWPF,CJTGU\CJNOOI5OKT PQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

 213


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS II.

1534

1,5:1



1,5:1

4WDGN +ORGTKCN 5V2GVGTUDWTIYCJTUEJGKPNKEJCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP

4 (D5EJN )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1535

1536



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHUGKPG-TÌPWPII$KVMKP&CX



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP#WHGPVJCNVXQP#FGNJGKF2TKP\GUUKPXQP5EJCWODWTI.KRRGWPF 'TPUV 2TKP\ XQP 5CEJUGP#NVGPDWTI KP &CTOUVCFV CPN·­NKEJ FGU $GUWEJGU FGU <CTGPRCCTGU CO *QH KP   &CTOUVCFV &KG $TWUVDKNFGT FGU 2CCTGU PGDGPGKPCPFGT X X FCTWPVGT .QTDGGT\YGKIG9CRRGP WOJGT   5EJTKHVOOI (CUV5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





1537

1538

1539

1542

8QT\ÒINKEJ

1543



1544

      

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&5GJTUEJÌP 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

      



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN



214

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS II.

1547



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\

1548



1548 1,5:1



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX

1550

448QPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP5VGORGNINCP\



1551

1549

1549



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTI&GPMOCNHÒT#NGZCPFGT++I$KVMKP&CX  (GKPG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN 4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN



6TCIDCTG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV 5VTCJNGPFGU )QVVGUCWIG FCTWPVGT FKG ,CJTGU\CJNGP     (ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI 8QT\ÒINKEJ

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

   

1554

1553

1553



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ÇÁ CWHFGO4CPF$KVMKP&CX7\FGPK MQX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF$KVMKP(D5EJN

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

  215


RUSSLAND • NIKOLAUS II.

1555

1556



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII$KVMKP&CX



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTII/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ÇÁ CWHFGO4CPF$KVMKP&CX7\FGPK MQX 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1557

(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

1558



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU5KGIGUÒDGT0CRQNGQPI$KVMKP&CX -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU5KGIGUÒDGT0CRQNGQPI$KVMKP&CX (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1559

1561



4WDGN5V2GVGTUDWTICWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT4QOCPQX&[PCUVKGI$KVMKP&CX 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT 4QOCPQX&[PCUVKG $KVMKP  &CX    &C\W5QYLGVWPKQP4WDGN &CX  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  I /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP $% CWH FGO 4CPF $KVMKP  4  &CX    7\FGPKMQX 5  48QT\ÒINKEJ





4WDGN$TÒUUGN OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP5VGTPGCWHFGO4CPF  OKV/ÒP\\GKEJGP ÀÃCWHFGO 4CPF   OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP ÔÇ CWH FGO 4CPF  DGKFG CWU FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG 5V 2GVGTUDWTI   $KVMKP    7\FGPKMQX    &C\W  -QRGMGP  5V 2GVGTUDWTI  

OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP ÀÃ CWH FGO 4CPF   2CTKU OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP 5VGTP CWH FGO 4CPF   $KVMKP7\FGPKMQX 5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP





1563



216

5KNDGTPG/ÒP\FQUGHÒTWPF-QRGMGPUVÒEMG-TGW\HÌTOKIGT-QTRWUCPFGP'PFGP¤HHPWP IGP\WT#WHPCJOGFGTIGPCPPVGP5KNDGTPQOKPCNG ¤HHPWPIGPUKPFHÒT-QRGMGPUVÒEMGXQTIGUGJGP  #WH FGO XGT\KGTVGP -QTRWU DGHKPFGP UKEJ CWEJ *GTUVGNNGTRWP\GP WPF (GKPIGJCNVUUVGORGN  OO   I 5GJTUEJÌP




RUSSLAND • SOWJETUNION

1564



5KNDGTPG/ÒP\FQUGHÒTHKPPKUEJG2GPPKCWPF/CTMMCC4WPFGT-QTRWUOKVFTGKGKPIGNCUUGPGP \[NKPFTKUEJGP$GJ·NVGTP\WT#WHPCJOGFGTFTGK5KNDGTPQOKPCNG#O4CPFDGHKPFGPUKEJ*GTUVGNNGTRWP\GP WPF(GKPIGJCNVUUVGORGNOOI 5GJTUEJÌP

1566

1565

1568



1567



5QYLGVWPKQP   4WDGN  /QUMCW <NCVPKM )QNFOÒP\G 8NCFKOKTU  I (GKP   IQNF(D5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





4WDGN/QUMCW5QRJKGP-CVJGFTCNGKP0QXIQTQFI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN  )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





4WDGN/QUMCW5KGIGNXQP+XCP+++XQPI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN  )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





4WDGN/QUMCW/CTK·*KOOGNHCJTVU-CVJGFTCNGFGU-TGONKP/QUMCWI(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



1569 Pa

1570 Pa



4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

 217


RUSSLAND â&#x20AC;¢ SOWJETUNION

1571

1572

1573

1574



4WDGN/QUMCW4GKVGTUVCPFDKNF2GVGTUFGU)TQ­GPKP5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





4WDGN/QUMCW4GKVGTUVCPFDKNF2GVGTUFGU)TQ­GPKP5V2GVGTUDWTII(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





4WDGN/QUMCW-KTEJGXQOJGKNKIGP'T\GPIGN)CDTKGNKP/QUMCWI(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





4WDGN/QUMCW-KTEJGXQOJGKNKIGP'T\GPIGN)CDTKGNKP/QUMCWI(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



1575 Pa

1576 Pa



4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1577 Pa

1578 Pa

1579



4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN/QUMCW.GX0KMQNCGXKE)TCH6QNUVQL .GQ6QNUVQL I(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



218


RUSSLAND â&#x20AC;¢ SOWJETUNION

1581

1580

1582



4WDGN/QUMCW.GX0KMQNCGXKE)TCH6QNUVQL .GQ6QNUVQL I(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





4WDGN/QUMCW5V+UCCM-CVJGFTCNGKP5V2GVGTUDWTIGTDCWVI(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





4WDGN/QUMCW5V+UCCM-CVJGFTCNGKP5V2GVGTUDWTIGTDCWVI(GKPIQNF(D 5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



1583 Pa

1584 Pa



4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1585 Pa

1586 Pa



4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



1587 Pa

1588 Pa



4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4WDGN.GPKPITCF4WUUKUEJGU$CNNGVVIHGKP(D5EJN  2#..#&+7/(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

 219


RUSSLAND â&#x20AC;¢ SOWJETUNION

1589



4GRWDNKM UGKV   4WDGN  /QUMCW 2QTVT·V XQP 5GTIGL 9 4CEJOCPKPQX    /WUGOKV-TCP\I(GKPIQNF(D5EJN )1.&2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



1590



/Ã&#x2019;P\UCV\  DGUVGJGPF CWU    WPF  4WDGN 5EJÃ&#x2019;V\V WPUGTG 7OYGNV  #WUICDG   5GTKG +PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(D5EJN  5VÃ&#x2019;EM)1.&+P*QN\UEJCVWNNG2QNKGTVG2NCVVG 

1591

 220

4WDGN'TGOKVCIGMI(GKPUKNDGT;GQ

+P1TKIKPCNUEJCVWNNG2QNKGTVG2NCVVG




RUSSLAND • LOTS .165-#+5'44'+%*4755.#0& 

&KXGTUG-WRHGTOÒP\GPFGU<GKVTCWOGUXQO-W2QNWUEJMCDKU-W-QRGMGPXGTUEJKGFGPG /ÒP\UV·VVGP 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP





2GVGT+FGT)TQ­G-W-QRGMGP/#/#/#-CVJCTKPC+-W-QRGMGP /# Z #PPC-W-QRGMGP/##NNG/ÒP\UV·VVG/QUMCW 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP





-NGKPG5COONWPIXQPTWUUKUEJGP-WRHGTOÒP\GP\WWPF-QRGMGPUQYKGWPF-QRGMG FCTKPGPVJCNVGP5VÒEMGCWUFGT4GIKGTWPIU\GKV2GVGTU++PVGTGUUCPVGU.QVOKVUGNVGPGP,CJTI·PIGPWPF 8CTKCPVGP WC$TQP\G-QRGMGUQYKGªDGTRT·IWPIGP   5VÒEM5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ 



'NKUCDGVJ  -W -QRGMGP  'MCVGTKPDWTI -CVJCTKPC ++  -W -QRGMGP    5W\WP -QN[XCP  HÒT 5KDKTKGP #NGZCPFGT +  -W -QRGMGP  'MCVGTKPDWTI   $KVMKP 4  5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP





5GTKGTWUUKUEJGT4WDGNXQPWPF&CX  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP





0KMQNCWU ++ $TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q , 2T·OKG FGT )GUGNNUEJCHV HÒT .CPFYKTVUEJCHV  OO .GVVNCPF   8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,2T·OKGFGT)GUGNNUEJCHVHÒT.CPFYKTVUEJCHVOO'UVNCPF4GXCN $TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,2T·OKGFGT)GUGNNUEJCHVHÒT.CPFYKTVUEJCHVOO&·PGOCTM%JTKUVKCP+: $TQP\GOGFCKNNGL·JTKIGU4GIKGTWPULWDKN·WOOO 5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





&KXGTUG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGPFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUFCTWPVGTCWEJ5WKVGPOGFCKNNGPUQYKGGKPG<KPPOGFCKNNG 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





5QYLGVWPKQP -QORNGVVG 5GTKG FGT UKNDGTPGP  WPF 4WDGN5VÒEMG CWH FKG /QUMCWGT 1N[ORKCFG XQP   5VÒEMUKPFZXQTJCPFGP+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT  5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKU5VGORGNINCP\





5QYLGVWPKQP -QORNGVVG 5GTKG FGT UKNDGTPGP  WPF 4WDGN5VÒEMG CWH FKG /QUMCWGT 1N[ORKCFG XQP   +PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT 5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKU2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





5QYLGVWPKQP4WDGN $QNUJQK6JGCVGTWPF/QUEQY U#TEJ ;GQ4GRWDNKM UGKV  4WDGN  4GF $QQM 9KNFNKHG 6KIGT $NCEMKUVQP U (KUJ 1YN /QWPVCKP IQCV  ;GQ     5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





&KXGTUG5KNDGTIGFGPMOÒP\GPFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUXQO4WDGNDKU\W4WDGNP+PVGTGUUCPVGU.QV OKVUGNVGPGP#WUICDGPDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJpRQNKGTVG2NCVVG





5COONWPITWUUKUEJGT2CNNCFKWOOÒP\GP\W4WDGNFGT5QYLGVWPKQPWPFFGT4GRWDNKM4W­NCPF

Z#DUEJCHHWPIFGT.GKDGKIGPUEJCHVKP4W­NCPFFWTEJ<CT#NGZCPFGT++  Z<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++ PCEJ GKPGO )GO·NFG XQP & .GXKVUM[    Z 2QTVT·V XQP /QFGUV 2 /WUUQTIUMKL  +PUIGUCOV   IHGKP 5VÒEM2#..#&+7/+P1TKIKPCNGVWKU2QNKGTVG2NCVVG 

1604

)'14)+'0 

0KMQNCWU+#DC\K -QRGMGP 6KHNKUI$KVMKP

5GJTUEJÌP



,CJTJWPFGTV)TKXGPMCOKVFTGKXGTUEJKGFGPGP5VGORGNGKPUEJN·IGPI-CKOUKGJG5  5GJTUEJÌP



1605

4,#5#0 

221


INDEX A

#CEJGP I[RVGP #GI[RVWU VJKQRKGP #HIJCPKUVCP #NDCPKGP #NVGPDWTI #OUVGTFCO #PFQTTC #PJCNV #SWKNGKC #TGPDGTI #TIGPVKPKGP #WIUDWTI #WUDGWVG

#WUVTCNKGP #YCFJ

B

$CEVTKC $CFGP

                          

    $CNVKMWO  $CODGTI  $CTEGNQPC  $CUGN  $CVCXKUEJG4GRWDNKM  $CVVJ[CPK  $C[GTP   $GJTKPIGTUFQTH  $GNCIGTWPI$GUCV\WPI$GUGV\WPI       $GNIKGP           $GNOQPVG  $GPVJGKO 

222

$GTI  $GTIGP1R<QQO  $GUCP¼QP  $KMCPKT  $ÌJOGP  $QNQIPC  $QPP  $QWKNNQP  $QWTIQIPG  $TCDCPV  $TCPFGPDWTIKP(TCPMGP  $TCPFGPDWTI#PUDCEJ  $TCPFGPDWTI$C[TGWVJ  $TCPFGPDWTI2TGWUUGP   $TCUKNKGP  $TCWPCW  $TCWPUEJYGKIWPF.ÒPGDWTI   $TGKUCEJ  $TGKUICW  $TGOGP  $TGUNCW  $TKZGP  $WNICTKGP  $WPFGUTGRWDNKM&GWVUEJNCPF  $[\CP\ 

C

%CTNKUVGP  %CTOCIPQNC  %CUCNG/QPVHGTTCV  %JCWNWM[CUXQP#PCJKNNCRCVCMC  %JKNG  %JKPC  %JKVTCFWTIC  %QNOCT  %QOOQPYGCNVJ  %QUVC4KEC 

D

&·PGOCTM  &CP\KI  &GWVUEJ0GW)WKPGC  &GWVUEJ1UVCHTKMC  &GWVUEJG &GOQMTCVKUEJG 4GRWDNKM  &GWVUEJG-QNQPKGP  &GWVUEJG/ÒP\GPCD 


&GWVUEJG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP   &GWVUEJGT1TFGP  &GXGPVGT%CORGPWPF<YQNNG  &QPCWYÌTVJ  &QTFTGEJV  &QTVOWPF  &TKVVGU4GKEJ  &WKUDWTI 

)WRVC

E

H

'EWCFQT  'IIGPDGTI  'KEJUV·VV  'KUGPDCJP .QMQOQVKXG  'KUNGDGP  'NDKPI  'OFGP  'PINCPF  'THWTV  'TNCPIGP  'T\IGDKTIG  'UUNKPIGP  'UVNCPF  'WTQR·KUEJG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP  

F

(GTTCTC (KPPNCPF (NCPFGTP (NQTGP\ (TCPMHWTV (TCPMTGKEJ

       (TCPMTGKEJ'NUCUU  (TCPMTGKEJ(GQFCNGU  (TCPMTGKEJ-CTQNKPIGT  (TCPMTGKEJ-QNQPKGP  (TCPMTGKEJ.QVJTKPIGP  (TGKDWTI  (TGKMQTRU  (TGKOCWTGT  (TKGFDGTI  (WIIGT  (WNFC 

G

)CDWP )CNNKC )GIGPUVGORGN )GNFGTP )GPH

      

)GPWC )GQTIKGP )NCV\ )QGV\/GFCKNNGP )QNFOÒP\GPNQVU )QTKPEJGO )QUNCT )TKGEJGPNCPF )TQUUDTKVCPPKGP

          

*CDUDWTIKUEJG'TDNCPFG¤UVGTTGKEJ   *CNDGTUVCFV  *CNFGPUVGKP  *CODWTI  *CPCW  *CPPQXGT  *CYCKK  *GPPGDGTI  *GUUGP   *QEJ\GKV8GTO·JNWPI       *QJGPNQJG  *QJGP\QNNGTP  *QJPUVGKP  *QNUVGKP5EJCWGPDWTI  *QODWTI  *QPFWTCU  *QPI-QPI  *QQTP  *[FGTCDCF 

I

+PFKGP +QPKC +TCP +TNCPF +UGPDWTI +VCNKGP

      

J

,·IGTPFQTH  ,CRCP  ,GTUG[  ,GXGT  ,QJCPPKVGTCWH4JQFQUWPF/CNVC  ,ÒNKEJ-NGXG$GTI  ,WIQUNCYKGP 

223


K

/GFCKNNGWTG

-CODQFUEJC  -CPCFC  -CWHDGWTGP  -GNVGP  -GORVGP  -JGXGPJÒNNGT/GVUEJ  -KTEJGPUVCCV  -ÌNP  -QNWODKGP  -QPUVCP\  -QTDCEJ  -TGOPKV\  -TGW\HCJTGT  -TQCVKGP  -WDC  -WUJCP 

L

.CWGPDWTI .GUDQU .GVVNCPF .GWEJVGPDGTI .G[FGP .KGEJVGPUVGKP .KGIPKV\$TKGI .KPFCW .KRRG .KVCWGP .KXN·PFKUEJGT1TFGP .ÌYGPUVGKP .QODCTFGK .WEEC .ÒDGEM .ÒPGDWTI .ÒVVKEJ .WHVHCJTV .WZGODWTI .[FKC

M

/CEGFQPKC /CIFGDWTI /CKNCPF /CKP\ /CNVC /CPUHGNF /CPVWC /CTMFQTH /CTUDGTI /GEMNGPDWTI /GFCKNNGP

224

                                 

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Präsentieren Sie Ihre private Münzsammlung im richtigen Licht ob in Buchform oder auf CD wir liefern Ihnen die perfekte Lösung dazu

Seit über 30 Jahren sind wir die Spezialisten für Münzaufnahmen lübke + wiedemann DIGITALE FOTOGRAFIE

Sommerhaldenstr. 10A D-70195 Stuttgart

Haben wir Ihr Interesse geweckt? Rufen Sie uns an oder schreiben eine e-mail

236

Tel: (+49) 0711/697520 Fax: (+49) 0711/6990854 e-mail: luebke.wiedemann@t-online.de


NUMISMATISCHE AUSDRÜCKE EXPRESSIONS NUMISMATIQUES NUMISMATIC TERMS TERMINI DI NUMISMATICA DEUTSCH

ENGLISCH

FRANÇAIS

ITALIANO

Abschlag Am Rand Berieben Blei Dezentriert Doppelschlag Einfassung Einseitig Emailliert Erhaltung Etwas Exemplar Fassungsspuren Fehlprägung Feld(er) Fundexemplar Gedenkmünze Geglättet Gelocht Geprägt Gewellt Goldpatina Hübsch Jahrh. = Jahrhundert. Kl. = klein Korrosionsspuren Kratzer Kupfer Legierung Leicht(e) l. = links Min. = minimal Nachahmung Prachtexemplar Prägeschwäche Randdelle Randfehler Randschrift r. = rechts Rückseite Schriftspuren Schrötling Schrötlingsfehler Schwach ausgeprägt Selten in dieser Erhaltung Seltener Jahrgang Stempel Stempelfehler Überdurchschnittlich erhalten Überprägt Unediert Unikum Vergoldet Von aller größter Seltenheit Vorderseite Winz.= winzig Zain Zierrand Zinn Ziseliert

struck at the rim/border slightly polished lead uncentered double struck frame uniface enamelled condition/preservation slightly specimen, copy trace of mounting mis-strike field(s) specimen from a hoard commemorative coin tooled holed minted bent golden patina attractive century small traces of corrosion scratch(es) copper alloy slightly left minimal imitation attractive, perfect piece weakly struck edge nick edge faults lettered edge to right reverse traces of inscription flan flan defect weakly struck rare in this condition rare year die(s) mistake in the die extraordinary condition overstruck unpublished unique specimen gilt extremely rare head tiny flan ornamental border tin chased

frappe en tranche frotté plomb decentré double frappe encadrement uniface émaillé conservation un peu exemplaire traces de monture défaut de frappe champ de trésor monnaie commemorative lissé troué frappé ondulé patine dorée joli siécle petit traces de corrosion rayure cuivre alliace légère gauche minimal imitation pièce magnifique de frappe molle défaut sur la tranche erreur sur la tranche inscription sur la tranche droite revers traces de légende flan Flan défectueux de frappe molle conservation rare année rare coin erreur de frappe conservation extraordinaire surfrappé inédit pièce unique doré très rare en face petit flan tranche ornée étain ciselé

coniazione al bordo trattato piombo non centrato ribattitura cornice uniface smaltato conservazione un poco esemplare tracce di montatura difetto di coniazione campo da tesoretto moneta commemorativa liscio bucato coniato ondolato patina d´oro carino secolo piccolo segni di corrosione graffio(i) rame lega leggero sinistra minimamente contraffazzione esemplare magnifico conio stanco ammaccatura al bordo errore nel bordo inscrizione sul bordo destra rovescio tracce di leggenda tondello errore di tondello conio stanco conservazione rara annata rara conio errore di conio conservazione estraordinaria ribattuto inedito pezzo unico dorato di estrema raritá diritto veramente piccolo tondello taglio ornato stagno cesellato

237


TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF AUCTION The auction is conducted on behalf and for the account of the appropiate proprietors of the goods and is subject to the federal Auction Regulation (Versteigerungsordnung, BGB1 I 1976, 1346) published in the Federal Law GazetteVol. I, 1976, 1346 and the relevant provisions for factors in accordance with the German Cicil Code (BGB) and Commercial Code (HGB). Payment of the hammer-price has to be made in cash and in Euro. The submission of an offer implies the express acknowledgement of these Terms and Conditions of Auction; the same applies to the submission of an offer in writing. The hammer-price is exclusive of applicable German VAT according to the prevailing VAT – legislation and represents the basis for calculating the surcharge of 15 percent payable by the puchaser. The total price so calculated (hammerprice plus surcharge) is subject to the reduced VAT (value added tax=Mehrwertsteuer) of 7 per cent as presently applicable, which is payabel additionally. The reduced VAT applies also to paper-money. Gold coins for which the hammer-price plus surcharge is less than two and ohne half times the intrinsic gold price, are subject to the normal VAT rate of presently 19 per cent. The same applies to historical bonds. Gold coins which are considered as a gold investment are free of VAT. Purchasers from abroad will be charged a surcharge of 15 per cent net on the hammer-price, provided the export of the coins is undertaken by the auctioneer. Buyers in European Community (EEC) countries (other than Germany) will be charged Value Added Tax at the rates prevailing in Germany. Dealers from EEC countries (other than Germany) will receive goods free of tax upon presentation of their VAT I.D. number, and upon fulfillment of the other conditions set forth in Paragraph 4, Nr. 1 b, and Paragraph 6 a of the GermanTurnover Tax Law. Buyers from other countries are not charged Value Added Tax. Delivery will be made against payment in Euro with no bank charges to the auctioneer. Unless mutually agreed otherwise, payment of the auction bill from purchasers present at the auction is due immediately. From purchaser who have submitted a bid in writing, payment is due within 20 days after receipt of the goods. Defaulted payments shall bear an interest charge of 1 % per month in the amount in default. Should payment to the auctioneer not be made immediately or should the acceptance of the awardet item be refused, such item shall not be handed overt to the purchaser. Instead the purchaser shall forfeit all right and title in and to such item from the award and the item may again be put to auction at this buyer’s cost. In this event the buyer shall be liable for any shortfall, while he shall have no right or claim towards any excess proceeds. An item will be knocked down after the highest bid has been called three times. The award shall be a binding commitment and liability on the part of the bidder to take acceptance and delivery of the item or items so awarded. In the event of any dispute with regard to the award the lot will be put up again for bidding. The auctioneer reserves the right to combine or to seperate lots. Lots will not be called out of sequence. Access to the auction will only be permitted to interested persons who are in possession of the catalogue.

price or prices for a given lot, the bid first received by the auctioneer shall be given the award. Unlimited bids shall not oblige the auctioneer to consider, accept or carry out such order. Telephone bidding is generally an option for lots of substantial value only. The registration is required at the latest a day before auction. Shipment (by mail or otherwise) of the goods shall be for the sole cost and risk of the purchaser or receipient, resp. The auctioned goods remain the sole and exclusiv property of the vendor until full payment and settlement of any and all dues and claims in connection with the auction. In the event the purchaser is a merchant (in the sende of the German commercial laws) Osnabrück shall be the agreed and exclusive place of jurisdiction. The competence of the District Court (Amtsgericht) of Osnabrück is agreed in respect of summary proceedings for the collection of defaulted payments (Mahnverfahren) as well as in any and all other cases. Should the purchaser not be a merchant Osnabrück shall be the place of jurisdiction with the District Court of Osnabrück’s competence, if only the auctioneer has his ordinary legal domicil in the Federal Republic of Germany or if claims are made by way of summary proceedings of collection (Mahnverfahren) or if the defendant has moved his ordinary legal domicil outside the jurisdiction of the Federal Republik of Germany or if the legal domicil of the defendant is unknown to the auctioneer at the time of filing a suit. To the exclusion of any other legislation German law, as in force at the time, shall be applied for the settlement of any and all legal or judicial matters. The specifications and descriptions in the catalogue have been prepared diligently and in good faith do, however, not constitute the acceptance by the auctioneer of any warranty or liability in respect of defect in material or title. The state of preservation of items is strictly assessed in accordance with the grades accepted by the German coin trade and only represents an individual and personal assessment. Purchasers present at the auction acquire items strictly on the basis of “as is where is” and “as inspected”. In view of the opportunity of prior inspection to ascertain the state and condition of the auction lots, complaints and objections made after the sale will only be considered, if by obvious error or mistake loop or traces or moutings, traces of trimmings or settings, or the plugging of a hole (eyelet) have remained unnoticed. If and when auctioned in lots, the quantities of individual pieces given, only represent an approximate figure. An error in the allocation of indivdual pieces to a certain lot cannot be excluded. Such lots are, therefore, excluded from any complaintes or objections after the lot is knocked down. In the event of disputes or complaints as to the quality of an item the auctioneer may call upon a gernerally sworn expert of the trade, which the auctioneer may choose at his sole discretin, for assessment an the rendering of a decision as to the justification of such dispute or complaint. The costs of such expert shall be borne by the party loosing the dispute according to the expert’s decision. Complaints or objections, if justified, will only be considered if made and received by the auctioneer within 8 days after the auction or after receipt the lots, respectively. The authenticity of the coins is warranted. Warranted up to the total purchase price. The prices set out in the catalogue are estimates only, which may bei exceeded or undercut. Orders for less than 80 per cent of the estimated price cannot accepted.

The minimum rates of increase for the bidding procedure are: for minimum offers

minimum increase rate

Purchasers from abroad will have to observe all applicable laws and regulations in respect of foreign exchange, customs duties and taxation of their country. The auctioneer will only dischare such formalities, which have to be observed, in the Federal Republic of Germany in connection with the export of the purchased item(s).

up to

€ 100,--

€ 5,--

up to

€ 300,--

€ 10,--

up to

€ 1.000,--

€ 20,--

up to

€ 1.500,--

€ 50,--

Unless stipulated otherwise herein, the general rules regulations for auctions applicable in Germany shall govern any transaction in respect of the auction; German Law shall also be applicable in relation to purchasers form abroad. Only the German text has legal forde.

up to

€ 3.000,--

€ 100,--

Shipment to foreign countries and shipment of books we charge upon expenses.

up to

€ 10.000,--

€ 200,--

The prices realized will be published in the form of a list immediately after the auction.

up to

€ 20.000,--

€ 500,--

above

€ 20.000,--

€ 1.000,--

Orders submitted in writing will be carried out diligently and without charge of an extra commission. Orders from collectors unknown to the auctioneer can only be accepted and carried out if a deposit or references to the satisfaction on the auctioneer are given. To be bindingly accepted, written bids need to be received at least 24 hours befor auction. If necessary, the auctioneer is alloweed to increase the bids by 3-5%. Should several bids be obtained in writing bidding the same

THE AUCTIONEERS:

FRITZ RUDOLF KÜNKER DR. ANDREAS KAISER ARNE KIRSCH OLIVER KÖPP


VERSTEIGERUNGSBEDINGUNGEN Die Versteigerung erfolgt im Auftrag und für Rechnung der Eigentümer unter Einhaltung der sich aus der Versteigerungsordnung (BGB1 I 1976, 1346) ergebenden und für Kommissionäre geltenden gesetzlichen Bestimmungen des BGB und HGB gegen Barzahlung des Kaufpreises in €-Währung. Durch Abgabe eines Gebotes werden die Versteigerungsbedingungen anerkannt, dies gilt auch für die schriftlichen Gebote. Der Zuschlagpreis ist Nettopreis im Sinne des Mehrwertsteuergesetzes und bildet die Berechnungsgrundlage für das vom Käufer zu zahlende Aufgeld in Höhe von 15 %. Auf den daraus entstehenden Gesamtpreis (Zuschlag + Aufgeld) wird die zur Zeit gültige, ermäßigte Mehrwertsteuer von 7 % erhoben. Papiergeld unterliegt ebenfalls dem ermäßigten Steuersatz. Goldmünzen, bei denen Zuschlagpreis und Aufgeld geringer ist als das zweieinhalbfache des Metallpreises, unterliegen dem normalen Mehrwertsteuersatz von zur Zeit 19%, ebenso historische Wertpapiere. Goldmünzen, die als Anlagegold gelten, sind mehrwertsteuerfrei. Ausländischen Käufern aus Ländern der europäischen Gemeinschaft wird die in Deutschlang gültige Umsatzsteuer berechnet. Anderen ausländischen Käufern (aus Drittländern) wird, sofern die Münzen durch uns exportiert werden, ein Aufgeld von 15 % netto auf den Zuschlagpreis berechnet; sie erhalten die Lieferung nur gegen Zahlung des Kaufpreises in € - Währung, bankspesenfrei. Ausländischen Münzhändlern aus Ländern der europäischen Gemeinschaft wird bei Nachweis der Umsatzsteuer-Identifikationsnummer (§ 27 a USTG) und der sonstigen Voraussetzungen gemäß § 4 Nr. 1 b USTG in Verbindung mit § 6 a USTG die Lieferung ohne Umsatzsteuer berechnet. Sofern nichts anderes vereinbart wird, ist die Zahlung der Auktionsrechnung bei anwesenden Käufern sofort, bei schriftlichen Bietern spätestens 20 Tage nach Erhalt fällig. Bei Zahlungsverzug werden Zinsen von 1 % pro Monat berechnet. Wird die Zahlung nicht sofort an den Versteigerer geleistet oder die Abnahme der zugeschlagenen Sache verweigert, so findet die Übergabe der Sache an den Ersteigerer nicht statt. Der Ersteigerer verliert vielmehr seine Rechte aus dem Zuschlag, und die Sache kann auf seine Kosten erneut versteigert werden. In diesem Fall haftet der Ersteigerer für den Ausfall, dagegen hat er auf dem Mehrerlös keinen Anspruch. Der Zuschlag erfolgt nach dreimaligem Ausruf des höchsten Gebotes und verpflichtet zur Abnahme und Zahlung. Bei Meinungsverschiedenheiten über den Zuschlag wird die Nummer noch einmal ausgerufen. Der Versteigerer ist berechtigt, Nummern zu vereinigen oder zu trennen. Eine Vorausnahme von Nummern erfolgt nicht. Der Zutritt zur Versteigerung ist nur Interessenten gestattet, die einen Katalog besitzen. Die Mindeststeigerungsstufen für das Bietungsverfahren betragen: Mindestangebote

werden. Schriftliche Gebote können nur bis 24 Stunden vor Auktionsbeginn verbindlich berücksichtigt werden. Im Bedarfsfall ist der Auktionator berechtigt, die Limits um 3 – 5 % zu überschreiten. Bei mehreren gleichhohen Geboten erhält das zuerst eingegangene den Zuschlag. Unlimitierte Aufträge haben keinen Anspruch auf unbedingte Ausführung. Telefonisches Bieten ist nur in Ausnahmefällen möglich. Telefonische Bieter müssen sich mindestens einen Tag vor der Auktion voranmelden. Der Versand geht zu Lasten und auf Risiko des Ersteigerers bzw. Empfängers. Das Auktionsgut bleibt bis zur vollständigen Bezahlung aller Forderungen aus Anlaß der Versteigerung Eigentum des Verkäufers. Ist der Käufer Vollkaufmann, so ist Osnabrück als Gerichtsstand vereinbart. Für das Mahnverfahren gilt die Zuständigkeit des Amtsgerichts Osnabrück auch in allen anderen Fällen als vereinbart. Ansonsten ist es Osnabrück nur, wenn nur die Firma Fritz Rudolf Künker ihren allgemeinen Gerichtsstand in der BRD hat, oder wenn alle Ansprüche im Wege des Mahnverfahrens geltend gemacht werden, oder wenn die im Klageweg in Anspruch zu nehmende Vertragspartei nach Vertragsabschluß ihren gewöhnlichen Aufenthaltsort aus dem Geltungsbereich der BRD verlegt hat, oder ihr Wohnsitz oder gewöhnlicher Aufenthaltsort zum Zeitpunkt der Klage nicht bekannt ist. Die Beschreibung im Katalog ist gewissenhaft durchgeführt. Sie begründet jedoch keine Rechts- oder Sachmängelhaftung gemäß §§ 434, 459 ff BGB. Die Angabe der Erhaltung ist streng nach den im deutschen Münzhandel üblichen Erhaltungseinstufungen vorgenommen und gilt als persönliche Beurteilung. Bei der Auktion anwesende Käufer kaufen grundsätzlich „wie besehen“. Da durch Vorbesichtigung Gelegenheit gegeben ist, sich vom Erhaltungszustand des Versteigerungsgutes zu überzeugen, können nach erfolgtem Zuschlag Reklamationen nur bei irrtümlich übersehener Henkel- oder Fassungsspur oder gestopftem Loch berücksichtigt werden. Bei Losen mit mehreren Stücken sind die Stückzahlen nur Circa-Angaben, irrtümliche Zuschreibungen sind im Einzelfall nicht ausgeschlossen. Diese Lose sind nach erfolgtem Zuschlag von jeder Reklamation ausgeschlossen. Der Versteigerer kann bei eventuellen Meinungsverschiedenheiten bzw. Beanstandungen einen vereidigten Sachverständiger seiner Wahl (die Kosten trägt der unterliegende Teil) beauftragen. Eventuelle Beanstandungen können nur innerhalb von 8 Tagen nach der Auktion bzw. nach Erhalt der ersteigerten Stücke berücksichtigt werden. Die Echtheit der Stücke wird bis zur Höhe des Kaufpreises garantiert. Die beigedruckten Preise sind Schätzpreise, die unter- oder überschritten werden können. Aufträge, die unter 80 % des Schätzpreises liegen, können nicht bearbeitet werden.

Ausländische Kunden kaufen nach den Devisen-, Zoll- und Steuerbestimmungen ihres Landes. Versandformalitäten werden vom Versteigerer erledigt.

Mindeststeigerungsstufe Soweit nicht anders vermerkt, gelten im übrigen die allgemeinen Versteigerungsbestimmungen und – auch im Verhältnis zu ausländischen Kunden – gilt Deutsches Recht.

bis zu

€ 100,--

€ 5,--

bis zu

€ 300,--

€ 10,--

bis zu

€ 1.000,--

€ 20,--

Für Büchersendungen und Sendungen ins Ausland werden Versandkosten nach Aufwand in Rechnung gestellt.

bis zu

€ 1.500,--

€ 50,--

Die Ergebnisliste erscheint sofort nach der Auktion.

bis zu

€ 3.000,--

€ 100,--

bis zu

€ 10.000,--

€ 200,--

bis zu

€ 20.000,--

€ 500,--

ab

€ 20.000,--

€ 1.000,--

DIE VERSTEIGERER:

FRITZ RUDOLF KÜNKER DR. ANDREAS KAISER ARNE KIRSCH OLIVER KÖPP

Schriftliche Aufträge werden von uns ohne Auftragsprovision gewissenhaft ausgeführt. Aufträge von uns unbekannten Sammlern können nur ausgeführt werden, wenn ein Depot hinterlegt wird oder Referenzen benannt


NUMISMATISCHE BEARBEITUNG FOTOS LAYOUT DRUCK

Alexandra Spreu, Dr. Sebastian Steinbach, Jens Ulrich Thormann M. A., Manuela Weiß Lübke & Wiedemann, Stuttgart danner pc - gesteuerte systeme waiblingen media-print, Paderborn Jeglicher Nachdruck, auch auszugsweise, bedarf der Genehmigung des Auktionshauses

BANKVERBINDUNGEN DEUTSCHE BANK OSNABRÜCK DRESDNER BANK OSNABRÜCK SPARKASSE OSNABRÜCK VOLKSBANK BORGLOH-HILTER E. G. BANKHAUS LAMPE KG BIELEFELD POSTBANK HANNOVER CREDIT SUISSE

BLZ 265 700 90, Konto 0 177 006 BLZ 265 800 70, Konto 780 520 200 BLZ 265 501 05, Konto 247 320 BLZ 265 624 90, Konto 1 200 222 400 BLZ 480 201 51, Konto 174 076 BLZ 250 100 30, Konto 2900 60 - 308 Konto 135 494 - 42 - 1

Zahlungen aus dem Ausland - Foreign payments SPARKASSE OSNABRÜCK DEUTSCHE BANK OSNABRÜCK POSTBANK HANNOVER CREDIT CARDS

IBAN: DE50 2655 0105 0000 2473 20 SWIFT-CODE: NOLADE22XXX IBAN: DE11 2657 0090 0017 7006 00 SWIFT-CODE: DEUTDE3B265 IBAN: DE73 2501 0030 0290 0603 08 SWIFT-CODE: PBNKDEFF We do accept VISA and MASTERCARD Service charge: 4,5 %

ERHALTUNGS- UND SELTENHEITSGRADE ERHALTUNGSGRADE/ GRADING TERMS DEGRÉS DE CONSERVATION GRADI DI CONSERVAZIONE

SELTENHEITSGRADE

240

Polierte Platte Proof

Flan bruni Fondo specchio

Stempelglanz Uncirculated

Fleur de coin Fior di conio

Vorzüglich Extremely fine

Superbe Splendido

Sehr schön Very fine

Très beau Bellissimo

Schön Fine

Beau Molto Bello

Gering erhalten Very good

Très bien conservé Bello

R = Selten Von großer Seltenheit

RR = Sehr selten Von größter Seltenheit

Auktion 125 Künker  

Geprägtes Gold aus drei Jahrtausenden, Sammlung Russland

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