Issuu on Google+


116. AUKTION BELAGERUNG, KRIEG UND FRIEDEN AUF MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN - DIE SAMMLUNG GEORG BAUMS 27. September 2006 Steigenberger Hotel Remarque Osnabrück Natruper-Tor-Wall 1 Hotel-Telefon (05 41) 60 96 633 Hotel-Fax (05 41) 60 96 634 (nur während der Auktion/only during the auction/ uniquement pendant la vente/solamente durante l'asta)

ZEITPLAN AUKTIONEN 115 - 118 AUKTION 115 MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN AUS ANTIKE, MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT

Montag, den 25. September 2006 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 926

AUKTION 115

Dienstag, den 26. September 2006 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 927 bis Nr. 1517 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 1518 bis Nr. 2502

AUKTION 115

Mittwoch, den 27. September 2006 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 2503 bis Nr. 3113 14.00 Uhr - 15.00 Uhr Nr. 3114 bis Nr. 3312 15.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 4001 bis Nr. 4681

AUKTION 116 BELAGERUNG, KRIEG UND FRIEDEN DIE SAMMLUNG GEORG BAUMS AUKTION 117 GEPRÄGTES GOLD AUS DREI JAHRTAUSENDEN ERZBISTUM SALZBURG, GOLD UND SILBER MÜNZWAAGEN UND -GEWICHTE AUKTION 118 SAMMLUNG HEINZ RADEISEN: MÜNZEN DES 19. JAHRHUNDERTS DEUTSCHE MÜNZEN SEIT 1871

Donnerstag, den 28. September 2006 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 5001 bis Nr. 5625 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 5626 bis Nr. 6485 Freitag, den 29. September 2006 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 7001 bis Nr. 7580 14.00 Uhr - 17.00 Uhr Nr. 7581 bis Nr. 8266

Detaillierter Zeitplan siehe Seite 5 Besichtigungen siehe Seite 9

Detailed timetable view page 5 Viewing of auction good view page 9

Horaire détaillé voir page 5 Exposition des monnaies voir page 9

Calendario dettagliato veda pagina 5 Esposizione veda pagina 9


UNSERE ADRESSE OUR ADDRESS

Fritz Rudolf Künker e. K. Münzenhandlung Gutenbergstr. 23 · 49076 Osnabrück Telefon: 05 41-96 20 20 Telefax: 05 41-96 20 222 Gebührenfreie Rufnummer: 08 00-58 36 537 International calls: International fax:

+49 (0)5 41-96 20 20 +49 (0)5 41-96 20 222

Während der Auktion/During the auction Steigenberger Hotel Remarque: Telefon: Fax:

+49 (0)5 41-60 96 633 +49 (0)5 41-60 96 634

Ust.-Id.-Nr.: DE 117 620 142 UNSERE GESCHÄFTSZEITEN OPENING HOURS

Montag-Donnerstag Freitag Sonnabend Saturday

9.00 - 17.00 Uhr 9.00 - 15.30 Uhr nach Vereinbarung by prior appointment

Außerhalb unserer Geschäftszeit steht unseren Kunden ein automatischer Anrufbeantworter zur Verfügung. Answering machine available after opening hours.

WWW.KUENKER.DE E-MAIL: INFO@KUENKER.DE

Auf unserer Internetseite haben Sie die Möglichkeit: • die Abbildungen zu vergrößern • Ihre Gebote direkt per Email abzugeben • die Ergebnisse der Auktionen abzurufen On our website you have the possibility: • to zoom all images • to place your bids • to view all auction results

IHRE ANSPRECHPARTNER CONTACT

Abwicklung der Aufträge und Einlieferungen

Gisela Thomas, Prokuristin Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 221 Annahme von Einlieferungen Staff members accepting consignments

Dr. Andreas Kaiser Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 254 Arne Kirsch, Prokurist Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 234 Oliver Köpp, Prokurist Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 229 Jens-Ulrich Thormann MA (Antike Münzen) Telefon: (05 41) 96 20 242 Mitglied Verband der Deutschen Münzenhändler e. V. Associaton Internationale des Numismates Professionnels (AINP) 2


HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE BIETENDEN AUKTIONSKUNDEN 1. 2.

Die Auktionsbedingungen finden Sie am Ende dieses Katalogs. Bitte senden Sie uns Ihre Aufträge möglichst frühzeitig zu. Wenn uns Ihr Auftrag erst kurz vor der Auktion erreicht, können sich bei der Bearbeitung Fehler einschleichen. 3. Das beiliegende Formular macht es Ihnen leicht, ein schriftliches Gebot abzugeben. Falls Sie Ihre Gebote faxen möchten: unser Telefax 0541 96 20 222 steht Ihnen Tag und Nacht zur Verfügung. 4. Die von Ihnen ersteigerten Objekte werden Ihnen innerhalb von acht Tagen nach Beendigung der Auktion zugeschickt. Die Aufträge werden in der Reihenfolge des Eingangs bearbeitet, d. h. die zuerst eingegangenen Aufträge werden auch zuerst bearbeitet. Auch alle Bieter, die keinen Zuschlag erhalten haben, werden von uns nach der Auktion benachrichtigt. 5. Wenn Sie telefonisch bieten möchten, rufen Sie bitte vor der Auktion unseren Kundenservice an. Frau Thomas freut sich auf Ihren Anruf entweder direkt unter 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37. 6. Wenn Sie als neuer Kunde noch nicht bei uns gekauft haben, ist es empfehlenswert, wenn Sie uns Referenzen angeben. Nennen Sie uns eine Münzhandlung, mit der Sie bereits in Geschäftsverbindung stehen. Oder rufen Sie unseren Kundenservice an. Telefon 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37. 7. Unsere Broschüre “DIE KÜNKER-AUKTIONEN: WIE BIETE ICH ERFOLGREICH?“ liegt in jedem Katalog und ist für Sie eine nützliche Hilfe. 8. Die Echtheit aller verkauften Objekte wird auch über die gesetzliche Frist hinaus gewährleistet. 9. Alle Kunden, die als Bieter an einer unserer Auktionen teilnehmen, erhalten innerhalb von zwei Wochen nach der Auktion unsere Ergebnisliste gratis. 10. Sie haben Fragen zu einer bestimmten Münze? Sie möchten persönlich an unserer Auktion teilnehmen? Sie haben andere Fragen? Unser Kundenservice freut sich auf Ihren Anruf, entweder direkt unter 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37.

RENSEIGNEMENTS A L'ATTENTION DE NOS CLIENTS DES VENTES AUX ENCHERES 1.

Vous trouverez les conditions générales de vente aux enchères à la fin de ce catalogue. 2. Veuillez-nous faire parvenir vos ordres le plus tôt possible. Si vos ordres nous parviennent juste avant la vente aux enchères, des erreurs risquent d’être commises lors de leur traitement. 3. Le formulaire ci-joint vous aidera à rédiger facilement votre offre. Si vous souhaitez faxer votre offre, vous pourrez-le faire 24 heures sur 24 au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 222. 4. Les objets dont vous serez adjudicataire vous seront envoyés dans les huit jours suivant la fin de la vente aux enchères. Les commandes seront prises en compte dans l’ordre de leur arrivée, c’est-à-dire que les commandes nous parvenant les premières seront d’abord traitées. Après la vente aux enchères, nous préviendrons tous les enchérisseurs n’ayant pas obtenu l’adjudication. 5. Si vous souhaitez faire des enchères par téléphone, veuillez appeler aupravant notre service clientèle. Madame Thomas sera heureuse de vous répondre directement au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 6. Si vous êtes un nouveau client et n’avez encore fait aucune acquisition chez nous, il serait conseillé de nous fournir quelques références. Indiquez-nous si vous traitez déjà avec un professionnel du commerce des monnaies. Ou contactez notre service clientèle au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 7. Notre brochure intitulée : »DIE KÜNKER-AUKTIONEN : WIE BIETE ICH ERFOLGREICH?“ (»Les ventes aux enchères de Künker : comment faire une enchère réussie ? « ) jointe dans chaque catalogue vous sera très utile. 8. L’authenticité des pièces vendues sera garantie même au-delà des délais légaux. 9. Tous les clients participant à l’une de nos ventes aux enchères en tant qu’enchérisseurs recevront gratuitement une liste de résultats dans les deux semaines suivant la vente aux enchères. 10. Vous avez des questions concernant une pièce particulière ? Vous désirez prendre part personnellement à notre vente aux enchères ? Vous avez d’autres questions ? Notre service clientèle se fera un plaisir de vous répondre au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR PLACING BIDS 1.

The terms and conditions of the auction can be found at the end of this catalogue. 2. Please send us your instructions as early as possible. The likelihood of errors occurring increases if we do not receive your instructions until shortly before the auction. 3. The enclosed form makes it simple for you to submit a written bid. Our fax machine +49 (0)541 – 96 20 222 is on standby day and night in case you wish to fax your bids. 4. The objects which you purchase will be delivered to you within eight days of the close of auction. Instructions are processed in the same order as they were received – in other words, the first instructions to be received are the first to be processed. All unsuccessful bidders will be also informed after the auction. 5. If you would like to bid by telephone, please ring our customer service beforehand. Mrs. Thomas will be pleased to speak to you on +49 (0)541 96 20 221. 6. If you are a new customer who has not yet bought anything through us, we recommend that you give us references. Name a coin dealer with whom you have already done business. Or call our customer service on +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 7. Our brochure „DIE KÜNKER-AUKTIONEN: WIE BIETE ICH ERFOLGREICH?“ ("The Künker auctions: How to bid successfully?“) is enclosed in every catalogue and will prove useful to you. 8. The genuineness of all sold objects is also warranted beyond the statutory length of time. 9. All customers who participate as bidders in our auction receive our list of results free of charge within two weeks of the close of auction. 10. Do you have questions about a particular coin? Would you like to participate personally in our auction? Do you have any other questions? Our customer service team will be pleased to help you – call on +49 (0)541 96 20 221.

INFORMAZIONI PER GLI OFFERENTI DELLE NOSTRE ASTE 1. 2.

Le condizioni d’asta si trovano alla fine di questo catalogo. Siete pregati di inviarci i vostri ordini il più presto possibile. Se il vostro ordine ci perviene poco tempo prima dell’apertura dell’asta, si possono verificare errori nell’elaborazione dello stesso. 3. Per le vostre offerte scritte potete utilizzare il modulo allegato al catalogo. Nel caso voleste trasmettere le vostre offerte per fax, siete pregati di inviarle al seguente numero: +49 (0)541-96 20 222. 4. Gli oggetti che avete acquistato all’asta vi saranno spediti entro otto giorni dal termine della stessa. Gli ordini vengono evasi in base alla data di ricevimento, quindi hanno precedenza quelli pervenuti prima. Anche gli offerenti che non hanno avuta alcuna aggiudicazione riceveranno una nostra comunicazione al termine dell’asta. 5. Se desiderate la partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante l´asta, siete pregati di chiamare prima la consulenza ai clienti. La sig.ra Thomas, raggiungibile al numero diretto +49 (0)541- 96 20 221, sará a vostra disposizione. 6. Se siete clienti nuovi e non avete mai acquistato da noi, vi proponiamo di inviarci delle referenze. Dateci il nome di un negozio di monete presso il quale avete già fatto degli acquisti, oppure chiamate la nostra consulenza ai clienti al numero +49 (0)541 96 20 221. 7. Nel nostro opuscolo « DIE KÜNKER-AUKTIONEN : WIE BIETE ICH ERFOLGREICH?“ („Aste Künker: come avere successo nelle offerte?“), allegato ad ogni catalogo, troverete consigli utili. 8. Il certificato d’autenticità di tutti gli oggetti venduti viene rilasciato anche oltre i termini privisti per legge. 9. Tutti i clienti che hanno partecipato ad una nostra asta riceveranno gratuitamente l´elenco delle aggiudicazioni entro quindici giorni dal termine della stessa. 10. Avete delle domande su una moneta in particolare ? Desiderate partecipare personalmente ad una nostra asta? Avete altre domande? Rivolgetevi al nostro Servizio Clienti al numero +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221.

3


WICHTIGE HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE EINLIEFERER 1.

Unser Expertenteam garantiert Ihnen eine fachgerechte Bearbeitung der von Ihnen eingelieferten Stücke. 2. Die Schätzpreise werden von uns aufgrund unserer hervorragenden Marktkenntnisse sorgfältig festgelegt. Die Stücke werden zu 80% der im Katalog angegebenen Schätzpreise ausgerufen. Durch diese Regelung werden Sie als Einlieferer geschützt. Für nicht verkaufte Objekte werden keine Gebühren erhoben. 3. Der Standard unserer Kataloge ist von hoher Qualität und findet internationale Anerkennung. Wir haben eine der besten Kundendateien, die es weltweit gibt. 4, Von der individuellen Betreuung unserer Kunden profitieren auch Sie als Einlieferer. 5. Als Einlieferer erhalten Sie Ihren Auktionserlös innerhalb von 45 Tagen nach der Auktion. Sonderregelungen sind nach Absprache möglich. 6. Auf Wunsch kann Ihre Einlieferung bei Ihnen zuhause abgeholt werden. Ab € 2.500,-- Einlieferungssumme übernehmen wir die Kosten, ab € 25.000,-können wir unter Umständen an einem vereinbarten Ort Ihre Einlieferung nach Absprache gerne auch persönlich entgegennehmen. Selbstverständlich ist Ihr Versteigerungsgut durch uns versichert. 7. Nicht alle Münzen eignen sich, als Einzelstücke aufgenommen zu werden. Vertrauen Sie auf die Erfahrung unserer Experten, die niedrigpreisige Münzen liebevoll zu interessanten Lots zusammenstellen. 8. Der Schätzwert Ihrer Einlieferung sollte mindestens € 1.000,-- betragen. 9. Ihre Einlieferung wird Ihnen sofort bei Übernahme durch ein Protokoll quittiert. Spätestens fünf Wochen vor der Auktion erhalten Sie eine genaue Auflistung Ihrer Objekte mit den dazugehörenden Katalognummern. 10. Innerhalb einer Woche nach der Auktion erhalten Sie bereits die Ergebnisliste und können alle erzielten Preise feststellen. 11. Profitieren Sie von der Anziehungskraft eines führenden Unternehmens. Bitte wenden Sie sich bei Fragen an unseren Kundenservice unter Leitung von Frau Gisela Thomas direkt unter 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37. 12. Unsere Verträge für Einlieferungen können Sie unverbindlich anfordern. Haben Sie noch Fragen? Frau Thomas freut sich auf Ihren Anruf. Telefon: 0541 – 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 5 83 65 37.

RENSEIGNEMENTS IMPORTANTS A L'ATTENTION DES VENDEURS 1.

Notre équipe d’experts garantit une prise en charge compétente des pièces que vous nous confiez. 2. Notre excellente connaissance du marché nous permet de fixer soigneusement les prix estimés. Les pièces seront mises aux enchères à un prix représentant 80% du prix estimé indiqué dans le catalogue. Cette réglementation vous protège en tant que vendeur. Aucuns frais ne seront prélevés sur les pièces invendues. 3. Nos catalogues ont un niveau qualitatif élevé, reconnu au plan international. Nous disposons d’un des meilleurs fichiers clients du monde. 4. En tant que vendeur, vous profiterez vous aussi du suivi personnalisé que nous offrons à nos clients. 5. Le vendeur recevra le produit de la vente dans les 45 jours qui suivront les enchères. Des dispositions spéciales pourront être prises sur accord préalable. 6. Nous prendrons en charge les frais d´expédition des pièces dont le montant sera supérieur à € 2.500,--: Si leur montant est supérieur à € 25.000,--, l´un de nos employés se poudra charger de prendre la livraison à un lieu concordée. En concertation, notre assurance couvrira tous les risques. 7. Les pièces de monnaie ne se prêtent pas toutes à une vente individuelle. Faites confiance à l’expérience de nos spécialistes qui se chargeront avec plaisir de rassembler les pièces bon marché de manière à constituer des lots intéressants. 8. La valeur estimée des pièces fournies devrait s’élever à un minimum de € 1.000,--. 9. Au moment de la prise en charge, vous recevrez un détail des pièces fournies. Au plus tard cinq semaines avant la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez une liste exacte de vos pièces avec les numéros de catalogue correspondants. 10. Dans la semaine qui suivra la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez déjà la liste de ses résultats et pourrez prendre connaissance des prix obtenus. 11. Profitez de l’attrait du leader du marché. Pour tout renseignement, veuillez-vous adresser à notre service clientèle sous la direction de madame Gisela Thomas : +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 12. Vous pouvez demander sans engagement de votre part nos contrats de dépôt de pièces? Vous avez d’autres questions? Madame Thomas sera heureuse de vous répondre au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221.

4

IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR OUR CONSIGNERS 1.

Our team of specialists guarantees an expert treatment of the consigned items. 2. The estimates are carefully established by us due to our excellent knowledge of the market. Bidding for the items is then started at 80 % of the estimate price stated in the catalogue. This arrangement protects you as a consigner. Unsold items incur no fees. 3. The standard offered in our catalogue is of the highest quality, and is recognised internationally. We have one of the best clientele lists worldwide. 4. You as a consigner also profit from the individual consultation offered to our customers. 5. As a consigner, you receive the auction proceeds within 45 days of the close of auction. Special arrangements can be made following discussion. 6. For consignments with a value over € 2.500,-- we may bear the transportation costs. For deliveries over € 25.000,-- we may personally collect the items at an arranged place after prior consultation. Upon consultation, the shipping of your goods could be covered by our insurance. 7. Not all coins are suited to be registered as individual items. Trust in our expert´s experience as they carefully combine less-valuable coins into interesting lots. 8. The valuation price of your delivery should be at least € 1.000,--. 9. Your delivery is confirmed in writing immediately on receipt. At least five weeks before the auction, you receive an exact list of your objects with the relevant catalogue numbers. 10. Within a week of the close of auction, you receive a list with the results in order to see what prices were reached for each individual lot. 11. Profit from our position as a leading coin dealer. If you have any questions, please contact our customer service team which is headed by Mrs. Gisela Thomas – directly on +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221. 12. Would you like to receive copies of our contracts for consigner, without making any commitment? Do you have any other questions? Mrs. Thomas will be pleased to help you – please call on +49 (0)541 – 96 20 221.

INFORMAZIONI PER I NOSTRI DEPOSITANTI 1.

Il nostro team di esperti assicura un trattamento accurato dei pezzi che ci avete inviato. 2. Eseguiamo valutazioni finalizzate alla vendita. I prezzi di stima sono frutto della nostra eccezionale conoscenza del mercato e della nostra attenta valutazione. La base d´asta ammonta all´80% del prezzo di stima indicato sul catalogo. Non si addebitano spese per gli oggetti invenduti. 3. I nostri cataloghi sono di alta qualità e sono riconosciuti a livello internazionale. I nostri clienti sono fra i migliori al mondo. 4. Come depositanti potete beneficiare dell’assistenza riservata a ciascuno dei nostri clienti. 5. Come depositanti riceverete gli importi realizzati all’asta entro 45 giorni dal termine della stessa. Si possono concordare condizioni particolari. 6. A partire da un controvalore degli oggetti di € 2.500,--i costi del trasporto sono a nostro carico, mentre a partire da un controvalore di € 25.000 gli oggetti possono essere ritirati personalmente da un nostro incaricato ad un posto concordato. Naturalmente il trasporto dei vostri oggetti puó essere assicurato tramite la nostra assicurazione. 7. Non tutte le monete possono essere negoziate singolarmente. Fidatevi dell´esperienza dei nostri esperti, che raggruppano le monete non molto preziose in lotti di sicuro interesse. 8. Il valore stimato degli oggetti depositati deve ammontare ad almeno € 1.000,--. 9. Nel momento in cui gli oggetti sono presi in consegna, viene rilasciata una ricevuta numerata. Riceverete un elenco preciso degli oggetti che avete depositato con i relativi numeri di catalogo al massimo cinque settimane prima dell’asta. 10. Riceverete l’elenco degli oggetti aggiudicati entro una settimana dalla chiusura dell’asta. Potrete cosi verificare i prezzi realizzati. 11. Approfittate della capacità di un leader di mercato per aumentare il valore dei vostri oggetti. Se avete delle domande, rimaniamo a vostra disposizione per qualsiasi necessità. Rivolgetevi alla nostra consulenza ai clienti diretta dalla sig.ra Gisela Thomas al numero +49 (0)541-91 20 221. 12. Volete ricevere i nostri contratti senza impegno? Avete altre domande? Potete contattare la sig.ra Gisela Thomas al numero +49 (0)541-96 20 221.


DETAILLIERTER ZEITPLAN AUKTIONEN 115-118 AUKTION 115 MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN AUS ANTIKE, MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT

AUKTION 115

Montag, den 25. September 2006 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 926 Kelten, Griechen, Römer, Völkerwanderung, Byzanz, Kreuzfahrer, Orientalen Dienstag, den 26. September 2006 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 927 bis Nr. 1517 Europäische Münzen und Medaillen 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr Nr. 1518 bis Nr. 2502 Münzen und Medaillen aus Übersee, Habsburgische Erblande-Österreich, Deutsche Münzen und Medaillen: Aachen - Henneberg

AUKTION 115

Mittwoch, den 27. September 2006 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 2503 bis Nr. 3113 Deutsche Münzen und Medaillen: Hersfeld - Schlesien 14.00 Uhr - 15.00 Uhr Nr. 3114 bis Nr. 3312 Deutsche Münzen und Medaillen: Schleswig-Holstein Würzburg, Sammlung Otto Flämig, Medaillen, Notmünze, Orden und Ehrenzeichen, Papiergeld, Vormünzliche Zahlungsmittel, Münzschale, Münzschrank, Münzmandat, Numismatische Literatur, Lots

AUKTION 116 BELAGERUNG, KRIEG UND FRIEDEN AUF MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN - DIE SAMMLUNG GEORG BAUMS AUKTION 117 GEPRÄGTES GOLD AUS DREI JAHRTAUSENDEN MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN DES ERZBISTUMS SALZBURG IN GOLD UND SILBER SAMMLUNG VON MÜNZWAAGEN UND -GEWICHTEN

AUKTION 118 SAMMLUNG HEINZ RADEISEN: MÜNZEN DES 19. JAHRHUNDERTS DEUTSCHE MÜNZEN SEIT 1871

BESICHTIGUNGEN

15.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 4001 bis Nr. 4681 Donnerstag, den 28, September 2006 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 5001 bis Nr. 5625 Goldmünzen: Kelten, Griechen, Römer, Völkerwanderung, Byzanz, Kreuzfahrer, Orientalen, Europäische Goldmünzen und -medaillen 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 5626 bis Nr. 6485 Goldmünzen und -medaillen aus Übersee, Habsburgische Erblande-Österreich, Deutsche Goldmünzen und -medaillen, Erzbistum Salzburg - Gold und Silber, Münzwaagen und -gewichte Freitag, den 29. September 2006 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 7001 bis Nr. 7580 Sammlung Heinz Radeisen: Münzen des 19. Jahrhunderts 14.00 Uhr - 17.00 Uhr Nr. 7581 bis Nr. 8266 Deutsche Münzen seit 1871 Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes in unseren Geschäftsräumen, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, ab dem 28.08.2006, nach vorheriger telefonischer Vereinbarung unter Nr. 05 41 - 96 20 221. 5


INHALT AUKTION 116 Nr.

6

Seite

BELAGERUNG, KRIEG UND FRIEDEN AUF MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN DIE SAMMLUNG GEORG BAUMS

4001

-

4682

14

-

233

Europa Baltikum Livländischer Orden Reval Riga Belgien Antwerpen Brüssel Gent Ostende Oudenaarde Tournai Dänemark Frankreich Aire Cambrai Elsaß (Alsace) Korsika (Corse) Lille Perpignan Mauritius und Reunion Griechenland Kerkyra (Korfu) Kreta Großbritannien Irland Italien Alessandria Brescia Casale Catanzaro Cuneo Florenz Genua Kirchenstaat Mantua Modena Neapel Palmanova Parma Pavia Rom - Repubblica Romana Ronciglione Savoyen Subalpine Republik Venedig Vercelli Kroatien Luxemburg

4001 4001 4001

-

14 14

-

4004 4013 4013

-

15 19 19

-

4028 4032 4044 4063 4066 4070

-

23 24 30

-

38 39

-

4075

-

4078

-

42

-

4082 4110 4120

-

44 54 56

-

4122

-

57

-

4130 4132 4147

-

60 61 64

-

4161 4164 4169 4171

-

67 68

-

4175 4179 4182 4188

-

4338 4012 4002 4003 4012 4031 4023 4024 4025 4026 4027 4031 4043 4077 4065 4069 4072 4073 4074 4076 4077 4081 4080 4081 4109 4119 4181 4120 4121 4126 4127 4128 4129 4131 4146 4156 4157 4158 4159 4160 4163 4168 4170 4173 4174 4178 4181 4187 4189

71

-

73

-

121 18 14 15 18 24 21 22 22 22 23 24 29 41 37 39 40 40 41 41 41 43 43 43 54 56 73 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 63 66 66 66 66 67 68 69 69 70 71 72 73 75 75


Nr. Niederlande Generalstaaten der Niederlande Alkmaar Amsterdam Bergen op Zoom Bommel Breda Campen Deventer Gelderland Groningen Haarlem s'Hertogenbosch Holland Hulst Leeuwarden Leiden Maastricht Middelburg Nijmegen Overijssel Rotterdam Schoonhoven Turnhout Woerden Zierikzee Norwegen Polen Danzig Zamosc Rumänien Rußland Schweden Schweiz Spanien Zypern Übersee Ägypten Chile Guadeloupe Indonesien Kuba Mauritius Mexiko Peru Venezuela

4190

-

4191 4196 4205 4207 4209 4219 4221

-

4230 4235 4240 4242

-

4249 4258 4263

-

4273 4277

-

4280 4284 4292

-

4295 4297 4312 4314 4337

-

4339

-

4340

-

4343

-

Eine Notklippe unbestimmter Herkunft

Seite 4278 4190 4195 4204 4206 4208 4218 4220 4228 4229 4234 4239 4241 4246 4247 4248 4257 4262 4267 4268 4269 4270 4271 4272 4276 4278 4279 4293 4291 4293 4294 4296 4311 4313 4336 4338 4349 4339 4341 4342 4344 4345 4346 4347 4348 4349

76

-

76 77

-

82

-

87

-

89 90

-

95 97 98

-

104 106 109

-

110 111

-

116

-

121

-

4350

103 76 77 80 80 81 85 86 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 94 97 98 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 103 104 110 109 110 110 111 115 116 120 121 123 121 121 122 122 122 122 123 123 123 123

Habsburgische Erblande - Österreich Salzburg Siebenbürgen

4351 4462 4466

-

4471 4465 4471

124 162 163

-

164 163 164

Deutschland Aachen Augsburg Baden Bamberg Bayern

4472 4472 4474 4480 4483 4485

-

4661 4473 4479 4482 4484 4488

165

-

166 168

-

170

-

231 165 168 169 170 172

7


Nr. Bonn Brandenburg in Franken Brandenburg-Preußen Braunau am Inn Braunschweig Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel Breisach Bremen und Verden Donauwörth Eichstätt Erfurt Franken Frankenthal Frankfurt Freiberg Fulda Greifswald Halle an der Saale Hamburg Heidelberg Hessen-Kassel Hildesheim Jülich Kehl am Rhein Landau Leipzig Magdeburg Mainz Minden Münster Nürnberg Osnabrück Pfalz Philippsburg Pommern Sachsen Schlesien Schleswig-Holstein Solms-Hohensolms Speyer Stade Stettin Stralsund Ulm Wesel Wismar Wolgast Würzburg

Seite

4491 4503 4506 4509 4512 4518

-

4522

-

4525 4527

-

4535

-

4540

-

4546

-

4551 4560 4563 4573 4586 4589 4600

-

4605

-

4610 4613 4624 4633

-

4639 4641 4643 4647 4649 4652 4658 4660

-

4489 4490 4502 4505 4508 4511 4517 4519 4520 4521 4523 4524 4526 4530 4531 4532 4533 4534 4538 4539 4544 4545 4549 4550 4559 4562 4572 4585 4588 4599 4603 4604 4608 4609 4612 4623 4632 4636 4637 4638 4640 4642 4646 4648 4651 4657 4659 4661

Lots

4662

-

4663

Literatur zu den Themen Belagerung, Krieg und Frieden

4664

-

4682

Ein Stichwortverzeichnis finden Sie am Ende dieses Auktionskataloges.

8

173 179 180 182 183

-

191

-

194

-

196

-

198

-

202 204

-

208 211

-

213

-

215 219 221

-

225 226

-

228 230

-

172 173 179 180 181 183 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 190 190 190 191 192 193 195 196 197 198 200 201 204 207 208 211 212 212 214 214 215 218 220 222 223 223 224 225 226 227 227 229 231 231 232

232

-

233


WICHTIGE HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE TELEFONBIETER Wenn Sie telefonisch bieten möchten, muß das vor der Auktion durch uns genehmigt werden. Voraussetzung für ein telefonisches Mitbieten ist, daß Sie mindestens den Schätzpreis schriftlich bieten. Telefonisches Bieten ist erst ab einem Schätzpreis von ca. 500 Euro pro Los möglich. Bitte rufen Sie Frau Thomas vor der Auktion an unter +49 (0)541 96 20 221 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 58 36 537. Wir übernehmen keinerlei Haftung, falls die telefonische Verbindung während der Auktion nicht zustande kommt.

INFORMATIONS POUR NOS CLIENTS PARTICIPANT A NOS VENTES AUX ENCHERES PAR TELEPHONE Si vous désirez participer par téléphone à nos ventes aux enchères, veuillez vous mettre en relation avec notre service clientèle quelques jours avant la vente en appelant le numéro +49 (0)541 96 20 233. Une participation téléphonique à la vente sera possible à la condition que vous nous fassiez parvenir aussi votre ordre par écrit. Cet ordre devra être au moins égal au minimum au prix d’estimation et concerner un lot estimé au moins 500 Euros. Nous déclinons toute responsabilité dans le cas où la communication téléphonique serait interrompue, ou bien ne pourrait être établie.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON TELEPHONE BIDDING If you wish to participate in the auction as a telephone bidder, please let us know several days in advance as we have to approve and schedule all calls. To register for telephone bidding, we require that you submit at least the estimate as a written bid in addition to being called. Telephone bidding is accepted on lot numbers with estimates above 500 Euro. Please call us at +49 (0)541 96 20 233 for more information or to register for telephone bidding. We do not assume liability for telephone bids, should the telephone line be interrupted.

INFORMAZIONI PER LA PARTECIPAZIONE TELEFONICA Se desiderate la partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante l´asta, siete pregati di chiamare la Signorina Sonia Russo al numero diretto +49 (0)541 96 20 245 qualche giorno prima dell´asta e di inviarci la vostra offerta, la quale deve ammontare come minimo al prezzo di stima anche per iscritto. Accettiamo una partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante l´asta per oggetti il cui prezzo di stima ammonta come minimo ai 500 Euro. Non assumeremo nessuna responsabilità se la linea telefonica è occupata o se non siete raggiungibili.

__________________________________________

BESICHTIGUNG Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes in unseren Geschäftsräumen, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, ab dem 28.08.2006, nach vorheriger telefonischer Vereinbarung unter +49 (0) 5 41 96 20 221.

EXPOSITION Les monnaies seront visibles à partir du 28 août 2006, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, sur rendez-vous téléphonique +49 (0)541 96 20 221.

ON VIEW The auction good can be viewed at our office from August 28th 2006, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück, by prior appointment. Please call +49 (0)541 96 20 221.

ESPOSIZIONE Tutti i lotti sono visionabili a partire dal 28 Agosto 2006 presso la nostra sede, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück previo appuntamento telefonico +49 (0)541 96 20 221.

9


&+')')'09#46&'48'4)#0)'0*'+6 8QTYQTV\WO-CVCNQIOGKPGT5COONWPI$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP

/GKPG 5COONGT$KQITCHKG DGIKPPV YKG KO $KNFGTDWEJ &GT <YÌNHL·JTKIG DGMCO GKP $TKGHOCTMGPCNDWO #NNG 9GNV XQP GKPGT 6CPVG IGUEJGPMV +PVGTGUUG YCT IGYGEMV 9GPKIG (GNFGT YCTGP DGTGKVUOKVGKPGT/CTMGDGMNGDV(ÒTFKGNGGTGP(GNFGTYWTFGPFKG /CTMGPIGUWEJV#DGTFKG5COONWPIYWTFGPKGXQNNUV·PFKI &KG)GUEJKEJVGXQPFGT5CEJUGP&TGKGTGT\·JNVGOKTOGKPG/WVVGT FKGKP&TGUFGPIGDQTGPYWTFG'KPG/CTMGOKVGKPGT#WHNCIGXQP 5VÒEMXQPFGTYGPKIGTCNUGKP2TQ\GPVÒDTKIIGDNKGDGPKUV WPF FKGUG 5VÒEMG KP UGJT WPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGT 'TJCNVWPI &KG 2HGP PKI/CTMG YWTFG CNU &TWEMUCEJGPRQTVQ CWH -TGW\DCPFUGPFWPIGP FGT <GKVWPIGP XGTYGPFGV WPF FGUJCND OGKUV \GTTKUUGP WPF YGIIG YQTHGP *GWVG DTKPIV FKG /CTMG XKGT WPF HÒPHUVGNNKIG $GVT·IG DGK IWVGT 'TJCNVWPI 5COOGNP OWUU GKPG KPVGTGUUCPVG 5CEJG UGKP DGK FGTGUXKGN\WGPVFGEMGPIKDVFCEJVGKEJOKT#NUPCEJOGKPGT*GK TCVWPUGTGTGTUVGT5QJPIGDQTGPYWTFGYWTFGPYKTJ·WUNKEJGT+EJ DGMCO #PIGDQVG XQP /ÒP\GP KP FKG *CPF &KG 5EJYGK\GT 5EJÒV \GPVCNGTHCPFGPOGKP+PVGTGUUGQDYQJNKEJPKGKPGKPGO5EJÒV\GP XGTGKPYCT$CNFJCVVGKEJGKPG5COONWPI5EJYGK\GT5EJÒV\GPVCNGT &CUYCTKPFGPUKGD\KIGT,CJTGPCNUFKG+PHNCVKQPYKGFGTOCNICNQRRKGTVG5EJYGK\GT(TCPMGPWPF5EJYGK\GT /ÒP\GPGTUEJKGPGPOKTCNUGVYCU5QNKFGUWPF9GTVDGUV·PFKIGU 7PUGT\YGKVGT5QJPWPFWPUGTG6QEJVGTYWTFGPIGDQTGP7PF8CVGTXGTDTCEJVGUGKPG(TGK\GKVDGKUGKPGT(COK NKGOGKUV\W*CWUG&CYWTFGPFKGGTUVGP#WMVKQPUMCVCNQIGHÒT/ÒP\GPCPIGHQTFGTVWPFUVWFKGTV/GKP$NKEM HÒTFCU$GUQPFGTGWPF+PFKXKFWGNNGHÒJTVGOKEJ\W-NKRRGPWPF$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP<WFKGUGP5VÒEMGPIKDVGU QHVGKPGKPVGTGUUCPVG5VQT['KPGUFGT#WMVKQPUJ·WUGTDGKFGPGPKEJGVYCUGTUVGKIGTVJCVVGYCTFKG)KG UUGPGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI8QPFTGK5VÒEMGPYCTGP\YGK$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GPGKPGXQP.CPFCWWPFGKPGXQP/CI FGDWTI'KPRCCT6CIGUR·VGTDGMCOKEJGKPGP#PTWHXQP*CPU,QCEJKO5EJTCOOQDKEJ$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP UCOOGNP YÒTFG 1HHGP IGUCIV YCT KEJ UQ GVYCU YKG GKP &KCIQPCNUCOONGT #WU FKGUGO #PTWH JCV UKEJ GKPG HTGWPFUEJCHVNKEJG2CTVPGTUEJCHVHÒTOGKPG5COONWPIGPVYKEMGNVFKGKP\YKUEJGPFTGK­KI,CJTGDGUVGJV+POGK PGO$GTWHCNU9GTDGMCWHOCPPYCTKEJ\YCP\KI,CJTGUGNDUV·PFKIWPF\GJP,CJTG/CPCIGTGKPGTKPVGTPCVKQPC NGP#IGPVWTITWRRGKP&GWVUEJNCPF&CDNKGDFCPPPKEJVOGJTXKGN<GKVHÒT-CVCNQIGWPF(CEJNKVGTCVWTÒDTKI #EJKO 5EJTCOO JCV OKT KOOGT YKGFGT KPVGTGUUCPVG $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP IG\GKIV WPF KEJ JCDG FKG OGKUVGP OGKPGT5COONWPIGKPIGHÒIV'UYCTKOOGTCWEJGKPYGPKI5VQN\FCDGKGKPUQNEJGU5VÒEM\WDGUKV\GP 'KPGUJCDGKEJFCDGKIGNGTPV3WCNKV·VKUVICP\GPVUEJGKFGPF$GKCNVGPWPFUGNVGPGP/ÒP\GPYKTF3WCNKV·VTGNC VKXCDGTWPUGT<KGNYCTGUUVGVUFKGDGUUGTG3WCNKV·V\WDGMQOOGPCWEJYGPPGKP5VÒEMPKEJVQHVCPIGDQVGP YKTFō(ÒTGKPIGUWEJVGU5VÒEMGVYCUOGJT\WDG\CJNGPCNUOCPGKIGPVNKEJDGCDUKEJVKIVJCVKUVXKGNXGTPÒPHVK IGT CNU UKEJ UR·VGT \W ·TIGTP FCU NCPI IGUWEJVG 5VÒEM XGTRCUUV \W JCDGPŌ 5Q JCV GU GKP GTHQNITGKEJGT 5COONGTCWUIGFTÒEMV #NUFGT#WHDCWFGT5COONWPIUEJQPKO)CPIGYCTJCDGKEJFKG.KVGTCVWT\WFKGUGO)GDKGVMGPPGPIGNGTPV &GT\YGKD·PFKIG-CVCNQIKO(QNKQ(QTOCVXQO*CWRVOCPP#WIWUV$TCWUG/CPUHGNFGTUEJKGPWPF $TCWUGJCVYKGGTUEJTGKDV,CJTGCPFGPDGKFGP$ÒEJGTPIGCTDGKVGVV·INKEJHÒPH5VWPFGP(ÒTFKGUQTIH·NVK IGPWPFRT·\KUGP#DDKNFWPIGPJCVGTGKIGPJ·PFKIG(GFGT\GKEJPWPIGPCPIGHGTVKIV'KPGWPINCWDNKEJG#T DGKV\WFGTOCPYQJN1HHK\KGTKP(TKGFGPU\GKVGPUGKPOWUUVG ,GOGJT/QPPCKGU1DUKFKQPCNGUKPOGKPGT5COONWPI\WUCOOGPMCOGPFGUVQJ·WHKIGTHKGNGPOKTKP#WMVKQPGP /GFCKNNGP\W$GNCIGTWPIGPCWH+O)GIGPUCV\\WFGP/ÒP\GPYCTGPFCUQHVRT·EJVKIG5KNDGTUVÒEMGOKVFTCOC VKUEJGP 5\GPGP WPF (GUVWPIGP WPVGT -WIGNJCIGN #EJKO 5EJTCOO ICD OKT FGP GPVUEJGKFGPFGP #PUVQ­ FKG 5COONWPIOKV/GFCKNNGP\WGTYGKVGTP 10


(ÒT/GFCKNNGPIGNVGPPKEJVFKGUVTGPIGP-TKVGTKGPFGT/ÒP\GP 0QOKPCNG/CVGTKCN)GYKEJV*QJGKVU\GKEJGP  5KGUVGNNGPMGKP<CJNWPIUOKVVGNFCTWPFYGTFGPFGUJCND\WYGKNGPHÒTYGPKIGTYGTVXQNNCNU/ÒP\GPIGJCNVGP 0CEJOGKPGT'THCJTWPICWH#WMVKQPGPWPFFGT$GUEJ·HVKIWPIOKVFGT.KVGTCVWTMCPPFKGUG/GKPWPIYQJNGJGT CNU 8QTWTVGKN CF CEVC IGNGIV YGTFGP /GFCKNNGP MÌPPGP CWUFTWEMUUVCTMG -WPUVYGTMG UGKP WPF UKPF QHV XQP PCOJCHVGP -ÒPUVNGTP IGUVCNVGV &KG 2TGKUG JGTCWUTCIGPFGT 5VÒEMG DGYGIGP UKEJ KP ·JPNKEJGP *ÌJGP YKG FKG UGNVGPGT/ÒP\GP*KGTMQOOVGUCNNGTFKPIUPQEJOGJTCNUDGK/ÒP\GPCWHFKGTKEJVKIG#WUYCJNCP 6TQV\NCPIGT$GUEJ·HVKIWPIOKV/ÒP\GPDKPKEJMGKP0WOKUOCVKMGTOKVYKUUGPUEJCHVNKEJGP#ODKVKQPGPIGYQT FGP'KPG*GKOCVUCOONWPIQFGTFKG5COONWPIGKPGU/ÒP\JGTTPGKPGUYGNVNKEJGP QFGT IGKUVNKEJGP (ÒTUVGP VWOUY·TGOKT\WGPIGTUEJKGPGP/GKPG*GKOCVņFCU4JGKPNCPFņKUVKPFKGUGT5COONWPIGPVJCNVGPCDGT PWTGKP6GKNFCXQP$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GPUKPFGKP6JGOCFCUUKEJUGKV$GIKPPFGT0GW\GKVCNUQUGKVFGO ,CJTJWPFGTVÒDGTICP\'WTQRCGTUVTGEMVWPFFGPPQEJGKPGÒDGTUEJCWDCTG#P\CJNXQP/ÒP\GPWOHCUUV /GKPG 5COONWPI ņ KJTGP YGUGPVNKEJGP 6GKN ņ JCDG KEJ KP IGOGKPUCOGT 'PVUEJGKFWPI OKV #EJKO 5EJTCOO FGO *CWUG -ÒPMGT CPXGTVTCWV $GK \CJNTGKEJGP #WMVKQPUDGUWEJGP JCDG KEJ (TKV\ 4WFQNH -ÒPMGT WPF UGKP MQORGVGPVGU6GCOUEJ·V\GPIGNGTPV0CEJFGT'PVUEJGKFWPIOKEJXQPOGKPGT5COONWPI\WVTGPPGPJCVFKG .GKFGPUEJCHV\WT0WOKUOCVKMOKEJFC\WDGYGIVGKPPGWGU6JGOCCP\WHCPIGP+EJDKPIGURCPPVYCUFCPQEJ \WUCOOGPMQOOV'KP5VÒEMFCUOCPPQEJPKEJVJCVKUVKPVGTGUUCPVGTCNUGKP5VÒEMFCUDGTGKVU\WT5COONWPI IGJÌTV'UKUVFKG,CIFPKEJVFKG$GWVGFKG\·JNV +O.CWHGNCPIGT,CJTGFGU5COOGNPUJCDGKEJOKEJOCPEJOCNIGHTCIVYCTWOOCPFCUOCEJV7PFMGKPGU YGIUPWTFCPPYGPPOKEJWPXGTUV·PFNKEJG$NKEMGQFGTKTQPKUEJG$GOGTMWPIGPVTCHGP5COOGNPKUVYQJNFQEJ GKPG WPD·PFKIG .GKFGPUEJCHV YKG FGT 6KVGN GKPGU VKGHUEJÒTHGPFGP $WEJGU XQP 9GTPGT /WGPUVGTDGTIGT JGK­V &CTKPYKTF\WO$GKURKGNFKG)GUEJKEJVGXQP5KT6JQOCU2JKNNKRRUGT\·JNVFGTKPUGKPGT5COONWPIGKP'ZGO RNCT XQP LGFGO $WEJ CWH FGT 9GNV JCDGP YQNNVG #NU 5KT 6JQOCU  UVCTD JCV GT UGEJ\KIVCWUGPF *CPF UEJTKHVGP WPF HÒPH\KIVCWUGPF $ÒEJGT JKPVGTNCUUGP 5GKPG (TCW DGMNCIV \W UGKPGP .GD\GKVGP KP $TKGHGP CP KJP FCUUUKGPKEJVGKPOCNÒDGTIGPÒIGPF)GNFHÒT.GDGPUOKVVGNGKPM·WHGWPF<CJPCT\VTGEJPWPIGPHÒTUKEJWPFKJTG -KPFGTXGTHÒIG5QYGKVYQNNVGKEJGUOKVFGT.GKFGPUEJCHVPKEJVVTGKDGP&KG$KDNKQVJGEC2JKNNKRKECYWTFGÒDTK IGPUXQP5QVJGD[ʼnUKPÒDGTUGEJ\KI#WMVKQPGPXGTUVGKIGTV 9CUJCDGPFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJG5EJTKHVUVGNNGT*QPQT¾FG$CN\CEWPFFGT752QR-ÒPUVNGT#PF[9CTJQNIGOGKP UCO IGJCDV! $GKFG YCTGP DGUGUUGPG 5COONGT XQP 0KRRUCEJGP &GT COGTKMCPKUEJG 5EJTKHVUVGNNGT ,QJP 5VGKPDGEMJCVGUGKPOCNNCRKFCTHQTOWNKGTVō+EJXGTOWVGFKG9CJTJGKVKUVFCUUKEJCNVGP-TCOGKPHCEJNKGDGŌ )GQTI$CWOU

11


$'.#)'470)-4+')70&(4+'&'0#7(/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0 &KG XQTNKGIGPFG WPVGT FGO 6KVGN $GNCIGTWPI -TKGI WPF (TKGFGP UVGJGPFG 5COONWPI XQP )GQTI $CWOU KUV GKPG DGGKPFTWEMGPFG .GKUVWPI FKG KP CW­GTIGYÌJPNKEJGT 9GKUG 'KPDNKEM KP FKG )GUEJKEJVG FGT GWTQR·KUEJGP 0GW\GKV DKGVGV &CU -GTPUVÒEM FGT 5COONWPI DKNFGP FKG UQIGPCPPVGP $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP FKG UKEJ \WOGKUV UEJQPKPKJTGT(QTOWPFKJTGO/ÒP\DKNFXQPFGPÒDNKEJGP2T·IWPIGPFGTLGYGKNKIGP'RQEJGFGWVNKEJWPVGT UEJGKFGP&KG$GNCIGTWPI\·JNVUGKVFGT#PVKMG\WOMNCUUKUEJGP+PUVTWOGPVCTKWOFGTMQPXGPVKQPGNNGP-TKGIU HÒJTWPI $GTÒJOVG $GKURKGNG UKPF FKG UCIGPJCHVG \GJPL·JTKIG $GNCIGTWPI XQP 6TQLC FWTEJ FKG )TKGEJGP WO X%JTFGTōUCEEQFK4QOCŌFWTEJFGWVUEJGWPFURCPKUEJG6TWRRGP-CKUGT-CTNU8KO(TÒJUQOOGT WPFFKGHCUVV·IKIG$GNCIGTWPI.GPKPITCFUFWTEJFGWVUEJG6TWRRGPXQO5GRVGODGTDKU\WO ,CPWCTFKG\WO*WPIGTWPF-·NVGVQFXQPTWPFGKPGT/KNNKQP/GPUEJGPHÒJTVG &KG (GUVUVGNNWPI FGU MCKUGTNKEJGP (GNFOCTUEJCNNU  WPF DGFGWVGPFGP /KNKV·TUEJTKHVUVGNNGTU )TCH 4CKOWPF XQP /QPVGEWEEQNK  FC­OCP\WT-TKGIUHÒJTWPIFTGK&KPIGDGPÌVKIGP·ONKEJGTUVGPU)GNF\YGKVGPU )GNFWPFFTKVVGPU)GNFVTKHHVKODGUQPFGTGPCWHFKG5KVWCVKQPFGT$GNCIGTWPIFWTEJHGKPFNKEJG6TWRRGP\W+P FGPXQO0CEJUEJWDCDIGUEJPKVVGPGP(GUVWPIGPUVKGIGPFKG2TGKUG HÒT FKG \WT 0GKIG IGJGPFGP .GDGPUOKVVGN XQT CNNGO CDGT OW­VGP FKG 8GTVGKFKIWPIUVTWRRGP DG\CJNV YGTFGP FKG KP FGT 4GIGN CWU 5ÌNFPGTP DGUVCPFGP &KGUG $GTWHUUQNFCVGP DGUVCPFGP CWH RÒPMVNKEJGT $G\CJNWPI WPF MQPPVGP DGK #WUDNGKDGP FGU 5QNFGU IGPCWUQ IGH·JTNKEJYKGFKG$GNCIGTWPIUVTWRRGPYGTFGPFCUKGUKEJKO'TPUVHCNNKPFGTDGNCIGTVGP5VCFVUGNDUVDGFKGPVGP QFGTFGUGTVKGTVGP &CCWEJFKG<WHWJTXQP/ÒP\IGNFWPF'FGNOGVCNNGPWPVGTDTQEJGPYCTOW­VGPFKG-QOOCPFCPVGPJ·WHKICWH KJTGKIGPGU6CHGNUKNDGTD\YCWHFCU6CHGNIGUEJKTTWPF-KTEJGPIGT·VFGTDGNCIGTVGP5V·FVG\WTÒEMITGKHGPFCU KP5VÒEMGIGUEJPKVVGPQFGT\GTJCEMVWPF\WDGJGNHUO·­KIGO$GNCIGTWPIUIGNFWOHWPMVKQPKGTVYWTFG#WUFKG UGO)TWPFJCDGPFKG$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GPQHVGKPGGEMKIG(QTOWPFYGTFGPFCPPCNU-NKRRGP XQOUEJYGFK UEJGP ōMNKRRCŌ  OKV FGT 5EJGTG UEJPGKFGP  DG\GKEJPGV +P GKPKIGP (·NNGP YWTFGP GKPHCEJ WPTGIGNO·­KIG /GVCNNRNCVVGPOKV5VGORGNPXGTUGJGPCWEJHTGOFGU)GNFYWTFGōIGIGPŌIGUVGORGNV #NUV[RKUEJGU$GKURKGNUGKJKGTFKGRH·N\KUEJG5VCFV.CPFCWIGPCPPVFKGKO9GUVH·NKUEJGP(TKGFGPWPVGT FGP 5EJWV\ (TCPMTGKEJU IGUVGNNV YWTFG +O <WIG FGU 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIU DGNCIGTVG FKG MCKUGTNKEJG 4JGKPCTOGGWPVGT(ÒJTWPI.WFYKIUXQP$CFGP ō6ÒTMGPNQWKUŌ KO,CJTFKG(GUVWPI&KGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG )CTPKUQP XGTVGKFKIVG UKEJ VCRHGT QDYQJN UKG UEJNGEJV DG\CJNV YWTFG FC GU FGO )QWXGTPGWT /GNCE CP )GNF OCPIGNVG/GNCEUCJUKEJUEJNKG­NKEJIG\YWPIGPUGKPIGUCOVGU6CHGNIGUEJKTTKP5VÒEMGJCEMGPWPFOKVHTCP \ÌUKUEJGP 9GTVUVGORGNP XGTUGJGP \W NCUUGP WO UGKPG 5QNFCVGP DG\CJNGP \W MÌPPGP 0TP  H  .CPFCW YWTFG DKU  PQEJ FTGKOCN DGNCIGTV WPF KO ,CJT  YCT KO )GIGP\WI FGT FGWVUEJG (GUVWPIUMQOOCP 12


FCPV %CTN #NGZCPFGT XQP 9ÒTVVGODGTI FWTEJ FKG HTCP\ÌUKUEJG $GNCIGTWPI FC\W IGPÌVKIV \GTJCEMVG 5KNDGT UVÒEMGOKVFGWVUEJGP9GTVUVGORGNPXGTUGJGP\WNCUUGP 0TPņ  'UKUVMCWOOÌINKEJCPFKGUGT5VGNNG'KP\GNUVÒEMGCWUFGT8KGN\CJNJQEJUGNVGPGT2T·IWPIGPCWH\W\·JNGPJKP IGYKGUGPUGKNGFKINKEJCWHFKGHTÒJGUVGPPGW\GKVNKEJGP$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GPFGT5COONWPIFKG0QVRT·IWPIFGT $GNCIGTWPIXQP$TGUEKC 0T WPFFKGY·JTGPFFGUōUCEEQFK4QOCŌCWUFGO5KNDGTIGT·VFGT 'PIGNUDWTIIGUEJNCIGPG/ÒP\GFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU8++ 0T #WEJFKGGTUVGPFGWVUEJGPY·JTGPFFGT $GNCIGTWPI9KGPUFWTEJFKG6ÒTMGPIGRT·IVGP0QVOÒP\GPUKPFKPFGT5COONWPIXGTVTGVGP 0TPH  7O FGP JKUVQTKUEJGP -QPVGZV CD\WTWPFGP JCV )GQTI $CWOU PGDGP FGP 0QVRT·IWPIGP CWEJ CPFGTG OKV FGP LGYGKNKIGP-TKGIGPWPF(TKGFGPUUEJNÒUUGPKP<WUCOOGPJCPIUVGJGPFG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGPKPUGKPG5COO NWPICWHIGPQOOGP#WHFKGUG9GKUGKUVGKPPWOKUOCVKUEJGU)GUEJKEJVUDWEJFGTITQ­GPMTKGIGTKUEJGP#WUGKP CPFGTUGV\WPIGP'WTQRCUKPFGT0GW\GKVGPVUVCPFGP&KGPCEJHQNIGPFKP5VKEJRWPMVGPIGPCPPVGP-QPHNKMVGJC DGP FKG OGKUVGP 0QVOÒP\GP JGTXQTIGDTCEJV WPF UKPF CWEJ KP FGT 5COONWPI ņ XGTVGKNV WPVGT FGP LGYGKNKIGP 2T·IGJGTTGPņ\WHKPFGP • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

-TKGI-CKUGT-CTNU8IGIGP(TCP\+XQP(TCPMTGKEJņ 'TUVGT6ÒTMGPMTKGIņ #EJV\KIL·JTKIGT-TKGIņ &TKVVGT ō.CPIGTŌ 6ÒTMGPMTKGIņ &TGK­KIL·JTKIGT-TKGIņ 'PINKUEJGTWPFKTKUEJGT$ÒTIGTMTKGIņ 'TUVGTPQTFKUEJGT-TKGIņ 0KGFGTN·PFKUEJGT-TKGIņ (ÒPHVGT6ÒTMGPMTKGIņ 2H·N\GT'TDHQNIGMTKGIņ 5RCPKUEJGT'TDHQNIGMTKGIņ <YGKVGT ō)TQ­GTŌ PQTFKUEJGT-TKGIņ 5GEJUVGT6ÒTMGPMTKGI 2QNPKUEJGT'TDHQNIGMTKGIņ ¤UVGTTGKEJKUEJGT'TDHQNIGMTKGIņ 5EJNGUKUEJG-TKGIGņ #EJVGT6ÒTMGPMTKGIņ -QCNKVKQPUMTKGIGņ $GHTGKWPIUMTKGIGņ

&CU JKGT \WT 8GTUVGKIGTWPI IGNCPIGPFG 1DLGMV KUV PGDGP FGO  XGTUVGKIGTVGP $GUVCPF FGU 2KVVUDWTIJGT 0WOKUOCVKMGTU *QYCTF & )KDDU FKG YQJN DGFGWVGPFUVG 5COONWPI XQP $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP FKG PCEJ FGO <YGKVGP9GNVMTKGICPIGDQVGPYKTF &KG'PVUEJGKFWPIXQP)GQTI$CWOUUKEJXQPFKGUGO6GKNUGKPGT5COONWPIÒDGTFGP9GIFGT8GTUVGKIGTWPI \W VTGPPGP GTOÌINKEJV GU PWP CPFGTGP 5COONGTP FKGUG PWOKUOCVKUEJGP $GUQPFGTJGKVGP WPF 4CTKV·VGP \W GTYGTDGPWPFUKEJFCTCP\WGTHTGWGP 9KT HTGWGP WPU FC­ *GTT $CWOU WPU UGKPG -QUVDCTMGKVGP CPXGTVTCWV JCV WPF JQHHGP FC­ FGT -CVCNQI FCU +PVGTGUUG HÒT FKGUGU URCPPGPFG PWOKUOCVKUEJG 5RG\KCNIGDKGV YGEMGP QFGT XGTVKGHGP YKTF 7PUGT JGT\NKEJGT &CPMIKNV&GVNGX*ÌNUEJGTCWU'PIGTHÒTFKG/KVCTDGKVCPFKGUGO-CVCNQI

1UPCDTÒEMKO,WNK

&T#PFTGCU-CKUGT 13


'7412# $#.6+-7/ .+8.0&+5%*'414&'0 &'4.+8.0&+5%*'-4+') 0CEJ 5·MWNCTKUKGTWPI WPF 7OYCPFNWPI FGU RTGW­KUEJGP 1TFGPUNCPFGU KP GKP GTDNKEJGU YGNVNKEJGU *GT   \QIVWOWPVGTRQNPKUEJGT.GJPUJQJGKVKO,CJTGDNKGDNGFKINKEJ.KXNCPFCNUIGKUVNKEJGU*GTTUEJCHVUIG DKGVFGU5EJYGTVDTÒFGTQFGT.KXN·PFKUEJGP1TFGPUGKPGU<YGKIGUFGU&GWVUEJGP1TFGPUGTJCNVGP$KU \WT/KVVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUJCVVGPFKG1TFGPUJGTTGP\WUCOOGPOKVFGO4KICGT'T\DKUEJQHFKG$G UKV\CPURTÒEJGFGUCWHUVTGDGPFGP)TQ­HÒTUVGPVWOU/QUMCWCWH.KXNCPFPQEJCDYGJTGPMÌPPGP&CU'PFG FGU1TFGPUUVCCVGUMCOOKVFGO.KXN·PFKUEJGP-TKGIXQPDKUFGTCWUFGT'ZRCPUKQPURQNKVKM FGU <CTGP +YCP +8 )TQUP[K FGT 5VTGPIG  TGUWNVKGTVG &GT UR·VGT RQRWN·T +YCP FGT 5EJTGEMNKEJG IG   PCPPVGTWUUKUEJG*GTTUEJGT  YQNNVG.KXNCPFFCUKJOGKPGP<WICPI\WT1UVUGGGTOÌINKEJVG UGKPGO4GKEJGKPXGTNGKDGP&KGOKVVCTVCTKUEJGP*KNHUMQPVKPIGPVGPXGTUV·TMVGPTWUUKUEJGP6TWRRGPFTCP IGP KO ,CPWCT  WPVGT (ÒJTWPI FGU (ÒTUVGP -WTDUMKL KP .KXNCPF GKP WPF MQPPVGP DCNF FKG 1TFGPU   HGUVWPI 0CTYC PGJOGP FKG $KUEJQHUUVCFV &QTRCV UQYKG (GNNKP DGUGV\GP &KG YKEJVKIG *CHGPUVCFV 4KIC   WPFCWEJ4GXCNJKGNVGPKPFGUFGTTWUUKUEJGP$GNCIGTWPIUVCPF&KGDGKFGPJKGTXQTNKGIGPFGP0QVOÒP\GP UKPFDGTGFVG<GWIPKUUGLGPGTUEJYGTGP6CIGUKGUQNNGPPCEJ0GWOCPPKP9GPFGP %GUKU IGRT·IVYQT FGP UGKP FGO *CWRVQTV FGU 1TFGPU KP .KXNCPF YQ UGKV  FKG 4GUKFGP\ FGU 1TFGPUOGKUVGTU KP FGT   FQTVKIGP$WTINCI&GTUEJQPUGKVFGT4GHQTOCVKQPIGUEJY·EJVGWPFKPUGKPGO+PPGTP\GTTÒVVGVG.KXN·P FKUEJG 1TFGP YCT NGV\VGPFNKEJ \W UEJYCEJ UKEJ FGP 'KPFTKPINKPIGP OKV 'THQNI GPVIGIGP \W UVGOOGP   9KNJGNOXQP(ÒTUVGPDGTIIGTKGVKPTWUUKUEJG)GHCPIGPUEJCHVWPFUVCTDKP/QUMCWQJPGFKG*GTT UEJCHVFGU<CTGPKP.KXNCPFCP\WGTMGPPGP7PVGTUGKPGO0CEJHQNIGT)QVVJCTF-GVVNGTFGTFCU#OV CPIGVTGVGP JCVVG YWTFG FCU 1TFGPUJGGT CO  #WIWUV  DGK 'TOGU XGTPKEJVGPF XQP FGP 4WUUGP   IGUEJNCIGP&CFGT1TFGPUOGKUVGTDGKO4GKEJMGKPG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIHCPFDGICDGTUKEJWPVGTFGP5EJWV\ XQP2QNGP.KVCWGP+PFGOCO0QXGODGT\W9KNPCIGUEJNQUUGPGP8GTVTCIGTJKGNV-GVVNGTFKG UÒFNKEJFGT&ÒPCIGNGIGPGP)GDKGVGCNUGTDNKEJGU*GT\QIVWO-WTNCPFWPF5GOICNNGPFKGPÌTFNKEJFGU (NWUUGUIGNGIGPGP)GDKGVGUQNNVGGTCNU.GJPUOCPPFGTRQNPKUEJGP-TQPGXGTYCNVGP#O/·T\ GTHQNIVG FKG #WUTWHWPI \WO *GT\QI \WINGKEJ GTNQUEJ FGT 1TFGPUUVCCV &GT XQP +YCP +8 CPIG\GVVGNVG   .KXN·PFKUEJG-TKGIYCTKPFGUOKVFGO'TNÌUEJGPFGU1TFGPUPKEJVDGGPFGVGTGTUVTGEMVGUKEJPQEJÒDGT  ,CJTG FC 2QNGP WPF .KVCWGP 5EJYGFGP WPF &·PGOCTM OKNKV·TKUEJ KPVGTXGPKGTVGP WPF PKEJV IGYKNNV   YCTGPGKP/CEJVIGDKGVFGU<CTGPWPOKVVGNDCTCPFGT1UVUGGJKP\WPGJOGP+O(TKGFGPXQP,CO<CRQNUMK XQO,CPWCTOW­VGFGT<CTUGKPGP#PURTÒEJGPCWH.KXNCPFCDUEJYÌTGP



4001 1,5:1



9KNJGNOXQP(ÒTUVGPDGTI'KPUGKVKIG*CNDVCNGTMNKRRGI8KGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGP UEJKNF QDGP Û  Û  Û   Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   FQTV ,CJTICPI     (GFQTQX/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTV,CJTICPI 0GWOCPP  W­GTUVUGNVGP#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGTCNVGT6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4002 1,5:1



14

'KPUGKVKIG8KGTVGNVCNGTMNKRRGI8KGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGPÛÛÛZOO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT(GFQTQX/CKNNGV5WRRN6H0GWOCPP  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGTCNVGT6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 


4'8#. &+'56#&64'8#. 6#..+00 706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6 4GXCN FKGJGWVKIGGUVPKUEJG*CWRVUVCFV6CNNKPP UVCPFUGKV/KVVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUWPVGTFGT1DGTJQ JGKVFGU&GWVUEJGP1TFGPU#NUFKGNGV\VGPªDGTTGUVGFGU1TFGPUKO.KXN·PFKUEJGP-TKGIXQPFGTTWUUK UEJGP'TQDGTWPIDGFTQJVYCTGPWPVGTUVGNNVGUKEJ4GXCNFGTUEJYGFKUEJGP-TQPG&KGUEJYGFKUEJG*GTT UEJCHVY·JTVGDKUCNUFKG5VCFVKO<WIGFGU)TQ­GP0QTFKUEJGP-TKGIUCPFCU<CTGPTGKEJHKGNYCU KO(TKGFGPXQP0[UVCFDGUKGIGNVYWTFG

4003



1,5:1

4003

%JTKUVKPC&WMCVI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFFGTUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIKPN)GMTÌPVGT JQEJQXCNGT9CRRGPUEJKNFWPVGP)2 )GTJCTF2JKNKR/ÒP\OGKUVGT   )1.&44#JNUVTÌOD(D/KPIGYGNNVCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



Stadtansicht von Riga aus dem 15. Jahrhundert.

4+)# &+'(4'+'56#&64+)#+/-#/2(7/5178'40+66 0CEJFGO7PVGTICPIFGU.KXN·PFKUEJGP1TFGPUGPFGVGFKG<WIGJÌTKIMGKV.KXNCPFU\WO*GKNKIGP4ÌOK UEJGP 4GKEJ &GWVUEJGT 0CVKQP 4KIC  XQP $KUEJQH #FCNDGTV + XQP $WZJÌXFGP IGITÒPFGV DNKGD   \WP·EJUVCNUHTGKG5VCFVWPCDJ·PIKIXGTYGKIGTVGFGO-ÌPKIXQP2QNGPFKG*WNFKIWPIWPFDGOÒJVGUKEJ WO FKG #PGTMGPPWPI KJTGU 5VCVWU CNU HTGKG 4GKEJUUVCFV &C KJT FCU 4GKEJ MGKPGP $GKUVCPF \WMQOOGP   NKG­OWUUVGUKGUKEJKO,CJTGFGORQNPKUEJGP-ÌPKI5KIKUOWPF$CVJQT[WPVGTYGTHGP9KTUGV\GP FKG PWT KP YGPKIGP 5VÒEMGP FQMWOGPVKGTVG )GIGPUVGORGNWPI XQP )QNFOÒP\GP FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU   UGKVGPUFGT5VCFV4KICKPFKGUGP<WUCOOGPJCPIFCKPFGTPWOKUOCVKUEJGP.KVGTCVWTMGKPGUVKEJJCNVKIGP #PICDGP\WFKGUGTOQPGV·TGP-GPP\GKEJPWPIUOC­PCJOG\WGTOKVVGNPUKPF

4004



)QNFIWNFGP-TGOPKV\XQP-CKUGTWPF-ÌPKI/CZKOKNKCP++OKV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG -TGW\ ÒDGT \YGK 5EJNÒUUGNP  I /CFQPPC OKV -KPF UKV\GPF X X CWH FGT /QPFUKEJGN WPVGP FGT   ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJG $KPFGPUEJKNF&GT JGKNKIG .CFKUNCWU UVGJGPF X X OKV *GNNGDCTFG /ÒP\G (D    *WU\CT  )GIGPUVGORGN 5NI /KPWU2TGKUU $TÒFGT 'IIGT 9KGP #WMVKQP XQO   XIN    FQTVGKPWPICTKUEJRQNPKUEJGT&WMCVXQP-ÌPKI.WFYKIOKVGPVURTGEJGPFGO)GIGPUVGORGN   )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  15


&+'$'.#)'470)&'456#&64+)#&74%*&+'5%*9'&'0 +O,CJTGGPVDTCPPVGFGTUEJYGFKUEJRQNPKUEJG-TKGIWOFKG8QTOCEJVUVGNNWPIKO$CNVKMWO)WUVCX++ #FQNH NCPFGVG OKV GKPGT 5VTGKVOCEJV KP .KXNCPF WPF DGNCIGTVG FKG YKEJVKIG *CHGPUVCFV 4KIC &KG   $GNCIGTWPI DGICPP CO  #WIWUV WPF GPFGVG CO  5GRVGODGT FGU ,CJTGU CNU FGP 5EJYGFGP FKG   5VCFVVQTG PCEJ JGHVKIGO $GUEJWUU IGÌHHPGV YWTFGP +O 8GTNCWH FGU -TKGIGU GTQDGTVGP FKG 5EJYGFGP   .KXNCPF WPF 6GKNG 2TGW­GPU +O 9CHHGPUVKNNUVCPF XQP #NVOCTM FGT  FGP -TKGI DGGPFGVG OWUUVG   2QNGP4KICWPFGKPGP6GKN.KXNCPFUCP5EJYGFGPHÌTONKEJCDVTGVGP

4005



)WUVCX ++ #FQNH  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  ,CJTGU\CJN CNU %JTQPQITCOO KP FGT 4ÒEMUGKVGPNG   IGPFG XQP5GDCUVKCP&CFNGT)GRT·IVKO,CJTG\WO)GFGPMGPCPFKG'TQDGTWPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJ FKG5EJYGFGP)WUVCX++#FQNRJ\W2HGTFTKP*CTPKUEJFGP-QOOCPFQUVCDKPFGT.KPMGPQDGP\YGK CWH 9QNMGP UKV\GPFG 2WVVK FGP 5EJYGFGPMÌPKI DGMT·P\GPF +O *KPVGTITWPF GKPG UEJYGFKUEJG 5VTGKV   OCEJVXQTGKPGTNCPFUGKVKIGP#PUKEJVFGTOCWGTWOYGJTVGP5VCFV#PUKEJVFGTDGNCIGTVGP5VCFVKPOQFKHK \KGTVGT &CTUVGNNWPI JKGT XQO LGPUGKVKIGP 7HGT FGT &ÒPC &CWICXC  CWU FCTIGUVGNNV KO 8QTFGTITWPF N   GKPG 4GKVGTCDVGKNWPI FGT $GNCIGTGT T GKPG -CORHU\GPG \YKUEJGP UEJYGFKUEJGP +PHCPVGTKUVGP WPF FGP   GKPGP#WUDTWEJWPVGTPGJOGPFGP8GTVGKFKIGTP+O#DUEJPKVVÛ*Û9Û *GKPTKEJ9WNH/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP 4KIC OOI*KNFGDTCPF*%\9KGEGM  45EJCTHCWUIGRT·IVGU'ZGORNCTOKPDGTKGDGPMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+'56#&64+)#706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6 &KG5VCFV4KICWPF.KXNCPFDNKGDGPÒDGTOGJTGTG)GPGTCVKQPGPJKPYGIDGKFGTUEJYGFKUEJGP-TQPG+O 0QTFKUEJGP-TKGIHKGNFKG5VCFVCPFCU<CTGPTGKEJ&GTQHHK\KGNNG8GT\KEJV5EJYGFGPUCWH4KICWPF .KXNCPFUQYKGFCU'PFGFGU0QTFKUEJGP-TKGIGUYWTFGPKOOKV4WUUNCPFIGUEJNQUUGPGP(TKGFGP XQP 0[UVCF DGUKGIGNV &GT $G\WI \WT UEJYGFKUEJGP -TQPG CNU 5VCFVQDGTJCWRV YKTF CWH FGT HQNIGPFGP   5GTKG4KICGT/ÒP\GPFGWVNKEJ

4006



16

)WUVCX ++ #FQNH  4GKEJUVCNGT   I )GMTÌPVGU *ÒHVDKNF FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP -Ì   PKIU T KP *CTPKUEJ<YGK .ÌYGP JCNVGP FCU 9CRRGPDKNF FGT 5VCFV GKP XQP \YGK 6ÒTOGP HNCPMKGTVGU   5VCFVVQT WPVGTJCND GKPGU -TGW\GU WPF \YGKGT 5EJNÒUUGN +PPGTJCND FGT6QTÌHHPWPIGKP.ÌYGPMQRHXX \YKUEJGP/9 /CTVKP9WNHH/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP4KIC #JNUVTÌO&CX  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 


4009

4007

4008



4GKEJUVCNGTI)GMTÌPVGU*ÒHVDKNFFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIUTKP*CTPKUEJ<YGK.Ì YGPJCNVGPFCU9CRRGPDKNFFGT5VCFVGKPXQP\YGK6ÒTOGPHNCPMKGTVGU5VCFVVQTWPVGTJCNDGKPGU-TGW\GU WPF\YGKGT5EJNÒUUGN+PPGTJCNDFGT6QTÌHHPWPIGKP.ÌYGPMQRHXX\YKUEJGP/9 /CTVKP9WNHH /ÒP\OGKUVGTKP4KIC #JNUVTÌO 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2CVKPCUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP 



%JTKUVKPC4GKEJUVCNGTI)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFFGTUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIKPNKP FGMQNNGVKGTVGO -NGKF<YGK .ÌYGP JCNVGP FCU 9CRRGPDKNF FGT 5VCFV GKP XQP \YGK 6ÒTOGP HNCPMKGTVGU   5VCFVVQTWPVGTJCNDGKPGU-TGW\GUWPF\YGKGT5EJNÒUUGN+PPGTJCNDFGT6QTÌHHPWPIGKP.ÌYGPMQRHXX WPVGP -CTVWUEJG OKV FGT ,CJTGU\CJN +O (GNF PCJG FGT *KPVGTN·WHG FGT .ÌYGP *  9 *GPTKM 9WNHH   /ÒP\OGKUVGTKP4KIC #JNUVTÌO&CX  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 



-CTN:+4GKEJUVCNGTI$TWUVDKNFFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIUTKP*CTPKUEJOKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&CU 9CRRGPDKNF FGT 5VCFV GKP XQP \YGK 6ÒTOGP HNCPMKGTVGU 5VCFVVQT WPVGTJCND   GKPGU-TGW\GUWPF\YGKGT5EJNÒUUGN+PPGTJCNDFGT6QTÌHHPWPIGKPIGMTÌPVGT.ÌYGPMQRHXXQDGPGKPG $ÒIGNMTQPGFKGXQPGKPGTCWUGKPGT9QNMGPCEJNJGTXQTVTGVGPFGPJKOONKUEJGP*CPFIGJCNVGPYKTF+O (GNF FKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNWPF+/ ,QCEJKO/GKPGEMG/ÒP\OGKUVGT 5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG OKVGKPHCEJGP9KORGNPCWHFGP6ÒTOGP#JNUVTÌOD&CX  4/KP5VGORGNHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

4010

1,5:1



1,5:1

 &WMCVGP   I $TWUVDKNF FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIU T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN    &CU 9CRRGPDKNF FGT 5VCFV GKP XQP \YGK 6ÒTOGP HNCPMKGTVGU 5VCFVVQT WPVGTJCND GKPGU -TGW\GU WPF   \YGKGT5EJNÒUUGN+PPGTJCNDFGT6QTÌHHPWPIGKPIGMTÌPVGT.ÌYGPMQRHXXQDGPGKPG$ÒIGNMTQPG+O (GNFFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNWPF+/ ,QCEJKO/GKPGEMG/ÒP\OGKUVGT #JNUVTÌO(D )1.&44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  17


&+'$'.#)'470)&'456#&64+)#+/014&+5%*'0-4+') +O.CWHGFGU)TQ­GP0QTFKUEJGP-TKGIGU  YCTFCU)GDKGVWO4KICOGJTHCEJ5EJCWRNCV\XQP OKNKV·TKUEJGP #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGP &GT RQNPKUEJG -ÌPKI #WIWUV ++ CNU (TKGFTKEJ #WIWUV + \WINGKEJ   -WTHÒTUVXQP5CEJUGPFTCPICO(GDTWCTOKVGKPGO*GGTKP.KXNCPFGKP0CEJFGOGT&·PG OCTMCNU8GTDÒPFGVGPKO-CORHIGIGP5EJYGFGPIGYQPPGPJCVVGDGICPPGT/KVVG,WNKOKVFGT$GNCIG TWPI XQP 4KIC &QEJ PWT YGPKIG 6CIG FCTCWH NCPFGVG CO  ,WNK -ÌPKI -CTN :++ XQP 5EJYGFGP KP   &·PGOCTMWPFPÌVKIVGFKGUGP#NNKKGTVGP2QNGPUDGTGKVUCO#WIWUVKO(TKGFGPUUEJNWUU\W6TCXGPVJCN CWU FGT CPVKUEJYGFKUEJGP -QCNKVKQP YKGFGT CWU\WUEJGKFGP &KGUG 0CEJTKEJV WPF FKG DKUJGTKIGP YGPKI   'THQNI XGTURTGEJGPFGP 8GTUWEJG UGKPGT 5VTGKVMT·HVG XQT 4KIC DGYQIGP FGP RQNPKUEJGP -ÌPKI CNUDCNF   FKG$GNCIGTWPICWH\WJGDGP

4011

4011

Stadtansicht von Riga, Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts.



-CTN:++5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFCU'PFGFGT$GNCIGTWPIFWTEJMWTHÒTUVNKEJ U·EJUKUEJG WPF MÌPKINKEJRQNPKUEJG 5VTGKVMT·HVG $NKEM CWH FKG 5VCFV KO *KPVGTITWPF FKG DGHGUVKIVG *C   HGPCPNCIG&ÒPCOÒPFG<GJP<GKNGP6GZVOOI*KNFGDTCPFXIN5 FQTV OKVKFGPVKUEJGT8QTFGTWPFCPFGTGT4ÒEMUGKVG *%\5NI/KPWU2TGKUU  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+'5%*.#%*6#0&'4&ª0#$'+4+)# #O,WNKMCOGUCPFGT&ÒPCDGK4KIC\YKUEJGPUEJYGFKUEJGPWPFU·EJUKUEJRQNPKUEJGP6TWR RGP\WGKPGT5EJNCEJV5GKVFGO,WNKFGU8QTLCJTGUJCVVG-ÌPKI#WIWUV++XQP2QNGPFGPTWUUKUEJGP <CTGPCNU/KVUVTGKVGTKO-CORHIGIGPUGKPGPUEJYGFKUEJGP)GIPGTWPF\KGNVGPWPUQIGUV·TMVCDGTOCNU CWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFV6CMVKUEJG(GJNGTFGUU·EJUKUEJGP1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGTU#FCO*GKPTKEJ)TCH XQP5VGKPCWGTOÌINKEJVGPFGP5EJYGFGPFKGªDGTSWGTWPIFGU(NWUUGUFKG$KNFWPIGKPGU$TÒEMGPMQRHGU WPFFGP5KGIÒDGTFGP#PITGKHGT

4012



18

-CTN:++5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP4GKPJQNF'PIGNJCTFV$TGUNCWCWHFGPDGK4KIC GTTWPIGPGP 5KGI ÒDGT FKG U·EJUKUEJRQNPKUEJG WPF TWUUKUEJG 5VTGKVOCEJV $TWUVDKNF FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP   -ÌPKIU T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN$NKEM CWH FKG KO $GTGKEJ FGT 8QTYGTMG WOM·ORHVG   5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF VQVG )GIPGT KPPGTJCND GKPGT #PUCOONWPI XQP 9CHHGPUVÒEMGP NKGIGPF 1DGP   FKG CWH GKPGT 9QNMG UKV\GPFG YGKDNKEJG $GNNQPC OKV *GNO 5EJYGTV WPF 5EJKNF  OO  I   (W5*KNFGDTCPF 'VYCUDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ




$'.)+'0 #069'42'0 &+'$'.#)'470)810#069'42'0&74%*&+'#..++'46'0 0CEJ FGT GPVUEJGKFGPFGP 0KGFGTNCIG FGT (TCP\QUGP KP FGT 8ÌNMGTUEJNCEJV DGK .GKR\KI KO *GTDUV    DGHTGKVGP FKG #NNKKGTVGP FKG 0KGFGTNCPFG WPF FCU JGWVKIG $GNIKGP KP FGP GTUVGP /QPCVGP FGU HQNIGPFGP   ,CJTGU XQP FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP *GTTUEJCHV $GNIKGP YWTFG UQFCPP &WTEJICPIUIGDKGV FGT #NNKKGTVGP CWH   KJTGO9GIPCEJ2CTKU&KGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG$GUCV\WPIFGT(GUVWPI#PVYGTRGPJCTTVGKPFGUPQEJYGKVGTCWU +P FGT GKPIGUEJNQUUGPGP 5VCFV NKG­ )QWXGTPGWT )GPGTCN .C\CTG 0KEQNCU /CTIWGTKVG %CTPQV 0QVOÒP\GP   RT·IGP'TUVPCEJFGO5VWT\0CRQN¾QPUMCRKVWNKGTVGFGT5VCVVJCNVGTWPFÌHHPGVGFGO*GT\QIXQP#TVQKU

FGOUR·VGTGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKI%JCTNGU: FKG6QTG

4014

4013





-W%GPVKOGUI<YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP.QTDGGT\YGKIGPFKG0COGPUKPKVKCNGXQP-CKUGT 0CRQN¾QP+9GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGPQDGPDQIKI/100#+'WPVGP1$5+&+10#.'$TCWUG/CPU HGNF6H)CFQWT[C/CKNNGV6H8+/C\CTFH  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI.GKEJVLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W%GPVKOGU9I&KG0COGPUKPKVKCNG0XQP-CKUGT0CRQN¾QP+WPVGPMNGKP9&CU )CP\GWOUEJNQUUGPXQPIGDWPFGPGP.QTDGGT\YGKIGP9GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGPQDGPDQIKI/100#+' WPVGP1$5+&+10#.'$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H)CFQWT[E/CKNNGV6H8+/C\CTFF -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



4015

4015 1,5:1



2TQDGKP5KNDGTFGT-W%GPVKOGU8I-GJTRT·IWPI5VGORGNUVGNNWPI7JT&KG0COGPU KPKVKCNG XQP -CKUGT 0CRQN¾QP + WPVGP 8 &CU )CP\G WOUEJNQUUGP XQP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP   WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN9GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP QDGP DQIKI /100#+' WPVGP 1$5+&+10#.'   $TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVKP-WRHGT )CFQWT[D/CKNNGVXIN6H8+ FQTVKP-WRHGT  /C\CTFXINC FQTVKP-WRHGT   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV<CRQPKGTV4ÒEMGKVGLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4016



-W%GPVKOGU8I-GJTRT·IWPI5VGORGNUVGNNWPI7JT&KG0COGPUKPKVKCNGXQP-CKUGT 0CRQN¾QP + WPVGP 8 &CU )CP\G WOUEJNQUUGP XQP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP9GTVCPICDG KP \YGK   <GKNGP QDGP DQIKI /100#+' WPVGP 1$5+&+10#.' $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   )CFQWT[  D   /CKNNGV6H8+/C\CTF 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ

 19


&+'(1465'6<70)&'424)70)&'4$'.#)'470)5/ª0<'00#%* '+00#*/'&'456#&6 &KGHQNIGPFGP2T·IWPIGPOKVFGO/QPQITCOOFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIUGPVUVCPFGPPCEJFGT'KPPCJOG #PVYGTRGPU KP #PNGJPWPI CP FKG GPVURTGEJGPFGP 0QVOÒP\GP OKV FGT 0COGPKPKVKCNG XQP -CKUGT 0CRQ   NGQP

4017

4018

4019



2TQDGKP5KNDGTFGT-W%GPVKOGU4I-GJTRT·IWPI5VGORGNUVGNNWPI7JT<YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP FCU 5RKGIGNOQPQITCOO FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU :8+ WPVGP   49GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP QDGP DQIKI /100#+' WPVGP 1$5+&+10#.' $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   XIN6H FQTVKP-WRHGT )CFQWT[XIND FQTVKP-WRHGT /CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTV KP-WRHGT /C\CTFXINC FQTVKP-WRHGT   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV<CRQPKGTVNGKEJVG,WUVKGTURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ 



-W %GPVKOGU  4  I -GJTRT·IWPI 5VGORGNUVGNNWPI  7JT <YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP.QT DGGT\YGKIGP FCU 5RKGIGNOQPQITCOO FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU :8+ WPVGP 49GTVCPICDG KP   \YGK<GKNGPQDGPDQIKI/100#+'WPVGP1$5+&+10#.'$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H)CFQWT[D /CKNNGV5WRRN6H/C\CTFC  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI.GKEJVG,WUVKGTURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



/GUUKPI%GPVKOGUI9GPFGRT·IWPI5VGORGNUVGNNWPI7JT&CU5RKGIGNOQPQITCOO FGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.QWKU:8+\YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP.QTDGGT\YGKIGPCWHFGT$CPFUEJNGKHG,'#0 .17+5)#)0'2#+09GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGPQDGPDQIKI/100#+'WPVGP1$5+&+10#.' /KV -GTDTCPF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H 8++  FQTV KP -WRHGT  )CFQWT[ XIN  FQTV KP -WR   HGT$TQP\GWPF$NGK /CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTVKP-WRHGT /C\CTFXIN FQTVCPFGTG8CTK CPVGKP-WRHGT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





4020

4020 1,5:1



20

2TQDGKP5KNDGTFGT-W%GPVKOGUI9GPFGRT·IWPI5VGORGNUVGNNWPI7JT<YKUEJGPIGDWP FGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP FCU 5RKGIGNOQPQITCOO FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU :8+ CWH FGT $CPF   UEJNGKHGFKG+PKVKCNGP,.)09GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGPQDGPDQIKI/100#+'WPVGP1$5+&+ 10#.'$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVKP-WRHGT )CFQWT[C/CKNNGVXIN6H8++

FQTVKP-WRHGT /C\CTFXINC 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV<CRQPKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


4021



-W %GPVKOGU   I 4KPIRT·IWPI OKV 4CPFUV·DGP -GJTRT·IWPI 5VGORGNUVGNNWPI  7JT   <YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP FCU 5RKGIGNOQPQITCOO FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU :8+   CWH FGT $CPFUEJNGKHG FKG +PKVKCNGP , .  ) 09GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP QDGP DQIKI /100#+'   WPVGP1$5+&+10#.'$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H)CFQWT[D/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H /C\CTFXCT 48QT\ÒINKEJ



&+'$'.#)'470)&'4<+6#&'..'810#069'42'0 0CEJ FGO 9KGPGT -QPITGUU YWTFGP CWU FGP GKPUVKIGP ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP 0KGFGTNCPFGP FGO $KUVWO   .ÒVVKEJWPFFGP2TQXKP\GPFGTHTÒJGTGP4GRWDNKMFCU-ÌPKITGKEJFGT8GTGKPKIVGP0KGFGTNCPFGIGDKNFGV &KG 8GTHCUUWPI FGU 5VCCVGU WPVGT FGO <GRVGT FGU 1TCPKGTU 9KNJGNO + YWTFG CO  #WIWUV    XGTMÒPFGV &QEJ UEJQP DCNF \GKIVGP UKEJ VKGHG )GIGPU·V\G \YKUEJGP FGP DGNIKUEJGP WPF JQNN·PFKUEJGP   .CPFGUVGKNGP FKG CO  #WIWUV  KO $TÒUUGNGT 5GRVGODGTCWHUVCPF OÒPFGVGP FGT UKEJ TCUEJ CWH   CPFGTG DGNIKUEJG 5V·FVG CWUYGKVGVG 0CEJFGO FKG \W FGUUGP 0KGFGTUEJNCIWPI IGUCPFVGP JQNN·PFKUEJGP   6TWRRGP PCEJ XKGTV·IKIGO -CORH IGUEJNCIGP YGTFGP MQPPVGP YWTFG GKPG RTQXKUQTKUEJG 4GIKGTWPI   CWUIGTWHGPCO1MVQDGTFKG7PCDJ·PIKIMGKV$GNIKGPURTQMNCOKGTVWPFCO,WPKFGTXQPFGP $TKVGP RTQVGIKGTVG 2TKP\ .GQRQNF CWU FGO *CWUG 5CEJUGP%QDWTI \WO -ÌPKI FGT $GNIKGT IGY·JNV   *QNNCPF TGCIKGTVG FCTCWHJKP KO #WIWUV  OKV FGT 'PVUGPFWPI UVCTMGT 5VTGKVMT·HVG FKG FCU   HTCP\ÌUKUEJDGNIKUEJG (TGKMQTRU DGK *CUUGNV UEJNWIGP WPF 0COWT GTQDGTVGP #O  1MVQDGT    GTMCPPVGP FKG KP .QPFQP VCIGPFGP GWTQR·KUEJGP )TQ­O·EJVG FKG UVCCVNKEJG 6TGPPWPI XQP $GNIKGP WPF   *QNNCPFCPYCUFGT1TCPKGTPKEJVCM\GRVKGTVG(TCPMTGKEJWPF)TQ­DTKVCPPKGPKPVGTXGPKGTVGPFCTCWHJKP &GTHTCP\ÌUKUEJG-ÌPKIUEJKEMVG6TWRRGPPCEJ(TCPMTGKEJFCUJQNN·PFKUEJG/KNKV·TYWTFGYGKVIGJGPF CWU FGO .CPFG IGFT·PIV  DNQEMKGTVG GKP DTKVKUEJHTCP\ÌUKUEJGT (NQVVGPXGTDCPF FKG JQNN·PFKUEJG   -ÒUVG &C FKG <KVCFGNNG XQP #PVYGTRGP KPFGU PQEJ XQP FGO JQNN·PFKUEJGP )GPGTCN $CTQP %JCUU¾ WPF   UGKPGP /·PPGTP IGJCNVGP YWTFG DGNCIGTVGP FKG (TCP\QUGP WPVGT (ÒJTWPI KJTGU 1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGTU   'VKGPPG/CWTKEG)GTCTFFKG(GUVWPI0CEJJGHVKIGT)GIGPYGJTOWUUVG$CTQP%JCUU¾CO&G\GODGT FKG<KVCFGNNGFGO)GIPGTÒDGTIGDGP

4023 4022



4022

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVG#TDGKVFGT9GTMUVCVV.QQU$GTNKPCWHFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT<KVCFGNNG IGIGP FKG(TCP\QUGP2NCPFGT$GHGUVKIWPIGPXQP#PVYGTRGP<GJP<GKNGP6GZV\YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGPOOI&KTMU6QWTPGWT 8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



7PVGTFGPFGWVUEJGP<GKVIGPQUUGPUQNNFKGRHNKEJVVTGWG*CNVWPIFGTJQNN·PFKUEJGP8GTVGKFKIGTCPIGUKEJVUGKPGUÒDGT O·EJVKIGP )GIPGTU $GKHCNN WPF #PGTMGPPWPI CWUIGNÌUV JCDGP YCU UKEJ PKEJV PWT KP FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /GFCKNNG FGU   $GTNKPGT/GFCKNNGWTUFQMWOGPVKGTVUQPFGTPFCPGDGPWCCWEJKPFGO7OUVCPFFCUU)CUVYKTVGKJTG*·WUGTFCOCNU PCEJ FKGUGT 'RKUQFG DGPCPPVGP YKG FGT 0COG ō<WT <KVCFGNNG XQP #PVYGTRGPŋ HÒT GKP -CUUGNGT )CUVJCWU DGNGIV  

XIN/KVVGKNWPIGP\WT*GUUKUEJGP.CPFGUMWPFG,I-CUUGN5H 



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP.CWTGPV,QUGRJ*CTV$TÒUUGNCWHFKG$GNCIGTWPIFGT<KVCFGNNG*CJPUVGJVN CWHFGP/CWGTPGKPGUWPVGT/ÌTUGTDGUEJWUUNKGIGPFGPWPFDGTGKVUUVCTMDGUEJ·FKIVGP$QNNYGTMU5KGDGP <GKNGP6GZVOOI&KTMU6QWTPGWT  *GTTNKEJGTQVDTCWPG2CVKPCMNGKPGT5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFUVCDXQT\ÒINKEJ



+O )GIGPUCV\ \WT XQTCPUVGJGPFGP /GFCKNNG HGKGTV FKG XQTNKGIGPFG FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT <KVCFGNNG FWTEJ FKG (TCP\QUGP   CWUFGT2GTURGMVKXGFGTDGHTGKVGP$GNIKGT

21


$4ª55'. &+'$.1%-#&'810$4ª55'. 0CEJFGO FGT URCPKUEJG 5VCVVJCNVGT KP FGP 0KGFGTNCPFGP #NGUUCPFTQ (CTPGUG *GT\QI XQP 2CTOC CO   /·T\/CCUVTKEJVGKPIGPQOOGPJCVVGYCPFVGGTUKEJPCEJ$TCDCPVWPFUEJPKVVFCUCWHFGT5GKVG FGT #DVTÒPPKIGP UVGJGPFG $TÒUUGN XQP FGP PÌTFNKEJGP 0KGFGTNCPFGP CD 9·JTGPF FGT $NQEMCFG RT·IVG   FKG5VCFVXQO5GRVGODGTDKU\WO,WPKOKV)GPGJOKIWPIFGT)GPGTCNUVCCVGPFGT0KGFGT NCPFGGKIGPGUMNKRRGPHÌTOKIGU0QVIGNFKP)QNFWPF5KNDGT

4024 4025



4025

'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTI2'4('4Û'6Û1$&84#$48:'..#&CU9CR RGPFGT5VCFVKPPGTJCNDGKPGU5EJKNFGUFGT'T\GPIGN/KEJCGNUVGJGPFTFGPCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGP6GWHGN OKVFGO5EJYGTVDGM·ORHGPF1DGPÛÛ56Û+O(GNF1ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H&GNOC 4 XCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H:: 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



)'06 &+''+00#*/'&'45%*.'75'810)'06 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,CP XCP .QQH /KFFGNDWTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5EJNGWUG XQP )GPV FWTEJ   2TKP\ (TGFTKM *GPFTKM XQP 0CUUCW1TCPKGP 6QRQITCRJKUEJG #WHUKEJV FGT CO <WUCOOGPHNWUU XQP   5EJGNFGWPF.[UIGNGIGPGPDGHGUVKIVGPHNCPFTKUEJGP*CWRVUVCFVUCOV5EJNGWUGPCPNCIGPTGKP*KOOGNU TKEJVWPIUCP\GKIGT'NH\GKNKIGT 6GZV XQP GKPGO -TCP\ WOUEJNQUUGP FGT CWU \YÌNH 2HGKNDÒPFGNP WPF   \CJNTGKEJGP HTÒEJVGVTCIGPFGP 1TCPIGP\YGKIGP IGYWPFGP KUV 4KPIUWOJGT 5EJTKHV  OO  I   -2-X.QQP++5 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC 

4026

156'0&' &+'('46+)56'..70)&'40'7'05%*.'75'$'+156'0&' 

22

%CTNQU ++ XQP 5RCPKGP  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2JKNKRRG 4QGVVKGTU #PVYGTRGP CWH FKG   #PNCIG WPF (GTVKIUVGNNWPI FGT PGWGP 5EJNGWUG XQP 5NKLMGWU KO $TÒIIGUEJGP -CPCN DGK 1UVGPFG UQYKG   \YGKGT(GUVWPIUYGTMGCPFGP7HGTPKO,CJTG$TWUVDKNFFGUURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKIUTKP*CTPKUEJOKV WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU$NKEMCWHFKGPGWGP$CWYGTMGKO WPF CO -CPCN KO *KPVGTITWPF FKG 5VCFV 1UVGPFG &CTÒDGT \YGK 2WVVK OKV 2QUCWPG -TCP\ WPF   2CNO\YGKIQDGTJCNDGKPGU5EJTKHVDCPFUWPFWPVGTJCNDGKPGTCWUGKPGT9QNMGJGTXQTVTGVGPFGPIÌVVNKEJGP *CPFOOI5NI*QJGPMWDKP-2-X.QQP+++5  2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP




17&'0##4&' &+'$'.#)'470)81017&'0##4&' #7&'0#4&'  0CEJFGO(CNNXQP6QWTPCKCO0QXGODGT UKGJG-CV0T OCTUEJKGTVGPFKGURCPKUEJGP 6TWRRGP4KEJVWPI1WFGPCCTFG #WFGPCTFG WPFDGICPPGP#PHCPI#RTKNOKVFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFV 'UIGNCPIFGTURCPKUEJGP#TVKNNGTKGFKG$GHGUVKIWPIUCPNCIGPFGT5VCFVFGTCTVKP/KVNGKFGPUEJCHV\W\KG JGP FCUU FKG 'KPIGUEJNQUUGPGP UKEJ CO  ,WNK  GTICDGP #O  /CK JCVVG FGT /CIKUVTCV GKPGP   $GUEJNWUU \WT #WUICDG XQP 0QVIGNF XGTCDUEJKGFGV #WUIGIGDGP YWTFGP XGTUEJKGFGPG 0QOKPCNG CWH   MNKRRGPHÌTOKIGP$NGK<KPPUEJTÌVNKPIGP

4027



'KPUGKVKIG <KPP-NKRRG \W  5VÒDGT  /KV \YGK XGTUEJKGFGPGP 5VGORGNP KP FGT /KVVG GKP ITQ­GT   TWPFGTOKV7OUEJTKHVWPFFGOWPVGTJCNDFGT9GTVCPICDGUVGJGPFGP5VCFVYCRRGPWPFKOQDGTGP'EMDG TGKEJ GKP MNGKPGTGT OKV FGT 5VCFVOCTMG KP )GUVCNV GKPGT IGMTÌPVGP $TKNNG  Z  OO $TCWUG    /CPUHGNF6HXCTXCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H8+++XCT 5GJTUEJÌP



61740#+ &+'$'.#)'470)81061740#+ &1140+,-  &KG5RCPKGTUEJNQUUGPKJTGP$GNCIGTWPIUTKPICO1MVQDGTWOFKG5VCFV6QWTPCK &QQTPKLM FKGCNU GKP\KIGKP9CNNQPKGPFGP)GPGTCNUVCCVGPVTGWXGTDWPFGPYCT&KG5VCFVMCRKVWNKGTVGCO0QXGODGT PCEJFGOKJTG$GUCV\WPIGKPKIGJGHVKIG5VWTOCPITKHHGFGU(GKPFGUJCVVGCDYGJTGPMÌPPGP+PFGP\YGK /QPCVGP XGTUWEJVGP FKG 'KPIGUEJNQUUGPGP FWTEJ \YGK XGTUEJKGFGPG 0QVOÒP\GPGOKUUKQPGP FKG )GNF   YKTVUEJCHV KO )GOGKPYGUGP \W DGYCJTGP #O  1MVQDGT YWTFGP UKNDGTPG -NKRRGP \W   WPF   „5VÒDGTCWUIGIGDGPWPFCDFGO0QXGODGTCWUUEJNKG­NKEJMWRHGTPGU-TGFKVIGNF\WWPF 5VÒDGT

4028 1,5:1



'KPUGKVKIG -NKRRG \W  5QNU   I 'OKUUKQP XQO  1MVQDGT FGU ,CJTGU †Û6140#%1 Û   1$5'551 Û  Û 1%6 Û 5VCFVVQT KO (GNF +  + +O QDGTGP 'EMDGTGKEJ FGU 5EJTÌVNKPIU GKPG MNGKPG   5VGORGNWPI)GMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGU5VCFVMQOOCPFGWTU(ÒTUVXQP'URKPQ[$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H &GNOXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H%:++FG/G[ 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  23


&+'$'.#)'470)81061740#+ &KG#NNKKGTVGPYCPFVGPUKEJKO5RCPKUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGIIGIGPFKG5VCFV6QWTPCKFKGGKPGHTCP\ÌUK UEJG )CTPKUQP OKV  /CPP $GUCV\WPI WPVGT FGO -QOOCPFQ XQP )GPGTCNNGWVPCPV .QWKU %JCTNGU   /QPUGKIPGWTFG5WTXKNNGDGJGTDGTIVG8QTFGTGKPIGUEJNQUUGPGP5VCFVYWTFGPCO,WNKFKG.CWHIT·DGP CWUFTGKXGTUEJKGFGPGP4KEJVWPIGPGTÌHHPGV/KVFGO$GUEJWUUMQPPVGPFKG$GNCIGTGTCO,WNKDGIKP PGP&KG5VCFVMCRKVWNKGTVGDGTGKVUCO#DGPFFGU,WNKY·JTGPFFKGJCTVWOM·ORHVG<KVCFGNNG GTUV CO  5GRVGODGT HKGN #PIGUKEJVU FGU JKPVGT FGP /CWGTP Y·JTGPF FGT $GNCIGTWPI GKPIGVTGVGPGP   )GNFOCPIGNUÒDGTNKG­GPFGT5VCFVMQOOCPFCPVFG5WTXKNNGWPFCPFGTGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG1HH\KGTGKJTRGTUÌPNK EJGU5KNDGTIGT·V\WT2T·IWPIMNKRRGPHÌTOKIGT/ÒP\GPHGTPGTYWTFGJKGTGKPWPF\YGKUGKVKIGU$GNCIG TWPIUIGNFCWU-WRHGTCWUIGIGDGP

4030

4031

4029



'KPUGKVKIG -NKRRG \W  5QNU Q ,    I $TWUVDKNF FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -QOOCPFCPVGP .QWKU   %JCTNGU /QPUGKIPGWT FG 5WTXKNNG N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPVGP <KPPGPVWTO   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H%:++FG/G[  /KP2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W 5QNU   I )GMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF \YKUEJGP 2CNO\YGKIGP WPVGP FKG 9GTV\KHHGT   #WHUEJTKHVKP<GKNGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H%:++FG/G[ 5GJTUEJÌP





'KPUGKVKIG -W 5QNU   I <KPPGPVWTO QDGP FKG 9GTV\KHHGT WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H%:++FG/G[ 2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



&0'/#4- &+'-.+22'0(¤4/+)'0/ª0<'0+/&4'+-410'0-4+')810 9·JTGPFFGUGTHQNINQUGPXQPOKV5EJYGFGPIGHÒJTVGP&TGKMTQPGPMTKGIGUOWUUVGFKG/ÒP\ UV·VVG\W-QRGPJCIGPKJTGO-ÌPKI(TKGFTKEJ++/ÒP\GPKO)GUCOVXQNWOGPXQPÒDGT/KNNKQPGP/CTM NKGHGTP +P #PDGVTCEJV FGU CPUVGJGPFGP JQJGP 2T·IGCWUUVQ­GU HGTVKIVG /ÒP\OGKUVGT 2QWN (GEJVGN     CWUUEJNKG­NKEJ IQNFGPG WPF UKNDGTPG -NKRRGP FC FKG XKGTGEMKIGP 5EJTÌVNKPIG GHHK\KGPVGT WPF   UEJPGNNGTJGTIGUVGNNVYGTFGPMQPPVGPCNUTWPFG/ÒP\RN·VVEJGPHÒTMQPXGPVKQPGNNG/ÒP\GP

4032

4032 1,5:1



24

(TGFGTKM++-NKRRG\W/CTM-QRGPJCIGPI&KG0COGPUKPKVKCNGFGU-ÌPKIU KPGKPGTUEJKNFHÌTOKIGP4CJOWPIQDGP-TQPG9GTVCPICDGWPF,CJTGU\CJNKPFTGK<GKNGPZOO *GFG#/CKNNGVXIN6H:::+ FQTV,CJTICPI  5GJTUEJÌP




&+'$'.#)'470)810.85$14) -ÌPKI%JTKUVKCP+8HÒJTVGUGKP.CPFKPGKPGPYGKVGTGP-TKGIOKVFGO-ÌPKITGKEJ5EJYGFGP'T GTQDGTVG W C -CNOCT NXUDQTI F·P 'NHUDQTI  WPF ¤NCPF +O (TKGFGP XQP -P·TGF XQO  ,CPWCT   NKG­GTUKEJFKG4ÒEMICDGUGKPGT'TQDGTWPIGPCPFGP)GIPGTOKV/KNNKQP6CNGTDG\CJNGP

4033



%JTKUVKCP +8  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 6JQOCU $QTUVQTHH CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI XQP   NXUDQTI &GT -ÌPKI T \W 2HGTF DCTJ·WRVKI KP 4ÒUVWPI FGP -QOOCPFQUVCD KP FGT 4GEJVGP JCN   VGPF$NKEMÒDGTFKGF·PKUEJGP5VGNNWPIGPCWHFKG(GUVWPINXUDQTI JGWVG5VCFVVGKNXQP)ÌVGDQTI UQYKG CWH FGP (NW­ )ÌVC NX KO *KPVGTITWPF FKG +PUGN *KUKPIGP OKV GKPGT -KTEJG FKG \WO CNVGP )ÌVGDQTI   IGJÌTVG WPF FKG +PDTCPFUGV\WPI FWTEJ FKG &·PGP ÒDGTUVCPFGP JCVVG &KG .CIGTRN·V\G FGT DGNCIGTPFGP   5VTGKVMT·HVGUKPFDGHGUVKIVWPFUKPFFWTEJ$GKUEJTKHVGPDG\GKEJPGVFCU&TCIQPGTSWCTVKGTLGPGUFGU4GIK OGPVU WPVGT (ÒJTWPI XQP ,ÌTIGP .WPIG FCU 3WCTVKGT FGT XQP 4QDGTV 9JKNNGD[ IGHÒJTVGP 'PIN·PFGT   UQYKG FCU NÒPGDWTIKUEJG WPVGT FGO -QOOCPFQ XQP *GT\QI )GQTI &GT *CWRVVWTO FGT (GUVWPI   NXUDQTIKUVDGTGKVUKPHQNIG#TVKNNGTKGDGUEJWUUGUUVCTMDGUEJ·FKIVOOI)CNUVGT  44CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



&+'24)70)810-¤0+).+%*&0+5%*'0/ª0<'0+0).ª%-56#&6 +/&4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+') )NÒEMUVCFVYWTFGXQP-ÌPKI%JTKUVKCP+8RNCPO·­KICPFGT/ÒPFWPIFGU4JKPKPFKG'NDG IGITÒPFGVCNU(GUVWPIUUVCFVWPFOCEJVRQNKVKUEJGU<GPVTWOUGKPGT#MVKXKV·VGPKP0QTFFGWVUEJNCPFUQYKG CWEJ CNU *CHGP FGT FKG 4QNNG XQP 6ÌPPKPI #NVQPC WPF *CODWTI ÒDGTPGJOGP UQNNVG /KV FGT )TÒP   FWPIUWTMWPFGXQO/·T\XGTNKGJFGTF·PKUEJG-ÌPKIFGT5VCFVKJTGP0COGPWPFCNUTGFGPFGU 9CRRGPDKNFFKG)NÒEMUIÌVVKP(QTVWPC'TNKG­FKG5VCFVWPFKPUDGUQPFGTGKJTG$GHGUVKIWPIGPUGKV MT·HVKICWUDCWGPWPFNQEMVGWPVGT<WUKEJGTWPIFGT4GNKIKQPUHTGKJGKV0GWDÒTIGTCWU&GWVUEJNCPF*QNNCPF WPF2QTVWICN%JTKUVKCP+8TKEJVGVGKP)NÒEMUVCFVGKPG/ÒP\UV·VVGGKPCWUFGTFCVKGTVG2T·IWPIGPXQP  DKU  WPF XQP  DKU  DGMCPPV UKPF  MQPPVG )NÒEMUVCFV CNU GKP\KIG (GUVWPI FGT   *GT\QIVÒOGT5EJNGUYKIWPF*QNUVGKPFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGT6TWRRGP9CNNGPUVGKPUYKFGTUVGJGP&KGDGKFGP HQNIGPFGP5KNDGTRT·IWPIGPUKPFCNUTGIWN·TG<CJNWPIUOKVVGNWPF\WINGKEJCWEJCNU4GRT·UGPVCVKQPUOÒP \GP CP\WUGJGP OKV FGPGP FGT F·PKUEJG -ÌPKI FKG )TÒPFWPI UGKPGT PGWGP 5VCFV WPF UVCTMGP (GUVWPI   HGKGTVG

4034



%JTKUVKCP +8  5RGEKGUFCNGT  )NÒEMUVCFV  I &GT-ÌPKIUVGJGPFTKP4ÒUVWPI OKVFGT4GEJVGPFGPIGMTÌPVGP9CRRGPUEJKNFJCNVGPF(QTVWPCUVGJGPFXXCWH-WIGN&CX*GFG .CPIGXCT 4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  25


4035



 5RGEKGUFCNGT  )NÒEMUVCFV  I &GT -ÌPKI UVGJGPF T KP 4ÒUVWPI OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FGP   IGMTÌPVGP9CRRGPUEJKNFJCNVGPF(QTVWPCUVGJGPFXXCWH-WIGN*GFG.CPIGXCT  4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

&+'ō*'$4'4/ª0<'0ŋ#75&'4<'+6&'55%*9'&'0-4+')'5 +O,CJTGIGTKGV&·PGOCTMOKVFGO-ÌPKITGKEJ5EJYGFGPCDGTOCNUKPGKPGP-TKGIFGTFGO.CPF JGTDG8GTNWUVGGKPDTKPIGPUQNNVG0CEJFGT-TKGIUGTMN·TWPIFGT5EJYGFGP\QIFGTGP(GNFJGTT.GPPCTV 6QTUVGPUUQP \WP·EJUV KP *QNUVGKP GKP WPF GTQDGTVG GU OKV #WUPCJOG FGT (GUVWPIGP 4GPFUDWTI WPF   )NÒEMUVCFV5R·VGTTÒEMVGGTOKV'THQNIPCEJ,ÒVNCPFXQT<WFGOYWTFGFKGF·PKUEJG(NQVVGXQPUEJYGFK UEJGPWPFJQNN·PFKUEJGP5EJKHHGPJCTVDGFT·PIV+OIGUEJNQUUGPGP(TKGFGPXQP$TÌOUGDTQOWUUVG &·PGOCTM FKG 2TQXKP\GP ,·OVNCPF WPF *·TLGFCNGP UQYKG FKG +PUGNP )QVNCPF WPF ¤UGN CP 5EJYGFGP   CDVTGVGP  5GKVYWTFGPKPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG\W-QRGPJCIGPKO#WHVTCIXQP-ÌPKI%JTKUVKCP+8)QNFOÒP\GP\W WPF„&WMCVGPUQYKG5KNDGTOÒP\GP\WWPF/CTMWPVGT#WHUKEJVFGU4GKEJU*QHOGKUVGTU%QT HKV\ 7NHGNFV IGRT·IV FKG VTCFKVKQPGNN CNU ō*GDT·GTŋ DG\GKEJPGV YGTFGP&GTXQNMUVÒONKEJG0COGFKGUGT 2T·IWPIGPDGTWJVFCTCWHFCUUKJTG4ÒEMUGKVGKPVGKNUJGDT·KUEJGP$WEJUVCDGPFKG#WHUEJTKHV,75675 ,GJQXC,7&': FGT*GTTKUVGKPIGTGEJVGT4KEJVGT VT·IVOKVFGOFGTF·PKUEJG-ÌPKIUGKPGP2TQVGUV IGIGPFGP(TKGFGPUDTWEJWPFFGP'KPOCTUEJFGT5EJYGFGP\WO#WUFTWEMDTKPIGPYQNNVG&KG2T·IWPI GPVURTGEJGPFGT 5KNDGTOÒP\GP GTHQNIVG \YKUEJGP  WPF  FKG #WUICDG FGT IQNFGPGP *GDT·GT   YWTFGDKUHQTVIGUGV\V

4036

4036 Christian IV. (1588-1648).



%JTKUVKCP +8  &WMCV  -QRGPJCIGP *GDT·GTFWMCV  I &GT -ÌPKI UVGJGPF T KP   *CTPKUEJ OKV -TQPG <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN WPVGP GKPG $NÒVGPRHNCP\G&GT 0COG ,GJQXCU KP JGDT·K   UEJGP.GVVGTP\YKUEJGP+75675+7&':$TCWUG/CPUHGNF(D*GFG/CKNNGV6H:::++ )1.&*GPMGNURWTNGKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP

4037

4038



4037



 &WMCV  -QRGPJCIGP *CNDGT *GDT·GTFWMCV  I &GT -ÌPKI UVGJGPF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV   -TQPG <GRVGT WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN WPVGP GKPG $NÒVGPRHNCP\G&GT 0COG ,GJQXCU KP JGDT·KUEJGP .GVVGTP   \YKUEJGP +75675  +7&': $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  (D  *GFG  /CKNNGV 6H :::++  XCT    )1.&45GJTUEJÌP 



 &WMCVGP  -QRGPJCIGP &QRRGNVGT *GDT·GTFWMCV  I #WH IGMCEJGNVGO )TWPF FGT -ÌPKI   UVGJGPFTKP*CTPKUEJOKV-TQPG<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGN&GT0COG,GJQXCUKPJGDT·KUEJGP.GVVGTP \YKUEJGP+75675+7&':$TCWUG/CPUHGNF(D*GFG/CKNNGVXIN6H:::++ FQTV OKV,CJTGU\CJN  )1.&44ªDGTCTDGKVGVYKP\KIG*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP 

26


&'4&0+5%*5%*9'&+5%*'-4+')70&&+'$'.#)'470) 810-12'0*#)'0 #O,WPKGTMN·TVG(TGFGTKM+++XQP&·PGOCTMFGO-ÌPKITGKEJ5EJYGFGPFGP-TKGI5GKP-QP VTCJGPV-ÌPKI-CTN:)WUVCXXQP5EJYGFGPUVCPF\WFKGUGO<GKVRWPMVKPOKNKV·TKUEJGP#WUGKPCPFGT UGV\WPIGPOKVFGO1UVUGGCPTCKPGTWPF-QPMWTTGPVGP2QNGPUQFCUUFGT&·PGPWPFKG%JCPEGIGMQOOGP UCJFKG8QTOCEJVUVGNNWPI5EJYGFGPUKO1UVUGGTCWO\WDGITGP\GPWPF\WINGKEJFKGKPFGPXQTCPIGICP IGPGP -TKGIGP GTNKVVGPGP F·PKUEJGP )GDKGVUXGTNWUVG YKGFGT YGVV\WOCEJGP &QEJ 5EJYGFGP TGCIKGTVG   UEJPGNNCWHFKGUG$GFTQJWPIWPF\QICNNGUGKPG6TWRRGPXQOUÒFÌUVNKEJGP-TKGIUUEJCWRNCV\CDWOUGKPG OKNKV·TKUEJG5EJNCIMTCHVICP\IGIGP&·PGOCTMGKPUGV\GP\WMÌPPGP<W#PHCPIFGU-TKGIGUFTCPIGPFKG &·PGP KP FCU *GT\QIVWO $TGOGP WPF 8GTFGP GKP OWUUVGP UKEJ XQP FQTV CDGT YKGFGT \WTÒEM\KGJGP   PCEJFGO CO  ,WNK  UEJYGFKUEJG 6TWRRGP PCEJ *QNUVGKP GKPOCTUEJKGTV YCTGP $KU \WO #WIWUV   JCVVGUKEJ-CTN:)WUVCXFKGOKNKV·TKUEJG-QPVTQNNGFGTLÒVKUEJGP*CNDKPUGNDKU\WO.KOHLQTFXGTUEJCHHV FQEJDNQEMKGTVGFKGF·PKUEJG(NQVVGFGPªDGTICPIÒDGTFGP$GNVWPFJKPFGTVGUQFGPUEJYGFKUEJGP(GKPF UKEJFGT*CWRVUVCFV-QRGPJCIGPYGKVGTCP\WP·JGTP&QEJFGT5EJYGFGPMÌPKIPWV\VGFGPFCTCWHHQNIGP FGPJCTVGP9KPVGT/KVGKPGT/CPPUVCTMGP5VTGKVOCEJVÒDGTSWGTVGGTXQO,CPWCTDKU(G DTWCTFKG\WIGHTQTGPG1UVUGGWPFUVKG­\WP·EJUVÒDGTFGP-NGKPGP$GNVDKU\WT+PUGN(ÒPGPXQTYQ GTKPGKPGOªDGTTCUEJWPIUCPITKHHFKG5VCFV0[DQTIPCJO#PUEJNKG­GPFTÒEMVGGTÒDGTFGP\WIGHTQTGPGP )TQ­GP$GNVJKPYGIPCEJ5GGNCPFXQTWPFUVCPFPWPXQTFGTF·PKUEJGP*CWRVUVCFV&GTJCTVDGFT·PIVG &·PGPMÌPKI UCJ UKEJ UQ \WO (TKGFGPUUEJNWUU IG\YWPIGP +P FGO CO  (GDTWCT  IGUEJNQUUGPGP   8GTVTCIXQP4QUMKNFGVTCV&·PGOCTMUGKPGCPIGUVCOOVGP$GUKV\WPIGPÌUVNKEJFGU¤TGUWPFUWPFFKG+PUGN $QTPJQNOCPFGPUEJYGFKUEJGP)GIPGTCD#DGTUEJQPKO#WIWUVITKHHGPFKG5EJYGFGPCDGTOCNU 5GGNCPF CP WPF WOUEJNQUUGP -QRGPJCIGP XQP FGT .CPF WPF FGT 5GGUGKVG &KG F·PKUEJG *CWRVUVCFV   MQPPVG UKEJ KPFGU DGJCWRVGP \WOCN 0CEJUEJWD WPF $GKUVCPF FWTEJGKPGPKGFGTN·PFKUEJG(NQVVGGKPVTCH 0CEJ GKPGT UKGDGPOQPCVKIGP$GNCIGTWPIUEJGKVGTVGCO(GDTWCTFGTGPVUEJGKFGPFG5VWTOFGT #PITGKHGTCWHFKG5VCFV&KG5EJYGFGP\QIGPFCTCWHJKPCDUGV\VGPFGP-TKGIIGIGP&·PGOCTMLGFQEJ HQTV'TUVCO/CKMCOKP-QRGPJCIGPGKP(TKGFGPUEJNWUUFGT-QPVTCJGPVGPWPVGT8GTOKVVNWPI XQP (TCPMTGKEJ 'PINCPF WPF FGP 0KGFGTNCPFGP \WUVCPFG &·PGOCTM GTJKGNV XQP 5EJYGFGP FKG +PUGN   $QTPJQNOWPFPQTYGIKUEJG)GDKGVUVGKNG\WTÒEM  0QEJ KO ,CJTG  NKG­ -ÌPKI (TGFGTKM +++ KP -QRGPJCIGP GKPG 5GTKG XQP UKNDGTPGP \YGKHCEJGP WPF   GKPHCEJGP-TQPGPUVÒEMGPUQYKGXQP/GJTHCEJFWMCVGPRT·IGPOKVFGPGPFKGUVCPFJCHVG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT F·PKUEJGP*CWRVUVCFVGKPGWOHCUUGPFGRTQRCICPFKUVKUEJG8GTDTGKVWPIHKPFGPUQNNVG

4039



(TGFGTKM +++   -TQPGP  -QRGPJCIGP  I &CU QDGTJCND FGU JGKNKIGP 5VGKPU   'DGPG\GTUEJYGDGPFG-ÌPKIUOQPQITCOOFCTÒDGT-TQPGKO(GNFDQIKI'$'0'<'4'KPCWUGKPGT 9QNMGPCEJTJGTXQTVTGVGPFGTJKOONKUEJGT#TOVTGPPVOKVGKPGO5·DGNFGPPCEJFGTF·PKUEJGP-TQPG ITGKHGPFGP #TO FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIU 7PVGTJCND FGT -TQPG &CVWOUCPICDG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN   6H&CXXCT*GFG/CKNNGVXIN6H::8++  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  &CU 8QTFGTUGKVGPOQVKX FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP WPF FGT HQNIGPFGP /ÒP\G N·­V UKEJ CNU GODNGOCVKUEJG &CTUVGNNWPI FGWVGP   &GTF·PKUEJG'THQNIYKTFKPFKGUGO<WUCOOGPJCPIINGKEJIGUGV\VOKVFGO5KGIFGPFCU8QNM+UTCGNÒDGTFKG2JKNK UVGTDGK/K\RCKP2CN·UVKPCFCPM)QVVGU*KNHGGTTWPIGPJCVVG $WEJ5COWGN-CRKVGN8GTUHH 0CEJFGO5KGI UGV\VG FGT KUTCGNKVKUEJG 2TQRJGV 5COWGN CNU 5KGIGU\GKEJGP WPF )TGP\OCTMG GKPGP JGKNKIGP 5VGKP FGP GT 'DGPG\GT   PCPPVG $WEJ5COWGN-CRKVGN8GTU +O4ÒEMUGKVGPOQVKXYKTFFKG<WTÒEMYGKUWPIFGU#PITKHHUFGU5EJYG FGPMÌPKIUOKVIÌVVNKEJGO$GKUVCPFXGTMPÒRHVWPFDKNFJCHVWOIGUGV\V

27


4041

4040



-TQPG-QRGPJCIGPI&CUQDGTJCNDFGUJGKNKIGP5VGKPU'DGPG\GTUEJYGDGPFG-ÌPKIUOQ PQITCOOFCTÒDGT-TQPGKO(GNFDQIKI'$'0'<'4'KPCWUGKPGT9QNMGPCEJTJGTXQTVTGVGPFGT JKOONKUEJGT #TO VTGPPV OKV GKPGO5·DGNFGPPCEJFGTF·PKUEJGP-TQPGITGKHGPFGP#TOFGUUEJYGFK UEJGP -ÌPKIU 7PVGTJCND FGT -TQPG &CVWOUCPICDG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   &CX  XCT   *GFG/CKNNGVXIN6H::8++ #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&+'9+'&'4'41$'470)&'4+05'.(ª0'0 

(TGFGTKM+++5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP%JTKUVKCP9KPGMG-QRGPJCIGPCWHFKG 9KGFGTGTQDGTWPIFGT+PUGN(ÒPGP$TWUVDKNFFGU-ÌPKIUTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNCWHFGT $TWUVFCU-NGKPQFFGU'NGHCPVGPQTFGPUVTCIGPF#WUFGT8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG&CTUVGNNWPIFGT5EJNCEJVCWH FGT+PUGN1DGPGKPCWHIGURCPPVGU5EJTKHVDCPFYQTCWH(+10+#Û4'%82'4+O#DUEJPKVVFKGTÌOKUEJG ,CJTGU\CJNOOI)CNUVGT%QNN0QTVJWODGTNCPF  (GKPG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



&+'9+'&'4'+00#*/'810*'.5+0)$14) +O 5GRVGODGT  GTMN·TVG -ÌPKI %JTKUVKCP 8 XQP &·PGOCTM FGO -ÌPKITGKEJ 5EJYGFGP FGP -TKGI   'KPGU FGT <KGNG UGKPGU 8QTJCDGPU YCT FKG 4ÒEMGTQDGTWPI FGT CPIGUVCOOVGP F·PKUEJGP $GUKV\WPIGP   5EJQPGP$NGMKPIGWPF*CNNCPFFKGKOIGUEJNQUUGPGP(TKGFGPXQP4QUMKNFGCP5EJYGFGPIGHCNNGP YCTGP 9·JTGPF CWH FGT 5GKVG &·PGOCTMU FKG 0KGFGTNCPFG 5RCPKGP ¤UVGTTGKEJ WPF -WTDTCPFGPDWTI   UVCPFGP JCVVG 5EJYGFGP (TCPMTGKEJ CNU GKP\KIGP 8GTDÒPFGVGP <WP·EJUV YCPFVGP UKEJ &·PGOCTM WPF   -WTDTCPFGPDWTIIGIGPFKGUEJYGFKUEJGP$GUKV\WPIGPKP0QTFYGUVWPF0QTFQUVFGWVUEJNCPFWPFMQPPVGP KPMWT\GT<GKV$TGOGP8GTFGP8QTRQOOGTP9KUOCTWPF5VGVVKPGKPPGJOGP#O,WPKUEJNWI GKP8GTDCPFF·PKUEJGTWPFPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGT-TKGIUUEJKHHGFKGUEJYGFKUEJG(NQVVGCPFGT5ÒFURKV\GXQP ¤NCPF'PFG,WPKFTCPIGPF·PKUEJG6TWRRGPÒDGTFGP¤TGUWPFKP5EJQPGPGKP'UIGNCPIKJPGPOGJTGTG 5V·FVGWPF(GUVWPIGP\WPGJOGPUQCWEJ*GNUKPIDQTI$KPPGPYGPKIGT/QPCVGYCTPCJG\WICP\5EJQ PGPXQPFGP&·PGPDGUGV\VCDIGUGJGPXQP/CNOÌWPF6GKNGP$NGMKPIGU)NGKEJ\GKVKIOCTUEJKGTVGGKPG F·PKUEJPQTYGIKUEJG5VTGKVOCEJVXQP0QTYGIGPCPFGT-ÒUVGGPVNCPI4KEJVWPI)ÌVGDQTIWPFMQPPVGXQP FGP5EJYGFGPGTUVXQTFGT(GUVWPI$QJWUIGUVQRRVYGTFGP)GIGP'PFGUGV\VG-ÌPKI-CTN:+XQP 5EJYGFGP\WO)GIGPCPITKHHCPWPFUKGIVGCO&G\GODGTDGK.WPF<YCTGTNKVVGPFKG5EJYGFGPKO 5QOOGTCWH5GGGORHKPFNKEJG0KGFGTNCIGPFQEJIKPIGPUKG\W.CPFGGTHQNITGKEJIGIGPFKG&·PGP XQT #O  ,WPK  MQPPVGP UKG CDGTOCNU GKPGP DGFGWVGPFGP 5KGI KP FGT 5EJNCEJV DGK .CPFUMTQPC   HGKGTP8QP5QOOGTDKU5QOOGTDGOÒJVGUKEJ-CTN:+GTHQNITGKEJWOFKG<WTÒEMFT·PIWPI FGT&·PGPCWUFGPYGUVUEJYGFKUEJGP2TQXKP\GP&CU'PFGFGU5EJQPKUEJGP-TKGIGU\YKUEJGP&·PGOCTM WPF5EJYGFGPYWTFGKO(TKGFGPUUEJNWUUXQP5CKPV)GTOCKPGP.C[GDGUKGIGNVKPFGOUKEJDGKFG-QP VTCJGPVGPQJPGYGUGPVNKEJG)GDKGVUCDVTGVWPIGPCTTCPIKGTVGP

4042



%JTKUVKCP85KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP%JTKUVQHGT5EJPGKFGT-QRGPJCIGPCWHFKG 'KPPCJOGXQP*GNUKPIDQTI$NKEMXQPFGT.CPFUGKVGCWHFCU5EJNQUUWPFFKG/CTKGPMKTEJGXQP*GNUKPI DQTI ÒDGT FGP ¤TGUWPF JKPYGI #O LGPUGKVKIGP 7HGT #PUKEJV XQP 5EJNQ­ -TQPDQTI *GNUKPIÌT  #WH   FGO9CUUGTFKXGTUG5EJKHHGQDGP5EJTKHVDCPF<YGKOKVFGTIGMTÌPVGP0COGPUKPKVKCNGFGU-ÌPKIUWPF FGTF·PKUEJGP(CJPGIGUEJOÒEMVG5·WNGPKPÒDGTFKOGPUKQPCNGT)TÌ­GCWHDGKFGP7HGTPFGUXQP5EJKHHGP DGHCJTGPGP¤TGUWPFUKO*KPVGTITWPF5VCFVCPUKEJVOOI)CNUVGT%QNN0QTVJWODGT NCPF 44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  &KG IGO·­ FGT CPVKMGP /[VJQNQIKG CP FGP 7HGTP DGKFUGKVU FGT /GGTGPIG XQP )KDTCNVCT CWHIGUVGNNVGP 5·WNGP FGU   *GTCMNGU UKPF FKG 8QTNCIG HÒT FCU FGP ¤TGUWPF HNCPMKGTGPFG 5·WNGPOQVKX CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /G   FCKNNG

28


&+''+00#*/'810/#4564#0& &CUCWHGKPGT5EJ·TGPKPUGNPÌTFNKEJXQP)ÌVGDQTIIGNGIGPG*CHGPUV·FVEJGP/CTUVTCPFYCTKO(TKGFGP XQP4QUMKNFGCP5EJYGFGPIGMQOOGPªDGTFGT5VCFVGTTKEJVGVGPFKG5EJYGFGPFKG(GUVWPI-CTN UVGP $GKO #PITKHH FGT &·PGP WPVGT FGO PQTYGIKUEJGP #FOKTCN 2GVGT 6QTFGPUMLQNF CO  ,WNK    MQPPVGFKG5VCFVGKPIGPQOOGPYGTFGPCO,WNKGTICDUKEJCWEJFKG$GUCV\WPIWPFFKG(GUVWPIWPVGT KJTGO -QOOCPFCPVGP %CTUVGP *GKPTKEJ &CPEMYCTFV +O (TKGFGP XQO  0QXGODGT  VTCVGP FKG   &·PGPFKG5VCFV/CTUVTCPFWPFFKG(GUVWPI-CTNUVGPYKGFGTCPFCU-ÌPKITGKEJ5EJYGFGPCD

4043



(TGFGTKM+85KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVG#TDGKVXQP2GVGT$GTI-QRGPJCIGPCWHFKG 'KPPCJOGXQP/CTUVTCPF$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN#PUKEJVFGU#PITKHHUCWH *CHGP 5VCFV WPF (GUVWPI /CTUVTCPF XQP FGT 5GG CWU OKV \CJNTGKEJGP 5EJKHHGP  OO  I   )CNUVGT%QNN0QTVJWODGTNCPFXCT #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

29


(4#0-4'+%* 5+.$'4)'.&(ª4&+'64722'0+0&'42+%#4&+' +O'FKMVXQP0GOQWTUXQO,WNKJQD-ÌPKI*GPTK+++WPVGT'KPHNWUUFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP.KICWPF 5RCPKGPUCNNG\WXQTXGTDTKGHVGP4GEJVGWPF(TGKJGKVGPFGT2TQVGUVCPVGPKPUGKPGO.CPFGCWHWPFDGYKTMVG UQ FGP #WUDTWEJ FGU CEJVGP *WIGPQVVGPMTKGIGU FGT XQP  DKU  \YKUEJGP FGP DGKFGP 2CTVGKGP   CWUIGHQEJVGPYWTFG+PFGT5VCFV5V3WGPVKP 2KECTFKG NKG­*GT\QI*GPTKFʼn1TN¾CPUCNU-QOOCPFGWT FGT MÌPKINKEJGP6TWRRGPUGKPRGTUÌPNKEJGUUKNDGTPGU6CHGNIGUEJKTTUQYKG5KNDGTIGT·VFGU5VCFVMQOOCP FCPVGPGKPUEJOGN\GPWOFCTCWU8KGTVGN¾EWU\WOÒP\GPWOFKGUGCNU5QNFUGKPGP5QNFCVGPCWU\W\CJNGP &KG2T·IGUVGORGNUQNNGKPÌTVNKEJGT$ÒTIGTOKV0COGP/CVJKGW5CN¾IGUEJPKVVGPJCDGP&KG2T·IWPIFGT OKV0COGPWPF6KVGNFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIUUQYKGFGU*GT\QIUXQP1TNG±PUCWUIGUVCVVGVGP/ÒP\GP JCVKO)QWXGTPGWTUIGD·WFGFGT5VCFVGKP)QNFUEJOKGFPCOGPU2KGTTG%QVVGXQTIGPQOOGP

4044 1,5:1



1,5:1

*GPTK+++3WCTVF ¾EWFG5CKPV3WGPVKPIò*'04+%85Û+++Û&Û)Û(4#0Û '6 Û 21. Û 4': .KNKGPMTGW\ò * Û &14.'#05 Û & Û # Û .10)8#8+. Û (#%+'$#6 +P HÒPH   <GKNGPÛ241Û%*4+561ÛÛ'6Û4')'ÛÛ5Û3ÛÛÛ$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT %KCPK/CKNNGV6H:%+:XCT 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

&+''+00#*/'810674+0 #O/CKDGICDUKEJ(TCPMTGKEJKPFGP-TKGIOKV5RCPKGP&KGOKNKV·TKUEJG#WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPI YWTFGCWH\CJNTGKEJGP5EJCWRN·V\GPKP(TCPMTGKEJ5RCPKGP&GWVUEJNCPFFGPURCPKUEJGP0KGFGTNCPFGP WPFCWEJKP0QTFKVCNKGPCWUIGVTCIGP5KGÒDGTFCWGTVGFGP9GUVH·NKUEJGP(TKGFGPWPFHCPFGTUVKO 2[TGP·GPHTKGFGPKJT'PFG+P+VCNKGPUCJUKEJFGTOKV(TCPMTGKEJXGTDÒPFGVG*GT\QIXQP2CTOC#PITKH HGPFGT5RCPKGTCWUIGUGV\VFGPGPGUPCEJFGO6QFGFGU*GT\QIU8KVVQTKQ#OCFGQXQP5CXQ[GPKO,CJTG  IGNWPIGP YCT FGP $TWFGT FGU 8GTUVQTDGPGP 2TKP\ 6JQOCU XQP 5CXQ[GP HÒT KJTG +PVGTGUUGP \W   KPUVTWOGPVCNKUKGTGP /KV *KNHG XQP FGUUGP 6TWRRGP FTCPIGP URCPKUEJG 8GTD·PFG WPVGT -QOOCPFQ FGU   )GPGTCNU/CTSW¾UXQP.GICP¾UKPFCU2KGOQPVGKPWPFGPVTKUUGPGKPG(GUVWPIPCEJFGTCPFGTGPCWU FGOHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP$GUKV\2TKP\6JQOCUIGNCPIGUOKV7PVGTUVÒV\WPIFGT$ÒTIGTFKGUCXQ[KUEJG5VCFV 6WTKP \WTÒEM\WGTQDGTP WPF OKV .C 8CNGVVG FGO FCOCNKIGP 1DGTMQOOCPFKGTGPFGP FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP   6TWRRGPKP+VCNKGPGKPGP9CHHGPUVKNNUVCPFCWU\WJCPFGNP4WPFUKGDGP/QPCVGUR·VGT\QIGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJG 6TWRRGPWPVGTFGO$GHGJNXQP.C8CNGVVGU0CEJHQNIGT*GPTKFG*CTEQWTVXQTFKG6QTG6WTKPU&KG5VCFV MQPPVGCO5GRVGODGTGKPIGPQOOGPYGTFGP

4045 1,5:1



1,5:1

.QWKU:+++5KNDGTPGT,GVQPFGTOKNKV·TKUEJGP8GTUQTIWPIUDGJÌTFG GZVTCQTFKPCKTGFG IWGTTG  CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV 6WTKP FWTEJ HTCP\ÌUKUEJG 5VTGKVMT·HVG WPVGT FGO -QOOCPFQ XQP   *GPTKFG*CTEQWTVWPF6WTGPPGCO5GRVGODGTFGU,CJTGU7PVGTJCNDGKPGTITQ­GP-TQPGFKG9CR RGPUEJKNFGXQP(TCPMTGKEJWPF0CXCTTCWPFFKG+PKVKCNGFGU-ÌPKIUOKVFTGK-TQPGPWO\QIGPOKV\YGK 1TFGPUMGVVGP5VCFVVQT CWH FGUUGP QDGTGP DQIGPHÌTOKIGP #DUEJNWUU \YGK )KGDGNHKIWTGP CWH FGP   HNCPMKGTGPFGP /CWGTCDUEJPKVVGP LG GKPG .KNKG QDGTJCND FGT /CWGT #8)  6#84 QDGP FKG IGMTÌPVG   0COGPUKPKVKCNGFGU-ÌPKIU\YKUEJGP\YGK2CNO\YGKIGPOOI(GWCTFGPV 5GJTUEJÌP (GWCTFGPVNGKVGVCNNGKPCWHITWPFFGTJPNKEJMGKVFGT5VCFVVQTFCTUVGNNWPIGKPGP$G\WI\W6WTKPJGTQJPGCDGTCWHFKG XGTMÒT\VG1TVUDG\GKEJPWPIÒDGTFGT/CWGTGKP\WIGJGP5KGKUVKPFGT6CVKP#8) WUVC 6#84 GPUKU CWH\WNÌUGPFJ KPFGPNCVGKPKUEJGP0COGPXQP6WTKP

30




&+''41$'470)810614615# +O-TKGIOKV5RCPKGPDGUGV\VGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJG6TWRRGPFKGMCVCNCPKUEJG$KUEJQHUUVCFV6QTVQUC

4046



.QWKU :+8  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,GCP /CWIGT 2CTKU CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI FGT 5VCFV   6QTVQUC-QRHFGULWPIGP-ÌPKIUT&KGYGKDNKEJG8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGT5VCFVCWHGKPGO(GNUGPCO/GG TGUWHGT UKV\GPF UKEJ OKV FGO TGEJVGP #TO CWHGKPGP#PMGTWPFCWHFKGUKEJGTIKG­GPFGOKV+$'475 DG\GKEJPGVG3WGNNWTPGFGU'DTQUVÒV\GPFOKVFGT.KPMGPKJT1DGTIGYCPFTCHHGPFOOI &KXQ/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU5% 44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''+00#*/'810&17#+

Die Belagerung von Douai.

&KGHNCPFTKUEJG5VCFV&QWCKYWTFGKO,CJTGY·JTGPFFGUIGIGP5RCPKGPIGTKEJVGVGP-TKGIGUXQP GKPGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP#TOGGGKPIGPQOOGP5KGOWUUVGLGFQEJDCNFYKGFGTFGO)GIPGTÒDGTNCUUGPYGTFGP WPFYWTFGCDGTOCNUPCEJGKPGTMWT\GP$GNCIGTWPIXQPFGP(TCP\QUGPGTQDGTV&QEJGTUVKO(TKG FGPXQP#CEJGPMCOFKG5VCFVGPFIÒNVKICPFCU-ÌPKITGKEJ(TCPMTGKEJ

4047



.QWKU :+8  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,GCP /CWIGT 2CTKU CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV   &QWCK-QRHT&GT-ÌPKIUVGJGPFTFKG#PNCIGGKPGU)TCDGPUDGCWHUKEJVKIGPFCO*QTK\QPVFKGDGHG UVKIVG5VCFVOOI&KXQ/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU5XCT FQTV4ÒEMUGKVGOKVFGP +PKVKCNGPFGU5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTU,GCPNG$NCPE  #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 31


&+''+00#*/'810%#/$4#+ &KGCPFGT5EJGNFGIGNGIGPGUVCTMG(GUVWPIUUVCFV%CODTCKDGHCPFUKEJUGKVKPURCPKUEJGT*CPF+O \YGKVGP IGIGP FKG URCPKUEJGP 0KGFGTNCPFG IGTKEJVGVGP 'TQDGTWPIUMTKGI .QWKUʼn :+8 MQPPVGP HTCP\ÌUK   UEJG6TWRRGPFKG5VCFVWPF(GUVWPIGTQDGTP+OIGUEJNQUUGPGP(TKGFGPXQP0KLOGIGPYWTFG FKG5VCFVWPFFCU6GTTKVQTKWOFGU$KUVWOU%CODTCKFGO-ÌPKITGKEJ(TCPMTGKEJ\WGTMCPPV

4048



.QWKU:+8$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,QUGRJ4QGVVKGTUWPF/KEJGN/QNCTV2CTKUCWHFKG 'TQDGTWPI XQP %CODTCK $TWUVDKNF FGU -ÌPKIU T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO    /CPVGNFGTCWHFGT5EJWNVGTOKVGKPGT/CUMGPMQRHHKDGNIGJCNVGPYKTF7PVGTJCNDFGU#TOCDUEJPKVVUFKG 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTKPKVKCNG 4$CWGT N JKPVGT GKPGO \YGKUR·PPKIGP 2HNWI UEJTGKVGPF WPF UGKP (GNF   DGUVGNNGPF+O*KPVGTITWPF#PUKEJVFGT5VCFV%CODTCKOOIX.QQP+++XIN5

FQTVOKVXCTKKGTGPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGWPFKFGPVKUEJGT4ÒEMUGKVG /¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU5#XCT

FQTVOKVXCTKKGTGPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGWPFKFGPVKUEJGT4ÒEMUGKVG   45GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCMN5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPF MN-TCV\GTKO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+'#0.#)'&'4('5670)564#55$74) &KG4GWPKQPURQNKVKM.QWKUʼn:+8TGMNCOKGTVGCWEJFKG4GKEJUUVCFV5VTCUUDWTIHÒTFCU-ÌPKITGKEJ(TCPM TGKEJ+O,CJTGJCVVGFGT5VCFVTCVFGPGKPIGHQTFGTVGP*WNFKIWPIUGKFCWHFGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKI XGTYGKIGTV #O  5GRVGODGT  OWUUVG UKEJ 5VTCUUDWTI CPIGUKEJVU FGT OKV  /CPP XQT FKG   /CWGTPIGTÒEMVGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP5VTGKVOCEJVFGT#PPGZKQPFWTEJFGP5QPPGPMÌPKIYKFGTUVCPFUNQUDGW IGP&GTKOHQNIGPFGP,CJTOKVFGT'TTKEJVWPIGKPGTHÒPHGEMKIGP<KVCFGNNGDGIQPPGPG#WUDCWFGTDKUJG TKIGP5VTCUUDWTIGT(GUVWPIUYGTMGMQPPVGKO,CJTGCDIGUEJNQUUGPYGTFGP'TGTHQNIVGPCEJ2N·PGP WPFWPVGT#WHUKEJVFGU)GPGTCNKPURGMVGWTUFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP(GUVWPIGP5¾DCUVKGP.G2TGUVGFG8CWDCP

4049



32

.QWKU :+8  $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  UR·VGTGT PCEJ  IGHGTVKIVGT #DUEJNCI  XQP ,¾TQOG   4QWUUGN WPF ,GCP /CWIGT 2CTKU CWH FKG #PNCIG FGT (GUVWPI 5VTC­DWTI $TWUVDKNF FGU -ÌPKIU T OKV   WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV#NNQPIGRGTÒEMG6QRQITCRJKUEJG#WHUKEJVFGT4JGKPIGIGPFOKVFGP2N·PGP FGT (GUVWPIUYGTMG DGKFGTUGKVU FGU (NWUUGU /KV 5VGORGNWPI =NCIGTPFGT 9KFFGT T? $410<' CWH FGT   -CPVGFGU4CPFGUOOI'PIGN.GJT/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU5$  #VVTCMVKXGOKVVGNDTCWPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




&+''41$'470)521.+6+-&'55100'0-¤0+)5

"Eine historische Studie" W. M. Thackeray, The Paris Sketchbook 1840.

9·JTGPF -CKUGT WPF 4GKEJ KO ,CJTG  KJTG #WHOGTMUCOMGKV CWHFGP-TKGIIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGPMQP \GPVTKGTVGPPWV\VG.QWKU:+8FKG)GNGIGPJGKVKO4CJOGPUGKPGT4GWPKQPURQNKVKMFKG#DVTGVWPIGJGOCNU \W (CPMTGKEJ IGJÌTGPFGT )GDKGVG \W GT\YKPIGP 5Q NKG­ GT .WZGODWTI \WO FTKVVGP /CNG DKPPGP   a„a,CJTGPDGNCIGTP9·JTGPFUGKPG#TOGGJKGT\YGKOCNGTIGDPKUNQUCD\KGJGPOWUUVGMQPPVGUKG FKG5VCFVKO/CKUEJNKG­NKEJKPKJTG)GYCNVDTKPIGP+OUGNDGP,CJTUEJQUUGKPGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG(NQVVG )GPWCKP$TCPFFCFKG5VCFVTGRWDNKMGPIG8GTDKPFWPIGP\W5RCPKGPWPVGTJKGNV

4050



.QWKU :+8  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG UCVKTKUEJG CPVKHTCP\ÌUKUEJG 2T·IWPI CWH FKG   'TQDGTWPIURQNKVKMFGU-ÌPKIU371&.+$'6.+%'6Ü&GTHTCP\ÌUKUEJG-ÌPKIKOXQNNGP1TPCVUVGJGPF NCO/GGTGUWHGTOKVFGT4GEJVGPGKP5EJYGTVJCNVGPFCWHFGOGKPITQ­GT4GKEJUCRHGNCWHIGURKG­VKUV OKVFGT.KPMGPCWHFKGUG+PUKIPKGYGKUGPF+O*KPVGTITWPFCONKPMGP$KNFTCPFFKG$GUEJKG­WPIGKPGTOKV )'07# DG\GKEJPGVGP 5VCFV FWTEJ GKPG -TKGIUHNQVVG CO TGEJVGP $KNFTCPF GKPG OKV .7:'/$74)   DG\GKEJPGVG (GUVWPI KP FGT FKG MÌPKINKEJHTCP\ÌUKUEJGT (NCIIG IGJKUUV KUV +O #DUEJPKVV *KPVGT   GKPGOIGTCHHVGPOKV\CJNTGKEJGP$QWTDQPGPNKNKGPIGUEJOÒEMVGP8QTJCPIGKP#TOPCEJTJGTXQTVTGVGPF GKP5EJYGTVWPFGKPGP¤N\YGKIJCNVGPF7PVGPDQIKI'.+)'ÜOOI%QNN(KGYGIGT XIN FQTVKP<KPP -2-X.QQP+85  44(GKPG2CVKPCNGKEJVG-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  33


&+''+00#*/'810)'410# +O<WIGFGU2H·N\GT'TDHQNIGMTKGIGUGTQDGTVGGKPGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG5VTGKVOCEJVWPVGTFGO$GHGJNFGU (GNFJGTTP0QCKNNGUFKGMCVCNCPKUEJG5VCFV)GTQPC+OIGUEJNQUUGPGP(TKGFGPXQP4KLUYKLMMCOFKG 5VCFVYKGFGT\WTÒEMCPFCU-ÌPKITGKEJ5RCPKGP

4051



.QWKU:+8$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,QUGRJ4QGVVKGTU2CTKUQFGT,¾TQOG4QWUUGN2CTKU CWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP)GTQPC$TWUVDKNFFGU-ÌPKIUTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\KP*CTPKUEJFGPCWHFGT$TWUV GKP/GFWUCMQRHUEJOÒEMV7PVGTJCNDFGU#TOCDUEJPKVVUFKG5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTKPKVKCNG4#O/GGTGUWHGT *GTCMNGUOKV.ÌYGPJCWVWPF-GWNGUVGJGPFJCNDTCWHFGOD·WEJNKPIUCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGPFTGKMÌRHKIGP )GT[QPFGTGKPGP-PÒRRGNOKVFGT.KPMGPWOHCUUVOOI/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU5$

FQTV<WYGKUWPICP,¾TQOG4QWUUGN +O(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGCNVG+PXGPVCTPWOOGTKP6WUEJG  (GKPG5VGORGNDTÒEJGXQT\ÒINKEJ



&CU /QVKX FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /GFCKNNG URKGNV CWH FKG )TÒPFWPIUUCIG FGT URCPKUEJGP 5VCFV )GTQPC CP   WPFUGV\VFGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIOKVFGOCPVKMGP*GNFGPWPF*CNDIQVV*GTCMNGUINGKEJ+PFGTCPVKMGPITKGEJKUEJGP /[VJQNQIKG OWUUVG *GTCMNGU \YÌNH #WHICDGP NÌUGP WO (TGKJGKV WPF 7PUVGTDNKEJMGKV \W GTNCPIGP &KG \GJPVG #WH   ICDGYCTFGT4CWDFGT4KPFGTJGTFGFGU4KGUGP)GT[QPFGTCOYGUVNKEJGP'PFGFGTCPVKMGP9GNVIGNGDVJCDGPUQNN +O<WIGFGTGTHQNITGKEJGP&WTEJHÒJTWPIUGKPGT#WHICDGVÌVGVG*GTCMNGUUGKPGPCWUFTGK.GKDGTPDGUVGJGPFGPPWTKP FGT *ÒHVRCTVKG \W GKPGO -ÌTRGT \WUCOOGPIGYCEJUGPGP )GIPGT )GO·­ FGT RQRWN·TGP NQMCNGP ªDGTNKGHGTWPI UQNN   FKG5VCFV)GTQPCXQP*GTCMNGUCO2NCV\GUGKPGU6TKWORJUÒDGT)GT[QPIGITÒPFGVYQTFGPUGKP

&+''+00#*/'8108'447# &GT 5RCPKUEJG 'TDHQNIGMTKGI HÒJTVG CWEJ KP +VCNKGP \W GKPGO -CORH (TCPMTGKEJU WO FKG CWUIGFGJPVGP   URCPKUEJGP $GUKV\WPIGP <WP·EJUV UVGNNVG UKEJ *GT\QI 8KVVQTKQ #OCFGQ ++ XQP 5CXQ[GP CP FKG 5GKVG   (TCPMTGKEJU  YGEJUGNVG GT FKG 5GKVGP WPF RCMVKGTVG OKV FGP )GIPGTP (TCPMTGKEJU &CTCWHJKP NKG­   .QWKU:+8FCUICP\G2KGOQPVDGUGV\VGPWPFDTCEJVG5CXQ[GPCPFGP4CPFGFGU<WUCOOGPDTWEJUFCFKG CPCPFGTGP(TQPVGPDGCPURTWEJVGPMCKUGTNKEJGP*GGTGKPFKGUGT5KVWCVKQPMGKPGP$GKUVCPFNGKUVGPMQPPVGP &KG $GUCV\WPI FGT UCXQ[KUEJGP $GTIHGUVWPI 8GTTWC YWTFG  XQP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVGP GKPIG   UEJNQUUGPWPFKOHQNIGPFGP,CJTGTQDGTV

4052



34

.QWKU :+8  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,GCP NG$NCPE2CTKUCWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT(GUVWPI 8GTTWC KP 2KGOQPV $ÒUVG T OKV #NNQPIGRGTÒEMG&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG (GUVWPI 8GTTWC CO (W­G GKPGU   (GNUGPU KP MNCIGPFGT 2QUG UKV\GPF T 8QT KJT FGT UKEJ UEJTGKVGPF CDYGPFGPFG /CTU KP FGT GTJQDGPGP   4GEJVGPGKPGP5RGGTJCNVGPFWOFGUUGP5EJCHVGKPG-TQPGCNU5KGIGUVTQRJ·GJ·PIVOOI &KXQ/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU56TCKPC++5  449KP\5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGXQT\ÒINKEJ




4053

4054

&+''41$'470)810/#+.#0& &KG(TCIGFGT$GUGV\WPIFGURQNPKUEJGP-ÌPKIUVJTQPUPCEJFGO6QFG#WIWUVUFGU5VCTMGPGPV\ÒPFGVG  GKPGP -TKGI (TCPMTGKEJU WPF UGKPGT8GTDÒPFGVGPIGIGP¤UVGTTGKEJFCU4GKEJWPF4WUUNCPF&KG -CORHJCPFNWPIGPHCPFGPÒDGTYKGIGPFKPFGT4JGKPIGIGPFUVCVVCDGTCWEJKP+VCNKGPYQFGTHTCP\ÌUK UEJG -ÌPKI OKV FGO *GT\QI XQP 5CXQ[GP WPF FGO -ÌPKI XQP 5RCPKGP 8GTDÒPFGVG KO -CORH IGIGP   ¤UVGTTGKEJ IGHWPFGP JCVVG FCU UGKV FGO 'PFG FGU 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU  ÒDGT /CKNCPF WPF   /CPVWC2CTOC2KCEGP\CUQYKGÒDGT0GCRGNWPF5K\KNKGPJGTTUEJVGWPFUQOKVGKPGOC­IGDNKEJG5VGNNWPI CWH FGO #RGPPKP KPPGJCVVG 5EJQP  \GKIVG UKEJ FCUU FKG ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP 6TWRRGP KP +VCNKGP FGO   ITQ­GPOKNKV·TKUEJGP&TWEMFGT)GIPGTPKEJVUVCPFJCNVGPMQPPVGP5CTFKUEJGWPFHTCP\ÌUKUEJG6TWRRGP MQPPVGPKPFKGUGO,CJTFKG.QODCTFGKOKV#WUPCJOG/CPVWCUDGUGV\GPCWEJFKG5VCFV/CKNCPFYWTFG CO&G\GODGTGKPIGPQOOGPFKG<KVCFGNNGHKGNCO&G\GODGT0CEJFGO'PFGFGU2QNPKUEJGP 6JTQPHQNIGMTKGIGUGTJKGNV¤UVGTTGKEJ/CKNCPFWPF/CPVWC\WTÒEMCPFGTGKVCNKGPKUEJG$GUKV \WPIGPIKPIGPKPFGUCPFKG)GIPGT 

.QWKU :8  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,GCP &WXKXKGT WPF /KEJCGN TGUR /CTVKP 4ÌI 2CTKU   CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI XQP /CKNCPF $TWUVDKNF T KP /CPVGN OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&GT -ÌPKI CNU -TKGIUIQVV   /CTUUVGJGPFJCNDTOKV5EJKNFWPF.CP\GFKG*WNFKIWPIFGTXQTKJOMPKGPFGP8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGT5VCFV /CKNCPF GPVIGIGPPGJOGPF #O $QFGP N *GNO WPF (CJPGP  OO  I /¾FCKNNGU HTCP¼CKUGU   5 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''41$'470)8102#4/# 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,GCP&WXKXKGTWPF,GCP.G$NCPE2CTKUCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP2CTOC$TWUV DKNFTKP*CTPKUEJWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&GT-ÌPKICNU-TKGIUIQVV/CTUUVGJGPF \WO-CORHDGTGKVOKVGKPGT.CP\GKPFGTGTJQDGPGP4GEJVGPWPFOKVGKPGO5EJKNFFKGJKPVGPTUKV\GPFG 2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGT5VCFV2CTOCDGUEJKTOGPFOOI/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU5  44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'(4#0<¤5+5%*'4'81.76+10 9·JTGPF FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 4GXQNWVKQP RT·IVGP OGJTGTG RTKXCVG 7PVGTPGJOGT KP FGP ,CJTGP  WPF    'TUCV\IGNF FCU KP FGP FCOCNU OKV UVCCVNKEJGP 'OKUUKQPGP WP\WTGKEJGPF XGTUQTIVGP )GNFXGTMGJT   GKPIGDTCEJV YWTFG VGKNU WPVGT FGP $G\GKEJPWPIGP ō/QPPPCKG ŋ QFGT ō/¾FCKNNG FG EQPHKCPEGŋ &GT   5VCCV XGTDQV UQNEJG 2T·IWPIGP CD 5GRVGODGT  WPF TGCIKGTVG CWH FGP -NGKPIGNFOCPIGN OKV FGT FGT   #WUICDGFGUPGWGP5QNCWZDCNCPEGUKO,CJTG

4056







4055

4057

%QPUVKVWVKQP  %CKUUG FG $QPPG (QK 2CTKU -W 5QNU  &GPKGTU #0   I $G   JGNOVGU $TWUVDKNF FGT /KPGTXC N<YGK *·PFG IGOGKPUCO \YGK 2KMGP JCNVGPF CWH FGPGP QDGP GKPG   ,CMQDKPGTOÒV\GUVGEMV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H:%++/C\CTF 5GJTUEJÌP



 5QNU #0  CWUIGIGDGP XQP .GH½XTG .GUCIG GV %QORCIPKG 2CTKU  I 9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV   UKV\GPF N \YKUEJGP \YGK5·WNGPUVÒORHGP#WHFGONKPMGPGKPTUVGJGPFGT*CJPCWHFGOTGEJVGPCP FGOGKPCWHIGUEJNCIGPGU$WEJNGJPVGKPGCWHGKPGO5VCDUVGEMGPFG,CMQDKPGTOÒV\G#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H:%++/C\CTF 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5QNU#0CWUIGIGDGPXQP.GH½XTG.GUCIGGV%QORCIPKG2CTKUI#WH'KEJGP\YGKIGPGKP #TTCPIGOGPVCWU\YGK(ÒNNJÌTPGTPWPFGKPGT2KMGQDGP,CMQDKPGTOÒV\G#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H:%++/C\CTF /KP2T·IGUEJY·EJGPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 35


4059

4058





4058

-W/GFCKNNG FG EQPHKCPEG \W  5QNU #0 +8 2T·IWPI FGT )GDTÒFGT /QPPGTQP 2CTKU  I   #NNGIQTKGFGU2CEVGH¾F¾TCVKHXQO,WNK/KPGTXCUKV\GPFTCWHGKPGO2QFGUV5QNFCVGPCWHFKG 8GTHCUUWPIGKPUEJYÌTGPF\WKJTGP(Ò­GPGKPOKVFGO2QTVT·VFGU-ÌPKIUIGUEJOÒEMVGT#NVCT#WHWPF 7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H:%+/C\CTF 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W/GFCKNNGFGEQPHKCPEG\W5QNU#0+++WPF#0+82T·IWPIFGT)GDTÒFGT/QPPGTQP 2CTKUWPFI#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVUKV\GPFNOKV5VCD(TGKJGKVUOÒV\GWPF )GUGV\GUVCHGNJKPVGP*CJPNCWH5·WNGPUVWORH$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HWPF/CKNNGV6H:%+ WPF/C\CTFWPF 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



&#5810&'0'/$.'/'0&'44'81.76+10ª$'4&'%-6'-¤0+)5214646

4060



%QPUVKVWVKQP  'EW CWZ TCOGCWZ F  QNKXKGT  + .KOQIGU XQP -ÌPKI .QWKU :8+ OKV   )GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG\YKUEJGP'KEJGP\YGKIGPGKPOKVFGT,CMQDKPGTOÒV\GDGFGEMVGU(C UEGUDÒPFGN WOJGT 4'27$.+37'  (4#0•#+5'  I /ÒP\G &CX  &WRNGUU[  )C   FQWT[)GIGPUVGORGN*GPPKP8)  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

&+''41$'470)8109+'0

4061



0CRQN¾QP+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP.WKIK/CPHTGFKPK/CKNCPFCWHFKG'KPPCJOG XQP9KGP$GJGNOVGT-QRHFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-CKUGTUN9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVCO$QFGPUKV\GPFTVTCWGTPF FGP-QRHCWHFGPCPIGYKPMGNVGPNKPMGP#TOUVÒV\GPF$GKKJTGP(Ò­GPGKP6TQRCGWOCWUCPVKMGP4Ò UVWPIUUVÒEMGPGKPGO5EJYGTVUQYKGGKPGOOKVFGOFQRRGNMÌRHKIGP#FNGTWPFFGP+PKVKCNGPXQP-CKUGT (TCP\++IGUEJOÒEMVGP5EJKNFOOI$TCOUGP5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU (GKPG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ &KGCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGCPIGIGDGPG,CJTGU\CJNJCVFGT/GFCKNNGWTKTTVÒONKEJOKV/%%/8CPIGIGDGP

36




4062

&#5,7$+.7/&'55674/5#7(&+'$#56+..' 

.QWKU 2JKNKRRG  $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 'OKNG 4QICV 2CTKU CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGU   5VWTOUCWHFKG$CUVKNNGCO,WNK$NKEMCWHFKGXQP\CJNTGKEJGP5QNFCVGPWPF$ÒTIGTPWONCIGTVG WPFDGUEJQUUGPG$CUVKNNG#PUKEJVFGU5VCCVUIGH·PIPKUUGUNG&QPKQPKP8KPEGPPGUOOI 9WT\DCEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

4063

4064



4065

#+4' &+'<9'+(#%*'$'.#)'470)810#+4'574.#.;5 &KG 5VCFV #KTG IGJÌTVG DKU \W $GIKPP FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU \W (NCPFGTP WPF UQOKV \W FGP 5RCPKUEJGP   0KGFGTNCPFGP5GKV,WPKDGNCIGTVGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJG6TWRRGPWPVGTFGO-QOOCPFQFGU/CTUEJCNNUFG /GKNNGTC[GFKG5VCFVWPF(GUVWPI&KG8GTVGKFKIGTYGJTVGPUKEJ\YCTVCRHGTFQEJYCTGPUKGPKEJV KPFGT.CIGFGP#PUVWTOFGU(GKPFGUCWH&CWGT\WGTYGJTGPFGTFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIUYGTMGGKPPGJOGP WPF \WFGO FWTEJ /KPGP WPF OCUUKXGP #TVKNNGTKGDGUEJWUUGKPGP6GKNFGU*CWRVYCNNUUVCTMDGUEJ·FKIGP MQPPVG0QEJXQTFGTIGRNCPVGP'TUVÒTOWPIFGT5VCFVCO,WNKMCRKVWNKGTVGPFKG'KPIGUEJNQUUG PGP &GT )CTPKUQP IGUVCVVGVG FGT 5KGIGT GKPGP GJTGPXQNNGP #D\WI CO HQNIGPFGP 6CIG 9·JTGPF FGT   $GNCIGTWPIJCVVG5VCFVMQOOCPFCPV$GTPQXKVVGFKG*GTUVGNNWPIXQPMNKRRGPHÌTOKIGP0QVOÒP\GP\W WPF4GCNGUOKVFGO6KVGNFGUURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKIU2JKNKRR+8CWUUGKPGORGTUÌPNKEJGO5KNDGTIGT·VWPF CWU-KTEJGPUKNDGTXGTCPNCUUV0WTMWT\G<GKVUR·VGTYWTFGPFKGHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP$GUCV\GTKO)GIGP\WIXQP URCPKUEJGP6TWRRGPDGNCIGTV&GTHTCP\ÌUKUEJG-QOOCPFCPVYCTPWPUGKPGTUGKVUIG\YWPIGP0QVMNKRRGP FKGUOCNPCVÒTNKEJKPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGT9·JTWPIWPFOKVFGO6KVGNFGU-ÌPKIU.QWKU:+++RT·IGP\WNCUUGP 

'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W.KXTGU 5QNU I5KGDGP\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV.8&Ü:+++4':2+85 +85685+08+%685Ü#4+#801#u$+51$5'5Ü+ÛZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H/CKNNGV5WRRN6HFG/G[  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'$'.#)'470)810#+4'574.#.;5 +O5RCPKUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGIYWTFG#KTGCDGTOCNUDGNCIGTV'PFG,WNKWOUEJNQUUGKPGXQO2TKP\GP XQP#PJCNV&GUUCWIGHÒJTVG5VTGKVOCEJVFGTIGIGP(TCPMTGKEJWPF5RCPKGPIGTKEJVGVGP#NNKCP\FKG5VCFV 6TQV\GPVUEJKGFGPGT)GIGPYGJTFGT'KPIGUEJNQUUGPGPIGNCPIGUFGP$GNCIGTGTPPCEJUVCTMGO#TVKNNGTKG DGUEJWUU WPF GKPGO $TÒEMGPUEJNCI ÒDGT FKG 8GTVGKFKIWPIUIT·DGP FGP 5VCFVMQOOCPFCPVGP /QPUGKI   PGWT FG )WGDTKCPV CO #DGPF FGU  0QXGODGT  \WT #WHICDG \W DGYGIGP &KG )CTPKUQP GTJKGNV   HTGKGP#D\WIWPFCO0QXGODGT\QIGPFKG8GTDÒPFGVGPUKGITGKEJKPFKG5VCFVGKP+O.CWHGFGT $GNCIGTWPIXGTCPNCUUVG5VCFVMQOOCPFCPVFG)WGDTKCPVFKG#WUICDGXQPMNKRRGPHÌTOKIGP5KNDGTOÒP\GP FGTGP5KNDGTCWUFGORGTUÌPNKEJGP6CHGNIGUEJKTTFGU-QOOCPFCPVGPIGYQPPGPYQTFGPUGKPUQNN 

'KPUGKVKIG QMVQIQPCNG -NKRRG \W  5QNU   I )GMTÌPVGT TWPFGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF KO (GNF FKG   IGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H+FG/G[  4(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



'KPUGKVKIG QMVQIQPCNG -NKRRG \W  5QNU   I )GMTÌPVGT TWPFGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF FCTWPVGT FKG   ,CJTGU\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H+FG/G[ 5GJTUEJÌP

 37


%#/$4#+ &+'$'.#)'470)810%#/$4#+

Entsetzung und Eroberung von Cambrai durch den Herzog von Anjou.

+O,CJTGHÒJTVGFGTURCPKUEJG5VCVVJCNVGTKPFGP0KGFGTNCPFGPFGT2TKP\XQP2CTOCFKGURCPKUEJGP 6TWRRGP \WT $GNCIGTWPI FGT UVCTM DGHGUVKIVGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5VCFV %CODTCK 'U DGUVCPF P·ONKEJ FKG   )GHCJTFCUUFKG(TCP\QUGPXQPFKGUGOUVTCVGIKUEJJGTXQTTCIGPFIGNGIGPGP1TVCWUGKPGP#PITKHHIGIGP FKG 5RCPKGTDGIKPPGPMÌPPVGPWOFKGCWHUV·PFKUEJGP0KGFGTN·PFGT\WWPVGTUVÒV\VGP6TQV\GKPGTFWTEJ FKG $GNCIGTWPI XGTWTUCEJVG *WPIGTUPQV JKGNVGP FKG HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 8GTVGKFKIGT DGJCTTNKEJ FKG 5VCFV DKU   UKEJGKPXQO*GT\QIXQP#NGPçQPCPIGHÒJTVGU'PVUCV\JGTTCWU(W­UQNFCVGPWPF4GKVGTPCO #WIWUVFGT5VCFVP·JGTVGWPFFKG$GNCIGTGT\WO#D\WIDGYQI+PFGTGKPIGUEJNQUUGPGP5VCFVJCV FGT )QWXGTPGWT Fʼn +PEJ[ OCPIGNU XQNNYGTVKIGT <CJNWPIUOKVVGN MNKRRGPHÌTOKIGU MWRHGTPGU -TGFKVIGNF   RT·IGPNCUUGP

4066



4067

'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-W-NKRRG\W2CVCTFQ,  I/KV\YGKUEJKNFHÌTOKIGP)GIGPUVGO RGNP GKP GVYCU ITÌ­GTGT OKV FGO FQRRGNMQRHKIGP #FNGT UQYKG GKP GVYCU MNGKPGTGT OKV FGT TÌOKUEJGP   9GTV\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H::+FG/G[&  44)TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)810%#/$4#+ &KGHGJNIGUEJNCIGPG$GNCIGTWPIXQPJKGNVFKG5RCPKGTPKEJVFCXQPCDKO,CJTGKJT8QTJCDGP \WYKGFGTJQNGP#O#WIWUVGTUEJKGPGKP*GGTWPVGTFGO-QOOCPFQXQP&QP(WGPVGUXQT%CODTCK WPFDGICPPOKVFGT'KPUEJNKG­WPIFGT5VCFVKPFGTUKEJGKPGXQO)QWXGTPGWT,GCPFG/QPNWE5GKIPGWT FG$CNCIP[DGHGJNKIVG)CTPKUQPCWUJQNN·PFKUEJGPWPFHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP5QNFCVGPDGHCPF&GT-QOOCPFCPV WPFUGKPG5QNFCVGPMQPPVGPFKG5VCFVDKU#PHCPI1MVQDGTJCNVGPOWUUVGPUKEJCDGTCOFGU/QPCVU HNWEJVCTVKI KP FKG <KVCFGNNG \WTÒEM\KGJGP PCEJFGO FKG $GXÌNMGTWPI FGP $GNCIGTGTP FKG 6QTG IGÌHHPGV   JCVVG #PIGUKEJVU OCPIGNPFGT 8QTT·VG WPF HGJNGPFGT /WPKVKQP KPPGTJCND FGU $QNNYGTMU GTMCPPVG FGT   )QWXGTPGWTFKG#WUUKEJVUNQUKIMGKVYGKVGTGT)GIGPYGJTWPFMCRKVWNKGTVGCO1MVQDGT9·JTGPF FGT $GNCIGTWPI FGT 5VCFV YWTFG HÒT 5QNF\CJNWPIGP MNKRRGPHÌTOKIGU 'TUCV\IGNF CWU -WRHGT JGTIGUVGNNV   FCUOKVFGOHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP.KNKGPUEJKNFWPFFGO(COKNKGPYCRRGPFGU)QWXGTPGWTUIGMGPP\GKEJPGVYCT 

38

'KPUGKVKIG QMVQIQPCNG /GUUKPI-NKRRG \W  2CVCTFU   I )GRT·IV CWH GKPGO ÒDGTFWTEJ   UEJPKVVNKEJFKEMGPUEJYGTGP5EJTÌVNKPI+O<GPVTWOGKPGTWPFG5VGORGNWPIIGMTÌPVGT.KNKGPUEJKNFKO (GNFFKGIGVGKNVGCWHFKGDGKFGP'PF\KHHGTPXGTMÒT\VG,CJTGU\CJNWOJGT*'04+%12416'%614'  WPVGTFGO$GUEJÒV\GT*GKPTKEJ+8 7PVGPGKPGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGOXKGTHGNFKIGP9CR RGPFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP)QWXGTPGWTU,GCPFG/QPNWE5GKIPGWTFG$CNCIP[NGKPGTGEJVGEMKIG5VGORG NWPI OKV FGT TÌOKUEJGP 9GTV\KHHGT WPF T GKPG SWCFTCVKUEJG OKV FGT CWH FGP #PHCPIUDWEJUVCDGP   TGFW\KGTVGP 0QOKPCNCPICDG  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H  #DDKNFWPI QJPG 0WOOGT     /CKNNGV6H::++FG/G[& 5GJTUEJÌP




4069 4068





'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG/GUUKPI-NKRRG\W2CVCTFUI+O<GPVTWOGKPGTWPFG5VGORGNWPI IGMTÌPVGT .KNKGPUEJKNF KO (GNF FKG IGVGKNVG CWH FKG DGKFGP 'PF\KHHGTP XGTMÒT\VG ,CJTGU\CJN WOJGT   *'04+%12416'%614' WPVGTFGO$GUEJÒV\GT*GKPTKEJ+8 7PVGPGKPGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGORG NWPIOKVGKPGOXKGTHGNFKIGP9CRRGPFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP)QWXGTPGWTU,GCPFG/QPNWE5GKIPGWTFG$C NCIP[NGKPGTGEJVGEMKIG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGTTÌOKUEJGP9GTV\KHHGTWPFTGKPGSWCFTCVKUEJGOKVFGTCWH FGP#PHCPIUDWEJUVCDGPTGFW\KGTVGP0QOKPCNCPICDGZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H #DDKN FWPIQJPG0WOOGT /CKNNGV6H::++FG/G[& 5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG/GUUKPI-NKRRG\W2CVCTFUQ,  I+O<GPVTWOGKPGTWPFG5VGO RGNWPI.KNKGWOJGTÛ*'04+%1Û2416'%614' WPVGTFGO$GUEJÒV\GT*GKPTKEJ+8 .KPMUGKPG TGEJVGEMKIG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGTTÌOKUEJGP9GTV\KHHGTWPFTGKPGSWCFTCVKUEJGOKVFGTCWHFGP#PHCPIU DWEJUVCDGPTGFW\KGTVGP0QOKPCNCPICDGZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT #DDKNFWPIQJPG 0WOOGT /CKNNGV6H::++WPFXCTFG/G[&XCT 45GJTUEJÌP



'.5#55 #.5#%'  &+''41$'470)&'4'.555+5%*'056&6'9'+55'0$74)*#)'0#7 70&.#76'4$74)+/¤56'44'+%*+5%*'0'4$(1.)'-4+')

1,5:1 4070



4070

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP /CTVKP *QNV\JG[ *CTFGTYKLM CWH FGP 4JGKPÒDGTICPI FGU MCKUGTNKEJGP (GNF   JGTTP*GT\QI-CTNXQP.QVJTKPIGPWPFFKG'TQDGTWPIFGT5V·FVG9GKUUGPDWTI*CIGPCWWPF.CWVGT DWTI $TWUVDKNF FGU *GT\QIU T KO *CTPKUEJ FCU -NGKPQF FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU CO $CPF   VTCIGPF/KPGTXCÒDGTFGTCO$QFGPTÒEMNKPIUNKGIGPFGP8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGU4JGKPUUEJYGDGPFNKPFGT 4GEJVGPFTGKCP$·PFGTPJ·PIGPFG6·HGNEJGPOKVFGP0COGPFGTGTQDGTVGP1TVUEJCHVGPJCNVGPFOKVFGT 4GEJVGP$NKV\GCWHFKGKO*KPVGTITWPFN\W2HGTFWPF\W(W­HNKGJGPFGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP5QNFCVGPUEJNGW FGTPFFKGXQPMCKUGTNKEJGT-CXCNNGTKGXGTHQNIVYGTFGP#O*QTK\QPVTGKPG(GUVWPIOOI 'PIGN.GJT55NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU8GTXX.QQP5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  39


&+'$'.#)'470)810564#55$74) 0CEJ FGO 6QFG FGU 5VTC­DWTIGT $KUEJQHU ,QJCPP +8 XQP /CPFGTUEJGKF Y·JNVGP FKG RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP   &QOJGTTGPCO/CKKP#DYGUGPJGKVFGTMCVJQNKUEJGPFGP2TQVGUVCPVGP,QJCPP)GQTIXQP$TCP FGPDWTIOKV)GPGJOKIWPIFGU/CIKUVTCVU\WFGUUGP0CEJHQNIGT&KGXQPFKGUGT9CJNHGTPIGDNKGDGPGP MCVJQNKUEJGP&QOJGTTGPGPVUEJKGFGPUKEJJKPIGIGPCO/CKHÒTFGP-CTFKPCN-CTNXQP.QVJTKPIGP 8CWF¾OQPV #WU FGP <YKUVKIMGKVGP FKGUGT &QRRGNYCJN GPVDTCPPVG GKP TWPF CEJV /QPCVG Y·JTGPFGT   -TKGIKPFGODGKFG2CTVGKGP\CJNTGKEJG1TVGKO$KUVWORNÒPFGTVGPWPFDTCPFUEJCV\VGP+PFGTXQPFGP 6TWRRGPFGUMCVJQNKUEJGP.QVJTKPIGTU-CTNDNQEMKGTVGP5VCFV5VTC­DWTIGPVUVCPFGP#PHCPIGKPUGK VKIG 0QVMNKRRGP \W   WPF  6CNGT CWH FGPGP FGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF FGU RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP $TCPFGP   DWTIGTU,QJCPP)GQTIOKVFGPGPFGU&QOMCRKVGNUWPFFGT5VCFVXGTGKPVKUV

4072

4071



,QJCPP)GQTIXQP$TCPFGPDWTI'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRG\W-TGW\GTI&GT 9CRRGPUEJKNFFGURTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP$KUEJQHUFKG,CJTGU\CJNVGKNGPFWPVGPFKG5EJKNFGFGU&QOMCRKVGNU WPFFGT5VCFV&CTWPVGTFKG9GTV\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H'PIGN.GJT /CKNNGV6H%++ #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 



*CNDVCNGTMNKRRG \W  -TGW\GT   I &GT 9CRRGPUEJKNF FGU RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP $KUEJQHU FKG   ,CJTGU\CJNVGKNGPFWPVGPFKG5EJKNFGFGU&QOMCRKVGNUWPFFGT5VCFV&CTWPVGTFKG9GTV\CJNZ OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H'PIGN.GJT/CKNNGV6H%++  44#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 

-145+-# %145'  &'49+&'456#0&#7(-145+-#)')'0&+'*'445%*#(6)'07#5 70&(4#0-4'+%*5 5GKVFGOJQJGP/KVVGNCNVGTJGTTUEJVGFKG4GRWDNKM)GPWCÒDGT-QTUKMCYCUDGTGKVUHTÒJCWHFGP9KFGT UVCPF FGT +PUGNDGXÌNMGTWPI UVKG­ &KG 'TMN·TWPI FGT MQTUKUEJGP 5QWXGT·PKV·V WPF FKG )TÒPFWPI FGU   -ÌPKITGKEJU-QTUKMCKPFGP,CJTGPWPFYWTFGXQPFGP)GPWGUGPOKV*KNHG(TCPMTGKEJUPCEJ MÒT\GUVGT <GKV \WPKEJVG IGOCEJV FQEJ YCT FGT 9KFGTUVCPF FGT +PUGNDGYQJPGT FCOKV PKEJV IGDTQEJGP   &GTIGDÒTVKIG-QTUG2CUSWCNG2CQNKFGT\WXQTCNU1HHK\KGTKPPGCRQNKVCPKUEJGP&KGPUVGPIGUVCPFGPJCVVG MGJTVGCWHFKG+PUGN\WTÒEMWPFQTICPKUKGTVGJKGTFGP9KFGTUVCPFIGIGP)GPWCPCEJFGOGTXQO )TQ­TCVFGT-QTUGP\WO)GPGTCNGTPCPPVYQTFGPYCTWPFXQNNG<KXKNWPF/KNKV·TIGYCNVGTJCNVGPJCVVG #NU (ÒJTGT FGT KP )WGTKNNCVCMVKM QRGTKGTGPFGP (TGKJGKVUM·ORHGT FT·PIVG GT FKG )GPWGUGP PCJG\W XQNN   UV·PFKI XQP FGT +PUGN 0CEJ GKPGT 4GKJG XQP 4ÒEMUEJN·IGP XGTMCWHVG )GPWC KO ,CJTG  FKG +PUGN   -QTUKMC CP(TCPMTGKEJ#WEJIGIGPFKG(TCP\QUGPUGV\VG2CQNKUGKPGP-CORHWO7PCDJ·PIKIMGKVHQTV FQEJPCEJFGTXGTPKEJVGPFGP0KGFGTNCIGKPFGT5EJNCEJVXQP2QPVG0KWQXQCO/CKOWUUVGGT PCEJ.QPFQPHNKGJGP'TMQPPVGLGFQEJKPUGKPG*GKOCV\WTÒEMMGJTGPPCEJFGOFKGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG0CVKQ PCNXGTUCOONWPIFKGIGHNQJGPGPMQTUKUEJGP(TGKJGKVUM·ORHGTCOPGUVKGTVJCVVG\WO2T·UKFGP VGPFGTPCVKQPCNGP8GTYCNVWPIGTJQDGPIGTKGVGTKPFGUPCEJGKPKIGP,CJTGPKP)GIGPUCV\\WOTGXQNWVKQ P·TGP(TCPMTGKEJWPFXGTNKG­\WO\YGKVGP/CNFKG+PUGN4KEJVWPI.QPFQPYQGTUVCTD

4073



40

2CUSWCNG 2CQNK   5QNFK  /WTCVQ  I )GMTÌPVGT XQP \YGK 'PIGNP IGJCNVGPGT   9CRRGPUEJKNF9GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   %0+ +++   5)CFQWT[/CKNNGV6H:8+++FG/G[ 2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP




4074

4075

4076

.+..' &+'$'.#)'470)810.+..' &KGUVCTMDGHGUVKIVG5VCFV.KNNGUVCPFUGKVWPVGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGT*GTTUEJCHVWPFYCTUGKVFGO\WGKPGT FGT IGYCNVKIUVGP (GUVWPIGP CP FGT 0QTFITGP\G FGU -ÌPKITGKEJU CWUIGDCWV YQTFGP 5KG YWTFG CO   #WIWUVXQPGKPGOXQP2TKP\'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GPIGHÒJTVGPMCKUGTNKEJGP*GGTGKPIGUEJNQUUGP FCU CWU  $CVCKNNQPGP DGUVCPF WPF UR·VGT FWTEJ PCEJTÒEMGPFG 6TWRRGP  $CVCKNNQPG WPF    5EJYCFTQPGPWOHCUUVG&KGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG$GUCV\WPIXQP.KNNG\·JNVGECDKU/CPP0CEJ UEJYGTGP 8GTNWUVGP ÒDGTICD FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJG -QOOCPFCPV WPF /CTUEJCNN FG $QWHHNGTU \YCT CO    1MVQDGT FKG 5VCFV FQEJ \QI GT UKEJ UQFCPP WOIGJGPF OKV UGKPGP  5QNFCVGP KP FKG <KVCFGNNG   \WTÒEMFKGGTPQEJDKU\WTGPFIÒNVKIGP-CRKVWNCVKQPCO&G\GODGT\·JXGTVGKFKIVG+O8GTNCWH FGT$GNCIGTWPINKG­-QOOCPFCPVFG$QWHHNGTUMWRHGTPG0QVOÒP\GP\WWPF5QNURT·IGPCWH FGTGP8QTFGTUGKVGUGKPRGTUÌPNKEJGU9CRRGPRTCPIVG 

-W 5QNU   I 4WPFGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF CWH IGMTGW\VGP -QOOCPFQUV·DGP QDGP -TQPG    5GEJU\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.::+++FG/G[D  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



2'42+)0#0 #75)#$'810016)'.&&74%*&+'56#&62'42+)0#0 &KG \WXQT WPVGT URCPKUEJGT *GTTUEJCHV UVGJGPFG 5VCFV 2GTRKIPCP YCT  KO <WIG FGU MCVCNCPKUEJGP   #WHUVCPFGU XIN-CV0TP XQP(TCPMTGKEJGTQDGTVYQTFGP+O,CJTGIGPGJOKIVGFGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJG)GPGTCNMCRKV·P-CVCNQPKGPU2JKNKRRGFCU)GUWEJFGT5VCFVWOFKG2T·IWPIGKIGPGPUV·FVK UEJGP0QVIGNFGUCWU$KNNQPKP#PDGVTCEJVFGUJKGTXQTJGTTUEJGPFGP/CPIGNUCP<CJNWPIUOKVVGNP&KGUG CDIGRT·IVGP5QWU5VÒEMGGPVURTGEJGPYGKVIGJGPFFGOLGPKIGPXQPCWUFGT*GTTUEJCHVU\GKV FGUURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKIU2JKNKRR++FCUKOHQNIGPFGP\WP·EJUVCPIGDQVGPYKTF 



5QNU 5WGNFQU OKV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG*CWRV,QJCPPGUFGU6·WHGTUXXI &GTTCWVGPHÌTOKIGMCVCNCPKUEJG9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGP-TQPG,QJCPPGUFGT6·WHGTUVGJGPFXX$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6H%%6/CKNNGV5WRRN6H2QG[Fʼn#XCPV  4/ÒP\GHCUVUGJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGNUGJTUEJÌP



5QNU 5WGNFQU OKVJQEJTGEJVGEMKIGO)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG*CWRV,QJCPPGUFGU 6·WHGTUXXCO*CCTUEJQRHIGJCNVGPXQPGKPGTNIGTKEJVGVGP*CPFI&GTTCWVGPHÌTOKIGMCVCNC PKUEJG9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGP-TQPG,QJCPPGUFGT6·WHGTUVGJGPFXX$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT %%6QFGT&WRNGUU[/CKNNGV6H:%+++XCT2QG[Fʼn#XCPV  &G\GPVTKGTVG2T·IWPIUGJTUEJÌP



&+'(4#0<¤5+5%*'-1.10+'/#74+6+7570&4'70+10 +.'5&'(4#0%''6$10#2#46' /CWTKVKWUWPF4¾WPKQP  &KG \W #PHCPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU XQP 2QTVWIKGUGP GPVFGEMVGP +PUGNP YCTGPXQPDKUGKPG JQNN·PFKUEJG$GUKV\WPIDGO·EJVKIVGUKEJ(TCPMTGKEJFGT+PUGNPFKGGUKO,CJTGPCEJVCRHG TGT 8GTVGKFKIWPI CP )TQ­DTKVCPPKGP XGTNQT +P FGP NGV\VGP 6CIGP FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP *GTTUEJCHV NKG­ FGT   +PUGNMQOOCPFCPV 0QVOÒP\GP RT·IGP FC FKG )GNFXGTUQTIWPI FGT 'KNCPFG KPHQNIG FGT DTKVKUEJGP 5GG   DNQEMCFGPKEJVIGIGDGPYCT

4077



0CRQN¾QP+.KXTGU2KCUVGT&GECGPI#FNGTGKP$NKV\DÒPFGNKPFGP (·PIGP JCNVGPF QDGP -TQPG<YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP FKG 9GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP   WPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN&CX/CKNNGV6H:::+:/C\CTF  -CWOUKEJVDCTGU)TCHHKVQKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 41


)4+'%*'0.#0& )')'056'/2'.70)(4'/&'0)'.&'5#7(&'0+10+5%*'0+05'.0 .V )GPGTCN 5KT ,COGU %CORDGNN -QOOCPFGWT FGT GPINKUEJGP $GUCV\WPIUUVTGKVMT·HVG WPF \WINGKEJ MÌ   PKINKEJGT<KXKNMQOOKUUCTFGT+QPKUEJGP+PUGNPNKG­XQPDKUUKNDGTPG-NGKPOÒP\GPFGU-ÌPKI TGKEJU5RCPKGPWPFFGU-ÌPKITGKEJU0GCRGNWPF5K\KNKGPFWTEJ)GIGPUVGORGNWPIOKVPGWGP9GTVUVWHGP MGPP\GKEJPGP 7TURTÒPINKEJ XGTYCPFVG OCP FGP MNGKPGP 4GEJVGEMUVGORGN FGT NGFKINKEJ FKG 9GTV\CJN   VTWI&CCDGTDCNFKPGTJGDNKEJGO7OHCPI/ÒP\GPOKVIGH·NUEJVGP)GIGPUVGORGNPKO8GTMGJTCP\WVTGH HGPYCTGPQTFPGVGOCPFKG8QTNCIGWPF-QPVTQNNGFGTWONCWHGPFGP5VÒEMGCP&KGHÒTIWVDGHWPFGPGP /ÒP\GP YWTFGP PWP \WO \YGKVGP /CN LGV\V CDGT OKV GKPGO JQEJQXCNGP FCU -ÌPKIURQTVT·V VTCIGPFGP   )GIGPUVGORGNOCTMKGTV

4078

4078

1,5:1



)GQTIG+++XQP)TQ­DKVCPPKGP2CTCQ,  I6CTK0GCRGNXQP-CTN ++ XQP 5RCPKGP OKV \YGK WPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGP )GIGPUVGORGNP CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG GKPG XKGTGEMKIG   5VGORGNWPI OKV FGT 9GTV\CJN  CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG GKPG ITÌ­GTGJQEJQXCNG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGT$ÒUVG FGUDTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIUTWPFFGT9GTV\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF%CIKCVK+5FG%NGTOQPV 9JGGNGT  XIN  WPF  FQTV FKG GPVURTGEJGPFGP )GIGPUVGORGN CWH LÒPIGTGP PGCRQNKVCPKUEJ   UK\KNKCPKUEJGP/ÒP\GPFGTURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKIG-CTN8+WPF(GTPCPFQ+8 /CKNNGV2TKFOQTG  44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJGT)GIGPUVGORGNCWHGKPGTUVCTM\KTMWNKGTVGP/ÒP\G  'ZGORNCTFGT5NI)CTGVV++#WMVKQP$CPM.GW#)0WOKUOCVKE(KPG#TVU+PE<ÒTKEJ1MVQDGT

4079

4079

1,5:1



2CTCQ,  I%CTNKPQ0GCRGNXQP-CTN++XQP5RCPKGPOKV\YGKWPVGTUEJKGFNKEJGP )GIGPUVGORGNPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGKPGXKGTGEMKIG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGT9GTV\CJNCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG GKPGITÌ­GTGJQEJQXCNG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGT$ÒUVGFGUDTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIUTWPFFGT9GTV\CJN$TCWUG /CPUHGNF%CIKCVK+5FG%NGTOQPV9JGGNGT/CKNNGV2TKFOQTG  44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGT)GIGPUVGORGNCWHGKPGTUVCTM\KTMWNKGTVGP/ÒP\G 'ZGORNCTFGT5NI)CTGVV++#WMVKQP$CPM.GW#)0WOKUOCVKE(KPG#TVU+PE<ÒTKEJ1MVQDGT

42




-'4-;4# -14(7  8'46'+&+)70)810-'4-;4# -14(7 

Ansicht der Insel Korfu.

/CVVJKCU,QJCPP4GKEJUITCHXQPFGT5EJWNGPDWTIIGD#WIWUVKP'OFGPIGUV/·T\ KP8GTQPCVTCVPCEJDGTGKVUNCPIL·JTKIGT1HHK\KGTUNCWHDCJPCNU(GNFOCTUEJCNNKPFKG&KGPUVGFGT4GRWDNKM 8GPGFKIGKP8QO,WNKDKU#WIWUVXGTVGKFKIVGGTFKG+PUGN-GTM[TCIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGP

4080



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT CWHFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT(GUVWPI-GTM[TCXQO ,WNKDKU#WIWUVWPVGT(ÒJTWPIXQP/CVVJKCU,QJCPP4GKEJUITCHXQPFGT5EJWNGPDWTI$TWUVDKNFFGU (GNFJGTTP N KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF #NNQPIGRGTÒEMG2NCP XQP (GUVWPI WPF *CHGP   -GTM[TCOKV'KPVTCIWPIFGT5EJWUUDCJPGPFGT#TVKNNGTKGDCVVGTKGPFGT$GNCIGTGTOOI5NI 'TNCPIGT  XIN  FQTV KP $TQP\G  (QTUVGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  XIN  FQTV KP   <KPP -P[RJXIN FQTVKP$TQP\G 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ6TCKPC+58QNVQNKPC  +P5KNDGTXQPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN5EJÒTHUVGNNGCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

-4'6# -4'6#706'48'0'<+#0+5%*'4*'445%*#(6 &KG+PUGN-TGVCMCO#PHCPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUWPVGTFKG*GTTUEJCHVFGT8GPG\KCPGTFKGUKGDKU IGIGPFKG6ÒTMGPDGJCWRVGPMQPPVGP'TUVHKGNFKG*CWRUVCFV%CPFKCPCEJFTGKL·JTKIGTVÒTMKUEJGT $GNCIGTWPI

4081



8GPG\KCPKUEJG$GUKV\WPI-W5QNFKPK6QTPGUKQ, ,CJTJWPFGTV I/CTEWUNÌYG KO#DUEJPKVVFKGKP6QTPGUKCWUIGYKGUGPG9GTVCPICDG+PPGTJCNDGKPGU4WPFUCWU5EJPÌTMGNQTPCOGPVGP FKGKP5QNFKPKCWUIGYKGUGPG9GTVCPICDGKPFTGK<GKNGP)CODGTKPK 45GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 43


)4155$4+6#00+'0 &'4$ª4)'4-4+')+0'0).#0& &GTGPINKUEJG$ÒTIGTMTKGIYWTFGCWUIGVTCIGP\YKUEJGPFGP#PJ·PIGTPFGU-ÌPKIU%JCTNGU+WPFFGO 2CTNCOGPV &GT WPWOUEJT·PMVG *GTTUEJCHVUCPURTWEJ FGU -ÌPKIU WPF UGKPG CWH 8GTUÌJPWPI OKV FGO   2CRUV CD\KGNGPFG MKTEJGPRQNKVKUEJG *CNVWPI UVKG­ CWH \WPGJOGPFGP 9KFGTUVCPF KO 2CTNCOGPV FCU GT   MWT\GTJCPFCWHNÌUVG$KUTGIKGTVGGTFCU.CPFQJPG2CTNCOGPVWPFUVÒV\VGUKEJPWTCWHYGPKIG $GTCVGTKPUDGUQPFGTGCWH.QTF5VTCHHQTFWPF'T\DKUEJQH.CWF0CEJFGTGT\YWPIGPGP9KGFGTGKPDGTW HWPIFGU2CTNCOGPVUMQPPVGFKGUG8GTUCOONWPIFGO-ÌPKIOCUUKXG<WIGUV·PFPKUUGCDTKPIGPWPF FKG*KPTKEJVWPI5VTCHHQTFUFWTEJUGV\GP#NUFCU2CTNCOGPVOKVMPCRRGT/GJTJGKVKPFGTFWTEJFGP#WU DTWEJFGUITQ­GPKTKUEJGP#WHUVCPFGUCWHIGJGK\VGPRQNKVUEJGP#VOQURJ·TGCO0QXGODGTOKV FGTō)TQ­GP4GOQPUVTCP\ŋGKPGPWOHCUUGPFGP$GUEJYGTFGMCVCNQIXQTIGNGIVJCVVGUVCPF-ÌPKI%JCTNGU XQT FGT 9CJN GKPGP /CEJVXGTNWUV JKP\WPGJOGP QFGT UGKPG GKIGPGP <KGNG OKV )GYCNV FWTEJ\WUGV\GP   0CEJFGOFGT-ÌPKICO,CPWCTXGTIGDNKEJXGTUWEJVJCVVGGKPKIG(ÒJTGTUGKPGTRCTNCOGPVCTKUEJGP )GIPGTUEJCHV HGUV\WUGV\GP XGTNKG­ GT .QPFQP KP 4KEJVWPI 1ZHQTF WO UKEJ FQTV \WO -TKGI \W TÒUVGP   &CU2CTNCOGPVDKNFGVGGKPGKIGPGUCPUGJPNKEJGU*GGT\WUGKPGO5EJWV\0WPUVCPFGPUKEJFKGUQIGPCPP VGPō-CXCNKGTGŋCNU2CTVGKI·PIGTFGU-ÌPKIUWPFFKGUQIGPCPPVGPō4WPFMÌRHGŋCNU#PJ·PIGTFGU2CT NCOGPVU IGIGPÒDGT &GT -QPHNKMV GPVYKEMGNVG UKEJ \WO -TKGI FGT OKV GKPGO XGTIGDNKEJGP #PITKHH FGT   4Q[CNKUVGPCWHFKG5VCFV*WNNDGICPPFKGFGO-ÌPKIFGP'KP\WIXGTYGKIGTVJCVVGWPFFQOK PKGTVGPPQEJFKGYCHHGPMWPFKIGP-CXCNKGTGÒDGTFKG5VTGKVOCEJVFGU2CTNCOGPVU&KG9GPFG\WIWPUVGP FGU 2CTNCOGPVU MCO OKV FGO 'KPVTKVV 5EJQVVNCPFU KP FGP $ÒTIGTMTKGI UQYKG OKV FGT #WHUVGNNWPI PGWGT   2CTNCOGPVUVTWRRGPCPFGT1NKXGT%TQOYGNNOC­IGDNKEJDGVGKNKIVYCTFGTHÒTFKG+PFGRGPFGPVGPGKPGP TCFKMCNGP(NÒIGNKO2CTNCOGPVUVCPF&GT5KGIÒDGTFKG4Q[CNKUVGPDGK0CUGD[CO,WPKDTCEJVG FKG 'PVUEJGKFWPI KO $ÒTIGTMTKGI HCUV ICP\ 'PINCPF YWTFG PWP XQP FGP 2CTNCOGPVUVTWRRGP DGUGV\V   -ÌPKI%JCTNGUHNQJ\WFGP5EJQVVGPFKGKJPCDGTIGIGP<CJNWPIXQP2HWPF5VGTNKPICPFCU 2CTNCOGPVCWUNKGHGTVGP8GTJCPFNWPIGPUEJKGPGP\WP·EJUVCWHGKPG8GTUÌJPWPIDGKFGT2CTVGKGP\W\WNCW HGPFQEJPCEJFGT8GTFT·PIWPIFGTIGO·­KIVGP2TGUD[VGTKCPGTXGTJ·PIVGGKPXQO2CTNCOGPVGKPIGUGV\ VGU6TKDWPCNFKG6QFGUUVTCHGÒDGTFGP-ÌPKI&KG*KPTKEJVWPIFGU-ÌPKIUGTHQNIVGCO,CPWCT

4083

4082

4082



%JCTNGU+2QWPF\W5JKNNKPIU1ZHQTFI&GT-ÌPKIKP4ÒUVWPIOKV-TQPG WPF5EJYGTVÒDGTCO$QFGPNKGIGPFG9CHHGPUVÒEMGNJKPYGITGKVGPF+O(GNFTQDGPFTGKIGDWPFGPG 5VTCW­GPHGFGTPÛÙÛÙÛ ':84)#6 Ù &'85 Ù &+55+2'0684 Ù +0+/+%+ <YKUEJGP GKPGT QDGTGP WPF   GKPGTWPVGTGP$GITGP\WPIUNKPKGFKG#WHUEJTKHV4'.+)Û2416Û.')#0)Û.+$'4Û2#4QDGP FTGK5VCW­GPHGFGTPDÒPFGNWPFFKG9GTV\KHHGTWPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNFņXIN6H &CXH/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H5GCD[ 445GJTUEJÌP 



2QWPF\W5JKNNKPIU1ZHQTFI&GT-ÌPKIKP4ÒUVWPIOKV-TQPGWPF5EJYGTVÒDGT CO $QFGP NKGIGPFG 9CHHGPUVÒEMG N JKPYGITGKVGPF +O (GNF T QDGP FTGK IGDWPFGPG 5VTCW­GPHGFGTP   ÛÙÛÙÛ ':84)#6 Ù &'85 Ù &+55+2'0684 Ù +0+/+%+ <YKUEJGP GKPGT QDGTGP WPF GKPGT WPVGTGP   $GITGP\WPIUNKPKGFKG#WHUEJTKHV4'.+)Û2416Û.')#0)Û.+$'4Û2#4QDGPFTGK5VCW­GPHG FGTPDÒPFGNWPFFKG9GTV\KHHGTWPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H&CX /CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H5GCD[# 4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

44


4084

4085

4086 Der Prozeß gegen Charles I. in der Westminster Hall.



5JKNNKPI  2GPEG   1ZHQTF  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF N KO (GNF T FKG 9GTV\CJN   :++<YKUEJGP XKGT *QTK\QPVCNNKPKGP FTGK 6GZV\GKNGP QDGP FTGK 5VTCW­GPHGFGTDÒPFGN WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU   \CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H5GCD[  &QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)8100'9#4- 

*CNHETQYP\W2GPEG0GYCTMI)TQ­G$ÒIGNMTQPG\YKUEJGP%4WPVGPFKGTÌOKUEJG 9GTV\CJN&TGK\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.:::8+++ 5GCD[# 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)8102106'(4#%6 #NU UKEJ -ÌPKI %JCTNGU + UEJQP N·PIUV KP FGP *·PFGP UGKPGT )GIPGT DGHCPF MQPPVGP UGKPG #PJ·PIGT   PQEJGKPOCNXCIGCWH*KNHGJQHHGPFCFCUUEJQVVKUEJG2CTNCOGPVGKPG#TOGGIGIGPFKG'PIN·PFGT\WT $GHTGKWPIFGU-ÌPKIUUEJKEMVG$KPPGPMWT\GT<GKVMQPPVGPFKG5EJQVVGPFKG5V·FVG$GTYKEMWPF%CTNKUNG GTQDGTPUQYKGFKG(GUVWPI2QPVGHTCEVKP;QTMUJKTG&QEJXQODKU#WIWUVTKGDGPFKG6TWR RGP%TQOYGNNUDGK2TGUVQPFKGUEJQVVKUEJG5VTGKVOCEJVXQNNMQOOGPCWH9·JTGPFFKG$GUCV\WPIGPFGT 5V·FVG%CTNKUNGWPF$GTYKEMWPVGTFGO'KPFTWEMFKGUGTUEJYGTGP0KGFGTNCIGINGKEJMCRKVWNKGTVGPOWUUVG 1NKXGT %TQOYGNN GKP  /CPP UVCTMGU *GGT \WT $GNCIGTWPI 2QPVGHTCEVU UEJKEMGP &KG XQP KJTGO   -QOOCPFCPVGP/QTTKUDGHGJNKIVGP'KPIGUEJNQUUGPGPYGJTVGPUKEJUVCPFJCHVWPFMCRKVWNKGTVGPGTUVCO #RTKN  GVNKEJG 9QEJGP PCEJ FGT *KPTKEJVWPI FGU -ÌPKIU +P 2QPVGHTCEV NKG­ $GHGJNUJCDGT /QTTKU   UKNDGTPGMNKRRGPHÌTOKIG0QVOÒP\GPUEJNCIGPFKGPCEJFGTªDGTNKGHGTWPICWUFGO/GVCNNUGKPGURGTUÌP NKEJGP5KNDGTIGT·VUIGRT·IVYQTFGPUGKPUQNNGP 

%JCTNGU +  5JKNNKPI  2QPVGHTCEV  I &KG +PKVKCNGP % WPF 4 QDGP $ÒIGN   MTQPG<YKUEJGP \YGK <KPPGPVÒTOGP 5VCFVVQT OKV JQEJIG\QIGPGO (CNNICVVGT KO (GNF T GKP XQP GKPGT   *CPFGORQTIGJCNVGPGT&GIGPZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVCWHQMVQIQPCNGO 5EJTÌVNKPI /CKNNGVXIN6H:%+8 FQTVCWHQMVQIQPCNGO5EJTÌVNKPI 5GCD[  44)GTKPIGTJCNVGP

 45


&+'#0-70(681024+0<9+.*'./8100#55#714#0+'0+0'0).#0& 'KPGUFGTYGUGPVNKEJGP<KGNGXQP-ÌPKI,COGU++YCTFKG5V·TMWPIFGU-CVJQNK\KUOWUKP'PINCPF#NU FKG-QPVKPWKV·VFKGUGT2QNKVKMFWTEJFKG)GDWTVGKPGU6JTQPHQNIGTUYCJTUEJGKPNKEJYWTFGGKPKIVGPUKEJ FKG(ÒJTGTFGT1RRQUKVKQPUGKVKPIGJGKOGP#DURTCEJGPFGP-ÌPKI\WXGTVTGKDGPWPFFGORTQVG UVCPVKUEJGP'TDUVCVVJCNVGTFGT0KGFGTNCPFG9KNJGNO+++XQP0CUUCW1TCPKGP FGO)GOCJNXQP,CMQDU ·NVGUVGT6QEJVGT/CTKC FKGGPINKUEJG-TQPGCWHU*CWRV\WUGV\GP#O0QXGODGTNCPFGVG9KN JGNOCPFGTGPINKUEJG-ÒUVGDGK6QTDC[&CFCU8QNMWPFPCJG\WCNNG-T·HVGKO.CPFGFKG4GIKGTWPIU ÒDGTPCJOG9KNJGNOUDGHÒTYQTVGVGPOWUUVG,COGU++FCU.CPFXGTNCUUGPWPFUKEJPCEJ(TCPMTGKEJCD UGV\GP#NU9KNNKCO+++WPF/CT[DGMCOGPFGT1TCPKGTWPFUGKPG)GOCJNKPIGOGKPUCOFKG-TQPGÒDGT VTCIGPFCUMÌPKINKEJG#OVIKPICNNGKPCWH9KNJGNOÒDGT

4087



,COGU++5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTIG$QYGTCWHFKG.CPFWPIXQP2TKP\9KNJGNOXQP 0CUUCW1TCPKGPCPFGT-ÒUVGXQP6QTDC[$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN$NKEMCWH FCU /GGT OKV FGT CPMGTPFGP PKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP (NQVVG WPF GKPGO NGKEJV \WO 9CUUGT JKP CDHCNNGPFGP   5VTCPFCDUEJPKVVCWHFGOUKEJFKGIGTCFGCWUIGDQQVGVG5VTGKVOCEJVFGU2TKP\GPKP/CTUEJMCTTGGUHQTOKGTV JCV+O8QTFGTITWPFN2TKP\9KNJGNO\W2HGTFCPFGT5RKV\GXQP4GKVGTPFGP-QOOCPFQUVCDKPFGT XQTIGUVTGEMVGP4GEJVGPJCNVGPF#O(W­GGKPGTPKGFTKIGP&ÒPGKO8QTFGTITWPFT/CTUUKV\GPFXX UKEJHÒTUQTINKEJWOFKGMTCHVNQUKPUGKPGP#TOGPNKGIGPFG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGT)GTGEJVKIMGKVMÒOOGTPF OOI'KOGTXCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV *CYMKPU6H.:8+++WPF$F5 XCT FQTV OKV 4CPFUEJTKHV  -2-  XCT FQTV OKV 4CPFUEJTKHV X.QQPXIN+++5 FQTVOKV 4CPFUEJTKHVWPFOKVGKPGTCWHIGNÌVGVGP$ÒIGNMTQPGKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVG   8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC



&+'4ª%-'41$'470)8100#/74 +O 2H·N\GT 'TDHQNIGMTKGI JCVVGP FKG 6TWRRGP .WFYKIU :+8  FKG 5VCFV 0COWT UQYKG FKG (GUVWPI   WPF FKG <KVCFGNNG PCEJ DNWVKIGP -·ORHGP IGPQOOGP  MQPPVGP FKG #NNKKGTVGP PCEJ \GJPYÌEJKIGT   $GNCIGTWPI FKG XQP FGO HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP (GUVWPIUCTEJKVGMVGP 8CWDCP XGTUV·TMVG <KVCFGNNG WPF FKG XQP    HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5QNFCVGP XGTVGKFKIVG 5VCFV GTQDGTP &KG $GNCIGTWPIUVTWRRGP UVCPFGP WPVGT FGO   -QOOCPFQFGUDTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIU9KNNKCO+++WPFFGUDC[GTKUEJGP-WTHÒTUVGP/CZKOKNKCP++'OCPWGN FGTUGKVFKGKJOXQPUGKPGO5EJYKGIGTXCVGT-CKUGT.GQRQNF+XGTNKGJGPG)GPGTCNUVCVVJCNVGTYÒTFG FGTURCPKUEJGP0KGFGTNCPFGKPPGJCVVG

4088



9KNNKCO+++5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP,QJCPP)GQTI5QTDGTIGTCWH FKG4ÒEMGTQDGTWPIXQP0COWT$TWUVDKNFFGU-ÌPKIUTKP*CTPKUEJ$NKEMÒDGTFKG/CCUCWHFKGWPVGT $GUEJWUU UVGJGPFG 5VCFV WPF FKG <KVCFGNNG  OO  I 'KOGT  UKGJG  #PO *CYMKPU   6H%+X.QQP+85 #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  &KG XQTNKGIGPFG WPUKIPKGTVG /GFCKNNG MÌPPVG IGO *CYMKPU CWHITWPF UVKNKUVKUEJGT /GTMOCNG GKP 9GTM FGU )QVJCGT   WPF /GKPKPIGT 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTU ,QJCPP )GQTI 5QTDGTIGT UGKP 'KPG GPVURTGEJGPFG <WYGKUWPI PCJO CWEJ (QTTGT  

$F85 XQT

46


&+'5''5%*.#%*6$'+8+)1 #O1MVQDGTMQPPVGGKPXQP#FOKTCN4QQMIGHÒJTVGT8GTDCPFCWUGPINKUEJGPWPFPKGFGTN·PFK UEJGP-TKGIUUEJKHHGPFKGKPFGT#VNCPVKMDWEJVXQTFGTURCPKUEJGP-ÒUVGPUVCFV8KIQCPMGTPFGXGTGKPKIVG URCPKUEJG5KNDGTHNQVVGUCOVHTCP\ÌUKUEJGT$GINGKVUEJKHHGXGTPKEJVGP

4089



#PPG  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT CWH FKG 5GG   UEJNCEJVDGK8KIQCPFGTURCPKUEJGP0QTFYGUVMÒUVG8KEVQTKCUVGJGPFTGKP#TTCPIGOGPVCWUGTDGWVGVGP 5EJKHHUVGKNGP9CHHGPWPF9CTGPDGMTÌPGPF6QRQITCRJKUEJG#PUKEJVFGT$WEJVNCPFUEJCHVDGK8KIQUCOV WONKGIGPFGT1TVGCWHFGO/GGT-CORHU\GPGTKGOKVFKXGTUGP5EJKHHGPOOI'KOGT *CYMKPU++5 4(GKPG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



&+''+00#*/'810764'%*68'0.141'4/10&-#+5'459'46* .ª66+%*70&#0&'4'4146'

4090



#PPG  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 7VTGEJV 8GPNQ 4QGTOQPF   -CKUGTUYGTVJ .ÒVVKEJ WPF YGKVGTGP (GUVWPIGP WPF 5V·FVGP CP FGT /CCU FWTEJ CNNKKGTVG 5VTGKVMT·HVG   )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF FGT DTKVKUEJGP -ÌPKIKP N KP -NGKF OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN#PUKEJV FGT (GUVWPI   .ÒVVKEJ KO XQTIGNCIGTVGP 6GTTCKP #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPIGP .CWHIT·DGP WPF 6TWRRGPCWHOCTUEJ  OO   I'KOGT*CYMKPU6H%:8++X.QQP+859GKNGT  #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''+00#*/'810$100*7;70&.+/$74)

4091



#PPG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJP%TQMGT.QPFQPCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP$QPP*W[WPF .KODWTIFWTEJ5VTGKVMT·HVGFGT#NNKKGTVGP$TWUVDKNFFGTDTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIKPNKP-NGKFOKVWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&GTDTKVKUEJG*GGTHÒJTGT.QTF/CTNDQTQWIJN\W2HGTFXQTGKPGTTMPKGPFGP5VCFVIÌVVKPFKG KJOFKG5EJNÒUUGNFGTFTGK5V·FVGCWHGKPGO6CDNGVVFCTTGKEJV+O*KPVGTITWPFT+PHCPVGTKGKP/CTUEJ QTFPWPINOOI'KOGT*CYMKPU6H%:8+++XCTX.QQP+859GKNGT  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 47


&+'5%*.#%*6$'+*¤%*56&670&$.+0&*'+/ $.'0*'+/ 

Schlacht bei Höchstädt.

#O#WIWUVUEJNWIGKPGXQP2TKP\'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GPWPF,QJP%JWTEJKNN*GT\QIXQP/CTN DQTQWIJ IGHÒJTVG 5VTGKVOCEJV CWU MCKUGTNKEJGP WPF GPINKUEJGP 6TWRRGP DGK *ÌEJUV·FV WPF $NKPFJGKO  

GPIN $NGPJGKO  CP FGT &QPCW FCU MWTHÒTUVNKEJDC[GTKUEJG *GGT XGTPKEJVGPF #PIGUKEJVU FKGUGT GPV   UEJGKFGPFGP 0KGFGTNCIG T·WOVGP FKG HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVG WPF FKG 4GUVG FGT DC[GTKUEJGP #TOGG   ICP\1DGTFGWVUEJNCPFWPF\QIGPUKEJCWHFCUNKPMG4JGKPWHGT\WTÒEM

4092



#PPG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI*CWVUEJ0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG5EJNCEJVDGK*ÌEJUV·FV $TWUVDKNF FGU DTKVKUEJGP (GNFJGTTP ,QJP %JWTEJKNN *GT\QI XQP /CTNDQTQWIJ T KP *CTPKUEJ/CTU UKV   \GPF N CWH GKPGP -TKGIGT YGKUGPF FGT OKV IG\ÒEMVGO 5EJYGTV OGJTGTG \WTÒEMYGKEJGPFG (GKPFG CP   IGJV /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I 'KOGT  5NI 'TNCPIGT  *CYMKPU   6H%:+:5NI*QTUM[X.QQP+855NI,WNKWU2QRGNMC  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGO4CPFUVCDXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'$'(4'+70)810$#4%'.10#

4093



48

#PPG  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,QJP %TQMGT .QPFQP CWH FKG $GHTGKWPI XQP $CTEGNQPC   $TWUVDKNFFGTDTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIKPNWPVGTJCNDFGU$TWUVCDUEJPKVVU+Û%Û$NKEMÒDGTFGP*CHGPCWHFKG DGHGUVKIVG 5VCFV QDGP FKG XQO /QPF XGTHKPUVGTVG 5QPPG  OO  I 'KOGT  *CYMKPU   6H%::++X.QQP+85 (GKPGCVVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




4094



4095

4096

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGTKO#WHVTCIFGU0ÒTPDGTIGT7PVGTPGJOGTU(TKGFTKEJ -NGKPGTVCWHFKG#WHJGDWPIFGT$GNCIGTWPI$CTEGNQPCU2JKNKRRXQP#PLQWKPYKNFGT(NWEJV\W2HGTFN UGKPG-TQPGXGTNKGTGPFIGHQNIVXQPGKPGONHNKGIGPFGP2WVVQFGTFKGOKVFGOÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP$KPFGP UEJKNF DGFGEMVG 5QPPG VT·IV +O *KPVGTITWPF N -ÒUVGPCDUEJPKVV FGU /KVVGNOGGTGU OKV 5KIPCNVÒTOGP T   5VGNNWPIGP WPF <GNVG FGT URCPKUEJGP $GNCIGTGT XQT FGT DGHGUVKIVGP 5VCFV,QJP %JWTEJKNN *GT\QI XQP   /CTNDQTQWIJ\W2HGTFTÒDGTIGHCNNGPG(GKPFGJKPYGIURTKPIGPF8QTKJOPCEJNMPKGPFFKG8GTMÌTRG TWPIGP XQP XKGT 5V·FVGP FKG 5VCFVUEJNÒUUGN FCTTGKEJGPF /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI 'TNCPIGT    (QTUVGTX.QQP+85NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG 8QTFGTUGKVG FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /GFCKNNG URKGNV PKEJV CNNGKP CWH FGP #D\WI FGT URCPKUEJGP $GNCIGTGT CP UQPFGTP   CWEJCWHFKG5QPPGPHKPUVGTPKUXQO/CKFGU,CJTGU&KG'MNKRUGFGU)GUVKTPUYWTFGUGKVCNVGTUJGTCNUDGFTQJNK EJGU'TGKIPKUWPFCNU#WUNÌUGTXGTUEJKGFGPGT-CVCUVTQRJGPIGFGWVGV

&+'5+')'&'5*'4<1)5810/#4.$1417)*+0(.#0&'40 

#PPG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG 5KGIGFGU*GT\QIUXQP/CTNDQTQWIJKP$TCDCPVWPF(NCPFGTP$TWUVDKNFXQP,QJP%JWTEJKNN*GT\QIXQP /CTNDQTQWIJJCNDTKO*CTPKUEJOKV#NNQPIGRGTÒEMGFGP$NKEMJCNDNIGYCPFV-TKGIGTKPCPVKMGT4Ò UVWPI /CTU! PCEJNUEJTGKVGPFFKGFWTEJGKPG-QTFGNOKVGKPCPFGTXGTDWPFGPGP9CRRGPUEJKNFGXQP$TC DCPV(NCPFGTPWPF#PVYGTRGPKPFGTXQTIGUVTGEMVGP4GEJVGPGKP6TQRCGWOOKVFGT.KPMGPJCNVGPF#O $QFGPNKGIGPFTGKDGUKGIVG(GKPFG/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT (QTUVGT*CYMKPU6H%::+++5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUX.QQP55NI/QPVG PWQXQ #WUFTWEMUXQNNGU2QTVT·V(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



&+'5+')'&'4#..++'46'0+0$4#$#06 

#PPG  5CVKTKUEJG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP 2JKNNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT   #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 5KGIG FGT #NNKKGTVGP KP $TCDCPV #PVKMKUKGTGPFG &CTUVGNNWPI GKPGT N   UVGJGPFGP -TKGIGTKP FKG DTKVKUEJG -ÌPKIKP #PPG  KO *CDKV FGT /KPGTXC GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI KP FGT   4GEJVGP OKV FGT .KPMGP GKPGP UKV\GPFGP UGKPGT 9CHHGP XGTNWUVKIGP -TKGIGT FGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKI    .QWKU :+8  CO $QFGP PKGFGTJCNVGPF8KEVQTKC UEJTGKVGPF N GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI KP FGT 4GEJVGP GKPG   /CWGTMTQPG KP FGT GTJQDGPGP .KPMGP T GKP CWU $GWVGYCHHGP WPF GKPGO +PUEJTKHVGPUEJKNF GTTKEJVGVGU   6TQRCGWOKO*KPVGTITWPFN5VCFVCPUKEJV4KPIUWOJGT\YÌNHOKV$·PFGTPXGTDWPFGPG+PUEJTKHVGPUEJKNFG OKV FGP NCVGKPKUEJGP 0COGP FGT GTQDGTVGP 5V·FVG $TÒUUGN/GEJGNGP.KGT#PVYGTRGP8GWTPG#CNUV #CVJ #WFGPCTFG $TÒIIG )GPV &COOG .QWXCKP /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I   %QNN(KGYGIGT'KOGT(QTUVGT*CYMKPU6H%::+++-2-X.QQP+8 (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 49


4097

&+'5+')'ª$'4(4#0-4'+%* 

#PPG5CVKTKUEJG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVG#TDGKVXQP2JKNNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 5KGIG )TQ­DTKVCPPKGPU ÒDGT (TCPMTGKEJ #PVKMKUKGTGPFG &CTUVGNNWPI   GKPGTNUVGJGPFGP-TKGIGTKP FKGDTKVKUEJG-ÌPKIKP#PPG KO*CDKVFGT/KPGTXCGKPGP2CNO\YGKIKPFGT 4GEJVGP OKV FGT .KPMGP GKPGP UKV\GPFGP UGKPGT 9CHHGP XGTNWUVKIGP -TKGIGT FGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKI   .QWKU :+8  CO $QFGP PKGFGTJCNVGPF$GNCIGTWPIUU\GPG GKPGU 6WTOGU /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV   OOI%QNN(KGYGIGT'KOGT(QTUVGT*CYMKPU6H%::+++-2- X.QQP+85 #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



9·JTGPFFGT6TKWORJFGT-ÌPKIKP#PPGÒDGT.QWKU:+8CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGHÒTLGFGP$GVTCEJVGTFWTEJFKG-QODK PCVKQP XQP $KNF WPF 7OUEJTKHV XGTFGWVNKEJV YKTF UQ GTHQTFGTV FKG +PVGTRTGVCVKQP FGU 4ÒEMUGKVGPOQVKXU GKPGIGYKUUG $KDGNHGUVKIMGKV &CTIGUVGNNV KUV FKG 5\GPG FGT 2UCNOG  FGU $WEJU FGT 4KEJVGT &GO\WHQNIG YWTFG FGT KUTCGNKVK   UEJG-ÌPKI#DKOGNGEJDGKFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGU6WTOGUXQP6JGDGPFWTEJGKPGPXQPFGP<KPPGPIGYQTHGPGP/ÒJN UVGKPIGVTQHHGPFGPGKPG(TCWIGIGPFKG#PITGKHGTIGYQTHGPJCVVG5EJYGTXGTYWPFGVDGHCJNFGT*GTTUEJGTUGKPGO $GINGKVGT KJP OKV FGT GKIGPGP 9CHHG \W VÌVGP OKV FGP 9QTVGP &WTEJUVGEJG OKEJ FCUU OCP PKEJV XQP OKT UCIG   'KP9GKDJCVKJPGTOQTFGV

4098

&+''41$'470)810.+..' +O ,CJTG  MQP\GPVTKGTVGP UKEJ FKG 1RGTCVKQPGP IGIGP .QWKU :+8 KP (NCPFGTP WPF 0QTFHTCPMTGKEJ   'KPG5VTGKVOCEJVFGT#NNKKGTVGPDTCEJVGCO,WNKFGU,CJTGUDGK1WFGPCCTFGCPFGT5EJGNFGFGTHTCP\Ì UKUEJGP#TOGGGKPGJGTDG0KGFGTNCIGDGKFKGFGP8GTDÒPFGVGPFGP/CTUEJCWHFCUUVCTMDGHGUVKIVG.KNNG GTÌHHPGVG'KPXQP2TKP\'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GPIGHÒJTVGU*GGTDGICPPCO#WIWUVOKVFGT7O \KPIGNWPI FGT 5VCFV FKG GTUV UGKV  WPVGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT *GTTUEJCHV UVCPF WPF UGKVFGO \W GKPGT FGT   IGYCNVKIUVGP(GUVWPIGPCPFGT0QTFITGP\GFGU-ÌPKITGKEJUCWUIGDCWVYQTFGPYCT&KG$GUEJKG­WPIFGT 5VCFVYWTFGCO#WIWUVGTÌHHPGV0CEJUEJYGTGP8GTNWUVGPÒDGTICDFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJG-QOOCPFCPV WPF /CTUEJCNN FG $QWHHNGTU \YCT CO  1MVQDGT FKG 5VCFV FQEJ \QI GT UKEJ UQFCPP WOIGJGPF OKV   UGKPGP  5QNFCVGP KP FKG <KVCFGNNG \WTÒEM FKG GTPQEJDKU\WTGPFIÒNVKIGP-CRKVWNCVKQPCO&G \GODGT\·JXGTVGKFKIVG 



50

#PPG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJP%TQMGT.QPFQPCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIFGT<KVCFGNNGXQP .KNNG)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFFGTDTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIKPN9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV/CWGTMTQPGKPFGT4GEJVGP GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI OKV FGT .KPMGP FGP CP GKPGO $CPF J·PIGPFGP 5VCFVUEJKNF ÒDGT GKPGP #NVCT JCNVGPF   FGT OKV GKPGO 2NCP FGT 5VCFV WPF FGT <KVCFGNNG XQP .KNNG DGFGEMV KUV  OO  I 'KOGT    *CYMKPU6H%::+:2QRGNMC 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,QJP%TQMGT.QPFQPCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIFGT<KVCFGNNGXQP.KNNG)GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNFFGTDTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIKPN9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV/CWGTMTQPGKPFGT4GEJVGPGKPGP2CNO\YGKI OKVFGT.KPMGPFGPCPGKPGO$CPFJ·PIGPFGP5VCFVUEJKNFÒDGTGKPGP#NVCTJCNVGPFFGTOKVGKPGO2NCP FGT5VCFVWPFFGT<KVCFGNNGXQP.KNNGDGFGEMVKUVOOI'KOGT*CYMKPU6H%::+: 2QRGNMC\W FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ




&+'9+'&'4'+00#*/'810)'06 0CEJ FGT 'TQDGTWPI XQP .KNNG UEJTKVV FGT *GT\QI XQP /CTNDQTQWIJ OKV UGKPGT #TOGG \WT $GNCIGTWPI   XQP)GPV&KG5VCFVMCRKVWNKGTVGCO&G\GODGT

4100



#PPG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVG#TDGKVXQP.C\CTWU)QVVNKGD.CWHHGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG 9KGFGTGKPPCJOGXQP)GPV$NKEMCWHFKG5VCFVKO8QTFGTITWPFT)GUEJÒV\DCVVGTKGFGT#NNKKGTVGP&GT -QOOCPFGWTFGT#NNKKGTVGP,QJP%JWTEJKNN*GT\QIXQP/CTNDQTQWIJ\W2HGTFTOKV$GINGKVGTPGKPGP GKUGTPGP *CPFUEJWJ XQP FGP 1TFQPPCP\GP FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5VCFVIQWXGTPGWTU /CTSWKU FG NC /QVVG   GORHCPIGPF+O*KPVGTITWPFTFKGCD\KGJGPFGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG)CTPKUQPUDGUCV\WPI/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPF UEJTKHV  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  *CYMKPU 6H %::+:  5NI ,WNKWU  -2-    X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44(GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



&+''+00#*/'81061740#+

4101



#PPG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVG#TDGKVXQP/CTVKP$TWPPGT0ÒTPDGTIKO#WHVTCIFGU 0ÒTPDGTIGT /GFCKNNGWTU WPF 8GTNGIGTU%CURCT)QVVNKGD.CWHHGTCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP6QWTPCK$NKEM CWH FKG WPVGT $GUEJWUU UVGJGPFG WPF DTGPPGPFG 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF GKPG #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPI FGT   $GNCIGTGT&KG N UEJTGKVGPFG 8GTMÌTRGTWPI FGT 5VCFV FGP 5VCFVUEJKNF KP FGT .KPMGP FGP $QFGP   DGUVTGWGPF OKV .QTDGGT\YGKIGP WPF UQ FGT PGDGP KJT UVGJGPFGP 8GTMÌTRGTWPI FGU (TKGFGPU TGUR FGU   5KGIGU JWNFKIGPF &KGUG UVGJGPF X X OKV 2CNO\YGKI WPF -GVVG KP FGT .KPMGP CP FGT FKG CO $QFGP   NKGIGPFG#NNGIQTKGFGU0GKFUIGHGUUGNVKUV/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI'KOGT #PO*CYMKPU6H%:::-2-X.QQP+85  (GKPG2CVKPCOKP4CPFHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



4102



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP /CTVKP $TWPPGT 0ÒTPDGTI KO #WHVTCI FGU 0ÒTPDGTIGT   /GFCKNNGWTUWPF8GTNGIGTU%CURCT)QVVNKGD.CWHHGTCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP6QWTPCK$NKEMCWHFKGWPVGT $GUEJWUU UVGJGPFG WPF DTGPPGPFG 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF GKPG #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPI FGT $GNCIGTGT+P   DGYGIVGT 5GG GKP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT &TGKOCUVGT OKV GKPGO CDIGDTQEJGPGP /CUV KP 5GGPQV <YGK CP FGT   4GNKPI UVGJGPFG 5GGNGWVG YGTHGP \WT 'PVNCUVWPI FGU 5EJKHHU 6GKNG FGT .CFWPI ÒDGT $QTF KO 8QTFGT   ITWPF GKP 9CTGPDCNNGP OKV FGT #WHUEJTKHV &14  0+- WPF FKG QDGTG *·NHVG FGU IGDTQEJGPGP   *CWRVOCUVGUKO9CUUGTVTGKDGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI'KOGT*CYMKPU 6H%:::-2-X.QQP+85 #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 51


4103



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJP%TQMGT.QPFQPCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP6QWTPCK$TWUVDKNFFGTDTKVKUEJGP -ÌPKIKP N KP -NGKF OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN2CNNCU #VJGPC UKV\GPF JCNDT UKEJ OKV FGO TGEJVGP #TO   CWH GKPGP OKV FGO )QTIQPGKQP IGUEJOÒEMVGP 5EJKNF UVÒV\GPF OKV FGT .KPMGP GKPG .CP\G JCNVGPF CP   FGTGP5EJCHVGKPG/CWGTMTQPGCPIGDTCEJVKUV<WKJTGT4GEJVGP(CJPGWPF$GWVGYCHHGPCO*QTK\QPVT 5VCFVCPUKEJVOOI'KOGT*CYMKPU6H%:::X.QQP+85  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



4104



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ,QJP %TQMGT .QPFQP CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI XQP 6QWTPCK $TWUVDKNF FGT DTKVK   UEJGP-ÌPKIKPNKP-NGKFOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN2CNNCU#VJGPCUKV\GPFJCNDTUKEJOKVFGOTGEJVGP #TOCWHGKPGPOKVFGO)QTIQPGKQPIGUEJOÒEMVGP5EJKNFUVÒV\GPFOKVFGT.KPMGPGKPG.CP\GJCNVGPF CPFGTGP5EJCHVGKPG/CWGTMTQPGCPIGDTCEJVKUV<WKJTGT4GEJVGP(CJPGWPF$GWVGYCHHGPCO*QTK\QPV T5VCFVCPUKEJVOOI'KOGT*CYMKPU6H%:::X.QQP+85  8QT\ÒINKEJ



&'45''5+')ª$'4&+'52#0+'4814-#22#55#41 #O#WIWUVCVVCEMKGTVGPCJG-CR2CUUCTQCPFGT5ÒFQUVURKV\G5K\KNKGPUGKPGXQP#FOKTCN)G QTIG $[PI IGHÒJTVG GPINKUEJG (NQVVG GKPGP ITQ­GP URCPKUEJGP 5EJKHHUXGTDCPF &KG 'PIN·PFGT MQPPVGP   GKPGPKEJVWPDGVT·EJVNKEJG#P\CJNXQPURCPKUEJGP5EJKHHGPMCRGTP$GOGTMGPUYGTVKUVFKG6CVUCEJGFCUU DGKFG.·PFGTFCOCNUPKEJVOKVGKPCPFGTKP-TKGIUVCPFGP

4105



52

)GQTIG+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJP%TQMGT.QPFQPCWHFGP5GGUKGIÒDGTFKGURCPK UEJG (NQVVG XQT -CR 2CUUCTQ $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF .QTDGGTMTCP\    <CJNTGKEJGOCTKVKOG6TQRJ·GPCO$QFGPITWRRKGTVWOGKPGOKV5EJKHHUTÒORHGPWPFGKPGT(KIWTFGUDTK VKUEJGP-ÌPKIUKO*CDKVFGU/GGTIQVVGU2QUGKFQPIGUEJOÒEMVG5KGIGUU·WNG UQI%QNQPCTQUVTCVC OO I'KOGT(KCNC*CYMKPU6H%:.++ *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 


&+'#22'..#6+10&'56*410246'0&'06'0,#/'5567#46)')'0 &#5*#75*#0018'4

4106



)GQTIG +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP 1VVQPG *COGTCPK 4QO $TWUVDKNF   FGU6JTQPRT·VGPFGPVGP,COGU +++ 5VWCTVTKP*CTPKUEJWPF/CPVGN$NKEMXQOTGEJVGP6JGOUGWHGTCWH .QPFQP WPF FGP (NWUU +O 8QTFGTITWPF FCU JCPPQXGTUEJG 5CEJUGPTQUU CWH GKPGO .ÌYGP WPF GKPGO   'KPJQTP FKGDTKVKUEJGP9CRRGPVKGTG JGTWOVTCORGNPFNDGKGKPGOXGTFQTTVGP$CWO$TKVCPPKCUKV\GPF T KP 6TCWGTRQUG \W KJTGP (Ò­GP 9CHHGPUVÒEMG T GKPG )TWRRG XQP FTGK (NÒEJVNKPIGP KJTG *CDG   VTCIGPFOOI'KOGT*CYMKPU6H%:.8  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



&+'5%*.#%*6$'+%#4.+5.'

4107



1,5:1

4107

)GQTIG++)QNFOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP*GPFTKM9QNHH-QRGPJCIGPCWHFKG5EJNCEJV DGK%CTNKUNG$TWUVDKNFXQP9KNJGNO#WIWUVXQP$TCWPUEJYGKIWPF.ÒPGDWTI*GT\QIXQP%WODGTNCPF T7PVGP5EJTKHVDCPFOKVFGUUGP)GDWTVUFCVWO&GT*GT\QICNUCPVKMGT-TKGIGTOKVIG\QIGPGO5EJYGTV WPF GKPGO 5EJKNF OKV FGO 2QTVT·V XQP )GQTIG ++ UGV\V GKPGO T CWUYGKEJGPFGP UGEJUMÌRHKIGP 7PVKGT   PCEJ+O*KPVGTITWPF5VCFVCPUKEJVOOI$TQEMOCPP\W FQTV'ZGORNCTGKP5KNDGT WPF $TQP\G  'KOGT  (KCNC  XIN   FQTV KP 5KNDGT WPF $TQP\G  *CYMKPU XIN   6H%.:8+WPF FQTVKP5KNDGTWPF-WRHGT   )1.&44/KPDGTKGDGPCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

4108



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#-KTMCWHFKG5EJNCEJVDGK%CTNKUNG9KNJGNO#WIWUVXQP$TCWPUEJYGKIWPF .ÒPGDWTI*GT\QIXQP%WODGTNCPF\W2HGTFNKPFGTXQTIGUVTGEMVGP4GEJVGPGKPGP&GIGPJCNVGPF+O *KPVGTITWPF FKG(GUVWPI&GT*GT\QICNUCPVKMGT-TKGIGTUVGJGPFTFGTXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP8GTMÌTRG TWPI'PINCPFUGKPGP.QTDGGT\YGKITGKEJGPF<WUGKPGP(Ò­GPDGKGKPGO\GTDTQEJGPGP,QEJWPFGKPGO \GTDTQEJGPGP5EJYGTVGKPD·WEJNKPIUNKGIGPFGT)GIPGTOKVGKPGO5EJKNFFGPFKGR·RUVNKEJG6KCTC\KGTV OOI$TQEMOCPP'KOGT(KCNC*CYMKPU6H%.:8+  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 53


&+'8'46'+&+)70))+$4#.6#45 &KGKOURCPKUEJGP$GUKV\DGHKPFNKEJG5VCFV*CHGPWPF(GUVWPI)KDTCNVCTCWHFGTINGKEJPCOKIGP*CNDKP UGN CP FGT 5ÒFURKV\G FGT KDGTKUEJGP *CNDKPUGN MQPPVG KO <WIG FGU 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU CO    #WIWUV  XQO MCKUGTNKEJGP (GNFOCTUEJCNNGWVPCPV 2TKP\ )GQTI XQP *GUUGP&CTOUVCFV WPF UGKPGT    /CPP UVCTMGP 6TWRRG KP GKPGT JCPFUVTGKEJCTVKIGP #MVKQP IGPQOOGP YGTFGP +O (TKGFGP XQP   7VTGEJVYWTFG)KDTCNVCTFGO-ÌPKITGKEJ)TQ­DTKVCPPKGP\WGTMCPPV/GJTHCEJXGTUWEJVGPFKG5RCPKGTFKG 4ÒEMGTQDGTWPIFGUUVTCVGIKUEJUGJTYKEJVKIGP(GNUGPU+JTNGV\VGT8GTUWEJ)KDTCNVCTOKV9CHHGPIGYCNV \W PGJOGP GTHQNIVG KO 4CJOGP GKPGT NCPIGP $GNCIGTWPI XQP  DKU  &KG $GNCIGTGT \·JNVGP   CPHCPIU/CPPFKGXQP)GPGTCN'NNKQVDGHGJNKIVGP8GTVGKFKIGTGVYC5QNFCVGPFKGKO/·T\ XQP5GGJGT8GTUV·TMWPIWPF0CEJUEJWDGTJKGNVGP9·JTGPFGKPGUOCUUKXGP#TVKNNGTKGCPITKHHUXQP #RTKN DKU 'PFG /CK  YWTFG FKG 5VCFV HCUV XQNNUV·PFKI \GTUVÌTV FKG (GUVWPIUYGTMG CDGT PWT WPYG   UGPVNKEJKP/KVNGKFGPUEJCHVIG\QIGP1DINGKEJFKG5RCPKGTXQP(TCPMTGKEJ8GTUV·TMWPIGTJKGNVGPWPFFC FWTEJXQT)KDTCNVCT\WT5GGÒDGTGKPG(NQVVGXQP5EJKHHGPWPFUEJYKOOGPFGP$CVVGTKGPUQYKG\W .CPFGÒDGT5QNFCVGPOKVUEJYGTGP)GUEJÒV\GPXGTHÒIVGPIGNCPIGUKJPGPPKEJVFKG 8GTVGKFKIGT\WT#WHICDG\W\YKPIGP0CEJ#PMWPHVYGKVGTGTDTKVKUEJGT8GTUQTIWPIUUEJKHHGWPFUEJYG TGP8GTNWUVGPJQDGPFKG#PITGKHGT'PFG1MVQDGTFKG$GNCIGTWPICWH+O(TKGFGPXQPDGUV· VKIVGFKGURCPKUEJG-TQPGFGP$TKVGPFGP$GUKV\XQP)KDTCNVCT

4109



)GQTIG+++5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP%JTKUVKCPQFGT,QJCPP/CVVJKCU4GKEJ(ÒTVJ CWH FKG 8GTVGKFKIWPI )KDTCNVCTU IGIGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJG WPF URCPKUEJG 8GTD·PFG $TWUVDKNF FGU )GPGTCNU   'NNKQV-QOOCPFCPVFGT(GUVWPITKP7PKHQTOOKV&TGKURKV\$NKEMÒDGTFGP*CHGPWPFGKPGHGWGTPFG URCPKUEJG/ÌTUGTUVGNNWPICWHFGP(GNUGPXQP)KDTCNVCTOKV$GHGUVKIWPIGPCO(W­WPFGKPGT(GUVWPICWH FGT-WRRGFGU$GTIGU8QPFGT#PJÌJGYGTFGPFKGXQTFGP-CKCPNCIGPNKGIGPFGP5EJKHHGFGU)GIPGTU WPVGT#TVKNNGTKGDGUEJWUUIGPQOOGPFGT)GIPGTCPVYQTVGVFCTCWHOKV$QODCTFGOGPVFGT*ÌJGPHGUVWPI WPFFGTVKGHGTIGNGIGPGP(GUVWPIUYGTMGOOI$TQYP'KOGT  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

+4.#0& &'4#7(56#0&)')'0&'0'0).+5%*'0-¤0+) #NU KP 'PINCPF FKG #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGP \YKUEJGP -ÌPKI WPF 2CTNCOGPV URÒTDCT CWH GKPGP OCUUKXGP   -QPHNKMV\WUVGWGTVGPPWV\VG+TNCPFFKG8GTHCUUWPIUM·ORHG\WGKPGO#WHUVCPFFGT\WP·EJUVGTHQNI TGKEJ XGTNKGH &KG KTKUEJG 7PCDJ·PIKIMGKV DNKGD LGFQEJPWTDKU\WO'PFGFGUGPINKUEJGP$ÒTIGTMTKGIGU DGUVGJGP7PVGT%TQOYGNNMQPPVGPFKG'PIN·PFGT\YKUEJGPWPF+TNCPF\WTÒEMGTQDGTPWPFKP KJTGO5KPPGDGHTKGFGPWPVGT#PYGPFWPIFTCMQPKUEJGT)GYCNVWPFOKVFGO/KVVGNFGT<YCPIUCWUUKGF NWPI(GTPGTGTJKGNVGPFKGMCVJQNKUEJGPKTKUEJGP2CEJVDCWGTPXKGNHCEJPGWGRTQVGUVCPVKUEJG)TWPFJGTTGP +TNCPFYCTFCFWTEJPQEJOGJTCNUXQTFGO#WHUVCPFCWHFGP5VCVWUGKPGTGPINKUEJGP-QNQPKGJGTCDIG UWPMGP

4110



54

%JCTNGU+-ÌPKIUVTGWG2T·IWPIY·JTGPFFGU#WHUVCPFUFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP$GXÌNMGTWPI  %TQYP \W  5JKNNKPIU Q ,   &WDNKP 1TOQPFG OQPG[  I &KG +PKVKCNGP   %4WPVGTGKPGTITQ­GP$ÒIGNMTQPG9GTVCPICDG=5?8$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.8+++ 5GCD[ #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTFKGUGT'OKUUKQPUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 


4112

4111





%TQYP\W5JKNNKPIU2GPEGQ,  &WDNKP1TOQPFGOQPG[I&KG+PKVKCNGP% 4WPVGTGKPGTITQ­GP$ÒIGNMTQPG5++WPF=&?8+$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.8+++ 5GCD[ ªDNKEJG2T·IGUEJY·EJGPUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



5JKNNKPI\W2GPEGQ,  &WDNKP1TOQPFGOQPG[I&KG+PKVKCNGP%4WPVGTGKPGT ITQ­GP$ÒIGNMTQPG9GTVCPICDG&:++$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV5WRRN6H5GCD[ ªDNKEJG2T·IGUEJY·EJGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



4114



4113

4115

2GPEGQ,  &WDNKP1TOQPFGOQPG[I&KG+PKVKCNGP%4WPVGTGKPGTITQ­GP$Ò IGNMTQPG9GTVCPICDG&8+$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV5WRRN6H5GCD[  5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP





)TQCV \W  2GPEG Q ,   &WDNKP 1TOQPFG OQPG[  I &KG +PKVKCNGP % 4 WPVGT GKPGT   ITQ­GP$ÒIGNMTQPG9GTVCPICDG&++++$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT/CKNNGV6H.8+++XCT 5GCD[ -N5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





2GPEGQ,  &WDNKP1TOQPFGOQPG[I&KG+PKVKCNGP%4WPVGTGKPGTITQ­GP$Ò IGNMTQPG9GTVCPICDG&+++$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT/CKNNGV6H.+:XCT5GCD[ 5GJTUEJÌP



&+',#-1$+6+5%*'4'$'..+10)')'0&+''0).+5%*'-410' &CUMCVJQNKUEJG+TNCPFWPVGTUVÒV\VGFGPCWU'PINCPFIGHNÒEJVGVGP-ÌPKIU,COGU++ ,CMQD++ WPFYCIVG CDGTOCNU FGP #WHUVCPF IGIGP .QPFQP PCEJFGO FGT -ÌPKI  OKV HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 6TWRRGP CP FGT   KTKUEJGP -ÒUVG IGNCPFGV YCT <CJNTGKEJG +TGP VTCVGP UGKPGT #TOGG DGK FKG DCNF  /CPP \·JNVG   ,COGU ++ DGMCO CNNG KTKUEJGP 5V·FVG KP FKG *CPF OKV #WUPCJOG XQP .QPFQPFGTT[ WPF 'UMKNNGP 'T   GTÌHHPGVGCO/CKGKPKTKUEJGU2CTNCOGPVFCUFKG$GUKV\WPIGPFGTRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP)TWPFDGUKV\GT FGP-CVJQNKMGP\WURTCEJ$CNFFCTCWHUCPFVG-ÌPKI9KNNKCO+++GKPXQO/CTUEJCNN5EJQODWTIIGHÒJTVGU *GGTPCEJ+TNCPF+O,WPKHQNIVGGTOKVYGKVGTGP6TWRRGPWPFUEJNWI,COGU++CO,WNK JGWVG YKTFFKG$CVVNGQH$Q[PGCWHITWPFFGT#PRCUUWPICPFGPITGIQTKCPKUEJGP-CNGPFGTKP0QTFKTNCPFCO  ,WNK IGHGKGTV  GPVUEJGKFGPF CO (NWUU $Q[PG 0CEJ GKPGO YGKVGTGP 5KGI FGT RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP   'PIN·PFGTDGK#TI[PYCTFKGCDGTOCNKIG7PVGTYGTHWPIFGT+PUGNPCJG\WXQNN\QIGP.KOGTKEMFGTNGV\VG KTKUEJG8GTVGKFKIWPIURQUVGPMCRKVWNKGTVGCO1MVQDGT

4116



,COGU++/GUUKPI*CNHETQYP\W2GPEGFGT,CPWCTGOKUUKQP&WDNKPQFGT.KOGTKEM $TCUU/QPG[TGUR)WPOQPG[I$ÒUVGNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\<YKUEJGP,4FKG-ÌPKIUMTQPGCWH <GRVGTPQDGP9GTV\CJN:::WPVGP,CP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.+5GCD[, 1DGTHN·EJGOKPMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP

 55


4117





4118

/GUUKPI5JKNNKPI\W2GPEGFGT5GRVGODGTGOKUUKQP&WDNKPQFGT.KOGTKEM$TCUU/QPG[TGUR )WPOQPG[  I $ÒUVG N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\<YKUEJGP ,  4 FKG -ÌPKIUMTQPG CWH <GRVGTP QDGP   9GTV\CJN:++WPVGP5GRT$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVGKPCWH1MVQDGTFCVKGTVGU'ZGO RNCT /CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTVGKPCWH/CKFCVKGTVGU'ZGORNCT 5GCD[&  5GJTUEJÌP



/GUUKPI%TQYP  &WDNKP QFGT .KOGTKEM $TCUUOQPG[ TGUR )WPOQPG[  I &GT -ÌPKI \W   2HGTFN&KGIGMTÌPVGP9CRRGPUEJKNFGXQP'PINCPF5EJQVVNCPF(TCPMTGKEJWPF+TNCPFKPMTGW\HÌTOK IGT 5VGNNWPI WO GKPG $ÒIGNMTQPG ITWRRKGTV /KV UEJT·I IGTKRRVGO 4CPF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H     /CKNNGV5WRRN6H5GCD[ (GKPG5VGORGNDTÒEJGNGKEJVG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



4119 1,5:1



1,5:1

5JKNNKPI \W  2GPEG FGT /CKGOKUUKQP  &WDNKP QFGT .KOGTKEM 2TQDG KP 5KNDGT FGT $TCUU /QPG[   TGUR )WPOQPG[#WUICDG  I $ÒUVG N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\<YKUEJGP ,  4 FKG -ÌPKIUMTQPG CWH   <GRVGTPQDGP9GTV\CJN:++WPVGP/C[$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVGKPTGIWN·TGU'ZGORNCT CWU$WPVOGVCNN /CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTVGKPTGIWN·TGU'ZGORNCTCWU$WPVOGVCNN 5GCD[\W & FQTVGKPTGIWN·TGU'ZGORNCTCWU$WPVOGVCNN   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\KIGU<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ 

+6#.+'0 #.'55#0&4+# &+'$'.#)'470)810#.'55#0&4+# +O ¤UVGTTGKEJKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGI UVCPF *GT\QI %CTNQ 'OCPWGNG XQP 5CXQ[GP UGKV  CP FGT 5GKVG   ¤UVGTTGKEJU IGIGP (TCPMTGKEJ WPF 5RCPKGP +O *GTDUV  FTCPI GKPG HTCP\ÌUKUEJG 5VTGKVOCEJV WPVGT   /CTUEJCNN/CKNNGDQKUKP2KGOQPVGKP&KG(TCP\QUGPUEJNQUUGPCO1MVQDGTFKG(GUVWPIUUVCFV#NGUUCP FTKC GKP GKPGP UVTCVGIKUEJ YKEJVKIGP -PQVGPRWPMV FGT 8GTMGJTUYGIG XQP FGT .QODCTFGK KP FCU QDGTG   2KGOQPV&GT5VCFVMQOOCPFCPV/CTEJGUGFG%CTCINKQ\QIUKEJOKVUGKPGP.GWVGPDGTGKVUPCEJ6CIGP CWUFGT5VCFV\WTÒEMKPFKGUVCTMCTOKGTVG<KVCFGNNG0CEJGKPGTHÒPHOQPCVKIGP$GNCIGTWPIP·JGTVGUKEJ FGTRKGOQPVGUKUEJG)GPGTCN.GWVTWOOKV/CPP\WO'PVUCV\XQP#NGUUCPFTKC#PIGUKEJVUFKGUGT $GFTQJWPI\QIGPFKG(TCP\QUGPWPVGT<WTÒEMNCUUWPIGKPGUITQ­GP6GKNUKJTGT8QTT·VGWPF8GTYWPFGVGP CD#O/CK\QIFKG'PVCV\CTOGGWPVGTFGO,WDGNFGT$GXÌNMGTWPIKPFKGDGHTGKVG5VCFVGKP +O .CWHG FGT $GNCIGTWPI YCTGP KO #WHVTCI FGU 5VCFVMQOOCPFCPVGP FG %CTCINKQ -WRHGTOÒP\GP \WT   $G\CJNWPIUGKPGT5QNFCVGPIGRT·IVYQTFGP

4120



56

-W5QNFKI#FNGTOKV$TWUVUEJKNFQDGPITQ­G-TQPG<YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP2CNO\YGK IGPUKGDGP\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV$KCIIK5$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%0+++5%WFC\\Q /CKNNGV6H+5KOQPGVVK6TCKPC5 5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP




$4'5%+# &+'$'.#)'470)810$4'5%+# $KU \WO #DUEJNWUU FGU (TKGFGPU XQP %CVGCW%CODT¾UKU KO #RTKN  YCT +VCNKGP KO  ,CJTJWPFGTV   IGMGPP\GKEJPGVFWTEJFKGCWUUGKPGT8KGNUVCCVGTGKTGUWNVKGTGTGPFGP-QPHNKMVGWPFYGEJUGNPFGP-QCNKVKQ PGPUQYKGFWTEJFKG/CEJVRQNKVKMWPFVGTTKVQTKCNGP#PURTÒEJGFGTCWUY·TVKIGP-T·HVG(TCPMTGKEJ5RC PKGP WPF *CDUDWTI /CZKOKNKCP + XQP *CDUDWTI DGHCPF UKEJ UGKV  KO -TKGI IGIGP FKG 4GRWDNKM   8GPGFKI \WP·EJUV CNU 8GTDÒPFGVGT FGU 2CRUVGU FGU URCPKUEJGP -ÌPKIU FKXGTUGT CPFGTGT YGNVNKEJGT   *GTTUEJGT WPF FGU -ÌPKIU XQP (TCPMTGKEJ .GV\VGTGT RCMVKGTVG KPFGU UGKV  OKV 8GPGFKI 'KPG CWU   XGPG\KCPKUEJGP WPF HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 6TWRRGPVGKNGP DGUVGJGPFG #TOGG DGNCIGTVG XQO  1MVQDGT  CP   CEJV/QPCVGNCPIFKG5VCFV$TGUEKCFKGXQPGKPGTURCPKUEJÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP$GUCV\WPIWPVGTFGO$GHGJN FGU -QOOCPFGWTU ;ECTFQ XGTVGKFKIV YWTFG CDGT UEJNKG­NKEJ CO  /CK  CWHIGIGDGP YGTFGP   OWUUVG 9·JTGPF FGT $GNCIGTWPI NKG­ -QOOCPFGWT ;ECTFQ \WT 'PVNQJPWPI UGKPGT 5QNFCVGP WPF \WT   )GNFXGTUQTIWPIFGTGKPIGUEJNQUUGPGP5VCFVUKNDGTPG-NKRRGPCWUGKPIGUEJOQN\GPGO5KNDGTIGT·VKP\YGK 9GTVUVWHGPRT·IGP

4121

1,5:1

1,5:1



1MVQIQPCNG -NKRRG \W  5QNFK 2NCPGV   I +PPGTJCND GKPGU OKV $NÒVGP WPF (GUVQPU DGNGIVGP   (CFGPTGKHU ++; ;ECTFQ \YKUEJGP/WPF#+PPGTJCNDGKPGUOKV$NÒVGPWPF(GUVQPUDGNGI VGP (CFGPTGKHU GKP FQRRGNMÌRHKIGT #FNGT QDGP-TQPG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF%0++85 FQTVPWT GKPG5VTKEJ\GKEJPWPIGKPGUDGTGKVUXQP-QGJPGKP2GTKQFKEQFK0WOKUOCVKECG5HTCIKUVKEC8+5WPF KPFGP$N·VVGTPHÒT/ÒP\HTGWPFG,I5WPF6HRWDNK\KGTVGP'ZGORNCTU /CKNNGV 6TCKPC6H.:8+8CTGUK FGO\WHQNIGPWT'ZGORNCTGDGMCPPV5QNCOGPVGGUGORNCTKPQVK  5NI9KNE\GM /ÒP\GP-CKUGT/CZKOKNKCPU+ #WMVKQP*GUU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV  W­GTUVUGNVGP#WHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG5VGORGNDTWEJ·JPNKEJLGPGOCWHFGO'ZGORNCTFGT5NI9KNE\GM OKP2T·IGUEJY·EJGKP4CPFP·JGUGJTUEJÌP 

%#5#.' &+'$'.#)'470)'0810%#5#.'+//#067#0+5%*'0 '4$(1.)'-4+')

4122



4122 1,5:1

5EWFQ\W4GCNKIGRT·IVCWHGKPGO$KNNQPUEJTÌVNKPII†%#41.85Û&Û)Û&8:Û /#068“Û8+++8GT\KGTVGCEJVGEMKIG5EJTKHVVCHGNYQTCWHKPXKGT<GKNGPÛ%#5#.+5Û+01$5+&Û Û +0 +856# Û  Û + Û 1DGP 4  :++'6 Û /106+5  ('44#6+ Û 8+ Û /QPQITCOO CWU FGP +P   KVKCNGP6WPF'Û%Û/KVGKPGT1TFGPUMGVVGDGJCPIGPGTWPFOKVGKPGT-TQPGÒDGTJÌJVGTOGJTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%0+++56TCKPC6H.:::+++D8CTGUK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GKO0COGPFGU*GT\QIU%CTNQ+XQP)QP\CIC0GXGTU

57


4124

4123



4123

-W(KQTKPKI)GMTÌPVGT.KNKGPUEJKNFKO(GNF(::WPVGP%#5#.'&KG)GTGEJVKI MGKVOKV5EJYGTVWPF9CCIGWPFFKGCWHGKPG5·WNGUKEJUVÒV\GPFG5V·TMGGKPCPFGTJCND\WIGYCPFVUVG JGPF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%0+++5/CKNNGV6H::+86TCKPC6H.:::8+C 8CTGUK 44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP  &KGUG WPF FKG HQNIGPFGP FTGK $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP UKPF XQP FGT FWTEJ URCPKUEJG WPF ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJG 6TWRRGP DGNC   IGTVGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP)CTPKUQPGOKVVKGTVYQTFGP



-W(KQTKPKI)GMTÌPVGT.KNKGPUEJKNFKO(GNF(:+PPGTJCNDGKPGU(GUVWPIUITWPFTKU UGU IGMTÌPVG YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UKV\GPF X X GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI KP FGT GTJQDGPGP 4GEJVGP WPVGP %#   5#.'$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%0+++5/CKNNGV6H::+86TCKPC6H.:::8+++ 8CTGUK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

4126

4125

4126



-W (KQTKPK   I )GMTÌPVGT .KNKGPUEJKNF KO (GNF (  .CP\G 5VTGKVMQNDGP WPF 2HGKN   ÒDGTMTGW\ T FCPGDGP IGMTÌPVG /GNWUKPG KO #DUEJPKVV %#5#.' $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H     %0+++5/CKNNGV6H::+86TCKPC6H:%+E8CTGUK  W­GTUVUGNVGP#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌP 



-W)TQUUKI)GMTÌPVGT.KNKGPUEJKNF5VCFVYCRRGPKO(GNF)$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H   %0+ ++ 5   FQTV CNU (KQTKPQ DG\GKEJPGV  WPF 0QVK\ CWH 5  /CKNNGV 6H ::+8    6TCKPC6H:%++8CTGUK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

Plan von Casale.

58




%#6#0<#41 &+'$'.#)'470)810%#6#0<#41&74%*(4#0<¤5+5%*'64722'0

4127

1,5:1

1,5:1



%CTNKPQQ,  I&KGXQPGKPGO.QTDGTMTCP\WOIGDGPGXKGT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV%#41.Û8 5+/2QDGP2TQVQOGGKPGUFQRRGNMÌRHKIGP#FNGTU+PUGEJU<GKNGP1$5'551%#6*#0<# 4+1%0+:8+++56TCKPC6H:%8+++ W­GTUVUGNVGP)GNQEJVUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



%70'1 &+'$'.#)'470)810%70'1 $GNCIGTWPIFWTEJ6TWRRGPXQP-ÌPKI.QWKU:+++XQP(TCPMTGKEJ/ÒP\GPIGRT·IVXQO5VCFVIQW XGTPGWT%QPVG8KXCNFC

4128

1,5:1



1,5:1

.KTC  IGRT·IV CWH GKPGO $KNNQPUEJTÌVNKPI  I ‰ %+  8+6#5 Û %80'+ Û 5 ë 1$5'5  5#   /GJTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF CWH \YGK 2CNO\YGKIGP7OUEJTKHV WPVGP N DGIKPPGPF (+&' Û '6 ‰   ('441 7PVGP Û ++ Û (CJPG OKVVGNU GKPGU $CPFGU CP GKPGT T IGPGKIVGP 5·WNG DGHGUVKIV $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF 6H   %WFC\\Q  %0+ ++ 5   /CKNNGV 6H ::8++  5KOQPGVVK    6TCKPC6H%:::8 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  59


Belagerung von Florenz nach einem Fresko von Vasari.

(.14'0< &+'$'.#)'470)810(.14'0<&74%*2256.+%*'70&-#+5'4.+%*' 56'+6-4(6'

4129 1,5:1



1,5:1

 5EWFQ F CTIGPVQ Q ,    I Û 5'0#685 Û 2128.85 Û 3 Û (.14'06+085   .KNKGPUEJKNFQDGPGKP-TGW\EJGP\YKUEJGP\YGK2WPMVGPKO(GNFNWPFTLGGKP2WPMVÛ+'585Û4': Û0156'4Û'6Û&'85Û0156'4-TGW\FGUUGPQDGTGT5EJGPMGNXQPGKPGT&QTPGPMTQPGWO\QIGP KUV +P FGP 9KPMGNP QDGP N WPF T LG GKP 2WPMV WPVGP N FKG 0COGPUKPKVKCNG 0 WPVGP T FGT 9CRRGP   UEJKNF FGU 2T·IGXGTCPVYQTVNKEJGP 0KEQNQ FK $TCEEKQ )WKEEKCTFKPK $GTPQEEJK  $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6H%0+:++5/CKNNGV5WRRN6H6TCKPC6H%.+8  W­GTUVUGNVGP-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP 

)'07# &+'8'46'+&+)70)810)'07#)')'0&+'$'5%*+'5570)&74%*'+0' (4#0<¤5+5%*'(.166'

4130



60

$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP )KCEQOQ (QTVKPK CWH FKG 8GTVGKFKIWPI FGT 5VCFV $TWUVDKNF XQP   ,WCP 6QOCU 'PTKSWG\ %CDTGTC N KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN$NKEM CWH FKG XQP 5GG CWU   DGUEJQUUGPG 5VCFV )GPWC KO 8QTFGTITWPF \YGK GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT UVGJGPFG -CXCNNGTKGMQPVKPIGPVG   OOI9WT\DCEJ #NVGT)W­5GJTUEJÌP




&+''41$'470)521.+6+-(4#0-4'+%*570&&+'#0)4+(('#7()'07# &+'4*'+02(#.<70&&+'52#0+5%*'00+'&'4.#0&'

4131



5CVKTKUEJG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPIURQNKVKM FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU   :+8WPFFGUUGPHTCIYÒTFKIG(TKGFGPUCPIGDQVG&GT-ÌPKIVJTQPGPFNGKPG#PIGNJCNVGPFCPFGTGKP 2CRKGT OKV FGT #WHUEJTKHV 2#: CNU -ÌFGT J·PIV <W UGKPGP (Ò­GP GKPG 5EJNCPIG GKPG 4CVVG GKPG   5EJPGEMGWPFGKPG-TÌVG8QTFGO*GTTUEJGT/KPGTXCUVGJGPFNKJOFGP4ÒEMGP\WYGPFGPF\WGKPGT )TWRRGXQPXKGTO·PPNKEJGP)GUVCNVGPDNKEMGPF&KGUGDGUVGJVCWUFTGK-CXCNKGTGPWPFFGT2GTUQPKHKMC VKQP FGU 0GKFGU FKG CWH FGO 4ÒEMGP FKG DQWTDQPKUEJG .KNKG VT·IV WPF KP KJTGT 4GEJVGP GKP OKV GKPGT   5EJNCPIGWOYWPFGPGU*GT\J·NV<WKJTGP(Ò­GPGKPG0CTTGPMCRRG$NKEMCWHGKPGCPGKPGO/GGTGUWHGT IGNGIGPG .CPFUEJCHV KO *KPVGTITWPF FKG FWTEJ ªDGTUEJTKHVGP DG\GKEJPGVGP ¤TVNKEJMGKVGP )GPWC FKG   4JGKPRHCN\ WPF FKG 5RCPKUEJGP 0KGFGTNCPFG +O 8QTFGTITWPF 5EJYGTVCTO (TGKJGKVUJWV WPF $WEJ CWH   GKPGOOKVGKPGO2HGKNDÒPFGNIGUEJOÒEMVGP4WPFCNVCTWPVGTJKOONKUEJGP5VTCJNGPTPGDGPGKPGOFWTEJ FKG.WHVHNKGIGPFGP.QTDGGTCUVFGTOKVGKPGT5EJNCPIGWOYWPFGPWPFOKVGKPGTGKUGTPGP(GUUGNDGJCP IGPKUVOOI%QNN(KGYGIGT*CYMKPU6H:%8X.QQP+85  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

-+4%*'056##6 &+'$'.#)'470)&'4'0)'.5$74)+041/ +O,CJTGYGEJUGNVG2CRUV%NGOGPU8++Y·JTGPFFGU-TKGIGU\YKUEJGP5RCPKGPWPF(TCPMTGKEJWO FKG8QTJGTTUEJCHVKP+VCNKGPFKG(TQPVGPPCEJFGOGTXGTIGDNKEJXGTUWEJVJCVVGFKGXGTHGKPFGVGP2CTVGKGP IGIGPGKPCPFGTCWU\WURKGNGP'TDGGPFGVGFCU$ÒPFPKUOKVFGOFGWVUEJGP-CKUGTWPFURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKI -CTN8  WPFUEJNQUUUKEJUVCVVFGUUGPFGPRTQHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-T·HVGPCP1DYQJN-CTN8FGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKI KP FGT 5EJNCEJV XQP 2CXKC DGUKGIV WPF IGHCPIGP IGPQOOGP JCVVG DNKGDGP FKG    MCKUGTNKEJGP6TWRRGPKORQNKVKUEJGP4·PMGURKGNQJPG5QNFWPF\QIGPUEJNKG­NKEJPCEJ4QOWOUKEJOKV 9CHHGPIGYCNV FGP ÒDGTH·NNKIGP .QJP \W DGUQTIGP ªDGT  FGWVUEJG URCPKUEJG WPF KVCNKGPKUEJG    5ÌNFPGTGTUVÒTOVGPCO/CKFKG'YKIG5VCFVWPFRNÒPFGTVGPÒDGTGKPGP/QPCVNCPI&KG1RHGT WPVGTFGT<KXKNDGXÌNMGTWPIYGTFGPCWHYGKVÒDGT6QVGIGUEJ·V\VWPFFKG$GWVGUQNNUEJNKG­NKEJEC  /KNNKQPGP &WMCVGP DGVTCIGP JCDGP 2CRUV %NGOGPU 8++ XGTUEJCP\VG UKEJ KP FGT 'PIGNUDWTI WPF    ÒDGTNKG­ FKG 8GTVGKFKIWPI FGU 8CVKMCPU FGT 5EJYGK\GTICTFG XQP FGT FTGK 8KGTVGN FKGUGT CNU ō5CEEQ FK    4QOCŌ KP FKG )GUEJKEJVG GKPIGICPIGPGP 6TCIÌFKG \WO 1RHGT HKGNGP 0CEJ FGT -CRKVWNCVKQP FGT    'PIGNUDWTI YWTFGP FKG (GKPFUGNKIMGKVGP \YKUEJGP -CKUGT WPF 2CRUV UEJNKG­NKEJ CO  ,WPK  KO    (TKGFGPXQP$CTEGNQPCDGGPFGV

4132



%NGOGPU8++&WECVQQ,4QOI%.'/'05Û8++Û2106+(Û/#:u 5RCVGPDNCVVHÌTOKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGPFKGDGKFGP2CRUVUEJNÒUUGNÒDGTMTGW\WPVGTJCNDFGT6KCTC<YK UEJGP.QTDGGT\YGKIGPÛ38#46ÛÛ&8%ÛWPVGP( URKGIGNXGTMGJTV QDGTJCNDGKPGTNKGIGPFGP /QPFUKEJGN WPDGUVKOOVGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 4QO  $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   FQTV CPFGTGU   /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP  %0+   XIN :8 5   /CKNNGV  XIN 5WRRN 6H   FQTV   CPFGTGU/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP /WPVQPK6TCKPC6H%&8+++K  44/KP2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP  61


&+''41$'470)+6#.+'05&74%*0#21.'10+/52+')'.&'4 /ª0<24)70)'0&'5-+4%*'056##65

4134

4133





2KWU 8+  -W5CORKGVTKPQ \W   $CKQEEJK  4QO  I $TWUVDKNF FGU JGKNKIGP   2GVTWUNKPFGT4GEJVGPFKG\YGK5EJNÒUUGN8KGT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVQDGPFTGK5VGTPG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H/CKNNGV6H:%8++/WPVQPKC 5GJTUEJÌP



-W5CORKGVTKPQ\W$CKQEEJK)WDDKQI$TWUVDKNFFGUJGKNKIGP2GVTWUNKPFGT4GEJVGP FKG\YGK5EJNÒUUGN8KGT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVQDGPFTGK5VGTPG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF%0+:+85 /CKNNGV/WPVQPK 5GJTUEJÌP



4136

4135





-W5CORKGVTKPQ\W$CKQEEJK2GTWIKCI$TWUVDKNFFGUJGKNKIGP2GVTWUNKPFGT4GEJ VGPFKG\YGK5EJNÒUUGN8KGT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVQDGPFTGK5VGTPG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF/CKNNGV/WPVQPKC /KP2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



-W5CORKGVTKPQ\W$CKQEEJK5CP5GXGTKPQI$TWUVDKNFFGUJGKNKIGP2GVTWUNKPFGT 4GEJVGP FKG \YGK 5EJNÒUUGN8KGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV QDGP FTGK 5VGTPG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  /CKNNGV    5NI/CKNNGV/WPVQPK )TÒPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



4137







62

4138

4139

-W5CORKGVTKPQ \W   $CKQEEJK  8KVGTDQ  I $TWUVDKNF FGU JGKNKIGP 2GVTWU N KP FGT   4GEJVGP FKG \YGK 5EJNÒUUGN8KGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV QDGP FTGK 5VGTPG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  /CKNNGV    5NI/CKNNGV/WPVQPK 5GJTUEJÌP



$CKQEEJK#::+++2GTWIKCI#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV9GTVCPICDGKPFTGK<GKNGP%0+:+8 5$TCWUG/CPUHGNF/CKNNGV5NI/CKNNGV/WPVQPK  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



-W/CFQPPKPC\W$CKQEEJK::+++4QOI0KODKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT/WVVGT)QVVGUN#WH WPF 7OUEJTKHV $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   FQTV XQP   /CKNNGV XIN 6H :%8++ FQTV XQP    /WPVQPK 2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




4140





4141

-W/CFQPPKPC \W  $CKQEEJK #PPQ ::+++ 4QO  I 0KODKGTVG $ÒUVG FGT /WVVGT )QVVGU   N#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVXQP /CKNNGVXIN6H:%8++ FQTV XQP /WPVQPK -NGKPG5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



-W/CFQPPKPC\W$CKQEEJK#001::+++(GTOQI0KODKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT/WVVGT)QVVGU N#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%0+:+++5/CKNNGV5WRRN6H/WP VQPK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4143

4142





-W/CFQPPKPC\W$CKQEEJK#001::+++6KXQNKI0KODKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT/WVVGT)QVVGU N#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H FQTVGKPCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGXGTRT·IVGU'ZGORNCT /CKN NGV5WRRN6H FQTVGKPCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGXGTRT·IVGU'ZGORNCT /WPVQPK 5GJTUEJÌP



-W/CFQPPKPC\W$CKQEEJK#001::+++8KVGTDQI0KODKGTVG$ÒUVGFGT/WVVGT)QVVGUN #WHWPF7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT/CKNNGV6H%::+++/WPVQPK  5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



4144







4145

4146

-W5CORKGVTKPQ\W$CKQEEJK(GTOQI$TWUVDKNFFGUJGKNKIGP2GVTWUNKPFGT4GEJ VGPFKG\YGK5EJNÒUUGN8KGT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVQDGPFTGK5VGTPG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF%0+:+++5 /CKNNGV/WPVQPKXCT 5GJTUEJÌP



-W5CORKGVTKPQ \W   $CKQEEJK  /QPVCNVQ  I $TWUVDKNF FGU JGKNKIGP 2GVTWU N KP FGT   4GEJVGP FKG \YGK 5EJNÒUUGN8KGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV QDGP FTGK 5VGTPG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  %0+ :+++   5/CKNNGV/WPVQPK 5GJTUEJÌP



-W5CORKGVTKPQ \W   $CKQEEJK  /QPVCNVQ  I $TWUVDKNF FGU JGKNKIGP 2GVTWU N KP FGT   4GEJVGP FKG \YGK 5EJNÒUUGN8KGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV QDGP FTGK 5VGTPG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  %0+ :+++   5/CKNNGV/WPVQPK 5GJTUEJÌP

 63


/#067# &+'$'.#)'470)810/#067#+//#067#0+5%*'0 '4$(1.)'-4+')

4147



%CTNQ +  5EWFQ Q ,  I 0+*+. Û Û +561   6  4  +56' Û4'%'261&GTJGKNKIG #PFTGCUUVGJGPFXXOKV-TGW\KO#DUEJPKVVÛ/#068Û/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP-GNEJ ! &1/+0'Û 241$#56+ Û /' Û KP .KICVWT  '6 Û  %1)018+56+ Û /' +O NQFGTPFGP (GWGT GKP OKV GKPGO   (CUEGUDÒPFGN IGHÒNNVGT 5EJOGN\VKGIGN $KIPQVVK 5   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT &CX     /CKNNGV6H.::8+++XCT6TCKPC6H%:%++8CTGUK  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  )GRT·IV CWU -KTEJGPUKNDGT $GK IGPCWGT $GVTCEJVWPI FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG KUV GTMGPPDCT FCUU FGT \YGKVG +PVGTRWPMVKQPU   RWPMV PCEJ 0+*+. KO 2T·IGGKUGP XQO 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT UGMWPF·T JGTCWUIGCTDGKVGV YQTFGP KUV CWU GKPGO WTURTÒPI   NKEJCPGPVURTGEJGPFGT5VGNNGXQTJCPFGPGPOCTMCPVGPDGHW­VGP-TGW\

4148

4148 1,5:1



5EWFQQ,I&GTJGKNKIG#PFTGCUUVGJGPFXXOKV-TGW\KO#DUEJPKVVÛ/#068“Û+O NQFGTPFGP(GWGTGKPOKVGKPGO(CUEGUDÒPFGNIGHÒNNVGT5EJOGN\VKGIGN$KIPQVVK5$TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H/CKNNGV5WRRN6H6TCKPC6H%%+88CTGUK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



4149



64

 5EWFQ   I Û /#068“ Û #001 5#.86+5 Û  Û )GMTÌPVGT XKGTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGP   UEJKNF5QPPGPDNWOGXQPFGT5QPPGDGUEJKGPGP$KIPQVVK5$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV 5WRRN6H6TCKPC6H%%8+8CTGUK 445GJTUEJÌP 


Die Franzosen verlassen Italien, zeitgenössische satirische Zeichnung.

&+'$'.#)'470)810/#067#&74%*(4#0<¤5+5%*'64722'0

4150 1,5:1



1,5:1

 5QNFK .KTC   OKV 6KVGN XQP (TCP\ ++  I )GMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF<YGK *QUVKGPMGNEJG   WPVGP FKG 9GTVCPICDG WPF FKG ,CJTGU\CJN 4KPIUWOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\ $KIPQVVK 5   $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF*GTKPGM/CKNNGV2CICPK6TCKPC6H%%:::8CTGUK (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)810/#067#&74%*¤56'44'+%*+5%*'64722'0 $GNCIGTWPI FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUCV\WPI WPVGT )GPGTCN (TQKUUCE FWTEJ FKG ¤UVGTTGKEJGT WPVGT )GPGTCN   -TC[

4151

4153



4152

4153

5QNFK#PPQ8++  I(CUEGUDÒPFGN9GTVCPICDGKPXKGT<GKNGP$KIPQVVK5$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.::+:2CICPK6TCKPC6H%%:.8+++8CTGUK  8QT\ÒINKEJ





5QNFK#PPQ8++  I(CUEGUDÒPFGN9GTVCPICDGKPXKGT<GKNGP$KIPQVVK5$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.::+:2CICPK6TCKPC6H%%.8CTGUK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





5QNFQ #PPQ    )GIQUUGPG 0QVCWUICDG CWU )NQEMGPOGVCNN /KV GKPGT ,CMQDKPGTOÒV\G DGFGEMVGU   (CUEGUDÒPFGN \YKUEJGP \YGK .QTDGGT\YGKIGP9GTVCPICDG KP XKGT <GKNGP $KIPQVVK 5   $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6HXCT%0++85/CKNNGV6H.::+:XCT2CICPK6TCKPC6H%%.+++ 8CTGUK 5GJTUEJÌP

 65


&+'$'.#)'470)810/#067#&74%*+6#.+'0+5%*'64722'0 $GNCIGTWPIFGTWPVGT$GHGJNXQP)GPGTCN)QT\MQYUMKUVGJGPFGP5VCFVFWTEJKVCNKGPKUEJG5VTGKVMT·HVG

4156

4155

4154



)WNFGP (KQTKPQ I-QRHXQP-CKUGT(GTFKPCPF+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPVGP/ÒP\\GKEJGP 5EJYCP QDGTJCND ) Ü / HÒT )QXGTPQ /KNKVCTG )CTPKUQP /CPVWC QFGT )QT\MQYUMK /CPVWC&QRRGN   CFNGT $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT *GTKPGM  ,  C /CKNNGV 6H .::+:  2CICPK  C   6TCKPC6H%%.:+8CTGUK -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





-TGW\GT 5XCP\KECTGUR.KTC I-QRHXQP-CKUGT(GTFKPCPF+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPVGP /ÒP\\GKEJGP5EJYCPQDGTJCND)Û/HÒT)QXGTPQ/KNKVCTG)CTPKUQP/CPVWCQFGT)QT\MQYUMK/CP VWC&QRRGNCFNGT$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H*GTKPGM,/CKNNGV6H.::+:2CICPK 6TCKPC6H%%.:+++8CTGUK -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGPOKPLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



-TGW\GT %CTCPVCPK I-QRHXQP-CKUGT(GTFKPCPF+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPVGP)Û/ HÒT )QXGTPQ /KNKVCTG )CTPKUQP /CPVWC QFGT )QT\MQYUMK /CPVWC&QRRGNCFNGT $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6H*GTKPGM,/CKNNGV6H.::+:2CICPKD6TCKPC6H%%.:8+C8CTGUK 5GJTUEJÌP





/1&'0#

1,5:1



4157

1,5:1

(TCPEGUEQ+F 'UVG5EWFQ\W5QNFKQ,I#FNGT-CTVWUEJGOKVFGT9GTV CPICDG%0++:5(D )1.&-N<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ

4158



4159

0'#2'. &+'$'.#)'470)8100'#2'.&74%*52#0+5%*'64722'0 

-W2WDDNKECFGN2QRQNQ\W6QTPGUKI)GMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF)GDKPFGCWUFTGK-QTP·J TGPWPFGKPGO1NKXGP\YGKIQDGP)#%WPVGP8KCFWMVQFGTNKGIGPFG+PKVKCNG( ! $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6HXCT%CIKCVK+++5HHXCT/CKNNGV6H.:::8+++XCT6TCKPC++5  5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



2#./#018# &+'$'.#)'470)8102#./#018#&74%*¤56'44'+%*+5%*'64722'0 

66

%GPVGUKOKI-TQPGWPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN9GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H*GTKPGM/CKNNGV6H:%2CICPK6TCKPC6H%%%:::8++ 8QT\ÒINKEJ




2#4/# &'4*'4<1)8102#4/#56#66*#.6'4&'452#0+5%*'00+'&'4 .#0&'70&$'&'76'0&'4('.&*'44+/#%*6<+),*4+)'0-4+')

4160



#NGUUCPFTQ(CTPGUG 5VCVVJCNVGTFGT0KGFGTNCPFGUGKV*GT\QIXQP2CTOC 5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWH#NGZCPFGT(CTPGUG5VCVVJCNVGTFGT5RCPKUEJGP0KGFGTNCPFG$TWUV DKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF OKV *CNUMTCWUG<YKUEJGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP GKP RHGKNGT   CTVKIGU QDGP OKV GKPGO 5VCPFDKNF IGUEJOÒEMVGU 5KGIGUOCN \W FGUUGP $CUKU \YGK UKV\GPFG )GHCPIGPG   OOI-2-XINX.QQP+5 #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



&KG 7OUEJTKHV FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG FGT JKGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /GFCKNNG KUV CWH\WNÌUGP KP #.':#0&'4 (#40'5 KK    2#4 OCG 2.# EGPVKCGSWG 24+0 EKRK $'.)+ WO &7/) WDGTPCTGV FCUJGK­V $KNFPKU FGU#NGZCPFGT(CTPGUG (ÒTUV XQP 2CTOC WPF 2KCEGP\C Y·JTGPF GT $GNIKGP TGIKGTVG &GOPCEJ KUV FKGUGU )GFGPMUVÒEM PKEJVUQPFGTP PCEJ'PFGFGT5VCVVJCNVGTUEJCHV(CTPGUGUXGTOWVNKEJGTUVKO,CJTJWPFGTVIGUEJCHHGPYQTFGP

Die Belagerung von Pavia, Druck von 1550.

2#8+# &+'$'.#)'470)8102#8+#&74%*(4#0<¤5+5%*'64722'0 $GNCIGTWPIFGTXQPGKPGT6TWRRGKP&KGPUVGP-CKUGT-CTNU8XGTVGKFKIVGP5VCFVFWTEJGKPG5VTGKVOCEJV FGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIU(TCP¼QKU+

4161



1,5:1

'KPUGKVKIGUGRVQIQPCNG0QVMNKRRG\W&WECVQI&KG+PKVKCNGP#Û. #PVQPKQ.GX[C-QO OCPFCPVFGT8GTVGKFKIGT QDGP-TGW\OKVMGKNHÌTOKIGP'PFGPWPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN4KPIUWOJGT2GTN TGKH  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H # %0+ +8 5   (D  /CKNNGV 6H :%+++    6TCKPC6H%%%.::8CTGUK )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI /QTDKQ#WMVKQP(,9GUGPGT/ÒPEJGP0T &KGUGKPGFKGTVG0QVJ OÒP\GYGNEJGCWUFGTGKIGPGP*CNUMGVVGFGU)GPGTCNUCPIGHGTVKIVYQTFGPKUVJÌEJUVYCJTUEJGKPNKEJGKP7PKEWO 

67


4162

4163 1,5:1

1,5:1



6GUVQPGI'KPUGKVKIG0QVRT·IWPICWHUKNDGTPGO5EJTÌVNKPI&KG+PKVCNGP%'5QDGP+< WPVGPÛ22Ú1$Ú1DGTJCNDFGT+PKVKCNGP22GKPQOGICHÌTOKIGU<GKEJGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H#

FQTV CWH MNKRRGPHÌTOKIGO 5EJTÌVNKPI  %0+ +8 5   XCT FQTV CWH $TQP\G5EJTÌVNKPI  /CKNNGV   6H:%+++ FQTVCWHMNKRRGPHÌTOKIGO5EJTÌVNKPI 6TCKPC6H%%%.::+8CTGUK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-W0QVMNKRRG\W6GUVQPGI&KG+PKVKCNGP%'5QDGP+<WPVGP

&TGKGEM 22 &TGKGEM 1$ &TGKGEM 1DGTJCNDFGT+PKVKCNGP22GKPQOGICHÌTOKIGU<GKEJGPZ OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H#%0++85XCT 5VGORGNYKGWPFFKGUGCDGTCWHUKNDGT PGO5EJTÌVNKPI /CKNNGV6H:%+++6TCKPC6H%%%.::+8CTGUK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

41/4'27$$.+%#41/#0# ('4/1#.5$'56#0&6'+.&'44'27$$.+%#41/#0#

4164



-W$CKQEEQ#PPQRTKOQ  (GTOQI#0012/1Û&'..#4'28Û+PPGTJCNDGKPGU.QT DGGTMTCP\GU (ÒPHDN·VVKIG 4QUGVVG  41/#  0# &KG 7OUEJTKHV GDGPHCNNU WOUEJNQUUGP XQP GKPGO   .QTDGGTMTCP\+PPGTJCND GKPGU OKV $NÒVGP DGUGV\VGP .QTDGGTMTCP\GU 80  $#+1%%1  ('4/1   WOIGDGPXQPXKGT4QUGVVGP2CICPK -NGKPG5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



&+'8'46'+&+)70)81041/814&'0(4#0<¤5+5%*'0$'.#)'4'40

4165



68

8GTUKNDGTVG /GUUKPI-NKRRG \W  $CKQEEJK #0 ++   2CTKU  I )GRT·IV XQP 3 ) \WO   #PFGPMGPCPFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT5VCFV+PPGTJCNDGKPGTIGRGTNVGPCEJVGEMKIGP4CJOWPI4QOWNWUWPF 4GOWU GKPCPFGT \WIGYCPFV UKV\GPF WPVGTJCND FGT PCEJ N IGYCPFVGP TÌOKUEJGP 9ÌNHKP4WPFGU GKP    /QPQITCOOMTGW\WOUEJNKG­GPFGU/GFCKNNQPQDGPWPFWPVGPLGXKGT<GKNGP6GZVZOO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   FQTV KP -WRHGT  /CKNNGV 6H :%8++  2CICPK 5  #PO   6TCKPC6H%&:+: 8QT\ÒINKEJ




4168

4167

4166







8GTUKNDGTVG/GUUKPI-NKRRG\W$CKQEEJK2CTKUI)GRT·IVXQP3)\WO#PFGPMGPCP FKG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT5VCFV+PPGTJCNDGKPGTIGRGTNVGPHÒPHGEMKIGP4CJOWPI4QOWNWUWPF4GOWUGKPCP FGT \WIGYCPFV UKV\GPF WPVGTJCND FGT PCEJ N IGYCPFVGP TÌOKUEJGP 9ÌNHKP#WHUEJTKHV KP HÒPH <GKNGP    Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   FQTV KP -WRHGT  /CKNNGV 6H :%8++    2CICPK5#PO6TCKPC6H%&::+ 2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



8GTUKNDGTVG/GUUKPI-NKRRG\W$CKQEEJK2CTKUI)GRT·IVXQP3)\WO#PFGPMGPCP FKG 8GTVGKFKIWPI FGT 5VCFV +PPGTJCND GKPGT IGRGTNVGP XKGTGEMKIGP 4CJOWPI FKG TÌOKUEJG 9ÌNHKP OKV   4QOWNWU T+PPGTJCND GKPGT SWCFTCVKUEJGP .KPKGPTCJOWPI FKG TÌOKUEJG 9GTV\KHHGT WOIGDGP XQP   5EJTKHV  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H  FQTV KP -WRHGT  /CKNNGV 6H :%8++    2CICPK5#PO6TCKPC6H%&::++ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



8GTUKNDGTVG/GUUKPI-NKRRG\W$CKQEEJK2CTKUI)GRT·IVXQP3)\WO#PFGPMGPCPFKG 8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT5VCFV+PPGTJCNDGKPGTIGRGTNVGPFTGKGEMKIGP4CJOWPIFKGTÌOKUEJG9ÌNHKPOKV4QOW NWUT+PPGTJCNDGKPGUIGRGTNVGP4WPFUFKGTÌOKUEJG9GTV\KHHGTWOIGDGPXQP5EJTKHVZOO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   FQTV KP -WRHGT  /CKNNGV 6H :%8++  2CICPK 5  #PO   6TCKPC6H%&::+++ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



410%+).+10' &+'$4#0&5%*#6<70)810410%+).+10'&74%*(4#0<¤5+5%*' 64722'0

4169



1,5:1

4169

5KNDGTCDUEJNCIFGT-W/CFQPPKPC\W$CKQEEJK8KVGTDQCWHFKG$TCPFUEJCV\WPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJ FKG 5VTGKVMT·HVG FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP )GPGTCNU 8CNVGTTG  I #PUKEJV FGT DTGPPGPFGP 5VCFV WPVGP   %Û#Û) %CTNQ#NDGTVQ)CTQHQNKPK5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG8KVGTDQ 0KODKGTVG/CTKGPDÒUVGN $TCWUG/CPUHGNF/CKNNGV2CICPK#PO  W­GTUVUGNVGP#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

4170



-W/CFQPPKPC\W$CKQEEJK8KVGTDQCWHFKG$TCPFUEJCV\WPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJFKG5VTGKVMT·HVGFGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP)GPGTCNU8CNVGTTGI#PUKEJVFGTDTGPPGPFGP5VCFVWPVGP%Û#Û) %CTNQ#NDGTVQ )CTQHQNKPK 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG 8KVGTDQ 0KODKGTVG /CTKGPDÒUVG N $TCWUG/CPUHGNF    /CKNNGV2CICPK -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 69


1,5:1

4171

5#81;'0

1,5:1

&+''+00#*/'810%4'/10#706'4&'4(ª*470)&'524+0<'0'7)'0 8105#81;'0 

2TKP\'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GP Ó5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP%JTKUVKCP9GTOWVJ)QVJCCWHFKG 'KPPCJOG FGT (GUVWPI %TGOQPC n '8)'0+ (4#0% Û 5#$ Û 24 Û 5824 Û ':'4% Û %#'5 Û    +6#.Û&Z$TWUVDKNFXQP2TKP\'WIGPTKP*CTPKUEJOKVFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU+O #TOCDUEJPKVV % Û 9 Û DGKO $TWUVCDUEJPKVV  CNU #PICDG FGU )GDWTVULCJTGU FGU &CTIGUVGNNVGP    *#00+$#. #& 2146#5 $NKEM XQP UEJT·I QDGP CWH FKG (GUVWPIUYGTMG KO #DUEJPKVV & Û ++ Û   ('$48#4Û/&%%++ÛOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC 9QJNHCJTVXINWPF 8QTFGTUGKVGP  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4172



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI UCVKTK   UEJG 2T·IWPI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP %TGOQPC FWTEJ MCKUGTNKEJG 5VTGKVMT·HVG WPVGT (ÒJTWPI XQP 2TKP\   'WIGP XQP 5CXQ[GP +POKVVGP GKPGT )TWRRG CWUGKPCPFGT UVKGDGPFGT *ÒJPGT GKP #FNGT GKPGP TÒEMNKPIU   CO$QFGPNKGIGPFGP*CJPUEJNCIGPFCONKPMGP$KNFTCPF2QUCWPGDNCUGPFG(COCUEJTGKVGPFXX1DGP GKP OKV 2CNO\YGKIGP IGUEJOÒEMVGU /GFCKNNQP OKV FGO T IGYCPFVGP 2QTVT·V FGU 2TKP\GP 'WIGP&TGK   .KNKGPIGY·EJUG FGPGP FKG $N·VVGT XQP FGO CWU GKPGT 9QNMG DNCUGPFGP 9KPF GPVTKUUGP YGTFGP +O   8QTFGTITWPFDGJGNOVGYGKDNKEJG)GUVCNV )GTOCPKC UKV\GPFTKP*CTPKUEJWPFNCPIGO-NGKFUKEJCWH GKPGP OKV FGO 4GKEJUCFNGT IGUEJOÒEMVGP 5EJKNF UVÒV\GPF GKPG .CP\G OKV FGT 4GEJVGP WPF GKPG   8KEVQTKCUVCVWGVVGKPFGTXQTIGUVTGEMVGP.KPMGPJCNVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI 5NI'TNCPIGT%QNN(KGYGIGT(QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+8 55NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC  4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



&KG XQTNKGIGPFG /GFCKNNG FKGPV FGT 8GTJGTTNKEJWPI FGT OKNKV·TKUEJGP 6CVGP FGU 2TKP\GP 'WIGP WPF \WINGKEJ FGT   8GTURQVVWPI FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU FGT JKGT CNU ICNNKUEJGT  *CJP WPF GKPIGFGPM UGKPGU 9CRRGPU CNU GPVDN·V   VGTVG.KNKGPIGY·EJUGGTUEJGKPV

&'4'065#6<810674+0

4173



70

8KVVQTKQ#OCFGQ++5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI*CWVUEJ0ÒTPDGTICWHFGP'PVUCV\ XQP6WTKP$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN$NKEMCWHFKG5VCFV+O8QTFGTITWPFNFKG PCEJ T NCIGTPFG UKEJ CWH GKPG 3WGNNWTPG UVÒV\GPFG 8GTMÌTRGTWPI FGU (NWUUGU 2Q KP FGT 4GEJVGP GKP   5VGWGTTWFGTOKVFGT.KPMGPFKG%QTQPC%KXKEC\WGKPGTNHNKGIGPFGPYGKDNKEJGP)GUVCNVGORQTJCNVGPF FKGKPKJTGP*·PFGPGKPG$GNCIGTWPIUMTQPGWPF\YGK-T·P\GJ·NV/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOO I5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ 2QRGNMC6TCKPC5 #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




57$#.2+0'4'27$.+- &+'5%*.#%*6810/#4'0)1 &KG XQP 0CRQN¾QP $QPCRCTVG IGHÒJTVGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVG GTTCPIGP CO  ,WPK  DGK /C   TGPIQGKPGPOC­IGDNKEJGP5KGIÒDGTFKGÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP6TWRRGP

4174



(TCPEU#0  6WTKPI(GKPIQNF$TWUVDKNFGKPGTDGJGNOVGPYGKDNKEJGP)GUVCNVN+PFTGK <GKNGP 9GTV WPF ,CJTGUCPICDG WOUEJNQUUGP XQP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP (D  2CICPK  C   5EJN )1.&40WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV,WUVKGTURWTGPCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



8'0'&+) &+'5+')'ª$'4&+'6ª4-'0

4175

4176

Stadtansicht von Venedig.



/CTE#PVQPKQ)KWUVKPKCP5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI*CWVUEJWPF.C\CTWU)QVVNKGD .CWHHGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG5KGIGFGT4GRWDNKM8GPGFKIÒDGTFKG6ÒTMGP$NKEMÒDGTFKG5VCFV8GPGFKI CWHFKG.CIWPG8KEVQTKCUKV\GPFNGKPGP2CNO\YGKIWPFGKPGP5EJKNFOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV&'674 %+5JCNVGPFWOJGTHÒPH2WVVKFKG6CHGNPWPFGKP$NCVVOKV&CTUVGNNWPIGPXQPGTQDGTVGP2N·V\GP JCNVGP/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ8QNVQNKPC 44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ WPF .C\CTWU )QVVNKGD .CWHHGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 5KGIG FGT   4GRWDNKM8GPGFKIÒDGTFKG6ÒTMGP<YKUEJGP\YGK5KGIGUVTQRJ·GPCWUVÒTMKUEJGP$GWVGYCHHGPGKP5QE MGNOKVGKPGT5VCFVCPUKEJVWPFFGT1TVUCPICDG0#21.+&+41/#0+#FCTCWHUVGJVGKP2WVVQXXFKG 2QTVT·VOGFCKNNQPUFGU&QIGPWPFFGUFCOCNUCNU(GNFJGTTPWPF&KRNQOCVGPHWPIKGTGPFGPUR·VGTGP&QIGP (TCPEGUEQ /QTQUKPK JCNVGPF $GKO5QEMGNUKV\GP\YGKYGKVGTG2WVVKXQPFGPGPLGFGT\YGK5EJKNFGOKV #PUKEJVGPWPF2N·PGPXQPGTQDGTVGP¤TVNKEJMGKVGPJ·NV8KEVQTKCUKV\GPFNGKPGP2CNO\YGKIWPFGKPGP 5EJKNFOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV&'674%+5JCNVGPFWOJGTHÒPH2WVVKFKG6CHGNPWPFGKP$NCVVOKV &CTUVGNNWPIGPXQPGTQDGTVGP2N·V\GPJCNVGP/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCP IGT5NI*QTUM[XIN FQTVKP<KPP 5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ8QNVQNKPC 45GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  71


4177



*QEJQXCNG<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI*CWVUEJ0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG5KGIGFGT4GRWDNKM8GPGFKIÒDGT FKG6ÒTMGP&GTCWHGKPGO5VWHGPRQUVCOGPVTVJTQPGPFG&QIGWPFUGKP)GHQNIGFKG7PVGTYGTHWPIFGT XQT KJO N MPKGPFGP $TÒFGT /WUVCHC 2CUEJC WPF *CUUCP 2CUEJC GPVIGIGPPGJOGPF#WH GKPGO \GTDTQ   EJGPGPQTKGPVCNKUEJGP4GHNGZDQIGPWPFCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGP2HGKNGPFGT/CTMWUNÌYGCWHFGP*KPVGTN·W HGPUVGJGPFNKPFGTGTJQDGPGPTGEJVGP8QTFGTRTCPMGGKPNQTDGGTWOYWPFGPGU5EJYGTVWPFKPFGTWO MT·P\VGP .KPMGP CNU 'ODNGO FGT 5GGJGTTUEJCHV 8GPGFKIU GKPGP &GNRJKP JCNVGPF /KV FGO QTKIKPCNGP   -WRHGTUVKHVWPFGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVZOO5NI'TNCPIGT5NI,WNKWU8QNVQNKPC 45GJTUEJÌP



&+''41$'470)&'40#4'06# 0'4'68#+0&#./#6+'0 70&&'4+05'. %*+15

4178

1,5:1



72

1,5:1

5KNXGUVTQ8CNKGT1UGNNCF QTQ#PPQ+  CWHFKG'TQDGTWPIFGT0CTGPVC 4GIKQPWPF (NW­0GTGVXCKP&CNOCVKGP WPFFGT+PUGN%JKQUIË5Û/Û8Û5+.8'56'4Û8#.'4+1Û&Ë &GTJGKNKIG/CTEWUVJTQPGPFTFGONMPKGPFGP&QIGPGKPG-TGW\HCJPGÒDGTTGKEJGPF+O#DUEJPKVVË #001Ë+ËË6'44#/#4+3Ë#WHGKPGT+PUGNWPFFGOCPITGP\GPFGP(GUVNCPFLGGKP¤NDCWO UVGJGPFCPFGUUGP5VCOO5KGIGUVTQRJ·GPDGHGUVKIVUKPF1DGPTHNKGIGPFGT#FNGTFKG&QIGPOÒV\GCWH FGO-QRHVTCIGPF7PVGTJCNDFGTOCTKVKOGP#PUKEJVDQIKI%*+150#4Ë)CODGTKPK2CQNWEEK 445CWDGTIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 


8'4%'..+ &+'$'.#)'470)8108'4%'..+&74%*52#0+5%*'64722'0

4179 1,5:1

1,5:1



(TCPEGUEQ )KCEKPVQ XQP 5CXQ[GP WPVGT FGT 8QTOWPFUEJCHV UGKPGT /WVVGT /CTKC %JTKUVKPC XQP   $QWTDQP   .KTC   I )GMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF XQP 5CXQ[GP KO (GNF +    8KGT <GKNGP 6GZV KP GKPGT NCPITGEJVGEMKIGP CP FGP 5EJOCNUGKVGP WPF QDGP OKV 4CPMGPYGTM IG   UEJOÒEMVGP 4CJOWPI 1DGP N WPF T LG GKP <YGKI TGUR 4CPMGPQTPCOGPV WPVGP FKG 9GTVCPICDG   Û5Û8Û$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT%0+++5%WFC\\QD/CKNNGV6H%+:XCT 6TCKPC6H%&.:::8++C  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

4181

4180





.KTCCWHUVCTMMWRHGTJCNVKIGOMNGKPGP$KNNQPUEJTÌVNKPII)GMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFXQP 5CXQ[GPKO(GNF++PUEJNKEJVGTNCPITGEJVGEMKIGT4CJOWPIXKGT<GKNGP6GZVWPVGPFKG9GTVCP ICDGÛ5Û8Û$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H%0+++XIN5%WFC\\QC/CKNNGV XIN6H%::6TCKPC6H%&.:::+:WPF++5#DDNKPMU  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGT2T·IGUEJY·EJGUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



 5QNFQ  CWH UVCTM MWRHGTJCNVKIGO $KNNQPUEJTÌVNKPI  I )GMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF#WH   WPF 7OUEJTKHV $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   %0+ ++ 5   %WFC\\Q  /CKNNGV 6H %::    6TCKPC6H:&D 445EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



-41#6+'0 &+'$'.#)'470)810-1614 %#66#41 &74%*¤56'44'+%*+5%*' 64722'0

4182



7PVGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT *GTTUEJCHV  (TCPEU   I <YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP   -CPQPGPTQJT )GYGJT WPF 5·DGN IGMTGW\V&KG XQP GKPGT -TQPG ÒDGTJÌJVG 0COGPUKPKVKCNG -CKUGT   0CRQN¾QPU+KO(GNFIGVGKNVFKG9GTVCPICDGWPF\YGKDTGPPGPFG)TCPCVGP1TKIKPCNIW­OKVFGP-QP VTQNNRWP\KGTWPIGP=Û2Û?WPF=/?UQYKGFGT)TCXWT0CWHFGT-CPVGFGU4CPFGU$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H  FQTV QJPG 0QVKGTWPI FGT -QPVTQNNOCTMGP  %0+ 8+ 5   XCT &CX  /CKNNGV 6H ::8   

FQTVQJPG0QVKGTWPIFGT-QPVTQNNOCTMGP 2CICPKCXCT6TCKPC6H%8HXCT8)  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKVªDNKEJGTWPTGIGNO·­KIGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP  &KG 5VCFV -QVQT KVCN %CVVCTQ  YCT UGKV  XGPG\KCPKUEJ &WTEJ FGP (TKGFGP XQP %CORQ (QTOKQ IGNCPIVG UKG CP   ¤UVGTTGKEJWPFCPFCU-ÌPKITGKEJ+VCNKGPCPFCUHTCP\ÌUKUEJG+NN[TKGPÒDGTIGDGPMCOUKGKO,CJTG YKGFGTCP¤UVGTTGKEJ

73


4183



 (TCPEU   I <YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP -CPQPGPTQJT )GYGJT WPF 5·DGN IG   MTGW\V&KGXQPGKPGT-TQPGÒDGTJÌJVG0COGPUKPKVKCNG-CKUGT0CRQN¾QPU+KO(GNFIGVGKNVFKG9GTVCP ICDG1TKIKPCNIW­OKVFGP-QPVTQNNRWP\KGTWPIGP=2/?WPF=NKGIGPFGU2Û?UQYKGFGT)TCXWT0CWHFGT -CPVG FGU 4CPFGU $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   FQTV QJPG 0QVKGTWPI FGT -QPVTQNNOCTMGP  %0+ 8+   5XCT&CX/CKNNGV6H::8 FQTVQJPG0QVKGTWPIFGT-QPVTQNNOCTMGP 2CICPKGXCT 6TCKPC6H%:+XCT8) 445GJTUEJÌP 

4184



(TCPE   I %#66#41    Û WPVGP IGDWPFGPG .QTDGGT\YGKIG&KG XQP GKPGT -TQPG   ÒDGTJÌJVG0COGPUKPKVKCNG-CKUGT0CRQN¾QPU+WPVGPFKG9GTVCPICDG+Û(Û\WFGP5GKVGPNWPFTLG GKP .QTDGGT\YGKI 1TKIKPCNIW­ OKV FGT -QPVTQNNRWP\KGTWPI =NKGIGPFGU 2Û? CWH FGT -CPVG FGU 4CPFGU   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   FQTV QJPG 0QVKGTWPI FGT -QPVTQNNOCTMG  %0+ 8+ 5   /CKNNGV   6H::8 FQTVQJPG0QVKGTWPIFGT-QPVTQNNOCTMG 2CICPK6TCKPC6H%:+++8)  45GJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)810<#&#4 <#4# &74%*¤56'44'+%*+5%*' 64722'0

4185



74

7PVGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT *GTTUEJCHV  (TCPEU  %GPVKOGU  XGPG\KCPKUEJG 7P\GP    I   )GRT·IVWPVGT8GTYGPFWPIGKPGUMNGKPGTGP8U5VGORGNU+PPGTJCNDGKPGTCWH'EMUVGJGPFGPXKGTGEMKIGP .KPKGPTCJOWPI FGT IGMTÌPVG CWH GKPGO $NKV\DÒPFGN UVGJGPFG PCRQNGQPKUEJG #FNGT+PPGTJCND GKPGT   XKGTGEMKIGP .KPKGPTCJOWPI FKG )GYKEJVU WPF 9GTVCPICDG /KV FGP  QTKIKPCNGP 4CPFRWP\KGTWPIGP   =52? =5$? WPF =/(? $TCWUG /CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   FQTV OKV ITQ­GO 8U5VGORGN  %0+ 8+   5   &CX  /CKNNGV  XIN 6H %:::  FQTV OKV ITQ­GO 8U5VGORGN  2CICPK    6TCKPC6H&&++XCT 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 


4187

4186

4186



(TCPEU%GPVKOGU XGPG\KCPKUEJG7P\GP I)GRT·IVWPVGT8GTYGPFWPIGKPGUMNGKPG TGP 8U5VGORGNU +PPGTJCND GKPGT CWH 'EM UVGJGPFGP XKGTGEMKIGP .KPKGPTCJOWPI FGT IGMTÌPVG CWH GK   PGO $NKV\DÒPFGN UVGJGPFG PCRQNGQPKUEJG #FNGT+PPGTJCND GKPGT XKGTGEMKIGP .KPKGPTCJOWPI FKG )G   YKEJVUWPF9GTVCPICDG/KVFGPQTKIKPCNGP4CPFRWP\KGTWPIGP=52?=5$?WPF=/(?$TCWUG/CPU HGNF6H%0+8+5&CX/CKNNGV6H%:::2CICPK6TCKPC6H&8  445GJTUEJÌP 



 (TCPEU  %GPVKOGU  XGPG\KCPKUEJG 7P\G    I +PPGTJCND GKPGTCWH'EMUVGJGPFGPXKGT GEMKIGP .KPKGPTCJOWPI FGT IGMTÌPVG CWH GKPGO $NKV\DÒPFGN UVGJGPFG PCRQNGQPKUEJG #FNGT+PPGTJCND   GKPGTXKGTGEMKIGP.KPKGPTCJOWPIFKG)GYKEJVUWPF9GTVCPICDG/KVFGPQTKIKPCNGP4CPFRWP\KGTWP IGP =5$? =5$? WPF =/(? $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   %0+ 8+ 5   &CX  /CKNNGV   6H%:::2CICPK6TCKPC6H&8+++ 45GJTUEJÌP 

.7:'/$74) &+'$'.#)'470)810.7:'/$74)&74%*(4#0<¤5+5%*'64722'0 +O(TÒJLCJTHKGNFCUHTCP\ÌUKUEJG4GXQNWVKQPUJGGTKPFCU*GT\QIVWO.WZGODWTIGKPFCUUGKV GKPGP 6GKN FGT ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP 0KGFGTNCPFG DKNFGVG +O 0QXGODGT DGICPPGP FKG (TCP\QUGP OKV FGT   $GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFV.WZGODWTI&KGXQOÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP(GNFOCTUEJCNN$GPFGTDGHGJNKIVG$GUCV\WPI \·JNVG CPP·JGTPF  /CPP FCTWPVGT  .WZGODWTIGT WPVGT FGO -QOOCPFQ FGU (TGKJGTTP XQP   $QNCPF&KG8GTVGKFKIGTXGTHÒIVGP\YCTÒDGT/WPKVKQPCDGTÒDGTYGPKI2TQXKCPV&GPPQEJMQPPVGPUKG UKEJ UGEJU /QPCVG NCPI IGIGPÒDGT FGO (GKPF DGJCWRVGP &C CDGT MGKPG #WUUKEJV CWH 'PVUCV\ DGUVCPF   GTHQNIVGFKGªDGTICDGFGT5VCFVKO,WPK

4189





4188

4189

(TCP\++6CNGTI(ÒPH\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV9GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGPWPVGP FKG<CJN+\YKUEJGP.QTDGGT\YGKIGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX&GNO 4 *GTK PGM/CKNNGV6H.::+++2TQDUV.9GKNNGT 44.GKEJVLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



5QNI#WU)NQEMGPOGVCNNIGIQUUGPG0QVCWUICDG/KVFGO*GT\QIUJWVÒDGTJÌJVGT9CRRGP UEJKNF\YKUEJGP(++9GTVCPICDGWPF,CJTGU\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H*GTKPGM/CKNNGV 6H.::+++2TQDUV.9GKNNGT 5GJTUEJÌP

 75


0+'&'4.#0&' )'0'4#.56##6'0&'40+'&'4.#0&' &+'5+')'&'40+'&'4.0&+5%*'0(.166'+09'56+0&+'070&814 &'4-ª56'5ª&#/'4+-#5

4190



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,CPXCP$[NCGT7VTGEJVCWHFKGKP9GUVKPFKGPWPFXQTFGP-ÒUVGPXQP$TCUK NKGPWPF2GTWGTTWPIGPGP5KGIGFGTPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGPÒDGTFKGURCPKUEJG(NQVVG$TWUVDKNFFGU)GPGTCN UVCVVJCNVGTU/QTKV\XQP0CUUCW1TCPKGPJCNDTFGP-QRH\WO$GVTCEJVGTIGYCPFV4KPIUWOJGTFKGOKV 5EJTKHVD·PFGTPIGMGPP\GKEJPGVGP9CRRGPFGT2TQXKP\GP)GNFGTP*QNNCPF<GGNCPF7VTGEJV(TKGUNCPF 9GUVHTKGUNCPF WPF )TQPKPIGP QDGP FCU XQP \YGK *·PFGP IGJCNVGPG 2HGKNDÒPFGN#WH GKPGT \YKUEJGP   .QTDGGT\YGKIGP UVGJGPFGP -CTVWUEJG FGT IGMTÌPVG WPF XQO *QUGPDCPFQTFGP WO\QIGPG 9CRRGPUEJKNF   FGU)GPGTCNUVCVVJCNVGTUWPVGP5EJTKHVDCPFOKVFGUUGP9CJNURTWEJ+G/CKPVKGPFTC[OOI *CYMKPU6H:8+++-2-X.QQP++5 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTMN&TWEMUVGNNGXQT\ÒINKEJ 

#.-/##4 &+'$'.#)'470)810#.-/##4&74%*52#0+5%*'64722'0 8QP FGT CO  ,WNKGTQDGTVGP5VCFV*CCTNGOYCPFVGPUKEJFKG6TWRRGPFGU&QP(TGFGTKEQFGU 5QJPGUFGUURCPKUEJGP(GNFJGTTP*GT\QI#NDCIGIGP#NMOCCT&KG$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFVWPFFKG'T UVÒTOWPIUCVVCEMGPDNKGDGPLGFQEJGTHQNINQUUQFCUUFKG$GNCIGTGTCO1MVQDGTYKGFGTCD\KGJGP OWUUVGP'UGZKUVKGTGPCWUFKGUGT<GKV\YGKXGTUEJKGFGPGUV·FVKUEJG0QVIGNFGOKUUKQPGPXQO5GRVGODGT WPFXQO1MVQDGT

4192 4191







76

4193

'KPUGKVKIGT$NGK<KPP0QVVCNGTQ, 'OKUUKQPXQO5GRVGODGT KP)W­VGEJPKMIGHGTVKIVI <YGKIGUEJQUUKIGT<KPPGPVWTO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H+  45GJTUEJÌP



-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTI)GIQUUGPG0QVCWUICDGCWUGKPGT$NGK<KPP.GIKGTWPI'OKUUKQPXQO 1MVQDGTFGU,CJTGU<YGKIGUEJQUUKIGT<KPPGPVWTOQDGP#KO(GNFFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN&KG+PKVKCNG #QDGPFKGTÌOKUEJG9GTV\KHHGTWPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP )GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H+ 45GJTUEJÌP



5VÒDGTQ, 'OKUUKQPXQO1MVQDGT I'KPUGKVKIGIGIQUUGPG0QVCWUICDGCWUGKPGT$NGK <KPP.GIKGTWPI <YGKIGUEJQUUKIGT <KPPGPVWTO QDGP # KO (GNF FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN   OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGTD/CKNNGV5WRRN6H 45GJTUEJÌP




4195

4194





'KPUGKVKIGT8KGTVGNVCNGTI)GIQUUGPG0QVCWUICDGCWUGKPGT$NGK<KPP.GIKGTWPI'OKUUKQP XQO1MVQDGTFGU,CJTGU<YGKIGUEJQUUKIGT<KPPGPVWTO\YKUEJGPFGPDGKFGP'PF\KHHGTPFGT,CJTGU\CJN OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H+ 45GJTUEJÌP



-W2T·IWPIQ,1JPG9GTVCPICDGI<YGKIGUEJQUUKIGT4WPFVWTOOKV5RKV\FCEJ&KG+PKVKCNG# OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV0GWOCPP  4+PVGTGUUCPVGªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



*KUVQTKUEJGT *KPVGTITWPF WPF 8GTYGPFWPIU\YGEM FKGUGT 2T·IWPI UKPF WPDGMCPPV 'U KUV FCJGT HTCINKEJ QD GU UKEJ   JKGTDGKWOGKPG0QVOÒP\GCWUFGT<GKVFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFVQFGTCDGTWOGKPG/CTMGTGURWOGKP<GKEJGPFGU QFGT,CJTJWPFGTVUJCPFGNV+PFGUN·UUVUKEJWPUEJYGTGTMGPPGPFCUUCNU5EJTÌVNKPIFGUXQTNKGIGPFGP'ZGO RNCTU GKPG ·NVGTG WPDGUVKOOVG 2T·IWPI FKGPVG 8QO HTÒJGTGP )GRT·IG KUV CWH FGT GKPGP 5GKVG GKP .QTDGGTMTCP\ GT   MGPPDCT FGT QHHGPDCT GKPG OGJT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV WOUEJNQUU CWH FGT CPFGTGP 5GKVG KUV FGWVNKEJ FGT $WEJUVCDG -   GKPGT\GKNKIQTKGPVKGTVGP#WHUEJTKHVUKEJVDCT

#/56'4&#/ &+'$.1%-#&'810#/56'4&#/&74%*64722'0&'4)'0'4#. 56##6'0 *QNNCPF<GGNCPFWPFFKGUÒFNKEJGP2TQXKP\GPJCVVGPCO0QXGODGTFKG2C\KHKMCVKQPXQP)GPV XGTCDUEJKGFGVFGTGP*CWRV\KGNFKGIGOGKPUEJCHVNKEJG$GUGKVKIWPIFGTURCPKUEJGP)GYCNVJGTTUEJCHVDGKP JCNVGVG &C UKEJ #OUVGTFCO UVCPFJCHV YGKIGTVG FGT 'TJGDWPI IGIGP 2JKNKRR ++ DGK\WVTGVGP DGICPPGP   5VTGKVMT·HVGFGT5VCCVGPXQP*QNNCPFKPFGPNGV\VGP6CIGPFGU,CJTGUOKVFGT$NQEMCFGFKGOKVFGT #WHICDGFGT5VCFVCO(GDTWCTGPFGVG5EJQPCO,CPWCTDGUEJNQUUFGT/CIKUVTCVFCU4CVUUKN DGT GKP\WUEJOGN\GP WPF FCTCWU 0QVOÒP\GP \W    WPF  5VÒDGT UEJNCIGP \W NCUUGP &KG PCEJ   FKGUGO 4CVUGPVUEJGKF IGRT·IVGP UKNDGTPGP -NKRRGP YWTFGP GTUV CO  ,CPWCT KP 8GTMGJT IGUGV\V PWP   CDGTKPHQNIGFGTXGTUEJNGEJVGTVGP5KVWCVKQPUEJQPOKVGKPGTJÌJGTGP$GYGTVWPIP·ONKEJOKV „WPF1/45VÒDGTVTQV\FGTGPVURTGEJGPFFGO$GUEJNW­XQO,CPWCTPKGFTKIGTGP9GTVCPICDGPKO )GRT·IG 'U GZKUVKGTGP \YGKITWPFU·V\NKEJXGTUEJKGFGPG)TWPFV[RGPFKGUGT#OUVGTFCOGT-NKRRGP&GT GKPG6[RWUKUVXGTVTGVGPFWTEJGKPQFGTCWEJ\YGKUGKVKIG)GRT·IGFKGCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGKPGPITQ­GP 5VGORGNOKVFGO5VCFVYCRRGPFGT9GTVCPICDGWPFFGT,CJTGU\CJNKOIGRGTNVGP4WPFCWHYGKUVWPFGKPG \YGKVG MNGKPG 5VGORGNWPI OKV FGO -QPVTQNN\GKEJGP FGU XGTCPVYQTVNKEJGP 5KNDGTUEJOKGFU VTCIGP &GT   \YGKVG6[RWUDGUVGJVCWUGKPUGKVKIGP-NKRRGPFKGOKVFTGKXGTUEJKGFGPGP5VGORGNWPIGPIGMGPP\GKEJPGV YWTFGP P·ONKEJ OKV GKPGT ITQ­GP 5VGORGNWPI OKV FGO HTGK UVGJGPFGP IGMTÌPVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNF GKPGT   YGKVGTGPOKVFGT,CJTGU\CJNWPF9GTVDG\GKEJPWPIKOXGTVKGHVGP(GNFWPFGKPGTFTKVVGPOKVFGO-QPVTQNN \GKEJGPFGUXGTCPVYQTVNKEJGP5KNDGTUEJOKGFU8QO\WGTUVIGPCPPVGP6[RGZKUVKGTVGKP'ZGORNCTFCUUGKV FGO ,CJTG  KP $CUGN CTEJKXKGTV YQTFGP KUV &GT \YGKVG 6[R KUV GTUVOCNU KP FGO  XGTNGIVGP   #TGPFVʼnUEJGP/ÒP\DWEJCDIGDKNFGVWPFFQMWOGPVKGTVYQTFGP&CFKG#OUVGTFCOGT4CVURTQVQMQNNGMGKPG *KPYGKUG CWH \YGK \GKVNKEJ XGTUEJKGFGPG UV·FVKUEJG /ÒP\GOKUUKQPGP CWU FGT <GKV FGT $NQEMCFG XQP    IGDGP JCV OCP GTYQIGP QD FKG /ÒP\GP FGU \YGKVGP 6[RU PCEJ FGT $GNCIGTWPI\YGKHGNU QJPGCDGTXQTGPVUVCPFGPUKPF&COCPCDGTPKEJVXQPFGT8QNNUV·PFKIMGKVFGTCWHWPUIGMQOOGPGP UEJTKHVNKEJGPªDGTNKGHGTWPICWUIGJGPMCPPKUVGUWPUGTGU'TCEJVGPUYCJTUEJGKPNKEJFCUUCWEJFGT\YGKVG )TWPFV[RWUFKGUGT#OUVGTFCOGT0QVRT·IWPIGP\WT<GKVFGT$NQEMCFGGPVUVCPFGPKUV

4196



1MVQIQPCNG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTI)GMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT5VCFVKO(GNFFKGIGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN+PPGTJCNDGKPGUOKV$NWOGPIGUEJOÒEMVGP.QTDGGTMTCP\GUFKGFTGK\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVg2g #4Û'6g(1g RTQCTKUGVHQEKU #WHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGKPGMNGKPG\WU·V\NKEJGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGO RGNWPIOKVFGO<GKEJGP=.ÌVNCORGUQNFGGTXCCULG?GKPGUWPDGMCPPVGPHÒTFKG5VGORGNWPIXGTCPVYQTVNK EJGP5KNDGTUEJOKGFUZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H 8U &GNOXCP)GNFGTC /CKNNGV6H+8 .GKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCICWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 77


4198

4197 4199







'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTI&GTXKGTGEMKIG5EJTÌVNKPIOKVNGKEJVIGUVWV\VGP'EMGP KUVIGMGPP\GKEJPGVFWTEJFTGKXGTUEJKGFGPG5VGORGNWPIGPKPFGT/KVVGFGT5VCFVUEJKNFQDGPFKG/CTMG FGU XGTCPVYQTVNKEJGP 5KNDGTUEJOKGFU /QPQITCOO CWU FGP +PKVKCNGP 2 WPF ) OÌINKEJGTYGKUG HÒT 4   2KIIG )QXGTV\  WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU WPF FKG 9GTV\CJN  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H     &GNOXCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H8 5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIG*CNDVCNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTI&GTXKGTGEMKIG5EJTÌVNKPIOKVIGUVWV\VGP'EMGP KUVIGMGPP\GKEJPGVFWTEJFTGKXGTUEJKGFGPG5VGORGNWPIGPKPFGT/KVVGFGT5VCFVUEJKNFQDGPFKG/CTMG GKPGU WPDGMCPPVGP XGTCPVYQTVNKEJGP 5KNDGTUEJOKGFU =(GWGTGKUGP? WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU WPF FKG 9GTV\CJN   ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&GNOXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H8  5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTI)GMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT5VCFVKO(GNFFKG XQPFGT-TQPGIGVGKNVG9GTVCPICDG85WPFFKGXQO5EJKNFIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN/KVGKPGTMNGKPGP\W U·V\NKEJGPUEJKNFHÌTOKIGP5VGORGNWPIOKVFGO<GKEJGP=.ÌVNCORGUQNFGGTXCCULG?GKPGUWPDGMCPPVGPHÒT FKG5VGORGNWPIXGTCPVYQTVNKEJGP5KNDGTUEJOKGFUZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXCP)GNFGTC /CKNNGV6H+8 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'$'5'6<70)&'42418+0<*1..#0&&74%*(4#0<¤5+5%*' 64722'0

4200

2:1



2:1

&WMCVGPI4KVVGTUVGJGPFTKPXQNNGT4ÒUVWPI5EJYGTVWPF2HGKNDÒPFGNJCNVGPFKO(GNF   'KPG OKV 4QNNYGTM XGT\KGTVG WPF OKV GKPGT .QTDGGTIKTNCPFG DGJCPIGPG 6CHGN OKV HÒPH <GKNGP   5EJTKHV7PVGPFGT5VCFVUEJKNFXQP#OUVGTFCO/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVc&Ù)'&#%*6'0+5Ü8Ù &Ù/706'Ü8Ù#/56'4&#/$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVQJPG#PICDGFGT9GTVUVWHG  &GNO 4 (D/CKNNGVXIN6H:+ FQTVCNUGKPHCEJGT&WMCV   )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N4CPFHGJNGTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ &KGUGT/GJTHCEJFWMCVYWTFGY·JTGPFFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP$GUGV\WPIFGT2TQXKP\*QNNCPFCWUFGP)QNFDGUV·PFGPFGT $ÒTIGTIGRT·IV

78




4201



&QRRGNVGT&WMCVQP FQRRGNVGT5KNDGTPGT4GKVGT I4GKVGTKPXQNNGT4ÒUVWPIOKVIG\ÒEMVGO 5EJYGTV T WPVGP FGT IGMTÌPVG .ÌYGPUEJKNF FGT 2TQXKP\ *QNNCPF)GMTÌPVGT .ÌYGPUEJKNF XQP \YGK   IGMTÌPVGP.ÌYGPIGJCNVGPWPVGPFGT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT5VCFV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&CX &GNOC 4 /CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT 4-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP  &KGUGTWPFFGTPCEJUVGJGPFG&QRRGNFWMCVQPYWTFGPY·JTGPFFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP$GUGV\WPIFGT2TQXKP\*QNNCPFCWU FGPRGTUÌPNKEJGP5KNDGTDGUV·PFGPFGT$ÒTIGTIGRT·IV

4202



&QRRGNVG &WMCVQPMNKRRG FQRRGNVGT 5KNDGTPGT 4GKVGT    I 4GKVGT KP XQNNGT 4ÒUVWPI OKV IG   \ÒEMVGO5EJYGTVTWPVGPFGTIGMTÌPVG.ÌYGPUEJKNFFGT2TQXKP\*QNNCPF)GMTÌPVGT.ÌYGPUEJKNFXQP \YGKIGMTÌPVGP.ÌYGPIGJCNVGPWPVGPFGT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT5VCFV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX #PO&GNOD 4 /CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTVCWHTWPFGO5EJTÌVNKPI   44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCOKP&QRRGNUEJNCIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4203



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV 'JTGPICDG CP YCEJJCDGPFG #OUVGTFCOGT $ÒTIGT Y·JTGPF FGT   HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUGV\WPI FGT 2TQXKP\ *QNNCPF +PPGTJCND GKPGT TWPFGP 7OJGIWPI CWU (CUEJKPGP FKG   8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGT5VCFVKO*CDKVFGT/KPGTXCUVGJGPFXXOKVGKPGT.CP\GWPFFGO5VCFVUEJKNFFGP -QRHTIGYCPFV\WGKPGT(NQVVGCOTGEJVGP$KNFTCPF0GDGPKJTUVGJVGKP.ÌYGNGKPGOHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 6TWRRGPCWHOCTUEJ CO NKPMGP $KNFTCPF GPVIGIGPDNKEMGPF5GEJU\GKNKIGT 6GZV QDGP $NCVVIKTNCPFGWPVGP GKPOKV\YGK$NÒVGP\YGKIGPFWTEJUGV\VGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI-2-X.QQP+++5 5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 79


4204

4205

4206

&+'$'+.')70)&'47047*'0+0&'456#&6#/56'4&#/ 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,CP $QUMCO CWH FKG $GKNGIWPI FGT 7PTWJGP KP FGT 5VCFV +P DGYGIVGT 5GG   0GRVWPUVGJGPFCWHGKPGOXQP\YGK2HGTFGPIG\QIGPGP9CIGPFGUUGP*GEMFGTIGMTÌPVG#OUVGTFCOGT 5VCFVUEJKNF\KGTV+O8QTFGTITWPF\YGK5GGXÌIGNKPGKPGOUEJYKOOGPFGP0GUV<YGK5GGXÌIGNKPGKPGO CWH TWJKIGT 5GG UEJYKOOGPFGP 0GUV #O *QTK\QPV FKG CWHIGJGPFG 5QPPG QDGP 5EJTKHVDCPF OKV GKPGT   UGEJU\GKNKIGP#WHUEJTKHV+O#DUEJPKVVFKGTÌOKUEJG,CJTGU\CJNQDGTJCNDFGT5KIPCVWTFGU5VGORGNUEJPGK FGTUOOI-2-X.QQP+8XIN5 FQTV'ZGORNCTGQJPG5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTUK IPCVWT 5NI,WNKWUXIN 2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$'4)'012<11/ &'4'065#6<810$'4)'012<11/ 



80

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,CPXCP.QQH/KFFGNDWTICWHFGP'PVUCV\XQP$GTIGPQR<QQOWPFFGP5KGI ÒDGT FKG URCPKUEJG (NQVVG KO /ÒPFWPIUIGDKGV FGT 5EJGNFG #WH 9GUVGP CWUIGTKEJVGVGT 2NCP FGU XQP   $GTIGPQR<QQODKU)QGUTGKEJGPFGP/ÒPFWPIUIGDKGVUFGT5EJGNFGOKV\CJNTGKEJGP5EJKHHGPCWHFGO 9CUUGT7PVGPGKPCWHNCVGKPKUEJXGTHCUUVGTFTGK\GKNKIGT6GZVCWHGKPGT-CTVWUEJG(ÒPH\GJP<GKNGP6GZV WPVGPIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT2TQXKP\<GGNCPFOOI-2-X.QQP++5 4QQXGTU #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,CPXCP.QQH/KFFGNDWTICWHFGP'PVUCV\XQP$GTIGPQR<QQOWPFFGP5KGI ÒDGTFKGURCPKUEJG(NQVVGKO/ÒPFWPIUIGDKGVFGT5EJGNFG#WH9GUVGPCWUIGTKEJVGVGTWPFOKV\CJNTGK EJGPIGQITCHKUEJGP$G\GKEJPWPIGPCWUIGYKGUGPGT2NCPFGU)GDKGVUWOFKGJGWVKIG*CNDKPUGN$GXGTNCPF OKVGKPGO(GNFNCIGTGKPGO6TWRRGPCWHOCTUEJXQTFGT(GUVWPI$GTIGPWPFGKPGT$CNNWPIXQP5EJKHHGP CWHFGT 1UVGT 5EJGNFG7PVGPGKPCWHPKGFGTN·PFKUEJXGTHCUUVGT\GJP\GKNKIGT6GZVCWHGKPGOJCNDOQPF HÌTOKICWHIGURCPPVGP6WEJ(ÒPH\GJP<GKNGP6GZVWPVGPIGMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT2TQXKP\<GGNCPF OOI-2-X.QQP++54QQXGTU  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\




$1//'. &+'$'.#)'470)810$1//'. <#.6$1//'. &74%*52#0+5%*' 64722'0 &CU UVTCVGIKUEJ YKEJVKI CWH FGT XQP FGP (NÒUUGP /CCU WPF 9CCN IGDKNFGVGP +PUGN $QOOGNGTYCCTF   IGNGIGPG$QOOGN JGWVG<CNVDQOOGN YCTKO#EJV\KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIUVCTMWOM·ORHV&KGKOYGUVNKEJGP )GNFGTNCPF IGNGIGPG 5VCFV YWTFG OGJTHCEJ XQP URCPKUEJGP 6TWRRGP DGNCIGTV MQPPVG CDGT PKEJV GKPIG   PQOOGPYGTFGP2TKP\/QTKV\XQP1TCPKGPNKG­$QOOGNKPMÒT\GUVGT<GKVUVCTMDGHGUVKIGPWPFDG\CJNVG FKG5QNFCVGPOKV0QVVCNGTPFKGCWUFGOKPFGT5VCFVXQTIGHWPFGPGP5KNDGTIGRT·IVYWTFGP

4207

1,5:1



1,5:1

0QVVCNGT\W5VÒDGTQ,1JPG9GTVCPICDGI/10'Û018#Û(#%6#Û$1'/'Û5 Û64+Û/KV4QNNYGTMXGT\KGTVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF\WFGP5GKVGP\YGKGKPY·TVUIGYCPFVG.ÌYGPIGOGKPUCO GKP 5EJYGTV JCNVGPF=)TCPCVCRHGN? &84“ · 0'%'55+6#6+5 · 1285 &TGKVÒTOKIG 5VCFVDWTI KO   QHHGPGP6QTGKPG-CPQPGT$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&CX&GNO 4#DDXCT  /CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT8GTMCFG6HXCT 445GJTUEJÌP 

4208

1,5:1



1,5:1

5VÒDGTQ,=)TCPCVCRHGN?/106#g018#g(#%6#g$1'/'/KV4QNNYGTMXGT\KGTVGT9CRRGP UEJKNF&84“0'%'55+6#6+51285+O<GPVTWOGKPGU5VÒDGTMTGW\GUGKP5EJYGTV\YKUEJGP \YGK5VGTPTQUGVVGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT/CKNNGV6HXCT8GTMCFG6HXCT  44.GKEJVG#WUDTÒEJGCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP  81


Eroberung von Breda 1581 durch die Malkontenten.

$4'&# &+'$'.#)'470)810$4'&#&74%*64722'0&'4)'0'4#.56##6'0 &CFKGCWUFGWVUEJGP5QNFCVGPDGUVGJGPFG)CTPKUQPXQP$TGFCFGOURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKIVTGWGTIGDGPYCT YWTFGFKG5VCFVCD#WIWUVXQP6TWRRGPFGT)GPGTCNUVCCVGPDGNCIGTV#O1MVQDGTGTMN·TVGUKEJ FKG $GUCV\WPI DGTGKV IGIGP HTGKGP #D\WI FGP 0KGFGTN·PFGTP FKG 5VCFV \W ÒDGTNCUUGP &KG $GNCIGTWPI   DTCEJVG XGTUEJKGFGPG 0QVIGNFCWUICDGP JGTXQT #O  #WIWUV YWTFGP UKNDGTPG -NKRRGP XGTUEJKGFGPGT   0QOKPCNGIGRT·IV#PHCPI5GRVGODGTGTHQNIVGFKG#WUICDGGKPGT\YGKVGP5GTKGUKNDGTPGT-NKRRGPUQYKG XQP0QVOÒP\GPCWHTWPFGPWPFGEMKIGP$NGK<KPPUEJTÌVNKPIGP.GV\VGTGUKPFDGTGKVUKO0QXGODGT YKGFGTGKPIG\QIGPYQTFGP

4209

4210



'KPUGKVKIG0QVVCNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTI'OKUUKQPXQO#WIWUVFGU,CJTGU/KV\YGK 5VGORGNWPIGP+PFGT/KVVGGKPITQ­GTTWPFGT5VGORGN}+0Û&'4Û0116Û$Û#Û+Û&GT5VCFV UEJKNF1DGPMNGKPGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGORGNWPIOKVGKPGO,CIFJQTPZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H&GNO 4 XCP)GNFGT FQTVCNU)WNFGPCWUIGYKGUGP /CKNNGV6H:8++  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌP 



'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTI#WUIGIGDGPKO5GRVGODGTFGU,CJTGU/KVHÒPH5VGORGNWP IGP KO <GPVTWO GKP ITQ­GT TWPFGT 5VGORGN OKV #WH WPF 7OUEJTKHV KP FGP XKGT 'EM\QPGP LG GKP   CPFGTUCTVKIGTMNGKPGTGT5VGORGNQDGP<KPPGPVWTON,CIFJQTPT.KNKGWPVGPFKGTÌOKUEJG9GTV\CJNKP XGTVKGHVGO4GEJVGEM$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&GNOXCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H:8++  #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

82




&+''+00#*/'810$4'&#&74%*&+')'0'4#.56##6'0

4211

1,5:1

1,5:1



)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPYCJTUEJGKPNKEJWPUKIPKGTVG#TDGKVXQP)GTCTFXCP$[NCGT&QTFTGEJV CWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP$TGFC+PPGTJCNDGKPGUXQP(GUVWPIUOCWGTPWOIGDGPGP)GY·UUGTUHÒPH-TKGIGT CWHGKPGO6QTHMCJP(ÒPH\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVQDGPFGTPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGTUVGKIGPFG.ÌYGOKV5·DGNWPF 2HGKNDÒPFGN PGDGP FGO IGMTÌPVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNF XQP 2TKP\ /QTKV\ XQP 1TCPKGP  OO  I   -2-XIN FQTVKP5KNDGT X.QQP+54QQXGTU  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

4212



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGYCJTUEJGKPNKEJWPUKIPKGTVG#TDGKVXQP)GTCTFXCP$[NCGT&QTFTGEJVCWHFKG'KP PCJOGXQP$TGFC+PPGTJCNDGKPGUXQP(GUVWPIUOCWGTPWOIGDGPGP)GY·UUGTUHÒPH-TKGIGTCWHGKPGO 6QTHMCJP(ÒPH\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVQDGPFGTPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGTUVGKIGPFG.ÌYGOKV5·DGNWPF2HGKNDÒPFGN PGDGP FGO IGMTÌPVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNF XQP 2TKP\ /QTKV\ XQP 1TCPKGP  OO  I -2-    X.QQP+54QQXGTU (GKPG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 83


&+'$'.#)'470)810$4'&#&74%*52#0+5%*'64722'0 'PFG,WNKUEJNQUUGP5VTGKVMT·HVGFGU$CTQPUXQP5RKPQNCFKG5VCFVGKP&KG8GTVGKFKIGTMQPPVGPUKEJ HCUV GKP ,CJT NCPI DGJCWRVGP FQEJ UEJNKG­NKEJ MCOGP UKG PKEJV WOJKP FKG 5VCFV FGO (GKPF CO  ,WNK   \WÒDGTNCUUGP#PHCPIUXGTUWEJVGOCPFKG#WUOÒP\WPIXQP0QVIGNF\WXGTOGKFGPKO,CPWCT UEJTKVV OCP UEJNKG­NKEJ \WT 2T·IWPI XQP 5KNDGTOÒP\GP KP -NKRRGPHQTO KP FGP FCTCWH HQNIGPFGP (TÒJ   LCJTUOQPCVGPKPHQNIGOCPIGNPFGT'FGNOGVCNNTGUGTXGPUQFCPP\WT#WUICDGMWRHGTPGP-TGFKVIGNFGU&KG )GIGPUVGORGNWPI XQP )QNFOÒP\GPFWTEJFKG5VCFV$TGFCY·JTGPFFKGUGTTWPFGKPL·JTKIGP$GNCIGTWPI \·JNV \W FGP PQEJ PKEJV P·JGT GTHQTUEJVGP $GTGKEJGP FGT PKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP 0WOKUOCVKM 0CEJ WPUGTGO   'TOGUUGPFÒTHVGFKG-GPP\GKEJPWPIFGTY·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPIKPPGTJCNDFGT5VCFVXQTJCPFGPGPQFGT MWTUKGTGPFGP)QNFOÒP\GPXQTIGPQOOGPYQTFGPUGKPWOFGOOCTMKGTVGP)GNFGKPGPQOKPGNNG9GTVGT JÌJWPI \W XGTNGKJGP FKG ÒDGT FGO PQTOCNGP -WTU NCI &GT /CIKUVTCV MQPPVG UKEJ FWTEJ FKGUGU #IKQ   MWT\HTKUVKIGKPGP-TGFKVXGTUEJCHHGPFGTPCEJFGT$GGPFKIWPIFGT$GNCIGTWPIDGKO7OVCWUEJD\YDGK FGT 'KP\KGJWPI FGT IGMGPP\GKEJPGVGP WPF JGWVG UGJT UGNVGPGP /ÒP\GP \WIWPUVGP FGT $GUKV\GT YKGFGT   CWUIGINKEJGPYWTFG

4213

1,5:1

1,5:1



)QNFIWNFGP  4GKEJGPUVGKPGT #WUDGWVG FGT *GT\ÌIG ,QCEJKO *GKPTKEJ ++ ,QJCPP WPF )GQTI ++   XQP5EJNGUKGP/ÒPUVGTDGTI1GNUOKV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG9CRRGPUEJKNFI8KGTHGN FKIGTCPFGP5GKVGPXGT\KGTVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN&GTJGKNKIG%JTKUVQRJGTWUUVGJGPFX XGKPGP$CWOUVCOOOKVFGT4GEJVGPJCNVGPFCWHFGTNKPMGP5EJWNVGTFCU%JTKUVWUMKPFVTCIGPF/ÒP\G (D \W  ( W 5 \W  /ÒUGNGT \W  )GIGPUVGORGN XCP $GGM 'PE[MNQRGFKG $F +++   $KLNCIG 5  #  $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XCP )GNFGT KP ,CCTDQGM XQQT /WPV GP 2GPPKPIMWPFG $F    5H/CKNNGVXIN-CVCNQIVGZV5WRRN5 FQTVGKPGQUOCPKUEJG)QNFOÒP\GOKVGPVURTG EJGPFGO)GIGPUVGORGN   )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV/ÒP\GNGKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP&KG)GIGPUVGORGNWPI KPHQNIG#WUDTWEJUFGU)GIGPUVGORGNYGTM\GWIUPKEJVICP\XQNNUV·PFKIUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP 

4214

1,5:1



84

1,5:1

)QNFIWNFGPFGT5VCFV*CODWTIOKV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG9CRRGPUEJKNFI&GT JGKNKIG2GVTWUUVGJGPFJCNDNOKV$WEJWPF5EJNÒUUGNWPVGP0GUUGNDNCVVUEJKNF4GKEJUCRHGNKO(GNF &CU)CP\GWOUEJNQUUGPXQPGKPGO&TGKRCUU/ÒP\G(D)CGFGEJGPU)GIGPUVGORGNXCP $GGM'PE[MNQRGFKG$F+++$KLNCIG5#$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXCP)GNFGTKP,CCTDQGMXQQT/WPV GP2GPPKPIMWPFG$F5H  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV/ÒP\GHCUVUGJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGNUGJTUEJÌP 


4216

4217 4215



'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTI)GMTÌPVGT.ÌYGUVGKIGPFNOKV2HGKNDÒPFGNWPF5EJYGTV 0CJG FGT 'EMGP XKGT 5VGORGNWPIGP N GKPG UEJKNFHÌTOKIG OKV GKPGO ,CIFJQTP QDGP GKPG N·PIUQXCNG   OKV FGT 9GTV\KHHGT T GKPG UEJKNFHÌTOKIG OKV FGO 9CRRGPDKNF FGT 5VCFV WPVGP GKPG TWPFG OKV GKPGT   HÒPHDN·VVTKIGP 4QUG  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   &GNO  XCP )GNFGT  D   /CKNNGV6H:8++ 45GJTUEJÌP 



'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTI)GMTÌPVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNF0CJGFGT 'EMGP XKGT 5VGORGNWPIGP N WPF T LG GKPG UEJKNFHÌTOKIG OKV FGO 9CRRGPDKNF FGT 5VCFV QDGP GKPG   N·PIUQXCNG OKV FGT 9GTV\KHHGT WPVGP GKPG TWPFG OKV GKPGT HÒPHDN·VVTKIGP 4QUG  Z  OO   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&GNOCXCP)GNFGTE/CKNNGV6H:8++  #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIG -W-NKRRG \W  5VÒDGT   I $4'&#  1$5'55# QDGP FKG TÌOKUEJG 9GTV\KHHGT   WPVGPFGT5VCFVUEJKNF\YKUEJGPFGTIGVGKNVGP,CJTGU\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H XCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H:8+++ 5GJTUEJÌP





&+'4ª%-'41$'470)810$4'&#&74%*64722'0&'4 )'0'4#.56##6'0

4218



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,CP XCP .QQH /KFFGNDWTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP $TGFC FWTEJ 5VTGKVMT·HVG   WPVGT(ÒJTWPIFGU5VCVVJCNVGTU2TKP\(TGFGTKM*GPFTKMXQP0CUUCW1TCPKGP#O7HGTGKPGU9CUUGTNCWHGU FKGYGKDNKEJG8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGT5VCFVUKV\GPFXXWOUEJNQUUGPXQPFGTDGKKJTNMPKGPFGP2GTUQPKHK MCVKQPFGU*WPIGTU#WHFGO)GY·UUGTGKP6QTHMCJPNFGP$QIGPGKPGT$TÒEMGFWTEJHCJTGPF#WHFGO IGIGPÒDGT NKGIGPFGP 7HGT FKG 5KNJQWGVVG FGT 5VCFV WPVGTJCND FGU IGMTÌPVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNFGU XQP 2TKP\   (TGFGTKM*GPFTKM1DGPFGT0COG,GJQXCUXQPGKPGO5VGTPGPFTGKGEMWOU·WOVKP5VTCJNGPUQYKGGKP CWU GKPGT 9QNMG N JGTXQTVTGVGPFGT IGRCP\GTVGT #TO GKP 5EJYGTV JCNVGPF8KGT\GJP\GKNKIGT 6GZV CWH   GKPGOCWHIGURCPPVGP6WEJ4KPIUWOJGT9GKPNCWDQDGPFGTIGMTÌPVG9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT)GPGTCNUVCCVGP FGT0KGFGTNCPFGOOI-2-X.QQP++XIN54QQXGTU#PO  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCOKP-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  85


Einnahme der Stadt Campen am 20.7.1578 durch die Truppen Wilhelms von Oranie

%#/2'0 &+'$'.#)'470)810%#/2'0&74%*64722'0&'4)'0'4#.56##6'0 0CEJ FGO #D\WI FGU ITÌ­VGP 6GKNU FGT URCPKUEJGP 6TWRRGP DGJCWRVGVG UKEJ KP %CORGP PQEJ GKPG   OKVMÌPKIUVTGWGPITÌ­VGPVGKNUFGWVUEJGP5QNFCVGPDGUGV\VG)CTPKUQP+O,WPKYWTFGFKG5VCFVXQP 6TWRRGP FGT )GPGTCNUVCCVGP WPVGT (ÒJTWPI FGU )GPGTCNU )TCH XQP 4GPPGPDGTI GKPIGUEJNQUUGP &KG   HTGOFGP.CPFUMPGEJVGJKGNVGPPKEJVNCPIGFWTEJDGTGKVUCO,WPKYKNNKIVGPUKGGKPCD\W\KGJGPWPF FGP0KGFGTN·PFGTPJKGTFCU(GNF\WÒDGTNCUUGP5EJQPCO/CKJCVVGFGT/CIKUVTCVGKPGP'PVUEJNW­ XGTCDUEJKGFGV FCU 4CVUUKNDGT \W QRHGTP WO FCTCWU MNKRRGPHÌTOKIG /ÒP\GP JGT\WUVGNNGP OKV FGPGP   FKG5QNFCVGPFGT)CTPKUQPDG\CJNVYGTFGPUQNNVGP&KGUGU5KNDGTIGNFYWTFGCDGTGTUVCO,WPKKPPGT JCNDFGTPWPUEJQPCDIGTKGIGNVGP5VCFVKP8GTMGJTIGDTCEJV'KPG\YGKVG2T·IGUGTKGWPVGT8GTYGPFWPI GKPGT PGWGP 2WP\G PGWGT 4GEJVGEMUVGORGN OKV FGO 5VCFVPCOGP %#/2'0  GTHQNIVG PQEJ KO ,WNK FGU   ,CJTGUCNUQMWT\XQTFGO'PFGFGT$GNCIGTWPI

4219

4220



'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTCWUIGIGDGPKO,WNKI/KVUKGDGPXGTUEJKGFGPGP5VGO RGNWPIGP KP FGT /KVVG GKPG UEJKNFHÌTOKIG OKV FGO 5VCFVYCRRGP \YKUEJGP \YGK TGEJVGEMKIGP OKV FGT   9GTVCPICDG<TGUR56QDGP\YGKNCPITGEJVGEMKIGOKV':64'/8/TGUR58$5+&+8/WPVGPGKP NCPITGEJVGEMKIGT OKV FGT 1TVUCPICDG %#/2'0 QDGTJCND GKPGT MNGKPGTGP TGEJVGEMKIGP 5VGORGNWPI OKV   FGT ,CJTGU\CJN  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   &GNO  4   XCP )GNFGT  D   /CKNNGV6H::++ 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



'KPUGKVKIG *CNDVCNGTMNKRRG \W  5VÒDGT  CWUIGIGDGP KO ,WNK  I /KV UKGDGP XGTUEJKGFGPGP   5VGORGNWPIGPKPFGT/KVVGGKPGUEJKNFHÌTOKIGOKVFGO5VCFVYCRRGP\YKUEJGP\YGKTGEJVGEMKIGPOKVFGT 9GTVCPICDG<+TGUR56QDGP\YGKNCPITGEJVGEMKIGOKV':64'/8/TGUR58$5+&+8/WPVGPGKP NCPITGEJVGEMKIGT OKV FGT 1TVUCPICDG %#/2'0 QDGTJCND GKPGT MNGKPGTGP TGEJVGEMKIGP 5VGORGNWPI OKV   FGT ,CJTGU\CJN  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   &GNO  4   XCP )GNFGT  C   /CKNNGV6H::++ 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

86


&'8'06'4 &+'$'.#)'470)810&'8'06'4 0CEJFGT$GUKV\GTITGKHWPIXQP%CORGPCO,WPK\QIFKGXQP)TCHXQP4GPPGPDGTIIGHÒJTVG5VTGKV OCEJVFGT)GPGTCNUVCCVGPCO#WIWUVXQTFGT5VCFV&GXGPVGTCWH&KGKPFGP&KGPUVGPFGU-Ì PKIU XQP 5RCPKGP UVGJGPFG $GUCV\WPI MCRKVWNKGTVG CO  0QXGODGT FGU ,CJTGU WPF GTJKGNV FCTCWHJKP   HTGKGP#D\WI9·JTGPFFGTHCUVHÒPHOQPCVKIGP$GNCIGTWPIGTHQNIVGPKPFGT5VCFV\YGKWPVGTUEJKGFNKEJG 0QVIGNFGOKUUKQPGP#O,WPKGTJKGNVFGTJKGTCPYGUGPFG/ÒP\OGKUVGTFGT5V·FVG&GXGPVGT%CORGP WPF<YQNNGFGP#WHVTCIFCU4CVUUKNDGTGKP\WUEJOGN\GPWPFFCTCWUMNKRRGPHÌTOKIG/ÒP\GPJGT\WUVGNNGP FKGKP5EJTQVWPF-QTPFGO4GKEJUVCNGTWPFUGKPGP6GKNUVÒEMGPGPVURTGEJGPUQNNVGP&KGUG/ÒP\GPYWT FGPFCPPOKVGTJÌJVGO-WTUKP8GTMGJTIGDTCEJV#O1MVQDGTYWTFGFGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTDGCWHVTCIV MWRHGTPGU -TGFKVIGNF CWU\WRT·IGP FCU FCPP UR·VGT IGIGP XQNNYGTVKIG /ÒP\GP WOIGVCWUEJV YGTFGP   UQNNVG&KGOGKUVGPFGTXQTMQOOGPFGP-WRHGTPQVOÒP\GPYWTFGPPCEJKJTGT#WUICDGOKVGKPGO)GIGP UVGORGNKP(QTOFGU5VCFVUEJKNFGUIGMGPP\GKEJPGV

4221 1,5:1



'KPUGKVKIG*CNDVCNGTMNKRRG'OKUUKQPXQO,WPKIÙ84)'0¤0'%'55¤&#8'Û +80Û)GMTÌPVGTJGTCNFKUEJGT#FNGTWPVGPFKG7OUEJTKHVVGKNGPFFGT5VCFVUEJKNFZOO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&GNO 4 XCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H:::8+  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4222



-W5VÒDGT'OKUUKQPXQO0QXGODGTOKV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG#FNGTUEJKNFI )GMTÌPVGT#FNGT9GTVCPICDG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H:::8++ -N<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ

4223







4224

-W5VÒDGT  'OKUUKQP XQO 0QXGODGT OKV )GIGPUVGORGN CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG #FNGTUEJKNF I   )GMTÌPVGT#FNGT9GTVCPICDG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H:::8++ 5GJTUEJÌP



-W5VÒDGT'OKUUKQPXQO0QXGODGTOKV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG#FNGTUEJKNFI )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT9GTVCPICDG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCP )GNFGT  /CKNNGV 6H :::8++    5GJTUEJÌP

 87


&+''+064#%*6810&'8'06'4%#/2'070&<91..'0#%*&'4$'5'6<70) 810%1'814&'070&*#55'.6

4225



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 0QVYGPFKIMGKV FGT 'KPVTCEJV FGT FTGK 5V·FVG PCEJ FGT   $GUGV\WPI XQP %QGXQTFGP WPF *CUUGNV &KG UKEJ WOCTOGPFGP <YKNNKPIG %CUVQT WPF 2QNNWZ CO 7HGT   GKPGU(NWUUGUUVGJGPFCOIGIGPÒDGTNKGIGPFGP7HGTFKG5KNJQWGVVGGKPGT5VCFVQDGPFTGK5VGTPGJKPVGT GKPGO 9QNMGPDCPF +P FGT 7OUEJTKHV FKG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG FGT FTGK 5V·FVG&TGK ,CIFJWPFG GKPGP +IGN   CVVCEMKGTGPF7PVGP9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT2TQXKP\1XGTKLUUGNOOI-2-X.QQP2CZ KP0WOOKU 5GJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)810&'8'06'4&74%*&'0/ª056'4+5%*'0$+5%*1( %*4+5612*$'40*#4&810)#.'0

4226

4228 4227



'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRGI/KV\YGK5VGORGNWPIGPKO<GPVTWOGKPGITÌ­GTGTWPFGOKVFGO IGMTÌPVGP #FNGT KO WPVGTGP 'EMDGTGKEJ GKP MNGKPGTGT 4GEJVGEMUVGORGN OKV FGT ,CJTGUCPICDG  Z   OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTOKVITCXKGTVGT4ÒEMUGKVG &GNO 4  /CKNNGV6H:::8++ 45GJTUEJÌP 



'KPUGKVKIG *CNDVCNGTMNKRRG   I /KV \YGK 5VGORGNWPIGP KO <GPVTWO GKPG ITÌ­GTG TWPFG   OKV FGO IGMTÌPVGP #FNGTKOWPVGTGP'EMDGTGKEJGKPMNGKPGTGT4GEJVGEMUVGORGNOKVFGT,CJTGUCPICDG ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTOKVITCXKGTVGT4ÒEMUGKVG &GNO 4  /CKNNGV6H:::8++ 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 



'KPUGKVKIG 8KGTVGNVCNGTMNKRRG   I /KV \YGK 5VGORGNWPIGP KO <GPVTWO GKPG ITÌ­GTG TWPFG   OKV FGO IGMTÌPVGP #FNGTKOWPVGTGP'EMDGTGKEJGKPMNGKPGTGT4GEJVGEMUVGORGNOKVFGT,CJTGUCPICDG ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&GNO 4 /CKNNGV6H:::8++  2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

88




)'.&'4.#0& &+''41$'470)&'4('5670)5#+06#0&4'&74%*&+' )'0'4#.56##6'0

4229 1,5:1

1,5:1



)QNFGPGT ,GVQP  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI FGT (GUVWPI 5CKPV#PFT¾ #WH QHHGPGO (GNF GKPG   WPVGTFGTCO*KOOGNUVTCJNGPFGP5QPPGUKEJXQNNGPVHCNVGPFG$NÒVGPRHNCP\GNPGDGPGKPGTXQTFGTWPVGT IGJGPFGP5QPPGXGTYGNMGPFGP$NWOG2NCPFGT(GUVWPI5CKPV#PFT¾\YKUEJGP/CCUWPF9CCNNWPFT CWHOCTUEJKGTGPFG5VTGKVMT·HVGOOI&WIPKQNNGX.QQP+5  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

)410+0)'0 &+'$'.#)'470)810)410+0)'0&74%*&'0/ª056'4+5%*'0 $+5%*1(%*4+5612*$'40*#4&810)#.'0

4230

4232 4231







'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTI)GMTÌPVGTXKGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFKO(GNFIGVGKNVN WPF T FKG 9GTVCPICDG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   FQTV 4U OKV )TCXWT  &GNO  4   /CKNNGV   6H:.+8 FQTV4UOKV)TCXWT  -N-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



'KPUGKVKIG 8KGTVGNVCNGTMNKRRG \W   5VÒDGT   I )GMTÌPVGT XKGTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF KO   (GNF IGVGKNV N WPF T FKG 9GTVCPICDG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H FQTV4UOKV)TCXWT &GNO /CKNNGV6H:.8 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'KPUGKVKIG#EJVGNVCNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTI)GMTÌPVGTXKGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFKO(GNF IGVGKNVNWPFTFKG9GTVCPICDG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H FQTV4UOKV)TCXWT &GNO#PO /CKNNGV6H:.8 FQTV4UOKV)TCXWT  5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 89


4233



5KNDGTPG 2T·OKGPOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVFGT7PKXGTUKV·V)TQPKPIGPCWHFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT5VCFV 5VCPFHKIWTFGUFCU*CWRV)QNKCVJUJCNVGPFGPDKDNKUEJGP&CXKFUCWHGKPGOOKV9CHHGPUVÒEMGPWPF(CJPGP IGUEJOÒEMVGP 5KGIGUOQPWOGPV FGUUGP 7PVGTDCW FCU 9CRRGP FGT 7PKXGTUKV·V )TQPKPIGP \KGTV CWHIG   UEJNCIGPGU$WEJDGNGIVOKVFGOXKGTHGNFKIGP5EJKNFFGT2TQXKP\0GWP\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVWOIGDGPXQP GKPGO5EJTKHVMTGKUOOI-2-X.QQP+++59GKNGT  4(GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  &KGUG5EJCWUVÒEMGYWTFGPCPFKG5VWFGPVGPXGTNKGJGPFKGUKEJCPFGT8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT5VCFVDGVGKNKIVGP

,7$+.7/5('+'4&'4$'(4'+70))410+0)'05810&'452#0+5%*'0 $'.#)'470)

4234



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,XQP4KEMKPIGP'OFGPCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT$GHTGKWPIFGT5VCFVXQP FGTURCPKUEJGP$GNCIGTWPI4KVVGTKPXQNNGT4ÒUVWPIUVGJGPFXXGKP5EJYGTVKPFGTGTJQDGPGP4GEJVGP WPFGKPGPOKVFGO9CRRGPDKNFFGT5VCFVIGUEJOÒEMVGP5EJKNFJCNVGPF'NH\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVWO\QIGP XQPGKPGO5EJTKHVMTGKUOOI-2-X.QQP+85  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



*##4.'/ &+'$'.#)'470)810*##4.'/

4235



90

'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGT'OKUUKQPXQO&G\GODGTI1MVQIQPCNGT5EJTÌV NKPIOKVXKGT-GPPUVGORGNP9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT5VCFVQDGPMNGKPGTGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGO 9CRRGP GKPGU WPDGMCPPVGP XGTCPVYQTVNKEJGP 5KNDGTUEJOKGFU =5GEJUUVTCJNKIGT 5VGTP QDGTJCND GKPGT NKG   IGPFGP /QPFUKEJGN? WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN KP TCJOGPHÌTOKIGT 5VGORGNWPI +O (GNF T 5VGORGNWPI FGT   2TQXKP\*QNNCPF=.ÌYGPUEJKNFKPIGRGTNVGO*QEJQXCN?IGO#PQTFPWPIXQO(GDTWCT\YGEMU 'TJÌJWPIFGU0GPPYGTVUCWH5VÒDGTZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&GNOC 4  XCP)GNFGTD/CKNNGV6H:.8++ 445GJTUEJÌP




4238

4237

4236







'KPUGKVKIG *CNDVCNGTMNKRRG \W  5VÒDGT  'OKUUKQP XQO  &G\GODGT  I 1MVQIQPCNGT   5EJTÌVNKPIOKVXKGT-GPPUVGORGNP9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT5VCFVQDGPMNGKPGTGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGORGNWPIOKV FGO 9CRRGP FGU XGTCPVYQTVNKEJGP 5KNDGTUEJOKGFU *GTPTKEM %QTPGNKU XCP .GWWYGP =UVGKIGPFG .ÌYGP   RTQVQOG N? WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN KP TCJOGPHÌTOKIGT 5VGORGNWPI +O (GNF T 5VGORGNWPI FGT 2TQXKP\   *QNNCPF=.ÌYGPUEJKNFKPIGRGTNVGO*QEJQXCN?IGO#PQTFPWPIXQO(GDTWCT\YGEMU'TJÌJWPI FGU0GPPYGTVUCWH5VÒDGTZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF&GNOC 4 XCP)GNFGTD /CKNNGV6H:.8++ 445GJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTIW­OGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG$GNCIGTWPI&GT5VCFVUEJKNFWPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN8+0%+6 8+/8+4685KPOKVVGPGKPGU-TCP\GUOOI$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HX.QQP+5 /CKNNGV6H. 44/KV4GUVGPXQP#NVXGTIQNFWPI(GNFGTIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTIW­OGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG$GNCIGTWPI&GT5VCFVUEJKNFKO(GNFDQIKI#001 1DGP FGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF WPF WPVGP FKG XQP GKPGT 4CJOWPI WOUEJNQUUGPG ,CJTGU\CJN FKG 7OUEJTKHV   VGKNGPF5GEJUDN·VVTKIG4QUGVVGTKPIUWOJGTFTGKHCEJIGUVCHHGNVG7OUEJTKHVOOI$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6HX.QQP+5/CKNNGV6H. 42CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



4239

&+'4ª%-8'4.')70)&'4*##4.'/'45%*ª6<'0+0&+'*'+/#656#&6 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV &QTFTGEJV CWH FKG 4ÒEMXGTNGIWPI FGT *CCTNGOGT 5EJÒV\GP CWU FGT   5VCFV*CUUGNVKPFKG*GKOCVUVCFV#PUKEJVFGT5VCFV*CUUGNVQDGPFGT5VCFVUEJKNFWPFGKPNGGTGT9CRRGP UEJKNF KO #DUEJPKVV &CVWOUCPICDG KP FTGK <GKNGP#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV *CCTNGO QDGP \YGK 9CRRGP   UEJKNFGKO#DUEJPKVVUGEJU\GKNKIGT6GZV-2-X.QQP++5OOI  #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

 91


5ʼn*'461)'0$15%* &+''41$'470)8105 *'461)'0$15%*70&9'5'.70&&+'$'4'+70) &'48'.79'

4240



$NGKIW­OGFCKNNG  PCEJ GKPGT #TDGKV FGU ,CP XCP .QQH /KFFGNDWTI CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI FGT 5VCFV   Uʼn*GTVQIGPDQUEJFKG'KPPCJOGXQP9GUGNWPFFKG$GHTGKWPIFGT8GNWYG2TKP\(TGFGTKM*GPFTKMXQP 0CUUCW1TCPKGPN\W2HGTFKO*KPVGTITWPFFKG5VCFVU *GTVQIGPDQUEJ&WTEJGKPJQTK\QPVCNGU5EJTKHV DCPF \YGKIGVGKNVGU $KNFHGNF QDGP $NKEM ÒDGT FGP XQP 5EJKHHGP DGHCJTGPGP 4JGKP CWH FKG 5VCFV 9GUGN   WPVGP 2NCP FGU $TÒEMGPMQRHGU CP FGT +LUUGN OKV &CTUVGNNWPI FGT CPTÒEMGPFGP PKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP 5VTGKV   MT·HVG WPF FGT CD\KGJGPFGP URCPKUEJGP $GUCV\WPI  OO -2- \W  FQTV FKG 2T·IGOGFCKNNG KP   5KNDGT X.QQP++54QQXGTU\W FQTVFKG2T·IGOGFCKNNG  5GJTUEJÌPGTUR·VGTGT)W­



,7$+.7/5('+'4&'4'41$'470)8105ʼn*'461)'0$15%*&74%* &+')'0'4#.56##6'0

4241

1,5:1



92

1,5:1

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT 'TQDGTWPI FGT 5VCFV FWTEJ FKG XQP   2TKP\*GKPTKEJXQP0CUUCW1TCPKGPIGHÒJTVGPPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP5VTGKVMT·HVGCO1MVQDGT$NKEM CWHFKG5VCFVKO8QTFGTITWPF/GTMWTUVCDWPF2QUCWPGQDGPGKP5EJTKHVDCPF'KPOKV<YGKIGPFWTEJ UVGEMVGT 5EJNCPIGPTKPI CNU 'ODNGO FGT 'YKIMGKV QDGTJCND FGU IGMTÌPVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNFU FGT )GPGTCN   UVCCVGP FGT 0KGFGTNCPFG FGU IGMTÌPVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNFU FGU *CWUGU 0CUUCW1TCPKGPWPFFGUIGMTÌPVGP XQP\YGK9KNFGP/·PPGTPIGJCNVGPGP5VCFVUEJKNFGUOOI8GTXX.QQP 8QT\ÒINKEJ




*1..#0& &+')')'056'/2'.70)&'42418+0<*1..#0&9*4'0&&'5 (4'+*'+65-#/2('5 #NU-TKGIUUVGWGTGTJQDGPFKG5V·PFGXQP*QNNCPFGKPGKIG#WHYGTVWPIFGUWONCWHGPFGP/ÒP\IGNFGU 5·OVNKEJG/ÒP\GPKO)GNFXGTMGJTKPMNWUKXGFGTHTGOFGPQDGTJCNDFGU0GPPYGTVUXQP6CNGTYWT FGPOKVGKPGO)GIGPUVGORGNCNU<GKEJGPFGT#WHYGTVWPIIGMGPP\GKEJPGV&KG)GIGPUVGORGN\GKIGPGPV YGFGTFGPJQNN·PFKUEJGP.ÌYGPUEJKNFQFGTFGPHTGKKO(GNFGUVGKIGPFGPJQNN·PFKUEJGP.ÌYGP#WEJFKG 5V·PFGXQP<GGNCPFÒDVGPFKGUG2TCZKUWPVGT8GTYGPFWPIXQP)GIGPUVGORGNPOKVFGO\GGN·PFKUEJGP9CRRGP

4243

4242



2JKNKRRUVCNGT#PVYGTRGPXQP2JKNKRR++XQP5RCPKGPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGIGMGPP \GKEJPGVOKVFGO)GIGPUVGORGNFGT5V·PFGXQP*QNNCPF.ÌYGPUEJKNFKPIGRGTNVGO*QEJQXCNI $ÒUVGNKP*CTPKUEJ/GJTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFCWH$WTIWPFGTMTGW\QDGP-TQPGKO(GNFNWPFTLG GKP (GWGTGKUGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   )GIGPUVGORGN  &GNO  )GRT·IG  WPF  #  

)GIGPUVGORGN XCP)GNFGT*QEC/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H )GIGPUVGORGN  5GJTUEJÌP





2JKNKRRUVCNGT0KLOGIGPXQP2JKNKRR++XQP5RCPKGPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGIGMGPP \GKEJPGVOKVFGO)GIGPUVGORGNFGT5V·PFGXQP*QNNCPF.ÌYGPUEJKNFKPIGRGTNVGO*QEJQXCNI $ÒUVGTKP*CTPKUEJ/GJTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFCWH$WTIWPFGTMTGW\QDGP-TQPGKO(GNFNWPFTLG GKP (GWGTGKUGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   )GIGPUVGORGN  &GNO  # )GIGPUVGORGN  XCP   )GNFGT*QEF/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H )GIGPUVGORGN   /ÒP\GHCUVUGJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGNUGJTUEJÌP



4244

4245

4246

&+''+00#*/'810)'4647&'0$'4)+0&'42418+0<*1..#0& 



-W4GEJGPRHGPPKI  &QTFTGEJV CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP )GTVTWFGPDGTI )JGGTFGPDGTI   I   $NKEMCWHFKGDGHGUVKIVGCWHGKPGT.CPF\WPIGIGNGIGPG5VCFVFKGXQP.CPFWPF5GGXQPFGP5RCPKGTP DGNCIGTV YKTF +O 8QTYGTM GKP RHNÒIGPFGT $CWGT'KP *GGT CO (W­G FGU $GTIGU #QTPQU CWH FGT   $GTIMWRRGGKPG<KVCFGNNGOO&WIPKQNNGX.QQP+5 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



-W4GEJGPRHGPPKI  &QTFTGEJV CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP )GTVTWFGPDGTI )JGGTFGPDGTI   I   6QRQITCRJKUEJGT 2NCP FGU 7ONCPFGU FGT 5VCFV OKV FGO(GNFNCIGTFGT$GNCIGTGTLGPUGKVUFGU8QTYGTMU FGT5VCFVWPF5EJKHHGPCWHFGO/GGT5KGDGP<GKNGP6GZVOO&WIPKQNNGX.QQP+5 -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



'+0*1..0&+5%*'44'%*'02('00+)#7(&+'5%*.#%*6$'+$+5.+%* 

-W4GEJGPRHGPPKI&QTFTGEJVCWHFKG5EJNCEJVDGK$KUNKEJCO0KGFGTTJGKPI5KGDGP<GKNGP 6GZV QDGP HÒPHDN·VVTKIG 4QUGVVG)TWRRG XQP -TKGIGTP OKV GKPGO 4COODQEM GKPG $TGUEJG KP GKPGP   9GJTVWTOTCOOGPFOO&WIPKQNNGX.QQP+5  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'KPGKPVGTGUUCPVG5GTKGXQP-W4GEJGPRHGPPKIGPCWH'TGKIPKUUGFGU#EJV\KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIGUHKPFGP5KGWPVGT0T

93


*7.56 &+''+00#*/'810*7.56

4247



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,CPXCP.QQH/KFFGNDWTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFVFWTEJ5VTGKVMT·HVGFGU 2TKP\GP XQP 1TCPKGP #PUKEJV FGT DGNCIGTVGP WPF WPVGT $GUEJWUU NKGIGPFGP 5VCFV QDGP FGT XQP \YGK   2WVVK IGJCNVGPG 5VCFVUEJKNF WPVGTJCND GKPGU 5EJTKHVDCPFGU6GZV KP GNH <GKNGP CWH GKPGO CWHIGURCPPVGP   6WEJFCUWOIGDGPKUVXQP9GKPVTCWDGPVTCIGPFGP4GDGP\YGKIGP1DGPFGTIGMTÌPVG5EJKNFFGT)GPG TCNUVCCVGPOOI-2-X.QQP++5  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GTTNKEJGFWPMNG2CVKPCOKP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

.''79#4&'0 &+'<'456¤470)&'4('5670)'0.''79#4&'0*#4.+0)'070& 56#814'0

4248

1,5:1



94

1,5:1

&KEMG UKNDGTPG -NKRRG  IGRT·IV OKV FGP 5VGORGNP FGU 4GEJGPRHGPPKIU CWH FKG <GTUVÌTWPI FGT   (GUVWPIGP .GGWYCTFGP *CTNKPIGP WPF 5VCXQTGP  I /GJTGTG OKV *CEMGP CWUIGUVCVVGVG /·PPGT   DGKO5EJNGKHGPFTGKGT$WTIGPFC\YKUEJGP\YGK(WJTYGTMG\WO#DVTCPURQTVFGU5EJWVVUWPF$CWOCVGTK CNU 1DGP .ÌYGPUEJKNF&CXKF UVGJGPF OKV 5EJNGWFGT XQT FGO OKV GKPGT .CP\G DGYCHHPGVGP )QNKCVJ   ZOO&WIPKQNNGXIN FQTV-W4GEJGPRHGPPKICWHTWPFGO5EJTÌVNKPI X.QQPXIN+ 5 FQTVCWHTWPFGO5EJTÌVNKPI   W­GTUVUGNVGP#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 


.'+&'0 &+'$'.#)'470)810.'+&'0 .';&'0  .G[FGPYWTFGCO#WIWUVXQPURCPKUEJGP6TWRRGPWPVGT(ÒJTWPIFGU/CTUEJCNNU&QP(TCP EKUEQ8CNFG\GKPIGUEJNQUUGP&QEJ\QIGPFKG$GNCIGTGTCO/·T\YGIGPFGU#PITKHHUGKPGTXQP )TCH.WFYKIXQP0CUUCWIGHÒJTVGP5VTGKVOCEJVCD&QEJCO/CKUVCPFGPFKG5RCPKGTCDGTOCNUXQT FGP6QTGP.G[FGPUWPFDGFTQJVGPFKG5VCFVPQEJOGJTCNUXKGT/QPCVGNCPI#WEJFKGUOCNMCOGPUKG PKEJV\WO<KGNFCCO1MVQDGTOKVGKPGT)GWUGPHNQVVGFGTUGKVNCPIGOGTUGJPVG'PVUCV\HÒTFKG 5VCFVGKPVTCH/GJTHCEJDTCEJVGFKG5VCFVY·JTGPFFGTDGKFGP\GKVNKEJGP5GSWGP\GPFGT$GNCIGTWPI0QVIGNF KP8GTMGJT#O0QXGODGTGTMN·TVGFGT/CIKUVTCVFKGXQTJCPFGPGPMWRHGTPGP<GKEJGPFGU5V -CVJCTKPGPJQURKVCNUKJTGTGKIGPVNKEJGP<YGEMDGUVKOOWPICNUGPVJQDGPWPFGTMN·TVGFKG5VÒDGT5VÒEMG \W<CJNWPIUOKVVGNP#OWPF&G\GODGTHQNIVGP\YGK4CVUCDUEJKGFGFKGFKG#WUICDGXQP YGKVGTGO 'TUCV\IGNF XQTUCJGP \WP·EJUV XQP IGRT·IVGP 0QVVCNGTP CWH 5EJTÌVNKPIGP CWU 2CRKGT UQFCPP   XQP GPVURTGEJGPFGP 8KGTVGNVCNGTP (·NUEJWPIGP XQP UQNEJGO RCRKGTGPGP 0QVIGNF YQNNVG FGT 4CV IGO·­   'PVUEJGKF XQO  TGUR  ,CPWCT  FCFWTEJ DGIGIPGP FCUU HQTVCP LGFGU HÒT GEJV DGHWPFGPG   'ZGORNCTOKVGKPGO)GIGPUVGORGNIGMGPP\GKEJPGVYGTFGPUQNNVG$GKFKGUGT5VGORGNWPIDGFKGPVGOCP UKEJFGTXQT1TVDGTGKVUXQTJCPFGPGP.ÌYGPRWP\GPFGT2TQXKP\*QNNCPFFKGCNU-GPPUVGORGNHÒT FKG-WTUGTJÌJWPIFGU5KNDGTIGNFGUXGTYGPFGVYQTFGPYCTGP XIN-CV0TPWPF $CNFPCEJ FGO'PFGFGTGTUVGP$GNCIGTWPIDQVFGT4CVOKVUGKPGO$GUEJNWUUXQO/·T\FKG/ÌINKEJMGKV FKG RCRKGTGPGP 6CNGT WPF 8KGTVGNVCNGT YKGFGT WO\WVCWUEJGP VGKNYGKUG IGIGP MWRHGTPGU -TGFKVIGNF KP   (QTO PGW IGRT·IVGT *CNDUVÒDGT #O  ,WNK PCEJFGO FKG URCPKUEJGP 8GTD·PFG YKGFGT XQT FKG   5VCFVOCWGTP\WTÒEMIGMGJTVYCTGPDGUEJNQUUGPFKG5VCFVQDGTGPFKG#WUOÒP\WPIXQPUKNDGTPGPWPF 5VÒDGT5VÒEMGP 0CEJYGKUNKEJ UEJOQN\ OCP \W FKGUGO <YGEMG -KTEJGP WPF -NQUVGTUKNDGT GKP &KG   /QVKXG FKGUGT PGWGP $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP QTKGPVKGTVGP UKEJ CP FGPGP FGT RCRKGTGPGP 0QVCWUICDG FQEJ   XGTYGPFGVGOCP\WKJTGT2T·IWPIPKEJVFKGXQTJCPFGPGP5VGORGNUQPFGTPPGWIGUEJPKVVGPG'KUGP

4249









4250

4252

4251

-W5VÒDGTPCEJFGO4CVUDGUEJNWUUXQO0QXGODGTI&CU5VCFVYCRRGPQDGPFKG ,CJTGU\CJN4CF #VVTKDWV FGT JGKNKIGP -CVJCTKPC  QDGP -TQPG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT XCP   )GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H.::+XCT 5GJTUEJÌP



 )WNFGP  PCEJ FGO 4CVUDGUEJNWUU XQO&G\GODGTIGRT·IVCWHGKPGOTWPFGP5EJTÌV NKPI FGT CWU OGJTGTGP ÒDGTGKPCPFGT IGMNGDVGP 2CRKGTNCIGP CWUIGUVCP\V YQTFGP KUV 0CEJ FGO 4CVUDG   UEJNWUU XQO  TGUR  ,CPWCT  IGMGPP\GKEJPGV OKV JQEJQXCNGO )GIGPUVGORGN FGT 2TQXKP\   *QNNCPF CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG .ÌYG UVGKIGPF N OKV 5EJKNF WPF 5EJYGTV QDGP -TQPG+PPGTJCND GKPGU   .QTDGGTMTCP\GUFGT5VCFVPCOGKPXKGT<GKNGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H .::+ 45GJTUEJÌP



-W 5VÒDGT  FGT 'OKUUKQP XQO  /·T\  I .ÌYG UVGKIGPF N KO (GNF  ņ  QDGP   -TQPG&GT5VCFVUEJKNF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCTXCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV5WRRN%  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTPG-NKRRGCWUFGP5VGORGNPXQO-W5VÒDGTFGT'OKUUKQPXQO/·T\I.ÌYG UVGKIGPF N KO (GNF  ņ  QDGP -TQPG&GT 5VCFVUEJKNF  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF    XIN6H FQTVCWHTWPFGO-W5EJTÌVNKPI XCP)GNFGTE/CKNNGV6H.::++  44(GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

 95


4253



5VÒDGTFGT'OKUUKQPXQO,WNKI/KV4QNNYGTMXGT\KGTVG9CRRGPMCTVWUEJGXQP\YGK 5EJTKHVMTGKUGPWOIGDGP.ÌYGUVGKIGPFNGKPGP5VCDJCNVGPFCWHFGOFGT(TGKJGKVUJWVUVGEMV+O(GNF +$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTCWHRCRKGTGPGO5EJTÌVNKPI &GNO

4 XCP)GNFGTaC/CKNNGVXIN6H.::+ FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTCWHRCRKGTGPGO5EJTÌVNKPIOKV )GIGPUVGORGNFGT2TQXKP\*QNNCPF  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

4254



4255



4256

-NKRRG \W  5VÒDGT  FGT 'OKUUKQP XQO  ,WNK  I /KV 4QNNYGTM XGT\KGTVG 9CRRGPMCTVW   UEJGXQP\YGK5EJTKHVMTGKUGPWOIGDGP.ÌYGUVGKIGPFNGKPGP5VCDJCNVGPFCWHFGOFGT(TGKJGKVUJWV UVGEMV+O(GNF+$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTCWHTWPFGORCRKGTGPGP 5EJTÌVNKPI &GNOD 4 XCP)GNFGTEWPFF/CKNNGVXIN6H.::+ FQTVGKP'ZGORNCT CWHTWPFGORCRKGTGPGP5EJTÌVNKPIOKV)GIGPUVGORGNFGT2TQXKP\*QNNCPF  (GKPG2CVKPC5GJTUEJÌP





5VÒDGTFGT'OKUUKQPXQO,WNKI.ÌYGUVGKIGPFNKPFGTGTJQDGPGPTGEJVGP2TCPMG GKPGP 5·DGN OKV FGT NKPMGP GKPGP 5EJKNF JCNVGPF FGP FCU 9CRRGPDKNF FGT 5VCFV \KGTV&GT NCVGKPKUEJG   1TVUPCOGKPXKGT<GKNGPTKPIUWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVGKP'ZGO RNCTCWHRCRKGTGPGO5EJTÌVNKPI &GNO 4 XCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGVXIN6H.::+ FQTV GKP'ZGORNCTCWHRCRKGTGPGO5EJTÌVNKPIOKV\YGK)GIGPUVGORGNP   44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 



-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTFGT'OKUUKQPXQO,WNKI.ÌYGUVGKIGPFNKPFGTGTJQDGPGPTGEJVGP 2TCPMGGKPGP5·DGNOKVFGTNKPMGPGKPGP5EJKNFJCNVGPFFGPFCU9CRRGPDKNFFGT5VCFV\KGTV&GTNCVGKPK UEJG 1TVUPCOG KP XKGT <GKNGPTKPIUWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVGKP 'ZGORNCTCWHRCRKGTGPGO5EJTÌVNKPI &GNOC 4 XCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGVXIN6H.::+

FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTCWHTWPFGORCRKGTGPGO5EJTÌVNKPIOKV\YGK)GIGPUVGORGNP   44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

96




&+',7$+.7/5('+'4<74$'(4'+70)&'456#&6810&'452#0+5%*'0 $'.#)'470)

4257



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP%(-QPUGCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU'PVUCV\GUFGT5VCFVXQPFGTURCPKUEJGP $GNCIGTWPI5·WNGOKVFGO5VCFVUEJKNFFGP2QTVT·VOGFCKNNQPUXQPFTGK$ÒTIGTOGKUVGTPGKPGO5EJTKHV DCPFWPFOKV.QTDGGTIKTNCPFGPIGUEJOÒEMV#PUKEJVFGT5VCFVKO8QTFGTITWPFWOIGUVÒT\VG3WGNNWTPG CWUFGTUKEJGKP9CUUGTUEJYCNNGTIKG­VQDGP#TO)QVVGUNCWUGKPGT9QNMGJGTXQTVTGVGPFGKPGP5·DGN JCNVGPFOOI-2-8GTXX.QQP *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



/##564+%*6 &+'$'.#)'470)810/##564+%*6&74%*52#0+5%*'64722'0 0CEJ FGT 4GQTICPKUCVKQP FGT URCPKUEJGP #TOGG KP FGP 0KGFGTNCPFGP WPF FGT $GHTKGFWPI 9CNNQPKGPU   DGNCIGTVGFGT*GT\QIXQP2CTOCUGKVFGO/·T\FKG5VCFV/CCUVTKEJVFKGGTCO,WPKFGU ,CJTGU GTQDGTP MQPPVG #WU FGP 4CVUDGUEJNÒUUGP WPF FGP PWOKUOCVKUEJGP 5CEJ\GWIPKUUGP N·UUV UKEJ   CDNGKVGPFCUUFKG5VCFVMWRHGTPG0QVOÒP\GPKPFTGKCWHGKPCPFGTHQNIGPFGP5GTKGPCO#RTKNCO /CKWPFKO,WPKXGTCWUICDVJCV

4258







4259

4260

-W5VÒDGT'OKUUKQPXQO#RTKNFGU,CJTGUI9CRRGPUEJKNFWPVGTJCNDGKPGU5EJYGTVGU KO (GNF HÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV8KGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV KO #DUEJPKVV FKG TÌOKUEJG 9GTV\CJN $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV5WRRN6H 5EJÌP



-W 5VÒDGT  'OKUUKQP XQO ,WPK FGU ,CJTGU  I $GJGNOVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF KO (GNF   +  8QP GKPGT *CPF GORQT IGJCNVGPGU 5EJYGTV +O (GNF XKGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV KO #DUEJPKVV FKG   TÌOKUEJG9GTV\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV5WRRN6H  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



-W 5VÒDGT  'OKUUKQP XQO ,WPK FGU ,CJTGU  I $GJGNOVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF KO (GNF   8QPGKPGT*CPFGORQTIGJCNVGPGU5EJYGTV+O(GNFXKGT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVKO#DUEJPKVVFKGTÌOK UEJG9GTV\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H.::8 5EJÌP

 97


&+'$'.#)'470)810/##564+%*6&74%*(4#0<¤5+5%*'64722'0

4261





4262

'KPUGKVKIGT 6CNGT \W  5VÒDGT   I )NCVVGT CWH FGT -CPVG FGU 4CPFGU UEJT·I IGMGTDVGT   5EJTÌVNKPI OKV XKGT XGTUEJKGFGPGP 5VGORGNWPIGP HÒPHUVTCJNKIGT 5VGTP QDGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN WPVGP FKG   9GTVCPICDG KP TGEJVGEMKIGT .KPKGPTCJOWPI FCTWPVGT /QPQITCOO CWU FGP +PKVKCNGP . WPF ' $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6H&GNO/CKNNGV6H.::8+ 5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIGT *CNDVCNGT \W  5VÒDGT   I)NCVVGTCWHFGT-CPVGFGU4CPFGUUEJT·IIGMGTDVGT 5EJTÌVNKPI OKV XKGT XGTUEJKGFGPGP 5VGORGNWPIGP HÒPHUVTCJNKIGT 5VGTP QDGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN WPVGP FKG   9GTVCPICDG KP TGEJVGEMKIGT .KPKGPTCJOWPI FCTWPVGT /QPQITCOO CWU FGP +PKVKCNGP . WPF ' $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6H&GNO 4 /CKNNGV6H.::8+ 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

/+&&'.$74) &+'$.1%-#&'810/+&&'.$74)&74%*&+'64722'0&'4 )'0'4#.56##6'0 8QO(TÒJLCJTDKUJKGNVGPFKG)GWUGPGKPGP$NQEMCFGTKPIWO/KFFGNDWTICWHTGEJV0CEJFGO OGJTGTG8GTUWEJG\WO'PVUCV\FGTVTGWWPFHGUV\W-ÌPKI2JKNKRRXQP5RCPKGPUVGJGPFGP5VCFVHGJNIG UEJNCIGPYCTGPMCRKVWNKGTVGFKG5VCFVCO(GDTWCTXQTFGO2TKP\GPXQP0CUUCW1TCPKGP9·J TGPF FGT $NQEMCFG MCO GU \WT #WUICDG \YGKGT \GKVNKEJ CWHGKPCPFGT HQNIGPFGT 0QVOÒP\GPUGTKGP GKPG   FTKVVG5GTKGJCVFKG5VCFVDCNFPCEJKJTGT'KPPCJOGRT·IGPNCUUGP#O&G\GODGTDGUEJNQUUFGT /CIKUVTCV 0QVOÒP\GP CWU FGO XQP FGP )KNFGP WPF XQO 4CV \WT 8GTHÒIWPI IGUVGNNVGP 5KNDGTIGT·V \W   RT·IGP#O,CPWCTHQNIVGFGT'PVUEJGKFFGT5VCFVCWEJFKGXQTJCPFGPGPIQNFGPGP)GT·VUEJCH VGP\W0QVIGNF\WXGTCTDGKVGP&KGNGV\VG5GTKGLGPGTIQNFGPGTWPFUKNDGTPGT-NKRRGPFKGPCEJFGT-CRK VWNCVKQPGPVUVCPFGPUKPFYWTFGPIGO·­'PPQXCP)GNFGTXGTOWVNKEJKO/·T\XQPFGT5VCFVJGT CWUIGIGDGPYQJNWOFGP-QPVTKDWVKQPUHQTFGTWPIGPFGT5KGIGTPCEJ\WMQOOGP

4264 4263





98

1,5:1

'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTI'OKUUKQPXQO&G\GODGT/KVFTGKXGTUEJKGFGPGP 5VGORGNPKO<GPVTWOITQ­GTTWPFGT5VGORGNOKVFGTXQPGKPGO2GTNTGKHWOUEJNQUUGPGP#WHUEJTKHV  Ü &Ü 4Ü 2Ü(Ü /+&&Ü +Ü Ü Ü <HGTPGT\YGKUEJKNFHÌTOKIG'KPUEJN·IGOKVFGO9CR RGP FGT 2TQXKP\ <GGNCPF TGUR FGO 5VCFVYCRRGP XQP /KFFGNDWTI $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   &GNO    4 XCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H.:::+++ 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W-TQPG'OKUUKQPXQO,CPWCTI/KV\YGK5VGORGNWPIGPKO<GP VTWOGKPGITQ­GTWPFG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGTUKGDGP\GKNKIGP#WHUEJTKHVÛ+ÛÛÛ.+$'46ÙÛ4'56Ù Û 5 Û 2 Û 3 Û < '. Ù/Û51.+Û&'1ÛÛ*1014ÛÛÛÛ&CU)CP\GWOUEJNQUUGPXQPGKPGO 2GTNTGKH+PFGTQDGTGP'EM\QPGFGU5EJTÌVNKPIUGKPGMNGKPGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGO9CRRGP FGT2TQXKP\<GGNCPFZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&GNO(DXCP)GNFGTC /CKNNGV6H.:::+8  )1.&W­GTUVUGNVGP#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


Belagerung der Festung Middelburg durch den Prinzen von Oranien.

1,5:1 1,5:1

4266 4265



'KPUGKVKIG 6CNGTMNKRRG \W  5VÒDGT   I #WUIGIGDGP YQJN KO /·T\ FGU ,CJTGU /KV \YGK   XGTUEJKGFGPGP5VGORGNPKO<GPVTWOITQ­GTTWPFGT5VGORGNOKVGKPGTXQPGKPGO2GTNTGKHWOUEJNQUUGPGP HÒPH\GKNKIGP#WHUEJTKHVQDGPUEJKNFHÌTOKIGT'KPUEJNCIOKVFGO9CRRGPFGT2TQXKP\<GGNCPF$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6H&GNOXCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H.:::+8 8QT\ÒINKEJ 



'KPUGKVKIG*CNDVCNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTI#WUIGIGDGPYQJNKO/·T\FGU,CJTGU/KV\YGK XGTUEJKGFGPGP5VGORGNPKO<GPVTWOITQ­GTTWPFGT5VGORGNOKVGKPGTXQPGKPGO2GTNTGKHWOUEJNQUUGPGP UKGDGP\GKNKIGP#WHUEJTKHVQDGPUEJKNFHÌTOKIGT'KPUEJNCIOKVFGO9CRRGPFGT2TQXKP\<GGNCPF$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6H&GNO 4 XCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H.:::+8  445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 99


4267

4269

4268

&+'706'4&4ª%-70)&'47047*'0+0/+&&'.$74)70&+0&'4 2418+0<<''.#0& 

5CVKTKUEJG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,CEQDXCP&KGUJQGEMGCWHFKG7PVGTFTÒEMWPIFGT7PTWJGPKPFGT 2TQXKP\<GGNCPF2GTUGWUUVGJGPFNGKPGP5·DGNWPFFCU*CWRVFGT/GFWUCJCNVGPFFGTGP-ÌTRGTKJON \W (Ò­GP NKGIV JKPVGP N 2GICUWU UVGKIGPF T +O *KPVGTITWPF 5EJKHHG CWH 5GG DGK FGT 5VCFV /KFFGN   DWTI$NKEMCWHFCU4CVJCWUXQP/KFFGNDWTIFCXQTOCTUEJKGTGPFGWPFKP(QTOCVKQPUVGJGPFG5QNFCVGP +O8QTFGTITWPFNFKGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG(TGKJGKVUVGJGPFXXKPGKPGTOKV<KPPGPDGYGJTVGP7OJGIWPI PGDGPKJTGKPIGMTÌPVGT#FNGTFGTCWHFGT$TWUVFGP5VCFVUEJKNFVT·IVOOI%QNN(KGYG IGT5NI,WNKWU-2-X.QQP+85 4(GKPG2CVKPCOKP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



0+,/')'0 &'4'065#6<8100+,/')'0810&'4(4#0<¤5+5%*'0$'.#)'470) 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,CP$QUMCO0KLOGIGPCWHFGP#D\WIFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP$GNCIGTWPIUVTWRRGP &KGCNU(TCWRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG5VCFV0KLOGIGPUVGJGPFXXDGKGKPGOPKGFTKIGP2QFGUVCWHFGOGKP5VWJN WPF GKPG FTCRKGTVG 5·WNGPMQPUVTWMVKQP UVGJGP /KV FGO NKPMGP (W­ \GTVTKVV UKG GKPG 5EJNCPIG OKV FGT   4GEJVGPJ·NVUKGGKP$WEJOKVFTGKCPJ·PIGPFGP5KGIGNPWPFOKVFGONKPMGP#TOGKPGP5EJKNFFGPFCU 7PJGKNCDYGJTGPFG)QTIQPGPJCWRV\KGTV+JT$NKEMKUVIGTKEJVGVCWHGKP5EJYGTVWPF\YGK.KMVQTGPDÒP FGN FKG JKPVGP T CO 5QEMGN FGT DGKFGP 5·WNGP NGJPGP$NKEM ÒDGT GKPG HGWGTPFG #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPI FGT   8GTVGKFKIGTFGT5VCFVCWHFCUHTGKG)GN·PFGCW­GTJCNDFGT$GHGUVKIWPIUOCWGTPKPFGOGKPG8KGN\CJNXQP $GNCIGTGTPGTMGPPDCTKUVOOI*CYMKPU6H%:8+5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU-2- X.QQP+85NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



18'4+,55'. &+'.15.¤570)&'42418+0<18'4+,55'.810&'452#0+5%*'0 *'445%*#(6 

5EJCWVCNGTQ,  &QTFTGEJV.CPFFCIURGPPKPI\WO)GFGPMGPCPFKG.QUNÌUWPIFGT2TQXKP\XQP FGTURCPKUEJGP*GTTUEJCHVI&KG9CRRGPFGT2TQXKP\1XGTKLUUGNWPFFGT5V·FVG&GXGPVGT-CO RGP WPF <YQNNG WOIGDGP XQP 5EJTKHVMTGKU WPF FGP 9CRRGP FGT  /KVINKGFGT FGU 4CVU XQP 1XGTK   LUUGN4GKVGTKPXQNNGT4ÒUVWPITOKVIG\QIGPGO5EJYGTVKO*KPVGTITWPF5VCFVCPUKEJV*CYMKPU6H:++ -2-X.QQP+54QQXGTU  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ  #NU2T·IGCPNCUUHÒTFKGXQTNKGIGPFG/GFCKNNGYKTFVTCFKVKQPGNNFKG5EJNCEJVDGK6WTPJQWVCPIGIGDGP

100


4166'4&#/ &+'$'+.')70)&'47047*'0+04166'4&#/

4270



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG0KGFGTUEJNCIWPIFGT7PTWJGPPCEJFGT*KPTKEJVWPIXQP-QTPG NKU-QUVGTOCP&CUJCNDFWTEJGKP6WEJXGTFGEMVGCDIGUEJNCIGPG*CWRVFGU&GNKPSWGPVGPCWHGKPGOOKV GKPGTHÒPH\GKNKIGP+PUEJTKHVXGTUGJGPGP5QEMGN+O*KPVGTITWPF#PUKEJVFGT5VCFV4QVVGTFCO5\GPKUEJG &CTUVGNNWPIFGT2NÒPFGTWPIWPFFGU#DTKUUGUFGU*CWUGUFGU4QVVGTFCOGT*CWRVUEJÒV\GP,CMQD<W[NGP XCP0[GXGNVOOI-2-X.QQP+++5  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



4271 4272

5%*110*18'0 &+'$'.#)'470)8105%*110*18'0 &KG5RCPKGT\QIGPCO#WIWUVXQT5EJQQPJQXGPCWHWPFUGV\VGPFKG5VCFVWPVGT$GUEJWUUFKG UEJQPCOHQNIGPFGP6CIXQTFGO(GKPFMCRKVWNKGTVG6TQV\FKGUGTPWTUGJTMWT\CPFCWGTPFGP$GNCIGTWPI JCV 5EJQQPJQXGP ņ XGTOWVNKEJ \WT $G\CJNWPI KJTGT )CTPKUQP ņ 0QVIGNF JGTIGUVGNNV FCU CWEJ KP FGP   UEJTKHVNKEJGP3WGNNGPFQMWOGPVKGTVKUV+PGKPGTCWHFGP5GRVGODGTFCVKGTVGP'PVUEJNKG­WPIFGT 5VCCVGPXQP*QNNCPFYKTFFKGō<WTÒEM\CJNWPIŋ FJ7OYGEJUNWPIQFGT8GTTGEJPWPI FGT5EJQQPJQ XGPGT$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GPCWU<KPPIGTGIGNV 

'KPUGKVKIG<KPP-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTI&KG+PKVKCNG5QDGPFKGTÌOKUEJG9GTV\KHHGTWPVGPFKG ,CJTGU\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H%+ 5GJTUEJÌP



6740*176 &+'5%*.#%*6$'+6740*176 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG5EJNCEJVXQP6WTPJQWVWPFFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP\GJP5V·FVGPWPF FTGK(GUVWPIGPUQYKGFKG5KEJGTWPIFGU)GDKGVUPÌTFNKEJFGU4JGKPUFWTEJPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGWPFXGTDÒP FGVGGPINKUEJG5VTGKVMT·HVGWPVGT(ÒJTWPIFGU2TKP\GP/QTKV\XQP1TCPKGP)GMTÌPVGT.ÌYGUVGKIGPFN GKP2HGKNDÒPFGNKPFGTNKPMGPGKP5EJYGTVKPFGTGTJQDGPGPTGEJVGP8QTFGTRTCPMG'NH\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV OOI'KOGT*CYMKPU6H:++-2-X.QQP+  (GKPGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  101


91'4&'0 &+'$.1%-#&'81091'4&'0 5RCPKUEJG6TWRRGPXGTD·PFGUEJNQUUGP9QGTFGPCO5GRVGODGTGKP5KGDGUEJT·PMVGPUKEJYGKV IGJGPFCWHGKPG$NQEMCFGFGT5VCFVFKGUKGPCEJMPCRRGKPL·JTKIGT&CWGTCO#WIWUVCWHJQDGP 0CEJ FGT WTMWPFNKEJGP ªDGTNKGHGTWPI JCV FKG 5VCFV \YGK 5GTKGP XQP -TGFKVIGNF CWU <KPPNGIKGTWPIGP   CWUIGIGDGPFKGGTUVGKO5GRVGODGTFKG\YGKVGKO#WIWUV

4273



1,5:1

'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTQ,  IGRT·IVCWHGKPGO5EJTÌVNKPICWUGKPGT$NGK<KPP.GIKGTWPI CWUIGIGDGPKO5GRVGODGTFGU,CJTGUI&GT5VCFVUEJKNFKO(GNF++++54KPIUWOJGT2GTNTGKH ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H%::8 445GJTUEJÌP 

4275

4274





'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTQ,  IGRT·IVCWHGKPGO5EJTÌVNKPICWUGKPGT$NGK<KPP.GIKGTWPI CWUIGIGDGP KO 5GRVGODGT FGU ,CJTGU   I &GT 5VCFVUEJKNF KO (GNF ++  5 4KPIUWOJGT   (CFGPTGKHZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCP)GNFGT/CKNNGV6H%::8  5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGT QJPG9GTVCPICDG Q,  IGRT·IVCWHGKPGO5EJTÌVNKPICWUGKPGT $NGK<KPP.GIKGTWPICWUIGIGDGPKO#WIWUVFGU,CJTGUI91'4&'0KPUEJKNFHÌTOKIGT 4CJOWPI 4KPIUWOJGT 2GTNTGKH  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCP )GNFGT    /CKNNGV6H%::8 45GJTUEJÌP



4276

&+'#7(*'$70)&'4$'.#)'470)81091'4&'0 

102

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,GCP/CWIGT2CTKUCWHFKG#WHJGDWPIFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFVCO1MVQ DGT-QRHFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.QWKU:+8T#PGKPGOOKV5EJKNHDGYCEJUGPGP7HGTUCWO8KEVQTKC UVGJGPF N KP FGT .KPMGP GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FGP CP GKPG 5·WNG DGHGUVKIVGP 5VCFVUEJKNF   DGMT·P\GPFOOI&KXQ/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU5X.QQP+++5  #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




Belagerung und Einnahme von Zierikzee durch Wilhelm von Oranien.

<+'4+-<'' &+'$'.#)'470)810<+'4+-<'' &KG 5VCFV <KGTKM\GG YWTFG XQP GKPGO URCPKUEJGP *GTT WPVGT (ÒJTWPI XQP /QPFTCIQP UGKV FGO    5GRVGODGTDGNCIGTVWPFOWUUVGCO,WNKFGO(GKPFFKG6QTGÌHHPGP&KG5VCFVNKG­OGJTGTG 5GTKGP XQP $GNCIGTWPIUIGNF RT·IGP 0CEJ FGO $GUEJNWUU XQO  0QXGODGT  YWTFGP MNKRRGPHÌT   OKIG 5KNDGTOÒP\GP \W   WPF  6CNGT UQYKG -TGFKVIGNF CWU <KPP XQO 6CNGT DKU \WO 5VÒDGT   5VÒEMIGRT·IV&KG#WUICDGFKGUGU)GNFGUGTHQNIVGDKU/CKWPVGT$GKDGJCNVWPIFGT,CJTGU\CJN CWH FGP 2T·IGUVGORGNP &KG 5KNDGTOÒP\GP VTWIGP PGDGP FGT GKIGPVNKEJGP *CWRVUVGORGNWPI OKV FGO   5VCFVYCRRGPWPFFGTUGRCTCVGKPIGUEJNCIGPGP,CJTGU\CJNGKPGFTKVVG5VGORGNWPI&KGUGT-QPVTQNNUVGORGN YCT\WP·EJUVGDGPHCNNUKP(QTOFGU5VCFVYCRRGPUIGUVCNVGV)GO·­FGU/CIKUVTCVUDGUEJNWUUGUXQO 0QXGODGT  YWTFG GT HQTVCP FWTEJ GKPGP -QPVTQNNUVGORGN GTUGV\V FGT CPUVGNNG FGU 5VCFVUEJKNFGU   FGPLGPKIGPFGT2TQXKP\<GGNCPFCWHYKGU)GO·­'PVUEJGKFXQO(GDTWCTGTHQNIVGFKG#WUICDG PGWGT-NKRRGP\WWPF6CNGTKO/·T\FKG'OKUKQPXQPCWU<KPPIGIQUUGPGP5VÒDGT/ÒP\GP 'TUVPCEJFGT-CRKVWNCVKQPRT·IVGFKG5VCFVKO,WNKGKPUGKVKIG6CNGT*CNDWPF8KGTVGNVCNGTMNKRRGP CWUGKPIGUEJOQN\GPGO5KNDGTIGT·VWOFGPHKPCP\KGNNGP(QTFGTWPIGPFGT5KGIGTIGPÒIGNGKUVGP\WMÌPPGP

4277

4278



'KPUGKVKIG 6CNGTMNKRRG \W  )WNFGP  CWUIGIGDGP XQO  DKU  0QXGODGT  I /KV FTGK   5VGORGNWPIGPKPFGT/KVVGGKPGITQ­GTWPFGOKVFGO5VCFVYCRRGPKOQDGTGP'EMDGTGKEJGKPGMNGKPGTG JQEJQXCNG-QPVTQNNUVGORGNWPIGDGPHCNNUFGP9CRRGPUEJKNF\GKIGPFKOWPVGTGP'EMDGTGKEJGKPGMCTVW UEJGPHÌTOKIG 5VGORGNWPI OKV FGT ,CJTGU\CJN  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H    

FQTVOKVFGO9CRRGPUVGORGNFGT2TQXKP\<GGNCPFKOQDGTGP'EMDGTGKEJFGU5EJTÌVNKPIU &GNO

4 XCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGVXIN6H%::: FQTVGKPG<KPPMNKRRGOKVFGO9CRRGPUVGORGNFGT 2TQXKP\<GGNCPFKOQDGTGP'EMDGTGKEJFGU5EJTÌVNKPIU   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 



'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTCWUIGIGDGPKO,WNKPCEJFGO'PFGFGT$GNCIGTWPII +PPGTJCND GKPGU IGRGTNVGP 4WPFU GKPG UGEJU\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   &GNO    XCP)GNFGTC/CKNNGV6H%:::++ 44(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  103


0149')'0 &+'$'.#)'470)810(4'&'4+-5*#..

1,5:1

4279



4279

(TGFGTKM+85KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2GVGT$GTICWHFGP6QFXQP-ÌPKI-CTN:++XQP 5EJYGFGP Y·JTGPF FGT $GNCIGTWPI XQP (TGFGTKMUJCNN (GUVWPI (TGFGTKMUVGP DGK *CNFGP  #EJV\GKNKIGT   6GZV&GTPQTYGIKUEJG.ÌYGIGMTÌPVOKVFGP2TCPMGPFGP5EJCHVGKPGT*GNNGDCTFGDKGIGPFUVGKIGPFN XQT FGO UEJYGFKUEJGP .ÌYGP FGT XQT KJO KP WPVGTYÒTHKIGT *CNVWPI MCWGTV +O *KPVGTITWPF FKG CWH   GKPGO (GNURNCVGCW CPIGNGIVG (GUVWPI &GP NKPMGP WPF TGEJVGP 4CPF FGU $KNFHGNFGU DGITGP\V LG GKPG   6CPPGOOI)CNUVGT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GKPG2CVKPC(GNFGTCNVIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP



21.'0 &+')')'056'/2'.70)#75946+)'45146'0+0&'49+.0#'4/ª0<' <74$'<#*.70)&'45¤.&0'4+/.+8.0&+5%*'0-4+')

4280



104

5KIKUOWPF #WIWUV   &WECVQ Q , 0GCRGN XQP 2JKNKRR ++ XQP 5RCPKGP OKV TWPFGO   )GIGPUVGORGNXQPCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG\YKUEJGPFGTIGVGKNVGP,CJTGU\CJNFCUOKVGKPGT$ÒIGNMTQPG ÒDGTJÌJVG-ÌPKIUOQPQITCOOCWUFGP+PKVKCNGP5WPF#I)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFFGU-ÌPKIUXQP 5RCPKGPTKO*CTPKUEJWPF/CPVGNKO(GNFN/QPQITCOO/GJTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFÒDGTJÌJVOKV GKPGT$ÒIGNMTQPG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF\W6H%CIKCVK5XCT/CKNNGV\W6H:%+8  44.GKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCICWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP 


&'4#..+#0<5%*.755)')'0&+'6ª4-'0

4281



,QJCPP +++ 5QDKGUMK  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,QJCPP *ÌJP &CP\KI CWH FKG IGIGP FKG   6ÒTMGP IGUEJNQUUGPG #NNKCP\ OKV FGO -CKUGT FGO TWUUKUEJGP <CTGP WPF FGO XGPG\KCPKUEJGP &QIGP   <YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP2CNO\YGKIGP$TWUVDKNFFGURQNPKUEJGP-ÌPKIUTKP*CTPKUEJOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN QDGP -TQPG &CU )CP\G KPOKVVGP GKPGT HÒPHHCEJ IGUVCHHGNVGP 7OUEJTKHV&GT   RQNPKUEJG #FNGT \YKUEJGP FGO FQRRGNMÌRHKIGP 4GKEJUCFNGT WPF FGO FQRRGNMÌRHKIGP TWUUKUEJGP<CTGP CFNGTQDGTJCNDGKPGU9QNMGPDCPFGUCWHFGOFGTXGPG\KCPKUEJG/CTMWUNÌYGUVGJV7PVGP#PUKEJVGPFGT XKGTVGKNUXGTMÒT\VCWH.CVGKPDGPCPPVGP5V·FVG1HGP $WFC %CPFKC -TGVC %COKGPKGE 2QFQNKGP WPF -QPUVCPVKPQRGN /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I *%\  5NI *QTUM[    5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

&+'6#4)19+6<'4-10(¤&'4#6+10 5VCPKUNCWU #WIWUV YCT U·EJUKUEJGT )GUCPFVGT CO *QH FGT<CTKP'NKUCDGVJKP5V2GVGTUDWTIYQGTFKG )WPUVFGT)TQ­HÒTUVKPWPFUR·VGTGP<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++GTYCTD0CEJFGO6QFFGUU·EJUKUEJRQNPKUEJGP -ÌPKIU#WIWUV+++UGV\VGFKG<CTKPKJTGP.KGDJCDGTDGKFGT-ÌPKIUYCJNXQO5GRVGODGTFWTEJ FGTCO0QXGODGT\WO-ÌPKI5VCPKUNCWU++#WIWUVIGMTÌPVYWTFG0CEJFGT*KPPCJOGFGT GTUVGPRQNPKUEJGP6GKNWPIXGTUWEJVGGTOKVWOHCUUGPFGP5VCCVUTGHQTOGPWPFIWVGP$G\KGJWPIGP\W 4W­NCPFGKPGIWVG4GIKGTWPI\WHÒJTGP*ÌJGRWPMVFGT4GHQTORQNKVKMYCTFKG8GTHCUUWPIXQO/CK FKGFGT<CTKP-CVJCTKPCLGFQEJ\WTGXQNWVKQP·TGTUEJKGP&KG<CTKPDKNFGVGOKV4GCMVKQP·TGP FKGIGIGPFKG8GTHCUUWPIIGTKEJVGVG-QPHÌFGTCVKQPXQP6CTIQYKV\WPFGT\YCPICWEJFGP$GKVTKVVXQP 5VCPKUNCWUQDYQJNFKGUGTCO<WUVCPFGMQOOGPFGT8GTHCUUWPIDGFGWVGPFGP#PVGKNJCVVG&GTFCTCWHJKP GPVHNCOOGPFG $ÒTIGTMTKGI HÒJTVG \WT \YGKVGP RQNPKUEJGP 6GKNWPI  FKG FGP RQNPKUEJGP 5VCCV CWH   GKPGRTCMVKUEJPKEJVOGJTÒDGTNGDGPUH·JKIG)TÌ­G\WUCOOGPUEJTWORHGPNKG­0CEJYGKVGTGP#WHUV·PFGP XGTUEJYCPF2QNGPOKVFGTFTKVVGP6GKNWPIXQNNMQOOGPXQPFGT.CPFMCTVGWPF5VCPKUNCWU2QPKC VQYUMKFCPMVGCD&GT)GFGPMVCNGTCWHFKG-QPHÌFGTCVKQPXQP6CTIQYKV\GTKPPGTVCPGKPGPFGTYKEJVKI UVGP WPF PGICVKXUVGP /QOGPVG FGT RQNPKUEJGP )GUEJKEJVG WPF \·JNV \W FGP 4CTKV·VGP FGT RQNPKUEJGP   0WOKUOCVKM

4282



5VCPKUNCWU#WIWUV6CNGTI-QPHÌFGTCVKQPUVCNGTCWHFKG6CTIQYKV\GT-QPHÌ FGTCVKQPFGURQNPKUEJGP#FGNU0GWP<GKNGP6GZV\YKUEJGP'KEJGP\YGKIGP5GEJU<GKNGP6GZVWOIGDGP XQPFGT#PICDGFGU(GKPIGJCNVUWPFFGT,CJTGU\CJN/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H &CX)WO*%\/CKNNGV5WRRN6H  4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  105


&#5,7$+.7/&'5'065#6<'58109+'0

4283



#NGZCPFGT+++XQP4WUUNCPF5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP/KEJCGN-WTPCVQYUMK-TCMCWCWH FKG,CJTHGKGTFGU'PVUCV\GUXQP9KGPU$TWUVDKNFFGURQNPKUEJGP-ÌPKIU,QJCPP+++5QDKGUMKTKO 5EJWRRGPJCTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO 2GN\OCPVGN WPF .QTDGGTMTCP\&GT RQNPKUEJG -ÌPKI N ÒDGT GKPGP   IGHCNNGPGP 6ÒTMGP JKPYGI TGKVGPF KPOKVVGP XQP LWDGNPFGO )GHQNIG KO *KPVGTITWPF N 6WTO FGU 5VG   RJCPUFQOUOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ9WT\D (GKPG2CVKPCMNGKPG5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFUVCDXQT\ÒINKEJ



&#0<+) &+'$'.#)'470)810&#0<+)9*4'0&&'5$ª4)'4#7(56#0&5 0CEJ FGO 6QFG FGU MKPFGTNQUGP -ÌPKIU 5KIKUOWPF #WIWUV XQP 2QNGP KO ,CJTG  MQPPVGP UKEJ DGK   FGT 9CJN FGU PGWGP RQNPKUEJGP *GTTUEJGTU LGPG 5V·PFG FWTEJUGV\GP FKG FGP UKGDGPDÒTIKUEJGP (ÒTUVGP   5VGRJCP$CVJQT[HCXQTKUKGTVGP(ÒTFKG9CJNUGKPGU)GIGPMCPFKFCVGP/CZKOKNKCP++XQP*CDUDWTIJCVVG UKEJWPVGTCPFGTGPFKG5VCFV&CP\KIGKPIGUGV\V&KG-TÌPWPI5VGRJCP$CVJQT[UHCPFCO/CKKP -TCMCW UVCVV &KG 8GTVTGVGT &CP\KIU XGTYGKIGTVGP KJO KJTG *WNFKIWPI FC UKG XQTCD XQO PGWGP *GTT   UEJGTKJTGCNVGPUV·FVKUEJGP2TKXKNGIKGPWPFKJTGGTNCPIVG4GNKIKQPUHTGKJGKVDGUV·VKIVJCDGPYQNNVGP &GT-ÌPKIXGTJ·PIVGCO5GRVGODGTFKG#EJVÒDGTFKG5VCFVWPF\WFGOYKTVUEJCHVNKEJG5CPM VKQPGPKPFGOGTFGP5VCRGNRNCV\FGTRQNPKUEJGP9CTGPXQP&CP\KIPCEJ'NDKPIXGTNGIVGWPFLGINKEJGP *CPFGNUXGTMGJTOKVFGT5VCFVWPVGTUCIVG'KPOKNKV·TKUEJGT8QTUVQ­4KEJVWPI&KTUEJCWKO(TÒJLCJT DTCEJVG FGP &CP\KIGTP MGKPGP 'THQNI UQPFGTP UEJYGTG 8GTNWUVG FQEJ YKEJGP UKGPKEJVXQPKJTGT#D UKEJV CD KJTG 4GEJVG IGIGPÒDGT FGO -ÌPKI \W DGYCJTGP 5VGRJCP $CVJQT[ GTUEJKGP KO (TÒJLCJT WPF   5QOOGTINGKEJFTGKOCNOKVKOOGTPGWXGTUV·TMVGT*GGTGUOCEJVXQTFGT5VCFVDGUEJQUUFKGUGXQO $KUEJQHUDGTI WPF NKG­ FGP 5VWTO CWH FKG (GUVWPI 9GKEJUGNOÒPFG DGHGJNGP FQEJ MQPPVG GT FKG 5VCFV   PKEJV GKPPGJOGP )GIGP 'PFG FGU ,CJTGU MCO GU WPVGT 8GTOKVVNWPI CWUY·TVKIGT &KRNQOCVGP \W (TKG   FGPUXGTJCPFNWPIGP 9GKJPCEJVGP YCT FGT (TKGFGP YKGFGTJGTIGUVGNNV &GT -ÌPKI DGUV·VKIVG FKG 2TKXKNG   IKGPFGT5VCFVKOXQNNGP7OHCPIWPF&CP\KINGKUVGVGKJOFGP6TGWGGKF9·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPIJCVVG FGT/CIKUVTCVFGT5VCFVDGUEJNQUUGPKPFGTUV·FVKUEJGP/ÒP\GIQNFGPGUWPFUKNDGTPGU$GNCIGTWPIUIGNF \W RT·IGP WO FKG PQVYGPFKIGP )GNFOKVVGN \WO &WTEJJCNVGP \WT 8GTHÒIWPI \W JCDGP #NU 2T·IGUVQHH   YWTFGPFGTUV·FVKUEJG5KNDGTUEJCV\UQYKGFKG'FGNOGVCNNDGUV·PFGFGT-KTEJGP5VKHVWPIGP$TÒFGTUEJCH VGP )KNFGP WPF <ÒPHVG YKG CWEJ )CDGP CWU FGP RTKXCVGP $GUV·PFGP FGT $ÒTIGT IGUCOOGNV WPFGKPIG UEJOQN\GP #W­GTFGO YWTFGP HTGOFG )QNF WPF 5KNDGTOÒP\GP CWU FGO 8GTMGJT IG\QIGP OKV GKPGO   )GIGPUVGORGN IGMGPP\GKEJPGV WPF \W GKPGO GTJÌJVGP -WTU YKGFGT CWUIGIGDGP &KG  IGRT·IVGP   &CP\KIGT0QVOÒP\GPDNKGDGPDKU9GKJPCEJVGPKP7ONCWH

1,5:1



106

4284 1,5:1

)QNFIWNFGP  -TGOPKV\ XQP .WFYKI ++ XQP 7PICTP OKV JQEJQXCNGO )GIGPUVGORGN FGT 5VCFV   &CP\KICWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG-TQPGÒDGT\YGK-TGW\GPI/CFQPPCOKV-KPFUKV\GPFCWHNKGIGPFGT /QPFUKEJGNWPVGP#FNGT&GTJGKNKIG.CFKUNCWUUVGJGPFXXGKPG*GNNGDCTFGOKVFGT4GEJVGPJCNVGPF +O (GNF -  # $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H    FQTV FKXGTUG CPFGTGHTGOFG)QNFOÒP\GPOKV GPVURTGEJGPFGO)GIGPUVGORGN &WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGMXIN(D)WO*WU\CT /CKNNGV XIN 6H :::8  FQTV FKXGTUG CPFGTG HTGOFG )QNFOÒP\GP OKV GPVURTGEJGPFGO )GIGP   UVGORGN 2QJN/ )1.&442TQDKGTUVGNNGCO4CPF KPHQNIG)GIGPUVGORGNWPIFWTEJIGJGPFGTJCCTHGKPGT5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP 


Stadtansicht von Danzig.

4285 1,5:1



&WMCV  XQP ,QJCPP ++ 5KIKUOWPF <CRQN[C CNU (ÒTUV XQP 5KGDGPDÒTIGP OKV JQEJQXCNGO )GIGP   UVGORGN FGT 5VCFV &CP\KI CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG -TQPG ÒDGT \YGK -TGW\GP  I )GMTÌPVGT 9CRRGP   UEJKNF/CFQPPCOKV-KPFUKV\GPFCWHNKGIGPFGT/QPFUKEJGNWPVGPFCU9CRRGPDKNFFGT5VCFV*GTOCPP UVCFV$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVFKXGTUGCPFGTGHTGOFG)QNFOÒP\GPOKVGPVURTGEJGP FGO )GIGPUVGORGN  $W\F.WEJ1RT  &WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM  (D  )WO  /CKNNGV   XIN 6H :::8  FQTV FKXGTUG CPFGTG HTGOFG )QNFOÒP\GP OKV GPVURTGEJGPFGO )GIGPUVGORGN    4GUEJ )1.&44/ÒP\GUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGNXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1,5:1



1,5:1

4286 1,5:1

&WMCV  XQP -CURCT XQP .QICW $KUEJQH XQP $TGUNCW OKV JQEJQXCNGO )GIGPUVGORGN FGT 5VCFV   &CP\KI CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG -TQPG ÒDGT \YGK -TGW\GP  I &GT 9CRRGPUEJKNF FGU $KUVWOU WPF FGT   UEJNGUKUEJG #FNGTUEJKNF WPVGP FGT (COKNKGPUEJKNF FGU $KUEJQHU 1DGP $KUEJQHUOÒV\G FKG ,CJTGU\CJN   VGKNGPF,QJCPPGUFGT6·WHGTUVGJGPFXX$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVFKXGTUGCPFGTG HTGOFG)QNFOÒP\GPOKVGPVURTGEJGPFGO)GIGPUVGORGN &WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM FQTVFKGUGU'ZGORNCT CDIGDKNFGV  (D  ( W 5  )WO  /CKNNGV XIN 6H :::8  FQTV FKXGTUG CPFGTG   HTGOFG)QNFOÒP\GPOKVGPVURTGEJGPFGO)GIGPUVGORGN  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ  107


1,5:1



4287

1,5:1

&CP\KIGT&WMCVIGRT·IVCWU-KTEJGPIQNFI-GKNMTGW\KPFGUUGP9KPMGNPLGGKPIGVTGKFG MQTPHÌTOKIGU <GKEJGP /10' Û 01 Û #84 Û %+8+ Û )'&#0'05 Ù &GT XQP \YGK .ÌYGP IGJCNVGPG   5VCFVUEJKNFQDGPFTGK-WIGNPKPXGTVKMCNGT1TKGPVKGTWPI&'('0&'Û015ÛÛÛ5#.8#614%JTK UVWUUVGJGPFTFKG4GEJVG\WO5GIGPGTJQDGPOKVFGT.KPMGPGKPGP4GKEJUCRHGNJCNVGPF+O(GNF+ņ $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM++E(D)WO*%\/CKNNGV 6H:::+8XCT  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUCO4CPFRCTVKGNNOKPDGUEJPKVVGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP 

4288



6CNGTI&GT5VCFVUEJKNFXQP\YGK.ÌYGPIGJCNVGP1DGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN8QTFGO#PHCPI FGT 8U7OUEJTKHV &QJNG T CNU <GKEJGP FGU /ÒP\OGKUVGTU 9CNVGT &CNGOCPP 6CNNGOCPP *ÒHVDKNF   %JTKUVK T FKG 4GEJVG \WO 5GIGP GTJQDGP KP FGT .KPMGP GKPGP 4GKEJUCRHGN JCNVGPF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6HXCT&CX&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM)WO/CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT  445GJTUEJÌP 

4289



1,5:1

4289

*CNDVCNGT   I &GT 5VCFVUEJKNF XQP \YGK .ÌYGP IGJCNVGP 1DGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN 8QT FGO   #PHCPI FGT 8U7OUEJTKHV /ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP &QJNG T CNU <GKEJGP FGU /ÒP\OGKUVGTU 9CNVGT &CNG   OCPP 6CNNGOCPP *ÒHVDKNF %JTKUVK T FKG 4GEJVG \WO 5GIGP GTJQDGP KP FGT .KPMGP 4GKEJUCRHGN   JCNVGPF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM)WO/CKNNGV6H:::8XCT 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV/KP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP 

4290



108

)TQUEJGPI1JPG/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP&CU9CRRGPDKNFFGT5VCFV -TQPGÒDGT\YGK-TGW \GP +O(GNFNWPFTFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN*ÒHVDKNF%JTKUVKTFKG4GEJVG\WO5GIGPGTJQDGPKPFGT .KPMGPGKPGP4GKEJUCRHGNJCNVGPF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGMD)WO /CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT 5GJTUEJÌP




&+'9+'&'4'+00#*/'&'4('5670)*#726$'+&#0<+) 9·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·PGP JCVVG YGPFGP OÒUUGP TÒEMVGP FKG   &CP\KIGTCO5GRVGODGTOKV/CPPXQT*CWRVCWUFGTRQNPKUEJG(GNFJGTT.WDQOKTUMKUEJKEMVG 8GTUV·TMWPIWPFUQMQPPVGFKG$GNCIGTWPIDGIKPPGP0CEJGVNKEJGPGTHQNITGKEJGP#PITKHHGPRNCPVGPFKG &CP\KIGTCO&G\GODGTFGP*CWRVUVWTO&GTUEJYGFKUEJG-QOOCPFCPVDCVCDGTWOHTGKGP#D\WI FGTKJOCWEJIGY·JTVYWTFG#O6CIGFGTªDGTICDGMCO-ÌPKI,QJCPP%CUKOKTOKVUGKPGT)GOCJNKP KO .CIGT CP WPF DGUKEJVKIVG OKV 9QJNIGHCNNGP FKG XQP FGP &CP\KIGTP CPIGNGIVGP .CWHIT·DGP #O    &G\GODGT\QIGPFKG5EJYGFGPCDUKGYCTGPCWH/CPP\WUCOOGPIGUEJOQN\GP&KG&CP\KIGTDG UGV\VGPFCTCWHJKPFKG(GUVWPIOKV/CPPWPVGT#PHÒJTWPIFGU1DGTUVNGWVPCPVU5KGYGTU

4291



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP*ÌJP&CP\KICWHFKG9KGFGTGKPPCJOGFGT(GUVWPI*CWRV#WH5ÒFGP JKP QTKGPVKGTVG VQRQITCRJKUEJG #WHUKEJV FGU &CP\KIGT *CWRVU GKPGO XQP FGT 0GWGP WPF FGT #NVGP   9GKEJUGNDGITGP\VGP)GN·PFGURQTPCWHFGUUGP5RKV\GFGT)TWPFTKUUFGT(GUVWPI*CWRVOKVFGPXQTIG NCIGTVGP.CWHIT·DGPWPFFGO.CIGTFGTRQNPKUEJGP$GNCIGTWPIUCTOGG7PVGPGKP*KOOGNUTKEJVWPIUCP \GKIGT WPF FKG 5KIPCVWT FGU /GFCKNNGWTU5KGD\GJP\GKNKIGT 6GZV WPVGP FGT XQP \YGK .ÌYGP IGJCNVGPG   &CP\KIGT5VCFVUEJKNFOOI&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM*%\8QUUDGTI  44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

<#/15% &+'$'.#)'470)810<#/15% 0CEJFGO4ÒEM\WIFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP#TOGGCWU4WUUNCPF.KVCWGPWPF9CTUEJCWXGTUWEJVGFKG MNGKPG(GUVWPI<COQUEFGPJGTCPTÒEMGPFGPTWUUKUEJGP6TWRRGP9KFGTUVCPF\WNGKUVGP<WP·EJUVICDGU PQEJ IGPÒIGPF .GDGPUOKVVGN KP FGT 5VCFV #NU FKG 4WUUGP LGFQEJ <COQUE WO\KPIGNV JCVVGP YCTGP FKG   'KPYQJPGT IG\YWPIGP KJTGP 8KGJDGUVCPF  FCTWPVGT UQICT FKG 2HGTFG  \W UEJNCEJVGP #NU CWEJ FKGUG   4GUGTXGPCWHIG\GJTVYCTGPUCJUKEJFGTMQOOCPFKGTGPFG)GPGTCN*CWMGIG\YWPIGPCWUFGOIGUCO OGNVGP 5EJOWEM FGT $ÒTIGT WPF FGO -KTEJGPUKNDGT IWVJCNVKIG 5KNDGTOÒP\GP \W RT·IGP /KV FKGUGP   /ÒP\GP \W  <NQV[ MQPPVGP FKG $GNCIGTVGP DGK FGP TWUUKUEJGP $GNCIGTGTP 0CJTWPIUOKVVGN MCWHGP 'U   UVGNNVG UKEJ JGTCWU FC­ FKG $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP UQICT OGJT 5KNDGT GPVJKGNVGP CNU FKG /ÒP\GP FGU *GT   \QIVWOU9CTUEJCW(KPFKIG)GUEJ·HVUNGWVGMCWHVGPFGPTWUUKUEJGP5QNFCVGPFKGUKNDGTPGP$GNCIGTWPIU OÒP\GPCDWPFNKG­GPUKGGKPUEJOGN\GP&CJGTUKPFFKGUG5VÒEMGUGNVGP

4292



<NQV[&TGK\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVWPVGP)TCPCVGOKVDTGPPGPFGT.WPVG<YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP<YGK IGPFKG9GTVCPICDGWPFFKG,CJTGU\CJNI$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H)WO*%\ /CKNNGV6H%::+: 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGT5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP

 109


4293



4294

-W )TQU\[   I 8KGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV9GTVCPICDG WPVGP IGDWPFGPG <YGKIG $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6H)WO*%\/CKNNGV6H%::+: ,WUVKGTVUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



47/0+'0 &+''41$'470)&'5/1.&#9+5%*'0)'$+'6570&&'49#.#%*'+  9·JTGPFFGUTWUUKUEJVÒTMKUEJGP-TKGIGUXGTFT·PIVGPFKGTWUUKUEJGP5VTGKVMT·HVGFKG6ÒTMGP CWU FGO OQNFCYKUEJGP )GDKGV WPF FGT 9CNCEJGK (ÒT FKG PWP GTHQTFGTNKEJG /ÒP\RT·IWPI XGTYGPFGVG   OCPFCU/GVCNNGTDGWVGVGTVÒTMKUEJGT)GUEJÒV\G 

-CVJCTKPC++XQP4WUUNCPFWPF-W2CTCQFGT-QRGMGP5CFQIWTC  I <YGK UEJT·I CPGKPCPFGT NGJPGPFG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG QDGP (ÒTUVGPJWV5EJTKHVVCHGN OKV #PICDG   DGKFGT9·JTWPIUPQOKPCNG$KVMKP$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTV,CJTICPI $TGMMG 5$W\F.WEJ1RT  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI/KP2T·IGUEJY·EJGKPHQNIGMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



4755.#0& &#5,7$+.7/&'49+'&'4'41$'470)&'4('5670) 5%*.ª55'.$74) 5EJNÒUUGNDWTI YWTFG  XQP FGP 0QYIQTQFGTP Y·JTGPF KJTGU -TKGIU\WIGU IGIGP FKG 5EJYGFGP GT   DCWV&KG-KNQOGVGTXQP5V2GVGTUDWTIIGNGIGPG(GUVWPINKGIVCWHGKPGT+PUGNKPFGT0GYCWPFYCT UGKVFGO,CJTJWPFGTVGKPHQTVY·JTGPFGT<CPMCRHGN\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF4WUUNCPF#O1MVQ DGTGTQDGTVG2GVGTFGT)TQUUGFKG5VCFVWPF(GUVWPI5EJNÒUUGNDWTIWPFXGTGKPKIVGUKGFCWGTJCHVOKV UGKPGO4GKEJ

4295



110

-CVJCTKPC++$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP5COWGN,WFKP5V2GVGTUDWTI\WO)GFGPMGPCP FKG 9KGFGTGTQDGTWPI FGT (GUVWPI 5EJNÒUUGNDWTI CO  1MVQDGT   I $TWUVDKNF XQP <CT   2GVGT+TKP*CTPKUEJWPF/CPVGNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&KGCWHGKPGT+PUGNKPFGT0GYCIGNGIGPGDTGP PGPFG(GUVWPI5EJNÒUUGNDWTIWPVGTFGO$GUEJWUUFGTKO8QTFGTITWPFCWHGKPGO7HGTUVTGKHGPDGHKPFNK EJGP TWUUKUEJGP /ÌTUGT WPF -CPQPGPDCVVGTKGP #WH FGO 9CUUGT GKP &TGKOCUVGT \CJNTGKEJG $QQVG   UQYKGGKPG)CNGGTGOO5OKTPQX #VVTCMVKXGTQVDTCWPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




&+''+00#*/'81016%*#-18 +O8GTNCWHFGUTWUUKUEJVÒTMKUEJGP-TKGIGUGTUVÒTOVGFKGTWUUKUEJG#TOGGWPVGTFGO1DGT DGHGJN XQP (ÒTUV )TGIQT #NGZCPFTQYKVUEJ 2QVGOMKP   CO  &G\GODGT  FKG CP FGT   /ÒPFWPI FGT (NÒUUG &PLGRT WPF $WI IGNGIGPG (GUVWPI 1VEJCMQX &GT TWUUKUEJG (GNFOCTUEJCNN WPF   )ÒPUVNKPIFGT<CTKP-CVJCTKPC++GTJKGNVCNU$GNQJPWPIHÒTUGKPG8GTFKGPUVGFCUITQ­G$CPFXQO1TFGP FGU*GKNKIGP)GQTI&GTDGMCPPVG4KVVFGU$CTQPU/ÒPEJJCWUGPCWHFGT-CPQPGPMWIGNUQNNY·JTGPFFGT $GNCIGTWPIFGTQUOCPKUEJGP(GUVWPIUVCVVIGHWPFGPJCDGP

4296



-CVJCTKPC ++  -W#DUEJNCI FGT URKV\QXCNGP 8GTFKGPUVOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV HÒT FKG   'KPPCJOGXQP1VEJCMQX&CUIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOOFGT<CTKPDKUCWHJCNDG*ÌJGXQPGKPGO)GDKPFG CWU GKPGO 2CNO WPF GKPGO .QTDGGT\YGKI WOUEJNQUUGP0GWP\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV  Z  OO   I5OKTPQX\W FQTVKP5KNDGT  *CCTHGKPG5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGXQT\ÒINKEJ



5%*9'&'0

4297

4298

&+'5''5+')'ª$'4&+'&0+5%*'70&&+'.ª$'%-'4(.166' 70& 

'TKM :+8  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG \YK   UEJGPWPF\WT5GGGTTWPIGPGPUEJYGFKUEJGP5KGIGÒDGTFKG(NQVVGP&·PGOCTMUWPF.ÒDGEMU $·TVKIGU$TWUVDKNFFGU-ÌPKIUTKP*CTPKUEJWPF/CPVGN#WH5GG0GRVWPUVGJGPFNCWHGKPGTXQP\YGK 5GGRHGTFGP IG\QIGPGP /WUEJGN FKG (ÒJTWPIU\ÒIGN WPF GKPGP &TGK\CEM JCNVGPF  OO  I   *KNFGDTCPF 5GJTUEJÌP



&+'5%*9'&+5%*'-.+22'024)70)+/70&,#*4*70&'46 

'TKM:+8-NKRRG\W¤TG5VQEMJQNOI)GMTÌPVGT5EJKNFOKVFGP+PKVKCNGP 'Û4FKG9GTVCPICDGVGKNGPF&GTIGMTÌPVGUEJYGFKUEJG5EJKNF\YKUEJGPFGTIGVGKNVGP,CJTGU\CJN ZOO#JNUVTÌO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTV,CJTICPI /CKNNGVXIN6H %+++ FQTV,CJTICPI  5GJTUEJÌP

4299







4300

,QJCPP +++  -NKRRG \W  /CTM  5VQEMJQNO  I &KG IGMTÌPVG 9CUCICTDG FKG   9GTVCPICDG WPF FKG -ÌPKIUKPKVKCNGP VGKNGPF&TGK\GKNKIGT 9CJNURTWEJ \YKUEJGP FGP <GKNGP FKG FTGK   -TQPGPZOO#JNUVTÌO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT/CKNNGV6H%+8XCT  5GJTUEJÌP



-NKRRG\W¤TG5VQEMJQNOI&KGIGMTÌPVG9CUCICTDGKO(GNFQDGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU \CJNWPVGP+4&KGFTGK-TQPGPWPVGPFKG9GTVCPICDGZOO#JNUVTÌO$TCWUG/CPU HGNF6H/CKNNGV6H%8 5GJTUEJÌP

 111


4301





4302

-CTN +:  CNU *GT\QI XQP 5ÌFGTOCPPNCPF  -NKRRG \W  /CTM  5VQEMJQNO QFGT   )TKRUJQNOI&KG+PKVKCNGP%&5QDGP-TQPGWPVGPFKG9GTVCPICDG&KG9CUCICTDGKO(GNF #JNUVTÌOC$TCWUG/CPUHGNF/CKNNGV6H%8ZOO 5GJTUEJÌP



)WUVCX++#FQNRJ-W([TM5·VGTI&KG9CUCICTDGKO(GNFFKG-ÌPKIUK PKVKCNGP&KGFTGK-TQPGPQDGPFKG,CJTGU\CJNWPVGPFKG9GTVCPICDGZOO#JNUVTÌO 5GJTUEJÌP



&+'5+')'&'45%*9'&'0+0&'765%*.#0&

4303



)WUVCX ++ #FQNH  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,GCP )GPVKN 2CTKU CWH FKG KP FGO ,CJT KP   &GWVUEJNCPFGTHQEJVGPGP5KGIG&GT-ÌPKICWHGKPGOJCNDTXQTCPUVÒTOGPFGP2HGTFFGP-QOOCPFQUVCD KP FGT 4GEJVGP DGMT·P\V XQP GKPGT N CWUGKPGT9QNMGJGTXQTVTGVGPFGPJKOONKUEJGP*CPF+O*KPVGT ITWPF CWH VKGHGT IGNGIGPGO 6GTTCKP 4GKVGT WPF (W­UQNFCVGP N CWU GKPGO CO /GGTGUWHGT CWH   IGUEJNCIGPGP (GNFNCIGT GKPGO HNKGJGPFGP (GKPF PCEJUGV\GPF #WH 5GG XKGT 5GIGNUEJKHHG&GT IGMTÌPVG   MÌPKINKEJUEJYGFKUEJG 9CRRGPUEJKNF QDGTJCND FTGKGT -CTVWUEJGP &KG NKPMG \GKIV GKP <GRVGT WPF GKP   5EJYGTV ÒDGTMTGW\ WOIGDGP XQP 7OUEJTKHV FKG TGEJVG GKPG WOUVÒTOVG -TQPG CWH FGT -WRRG GKPGU   $GTIGUFKGOKVVNGTGVT·IVGKPGHÒPH\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVOOI*KNFGDTCPF5NI5EJWN\G 4-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



4304



112

#NVXGTIQNFGVG JQEJQXCNG $TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG  XQO WPDGMCPPVGP /GFCKNNGWT -  5$TWUVDKNFTKP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN DTGKVGO 5RKV\GPMTCIGP WPF .QTDGGTMTCP\ 4KPIUWOJGT .QTDGGT   MTCP\#WH -TKGIUIGT·V .ÌYG UVGKIGPF N OKV 5EJYGTV WPF 5EJKNF WPVGTJCND FGT .ÌYGPDTWUV FKG /G   FCKNNGWTUUKIPCVWT \W FGP 5GKVGP GKPGT (CJPG 4KPIUWOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\ /KV OKVIGIQUUGPGT 6TCIÌUG   ZOOI*KNFGDTCPF 5R·VGTGT)W­5GJTUEJÌP




&+'ª$'45%*4'+670)&'5)4155'0$'.65810(ª0'00#%* 5''.#0& -CTN : )WUVCX   -ÌPKI XQP 5EJYGFGP YCT GKPGT FGT JGTCWUTCIGPFUVGP (GNFJGTTGP UGKPGT   <GKV 1DYQJN GT MGKP 'TDTGEJV CWH FGP UEJYGFKUEJGP 6JTQP JCVVG UGV\VG UGKPG %QWUKPG FKG -ÌPKIKP   %JTKUVKPC  KJPCNU6JTQPHQNIGTFWTEJWPFÒDGTNKG­KJOFKG4GIKGTWPIUIGUEJ·HVG 5GKPG MTKGIGTKUEJG $GICDWPI MQPPVG GT DGTGKVU CP FGT F·PKUEJGP /KNKV·TMCFGOKG 5QTÌ WPF Y·JTGPF   UGKPGU 'KPUCV\GU CNU UEJYGFKUEJGT )GPGTCN KO &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGI   WPVGT $GYGKU UVGNNGP   +O UEJYGFKUEJRQNPKUEJGP -TKGI XQP  DKU  XGTVGKFKIVG GT GTHQNITGKEJ FKG 4QNNG5EJYGFGPUKO 1UVUGGTCWO 5GKPG ªDGTSWGTWPIGP FGU -NGKPGP $GNVU CO  ,CPWCT XQP ,ÒVNCPF PCEJ (ÒPGP WPF FGU   )TQ­GP$GNVUXQP(ÒPGPPCEJ5GGNCPFCO(GDTWCTÒDGTFCU\WIGHTQTGPG/GGTIGJÌTGPPQEJ JGWVG\WFGPVQNNMÒJPUVGPOKNKV·TKUEJGP6CVGPFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU

4305



-CTN : )WUVCX  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP #TXKF -CTNUVGGP 5VQEMJQNO CWH FKG ªDGT   UEJTGKVWPIFGU\WIGHTQTGPGPITQ­GP$GNVUFWTEJGKPGUEJYGFKUEJG5VTGKVOCEJV$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJ WPF /CPVGN$NKEM XQP GKPGO GTJÌJVGP 5VCPFRWPMV CWH FKG \WIGHTQTGPG 1UVUGG FCTCWH (W­VTWRRGP KP   ITWRRKGTVGT /CTUEJQTFWPI KP 4KEJVWPI FGT CO *QTK\QPV UKEJVDCTGP UGGN·PFKUEJGP -ÒUVG +O 8QTFGT   ITWPF CWH FGT -WRRG GKPGT &ÒPG FGT -ÌPKI WPF )GHQNIG \W 4QUU UQYKG \YGK 2HGTFGIGURCPPG OKV CWH   -WHGPOQPVKGTVGP-CPQPGPNCHGVVGP#OUGGY·TVU\WIGYCPFVGP*CPIFGT&ÒPG-CXCNNGTKGKPGKPGT\YGK HCEJGP.KPKGITWRRKGTVUVGJGPFOOI*KNFGDTCPF  (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+'5%*.#%*6'0810*#./56#&.70&70&.#0&5-410#

4306



-CTN :+  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP #PVQP /G[DWUEJ -QRGPJCIGP CWH FKG UKGITGKEJGP   5EJNCEJVGPXQP*CNOUVCF.WPFWPF.CPFUMTQPC$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJWPF/CPVGN'KPHGKPFNKEJGU -TKGIUJGGTCO(W­GGKPGU$GTIGUCWHFGUUGP-WRRGGKPG-ÌPKIUMTQPGUVGJV$GKFKGUGTCO*KOOGNFCU CWU9QNMGPJGTXQTVTGVGPFG$TWUVDKNF,WRKVGTUXX$NKV\GCWHFKG5QNFCVGPUEJNGWFGTPFWPFFKG.KPMG UEJÒV\GPFÒDGTFKG-TQPGJCNVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI*KNFGDTCPF  $GCTDGKVWPIUURWTKP4CPFP·JGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 113


)WUVCX%GFGTUVTÌO&GT.GKEJPCO-CTNU:++YKTFÒDGT FCUUEJYGFKUEJPQTYGIKUEJG)GDKTIGIGVTCIGP

&'461&810-¤0+)-#4.:++9*4'0&&'4$'.#)'470)810 (4'&'4+-5*#.. -CTN :++   DGUVKGI KO #NVGT XQP PWT  ,CJTGP CO  0QXGODGT  FGP UEJYGFKUEJGP   6JTQP0KEJVGKPOCNFTGK,CJTGUR·VGTDGICPPFGT)TQ­G0QTFKUEJG-TKGI  KPFGO5EJYG FGP ÒDGTTCUEJGPF XQP GKPGO CWU &·PGOCTM 5EJYGFGP 2QNGP 5CEJUGP WPF 4WUUNCPF DGUVGJGPFGP   $ÒPFPKUCPIGITKHHGPYWTFG&CU<KGNFGT8GTDÒPFGVGPYCTFKG'TQDGTWPIFGTUEJYGFKUEJGP1UVUGGRTQ XKP\GP 6T·WOG XQP GKPGO UEJPGNNGP 5KGI ÒDGT GKPGP OKNKV·TKUEJ WPGTHCJTGPGP -ÌPKI GTHÒNNVGP UKEJ   LGFQEJ PKEJV &GT OKNKV·TKUEJ CW­GTQTFGPVNKEJ DGICDVG -CTN :++ MQP\GPVTKGTVG UGKPG -T·HVG WO GKPGP   )GIPGTPCEJFGOCPFGTGPCWU\WUEJCNVGP+PFGT5EJNCEJVXQP0CTXCCO0QXGODGTDGUKGIVGGT GKPG \CJNGPO·­KI YGKV ÒDGTNGIGPG TWUUKUEJG #TOGG WPVGT FGO $GHGJN FGU <CTGP 2GVGT + FGT )TQ­G    &CU'TNGDPKUFGTGPFIÒNVKIGP0KGFGTNCIG5EJYGFGPUKO,CJTGFWTEJFGP(TKGFGPXQP 0[UVCF DNKGD FGO LWPIGP -ÌPKI LGFQEJ GTURCTV FC GT CO  0QXGODGT  DGK FGT $GNCIGTWPI FGT   PQTYGIKUEJGP (GUVWPI (TGFGTKMUJCNNXQPGKPGT-WIGNVÌFNKEJKPFKG5EJN·HGIGVTQHHGPYWTFG$KUJGWVG KUV WPIGMN·TV QD FGT 5EJWUU XQP GKPGO )GIPGT QFGT XGTUGJGPVNKEJ QFGT CDUKEJVNKEJ  CWU FGP GKIGPGP   4GKJGPCDIGIGDGPYWTFG

4307

1,5:1

4308

1,5:1



-CTN:++&WMCVCWHFGP6QFFGU-ÌPKIUY·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGT(GUVWPI(TG FGTKMUJCNNI<YKUEJGP(CJPGPWPF9CHHGPUVÒEMGP$TWUVDKNFFGU8GTUVQTDGPGPTCWHGKPGOPKGF TKIGP 5QEMGN KO #DUEJPKVV XKGT <GKNGP 6GZV#PUKEJV FGT DGNCIGTVGP WPF DGUEJQUUGPGP (GUVWPI (TGFG   TKMUJCNNKO8QTFGTITWPF(GNFNCIGT*KNFGDTCPF )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



5KNDGTCDUEJNCIXQPFGP5VGORGNPFGU&WMCVGPCWHFGP6QFFGU-ÌPKIUY·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPI FGT(GUVWPI(TGFGTKMUJCNN<YKUEJGP(CJPGPWPF9CHHGPUVÒEMGP$TWUVDKNFFGU8GTUVQTDGPGPTCWHGKPGO PKGFTKIGP 5QEMGN KO #DUEJPKVV XKGT <GKNGP 6GZV#PUKEJV FGT DGNCIGTVGP WPF DGUEJQUUGPGP (GUVWPI   (TGFGTKMUJCNNKO8QTFGTITWPF(GNFNCIGTOOI*KNFGDTCPF (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

114




&#55%*9'&+5%*'2.#66'0)'.&

4309 1:2



-CTN :++  -WRHGTRNCVVG \W  &CNGT 5KNXGTO[PV  #XGUVC OKV TWPFGO  )GIGPUVGORGN   XQP9CRRGPUEJKNFXQP)ÌVCNCPFFKG,CJTGU\CJNVGKNGPFI+O<GPVTWOXKGTGEMKIG5VGO RGNWPIOKVFGT9GTVCPICDGPCJGFGTXKGT'EMGPFGU5EJTÌVNKPIULGGKPTWPFGT)GIGPUVGORGNOKVFGO FKG,CJTGU\CJNVGKNGPFGP-ÌPKIUOQPQITCOOZOO#JNUVTÌOWPF5)GIGPUVGO RGN#$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV5WRRN6H6KPIUVTÌO5%WPF)GIGPUVGORGN 5 5GJTUEJÌP

4310 1:3







4311 1:3

(TKGFTKEJ+-WRHGTRNCVVG\W&CNGT5KNXGTO[PV#XGUVCI+O<GPVTWOGKPG TWPFG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGT9GTVCPICDGPCJGFGTXKGT'EMGPLGGKP5VGORGNOKVFGOIGMTÌPVGPXGTMÒT\ VGP-ÌPKIUPCOGPQDGTJCNDFGT,CJTGU\CJNZOO#JNUVTÌO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H  FQTV,CJTICPI /CKNNGVXIN6H%8+++ FQTV,CJTICPI 6KPIUVTÌO5#  5GJTUEJÌP



-WRHGTRNCVVG\W&CNGT5KNXGTO[PV#XGUVCI+O<GPVTWOGKPGTWPFG5VGORGNWPIOKVFGT 9GTVCPICDGPCJGFGTXKGT'EMGPLGGKP5VGORGNOKVFGOIGMTÌPVGPXGTMÒT\VGP-ÌPKIUPCOGPQDGTJCND FGT,CJTGU\CJNZOO#JNUVTÌO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTV,CJTICPI  /CKNNGV6H%8++ FQTV,CJTICPI 6KPIUVTÌO5#  2T·IGUEJY·EJGPCO9GTV\CJNUVGORGNUQPUVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 115


5%*9'+< &+'$'.#)'470)810)'0(

4313

4312



-W5QNUI5VCFVUEJKNFKP5VTCJNGP5GEJU\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H &GOQNG/CKNNGV6H:.+ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W 5QN   I 5VCFVUEJKNF KP 5VTCJNGP5GEJU\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H     &GOQNG/CKNNGV6H:.+ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



52#0+'0 &+'/+.+64+5%*'0'4(1.)'+0+6#.+'0+/52#0+5%*'0'4$(1.)' -4+')

4314



(GNKRG85KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QUGRJ4QGVVKGTU2CTKUCWHFKGOKNKV·TKUEJGP'THQNIGKP +VCNKGPFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIXQP%TGOQPCFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP/CPVWCWPFFGP5KGIÒDGT)WCUVCNNC$TWUV DKNF FGU -ÌPKIU T KP /CPVGN OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\5GEJU\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV WPVGP FKG 0COGPUKPKVKCNG FGU   5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTUOOI(GWCTFGPVX.QQP+8 HTCP\ÌUKUEJG#WUICDG 5 44(GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



&+'0#21.'10+5%*''21%*'+052#0+'0 1DYQJN 5RCPKGP PQEJ  FGO HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -CKUGT 0CRQNGQP +   *KNHG KO -TKGI IGIGP   2QTVWICNIGNGKUVGVJCVVGYCPFVGUKEJFKGUGTFKTGMVIGIGPFCU.CPF'TUGV\VGFGPURCPKUEJGP$QWT DQPGP(GTFKPCPF8++CDWPFOCEJVGUGKPGPGKIGPGP$TWFGT,QUGRJ$QPCRCTVG\WO-ÌPKI&CUURCPK UEJG8QNMGTJQDUKEJIGIGPFKG$GUCV\GTWPFHÒJTVGGKPGPDTWVCNGP)WGTKNNCMTKGIFGTXQPGKPGO /CPP UVCTMGP GPINKUEJGP 'ZRGFKVKQPUMQTRU WPVGT FGO -QOOCPFQ XQP #TVJWT 9GNNGUNG[ *GT\QI XQP   9GNNKPIVQP   WPVGTUVÒV\V YWTFG 0CEJ UKGITGKEJGP 5EJNCEJVGP DGK 5CNCOCPEC   WPF   8KVQTKC   MQPPVGP FKG (TCP\QUGP UEJNKG­NKEJ  CWU 5RCPKGP XGTVTKGDGP YGTFGP WPF (GTFKPCPF   8++MGJTVGCWHFGP6JTQP\WTÒEM

4315





116

4316

,QUGRJ 0CRQNGQP $QPCRCTVG    2GUGVCU  $CTEGNQPC  I 4CWVGPHÌTOKIGT   XKGTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF \YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP 'KEJGP\YGKIGP9GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP WPVGP   IGDWPFGPG.QTDGGT\YGKIG$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTV,CJTICPI %%6/CKNNGV XIN6H:++ FQTV,I  #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2GUGVC  $CTEGNQPC  I 4CWVGPHÌTOKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF KP 'KEJGPMTCP\#WH WPF 7OUEJTKHV   $TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H%%6/CKNNGVXIN6H:++ 5GJTUEJÌP




4317







4318

4319

(GTPCPFQ8++5QWU\W4GCNGU2CNOCFG/CNNQTECI)GMTÌPVGT XKGTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF5VGORGNWPIGP OKVFGT9GTVCPICDGFGOXGTMÒT\VGP-ÌPKIUPCOGPWPFFGT ,CJTGU\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%%6&CX/CKNNGV6H.::8++  5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1MVQIQPCNG-NKRRG\W5QWU2CNOCFG/CNNQTECI4CWVGPHÌTOKIGTXKGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGP UEJKNF5VGORGNWPIGP OKV FGT 9GTVCPICDG FGO XGTMÒT\VGP -ÌPKIUPCOGP WPF FGT ,CJTGU\CJN  Z   OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%%6&CX/CKNNGV6H.::8++  5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



2GUGVCU6CTTCIQPCI)GMTÌPVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF5VGORGNWPIGPOKVFGT9GTVCPICDGFGO XGTMÒT\VGP -ÌPKIUPCOGP WPF FGT ,CJTGU\CJN $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   %%6  &CX    /CKNNGV6H%8+++ 5GJTUEJÌP



4320



 4GCNGU  %5( (GNFOÒP\UV·VVG KP -CVCNQPKGP  I $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN   )GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV CWHIGNGIVGO /KVVGNUEJKNF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   FQTV <W   YGKUWPI CP /ÒP\UV·VVG 4¾WU KP -CVCNQPKGP  %%6  /CKNNGV 6H :%8+  FQTV <WYGKUWPI CP   /ÒP\UV·VVG4¾WUKP-CVCNQPKGP  5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



4321



 4GCNGU  %5( 2CNOC FG /CNNQTEC  I $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF .QTDGGT   MTCP\)GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV CWHIGNGIVGO /KVVGNUEJKNF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H    

FQTV ,I  FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG 4¾WU \WIGYKGUGP  %%6  /CKNNGV ņ FQTV ,I  FGT/ÒP\ UV·VVG4¾WU\WIGYKGUGP  4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 117


&+'+06'4+/524)70)#7(/#..14%#

4322



(GTPCPFQ8++2GUGVCU2CNOCFG/CNNQTECI2T·IWPIHÒTFKG$CNGC TGP 7OUEJTKHVGPXCTKCPVG OKV %1056+ 4CWVGPHÌTOKIGT XKGTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF KO (GNF   2   &TGK\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV\YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP.QTDGGT\YGKIGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%%6 /CKNNGV6H+: -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



&+'2418+514+5%*'4')+'470) %CTVCIGPCKUVGKPG*CHGPUVCFVKPFGTURCPKUEJGP2TQXKP\/WTEKCWPFJCVFGPDGFGWVGPFUVGP-TKGIUJCHGP FGU.CPFGU+O,CJTGDTCEJJKGTGKPHÌFGTCNKUVKUEJGT#WHUVCPFCWUGTUVKO,CPWCTMQPPVGPFKG 4GIKGTWPIUVTWRRGPFKG5VCFV\WTÒEMGTQDGTP

4323



4GRWDNKM2GUGVCU%CTVCIGPCI$GKFGTUGKVU#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG /CPUHGNF%%6&CX 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



-#6#.10+'0 &'4#7(56#0&)')'0&+'52#0+5%*'-410' <YKUEJGPWPFMCOGU\WGKPGODNWVKIGP#WHUVCPFFGUMCVCNCPKUEJGP8QNMGU UQI#WHUVCPF FGT 5EJPKVVGT  IGIGP FGP URCPKUEJJCDUDWTIKUEJGP -ÌPKI 2JKNKRR (GNKRG  +8  WPFUGKPGP 2TGOKGTOKPKUVGT )CURCT FG )W\O±P )TCH XQP 1NKXCTGU   &KG 7PTWJGP YCTGP GKPG (QNIG   FGTFWTEJFGP&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGI  ÒDGTO·­KIIGUVKGIGPGP5VGWGTNCUV#WUDNGKDGPFGOKNK V·TKUEJG 'THQNIG FGT URCPKUEJGP -TQPG WPF FKG 'TOQTFWPI FGU MÌPKINKEJGP 5VCVVJCNVGTU KP $CTEGNQPC   HÒJTVGPNGV\VNKEJUQICT\WT#DNÌUWPI2QTVWICNUXQP5RCPKGPFCUKEJFKG2QTVWIKGUGPYGKIGTVGP6TWRRGP \WT0KGFGTUEJNCIWPIFGU#WHUVCPFGU\WGPVUGPFGPWPFKJTGTUGKVUTGXQNVKGTVGP&KG'TGKIPKUUGXQP UKPF KP FGT QHHK\KGNNGP 0CVKQPCNJ[OPG -CVCNQPKGPU 'NU 5GICFQTU URCP FKG 5EJPKVVGT  XGTCTDGKVGV   YQTFGPYGNEJGPQEJJGWVGCNNG-CVCNCPGPCWHTWHVFCU8QNMWPFFKG*GKOCV\WXGTVGKFKIGP

4324



118

1,5:1

4324

4GCNGU$CTEGNQPCOKV6KVGNFGUURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKIU(GNKRG+8I)GMTÌPVGTMCVCNQPKUEJGT 9CRRGPUEJKNFKO(GNFFKG9GTVCPICDG-TGW\KOGTUVGPWPFFTKVVGP9KPMGNFTGK-WIGNPKO\YGKVGP WPFXKGTVGPGKP4KPIGN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%%6/CKNNGV6H: 48QT\ÒINKEJ




4326

4325





4GCNGU%GTXGTCI$TWUVDKNFFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.QWKU:+++TKP*CTPKUEJOKVWO IGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ KO (GNF   4-TGW\ KO GTUVGP WPF FTKVVGP 9KPMGN GKP   4KPIGNKO\YGKVGPWPFXKGTVGPFTGK-WIGNP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%%6&WRNGUU[ /CKNNGV6H::8+  4)TQDG0QVRT·IWPIOKV2T·IGUEJY·EJGPCWHWPTGIGNO·­KIJGTIGTKEJVGVGO5EJTÌVNKPI(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 4GCNGU  )GTQPC OKV 6KVGN FGU URCPKUEJGP -ÌPKIU (GNKRG +8  I )GMTÌPVGT MCVCNQPKUEJGT   9CRRGPUEJKNFKO(GNFFKG9GTVCPICDG-TGW\KOGTUVGPWPFFTKVVGP9KPMGNGKP4KPIGNKO\YGKVGPWPF XKGTVGPFTGK-WIGNP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT%%6 FKGUGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV /CKNNGV 6H:.+XCT 44(GKPG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 

4327





4327

1,5:1

 4GCNGU  ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV  +IWCNCFC OKV 6KVGN FGU URCPKUEJGP -ÌPKIU    (GNKRG+8I)GMTÌPVGTMCVCNQPKUEJGT9CRRGPUEJKNFKO(GNFFKG9GTVCPICDG-TGW\KOGTUVGP WPF FTKVVGP 9KPMGN FTGK -WIGNP KO \YGKVGP WPF XKGTVGP GKP 4KPIGN $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT   %%6/CKNNGV6H.8XCT 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV 5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVXQNNNGUDCTGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHVFKGUGTITQDGPRTQXKUQTKUEJGP'OKUUKQP 

4329

4328







4330

5QWU$CTEGNQPCI$TWUVDKNFFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.QWKU:+++T/KVGKPGOTCWVGPHÌT OKIGP 5EJKNF DGNGIVGU -TGW\ KO GTUVGP WPF FTKVVGP 9KPMGN FTGK -WIGNP KO \YGKVGP WPF XKGTVGP GKP   4KPIGN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%%6&WRNGUU[/CKNNGV6H:+  44)TQDG2T·IWPIMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



-W&KPGTQ  6CTTGIC  I -QRH FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU :+++ T OKV .QTDGGT   MTCP\-TGW\ KO GTUVGP WPF FTKVVGP 9KPMGN GKP 4KPIGN KO \YGKVGP WPF XKGTVGP FTGK -WIGNP $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6H%%6&WRNGUU[/CKNNGV6H%+:  4ÒEMUGKVGNGKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



-W5GK\GPQ 5K\CKP   $CTEGNQPC  I $TWUVDKNF FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU :+8 T OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\4CWVGPHÌTOKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF CWH FGO -TGW\ FGT JGKNKIGP 'WNCNKC QDGP -QRH X X   WPVGP.KNKG$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVCPFGTGT,CJTICPI %%6&WRNGUU[ /CKNNGV5WRRN6H .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 119


4331

4332

1,5:1





1,5:1

-W#TFKVG  $CTEGNQPC  I $TWUVDKNF FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU :+8 T OKV .QTDGGT   MTCP\4CWVGPHÌTOKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   %%6 &WRNGUU[    /CKNNGV5WRRN6H -NGKPGU<CKPGPFGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

4GCNGU$CTEGNQPCI$TWUVDKNFFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.QWKU:+8TKP/CPVGNKO(GNF :  4/KV GKPGO TCWVGPHÌTOKIGP 9CRRGPUEJKNF DGNGIVGU -TGW\ KO GTUVGP WPF FTKVVGP 9KPMGN FTGK   -WIGNP KO \YGKVGP WPF XKGTVGP GKP 4KPIGN $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   %%6  &WRNGUU[    /CKNNGV6H:++ 44'VYCUWPTGIGNO·­KIGT5EJTÌVNKPIYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGT FGPPQEJGKPCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

4333







4334

-W5GK\GPQ 5K\CKP ! 'KPUGT\KHHGTWPNGUGTNKEJIGRT·IVDKU $CTEGNQPCI$TWUVDKNFFGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.QWKU:+8TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\4CWVGPHÌTOKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFCWHFGO-TGW\FGT JGKNKIGP'WNCNKCQDGP-QRHXXWPVGP.KNKG$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H%%6 &WRNGUU[/CKNNGVXIN6H:+ 5GJTUEJÌP



-W5GK\GPQ 5K\CKP ,CJTGU\CJNWPNGUGTNKEJ IGRT·IVDKU $CTEGNQPCI$TWUVDKNFFGUHTCP\Ì UKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.QWKU:+8TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\4CWVGPHÌTOKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFCWHFGO-TGW\FGTJGKNK IGP 'WNCNKC QDGP -QRH X X WPVGP .KNKG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   %%6    &WRNGUU[/CKNNGVXIN6H:+ .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



14#0 &+'$'.#)'470)&'452#0+5%*'0)#40+51081014#0&74%* /#74+5%*'64722'0 1TCP JGWVGFKG\YGKVITÌ­VG5VCFV#NIGTKGPU YCTGTUVOCNUKPURCPKUEJGP$GUKV\IGNCPIV+O<WIG FGU 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU YCTGP FKG URCPKUEJGP 6TWRRGP CWH FGP GWTQR·KUEJGP -TKGIUUEJCWRNCV\   MQP\GPVTKGTV WPF GU IGNCPI FGP /CWTGP FKG 5VCFV  \WTÒEM\WGTQDGTPWPFDKU\WJCNVGP&KG 5RCPKGTYQNNVGPPKEJVCWHFGPUVTCVGIKUEJYKEJVKIGP*CHGPKP0QTFCHTKMCXGT\KEJVGPWPFGTQDGTVGP GTPGWV 1TCP +O HQNIGPFGP ,CJT YWTFG FKG URCPKUEJG )CTPKUQP WPVGT FGO -QOOCPFQ FGU /CTSWKU FG   5CPVC%TW\XQPOCWTKUEJGP6TWRRGPDGNCIGTVWPFGOKVVKGTVGFCJGTGKPG5GTKGXQP0QVOÒP\GP

4335





120

4336

(GNKRG8-W4GCNGU1TCPOKV6KVGNFGUURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKIU(GNKRG8)TQDG0QV RT·IWPICWHGKPGOMCPVKIGPEQDCTVKIGP5EJTÌVKPII)GMTÌPVGTXKGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFNQ 6TNKGIGPFFKG9GTV\CJN8++++PFTGK<GKNGP14 #0$TCWUG/CPUHGNF\W6H FQTV 4GCNGU WPF6H FQTV4GCNGU /CKNNGV6H:% 445EJÌP



-W 4GCNGU  1TCP OKV 6KVGN FGU URCPKUEJGP -ÌPKIU (GNKRG 8 )TQDG 0QVRT·IWPI  I )G   MTÌPVGTXKGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFNQ6TNKGIGPFFKG9GTV\CJN+++++PFTGK<GKNGP14 #0 $TCWUG/CPUHGNF/CKNNGV6H:% 441Z[FHNGEMGUEJÌP




<;2'40 &+'$'.#)'470)810(#/#)756#&74%*6ª4-+5%*'64722'0

4338

4337





-W$KUCPVG   I /CTMWUNÌYG N WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN(ÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV $TCWUG/CPU   HGNF6H)CODGTKPK/CKNNGV6H:::+:5EJNWODGTIGT6H8+++6TCKPC6H%:.+++ 45GJTUEJÌP



-W$KUCPVG   I /CTMWUNÌYG N WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN(ÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV $TCWUG/CPU   HGNF6H)CODGTKPK/CKNNGV6H:::+:5EJNWODGTIGT6H8+++6TCKPC6H%:.+++ 5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



ª$'45'' );26'0 &+'$'5'6<70));26'05&74%*&+'5#55#0+&'0+/,#*4*70&'46

4339

1,5:1



1,5:1

*GTCENKWU  -W 0WOOK &QFGECPWOOKWO  #NGZCPFTKC  I )GMTÌPVGU WPD·TVKIGU   $TWUVDKNFXXKO(GNFNCEJVUVTCJNKIG5QPPGT/QPFUKEJGN CDPGJOGPF -TGW\CWH)NQDWU\YKUEJGP FGP<CJN\GKEJGP+$&1%*CJPD5GCT 5GJTUEJÌP



8GTOWVNKEJIGRT·IVY·JTGPFFGT$GUGV\WPII[RVGPUFWTEJFKG5CUUCPKFGP&GT)GMTÌPVGKUVOKV\KGONKEJGT9CJT UEJGKPNKEJMGKV CNU FGT UCUUCPKFKUEJG -ÌPKI -JWUTQ \W FGWVGP 5QPPG WPF /QPF DGIGIPGP CNU $KNFGNGOGPVG CWH   UCUUCPKFKUEJGP&KTJGOU

%*+.' 01624)70)+0&'42418+0<%12+#21

4340





4341

'KPUGKVKIG 0QVOÒP\G \W  2GUQ Q ,    I 5EJKNFHÌTOKIG 5VGORGNWPI FCTKP 5VGTP WPVGP   N·PIUTGEJVGEMKIG5VGORGNWPIFCTKPÜ+Ü2Ü-//CKNNGV5WRRN6H  -N-TCV\GTWPF5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIG0QVOÒP\G\W2GUQQ,  I5EJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGORGNWPIFCTKP5VGTPWPVGP N·PIUTGEJVGEMKIG5VGORGNWPIFCTKPÜ%-//CKNNGV 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 121


4343

4342

4344

)7#&'.172' &+'$'5'6<70)810)7#&'.172'&74%*)4155$4+6#00+'0 

$TKVKUEJG1MMWRCVKQP5QWU 5JKNNKPI Q,  I#WHXKGTGEMKIGO5EJTÌVNKPI OKVIGYGNNVGP4·PFGTPFGTCWUFGO<GPVTWOGKPGU4GCNUVÒEMGUCWUIGUVCP\VWPFGKPUGKVKIOKVFGTXQP 5VTCJNGPWOIGDGPGP+PKVKCNG)PGWDGRT·IVYQTFGPKUV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HFG%NGTOQPV9JGGNGT /CKNNGV6H:.82TKFOQTG 8QT\ÒINKEJ



+0&10'5+'0 &+'$4+6+5%*''#56+0&+#%1/2#0;+0(146/#4.$1417)* #7(57/#64# 

 5WMWU #*  %CNEWVVC  I <YGK\GKNKIG 1TVUCPICDG KP NCVGKPKUEJGP .GVVGTP WPVGP FKG   ,CJTGU\CJN/GJT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVKP#TCDKUEJ&G%NGTOQPV9JGGNGT-/5 5GJTUEJÌP



-W 5VWKXGT  $QPM DCTTGPHÌTOKIG \YGKUGKVKIG 2T·IWPI   I 9GTVCPICDG,CJTGU\CJN   /CKNNGVXIN6H.:+++5EJQNVGP 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



,#8##.5$'5+6<70)&'5-¤0+)4'+%*5*1..#0& 

-7$# &+'8'46'+&+)70)810*#8#00#)')'0&+'$4+6+5%*'064722'0

4345



%CTNQU +++  $TQP\GOGFCKNNG XQP6QOCU(TCPEKUEQ2TKGVQCWHFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIXQP *CXCPPCFWTEJFGP-QOOCPFCPVGP.WFQXKEQFG8GNCUEQWPF.GWVPCPV8KPEGPVKQ)QP\CNG\&KG$TWUV DKNFGTXQP&QP8GNCUEQWPF&QP)QP\CNG\T$NKEMÒDGTFGP*CHGPOKV\CJNTGKEJGP5EJKHHGPCWHFKGCWH GKPGO (GNUXQTURTWPI GTTKEJVGVG (GUVWPI /QTQ OKV IGDQTUVGPGT /CWGT KP FGUUGP +PPGTP UQGDGP GKPG   IGYCNVKIG'ZRNQUKQPGTHQNIVOOI'KOGT5CPFYKEJ%%C/GFKPC  44-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



/#74+6+75 &+'$4+6+5%*'*'445%*#(6#7(/#74+6+75

4346



122

)GQTIG+85QWUQFGT&QNNCTQ,  I2CNOGP9GTVCPICDG$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6HFG%NGTOQPV9JGGNGT5/CKNNGV/C\CTF6H8+D  ,WUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP




/':+-1 &#5016)'.&&'4/':+-#0+5%*'0(4'+*'+65-/2('4 &GTOGZKMCPKUEJG$CWGTPUQJPWPFCWUIGDKNFGVG6JGQNQIG,QU¾/CTKC/QTGNQUUGV\VGUKEJCPFKG5RKV\G FGU #WHUVCPFGU IGIGP FKG URCPKUEJG *GTTUEJCHV FGT FWTEJ FKG KP <WUCOOGPJCPI OKV FGP 0CRQNGQPK   UEJGP-TKGIGPXGTWTUCEJVG5EJY·EJWPIFGTURCPKUEJGP-TQPGGTNGKEJVGTVYWTFG&GTXQP/QTGNQUGKP DGTWHGPG-QPITG­XQP%JKNRCPEKPIQGTMN·TVGCO0QXGODGTFKG7PCDJ·PIKIMGKV/GZKMQU/Q TGNQUQTFPGVGGKPGWOHCPITGKEJG-WRHGTRT·IWPI\WT$G\CJNWPIUGKPGT5QNFCVGPWPF\WT)GNFXGTUQTIWPI FGTXQPKJODGJGTTUEJVGP)GDKGVGKO5ÒFGPFGU.CPFGUCP/QTGNQUYWTFGKO1MVQDGTXQPFGP 5RCPKGTPIGHCPIGPIGPQOOGPWPFCO&G\GODGTKO#NVGTXQP,CJTGPJKPIGTKEJVGV

4347



-W4GCNGUI<YKUEJGP<YGKIGP2HGKNWPF$QIGPPCEJQDGPIGTKEJVGVWPVGP57&8QP $NCVVQTPCOGPVGP WOIGDGPG 9GTVCPICDG WPF FKG ,CJTGU\CJN %%6  C )TQXG  -/    /CKNNGVXIN6H.:::+++ FQTVKP5KNDGT   5EJTÌVNKPIXQTFGT2T·IWPIITQDLWUVKGTVFCJGT2T·IGUEJY·EJGPUGJTUEJÌP



4349

4348

2'47 &+'70#$*0)+)-'+65-/2(')')'0&+'52#0+5%*'*'445%*#(6 

-W2GUQ.KOCI#WHWPF7OUEJTKHV.COCTNCIGTPFJKPVGPN(TGKJGKVUOÒV\GCWH 5VCDKO*KPVGTITWPFXQPFGT5QPPGDGUVTCJNVG$GTIMGVVG5NI(QPTQDGTV)TWPVJCN5GNNUEJQRR /CKNNGV6H:%+++ 5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



2TQXKUQTKUEJG2T·IWPIY·JTGPFFGT7PCDJ·PIKIMGKVUM·ORHG

8'0'<7'.# &+'-¤0+).+%*52#0+5%*'24)70)9*4'0&&'570#$*0)+) -'+65-4+')5 

 4GCNGU  %CTCECU -TGW\ KP FGP 9KPMGNP CDYGEJUGNPF FGT 6WTO XQP -CUVKNKGP TGUR FGT   .ÌYG XQP .¾QP&KG 5·WNGP FGU *GTCMNGU $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   %%6  /CKNNGV 5WRRN   6H 2T·IGUEJY·EJGUQPUVUGJTUEJÌP



'+0'016-.+22'70$'56+//6'4*'4-70(6

4350



7PDGUVKOOVGT1TV'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-NKRRGQ,WPFQJPG9GTVCPICDGI/KVUGEJU5VGO RGNWPIGP KP FGT /KVVG FKG +PKVKCNGP / WPF # PCJG FGT XKGT IGUVWV\VGP 'EMGP LG GKP 5EJKNF OKV FTGK   5VGTPGPWPVGTJCNDGKPGT.CWDMTQPGZOO/CKNNGV5WRRN6H) 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 123


*#$5$74)+5%*''4$.#0&'¤56'44'+%* &#5814&4+0)'0&'46ª4-'0+0'7412#70&&+' #75'+0#0&'45'6<70)'07/&+'70)#4+5%*'-410' 5GKV FGT /KVVG FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU YCTGP FKG 6ÒTMGP KP 5ÒFQUVGWTQRC GKPIGFTWPIGP +JTG 'ZRCPUKQP   PCEJ9GUVGPUVGNNVGUGKVFGO,CJTJWPFGTVHÒT*CDUDWTIGKPGMQPMTGVG$GFTQJWPIFCTUR·VGUVGPUCNU (GTFKPCPF+\WO-ÌPKIXQP7PICTPIGMTÌPVYQTFGPYCT(ÒTTWPFGKP8KGTVGNLCJTVCWUGPFITGP\VGPPWP FKGJCDUDWTIKUEJGP$GUKV\WPIGP¤UVGTTGKEJ7PICTPWPF$ÌJOGPIGIGPFCU6ÒTMGPTGKEJ5WNVCP5ÒNGK OCP ++ FGT 2T·EJVKIG YCT  GTUVOCNU KP FCU -ÌPKITGKEJ 7PICTP GKPIGHCNNGP +P FGT 5EJNCEJV DGK   /QJ±EUUEJNWIGTCO#WIWUVFCUWPICTKUEJDÌJOKUEJG*GGTXGTPKEJVGPFUGKP)GIPGT.WFYKI++ -ÌPKI XQP 7PICTP WPF $ÌJOGP MCO CWH FGT (NWEJV WO (GTFKPCPF XQP *CDUDWTI YWTFG FCTCWHJKP   \WP·EJUVCO1MVQDGT\WO-ÌPKIXQP$ÌJOGPIGMTÌPVFKGKJOXQO4GKEJUVCICO&G\GO DGTFGUUGNDGP,CJTGU\WIGURTQEJGPGWPICTKUEJG-ÌPKIUMTQPGOWUUVGGTUKEJIGIGP,QJCPP<±RQN[CKPFGT 5EJNCEJVXQP6QMC[CO5GRVGODGTGTUVTGKVGP&GTUKGDGPDÒTIGPGT9QLYQFG,QJCPPYCTPCEJ FGO 6QF .WFYKIU ++ XQP GKPGT /GJTJGKV FGU WPICTKUEJGP #FGNU WPFOKVVÒTMKUEJGT2TQVGMVKQPDGTGKVU CO  1MVQDGT  \WO -ÌPKI XQP 7PICTP IGY·JNV CO  0QXGODGT  KP 5VWJNYGK­GPDWTI   IGMTÌPV WPF UEJQP DCNF XQP FKXGTUGP )GIPGTP *CDUDWTIU CNU NGIKVKOGT *GTTUEJGT CPGTMCPPV YQTFGP   0CEJ FGT 0KGFGTNCIG DGK 6QMC[ HNQJ GT \WP·EJUV PCEJ 2QNGP 0CEJFGO FKG 5VTGKVMT·HVG (GTFKPCPFU +    YKGFGT CWU 7PICTP JGTCWUIGFT·PIV YQTFGP YCTGP WPF 5ÒNGKOCP ++ KO FCTCWHHQNIGPFGP   ,CJT CDGTOCNU KPU .CPF GKPIGHCNNGP YCT DGVTKGDGP FKG 6ÒTMGP GTHQNITGKEJ FKG 9KGFGTGKPUGV\WPI <±RQ   N[CUCWHFGPWPICTKUEJGP6JTQPFKGCO5GRVGODGTUVCVVHCPF#O0QXGODGTUEJNQUU (GTFKPCPF + OKV UGKPGO UKGDGPDÒTIKUEJGP -QPVTCJGPVGP GKPGP 9CHHGPUVKNNUVCPF <·JG 8GTJCPFNWPIGP   HQNIVGPWPFOÒPFGVGPCO(GDTWCTKO8GTVTCIXQP)TQ­YCTFGKPKPFGOFGT*CDUDWTIGTFCU -ÌPKIVWO<±RQN[CUCWH.GDGPU\GKVCPGTMCPPVGQJPGUGKPGTUGKVUFGP#PURTWEJCWHFKGWPICTKUEJG-TQPG CWH\WIGDGP&KGUG8GTGKPDCTWPIYWTFGPCEJFGP6QFG<±RQN[CUCDGTPKEJVYKTMUCOFCOCPFGUUGPPWT GTUV YGPKIG 6CIG CNVGP 5QJP WPF 'TDGP ,QJCPP 5KIKUOWPF \WO GTY·JNVGP -ÌPKI XQP 7PICTP RTQMNC   OKGTVGXGT\KEJVGVGUGKPG/WVVGT\WIWPUVGP*CDUDWTIUCWH5KGDGPDÒTIGPUQYKGCWH.CPFWPF-TQPG 7PICTPU WPF GTJKGNV KO )GIGP\WI FCU *GT\QIVWO 1RRGNP <±RQN[C GTJKGNV  FKG 9QLYQFUEJCHV   5KGDGPDÒTIGPÒDGTVTCIGP'TUVKPFGO\YKUEJGPFGO-CKUGTWPFFGOVÒTMKUEJGP5WNVCPIGUEJNQU UGPGP(TKGFGPXQP#FTKCPQRGNXGT\KEJVGVG5KIKUOWPF<±RQN[CGPFIÒNVKICWHFGPWPICTKUEJGP-ÌPKIUVKVGN

4351



(GTFKPCPF +    HCEJGT 5EJCWVCNGT  XQP *KGTQP[OWU /CIFGDWTIGT #PPC   DGTIWPF(TGKDGTICWHFCU8QTFTKPIGPFGT6ÒTMGPÈ('4&+0#0&85u&'+u)4#%+#u*80)# 4+“u$1*'/+“u'6%ª4':È#001u&1/+0+u/u&u::+:u'6#6+5u58“u::8 $TWUVDKNFNOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFDTGKVMTGORKIGO*WVFCUCPGKPGO*CNUDCPFJ·PIGPFG-NGKPQF FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU CWH FGT $TWUV VTCIGPFÊ &# ª /+%*+ ª 8+4686'/ ª %1064# ª   *156'5 ª 6815 ª &1/+0'  #&+86  14 u /'  85 u '5 u  38+# u 68 &GT IGMTÌPVG   ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJMCUVKNKUEJG 5EJKNF KP OGFCKNNQPCTVKIGT 4CJOWPI KO <GPVTWO GKPGU $NWOGPMGW\GU   <YKUEJGPFGP-TGW\CTOGPFKGIGMTÌPVGP5EJKNFGXQP$ÌJOGP-TQCVKGP&CNOCVKGPWPF7PICTPI &QPGD*CDKEJ-CV\/CTMN 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  &KG8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHVFGTXQTNKGIGPFGP2T·IWPIFQMWOGPVKGTVFGP#PURTWEJFGUL·JTKIGP*GTTUEJGTUCWHFKG WPICTKUEJG-TQPGFKG4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHVDTKPIVFGP)GDGVUYWPUEJ(GTFKPCPFUCP)QVV\WO#WUFTWEMFCUUFKGUGT KJO CNU7PVGTUVÒV\GT MTKGIGTKUEJGP/WVXGTNGKJGPOÌIG KO-CORH IGIGPFKG(GKPFG FGU*GTTP 

124


&+'$'.#)'470)8109+'0 &GTVÒTMKUEJG5WNVCP5ÒNGKOCP++\QIXQP7PICTPCWUOKVGKPGO5QNFCVGPUVCTMGP*GGT WPF-CPQPGPXQTFKG6QTG9KGPUWOFKG5VCFV\WGTQDGTP0CEJUEJWDRTQDNGOGWPFFKGXGJGOGPVG )GIGPYGJTFGTCWU5QNFCVGPWPF$ÒTIGTPDGUVGJGPFGP8GTVGKFKIGTUEJCTWPVGTFGO-QO OCPFQ XQP 0KEQNCWU XQP 5CNO DGYQIGP FGP 5WNVCP KPFGU PCEJ PWT  6CIGP CO  1MVQDGT UGKPG   $GNCIGTWPIYKGFGTCWH\WJGDGP+PFGT5VCFVMCO$GNCIGTWPIUIGNFKP-NKRRGPHQTOKP8GTMGJTFCUCWU GKPIGUEJOQN\GPGPIQNFGPGPWPFUKNDGTPGP)GT·VUEJCHVGPIGHGTVKIVYQTFGPYCT

4352

4353

Das Heerlager Süleymans des Prächtigen vor Wien 1529.





(GTFKPCPF +  -NKRRG \W  -TGW\GTP  9KGP  I +P XKGT <GKNGP 684%-    $.')'46  9+'0  +< 1DGP WPVGP WPF \W FGP 5GKVGP LG GKP $NCVVQTPCOGPV )NGKEJUEJGPMGNKIGU   -TGW\ KP FGP 9KPMGNP FKG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG XQP 0KGFGTÌUVGTTGKEJ -CUVKNKGP 7PICTP WPF $ÌJOGP   ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H%::+/CTMN/\#6HXCT 5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



-NKRRG\W-TGW\GTP9KGPI+PXKGT<GKNGP684%-$.')'469+'0+<1DGP WPVGPWPF\WFGP5GKVGPLGGKP$NCVVQTPCOGPV)NGKEJUEJGPMGNKIGU-TGW\KPFGP9KPMGNPFKG9CRRGP UEJKNFG XQP 0KGFGTÌUVGTTGKEJ 7PICTP $ÌJOGP WPF -CUVKNKGP  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6H/CKNNGV6H%::+/CTMN/\#6H 5GJTUEJÌP



&+'4ª%-'41$'470)8104##$ &GT PKEJV WPGTJGDNKEJ DGHGUVKIVG 1TV CO /ÒPFWPIUYKPMGN \YKUEJGP FGT 4CCD WPF FGT MNGKPGP &QPCW   YWTFG  KPHQNIG FGU 8GTTCVU \YGKGT MCKUGTNKEJGT 1HHK\KGTG XQP FGP 6ÒTMGP GTQDGTV #O  /·T\    MQPPVG GKPG XQP (ÒTUV #FQNRJ XQP 5EJYCT\GPDGTI WPF 0KMQNCWU 2±NNH[ IGHÒJTVG 5VTGKVOCEJV FKG   (GUVWPI FGO )GIPGT YKGFGT GPVTGK­GP &KG 4ÒEMGTQDGTWPI YWTFG KP FGP JCDUDWTIKUEJGP .CPFGP CNU   TGIGNTGEJVGT 6TKWORJ IGHGKGTV +P \CJNTGKEJG 1TVGP GTTKEJVGVG OCP FKG CNU ō4CCDGT -TGW\Gŋ DGMCPPVGP   )GFGPMU·WNGP

4354



4WFQNH++&TGKGEMKIG)QNFMNKRRG\W&WMCVGPCWHFKG$GNCIGTWPIWPF4ÒEMGTQDG TWPIFGT(GUVWPI4CCDIÛ38#5/1&1)'06+Ù+00Û&+'5'0Ù8'45.'+0Û+56Û<8Ù 5'*0  9#0 Ù &+' Û '41$'480) Ù 4##$ Ù )'5%*' +O (GNF UGEJU <GKNGP +#884++08/    *156+' 4+2+684  8+4686 48  &8.2*+   /#  4%+ 1DGP FKG IGMTÌPVG 0COGPUKPKVKCNG XQP -CKUGT   4WFQNRJ++\YKUEJGP4QUGVVGPÛ%*4+5685Ù)'6Ù&84Ù8'45%*.150Ù6+4Ù&+'Ù8'5 680 Ù 4##$ Ù )9#0 Û 8+4 +O +PPGTP GKPGU )GD·WFGU %JTKUVWU FGP ,ÒPIGTP GTUEJGKPGPF +P FGP   FTGK 'EMGP FGU $KNFHGNFGU )  1  6 5NI *QTUM[  XIN  FQTV CWH UKNDGTPGO 5EJTÌVNKPI    5NI/QPVGPWQXQ )1.&W­GTUVUGNVGP5GJTUEJÌP  &KG#WHUEJTKHVFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGPVJ·NVFKG,CJTGU\CJNCNU%JTQPQITCOO

125


4355



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 8CNGPVKP /CNGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 4ÒEMGTQDGTWPI FGT (GUVWPI 4CCD $NKEM   XQPUEJT·IQDGPCWHFKGCP\YGK5VGNNGPDTGPPGPFG(GUVWPIQDGP4CDGPUEJKNF0GWP<GKNGP6GZVQDGP GKP OKV <YGKIGP FWTEJUVGEMVGT .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPVGP FKG +PKVKCNGP FGU 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTU  OO   I5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''+00#*/'810567*.9'+55'0$74) 5<–-'5(–*'48ˆ4  5VWJNYGK­GPDWTI YCT KO /KVVGNCNVGT FKG -TÌPWPIUUVCFV WPF FGT $GIT·DPKUQTV FGT WPICTKUEJGP -ÌPKIG   &KG5VCFVUVCPFUGKVWPVGTVÒTMKUEJGT*GTTUEJCHV#O0QXGODGTYWTFGFKG5VCFVXQPFGP -CKUGTNKEJGP GTQDGTV CDGT DCNF UEJQP YKGFGT XQP FGP 6ÒTMGP QMMWRKGTV FQEJ CO  5GRVGODGT    XQPGKPGO*GGTFGU-CKUGTU4WFQNH++CDGTOCNUIGPQOOGP$GTGKVUHKGN5VWJNYGK­GPDWTIKPHQNIG GKPGT/GWVGTGKFGT$GUCV\WPIYKGFGTKPFKG*·PFGFGT6ÒTMGPFKGFKG5VCFVDKU\WO,CJTGJCNVGP MQPPVGP

4356



1,5:1

4356

4WFQNH++-NKRRG\W&WMCVGP\WO)GFGPMGPCPFKG'KPPCJOGXQP5VWJNYGK­GP DWTIFWTEJMCKUGTNKEJG5VTGKVMT·HVGI'KPCWHGKPGOFTGKUVWHKIGP2QFGUVUVGJGPFGU6JTQPIGJ·WUG FGUUGP 5RKV\IKGDGN OKV FGO IGMTÌPVGP WPICTKUEJGP 9CRRGP IGUEJOÒEMV KUV FKG MCKUGTNKEJG 0COGPUK   PKVKCNG4UQYKGFKGMCKUGTNKEJGP+PUKIPKGP-TQPG<GRVGTWPF4GKEJUCRHGNDGTIGPF+O(GNFKPFTGK<GK NGP 568.  9'+5  5'0  $84)    +P PGWP <GKNGP &84%*  #8( )#$  0#/$5 '+0    51.+/#0Û/+65%*9'4&'5-#;5'448&1.2*)9#0Û1DGP4CPMGP QTPCOGPVZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF5NI*QTUM[XIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI,WNKWU /CKNNGV5NI/QPVGPWQXQ5NI8QIGNXIN FQTVCNU-NKRRG\W&WMCVGP   )1.&8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\*GPMGNURWTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4357



126

-NKRRGPHÌTOKIG5KNDGTOGFCKNNG\WO)GFGPMGPCPFKG'KPPCJOGXQP5VWJNYGK­GPDWTIFWTEJMCK UGTNKEJG5VTGKVMT·HVG'KPCWHGKPGOFTGKUVWHKIGP2QFGUVUVGJGPFGU6JTQPIGJ·WUGFGUUGP5RKV\IKGDGNOKV FGO IGMTÌPVGP WPICTKUEJGP 9CRRGP IGUEJOÒEMV KUV FKG MCKUGTNKEJGP +PUKIPKGP -TQPG <GRVGT WPF    4GKEJUCRHGN DGTIGPF +O (GNF KP FTGK <GKNGP     568.  9'+5  5'0  $84 Ù WPVGP KP \YGK   <GKNGP FGT NCVGKPKUEJG 5VCFVPCOG #.$# 4'  )#.+5(ÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV KP XKGTGEMKIGT .KPKGP   TCJOWPI QDGP FGT IGMTÌPVG FQRRGNMÌRHKIG 4GKEJUCFNGT N FGT IGMTÌPVG DÌJOKUEJG T FGT IGMTÌPVG   WPICTKUEJGWPFWPVGPFGTIGMTÌPVGÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJG5EJKNFZOOI5NI*QTUM[ 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 445EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 


&+'560&'810$¤*/'070&/*4'0+/&4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+')  0CEJFGO#WUDTWEJFGU$ÌJOKUEJGP#WHUVCPFUWPFFGO2TCIGT(GPUVGTUVWT\UEJNQUUGPUKEJFKG5V·PFG XQP$ÌJOGP/·JTGP5EJNGUKGPUQYKGFGT1DGTWPF0KGFGTNCWUKV\CO,WNKKPFGT$ÌJOKUEJGP -QPHÌFGTCVKQPUCMVG\WUCOOGP

4358





4359

&KG 5V·PFG XQP $ÌJOGP WPF /·JTGP  -KRRGT -TGW\GT  -WVVGPDGTI  I   $ÒIGNMTQPGOKV2GTNGP\KGTWPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN)GMTÌPVGT.ÌYGUVGKIGPFN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H &KGVKMGT&QPGD*GTKPGMD/CKNNGV6H:8 5GJTUEJÌP



-KRRGT -TGW\GT  1NOÒV\  I )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT/KV 9GKPTGDGP WOTCPMVGU 2[TCOKFGPOQ   PWOGPV KO (GNF %  % %JTKUVQRJ %CPVQT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 1NOÒV\  \GKVINGKEJ CWEJ KP   6TQRRCW $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&QPGD*GTKPGM/CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT  45GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



4360

4361





-KRRGT -TGW\GT  $TÒPP  I )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT CO 'PFG FGT 7OUEJTKHV *2 2GVGT *GOC   /ÒP\OGKUVGTKP$TÒPP /KV9GKPTGDGPWOTCPMVGU2[TCOKFGPOQPWOGPV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN6H FQTV,CJTICPI &QPGDXCT*GTKPGMC/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H

FQTV,CJTICPI  45GJTUEJÌP



-KRRGT-TGW\GT1NOÒV\I)GMTÌPVGT#FNGT/KV9GKPTGDGPWOTCPMVGU2[TCOKFGPOQ PWOGPV KO (GNF $  < $CNVJCUCT <YKTPGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 1NOÒV\   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF    &QPGD*GTKPGM/CKNNGV 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



4362







4361

4363

-KRRGT -TGW\GT  ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV  1NOÒV\  I )GMTÌPVGT   #FNGT/KV9GKPTGDGPWOTCPMVGU2[TCOKFGPOQPWOGPVKO(GNF%ņ% %JTKUVQRJ%CPVQT/ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 1NOÒV\  \GKVINGKEJ CWEJ KP 6TQRRCW  $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   FQTV ,CJTICPI    &QPGD*GTKPGMXCT/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTV,CJTICPI   44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



-KRRGT-TGW\GT1NOÒV\I)GMTÌPVGT#FNGT&KG4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHVOKV8+4$$1 UKE  /KV 9GKPTGDGP WOTCPMVGU 2[TCOKFGPOQPWOGPV KO (GNF $ ņ < $CNVJCUCT <YKTPGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP   1NOÒV\   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   &QPGD  XCT *GTKPGM  XCT /CKNNGV 5WRRN   6H 45GJTUEJÌP



-KRRGT -TGW\GT  1NOÒV\  I )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT/KV 9GKPTGDGP WOTCPMVGU 2[TCOKFGPOQ   PWOGPV KO (GNF $  < $CNVJCUCT <YKTPGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 1NOÒV\   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6HXCT&QPGDXCT*GTKPGM/CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT  4-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 127


&'4$¤*/+5%*')')'0-¤0+)(4+'&4+%*810&'42(#.< &KG DÌJOKUEJGP 5V·PFG GTMCPPVGP FGP KO #WIWUV \WO -ÌPKI XQP $ÌJOGP IGY·JNVGP GT\MCVJQNKUEJGP   'T\JGT\QI (GTFKPCPF CNU KJTGP .CPFGUJGTTP PKEJV CP WPF Y·JNVGP OKV -WTHÒTUV (TKGFTKEJ 8 XQP FGT   2HCN\FGPHÒJTGPFGP8GTVTGVGTFGT2TQVGUVCPVGP&KG-TÌPWPI(TKGFTKEJUHCPFCO0QXGODGTKP 2TCIUVCVV5GKPG*GTTUEJCHVY·JTVGLGFQEJPWTMWT\FGPPUEJQPCO0QXGODGTHÒIVGFCU*GGT FGT MCVJQNKUEJGP .KIC KP FGT 5EJNCEJV CO 9GK­GP $GTI FGO DÌJOKUEJGP *GGT FKG GPVUEJGKFGPFG 0KG   FGTNCIGDGKWPF\YCPIFGPUR·VGTCNUō9KPVGTMÌPKIŋXGTURQVVGVGP(TKGFTKEJ\WT(NWEJVPCEJ&GP*CCI ÒDGT 5EJNGUKGP $GTNKP 9QNHGPDÒVVGN WPF *CODWTI 2TCI YWTFG XQP FGP -CKUGTNKEJGP DGUGV\V &GT   )GIPGTDGUGV\VGUR·VGTCWEJUGKP2H·N\GT5VCOONCPF#O,CPWCTYWTFGFKG#EJVÒDGT(TKGF TKEJ XGTJ·PIV WPF  KJO UQICT FKG -WTHÒTUVGPYÒTFG CDIGURTQEJGP WPF CP /CZKOKNKCP XQP $C[GTP   ÒDGTVTCIGP -WT\ PCEJFGO GU FGP RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP 8GTDÒPFGVGP IGNWPIGP YCT FKG 2HCN\ \WTÒEM\WGT   QDGTPUVCTD(TKGFTKEJCO0QXGODGT

4365

1,5:1



1,5:1

(TKGFTKEJXQPFGT2HCN\ FGT9KPVGTMÌPKI 6CNGT2TCI&KEMCDUEJNCIXQPFGP 5VGORGNPFGU-KRRGT-TGW\GTUI1JPG/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP)GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTKO*CT PKUEJ OKV *CNUMTCWUG&GT IGVGKNVG DÌJOKUEJMWTRH·N\KUEJG 5EJKNF FKG 7OUEJTKHV OKV 5EJTGKDHGJNGT   86.8ÛUEJNKG­GPF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT FQTVQJPG)GYKEJVUCPICDG &QPGD *GTKPGM  /CKNNGV 5WRRN 6H   XCT FQTV-TGW\GTUKGJG5WRRN5 5NI/GOOGU JGKOGT5NI0QUU 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 

5RQVVDKNF \WO $ÌJOKUEJ2H·N\KUEJGP -TKGI CNU $KNFGTT·VUGN &KG (ÒTUVGP WPF (GNF   JGTTP FGU -TKGIUUEJCWRNCV\GU UVGJGP WO GKPGP 5RKGNVKUEJ &KG 5RCPKGT 5RKPQNC     WPF -TGW\PCEJ   UVGJGPF WPF %QTFQXC   OKV 1RRGPJGKO KO #TO FGT   9KPVGTMÌPKI (TKGFTKEJ 8   TCVNQU OKV UGKPGP 4·VGP FGT MCKUGTNKEJG $QWESWQ[  

  FGP 5KGI XQP 2TCI XQT\GKIGPF XQP )CDQT $GVJNGP (ÒTUV XQP 5KGDGPDÒTIGP  

 COYGKVGTGP5RKGNIGJKPFGTVWPVGTFGO6KUEJVÒTMKUEJGWPFEJTKUVNKEJG9CHHGP TGEJVU ÒDGTIKDV /CZKOKNKCPXQP$C[GTP-CKUGT(GTFKPCPF++FCUGTQDGTVG2TCI\W FGUUGP(Ò­GPFGTIGHGUUGNVGDÌJOKUEJG.ÌYG 128


4366



-KRRGT-TGW\GT2TCII/KV<GKEJGP&QRRGNNKNKG 2CWN5M¾VC5QVPQXUM[/ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 2TCI   )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF *CNUMTCWUG    4WPFGUOGJTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKVCWHIGNGIVGO/KVVGNUEJKNF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&KGVKMGT &QPGDXCT*GTKPGM/CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT 9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP 

4367

1,5:1



1,5:1

-KRRGT -TGW\GT  -WVVGPDGTI  I /KV <GKEJGP 5VGTP 5GDCUVKCP *ÌN\N /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP   -WVVGPDGTI   )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF *CNU   MTCWUG4WPFGU OGJTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT &KGVKMGT  &QPGD    *GTKPGMD/CKNNGV5WRRN6H 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI/KP2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ

4368







4369

-KRRGT -TGW\GT  -WVVGPDGTI  I /KV <GKEJGP 5VGTP 5GDCUVKCP *ÌN\N /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP   -WVVGPDGTI )GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJ&GTIGVGKNVGDÌJOKUEJMWTRH·N\KUEJG9CR RGPUEJKNF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&KGVKMGT&QPGDXCT*GTKPGMXCT/CKNNGV 5WRRN6H 5GJTUEJÌP



-KRRGT -TGW\GT  6TQRRCW  I /KV <GKEJGP \YGK <CKPJCMGP IGMTGW\V \YKUEJGP %%  

%JTKUVQRJ %CPVQT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 6TQRRCW   )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJOKVWO IGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF*CNUMTCWUG4WPFGUOGJTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKVCWHIGNGIVGOMWTRH·N\KUEJGP/KVVGN UEJKNF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF(W5*GTKPGM/CKNNGV 44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 129


&'4'065#6<8109+'0 5WNVCP/GJOGF+8VTCVPCEJTWPFL·JTKIGT(TKGFGPU\GKVOKVFGOTÌOKUEJFGWVUEJGP-CKUGT.GQRQNF+ YKGFGT KP FGP -TKGI 'KPG ITQ­G VÒTMKUEJG 5VTGKVOCEJV DTCEJ CO  /·T\  WPVGT (ÒJTWPI XQP   )TQ­YGUKT-CTC/WUVCHCXQP-QPUVCPVKPQRGNCWHWOUKEJÒDGT7PICTP4KEJVWPI9KGP\WDGYGIGP#WH UGKPGO 9GI FWTEJ FCU JGWVKIG $WNICTKGP 5GTDKGP WPF 7PICTP XGTGKPVG UKEJ FCU *GGT OKV YGKVGTGP   VÒTMKUEJGP'KPJGKVGPWPFTGMTWVKGTVGVCTVCTKUEJGUKGDGPDÒTIKUEJGWPFCPFGTG*KNHUVTWRRGPUQFCUUKPUIG UCOVPCJG\W5QNFCVGPKP&KGPUVGPFGUVÒTMKUEJGP5WNVCPUKP4KEJVWPI9KGPOCTUEJKGTVGP#O  ,WNK \QIGP FKG 6ÒTMGP XQT FGT -CKUGTUVCFV CWH DGICPPGP CO  OKV FGT $GUEJKG­WPI GTÌHHPGVGP   DGTGKVU CO  FKG .CWHIT·DGP WPF MQPPVGP CO  ,WNK FGP 7ONCIGTWPIUUTKPI UEJNKG­GP 5EJQP PGWP   6CIG\WXQTJCVVG-CKUGT.GQRQNF+UGKPG4GUKFGP\UVCFVOKV)GHQNIGXGTNCUUGP&KGXQO(GNF\GWIOGKUVGT 'TPUV 4ÒFKIGT )TCH 5VCTJGODGTI DGHGJNKIVGP 8GTVGKFKIGT \·JNVGP  5QNFCVGP WPF  -QORCPKGP   YGJTH·JKIGT$ÒTIGTUQYKG5VWFGPVGPMQORCPKGP+JTG)GUEJÒV\GWPF#WUHCNNUCVVCEMGPJCNHGPFKG #PITKHHGFGU)GIPGTUKOOGTYKGFGTCD\WYGJTGP+O5GRVGODGTXGTUEJNGEJVGTVGUKEJFKG.CIGFGT'KP IGUEJNQUUGPGPKPHQNIG*WPIGTUWPF5GWEJGP*KNHGMCOFWTEJFCUXQPFGOMCKUGTNKEJGP(GNFJGTTP-CTN 8.GQRQNF*GT\QIXQP.QVJTKPIGPIGHÒJTVG'PVUCV\JGGTFCUUKEJDGTGKVUUGKV/KVVGFGU,CJTGUY·J TGPFFGU6ÒTMGPCPOCTUEJGUCWH9KGPCWU5VTGKVMT·HVGPFGU-CKUGTUWPFFGU4GKEJGU\WO$GKUVCPFHQT OKGTV JCVVG UQYKG FWTEJ GKPG  5QNFCVGP WOHCUUGPFG 5VTGKVOCEJV FGU RQNPKUEJGP -ÌPKIU   ,QJCPP+++5QDKGUMK&KGEC#NNKKGTVGPDGUVGJGPFCWU+PHCPVGTKGWPF-CXCNNGTKGGKPJGKVGPUQYKG CWUFGP/CPPUEJCHVGPHÒTFKGTWPFOKVIGHÒJTVGP)GUEJÒV\GDGUGV\VGPCO5GRVGODGTFGP-CJ NGPDGTIGKPGPIÒPUVKIIGNGIGPGPUVTCVGIKUEJGP*ÌJGP\WIFGU9KGPGTYCNFGUFGTGKPGPIWVGP$NKEMCWH FCU6GTTCKPDQV+O#PIGUKEJVFGTCPTÒEMGPFGPCDGPFN·PFKUEJGP5VTGKVOCEJVDGIKPI-CTC/WUVCHCFGP (GJNGTGKPGP6GKNUGKPGT#TOGGKPFGP$GNCIGTWPIUUVGNNWPIGP\WDGNCUUGPWOFKG5VCFVYGKVGTCP\WITGK HGP WPF FGP CPFGTGP 6GKN UGKPGU *GGTGU IGIGP FCU 'PVUCV\JGGT \W RQUKVKQPKGTGP &KG 'PVUEJGKFWPIU   UEJNCEJV DGICPP HTÒJOQTIGPU CO  5GRVGODGT  FWTEJ FGP #PITKHH FGU 'PVUCV\JGGTGU &KG GPV   UEJGKFGPFG9GPFGMCOCOHTÒJGP0CEJOKVVCIOKVFGO8QTUVQ­FGTRQNPKUEJGP#TOGGFGTFKG1UOC PGP UEJYGT VTCH &KG 'KPJGKVGP -CTNU XQP .QVJTKPIGP MQPPVGP UQFCPP FGP TGEJVGP (NÒIGN FGT 6ÒTMGP   \GTUEJNCIGPWPFKPU<GPVTWOFGU)GIPGTUXQTUVQ­GPFGTPWPUGKP*GKNKPFGT(NWEJVUWEJVG)GIGP 7JTFTCPI/CTMITCH.WFYKI9KNJGNOXQP$CFGP IGPCPPV6ÒTMGPNQWKU OKV\YGK&TCIQPGTTGIKOGPVGTP DKU XQT FCU 5EJQVVGPVQT XQT YQ UKG \WUCOOGP OKV GKPGO #WUHCNNMQOOCPFQ FGT 8GTVGKFKIGT FGP JKGT   XGTDNKGDGPGP $GNCIGTWPIUVTWRRGP FGP NGV\VGP 5VQ­ \WHÒIVGP +P WPIGQTFPGVGT (NWEJV GPFGVG FCU GJTIGK   \KIG 8QTJCDGP XQP -CTC /WUVCHC WPF UGKPGP /·PPGTP 9KGP \W GTQDGTP 'TUV JKPVGT FGT WPICTKUEJGP   )TGP\G UCOOGNVGP UKEJ FKG 6ÒTMGP YKGFGT KP OKNKV·TKUEJGT 1TFPWPI 0CEJ  6CIGP JCTVGP -CORHGU   ITQ­GP8GTNWUVGPWPF8GTYÒUVWPIGPYCTFKG5VCFVDGHTGKV

4370

Türkischer Plan des belagerten Wiens.



130

.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP4GKPJQNF'PIGNJCTFV$TGUNCWCWHFGP'PVUCV\ FGT5VCFV9KGP&+8+0+27)0#06241/1'0+$75+)0'5#PUKEJVFGT5VCFVQDGP\CJNTGKEJGCWU 9QNMGP JGTXQTVTGVGPFG $NKV\G FKG GKPGP ITQ­GP 9CHHGPJCWHGP KO 8QTFGTITWPF GPV\ÒPFGP 8QT FGP   9CHHGPUVÒEMGPGKPNKGIGPFGTMCTVWUEJGPHÌTOKIGT5EJKNFYQTCWHNKGIGPFKPHÒPH<GKNGPÛ8+'0#Û1$5 Û&Ú+8..+$&5'6#001COTGEJVGPWPVGTGP$KNFTCPFFKG5KIPCVWTÜ,Ü'Ü*“% /70&12#%'/8+%614+#5#0%+6Ü)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGTOKV4GKEJUCRHGNCWHFGT$TWUVOO I(W5*KTUEJ5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  -N5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFUVCDUGJTUEJÌP




4371



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP*GTOCPP*CHHPGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFGP'PVUCV\XQP9KGP#WUFGT8QIGNUEJCW VQRQITCRJKUEJG#PUKEJVFGT5VCFV9KGPOKVFGT*QHDWTIFGO5VGRJCPUFQOWPF(GUVWPIUYGTMGPUQYKG FGU7ONCPFUOKVFGOTKPIUWOXQTIGNCIGTVGP(GNFNCIGTFGT$GNCIGTGT-CXCNNGTKGFGU'PVUCV\JGGTGUFKG CWHIGJGPFG5QPPGKO4ÒEMGPGKPGITQ­G#DVGKNWPIQUOCPKUEJGT4GKVGTKPFKG(NWEJVUEJNCIGPF1DGT JCND FGT (NKGJGPFGP FGT *CNDOQPF KP 9QNMGP +O *KPVGTITWPF #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV 9KGP /KV INCVVGO   4CPFOOI5NI'TNCPIGT FKGUGU'ZGORNCT *KTUEJXCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV  5NI *QTUM[  XCT FQTV OKV 4CPFUEJTKHV  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  FQTV OKV 4CPF   UEJTKHV  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

4372



5EJCWVCNGT  XQP /CVVJKCU *QHOCPP KO #WHVTCI FGU 9KGPGT /ÒP\OGKUVGTU /CVVJKCU /KVVGTOC[T   XQP9CHHGPDGTICWHFGP'PVUCV\FGT5VCFV9KGP#WHFGT'TFMWIGNOKVFGOJGTXQTIGJQDGPGP2NCPFGT 5VCFV9KGPFGTIGMTÌPVGFQRRGNMÌRHKIG#FNGTUVGJGPFFKG+PKVKCNGP.+HÒT.GQRQNFWU+ORGTCVQTCWHFGT $TWUVKPFGP(·PIGP<GRVGTWPF5EJYGTV'TYKTFDGUEJKGPGPXQPFGP5VTCJNGPFKGXQPFGONQDGP UVGJGPFGP#WIG)QVVGUCWUIGJGP7PVGPFGTGKPGT9QNMG\WIGYCPFVG*CNDOQPF6GZVKPGKPWPF\YCP\KI <GKNGP  OO  I *KTUEJ  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ    8QINJWDGT (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



&GT5EJCWVCNGTWPFFKGHQNIGPFG/GFCKNNGUKPFKPKJTGP/ÒP\DKNFGTPWPF.GIGPFGPFGP2T·IWPIGPGPIXGTYCPFVFKG FGT9KGPGT/ÒP\OGKUVGT/CVVJKCU/KVVGTOC[TXQP9CHHGPDGTICWHGKIGPG4GEJPWPICWUIGIGDGPJCVWPFOKVUGKPGO GKIGPGP0COGPXQO5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT/CVVJKCU*QHOCPPUKIPKGTGPNKG­ *KTUEJņ 

4373



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVG#TDGKVXQP/CVVJKCU*QHOCPPCWHFGP'PVUCV\FGT5VCFV9KGP#WHFGT 'TFMWIGNOKVFGOIWVUKEJVDCTJGTXQTIGJQDGPGP2NCPFGT5VCFV9KGPFGTIGMTÌPVGFQRRGNMÌRHKIG#FNGT UVGJGPFFKG+PKVKCNGP.+HÒT.GQRQNFWU+ORGTCVQTCWHFGT$TWUVKPFGP(·PIGP<GRVGTWPF5EJYGTV'T YKTF DGUEJKGPGP XQP FGP 5VTCJNGP FKG XQP FGO N QDGP UVGJGPFGP #WIG )QVVGU CWUIGJGP 7PVGP FGT   GKPGT 9QNMG \WIGYCPFVG *CNDOQPF0GWP\GJP\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV QDGP WPF WPVGP <YGKIQTPCOGPVG    OO  I *KTUEJ  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ 8QINJWDGTXIN

FQEJFQTVOKV0COGPFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTU/KVVGTOC[TCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG   4#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 131


4374

4374 1,5:1



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,QJCPP -KVVGN $TGUNCW CWH FKG $GNCIGTWPI WPF FGP 'PVUCV\ XQP 9KGP &#5   +56)166'5(+0)'4$NKEMÒDGTGKPVÒTMKUEJGU(GNFNCIGTCWHFKG5VCFVXQPFGTGP$CWYGTMGPFGT 6WTOFGU5VGRJCPUFQOUFWTEJUGKPG)TÌ­GJGTXQTIGJQDGPKUV'NH<GKNGP6GZVOOI(W5 *KTUEJ5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



4375



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,CP .WFGT CWH FGP 'PVUCV\ FGT 5VCFV 9KGP $NKEM ÒDGT FKG &QPCW CWH FKG   5VCFVCWHFGTGP·W­GTGP(GUVWPIUYGTMGPGKPKIG8GTVGKFKIGTRCVTQWNNKGTGP<WFGP5GKVGPFGT6WTOURKV\G FGU 5VGRJCPUFQOU 9+  '0 QDGP ÒDGT GKPGO 9QNMGPDCPF GKP IGMTÌPVGT #FNGT KO 5VWT\HNWI N GKP   $NKV\DÒPFGN WPF GKP 5EJYGTV KP FGP (·PIGP JCNVGPF#EJV\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV 9+'  +82+6'4  &'4   4+'5'0*#0&8'4-84<'6=#FNGTGPOKPKCVWTG?*#6=#FNGTGPOKPKCVWTG?.'121.&&'4 684-'0 /#%*6  )'5684<'6 7PVGP 2CNO WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI IGDWPFGP  OO  I   *KTUEJ5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 445GJTUEJÌP 

4376



132

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#PVQP/G[DWUEJ-QRGPJCIGPWPF5VQEMJQNOCWHFGP'PVUCV\9KGPU$TWUV DKNFTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\'KPWPVGTFGT4GKEJUHCJPGIGHÒJTVGU 4GKVGTJGGTNHNKGJGPFGTVÒTMKUEJGT-CXCNNGTKGPCEJUGV\GPF+O*KPVGTITWPFGKPXQTFGT5VCFVIGNGIGPGU VÒTMKUEJGU (GNFNCIGT 1DGP (COC HNKGIGPF T GKPG 2QUCWPG DNCUGPF WPF GKPG YGKVGTG JCNVGPF 7PVGP   5EJTKHVDCPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI*KTUEJ5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPC(GKNUVGNNGCWHFGT-CPVGFGU4CPFGUMN-TCV\GTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


4377



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP QFGT*CPU ,CEQD9QNTCD0ÒTPDGTICWHFGP'PVUCV\XQP9KGP#WH GKPGT 9QNMG -CKUGT .GQRQNF+-WTHÒTUV/CZKOKNKCP++'OCPWGNXQP$C[GTP-WTHÒTUV,QJCPP)GQTI +++XQP5CEJUGPWPFFGTRQNPKUEJG-ÌPKI,QJCPP5QDKGUMKKP)GDGVUJCNVWPIMPKGPF\WFGOKP5VTCJNGP CO *KOOGN UVGJGPFGP 0COGP +'575 GORQTDNKEMGPF +JPGP DGKIGQTFPGV HTGK UEJYGDGPF FKG GKIGPGP   9CRRGPUEJKNFG <W FGP -PKGP FGT *GTTUEJGT GKP CDGPFN·PFKUEJGU 5EJYGTV WPF GKP RQNPKUEJGT 5·DGN   NKGIGPF+O(GNF7PVGTJCNDFGT9QNMG\ÒPIGNP(NCOOGPKP4KEJVWPIFGU0COGP/#*7/'& FGTKPWPGKPJGKVNKEJQTKGPVKGTVGT$WEJUVCDGPHQNIGUQ\WUCIGPCNU#PVKRQFG\WO0COGPXQP)QVVGU5QJP HTGKCOWPVGTGP$KNFTCPFUEJYGDV$NKEMCWHFCUXQPFGP*ÒIGNPXQT9KGPKPGKPVÒTMKUEJGU(GNFNCIGT XQTUVQ­GPFG XQP FGT 4GKVGTGK CPIGHÒJTVG 'PVUCV\JGGT FKG (GKPFG KP FKG (NWEJV UEJNCIGPF +O *KPVGT   ITWPF #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV 1DGP IGMTÌPVGT #FNGT T GKP 5EJYGTV WPF FGP 5VCFVUEJKNF KP FGP (·PIGP   WOURCPPV XQP GKPGO 4GIGPDQIGP CWH FGUUGP 5EJGKVGNRWPMV GKPG 6CWDG GKPGP ¤N\YGKI KO 5EJPCDGN   JCNVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT*%\*KTUEJ5NI *QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ9KVV  8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGTFWPMNGT2CVKPC  *GTTNKEJGU5EJCWUVÒEMFGUKP4GIGPUDWTIIGDQTGPGPWPFKP0ÒTPDGTIIGUVQTDGPGP)QNFUEJOKGFU/ÒP\ OGKUVGTU WPF /ÒP\YCTFGKPU FGT \WUCOOGP OKV FGO 0ÒTPDGTIGT /GFCKNNGPXGTNGIGT (TKGFTKEJ -NGKPGTV FKG FCOCNU   DGTGKVU KP 'PINCPF WPF (TCPMTGKEJ DGMCPPVG 4·PFGNYGTMVGEJPKM \WT (GTVKIWPI GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHVGP GTUVOCNU KP   &GWVUEJNCPFCPIGYCPFVJCDGPUQNN

4378



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQO WPDGUVKOOVGP 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT + 4 CWH FGP 'PVUCV\ FGT 5VCFV 9KGP 'KP   WPVGTFGT4GKEJUHCJPGWPFWPVGTFGO-TGW\DCPPGTIGHÒJTVGU4GKVGTJGGTNHNKGJGPFGTVÒTMKUEJGT-CXCN NGTKG PCEJUGV\GPF +O *KPVGTITWPF +PHCPVGTKGM·ORHG DGK GKPGO VÒTMKUEJGP (GNFNCIGT CO *QTK\QPV FKG   5VCFV9KGP1DGP(COCHNKGIGPFTGKPG2QUCWPGDNCUGPFWPFGKPGYGKVGTGJCNVGPF#WHUEJTKHVKPPGWP \GJP <GKNGP WPVGP GKP 4CPMGPQTPCOGPV &CU )CP\G WOUEJNQUUGP XQP \YGK IGDWPFGPGP 2CNO\YGKIGP   OOI*KTUEJ5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GTTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP  #NU/GFCKNNGWTM·OGW'FGT*CODWTIGT5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT,QJCPP4GVGMGKP(TCIGFGTXQPECDKU\WUGKPGO 6QFGKP*CODWTICTDGKVGVGOÌINKEJGTYGKUGCWEJFGTHÒTKP&TGUFGPDG\GWIVG,QJCPP4CPKUEJ$GKFG/GFCKNNGWTG UKIPKGTVGPOKVFGP+PKVKCNGP+4

133


4379



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP 'PVUCV\ FGT 5VCFV 9KGP 8QT FGT 5VCFV DGTKVVGPG #DVGKNWPIGP   FGU 'PVUCV\JGGTGU KP 5EJNCEJVQTFPWPI T FKG CWU KJTGO (GNFNCIGT HNKGJGPFGP (GKPFG XQT UKEJ JGT VTGK   DGPF 1DGP #FNGT UEJYGDGPF FGP ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP $KPFGPUEJKNF WPF FGP 5VCFVUEJKNF FKG CP GKPGO   NCPIGP$CPFJ·PIGPOKVFGP(·PIGPJCNVGPF8KGT\GJP\GKNKIGT6GZVOOI)NCVVGT4CPF 5NI*QTUM[*KTUEJ5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQXCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

4380





4379

1,5:1



4381

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP 'PVUCV\ FGT 5VCFV 9KGP #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF   VÒTMKUEJGU (GNFNCIGT WPF $CVVGTKG OKV HGWGTPFGP -CPQPGP#WHUEJTKHV KP CEJV <GKNGP DGIKPPGPF OKV   9+'00/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI*KTUEJ5NI*QTUM[XCT FQTVQJPG 4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ &WPMNG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP 'PVUCV\ FGT 5VCFV 9KGP #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF   VÒTMKUEJGU (GNFNCIGT WPF $CVVGTKG OKV HGWGTPFGP -CPQPGP#WHUEJTKHV KP CEJV <GKNGP DGIKPPGPF OKV   9+'0)NCVVGT4CPFOOI*KTUEJXCT FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI*QTUM[XINWPF  FQTV CPFGTG 8CTKCPVGP CWH UKNDGTPGP 5EJTÌVNKPIGP  5NI ,WNKWU  XIN  FQTV CPFGTG   8CTKCPVGPCWHUKNDGTPGP5EJTÌVNKPIGPVGKNUOKV4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 5GJTUEJÌP



&+''+00#*/'810)4#0 0CEJFGT$GHTGKWPI9KGPUFTCPIGKP*GGTFGT8GTDÒPFGVGPDGUVGJGPFCWUMCKUGTNKEJGPMÌPKINKEJRQN PKUEJGPWPF4GKEJUVTWRRGPWPVGT(ÒJTWPIFGU*GT\QIU-CTN8XQP.QVJTKPIGPKPFCUXQPFGP6ÒTMGP IGJCNVGPG 7PICTP XQT #O  1MVQDGT  GTQDGTVGP UKG FKG CO TGEJVGP &QPCWWHGT IGNGIGPG 5VCFV   )TCP 'U\VGTIQO FKG,CJTGWPVGT*GTTUEJCHVFGT1UOCPGPIGUVCPFGPJCVVG

4382



134

.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP)TCPWPFFKG$GHTGKWPI FGU 'T\UVKHVU )TCP XQP VÒTMKUEJGT *GTTUEJCHV $NKEM ÒDGT FGP /ÒPFWPIUYKPMGN XQP FGT )TCP KP FKG   &QPCW CWH FKG CO IGIGPÒDGTNKGIGPFGP 7HGT NKGIGPFG 5VCFV CO (W­G FGU (GUVWPIUDGTIGU +O 8QTFGT   ITWPFDGKFGTUGKVUFGU7HGTUFGT)TCP+PHCPVGTKGWPF#TVKNNGTKGFGT$GNCIGTGT1DGPGKP#FNGTHNKGIGPF T GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI KO 5EJPCDGN WPF GKP 5EJYGTV KO (CPI JCNVGPF<GJP <GKNGP 6GZV /KV GTJCDGPGT   4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP




&+'5%*.#%*6$'+)4#070&&+''+00#*/'8100'7*75'. +O#WIWUVXGTUWEJVGPFKG6ÒTMGP)TCPCDGTOCNU\WPGJOGPFQEJYWTFGPUKGPQEJXQTFGP6QTGP FGT 5VCFV XQO MCKUGTNKEJGP *GGT IGUEJNCIGP +O UGNDGP /QPCV INÒEMVG FGP -CKUGTNKEJGP CWEJ FKG 'KP   PCJOGFGT(GUVWPI0GWJ·WUGN 'TUGMWLX±T GKPGUUVTCVGIKUEJYKEJVKIGP2NCV\GUFGTFGP6ÒTMGP\WXQT \WT)TGP\UKEJGTWPI7PICTPUIGFKGPVJCVVG

4383



.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP5KGIIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGPDGK)TCPWPF FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT (GUVWPI 0GWJ·WUGN 2CNNCU OKV FGT 4GEJVGP GKPG 8KEVQTKCUVCVWGVVG JCNVGPF KP FGT   .KPMGP GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI UVGJGPF X X \YKUEJGP \YGK XQP LG GKPGO 2WVVQ IGJCNVGPGP $KNFVCHGNP &KG   NKPMG VT·IV GKPG 5EJNCEJVU\GPG CO IGIGPÒDGT FGT 5VCFV WPF (GUVWPI )TCP IGNGIGPGP &QPCWWHGT FKG   TGEJVG\GKIVFGPVQRQITCRJKUEJGP2CPFGTCO(NWUU0GWVTCIGNGIGPGP(GUVWPI0GWJ·WUGN+O#DUEJPKVV HÒPH\GKNKIGT 6GZV+P QHHGPGT .CPFUEJCHV 2CNNCU OKV GKPGO 9WTHURGGT KP FGT GTJQDGPGP 4GEJVGP WPF   GKPGO OKV FGO FQRRGNMÌRHKIGP 4GKEJUCFNGT IGUEJOÒEMVGP 5EJKNF \W 2HGTF KP $GINGKVWPI \YGKGT ,CIF   JWPFG \YGK N HNKGJGPFGP 9ÌNHGP PCEJUGV\GPF /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I 5NI   *QTUM[XIN FQTVGKPUKNDGTPGT#DIW­GKPGUIGRT·IVGP1TKIKPCNU 5NI,WNKWUXIN FQTVKP <KPP 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ +P5KNDGT·W­GTUVUGNVGP-N5VKHVNQEJKO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4384

4384 1,5:1



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  FKG ,CJTGU\CJN CNU %JTQPQITCOOG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP ,QJCPP /KEJCGN *QHH   OCPP9KGPCWHFGP5KGIDGK)TCPWPFFKG'KPPCJOGFGT(GUVWPI0GWJ·WUGN2NCPFGT(GUVWPI0GW J·WUGNOKVFGPFCXQTCPIGNGIVGP.CWHIT·DGPWPFFKXGTUGP2QUKVKQPGPFGT$GNCIGTGT$NKEMCWHFKG5VCFV )TCPOKVFGT&QPCWDTÒEMGWPFKPUGN1DGPIGMTÌPVGT#FNGTHNKGIGPFTKPFGP(·PIGPGKP5EJYGTVWPF FGPWPICTKUEJGP9CRRGPUEJKNFJCNVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI*QTUM[ *WU\CT -CV 0CVKQPCNOWUGWO $WFCRGUV   5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  XIN  FQTV OKV   KFGPVKUEJGT8QTFGTUGKVGWPFCPFGTGT4ÒEMUGKVG  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 135


Die Rückeroberung von Neuhäusl 1685.

4385



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP-KVVGN$TGUNCWCWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT(GUVWPI0GWJ·WUGN —TUGMWLX±T  8QP UEJT·I QDGP FCTIGUVGNNVGT 2NCP FGT (GUVWPI FCTKP 0'ª*'ª5'. 1DGP FKG JKPVGT \YGK 9QNMGP   MT·P\GPXGTDQTIGPGUVTCJNGPFG5QPPG5GEJ\GJP<GKNGP6GZVOOI(W55NI *QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'5+')'ª$'4&+'6ª4-'0+/,#*4

4386



.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVGUCVKTKUEJG2T·IWPIXQP/CTVKP$TWPPGT0ÒTP DGTI CWH FKG KP FKGUGO ,CJT GTTWPIGPGP 5KGIG FGU -CKUGTU ÒDGT FGP VÒTMKUEJGP 5WNVCP &KG XQP FGT   5QPPGDGUEJKGPGPG'TFMWIGNYQTCWHQDGP'7412#WPFWPVGPMQRHUVGJGPF#5+#7PVGP\GTDTQEJGPGT *CNDOQPF WPF NKGIGPFGU 5VWPFGPINCU&KG 0COGPUKPKVKCNG FGU -CKUGTU UVGJGPF CWH FGT IGDTQEJGPGP   0COGPUKPKVKCNGFGU5WNVCPUWPVGPGKPCDGPFN·PFKUEJGT&GIGPCWHGKPGO\GTDTQEJGPGPVÒTMKUEJGP*KGD UEJYGTV 1DGP FCU 6GVTCITCOOCVQP KP 5VTCJNGP CNU 5[ODQN XQP )QVVGU &TGKGKPKIMGKV /KV GTJCDGPGT   4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ &KGXQTNKGIGPFG/GFCKNNGHGKGTVKP9QTVGPWPFGODNGOCVKUEJGP$KNFGTP-CKUGT.GQRQNF+CNUUVTCJNGPFGP5KGIGTÒDGT 5WNVCP/QJCOOGF+8

136




Die Belagerung von Buda 1684.

&+''+00#*/'8101('0 $7&#  $WFC YCT UGKV  WPWPVGTDTQEJGP KP VÒTMKUEJGT *CPF VTQV\ FKXGTUGT $GNCIGTWPIUMCORCIPGP UGKVGPU   FGT -CKUGTNKEJGP FKG \WNGV\V  XGTIGDNKEJ FGP 8GTUWEJ WPVGTPQOOGP JCVVGP FKG 5VCFV \WTÒEM\WGT   QDGTP 'KP XQP *GT\QI -CTN 8 XQP .QVJTKPIGP IGHÒJTVGU *GGT DGNCIGTVG $WFC UGKV FGO  #WIWUV    WPF MQPPVG FKG 4GUKFGP\UVCFV FGT WPICTKUEJGP -ÌPKIG UEJNKG­NKEJ CO  5GRVGODGT  GKPPGJ   OGP

4387



.GQRQNF+<KPPOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP1HGP $WFC #PUKEJVFGT WPVGT $GUEJWUU UVGJGPFGP 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPI FGT -CKUGTNKEJGP CO $KNFTCPF N   &QPCWDQIGP WPF 5EJKHH#WH FGO 4ÒEMGP GKPGU 4CWEJ URGKGPFGP &TCEJGPU GKP #FNGT KO GTJQDGPGP   TGEJVGP(CPIGKP$NKV\DÒPFGNJCNVGPF/KVFGOQTKIKPCNGP-WRHGTUVKHVWPFGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOO 5NI *QTUM[  XIN  FQTV KP 5KNDGT  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  XIN  FQTV KP   5KNDGT  5GJTUEJÌP



4388



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP /CTVKP$TWPPGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP1HGP $WFC #PUKEJVFGT WPVGT $GUEJWUU UVGJGPFGP 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPI FGT $GNCIGTGT CWH FGO IGIGPÒDGT   NKGIGPFGP &QPCWWHGT PCJG FGP5VÒORHGPFGTCDIGVTCIGPGP&QPCWDTÒEMGDGKFGT5VCFV2GUV1DGPHNKG IGPFGT#FNGTNKO(CPIGKP5EJYGTVWPVGTJCNDFGTWOMT·P\VGP0COGPUKPKVKCNGXQP-CKUGT.GQRQNF+ 0GWP<GKNGP6GZV/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[ 5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 137


4389



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP (TKGFTKEJ -NGKPGTV 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP   1HGP $WFC  #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF <GNVG FGT $GNCIGTGT CWH FGO IGIGPÒDGT NKGIGPFGP   &QPCWWHGT KO #DUEJPKVV XKGT\GKNKIGT 6GZV 1DGP 8KEVQTKC HNKGIGPF N OKV 2QUCWPG WPF 2CNO\YGKI   )GMTÌPVGT#FNGTCWHGKPGO(GNUGPUVGJGPFGKP'KWPFGKPGP5EJNÒUUGNKOGTJQDGPGPNKPMGP(CPIJCN VGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVG PWQXQXIN FQTVKP$TQP\GCNUWPGFKGTVCWUIGYKGUGP 2QRGNMC 45GJTUEJÌP



4390



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,QJCPP *ÌJP &CP\KI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 1HGP $WFC  CO  5GRVGODGT   $TWUVDKNFFGU-CKUGTUTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&GTIGMTÌPVG FQRRGNMÌRHKIG#FNGTDGJCPIGPOKVFGOWPICTKUEJGP9CRRGPUEJKNFKPFGP(·PIGP5EJYGTVWPF2CNO \YGKIJCNVGPFÒDGTFGT&QPCWOKVFGPCPITGP\GPFGP1TVGP$WFCWPF2GUV$GKFGP#FNGTH·PIGP\YGK 5EJTKHVD·PFGTQDGTJCNDXQP2GUVFGT*CNDOQPFCNUVÒTMKUEJGU'ODNGOCW­GTJCNDFGT5VCFVOCWGTPXQP $WFC FCU <GNVNCIGT FGT$GNCIGTGTOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QP VGPWQXQ 44#WUFTWEMXQNNGU-CKUGTRQTVT·V8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC 

4391



138

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP % 8KPEM WPF ,QJCPP -KVVGN $TGUNCW CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 1HGP $WFC    0GDGP GKPGO OKV FGO WPICTKUEJGP 9CRRGP IGUEJOÒEMVGP #NVCT FKG YGKDNKEJG 8GTMÌTRGTWPI 7PICTPU   MPKGPFTOKV(ÒNNJQTPWPF(CJPGPNCP\G+JTIGIGPÒDGTFKGO·PPNKEJG8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGT&QPCWMPKGPF NOKVFGT4GEJVGPGKPGP(KUEJWPFOKVFGT.KPMGPGKPG(CJPGJCNVGPF<YKUEJGPFGPDGKFGP2GTUQPKHK MCVKQPGPFGT&QPCWUVTQOFGTCWUFGTUKEJGTIKG­GPFGP3WGNNWTPGFGU(NWUUIQVVGUGPVURTKPIV#WHFGO (NWUUGKPGMNGKPG$QQVUFCTUVGNNWPIWPFGKPCWUFGT3WGNNWTPGJGTCWUURTKPIGPFGT(KUEJ)GMTÌPVGT#FNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF 9CRRGPUEJKNF T QDGTJCND FGT #PUKEJV FGT DGNCIGTVGP 5VCFV  OO  I   (W55NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  4(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ




4392



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP *CPU ,CEQD9QNTCD0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP1HGP $WFC  $NKEMCWHFKG5VCFVQDGP$TWUVDKNFFGU-CKUGTU\YKUEJGP<YGKIGPKO#DUEJPKVVHÒPH<GKNGP6GZV#WH GTJÌJVGT2QUKVKQPFGTOKVFGT2J[UKQIPQOKGFGU-CKUGTUCWUIGUVCVVGVG,QUWCKP4ÒUVWPIUVGJGPFNOKV GKPGO<GRVGTKPFGTXQTIGUVTGEMVGP4GEJVGPFGTUVTCJNGPFGP5QPPG5VKNNUVCPFIGDKGVGPF+O*KPVGTITWPF CWHVKGHGTIGNGIGPGO6GTTCKPGKPG5EJNCEJV\YKUEJGPMCKUGTNKEJGTWPFVÒTMKUEJGT4GKVGTGK1DGPTQDGT JCNDFGT6ÒTMGPFGTUKPMGPFG*CNDOQPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT 5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 



4393



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP *CPU ,CEQD9QNTCD0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP1HGP $WFC  8+4676' 4'51.8+6 $NKEM CWH FKG 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF <GNVG WPF 4GKVGT FGT $GNCIGTWPIUCTOGG   1DGP GKP 5EJYGTV FGP IQTFKUEJGP -PQVGP FWTEJVTGPPGPF&KG XKGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV *#76    4'51.7$+  .+5  7037#/ KPOKVVGP GKPGU OKV FGO ÌUVGTGKEJKUEJGP WPF FGO MWTDC[GTKUEJGP   9CRRGPUEJKNF IGUEJOÒEMVGP -TCP\IGDKPFGU FCU CWU GKPGO .QTDGGT\YGKI WPF GKPGT CWU (TÒEJVGP IG   YWPFGPGP)KTNCPFGDGUVGJV1DGP#FNGT/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT 5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  FKGUGU 'ZGORNCT  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  FQTV CNU WPGFKGTV CWUIG   YKGUGP 9KVV 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5NI,WNKWU#WMVKQP4)CGVVGPULWP*GKFGNDGTI0T

4394



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ WPF .C\CTWU )QVVNKGD .CWHHGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI   XQP1HGP $WFC &GTXQPGKPGTNHNKGIGPFGP8KEVQTKCIGMTÌPVG-CKUGTUVGJGPFTKPCPVKMGT4ÒUVWPIWPF /CPVGNFGPNKPMGP(W­CWHFGPCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGPVÒTMKUEJGP*CNDOQPFUGV\GPFKPFGT4GEJVGPGKP <GRVGTJCNVGPF8QTKJOFKGYGKDNKEJG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQP7PICTPUMPKGPFNDGKKJTGP(Ò­GPGKP5EJTKHV UVÒEM *KPVGP T YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV (KFGU  UVGJGPF X X OKV 2CVTKCTEJGPMTGW\ WPF *QUVKGPMGNEJ $NKEM   ÒDGT GKPG MCKUGTNKEJG #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPI JKPYGI CWH FKG WPVGT $GUEJWUU UVGJGPFG WPF DTGPPGPFG 5VCFV   $WFCQDGP-TQPG/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[ 5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  139


4396 4395





4395

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ WPF .C\CTWU )QVVNKGD .CWHHGT CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 1HGP  

$WFC  $NKEM CWH FKG WPVGT $GUEJWUU UVGJGPFG WPF DTGPPGPFG 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF GKP (GNFNCIGT   1DGP -TQPG<YÌNH\GKNKIGT 6GZV  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  XIN  FQTV KP 5KNDGT OKV   4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI*QTUM[XIN FQTVKP5KNDGTOKV4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI,WNKWUXIN FQTVKP 5KNDGTOKV4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ -N(GJNGTCO4CPFUVCDXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP .C\CTWU )QVVNKGD .CWHHGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 1HGP $WFC    #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV QDGP 'PIGN HNKGIGPF N GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI WPF GKP -TGW\ JCNVGPF +O 8QTFGTITWPF   -CORHU\GPG \YKUEJGP 4GKVGTP WPF (W­UQNFCVGP'NH\GKNKIGT 6GZV /KV UEJT·I IGMGTDVGO 4CPF    OOI5NI'TNCPIGTXCT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUXIN FQTVKP$TQP\G 5NI /QPVGPWQXQ &WPMNG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



4397



$TGKVGT 5EJCWVCNGT  -TGOPKV\ XQP % / 4 CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 1HGP $WFC  )GRT·IV CWH   8GTCPNCUUWPIFGU-COOGTITCHGPFGTWPICTKUEJGP$GTIUV·FVG,CEQD8KGEJVGTFG)TWGD-CKUGT.GQRQNF KPGKPGOXQPXKGT2HGTFGPIG\QIGPGP9CIGPJKPVGPIGHCPIGPG6ÒTMGPWPF\CJNTGKEJGGTDGWVGVG(CJPGP WPF5RKG­G+O8QTFGTITWPFTGKPHCUVWPDGMNGKFGVGT)GPKWUFCU2HGTFGIGURCPPCO<ÒIGNHÒJTGPFWPF GKPGP9CRRGPUEJKNFJCNVGPFCO$QFGPFGT\GTDTQEJGPGVÒTMKUEJG*CNDOQPFCO*KOOGNJKPVGTGKPGO 9QNMGPDCPF#WIG)QVVGUWOUEJNQUUGPXQPGKPGOKP5VTCJNGPUEJYGDGPFGP&TGKGEM#PUKEJVFGTDGNC IGTVGPWPFWPVGT$GUEJWUUUVGJGPFGP5VCFVKO8QTFGTITWPF<GNVG4GKVGTWPF(W­VTWRRGPFGT$GNCIG TGTOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ8QINJWDGT (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

4398



140

#NVXGTIQNFGVG N·PIUQXCNG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 2GVGT 5GGN 5CN\DWTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 1HGP  

$WFC  $NKEM ÒDGT FKG &QPCW CWH FKG WPVGT #TVKNNGTKGDGUEJWUU UVGJGPFG 5VCFV 1DGP 'PIGN HNKGIGPF T   GKP-TGW\WPFGKPGP2CNO\YGKIJCNVGPF&KG/WVVGT)QVVGUUVGJGPFXXCWHGKPGTNKGIGPFGP/QPFUK EJGN OKV KJTGO YGKV CWUIGURCPPVGP /CPVGN FKG DGK KJT MPKGPFGP 8GTDÒPFGVGP -CKUGT .GQRQNF 2CRUV   +PPQEGP\ :+ -WTHÒTUV /CZKOKNKCP ++ 'OCPWGN XQP $C[GTP WPF *GT\QI -CTN 8 XQP .QVJTKPIGP DG   UEJKTOGPFZOO5NI*QTUM[XIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI,WNKWUXIN# FQTV KP/GUUKPIXGTIQNFGV 5NI/QPVGPWQXQXIN FQTVKP/GUUKPI 9KVV<GNNGT  44#NVTGRCTKGTVGT.QEJWPIUXGTUWEJQFGT*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP




4399



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 1HGP $WFC  #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV OKV &QPCW   DTÒEMG QDGP DQIKI FTGKHCEJ IGUVCHHGNV &'4 )415 .'121.&6 Ü *#6 1('0 080 )'910'0 Ü    &#&74%*&'4684%-'0/#%*6Ü+080)#40/'+56<'410'0Ü+O#DUEJPKVV\YKUEJGP 2CNO\YGKIGP#001Û&05'6560&'5-';5'459#(('0(.14+4'09CHHGPUVÒEMG KP 9QNMGP QDGP 5EJTKHVDCPF YQTCWH +/ *+//'. WPVGP 80& #8( '4&'0 Ü QDGTJCND GKPGT   #PUCOONWPI XQP 9CHHGP (CJPGP WPF 2CWMGP  OO  I 5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU    5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



4400



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP1HGP $WFC -QRHFGU-CKUGTUTOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\#FNGTCO*KOOGNUEJYGDGPFNOKVTÒEMIGYCPFVGO-QRHKO5EJPCDGNGKPGP<YGKIJCNVGPFKP FGP(·PIGPGKPGP4GKEJUCRHGNWPFGKP$ÒPFGNOKV$NKV\GPFKGUKEJÒDGTFCUICP\G.CPFXGTDTGKVGPWPF CWEJGKPGDTGPPGPFG5VCFVKPFGTTGEJVGP$KNFJ·NHVGVTGHHGP1DGTJCNDFGT5VCFVGKPCDPGJOGPFGT*CND OQPF ÒDGT FGT HTGKGP .CPFUEJCHV N FKG UVTCJNGPFG 5QPPG  OO  I 5NI *QTUM[  5NI   /QPVGPWQXQXIN FQTVKP<KPPCNUWPGFKGTV 5NI,WNKWU  W­GTUVUGNVGP9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



4401



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP,CMQD9QNTCD0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP1HGP $WFC $TWUV DKNF FGU -CKUGTU T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\$NKEM CWH FKG WPVGT   $GUEJWUUUVGJGPFG5VCFVKO8QTFGTITWPF#TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPIFGT-CKUGTNKEJGP1DGP8KEVQTKCHNKGIGPFN FKGWONQTDGGTVG0COGPUKPKVKCNGFGU-CKUGTUWPFFGPIGMTÌPVGPWPICTKUEJGP9CRRGPUEJKNFJCNVGPF/KV GTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVG PWQXQ9GNNGPJGKO 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 141


4402



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   FGU WPDGUVKOOVGP 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTU ' + CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI XQP 1HGP  

$WFC $TWUVDKNFXQP*GT\QI-CTN8XQP.QVJTKPIGPTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN$GKFGT NKPMGP5EJWNVGTGKP-QOOCPFQUVCDWPFGKPCPVKMKUKGTGPFGTMCNQVVGPHÌTOKIGT*GNOOKV0CUGPUEJWV\&GT *GT\QIOKV5EJYGTVWPFGKPGOWPJGKNCDMGJTGPFGPOKVFGO$KNFFGT/CTKC+OOCEWNCVCIGUEJOÒEMVGP 5EJKNFWPFOKV*KNHGFGT-TCHVGKPGUCO*KOOGNXQTFGT5QPPGUEJYGDGPFGP*QUVKGPMGNEJGUGKPOGJT MÌRHKIGU OKV GKPGT -GWNG WPF GKPGO VÒTMKUEJGP 5EJKNF DGYCHHPGVGU 7PVKGT DGM·ORHGPF  OO   I5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ W­GTUVUGNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ  &CU 4ÒEMUGKVGPOQVKX KUV FGO <[MNWU FGT *GTCMNGUVCVGP FGT CPVKMGP ITKGEJKUEJGP /[VJQNQIKG GPVNGJPV 'U UGV\V FGP   -CORHIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGPFGPFGUITKGEJKUEJGP*CNDIQVVUWPF*GNFGPOKVFGT*[FTCINGKEJ

&+'5+')'ª$'4&+'6ª4-'0+/,#*4

1,5:1

4403



142

4403

.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP QFGT*CPU ,CEQD9QNTCD0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG KO .CWHG FGU ,CJTGU IGIGP FKG 6ÒTMGP GTTWPIGPGP OKNKV·TKUEJGP 'THQNIG $TWUVDKNF FGU -CKUGTU T KP   *CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\#TTCPIGOGPVCWUFTGK\GJPFWTEJGKPG-QTFGN OKVGKPCPFGTXGTMPÒRHVG/GFCKNNQPUOKVFGP#PUKEJVGPTGURGMVKXG2N·PGPFGTGKPIGPQOOGPGP5V·FVGWPF 2N·V\G 1HGP )TCP <QNPQT 'RGTKGU 8QTQXKV\ 0QXKITCF 7PIYCT 0GWJ·WUGN 6QMC[ 5CTCXCU   %CUEJCW 5GIGFKP WPF (ÒPHMKTEJ 7PVGP FGT VÒTMKUEJG *CNDOQPF WOIGUVÒT\V NKGIGPF QDGP \YGK   GKPCPFGT \WIGYCPFVG 2WVVK FKG KP 5VTCJNGP UVGJGPFG -CKUGTMTQPG ÒDGT FKGUGU 6TKWORJCNCTTCPIGOGPV   JCNVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT




&'45+')$'+/1*Š%5 +PFGTCO#WIWUVCWUIGVTCIGPGP5EJNCEJVCO4CPFFGU&QTHGU0CI[JCTU±P[DGK/QJ±EUUKGIVG GKP XQP *GT\QI -CTN 8 XQP .QVJTKPIGP FGO DC[GTKUEJGP -WTHÒTUVGP /CZKOKNKCP ++ 'OCPWGN WPF   /CTMITCH.WFYKI9KNJGNOXQP$CFGPIGHÒJTVGUITQ­GU*GGTÒDGTFKG6ÒTMGP&KGUGT'THQNIVTWIGPV UEJGKFGPF \WT 8GTFT·PIWPI FGU )GIPGTU CWU 7PICTP DGK UKGJG CWEJ -CV0T   WPF OCEJVG FGP   5VTGKVMT·HVGPFGU-CKUGTUFGP9GIPCEJ5KGDGPDÒTIGPWPF5GTDKGPHTGK

4404

4404

1,5:1



.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP QFGT*CPU ,CEQD9QNTCD0ÒTPDGTICWHFGP 5KGIDGK/QJ±EU-CXCNNGTKGIGHÒJTVXQPFGT4GKEJUHCJPGFGOMWTHÒTUVNKEJDC[GTKUEJGPWPFFGOJGT\Q INKEJNQVJTKPIKUEJGP $CPPGT CP GKPGO VÒTMKUEJGP (GNFNCIGT XQTDGKUVÒTOGPF WPF HNKGJGPFG VÒTMKUEJG   4GKVGTGK XQT UKEJ JGT VTGKDGPF +O 8QTFGTITWPF 9CUUGT YQTKP 6ÒTMGP \W 2HGTF KO *KPVGTITWPF FGT   FWTEJªDGTUEJTKHVDG\GKEJPGVG/CTMVHNGEMGP/QJ±E\1DGP-TGW\KP5VTCJNGPWPFFKGOKV2CNO\YGKIGP IGUEJOÒEMVGP 2QTVT·VU FGU -WTHÒTUVGP /CZKOKNKCP 'OCPWGN XQP $C[GTP WPF FGU *GT\QIU -CTN XQP   .QVJTKPIGP&GT -CKUGT KP GKPGO XQP FTGK .ÌYGP IG\QIGPGP 6TKWORJCNYCIGP ÒDGT GKPGP CO $QFGP   NKGIGPFGP*WPFWPFGKPGPIGHCNNGPGP6ÒTMGPJKPYGIHCJTGPFNDGMT·P\VXQPGKPGOJKPVGTKJOHNKGIGP FGP'PIGN1DGPTGKPGCWUGKPGT9QNMGJGTXQTVTGVGPFGJKOONKUEJG*CPFGKPGP¤NWPFGKPGP2CNO \YGKIFCTDKGVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[ 5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC9KVV -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



&CUOKVFGO<KVCV+0*1%5+)01=XKPEGU? ōKPFKGUGO<GKEJGPYKTUV&W=UKGIGP?ŋ XGTDWPFGPG-TGW\OQVKXCWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG PKOOV DG\WI CWH FKG 8KUKQP %QPUVCPVKPU FGU )TQ­GP KP FGT 5EJNCEJV CP FGT /KNXKUEJGP $TÒEMG WPF   UVGNNVFKGCDGPFN·PFKUEJGP-·ORHGTKO6ÒTMGPMTKGIUQOKVKPFKG6TCFKVKQPFGTHTQOOGP8GTHGEJVGTFGU%JTKUVGPVWOU

&+'5%*.#%*6$'+5+-.¡5 -WT\PCEJFGT5EJNCEJVDGK/QJ±EUGTTCPIGPFKG-CKUGTNKEJGPWPFFKGOKVKJPGPXGTDÒPFGVGP6TWRRGP CWEJDGKFGOPWTGVYC-KNQOGVGTXQO5EJNCEJVQTVGPVHGTPVGP1TV5KMNÉUGKPGP5KGI

4405



.GQRQNF +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK   5KMNÉU-QRHTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&CTUVGNNWPIFGT5EJNCEJVCO (W­G GKPGU *ÒIGNU CWH FGUUGP -WRRG GKPG 5EJCP\G N FKG IGQTFPGV CWHIGUVGNNVGP 4GIKOGPVGT FGT -CK   UGTNKEJGP T FKG DGTGKVU KP 7PQTFPWPI IGTCVGPGP VÒTMKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVG /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV    OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ    2QRGNMC 5GJTUEJÌP

 143


&+'5%*.#%*6$'+5+-.¡570&&+''+00#*/'9'+6'4'4 $'('56+)6'4146'+070)#40 0CEJ FGP 'THQNIGP FGT CDGPFN·PFKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVG KP 7PICTP KO ,CJTG  TGXQNVKGTVGP KP -QPUVCP   VKPQRGNFKG,CPKVUEJCTGPIGIGP5WNVCP/GJOGF+8&KGKPPGPRQNKVKUEJGP7PTWJGPKOQUOCPKUEJGP4GKEJ MQPPVG-CTNXQP.QVJTKPIGPPWV\GPWOKPFCUWPVGTVÒTMKUEJG.GJPUJQJGKVUVGJGPFG5KGDGPDÒTIGPGKP \WFTKPIGPFGUUGP.CPFVCIKO,CJTGFKG1DGTJQJGKVFGUWPICTKUEJGP-ÌPKIUWPFFGU-CKUGTUCPGT MCPPVGYQDGKFGT-CKUGTFGO(ÒTUVGP#RCH[FKG*GTTUEJCHVCWH.GDGPU\GKV\WUKEJGTVG

4406



.GQRQNF +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK   5KMNÉU$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\<YKUEJGP2CNO\YGKIGP 5EJNCEJVGPU\GPGQDGP5EJTKHVDCPF7PVGPUGEJUOKVGKPCPFGTXGTDWPFGPGN·PIUQXCNG$KNFOGFCKNNQPUOKV FGP #PUKEJVGP FGT GTQDGTVGP (GUVWPIGP 2QUGIC 'UUGEM 9CNRQ 2GVGT9CTFGKP 2CNQVVC WPF 'TNC   ITWRRKGTV WO FKG #WHUEJTKHV 8'4/'*4'4  &'5 4'+%*5 Û   Û  OO  I   5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  (GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



&+'9+'&'4'+00#*/'810567*.9'+55'0$74) 5VWJNYGK­GPDWTI 5\¾MGUHGJ¾TX±T JCVVGUGKVFGO,CJTGWPWPVGTDTQEJGPWPVGTVÒTMKUEJGT*GTTUEJCHV IGUVCPFGP UKGJG-CV0T +O/CKGTQDGTVGPFKG-CKUGTNKEJGPFKG5VCFV

1,5:1 4407



144

4407

.GQRQNF +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT   #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 9KGFGTGKPPCJOG XQP 5VWJNYGK­GPDWTI -CKUGT .GQRQNF + WPF UGKP   5QJPFGTWPICTKUEJG-ÌPKI,QUGRJKPGKPGOXQP\YGKHNKGIGPFGP#FNGTPIG\QIGPGPGKPCEJUKIGP6TKWO RJYCIGPNÒDGT9CHHGPWPFFKGD·WEJNKPIUCO$QFGPNKGIGPFG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGU0GKFUJKPYGITQN NGPF 7PVGTJCND FGT #FNGT FTGK IGHGUUGNVG VÒTMKUEJG )GHCPIGPG QDGTJCND FGT 8ÌIGNFKGYGKDNKEJG8GT MÌTRGTWPI FGU 5KGIGU OKV FGT .KPMGP GKPGP .QTDGGTMTCP\ ÒDGT FKG *GTTUEJGT JCNVGPF KP FGT 4GEJVGP   GKPGP 5EJNCPIGPTKPI CNU 'ODNGO FGT 'YKIMGKV8QP GTJÌJVGT 9CTVG $NKEM CWH FKG XQP FGT 5QPPG DG   UEJKGPGPG 5VCFV CO *QTK\QPV FGT WPVGTIGJGPFG *CNDOQPF /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO   I5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVCVVTCMVKXGT2CVKPC 


4408



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ WPF .C\CTWU )QVVNKGD .CWHHGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG   XQP5VWJNYGK­GPDWTI&GT-CKUGTVJTQPGPFHCUVXXKPXQNNGO1TPCVKPFGT4GEJVGPGKP<GRVGTJCNVGPF KO(GNFNFGTÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJG$KPFGPUEJKNFTFGTWPICTKUEJG9CRRGPUEJKNF$NKEMXQPUEJT·IQDGPCWH FKG5VCFVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



&+''+00#*/'810$'.)4#& $GNITCFYCTUGKV$GUVCPFVGKNFGUQUOCPKUEJGP4GKEJGUWPFGKPGFGTYKEJVKIUVGP(GUVWPIGPCWHFGO $CNMCP#O5GRVGODGTMQPPVGGKPG#TOGGCWU/CPPWPVGTFGO-QOOCPFQFGUDC[GTK UEJGP -WTHÒTUVGP /CZKOKNKCP ++ 'OCPWGN FKG 5VCFV WPF (GUVWPI GTUVÒTOGP +P FGP HQNIGPFGP IWV    ,CJTGPGTNKVV$GNITCFGKPYGEJUGNXQNNGU5EJKEMUCN

4409



.GQRQNF +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF   0ÒTPDGTIKO#WHVTCIFGU0ÒTPDGTIGT7PVGTPGJOGTU(TKGFTKEJ-NGKPGTVCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP$GNITCF

CWEJ )TKGEJKUEJ 9GKUUGPDWTI IGPCPPV  #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV WPF (GUVWPI $GNITCF KO #DUEJPKVV UGEJU   <GKNGP 6GZV&KG 8GTMÌTRGTWPI FGT EJTKUVNKEJGP 4GNKIKQP UEJTGKVGPF N FCU WPICTKUEJG &QRRGNMTGW\   GKPGOCO$QFGPWPVGTJKOONKUEJGP5VTCJNGPPKGFGTDTGEJGPFGP6ÒTMGPGPVIGIGPJCNVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC9KVV #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

&+''+00#*/'810-#0+5%*# -#0+<5# 

4410



.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGTKO#WHVTCIFGU0ÒTPDGTIGT 7PVGTPGJOGTU (TKGFTKEJ -NGKPGTV 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP -CPKUEJC#PUKEJVFGT5VCFVQDGP (COC UEJYGDGPF N FKG 2QUCWPG DNCUGPF WPF GKP 5EJTKHVDCPF OKV FGO 0COGP FGT 5VCFV JCNVGPF +O   #DUEJPKVVUKGDGP\GKNKIGT6GZV&GT-CKUGTUVGJGPFTKPCPVKMGT4ÒUVWPIFCU.CDCTWOOKVFGT4GEJVGP WPFGKPG8KEVQTKCUVCVWGVVGKPFGT.KPMGPJCNVGPF8QTFGO*GTTUEJGTGKPIGHCPIGPGT6ÒTMGMPKGPFNKP -GVVGP FKG 5VCFVUEJNÒUUGN ÒDGTTGKEJGPF /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I (QTUVGT    5NI *QTUM[  XIN  FQTV KP $TQP\G  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  XIN  FQTV KP   $TQP\G  44(GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  145


&+'5%*.#%*6$'+5#.#0-#/'0 5<.#0-#/'0  7PYGKV FGT 6JGK­OÒPFWPI KP FKG &QPCW VTCHGP DGK 5CNCPMCOGP CO  #WIWUV  GKP XQP .WFYKI   9KNJGNO/CTMITCHXQP$CFGP IGPCPPV6ÒTMGPNQWKU IGHÒJTVGUMCKUGTNKEJG*GGTOKV5QNFCVGPWPF GKPG GVYC  /CPP UVCTMG VÒTMKUEJG 5VTGKVOCEJV WPVGT FGO -QOOCPFQ FGU )TQ­YGUKTU -ÌTRTÒNÒ   CWHGKPCPFGT&GO/CTMITCHGPIGNCPIGUUEJNKG­NKEJFGPÒDGTO·EJVKIGP)GIPGTPCEJGKPGO<CPIGPCP ITKHH  \W UEJNCIGP 'VYC  (GKPFG YCTGP IGHCNNGPFCTWPVGTCWEJFGT)TQ­YGUKTWPF2CUEJCU &KG-CKUGTNKEJGPJCVVGPTWPFGKP8KGTVGNKJTGT.GWVGXGTNQTGP

4411



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FGP WPVGT FGT (ÒJTWPI XQP .WFYKI 9KNJGNO   /CTMITCH XQP $CFGP GTHQEJVGPGP 5KGI DGK 5CNCPMCOGP )GHGUUGNVGT 6ÒTMG UKV\GPF T DGK \CJNTGKEJGP   $GWVGUVÒEMGP WPF 9CHHGP QDGP IGMTÌPVGT XKGTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF FGU /CTMITCHGP \YKUEJGP 2CNO   \YGKIGP-CKUGT.GQRQNF+GKPG8KEVQTKCUVCVWGVVGKPFGT4GEJVGPKPGKPGT6TKWORJCNSWCFTKICÒDGTCO $QFGP NKGIGPFGP 5EJKNFGP OKV VÒTMKUEJGP WPF HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 'ODNGOGP WPF #PITKHHUYCHHGP JKPYGI   HCJTGPF /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI   ,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ9KGNCPFV<GKV\ (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''+00#*/'810)41559#4&'+0 0Š);8Š4#&8Š4#&+0  0CEJFGT5EJNCEJVDGK5CNCPMCOGPYCPFVGUKEJ/CTMITCH.WFYKI9KNJGNOXQP$CFGPOKVUGKPGP6TWR RGP )TQ­YCTFGKP \W FCU FKG 6ÒTMGP UGKV  DGUGV\V JKGNVGP &KG $GNCIGTWPI FWTEJ FKG MCKUGTNKEJGP   6TWRRGPGPFGVGOKVFGT-CRKVWNCVKQPFGU)GIPGTUCO,WPK

4412



146

1,5:1

4412

.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGTKO#WHVTCIFGU0ÒTPDGTIGT 7PVGTPGJOGTU (TKGFTKEJ -NGKPGTV CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP )TQ­YCTFGKP &KG $TWUVDKNFGT XQP -CKUGT   .GQRQNF+WPF-ÌPKI,QUGRJ + PGDGPGKPCPFGTT&GT-CKUGTTVJTQPGPFFKG5EJNÒUUGNXQPFGTXQT KJO MPKGPFGP 2GTUQPKHKMCVKQP FGT 5VCFV GORHCPIGPF 1DGP 8KEVQTKC HNKGIGPF N OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FGP   *GTTUEJGT DGMT·P\GPF GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI KP FGT .KPMGP +O *KPVGTITWPF (GNFNCIGT XQT #PUKEJV FGT   DGHGUVKIVGP5VCFVWPFFGT(GUVWPI)TQ­YCTFGKP/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI(QTUVGT 5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 


4413



4414

4415

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP /CTVKP $TWPPGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP )TQ­YCTFGKP 'KP IGHNÒ   IGNVGT )GPKWU UEJTGKVGPF T XQT FGO KJO IGIGPÒDGT UKV\GPFGP -CKUGT .GQRQNF + FGO *GTTUEJGT GKP   WONQTDGGTVGU /GFCKNNQP OKV FGT #PUKEJV FGT GTQDGTVGP 5VCFV UQYKG GKP 5EJTKHVUVÒEM RT·UGPVKGTGPF8QT   FGT(NWUUNCPFUEJCHVWO)TQ­YCTFGKPFKG8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGT$GJCTTNKEJMGKVWPF5VCPFJCHVKIMGKVDGKGKPGO 5·WNGPUVWORH UVGJGPF N OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF 5VCD /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I   5NI'TNCPIGT FKGUGU'ZGORNCT 5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  448QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC 

&+'5+')'ª$'4&+'(4#0<15'070&&+'6ª4-'0+/,#*4 -CKUGT .GQRQNF + YCT UGKV  KP GKPGP <YGKHTQPVGPMTKGI XGTYKEMGNV KO 1UVGP FGU 4GKEJGU OKV FGP   6ÒTMGPWPFKO9GUVGPOKVFGO-ÌPKITGKEJ(TCPMTGKEJKOUQIGPCPPVGP2H·N\KUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGI$KU FGO2T·IGLCJTFGTPCEJHQNIGPFGP/GFCKNNGJCVVGFKGō*GKNKIG#NNKCP\ŋGKPWPVGTFGO2TQVGMVQTCV XQP 2CRUV +PPQ\GP\ :+ IGUEJNQUUGPGU $ÒPFPKU FGU -CKUGTU FGU -ÌPKIU XQP 2QNGP WPF FGT 4GRWDNKM   8GPGFKIIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGP\CJNTGKEJG'THQNIG\WXGT\GKEJPGP#WEJKOYGEJUGNXQNNXGTNCWHGPFGP-TKGI IGIGP (TCPMTGKEJ MQPPVG FKG ō)TQ­G #NNKCP\ŋ FGT PGDGP FGO -CKUGT FKG )GPGTCNUVCCVGP FGT 0KGFGT   NCPFG5RCPKGPWPF5CXQ[GPCPIGJÌTVGPKPFGP0KGFGTNCPFGPWPFKP+VCNKGPGKPKIG'THQNIGGT\KGNGPUQ CWEJCO4JGKPYQJKPFGT-CKUGTKO,CJTGUGKPGPVCVMT·HVKIGPWPFGTHQNITGKEJGP)GPGTCNHGNFOCT UEJCNN.WFYKI9KNJGNO/CTMITCHXQP$CFGP IGPCPPV6ÒTMGPNQWKU XQOÌUVNKEJGP-TKGIUUEJCWRNCV\CNU 1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGTXGTUGV\VJCVVG UKGJGFC\WCWEJ-CV0T  

.GQRQNF +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI   CWHFKG5KGIGCO4JGKPWPFKP7PICTP'KPG)TWRRGXQPDGJGNOVGPMKPFNKEJGP)GPKGP.CP\GPOKVFGP $CPPGTPXQP2QNGPWPF.KVCWGP5RCPKGPFGUXGPG\KCPKUEJGP&QIGPWPFFGU-CKUGTUFCU5KIPWOFGU %JTKUVGPVWOU .CDCTWO  UQYKG (CJPGPNCP\GP OKV FGP $CPPGTP FGT )GPGTCNUVCCVGP FGT 0KGFGTNCPFG   )TQ­DTKVCPPKGPUWPF5CXQ[GPUJCNVGPFWPFCWHFGPCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGP(CJPGPFGU-ÌPKITGKEJU(TCPM TGKEJUWPFFGUQUOCPKUEJGP4GKEJGUUVGJGPF8KEVQTKCUVGJGPFXXOKV.QTDGGTMT·P\GPWPF2CNO\YGKI \YKUEJGPFGPCO$QFGPOKV3WGNNWTPGPUKV\GPFGP8GTMÌTRGTWPIGPFGT(NÒUUG&QPCWWPF6JGKUUUQYKG FGU4JGKPU/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[ 5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ  442TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCMN5VGORGNDTWEJCO4CPFUVCDXQT\ÒINKEJ 



<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG5KGIGCO4JGKPWPF KP7PICTP/KVFGOQTKIKPCNGP-WRHGTUVKHVWPFGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT (QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[XIN5NI,WNKWUXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT X.QQP+85 5NI/QPVGPWQXQXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT  5GJTUEJÌP

 147


4417 4416

4416

&+''+00#*/'8102'6'49#4&'+0 2—6'48Š4#&  

.GQRQNF +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP 2GVGTYCTFGKP  

2¾VGTX±TCF  2NCP FGT $GNCIGTWPI XQP 2GVGTYCTFGKP OKV FGT (GUVWPI WPF FGO DGHGUVKIVGP .CIGT FGT   -CKUGTNKEJGPCOTGEJVGP&QPCWHGTWPFGKPGO$TÒEMGPMQRHCONKPMGP7HGTFGU(NWUUGU8KEVQTKCUVGJGPF JCNDT GKPGP 5VCD JCNVGPF *KPVGT KJT GKPG 5EJCP\G KP FGT UKEJ VÒTMKUEJG -TKGIGT WPF \YGK -COGNG   DGHKPFGP+PGKPKIGT'PVHGTPWPIFKG(GUVWPIWPFFGT&QPCWNCWHOKVCPMGTPFGP5EJKHHGPªDGTFGP5EJKH HGPIGJVGKP7PYGVVGTPKGFGT/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44-N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'-72('424)70)8105%*'/0+6< $Š05-#56+#80+%#  9*4'0&70&0#%*&'/6ª4-'0-4+')



+PFGTWPICTKUEJGP$GTIDCWUVCFV5EJGOPKV\ JGWVG5NQYCMGK GPVUVCPFGP\YKUEJGPWPF-WR HGTRT·IWPIGPQJPG9GTVCPICDGWPFOKVFGTIGMTÌPVGP0COGPUKPKVKCNG-CKUGT.GQRQNFU+)GO·­/CKNNGV WPF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF GPVUVCPFGP UKG KO 6ÒTMGPMTKGI *GTKPGM PKOOV UKG GDGPHCNNU CNU 0QVOÒP\GP KO   9GTV XQP  D\Y  2QNVWTGP KP UGKPGP -CVCNQI FGT JCDUDWTIKUEJGP /ÒP\RT·IWPIGP CWH 0CEJ CPFGTGT   /GKPWPIJCPFGNVGUUKEJDGKFGP-WRHGTRT·IWPIGPWO/CTMGP .GQRQNF +  -W2T·IWPI \W  2QNVWTC  5EJGOPKV\  I &KG IGMTÌPVG 0COGPUK   PKVKCNG FGU -CKUGTU \YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP/QPQITCOO CWU FGP +PKVKCNGP % WPF 5   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H*GTKPGM/CKNNGV6H%+ 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



&+''+00#*/'810%4'/10#70&&+')'(#0)'00#*/'&'5 (4#0<¤5+5%*'01$'4$'('*.5*#$'458+..'41;

2TKP\'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GPYCTDGTGKVUKO0QXGODGTXQP-CKUGT.GQRQNF+\WO1DGTMQOOCPFKG TGPFGPFGTMCKUGTNKEJGP#TOGGKP1DGTKVCNKGPDGUVGNNVYQTFGP9·JTGPFFGU5RCPKUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU FTCPIGTKPFGT0CEJVXQO,CPWCTCWHFGP(GDTWCTOKVUGKPGP5QNFCVGPVQNNMÒJPKPFKGXQP FGP (TCP\QUGP DGUGV\VG 5VCFV %TGOQPC GKP WPF PCJO FQTV FGP 1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGT FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP   6TWRRGPKP+VCNKGPFGP/CTUEJCNN8KNNGTQ[UCOVUGKPGT5QNFCVGPIGHCPIGP

4418



.GQRQNF +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF   0ÒTPDGTIUCVKTKUEJG2T·IWPICWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP%TGOQPCWPFFKG)GHCPIGPPCJOGFGU1DGTDGHGJNU JCDGTU/CTUEJCNN8KNNGTQ[FWTEJMCKUGTNKEJG5VTGKVMT·HVGWPVGT(ÒJTWPIXQP2TKP\'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GP +POKVVGP GKPGT )TWRRG CWUGKPCPFGT UVKGDGPFGT *ÒJPGT GKP #FNGT GKPGP TÒEMNKPIU CO $QFGP NKGIGPFGP   *CJPUEJNCIGPFCONKPMGP$KNFTCPF2QUCWPGDNCUGPFG(COCVCP\GPFXX1DGPGKPOKV2CNO\YGKIGPIG UEJOÒEMVGU /GFCKNNQP OKV FGO T IGYCPFVGP 2QTVT·V FGU 2TKP\GP 'WIGP&TGK .KNKGPIGY·EJUG FGPGP   FKG $N·VVGT XQP FGO CWU GKPGT 9QNMG DNCUGPFGP 9KPF GPVTKUUGP YGTFGP +O 8QTFGTITWPF DGJGNOVG   YGKDNKEJG)GUVCNV )GTOCPKC#WUVTKC! UKV\GPFTKP*CTPKUEJWPFNCPIGO-NGKFUKEJCWHGKPGPOKVFGO FQRRGNMÌRHKIGP#FNGTIGUEJOÒEMVGP5EJKNFUVÒV\GPFGKPG.CP\GOKVFGT4GEJVGPWPFGKPG8KEVQTKCUVCVW GVVGKPFGTXQTIGUVTGEMVGP.KPMGPJCNVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT  %QNN (KGYGIGT  (QTUVGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  X .QQP +8 5  5NI   /QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC 4#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ &KGXQTNKGIGPFG/GFCKNNGFKGPV\WT8GTJGTTNKEJWPIFGU*WUCTGPUVTGKEJUFGU2TKP\GP'WIGPWPF\WINGKEJ\WT8GTURQV VWPI FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU FGT JKGT CNU ICNNKUEJGT  *CJP WPF GKPIGFGPM UGKPGU 9CRRGPU CNU KJTGP $N·VVGTP   DGTCWDVG.KNKGPIGY·EJUGGTUEJGKPV

148




&'4#7(56#0&&'4/#.-106'06'070&&'4-747<<'0-4+') 7PICTPYCTOKVFGOXQTN·WHKIGP'PFGFGU6ÒTMGPMTKGIGUKOIGUEJNQUUGPGP(TKGFGPXQP-CTNQYKV\ MGKPGN·PIGTG4WJG\GKVXGTIÌPPV/KV#WUPCJOGFGU$CPCVUWPF5KGDGPDÒTIGPUYCTFCU.CPF\YCTPWP XQP FGP 6ÒTMGP DGHTGKV FQEJ JCFGTVG GKP 6GKN FGU #FGNU FKG /CNMQPVGPVGP OKV FGT .CPFGUJGTTUEJCHV   FGU *CWUGU *CDUDWTI KP 7PICTP 5EJQP HTÒJGT YCT GU CWU FKGUGO )TWPFG \W #WHUV·PFGP KP 7PICTP   IGMQOOGP\WNGV\VKPGKPGTXQP+OTG)TCHXQP6ÌMÌN[IGHÒJTVGP'TJGDWPIIGIGP*CDUDWTI 'KP CDGTOCNKIGT #WHUVCPF GTHQNIVG WPVGT (TCP\ ++ XQP 4±MÉE\[ FGT  XQP FGT 1DTKIMGKV XGTJCHVGV   WPFWPFKP#DYGUGPJGKV\WO6QFGXGTWTVGKNVYWTFGPCEJFGOGTHNKGJGPMQPPVG/KVUGKPGO#WHTWH\WO #WHUVCPF FGT 7PICTP IGIGP *CDUDWTI MQPPVG GT GKPG YCEJUGPFG #PJ·PIGTUEJCHV IGYKPPGP FKG UKEJ   -WTW\\GPPCPPVGP/KVUGKPGT2TQMNCOCVKQPFGT7PCDJ·PIKIMGKV7PICTPUXQO,WPKDTCEJVGGT GKPGP )TQ­VGKN UGKPGU 8QNMGU CWH FKG 5GKVG FGT -WTW\\GP 9·JTGPF FGU 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU   QRGTKGTVGPFKG-WTW\\GPOKNKV·TKUEJIGIGP*CDUDWTI5KGFTCPIGPKPFKGWPIGUEJÒV\VGPQHHGPGP)GIGP FGP9GUVWPICTPUXQTWPFKPFKGUÒFNKEJG5VGKGTOCTMUGNDUVDKU9KGPYWTFGKJT(ÒJTGT4±MÉE\[ \WO(ÒTUVGPXQP5KGDGPDÒTIGPGTJQDGPWPF\WO(ÒJTGTFGTWPICTKUEJGP-QPHÌFGTCVKQPIGY·JNV FQEJ GTNKVV GT DGTGKVU  DGK 6[TPCW GKPG UEJYGTG OKNKV·TKUEJG 0KGFGTNCIG IGIGP GKPG MCKUGTNKEJG   5VTGKVOCEJV #WH FGO WPICTKUEJGP -QPHÌFGTCVKQPUTGKEJUVCI \W 1PQF DGVTKGD GT FGP $GUEJNWUU \WT   6JTQPCDUGV\WPIFGT*CDUDWTIGT0CEJFGTGPVUEJGKFGPFGP0KGFGTNCIGFGT-WTW\\GPDGK6TGPVUEJKGPKO ,CJTGDGICDUKEJ4±MÉE\[KPU'ZKNPCEJ2QNGP&GT-WTW\\GPMTKGIGPFGVGKPFGUGTUVKPFGOCO #RTKN\W5\CVO±TXQP-CKUGT,QUGRJ+OKVFGP5V·PFGPXQP7PICTPWPF5KGDGPDÒTIGPIGUEJNQUUG PGP (TKGFGP KP FGO *CDUDWTI FGP #WHUV·PFKUEJGP #OPGUVKG WPF HTGKG 4GNKQPUCWUÒDWPI \WDKNNKIVG   (TCP\++4±MÉE\[MGJTVGLGFQEJPKGOGJTKPUGKP*GKOCVNCPF\WTÒEM

4420

4419





#WHUVCPF WPVGT (TCP\ 4CMQE\[  -W 2QNVWTC  2* OKV JQEJQXCNGO )GIGPUVGORGN   CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG /CFQPPC  I /KV GKPGT $ÒIGNMTQPG ÒDGTJÌJVGT IGURCNVGPGT WPICTKUEJGT   9CRRGPUEJKNF/CFQPPCUKV\GPFXXKO(GNF2*WPVGP-CTVWUEJGOKVFGT9GTV\CJNQDGPDQIKI  241.+$'46#6' $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H*GTKPGM*WU\CT/CKNNGVXIN6H.+++ 5GJTUEJÌP



-W2QNVWTCOKVJQEJQXCNGO)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG/CFQPPCI)GURCNVGPGT WPICTKUEJGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF QDGP -TQPG-CTVWUEJG OKV FGT 9GTV\CJN QDGP 241  .+$'46#6'   $TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTV,CJTICPI *GTKPGM*WU\CT/CKNNGVXIN6H.+8

FQTV,CJTICPI  5GJTUEJÌP



4421

4422

 

4423

4422

-W2QNVWTC-$-TGOPKV\I)GURCNVGPGTWPICTKUEJGT9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGP-TQPG/CFQPPC OKV-KPFUKV\GPFXX$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H*GTKPGM*WU\CT/CKNNGVXIN6H.+8 5GJTUEJÌP 4GKEJUVCNGT///WPMCEUI)GURCNVGPGTWPICTKUEJGT9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGP-TQPGWO JGT8GT\KGTWPI#WH9QNMG/CFQPPCOKV-KPFUKV\GPFXXKO(GNF//$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN 6H*GTKPGM*WU\CT/CKNNGVXIN6H.+++ 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

&#5-72('40'-4'&+6)'.&810'2'4,'5+/-747<<'0-4+')



9·JTGPFFGT$NQEMCFGFGT5VCFV'RGTLGU 'RGTKGU FWTEJFKG-WTW\\GPGTHQNIVGFKG#WUICDGMWRHGTPGP -TGFKVIGNFGUOKVFGO5KIPWOXQP-CKUGT.GQRQNF+ .GQRQNF +  -W0QVOÒP\G QJPG 9GTVCPICDG 2QNVWTC !   'RGTLGU  I &KG OKV   GKPGT-TQPGÒDGTJÌJVG0COGPUKPKVKCNGXQP-CKUGT.GQRQNF+WPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN'2'4ÛÛ$.1%Û $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT%0#M*GTKPGM/CKNNGV5WRRN6H 5GJTUEJÌP

 149


&#5-72('40'-4'&+6)'.&810)41559#4&'+0+/-747<<'0 -4+') #WEJ KP FGT 5VCFV )TQ­YCTFGKP 8CTCFKP  GTICD UKEJ Y·JTGPF FGU -WTW\\GPMTKGIGU UKGJG -CV0TP    FKG0QVYGPFKIMGKV\WT#WUICDGMWRHGTPGP0QVIGNFGUUGKVGPUFGT-CKUGTNKEJGPFKGUOCNOKV FGT+PKVKCNG,QUGHU+

4425

4424





,QUGH +  -W2QNVWTC  8CTCFKP )TQ­YCTFGKP   I &KG OKV FGT TWFQNHKPKUEJGP   -TQPGÒDGTJÌJVG0COGPUKPKVKCNG-CKUGT,QUGHU+FKG,CJTGU\CJNVGKNGPF8KGT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6HXCT$W\F.WEJ1RTXCT%0#J*GTKPGM/CKNNGV6H%:+8XCT 5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIG-W0QVRT·IWPI QJPG0QOKPCNCPICDG2QNVWTC! 8CTCFKP )TQ­YCTFGKP I &KGOKVFGTTWFQNHKPKUEJGP-TQPGÒDGTJÌJVG0COGPUKPKVKCNG-CKUGT,QUGHU+\YKUEJGP)9++1 $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H$W\F.WEJ1RT%0#J*GTKPGM/CKNNGV6H%:+8 447PTGIGNO·­KIGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP



&+'5%*.#%*6$'+*¤%*56&670&$.+0&*'+/ $.'0*'+/  +O 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGI GTNKVV -WTHÒTUV /CZKOKNKCP ++ 'OCPWGN XQP $C[GTP KO ,CJTG  GKPG   UEJYGTG0KGFGTNCIGFKGFCU5EJKEMUCN$C[GTPUHÒTFKGHQNIGPFGP,CJTGOC­IGDNKEJDGGKPHNWUUGPUQNNVG 0CEJFGO5KGIFGT#NNKKGTVGPÒDGTFCUDC[GTKUEJG*GGTCO,WNKDGK&QPCWYÌTVJ UKGJG-CV0T  VTCHGPFKG)GIPGTCO#WIWUVCDGTOCNUDGK*ÌEJUV·FVWPF$NKPFJGKO GPIN$NGPJGKO CPFGT &QPCWCWHGKPCPFGT&KGDGKFGPXQP2TKP\'WIGPXQP5CXQ[GPWPF,QJP%JWTEJKNN*GT\QIXQP/CTNDQ TQWIJIGHÒJTVGP#TOGGPFGT#NNKKGTVGPXGTHÒIVGP\WUCOOGPÒDGT/CPPWPF)GUEJÒV\G5KG DTCEJVGPFGPOKV5QNFCVGPWPF)GUEJÒV\GP\CJNGPO·­KIÒDGTNGIGPGP$C[GTPGKPGGPVUEJGK FGPFG 0KGFGTNCIG DGK 9·JTGPF FKG #NNKKGTVGP CWH KJTGT 5GKVG  6QVG WPF  8GTYWPFGVG XGT   \GKEJPGVGPYCTGP$C[GTPIGHCNNGPWPFECXGTYWPFGVQFGTÒDGTIGNCWHGP<WFGOOCEJVGP FKG #NNKKGTVGP  )GHCPIGPG FCTWPVGT CWEJ FGT IGIPGTKUEJG /CTUEJCNN 6CNNCTF 0CEJ FKGUGT GPV   UEJGKFGPFGP0KGFGTNCIG\QIGPUKEJFKGHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP5VTGKVMT·HVGWPFFKG4GUVGFGTDC[GTKUEJGP#TOGG CWUICP\5ÒFFGWVUEJNCPF\WTÒEMWPFDGICDGPUKEJCWHFCUNKPMG4JGKPWHGT#WEJ-WTHÒTUV/CZKOKNKCP ++ 'OCPWGN UCJ UKEJ \WT (NWEJV CWU UGKPGO .CPFG IG\YWPIGP WPF DGICD UKEJ PCEJ $TÒUUGN 5GKPG KO   .CPF XGTDNKGDGPG )GOCJNKP DGMCO XQP KJO CO  #WIWUV FKG 4GIGPVUEJCHV ÒDGT $C[GTP ÒDGTVTCIGP   (TGKNKEJNKG­-CKUGT,QUGRJ+FCU.CPFXQP6TWRRGPDGUGV\GPWPFUVGNNVGGUWPVGTMCKUGTNKEJG#F OKPKUVTCVKQP#O#RTKNFGUFCTCWHHQNIGPFGP,CJTGUYWTFG/CZKOKNKCP'OCPWGNXQO-CKUGTIG·EJ VGV5GKPG4GEJVGWPFUGKP6GTTKVQTKWODGMCOGTGTUVKO(TKGFGPXQP4CUVCVVYKGFGT\WIGURTQEJGP

4426



150

.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP/CTVKP$TWPPGTHÒTFGP/GFCKNNGPRTQFW\GPVGP)GQTI (TKGFTKEJ 0ÒTPDGTIGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK *ÌEJUV·FV 2TKP\ 'WIGP WPF ,QJP %JWTEJKNN   *GT\QI XQP /CTNDQTQWIJ GKPCPFGT \WIGYCPFV MPKGPF IÌVVNKEJGP $GKUVCPF GTHNGJGPF WPF PCEJ QDGP   DNKEMGPF YQ JKOONKUEJG 5VTCJNGP GKP 9QNMGPDCPF FWTEJDTGEJGP +O *KPVGTITWPF <GNVG GKPGU (GNFNC   IGTU5EJNCEJVU\GPG+O8QTFGTITWPFMCKUGTNKEJGGPINKUEJGWPFJGUUKUEJG4GKVGTGKHNKGJGPFGTHTCP\ÌUK UEJGT+PHCPVGTKGPCEJUGV\GPF+O*KPVGTITWPFXQTFGO&QPCWNCWHWPFGKPGT$GTIMGVVGFKEJVGU-CORH IGVÒOOGN \YKUEJGP FGT 5VCFV *ÌEJUV·FV WPF FGP XQTIGNCIGTVGP 5EJCP\WPIGP FGT (TCP\QUGP /KV   GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU    X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC 4&WPMNG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




&+'$'(4'+70)5%*9#$'05 0CEJ FGT UKGITGKEJGP 5EJNCEJV DGK *ÌEJUV·FV MQPPVGP FKG #NNKKGTVGP WPIGJKPFGTV KP 5EJYCDGP GKPOCT   UEJKGTGPFCFKGIGUCOVG)GIGPFXQPFGPHGKPFNKEJGP6TWRRGPIGT·WOVYQTFGPYCT

4427



.GQRQNF+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI*CWVUEJ0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG$GHTGKWPI5EJYC DGPU $TWUVDKNF XQP -CKUGT .GQRQNF + T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF   FGT -GVVG FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8KGU&GT -CKUGT VJTQPGPF T DGMT·P\V XQP GKPGO JKPVGT KJO   UVGJGPFGP'PIGNFGTXQTKJOUVGJGPFGPYGKDNKEJGP8GTMÌTRGTWPI5EJYCDGPUGKP<GRVGTTGKEJGPFFKG OKV KJTGT .KPMGP FGP 5EJKNF FGU 5EJY·DKUEJGP 4GKEJUMTGKUGU J·NV 'TJCDGPG 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO   I5NI'TNCPIGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''+00#*/'810.+..' 4;55'.  +O ,CJTG  MQP\GPVTKGTVGP UKEJ FKG 1RGTCVKQPGP IGIGP .QWKU :+8 KP (NCPFGTP WPF 0QTFHTCPMTGKEJ   'KPG5VTGKVOCEJVFGT#NNKKGTVGPDTCEJVGCO,WNKFGU,CJTGUDGK1WFGPCCTFGCPFGT5EJGNFGFGTHTCP\Ì UKUEJGP#TOGGGKPGJGTDG0KGFGTNCIGDGKFKGFGP8GTDÒPFGVGPFGP/CTUEJCWHFCUUVCTMDGHGUVKIVG.KNNG GTÌHHPGVG 'KP XQP 2TKP\ 'WIGP XQP 5CXQ[GP IGHÒJTVGU *GGT DGICPP CO  #WIWUV  FKG 5VCFV   GKP\WUEJNKG­GPFKGGTUVUGKVWPVGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGT*GTTUEJCHVUVCPFWPFUGKVFGO\WGKPGTFGTIGYCN VKIUVGP(GUVWPIGPCPFGT0QTFITGP\GFGU-ÌPKITGKEJUCWUIGDCWVYQTFGPYCT&KG$GUEJKG­WPIFGT5VCFV YWTFG CO  #WIWUV GTÌHHPGV 0CEJ GKPGT XGTNWUVTGKEJGP $GNCIGTWPI ÒDGTICD FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJG -QO   OCPFCPVWPF/CTUEJCNNFG$QWHHNGTU\YCTCO1MVQDGTFKG5VCFVFQEJ\QIGTUKEJUQFCPPWOIGJGPF OKV UGKPGP  5QNFCVGP KP FKG <KVCFGNNG \WTÒEM FKG GT PQEJ DKU \WT GPFIÒNVKIGP -CRKVWNCVKQP CO    &G\GODGT\·JXGTVGKFKIVG

4428



,QUGH+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP.KNNG&KGYGKDNKEJG8GT MÌTRGTWPI (TCPMTGKEJU UKV\GPF JCNDN KP 6TCWGTRQUG FGP -QRH OKV FGT .KPMGP UVÒV\GPF 5KG YGKUV OKV   FGT4GEJVGPCWHGKPGCO$QFGPNKGIGPFG.KNKGFKGCWUFGOMÌPKINKEJHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP.KNKGPUEJKNFJGTCWU IGHCNNGPKUVFGTNPGDGPKJTCPFGOXGTFQTTVGP#UVGKPGU$CWOUVWORHGUDGHGUVKIVKUV#PUKEJVFGT5VCFV .KNNGXQP5ÒFGPKO8QTFGTITWPF9KPFOÒJNGP/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI'KOGT #PO5NI'TNCPIGT FQTVCNU#TDGKVXQP.C\CTWU)QVVNKGD.CWHHGT0ÒTPDGTI *CYMKPU6H %::+: KO$GINGKVVGZV\WT#DDRTQDCDN[VJGYQTMQH/CTVKP$TWPPGT 5NI*QTUM[5NI ,WNKWU-2- FQTVCNU#TDGKVXQP/CTVKP$TWPPGT0ÒTPDGTI X.QQP+855NI/QP VGPWQXQ  2QRGNMC  FQTV CNU #TDGKV XQP %CURCT 6JGQRJKN .CWHHGT 0ÒTPDGTI  /KV GTJCDGPGT   4CPFUEJTKHV *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCOKP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 151


&+''+00#*/'81061740#+70&/105 #WEJKO,CJTGXGTNKGHFKG-CORCIPGFGT#NNKGTVGPKP0QTFHTCPMTGKEJUGJTGTHQNITGKEJ<WP·EJUVDG NCIGTVGPUKG6QWTPCK&KG5VCFVMCRKVWNKGTVGCO,WNKWPFCO5GRVGODGTICDCWEJFKG$GUCV\WPIFGT <KVCFGNNGKJTGP-CORHXGTNQTGP#PUEJNKG­GPFYCPFVGPUKEJ2TKP\'WIGPWPFFGT*GT\QIXQP/CTNDQTQWIJ FGTUVCTMGP(GUVWPI/QPU\WFKGUKGLGFQEJGTUVGTTGKEJVGPPCEJFGOUKGDGK/CNRNCSWGVWPVGTITQ­GP 8GTNWUVGP GKPG HTCP\ÌUKUEJG 5VTGKVOCEJV IGUEJNCIGP JCVVGP &KG $GNCIGTWPI XQP /QPU GPFGVG OKV FGT   -CRKVWNCVKQPFGT5VCFVCO1MVQDGT

4429



,QUGH+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG 'TQDGTWPIXQP6QWTPCKWPF/QPU$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV.QTDGGT MTCP\2QUCWPGDNCUGPFG(COCHNKGIGPFNGKP&GPMOCNDGMT·P\GPFCPFGUUGP(TQPVGKP/GFCKNNQPOKVFGT 5VCFVCPUKEJV XQP 6QWTPCK 8QTP /CTU UKV\GPF OKV GKPGO 5EJYGTV WPF GKPGT -CTVWUEJG FCTKP 5EJNCEJV   U\GPG PGDGP KJO *GTEWNGU OKV -GWNG WPF GKPGT -CTVWUEJG FCTKP 5VCFVCPUKEJV XQP /QPU  OO   I5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT*CYMKPU6H%:::+5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



4430



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI (TKGFTKEJ 0ÒTPDGTIGT WPF /CTVKP $TWPPGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'TQDG   TWPI XQP 6QWTPCK &KG YGKDNKEJG 8GTMÌTRGTWPI (TCPMTGKEJU KP )GDGVUJCNVWPI UKV\GPF FGP $NKEM CWH   GKPGP DTGPPGPFGP 6WTO TKEJVGPF FGT WPVGT FGT 9WEJV XQP $NKV\GP DKTUV#PUKEJV FGT WPVGT $GUEJWUU   UVGJGPFGP 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF <GNVG WPF 5VGNNWPIGP FGT $GNCIGTGT 1DGP \YGK 9CRRGPUEJKNFG /KV   GTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI*CYMKPU6H%:::5NI,WNKWUXa.QQP+85 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC FQTVKP<KPP  449KP\KIG2TQDKGTURWTGPCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+''+00#*/'810&17#+

4431



152

,QUGH +  5CVKTKUEJG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP &QWCK <YGK   9ÒTHGNURKGNGTCWHGKPGOCO$QFGPCWUIGDTGKVGVGP/CPVGNUKV\GPF&GTNKPMG GKP8GTVTGVGTFGT#NNKKGT VGP GORH·PIVXQPUGKPGO)GIGPÒDGT GKP(TCP\QUG GKPOÒP\CTVKIGU/GFCKNNQPYQTCWH&18#;<W UGKPGP (Ò­GP YGKVGTG /GFCKNNQPU YQTCWH /1  05 47  5'. TGR &14  0+% $GK FGO TGEJVGP   5RKGNGT GKPGO8GTVTGVGT(TCPMTGKEJU \YGK/GFCKNNQPGYQTCWH#44#5TGUR2#4+5&KG'TFMW IGNFKG5QPPG FCU'ODNGOFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.QWKU:+8 HCUVI·P\NKEJXGTFGEMGPFOO I%QNN(KGYGIGT*CYMKPU6H%:::++5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+8 55NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC FQTVKP$TQP\GWPF<KPP   4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ




4432

4433

4434

&+''+00#*/'810&17#+568'0#06$'6*70'70&#+4' 

,QUGH +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIU   DWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP&QWC[5V8GPCPV$GVJWPGWPF#KTG&KGGKPCPFGTIGIGP ÒDGT IGUVGNNVGP $TWUVDKNFGT XQP 2TKP\ 'WIGP WPF ,QJP %JWTEJKNN *GT\QI XQP /CTNDQTQWIJ DGKFG KP   *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF 1TFGPUMGVVG8KGT OKV /CWGTMTQPGP ÒDGTJÌJVG -CTVWUEJGP OKV   &CTUVGNNWPIGP FGT HÒPH GTQDGTVGP 2N·V\G QDGP GKPG OKV GKPGT 2CNKUCFGPMTQPG ÒDGTJÌJVG -CTVWUEJG OKV   &CTUVGNNWPIGKPGT5EJNCEJV/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI'KOGT5NI'TNCPIGT *CYMKPU6H%:::+++ FQTVKO$GINGKVVGZVCNU#TDGKVXQP)GQTI*CWVUEJ0ÒTPDGTI 5NI*QTUM[ XIN  FQTV CNU #TDGKV XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ  5NI ,WNKWU  FQTV CNU #TDGKV XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ   /ÒNNGT X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC FQTVCNU#TDGKVXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT  5GJTUEJÌP



&GT5EJÌRHGTFGT2T·IGUVGORGNKUVW'PKEJVUKEJGT\WDGUVKOOGP&KG/GFCKNNGUVGJVKPUVKNKUVKUEJGT*KPUKEJVGJGT FGP/ÒNNGT UEJGPP·JGTCNUFGP*CWVUEJ GP#TDGKVGP&KGOKVFGT0COGPUKPKVKCNG*UKIPKGTVG8QTFGTUGKVGGKPGTXQP *CWVUEJ IGUEJPKVVGPGP /GFCKNNG  CWH FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK /CNRNCSWGV 2QRGNMC   GPVURTKEJV KO $KNF WPF 5EJTKHV   \YCT FGO JKGT XQTNKGIGPFGP 5VÒEMFQEJUVGJVUKGFKGUGTKPKJTGTUVKNKUVKUEJGP7OUGV\WPIFGWVNKEJPCEJ&KGDGKFGP HÒPHUVTCJNKIGP 5VGTPTQUGVVGP KPPGTJCND FGT 7OUEJTKHV UKPF YQJN MCWO CNU 5KIPCVWT XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT   UQPFGTPXKGNOGJTCNUFGMQTCVKXG+PVGTRWPMVKQP\WXGTUVGJGP5QYGKV/ÒNNGTUGKPG#TDGKVGPPKEJVOKVUGKPGP+PKVKCNGP UKIPKGTVGXGTYGPFGVGGTGKPGPUGEJUUVTCJNKIGP5VGTP





<KPPOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI CWH   FKG'KPPCJOGXQP&QWC[5V8GPCPV$GVJWPGWPF#KTG&KGGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTIGUVGNNVGP$TWUVDKNFGT XQP 2TKP\ 'WIGP WPF ,QJP %JWTEJKNN *GT\QI XQP /CTNDQTQWIJ DGKFG KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN WPF 1TFGPUMGVVG8KGT OKV /CWGTMTQPGP ÒDGTJÌJVG -CTVWUEJGP OKV &CTUVGNNWPIGP FGT HÒPH   GTQDGTVGP 2N·V\G QDGP GKPG OKV GKPGT 2CNKUCFGPMTQPG ÒDGTJÌJVG -CTVWUEJG OKV &CTUVGNNWPI GKPGT   5EJNCEJV /KV FGO QTKIKPCNGP -WRHGTUVKHV WPF GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO 'KOGT    5NI 'TNCPIGT  *CYMKPU 6H %:::+++  FQTV KO $GINGKVVGZV CNU #TDGKV XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ 0ÒTP   DGTI 5NI*QTUM[XIN FQTVKP5KNDGTCNU#TDGKVXQP)GQTI*CWVUEJ 5NI,WNKWU FQTVCNU #TDGKVXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQXIN2QRGNMC

FQTVKP5KNDGTCNU#TDGKVXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ



5CVKTKUEJG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI (TKGFTKEJ 0ÒTPDGTIGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP   $GVJWPG 5V 8GPCPV WPF #KTG KO JGWVKIGP 0QTFHTCPMTGKEJ WPF FKXGTUGT HNCPFTKUEJGT 5V·FVG $NKEM CWH   #KTG KO 8QTFGTITWPF FCU DTKVKUEJG 'KPJQTP FGT #FNGT FGU *GKNKIGP 4ÌOKUEJGP 4GKEJGU WPF FGT PKG   FGTN·PFKUEJG .ÌYG GKPGP JÌN\GTPGP <CWP PKGFGTTGK­GPF 1DGP GKPG CWH GKP 0QVGPDNCVV PQVKGTVG   #TKG#WHGKPGO6KUEJFGTOKVGKPGOOKVFGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP.KNKGPIGUEJOÒEMVGP6WEJXGTJÒNNVKUVGKP <GRVGT WPF GKP CWHIGUEJNCIGPGU 0QVGPDWEJ UVGJGPF /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I   5NI 'TNCPIGT  FKGUGU 'ZGORNCT  %QNN (KGYGIGT  XIN  FQTV KP <KPP  *CYMKPU 6H   %:::+++5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMCXIN

FQTVKP<KPP  44(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 153


&+'-#+5'4.+%*'#&/+0+564#6+10+0$#;'40 +P FGT 5EJNCEJV DGK *ÌEJUV·FV  YWTFG FCU DC[GTKUEJHTCP\ÌUKUEJG *GGT FWTEJ 2TKP\ 'WIGP XQP   5CXQ[GPWPFFGP*GT\QIXQP/CTNDQTQWIJXQNNUV·PFKIXGTPKEJVGV/CZKOKNKCP'OCPWGNOWUUVG$C[GTP XGTNCUUGPWPFXGTNQTUGKPG.CPFG/CPXGTJ·PIVGFKG4GKEJUCEJVÒDGTKJP'TUVFWTEJFGP(TKGFGPXQP $CFGPYWTFGPFKG4GKEJUCEJVWPFFKGFCOKVXGTDWPFGPGP5CPMVKQPGPCWHIGJQDGP&KGKPFGT<YK UEJGP\GKVGPVUVCPFGPGP/ÒP\GPYKGFKGDGKFGPHQNIGPFGP5VÒEMGUKPFXQPFGTMCKUGTNKEJGP#FOKPKUVTC VKQPKP$C[GTPIGRT·IVYQTFGP

4436

4435



,QUGH +  )TQUEJGP  /ÒPEJGP  I $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGNWPF.QTDGGTMTCP\)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGT*CJP*GTKPGM 48QT\ÒINKEJ





-CTN 8+  )TQUEJGP  /ÒPEJGP  I $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGNWPF.QTDGGTMTCP\)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGT*CJP*GTKPGM 45GJTUEJÌP



&+''+00#*/'810$#4%'.10#

4437



-CTN8+CNU-ÌPKI-CTN+++XQP5RCPKGP5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFV$CTEGNQPC$TWUVDKNFTKP*CT PKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&GT *GTTUEJGT UVGJGPF T DGMT·P\V XQP GKPGT HNKGIGPFGP 8KEVQTKC DG   MQOOVXQPFGTXQTKJONMPKGPFGP2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGT5VCFVGKPG/CWGTMTQPGFCTIGTGKEJV1DGPTGKPG IGHNÒIGNVGYGKDNKEJG)GUVCNVUEJYGDGPFXXGKP(ÒNNJQTPJCNVGPF+O*KPVGTITWPFFGT*CHGPWPFFKG 5VCFV/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[ 5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'#7(*'$70)&'4$'.#)'470)810$#4%'.10#

4438



154

-CTN8+CNU-ÌPKI-CTN+++XQP5RCPKGP5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG#WHJGDWPIFGT$GNCIGTWPI$CTEGNQPCU$TWUVDKNFT KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF FGT -GVVG FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU$NKEM CWH FGP   *CHGPWPFFKG5VCFVKO8QTFGTITWPFTGKPGCWUKJTGT#TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPIHNKGJGPFG)TWRRGFGT$GNCIGTGT QDGP N FKG XQO /QPF PCJG\W XQNNMQOOGP XGTHKPUVGTVG 5QPPG 'KP KP FGP *CHGP GKPHCJTGPFGU 5EJKHH   VT·IV CWH UGKPGO 5GIGN FCU GPINKUEJG 9CRRGPDKNF +O #DUEJPKVV FTGK <GKNGP 6GZV /KV GTJCDGPGT   4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC




4439

4440



4441

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP /CCTVGP 5OGNV\KPI #OUVGTFCO CWH FKG $GHTGKWPI XQP $CTEGNQPC   $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\$GK GKPGO )TCPCVCRHGNDCWO   ,CUQP CWH FGO DG\YWPIGPGP &TCEJGP UVGJGPF X X OKV 5EJYGTV WPF FGO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU <W UGKPGP   (Ò­GP -TÌVGP GKPG \GTDTQEJGPG -GWNG GKP (ÒNNJQTP WPF GKPG DTGPPGPFG (CEMGN T GKP 5EJCTHTKEJVGT   WPFGKP-CTFKPCNHNKGJGPFT+O*KPVGTITWPFTFKG5VCFVWPF(GUVWPI$CTEGNQPCUQYKGFCUXQP5EJKHHGP DGHCJTGPG /KVVGNOGGT  OO  I *CYMKPU 6H %::+++  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU    X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+''4(1.)'&'4#..++'46'0+052#0+'070&+0$4#$#06 



-CTN 8+  CNU -ÌPKI -CTN +++ XQP 5RCPKGP  -NKRRGPHÌTOKIG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG    XQP )GQTI (TKGFTKEJ 0ÒTPDGTIGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'THQNIG FGT #NNKKGTVGP KP 5RCPKGP WPF $TC   DCPV KO /CK FGU ,CJTGU &KG OKV OGPUEJNKEJGP )GUKEJVU\ÒIGP CWUIGUVCVVGVG WPF IGMTÌPVG 5QPPG KP   5VTCJNGP\WFGP5GKVGPWPFWPVGPLGGKPG-TQPG&CTUVGNNWPIFGT5QPPGPHKPUVGTPKUXQO/CK7PVGP YGNMGPFGU.KNKGPIGY·EJUOKVFTGK$NÒVGP&KGCUVTQPQOKUEJG&CTUVGNNWPIKUVWOIGDGPXQPFGPOGJT\GK NKIGP$GPGPPWPIGPFGTOKNKV·TKUEJGP'THQNIG'PVUCV\XQP$CTEGNQPC$GUGV\WPIXQP/CFTKF$GUGV\WPI XQP $TCDCPV 5EJNCEJV DGK 6KTNGOQPV  Z  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  *CYMKPU 6H   %::+++5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU-2-X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCÒDNKEJGT5VGORGNHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



-NKRRGPHÌTOKIG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI(TKGFTKEJ0ÒTPDGTIGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG0KGFGTYGTHWPI 2JKNKRRUXQP#PLQWKP5RCPKGPWPFKPFGP5RCPKUEJGP0KGFGTNCPFGP#EJV<GKNGP5EJTKHV\YKUEJGPFGT UKGDVGPWPFCEJVGP<GKNG\YGKIGDWPFGPG2CNO\YGKIGWPVGPXKGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVKPFC\WMQRHUVGJGPFGT 1TKGPVKGTWPI8KGT 2GTUQPGP CO 7HGT GKPGU (NWUUNCWHU UVGJGPF FGP -CORH \YGKGT ÒDGTITQ­GT -TKGIGT   CO*KOOGNDGQDCEJVGPFKO#DUEJPKVVFCU&CVWOFGU-TKGIUDGIKPPU\YKUEJGP-CTN8XQP*CDUDWTI WPF (TCP\ + XQP (TCPMTGKEJ  (GDTWCT    Z  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT    5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU-2-X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ  #VVTCMVKXGFWPMNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 155


4442



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG6TKWORJGFGU,CJTGU$GHTGKWPI$CTEGNQPCU'KP\WIKP/CFTKF WPF FKG 5EJNCEJV XQP 4COKNNKGU 2QTVT·VOGFCKNNQP FGU -CKUGTU CWH IGMTGW\V ITWRRKGTVGP (CJPGPNCP\GP   +PPGTJCND FGT FWTEJ FKG 5EJ·HVG IGDKNFGVGP 9KPMGN FTGK OKV /CWGTMTQPGP ÒDGTJÌJVG WPF WOMT·P\VG   $KNFOGFCKNNQPU &CU QDGTG \GKIV GKPG #PUKEJV FGT WPVGT $GUEJWUU NKGIGPFGP 5VCFV $CTEGNQPC XQP FGT   5GGUGKVG FCU NKPMG GKPG #PUKEJV XQP /CFTKF WPF FCU TGEJVG FCU -CORHIGVÒOOGN FGT 5EJNCEJV XQP   4COKNNKGU0ÌTFNKEJGT #DUEJPKVV FGT *GOKURJ·TG OKV #WHUEJTKHV '7412“ QDGP 9QNMGPDCPF FKG   5QPPGDGKPCJGXGTFGEMGPFOOI*CYMKPU6H%::+85NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU X.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ 44(GNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGNGKEJVDGTKGDGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG XQP 9QNMGP XGTFGEMVG 5QPPG YKTF XQO 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT CNU 'ODNGO HÒT FKG UEJYKPFGPFG /CEJV FGU   5QPPGPMÌPKIU.QWKU:+8XGTYGPFGV

&+'-#+5'4-4¤070)-#4.58++0(4#0-(74670&&'4'065#6< 810%#4&10#

4443



-CTN8+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG-CKUGTMTÌPWPIKP(TCPMHWTVCO/CKPWPF FGP'PVUCV\XQP%CTFQPCCOUGNDGP6CIG &G\GODGT +O+PPGPTCWOFGU(TCPMHWTVGT&QOGU-CKUGT -CTN 8+ N MPKGPF KP -TÌPWPIUQTPCV XQT #NVCT JKPVGP HÒPH -WTHÒTUVGP UVGJGPF-CKUGTNKEJG 4GKVGT KO   -CORH JKPVGP N HNKGJGPFG HTCP\ÌUKUEJG +PHCPVGTKUVGP CO *QTK\QPV #PUKEJV FGT DGHGUVKIVGP 5VCFV %CT   FQPC /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I (ÌTUEJPGT  5NI *QTUM[  , W (    5NI,WNKWUXIN FQTVKP<KPP X.QQP+85NI/QPVGPWQXQ (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''41$'470)81037'501;

4444



156

-CTN 8+  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  OKV FGT ,CJTGU\CJN CNU %JTQPQITCOO CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG    XQP)GQTI9KNJGNO8GUVPGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP3WGUPQ[$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJOKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\$NKEM CWH FKG DGHGUVKIVG 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF GKPG CWH   JCNDGT 5VCOOJÌJG IGDTQEJGPG 'KEJG  OO  I $GTPJGKOGT  5NI 'TNCPIGT    5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC FQTVKP<KPP   4-N5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGO4CPFUVCDXQT\ÒINKEJ




&'4(4+'&'810764'%*6

4445



-CTN 8+  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  FKG ,CJTGU\CJN CNU %JTQPQITCOO  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ   CWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP7VTGEJV9'05+%*).'+%*#..'016*#0*'$6Û%JTKUVWUUVGJGPFXX CWH 9QNMG KP FGT 4GEJVGP GKP -TGW\DCPPGT FKG .KPMG \WO 5GIGP GTJQDGP +O #DUEJPKVV +%* 9'+5   &#5 /'+0  '4.¤5'4 .'$6  *+1$ Û  Û 8 Û  Û+*4 9'4&'6 *¤4'0 -4+')' 80&   )'5%*4';810-4+')'0Û/#66*Û8ÛÛÛ$NKEMCWHGKPGWPVGT#TVKNNGTKGDGUEJWUUUVG JGPFG WPF DTGPPGPFG 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF -CPQPGPDCVVGTKG WPF GKP XQP GKPGO TGKVGPFGP 1HHK\KGT   DGHGJNKIVGU+PHCPVGTKGDCVCKNNQPFGT#PITGKHGTKPIGQTFPGVGT#WHUVGNNWPI+O#DUEJPKVV&#9+4&5+%* #.  .'4'456 &+' 016*  #0*'$'0 Û.  OO  I %CV (KGYGIGT  5NI (GKNN    5NI)QRRGN5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2CZKP0WOOKU  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

4446



4447

Plan zur Belagerung und Schlacht von Belgrad 1717.

&+'5%*.#%*6$'+2'6'49#4&'+0 

-CTN8+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI9KNJGNO8GUVPGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFGP5KGICPFGT 5CXG DGK 2GVGTYCTFGKP $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&CTUVGNNWPI FGT   5VCFV 4GKVGT WPF (W­XQNM KO 0CJMCORH \CJNTGKEJG 6ÒTMGP N ÒDGT FKG &QPCW HNKGJGPF FKG KO   *KPVGTITWPFGPVNCPIGKPGT$GTIMGVVGXGTN·WHVOOI$GTPJGKOGT5NI'TNCPIGT 5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC  -N5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGO4CPFUVCDXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''+00#*/'810$'.)4#& 

-CTN8+5KNDGTOGFCKNNG ,CJTGU\CJNCNU%JTQPQITCOO XQP)GQTI9KNJGNO8GUVPGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP $GNITCF $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF OKV   .QTDGGTMTCP\#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV OKV \CJNTGKEJGP /KPCTGVVGP QDGP HNKGIGPFGT 'PIGN T OKV (NCOOGP   UEJYGTVUKEJIGIGPGKPGVÒTMKUEJG5VTGKVOCEJVYGPFGPFFKGUKEJCW­GTJCNDFGT5VCFVCWHGKPGO.CPF UVÒEM \YKUEJGP &QPCW WPF 5CXG DGHKPFGV  OO  I $GTPJGKOGT  5NI 'TNCPIGT   

FKGUGU'ZGORNCT 5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC  (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 157


4448



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP /CTVKP $TWPPGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP $GNITCF $TWUVDKNF T KP   *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGNWPFOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\$NKEMXQPFGT.CPFUGKVGCWHFCUWOUEJCP\VG .CIGT FGT -CKUGTNKEJGP WPF CWH FKG 5VCFV FKG XQO LGPUGKVKIGP &QPCWWHGT WPVGT #TVKNNGTKGDGUEJWUU IG   PQOOGPYKTF+O8QTFGTITWPF-CORHU\GPGOKV4GKVGTPWPF(W­XQNMDGKVÒTMKUEJGP<GNVGPOO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  2QRGNMC XIN   

FQTVKP<KPP  5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



4449

1,5:1



1,5:1

)QNFGPGT,GVQP\W&WMCVGPXQP2JKNKRRG4QGVVKGTU#PVYGTRGPCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP$GNITCF %#41.85 Ù5':68541/Ù+/2Ù'66'46+854':*+52Ù$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPVGP 4%1056#06+#'6(146+67&+0''KPITQ­GTWPF\YGKMNGKPGTG.ÌYGPTIGIGPGKPGPXQP\YGK 5EJNCPIGP CUUKUVKGTVGP &TCEJGP CPUVÒTOGPF 1DGP GKP FGT 5QPPG GPVIGIGP HNKGIGPFGT #FNGT GKPGP   *CNDOQPFKPFGP(·PIGPJCNVGPF+O#DUEJPKVV ÛOOI&WIPKQNNGXCT5NI *QTUM[XIN FQTVKP$TQP\G 5NI,WNKWUXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI/QPVGPWQXQXIN  FQTV KP 5KNDGT GKP YQJN OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP *CPF IGMGPP\GKEJPGVGU 'ZGORNCT CWU FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG   #PVYGTRGPXIN&WIPKQNNG 2QRGNMCCXCT  )1.&W­GTUVUGNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\ 

&+'('+0&5'.+)-'+6'0(4#0-4'+%*5)')'0&'0-#+5'49*4'0& &'56ª4-'0-4+')5

4450



158

-CTN8+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWH FKG (GKPFUGNKIMGKVGP (TCPMTGKEJU IGIGP FGP -CKUGT Y·JTGPF FGU 6ÒTMGPMTKGIU 7PVGT JKOONKUEJGP   5VTCJNGP5CWNNXQO2HGTFUVÒT\GPF*KPVGTFGO4QUUGKPNUVGJGPFGT-TKGIGTCO$QFGPXKGTYGKVGTG 5ÌNFPGT NKGIGPF6GZV KP UKGDGP <GKNGP QDGP WPF WPVGP LG GKP 4CPMGPQTPCOGPV  OO  I   5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




&+''+00#*/'810/'55+0#

4451



-CTN8+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI9KNJGNO8GUVPGTWPF2GVGT2CWN9GTPGT0ÒTP DGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP /GUUKPC $TWUVDKNF XQP -CKUGT -CTN 8+ T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN WPF OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ªDGT FGT VQRQITCRJKUEJGP &CTUVGNNWPI XQP 5VCFV WPF *CHGP /GUUKPC   8KEVQTKC HNKGIGPF N GKPGP .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF GKPGP 5EJKNF OKV FGP 9CRRGPDKNFGTP XQP ¤UVGTTGKEJ WPF   -CUVKNKGP JCNVGPF  OO  I $GTPJGKOGT  5NI *QTUM[  XIN  FQTV KP <KPP    5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ6TCKPC+5  44(GKPG2CVKPCOKP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+''+00#*/'8105+<+.+'0

4452



-CTN 8+  $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP # 6TCXCPK KO #WHVTCI FGT 5VCFV 2CNGTOQ CWH FKG   'KPPCJOG5K\KNKGPU$ÒUVGTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\&TGKOCUVGTNCWHGKPG*CHGPGKPHCJTV\WUVGWGTPFCPIG VTKGDGPXQO9KPFFGTCWUGKPGOQDGPNCWUGKPGT9QNMGJGTXQTUEJCWGPFGP2WVVQMQRHIGDNCUGPYKTF  OO  I 5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  XIN  FQTV KP 5KNDGT  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  XIN    FQTVKP5KNDGT  4-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&'45+')#0&'4/15'.

4453



-CTN 8+  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2GVGT 2CWN 9GTPGT WPF 2CWN )QVVNKGD 0ÒTPDGTIGT   0ÒTPDGTICWHFGP5KGI5GEMGPFQTHUCPFGT/QUGNWPFFGP4ÒEM\WIFGT(TCP\QUGP$ÒUVGFGU-CKUGTUT OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\7PVGT FGT 4GKEJUHCJPG T XQTCPUVÒTOGPFG 4GKVGT WPF (W­UQNFCVGP HNKGJGPFGP (TCP   \QUGP PCEJUGV\GPF 1DGP #FNGT HNKGIGPF T FGP (NÒEJVGPFGP $NKV\G JKPVGTJGT UEJNGWFGTPF  OO    I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  5NI *QTUM[  XIN  FQTV KP <KPP  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QP   VGPWQXQ 4#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 159


&+'$'.#)'470)70&'+00#*/'81024#)+/¤56'44'+%*+5%*'0 '4$(1.)'-4+') 2TCI YWTFG CO  0QXGODGT  XQP GKPGT 5VTGKVOCEJV FGT OKV FGO 9KVVGNUDCEJGT -CKUGT   -CTN8++XGTDÒPFGVGP(TCP\QUGPGKPIGPQOOGP5EJQPDCNFTÒEMVGGKPUVCTMGUÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGU*GGTCP WOFKG5VCFVYKGFGT\WTÒEM\WGTQDGTP'TUVKO,CPWCTMCRKVWNKGTVGFKGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG$GUCV\WPI

4454



4455

7PVGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT $GUCV\WPI   4GKEJUVCNGT  IGRT·IV   2TCI 5QIG   PCPPVGT0QVIWNFGPI$TWUVDKNF-CKUGT-CTNU8+TKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFOKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&GT FQRRGNMÌRHKIG 4GKEJUCFNGT OKV IGMTÌPVGO XKGTHGNFKIGP $TWUVUEJKNF FGT CWHIGNGIVG   /KVVGNUEJKNF\GKIVFGPDÌJOKUEJGP.ÌYGP&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC*GTKPGM  445GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



)GO·­ $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 5  H UQNN FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJG 5VCFVMQOOCPFCPV FKG 2T·IWPI XQP *CNDVCNGTP OKV CNVGP   5VGORGNP XQP  CPIGQTFPGV JCDGP 5KGJG JKGT\W CWEJ / \ # 5  #PO &KG XQP &KGVKMGT QJPG 3WGNNGP   CPICDG PQVKGTVG 2T·IWPI CWU NGKEJVGO 5KNDGT MCPP CPIGUKEJVU FGT OGVTKUEJGP&CVGPPKEJVDGUV·VKIVYGTFGPFCFKG 5VÒEMG DGK MQPXGPVKQPGNNGT )GYKEJVUGTOKVVNWPI FCU XQNNG )GYKEJV GKPGU *CNDVCNGTU CWHYGKUGP 'JGT Y·TG CNUQ GKPG   #WURT·IWPIKPUEJNGEJVGTGO5KNDGTFGPMDCT



/CTKC 6JGTGUKC  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI 9KNJGNO -KVVGN $TGUNCW CWH FKG 'KP   PCJOGXQP2TCI$TWUVDKNFTKPFGMQNNGVKGTVGO-NGKFOKV&KCFGOWPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&KGYGKDNK EJG8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGT5VCFVUVGJGPFXXGKPGP¤N\YGKIKPFGTGTJQDGPGP4GEJVGPOKVFGT.KPMGPFGP 5VCFVUEJKNFJCNVGPF$GKKJTGP(Ò­GPGKPGCO$QFGPNKGIGPFG(GUUGN+O*KPVGTITWPF#PUKEJVFGT5VCFV OOI&QPGD(W55NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

4456



4457

4458

&+'$'.#)'470)810')'4&74%*$#;'4+5%*(4#0<¤5+5%*' 64722'0 



/CTKC6JGTGUKC<KPP-TGW\GT'IGT %JGD I)GVGKNVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFWPVGP FKG 9GTVCPICDG1TVUCPICDG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H #  *GTKPGM  /CKNNGV   6H:::8+++ 45GJTUEJÌP



<KPP-TGW\GT  'IGT %JGD   I )GVGKNVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF WPVGP FKG 9GTVCPICDG1TVUCPICDG   WPF,CJTGU\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H#*GTKPGM/CKNNGV6H:::8+++  49KP\2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



&+'5%*.#%*6$'+(1-5#0 

160

,QUGH++<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP%JTKUVKCPQFGT,QJCPP/CVVJKCU4GKEJ(ÒTVJCWH FGPDGK(QMUCPGTTWPIGPGP5KGIÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGTWPFTWUUKUEJGT5VTGKVMT·HVGÒDGTFKG6ÒTMGPCO,WNK $TWUVDKNF FGU (GNFJGTTP (TKGFTKEJ ,QUKCU XQP 5CEJUGP%QDWTI5CCNHGNF N KP 7PKHQTOTQEM OKV 1TFGPU   DCPFWPF1TFGPUMTGW\8QPTÒEMY·TVKIGT#TVKNNGTKGWPVGTUVÒV\VGÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJTWUUKUEJG-CXCNNGTKGWPF +PHCPVGTKGCWHVÒTMKUEJG4GKVGTGKVTGHHGPFCO*QTK\QPVT#PUKEJVFGUDGHGUVKIVGP(QMUCP JGWVG4WO· PKGP +O#DUEJPKVVXKGT<GKNGP6GZV/KVFGOQTKIKPCNGP-WRHGTUVKHVOO5NI,WNKWU5NI /GTUGD5NI/QPVGPWQXQ5NI9KNO 8QT\ÒINKEJ




&+''+00#*/'810$'.)4#&

4459



,QUGH++5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP+IPCV\&QPPGT9KGPCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP $GNITCFCO1MVQDGT$TWUVDKNFFGUMCKUGTNKEJGP)GPGTCNUWPF(GNFOCTUEJCNNU)KFGQP'TPUV(TGKJGTT XQP.CWFQPTKP*CTPKUEJOKV1TFGPUDCPF$NKEMCWHFKGWPVGT#TVKNNGTKGDGUEJWUUUVGJGPFG5VCFVWPF (GUVWPIOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  <YGK5KNDGTRWP\KGT\WPIGPCWHFGT-CPVGFGU4CPFGUUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



4460



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP%JTKUVKCPQFGT,QJCPP/CVVJKCU4GKEJ(ÒTVJCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP $GNITCFCO1MVQDGT$TWUVDKNFFGUMCKUGTNKEJGP)GPGTCNUWPF(GNFOCTUEJCNNU)KFGQP'TPUV(TGKJGTT XQP .CWFQP N KP 7PKHQTOTQEM OKV 1TFGPUDCPF WPF $TWUVMTGW\-TKGIGT KP XQNNGT 4ÒUVWPI OKV IG   \QIGPGO 5EJYGTV CWH GKPGO P N URTKPIGPFGP *GPIUV KO *KPVGTITWPF FKG &QPCW WPF CWH FGO   LGPUGKVKIGP 7HGT FKG DGHGUVKIVG 5VCFV OKV FGP T XQTIGNCIGTVGP 5EJCP\WPIGP WPF FGO (GNFNCIGT FGT   $GNCIGTGTOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ5NI9KNO XIN FQTVKP<KPP  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGMNGKPGT5EJÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



4461



8GTIQNFGVG<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP%JTKUVKCPQFGT,QJCPP/CVVJKCU4GKEJ(ÒTVJCWHFKG'TQDG TWPIXQP$GNITCFCO1MVQDGT$TWUVDKNFFGUMCKUGTNKEJGP)GPGTCNUWPF(GNFOCTUEJCNNU)KFGQP'TPUV (TGKJGTT XQP .CWFQP N KP 7PKHQTOTQEM OKV 1TFGPUDCPF WPF $TWUVMTGW\-TKGIGT KP XQNNGT 4ÒUVWPI   OKVIG\QIGPGO5EJYGTVCWHGKPGOPNURTKPIGPFGP*GPIUVKO*KPVGTITWPFFKG&QPCWWPFCWHFGO LGPUGKVKIGP 7HGT FKG DGHGUVKIVG 5VCFV OKV FGP T XQTIGNCIGTVGP 5EJCP\WPIGP WPF FGO (GNFNCIGT FGT   $GNCIGTGTOO5NI*QTUM[XIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI,WNKWU\W5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 5NI9KNO 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 161


5#.<$74) &+'$'6'+.+)70)&'5'4<$+5%*1(58105#.<$74)#/ 6ª4-'0-4+') #NUFKG6ÒTMGPKP-TQCVKGPGKPHKGNGPTÒUVGVG'T\DKUEJQH9QNH&KGVTKEJXQP4CKVGPCWGKP6TWRRGP MQPVKPIGPVCWUWPFWPVGTUVGNNVGGUFGO$GHGJNUGKPGU$TWFGTU,CMQD*CPPKDCNXQP4CKVGPCW&KG#TOGG FKG FGO -CKUGT \W *KNHG GKNGP UQNNVG ÒDGTYKPVGTVG KP 2GVVCW WPF MGJTVG CO (TQJPNGKEJPCOUHGUV    \WTÒEMQJPGKPGKPGGKP\KIG5EJNCEJVXGTYKEMGNVIGYGUGP\WUGKP&KG1HHK\KGTGWPF5QNFCVGPGTJKGNVGP \WU·V\NKEJ\WKJTGOÒDNKEJGP5QNFGKPG6WTORT·IWPIKPGKPGOFGOLGYGKNKIGP&KGPUVTCPIGPVURTGEJGP FGP 0QOKPCN &GT 6WTO WPF FKG 7OUEJTKHVGP U[ODQNKUKGTGP FKG 5VCPFJCHVKIMGKV FGU 'T\DKUEJQHU KO   -CORHWOFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGUEJTKUVNKEJGP#DGPFNCPFGU

4463

4462





4462

9QNH &KGVTKEJ XQP 4CKVGPCW  &QRRGNVG 4GKEJUVCNGTMNKRRG   I 6WTORT·IWPI   *KPVGTFGO9CRRGPUEJKNFFGTJGKNKIG4WRGTVVJTQPGPFJCNDNOKV#VVTKDWVGP+P(NWVGPUVGJGPFGT6WTO WPVGT*CIGNUEJNCIDGUVÒTOVXQPXKGT9KPFMÌRHEJGPZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX #PO/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTVCNU6CNGT 2TQDU\V 5GJTUEJÌP



4GKEJUVCNGTMNKRRGQ,  I6WTORT·IWPI*KPVGTFGO9CRRGPUEJKNFFGTJGKNKIG4WRGTV VJTQPGPF JCNDN OKV #VVTKDWVGP+P (NWVGP UVGJGPFGT 6WTO WPVGT *CIGNUEJNCI DGUVÒTOV XQP XKGT 9KPF   MÌRHEJGPZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H%2TQDU\V 5GJTUEJÌP



4464



162

4GKEJVCNGTI6WTORT·IWPI8CTKCPVGOKVRNCUVKUEJJGTXQTVTGVGPFGO4GNKGH1XCNGTOGJT HGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNF\WFGP5GKVGPFGTJGKNKIG4WRGTVWPFFGTJGKNKIG8KTIKNUKV\GPFQDGP-CTFKPCNUJWV +P (NWVGP UVGJGPFGT 6WTO WPVGT *CIGNUEJNCI DGUVÒTOV XQP XKGT 9KPFMÌRHEJGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF    XIN6H FQTVGKPUVGORGNINGKEJGT/GJTHCEJFWMCV /CKNNGV2TQDU\V  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


&+'-+22'4/ª0<'05#.<$74)5+/&4'+55+),*4+)'0 -4+')

4465



2CTKU XQP .QFTQP  -KRRGT 6CNGT  -TGW\GT    I ªDGTJÌJVGT 9CRRGP   UEJKNFQDGP-CTFKPCNUJWV*ÒHVDKNFFGUJGKNKIGP4WRGTVJCNDNOKV5CN\HCUUWPF-TWOOUVCD2TQDU\V /CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTVCNU-KRRGTVCNGT  *GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



5+'$'0$ª4)'0 &+'51)'0#006'0('.&24)70)'0+05+'$'0$ª4)'0

4467

4466





,QJCPP++5KIKUOWPF'KPUGKVKIGT(GNFVCNGTI+PPGTJCNDGKPGTUEJKNFHÌTOKIGP 8GTVKGHWPIFCU<CRQN[C9CRRGPGKPGCWHIGTKEJVGVG9QNHURTQVQOGN\YKUEJGPCDPGJOGPFGO*CNDOQPF WPF5VGTP<WFGP5GKVGPFGU.GKDGU+<QDGPÛ +Û 'Û 4Û 8Û. $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H $W\F.WEJ1RT&CX/CKNNGV6H.++4GUEJ 45GJTUEJÌP



%JTKUVQRJ $CVJQT[  'KPUGKVKIG 0QVIWNFGPMNKRRG   I +PPGTJCND GKPGT UEJKNFHÌT   OKIGP 8GTVKGHWPI FCU $CVJQT[9CRRGP WPVGTJCND GKPGT XQP \YGK 'PIGNP IGJCNVGPGP $CPFGTQNG OKV   FGT ,CJTGU\CJN 1DGP % Ù $  & Ù 5 Ù 5 Ù .   Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H     $W\F.WEJ1RTXIN FQTVCNU)WNFGPCWHTWPFGO5EJTÌVNKPI /CKNNGVXIN6H%:+++ FQTV CNU6CNGTMNKRRG 4GUEJXIN FQTVCNU)WNFGPCWHTWPFGO5EJTÌVNKPI   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

4468



5KIKUOWPF$CVJQT[6CNGTMNKRRG-TQPUVCFVI&QRRGNCFNGTWO\QIGPXQPFGT 8NKGUQTFGPUMGVVG CWH FGT $TWUV FCU IGMTÌPVG $CVJQT[9CRRGP 1DGP -TQPG&CU -TQPUV·FVGT   9CRRGPDKNF -TQPG CWH GKPGO YWT\GNTGKEJGP $CWOUVCOO TKPIUWOJGT 5EJTKHVMTGKU QDGP FTGK <GKNGP   6GZV  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF #DD5$W\F.WEJ1RT&CX/CKNNGV 4GUEJ 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  163


4470

1,5:1

4469



1,5:1

)CDTKGN $CVJQT[  'KPUGKVKIGT 0QVVCNGT   I &CU $CVJQT[9CRRGP \YKUEJGP FGP   \YGK9CRRGPOKVFGPLGYGKNKIGPJGTCNFKUEJGPUKGDGPDÒTIKUEJGP$KNFGTP1DGP-TQPGWPVGPFKG,CJTGU \CJN QDGTJCND %+$+0 &CU )CP\G XQP GKPGO UKEJ KP FGP 5EJYCP\ DGK­GPFGP &TCEJGP WOUEJNQUUGP   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT$W\F.WEJ1RT&CX#/CKNNGV  44/KPKOCNGT&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

56&6'+05+'$'0$ª4)'0 

-TQPUVCFV &WMCV  -TQPUVCFV  I h &'85 Ü 2416'%614 Ü 0156'4 &CU -TQPUV·FVGT   9CRRGPDKNFYWT\GNTGKEJGTYKGFGTCWUUEJNCIGPFGT$CWOUVCOOc2#6410#Ü80)#4+“Ü++<Ü /CFQPPCUKV\GPFXXKO(GNF%$$TCWUG/CPUHGNF$W\F.WEJ1RT(D/CKNNGV 4GUEJ )1.&8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  &CU KO $WT\GPNCPF IGNGIGPG -TQPUVCFV YWTFG  XQO &GWVUEJGP 4KVVGTQTFGP IGITÒPFGV FGOUGNDGP CDGT    GPV\QIGP WPF  FGT UKGDGPDÒTIKUEJGP 5CEJUGPRTQXKP\ GKPIGHÒIV +P FGT (QNIG\GKV YWTFG FKG 5VCFV OGJTHCEJ XQP   FGP6CTVCTGP\GTUVÌTVGTJQNVGUKEJLGFQEJKOOGTYKGFGTWPFYWTFGKO,CJTJWPFGTVGKP8QTQTVFGU2TQVGUVCPVKU OWU+PFGP,CJTGPYWTFG-TQPUVCFVYKGFGTJQNVXQOGKIGPGP(ÒTUVGP)CDTKGN$CVJQT[DGNCIGTVWPFOWUUVG UKEJUEJNKG­NKEJGTIGDGPPCEJFGOUGKPVCRHGTGT$ÒTIGTOGKUVGT/KEJCGN9GK­KPFGT5EJNCEJVXQP/CTKGPDWTIIGHCNNGP YCT 6TQV\ FGT 0KGFGTNCIG MQPPVG UKEJ -TQPUVCFV KP FGT (QNIG\GKV IGIGP )CDTKGN $CVJQT[ DGJCWRVGP &GT WPIGDTQ   EJGPG /WV FGT -TQPUV·FVGT YKTF CWH FGO XQTNKGIGPFGP &WMCV FWTEJ FGP YKGFGT CWUUEJNCIGPFGP $CWOUVWORH GKP   FTWEMUXQNNFQMWOGPVKGTV

4471

4471 1,5:1



-CTNUDWTI)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPXQP-CTN,QUGH*QHHOCPP$TGUNCWCWHFKG)TÒPFWPIFGT (GUVWPI -CTNUDWTI 1DGTJCND GKPGT *ÒIGNMGVVG OKV UKGDGP $WTIGP FKG PGWP\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV g .8%'   5#%4#  %#41.+ 5+/+.'5 #.$  #%%+2+6 14685 Ù  g +0 51.+&# 24+/85 210+684    #4%'.#2+5Ûg+8.+#0#6#(8+%#41.858+/41$84GV#8:+6Ù+8.+#5+0.+$'#6 080%%#41.+0#81%'4Û1DGP-TGW\TQUGVVG=4CWVG?686+55+/#=4CWVG?38+'5=4CWVG?#FNGT ÒDGT#PUKEJVFGT(GUVWPI-CTNUDWTIUEJYGDGPFKPFGP(·PIGPFKG+PKVKCNGP%WPF8 %CTQNKPC8QEGT  JCNVGPF+O#DUEJPKVVg%Ù +Ù *g.OOI5NI*QTUM[XIN FQTVKP5KNDGT  5NI/QPVGPWQXQXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 2QRGNMCXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 4GUEJ#  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV/KP4CPFHGJNGTYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ  -CTNUDWTIIGJVCWHFCUFCMKUEJG6JCTOKU\WTÒEMWPFYCTWPVGTFGO0COGP#RWNWOFKG*CWRVUVCFVFGTTÌOKUEJGP 2TQXKP\&CMKGPUR·VGTCNU9GK­GPDWTIKO,CJTJWPFGTVFKG4GUKFGP\FGT(ÒTUVGPXQP5KGDGPDÒTIGP+O,CJT YWTFGFKG5VCFVPCEJ-CTN8+FGTFKG(GUVWPICPNGIVG-CTNUDWTIDGPCPPV

164


&'765%*.#0& ##%*'0 24)70)'0/+6)')'056'/2'.0&'456#&6##%*'0

4472

4472 1,5:1



-W$CWUEJGOKV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG#FNGTUEJKNFI#FNGTOKVNIGYCPFVGO -QRH TKPIUWOJGT IGDWPFGPG .QTDGGT\YGKIG&KG +PKVKCNG $ QDGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN TKPIUWOJGT IGDWP   FGPG.QTDGGT\YGKIG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H-TWODCEJ/CKNNGV5WRRN6H/GPCFKGT -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUCO4CPFHCUVUGJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGNUGJTUEJÌP



&GTJKGTXQTNKGIGPFG6[RWUKUVDGK$TCWUG/CPUHGNFWPF/CKNNGVCNU0QVOÒP\GXGT\GKEJPGV#WEJ/GPCFKGTFGTUKG CNU$CWUEJGCPURTKEJVUKGJVFKG2T·IWPIXQTFGO*KPVGTITWPFGKPGU-QPHNKMVU\YKUEJGP-CKUGT4WFQNH++WPFFGO RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP5VCFVTCV&KG<WYCPFGTWPI\CJNTGKEJGTPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGT%CNXKPKUVGPHÒJTVGKPFGT\YGKVGP*·NHVGFGU ,CJTJWPFGTVUKP#CEJGP\WT5V·TMWPIFGTRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP$GXÌNMGTWPIUITWRRGWPF\WINGKEJ\WTMQPHGUUKQPGNNGP 5RCNVWPIFGT$ÒTIGTUEJCHV'UGPVUVCPFGP\YGKPGDGPGKPCPFGTCIKGTGPFG5VCFVT·VGGKPMCVJQNKUEJGTWPFGKPRTQVGUVCP VKUEJGTFKGXQPGKPCPFGTWPCDJ·PIKICIKGTVGPWPFFKG8GTVTGVWPICNNGT$ÒTIGTHÒTUKEJCNNGKPDGCPURTWEJVGP0CEJFGO MCKUGTNKEJG)GUCPFVGFGPRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP4CVPKEJVCPGTMCPPVJCVVGPMCOGU\WGKPGO$ÒTIGTCWHUVCPFWPF\WT0GW DGUGV\WPIFGU/CIKUVTCVUFGTPWPJCWRVU·EJNKEJCWU2TQVGUVCPVGPDGUVCPF&CGU4WFQNH++PKEJVIGNCPIFKGMCVJQNK UEJG4CVUIGYCNV\WTGUVCWTKGTGPXGTJ·PIVGGTFKG4GKEJUCEJVÒDGTFKG5VCFVWPFUEJKEMVG/KNKV·TFGOGU IGNCPI FGP RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP 4CV CD\WUGV\GP &KG JKGT FWTEJ FCU XQTNKGIGPFG 'ZGORNCT DGNGIVG -WRHGTGOKUUKQP UQNN   IGO·­ $TCWUG/CPUHGNF WPF /GPCFKGT \WT <GKV FGT IGIGP #CEJGP XGTJ·PIVGP 4GKEJUCEJV GPVUVCPFGP UGKP GKPGT   2JCUGKPFGTFKGPKGFGTTJGKPKUEJGP-TGKUUV·PFGFGT5VCFV5KV\WPF5VKOOGXGTUCIVWPFUKGXQPFGP2TQDCVKQPUVCIGP CWUIGUEJNQUUGPJCDGPUQNNGP

4473

4473 1,5:1



/CTMQ, YQJNCWUFGT*·NHVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU I&GT5EJTÌVNKPIGKPGTXQNNMQOOGP CDIGPWV\VGP·NVGTGP5KNDGTOÒP\GOKV\YGK)GIGPUVGORGNPCWHFGTGKPGP5GKVGGKP#FNGTFCU9CRRGP DKNFFGT5VCFVKPPGTJCNDGKPGU2GTNTGKHUCWHFGTCPFGTGP5GKVGFKG9GTV\CJN8+KPPGTJCNDGKPGU2GTNTGKHU $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H-TWODCEJ/CKNNGV5WRRN6H/GPCFKGTD FQTVCNU$NKPFG $CWUEJGDG\GKEJPGV  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  8QPFGOXQTNKGIGPFGP6[RWUGZKUVKGTGP'ZGORNCTGOKVXGTUEJKGFGPGP<KHHGTPUVGORGNWPIGP :++8++++++WPF+  FKG -TWODCEJ ÒDGT\GWIGPF OKV FGT #CEJGPGT /CTM9·JTWPI KP 8GTDKPFWPI DTKPIV #PJCPF GKP\GNPGT FCVKGTDCTGT   2T·IWPIGPOKV#CEJGPGT)GIGPUVGORGNPMCPP-TWODCEJPCEJYGKUGPFCUUFGTGP2T·IGLCJTG\YKUEJGPWPF NKGIGP'TNGIVFKG'PVUVGJWPIFKGUGU)GNFGUKPFKG\YGKVG*·NHVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUCNUQLGPGT<GKVCNUKP#CEJGP MGKPGPGWGP/ÒP\GPGPVUVCPFGPUKPFIGPCWGTKPFKG,CJTGPCEJFGO5VCFVDTCPFWPFXQTFGT9KGFGTCWHPCJOG FGT /ÒP\RT·IWPI KO ,CJTG  $TCWUG/CPUHGNF DTKPIV FKG #CEJGPGT )GIGPUVGORGNWPI UVCTM \KTMWNKGTVGT 5KNDGT   OÒP\GPKP8GTDKPFWPIOKVFGT$GUGV\WPI#CEJGPGT)GDKGVUVGKNGFWTEJHTCP\ÌUKUEJG6TWRRGPKPFGP,CJTGP\YKUEJGP WPF

165


Die Eidesleistung der Augsburger Bürger vor König Gustav Adolf auf dem Weinmarkt.

#7)5$74) &+'*'445%*#(6&'45%*9'&'0+0#7)5$74) +O/·T\OCTUEJKGTVGPFKG5EJYGFGPWPVGT-ÌPKI)WUVCX++#FQNHXQPFGTIGTCFGGTQDGTVGP5VCFV 0ÒTPDGTI KP 4KEJVWPI #WIUDWTI &CDGK VTCHGP UKG CO  #RTKN DGK 4CKP CO .GEJ CWH FKG XQP )TCH   6KNN[IGHÒJTVGP5VTGKVMT·HVGFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP.KICFKGUKGCPFGTªDGTSWGTWPIFGU(NWUUGUJKPFGTPYQNN VGP+O)GHGEJV\QIUKEJ6KNN[GKPG8GTNGV\WPI\WCPFGTGTGKPKIG6CIGUR·VGTUVGTDGPUQNNVG#WEJUGKP 5VGNNXGTVTGVGT #NFTKPIGT YWTFG UEJYGT XGTYWPFGV #PIGUKEJVU FKGUGT 5KVWCVKQP \QIGP UKEJ FKG -CKUGTNK   EJGPKP4KEJVWPI+PIQNUVCFV\WTÒEM5QMQPPVGFGT5EJYGFGPMÌPKIWPIGJKPFGTVXQTFKG6QTGFGT4GKEJU UVCFV#WIUDWTI\KGJGPFKGOKVMWTDC[GTKUEJGT+PHCPVGTKGWPFUGEJU4GKVGTMQORCPKGPDGUGV\VYCT0CEJ GKPKIGP 8GTJCPFNWPIGP MQPPVGP FKG 5EJYGFGP CO  #RTKN  WPVGT ,WDGN FGT RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP   $GXÌNMGTWPIKPFKG5VCFVGKP\KGJGP&KG'KPPCJOGJCVVGPKEJVPWTUVTCVGIKUEJG$GFGWVWPIUQPFGTPCWEJ GKPGPJQJGPKFGGNNGP5VGNNGPYGTVHÒTFKGICP\GRTQVGUVCPVKUEJG5CEJGFCJKGTCWHFGO4GKEJUVCIFKG %QPHGUUKQ #WIWUVCPC FKG ITWPFNGIGPFG RTQVGUVCPVKUEJG $GMGPPVPKUUEJTKHV FGO -CKUGT ÒDGTIGDGP WPF   FGT\YGKVG4GNKIKQPUHTKGFGPIGUEJNQUUGPYQTFGPYCT0CEJFGT0KGFGTNCIGFGT*GKNDTQPPGT.KICKP FGT 5EJNCEJV DGK 0ÌTFNKPIGP CO  5GRVGODGT  MQPPVGP FKG 5EJYGFGP #WIUDWTI PQEJ DKU    JCNVGP DKU FGT *WPIGT FKG $GUCV\WPI \WT -CRKVWNCVKQP \YCPI WPF FKG 5VCFV YKGFGT KP FKG *·PFG FGT   -CKUGTNKEJGPHKGN

4474 1,5:1



1,5:1

)WUVCX++#FQNHXQP5EJYGFGP&WMCVGP#WIUDWTII&KGTIGYCPFVGP$TWUV DKNFGT FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIU WPF UGKPGT )GOCJNKP /CTKC 'NGQPQTC 6QEJVGT FGU -WTHÒTUVGP ,QJCPP   5KIKUOWPF XQP $TCPFGPDWTI&KG KP GKPGT OKV FGT -ÌPKIUMTQPG ÒDGTJÌJVGP &QRRGNTCJOGP-CTVWUEJG   PGDGPGKPCPFGTXGTGKPVGPUEJYGFKUEJGPWPFDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP9CRRGP<YKUEJGPFGPWPVGTGPCWUNCFGP FGP5EJPKV\YGTMRCTVKGPFGT4CJOWPIFCU5VCFVR[TFKG,CJTGU\CJNVGKNGPF#JNUVTÌO(D(QTUVGT  )1.&44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

4475



166

&WMCV  #WIUDWTI  I $TWUVDKNF JCNDT KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF .QTDGGT   MTCP\)GMTÌPVG 9CRRGPMCTVWUEJG WPVGP FCU XQP 5EJPKV\YGTM WOUEJNQUUGPG 5VCFVR[T #JNUVTÌO  C   (D(QTUVGT )1.&9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


4476



4GKEJUVCNGT   I $ÒUVG JCNDT KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\    )GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV CWHIGNGIVGO /KVVGNUEJKNF WPVGP 2[T #JNUVTÌO  &CX    (QTUVGT 5GJTUEJÌP



4477



%JTKUVKPC  &QRRGNVGT 4GKEJUVCNGT CWHFGPKO,CJT\WXQTXGTUVQTDGPGP-ÌPKI)WUVCX ++#FQNHI&GT-ÌPKIKO*CTPKUEJ\W2HGTFNKPFGT4GEJVGPFGP-QOOCPFQUVCDJCNVGPF+O *KPVGTITWPFGKPG5VTGKVOCEJVKP/CTUEJQTFPWPI\W(W­WPFDGTKVVGPG1HHK\KGTGXQTFGT5VCFV)GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP TKPIUWOJGT FKG 9CRRGP FGT  UEJYGFKUEJGP 2TQXKP\GP #JNUVTÌO  FQTV FGT   /ÒP\UV·VVG5VQEMJQNO\WIGYKGUGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF&CX/CKNNGV  44(GNFGTOKPIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP 

&'4'065#6<810#7)5$74) +O 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIJCVVGPCO&G\GODGT5VTGKVMT·HVGFGU-WTHÒTUVGP/CZKOKNKCP++ 'OCPWGNXQP$C[GTPWPFXGTDÒPFGVGHTCP\ÌUKUEJG6TWRRGPFKG5VCFV#WIUDWTIPCEJOGJTV·IKIGT$GNC IGTWPI GKPIGPQOOGP &KG 'TQDGTGT DGNGIVGP FKG $ÒTIGT OKV OCUUKXGP #DICDGP WPF WOHCPITGKEJGP   'KPSWCTVKGTWPIGP0CEJFGO5KGIFGTCNNKKGTVGP#TOGGÒDGT(TCP\QUGPWPF$C[GTPDGK*ÌEJUV·FVMCO ICP\5ÒFFGWVUEJNCPFKPFKG*·PFGFGT8GTDÒPFGVGPFGU-CKUGTU&CTCWHJKPTÒEMVGPFKG$GUCV\GT#WIU DWTIUCO#WIWUVCDPCEJFGOUKGPQEJXGTUWEJVJCVVGP(GWGTKPFGT5VCFV\WNGIGP

4478



1,5:1

4478

)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTICWHFGP#D\WIFGT$GUCV\GT #PUKEJVFGT5VCFVXQP1UVGPKO#DUEJPKVVHÒPH<GKNGP6GZV6CWDGTGKPGP¤N\YGKIKO5EJPCDGNCWH FKG #TEJG 0QCJ \WHNKGIGPF FKGCWHFGT-WRRGGKPGUXQP9CUUGTOCUUGPWOIGDGPGP(GNUGPUTWJV#O (GNUJCPI FCU #WIUDWTIGT 5VCFVR[T  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  XIN  FQTV KP 5KNDGT    (QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI/QPVGPWQXQXIN FQTVKP 5KNDGT  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV9KP\&TWEMUVGNNGCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ  167


4479

1,5:1



1,5:1

)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGPXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/Ã&#x2019;NNGT#WIUDWTICWHFGP#D\WIFGT$GUCV\GT +O.GEJVCNFKG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGT5VCFVPCEJNUKV\GPFFGP5VCFVUEJKNFOKVFGT.KPMGPJCNVGPFOKVFGT 4GEJVGP CWH GKPGP 5VGTP YGKUGPF FGT Ã&#x2019;DGT FGT *Ã&#x2019;IGNMGVVG LGPUGKVU FGU (NWUUGU CWHIGJV +O #DUEJPKVV   HÃ&#x2019;PH <GKNGP 6GZV6CWDG T GKPGP ¤N\YGKI KO 5EJPCDGN CWH FKG #TEJG \WHNKGIGPF FKG CWH FGT -WRRG   GKPGU XQP 9CUUGTOCUUGP WOIGDGPGP (GNUGPU TWJV #O (GNUJCPI FCU #WIUDWTIGT5VCFVR[TOO I5NI'TNCPIGTXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT (QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QP VGPWQXQ )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ 

$#&'0 &'45+')&'56ª4-'0.17+5+0&'45%*.#%*6$'+0+5%* +O6Ã&#x2019;TMGPMTKGIWPVGTPCJOFKGMCKUGTNKEJG#TOGGGKPGP(GNF\WIKP5GTDKGP&GTMCKUGTNKEJG1DGT DGHGJNUJCDGT/CTMITCH.WFYKI9KNJGNOXQP$CFGP IGPCPPV6Ã&#x2019;TMGPNQWKU WOUEJNQUUWPFCVVCEMKGTVGOKV UGKPGP-·ORHGTPGKPG\CJNGPO·­KIÃ&#x2019;DGTNGIGPGXQO5GTCUMKGT#TCD4GFUEJGD2CUEJCMQOOCP FKGTVGQUOCPKUEJG#TOGGFKGUKEJDGK0KUEJ 0KUUC XGTUEJCP\VJCVVG#NUFKGUEJYGTG0KGFGTNCIGFGT 6Ã&#x2019;TMGP QHHGPUKEJVNKEJ YWTFG XGTUWEJVGP FKGUG UKEJ FGO )GIPGT FWTEJ &WTEJSWGTWPI FGU (NWUUGU 0K   UEJCXC \W GPV\KGJGP 8KGNG FGT (NKGJGPFGP YWTFGP XQP FGT PCEJUGV\GPFGP MCKUGTNKEJGP -CXCNNGTKG PKG   FGTIGOCEJV#PUEJNKG­GPFPCJOGPFKG5KGIGTFKG5VCFV0KUEJGKP

4480



168

1,5:1

4480

.WFYKI9KNJGNO5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP/CTVKP$TWPPGTWPF,QJCPP(·TDGT0Ã&#x2019;TPDGTI CWH FGP 5KGI DGK 0KUEJ $TWUVDKNF FGU /CTMITCHGP T KP *CTPKUEJ/KV FGT 4GKEJUHCJPG WPF FGO 0C   OGPUDCPPGT FGU -CKUGTU IGMGPP\GKEJPGVG -CXCNNGTKG T XQTDGKUVÃ&#x2019;TOGPF CP VÃ&#x2019;TMKUEJGP <GNVGP HNKGJGPFG   VÃ&#x2019;TMKUEJG4GKVGTGKÃ&#x2019;DGTGKPGP#DJCPIJKPYGIWPFÃ&#x2019;DGTFKG0KUEJCXCXQTUKEJJGTVTGKDGPF+O*KPVGT ITWPFFKGDGHGUVKIVG5VCFV0KUEJ/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT 5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ9KGNCPFV<GKV\  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


&+'5+')'&'56ª4-'0.17+5+0&'0,#*4'0$+5 /CTMITCH .WFYKI 9KNJGNO XQP $CFGP YCT UGKV  CNU 1HHK\KGT UGKV  CNU 1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGT FGT   MCKUGTNKEJGP #TOGG GKPG OC­IGDNKEJG 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKV KO -CORH IGIGP FKG 6ÒTMGP 5GKPG OKNKV·TKUEJGP   'THQNIGKPUDGUQPFGTGFKG5KGIGDGK0KUEJ  WPF5CNCPMCOGP  DTCEJVGPKJOFGPGJTGPXQNNGP $GKPCOGPō6ÒTMGPNQWKUŋGKP

4481



.WFYKI 9KNJGNO  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV KO #WHVTCI FGU   0ÒTPDGTIGT7PVGTPGJOGTU(TKGFTKEJ-NGKPGTVCWHFKG5KGIGÒDGTFKG6ÒTMGP&GT/CTMITCHKP4ÒUVWPI \W 2HGTF T FGP -QOOCPFQUVCD KP FGT 4GEJVGP +O *KPVGTITWPF 4GKVGTUEJNCEJV CWH VKGHGT IGNGIGPGO   6GTTCKP$GYGIVG &CTUVGNNWPI GKPGU .ÌYGP DGKO *GV\GP GKPGU 9QNHUTWFGNU +O 8QTFGTITWPF N GKP   YKGFGTCWUIGVTKGDGPGT$CWOUVWORH/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT

FKGUGU 'ZGORNCT  5NI *QJGPMWDKP  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  9KG   NCPFV<GKV\C *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+''40'0070)&'56ª4-'0.17+5<7/1$'4$'('*.5*#$'4&'4 4'+%*5#4/''#/4*'+0 &KGXQP(TCPMTGKEJFGO4GKEJ\WIGHÒIVGP0KGFGTNCIGPKO2H·N\KUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGIXGTCPNCUUVGP-CK UGT.GQRQNF+UGKPGPKO-CORHIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGPUQGTHQNITGKEJGP)GPGTCNHGNFOCTUEJCNN.WFYKI9KN JGNOXQP$CFGPCNU1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGTFGT4GKEJUCTOGG\WOYGUVNKEJGP-TKGIUUEJCWRNCV\CPFGP4JGKP \WDGQTFGTP&GO(GNFJGTTPIGNCPIGUKPFGT6CVJKGTFGP8QTOCTUEJFGT6TWRRGPFGU5QPPGPMÌPKIU .WFYKIU:+8DKU\WO'PFGFGU-TKGIGU\WUVQRRGP

4482



.WFYKI9KNJGNO5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTP DGTIKO#WHVTCIFGU0ÒTPDGTIGT7PVGTPGJOGTU(TKGFTKEJ-NGKPGTVCWHFGP(GNF\WIFGTXQO/CTMITC HGP IGHÒJTVGP MCKUGTNKEJGP 4GKEJUCTOGG CO 1DGTTJGKP $TWUVDKNF FGU /CTMITCHGP T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV   #NNQPIGRGTÒEMG#O 4JGKPWHGT FGT (GNFJGTT UVGJGPF N UGKPG 4GEJVG GORQT \WT 5QPPG TKEJVGPF WPF   FKGUGT UQ FGP 5VKNNUVCPF IGDKGVGPF 'T YKTF DGMT·P\VXQPGKPGTJKPVGTKJOUEJTGKVGPFGPYGKDNKEJGP)G UVCNVFKGOKVKJTGT.KPMGPGKPGPOKVVÒTMKUEJGP6TQRJ·GPIGUEJOÒEMVGP5VCDVT·IV8QTFGO/CTMITCHGP UKV\VFGTRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG4JGKPOKVIGHGUUGNVGP(Ò­GPFKG*·PFGKO-NCIGIGUVWUGTJQDGPGP/KVGTJCDG PGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT FKGUGU'ZGORNCT (QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[ 5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ9KGNCPFV<GKV\  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTWPF-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

 169


4483

4484

4485

$#/$'4) &+'-1064+$76+10524)70)&'5$#/$'4)'4$+5%*1(5+/'456'0 -1#.+6+105-4+') )GIGPFCUTGXQNWVKQP·TG(TCPMTGKEJJCVVGUKEJWPFGKPGITQ­GCWU2TGW­GP¤UVGTTGKEJFGO 4GKEJ 4WUUNCPF 'PINCPF FGP 0KGFGTNCPFGP 5RCPKGP 2QTVWICN WPF 5CTFKPKGPWPF0GCRGNDGUVGJGPFG #NNKCP\ IGDKNFGV FKG OKV KJTGO )GIPGT FGP XQP  DKU  Y·JTGPFGP GTUVGP -QCNKVKQPUMTKGI CP   \CJNTGKEJGP2N·V\GP'WTQRCUCWUHQEJV(ÒTFKG-QCNKVKQPXGTNKGHGPFKG-CORHJCPFNWPIGPKP&GWVUEJNCPF WPF FGP 5EJCWRN·V\GP KP FGP YGUVNKEJGP 0CEJDCTN·PFGTP PCEJ CPH·PINKEJGP 'THQNIGP UGKV  WPIÒP   UVKI<WT(KPCP\KGTWPIFGU-TKGIGUOWUUVGPCWEJFKGIGKUVNKEJGP5V·PFG#DICDGPNGKUVGP'KPKIGIGKUVNK EJG(ÒTUVGPNKG­GPFCJGTUQIGPCPPVG-QPVTKDWVKQPUOÒP\GP\WT#WUUVCVVWPIWPF8GTUQTIWPIFGT#TOGGP RT·IGPFGTGP/ÒP\OGVCNNCWUIGURGPFGVGPQFGTGKPIGHQTFGTVGP'FGNOGVCNNDGUV·PFGPFGT-KTEJGPUEJ·V\G WPF$ÒTIGTJGTIGUVGNNVYQTFGPYCT$KUEJQH(TCP\.WFYKIXQP'TVJCNNKG­GPVURTGEJGPFG/ÒP\GP KP0ÒTPDGTIKP(QTOXQP-QPXGPVKQPUVCNGTPRT·IGP&KGUG/ÒP\GPUKPFRTQITCOOCVKUEJOKV7OWPF #WHUEJTKHVGPKP&GWVUEJXGTUGJGP&KGKPMNCUUK\KUVKUEJGT/CPKGTUEJNKEJVIGUVCNVGVG4ÒEMUGKVGDGVQPVOKV FGO%TGFQō<7/$'56'0&'58#6'4.#0&5ŋFGP$GFGWVWPIUJKPVGTITWPFFKGUGT2T·IWPI 

(TCP\ .WFYKI XQP 'TVJCN  -QPX6CNGT  0ÒTPDGTI  I /KV FGO (ÒTUVGPJWV   ÒDGTJÌJVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF CWH GKPGO OKV FGO *GT\QIUJWV ÒDGTJÌJVGP /CPVGN&TGK <GKNGP 6GZV WO   UEJNQUUGPXQPGKPGT.QTDGGTIKTNCPFGWPVGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNWPFKP\YGK<GKNGPFKG(GKPIGYKEJVU CPICDG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX#-TWIC/CKNNGV6H+: 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'+0$#/$'4)'4-108'06+1056#.'4#75&'/,#*4' &GTXQTNKGIGPFG6CNGTYWTFGKPFGT<GKVFGU\YGKVGPXQPDKUCPFCWGTPFGP-QCNKVKQPUMTKGIGUIGIGP (TCPMTGKEJPKEJVCNU-QPVTKDWVKQPUOÒP\GUQPFGTPCNUTGIWN·TGU)GNFPCEJFGO-QPXGPVKQPUHW­IGRT·IV 

%JTKUVQRJ(TCP\XQP$WUGEM-QPX6CNGT0ÒTPDGTII/KVFGO(ÒTUVGPJWV ÒDGTJÌJVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFCWHGKPGOOKVFGO*GT\QIUJWVÒDGTJÌJVGP/CPVGNKO(GNF#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV QDGP FKG (GKPIGYKEJVUCPICDG KPPGTJCND GKPGT OKV GKPGT )KTNCPFG DGJCPIGPGP N·PIUQXCNGP   4CJOWPI&CX#-TWI .GKEJVG*KV\GURWTGPOKP4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



$#;'40 &+'-74(ª456.+%*$#;'4+5%*'-+22'424)70)+/ &4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+')



170

9·JTGPF FGT -KRRGT WPF 9KRRGTKPHNCVKQP KO &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGI  \·JNVG CWEJ -WTHÒTUV   /CZKOKNKCP XQP $C[GTP \W FGP /ÒP\JGTTGP FKG UEJNGEJVGU )GNF RT·IGP NKG­GP &KG MWTDC[GTKUEJGP   0QOKPCNG CWU FGT /ÒP\UV·VVG /ÒPEJGP TGKEJGP XQP MWRHGTPGP 2HGPPKIGP WPF -TGW\GTP DKU JKP \W   UEJNGEJVGP6CNGTPFKGDGKKJTGT#WUICDG\W-TGW\GTPIGTGEJPGVYWTFGP /CZKOKNKCP +  -KRRGTVCNGT \W  -TGW\GTP  /ÒPEJGP  I /KV FGO -WTJWV   ÒDGTJÌJVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF WO\QIGP XQP FGT 8NKGUQTFGPUMGVVG.ÌYG JQEMGPF X X GKP -TÒEMGPMTGW\   JCNVGPFCWHFGOUKEJQDGPGKPG-CTVWUEJGDGHKPFGVFKGFKG9GTV\CJNWOUEJNKG­V7PVGP*CJP /CKNNGV6H:+++XCT9KVV  49KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTMN5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 


4486



-KRRGTIWNFGP \W  -TGW\GTP  /ÒPEJGP  I /KV FGO -WTJWV ÒDGTJÌJVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF   WO\QIGPXQPFGT8NKGUQTFGPUMGVVG.ÌYGJQEMGPFXXGKP-TÒEMGPMTGW\JCNVGPFCWHFGOUKEJQDGP GKPG-CTVWUEJGDGHKPFGVFKGFKG9GTV\CJNWOUEJNKG­V*CJP/CKNNGVXIN6H:+++ FQTV,CJT ICPI 9KVV 'VYCUHNCWIGRT·IVUGJTUEJÌP



&+'5%*.#%*6$'+/1*Š%5 #O$GTIG*CTUCP[WPFDGKFGT&QPCWDTÒEMGDGK/QJ±EUMCOGUCO#WIWUV\WGKPGT5EJNCEJV \YKUEJGPECCPITGKHGPFGP6ÒTMGPWPFFGTTWPF/CPPUVCTMGPMCKUGTNKEJGP#TOGG&GTXQP -WTHÒTUV /CZKOKNKCP ++ 'OCPWGN DGHGJNKIVG NKPMG (NÒIGN FGT -CKUGTNKEJGP OWUUVG UKEJ \YCT OCUUKXGP   #VVCEMGPFGTIGIPGTKUEJGP-CXCNNGTKGGTYGJTGPMQPPVGLGFQEJOC­IGDNKEJG-T·HVGFGU(GKPFGUDKU\WT #PMWPHVFGU*GT\QIU-CTNXQP.QVJTKPIGPDKPFGPWPFFCPCEJIGOGKPUCOOKVFGP6TWRRGPFGU*GT\QIU FKG VÒTMKUEJGP $GHGUVKIWPIGP PGJOGP +P FGT 5EJNCEJV VCVGP UKEJ CWEJ FGT LWPIG 2TKP\'WIGPWPFUGKP ·NVGTGT8GVVGT/CTMITCH.WFYKIXQP$CFGPJGTXQT&GT5KGIDGK/QJ±EUGTYKGUUKEJCNU5EJNÒUUGN\WT 'TQDGTWPI7PICTPUWPF\WT$GUGV\WPI5KGDGPDÒTIGPU

4487

Die Schlacht von Mohács, türkische Miniatur.



/CZKOKNKCP ++ 'OCPWGN  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ   /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FGP DGK /QJ±EU GTHQEJVGPGP 5KGI WPVGT (ÒJTWPI FGU -WTHÒTUVGP   /CZKOKNKCP++'OCPWGN5VKGTOKVIGUGPMVGO-QRHNGKPG5·WNGCPIGJGPFCWHFGTFKG$ÒUVGFGU-WT HÒTUVGPUVGJV7PVGTFGTDC[GTKUEJGPWPFFGTMWTHÒTUVNKEJGP(CJPGM·ORHGPFG+PHCPVGTKGWPF-CXCNNGTKG IGIGPFCUDGHGUVKIVG(GNFNCIGTFGT6ÒTMGPCPUVÒTOGPF+O*KPVGTITWPFFGT1TV/QJ±EU/KVGTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHVOOI(QTUVGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 9KVV 448QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC  171


&+'9+'&'4'41$'470)8100#/74 &KG6TWRRGP.WFYKIU:+8JCVVGPFKG5VCFV0COWTUQYKGFKG(GUVWPIWPFFKG<KVCFGNNGKO2H·N\K UEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGIPCEJDNWVKIGP-·ORHGPIGPQOOGPMQPPVGPFKG#NNKKGTVGPPCEJ\GJPYÌEJKIGT $GNCIGTWPI FKG XQP FGO HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP (GUVWPIUCTEJKVGMVGP 8CWDCP XGTUV·TMVG <KVCFGNNG WPF FKG XQP    HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5QNFCVGP XGTVGKFKIVG 5VCFV GTQDGTP &KG $GNCIGTWPIUVTWRRGP UVCPFGP WPVGT FGO   -QOOCPFQFGUDTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIU9KNJGNO+++WPFXQP-WTHÒTUV/CZKOKNKCP++'OCPWGNFGTUGKV FKGKJOXQPUGKPGO5EJYKGIGTXCVGT-CKUGT.GQRQNF+XGTNKGJGPG)GPGTCNUVCVVJCNVGTYÒTFGFGTURCPKUEJGP 0KGFGTNCPFGKPPGJCVVG

4488



1,5:1

4488

/CZKOKNKCP ++ 'OCPWGN  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG   CDGTOCNKIG 'TQDGTWPI XQP 0COWT *GTMWNGU UVGJGPF JCNDN GKP /GFCKNNQP OKV FGO 2QTVT·V FGU   DTKVKUEJGP-ÌPKIU9KNJGNO+++WPFGKP/GFCKNNQPOKVFGO$KNFPKUXQP-WTHÒTUV/CZKOKNKCP++'OCPWGN XQP$C[GTPJCNVGPF<WUGKPGP(Ò­GPNGKPMCWGTPFGT&TCEJGWPFTFGT<GTDGTWUUKV\GPF$NKEMCWHFKG CWHGKPGOUVGKNGP$GTIIGNGIGPG(GUVWPI0COWTKO*KPVGTITWPFFKG5VCFV/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  *CYMKPU 6H %++  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU    5NI/QPVGPWQXQ9KVV *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



$100 &+''41$'470)810$100*7;.+/$74)4*'+0$'4)70& )'.&'40

4489



172

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP/CCTVGP5OGNV\KPI#OUVGTFCOCWHFKG5KGIGFGT8GTDÒPFGVGPWPFFKG 'TQDGTWPIXQP$QPP*W[.KODWTI4JGKPDGTIWPF)GNFGTP#WHGKPGTGTJÌJVGP-WRRGFKG8GTMÌTRG TWPIFGT0KGFGTNCPFGUVGJGPFXXOKVFGT.KPMGPGKPGOGJTHCEJDGMTÌPVG.CP\GKPFGT4GEJVGPGKPGP )GNFUCEM JCNVGPF *KPVGT FGO TGEJVGP 4CPF FGT -WRRG GTUEJGKPGP FKG *ÒHVDKNFGT GKPGU -TKGIGTU OKV   2HGKNDÒPFGNWPFWOMT·P\VGP5EJYGTVUQYKGFKG8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGU4JGKPUOKV/GTMWTUVCD&TGK\CEMWPF 3WGNNWTPG +O *KPVGTITWPF GKP YGKVGT #WUDNKEM CWH GKPG HNCEJG 'DGPG OKV FGP GTQDGTVGP 5V·FVGP FGO   4JGKPNCWHUQYKGCWHFCUXQP\CJNTGKEJGP5EJKHHGPDGHCJTGPG/GGT7PDGMNGKFGVGTMKPFNKEJGT)GPKWUCWH GKPGT $CPM UKV\GPF X X KP FGP GTJQDGPGP *·PFGP LG GKP .QVVGTKGNQU <W UGKPGT .KPMGP WPF UGKPGT   4GEJVGP LG GKP .QVVGTKGNQUDGJ·NVGT WPF GKP (ÒNNJQTP 1DGP UEJYGDGPFGT 2WVVQ \YGK <GVVGN CWU UGKPGT   .KPMGPHCNNGPNCUUGPFWPFKPFGT4GEJVGPGKPG9CCIGJCNVGPFOOI&KTMU*CYMKPU 6H%:8+++5NI,WNKWUXCP.QQP9GKNGT  4-N5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGXQT\ÒINKEJ




4491

4490

4491

$4#0&'0$74)+0(4#0-'0 &'4<9'+6'/#4-)4(.'4-4+') /CTMITCH #NDTGEJV #NEKDKCFGU XQP $TCPFGPDWTI-WNODCEJ WPF $C[TGWVJ HÒJTVG UGKV  GKPGP XQT   PGJONKEJCWH6GTTKVQTKCNIGYKPP\KGNGPFGP-TKGIFGTKPFKG)GUEJKEJVUUEJTGKDWPICNUFGT\YGKVG/CTM IT·HNGTMTKGIGKPIGICPIGPKUV&GT/CTMITCHGTMCPPVGFGPKPFKGUGO,CJTGKO0COGP-CKUGT-CTNU8OKV FGPRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP4GKEJUHÒTUVGPIGUEJNQUUGPGP2CUUCWGT8GTVTCIPKEJVCPWPFFWTEJUVTGKHVGRNÒPFGTPF OKV UGKPGP 5ÌNFPGTP FKG /CKP WPF 4JGKPIGIGPF YQDGK UKEJ UGKPG DGFGWVGPFUVGP <KGNG CWH (TCPMGP   MQP\GPVTKGTVGP'TDGNCIGTVG0ÒTPDGTIFCUCO,WPKMCRKVWNKGTVGWPFTCPI9ÒT\DWTIWPF$CO DGTI GTJGDNKEJG VGTTKVQTKCNG <WIGUV·PFPKUUG CD FGTGP 4GEJVO·­KIMGKV \YCT XQO -CKUGT \WP·EJUV PKEJV   CPGTMCPPV UR·VGT XQO *CDUDWTIGT CDGT FQEJ CM\GRVKGTV YWTFG &KG DGVTQHHGPGP HT·PMKUEJGP 5V·PFG   UEJNQUUGPUKEJOKV-ÌPKI(GTFKPCPF+*GT\QI*GKPTKEJFGO,ÒPIGTGPXQP$TCWPUEJYGKIWPFOKV#N DTGEJVUGKPUVKIGO9CHHGPDTWFGT-WTHÒTUV/QTKV\XQP5CEJUGP\WO(T·PMKUEJGP$WPF\WUCOOGPWPF XGTVTKGDGP FGP $TCPFGPDWTIGT CWU (TCPMGP &CTCWHJKP HKGN /CTMITCH #NDTGEJV #NEKDKCFGU KP FCU *GT   \QIVWO $TCWPUEJYGKI GKP #O  ,WNKYWTFGUGKPGGVYC/·PPGTWOHCUUGPFG5VTGKVOCEJV WPYGKVXQP5KGXGTUJCWUGPDGK.GJTVGXQPFGP-·ORHGTPFGT$WPFGUIGPQUUGP/QTKV\WPF*GKP TKEJIGUEJNCIGP-WTHÒTUV/QTKV\GTNKVVJKGTGKPG8GTYWPFWPICPFGTGTDCNFFCTCWHXGTUVCTDFGTYGNHK UEJG*GT\QIXGTNQTFTGKUGKPGT5ÌJPG'KPG\YGKVGGORHKPFNKEJG0KGFGTNCIGGTNKVVFGT/CTMITCHKO5GR VGODGTDGK5VGVGTDWTIKO.ÒPGDWTIKUEJGP#O&G\GODGTXGTJ·PIVGFGT-CKUGTFKG4GKEJ UCEJVÒDGTFGP/CTMITCHGP&KG(GKPFGDGUGV\VGPUGKPG'TDNCPFGWPFÒDTKIGP$GUKV\WPIGPDKU,WNK XQNNUV·PFKI#NDTGEJV#NEKDKCFGUHNQJ\WP·EJUVPCEJ(TCPMTGKEJWPFXGTUVCTDCO/·T\CWHFGT 5WEJGPCEJPGWGP8GTDÒPFGVGPKP2HQT\JGKODGKUGKPGO5EJYCIGTFGO/CTMITCHGPXQP$CFGP9·J TGPF FGU /CTMIT·HNGTMTKGIGU GPVUVCPFGP IQNFGPG WPF UKNDGTPG (GNFMNKRRGP FKG IGO·­ XQP 5EJTÌVVGT KP   WPFWO5EJYGKPHWTV*QHWPF*QJGPNCPFGPDGTIIGRT·IVYQTFGPUGKPUQNNGP 

#NDTGEJV FGT ,ÒPIGTG #NEKDKCFGU  CNNGKP UGKV  'KPUGKVKIG (GNFVCNGTMNKRRG  XGT   OWVNKEJ5EJYGKPHWTVI&GTDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJG#FNGTUEJKNFQDGPÛ#/<$ÛWPVGPÛ+ÛÛ=Û? #P FGP GKPIGUEJYWPIGPGP 5GKVGP FGU 5EJKNFGU LG GKP MNGKPGU #UVMTGW\  Z  OO $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6HXCT/CKNNGV6H++XCTX5EJT5EJWNVGP5NI9KNO  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGPUGJTUEJÌP 

$4#0&'0$74)24'755'0 &+'5%*.#%*6$'+('*4$'..+0 +O ,CJTG  DGVGKNKIVG UKEJ -WTHÒTUV (TKGFTKEJ 9KNJGNO OKV UGKPGP 6TWRRGP CO 4GKEJUMTKGI IGIGP   (TCPMTGKEJ#O&G\GODGTFTCPIGPFKG5EJYGFGPCNU$ÒPFPKURCTVPGTFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIUXQP 8QTRQOOGTP CWU PCEJ $TCPFGPDWTI GKP WPF DTCEJGP UQOKV FGP UEJYGFKUEJDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP -TKGI   XQO <CWOG FGT GTUV  UGKPGP #DUEJNWUU HCPF 8QO /CKP JGT MQOOGPF HÒJTVG KJPGP FGT )TQ­G   -WTHÒTUVUGKPG5VTGKVMT·HVGGPVIGIGP0CEJKJTGO5KGIDGK4CVJGPQYUEJNWIGPFKGXQP)GPGTCN(GNFOCT UEJCNN)GQTIXQP&GTHHNKPIGTIGHÒJTVGP$TCPFGPDWTIGTFKG5EJYGFGPCO,WNKKPFGTGPVUEJGK FGPFGP5EJNCEJVDGK*GEMGPHGNFGUÒFÌUVNKEJXQP(GJTDGNNKPWPF\YCPIGPFGP)GIPGT\WT4·WOWPIFGT /CTM&KG5EJNCEJVDGK(GJTDGNNKPDGITÒPFGVGFGP4WJOFGUDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP*GTTUEJGTUFGTUEJQP DCNF FCTCWH OKV FGO UEJOÒEMGPFGP WPF TGURGMVXQNNGP $GKPCOGP ōFGT )TQ­G -WTHÒTUVŋ DG\GKEJPGV   YWTFG 

(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNOFGT)TQ­G-WTHÒTUV5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP*ÌJP&CP\KI CWHFKG5EJNCEJVDGK(GJTDGNNKP$NKEMXQPNGKEJVGTJÌJVGT2QUKVKQPCWHFCU5EJNCEJVHGNFKO8QTFGTITWPF FGT-WTHÒTUVTGKVGPFNXQTKJONFGT5VCNNOGKUVGT(TQGDGPXQPGKPGT-WIGNIGVTQHHGPXQO2HGTFUVÒT \GPFTGKP4GKVGTWPVGTFGT-TQPGGKPGU$CWOGUFCU-CORHIGVÒOOGNDGVTCEJVGPF+O*KPVGTITWPFFGT (NWUU4JKPWPFFGT1TV(GJTDGNNKP6GZVKPHÒPH\GJP<GKNGPOOI$TQEMOCPP  4-N)TCHHKVQKO(GNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 173


&+''+00#*/'81056'66+0 0CEJ FGO 9GUVH·NKUEJGP (TKGFGPUUEJNWUU YCTGP 8QTRQOOGTP WPF 4ÒIGP FKG *CHGPUVCFV 5VGVVKP FCU   /ÒPFWPIUIGDKGVFGT1FGTWPFGKP.CPFUVTGKHGPCOÌUVNKEJGP1FGTWHGT5EJYGFGP\WIGURTQEJGPYQTFGP 0CEJUGKPGODGK(GJTDGNNKPGTTWPIGPGP5KGIPCJO$TCPFGPDWTIPQEJKOUGNDGP,CJT9QNNKPWPF9QN ICUVGKP#PMNCOWPF&GOOKP+O,WNKTÒEMVGP5QNFCVGPFGU)TQ­GP-WTHÒTUVGPXQT FKG /CWGTP 5VGVVKPU FKG FWTEJ GKPG XQO UEJYGFKUEJGP )GPGTCN XQP 9WNHHGP DGHGJNKIVG )CTPKUQP XQP   /CPPXGTVGKFKIVYWTFG&KG$GUCV\WPIMQPPVGDKU&G\GODGTFGU,CJTGUCWUJCTTGPWPFUVTGEMVGFKG 9CHHGP GTUV CNUKJTFKG/WPKVKQPCWUIKPI)GO·­FGU\YKUEJGP$TCPFGPDWTIWPF5EJYGFGPIG UEJNQUUGPGPGP(TKGFGPUXQP5CKPV)GTOCKPGP.C[GOWUUVG$TCPFGPDWTIFGO)GIPGTCNNGUGKPG'TQDG TWPIGPKP5EJYGFKUEJ8QTRQOOGTPOKV#WUPCJOGGKPGU)GDKGVUUVTGKHGPUTGEJVUFGT1FGT\WTÒEMIGDGP 5VGVVKPXGTNKG­GPFKG$TCPFGPDWTIGT\WNGV\V

1,5:1



4492

1,5:1

(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNOFGT)TQ­G-WTHÒTUV&WMCV$GTNKPCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIXQP 5VGVVKP  I &GT -WTHÒTUV \W 2HGTF T KP *CTPKUEJ WPF /CPVGN OKV -WTJWV WPF <GRVGT \W GKPGO   QHHGPGP2QTVCNJKPQTKGPVKGTV(ÒPH<GKNGP6GZVQDGP\YGK2WPMVG(DX5EJT  )1.&9KP\-TCV\GTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP  &KG2T·IWPIFKGUGT)GFGPMOÒP\GGTHQNIVGYQJNGTUV#PHCPI

&+'$'(4'+70)&'4-74-¤.0+5%*'056&6' +O *GTDUV  DGICPP FGT 2H·N\KUEJG 'TDHQNIGMTKGI (TCP\ÌUKUEJG 6TWRRGP ÒDGTUEJTKVVGP FKG 4GKEJU   ITGP\GDGUGV\VGPTCUEJ6GKNGFGU'T\DKUVWOU-ÌNPUQYKGFKG5V·FVG9QTOU5RG[GT*GKFGNDGTI(TCP MGPVJCN /CKP\ /CPPJGKO -QDNGP\ WPF 2JKNKRRUDWTI WPF MQPPVGP DKU PCEJ 5EJYCDGP WPF (TCPMGP   XQTTÒEMGP &GT 4GKEJUVCI TGCIKGTVG FCTCWH CO  (GDTWCT  OKV FGO $GUEJNWUU \WO 4GKEJUMTKGI   -CKUGT.GQRQNF+UEJNQUUUKEJCO/CKOKVFGP)GPGTCNUVCCVGPFGT0KGFGTNCPFGIGIGP(TCPMTGKEJ\WT UQIGPCPPVGP)TQ­GP#NNKCP\\WUCOOGPFGTCWEJ5RCPKGPWPF5CXQ[GPDGKVTCVGP+PFKGUGO,CJTMQPP VGPFKG8GTDÒPFGVGP6GTTCKP\WTÒEMGTQDGTPWPFFKGHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP6TWRRGPKP&GWVUEJNCPF\WTÒEMFT·P IGP &GP MWTHÒTUVNKEJDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVGP MCO FKG #WHICDG \W FCU 'T\UVKHV -ÌNP WPF FKG   WONKGIGPFGP)GIGPFGPXQPFGP(TCP\QUGP\WDGHTGKGP  /KV GKPGT 5VTGKVOCEJV XQP EC  /CPP WPF PKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP 6TWRRGP CP UGKPGT 5GKVG IGNCPI GU   -WTHÒTUV(TKGFTKEJ+++XQP$TCPFGPDWTIFKGUG#WHICDG\WGTHÒNNGP4GEJVUWPFNKPMUFGU4JGKPUPCJO GT FGP (TCP\QUGP \CJNTGKEJG 1TVG WPF (GUVWPIGP CD &KG -CRKVWNCVKQP FGT (GUVWPI 4JGKPDGTI GTHQNIVG   CO/CK-CKUGTUYGTVJMCRKVWNKGTVCO,WPKWPF$QPPYWTFGXQPFGP(TCP\QUGPGTUVPCEJ GKPGTTWPFFTGKOQPCVKIGP$GNCIGTWPICO1MVQDGTÒDGTIGDGP

4493



174

(TKGFTKEJ +++  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG XQP,QJCPP$GTPJCTF5EJWNV\$GTNKPCWHFKG$GHTGK WPI FGT MWTMÌNPKUEJGP 5V·FVG XQP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT $GUGV\WPI $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ WPF /CP   VGN5EJNCEJVGPU\GPG KP YGKVGT XQO 4JGKP FWTEJ\QIGPGT .CPFUEJCHV CO (NWUU FKG 5V·FVG 4JGKPDGTI   -CKUGTUYGTVJ0GWUU-ÌNPWPF$QPPOOI$TQEMOCPP5NI,WNKWU/GPCFKGT 9GKNGT $QPP 9GKNGT -ÌNP  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ 


&'4/+.+64+5%*'$'+56#0&(ª4&+'0+'&'4.#0&' 0CEJ FGT 8GTVTGKDWPI FGT (TCP\QUGP CWU FGO MWTMÌNPKUEJGP )GDKGV DGICD UKEJ -WTHÒTUV (TKGFTKEJ +++   OKV5QNFCVGPKPFGPPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP4CWOWOUKEJCWEJFQTVFGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP6TWRRGPGPV IGIGP \W UVGNNGP +P FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK (NGWT[ (NGTWU  KO *GPPGICW CO  ,WPK  MQPPVG GT \YCT   PKEJVGKPITGKHGPWOFGP5KGIFGT(TCP\QUGPÒDGTFKGFGWVUEJPKGFGTN·PFKUEJG#TOGG\WXGTGKVGNPFQEJ FKG#PYGUGPJGKVFGTDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP6TWRRGPKPFGP0KGFGTNCPFGPXGTJKPFGTVGFCUUUKEJFGT)GIPGT FQTVHGUVUGV\GPMQPPVG

4494



(TKGFTKEJ +++  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 4CKOWPF (CNV\ $GTNKP CWH FGP OKNKV·TKUEJGP   $GKUVCPFHÒTFKG0KGFGTNCPFG$TWUVDKNFFGU-WTHÒTUVGPTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN/KPGTXC UVGJGPF X X OKV .CP\G WPF GKPGO OKV FGO MWTDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP #FNGT IGUEJOÒEMVGP 5EJKNF FGP   $NKEMTIGYCPFV<WKJTGT.KPMGPGKP.ÌYGUVGJGPFJCNDT+O*KPVGTITWPFGKPG5VCFVKPGKPGTHNCEJGP .CPFUEJCHVOOI$TQEMOCPP-2-X.QQP+++55VGIWYGKV  445GJTUEJÌP



&+''+00#*/'810)'.&'40 <W FGP 5EJCWRN·V\GP KO 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGI \·JNVG CDGTOCNU CWEJ FKG 0KGFGTTJGKPIGIGPF $TCP   FGPDWTIYCTCNU+PJCDGTFGU*GT\QIVWOU-NGXGWPOKVVGNDCTDGVTQHHGP0CEJGKPKIGPGTHQNITGKEJGP)G HGEJVGP\QIGP6TWRRGPFGU2TGWUUGPMÌPKIUWPVGTFGO-QOOCPFQXQP)GPGTCNOCLQT(ÒTUV.GQRQNFXQP #PJCNV&GUUCWXQTFKG(GUVWPI)GNFGTPFKGUGKV\WUCOOGPOKVFGOUÒFNKEJGP6GKNFGUGKPUVKIGP *GT\QIVWOU )GNFGTP FCU UQIGPCPPVG 1DGTSWCTVKGT )GNFGTP   WPVGT URCPKUEJGT *GTTUEJCHV UVCPF &KG   UVCTMG (GUVWPI JCVVG OCP \WXQT PQEJ PKG GTQDGTP MÌPPGP #WEJ FKG 2TGWUUGP MQPPVGP FGP 2NCV\ PKEJV   FWTEJ9CHHGPGTUVÒTOGPFKG'KPPCJOGIGNCPIFGPPQEJFCFKGIGIPGTKUEJG$GUCV\WPIKPHQNIGFGU/CP IGNU CP .GDGPUOKVVGNP CO  &G\GODGT  MCRKVWNKGTVG &KG *GTTUEJCHV 2TGWUUGPU KO 1DGTSWCTVKGT   )GNFGTPYWTFGKO(TKGFGPXQP7VTGEJVHGUVIGUEJTKGDGP

4495



(TKGFTKEJ+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,CP$QUMCO$GTNKPCWHFKG'KPPCJOGXQP)GNFGTP $TWUVDKNF FGU -ÌPKIU T KO *CTPKUEJ OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ 1TFGPUDCPF WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN$NKEM   ÒDGTFGP4JGKPCWHFKGWPVGT$GUEJWUUUVGJGPFG5VCFV+O8QTFGTITWPFCWHGKPGO2QFGUVFGTCWHGKPGO (CNVUEJGOGNUKV\GPFG-ÌPKINDGMT·P\VXQPFGTJKPVGTKJOUVGJGPFGP8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGU5KGIGUXQPFGT XQTKJOCO$QFGPMPKGPFGP2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGT5VCFV)GNFGTPCWHGKPGO6GNNGTFKG5VCFVUEJNÒUUGNGOR HCPIGPFOOI$TQEMOCPP/CTKGPD/GPCFKGT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2CVKPCYKP\5COONGTRWP\GKO4CPFUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  175


&'4#75$47%*&'5'456'05%*.'5+5%*'0-4+')'5 &KGQDGTUEJNGUKUEJGPWPF\CJNTGKEJGPKGFGTUEJNGUKUEJG*GT\QIVÒOGTUVCPFGPUGKVWPVGT.GJPUJQJGKV FGT *CDUDWTIGT &KG UEJNGUKUEJGP 5V·PFG JCVVGP KO ,CJTG  FKG 2TCIOCVKUEJG 5CPMVKQP WPF UQOKV   /CTKC 6JGTGUKC CNU 0CEJHQNIGTKP KJTGU 8CVGTU -CTN 8+ WPF CNU MÒPHVKIG .CPFGUJGTTKP CPGTMCPPV   0CEJFGOFGT-CKUGTCO1MVQDGTXGTUVQTDGPYCTOCTUEJKGTVG(TKGFTKEJ++XQP2TGWUUGPCO  0QXGODGT  OKV GKPGT UVCTMGP #TOGG KP 5EJNGUKGP GKP <WT HCFGPUEJGKPKIGP 4GEJVHGTVKIWPI   XGTYKGUGTCWHCNVGDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJG$GUKV\CPURTÒEJGCWHFKG*GT\QIVÒOGT,·IGTPFQTH.KGIPKV\$TKGI WPF9QJNCW&KGUG(QTFGTWPIDGTWJVGWCCWHGKPGT\YKUEJGP$TCPFGPDWTIWPFFGO*GT\QI\W .KGIPKV\$TKGIWPF9QJNCWIGUEJNQUUGPGP'TDXGTDTÒFGTWPIFKGKO(CNNGFGU(GJNGPUFKTGMVGTO·PPNK EJGT 'TDGP GKPVTGVGP UQNNVG 2CTCNNGN\WUGKPGTOKNKV·TKUEJGP1RGTCVKQPXGTUWEJVG2TGWUUGPQJPG'THQNI CO9KGPGT*QHCWHFKRNQOCVKUEJGO9GIGUGKPG+PVGTGUUGPFWTEJ\WUGV\GP

4496

4496 1,5:1



(TKGFTKEJ ++ FGT )TQ­G  )QNFOGFCKNNG \W XKGT &WMCVGP  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP   )GQTI 9KNJGNO -KVVGN $TGUNCW CWH FGP #WUDTWEJ FGU GTUVGP 5EJNGUKUEJGP -TKGIGU WPF FGP GKP ,CJT   \WXQT GKPIGVTGVGPGP 6QF XQP -CKUGT -CTN 8+ 7PVGTJCND FGU CWH GKPGO UVGKPGTPGP 7PVGTDCW UVGJGPFGP   5CTMQRJCIUFGU-CKUGTUFKGYGKDNKEJG8GTMÌTRGTWPI5EJNGUKGPUUKV\GPFTUKEJOKVFGOTGEJVGP#TOCWH FGPUEJNGUKUEJGP#FNGTUEJKNFUVÒV\GPFFKG.KPMGCNU<GKEJGPFGT6TCWGTCO-QRHUEJNGKGT#O*QTK\QPV TFKGWPVGTIGJGPFG5QPPG/GPUEJGPWPF2HGTFGNGKEJGPKPQHHGPGO)GN·PFGWPVGTJCNDFGUUVTCJNGPFGP 5[ODQNUFGU2NCPGVGP/CTUXGTUVTGWVNKGIGPFKO*KPVGTITWPFDTGPPGPFG*·WUGTOOI (W5XIN FQTVKP5KNDGTWPF$TQP\G 5NI*GPEMGNXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI,WNKWU XIN FQTVKP5KNDGT /CTKGPD5NI/QPVGPWQXQXINDKU1NF  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+'5%*.#%*6$'+%*1675+6< +O ,CJT  OCTUEJKGTVGP ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJG 6TWRRGP WPVGT (ÒJTWPI FGU *GT\QIU -CTN XQP .QVJTKPIGP   4KEJVWPI2TCIWOFKGUVTCVGIKUEJWPFHÒTFGP0CEJUEJWDYKEJVKIGDÌJOKUEJG*CWRVUVCFVCP\WITGKHGP FKGXQPGKPGT)CTPKUQPFGTOKV2TGWUUGPXGTDÒPFGVGP$C[GTPIGJCNVGPYWTFG(TKGFTKEJ++UVGNNVGUKEJ OKV  /CPP GKNKI FGT GVYC INGKEJ UVCTMGP ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP #TOGG KP FGP 9GI #O /QTIGP FGU   /CKMCOGUDGK%JQVWUKV\ VUEJGEJ%JQVWUKEG KP$ÌJOGP\WT5EJNCEJVFKGUEJQPIGIGP/KVVCI \WIWPUVGP2TGWUUGPUGPVUEJKGFGPYCT9·JTGPF(TKGFTKEJ/CPPXGTNQT\·JNVGPFKG¤UVGTTGKEJGT 8GTNWUVG&KG$GFTQJWPI2TCIUYCTFCOKVXQTGTUVDGUGKVKIVWPFFKG8GTUQTIWPIFGTRTGWUUKUEJGP 8GTD·PFGYGKVGTJKPIGUKEJGTV&GT'THQNIDGK%JQVWUKV\DQVHÒT2TGWUUGPGKPGIÒPUVKIG8GTJCPFNWPIURQ UKVKQPDGKO#DUEJNWUUFGU$TGUNCWGT8QTHTKGFGPUCO,WPKFGU,CJTGUKPFGO/CTKC6JGTGUKCKJTGO )GIPGT(TKGFTKEJFKG)TCHUEJCHV)NCV\0KGFGTWPFGKPKIG6GKNG1DGTUEJNGUKGPUÒDGTNKG­

4497



176

(TKGFTKEJ ++ FGT )TQ­G  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP )GQTI 9KNJGNO   -KVVGN$TGUNCWCWHFKG5EJNCEJVDGK%JQVWUKV\CO/CKFGU,CJTGU$ÒUVGFGU-ÌPKIUTCWHGKPGOOKV UGEJU (CJPGP WPF $GWVGYCHHGP UVCHHKGTVGP 5QEMGN4GKVGTIGHGEJV KO *KPVGTITWPF GKPG )TWRRG XQP N   XQTTÒEMGPFGP +PHCPVGTKUVGP  OO  I ( W 5  5NI *GPEMGN  5NI ,WNKWU    1NF/CTKGPD &WPMNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




Preußisches Feldlager.

&+'$'5'6<70)&'5-74(ª456'067/55#%*5'0+/5+'$'0,*4+)'0 -4+') #O#WIWUVÒDGTUEJTKVVGPRTGWUUKUEJG5QNFCVGPFKGMWTU·EJUKUEJG)TGP\G/KVFGT'T QDGTWPI GKPGU PGWVTCNGP 0CEJDCTUVCCVGU YQNNVG FGT 2TGWUUGPMÌPKI GKPGO HÒT FCU HQNIGPFG ,CJT IGIGP   2TGWUUGPIGRNCPVGP#PITKHH¤UVGTTGKEJUWPF4WUUNCPFU\WXQTMQOOGPWPFUKEJ\WINGKEJGKPGIWVG1RGTC VKQPUDCUKUIGIGP$ÌJOGPXGTUEJCHHGP7PIGJKPFGTVMQPPVGPFKG2TGWUUGPCO5GRVGODGTKP&TGUFGP GKPOCTUEJKGTGP&GTU·EJUKUEJG.CPFGUJGTT(TKGFTKEJ#WIWUV++ KP2GTUQPCNWPKQPCNU#WIWUV+++CWEJ -ÌPKI XQP 2QNGP  YCT WPVGTFGUUGP PCEJ 9CTUEJCW IGHNQJGP UGKPG #TOGG DGK 2KTPC XQP FGP 2TGWUUGP   GKPIGMTGKUV0CEJFGOFKG\WO$GKUVCPFHÒTFKG5CEJUGPGPVUCPFVGPÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP5QNFCVGPCO 1MVQDGTDGK.QDQUKV\KP$ÌJOGPXQPFGP2TGWUUGPIGUEJNCIGPYQTFGPYCTGPMCRKVWNKGTVGFCU GVYC  /CPP UVCTMG U·EJUKUEJG *GGT CO  1MVQDGT 5QOKV MCO ICP\ -WTUCEJUGP WPVGT   RTGWUUKUEJG *GTTUEJCHV WPF 8GTYCNVWPI &CU .CPF DNKGD DKU  WPVGT RTGWUUKUEJGT -QPVTQNNG CNU   (TKGFTKEJ ++ UGKPG JKGT UVCVKQPKGTVGP 6TWRRGP \WO -CORH IGIGP FKG XGTDÒPFGVGP 4WUUGP WPF   ¤UVGTTGKEJGT YGKVIGJGPF CD\QI &CTCWHJKP MQPPVG FKG 4GKEJUCTOGG KO #WIWUV *CNNG /GTUGDWTI   .GKR\KI 6QTICW WPF 9KVVGPDGTI GKPPGJOGP #O  #WIWUV  UVCPF FCU 4GKEJUJGGT XQT &TGUFGP   WPF MQPPVG FKG 5VCFV CO  5GRVGODGT PGJOGP &GP 2TGWUUGP IGNCPI GU KPFGU OKV  5QNFCVGP   .GKR\KI YKGFGT \W DGUGV\GP FQEJ FKG 4ÒEMGTQDGTWPI FGU U·EJUKUEJGP )GUCOVIGDKGVU OKUUNCPI    XGTUWEJVG(TKGFTKEJFGT)TQ­G&TGUFGPFWTEJGKPGOCUUKXG$GUEJKG­WPIYKGFGTKPUGKPG*CPF\WDTKP IGPFQEJFKGUGT2NCPIKPIPKEJVCWH5CEJUGPDNKGD-TKGIUUEJCWRNCV\WPF5VCPFQTVDGKFGTIGIPGTKUEJGT 2CTVGKGP 'TUV FGT CO  (GDTWCT  \YKUEJGP 2TGWUUGP WPF ¤UVGTTGKEJ IGUEJNQUUGPGP (TKGFG XQP   *WDGTVWUDWTI DTCEJVG FKG 9KGFGTJGTUVGNNWPI FGT CNVGP 8GTJ·NVPKUUG KP 5CEJUGP WPF FKG 4ÒEMMGJT FGU   -WTHÒTUVGP  &KG RTGWUUKUEJG $GUCV\WPI 5CEJUGPU JKPVGTNKG­ FGO .CPF GKP UEJYGTGU XQNMUYKTVUEJCHVNKEJGU 'TDG   -TKGIUUEJ·FGP WPF JQJG PKEJV GPFGPFG -QPVTKDWVKQPUHQTFGTWPIGP FGT $GUCV\GT JCVVGP FKG U·EJUKUEJG   9KTVUEJCHVUVCTMDGGKPVT·EJVKIV&QEJPKEJVPWTFKG#DICDGPFGT$ÒTIGTJCDGPFGO2TGWUUGPMÌPKIJQJG 'KPMÒPHVGGKPIGDTCEJVJCVVGGTFKG.GKR\KIGT/ÒP\UV·VVGCPFGP7PVGTPGJOGT'RJTCKOXGTRCEJVGV FGTFQTVRTGWUUKUEJGU-TKGIUIGNFUQYKGOCUUGPYGKUGOKPFGTYGTVKIG/ÒP\GPOKVFGO$KNFPKUFGUU·EJUK UEJGP-WTHÒTUVGPWPFFGOU·EJUKUEJRQNPKUEJGP9CRRGPCWUXQTIGHWPFGPGPWPFOKVPGWIGUEJPKVVGPGP VGKNU TÒEMFCVKGTVGP 5VGORGNP RT·IGP NKG­ FKG KO 8QNMG DCNF FGP 5RQVVPCOGP ō'RJTCKOKVGPŋ GTJKGNVGP   #WEJFKG/ÒP\UV·VVG\W&TGUFGPGTJKGNV'RJTCKO\WT2CEJVYQGDGPHCNNUUGKV5QOOGTUEJNGEJVGU -TKGIUIGNF GPVUVCPF (GTPGT YWTFGP JKGT CDGT KP GKPGO IGYKUUGP 7OHCPI XQNNYGTVKIG 0QOKPCNG WPVGT   6CNGTITÌ­G IGRT·IV FCPGDGP CWU PGWGP 5VGORGNP CWEJ IWVJCNVKIG &WMCVGP UQYKG 6CNGT MWTU·EJUKUEJ   RQNPKUEJGP )GRT·IGU FKG CWH KJTGT 4ÒEMUGKVG FKG +PKVKCNGP FGU /ÒP\OGKUVGTU ,QJCPP &CXKF $KNNGT WPF   FKUMTGVWPVGTJCNDFGUU·EJUKUEJRQNPKUEJGP9CRRGPUFCUIGMTÌPVG/QPQITCOO(TKGFTKEJU++VTCIGP

4498 1,5:1



1,5:1

(TKGFTKEJ++FGT)TQ­G&WMCV&TGUFGP)WVJCNVKIG-TKGIURT·IWPII$TWUV DKNF (TKGFTKEJ #WIWUVU ++ XQP 5CEJUGP T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN<YKUEJGP <YGKIGP   IGMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF WPVGP FCU /QPQITCOO (4 (D  FQTV WPVGT   5CEJUGP 1NFCX5EJT  )1.&W­GTUVUGNVGP#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFRCVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  177


4500



4499

4501

4GKEJUVCNGT  &TGUFGP )WVJCNVKIG -TKGIURT·IWPI #WUDGWVG FGT U·EJUKUEJGP )TWDGP  I   $TWUVDKNF (TKGFTKEJ #WIWUVU ++ XQP 5CEJUGP T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO *GTOGNKPOCPVGN CWH FGT   $TWUV FCU -NGKPQF FGU 1TFGPU XQO )QNFGPGP 8NKGU CO $CPFG VTCIGPF&KG 9CRRGPUEJKNFG FGU   -ÌPKITGKEJU 2QNGP WPF FGU -WTHÒTUVGPVWOU 5CEJUGP QDGP -TQPG WPVGP FCU /QPQITCOO (4   &CX/ÒUGNGTE1NFC5EJPGGX5EJTC 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+'8'46'+&+)70)70&&'4'065#6<&'4('5670)-1.$'4)



&KGOKVUVCTMGP(GUVWPIUOCWGTPWOYGJTVGRQOOGTUEJG-ÒUVGPUVCFV-QNDGTIYWTFGKO5KGDGPL·JTKIGP -TKGI FTGKOCN XQP TWUUKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVGP DGNCIGTV  DGJCWRVGVG UKEJ FKG  /CPP \·JNGPFG   RTGWUUKUEJG$GUCV\WPI\WUCOOGPOKVFGP$ÒTIGTPIGIGPÒDGTGKPGT5QNFCVGPUVCTMGPTWUUKUEJGP #TOGG&KGXQO#WIWUVDKU\WO5GRVGODGTY·JTGPFG\YGKVG$GNCIGTWPIMQPPVGFKGWPVGT $GHGJNFGU(GUVWPIUMQOOCPFCPVGP1DGTUV*GKPTKEJXQPFGT*G[FGUVGJGPFG)CTPKUQPGDGPHCNNUFWTEJ UVGJGP &GP 8GTVGKFKIGTP UVCPFGP GKPG (NQVVG CWU UEJYGFKUEJGP WPF TWUUKUEJGP -TKGIUUEJKHHGP UQYKG    /CPP HGKPFNKEJGT +PHCPVGTKG IGIGPÒDGT &KG XQP )GPGTCNOCLQT 2CWN XQP 9GTPGT IGHÒJTVGP 'PV   UCV\MT·HVGDGUVGJGPFCWUFGP$TCWPGP*WUCTGPWPFFTGKGT$CVCKNNQPGRTGW­KUEJGT+PHCPVGTKGGTTGKEJVGP -QNDGTICO5GRVGODGT#PIGUKEJVUFGT8GTUV·TMWPIUGV\VGPUKEJFKG$GNCIGTGTCOHQNIGPFGP6CIG HNWEJVCTVKIÒDGTFKG1UVUGGCD (TKGFTKEJ++FGT)TQ­G5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP0KNU)GQTIKWPF,CEQD#DTCJCO$GT NKPCWHFKG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGT(GUVWPI-QNDGTIWPFFKG$GHTGKWPI2QOOGTPU$TWUVDKNFFGURTGWUUKUEJGP -QOOCPFCPVGP1DGTUV*GKPTKEJ5KIKUOWPFXQPFGT*G[FGTKP7PKHQTOFGP1TFGP2QWTNG/¾TKVGXQT FGT$TWUVVTCIGPF#O/GGTGUWHGT-TKGIGTUVGJGPFNFCU5EJYGTVIGIGPGKPCWUFGO9CUUGTCWHVCW EJGPFGU 4CWEJ URGKGPFGU 7PIGJGWGT TKEJVGPF WPF OKV GKPGO OKV FGO 2TGWUUGPCFNGT IGYCRRPGVGP   5EJKNF FKG PGDGP KJO UKV\GPFG YGKDNKEJG 8GTMÌTRGTWPI 2QOOGTPU DGUEJKTOGPF  OO  I   (W5*QHHOCPP/CTKGPD1NF 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ  8QP FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /GFCKNNG DGMCO 1DGTUV XQP FGT *G[FG XQO -ÌPKI GKP IQNFGPGU WPF  UKNDGTPG 'ZGORNCTG   ÒDGTTGKEJV ōWO FKG 'TKPPGTWPI CP FKG TWJOYÒTFKIG &GHGPUKQP UQ +JT \W YKGFGTJQNVGP /CNGP XQP FGT 'WEJ CPDG   VTCWVGP8GUVWPI%QNDGTIIGVJCPJCDVCWEJCWHFKGUR·VGUVG0CEJTKEJV\WDTKPIGP&CU$KNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGKUVFGO /QVKXXQP2GTUGWUWPF#PFTQOGFCCWUFGTCPVKMGPITKGEJKUEJGP/[VJQNQIKGPCEJGORHWPFGP



178

<KPPIW­OGFCKNNGXQP0KNU)GQTIKWPF,CEQD#DTCJCO$GTNKPCWHFGP'PVUCV\FGT(GUVWPI-QN DGTI $TWUVDKNF FGU )GPGTCNOCLQTU 2CWN XQP 9GTPGT T KP*WUCTGPWPKHQTOOKVWOIGNGIVGO2GN\WPF FGO 1TFGP 2QWT NG /¾TKVG#O /GGTGUWHGT GKP -TKGIGT UVGJGPF N FCU 5EJYGTV IGIGP GKP CWU FGO   9CUUGT CWHVCWEJGPFGU 4CWEJ URGKGPFGU 7PIGJGWGT TKEJVGPF WPF OKV GKPGO OKV FGO 2TGW­GPCFNGT IG   YCRRPGVGP5EJKNFFKGPGDGPKJOUKV\GPFGYGKDNKEJG8GTMÌTRGTWPI2QOOGTPUDGUEJKTOGPFOO (W5*QHHOCPP/CTKGPD1NF NVGTGT)W­-N1Z[FHNGEMGPXQT\ÒINKEJ




&+'4755+5%*'$'5'6<70)15624'755'05 <CTKP'NKUCDGVJ+2GVTQXPCJCVVGCO&G\GODGT1UVRTGW­GP\WOTWUUKUEJGP'KIGPVWOGTMN·TV PCEJFGODGTGKVUKO,WPKWPF#WIWUVTWUUKUEJG6TWRRGPUKGITGKEJKPFGP1UVGPFGT2TQXKP\GKPOCTUEJKGTV YCTGP UKEJ LGFQEJ CWHITWPF CWHMQOOGPFGT 8GTUQTIWPIUUEJYKGTKIMGKVGP KO 1MVQDGT DKU PCEJ /GOGN   \WTÒEMIG\QIGP JCVVGP $GK KJTGO CDGTOCNKIGP 'KPOCTUEJ MQPPVG FKG TWUUKUEJG 5VTGKVOCEJV KO ,CPWCT    QJPG PGPPGPUYGTVG )GIGPYGJT XQTFTKPIGP WPF ICP\ 1UVRTGW­GP QMMWRKGTGP -ÌPKIUDGTI MCRKVW   NKGTVGCO,CPWCT&KG2TQXKP\DGJKGNVWPVGTFGTTWUUKUEJGP*GTTUEJCHVGKPGIGYKUUG5GNDUV·PFKIMGKV &KG.CPFGUIGUGV\GDNKGDGPDGUVGJGPGDGPUQFKG8GTYCNVWPIUWPF,WUVK\MQNNGIKGPUCOVKJTGP$GCOVGP PWT GTJKGNVGP UKG TWUUKUEJG 1HHK\KGTG CNU #WHUKEJVUKPUVCP\GP DGKIGQTFPGV &KG JÌEJUVG )GYCNV KO .CPFG   QDNCI FGO /KNKV·TIQWXGTPGWT )TCH (GTOQT TGUR UGKPGP #OVUCEJHQNIGTP XQP -QTHH WPF 5WTQYQY   &KG4WUUGPHQTFGTVGPXQPFGT$GXÌNMGTWPIWOHCPITGKEJG0CVWTCNNKGHGTWPIGPCPFKG#TOGGWPFXQPFGP 5V·FVGP-TKGIUMQPVTKDWVKQPGPFKGWPFLGYGKNU/KNNKQP6CNGTDGVTWIGP&CU)GDQVFGT#D NKGHGTWPILGINKEJGT9CHHGPFKGªDGTYCEJWPIFGU2QUVYGUGPUWPFFKG2TGUUG\GPUWTUQNNVGPFGT#WHTGEJV GTJCNVWPIXQP4WJGWPF1TFPWPIKO.CPFGFKGPGP5GKVGPVUVCPFHÒT1UVRTGW­GPURG\KGNNGU$GUCV \WPIUIGNF FCU  KP -ÌPKIUDGTI WPF  CWEJ KP /QUMCW IGRT·IV YWTFG GKPGTUGKVU WO FGP   *CPFGNWPF9CPFGN\WHÌTFGTPCPFGTGTUGKVUCDGTCWEJWOOKVFGT#WUÒDWPIFGU/ÒP\TGEJVUFKG<CTKP CNUPGWG.CPFGUJGTTKP\WRT·UGPVKGTGP&KGXQTOCNKIGP$GFKGPUVGVGPFGT/ÒP\UV·VVG-ÌPKIUDGTIYCTGP XQT#PMWPHVFGT$GUCV\GTIGHNQJGPOKV#WUPCJOGFGU/ÒP\MQPVTQNNGWTU$GTPJCTF(TKGFTKEJ<KVGOCPP FGT KO #RTKN CNU TWUUKUEJGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT CPIGPQOOGP WPF XGTGKFKIV YWTFG &GT 6QFFGT<CTKP'NKUC DGVJCO,CPWCTWPFFGTXQPKJTGO0CEJHQNIGT<CT2GVGT+++CO/CKOKVFGO2TGWUUGPMÌPKI IGUEJNQUUGPG(TKGFGPUCJGKPGUQHQTVKIG4ÒEMICDG1UVRTGW­GPUXQTFKGCDGTPKEJVWPOKVVGNDCTWOIGUGV\V YWTFGFCFGT<CTKO,WNKGKPGO/QTF\WO1RHGTHKGNWPFUGKPG)GOCJNKPWPF6JTQPHQNIGTKP'NKUCDGVJ ++\WP·EJUVFGP(TKGFGPUUEJNWUUÒDGTFCEJVG&QEJCO#WIWUVVTCV1UVRTGW­GPYKGFGTWPVGTFKG*GTT UEJCHV-ÌPKI(TKGFTKEJU++&KGNGV\VGPTWUUKUEJGP5QNFCVGPXGTNKG­GPFCU.CPFKO5GRVGODGT

4502



'NKUCDGVJ 2GVTQXPC   6CNGT  -ÌPKIUDGTI  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF FGT TWUUK   UEJGP<CTKP'NKUCDGVJ2GVTQXPCTKPFGMQNNGVKGTVGO-NGKFWPF/CPVGN)GMTÌPVGT#FNGTOKV<GRVGTWPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KO #DUEJPKVV FKG 9GTVCPICDG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   1NF  C /CKNNGV 6H   .:8+++X5EJT 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



$4#70#7#/+00 &+'$'.#)'470)810$4#70#7 +O¤UVGTTGKEJKUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGIJCVVGPÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJG6TWRRGPYGKVG6GKNG$C[GTPUGKPIGPQO OGP&KGDGHGUVKIVG5VCFV$TCWPCWYWTFGUGKVFGO/CKXQPÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGP8GTD·PFGPWPVGT'T\JGT \QI-CTNWPF(GNFOCTUEJCNN.WFYKI#PFTGCUXQP-JGXGPJÒNNGTDGNCIGTV&GTCNUMWTDC[GTKUEJGT)GPG TCN(GNF\GWIOGKUVGT KP &KGPUVGP FGU YKVVGNUDCEJKUEJGP )GIGPMCKUGTU -CTN 8++ UVGJGPFG 5VCFVMQOOCP   FCPV .WFYKI (TKGFTKEJ *GT\QI \W 5CEJUGP*KNFDWTIJCWUGP NKG­ KP FKGUGT 5KVWCVKQP 0QVOÒP\GP CWU   $NGK<KPPNGIKGTWPIGPWPFCWEJCWU'FGNOGVCNNUEJNCIGP&KG5VCFVHKGNCO,WPKKPFKG*·PFG FGT$GNCIGTGT

4503 1,5:1



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG8KGTVGNVCNGTMNKRRGWPDGUVKOOVGT9GTVUVWHGI&GTOKVFGO*GT\QIUJWV ÒDGTJÌJVGU·EJUKUEJG4CWVGPUEJKNF\YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP2CNO\YGKIGPZOO$TCWUG/CPU HGNF6H*GTKPGM*QNNOCPP-GNNPGT/CKNNGV6H:8+  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCOKPLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG$GUVKOOWPIFGT0QOKPCNGFKGUGTWPFFGTHQNIGPFGP5KNDGTMNKRRGKUVPKEJVIGUKEJGTV

179


2:1





4504

4505

'KPUGKVKIG MNGKPG QMVQIQPCNG 5KNDGTMNKRRG \W  -TGW\GTP   I &GT OKV FGO *GT\QIUJWV ÒDGT   JÌJVG U·EJUKUEJG 4CWVGPUEJKNF \YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP 2CNO\YGKIGP  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6H*GTKPGMXCT*QNNOCPP-GNNPGT/CKNNGV6H:8+ 4(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



'KPUGKVKIG QMVQIQPCNG $NGK<KPP8KGTVGNIWNFGPMNKRRG \W  -TGW\GTP   I &GT OKV FGO *GT   \QIUJWV ÒDGTJÌJVG U·EJUKUEJG 4CWVGPUEJKNF \YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP 2CNO\YGKIGP  Z  OO   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H*GTKPGM*QNNOCPP-GNNPGT/CKNNGV6H:8+ 5GJTUEJÌP



$4#705%*9'+) &+'56#&6+0&'4#75'+0#0&'45'6<70)/+6+*4'/.#0&'5*'440  +PFGT5VCFV$TCWPUEJYGKIJCVVGPUEJQPHTÒJFKG+FGGPFGT4GHQTOCVKQP(W­IGHCUUV&KG#WUÒDWPIFGT PGWGP .GJTG YWTFG XQP 4CV WPF $ÒTIGTUEJCHV  QHHK\KGNN \WIGNCUUGP &CFWTEJ IGTKGV FKG 5VCFV KP   -QPHNKMVOKVKJTGO.CPFGUJGTTP*GT\QI*GKPTKEJFGO,ÒPIGTGPFGTHGUVFGOCNVGPTÌOKUEJGP)NCWDGP XGTJCHVGVYCT0CEJFGOGUCWHFGO.CPFVCIXQP5CN\FCJNWO\WO$TWEJ\YKUEJGPFGT5VCFVWPF FGO.CPFGUJGTTPIGMQOOGPYCTVTCV$TCWPUEJYGKIKO#WIWUVFGO5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGP$WPFDGK GKPGO5EJWV\DÒPFPKUFGTGXCPIGNKUEJGP(ÒTUVGPWPF5V·FVG7PVGTFGO5EJWV\FGU$WPFGUXGTOKPFGTVG FKG$ÒTIGTUEJCHVFKG<CJNFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP-KTEJGP-NÌUVGTWPFÒDTKIGP+PUVKVWVKQPGP+O$NKEMCWHFKG NCVGPVG$GFTQJWPIFGT5V·FVG$TCWPUEJYGKIWPF)QUNCTFWTEJ*GKPTKEJFGP,ÒPIGTGPGTMN·TVGPKJOFKG 5EJOCNMCNFGPGTFGP-TKGIWPFDGUGV\VGPUGKP*GTTUEJCHVUIGDKGVYCUFGP*GT\QI\WT(NWEJVXGT CPNCUUVG 5GKV  WPVGTPCJO GT OGJTGTG 8GTUWEJG UGKP .CPF\WTÒEM\WGTQDGTP8GTIGDGPUXGTUWEJVG GTKPFKGUGO,CJTCWEJFKG5VCFV$TCWPUEJYGKI\WGTQDGTP&GT*GT\QIIGTKGVDCNFFCTCWHDGK*ÌEMGN JGKOKPJGUUKUEJG)GHCPIGPUEJCHVCWUFGTGTPCEJFGT0KGFGTNCIGFGU5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGP$WPFGUKPFGT 5EJNCEJV DGK /ÒJNDGTI  YKGFGT HTGK MCO &C 5EJNKEJVWPIUXGTUWEJG \YKUEJGP $TCWPUEJYGKI WPF   *GT\QI*GKPTKEJGTIGDPKUNQUDNKGDGPMCOGUKO,WNK\WT$GUGV\WPIFGU.CPFIGDKGVUWPF\WGKPGT CEJVYÌEJKIGP$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJJGT\QINKEJG5VTGKVMT·HVGFKGKO5GRVGODGTKPHQNIGMCKUGTNKEJGT 8GTOKVVNWPI CWHIGJQDGP YWTFG &GT *GT\QI MQP\GPVTKGTVG UKEJ KP FGP HQNIGPFGP ,CJTGP OGJT CWH FKG   $GM·ORHWPI FGT 5VCFV )QUNCT WPF FGP -CORH IGIGP #NDTGEJV #NEKDKCFGU XQP $TCPFGPDWTI-WNODCEJ   FGP GT  KP FGT 5EJNCEJV DGK 5KGXGTUJCWUGP UEJNWI +O 5GRVGODGT FKGUGU ,CJTGU DGNCIGTVG *GKPTKEJ   CDGTOCNU$TCWPUEJYGKIFQEJYKGFGTQJPG'THQNI7PVGT8GTOKVVNWPIFGU-CKUGTU\CJNTGKEJGT(ÒTUVGP WPF5V·FVGUEJNQUUGPFKG-QPVTCJGPVGPKO1MVQDGTFGP(TKGFGP\W9QNHGPDÒVVGNKPFGOUKEJDGKFG 2CTVGKGP \WT HTGKGP 4GNKIKQPUCWUÒDWPI DGTGKV GTMN·TVGP &KG 5VCFV MQPPVG YGKVIGJGPF KJTG 7PCDJ·PIKI   MGKVDGYCJTGP

4506

4506 1,5:1



180

*CNDVCNGTUQI5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGT$WPFGUJCNDVCNGTI.ÌYGUVGKIGPFN%JTKUVWUCWHGKPGO CO$QFGPNKGIGPFGPOGPUEJNKEJGP5MGNGVVUVGJGPFXXOKV-TGW\HCJPGWPF\WO5GIGPGTJQDGPGT.KP MGP*KPVGPQHHGPGT5CTMQRJCI$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVGPVURTGEJGPFGT6CNGT ,GUUGa -P[RJ/CKNNGV 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV<YGKYKP\KIG)TCHHKVKUGJTUEJÌP




&+'$'.#)'470)810$4#705%*9'+) +O HTÒJGP  ,CJTJWPFGTV YWTFG FKG *CPUGUVCFV $TCWPUEJYGKI GTPGWV XQP #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGP OKV   KJTGO .CPFGUJGTTP UQYKG XQP KPPGTGP -QPHNKMVGP GTUEJÒVVGTV +P FGT \YGKVGP *·NHVG FGU ,CJTGU    HÒJTVGPFKGIGUGNNUEJCHVNKEJGP#WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGPKOUV·FVKUEJGP)GOGKPYGUGP\WGKPGTITWPFU·V\NKEJ PGWGP HÒT FCOCNKIG 8GTJ·NVPKUUG TGXQNWVKQP·TGP 0GWQTFPWPI FGU 5VCFVTCVU FKG FKG 8QTJGTTUEJCHV FGT   2CVTK\KGTWPFFGTTGKEJGTGP)KNFGPDTCEJ)NGKEJ\GKVKIOÒPFGVGFGTUEJQPUEJYGNGPFG-QPHNKMVKPGKPGP -TKGI OKV FGO .CPFGUJGTTP *GT\QI (TKGFTKEJ 7NTKEJ $GTGKVU FGUUGP 8QTI·PIGT *GT\QI *GKPTKEJ ,W   NKWUJCVVGFKGPCEJUGKPGT#WHHCUUWPIWPDQVO·­KIG5VCFVPCEJGKPGOOKUUINÒEMVGP#PITKHHDGNCIGTV WPF FCU (GNF GTUV IGT·WOV CNU JCPUKUEJG 6TWRRGP  \WO 'PVUCV\ CPTÒEMVGP &C FKG 4GHQTOGP FGT   IGUGNNUEJCHVNKEJGP 5VTWMVWTGP KP FGT 5VCFV CWEJ FGO PGWGP *GT\QI (TKGFTKEJ 7NTKEJGKP&QTPKO#WIG YCTGP UEJKEMVG GT CO  ,WNK  CNUQ TWPF \YGK ,CJTG PCEJ UGKPGO 4GIKGTWPIUCPVTKVV GKPG 5VTGKV   OCEJVXQTFKG/CWGTP$TCWPUEJYGKIU&CU*GTCPPCJGPGKPGT/CPPUVCTMGP8QTJWVFGT\WT*KNHG IGTWHGPGPWOHCUUGPFGPJCPUKUEJPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP'PVUCV\VTWRRGPWPVGTFGO-QOOCPFQFGU4GKEJUHTGK JGTTP$QFQXQP-P[RJCWUGPDTCEJVGCO5GRVGODGTFCU'PFGFGT$GNCIGTWPI+PFGOCO&G \GODGTIGUEJNQUUGPGP(TKGFGPXQP5VGVGTDWTI JGWVG5VCFVVGKNXQP5CN\IKVVGT DGUV·VKIVGFGT*GT\QI FKG(TGKJGKVGPFGT5VCFV+O)GIGP\WIXGTRHNKEJVGVGUKEJFKGUG\WT'TDJWNFKIWPI

4507



5KNDGTPGU /GFCKNNQP  XQP *GKPTKEJ 4CRRQUV $TCWPUEJYGKI CWH FKG $GNCIGTWPI FGT 5VCFV $TCWP   UEJYGKI $CTJ·WRVKIGU *ÒHVDKNF FGU *GT\QIU (TKGFTKEJ 7NTKEJ XQP $TCWPUEJYGKI9QNHGPDÒVVGN T KP   *CTPKUEJKPFGT4GEJVGPFGP-QOOCPFQUVCDJCNVGPFFKG.KPMGCWHGKPGOQHHGPGP8KUKGTJGNOFGTCWH GKPGOOKVGKPGT&GEMGXGTJÒNNVGP6KUEJUVGJV'KPGO·EJVKIG(TÒEJVGVTCIGPFG'KEJGKO*KPVGTITWPF FKG5VCFV$TCWPUEJYGKI.KPMUQDGPFGT0COG,GJQXCUKPJGDT·KUEJGP.GVVGTPWOIGDGPXQP5VTCJNGP FKGGKP9QNMGPDCPFFWTEJDTGEJGPWPFFGP$CWOVGKNUDGUEJGKPGPVGKNUXGTDTGPPGPOOI $TQEMOCPPC(KCNC-P[RJ 445GJTUEJÌP 

4508



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP%JTKUVKCP/CNGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFV#WUFGT8QIGNUEJCW #PUKEJV FGT XQP HGKPFNKEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVGP GKPIGUEJNQUUGPGP 5VCFV&GT XQP GKPGO .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF   GKPGO FTGKHCEJGP 5EJTKHVMTGKU WOUEJNQUUGPG 5VCFVUEJKNF  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT    -PKIIG-P[RJ 4-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 181


$4#705%*9'+)91.('0$ª66'. &+'2(#(('0('+0&24)70)&'5ō61..'0%*4+56+#0ŋ

4509

Christian, Bischof von Halberstadt 1617-1627.



%JTKUVKCP$KUEJQHXQP*CNDGTUVCFV4GKEJUVCNGT.KRRUVCFV2HCHHGPHGKPFVCNGTI )166'5  (4'80&6  &'4 2(#(('0  ('+0&6 KPOKVVGP GKPGU XKGNHCEJ DQIKIGP 4WPFU'KP CWU   GKPGT 9QNMG N JGTXQTVTGVGPFGT IGRCP\GTVGT JKOONKUEJGT #TO GKP 5EJYGTV JCNVGPF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6H&CX$&GVJNGHU++&WXG8++/CKNNGV6H+++9GNVGT  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG2HCHHGPHGKPFVCNGTYGTFGPCWEJ)QVVGUHTGWPFVCNGTIGPCPPV&KGUG5RQVVOÒP\GPFGUHÒTFKG5CEJGFGU2TQVGUVCPVKUOWU M·ORHGPFGPVQNNGP%JTKUVKCPYWTFGPCWU-KTEJGPUKNDGTDGUQPFGTUFGU2CFGTDQTPGT&QOUIGRT·IV

4510



4GKEJUVCNGT  .KRRUVCFV 2HCHHGPHGKPFVCNGT  I )166'5  (4'80&6  &'4 2(#(('0    ('+0&6 KPOKVVGP GKPGU XKGNHCEJ DQIKIGP 4WPFU'KP CWU GKPGT 9QNMG N JGTXQTVTGVGPFGT IGRCP\GTVGT   JKOONKUEJGT#TOJ·NVGKP5EJYGTVCWHFGUUGP5RKV\GGKP$KTGVVFGU,GUWKVGPQTFGPUUVGEMV$TCWUG/CPU HGNF6H&CX&GVJNGHU8+&WXG8+++/CKNNGV6H+++9GNVGT  445GJTUEJÌP  $GUQPFGTUUGNVGPUKPFFKGURÌVVKUEJGP2HCHHGPHGKPFVCNGTOKVFGTXQO5EJYGTVCWHIGURKG­VGP,GUWKVGPMCRRGGKPGOXQP FGP 2TQVGUVCPVGP UGJT IGJCUUVGP 6GKN FGT MCVJQNKUEJGP #OVUVTCEJV 5KG YWTFGP  WPF PQEJOCNU KP FGP GT   ,CJTGP IGRT·IV ªDGT FKG 0CEJRT·IWPI FGT 5RQVVOÒP\GP DGUEJYGTVG UKEJ FGT #FOKPKUVTCVQT XQP %QTXG[ FGT OÒP   UVGTKUEJG(ÒTUVDKUEJQH%JTKUVQH$GTPJCTFXQP)CNGPKO,CJT UKGJG)GTF&GVJNGHU&KG2HCHHGPHGKPFOÒP\GPFGU *GT\QIU %JTKUVKCP XQP $TCWPUEJYGKI  KP 00$ /·T\  5   5R·VGT YWTFGP FKGUG UEJQP KO    ,CJTJWPFGTVDGK5COONGTPUGJTDGNKGDVGP5RQVVOÒP\GPOCPKRWNKGTVKPFGOCWH'ZGORNCTGPOKVFGODNQ­GP5EJYGTV FKG ,GUWKVGPMCRRG PCEJVT·INKEJ CWHIGNÌVGV YWTFG &KG 2HCHHGPHGKPFVCNGT UKPF GKP DGUQPFGTU CPUEJCWNKEJGU &QMWOGPV   FGTRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP2TQRCICPFCY·JTGPFFGU&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIGU

182


&+'9+'&'4*'456'..70)&'470+10&'4)'0'4#.56##6'0&'4 0+'&'4.#0&'

4511



-CTN9KNJGNO(GTFKPCPF<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP%JTKUVKCPQFGT,QJCPP/CVVJKCU 4GKEJ(ÒTVJCWHFKG9KGFGTJGTUVGNNWPIFGT7PKQPFGT)GPGTCNUVCCVGPFGT0KGFGTNCPFGFWTEJFKGRTGW­K UEJG #TOGG WPVGT FGT (ÒJTWPI XQP )GPGTCNHGNFOCTUEJCNN -CTN 9KNJGNO (TKGFTKEJ XQP $TCWPUEJYGKI   9QNHGPDÒVVGN $TWUVDKNF T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN FCTCWH FGT 5VGTP FGU *QUGPDCPFQT   FGPUWPFOKVWOIGNGIVGO1TFGPUDCPFUCOVJGTCDJ·PIGPFGO-NGKPQF$NKEMCWH#OUVGTFCOQDGPFKG DQIGPHÌTOKI CPIGQTFPGVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNFG FGT PKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP 2TQXKP\GP +O #DUEJPKVV FKGUGNDGP   5EJKNFG WPIGQTFPGV ITWRRKGTV /KV FGO QTKIKPCNGP -WRHGTUVKHV  OO  I $TQEMOCPP    (KCNC8GTXX.QQP 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



$4'+5#%* &+'$'.#)'470)810$4'+5#%* &KG -CKUGTNKEJGP JCVVGP  FCU 'NUCUU T·WOGP OÒUUGP WPF KJTG 8GTYCNVWPI KP FCU DGHGUVKIVG WPF   UVTCVGIKUEJIÒPUVKIIGNGIGPG$TGKUCEJXGTNGIV<WP·EJUVYWTFGFKG(GUVWPIXQO)GIPGTFWTEJFGP'KP UCV\ OQDKNGT -QPVKPIGPVG XQO 0CEJUEJWD CDIGUEJPKVVGP FQEJ UGKV FGO  ,WNK  NKG­GP FKG DGKFGP   IGIPGTKUEJGP(GNFJGTTP4JGKPITCH1VVQWPF/CTMITCH(TKGFTKEJXQP$CFGP&WTNCEJFKG(GUVWPITGIGN TGEJVDGNCIGTP&KGHQNIGPFGP/QPCVGYWTFGPHÒTFKG'KPIGUEJNQUUGPGPGPVDGJTWPIUTGKEJ&CUKEJCWEJ FKG $G\CJNWPI FGT 8GTVGKFKIGT CWHITWPF HGJNGPFGP 0CEJUEJWDU XGTUEJNGEJVGTVG NKG­ FGT (GUVWPIUMQO   OCPFCPV*CPPKDCNXQP5EJCWGPDWTIDGKFGP$TGKUCEJGT$ÒTIGTP'FGNOGVCNNQDLGMVGDGUEJNCIPCJOGPWO FCTCWU)QNFWPF5KNDGTOÒP\GPKP-NKRRGPHQTO\WRT·IGP#O1MVQDGTUEJNWIGKPWPVGT(ÒJ TWPI FGU *GT\QIU XQP (GTKC 8K\GMÌPKI XQP 8CNGPEKC  JGTDGKIGGKNVGU 'PVUCV\JGGT FKG $GNCIGTGT KP FKG   (NWEJV

4512

1,5:1



1,5:1

-NKRRG\W)QNFIWNFGPI&KGPGDGPGKPCPFGTUVGJGPFGP9CRRGPUEJKNFGFGU'T\JGT\QIVWOU ¤UVGTTGKEJ WPF FGT .CPFITCHUEJCHV 1DGT'NUCUU VGKNYGKUG ÒDGTNCIGTV XQP GKPGO 4GKEJUCRHGN FGT FGP   4CWO \YKUEJGP FGP 5EJKNFGP HÒNNV 7PVGP FGT $TGKUCEJGT 5VCFVUEJKNF +O (GNF Û    Û  Û    Û   <YKUEJGP 2WPMVGP 4QUGVVGP WPF YGKVGTGP 1TPCOGPVGP FKG HÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV Û /1 Ù 01 Ù    Û 8#56 Ù #.5 Ù  Û '6 Û  Û $4+5+#%#' Û  Û +0&': Û  Û  Û.  Z  OO   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF$GTUVGVV(DXIN/CKNNGV )1.&W­GTUVUGNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  183


4513 1,5:1



'KPUGKVKIG 6CNGTMNKRRG   I f /1 Ù 01 Ù 8#56 Ù #.5 Ù '6 Û $4+5+#%#' Û +0&':   4GKEJUCRHGN\YKUEJGPFGP5EJKNFGPFGU'T\JGT\QIVWOU¤UVGTTGKEJWPFFGT.CPFITCHUEJCHV1DGT'NUCUU WPVGPFGT5VCFVUEJKNF\YKUEJGPFGTIGVGKNVGP,CJTGU\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H $GTUVGVVXCT/CKNNGV6H:8+++  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2CTVKGNNNGKEJVGT&QRRGNUEJNCIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4514



-NKRRG\W-TGW\GTI(ÒPH<GKNGP6GZV&KG5EJKNFGFGU'T\JGT\QIVWOU¤UVGTTGKEJWPF FGT.CPFITCHUEJCHV1DGT'NUCUUWPVGPFGT5VCFVUEJKNF\YKUEJGPFGTIGVGKNVGPTÌOKUEJGP9GTV\CJNQDGP FKG,CJTGU\CJNZOO$GTUVGVV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT/CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT 5GJTUEJÌP



4515



184

6CNGTMNKRRGCWHFGP'PVUCV\FGT5VCFVWPFFKG8GTVTGKDWPIFGT$GNCIGTGTI‰$4+5#%Ù 1$5'55Ù&8%6Û4'+0)4Ù16Ù'6Û/#4%*Ù(4+&Ù&84Ú&KG9CRRGPUEJKNFGFGU'T\JGT \QIVWOU¤UVGTTGKEJWPFFGT.CPFITCHUEJCHV1DGT'NUCUUWPVGPFGT$TGKUCEJGT5VCFVUEJKNF&C\YKUEJGP KP UKGDGP <GKNGP Û &+' Û 8++  +8.+  '6  g  +++ Û #8)856+ Û  #001  &0+  Û ‰ #$ Û   864+538'Û6842+Û(8)#Û&'5'46Ù&+'Ù:8+Û1%61$Ù9QNHTÒEMDNKEMGPFNHNKGJGPFQDGP N *1% Û 14+  '06' Û (8  )+6 Û QDGP T KP 9QNMGP GKP 5VGTP FKG 0COGPUKPKVKCNG ( FGU -CKUGTU   WOUEJNKG­GPFZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT$GTUVGVVXCT/CKNNGV6H:+:XCT W­GTUVUGNVGP.GKEJVG2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP 


&+''+00#*/'810$4'+5#%* $GTPJCTF *GT\QI XQP 5CEJUGP9GKOCT IKNV CNU FGT YQJN DGFGWVGPFUVG FGWVUEJG RTQVGUVCPVKUEJG (GNF   JGTT FGU &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGIGU &GT CO  #WIWUV  KP 9GKOCT IGDQTGPG *GT\QI UEJNQUU UKEJ   PCEJGKPKIGP5VWFKGPOQPCVGPKP,GPCFGPRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP6TWRRGPCPWPFHQEJVDGK9KGUNQEJWPF 9KORHGP#NU)GPGTCN)WUVCX#FQNHUXQP5EJYGFGPJKGNV$GTPCTFFKGGTQDGTVGP4JGKPNCPFGPCJO CO5VWTOCWH9CNNGPUVGKPU.CIGTVGKNWPFDGJCWRVGVGPCEJFGO6QF)WUVCX#FQNHUFCU5EJNCEJVHGNFDGK .ÒV\GP0CEJFGO8GTNWUVXQP4GIGPUDWTIYWTFG$GTPJCTFDGK0ÌTFNKPIGPXGTPKEJVGPFIGUEJNC IGPWPFXGTNQTUGKP*GT\QIVWO+PFGPDGKFGPHQNIGPFGP,CJTGPM·ORHVGGTOKVHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP8GTDÒP FGVGP OKV YGEJUGNPFGP 'THQNIGP XQT CNNGO KP .QVJTKPIGP UEJNWI  FKG MCKUGTNKEJGP 6TWRRGP DGK   4JGKPHGNFGPWPFPCJOPCEJOGJTOQPCVKIGT$GNCIGTWPICO&G\GODGT$TGKUCEJGKPYQTCWHFKG XQTNKGIGPFG/GFCKNNG$G\WIPKOOV0CEJFGP#PUVTGPIWPIGPFGT(GNF\ÒIGGTNCI$GTPJCTFCO,WNK DGK0GWGPDWTICO4JGKPGKPGTMWT\GP-TCPMJGKV

4516



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,QJCPP $NWO $TGOGP WPF -QRGPJCIGP CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV +PPGT   JCNDGKPGTJQEJQXCNGPMCTVWUEJGPHÌTOKIGP4CJOWPI$TWUVDKNFXQP$GTPJCTF*GT\QIXQP5CEJUGP9GK OCTJCNDNKP*CTPKUEJOKVDTGKVGO5RKV\GPMTCIGPWPF(GNFDKPFGKPFGT.KPMGPGKPGP-QOOCPFQUVCD JCNVGPF$NKEM XQP 9GUVGP ÒDGT FGP 4JGKP CWH FKG 5VCFV CO FKGUUGKVKIGP 7HGT FKG (GUVWPI $TGKUCEJ   QDGPXKGT<GKNGP6GZVOOI$GTUVGVV5NI/GTUGD6GPV\GN6H  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4517



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 5GDCUVKCP &CFNGT &CP\KI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV #WH GKPGT NGKEJVGP   #PJÌJGKO8QTFGTITWPF*GT\QI$GTPJCTFXQP5CEJUGP9GKOCT\W2HGTFDCTJ·WRVKIKP*CTPKUEJKP FGT4GEJVGPGKPGP-QOOCPFQUVCDDGMT·P\VXQPGKPGOTCWUGKPGT9QNMGJGTXQTVTGVGPFGPJKOONKUEJGP #TO#WHFGOGVYCUVKGHGTIGNGIGPGPXQP\YGK9CUUGTN·WHGPDGITGP\VGP6GTTCKPKPFGTOKVVNGTGP$KNF \QPG VTGKDGP 4GKVGT WPF (W­VTWRRGP FKG WPVGT $NKV\GP HNKGJGPFG IGIPGTKUEJG 4GKVGTGK WPF +PHCPVGTKG N   XQT UKEJ JGT +O *KPVGTITWPF #PUKEJV XQP $TGKUCEJ WPF FGO -CKUGTUVWJN$NKEM XQP 9GUVGP CWH FKG   5EJCP\G CWH FGT 4JGKPKPUGN WPF CWH FKG 5VCFV $TGKUCEJ CO IGIGPÒDGTNKGIGPFGP 7HGT +O 8QTFGTITWPF   )GUEJÒV\UVGNNWPIGP WPF GKPG )TWRRG FGT $GNCIGTGT 1DGP KP 9QNMGP FGT XQP \YGK 2WVVK IGJCNVGPG   5VCFVUEJKNFOOI$GTUVGVV5NI/GTUGD6GPV\GN6H89KGEGM  44-N4CPFHGJNGTWPFYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC  185


$4'/'070&8'4&'0 &#5*'4<1)67/$4'/'070&8'4&'0706'45%*9'&+5%*'4 *'445%*#(6 &KG5GNDUV·PFKIMGKVFGU'T\DKUVWOU$TGOGPGPFGVGKO&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIFWTEJF·PKUEJG #FOKPKUVTCVKQP WPF  FWTEJ UEJYGFKUEJG $GUGV\WPI &GT UEJYGFKUEJG $GUKV\ $TGOGPU UQYKG FGU   $KUVWOU 8GTFGP YWTFG KO 9GUVH·NKUEJGP (TKGFGP XQP  CPGTMCPPV INGKEJ\GKVKI YWTFGP FKG DGKFGP   -KTEJGPIGDKGVGKPFCU*GT\QIVWO$TGOGPWPF8GTFGPWOIGYCPFGNV'TUVKO0QTFKUEJGP-TKGI   GTQDGTVGPF·PKUEJG6TWRRGPFKGPÌTFNKEJGP.CPFGUVGKNGY·JTGPF*CPPQXGT8GTFGPDGUGV\VG FCU*GT\QIVWOMCWHVGWPF,CJTGUR·VGTFKGUEJYGFKUEJGP4GEJVGOKV/KNNKQP6CNGTCDHCPF

4518



-CTN:+XQP5EJYGFGP4GKEJUVCNGT5VCFGIÊ%#41.75:+&'+)4#6+# 4':58'%Ù)16*Ù'68#0&Ù$ÒUVGTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF.QTDGGTMTCP\&7:$4'/“ '68'4&“ÜÜ<YKUEJGPIGDWPFGPGP2CNO\YGKIGPFCU9CRRGPDKNFFGU*GT\QIVWOU$TGOGP WPF 8GTFGP WPVGP \YGK IGMTGW\VG <CKPJCMGP \YKUEJGP #  * #PFTGCU *KNNG /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 5VCFG    #JNUVTÌO5NI$TWWP&CX 45GJTUEJÌP 

4519



4GKEJUVCNGT  5VCFG  I $TWUVDKNF T KO /CPVGN WPVGTJCND FGU $TWUVCDUEJPKVVU ,%# ,QJCPP   %JTKUVKCP #TGPUDWTI /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 5VCFG  )GMTÌPVGT XQP \YGK .ÌYGP IGJCNVGPGT 9CR   RGPUEJKNF/KV-GTDTCPF#JNUVTÌO&CX 445GJTUEJÌP 

&10#79¤46* &+'5%*.#%*6#/5%*'..'0$'4)

4520



/QFGTPG)QNFOGFCKNNGQ, *·NHVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU(GKPIGYKEJVIHGKP CWHFKG'TQDG TWPIFGT5VCFVCO,WNKWPFFKG5EJNCEJVCO5EJGNNGPDGTI#PUKEJVFGT5VCFVKO*KPVGTITWPFFCU .CIGT FGT 'TQDGTGT 1DGP 5EJTKHVDCPF YQTCWH 5%*'..'0$'4)0KODKGTVGT FQRRGNMÌRHKIGT #FNGT   CWHFGT$TWUVGKPGP5EJKNFOKVFGT+PKVKCNG9VTCIGPFQDGP-TQPGOOI  )1.&/CVVKGTVG2T·IWPI5VGORGNINCP\ &CU /QVKX FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG FKGUGT 2T·IWPI KUV GPVNGJPV FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG FGT /GFCKNNG  CWH FGPUGNDGP #PNCUU  

)GDJCTV   FCU /QVKX FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG FGU &QPCWYÌTVJGT 6CNGTU TGUR *CNDVCNGTU  )GDJCTF    

186




'+%*5666 '+0'-1064+$76+10524)70)&'5$+567/5'+%*5666+/'456'0 -1#.+6+105-4+') &CU)GDKGVFGU*QEJUVKHVU'KEJUV·VVYWTFGCO5GRVGODGTXQPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP5VTGKVMT·HVGPWPVGT (ÒJTWPI XQP )GPGTCN &GUCKZ DGUGV\V WPF UEJQP DCNF YKGFGT XQP MCKUGTNKEJGP 6TWRRGP \WTÒEMGTQDGTV   $GKFG#TOGGPXGTNCPIVGPFGT$GXÌNMGTWPIWOHCPITGKEJG-QPVTKDWVKQPGPCD&GT$KUEJQHNKG­\WT.KP FGTWPIFGTCNNIGOGKPGP0QVCWUUGKPGPRGTUÌPNKEJGP5KNDGTDGUV·PFGP6CNGTWPF*CNDVCNGTRT·IGPFGTGP #WUOÒP\WPIPCEJHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP3WGNNGPGKP)GUCOVXQNWOGPXQP)WNFGPIGJCDVJCDGPUQNN

4521



,QUGRJXQP5VWDGPDGTI-QPX6CNGT/ÒPEJGP-QPVTKDWVKQPI$TWUVDKNFT KP*GTOGNKP8KGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFCWHGKPGOOKVFGO(ÒTUVGPJWVÒDGTJÌJVGPCWHIGURCPPVGP*GT OGNKPOCPVGN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H%CJP&CX/CKNNGV6H:::8+++ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



'4(746 &+'56#&6'4(746706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6

4522



)WUVCX++#FQNHXQP5EJYGFGP 4GKEJUVCNGT'THWTV2WTKOVCNGTI#WHFGP GTUVGP ,CJTGUVCI FGU 5KGIGU FGT UEJYGFKUEJU·EJUKUEJGP #NNKCP\ KP FGT 5EJNCEJV DGK $TGKVGPHGNF &TGK   6GZV\GKNGPQDGPFGTCWH*GDT·KUEJXGTHCUUVG0COG)QVVGUKP5VTCJNGPWPVGPGKP4CPMGPQTPCOGPVWPF FCU <GKEJGP FGU /ÒP\OGKUVGTU ,QJCPP 5EJPGKFGT IGPCPPV 9GK­OCPVGN'NH\GKNKIGT 6GZV XQPFGT7O UEJTKHVWOUEJNQUUGP#JNUVTÌOD&CX$&D\Y$&.GKV\OCPPXCT  2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



4523

1,5:1



1,5:1

%JTKUVKPCXQP5EJYGFGP&WMCVGPI$TWUVDKNFJCNDN\YKUEJGP<YGKIGPQDGP FGTUVTCJNGPFG0COG,GJQXCU)GMTÌPVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNF#JNUVTÌOC(D )1.&44(CUUWPIUURWTGP(GNFGTIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP

 187


(4#0-'0 &#5+/&4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+')0'7)'5%*#(('0'*'4<1)67/ (4#0-'0 *GT\QI $GTPJCTF XQP 5CEJUGP9GKOCT FKGPVG KO &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGI UGKV  CNU (GNFJGTT FGP   5EJYGFGP&GTPCEJFGO6QFGXQP-ÌPKI)WUVCX++#FQNHOKVFGT4GIGPVUEJCHVHÒTFKGPQEJWPOÒP FKIG UEJYGFKUEJG 6JTQPHQNIGTKP %JTKUVKPC DGVTCWVG 4GKEJUMCP\NGT #ZGN )WUVCXUUQP )TCH 1ZGPUVKGTPC   ÒDGTVTWI*GT\QI$GTPJCTFFCUCWUFGP*QEJUVKHVGP9ÒT\DWTIWPF$CODGTIPGWIGITÒPFGVG*GT \QIVWO(TCPMGPFCUOKVFGTXGTJGGTGPFGP0KGFGTNCIGFGT2TQVGUVCPVGPPCEJFGT5EJNCEJVDGK0ÌTFNKP IGPYKGFGTCWHIGNÌUVYWTFG

4524



$GTPJCTFFGT)TQ­GXQP5CEJUGP9GKOCT$CV\GP9ÒT\DWTII8GT\KGTVGU JQEJQXCNGU9CRRGPQDGPFKG9GTVCPICDG%JTKUVWUUVGJGPFXXFKG4GEJVG\WO5GIGPGTJQDGPFGP 4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGT.KPMGP*GNOUEJTQVV5NI/GTUGD5NI2KNQV[ 5GJTUEJÌP



(4#0-'06*#. &+'$'.#)'470)810(4#0-'06*#. +O5QOOGTOCTUEJKGTVGP8GTD·PFGFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP.KICWPVGT)GPGTCNNGWVPCPV6KNN[KPFKG2HCN\ GKP #PHCPI 0QXGODGT UVCPFGP UKG XQT FGT  \WT (GUVWPI CWUIGDCWVGP 5VCFV (TCPMGPVJCN 6KNN[   GPVUEJNQUUUKEJKP#PDGVTCEJVFGUJGTCPPCJGPFGP9KPVGTUCWHGKPG$GNCIGTWPI\WXGT\KEJVGPWPFUVCVV FGUUGP FKG 5VCFV FWTEJ GKPG $NQEMCFG XQO 0CEJUEJWD CD\WUEJPGKFGP +P FGP HQNIGPFGP /QPCVGP XGT   UEJNGEJVGTVG UKEJ FKG 5KVWCVKQP FGT GKPIGUEJNQUUGPGP $ÒTIGT WPF 5QNFCVGP \WUGJGPFU &KG 8QTT·VG   UEJTWORHVGP WPF FCU )GNF YWTFG MPCRR 7O FKG <CJNWPI FGU 5QNFU CP FKG $GUCV\WPI YGKVGTJKP IG   Y·JTNGKUVGP\WMÌPPGPYWTFGP0QVOÒP\GPCWUGKPIGUEJOQN\GPGP'FGNOGVCNNGPIGRT·IV&KG.CIGFGT 'KPIGUEJNQUUGPGPYWTFGKOOGTCWUUKEJVUNQUGTWPFCWHGKPGP'PVUCV\FGT5VCFVYCTPKEJVOGJT\WJQH HGP&KGªDGTICDGFGT5VCFVGTHQNIVGIGO·­GKPGUCO/·T\IGUEJNQUUGPGP8GTVTCIGU

4525

4526

1,5:1



'KPUGKVKIG -NKRRG \W  )WNFGP   I 8KGTDN·VVTKIG 4QUGVVG OKV 5VCWDH·FGP &'85 Û2'64#Û 01564#Û#0)8.#4+5+P#WHUKEJVFCTIGUVGNNVGT6GVTCGFGTKO(GNFWPVGP('KPRWP\KGTVG 9GTV\CJN CW­GTJCND FGU 5VGORGNU  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   'JTGPF  /CKNNGV   5WRRN6H 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



'KPUGKVKIG -NKRRG \W  )WNFGP   I ó )166 u +56 u 805'4 u '%-56'+0 +P #WHUKEJV   FCTIGUVGNNVGT6GVTCGFGTKO(GNFFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNWPVGP(ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H  FQTVOKV2WP\KGTWPIFGT9GTV\CJN WPF FQTV#DDWPURG\KHK\KGTVQJPG#PICDGFGU0QOKPCNU  'JTGPFXCT FQTVOKV2WP\KGTWPIFGT9GTV\CJN /CKNNGV5WRRN6H FQTV#DDWPURG\KHK\KGTV QJPG#PICDGFGU0QOKPCNU  448QT\ÒINKEJ 

188


(4#0-(746 &+'9+'&'4'41$'470)810(4#0-(746+/'456'0-1#.+6+105 -4+')

4527



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP&CPKGN(TKGFTKEJ.QQU$GTNKPCWHFKG$GHTGKWPIFGT5VCFVXQPFGTHTCP\ÌUK UEJGP $GUGV\WPI FWTEJ RTGW­KUEJGWPFJGUUKUEJG6TWRRGP5\GPGFGT$GNCIGTWPIXQTFGO(TKGFDGTIGT 6QT$NKEMCWHFCUXQP2TGW­GPIGUVKHVGVG*GUUGPFGPMOCNOOI,W(*QHHOGK UVGT5EJÒV\5QOOGT# 8QT\ÒINKEJGU2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC



4529

4528





4528

<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP,QJCPP%JTKUVKCPQFGT,QJCPP/CVVJKCU4GKEJ(ÒTVJCWHFKG9KGFGTGTQDGTWPI FGT 5VCFV FWTEJ JGUUKUEJG WPF RTGW­KUEJG 5VTGKVMT·HVG CO  &G\GODGT  $ÒUVG FGU JGUUKUEJGP   .CPFITCHGP 9KNJGNO +: T#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV WPF 5CEJUGPJCWUGPU XQP 9GUVGP OKV $GUEJWUU XQO   UÒFNKEJGP/CKPWHGT/KVFGOQTKIKPCNGP-WRHGTUVKHVOO*QHHO,W(5EJÒV\ 5NI9KNO 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP ,QJCPP %JTKUVKCP QFGT ,QJCPP /CVVJKCU 4GKEJ (ÒTVJ   CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT XQP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 4GXQNWVKQPUVTWRRGP DGUGV\VGP 5VCFV FWTEJ RTGW­KUEJG WPF   JGUUKUEJG6TWRRGP$NKEMCWHFGP/CKPWPFFKGXQP5CEJUGPJCWUGPCWUDGUEJQUUGPG5VCFVKO#DUEJPKVV +'66100GWP <GKNGP 6GZV  OO  I , W (  *QHHO    XCT /CTKGPD    5EJÒV\ #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



'+0'-1064+$76+10524)70)&'456#&6(4#0-(746+/'456'0 -1#.+6+105-4+')

1,5:1



4530

1,5:1

&WMCV  -QPVTKDWVKQP  I #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV OKV &QO /CKPDTÒEMG WPF 5CEJUGPJCW   UGP5KGDGP\GKNKIGT6GZVKP.QTDGGTMTCP\$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H(D,W(/CKNNGV 6H:::+: 9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 189


(4'+$'4) &#5,7$+.7/&'4$'(4'+70)&'456#&6(4'+$'4)810&'4 $'.#)'470)&74%*&+'5%*9'&'0

4531



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP %JTKUVKCP 5KGIOWPF 9GTOWVJ &TGUFGP CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT $GHTGKWPI   FGT 5VCFV XQP FGT $GNCIGTWPI FWTEJ FKG 5EJYGFGP 9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV 8KEVQTKC !  UKV\GPF N GKPGP   HTWEJVVTCIGPFGP -QTPJCNO WPF GKPGP 2CNO\YGKI JCNVGPF +O *KPVGTITWPF #PUKEJV FGT XQP FGT 5QPPG   DGUEJKGPGPGP 5VCFV N GKP $GTIOCPP UVGJGPF X X GKPG 'T\OWNFG UEJWNVGTPF<GJP\GKNKIG #WH   UEJTKHV /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I 5NI 'PIGNJCTFV  5NI /GTUGD    /ÒUGNGT 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



(7.&# '+0'-1064+$76+10524)70)&'5$+567/5(7.&#+/ '456'0-1#.+6+105-4+')

4532



#FCNDGTV XQP *CTUVCNN   -QPX6CNGT   I $TWUVDKNF T KP #OVUVTCEJV /KV   FGO (ÒTUVGPJWV ÒDGTJÌJVGT XKGTHGNFKIGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF XQP GKPGT )KTNCPFG DGJCPIGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6H$WEJQPKC/CKNNGV6H:. 2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



)4'+(59#.& &+'$'.#)'470)810)4'+(59#.& 9·JTGPF FGT $GNCIGTWPI )TGKHUYCNFUFWTEJUEJYGFKUEJG6TWRRGPKO&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIYWTFGKO /CKKP'TOCPIGNWPICPFGTGP/CVGTKCNUXQPFGP$ÒTIGTPFGTIGUCOVG8QTTCVCP-WRHGTWPF<KPP GKPIGHQTFGTVWOJKGTCWU\WT$G\CJNWPIFGTMCKUGTNKEJGP6TWRRGP/ÒP\GPRT·IGP\WNCUUGP#O,WPK  OCEJVG FGT 4CV DGMCPPV FCUU FKG MCKUGTNKEJGP 6TWRRGP DGTGKV UGKGP FKG \KPPGTPGP 0QVOÒP\GP   CP\WPGJOGP HCNNU FKG $ÒTIGT FGT 5VCFV GKP )NGKEJGU V·VGP &CU 0QVIGNF JCVVG LGFQEJ PKEJV NCPIG   )ÒNVKIMGKV FC FKG 5VCFV DGTGKVU FTGK 6CIG UR·VGT KP UEJYGFKUEJG *·PFG HKGN ªDGT FKG 0QVRT·IWPIGP   )TGKHUYCNFUCWUFGP,CJTGUEJTGKDV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF  5KGUKPFDCNFXQPFGT9GNVXGTUEJYWPFGPWPFXQPCWUUGTQTFGPVNKEJGT5GNVGPJGKV

4533



0QVRT·IWPI \W GKPGT 7P\G  IGRT·IV CWH GKPGO NGKEJV MGIGNUVWORHHÌTOKIGP $NGK<KPP5EJTÌVNKPI   OKV 6KVGN (GTFKPCPFU ++  I )TGKH UVGKIGPF N CWH GKPGO YKGFGT CWUIGVTKGDGPGP $CWOUVWORH KO   (GNFFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN)GMTÌPVGTFQRRGNMÌRHKIGT#FNGTOKV$TWUVUEJKNF\YKUEJGPFGP-ÌRHGPGKPG .CWDMTQPGOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H:.+++5NI2QIIG  W­GTUVUGNVGP5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP  #WU5COONWPI8KTIKN/$TCPF.GW0WOKUOCVKM#)<ÒTKEJ#WMVKQP

190


*#..'#0&'45##.' &+'9+'&'4'+00#*/'810*#..'#0&'45##.'&74%* (4#0<¤5+5%*'5/+.+64

4534



<KPPIW­OGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG-CPQPCFGDGKFGT*QJGP$TÒEMGCO#RTKNWPFFKG 9KGFGTGKPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV FWTEJ HTCP\ÌUKUEJG 5VTGKVMT·HVG 5KGDGP\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV6GKNCPUKEJV FGT   WPVGT-CPQPGPDGUEJWUUNKGIGPFGP5VCFV+O8QTFGTITWPF#TVKNNGTKGIGHGEJVCPDGKFGP7HGTPFGT5CCNGKP FGT0·JGFGT*QJGP$TÒEMGOO$TCOUGP5NI,WNKWU 445GJTUEJÌP



*#/$74) &+'$'.#)'470)810*#/$74) &KG F·PKUEJGP -ÌPKIG FKG UGKV  \WINGKEJ CWEJ CNU *GT\ÌIG ÒDGT *QNUVGKP TGIKGTVGP JCVVGP UEJQP    WPF  CWH OKNKV·TKUEJGO 9GIG XGTIGDNKEJ XGTUWEJV FKG 5VCFV *CODWTI KP KJTG )GYCNV \W   DGMQOOGP+O,CJTGOCEJVGUKEJ-ÌPKI%JTKUVKCP8GKPGPKPPGTUV·FVKUEJGP-QPHNKMV\YKUEJGPFGT FGOQMTCVKUEJGP2CTVGKWPFFGTTGIKGTGPFGPCTKUVQMTCVKUEJGP4CVURCTVGK\W0WV\GKPFGOGTFGTGTUVGTGP UGKPG 7PVGTUVÒV\WPI CPDQV 5GKV (GDTWCT  XGTNCIGTVG GT \WPGJOGPF 6TWRRGPMQPVKPIGPVG KP UGKPG   JQNUVGKPKUEJGP)GDKGVUVGKNGFKG*CODWTIU0QTFGPWOUEJNQUUGP#O#WIWUVHQTFGTVGFGT-ÌPKIÒDGT UGKPGP )GUCPFVGP XQP FGT 5VCFV FKG ªDGTICDG FGT 5VCFVUEJNÒUUGN FKG UQHQTVKIG 'TDJWNFKIWPI FKG   #WHPCJOG GKPGT F·PKUEJGP )CTPKUQP FKG #DVTCIWPI FGT #W­GPYGTMG KO 1UVGP WPF GKPG -QPVTKDWVKQP   XQPF·PKUEJGP4GKEJUVCNGTP&KG$ÒTIGTUEJCHVYCTUKEJGKPKIUKEJFKGUGT(QTFGTWPI\WYKFGT UGV\GPFKG\GTUVTKVVGPGP2CTVGKGPUVGNNVGPCPIGUKEJVUFKGUGTOCUUKXGP·W­GTGP$GFTQJWPIKJTGP-QPHNKMVKP FGP*KPVGTITWPF&CFKG5VCFVXQO4GKEJCPIGUKEJVUFGU6ÒTMGPMTKGIGUMGKPGRTCMVKUEJG7PVGTUVÒV\WPI GTYCTVGP MQPPVG UWEJVG UKG $GKUVCPF DGK FGP 5EJYGFGP FGP NÒPGDWTIKUEJGP *GT\ÌIGP WPF DGKO   -WTHÒTUVGP XQP $TCPFGPDWTI FKG KJTG FKRNQOCVKUEJG *KNHG \WUCIVGP 5EJQP CO  #WIWUV \QIGP FKG   F·PKUEJG 5VTGKVMT·HVG XQT FGP /CWGTP *CODWTIU CWH 'KP DGXQT\WIVGU <KGN KJTGT #TVKNNGTKG YCT XQO   DKU#WIWUVFKG5VGTPGPUEJCP\GGKP5RGTTHQTVFCUXQPFGP*CODWTIGTPCWHFGO*GKFDGTI GTTKEJVGV YQTFGP YCT GKPGT HÒT GVYCKIG #PITGKHGT UVTCVGIKUEJ IÒPUVKI IGNGIGPGP EC  MO XQP FGP   5VCFVOCWGTP GPVHGTPVGP #PJÌJG )NGKEJ\GKVKI VTCVGP 'PINCPF $TCPFGPDWTI WPF .ÒPGDWTI KP 8GTJCPF   NWPIGPOKVFGO&·PGPMÌPKIFGTUEJQPCO#WIWUVGKPGT9CHHGPTWJG\WUVKOOVGWPFUEJNKG­NKEJFGT #WHJGDWPIFGU-TKGIU\WUVCPFUDGKRHNKEJVGVG

4535



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP,QJCPP4GKPJQNF'PIGNJCTF$TGUNCWWPF5VGVVKPCWHFKG$GJCTTNKEJMGKV FGT 8GTVGKFKIGT Y·JTGPF FGT F·PKUEJGP $GNCIGTWPI FGT 5VCFV #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV +O 8QTFGTITWPF RC   VTQWKNNKGTGPFG F·PKUEJG 5QNFCVGP \WT #WHTGEJVGTJCNVWPI FGT $NQEMCFG KO *KPVGTITWPF GKPG DTGPPGPFG   DGHGUVKIVG 1TVUEJCHV WPVGT #TVKNNGTKGDGUEJWUU FGT XQP FGT CW­GTJCND FGT 5VCFVOCWGTP NKGIGPFGP 5VGT   PGPUEJCP\GCWUIGJV+PQHHGPGT.CPFUEJCHVFKGCNU(TCWFCTIGUVGNNVG5VCFVUKEJOKV5EJYGTVWPF5EJKNF IGIGP \YGK -CXCNKGTG XGTVGKFKIGPF  OO  I )CGFGEJGPU  ,CUEJMG/CGTEMGT    .CPIGTOCPP:8++2CDGN5  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  191


4537 4536

4536



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFV6QTDWTIOKVFTGK6ÒTOGPKO2QTVCN FCU 0GUUGNDNCVV 7PVGP FKG TÌOKUEJG ,CJTGU\CJN#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV KO 8QTFGTITWPF GKPG CWU FTGK   /ÌTUGTP DGUVGJGPFG $CVVGTKG  OO  I )CGFGEJGPU  )CNUVGT XIN  FQTV 2T·IG   OGFCKNNG NVGTGT\KUGNKGTVGT)W­ 5GJTUEJÌP



'+0/'*.70&/ª*.'0<'+%*'0&'456#&6*#/$74) 

'KPUGKVKIGU -W/GJN\GKEJGP  OKV 2WP\KGTWPI FGT <CJN  CWH FGT CPUQPUVGP WPDGRT·IVGP 4ÒEM   UGKVG5VCFVDWTIOKVFTGK6ÒTOGPOKVIGÌHHPGVGO2QTVCN+O(GNFOOI&CPIGTU KP)GNFIGUEJKEJVNKEJG0CEJTKEJVGP,I5)CGFGEJGPU+5XCT/CKNNGV\W 6H:.8 FQTVOKVFGT<KHHGTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG 0GWOCPP\W FQTVOKVFGT<KHHGTCWHFGT 4ÒEMUGKVG  5GJTUEJÌP



/CKNNGVJCVGKPGPVURTGEJGPFGU<GKEJGP HTGKNKEJQJPGGTMN·TGPFGP-QOOGPVCT KPUGKP9GTMÒDGT0QVWPF$GNCIG TWPIUOÒP\GP CWHIGPQOOGP FQEJ UEJQP )CGFGEJGPU JCV FKG WTURTÒPINKEJG 8GTYGPFWPI FKGUGT 1DLGMVG MQTTGMV CNU   /ÒJN\GKEJGP TGUR /GJN\GKEJGP GTMCPPV 5QNEJG <GKEJGP YWTFGP XQP FGP  ō$ÒTIGT%CRKVCKPGPŋ FGT HÒPH -KTEJ   URKGNG*CODWTIUCPJKNHUDGFÒTHVKIGWPFPQVNGKFGPFG2GTUQPGPCWUIGIGDGPFKGFCPPFCHÒTDGKFGT4CVUOÒJNGMQUVGP NQUQFGT\WGKPGOPKGFTKIGTGP2TGKUGKPGDGUVKOOVG/GPIG/GJNKP'ORHCPIPGJOGPFWTHVGP$GKFGTCWHFGT4ÒEM UGKVG FGU XQTNKGIGPFGP <GKEJGPU CPIGIGDGPGP <CJN UQNN GU UKEJ WO FKG KPFKXKFWGNNG -GPPWOOGT FGU DGVTGHHGPFGP   $ÒTIGT-CRKV·PUJCPFGNPGKPGUQNEJG-GPP\GKEJPWPIFÒTHVGHÒTFKG#DTGEJPWPIGPWPF-QPVTQNNGPFKGUGU#DICDGU[ UVGOUPQVYGPFKIIGYGUGPUGKP

&+'$'5'6<70)810*#/$74) *CODWTIYWTFGKO0QXGODGTXQPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP6TWRRGPWPVGT(ÒJTWPIFGU/CTUEJCNNU#FQNRJG /QTVKGTDGUGV\VWOFKGITQ­GPQTFFGWVUEJG*CHGPWPF*CPFGNUUVCFVKPFKG-QPVKPGPVCNURGTTGGKP\WDKP FGP&C0CRQNGQPLGINKEJGP*CPFGNOKV'PINCPFWPFUGKPGP#NNKKGTVGPWPVGT5VTCHGUVGNNVGWPFCNNGKPFGT 5VCFV IGNCIGTVGP GPINKUEJGP *CPFGNUIÒVGT MQPHKU\KGTGP NKG­ YCT FCU )GOGKPYGUGP XQP FKGUGT /C­   PCJOG JCTV DGVTQHHGP <WFGO YWTFGP FGP $ÒTIGTP \CJNTGKEJG 5VGWGTP WPF JQJG #DICDGP HÒT FGP 7P   VGTJCNV FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP )CTPKUQP CDXGTNCPIV #O  ,CPWCT  YWTFG *CODWTI \WUCOOGP OKV   .ÒDGEM WPF FGO 9GUGT'OU)GDKGV $GUVCPFVGKN FGU -CKUGTTGKEJU (TCPMTGKEJU 0CEJ FGT WPJGKNXQNNGP   0KGFGTNCIG FGT )TCPFG #TO¾G KP 4WUUNCPF T·WOVGP FKG (TCP\QUGP \YCT FKG 5VCFV CO  /·T\    FQEJIGNCPIGUKJPGPDGTGKVUCO/CK*CODWTI\WO\YGKVGP/CNGGKP\WPGJOGP&KG5VCFVWPVGT UVCPF PWP GKPGT UVTGPIGP /KNKV·TXGTYCNVWPI WPVGT /CTUEJCNN .QWKU 0KEQNCU &CXQWV &KG $GXÌNMGTWPI   YWTFG GKPGO UVTGPIGP 4GINGOGPV WPVGTUVGNNV WPF *CODWTI UVCTM DGHGUVKIV &GP $ÒTIGTP YWTFG GKPG   -QPVTKDWVKQPXQP/KNNKQPGP(TCPEUCWHGTNGIV1DINGKEJFKG$GUCV\GTKJTG(QTFGTWPIDCNFTGFW\KGTVGP MQPPVGP FKG *CODWTIGT FGP $GVTCI PKEJV CWHDTKPIGP #WU FGO 5KNDGTDGUVCPF FGT *CODWTIGT $CPM KO   7OHCPIXQP„/KNNKQPGP/CTE$CPMQNKG­&CXQWVKO0QXGODGTHÒTFKG/KNKV·TMCUUG-WTCPV OÒP\GP\W5EJKNNKPIGPOKVFGT,CJTGU\CJNRT·IGP/CTUEJCNN&CXQWVWPFUGKPG/CPPGPJKGNVGP FGT $GNCIGTWPI FGT #NNKKGTVGP FKG KO &G\GODGT DGICPP DKU ÒDGT FGP 'KPOCTUEJ FGT 5KGIGT KP 2CTKU   JKPCWUUVCPF&KG-CRKVWNCVKQPFGT$GUCV\GTGTHQNIVGGTUVCO#RTKN

4538



192

 5EJKNNKPI  IGRT·IV    I $GJGNOVGT 5VCFVUEJKNF WPVGP *Û5Û-Û9GTVCPICDG KP XKGT   <GKNGP WPVGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN /KV GTJCDGPGO .CWDTCPF #-5 $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H,C /CKNNGV6H:.8 2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ




*'+&'.$'4) &+'<'456¤470)810*'+&'.$'4)

4539



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,¾TQOG4QWUUGN2CTKUCWHFKG<GTUVÌTWPIXQP*GKFGNDGTI$ÒUVGFGUHTCP\Ì UKUEJGP-ÌPKIU.WFYKI:+8TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\$GKTWKPGPJCHVGO/CWGTYGTMFKGYGKDNKEJG8GTMÌT RGTWPI FGT 5VCFV UKV\GPF T KP 6TCWGTRQUG UKEJ OKV FGO NKPMGP #TO CWH FGP RH·N\KUEJGP .ÌYGPUEJKNF   UVÒV\GPF$GKKJTFKGCDIGNGIVG/CWGTMTQPGCWH/CWGTUVGKPGP8QTKJTFKGO·PPNKEJG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGU 0GEMCTUPCEJNCWHGKPGO(GNUGPUKV\GPFGKPG3WGNNWTPGCWUIKG­GPFYQTCWH0+)'4+O*KPVGTITWPF KP JÒIGNKIGT .CPFUEJCHV #PUKEJV FGT DTGPPGPFGP 5VCFV  OO  I $GTUVGVV  'ZVGT ++   5/¾FCKNNGUHTCP¼CKUGU *KV\GURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



Französische Mordbrenner in Heidelberg, Holzstich 1877.

193


*'55'0-#55'. &'4'065#6<&'4('5670)4*'+0('.5 9·JTGPF FGU XQP  FCWGTPFGP 2H·N\KUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU \YKUEJGP .WFYKI :+8 WPF FGO   4GKEJ YCTGP #PHCPI &G\GODGT  HTCP\ÌUKUEJG 6TWRRGP CWHIGDTQEJGP WO FKG JGUUKUEJG (GUVWPI   4JGKPHGNU DGK 5V )QCT GKP\WPGJOGP .CPFITCH -CTN JCVVG IGTCFG PQEJ TGEJV\GKVKI  5QNFCVGP KP   5VGNNWPI IGDTCEJV FKG FGO  /CPP UVCTMGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP *GGT VTQV\ JGHVKIGO #TVKNNGTKGDQODCT   FGOGPVU UVCPFJKGNVGP $GKO *GTCPPCJGP FGWVUEJGT 'PVUCV\VTWRRGP UGV\VGP UKEJ FKG (TCP\QUGP KP FGP   0·EJVGP\WOWPF,CPWCTCD

4540



-CTN5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGTKO#WHVTCIFGU0ÒTPDGTIGT7PVGT PGJOGTU (TKGFTKEJ -NGKPGTV CWH FGP 'PVUCV\ FGT (GUVWPI 4JGKPHGNU $NKEM CWU 4KEJVWPI FGT (GUVWPI   4JGKPHGNU XQP FGT KO 8QTFGTITWPF PWT GKP 6WTO FGU 8GTVGKFKIWPIUYGTMU UKEJVDCT KUV CWH FGP 4JGKP   WPFCWHFCULGPUGKVKIG(NWUUWHGTOKVFGO5V·FVEJGP5V)QCTUJCWUGPWPVGTJCNDFGT$WTI0GW-CV\GPGNP DQIGPWPFGKPGOCONKPMGP$KNFTCPFCPIGFGWVGVGP-CORHIGVÒOOGNDGKGKPGO(GNFNCIGT<YKUEJGP\YGK 5·WNGP FGT RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 4JGKP UKV\GPF JCNDT UKEJ OKV FGO TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG WOIGUVÒT\VG UKEJ   GTIKG­GPFG3WGNNWTPGUVÒV\GPFOKVFGT.KPMGPGKP5VGWGTTWFGTJCNVGPFªDGTFKG5·WNGPSWGTJKPYGIGKP 5EJTKHVDCPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT*QHHO 5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+855NI/QPVGPWQXQ5EJÒV\  #NVG2CVKPC4CPFUV·DGCNVLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1,5:1 4541



4541

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP'PVUCV\FGT$WTI4JGKPHGNU&GTICNNKUEJG*CJPUVGJGPFNXQP GKPGT XQT KJO JQEMGPFGP -CV\G IGTWRHV#PUKEJV GKPGU 4JGKPCDUEJPKVVU OKV FGT $WTI KO 8QTFGTITWPF   FKGXQOLGPUGKVKIGP(NWUUWHGTDGUEJQUUGPYKTFCWUFKXGTUGP#TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPIGPTWPFWOFCUWPVGTJCND FGT $WTI 0GW-CV\GPGNPDQIGP IGNGIGPG 5V·FVEJGP 5V )QCTUJCWUGP  OO  I *QHHOGKUVGT   5NI,WNKWU5EJÒV\ 442TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\  &KG -CV\GPFCTUVGNNWPI CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG FÒTHVG HÒT FKG DGKO 'PVUCV\ UVTCVGIKUEJ YKEJVKIG $WTI -CV\GPGNPDQIGP   UVGJGPFKGOCPUEJQPFCOCNUIGOGKPJKPMWT\CNUFKG-CV\DG\GKEJPGVG

194


&+''41$'470)81064#4$#%*70&&'4)4('0$74) &KG 'TQDGTWPI XQP 6TCTDCEJ OKV FGT 8GUVG )T·HGPDWTI YCT 6GKN FGU 5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU FGT   XQPCPFCWGTVGWPFJCND'WTQRCKPUGKPGP$CPP\QI'PFG1MVQDGTDGICPPFKG'KPUEJNKG­WPI FGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP)CTPKUQPKP6TCTDCEJFWTEJJGUUKUEJG6TWRRGPWPVGTFGO-QOOCPFQFGU'TDRTKP\GP (TKGFTKEJ UR·VGT (TKGFTKEJ +  #O  &G\GODGT  PCJO (TKGFTKEJ 6TCTDCEJ WPF FCU FCTÒDGT   NKGIGPFG4CWDPGUVFKG)T·HGPDWTIPCEJ$GUEJWUUWPF5VWTOKP$GUKV\

4542



-CTN  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP /CTVKP $TWPPGT WPF )GQTI (TKGFTKEJ 0ÒTPDGTIGT 0ÒTP   DGTI CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI XQP 6TCTDCEJ WPF FGT )T·HGPDWTI CP FGT /QUGN &KG CNU (NWUUIQVV RGTUQPKHK   \KGTVG/QUGNNCIGTPFN&CXQT8KEVQTKCUEJYGDGPFNOKVFGT4GEJVGPGKPG.CP\GUEJWNVGTPFCWHFGTGP 5EJCHV \YGK /CWGTMTQPGP WPF GKP .QTDGGT\YGKI UVGEMGP KP FGT .KPMGP GKPG /CWGTMTQPG FGO (NWUU   FCTTGKEJGPF*KPVGTFGT/QUGNGKPGNUEJTGKVGPFGYGKDNKEJG)GUVCNVGKPGP5VCDJCNVGPFFGTOKVGKPGO (TGKJGKVUJWV DGUVGEMV KUV'KP CWU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GWVGYCHHGP WPF (CJPGP GTTKEJVGVGU 5KGIGUOCN CO   $QFGP\YGK(ÒNNJÌTPGTCWUFGPGPFTGK/CWGTMTQPGPTGURFTGK.QTDGGTMT·P\GJGTXQTSWGNNGPOO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  FKGUGU 'ZGORNCT  *QHHO  5NI ,WNKWU  X .QQP +8 5    5EJÒV\ 48QT\ÒINKEJ



4543



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPI XQP   6TCTDCEJWPFFGT)T·HGPDWTICPFGT/QUGN$TWUVDKNFFGU'TDRTKP\GP(TKGFTKEJXQP*GUUGPTKP*CT PKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN$NKEMCWHFCUDGHGUVKIVG6TCTDCEJWPVGTJCNDFGT)T·HGPDWTIKO8QTFGT ITWPF FKG /QUGN /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  (QTUVGT    *QHHO5NI,WNKWUX.QQP+855EJÒV\ 45GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&'4*'55+5%*'.#0&)4#((4+'&4+%*+#.5-¤0+)8105%*9'&'0 

4544



(TKGFTKEJ+4GKEJUVCNGT-CUUGNI$TWUVDKNFTKP*CTPKUEJOKVWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN7PVGTJCNDFGU#TOCDUEJPKVVUFKG+PKVKCNGP.Ü4Ü .WFYKI4QNNKP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP-CUUGN &CU OKV FGT UEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIUMTQPG ÒDGTJÌJVG XKGTHGNFKIG UEJYGFKUEJG 9CRRGP OKV CWHIGNGIVGO JGUUK   UEJGP/KVVGNUEJKNFIGJCNVGPXQP\YGKIGMTÌPVGP.ÌYGP&KG5EJKNFJCNVGTUVGJGPCWHGKPGOMCTVWUEJGP HÌTOKIGP 7PVGTDCW OKV GKPGT #WUURCTWPI WPVGP YQTKP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN QDGTJCND %#55 &CX    *QHHO5EJÒV\ 442T·IGINCP\OKP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  195


*+.&'5*'+/ '+0*+.&'5*'+/'4/'55+0)<'+%*'0810

4545



-NKRRGPHÌTOKIGU /GUUKPI/ÒJN\GKEJGP  FGT 0GWUVCFV HÒT  5EJGHHGN 9GK\GP UGMWPF·T IGMGPP   \GKEJPGV CNU 9GKFG\GKEJGP OKVVGNU GKPGU )GIGPUVGORGNU CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG IGMTÌPVG +PKVKCNG J  I   5VCFVUEJKNF&KG ,CJTGUCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP QDGP )GVTGKFGMQTP  Z  OO $WEM$CJTH a   /CKNNGV6H.+ 5GJTUEJÌP



&CU<GKEJGPYWTFGXQP/CKNNGVKTTVÒONKEJCNU0QVOÒP\GXGT\GKEJPGV

,ª.+%* &+'$'.#)'470)810,ª.+%* &CU *CWU -NGXG GTNQUEJ CO  /·T\  OKV FGO 6QF FGU *GT\QIU ,QJCPP 9KNJGNO FGT MGKPG   0CEJMQOOGP JKPVGTNKG­ 5GKP 'TDG DGUVCPF CWU FGP *GT\QIVÒOGTP ,ÒNKEJ -NGXG WPF $GTI FGP )TCH   UEJCHVGP /CTM WPF 4CXGPUDGTI UQYKG FGT MNGKPGP PKGFGTTJGKPKUEJGP *GTTUEJCHV 4CXGPUVGKP &GT UKEJ   TCUEJGPV\ÒPFGPFG5VTGKVWOFKG'TDHQNIGFTQJVGUKEJ\WGKPGOGWTQR·KUEJGP-QPHNKMVHCNN\WGPVYKEMGNP )NGKEJ OGJTGTG #PY·TVGT DGCPURTWEJVGP FKGUG WOHCPITGKEJG *KPVGTNCUUGPUEJCHV CNNGP XQTCP -WTDTCP   FGPDWTI WPF 2HCN\0GWDWTI CDGT CWEJ 2HCN\<YGKDTÒEMGP WPF $WTICW UQYKG 5CEJUGP WPF -NGXG0G   XGTU #WEJ FGT -CKUGT YCT DGUVTGDV UGKPG +PVGTGUUGP KP FKGUGT #PIGNGIGPJGKV \W YCJTGP <YGK FKGUGT   2T·VGPFGPVGP -WTHÒTUV ,QJCPP 5KIKUOWPF XQP $TCPFGPDWTI WPF 2HCN\ITCH ,QJCPP 9KNJGNO XQP 0GW   DWTIJCPFGNVGPWPOKVVGNDCTWPFIG\KGNV*CVVGPUKG\WP·EJUVXGTUWEJVLGFGTHÒTUKEJCNNGKPFKGUGXCMCP VGP6GTTKVQTKGPGKP\WHQTFGTPUQGKPKIVGPUKGUKEJCNUō2QUUKFKGTGPFG(ÒTUVGPŋDGTGKVUCO,WPK CWHGKPGIGOGKPUEJCHVNKEJG4GIKGTWPIFGU5VTGKVQDLGMVU&GT-CKUGTXGTYGKIGTVGFKG#PGTMGPPWPIFKGUGT +PDGUKV\PCJOGWPFGTPCPPVGFCTCWHJKPUGKPGP8GVVGT'T\JGT\QI.GQRQNFFGP$KUEJQHXQP2CUUCW\WO #FOKPKUVTCVQTFGTLÒNKEJMNGXKUEJGP.CPFG'T\JGT\QI.GQRQNFGTTGKEJVG,ÒNKEJCO,WNKYQKJOFKG (GUVWPIXQOMCKUGTVTGWGPWPFMCVJQNKUEJGP-QOOCPFCPVGP$CTQPXQP4GWUEJGPDGTIÒDGTIGDGPYWTFG #O,WNK\QIGKPGO·EJVKIG5VTGKVOCEJVFGT2QUUKFKGTGPFGP(ÒTUVGPXQTFGT(GUVWPI,ÒNKEJCWH DGUVGJGPF CWU GKIGPGP 8GTD·PFGP WPVGT (ÒJTWPI FGU /CTMITCHGP 'TPUV XQP $TCPFGPDWTI WPF FGU KP   RH·N\KUEJGP &KGPUVGP UVGJGPFGP 2TKP\GP %JTKUVKCP XQP #PJCNV WPVGTUVÒV\V XQP -QPVKPIGPVGP FGT 8GT   DÒPFGVGP (TCPMTGKEJ )TQ­DTKVCPPKGP WPF FGT )GPGTCNUVCCVGP FGT 0KGFGTNCPFG +O .CWHG FGT HÒPHWPF   FTGK­KIV·IKIGP$GNCIGTWPIUCJUKEJFGT(GUVWPIUMQOOCPFGWTIGPÌVKIV0QVOÒP\GPJGTCWU\WIGDGPFGTGP MNKRRGPHÌTOKIG5EJTÌVNKPIGCWU\GTUEJPKVVGPGO6CHGNIGUEJKTTDGUVCPFGP#O5GRVGODGTOWUUVG FKG$GUCV\WPIFGT(GUVWPIFKG9CHHGPXQTFGP#PITGKHGTPUVTGEMGP

4546



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-NKRRG\W6CNGTI)GHGTVKIVCWUFGTªDGTICPIURCTVKGXQP4CPFWPF $QFGP GKPGU ITQ­GP UKNDGTPGP HNCEJ CPUVGKIGPFGP )GH·­GU XGTOWVNKEJ GKPGU 6GNNGTU QFGT GKPGT   6CHGNRNCVVG/KV\YGK5VGORGNWPIGPGTUVGPUOKVFGT9GTV\KHHGT++++KPGKPGTTGEJVGEMKIGP8GTVKGHWPIWPF \YGKVGPU OKV GKPGO *QJGKVUUVGORGN .GV\VGTGT  \GKIV KO IGRGTNVGP 1XCN FKG IGMTÌPVG 0COGPUKPKVKCNG 4   FGU MCKUGTVTGWGP $GHGJNUJCDGTU ,QJCPP XQP 4GWUEJGPDGTI QDGTJCND GKPGT 9GNNGPNKPKG WPF FKG XQP FGT   0COGPUKPKVKCNG.FGU'T\JGT\QIU.GQRQNFIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H  FKGUGU'ZGORNCT! /CKNNGV6H.:8+ FKGUGU'ZGORNCT! 0GWOCPPXINKPUDGUQPFGTG WPF0QUU\W W­GTUVUGNVGP&GT2GTNTGKHFGU*QJGKVUUVGORGNUVGKNUPKEJVCWUIGRT·IV FGPPQEJGKPCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5NI$TCPF#WMVKQP.GW<ÒTKEJ0T

196


4547



1,5:1

4548

'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRGI8QPXKGTGEMKIGT)TWPFHQTOOKVGKPGTJCNDTWPFGP'TYGKVGTWPICP GKPGT FGT .·PIUUGKVGP IGHGTVKIV CWU FGT &CWOGPTCUV FGU &GEMGNU GKPGU UKNDGTPGP *WORGPU QFGT FGO   'PFUVÒEMGKPGU.ÌHHGNUTGURGMVKXGGKPGT)CDGN/KV\YGK5VGORGNWPIGPGTUVGPUGKPGJQEJTGEJVGEMKIGOKV FGT 9GTV\KHHGT +  \YGKVGPU GKPG TWPFG RGTNWOU·WOVG OKV FGP +PKVKCNGP 8  + 4 HÒT 8KXCV +ORGTCVQT   4WFQNRJWU QFGT +QJCPP XQP 4GWUEJGPDGTI QDGTJCND GKPGT 9GNNGPNKPKG WPF FGT ,CJTGU\CJN    Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   /CKNNGV 6H .:8+ XIN  0GWOCPP XIN    8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5NI$TCPF#WMVKQP.GW<ÒTKEJ0T



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP%JTKUVKCP/CNGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFVFWTEJ5VTGKVMT·HVGFGU -WTHÒTUVGPXQP$TCPFGPDWTIWPFFGU2HCN\ITCHGPXQP2HCN\0GWDWTIUQYKGXQPFGPXGTDÒPFGVGP6TWR RGP WPVGT (ÒJTWPI FGU 2TKP\GP /QTKV\ XQP 0CUUCW1TCPKGP #WU FGT 8QIGNUEJCW FKG WOYGJTVG 5VCFV   UCOV FGT <KVCFGNNG UQYKG FKXGTUGP #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPIGP WPF 6TWRRGPHQTOCVKQPGP FGT $GNCIG   TGT$4#0&'0$84)'05+5 '6 0'1$84)+%85 24+0%'25 &+'  5'26'/$4+5  #00+ 1   #&+8614' /#84+6+1 0#5518+“ %1/+6' #4%'/  +8.+#%'05'/ 1%%82#06 588/3   +85 8+0&+%#2#06 &GT MWTHÒTUVNKEJDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJG WPF FGT RHCN\IT·HNKEJPGWDWTIKUEJG 5EJKNF   FC\YKUEJGPUVGJGPFGKPOKV<YGKIGPDGUVGEMVGT/GTMWTUVCD1DGP\YGK$NÒVGPUVGPIGN#PHCPIWPF'PFG FGT FTGKHCEJ IGUVCHHGNVGP 7OUEJTKHV VTGPPGPF 7PVGP 2HGKNDÒPFGN \YKUEJGP %  /  OO  I   5NI 'TNCPIGT  -2-  X .QQP ++ XIN 5  FQTV GKP OQVKXINGKEJGU 'ZGORNCT OKV KFGPVKUEJGT   8QTFGTUGKVGWPFGKPGT4ÒEMUGKVGOKVGKPGTCWH&GWVUEJIGHC­VGP7OUEJTKHV 0GWOCPP/GFCKNNGPXIN  FQTV GKP OQVKXINGKEJGU 'ZGORNCT OKV KFGPVKUEJGT 8QTFGTUGKVG WPF GKPGT 4ÒEMUGKVG OKV GKPGT CWH   &GWVUEJIGHC­VGP7OUEJTKHV 5NI9G[ICPF FKGUGU'ZGORNCT  W­GTUVUGNVGP5GJTUEJÌP 

&+'$'.#)'470)810,ª.+%* 0CEJFGT'KPPCJOG,ÒNKEJUKO,CJTGFWTEJFKG2QUUKFKGTGPFGP(ÒTUVGPYWTFGGKPG#DVGKNWPIFGU DTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP -WTHÒTUVGP UQYKG GKP 8GTDCPF FGU 2HCN\ITCHGP XQP 0GWDWTI IGOGKPUCO KP FKG (G   UVWPI XGTNGIV #NU -QOOCPFGWT YWTFG FGT 0KGFGTN·PFGT (TGFGTKM 2KVJCP GKPIGUGV\V &CU KO (TÒJLCJT    QHHGP CWUDTGEJGPFG <GTYÒTHPKU \YKUEJGP $TCPFGPDWTI WPF 2HCN\0GWDWTI MQPPVGP FKG )GPGTCN   UVCCVGP FGT 0KGFGTNCPFG \WT $GUGV\WPI FGT (GUVWPI ,ÒNKEJ PWV\GP FC -QOOCPFCPV 2KVJCP FKG (GUVWPI   \WXQTWPVGTFGP5EJWV\FGT)GPGTCNUVCCVGPIGUVGNNVJCVVG0CEJ#DNCWHGKPGU\YÌNHL·JTKIGP9CHHGPUVKNN UVCPFU GPVDTCPPVG KO ,CJTG  FGT UGKV  QHHGP CWUIGVTCIGPG -QPHNKMV \YKUEJGP 5RCPKGP WPF FGP   PÌTFNKEJGP 0KGFGTNCPFGP GTPGWV 5RCPKGP RNCPVG WPVGT &KTGMVKXG FGU )GPGTCNU #ODTQUKWU 5RKPQNC FKG   )GPGTCNUVCCVGPXQOLÒNKEJMNGXKUEJGP6GTTKVQTKWOJGTCP\WITGKHGP&GTKPURCPKUEJGP&KGPUVGPUVGJGPFG )GPGTCN *GKPTKEJ XQP FGO $GTI YWTFG XQP 5RKPQNC DGCWHVTCIV ,ÒNKEJ \W PGJOGP #O  5GRVGODGT   \QIUGKPG5VTGKVOCEJVXQTFKG/CWGTPFGT(GUVWPI&KGUKEJÒDGTOGJTGTG/QPCVGJKPYGIGTUVTGE MGPFG $GNCIGTWPI YCT HÒT FKG 'KPIGUEJNQUUGPGP GPVDGJTWPIUTGKEJ XQT CNNGO YGIGPFGTMPCRRGP0CJ TWPIUOKVVGNXQTT·VG<WT'PVNQJPWPIFGT/CPPUEJCHVGPWPF1HHK\KGTGNKG­-QOOCPFCPV2KVJCP0QVOÒP \GPCWU5KNDGTIGUEJKTTVGKNGPWPF·NVGTGO5KNDGTIGNFRT·IGP1JPG*QHHPWPICWH'PVUCV\MCRKVWNKGTVGFKG (GUVWPICO(GDTWCT

4549



1,5:1

'KPUGKVKIGRGPVCIQPCNG-NKRRG\W5VÒDGTPI/KVUGEJU5VGORGNWPIGPGKPGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG OKVFGTXQO/QPQITCOOFGU(GUVWPIUMQOOCPFCPVGP(TGFGTKM2KVJCPIGVGKNVGPXKGT\GKNKIGP#WHUEJTKHVÿ +<+ÆÛ+0)8.$'.')TKPIUWOJGTHÒPHMNGKPGTGUEJKNFHÌTOKIG5VGORGNWPIGPOKVFGT XQO /QPQITCOO FGU (GUVWPIUMQOOCPFCPVGP IGVGKNVGP \YGK\GKNKIGP #WHUEJTKHV +  <+    5   ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H/CKNNGVXIN6H.:8+0GWOCPPXIN  445GJTUEJÌP 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP0T

197


-'*.#/4*'+0 &+''+00#*/'810-'*.

4550



4550

1,5:1

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,QUGRJ %JCTNGU 4QGVVKGTU 2CTKU CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV FWTEJ HTCP\ÌUK   UEJG 5VTGKVMT·HVG CO  1MVQDGT $TWUVDKNF FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKIU .QWKU :8 T KP *CTPKUEJ OKV   WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPF1TFGPUDCPF7PVGTJCNDFGU#TOCDUEJPKVVU/QPQITCOOCWUFGP+PKVKCNGP,% WPF 42NCP FGT CO 4JGKP IGNGIGPGP (GUVWPI -GJN  OO  I 5NI ,WNKWU  /¾FCKNNGU   HTCP¼CKUGU5XCT FQTV8QTFGTUGKVGPUVGORGNXQP&W8KXKGT   4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



.#0&#7 &+'$'.#)'470)810.#0&#7&74%*-#+5'4.+%*'64722'0706'4 &'4(ª*470)&'56ª4-'0.17+5 +O5RCPKUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGI  YWTFGFKGGJGOCNKIG4GKEJUUVCFV.CPFCWFKGUGKVFGO9GUV H·NKUEJGP(TKGFGPXQPWPVGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGO5EJWV\UVCPFKPUIGUCOVXKGTOCNDGNCIGTVYWTFG UKG XQO MCKUGTNKEJGP 1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGT .WFYKI XQP $CFGP IGPCPPV 6ÒTMGPNQWKU  DGUGV\V  PCEJ   GKPGO 2NCP FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP (GUVWPIUDCWOGKUVGT 8CWDCP FGT .CPFCW KP FGP ,CJTGP  DGHG   UVKIV JCVVG WPF FCJGT CWEJ FKG 5EJYCEJUVGNNGP FGT (QTVKHKMCVKQP IGPCW MCPPVG FWTEJ 6CNNCTV \WTÒEMGT   QDGTVUGV\VGUKEJYKGFGTWOFGT6ÒTMGPNQWKUKPFGP$GUKV\FGT(GUVWPIFKGUOCNWPVGTUVÒV\VFWTEJ 2TKP\ 'WIGP XQP 5CXQ[GP WPF FGP GPINKUEJGP *GGTHÒJTGT /CTNDQTQWIJ +O ,CJT  YWTFG .CPFCW   FGO CNU )QWXGTPGWT GKPIGUGV\VGP %CTN #NGZCPFGT XQP 9ÒTVVGODGTI GTPGWV XQP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 6TWRRGP   GPVTKUUGPDGXQTFKG(GUVWPIFGP(TCP\QUGPKO(TKGFGPXQP4CUVCVV\WIGURTQEJGPYWTFG&KGKO HQNIGPFGP \WT 8GTUVGKIGTWPI MQOOGPFGP 0QVMNKRRGP WPF 5KNDGTOGFCKNNGP URKGIGNP GKPFTWEMUXQNNGP FKG   YGEJUGNJCHVG)GUEJKEJVG.CPFCWUKODGIKPPGPFGP,CJTJWPFGTV

4552 4551

1,5:1



'KPUGKVKIG -NKRRG \W  .KXTGU WPF  5QWU   I )GHGTVKIV CWU FGT 4CPFRCTVKG GKPGU 6CHGNIG   UEJKTT6CDNGCWUIGMGPP\GKEJPGVOKVGKPGO9CRRGPWPFGKPGO9GTVUVGORGNUQYKGOKV\GJP.KNKGPRWP \GP CNU -QPVTQNN\GKEJGP \WO 5EJWV\ XQT $GUEJPGKFWPI FGT 4CPF\QPGP  Z  OO $TCWUG   /CPUHGNFXIN6H*GWUGT/CKNNGVXIN6H.:+: 445GJTUEJÌP 



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-NKRRG\W.KXTGWPF5QWI)GHGTVKIVCWU6CHGNIGUEJKTTIGMGPP \GKEJPGVOKVGKPGO9CRRGPWPFGKPGO9GTVUVGORGNUQYKGOKVUKGDGP.KNKGPRWP\GPCNU-QPVTQNN\GKEJGP \WO 5EJWV\ XQT $GUEJPGKFWPI FGT 4CPF\QPGP  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H     *GWUGT/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H 45GJTUEJÌP 

198


4553



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  ,CJTGU\CJN CNU %JTQPQITCOO  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ HÒT FKG 9GTMUVCVV XQP )GQTI   (TKGFTKEJ0ÒTPDGTIGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFVWPF(GUVWPI.CPFCW/GFCKNNQPOKVFGON IGYCPFVGP$TWUVDKNFXQP-ÌPKI,QUGH+WOIGDGPXQPFGT5QPPG5VGTPGPWPFFGO/QPF$NKEMCWHFKG DGHGUVKIVG5VCFVQDGP#FNGTHNKGIGPFTGKP5EJTKHVDCPFJCNVGPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  *GWUGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  X .QQP +8 5  5NI   /QPVGPWQXQ9KGNCPFV<GKV\ 45GJTUEJÌP



4554



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  ,CJTGU\CJN CNU %JTQPQITCOO  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ HÒT FKG 9GTMUVCVV XQP )GQTI   (TKGFTKEJ 0ÒTPDGTIGT 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV WPF (GUVWPI .CPFCW $ÒUVG XQP -CKUGT   ,QUGH+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPVGTJCNDFGU5EJWNVGTCDUEJPKVVU)*Ü+O#DUEJPKVVXKGT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV WPF FKG +PKVKCNGP )(0Ü2NCP FGT (GUVWPI .CPFCW WPF FGU WOIGDGPFGP XQP .CWHIT·DGP WPF 5EJCP\   CPNCIGPFWTEJ\QIGPGP6GTTCKPU#WHFGT-CPVGFGU4CPFGUCWH*ÌJGFGU5EJGKVGNRWPMVUFGT/QVKXGXQP 8QTFGT WPF 4ÒEMUGKVG GTJCDGP IGRT·IV Û NKGIGPFGU &TGKDNCVV ) Û ( Û 0 Û NKGIGPFGU &TGKDNCVV    OO  I 5NI 'TNCPIGT  FQTV OKV PKEJV DGPCPPVGT 4CPFUEJTKHV PQVKGTV  *GWUGT    5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU FQTVOKVPKEJVDGPCPPVGT4CPFUEJTKHVPQVKGTV X.QQP+8XIN5

FQTVQJPG4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI/QPVGPWQXQXIN FQTVQJPG4CPFUEJTKHV  45GJTUEJÌP



4555



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFV WPF (GUVWPI .CPFCW $TWUVDKNF XQP -ÌPKI ,QUGH + JCNDN KP *CTPKUEJ OKV -GVVG FGU 1TFGPU XQO   )QNFGPGP 8NKGU FGP -QRH JCNDT IGYCPFV$NKEM XQP UEJT·I QDGP CWH FKG DGUEJQUUGPG WPF DTGPPGPFG   5VCFVWPFFKGXQTFGP(GUVWPIUOCWGTPCPIGNGIVGPMCKUGTNKEJGP.CWHIT·DGPWPF5VGNNWPIGP/KVGTJCDG PGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT*GWUGT5NI*QTUM[5NI ,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 199


&+'9+'&'4'41$'470)810.#0&#7&74%*-#+5'4.+%*'64722'0

4556



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 9KGFGTGKPPCJOG   XQP.CPFCW$TWUVDKNFXQP-ÌPKI,QUGH+JCNDNKP*CTPKUEJOKV-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU FGP-QRHJCNDTIGYCPFV$NKEMÒDGTGKPGMCKUGTNKEJG)GUEJÒV\UVGNNWPICWHFKGUVCTMWOYGJTVG5VCFV/KV GTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGT(QTUVGT*GWUGT5NI*QTUM[ 5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2QRGNMC #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'$'.#)'470)810.#0&#7&74%*(4#0<¤5+5%*'64722'0

4557



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-NKRRG\W)WNFGPWPF-TGW\GTI/KVTWPFGO/KVVGNUVGORGN\YGK 4GEJVGEMUVGORGNP WPF XKGT /QPQITCOOUVGORGNP /KVVGNUVGORGN FGT OKV GKPGO *GT\QIUJWV ÒDGTJÌJVG   WPF OKV FGT ,CIFQTFGPUMGVVG DGJCPIGPG 9CRRGPUEJKNF FGU MCKUGTNKEJGP (GUVWPIUMQOOCPFCPVGP %CTN   #NGZCPFGT XQP 9ÒTVVGODGTI WPVGP  Û 1DGP 4GEJVGEMUVGORGN OKV 9CJNURTWEJ WPVGP 4GEJV   GEMUVGORGNOKV1TVUWPF9GTVCPICDG7OFGP/KVVGNUVGORGNITWRRKGTGPUKEJFKGXKGT5VGORGNWPIGPOKV FGOXQPGKPGO*GT\QIUJWVÒDGTJÌJVGP/QPQITCOOFGU(GUVWPIUMQOOCPFCPVGP/KVUEJT·IIGMGTDVGO 4CPF  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT -NGKP4CHH  /CKNNGV6H.:+:XCT 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

4558

4559



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-NKRRG\W)WNFGPWPF-TGW\GTI/KVTWPFGO/KVVGNUVGORGN\YGK 4GEJVGEMUVGORGNP WPF XKGT /QPQITCOOUVGORGNP /KVVGNUVGORGN FGT OKV GKPGO *GT\QIUJWV ÒDGTJÌJVG   WPF OKV FGT ,CIFQTFGPUMGVVG DGJCPIGPG 9CRRGPUEJKNF FGU MCKUGTNKEJGP (GUVWPIUMQOOCPFCPVGP %CTN   #NGZCPFGT XQP 9ÒTVVGODGTI WPVGP  1DGP 4GEJVGEMUVGORGN OKV 9CJNURTWEJ WPVGP 4GEJV   GEMUVGORGNOKV1TVUWPF9GTVCPICDG7OFGP/KVVGNUVGORGNITWRRKGTGPUKEJFKGXKGT5VGORGNWPIGPOKV FGO XQP GKPGO *GT\QIUJWV ÒDGTJÌJVGP /QPQITCOO FGU (GUVWPIUMQOOCPFCPVGP /KV INCVVGO 4CPF   ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H-NGKP4CHH/CKNNGVXIN6H.:+:  8QT\ÒINKEJ 



'KPUGKVKIGQMVQIQPCNG-NKRRG\W)WNFGPWPF-TGW\GTI)GMGPP\GKEJPGVKO(GNFOKV FGO/QPQITCOOFGU(GUVWPIUMQOOCPFCPVGP%CTN#NGZCPFGTXQP9ÒTVVGODGTIGKPGT9CJNURTWEJWPF GKPGT 9GTVUVGORGNWPI UQYKG KP 0·JG FGT 'EMGP OKV LG GKPGT 9CRRGPUVGORGNWPI /KV INCVVGO 4CPF   ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H-NGKP4CHHC/CKNNGVXIN6H.:+:  8QT\ÒINKEJ

200




.'+2<+) .'+2<+)'4-72('4/#4-'0

4560



4561

4562

'KPUGKVKIGQMVCIQPCNG-W4CVUOCTMG\W2HGPPKIGPQ,OKVGKPIGUEJNCIGPGT-GPPPWOOGTZ  OO  I $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   FQTV GKP XGTYCPFVGU 'ZGORNCT CWH CDIGTWPFGV   FTGKGEMKIGO 5EJTÌVNKPI OKV CPFGTGT 9GTVCPICDG WPF QJPG -GPPPWOOGT  /CKNNGV  XIN 6H .::   

FQTVGKPXGTYCPFVGU'ZGORNCTCWHCDIGTWPFGVFTGKGEMKIGO5EJTÌVNKPIOKVCPFGTGT9GTVCPICDGWPFQJPG -GPPPWOOGT /GTUGDXINDWPF FQTVCNU/CTMGPFGT5VTCHCPUVCNV.GWEJVGPDWTI   5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIGJGZCIQPCNG-W4CVUOCTMG\W2HGPPKIGPQ,OKVGKPIGUEJNCIGPGT-GPPPWOOGTZ  OO  I $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   FQTV GKP XGTYCPFVGU 'ZGORNCT CWH CDIGTWPFGV   FTGKGEMKIGO5EJTÌVNKPIOKVKFGPVKUEJGT9GTVCPICDGFQEJOKVCPFGTGT#PQTFPWPIFGT9CRRGPWPFQJPG -GPPPWOOGT /CKNNGVXIN6H.:: FQTVGKPXGTYCPFVGU'ZGORNCTCWHCDIGTWPFGVFTGKGEMKIGO 5EJTÌVNKPI OKV KFGPVKUEJGT 9GTVCPICDG FQEJ OKV CPFGTGT #PQTFPWPI FGT 9CRRGP WPF QJPG   -GPPPWOOGT /GTUGDXINDWPF FQTVCNU/CTMGPFGT5VTCHCPUVCNV.GWEJVGPDWTI   5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIG-W4CVUOCTMGQ,OKVGKPIGUEJNCIGPGT-GPPPWOOGTI$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN 6H   FQTV GKP XGTYCPFVGU 'ZGORNCT CWH CDIGTWPFGVFTGKGEMKIGO 5EJTÌVNKPI OKV 9GTVCPICDG    /CKNNGV  XIN 6H .::  FQTV GKP XGTYCPFVGU 'ZGORNCT CWH CDIGTWPFGVFTGKGEMKIGO 5EJTÌVNKPI OKV   9GTVCPICDG /GTUGDXINDWPF FQTVCNU/CTMGPFGT5VTCHCPUVCNV.GWEJVGPDWTI   5GJTUEJÌP



$TCWUG/CPUHGNFWPF/CKNNGVJCDGPFKG.GKR\KIGT/CTMGPKTTVÒONKEJCNU0QVOÒP\GPXGT\GKEJPGV





Beschießung von Leipzig im 30jährigen Krieg.

201


/#)&'$74) &+'$'.#)'470)&'456#&6/#)&'$74)&74%* /14+6<8105#%*5'0 0CEJ FGO 5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGP -TKGI  UVCPF -CKUGT -CTN8CWHFGO)KRHGNUGKPGT/CEJVFGT 5EJOCNMCNFKUEJG $WPF YCT \GTUEJNCIGP WPF FGT 2TQVGUVCPVKUOWU YCT FGWVNKEJ IGUEJY·EJV 9KG MGKPG   CPFGTG4GKEJUUVCFVUVGOOVGUKEJ/CIFGDWTIIGIGPFGP5KGIGUNCWHFGU-CKUGTUWPFJKGNVFKG(CJPGFGT GXCPIGNKUEJGP 5CEJG CWHTGEJV &KG 'KPYQJPGT /CIFGDWTIU JCVVGP UKEJ XQO 'T\DKUEJQH WPF -CRKVGN   NQUIGUCIV FKG 5VKHVUIÒVGT KP $GUKV\ IGPQOOGP WPF FGP RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP )QVVGUFKGPUV GKPIGHÒJTV YQHÒT   /CIFGDWTIXQP-CKUGT-CTN8OKVFGT4GKEJUCEJVDGNGIVYWTFG&CCWEJFKGUG/C­PCJOGQJPG9KT MWPIDNKGDYWTFGUEJNKG­NKEJ-WTHÒTUV/QTKV\XQP5CEJUGPFKG#WUHÒJTWPIFGT#EJVÒDGTVTCIGPUQFCUU FKGUGT CWH -QUVGP FGU 4GKEJGU GKP *GGT IGIGP /CIFGDWTI HÒJTVG WPF FKG YKFGTURGPUVKIG 4GKEJUUVCFV   DGNCIGTVG&KGKPUIGUCOV6CIGFCWGTPFG$GNCIGTWPIDNKGDQJPG'THQNI'TUVCNU/QTKV\XQP5CEJUGP FKG2CTVGKIGYGEJUGNVJCVVGWPFUKEJOKVCPFGTGP4GKEJUHÒTUVGPIGIGP-CKUGT-CTN8UVGNNVGÌHHPGVGPFKG $ÒTIGT/CIFGDWTIUKJTG2HQTVGPWPFJWNFKIVGPKJO

4564

4563







0QVIWNFGPI&KG,WPIHTCW /CIF UVGJGPFXX\YKUEJGP\YGK6ÒTOGPJKPVGTFGP<KPPGP GKPGT 5VCFVOCWGT OKV IGÌHHPGVGO 6QT(ÒPHDN·VVTKIG 4QUG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT /CKNNGV   5WRRN6HXCTX5EJT 8U  4U 5NI*CWUYCNFVXCT 445EJÌP



)WNFGPI&KG,WPIHTCW /CIF UVGJGPFXX\YKUEJGP\YGK6ÒTOGPJKPVGTFGP<KPPGP GKPGT 5VCFVOCWGT OKV IGÌHHPGVGO 6QT(ÒPHDN·VVTKIG 4QUG $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  /CKNNGV  X 5EJT   

8U  4U 5NI*CWUYCNFVXIN FQTV8CTKCPVGP  445EJÌP



'KPUGKVKIGT -W2HGPPKI  &KG ,WPIHTCW /CIF  UVGJGPF X X \YKUEJGP \YGK 6ÒTOGP JKPVGT FGP   <KPPGP GKPGT 5VCFVOCWGT OKV IGÌHHPGVGO 6QT +O IGÌHHPGVGP 6QT GKP HÒPHUVTCJNKIGT 5VGTP QDGP FKG   ,CJTGU\CJN$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.::8++X5EJT5NI*CWUYCNFV  .GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)810/#)&'$74)&74%*-#+5'4.+%*'64722'0 #O/·T\GTNKG­FGTFGWVUEJG-CKUGTFCUXGTJ·PIPKUXQNNG4GUVKVWVKQPUGFKMVYGNEJGUFGP&TGK ­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGI WP\YGKFGWVKI \WO 4GNKIKQPUMTKGI UVGORGNVG 9KGKPFGP6CIGP-CKUGT-CTNU8GPV UEJNQUU UKEJ /CIFGDWTI YKGFGTWO FCU $QNNYGTM FGU 2TQVGUVCPVKUOWU \W UGKP #PFGTU CNU KO 'FKMV   XQTIGUGJGP JCVVG /CIFGDWTI FGP U·EJUKUEJGP 2TKP\GP #WIWUV KO,CJTG\WO'T\DKUEJQHGTPCPPV #NU -CKUGT (GTFKPCPF++#WIWUVXQP5CEJUGPFKG$GUV·VKIWPIXGTYGKIGTVGWPFUVCVVFGUUGPUGKPGPGKIG PGP5QJP.GQRQNF9KNJGNOCNU'T\DKUEJQHGKPUGV\GPYQNNVGMCOGU\WO9KFGTUVCPFFGT/CIFGDWTIGT $ÒTIGTYCUUEJNKG­NKEJKPFGT$GNCIGTWPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJ9CNNGPUVGKPU6TWRRGPOÒPFGVG#DGTCWEJCNU 2CRRGPJGKO FGT H·JKIUVG #PHÒJTGT 9CNNGPUVGKP XQT FCU -GV\GTPGUV TÒEMVG YWTFG FKG VTQV\KIG   $ÒTIGTUEJCHV PKEJV IGDGWIV 0CEJ GKPGO JCNDGP ,CJT $GNCIGTWPI WPF \CJNTGKEJGP 8GTNWUVGP CWH 5GKVGP   FGT -CKUGTNKEJGP \QI 9CNNGPUVGKP UGKPG 6TWRRGP UEJNWUUGPFNKEJ CD 9·JTGPF FGT <GKV FGT $GNCIGTWPI   UKPFFKGKOHQNIGPFGPCPIGDQVGPGP/ÒP\GPIGRT·IVYQTFGPYCJTUEJGKPNKEJCWUFGO5KNDGTFGTVCRHGTGP $ÒTIGT/CIFGDWTIU

4566



202

0QVIWNFGP \W  )TQUEJGP I&KG,WPIHTCW /CIF UVGJGPFXX\YKUEJGP\YGK6ÒTOGP JKPVGT FGP <KPPGP GKPGT 5VCFVOCWGT OKV IGÌHHPGVGO 6QT&KG 9GTVCPICDG WPF FKG ,CJTGU\CJN KP HÒPH   <GKNGPTKPIUWOJGTFKG7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV5WRRN6HX5EJT

FQTVGKPIGIGPIGUVGORGNVGU'ZGORNCT 5NI*CWUYCNFV 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP




4567



0QVIWNFGP \W  )TQUEJGP  OKV )GIGPUVGORGN CWU FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG HÒPHDN·VVTKIG 4QUG  I   &KG ,WPIHTCW /CIF  UVGJGPF X X \YKUEJGP \YGK 6ÒTOGP JKPVGT FGP <KPPGP GKPGT 5VCFVOCWGT OKV   IGÌHHPGVGO6QT&KG9GTVCPICDGWPFFKG,CJTGU\CJNKPHÒPH<GKNGPTKPIUWOJGTFKG7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTVQJPG)GIGPUVGORGN X5EJT5NI*CWU YCNFV FKGUGU'ZGORNCT  445EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

4569 4568





4568

 )TQUEJGP  OKV )GIGPUVGORGN CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG HÒPHDN·VVTKIG 4QUG  I &KG ,WPIHTCW  

/CIF  UVGJGPF X X \YKUEJGP \YGK 6ÒTOGP JKPVGT FGP <KPPGP GKPGT 5VCFVOCWGT OKV IGÌHHPGVGO   6QT&KG 9GTVCPICDG WPF FKG ,CJTGU\CJN KP HÒPH <GKNGP TKPIUWOJGT FKG 7OUEJTKHV $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   XIN6H FQTVQJPG)GIGPUVGORGN /CKNNGV5WRRNXIN6H FQTVQJPG)GIGPUVGORGN X 5EJT#PO5NI*CWUYCNFV 4.GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



)TQUEJGPI&KG,WPIHTCW /CIF UVGJGPFXX\YKUEJGP\YGK6ÒTOGPCWHGKPGT5VCFVOCWGT OKVIGÌHHPGVGO6QT(ÒPHDN·VVTKIG4QUG$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV5WRRN6HX5EJT 5NI*CWUYCNFV 5EJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



&+'<'456¤470)810/#)&'$74)&74%*6+..;564722'0 &GOCWUGKPGODTCDCPVKUEJGP#FGNUIGUEJNGEJVUVCOOGPFGP*GGTHÒJTGT,QJCPP6UGTENCGU)TCHXQP6KNN[ IGNCPI CO  /CK  FKG 'TUVÒTOWPI /CIFGDWTIU &KG 5VCFV YWTFG IGIGP FGP 9KNNGP 6KNN[ʼnU HCUV   XQNNUV·PFKIFWTEJ(GWGTXGTPKEJVGV

1,5:1 4570



4570

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG<GTUVÌTWPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJ6KNN[U6TWRRGP$NKEMCWHFKG5VCFV ÒDGTFKG'NDGQDGPFGT5VCFVUEJKNFCWHGKPGO5EJTKHVDCPFKO#DUEJPKVV1661/#)Ù%#'5Ù#Q Û/#)&Ù24+8+Ù14Ù#QÛ'2+5%1Ù(80Ù'6/1Ù#Q Û  #WHUEJTKHVKP GNH<GKNGPÜ8+%6#8+81Ü+EJ/CIFCDWTIUQNCPIHNQTKGTVV.KGI,·OOGTNKEJICPV\TWKPKTVVÜ,EJ HTCIWPFMNCIYCTWODFK­IUEJKGJVÜ1JGTTIGTGEJVUKPFFGKPIGTKEJVÜ#POKTURKGIGNUKEJLGFG5VCVV &CUKCFKG4GYPKEJVMQOO\WURCVV<WURCVVMCPFK4GYPKOOGTUGKPÜÙ9CPUKGIGJVCWUFGO JGTV\ÙGPTGKPÜÛÛ.OOI5NI*CWUYCNFV FKGUGU'ZGORNCT   W­GTUVUGNVGP8QT\ÒINKEJ  203


&'40'7#7($#7810/#)&'$74)

4571



4GKEJUVCNGTCWHFGP0GWDCWFGT5VCFVI&GTDGJGNOVGXKGTHGNFKIG5VCFVUEJKNFKO(GNFN WPVGP <CKPJCMGP T 25 2GVGT 5EJTCFGT UV·FVKUEJGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT  +POKVVGP FGT \YÌNH\GK   NKIGP#WHUEJTKHVFGTFQRRGNMÌRHKIG4GKEJUCFNGTWPVGTJCNDFGT-CKUGTMTQPGCWHFGT$TWUVGKPJQEJQXCNGU 2QTVT·VOGFCKNNQPXQP-CKUGT(GTFKPCPF+++VTCIGPF&CXX5EJT  44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

&'4,#*4'56#)&'4<'456¤470)810/#)&'$74)

4572



<KPPOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP,CJTGUVCIFGT<GTUVÌTWPIWPFFGP9KGFGTCWHDCWFGT5VCFV $NKEMÒDGTFCU'NDWHGTCWHFKGDTGPPGPFG5VCFVKO8QTFGTITWPF4GKVGTWPF(W­UQNFCVGP+O.QTDGGT MTCP\OGJT\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVUQYKG5EJYGTVWPF(CEMGNOO5NI*CWUYCNFV9WT\D  -N-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



/#+0< /#+0<706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6

1,5:1



204

1,5:1

)WUVCX ++ #FQNH XQP 5EJYGFGP  &WMCV   I $TWUVDKNF JCNDT)GMTÌPVGU   XKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNF#JNUVTÌO(D FQTVWPVGT0ÒTPDGTI 5NI9CNVJGT  )1.&44/KPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP 

1,5:1



4573

4574

1,5:1

&WMCVI$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN5KGDGP\GKNKIGTXQPGKPGO .QTDGGTMTCP\WOUEJNQUUGPGT6GZV#JNUVTÌOC(D5NI9CNVJGT  )1.&44.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP




&+'$'.#)'470)70&9+'&'4'+00#*/'810/#+0<&74%* -#+5'4.+%*'64722'0 +O ,CJTG  DGUGV\VGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJG 6TWRRGP FKG -WTRHCN\ WPF FKG CPITGP\GPFGP IGKUVNKEJGP -WTHÒT   UVGPVÒOGT 0QEJ KO UGNDGP ,CJT FT·PIVGP XGTDÒPFGVG MCKUGTNKEJG MWTDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJG MWTU·EJUKUEJG   DTCWPUEJYGKIJCPPQXGTUEJGNCPFIT·HNKEJJGUUKUEJGWPFMWTDC[GTKUEJG5VTGKVMT·HVGFGP'KPFTKPINKPICWH FCUNKPMG4JGKPWHGT\WTÒEM/CKP\MQPPVGPCEJGKPGTOGJTGTG/QPCVGY·JTGPFGP$GNCIGTWPIXQPFGP #NNKKGTVGP KO ,CJTG  GPVUGV\V YGTFGP &GT HTCP\ÌUKUEJG -QOOCPFCPV /CTSWKU Fʼn7ZGNNGU NKG­ GKPG   5GTKGXQP$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GPJGTUVGNNGPWOFGP)GNFOCPIGNKPFGTXQTFGT#W­GPYGNVCDIGUEJPKVVGPGP 5VCFV\WNKPFGTP

4575



6CNGTI/10'6#Û018#Û#4)'06'#Û5RKGIGNOQPQITCOOXQP.QWKU:+8-Ì PKI XQP (TCPMTGKEJ KP GKPGT IGMTÌPVGP -CTVWUEJGÊ ).14+# Û +0 Û ':%'.5+5 Û &'1 Û  &KG   9GTVDTWEJ\CJNKPOOKVVGPFGT7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX/CKNNGV5WRRN6H 5NI9CNVJGTXCT 445GJTUEJÌP 

4576



6CNGTI5RKGIGNOQPQITCOOXQP.QWKU:+8-ÌPKIXQP(TCPMTGKEJKPGKPGTIGMTÌPVGP -CTVWUEJG KO (GNF   Ê ).14+# Û +0 Û ':%'.5+5 Û &'1 Ù &KG 9GTVDTWEJ\CJN KPOKVVGP FGT   7OUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX/CKNNGV5WRRN6H5NI9CNVJGT  45GJTUEJÌP 

4577



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2JKNKRR *GKPTKEJ /ÒNNGT #WIUDWTI WPF 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FKG 9KGFGTGKPPCJOG   FGT 5VCFV WPF FKG 8GTVTGKDWPI FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GUCV\GT $NKEM ÒDGT FGP 4JGKP CWH FKG DGUEJQUUGPG   5VCFV CWH FGO (NWUU 5EJKHH WPF $QQVG#FNGT HNKGIGPF T OKV GKPGO $NKV\ 2JCGVQP CWU FGT 5QPPGP   SWCFTKICUEJNGWFGTPF/KVGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI'TNCPIGTXIN FQTV KP $TQP\G  (QTUVGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  5NI /QPVGPWQXQ  2T #NGZ  5NI   9CNVJGT9KVVGNUD 441Z[FHNGEMCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP  205


4579

4578





4578

<KPPOGFCKNNGXQP2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT#WIUDWTIWPF0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG9KGFGTGKPPCJOGFGT 5VCFVWPFFKG8GTVTGKDWPIFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP$GUCV\GT$NKEMÒDGTFGP4JGKPCWHFKGDGUEJQUUGPG5VCFV CWH FGO (NWUU 5EJKHH WPF $QQVG#FNGT HNKGIGPF T OKV GKPGO $NKV\ 2JCGVQP CWU FGT 5QPPGPSWCFTKIC   UEJNGWFGTPF/KVFGOQTKIKPCNGP-WRHGTUVKHVWPFGTJCDGPGT4CPFUEJTKHVOO5NI'TNCPIGTXIN  FQTV KP $TQP\G  (QTUVGT  5NI *QTUM[  5NI ,WNKWU  XIN  FQTV KP 5KNDGT  5NI   /QPVGPWQXQXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 2T#NGZ5NI9CNVJGTXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT WPF  FQTVKP$TQP\G 9KVVGNUDXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT  -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



/GUUKPI,GVQPCWHFKG9KGFGTGKPPCJOGFGT5VCFVFWTEJFCU4GKEJUJGGT#PUKEJVFGTDGUEJQUUGPGP 5VCFV0GWP\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVOOI2T#NGZ5NI9CNVJGT  44-NGKPGU<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)70&9+'&'4'+00#*/'810/#+0<&74%*&+' 4'+%*5#4/''

4581

4582

Beschießung von Mainz.



$TQP\G 5QNU #0  #WU )NQEMGPOGVCNN  I /KV GKPGT ,CMQDKPGTOÒV\G DGFGEMVGU (CUEGU   DÒPFGN\YKUEJGP'KEJGP\YGKIGP9GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVGKP 'ZGORNCTKP-WRHGT *QHHO/CKNNGVXIN6H.::: FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTKP-WRHGT 2T#NGZ 5NI9CNVJGT 5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



0QVIGNFFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-QOOCPFCPVGP)GPGTCNF 1[T¾





206

-W 5QNU #0   I /KV GKPGT ,CMQDKPGTOÒV\G DGFGEMVGU (CUEGUDÒPFGN \YKUEJGP 'KEJGP   \YGKIGP9GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   FQTV GKP 'ZGORNCT KP $TQP\G    *QHHOXIN FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTKP$TQP\G-CPQPGPOGVCNN /CKNNGV6H.:::2T#NGZXIN

FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTKP)NQEMGPOGVCNN 5NI9CNVJGTXIN FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTKP$TQP\G   9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



-W5QN #0   I /KV GKPGT ,CMQDKPGTOÒV\G DGFGEMVGU (CUEGUDÒPFGN \YKUEJGP 'KEJGP\YGK   IGP9GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP /KV UGEJUDN·VVTKIGP 4QUGVVGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   *QHHO    FQTV GKP 'ZGORNCT KP -CPQPGPOGVCNN  /CKNNGV 6H .:::  2T #NGZ XIN  FQTV GKP   'ZGORNCTKP)NQEMGPOGVCNN 5NI9CNVJGTXIN FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTKP$TQP\G   ,WUVKGTURWTGPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP




4583



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP(TKGFTKEJ*GKPTKEJ-TÒIGTUGPKQT&TGUFGPCWHFKG9KGFGTGKPPCJOGFGT5VCFV FWTEJ FKG 4GKEJUCTOGG $NKEM XQP -CUVGN ÒDGT FGP 4JGKP CWH FKG 5VCFV +O 8QTFGTITWPF CO TGEJVGP   (NWUUWHGTGKP1DGNKUM\WFGUUGP$CUKUFGT5VCFVUEJKNFGKPG(CJPGWPFGKP-CPQPGPTQJTPGDUV-WIGNP PKGFGTIGNGIVUKPF+PGKPGTXQPFGTCWHIGJGPFGP5QPPGDGUVTCJNVGP'DGPGCO(W­GGKPGT*ÒIGNMGVVGFGT RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG/CKPWPFFGTRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG4JGKPGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTNCIGTPFOKV3WGNNWTPGPFGPÒDGT KJPGPHNKGIGPFGP2CNO\YGKIGJCNVGPFGPFQRRGNMÌRHKIGP#FNGTITÒ­GPFOOI2T#NGZ *QHHOGKUVGT5NI9CNVJGT 4(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



'+0'-1064+$76+10524)70)&'5'4<$+567/5/#+0<+/'456'0 -1#.+6+105-4+')

4584



(TKGFTKEJ -CTN ,QUGRJ XQP 'TVJCN  -QPX6CNGT  /CKP\ -QPVTKDWVKQP  I   $TWUVDKNF JCNDT KO *GTOGNKP(ÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV \YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6H&CX5NI9CNVJGT 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&'4'065#6<810/#+0<&74%*-#+5'4.+%*'64722'0

4585



(TKGFTKEJ-CTN,QUGRJXQP'TVJCN-QPX6CNGT#WHFGP'PVUCV\FGTXQPFGP(TCP \QUGP DGUGV\VGP 5VCFV FWTEJ FGP MCKUGTNKEJGP (GNFOCTUEJCNN %NGTHC[V  I 5VCFVCPUKEJV OKV FGO   4JGKPUVTQO WPF FGT 5EJKHHUDTÒEMG QDGP &QRRGNCFNGT2[TCOKFGPOQPWOGPV OKV #TOCVWTGPUEJOWEM   DGMTÌPVOKVGKPGTNQTDGGTWOYWPFGPGP-WIGN&CX5NI9CNVJGT  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTNGKEJVG4CPFXGTRT·IWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ  +PFGT·NVGTGPPWOKOCVKUEJGP.KVGTCVWTWPFKO/ÒP\JCPFGNYKTFFGTXQTNKGIGPFG6[RWUCNU<YKVVGTRT·IWPIIGHÒJTV 'DGTJCTF .KPM MQPPVG PCEJYGKUGP FCUU GU UKEJ KPFGU WO GKPGP TGIWN·TGP /CKP\GT -QPXGPVKQPUVCNGT JCPFGNV FGT   CPN·UUNKEJ FGT $GHTGKWPI FGT 5VCFV JGTCWUIGIGDGP YWTFG OÌINKEJGTYGKUG CNU 2T·OKG WPF #PFGPMGP HÒT FCU CO   'PVUCV\DGVGKNKIVG/KNKV·T '.KPMKP)GNFIGUEJKEJVNKEJG0CEJTKEJVGP,I 

207


/+0&'0 &+'$'.#)'470)810/+0&'0 *GT\QI)GQTIXQP$TCWPUEJYGKI.ÒPGDWTIYCTY·JTGPFFGU&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIGUCWHFKG5GKVG FGT 5EJYGFGP ÒDGTIGVTGVGP 5GKP XQTTCPIKIGU <KGN YCT GU FKG 9GUGT XQP MCKUGTNKEJGP 6TWRRGP \W   DGHTGKGP&KG$NQEMCFG/KPFGPUKPFGT6TWRRGP)GPGTCN6KNN[ʼnUUVCPFGPDGICPPCO,WNKWPF FCWGTVG DKU \WO  1MVQDGT FGUUGNDGP ,CJTGU &KG PCEJHQNIGPF CPIGDQVGPG 0QVOÒP\G UVCOOV CWU   \GTUEJNCIGPGO5KNDGTIGUEJKTT

4588

4586 4587



-NKRRG \W  )TQUEJGPOKV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG\YGKIGMTGW\VG5EJNÒUUGNI &TGK\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV9GTVCPICDGKPFTGK<GKNGPZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H

FQTV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG /CKNNGVXIN6H.:::8 FQTV)GIGPUVGORGNCWHFGT8QT FGTUGKVG 5VCPIG 5GJTUEJÌP



-W-NKRRG \W  )TQUEJGP   I /KV \YGK 5VGORGNWPIGP GKPG TWPFG OKV \YGK IGMTGW\VGP   5EJNÒUUGNP WPF GKPG\YGKVGTGEJVGEMKIGOKVFGT9GTVCPICDG++++)ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H5VCPIG9GKPI·TVPGTC XCT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 



-W/CTKGPITQUEJGP   I <YKUEJGP FGT IGVGKNVGP ,CJTGU\CJN FKG \YGK IGMTGW\VGP 5EJNÒUUGN   QDGP /+0&#  1$5'59GTVCPICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF XIN 6H   /CKNNGV   6H.:::85VCPIG9GKPI 445GJTUEJÌP





/ª056'4 &+'9+'&'467('4+0/ª056'4 #O  (GDTWCT  YWTFG FKG 4GHQTOCVKQP KP /ÒPUVGT FWTEJ 8GTVTCI \YKUEJGP $ÒTIGTUEJCHV WPF   $KUEJQH (TCP\ XQP 9CNFGEM NGICNKUKGTV &GT WTURTÒPINKEJ NWVJGTKUEJ RTGFKIGPFG 6JGQNQIG 4QVJOCPP   ÒDGTPCJO\WPGJOGPFFKG.GJTGPFGT9KGFGTV·WHGT&KG2CTVGKFGT9KGFGTV·WHGTIGYCPPUEJNKG­NKEJFKG 4CVUOGJTJGKV RNÒPFGTVG -NÌUVGT -KTEJGP WPF #TEJKXG UEJCHHVG 2TKXCVGKIGPVWO WPF 'KPGJG CD WPF   UQTIVGHÒT<WICPIXQPCNNGTJCPF)GUKPFGNYCU\CJNTGKEJGGKPJGKOKUEJG$ÒTIGT\WO8GTNCUUGPFGT5VCFV DGYQI $KUEJQH (TCP\ XQP 9CNFGEM MQPPVG FKG 5VCFV \WP·EJUV OKNKV·TKUEJ PKEJV GKPPGJOGP 'TUV OKV   *KNHG XQP 4GKEJUVTWRRGP WPF PCEJ DNWVKIGP 5VTC­GPM·ORHGP YWTFG /ÒPUVGT CO  ,WPK  GT   QDGTV &KG #PHÒJTGT FGT 9KGFGTV·WHGTDGYGIWPI YWTFGP PCEJ IGUEJGKVGTVGP $GMGJTWPIUXGTUWEJGP CO    ,CPWCT  CWH FGO /CTMVRNCV\ FGT 5VCFV ITCWUCO JKPIGTKEJVGV +JTG .GKEJGP YWTFGP KP GKUGTPGP   -ÌTDGPCO6WTOFGT.CODGTVKMKTEJGCWHIGJCPIGPYQUKGDKUDNKGDGP

4589



208

6CNGT   I 1TKIKPCNRT·IWPI &TGK\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV 6*1  /80  56'4 KP UEJKNFHÌTOKIGT   4CJOWPI\WFGP5GKVGPNWPFTLGGKPG5VGTPTQUGVVG1DGPFKGXQP5VGTPTQUGVVGPHNCPMKGTVG,CJTGU \CJN &CU )CP\G XQP \YGK 5EJTKHVMTGKUGP WOUEJNQUUGP5KGDGP\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV TKPIUWOJGT 5EJTKHV   MTGKU$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&CX#PO)GKUDGTI/CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT  445GJTUEJÌP 


4590

4591

Die Bestrafung der Wiedertäufer zu Münster.





&QRRGNVCNGT   I 7PUKIPKGTVG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU &TGK\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV 6*1    /80  56'4 KP UEJKNFHÌTOKIGT 4CJOWPI QDGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN &CU )CP\G XQP \YGK 5EJTKHVMTGKUGP   WOUEJNQUUGP(ÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV TKPIUWOJGT 5EJTKHVMTGKU $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT   &CX#PO)GKUDGTI/CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



6CNGT   I 2T·IWPI XQP 'PIGNDGTV -GVVNGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP/ÒPUVGT&TGK\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV6*1/8056'4KPUEJKNFHÌTOKIGT4CJOWPIQDGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN&CU)CP\GXQP\YGK 5EJTKHVMTGKUGP WOUEJNQUUGP(ÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV WPVGP FKG /ÒP\OGKUVGTKPKVKCNG - 4KPIUWOJGT   5EJTKHVMTGKU$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX)GKUDGTI/CKNNGV5WRRN6H  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



4592



5EJCWVCNGT  (GKPGT )W­ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FKG $GNCIGTWPI WPF FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV   $TWUVDKNFFGU-ÌPKIUFGT9KGFGTV·WHGT,CPXCP.G[FGPTOKVDCTGVV·JPNKEJGT-QRHDGFGEMWPIKPJQEJ IGUEJNQUUGPGOMTCIGPNQUGP*GOFWPF5EJCWDG'NH\GKNKIGT6GZVOOI  44(GKPGT)W­5GJTUEJÌP

 209


4593

4594

4596

4595

&'4<7/ª056'470&150#$4ª%-)'5%*.155'0'9'56(.+5%*' (4+'&'0 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 'PIGNDGTV -GVVNGT /ÒPUVGT CWH FGP 9GUVH·NKUEJGP (TKGFGP $NKEM CWH FKG   DGHGUVKIVG5VCFVQDGP\YGK'PIGN&GTNKPMGJ·NVGKPGP2CNO\YGKIWPFDN·UVKPGKPG6WDCCWUFGT2#: GTUEJCNNV &GT TGEJVG J·NV GKPGP .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF GKPGP ¤N\YGKI<YGK CWU 9QNMGP JGTXQTVTGVGPFG   *·PFGIGOGKPUCO\YGK(ÒNNJÌTPGTWPFGKPGP¤N\YGKIJCNVGPF1DGPFGTHNCOOGPFGWPFUVTCJNGPFGCWH *GDT·KUEJXGTHCUUVG)QVVGUPCOG,CJYG7PVGPGKP9CHHGPJCWHGPOOI&GVJ1TF 2CZKP0WOOKU 5GJTUEJÌP



&+'$'.#)'470)&'456#&6/ª056'4&74%*$+5%*1(%*4+5612* $'40*#4&810)#.'0 +P FGT 5VCFV /ÒPUVGT ICD GU /KVVG FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU $GUVTGDWPIGP FKG 4GKEJUHTGKJGKV \W GTNCPIGP   $KUEJQH%JTKUVQRJ$GTPJCTFXQP)CNGPXGTUWEJVGCPHCPIUPQEJOKVFKRNQOCVKUEJGP/KVVGNPFKGFKEMMÌR HKIGP 5VCFVX·VGT FKG KJO YGFGT FKG TKEJVGTNKEJG 'PVUEJGKFWPI KP KJTGP 5VTGKVKIMGKVGP \WIGUVGJGP PQEJ   GKPG)CTPKUQPKPKJTGP/CWGTPCWHPGJOGPYQNNVGP\WO)GJQTUCO\WDTKPIGP5EJNKG­NKEJMCOGUCO  ,WNK  \WT $GNCIGTWPI FGT 5VCFV FWTEJ DKUEJÌHNKEJG WPF MCKUGTNKEJG 6TWRRGP &KG FCFWTEJ CWU   DTGEJGPFG ITQ­G 0QV \YCPI /ÒPUVGT CO 0GWLCJTUVCI  \W 8GTJCPFNWPIGP OKV FGO $KUEJQH &GT   8GTVTCI\WTªDGTICDGFGT5VCFVMCOCO/·T\\W5VCPFG 

'KPUGKVKIG 6CNGTMNKRRG   I &GT 5VCFVUEJKNF KP GKPGT MCTVWUEJGPHÌTOKIGP 4CJOWPI $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.:::8++2GWU 5GJTUEJÌP





'KPUGKVKIG *CNDVCNGTMNKRRG   I &GT 5VCFVUEJKNF KP GKPGT MCTVWUEJGPHÌTOKIGP 4CJOWPI   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H.:::8++2GWU  45EJTÌVNKPIUTK­CO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



&+''+00#*/'810/ª056'4 

210

%JTKUVQRJ$GTPJCTFXQP)CNGP$TGKVGTFQRRGNVGT4GKEJUVCNGTCWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT 5VCFVI(ÒPHHCEJDGJGNOVGTOKV-TWOOUVCDWPF5EJYGTVDGUVGEMVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF#PUKEJVFGT 5VCFVQDGP$TWUVDKNFFGUJGKNKIGP2CWNWUCWH9QNMGP&CX&GVJNGHU#E5EJWN\G  4(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




4597

4598

4599



$TGKVGTFQRRGNVGT4GKEJUVCNGTCWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFVI(ÒPHHCEJDGJGNOVGTOKV-TWOO UVCD WPF 5EJGTV DGUVGEMVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV QDGP $TWUVDKNF FGU JGKNKIGP 2CWNWU CWH   9QNMGP&CX&GVJNGHU&M5EJWN\GF 4(GKPG2CVKPCOKP2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ 



$TGKVGT4GKEJUVCNGTCWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFVI(ÒPHHCEJDGJGNOVGTOKV-TWOOUVCDWPF 5EJYGTV DGUVGEMVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV QDGP $TWUVDKNF FGU JGKNKIGP 2CWNWU CWH 9QNMGP   &CX&GVJNGHU#C5EJWN\GG 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



4GKEJUVCNGT  CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT 5VCFV  I (ÒPHHCEJ DGJGNOVGT OKV -TWOOUVCD WPF   5EJYGTV DGUVGEMVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV QDGP $TWUVDKNF FGU JGKNKIGP 2CWNWU CWH 9QNMGP   &CX&GVJNGHU0X5EJWN\GD (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





0ª40$'4) '+0.1570)570&70)'.&)7.&'0&'456#&60ª40$'4) 7PVGTFGT.QUWPIXGTUVCPFOCPFKGXQPFGT5VCFVGTJQDGPG5VGWGTFGT$ÒTIGT'UYCTFKGUGKPGMQO RNK\KGTV MQODKPKGTVG -QRH WPF 8GTOÌIGPUUVGWGT /KV FGT #WUICDG URG\KGNNGT .QUWPIU\GKEJGP MQPPVG   FGTGP 2TGKU XQO 4CV XCTKCDGN HGUVIGUGV\V YGTFGP 7PVGT 7PIGNF XGTUVCPF OCP FKG CWH 9GKP WPF $KGT   GTJQDGPG)GVT·PMGUVGWGT

4600

1,5:1



1,5:1

.QUWPIU WPF 7PIGNFIQNFIWNFGP   I &KG FTGK 9CRRGPUEJKNFG KP -CTVWUEJGP QDGP UGEJU   UVTCJNKIGT5VGTP HÒT*CPU%JTKUVQRJ.CWGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP0ÒTPDGTI WPVGP/QPQITCOO CWU FGP +PKVKCNGP . 1 WPF 8+PPGTJCND GKPGT MCTVWUEJGPHÌTOKIGP 4CJOWPI HÒPH\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV   WPVGP/QPQITCOO5NI'TNCPIGT(D-GNNPGTD  )1.&49KP\$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGYKP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP

 211


&+'56#&60ª40$'4)706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6

4601

Kampf um Nürnberg 1632.



)WUVCX++#FQNHXQP5EJYGFGP&WMCVI$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFDTGKVGO 5RKV\GPMTCIGP)GMTÌPVGU9CRRGP#JNUVTÌO(D5NI'TNCPIGT  )1.&9KP\2TQDKGTURWTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ

4603

4602







 6CNGT  CWH UGKPGP 6QF  I $TWUVDKNF JCNDT KP *CTPKUEJ OKV (GNFDKPFG WPF DTGKVGO   5RKV\GPMTCIGP5EJPKV\YGTMVCHGNOKVUGEJU\GKNKIGO6GZV#JNUVTÌO5NI$TWWP*KNFGDTCPF 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUGCO4CPFOKP&QRRGNUEJNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ



6CNGTCWHUGKPGP6QFI$TWUVDKNFJCNDTKP*CTPKUEJOKV(GNFDKPFGWPFDTGKVGO5RKV \GPMTCIGP5EJPKV\YGTMVCHGNOKVUGEJU\GKNKIGO6GZV#JNUVTÌO5NI$TWWP*KNFGDTCPF  /KP2T·IGUEJY·EJGMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP



150#$4ª%- &+'$'.#)'470)810150#$4ª%-&74%*&+'5%*9'&'0 $KUEJQH (TCP\ 9KNJGNO XQP 9CTVGPDGTI YCT UEJQP XQT $GIKPP FGT $GNCIGTWPI PCEJ $QPP IGHNÒEJVGV   JCVVG CDGT PQEJ XQT UGKPGT #DTGKUG FGP $GHGJN IGIGDGP \WT $G\CJNWPI FGT 6TWRRGP UKNDGTPG -NKRRGP   CWUOÒP\GP\WNCUUGP

4604 1,5:1



212

(TCP\9KNJGNOXQP9CTVGPDGTI'KPUGKVKIG4GKEJUVCNGTMNKRRGI*KPVGTGKPGO XKGTHGNFKIGP 9CRRGPUEJKNF FGT JGKNKIG 2GVTWU UVGJGPF X X OKV 5EJNÒUUGN WPF $WEJ +O (GNF      ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H FQTVOKVUGMWPF·TGT)TCXWTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG -GPPG RQJN/CKNNGV6H:% 44ªDNKEJGMN5VGORGNHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


2(#.< (4+'&4+%*810&'42(#.<-74(ª45670&$¤*/+5%*'4 )')'0-¤0+)

4605



(TKGFTKEJXQPFGT2HCN\ FGT9KPVGTMÌPKI -KRRGT-TGW\GTQ,*GKFGNDGTII )GMTÌPVGT .ÌYG UVGKIGPF N7OUEJTKHV OKV 5EJTGKDHGJNGT 4'*0+ WPF OKV $#8# Û UEJNKG­GPF 7PVGT   JCNDFGU-WTJWVUCP$·PFGTPJ·PIGPFFGT.ÌYGPUEJKNFFGT-WTUEJKNFWPFFGT9GEMGPUEJKNF$TCWUG /CPUHGNF6HXCT&QPGD*GTKPGMD/CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT5NI0QUU 4,WUVKGTURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



&'49+'&'4#7($#7&'5+/&4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+')56#4-<'4 56¤46'0*'+&'.$'4)

4606



-CTN.WFYKI5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI2HTÒPFVCWHFGP9KGFGTCWHDCW*GKFGNDGTIU PCEJFGT<GTUVÌTWPIKO&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGI*ÒHVDKNFFGU-WTHÒTUVGPTKPFGT4GEJVGPGKPGP-QO OCPFQUVCD JCNVGPF WPF OKV FGT .KPMGP GKPGP (GFGTDWUEJJGNO WPF FGP -WTJWV WOUEJNKG­GPF FKG CWH   GKPGOOKVGKPGT&GEMGXGTJÒNNVGP6KUEJUVGJGP$NKEMÒDGTFGP0GEMCTCWHFKG5VCFV*GKFGNDGTICO(W­G FGU-ÌPKIUUVWJNUWPFFCU5EJNQUU1DGP5EJTKHVDCPFKO#DUEJPKVV\YGKCWHDGITCUVGO)TWPFUVGJGPFG .ÌYGP GKPG -CTVWUEJG OKV FGO XQO *QUGPDCPFQTFGP WO\QIGPGP MWTRH·N\KUEJGP 9CRRGP JCNVGPF   OOI'ZVGT+55VGORGT  W­GTUVUGNVGP-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP  213


&'4'+0(#..&'4(4#0<15'0+0&+'2(#.<+/'4$(1.)'-4+')

4607



2JKNKRR 9KNJGNO  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP )GQTI *CWVUEJ 0ÒTPDGTI CWH FGP 'KPHCNN   HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT5VTGKVMT·HVGKPFKG2HCN\2NÒPFGTPFGWPFOCTQFKGTGPFG5QNFCVGP<KXKNKUVGPVTCMVKGTGPFKO *KPVGTITWPF 6TWRRGPCWHOCTUEJ WPF $GUEJWUU FGT (GUVWPIGP WPF 5V·FVG 2JKNKRRUDWTI -QDNGP\ WPF   *GKFGNDGTI&TGKYGKDNKEJG#NNGIQTKGPFKGOKVVNGTGKO*CDKVFGT/KPGTXCCNU8GTMÌTRGTWPIFGT5VCPF JCHVKIMGKVUVGJGPFXXDGKGKPGO5·WNGPUVWORHFKG*·PFGJCNVGPFOKVFGPDGKFGPHNCPMKGTGPFGP(KIW TGP &KG NKPMG CNU 8GTMÌTRGTWPI FGT .KGDG KP FGT 4GEJVGP GKP /GFCKNNQP OKV FTGK *GT\GP JCNVGPF   UVGJGPFTCWH/CUMGPCNU5KPPDKNFGTPFGT(CNUEJJGKVFKGTGEJVG(KIWTUVGJGPFNDGKGKPGO5EJKHHUXQT FGTVGKN KP FGT .KPMGP GKP 2HGKNDÒPFGN CNU 'ODNGO FGT YGJTJCHVGP 'KPKIMGKV 8QT FGT OKVVNGTGP (KIWT   TÒEMDNKEMGPFGT#FNGTUVGJGPFNGKP$NKV\DÒPFGNKOTGEJVGP(CPIJCNVGPF+O#DUEJPKVVFTGK<GKNGP6GZV )NCVVGT4CPFOOI5NI'TNCPIGTXCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV 'ZVGT+5%%. XCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWUXCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI/GOOGUJ XCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV 5NI/QPVGPWQXQXIN FQTVKP$TQP\G 5VGORGT  4#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&#5)4ª0&70)5,7$+.7/81056#&670&('5670)/#00*'+/

4608



,QJCPP 9KNJGNO  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVG #TDGKV XQP ,QJCPP .KPEM *GKFGNDGTI   CWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT)TÒPFWPIFGT5VCFV/CPPJGKO+POKVVGPGKPGU(GUVWPIURNCPUXQP/CPPJGKO .ÌYG UVGKIGPF N GKPGP 5EJKNF JCNVGPF0GWP\GKNKIGT 6GZV  OO  I 5NI /GOOGUJ    5VGORGT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ5VGORGNINCP\



2*+.+225$74) &+''+00#*/'8102*+.+225$74)&74%*-#+5'4.+%*'64722'0

4609



214

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG FGT (GUVWPI 2NCP FGT CO 4JGKP IGNGIGPGP 5VCFV WPF (GUVWPI   UCOV FGT 4JGKPUEJCP\G CO IGIGPÒDGTNKGIGPFGP (NWUUWHGT UQYKG FGT 5VGNNWPIGP .CWHIT·DGP WPF $CVVG   TKGPFGT$GNCIGTWPIUVTWRRGP5KGDGP<GKNGP6GZVOOI$GTUVGVV#PO5NI*QTUM[ 5NI ,WNKWU  X .QQP 5  FQTV GKP 'ZGORNCT OKV XCTKKGTGPFGT 4ÒEMUGKVG CDIGDKNFGV    5NI/QPVGPWQXQ2GVT\KNMCC 45GJTUEJÌP




21//'40 &#5*'4<1)67/21//'40706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6

4610 1,5:1

1,5:1



%JTKUVKPC XQP 5EJYGFGP  &WMCV  5VGVVKP  I )GMTÌPVGU *ÒHVDKNF JCNDN/GJT   HGNFKIGU9CRRGPQDGP$TWUVDKNF%JTKUVKXXOKVUGIPGPFGT4GEJVGPGKPGP4GKEJUCRHGNKPFGT.KPMGP #JNUVTÌO(D5NI2QIIG )1.&45GJTUEJÌP 

4611

4612

4612 1,5:1





-CTN:+XQP5EJYGFGP6CNGT5VGVVKPI$TWUVDKNFTKP/CPVGNOKV.QT DGGTMTCP\/KVGKPGTDGJGNOVGP-TQPGÒDGTJÌJVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFIGJCNVGPXQP\YGKDGJGNOVGP9KNFGP /·PPGTP#JNUVTÌO (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



-CTN:++XQP5EJYGFGP&WMCVCWHFGP6QFFGU-ÌPKIUCO&G\GODGTI $TWUVDKNF KP /CPVGN T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\5KGDGP\GKNKIGT 6GZV KO #DUEJPKVV &CVWOUCPICDG KP \YGK   <GKNGP(D*KNFGDTCPF FGO\WHQNIGKP5VGVVKPIGRT·IV 5NI$TWWP  )1.&44CPFOKPDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

5#%*5'0 &'45%*/#.-#.&+5%*'$70& &GT5EJOCNMCNFKUEJG$WPFFGUUGP)TÒPFWPIUWTMWPFGCO(GDTWCTKPFGTU·EJUKUEJGP-CP\NGK KP6QTICWCWUIGHGTVKIVYWTFGYCTGKP$ÒPFPKU\WT8GTJKPFGTWPIFTQJGPFGT#PITKHHGCWHFKGGXCPIGNK UEJG.GJTGWPF\WT(ÌTFGTWPIFGU(TKGFGPUKO4GKEJ'UTKEJVGVGUKEJPKEJVIGIGPFGP-CKUGTQFGTGKPGP 4GKEJUUVCPFYCTCNUQ\WP·EJUVGKPTGKPGU8GTVGKFKIWPIUDÒPFPKU&GT5EJOCNMCNFKUEJG$WPFGPVYKEMGNVG UKEJKPFGPHQNIGPFGP,CJTGP\WGKPGOGWTQR·KUEJGP/CEJVHCMVQTWPFYWTFGGTUVKO5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGP -TKGI\GTUEJNCIGP

4613



,QJCPP(TKGFTKEJFGT)TQ­OÒVKIGWPF2JKNKRRFGT)TQ­OÒVKIGXQP*GUUGP6CNGT  )QUNCT 'TUVGT 5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGT $WPFGUJCNDVCNGT  I <YKUEJGP XKGT 9CRRGPUEJKNFGP FCU   $TWUVDKNFFGU-WTHÒTUVGPXQP5CEJUGPTKP-WTOCPVGNFCU5EJYGTVKPFGT4GEJVGP*ÒHVDKNFFGU.CPF ITCHGP XQP *GUUGP JCNDN FGP -QOOCPFQUVCD KP FGT 4GEJVGP FKG .KPMG CO )TKHH FGU WOIGIÒTVGVGP   5EJYGTVGU7PVGP\YGKQDGPUQYKGNWPFTLGGKP9CRRGPUEJKNF$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H-GKNKV\

FKGUGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV -GKNKV\-QJN FKGUGU'ZGORNCTCDIGDKNFGV /CKNNGV5WRRN5 5NI/GTUGD5EJPGG5EJWNVGP5EJÒV\  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GPMGNURWT(GNFGTNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP  215


4615

4614







4616

4GKEJUVCNGT  )QUNCT  5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGT $WPFGUVCNGT  I $CTJ·WRVKIGU $TWUVDKNF FGU -WT   HÒTUVGP ,QJCPP (TKGFTKEJ JCNDT KO -WTOCPVGN FCU 5EJYGTV KP FGT 4GEJVGP$CTJ·WRVKIGU *ÒHVDKNF FGU   .CPFITCHGP2JKNKRRPNOKV-QOOCPFQUVCDWPF5EJYGTV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6HXCT&CX /CKNNGV5WRRN6HXCT5EJPGG5EJÒV\ 5GJTUEJÌP



 6CNGT  )QUNCT 5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGT $WPFGUXKGTVGNVCNGT  I &GT -WTUEJKNF QDGTJCND FGT DGK   FGP5EJKNFGFGU*GT\QIVWOU5CEJUGPWPFFGT.CPFITCHUEJCHV6JÒTKPIGP&GT9CRRGPUEJKNFFGT.CPF ITCHUEJCHV *GUUGP QDGTJCND FGT 5EJKNFG FGT )TCHUEJCHV <KGIGPJCKP WPF FGT )TCHUEJCHV &KG\ $TCWUG   /CPUHGNFXIN6H$ FQTV,CJTICPI -GKNKV\-GKNKV\-QJN/CKNNGV5EJWNVGP 5EJÒV\ 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV.GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



,QJCPP(TKGFTKEJFGT)TQ­OÒVKIG'KPUGKVKIG(GNFMNKRRG\WGKPGO8KGTVGNVCNGTI )GURCNVGPGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF QDGP **(- WPVGP    KO (GNF N WPF T LG GKP IGUVKGNVGU &TGKDNCVV   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT -GKNKV\  XCT -GKNKV\-QJN  FQTV FKGUGU 'ZGORNCT CDIGDKNFGV    /CKNNGV6H++XCTZOO 5GJTUEJÌP



&KG2T·IGUV·VVGFKGUGTKO-TKGIFGUIG·EJVGVGPRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP-WTHÒTUVGP,QJCPP(TKGFTKEJIGIGPUGKPGPGTPGUVKPK UEJGP CWH FKG 5GKVG FGU -CKUGTU IGYGEJUGNVGP GTPGUVKPKUEJGP 8GVVGT *GT\QI /QTKV\ GPVUVCPFGPGP (GNFRT·IWPI KUV   PKEJVIGUKEJGTV

&+'$'.#)'470)810.'+2<+) *GT\QI/QTKV\XQP5CEJUGPXGTNKGUUFGP5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGP$WPFWPFNCXKGTVGÒDGTOGJTGTG,CJTG JKPYGI \YKUEJGP FGT RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP WPF FGT MCKUGTNKEJGP 5GKVG  YGEJUGNVG FGT RTQVGUVCPVKUEJG   (ÒTUV HQTOGNN FKG (TQPVGP WPF UEJNQUU UKEJ -CKUGT -CTN 8 CP 0CEJ 8GTJ·PIWPI FGT 4GKEJUCEJV ÒDGT   UGKPGP GTPGUVKPKUEJGP 8GTYCPFVGP -WTHÒTUV ,QJCPP (TKGFTKEJ HKGN /QTKV\ KP -WTUCEJUGP GKP #WEJ   .GKR\KI HKGN KO <WIG FKGUGT OKNKV·TKUEJGP1RGTCVKQPKPUGKPG*·PFG&QEJUEJQPDCNFGTUEJKGP,QJCPP (TKGFTKEJOKVGKPGT5VTGKVOCEJVXQTFGT5VCFVWPFDGICPPCO,CPWCTOKVFGT$GNCIGTWPI4CUEJ GPVUVCPF WPVGT FGP 8GTVGKFKIGTP GKP GTJÌJVGT )GNFDGFCTH FGT FWTEJ FKG 2T·IWPI XQP 0QVMNKRRGP CWU   )QNFWPF5KNDGTIGFGEMVYGTFGPUQNNVGFCFKGXQO5VCFVMQOOCPFCPVGP$CUVKCPXQP9CNNYKV\DGHGJNKI VGP 5ÌNFPGT OKV IWVGO )GNF DG\CJNV YGTFGP OWUUVGP <WT 8GTOÒP\WPI IGNCPIVG KPUDGUQPFGTG FCU CWU   FGO$GUKV\FGU5VKHVGU/GTUGDWTIUVCOOGPFG5KNDGTIGUEJKTTWPF-KTEJGPIGT·VFCUXQTFGO-TKGIGCWU 5KEJGTJGKVUITÒPFGP KP .GKR\KI GKPIGNCIGTV YQTFGP YCT &CU XGTHÒIDCTG 'FGNOGVCNNIGT·V YWTFG \W FKG   UGO<YGEMKPFGT5VCFVXQP)QNFUEJOKGFGPWPF*CPFYGTMGTPGKPIGUEJOQN\GP\W<CKPGPIGIQUUGP\W MNKRRGPHÌTOKIGP 5EJTÌVNKPIGP IGUEJPKVVGP WPF UEJNKG­NKEJ \W 0QVIGNF IGRT·IV &KG -NKRRGP VTCIGP KP   +PKVKCNGP0COGPWPF6KVGNFGU*GT\QIU/QTKV\WPFFGPJGT\QINKEJU·EJUKUEJGP4CWVGPUEJKNF$GTGKVUCO  ,CPWCT JQD FGT )GIPGT FKG $GNCIGTWPI YKGFGT CWH FC GKP MCKUGTNKEJGU 'PVUCV\JGGT UKEJ FGT 5VCFV   P·JGTVG

1,5:1



216

4617 1,5:1

/QTKV\4CWVGPHÌTOKIG-NKRRG\W&WMCV.GKR\KII9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGP¤u /u*Û<Û5u&CU)CP\GWOTCJOVXQPGKPGTIGDWPFGPGP.QTDGGTIKTNCPFG+PCEJV<GKNGP¤u*u *(4+u$'.')'46u.'+2uu<+)u/'05+#0Ù#0u/&:.8++&CU)CP\GWOTCJOV XQP GKPGT IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGTIKTNCPFG  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   (D    -GKNKV\/CKNNGV6H.:+: )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


&+'$'.#)'470)81070&'+00#*/'810)16*# &KG $GNCIGTWPI WPF 'KPPCJOG XQP )QVJC IGJV WTURTÒPINKEJ CWH FGP 4GKEJUTKVVGT 9KNJGNO XQP )TWO   DCEJ\WTÒEMFGTPCEJUGKPGTEJVWPIDGKFGOGTPGUVKPKUEJGP*GT\QI,QJCPP(TKGFTKEJ++KP)QVJC 7PVGTUEJNWRHHCPF0CEJ'TPGWGTWPIFGT4GKEJUCEJVÒDGT)TWODCEJCO/CKYWTFGCWEJFGT *GT\QI,QJCPP(TKGFTKEJ++CO&G\GODGTIG·EJVGVFKG'ZGMWVKQPYWTFGUGKPGO8GVVGTFGO CNDGTVKPKUEJGP-WTHÒTUV#WIWUVXQP5CEJUGPÒDGTVTCIGPFGTDGTGKVUIGIGP9GKJPCEJVGPFGUUGNDGP,CJTGU FGP $GNCIGTWPIUMTKGI IGIGP )QVJC GTÌHHPGVG *GT\QI ,QJCPP (TKGFTKEJ ++ OWUUVG CO  #RTKN    MCRKVWNKGTGPYGKNUGKPGGKIGPGP5QNFCVGPIGOGWVGTVWPF)TWODCEJCNU8GTWTUCEJGTFGU-TKGIGUXGTJCHVGV JCVVGP)TWODCEJYWTFGPCEJGKPGOWPVGT(QNVGTGTRTGUUVGP)GUV·PFPKUNGDGPFKIIGXKGTVGKNVFGT*GT\QI XGTNQTUGKP.CPFCPUGKPGP$TWFGTWPFIKPIKP)GHCPIGPUEJCHV

4618



1,5:1

4619

,QJCPP (TKGFTKEJ ++  IGUVQTDGP  KP )GHCPIGPUEJCHV 'KPUGKVKIG -NKRRG \W  &WMCV   )QVJCI)GURCNVGPGT9CRRGPUEJKNFOKVFGP-WTUEJYGTVGTPWPFFGO4CWVGPMTCP\KO(GNF FKG,CJTGU\CJNQDGPFKG+PKVKCNGP**()-$TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTVWPURG\KHK\KGTVGU0QOK PCNQJPG)GYKEJVUCPICDG (D)TCUUGT5-QRRG/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H FQTV CNU-NKRRG\W&WMCV 5NI/GTUGD  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV+PCNVGT<KGTHCUUWPI9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP  &KG +PKVKCNGP UVGJGP IGO 6GPV\GN 5  HÒT *GTV\QI *CP­ (TKGFTKEJ )GDQJTPGT -WTHÒTUV &COKV WPVGTUVTGKEJV   ,QJCPP(TKGFTKEJ++FGP#PURTWEJFGTGTPGUVKPKUEJGP.KPKGCWHFGP-WTHÒTUVGPVKVGN



'KPUGKVKIG8KGTVGNVCNGTMNKRRG)QVJCI)GURCNVGPGT9CRRGPUEJKNFOKVFGP-WTUEJYGTVGTPWPF FGO 4CWVGPMTCP\ KO (GNF FKG ,CJTGU\CJN QDGP FKG +PKVKCNGP **()- $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H     -QRRG/CKNNGV6H:.++5NI/GTUGD 5GJTUEJÌP



4620



#WIWUV  4GKEJUVCNGT  &TGUFGP CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP )QVJC &GT -WTUEJKNF OKV   5EJPKV\YGTM CP FGP 4·PFGTP 1DGP /CUMGTQP WPVGP /QPQITCOO CWU FGP +PKVKCNGP * WPF $ *CPU   $KGPGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP&TGUFGP 0GWP\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX -GKNKV\-CJPV/CKNNGV6H:.+++5EJPGG (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



&+''+00#*/'810$#76<'0+/&4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+')

4621



,QJCPP )GQTI +  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  ,CJTGUCPICDG CNU %JTQPQITCOO  XQP 4WRTGEJV   0KENCU -KV\MCV\ &TGUFGP CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP $CWV\GP &GT -WTHÒTUV DCTJ·WRVKI KP *CTPKUEJ T \W   2HGTF KP FGT 4GEJVGP GKPGP -QOOCPFQUVCD JCNVGPF#PUKEJV FGT DTGPPGPFGP WPF WPVGT #TVKNNGTKGHGWGT   UVGJGPFGP5VCFVKO8QTFGTITWPF#PITKHHUUVGNNWPIGPWPFFCUMWTHÒTUVNKEJG(GNFNCIGTOOI 5NI'PIGNJCTFV)TWPF-6GPV\GN6H8+ W­GTUVUGNVGP5GJTUEJÌP  217


4622



5KNDGTIW­OGFCKNNGPCEJ%JTKUVKCP/CNGT0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG$GNCIGTWPIWPF'KPPCJOGXQP$CWV \GP*ÒHVDKNFFGU-WTHÒTUVGPJCNDTDCTJ·WRVKIKO*CTPKUEJOKVITQ­GO5RKV\GPMTCIGPWPF(GNFDKPFG KPFGT4GEJVGPGKPGP-QOOCPFQUVCDJCNVGPF<YÌNH\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVOOI&C­FQTH 5NI 'PIGNJCTFV  FQTV GKP IGRT·IVGU 'ZGORNCT  /GTUGD  FQTV GKP IGRT·IVGU 'ZGORNCT    6GPV\GN6H+8 45R·VGTGT)W­5GJTUEJÌP



&+'5%*.#%*6$'+$4'+6'0('.&#.59'0&'270-6&'5)4155'0 -4+')5 &KG 5EJNCEJV DGK $TGKVGPHGNF IGJÌTV \W FGP DGFGWVGPFUVGP #WUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGP FGU &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP   -TKGIGU 0CEJFGO FKG MCKUGTNKEJGP 6TWRRGP WPVGT 6KNN[ KP 5CEJUGP GKPIGHCNNGP YCTGP UEJNQUU UKEJ   -WTHÒTUV,QJCPP)GQTI+CO5GRVGODGT)WUVCX#FQNHXQP5EJYGFGPCP#O5GRVGODGT  MCO GU IGIGP  7JT \WT 5EJNCEJV DGK $TGKVGPHGNF 1DYQJN FKG MCKUGTNKEJG 4GKVGTGK FKGWPIG ÒDVGP 5CEJUGP UEJNWI VTWI NGV\VGPFNKEJ FKG RTQVGUVCPVKUEJG #TOGG FGP 5KGI FCXQP #WUUEJNCIIGDGPF   JKGTHÒTYCTGKPGPGWGDGYGINKEJG-CORHYGKUGWPFFCUUV·TMGTG)GUEJÒV\FGT5EJYGFGP$TGKVGPHGNFYCT FGTGTUVGITQ­G5KGIFGT2TQVGUVCPVGPWPFOCTMKGTVGGKPGP9GPFGRWPMVKO&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGI

4623



218

,QJCPP )GQTI +  5KNDGTIW­OGFCKNNG  PCEJ FGT 2T·IGOGFCKNNG XQP 5GDCUVKCP &CFNGT   CWHFKG5EJNCEJVWPFFGP5KGIDGK$TGKVGPHGNF$NKEMCWHFCU5EJNCEJVHGNFQDGPGKPXQPUKGDGP5VGTPGP CWU FGO 5VGTPDKNF FGU -NGKPGP $·TGP WPF 9QNMGP WOIGDGPGT 'PIGN HNKGIGPF N KP FGT GTJQDGPGP   4GEJVGP GKP (NCOOGPUEJYGTV JCNVGPF&KG 2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGP FGT )GTGEJVKIMGKV OKV 5EJYGTV  FGT   5VCPFJCHVKIMGKV OKVIGMTÌPVGT5·WNG WPFFGU(TKGFGPU OKV.QTDGGT\YGKI DGKGKPCPFGTUVGJGPFUKEJKO *CPFUEJNCIFKG4GEJVGTGKEJGPF1DGPFGTKPJGDT·KUEJGP.GVVGTPIGHCUUVG0COG)QVVGUXQP5VTCJNGP WOIGDGP+O*KPVGTITWPF#PUKEJVFGT5VCFV.GKR\KIOOI5NI'PIGNJCTFV\W5NI /GTUGD\W9KGEGM\W  /KVPCEJVT·INKEJCPIGDTCEJVGO-GTDTCPF(CUUWPIUURWTGP(GNFGTIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌPGTUR·VGTGT)W­




5%*.'5+'0 &+'5%*.'5+5%*'0560&'+/&4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+')

4626 4625 4624



'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W6CNGTP$TGUNCWI&GTUEJNGUKUEJG#FNGTKO(GNFFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU \CJN +O 5EJTÌVNKPIU'EMDGTGKEJ QDGP GKPG MNGKPG TWPFG 5VGORGNWPI OKV GKPGO JCWUOCTMGPCTVKIGP   <GKEJGP CWU FGT <KHHGT  WPF FGT +PKVKCNG / WPVGP GKPG MNGKPG TWPFG 5VGORGNWPI OKV GKPGO OQPQ   ITCOOHÌTOKIGP<GKEJGPZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H(W5XCT FQTVOKV MNGKPGP5VGORGNWPIGP /CKNNGV6H%++  449KP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVCVVTCMVKXGT2CVKPC 



'KPUGKVKIG-NKRRG\W6CNGTP$TGUNCWI&GTUEJNGUKUEJG#FNGTKO(GNFFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU \CJN +O 5EJTÌVNKPIU'EMDGTGKEJ QDGP GKPG MNGKPG TWPFG 5VGORGNWPI OKV GKPGO JCWUOCTMGPCTVKIGP   <GKEJGP CWU FGT <KHHGT  WPF FGT +PKVKCNG / WPVGP GKPG MNGKPG TWPFG 5VGORGNWPI OKV GKPGO OQPQ   ITCOOHÌTOKIGP <GKEJGP  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   ( W 5  XCT FQTV OKV    MNGKPGP5VGORGNWPIGP /CKNNGV6H%++ 5EJTÌVNKPIOKPLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



'KPUGKVKIG 6CNGTMNKRRG  $TGUNCW  I &GT UEJNGUKUEJG #FNGT KO (GNF FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU   \CJN +P FGP 'EMDGTGKEJGP FGU 5EJTÌVNKPIU XKGT -QPVTQNNUVGORGNWPIGP CWU FTGK XGTUEJKGFGPGP 2WP\GP   ZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H(W5/CKNNGV6H%++  #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





&+''8#0)'.+5%*'0560&'+/&4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+')

4627

1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCV$TGUNCWI&GTUEJNGUKUEJG#FNGTKO(GNF*4 *CPU4KGIGT9CTFGKPKP$TGUNCW  +'*18# ÒDGT 9QNMG WPF 5VTCJNGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF  XIN 6H   FQTV ,CJTICPI    (D(W5/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H )1.&5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4628



-TGW\GT$TGUNCWI&GTUEJNGUKUEJG#FNGT/KVFGO(ÒTUVGPJWV��DGTJÌJVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF $TCWUG/CPUHGNFXIN6H FQTV,CJTICPI (W5/CKNNGVXIN5WRRN6H

FQTV,CJTICPI  5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 219


/#4-'0&'456#&6$4'5.#7

4631

4630 4629



'KPUGKVKIG-W-NKRRG\W)TQUEJGPI/KVFTGK5VGORGNWPIGPFGT*CWRVUVGORGNOKV FGT,CJTGU\CJNKPIGMTÌPVGT4GEJVGEMTCJOWPIFCTWPVGTFKG+PKVKCNGFGU5VCFVPCOGPU9GKPGOMNGKPGTGP 4GEJVGEMUVGORGNOKVFGT9GTVCPICDGUQYKGGKPGOFTKVVGPTWPFGP5VGORGNOKVFGP+PKVKCNGP#Û5Z OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF5NI$TGVVCWGT(W5 *GNNGT /CKNNGV5WRRN6H  5GJTUEJÌP



'U JCPFGNV UKEJDGKFKGUGOWPFFGPDGKFGPHQNIGPFGP5VÒEMGPPKEJVYKGKJT#WUUGJGPXGTOWVGPN·­VWO0QVOÒP \GP UQPFGTP WO -WRHGTOCTMGP &KG TWPFG 5VGORGNWPI OKV FGP +PKVKCNGP # WPF 5 DGIGIPGV CWH $TGUNCWGT -WRHGT   MNKRRGPQFGTGPVURTGEJGPFGP2T·IWPIGPCWHTWPFGP5EJTÌVNKPIGPXQPUQYKGCWHMWRHGTPGP/CTMGPFGTGT ,CJTG GDGPUQ INGKEJCTVKIG 5VGORGNWPIGP OKV FGP +PKVKCNGP 0 WPF 5 )GO·­ ' *QN\OCKT FGO $GCTDGKVGT FGT 5NI   $TGVVCWGT KUV FGT #55VGORGN CNU -GPP\GKEJPWPI HÒT FCU $TGUNCWGT #TOGPURKVCN XGTYGPFGV YQTFGP CWH FKG 'ZK   UVGP\FGU055VGORGNUXGTYGKUVGTJKPIGIGPPKEJV&CGKPWPOKVVGNDCTGT<WUCOOGPJCPI\YKUEJGPFGP#5WPF 055VGORGNPIGIGDGPUGKPFÒTHVGH·NNVGUUEJYGTFGT*QN\OCKT UEJGP&GWVWPI\WHQNIGPFGPPHÒTYGNEJGU5RKVCN UV·PFG FCPP FGT 055VGORGN! 0CEJ WPUGTGO 'TOGUUGP N·IG GU P·JGT FKG $WEJUVCDGPRCCTG CNU %JKHHTGP HÒT #NV   5VCFV WPF 0GW5VCFV \W KPVGTRTGVKGTGP WPF UQOKV FKG UQ IGMGPP\GKEJPGVGP 2T·IWPIGP CNU /CTMGP TGUR <GKEJGP   FGT$TGUNCWGT#NVWPF0GWUVCFV\WFGWVGP





'KPUGKVKIG-W-NKRRG\W)TQUEJGPI/KVFTGK5VGORGNWPIGPFGT*CWRVUVGORGNOKVFGT ,CJTGU\CJN KP IGMTÌPVGT 4GEJVGEMTCJOWPI FCTWPVGT FKG +PKVKCNG FGU 5VCFVPCOGPU 9 GKPGO MNGKPGTGP   4GEJVGEMUVGORGNOKVFGT9GTVCPICDGUQYKGGKPGOFTKVVGPTWPFGP5VGORGNOKVFGP+PKVKCNGP#Û5Z OO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF5NI$TGVVCWGT(W5 *GNNGT /CKNNGV5WRRN6H 5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIG-W-NKRRG\W)TQUEJGPI/KV\YGK5VGORGNWPIGPFGT*CWRVUVGORGNOKV FGT ,CJTGU\CJN KP IGMTÌPVGT 4GEJVGEMTCJOWPI FCTWPVGT FKG +PKVKCNG FGU 5VCFVPCOGPU 9 UQYKG GKPGO   MNGKPGTGP4GEJVGEMUVGORGNOKVFGT9GTVCPICDGZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF5NI$TGVVCWGT (W5 *GNNGT /CKNNGV 5GJTUEJÌP



&+'0'7$'('56+)70)&'456#&6$4'5.#7

4632



220

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,QJCPP 4GKPJCTF 'PIGNJCTF CWH FKG 0GWDGHGUVKIWPI FGT 5VCFV #PUKEJV FGT   5VCFV QDGP FGT FQRRGNMÌRHKIG 4GKEJUCFNGT XQP FGT 5QPPG DGUEJKGPGP&CU DGJGNOVG 5VCFVYCRRGP   TKPIUWOJGTPGWP\GJP9CRRGPUEJKNFG/KV-GTDTCPFOOI(W5  4#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT




5%*.'59+)*1.56'+0 &+'$'.#)'470)8104#6<'$74) &KG $GNCIGTWPI XQP 4CV\GDWTI YCT 6GKN FGU .CWGPDWTIKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU #NU FGT NGV\VG 5CEJGP   .CWGPDWTIKUEJG *GT\QI ,WNKWU (TCP\  UVCTD MCO GU \W 'TDCWUGKPCPFGTUGV\WPIGP \YKUEJGP FGP   9GNHGPWPFFGOF·PKUEJGP-ÌPKI%JTKUVKCP8FKGNGV\VNKEJ\WIWPUVGPFGT9GNHGPCWUIKPIGP

4633



%JTKUVKCP 8 -ÌPKI XQP &·PGOCTM  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,CP 5OGNV\KPI CWH FKG   $GUEJKG­WPIFGT5VCFV4CV\GDWTI-QRHTWPVGTJCNDFGU*CNUCDUEJPKVVU+ Ü5/'.6<+0)Ü#WHGKPGT #PJÌJG GKP -QOOCPFGWT UGKPG T CWH VKGHGT IGNGIGPGU )GN·PFG XQTUVQ­GPFGP 4GKVGT WPF (W­VTWRRGP   DGHGJNKIGPF T #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPI KO *KPVGTITWPF FKG WPVGT $QODCTFGOGPV UVGJGPFG 5VCFV  OO   I)CNUVGT.CPIGX.QQP+8 44(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

4634



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP #PVQP /G[DWUEJ -QRGPJCIGP CWH FKG $GNCIGTWPI XQP 4CV\GDWTI &KG CWH   GKPGT+PUGNKO4CV\GDWTIGT5GGIGNGIGPGDGHGUVKIVG5VCFVXQPCNNGP5GKVGPWPVGTFGO$GUEJWUUWHGTPCJGT #TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPIGP'KP 2HGTF KO +PPGTP GKPGU $QNNYGTMU OKV FGP *KPVGTJWHGP GKPG $TGUEJG KP FKG   7OYGJTWPIUEJNCIGPFOOI)CNUVGT.CPIG  W­GTUVUGNVGP#VVTCMVKXGFWPMNG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ  221


&+'$'.#)'470)8106¤00+0)&74%*&0+5%*'64722'0 (TKGFTKEJ+8 YCTFGT·NVGUVG5QJPXQP%JTKUVKCP8'TYWTFGPCEJFGO6QFUGKPGU8CVGTUCO #WIWUV-ÌPKIXQP&·PGOCTMWPF0QTYGIGP*GT\QIXQP5EJNGUYKIWPF*QNUVGKP MÌPKINKEJGT #PVGKN WPF)TCHXQP1NFGPDWTIWPF&GNOGPJQTUV&WTEJFKG5EJWNFUGKPGU8CVGTUYWTFG(TKGFTKEJ+8 DGKUGKPGO4GIKGTWPIUCPVTKVVKPGKPGP-TKGIXGTYKEMGNV%JTKUVKCP8JCVVGUKEJIGYGKIGTVFGP*GT\QI (TKGFTKEJ +8 \WH·NNKI PCOGPUINGKEJ OKV FGO F·PKUEJGP -ÌPKI  XQP *QNUVGKP)QVVQTR CNU CNNGKPKIGP   4GIGPVGPCP\WGTMGPPGP&KGUGTJKGNVLGFQEJCPFGT#WHTGEJVGTJCNVWPIFGT#NVQPCGT8GTINGKEJGHGUVFKG KJO FCU 4GEJV CWH GKIGPG 6TWRRGPJCNVWPI (GUVWPIUDCW UQYKG FGP #DUEJNW­ XQP $ÒPFPKUUGP   \WUKEJGTVGP &KGUG 5VTGKVKIMGKVGP YWTFGP FWTEJ FGP 6QF %JTKUVKCPU 8 WPVGTDTQEJGP FCPP CDGT WPVGT   (TKGFTKEJ+8XQP&·PGOCTMHQTVIGUGV\V+O(TÒJLCJTHKGNGTKP*QNUVGKPGKPWPFDGNCIGTVGUGKVFGO #RTKN6ÌPPKPI&GT#D\WIGTHQNIVGCO,WPKYGKNGKP/CPPUVCTMGU'PVUCV\JGGTCWU JCPPQXGTUEJGP UEJYGFKUEJGP WPF PKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP 5VTGKVMT·HVGP CPTÒEMVG #W­GTFGO UCPFVGP 'PINCPF   WPF *QNNCPF \WUCOOGP OKV 5EJYGFGP GKPG IGOGKPUCOG (NQVVG PCEJ -QRGPJCIGP WO FKG &·PGP \WO   4ÒEM\WI \W DGYGIGP &KGUGT #NNKCP\ UVCPFGP FKG &·PGP OCEJVNQU IGIGPÒDGT FCU PWP DGIKPPGPFG   $QODCTFGOGPV CWH -QRGPJCIGP CO  ,WNK  YCT PKEJV \W XGTJKPFGTP (TKGFTKEJ YCT IG\YWPIGP   (TKGFGPUXGTJCPFNWPIGP GKP\WNGKVGP FKG KO FCTCWHHQNIGPFGP /QPCV OKV FGO  (TKGFGP XQP 6TCXGPVJCN   DGUKGIGNVYWTFGP

4635



1,5:1

4635

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG$GNCIGTWPIXQP6ÌPPKPIFWTEJ6TWRRGPFGUF·PKUEJGP-ÌPKIU (TGFGTKM +8 $NKEM XQP 5ÒFGP ÒDGT FKG 'KFGT CWH FKG WPVGT $GUEJWUU HGKPFNKEJGT $CVVGTKGP UVGJGPFG   5VCFV<GJP\GKNKIGT6GZVOOI.CPIG 442CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

4636



222

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKGXQPFGP&·PGPWPVGT-ÌPKI(TGFGTKM+8CWHIGIGDGPG$GNCIG TWPIFGT(GUVWPI6ÌPPKPICO,WPK$NKEMXQP0QTFGPÒDGTGKPGF·PKUEJG#TVKNNGTKGUVGNNWPIJKPYGICWH FKG XQP FGP &·PGP DGUEJQUUGPG 5VCFV$NKEM XQP 5ÒFGP ÒDGT FKG 'KFGT CWH FKG WPVGT $GUEJWUU HGKPF   NKEJGT $CVVGTKGP UVGJGPFG 5VCFV  OO  I &CPUMG /[PVGT QI /GFCKNNGT 6GKN (TGFGTKM +8    6H+8.CPIGXIN# FQTVUVCTMXCTKKGTGPFGMNGKPGTG/GFCKNNG   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 


51./5*1*'051./5 &+''+00#*/'81091.('0$ª66'. )TCH2JKNKRR4GKPJCTFXQP5QNOU*QJGPUQNOU

,WNKÓ,WPK DGICDUKEJKPFKG &KGPUVG FGU -ÌPKIU %JTKUVKCP +8 XQP &·PGOCTM #NU FGUUGP 5VCVVJCNVGT PCJO GT KO UGNDGP ,CJT 9QN   HGPDÒVVGNGKPWPFNKG­KPFGTFQTVKIGPJGT\QINKEJGP/ÒP\UV·VVG)QNFWPF5KNDGTOÒP\GPRT·IGP)GO·­ VTCFKVKQPGNNGT ªDGTNKGHGTWPI UVCOOV FCU XGTOÒP\VG 'FGNOGVCNN CWU JGT\QINKEJYGNHKUEJGO 6CHGNIGUEJKTT   WPFCPFGTGT-TKGIUDGWVGFKG2JKNKRR4GKPJCTFCNU$GXQNNO·EJVKIVGTFGU&·PGPMÌPKIUMQPHKU\KGTVJCDGP UQNN &KG 8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV FGU 6CNGTU FKG XGTMÒT\V FKG 6KVWNCVWT 8KECTKWU FJ 5VGNNXGTVTGVGT    GPVJ·NVXGTUEJCHHVGFGTXQTNKGIGPFGP/ÒP\GFGPXQNMUVÒONKEJGP0COGP*CJPTGKVCNGT/KV*CJPTGK YWTFGKO8QNMUOWPFGKP'JGOCPPDG\GKEJPGVFGTXQPUGKPGT(TCWDGVTQIGPYKTF

4637



2JKNKRR 4GKPJCTF +  4GKEJUVCNGT  9QNHGPDÒVVGN 5QIGPCPPVGT *CJPTGKVCNGT  I   )GMTÌPVGUOGJTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPFGT)TCHGPXQP5QNOU)GMTÌPVGU/QPQITCOOXQP-ÌPKI%JTKUVKCP+8 XQP&·PGOCTM$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&CX,QUGRJ/CKNNGV5WRRN6H  445COONGTRWP\G=/?KO(GNFFGT4UUGJTUEJÌP 

52';'4 '+0'-.+22'024)70)#75&'4<'+6&'5 &4'+55+),*4+)'0-4+')'5

4638 1,5:1



2JKNKRR %JTKUVQRJ XQP 5QGVGTP  'KPUGKVKIGUKNDGTPG8KGTVGNVCNGT-NKRRGQ,  2JKN KRRUDWTII/CFQPPCOKV-KPFUVGJGPFXXCWHGKPGTNKGIGPFGP/QPFUKEJGNWOIGDGPXQPGKPGT (NCOOGPINQTKQNGZOO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H'JTGPFD/CKNNGV6H:%+++ 2GVTG\KNMCD 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP  9GIGP &KHHGTGP\GP OKV FGO 4CV FGT RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP 5VCFV 5RG[GT NKG­ $KUEJQH 2JKNKRR %JTKUVQRJ XQP 5QGVGTP FCU   &QTH7FGPJGKOGTYGKVGTPWPFICDKJOFGPPGWGP0COGP2JKNKRRUDWTI*KGTDGVTKGDFGT$KUEJQHXQPDKU GKPG /ÒP\UV·VVG 1DYQJN FCU 5VÒEM XQP /CKNNGV WPF $TCWUG/CPUHGNF CNU $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\G XGT\GKEJPGV YWTFG   UVGJVFCU5VÒEMYQJNMCWOKP<WUCOOGPJCPIOKVMTKGIGTKUEJGP'TGKIPKUUGP'UOWUUXKGNOGJTCNUJQEJKPVGTGUUCPVG IGIGPTGHQTOCVQTKUEJG /CFQPPGPRT·IWPI XGTUVCPFGP YGTFGP GKPG 2TQDGRT·IWPI HÒT FKG \WT #WUHÒJTWPI IGNCPIVG   8KGTVGNVCNGTMNKRRGXQP 'JTGPF 

223


56#&' &+''41$'470)81056#&' 5VCFG GTUVOCNU  GTY·JPV GTJKGNV \YKUEJGP  WPF  FWTEJ *GKPTKEJ FGP .ÌYGP 5VCFVTGEJVG   YWTFG5VCFG/KVINKGFFGU4JGKPKUEJGP5V·FVGDWPFGUKO,CJTJWPFGTVVTCVFKG5VCFVFGT*CPUG DGK5GKVYCT5VCFG*CWRVUVCFVFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP*GT\QIVWOU$TGOGPWPF8GTFGP+PFKGUGT<GKV YWTFGFKG5VCFV\WT(GUVWPICWUIGDCWV&WTEJGKPGP)TQ­DTCPFWPFFKGF·PKUEJG$GUEJKG­WPIKO ,CJTCWHFKGFKGPCEJHQNIGPF\WT8GTUVGKIGTWPIMQOOGPFGP/GFCKNNGP$G\WIPGJOGPYWTFGFKG OKVVGNCNVGTNKEJG5VCFVYGKVIGJGPFXGTPKEJVGV

4639



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2GVGT $GTI -QRGPJCIGP CWH FKG 'TQDGTWPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJF·PKUEJG5VTGKV MT·HVGCO5GRVGODGT$TWUVDKNFFGUF·PKUEJGP-ÌPKIU(TGFGTKM+8KP5EJWRRGPJCTPKUEJOKVWOIG NGIVGO/CPVGNFGP'NGHCPVGPQTFGPCO$CPFVTCIGPF&GTXQPFTGK$GTKVVGPGPDGINGKVGVG-ÌPKI\W2HGTF N XQP FGT XQT KJO MPKGPFGP 8GTMÌTRGTWPI FGT 5VCFV FKG 5EJNÒUUGN GORHCPIGPF <W FGP (Ò­GP FGT   YGKDNKEJGP #NNGIQTKG FKG DGKFGP 9CRRGPUEJKNFG FGU *GT\QIVWOU $TGOGP8GTFGP WPF FGT 5VCFV +O   *KPVGTITWPFFCU(GNFNCIGTWPFF·PKUEJGT6TWRRGPCWHOCTUEJUQYKGFKG$GUEJKG­WPIFGT5VCFVOO I$CJTHGNFV)CNUVGT 44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCT FGT 5NI *QNIGT *GFG #WMVKQP $TWWP 4CUOWUUGP$ #JNUVTÌO -QRGPJCIGP 5GRVGODGT   WPF   'ZGORNCTFGT5NI'OKN)NÒEMUVCFV9KPMGN/CIPWUUQP#WMVKQP-QRGPJCIGP5GRVGODGT

4640

4640 1,5:1



224

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJF·PKUEJG5VTGKVMT·HVGCO5GRVGO DGT#PUKEJVFGT5VCFVKO#DUEJPKVV56#&'5KGDGP\GKNKIG#WHUEJTKHVOOI$CJTH )CNUVGT-P[RJ 44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 


56'66+0 &+'$'.#)'470)&'4+05%*9'&+5%*'/$'5+6<$'(+0&.+%*'0 56#&6&74%*#..++'46'64722'0

4641



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ) 6CDGTV CWH FGP #D\WI FGT MCKUGTNKEJGP MÌPKINKEJRQNPKUEJGP WPF MWT   HÒTUVNKEJDTCPFGPDWTIKUEJGP $GNCIGTWPIUVTWRRGP &GT UVTCJNGPFG 0COG ,GJQXCU KPOKVVGP \YGKGT   5EJTKHVMTGKUG WPF GKPGU $N·VVGTMTCP\GU 4KPIUWOJGT FTGK YGKVGTG 5EJTKHVMTGKUG#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV OKV   *CHGP QDGP FGT 0COG ,GJQXCU KP 5VTCJNGP  OO  I $TQEMOCPP  *KNFGDTCPFV    /CTKGPD5NI2QIIG 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+'4ª%-)#$'81056'66+0#0&+'5%*9'&'00#%*&'/(4+'&'0 81056)'4/#+0

4642



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQPGKPGOWPDGUVKOOVGPOKV'(UKIPKGTGPFGP5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTCWHFCU'PFG FGT $GNCIGTWPI WPF FKG 4ÒEMICDG FGT 5VCFV CP FKG UEJYGFKUEJG -TQPG #PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV OKV 1FGT   DTÒEMGP WPF 5EJKHHGP CWH FGO (NWUU#PUKEJV FGT 5VCFV CWU CPFGTGT $NKEMTKEJVWPI QDGP <GRVGT WPF   5EJYGTV WPVGTJCND GKPGT $ÒIGNMTQPG  OO  I 5NI $TCVTKPI  XIN  *KNFGDTCPF    5NI2QIIG 44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

564#.570& &+'56#&6564#.570&706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6 1DYQJNUKEJFKG5VCFV5VTCNUWPFUGKVKPUEJYGFKUEJGO$GUKV\DGHCPFWPFKO9GUVH·NKUEJGP(TKGFGP FGTUEJYGFKUEJGP-TQPG\WIGURTQEJGPYWTFGHKPFGVUKEJCWHFGP/ÒP\GPFGT6KVGNFGUTÌOKUEJ FGWVUEJGP-CKUGTU

4643

1,5:1



1,5:1

%JTKUVKPC XQP 5EJYGFGP  &WMCV  OKV 6KVGN (GTFKPCPFU +++  I 8QP GKPGO .QT   DGGTMTCP\WOUEJNQUUGPGT5VTCJN&QRRGNMÌRHKIGT#FNGTQDGP-TQPG#JNUVTÌO(D  )1.&5GJTUEJÌP  225


1,5:1



4644 1,5:1

-CTN:+XQP5EJYGFGP&WMCVOKV6KVGN.GQRQNFU+I5VTCJN\YKUEJGPIG DWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP&QRRGNMÌRHKIGT #FNGT QDGP -TQPG #JNUVTÌO  $TCVTKPI  (D    5NI2QIIG )1.&45GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

&+'$'.#)'470)810564#.570&&74%*24'755+5%*'64722'0 0CEJFGOFGTUEJYGFKUEJG-ÌPKI-CTN:++XQPUGKPGP-TKGIGPKPFGT6ÒTMGKPCEJ5VTCNUWPF\WTÒEMIG MGJTV YCT GTÌHHPGVG GT YKGFGT FKG -CORHJCPFNWPIGP IGIGP FKG KP 2QOOGTP UVCVKQPKGTVG RTGW­KUEJG   $GUCV\WPIUOCEJV'TXGTVTKGDFKG2TGW­GPCWU#PMNCO9QNICUVWPF7UGFQO(TKGFTKEJ9KNJGNO+ FGT 5QNFCVGPMÌPKI  UCOOGNVG UGKPG 6TWRRGP XQT 5VGVVKP \W FGPGP PQEJ  U·EJUKUEJG 5QNFCVGP UVKG­GP   #O,WNKUGV\VGPTWPF2TGW­GPOKVFGP5CEJUGPÒDGTFKG2GGPGWPFMCOGPCO,WNK XQT5VTCNUWPFCP#O#WIWUVYWTFGPFKG2GGPGOÒPFGT5EJCP\GPIGUVÒTOVWPFCO0QXGODGT ITKHHGPFKG6TWRRGPWPVGTFGO$GHGJNXQP.GQRQNFXQP&GUUCWOKV*KNHGFGTF·PKUEJGP(NQVVG4ÒIGPCP WPF GTQDGTVGP FKG +PUGN PCEJ UVCTMGP )GHGEJVGP CO  0QXGODGT 5VTCNUWPF MCRKVWNKGTVG FCPP CO    &G\GODGT

4645

4646



 5EJKNNKPI   I 5VTCJN WPVGP INGKEJUEJGPMNKIGU -TGW\8KGT\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV $TCVTKPI    $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/CKNNGV6H%++ 5GJTUEJÌP





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP &CXKF )GTJCTF XQP *CEJVGP *CODWTI CWH FKG 5VCPFHGUVKIMGKV FGT 5VCFV   Y·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPI$TWUVDKNFXQP-ÌPKI-CTN:++XQP5EJYGFGPTKP*CTPKUEJWPF.GKDTQEMOKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN5VCFVCPUKEJV /KV GTJCDGPGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  OO  I 'PFTW­GKV    *KNFGDTCPFC5NI2QIIG 5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



7./ &+'$'.#)'470)70&'+00#*/'8107./&74%*-#+5'4.+%*' 64722'0 #O  #WIWUV  TÒEMVG FGT *GT\QI XQP /CTNDQTQWIJ 1DGTMQOOCPFKGTGPFGT FGT *QNN·PFGT WPF   'PIN·PFGT XQT FKG (GUVWPI 7NO KP FGT FCU XGTDÒPFGVG *GGT FGT $C[GTP WPF (TCP\QUGP GKPG UVCTMG   $GUCV\WPIWPVGTFGO)GPGTCNXQP$GVVGPFQTH\WTÒEMIGNCUUGPJCVVGWOKJTGP4ÒEM\WIPCEJFGT5EJNCEJV XQP*ÌEJUV·FVIÒPUVKIGTDGYGTMUVGNNKIGPWPFFKG#NNKKGTVGPN·PIGTG<GKVCWHJCNVGP\WMÌPPGP&KG#NNK KGTVGPDGUEJNQUUGPFKG6TWRRGP\WVGKNGP&GTITÌ­GTG6GKNOCTUEJKGTVGIGIGPFGP4JGKPXQTFGTMNGK PGTG 6GKN DGUVGJGPF CWU MCKUGTNKEJGP 6TWRRGP DGICPP FKG 5VCFV \W DGNCIGTP )GPGTCN XQP $GVVGPFQTH   GTÌHHPGVGGKPUVCTMGU(GWGTCWHFKG$GNCIGTGTVTQV\FGOYCTUGKPG7PVGTNGIGPJGKVUEJPGNNCD\WUGJGP#O 5GRVGODGTTGKEJVGGTFKG-CRKVWNCVKQPGKPCO6CIFCTCWH\QIGTCWUFGT5VCFV9·JTGPFFGT $GUCV\WPI JCVVG FGT /CTSWKU FG $NCKPXKNNG FKG 'TNCWDPKU IGIGDGP CWU FGP )GH·­GP FGT -KTEJGP WPF   $ÒTIGT)GNFRT·IGP\WNCUUGP

4647



226

-NKRRG\W)WNFGPPCEJ.GKR\KIGT(W­&GT5VCFVUEJKNFQDGP2WVVQMQRH0KODKGTVGTFQRRGNMÌR HKIGT #FNGT CWH FGT $TWUV 4GKEJUCRHGN VTCIGPF 1DGP -TQPG  Z  OO $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6H/CKNNGV6H%:+80CW 5GJTUEJÌP




4648

1,5:1



1,5:1

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)GQTI*CWVUEJ0ÒTPDGTICWHFKG4ÒEMGTQDGTWPIFGT5VCFVFWTEJFKGMCKUGT NKEJGP 6TWRRGP $TWUVDKNF FGU )GPGTCNHGNFOCTUEJCNNU *CPU -CTN (TGKJGTT XQP 6JÒPIGP X X KO *CT   PKUEJ FGP -QRH JCNDN IGYCPFV OKV FGT -QNNCPG FGU RTGWUUKUEJGP 9GK­GP#FNGT1TFGPU WPF #WIGP   DKPFG&GT(GNFJGTTWPFFKG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGT5VCFVGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTUVGJGPFDGKO*CPFUEJNCI&GT GKPGPNCPIGP5VCDJCNVGPFG1HHK\KGTYKTFXQPGKPGTJKPVGTKJOUVGJGPFGPDGJGNOVGPYGKDNKEJGP)GUVCNV DGMT·P\V&KG#NNGIQTKGFGT5VCFVUVGJVJKPVGTGKPGO5QEMGNFGTIGUEJOÒEMVKUVOKVFGO5VCFVUEJKNFWPF GKPGO 'KEJGPMTCP\ FGT FKG FTGK\GKNKIG #WHUEJTKHV 1$  %+8 Ü  5'48 WOUEJNKG­V /KV GTJCDGPGT   4CPFUEJTKHVOOI'DPGT5NI*QTUM[5NI,WNKWU5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 0CW 48QT\ÒINKEJ



9'5'. /#4-'0&'456#&69'5'.

4649



/GUUKPI/CTMG\W5QNU)GMTÌPVGTQXCNGTCPFGP5GKVGPXGT\KGTVGT9CRRGPUEJKNFKO(GNF5 WPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJN&CUXGTRT·IVG/QVKXFGT8QTFGTUGKVGOOI$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H$  GKPUGKVKIG2T·IWPIKP-WRHGT /CKNNGVXIN6H%::+++ GKPUGKVKIG2T·IWPIKP-WRHGT 5NI2KGRGT

GKPUGKVKIG2T·IWPIKP/GUUKPI 5NI9G[ICPF 5GJTUEJÌP



$TCWPUG/CPUHGNF XGT\GKEJPGVGP FKGUG 9GUGNGT /CTMGP KTTVÒONKEJ CNU 0QVOÒP\GP &KG XQTNKGIGPFG /CTMG KUV   UVTGPIIGPQOOGPCNUGKPUGKVKIG2T·IWPI\WXGTUVGJGPGPVURTGEJGPFFGO'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2KGRGT&KG\YGK UGKVKIG 2T·IWPI FGU 5EJTÌVNKPIU GTHQNIVG KP  #TDGKVUI·PIGP OKV GKP WPF FGOUGNDGP 5VGORGN &KG 2T·IWPI FGT   4ÒEMUGKVG YCT CPUEJGKPGPF WPDGHTKGFKIGPF CWUIGHCNNGP UQ FC­ FGT 2T·IGXQTICPI CWH FGT CPFGTGP 5GKVG FGU   5EJTÌVNKPIUYKGFGTJQNVYWTFG

4650





4651

'KPUGKVKIG QMVQIQPCNG /GUUKPI-NKRRG \W  5QN  )GMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF CWH 2CNO\YGKIGP KO   (GNF+5WPVGPFKG,CJTGU\CJNZOOI$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H$/CKNNGVXIN6H %::+++ FQTVKP-WRHGT 5NI2KGRGT5NI9G[ICPF 5GJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIG /GUUKPI/CTMG \W  5QN  &KG OKV GKPGT .CWDMTQPG ÒDGTJÌJVG +PKVKCNG 9 WPVGP FKG   $TWEJ\CJNCNU9GTVQFGT/C­CPICDGFKG,CJTGU\CJNVGKNGPFOOI$TCWUG/CPUHGNF /CKNNGV5NI2KGRGTC5NI9G[ICPF 5GJTUEJÌP

 227


9+5/#4 &+'56#&69+5/#4706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6 9KGCWEJKP5VTCNUWPFHÒJTVGFKGUGKVKPUEJYGFKUEJGO$GUKV\DGHKPFNKEJG5VCFV9KUOCTCWHKJTGP /ÒP\GP\WP·EJUVFGP6KVGNFGUTÌOKUEJFGWVUEJGP-CKUGTU

4652



%JTKUVKPCXQP5EJYGFGP4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGN(GTFKPCPFU+++I-PKGDKNFFGU JGKNKIGP .CWTGPVKWU X X OKV 2CNO\YGKI WPF 4QUV 7PVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNF FGT 5VCFV&QRRGNMÌRHKIGT   #FNGTCWHFGT$TWUVGKPGP4GKEJUCRHGNOKVFGT9GTV\CJN<VTCIGPFQDGPFKG-CKUGTMTQPG7PVGTJCND FGT #FNGTH·PIG FKG +PKVKCNGP $- $GTVJQNF -TCWUG /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 9KUOCT   #JNUVTÌO    &CX-WP\GN#C 44#VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCYKP\*GPMGNURWT ! UGJTUEJÌP 

4653 1,5:1



1,5:1

(TKGFTKEJ + XQP 5EJYGFGP  &WMCV  9KUOCT  I &GT 5VCFVUEJKNF 1DGP KO   5EJGKVGNRWPMVFGT7OUEJTKHVIGJCTPKUEJVGT#TOOKV5EJYGTVN0KODKGTVGTFQRRGNMÌRHKIGT#FNGTQDGP $ÒIGNMTQPG#JNUVTÌOC(D-WP\GN  )1.&40WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV5GJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ  .GV\VG &WMCVGPRT·IWPI FGT 5VCFV CWUIGIGDGP CPN·UUNKEJ FGT UGKVGPU FGT 5VCFV CO  &G\GODGT  XQNN\QIGPGP   *WNFKIWPI FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIU (TKGFTKEJ + IGRT·IV CWU PGW CPIGHGTVKIVGP 5VGORGNP FWTEJ FGP 9KUOCTGT   )QNFUEJOKGFGOGKUVGTWPFNVGTOCPP,QJCPP(TKGFTKEJ4CJO&GT9KUOCTGT&WMCVXQPFKGPVGFGO5VGORGN UEJPGKFGTCNU$KNFXQTNCIGHÒTFKGUGPGWG)QNFRT·IWPI#WEJFGTIGRCP\GTVGGKP5EJYGTVHÒJTGPFG#TOFGTCWHFGT ·NVGTGP /ÒP\G CNU <GKEJGP FGU XQP  KP 9KUOCT CTDGKVGPFGP /ÒP\OGKUVGTU *CPU 4KFFGT GTUEJGKPV YWTFG   DGKFGT#PHGTVKIWPIFGTPGWGP&WMCVGPUVGORGNOKVGKPIGCTDGKVGV

&+''+00#*/'8109+5/#4&74%*&05+%*'64722'0

4654



228

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFVFWTEJFKG&·PGP$NKEMXQP0QTFGPCWHFGP *CHGP WPF FKG 5VCFV 9KUOCT OKV -TKGIUXQNM CWH FGO XQTIGNCIGTVGP 6GTTCKP FCU XQO 9CUUGTNCWHFGT 6KGHGKP\YGK7HGTUGKVGPIGVGKNVYKTF5EJKHHGKO*CHGPWPFCWHFGO/GGTGU\WHNWUU#O(W­GGKPGUCWU 9CHHGPUVÒEMGP FGO PQTYGIKUEJGP $CPPGT WPF YGKVGTGP (CJPGP GTTKEJVGVGP 5KGIGUOCNU GKPG YGKDNKEJG   )GUVCNVKP*CTPKUEJWPF-NGKFKP6TCWGTRQUGMPKGPFXXOOI'XGTU5)TKOO -WP\GN#DD 44$TQUEJKGTURWTGPWPFNGKEJVG)N·VVWPIGPOKP&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP




&+'$'.#)'470)70&'+00#*/'8109+5/#4&74%*24'755+5%*' 70&&0+5%*'64722'0

4655



 6CNGT  $GTNKP XQP (TKGFTKEJ 9KNJGNO XQP $TCPFGPDWTI  OKV )GIGPUVGORGN FGT   5VCFV CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG )GURCNVGPGT JQEJQXCNGT 5EJKNF OKV FGO JCNDGP 5VKGTMQRH WPF 0  9  

0GEGUUKVCU9KUOCTKGPUKU &KG)GIGPUVGORGNWPIGTHQNIVGKPFGP,CJTGPI$TWUVDKNF T/KVFGO-WTJWVÒDGTJÌJVGT9CRRGPUEJKNF$CJTHD FQTVQJPG)GIGPUVGORGN (TKGFGTKEJ\W -WP\GN\W#DD/CKNNGV\W6H%::8X5EJT FQTVQJPG)GIGPUVGORGN   44/ÒP\GUGJTUEJÌP)GIGPUVGORGNUGJTUEJÌP 

4656 1:1,5



 5EJKNNKPI  'KPUGKVKIG NCPITGEJVGEMKIG 2NCVVG CWU -CPQPGPOGVCNN IGMGPP\GKEJPGV OKV FKXGTUGP   5VGORGNWPIGP &KG 9GTVCPICDG   5%*+.. =5VGTP?  9+5/ =FTGK 5VGTPG KP FTGKDNCVVHÌTOKIGT 5VGN   NWPI?KPOKVVGPGKPGTTWPFGPMTCP\HÌTOKIGP'KPHCUUWPIQDGPMNGKPGTIGURCNVGPGTJQEJQXCNGT5EJKNFOKV FGO JCNDGP 5VKGTMQRH WPF 0  9 0GEGUUKVCU 9KUOCTKGPUKU  0CJG FGT XKGT 'EMGP LG GKPG <KHHGT FGT   ,CJTGU\CJNZOO#JNUVTÌO$TCWUG/CPUHGNF5NI)CGVVGPU)TKOO-WP\GN  /CKNNGV  5WPFSWKUV KP 0WOKUOCVKUEJGU 0CEJTKEJVGPDNCVV   5  #DD  6KPIUVTÌO   XIN5#DD% FQTVGKP'ZGORNCTQJPG,CJTGU\CJN  W­GTUVUGNVGP8QPUGJTUEJÌPGT'TJCNVWPI 

4657



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'KPPCJOGFGT5VCFVFWTEJFKGXGTDÒPFGVGP2TGW­GPWPF&·PGP $NKEMXQP0QTFGPCWH*CHGPWPF5VCFV9KUOCT5KGDGP<GKNGP6GZVQDGP4CPMGPQTPCOGPVOO I)CNUVGT)TKOO-WP\GN#DD 44(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 229


Festzug in Stockholm 1650 aus AnlaรŸ der Krรถnung Kรถnigin Christines.

91.)#56 &+'56#&691.)#56706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6

4658



230

%JTKUVKPCXQP5EJYGFGP8KGTHCEJGT4GKEJUVCNGTCWHFGPXGTUVQTDGPGP-รŒPKI)WUVCX++ #FQNH  I &KG 5GGNG FGU KO XQNNGP 1TPCV CWHIGDCJTV N NKGIGPFGP VQVGP -รŒPKIU YKTF XQP \YGK   'PIGNP\WOUVTCJNGPFGP0COGP,GJQXCUGORQTIGVTCIGPKO*KPVGTITWPFN5EJNCEJVHGNFOKV+PHCPVGTKG WPF 4GKVGTP&GT XQP 4GNKIKQP WPF )GTGEJVKIMGKV DGMTยทP\VG -รŒPKI N KP GKPGO XQP FTGK IGHNร’IGNVGP   2HGTFGPIG\QIGPGP5VTGKVYCIGPGKPOKVFGT2CRUVMTQPGIGUEJOร’EMVGU7PVKGTร’DGTHCJTGPF#JNUVTรŒO &CX FQTVWPVGT'THWTV  445GJTUEJรŒP 


4659

1,5:1



1,5:1

&KEMGT4GKEJUVCNGTCWHFGPXGTUVQTDGPGP-ÌPKI)WUVCX++#FQNHI&KG5GGNGFGUKPXQNNGP 1TPCV CWHIGDCJTV N NKGIGPFGP VQVGP -ÌPKIU YKTF XQP \YGK 'PIGNP \WO UVTCJNGPFGP 0COGP ,GJQXCU   GORQT IGVTCIGP KO *KPVGTITWPF N 5EJNCEJVHGNF OKV +PHCPVGTKG WPF 4GKVGTP&GT XQP 4GNKIKQP WPF   )GTGEJVKIMGKVDGMT·P\VG-ÌPKINKPGKPGOXQPFTGKIGHNÒIGNVGP2HGTFGPIG\QIGPGP5VTGKVYCIGPGKPOKV FGT2CRUVMTQPGIGUEJOÒEMVGU7PVKGTÒDGTHCJTGPF#JNUVTÌO&CX FQTVWPVGT'THWTV   448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI 

9ª4<$74) &+'56#&69ª4<$74)706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6

4660



)WUVCX++#FQNHXQP5EJYGFGP4GKEJUVCNGTI.QUWPIU*CNDVCNGT*ÒHVDKNFT KP *CTPKUEJ GKPGP -QOOCPFQUVCD KP FGT 4GEJVGP FGP 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGT .KPMGP 1DGP FGT 0COG   )QVVGU KP 5VTCJNGP<YKUEJGP IGDWPFGPGP .QTDGGT\YGKIGP IGMTÌPVGT 9CRRGPUEJKNF OKV )TGKHGPMQRH   XGT\KGTWPIGPQDGP9CJNURTWEJ#JNUVTÌO*GNOUEJTQVVXIN5NI2KNQV[  (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



'+0'-1064+$76+10524)70)&'5$+567/59ª4<$74)+/ '456'0-1#.+6+105-4+')

4661



)GQTI-CTNXQP(GEJGPDCEJ-QPX6CNGT9ÒT\DWTI-QPVTKDWVKQPI$TWUV DKNFTKP#OVUVTCEJV8KGTHGNFKIGT9CRRGPUEJKNFQDGP(ÒTUVGPJWV$TCWUG/CPUHGNF*GNOUEJTQVV /CKNNGV6H%::8++XCT -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 231


.165 -4+')70&(4+'&'0#7(0+'&'4.0&+5%*'04'%*'02('00+)'0 

+PVGTGUUCPVG5COONWPIXQPPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP4GEJGPRHGPPKIGP 'ZGORNCTGKP5KNDGT'ZGORNCTKP /GUUKPI FKG ÒDTKIGP KP -WRHGT  FGU  WPF  ,CJTJWPFGTVU IGRT·IV CWH FKXGTUG 'TGKIPKUUG FGU   #EJV\KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIGU\YKUEJGPFGP0KGFGTNCPFGPWPF5RCPKGP 5GJTUEJÌPWPFDGUUGT 

-72('40'5-4'&+6)'.&&'55%*9'&+5%*'0(+0#0<4#65)¤46< 9*4'0&&'5)4155'0014&+5%*'0-4+')5 

+PVGTGUUCPVG5GTKGXQPMWRHGTPGP)ÌTV\UEJGP0QVVCNGTP#JNUVTÌO 'ZGORNCTG   5GJTUEJÌPWPFDGUUGT



.+6'4#674<7&'06*'/'0$'.#)'470)-4+')70&(4+'&'0 /101)4#2*+'0 

#*.564¤/$#./'4;-'00'6*,&KG/ÒP\GPFGTUEJYGFKUEJGP$GUKV\WPIGP5VQEMJQNO 5OKV\CJNTGKEJGP#DD-CTVG-CTVQPKGTV



$4#75'/#05('.&#(GNF0QVJWPF$GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP$·PFG$GTNKPWPF:+  5  6HP 8+++  5  6HP (TQPVKURK\ )TQUUHQNKQ 7OUEJNCI OKPKOCN DGTKGDGP UQPUV   RTCEJVXQNNGTJCNVGPGU9GTM1TKI*CNDNGFGT  



%1%*'6'7:/&WOCTSWKUFG5WTXKNNGGVFGU/QPPCKGUQDUKFKQPCNGUHTCRR¾GUC6QWTPCKGP 6QWTPCK56HP*GHVWPINQUG)GJGHVGV





%7;2'45 2 0QVKEG JKUVQTKSWG UWT NGU /QPPCKGU QDUKFKQPCNGU HTCRR¾GU C $TGFC RGPFCPV NG UK½IG FG   $TÒUUGN*GHVWPIVGKNYGKUGNQUG5GKVGPT·PFGTNGKEJVDGUEJ·FKIV1TKI)GJGHVGV





&7$;64GEWGKN)¾P¾TCNFGU2K½EGUQDUKFKQPCNGUGVFG0GEGUUKV¾2CTKU:8+56HP (QNKQ1TKI*CNDNGFGT





*'75'4'&KG$GNCIGTWPIGPXQP.CPFCWKPFGP,CJTGPWPF.CPFCW:::: 5  6HP  -CTVG 1TKI*CNDNGKPGP &C\W 4KIÌ-CVCNQI  .CPFCW 0QVOÒP\GP FKG Y·JTGPF FGT   $GNCIGTWPIWPFIGUEJNCIGPYWTFGP5OKV#DD-NGKPHQTOCV)CP\NGKPGP 





,76<-*(+'5'4,/2JKNKRRUDWTI)GUEJKEJVGFGT5VCFVWPFGJGOCNKIGP4GKEJUHGUVWPI2JKNKRRU DWTI5OKV#DD*CNDNGKPGP





-#..'0)&KG$GNCIGTWPIXQP0GWUUFWTEJ-CTNFGP-ÒJPGP ,WNK,WPK 8+ 5#DD-CTVG1TKI$TQUEJWT





/#+..'62%CVCNQIWGFGUETKRVKHFGU/QPPCKGUQDUKFKQPCNGUGV0GEGUUKV¾CXGECVNCU6GZVWPF6CHGN DCPF OKV 5WRRNGOGPVGP $TÒUUGNWPF:8++5 :55 6HP 56HP.GKEJVYCUUGTTCPFKIWPFUVQEMHNGEMKI'TUVGWPFNGV\VG5GKVGPGVYCUDGUEJ·FKIV 4ÒEMGPXQO6CHGNDCPFVGKNYGKUGNQUG6GKNYGKUG$NGKUVKHVPQVK\GP1TKI*CNDNGFGT



%CVCNQIWGFGUETKRVKHFGU/QPPCKGUQDUKFKQPCNGUGV0GEGUUKV¾CXGECVNCU6GZVWPF6CHGNDCPFOKV5WRR NGOGPVGP 0CEJFTWEM FGT #WUICDGP $TÒUUGN    WPF  :8++  5  :  5   56HP 56HP.GKPGP 





0'7/#00 * &KG ,ÒNKEJGT 0QVMNKRRGP XQP    ,ÒNKEJ   5 OKV #DD   $TQUEJKGTV





8#0&'4/''45%*&,0QVKEGUWTNGU/QPPCKGU1DUKFKQPCNGUFʼnCWFGPCTFGHTCRR¾GURGPFCPVNG UK½IGFG$TÒUUGN56H$KPFWPINGKEJVDGUEJ·FKIV1TKI*CNDNGKPGP





-1081.76 +PVGTGUUCPVGU -QPXQNWV MNGKPGT 5EJTKHVGP WPF #WMVKQPUMCVCNQIG -QRKGP  ÒDGT $GNCIG   TWPIUOÒP\GP$#.$1#)+#+/1#7PCUUGFKQFKRKPVQIWGTCGRCEGCDTKEJGTCUKQPGN<' &'.+758,ÒNKEJGT-NKRRGPXQP5&CWU$QPPGT,CJTDÒEJGT,CJTICPI*+45%*# &KG/GFCKNNGPCWHFGP'PVUCV\9KGPU*+45%*)/ÒPEJGP#WMVKQPXQO -QRKG  -7$' 4 $GTNKP #WMVKQP XQO  -QRKG  07/+5/#6+5%*' )'5'..5%*#(6   5%*9'+0(746 5QPFGTJGHV  &KG 5EJYGKPHWTVGT $GNCIGTWPIUMNKRRGP XQP  8#0 2'6')   *'//%2CTKU#WMVKQPXQO5NI/CKNNGV -QRKG 9'+.'4*$QPPGT$GNCIGTWPIGP KO5RKGIGNFGT/GFCKNNGP7PVGTUEJKGFNKEJIGDWPFGP 





232




#7-6+105-#6#.1)' 

*'55 # (TCPMHWTV CO /CKP #WMVKQP XQO  %CVCNQI XGTUEJKGFGPGT /ÒP\GP WPF /G   FCKNNGP5COONWPIGP 7 C /ÒP\GP W /GFCKNNGP 9GUVRJCNGPU WPF FGT 4JGKPRTQXKP\ 5COONWPI FGU   *GTTP-TKGIUIGTKEJVU&KTGMVQT,QUGRJ9GKPI·TVPGTKP/ÒPUVGT (GNF0QVJWPF$GNCIGTWPIU/ÒP\GP

5COONWPIFGU*GTTP*CWRVOCPP#WIWUV-TCWUGKP$GTNKP 0TP1JPG6CHGNP7OUEJNCIJKPVGP HGJNV'KPUQTVKGTVG'.KUVG$TQUEJKGTV





5%*7./#0 , #OUVGTFCO #WMVKQP XQO  %QNNGEVKQP FG HGW 2,$ 4W[U FG 2GTG\ C   $NQGOGPFCCN0TP6HP0QVK\GPCWH4ÒEMGPWPF7OUEJNCI$TQUEJKGTV





-NGKPGU -QPXQNWV XQP #WMVKQPUMCVCNQIGP FGT (KTOC 5EJWNOCP #WMVKQP XQO  /QPPCKGU   QDUKFKQPCNGUGVFG0GEGUUKV¾%QNNGEVKQPFʼnWPCOCVGWTFKUVKPIW¾C7VTGEJVGVFʼnWPGUWEEGUKQPFʼnWPCOC VGWTEQPPWC2CTKU#WMVKQPXQO%CVCNQIWGFʼnWPGHQTVDGNNG%QNNGEVKQPFG/QPPCKGUQDUK FKQPCNGU GV FG 0GEGUUKV¾ #WMVKQP XQO  %QNNGEVKQPU FW &T / )GTUVN FG 9KNNGOUVCF  

%WTCECQ  FG / $GTPUVTÌO C )ÌVGDQTI 5WGFG  GV FʼnCWVTGU RTQXGPEGU #WMVKQP XQO    %QNNGEVKQPFGHGW/QPUGWT%,-QEJGVFʼnWPCOCVGWTDKGPEQPPW#NNG-CVCNQIGOKV6CHGNP(TÒJGUVGT -CVCNQINGKEJVDGUEJ·FKIV$TQUEJKGTV 



-NGKPGU -QPXQNWV XQP #WMVKQPUMCVCNQIGP FGT (KTOC 5EJWNOCP #WMVKQP XQO  %QNNGEVKQP   TGPQOOG¾ JQNNCPFCKUG FG /QPPCKGU QDUKFKQPCNGU FG NC IWGTTG FG SWCVTG XKPIV CPU #WMVKQP XQO   %QNNGEVKQPFG/QPCKGURTKPEKRCNGOGPVGPQT/QPPCKGUQDUKFKQPCNGUGVFG0GEGUUKV¾#WM VKQPXQO/QPPCKGUQDUKFKQPCNGUGVFG0GEGUUKV¾#NNG-CVCNQIGOKV6CHGNP0QVK\GPCWHFGP 7OUEJN·IGP.GV\VGT-CVCNQIOKVPQVKGTVGP2TGKUGP1TKI$TQUEJWT 





8#02'6')*'//%2CTKU#WMVKQPXQO5NI/CKNNGV0TP1JPG6HP'TUVG 5GKVGPNGKEJVUVQEMHNGEMKI.GKPGP





-1081.76 -NGKPGU -QPXQNWV XQP #WMVKQPUMCVCNQIGP )#'66'05 4 *GKFGNDGTI #WMVKQP XQO   5NI,WNKWU+++6GKN*'55#(TCPMHWTVCO/CKP#WMVKQPXQO/ÒP\GP XQP ,ÒNKEJ -NGXG $GTI /ª0<'0 70& /'&#+..'0 #) $CUGN #WMVKQP  XQO    &GWVUEJG /ÒP\GP 0QV WPF $GNCIGTWPIUOÒP\GP 5EJYGK\GT /ÒP\GP 5%*7./#0 , #OUVGTFCO   #WMVKQP XQO  /QPPCKGU QDUKFKQPCNGU GV FGU 0GEGUUKVG #NNG -CVCNQIG OKV 6CHGNP 'KPKIG   YGPKIG0QVK\GPCW­GPWPFKPPGP$TQUEJKGTV Z *CNDNGKPGP Z  





233


STICHWORTVERZEICHNIS GENERALINDEX A

#CEJGP #CNUV #CVJ I[RVGP NXUDQTI #KTG #NGUUCPFTKC #NIGTKGP #NMOCCT #OUVGTFCO #PVYGTRGP #WFGPCTFGUKGJG1WFGPCCTFG #WIUDWTI #WUDGWVG

B

$CFGP $CNVKMWO $CODGTI $±PUMC5VKCXPKECUKGJG5EJGOPKV\ $CTEGNQPC $CWV\GP $C[GTP $GNIKGP  $GNITCF $GTIGPQR<QQO $GVJWPG $KUNKEJ $NGPJGKOUKGJG$NKPFJGKO $NKPFJGKO $QOOGN $QPP $TCDCPV $TCPFGPDWTI(TCPMGP $TCPFGPDWTI2TGW­GP  $TCWPCWCO+PP $TCWPUEJYGKI5VCFV $TCWPUEJYGKI.ÒPGDWTI $TGFC $TGKUCEJ $TGKVGPHGNF $TGOGPWPF8GTFGP $TGUEKC $TGUNCW $TÒIIG $TÒUUGN $WFC $[\CP\

C

%CODTCK %COKGPKGE %CORGP %CTFQPC %CTNKUNG %CUCNG %CUEJCW %CVCP\CTQ %CVVCTQ %JKNG %JKQU %JQVWUKV\ %QGXQTFGP %QRKCRQ %TGOQPC %WPGQ

D

&·PGOCTM  &COOG &CP\KI &GWVUEJNCPF &GXGPVGT &QPCWYÌTVJ &QQTPKLMUKGJG6QWTPCK &QWCK

E

'IGT 'KEJUV·VV 'NHUDQTIUKGJGNXUDQTI 'NUCUU 'RGTKGU 'THWTV 'TNC 'TUGMWLX±TUKGJG0GWJ·WUGN 'UUGEM 'U\VGTIQPUKGJG)TCP 'WTQR·KUEJG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP

F

(COCIWUVC (GJTDGNNKP (GTOQ (NQTGP\ (QMUCP (TCPMGP 235


(TCPMGPVJCN (TCPMHWTV (TCPMTGKEJ        (TGFGTKMUJCNN (TGKDWTI (ÒPGP (ÒPHMKTEJ (WNFC

G

)GIGPUVGORGN    )GNFGTNCPF )GNFGTP )GPH )GPV )GPWC )GTQPC )GTVTWFGPDGTI )JGGTFGPDGTIUKGJG)GTVTWFGPDGTI )KDTCNVCT )NÒEMUVCFV )ÌVGDQTI )QVJC )T·HGPDWTI )TCP )TGKHUYCNF )TKGEJGPNCPF )TQPKPIGP )TQ­DTKVCPPKGP  )TQ­YCTFGKP )WCFGNQWRG )WCUVCNNC

H

*CCTNGO *CDUDWTI    *CIGPCW *CNNGCF5CCNG *CNOUVCF *CODWTI *CPPQXGT *CTNKPIGP *CUUGNV *CWRV 236

*CXCPPC *GKFGNDGTI *GNUKPIDQTI Uʼn*GTVQIGPDQUEJ *GUUGP *KNFGUJGKO *ÌEJUV·FV *QNNCPF *WNUV *W[

I

+PFQPGUKGP +QPKUEJG+PUGNP +TNCPF œNGFG(TCPEGGV$QPCRCTVGUKGJG/CWTKVKWUWPF 4GWPKQP +VCNKGP 

J

,CXC ,ÒNKEJ

K

-CKUGTUYGTVJ -CPKUEJC -CPK\UCUKGJG-CPKUEJC -CR2CUUCTQ -CTNUDWTIUKGJG9GKUUGPDWTI -CVCNQPKGP -GJN -GTM[TCUKGJG-QTHW -KTEJGPUVCCV -QDNGP\ -ÌNP -QNDGTI -QPUVCPVKPQRGN -QRGPJCIGP -QTHW -QTUKMC -QVQTUKGJG%CVVCTQ -TGVC -TQCVKGP -TQPUVCFV -WDC

L

.CPFCW .CPFUMTQPC .CWVGTDWTI .GGWYCTFGP .GKFGP .GKR\KI .G[FGPUKGJG.GKFGP .KGT


.KNNG .KODWTI .KVCWGP .KXN·PFKUEJGT1TFGP .QPFQP .QWXCKP .ÒDGEM .ÒVVKEJ .WPF .WZGODWTI

M

/CCUVTKEJV /CFTKF /CIFGDWTI /CKNCPF /CKP\ /CNNQTEC /CPPJGKO /CPVWC /CTGPIQ /CTUVTCPF /CWTKVKWU /CWTKVKWUWPF4¾WPKQP /GEJGNGP /GFCKNNGWTG #DTCJCO, $GTI2 $QTUVQTHH6 $NWO, $QUMCO, $QYGT) $TWPPGT/  $[NCGT)XCP $[NCGT,XCP %TQMGT, &CFNGT5 &KGUJQGEMG,XCP &QPPGT+ &WXKXKGT, 'PIGNJCTFV,4 (·TDGT, (CNV\4 (' (QTVKPK) )GPVKN, )GQTIK0 *CEJVGP&)XQP *CHHPGT* *COGTCPK1 *CTV., *CWVUEJ)   *ÌJP,

*QHHOCPP,/ *QHOCPP/ *QNV\JG[/ +' ,WFKP5 -CTNUVGGP# -CTUG%( -GVVNGT' -KTM# -KVVGN)9 -KVVGN, -KV\MCV\40 -NGKPGTV( -TÒIGTUGP(* -WTPCVQYUMK/ .CWHGT.) .G$NCPE, .KPEM, .QQH,XCP .QQU&( .WFGT, /CIFGDWTIGT* /CNGT% /CNGT8 /CPHTGFKPK. /CWIGT, /G[DWUEJ# /QNCTV/ /ÒNNGT2*    0ÒTPDGTIGT)( 0ÒTPDGTIGT2) 2HTÒPFV) 2TKGVQ6( 4%/ 4+ 4CRRQUV* 4GKEJ,%  4GKEJ,/  4KEMKPIGP,XQP 4ÌI/ 4QGVVKGTU, 4QGVVKGTU2 4QICV' 4QWUUGN, 5- 5EJPGKFGT% 5EJWNV\,$ 5GGN2 5OGNV\KPI/ 5QTDGTIGT,) 6CDGTV) 6TCXCPK#

237


8GUVPGT)9 8KPEM% 9GTOWVJ% 9GTPGT22 9KPGMG% 9QNHH,* 9QNTCD,, /GUUKPC /GZKMQ /KFFGNDWTI /KPFGP /QFGPC /QJCEU /QPU /Ã&#x2019;PUVGT

N

0±I[X±TCFUKGJG)TQ­YCTFGKP 0COWT 0CTGPVC 0GCRGNWPF5K\KNKGP 0GTGVXCUKGJG0CTGPVC 0GWJ·WUGN 0GW-CV\GPGNPDQIGP 0GWUU 0GYCTM 0KGFGTNCPFG  0KLOGIGP 0KUEJ 0KUUCUKGJG0KUEJ 0QTYGIGP 0QXKITCF 0Ã&#x2019;TPDGTI 0WOKUOCVKUEJG.KVGTCVWT

O

1HGPUKGJG$WFC 1TCP 1UPCDTÃ&#x2019;EM 1UVGPFG 1VEJCMQX 1WFGPCCTFG 1XGTKLUUGN

P

2CNOCPQXC 2CNQVVC 2CTOC 2CXKC 2GTRKIPCP 2KECTFKGUKGJG5V3WGPVKP 2GTW 2¾VGTX±TCFUKGJG2GVGT9CTFGKP 2GVGT9CTFGKP 238

2HCN\ 2JKNKRRUDWTI 2QNGP 2QOOGTP 2QPVGHTCEV 2QUGIC 2T·OKG 2TQDGP

Q

3WGUPQ[

R

4CCD 4COKNNKGU 4CV\GDWTI 4GRWDDNKEC4QOCPCUKGJG4QO 4GXCN 4JGKPDGTI 4JGKPHGNU 4KIC 4QGTOQPF 4QO 4QPEKINKCTG 4QVVGTFCO 4WO·PKGP 4W­NCPF

S

5CEJUGP  5CKPV#PFT¾ 5CNCPMCOGP 5CN\DWTI 5V)QCTUJCWUGP 5V3WGPVKP 5V8GPCPV 5CTCXCU 5CUCPKFGP 5CXQ[GP 5EJGNNGPDGTI 5EJGOPKV\ 5EJNGUKGP 5EJNGUYKI*QNUVGKP 5EJNÃ&#x2019;UUGNDWTI 5EJQQPJQXGP 5EJWNGP*QEJUEJWNGP7PKXGTUKV·VGP 5EJYCDGP 5EJYGFGP     5EJYGK\ 5GGNCPF 5GIGFKP 5KGDGPDÃ&#x2019;TIGP


5KMNÉU 5K\KNKGP 5QNOU 5RCPKGP      5RG[GT 5VCFG 5VCXQTGP 5VGVVKP 5VTCNUWPF 5VTC­DWTI 5VWJNYGK­GPDWTI 5WDCNRKPG4GRWDNKM 5WOCVTC 5\½MGUH½JGTX¯TUKGJG5VWJNYGK­GPDWTI

9GUGN 9KGP 9KUOCT 9QGTFGP 9QNHGPDÒVVGN 9QNICUV 9ÒT\DWTI

Z

<CFCT <CNVDQOOGNUKGJG$QOOGN <COQUE <CTCUKGJG<CFCT <GGNCPF <KGTKM\GG <QNPQT <YQNNG <[RGTP

T

6CNNKPP 6CTIQYKV\GT-QPHÌFGTCVKQP 6KTNGOQPV 6ÌPPKPI 6QMC[ 6QTVQUC 6QWTPCK 6TCTDCEJ 6ÒTMGK   6WTKP 6WTPJQWV

U

7NO 7PICTP 7PIYCT 7VTGEJV

V

8GNWYG 8GPGFKI  8GPG\WGNC 8GPNQ 8GTEGNNK 8GTTWC 8GWTPG 8KIQ 8QTQXKV\

W

9CNRQ 9GKUUGPDWTI 9GPFGP 239


241


242


243


244


NUMISMATISCHE BEGRIFFE EXPRESSIONS NUMISMATIQUES NUMISMATIC TERMS TERMINI DI NUMISMATICA DEUTSCH

ENGLISCH

FRANÇAIS

ITALIANO

Abschlag Am Rand Berieben Blei Dezentriert Doppelschlag Einfassung Einseitig Emailliert Erhaltung Etwas Exemplar Fassungsspuren Fehlprägung Feld(er) Fundexemplar Gedenkmünze Geglättet Gelocht Geprägt Gewellt Goldpatina Hübsch Jahrh. = Jahrhundert. Kl. = klein Korrosionsspuren Kratzer Kupfer Legierung Leicht(e) l. = links Min. = minimal Nachahmung Prachtexemplar Prägeschwäche Randdelle Randfehler Randschrift r. = rechts Rückseite Schriftspuren Schrötling Schrötlingsfehler Schwach ausgeprägt Selten in dieser Erhaltung Seltener Jahrgang Stempel Stempelfehler Überdurchschnittlich erhalten Überprägt Unediert Unikum Vergoldet Von aller größter Seltenheit Vorderseite Winz.= winzig Zain Zierrand Zinn Ziseliert

struck at the rim/border slightly polished lead uncentered double struck frame uniface enamelled condition/preservation slightly specimen, copy trace of mounting mis-strike field(s) specimen from a hoard commemorative coin tooled holed minted bent golden patina attractive century small traces of corrosion scratch(es) copper alloy slightly left minimal imitation attractive, perfect piece weakly struck edge nick edge faults lettered edge to right reverse traces of inscription flan flan defect weakly struck rare in this condition rare year die(s) mistake in the die extraordinary condition overstruck unpublished unique specimen gilt extremely rare head tiny flan ornamental border tin chased

frappe au tranche frotté plomb decentré double frappe encadrement uniface émaillé conservation un peu exemplaire traces de monture défaut de frappe champ de trésor monnaie commemorative lissé troué frappé ondulé patina doré jolie siécle petit traces de corrosion rayure cuivre alliace légère gauche minimal imitation pièce magnifique de frappe molle défaut sur la tranche erreur a la tranche inscription sur la tranche droite revers traces de légende flan erreur de flan de frappe molle conservation rare année rare estampe erreur de frappe Conservation extraordinaire surfrappé inédit pièce unique dorée très rare en face petit flan tranche ornée étain ciselé

coniazione al bordo trattato piombo non centrato ribattitura cornice uniface smaltato conservazione un poco esemplare tracce di montatura difetto di coniazione campo da tesoretto moneta commemorativa liscio bucato coniato ondolato patina d´oro carino secolo piccolo segni di corrosione graffio(i) rame lega leggero sinistra minimamente contraffazzione esemplare magnifico conio stanco ammaccatura al bordo errore nel bordo inscrizione sul bordo destra rovescio tracce di leggenda tondello errore di tondello conio stanco conservazione rara annata rara conio errore di conio conservazione estraordinaria ribattuto inedito pezzo unico dorato di estrema raritá diritto veramente piccolo tondello taglio ornato stagno cesellato

245


VERSTEIGERUNGSBEDINGUNGEN Die Versteigerung erfolgt im Auftrag und für Rechnung der Eigentümer unter Einhaltung der sich aus der Versteigerungsordnung (BGB1 I 1976, 1346) ergebenden und für Kommissionäre geltenden gesetzlichen Bestimmungen des BGB und HGB gegen Barzahlung des Kaufpreises in €-Währung. Durch Abgabe eines Gebotes werden die Versteigerungsbedingungen anerkannt, dies gilt auch für die schriftlichen Gebote. Der Zuschlagpreis ist Nettopreis im Sinne des Mehrwertsteuergesetzes und bildet die Berechnungsgrundlage für das vom Käufer zu zahlende Aufgeld in Höhe von 15 %. Auf den daraus entstehenden Gesamtpreis (Zuschlag + Aufgeld) wird die zur Zeit gültige, ermäßigte Mehrwertsteuer von 7 % erhoben. Papiergeld unterliegt ebenfalls dem ermäßigten Steuersatz. Goldmünzen, bei denen Zuschlagpreis und Aufgeld geringer ist als das zweieinhalbfache des Metallpreises, unterliegen dem normalen Mehrwertsteuersatz von zur Zeit 16%, ebenso historische Wertpapiere. Goldmünzen, die als Anlagegold gelten, sind mehrwertsteuerfrei. Ausländischen Käufern aus Ländern der europäischen Gemeinschaft wird die in Deutschlang gültige Umsatzsteuer berechnet. Anderen ausländischen Käufern (aus Drittländern) wird, sofern die Münzen durch uns exportiert werden, ein Aufgeld von 15 % netto auf den Zuschlagpreis berechnet; sie erhalten die Lieferung nur gegen Zahlung des Kaufpreises in € - Währung, bankspesenfrei. Ausländischen Münzhändlern aus Ländern der europäischen Gemeinschaft wird bei Nachweis der Umsatzsteuer-Identifikationsnummer (§ 27 a USTG) und der sonstigen Voraussetzungen gemäß § 4 Nr. 1 b USTG in Verbindung mit § 6 a USTG die Lieferung ohne Umsatzsteuer berechnet. Sofern nichts anderes vereinbart wird, ist die Zahlung der Auktionsrechnung bei anwesenden Käufern sofort, bei schriftlichen Bietern spätestens 20 Tage nach Erhalt fällig. Bei Zahlungsverzug werden Zinsen von 1 % pro Monat berechnet. Wird die Zahlung nicht sofort an den Versteigerer geleistet oder die Abnahme der zugeschlagenen Sache verweigert, so findet die Übergabe der Sache an den Ersteigerer nicht statt. Der Ersteigerer verliert vielmehr seine Rechte aus dem Zuschlag, und die Sache kann auf seine Kosten erneut versteigert werden. In diesem Fall haftet der Ersteigerer für den Ausfall, dagegen hat er auf dem Mehrerlös keinen Anspruch. Der Zuschlag erfolgt nach dreimaligem Ausruf des höchsten Gebotes und verpflichtet zur Abnahme und Zahlung. Bei Meinungsverschiedenheiten über den Zuschlag wird die Nummer noch einmal ausgerufen. Der Versteigerer ist berechtigt, Nummern zu vereinigen oder zu trennen. Eine Vorausnahme von Nummern erfolgt nicht. Der Zutritt zur Versteigerung ist nur Interessenten gestattet, die einen Katalog besitzen. Die Mindeststeigerungsstufen für das Bietungsverfahren betragen: Mindestangebote

werden. Schriftliche Gebote können nur bis 24 Stunden vor Auktionsbeginn verbindlich berücksichtigt werden. Im Bedarfsfall ist der Auktionator berechtigt, die Limits um 3 – 5 % zu überschreiten. Bei mehreren gleichhohen Geboten erhält das zuerst eingegangene den Zuschlag. Unlimitierte Aufträge haben keinen Anspruch auf unbedingte Ausführung. Telefonisches Bieten ist nur in Ausnahmefällen möglich. Telefonische Bieter müssen sich mindestens einen Tag vor der Auktion voranmelden. Der Versand geht zu Lasten und auf Risiko des Ersteigerers bzw. Empfängers. Das Auktionsgut bleibt bis zur vollständigen Bezahlung aller Forderungen aus Anlaß der Versteigerung Eigentum des Verkäufers. Ist der Käufer Vollkaufmann, so ist Osnabrück als Gerichtsstand vereinbart. Für das Mahnverfahren gilt die Zuständigkeit des Amtsgerichts Osnabrück auch in allen anderen Fällen als vereinbart. Ansonsten ist es Osnabrück nur, wenn nur die Firma Fritz Rudolf Künker ihren allgemeinen Gerichtsstand in der BRD hat, oder wenn alle Ansprüche im Wege des Mahnverfahrens geltend gemacht werden, oder wenn die im Klageweg in Anspruch zu nehmende Vertragspartei nach Vertragsabschluß ihren gewöhnlichen Aufenthaltsort aus dem Geltungsbereich der BRD verlegt hat, oder ihr Wohnsitz oder gewöhnlicher Aufenthaltsort zum Zeitpunkt der Klage nicht bekannt ist. Die Beschreibung im Katalog ist gewissenhaft durchgeführt. Sie begründet jedoch keine Rechts- oder Sachmängelhaftung gemäß §§ 434, 459 ff BGB. Die Angabe der Erhaltung ist streng nach den im deutschen Münzhandel üblichen Erhaltungseinstufungen vorgenommen und gilt als persönliche Beurteilung. Bei der Auktion anwesende Käufer kaufen grundsätzlich „wie besehen“. Da durch Vorbesichtigung Gelegenheit gegeben ist, sich vom Erhaltungszustand des Versteigerungsgutes zu überzeugen, können nach erfolgtem Zuschlag Reklamationen nur bei irrtümlich übersehener Henkel- oder Fassungsspur oder gestopftem Loch berücksichtigt werden. Bei Losen mit mehreren Stücken sind die Stückzahlen nur Circa-Angaben, irrtümliche Zuschreibungen sind im Einzelfall nicht ausgeschlossen. Diese Lose sind nach erfolgtem Zuschlag von jeder Reklamation ausgeschlossen. Der Versteigerer kann bei eventuellen Meinungsverschiedenheiten bzw. Beanstandungen einen vereidigten Sachverständiger seiner Wahl (die Kosten trägt der unterliegende Teil) beauftragen. Eventuelle Beanstandungen können nur innerhalb von 8 Tagen nach der Auktion bzw. nach Erhalt der ersteigerten Stücke berücksichtigt werden. Die Echtheit der Stücke wird bis zur Höhe des Kaufpreises garantiert. Die beigedruckten Preise sind Schätzpreise, die unter- oder überschritten werden können. Aufträge, die unter 80 % des Schätzpreises liegen, können nicht bearbeitet werden.

Ausländische Kunden kaufen nach den Devisen-, Zoll- und Steuerbestimmungen ihres Landes. Versandformalitäten werden vom Versteigerer erledigt.

Mindeststeigerungsstufe Soweit nicht anders vermerkt, gelten im übrigen die allgemeinen Versteigerungsbestimmungen und – auch im Verhältnis zu ausländischen Kunden – gilt Deutsches Recht.

bis zu

€ 100,--

€ 5,--

bis zu

€ 300,--

€ 10,--

bis zu

€ 1.000,--

€ 20,--

Für Büchersendungen und Sendungen ins Ausland werden Versandkosten nach Aufwand in Rechnung gestellt.

bis zu

€ 2.000,--

€ 50,--

Die Ergebnisliste erscheint sofort nach der Auktion.

bis zu

€ 5.000,--

€ 100,--

bis zu

€ 10.000,--

€ 200,--

bis zu

€ 20.000,--

€ 500,--

ab

€ 20.000,--

€ 1.000,--

DIE VERSTEIGERER:

FRITZ RUDOLF KÜNKER DR. ANDREAS KAISER ARNE KIRSCH OLIVER KÖPP

Schriftliche Aufträge werden von uns ohne Auftragsprovision gewissenhaft ausgeführt. Aufträge von uns unbekannten Sammlern können nur ausgeführt werden, wenn ein Depot hinterlegt wird oder Referenzen benannt

246


TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF AUCTION The auction is conducted on behalf and for the account of the appropiate proprietors of the goods and is subject to the federal Auction Regulation (Versteigerungsordnung, BGB1 I 1976, 1346) published in the Federal Law GazetteVol. I, 1976, 1346 and the relevant provisions for factors in accordance with the German Cicil Code (BGB) and Commercial Code (HGB). Payment of the hammer-price has to be made in cash and in Euro. The submission of an offer implies the express acknowledgement of these Terms and Conditions of Auction; the same applies to the submission of an offer in writing. The hammer-price is exclusive of applicable German VAT according to the prevailing VAT – legislation and represents the basis for calculating the surcharge of 15 percent payable by the puchaser. The total price so calculated (hammerprice plus surcharge) is subject to the reduced VAT (value added tax=Mehrwertsteuer) of 7 per cent as presently applicable, which is payabel additionally. The reduced VAT applies also to paper-money. Gold coins for which the hammer-price plus surcharge is less than two and ohne half times the intrinsic gold price, are subject to the normal VAT rate of presently 16 per cent. The same applies to historical bonds. Gold coins which are considered as a gold investment are free of VAT. Purchasers from abroad will be charged a surcharge of 15 per cent net on the hammer-price, provided the export of the coins is undertaken by the auctioneer. Buyers in European Community (EEC) countries (other than Germany) will be charged Value Added Tax at the rates prevailing in Germany. Dealers from EEC countries (other than Germany) will receive goods free of tax upon presentation of their VAT I.D. number, and upon fulfillment of the other conditions set forth in Paragraph 4, Nr. 1 b, and Paragraph 6 a of the GermanTurnover Tax Law. Buyers from other countries are not charged Value Added Tax. Delivery will be made against payment in Euro with no bank charges to the auctioneer. Unless mutually agreed otherwise, payment of the auction bill from purchasers present at the auction is due immediately. From purchaser who have submitted a bid in writing, payment is due within 20 days after receipt of the goods. Defaulted payments shall bear an interest charge of 1 % per month in the amount in default. Should payment to the auctioneer not be made immediately or should the acceptance of the awardet item be refused, such item shall not be handed overt to the purchaser. Instead the purchaser shall forfeit all right and title in and to such item from the award and the item may again be put to auction at this buyer’s cost. In this event the buyer shall be liable for any shortfall, while he shall have no right or claim towards any excess proceeds. An item will be knocked down after the highest bid has been called three times. The award shall be a binding commitment and liability on the part of the bidder to take acceptance and delivery of the item or items so awarded. In the event of any dispute with regard to the award the lot will be put up again for bidding. The auctioneer reserves the right to combine or to seperate lots. Lots will not be called out of sequence. Access to the auction will only be permitted to interested persons who are in possession of the catalogue.

price or prices for a given lot, the bid first received by the auctioneer shall be given the award. Unlimited bids shall not oblige the auctioneer to consider, accept or carry out such order. Telephone bidding is generally an option for lots of substantial value only. The registration is required at the latest a day before auction. Shipment (by mail or otherwise) of the goods shall be for the sole cost and risk of the purchaser or receipient, resp. The auctioned goods remain the sole and exclusiv property of the vendor until full payment and settlement of any and all dues and claims in connection with the auction. In the event the purchaser is a merchant (in the sende of the German commercial laws) Osnabrück shall be the agreed and exclusive place of jurisdiction. The competence of the District Court (Amtsgericht) of Osnabrück is agreed in respect of summary proceedings for the collection of defaulted payments (Mahnverfahren) as well as in any and all other cases. Should the purchaser not be a merchant Osnabrück shall be the place of jurisdiction with the District Court of Osnabrück’s competence, if only the auctioneer has his ordinary legal domicil in the Federal Republic of Germany or if claims are made by way of summary proceedings of collection (Mahnverfahren) or if the defendant has moved his ordinary legal domicil outside the jurisdiction of the Federal Republik of Germany or if the legal domicil of the defendant is unknown to the auctioneer at the time of filing a suit. To the exclusion of any other legislation German law, as in force at the time, shall be applied for the settlement of any and all legal or judicial matters. The specifications and descriptions in the catalogue have been prepared diligently and in good faith do, however, not constitute the acceptance by the auctioneer of any warranty or liability in respect of defect in material or title. The state of preservation of items is strictly assessed in accordance with the grades accepted by the German coin trade and only represents an individual and personal assessment. Purchasers present at the auction acquire items strictly on the basis of “as is where is” and “as inspected”. In view of the opportunity of prior inspection to ascertain the state and condition of the auction lots, complaints and objections made after the sale will only be considered, if by obvious error or mistake loop or traces or moutings, traces of trimmings or settings, or the plugging of a hole (eyelet) have remained unnoticed. If and when auctioned in lots, the quantities of individual pieces given, only represent an approximate figure. An error in the allocation of indivdual pieces to a certain lot cannot be excluded. Such lots are, therefore, excluded from any complaintes or objections after the lot is knocked down. In the event of disputes or complaints as to the quality of an item the auctioneer may call upon a gernerally sworn expert of the trade, which the auctioneer may choose at his sole discretin, for assessment an the rendering of a decision as to the justification of such dispute or complaint. The costs of such expert shall be borne by the party loosing the dispute according to the expert’s decision. Complaints or objections, if justified, will only be considered if made and received by the auctioneer within 8 days after the auction or after receipt the lots, respectively. The authenticity of the coins is warranted. Warranted up to the total purchase price. The prices set out in the catalogue are estimates only, which may bei exceeded or undercut. Orders for less than 80 per cent of the estimated price cannot accepted.

The minimum rates of increase for the bidding procedure are: for minimum offers

minimum increase rate

Purchasers from abroad will have to observe all applicable laws and regulations in respect of foreign exchange, customs duties and taxation of their country. The auctioneer will only dischare such formalities, which have to be observed, in the Federal Republic of Germany in connection with the export of the purchased item(s).

up to

€ 100,--

€ 5,--

up to

€ 300,--

€ 10,--

up to

€ 1.000,--

€ 20,--

up to

€ 2.000,--

€ 50,--

Unless stipulated otherwise herein, the general rules regulations for auctions applicable in Germany shall govern any transaction in respect of the